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Antiquaries Journal 

Being the Journal of 
The Society of Antiquaries of London 







J 9 2 2 






A Carved Ivory Fracjment of the Twelfth Century, discovered 
at St. Albans; by H. H. King, B.A., and O. M. Dalton, 

M.A., F.S.A I 

Some Irish Antiquities of Unknown Use ; by E. C. R. Armstrong, 

F.S.A 6 

A Village Site of the Hallstatt Period in Wiltshire ; by Mrs. 

M. E. Cunnington . . . . . . . • ^3 

The Scottish Regalia and Dunnottar Castle ; by Waiter Seton, 

D.Lit., F.S.A . . . 20 

Roman Remains at Welwyn ; by Major G. M. Kindersley, O.B.E. 24 
A Prehistoric Invasion of England ■,. by O. G. S. Crawford, B.A., 

F.S.A 37 

Second Report on the Excavations at Stonehenge ; by Lt.-Col. 

W. Hawley, F.S.A 36 

Roman Spoons from Dorchester ; by O. M. Dalton, M. A., F.S.A. 89 
On Some Recent Exhibits; by Reginald A. Smith, F.S.A. 93 

A Hoard of Bronze discovered at Grays Thurrock ; by Charles H. 

Butcher .......... 105 

The Avebury Ditch ; by A. D. Passmore 109 

Notes on the Site of Merton Priory Church ; by the Rev. H. F. 

Westlake, M.VO., M.A., F.S.A 112 

Four Suffolk Flint Implements ; by J. Reid Moir . . 114 

Some Examples of Catalan Medieval Stamped Sheet-metal- 

vvork ; by W. L. Hildburgh, F.S.A 118 

Archaeological Finds in the Kennet Gravels near Newbury ; by 

Harold Peake, F.S.A 125 

Excavations in Malta ; by Professor T. Zammit, C.M.G., M.D,, 

Hon. D.Litt. (Oxon.) 131 

Lord Emly's Shrine ; two Ridge-poles of Shrines, and two 

Bronze Castings ; by E. C. R. Armstrong, F.S.A. . 135 

Far Eastern Archaeology: by Sir Hercules Read, LL.D., 

F.B.A., President 177 

Notes on the Panels from a Carolingian Ivory Diptych in the 

Ravenna and South Kensington Museums, and on two 

Fourteenth-century Ivory Groups ; by Eric Maclagan, 

C.B.E., F.S.A 193 


The Hallstatt Period in Ireland ; by E. C. R. Armstrong, F.S.A., 

Local Secretary for Ireland ...... 204 

A Late-Medieval Bracer in the British Museum ; by O. M. 

Dalton, M.A., F.S.A 208 

The Seal of Robert Fitz Meldred ; by W. A. Littledale, F.S.A., 

with a Note on the Fitz Meldred Seals ; by C. H. Hunter 

Blair, M.A., F.S.A an 

A Roman Site at Ham, Berks. ; by O. G. S. Crawford, F.S.A. . 218 
Further Discoveries of the Neolithic and Bronze Ages at 

Peterborough ; by E. T. Leeds, M.A., F.S.A. . . 220 

A Rare Form of Bookmarker, circa 1400 ; by W. Parker Brewis, 

F.S.A 238 

On Coldharbours ; by Lt.-Col. J. B. P. Karslake, M.A., F.S.A.. 240 
A Small Bronze Group of St. Peter and St. Paul ; by Sir Martin 

Conway, M.A., M.P., F.S.A 255 

New Discoveries at Knossos ; by Sir Arthur Evans, Hon. Vice- 
President . . . . . . . . . .319 

Notes on Early British Pottery ; by E. T. Leeds, M.A., F.S.A. 330 
An Account relating to Sir John Cobliam, A.D. 1408; by 

Sir H. C. Maxwell Lyte, K.C.B., F.S.A., F.B.A. . . 339 
The Age of Stonehenge ; by T. Rice Holmes, Litt.D. . 344 

The Amulet of Charlemagne; by Sir Martin Conway, M.A.. 

F-S.A. .350 

Hallstatt Pottery from Eastbourne ; by the Rev. W. Budgen . 354 
Roman Cardiff: Supplementary Notes; by R. E. M. Wheeler, 

D.Lit., F.S.A 361 

Roman Coffins discovered at Keynsham, 1922; by H. St, 

George Gray, Local Secretary for Somerset . . -371 

Notes ^^, 138,257,376 

Obituary Notices . 67, 267, 390 

Reviews -70, 149, 270, 39a 

Periodical Literature . . . . • 79, 163, 294, 407 

Bibliography 85, 171, 306, 415 

Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries . . . 174,309,418 
Index ........... 421 



Twelfth-century carved ivory fragment from St. Albans. Arms 

of ivory tau in the Victoria and Albert Museum Plate facing 4 
Bosses from Navan (co. Meath) and Killua (co. Westmeath) . 7 
Plaques of copper or bronze, gilt, found at Navan (co. Meath) 

Plate facing 9 
Panel from North Cross at Ahenny (co. Tipperary) ... 10 
Bronze horse-bit, etc., found at Navan (co. Meath) . .11 

Pottery of the Hallstatt Period found at All Cannings Cross 

Farm, Wilts . . . . . . Plate facing 14, 15 

Vessel with chevron pattern from All Cannings Cross Farm . 15 
Small bowls and pots from All Cannings Cross Farm . . 16 

Welwyn (Herts.) : i. Grave group. 2, Pipeclay bust of a woman 

Plate facing 24 
Welwyn : Roman pottery ..... Plate facing 25 

Welwyn : Glass bottles , . . . . . .25 

Stonehenge : Section through stone no. i . . . . -39 

Stonehenge : Section through stone no. 30 . . . . .40 

Stonehenge : Stones nos. 29 and 30 . . , . . -41 
Stonehenge: Stone no. 29, after adjustment: S. and E. eleva- 
tions . . . . . . . . . .46 

Stonehenge: Stone no 2, after adjustment: SW. and SE. 

elevations .......... 47 

Stonehenge : Stone no. 29, showing packing-blocks in position 

Plate facing 48 
Stonehenge : 1 . Section through ditch, looking east. 2. Section 

through ditch, looking west .... Plate facing 49 

Roman spoons from Dorchester (Dorset) ..... 90 

Gold crescents from Harlyn Bay (Cornwall) . . . 94, 95 
Celt, found with gold crescents : Harlyn Bay .... 96 

Back and front of a model shield of bronze : Hod Hill (Dorset) 98 
Cast from shale mould for jewellery : Halton Chesters (Northumb.) 99 
Carved stone, with development : Portsoy (Banffshire) . 100 

Thor's hammers on ring: N. Bergenhus, Norway . . . loi 
Details of crescents from Scottish sculptures . . . .102 

Carved bone cylinder, locality unknown . . .103 



Frieze from Dynna stone : Hadeland, Norway . . .104 

Fragments of socketed celts and leaf-shaped sword : Grays 

Thurrock (Essex) 106 

Types of winged and socketed celts : Grays Thurrock . . 107 
Tanged and socketed knives, spear-heads, and metal mould: 

Grays Thurrock ...... ^ . . 108 

Merton Priory Church: Plan of parts excavated in 1921 . . 113 
Three views of flint blade found at Southwold (Suffolk) . . 1 14 
Three views of flint blade found at Charsfield (Suffolk) • ' ^5 

Three views of flint blade from Hoxne (Suffolk) . . . 116 

Three views of flint blade from Nacton (Suffolk) . . • n? 

Catalan stamped metal casket . . . . • • . 1 20 

Catalan stamped metal casket in the Victoria and Albert 

Museum 122 

Processional cross covered with sheets of stamped brass . -123 
Platform of large stone blocks, overlooking Ghariexem valley, 

Malta 131 

Head of glpbigerina limestone, Ghariexem valley . . . 132 

Stone pillars at the back of room and deep channel in front, 

Ghariexem valley . . . . . . . ■ ^33 

Plaster cast of Lord Emly's shrine, and two ridge-poles of shrines 

Plate facing 136 
Two bronze castings of shrines .... Plate facing 137. 

Armorial pendant from Darlington (Durham) . . . .144 

Helmet in Braybrooke Church ....... 145 

View from top of Darkot Pass to north-west across Darkot 

Glacier towards Oxus-Indus watershed . Plate facing 178 
Central Hall and Office Room in Ruin N. XXIV, Niya site, after 

excavation . . . . . . . P late facing 179 

Cave shrines above Ch. HI, 'Caves of the Thousand Buddhas ', 

Tun-huang . . . . . . Plate facing 180 

Cave shrines near Ch. VHI, ' Caves of the Thousand Buddhas', 

Tun-huang ....... Plate facing 181 

Wang Tao-shih, Taoist priest at the ' Caves of the Thousand 

Buddhas' Plate facing 184 

View to south-east from ruined Stupa, Lou-Ian site, across wind- 
eroded ground .... Plate between 184 aw^ 185 
Group of stucco relievo sculptures in north-west corner of 

passage of ruined Temple, 'Ming-oi' site Plate between 1^4 and i^^ 
Tempera painting, sljowing procession of over-life-size Bodhi- 

sattvas, on north wall of porch in Cave VII, Ch*ien-fo-tung 

Plate facing 185 


Tempera paintin;j;s on north-west and north-east walls, Ante- 
chapel of Cave XVIII, Wan-fo-hsia . . Plate facing 188 
Tempera paintings on north-west and north-east walls, Ante- 
chapel of Cave XVII, Wan-fo-hsia . , Plate facing 189 
View across room of ruin L. B. IV, Lou-Ian site, towards NW., 

after excavation ...... Plate facing 190 

Remains of wood-carvings from ruin L. A. Ill, Lou-Ian station 

Plate facing 191 
The Eagle of St. John : Panel from a Carolingian ivory diptych 

in the Victoria and Albert Museum . . . , .194 
The Angel of St. Matthew : Panel from a Carolingian ivory 

diptych in the Ravenna Museum . . . . . . 195 

Christ Blessing : Panel from a Carolingian ivory diptych in the 

Ravenna Museum . . . . . . . .196 

Ivory groups . . . . . . . . . 200 

Ivory relief . . . . . . . . . 202 

A Late-Medieval bracer in the British Museum . . 209 

Seals of Robert Fitz Meldred . . . . • 212,214 

Seals of Gilbert Fitz Meldred 215,216 

Pottery found at Ham gravel-pit; Newbury (Berks.) . .219 

Neolithic pottery from Peterborough (Northants.) . . 222, 223 
Beaker from Peterborough . . . . . • -225 

Pottery of Neolithic date from Peterborough . . 227-31 

Sections of Neolithic pottery from Peterborough . . . 232 

Urn from Peterborough ........ 233 

Beaker from Peterborough ..... . . 234 

Pottery from Asthall (Oxon.) 236 

Medieval bookmarker, front and back views . . . 238, 239 

Map showing sites of Coldharbours . . .• . . . 242 

Map showing Silchester intrenchments ..... 245 
Map showing Winter Down, Lambourn (Berks.) . . . 246 

Diagrams showing groups of place-names associated and in con- 
junction with Coldharbour ...... 249-52 

Bronze group of St. Peter and St. Paul 255 

Front, back, and side of palaeolith from Abingdon (Berks.) . 258 
Late Celtic cinerary urn and bowl from Abbots Langley (Herts.) 259 

St. Brigid's Shoe . ' . 264 

Knossos : Circular Minoan reservoir ...... 320 

Knossos: Reservoir, showing steps and opening of conduit . 321 

Knossos : Plan and section of circular reservoir .... 322 

Knossos: Excavated vault beneath SE. Palace angle showing 

sunken base-blocks and artificial cave .... 324 


Knossos : House of the Third Middle Minoan Period over- 
whelmed by Palace blocks 325 

Knossos : Horn and part of skull of sacrificed ox and tripod 

altars of painted terra-cotta ...... 327 

Knossos: Minotaurs on Minoan gems and a seal-impression . 32Q 

Beaker in Colchester Museum ....... 338 

The Amulet of Charlemagne .... Plate facing 350 

Hallstatt ware from Eastbourne (Sussex) .... 356, 357 

La Tene ware from Eastbourne . . . . . . 357 

Roman fort and walls at Cardiff: 

Junction between main wall of fort and first bastion north of 

SE. corner .......... 362 

Plan of Roman fort, NW. and NE. corners .... 363 

NW. corner, showing inner curb of divergent footings and 

inner face of main wall ....... 364 

Interior of N E. corner, showing divergence between wall and 

footings .......... 365 

Interior of SE. corner after removal of Roman bank, showing 

divergent footings . . . . . . . . 366 

Samian pottery from Roman fort ...... 367 

Roman coffins found at Keynsham (Somerset) .... 372 

Plan of Roman cofiins at Keynsham . . . . . ■ "^Th 

Plan of the earthworks at Cissbury (Sussex) .... 377 

Gold pendant from Somerset ....... 'i^'^'i^ 

First seal of Newcastle-upon-Tyne ...... 384 

Supposed relic-holder from Shepperton (Surrey) . . . 386 


The ' 

Antiquaries Journal 

Vol. II January, 1922 No. i 

'ji CarDeci lyory Fragment of the Twelfth Century 

DiscoDered at St. Albans 

By H. H. King, B.A. and O. M. Dalton, M.A., F.S.A. 

[Read 12th .May 1921] 

The conditions under which the beautiful carved ivory fragment 
illustrated on pi. I, fig. i, was discovered may be given in the words 
of Mr. H. H. King, through whose friendly intervention it has 
been added to the collections in the British Museum. The dis- 
covery was made in 1920 on Mr. King's land by his gardener,' 
in the spring following the filling in of the trenches which he 
describes, while fragments of tile and stone were being collected 
from the surface of the replaced soil to fill in a hollow place in 
a garden path. 

During the summer of 1920 the St. Albans and Hertfordshire 
Architectural and Archaeological Society conducted some excava- 
tions on what was believed to be the site of the infirmary of 
the Abbey of St. Albans. The Society's Records included a 
plan made by Rev. H. Fowler in March 1875, which showed 
certain of the walls of the infirmary as having been actually 
exposed by him. The ground was opened in several places, 
but the results were not as satisfactory as had been expected. 
A great deal was found, in the way of walls and foundations, 
but all were at a considerable depth, and none could be made 
to fit in with the plan of 1875. Accordingly the Society decided 
that the continuance of these excavations was proving more 
costly than the results were likely to justify ; but before the 

' The credit for the discovery is shared by Mrs. King, who recognized the 
importance of the find as soon as the gardener handed it over to her. 


trenches were filled in, a scale drawing was made by Sir Edgar 
Wigram, A.R.I.B.A., of the actual remains exposed. 

In one place there was found buried a mass of worked clunch 
stones, some of a considerable size, of varying periods, loosely 
placed together, the whole forming a compact mass about 8 ft. 
by 5 ft, by 5 ft. deep. Throughout the trenches, at all levels, 
there were found quantities of broken pottery, tiles, and stained 
glass, together with Roman and other bricks, three pieces of 
carved Purbeck marble, bones of many kinds, and a few metal 
articles. A careful examination of the sides of the trenches 
seemed to show beyond question that the whole area had been 
used as a dump for rubbish from the monastery during a long 
period, and that comparatively recently the various heaps of 
rubbish had been roughly levelled. This is proved by the fact 
that nothing was found except in a badly broken condition, and 
that in some cases the more ancient fragments lay above those 
of more recent date, while the strata of disintegrated clunch 
sloped in all directions. Mr. G. E. Bullen, F.R.Hist.S., the 
Director of the Herts. County Museum, has very kindly assisted 
me in the following description of the more interesting articles 
found : 

Among the metal objects, the most important is a fragment of 
a dagger, believed to be a * dague a rouelles ', with the lower 
grip ring still in situ^ a type constantly represented in illuminated 
manuscripts of the early fifteenth century, which there is reason 
to believe remained as the * knightly misericord ', as late as the 
second battle of St. Albans in 1461. An arrow head of iron, fairly 
perfect, measuring probably i| in. between the extremities of 
the barbs, and now 2| in. in length, is also attributed to the 
fifteenth century. 

Among objects of other materials were : a fragment of a clay 
tobacco pipe with very small bowl and flattened heel, probably 
of the period of Elizabeth to James 1 ; fragments of table knives 
of the seventeenth century, a snaffle probably of the eighteenth, 
two brass horse ornaments, and the pan of a moneyer's balance, 
together with the tusk of a boar. 

The pottery comprised a large number of fragments of tiles, 
large pitchers, drinking vessels, and a fragment of a shallow 
bowl. These include : a number of fragments of what appear 
to be completely unglazed work in pitchers of fairly large size, 
chiefly in light bufi^ and grey earthenware ; fragments of 
pitchers in a fine red earthenware, exceptionally well potted, 
with the fronts lead glazed, showing the characteristic green 
specks of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the handles in 


certain instances decorated with small depressions such as would 
be made with the point of a knife; a few fragments of early- 
green glazed ware in which the oxide of copper has more 
perfectly fused with the galena ; four fragments (none showing 
evidence of glazing) of a pitcher with a very dark grey body, 
slightly decorated with yellowish slip ; a few fragments of 
sixteenth century Siegburg ware, small drinking pitchers of the 
common form ; one fragment of a Bellarmine, and a triangular 
fragment, lead glazed, showing two perforations not at right 
angles with the run of the wheel, the nature of which has not 
been determined. 

Among the tiles is one i| in. thick with a red body and 
imperfectly glazed surface, exhibiting characteristics similar to 
Cistercian ware. This is interesting in view of the fact that 
two drinking vessels of similar character, now in the Herts. 
County Museum, were discovered in St. Albans and Kensworth, 
as distinguished from fragments of the manganese dioxide ware 
which i§ of common occurrence, There are also a fragment of 
a plain green glazed tile ; two very poor examples of encaustic 
tiles of a pattern similar to those in the abbey ; and fragments 
of plain yellow glazed tiles i| in. in thickness. 

After the above miscellaneous objects had been collected, the 
trenches were filled in and the site roughly levelled. 

H. H. K. 

The ivory is carved in a favourite medieval design in which 
men, animals, and monsters are involved in symmetrical foliate 
scrolls. In the twelfth century, towards the middle of which the 
carving was probably made, this motive is seen in its full 
development, and appears to have been equally popular in various 
countries. It finds expression in all materials, occurring in stone 
sculpture, in the ornamentation of ivory and bronze objects, in 
manuscript illumination, and in greater painting. This wide 
distribution in an age when decorative design was cosmopolitan 
often renders it difficult to say where any portable example was 
actually made. 

Discovered as it was on the site of the great Abbey of St. 
Albans, itself a centre of artistic activity, this work may possibly 
have been produced in the abbey itself. In support of this 
contention we might point to illuminated initials in a St. Albans 
manuscript of Josephus in the British Museum.' But the 

' 13. D. VI. In support of an English, as opposed to a continental origin, we 
may cite two Canterbury MSS. in the British Museum with initials of this type : 
Claudius E. V, especially f. 4 b., and Harley 624, f. 103 b. A Rochester MS. of 

B 2 


argument from illuminations cannot be pressed too far, since 
resemblances equally close could probably be found in continental 
books.' The same disturbing similarities are apparent when we 
seek parallels in the field of sculpture. The analogy between 
our carving and the tau-cross in the Victoria and Albert Museum' 
(pi. I, fig. 2) could hardly be closer than it is ; though the work 
of the tau-head is not pierced, yet the whole is deeply undercut, 
and the design stands out clearly against deep shadow, producing 
a somewhat similar effect. The cross has been described as 
north European ; and there seems no reason why we should 
claim it as English. Not so close, but still nearly related, is 
a relief in the Musee des Augustins, Toulouse, once in the 
Prieure de la Daurade or in the church of S. Sernin in that city ; ^ 
in this work, ascribed to the second half of the twelfth century, 
we see two convolutions of similar foliage, in one of which is a 
Pan or satyr, in the other a man strangling a monster. These two 
instances are alone enough to arouse a feeling of uncertainty as 
to the source of any given work introducing this widely dis- 
tributed motive ; and doubt as to an English origin in the present 
case is somewhat increased by the narrow border, resembling 
a classical egg-and-tongue moulding, on the lower edge. The 
presence of such a feature rather suggests the influence of southern 
France, where classical reminiscences are more frequent than in 
other parts of western Europe. As a claimant to the authorship 
of this charming fragment, our country has certainly competitors, 
and to decide definitely in our own favour we should perhaps 
have to give more weight to the fact of discovery on English 
soil than the migratory fortunes of medieval ivories can fairly 
allow. But an origin in England, and even in St. Albans, is 
possible, though it might be hard to prove. 

We have noted above that the ivory is a fragment, but it is 
not easy to say what appearance it presented when perfect or 
what kind of object it enriched. There was probably a second 

St. Augustine on the Psalms (5 D. iii, f. i) affords another example, and it would 
be easy to extend the list. 

' Of the type of the Louvain bible of a.d. 1 148, in the Museum {Add. 14, 788). 

'"■ No. 372. 71. Victoria and Albert Museum, W. Maskell, A description of the 
Ivories, &c., p. 135, Portfolio of Ivories, pi. xiii ; Archaeologta, Iviij, p. 408, 
fig. I. 

^ Vitry and Briere, Documents de sculpture fran(alse, plate vii, no. I. 
H. Rachou, Cat. des coll. de sculpture et d^eplgraphle du Muse'e di Toulouse, p. 189, 
no. 453, ascribes the relief, not to S. Sernin (as Vitry), but to the Prieur6 de la 
Daurade. We may also notice plate xxxix, no. 2, a capital from the triforium of the 
choir in the cathedral at Laon dating in like manner from the latter part of the 
twelfth century. 

The Antiquaries Journal 



Vol. II, pi. I 

Fig. 1. Twelfth- century carved ivory fragment from St. Albans (^) 

Fig. 2. Arms of ivory tau in the Victoria and Albert Museum (^) 
{^Reproduced by permission of the Victoria and Albert Museum) 


concentric scroll of foliage containing a figure to balance that 
which we possess, and the work was evidently fixed to a flat 
surface, perhaps a book-cover, perhaps some object of ecclesiastical 
use ; it has four small holes for pins or rivets. The portion 
of the ivory which shows most wear is the face of the human 
figure, though this is actually less salient than the knee. It is 
most likely that in its normal condition the work was coloured 
and gilded, though in that state it would appeal less to our 
modern taste than it does in its present unadorned condition in 
which the charming tone of the ivory produces its full effect. 

C. M. D. 


Mr. Maclagan had studied the parallel at Toulouse, and thought 
that the tau-cross was closer than the French sculpture to the 
St. Albans ivory. The Toulouse work was more classical and he was 
struck with the many analogies there to English work of the same 
period. In the middle of the twelfth century there must have been 
a steady, stream of emigration from the south of France, and it was 
extraordinarily difficult to refer work of that period to its place of 

Mr. Page recalled the existence of a school of art at St. Albans 
which attracted artists from all parts of Europe, The ivory was 
possibly carved there by some immigrant Frenchman or Norman, 
as suggested by the recorded names of strangers arriving at St. Albans. 

The President said the carving was an exceptional work of art 
of a kind seldom exhibited to the Society. With all his experience 
Mr. Dalton had been puzzled to decide its origin, and Mr. Page's 
suggestion was an interesting one. In medieval times communication 
with the Continent was as easy, in proportion to other conditions of 
life, as at present, and craftsmen were apt to wander about and leave 
specimens of their art for one purpose or another at their various 
halting-places. There must have been considerable traffic from 
Bordeaux, and it was quite possible that a casket to which the ivory 
belonged was brought from that port to St. Albans. The Society 
was grateful to Mr. King for showing a precious example of medieval 
ornamentation, and would be gratified to hear that it was to pass into 
the national collection. Thanks were also due to Mr. Dalton for his 
illuminating comments on the exhibit. 

Some Irish Antiquities of Unknown Use 

By E. C. R. Armstrong, F.S.A. 

In Sir William Wilde's Catalogue of Bronze Antiquities'^ is 
described and illustrated under the heading of chariot furniture 
an iron-backed bronze disc, 3I in. in diameter, coated with white 
metal, projecting from which is a bronze stud in the form of a 
dog's head, i \ in. long, with a human head engraved on its 
muzzle. The stud is threaded by a bronze chain made up of two 
rings and double loops (fig. i, i). Wilde considered this object 
was intended for the attachment of a trace. It was found when 
making a railway cutting near Navan Station adjoining the River 
Boyne in July 1848, associated with a quantity of human 
remains ; the skull of a horse ; a number of antiquities including 
a bronze l^ridle-bit, and harness-plate ; iron rings plated with 
bronze ; some small bronze buttons ; and seven ornamented gilt- 
bronze plaques. 

W^ilde stated that the human bodies did not appear to have 
been placed in any order ; in the surrounding earth was found 
a great quantity of charcoal extending from 2 ft. to 10 ft. below 
the surface. ' A small portion only of the grave, or battle-pit (if 
such it were), was traversed by the railway cutting, so that much 
of the ground of this very remarkable interment remains as yet 
unexplored '.^ 

The animal-headed boss, to which W^ilde's figure does scant 
justice, remained an isolated specimen in the collection for some 
seventy years until at the sale in 1920 of the antiquities preserved 
at Killua Castle an object of the same character was obtained ; 
details as to its discovery being unfortunately not recorded. 

In its present state the Killua specimen consists of a bronze 
disc coated with white metal, to the sides of which were appar- 
ently attached ornaments of cut-out interlaced work of gilt-bronze ; 
of these one portion only remains. To this disc was fitted a 
movable bronze projection in the form of a horse's head ; appar- 
ently this was also coated with white metal. The upper portion of 
the animal's face and its open mouth are gilt ; the nostrils are 
marked by spirals ; the eyes were filled with settings of blue 

' 18^1, p. 611. 2 Op. cil., pp. 573, 574- 


enamel. The pierced horse's head is threaded by a stout ring of 
bronze, which threads in turn a ring fixed to a plaque of bronze 
coated with white metal, engraved with lines and circles, and 




having rounded shoulders : this plaque had attachments for 
fastening it to some material (fig. i, 2). 

The Navan boss has already been described in general terms ; 
the illustration (fig. i, i) makes further details unnecessary. 


Attention may, however, be directed to a few points. The eyes 
of the animal are formed of red enamel ; its teeth are indicated 
by lines ; while the two nostrils placed close together make it 
apparent that the artist intended the head for that of a dog. 
The most curious feature is the human face engraved on the 
animal's muzzle. This is represented wearing a flounced collar, 
giving the face an appearance not unlike that of a ' pierrot '. 

It is to be noted that whereas nothing is known to have been 
found with the Killua boss, its one remaining ornament of cut- 
out gilt interlaced-work is of the same character as that on two 
of the seven gilt-bronze mountings found with the Navan boss. 
This furnishes an indication that the two objects are contemporary. 
"What the original purpose of either may have been is not easy to 

The Navan find, fourteen objects belonging to which are pre- 
served in the Royal Irish Academy's collection, has not been 
adequately published, for, as above stated, Wilde's figure of the 
boss is unsatisfactory. He illustrated three only of the seven 
gilt-bronze ornaments, the details of these not being in all 
respects correctly represented.' 

Next to the boss the most interesting objects in the find are the 
seven gilt-bronze ornaments (pi. II) ; these were furnished at 
the back with eyes for attachment. One, according to Wilde, 
was cleaned by a jeweller : this both from its appearance, and by 
testing with a touchstone, is clearly copper rather than bronze. 

As will be seen by the illustrations (pi. II), which are all made 
to the same scale (slightly below natural size, no. i measuring 
exactly 19 in. across at the arms), two of these plaques are almost 
duplicates ; these two with another (no. 4) show only interlaced 
decoration. Two are ornamented with spirals, as well as with 
zoomorphic ornament and interlaced work. The remaining two 
are decorated with zoomorphic and interlaced patterns. The 
workmanship of all is admirable. 

A detailed description of each plaque is rendered unnecessary 
by the illustrations, but the zoomorphic ornament on nos. i, 3, 
and 5 may be remarked. On no. i it consists in the upper 
expanded limb of interlaced birds' necks, a design not unlike that 
to be seen on the silver brooch of Viking date found at Virginia, 
CO. Cavan.'' 

The animals crouching with reversed head on the arrris of no. 5 
are similar ; the junction of their limbs is marked by spirals and in 

' Three of Wilde's illustrations weie religured with a drawing of the horse's bit 
in the Royal Irish Academy Celtic Christian Guide, 1 9 1 o. 

* Coffey, Royal Irish Academy Celtic Christian Guide, pi. iv, i. 



Thk Antiquaries Journal 

Vol. II, pi. II 

Plaques of Copper or Bronze, Gilt, found at Navan, Co. Meath 

(slightly below natural size) 


general outline they resenrible that on the dexter arm of no. 3 
(shown reversed on the plate). The bird-necked zoomorph in 
the centre of plaque no. 2 beai-s a resemblance to that on the 
pin-head of one of the Ardagh brooches.* 

A crouching animal looking backwards, a useful design for 
filling a rectangular space, is not infrequently found on Irish metal 
work ; it may be observed upon the back of the Killua Shrine.' 
It may be noted that Salin, who considers two of the chief styles 
of Irish ornament as adapted from the German, i.e. the geometrical 
and the zoomorphic, considers the crouching animal with turned 
head when found in Irish ornamentation to be indicative of 
German influence,^ The relationship between Irish and Germanic 
zoomorphic ornament being of a complicated character, it would 
appear safer to regard both as derived from the same source, rather 
than to consider the Irish as adapted from the latter. In this 
connexion Mr. O. M. Dalton's Byzantine Art and Archaeology may 
be profitably studied (pp. 25-27), 

The finding of the objects at Navan associated with the skull of 
a horse, a horse's bit, and the boss, caused Wilde to consider that 
a chariot had formed part of the interment. But no remains of 
this appear to have been found. 

It is, however, to be noted that Rygh * has figured a number ot 
gilt-bronze plaques found in Norway which closely resemble those 
round at Navan. Rygh describes these as being of Irish style, 
worked either in Ireland or in Scotland,^ or England, after the 
penetration of the Irish style to those localities. Ten such 
plaques were found at Some, Hoiland, Stavanger, with a horse's 
bit of iron, an oval bronze brooch, some rings, etc. Another 
was found with a piece of a sword, or of a lance-head, and an iron 
ring possibly from a horse's bit. Therefore, it seems there is 
some reason for considering that such ornamental plaques as those 
found at Navan were used for the decoration of horse furniture. 

The large boss present in the Navan find, considered by Wilde 
as the attachment of a trace, may well have been attached to a 
vehicle of some kind, for it is difficult to imagine to what portion 
of the actual harness of a horse it could have belonged. 

The term chariot used by Wilde calls to mind the classical 
type with small wheels and a body close on the ground, drawn by 

' Smith, Archaeolog'ta, Ixv, p. 243, 
^ Antiquaries Journal^ I, pi. v. 
^ Altgermamsche Tierornamentik, pp. 341, 343. 
* Norske Oldsager, figs. 618-27, see also pp. 32 and 76. 

^ Two bronze-gilt mountings of this type found in Perthsliire are illustrated in 
the Catalogue 0/ the National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland, 1892, p. 201. 


a pair of horses. That chariots presumably of this type were in 
use in Ireland in the La Tene period seems clear from the descrip- 
tions in the Tain B6 Cualnge" For the vehicles in use in the 
early Christian period we have little evidence. What is available 
is to be found carved on the base of the High Cross of 
Muiredach, at Monasterboice, co. Louth ; on the base of the 
east face of the cross of King Flann at Clonmacnois, King's 
County ; the South Cross, Keifs, co. Meath ; the North Cross at 
Ahenny, co. Tipperary ; and the right arm of the west face of 
the Cross at Killamery, co. Kilkenny. 

Fig. 2. Panel from North Cross at Ahenny, co. Tipperary. 

The bases of Muiredach's cross, of King Flann's cross, and 
of the Kells Cross, are much worn : it is difficult to make out 
the details of the vehicles represented ; but they differ from the 
classical examples in having wheels of a larger diameter. Professor 
R. A. S. Macalister's drawing of the first,"" and Mr. T. J. 
Westropp's of the second,^ may be examined. Mr, Westropp, 
who remarks that the carvings on the Clonmacnois cross are 
weathered, and that Petrie's view of the cross seems to be idealized, 
adds that the north chariot has a boat-shaped back and a nine- 
spoked wheel. Better preserved is the base of the Ahenny cross ; 
as can be seen from the illustration (fig. 2) two horses are shown, 

' See Windisch, Tain Bo Cualnge, 1905, introduction, pp. xii-xv. 
^ Muiredach, \>- 6<). . 

^ Journal Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, xxxvii, fig. on p. 294, de- 
scription on p. 292. See also Pctrie, Christian Inscriptions, i, pi. xxxiii. 




while the body of the car appears to be flat, the occupants having 
their legs stretched out over the horses' backs. 

The remaining objects (fig. 3) of the find include the horse's bit 
which is made of bronze : it is an ordinary snaffle with stops on the 
rings, to each of which are attached rein-tangs : another bronze 
object consists of a ring which threads two similar open-work 
plates and. a small tang ; the two open-work plates have attach- 
ments at the back for fastening them on to some material, probably 
a strap of leather. The four rings are made of a core of iron 
coated with bronze ; two of them have staples by which they 
could have been driven into a wooden bar. Possibly they were 
used for the attachment of traces. One is slightly ornamented. 
The other two rings, one of which is ornamented, are penannular. 

On the whole it seems probable that the Navan boss and rings 
were attached to a vehicle, while the specimen from Killua also 
may have been similarly attached. It is, however, not so easy to 
form an idea of its use, for unlike the Navan boss with its ring, 
which could be conveniently used, the Killua boss has an attached 
plate ; this may, however, have been fastened to a leather strap. 

To date the Killua boss and the various objects belonging to 
the Navan find is a matter of some difficulty. Coff^ey,' who 
devoted a few lines to the find, wrote ' the trumpet pattern on 
some of them places the objects probably before the tenth century '. 

The similarity of the zoomorph on one plaque (pi. II, no. 2) to 
those on the pin head of one of the Ardagh brooches and of the 
interlaced birds' necks on another (pi. II, no. i) with those on the 
Virginia brooch has been mentioned. A suggested date for the 
first brooch is the middle of the ninth century, for the second 
the middle of the tenth.^ At this period the influence of the 
Vikings had begun to make itself felt in Ireland, in which con- 
nexion it is perhaps worth while remarking that the horse's head 
on the Killua boss shows a resemblance to the animal-headed 
weight found in the Norse cemetery at Island-Bridge,^ in both 
cases the nose being ridged and the nostrils decorated with spirals. 

The spiral attachments of the limbs of the animals on two of the 
plaques (pi. II, nos. 3 and 5) show that in any case these objects 
are not earlier than the eighth century a.d.'^ But the excellence 
of their workmanship gives little indication of the period of decay. 
Therefore, the late ninth or early tenth century may be suggested 
as a probable date for both the Killua boss and the Navan find. 

' Royal Irish Academy Celtic Christian Guide, 1 9 1 o, p. 7 1 . 

^ Smith, Archaeologia, Ixv, pp. 249, 250. 

^ Proc. Royal Irish Academy, Coffey and Armstrong, xxviii, sec. C, p. 11 9. 

^ See Altgermanische Tierornamentik, pp. 343, 344, and 357. 


A Village Site of the Hallstatt Period in Wiltshire 
By Mrs. M. E. Cunnington 

The site of an Early Iron Age village on All Cannings Cross 
Farm, about six miles east of Devizes, was discovered quite by 
chance. In this corn-growing country great open ploughed 
fields fringe the lower slopes of the high chalk downs. At All 
Cannings Cross the ploughed land stretches to the foot of Tan 
Hill and Clifford's Hill, on the Marlborough Downs, overlooking 
the vale of Pewsey. The site of the settlement has been under 
plough for many years, perhaps for centuries, so that any surface 
indications there may once have been, have long since dis- 

Our attention was first drawn to the spot by the unusual 
number of the rough implements known as * hammerstones ' that 
were strewn over the ploughed surface. It looked as if some 
special local industry in which these stones were used had been 
carried ,on there, and in 191 1 we cut a few trenches to test the 
site. We found a considerable quantity of pottery, bones, etc., 
and a few fragments of bronze and iron. A short account of this 
was published in the Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine, vol. xxxvii, 
p. 526. The site was not touched again until the autumn of 
1920, when a small area was examined. The extent of the settle- 
ment is not known, but to judge from the distribution of the 
hammerstones over the surface it probably covers several acres. 
From first to last no evidence has been found to show what the 
hammerstones of flint and sarsen were used for ; it seems that 
they must have been used in dressing stone for some purpose, 
perhaps in making querns and mealing stones out of the sarsen 
boulders that occur naturally on these Downs. 

It is perhaps worth mentioning that before we dug we never 
found more than two or three small worn sherds of pottery, 
nothing to suggest the wealth of pottery that lay beneath, just too 
deep to be touched by the plough. The site has yielded a great 
quantity of pottery ; fragments representing not far short of a 
thousand pots have been found ; a good many bone implements 
such as pins, needles, combs, scoops, etc. ; spindle-whorls, loom- 
weights, bronze and iron slag, fragments of crucibles, and a large 
number of bones of animals that had been used for food. 


The chief interest and importance of the site lies in the fact that 
the pottery as a whole seems to belong to the Hallstatt period, and 
to be throughout of Hallstatt type. 

It has been possible to restore from fragments twenty-nine 
complete vessels. By the help of these the forms of the vessels to 
which most of the rim pieces and larger fragments belonged can 
be recognized. In this way a fairly comprehensive idea of the 
whole group of pottery in use on the site can be made ; at least 
that part of it that has so far been examined. 

The commonest type, the pot that seems to have been in everyday 
domestic use, is not unlike some of the cinerary urns from, barrows 
believed to be of the late Bronze Age. Most of these are provided 
with a row of * finger-tip ' impressions round the shoulder and 
immediately below the rim. Pots of this urn-like type vary in 
size from 3 inches in height up to 16 inches and upwards (see 
fig. 4). Similar fragments from chance finds on other sites have 
no doubt been assigned to the Bronze Age, but as a general rule 
the ware is better baked and consequently harder than that of most 
cinerary urns from barrows. 

A number of pieces of the better wares are ornamented, and 
have highly polished surfaces, some black, some brown and 
* leathery ', otliers red in colour. The ornament consists almost 
entirely of chevrons, and of small circles, stamped or impressed. 
The chevrons are often formed by bands of circular or triangular 
punch marks, enclosed within deeply incised lines. The lines and 
punch marks are, more often than not, intentionally filled in with 
a white chalky substance to emphasize the pattern against the 
black, red, or brown background of the pottery. 

Some of the vessels had two or three rows of elaborate chevron 
pattern arranged one above the other from neck to base, with a 
row round the neck like a Vandyke collar (see fig. 5). Perhaps 
the most distinctive type is that of a carinated bowl (see fig. 2) 
with incised lines, or impressed furrows, between rim and shoulder, 
and with a slightly indented or ' omphaloid ' base. These are of 
grey ware, usually coated with a bright red pigment, others have 
a burnished black or brown surface. 

Mr. Thomas May, to whom fragments of the red-coated bowls 
were sent, compared the process of colouring to that employed in 
the early Egyptian * black-topped ' ware, Mr. May describes the 
process thus : — * The natural body clay is first coated with a well- 
washed pasty slip, and after drying coated with haematite (in the 
form of rouge or ordinary red ruddle) by dipping in a watery 
solution, or rubbing. It is then polished with a smooth stone and 
burnt in an open fire.' 

The Antiquaries Journal 

Vol. II. pi. Ill 

Fig. 1 


Fig. 2 

The Antiquaries Journal 

Vol. II, pi. IV 

Fig. 3 

Fig. 4 


The only two brooches as yet found on the site are both of" the 
type known as LaTene I. This does not, however, detract from 
the value of the evidence afforded by the pottery as a whole that 
the settlement began earlier. The occurrence of early La Tene 
brooches in association with Hallstatt types of pottery merely shows 

Fig. 5. 

that the site continued to be occupied at least as late as the time 
when these brooches came into fashion. 

There is no hard and fast line between the Hallstatt and 
La Tene periods, only a gradual evolution and change of types. 
One would expect to find a fashion in small portable objects such 
as brooches to change and spread more rapidly than that of pottery, 
which, from its bulky and fragile nature would be difficult to move 
about. According to D6chelette this type of brooch dates in 
France from about 400 to 250 b. c, so that it may have appeared 




in Britain soon after 400 b. c. There is good reason to believe 
that the site was not occupied before the beginning of the Iron 
Age. The haematite-coated bowls with the omphaloid base, which 

Figs. 6-i\. 

maybe regarded as the most characteristic and distinctive type on 
the site, occur, where th6re is any depth of deposit, equally from 
top to bottom. 

The fact that the occupation of the site seems to have lasted 
for a comparatively short and definite period, perhaps some three 


centuries more or less, renders it all the more interesting and 
instructive from an archaeological point of view. Not a single 
fragment of anything Roman has been found, so that the occupa- 
tion seems to have ended well before the Roman conquest, perhaps 
even some centuries earlier. 

The graceful curved lines and flamboyant scrolls characteristic of 
the La Tene or British ' Late Celtic ' culture, such as are found 
at Hunsbury, Glastonbury, and elsewhere, are conspicuous by 
their absence ; and if this style of ornament ever prevailed in 
Wiltshire it had not been evolved before the village at All Cannings 
Cross was abandoned. It is true that with the exception of brooches 
very few objects characteristic of ' Late Celtic ' art have been 
found in Wiltshire, but if it is entirely wanting that is in itself 
a very remarkable and unaccountable state of affairs. 

It is, at least, unlikely that the geometric and less evolved style 
as represented at All Cannings Cross continued there unchanged 
down to the time of the Roman conquest, while to the west in 
Somerset, and to the east and north in Oxfordshire and Northants, 
the style was so far in advance, as shown by such sites as Glaston- 
bury, Hunsbury, and numerous chance finds. 

All Cannings Cross seems to be the only site so far known 
where this type of pottery has been found unmixed with other 
wares. But there is no doubt that such pottery will be, and, 
indeed, has already been found on quite a number of sites in 
Wiltshire and elsewhere. These chance finds, however, have been 
fragmentary and mixed with later, and perhaps also with earlier 
wares, and they have rarely been recognized. It is, indeed, difficult, 
if not impossible, to reconstruct new or unfamiliar types of vessels 
from mere fragments. 

The best known site on which similar pottery has been found 
is Hengistbury Head in Hants. It is the * Class A ' pottery 
described in the Report by Mr. Bushe-Fox and Mr. Thomas May 
{Excavations at Hengistbury Head, Report of the Research Committee 
of the Society of Antiquaries). 

Fragments described in the Report under Classes E and F also 
have analogies at All Cannings Cross. 

Class A pottery at Hengistbury was believed to be the earliest 
on the site, and by a process of elimination it was assigned to the 
Hallstatt period. The finds at Hengistbury were fragmentary 
and mixed, and their situation on the coast opposite the continent 
with so much of admittedly foreign origin, although highly sug- 
gestive, was not in itself sufficient evidence of a native Hallstatt 
culture. But the occurrence of a site so far inland as All Cannings 
Cross, with a whole group of pottery exclusively of these types, is 

VOL. II. c 


practically conclusive. And when, in addition to this, fragments 
from quite a number of other sites can now be identified as 
belonging to the same types, the conclusion is irresistible that 
this particular group of pottery represents a definite phase in the 
Early Iron Age culture of Britain. 

The evidence from Hengistbury also goes to prove that the 
culture represented at All Cannings Cross is an early and distinct 
phase, and not a backward contemporary of Glastonbury and 
Hunsbury ; for there a sequence was discernible from the All 
Cannings Cross group (Class A) to that of Glastonbury and other 
later pottery. Doubtless excavation on other living-sites will 
amplify the evidence, and make clear much that is now prob- 

Until quite recent years nearly all archaeological energy has 
been expended on burial-places ; and of the comparatively few 
living-sites examined nearly all have been Roman, or Romanized. 
It almost seems as if we had learnt all there is to learn at present 
from barrows and burials, but some of the problems connected 
with them may yet be cleared up by the help of knowledge 
gained from living-sites. It is at least a possibility that some of 
our so-called late Bronze Age barrows that contain only cinerary 
urns, and those of a type practically identical with the commonest 
form of domestic vessel in use at All Cannings Cross, are really 
the burial places of some of these Early Iron Age people. It has 
been remarked by one who professed no knowledge of archaeology 
that nearly all the burial sites had been attributed to the Bronze 
Age, and nearly all the living sites to the Iron Age. 

No burials have been as yet found at All Cannings Cross, and 
with the exception of a few fragments of skulls, no human remains 
to help in determining the racial affinities of its inhabitants. But 
it seems probable that the settlement was that of a new people, i. e. 
people who had not been here in the Bronze Age, but who came 
over early in the Iron Age as one of the many waves of immigra- 
tion from the continent, bringing in their own fashions with them. 

The reason for this surmise is that the group of pottery taken 
as a whole is so unlike anything known to have been in use in 
Britain during the Bronze Age. 

Had new methods and fashions merely straggled in by a process 
of peaceful penetration, one would not expect to find a whole group 
of pottery differing so much from that long established in the same 
region. One would expect rather to find single examples of the 
new mingled with the older types, and only gradually supplanting 

In this connexion it is interesting to remember that the probable 


date of the settlement, the fifth or sixth century b.c, coincides with 
that of the migratory period of the historical Celts ; and it is sug- 
gested that the settlement at All Cannings Cross was a direct 
outcome of the movements of these people. 

Only a small part of the settlement has as yet been touched ; it 
is hoped to go on with some further excavation, and eventually to 
publish a fully illustrated account of the discoveries. 


Fig. 1. Height ii, rim diam. 8^, base 5^, greatest diam. at shoulder 14, 
depth from rim to shoulder 4^^ inches. Light brown ware, outer surface polished, 
with four rows of circular impressions, three above and one below shoulder. 

Fig. 1. Height 4J, rim diam. 8^, base 3 inches. Carinated bowl of grey ware, 
red coated, with omphaloid base ; sharply incised horizontal lines between rim and 

Fig. 3. Height 13, rim diam. i6^, base 7^ inches. Ware fine and thin; 
surface polished, red to brown and black ; ornamented with series of three impressed 
parallel lines arranged to form a chevron pattern ; bordering the chevrons are two 
similarly inipressed lines on shoulder and below rim. 

Fig. 4. Height if, rim diam. 11^, base 6 inches. Medium coarse ware, 
brown to red, surface striated with tool marks, not polished. On rim and shoulder 
a row of 'finger-tip ' impressions. A common type on the site. 

Fig. f. Height iz^, rim diam. about 9^, base about 5^ inches. One side of 
vessel from rim to base. Black ware, surface polished. Ornamented with a series 
of triangular punch marks between deeply incised lines, forming a chevron pattern, in 
three rows, the upper row like a 'Vandyke' collar round the neck, the lower coming 
within an inch of the base; the middle and lower row of chevrons end abruptly as 
appears on the photograpli. Pieces of a number of similarly ornamented vessels 
were found. 

Figs. 6, 7, 8. Small bowls of red coated ware. Fig. 7 has three raised 
cordons round the body. Heights respectively 3^, 3, 3^ inches. 

Figs. 9, 10, 11. Small pots of urn-like type, grey to black ware, with 'finger- 
tip ' ornament on rim and shoulder. Common on the site. Heights respectively 
5, 5^, 4 inches. 

C 2 

The Scottish Regalia and Dunnottar Castle 
By Walter Seton, D.Lit., F.S.A. 

[Read 17th February, 1921] 

Among a large number of comparatively unimportant Scottish 
documents purchased recently from a dealer at Hove was found 
one folio sheet of considerable interest on account of its con- 
nexion with the saving of the Regalia of Scotland in 1652. It 
is the original draft of the conditions of surrender of the Castle 
of Dunnottar by Captain George Ogilvy of Barras to the Parlia- 
mentary troops commanded by Colonel Thomas Morgan, 

The historical setting of the incident is fairly well known, but 
it may be" well to recapitulate it. The Regalia of Scotland, Crown, 
Sword, and Sceptre were placed by the Earl Marischal for safety 
in his stronghold Dunnottar, along with the chief Royalist papers 
and the household belongings of the King. Captain George 
Ogilvy of Barras was placed in command with a quite in- 
adequate garrison and insufficient provisions. The Parliamentary 
army, knowing of the transfer of the Regalia and the King's 
goods to Dunnottar, besieged the castle from September 1651 
until its ultimate surrender in May 1652. 

Fortunately, however, they were cheated of the more im- 
portant objects of their quest. The King's papers were carried 
right through the Parliamentary lines stitched into a flat belt 
and concealed on the person of Anne Lindsay, a kinswoman of 
the gallant Governor's wife. The Regalia were also removed, 
and buried under the altar of the Kinnett Parish Church, the 
minister of which was Mr. Grainger ; and there they remained 
until the Restoration. 

It is unnecessary here to traverse afresh all the ground relating 
to the rather sordid controversy, which went on until after the 
death of all the principal actors. There can be little doubt that 
George Ogilvy, who was ultimately rewarded with a baronetcy, 
and his lady had a large part, probably a determining part, in the 
preservation of the Regalia. 

Doubtless they could not have done it without the courage 
and discretion of the minister, Mr. Grainger and his wife. The 


most dubious share in the whole matter was that of the Keith 
family, especially the Dowager Lady Marischal. 

The final terms of surrender, as signed by Colonel Thomas 
Morgan, have been published in the Rev. D. G. Barron's book 
In Defence of the Rega/ia 165 1-2; l^eing selections from the Family 
Papers of the Ogihies of B arras. 

It is certain that the present document is an earlier one than 
the final document, because (i) it is clearly an unsigned draft, 
(2) alterations made in it have been duly carried into the final 
document, (3) a later date of surrender, viz. 26th May, is given 
in the final document. The diflFerences can best be seen by 
comparing the two. 

Barras Document 

* Articles of Agreem* between 
Cello: The: Morgan in the be- 
halfe of y" Parliam* of y'' Com- 
monwealth of England, And 
Capt George Ogilvy Gouerner of 
Dunnotter Castle for y* sur- 
render theare of 

j. Thatt the said Cap* Ogilvy 
deliuer vp vnto mee the Castle of 
Dunnotter, with all the Ordnance 
Armes Amunition provisions & 
all other vttensells of warr for y® 
vse of y" Parlyment of y" Com- 
monwealth of England, vpon 
Wednesday the 26 Instant by 
nine of the Clocke in the moan- 
ing without wast or Imbasell- 

2. That y'' Late kings goods 
with the lord Marshalls and all 
other goods within the said 
Castle shall be deliuered to mee 
or whom I shall apoynt for y® 
vse of the parlyment of y** Corn- 
wealth of England. 

3. That the Crowne & Scepter 
of Scottland, together with all 
other Ensignes of Regallitie be 
deliuered vento mee or a good 
Account theareof, for the vse of 
the Parliament etc. 

4. That vpon the true per- 
formance of the formenshioned 
Articles, Cap' George Ogilvy 

[No heading] 

i. Thatt the Castle of Dunnotter 
with all the Ordnance Armes 
Amunition and provision and all 
other vttensells of warr be deliuered 
to mee or to whom I shall apoint 
for y" vse of the parlyament of the 
Commonwealth of England vpon 
tusday the 25 Instant by Tenn 
howers in the morning, without 
wast or Imbaslem'. 

2. That the Late kingis goods 
with the Lord Marshalls of Scot- 
land and all other goods within 
the said Castle, shall be deliuered 
to mee or any whom I shall apointt 
for the vse of the Parlyment of the 
Commonwealth of England. 

3. That the Crowne and septer 
of Scottland together with all 
other Ensigns of Regallytie be 
deliuered vnto mee or any whom 
I shall apoynt for the vse of the 
Parliament of y® Commonwelth 
of England. 

4. That (vpon the true per- 
formance of the aboue mentioned 
articles) Cap* George Ogilvie with 



with the officers and souldiers 
vnder his commaund shall haue 
Liberty to march forth of the 
said Castle att the hovver 
Apoynted with Flying Coll" 
Drom beateing match lighted, 
Compleately Armed the Distance 
of one mile, theare to lay downe 
theire Armes, and to haue passes 
to goe theire own homes and 
theare to Hue without molestation 
provided they act nothing pre- 
iuditiall to the Comwealth of 

5. That the said Cap* Ogilvy 
shall (free from sequestration) 
inioy all the personall Estate 
which he hath now without the 
Castle of Donnotter, and all such 
nesserarie household stufife of his 
owne which is now in y" Castle, 
as shall be thought fitt by mee, 
or by them whom I shall Author- 
ise to deliuer them vnto him. 

Th° Morgan 
Blackhill att the 
Leager 24" May 

The two most important differences are in the alteration of 
the exact day and hour of surrender (Article i) and the provision 
as to the Regalia (Article 3). The addition of the words *or 
a good account thereof are clearly the v^'ork of Ogilvy or of 
Sir Robert Graham and Colonel David Barclay, who treated with 
the Parliamentarians as to the terms of surrender. Some writers 
have suggested that Capt. Ogilvy did not himself know of the 
removal of the Regalia and still less where they were concealed. 
The addition of this saving clause indicates that he was perfectly 
well aware that the besiegers were to be cheated of their coveted 

It is not possible to determine the person in whose handwriting 
the draft is. It is not Captain Ogilvy, nor is it Colonel Morgan. 
It may have been Graham or Barclay, or some clerk. But that 
does not much matter : the main thing is that the Regalia were 

the officers and souldiers vnder 
his commaund shall haue Liberty 
to march forth of the said Castle 
att the hower appoynted, with 
Flying CoUours, Droms beateing, 
match lighted compleately Armed, 
The distance of one mile, theare 
to ly downe theire armes, and to 
haue passes to goe to theire owne 
homes, and theare to Hue without 
Molestation, provided they act 
nothing preiuditiall to the Com- 
monwealth of England. 

5. That^ the said Cap* Ogliuy 
free from seq.[iies/ra^wn] shall 
inioy all that personall estate 
which he hath now without the 
Castle of Dunnotter and all such 
nesserarie household stufe of his 
w"^ is now in the Castle, as shall 
be thought fitt by mee or by them 
whom I shall Authorise to deliver 
the- same vnto him. 

^ MS. reads 'the Gournr aforesaid' deleted and replaced by words given above. 



Bishop Browne had been interested in the matter and. had hoped 
to see the owner of Dunnottar pr-esent. He was surprised that the 
words in the draft 'or a good account thereof were left standing. 
The writer of the draft either did not know the regalia had been taken 
away or did not quite understand when he was so informed. The 
greatest care had been taken of the documents at Dunnottar, and 
complete photographs of the castle as it stood at the present time had 
been prepared for a sumptuous publication. 

Mr. Lyon Thomson was also familiar with the castle, and suggested 
as a possible explanation that the commandant was supposed to have 
destroyed the regalia to avoid handing the national treasure over to 
the English. Hence he was required to render an account and 
possibly to hand over any money received in exchange. 

The President had been equally puzzled by the phrase quoted, 
and was not satisfied with the explanations offered. As no one could 
have been deceived by it, he could only conclude that there was 
something else behind it. 


Roman Remai?ts at IVelwyn 

By Major G. M. Kindersley, O.B.E. 

[Read 9th June 1921] 

The discoveries at the Grange were made below the tennis- 
court in a garden that slopes down to the Hitchin road and the 
river Mimram ; and when the terrace at the top of the slope 
was under construction some thirty years ago, some Roman relics 
came to light and are now in the Hertford museum. Immediately 
opposite, on the other bank of the river, are the foundations of 
a Roman villa in the garden of the Manor House. 

The first of the present series of finds was made early in 1920 
when a trench was being dug for a water-pipe, and regular 
excavations were undertaken about Christmas. The relics lay 
at an average depth of 3 to 4 ft. on the gravel subsoil, where 
the soil had not been disturbed in banking up the tennis-court ; 
and the graves to which they belonged evidently formed part of 
a considerable cemetery, which will be further investigated in 
due course. 

Fig. I . All these objects belonged to one burial, the cinerary urn 
being of small size. In front of the bust (see figs. 2, 3) is a 
bronze and blue enamel ring, and the other articles from left to 
right are : 

Nails probably belonging to a wooden chest. 

Smooth slab of stone, perhaps a palette for unguents. 

Pottery jug, the handle missing. 

Long-necked glass bottle for unguents. 

Small saucer made of the bottom of a vessel. 

Vase of pottery, blue grey. 

Neck of a large glass bottle and, in front, part of the lip 
of a yellow glass vessel. 

Fragments of a green glass jug, like fig. 4. 

Pieces of iron, perhaps hinges of the chest in which the 
whole was enclosed. 
Figs. 2, 3. Two views of * pipeclay ' bust of a woman, retain- 
ing traces of fabric and fragments of a bronze necklace found 
in position (white mark on fig. 3). This seems to be the first 
discovery of the kind in Britain, though figurines of Venus 

The Antiquaries Journal 


'**;3«» «.'---»'s.,v« 

Fir;. I. Grave Group. Welwyn 

Vol. 11, pi. V 

Fig. i Fig. 3 

Pijjeclay bust of a woman, Welwyn (^) 

The Antiquaries Journal 

Vol. II, pi. VI 

Fig. 5. Roman Pottery, Welwyn 

Fig. 6. Roman Pottery, Welwyn 



standing on a hemispherical plinth are fairly common in London 
and elsewhere, as at Wroxeter {Report^ ii, 19). It is no doubt 
of Gaulish manufacture and may have come from "St. Rollat- 

Fig. 4. Three square bottles of bluish-green glass, of a kind 
often used for cinerary urns (as Archaeologia, xxvii, 434). Max. 
height, 8 in. They were found together and may have formed 
part of the grave-furniture just described. 

Fig. 5. A burial set of pottery, the jug and vase being found 

Fi»}. 4. Glass Bottles. 

inside the cinerary urn, which is 11 in. high. The dish on the 
right is 6\ in. in diameter. 

Fig. 6. Another burial set, the cinerary urn being 12 in. 
high. The cup is 2 in. high, and the dish on the right 6| in. 
in diam. 

Pieces of plain Samian pottery were found in various graves, 
all dating from the second century. Mr. A. G. K. Hayter, 
F.S.A., has kindly communicated the following notes on the 
potters' stamps : 

ALBVCI on DragendorfFs form 31. A potter of Lezoux who 
made decorated and plain wares, including Drag, forms 79 and 80. 
Date about 140-180 a. d. 

CETTVS FC. A Lezoux potter : same stamp at Carlisle, and 


from Leadenhall St. (in possession of Mr. Vollam Morton). 
Dated at Wroxeter (1913) not later than Hadrian (117-38 a.d.). 

CINTVSSA. Plain-ware potter only, assigned to Lezoux by- 
Walters (Brit. Mus. Cat.)', made Drag, forms 18/31, 27, 33. 
Found at Rheinzabern in a grave-group with potters of 100-50 
A. D., as the above forms also suggest. 

DIVICATVS. Probably a Lezoux potter : found at Newstead 
in second period, 140-80 a.d., and at Wroxeter (19 13), with 
pottery mostly of late second and third centuries. 


Mr. Reginald Smith said the most interesting item of the exhibit 
was the pipeclay bust, which dated from the latter part of the firi.t 
century. The Samian dishes might be referred to the early second 
century, and there were three noticeable pieces of other wares : the 
cinerary urn was more British than Roman, though doubtless made 
after the Conquest ; the vase of ' Upchurch ' ware had a sharp angular 
shoulder seen also on Belgic blackware of early date ; and the small 
' pedestal ' urn recalled the characteristic British cineraries of Aylesford. 
Roman grave-furniture was by no means uniform, and a jug or vase 
could not be expected with every cremation. Besides those on 
exhibition, Major Kindersley had found many pieces of pottery in his 
garden ; and it would be useful to plot on a six-inch map the numerous 
burials of the period found in Welwyn and its neighbourhood. 

Mr. Page looked upon Roman Welwyn as a hallowed place: 
there were many burials, but so far only one building, the villa in the 
Rectory garden. All the burials were cremations, and the latest date 
given by the pottery and coins was the third century. It therefore 
ceased to be used for burials before the time of Constantine. He 
had long intended to map the extraordinary number of burials, and 
thought there was no parallel site in Britain. 

The President said Major Kindersley evidently realized the 
importance of recording the association of pottery and other objects 
in the graves : it was imperative to keep together the whole contents 
of each interment, in order that contemporary types might be deter- 
mined. To dig up one's own tennis-lawn entailed great self-denial 
and enthusiasm for archaeology, and results had justified the present 
undertaking : further excavation might show in what the peculiarity 
mentioned by Mr. Page consisted. Some of the pipeclay figures were 
evidently made for cult purposes, and he remembered a charming 
gabled altar of the ware in Leyden museum. The bust was of higher 
artistic value than usual, though the face was somewhat distorted ; 
and he did not share the opinion that it was originally dressed. The 
cloth fragments rather indicated that it was wrapped up at the time of 

A Prehistoric Invasion of England 

By O. G. S. Crawford, B.A., F.S.A. 

In his account of the leaf-shaped bronze swords of the Hallstatt 
period, the late M. Dechelette wrote : ' Doubtless one might ask 
whether this weapon might not have been brought to the British 
Isles by the first Celtic invaders, but that is purely conjectural 
{une conjecture fragile)^ for it is difficult among the British finds of 
the same period to detect any really characteristic analogies 
(vol. ii, pt. 2, p. 724). The same paragraph points out that 
bronze swords of identically the same type have been found in 
regions as widely separated from each other as Scandinavia, 
Bohemia, and Ireland, to which one might add Finland and 
Southern France. The conclusion is irresistible that these 
swords were derived from a common centre of dispersal, and that 
they were not evolved independently in each region. Had the 
evolution taken place locally there might have been similarity, 
but not identity of type. I propose to bring forward evidence in 
support of the hypothesis that, towards the close of the Bronze 
Age, the British Isles were invaded by the first wave of Celtic- 
speaking peoples, bringing with them leaf-shaped bronze swords, 
many other entirely new types of bronze objects, and at least two 
types of pottery new to these islands and evolved somewhere on 
the Continent. 1 suggest that these invaders may have been 
Goidels, arriving about 800-700 b.c. Possibly the new types 
under review may not all be strictly contemporary ; and there 
may have been more than one wave of invasion. But there can, 
I think, be no doubt that an invasion on a large scale took place 
at about this time. 

It is probably true to say that after the invasion of the Beaker- 
folk there was a long period of peaceful development. In Ireland, 
where they never came, the primitive, round-bottomed neolithic 
bowl slowly evolved into the typical Irish food-vessel. In England 
the same type of bowl evolved, under the influence of the beaker, 
into the food-vessel with an overhanging rim. In both countries 

•■ In vol. ii (Hallbtatt), p. 588, note i, he says: 'The date of the first invasion 
of Britain recognized by Celtic scholars — the Goidelic invasion — is so uncertain 
that one cannot determine the type of sword used by these first conquerors.' 


knife-daggers acquired precocious sockets and grew into spear- 
heads of a type peculiar to these islands. Flat bronze axes 
developed side-flanges and stopridges, and so became palstaves. 
This development resulted, as one would expect, in a number of 
similar but by no means identical types. The palstaves of Hamp- 
shire and the Isle of Wight, for example, can all be traced back to 
the flanged celts of Arreton Down ; and there is evidence that 
they were made on the spot from raw material imported by sea. 
In the Southampton Museum is a clay crucible found near the 
town in association with palstaves. 

Quite distinct types of palstaves were evolved in Sussex and in 
the north of England, and the types are almost entirely confined 
to the regions in which they were evolved. All this implies 
a considerable development of trade in copper and tin, which in 
turn implies peace and plenty. The rarity ot exotic types through- 
out points in the same direction and rules out the possibility of 
invasion while these developments were taking place. 

It is of the greatest importance for my present purpose to fix 
as closely as possible the limits in time of this long period of 
security ; "^but this is extremely diflScult. I think, however, that 
one may say it ended with palstaves, and that the invaders and 
socketed axes came in together. That does not mean that palstaves 
ceased to be made and used afterwards, for we know that they 
survived for a long time, particularly in certain regions. Nor that 
no socketed axes were known before ; it is possible that some 
(perhaps the bigger ones) were evolved in this country. Generally 
speaking, however, there can be no doubt that socketed axes 
gradually superseded palstaves ; and it was during the transition 
from the one to the other that the invasion began. 

The evidence upon which the invasion-hypothesis is based con- 
sists of associated finds, principally hoards, such as those exhibited 
on loth February 1921.' It is impossible to prove that any given 
selection of hoards is contemporary, and it is probable that the 
exhibits are not all contemporary. I have, however, collected 
together notes on some others in which the same types of objects 
recur again and again, and which may all, I think, be placed within 
the same not very lengthy period. I have examined nine associated 
finds which contain tanged bronze razors, because it seems reason- 
able to suppose that these razors were contemporary — a supposition 
which is completely borne out by their associations ; and I have 
chosen six objects which I regard as being exotic,' taking about 

' To be published in 'Archaeologta^ Ixxi. 

^ By an exotic object is meant one highly specialized in character whose early 
forms are not found in Great Britain. 


half a dozen instances of the discovery of each, generally in associa- 
tion Of course, a great deal depends upon whether it is 
agreed that all the objects thus passed in review are really contem- 
porary. It would take too long to attempt to prove this in detail, 
nor can the evidence be given in full. 

The usual type of razor, which may have been developed in 
this country or in France, is tanged, with two blades separated by 
a stem or thickened midrib, and sometimes with a small perforation 
at the top. The shape is like that of the leaves of the small water- 
lily, with a notch at the top. The great importance of these razors 
is that they provide an invaluable link between the hoards on the 
one hand and pottery, barrows, and earthworks on the other. Razors 
of the type described have been found in the hoards at Feltwell 
Fen (socketed axes, tweezers, etc.) ; Wallingford (socketed axe, 
knife, and gouge) ; Heathery Burn (socketed axe and mould for 
another, knife, gouge, chisel, tweezers) ; Dowris (socketed axes, 
knife, and swords); Llangwyllog, Anglesey (tweezers); Fresn^- 
la-Mere, Falaise (socketed spearhead, hammer, gold tore of Yeovil 
type). They have been found in the two small rectangular 
entrenchments which General Pitt-Rivers proved to be or the 
Bronze Age — South Lodge and Martin IDown, in Cranborne 
Chase. In both these cases numerous sherds of pots ornamented 
with raised ribs of clay and finger-tip impressions were found ; 
these sherds were not mere surface-finds, but were closely associated 
with the razors in the mixed ' rapid ' silting of the ditch. On the 
bottom of the ditch of South Lodge Camp was found a large 
complete urn of this type, with raised vertical ribs, ornamented 
with finger-tip impressions. At the same depth was found the 
razor. Now the fashion of ornamenting pottery in this way died 
out completely — at any rate in the south of England — after the 
Stone Age. In any typical collection of pottery of the Early 
and Middle Bronze Age the ornament is generally applied with 
cord, never with the finger-tips. I exclude, of course, beakers, 
which had their own kind of decoration, generally oblong punch- 
marks, only very rarely finger-tips. In a barrow at Roundwood 
in Hampshire, which I excavated very carefully last summer, out 
of over a hundred sherds, nearly all ornamented and representative 
of a large number of different vessels, not a single one was orna- 
mented with finger-tips. In the urn-field at Dummer, not five 
miles distant, finger-tip ornament was the most usual, and there 
was no cord-ornament. Both in urn-fields and in some barrows, 
finger-tip pots are extremely common, especially in the Lower 
Thames and Hampshire basins. I know of no urn-fields which 
contain urns ornamented with cord or in the earlier Bronze Age 


fashion ; and this marked distinction must, 1 am sure, indicate 
the arrival of new people with new customs. Montelius places 
urn-fields in his last period. 

Associated also with these finger-tip pots and the razor, there 
were found in the ditch of South Lodge Camp a number of sherds 
of the globular urns, which Lord Abercromby has called the 
Deverill-Rimbury type. These, he argues, must have been intro- 
duced from abroad by invaders, though he is inclined to minimize 
the extent and importance of the invasion. I fully agree that 
the type was thus introduced, but I think there is collateral 
evidence to show that, both numerically and otherwise, the invasion 
formed at any rate one wave of a large and important migration 
which, as a whole, was responsible for more than Lord Abercromby 
is willing to admit. 

We have, then, two new types of pottery, and we have lastly the 
new type of earthworks in which they were found. These small, 
approximately rectangular camps are a remarkable achievement for 
the Bronze Age, not on account of any difficulties in laying out 
or constructing them, but rather because of their strangely 
methodical" symmetry. One cannot help associating their makers 
with the makers of the Italian terremare, the ancestors of those 
Romans whose square military camps were later on to spring up 
close by on the same downs of Cranborne and Gussage. 

Let me repeat, for the sake of clearness, the conclusions reached 
at this stage in the argument. We have, on the one hand, a great 
mass of pottery of a uniform character, ornamented with finger-tip 
impressions, found over a large part of Southern England ; we 
have pottery of another type — the Deverill-Rimbury type — con- 
fined to Wessex ; and we know that both were contemporary 
because both have been found together in the square camps of 
Cranborne Chase and elsewhere in barrows. We cannot account 
for the appearance of all three together except by postulating an 
invasion. The discovery of bronze razors associated with them 
enables us to go farther, and to say that some of the hoards of 
bronze implements were contemporary with these two types of 
pottery and with the camps. It remains to be seen therefore 
whether the hoards confirm the invasion hypothesis demanded by 
the pottery and camps. They will do so, I think, if they are 
found to contain a great preponderance of exotic objects — more, 
that is, than could be accounted for by trade. This, I submit, 
they do. 

That the hoards .in question are contemporary with the razor- 
pottery-square camp complex will be clear from a critical examina- 
tion of the evidence, set forth in summary form below. The 


proof rests on the assumption that if A = B and B = C, then 
A = C, the sign of equality signifying contemporaneity, and A, B, 
and C representing objects and groups of identical types. 

Perhaps the most striking exotic object is the winged axe 
(not to be confused with the flanged axe of the Early Bronze 
Age, sometimes, but incorrectly, called a winged axe). Winged 
axes occur in a hoard from Clothall in Essex, with nine socketed 
axes and two sword fragments ; in a hoard from Minster, Thanet, 
with socketed axes and a socketed knife ; and a hoard consisting 
almost entirely of winged axes was found at Donhead, Wilts., 
with a mould for socketed celts. A mould for winged axes was 
found near Amiens ; a single specimen from Radkersburg in 
Styria is almost indistinguishable from a French specimen in the 
same room at the British Museum. Winged axes are the normal 
type in Central Europe ; there are several varieties, but they all 
belong to the same species. 

When socketed axes came into fashion, the winged-axe people 
ornamented the face of the new socketed axe with a pair of 
semicircular ribs in imitation of the appearance of the folded 
wings. Many examples could be collected of their occurrence in 
Britain. They occur in i;he Minster hoard and in most of those 
found round the Thames estuary ; and also at Heathery Burn in 
Durham. They are so common both in hoards and as isolated 
specimens, that I have not troubled to enumerate instances. 
One was found at ' Old England ', Brentford, not in the Thames 
itself, but in the marsh on the north bank. It is clear that 
they were evolved from the winged axe and that they were 
made by people whose usual weapon up till then had been the 
winged axe and not tne palstave proper. The rarity of winged 
axes makes it certain that they were never the usual weapon of the 
inhabitants ot this country. On the other hand, winged axes 
were the usual weapon of the people of Central Europe. It 
follows, therefore, as a matter of course that the socketed axe with 
vestigial wings added as ornament was the invention and work 
of a Central European people. Possibly examples of the earlier 
type (i. e. winged axes) were introduced by traders. Peaceful 
penetration, as we know, is often the prelude to invasion. 

I must pass rapidly over the other examples of exotic objects. 
They are : 

(i) Double-hooked bracelets of thin bronze wire. Heathery 
Burn; Anglesey; Lake of Bourget ; Venat (Charente) ; Manson 

(2) Bronze buckets. Heathery Burn ; Dowris ; Morbihan ; 
Bologna ; Hallstatt. 



(3) Winged chapes. Llyn Fawr ; Wilburton ; Sion Reach ; 
Ebberston (Yorks.) ; and the Departments of Dr6me, Jura, 
Auvergne and Vaucluse in France. 

(4) Bronze buttons. Reach Fen ; Anglesey ; Kensington ; 
Heathery Burn ; Hallstatt ; and the Swiss lake-dwellings (very 

(5) Certain bugle-shaped objects which were possibly chapes for 
dagger sheaths. Sion Reach ; Minster ; Reach Fen ; Roseberry 
Topping; Broad ward; Melburn (Cambs.) ; Alderney ; and Notre- 

(6) Bronze tweezers. Sion Reach ; Feltwell Fen ; Heathery 
Burn ; Anglesey, 

(7) Small bronze rings. Common in Britain, and the Swiss 
lake-dwellings, and at Hallstatt. 

The evidence of all these contemporary objects very strongly 
suggests that they were brought here by invaders, and it points to 
eastern France or Switzerland or some adjacent region as the 
place of origin. Let me next consider some still more suggestive 
finds, which will not only strengthen the evidence for invasion but 
will indicate more precisely the home of the invaders. 

One of the most remarkable hoards found in the British Isles 
was on exhibition on loth February. It was found in the small 
lake of Llyn Fawr in Glamorganshire. The evidence for the 
association — and therefore contemporaneity — of all the objects in 
it is, to my mind, quite satisfactory ; though the spearhead cannot 
be proved to have been found in association with the rest. The 
hoard is unique in many ways. It is the first instance in north- 
western Europe, so far as I am aware, of typical bronze weapons 
of the Bronze Age being found associated with objects made of 
iron. Further, one of those iron objects (the sickle) is clearly 
modelled on one of the bronze sickles found with it ; the forging 
of it must have been peculiarly difficult as its prototype was cast 
in a mould. 

One of the objects — the razor — is almost unique in Great 
Britain ; the only exact parallel I know of is one from Sion 
Reach in the British Museum (case 52). It can, however, be 
paralleled in France, and an example closely similar to the Llyn 
Fawr specimen is figured by Dechelette. It was found in a grave 
at Magny- Lambert (Cote-d'Or) with a skeleton, a cordoned bronze 
bucket (like that from Weybridge presented to the British Museum 
by Mr. Dale) and an iron spearhead. Perhaps the most interest- 
ing fact of all is that it is again figured by Dechelette on the plate 
at the end (vol. ii, pi. vi, fig. 10) illustrating objects typical of the 
First Hallstatt Period (b. c. 900-700). There is now, therefore. 


absolute proof of the discovery in Britain of yet another object 
belonging on the Continent to the Early Iron Age. This is, 
however, the first occasion on which such an object has been 
found in clear association with typical Bronze Age objects ; and 
it should be gratifying to those who have so long been expecting 
something; of the kind. 

I have mentioned Sion Reach as the site where a razor like that 
from Llyn Fawr was found. The site is a most remarkable one 
and it appears highly probable — if not certain — that a pile-village 
existed there on the marshy ground (called * Old England ') 
between the Brent River and the Thames. During the construc- 
tion of the Great Western Docks in 1859-60 and at intervals ever 
since, many bronze and other objects have been found there. 
These objects are now mostly in the British and London Museums 
and in the Layton Bequest at the Brentford Public Library. These 
objects are as follows : — razors, pins (roll-headed, cone-headed, 
and hammer-headed), bugle-objects, tweezers (ornamented with 
hatched triangles A), small rings, winged celt, socketed axes, socketed 
spearheads, socketed knife and pendant. There are at Brentford 
eight bronze leaf-shaped swords ; their exact provenance is un- 
certain, but they were found on the land, and not dredged from 
the river-bed, and it is therefore not improbable that they were 
found on the Old England site. There are also three curved 
one-edged knives of the typical lake-dwelling type. Objects of 
the La Tene period from Old England are not at all numerous. 
I do not know of any which can be positively stated to have been 
found there. The connexion of these finds with the hoards 
already referred to will be obvious. Most of the Old England 
objects occur again in the Heathery Burn cave, and all of them 
can be paralleled in the Swiss lake-dwellings. This parallelism is 
most striking ; it is not a mere resemblance, it is absolute identity 
of type. The razors reported from Llyn Fawr and Sion Reach 
are merely single examples of a type which occurs again and again 
in Switzerland and has many variant forms. Further parallels 
can be found ; I have compiled lists which bring out the close 
resemblances between the English and the Swiss lake-dwelling 
cultures. That one of the English sites should be the probable 
site of a lake-dwelling makes the resemblance still more suggestive. 

I have now brought to notice many facts which suggest an 
invasion from France or Switzerland at about the time when iron 
was coming into use. At precisely this moment the lake-dwellings 
of Switzerland seem to have come to an end. So far as one can 
gather from a study of the literature and of the British Museum 
collections, there appear to have been no lake-dwellers in Switzer- 



land during the later Hallstatt Iron Age. Can they have been 
driven out by other invaders from the east ? and was it the lake- 
dwellers themselves who invaded these islands ? Sir Arthur Keith 
has examined skulls from the Thames at Old England which are, 
he says, of the typical Swiss lake-dwelling type, and quite distinct 
from that much earlier variety characteristic of the beaker-folk. 
But the Alpine type of man had, of course, a wider distribution 
and was not confined to the neighbourhood of the Alps. 

Sir Arthur Keith formed his opinion on anthropological grounds, 
quite independently of archaeological evidence, nor probably was 
he aware of the close connexion of the Old England bronze types 
with those of Switzerland. That similar conclusions should be 
reached by independent workers in different fields of research is 
somewhat remarkable, and is a strong argument in favour of the 
truth of those conclusions. 

The distribution of leaf-shaped swords suggests many things. 
In the first place they are quite common in Ireland ; and examples 
occur in almost every part of Europe (probably the evolution of 
the type took place in Bavaria ; it certainly did not take place 
anywhere 1n these islands). It is worth inquiring whether it is 
possible to equate any prehistoric invasion based on purely 
archaeological grounds with any similar migration demanded by 
philologists. Can we, for example, say when the Goidelic-speaking 
Celts first reached Ireland ? Lord Abercromby, I believe, main- 
tains that the beaker- folk were the first Aryans and presumably, 
therefore, were Goidels. But the beaker-folk never reached 
Ireland, the home of the Goidel ; and it is therefore very difllicult 
to accept this view. After the coming of the beaker-folk no other 
invasion has hitherto been recognized until well on in the period 
of La Tene, when the Brythonic-speaking peoples presumably 
arrived. I therefore suggest that these invaders, whom I may 
call the leaf-shaped sword people, were Goidels and that they 
subdued and settled in Ireland. 

Continental archaeologists incline to the view that the beaker- 
folk spoke an Aryan language, and I am quite open to convic- 
tion ; but there are diflftculties in adopting either hypothesis. The 
complete absence of beakers in Ireland (barring one or two 
* sports ', mostly in the north-east, opposite the Scotch coast) 
makes it extremely difficult to believe in an invasion large enough 
to account for the Goidelic language of that country. On the 
other hand it must be admitted that the surviving traces of Goi- 
delic place-names in southern Britain are very scanty. If the 
Late Bronze Age invaders spoke Goidelic, one would certainly 
expect to find more traces of that language in the area where their 



archaeological remains are. so abundant. But this rarity of Goidelic 
place-names might equally well be brought forward to prove that 
the beaker-folk (who settled thickly in the same area) did not speak 
Goidelic. There is, of course, a third alternative -that Goidelic 
was evolved after the invaders reached here. This hypothesis 
has been put forward ; and it must be left to philologists to throw 
more light on the problem. 

There can be no doubt that Central Europe was in a very 
disturbed state at the time when iron was coming into use. 
Invaders were pouring down into Greece — the first Aryan-speak- 
ing peoples to come there — Italy was also being overrun from the 
north. There are hints that the invaders wandered very far afield 
indeed. Archaeology suggests that people with affinities in 
Central Europe got to Kiev in Russia (where lake-dwelling types 
of pins occur), Finland (leaf-shaped sword), and Ireland. A 
closer study of type-distribution may some day convert these 
suggestions into certainties. 

D 2 

Second Report on the Excavations at Stonehenge 

By Lt.-Col. W. Hawley, F.S.A. 

[Read 23rd June 1921] 

When I presented my Report last year, work was about to 
begin upon some stones on the north-east of the outer circle of 
Stonehenge. These formed a group of four monoliths, numbered 
from west to east, 29, 30, i, and 2. They carried lintels, survivors 
of the series which once capped the stones of the outer circle. 
Nos. I and 2 had moved out of position, leaning badly outwards, 
and had drawn with them the three lintels from their seatings 
to the danger of these and themselves. They would have fallen 
long ago had they not been supported by props which were 
beginning^ to decay, so it was necessary to attend to them at once. 

Before work could be begun the lintels had to be removed, and 
when they had received their timber cradles they were lowered to 
the ground on the 15th June in a most satisfactory manner by 
the staff of the Office of Works, the operation only occupying an 
hour or two. 

During the work the lintels were distinguished by letters a, b, 
and c from west to east. Lintel a rested between stones 29 and 
30. Lintel b was over 30 and i, and c over i and 2. Lintel a 
and the top of stone 29 were much weathered, but the other two 
had more or less escaped, and when lifted off revealed fine tooling 
by the ancient masons and showed the care taken in getting a level 
surface and exact fitting. The same was observable on the dowels 
of the stones and on the cups in the lintels to receive the dowels. 

Not content with the security given by the dowels alone, the top 
of the stone had been chipped to leave elevated edges at the sides, 
so that the lintel rested in a shallow flat recess. Such careful 
fitting must have been done after the stones were erected ; this 
could not have been effected unless the stones were worked 
in conjunction with one another, and even suggests that the 
lintel was slung so that it could be frequently tried until a sufficient 
degree of exactness had been arrived at. The same care in 
fitting was observable in the toggle joints which were somewhat 
weathered, but still fitted with sufficient accuracy to make it diffi- 
cult to return the lintels to their former places. 


The timber work and other preparations having been completed, 
work on the stones was begun on the 28th June, and the method 
of procedure was much the same as that explained in last year's 
Report. We used the registering frame, placing it around an 
area of 23 ft. by 18 ft. including the stones i and 30, and small 
areas were worked inside the larger one, distinguished by the 
letters including them. 

On this occasion we stripped the turf and humus from off the 
whole of the large area before beginning the smaller ones and 
proceeding to deeper levels, so that objects in it could not drop 
down and become confused with things in the lower layers. 
Considering the extent of the upper layer the objects found were 
few in comparison with those at nos. 6 and 7 stones. There were 
the ubiquitous stone-chips : of these we had 398 of sarsen and 
2,061 of foreign stones, the proportion of 5 to i (or a little more) 
being the same as observed before. Also there were 363 pieces 
of quartzite hammerstone. I might explain that the term hammer- 
stone was given to them because they had evidently been collected 
for that purpose, though not actually used. It is a very hard 
variety of sarsen and occurs as water-worn nodules and small 
boulders all over Salisbury Plain especially in river valleys. 

Bronze Age pottery fragments were in excess of those of the 
Roman period. There were sixty-two of the former and twelve 
of the latter, all in fragments crushed to sizes rarely greater than 
an inch and giving no information beyond the Bronze Age being 
the earliest period presented in the layer. There were five 
Georgian copper coins and a farthing of Charles II, an iron strike- 
a-light, and an iron knife of about the seventeenth century. 

Three pieces of human skull were met with and one tooth. 
These occurred at a high level with no sign of burial, and might 
have been the remains of some criminal hanged there and left 
unburied, the few pieces finding their way into the ground. 
They were the only human remains found, but there were several 
fragments of animal bones which have been kept and tabulated. 

Much of the upper layer was composed of finely crushed flint 
which was first met with on the west side of no. i stone, increas- 
ing and becoming deeper on the outside of no. 30, and farther 
west it showed a depth of from 15 in. to 24 in. and seemed to 
spread towards the interior of the circle of Stonehenge. 

It is possible that the builders may have laid down rough flints 
to afford a firm foundation when moving the large stones, which 
may have crushed them. On the other hand, as there are no 
big flints embedded in the soil below, it would seem that the 
material was deposited in a state of flint gravel which would 


have been necessary on account" of the disturbed and muddy state 
of the ground whilst the work was going on. In this instance 
there were no objects in it, but later it was found to contain 
stone chips. The lower layers around both stones were of earthy 
chalk rubble with a few flints which formed the filling of the 
craters in which the stones stood. Finds in them were very few 
so I give the layers collectively ; they are preserved and tabulated, 
as are all the others, according to their position and datum. They 
consisted chiefly of mauls, of which there were 36 of all sizes, 
varying from some quite small to others of 1 1 lb., 30 lb., and 43 lb. 
The latter is the biggest yet met with and is a nicely rounded 
specimen. It was found at the north-east corner of no. 30 stone, 
51 in. below datum, and had been used as a packing-stone. The 
larger mauls were of very hard sarsen, and many of the smaller 
were of quartzite of a brown colour. 

Two deer-horn picks were found in a broken state, one at a 
high level in front of stone 30 at 36 in. below datum line and the 
other to the north-east of the foot of no. i stone at 80 in. below 
datum. There were sixteen flint implements of a rough descrip- 
tion, two flint hammers, ten roughly chipped flints, three flint 
scrapers, one borer, and two fabricators. A few fragments of 
foreign stone were met with which had crept down with the 
humus at the side of the stone and one was found amongst the 
rubble at 38 in. below datum line. No. i stone was the first to 
be excavated (fig. i). This stone was peculiar and interesting, for 
there was no incline from the outside for bringing the stone up to its 
position. The crater in the solid chalk was reached at only 29 in. 
below datum line. It was very regular in form with sharp inside 
edge, the sides showing a steep, but not perpendicular descent. 

It is difficult to say how the stone could have been set in the 
crater. Had it been tipped in, the chalk at the side would have 
been crushed, and indeed the whole crater might have been ruined. 
Had a timber platform been placed round the edge the weight of 
so large a stone might have displaced and crushed it. The stone 
is very regular in shape, the south side being practically a straight 
face and the north side is much the same, but a little undercut 
below ground level, so that it is well suited for insertion, but how 
this was accomplished is a question for consideration. It is hardly 
credible that so heavy a weight could have been slung and 
lowered. Wood was more likely to have been used than raw-hide 
ropes, but as both are perishable we cannot know if or how they 
were used. This 'stone was not very pointed, but it tapered 
sufiiciendy to help its adjustment. 

The chalk rock at the bottom of the crater was of a naturally 



crumbling description and was found to extend in this state some 
distance around when the pit for concrete was made. This might 
have been the cause of the stone shifting its position. 

Forty-eight packing-blocks were found distributed around the 


r^r-.TurF t. Mould 
A"?!"?;. Earthy Chalk Rubble 
• Maul 
r- Blue Stone 
'/ o Bronze Age Fbttery 

Fig. I. Section through stone no. i. 

base, the greater number placed about the north-east face and 
north corner. They were mostly of sarsen, but about one-third 
were of glauconite and Chilmark ragstone. There was a post- 
hole on the south side of the base, not very well defined but 
sufficiently marked to assume that it was one, especially since it 
contained the substance of decayed wood. 



No. 30 stone was next taken in hand (fig. 2). The lower layers 
were similar to those about no. i and were in earthy chalk rubble. 
"When this was removed and the stone laid bare to the base, a 
crack, previously visible 19 in. above ground level, was now seen 


-^.V TurF * Mould 

Flinb Crushed lb Fine Gravel 
V^" Earthy Chalk Rubble 
^ Mauls 
^ Blue Stones 
° Bronze Age Pottery 

Fig. 1. Section through stone no. 30. 

to extend in a downward curve to the centre of the base on the 
south side and to be 6| ft. in length. There was also a smaller 
crack on the west of the base which might have been caused by 
hammering the base 'of the stone to get the desired shape. This 
crack took a downward curve towards the centre for about 2| ft., 
but in neither case was it possible to ascertain how far into the 



stone the cracks extended. The one on the east side appeared 
to be natural and to have existed when the stone was erected. 
Apparently it caused anxiety to the builders, for they seemed to 


Turf s. Mould 

Earthy Chalk Rubble 

Blue Stones 

Bronze Age Pbttery 

Fig. 3. Stones nos. 29 and 30. 

have placed posts or perhaps wooden baulks under the curve to 
take the weight of the cracked portion (fig. 3). The holes for these 
posts were found and also those of a row of posts outside them, 
evidently to support the inner ones. There seemed to have been 
nine outer posts, but they were not well defined, as they ran one 


into another from being placed close together. One hole descended 
20 in. and others from 15 in. to 18 in., and they all contained the 
brown matter of decayed wood. The same precautions had not 
been taken with the other crack : nor were they necessary, as the 
west side of the base rested in a bowl-shaped depression, pressing 
the cracked end against the stone. These cracks, no doubt, caused 
the builders to abstain from trimming the base of the stone, 
leaving it heavy and cumbersome and adding greatly to its weight. 

As a temporary measure baulks of timber were placed under 
the curve, as the builders had done long ago, but shortly after- 
wards all danger was averted by fixing two steel cables crossed 
round the base, binding the cracked portions tightly to the stone 
by means of screw bolts at the ends of the cables, and these 
remained on the stone when it was finally buried in concrete. 
The cracks were marked during the work but showed no sign of 

This stone must have shifted its position considerably on the 
west and north, as the humus had dropped down to the lower 

The packing-stones around the base were very numerous : 
there were fifty-eight of them chiefly of glauconite and Chilmark 
ragstone, a few only being of sarsen. The employment of these 
mixed stones seems to point to sarsen being unavailable, except 
the pieces knocked off when forming the bases and tops of the 
stones ; consequently stone had to be searched for and brought 
from distant places. 

When quite exposed the base of this stone was found to be 75 in. 
from datum line. Two steel cables were passed under both stones 
and secured to their cradles, preventing them slipping down. They 
were then jacked slightly off the ground and brought to an 
upright position. A long rectangular pit was dug in the solid 
chalk to include them to a depth which left their ends 1 5 in. from 
the bottom. A foundation of reinforced concrete was put in 
until it nearly reached the stones, leaving room for an iron plate. 
This concrete was firmly set by the 2ist August when the 
rectifying of the position of the stones was carried out. It was 
a long and tedious process, but by the 23rd a very good fit was 
made of lintels b and c. Lintel c was then taken down and 
B left over i and 30 stones. A bed of concrete was now put 
around both and when firmly set, the cradles and all supporting 
structures were removed and a scaffolding erected to aid in getting 
the final adjustment of the lintels. This was attempted on the 
31st August but when lintel a was tried it could not be seated 
in its proper position. Evidently stone 29 had moved and the 


only thing to be done was to treat it like the others, as the 
movement might continue and give future trouble. 

Diabase Stones 

When excavating stones nos. i and 30 the disturbed area 
came very close to two of the foreign stones of the inner circle 
(nos. 3 1 and 49). Fearing that their stability might have been 
weakened, it was decided to put a concrete support about their 
bases on the north side, bringing it to a foot below ground level. 

The depth of stone 3 1 below the surface is 46 in. and its total 
height 9 ft. 4 in. No. 49 is 46 in. below ground and its total 
height 9 ft. 10 in., datum line and ground level here being 

No. 3 1 has a curved or convex face on the north side down 
to the base and the edges of the sides are rounded off. No. 49 
appears to have been a naturally very flat slab and retains the 
original brown crust on the face. The west side has been 
chopped away to make it narrower, or perhaps straight. There 
is a broken fragment 19 in. long at the base, still fitting against 
the stone, showing the original width there to have been 47 in. 
This fragment not having moved from its position seems to 
indicate that the stone may have been dressed after being set 
upright : there were, however, but few chips present, although 
many were found near by in the excavated area. 

In the earthy chalk rubble about stone 49, to datum 27 in., were 
3 sarsen fragments, 2 quartzite, 28 of foreign stone, a piece of 
a sarsen maul, a rough flint implement, and a flint flake : there 
were no other objects below this depth. Below the earthy rubble 
the stone stood in a shallow hole in the solid chalk with a little 
yellowish marl around it. The soil around stone 3 1 was similar, 
and contained 2 sarsen fragments, i of quartzite, 3 of foreign 
stone, and 3 slightly worked flints, and the bedding of the stone 
was similar to that of the other : there were no packing-stones in 
either case. 

Stone 29 

The excavation of stone no. 29 was begun on the 6th October 
in an area 12 ft. by 9 ft. included within the registering frame. 
Datum line and surface level were nearly identical. All the 
upper surface was removed as before and consisted mainly of the 
crushed flint previously mentioned. Below it was earthy chalk 
rubble to datum 19 in. or 20 in. where solid chalk was met with 
except at the crater in which the stone stood. There was a con- 
siderable number of stone chips both in the crushed flint and in 


the thin layer of chalky rubble under it and, below this, solid chalk 
was met with at about 2 ft. below datum line. Besides the stone 
chips there were 5 pieces of Bronze Age pottery and 2 of 
Romano-British, 2 flint implements, 9 roughly chipped flints, 
2 small sarsen mauls, and a broken one. The earthy chalk 
rubble was continued down the crater, forming packing matter 
amongst the blocks, and at the bottom was about a foot of white 
chalk rubble. 

This stone proved to be the shortest yet met with, the base 
being only ^^ in. below datum line. It had the same peculiarity 
as no. I in having no inclined plane starting from outside to 
bring it into position. The edges of the crater were found 2 ft. 
below ground, having sharp edges and resembling that of no. i in 
nearly every way. The packing-stones were met with very early, 
appearing when the turf was removed. There were forty-seven, 
and these were presumably numerous on account of the shortness 
of the stone. Two of them were very large flints, 1 9 were sarsen, 
and the remainder of Chilmark and Hurdcot ragstone. They 
were distributed all round the stone but were more numerous on 
the north side and north-east corner. Here, a number of them, 
occupying a width of 4 ft., was cemented together in a hard mass 
which gave much trouble in extricating them. The blocks were 
continuous from the top of the crater to the base of the stone but 
only the intermediate ones were cemented. At first it was 
believed that the builders had intentionally used cement, espe- 
cially as this was a short stone and the outer side is always the 
weakest. A specimen was sent to the Office of Works and an 
analysis was made of it, but no proof was found that cement had 
been used. This and other considerations point to its being 
natural. Small patches of it had been noticed before, for instance 
at no. 6 stone, also in other places where it would have been of 
no utility, but wherever it occurred ragstone was present, and 
this being a limestone may be the cause. It may happen in this 
way. Organic matter on the surface would create carbonic acid in 
the soil below : rain-water percolating downwards would take up 
the carbonic acid which would dissolve some of the lime of the 
ragstone, forming a solution of carbonate of lime, which being 
diffused amongst the earthy chalk would set it hard and give the 
appearance of concrete. 

Along the outside of the base of the stone on the south side 
there were post holes in the solid chalk. They began at the east 
corner and were arranged along the south face for about 2~ ft. 
They were seven in number : one of them was oblong and about 
8 in. wide, perhaps for a flat baulk of wood ; the others varied 


in diameter from 4 in. to 72 i»- The arrangement of them much 
resembled those of stone 30 and contained the light substance 
of decayed wood. In addition to these, twenty of the packing- 
blocks were on the south side. 

The stone ended in a bluntly-pointed base with the under sides 
sloping inwards and meeting about the vertical axis. The solid 
chalk sides at the bottom of the crater seem to have been cut 
to coincide with the slopes of the base. There were a great 
many natural cavities about the base, one being a hole penetrating 
15 in. 

The stone was secured with steel cables to the cradle like 
the others (pi. VII), and the pit for concrete about it formed 
a continuation of the long pit the others stood in. On the 20th 
October the stone was jacked up and the concrete foundation put 
in. This was firmly set by the i6th November, when lintel a 
was adjusted and fitted quite well. The concrete bed was put 
in and when that had set the stone was stripped and stood free 

The work, however, was not yet finished, as it was decided to 
give support to no. 2 stone in case the excavation of its neighbour 
might have weakened it. The stone had been from the beginning 
of the work strongly secured and propped, but now additional 
support was given. It was not necessary to move the stone, so 
the work was performed differently from the others. Pits were 
sunk to the base at the four corners of the stone, each including 
half a face and half a side. The pits were concreted in succession 
and the entire concrete bed so formed joined that of the other 
stones, forming a long solid bed. 

The area excavated here was 12 ft. by 10 ft. The stone was 
wider and thicker than the others and the longest yet met with, 
the datum depth being 842 i"- ^^ had been brought into position 
by an inclined plane from outside. The loose soil was excavated 
in the pits in three layers : the first was in flinty and earthy chalk 
rubble, the second in earthy chalk rubble, and the third in white 
chalk rubble, and humus had descended at the sides of the stone. 
The finds were very few and, in addition to stone chips, consisted 
of 10 roughly chipped flints, i piece of Bronze Age pottery, 
10 of Romano-British, 3 of medieval with green glaze, i oyster 
shell (datum 37), 12 sarsen mauls, mostly small but there jvas 
a large one weighing 35 lb. Near the bottom the stone stood in 
a hole in solid chalk 25 in. deep. The stone being so deep in 
the ground hardly required packing-blocks : there were ten small 
blocks of sarsen, probably only used for steadying the stone whilst 
it was being adjusted. 



The concreting was finished on the 14th November and set 
firmly by the 6th December, when the stone was stripped (fig. 5). 
All the lintels were finally adjusted and the work was completed. 
It was in every way most satisfactory, and Sir Frank Baines and 
his staflF may indeed be proud of their work, which has surpassed 
all that could be anticipated. 

Fig. 4. Stone no. 29, after adjustment: S. and E. elevations. 

Aubrey Holes — Barrow Ditch 

In my last Report I said we had excavated twenty-three 
Aubrey holes and that they were at regular intervals with the 
exception of one. I am now able to state that all of them are 
regular both in interval and line of circle. We were misled by 
coming upon a hole not far from the right one, but it did not 
resemble the others, being rough and irregular, and perhaps made 




by a former excavator. Not being satisfied, I searched and found 
the other in its right place. Its dimensions are : depth 39 in., 
maximum diameter 38 in., and minimum diameter '57 in. In 
the humus over the hole were 7 sarsen chips, 1 1 of foreign stone, 

F;g. 5. Stone no. 1, after adjustment: S.W. and S.E. elevations. 

5 of quartzite, 1 animal bone, and 2 roughly worked flints. 
Below the top of the hole but quite high up in it were 6 pieces of 
sarsen, 8 of quartzite, 14 of foreign stone, and 2 flint flakes. 
There was a cremation at the side of the hole, difi^used downwards 
from 19 in. to 30 in. below ground level. 


The Aubrey holes opened last year have been filled in and the 
position of each is marked by a patch of white chalk on the 
surface corresponding with the size of the hole below. 

The excavation about the Slaughter Stone was also filled in. 
We were not able to find traces of holes for the stones marked by 
Aubrey in his plan. 

In August a small investigation of the South Barrow was made. 
A line was taken from the centre of Stonehenge to a peg on the 
rampart for a base line which ran contiguous to the Barrow ditch. 
The radius of the Barrow was found to be 26 ft., the centre 
being about 2 ft. from the cavity left by an earlier excavator. 
Three sections were opened side by side, each of 12 ft. by 6 ft. 
crossing the ditch and taking in a portion of the Barrow. The 
small ditch is shallow and of irregular depth, being 31 in. deep 
where we began on the north-east, becoming less at the end of the 
third section where it was 20 in. It reached the rampart here 
and one cannot say yet if it continued. I am waiting until 
I have worked along the rampart ditch so as to get a view of it to 
see if it is continued through the bank. The soil of the small 
ditch wa§ dark earthy rubble above and chalk rubble below, with 
many fallen flints. In the dark rubble there was a piece of sarsen, 
the only object the ditch afforded. The Barrow soil is very 
shallow over the chalk rock, the curve of it from the ditch 
making it appear higher than it really is. The soil is of earthy 
chalk rubble with humus and turf over it, and the three combined 
do not exceed 14 in., except at an Aubrey hole, three of which are 
covered by the Barrow. 

The objects found in the rubble and humus of the three 
sections were 12 sarsen chips, 7 of quartzite, 127 of foreign stone, 
7 chipped flints, 5 rough flint cores, i animal bone fragment, 
I piece of Bronze Age pottery, 5 of Romano-British, i flint flake, 
and 2 scrapers. In section 2 there was a piece of the edge of 
a finely polished axe-head. At the time the Barrow was made 
the site of the Aubrey hole must have appeared as a shallow 
depression which became filled with the rubble of the Barrow. 
The Aubrey hole was excavated and found to be similar to the 
others and had the inner edge crushed down. The depth of it 
is 3 ft. with an equal diameter of 2 ft. 5 in. In the rubble cover- 
ing the top were i piece of sarsen, 3 of quartzite, and 1 1 of 
foreign stone. Lower down were the remains of a cremation 
9 in. above the bottom. At the top where the edge was crushed 
was a small depression containing a few cremated bones. The 
excavation gives the impression that this site was one of a hut 
rather than a barrow. 

The Antiquaries Journal 

Vol. II, |)l. VII 


Stone No. 29, showing Packing-Blocks in Posrnoisf 

The Antiquaries Journal 

Vol. II, pi. VIII 

Fu;. I. Scciion through Ditch, looking East 

Fig. I. Section through Ditch, looking West 


1 have also to mention two excavations of the Rampart Ditch. 
The first (pi. VII I, fig. i ) was madelast autumn and is a continuation 
westward of the one reported last year and of the same dimensions 
as that one, viz. 2 ft. by 10 ft. This was worked in downward 
layers. The top layer was in humus followed by earthy chalk rubble 
to a depth of 14 in. to 20 in., and was deeper near the counterscarp 
side. In it were 15 pieces of sarsen, 9 of quartzite, 57 of foreign 
stone, 24 small fragments of Bronze Age pottery, 6 of Romano- 
British, I piece of deer-horn, and several bone fragments. This 
layer ended upon a very compact bed of yellowish silt with a few 
flints in it. Objects of the sort found in the previous layer were 
completely absent. At 35 in. below ground-level there was a 
cremation. The bones in it were not numerous. They were 
very white and had been deposited in a roughly made recess in 
the soil. The next layer was in loose chalky rubble which 
continued to the bottom. A collection of wood ashes mixed with 
chalk occurred but was without burnt bones. 

Nine fragments of animal bone and a stag-horn tine were also 
found. The bottom presented a fairly level line, being about 
53 in. to 54 in. below ground-level. 

The rise of the chalk on the escarp side was regular, but that 
on the counterscarp not so. From it a projection of solid chalk 
protruded ; beyond it to the west the ditch widened again. 

The second excavation (pi. VIII, fig. 2) was a continuation 
of the last. It was 26 ft. long by 9 ft. wide. After re- 
moving the top layer of humus and earthy chalk rubble I 
excavated it in a diflPerent manner from the last, as the curved layers 
are not suitable for vertical excavation. Vertical layers were re- 
moved from top to bottom, each layer being a foot thick, so that 
in advancing, a section of the ditch was always presented to view. 
If a cremation was come upon, the state of the strata would show 
if it had been placed there at the time or after the silting. 

The excavation differed in appearance from the preceding ones. 
The centre line of the bottom varied from 52 in. to 63 in. below 
ground-level. The side of the escarp was fairly regular except at 
the extreme end where it penetrated a foot into the side, making 
the bottom of the ditch wider. The counterscarp was more 
irregular than in the last excavation, and had a similar bulging 
projection followed by a recess like the last. The projections 
extend about 3 ft. The recesses between are curved in the 
bank, and the floor of the ditch in front of them is level and 
smooth, giving the idea that the recesses might have been used as 
habitations opening into one another through the narrow part 
caused by the projection. Three feet in front of the projection 



last fpund there is a hole in the chalk at the bottom, 20 in. deep 
and from 22 in. to 27 in. wide. The end of the hole is more 
pointed than bowl-shaped and the chalk wall of the escarp 
descends into it. There was nothing in it beyond loose white 
chalk. A great many roughly chipped flints were met with, mostly 
at the centre line on the bottom, but were distributed everywhere 
more or less upon the bottom ; also patches of flint chips and fine 
flint debris, some being embedded in a thin layer of mud as if 
trodden in when the ditch was wet. A few flint cores were found, 
but only one definite flint implement, which was a borer. 

The upper layer of humus and chalk rubble was about 2 ft. 
thick and contained objects of a similar character and period to 
those of the last excavation, their presence terminating abruptly 
where the rubble layer met the marly silt below it. I shall not 
enumerate them all, but amongst them was a stag's horn tine, an 
oyster shell, and a small metal fragment of two thin plates of 
bronze riveted together, probably Romano-British. There were 
three sarsen mauls. One was a fine one of about 30 lb., the 
next was smaller and rougher, and the third quite a small one. 
The large one had sunk through the rubble and was embedded 
slightly in the silt. The silted marl did not produce anything 
and objects were not found until near and on the bottom, where 
they consisted of chipped flints, 6 broken stag's horn picks, 3 pieces 
of antlers, apparently cut ofi^when making picks, and 10 smaller 
fragments of horn, 37 pieces of animal bone, including part of the 
jawbone of a pig, and two leg-bones of the same. A large frag- 
ment of the horn core of a large bovine animal, having the 
appearance of a bison, was found about 15 in. above the bottom, 
and close to it a roughly rounded piece of chalk showing signs of 
cutting. There was no sign of any fire having been made on 
the ditch floor, and in all of the three excavations there was no 
sign of pottery after the top layer joined the silt. 

The excavations so far appear to indicate two distinct periods 
and that the ditch and rampart were made at a time considerably 
anterior to Stonehenge, for the silting would have taken long 
to accumulate. When the ditch began to be neglected the lower 
silting woul4 take place quickly by reason of frost attacking the 
chalk sides, as can be seen by the fallen white chalk over the ditch 
floor. This would go on until the fallen chalk had covered the 
chalk rock of the sides and so stopped further frosting. Silting 
would then become slower and the pace would be very slow at 
last, when only a little was deposited by rain flowing down the 
rampart. When • Stonehenge was built the movement of the 
numerous big stones and of many people, and the general disturbed 


state of the ground, brought the earthy chalk rubble layer over the 
silt. Objects of that period became mixed with it and deposited 
as we have found them. Later, in a quieter time, Wumus and 
turf were formed, and objects of subsequent periods have passed 
through the surface as we see it at present. 


Bishop Browne remarked that whereas the Pictish stones often 
bore engravings of various kinds, there was nothing of the sort to 
temper the austerity of Stonehenge, which was unapproachcd in 
interest by any monument in the island. He recalled the report 
made to King Alfred about the Esthonians. who enacted that every one 
must be cremated, and provided heavy penalties for leaving the smallest 
piece of bone unconsumed. Such was evidently not the case at 
Stonehenge. The builders of that monument belonged to a race not 
hitherto traced : they were not of Mediterranean origin, and must 
be identified among later peoples. 

Rev. G'. H. Engleheart was struck with the painstaking accuracy 
displayed in the present as in the preceding report, and commended 
Colonel Hawley's caution in drawing conclusions, which contrasted 
favourably with two articles recently published in a daily newspaper, 
and only surpassed by the leading article suggested by them. Perhaps 
further misapprehension might be avoided by a preliminary account 
of the year's work at Stonehenge being drawn up by the competent 
authority and communicated to the press. The ditch had been 
described as earlier thin the monument : were the ditch and ranipart 
made before even the outer ring of blue stones was erected ? 

Mr. Reginald Smith pointed out that if nothing of the megalithic 
period (the main date of Stonehenge) was found on or near the bottom 
of the ditch, it was clear that the rampart and ditch preceded even the 
ring of Prescelly stones presumably erected in the Aubrey holes. 
Hence the first construction on the site resembled the enclosure of 
a disc-shaped barrow. Flint implements and flakes had been men- 
tioned in association with Bronze Age pottery : were all the flints 
therefore of the Bronze Age, or were some of the sherds neolithic? 
Oyster shells had also been noticed, the occurrence of which low in the 
ditches of certain earthworks of the South Downs had recently been 
taken as proof of Roman date. Colonel Hawley was evidently prepared 
to make a special study of the ditch round the barrow in order to 
decide whether the barrow was earlier or later than the rampart of 

Mr. Dale said there was nothing but the Bronze Age pottery to 
disturb the conclusion reached in 1901 that Stonehenge was erected 
3.800 years ago. It was important to ascertain whether the pottery 
was contemporary with the monument or had worked down from the 

E 2 


surface. He hoped the Society would publish a reproduction of 
Aubrey's map of the missing stones. 

Mr. BuSHE-Fox had visited Stonehenge several times during the 
year and had been much impressed with Colonel Hawley's perseverance 
and absorption in the work. Few excavators would be ready to live 
in all weathers isolated in a hut on Salisbury Plain. He was present 
when one of the lintels was raised and was interested to see how 
accurately the mortise and tenon fitted. To obtain such precision the 
stones must have been finished in position ; and how the necessary 
mechanism was provided constituted one of the many problems of 
Stonehenge. If there had been interconnected dwellings in the ditch, 
a considerable deposit of refuse might have been expected. Was the 
filling merely the result of silting, or had earth been purposely thrown 
into the ditch? 

Mr. Tapp was primarily interested in the geological side of the 
problem, and had been able to secure a report on the foreign stones 
from Dr. Thomas. Many museums had been visited, and a parallel 
investigation of the stones at Carnac in Brittany was in contemplation. 
The removal of such stones from Pembrokeshire presented no great 
difficulty, as they would have come most of the way by water, via 

Rear-Admiral SOMERVILLE was interested in the orientation of 
Stonehenge, but did not go so far as the late Sir Norman Lockyer. 
To make accurate calculations with such stones was impossible, and 
the older stones there were not even faced. In addition to mauls and 
flint hammers the masons of Stonehenge must have had something 
in the nature of a chisel. A great trench was the first monument On 
the site, and very few stone circles surrounded with a ditch were known : 
there was one in the south of Ireland. It would be of interest to note 
the bearings of the gaps noticed in the side of the ditch, as the general 
orientation implied a knowledge of astronomy and might reveal the 
nationality of the builders. 

Colonel Hawley replied that the antler was almost the only object 
found at the bottom of the ditch, the horn-core being 14 in. or 15 in. 
higher. There was a rounded piece of chalk showing signs of cutting, 
and the borer was the only flint implement. The cutting-edge of a 
finely-polished stone axe came from the top of the barrow. 

The Chairman (Mr. C. L. Kingsford, V.-P.) assured Colonel Hawley 
that his zeal and self-sacrifice were highly appreciated by the Society, 
and thought that a report in the Society's Journal would be preferable 
to a preliminary notice in the daily press. 



Deatli of Mr. Benjamin Harrison. — The death of Benjamin Harrison 
on 30th September last removed another of our flint-collectors, whose 
name and worth must find a place in any text-book of prehistory. 
The village of Ightham, where he attained the ripe age of eighty-four 
years, has a palaeolithic site of its own at Oldbury, and lies at the foot 
of the North Downs, on the northern slopes of which most of the 
Kentish eoliths were found. Specimens have been dispersed far and 
wide, but it is doubtful whether opinions are less divided to-day as to 
their date and origin than in the days of Prestwich, Evans, and Lubbock ; 
and it is curious that the question has remained open so long, for 
throughout the struggle Harrison had not a few stalwart supporters. 
The three eoliths that rest on his coffin are symbolic, not of the 
burial of all controversy on the subject, but of the lasting association 
of his name with the search for Tertiary man in Britain. 

The Palaeolithic Age in Scandinavia. — Till recently Scandinavia, 
like Ireland, was denied a palaeolithic past ; and a change of opinion 
on one side may find an echo on the other. Two honorary Fellows 
of the Society have been concerned with the possibility of man's 
presence in Scandinavia in or before the last cold period, and Professor 
Montelius recently expressed his views in the Journal (April 1921). 
Dr. Shetelig, of Bergen, has speculated on the first inhabitants of 
Norway in Naturen. (July- Aug. 1921, p. J 93), and finds no valid 
argument against a palaeolithic culture, which would take the occupa- 
tion back beyond the epipalaeolithic stage of Maglemose. So far, it 
must be confessed, no such early relics have been recognized, but (as 
again in Ireland) the mammoth has been found, and its human 
contemporaries may yet be traced. Conditions in a mountainous 
country may be less favourable; but if the latest evidence is accepted 
it may be pointed out, by way of encouragement, that our innumerable 
drift implements have all survived the stupendous glaciation that left 
behind the chalky boulder-clay of our eastern counties. In a country 
where flint was obtainable a glaciation may shift, but does not neces- 
sarily destroy, the indubitable relics of palaeolithic man. 

Date of the Neolithic Period. — There is always a temptation to give 
a date in years for any prehistoric event, and such attempts at precision 
are laudable in so far as they challenge criticism. Attention may be 
drawn to Mr. C. E. P. Brooks's scheme published in Quart. Journ. 
Royal Meteorological Society, Julyi92i,i73-i94 (abridged i n Man ,1921, 
no. 59, and Nature, 15th Sept. 1921, p. 91), which distinguishes four 
successive climates in the Neolithic Period, and dates the peat-bogs 
between 1800 B.C. and 300 a.d. It is calculated that the elevation of 
land that turned the Baltic into the Ancylus lake took place about 
6000 B.C., and about 2,coo years later a subsidence of part of Scan- 
dinavia produced the Litorina sea. These two events are the pivots 
of Scandinavian prehistoric chronology, and a general agreement on 
their date in years would mean advance in several directions. 


Prehistoric trephining. — A further paper on prehistoric trephining 
is contributed by Dr. Wilson Parry, F.S.A., to the Proceedings of the 
Royal Society of Medicine, xiv, no. lo. After investigating seven 
alleged cases in Britain, he concludes that the best example of 
trephination during life is the Thames skull now in London Museum, 
there being some doubt as to the age and origin of the Edinburgh 
specimen. One from Eastry shows congenital deficiency ; those from 
Northampton and the river Wear were operated on after death ; and 
the Mountstuart and Bisley specimens show signs of disease. It is 
evident that the practice was not so common in Britain as abroad, 
where amulets cut from the human skull are fairly numerous (Brit. Mus. 
Iron Age Gnidc, fig. 52). 

Note on the constrncttoji of hill-top camps. — Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, 
F.S.A., writes as follows : On the occasion of a recent visit to Uffington 
Castle, on the White Horse Hill, Berks., I noticed a small rounded 
boulder of sarsen-stone exposed in the outer face of the rampart about 
midway between the top of the rampart and the bottom of the ditch, 
lurching with a walking-stick revealed others on each side. Sarsens 
could not occur naturally in such a position, and must have been placed 
there for a definite purpose. From the analogy of the hill-top camp 
of Pen Dinas (between Barmouth and Harlech, Merionethshire), which 
I excavated in 1919,' I am inclined to think that the sarsens at 
Uffington are the remains of an outer retaining wall built to support 
a central core of chalk rubble. It is probable that excavation would 
reveal remains of a similar retaining wall on the inner side of the 
rampart. At Pen Dinas the lower parts of the outer and inner walls 
were revealed by excavation and found to be in a very perfect state of 
preservation, the stones being of great size and (though not shaped) 
carefully fitted into place. The natural weathering of the rampart 
made it possible to trace the ' outcrop' of these walls for some distance ; 
and a recent inspection of another hill-top camp (Twyn y Gaer, on 
Mynydd Illtyd, west of Brecon) reveals the same features. The 
question is of some interest, for the discovery at Uffington suggests 
that similar methods of construction were employed in Wessex ; and 
that the ramparts of all such earthworks may originally have been 
contained within retaining walls of sarsen or flint. This would account 
for the flat and stony top of so many of them. Timber may also 
have entered largely into their construction, as in the case of the 
contemporary fortresses in France, It is to be hoped that future 
excavators will bear this point in mind when cutting sections through 
the ramparts of camps. 

The following remark in Thurnam's Crania Britannica (vol. ii, 1865, 
' White Horse Hill, Berks.') is of interest : ' Mr. Martin Atkins's discovery 
of the remains of strong palisading in the chalk vallum of Uffington 
Castle has not yet been published.' As Mr. Atkins died in 1859, his 
discovery has probably remained unpublished. 

The diicovery of a Roman coffin at Loivcr Slaughter. — This find, 
reported in the Antiquaries Jonrnal, i, 340, is closely parallel to one 

' See Arch. Camb,, dth series, vol. 20 


made near Burford in 1814. There, too, a large stone coffin (orientated 
north and south) was discovered, according to one account 6 in., to 
another 3 ft., below the surface of the ground. In addition to ' a perfect 
male skeleton of middle stature, having all the teeth entire ', ' a number 
of short nails with conical heads were found completely oxidated and 
matted together in pieces of hide '. Such conjectures as that ' from 
the circumstance of the nails being thickly placed and clenched through 
several layers of the hide, it is highly probable a shield was formed ',* 
or that they formed part of an object ' worn as a defence, not unlike 
a Roman Lorica V and the connexion of the discovery with the battle 
of Burford in 752, become superfluous when the leather and nails 
can be resolved into humble foot-gear like that found in the coffin at 
Lower Slaughter. 

Discoveries at Scarboroiigh. — Mr. Gerald Simpson, in the course of 
his excavations on the site of the Roman fort on Castle Hill, has 
discovered the north wall of the medieval chapel in the castle, situated 
on the edge of the cliff. This chapel is referred to in Richard I's grant 
of the parish church to the Cistercians. South of the chapel are 
remains of post-Dissolution buildings. Underlying the site, and at no 
great depth, portions of Roman masonry are to be seen, showing that 
the walls of the fort with a square building in the middle, following 
the normal plan, are in existence. It is hoped to complete the clearing 
of the site next season. Amongst the objects so far discovered are 
pieces of stained glass, glazed tiles, remains of tobacco-pipes, a few 
coins, and a considerable quantity of medieval pottery. 

Foundations revealed by the drought. — Excavators are in the habit of 
watching differences of growth in cornfields and pasture in the hope 
of tracing foundations or ancient disturbances of the soil ; and the 
phenomenal weather of last summer brought a good deal to light. 
The walls of a Roman building have been mapped in a cornfield 
outside the walls of Richborough ; and an ancient causeway, the line 
of which was revealed by the drought, has been excavated by Alderman 
J. Morland between Street and Glastonbury. Mr. Stephen Manser 
reports that the foundations of a Roman villa have been found in the 
same way near Hull Place, Sholden, near Deal ; and our Fellow 
Mr. Heneage Cocks hopes to examine the foundations of a Roman 
corridor-house recognized in a field near the mill adjoining Hambleden 

Discoveries at Brighton. — Last June, during excavations connected 
with widening the Ditchling road, north of HoUingbury Camp, 
Brighton, a crouched skeleton was discovered, lying on the left side 
and facing south-east, in an oval grave only 22 in. deep. At the feet 
of the skeleton was a perfect beaker ornamented with horizontal and 
oblique lines of punch-marks ; under the skull was a barbed flint 
arrow-head ; and in front of the face a quantity of snail-shells. The 
greater portion of the shells had become crushed, but the following 

' The Gentleman s Magaxine Library ; Archaeology, ii, 187. 
" W. J. Monk, History of Burford (1891), p. 9. 


species have been identified : Clatisilia bidentata, Strom. ; Helix 
nemoralis^ Linnd ; Hygromia rufescens, Pennant ; Poniatias elegans, 
Miill. ; Pyramidula rotundata. Mull. ; Vitrea cellaria^ Miill. The 
above finds are in the Brighton Museum. 

Find of coins near St. Johns Hospital, co. Limerick. — Mr. E. C. R. 
Armstrong, F.S.A., Local Secretary for Ireland, has communicated the 
following : 

On 2nd August 1921, workmen employed by the Limerick County 
Council found, when excavating near St. John's Hospital, some coins. 
These, numbering twenty-two, were taken charge of by Mr. J. J. 
Peacocke, city surveyor ; by him they were forwarded for examination 
to the National Museum. 

The following is a list of the coins : one Irish groat of Henry VIII, 
second coinage ; two English groats of Mary ; one Irish shilling of 
Philip and Mary dated 1555 (base) ; eleven Irish groats of Philip and 
Mary, one dated 1555, two 1556, three 1557, three 1558, and two 
unreadable (base) ; two English groats of Philip and Mary, first issue ; 
three Irish groats of Elizabeth, first issue (base) ; two English sixpences 
of Elizabeth, one dated 1573, the other unreadable. 

The coins were in poor condition. None being required for the 
Irish National Collection, they were returned to Mr. Peacocke, who 
has forwafded them to the Limerick Museum. 

Congress of the International Institute of Anthropology at Litge. — 
Our Hon. Fellow M. Rutot has been good enough to send the following 
summary (translated) of the programme carried out at the Liege 
conference: On 25th July 1921 the second session of the International 
Institute of Anthropology opened at Liege, the meetings being held at 
the University and lasting till 1st August. Prince Roland Bonaparte 
presided at the inaugural meeting and was supported by Dr. Capitan, 
the secretary- general, Dr. Papillault, secretary, and Count Begouen, 
administrative secretary. Professor Cartailhac, vice-president, the Abbe 
Ereuil, and many distinguished representatives of various countries 
attended the meeting. The sections started work the next day. and 
M. Cartailhac gave an evening lecture with lantern-slides on Palaeolithic 
Art. The following days were devoted to sectional meetings, and to 
visiting museums and University departments. From 2Qth July to 
1st August excursions were organized to various prehistoric sites, and 
to scientific institutions at Liege and Brussels. 

The Congress was divided into eight sections: Anthropology, 
Pre-history, Ethnography, Criminology, Eugenics, Proto-history, 
Linguistics, and Sociology ; and interesting papers were read in 
each section. Pre-history attracted a large number, but few questions 
were studied or discussed. A communication of special interest was 
made by M. Reygasse on a series of palaeolithic industries collected 
in the south of the province of Constantine, Algeria. On several 
spots M. Reygasse has discovered important occupation-levels corre- 
sponding to the cultures of Chelles, St. Acheul, Le Moustier, and 
Aurignac ; and a fine series of specimens has been generously presented 
to the Royal Museum of Natural History at Brussels. 


The excursions were well attended. On 29th July the Prehistorians 
visited the north of Li^ge province, where enormous flint mines have 
been discovered with chipping floors, ranging from the earliest neolithic 
(period of Le Flenu) to the age of polished stone (Spiennes period). 
A large number of specimens was presented to the visitors. On 
30th July a cave of Mas d'Azil age was excavated at Martinreve ; 
the next day some pit-dwellings of the Omal period were opened in 
Hesbaye ; and on ist August there was an excursion to Ste-Gertrude, 
a deposit of the Spiennes period. 

Excavations in the Cambridgeshire dykes. — Mr. C. F. Fox, Local 
Secretary for Cambridgeshire, reports that during the present season 
a series of excavations, designed to include eventually all the Cambridge- 
shire dykes, has been begun by the Cambridgeshire Antiquarian 
Society. A preliminary investigation was carried out to determine 
whether or no the ramp which carries that portion of the Roman 
road from Haverhill to Cambridge known as Worstead or Wool Street 
was the vallum of a pre-Roman dyke. That this was the case had 
been suggested by McKenny Hughes in 1903 ' and the suggestion was 
adopted by Mr. AUcroft in his Earthwork of England (507-9). In order 
to settle -the point it was only necessary to cut a trench down to the 
undisturbed chalk rock at a point where the ramp was well marked ; 
the presence or absence of a filled-in ditch either to the north or south 
thereof could thus be readily demonstrated. This was done at a con- 
venient point on the Gog Magog hills, and it was seen that there never 
had been any ditch ; moreover, the construction of the ramp — a floor 
of puddled chalk, then turf, then a layer of chalk rubble, upon which 
was a gravel capping — showed that it was an example of Roman civil 
engineering. Work was then begun on the Balsham-Wilbraham sector 
of the Fleam Dyke. This dyke was selected because nothing bearing 
on its date had yet been found in its vallum or fosse, and because its 
position (perhaps the most favourable for defence on the chalk belt) 
and sinuous line suggested an antiquity second to none in the system 
of which it is the second largest member. 

The investigation was confined to that portion of the dyke which 
lies between the disused railway cutting and Dungate Farm,'' a distance 
of 2,500 yards. Here it presents to-day uniform characters, the ditch 
being 10- 11 ft. deep and the scarp measuring 40-50 ft. on the slope. 
A section across the vallum showed an original ' core '—a bank some 7 ft. 
high — increased to the present dmiensions by two additions. Intervals 
of time are shown by the presence of silt (rainwash) between these 
successive reconstructions. Sections across the fosse at .several points 
revealed a trench with a flat floor some 4-6 ft. below the silt, and 
showed the counterscarp to have been steeper than the scarp. A 
secondary trench or shelf near the foot of the scarp, sometimes flat, 
sometimes V-shaped, is a constant feature, and is deemed to represent, 
with the ' core ' of the vallum mentioned above, the first phase of the 
defensive work. Steps or footholds in the chalk face of the scarp 

' Comb. Antiq. Soc. Proc.^ vol. x, p. 458. 

* See the i in. Ordnance Survey Map Sheet zoy. 


near the original ground-level are thought to be connected with the 
means adopted for raising the material from ditch to bank. These 
sections revealed on the whole a striking uniformity in the profile of 
the fosse.. If the existing dyke be the result of successive recon- 
structions, these were, one may conclude, on each occasion carried out 
along the whole length of the sector under investigation. 

The original crossing-point of the Icknield Way, whether in the form 
of an unmetalled track or of a Roman road, was not determined. 
The fosse was found to be continuous up to the metalling of the 
present London-Newmarket road on either side ; and rubble filling 
was found on the line of the fosse at several other points in the 
neighbourhood thought to be possible crossing-places. The evidence 
of a Saxon charter (974 A. D.) suggests that the Way, and a Roman 
east-and-west road the existence of which had not hitherto been 
suspected, crossed the dyke at the western end of Wratting parish, 
close to Mutlow Hill. A preliminary excavation provided some 
confirmation of this, but adequate examination of the site is postponed 
till next year. 

The presence of Romano-British potsherds, discovered at two points 
in and under the successive additions to the original ' core ' of the 
rampart, points to these reconstructions having been carried out at 
some time subsequent to the Claudian conquest. A section through 
the partiaily levelled ' core ' near Mutlow Hill also revealed Roman 
remains in the subsoil, but the evidence was not held to be sufficient 
to warrant the conclusion that the whole work was of a date after .x.D 43. 
The fact that no single fragment of deer-horn, and nothing to which 
a date prior to the Roman period can safely be given, has been found 
in the course of the excavations, either in the fosse sections or in the 
vallum, is, however, in favour of this conclusion. 

It is hoped that next season's work may enable a definite pronounce- 
ment on the dates of the earthwork to be made. A full report of the 
excavations will appear in the next Proceedings of the Cambridge 
Antiquarian Society. 

Early Iron Age cemetery at Foxton, Cambs. — Mr. C. F. Fox, 
Local Secretary for Cambridgeshire, announces the discovery, in 
April of last year, in a field 200 yds. north-west of the railway 
station at Foxton, Cambridgeshire, of two inhumation burials, 
associated in one case with an iron-socketed spearhead and a 
wheel-made food vessel, and in the other apparently with a hand- 
made beaker of rude character. The discovery may prove to be of 
importance, for the remains suggest a cemetery of La Tene IH-IV 
date. The site will, it is hoped, be investigated by the Cambridge 
Antiquarian Society. 

The Excavations at Fostdt. — Mr. Somers Clarke, F.S.A., sends the 
following note on his paper published in Proc. Soc.Aftt. xxxii, p. 106-7 '• 
' The Director of the Tanzim has, I am happy to say, realized what 
a value is to be attached to many things that come under his hands. 
He has taken much care to study the subject, and has with intelligent 
interest taken up the conservative point of view. 


' What I have said in regard to the Ministry of Public Works and its 
powers still holds good. They have been ill used and matters are still 
at the mercy of any ignorant official ; but the Director of -the Tanzim 
is now doing his best/ 

Discoveries near Bewcastle. — The local secretaries for Cumberland 
send the following report : 

A silver ring-brooch and a bead necklace, lying together about 
twelve inches deep in peat on Bailey Hope Common, five miles north- 
west of Bewcastle church, were found on ist July 192 1 by Mr. James 
Beaty of Graham's Onset. The objects have been given to the 
Carlisle Museum and were described at the September meeting of the 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian Society by Mr. L. E. Hope, 
F.L.S., curator of the museum. The brooch is ijV i"* •" diameter, 
with a pin about \\ in. long, working in a slot in the ring, which is 
flattened and about y\ in. wide. The front of the brooch is engraved 
in Late Lombardic lettering »I«l€SVSNAZAReN, the Z reversed and 
N in Roman uncials. The necklace has lost its cord, but the beads 
were lying together and form a complete and symmetrical set of 
sixty-three, of which fifty-five are of amber, six of jet, and two are 
cubes of rock-crystal with the edges splayed. Mr. Reginald A. Smith, 
F.S.A., to whom the find was submitted, dates it fourteenth century. 

The Congrh d'Histoire de I'Art, which met in Paris from 26th Sep- 
tember to 5th October, proved successful to a degree which reflects 
the greatest credit on the French organizing committee. The meetings 
took place at the Sorbonne, where six lecture-rooms were as a rule 
occupied simultaneously by separate sections; and the great quad- 
rangle outside served as a welcome meeting-place for museum officials 
and archaeologists of five-and-twenty different nations (including 
Austria, Ikilgaria, and Turkey), after the many years of separation 
or scanty intercourse that the war had involved. The sections, one of 
which was presided over by Sir Hercules Read, P.S.A., were devoted 
to Teaching and Museum Management, Western Art (divided into 
three subsections). Byzantine and Far Eastern Art, and Music. 

It would obviously be impossible to mention here even the most 
striking of the many papers read ; a summary of them is being prepared 
for members, and a certain number will be printed in full in a subsequent 
publication. From an archaeological point of view some of the con- 
tributions made by the Scandinavian and Spanish members were 
particularly remarkable. 

Apart from the meetings and the various official receptions and 
visits to museums, excursions were organized to Chantilly, Chartrcs, 
Rheims, and Fontainebleau, and several private collections in Paris 
were thrown open to members. By a notable favour Prince Czartoryski 
allowed a visit to the Hdtel Lambert on the He St. Louis, an example 
of mid-seventeenth-century architecture which is as a rule completely 
inaccessible to strangers. There was a concert, mainly of ancient 
music, in the doubly historic Galerie des Glaces at Versailles, and 
a special performance at the Opera. Altogether the French committee, 
over which M. Andre Michel presided, richly deserved the gratitude 


which was expressed to them by so many of the national representa- 
tives at the close of the Congress. 

The Devils Den, Manton, Wilts,— The. Rev. E. Goddard, Local 
Secretary for Wiltshire, sends the following report : 

Owing partly to the continual ploughing away and levelling of 
the ground immediately surrounding it, this well-known dolmen, 
standing some half a mile off the Bath Road, between Avebury and 
Marlborough, showed signs of probable collapse. The Wiltshire 
Archaeological Society having sought the advice of the Chief 
Inspector of Ancient Monuments in the matter, an expert from 
the Office of Works met representatives of the Society and a local 
contractor on the spot, and gave detailed instructions for the concreting 
of the base of the main supporting stone which threatened to give way. 
This involved the shoring up of the structure whilst the necessary 
excavations were made, and the work now completed has proved more 
expensive than had been expected. To pay for this (;^54) the Wiltshire 
Society is now raising a special fund. The excavations were carefully 
watched and examined on behalf of the Society by Mr. A. D. Passmore, 
but nothing whatever was found. The ground has been long under 
the plough, but indications of the long barrow of which the dolmen 
originally formed a part are still to be seen. 

Discovery of a leaden font at Lozver Halstow, Kent. — An interesting 
discovery has been made at Lower Halstow Church, Kent. The font 
stands against the west side of one of the piers of the nave's north 
arcade, probably not its original position, since it is nowhere near the 
principal — the south — door of the building. Until February 1921 the 
font had the, appearance of being a plain square basin of stone, rudely 
repaired, and having a lead lining, the basin supported on five shafts, 
i. e. one central and one under each angle. In the month above namedj 
owing, it is believed, to concussion caused by the firing-practice of 
extra heavy guns at Shoeburyness or elsewhere at no great distance 
from Lower Halstow, portions of the square bowl became dislodged 
and fell. This led to the discovery that the supposed stonework was 
nothing else than a roughly built up conglomeration of brick rubble 
and plaster, while the lead lining was in fact a cylindrical lead font 
encased in the brickwork. The relief ornament of the font (of late 
twellth-century character, but possibly executed from the old moulds 
as late as the middle of the thirteenth century) comprises single figures 
standing beneath a round-headed arcade supported on spiral columns, 
with a border not unlike a cable-mould running round the foot of the 
bowl. Six arches, centring at about 7 in., are at present visible (for 
the font has not yet been completely uncovered), but it is reckoned 
that there should be about ten arches in all. The figures are of two 
variants repeated, viz. an angel alternating with a royal personage, 
apparently male, with crowned head and in the right hand a sceptre. 
The rim of the font jcurves outward slightly, forming an overhanging 
lip all round the top of the cylinder. The circumference of the bowl 
is approximately 60 in., its diameter 21 in., and its height I2| in. 


A discovery of Roman pottery at St. Stephens, St. Albans, is reported 
by Mr. G. E. BuUen, local secretary. Several important interments 
of the Romano-British period have come to light in that portion of 
St. Stephen's parish which lies just without the confines of Verulamium ; 
and a full account, with illustrations, is to be found in the V. C. H. 
Herts, iv, 125. The extent of the cemetery near King Harry lane 
has never been fully investigated, but the gardens of Halsmede, the 
property of Mr. F. N. Reckett. and the adjacent ground of Watling 
House, in the tenancy of Sir Edgar Wigram, have yielded from time 
to time a number of cinerary urns and other pottery sufficient to 
indicate that on either side of the road burials were in many instances 
only a few yards apart. Sir Edgar Wigram has recently given to the 
Hertfordshire County Museum nine more or less perfect vessels, all of 
which were discovered in scattered positions in the garden of Watling 
House ; and as these finds were associated with innumerable fragments, 
the vessels are probably but a small proportion of those originally 
buried on the site. The only potters' marks are : OF VIRTI (Virtus of 
La Graufesenque and Montans, on Drag. 18) and OF CELADI on 
a variety of Drag. 18. 

The excavatiofis at Mycenae. — The recently issued report of the 
British School at Athens for the session 1 920-1 contains a summary 
of the excavations undertaken at Mycenae by the British School under 
the supervision of the Director, Mr. A. J. B. Wace, The work under- 
taken consisted of supplementary excavations on the Acropolis, and 
a search for tombs. On the Acropolis the Ramp House, south of the 
grave circle, appears to have been of the megaron type and to date 
1400-1100 B.C., the third Late Helladic period. Below it were found 
walls of the first and second Late Helladic periods, and among these 
were fragments of frescoes. Lower were a few remains of the Middle 
Helladic period, and empty graves cut in the soft rock, tending to con- 
firm the view that the grave circle is only part of a cemetery occupy- 
ing the side of the hill. On the summit of the Acropolis the palace 
site was cleared. This enabled the plan of the later palace to be ascer- 
tained and shows it to have been a much larger building than the 
earlier palace, at least two stories in height, with a large court, two 
entrances, a large columnar hall, storerooms, and staircases. The plan 
of the southern entrance can now be traced and in many ways recalls 
that at Knossos. A careful examination of the Lion Gate disclosed 
the fact that the relief of the lions was cut by saw and drill, and 
that the lions' heads were possibly of steatite and not of metal as 
usually supposed. The gateway itself was apparently roofed over 

The search for tombs was most successful. To the south of the 
Treasury of Atreus three more tombs, of the ordinary chamber type, 
were found. In the smallest were found a huddled skeleton, terra- 
cotta statuettes, and a seal-stone showing a man vaulting over a 
bull, with a sign resembling characters of the Cretan script. The 
second tomb contained four or five skeletons and in the passage way 
were the remains of at least sixteen more, with numerous fragments 
of vases. 


On the Kalkani hill another cemetery, going back to the beginning 
of the Late Helladic period, was excavated. The tombs have rough- 
hewn passages leading to a rock-shelter rather than a well-cut chamber 
tomb, and among the finds were vases, ornaments, and seal-stones, two 
of which, representing the goddess, were of peculiar interest. It is hoped 
to complete the excavation of this cemetery during the forthcoming 

Excavations in SoutJi Wales. — Dr. Mortimer Wheeler, local secre- 
tary for South Wales, reports as follows : A long cairn close to Pen-y- 
Wyrlad, Brecknockshire, has been explored by the Woolhope Club. 
It included at the east end a megalithic cist, without entrance passage, 
and at the west end a supplementary chamber containing charcoal. 
The principal chamber yielded remains of twelve human skeletons, 
animal bones, two potsherds, and some flakes. A few feet west of the 
chamber, and some two feet below the surface, were found a number of 
blue glass beads and small tubes of vitreous paste. In the debris was 
a coin of Crispus. 

Between Llangvnwyd and Port Talbot, Glamorgan, barrows and 
cairns have been explored by the Margam Trustees and the National 
Museum of Wales. In all cases the mounds had been damaged, but 
one cist burial containing slightly charred bones was found intact. 
Some of tire mounds had been built of irregularly cut turves and con- 
tained a few flint flakes. 

A cave on the Lesser Garth, near Radyr, Cardiff, has from time to 
time yielded human remains, flints, fragments of bronze (two gold- 
plated), and pottery, some of it grey Romano-British ware. Two clay 
hearths, recently excavated, and most of the finds can be assigned to 
the Romano-British period, but a cylindrical pot, 6 in. high, with 
a series of raised knobs below the rim is of a type considered to have 
been mtroduced into southern Britain about 900-650 B.C. by new 
tribes whose pottery has analogies both east of the Rhine and north 
of the Pyrenees. This is the first recorded occurrence of the type in 

Near Blaenrhondda, Glamorgan, hut-circles and cattle enclosures 
have been planned and partly excavated by the Rhondda Naturalists 
Society and the National Museum of Wales. The finds were few and 
inconclusive, consisting of leather, iron, and a little iron slag. The 
settlement may well have been the summer station of a small pastoral 

At Newport, Pembrokeshire, two medieval pottery kilns and frag- 
ments of fourteenth and fifteenth century pottery have been discovered. 
The kilns were of stone and slate, circular in plan, with a diameter of 
6 ft. The platform was raised on a solid and slightly coned drum, 
with a roughly arched stoke-hole. The pottery includes sherds of 
plain and green-glazed ware, some with indented thumb ornament, 
green-glazed ridge tiles, and fragments of partially glazed slate. 

Roman inscription at Caerleon. — Dr. Mortimer Wheeler, local 
secretary for South Wales, reports the following fragmentary inscrip- 


tioii found in or near the Roman cemetery at Ultra Pontem, Caerleon. 
It is now in the Caerleon Miisfuni : 

SERC .... 

DOM .... 

PP . LEo . . . 
D 57 . . . 

SINE • TRA . . 

EX ARC. . . 
The monument was apparently that of a primus pilus of the 2nd 
Legion Augusta, possibly of the Sergian tribe, but the interpretation 
of the last three lines is far from certain. The D suggests the restora- 
tion ofa corresponding M. but if so the position of this formula on tlie 
.stone is most unusual. Professor Stuart Jones sugge.sts a second D, 
i.e. dccreto decurioniim. The fifth line is at present unexplained. 
The sixth may be EX-ARCA-PYBL,' from public funds '. 

The excavation of Segontinm, Carnarvonshire.^ — During the recent 
summer the Segontium Excavation Committee resumed work and 
turned to the examination of the interior of the Roman fort, under 
the direction of Dr. R. E. Mortimer Wheeler. 

The ramparts were found to have consisted originally of an earthen 
bank which yielded first-century Samian. At a period not yet de- 
termined, apparently not earlier than the Antonine period, a stone 
wall was built in front of this bank, which was extended to meet it. 
At the north corner the bank was surmounted by a rectangular 
stone turret. The north-west gateway showed three main periods of 
construction and presented exceptional features. Of the first period, 
only the roadway, in association with first-century pottery, could be 
identified. In the same period, which was probably not later than 
the middle of the second century, the gate was rebuilt on a largo 
scale with two roadways and flanking guard-room. Thereafter, little 
or no work seems to have been carried out here until c. A.D. 3 50, when 
the whole pateway was pulled down and replaced by an entirely new 
work. In the new work, one of the roadways was widened and the 
other was occupied by a guard-room. This guard- room, however, had 
an external gate, and was approaclied from the lower ground outside 
the porch by a flight of steps. Six coins, well stratified, found in the 
structure of this last work, combined to indicate the third quarter of 
the fourth century as the period of construction. Inside the fort 
parts of two buildings were uncovered and yielded numerous late 
fourth-century coins in their latest floors. The evidence at present 
available suggests three main periods of occupation of the fort : 

(I) C. A.D. Ho to 125; (2) A.D. 200 to 210; (3) A.D. 35O to 385. 

Tiie second interim Report upon the work will appear shortly in 
Archafologia Cambrensis. 

Excavation of a barrow near Holytvell, North Walesa — A round 
barrow some 180 ft. in diameter on Ffridd y Garreg Wen, Gersedd, 
was opened during last spring and summer by students from Liver- 

' Reported by Mr. Willoughby Gardner, F.S.A., local secretary for North Wales. 


pool University under the direction of Mr. Howel Williams, B.A. 
It was thrown up over a step in the limestone rock. It contained 
a primary cremation resting upon earth beneath the step in a mound 
covered with a layer of stones. Above this a second layer of stones 
covered a secondary urn burial. Tertiary cremations had been made 
subsequently and covered by a third stone layer which was confined 
to the south-east side only of the tumulus. Relics were found with 
the primary and secondary cremations only ; with the former about a 
dozen broken flints and a stone pendant ; in the urn containing the 
secondary cremation, a bronze dagger and pin. A detailed account 
will appear in Archaeologia Cambrensis. 

Excavation of a mound at Rug Park, Merionethshire.^ — A partial 
examination of this site was made in June last, by permission of 
Colonel Vaughan Wynn, under the superintendence of Mr. Willoughby 
Gardner, F.S.A., with the view of elucidating certain discoveries made 
there by the Hon. C. H. Wynn in 1875-9. It was found that the 
mound was primarily a burial mound of Bronze Age type. It 
covered a cremation enclosed in a stone kist, which was protected 
by a small cairn of siones piled over it, while around it, at a distance 
of 50 ft., was a stone circle. The circle was excavated half-way 
round and is apparently continuous. It was found to consist partly 
of large sl^ones set upright in the ground and partly of stone walling. 
Over this original sepulchral mound a castle motte was proved to 
have been subsequently thrown up. The original floor of this castle 
was located by a layer of black earth near the lop of the mound 
containing many broken animal bones and several interesting circular 
draughtsmen made of bone and ornamented with ring and dot pattern. 
The ditch of the motte was cut at one point and found to be V-shaped, 
20 ft. wide and 8 ft. deep. Only a few broken bones were met with 
in the ditch at the point excavated. It is hoped to continue the 
exploration of the mound next summer. 

Excavation of ancient settlenicfit at Rhos Tryfaen, Carnarvonshire^ 
— Considerable groups of hut circles approached by sunken ways and 
accompanied by evidences of terrace cultivation are being examined 
here by students from Liverpool University, under the direction of 
Mr. Howel Williams, B.A. The excavations so far made have revealed 
abundant evidence of native smelting operations in the form of iron ore 
and slag, also a bronze ornament with late Celtic decorations and two 
blue glass beads. 

The work will be continued next spring. 

The excavation of the fortified village on Penmaenniawr, Carnar- 
vonshire.^ — Work was resumed here by the Cambrian Archaeological 
Association under the direction of Mr. H. Harold Hughes, F.S.A.,in 
September. The quarrying of the summit has advanced considerably 
into the fortified area, but the survey and excavation is well ahead of 
the inevitable destruction. The finds this season, though not numerous, 

^ Reported by Mr. Willoughby Gardner, F.S. A., local secretary for North Wales. 


confirm the conclusion arrived at during the pre-war excavations, 
namely, that this site was inhabited during the period of the Roman 
occupation of the country. So far there is no indication either of an 
earlier or of a later occupation. A silver bracelet is one of the most 
important of the recent discoveries. 

A detailed report will appear in Archaeologia Cambrensis as 

The stone axe factory at Craig Livyd, Pemnaenmazur, Carnarvon- 
shire.^— Some further excavation has been done by Mr. S. Hazzledine 
Warren, F.G.S., upon the site during the summer, confirming and 
amplifying the results previously reported. 

Recent archaeological work in Italyj" — Dr. T. Ashby, F.S.A., con- 
tributes the following note : 

During the year 1921 there are again no discoveries of exceptional 
interest to chronicle, though a good deal of work has been done. 
In Rome itself we have to notice that the demolition of the 
former German Embassy has rendered it possible to examine once 
more, and more completely and satisfactorily than before, the remains 
of the Temple of Jupiter on the Capitol. Three out of the four angles 
of the substructure were brought lo light, and a considerable portion 
of the north front was also found. The remains are entirely 
constructed of small blocks of capellaccio, an ashy grey tufa which is 
used exclusively in the earliest buildings which have come down to us 
in Rome, and may therefore be assigned with fair certainty to the 
original temple of the time of the Tarquins. Hardly anything has 
indeed been found that can be assigned to any of the later reconstruc- 
tions, though a few fragments of the columns of the temple of the 
time of Domitian were already known.^ 

On the Palatine excavations are in progress in the south-western 
portion of the house of Augustus,"* but no reports are as yet available. 

During the restoration of S. Sabina on the Aventine a block of 
marble, probably an architrave, was found, bearing an inscription 
recording the restoration by Gordian III of the baths of Sura, which 
were also situated on the Aventine, facing the Palatine, though no 
traces of them now exist.^ Some interesting remains of sculpture 
have been found near Mentana, the ancient Nomentum, a district which 
in Roman days was studded with villas. They include a portrait head 
of a Greek philosopher — the misanthrope Demosthenes (the identifica- 
tion is Mrs. Strong's) — and a small bronze statuette of a boy with 
a whipping-top (Virgil, Aeneid, vii, 378).^ 

Work continues at Ostia, and we may note the uncovering there of 
part of the site of the Forum, though it appears to have been a good 

' Reported by Mr. Willoughby Gardner, F.S. A., local secretary for North Wales. 

^ See Antiquaries Journal, 1 (1921), 61 : and Times Literary Supplement, Dec. i 

and i5, 1920 (pp. 794, 856). Cf. also Antiquaries Journal, i (1911), 361. 

^ Paribeni in Not. Scavi, 1911, 38. 

* Richmond in Journal of Roman Studies, iv (19 14), 197. 

' Paribeni in Not. Scavi, 1920, 141. 

^ Id., ibid., 1 92 1, 55. 



deal devastated. A colossal group of Commodus and Crispina, repre- 
sented as Venus and Mars (the group appears originally to have 
represented Marcus Aurelius and the younger Faustina), is the most 
important piece of sculpture that has come to light.' Attention has 
also been devoted to the portion of the city adjoining the gate by which 
the Via Ostiensis entered it from Rome. The examination of the 
city walls is by no means complete, and many problems await solution. 
On the right of the road is a large block of buildings which originally 
consisted of a central nucleus surrounded on three sides (the fourth has 
not yet been excavated) by a portico with pillars of blocks of tufa. 
It was perhaps originally a storehouse, but has been extensively 
transformed in later times, a Mithraeum and a series of baths having 
been introduced.^ 

Some work has also been done at Porto, on the opposite bank of the 
Tiber, which takes its name from the ancient harbour of Trajan;^ 
while important excavations have been made at Lanuvium, where 
a temple with three celiac, resembling in plan that of Veii, has been 
found on the acropolis. 

Surveying briefly other discoveries in Italy, we find that at Bologna 
the widening of the streets in the centre of the city has led to the 
discovery of the remains of the main street of the Roman city, which 
formed part of the line of the Via Aemilia ; and on the west of the 
town a part of the embankment of the road leading up to the bridge 
over the Reno has been found.'* Remains of thermae have been 
discovered both at Siena and at Tuscania.^ 

At Formia, on the bay of Gaeta (the ancient Formiae, where Cicero 
had a villa), some fine sculptures have been found in an ancient villa — 
two Nereids riding on sea-monsters (Greek originals) and five unidenti- 
fied portraits of the Julio-Claudian period; while at Venafrum two 
imperial statues have been found. 

At Selinus in Sicily the continuation of the excavations in the 
temenos of Demeter Malophoros has produced a very large number 
of votive objects in terra-cotta, mostly statuettes, representing Demeter 
or Kore, of several different types.^ 

We may also notice various important discoveries at Syracuse and 
elsewhere, too numerous to be dealt with in detail here. The theatre, 
cemeteries, and fortifications of Syracuse itself have been further 
examined ; at Megara Hyblaea an archaic Doric temple has been 
found, built over the defensive ditch of a village of the Neolithic 
period ; and at Taormina a mosaic pavement representing the Cretan 
labyrinth has been found near the station.^ 

In Sardinia further excavations on the fortified plateau of S. Maria 
della Vittoria, near Serri, have led to the discovery of an open-air 
shrine of the Bronze Age, in front of which were three altars for the 

* Moretti, ibid., 1910, 41. 

^ Paribeni, ibid., 1920, 1^6. 

^ Id., in Rend'tconti Lince'i, Ser. V, vol. xxx (1921), 78. 

* Ghirardini in Not. Scavi, 1921, 5. 

^ Galli, ibid., 1920, 11 i ; BcndineJH, ibid., 113. 
^ Gabrici, ibid., 1920, 67. 
7 Orsi, ibid., 1920, 303. 


sacrifice of sheep, oxen, and swine respectively — the prototype of the 
suovetaurilia ; ' while an inscription from Fordungianus, the ancient 
Forum Traiani, seems to be a dedication to Augustus by the Civitates 
Barbaricae of the centre of the island.' 

Archaeology in Palestine. — We are indebted to the Department of 
Overseas Trade for the following information : 

The excavations at Ascalon have been brought to a close for the 
season. The great cloisters of Herod the Great have been identified 
and excavated, in addition to a basilica at the south end. In this 
portion of the area a local museum of sculptures and carvings has 
been organized. 

Excavations have begun at Beisan and an interim report on the 
progress of excavations has been received from Dr. Fisher, on behalf 
of the University Museum, Philadelphia. The work promises important 
results and the excavations are being conducted in a satisfactory and 
gratifying manner in accordance with the best scientific method. The 
exploration of Tiberias and further excavations in the vicinity of the 
synagogue of Capernaum have been continued. At the latter site 
a hexagonal court with mosaic pavement and ambulatory has been 

At Caesarea the discovery of sculpture and pottery is announced. 
On this site measures are being taken for the conservation of such 
important ancient buildings as survive, and for the organization of 
a local museum. 

At Atlith Castle, the fine groined chamber overlooking the sea has 
been cleared and steps taken to protect the foundations of the castle 
from further encroachment of the waves. 

The exportation of antiquities is permitted only under special licence 
issued and signed by the Inspector of Antiquities. 

Obituary Notices. 


John Wickkam Legg, F.S.A. — John Wickham Legg was born in 
1843. He first gained distinction in medicine, and was well known 
both as a physician at St. Bartholomew's Hospital and as a writer of 
medical works. An illness which, though a misfortune for medicine, 
was fortunate for other studies, led him to abandon his professional 
career, to which his farewell was the Bradshaw Lecture at the Royal 
College of Physicians in 1883. He turned his attention to the subject, 
then greatly neglected in this country, of the history — and one might 
almost say the science — of Liturgy, and he became a scholar of world- 
wide reputation. He vvas the real founder and inspirer of the Henry 
Bradshaw Society for tlditing Rare Liturgical Texts, which was formed 
in 1890; he was for many years the Chairman of its Executive 

' Taramelli in RenMconti at., 38. 
^ Id., in Not. Scavi, 1910, 347. 
F 2 


Council ; and he contributed many of its most distinguished publica- 
tions. His scientific training was invaluable to him in his new work, 
and his writings were marked by a critical accuracy which demolished 
many errors. He could be constructive as well as critical, and his 
volumes on Church Or7taments and their Civil Antecedents, on Ejiglish 
CJiurch Life from 1660 to 18^^, and on other topics were a definite 
contribution to the reconstruction of forgotten phases of ecclesiastical 
history. He would not allow his friends to call him a learned man, 
and he expressed surprise that the University of Oxford should deem 
his work worthy of an honorary Doctorate of Letters, but he was by 
instinct, as well as by training and by achievement, a scholar and a 
man of learning. His knowledge was not only deep but wide, and far 
from being restricted to the limits of his published writings. He could 
have lectured on many periods of history and literature, for he read 
much and forgot little. 

Dr. Legg was no learned recluse. In early life he had been tutor, 
and he was for a time physician, to the late Duke of Albany, and his 
experience of Court life was brought to bear on the interpretation of 
some aspects of history. He travelled much and he was a man of 
many friends. His home, presided over by the gracious lady whose 
death in 1908 was the great sorrow of his life, was happy and hos- 
pitable, and he gave unsparingly to his guests from the stores of 
his knowledge, his wit, and his reminiscence. Many of those who 
were privileged to know him in London or at Braemar have gone 
before him, but there are still not a few who treasure the recollection 
of some knowledge and much happiness which they owed to his 

After Mrs. Legg's death. Dr. Legg made his home in Oxford, where 
his only son is a Fellow and Tutor of New College. He retained his 
intellectual interests unimpaired until, about three years ago, a failure 
of eyesight deprived him of what was both the occupation and the 
relaxation of his life. His name will rank very high in the history of 
the studies which he loved. 

He was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in 1875, was 
a frequent attendant at the meetings while resident in London, had 
served on the Council on two occasions, and contributed a paper on an 
' Inventory of the Vestry of Westminster Abbey in 1388', which was 
printed in Archaeologia. 

Robert S. Rait. 

Oscar Montelins, Hon. F.S.A. — Europe has lost one of its greatest 
leaders in archaeology, but his monumental works survive and will 
keep his memory green for generations. News of the death of our 
Hon. Fellow, Professor Oscar Montelius of Stockholm, on 4th 
November, came too late for a formal account of his personality, his 
learning and accomplishments to be included in the present number ; 
but his Swedish friends will see that such a record is made, to be 
a source of inspiration to workers in the many fields that he had 
made his own for half a century. It was in 1869 that Montelius 
began writing archaeological papers, and no less than 346 are recorded 


to date in the complimentary volume Opuscula archaeologica Oscari 
Montelio dicata presented on his 70th birthday (9th September 1913). 
Thirty-seven contributors belonging to ten different counfiies thereby 
did homage to his extraordinary gifts, and many of them attribute 
their earliest enthusiasms to his example and precepts. In every 
sense he was a giant — in stature, in scope and output, in his power of 
minute analysis combined with the broadest outlook, and above all in 
his gift of tongues. He could, and often did, address scientific 
meetings in English, French, or German almost as fluently and 
correctly as in his mother tongue; and his knowledge of several other 
languages enabled him to collect and utilize an enormous amount of 
European material which is or will be rendered available in a scries of 
volumes, superbly illustrated, and published largely at his own 
expense. It may easily be imagined that he was always one of the 
most striking and popular figures at international Congresses, where 
he will be sadly missed. 

Of his official career little need be said here. To English archaeo- 
logists he always represented the Historical Museum at Stockholm, 
from the control of which he retired some years ago. He was also 
State Antiquary of Sweden, and as such was the titular guardian of 
all antiquities found in Swedish soil. No one could have made better 
use of the material thus brought to his notice ; and not only Sweden 
but Europe in general has benefited by the comparative studies he 
undertook himself or entrusted to his zealous band of pupils. These 
culminated in a chronological scheme for the pre-history of Scandinavia, 
England, France, Germany, Italy, and Egypt;. and it is a strilcing 
tribute to his insight that the lines now generally followed in Northern 
archaeology were laid down by Montelius fifty years ago. In the 
interval he has been engaged in many controversies, and has erred, if 
at all, in over-estimating the antiquity of certain metallic forms. 
Right or wrong, his dating always reached the upper limit, and time 
alone can decide between his and the more conservative view, as 
regards Italy as well as northern Europe. 

Montelius's treatment of the vast material now at the disposal of 
archaeologists was based on the typological method, which he preached 
and practised assiduously and with great effect. Human fashions are 
notoriously fickle, and development is not always progress ; but the 
creation of a type-sequence brings order out of chaos, and at least 
provides a working hypothesis. His brilliant example has been 
largely followed, and admiration for his personality and methods will 
ever be mingled with regret for his loss among those who were 
privileged to call him friend and master. R. A. S. 


Court Rolls of the Borough of Colchester: Vol. I (ijio-i)j2). Trans- 
lated by Isaac Herbert Jeayes, with Introduction, etc., by 
W. GuRNEY Benham, F.S.A., F.R.Hist.S. ii x 8|. Pp. xxxiii-i- 
242. With two illustrations and index. Colchester: Town Council. 
1921. 42s. 

The borough of Colchester is already honourably distinguished 
among English towns by its care for and publication of its ancient 
records. The ' Red Paper Book ' appeared in 1902, the ' Oath Book ' 
in 1907, while the Charters were published in 1906. This might have 
seemed enough for honour, but the Corporation has now begun the 
issue of a translation of the long series of 250 Borough Court Rolls, 
extending, with gaps, over the period from 1310 to 1741. The com- 
plete publication of the series on the scale of the volume now issued 
would stretch to forty or fifty volumes, and demands a large measure 
of financial support from a wider circle than is formed by the 
inhabitants of the borough, or even of the whole county of Essex. 

The introduction by our Fellow, Mr. Gurney Benham, containing 
as it doess a ' Who's Who ' of the principal personages mentioned 
between 1310 and 1352, and the admirable index, 'the work of a 
lady ', make the volume most valuable to any person concerned with 
the genealogy or local history of Colchester. Wills were, as usual, 
proved in the Borough Court, and some of them are here printed. 
Again, in the actual litigation there are so many ' essoigns ' that 
hardly any case is brought to a conclusion without repeated mention 
of the parties ; and, since each mention affords an opportunity of 
describing the same person by a different name, we get a series of 
most valuable identifications. Thus, for instance, a comparison 
of entries establishes that Hugh the Butcher is the same as Hugh de 
Stowe, and when we read that ' Hugh de Stowe was charged with 
having constantly made use of litigious and opprobrious language 
against several persons in the market of Colchester, viz, John le 
Wolefot and others, as has often been intimated by the same, so that 
on this account the places where they have exposed their wares for 
sale have been emptied of buyers and sellers to their no small and 
manifest loss ', we realize that butchers in the fourteenth century 
were probably as vociferous as they are in certain neighbourhoods 
in the twentieth. Before quitting the subject of the index, it is worth 
observing that the table of Corrigenda is an excellent object-lesson of 
the way in which an intelligent indexer can contribute to the accuracy 
of a transcript. Those who are themselves experienced copyists will 
recognize that the number of these Corrigenda, large as it looks at 
first sight, is no discredit to Mr. Jeayes. Few of us pass the searching 
test of a good index with as few mistakes. 

The volume, however, raises a question which is of more than 
occasional importance. It is no doubt hard to find readers for 
mediaeval documents in their original languages, but those who have 
handled and studied originals are invariably distrustful and critical of 


a translation unless the original is also given. This is, in the last 
resort, a question of expense, and it may reasonably be held that the 
course adopted in this instance is the only course possible. It will 
therefore be well to indicate by examples the sort of thing which 
makes a reader ardently long for a sight of the original, or even of 
a literal transcript. Elias son of John is charged with driving off the 
mare of Hubert of Colchester, and impounding it until it was restored 
to him by the bailiffs. The translation proceeds, ' The said Elyas in 
defence says, and his advocate pleads ', that a service, due from the 
land where the mare was, was in arrear. In this case the facts seem 
to point to a distraint for arrears of service, followed by replevin, and 
subsequent 'Avowry' by the lord, especially as the further proceedings 
turn on the question whether fealty is necessary to make the tenant 
* privy ' to the lord {sibi secretum). It is impossible to avoid a 
suspicion that the * advocate ' has been introduced by the translator. 

In another case, Henry Osekyn, butcher, is charged with having 
'killed bulls before lacerating them, with dogs at the place ordained 
at Le Berestake, and sold the flesh of the said bulls, whereas it is 
ordered by the Commonalty that butchers shall not kill bulls nor sell 
their flesh unless first at the said place they are lacerated ', etc. The 
abstract -of this entry runs, ' BUTCHERS PRESENTED FOR SELLING 
BULLS' FLESH KILLED BY DOGS ', but it is tempting to alter the 
punctuation and to interpret the entry as meaning that the public 
was not to be done out of its sport ; more especially as a prohibition 
of the sale of the flesh of unbaited bulls is known to occur in other 

There is plenty of other interesting matter, though a good deal of 
the business is concerned with small debts and scolding women. We 
find two of the latter paying is. apiece in 1334 to escape the cucking- 
stool. They must have been well-to-do to pay so much. 

A facsimile enables us to test the accuracy of Mr. Jeayes's tran- 
scription, which, it need hardlj^ be said, is extremely good. 

Charles Johnson. 

A Treatise on Rigging, written about the year 1625: from a Manu- 
script at Petworth House. Edited by R. C Anderson. 9|x6|. 
Pp. 20. Society for Nautical Research : Occasional Publications, 
No. J. 5 J. 

Among the naval manuscripts of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries in Lord Leconfield's collection at Petworth House are eight 
undated and anonymous leaves which are scheduled by the Royal 
Commission on Historical Manuscripts as 'Description of the masts 
and rigging of a ship*. The work has recently been printed as 
' Occasional Publication No. 1 of The Society for Nautical Research', 
under the editorship of Mr. R. C. Anderson, F.S.A., who concludes 
from internal evidence that it may be assigned to round about the 
year 1625. The work therefore forms a valuable companion to the 
anonymous Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry in the 
Pepysian Library, ascribed by Dr. Tanner to the period 1570-1620, 
Manwayring's Nomenclator Navalis of 1625, John Smith's Accidence 


for Voting Seamen of the following year, Boteler's Discourse of Marine 
Affairs of 1634, and the volumes of plates by Crescentio Romano 
(1601) and Fiirttenbach (1629). These works appeared at a time 
when considerable additions were being made in a type of ship which 
throughout Queen Elizabeth's reign and for many years before had 
not varied much as far as sails and rigging were concerned. But in 
the early part of the seventeenth century increasing dimensions had 
the natural, result of additional sails and gear. There were three- and 
four-masted ships in 1485, but it was not till the period of the works 
mentioned above that the three-master became square-rigged on all 
her masts, the mizen topsail being authorized for the Navy in an 
Admiralty MS. of 1618. This sail is mentioned in the Petworth 
treatise, as is also the ' misson Topgallant saile '. The latter entry 
is interesting, for it suggests that the adoption of this sail was con- 
siderably earlier than is usually supposed. The well-known cut of 
the Ark Royal of 1588 shows the sail as well as a fore topgallant, 
but the picture is now regarded as conventional, as neither sail is 
given in her inventory ; and though Payne's engraving of the Sovereign 
of 1637 shows the mizen topgallant yard with its sail furled, it is 
thought doubtful if the latter was ever set. The end of the Seven 
Years' War for the Navy, and about 1770 for the merchant service, 
are usually regarded as the period when the mizen topgallant came 
into regular use. The Admiralty MS. of 1618 mentioned above 
authorizes fore and main topgallant sails, but does not, we 
believe, make any reference to a mizen topgallant. No doubt the 
publication of the Petworth MS. will engender discussion of the 
matter. We turn with interest to the MS. to see if it throws any 
light on the unexplained discarding of reef-points as a means of 
reducing sail from c. 1525 to the time of the Second Dutch War, 
which, in the absence of any statements by contemporary writers, is 
one of the puzzles of the nautical archaeologist. During this period 
of nearly 150 years canvas was reduced or increased by the removal 
from or addition to the lower sails of ' bonnets ' and ' drabblers ', 
which nowadays survive only in a few local types of craft, while reef- 
points, of which we have representations from the thirteenth to the 
early sixteenth centuries and then again from c. 1665, will probably 
vanish only when sails themselves become extinct. But though the 
MS. clears up several doubtful points, it fails us as regards reef- 
points ; we find only ' Bonnet, Drabler on or 2 ' for the ' ffore ' and 
' Mayne courses'. In respect of spritsails the Petworth MS. seems 
to be ahead of naval practice as set forth in the Admiralty MS. 
of 1618, for while the latter authorizes the fitting of a spritsail topsail, 
in the Petworth MS. we find the 'sprit sayle Topgallant' also. 
Turning from rigging to terms of manoeuvre, we find ' port ' taking 
the place of ' larboard ', as follows : ' And in steede of Larbord Porte 
the helme the reason is because the word Larborde may be mistaken 
by the Helmesman by reason of the affinity it hath w*'* Starbord 
in sound.' This is contemporary with * Port ' in the Novienclator 
Navalis and precedes its mention in Stafford's Hibcrnia Pacata (1633). 
Mr. Anderson will receive the thanks of nautical archaeologists for 
placing in their hands a work which takes rank with the classics on its 


subject of the seventeenth century and a knowledge of which will 
certainly facilitate endeavours to clear up various matters at present in 
dispute. That the able author and the writer of the excellent marginal 
notes of the Petworth treatise both remain unknown is a matter 
for regret : Mr. Anderson remarks that though Botelcr, Manwayring, 
and Smith naturally occur to us, there is nothing to show that they 
were concerned. We cordially endorse his hope that the Society for 
Nautical Research will continue the series of Occasional Publications 
which he has happily inaugurated. Manuscripts dealing with the 
material side of nautical affairs have till recent years suffered neglect 
in comparison with those of historical interest: there is no doubt as to 
the very high value possessed by the many still unpublished works 
scattered about these islands and abroad, perhaps particularly in Spain, 
the nodal point of Mediterranean and Northern evolution of the ship. 

H. H. Brindley. 

Man and his Past. By O. G. S. CRAWFORD. 8^ x 5^ ; pp. xv + 227. 
London: Milford. \os.6d. 

Mr. Crawford has given us a series of brief, brightly written essays 
which follow one another in orderly sequence. His book is the outcome 
of careful thinking over many of the problems connected with the 
scientific study of Man. In the main, it seems to be offered as a guide 
and a stimulus to the student and budding researcher, and, as such, 
the volume may be highly commended. It serves as an introduction 
to archaeological study, and the author gives valuable hints as to 
desirable methods of procedure in research, together with warnings 
as to the pitfalls which lie in the way of those not already highly 
trained to field-work. While designed chiefly for the enlightenment 
of the inexpert, even the trained observer will find in these pages food 
for thought and reminders of important details in method which may 
at times be forgotten in the haste to acquire ' results '. 

Throughout, the author is advocating strict attention to the scientific 
method and the importance of recording even minor details. As a 
preacher, Mr. Crawford is skilled in avoiding prosiness, and his book 
makes pleasant reading. Some of the picturesque biological analogies, 
which he uses for driving home points in his argument, will not bear 
critical scrutiny, but, as a means of applying emphasis, they serve their 
purpose and they need not be subjected to close analysis. 

One may justly cavil at his suggesting (p. 58) the adoption of the 
word ' andrology ' as an all-embracing term for ' describing that synthesis 
which consists of archaeology, history, and anthropology '. Etymologi- 
cally this is not a happy suggestion ; it savours of misogyny, since it 
implies that, in the comprehensive study of mankind, womankind 
should be ignored. To make * anthropology ' a subsection of ' andro- 
logy ' is to make the part include the whole, and involves ignoring the 
true meanings of these terms and their relationship to each other. 
If we must fall back upon exotic terminology to eke out the poverty 
of the English language, let us use the borrowed words in accordance 
with their strict significance. 

Surely, it would be better to urge, as many are doing, that there 


should be universal agreement in assigning to ' anthropology ' its 
proper position, as denoting the general comparative study of Man 
(including Woman) from all points of view. It is the absurd limitations 
which some, chiefly foreign, authors have tried to impose upon this 
strictly general and comprehensive word, which have tended to confuse 
the minds of students. 

Mr. Crawford appears somewhat drastic in some of his generaliza- 
tions. In rightly emphasizing (p. 67) the importance of types as 
indicative of chronological sequences, he illustrates his point by saying, 
* if there are four successive periods. A, B, C, and D, the remains of 
A and B will be found together sometimes, those o{ A and C rarely, and 
those o{ A and D never '. This assertion is, no doubt, diagrammatically 
valid and applicable to particular series, but, surely, it is too dogmatic 
a statement in view of the undoubted persistence of certain primitive 
types through a long series of progressive culture changes. Persistence 
of early types is in itself a fruitful subject of study. 

On page loi is the statement that ' it is of the utmost importance 
to show geographically the fact that gold, copper, and tin are not 
found naturally in any part of southern and eastern England ; for over 
just this region prehistoric objects made from these metals are very 
abundant. It follows that they — or the raw metal of which they were 
made — must have been introduced into these regions by trade '. 
Does this4mply that the author does not admit the supplies of copper 
and tin from the southern counties — Cornwall, for instance? 

We read, on page 74, ' It is obvious that the further removed we 
are in space from the country which supplies us with our absolute 
chronology, the more approximate will our dates become '. Would not 
' the less approximate ' be more in keeping with his argument ? 

In spite of certain passages, such as the above, seeming to call for 
emendation or further elucidation, the book has a distinct value and 
should find a place upon all archaeological shelves. The relationship 
of Archaeology to other sciences is clearly and thoughtfully brought 
out. Each chapter is interesting and suggestive, and throughout the 
book the author's own enthusiasm and his desire to encourage others 
are manifest. Mr. Crawford has devoted much time to field-work 
which he has pursued with success. He is at his best, perhaps, 
when dealing with geographical features and their bearing upon man's 
activities. The chapter on Distributions is one of the best, and his 
discourses about ancient roads and trackways, and about Roman roads 
and the methods whereby they may be traced, make interesting 

He has dealt briefly with many of the lines of study applicable to 
the solution of the problems of man's early culture-development. 
As a means of bringing together in true perspective the results of 
wide-ranging researches into the history of mankind, he has conjured up 
the vision of an ideal World Museum on a vast and comprehensive 
scale. Whether this vision can materialize must for a long while 
remain a moot point. It is not easy to see how, under present con- 
ditions, the suggested scheme can be realized, even in America, the 
home which Mr. Crawford prophesies for this paragon among museums. 

The volume is well illustrated and well arranged. There is no index, 



which is to be deplored ; though it must be admitted that the functions 
of an index are in part forestalled by a detailed * Abstract of Contents ' 
for which we may feel grateful. 

Henry Balfour. 

Prehistory : a Study of Early Cultures in Europe and the Mediterra- 
nean Basin. By M. C. BURKITT, M.A.,F.G.S. q| x 7 ; pp. xx + 438. 
Cambridge University Press, 1921. ^t^s. 

The first words set down by the author of this book are all too true. 
He says in his preface, ' A text-book on prehistoric archaeology is 
by no means an easy thing to write '. To be able to write a book of 
the kind, and, having the ability, to sit down and write it, is within the 
capacity of a very few persons. Whether we turn to the limits of time 
covered by the subject, or to the geographical side, the mass of 
knowledge required is, in our times, almost beyond human grasp. 
For to avoid even the more commonplace pitfalls, the writer must be 
either familiarly acquainted or on speaking terms with geology, 
palaeontology, human anatomy, mineralogy, and a host of related 
branches of science, while he should know something at least of the 
story of the primitive races living to-day. Starting thus equipped, he 
should bring to his task a good knowledge of his own language, and 
a very clear method of demonstration. 

I fear Mr. Burkitt falls short of this ideal, and it is a great pity. 
At no period since the first launching of prehistoric studies on the 
scientific world has there been so urgent a demand for a fearless and 
impartial statement of their position. Most of the problems that have 
come to light during the last twenty years are very cursorily treated 
by him. It is perhaps as well, for many of them require a Huxley or 
a Tyndall for their presentation in an unbiassed form, and much more 
research for their solution. But a volume on 'prehistory' should at 
least give a summary account of the arguments on two sides — e.g. in 
the matter of Grime's Graves, among others. In one way at any rate 
Mr. Burkitt has done well, and that is in his account of the wonderful 
painted caves of Spain. He has worked in this field under the very 
able guidance of the Abbe Breuil,the most indefatigable and enthusiastic 
explorer of our times. The Abbe writes an excellent preface to the 
volume, and is manifestly grateful to his pupil for putting his work 
and his views before the English public. It is perhaps this extreme 
concentration on the Abbe Breuil's work that has made Mr. Burkitt 
deal with other and equally important productions of early man in 
rather too hasty a manner. The book as a whole bears evidence of 
haste. No work of the kind can fully serve its purpose unless fully 
illustrated, and the illustrations should give the unlearned a true 
impression, and not be inserted as if they were padding. Very little 
can be said in praise of Mr. Burkitt's plates ; the drawings and photo- 
graphs are both poor, and his scales are maddening. On pi. vii he 
says, 'No. 4 is 9-7 in. in length, others in proportion except 5', 
creating a demand on the unfortunate student for mathematics in 
addition to the other sciences required by the prehistorian. It is to 
be deplored that Mr. Burkitt or the University Press was not better 


advised in the matter of illustration. The majority of the figures they 
give would, moreover, be of far greater value if inserted in the text. 

I regret to have to say these things ; I should so greatly have 
preferred it had I been compelled to use the superlatives of admiration, 
for, as I said, the subject is badly in need of being treated with fulness 
and knowledge. 

' Strata ' is not a singular (p. 27) ; to set down on p. 68, ' Disc, this 
implement is round or oval ', is in itself a little naive, but the beginner 
will be somewhat puzzled on pi. viii to discover ' a square angled flat 
disc' ; on p. 2S3 ' rather inaccessible' reminds one of rather unique', 
a favourite phrase among dealers in works of art. The description of 
a celt on p. 160 would hardly give a very clear image to a person who 
had never seen one. 

Mr. Burkitt has a great deal of knowledge, and there is evidence of 
the fact in his book. But he must be content to include a smaller field 
in the title of his next book, and he should get a competent friend to 
read his proofs and another to make his illustrations. 

C. H. Read. 

Motya : a Phoenician Colony in Sicily. By JOSEPH I. S. WhitakER. 

9|x6; pp. xvi+357. London: Bell, 19ZI. 30J. 

Mr. Joseph Whitaker has published a very useful account of his 
excavations on the island of Motya, the modern Isola S. Pantaleo, in 
the Stagnone di Marsala. Motya, though so small, was a very important 
Phoenician settlement, and in its very smallness is a typical Phoenician 
site, a town crowded on a small island, like Tyre itself, where the 
trader-folk could live and traffick safe from sudden attack by the 
tribes of the mainland. Mr. Whitaker has carried out, assisted by 
the Cavaliere Giuseppe Lipari-Cascio, very extensive excavations at 
Motya, which have produced results of great interest, v/hich are 
published in cxtenso in this book, well illustrated by many admirable 
photographs. He appends an account of the chief objects preserved 
in the little museum he has erected on the island, with references to 
other Phoenician antiquities preserved elsewhere in Sicily. Mr. 
Whitaker has a keen devotion to the archaeology of Sicily, and 
especially the district of Marsala, with which he has a close connexion, 
and has personal acquaintance with archaeological work in other lands, 
such as Egypt. His labours have therefore been effected with care 
and knowledge, and cannot be too highly commended. He realizes 
also the importance of adequate publication of such work, and has 
carried out this task well. 

But we wish he had not preceded his account by a lengthy account 
of the Phoenicians, not merely in Sicily, but as such, qiiA Phoenicians, 
in their own home and elsewhere, which is totally unnecessary. It 
contains nothing new, and merely repeats commonplaces of ancient 
history, which might be in place in a general history of the Near East 
but are uncalled-for here. It would have been more than enough to 
have referred the redder desirous of information about the Phoenicians 
generally to some standard history. It is no use repeating what 
everybody knows, and those who will derive profit from Mr. Whitaker's 


admirable account of Motya and of his diggings will not need to be told 
who the Phoenicians were, what Herodotus or Philo say about them, 
why and how they colonized, and so forth. Also the account of 
• Sicily and its Earliest Inhabitants ' was unnecessary. The book 
should have begun with Chapter IV. 

In dealing incidentally with matters outside his purview Mr. Whitaker 
is occasionally puzzling. In a note on p. 13 he has a rather cryptic 
sentence about recent research in Mesopotamia, 'carried out during 
and since the close of the war ', which has ' revealed much of interest ' 
in connexion with the question of the origin of the alphabet, and says 
that ' among the archaeological material which has been brought to 
light are several Sumerian tablets which have not yet been read'. 
In the only scientific archaeological excavations in Mesopotamia 
known to me as having been carried on during and since the war 
(other than those of the Germans at Babylon and in Assyria, which 
ceased early in thewar),namelythoseof the British Museum, directed first 
by Captain R. C. Thomson and then by myself, at Eridu and Ur of the 
Chaldees, nothing whatever of interest in this connexion was revealed. 
Though it is true that several Sumerian tablets were found at Ur (not at 
Eridu), they have been read, and do not contain, nor were ever likely to 
have proved to contain, anything bearing on the origin of the alphabet. 
Possibly Mr. Whitaker is referring to discoveries of very archaic signs 
said to have been made on certain Sumerian tablets now in Berlin, which 
were found at Farah (the ancient Shuruppak), But these tablets can 
hardly have been excavated during the war, or at least after the 
middle of 191 5, for m.ilitary reasons known to all, and after the war 
there were no scientific excavations at Farah or anywhere but at 
Tell el-Mukayyar (Ur), Tell el-'Obeid, and Abu Shahrein (Eridu). 
And in any case one does not see what archaic cuneiform signs have 
to do with the Phoenician alphabet, unless Mr. Whitaker is suggesting 
an origin for the alphabet in some early Mesopotamian hieroglyphic 
system from which the archaic cuneiform developed. One does not 
know yet where the Sumerians came from, whether they brought 
their signs with them, or derived them from some hypothetical North 
Syrian (non-Sumerian) centre of early civilization : a by no means 
impossible suggestion. 

And one may well ask what is Mr. Whitaker's authority for stating 
that the ' remote period of Babylonian civilization known as the 
Sumerian "dates" at least as far back as 7000 B.C.'? Most historians 
cannot get much farther back than 3500 B.C. for the oldest datable 
Sumerian antiquities, those of the age of Ur-Nina. Writing was 
certainly then in common use, and had no doubt so been for centuries 
earlier, but, since de Morgan's early dates for the pottery from Susa 
and Tepe Musyan are not generally accepted (still less the geological 
dates of Pumpelly for his finds at Anau in Turkestan), we know nothing 
of its existence as early as 70CO B.C. 

The actual antiquities found and preserved at Motya are of the 
usual kind found in such excavations. By no means can they be 
called wildly exciting. But perhaps we have been spoiled in these 
matters by Sir Arthur Evans and Knossos. What our grandfathers 
in the 'thirties would have saluted as ' elegant Grecian and Roman 



antiques ' we are apt to dismiss as ' the conventional classical stuff'. 
Most of the 'stuff' found by Mr. Whitaker is Greek or, in the earlier 
period, native Sicilian. There is really very little, except some of the 
earlier pottery, the funerary stelae and an inscription or two, that can 
be called Phoenician at all. That is comprehensible enough, as the only 
really national productions and exports of the Phoenicians were their 
religion and their writing. There are two Motyan cemeteries. The 
older is on the island itself and naturally contains most of the Phoenician 
remains and much early Greek pottery, etc. The later is on the 
mainland opposite, on the side called Birgi, and its contents seem to 
be almost entirely the ordinary provincial product of the classical 
period. Their only interest lies in the fact that they are rather early, 
since Motya ceased to exist in 397 B.C., and the necropolis is not 
likely to have been used much later. The figurines and other objects 
can therefore be dated as not later than the beginning of the fourth 
century. Mr. Whitaker's photographs admirably illustrate these 
antiquities. He also illustrates fully the Phoenician walls and gates of 
Motya, which are really of great interest. 

H. R. Hall. 

Angles, Danes, and Norse in the district of Hnddersfield. By W. G. 

COLLINGWOOD, M.A., F.S.A. County Borough of Huddersfield : 

Tolson Memorial Museum publications, handbook 3. 8| x 5| ; 

pp. 6a, illustrated. Huddersfield, 1921. \s. 

A concise description by our Fellow Mr. Collingwood of the 
important Dewsbury group of Anglian crosses is of more than local 
interest ; and the Huddersfield programme includes similar handbooks 
on the development of a local museum, the Roman and prehistoric 
condition of the district, its rocks, vegetation, and bird-life. Nothing 
could better exemplify the scope and duties of a provincial museum, 
and Huddersfield is to be congratulated on its enterprise. The West 
Riding was not at first included in the Anglian kingdom, and remained 
British territory till 6 16 under the names of Elmet and Loidis. Dewsbury 
was also spared the worst of the Danish invasion of the ninth century, 
and was connected in some way with Paulinus, whose alleged cross is 
skilfully restored on p. 27, though the fragments date more than two 
centuries after the first Roman bishop of the north. Another triumph 
of restoration is the coffin-lid on p. 33 from Thornhill, on the other 
side of the Calder valley ; and several models by Mr. Lockwood are 
set up in the Tolson Museum. The fragments catalogued show the 
gradual degeneration of the beautiful floral scrolls seen on northern 
crosses of the seventh and eighth centuries ; and attention is directed 
to the local change of style due to the Danes after 950, when they 
finally impressed their own taste on monumental art. Grotesque 
conventional forms, especially dragons, take the place of human figures 
or naturalistic animals ; the plaits are simplified, irregular ' snake- 
slings ' are preferred to symmetrical leaf-scrolls ; and foliage is con- 
verted into wild tangles of monsters tied up in their own tails. The 
blend of Anglian and Scandinavian elements resulted in such monu- 
ments as the Gosforth cross of about lOco, after which date Yorkshire 


grew tired of crosses in this style and left their development to other 
districts. Mr. Collingwood's work here and elsewhere has paved the 
way for a comprehensive treatment of our early Christian monuments ; 
and may have a quickening effect across the border, where there is 
unlimited scope for dating and interpretation. 

Reginald A. Smith. 

Periodical Literature 

The English Historical Revieiv, vol. 36, October 192 1, contains the 
following articles: — ' Adventus Vicecomitum ', 1258-72, an examina- 
tion of the position of affairs at the Exchequer at the end of the reign 
of Henry III, by Miss Mabel Hills; Parliament and the Succession 
question in 1562/^ and 1566, by Mr. J. E. Neale ; Trading with the 
Enemy and the Corunna packets, 1689-97, by Mr. G. N. Clark; 
' Monasterium Niridanum ', an attempt to settle the site of the 
monastery of Abbot Hadrian, the companion of Archbishop Theodore, 
by Dr. Tl. L. Poole ; The Avranches manuscript of Vacarius, by 
Dr. F. de Zulueta ; Exchequer and Wardrobe in 1270, by Mr. L. 
Ehrlich ; The Channel Islands Petitions of 1^05, by Mr. R. L. 
Atkinson ; A List of Original Papal Bulls and Briefs in the Depart- 
ment of Manuscripts, British Museum, part ii, by Mr. H. Idris Bell ; 
and a letter of 1721 from St. Saphorin to Townshend, by Mr. C. S. B. 

The Jourtial of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol. 5 1, January- 
June, 1921, contains the following papers on archaeological subjects : — 
The Long-Barrow race and its relationship to the modern inhabitants 
of London, by Dr. F. G. Parsons ; the older Palaeolithic Age in Egypt, 
by Dr. C. G. Seligman ; a colJection of Neolithic axes and celts from 
the Welle basin, Belgian Congo, by Mr. R. F. Rakowski ; excavations 
at the Stone-axe factory of Graig-Lwyd, Penmaenmawr, by Mr. S. 
Hazzlcdine Warren ; and some early British remains from a Mendip 
Cave, by Dr. L. S. Palmer. 

The Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. 41, part i, contains the following 
papers : — Alexander's vwofjLUTJfxaTa and the ' World Kingdom ', by 
Mr. W. W. Tarn ; Heracles son of Barsine, by Mr. Tarn ; the problem 
of Byzantine Neumes, by Mr. H. J. W. Tillyard ; the progress of 
Greek epigraphy, 19 19-1920, by Mr. M. N. Tod ; Cleostratus 
Redivivus, by Mr. E. J. Webb ; a Minoan bronze statuette in the 
British Museum, by Mr. F. N. Pryce ; the Greek of Cicero, by 
Mr. H. J. Rose ; and red-figured vases recently acquired by the 
British Museum, by Mr. H. B. Walters. 

The Journal of Roman Studies, vol. 9, part 2, contains the following 
papers:— The Agricolan occupation of North Britain, by Dr. George 
Macdonald : Roman Colchester, by Dr. Mortimer Wheeler and 
Mr. P. G. Laver ; The Bodleian MS. of Pirro Ligorio, by Dr. T. 
Ashby ; Placentia and the battle of the Trebia, by Professor T. Frank ; 


the Caratacus stone on Exmoor, by Mr. F. A. Bruton ; and an ancient 
hill-fortress in Lucania, by Dr. T. Ashby and Mr. R. Gardner. 

Atmals of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Liverpool, 
vol. 8, nos. 3, 4, contains the third part of Mr. F. LI. Grirfiths's report 
on the Oxford excavations in Nubia, dealing with Nubia from the Old 
to the New Kingdom ; and a paper by Mr. H. A. Ormerod on 
ancient piracy in the Eastern Mediterranean. 

Proceedings of the Huguenot Society of London, vol. I2, no. 3, con- 
tains papers by Mr. M. Wilkinson on the Survey of Languedoc in 
169H by Lamoignon de Baville, Intendant of the two gindralith of 
Toulouse and Montpellier ; by Mr. V. B. Redstone on the Dutch and 
Huguenot settlements of Ipswich, and by Mr. Wyatt-Paine on the 
Last of the Valois. 

The ninth volume of the Walpole Society, ig20-i<)2i, contains an 
article by the Earl of Ilchester on Queen Eh'zabeth's visit to Black- 
friars, June 16, 1600, identifying the figures in the picture at Sherborne 
castle, well known from Vertue's engraving ; Mrs. Finberg contributes 
a long article on Canaletto in England, with a catalogue raisonne of 
his English views ; Mr. C. R. Grundy publishes documents relating to an 
action brought against Joseph Goupy in 1738 ; and Mr. A. J. Finberg 
writes on an authentic portrait by Robert Peake, being the portrait of 
Charles I, when a boy, in the University Library, Cambridge. 

The Genealogist, vol. 38, parts 1 and 2, contains the following 
papers : — On the armorial glass at Vale Royal, Spurstow Hall, 
Utkinton Hall, and Tarporley rectory, in the county of Chester, by 
Messrs. J. P. Rylands and R. Stewart-Brown ; pedigrees of some 
East Anglian Dennys, by Rev. H. L. L. Denny ; the concluding part 
of the paper on the Early Crewe pedigree, by Mr. W. F. Carter; parts 
19 and 20 of the Aspinwall and Aspinall families of Lancashire, by 
Mr. H. O. Aspinall ; further portions of the marriage licences of Salis- 
bury, by Canon Nevill and Mr. R. Boucher ; Grant of arms to William 
Peter Rylands of Massey Hall in Thelwall, co. Chester, and the other 
descendants of his father, 191 8 ; the possible ancestors of Archbishop 
Theobald and his protege Thomas a Becket, the martyr, by Mr. Walter 
Rye ; extracts from Poltalloch writs ; the origin of the Giffords of 
Twyford, by Dr. A. Moriarty; the pedigree of Crewe, by Mr. W. A. 
Lindsay, and further instalments of Mr. Fry's index to marriages 
from the Gentleman's Magazine, and of Mr. McEleney's Hampton 
Court, Hampton Wick, and Hampton-on-Thames Wills and Adminis- 

Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica, 5th series, vol. 4, parts 5 and 
6, contains a pedigree of Charlton of Kent ; the early pedigree of Vaux 
of Harrowden, by Mr. G. A. Moriarty ; a continuation of the account 
of the family of Milborne of Somerset and Monmouthshire ; Admoni- 
tions upon putting on the Garter and the George ; notes on the 
Lewis family ; genealogical extracts from sixteenth- century Kentish 
Wills ; Births, Marriages, and Deaths gleaned from the Admiralty 
Records ; a continuation of the Register of Holy Trinity, Knights- 
bridge, 1658-1700 ;' Feet of Fines, Divers counties, Henry VIII ; 
Monumental inscriptions of Bromley, Kent ; Notes on the Rogerson 
family ; Marten Wills, Lewes (Sussex) Registry. 


The Library, 4th series, vol. 2, no- a, contains articles by Sir D'Arcy 
Power on the bibliography of three sixteenth-century English books 
connected with London hospitals; by Mr. R. B. McKcrrow on the 
use of the Galley in ICli/.abethan printing ; on the printing of the 
Beaumont and Fletcher folio of 1647, by Mr. W. W. Greg ; on the Ulrich 
and Afra Vincent of Beauvais, by Mr. S. Gaselee ; and on a little- 
known Bohemian herbal, by Mr. S. Savage. 

The Mariner s Mirror : the Journal of the Society for Nauticat 
Research, vol. 7, nos. i-ii (January-November, 1921), contains the 
following papers : — Bypaths in Naval Literature, being extracts from 
little-known naval books, by Commander C. N. Robinson, R.N. ; 
a forgotten life of Sir Francis Drake, by Mr. G. Robinson ; the East 
India Company and interlopers, by Mr. H. S. Vaughan ; Brigantines, 
by Mr. R. M. Nance ; side-lights on the Slave Trade, by Mr. G. E. 
Cooper ; comparative architecture, 1670-1720, by Mr. R. C. 
Anderson ; Gwyn's Book of Ships, by Mr. E. A. Dingley ; Drake and 
his detractors, by Mr. G. Callender : Sea-power and the winning of 
British Columbia, by Dr. Holland Rose ; Brigantines, by Mr. A. 
Balsen ; the preamble to the Articles of War, by Mr. L. G. Carr 
Laughton ; the Diary of a supercargo, by Mr. G. P. Insh ; the 
development of the capital ship, by Mr. G. Robinson ; the Ozannc 
family, by Mr. F. Bernclle; Galleys and Runners, by Sir Julian 
Corbett ; Killicks, by Mr. R. M. Nance ; English and Dutch privateers 
under William III, by Mr. G. N. Clark ; Pierre Puget, by Mr. F. 
l^ernelle ; Captain's orders for a ship of the Indian Navy, about 1855, 
by Paymaster Lieut. D. C. Roe, R.N. ; Square-rigged vessels with 
two masts, by Messrs. H. H. Brindley and Alan Moore; the evolu- 
tion of shipping, by Mr. H. H. Brindley ; Shetlandic Fish-hooks, by 
Mr. R. S. Bruce ; Naval Museums, v, the United States, by Mr. I. R. 
Wiles ; Seventeenth-century profiteering in the Royal Navy, by 
Miss I. G. Powell ; the ship of St. Paul's last voyage, by Mr. J. Sottar ; 
the ' Victory' after Trafalgar, by Engineer Commander F. J. Roskruge, 
R.N. ; the trial and death of Thomas Doughty, by Mr. G. Robinson ; 
Drake at the suit of John Doughty, by Mr. W. Senior ; Notes on 
uniform in the navy of the order of St. John, by Mr. H. S. Vaughan ; 
the maritime school at Chelsea, by Captain Bosanquet, R.N. ; Wreck 
raising in 1786, by Mr. F. K. Ingram ; and Popham's expedition to 
Ostend in 179H, by Mr. G. E. Manwaring. 

Old-Lore Miscellany, vol. 9, part 1, being no. 59 of the Old-lore 
series of the Viking Society, contains papers on some old Caithness 
customs and superstitions, by Mr. J. Mowat ; on weather words in the 
Orkney dialect, by Mr. H. Marwick ; on the Caithness and Suther- 
land topography of ' William the Wanderer ', by Mr. James Gray ; 
the Journal of an expedition to Shetland in 1S32, by Mr. E. Charlton ; 
the concluding portion of the rental of Brabster, Caithness, 1697 '■> «^"d 
notes on the fiscal antiquities of Orkney and Shetland, by Mr. A. W. 

Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, 
vol. 42, contains : — Presidential address by Earl Beauchamp, in which 
he deals with Madresfield court and its owners ; a sketch of the history 



of Malvern and its owners, by Mr. G. McN. Rushforth ; the collegiate 
church of Ledbury, by Canon Bannister ; the architecture of the 
church of St. Michael, Ledbury, by Mr. S. H. Bickham ; Gloucester- 
shire fonts, fifteenth century, by Dr. Fryer ; a glass-house at Nails- 
worth (sixteenth and seventeenth centuries), by Mr. St. Clair Baddeley; 
some miscellaneous Bristol deeds, by Mr. L. J. U. Way ; Bristol 
archaeological notes 19 13-19, recording discoveries in the city, by 
Mr. J. E. Pritchard ; and Miscellaneous notes on Gloucestershire bells, 
supplementary to previous papers, by Mr. H. B. Walters. 

Records of Buckinghamshire, vol. 11, no. 2, contains the Rev. F. W. 
Ragg's second article, with transcript, of a fragment of a MS. of 
the Archdeaconry courts of Buckinghamshire, and contributions by 
Mr. W. J. Carlton on a Shorthand ' Inventor ' of 300 years ago ; 
by Mr. G. Eland on the manor of Great Horwood ; by Mr. R. F, 
Bale on private burial-places at Newport Pagnell ; and by Mr. W. 
Bradbrook on Clifton Reynes Parish account book. 

Transactions of the Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire Archaeo- 
logical Society, vo\. 4, part 4, contains a continuation of the Rev. W. M. 
Noble's translation of the cartulary of the priory of St. Mary, Hunting- 
don ; a note on a Bellarmine jug found in Huntingdonshire, by 
Mrs. Yeatherd ; and a transcript of the Abbot's Ripton briefs, by the 
Rev. E. H. Vigers. 

Vol. 4,^part 5, of the same transactions contains a report on the 
records of the Archdeaconry of Northampton, by the Rev. W. M. 
Noble and Mr. S. I. Ladds. 

Transactions of the Essex Archaeological Society, vol. 16, part i, 
contains the following papers : — The Heart of St. Roger, bishop of 
London, died 1241, by Dr. J. H. Round; St. Botolph's Bridge, 
Colchester, by Dr. Round ; an insula of Roman Colchester, report of 
an excavation inaugurated by the Morant Club in Castle Park, by 
Dr. Mortimer Wheeler ; Roger Chamberlayn of Colchester castle, by 
Mr. Gurncy Benham ; a monumental brass (of a civilian c. 1425) 
recently discovered in Essex and now in Dovercourt church, by 
Messrs. Miller Christy and W. W. Porteous. 

The Essex Review, vol. 30, October 1921, contains papers by 
Mr. C. H. Butcher on some heraldic glass in North- West Essex ; by 
Mr. G. O. Rickword on an old-time appeal for recruits, 1786 ; by Mr. K. 
Fuller on Thomas Fuller's Essex : the concluding portion of the tran- 
script of the Minister's accounts of St. Osyth's priory ; the fort or 
blockhouse at East Mersea, by Mr. L. C. Sier ; Notes on West Ham, 
by Mrs. Mason ; and Essex references from Stortford records, by 
Mr. J. L. Glasscock. 

The Historical Collections for Staffordshire, edited by the William 
Salt Archaeological Society, 1921, contains a Calendar of the Salt 
MSS. edited by M. E. Cornford and E. B. Miller, and a transcript of 
the Lay Subsidy Hearth Tax, Pyrehill Hundred, 1666. 

Sussex Archaeological Collections, vol. 62, contains the following 
papers: — The Lords Poynings and St. John, by Dr. J. H. Round; 
the architectural history of Amberley Castle, by Mr. W. D. Peckham ; 
the Manor of Radynden : the Radyndens and their successors, by 


Mr. Thomas-Stanford; Poling and the Knights Hospitallers, by 
Mr. P. M. Johnston ; the manor of Chollington in Eastbourne, by Rev. 
W. Budgen ; the manors of Cowfold, by Mr. P. S. Godman-; and the 
early history of Ovingdean by Dr. Round. 

Papers^ Reports^ &c. read before the Halifax Antiquarian Society , 
1920, contains the following communications: — Hollinghey in 
Sowcrby, by Mr. H. P. Kendall ; Tokens, illustrative of spinning and 
weaving, by Mr. S. H. Hamer ; Peel in Warley, and Oats 
Royd, by Mr. T. Sutcliffe ; Historical notes on Harley Wood, by 
Mr A. Newell ; Early volunteers and cavalry of Halifax, by Mr. T. W. 

The Scottish Historical Review^ vol. 19, October 1921, contains 
articles on the eighteenth-century Highland landlords and the poverty 
problem, by Miss Margaret Adam ; on the daughter of Anne of Den- 
mark's secretary, by Miss Margaret Thompson : on the Western 
Highlands in the eighteenth century, by Canon MacLeod ; and on an 
unpublished letter of Sir Thomas Browne, 1659, by Professor Monro. 

The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland^ vol. 51, 
part I, contains part 2 of Mr. T. J. Westropp's article on the pro- 
montory forts of Beare and Bantry ; the carved altar and mural 
monuments in Sligo abbey, by Mr. H. S. Crawford ; the pedigree and 
succession of the house of MacCarthy Mor, by Mr. W. F. Butler ; the 
state coach of the Lord Mayor of Dublin and the state coach of the 
Earl of Clare, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, by Mr. W. G. Strickland ; 
and part v of Mr. Goddard Orpen's article on the Earldom of Ulster. 
Among the miscellanea may be noted a description of an Ogham 
stone at the Cotts, co. Wexford, and of the font in St. Peter's church, 

Journal of the County Kildare Archaeological Society, vol. 9, no. 6, 
contains a further instalment of the transcript of the Chetwood letters 
of the early eighteenth century ; a continuation of the Rev. Matthew 
Devitt's paper on the see lands of Kildare ; a continuation of the list of 
Kildare Members of Parliament; a paper on the Grand Canal, connect- 
ing the Shannon and Barrow, by Mr. H. Phillips ; and a continuation of 
the Ferns Marriage Licences, edited by Mr. H. C. Stanley-Torney. 
Among the miscellanea is a note by Lord Walter FitzGerald on the 
fourteenth-century Plustace effigy now in the Protestant church at 
Ballymore- Eustace, co. Kildare, with notes on the family. 

West Wales Historical Records : the annual magazine of the 
Historical Society of West Wales, vol. 8, contains the following 
papers : — On Carmarthen.shire under the Tudors, by Mr. T. H. Lewis; 
a note on Fishguard manor, by Mr. F. Green ; the chantry certificate 
of St. Mary's College, St. Davids ; a transcript of the register of St. 
Peter's, Carmarthen, Marriages 1 762-1 799; Edward Richard and Ystrad 
Meurig, by Rev. A. T. Fryer ; some additional names of Pembroke- 
shire parsons ; street names of St. David's city, by Mr. F. Green ; 
Stedman of Strata Florida, by Mr. F. Green ; Harries of co. Pembroke, 
by Mr. V. Green ; manorial customs in co. Carmarthen ; Dewisland 
coasters in 1751, by Mr. F. Green ; the Tuckers of Sealyham, by Mrs. 
C. O. Higgon and Mr. F. Green ; the Edwardes of Sealyham, by Mrs. 


Higgon and Mr. Green ; Lloyd of Danyrallt, by Mr. Green ; and 
a continuation of the List of Marriage bonds of West Wales and 

Bulletin de tAcadimie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, January- 
February 192 1 , contains the following articles : — The Aramean-Lydian 
bilingual inscription at Sardes, by Dr. A. E. Cowley ; Excavations at 
Curtea de Arges, by M. Nicolas Jorga, relating discoveries, in the 
Early Church, of tombs of the fourteenth Roumanian dynasty; Marcus 
Aurelius, Lucius Verus and the governor Catulinus at Thebes, Egypt, 
by M. Jules Baillet. 

Revue arch^ologique, ^\.\\ series, vol. 14, July-October 1931, contains 
the following papers: — Marble candlesticks found in the sea near 
Mahdia, by MM. Merlin and Poinssot ; the sun and moon in repre- 
sentations of the crucifixion, by M. L. Hautecoeur; the Van Eycks' 
picture of the Lamb and talismanic engraved gems, by M. F. de M61y ; 
the older Canaanite inscriptions, by M. C. Bruston ; the so-called ancient 
tomb at Neuvy-Pailloux, by M. A. Blanchet ; the lead trade in 
Roman times (concluding part), by M. M. Besnier ; observations on 
Valentine and the Valentine heresy, by M. S. Reinach ; and the false 
Egyptian sarcophagus at Tarragona, by M. P. Paris. 

Bulletin Jiistorique de la Sociitd dcs Antiquaires de la Morinie, vol. 
13, part 1, contains an article by M. J. A. Carpentier on the Scigneurie 
of Isbergnes and its dependant fiefs. 

Pro Alesia, vol. 6, new series, nos. 23, 24, 25, contains the following 
articles : — Excavations by the Scientific Society of Semur at Alesia in 
1905-1914; a so-called Roman vase in the Geneva Museum and the 
prototypes for its ornamentation, by M. W. Deonna ; a neolithic in- 
cineration site in the wood at Montpalais-a-RulIy (Saone-et-Loire), by 
M. A. Perrault-Dabot ; an account of the congress of Scientific 
Societies held at Strasbourg in May 1920 ; the consequences and 
results of the capture of Alesia, by M. J. Toutain ; and a conspectus of 
Gallo-Roman archaeology in 1919. 

Det kongclige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter, 191 8 og 191 9 
(Trondhjem, 1921), contains besides anatomical studies (in English) 
and a long geological article, Th. Petersen's survey of additions to 
Trondhjem Museum in 191H ; a Runic amulet of stone, by the same 
and Magnus Olsen ; two papers by A. Nummedal on occupation-sites 
of prehistoric date ; and antiquities of the Roman Iron Age in Tronde- 
lagen, with illustrations of bronze vessels, bucket-handles, and a glass 

Oudheidkundige Mededeelitigen uit 's Rijksmuseum van Oudheden te 
Leiden, 1921, part i, contains the following papers : — A marble head, 
probably of Artemis, in the museum at Leyden, by Madame J. P. J. 
Brants ; the town of Nijmegen in the Roman epoch : the Valkhof, by 
Mr. M. Daniels ; circular earthworks of the Montferland type and 
their signification, by Mr. Hofmeister; the river Linga (Vecht), by 
Dr. Holwerda. 

Cronica general del primer congreso de estudios Vascos, 1918 (Bilbao, 
1920), contains the 'following papers of archaeological interest : — Pre- 
history, by D. J. M. de Barandiaran ; religious history, by Dr. E. 


Urroz ; origins of the claustral life in the Basque country, by R. P. J. A. 
de Lizarraldo ; problems in the history of art in the Basque country, 
by D. A. de Apraiz; Christian monumental archaeology in the Basque 
country, by P. F. L. del Vallado ; general aspects of Basque art, by 
D. R. Gutierrez ; Church music in the history of the Basque country, 
by P. J. de Arrue. 

Academia das Scicncias de Lisboa ; Boletim da classe de letras, vol. 
13, no. 2, contains amongst other papers the following articles :— An 
Abyssinian ambassador in Portugal in 1452, by D. P. de Azevedo ; 
the journey of the Empress Isabella to Castela, by D, A. Braamcamp 
Freire ; a chart of the fifteenth century and the discovery of Brazil, by 
D. F. M. E. Pereira ; and studies on the Inquisition in Portugal, by 
D. A. Baiao. 


Books only arc included. Those marked * are in the Library of the 
Society of Antiquaries. 

*The Renaissance of Roman architecture. Part I, Italy. By Sir Thomas Graham 

Jackson. 9^ x 7. Pp. x + 200. Cambridge : at the University Press. 
*Mont Orgueil Castle, its history and description. By Edmund Toulmin Nicolle. 

10 X 7^. Pp. [iv + ]207. Beresford Library, Jersey. 


*A catalogue of Miniatures, the property of His Grace the Duke of Northumber- 
land. Compiled by J. J. Foster. 9fx7|. Pp. xxiv + 48, with 18 plates. 
London : Privately printed. 

*Charles Hercules Read' : a tribute on his retirement from the British Museum and 
a record of the chief additions to the Department of British and Mediaeval 
Antiquities during his keepership, 1896-1921. 11x8^. Pp. xii, with 56 
plates and descriptions. London: Privately printed. 

*Victoria and Albert Museum : A selection of drawings of old masters in the 
Museum collections, with a catalogue and notes. By Henry Reitlinger. 
95 X 7. Pp. vii + 68, with 30 plates. London : Stationery Office. 5J. 


The Early Dynasties of Sumer and Akkad. By C. J. Gadd. 7J x 4^. Pp. vi + 43. 

Luzac. 6j. 
The first campaign of Sennacherib, King of Assyria, B.C. 705-681. By S. Smith. 

S^xs}. Pp. vi + 90. Luzac. 30J. 

Black Jacks. 

Black Jacks and Leather Bottcls. By Oliver Baker. 12JX9J. Pp.197. Burrow. 

*A general history of porcelain. By William Burton. Two vols. 9fx7j. 

Pp. xviii + 204 ; ix + 228. Cassell. 84 j. 
*Corpus of prehistoric pottery and palettes. By W. M. Flinders Petrie. 12} x 9^. 
Pp. 7, with 61 plates. London : British School of Archaeology in Egypt. 
Figurative Terra-cotta revetments in Etruria and Latium in the vi and v 
centuries B.C. By E. Douglas Van Buren. loj x 7^. Pp. x+74, with 32 
plates. London: Murray. i6j. 


Balabish. By G. A. Wainwright. Egypt Exploration Society, Memoir 37. 

12^x10. Pp. viii + 78, with 25 plates. 42J. 
See also Ceramics. 


Heraldry. ' 

British Heraldry. By Cyril Davenport. 7x4!. Pp. viii + 222. Methuen. 6j. 
History and Topography. 
*Letters of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries; from the archives of Southampton. 
Edited by R, C. Anderson. Publications of the Southampton Record Society. 
iox6J. Pp. xvi + 80. Southampton. 

* Jerusalem, 1918-20, being the records of the Pro-Jerusalem Council during the 

period of the British Military Administration, Edited by C, R. Ashbee. 

iix8j. Pp. XV + 87. London: Murray. 42s. 
*Alguns Ascendentes de Albuquerque e o seu filhod luz de documentos in^ditos: 

a auestao da sepultura do governador da India : Memoria por Antonio Baiao. 

i2|x 9. Pp. liii+ 150. Academia dasSciencias de Lisboa. 
*AlIegations for Marriage Licences in the Archdeaconry of Sudbury, in the County 

of Suffolk, during the years 1815-1839. Part 4. Edited by W. Bruce Banner- 
man and G. G. Bruce Baiinerman. Harleian Society publications, vol. 72. 

ioJx6j. Pp. viii + 177-330. London, 1 92 1. 
*Pedigree of the family of Beazley, compiled by K. C. Beazley. lojx 7. Pp. 14. 

Privately printed. 
*The private character of Queen Elizabeth. By Frederick Chamberiin. 8hx 5^. 

Pp. xxi + 334. London: Lane. i8j. 
*OId Plans of C^ambridge, 1 574-1 798 . . . reproduced in facsimile with descriptive 

text. By J. Willis Clark and Arthur Gray. 9x5^. Pp. xxxvii + 1 54, with 

a portfolio of plates. Cambridge: Bowes and Bowes, 1921. 84J 
*The history of the family of Dallas and their connections and descendants from 

the twelfth century. By the late James Dallas. 10x7^. Pp. xi + 6ii. 

Edinburgh : Privately printed by T. and A. Constable. To subscribers, 42J. 
*The Book of Duarte Barbosa. Translated, etc., by M.Longworlh Dames. Vol. 2. 

8|x 55. Pp. xxxi + 286. Hakluyt Society, ser. 2, vol. 49. 
*Charterhouse in London : Monastery, Mansion, Hospital, School. By Gerald S. 

Davies. 9x6. Pp. xix + 447. London: Murray. 25J. 

* Minutes and Accounts ot the corporation of Stratford-upon-Avon and other 

records, 1 553-1620. Transcribed by Richard Savage, with introduction and 

notes by Edgar I. Fripp. Vol. i, 1553-66. Dugdale Society's publications, 

vol. 1. 9jx 6^. Pp. lx+ 152. Oxford : for the Dugdale Society. 
*Mary Davies and the Manor of Ebury. By Charles T. Gatty. Two volumes. 

9J X 6. Pp. ix + 294 ; viii-t- 285. Cassell. 63J. 
*The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the 

United Kingdom by G. E. C. Edited by the Hon. Vicary Gibbs and H. A. 

Doubleday. Vo!. 5. ii^x-j^. Pp. xvi + 859. London : St. Catherine Press. 

jCi I 3J. 6(f. 
*Thc Chronicle of Muntaner. Translated from the Catalan by Lady Goodenough. 

Vol. H. 8|x5|. Pp. xxxiv + 371-759. Hakluyt Society, ser. 2, vol. 50. 
*John Siberch, the first Cambridge printer, 152 1-2. By George J. Gray: in 

commemoration of the four-hundredth anniversary of printing in Cambridge. 

9x7. Pp. 25. Cambridge : Bowes and Bowes. 2s. 6d. 
*Correspondence of Sir Edward Nicholas, Secretary of State. Edited for the 

Royal Historical Society, by Sir George F. Warner. Vol. iv, 1657-60. 

8|x6f. Pp. xxix-f 283. 
♦Court Rolls of the Borough of Colchester. Vol. 1.(1310-52). Translated and 

epitomized by Isaac Herbert Jeayes. With introduction, corrigenda, etc., by 

W. Gurney Benham. lofxSi. Pp. xv-t-242-l-xvii-xxxiii. Published by 

authority of the Town Council of the borough of Colchester. 
*The story of Holy Trinity parish church, Hull. By the Rev. G. J. Jordan. 6j x 

45. Pp. vi + 90. London : Milford. y. 6d. 
♦Documents and extracts illustrating the history of the Honour of Dunster. Selected 

and edited by Sir H. C. Maxwell-Lyte. 8| x 6 J. Pp. lvii + 368. Somerset 

Record Society, vol. 33. 
♦Essays on the Latin Orient. By William Miller. 9f x 6-|. Pp.582. Cambridge 

University Press. ' 40J. 
♦An inventory of the ancient monuments in Wales and Monmouthshire : vi. County 

of Merioneth. 13x8^. Pp. xxiii-f-igi. London : Stationery Office. 25J. 


*Livro da Guerra de Ceuta cscrito por Mcstre Matcus de Pisano em 1460 ; publicado 

por Roberto Correa Pinto. 12^x9. Pp. xix + 504. Academia das Sciencias 

de Lisboa. 
"Gorrespondencia diplomiitica de Francisco de Sousa Continho durante a sua 

embaixada cm Holanda; publicada por E. Prestage e P. de Azevedo. Vol. I, 

1643-6. iijxyj. Pp. xxxiv + 414. Academia das Sciencias de Lisboa. 

Goimbra, 1920. 
•Mediaeval archives of the University of Oxford. Vol. 2. Edited by the Rev. 

H. E. Salter. Oxford Historical Society, vol. 73. 8|x5j. Pp. 19 + 385. 

Oxford: Clarendon Press. 
•Remarks and Collections of Thomas Hearne. Vol. 11. Edited by Rev. H. E. 

Salter. Oxford Historical Society, vol. 72. Sjx 5^. Pp. xiii + 491. Oxford : 

Clarendon Press. 
•Spurn Point and the lost towns of the Humber. By T. Sheppard. 8^x5^. 

Pp. 23. London : Institution of Water Engineers. 
Calendar of State Papers : Domestic. September i, 1680 to December 31, i68r, 

preserved in the Public Record Office. Edited by F. H. Blackburne Daniell. 

io|x7i. Pp. ix,+ 8o5. London : Stationery Office. 2 5/. 
•Percy Bailiffs Roll of the fifteenth century. 8 J x 5§. Pp. xiv + 1 3 3. Publications 

of the Surtees Society, vol. 134. 
•The place of St. Thomas of Canterbury in History. By T. F. Tout. 10^ x 6f. 

Pp.31. Manchester: University Press. \s. (td. 
•Oxford Studies in Social and Legal History. Edited by Sir Paul Vinogradoff. 

Vol. VL Studies in the Hundred Rolls — some aspects of thirteenth-century 

administration. By Helen M. Cam. Proceedings against the Crown. By 

Ludwik Ehrlich. Sj-xs^. Pp. x + 274. Oxford : Clarendon Press. i8j. 

Indian Archaeology. 
•Report of the Superintendent, Archaeological Survey, Burma, for the year ending 

31st March 192 1. i3|x8|-. Pp. ii + 49. Rangoon. 
•Amended list of ancient monuments in Burma. 9|x6i. Pp. 1-50 ; 1-24; 1-18 ; 

i-io; 1-32; 1-28; 1-18; 1-24. Rangoon. Rs. 5. 
•Archaeological Survey of Burma: a list of inscriptions found in Burma. Part I. 

The list of inscriptions arranged in the order of their dates. Compiled and 

edited by C. Duroiselle. 1 3s x 8j. Pp. ix + 216. Rangoon. Rs. 6. 
•EpigraphiaBirmanica, being Lithic and other inscriptions of Burma. Vol. 2, part 2. 

The Talaing plaques on the Ananda plates. By Charles Duroiselle. 11x9. 

Pp. 174, with 87 plates. Rangoon. Rs. 3. 
♦Tile-mosaics of the Lahore Fort. By J. Ph. Vogel. Edited by Sir John 

Marshall. Archaeological Survey of India. New Imperial series, vol. 41. 

I 3 X 9J. Pp. ix + 69, with 80 plates. Calcutta. 55 rupees. 
•Astronomical instruments in the Delhi Museum. By G. R. Kaye. Memoirs of 

the Archaeological Survey of India, no. 12. i22-x 10. Pp 25, with 6 plates. 

Calcutta. I rupee 10 annas. 
•Annual Progress Report of the Superintendent, Archaeological Survey, Hindu and 

Buddhist Monuments, Northern Circle, for the year ending 31st March 1920. 

i3j{x85. Pp. i2+xxiv. Lahore. f>d. 

•Illustrations of the Occasional Offices of the Church in the Middle Ages from 
contemporary sources. Collected and described by H. S. Kingsford. Alcuin 
Club Collections, 24. iox6J. Pp. iv + 89. London: Mowbray. 25J. 

♦Schools of Illumination : reproductions from manuscripts in the British Museum. 
Part III. English, A. u. 1300 to 1350. 15x11. Pp. 9, with 15 plates in 
portfolio. British Museum. 


♦A list of monumental brasses in Surrey. Compiled by Mill Stephenson. 5 J x 5 J. 
Pp. viii + 581. Reprint from Surrey Arch. Collections, vols. 25-33. 


Prehistoric Archaeology. 
*On some antiquities in the neighbourhood of Dunecht House, Aberdeenshire. By 

the Right Rev. G. F. Browne. iix8j. Pp. xiv+170, with 63 plates. 

Cambridge: at the University Press. 63J. 
*A text-book of European Archaeology. By R. A. S. Macalister. Vol. I. The 

Palaeolithic period. 9^x6^. Pp. xv + 6io. Cambridge University Press. 

50 J. 
*Further discoveries of humanly-fashioned flints in and beneath the Red Crag of 

Suffolk. By J. Reid Moir. Reprint Proc. Prehistoric Soc. of East Angiia. 

8^x5^. Pp.42. 
* Fishing from the earliest times. By William Radcliffe. With illustrations. 9x6. 

Pp. xvii + 478. London: Murray. 28J. 
*Exploraci6n de nueve dolmenes del Aralar guipuzcoano, por D. Telesforo de 

Aranzadi, D. Jos6 M. de Barandiaran y D. Enrique de Eguren. 8| x 6J. 

Pp. 51 ; 29 plates. San Sebastian, 1919. 
*Exploraci6n de siete d61menes de la sierra de Ataun-Borunda, por D. Telesforo 

de Aranzadi, D. Jos6 Miguel de Barandiaran y D. Enrique de Eguren. 8^ x 

6j. Pp. 56 ; 13 plates. San Sebastian, 1920. 
*Exploraci6n de seis d61menes de la sierra de Aizkorri, por D. Telesforo de 

Aranzadi, D. JosI M, de Barandiaran y D. Enrique de Eguren. 8^x6j. 

Pp. 47; 23 plates. San Sebastian, 1920. 

Scandinavian Archaeology. 
*Rolvs0yaetten. Et arkeologisk bidrag til vikingetidens historic. Av A. W. 

Br0gger. Bergens Museums Aarbok, 192C-21. Hist.-Antikv. Raekke, nr. i. 

9x6. Pp. 42. 
*Osebergfi^ndet utgit av den Norske stat under redaktion av A. W, Br0gger, Hj. 

Falk, Haakon Schetelig, with a summary in English. Bind 1. 13^ x 11. 

Pp. xii-l-413. Kristiania. iiokr. 
*The Oseberg ship. By A. W. Brogger. 9§ x 6j ; n.p. Reprint American- 
Scandinavian Review, July 1921 50 cents. 
*Angles, Danes, and Norse in the district of Huddersfield. By W. G. Collingwood. 

Tolson Memorial Museum Publications, Handbook no. ?. 8|x 5'^. Pp. 6?. 

Huddersfield. is. 


*Cataloguc of the Seals in the Treasury of the Dean and Chapter of Durham, frcm 
a MS. made by the Rev. William Greenwell. Collated and annotated by 
C^. H. Hunter Blair. Two vols. 8|-x6f. Pp. Ixxxiii + 343 ; iv + 345-645, 
with 81 plates. Reprint from Arch. Acliana, 191 1-2 1. 


Antiquaries Journal 

Vol. II April, 1922 No. 2 

Roman Spoons from Dorchester 

By O. M. Dalton, M.A., F.S.A. 
[Read 12th May 1921] 

The silver spoons in the Dorchester Museum, exhibited by 
Capt.Acland,F.S.A.,were discovered in 1898 ori899on theSomer- 
leigh Court Estate, in Dorchester, a prolific Roman site. The coins 
belonging to the find, over fifty in number, are all siliquae^ dating 
from Julian II to Honorius (a. d. 360-400) ; among them is one 
coin of Licinius I, a.d. 317, which is probably intrusive. The 
coins, examined by my colleague, Mr. H. Mattingly, and to be 
published in the Numismatic Chronicle later in the present year, thus 
give the second half of the fourth century as the probable date of 
the find, a period with which the general character of the spoons 
is in agreement. The silver object figured with the spoons 
belongs to a small class represented in England and perhaps used 
as manicure knives. There is a specimen with a long handle and 
smaller blade in the British Museum. 

The spoons are in all probability Christian. Dorset is one of 
the English counties from which Christian remains are already 
recorded ; the mosaic floor of a villa at Frampton had the sacred 
monogram among its ornament, and two rings from Fifehead 
Neville bear the same symbol. Devon and Cornwall on the west 
and Hampshire on the east have also objects of the Early Christian 
period ; the West Country as a whole must have had a consider- 
able Christian population during the latter part of the Roman 

Two reasons more especially suggest a Christian origin. The 
first is that a wish or acclamation AVGUSTINE VIVAS ! is 
engraved in the bowl of one example. It seems to be the fact that 




pagan spoons rarely, if ever, bear inscriptions of this kind,' which, 
as a class, belong to the time when Christian subjects or symbols, 
such as the sacred monogram, may also be expected to occur ; 
inscriptions are frequently accompanied by such symbols. The 
second reason is the presence of the fish engraved, rather lightly, 
in the bowl of another spoon. This may not amount to proof of 
Christian origin, but it points in that direction. Another spoon 
engraved with a fish in a similar way was found at Thivars, in the 

Roman Spoons from Dorchester (^) : details ^. 

Department of Eure-et-Loir, in the north of France, in a well on 
the site of a Roman villa.^ In both these spoons the fish may 
well have a Christian significance, but their association with the 
Church is uncertain.^ Though the spoon was never used in the 

* de Rossi, BuUeitino di archeologia chrtsttana, Nov.-Dec, 1868, \t. 81. 

Other spoons discovered in England bear such acclamations. One, found at 
Colchester, has AETERNVS VIVAS ; another, found near Sunderland, is broken 
and has an imperfect inscription : — NE VIVAS {Archaeological Journal, xxvi, 
1869, p. 76). An unpublished spoon found near Barbury Castle, North Wilts., 
and now in the Devizes Museum, has the legend VERECV, perhaps part of 
Verecundus, scratched within the bowl. 

^ H. Leclercq, in Cabrol's Dictlonna'tre cT Archeologle chretienne et de Liturg'te, 
article Cuiller, col. 3175. 

^ We may notice the occurrence of the fish in the service of pewter vessels found 
on the site of a Roman villa at Appleshaw, in Hampshire, and now in the British 


Western Church in the administration of the Eucharist, it does 
seem to have been employed in early times for transferring wine 
to the chalice from the larger vessels in which it was brought as 
an offering, and for placing the bread upon the paten in order 
that it might not be touched by the hands. But spoons certainly 
made for these purposes are far to seek. Nearly all the Early 
Christian examples known to us were originally made for secular 
or family use ; many, like one of the Dorchester spoons, bore the 
owner's name with a wish for health and long life, and some were 
doubtless birthday, or perhaps even christening, presents. It is true 
that numbers of spoons were bequeathed, with other plate, to 
churches ; but where any record exists it seems to show that they 
were employed for the service of pilgrims and other visitors to 
churches,who were frequently given refreshment by the clergy. The 
circumstances of discovery at Thivars seem rather definitely against 
ecclesiastical use, and all that we can say is that the spoons under 
discussion probably belonged to a Christian family living at 
Dorchester in the second half of the fourth century. 

The interest attaching to these spoons is not exhausted by the 
inscription on one, and the possibly Christian emblem on another. 
In more than one case the volute between stem and bowl 
terminates in an animal's or monster's head. A spoon preserved 
at Rome has a gryphon's head in this position, and, since it is 
treated in a classical style, the idea of placing a head at this point 
may well have suggested itself to a Greek or Roman. But the 
heads on the Dorchester spoons are not Greek or Roman but 
barbaric,' and of a type which finds its affinities in a definite 
region, Picardy, in the north of France. Barbaric ornament from 
this district, dating from the latter part of the fourth century, 
must be Teutonic, and is likely to be Frankish. 

It is clear that this raises a problem of some importance. There 
were no Teutons in the west of England at this early date ; only 
in the Thames Valley may there have been a few settlements. 
But even supposing these to have certainly existed at the time in 
question, we have no evidence that a Roman population lived on 
such terms with them as to have copied their ornament upon its 
utensils. Such early Thames Valley settlements would, moreover, 

Museum ; the fish is engraved on a small pointed-oval dish (^Archneologla, Ivi, 
p. 12). Having regard to the chalice-like form of a cup belonging to this service, 
we may at least consider the possibility that this dish and cup may have had a sacred 
use, since the presence of the Chi-Rho on another vessel shows that the whole 
belonged to a Christian family. 

' What appears to be a similar head is seen on a spoon among the Roman 
antiquities- excavated at Lydney Park, in Gloucestershire (W. H. Bathurst, Roman 
Antiquities at Lydney Park^ with notes by C. W. King, pi. xxv, fig. 4). 

H 2 


be of Saxon origin, and the beast-heads appear to be Prankish. 
It would seem, then, that we have to cross the channel to discover 
a probable place of origin for these spoons. Such a place is found 
at Vermand, near St. Quentin, where large Roman cemeteries were 
excavated about forty years ago. The finds brought to light on 
this site, which was successively a fortified camp and a town, 
include a number of objects with Christian subjects and symbols, 
quantities of things purely Roman in type, including some silver 
spoons, large numbers, again, of things Prankish in type, chiefly 
brooches and other ornaments.' On these Prankish objects occur 
animal's or monster's heads very nearly allied to those on the 
Dorchester spoons, especially to the type in which the creature 
seems to be biting the edge of the bowl : this type seems to have 
been popular at Vermand. 

At Vermand, therefore, we have a site where two conditions are 
found making it likely that such spoons as these from Dorchester 
may have been made in that part of Prance : first, there was 
a Roman-Christian population using the ordinary types of Roman 
utensils,^lass, pottery, etc. ; secondly, there was side by side with 
it an immigrant Teutonic (Prankish) population, using a particular 
kind of biting beast as ornament. The Roman civilization of 
Vermand seems to have been practically wiped out by the Vandals 
and Goths in a.d. 407. This date just allows time for the arrival 
of late fourth-century spoons from the district in England, with 
which communications must have been frequent. 

The problem must be solved by those who have made a special 
study of Early Teutonic antiquities, especially in regions where, 
as in Picardy, barbaric and Roman influences met. Before we can 
assign the spoons an origin in our island we must show that the 
motive of the mordant beast could have been known to craftsmen 
working in England at the date suggested by the coins. 

It has a rather melancholy interest to note that in 1914 the 
Somme was again overrun ; and again Vermand lies in an area 
devastated by Teutonic forces. This time it is destined to rise 
from its ashes, and the town of Cambridge has aided in its 
restoration. Possibly in the course of building operations more 
relics of the period about a.d. 400 may be discovered — some 
may even find their way to Cambridge, If among such objects 
spoons should occur with the beast-heads actually on their volutes, 
as we see them in the Dorchester examples, the origin of the 
Dorchester spoons in Picardy would become almost certain. It is 
very probable now. 

' For the antiquities of Vermand see T. Eck, Les deux cimetieres gallo-romaitu de 
Vermand et de Saint-Quenlin, 1 89 1 . 

On Some Recent Exhibits 

By Reginald A. Smith, F.S.A. 

[Read 26th May 1921] 

In April last the Society published two gold crescents found in 
Cornwall and now in Truro Museum ; and in view of the 
proximity of Ireland, it is not surprising that others have been 
found ; but the present exhibit (figs. 1-3) is the most important 
of its kind, being the only case in which anything to indicate a 
precise date has been found with gold crescents anywhere. Mr. 
George Penrose, Local Secretary, and Curator of Truro Museum, 
sent with the three objects in question the following information : 

*The two gold crescents (figs. 1,2) and bronze celt (fig. 3) sent 
for exhibition were found together, close to the edge of a low 
cliff at Harlyn or Perlaze Bay, near Padstow, Cornwall, sometime 
during the year 1864. 

' The property belonged to the late Mr. Hellyar, who lived at 
Harlyn House, and his workman who found the objects was 
excavating, in order to make a pond, at a point near the boat- 
house now standing east of the building known as Fish Cellars. 
Unfortunately full details of the discovery were not properly 
noted at the time, but there is sufficient evidence to indicate that 
a barrow had existed on the site. 

' The objects appear to have been found at a depth of about 
6 ft. from the surface. The labourer attached very little impor- 
tance to the crescents, thinking they were only of brass, and on 
leaving work placed them around his legs and returned with them 
to his master's house. 

* It was stated at the time that some other objects came to light 
but were thrown over the cliff by the labourer as being worthless. 
One piece he described as " like a bit of a buckle ". The crescents 
were not regarded as of any special value, being: black with tarnish 
and dirt, and were given to the children as playthings. Afterwards 
they began to show brightness at the edges, and Mr. Hellyar took 
them to a person who informed him they were of gold. He then 
showed them to the late Mr. C. G. Prideaux Brune, of Prideaux 
Place, Padstow, who communicated with the Duchy of Cornwall, 
when they were claimed on behalf of the Duke of Cornwall (the 


late King Edward VII) as treasure trove. Eventually the Duke 
of Cornwall directed that the objects should be deposited in the 
Museum of the Royal Institution of Cornwall, at Truro, at the 
same time paying Mr. Hellyar the value of the gold. To this 
sum was added a further amount raised by subscription. 

* The association of the bronze celt with the two gold crescents 

Fig. I. Gold crescent, Harlyn Bay, Cornwall (^). 

will be recognized as of great importance. In order to get 
corroboration of this I communicated recently with Mr. W. F. 
Hellyar, who well remembers the objects being found, and I have 
a letter which states that he is " quite sure the bronze celt was 
found with the gold crescents ". 

* On the cliffs adjoining are barrows, some of which have been 
opened and have produced cinerary urns, etc., which are un- 
doubtedly of the Bronze Age.* 

The find was noticed by Sir John Evans in Bronze Implements, 



p. 42, but the dimensions of the celt are inaccurately given ; and 
a fuller account with illustrations appeared in the Archaeological 
Journal, xxii, 277, where it is stated that ' the earth in contact with 
the objects was said to be of an artificial character, consisting of 
stones unlike the rest of the ground '. Further details were given 
by Mr. Crawford in the Antiquaries Journal, i, 294. 

Fig. 2. Gold crescent, Harlyn Bay, Cornwall (^). 

The. plainer crescent of the two (fig. i) is exceptionally thick 
and probably the heaviest known. It weighs 4 oz. 9 dwt. (2163 
grains = 138 7 grammes), whereas the heaviest at Dublin is 4 oz. 
4 dwt. 5 gr. (no. 8 in Mr. Armstrong's catalogue). The orna- 
mentation consists of plain lines and small chevrons confined to the 
two edges of the front : the breadth is 8-25 in., the opening 
5-1 in. across, and the deepest part 22 in. Top views of the 
square terminal plates at right angles to the plane of the crescent 
are drawn within. 



The other crescent (fig. 2) is more richly and normally 
engraved, with chevrons and lozenges on a hatched ground. The 
diameter is 8-8 in., the opening y^ in. across, and the maximum 
depth 3 in. The weight (before a little gold was added in repair) 
was 996 grains = 6459 grammes ; and a table of the four crescents 
found in Cornwall brings out a point of some significance. The 
last is from Penzance and is now in the British Museum, the 
others are in Truro Museum. 





St. JuHot 


2 oz. dwt. 8 gr. 


Harlyn I 

21 20 

4 oz. 8 dwt. 8 gr. 


Harlyn II 


2 oz. I dwt. 1 2 gr. 




2 oz. 4 dwt. 4 gr. 


Fig. 3. Celt, found with gold crescents, Harlyn Bay (^). 

It will at once be seen that the heavier Harlyn specimen is exactly 
double the weight of that from Penzance ; and in view of this 
relation it is permissible to suppose that the thin and damaged 
Harlyn crescent was originally 64 grains = 4-1 grammes heavier, 
and equalled in weight that from Penzance, being half that of its 
fellow. To raise the St. Juliot specimen to that standard would 
require an addition of 92 grains (nearly 6 grammes), and it is rare 
indeed to find any connexion in weight among Irish gold crescents : 
hence the importance of the present case. 

The flat celt (fig. 3) found with the Harlyn crescents has not been 
analysed, but is probably of copper, though the type is not quite 
the earliest in metal. It is 4*4 in. long, with a maximum breadth 
of 2 "7 in. : the cutting-edge is expanded, perhaps by hammering 


to harden the metal ; and the sides are roughly square but not 
flanged, nor is there any trace of a stop-ridge. It may thus be 
assigned to the first stage of the Bronze Age properly so-called, 
and the eighteenth century b. c. probably saw the manufacture of 
both celts and crescents on a large scale, perhaps a thousand years 
before the Kelts arrived in Britain. Whether the Druids were 
then in existence is another matter on which contradictory views 
are held by leading authorities ; but an attempt has already been 
made to show that the gold crescents were cult objects, and the 
Druids of history may represent those who made and used them 
centuries before that mysterious name appeared in literature. 

In the previous paper on the subject a connexion was suggested 
between the crescent as a sacred symbol and the horse-shoe still 
used as a lucky emblem. Sir William Ramsay in the Journal of 
T{oman Studies, viii, 145, describes votive offerings in a temple to 
the god M^n near the Pisidian Antioch, dating from about the 
third century of our era ; and illustrates the various forms of 
crescents in relation to horse-shoes. His own opinion is that 
M^n is not the moon-god (though it is the Greek term for 
month) but a male divinity associated with the moon-goddess. 
* He is rather the sun-god keeping company with the moon, so far 
as he represents any astronomical idea ; but his nature is much 
wider. He is the great power of the divine nature as affecting 
the life of man in all ways, and his Anatolian name was Mannes.' 
This last is identified with the Hellenic supreme deity Zeus, the 
sun-god who runs his daily course through the heavens. 

The name given to the crescent of Antioch is Tekmor, and it is 
represented on practically every dedication on the site. This 
crescent-shaped object is ordinarily taken as a symbol of the 
crescent moon (Mrs. Hasluck in Journ. Hellenic Studies, xxxiii, in), 
but there are various forms of it, and the types are classified as 
follows : (i) horned bull's head ; (ii) horns with vanishing head ; 
(iii) horns without head ; (iv) crescent having no resemblance to 
horns ; but it is uncertain whether this bull's head preceded the 
crescent in order of development or vice versa. This point was 
also raised in the April number, and Spain mentioned as a possible 
intermediate link. A gold crescent, apparently of Irish type, was 
indeed found in a dolmen near Allariz, Galicia, and was published 
in 1875 by Ramon Barros Sivelo (quoted by Abb6 Breuil in 
Revue Archiologique,x\\\ (1921), p. 78). 

Two complete specimens and parts of others in the British 
Museum have rendered familiar the type of shield used in the 
Early Iron Age, but the oval outline has not been hitherto 



represented. The model or toy (fig. 4) was exhibited by Mr. 
W. J. Hemp, F.S.A., on behalf of Mrs. Oakden Ward, the 
grand-daughter of the late Henry Durden, most of whose collec- 
tion was purchased for the nation in 1892. The owner states 
that it was found at Hod Hill, near Blandford, Dorset, so that 
presumably it is contemporary with the abundant antiquities from 
that earthwork, which is 50 acres in extent (not 320 as stated in 
Arch. Journ. Ivii, 53) and 470 ft. above the sea, containing in an 
angle a small Roman camp of 7 acres (not 70 acres) known as 
Lydsbury Rings. The date of occupation in force must have been 

Fig. 4. Back and front of a model shield of bronze, Hod Hill, Dorset (|). 

A.D. 40-50, and the fort was probably a centre of resistance to the 
Claudian invasion. 

The bronze is damaged at both ends, but was about 4^ in. long 
and most probably of oval form. Across the back of the boss the 
grip is still in position ; and the boss is spindle-shaped, tapering 
at both ends into a raised rib which no doubt reached both ex- 
tremities of the shield. The contrast to the ordinary type is 
obvious, but the boss recalls that of the famous "Witham shield, 
which is two or three centuries earlier than the Battersea speci- 
men with its round boss and enamel decoration. This is against 
a local development of the type, and the model may have come 
over from Gaul a generation after the Battersea shield was made 



in this country. What few parallels there are point to such an 

Gaulish shields of the period of La Tene are fairly common : 
their evolution has been traced, but the oval form was not 
apparently reached till after the Roman conquest, and two illus- 
trations in Dechelette's Manuel^ part 3, figs. 496, 499, will serve 
to fix the date of the Hod Hill model. They show sculptures of 
Gallo-Roman origin with oval shields having round and spindle- 

FiG. 5. Cast from shale mould for jewellery, Halton Chesters (f). 

shaped bosses, accompanied by a war-trumpet, amazon shields, 
helmets, and a boar-standard ; and there is no need to go further 

Medieval stone-moulds for ornamental metal-work are fairly 
common, but Mr. F. G. Simpson's exhibit is altogether excep- 
tional, dating as it undoubtedly does from the Roman period 
in Britain. It is the property of Sir Hugh Blackett and was 
found by Mr. Simpson, during one of his periodical excavations 
on the Roman wall, on 24th August 19 10 in the ditch of the 
vallum about 15 in. below the present surface in mixed and 



unstratified Roman material, at a distance of 165 ft. east of the 
south-east angle of the fort of Hunnum (Halton Chesters). It 
consists of a slab of shale 4 in. long, 3-1 in. broad, and o-y in. 
thick, cut in intaglio on one face and at one end with no less 
than twenty-seven small designs, which are here illustrated from 
a plaster cast in relief (fig. 5). The nature of the stone and the 
absence of connecting channels are enough to prove that the 
mould was not intended for casting in metal ; and the only 
explanation seems to be that gold-leaf was pressed into the 
patterns and filled with lead, pitch, sulphur or composition. These 

Fig. 6. Carved stone, with development, Portsog (^), 

elements could be joined together and arranged to form elaborate 
jewels ; and there is in the British Museum {Catalogue of Jewellery ^ 
Greek and Roman Dept., no. 3104) a group of small gold discs, 
still separate, that might have come from a similar mould. 
There are 16 moulds cut for cones or discs of ring-and-dot 
pattern ; 2 vases of the Kantharos type ; a bird and dolphin ; 
2 amazon shields ; 2 human masks ; a phallus ; a crescent and 

Other Roman moulds were exhibited to the Society in 1908 
{Froc. Soc. Ant.f xxii, 38), but were for casting the various parts 
of bronze paterae or mirrors, not for shaping gold-leaf. They were 
of white Lias stone .and were found on Lansdown, near Bath. 

A relic of the Viking Period, but produced on Scottish soil, 



may be described as a trial-piece in hard black stone, in the form 
of an irregular cylinder ^-6 in. long. The illustration (fig. 6) 
shows a front view and all the engravings developed on the 
right. The owner, Capt. G. P. Crowden, says that it was pro- 
bably found at Portsoy, Banflfshire, by his father, Mr. J. T. 
Crowden, M.D., and everything points to a Scottish origin. 
There is indeed a parallel from the Broch of Burrian, N. Ronalds- 
hay, Orkney, engraved with five- and six-pointed stars and a 
crescent, which suggests a finished work rather than a trial-piece ; 
and there is another of bone from the same Broch with a mirror- 
case, crescent, and V symbol.' Whatever their exact purpose, 
it is evident that the symbols belong to a class abundantly repre- 
rented on the sculptured grave-stones of Scotland ; and a few 

Fig. 7. Thor's hammers on ring, N. Bergenhus, Norway. 

references to Messrs. Allen and Anderson's monumental work 
will suffice. 

The two human faces with furrowed brows and the pair of 
rings are peculiar ; and though there is a diflFerence in date of 
two or three centuries reference may be made to one of the 
triangular metal mounts on a drinking-horn in the famous Taplow 
barrow (K C. H. Bucks. y i, fig. 4 on coloured plate), which has 
a mask with wrinkles and a curl of hair on either side of the 
head, suggesting that the rings on the present carving represent 
hair and not ears. The cruciform adjunct to the chin of one, 
which might be regarded as the Christian emblem, is more likely 
a pendant in the form of Thor's hammer, of which a bunch is 
illustrated from Norway (fig. 7). There seem to be only seven 
cases of the plain cross on the Scottish monuments. 

' J. R. Allen and Josejih Anderson, Early Christian Monuments of Scotland 
(1903), p. 24, figs, 23, 22. 



The crescents, plain or decorative, may be intended for the 

common symbol of the Scottish monu- 
,^s->v ments, and two forms are illustrated 

Z^ (fig- 8). 

^ The fish too is constantly repre- 

sented on the standing crosses and 
may be derived from the Early 
Christian IX0YC, the letters of the 
Greek word for fish being the initials 
of a confession of faith. It is generally 
horizontal, occasionally sloping, but 
nearly all have the middle line (like 
a haddock) ; and in one case there is 
cross-hatching over one half, here 
reproduced from the damaged stone at 
Drumbuie, Inverness (A. and A., p. 99). 
For this the mackerel may have served 
as a model. 

There are apparently both Christian 
and Pagan symbols on this trial-piece, 
which would be confusing were it not 
the case that the Scottish monuments 
exhibit what is obviously Christian 
inextricably mixed with forms that may 
belong to another faith. The matter 
has been fully discussed by Joseph 
Anderson (Scotland in Early Christian 
Times, 2nd ser., p. 1 80), but remains a 
Details from Scottish mystery ; nor at present is there a 
sculptures, chronological scheme to provide an 

exact date for our carving. 

The remarkable bone carving exhibited by Mrs. Sturge, and 
since given to the British Museum, was formerly in the collection 
of Dr. Allen Sturge, M.V.O., who acquired it from a dealer with 
a label indicating an ethnographical origin (New Caledonia). It 
dates from the Viking Period and may be regarded as a trial- 
piece on which the carver sketched and practised designs then 
current in Britain and Scandinavia ; but there is nothing to show 
where it was discovered. In the illustration (fig. 9) the bone 
is shown in perspective, with the entire design developed on the 
right. It forms an irregular cylinder 4-3 in. long, and the 
subjects are cut in low relief or merely engraved at random. 
Round the middle is a rough arcade of three bays, though 

Fig. 8 



nothing architectural was intended ; and the three uprights that 
look like manikins are really the * union-knot ' or decorative 
terminal to two ribbon-like bands as on the Winchester bronze 
{Proc. Soc. /Int., xxiii, 398) and many another example of the 
Ringerike style (English list, op. cit., xxvi, 71). In the third 
magnificent volume on the ship-burial of Oseberg, our Hon. 
Fellow Dr. Shetelig illustrates a very similar design in the form 
of a frieze (fig. 10) dating about 1050 from the Dynna st9ne 
(his fig. 334), and surmises an oriental connexion in this phase 
of northern art, which comes between the periods of Jellinge and 

Fig. 9. Carved bone cylinder, locality unknown (^). 

Urnes, both these being based on the animal ornament of the 
Teutonic area. 

The asp-like creature at the top resembles a jewel illustrated 
in Rygh's Norske Oldsager, fig. 690 ; and the snake tied in 
a Stafford knot is commoner than the peculiar trefoil head 
which is seen also on a cross-shaft from Gilling West, Yorks. 
{V. C. //., ii, 1 18). The larger spirally coiled animal has a triple 
lappet much in the Ringerike style of Scandinavia, as at Somer- 
ford Keynes, Wilts. {Proc. Soc. Ant., xxvi, 67) ; but parallels are 
not plentiful for the coiled body or the human head in profile, 
which has some resemblance to the mounted figure on many 
of the gold bracteates {Atlas for Nordisk Oldkyndighed, passim). The 
head is normally in profile, and the hair in this case is dressed 
in the Ringerike style. 

The stepped cross is rather surprising and has a medieval 
look, but models in plenty were to hand in the gold coinage 



of the seventh century (e. g. V. C. H. Norfolk^ i, 342) ; and 
publication is the royal road to a solution of such minor diffi- 

This trial-piece, apart from the style of the work, has several 

Fig. 10. Frieze from Dynna stone, Hadeland, Norway 
{Oselergfundet, iii, 318). 

sufficiently close parallels in the British Isles, and may well 
have been cut on this side of the North Sea. Illustrations of 
others are given in Wilde's Dublin Catalogue, figs. 226-44 > 
Munro, Lake-dwellings of Europe^ pp. 352, 369 ; F. C.H. London, 
i, 162, 169; V.C.H. Torh.j ii, 106; and Jewitt's Reliquary, 
V, 71. 



^ Hoard of Bi^onze ciisco'Vereci at Grays Thurrock 
By Charles H. Butcher 

Hoards of ancient bronze, however unimportant they may seem, 
are apt to throw miuch light on the Bronze Age, and all such finds 
should be placed on record. 

Deposited on loan in the Colchester Museum is a bronze 
founder's hoard discovered in a cavity of the chalk at Grays 
Thurrock, Essex, in 1906. From the number of pieces and the 
variety of types comprised it is certainly remarkable, but has 
remained unpublished. It comprises some 298 pieces, including 
several fine implements and weapons, numerous fragments of 
others broken and worn-out and collected as metal, lumps of 
copper and bronze, waste pieces and imperfect castings, and a 
portion of a bronze mould for casting socketed celts. The various 
items are tabulated in groups : 

33 socketed celts, lengths 4-9 to 2*7 in. 
71 imperfect ditto and fragments. 

1 winged celt, length 4.-8 in. 

2 imperfect ditto, similar. 

Among the socketed celts one fine specimen, length 4*9 in., 
square in section and quite plain except for a bold moulding round 
the mouth, is worthy of notice. The remainder range in length 
from 4-4 to 2*7 in., and vary considerably in the form of their 
sockets and in style of decoration. 

Three of the celts, lengths 4-6, 3-5, and 3-2 in. respectively, 
have a single raised pellet beneath the moulding round the socket ; 
another, which is imperfect, length 4-0 in., has three such pellets 
and resembles the celt found with bronze at Chrishall in Essex 
(Evans, Ancient Bronze Implements^ fig. 123). The fifth, 3-8 in., 
is decorated with five parallel raised ribs starting from the moulded 
top and dying into the face of the blade, like one from the hoard 
from Reach Fen, Cambridgeshire (Evans, fig. 124). Two others, 
4-3 in., have six such ribs instead of five, and apparently have 
been cast in the same mould. On two more, 4-4 and 42 in., the 
wings of the earlier palstave type survive as curves in relief which 
extend over the sides and faces of the implements, as on the celt 
from Wiltshire (Evans, fig. 112). Another, 33 in., has similar 




markings, but the horizontal one is replaced by a single raised 
pellet. The eleventh celt, 40 in., is slightly imperfect and appears 
to have eight parallel raised ribs upon the faces ; while another, 
3-0 in., apparently has double curved ridges extending over the 
faces and sides. The remainder are plain and of the ordinary 
type, with the exception of two, 40 and 38 in., which are octa- 
gonal in section and resemble the celt found at Wallingford, 
Berks. (Evans, fig. 1 50). 



THuiwocK, etftmx- 

Fig. I. Fragments of socketed celts and leaf-shaped sword: Grays Thurrock. 

The winged celts are of a type comparatively rare in Britain and 
rather more common on the Continent. They are provided with 
a loop and have the side wings hammered over to form semi- 
circular sockets on either side of the blade. Similar specimens 
were found with bronze at Carlton Rode, Norfolk (Evans, fig. 85). 

2 leaf-shaped spear-heads, lengths 4-3 and 35 in. 

2 fragments of another, larger. 

1 1 fragments of other spear-heads. 

37 fragments of blades of leaf-shaped swords. 

5 fragments of hilt plates of same. 

2 chapes from sword-scabbards. 
The two small leaf-shaped spear-heads are perfect and have 
shallow flutings at the edges. The sides of the upper part of the 
blade are nearly straight and the sockets appear large in propor- 
tion to the width of the blade (Evans, fig. 386). The two 
fragments of the larger spear-head are slightly decorated and 
resemble another found at Reach Fen (Evans, fig. 390). Three 
leaf-shaped swords are represented by a large number of fragments 


of blades and hilt plates. About one-third of the blade fragments 
have a bold midrib and shallow flutings at the edges, while the 
remainder are plain and not so highly finished. The chapes 
resemble the specimen from the Reach Fen hoard (Evans, 

Fig. 1. Types of winged and socketed celts : Grays Thurrock. 

fig. 371), and are considerably worn, apparently by trailing on 
the ground. 

3 imperfect socketed knives. 

1 tanged knife, length 52 in. 

9 fragments of tanged and socketed knives. 

2 fragments of tanged chisels. 

I socketed gouge, length 36 in. 

5 imperfect ditto, similar. 

I socketed hammer, length 2-5 in. 

I imperfect ditto and fragment. 

I broken winged celt used as hammer. 
The gouges are of the usual socketed type similar to one from 
Thorndon, Suffolk (Evans, fig. 204). The socketed knives are 
all imperfect and consist ot the sockets with more or less of the 
blade, showing signs of considerable use in ancient times. The 
socketed hammer is circular in section and moulded at the mouth 
of the socket, like one from the Isle of Harty, Sheppey (Evans, 
fig. 211). The imperfect specimen and the fragment have been 

I 2 



perforated for rivets, and the broken winged celt, which has been 
converted into a solid hammer, retains the loop and flanges to 
assist in securing the handle. 

I fragment of a curved tanged knife. 

1 fragment of a sickle. 

2 fragments of a halberd blade. 

I decorated ferrule and a small ring. 

6 fragments of bronze bracelets. 

21 miscellaneous fragments. 

The halberd blade is of a hitherto unrecorded type, and the 

curved tanged knife of a type common in Switzerland. A portion 

of another specimen of the former was found with bronze at Little 

Baddow in Essex many years ago, and perhaps others exist though 

Fig. 3. Tanged and socketed knives, spear-heads, and metal mould: 
Grays Thurrock. 

unrecorded. Miscellaneous fragments include portions of the 
angle-ring and sides of a bronze vessel. 
I half of a bronze mould, imperfect. 
4 waste pieces with runners. 
I small lump of tin. 
68 lumps of copper and bronze. 
The mould was intended for casting socketed celts of the ordi- 
nary type. The rnasses of copper and bronze cake are of the type 
usually associated with hoards of ancient bronze. Some of the 
pieces are heavily patinated, and a comparison of fractures indicates 
the presence of a metal of coarse texture with air-holes produced 
in casting, and a more refined one. The lump of tin has a peculiar 
cruciform section and undoubtedly contains a certain percentage of 
lead derived from lead ores associated with the tin lodes from 
which it was smelted. 

For the photographs of the bronze I am indebted to Mr. 
Arthur G. Wright, Curator of the Colchester Museum. 

The Avebtiry Ditch 

By A. D. Passmore 

Since the excavations at Avebury it has been a mystery that 
the Ditch inside the bank surrounding the greatest stone circle in 
the world should be thirty feet deep on its south side. A walk 
round the fosse as it remains to-day reveals the fact that it is 
deeper on the south side, where the ground-level is higher than 
on the north ; on the latter the ordinary level is 510 ft. O.D., 
while on the former it is 527 ft. This seems to point to the 
conclusion that a ditch was planned with a level bottom irrespec- 
tive of the original level of the ground at any one point, and that 
the Ditch was not therefore made the same depth all round. The 
enormous labour of digging this huge trench 30 ft. deep, over 
40 ft. wide at top, and 1 7 ft. at the bottom was incurred for some 
definite object. Ordinarily the theory of a prehistoric ditch is that 
it was to keep out man or animals ; in this case 10 ft. of depth 
with fairly steep sides would be impassable for either ; therefore 
to account for the extraordinary exertion of going down 20 ft. 
deeper than necessary we must adopt another hypothesis, and 
the fact that the ditch is now deeper on the south, where the 
ground is highest, gives a clue to the problem. Mr. A. H. Lawson 
at my req^uest very kindly took levels (see below) and proves to 
a point ot extreme accuracy that the difference in level between 
the bottom of the fosse at the entrance of the Kennet Avenue and 
the bed of the infant Kennet at the bridge on the Beckhampton 
road and roughly 520 yards distant, is to-day only 5 ft. 3 in. As 
in a wet season there is often 6 ft. of water in this stream, the 
water-level now may be said to be slighdy higher than the bottom 
of the Avebury fosse. 

Before the drainage of the Kennet and Thames valleys an 
enormous volume of water must have been held up, and one can 
[^ say without fear of contradiction that in Late Neolithic times the 
water-level was at least 10 ft. higher than to-day. This was in 
a measure proved by Pitt- Rivers, who found in excavations that 
the difference between Roman times and the nineteenth century 
was 6 ft. Thus, if a small channel 280 yards long was cut from the 
stream to the nearest point of the circle (which would be a small 
matter to the builders of the great ditch), a level of 10 ft. of 



water could be maintained in the moat surroundihg Avebury 

A careful study of the land between the Circles and the 
Kennet, as far as the village built on part of it allows, shows that 
the lowest ground is occupied by the village and is therefore not 
available for study ; but near the foot-bridge leading to Trusloe 
Manor there is a distinct hollow leading from the river towards 


Levels taken on 2 May 192 1 from Inner Plateau of Temple to Bed of Stream 
under Road to Devizes and close to Avebury 

Back Fore 

Rise Fall 


Collimation Level 






Bench Mark on Cottage 




Ground Level of Inner 
Plateau of Temple 





Spot Level on Road 













Parapet ot Bridge over 
Stream 1 0' 0" Down 
to Bed of Stream 


Bed of Stream 

Ground Level of Inner Plateau of Temple above Ordnance Datum 527-82 
Bed of Stream ,, ,, ,, 492-56 


35-26 Feet. 

A. H. Lawson. 

the vallum which can be followed till a house standing on it 
is reached within a few yards of the centre of the churchyard. 

Light is thrown on another Avebury problem by the above 
evidence. Whereas megalithic monuments are usually associated 
with high ground, the monument in question is on one of the lowest 
parts of the neighbourhood, thereby involving the transport of its 
huge stones for some miles, while, on the other hand, had it been 
built on the plateau to the east large stones in plenty would have 
been at hand and saved much labour. That the site of the future 
circles was chosen so near to the river suggests that it was 


desirable to have water at hand ; so that, if my conclusions 
are sound, the reason of the choice of site and of the extreme 
depth of the fosse is explained. Also, if the late excavations 
had been carried out on the north side the original bottom 
could have been examined with half the labour and cost, as, 
according to the theory outlined above, the fosse on that side 
should be under 20 ft. deep. 

It should be mentioned that Silbury Hill (on the opposite bank, 
of the Kennet and 1270 yards distant) had a large and deep moat 
which, being so close to the river, would have contained water. 
I have seen Silbury in winter standing as an island in deep 
water except for the causeway on the south side. 

Notes on the Site of Merton Priory Church 
By the Rev. H. F. Westlake, M.V.O., M.A., F.S.A. 

It has long been accepted that the site of the church of the 
Austin Canons of Merton was irretrievably lost, or at least 
irrecoverable by reason of the railway which runs across the 
enclosed precinct of the priory. Such portions of the other priory 
buildings which remain above the ground have been adequately 
described by our Fellow Mr. P. M. Johnston in the Surrey 
Archaeological Collections^ vol. xxvii. These are somewhat remote, 
and, indeed, on the other side of the river Wandle from the site 
the investigation of which is presently to be described. 

Immediately north of Merton Abbey Station and parallel to the 
railway runs a road, with a fence on its farther side bounding the 
property of Mr. Corfield, the proprietor of the Trafalgar Works 
close by. Beneath the gravel path, on the northern side of the 
road and directly opposite the station, were discovered some three 
or four years ago two stone coffins. These were exposed on the 
occasion of the laying of a gas main and their position noted. In 
themselves these provided no particular indication of the site of 
the church, but there was at least the possibility that they lay 
within its bounds. Within the last few months the attention of 
our Fellow Colonel Bidder was drawn to the fact that at a short 
distance to the north-east of these there were to be found a 
large number of masons' chips of Reigate stone which seemed 
likely to have marked the site of the masons' lodge. After some 
discussion he and I decided to look for the site of the church 
immediately to the south of this. The investigation was at once 
successful, and flint foundations, 5 ft. 8 in. in thickness, revealed 
themselves with no more difficulty than was involved in displacing 
the topsoil, which varied in depth from 4 or 5 inches to as many 
feet according to the slope of the surface. In the greater part of 
the investigation, as will be clear from the plan, this thickness 
represented a sort of standard measurement. 

For reasons which do not concern the present notes it was only 
possible to spend three or four short winter days in pursuing the 
investigation, and, as that investigation will not be further carried 
on until the summer months, it is thought well to place on record 
the results, both certain and tentative, of what was done. Such 


portions of the site as are shown in black on the plan represent 
foundations actually exposed and as carefully measured iis the con- 
ditions would allow. This, however, does not apply to the four 
supposed pillar bases to the westward, the position of which was 
determined by measurement and probing the soil of the allot- 
ments which cover them. The foundations of a portion of an 
eastern wall do not, of course, necessarily mark the eastern ter- 
mination of the church, and it is probable, in regard to the 
proportions of the exposed foundations, that a further eastern 
extension will be found. The running of a water main along the 
road will probably determine this before these notes appear in 
print. Three bays westward in the nave the wall on the north 
appears to narrow to a width of only 3 ft. 6 in., and a continuation 
in the line of this appears to go on westwards of what for the 
moment we take to be the western limit of the church itself This 


Merton Priory Church : plan of parts excavated in 1911. 

further wall may well be the boundary-wall of an inner precinct. 
Almost certainly it extends to the river. 

The whole site investigated occupies a distance of about 175 ft. 
from east to west. That this is not necessarily the extreme 
measurement of the church has already been suggested. The 
span of the arches is 19 ft. 6 in. The site was explored almost 
up to the fence. The greater part of the church, therefore, must 
lie beneath the road and the railway beyond. A local inhabitant 
has since reported that in some excavation in the road in the past 
he saw several pillar-bases in situ. Several encaustic tiles were 
found of various patterns, all apparently of the fourteenth century, 
but these were among the debris turned up, and no pavement 
was found. 

I should add that the credit of initiating the search belongs 
entirely to Colonel Bidder and in no way to myself. He would 
wish to associate himself with me in thanking Mr. Corfield for 
his permission, so cordially given to us, to explore the site, and 
for the interest he has taken throughout. 

Four Sujfolk Flint Implements 
By J. Reid Moir 

The four flint implements described and illustrated in this 
article have been found at the following places in the county ot 
Suffolk, viz. Southwold, Charsfield, Hoxne, and Nacton. The 
Southwold specimen (figs, i, ia, and i b) was found lying at the 

Figs, i, i a, i b. Three views of flint blade found at Southwold, Suffolk. 

foot of a low cliff bordering the beach at this place by Mrs. Edgar 
Turner of Walberswick, who has been so good as to lend the 
implement to the Ipswich Museum. The specimen exhibits the 
unchanged black colour of the original flint, carries very little 
* gloss ', and is unabraded and unworn. Unfortunately the 
implement has had, at some time, a piece broken from it and 


replaced, but the drawings show clearly where this fracturing 

The Charsfield specimen (figs. 2, 2 a, and 2b) was found many 
years ago while digging a land drain in this parish, but no 
particulars are now obtainable as to the nature of the material in 
which the implement rested, nor the depth from the surface at 
which it was found. The flint, which exhibits a very rich choco- 
late-brown coloration, interspersed on one side (fig. 2b) with 
yellowish streaks, carries a marked gloss, and is the most beautiful 
specimen of its kind which I have ever had the good fortune to 

Figs. 2, 2 a, 2 u. Three views of flint blade found at Charsfield, Suffolk. 

examine. The implement is unabraded and unworn, and is 
described and illustrated here owing to the kindness of Mr. E. G. 
Pretyman, M.P., to whom it belongs, and who has lent it for this 

The Hoxne specimen (figs. 3, 3 a, and 33) was found a few 
years ago by a workman employed in the brickyard at this place. 
The implement, which was stated to have rested in brick-earth at 
a depth of 5 ft. froili the surface of the ground, in association 
with several of the well-known Acheulean palaeolithic implements 
of Hoxne, exhibits the unchanged colour of the original brownish- 
black flint, and is quite unabraded and unworn. The interstices 
of the specimen contain traces of a material which looks like 



sandy brick-earth, and in this particular, as well as in its condition, 
the flint resembles very closely the implements of definite palaeo- 
lithic type with which it was apparently associated. 

The Nacton specimen (figs. 4, 4A, and 4B) was found upon the 
surface of a field at this place by Mr. Edward Hancox, who very 
kindly presented the flint to me. It exhibits a bluish-white, streaky 
coloration, and is unworn and unabraded, except upon its lower 
surface (fig. 4 b) where a series of parallel scratches is observable. 
These striations, which by their ferruginous coloration would 
appear in all probability to have been caused by a plough or other 

J IK. 

Figs. 3, 3 a, 3 b. Three views of flint blade from Hoxne, SuflFoIk. 

agricultural implement, have cut through the changed and * pati- 
nated ' surface of the flint. 

It is of interest to note that the Hoxne specimen, though 
similar in outline and general form to those found at Southwold 
and Charsfield, exhibits, nevertheless, flake-scars of a diflTerent 
order from those exhibited by these two latter implements. The 
Hoxne blade has been produced by blows removing * resolved ' 
flakes, while the blows responsible for the flake-scars to be seen 
upon the other three specimens described, were of such an order 
as not to result in the removal of flakes of this particular kind. 
An examination, of the illustrations of the four flints, reproduced 
from admirable drawings by Mr. E. T. Lingwood, will show that, 
in each case, the implement was made from a flake so struck from 
the core that the detached piece of flint presented a flake-face 
more or less straight (see edge view of each specimen), and not 
curved, as are the analogous surfaces of so many flakes. This 
achievement and the skill shown in the subsequent removal by 
blows of the flake§ from either surface of the blade, aflFord 
remarkable testimony to the expert knowledge of flint-flaking 
possessed by the ancient craftsmen. There would appear to be no 


evidence that the flake-scars exhibited by the specimens described 
were produced by pressure. 

As regards the cultural age of these four implements from 
Suffolk, it might be held that the Nacton specimen represents 

Figs. 4. 4 a 4 b. Three views of flint blade from Nacton, Suffolk.. 

a Proto-Solutrian palaeolithic blade, while those from Southwold 
and Charsfield are of Early Solutrian Age. And, so far as form 
and technique are concerned, such a claim may be justified. The 
Hoxne specimen presents a more difficult problem, but its dis- 
covery may encourage those who look for the genesis of the 
Solutrian blade in Acheulean times. 

Some Examples of Catalait Medieyal Stamped 

By W. L. HiLDBuRGH, F.S.A. 
[Read 17 th March 1921] 

In medieval Catalonia, or perhaps in the neighbouring province 
of Valencia, the manufacture of certain objects made of wood 
covered with thin sheets of brass bearing designs in relief seems to 
have formed a flourishing industry. The brass sheets employed, 
which covered practically the whole visible exterior surface 
and gave the appearance of articles of solid metal, were 
embossed by means of moulds into which the thin sheets were 
forced, so that their outer surfaces reproduced the designs of the 
mould. The process used is one which seems to have been in 
more or less general employment in medieval Europe ; and many 
examples of it, frequently carried out in the precious metals, are 
to be found upon book-covers and caskets, and upon crosses, 
reliquaries, and other articles for ecclesiastical use. Long before 
the objects which I am about to describe were made, Rhenish, 
French, Italian, and Spanish craftsmen were using the process. 
Writing probably about the first half of the eleventh century, the 
monk Theophilus describes the process, especially in its application 
to silver and to copper gilt. He says ' that the stamps should be 
made of iron * thick as the size of a finger, wide as three or four 
fingers, in length one (foot) ', on which stamps, ' in resemblance of 
seals ', the designs are sculptured, not too deeply, * but moderately 
and carefully '. The metal to be used should be thinner than for 
ordinary relief-work. A sheet (in the case of silver), after having 
been cleansed with finely pulverized charcoal and polished with 
scraped chalk, is to be laid between the stamp (whjch rests face 
upward on an anvil) and a thick sheet of lead, and the last- 
mentioned is to be beaten strongly with a hammer. A sheet 
longer than a stamp can be moved so as to expose a fresh portion 
when one or more portions have been stamped. 

The main interest of the present objects lies, therefore, not in 

' R. Hendrie's translation of the Essay upon Various Arts, London, 1847, 
pp. 329 seqq., * Of work which is impressed with stamps.' 



their being early examples of the use of this simple method for 
reproducing designs in low-relief upon metal, but in that they — the 
caskets certainly, and the cross probably — are products of one of 
those localized medieval industries whose output must, if we may 
judge by the many examples still extant, have been very large. 
An explanation of the somewhat surprising number of surviving 
examples possibly lies in an unusually resistant mould — an exact 
duplication of a mould is less easy to credit — for the metal, and 
perhaps in the use (and, by annealing, the retention) of the brass 
sheets in a soft state, because if a mould were sufficiently resistant 
to the brass it might obviously be used for embossing sheets 
during a long period. Furthermore, if it were for some reason laid 
aside before it had been worn out, it might again be brought into use 
at a later time and employed to emboss sheets so that they would be 
practically identical with those made during its early life. While 
a study of Italian wafering-irons ornamented in the sixteenth 
century by means of small punches has seemed to show clearly 
that the punches employed had to be replaced after a few years of 
use,' the moulds used for stamping the brass sheets may reason- 
ably be supposed to have lasted considerably longer, for their 
broader treatment, the softer material to be impressed by them, 
and the smaller friction of brass on iron (or steel) than of steel on 
iron, would contribute towards that result. 

Although a not inconsiderable number of specimens of Catalan 
stamped brasswork has survived, all with which I am at present 
acquainted are either caskets or crosses. The Rev. Prebendary Jose 
Gudiol, of Vich, who has written concerning work of this kind,"* 
figuring a number of typical examples and referring to various 
others in museums, churches, or private collections,^ has pointed 
out that they seem obviously to have been derived from earlier 
types of objects, of which examples presumably Catalan in origin 
exist. In these a base of wood or other material has been orna- 
mented with thin sheets of repousse metal (generally silver) 
applied to the surface. He adds, furthermore, that although he 
knew at the time he wrote of no documentary evidence concerning 
their place of manufacture, the inscriptions forming part of the 
moulded decoration of certain of the caskets were clear evidence of 
the Catalan or Valencian origin of the work.* Most of the 
examples in which human figures appear seem, according to 

' Cf. Proc. Soc. Ant., xxvii, 171, 173. 

^ Museum, Barcelona, 1 914-15, no. i, pp. 37 ^fjq; 'Una antigua produccidn 

^ Those figured herewith, and the casket in the British Museum, are not referred 
to by Gudiol. * Museum, loc. cit., p. 42. 



Gudiol, to have been made in the fourteenth century or near the 
beginning of the fifteenth, while his examples in which purely 
ornamental motives are shown seem to him somewhat later in date ; 
he points out, too, that stamped sheet brasswork continued to be 
made in Spain even in the sixteenth century.' 

The first casket shown (fig. i) is rectangular, with a lid having 
four sloping sides and a flat top ; to the lid a brass handle ter- 
minating in two animals' heads is attached, and also a brass hasp 
(the lower part of which is missing) for a lock whose small splayed 
plate is on the front of the box. The form seems to have been 

Fig. I. Catalan stamped metal casket. 

favoured for the later medieval caskets, and it is one used 
for almost all of those figured by Gudiol. The body has been 
covered with several sheets of brass, each ornamented with a series 
(or part of a series) of five panels of which all may be seen on 
the front of the casket. It is interesting to observe that the five 
panels appear to have been impressed not by means of five single 
moulds, but by means of one mould giving the whole five,^ this 
being shown not merely by the fact that the order of the panels is 
the same on all sides of the box, but that the panels occur in pre- 
cisely the same order on the front of a casket and its lid in the 

' Museum, he. cit,, pp. 42, 44. 

* I think that the full set lias six panels, the first of which is here missing. 
Parts of sets seem often to be used for those caskets. 


Barcelona Museum, and on another in the Jacquemard-Andr6 
Museum at Paris. Beneath the panels runs a legend, forming 
part of the stamped design, which, although not very legible here, 
appears to be PER : AMOR : DE : MADONA : ME : COMBAT : AB : 
AQJJESTA : VI BRA,' and obviously refers to the scenes which form 
the subjects of the panels. These subjects are : a man struggling 
with a lion ; a warrior attacking a wild beast ; a horseman killing 
a dragon ; a horseman with a falcon ; and a woman with a kind 
of griffon. The Jacquemard-Andr6 casket seems, judging from 
a photograph, to have a sixth subject, below which appears the 
word PER of the legend. The lid is covered with sheets show- 
ing a set of three panels, which occur also (and in the same order, 
for they were made in a single mould) upon the British Museum 
casket, on the South Kensington casket, and on several caskets 
referred to by Gudiol (p. 40), including one (fig. H) in the 
Episcopal Museum at Vich. The panels each show a woman and 
a man ; in one she is about to place a wreath upon his head, in the 
second she is putting his helmet on, and in the third she aims an 
arrow at him : under them, and made with the stamp used for 
them, is an inscription : AMOR : MERGE: SI VS : PLAU. The wood 
of the casket, where exposed at the bottom and inside, is painted 
a bright red, seemingly the original colour. The inscriptions and 
the designs of the panels show clearly the purpose of the box ; it 
was intended as a token of affection, perhaps as a present at 
betrothal or at marriage, to be used by the recipient to contain 
jewels, gloves, veils, or other small articles. 

The casket at the British Museum is ornamented, both on the 
body and lid, with the three-panel set just described. It is nearly 
six panels in length, but the front is not quite long enough to 
carry the whole of the two terminal panels. The handle is the 
same as that shown in fig. 2. 

The casket (fig. 2) belonging to the Victoria and Albert 
Museum is remarkable for the unusually perfect condition of its 
plating ; indeed, so few signs of wear does this show that many 
years ago the casket was withdrawn from public exhibition, as being 
suspect. The details of the stamping are so much less sharp than 
those of the casket of fig. i as to suggest either that this casket 
was made at a period when the stamps had become worn through 
much usage or that unsuitable sheets (too thick, or too hard) 
were employed. As its wooden foundation has been painted 
in the same way as that of the other casket, and with a similar 
bright red, I am inclined to think that it probably was made 

' Cf. Museum, loc. c'lt., pp. 40, 41. 


towards the end of the fourteenth century, or perhaps a little 
later.' The form of the casket is a less usual one than that of the 
casket here exhibited ; its plan is a long rectangle, and its lid is 
slightly arched. Its general form is the same as that of the casket 
with the same panels in the Vich Museum, but it is much longer 
in proportion ; the brass handles of the two caskets are almost 
identical in shape. The Vich casket has (according to its photo- 
graph) four small feet, but this casket has none. 

The processional cross shown in fig. 3 is of wood, covered on 
either face with sheets of stamped brass, and (as is commonly the 
case with metal-covered wooden crosses) with the space between 
the two faces covered with thin metal strips stamped with a 

Fig. 1. Catalan stamped metal casket in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

simple conventional design — in this case a leafy scroll. The 
shape of the cross is one common among Spanish medieval 
crosses, the limbs ending in floriations and having each an 
oval swelling not far from the floriated part. The eight pieces 
forming the main part of the covering of the cross have all been 
stamped from thin sheets, with the use of only one mould (a 
mould obviously cut for the special purpose of making arms for 
crosses), and shows a conventionalized grape-vine design. On 
either face of the cross a portion of the stem is covered with 
sheet-brass bearing a running scroll whose stems carry five- 
petalled flowers ; this brass is much less sharply stamped than 
that on the other parts. The central portion, as is often the case 
with medieval Spanish crosses, projects slightly beyond the cross- 
ing of the limbs, and is covered on the front with a stamped 
square of brass bearing an animal attacking a long-necked, long- 

' The construction of these caskets renders easy the renewal of their foundations, 
however ; cf. Gudiol, p. 41, on the Barcelona casket I have cited supra. 



tailed monster, and surrounded by an octagonal band filled with 
scrolls ; on the back the corresponding square is stamped with a 
circle containing our Lord in Majesty and the symbols of the four 

Fig. 3. Processional cross covered with sheets of stamped brass. 

Evangelists, each animal with a short scroll. Above the place tor 
the Christ (now missing) is a brass angel (now inverted) emerging 
from a cloud and swinging a censer, and below it a similar figure 
of the risen Adam, both of general types fairly common on 
Spanish metal crosses of this period. The knot of the cross is 
interesting, being formed as a cube with all its corners very much 

K 2 


cut away ; it retains traces of the polychrome decoration (red 
ground, with black and white lines) which formerly covered it and 
which may still be seen, almost intact, on the upper section of the 
wooden socket. Gudiol shows (fig. K) a double-armed brass- 
covered processional cross, in the museum at Vich, which he 
ascribes to the fourteenth century, having a knot of the same 
form as the present one covered with sheets of ornamented brass. 
Since knots having this peculiar form are not common, and since 
the Vich cross, apparently of Catalan origin, has a vine-scroll 
very similar to that of the present sheets, I think that we may 
reasonably assign a Catalan origin to the present example — 
although I have no other evidence as to the district whence it 
came. The question where the present cross was made derives 
an added interest from the Victoria and Albert Museum's posses- 
sion of a large silver cross,' attributed to the early fifteenth century, 
which bears the mark of Burgos — far from Catalonia — in various 
parts, including some silver sheets stamped with a grape-vine 
design closely resembling that upon the principal pieces of the 
present example. 


The President had been familiar for thirty years with metal-plated 
caskets. The present type had its origin in a Moorish type, many 
in ivory being of earlier date. The casket exhibited was manifestly 
French in style. In spite of its rude workmanship it displayed a 
certain amount of taste, especially in the handle. The designs were 
sometimes considerably older than the actual caskets, as the moulds 
might perhaps have lasted a long time. 

' No. 514. 1873; ^^ '5 illustrated in J. F. Riano's Induitrtal Arts in Spain, 
1890, p. zo. 

Archaeological Finds m the Kennet Gravels 
near Newbury 

By Harold Peake, F.S.A., Local Secretary for Berkshire 

So many discoveries have been made in the gravels of this 
region during the last few years, following upon a number which 
have been noted previously, that it seems advisable to treat them 
as forming a single body of evidence, which goes far to trace the 
evolution of the valley in Pleistocene and subsequent times. 

The valley of the Kennet near Newbury runs from west to east, 
just north of the centre of the syncline between the Berkshire 
and Hampshire Downs. This syncline has been filled up with 
Reading and London clays, sometimes capped with a thin layer of 
Bagshot sands ; but these have been partially denuded. The 
Eocene beds are at their thickest south of the Kennet Valley, but 
on the north they appear at a greater elevation, though the 
tributary streams have cut through these and left the chalk 

All these Eocene beds are capped with plateau gravels, which 
have not as yet received the attention they deserve. They cover 
the ridges between the tributary valleys for five miles north of the 
Kennet, also the ridge dividing the Kennet Valley from that of 
the Enborne, which here run& parallel to it, and they extend for 
a considerable distance south of that stream. 

The northern gravels seem to tilt gently southwards, and at 
their northern extremity lie with their base about 440 ft. O.D. ; 
there are, however, beds at a higher as well as at a slightly lower 
level. The main bed between the Kennet and the Enborne, on 
which lie Wash, Greenham, and Crookham Commons, falls to the 
east with the same dip as the Kennet, and south of Newbury lies 
about 400 ft. O.D. The Hampshire gravels seem to be at 
different levels, but some lie as high as 440 ft. O.D. 

The age of these gravels is at present uncertain. Those 
described above belong, with trifling exceptions, to the third stage 
of the plateau gravels of the Newbury region described by 
Mr. Osborne White ; this he terms the Silchester and Greenham 
stage.' He places this in the earlier part of the Pleistocene 

' The geology oj the country around Hungerford and Newbury. Mem. Geol. 
Surv. Sheet 267, p. 93. 


period. At the present moment these gravels are, in the absence 
of human evidence, undatable. 

But in these gravels, as in the plateau gravels elsewhere, have 
been found certain palaeolithic implements, all of St. Acheul type. 
One of these, found by a boy from Newbury Grammar School on 
the roadside in a heap of gravel which had come from Brimpton 
pit, has already been described before the Society ; ' the level of 
the pit is 322 ft. O.D. Another implement of similar type is in 
the possession of Mr. A. D. Passmore ; it was found in a gravel- 
pit on Wash Common, but I am uncertain as to the exact position 
of the pit. A third came more recently from the garden of 
Crowshott, in the parish of Highclere, Hants, just below the 
surface soil in the upper layer of the gravel, found by Mr. Godfrey 
Arkwright ; the altitude of the spot is 440 ft. O.D. The first 
and third of these are in the Newbury Museum, while a cast of 
the other has just been received from Mr. Passmore. 

Were these implements lost when the Kennet was flowing at 
the 400 ft. level, as has been suggested by Crawford,"" or were they 
dropped upon the surface when the river had cut its channel to 
a lower level, as Macalister thinks ? ^ If we knew the levels at 
which the implements had been found we could perhaps decide ; 
unfortunately in two cases this is unknown, but Mr. Arkwright 
is clear that his was found on the top of the gravel. This looks 
as though Macalister were right, and that the gravel is older than 
the period of St. Acheul. Now Penck and Obermaier have 
maintained that the high gravels were laid down, beyond the 
limits of the glaciers, during successive Ice Ages If then we 
accept the usual view that the St. Acheul culture belongs to the 
latter part of the Riss-Wtirm interglacial period, then the 
Wash-Greenham-Crookham plateau gravel cannot be later than 
the Riss glaciation. 

During the WOrm - glaciation, or immediately afterwards, the 
Kennet seems to have scoured out its present valley 160 ft. to 
200 ft. below its former level. If any gravels were deposited 
during the Wurm period, they were carried away by the floods 
that occurred as the ice began to melt. No terraces of this age 
have been found in the Kennet Valley, but there are lower terraces 
in the Enborne Valley which may belong to this time. 

In due course the new bed of the Kennet was filled up with 
gravel to the depth of about 50 ft. This gravel is being dug at 
a pit close to Newbury station, and here have been found bones 

' Proc. Soc. Antiq., xxxii, 87, 83. 

" Ibid., 88. 

^ R. A. S. Macalister, y^ text-book of European Archaeology^ i, i6i. 


which Dr. Andrews identifies as belonging to Bison priscuSy Bos sp., 
Cervus elaphus^znd Sus scrofa. According to Mr. E. P. Richards 
the same gravel, in the railway cutting a little to the west, yielded 
a tibia of Bos primigenius^ a horn of T^angifer tarandus^ and remains 
of Elephas primigenius.^ At other spots somewhat to the south 
and east Mr. E. T. Newton identified the remains of Bos primi- 
genius. Bos laurus, Equus caballus^ OviSy Rangifer taranduSy and Sus 
scrofay though it has been suggested that the remains of Ovis were 
perhaps of recent introduction.'' Mr. Osborne White distinguishes 
between the above beds, which he calls the lower terrace gravel, 
and others which he terms Low-level or Bottom gravels ; there 
seem to be insufficient grounds for this distinction.^ The fine 
tusk of Elephas primigeniuSy obtained by Dr. Silas Palmer from the 
bed of the Kennet, seems also to have come from this gravel.* 
It is in the Newbury Museum. 

The fauna of this gravel, taken as a whole, seems to belong to 
the closing phase of the Pleistocene period. No implements have 
been found in it which can be considered as coeval. Mr. Richards 
mentions several worn tools,^and a few much-abraded implements 
of Chelles type have recently been found in the pit by the station, 
and are now in the Newbury Museum. Considering the fauna, 
the plentiful occurrence of red-deer antlers and the single example 
of reindeer antler, we must, I think, equate this gravel with the 
period of La Madeleine, and perhaps with its later phases. If, as 
we have argued above, these gravels were laid down by the 
water derived from glaciers, this gravel must belong to the 
Bahl advance. This supposition seems to fit all the evidence 

After an interval, in which 10 ft. to 20 ft. of gravel were swept 
away from the centre of the valley, a period seems to have 
followed when a deep channel, a quarter of a mile wide and 12 ft. 
to 20 ft. defep, was cut through what was left, and filling this 
we find a deposit of peat. This must have been laid down 
in shallow lakes, when the flow of the river was slow and much 
impeded by gravel banks, and 1 have suggested elsewhere* that 

' White, op. cit ■ <)9\ E. P. Richards, The gravels and associated deposits at 
Newbury. Q. J. Geol. Soc, liii (1897). 415. 

' White, op. cit., 99 ; Richards, op. cit., 417 ; Trans. Newbury Dist. Field Club, 
iv (1890), 110. 

^ White, op. cit., 98, loi. 

^ White, op. cit., 108 ; Trans. Newbury Dist. F. C, iii (1895), 193 ; foot-note 
by T. R. J. to Richards, op. cit., 417. 

' E. P. Richards. The geology of Newbury and (^strict, in Walter Money, 
y/ popular History of Newbury (19^5), 218. 

^ The Newbury Region. 


the formation of these lakes was due in no small measure to the 
action of beavers, which existed here as late as Saxon times.' 
The section made by Mr. Richards at the time of the laying down 
of the Newbury Sewage scheme shows a layer of shell-malm 
overlying the peat along Bartholomew and Northbrook Streets."" 
Now this shell-malm seems to consist of debris of shells and other 
matter deposited by flood water upon the margins of the valley. 
Much of it is found by Marsh Benham and Speen Dairy Farm, 
and several feet of it were found overlying the gravel at 
St. George's Avenue. If we find a bed of shell-malm crossing 
the valley, there must have been something on which it could 
accumulate. This, I suggest, was a beaver-dam, and the fact that 
Professor W. Nielson Jones and Dr. M. C. Rayner found the 
pelvis of a young beaver in the peat just to the west of this line 
seems to support this view. A better-preserved dam of this type, 
also covered with shell-malm, and running nearly across the 
valley, may be seen at Marsh Benham. 

The date of the peat is known approximately. Mr. C. E. P. 
Brooks has recently stated that it started about 1800 b.c. and 
lasted uhtil a. d. 300.^ Mr. Richards records neolithic flint 
implements from the peat and peaty soil at the sewage outfall 
works,'* but these, as we shall see later, may not have come from 
the peat. Two bronze spear-heads were found early in the nine- 
teenth century in the peat on Speen Moor,^ and are now in the 
possession of Col. St. John, of Slinfold, Sussex, while a cheek- 
piece of a bridle, made of deer antler, was taken from the peat, 
or just above it, in West Street, Newbury, and is now in the 
Newbury Museum. These discoveries tend to support 
Mr. Brooks's contention, though, perhaps, he brings his final date 
down somewhat too late. 

Recently some interesting flints have been discovered at the 
Borough Sewage Outfall Works in the parish of Thatcham, which 
help to fill in the gap between the valley gravel and the peat. 
The workmen were levelling a low bank when they discovered 
a number of flint flakes and a few small chipped pointed-butt 
celts. One of the latter and some of the flakes were taken to the 

' Chron. Monast. M'tngd. (Rolls Sen), i, 118. 

'^ Trans. Newbury Dist. Field Cluh, iv, p). 2. 

^ C. H. P, Brooks, The evolution of climate in north west Europe. Q. J. R. Meteor. 
Soc, xlvii, 173. 

^ Q. J. Geol. Soc, liii, 428-9. 

^ The History oj Newbury and its environs, Speenhamland (1839), 142 ; Evans, 
Bronze, 330, 333, 337; Journ. Brit. ^rch. Ass., xvii, 322; V. C, H. Berks, i, 
195, where they are erroneously described as three. 


museum, the remainder thrown awav. An investigation of the 
site showed that these flints came from a deposit of black soil, 
full of flints, which overlay th-e valley gravel, but the discovery 
in the same deposit of Romano-British potsherds caused some 

Mr. O. G. S. Crawford and I undertook a systematic exploration 
of the site in September 1921, when the workmen found 
quantities of flint flakes and a few scrapers ; they had in the 
meantime recovered most of the implements thrown away earlier. 
At one point, about 50 ft. from the other site, we dug a trench 
30 ft. long, down to the valley gravel.' This cleared up all 

We found surface soil to the depth of about 12 in. to 21 in., 
overlying a bed of compact peaty soil about 4 in. to 8 in. in 
thickness. Below this the soil was less compact for 8 in. to 10 in., 
and at the base of this was a layer of flints, on the top of the clean 
valley gravel, which was lying beneath. At one end of the trench 
was a deposit of clean white shell-malm resting partly on the peaty 
soil, which had been partially denuded at this point. 

Six inches above the top of this peaty soil were the remains of 
three hearths, around which we found bones of oxen and Romano- 
British potsherds. The compact peaty soil was sterile, and at the 
base of the looser black soil below were numerous flint flakes and 
a few scrapers. On examination the clean valley gravel yielded 
no worked flints. It would appear that at the site first examined 
either the compact peaty soil was absent or very thin, and that 
the ground had been disturbed and the layers mixed when planting 
an osier bed. 

A careful examination of the whole site showed that after the 
valley gravel had been considerably denuded, and its level reduced 
by about 20 feet, a layer of black soil full of flints had been laid 
down, perhaps by the river, or more probably by a small stream 
which joins it close by. It was at the beginning of this period 
that the low gravel bank was exposed as a small island above the 
marsh, and was used as a settlement or workshop by the flint 
workers. Subsequently the Kennet lowered its bed by about 
10 ft. to 20 ft., and this was again in the Bronze Age filled up 
with peat to its present level, which is 9 ft, below that of the 
settlement. Above the settlement a small pond formed before 
the valley level was lowered ; in this also a bed of peaty soil 

' A full account of these excavations will appear in a forthcoming number ot 
Proc. Preh'ut. Soc. East AngRa. 


We seem, then, to have the following stages ; 

1. Deposition of valley gravel. La Madeleine period. 

2. Denudation of valley gravel. Mas d'Azil period. 

3. Deposition of black soil with flints. Campigny period. 

4. Further excavation of valley. Robenhausen period. 

5. Deposition of peat. Bronze and Iron Ages. 

6. Formation of shell-malm. Roman period and later. 

At another spot a variety of objects have come to light. 
A company. Containers Limited, have been erecting a factory at 
Colthrop, in the parish of Thatcham, 4 miles east of Newbury. 
For the purpose of making concrete they have been digging 
several large pits, about 8 ft. to ip ft. deep, in the floor of the 
valley, and the gravel, as far as they have gone, is very calcareous, 
containing a large quantity of small chalk pebbles, some blocks of 
peat over a foot in diameter, and a few trunks of uprooted trees. 
From one of the pits was dredged a bronze spear-head, dating 
from the close of period ii of Dechelette, and coeval with the 
longest bronze dirks, or rapiers as they are sometimes called. 
This, which was probably derived from the peat, fell into two 
pieces shortly after it was dredged up. It is impossible to say at 
what depth it had been lying. 

In the most southern of the pits, but only a few yards distant 
from the spot at which the spear-head had been found, the work- 
men came across a wooden wheel, with an iron tyre, lying 
horizontally in the gravel at the depth of 5 ft. The wheel was 
perfect when discovered, but the wood was soft and spongy, and 
fell to pieces soon afterwards. Mr. F. C. Bertram Marshall, the 
engineer in charge of the works, saw it when it was found, and 
has described it to me. The outside of the hub expanded, and 
had a considerably larger diameter than the centre, the projecting 
piece being almost bell-shaped, with the larger end outside ; the 
wooden rim or felloe was made in one piece. This wheel, from 
the description provided, seems quite unlike any which have been 
found with Iron Age associations, but bears some resemblance to 
the wheel of a Roman chariot found at Newstead, the felloe of 
which was also made in one piece. The tyre and fragments of 
the wood are in the Newbury Museum. 

Near the wheel, and at the same depth, was found a human 
skull. This has been examined by Professor Parsons, F.S.A., who 
tells me that it resembles the skulls from the Long Barrows, but 
that it is slightly broader in the posterior region, but this extra 
breadth may be due to posthumous distortion, as the base of the 
skull has been broken away. 

Excayatio?is in Malta 

By Professor T. Zammit, C.M.G., M.D., Hon. D.Litt. (Oxon), 
Curator, Valletta Museum, Local Secretary for Malta 

During the month of September 1920 excavations were carried 
out by the Museum Curator at Rabat, in the vicinity of the Roman 
Villa Museum. 

The remains of the so-called Roman Villa are those of a fine 

Fig. I. Platform of large stone blocks, overlooking Ghariexem valley. 

Roman house which might have been the palace of the praetor, 
or pro-praetor, during the Roman occupation of these islands ; 
they were met with in 1881, whilst trees were being planted out- 
side the Notabile fortifications. A small portion of these ruins was 
roofed over and is now used as a museum. In 1889 a road was 
constructed leading to the railway station, which crossed the ground 
on which the Roman house was built, thus destroying a good 
portion of the important remains. No notes whatever were kept 
of the structures met with during the cutting of the road, and 
precious information was consequently lost. 


A flight of steps, hewn in the rock, on the western side of the 
road, which evidently led to a gallery extending in an eastern 
direction towards the terraced ground facing the Ghariexem valley, 
attracted the notice of the Museum Curator. The eastern bank 
of the road was cleared down to floor level, and the overhanging 
ridge was explored up to a rampart of the time of the Order of 
St. John. This rampart seems to have been built in a hurry over 

Fig. 2. Head of globigerina limestone; 9x6in. 

the ruins of the Roman building, and partly with the material 
obtained from the same. 

It was too late in the year for extensive excavations, but 
important observations were made. 

It is now evident that the Roman house extended eastwards, 
under the glacis of the Notabile fortifications. A large platform 
overlooking the Ghariexem valley was constructed of large blocks 
of stone which appear to have been taken from a pre-existing build- 
ing, possibly from some pagan temple (fig. i). A rain-water cistern, 
to the north of this platform, made impervious by a very thick 
layer of grey plaster, is covered by stone slabs 20 cm. (8 in.) thick. 
The cistern, which has the shape of the letter L, was half full 
of soil and stones, from among which potsherds of various degrees 
of fineness, varying from the coarse household pots to the finest 
Samian ware, were obtained. A head of globigerina limestone, 
apparently broken from a bust, was found in the cistern (fig. 2). 
It measures 22 cm. (9 in.) high and 1 5 cm. (6 in.) wide at the base, 



and represents a male face, the head being covered with plaited 
locks of hair that come down to the shoulders. The lips are thick, 
the upper lip is clean-shaven, and a smooth pointed beard adorns 
the chin and the sides of the face. It is difficult to establish the 
origin of this head, as neither its features nor its workmanship 
appear to be Roman. 

The rock on which the platform is constructed ends' abruptly 

Fig. 3. Stone pillars at the back of room and deep channel in front. 

at the north-west in a deep fissure, which, on the surface, formed 
a shallow cave. This was probably turned into a room by rafters 
fixed in the rock at one end, and supported at the other on pillars, 
of which four, though fragmentary, are still in situ (fig. 3). A 
spring of water ran at the bottom of this fissured rock now 
covered with clay, and was probably the main feeder of the Chain 
Hamman fountain, further down the valley. The water was fully 
utilized by the Romans, who led it in several well-constructed 
channels. A vaulted gallery, i -50 m. (5 ft.) high and 90 cm. (3 ft.) 
wide, runs out of the fissure in a northern direction, and a stone 
channel is cut in the rock parallel to it at a distance of about 3 m. 
(10 ft.). The water of this conduit was distributed into two 
smaller channels, partly built and partly cut in the rock, in a 
westerly direction. One of them ends in the gallery above 


mentioned, whilst the other crosses the road and discharges in 
a deep gallery cut in the western bank. 

The bulk of the water was led to Ghain Hamman, in the 
vicinity of which the baths of the Roman house were most 
probably constructed. The remains of a domed structure, of 
which the stones are deeply reddened by fire, can still be seen 
behind the Ghain Hamman building. This is undoubtedly a 
calidarium in which the spring water, coming from the fissure to 
the south, was heated for the Roman baths. That water was also 
heated at a point closer to the source is evident from the fact that 
the floor of the room in which the four pillars stand is covered 
with a thick layer of wood ashes, while, here and there, the walls 
are reddened by fire. Patches of coarse white mosaic floors 
were met with to the north of the pillared room on the terraced 
slope towards the bottom of the valley, but these terraces, having 
been turned into arable fields several centuries ago, retain few traces 
of their former state. 


Lord Emlys Shrine ; two ridge-poles of Shrines^ 
and two bronze castings 

By E. C. R. Armstrong, F.S.A., Local Secretary for Ireland 

Sir Martin Conway's paper on portable reliquaries,' tracing the 
origin of the familiar gabled type, includes a list of the Irish 
specimens ; to this list it is possible to add another, which has 
twice "* been mentioned, but I believe neither described nor illus- 
trated. Its existence is not generally known, for it was not alluded 
to by either Coffey or Romilly Allen in their works on Celtic Art. 
This reliquary was formerly deposited with the Royal Irish 
Academy by its owner, Mr. William Monsell, of Tervoe, co. 
Limerick, afterwards Lord Emly. It is described in one of the 
old Museum Registers as * A Shrine for holding relics \\ inches 
long, 3 1 high, and i| broad. In shape of a house with roof sloping 
from both sides and ends. One side is deficient, but supplied with 
cork. Formed of wood with brass-ornamented ridge-pole, and 
brass bending at angles. One side and the adjoining slope of the 
roof is ornamented ingeniously with inlaying and enamel, the side 
having two, and the roof one circular ornament divided into com- 
partments, which are subdivided by divisions radiating from their 
centres.' The shrine was returned to Mr. Monsell in 1872.^ 
A plaster cast of it is, however, in the collection, from which the 
illustration is made. The colours in which the cast is painted show 
that the metal plates are bronze, not brass. The reliquary opens 
by means of hinges placed at the back, the upper part being a true 
lid. The ridge-pole terminates in animals' heads. The bronze 
plates covering the front of the shrine are ornamented with a 
species of fret pattern ; they are inset with three roundels arranged 
like those on the Lough Erne and Copenhagen shrines. The 
empty centres of the roundels may have contained half-beads of 
amber (pi. IX, fig. i). 

' Proc, Soc. Ant., xxxi, pp. 218-40. 

" Murphy, Journal Roy.' Soc. Ant. of Irel., xxii, p. 151, and Petrie, Christian 
Inscriptions, ii, p. 1 63. 

^ Presumably the shrine is still at Tervoe. A letter to the present Lord Emly 
asking for information on the subject failed to elicit a reply. The Hon. Mrs. de la 
Peer, daughter of the Lord Emly by whom the reliquary was lent to the Academy, 
inquired into the matter, but was unable to discover anything about the shrine. 


The opportunity is taken of illustrating two ridge-poles of 
similar shrines, preserved for many years in the Academy's collec- 
tion (pi. IX, fig. 2). One was obtained from co. Roscommon ; no 
details as to the provenance of the other have been recorded. That 
obtained from Roscommon measures 7 in. in length ; its orna- 
mentation is simple, in the centre is a small panel of interlaced 
work, with two spirals above. At each end are spirals combined 
with the pointed-oval form so common in the decoration of Irish 
MSS. The back of the pole appears to have been ornamented in 
the same way as the front ; but the central panel is missing and 
the ends are much worn. It is evident from the position of the 
fastenings that the ends of the pole projected beyond the roof of 
the shrine, resembling in this respect the Moneymusk, Lough 
Erne, and Copenhagen shrines. It appears, however, to have 
been rather larger than those, approaching in size the shrine of 
St. Maodhog. 

In the second example it will be observed that the end attach- 
ments of the pole project at an angle to fasten on to the sloping 
ends of the shrine. The pole measures 46 in. in length : its orna- 
mentation is shown in the figure — a central human head with 
a panel on either side, enclosing an interlaced animal ; at each end 
of the pole is an animal's head with gaping jaws and long pro- 
truding tongue 

To this note on portable reliquaries may be added a description 
of two bronze castings (pi. X). Recently the Society published a 
bronze casting, suggested to have been a shrine mounting, possibly 
a book cover.' Two other specimens have been preserved in the 
Royal Irish Academy's collection for some seventy years, no details 
as to their provenance being recorded. Theirgeneral shape resembles 
the box portion of the Killua casting ; like it, they may have had 
an attached flat portion, but their damaged condition makes it 
impossible to be sure on this point. Clearly, however, they belong 
to the same class, and were used for the same purpose as that 
from Killua. Such rectangular ornaments for shrine decoration 
may be regarded as varieties of the circular bosses used to decorate 
St. Manchan's Shrine ; the Steeple Bumpstead boss '^ being another 

The castings measure in each case 3-4 in. by 2 5 in. ; their 
height being i-2 in. One weighs 4 ozs. 19-5 dwt. ; the other, 
which is considerably more broken, weighs 3 oz. i dwt. 8 gr. 

The illustrations make a detailed description of them un- 
necessary ; their worn condition, most of the outer surface ot 

' Armstrong, Antiquaries Journal, i, p. 122. 
' Smith, Proc. Soc. Ant., xxviii, pp. 87-94. 

'I'nK Antiquaries .Ioirnal 

Vol. II, pi. IX. 

Fig. I. Plaster cast of Lord Emiy's shrine. 

Fig. 2. Two ridge-jioles : front, back, and under sides 
(the lower in each pair from Roscommon). 

Thk Aktiquariks Journal 

Vol. II, pi. X. 

Fig. I. Bronze casting (^). 

Fig. 2. Bronze casting (|). 



the bronze having scaled ofF, renders it difficult to see their orna- 
mentation clearly. The sides and ends slope to a rectangular top, 
with a small panel in the centre ; raised leaf-shaped figures join each 
corner of this with the outer edge. The four small panels thus 
formed are decorated with spirals and interlaced work ; the sides 
and ends of both castings show the same scheme of design — a 
slightly raised boss ornamented with a triskele, the spaces between 
this and the rims of the panels being ornamented with bird-headed 
whorls. The corner divisions between the side- and end-panels 
are ridged. The projecting rim can be clearly seen on the better 
preserved casting ; on the other it has almost disappeared. 

In their original state these castings must have been objects of 
beauty ; the fineness of their design indicates that, like the Killua 
specimen, they belong to the best period of Irish art, the eighth 



Presentation to Professor W. R. Lethaby, F.S.A. — Professor Lethaby's 
sixty-fifth birthday, on i8th January, was made the occasion for 
a presentation to him, in the hall of the Art Workers' Guild, of an 
address signed by a number of his colleagues, pupils, and friends. 
The Earl of Crawford and Balcarres presided, and Mr. J. W. Mackail 
read the address. 

Diocesan Advisory Committees. — Committees are now being formed 
in accordance with the recommendations of the report issued in 1914 
by the archbishops' committee (consisting of Sir Lewis Dibdin, Sir 
Alfred B. Kempe, and Sir Charles E. H. Chadwyck-Healey) appointed 
to consider the questions of the issuing of faculties and of securing 
due protection of churches on archaeological and artistic grounds. 
The war prevented the establishment of these committees for some 
time, buts during the last year or two the bishops have been giving 
their attention to the matter, and out of the thirty-five English 
dioceses twenty-six have now or will very shortly have their honorary 
advisory committees to deal with the protection of churches and their 
artistic treasures. The committee is set up by the bishop in consulta- 
tion with the chancellor, and the practice in most dioceses is for the 
registrar to prefer all petitions for faculties to the committee for 
their opinion on archaeological and artistic points before they are 
placed before the chancellor. Further than this, the committees are 
encouraging the clergy, parochial church councils, and others con- 
cerned, to seek their advice before applying for faculties, a practice 
which is proving satisfactory for all parties. In order to ensure the 
careful preservation of all objects of interest in our parish churches, 
the archdeacons, who are usually members of the committees, are being 
urged to improve the terriers and inventories of the churches so as to 
include such things as carved woodwork, chests, brasses, wall-paintings, 
tiles, stained glass, etc. The work of the committees is only in its 
initial stage, but so far it is meeting with appreciation. 

A central advisory committee has also been formed recently on the 
lines suggested in the report of the Ancient Monuments Advisory 
Committee of 1921. The objects of this new committee will be to 
co-ordinate the work of the diocesan committees, to obtain and give 
technical advice, and for reference in cases of disagreement locally. 
It is composed of two delegates from each diocesan committee, from 
whom an executive committee of twenty members has been selected. 
The Dean of Westminster has been elected chairman, Sir Cecil Harcourt 
Smith honorary treasurer, and Mr. Francis C. Eeles honorary secretary. 

Excavations near Cissbury. — About one mile north-east of the Camp 
is a hill called Park Brow where traces of ancient occupation have been 

NOTES 139 

noticed, including an embanked road with a diminutive amphitheatre 
adjoining it, and several depressions rightly interpreted as pit dwellings. 
Excavations have been made by Mr. Pullen-Burry, of Sompting, and 
Mr. Garnet Wolseley, of Steyning, and two Roman dwellings have been 
revealed in the vicinity, a preliminary account being contributed to the 
Sussex Daily News, 20th January 1922, by Mr. H. S. Toms, of Brighton 
Museum, who assisted and furnished a plan and section of one of the 
pits. This was roughly circular, 6 ft. across the mouth and 8 ft. across 
the level chalk bottom, which was 6 ft. from the surface. There were 
various layers of filling interspersed with burnt flints and bones in 
blackened earth. A clay disc pierced in the middle was found with 
pieces of others, apparently like those of stone in Proc. Soc. Ant., xxi, 
458 ; and a disc of chalk, unpierced, and 5 in. across, also came to 
light, with a spindle-whorl of the rare conical form. Could these 
discs have served as covers for pottery vessels ? The ware was not of 
Bronze Age type, and the conclusion reached was that the pit was of 
the Hallstatt Period, before 400 B.C., when the La Tene stage began. 
Any further light on a period till lately only suspected in England 
will be most welcome. 

London Geology. — A new publication of the Geological Survey on 
The Geology of South London, by Henry Dewey and C. E. N. Brome- 
head, will be of interest to prehistorians and many Londoners, as 
twenty-six pages of text out of seventy-nine deal with superficial 
deposits, that is, the gravels and brick-earths laid down during the 
human period. There is besides a list, in chronological order, of the 
principal works on local geology since 1680; and the coloured map 
(sheet 270), published separately at 2j., contains a good deal of new 
matter. Different tints show the heights of various Pleistocene deposits, 
and the river-terraces can be distinguished at a glance — an innovation 
which will be even more appreciated when the companion volume on 
North London, now in active preparation, presents the latest official 
views on some of the most baffling problems in prehistoric research. 

The Rhodesian skull. — The problem of man's descent is rather 
complicated than otherwise by the discovery of a primitive skull at 
Broken Hill mine, Northern Rhodesia ; and anthropologists are finding 
some difficulty in fitting it into any recognized theory of human 
evolution. Preliminary accounts with interesting illustrations were 
supplied to the Lllustrated London News of 19th November 1921 by 
Dr. A. Smith Woodward, who is oflficially in charge of the skull, and 
by Sir Arthur Keith, who contrasts the newly-discovered fossil both 
with Neanderthal man and the modern English type. Perhaps the 
greatest surprise was the evidence of dental caries, a disease hitherto 
regarded as exclusively recent. Another point that has to be cleared 
up is the association of this early type of skull with shin and thigh 
bones like those of ordinary modern man, and bones of animals 
belonging to recent species. Was this association accidental or was 
the entire deposit contemporary? All were found near the far end of 
a passage-cave 140 ft. below the original top of the hill now being 
quarried, 90 ft. below the general ground-level, and 60 ft. below what 

L 2 


is now the water-level. Photographs of the site, supplied by Mr. W. E. 
Harris, make these details clear enough, but fuller accounts of the 
skull must be awaited from the Zoological Society and other sources 
before the exact bearing on prehistoric theory of this sensational 
addition to the Natural History Museum can be appreciated. A word 
of acknowledgment is due to the proprietors of the mine (the Rhodesia 
Broken Hill Development Co.) for their prompt and public-spirited 
action in this matter. Other notices of the skull may be found in 
Nature^ 17th November 1921, p. 371 ; and in the Times, 23rd January 
1922, p. 6, and 25th January, p. 0. 

Date of Stoiiehenge. — The astronomical theory propounded by the 
late Sir Norman Lockyer is warmly supported by Mr. E. Herbert Stone 
in the January number of the Ninetee7itJi Century and After. In spite 
of recent criticism, he re-states the opinion that the angle between the 
axis of the monument and the present midsummer sunrise can be used 
to calculate the approximate date of its erection ; but points out that 
the date deduced from Stockwell's tables of obliquity must now be 
revised. In the last half-century the rate of decrease in obliquity has 
been determined with greater precision ; and according to more recent 
computations the date for the ascertained Stonehenge axis sunrise is 
found to be about 1840 B.C. instead of Sir Norman Lockyer's 
1680 B.c.^ The problem is one in which the Society is chiefly 
interested, and the publication of the article may lead to a final 
scientific decision, apart altogether from the archaeological evidence 
that is probably awaiting discovery. 

Roman Walls in Graeechurch Street. — In the earlier part of January, 
an excavation having been made for the purpose of laying telephone 
wires along Graeechurch Street, two Roman walls were discovered. 
The more important one ran east and west. It was 4 ft. 6 in. thick, 
perhaps rather more at the lowest point excavated, which was about 
13 ft. below the present street level. The base was not reached 
(by probing) at a depth of 16 ft. At a depth of from 10 ft. to 
II ft. below street level were five rows of tiles between courses of 
squared ragstone, and some feet higher up were two rows. The upper 
part of the south side of this wall was plastered and painted, the 
plaster badly damaged, but it seemed to have had by way of decoration 
square or oblong panels in black outline on a yellow ground with 
touches of red. 

The other wall stood at right angles. It was clearly later, for the 
plaster on the first continued behind the junction. It was 2 ft. 9 in. 
thick and built entirely of ragstone except for a double facing course of 
tiles at about 12 ft. 6 in. down. At this level on its west side were 
traces of a white cement floor several inches thick. The footings of 
this wall did not seem to go deeper than 14 ft. 6 in. Both sides of this 
wall had been plastered and painted, but only the west side could be 
examined. This was decorated like the south side of the firstwall, but 
only the lower part 'of the panels could be seen. The ground level on 
the west side of the second wall had been raised later to a height of 4 ft. 
above the original floor, and a rough brick tessellated pavement laid. 


NOTES 141 

As regards dating, what is quite clear is that there are three periods : 
(1) the first wall, which is not very early, (2) the second wall, and 
(3) the tessellated pavement. 

It is perhaps needless to point out that the first wall must have run 
across the site of Gracechurch Street, and indications of Roman walls 
have been found running across the street further to the south. 

During the present excavation what may be remains of the Standard 
at Cornhill have also come to light. It was situated in the open space 
where Gracechurch Street meets Cornhill, Bishopsgate, and Leadenhall 

Anglo-Saxon art. — In the later Anglo-Saxon period the rarity of 
artistic work in metals is as difficult to explain as the absence of 
contemporary pottery, or at least its non-recognition. A silver hoard 
of the reign of King Alfred was found at Trewhiddle, Cornwall, in 
1774, and the attention of the Society drawn to its decoration in 1904. 
Analogous finds are now published by Dr. A. W. Brogger in the 
Yearbook of Bergen Museum 1920-1, and their Anglo-Saxon origin 
duly recognized. The article {Rolvs0yxtten) deals with various dis- 
coveries in the district adjoining the east coast of Christiania fjord, 
where boat-burials are common ; and several swords with nielloed 
hilts had evidently been brought away from England by the seafarers 
there buried. Figured silk and cloth fragments are also illustrated, 
revealing the comparative luxury of the Viking period. The mag- 
nificent boat burial at Oseberg, now being published, was on the 
opposite side of the fjord. 

Discoveries at Hartlepool. — Mr. W. T. Jones, F.S.A., local secretary 
for Durham, forwards the following report from Rev. Bertram Jones, 
Rector of Hartlepool: — On i8th October 1921, workmen of the 
Hartlepool Gas and Water Company came across human remains of 
great antiquity at a distance of 35 ft. in a direct line south from the 
south-east corner of 32 St. Hilda Street and on the promenade which 
runs in front of South Crescent. 

At the time of the discovery only a portion of the remains, which 
were at a depth of 3 ft. below the surface, was taken out, and though 
an examination was made of the place where the head should have 
been, no trace of it was found beyond the discovery of some half- 
dozen teeth, the biting surfaces of which were all worn very flat, as 
were those found to the west of this site in 1H33, 1838, and 1843. 

The excavation, which was about 6 ft. long by 3 ft. wide and of 
a maximum depth of 4 ft., was closed the same day pending further 
inquiry. On examination of the ground and of plans belonging to 
the borough engineer, it was found that the main sewer of the town 
ran immediately behind the position where the remains were found, 
and as the body lay from north to south and no skull had been 
discovered, it was feared that this had been displaced by the workmen 
when the sewer was first made. It was therefore, after very careful 
consideration, deemed to be advisable to reopen and re-examine the 
excavation. This was accordingly done on Thursday, 24th November 
1 92 1, when the rest of the remains which had been found on 12th 


October and left in situ were first of all collected and placed with 
those that had already been removed. No further remains of the 
shoulders, upper arms or head were discovered ; and on examining the 
ground, the supposition that the work connected with the sewer had 
displaced part of the remains was amply confirmed. 

The ground was next opened up 2 ft. farther west than the original 
discovery (i) of I2th October 1921, and at a depth of 3 ft. a second 
discovery of human remains was made (a). In this the bones of the 
legs, ribs, and feet were fairly complete, but here again there was no 
trace of the head or shoulders, and only a small part of the left upper 
arm was found, this being the only portion of upper arm so far 
discovered. Immediately below these remains appeared a further 
stratum of bones (3), and this third find was very similar in many 
respects to the remains beneath which they rested, being also disposed 
in a similar manner. In neither instance were the bones those of 
a large person. All three bodies had been placed lengthways from 
north to south and were lying upon their backs, but with a slight 
inclination to the left side. As in the two former interments (i and 2), 
the skull and shoulders of the third skeleton were missing, and there 
were no traces of either of the upper arms. The ground was minutely 
searched, but no cut stones, carved or otherwise, were discovered ; but 
a small portion of what appears to have been a bone pin was discovered 
among the remains of the second body (2), and is being preserved in 
the Hartlepool Museum. 

In the disturbed ground to the west of these three discoveries, 
a bone protruding from the wall of the excavation was found to be 
part of a lower arm, while close to this was discovered a small portion 
of the back part of a lower jaw bone. From their position these had 
evidently been displaced by the sewer workings, and probably belonged 
to 2 or 3. The ground was next thoroughly examined to a distance 
of 4 ft. to the west of these three discoveries (1,2, and 3) and to 
a depth of 4 ft., but, with the exception of two small pieces of bone at 
the depth of i ft. — which had obviously been displaced, as they were 
found in the disturbed ground — nothing further was discovered on this 
side of the excavation. 

An opening was next made i ft. to the east of the original discovery 
(i) of 12th October, and on a line with the knees of the three sets of 
bones so far found. At a depth of 3 ft. a complete right upper arm 
bone was discovered. Further exploration revealed the shoulders and 
ribs lying in proper order, and shortly afterwards the skull came to 
light. This, which was lying on its left side facing due east, was 
evidently in its original position and, being removed with every care, 
was found to be small and round, with teeth in beautiful preservation, 
the biting surfaces again being ground flat. The soil surrounding the 
skull was minutely examined, above, behind, and on each side, but no 
sign or trace of any cut stone was found. 

The place upon which the head had rested was next examined, and 
a flat stone was discovered wedged in between other smaller stones. 
This contained no- incisions. A number of responsible witnesses who 
saw the stone in position are all firmly convinced that this resting- 
place of stone had been made for the head, and that the stone did not 

NOTES 143 

come there by chance, there being no similar stones found during the 
whole excavation. 

Immediately to the east of this fourth discovery (4) was found the 
thigh bone of a fifth skeleton (5). At this point, however, the work 
ceased. The remains of the discoveries i, 2, and 3 were re-intcrred in 
St. Hilda's Churchyard, nos. 4 and 5 being left where they were found. 
The excavation was then filled in and the place marked. 

The knowledge gained from these discoveries proves that the 
Hartlepool Saxon Cemetery, which was first discovered in 1833, is 
of considerable extent, and certainly stretches from Baptist Street to 
St. Hilda Street, and possibly even farther. It is of interest to note 
that the head discovered was laid upon a bed of stone and was turned 
directly east, while all the bodies were slightly inclined to the left side. 

Discoveries at Sutton Courtenay. — Since the middle of last year 
excavations in which, during Term, members of the Oxford Univeisity 
Archaeological Society have taken an active part, have been carried 
out in some gravel pits in the parish of Sutton Courtenay, Berks. 
Several circular pits have been explored and have yielded scanty 
remains of the Bronze Age, but the prime interest has been the 
discovery of remains of several more or less rectangular hut-bottoms, 
penetrating 18 in. to 2 ft. into the gravel. These prove to belong to 
the Saxon period, and, from such indications as are at present available, 
to the earlier part of that epoch. This seems to be the first occasion 
on which Anglo-Saxon houses or cottages have been scientifically 
explored. Numerous objects have come to light in these houses, 
including pottery, much of which, both from the point of view of form 
and quality, throws new light on the ceramic products of the Anglo- 
Saxons. It is hoped to publish these discoveries in detail later in the 

Armorial pendant found at Darlington. — The copper quatrefoil- 
shaped armorial pendant, with a loop for suspension, here illustrated, 
was recently found at Darlington, and is now in the possession of 
Mr. C. H. Hunter Blair, F.S.A. It is much worn and the enamel 
greatly damaged, but enough remains to show that a wyvern in red 
enamel is represented in each of the four lobes, reminding one of the 
similar lacertine beasts that creep round the shields on many of the 
armorial seals of fourteenth-century date. 

The shield is azure charged with a rampant leopard (lion rampant 
guardant) ; the field is powdered with small charges, now almost 
obliterated, which seem to be either fleurs de lis or quatrefoils, 
probably the former ; no trace of colour remains either on them or 
on the leopard. There can, however, be little doubt that the arms 
should be blazoned : azure fleuretty a leopard rampant silver, for 
Holand (' Durham Seals', Arch. Ael. 3rd Ser. viii, nos. 1364-7) ; the 
only family who, in the fourteenth century, so far as is known, bore 
this beast on an azure shield strewn with these small charges. They 
were connected with the county of Durham, for in A.D. 1340 Thomas 
earl of Lancaster granted his manor of Horden in that county to 
Sir Robert Holand, who later leased it to his brother, Sir Thomas 


Holand, for the term of his life (Treasury of D. & C. of Durham- 
Miscellaneous Charters Nos. .5768, 5774, 6263, 6265, and 6266; a.D. 
1340-66 ; also Surtees's History 'of Durham, i, 26). The earliest 
record of their arms is in the roll of the Dunstable tournament {Coll. Gen. iv, 67), A.D. 1308, where they are blazoned for Sir Robert 
Holand, who was in the retinue of the earl of Lancaster. The shield 
is also blazoned for him in the Parliamentary roll of Edward II : 
*de azure fleurette de argent a un lupard rampaund de argent' 
{Genealogist, N. S., xi, 113). It was also borne by his brother, Sir 

Armorial pendant from Darlington (^). 

Thomas, at the siege of Calais (Foster, Some Feudal Coats of Arms, 
p. 133; Durham Seals, op. cit., no. 1366). 

Various members of the family differenced it by altering the small 
charges; thus at the battle of Boroughbridge (A.D. 1322), 'Sire 
Richard de Houland ' bore ' D'azur ove j leopard d'Argent poudree 
des escalopes' {Genealogist, N.S., i, 117), whilst another powdered the 
field with cinquefoils (Pap worth, British Armorials, p- 7 1). Sir Thomas 
Holand, the second son of the above-named Robert, after his marriage 
with Joan of Kent, granddaughter of Edward I, sister and heiress of 
John earl of Kent, assumed the title earl of Kent {Historic Peerage, 
ed. Courthorpe, p. 271) and deserted his paternal shield for the royal 
leopards of England in a silver border {Durham Seals, op. cit., no. 1489). 
His younger son John, who became earl of Huntingdon and duke of 
Exeter, also adopted the royal shield but enclosed it in a border 
of France (Willement, Roll of Richard II, No. 36). 

Helmet in Braybrooke Church, Northants. — Major C. A. Markham, 
F.S.A., local secretary for Northants, forwards the following note : — 

The helmet is fixed on an iron bracket on the eastern wall of the 
south chapel, almost immediately over the monument to Sir Nicholas 
Grifiin, knight, who died in 1509 at the age of thirty-four. It is a fine 
specimen of the armourer's craft and is of the type of close helmet 
worn in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. It consists of the 
head-piece proper, hammered out of a single piece of iron, with a high 
cable-ridged comb over the back, out of which rises the long spike, to 



support the crest, now secured by a horseshoe nail. The vizor in two 
parts is fixed on each side of the head-piece by pivots, which also pass 
through the chin-piece or beaver, the pivots being formed with flat 
buttons outside, each ornamented by a cross. The upper vizor has the 
ocularia, or two long, narrow slits for vision, above a cable-moulded 
ridge, and it can be raised and turned back over the head-piece by 
a projecting iron rod on the right side, which fits into a slit in the 
lower vizor. When the upper part has been raised and turned back 

Helmet : Braybrooke church. 

the lower part of the vizor can be raised in the same manner by a small 
knob, also on the right side. This lower part is strengthened by a rib, 
in the form of a cable moulding, round the upper edge. This lower 
part rests on a projection with an eye affixed to the beaver on the 
right side, and it seems probable that a cord or strap passed through 
this eye and over the rod previously mentioned on the upper vizor, 
thus securing the whole. The beaver is hinged on the aforesaid pivots 
and comes immediately below the vizor, and can be raised to enable 
the helmet to be placed on the head. It is secured in its ordinary 
position by a hook which engages an eye on the head-piece. To the 


beaver are attached in front by rivets two curved flat plates or gorgets, 
for the protection of the neck ; and it is probable that similar plates 
were attached to the head-piece at the back. There is no trace of the 
lining originally inside the ironwork. 

This helmet is in excellent condition and in working order. It is 
very similar to that described in Proc. Sac. Ant., xv, 365, which 
Mr. Hartshorne considered to date between 1570 and 1590. If, there- 
fore, it was placed in the church immediately after the death of 
Sir Nicholas Griffin, it is a very early example of this type of helmet. 

The present rector of Braybrooke, the Rev. J. R. Hakewill, who 
was presented to the living in 1887, remembers that when he first 
went to the parish a steel corslet and pair of gauntlets hung by this 
helmet, but these articles have since been lost sight of. 

Parge-work in Essex. — Rev. G. M. Benton, local secretary for Essex, 
reports that recent alterations have brought to light some interesting 
features in an early seventeenth-century timber-framed and plaster 
building, at Broxted, Essex, known as Wood Farm. Some of the old 
timbers in the interior have been exposed, and three original wide 
fireplaces, one with moulded jambs and a four-centred head of plastered 
brick, have been opened out. In a room (height 7 ft.) on the ground 
floor, it w^s found that the whole of the upper area of the wall to the 
depth of about 40 in. was covered with fine parge-work, dated 161 1, 
and in an almost perfect state of preservation. The greater part of 
the surface thus decorated is divided up by plain ribs of plaster into 
three rows of small panels, an arrangement common to early work of 
this character. The panels are fitted with repeated patterns of sprays 
of leafage with acorns, etc., flat recessed scroll-work, and large two- 
handled vases of flowers. It may be considered the most elaborate 
specimen of the internal parge decoration of the old-time rustic 
plasterer to be found in north-west Essex. An illustrated note will 
appear in the forthcoming part of the Transactions of the Essex 
Archaeological Society. 

Discoveries in the Old ChurcJi, W aimer. — Mr. R. Cooke, local 
secretary for Kent, reports that in the Deal Mercury for 26th November 
1921 the Rev. C. E. Woodrufif gives an account of the discovery of 
three blocked recesses in the chancel of the old church at Walmer, 
one in the north and two in the east wall. The recess in the north 
wall was first opened. Its sill was 4 ft. 5 in. above the chancel floor, 
and on the blocking material being removed, a shallow cavity was 
found, 17 in. in depth, 27^ in. in width, and i8| in. in height. On its 
roof were traces of soot, and it is probable that it may have held 
a light. The height of the sill would make the opening inconvenient 
for use as a credence or ambry. In the east wall, on either side of 
the altar, similar but larger recesses were brought to light. In the 
filling of that on the north was a stone cross, 32 in. long and 13I in. 
across the arms. The shaft, which was 5^ in. in thickness, was pointed 
at the foot and its lower portion was left rough. At the intersection 
of the arms was a somewhat rudely incised circle, 6 in. in diameter. 

NOTES 147 

within which, by marking off with a compass segments of its circum- 
ference, another cross had been cut. The circle and cross were 
repeated on each side of the shaft. The shaft below the arms was 
broken. The stone appeared to be Kentish rag. The cross was 
probably sepulchral and may have once been in the churchyard, and 
on being broken was used to block the recess when it was closed, 
possibly about the middle of the sixteenth century. The cross would 
appear not to be later than the fifteenth century. 

Alabaster Table in Hacheston Church, Suffolk. — Rev. G. M. Benton, 
local secretary for Essex, reports that in the wall of the south aisle is 
an alabaster table in a very good state of preservation. The subject is 
the Incredulity of St. Thomas. The saint holds the Textus or book 
of the Gospels in his right hand, in allusion to the story of his having 
preached the Gospel in India ; his left hand is thrust into the sacred 
side, the arm being supported by our Lord. Traces of the original 
colouring remain. 

Sacred Spring at Alesia. — The Revue dcs Deux Mondes of 
15th November last contains an article by M. Rene Cagnat, of the 
Acadernie des Inscriptions, on Alesia. In Pro Alesia, published by 
the Societe des Sciences de Semur, are full details of the excava- 
tions carried on from 1906 to 19 14. These M. Cagnat deals with in 
a literary and more popular style, nor need they be referred to here. 
One point brought out by the learned author is, however, of interest, as 
illustrating the survival of early beliefs down to these days. At Alesia 
were certain springs held to have curative powers, and therefore con- 
nected with a god. The antiquity of this belief is more than amply 
proved by the nature of the votive objects found. Later one of these 
springs, retaining in the popular mind its efficacy, became connected 
with a saint of the third century martyred under Maximian. The 
legend now runs that where the martyr's head fell the spring welled 
up. Protected to-day by an iron gate, the spring of Sainte-Reine is on 
every loth of September still visited by pilgrims who seek miraculous 
relief for their maladies. The survival could easily be paralleled. 

Archaeology in Palestine. — We are indebted to the Department of 
Overseas Trade for the following information : The preliminary topo- 
graphical survey of the antiquities and monuments of Caesarea, 
formerly the Roman capital of Palestine, has been completed. The 
schedule of movable antiquities includes a number of architectural 
remains (bases, capitals, columns, carvings, etc.), coins, pottery, orna- 
ments, and glass. The quality and character of the available 
antiquities are thus far disappointing. The fixed monuments include 
walls, gates, quays, temple, theatre and stadium, and burial grounds. 
Exploration shows that the area of the city during the Roman 
occupation was very extensive, and probably embraced within its 
suburbs places like Shuny (Shuneh) where there are masonry works 
and the remains of an extensive theatre, as well as smaller antiquities. 

A room has been set apart in the late Turkish serai at Caesarea, on 
the harbour mole, for the purpose of a local museum, and this will be 


opened to the public as soon as the necessary preparations have been 
completed. The resident police guard of antiquities at Caesarea, in 
addition to his present duties, will be placed provisionally in charge of 
the museum. The Greek Patriarchate has offered a number of their 
antiquities at Caesarea to the local museum. 

Dr. Fisher's excavations at Beisan have revealed the remains of an 
important Byzantine Church built on a circular plan and paved with 
fine mosaics. An Egyptian stela of black granite has also been dis- 
covered, containing part of a relief and twenty lines of much- weathered 
hieroglyphs that have not yet been deciphered. 

On the Jericho road, about two miles before it enters the Jordan 
Valley, an interesting staircase of over sixty steps, cut at a steep angle 
into the hillside, was discovered during the war and partly excavated 
by Mr. Woods, Chaplain to the Australian Forces. This has been 
inspected by an officer of the Department of Antiquities, and it is 
hoped that funds will be forthcoming to permit of further excavations. 
The purpose of this isolated gallery is quite unknown. 

The ancient ruins at Fassutah (North Galilee) have been inspected. 
Numerous architectural remains show this to have been a place of some 

A new and very fine mosaic pavement has been discovered at Beit 
Jibrin ; it measures 9 metres by 4 metres and consists of central 
medallions containing pictures of Spring, Summer, and the Earth, 
which are surrounded by decorative geometric patterns, wild and tame 
animals, hunting scenes, etc. The villa, of which this was perhaps the 
dining-room floor, dated probably from the third century of our era. 
Steps have been taken for the photographing and protection of this 

The Indian Antiquary. — To celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the 
publication of the Indian Antiquary, Sir Richard Temple, Bart., who 
for thirty-seven years has been the editor- proprietor, has written a short 
account of the history of the magazine, which has had among its 
contributors many great Indian and Oriental scholars in India itself 
as well as all over Europe and America. The object of the Indian 
Antiquary has been to provide a means of communication between 
the East and the West on subjects connected with Indian research, 
and a medium to which students and scholars, Indian and non-Indian, 
could combine to send notes and queries of a nature not usually 
finding a place in the pages of Asiatic societies. 


Charterhouse in London : By Gerald S. Davies, M.A., Master of 
Charterhouse. 9x6. Pp. xix + 447. London: John Murray, 

ICy2I. 2 J J. 

The Hospital of Thomas Sutton has had many historians, but few 
can have brought to their task such qualifications as the present 
Master of Charterhouse. Beginning as a gownboy sixty-six years ago, 
he has seen, as scholar, as assistant-master in the school, and finally as 
Master of the Hospital, the whole of that momentous removal to the 
country which has made the School what it is. 

The first hundred pages of his book are devoted to the Carthusian 
monastery founded in 1371 by Sir Walter de Manny and Bishop 
Michael de Northburgh, and Mr. Davies is fortunate in being the first 
to make use of a MS. in the Record Ofifice, compiled, as it seems, late 
in the fifteenth century by a monk of the London house, and full of 
references to the monastic buildings. The early fifteenth- century plan 
of the water-supply, already published in Archaeologia, is also made 
use of, and the plan of the Great Cloister reproduced from it ; but 
Mr. Davies makes no attempt to work out a detailed plan of the 
monastery. This is the more to be regretted since further con- 
sideration would have shown that his views about the arrangement of 
the monastic church cannot be sustained. It is impossible that both 
the monks' and the lay brothers' quires could have been contained in 
the space, 61 ft. by 22 ft., between the east wall and west tower of the 
present chapel. Mr. Davies is led to this conclusion by the drawing 
of the church on the fifteenth-century plan, which shows a large 
octagonal turret and spire set midway on the roof. This he assumes 
to have been entirely of wood and to have been carried on the roof 
timbers of the church. But we know that it contained two bells, one 
of considerable size, which makes such a construction unlikely. And 
a reference to the inventory taken after the suppression makes it clear 
that the monks' quire — and it must be remembered that this was a 
' double ' house with twenty-four and not twelve monks — was in the 
eastern part of the church, having at the west of it a screen, against the 
west side of which were set two altars, in other words a pulpitum, and 
that in the ' body of the church ' there had been other stalls, evidently 
those of the lay brothers. Now between the date of the water-supply 
plan and the suppression the turret and spire had been succeeded by 
a brick tower, which still exists, at the west end of what is now the 
chapel of the Hospital. This tower clearly took the place of the 
turret at the west of the monastic quire, and the arrangement was that 
which can still be seen in the ruined church at Mount Grace, the lay 
brothers' quire being in the nave. It was doubtless imitated from 
friars' churches, where it is normal. The nave of the London Charter- 


house has been destroyed and its place is taken by the early seventeenth- 
century cloister which leads to the west door of the hospital chapel. 

The story of the last days of the monastery and the tragic fate of so 
many of its inmates is told admirably, with sympathy and restraint ; 
the noble figure of John Houghton, dragged unwillingly into con- 
troversies which had no place within the walls of his house, but cheer- 
fully dying for the principles which they called in question, lives 
again in these pages, a martyr in the true sense of the word. Equally 
well told, though in another vein, is the history of the sixty odd years 
when, as Howard House, Charterhouse played no insignificant part in 
English politics, and was the headquarters of that most inefficient 
conspirator, Thomas Howard, fourth Duke of Norfolk. With Thomas, 
first Lord Howard de Walden, in whose days Drake. and many another 
famous sailor must have been guests at Howard House, the second 
phase of Carthusian history ends, and in i6ii Thomas Sutton, 
fundator noster, becomes its owner, and the era of Hospital and 
School begins. Mr. Davies, as a loyal Carthusian, does full justice to 
the Founder's personality, rightly insisting that Sutton's fame as one 
of the wealthiest men of his day has been allowed to overshadow his 
real occupation as a soldier. He was a captain in the garrison of 
Berwick at least as early as 1558, and being in 1570 appointed Master- 
General and Surveyor of Ordnance to the Queen in Berwick and the 
North of England, held that office till well over sixty. A lucky 
speculation, if it may so be called, in coal during his life in the north, 
laid the foundations of his fortune. He was without doubt a most 
capable man of business, and it was fortunate for his hospital that he 
was so, for the great revenues with which he endowed it were not 
a little coveted by others who wished to make, if not a better, at least 
a different, use of them. Francis Bacon, the Solicitor-General, is 
conspicuous in this matter, and the fatuity of the proposals of this 
great lawyer, who with all his failings was at least not fatuous, rouses 
a presumption that he was not so disinterested in the matter as be 
might appear. His royal master, James I, to whom Bacon's scheme 
was propounded, may have been impressed by his arguments ; at any 
rate the governors of the threatened foundation decided that a gift of 
^lo.cco might be judicious. His Majesty was graciously pleased to 
accept of the same, and doubtless, on further consideration, saw the 
merits of Sutton's ideas. The Hospital and School duly came into 
being, the first Brothers of the Hospital and the first Scholar being 
elected in 1613. Mr. Davies, by his history of the school down to 
recent times, deserves the gratitude of all modern Carthusians. He 
has the art of presenting every-day matters attractively, and the interest 
in his story never fails ; particularly is this so in the chapter of his 
personal recollections, which begin as long ago as 1 856. One thing 
only is to be wished : that the proofs of his book could have been more 
carefully read. There are more than a few misprints, as when Bishop 
Connop Thirlwall appears as Bishop Conn of Shirlwall (p. 254), but 
a positive fatality attends on the dates. For example, 1536 is said to 
be the year before the death of Henry VIII (p. 124); Sir Thomas 
Smyth writes a letter to Lord Burleigh in 1 751 (p. 141) ; Charterhouse 
is conveyed to Lord North in 1645 (p. 162) ; Edinburgh Castle is 


besieged by Morton in 1793 (p. 177); Francis Lord Verulam is 
removed from his office in 1521 (p. 230) ; John Bradshaw the regicide 
is appointed a Governor in 1550 (p. 233); and finally the late 
Mr. Bernard Quaritch presents a MS. to his old school in 1613 
(p. ^35)' One other correction, not of a typographical error, may be 
made: Latten (pp. 324-6) is not plate-tin or plated tin, but a mixture 
of tin and copper. C. R. Peers. 

On some antiquities in the neighbourhood of Dttnecht House, Aberdeen- 
shire. By the Right Rev. G. F. Browne, D.D., D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.S.A., Hon. F.S.A.Scot. j i x 8| ; pp. xiv+ 170, with 63 plates. 
Cambridge University Press, 1921. 3 guineas. 
The purple binding of this sumptuous and finely illustrated volume 
is symbolic of the religious note in what is in effect a graceful 
compliment to Lady Cowdray. Criticism is disarmed by a frank 
avowal in the preface that ' the book does not profess to be scientific, 
and has no sort of claim to be conclusive or positive or exhaustive or 
didactic. It is meant to quicken interest in some of the many inter- 
esting objects which are still to be found between Dee and Don.' The 
venerable author adopts the view that Druidism was pre- Aryan in 
origin, and lays as much stress on the human sacrifices as on the in- 
tellectual attainments of the Druids known to history. In spite of the 
astronomical value assigned to stone-circles connected with the cult, 
' we cannot ', he continues, ' credit our predecessors in early Britain 
with having the clock of the period. That clock was the water-clock, 
known by its Greek name as the clepsydra or water-stealer.' That 
any such instrument of metal was contemporary with the Aberdeen 
stone-circles is in itself a bold assumption ; but the ancient Britons 
seem to have had plenty of another pattern ; and the bishop must 
have overlooked, or rejected without argument, the evidence published 
in recent years by this Society, of which he has been a Fellow since 
1888. It appears to him * indontestable that at least the great majority 
of the recumbent stones in our Pictish district were laid on astronomical 
principles, for astronomical purposes ; that they were the scientific 
result of, and the material aid to, astronomical observation and calcu- 
lation '. The Sin Hinny (pi. viii) and Rothicmay (pi. Ixi) stones are 
singled out as the most striking examples of the star-chart essential 
even in the most primitive study of astronomy ; but even these will 
not convert the majority of readers to a theory that has been frequently 
tested and found wanting Current opinion, however, would not deny 
any connexion at all between cup-markings and science ; and if the 
theory of Mr. Ludovic Mann does not fall short of the bishop's antici- 
pations, Picts and Druids will at last come into their own. 

But this is by no means the leading feature of the book, which con- 
tains the author's own ingenious explanation of the Ogam characters, 
and more or less successful attempts to interpret the inscriptions and 
symbols of the local carved stones. He reminds us that the tattooed 
patterns on Pictish warriors were noticed when Stilicho invaded 
Caledonia about A.D. 399, and regards the sculptures as a natural out- 
come of the same artistic instinct. A certain degree of caution in these 


ancient inhabitants of Scotland is hinted at in the obvious blending of 
Christian and pagan symbols ; and though the crescents may repre- 
sent the Amazon shields of the Roman tablets on the Antonine Wall, 
it was hardly worth while to account for an * elephant ' which is not an 
elephant. However, after the disclaimer in the preface, the reader will 
not take these matters too seriously, any more than the statement on 
p. 165 that ' the further we inquire among the relics of our ancestral 
races, the more unique our Sin Hinny and Rothiemay charts appear 
to be '. It is well to remember that the Scots originally came from 

Reginald A. Smith. 

The Private Character of Queen Elisabeth. By FREDERICK ChaM- 

BERLIN. 8^x5§; pp. xxi + 334. Lane. i8j. 

' No scandal about Queen Elizabeth, I hope ', says Sneer in 
Sheridan's Critic. ' No, no ', we reply with Puff. The author's enthu- 
siasm is unflagging and immense, and his industry in accumulating 
evidence unwearied. But he is, we fear, more often than he thinks, 
preaching to the converted. He sets out to prove, first, that the 
Queen was not the robust woman she is often supposed to have been 
and, incidentally, that she was free from all stigma of sexual miscon- 
duct ; secondly, that she, and not Cecil, was the real director of the 
policy of ^ her reign ; and thirdly, that Leicester was no ' woman's 
darling ', but a consummate statesman, whose triumph, with her, over 
Cecil's weakness brought all the glories of her later years. 

This book, then, is the first instalment. Mr. Chamberlin will forgive 
us if, quite without malice, we dub it * the great libel suit '. He con- 
fesses to being a lawyer and to that fact, no doubt, he owes both his 
success in gathering materials and his rather unreadable method of 
presenting them. He has developed, he was told, a new manner of 
writing history . But, quaere, is it history ? We do not go to the 
minutes of evidence for the history of a great trial, but to the same sifted 
through the sieve of some individual imagination. This picture we call 
history, and the artist an historian. 

The plaintiff's advocate, if we may so say, begins with a vivacious 
and, in some respects, a new account of her youth, her highly trained 
mind, and the shattering effect upon her health of the Seymour episode. 
From this point, with ingenious pertinacity, he adopts the baffling 
course of piling up evidence on the medical record, backed by selected 
portraits and expert opinions, before the charges against his client 
have ever been clearly stated. Here, we agree, he carries the court 
with him. He follows this up with a careful and detailed list of the 
direct and indirect libels, with inconvenient references back to the 
medical record and forward to the defence. The relevance of some 
may be questioned : they carry in themselves their own answer. 

The defence is treated with the same enthusiastic minuteness as the 
opening of the case, but it is marred by continual references backward 
and by the reiterated accusation of nearly all previous historians of 
a conspiracy of silence. May not some of them justifiably advance the 
plea of ' no case ' ? 

The result, we must say, leaves us with a very lop-sided view of 


Elizabeth. The author triumphantly demolishes the tradition of the 
Queen's iron constitution, and perhaps makes it a little less 'inscru- 
table to intelligence', as Henry .of Navarre said, * whether she was 
a maid or no ' ; but we still feel an uncomfortable doubt whether in- 
capacity for vice is not masquerading as virtue, ' making I dare not (or 
I cannot) wait upon I would '. It is a vastly finer idea, perhaps still 
tenable, that this great woman lived her life to the full, flirting and 
loving where she listed, with her 'spirit', her 'oracle', her 'sweet 
Robin ', her ' boar ', her ' Lidds ', her ' sheep ', her ' mutton ', and the 
whole row of pet-names, always able to say ' thus far and no farther ', 
and scorning all scandal. Might not many another healthy but highly 
strung woman say with her that ' the thought of marriage was odious 
to her, and that when she tried to make up her mind, it was as if her 
heart was being torn out of her body '. 

When Mr. Chamberlin digresses into history as usually understood, 
he draws his picture with no uncertain pencil, but these digressions 
from his brief are alas ! all too short, mere oases in the wilderness of 
undigested materials. 

It is with real regret that we see the necessity which the author has 
allowed to be forced upon him of focussing his study upon one aspect 
of the Queen's private life. The blatant libels on her character are 
surely only two, Mary Stuart's letter and Card. Allen's tract. We 
regret it, because the same industry and acumen would have given us, 
we feel sure, in a less space a perfect portrayal of Elizabeth in all her 
private relations. Mr. Chamberlin tells us that his attention was drawn 
to the necessity of his present plan by the use of the words ' privanza ' 
and 'desordenes' by the Spanish ambassador in talking of the Queen. 
This might surely have suggested quite another method of treatment, 
in which innuendoes would have been answered by detailed descriptions 
of daily intercourse. Among many others, we might instance two 
cases of perfectly innocent but interesting ' intimacy ' and ' irregularity', 
not mentioned by the author. We mean the water-party on the 
Thames, and the handkerchief incident in Leicester's game of tennis 
with Norfolk. Why ! we have the very handkerchiefitself at Warwick 
Castle, have we not ? 

Perhaps Mr. Chamberlin has hampered himself by reserving 
Leicester for another volume. We look forward with interest to 
Leicester's rehabilitation as a statesman and commander. But we do 
not envy the author his dilemma when he has to choose, as choose he 
sometimes must, which was the fool, Leicester or the Queen ? 

The reproductions are excellent, including six selected portraits. 
Mr. Chamberlin may be congratulated on unravelling the tangle of the 
* Mirror of a Sinful Soul ', a page of which is reproduced, and carrying 
back a few years the date of Elizabeth's earliest handwriting. 

The book ends on a high note in the Queen's own words, ' I am 
young and he is young," and therefore we have been slandered . . . the 
truth will at last be made manifest '. We look to the author to verify 
the words yet more effectively in his succeeding volumes. 

We must commend him for giving due prominence to the Queen's 
intense patriotism. Autocrat she might be — to quote her own words 
lately printed for the first time : ' though I am a woman, I have as good 



courage answerable to my place as ever my father had. I am your 
anointed Queen. I will never be by violence constrained to do any- 
thing.' But ' far above all earthly treasure she esteemed her people's 
love ' : and it was her pride to describe herself, as she often did, as 
' mere English'. 

D. T. B. Wood. 

Mary Davies and the Manor of Ebtiry. By CHARLES T. GatTV, 
F.S.A. Two volumes. 9^x6; pp. x+294; viii + 285. Cassell. 

Mr. Gatty has made the story of Mary Davies and her match with 
Sir Thomas Grosvenor the centre of a history of the district now 
known as Belgravia. No one will complain that the author has 
allowed the opportunities, which a familiar acquaintance with the 
muniments of the Duke of Westminster has afforded, to lead him 
sometimes rather far astray from his principal theme. Nearly a 
quarter of the first volume is taken up with an account of the early 
history and topography of the manors — Eia, Hyde, Neyte, and Ebury 
— which ultimately formed part of Mary Davies's inheritance. On the 
site which gave the Hundred of Ossulston its name Mr. Gatty has 
been able to bring together evidence which confirms fully Mr. G. J. 
Turner's discovery of a place called Ossulston on the plan of Ebury 
Manor pu^blished by the London Topographical Society. This plan 
was made about 1664 and proves to be a copy of an earlier one 
dating from 1614, where Park Lane is called ' the way from Ossolstone 
towards Tiburne '. Ossulston cannot therefore have been at Tyburn, 
and Mr. Gatty is able to show that the true position must have been 
near the west end of South Street. 

Before the author could take up Mary Davies's own story he had to 
dispel the fictions that had gathered about her life. The true story 
leads him into an account of Hugh Audeley, the seventeenth-century 
moneylender, who grew so rich that he became in legend the typical 
usurer and miser. If Audeley had added field to field, he was a very 
different person from what his detractors have pictured, and in telling 
his real history Mr. Gatty gives us an interesting, if not in itself very 
important, sidelight on London in the years before the Restoration. 
One of Audeley 's heirs was his great-nephew Alexander Davies, not 
as the common story alleged a rich London alderman, but a young 
man with ambitions to develop the property which he had inherited. 
Alexander Davies only held Ebury three years, and when he died in 
1665 his daughter and heiress was an infant less than a year old. The 
rest of Mr. Gatty's two volumes is occupied with her upbringing as 
a great heiress, the projects for her marriage, the match with Sir 
Thomas Grosvenor, the home life of the young couple at Eaton, her 
early widowhood and mental aberration, her inveiglement into a pre- 
tended second marriage and the consequent lawsuit. For all this 
history full use is made of the muniments at Eaton, and the resulting 
narrative has much of the charm and interest which always attaches to 
old letters, with their distinctive pictures of social life. 

If Mr. Gatty's two volumes are, as has been hinted, somewhat dis- 
cursive, they will be not less welcome to all who are interested in the 


history of a great family and its homes. Particular attention may be 
directed to the information which Mr. Gatty is able to give not only 
about the rebuilding of Eaton, but about the site of Goring House (in 
which Audeley had an interest) and about Peterborough House at 
Chelsea which was originally built by Alexander Davies and ulti- 
mately became the first London home of the Grosvenors. It must be 
added in conclusion that the two volumes are admirably illustrated 
with portraits, views, and plans. They are a valuable contribution to 
social history and London topography. 


The History of the Family of Dallas, and their comiections and descen- 
dants from the ttuelfth century. By the late James Dallas. 
10x7^; pp. xi + 6ii. Edinburgh: privately printed by T. & A. 
Constable. To subscribers, 42J. 

To those interested in the name this book will be extremely 
welcome. It is well printed and has an index. The editor by his 
apology disarms criticism ; it is always a difficult task to deal with the 
collections of another, more especially in the case of a Scotch pedigree 
where the material has been collected from a distance and possibly 
without a profound knowledge of the district. ' Easter Urquhart ' 
(p. 147) may be a printer's error for ' Easter Urquhill ' ; but it is more 
difficult to recognize Kenneth Mackenzie of Brahan (presumably) in 
' Frennocht M'Kenze of Brayne '. A larger insight too into local 
families might have (e.g.) expanded ' Duncan Forbes, an Inverness 
merchant' (p. 239) into ' Grey Duncan', grandson of Forbes of Tol- 
quhoun and first of the family of Forbes of Culloden. Incidentally he 
and his son had more mortgages than this one in the shires of Inver- 
ness, Nairn, and Ross. 

In comparison with others of the neighbourhood, the family of 
Dallas seems to have played but a small part in the affairs of the 
nation ; and there is nothing fresh to be gleaned as to the events of 
1745-6 from the account of James Dallas. 

Certain of the name find their place in the Dictionary of National 
Biography (though they are of those who wandered far afield), and the 
correspondence (pp. 410 et seq.) should be of some interest, particularly 
to those who have studied the India of Hastings and Wellesley. The 
letters of Sir George Dallas are emphatically expressed. ' Of the 
Government of this country ', he wrote from Calcutta in 1785, • I will 
say nothing, as your friends will write to you volumes thereon — how- 
ever, they will only amount to this — that it is degraded by deplorable 
imbecility and infatuated credulity*. 

Again on the Irish question, ' The rebellion in Ireland forms an 
important period in the history of your administration and it is that 
part of it which is the most assailed by misrepresentation '. 

At the end of the book are extracts from parish registers, valuable 
to genealogists ; though it is not to be supposed that all bearing 
the name are necessarily descended from a common stock, more especi- 
ally in the case of a churchman (p. 57) or apprentice. 

There is a short account of the present owners of Cantray, to which 
might be added that the late Major Davidson was the author of 

M 2 


a history of the 78th Highlanders, which ranks high among the best 
works of the kind. It is much to be regretted that Cantray House 
was recently burned down. 

To the antiquary the interest of the book must lie in the opening 
chapters, particularly in respect of the origin of the family. On 
page 12 other lowland names are given of families who became early 
dwellers in the rich province of Moray. But why is it always Moray ? 
What of the first Campbell in Argyll, the first Gordon in Aberdeen, 
the more obvious Sinclairs in Orkney and Caithness, even the Mac- 
kenzies who have claimed a Fitzgerald for their ancestor? These are 
subjects of acute controversy ; but the book on Norman Scotland has 
yet to be written, and its scope will not be confined to the lowlands. 

D. Warrand. 

yeriisalem, igi8-20, being the records of the Pro-Jer7isale77i Council 
during the period of the British Military Adfuinistration. Edited 
by C. R. ASHBEE. iox6|; pp. xv + 87. Murray, 42^. 
This book deals with the varied activities of the Pro-Jerusalem 
Society, an organization founded to preserve the amenities of the city 
and to maintain its monuments and antiquities undefaced. To anti- 
quaries therefore the main interest of the work lies in the steps that 
have been taken to achieve these objects. In the account of the work 
of preservation there is little that calls for criticism and much for praise 
— the handsome arcaded Cotton Market has been rescued from its 
former degraded and unsavoury state and restored to use — the town 
walls have been cleared of obstructions and rendered more accessible, 
and the fine Turkish citadel, whose interior was blocked with rubbish, 
has been brought into a semblance of order. With the repair of the 
external tiling of the Dome of the Rock we reach less certain ground ; 
the decayed and fallen tiles are being replaced bj' the productions of 
Armenian craftsmen imported for the purpose, and no doubt the work 
is excellent and may even rival the originals from which it is copied ; 
there is, however, no indication in Mr. Ashbee's book of an attempt to 
differentiate between the old and the new, and it would be reassuring 
to learn that the future artist or antiquary will not be left in doubt on 
this point. 

A considerable section of the book is devoted to the possible future 
extension of the city, and several town-planning schemes are illustrated ; 
so far as these affect only the modern quarter, little harm can be done ; 
its ugliness can hardly be increased or its cosmopolitan collection of 
styles added to. The first scheme illustrated, however, envelops the 
beautiful valley and monastery of the Cross in a network of radiating 
roads of the usual type, a scheme which is by no means encouraging. 
The acknowledged aim of the Society, as explained by Mr. Ashbee, is 
the ' making tidy ' of the city, and it leads the promoters into more 
than doubtful paths ; for instance, a new bazaar is projected on the 
site of the Muristan, and the orderly laying out of the great necropolis 
west of the Nablus road is also illustrated. The general ' tidying ' in- 
cludes the establishment of play-gardens within the walls, and a start 
has been made in the Jewish quarter. The lover of the city as it was 


may, however, rest in peace, in the sure knowledge that the inhabitants 
of Jerusalem will never permit its undue tidyness ; and the short shrift 
they gave to Mr. Ashbee's first play-garden will doubly assure him that 
all is yet well, and that the local girl guides, imbued with a ' trust in 
the beauty of the city ', are still in a hopeless minority. The book is 
excellently produced and is illustrated by photographic and other 
illustrations, which are not only explanatory but also entirely satis- 
factory as pictures. 

A. W. Clapham. 

John Siberch, the first Cambridge Printer, 1^21-1^22. V>y G. J. 
Gray. In commemoration of the Four-hundredth Anniversary of 
Printing in Cambridge. 1921. 8| x 6| ; pp.25. 2j. 6^. net. 
Mr. Gray speaks of himself as one who has helped to gather together 
a few unconsidered trifles which have thrown light upon the mystery 
enveloping Siberch's life and work. As such it is very satisfactory 
that he should tell his own tale. He naturally pays full tribute to the 
work done before him by Henry Bradshaw, Robert Bowes, Mr. Jenkin- 
son, Mr. Gordon Duff, and Mr. Hessels. Mr. Gray's earlier work 
appeared in 1904, 1906, and 19 13. In the present pamphlet he repro- 
duces the section of Hamond's Plan of 1574, which actually shows 
Siberch's house. Only forty-two copies in all are known of Siberch's 
works, and of these twelve are in Cambridge. Four of his works are 
not in Cambridge. Mr. Gray is recognized as the authority on Siberch 
bindings, and he here recapitulates his discoveries. He looks for 
further references to Siberch when early college accounts at Cambridge 
are further examined. 

C. E. Sayle. 

A text-book of European Archaeology. By R. A. S. MacalisTER, 

Litt.D., F.S.A. Vol. i. The palaeolithic period. 9^x6^; pp. xv + 

610. Cambridge University Press, 1921. ^os. 

Two volumes on Prehistory have been published recently by the 
Cambridge Press, and this time the printer's reader has done himself 
justice. The untrimmed edges are a trial, but the illustrations, which 
are of unequal merit, are at least placed where they belong. Based 
on lectures given at University College, Dublin, this comprehensive 
treatise is to be followed by others on the Neolithic, Bronze, and Iron 
Ages ; and comparison with Dechelette's Manuel is inevitable. But 
whereas the latter scries deals principally with the antiquities of the 
author's own country, Professor Macalister devotes most of his space 
to continental discoveries that have of recent years been rendered 
accessible in English by various writers. P'rance is certainly the 
headquarters of Prehistory, but that is only one more reason for 
making the best of home products ; and the author, with all his know- 
ledge and industry, seems to treat the Continental material as an end 
in itself rather than as a means of solving problems in the British Isles. 

In a text-book nomenclature is all important, and though the Pro- 
fessor cannot be held responsible for current usage, he has missed 
a good opportunity of setting a better example. For the constant use 


of 'engraver' as the equivalent of burin there is little excuse, as 
engravers and archaeologists alike recognize nothing but 'graver' in 
English. ' Mesolithic ', a term due originally to a random guess, must 
have been imperfectly exorcised, as it makes a most unwelcome 
reappearance. Amygdaloid (p. 2 36) does not mean lozenge-shaped ; 
and Reliquiae Aquitaniae is something more than a misprint, as it 
never occurs correctly. Students may also be puzzled by the substi- 
tution of axis for apex in an important passage on p. 146. On p. 147 
there is a definition of artefact^ ' a word more useful than beautiful ', 
but it was deformed from birth and craves our sympathy. Such is the 
fashionable spelling, but the word is none other than the substantive 
of artificial, and the Latin rule is clear from such cases 2iS plebiscitum, 
sortilegitim. A more serious matter is the adoption of French place- 
names in their adjectival form as labels for the various prehistoric 
divisions. Our neighbours handle such forms with some success, but 
the names are themselves unfamiliar to many English readers, and it is 
no advantage to have Chelles, La Madeleine or Mas d'Azil disguised 
as Chellean, Magdalenian, or Azilian, even if there were any consistency 
in the English spelling. Ambiguity could be easily prevented, and in 
any case the practice is contrary to the genius of our language. 
Terms like Solutreen and Campignyien are no doubt manageable 
abroad, but would any one in his senses speak of Wiltshirean bacon or 
Banburyiart cakes ? 

As a whole the book is highly orthodox and eminently readable. 
Those who have tried to keep abreast of prehistoric research will 
recognize with gratitude the patience and erudition involved in its 
production. As the main lines of the subject have been fixed for all 
time, the author is not often called upon to decide a question of policy; 
and the reader will once more review in a calm atmosphere the 
wonderful discoveries in the caves of western Europe, but may find his 
pulse quicken in the last chapter where the more personal treatment 
of Chapter V is again adopted. 

In dealing with the eolithic question the author assumes a banter- 
ing tone, and is all on the side of ' common sense '. He deplores the 
personal abuse to which it has given rise in certain (foreign) circles, 
yet invents and gives currency to such terms as Eolithist, Eolithophile, 
and Eolithophobe. Of what use are eoliths ? Agreed that ' a use can 
be satisfactorily assigned to most Neolithic and Bronze Age imple- 
ments " (p. 173), but can the Professor enlighten us as to the exact 
purpose of a palaeolith ? In pre- (or, as he would say, pro-) palaeolithic 
days we should expect to find less obvious traces of human worK as 
we go further back, till at last the work of man and nature can no 
longer be distinguished. Fixing the boundary line is at present 
a personal matter ; and two of the authorities quoted (pp. 161, \6^ 
have recently changed their minds, to the stupefaction of their many 
followers {Proc. Prehist. Soc. E. Anglia, iii, 261, 456). It is easy to 
dispose of thousands of alleged eoliths as natural products, but will 
the author deny any eoliths are of human origin ? If one is admitted, 
cadii quaestio. 

Little space is devoted to the pre-Crag theory, though the author 
somewhat ominously states (p. 169) that the first palaeolithic tools that 



can be identified as human work lie in Stage 3 of his scheme for the 
evolution of technique. On p. 26a is a statement that will be con- 
tested by not a few collectors and geologists : ' The oldest gravels are 
those of the original plateau, relics of which remain capping the hills 
along the course of the river. These contain no implements other 
than the more than doubtful eoliths.' Again a passage on p. 58 1 may 
well lead the student to believe that Drift man was exclusively of 
Neanderthal type : ' Down to the end of the Middle Palaeolithic term 
the whole of Europe was peopled by the race called Mousterian. . . . 
There is no evidence that can stand criticism for a race resembling 
the modern type of humanity as existing in the Continent along with 
or previous to them.' Galley Hill man thus gets short shrift, yet the 
' paintings ' on the wall of Bacon's Hole near Paviland cave are treated 
with all consideration, though the owner of the cave has pointed out 
other streaks of ochre that have oozed through the rock since the 
discovery was made. On p. 434 are two misprints in place-names and 
a misleading reference in note 7. That on p. 254, note i, should be to 
pp. 353, 361 ; and there are wrong references on pp. 258 and 431 to 
the illustrations. More might well have been expected, and over- 
looked ; but there are some slips of more importance. Furze Piatt is 
not at Caversham (p. 265), but 24 miles down the river at Maidenhead. 
The statement on p. 54 that ' Russia seems to be an eastward exten- 
sion of Asia ' will deceive nobody ; but to place N0stvet before Magle- 
mose and Viby (p. 568) is to stultify the fine work of our Scandinavian 
colleagues. The parrot-beak gravers (fig. 104) are upside down, also 
fig. looA and the Solutre blade on the cover, as the shading shows, 
and there is nothing in the text to prove the contrary. That mythical 
animal Cervus ^/<?/^rt.f appears on p. 192, and what seems to be a cross 
between it and Cervus elapliiis is called C. elephtis on p. 584. 

In an undertaking of this kind a sense of proportion becomes 
a cardinal virtue ; and in a text-book of Archaeology, not of Anthropo- 
logy in general, better use might have been made of about 40 pages 
in the opening chapters dealing with kingship, the clan system, agglu- 
tinative languages, etc. Room might thus have been found for a fuller 
treatment of flint fracture and patination, the definition of types, and 
quaternary geology. But no one would belittle the service rendered 
by our Fellow to prehistoric archaeology, or the effort required to com- 
plete his own ambitious programme. In this he will have the good 
wishes of all serious students, on whom it is incumbent to remove the 
reproaches levelled at British (and Irish ?) archaeologists on p. 260. 

Reginald A. Smith. 

Old Plans of Cambridge i^j^-i^gS, reproduced in facsimile with 
descriptive texts. By J. Willis Clakk and ARTHUR Gray. 9 x 
5^; pp. xxxvii4-i54, with a portfolio of plans. Cambridge: 
Bowes & Bowes, 1921. £a A^. od. net. 

These volumes have been worth the waiting. As long ago as 1909 
the six Old Plans here reproduced were announced as to be issued 
with a descriptive letterpress by the late Registrary of the University, 
Mr. J. W. Clark. Now, at last, after unavoidable delays the work 
that Mr. Clark initiated has been concluded by the Master of Jesus. 


The six plans here reproduced are of very varied merit. The first 
is a bird's-eye view by Richard Lyne in 1574, and is full of interest. 
It must be used with care, however, for, as Professor Willis long ago 
pointed out, it ' is drawn without reference to scale, proportion or 
relative position of buildings '. Despite all this it is a document of 
first importance for any study of sixteenth-century Cambridge. 

The second plan, from George Brown's Civitates Orbis Terrarum, 
7/7/, is in all probability merely a copy of Lyne's work, and of minor 
importance, but with John Hamond's plan of 159a we reach the gem 
of this collection. It was originally printed on nine separate sheets, 
each about 15 in. by lain., and is a wonderful example of early map 
making. The buildings are shown in perspective, as from a bird's-eye 
view, the whole being drawn to scale and every detail taken into 
account. Those who are only acquainted with this splendid plan by 
the reduced and adapted reproductions in the Architectural History of 
the University of Cambridge will find these beautiful facsimiles 
a revelation.' With this plan before him, and with the excellent com- 
mentary and footnotes supplied by the Editors, the student can under- 
stand the lay-out of the Town and University of those days almost 
as well as from the Ordnance Survey Map of tc-day. 

After these sheets of Hamond, the 1634 plan in Thomas Fuller's 
History of the University is of little merit, and we may pass at once 
to David ^Loggan's work in 1688. The value of this plan, and of the 
views of the University and College buildings that went with it, has 
long been recognized ; "" and by comparing it with Hamond's work it is 
easy to appreciate the growth of the University during the seventeenth 
century. The series concludes with William Custance's Survey of 
1798, which shows Cambridge just before the enclosure of the open 
fields round the town in 1802-7. 

Besides the very informing and learned commentary which the 
Editors have supplied to accompany the plans, the Master of Jesus has 
contributed an Introduction with chapters on the River, the Castle, and 
the King's Ditch which are the fruits of his lifelong study of medieval 
Cambridge. All students will be deeply grateful to him for the sug- 
gestive and interesting matter they contain. 

Both the letterpress and facsimiles of these two pleasant volumes 
are excellent. The only complaint we have to make is that a work 
so essential to the student should have to be issued at so prohibitive 
a price. 

H. S. Bennett. 

The Historical Geography of the Wealden Iron Industry. By M. C. 

Delany. 8|x5^. Pp.62. London : Benn Brothers, 1921. 4s. 6d. 

This is the first number of a series of research monographs which 
the Geographical Association proposes to issue primarily for the use of 
its members and those of the sister associations. In a brief preface, 

' See notes in text dealing with the inaccuracy of the reduced reproductions, 
e.g. pp. 51, 62, 81, etc. 

^ See Reproduction of Loggans Plans, edited with a Life of Loggan, Introduction, 
and Historical and Descriptive Notes, by J. W. Clark. 1905. 


however, the editor, Professor H. J. Fleure, disclaims too strict an 
interpretation of the province of Geography and complains that both 
education and research, at the present time, are suffering severely from 
over-specialization. This is especially undesirable in the case of 
geography, closely linked as it is on the one hand with the natural 
sciences and on the other with those of the anthropologist and the 

Any possible criticism of the present work that its subject seems to 
demand treatment primarily at the hands of the mineralogist or the 
economist is thus disarmed at the outset. But Miss Delany has well 
kept the first object of the series and her own title in view by devoting 
the greater part of this little book to a consideration of the geographical 
and other natural features of the Weald which made possible the 
continuance of its iron industry over so long a period. This is indeed 
very much the most valuable part of her work, and her account of the 
Wealden area leaves nothing to be desired on the score of clearness. 
That the district was largely uninhabited in early times and in parts 
practically inaccessible is doubtless true, but one might add similar 
instances in Surrey to those mentioned by Miss Delany in Kent and 
Sussex of the attachment of lands in the Weald by grants of pannage 
therein tp manors lying outside on the chalk downs and even beyond. 

For the history of the iron industry itself and of the processes in use 
the author is indebted to. the researches of previous writers. These, 
however, for the most part have dealt with single counties only, and it 
is well that even in this brief form the combined results of their labours 
as applied to the whole district should be thus summarized. To the 
general reader the sketch will be full of interest as revealing the very 
different economic conditions and outward features which prevailed 
down to the seventeenth century and even later in this district from 
those with which he has been so long accustomed. To the student 
the work should be chiefly valuable as a guide to further research. 
From his point of view the list of references given on the last page 
should have been more systematically and precisely set out, in par- 
ticular the dates of publication of the various works should have been 
given. Moreover, although the brief descriptions of the early ironworks 
derived from manuscript accounts as given in a recent work on English 
medieval industries are no doubt sufficient for the purposes of the 
present treatise, the student would have welcomed references to the 
sources where he will find these accounts printed at length and dealt 
with in detail. 

Few errors in the quotations from her authorities have been noted 
in Miss Delany's work. In view of a recent and as yet unpublished 
discovery, it is probable that the opinion, for which the present writer 
was responsible, that iron manufacture did not begin in Surrey until 
the sixteenth century, will have to be reviewed. The date 1574, given 
on page 32, of the manufacture of the first cannon by Ralph Hogge, is 
an obvious slip. The date is given with greater correctness on page 38. 
The reference on page 30 to the Horeham document printed in the 
Sussex Archaeological Collections is misprinted. It will be found in 
vol. xviii of that series. 

Some useful sketch-maps showing the geological features of the 


Weald and the distribution in 1574 and 1653 of its ironworks are 
appended, and the whole work is to be welcomed as a forerunner of 
what promises to be a new and valuable series. M. S. Giuseppi. 

Aficietit Glass in Winchester. By J. D. LE COUTEUR. 8^x5^. Pp. 

vii + 152. Winchester: Warren, 1920. 

The aim of this book is to make a complete record of the remains 
of ancient glass in Winchester, and the writer has produced a very 
useful guide, with an introductory chapter on the general history of 
glass-painting in this country. 

Winchester glass has been described by first-rate authorities like 
Winton and Westlake, but the present book is the first attempt to 
deal thoroughly with the subject, and Mr. le Couteur desei-ves all 
praise for his careful and painstaking work. And he has been 
fortunate in having the admirable photographs taken by Mr. Sydney 
Pitcher at his disposal. 

The method adopted is to deal first with the cathedral, beginning 
with Edington's glass at the west end of the nave and working 
eastward. The buildings in the close are next visited, and then the 
college, where the tragic history of the chapel glass is briefly but 
sufficiently set down. In the last chapters of the book an attempt to 
trace what remains of this glass provides some interesting reading, and 
there are some sensible remarks on the difficult question of the repair 
of old glass generally. C. R. P. 

Mr. and Mrs. Quennell have laid their many readers under an 
additional obligation by adding to their Histories of Everyday Things 
in England another on Everyday Life in the Old Stone Age (Batsford, 
5^.), which it is intended shall be followed by others on the Neolithic, 
Bronze, and Iron; Romano- British and Saxon; Norman; Medieval; 
and Renaissance Ages. Like their earlier books, the work under 
notice is distinguished by its illustrations, and if those of flint imple- 
ments leave something to be desired — and it requires more than 
artistic skill to draw them — nothing but praise can be given to 
the others, amongst which the coloured frontispiece representing 
La Madeleine folk painting a characteristic bull is particularly 
charming. The book deals succinctly in five chapters with the 
different phases of the Palaeolithic Age ; with the physical remains, 
implements, dwellings, paintings, and carvings. Ethnographical 
material, too, is drawn upon, and useful comparisons made between 
the life of these remote peoples and modern primitive races such as 
the Australian aborigines and the Eskimo. With this book as a guide, 
the girls and boys for whom it is written will be able to begin their 
prehistoric studies under the pleasantest auspices and, it may be hoped, 
will be inspired to go still further. To this end a short list of 
authorities is given after the introduction, but it is a matter for 
surprise that Sir John Evans's Stone Implements, surely the standard 
book, is not included. 


A new edition, the seventh, of the late Mr, J. W. Clarke's Concise 
Guide to the Toivn and University of Cambridge (Cambridge : Bowes 
and Bowes, u. 9^.) has just been issued. It has not only been 
thoroughly revised and brought up to date but has been re-set in 
a different fount of type, and many of the less satisfactory woodcuts 
employed in earlier editions have been discarded for new and better 
illustrations. A comparison with the special edition issued for the 
meeting of the British Association in 1904 shows that a great deal 
more space has been given to the description of the museums, which 
have grown so rapidly during the last seventeen years. But this is 
compensated for by discarding some unnecessary detail which was to 
be found in the earlier issues, and the book therefore has increased 
but little in bulk, to be exact, by but twelve pages. The guide may 
be thoroughly recommended, and those who use it conscientiously may 
be sure that nothing of importance in the town and university will 
escape their attention. 

The series of handbooks on the Provinces of Ireland, of which the 
volumes for Ulster and Munster have been published (Cambridge 
University Press, 6s. 6d. each), is intended chiefly for the higher forms 
of secondary schools, but its impartial and concise treatment will give 
it a sphere of usefulness outside the educational world. The subjects 
are grouped in each volume under Geography, Topography, Geology, 
Botan)', Zoology, Antiquities, Architecture, Administration, Industries, 
and Distinguished Men, each section being treated in a popular way 
by a recognized authority. The volumes are illustrated by maps, 
diagrams, views, and portraits. 

Periodical Literature 

The Etiglish Historical Rcvieiv,]dSi\x2ccy 1922, contains the following 
articles : — The Legend of ' Kudo Dapifer ', founder of Colchester 
Abbey, by Dr. J. H. Round ; a petition to Boniface VIII from the 
clergy of the province of Canterbury, by Miss Rose Graham ; Council 
and Cabinet, 1679-88, by Mr. G. Davies ; Sheriffs in the Pipe Roll of 
31 Henry I, by Mr. C. H. Walker; the death of Henry of Blois, 
Bishop of Winchester, by Rev. H. E. Salter ; a proposal for arbitra- 
tion between Simon de Montfort and Henry III in 1260, by Mr. E. F. 
Jacob ; Early Notes of Fines, by Mr. R. C. Fowler ; a Visitation of 
Westminster Abbey in 1444, by Mr. V. H. Galbraith ; excerpts from 
the Register of Louvain University from 1485 to 1.527, by Pere H. de 
Vocht ; a general court of the Merchant Adventurers in 1547, by 
Dr. W. P. M. Kennedy ; the Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian and the 
Crown of Greece, 1863, by Mr. D. Dawson. 

The Mariner's Mirror ^ vol. 7, no. 1 2, contains the following articles : — 
H. M. brigantine Dispatch, 1692-1712, by Mr. L. G. Carr Laughton ; 
notes on sails, by Mr. R. S. Bruce ; more doubts about decks, by 
Mr. R. C. Anderson; some ships of 1541-2, by Mr. R. M. Nance; 


the Whitstable oyster fishery, by Miss Cooper ; and a privateer com- 
mission of 1798, communicated by Mr. Carr Laughton. 

Vol. 8, nos. I and 2 of the same periodical contain articles on the 
Mayflower, by Mr. J. W. Horrocks ; on distinction marks in French 
command flags, by Mr. Cecil King ; on Charnock's French and 
Spanish second-rates, by Mr. C. G. 't Hooft, and on the ' Llibre de 
Consolat ' by Mr. A. B. Wood ; a day in Westminster Hall, an 
account of certain nautical cases tried in 1797, by Mr. G. E. Cooper; 
T/ie Mariner's Marvcllotis Magazine, a description of a periodical 
issued in 1809, by Mr. O. Hartelie ; notes on boats of the Lesser 
Antilles, by Mr. H. H. Brindley ; the Haaf fishing and Shetland 
trading, by Mr. R. Stuart Bruce. 

The Journal of the Society of Army Historical Research. The 
first two parts of the Journal of this newly-formed society contain 
papers by Col. Leslie on old printed army lists ; by Col. Butler on 
Ticonderoga, 1 758 ; by Major Bent on a ' Royal American', containing 
extracts from letters of George Bent, captain in that regiment at the 
beginning of the nineteenth century ; an original letter from a soldier 
describing the battle of Culloden ; notes on two old jackets of the 
8th Light Dragoons and 1 9th Lancers, by Major Parkyn ; a list of 
regimental nicknames, by Mr. W. Y. Baldry ; Feversham's account 
of the battle of Entzheim, 1674, by Captain Atkinson ; Highland 
military^ dress, by Captain Mackay Scobie ; a duel of 1807, by 
Sir Charles Oman ; Medieval artillery, by Col. Macdonald. 

The Journal of the British Archaeological Association, vol. 27, part i, 
contains an account of the congress held at Lincoln in July 192 1, and 
papers on the Roman conquest and occupation of Lincolnshire, by 
Rev. A. Hunt; on Gainsborough Old Hall, by Rev. P. H. Ditchfield ; 
on Temple Bruer, by Mr. H. H. Peaks, and on Heckington church, 
by Rev. C. A. Norris. 

Associated Architectural Societies' Reports ajid Papers, vol. 35, part 

2, contains a further instalment of Mr. Hamilton Thompson's paper 
on Pluralism in the medieval church, with notes on pluralists in the 
diocese of Lincoln, 1366 ; a few notes on Richard Smith, the founder of 
Lincoln Christ's Hospital and the old Blue Coat school, 1530-1602, 
by Rev. A. Hunt ; some notes on the history of Northampton, by the 
late Rev. R. M. Serjeantson ; the early history of the college of 
Irthlingborough, by Mr. Hamilton Thompson ; Fresh light on the 
topography of medieval York, by Rev. A. Raine ; extracts from 
Curia Regis rolls relating to Leicestershire ; the town of Hamilton in 
Leicestershire and its ancient lords, by Mr. G. ¥.. Kendall ; Worcester 
Cathedral, by Mr. H. Brakspear ; Worcester Cathedral : the dedica- 
tion of 1 21 8, by Rev. J. K. Floyer ; the date of building the present 
choir of Worcester Cathedral : a reply to Mr. Brakspear's paper, by 
Canon Wilson ; a Civil War Parliament soldier : Tinker Fox. by 
Mr. Willis Bund. 

Proceeditigs of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia, vol. 3, part 

3, contains the Rev. H. G. O. Kendall's Presidential address on 
Eoliths : their origin and age ; The excavations at High Lodge, 
Mildenhall, in 1920, consisting of a Report on the Geology, by 
Prof. J. E. Marr; a description of the humanly-fashioned flints, by 



Mr. J. Reid Moir, and a summary of previous flint finds, by Mr. Reginald 
Smith ; Finds of flint implements in the Red Line trenches at 
Coigneux in 1918, by Captain F. Buckley; further discoveries of 
humanly-fashioned flints in and beneath the Red Crag of Sufiblk, 
by Mr. Reid Moir; The Grime's Graves fauna, by Mr. W, G. Clarke ; 
Flint-crust engravings and associated implements from Grime's Graves, 
by Mr. Leslie Armstrong ; Hammerstones, by Mr. A. D. Passmore ; 
The Fracture of flint : a reply to the criticism of Prof. Barnes, by 
Mr. F. N. Haward and a rejoinder by Prof. Barnes ; a report of the 
recent congress at Li^ge, by Mr. M. C. Burkitt ; an animistic imple- 
ment of Cissbury type, by Mr. H. H. Halls. 

T/ie Numismatic Chronicle, 5th series, vol. i, no. 3-4, contains the 
following papers : — Greek coins acquired by the British Museum in 
1920, by Mr. G. F. Hill ; notes on a hoard of Roman denarii found 
in the Sierra Morena in the south of Spain, by Mr. H. Sandars ; the 
mints of Vespasian, by Mr. H. Mattingly ; third-century Roman mints 
and marks, by Mr. P. H. Webb ; a hoard of coins found at Perth, by 
Dr. G. Macdonald ; unpublished coins of the Caliphate, by Mr. H. 
Porter ; and Indian coins acquired by the British Museum, by 
Mr. J. Allan. 

Catholic. Record Society: MiscellaJiea^voX. iz, contains the following 
papers : — Diocesan returns of Recusants for England and Wales, 
I577> t)y R^v. P. Ryan; two letters or reports on recusancy by bishop 
Barnes, 1570 and 1585, by Rev. J. H. Pollen ; Recusants and priests, 
March 15^8, by Rev. J. H. Pollen ; Prisoners in the Fleet, 1577-80, 
by Rev. J. H. Pollen ; the archpriest controversy, by Very Rev. Canon 
Stanfield ; John Mawson, layman, martyr, 1612, some Catholic 
Mawsons, by Mr. J. Mawson ; the Catholic Registers of Market 
Rasen, Lines., 1797-1840, of Knaresborough, Yorks., 1765-1840, of 
Costesscy or Corsey, Norfolk, 1 785-1 821, and of Burton, Sussex, 
1 720-1855, by various contributors; Michael Tirrye, B.A., school- 
master, recusant, by Mr. J. S. Hansom. 

The Berks., Bucks., and Oxon' Archaeological Journal, vol. 26. no. 2, 
contains a fully illustrated architectural account by Mr. C. E. Keyser 
of the churches of Great and Little Coxwell, Coleshill, Inglesham, 
Buscot, and Eaton Hastings, and a communication by Dr. J. B. 
Hurry on Reading abbey and Cluny, in connexion with the octin- 
gentenary of Reading abbey. 

Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland A ntiquarian and 
Archaeological Society, vol. 21, new series, contains the following 
papers: — Explorations in the Roman fort at Ambleside (fourth year, 
1920) and at other sites on the Tenth Iter, by Mr. R. G. Collingwood ; 
the travels of Sir Guilbert de Launoy in the north of England and 
elsewhere, 1430, by Col. O. H. North ; the third part of the paper on 
the Eastern Fells, by Mr. T. H. B. Graham ; Old Salkeld, by 
Mr. Graham ; Cumberland ports and shipping in the reign of 
Elizabeth, by Mr. P. H. Fox ; the Cowpers of Aldingham in the 
sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, by Mr. H. S. Cowper ; 
James Jackson's diary, 1650-83, by Mr. F. Grainger ; Lavercost 
Foundation charter, part i, by Mr. T. H. B. Graham; Scaleby, by 
Mr. Graham ; Fountains abbey and Cumberland, by Mr. W. P. 


Haskett-Smith ; thirteenth-century Keswick, by Mr. W. G. CoUing- 
wood ; Helton Flechan, Askham, and Sandford of Askham, by 
Rev. F. W. Ragg ; Greenrigg, Caldbeck, by Mr. J. S. Parkin ; the 
Fair at Ravenglass ; with a note on the village cross, by Rev. C. 
Caine ; notes on the Roman well discovered in the courtyard of the 
Blue Bell Inn, Scotch Street, Carlisle, by Mr. H. Redfern. 

T}ie Essex Review y January 1922, contains the following articles : — 
Barrington of Barrington Hall, by Dr. J. H. Round ; a medieval 
intrigue at Felsted, by Mr. J. French ; old-time poor relief: facts and 
oddities, by Rev. E. Gepp ; Queen Mary's progress through Essex, 
1553, by Rev. Dr. Smith ; Sir John Blount of Essex, by Mr. F. 
Gordon Roe ; the Parish Registers of Widford, by Mr. G. \V. Saunders ; 
an unpublished diary of John Player, i8ic. 

Transactions of the East Herts Archaeological Society, vol. 6, part 
3, contains papers on the Shelley family in Herts., by Mr. H. C. 
Andrews ; on an early Court roll of Stortford, by Mr. J. L. Glasscock ; 
and on the Hexton Parish registers, with a transcript, by Mr. H. F. 

Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire^ 
vol. 72, contains the following papers: — the medieval roofs of Man- 
chester cathedral, by Rev. H. A. Hudson ; travelling post, by Mr. J. 
Hoult ; the journal of John Hough, lord of the manor of Liscard, by 
Mr. E. C Woods ; the woodwork of English alabaster tables, by 
Dr. Philip Nelson; some Lancashire wills, by Mr. J. P. Rylands; 
a Lancaster grammar school master; Lancaster Chancery Depositions ; 
Norris deeds concerning Liverpool. 

Transactions of the Thoroton Society, vol. 23, contains an account 
of Linby church, by Mr. W. Stevenson, and papers on the Castle Inn, 
Nottingham, by Mr. H. H. Copnall ; on the Beaumond Cross, Newark, 
by Mr. W. Stevenson ; on the church of St. Mary, Clifton, by Mr. H. 
Gill ; on the priory of St. Mary of Newstead, by Mr. Hamilton 
Thompson ; and a note on parish churches of Nottingham, by Mr. F. A. 

Vol. 24 contains papers on the history of the manor of Rampton, 
by Rev. H. Chadwick ; on the church of St. Mary, Orston, by 
Mr. H. Gill; on St. Leonard's hospital, Newark, by Mr. R. F. B. 
Hodgkinson ; on the development of castle building in England, by 
Mr. J. H. Walker ; and on the church of St. Leonard, Wollaton, 
by Mr. H. Gill. 

Archaeologia Aeliana, 3rd series, vol. 18, contains the following 
articles : — Early Northumbrian history in the light of its place-names, 
by Mr. A. Mawer ; some architectural characteristics of the parish 
churches of Northumberland, by Mr. Hamilton Thompson; Archbishop 
Savage's visitation of the diocese of Durham, sede vacante, in 1501, by 
Mr. Hamilton Thompson ; Shawdon Court Rolls, by Mr. J. C. Hodgson ; 
notes on the Fenwicks of Brenkley, by Mr. Fenwick Radclifife ; John 
Cunningham, pastoral poet, 1729-73 : recollections and some original 
letters, by Mr. J. Hodgson ; the manor and tower of Bitchfield, by 
Messrs. J. C. Hodgson, J. Oswald, and W. Parker Brewis ; a new Roman 
inscription from Hexham, by Professor R. C. Bosanquet ; the books of 
the companies of Glovers and Skinners of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, by 
-Mr. Hamilton Thompson. , 


The Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine, vol. 41, 
December 1921, contains the following papers: — The Place Names of 
Wiltshire, by Dr. G, B. Grundy ; stone implements of uncommon type 
found in Wiltshire, by Rev. E. H. Goddard ; notes on Roman finds in 
North Wilts, by Mr. A. D. Passmore ; Wansdyke, its course through 
E. and S. E. Wiltshire, by Mr. Albany Major ; King's Bowood Park 
[No. i], by the Earl of Kerry. 

The Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, vol. 26, part 3, contains 
articles on the advowson of Lockington and some eighteenth-century 
Chancery suits, by Rev. P. C. Walker ; on ancient heraldry in the 
deanery of Holderness, by Rev. H. Lawrance and Rev. C. V. Collier; 
on Goldsborough Hall, by Mr. S. D. Kitson, and a final instalment of 
Sir Stephen Glynne's notes on Yorkshire churches, with an index. 
Amongst the notes are the record of a find of a flint celt near 
Halifa.x, and a description by Mr. Bilson of the chancel arch of P311and 

The Scottish Historical Review, ]din\x2iry 1922, contains the following 
articles : — Three Aikenhead and Hagthornhill Deeds, 150S-55 ; Lang- 
side battlefield, by Mr. G. Nielson ; Documents relating to coal mining 
in the Saltcoats district in the first quarter of the eighteenth century, 
by Mr. N.-M. Scott ; Robert Owen and the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, 
1818, by Mr. A. T. Volwiler ; Minutes of the Diocesan Synod of 
Lothian held on 19th and 20th March 1611, with note by Mr. D. Hay 
Fleming ; a note on a Moray charter, by Mr. D. Baird Smith ; Glasgow 
in the pre-Reformation period, by Mr. J. Edwards. 

Y Cytnmrodor, vol. 31, contains the following articles: — Grant of 
arms to the National Library of Wales, by Sir Vincent Evans ; the 
Celt in ancient history, by Rev. G. Hartwell Jones ; Ritual and 
Romance: an appreciation, by Dr. Sidney Hartland ; Gildas and 
modern professors, by Rev. A. W. Wade-Evans ; the origin of the 
Welsh Grammar School, by Mr. L. Stanley Knight ; Adam Usk's 
epitaph, by Sir J. Morris-Jones ; Adam of Usk, by Mr. Llewelyn 
Williams ; Cultural Bases : a .study of the Tudor pc^riod in Wales, by 
Professor T. Gwynn Jones; Darnau o'r Efengylau, by Mr. H. Lewis ; 
the Chapter of Llandaff Cathedral, by the Ven. C. A. H. Green; the 
speech of William Blethin, bishop of Llandaff, and the customs and 
ordinances of the church of Llandaff (1575), by Col J. A. Bradney. 

Transactions of the Carmarthenshire Antiquarian Society, vol. 15, 
part 37, contains a further instalment of the letters of the Rev. Griffith 
Jones to Madam Bevan, in the early years of the eighteenth century ; 
Churchwarden's presentments in 1790 : Napps circle in Pendine, by 
Mr. Hadrian Allcroft ; Sir Joseph Banks's Journal of a tour in 
Carmarthenshire in 1768, edited by Mr. G. Eyre Evans ; the circle on 
Pwll mountain in Marros by Mr. Hadrian Allcroft ; and notes on an 
epigraphic pilgrimage in South-west Wales, by Professor R. A. S. 

Bulletin de la Socidti nationale des Antiquaires de France. 1920, 
contains the following communications : — A lintel carved with the 
Agnus Dei recently acquired by the Louvre, and on the funeral monu- 
ment of P. de Fayel, canon of Notre- Dame, also in the Louvre, by 
M. M. Aubert ; an unpublished bronze medal of Charles V, by M. J. 


Babelon ; a bas-relief of our Lady of Pity in the Louvre, by M. C. 
Barbarin ; on the origin of the bishop's mitre, by Mgr, P. Batiffol ; 
a tomb in the church at Craches by M. P. Beaufils ; an ancient intaglio 
with a representation of Danae, by M. A. Blanchet ; the north porch of 
the church of Villeneuve-l'Archeveque ; an account of the exhibition of 
manuscripts at Lyons, and a note on the ' belle cheminee ' of the 
palace of Fontainebleau by M. A. Boinet ; Canaanite inscriptions from 
Sinai, by M. C. Bruston ; the recently discovered sword of honour given 
by Nero to Corbulo, a modern forgery, by M. R. Cagnat ; the excava- 
tions at Volubilis, by M. L, Chatelain ; the ' ostel dc Beauvais ' at 
Paris, and the meaning of the word ' impopec ', by M, E. Chenon ; on 
the etymology of the name Semeuse, by M. P. Collinet ; palaeolithic 
human figures at La Colombiere, by M. L. Coutil ; a leaden bulla 
found at Carthage, by R. P. Delattre ; the meaning of the word 
' burge ' ; the chronology of the masters of the works of Reims 
Cathedral ; and on remains of painted cloths in the Hotel-Dieu at 
Reims, by M. L. Demaison : the chronology of the masters of the 
works at Reims Cathedral, by M. Deneux ; architectural terms in the 
Dictionary of Jean de Garlande, and Carolingian sculpture in the church 
of La Charite, by M. P. Deschamps ; column bases of the Cathedral of 
Meaux, and the 'village' gate of the chateau of Vincennes, by M. F. 
Deshouiieres ; the Spanish shield with a rounded base, by M. A. 
Dieudonne ; the grotto of Bernard Palissy, and tapestries from the 
Fontainebleau looms in the Imperial Treasury at Vienna, by M. L. 
Dimier ; the manuscript of the morality composed by King Rene in 
1455 entitled ' Le mortifiement de Vaine Plaisance ', by le comte 
P. Durrien ; Gothic architecture in Corsica, by M. C. Enlart ; Roman 
antiquities at Frejus ; the triumphal arch at Orange ; the monument 
at La Turbie ; and Roman capitals in the theatre at Orange, by M. J. 
Formige ; aterra-cotta antique object of unknown use ; and excavations 
in Bas-Rhin, by Dr. Guebhard ; the funeral car of Alexander the 
Great ; and the charges for carriages under the Theodosian code, by 
Commandant Lefebvre des Noettes ; the priory church of S. Lenard 
at risle-Bouchard, by M. E. Lefevre-Pontalis ; a drawing representing 
Robert d'Artois, by le comte de Loisne ; an ivory plaque with 
St. Bartholomew and St. Paul in the Louvre; Master Nicholas of 
Verdun, jeweller, by M. J. J. Marquet de Vasselot ; on the term legate . 
a latere, by M. F. Martroye ; the church of Sassierges-Saint- Germain, 
by M. A. Mayeux ; The Van Eycks, and the words Agla and Adonai ; 
and notes on the manuscripts from Lyons, by M. F. de Mely ; Inscrip- 
tions found at Dougga, by M. L. Merlin ; note on the sword of honour 
of Corbulo ; a Christian bone comb found at Hippo ; fragments of 
rims of Christian dishes found in the Crimea, and a jade sword guard 
and barbaric jewellery in the Mesaksoudy collection, by M. E. Michon ; 
the date of the silver clock once in the tower of the Palace at Paris, by 
M. L. Mirot ; the origin and history of the word Romania, and the 
formula domtis ronmla, by M. P. Monceaux ; the chapel of St. Roche 
at Toulouse, by M. F. Pasquier ; columns with the arms of G. le Due, 
abbot of St. Genevieve, at St. Etienne-du-Mont, Paris ; and the blason 
on the monument of Canon de Fayel, by M. M. Prinet ; bas-relief at 
Cirencester representing Fecunditas Augusta, by M. M. Rostovtzeff ; 



a Gallo- Roman vase found at Morigny, by Ic comte de Saint-Perier : 
on the nomination of Philippe de Mazcrolles as valet de chambre tc 
the comte de Charolais, by M. H.. Stein ; Roman coins fouVid at Bale, 
by M. E. Stiickelberg ; the excavations at Alesia, by M. J. Toutain. 

The first and second parts of the 1921 volume of the same publica- 
tion contains the following papers : — The gymnasium at Orange, by 
M. J. Formige ; Roman theatres, by the same author ; the forum at 
Aries, by the same author ; some seals of P>ench bishops, by M. M. 
Prinet ; Byzantine lead bullae from Carthage, by M. P. Monceaux ; 
on a bronze figure in the Schlichting collection, by M. E. Michon ; the 
chateau d'Alan, by M. L. Pasquier ; the identification of certain 
nimbed fi<;ures in the polyptych of the Last Judgement at Beaune, by 
M. H. Bernard; excavations at Frejus, by M. J. Formige; early 
Christian architecture in the provinces south of the Danube, by M. J. 
Zeiller ; the excavations in the theatre at Vaison (Vaucluse), by M. J. 
Formigd* ; on a book of customary law, published in 1522, by 
M. E. Chenon ; on the destruction by Christians of statues of ancient 
gods, by M. F. Martroyc ; on a method of marshalling the arms of the 
see with those of the bishop, by M. M. Prinet ; Christian inscriptions 
from Carthage, by M. P. Monceaux ; the thirteenth-century glass in 
Metz cathedral, by M. A. Boinet ; the Romanesque chapel at Alleins 
(Bouchcs-du- Rhone), by M. J. Formige; Pierre de Montereau, by 
M. de M^ly ; a sixteenth-century manuscript executed for Antoine de 
la Barre, archbishop of Tours, by M. Scrbat ; an ivory crozier found in 
the abbey of Villeloin (Indrc-et-Loire), by M. Deshoulieres ; scenery 
in the ancient theatre, by M, P'ormige ; the sculptures in Reims 
cathedral, by M. L. Demaison ; a carved stone in the twelfth-century 
church at St. Julien-le-Montagne (Var), by M. Formige ; the family of 
Louis d'Ars, by M. E. Chenon ; wooden monumental effigies, by M. R. 
Grand ; the chartulary of the commandery of Templars at Sommereux, 
by le comte de Lorine ; early Christian churches in Dalmatia, by 
M. J. Zeiller; a denier of Bourges of Louis VI or VII, by M. Dieu- 
donne ; on coins with their nanife instead of value stamped on them, by 
M. Dieudonnd 

Bulletin de la Sociiti archdologiqiie de Najites, vol. 60, contains the 
following papers : The cult of St. Stephen at Nantes and in Christen- 
dom, by M. L. Maitre ; Saffre in Gallo-Roman times, by M. A. Leroux ; 
an unpublished document of the fifteenth century concerning the ruins 
of Chateauceaux, by Abbe Bourdeaut ; the Renaissance in Brittany ; 
two unnoticed megalithic monuments, by M. A. de la Granciere ; the 
Delorme quarter of Nantes at the end of the eighteenth century, by 
Dr. G. Halgan ; the marriage of an officer of the army under the 
Directory ; two of Carrier's accomplices at Nantes — Moreau-Grand- 
maison and Pinard. 

Bulletin Monumental, vol. 80, nos. 3-4, contains the following 
articles : — the Roman building at Langon, by M. A. Blanchet ; Bell- 
turrets in France, by M. R. Fage ; the church of St. Julien at Tours, 
by M. H, Gucrlin ; the church at AUonne (Oise), by Dr. R. Parmentier ; 
Bible iconography in the early and middle ages, by M. G. Sanoner ; 
the twelfth-century tympanum in the church at Montceaux-l'Etoile 
(Sa6ne-ct- Loire), by M. A. Mayeux ; the retable at Gatelles (Eure-et- 



Loire), by M. M. Jusselin ; a Carolingian decorative motif atid its trans- 
formation in the Romanesque period, by M, P. Deschamps. 

Coviptes rendus de I Acadhnie dcs Inscriptions et Belles- Lettrcs, 
March-June, 1921, contains the following papers: — A newly-discovered 
obituary roll of the church of St. Paul-de-Lyon, by M. Omont; the 
Hfe of Leontius, prefect of the East under Anastatius, by M. Paul 
Collinet ; Punic tombs at Carthage, by R. P. Delattre ; on the pre- 
Mycenean site and necropolis at Skoinokhori, by M. C. Picard ; the 
Roman road from Lutetia to Genabum where it crossed Paris, by 
Dr. Capitan ; an Egyptian myth in the ' Roman de Renart ', by M. J. 
Capart ; new investigations on the site of Phocaea, by M. F. Sartiaux ; 
the excavations in the necropolis at Eleontis, by M. C. Picard ; A Gallo- 
R'oman funerary stela recently found in Comminges, by M. Graillot ; 
the Reliquary of the Holy Cross given by St. Louis to the Grey Friars 
of Paris, by M. H. Lemaitrc ; the Russian expedition of 943 to Berda'a 
in Transcaucasia, by M. C. Huart ; Egyptian antiquities discovered at 
Djebail in 1919, by M. Montet ; and remarks on the monetary system 
of St. Louis, by M. A. Blanchet. 

Pro Alcsia, No. 26, contains articles on Gallo-Roman Alsace in the 
light of recent discoveries, by M. J. Toutain ; an account of the second 
congress of the Societe Rhodania held at Grenoble in August 1920, 
and the concluding portion of the review of Gallo-Roman archaeology 
in 1919. Among the notes is one on Gallo-Roman iron cross-shaped 
studs in sash-bars, and another on a Bronze Age hoard found near 
a dolmen at St.-Pierre-Eglise towards the end of the eighteenth or 
beginning of the nineteenth century. 

Mitteilungen der Antiqnarischen Gesellschaft in Ziirich, vol. 29, 
part 2, contains the second part of Herr Robert Hoppeler's paper on 
the collegiate church of St. Peter in Embrach. 

Atti e Memorie delta Societd Tibnrtina di Storia e d' Arte, wo], i, 
no. 1-2. This is the first publication of a society recently founded to 
deal with the art and history of Tivoli. Mr. G. H. Hallam describes 
the Villa d' Orazio at Tivoli, to which Dr. Ashby adds a supplement 
on the Roman remains in the monastery of San Antonio. Monsgr. 
Giuseppe Cascioli writes on some early bishops of Tivoli ; Sgr. Vincenzo 
Pacifici contributes a long paper on the Villa D'Este, and Conte 
Coccanari-Fornari publishes some documents dealing with the 
Garibaldian occupation of Tivoli in j 867. 

The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, vol. 7, parts 3-4, contains 
articles by M. C. Boreux on two statuettes in the Louvre Museum ; 
by Dr. H. Junker on the first appearance of the negroes in history ; 
by Professor Langdon on the early chronology of Sumer and Egypt 
and the similarities in their culture ; by Mr. E. Mackay on the cutting 
and preparation of tomb-chapels in the Theban necropolis ; by 
Professor Pcet on the excavations at Tell-el-Amaina ; by M. J. Capart 
on the name of the 'scribe ' of the Louvre; by Major Burne on some 
notes on the battle of Kadcsh ; by Dr. Pinches and Mr. Newberry on 
a cylinder seal inscribed in hieroglyphic and cuneiform in the collection 
of the Earl of Carnarvon ; by Mr. C. L. Woolley on the Egyptian 
temple at Byblos ; Mr. PI, LI. Grifiith contributes a bibliography on 
Ancient Egypt for 1920-21. 


The American Jour tial of Archaeology^ vol. 25, no. 3, contains articles 
on a group of Sub-Sidamara sarcophagi, by Mr. VV. F. Stohlman ; 
a group of architectural tcrra-cottas from Corneto, by Mr.'S. B. Luce ; 
the Cardona tomb at Bellpuig, by Miss Goddard King ; the fifth part 
of Mr. W. B. Dinsmoor's study of Attic building accounts ; and a further 
instalment of Mr. K. H. Swift's article on a group of Roman imperial 
portraits at Corinth, the present part dealing with Tiberius. 

Vol. 25, no. 4, of the same journal contains another part of Mr. Swift's 
paper on Roman imperial portraits at Corinth, namely on those of 
Gaius and Lucius Caesar : there are also articles on an Askos by 
Macron, by Mr. J. D. Beazley ; on Mozarabic art in Andalucia, by 
Miss E. M. Whishaw ; on Francesco di Gentile da Fabriano, by Miss 
C. W. Pierce, and on the altar of Manlius in the Lateran, by Mr. L. R. 


Books only are included. Those marked * are in the Library of the 
Society of Antiquaries. 

*Thc Archer's bow in the Homeric poems : an attempted diagnosis. (The Huxley 
Memorial Lecture for 1921.) By Henry Balfour. 1 1 x 7 J. Pp.20. London: 
Royal Anthropological Institute. 

*L'encensoir de Lille. Par Emil Theodore. 9^x6^. Pp. 14. Reprint from 
Revue pratique de liturgie et de musique sacree, 1921. 


*Garchemish : report on the excavations at Jcrablus on behalf of the British 
Museum, conducted by C. Leonard Woolley, T. E. Lawrence, and P. L. O. 
(iuy. Part II. The Town Defences. By C. L. Woolley. 12^x9!. 
Pp. xii + 33-156. London: British Museum, 1921. 


*The Spanish books in the library of Samuel Pepys. By S. Gaselee. Sjxy. 
Pp. 49. Supplement to the Bibliographical Society's Transactions, No. a, 

'Societe archeologique de Nantes: Repertoire bibliographique dcs travaux 
archdologiques (epoques prdhistorique, protohistorique, Galio-Romaine, 
M6rovingienne et Carolingienne) publics sur le D6partement de la Loire- 
Int^rieure de 1795 i 1920. Par A. L. Harmois. 92x6^. Pp. iv + 178. 
Nantes, 1921. 


*Alumni Cantabrigienses. ('ompiled by John Venn and J. A. Venn. Part I (in 
four volumes) from the earliest times to 1751 : Vol. I Abbas-Cutts. lojx 7*. 
Pp. xxviii + 438. Camoridge University Press. ^7 loj. 

*The Welsh bookplates in the collection of Sir Evan Davies Jones, Bart., M.P., of 
Pentower, Fishguard: a catalogue, with biographical and descriptive notes by 
Herbert M. Vaugh.ui. 9j:x6. Pp. xxiv+151. London: A. and L. 
Humphreys. 1920. 



*The Armorial Glass at Vale Royal, Spurston Hall, Utkinton Hall, and Tarporley 
Rectory in the County of Chester. By J. Paul Rylands and R. Stewart 
• Brown. Reprint I'rom the Genealogist. 9^ x 6. Pp. 24. 

History and Topography. 

*The Registers of Marriages of St. Mary le Bone, Middlesex, 1775-1783. Edited 

by W, Bruce Bannerman and Captain R. R. Bruce Bannerman. Part HI. 

loj^x 7. Pp. vii+ 184. Publications of the Harleian Society, vol. 51. 
*The Life of Fisher. Transcribed from MS. Harleian 6382. By the Rev. Ronald 

Bayne. Early English Text Society. Extra series, no. 117. 8^ x 5|. 

Pp. 146. Milford. 15J. 
*Diocesis Herefordensis : Registrum Caroli Bothe : Registrum Edward! Foxe: 

Registrum Edmundi BontT. Edited by A. T. Bannister. iox6j. Pp. xvii + 

396. Canterbury and York Society, vol. 28. 
*A concise guide to the Tow n and University of Cambridge in an introduction and 

four walks, originally written by John Willis Clark. Seventh edition, entirely 

revised. 7xX45' Pp. xx+ 199. Cambridge: Bowes & Bowes, 1921. is. gj. 
*Departement de I'Eure: Archeologie Gauloise, Gailo-Romaine, Franque et 

Carolingienne. Par Leon Coutil. I. Arrondissement desAndelys; H. Arron- 
dissement de Louviers ; in. Arrondissement de Bernay ; IV. Arrondissement 

d'fivreux. 10 x 6j. Pp. 146, 323, 210, 379. Paris, Evreux, and Louviers. 
*The historical geography of the Wealden Iron Industry. By Mary Cecilia Delany. 

81 X si- Pp- 62. London : Benn Bros. 4J. 6d. 
*01d works and past days in rural Buckinghamshire. By G. Eland. 8^ x sf . 

Pp. viii + 82. Aylesbury : De Fraine & Co. 
*Ulster. Edited by George Fletcher. With maps, diagrams, and illustrations. 

7f X 5. Pp. xi+ 186. Cambridge University Press. 6j. 6d. 
*Munster. Edited by George Fletcher. With maps, diagrams, and illustrations. 

7|- X 5. Pp. xi+ 176. Cambridge University Press. 6s. 6d. 
*A short history of Kelloe Church and District. By Rev. Charles Greson. 8 J x 5J. 

Pp. 58. West Hartlepool. 2s. 6d. 
*Glimpses of Men and Women of Mansfield 600 years ago. By Richard W. 

Goulding. 8x5. Pp. 19. 
*Denombrements des feux du Duche de Luxembourg et Comte de Chimay. Tome 

premier: documents fiscaux de 1306 a 1537 reunis par J. Grot, publics avec 

des additions et corrections de J. Vannerus. 12x9. Pp. xi + 796. Acad^mie 

royale de Belgique. Brussels, 192 1. 
*Blechingley : a parish history, together with some account of the family of De 

Clare, chiefly in the south of England. By Uvedale Lambert. Two volumes. 

io|x8^. Pp. XX + 332, viii + 333-642. London: Mitchell, Hughes & Clarke, 

1 92 1. £s 5-f- 
*The Queen's College [Oxford]. By John Richard Magrath. Two vols, iijx 8. 

Pp. xxxiv4- 360, xvi + 439. Oxford: at the Clarendon Press. Milford. 42J. 
*The Story of the English Towns : Hastings. By L. F. Salzman. 7 x 4 J. Pp. v + 

125. London: S.P.C.K. 4J. 
♦Original Sources of English History. By L. F. Salzman. 7^x4^. Pp. xv + 72. 

Cambridge : Hefter. 
*The History of Carew [Pembrokeshire]. By W. G. Spurrell. 7^x5. Pp. 134. 

Carmarthen: Spurrell & Son, 1921. 
* Isaac Greene, a Lancashire lawyer of the eighteenth century, with the diary of 

Ireland Greene, 1748-9. By R. Stewart-Brown. 8^x5^. Pp. vii + 92. 

*Dictionnaire historique et arch^ologique de la Picardie: III. Arrondissement 

d'Amiens: Cantons d'Oisemont, Picquigny, Poix, et Villers-Bocage. Soci6te 

des Anticjuaires de Picardie 9 x 5J. Pp.721. Paris: Picard. 
*The Records of St. Bartholomew's Priory and of the church and parish of St. 

Bartholomew the Great, West Smithfield. By Y.. A. Webb. Two volumes. 

92x6|. Pp. lv'i + 557, xix + 618. Milford, ;^4 4 J. 
*Acts of the Privy Council of England, 16 1 3-16 1 4. 9|x6. Pp. x + 741. London: 

H.M. Stationery Office, Imperial House, Kingsway. £1 is. 


•Calendar of entries in the Papal Registers relating to Great Britain and Ireland: 
Papal Letters. Vol. XI. a, D. 1455-1464. Prepared by J. A. Twemlow. 
ioJx7. Pp. xxxi + 907. London: Stationery Office, Imperial House, Kings- 
way, 1931. 

"East Acton Manor House. Being the seventh monograph of the Committee for 
the Survey of the Memorials of Greater London. iiJxSj. Pp. 36, with 
twenty plates. The Committee, 27 Abingdon Street, S. W. i. 

*Cartulairc dc Jersey, Guerncsey, et des autres iles Normandes : recueil de documents 
concernant I'histoire de ces iles conserves aux archives du D^partement de la 
Manche. 4^ fascicule. 10X7J. Pp. 245-306. Jersey: Socicte Jersiaise. 

Indian Archaeology. 
*Mosque of Shaikh 'Abdu-n Nabi. By Maulvi Zafar Hasan. Memoirs of the 

Archaeological Survey of India, no. 9. 13 x 10. Pp. 4, with three plates. 

Calcutta. 12 annas. 
•Excavations at Taxila : the stupas and monasteries at Jaulian. By Sir John 

Marshall. Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India, no. 7. 13 x lo- 

Pp. 75 + iv, with .29 plates. Calcutta. 11 rupees. 
•Annual Report of the Director-General of Archaeology in India, 1918-1919. By 

Sir John Marshall. 12^x9^. Pp. iii + 53, with 14 plates. Calcutta, 1921. 

2 rupees. 
•Annual Report of the Archaeological Department, Southern circle, Madras, for 

the years 1920-1921. nJxSj. Pp. ii + 33. Madras: Government Press. 

12 annas. 
•Government of Madras : Finance (Separate Revenue) Department. Epigraphy : 

Annual Report for 1920-21 of the Assistant Archaeological Superintendent. 

13x8^. Pp. 118. G.O. no. 183, 23rd September 1921. 
•Indian Images, Part I, The Brahiiianic Iconography. By Brindavan C. Bhatta- 

charya. 9^x6. Pp. w-^^ + xxxvii + 79. Calcutta and Simla: Thacker, 

Spink & Co. loj. 6(L 

•British Museum : Catalogue of Western Manuscripts in the Old Royal and King's 
Collections. By Sir George F. Warner and Julius P. Gilson. Four volumes. 
i5^x 12. Pp. xliv+360; vii + 402; ix+384; xi with 125 plates. London: 
British Museum. 

Mediterranean Archaeology. 
•The Palace of Minos : a comparatire account of the successive stages of the early 
Cretan civilization as illustrated by the discoveries at Knossos. By Sir 
Arthur Evans. Vol. I. The Neolithic and Early and Middle Minoan Ages. 
9JX7J. Pp. xxiv+721. Macmillan. ^6 6j. 

•English Church Monuments, a. D. 1 150-1550: an introduclion'to the study of 
tombs and effigies of the mediaeval period. By Fred. H. Crosslcy. 10x7. 
Pp. x + xiii + 274. London: Batsford. 40J. 
•The Epitaphs in St. Mary's Churchyard, Louth. By R. W. Goulding. 9x5!. 
Pp. II. Louth: Goulding & Son. 

•The Wheatley Manuscript : a collection of Middle English Verse and Prose, con- 
tained in a MS. now in the British Museum, Add. MSS. 39574. Edited with 
introduction and notes- by Mabel Day. Early English Text Society, Original 
Series, no. 155. 8^x5^. Pp. xxii + 125. Milford. 30J. 


•Catalogue of the Silver plate (Greek, Etruscan, and. Roman) in the British 
Museum. By H. B. Walters. 11x8^. Pp. xxii + 70, with 30 plates. London : 
British Museum. 


Prehistoric Archaeology. 
*Ireland in pre-Ck'Itic times. By R. A. S. Macalister. 9^x6. Pp. xv+374. 

Dublin: Maunseli & Roberts. 25J. 
*The Copper and Bronze Ages in South America. By Eriand Nordenskibld. 

With two appendices by Axel Hultgren. 9I x 6J. Pp. vii+196. Milford. 

*Everyday Life in the old Stone Age. Written and illustrated by Marjorie and 
C. H. B. Quenneli. 7jX4j. Pp. x+109. Batsford. 5J. 


*Asian Cristology and the Mahayana: a reprint of the century-old ' Indian Church 
History', by Thomas Yeates, and the further investigations of the religions 
ot the Orient as influenced by the apostle of the Hindus and Chinese, by 
E.A.Gordon. 9x6. Pp. xiii+334. Tokyo: Maruzen, 1921. 10 yen. 

*The Septuagint and Jewish worship : a study in origins. By H. St. John 
Thackeray. The Schweich lectures for 1920. 9^x5^. Pp.143. London: 
Miltord, for the British Academy, 192 1. 


*Victoria and Albert Museum : Catalogue of Textiles from burying-grounds in 
Egypt. Vol. n. Period of transition and of Christian emblems. By A. F. 
Kendrick. 9| x 7 J. Pp. vii+108, with 33 plates. London: Stationery 
Office. 5J, 

Proceec/mgs of the Society of Antiquaries 

Thursday, 24th November ig2i. Sir Hercules Read, President, in 
the Chair. 

A special vote of thanks was passed to Lady Hope for her gift of 
five boxes of lantern slides and a collection of photographs and pam- 
phlets once the property of Sir William St. John Hope. 

The Treasurer moved that the Society sell to the company 17J. id. 
Midland Railway 2|- per cent. Perpetual Guaranteed Stock. The 
motion was seconded by Rev. E. E. Dorling, Vice-President, and 
carried nemine contradicente. 

Mr. C. H. Hunter Blair, F.S.A., exhibited an enamelled armorial 
pendant recently discovered at Darlington (see p. 144). 

Mr. C. H. Hunter Blair, F.S.A., read a paper on the seals of the 
bishops of Durham, which will be printed in Archaeologia. 

Thursday, ist Decetnber ig2i. Sir Hercules Read, President, in 
the Chair. 

Mr. O. G. S. Crawford was admitted a Fellow. 

Dr. G. H. Fowler, local Secretary for Bedfordshire, exhibited on 
behalf of the Pritchard Memorial Museum, Bedford, a bronze spear- 
head recently discovered at Kempston. 

Mr. W. Minet, Treasurer, read a paper on some unknown plans of 
Dover harbour, which will be printed in Archaeologia. 

Thursday, 8th December ig2i. Sir Hercules Read, President, in 
the Chair. 

A special vote of thanks was passed to the President for his gift of 


an illuminated pedigree on vellum of the family of Peryent of Digs- 
well, Herts., and of Hirch Magna, Essex, drawn up and signed by 
John Phillipot, Rouge Dragon, in 1615. 

Dr. William Mortlock Palmer was admitted a Fellow. 

Mr. F. Lambert, F.S.A., read a supplementary report on recent 
excavations in London, which will be printed in Archaeologia. 

Thursday^ ijth December 1^21. Sir Hercules Read, President, in 
the Chair. 

Mr. H. H. Brindlcy, F.S.A., read a paper on mural paintings of 
St. Christopher in English churches. 

Thursday, ^t/i January ig22. Sir Hercules Read, President, in 
the Chair. 

Special votes of thanks were passed to Sir Arthur Iwans, Hon. Vice- 
President, for the gift of his book on the Palace of Minos, vol. i, and 
to Mr. E. A. Webb, F.S.A., for the gift of his book on The Records 
of St. Bartholomew the Great {Smithfield). 

Votes of thanks were passed to the Editors of The Builder^ Notes 
and Queries, The Nation and Athetiaeuvi, and The Indian Antiquary 
for the gift of their publications during the past year. 

Mr, O; M. Dalton, F.S.A., exhibited the seal matrix of 
Giovanni Delfino, Venetian representative at Constantinople in the 
reign of the Kmperor Michael IX ; and an archer's bracer of cuir 
bouilli, work of the late fifteenth century, formerly in the 
possession of Sir Henry Ellis, Director and Secretary. 

Dr. P. Laver, F.S.A., and Mr. A. W. Clapham, F.S.A., exhibited 
a silver chalice belonging to the church of St. Mary in the Walls, 
Colchester, formerly the property of Rossnelly friary, Connaught. 
Both these exhibits will be published in the Antiquaries Journal. 

The following were elected Fellows of the Society : — Sir William 
Matthew Trevor Lawrence, Bart., Sir William Henry Wells, 
Mr. John Athelstan Laurie Riley, Captain Aubrey John Toppin, 
Mr. Leonard Halford Dudley Buxton, Mr. Legh Tolson, Mr. James 
Durham, Dr. Robert Eric Mortimer Wheeler, Mr. Harry George William 
d'Almaine, Mr. Frederick Christian Wcllstood, Mr. John William Bloe, 
and Mr. Harold John Edward Peake. 

Thursday, 12th January ig22. Mr. C. L. Kingsford, Vice-President, 
in the Chair. 

Mr. J. W. Bloe was admitted a Fellow. 

Mr. E. T. Leeds, F-S.A., read papers on further discoveries near 
Peterborough by Mr. Wyman Abbott, and on Where did the beaker 
folk land ? which will be published in the Antiquaries Journal. 

Thursday, igth January ig22. Rev. E. E. Dorling, Vide-Prcsident, 
in the Chair. ! 

Sir William Matthew Trevor Lawrence was admitted a Fellow. 

Mr. O. M. Dalton, F.S.A. , read a paper on two bronze bowls of the 
twelfth century, which will be printed in Archaeologia. 

Mr. Somers Clarke, F.S A., communicated a paper on the excava- 
tions at Fostat. 


Thursday, 26th yanuaryi()22. Mr. C. L Kingsford, Vicie-President, 
in the Chair. 

Mr. H. J. E. Pcake and Mr. H. G. W. d'Ahnaine were admitted 

On the nomination of the President the following were appointed 
Auditors of the Society's accounts for the year 1921 : Mr. Francis Wil- 
liam Pixley, Mr. Percival Davies Griffiths, Mr. William Longman, 
and Major Duncan Grant Warrand. 

Mr. Reginald Smith, F.S.A., read a paper on flint implements of 
special interest, which will be printed in Archaeologia. 

Rev. W. Budgen exhibited some llallstatt pottery recently found at 
h^Lastbourne, which will be published in the Antiquaries Journal. 

Mrs. M. \\. Cunnington exhibited some of the pottery from All 
Cannings Cross farm, Devizes (see p. 13). 

Thursday, 2nd February ig22. Sir Hercules Read, President, in 
the Chair. 

Dr. PZric Gardner, F.S.A., exhibited a supposed leaden relic-holder 
found in the Thames on the site of the submerged church at 

Mr. W. Parker Brewis, F.S.A., exhibited a rare form of book- 
marker, c.^ 1 40c. 

Both these exhibits will be published in the Antiquaries Journal. 

The following were elected Fellows of the Society: — Mr. John 
Henry Elliott Bennett, Mr. Dudley Cory- Wright, Mr. Alfred Bowman 
Yeates, Mr. Francis Baugh Andrews, Mr. Robert William Crowther, 
Rev. Sydney Williams Wheatley, Mr. Walter Gibb Klein, Mr. Joseph 
Sharpe, Lord Mostyn, Rev. James Martindale Blake, Major Harry 
Gordon Parkyn, and Mr. Albany Featherstonhaugh Major. 

Thursday, gth February ig22. Sir Hercules Read, President, in 
the Chair. 

Mr. W. G. Klein was admitted a F'ellow. 

The Rev. D. H. S. Cranage, Litt.D., F.S.A., read a paper on the 
monastery of St. Milburge at Much Wen lock, Shropshire, which will 
be printed in Archaeologia. 

Thursday, 16 February ig22. Sir Hercules Read, President, in the 

The Very Rev. the Dean of Windsor, Mr. Joseph Sharpe, Mr. A. B. 
Yeates, Dr. R. E. Mortimer Wheeler, Mr. D. Cory-Wright, and 
Mr. Athelstan Riley, were admitted Fellows. 

The Very Rev. the Dean of Windsor rtad a paper on some illustra- 
tions of St. George's Chapel, Windsor, and its restoration. 



Antiquaries Journal 

Vol. II July, 1922 No. 3 

Far Eastern Archaeology 

By Sir Hercules Read, LL.D., F.B.A., President 

[Delivered at the Anniversary Meeting, 25th April 1922] 

English folk are apt to think that other nations have greater 
advantages than they in such matters as the exploration and study 
of foreign archaeological or historical sites, and feel resentful at 
times that the British Government exhibits an apathy that is little 
less than deplorable. Our American friends would appear to 
possess unlimited resources, not only now, but for many years 
past, that have enabled them to pursue their researches in Egypt, 
Greece, and Assyria, while Carnegie endowments have dispatched 
another group to dig even in Balkh, a city for many years forbidden 
to Englishmen. The French explore, and take to Paris, the 
treasures of Persepolis, find the money to establish institutes or 
othe^ centres of French influence and culture, in Rome, Madrid, 
and elsewhere. Their school of living oriental languages in Paris 
had been in existence for many long years before England thought 
fit to do anything to encourage the study of Eastern tongues in 
this country. England seems to be incapable of supporting a 
journal of Oriental art such as has flourished for years past in 
Berlin, though in part maintained by English scholars. Mean- 
while, we in England do our individual best to supplement these 
deficiencies, though it is seldom that an effbrt is made to under- 
stand the reasons that underlie and explain these marked differences 
between the English standpoint and that of other countries. Defec- 
tive and incomplete methods of education are without doubt 
responsible in a great degree. Nearly every member of this 
audience must have had the experience, in speaking in ordinary 
society of some discussion that has taken place at one of our 
meetings, of seeing the look of blank and complete ignorance that 

VOL. II o 


comes over the countenance of his neighbour at the mention of 
almost any archaeological situation or problem. Such knowledge 
is relegated by the ordinary citizen to a realm peopled by such 
special subjects as the higher mathematics or the latest discoveries 
in bacteriology or chemistry. He feels not the least shame in 
confessing profound ignorance of the past history of his own 
country, and frankly regards any one possessing such knowledge 
as being given over to odd and queer pursuits, a kind of alchemist. 
It may be that the rising generation will be better equipped, as 
some slight return for the countless millions that are to be spent 
on the training of its mind. It will no doubt be urged, in certain 
quarters, that there is * no money ' in knowledge of the kind, which 
may seem superficially true. But even on this point there is some- 
thing to be said on the other side. My friend Mr. Gordon Selfridge 
has for years past been providing his staff with lectures upon all 
kinds of subjects, mostly quite unrelated to the demands of his 
business. His reason is that he believes that the additional know- 
ledge of any kind that his employees may possess is likely to make 
them more effective in their special functions. If so enterprising 
and competent a modern man of business takes this view, and is 
willing to spend money in putting it into practice, it would surely 
not be amiss to extend its operation into the world at large, and 
for the same reason. Both in theory and from personal experience, 
I am strongly in favour of a broad and solid foundation of general 
knowledge as the best initial training for specialist pursuits. 

I have alluded to the ignorance of our fellow citizens in the 
history of their own country, and when the subject relates to 
distant lands the ignorance is usually even more profound, 
although striking exceptions are often met with, owing to the 
wide reach of our commercial undertakings. But such knowledge 
is not always gained in the pursuit of wealth. It happens at times 
that men are so constituted that they will undergo endless hard- 
ships and risks without any other incentive than the mere acquisition 
of knowledge. Such characters are, however, rare, and my main 
purpose to-day is to put before you briefly the achievements of 
one such man, with whose work I was at one time intimately 
connected. I refer to the wonderful discoveries made during the 
last twenty years in Eastern Turkestan by Sir Aurel Stein. In 
spite of elaborate and costly official reports produced by the Indian 
Government, of more popular works brought out by publishers, 
and of the support of the Royal Geographical Society, even now I 
feel that the ser.vices that Sir Aurel Stein's arduous labours have 
rendered to the history of art and archaeology are not adequately 
recognized. It appears to me that the present moment, when his 
crowning works Serindia and The Cave of the Thousand Buddhas 

Thk Antiquaries Journal 

Vol. ir, pi. XI 


The Antiquaries Journal 

Vol. II, pi. XII 


•D O 




p X 

0, c 






have just seen the light, is a favourable one to bring before the 
Society, in a cursory manner, a sketch of what these labours have 
been and of the results of his discoveries. 

During the last quarter of the nineteenth century scholars and 
others interested in Oriental languages and art became familiar 
with documents, terra-cotta images, and other objects of small size 
that had drifted from unknown sites in central Asia and found 
their way into Indian bazaars. The style of work was strange 
and the writing of many of the documents was in an unknown 
script. Sundry Anglo-Indian pandits secured these at every oppor- 
tunity, among them Dr. Hoernle, and his small but interesting 
collection was the first with which I made acquaintance, and 
eventually it was secured for the British Museum. Very little, 
however, was known of the conditions of the discovery of these 
articles, beyond that they came from the arid deserts of Turkestan. 
Concurrently with these discoveries, Mr. M. A. Stein (as he then 
was), an official of the Indian Education Department, would seem 
to have determined that he would attempt to carry out an ambition 
of his youth, viz. the exploration of sites in the once flourishing 
land, now an endless sandy waste, of Eastern Turkestan. What 
he calls * a kindly fate ' made this dream capable of being realized. 
The moment when this happened was, moreover, according to the 
diplomatic lights of that day, a fortunate one, for the plans for 
the future domination of this vast area arranged between England 
and Russia (and maybe China too) had assigned it to Russia. 
It seemed, therefore, prudent to make whatever explorations it was 
possible to compass during the period before the country passed 
under Russian domination. The destructive history of the past 
decade has of course annihilated all the plans of the chancelleries 
concerned, though it is no doubt fortunate for Sir Aurel Stein 
that they once existed. Once freed from the trammels of official 
work, he found the recognition of the scheme much helped by the 
off^er of the British Museum to collaborate with the Indian Govern- 
ment, the Museum sharing in the costs of the expedition and each 
taking a proportionate share of the antiquarian results. It was at 
this stage that I was deputed to take in hand, on behalf of the 
Museum, the detailed arrangements with the India Office, where, 
thanks to the enlightened and business-like character of Lord 
Kilbracken, then Under-Secretary for India, the whole matter was 
put in train with the greatest promptitude ; nor, in spite of many 
official trials, was there the slightest friction or misunderstanding 
among the various parties to the contract. 

The task that Stein had set himself dealt not with archaeology 
alone, but perhaps to even a greater degree with the geography of 
the regions traversed : to confirm or refute the accepted routes 

o 2 


of the early Chinese missionaries of the seventh century, of Marco 
Polo or others, and to check their observations, made many 
hundreds of years before, by his own experiences of to-day. It is 
easy to understand what enthusiasm a man who had studied every 
authority on the subject for years, and had vaguely hoped at some 
time to find his chance of putting his theories to the practical test, 
would feel when at last he started, well furnished and equipped, to 
overcome the endless difficulties that lay between him and the 
accomplishment of his youthful ambition. His personal qualities 
and knowledge provided an admirable augury for success. Already 
a mountaineer, he was quite ready for the preliminary trials that 
faced any one proceeding from North-West India into Turkestan ; 
his familiarity with the languages and dialects I believe to be excep- 
tional, and his great knowledge of the various races of people whom 
he encountered was fully as remarkable. These qualifications, 
accompanied, as they were, by a natural suavity of temperament, 
sufficed to carry him and his party over the difficult ground with 
conspicuous success. 

1 do not feel myself a competent critic, nor is this the occasion, 
to deal at length with Stein's achievements on the geographical 
side, but there can be no doubt that his observations were highly 
valued by the Royal Geographical Society, which recognized them by 
bestowing its Founder's Medal upon him. To the ordinary person, 
in any case, it is clearly no common performance to have climbed to 
an altitude of 20,000 feet in order to study and record by photo- 
graphic panoramas the higher inaccessible peaks thus brought 
within sight — a feat which was responsible for the loss by frost-bite 
of the toes of one of the explorer's feet. This unhappy accident 
occurred on the Kun-lun range, and more than a fortnight of 
mountain travel of inconceivable difficulty had to be undergone 
before any competent surgical help was forthcoming. A glance 
at the involved mass of mountain ranges between Khotan and 
Leh, even on a small scale map, will give some idea of what this 
journey must have been. To Stein, however, even at the time, 
such experiences were regarded as entirely secondary to the 
security and safe transport of his archaeological spoils. 

I now propose to set out in a brief sketch some of the results 
of these expeditions, carried out at such great personal hardship 
and risk. To give more than the mere outline of the investiga- 
tions carried on over ten thousand miles of travel, involving 
accounts of sites of many peoples, and ranging in date from some 
centuries before our era to the tenth century or later, would require 
volumes of description. And in fact this work has been done to 
a great extent by Stein himself, and it is from his accounts, aided 
by my knowledge of his collections, that I am summarizing. 

The Antiquaries Journal 


Vol. II, pi. XIII 


- 'A 



^ '^ 







The Antiquaries Journal 

Vol, II, 1)1. XIV 






The first site 1 would mention is at Niya, on the southern side 
of the Taklamakan desert. Thence he went eastwards to the 
Endere River and on to Charkhlik, a fort of the T'ang period, 
which he found unchanged since the time of Marco Polo. Then 
north to Lopnor (the Chinese station of Loulan), a third-century 
site, and the neighbouring settlement of Miran, with stupa and 
fort, occupied during the T'ang period, and remarkable for its 
frescoes in late Roman style. From hence south-eastwards to 
Tun-huang, the town adjacent to the cliff temples of the 

* Thousand Buddhas '. On the road to this latter goal was 
found the frontier wall erected in the second century b. c. as a 
protection against invasions by the Huns from the west, of which 
Chinese annals about the beginning of the Christian era are full. 
A careful survey of a great stretch of this wall was made. • 

The Niya site is an oasis on the southern side of the great 
Taklamakan desert, where the ancient settlement had been almost 
entirely buried under sand, in a Sahara-like setting. Erosion by the 
pitiless winds of the desert helps to reveal these buildings to the ex- 
plorer (pi. XII). They are of timber framework, with plaster walls, 
the wood being often elaborately and artistically carved in Graeco- 
Buddhist style, an indication of the vigorous survival of the early 
Indian art motives for centuries in this distant spot. It would 
seem that the date of the Niya settlement was about the third 
century a. d. and that it came to an end when the Chinese domina- 
tion of the district ceased, at about that date. Some of the houses 
would appear to have been left hurriedly, many precious objects 
being hidden away evidently in great haste. Also, as in many 
other ancient sites, all articles of value that the owners were forced 
to leave were promptly removed by their nomadic neighbours, so 
that only what was valueless at the time or was effectually hidden 
remained for the present-day explorer. In the case of Niya it was 
no mean prize. Apart from the timbers of the construction, 
a midden (which even after 1700 years of desert existence still 
retained its original unsavoury smell) found near some outhouses 
contained * rags of manifold fabrics in silk, wool, cotton, and felt : 
' pieces of a woollen pile carpet, embroidered leather and felt, plaited 

* braids and cords, arrow-heads in bronze and iron, fragments of fine 

* lacquer ware, broken implements in wood and iron '. Besides these 
were baskets and pottery and wooden vessels, furniture, weaving 
implements, a mouse-trap and such-like. But far surpassing all 
of these in interest was the find of documents written on wooden 
tablets in the well-known but still cryptic Kharoshti writing. 
A hoard of this kind recalls the similar discoveries of tablets of 
clay at Nineveh, and it seems likely that the Niya library is of the 
same types of deeds and other records. The Niya documents are 


formed of two slabs of wood placed one upon another, the inner 
faces smoothed for the writing and the outer face of what may be 
called the upper tablet so cut as to present a hollow in the middle 
in which to put the clay seal and to protect it from injury. The 
two tablets were ingeniously lashed together with string which 
passed through the seal, the latter ensuring, while unbroken, the 
integrity of the document. On the outside was written an endorse- 
ment, which may be an indication of the contents. Of these 
curious writings there were two kinds. The first, a regular oblong, 
carefully shaped, had at times two seals impressed in the recess, 
and these have been found to be contracts. The second sort 
is more wedge-shaped, secured in the same manner, but the 
present indications seem to show that they contain administrative 
instructions, probably concerning the person who presented 

What historical or other facts may be hidden among these deeds 
or orders it is not yet possible to say. But there can be no 
question that when they are fully interpreted our knowledge of the 
relations of this remote district of Central Asia with the civiliza- 
tions of other parts of the world will be greatly increased. In one 
small respect, indeed, we need not wait so long. The clay seals 
give us clear indications in one direction. It will not excite 
surprise that these seals show affinities with India or China, the 
two great countries to the south and east. But it is another 
matter when we find several of these Turkestan deeds sealed with 
a Greek gem representing Athene Promachos, and another with 
an Eros, both of them of good Greek work, and a third with 
a figure of Herakles. What a series of pictures is raised up in 
the imagination at such a find ! It would be only natural that 
the routes taken by Alexander and his successors should remain 
in use long after they themselves had passed away, and even their 
memory become dim, and one can well imagine that such elegant 
and enduring objects of barter as these little intaglios, even from 
their small size and indestructible qualities, would form a favour- 
able medium of exchange with the leaders of caravans proceeding 
from the eastern end of the Mediterranean or from Asia Minor 
to trade with the more truly eastern dwellers in Afghanistan ; and 
thence over the uncharitable mountain ranges into Turkestan itself, 
then dotted with townships rejoicing in a water-supply and con- 
sequent fertility long since disappeared. The documents too, on 
another side, furnish conclusive evidence of even closer connexion 
with India. They comprise many in Indian languages of the early 
centuries of our era, and these, moreover, are not copies of the 
Buddhist scriptures, which a common faith might have carried as 
far as its missionaries could reach, but, on the contt;ary, these 


documents dealt with the administrative affairs of the daily life of 
the community. It is thus shown beyond dispute th^t not only 
were the linguistic affinities between India and Turkestan very 
close, but suggests the further probability that racial contact was 
consistently maintained. What an opportunity is here provided 
for an imaginative Heliodorus of our time to produce a romance 
where the characters may proceed from Greece, from Persia, from 
the plains of India, from Afghanistan, or from farthermost China, 
and play out their drama in the Taklamakan desert of Eastern 
Turkestan. Nor, if a few centuries later than the third be chosen 
as the time, would it be impossible to bring into play the conflicting 
claims of Buddhism and Christianity as an essential problem of the 
romance. It is not at all unlikely that the Nestorian missionaries 
were pursuing their course through the Taklamakan about the 
beginning of the seventh century. The previous century had 
seen their establishment in Afghanistan, and in the seventh they 
had reached China itself, and, as no doubt they aimed at making 
proselytes on the road, their progress would probably be slow. 
Similar remains of Nestorian and Manichaean texts have been 
found by Germans far away to the north-east of the Taklamakan 
desert, at Turfan. It is hard to think of any one spot on the 
earth's surface where so many divergent elements of culture and 
belief, or so many differing traditions, can be brought together 
on an historical basis, and I can commend the situation to any 
practised hand as one that will, at the least, possess the signal 
merit of novelty, and will present a field rich in allusive 

The Niya site is only one among many where similar dis- 
coveries repaid Stein's acumen and industry, albeit that he found 
there more documents than in most places. His accounts of 
others are, however, characterized by similar features, and it would 
serve no purpose to dilate upon them in great detail. 

The most remarkable discovery, or perhaps the place in which 
he secured the most wonderful group of treasures, was at the 
cave temples of the * Thousand Buddhas ', a station far to the 
eastward of the great Taklamakan desert and about fifteen miles 
south of the town of Tun-huang, a famous resort of pilgrims 
from far and near. To this site Stein's eyes had been hungrily 
turned for years before he could find opportunity to visit it and 
sit down to what turned out to be a protracted siege. He had 
heard of finds of ancient manuscripts having been made in one of 
the many temples, and he was eager to get to grips with the place 
and its guardians, and it may be said at once that never before 
had he been called upon to exercise so much diplomacy, joined to 
an everlasting patience, as he found essential before he secured 


his end with the astute and suspicious priest who controlled the 
situation (pis. XIII, XIV). 

The cave temples form an almost endless series of cells cut in 
the solid rock, to the number of over five hundred, i;i the face of 
of a cliff at the edge of a stream, some of them being near the 
ground, while above are other rows. It is evidently not likely, even 
if possible, that these are all of one date or even of one century. 
They must represent the continuous piety of many generations of 
devout worshippers and pilgrims. Numbers are now inaccessible, 
the stairways leading to them being destroyed by time, others for 
sundry reasons appear to be neglected and are thus of little interest. 
Obviously Stein was only able to examine a limited number, though 
by a piece of good fortune he managed to hit upon one that was 
a kind of safe deposit for the community. The plans of the temples 
vary according to their size, the larger having an ante-chapel and 
then a broad passage leading into the cella of the temple. This 
contains a series of images of Buddha and attendants, modelled in 
stucco, and arranged upon a horseshoe-shaped platform against the 
back wall, the roof being a sort of truncated cone in form (pi. XVII). 
The walls are covered with the most elaborate fresco paintings 
of diaper patterns formed of endless repetitions, of Buddhist 
images, often with floral borders of great charm (pis. XVIII-XX). 
As may be believed, great numbers of the caves are in a state of 
dilapidation, and it is the stucco figures that show the greatest 
signs of decay, the frescoes, owing to the extreme dryness of the 
climate, being in better state. Although, however, change and 
decay are common enough in the temples, it must by no means 
be thought that the worshippers allow this to go on unheeded. 
In Eastern Turkestan, as elsewhere, the craze for restoration is 
fully alive, and it is the custom of the priest in charge to make 
periodical tours for alms among the surrounding faithful, and 
with visible results. Many of the caves are richly adorned with 
brand new statues of Buddha and of groups of disciples from the 
studios of the present-day artists of the neighbouring town of 
Tun-huang. The effect is much the same as is found in our own 
country when religious fervour is entirely untempered by any 
artistic judgement, and Sir Aurel Stein deplores the garish effect 
of the well-intentioned priests' enthusiasm for restoration. When 
one takes into consideration, however, the fact that the majority 
of these shrines were adorned in the T'ang dynasty (6th-9th 
century), it is evident that much deterioration would take place 
in the intervening centuries, and further that, as against the painful 
restorations for which the priests have been responsible, we must 
not forget that it is to them equally that we owe the preservation 
of the temples and their ornaments for more than a thousand 

The Antiquaries Journal 

Wang Tao-shih, Taoist piiest at the ' Caves of the Thousand Buddhas*. 
{Serindia, fig. 198) 

The Antiquaries Journal 

Vol. II, pi. XVI 

The Antiquaries Journal 

Vol. II, pi. XVII 

Group of stucco relievo sculptures in north-west corner of pass.a<^e of ruiiieti Teniplc, 
'Ming-oi' site. {Serint/ia. fig. 195) 

The Antiquaries Journal 

Vol. II, pi. XVIII 





i ^ 

5 ,20 
-a ic: 

1. c;; 

.2 (J 


years. Without their pious guardianship, it is scarcely likely that 
these monuments, situated in a desirable spot in an arid land, 
would have escaped destruction at the hands of irresponsible 
nomads with but little reverence for the tenets of Buddhism. 

It is this succession of priests, too, that we must thank for 
preserving the astounding library that was the magnet drawing 
Sir Aurel Stein to this distant spot from his Indian study. As 
I have said, he had heard of certain manuscripts having been 
found in one of the temples, and he promptly paid a visit to the 
one in question, where he found, to his dismay, that the ordinary 
door which had formerly closed its entrance had been replaced by 
a plastered wall. While noting this significant change he said 
nothing to the priest on the subject, though fully conscious 
that the difficulty of the situation was thereby much increased. 
Then began the tedious and delicate operations of diplomacy 
necessary to induce the priest to permit his Western visitors to 
make a detailed examination of the unknown though certainly 
precious contents of the temple. The priest, on his side, as the 
responsible custodian of the temple, answerable to his superiors 
for their safe keeping, was timorous of any action that might 
arouse their suspicions, while he well knew that his flock at 
Tun-huang and farther afield would hardly confine themselves to 
criticism alone if he were found guilty of the sacrilegious alienation 
of the property of the temples. At the same time he seems 
to have been sensible of the weight of Stein's plausible argument 
that while these treasures of Buddhist doctrine were shut up and 
denied to the studious and pious world they were serving no 
useful purpose, and that in helping forward their publication, and 
even dissemination, he would be acquiring merit in the religious 
sense. Stein had given himself out, truly enough, as a profound 
admirer of the early missionary Hiuen Tsang, and almost as one 
of his disciples, a claim to which the priest was by no means 
indiffisrent. In presenting his arguments Stein was greatly helped 
by his accomplished Chinese secretary, who spent many hours in 
the attempt to overcome the priest's scruples, and in elaborating 
the statements that Stein's limited command of Chinese rendered 
somewhat bald. But it seems certain that it was Stein's devotion 
to Hiuen Tsang that ultimately decided the priest to allow the 
documents to be examined. The first step was when the Chinese 
secretary appeared late at night with a bundle of rolls of manuscript, 
which upon examination proved to be Chinese versions of Buddhist 
*sutras' which purported to have been brought from India by Hiuen 
Tsang himself^ a remarkable coincidence that worked wonders on 
the mind of the credulous priest, and thenceforward matters became 
comparatively simple (pi. XV). Stein was then allowed to examine 


the room behind the plaster wall. What he saw filled him with 
astonishment. * Heaped up in layers, but without any order, 

* there appeared in the dim light of the priest's little lamp a solid 

* mass of manuscript bundles rising to a height of nearly ten feet, 

* and filling, as subsequent measurement showed, close on 500 

* cubic feet.' From the priest's story, it would seem that until 
some five years before Stein's visit the existence of this deposit 
had been quite unknown, the cell having been walled up at an 
early date. A Chinese inscription on stone within the chamber 
recorded, with imperial eulogies, the piety of a pilgrim named 
Hung Pien, who had returned from India, laden with scriptures, 
and had settled here to devote his life to pious works. This 
bears a date corresponding to a. d. 851. Thus we have a base 
date for the deposit of the manuscripts, and it is inherently 
probable that the majority of them would be somewhat earlier or 
a little later than the middle of the ninth century, one of the 
finest periods of Chinese art. 

A slight examination sufficed to show that the bundles of 
scriptures or paintings were in exactly the same undisturbed 
condition as when pious hands had deposited them a thousand 
years before, and whether on paper or silk the continuously dry 
climate had preserved both the material and colours in some 
cases in absolute perfection. The only decay was due to age 
alone, with no other contributing agency. 

The contents of the cave temple proved to be homogeneous in 
one sense, inasmuch as they were all of a religious kind. But in 
other directions they provided indications of the enormous area 
covered by the influence of the Buddhist religion — Chinese was 
naturally prominent among the writings, Sanskrit also in many 
forms, Tibetan, Brahmin writing of Gupta type, and Uigur 
(Turki) of a kind used in the countries around Samarkand. 
A find of high interest among them was a block-printed picture 
bearing a date corresponding to a. d. 860. 

The mass of material was so great, and the conditions ot 
examination so difficult, that it was impossible to make the task of 
selection more than a summary process, but by instinct Stein 
appears to have done very well, for Monsieur Pelliot, head of the 
French Mission which followed after him, complimented him on 
the prizes he had secured, in comparison with what he had left 
behind. A second advantage of no small importance was that 
the priest regarded the Buddhist scriptures as being of prime 
interest, and showed no reluctance to the removal of paintings, 
temple banners, and the like. 

Thus Stein was enabled to bring home a collection of paintings 
and other relics of the art of the T'ang period such as can hardly 



be found in any other centre in the world, as both China and 
Japan have long been denuded of almost all that existed there. 
The condition of the paintings was in some cases deplorable. 
Rolled up, or folded, and subjected for centuries to the pressure 
of superincumbent masses, they had become, silk though they 
were, brittle and broken into fragments, and at times parts of 
a single painting were scattered far apart. 

It required only a brief examination of these treasures, on their 
safe arrival at the British Museum, to show that, although they 
spread over some period of time, yet the majority belonged to the 
great T'ang dynasty, and that, in spite of their dependence upon 
Indian prototypes, they still showed signs of the artistic influence 
of the locality. This dynasty has long been accepted, both in 
China and Japan, as possessing the most virile and original 
manifestations of the art instincts of the Chinese, at any rate 
during the Christian era, and examples are valued by native 
collectors to a degree that can hardly be equalled in the western 
world. The only instances in our own markets that are com- 
parable are the prices recently paid for such objects as Rembrandt's 
'Mill' or Gainsborough's * Blue Boy'. Thus, when it is found 
that Stein's collection contained more than 300 of such paintings, 
some estimate can be formed of the mass of novel material thus 
provided for study, and, from another standpoint, of the enormous 
money value, at any rate in the Oriental market, that theyrepresent. 

The subjects they present are, of course, concerned with Buddha 
and Buddhistic legends. In the words of M. Foucher, the well- 
known authority on Buddhism, in Stein's collection 'we meet 
'again with almost the whole catalogue of episodes which have 

* remained classic since the Graeco-Buddhist school of Gandhara. 

* The most important point to note is the frankly Chinese fashion 
' in which these traditional subjects have been treated. Under the 
' hands of the local artists they have undergone the same disguising 
' transformation which Christian legend has under those of the 
' Italian or Flemish painters.' It must not, however, be imagined 
that, in thus translating the Indian prototype into its Chinese 
successor, the artistic qualities of the representation have been 
lost or have even suffered. The T'ang artists were fully as 
competent as those of Flanders or Italy to reduce the Indian 
classical types to meet the demands of local standards, and the 
transfer of the models so far east would seem rather to have 
breathed new life into an artistic tradition that seemed con- 
demned to a life of decadent monotony. Further, it is certain 
that a large majority of these paintings do represent a local style, 
for a number of them are identical both in subject and in artistic 
method with the frescoes painted on the walls of the temples 


themselves, and there is no reason to doubt that in the T'ang 
dynasty, as at present, a community of artists worked at the 
neighbouring city of Tun-huang. 

It would be futile for me to dilate further on the merits of 
these wonderful paintings unless they themselves were before 
the eyes of my hearers. I can only refer them to Sir Aurel 
Stein's published works, in which they are well reproduced, 
or to the Print Room of the British Museum, where they are 

Apart from actual paintings, the temple hoard produced also a 
mass of embroideries and textiles. Chief among the former is 
a large panel about nine feet high representing Buddha and 
disciples. This is not only an outstanding example of industrious 
piety, but is fully as remarkable on the artistic side. The colours, 
though originally vivid, are both harmonious and pleasing, and 
the panel is an imposing monument of Chinese taste of a thousand 
years ago. Even more surprising in style is an embroidered 
cushion cover, of about the same age. The design, of simple but 
elegant floral scrolls, might well belong to any recent period, 
and, were^ there any reason to doubt its real age, it might have 
been assigned to the eighteenth century instead of the tenth. On 
the other hand, certain T'ang relics still surviving in the temple 
treasures of Japan bear a striking resemblance to this embroidery 
and help to confirm its early date. 

The textiles, mostly only fragmentary, are also of great interest, 
and their designs suggest puzzling questions as to their country 
of origin. Many of these are of the types usually called Sassanian 
or perhaps Coptic. To find such textiles, especially in silk, so 
near the confines of China proper, raises a question yet to be 
answered. The raw material, the silk itself, is believed to have 
reached Europe from China in the sixth century. Were these 
stuffs, then, woven in Western Asia and sent back as manufactured 
goods to China, or did there exist in China itself a manufacture 
of textiles specially suited for the Western markets ? This is 
another of the many puzzles presented to the studious world by 
Stein's discoveries. 

The early Chinese accounts are full of references to embassies 
and missions between China and the middle East,' to countries 
identified as Persia, Mesopotamia, etc. These writers not un- 
naturally describe the missions to China as those of tributary 
nations, the gifts they brought being considered as tribute. 
However this may be, it can hardly be doubted that during the 
early centuries of our era there was frequent intercourse between 

' Hirth, China and the Roman Orient, 1885. 

The Antiquariis Journal 

Vol. II, pi. XIX 











t!4f!7^ ^ y i lfc^;^.w!l 


The Antiquaries JouRNAr, 

Vol. II, pi. XX 

Ttmpera paintings on north-west and north-east walls, Antechapel of Cave XVII, 
Wan-fo-hsia. {Serindia, fig. Z47) 


Chinese and Arabs and Persians, and that indications of such 
influence in the arts is to be expected. 

According to the most recent authorities, it was' only the 
oriental dependencies of the Roman Empire that were known to 
the Chinese, who appear to have thought Antioch to be the 
capital city, and were ignorant of the existence of Rome. This 
ignorance is not, however, of prime importance, for it is fair to 
assume that Antioch, though possessing a local style, might yet 
possess many products of truly Roman taste and manufacture. 

In addition to the thousands of inscribed rolls and paintings. 
Stein secured in the neighbourhood of the * Thousand Buddhas' 
and from other sites a quantity of terra-cottas, stucco heads or 
figures, carvings in wood, the majority of which can safely be 
assigned to about the T'ang dynasty. The construction of the 
stucco figures is the same as that of the Buddhist figures in the 
temples of the * Thousand Buddhas ' — a foundation of vegetable 
fibre on which lumps of clay are first made to adhere, and finally, 
by superimposing layers of stucco, the mass is modelled to assume 
the desired form. Needless to say, the transport of such friable 
images over deserts, mountain passes, and finally by the more 
ordinary means of carriage, was a very troublesome matter, and it 
is not a little surprising that so many have survived. 

I hope I have been successful, in my brief summary of years ot 
toil and travel, to bring before you some idea of what Sir Aurel 
Stein has accomplished in the service of this country. 

One can understand how this oriental Sahara would strike a 
Western mind. It is not without interest to quote the Chinese 
view of it. 

The account of Chinese pilgrims starting from Tun-huang 
in A. D. 400 refers to the Taklamakan as a place ' in which there 
'are many demons and hot winds. Travellers who encounter 

* them perish to a man. There is not a bird to be seen in the 

* air above, nor animal on the ground below. Though you look 
' all around most earnesdy to find where you can cross, you know 
' not where to make your choice, the only mark and indication 
' being the dry bones left in the sand ' (cf pi. XVI). 

I should now like to put before you, in a few concluding 
sentences, what this service means in the way of increasing the 
material available for the study of early and medieval China, and 
her relations with other countries, both distant and near. 

Until about a quarter of a century ago, it may be said that 
in Europe nothing was known of the art of China of the T'ang 
dynasty beyond the picturesque traditions to be found in Chinese 
works — a source of information closed to all but the few. In 
Japan, however, the tradition had not only been cherished, but 


some of the temples were, and still are, the fortunate possessors 
of splendid statues made by Japanese artists, admittedly founded 
upon the style of the Chinese T'ang artists. From these it was 
possible to surmise how grand a period of art had apparently 
been lost to the world. 

The revolutions, peaceful or the reverse, to which China has 
been subjected for some decades have brought to light a vast 
mass of new material. 

It is the main purpose of warlike revolutions, whether in China 
or elsewhere, to bring the great ones of the country down from their 
lofty stations, while their possessions are dispersed. In this wise 
there came into the Chinese market, and eventually to the West, 
a number of works of art of early time that the mandarins had 
carefully guarded, not only from Western possession, but even 
from foreign eyes. At first they were hardly understood, and, 
like the embroideries from the * Thousand Buddhas ', it seemed 
impossible that they could be of the great age claimed for them. 
A few of the keener observers among us, however, were not slow 
in realizing that the Chinese claim was justified, and eagerly paid 
the modest sums they demanded. When by degrees the art 
world at large had acquired the requisite insight, the competition 
became vigorous, and prices soared into wild flights. But from 
this source, the godowns of disgraced mandarins, numberless 
examples of early Chinese ceramics, bronzes, and perhaps paint- 
ings became available for the Western collector, and doubtless 
more are still to come. 

Another and perhaps more fruitful source of supply was due 
to a more peaceful form of revolution, the general introduc- 
tion of railways into China. Hitherto a perpetual obstacle to 
archaeological investigation had been the deeply rooted fear 
of any disturbance of the tombs of their ancestors. As these 
tombs were to be found almost everywhere, excavations were 
practically impossible. The pursuit of wealth, however, has 
sufficed to overcome, even with the conservative ancestor- 
worshipping Chinese, their ancient reverence for the resting- 
places of their forefathers, so that it became the habit of the 
emissaries of American museums to offer a prize of a dollar 
for every grave that was disclosed in the progress of the railway 
works. And at that cheap rate the unchanging Chinese disposed 
of their ancestors to the Western barbarian. Archaeologists in 
most cases are but vaguely interested in Chinese ethics, and in 
this case the pursuit of wealth has indirectly tended to a very 
signal increase of bur knowledge of Far Eastern art, and has 
opened up unsuspected avenues for research and comparison. 

Thanks to these radical changes in the Chinese outlook, great 

I'liE Antiquaries Journal 

Vol. II, pi. xxr 




View across rtom of ruin L.B. IV, Lou-Ian site, towards NW., after excavation. 

{Serind'ta, fig. 109) 

The Antiquaries Journal 

Vol. II, pi. XXII 


Remains of wood-carvings from ruin L. A. Ill, Lou-Ian station. {Serindia, fig. 99) 


quantities of works of art from early sites have been dispersed 
over the Western world, and in such quantities that the trained 
eye is able, even from the evidence of the objects themselves, to 
group them into consecutive periods. America has not been 
altogether idle in attention to this new source of knowledge, but 
in this country also there are a few men who, undeterred by the 
novelty of the artistic type, were not afraid to venture boldly into 
the field thus presented, and add group to group while the harvest 
was still to be gathered. To some of us in the Society, the name 
of our Fellow Mr. Eumorfopoulos will immediately occur as the 
high priest of this cult of early Chinese art. It required no small 
amount of courage twenty years ago to give sums of money not 
inconsiderable for works of art of a kind till then entirely 
unknown, and the art world in England will always be deeply 
in his debt for having so greatly enriched this country, sometimes 
in defiance of the warnings of others of greater experience but of 
less real insight. For it is a curious fact that our French friends, 
in the earlier years of this Chinese revival, took a very gloomy- 
view of the nature of the new importations. They shook their 
heads very sadly when I displayed with some pride my recent 
acquisitions at the British Museum, and spoke of the almost 
superhuman skill of the Chinese forger of antiques. The obvious 
reply was that if the modern Chinese were capable of producing 
works of art of such high quality, they were well worth collecting, 
no matter what was the story that accompanied them. 

These doubts, wherever they existed, have now been long dis- 
pelled (though the Chinese forger has not been altogether idle), 
and the masterpieces of the earlier dynasties stand unchallenged 
in our museums and in private possession. 

Their value and interest is enhanced beyond words when we 
have in addition such a collection as that brought home by 
Sir Aurel Stein. By singular good fortune he has retrieved just ^ 
the very objects that the earth can never yield to us. Pictures, 
embroideries, manuscripts, such as constitute his hoard, even had 
they been buried in the graves, would have been destroyed by 
damp in much less than a thousand years. His finds in the bone- 
dry cave of the ' Thousand Buddhas ' form the necessary comple- 
ment of what excavation has yielded from China itself, with the 
result that we have in England what is probably a unique mass of 
material for the study of Chinese archaeology, religion, and art 
during the three centuries preceding the Norman Conquest. 

To this period belong the great majority of the works of art 
found by Sir Aurel Stein, though naturally enough, when the 
vast area of his travels is borne in mind, there are many pieces 
that are older, and some more recent. In fact it can almost be 


claimed that the collection represents more or less the first thousand 
years of our era. It will take many accomplished scholars a long 
time before we can profit by the information contained in the 
hundreds of manuscripts now deposited either in the British 
Museum or in the Central Indian Museum at Delhi. That they 
are a mine of knowledge of the most diverse kinds there can be 
no doubt.' 

Just as Stein's manuscripts have reference to many matters 
beyond epigraphy and language, so the ceramic or bronze relics in 
such a collection as that of Mr. Eumorfopoulos raise questions 
remote from either craftsmanship or art. Many of the figures, 
I am not sure that it is not the majority, of the T'ang period in 
his cabinets show racial types very different from the Chinese, 
and no doubt represent their western neighbours, the Huns 
and others. Some of the plates in Stein's books show just such 
people, and so marked are their facial characters that there can be 
no reasonable doubt that Stein's attendants preserve unchanged to 
this day the countenances of their forbears of the seventh century 
or thereabouts. The point might be profitably followed up in 
the proper place and by a practised hand. 

I have endeavoured in this brief review to put before you 
a summary of what, in about twenty years of travel. Sir Aurel 
Stein has accomplished. I consider it a remarkable achievement, 
and one that merits wider recognition in the outer world than it 
has yet received. I trust that my small tribute may help in this 
direction, and that what I have said may induce others to pay 
a visit to the British Museum and see for themselves the treasures, 
whether manuscripts, paintings, textiles, or terra-cottas, that Stein 
has brought to us for the better understanding of the ancient 
East, its people, its languages, and its art. 

[This address was accompanied by a series of Sir Aurel Stein's 
lantern slides, kindly lent by the Royal Geographical Society. 

The illustrations are from Serindiay by the kind permission 
of the Secretary of State for India, and the Delegates of the 
Clarendon Press.] 

" It is a question, and an important one, as to how far the Indian climate will be 
suitable for many of these very delicate antiquities. The opinion of some competent 
authorities is that much will deteriorate and become useless. 



Notes on the Pastels from a Carolingian lyory 
Diptych in the Raye?tna and South Kensington 
Museums^ and on two Fourteenth-century lyory 

By Eric Maclagan, C.B.E., F.S.A. 
[Read i6th March 1922] 

Panels from a Carolingian Ivory Diptych 

The three plaques of ivory here illustrated are already well 
known to students of such work, but there has been some uncer- 
tainty as to the form in which they were originally joined together. 
One of them, representing the Eagle of the Evangelist St. John, is 
in the Victoria and Albert Museum,' for which it was acquired in 
1867 from the Webb Collection ; the other two, with the Angel 
of St. Matthew and a half-length figure of Christ, are now in the 
Museo Nazionale at Ravenna. 

The panels were originally of the same size ; that in London 
measures 4! in. by 5 in. (12 by 13 centimetres), but the outer 
edge of each of the Ravenna panels has been slightly mutilated. 
On each the figure represented is enclosed in a circular moulding, 
richly carved, with a bead and reel ornament ; this is again enclosed 
in a square border of conventionalized acanthus, and the corners 
are filled with boldly-cut foliage. The London panel is painted 
in vivid dark red and green, as is also the panel with the symbol 
of St. Matthew at Ravenna ; the panel with the figure of Christ 
has no traces of painting, except that the letters IC XC have been 
inscribed, apparently in gold, on each side of the head. It will 
be admitted that the artist was much more successful with his 
magnificent eagle than with his human figures ; which in that 
imitative age may only imply that he had a finer model — perhaps 
some Roman imperial device — to copy (figs, i to 3). 

Some time ago my colleague Mr. King, in examining the 
London panel, was struck by the faint remains of writing at the 
back of it. Unhappily there is not much to be made of this, nor 

' No. 269-1867. 

VOL. II. p 



does it appear that the writing, if it were completely legible, 
would throw any great light on the ivory carvings, for it is much 
later in date. But in discussing it we noticed that the panel was 
unquestionably cut off from the top of a larger panel, apparently 
the leaf of a diptych, for the flat raised border still remains on the 
top and the two sides, and one side is pierced with numerous 

Fig. 1 

slanting holes, presumably for a thong fastening to attach the two 
leaves together. 

This had already been noted by Maskell in 1872.' Maskell 
was not aware of the connexion of the panel with those at 
Ravenna, but all three panels were discussed by Westwood in 
1876,'' though they are described as having formed part of a 
reliquary. The Ravenna panels have since been well illustrated 
in Arte Italiana for 1898,^ where Corrado Ricci suggests that they 

' Description of the Ivories Ancient and Mediaeval in the South Kensington Museum, 
P- 109. 

' Descriptive Catalogue of the Fictile Ivories in the South Kensington Museum, 
pp. 1 1 7-1 8, and 3^0. 

3 VII (1898), pi. z8,.p. 51. 



formed a triptych with the London panel. Finally, all three 
panels are illustrated and discussed in considerable, detail by 
Dr. Adolf Goldschmidt in his Elfenbeinsculpturen aus der Zeit der 
karolingischen und scichsischen Kaiser.' Dr. Goldschmidt writes : 
* If only the symbols of St. Matthew and St. John were preserved, 
we might have supposed that we were confronted by the remains 

Fig. z. The Angel of St. Matthew. 

of the cover for a Gospel-book, consisting of four parts . . . but 
as the figure of Christ provides a fifth panel, the reliefs may have 
formed the decoration of an upright Cross, with Christ in the 
middle and the Evangelists at the ends of the arms . . .' 

The mouldings and piercings at the back of the South 
Kensington panel make it clear, however, that this suggestion 
cannot be accepted. In reply to an inquiry, Signor Santi Muratori, 
honorary inspector of monuments and excavations, has very 
courteously furnished me with photographs and particulars of the 
Ravenna panels, which make it possible to reconstruct the original 
diptych with comparative certainty. 

' I (19 14), pi. i<?, pp. 10-11. 
p 2 



It was of considerable size, each leaf measuring 5 in. in width 
and about 14 in. in height. Each leaf was made up of three 
nearly square panels with the symbols of two of the Evangelists at 
the top and bottom and a figure, in one case of Christ and in 
the other probably of the Virgin Mary or perhaps St. John the 
Baptist, in the middle. The mouldings at the back show that on 

Fig. 3. Christ Blessing. 

the right leaf the symbol of St. John was at the top, with the 
figure of Christ below it, and presumably the symbol of St. Luke 
(or St. Mark) at the bottom. On the left leaf the symbol of 
St. Matthew was certainly at the top, with — again presumably — 
the symbol of St. Mark (or St. Luke) at the bottom. The 
position of the three panels which have been preserved is quite 
certain from the mouldings and piercings at the backs. 

There are no traces of writing on the back of the St. Matthew 
panel — the left leaf — but the back of the panel with the figure of 
Christ shows similar traces to the London panel. These consist 
of a few words in a small liturgical hand of the 13th- 14th century, 
and three or more memoranda or receipts in a much larger and 
perhaps rather later cursive hand of the fourteenth century. 


Mr. J. P. Gilson, of the British Museum, who has been kind 
enough to furnish me with the above particulars, has deciphered 
a few words from a photograph of the back of the London panel. 
The inscription in liturgical writing, two or three lines of which 
run across the bottom of the London panel, seems to begin Confer 
opem misero . . . , and the fifth word may be acidie^ in which case 
it is presumably a prayer against sloth ; but I have not been able to 
trace any known liturgical formula beginning in this way. The 
notes in the later cursive hand are not easy to disentangle. After 
a few disjointed words or letters one seems to contain the words 
die dominica . . . hancQ) . . . ego Ricardus(J) Laurentius (J) resepide . . . 
Below it is another note with Ego 'Ricardus . . . anno d(J) . . . die 
veneris martii recepi . . . 

Below this comes the liturgical inscription which just continues 
on the top of the Ravenna panel (the back of the Christ), and 
below this again is a third cursive note which seems to have the 
words Laurentius . . . anglo . . . das . . . die d . . . There are also traces 
of similar writing running sideways, and two drawings, one a 
rough sketch of a face and the other something like a decorated 
initial T. 

There seems no reason to suppose that the writing is not 
Italian ; it is just possible that the das ... in the last note, if it 
has been read correctly, may be part of the place-name Classis. 
The Ravenna panels were actually at Classe up to the end of the 
last century, and the diptych may have been there in the fourteenth 
century as a complete whole. It is clear in any case that it was 
complete somewhere, probably in Italy, at that time, and it seems 
likely that the painting on the two upper panels may be of the 
same or a somewhat earlier date, rather than contemporary with 
the carving. 

It might have been difficult to date the London panel, with its 
grandly-designed eagle, by itself In the Webb Collection it 
seems to have been called Byzantine of the eighth century, and 
Maskell catalogued it as Byzantine twelfth century. In the 
Westwood Catalogue the three panels are given as North Italian (.?), 
ninth century. Dr. Goldschmidt, who had already discussed 
these ivories in 1905 in the Prussian Jahrhuch^ classes them in 
his Elfenbeinsculpturen as belonging to the Ada group of Carolingian 
ivories, and dates them in the ninth century." 

' Jahrbuch cler Koniglich Preussischen Kunstsammlungen^ XX vi, p. 60. 

' The ' Ada ' group, one of several into which Carolingian ivories have been 
divided, is so called from its relations with a manuscript of the Gospels at Treves, 
illuminated for the Abbess Ada about the year 800 ; various centres have been 
suggested for this group, which probably originated in the Middle Rhine or Moselle 


The same ninth-century date is apparently accepted by Molinier ' 
but he regarded the three panels as neither Italian nor Carolingian, 
but rather as Byzantine in the stricter sense of the word ; 
associating them, as also does Dr. Goldschmidt, with the ivory 
relief of a standing Christ on the cover of a manuscript "^ in the 
Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris. It may be noted that the 
reference to Molinier is in each case accidentally omitted in 
Dr. Goldschmidt's book. 

If, then, we take the date of ninth century as generally accepted, 
the balance of authority as to the place of execution is strongly in 
favour of a Western rather than an Eastern origin ; and probably 
the view taken by Molinier would not now be upheld. Dr. 
Goldschmidt's comparison of the figures with thuse on the Lorsch 
book-covers (in the Victoria and Albert Museum ^ and in the 
Vatican), and of the acanthus borders with those on the fine 
diptych with scenes from the life of Christ in the Rylands 
Library at Manchester, and on the single leaf of a diptych with 
two Virtues in the Carrand Collection at the Bargello, will be 
generally recognized as plausible. The Manchester and Florence 
diptychs have also a very similar bead and reel ornament, which, 
though common on late classical diptychs, is rarely to be met with 
on Carolingian ivories. The Bargello diptych-leaf came from 
Ambronay, near Geneva, the two book-covers from Lorsch, in 
Germany (Hesse-Darmstadt, not far from Worms) ; the Manchester 
diptych cannot be traced back beyond the collection of Samuel 
Rogers. I doubt if it would be profitable, in the present state ot 
our knowledge, to speculate much further as to the district in 
which what we may recall the Ravenna diptych (the fragments of 
which we have been considering) was carved ; except so far as to 
say that it was most probably within the eastern half of the empire 
of Charlemagne at its widest extent, and that it might have been 
in Italy. 

The form of the diptych as reconstituted is, so far as 1 know, 
unique. A three-fold division of each leaf into separate square or 
oblong panels is not uncommon in Early Christian and Carolin- 
gian ivory diptychs ; and at least one Consular Diptych — that of 
Philoxenus, A.D. 525, now in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris — 
has an arrangement of three linked circular medallions, two of 

district. In his first article Dr. Goldschmidt regarded the London and Ravenna 
reliefs as forming part of a later (loth century) group following on the Ada group, 
and classed with them the diptych with Christ and St. Peter at Darmstadt, and (at 
a further remove) the diptych leaf with the Washing of the Apostles* Feet and the 
Crucifixion at Bonn. -In the later classification of the Elfenbeinsculpturen, however, 
the reliefs are put back with the Ada group itself in the ninth century. 

^ Les Ivoires, p. 85. =' MS. Lat. 9387. ^ No. 138-18^5. 


which enclose half-length figures. But I know no other example 
of circular medallions enclosed within rectangular compartments. 
The size is unusual at such a date ; each leat is about the size of 
the leaf of the Consular Diptych of Anastasius in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum,' but the only later diptych leaf as large or larger 
that I am acquainted with is the relief of the Nativity and Baptism 
of Christ at the British Museum/ dated by our Fellow Mr. Dalton 
about A. D. 1000. This measures a fraction of an inch more in 
height, and was probably when complete about the same width ; 
but there are others which do not fall very far short of it. 

A Re-carved Ivory Group of the Fourteenth Century 

About two years ago Major Astor very kindly allowed me to 
photograph two pieces out of his fine collection of medieval 
ivories at Hever Castle in Kent. One of these was a group 
which puzzled me as to its subject and nationality — but not, so 
far as I then saw, as to its date, which seemed to be clearly 
fourteenth century (fig. 4). 

I sent a print of my photograph to my friend M. Koechlin 
in Paris, on whose supreme competence in such matters there 
is no need to insist here. He, too, was puzzled by the subject, 
and he suggested that the group might possibly be English— an 
idea which had also occurred to me independently — as it does not 
quite fit in with any known style of French work. 

Some months later, when 1 happened to be looking at the 
photograph, the subject occurred to me, as it has probably already 
occurred to others. The group (which is between 5 in. and 6 in. 
in height) I think undoubtedly represents St. Joseph and the 
Blessed Virgin finding Christ in the temple ; the little figures 
round the base are the doctors, made small to show their relative 
unimportance ; and there was presumably a corresponding group 
showing Christ on some sort of a raised seat surrounded by more 
of the diminutive doctors. 

I must admit that I have never seen a similar representation, 
and in any case detached groups of this period, other than 
statuettes of the Virgin and Child, are exceedingly rare. The 
present group to some extent recalls the large chessmen of the 
same period, generally considered to be of German origin, in 
which subsidiary figures on a small scale are gathered round the 
base of king, bishop, or knight.^ But a much closer parallel is 

^ No. 358-1871. » No. 5 3 in Mr. Dalton's Catalogue. 

^ There are examples in the British Museum (a king and a bishop), in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, and elsewhere. 



afforded by the sadly damaged ivory group of the Adoration 
of the Magi in the British Museum.' In this the Virgin is 
seated with the Child on her knee, and the three kings on a 
much smaller scale are gathered round her feet. The similarity 
extends only to the composition, for the British Museum Adoration 
of the Magi is of considerably earlier date — Mr. Dalton places it 
as early as the middle of the thirteenth century. But it is 
generally accepted as of English origin, and this would to some 

Fig. 4. Ivory Group, belonging to 
Major Astor. 

Fig. f. Ivory Group, from photo- 
graph belonging to M. Koechlin. 

extent strengthen the claim of the present group to be regarded 
as English. 

When I wrote to M. Koechlin suggesting this interpretation of 
the subject — the Virgin and St. Joseph with the doctors in the 
temple — he agreed with it, but at the same time he sent me a photo- 
graph which he had come across in looking through his wonderful 
collection, and this shed new light of a rather disturbing kind on 
the ivory. This photograph (fig. 5) shows an almost identical group, 
1 5 cm. or a shade under 6 in. high, which was some twenty years 
ago in the possession of a Paris dealer ; almost identical, but 
seriously damaged. The first idea that occurs to one is that the 

'No. 248. 


group at Hever must be a copy of the damaged group ; but 
a careful comparison of the photographs makes it certain that the 
two groups are really only one, and that it has been to a large 
extent — to a very large extent, I am afraid — re-carved since the 
first photograph was taken. The re-carving has been most 
skilfully done, and I must confess that I had no doubts of the 
authenticity of the work when I saw it. The material, indeed, 
is old, still, the group is one example the more of the uncanny 
skill with which imitators can on occasion work, and of the ease 
with which the surface of ivory can be treated to produce any 
desired effect. M. Koechlin, of course, had not seen the original 
at all, but only my photograph. 

So far as I know I have never seen an ivory re-carved in this 
way before ; but perhaps I have without knowing it. It is a 
treatment that is unfortunately rather often applied to later Gothic 
wood sculpture, especially in Germany ; before the War there 
seems to have been at least one workshop where second-rate 
or damaged wood figures of the fifteenth and early sixteenth 
centuries were bought up, and the faces and hands, and perhaps 
details of the drapery as well, very skilfully and effectively 
recarved, thus immensely increasing their sale value. I have 
seen a fair number of figures treated in this way, and they can of 
course be very deceptive, as the material and part at least of the 
surface is genuine enough. 

An Ivory Group of the Maries at the Sepulchre 

Leaving this unpleasant subject — a painful one for all collectors, 
and a particularly painful one, if I may say so, for museum 
officials — I should like to add a few words about a singularly 
beautiful and indisputably authentic ivory belonging to Mr. Henry 
Harris, of 37 Kensington Square, which he has been kind enough 
to let me bring here to-night ; it has been for the past year 
exhibited on loan at the Victoria and Albert Museum. The 
group, or rather relief (the background has been cut away) came 
into his possession by bequest, and nothing is known of its 
previous history (fig. 6). 

Beyond calling attention — and even this is hardly necessary — 
to its quite exceptional beauty, I do not think there is much that 
need be said about it. It represents the two Maries with their 
pots of ointment at the sepulchre of Christ. It belongs to a rare 
group of medieval French ivories (there can be little hesitation in 
accepting them as French, and of the fourteenth century) where 
the figures are relatively of considerable size ; this example is 



41^ in. high and about 2 2 i"- wide at the base, or nearly 1 1 cm. by 
9 cm. There is every reason to believe that they formed part of 
the large ivory retables of which no complete example has survived, 
and that they were intended to be mounted in an architectural 
setting on a background, perhaps of ivory, perhaps of ebony or 

Fig. 6. Ivory relief, belonging to Mr. Henry. Harris (i). 

black marble, which explains the cutting away of the ivory round 
the figures. Nearly all the separate groups or figures of this 
class which are known connect themselves with the Passion, which 
was of course a usual subject for retables in any material. Such 
altar-pieces may have been the precursors of the well-known 
composite bone retables made at the end of the fourteenth and in 
the early fifteenth century in the north of Italy by the Embriachi 


family, but they must have been on a very different artistic level 
from these rather tedious productions.' 

The scanty remains of the French ivory retables of the four- 
teenth century have been dealt with by M. Koechlin in an 
essay in the Monuments Pioty' and more briefly in the Gazelle 
des Beaux- Arts for 1906.^ The figures in them, with their 
peculiar sharp features, are all more or less of the same type, and 
they may well have come from the same workshop or tradition. 
Among them are two Annunciations ^ at Langres and in the Bargello, 
and a number of Passion scenes, including part of a Betrayal 
(St. Peter drawing his Sword), at the British Museum. One 
particularly fine series, scattered among various private collections 
in Paris, but apparently homogeneous, includes a Betrayal^ a 
Mocking of Christ, a Christ at the Column, an Executioner, and a 
Deposition from the Cross. The lovely group of the 'Two Maries 
seems fairly closely related to this series and to the Bargello 
Annunciation, and like them it must count among the finer 
examples of French ivory carving in the fourteenth century, 
standing out conspicuously above a mass of work which too often 
represents little better than the organized production of a flourish- 
ing trade-industry. 


Mr. Dalton said the idea that the panels formed part of the cover- 
ing of a cross had always seemed improbable, though crosses of metal 
had similar panels on the arms. Such treatment of large ivory plaques 
would be inappropriate, and even the original diptych must have been 
of unusual size. Like that of St. Michael in the British Museum, the 
diptych necessitated a tusk of extraordinary dimensions. Several 
ivories were known with inscriptions on the back, but the latter were 
generally disappointing. 

The President thought it opportune to remind Fellows of the 
existence of the Arundel casts of ivories, a collection due to the 
energy of Alexander Nesbitt and others who went about making 
copies of the leading examples. Inscriptions written on the back of 
ivory panels were generally liturgical, and the subject had been taken 
up with ardour by his friend Mr. Meade Falkner, late of Elswick. The 
Society was indebted to Mr. Maclagan not only for an account of the 
diptych but also for a sight of the charming group of the Maries at the 

' The best known, as well as the largest, are the altar-pieces in the Certosa at 
Pavia (datable about 1400) and in the Louvre; a third was in the collection of 
Mr. Pierpont Morgan. The work of the Embriachi family has been very fully 
discussed by J. von Schlosser in the Jahrbuch der kunsthlstorischen Samtnlungen des 
alUrhochsten Kaiterhauses, xx (1899), pp. iiofF. 

=■ XIII (1906-7). pp. 67 ff. ' XXXV, pp. 6i-6i. 


Note on the Halhtatt Period in Ireland 

By E. C. R. Armstrong, F.S.A., Local Secretary for Ireland 
[Read 23rd March 1922] 

On page 86 of the 2nd edition (1912) of the late J. R. Allen's 
Celtic Art is the statement, ' Of the smaller Hallstatt sword with 
an iron blade and a bronze handle, having antennae-like projec- 
tions at the top, one specimen from the Thames is to be seen in 
the British Museum, and there are about half a dozen others in 
the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy in Dublin.' D^chelette 
{Manuel^ ii, 2nd part, page 737 and note 3) repeated this on Allen's 
authority. But no swords of this type have, I believe, been 
discovered in Ireland. As no examples have been exhibited with 
the Acadeihy's collection it is difficult to account for the mistake. 

There sometimes appears to be a tendency to attribute to 
Ireland an undue wealth in Early Iron Age types, possibly owing 
to a reliance on vague statements, such as that made at the 
hearing of the Broighter Gold Ornaments case, as to Ireland's 
richness in Danubian types. 

The typical objects, known to me, imported into Ireland 
in Hallstatt times or locally imitated from Hallstatt types, consist 
of some twenty-four bronze swords with trapezium-ended tangs, 
one specimen of the great Hallstatt iron sword, seven winged 
sword-chapes, seven bucket-shaped cauldrons, and between fifteen 
and twenty riveted vessels, including one of iron, a fragment of 
a gold cup, a gold band and some ribbons of gold, two flesh 
hooks, and two shields. Among doubtful objects are nine cheek- 
pieces for horse-bits, two iron spear-heads, and, more doubtful 
still, two bracelets and four brooches. The principal Hallstatt 
types not found in Ireland are bronze razors, cordoned buckets, 
horseshoe-handled swords, swan-necked pins, various kinds of 
bracelets, brooches, and pendants, glazed and coloured pottery. 

The Continental Hallstatt period appears to correspond in 
Ireland to the last phase of the Bronze Age (Montelius's fifth 
period), the true Iron Age not beginning until the La T^ne 
epoch. If it should be thought that the exotic objects or copies 
are too numerous and well distributed to be due to importation, 
it may be urged that a number of Early Iron Age types (including 


a Hallstatt iron sword) have been found in Scandinavia, as well 
as a number of Roman objects, yet no Hallstatt or Roman 
invasion of Scandinavia is suggested. 

In England the evidence for a Hallstatt period has of late 
years considerably increased, and Mr. O. G. S. Crawford,' in a 
paper of much interest, has brought forward evidence in support 
of the view that towards the close of the Bronze Age, about 
800-700 B.C., the British Islands were invaded by the first wave 
of Celtic-speaking peoples, the Goidels or Q-Celts, who introduced 
the Hallstatt culture into the islands. 

The division of the Celts into Q and P with two corresponding 
invasions was the theory popularized by the late Sir John Rhys. 
But it has been subjected to annihilating criticism by both 
Zimmer ^ and Meyer.^ From their researches it appears that no 
Goidel ever set his foot on British soil save from a vessel that 
had put out from Ireland, the traces of Goidelic speech in certain 
parts of Britain being due to settlements of Irish Goidels in 
historic, times. 

MacNeill * has also condemned the Q and P theory as unsound, 
pointing out that though the Irish Celts retained Q in their 
language where the British Celts replaced it by P, no such differ- 
ence has been shown to have existed between the language of the 
Westeril Celts and that of the Belgic Celts on the Continent ; the 
spread of such a linguistic change might possibly have been arrested 
by so considerable a barrier as the Irish Sea, but it was hardly 
likely to have been prevented by the waters of the Seine and the 
Marne. Professor O. J. Bergin informs me that there is not 
enough Old Gaulish material extant to solve the problem of the 
early distribution of the Q- and P-Celts, or the date of the change 
from Q to P. Most of the very scanty remains of continental 
Celtic have P, but there are a few words such as Sequana^ Sequani^ 
and on the Coligny Calendar occurs Equos, Equi. There is no 
evidence to show that the word Kassiteros is Celtic : it occurs 
in no known Celtic language. It is found in Greek from 
Homer's time and in Sanskrit ; but in neither does it look like 
a native word. The received opinion of orientalists is that it is 
derived from some nation situated between Greece and India, 
perhaps the Elamites.^ 

The view that Ireland was not colonized by the Celts until the 

' ytntiquaries Journal, ii. ])p. 27-35. 

' Abhand. der Konigl. Preuss. Akademie der IVissenschaften^ I 9 1 z {Auf welchem 
IVege kamen die Goidelen vom K on tine tit nach Irland ?"). 
^ Cymmrodorion Society, 1895-6, pp. 55—86. 
* Phases of Irish History, 19 19. p. 46, 
' Pokorny, Zeitschrift Jur Celtische Philologie, ix. p. 164. 


Late Celtic period demands consideration. Characteristic Early 
Iron Age antiquities are not numerous in Ireland. Many typical 
forms are lacking. The complete absence of the later Hallstatt 
horseshoe-shaped swords points against a settlement. Even the 
La Tene invasion seems, on archaeological grounds, to be not 
previous to the Second La Tene period ; for no Early La T^ne 
brooches or swords have been found. Late Celtic antiquities are 
not numerous in Ireland, and though some are of considerable 
beauty, none is early in form. 

Another argument against an early Celtic invasion is to be 
found in the number of social survivals of a non-Celtic character, 
which can be traced in Tdin B6 Cualnge and related sagas.' If the 
Goidels had reached Ireland in 800 or 700 b.c. it seems unlikely 
that such survivals would have existed up to the beginning of the 
first century a. d., the accepted dating for the shaping of these tales. 

In England it appears that so numerous are the Hallstatt remains 
that they must be accounted for by an invasion. But it seems 
unlikely that the invaders were Goidels. Is it necessary for them to 
have spoken a Celtic language ? M. Camille Jullian,'' if I interpret 
him aright, would place the earliest home of the Celtic-speaking 
peoples on the shores of the Baltic, from whence, about 
530 B.C., they spread over Western and Central Europe, the 
previous population of these parts being Ligurians, a people not 
differing more from the Celts than the later Gauls differed from 
the Franks and Romans. If this view could be accepted it would 
indicate that the Hallstatt civilization, at least in its earliest phases, 
was not Celtic ; therefore it would permit a Hallstatt invasion of 
England, removing the difficulty of the absence there of Q-Celts ; 
while it would suit the Irish evidence admirably. For judging 
from the scanty available physical remains, taken together with 
Irish literary sources, the Irish population was broadly divided 
into two types, a short, dark, long-headed group of Mediterranean 
aflPinities, and a long-headed, fair, tall people of Nordic type, the 
first being the pre-Celtic, and the latter the Celtic, portion of the 
population. Also this would agree with Reinach's suggestion, 
made many years ago, that an invading Northern people were 
the destroyers of the splendid bronze and gold civilization of 
the pre-Celts.^ 

Perhaps one might even go a step farther and suggest that the 
wonderful revival of art in the Christian period culminating in 

' See Zimmer, S'tt%ungsher\chte der Kbnigl. Preuss. Akademie der IVissensehaften, 
ix, pp. 174-127- 

* Histolre de la Gaule, pp. 129, 248. 
^ Revue celtique, xxi, p. 1 7 2. 


the eighth century, with its magnificent jewelled shrines and 
illuminated manuscripts, was due to the reassertion of the artistic 
genius of the old artificers in bronze and gold — the pre-Celtic 


Mr. Crawford had attempted, in a paper on the Hallstatt period 
in England" {Journal, January IQ22), to equate an archaeological 
period with a philological event. He had followed Sir John Rh^s, 
but was prepared to withdraw the Goidelic invasion, and look for 
another name to distinguish an invasion of Britain for which there 
was archaeological evidence. One thing was certain, that the settlers 
at All Cannings Cross, near Devizes, were invaders who arrived not 
long before 500 B.C. and certainly not after that date, nor was it likely 
that they were without predecessors. The pottery with finger-tip 
ornament was not found in England associated with any other ware 
besides that decorated with haematite. A racial problem was involved, 
and as archaeology could not reveal the language of the new-comers, 
it must be left in the hands of philologists. 

Mr. Reginald Smith said the subject was a topical one, and in 
view of recent surprising developments in England it was rash to 
dogmatize or to pin one's faith to any one of the current theories with 
regard to the Celtic movement to the west of Europe. At Hallstatt 
itself there was a surprising blend of funeral rites, and authorities had 
not yet reached agreement as to the nationality or language of those 
who cremated and those who buried their dead unburnt, in that or 
any similar burial ground. 

The President said it was unsettling to have the opinions of the 
late Sir John Rhys refuted by more than one contemporary philologist, 
and a fresh start would have to be made, but he was not sanguine in 
view of the widely divergent views and methods of philology and 
archaeology. Fresh evidence on one side or the other might, however, 
clear the ground, and Mr. Armstrong's pronouncement gave the 
Society a good idea of the points at issue. 

A Late-Medieyal Bracer i7t the British Museum'^ 
By O. M. Dalton, M.A., F.S.A. 

The archer's bracer illustrated in the fig. on p. 209 is of cuir 
bouillij the ornament on the outer side consisting of a rose crowned, 
a design of oak leaves and acorns treated in a conventional manner, 
and the words ihC hClUC {Jesus help).^ 

A tradition, apparently not very ancient, associated this rare and 
interesting object with certain relics of Henry VI once at Bolton 
Hall, near Sawley, in Bowland (Holland), Yorkshire. 1 have 
failed to find confirmation of this tradition, and it is contradicted 
by Mr. W. A. Littledale, F.S.A., whose family was long connected 
with Bolton Hall ; Mr. Littledale informs me that the bracer 
was never preserved in the house with the objects said to have 
been left there by Henry VI and now preserved at Liverpool.^ 
But additional evidence may be derived from the object itself. 
The crowned rose appears to be a Tudor rose, and the character 
of the lettering is that of the first decade of the sixteenth century 
rather than that of 1464, the date of the battle of Hexham, when 
Henry VI concealed himself in the North after the defeat of his 
army/ It is to the reign of Henry VII, and to the end of the 
period when the longbow was used as a military weapon, that the 
bracer must therefore be ascribed ; and, though from the romantic 

' The use of the bracer was to protect the wrist of the hand grasping the bow 
from the impact of the string when the arrow was released. During the periods, 
historical and earlier, from which examples are known various materials have been 
used, from stone to metal. The present example was laced to the wrist by thongs 
passing through the holes. 

^ The bracer is 4-9 2 in. in length. It was formerly in the possession of Sir 
Henry Ellis, K.H., Secretary of the Society in 1814, and Principal Librarian of the 
British Museum, 1817-36, from one of whose descendants it has been acquired for 
the Museum. It was figured (tlie design upside down) as a headpiece to a chapter 
in the Badminton volume on Archery, by C. J. Longman and Col. H. Walrond, 
p. i5i, fig. no. For general remarks on bracers in that volume, see p. 321. 

^ These objects, a boot, a glove, and a spoon, are reproduced in the Gentleman's 
Magazine for 1785, p. 4 1 8. The belief that the bracer was also at Bolton Hall 
was current in the year i860 ; for it is held by the writer of an interesting note on 
an ivory specimen in the Journal of the British Archaeological Association for that 
year, p. 338. 

* This is the opinion of Mr. Mill Stephenson, F.S.A., who submitted the 
bracer to a careful examination. 



"A late -medieval bracer (§). 



point of view the new association is less welcome than the old, it 
still allows us to class this wrist-guard among objects of excep- 
tional rarity. There are literary references to leather bracers : 
Gervase Markham in his y^rt of Archeries printed m 1634, alludes to 
the use of Spanish leather for the purpose.' If we go back into 
the Middle Ages we find Chaucer in the prologue to the 
Canterbury Tales giving his yeoman * a gay bracer ', which may well 
have been of cuir bouilli like that under discussion. For when 
new, our example was a more brilliant object than it is now. 
The ground, punched all over with small circles, still shows traces 
of gilding, and the inscription and other parts in relief may have 
been coloured. From the badge which it hears and the fine 
quality of its workmanship we may assume that it was used by 
some one in the royal service, perhaps by a person of rank. 

Actual bracers of the Middle Ages are far to seek. For the 
sixteenth century and later, ivory examples are known ; one is 
figured by Skelton,^ another, carved with the figure of St. Sebastian 
and dated 1589, was exhibited at a meeting of the British Archaeo- 
logical Association in 1860.^ Perhaps the bracers best known to 
archaeologists are those of slate-like stone used in the Early Bronze 
Age, of which the one with gold studs, from a barrow at Kelley- 
thorpe, near Drifllield, is an exceptionally fine example.'* 

' Quoted by the writer in the Journal of the British Archaeological Association 
already mentioned, vol. xvi, i860, p. 338. Ascham, in his Toxophilus, descrilxs 
tlie use of the bracer, but does not specify the material. 

^ J. Skelton, Ant tent arms and armour from the collection of . . . Sir Samuel Rush 
Meyrtck, pi. xxxiv, fig. 2. 

^ Journal, xvi, i860, j). 337. 

"* Formerly in the Londesborough Collection, now in the British Museum. See 
Guide to the Antiquities of the Bronze Age, 1920, p. 81. 

The Seal of Robert Fitz Meldred 



[Read 9th March 1922] 

Among some old family deeds in my possession is a quitclaim 
by Robert Fitz Meldred to Henry Spring of four marks of silver 
being the annual rent of the town of ' Hoctun', probably Houghton 
le Spring in the bishopric of Durham. The date is about 1230. 
Attached to the deed is the seal in white wax of Robert Fitz 
Meldred (fig. i). The seal is circular, and when perfect was about 
i\ in. in diameter ; it bears a saltire which it will be noticed is 
very narrow, and the legend, now partly broken away, that 
originally read ' 

[s]ici[llvm rJoberti [film MEL]REDI 

The exact date of the matrix of a seal such as this cannot, of 
course, be given with certainty, but I venture to think it may be 
placed before the year 1 200. Although Sir William St. John Hope 
in his paper on the Seals of English Bishops '' gives useful approxi- 
mate dates for the various kinds of lettering, his remarks 
relate to episcopal seals only, and he guards himself against 
necessarily applying them to other classes. The lettering of the 
seal now under discussion is rough and of an earlier type than the 
ordinary Lombardic which is met with in the thirteenth century ; 
we may perhaps place it between the Roman capitals which ceased 
about the last quarter of the twelfth century and the Lombardic 

Genealogists have attempted to carry the Fitz Meldred pedigree 
back to Meldred son of Crinan, whose wife Ealdgeth was daughter 
of Ughtred by his third wife Algiva daughter of King Ethelred. 
This Meldred had two sons, Gospatric, Earl of Northumberland, 
and Meldred, the latter of whom is said to have been the father 
of a Meldred living in 1082, whose son Ughtred had a son 
Dolphin. From this date we have the descent proved by 
Dr. Round from documentary evidence.^ Dolphin, who in 1 131 

' The same seal attached to a charter at Durham on which the legend is complete 
gives this reading; Greenwell and Blair, Durham Seals, No. 1742. 
' Proc. Soc. ^nl.y xi, 30J. 
^ Round, Ftudal England, 488-90. 

Q 2 


obtained from the Prior of Durham a grant of Staindrop, which 
included Raby,' had two sons Meldred and Patrick Meldred, 
probably the elder, had five sons, Robert, Gilbert, Richard, 
William, and John.^ The eldest of these sons, Robert, was the 
owner of the seal now exhibited. His father, Meldred son of 
Dolphin, is referred to in the Boldon Book^^ a survey of the lands of 
the Bishop of Durham compiled in 1 183, as having formerly held 
land at Stella near Winlaton on the Tyne {terra quae fuit Meldredi 

Fig. I. Seal of Robert Fitz Meldred (^). 

filii Dolfini) from which it is to be inferred that either he was then 
dead or had sold the land. In the same survey Robert Fitz 
Meldred, his son, is entered as owner of lands in Whessoe.^ 
Dr. Round states that Meldred Fitz Dolphin died in 1195 or 
1 196,^ but the entry in the Boldon Book suggests the possibility of 
his death having taken place before 1183. The importance of 
establishing the time of Meldred's death is that by it we get the 
earliest possible date for the seal, for Robert Fitz Meldred is 

' Feodarium Prior. Dunelm. (Surtees Soc.) 56. 

^ Ibid ^ loon., 140 «. 

^ Ibid., 5 J «., 54«. ; Simeon of Durham Opera, (Surtees Soc), 154, 157. 

* Boldon Book (Surtees Soc), 35, 69. 

^ Hid., zo, 57. 

^ Round, o/>. cit., 490. 


unlikely to have had a seal before he had come into his father's 

Robert Fitz Meldred married in 12 13 Isabel de Neville 
daughter of Geoffrey de Neville by Emma daughter and heir of 
Bertram de Bulmer. Isabel was sister and eventually heir of her 
brother Henry de Neville who died after 12 16. Geoffrey was 
probably a son or possibly a grandson of either Gilbert de Neville, 
the imaginvy admiral of the fleet of William the Conqueror, or of 
Ralph, a younger brother of this Gilbert, both of whom were 
descended from Richard called de Neville from his fief of 
Neuviles sur Tocque in Normandy. 

Geoffrey son of Robert Fitz Meldred and Isabel de Neville 
assumed the name of his mother's family. He seems, however, 
to have retained the arms of his father, for his son and heir 
Robert, according to the roll of Henry III of about 1245-50, 
sometimes known as Glover's Roll, bore as his arms gules, a silver 
saltire. This is the earliest instance hitherto known of the saltire 
being borne by the Nevilles, and it would seem from an illustra- 
tion in Drummond's History of Noble British Families that the seal 
of Henry de Neville, brother of Isabel, probably of between 1 199 
and 12 1 6, bore a ship or * nef ', but it is not on a shield. 

The seal of Robert Fitz Meldred, the Englishman, is the 
earliest, I imagine, that is known, showing the saltire, which was 
to become the cognizance of the great medieval family of Neville. 
If this quitclaim with the seal of Robert Fitz Meldred is 
thought worthy of a place in the British Museum I should 
propose to deposit it there and to add a cast of the seal to the 
Society's Collection. 

Note on the Fitz Meldred Seals ^ 

By C. H. Hunter Blair, M.A., F.S.A. 

There is another seal of Robert son of Meldred in the treasury 
of the Dean and Chapter of Durham (fig. 2). It was unfortunately 
omitted, or the slip has been lost, from the manuscript catalogue 
made by our late fellow. Dr. Greenwell, and so does not appear 
in the Catalogue "^ of Durham Seals recently published by the 
Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. It is of paste, 
varnished a dark brown colour, round in shape, with a diameter 

* The illustrations to this note are reproduced by permission of the Dean and 
Chapter of Durham. 

^ It is figured on Plate VI, No. i Surtees, History of Durham. 


of 34 mm.' Its motive is armorial, the heart- orjpear-shaped 
shield bearing a saltire. The legend, in a fairly good type of early 
Lombardic, reads : 

►I. SlGltifi • ROB0RTI • FILdI MeLDRSDI 

The charter to which it is attached is a grant from Robert son of 
Meldred, of two bovates of land in * Brandspath * (now Brance- 
peth) to Thomas the butcher, burgess of Durham. It is undated 
and the witnesses are not people of importance whose date is 
known. There can, however, be little doubt that both the 
charter and the seal are of the early thirteenth century. It is not 
a secretum or a counter-seal but a seal proper ; it is difficult to say 
whether it or the larger one described by Mr. Littledale is the 

Fig. 2. Seal of Robert Fitz Meldred {\). 

earlier in date and use. There are numerous examples in 
Durham treasury of the larger example which must be dated 
about the last decade of the twelfth or the very early years of the 
thirteenth century ; of the smaller seal there is only one impres- 
sion whose date can only be fixed approximately. I am inclined 
to place it, in spite of the earlier form of the shield, rather later than 
the larger seal. The legend is in a later type of Lombardic and 
is better spaced, the saltire is also more in harmony with the 
shape and size of the shield, there is more feeling for proportion 
and form than is seen on the larger seal. It is also to be remem- 
bered that, with the opening years of the thirteenth century, there 
came a general tendency to reduce the unwieldy size to which 
some armorial seals had attained. In any case they are two fine 
examples of early armorial seals. 

' Durham Treasury z*'^ 1 1""^'=, Specialia, No. 47. 


There are also in Durham treasury some examples of a fine 
seal ' of another of the sons .of Meldred, also unfortunately 
omitted from the Catalogue of Durham Seals. It is that of 
Gilbert a younger brother of Robert. It is round, 40 mm. in 
diameter, and has for device a splendid lion passant, pacing to the 
sinister, with his head turned backwards and his tail curved over 
his back (fig. 3). He is full of life and strength, and is a good 
example of Ihe severity of design and the feeling for proportion 
of the twelfth-century artist. The legend, in a rude type of 
Lombard ic, reads : 

»i. SIGIEiti • GUjHBBRTI • MaLDRaOl 

The impressions are on brown wax (one on paste varnished), and 

Fig. 3. Seal of Gilbert Fitz Meldred {{). 

with one exception are all attached to the documents by white 
round cords of woven hemp (like string). These cords, before 
sealing, have been passed through a small hole cut in a square 
piece of white woven linen with a blue pattern on it, which acts 
as a loose cover to the seal. This method of protection is rare 
but it is very eflfective as the seals are all in perfect preservation. 

From the names of the witnesses to certain of the charters this 
seal may, I think, be dated circa a. d. 11 95-1 200. One is Emericus 
(Emery Talboys) Archdeacon of Durham circa a.d. 1198-1213;' 
another is Philip son of Hamo styled sheriff. He filled this 
office in the last years of the episcopate of Bishop Hugh Puiset ^ 

' Durham Treasury i""" 1 1'"*^ Specialia, Nos. 15, 16, &c. 
' Le Neve, Fasti EccUslae Angl'tcanae^ iii, 302. 
^ Durham Treasury 3*-"'^ 7^=, Specialia, No. 21. 


{ob. 1 195), and probably later. The letters of the legend bear 
a striking resemblance to those on the larger seal of his brother 
Robert, both seals being of similar date. 

There is also at Durham ' a very interesting and beautiful later 
seal of Gilbert which should be mentioned in this note. It is of 
brown wax, round in shape with a diameter of 55 mm. The 

Fig. 4. Seal of Gilbert Fitz Meldied, called Hansard {\). 

shield, placed on a plain background, is charged with a chief over 
all a bend (fig. 4). The legend is in a fine ornamental type of 
Lombardic : 


He is styled in the document Gilbert Haunsard ; the first witness 
to it is Robert son of Meldred. That this Gilbert was the same 
man as Gilbert son of Meldred is amply proved by a charter in 
Durham Treasury,"* amongst the witnesses to which are Robert 
son of Meldred and Gilbert Hansard his brother {fratre suo). 

' Durham Treasury 2''^ 11"^=*^, Specialia, No. 16. 
^ UN. 2^* 4 3^ Specialia, No. 8. 


This fine seal illustrates not only the tendency at the beginning 
of the thirteenth century to replace the devices on earlier seals 
with armorial charges, but also that sense of form and proportion 
so characteristic of these early armorial seals. 


ReV. E. E. DoRLING said the subject was of interest to genealogists 
and all histo^ically-minded Fellows. From the heraldic point of view 
the seal was the most important in the country, and only one was at 
all comparable, that of Alice, countess of Lincoln, who died 1160. 
But her seal was that of a great house extinct centuries ago ; while 
Robert the son of Meldred displayed a coat of arms which had been 
borne from the lath century, and was still borne by his direct 
descendants. Mr. Littledale had raised a number of debatable points, 
and apparently forgot that heraldry had been codified less than forty 
years before Fitz Meldred placed upon his seal the saltire which 
became the arms of the Nevills. Arms were still so much a novelty 
when Robert Fitz Meldred succeeded that he was probably the first of 
his house to assume the saltire. The lettering pointed to some date 
about 1183. Reference had been made to the coat of Henry Nevill, 
brother of Isabel, but the nef attributed to him was only a badge. 
Nevill was first recorded as bearing gules, a silver saltire in Glover's 
roll of 1245. The width of the saltire had no significance. He was 
inclined to respect the tradition that Gospatrick was the father 
of all the Nevills. The seal had been exhibited at the Burlington 
Fine Arts Club, and he expressed the gratitude of all interested 
persons to Mr. Littledale for allowing the Society to see it, and above 
all for presenting it to the nation for the common benefit and its own 

Mr. Page added that Mr. -Round in giving the date of Meldred's 
death * probably relied on an entry in the Pipe Roll of 7 Richard I 
(i 195-6) which stated that Robert Fitz Meldred paid 600 marks for 
the livery of his father's lands. It was possible, however, that Robert 
F'itz Meldred was a minor at the date of the Boldon Book, and the 
entry in the Pipe Roll gave us the date of his coming of age. As 
a minor he would not have had a seal of his own. 

Mr. Littledale replied that he had drawn attention to the 
narrowness of the saltire only to show how roughly seals were cut at 
that period. 

The President pointed out the extreme modesty of the donor 
who had left the importance of his gift to the British Museum to be 
estimated by Mr. Dorlmg. The seal might appear to some a trifling 
detail of history, but it was on such accurately dated and carefully 
studied documents that modern history was based. The communica- 
tion was of more than ordinary importance, and all were to be con- 
gratulated on the addition of the seal to the national archives. 

' Round, Feudal England, 489. 

A Roman Site at Ham^ near Newbury^ Berks, 
By O. G. S, Crawford, F.S.A. 

During the late autumn of 19 19 I did some digging in 
a gravel-pit where, during the war, 1 had found fragments of 
pottery. One workman was employed and the necessary funds 
were subscribed by residents in the Newbury district. The pit 
is in the parish of Thatcham, on the south side of the Bath road, 
exactly midway between Thatcham and Newbury, in the angle 
between the Bath road and the ' lower way ' to Thatcham. The 
gravel for which it is worked is that of the lowest terrace, about 
twenty feet above the Kennet ; the terrace here forms a bluff on 
the north side of the valley. The field in which the gravel-pit 
lies is called Prince Field on the Thatcham Award Map of 1 8 1 7. 
The pottery was most abundant in the east and south faces of the 
pit, where old trenches and remains of fire were also found. It 
was possible to distinguish between the gravel filling of these old 
trenches and the much compacter undisturbed gravel ; and the 
work consisted in clearing out the filling, which yielded a large 
quantity of potsherds. On the south side a trench was followed 
for several yards in a south-westerly direction •, it seemed to get 
broader to the south-west and the sides less steep, and it 
eventually seemed to widen out into a circular pit. As, however, 
the pottery got scarcer and the work of completely excavating the 
pit would have been long and costly, it was not attempted. 
Besides pottery, nothing at all was found, except a small sandstone 
hone. The principal types found have most kindly been examined 
by Mr. Heywood Sumner, F.S.A., whose drawing is here repro- 
duced. All are Romano-British in date, but Mr. Sumner regards 
nos. I- 1 6 as of Late Celtic type, and no. 24 as Belgic. The rest he 
believes to be Roman. 

Immediately to the south-west is a very copious spring flowing 
out into the Kennet from under the gravel. This may have 
determined the selection of the site. In a field on the north side 
of the Bath road, at a point a quarter of a mile north-north-west 
of the gravel-pit is a well that fell in during the same year (19 19). 
Possibly there was a large settlement at this spot covering the 
ground now crossed by the Bath road. The Roman road from 
Silchester to Spinae and Cirencester must have passed within 
half a mile of the gravel-pit. There are no traces of it now to 
be discovered here, but I have litde doubt that the back lane 
from Shaw, joining the Bath road at the old toll-house by the 
second milestone from Newbury, coincides pretty closely with the 
course of the Roman road. 






"K.S. 1920. 

,/LLL5 li/njen/n- 

cncrtljz/r^ jou/ndal '^^ijcmv g/rtwcl^.jNfi-aTbu/r^.b^O.G.S.Cra^^ 

Further Discoveries of the Neolithic and Bronze 
Ages at Peterborough 

By E. T. Leeds, M.A., F.S.A. 
[Read 12th January 1922] 

In 1 9 10 Mr. G. Wyman Abbott read to this Society a paper 
in which he gave some account of his discoveries of early British 
remains at Fengate, Peterborough (see Archaeologia^ Ixii, 352 ^^. 
Since that date he has been assiduous in collecting from the same 
locality such further material as has b.een brought to light in the 
process of gravel-digging. This new material already serves to 
indicate that the site was occupied continuously from Late Neo- 
lithic down to Late Celtic times, and, if only for that reason, is of 
the highest importance, since it is but seldom that a site with 
signs of habitation covering so long a period comes to light in 
this country. 

The collections formed by Mr. Abbott are too extensive to 
admit of their being treated within the limits of a single paper, 
and it is proposed to defer consideration of the finds belonging to 
the latter part of the Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age to 
a future time. The present account will be restricted to such 
new discoveries as link on to those already published in 19 10, 
particularly as they serve to throw fresh light on that as yet very 
imperfectly known subject, the pottery in use in Britain before 
the coming of the beaker-people. 

Mr. Abbott has honoured me by inviting me to undertake the 
pleasant task of describing his finds, and this task has been made 
comparatively simple, inasmuch as he has placed all his notes and 
sketches at my disposal, and has given me the benefit of the views 
formed by himself from long acquaintance with, and acute observa- 
tion of, the material and the circumstances of its discovery. 

The site, as seen when set out on a rough plan, is so confused 
that it is impossible to say that any special portion of it was 
occupied exclusively at one period. The recorded finds of the 
Neolithic and Bronze Ages, with the exception of one particular 
section of the Neolithic material, seem to be distributed indis- 
criminately over the whole area without rhyme or reason. 


Up to the present time the Iron Age finds are more restricted 
in their distribution — that is to say, they are not found in all parts 
of the site, but there is nothing to indicate a shifting of the 
ground occupied, since these later finds are interspersed with 
others of early date in close proximity to one another. In fact it 
is almost a miracle that the relics of the earlier ages have survived 
at all. Worked flints are found scattered over the whole area 
and are of ^ommon occurrence in the pot-holes. It is impossible 
to assign any particular date to the flints, scattered as they are, 
since the areas of occupation are so intermixed that any given flint 
might have been used in any period. 

The flints found include : 

(a) Three arrow-heads, two of them barbed and tanged, and 
one tanged only. Several crude leaf-shaped arrow-heads. 

(^) Scores of scrapers of all types and shapes. 

(c) Knives of a primitive type. 

(^) Saws. A large number of these came from one particular 
area along with two pieces of flint celts. 

All the flints are unpatinated and usually lustreless and dull. 
Quantities of burnt stones are found in the pits or hut-circles 
interspersed in the dark soil, in which also frequently lumps of clay 
appear. These may be material used for pottery-making or daub 
from the walls and roofs of huts. 

Neolithic. The discoveries were made for the most part in pits, 
of varying diameter and depth, of the usual hut-dwelling type. 
As examples have already been described in Archaeologia, Ixii, 333, 
it is unnecessary to dilate on their form here. 

Mr. Abbott has observed that the Neolithic remains, chiefly 
pottery, come from an old land-surface or from small pot-holes 
(the lower portions of cooking-holes) which are the remnants of 
excavations dug in Neolithic times and which had been cut down 
and levelled by later inhabitants of the site. 

The pottery is always fragmentary, only scattered pieces being 
found as a rule and at a depth not exceeding two feet from the 
surface of the soil. In no instance has Neolithic pottery been 
found with a burial. 

The special class of pottery described below in ^ vi, on the 
other hand, has been found solely in one particular area and in 
excavations filled with black soil. 

It is more particularly with the pottery that the present paper 
is intended to deal, since both the quantity that has been brought 
to light and the wide variation of the decoration seem to contain 
within itself the whole history of the final stages of the pottery of 
the Late Neolithic Period and also afibrd a remarkable insight 



into the elements of Neolithic ceramic which survived in that of 
the Bronze Age. Mr. Reginald Smith has already described a 
part of these survivals in his study of the evolution of the food- 
vessel from the Neolithic round-bottomed bowl {Archaeologia^ Ixii). 
The new material not only allows us to establish other survivals, 
but also, as it were, to construct a genealogical tree of the 
Neolithic pottery itself, 

I. The earliest pottery from Peterborough consists of several 
fragments found together in one pit, with flakes of light brown 
flint and small black flint scrapers. The pottery itself is of badly 

Fig. I. 

Fig. 2. 

compounded soft black paste containing large pieces of quartz, 
and belongs exclusively to round-bottomed bowls (fig. i).' 

{a) Exterior surface, brown ; interior, black ; decorated below 
the neck with nine rows of horizontal lines impressed by means 
of a cord. 

(^) Exterior, chestnut-brown ; interior, black ; some twelve rows 
of horizontal cord-impressions about \ in. long. This curious 
type of decoration also occurs on the lower part of a small Bronze 
Age vase (for type see Abercromhy^ i, plate XXIX, fig. i), found 
at Whittlesea, Cambridgeshire, and now in the Peterborough 

[c] Exterior, grey, abraded ; interior, brown ; decorated with 
rows of horizontal cord-impressed lines. 

' Reference should be made throughout to fig. 12, in which sections of the 
pottery described are given. The Roman numerals refer to the sections in the text, 
the letters to sub-sections ; the figures in brackets to the other illustrations. 


Besides the common features of horizontal decoration and 
imperfect firing, all three sherds show a deeply constricted neck 
with a very pronounced carination at the shoulder, and all are 
characterized by the complete absence of any ornamentation above 
the shoulder, on the lower half of the body, or on the interior of 
the rim. 

II. This class is represented by finds at two points of the site, 
the first cl^se to that which yielded the fragments placed in 
Class I, and the second from the bottom of the pit from which 
came the fine fragments of beakers described in Archaeologia^ Ixii. 

Fig. 3. 


They comprise portions of Neolithic bowls, exhibiting the same 
imperfect firing as Class I, but made of a paste free from gritty 
lumps and showing an advance in form and decoration. The 
base may be round, but in some cases flat.' The ornamentation 
consists of horizontal rows of herring-bone or of almost vertical 
dashes (fig. 2) in cord technique, with one row of diagonal strokes 
impressed on the lower part of the curve of the neck just above 
the shoulder. The curve of the neck is less pronounced ; the 
rim is thick, rounded, and undecorated. The fragment of a bowl 
(restored in Archaeologia^ Ixii, p. 336, fig. 3) belongs to this class, 
and in Mr. Abbott's opinion should have been shown without 
decoration on the rim. 

A variant of this class appears in pieces of bowls from a pit, 
5 ft. deep and 10 ft. in diameter, situated close to the sites of the 
discovery of Class 1 and most of Class II. They only differ in 

' This applies to the largest size of bowls and may be due to the weight of the 
pot before firing. 


the addition of ornamentation on the interior face of the rim in 
the form of herring-bone or diagonal strokes. 

III. Part of a large bowl (fig. 3), almost i ft. in diameter, 
found in 1920 at a depth of about i ft. 9 in. below the surface of 
the gravel at another part of the site, seems to mark a distinct 
advance, since the exterior surface is red in colour, evidencing 
better firing of the vase. The interior varies from black to grey. 
The decoration is still restricted to the upper part of the body 
and consists of two rows of herring-bone in cord technique deeply 
impressed. The impressions are thickly set, but seem to go in 
pairs, the members of which are so close as almost to interlock. 
Above a line of diagonal strokes on the lower part of the curve of 
the neck there is added a row of similar but shorter markings. 
This is evidently the forerunner of the deep circular pittings 
which appear commonly on Neolithic bowls of a late class 
(cf. the bowl from Mongewell in Archaeologiuy Ixii, plate XXXVIII, 
fig. 3, and fragments from Peterborough in ibid., p. 345, figs. 12 
and 13). 

The upper part of the neck still remains undecorated ; the rim, 
however, has now a bevelled outer face and a flattened top, both 
of which are ornamented with chevrons or diagonal strokes ; 
internally a line of chevrons has been placed below the rim. 

A recent discovery (see fig. 1 1), since this paper was written, 
exhibits a hark-back from the point of view of the undecorated 
neck, but the section of the vase, as also the incised design, puts 
it at once among the later examples of this pottery. The dis- 
orderly tangle of lines is in reality a representation of the herring- 
bone motive, such as is often found on late Neolithic vases. On 
the inside of the rim the herring-bone motive remains true to type. 
IV. The foregoing material, while presenting some new aspects 
of Neolithic pottery, belongs mainly to known forms from which 
the descent of the British food-vessel can be traced. A recent 
find at Peterborough, however, brings us face to face with a 
striking development within the Neolithic Period, which throws 
entirely fresh light upon vases discovered by Mortimer in the 
course of his excavations on the wolds of the East Riding. 

It is no less than a portion of a large vase, probably with flat 
base, estimated to have been, when perfect, over i ft. in height 
and some yj in. in diameter (fig. 4). It has a deep, rounded rim 
connected with the body by a shallow constriction, a relic of the 
deep neck of the earlier bowls. The upper part of the vase is 
ornamented as far as a point just below the shoulder with four 
rows of herring-bone pattern, no portion of the constriction being 
left unornamented. . 


The body was cylindrical or barrel-shaped, and, in addition to 
the single row of herring-bone pattern below the shoulder, was 
decorated for some 5I in. with irregular rows of vertical finger-nail 


Fig. 5. Beaker from Peterborough (abau: 3). 

incisions, but still the decoration does not extend to the lower part 
of the vase. 

In this remarkable vase we have an exact counterpart to that 
discovered by Mortimer a few inches above one of the primary 
interments in Barrow no. 98 on Painsthorpe Wold {Forty Years, 
% 335)> except that the Yorkshire vase, which measures 8 in. in 



height, is decorated only with herring-bone, in itself a survival, 
and has the constriction left plain. It may be that the burials in 
this barrow are thus of the very earliest Bronze Age with Neolithic 
survivals, or even that food- vessels of the type (op. cit.^ fig. 336) 
found in grave B, immediately below the large vase, belong in 
reality to the transition period. The decoration of the inside of 
the rim of the Yorkshire vase with a lozenge pattern executed in 
two parallel lines in cord technique is to be noted, as similar 
decoration occurs on pottery from Peterborough to be described 
immediately. The lower part of the Yorkshire vase, like that of 
the Peterborough example, is left plain. 

V. That at this stage in the development of Neolithic pottery 
the continental influences brought by the beaker-people assert 
themselves is indicated by what is perhaps the most remarkable 
vase as yet recovered by Mr. Abbott from the Peterborough site 

It was found in 1916 in an upright position in a bowl- 
shaped hole, about 4 ft. deep and 5 ft. wide, filled with the usual 
dark soil. The vase is nothing less than a huge beaker, 15 in. 
high and 10 in. across at the greatest diameter of the belly 
and at the mouth. It is of fairly good paste, but not with the 
fine gritty texture of the highly ornamented beaker-fragments 
described in Archaeologia^ Ixii ; it is fired red both inside and out, 
and is decorated with nine irregular rows of short vertical 
incisions, the ornamentation reaching to the swell of the belly. 
Noteworthy is the grooved collar at the rim. In short, this vase, 
while of the newly-introduced shape, in all else retains clearly the 
features of the Neolithic ceramic, though in a decadent form, such 
as might reasonably be expected. 

VI. We have now to retrace our steps in order to examine two 
groups of pottery which, while undoubtedly of Neolithic date, 
differ from the types which head the preceding series in several 
important respects. Their exact relation to the other series is not 
quite easy to determine, but certain indications suggest that they 
come in at a point a little later than Class III, and in some cases 
almost certainly earlier. 

{a) The finest of these groups comprises sherds of black, 
medium hard paste of uniform texture with no lumps of grit ; 
some fragments are burnt to a pale red on the outside. They 
belong to two or three pots, and such rims as have been pre- 
served are thin and of almost uniform thickness, tapering but 
slightly to the upper edge. These rims are portions of deep- 
collared vessels like many Bronze Age cinerary urns. The 
decoration is in every case incised. In one example we have 


a collar with seven horizontal lines and, on the body below, 
herring-bone pattern (fig. 6 a) ; another, also part of a rim, shows 
a succession of six wide-angled, inverted chevrons set one within 
another, with horizontal strokes between the uppermost chevron 
and the edge of the rim (fig. 6 i?) ; while rows of short, vertical, 
jabbed incisions decorate a third (fig. 6 c). Two fragments indicate 
flat bases ; one with vertical walls and a groove at the junction of 
the walls;, and the base is figured (fig. 6 d). 

(b) More important is the second group, which came from two 
pits measuring 4|ft. in depth and some 10 ft. in diameter, and 
situated 2 ft. apart from one another. In one of them, in an 
oval grave at the bottom of the pit, was found a skeleton lying in 

Fig. 6. 

a contracted position on its right side with the head to the east. 
Another pit close by contained the burial of a young person. 

The filling of the pits yielded numerous fragments of pottery ; 
in no case could a complete pot be reconstructed, the inference 
being that they were parts of broken domestic pottery. The 
ware is for the most part of a badly baked, thick variety, with 
plain body and highly ornamented rim, though a few pieces point 
to decoration of the body of the vase as well. The paste is 
always coarse black, sometimes hard baked with lumps of quartz 
mixed in the clay, sometimes almost pure and very soft. The 
colour after firing varies from brown to light brown and to 
dark red. 

The sherds appear to belong to vessels of three main types : 

(i) Bowls of the well-known Neolithic type with constricted neck 

and with round (or flat) bottom. They vary, however, in one 

R 2 


important respect. The rim, instead of being round or polygonal 
in section, is bevelled upwards to the edge of the interior wall, 
which falls in a vertical line downwards. The bevelled face is 
decorated with herring-bone pattern, as is also the neck and upper 
part of the body ; below that point the lines of the pattern 
intersect one another (fig. 7 a-b). The whole ot this decoration 
is carried out in incised lines ; only on the interior of the rim are 
some very imperfectly executed cord-markings to be found. This 
appearance of linear incision marks an important stage in what 
may be termed the decadence of the Neolithic bowl. Similarly, 
the careless execution of the pattern, as also the form of the rim, 
seem to characterize a late form of these bowls, as exemplified by 

Fig. 7. 

the bowl from Upper Swell, Gloucestershire, in the British 
Museum, and together with the linear incised ornament furnish 
an initial clue to the date of other pottery from the same group 
of pits. 

(2) Bowls with curved sides and no constriction below the rim ; 
inturned rims bevelled on the inner face. This bevelled edge is 
decorated with herring-bone or * wheatear ' motives, made with 
the finger-nail or finger-tip and so deeply impressed as to give 
the outer edge ot the rim an indented appearance. The exterior 
ornamentation is limited to some two inches in depth at the top 
of the vase. The designs, which are incised, partake of the 
nature of hatched triangles, but a noticeable trait is the tendency 
to curvilinear execution (fig. 8 a). 

(3) Vessels like the earliest cinerary urns of the Bronze Age, with 
deep collar and with a slight constriction immediately below and 


usually plain body. The rim may be slightly curved in section, 
with a gently bevelled edge as in the bowls of type (2), or with a 
steeply bevelled edge, in bbth cases commonly decorated with 
herring-bone design ; or the rim is almost vertical, slanting 
but a little inwards towards the top, which has a curved edge, 
too narrow for decoration. 

It is in this class that the curvilinear ornament is most con- 
spicuous^ One example shows hatched triangles with an inter- 
vening design of concentric curves (fig. 8 b) ; another groups of 
concentric elliptical curves, the intervals filled up with herring- 
bone motive (fig. 9). Less ambitious are two vases, one of which, 
of soft black paste, burnt to a reddish black, has the rim covered 

Fig. 8. 

with finger-tip impressions, while on the other, of hard black 
paste, the finger-nail has been used. In all these the finger or 
nail has been the sole implement employed ; even the curved 
and straight lines have been painstakingly executed by this means, 
and the herring-bone pattern for which elsewhere the cord is 
almost invariably used is made in the same way. 

Cord decoration is, however, not unknown. It appears on one 
vase in striking form, in a lozenge pattern with a central dot. 
In the lower angle made by the junction of each pair of lozenges 
is inserted an additional inverted chevron. The body of the vase 
is, unlike the majority of the type, decorated ; from such frag- 
ments as have been preserved, the design seems to have a tall zigzag 
pattern, lightly incised with a six-toothed comb (fig. 7 c-d). On 
other sherds the same technique is apparent in diagonal bands 


(e. g. fig. 7 e). Cord-impressed decoration was also employed for 
parallel diagonal lines on the collar of another vase. 

A restored vase of this class (fig. lo) and part of another have 
their rims decorated with vertical incisions or finger-markings. 

Apart from the deductions which can be drawn from the 
material already described, further important clues to the date of 
this group of pottery are available. 

The first of these is furnished by a fragment of the base of 
a well-fired, dark red vase, on which is a horizontal line of 
decoration impressed with a square-toothed implement, probably of 
semicircular form.' Decoration in this technique is so essentially 
characteristic of the Bronze Age pottery and is so entirely foreign 

Fig. 9. 

to Neolithic ceramic, that we are forced to the conclusion that we 
are here at the parting of the ways, but it must always be borne 
in mind that the introduction of the beakers and of bronze are 
not necessarily synchronous. Further, two fragments of polished 
celts were associated with this pottery ; one, of grey flint, is the 
butt-end of the common thin-butted type (Evans, Ancient Stone 
Implements^ fig. 45) ; the other, part of the shaft of a narrow celt, 
or ^ossibly chisel, of white cherty flint, is roughly quadrangular 
in section, with two wide slightly convex faces, and two narrower 
edges approximately flat, one of them chipped only. A large, 
somewhat flat, flint scraper, varying in colour from black to grey, 
and of pentagonoid outline, 2J in. in width and J in. thick, as well 
as numerous serrated flakes, constitute part of the same find. 

' The line is less deeply impressed at the ends than at the middle. 


While the scheme put forward above for the differentiation of 
Neolithic pottery is, in view of our, as yet, imperfect knowledge 
of the subject, admittedly tentative, the Peterborough pottery 
seems to bear all the signs of its makers advancing in ceramic 
skill by gradual stages, at each of which some fresh contribution 
was added, whether in improved methods of firing or in decora- 
tive ideas. In the latter stages the progress becomes more marked 
and is clearly the result of the incoming continental influences. 

Fig. 10. 


It is interesting to note further evidence of connexions with 
Yorkshire, already suggested by the food-vessel from a barrow 
at Eyebury (Proc. Soc. Jrii.y xxvii, p. 119, fig. 3). Mr. Abbott has 
drawn my attention to yet another parallel furnished by sherds, 
such as that figured in Archaeologia^ Ixii, p. 345, fig. 9, of vases 
with vertical walls and a sharply inturned lip. They are identical 
with sherds found by Mortimer in barrow no. 30 in the Aldro 
group {Forty Years^ fig. 142), and barrow no. 21 1 on Acklam Wold 
(/'^/V/., fig. 219). In both cases these were found in holes, not used 
for interments, under the floor of the barrow, and thus presum- 
ably are earlier than the barrow itself. Further, it is to be noted 
that the fragment from Acklam W^old shows the unusual curvi- 
linear pattern and that from Aldro incised chevron decoration on 



the interior of the vase, both of which features are unknown to 
Bronze Age pottery. 

The significance of the curvilinear phase in the decoration of 
British Neolithic pottery is not easy to explain. Something 
similar occurs on vases from Neolithic cists in Arran (P. S. A. Scot.y 

Fig I 2. Sections of Neolithic Pottery from Peterborough (^). 

[Roman numerals refer to the main sections ; letters, &c., as b-', to subsections ; 
numerals in brackets to the other illustrations] 

1902, p. 105, fig. 31, and p. 109, fig. 37), but as yet it is only of 
rare occurrence in these islands. When we seek for parallels on 
the Continent, the nearest approach is the decoration on a vase 
from the dolmen du Conguel, Morbihan (P. Chatellier, La Poterie 
aux ipoques prihistoriques et gauloises en Amiorique^ plate VII, fig. 13), 
but it is almost too far a cry from north-west France to Arran to 
see a connexion in the occurrence of this type of decoration at 
these two points, even on the basis of megalithic diffusion, without 


some intervening examples. In any case it will hardly serve to 
explain its presence at Peterborough, which lies entirely outside 
the area of the megalithic monuments in the British Isles. Further 
material is yet needed before a solution of this interesting variety 
of ceramic can be reached. 

Bronze Age. In addition to the richly ornamented fragments 
of beakers published in the previous account of Mr. Abbott's 
discoveries further sherds of the same nature were recovered from 
a pit situated at no great distance from that in which the earlier 
finds were made. They are decorated with incised cross-hatched 

Fig. 13. Urn from Peterborough. 

patterns and others executed with a toothed implement. Some 
ten yards away in a small hole about 3 ft. deep, filled with black 
soil, a small vase was found resting on the top of the gravel. 
.This pot is of biconoid form, and is made of a gritty paste baked 
to a yellowish red with black patches. It measures 6 in. in 
height ; the diameter varies from 4 in. across the mouth to 5 in. 
at its greatest width at the carination of the vase, whence it tapers 
oflFto 3J in. across the base. The decoration, executed in cord 
technique, is confined to the upper part of the vase and consists 
of triangles alternating up and down and hatched in opposite 
directions (fig. 13). 

Several burials are recorded, but unfortunately only in a few 
instances has Mr. Abbott been able to be present when the 
skeleton was unearthed, although fie succeeded in obtaining 


sufficient information from the gravel-diggers to reconstruct some 
of the others. Thus in one case the body lay in a contracted 
position on its left side, with the hands up to the face and with the 
head to the north, in a small, shallow grave, 5 ft. by 4 ft. in size 
and about 3 ft. deep. The head seemed to have been raised 
slightly, and a deeper excavation made for the reception of the 
rest of the body. No relics were found. 

Another lay fully extended with the head to the north in a 

Fig. 14. Beaker from Peterborough. 

shallow excavation in the top of the gravel at a depth of about 
2|ft. Other extended interments are recorded, but since none 
has furnished relics, their date must remain uncertain failing 
craniological data, since the site has produced numerous ascer- 
tained late Bronze or Early Iron Age burials, in addition to 
which at one time the gallows stood close by, a fact which might 
well explain some of them. 

It has been observed that in all cases the early interments had 
been placed on the gravel, but one remarkable exception is to be 
noted. In this case a contracted skeleton lying on its right side 
with head to the east had been interred at the bottom of a hut- 
hole, 4I ft. deep and 8 ft. to 10 ft. in diameter, on the oldest floor 
of the hole. 


The only Bronze Age burial with which relics were associated 
was that of a dolichocephalic adult with wide nose and heavy jaw. 
The skeleton lay with head to the north-east, on its left side and 
in contracted position ; below the feet and about 3 in. away was 
a complete beaker of Abercromby's type A. It is a finely made 
example, of softish paste, varying in colour from red to brown, 
and measures jl'in. in height and 5 in. across the mouth. It is 
decorated all over with triangles, zigzag bands, hatched and 
plain. On the neck a sort of lozenge pattern is achieved by join- 
ing the points of two plain zigzag bands with plain vertical bands 
and hatching the intervening spaces (fig. 14). Near the head of 
the skeleton was a scraper of elongated type, about 2 J in. long by 
I in. wide. 

The present account of Mr. Abbott's collections may be ter- 
minated by mention of part of the blade of a bronze palstave, 
and a sherd of pottery (found 8 yds. away) decorated with thong- 
impressed herring-bone ornament, both from a circular trench, 
the significance of which must be left for future description, since 
a similar trench has come to light in another part of the site. 

As I have dealt at length with Neolithic pottery in this paper, 
this occasion seems a suitable one on which to bring to the 
notice of the Society a recent discovery in Oxfordshire. Early 
in September last my friend Mr. R, T. Lattey, M.A., and I dis- 
covered a small excavation at the top of a quarry near Asthall 
Barrow, and on exploring it recovered a small quantity of animal 
bones, etc., including numerous teeth of pig, and a pale grey flint 
flake or knife. We were unable to complete the exploration at 
the time, but on two later occasions Mr. Lattey proceeded to 
the site and finished clearing out the hole, which proved to be 
circular, about 3 ft. in diameter and 2 ft. deep. In addition to 
more bones and teeth he was fortunate enough to recover small 
fragments of pottery (fig, 15). 

One is a rather shapeless piece of a rim, of soft black paste 
with lumps of grit, and on the inner face has some faint indeter- 
minate markings. Two others are, however, unusual and in- 
teresting. They belong to what is perhaps one of the smallest 
Neolithic vessels so far known from the south of England. Like 
the first piece they are made of soft greasy paste, but are better 
baked, being light red in colour inside ; the larger fragment 
would seem to have been subjected to fire subsequent to breakage, 
since the edges are of the same colour as the interior. Both 
sherds belong to the same pot. 

The larger sherd shows a rim with transverse incisions giving 



it a notched appearance ; below this is a slight constriction with a 
row of small holes made with a round, blunt-ended implement, 
a type of decoration common to late Neolithic pottery in this 
country. Below the line of holes occurs a type of decoration 
(visible on both sherds), which I believe is so far without parallel 
in this country. It consists of curvilinear lines lightly incised. 

Fig. 15. Pottery from Asthall, Oxon. 

In some cases they seem to go in pairs, approximately parallel, 
with a subsidiary decoration of holes like those round the neck 
dotted about in a somewhat haphazard fashion. Unfortunately 
too little remains to make it possible to reconstruct the whole 
design, so that any comparison with continental pottery decoration 
must at present be purely tentative. All one can say is that there 
is something that recalls the Bandkeramik of Neolithic Central 
Europe, and, if the comparison is an apt one, it would show that 
our knowledge of the influences which passed from the continent 
to Britain in Neolithic times is as yet in its infancy. 


Mr. Reginald Smith welcomed more specimens of the Neolithic 
ware exhibited from .the Thames last session, and congratulated Mr. 
Abbott on his discoveries at Peterborough. It seemed to be accepted 
that the food-vessel was derived from the round-bottomed bowl of the 


Stone Age, and a reference to one of the former type in the Lay ton 
Collection at Brentford might be made to illustrate the survival of certain 
characteristics {Archaeologia, Ixix, 4o). At the time of writing that was 
apparently the only Bronze Age vessel showing curvilinear decoration, 
and the influence of foreign ribbon-ware {Bandkerainik) had been 
suggested to account for it. The gradual flattening of the base was 
confirmed at Peterborough, but it was curious that the half-round 
hollow moulding below the lip should be at its best in the earliest 
stage of development. At present the origin of the moulding itself 
was unexplained. That the type did not accompany the burials 
found at Peterborough was surprising in view of its occurrence in the 
long barrow at West Kennett. One fragment showed a different 
technique, the paste having been impressed with a toothed implement 
producing a row of hyphens: it was significant that the same decora- 
tion was found in Denmark. The * multiple arch ', on the other hand, 
had a long history that rendered possible an ultimate connexion with 
the early Mediterranean culture, Brittany perhaps marking a stage in 
its dispersion, as the device occurred in the dolmens there. The half- 
celt from Peterborough, with its thin butt and squared sides ought, 
according to the current chronology, to date from the dolmen period ; 
and the site might therefore contain remains of the whole megalithic 
period, ending with the introduction of the foreign beaker. Some of 
the flints might well be much older, since Peterborough had been one 
of the few recognized homes of Le Moustier man. 

Mr. Leeds replied that round- and flat-bottomed bowls occurred 
together, most of the former being ornamented with finger-nail 
impressions, and the hollow moulding marked and stabbed. Those 
late characteristics showed that the hemispherical bowl was not 
confined to the earlier stages of development. 

A Rare Form of Bookmarker^ circa 1400 

By W. Parker Brewis, F.S.A. 

The history of this specimen is unknown. I found it among 
some old documents. It consists of a disc of parchment if in. 

Fig. I. Medieval Bookmarker, front (i). 

in diameter, having the Arabic numerals i to 4 inclusive on either 
side, the 4 being of early looped form. This disc is pivoted 
between two semicircular leaves of a folded piece of parchment 
which cover three figures on either side of the disc, but leave the 
fourth exposed. These semicircular pieces of parchment have on 
one side the symbols of the sun, moon, and stars (fig. i), and on the 
other side the sun only with the words ' Rota versatil(is) ' in 
a cursive hand of the fifteenth century (fig. 2) ; the last two letters 
(is) are represented by a general sign of contraction. There is also 
a loop at the back through which a strip of parchment about \ in. 
wide and ii| in. long is threaded. The whole forms such 
a bookmarker as a skilful penman might make out of a few scraps 
of parchment in his .leisure hours as an aid to his work. 

The method of using appears to have been as follows : Pre- 
sumably the marker was placed in the manuscript at the page at 



which the transcriber left off, and the disc then slid down to the 
line and rotated so as to expose the figure referring to .the column 
at which he stopped. The words ' Rota versatilis ' — * A wheel 
which will turn ' — may, of course, refer to the symbol of the sun 
over which it is placed, but I think it is more likely to be a gentle 
hint not to forget to turn the disc. Manuscript pages seldom 
have more than two columns, and the marker has four figures, 
but at Hereford there are several manuscripts having four columns, 
and the marker must naturally include the highest possible number 
that might be required. 

The only other example of this type of marker known in this 

Fig. 2. Medieval Bookmarker, back (^). 

country is one in Hereford Cathedral Library. It differs from 
the one in question in that it is slightly larger and the figures are 
in Roman numerals. Again, it does not slide upon the slip of 
parchment, but, of course, the whole thing can be moved up and 
down in the manuscript. 

On Coldharbours 
By Lt.-Col. J. B. P. Karslake, M.A., F.S.A. 

[Read 30th March 1922] 

I THINK I may safely say that there is no place-name in English 
topography which has given rise to more discussion and contro- 
versy than Coldharbour. In the course of a somewhat close and 
detailed examination of the ordnance survey maps which I had to 
make while preparing the papers I recently read to the Society on 
the circumstances and surroundings of Pre-Roman Silchester, 1 was 
struck with the frequent occurrence of Coldharbour in that area 
until I felt convinced that it had some distinct relationship to the 
subject-matter of my inquiry. 

Among the various theories that have been advanced with 
regard to it, one at least has been generally accepted ; that is, that 
it has some definite connexion with Romano-British civilization 
in this country. My examination of the maps seemed clearly to 
confirm this theory. But a study of the works of many writers 
on the subject of Coldharbours did not help me to account for 
several circumstances I had noted in connexion with the occur- 
rence of the name. I was forced therefore to approach the 
subject from a different standpoint from that adopted in previous 

I did so the more readily because I found that many of the 
premises upon which some writers had based their conclusions 
did not bear close investigation. For instance, the assertion that 
the name indicates the use in more recent times of the ruins of 
Roman buildings for temporary shelter, is negatived by the fact 
that there is no record of the site of a Coldharbour yielding 
remains of Roman building. Then again, a very generally ac- 
cepted explanation that Coldharbours are found on or close to 
Roman roads, and represent, or perpetuate the memory of, the 
travellers' rest-houses cannot be maintained in the face of the fact 
that, so far as I can find, no Coldharbour is on, or sufficiently 
close to, any Roman road for the purpose indicated or has any 
very obvious connexion with such roads. Moreover, whereas 
the Roman road system can still be traced traversing this country 


from end to end, Coldharbours can only be found in a compara- 
tively restricted area of south and central England. 

I need not refer to more fanciful derivations of the term based 
on supposed corruptions of words of Latin and even Celtic 
origin, which pre-suppose circumstances of locality and surround- 
ings that do not appear to exist. It therefore became apparent 
that a clear conception of what Coldharbour stands for to-day 
was the first preliminary to any attempt to determine what it 
stood for in some indefinite period of past history. 

Coldharbour, as found on our maps to-day, is occasionally the 
designation of a mere geographical point or locality, sometimes 
the name of a house or group of houses, of a road, lane, or wood. 
But in the great majority of instances it is the name applied to 
a farm-stead, or group of buildings comprising barns and cattle- 
shedding usually standing in a small enclosure of about an acre, 
generally away from any main road and approached by a separate 
by-lane or field-track ; and in almost every instance it is distant 
from a mile to a mile and a half from a town, village, or other 
inhabited centre. 

It is true that such towns or villages are in several instances 
the recognized sites of Romano-British settlement ; but this is by 
no means the rule. It is found in very many instances in the 
neighbourhood of places where hitherto no traces of occupation 
during that period of our history have been recorded. But 
I should add there are exceptions to the general rule that Cold- 
harbour is in the vicinity of an inhabited centre. Instances are 
found of its occurrence far from any habitation, present or past, 
and this is an important exception. In such cases it is to be 
found on natural meadows by the side of rivers and especially on 
the flat marshes of the Thames and Medway estuaries, round the 
original margin of the Wash, or on and around the great Romney 

But here again its character is the same as on inland sites, 
a small enclosure containing a farm-stead or cattle sheds. Of this 
latter class two good examples can be found near London, one on 
the Purfleet marshes on the Thames opposite Erith, and another 
on Ham field below Richmond. So that the present-day charac- 
teristics of Coldharbour clearly point to a past association with 
some system of rural economy rather than with any urban or 
industrial system. 

The present occurrence and distribution of the name can be 
seen on the map (fig. i). It shows one hundred and fifty 
instances which I have identified. No doubt other instances can 
be supplied by those with a more intimate knowledge of local 

VOL. II s 



Fig. I. Map showing sites of Coldharbours. 
Ba^ed on an outline map of England and Wales, by permission of Messrs. Edward Stanford, Ltd. 


unrecorded place-names than I can pretend to. But I venture to 
think that the occurrences which I am able to record are sufficient 
to define the area of distribution for my purpose. 

The map shows that the greatest number of Coldharbours is 
found in south and central England. Starting from the south 
coast in the vicinity of Portsmouth and Chichester Harbours we 
can trace two distinct lines or routes, one through Sussex roughly 
on the linciof Stane Street, the other to the west of Hampshire 
following the Test Valley. Thence they spread roughly over the 
watershed of the Thames, the whole of Kent, and parts of north 
Sussex. They spread farther into the upper watershed of the Ouse, 
and a few isolated examples are to be found round the Wash and 
Humber, in the Wye Valley,and even in north Somerset and Devon. 

Having said so much of the present I shall now endeavour 
to throw some light on what Coldharbour stood for in the past. 
And first I think we may dismiss the idea that the name has 
come down to us in any very corrupted form. In the earliest 
form of which we have any record it is Cold Harbarow, and 
practically the only variants now are Cold Harbour and Cold 
Borough, the former almost universal. Were it a corruption of 
some Latin or Celtic term it is scarcely conceivable that in the 
numerous instances where it has survived as a local and unim- 
portant place-name, it would have come down to us corrupted 
into a precisely similar form. 

The description intended is what the word denotes, a Cold 
Harbour. The problem to be solved is : for what purpose or 
use did it exist. I must again call to my aid Silchester, Calleva 
Atrehatum, that storehouse of information on our early history 
which has scarcely yet been sufficiently appreciated, except in the 
purely Roman features that it records. A Coldharbour exists, 
or rather did exist till recently, in the parish of Silchester. The 
name was formerly borne by a cottage and small parcel of 
ground on the road from Silchester to Little London close 
to the Scotsman's Green, at a distance of 1 1 furlongs from 
the centre of the city and just within the boundary of the 
leugata, roughly midway between the roads to Winchester and 
Salisbury. An examination of the ground in the vicinity reveals 
that upon it converge three of the banks and ditches which lead 
from the south gate to Pamber forest. These * intrenchments *, 
as they are described on the ordnance maps, are ditches of varying 
depth and contour with a spread bank on one or both sides. 
They follow no very direct course but wander about like the 
modern lanes ; in fact they actually constitute lanes in portions 
of their length. 

s 2 



Some years ago 1 cut a section down to the undisturbed soil 
across one of these so-called intrenchments to see if 1 could 
ascertain their object or meaning, but I only found a rounded 
depression with a bank composed of soil thrown up, or rather 

Fig. z. Silchester intrenchments. 

Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey Map, by permission of the Controller of 
H.M. Stationery Office. 

spread over, the adjoining surface, and I came to the conclusion 
that there was nothing to suggest a definite ditch or parapet. 
It was not until I had read the paper of our Fellow Mr. Kitson 
Clark,' on similar banks and ditches in Yorkshire that I realized 
the true meaning of these features at Silchester. * When ', he 

' Proc. Soc. Ant., xxiii, 321. 


says, * men had to drive cattle from pastures of one kind to 
pastures of another kind ... we can imagine that a definite track 
was quite necessary. The track would be ground Into dust in 
dry weather, in wet it would be trampled into mire, and the mud 
might be taken up and deposited at the side of the track just as 
happens in our day . . . and the banks might even be accentuated 
purposely to prevent straying.' 

The intfenchments at Silchester correspond to all these con- 
ditions, and there can, I think, be no room for doubt as to their 
being cattle tracks. And at the intersection of three such cattle 
tracks is the Coldharbour at Silchester (fig. 2). It follows that we 
must assume that for a long period, perhaps many centuries, cattle 
were driven in and out of the Coldharbour whatever it was. 

At Lambourn, which has so many features in common with 
Silchester as to suggest a similar date for its original settlement, 
we find on the Downs some two miles south-east a Cold Borough 
Hill, and just below it in a sheltered bottom an extensive meadow 
called the Winter Down (fig. 3). At one end of this meadow is the 
Winter Down Barn situate beside a square entrenched enclosure. 
This entrenchment is obviously very ancient. The old turf has 
reasserted itself on bank and ditch, giving it the appearance of 
other prehistoric earthworks on these Downs. From the north, 
this enclosure is approached by a cattle crack some mile in length, 
and from the south a short length of a similar track remains, but 
cultivation which here reaches within a short distance of the 
enclosure has obliterated its further course. The Barn, a very 
ancient structure, has cattle-shedding adjoining it. Here, then, 
we have what is obviously a cattle enclosure with covered shelter 
and a barn for storage of fodder situate on Cold Borough Hill, 
a winter shelter for cattle, in other words Cold Harbour. This, 
then, is the meaning of Cold Harbour, the Winter or Cold 
Season shelter, or Harbouring for cattle. 

The clue which is thus supplied to explain the nature and use 
of Coldharbour will be found, if applied to almost any occurrence 
of the name, to be quite consistent with local circumstances and 
position. We have almost universally the same enclosure still 
in very many instances combined with a farmsteading or shedding, 
the situation isolated from other buildings, most usually away from 
any main road, past or present, and as at Silchester well away 
from the settlement centre, and beyond the limits of the cultivated 
common field. 

And were further confirmation needed it can, I think, be found 
in the numerous instances of Coldharbours on the great salt 
marshes where pasturing of cattle must always have been, as it is 



Fig. 3. Lambourn: Winter Down. 

^ Reproduced from the Ordnance Survey Map, by permission of the Controller of 
H.M. Stationery Office. 


still to-day, the only use to which they are adapted. What other 
use could Coldharbours have served in such situations than as 
cattle shelters ? 

Among this latter category must be included the Coldharbours 
which till recently were to be found round London. Thus 
there was a Coldharbour at Deptford, south of the Surrey 
Commercial Docks, another on the site of Blackwall docks, one 
on the rising ground above what is now Battersea Park, and yet 
another near the Tower, another in modern Thames Street, 
another at Kingsland, all on or adjoining the marshes on the 
banks of Thames and Lea. That at Thames Street ad foenum on 
the ancient hay wharf, perhaps records the stall-fed cattle for 
milk or meat supply of the City. 

The frequent and widespread occurrence of the name in south- 
central England must bear record of a time when this district was 
inhabited by a population who were principally concerned with 

Can we say who these people were and when they introduced 
the use of Coldharbours .'' To assign a date for the origin of 
Coldharbours is a task of great difficulty : of direct evidence there 
is little if any. What there is is purely inferential. 

As I have already said, the connexion of Coldharbour with 
sites known to have been occupied in the Romano-British period 
has long been recognized, and at Silchester we have the further 
direct connexion of the cattle tracks with the Coldharbour. All 
the evidence that can be deduced from their character, situation, 
and direction points to their being contemporary with the period 
of occupation of the city, that is, not later than the fifth century. 
But the evidence, while not conclusive, yet clearly supports 
a strong presumption of such date for their use, and conse- 
quently for the period of the Coldharbour to which they lead ; 
and further presumption of the contemporary use of Coldharbours 
with the period of occupation of Silchester can be based on the 
number found in its vicinity. They would scarcely have been 
established in such numbers round a deserted city, such as 
Silchester became, and long remained, after the fifth century. 
In yet another direction we can draw certain very strong 
inferences as to date, and also as to what people first instituted 

If the area of disti ibution be studied on the map it will be seen 
that this area coincides to a very large extent with that in which 
we have evidence of the Gaulish polygon settlement. The same 
route inland from the coast as indicated by those settlements is 
suggested by the line of Coldharbours stretching up the line of 


Stane Street, and that passing up the valley of the Test to the 
west of Hampshire. And the absence of Coldharbours in those 
parts which were occupied by non-Belgic tribes is very significant. 
It is entirely absent in East Anglia and Essex; the territory of 
the Iceni and Trinobantes and the region of occupation of the 
Durotriges in Dorset. 

It may be suggested that they belong to the period of early 
Anglo-Saxon settlement. But all the evidence that can be derived 
from their situation is against such a theory. They in no way 
correspond with any of the recognized settlement areas of this 
period as defined by the position of the cemeteries of the pagan or 
early Christian periods. They are to be found alike in the Jutish 
area of Kent, in Wessex, and some even in Mercia, suggesting no 
special relation to either. 

I come now to my last argument in support of the attribution 
of Coldharbours to the period of tne later Belgic or rather Gaulish 
invasion, to the period to which the foundation of Silchester and 
similar polygonal settlements belongs. Here my process of reason- 
ing is based on the persistence of a group of place-names found 
associated and in conjunction with Coldharbour, which I think 
can be proved to belong to, and survive from, the period of the 
Belgic settlement. Adequately to illustrate my case I should 
need to reproduce large-scale maps of a considerable area of 
England, but limitations, if only of space, render this course 
impossible. I am therefore obliged to fall back on sketches or 
diagrams of place-name groups in the vicinity of various places. 

The first example I take from Silchester. And as the leuga 
radius or banlieue, which can still be clearly recognized here, is an 
important factor in the grouping of the names, I reproduce it as a 
circle of the leuga radius. A similar circle of the same radius is 
introduced into all the other groups 1 shall refer to, as although 
in many instances no trace of its existence survives I assume for 
the purpose of my argument that it was in fact always present, 
because the relative grouping of names still remains governed by 
its limits. The group here comprises : 

(i) Names derived from the leuga Boundary — * Broadway', 
* Round Oak '. 

(2) Agricultural. ' Coldharbour ' the winter cattle shelter, and 
'summerlug' the summer cattle quarters. This last meaning 
is warranted by the fact that the * summerlug' has similar cattle 
tracks around it as the Coldharbour and * sheep-grove '. 

(3) * Beggars Bridge ' and * Gibbet * which speak for themselves. 

(4) * Hundred Acres', *Inhams', 'Starveall', * Little London', 
whose meaning is obscure. 



Fig. 4. 


Hundred I 'Beigars 

Acre* \ /Bu»h 


Fig. 5. 



I propose to show that this place-name group is not confined to 
Silchester, but can be found repeated wholly or in part in very 
many localities where Coldharbour also is found. 

Fig. 4, No. 2 shows a group centred round Finckley the site 
of the Roman station near Andover, which ceased to be occupied 
at the same period as Silchester. 

No. 3, part of a similar group round Mildenhall near Marl- 


.M.le End HMI 

• Slarveall 

• Summertown 

•Little London 

> Starveall 

Fig. 6. 

borough (Cunetio), which also ceased to be occupied after the 
Roman era. 

No. 4, a group round Wallingford where remains of the 
Roman period are clearly established. 

Fig. 4 shows the same group of names occupying, relative 
to the leuga radius, very similar positions, and in three instances 
at least the grouping can only have reference to a period before 
the Saxon Conquest, after which the sites ceased to be inhabited. 

Fig. 5 shows exanxples which can be also dated to the same 



No. I. Lambourn, whose close similarity to Silchester I have 
already noted. 

No. 2. Brill in Buckinghamshire in the vicinity of" the Roman 
Camp on Muswell Hill. 

No. 3. Great Woodcote on Banstead Downs where sufficient 
remains of Roman buildings existed in Camden's time for him to 
identify it as Noviomagus. 

Hundred Acre* 




hford. Kent 


• Liltle* 




• Lov*e^ 




(Mile Oak 

• Coldharbour 


Fig. 7- 

No. 4. The British village near Stanton Harcourt in Oxford- 

In all these instances we have occupation in Romano-British 
times, and evidence of the connexion of the place-name group 
with the Gaulish leugata ; from which I think we can safely 
assume that Coldharbour and its associated names belong both to 
the Romano-British period and to the Gaulish type of settlements 
which still survived during that period with their leugata system. 

From this it follows that other examples of the same place-name 
group may safely be attributed, where found, to a similar period. 

Fig. 6 gives examples in North Berks, and South Oxford- 
shire which may be presumed to have been within the political 
influence of the Atrebatian capital at Silchester. 



No. I. East Hendred near Wantage, where Broadway and 
Roundabout Hill record the leugata boundary. 

No. 2. Woodcote, just beyond the Thames twelve miles north 
of Silchester. Here the Mile End and Broadstreet are noticeable. 

No. 3. A group centred south of Oxford on the Berks, side 
of the river. 

No. 4. A very similar group at Deddington some fifteen miles 


Little London 

Fig. 8. 

north of Oxford, in both of which the ' Summertown ' survives 
with the Coldharbour. 

Fig. 7 shows No. i, Yeading, four miles east of Uxbridge, 
a very complete group, and three examples in Kent, Nos. 2, 3, 4. 
The Mile Oak remains at Brenchley. 

Fig. 8 gives a group. No. i, two miles south of Dorking. 

No. 2. Southery in Norfolk, near Ely. 

No. 3. Little Gaddesden in Herts, where Mile Barn marks the 
leuga boundary. 

No. 4. Worth in Sussex. 

These examples by no means exhaust the groups 1 could cite 
and illustrate throughout the regions where Coldharbour is found, 
but I think they suflfice to establish my case that Coldharbour, 
and its associated place-names, denote a settlement of Belgic tribes 
of the Silchester type-form. In other words, that any village or 


town which has retained its Coldharbour can trace its pedigree 
back to a Belgic ancestry whose descendants have preserved 
the peculiarities of their civilization throughout all subsequent 
vicissitudes of our history, or the intrusion of other races and 

I may fitly conclude my paper with these words written by 
Sir Francis Palgrave in 1832 : * A dialect closely allied to Anglo- 
Saxon was, spoken in Britain long before the arrival of the last 
invaders. The basis of Anglo-Saxon is Belgic . . . and without 
attempting to define the territories occupied by the Belgians in the 
days of Caesar ... it must be admitted so far as the boundaries of 
these tribes extended the Belgic tongue was spoken.' ' 


Mr. C. L. KiNGSFORD was familiar with the City Coldharbour, 
which was first mentioned in 13 19, not as a place but a house It 
was south of Thames Street, outside the Wall on the foreshore and 
therefore not of the class under discussion. The collocation of certain 
place-names in various parts of the country was certainly remarkable, 
and could hardly be accidental, but as some at least were agricultural, 
they could occur anywhere. It was however curious to find so many 
instances of Little London, though they could not date from the 
early period suggested. St. Nicholas Cole Abbey had been derived 
by some from Coldharbour, and one at the Tower was connected with 

The Director said the Coldharbour at the Tower adjoined the 
White Tower, and was certainly so called in the fourteenth century : 
it was difficult to see how it could be connected with agriculture. The 
whole subject was of absorbing interest, and the Society was indebted 
to Col. Karslake for bringing it forward ; but it was not only 
natural but useful to bring all possible objections against the theory to 
test its merits. The names found in groups, whether of ancient or 
modern date, could hardly represent pre-Roman conditions, even if the 
polygonal enclosures could be taken as evidence of Gaulish settlements. 

Mr. BaildoN entered a caveat against any philological conclusions 
from Coldharbour, and pointed out that Little London was not 
uncommon in the North of England where there were no Coldharbours. 
That the latter were cattle-shelters was a suggestion he could accept, 
and a dialectical analogue of the name might perhaps be recognized in 
the Summerseats and Summerscales of Yorkshire ; but there was 
probably no Belgic population so far north, and he was not prepared 
to endorse Palgrave's argument. It seemed rather venturesome to 
equate Ingham, Ightham, Ingram, etc., and the connexion of such name- 
groups with ancient inhabited sites proved too much, for no special 
shelter would be required in the neighbourhood of permanent farm- 

' The Rise and Progress of the Engttsh Commonwealth^ p. 1 1 . 


Mr. Bonner welcomed a fresh treatment of an old problem. Ten 
years ago he had compiled a list of Coldharbours from the ordnance 
maps and found no less than 240 instances in England. In each case 
he had noted the distance from any Roman road, and height above the 
sea, the result being fatal to the theory that Coldharbour implied 
a Roman road wherever found. Col. Karslake had stated there were 
no instances on Roman roads, but he had himself found five on Roman 
roads and six within a short distance of them : about two-thirds of the 
total were, however, well away from such lines. The names Starveall 
and Hundred Acres were Anglo-Saxon, but Coldharbour had not 
been found in our records earlier than the thirteenth century, its 
medieval spellings, however, clearly indicated its Teutonic origin — a 
conclusion accepted by philologists and confirmed by the Oxford 
Dictionary. Sir John Pulteney also had manors in Kent and six or 
seven of them included Coldharbours ; his predecessor had two manors 
in Kent, and both had a Coldharbour attached. The distribution of 
the name was not quite as stated : it extended to Cornwall in the 
west and to Northumberland in the north; Kent had a8 or more, 
Sussex 21, and Lincolnshire came third with 17. The Anderida 
district included more than 20. There were both Great and Little 
Coldharbours, the latter being probably used for a house of later 
date ; but in any form the term could hardly be earlier than the 
medieval period, while one instance, in Salop, dated only from the 
nineteenth century. The name was common in Germany also, as 
Kalt(e)herberg, a very significant fact. In England it was a farm-name, 
and appeared to be one of a type of such names (of which he read 
a selection) which were descriptive of the site or the characteristics 
of the place ; and its meaning was merely ' cold shelter *. 

Col. Karslake replied that Little London in the City was behind 
All Hallows on the Wall, on the site of Broad Street, and probably 
belonged to the Kingsland group of place-names. Whatever its 
origin. Great Coldharbour ad Foenum was outside the Roman Wall 
and a suitable place for cattle-stalls. His critics had overlooked the 
fact that the Coldharbours were clearly related to early sites not 
inhabited after the Roman period, and the occurrence of Mile End 
showed that they were connected with the leugata system of Gaul. 
Silchester seemed to him decisive in that respect. 

The President felt that every one present knew much more of 
the subject after hearing the paper, and the discussion had served to 
illuminate many aspects of the question. In his opinion. Col. Karslake 
had proved the main contention, but the early date suggested for the 
groups of place-names seemed to lack confirmation, the whole ter- 
minology being against a pre-Roman origin. 

A Small Bronze Group of St. Peter and St, Paul 

By Sir Martin Conway, M.A., M.P., F.S.A. 

[Read 6th April 1922] 

i- This little bronze (height 4 in.) was recently found in Rome, 
possibly in the neighbourhood of the Tombs of the Apostles, 
where excavations have been going on. It obviously represents 
St. Peter and St. Paul standing side by side with the ^ mono- 
gram, in its early form, behind in the space between their heads. 

Bronze group of St. Peter and St. Paul (§). 

It came into the hands of Messrs. Durlacher from Rome without 
any precise statement of origin. I am very much obliged to them 
for permitting me to bring it under the notice of the Society. The 
two little figures evidently formed the back part of a bronze lamp. 
Other lamps of about the fifth century a. d., published in Garrucci's 
Archaeohgia Christiana (pi. 435, and especially, pi. 47 1, fig. 2), show 
how the figures stood in relation to the lamp. It is possible that 
the remainder of the lamp may yet be discovered in Rome. The 
figures are dumpy in proportion, but possess a certain nafve charm. 
They were not made to be an independent sculptured group, but 
to serve a decorative purpose, and for that they are well enough 
adapted. Both stand in the same attitude. Each holds a scroll 


in his left hand and raises his right in blessing. The right hand 
of St. Peter has been broken off and the break is an old one. 

It will be observed that the well-known types of the two 
apostles are already clearly marked, Peter with a square beard and 
Paul with a pointed one. The eyes appear to have been inlaid 
but are now empty sockets. Numerous representations of Peter 
and Paul together have come down to us from Early Christian 
times. We can cite examples on bronze medallions, bronze 
plaques, gilt glass, and so forth. An interesting bronze medallion 
of the two heads facing one another in profile was published 
among the papers of the British School at Rome (vol. ix, 
pi. 16). It appears to be of earlier date than our group and 
the types are less clearly indicated, though St. Peter is already 
recognizable. A bronze repoussi plaque, published in the Bullettino 
di archeologia cristiana (1887, p. 130, pi. 10), is attributed to the 
fourth century. The types in it are yet less developed, and 
though one beard is longer than the- other, both seem to be 
pointed. In Deville's Histoire de Tart de la Verrerie (pi. 29 b) both 
apostles have pointed beards and similar hair ; only the names 
inscribed behind the heads enable the subjects to be identified. 
Other gold glasses might be cited to illustrate the gradual 
differentiation of the type between the two apostles. In our 
bronze the differentiation is complete and the types that were 
destined to endure throughout the Middle Ages are fully de- 
veloped. We may, therefore, probably assign it to about the 
beginning of the fifth century a. d. 


Mr. Dalton thought the bronze of earlier date : it was an example 
of a style that spread rapidly in the fourth century, and arose from 
the application of oriental principles of flat decoration to figure 
sculpture of Hellenistic or Roman origin. The bodies were flat and 
treated in a linear manner ; the heads v/ere in higher relief and 
strongly characterized, through the increasing interest in the individual 
in the early Christian centuries, as opposed to the generalized types of 
pagan art. The change was in the main attributed to Syrian influence, 
but there was a similar tendency towards realism at Rome, as is seen 
from the portrait sculpture of later imperial times. The reliefs on the 
base of the obelisk of Theodosius at Constantinople showed the influence 
of the same principles, and the form of the Chi-Rho (usually before 
400) suggested an earlier period than the date given in the paper. 

The President had seen the group in Paris last autumn, and was 
struck with its artistic peculiarities which had been further brought 
out by Mr. Dalton. In such cases the date could only be ascertained 
by evolutionary methods. In returning thanks to the author, he 
would include Messrs. Durlacher who, not for the first time, had 
allowed the Society to inspect an interesting exhibit. 


Excavation of Ric/iboroughy Kent. — The Society proposes to make 
a start this >*ear on the excavation of the area enclosed by the walls of 
the Roman fortress of Richborough, near Sandwich, Kent. So well 
known a site has from time to time been the scene of various investiga- 
tions, chiefly directed to the great concrete platform, the meaning of 
which is one of the unsolved questions of Romano-British archaeology. 
But a systematic excavation of the whole area has not hitherto been 
attempted. The work will be under the supervision of our Fellow 
Mr. J. P. Bushe-Fox, and it is hoped that the initial grant from the 
Society's Research Fund will be largely increased by the subscriptions 
of individual Fellows and others interested. An appeal will shortly 
be issued, and if possible the excavations will begin in the late summer. 

TJie Rhodesian skull. — Another article by Dr. Smith Woodward 
appears in the April number of Science Progress, and emphasizes the 
difference between the new skull and the Neanderthal type. The face 
is probably the largest ever seen in man ; the brain must have been of 
a very primitive type, but there is no doubt that the erect position had 
been attained. 'The discovery in the Rhodesian cave now seems to 
show that races of unfinished men were among the latest refugees in 
the south. The new race in question does not fill precisely any gap in 
a direct series uniting modern man with his ape-like ancestry. It 
merely represents one of the latest variants among the multitude which 
will eventually be discovered to have passed away as failures during 
the progress of man in the making. It is an advanced stage in which 
arrested brain-development accompanies enlargement instead of refine- 
ment of the face.' 

Study of the Ice Age. — The attention given to the Pleistocene 
glaciations is not in proportion to the interest of the subject, and full 
advantage has not been taken of the abundant geological evidence in 
Britain. Apart from the Institute of Human Palaeontology in Paris, 
there has hitherto been no special centre of investigation in Europe 
{Nature, 23rd March, 3^<3) ; but a public institution for Ice Age research 
has now been established in Vienna in connexion with the Natural 
History Museum of the Austrian Republic, under the direction of 
Dr. J. Bayer ; and as the type-localities selected by Penck and 
Bruckner are all in that district, this new departure is full of promise, 
and may lead to similar activities on this side of the channel, though 
it is only fair to add that a fresh start has already been made in East 

Palcuolithic gravel near Abingdon. — Another palaeolith from the 
new site on the Radley road has recently come into the hands of our 
VOL. II . T 



Local Secretary, Mr. H. G.W. d'Almaine, F.S.A., who communicates the 
following account of its discovery. It was not actually found in situ, 
but recovered from the waste of a former excavation in the same pit 
as that referred to in a paper read to the Society on 26th January. The 

Front, back, and side of palaeolith, Abingdon (^). 

accompanying illustration gives three views of the implement, which 
belongs to the ovate type attributed to the period of St. Acheul, but is 
exceptionally thick in the middle, with one face almost conical. It is 
flaked all over, with cutting-edge all round and of a bright yellow 
patina ; slightly rolled. Mr. J. L. West, the owner of the pit, rescued 
it last year from a tip, and states that it came originally from the 
south-east corner, where yellow gravel is dug, about i ft. from the sur- 
face, on what is called the lower terrace of the Thames in this neigh- 
bourhood. It is to be deposited on loan in the Abingdon Museum. 

Bronze Age Cist at Rock, Northnuiberland. — Mr. R. C. Bosanquet, 
F.S.A., Local Secretary for Northumberland, sends the following 
report : A mound in the parish of Rock near Alnwick, in a wood 
called The Ellsneuk, was examined last August by Mr. J. Hewat 
Craw, F.S.A.Scot., and others. A small cist, formed of sandstone 
slabs and measuring only 27^ in. by 16 in., was found within a few inches 
of the surface. It contained a shapely beaker of early type and 
simple decoration, much injured by tree-roots, but of the body, pre- 
sumably a young child's, which had been laid in the cist no trace 
remained. Search will be made this summer for a primary interment. 
Several beakers have been found in this neighbourhood, both on higher 
ground to the west and on the coast. 

Cave Exploration in Derbyshire. — Mr. G. A. Garfitt, Local Secre- 
tary for Derbyshire, forwards the following report: A committee of 
the Royal Anthropological Institute and of the British Association has 
in hand the fuller exploration of the caves of Derbyshire with the 
object of finding early man. A certain amount of progress was made 
last year, principally by two members of the committee, Mr. Leslie 



Armstrong and Dr. Favell. The earliest remains were found in 
a hidden cave, which came to light in the course of mining operations 
at the 'Blue John ' mine at Castleton. The bones of several indi- 
viduals were found, among which was a skull in perfect condition. 
Dr. Low, of Aberdeen University, has made a report, which will be 
published in an early number of Man. He is of opinion that the 
remains are of Early Bronze Age. A polished celt of flint was found 
near the remains. The floor and the former mouth of the cave would 

Late Celtic cinerary urn and bowl, Abbots Langley. 

have repaid examination, but were unfortunately destroyed by the 
mining operations — lack of funds preventing the immediate work which 
was necessary. 

The cave at Harboro', near Brassington, partly explored by 
Mr. Storrs Fox many years ago, has also been worked upon, and the 
permission of the owners has been obtained for the work to continue 
this year. Trial sections have been made and have yielded bone tools, 
pottery, human remains, and a bronze hand-pin of La Tene I period. 

Several other caves are known to contain archaeological remains^ 
and it is hoped that the work will be successfully prosecuted this year. 

Late Celtic Burial, Abbots Langley\ Herts. — Mr. A. Whitford 
Anderson, Local Secretary for Hertfordshire, communicates the 

T 2 


following : The site of the find is on the brow of the hill on the 
eastern side of the river Gade ; the altitude is, roughly, about 150 ft. 
above the old roadway in the valley by the river. It appears to be 
the first Celtic burial discovered near this road between Watford and 
Boxmoor. A small gravel pit was being opened for temporary 
purposes when the urn and fragments of the small pot were discovered. 
They lay together in the gravel about 3 ft. from the surface, but, 
unfortunately, no notes were taken as to their relative positions. 
Mr. Thomas, who owned the land, reports that when the urn was un- 
earthed it was half full of bones which fell to dust the moment they 
were handled. This dust was thrown away. 

In November 1920 Mr. Thomas handed the urn to Mr. H. S. 
Dunham, of Watford, and fragments of the small pot to myself later; 
the edges of the fractured portions were worn, showing that the break- 
age was not recent. Both urn and pot are now in the Hertfordshire 
Museum at St. Albans. Mr. G. E. Bullen, the Director, who is associated 
with me in this matter, has been no more successful than I in obtaining 
information, but there is some reason to believe that other articles were 
found, though their nature or present wher-eabouts cannot be discovered. 

Both the urn and pot are of red unglazed ware ; the urn is 9f in. in 
height, and is of the pedestal type with lip and base similar to 
examples in the museum at Colchester, but with a fuller body, and in 
that respect more like the Welwyn urn ; part of the base is missing 
and there is a crack down one side made by a pick when excavating 
the ground. The pot is 2| in. in height and 3I in. greatest outside 
diameter. I am informed that Mr, Reginald Smith, F.S.A., dates it 
.about the beginning of the Christian Era. 

Roman Walls in Coriihill. — Messrs. Lund's shop, nos. ^6 and 57 
Cornhill, under the shadow of St. Peters Church, has recently been 
•demolished ; and excavation in its basement has disclosed a finely pre- 
served length of Roman wall, running at a slight angle under the 
foundations of the church. The top of it, so far as it remained, was 
about 9 ft. 6 in. below the pavement. The builders' excavations only 
went slightly lower than this ; a special hole was therefore dug, in 
order to uncover a short stretch of the northern face of the wall down 
to its foundations, which were met at a depth of 17 ft. Its thickness 
could not be discovered, for the southern face is under St. Peter's. 
In construction — four or five courses of squared ragstone alternating 
with two to five courses of tiles — and in direction this wall corresponds 
closely with those found under Leadenhall Market in 1880-1881 
{Archaeologia, Ixvi, pp. 230-233) and with the wall found lately across 
the north end of Gracechurch Street [Antiquaries Journal, ii, i4o)> 
The latter indeed appears to be an eastern continuation of the same 
wall. It will be remembered that the southern face of the Grace- 
church Street fragment was plastered ; on the Cornhill wall a tiny 
piece of plaster was left, showing traces of red paint — enough to prove 
that this was not a defensive work, but part of a large building. All 
these finds seem to be part of a great building, more than 400 ft. long, 
which crowned the eastern hill of Londinium. 

It was suggested that the specially excavated hole should be left 

NOTES 261 

under the cellar floor, and protected by a trap-door, but the owner 
could not spare any floor-space in his small basement, and the wall 
has therefore been buried again. 

Discovery of remains cf Wailing Street, Gravesend. — During the 
course of road-widening operations on the line of the Watling Street, 
at Pepper Hill near Springhead, to the south of Gravesend, consider- 
able remains of the Roman road have been discovered. The south 
edge of the road has been cut into in several places, and it could be 
seen that the« foundation was composed of several inches of rammed 
chalk, the road metal upon this being of gravel. Unfortunately no 
complete transverse section has been exposed, but the greatest depth 
of gravel was about 2 ft. 6 in., the camber sloping down quickly to the 
edge of the road, where the metal died out at about the same point 
as the underlying layer of rammed chalk. The road was covered 
with several feet of soil, the present road not being on the same line» 
but slightly to the south. Portions of an Andernach quern, an 
amphora, and a Roman tile were found, and it is understood that 
a rubbish-pit, containing fragments of pottery, was also discovered. 
Two skeletons were found in close proximity to the road. Work is 
continuing, and it is expected that further discoveries will be made. 

Akeman Street in Gloucestershire. — The Roman road crosses the 
river Leach about 10 miles north-east of Cirencester. In the late 
autumn of 1921 an experimental opening was made by Rev. Canon 
Wright, of East Leach, and at the depth of about 10 in, revealed an 
ancient roadway, composed mostly of small stones, some lying flat, 
others pitched. The roadway was in some parts much pressed out of 
its original position. On taking a portion of this completely up, a layer 
of gravel i in. to 3 in. in thickness was exposed, immediately below 
being the solid rock. 

Early in this year two other sections were opened, one which lay 
about half-way down the valley slope being reached at about 10 in., 
the other on the top of the hill being covered by only about 4 in. 
The stones in the section at the top of the hill were rather larger, and 
the road in a better state of preservation. About the end of March 
last, a section was opened nearly at the top of the hill on the other side 
of the Leach valley : this seems to be the best piece yet exposed. 

It is hoped to open up the road through the bed of the stream very 

Discoveries on the site of Margidnnum. — Mr. G. H. Wallis, F.S.A., 
Local Secretary for Nottinghamshire, reports that in a grave-group 
found in a field about 100 yards east of Margidunum, under a large 
slab of sandstone, oriented E. and W., in a hollow in the solid clay 
(below I ft. of black soil) were the following vessels: — Ten-a Sigillata: 
Form :i3 stamped REBVRRI-OFF; a flat plate; flanged bowl. Curie 
1 1 , with ivy-leaves in barbotine on the flange ; also a brown rouletted 
wide-mouthed urn containing burnt bones of a child ; a black fluted 
cooking-pot containing oyster and mussel shells ; a miniature brown 
rouletted beaker ; a small white jug and a black platter. Probable 
date of grave-group Trajan-Hadrian. 


Roman Altar at Honsesteads, Northumberland. — Mr. R. C. Bosanquet, 
F.S.A., Local Secretary for Northumberland, reports that an altar 
dedicated Deabus Alaisiagis has come to light in the valley south of the 
Roman fort, near the spot where two large altars dedicated to Mars 
and the Alaisiagae were found in 1883 along with a sculptured door- 
head. The dedicators of those altars were Germ{ani) cives Tuihatiti 
and Ger{inani) cives Tuilianti ciinei Frisiornm. The German Tuihanti, 
serving in a Frisian corps, were recognized as natives of a district near 
Oldenzaal which is still called Twente. There was a prolonged dis- 
cussion among students of Teutonic antiquities about the titles of 
Thingsus given to Mars, and Beda and Fimmilena given to the 
Alaisiagae, on one of the monuments. It is interesting that the new- 
inscription gives two new names to these otherwise unknown goddesses. 
The text reads Deabus Alaisiagis Baudihillie et Friagabi et N. Aug. 
N. HNaudifridi v. s. I. in. It was discussed at the April meeting of 
the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries and will be published in the 
forthcoming volume of Archaeologia Aeliana with notes on the Ger- 
manic names by Professor Theodor Siebs of Breslau, and Professor 
W. E. Collinson of Liverpool. The discovery was due to the observant 
eyes of Mrs. Clayton's caretaker at Housesteads, Thomas Thompson, 
who had a hand in the finding of the larger monuments thirty-eight 
years ago. He has also noticed an unknown centurial inscription in 
situ in the south face of the Wall. Mr. Parker Brewis, F.S.A., when 
visiting Housesteads to photograph these stones, identified a frag- 
ment of a mutilated bas-relief, part of which is in the museum at 
Chesters. The latter has part of a human figure, standing beside a sea- 
monster and placing one foot on its back ; the new piece is pierced for 
a water-pipe and shows that the slab adorned a fountain. 

St. Helen s, BisJiopsgate. — The clearing of the site bounded on the 
north by St. Helen's Place, Bishopsgate, and on the south by the 
church of St. Helen, has revealed interesting remains of the nunnery 
buildings. The foundations of the south and east walks of the 
cloister, with part of the north walk, have been uncovered, and to 
the east of the cloister the plan of a rectangular chapter-house, a sacristy 
set against the north wall of the nuns' church, and evidence of the line 
of the dormitory range, appear among the remains of later brick 
walls. These latter form part of the buildings erected by the Leather- 
sellers' Company, who obtained the site in 153H, and have now given 
every facility for its exploration before it is again covered with 

Petham Churchy Kent. — The church of Petham, near Canterbury, 
has lately been much damaged by a fire which seems to have broken 
out in or near the tower, which is at the south-west corner of the 
church. The nave and south aisle were gutted, the roofs of both 
being consumed, and the stone of the arcade between the two is much 
damaged ; it is, however, in the main modern. The bells, all cast by 
Lester and Pack, of London, in 1760, were destroyed with their 
frame, but the ancient stonework at the lower stage, probably late 
Norman, has not been irretrievably damaged. The chancel roof 

NOTES 263 

remains, but the chancel arch is much shaken and in danger of falling. 
There is a satisfactory amount to be claimed for insurance, and as the 
church has been put in the capable hands of Mr. Grant, the diocesan 
surveyor, it may be hoped that much of interest will be preserved. 
The fire loosened the outer crust of plaster on the nave walls, which in 
falling away has revealed some most interesting painted work under- 
neath, including two nearly perfect consecration crosses of the thirteenth 
century. When the rest of the modern plaster has been removed it 
may be hoped that more of these crosses may be disclosed on the 
earlier plaster below. The font was badly broken, but it is not 
ancient. It is believed that the destroyed roofs were modern. 

Eastchurch^ Kent. — Unfortunately Petham is not the only Kentish 
church that has suffered from fire within the last few weeks. East- 
church, in the Isle of Sheppey, a beautiful Perpendicular church built 
about 1432 on a fresh site, and therefore of special interest as exhibit- 
ing a design untrammelled by exigencies of adaptation to any earlier 
structure, has also been seriously injured. In this case, the fire seems 
to have broken out in the chimney of a stove in the north chancel 
aisle, and to have spread to the roof and to the organ, which stood 
there. -The roofs of the north chancel aisle, the chancel, and the north 
aisle of the nave have been seriously injured. The stonework of the 
two aisle windows has been scorched, and will need repair. Fortunately, 
the great rood screen, the longest in Kent, escaped in an almost 
miraculous way. By the aid of some members of the Royal Air Force, 
the Jacobean pulpit was moved out of danger. The injured roofs are 
not beyond repair, but a considerable amount of careful renewal will 
be inevitable. These roofs are perhaps the richest of any parish church 
in Kent, and are coeval with the building. The marvel is that more 
damage was not done. 

The Cross of St. Kew, Cornwall. — Large portions of the head of 
a very interesting fifteenth century cross of the 'lantern' type have 
recently been placed on exhibition at the Victoria and Albert Museum. 
They have been lent by the Rev. H. Dalton Jackson and Mrs. Braddon, 
and were discovered in different parts of the village of St. Kew, in 
North Cornwall. They have been assembled and set up under the 
direction of Mr. Eric Maclagan, of the Department of Architecture 
and Sculpture. The material is the peculiar black catacleuse stone 
which was worked by a local group of carvers in the neighbourhood 
of Padstow in medieval times. The cross is an example of a well- 
known type, also represented at St. Mawgan in Pydar and St. Neot. 
Catacleuse stone is a volcanic rock quarried on the cliffs near Trevose 
Head. It was not used as ordinary building material, but only for 
window tracery, doorways, and figure sculpture. The strongly marked 
individuality of treatment which accompanied its employment suggests 
that it was worked by one particular group of carvers. The fonts at 
Padstow, St. Merryn, and St. Breock, the reredoses at St. Issey, and, 
finest of all, the monument of Prior Vyvyan at Bodmin, are the best 
examples of carvings in this peculiar material. 


Find of Treasure Trove near Tiillamore, King's County.— "M-t. E.C. R. 
Armstrong, F.S.A., Local Secretary for Ireland, reports that 140 
silver coins, found in the early part of the year by Mr. James Devoy, 
of Clonmore, Tullamore, King's County, were forwarded as Treasure 
Trove for inspection to the Royal Irish Academy on 22 March 1922. 
The coins consisted of i sixpence Edward VI, mint mark, ton ; 
4 groats Mary, mark, pomegranate ; 38 English shillings, marks, 
martlet, cross-crosslet, lis, bell. A, escallop; 3 Irish shillings, mark, 
harp ; 90 English sixpences, marks, lis, pheon, rose, portcullis, Hon, 
coronet, castle, ermine, acorn, cinquefoil, cross, sword, A, escallop, 
crescent ; i English groat, mark, martlet ; 2 English threepences, 
marks, cross, and cinquefoil, all 134 coins being of Elizabeth ; i small 
Spanish coin, much cut, inscription unreadable. Not being required 
for the National Collection, these coins were returned to the Treasury 

Note on St. Brigid's Shoe. — Mr. Armstrong also communicates the 
following : A shoe-shaped reliquary of brass, known as St. Brigid's 

St. Brigid's Shoe ^-J). 

Shoe, formerly in the Petrie collection, is preserved in the Irish 
National Museum, It has not to my knowledge been illustrated, 
though it was mentioned by Petrie {Round Toivers of Ireland, pp. 341, 
342) as an example of the custom of swearing on relics of saints. He 
printed the inscriptions on the reliquary, stating that from these it 
appeared the shoe was formerly preserved at Lough rea, co. Gal way, 
where there still remained, a short distance from the Carmelite Friary, 
a small church dedicated to St. Brigid. 

The shoe measures 9-6 in. in length. It is much broken. Its 
ornamentation consists of an oval setting now empty, with above 
this a small bearded head with an inscription S * Jhon * BAPTIST. 
Below the setting is a figure of Our Lord ; I N R I on a scroll being 
placed above it. At each side is a circle, the larger of these contains 
the letters I.H.S. surmounted by a rayed cross and having below 
a heart and three nails ; in the smaller the cross is not rayed and the 
heart is absent. At the Saviour's feet is an empty rectangular rayed 

NOTES 265 

setting. The raised side of the shoe is incised S*BRIGIDO 
this is engraved a figure, apparently intended for St. Prancis, the 
stigmata being indicated ; and some floral ornament. On the other side 
the inscription reads HOC * KST * IVRAMENTUM NATURALE 
Lochreich ANNO * DOMINI * 1410. Below this is floral ornament, 
the heel also being decorated with floral scrolls. 

Petrie appears to have considered the shoe to be of ancient date, 
but it cannot belong to a period earlier than the seventeenth century. 
Possibly th$ date 1410 engraved upon it refers to an earlier shrine 
which, having been destroyed, was replaced by the present specimen. 
Irish relics were frequently destroyed. The Annals of Ulster record, 
under the year 1538, the burning of the monastery of Down by the 
Saxon Justiciary, and the carrying off of the relics of Patrick, 
Columcille, and Brigid. and the image of Catherine, while in the 
same year the image of Mary of Trim, the Holy cross of Ballyboggan, 
and the Staff of Jesus were burned. 

Special Exhibition of Greek and Latin Papyri at the British 
Muscnm. — To commemorate the twenty-fifth anniversary of the found- 
ing of the Graeco-Roman branch of the Egypt Exploration Society 
a special exhibition has been arranged, at the British Museum, of 
papyri presented to the Trustees by the Society since the foundation 
of the branch in 1897. The majority of the papyri shown come from 
the Society's excavations at Behnesa (Oxyrhynchus), directed for so 
many years by Drs. Grenfell and Hunt. Others are from the Fayum 
and el-Hibeh. The Oxyrhynchus papyri come from the dust-heaps 
of the ancient town, those from the Fayuin were found in house- 
ruins, and those from Hibeh were mostly recovered by the process of 
carefully taking to pieces * cartonnage ' mummy-coverings that were 
made of old papyri. The selection shown is very representative, all 
periods, subjects, and types of hands being represented. A Homer 
MS. of palaeographic interest is exhibited ; lyric poetry is represented 
by Sappho, Pindar, and Bacchylides, while other branches of poetry 
appear in codices of Sophocles and Kerkidas. In the sphere of 
philosophy there is an early commentary on the Topics of Aristotle, 
and history is represented by the Hellenica Oxyrhynchia, a fragment 
of a history of Greece, probably by Ephorus, dealing with the years 
397-396 B. c. The fragment was written in the third century a. d. 
An epitome of Livy, of the end of the third century, is a good 
specimen of Latin historical literature and palaeography. Then 
there are the famous Sayings of Jesus, and an interesting fragment 
of an * Old Latin ' version of Genesis. The non-literary fragments 
exhibited are also interesting, notably those illustrating fiscal and 
other governmental problems and methods, which were so like our 
own : one papyrus even shows us the ' Treasury Axe ' at work in an 
attempt to economize by reduction of staff. Then there are, of course, 
the public announcements of plays, games, and shows, the processes 
of law, and the private letters. A catalogue of the exhibition, 
prefaced by Mr. H. I. Bell, is on sale in the Manuscript Saloon of the 
Museum, where the exhibition is placed. The exhibition is a most 


apposite commemoration of the foundation of the Graeco-Roman 
branch of the Society, which has done so much excellent work in 
Egypt, and has enriched the national collections with so many 
treasures of ancient civilization. A well-attended lecture on the work 
of the branch from its inception was delivered by Prof. Hunt in the 
rooms of the Royal Society at Burlington House in February, iq22. 

The Hittite question, — An article contributed by M. Zaborowski to 
the Bulletins et Memoires of the Paris Anthropological Society (1920, 
nos. 4-6) contains some interesting speculations on the Hittites, Bronze 
Age migrations in Europe, and the practice of cremation. By way of 
introduction it is asserted that there are no authentic instances of 
brachycephalism in the palaeolithic period of Europe, and that an 
Asiatic wave swept westward in the Bronze Age, spreading the know- 
ledge of metal, which for copper dates back to 4000 B.C. in Chaldaea 
and for bronze to 3500 in Egypt. In Crete only one short skull has 
been found among those dating from Early Minoan i and ii, the age of 
copper ; but the type is common though still in a minority after the 
advent of bronze. The basis of the population was European 
(Mediterranean) and not Asiatic, though. the island derived essential 
elements of its art and industry from Asia Minor. Copper was 
brought from Cyprus by Eurasians who by language and race were 
connected with the Hittites. Homer records that Paphlagonians from 
the land of the Eneti came to the help of Troy, and it is conjectured 
that after the war they passed into Thrace and gradually reached the 
district named after them Venetia. They practised cremation, and 
are represented on embossed buckets of the Watsch type so faithfully 
that the author can distinguish their Hittite affinities. Of the same 
race were the Hyksos of Egypt, and the counter-thrust during the 
eighteenth Dynasty, combined with pressure from Assyria, is held to 
account for the influx of Asiatics into Europe just at the time when 
metal reached the inland areas of our continent. 

The Egyptian dates given by the author bear little relation to those 
now generally accepted, especially as regards the eighteenth dynasty, 
the date of which is considered by all Egyptologists to be within a few 
years of 1580-1320 B.C., much as they may differ about the date of 
the twelfth dynasty. The expulsion of the Hyksos therefore took 
place about 1580, not i8co as stated by M. Zaborowski, who puts the 
eighteenth dynasty about 1 700-1500. Further he describes the Hyksos 
as Hittites with a slight admixture of Scyths; but their names, as far 
as known, arc all Syrian Semitic, and there is no hint of any other 
origin, though there may have been among them a few Hittites or even 
east Indo-Europeans of the Mitannian stock. The majority were 
certainly Semites, probably from the Aleppo region, which was in- 
vaded by the Hittites as a result of the Phrygian invasion of Anatolia, 
which M. Zaborowski rightly dates about 20co B.C. The early promi- 
nence of Assyria can only be estimated when the Swiss cuneiform 
scholar Forrer has published his evidence for an early Assyrian con- 
quest of Anatolia ; but to claim the Etruscans as Assyrians is merely 
fanciful. The recent discoveries of Hrozny and Forrer, first published 
in 1917 and I9i9but not noticed in this article, seem to show a linguistic 

NOTES 267 

relationship between Hittite and Latin ; and the legends of Lydian- 
Etruscan migration may be based on the historical wanderings of the 
Peoples of the Sea about 1500-1200 B.C., but that would not bring 
the Assyrians to Italy. The author's confession — Les Heteens 
avaient-ils la coutume de brOler leurs morts? On ne s'estpas informe 
de ce fait capital — shows him to be unacquainted with the results of the 
American excavations at Egri Kioi, or the British work at Carchc- 
mish. Further, the treaty between Egypt and the Hittites is not one 
of the Tell el-Amarna documents as M. Zaborowski supposes ; and we 
should like'to know his authority for XiToioi. Homer mentions KrjTuoL 
{Od. xi, oil), which is not the same thing, though the Hittites (Hatti) 
are no doubt intended. 

Obituary Notices 

Gnillermo Joaqtdn de Osma. — Although, like most Honorary 
Fellows of the Society, Sefior de Osma was known to but few of the 
ordinary Fellows, his sudden and unexpected death has made the 
world of archaeology and art much the poorer. He was killed on 
7th February at the station of La Negresse on one of his frequent 
trips from Madrid to Biarritz. It would appear that he opened the 
carriage door while the train was in motion, and the sudden applica- 
tion of the brake threw him on the platform, fracturing his skull, and 
he died without recovering consciousness on the following morning. 

Seiior de Osma was chiefly educated in England. After being at 
school at Brighton he entered at Pembroke College, Oxford, and took 
his degree in 1874. To this training, and to his constant relations 
with England and his English friends was due his perfect command 
of our language. He took the keenest interest, moreover, in English 
political developments and was a painstaking student of economic 
problems. His claims to recognition by our Society were naturally 
founded on other lines of study. Having passed some of his earlier 
years in the diplomatic service of Spain he finally entered the Cortes 
as deputy for Monforte, where, I believe, he had always a safe seat. 
In a former ministry of Seiior Maura, the late premier of Spain, he 
took office as minister of ' Hacienda ', a career for which by tempera- 
ment he was not altogether well fitted. Meanwhile his ' hobby ', in 
which he took constant and ever increasing pleasure, was the study 
and collecting of ancient examples of Spanish art. This taste was 
fostered not a little by his marriage with the daughter and only child 
of the Conde de Valencia de Don Juan, the director of the Armeria 
Real in Madrid, and himself an enthusiastic collector of works of art. 
The Conde's apartment in Madrid was a veritable museum, and he 
was most generous in allowing students access to his possessions. 
At his death all his collections came to his daughter, and she and 


Senor de Osma long discussed the question of how best to make use 
of the inheritance, which, joined to the collections of de Osma himself, 
made a museum of no small importance. It was finally decided 
between them to found an institute, perpetuating the name of the 
Conde de Valencia, and thus came into existence the ' Instituto de 
Valencia de Don Juan', a kind of Soane Museum, situated in the 
Calle de Fortuny in Madrid. The house is that in which Seiior de Osma 
himself habitually lived, but enlarged to meet the necessities of the 
changed conditions. The foundation deed, constituting the house and 
its contents a trust for the public good, is, in point of fact, based upon 
the Act of Parliament of the Soane Museum, which I suggested to 
Senor de Osma as a model for the constitution of the establishment. 
This Instituto contains all the varied collections of Valencia and 
de Osma, historical and other manuscripts, works of art of all kinds, 
particularly the famous pottery of Spain, commonly called Hispano- 
Moresque, and in general anything that has a bearing on the past 
history or arts of the country. The historical manuscripts are of 
exceptional value and importance, and no history of the time of 
Philip II can be effectively undertaken without an examination of the 
material there. The Instituto was practically completed last year, 
when by good fortune I was able to see it under the guidance of 
my good friend, the founder. It is of some interest to state that 
in certain eventualities (not perhaps likely to occur) the whole of 
the collections and other property may revert to the University of 
Oxford, for which Seiior de Osma had the warmest affection. He 
demonstrated this quite recently by handing over to the University 
a sum of ^2,000 odd, the income of which was to defray the expenses 
of an Oxford man, the ' Osma student ', in going to Madrid to work 
upon any matters of Spanish interest in connexion with the Instituto. 
This creates a perpetual bond, both of affection and advantage, 
between Oxford and Spain, entirely independent of governments or 
of political exigencies. 

Senor de Osma's visits to England usually took place in the late 
summer, when the weather was best and many people were out of 
town. Hence, though he had a large and varied circle of friends, it 
was hardly possible for him to take part in the activities of the 
Society. To English travellers sent to him at Madrid he was the 
essence of hospitality, and would take endless pains to render their 
visits profitable and pleasant. He was a man of extraordinary 
vitality, full of resource, and seemed to be always in the highest 
spirits, in spite of the fact that for some years past he had suffered 
badly from gout and allied troubles. Men of his type, possessing so 
wide a range of practical and attractive qualities, are not common in 
any country, and Seiior de Osma's death creates a gap both in his own 
country and among his many sincere friends in ours that is hardly 
likely to be filled for many years. 

Among the publications of the Instituto two from Osma's pen are 
of special value, on the productions of the Spanish kilns in medieval 
times, and on the jet carvings chiefly connected with the pilgrimages 
to the shrine of St. James at Compostella. C. H. READ. 


Entile Cartailhac. — fedouard Philippe Emile Cartailhac was born at 
Marseilles on 15th February 1H45, and died at Geneva on 25th 
November last. He had gone. there to deliver a series of lectures, 
and had an apoplectic seizure and passed away without recovering 
consciousness. By his death France has lost one of her chief and 
most competent exponents of prehistoric science. 

Cartailhac's early studies were followed at Toulouse, where his 
family had settled. He began with the study of law and natural 
science, but soon decided that his bent was rather in the direction of 
the latter, 'in his early years Mortillet had just founded his well-known 
journal on early archaeology, Matiriaux pour thistoire de thomme, 
and Cartailhac contributed to its pages in 1865. He was attached to 
the Natural History Museum in Toulouse, in which city he spent the 
rest of his life, with occasional excursions to attend congresses or to 
deliver lectures, a form of activity in which he took a keen delight. 
At the Paris Exhibition of 1S67 he was indefatigable, and by means of 
well-selected series of prehistoric remains and by lectures brought 
before his countrymen the main facts of recent prehistoric discoveries. 
Later he bought from Mortillet the rights of the Matirianx, which he 
edited and managed for twenty years, until it and some other similar 
publications were merged in the present representative of the subject, 
V Anthropologie. It is said that his lectures at the Faculty of Science 
in Toulouse were so popular that the jealousy of his fellow professors 
was excited, and that by intrigues they succeeded in bringing them to an 
end. The only result was that it forced Cartailhac more into the literary 
field, and his contributions to scientific periodicals at this time were 
more numerous than ever. Two definite works of universal interest 
for which he was responsible are the book on the prehistoric archaeology 
of Portugal and the monumental work on the cave-paintings at 
Altamira in northern Spain. The latter, written in collaboration with 
the Abbe Breuil, was financed by the Prince of Monaco, who certainly 
spared no expense to make it worthy of the subject. 

The manner of Cartailhac's death was probably such as he would 
have desired. To work until the last moment, and then, without the 
least decay of mental faculties or lessening of the power of work, to 
pass out of life suddenly and unconscious of the coming end. 

He was essentially an evangelist, ever eager to impart knowledge 
and with a keen bright mind that inevitably infected Jiis audience. 
A fighter for the truth, he was always a fair antagonist, who could 
be depended on to play the game. And, although it may be said 
truly that he was of a past generation, he was to the end eager to 
gather new facts and as ready to assimilate them. In my younger 
days I saw a great deal of him and was very sensible of his charm of 
manner, and have to thank him for many kind acts in my visits to 
Toulouse and other cities where we met. C. H. Read. 


The Palace of Minos. By SiR ARTHUR Evans. Vol. I : The 

Neolithic and Early and Middle Minoan Ages. 9I x 7^. Pp. xxiv + 

721. London : Macmillan. 1921. £6 6s. 

The first volume of Sir Arthur Evans's great publication of the 
Palace of Minos at Knossos has now appeared, dealing with the 
Neolithic and Early and Middle Minoan Ages— that is to say, from 
a period before 3500 B.C., probably, to about 1600 B.C. The sub-title 
of the work tells us that it is ' a comparative account of the successive 
stages of the early Cretan civilization as illustrated by the discoveries 
at Knossos '. It is not, however, only by the discoveries at Knossos 
that Sir Arthur Evans illustrates his account. He brings the results 
of the other chief excavations in Crete also within his view, and, so to 
speak, not only describes Knossos but illustrates it by what the other 
discoverers in Crete have found, thus amplifying his description of the 
great central palace and explaining it to us more fully than he could have 
done in a mere scientific description of Knossos alone. The result is 
that we possess in this book a complete and fully documented corpus 
of all available knowledge of the early civilization of Crete, with Knossos, 
as is fitting, as its head and forefront! 

The book is full of references and notes, and the mere physical 
labour of marshalling all its facts, arguments, and illustrations, and 
welding them into a connected whole must have been enormous. 
And Sir Arthur has before him an even more formidable task in the 
writing of his second volume. 

Of course, much of the material is already well known, especially in 
the case of the illustrations, many of which have already appeared 
in various publications by Sir Arthur Evans himself and other 
excavators. Not only is Knossos fully illustrated, but also Mochlos 
and Mr. R. B. Seager's other diggings are well represented, which 
is a great gain, since they supplement the Knossian results very 
usefully as illustrating periods, such as the Early Minoan, which are 
not well represented at Knossos. These illustrations have already 
been published, of course, by Mr. Seager, and a large number of the 
Knossian pictures have naturally already appeared elsewhere. It is 
now twenty years since the famous Cupbearer fresco came to light at 
Knossos, and the remarkable exhibition at Burlington House first 
introduced the wonders of Knossos to the public eye. It would not 
have been possible, had it even been advisable, which also it was not, 
to keep all these wonders unpublished until the far-distant day when 
the excavation should be completed and the total scientific results then 
be given to the world. 'The results of the excavation were so epoch- 
making that it was a duty to science to make them available for study 
at once, and as each successive year was marked by new discoveries. 


so these were published in the Annual of the British School at Athens 
and elsewhere. The result is that many of the illustrations are old 
friends, but they are now all put together as illustrations of a connected 
story, the result of the labour and study of twenty years. We now 
for the first time survey them as a whole. 

But it must not for a moment be supposed that there is little that 
is new in the book, at least as far as the illustrations are concerned. 
That would be to derive a very erroneous impression. There are 
over 7C0 illustrations, and among them there are scores that have 
never yet been seen, picturing objects known only to those who have 
had the good fortune to visit the museum at Candia. 

In reality both author and publisher are to be congratulated on the 
foresight and liberality that made the chief results of the work at 
Knossos known to the world at once as they appeared, without waiting 
till the end. For the scientific and artistic discussion that they 
have evoked has made Knossos a household word, not only among 
archaeologists and historians, but also among the educated in general, 
and this book will appeal now to hundreds who otherwise would never 
have been enabled to appreciate it. And the gain to science has been 
incalculable. Not only has Sir Arthur Evans published his illus- 
trations- himself: with rare liberality he has consented to their being 
used by other scholars over and over again, with results of great value 
to the final publication, as can be seen from the footnotes. ' Many 
shall go to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased.' 

It would be impossible within the limits of the present review to 
enter into any discussion of scientific points. Criticism confines itself 
to the elucidation of various details on which all may not always see 
absolutely eye to eye with the author. A case in point is his entire 
acceptance of M. Jondet's theory of an extraordinary prehistoric 
harbour at Alexandria, as to which one would like archaeological 
confirmation before believing. Sir Arthur is enthusiastic ; had he 
not been he never would have excavated Knossos and published his 
discoveries in the extraordinarily interesting and inspiring manner 
that he has during the last twenty years, crowning his work with this 
great publication. But perhaps in this particular case of the prehistoric 
harbour at Alexandria he may be too enthusiastic. To the work as 
a whole, however, nothing but admiration can be accorded, with cordial 
well-wishes for its continuation and completion. To note only one 
point worthy of special praise: Sir Arthur now marshals with con- 
vincing force all the evidence, arguments, and parallels that compel us 
to see the continuing connexion between Crete and Egypt that goes 
back, apparently, even to a period contemporary with the later pre- 
dynastic age in the latter country. We may soon begin to see that 
early Babylonia, too, was not without its powerful influence on the 
development of Cretan art. 

Only two serious complaints can be made, and of these the author 
would, there is no doubt, admit the justice. One is the great weight 
of the book in proportion to its format, and the other is the absence 
of an index. The first drawback is, no doubt, unavoidable owing to 
the necessity of using heavily loaded paper for the reproduction of the 
photographic blocks. The second is regrettable, as, since it may be 


some time before the whole book is completed, we shall necessarily 
be left long without an index to what has already appeared, and to be 
without an index to a book of this length as well as importance is 
a great deprivation. 

A word of praise must be given to the excellence of the coloured 
plates. The plans are due to the practised hands of Messrs. Fyffe 
and Dell. To Sir Arthur Evans himself and to Dr. Duncan Mackenzie, 
his tried assistant, are due the hearty congratulations of all on the 
publishing of the first instalment of their completed work. We use 
the word ' completed '. But Knossos is not finished by any means. 
It is a never-ending site. There may be almost as much under the 
ground there still as has been uncovered up till now. Still, a halt 
had to be called somewhere, and the central foyer, the kernel of 
Knossos, the ' palace of Minos ', has undoubtedly been almost entirely 
excavated, and with the practical completion of this work and the 
unavoidable cessation of excavation during the war came the psycho- 
logical moment for the publication of the great book, the first part of 
which has now been given to the world. H. R. Hall. 

The Records of St. Bartholomew s Priory and of the Church and 
Parish of St. Bartholomctv the Great. By E. A, WEBB, F.S.A., 
2 vols. 94x6|. Pp. lvi-f-557 and xix + 618. Milford. 1922. 

In these two handsome volumes Mr. Webb has brought together 
all the available information as to the history of Rahere's Priory and 
the later church and parish. It is a work of infinite pains which could 
only have been accomplished by one to whom it was a labour of love. 
Such a vast collection of material is of importance not only for the 
history of the church and parish, but will be of permanent value for 
all students of London history. The first volume opens with a detailed 
account of Records and Authorities. Unfortunately few original 
records of the Priory have survived, though there is a valuable Rent 
Roll in the Bodleian Library. The loss is to some extent made good 
by the fine Cartulary of St. Bartholomew's Hospital ; Mr. Webb 
inclines to the opinion that this may be the book which Stow describes 
as ' the fayrest Bible that I have scene ' ; it does not, however, seem 
likely that Stow, who was so familiar with all medieval records, 
would have made such an incorrect description. There then follows 
a general account of the Monastery and of the Augustinian Order 
with a list of Priors and Rectors. The more detailed history begins 
with an account of Rahere and his two great foundations. Next 
comes a history of the Priory arranged chronologically under the 
successive Priors. Where the amount of material is so great, and 
nevertheless consists mainly of notices of isolated events and benefac- 
tions in great part derived from Records, this is probably the best 
method that could have been adopted. A more consecutive and 
systematized narrative might have made easier reading, but much of 
the value of the book as a carefully collected storehouse of material 
would have been lost in the process. The material has been collected 
not only from printed Calendars but also from manuscript sources, 
which are cited with admirable precision. It is a pity that the use of 


printed Chronicles is not so free from criticism ; there was, of course, 
no such person as Matthew of Westminster (p. 48) ; Adam Murimuth 
was not a continuator of Robert of Avesbury's chronicle' (p. 218), for 
he died ten years before Avesbury's work was finished ; William 
Gregory was not the writer of more than a very small part of the 
chronicle which bears his name, and was only a child at the time of 
Badby's execution (p. 196) ; the narrative comes from the older London 
Chronicles. However, such points do not affect the value of the book 
and are mentioned only by way of correction. The history of the 
Priory is followed by an account of its suppression, and its revival for 
a brief space as a house of Dominican Friars. The first volume 
closes with a long Appendix, in which are given the English text 
of the well-known Liber Fundationis and the full text of the valuable 
Rental in the Bodleian Library, the latter of which occupies fifty 
pages of print and deals with all the possessions of the Monastery. 
In the London section of the Rental there is a curious entry of 
* Parochia Sancte Wereburge infra Bisschopesgate '. Mr. Webb com- 
ments on this that there is no church of St. Werburga in the City ; 
that is not strictly correct, for St, Werburga was the ancient dedica- 
tion of St. John the E!vangelist ; however, it is clear that St. Ethel- 
burga's church is intended : there is a similar mention of houses within 
Bishopsgate in the parish of St. Werburga in 13 15.* All Hallows 
Garlickhith, which also appears, is probably a variant for All Hallows 
Bread Street. With regard to another church, St. Martin Pomery, 
Mr. Webb's suggestion that it owed its name to a benefactor (Pomery 
or Pomeroy) is probable ; the only alternative is St. Martin in the 
Orchard and there are early instances of the name as St. Martin * in 
pomerio' ; that it should be due to the pomeriiim of the most ancient 
Roman city is inconceivable, and the church would not have been in 
the later pomcritint as St. Martin, Ludgate, might have been. 

The second volume is in five parts; the first two of which deal with 
the architecture of the Church and Priory. Documentary evidence for 
the building of the church is not precise, and in his detailed description 
Mr. Webb rightly proceeds by inference and comparison. The first work, 
consisting of the apse and its chapels, with three bays of the quire, he 
assigns to Rahere, and to the years 1123-33, the troubles of which 
there is so much recorded evidence preventing any further work before 
Rahere's death in 1 143. 

The evidences of a break in the work bear out this, and when 
building was begun again, early in the priorate of Thomas, Rahere's 
immediate successor (1144-74), a bay was added to the quire, and the 
crossing and transepts were undertaken. A passage in the ' Book of 
the Foundation ', referring to the ' left end of the church ', and dating 
from 1 148, is taken by Mr. Webb to imply the existence of the north 
transept at that time. At any rate it is fair to assume that in the 
third quarter of the century such Romanesque work as remains in the 
transepts, nave, and cloister was set up. The cloister being on the south 
side, the work on that side of the church would be pushed forward, 
in order to complete the setting out of the claustral buildings. 

* Cal, Wills in Court of Husting, i, 256. 


Whether a tower was then built over the crossing seems doubtful, 
but a settlement in the north-east pier, afifecting the adjoining tri- 
forium bay, testifies to the result of the addition of upper works, 
and is used by Mr. Webb to suggest that the subarches of the 
triforium arc an afterthought and inserted for strength. A better 
argument for their insertion is found in the advanced details of the 
capitals in the triforium, but carving by itself is always a doubtful 
guide, as it may well be later than the construction, and it is very 
difficult to believe that this most attractive feature of the earliest part 
of the church was not intended from the first. That triforium stages 
are to be found which have never been adorned with subarches is 
true, but the converse is normal, and some instances which Mr. Webb 
adduces, such as St. Albans, where the supply of baluster shafts failed 
after the transepts were built, can be explained in other ways. That 
the design of St. Bartholomew's owes anything to that of St. John's 
Chapel in the Tower is hard to believe ; the relationship is only that 
of two buildings belonging to different periods of one school of archi- 
tecture, and their constructional principles are governed by quite 
different conditions. Nor can it be said that there is much real 
likeness between the remote church at Kirkwall in the Orkneys, begun 
about 1135 by the Norse rulers of the islands, and the London church 
first set out in 1 1 23. It may be noted that the eastern apse of the 
(south) transept at Lindisfarne is not reduced to foundations only 
(vol. ii, p. 5), but stands to its full height with its vault practically 

The completion of the nave came in the thirteenth century ; and 
the awkward manner in which its aisle vaults, considerably higher 
than those of the older work, break into the remains of the Romanesque 
triforium, suggests that if funds had allowed, a remodelling of the 
eastern parts of the church might have been contemplated ; here as 
elsewhere we may observe that in building operations lack of funds 
is not always an unmixed evil. 

The curious little window in the north clearstory of the nave is one 
of the puzzles of St. Bartholomew's, but the explanation given — not 
on Mr. Webb's authority — at p. 6^ of vol. ii is much more ingenious 
than convincing. 

The history of the other monastic buildings is traced by Mr. Webb 
with a wealth of plans and postsuppression references which are 
extremely valuable, and it is not likely that future investigators will 
be able to add anything material to what he has brought together. 
Nevertheless the prospect of the clearing, in the near future, of the 
remains of the east walk of the cloister, is attractive, and the work 
will be watched with all the more interest because of this book. 

The three latter parts of vol. ii are concerned with the Parish of 
St. Bartholomew, the rectors, and the monuments of the church. Though 
the interest and importance of these sections are not equal to those of 
the earlier part, they contain a great amount of information useful 
for later London history. Particular attention may be directed to 
the account of the pi-incipal inhabitants of the Close, especially in the 
first hundred years after the Reformation when it was an aristocratic 
residential quarter. Mention must also be made of the account given 


of Robert Rich, the first grantee of the dissolved Priory, and his 
descendants ; the story of Rich's share in the downfall of the Protector 
Somerset, is, however, a dubious tale which requires to* be repeated 
with more qualification than is given here. The numerous and ad- 
mirable illustrations are on a par with the careful and exhaustive 


C. R. Peers. 

Calendar o} Entries in the Papal Registers relating to Great Britain 
and Ireland. Papal Letters. Vol. xi. A.D. 1455-1464. Prepared 
by J. A. TWEMLOW. lo^x 7; pp. xxxi + 907. London: Stationery 
Office, Imperial House, Kingsway. 1921. i^s. 
This volume, covering only nine years, contains the Vatican and 
Lateran registers of Calixtus III, who occupied the throne for three 
years; and the Vatican registers of Pius II. The Lateran registers 
of Pius are to be dealt with in the next volume of the series. Five 
registers of Calixtus are lost, and the Rtibricelle or tables of the 
Lateran registers of this pope are also lost ; and the contents of 
these can only be supplied by remaining Indici, here set out. The 
present- volume is excerpted from vol. ccccxxxvi — dxxiv of the 
registers, in a series which began in the year 1198. It is the sixth 
which Mr. Twemlow has edited alone ; and he keeps the high standard 
of excellence which he set from the first. What pitfalls he has had to 
avoid is made abundantly clear in the preface. The secret codes by 
which these registers were safeguarded is exposed. The papal officials 
divided the three years of Calixtus into six hypothetical ones. The 
wildest rules appear to have governed the alphabetical treatment of 
the entries, which were arranged under dioceses and under arbitrary 
headings. Further, the indici are remarkable mostly for their laxity, 
H and K, S and T, are persistently mixed. In addition the indici 
are full of wrong descriptions and guilty of deliberate omissions. The 
material was enormous. For the three years of Calixtus there were 
forty-three registers. The secret key to all these exists in a concor- 
dantia which the present Prefect of the Vatican has kindly allowed to 
be copied and printed. But the editor, to make his work complete, 
has had to rely on the slow and patient turning over of the leaves of 
the registers themselves. The result is a volume of over 900 pages, 
of which our nation may be proud. It is not to be wondered at, 
though it is to be regretted, that itineraries of these two popes, 
prepared by the editor from his material, have been omitted by 
direction of the Keeper of the Public Records. 

To epitomize the more striking matter of the 700 pages of text 
is difficult, to emend for the most part not called for. Yet it is 
open to inquiry if any member of the household of the Bishop of Ely 
in 1455 was called Valtrim (5). The name was probably Waltham (171). 
Pancakes and sausages at Durham in this year appear on the same 
page of the calendar. Sir John VVenlock in his eightieth year has to 
apply to Rome for permission to cat butter and cheese, and to drink 
milk (16). Turks, Scotch, and Irish frequent these pages; the last 
being again elucidated, as in previous volumes, by Dr. Grattan Flood. 

U 2 


Here is the bull for the canonization of St. Osmund ; and trouble over 
the Creed, with absolution by an archdeacon of Ely. Here is fear of 
invasion in Devon (93), and confirmation of the founding of Eton 
College in 1455 (117)- The only allusions to music appear in the 
teaching of singing at Durham (119), the ringing of bells in Tailor 
Hall (241), and the office of precentors. Oxford and Cambridge duly 
appear. A terrible disturbance at Gonville Hall (120). Henry VI 
petitions for St. Mary's, York. Giles Wytyngton is rector of the 
University of Bologna (134). The depth of the mud is a source of 
correspondence more than once. Here is note of a chalice of English 
gold, in the library of Nicholas V (191). The Earl of Arundel has to 
apply to Rome that the master of a hospital may wear a grey 
almuce (23,5). There is an incredible but true story of a vicar of 
Brading, Isle of Wight, in 1457, that lie had been thrice captured and 
carried away by the French (307). A plenary remission of sins, ' once 
only, namely in the hour of death ', must have been a very serviceable 
instrument (3(^1). There is a confirmation of the College of St. Salvator 
at St. Andrew's (376). Perpetual silence is imposed in one case (465). 
There is a startling scene between the Bishop of Norwich and the 
abbot of Wymondham (489) ; and a curious relaxation, relating to 
Tuesdays and Thursdays and Thomas a Becket, granted to the house 
of Thomas of Acre in London (515). Here is a minute description of 
the, bridge at Bideford (528), and of mud and snow at Shrewsbury (534). 
Here are five pages of confirmation of the rights of King's College, 
Cambridge (539-543) ; and full details of the pirates at Scilly (603) ; 
and an agreement relating to St. Bartholomew's Hospital (609-615). 
Edward IV's petition to the Pope, in 1463, for the suppression of 
PIton College (655-7) is familiar through Maxwell Lyte's History. 
It remains only to express continued amazement both at the wealth 
of material relating to England to be found in this volume, and at the 
perfection of the indexes which occupy 200 pages. 

Charles Sayle. 

The Queens College. By JOHN Richard Magrath, D.D., Provost 
of Queen's. 2 vols. ii|x8; pp. xxxiv + 360; xvi + 439. Oxford: 
at the Clarendon Press. 1921. £iis. 

The well-known series of Robinsons Oxford Colleges includes no 
volume treating of Queen's College. The work was indeed com- 
missioned, and written by Dr. Magrath, but by the time that his 
manuscript was completed, viz. April, 1908, the publication of the 
series had been discontinued. The work thus left unpublished 
furnished the basis of the writer's present monograph, which is the 
result of copious expansion, with so much additional matter, and 
that brought up to date so thoroughly, as to constitute a more complete 
and exhaustive history of the College than has ever yet appeared. 
The writer, in his capacity of Provost, has had the advantage of 
access to the whole of the extant documentary evidence, as well as 
a long personal .acquaintance with the place. The scheme he has 
adopted is not to follow up any particular phase or subject, such as 
the benefactions, the buildings, or the memorable personalities con- 
nected with the college, but rather to present a sequence of annals 


in which everything of interest relating to the college is recorded in 
chronological order. This plan, though it has its advantages, demands 
on the part of the reader much sifting and rearranging of details, if 
he seeks to extract, from the motley mass of facts set before him, any 
special aspect or train of circumstances, such, for instance, as the 
story of the college buildings. Of these the antiquary, as is but 
natural, is more concerned with the ancient than with the existing 
structure. For the latter is comparatively modern, not dating back 
(with the eocception of Sir Joseph Williamson's building, 1672, at the 
north-east corner) further than 1692 when the present library was 
begun, or February 1709-10 when the first stone of the new front 
quadrangle was laid. The result is summed up by the Provost in the 
following words (p. 6^, vol. ii), ' For a confused collection of small 
edifices, arranged without relation to one another, have been substi- 
tuted two stately and symmetrical quadrangles, occupying a much 
larger space than their predecessors'. So utterly and so ruthlessly 
were the medieval buildings razed that nothing remains of them 
beyond some of the painted glass (much altered and made up) in the 
modern chapel, and some few fragments of worked stone, presumably 
mouldings or string courses, now lying in the stable yard, which is 
entered at the back, from New College Lane. The medieval buildings 
were of exceptional interest, having obviously been erected before 
the formulation of William of Wykeham's standard plan at New 
College, within a stone's throw of Queen's College, or further afield, 
at Winchester. The old gateway of Queen's College was not a square 
tower of the Wykehamite form, but had a span roof with a gabled 
front towards the street. The old chapel, as originally constructed 
between 1353 and 13H2, was a plain parallelogram on plan, but was 
ultimately brought into harmony with Wykeham's model by the 
addition of an ante-chapcl, comprising short nave and aisles, in 15 18. 
The old chapel, library, and the southern extremity of the Provost's 
lodging together occupied only a part of the site of the present south 
quadrangle, which now extends so much further south as to abut 
upon the High Street. Consequently the present entrance is on the 
south, from the said street, whereas the entrance to the original 
college was from the east, opposite to St. Edmund Hall. The 
elevation of the new south quadrangle as seen from the entrance 
gate is the development and logical culmination of that forced uni- 
formity of parts, which was inaugurated in Oxford with the Jacobean 
College of Wadham, and continued in Oriel and University Colleges. 
The aim of the builders in all these colleges, designed under the 
influence of Renaissance artificiality, was to produce a balanced and 
symmetrical effect in elevation, without regard to the different purposes 
for which the several parts of the buildings in question were to be 
used. There is no external sign whereby, within the quadrangle 
either at Oriel or Queen's College, the hall can be distinguished from 
the chapel. 

In addition to the fourteen chapters which make up the body of his 
book. Dr. Magrath concludes with a number of important appendices, 
viz., a long account, with the contemporary correspondence, &c., in 
full, of the secession of 174H; college customs, including, of course, 


that of the famous boar's head at the dinner on Christmas Day; the 
stained glass ; the College Library ; list of Provosts and Fellows ; 
academical distinctions ; athletic distinctions ; and finally a roll of 
war service 1914-18. The volumes are excellently illustrated, but, 
strange to say, no ground plan of the whole college is included. A 
voluminous index completes this learned and admirable work. 

Aymer Vallance. 

Ireland in Pre- Celtic Times. By R. A. S. Macalister, Litt.D., 

F.S.A., Professor of Celtic Archaeology, University College, Dublin. 

9|x6; pp. xvi + 374; 122 illustrations. Dublin: Maunsel and 

Roberts, Ltd. 1921. i^s. 

The last few years have seen a great change in the study of 
prehistoric times. Up till then writers were mainly engaged in 
recording discoveries, studying remains typologically, evolving com- 
parative chronologies, and to a less extent noting the distribution 
of various types of culture. Of late there has been a tendency to 
reconstruct from this material a coherent history of these early days, 
and the word ' prehistoric ' is becoming an awkward term, for authors 
are now engaged in writing the history of prehistoric times. 

No one has done more to reconstruct such history than Professor 
Macalister, and his wide knowledge and the breadth of his sympathies, 
no less than the very readable style of his works, pre-eminently fits him 
for such tasks. His latest volume is upon Ireland, and here he is 
fortunate in his subject-matter, for it would be difficult to find another 
area of equal size in which there exists such a wealth of material of all 
kinds dealing with prehistoric times, especially those following the 
dawn of the Metal Age. 

The reason for this abundance of metal objects of an early date has 
been made clear to us by the researches of the late Dr. Cofifey, and we 
know now that in the Bronze Age, and perhaps later, Ireland was 
Europe's Eldorado, for the gold of the Wicklow Hills was sought for 
by prospectors from many different lands, while golden ornaments 
of Irish manufacture were exported widely, and may even have reached 
beyond the confines of this continent. 

But the wealth of Ireland consists not only in its great store of 
objects of gold and bronze, for rude stone structures known as 
megalithic monuments are very numerous throughout the country, 
and some of these, like New Grange, are of exceptional interest. 
Whether or no these monuments were erected by the gold seekers, as 
has been suggested, may be an open question ; the monuments 
themselves add greatly to our knowledge of the island in early times. 
Again there is the immense wealth of Irish legend, and the information 
to be gathered from the study of place-names. 

All this varied material has been utilized by Professor Macalister, 
and he has produced a pleasantly written account of the history of the 
island from the earliest days in which it was inhabited to the dawn of 
the Iron Age. Though he is probably justified in his opinion by the 
evidence, or the lack of it, that there was no Palaeolithic Age in Ireland, 
this dictum is likely to be criticized in some quarters. On early 


Neolithic remains his views are not quite clear ; he seems to derive 
the Larne culture from Scotland, yet states that the Oronsay culture 
was Azilian, while that of Larne was Campignian. 

The Bronze Age scarcely receives as much attention as the 
importance of the subject demands, and one would gladly have had 
more information as to the resemblances to be noted between Irish 
examples of metal work and those discovered elsewhere. The gold 
trade is touched upon very lightly, and its possible connexion with the 
spread of m^galithic culture is ignored. 

Professor Macalister is convinced that Celtic speech did not reach 
Ireland until the Iron Age, and that before 300 h.c. the island was 
non-Celtic. His reasons for so late an arrival of Aryan speech are 
not very convincing, and it is difficult to bring such a view into line 
with evidence drawn from other lands. 

Still, in spite of these small criticisms, the book is both valuable and 
readable, and we have but one further complaint to make, which the 
author has anticipated. When the reader comes across such words as 
Latharna, Droichead Atha, Boinn, and Teamhair, he is somewhat 
puzzled until, on referring to the index, he discovers that they are his 
old friends Larne, Drogheda, Boyne, and Tara. 

Harold Peake. 

English Goldsmiths and their Marks. By Sir CHARLES JAMES 
Jackson, F.S.A. Second edition. ii| x 8^; pp. xvi + 747, 
London: Macmillan, 1921. £^ h^- 

The virtues of this useful and voluminous work are already familiar 
to all who deal in any sense with old English plate. The taste for 
plate is widely spread, though indulgence in collecting pieces of 
importance is necessarily limited to a very few. Still, as in other 
branches of collecting, the competent amateur can at times find 
chances to gratify himself at moderate prices, though an inevitable 
result of the circulation of books such as this is naturally to diminish 
the number of such occasions. The collector is everywhere and 
almost of all classes, and the resulting supply to meet his demands 
must cause the more thoughtful among us to reflect deeply, not 
altogether with satisfaction. A clever American woman pointed out 
to me that the antiquity shops in Paris far exceeded the bakers' shops 
in numbers, and that whereas the contents of the latter were daily 
consumed, and the antiquities were not, yet the antiquity shops were 
week after week as full as ever. London seems likely to be soon as 
well provided as Paris in this direction, and the time-worn motto, 
caveat emptor, should be more than ever in fashion, although it is 
perhaps less applicable to the buyer of old English plate than to other 
forms of antiquities, owing to the drastic powers for punishment vested 
in the Goldsmiths' Company ; yet even the plate collector cannot afford 
to dismiss the warning entirely. The desire for the more ornate forms 
of old plate is responsible for the embellishment with scrolls and 
wreaths of many a plain coffee-pot, originally innocent of all decoration. 
Here the hall-marks do not avail, for ihey are, as a rule, genuine, and 
the buyer's only security is in the possession of knowledge to judge of 


the propriety of the ornament and whether it corresponds with the date 
shown by the marks. 

It is not a little curious — whether regarded as an example of English 
conservatism or as an argument against modern demands that the 
government should do everything — that for something like six hundred 
years the entire control of the purity and quality of manufactured plate 
in these islands should have been continuously left in the hands of 
a City company. Nor, apart from the jealousies of some other of the 
City guilds, does there seem ever to have been any serious criticism 
either of the methods of the Goldsmiths' Company or of the results of 
their control. During the past century many of the companies were 
favourite objects for attack, though it would seem that the public has 
eventually realized how munificent they have been as patrons of science, 
art, and education at large, and in this direction the Goldsmiths* 
Company has long taken a foremost place. In any case, apart from 
their specific benefactions, the story of their long administration of 
their public trust is one that reflects glory on English probity. 

It hardly needs to be stated that the great work that Sir Charles 
Jackson has produced is the result of the collaboration of a number of 
busy hands. His correspondents, whether in the West Country, in 
Ireland, or in Scotland, have industriously set themselves to add to 
the ever increasing mass of facts that Sir Charles has set out with 
great clearness in this huge tome. But it is to him that we owe the 
iiystematic handling of them so as to make the searcher's task an easy 
one. No one can pretend to be independent of his forerunners, nor 
can a work of this magnitude be done without helpers. Sir Charles 
Jackson is just and grateful to both, acknowledging the merits of 
Cripps in the one direction as he does the help of his many coadjutors 
in special districts. 

The main attractions of this second edition lie in the number of 
additional marks that have accrued in the past fifteen years, and these 
the author sets down as two thousand, a figure that in itself deserves 
a new edition. It is in this direction naturally that improvement will 
come. It is hardly likely that any great discoveries will be made in 
the history of English plate. The whole story is practically known, 
and only modifications in interpretation are likely to be made. 

One prescription set out by the author should, I think, be taken 
with some care. The number of official assay offices was limited, and 
they are all set out by Sir Charles Jackson. Their stamps are, of 
course, well known. A great deal of plate, spoons, and such-like, 
bears, however, stamps that belong to none of these offices. A step 
has been taken with regard to these that may be justified, but it should 
be remembered that the evidence is purely circumstantial. On p. 448 
we have Rochester, and at the foot of the page ' Examples of Rochester 
marks'. These marks are a capital R (three varieties), and the text 
says that as such a letter is a charge in the arms of the city ' it seems 
safe to conclude that in conformity with the rule which obtained in 
the sixteenth century, the goldsmiths of Rochester adopted as their 
town mark the letter -R from their city arms, and that the reversed R 
on the Snave communion cup is the Rochester town mark.' That the 
communion cup is in Kent is some corroboration of this theory, but it 


is the only Kentish instance given of the Rochester mark. It may 
refer to Rochester, but again it inay not. The same may be said of 
other attributions to towns elsewhere. The evidence in • such cases 
needs confirmation, ingenious though it is. 

Sir Charles Jackson is to be congratulated on his second edition. 
One final word to his publishers may be permitted. The volume 
weighs 7^ lb. and should on this account alone have a stronger binding 
than they have thought fit to give it. C. HERCULES READ. 

Fishing fromUhc Earliest Times. By Willi AM Radcliffe. 9x6; 
pp. xvii + 478. Murray. 28^. 

The author of this scholarly and delightful book may well be 
pardoned for the ' bravery' which seeks to justify a claim to original 
research. The research, indeed, is obvious, and the originality is 
refreshing in these days when the term is so commonly misused ; 
moreover the author's literary style, for which he claims no merit, is of 
rare excellence. It was no light task to produce an extensive work 
on the archaeology of fishing, in its relations with the angler's craft 
and the science of icthyology; but Mr. Radcliffe grappled with the 
task in a joyous spirit which must inspire even the general reader with 
courage .to read the book from beginning to end. Our author is 
frankly discursive and nafvely pedantic, and he carries us with him 
through the piscatorial essays of an Ancient World in spite of our 
archaeological or linguistic limitations. It is worth the trouble to 
turn these many pages for the sake of finding the choice and graphic 
illustrations which accompany the text. 

At the same time, we must not lose sight of the fact that the subject 
is one which may be regarded from different points of view by the 
archaeologist, the philologist, the scientist, the historian, and the 
angler himself. Each of these will desire to obtain information of 
a concise and practical nature for his own particular use, and each 
will perhaps be disappointed to find that Mr. Radcliffe 's treasury of 
classical archaeology and philology and early folk-lore relating to 
pisciculture and piscicapture is not merely a manual or treatise for 
the elucidation of any one of those studies. 

Perhaps the first two of these specialists will fare better than the 
rest ; for the natural history of antiquity is curiously elusive, while the 
historian who is accustomed to critical methods of analysis and synthesis 
will be somewhat nonplussed by Mr. Radcliffe's practice of referring 
freely to the evidence of post-medieval writers for the elucidation of 
pre-medieval texts. These analogies, however, are sometimes 
helpful, and they are interesting, like every other part of the work. 
It is only to be regretted that Mr. Radcliffe did not have the oppor- 
tunity of completing the sequence of these analogies by original 
researches in the medieval period ; for here alone his illustrations are 
conventional and therefore inadequate. In any case the historian will 
not take too seriously the author's clever special pleading for his own 
interpretation of certain textual evidence, and if the historian does 
* boggle ' at it, the man of letters w ill be able to enjoy the witty by-play. 
The angler must also be reckoned with as a specialist equipped with 
both a theoretical and a practical knowledge of the subject. He will 


note with interest Mr. Radcliffe's interesting discovery of an earlier 
reference to artificial flies than any hitherto known : for the use of 
feathers and wool in imitation of gossamer and epidermis is an 
important event in the annals of fly-fishing. Mr. Radclifife has made 
this point by a scholarly piece of textual criticism ; but the angler, at 
least, will perhaps keep an open mind on the question whether a weed- 
eating sea-fish would have taken a fly, though he would not have been 
surprised to learn that the attractions of the natural fly as bait were 
known to shepherd boys in the time of ^lian. Again, the angler 
would scarcely hesitate to approve the author's contention that the 
line used by anglers down to the seventeenth century was a ' tight-line '. 
Indeed this style of fishing continued in general use, except for the 
anadromous sahiwnidae, down to comparatively recent times and still 
holds its own against the ' Nottingham ' method. 

In this connexion it may be noted that Mr. Radclifife (in one of his 
excursions into a period beyond the severe limits imposed by his own 
plan of investigation) suggests that the expression found in Browne's 
Britannia's Pastorals (1613-16), 'Then all his line he freely yealdeth 
him ', may refer to some earlier method of releasing the line than the 
' wheel ' known to Isaak Walton. But Walton himself demonstrated 
that a ' tight-line ' could be ' yielded ' on occasion, and such primitive 
expedients as coiling the line round the point of the rod and the use 
of a hand-line manipulated with a forked stick are still resorted to by 
a few local anglers. 

A conscientious reviewer may perhaps be pardoned for regarding 
the body of Mr. Radcliffe's remarkable and fascinating work as 
a collection of essays on very diverse aspects of early fish-lore rather 
than as a compendious History of Angling down to the end of the 
fifth century a.d. Indeed a more exact and comprehensive title would 
have been ' The Archaeology of Angling'. It is only fair, however, to 
note that the author has to some extent justified his title by an 
extensive Introduction containing an analysis of his arguments and 
setting forth the materials for the evolution of angling. But whether 
the work as a whole is read by the scholar or by the angler, for profit 
or for pleasure, it will afford much literary entertainment and will 
yield not a little instruction. Hubert Hall. 

Minnies and Accounts of the Corporatiofi of Stratford-upon-Avon and 
other Records, jjj^-1620. Transcribed by RICHARD SavagE. 
With Introduction and Notes by Edgar I. Fripp. Vol. I. 1553-1566. 
9|x6|; pp. lx + 152. Oxford: Printed for the Dugdale Society 
by Frederick Hall, Printer to the University. 1921. Member's 
subscription, one guinea. 

Within two years of the foundation of the Dugdale Society, of which 
our Fellow Mr. F. C. Wellstood is general editor and honorary secretary, 
this first volume of a set of four has been issued to subscribers. The 
second volume is promised within the current year, and when this 
is completed the selection of the Stratford-upon-Avon records will 
have been brought -down to the year 1580 or thereabouts. The 
present publication affords good evidence that the objects of the 
Society— to promote and foster the study of Warwickshire history, 


topography, and archaeology by the printing of records — will be 
amply and successfully achieved. The records of Stratford claim an 
interest far beyond the limits of the shire : their appeal is World-wide. 
hy their aid a direct knowledge of events which must materially have 
influenced the outlook of William Shakespeare is secured, for the 
records here printed extend to and include an account made by the 
father in 1566, nearly two years after the birth of his illustrious son. 
The introduction by Mr. Fripp presents in an admirably clear and 
condensed fashion that continuous narrative concerning local affairs 
which the student himself would otherwise be compelled to compile 
from the transcripts. Here, at first hand, we can trace so much of the 
life-history of John Shakespeare, and notice among other things the 
virtual acceptance of the statement in the grant by the College of Arms, 
that an ancestor was rewarded for services to Henry VH. We can 
also discover the true status of John Shakespeare among his fellow- 
burgesses and trace his rise to the aldermanic gown in 1565. 

Although John Shakespeare appears as a marksman to an Order of 
the Corporation of ajth September 1564, 'it is scarcely possible', we 
are told, * that a man of his business capacity, for three successive years 
acting-Chamberlain, was illiterate. Nor does his mark, which resembles 
closely a glover's compasses, give the impression of illiterateness.' 
But interest in the volume is by no means exhausted by concentration 
upon the affairs of the Shakespeare family, for there is much that 
reflects the normal life of a self-governing sixteenth-century community. 

Whether we consider the contents of the volume or whether we 
judge by its general get-up, it is clear that the publication reflects 
great credit upon all concerned in its production. We look forward 
with keen interest to the succeeding volume, covering, as it will do, 
the period of Shakespeare's boyhood. William Martin. 

T/ie Story of the Royal Warwickshire Regiment {formerly the Sixth 

Foot). By Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, V.P.S.A. 5^x 8^. 

Pp. x-f-235 with 13 plates, 26 figures in text, 4 maps, and index. 

London: Country Life. 192 1. 12s. 6d. 

This admirable addition to the Country Life series of military 
histories deals with one of the most ancient units of the British army. 
It can have been no easy matter to compress the story into a book of 
235 pages ; but Mr. Kingsford's work is an object lesson of what can 
be done by a methodical marshalling of facts and a studious avoidance 
of * purple patches '. 

Raised in 1674 as an English force in the service of the States 
General, this distinguished regiment first smelt powder on the ground 
that witnessed the opening engagements of the Great War, and was 
held so high in favour by the Prince of Orange that when it was 
brought to England in 1688 it was nicknamed 'the Dutch Guards'. 
As Babington's regiment it fought under King William at the Boyne 
as well as at Namur, where it gained its first honour, which, however, 
was not officially conferred until 1909. In the War of the Spanish 
Succession the regiment shared in the glory and disaster of Almanza, 
but took an ample revenge at Saragossa three years later. A very old 
regimental tradition that the Sixth (as the corps was numbered in 1743) 


won its antelope badge at Saragossa is rejected by Mr. Kingsford in 
his very interesting Appendix II. 

* Guise's Geese ', as the regiment was named from the long tenure of 
its command by General John Guise, suffered so severely in the West 
Indies that it was not until the ' Forty-five ' that it was fit to take the 
field again, when (already bearing the badge of the antelope) it played 
a prominent part in the defeat of the Young Pretender. 

The year 1783 is a notable date in its history, for in that year the 
regiment received its territorial title. Engaged again in the West 
Indies from 1793 to 1807, it was there that it won its second honour, 
'Martinique'. In the Peninsular War more honours were gained, of 
which perhaps the hardest earned was * Corunna '. 

Meanwhile, in 1804, a second battalion had been raised. Walcheren 
crippled the Sixth so sorely that it saw no more active service till, 
joining Wellington's force in Spain, it acquired fresh distinctions at 
Vittoria, the Pyrenees, Orthes, and Nivelle. For its services in Canada 
in 1 8 14 the Sixth secured the rare battle-honour of 'Niagara'; but 
though sent to Flanders on its return home in the following year, it 
arrived too late to take part in the campaign of Waterloo. 

From 1821 to 1842 the regiment was abroad, at the Cape and in 
India, and when, in 1832, it became 'royal' the old yellow facings, 
shown in Mr. Kruger Gray's frontispiece, were changed to blue. 
Brought home in 1842, the Sixth only remained in England for four years 
and then was ordered to South Africa, to stay there for fifteen years. 
It thus missed the Crimea. It was during this period of its history 
that the soldierly conduct of a detachment that, on 17th January 1852, 
went down with the Birkenhead won for the regiment immortal fame. 

Sent to India at the outbreak of the Mutiny, the Sixth came into 
the field too late to do more than help to stamp out the embers of that 
conflagration, and in 1862 it came home. 

The next twenty years saw the real development of the territorial 
system. Though for some time after 1782 the Sixth had been closely 
associated with Warwickshire, it gradually sought its recruits in other 
parts of England and even in Ireland, so that as time went on its 
county title was hardly remembered and the regiment was commonly 
known as the ' Sixth Royals'. It was not until 1873 that the two 
battalions were localized in the county, and in 1881 the regiment, 
losing its venerable numerical title, became ' the Royal Warwickshire 
Regiment ', with two regular, two militia, and two volunteer battalions. 

The 1st battalion, under Kitchener, added * Atbara ' and ' Khartoum ' 
to its honours, and in 1899 the regiment, now increased by two more 
regular battalions, sent its 2nd to take part in the South African War, 
in which its contingent of mounted infantry rendered valuable service. 
Meanwhile the 1st battalion, transferred to India immediately after the 
operations in the Soudan, had done much hard work on the North-west 

Thus year by year, month by month, almost day by day, our author 
in the first half of his book tells the story of the Royal Warwicks 
from their formation' to the opening of the Great War. It is all like 
ancient history now; the cataclysm of 1914 seems to invest that 
part of the tale with the dignity of archaeology, so completely does it 


cut us off from all that went before. But Mr. Kingsford makes no 
break in his story, and carries it smoothly on from Le Cateau to Ypres, 
through the war in the trenches, the long-drawn battle of the Somme, 
and the British offensive of 191 7, to the victory after the gigantic 
struggles in Picardy, Italy, Gallipoli, and Mesopotamia. 

Those terrible names, Ypres, Loos, Beaumont Hamel, Delvillc Wood, 
Koja Chcmen, Kut, and the rest are too fresh in our minds for us, 
perhaps, to be able to view the events that they connote with the 
author's cool Jiistoric detachment. We can, however, admire his 
skilful arrangement of a mass of figures, facts, and names, which 
brings to to-day the history of a valiant corps that in six years grew 
to 32 battalions, won 6 Victoria Crosses. 302 Military Crosses, 202 
Distinguished Service Medals, and 907 Military Medals, and lost over 
11,000 men of all ranks. In dealing with this vast epic the author 
never loses sight of his main objective, the history of the Royal 
VVarwicks. He brings it into its proper relation to the great whole, 
and yet in his tale of the doings of a single unit gives us a clear 
perception of the biggest adventure that the English folk have ever 
undertaken. The value of the book is greatly enhanced by the 
appendices, an exhaustive inde.x, and four excellent maps specially 
drawn for- it by a former officer of the regiment. E. E. DORLING. 

Acis of the Privy Council of England, 161^-14. 10x6. Pp. x + 741. 

London : H.M. Stationery Office, Imperial House, Kingsway, W.C.2. 


The text of this volume has been printed under the supervision of 
Mr. E. G. Atkinson, an Assistant Record Keeper, and the preface is 
signed by Sir H. C. Maxwell Lyte, which facts are a sufficient 
guarantee for its accuracy. 

There is an unfortunate gap in the register from ist January 1602 
to 30th April i'^]3, occasioned by a fire in January 161 8, when 'the 
greate Banquetting house at Whitehall was, by casualty of fire, quite 
burnt to the ground '. 

The immense amount of business transacted by the Council is shown 
by the fact that the record of their activities for twenty months fills 
671 pages of text. The wide field that was covered is astonishing, 
and the reader is struck with the large number of questions of curiously 
modern aspect. Thus ' the Lady Elizabeth ', the king's eldest daughter, 
was married in 1613 to the Elector Palatine, and an 'aide' was 
demanded in accordance with the old feudal obligations. 

The church problems w ere much the same as those of to-day. We 
read of objections to pulling down part of a City church, the so-called 
Dutch Reformed Church, of old time the Austin Friars. The insuffi- 
ciency of clerical incomes is shown by a petition from the inhabitants 
of Newport Pagnell for ' the uniting of the Mastcrshipp of an auncient 
Hospitall in that towne to the Viccaridg, for the better mayntenance 
of a sufficient minister'. Recusants, 'all suche as doe not ordinarily 
repaire to the Churche to heare divine servyce, where there is no just 
cause or lawfuU impedyment to excuse them ', were to be proceeded 
against, and ' all armour, weapons, and other furniture of warre ' found 
in their houses were to be seized. 


Labour troubles and disputes were not unknown. The plasterers 
complained that ' the Bricklayers doe daylie practize and exercise the 
proper and peculiar labor and workes belonging to the said Plaisterers '. 
The coal-miners had been committing * many wronges and abuses in 
his Majestie's coleworks at Harraton', Durham, and a commissioner 
was sent down ' for the better ordering and reformacion of the said 
workes', including the fixing of 'such indifferent rates of wages to 
keelemen, labourers and others, as is usual in other coleworkes '. 
The ' poore craftesmen' of Wiltshire, 'for the most parte weavers and 
belonging unto the mistery of cloathing', complain 'on the small 
wadges gyven them by the clothier, being no more then what was 
accustomed to be payde 40 yeres past, notwithstanding that the prises 
of all kind of victuall are almost doubled from what they were '. 

The Lord Mayor of London is enjoyned to take ' steps for the 
comon supplie of the markettes and keeping the prices at reasonable 
rates'. The sale of beer, the regulation of beer-houses, and the 
' suppressing of drunkardes ', are the subject of stringent orders ; 
publicans are not to ' sell any beere or ale out of their bowses, nor in 
their bowses by way of tipHng without meate'; unlawful tippling 
houses are ' seminaries of sinne and wickednesse, and for the most part 
inhabited with lewdc and dissolute people '. On the other hand, the 
Lord Mayor complained of the brewers ' in making of stronger beere 
and aale then is allowed by the lawe, (whereby) the prizes of corne and 
meale are so dayly raysed in the markettes, as a greate and extra- 
ordinary dearth is to be feared, except some speedy order and remedy 
be therein taken '. 

Here is a point of difference, for the present-day complaints about 
beer are not in connexion with its excessive strength. Another point 
of contrast is that in 161 3 the harvest was a poor one 'through the 
wett wheather, which continued a longe tyme togeather '. 

There are many entries concerning maimed and disabled soldiers. 
There was no system of national pensions, but each county raised 
a fund, which was managed by the local justices of the peace. 

There was much disturbance in Ireland. The Irish Parliament had 
a ' knottie begininge, occasioned by the difference which fell out upon 
the choyce of a Speaker'. The king assures Lord Chichester, the 
lord deputy, that ' there is noe other thinge aymed at then the 
generall good and peace of that state *. Notwithstanding these 
friendly assurances, ' such as were elected Maiors and other head 
officers in the citties and corporacions in the kingdome of Ireland ' 
refuse to take the oath of allegiance. 

There are many interesting notes on trade, both home and foreign, 
navigation, topography, etc., but space forbids any further quotations. 
A most fascinating volume. W. Paley Baildon. 

Flint Pleas, 128^-128^, Edited by J. GoRONWY Edwards, M.A., 
Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford, formerly Roscoe Scholar of the 
University of Manchester. 8|x5^; pp. Ixix -f 76. Flintshire 
Historical Society Publications, vol. 8. 15^. 
The Plea Roll here printed covers a little over two years, from 

November 1283 to January 1285, and is the earliest known document 


of its kind. The cases are partly criminal and partly civil, but, as the 
editor points out, its interest is largely political, very numerous cases 
arising out of the Welsh rebellion in 1282 and the attack on Hawarden 
Castle on Palm Sunday by Llywelyn's brother David. Flint and 
Rhuddlan Castles were also besieged. A considerable number of 
h'nglishmen were killed, but apparently there was no wholesale 
slaughter. The plundering, however, was very thorough ; no form 
of movable property came amiss : live stock, grain, household and 
farm implements, lead, money, clothes, jewels, wine, and every available 
form of mercliandise, were carried off. One is tempted to suggest 
that the uncomplimentary ballad about a certain ' Taffy ' may date 
from this raid. The political crimes seem to have been tried with 
scrupulous fairness and resulted in a large number of acquittals. 

The introduction gives a detailed account of early legal principles, 
institutions, and procedure, clearly and accurately stated, with 
occasional touches of humour, which make excellent reading. For 
instance, we are told of the difficulties that must have beset the clerk 
of the court in making his record in Latin. ' The Court was not 
talking Latin, but English — and probably a good deal of Welsh too — 
and the unfortunate clerk had to take down the gist of what was being 
said, translating it hurriedly into Latin as he went along. Then he 
must often have sighed over the somewhat unclassical names of the 
Welsh suitors — Bleddyn and Cynfrig and Goronwy are bad enough, 
but who shall abide Cynddelw and Llywarch and Llygad Flaidd ! 
The wonder is that anything gets into Latin at all ; and yet most of it 
does — even Bleddyn and Cynfrig and Goronwy are coaxed into their 
togas and persuaded to fumble about the forum as Blethinus, Keuew- 
ricus, and Gronocus.' 

The text and translation are careful and scholarly, and there is 
a good index. Mr. Kdwards and his Society are alike to be con- 
gratulated on an excellent piece of work. W. Paley Baildon. 

The Renaissance of Roman Architecture. By Sir Thomas Graham 
Jackson. Part IL England. 9^x7. Pp. xii + 23«. Cam- 
bridge, at the University Press. 1922. 42s. 

In this handy book Sir T. G. Jackson gives a succinct account of 
what may be called classic architecture in England (as distinguished 
from Gothic) from its first tentative efforts in the time of Henry VIII 
down to the end of the eighteenth century. The survey is necessarily 
rapid, but it is sound, with a reservation subsequently to be men- 
tioned. There is not much that is novel in it — how could there be in 
a compass so comparatively small ? — but some of the information is 
fresh, notably the interesting catalogue of the household at Knole in 
1613, and the tables at which they sat ; and some of the illustrations 
are new, to the present writer at any rate, especially those of Grove 
House and the coloured details from Hardwick. 

Sir Thomas shows how the classic manner, derived from Italy and 
introduced largely by Italian artists, first affected design in England, 
how it was confined to ornament to begin with, while the main struc- 
ture was still Gothic in conception ; and he illustrates the point by the 
well-known examples at Layer Marney, Hampton Court, Nonsuch 


Palace, Sutton Place, the Vyne, and various tombs of the period. But 
the curious thing about this Italian detail is that, so far as names can 
be attached to it, it appears to be largely the work of English crafts- 
men. With the death of Henry VIII the Italians gradually disappear, 
and Flemish influence becomes more apparent although the general 
character of the work is still overwhelmingly English. The most dis- 
tinguished designer of the time was John Thorpe, whose book of 
drawings is justly described as comprising original, practical designs, 
fanciful designs and surveys. There is, however, no mention of the 
Smithson drawings, which form a valuable link between those of 
Thorpe and those of Inigo Jones and Webb. All these collections of 
drawings are of the first importance because they show the designers 
at work, and their evidence has not been impaired, as has that of the 
houses themselves, by the alterations resulting from long occupation. 

The tenacity of the native tradition in design, in spite of the insis- 
tent desire of wealthy clients to be provided with the fashionable 
Italian character in their buildings, is well exemplified. This tenacity 
survived, although in a somewhat weakened condition, even the 
influence of Inigo Jones and his successor Webb. But with Inigo 
Jones and his intimate knowledge of Italian methods, acquired in his 
two visits to Italy, came a decided hardening towards the Italian 
manner. Inigo Jones has been placed upon a high pinnacle, a pinnacle 
supported by the attribution to him of buildings now demonstrably 
assigned to him against the weight of evidence. He has become indeed 
a sort of enigma, partly architect, partly surveyor, but chiefly scene- 
painter. He has left many drawings behind him, but quite five-sixths 
of these have nothing to do with architecture, they are drawings of 
scenery, of costume, and of the human figure. He was a first-rate 
designer of architecture as of other things, as witness the Banqueting 
House and the Queen's House at Greenwich, but it is becoming 
clear that the eminence of his position (from which there is no 
need to dethrone him) is not owing solely to his architecture. 
And here comes the one reservation alluded to as to the sound- 
ness of Sir Thomas's survey. He attributes without misgiving 
the design of the great palace at Whitehall to Inigo Jones, on the 
evidence of the Worcester College drawings. But the Worcester 
College drawings can only be interpreted with the help of those at 
Chatsworth ; and a study of the Chatsw^orth drawings can lead to but 
one conclusion, namely, that the designer of the great palace was John 
Webb ; a conclusion fortified by Webb's express statement that 
Charles I commissioned him to design a palace at Whitehall, which 
Webb proceeded to do until the king's * unfortunate calamity ' put an 
end to his labours. 

Webb is only mentioned casually, yet to him more than to any one 
is due the ultimate triumph of the classic style in England, owing 
largely to the fact that the drawings attributed to Inigo Jones and 
published as his, are in reality Webb's. This is not a mere surmise, 
for the drawings are there and can be seen by any one, and it does not 
take long to distinguish his work from that of Jones. There is no 
evidence that Jones had anything to do with Greenwich Palace, but 
Webb's drawing for Charles IPs block (that is for the eastern half of 


it, which was alone contemplated at first), together with certain details 
appertaining to it, is still preserved. 

Sir Thomas's appreciation of Wren and of his masterly treatment of 
Greenwich in later years is fully justified, but it should not be forgotten 
that the relation of Charles II's block to the Queen's House was fixed 
by Webb, who had a fine scheme of his own, although not so fine as 
Wren's, for a large group of buildings, as may be seen on the drawing 
in the Soane museum. 

Space precludes a further discussion of these historical niceties ; nor 
can a detailed account be given of the later chapters of this interesting 
book. Needless to say they are scholarly and much to the point, and 
particularly stimulating is the final chapter or ' Conclusion '. The 
whole book is excellent, and it is because of the weight it will carry 
that attention has been called to the age-long misreading of Inigo 
Jones's relation to Whitehall and Greenwich. J. A. GOTCII. 

Blechingley : a Parish History together with some Account of the 

Family of De Clare chiefly in the South of England. By UvEDALE 

Lambert. Two volumes. lo^xS^. Pp. xx + 332; viii + 310, 

with 144 photographs, thirteen drawings and maps and pedigrees. 

Londoii: Mitchell Hughes & Clarke. 1931. £^ ^s. 

If, as has been said, the day of the large folio county history is 

over, it would appear that that of the parish history on an exhaustive 

scale has arrived. But it is certain that when the history of each 

separate parish has been written and published, the county history 

will have again to be written, though if all the parishes are to be 

treated on the scale of the present work, it is doubtful whether one 

single author, be he ever so great a master of detail and generalization 

from it, could ever cope with the history of a whole county. 

Probably, however, few Surrey parishes have claims to be treated on 
the same generous scale as Mr. Lambert has here dealt with Blech- 
ingley. It is not only the fact that the parish, when it included 
Home as it did prior to the year 1705, was with its area of more than 
lo.coo acres the largest in the county. Its association with such dis- 
tinguished families as the de Clares, the de Audleys, the de Stafibrds 
(afterwards Dukes of Buckingham) and later with Anne of Cleves, Sir 
Thomas Cawarden, and the Howards, gives it special importance. 
Moreover, as a parliamentary borough from the very beginnings of 
parliaments, it subsequently obtained notoriety as one of the pocket 
boroughs finally swept away by the first Reform Act. 

Mr. Lambert is undoubtedly correct in insisting on the omission of 
the 't' which has crept into the spelling of the name of the parish by 
the Post Oflfice and the Parish Council. For its derivation he himself 
is inclined to favour an origin from the Saxon blac meaning pale or 
white rather than from a family name. The analogy of Walkham- 
stead (Godstone), an adjoining parish, combined with some few traces 
of a bleaching or fulling industry and the near neighbourhood of the 
fullers' earth pits in Nutfield give some support to his view. Of pre- 
historic history Blechingley has none beyond what may be deduced 
from the existence of the camp on White Hill near its northern 
boundary, whilst its associations with the Romans are confined to the 


hypocaust which was discovered near Pendell in the early years of the 
last century. It is not until the Norman Conquest and the coming of 
the de Clares that the parish first emerges into the light of history. 

On the subject of the de Clares, Mr. Lambert is expansive, and over 
a hundred of his wide and closely-printed pages are devoted to their 
history. The student of topography, who is not usually a person of 
ample means, will probably complain that the cost of an expensive 
parish history has been much increased by the inclusion of this matter, 
a very small proportion of which directly concerns the parish. On the 
other hand the historian or genealogist will have a greater grievance in 
having to look for the fullest account that has yet appeared of one of 
the greatest families of English medieval history in the pages of 
a parish history. It is to be regretted that Mr. Lambert was not 
advised to publish his history of the de Clares as a separate work and 
to confine himself in his history of Blechingley to such notices of the 
family as directly related to the parish. 

In dealing with the family Mr. Lambert has naturally been attracted, 
as was the present writer, by the interest of the accounts of the 
domestic expenditure of the notorious pluralist Bogo de Clare, whose 
career throws such a lurid light on one side of medieval life. It per- 
haps discounts somewhat the interest of Mr. Lambert's copious extracts 
from these accounts that he was so recently anticipated by the print- 
ing in full in Archaeologia of those which related to Bogo's wardrobe 
department, but as he himself points out there is scope for fuller treat- 
ment of them than he actually gives, or indeed for that matter than 
the present writer could give within the limits of his paper. A refer- 
ence to the Archaeologia paper will show that there is rather more 
indication in the accounts as to the site of Bogo's London house than 
Mr. Lambert has been able to find. It is difficult to see why he should 
identify the Polstede from which Bogo received considerable sums with 
the rather obscure manor of Foisted in Compton, Surrey, which does 
not appear ever to have belonged to the de Clares. Almost certainly 
it was the rich rectory of Polstead, Suffolk, which elsewhere he notes 
amongst the possessions of Bogo, and the mention of ' altellagium ' in 
connexion with it seems to establish its ecclesiastical rather than its 
manorial nature. Mr. Lambert is perhaps right in thinking Bogo little 
given to out-door sport but there are two references to his hunting in 
the accounts, and one of them it is curious that Mr. Lambert should 
have apparently missed as it took place at Blechingley, the only refer- 
ence to the parish in the whole of the documents so far as the present 
writer is aware. 

For writing the history of Blechingley Mr. Lambert proves himself 
amply equipped. Never can the history of a parish have been written 
by one more imbued by birth and continued residence with the genius 
loci so as to be acquainted with every square foot of its territory and 
at the same time by one more fully qualified by wide reading and 
scholarship for his task. We must deplore the affliction which 
Mr. Lambert tells u§ has so long made him a recluse from his fellow 
men but rejoice that he has been able to turn his adversity to such 
good uses. The whole work gives evidence of a quite extraordinary 
industry, and there is no source amongst public, local and private 


archives which one can poinl to as having been overlooked in his 
researches. Many documents are printed in full, and we must be 
especially grateful for the extracts from the churchwardens' accounts 
and for the many deeds in local or private custody which are thus 
made accessible for all time. The long and exhaustive list of field 
names, which, with Mr. Lambert's notes, extends to forty pages is in 
particular an illustration of the painstaking nature of his researches. 

Very full indeed is the account of the church and its rectors. In the 
architectural 'description, which is illustrated by a large number of 
photographs excellently reproduced in collotype, Mr. Lambert has had 
the benefit of the knowledge of the late Mr. C. R. Baker-King. With 
regard to the brasses it should be noted that Mr. Lambert is incorrect 
in describing the headdress of Joan Warde as belonging to the butter- 
fly type in fashion between the years 1480 and 1490. It distinctly 
belongs to the pedimental or kennel-shaped type which was in vogue 
until the accession of Elizabeth, and there is no reason why the inscrip- 
tion dated 154I now on the same stone as the figures of Joan and her 
husband, as indeed it was in Aubrey's time, should not have originally 
belonged to them. 

In addition to the photographs of the church the work is very fully 
illustrated with others of every place of interest and beauty in this 
beautiful Surrey parish, reproductions of some of the deeds and other 
documents quoted, and portraits of many a local worthy, of some 
of whom the fame far transcended the narrow bounds of parish. The 
greater number of the photographs is from the camera of Mr. Jarvis 
Kenrick, himself a former resident and the descendant of a line of 
Blechingley rectors Full pedigrees and a valuable series of maps 
complete the apparatus of a work, which may well serve for the 
standard, rarely it is to be feared to be attained, of what a parish 
history should be. M. S. GlUSKPI'I. 

The Building of the Cathedrnl Church of St. Peter in Exeter. By 

HERHEUTE.BiSHOPand Edith K.Pkide.\ux. 8|x5^; pp.v+i86. 

Exeter: Commin. 1922. los.dd. 

This is a fresh and valuable study of the cathedral, based on direct 
reference to the originiil fabric rolls (the late Sir W. Hope copied these, 
and it is good to learn from the book before us that they are being edited 
by Mr. A. Hamilton Thompson). The present book is indispensable 
for all students of the cathedral, and, indeed, of our cathedrals 
generally. It begins with an excellent chapter on the Building Masters, 
and it is pleasant to find it understood that buildings were erected 
by builders. On p. 15 the visit of Master William Schoverville, 
' cementarius ', from Salisbury is recorded in 131 1, and this, I believe, 
is a new Salisbury name. I hope that some day we may get a study 
of the building of Salisbury Cathedral and of the contributions of the 
several masters whose names are known. Canterbury, York, and other 
cathedrals are waiting to be dealt with, and finally we should be ready 
for a general account of our medieval artists. The authors deserve 
our hearty thanks for a piece of hard work, the sort of work that can 
only be its own reward — for there is no other. 

I pass on to discuss a few special points. In Chapter IV, on the 

X a 


Norman church, the interesting fact is for the first time recorded that 
the central apse was not semi-circular to the exterior, but of a five-sided 
form. I can hardly think that a church with such an eastern termina- 
tion can have been begun in 1 117, as is usually stated. The transeptal 
towers (lower parts) which remain arc obviously later than that date. 
I am ashamed to say that I had not noticed before last autumn that 
what looks like wide-jointed masonry at the base of the northern tower 
is only false modern pointing. The style of the masonry and of the 
fine single-light windows in the lower stages of the towers speaks of 
mid-twelfth-century work. I suggest that the Norman church may 
have been begun by Robert Warelwast (1155-1160) instead of by 
William Warelwast (1 107-1 1 37). It is a slight confirmation of this 
that Robert was buried in the quire of the church, but William was 
buried at Plympton. It is suggested in the book that ' the lowest stages 
of the towers were built at first as transepts and that the upper stages 
(the towers) were added '. This view, I think, is negatived by the 
special thickness of the walls of these transeptal towers and by other 
reasons. This question of the exact form of the Norman church could 
doubtless be cleared by lifting a few pavement slabs here and there, 
at the terminations of the quire aisles, over the presumed tower-apses, 
and over one of the old nave piers, the positions of which can easily be 
determined by the traces of the responds in the aisles. I am drawn by 
the new plan of the central apse to think that there may have been 
three parallel apses showing to the exterior. It may be mentioned 
that the transeptal towers were built together with the nave : on the 
south side the same walling and plinths run on, and there was a similar 
mixture of red and white stones in the towers and the nave. Altogether 
it seems likely that the Norman church was built as one ' work '. 
Among the collection of fragments in the cloister is a stone with two 
attached capitals, small enough to have been part of a wall arcade of 
late Norman type similar to those of the towers. This stone was, 
I believe, found at the west front about twenty years since. Whether 
the internal arcade ran through past the transepts, or whether there 
were solid walls, or strips of walls, here might be determined by lifting 
some slabs or by careful measuring. 

A good account of the sculptures is given, including details of the 
fine bosses. There is now general agreement that the upper tier of 
figures on the west front are later than the better-known lower figures. 
Some of the former are also sculptures of great character, and it would 
be well to have a study of them figure by figure. One of the first 
prophets (Moses?) is especially fine ; also No. 7, an eagerly announcing 
figure. The spandrils of the great door are also extraordinarily 
effective, figuring in very flat relief a man and woman at the resur- 
rection and two angels veiling their eyes, dazzled by the glory above. 
There are still stains of colour on the angels' wings. I had thought 
that little figures on the jambs of the central door were the four 
Doctors, but I find there were six ; possibly they are Ancestors of the 
Virgin. It is shown that John Pratt, 'ymaginator', was working on the 
west front in 1375, and he may have been the sculptor of the upper 
stage of figures. 

Among the fragments in the cloister is the lower part of an early 


fourteenth-century group of the Visitation, which must, I think, have 
come from the pulpitum or the reredos. 

One of the significant details cited from the fabric rolls is for painting 
the image of St. Peter in the gable, ' unquestionably the statue in the 
niche in the top gable of the west front '. Oliver recorded remnants 
of painting on the sculptures of the west front, and traces of red may 
yet be seen in the niches and the side-doors, and of red and white in 
the central porch. There are more distinct evidences for external 
painting abouf the west door at Salisbury, and the actual sculptures at 
Wells retain traces of painted eyes and lips, while other parts had 
patterns and gilding. Stukeley reported that the west front at Croyland 
was painted. There is further evidence for Lincoln (Norman), Dunstable, 
etc., and it may not be doubted that it was the custom to wash over 
external walls and ' pick out ' mouldings in red, while sculptured west 
fronts were brightly coloured and gilt. At Exeter the images of prophets 
and evangelists hold long scrolls, and these were certainly intended to 
bear inscriptions; parts of these scrolls, it may be noted, are entirely 
' undercut '. Even the external panels of the north porch are coloured red. 

Many remnants of colour decoration exist here and there in the 
interior, and these should be recorded as soon as possible by an expert ; 
some of them have practically faded out of sight even in ' my time ', 
The Bronescombe effigy is coloured in the very highest London 
style, c. 1280-90, in transparent varnish-colours. On the margin is 
an interesting example of ' symbolism ' : pairs of doves and lions are 
painted alternately — Concord and Fortitude. By the Lady Chapel are 
traces of a fine late design of the Assumption of the Virgin : rays of 
light strike away from her body, and she is surrounded by crowds 
of little figures holding inscribed labels on a crimson ground. The 
decoration of the whole Lady Chapel can yet be made out. In the 
tomb recesses were paintings ; the ribs of the vaults were gold, red, and 
green ; the capitals had copper-green mouldings, a red bell, and gilt 
abacus; the shafts were of polished Purbeck marble. The window 
arches and jambs were similar. The quire was much like the Lady 
Chapel. Here and there in the aisles patches of whitewashing remain. 
In the nave the great carved corbels were gilt, and short lengths of the 
drip mouldings were coloured. The drip mould terminations of 
the triforium arches were also gilt. Altogether the whole scheme can 
be discovered. And the same is true of other cathedrals. 

A good beginning is made of a history of the monuments of the 
church. It is suggested that the early .slab in the Lady Chapel may 
be a memorial of Leofric, retrospective but early ; the traditional 
ascription to Bartholomew (d. 11 84) is, I think, to be preferred. 
If a.sked to date the slab I believe I should have said about 1180. 
It may be mentioned here that amongst Carter's original sketches, 
for his work on Exeter, at the British Museum there is a drawing of 
the matrix of a most magnificent bishop's Is this Bitton's 
tomb? And what has become of it ? 

It is difficult for me to think that the front of the north porch is late 
work ; or that the elaborate carved moulding of the central west door 
is modern ; or that any part of the Norman masonry remains above 
the nave arcades, although stones may have been re-u.scd. 

W. R. Lethaby. 

Periodical Literature 

The Archaeological Journal, vol. 75, contains the following articles : — 
Roman Leicester, by the late Professor Haverfield ; an account of 
some painted glass from a house at Leicester, by Mr. G. McN. Rush- 
forth ; the ancient highways and tracks of Wiltshire, Berkshire, and 
Hampshire, and the Saxon battlefields of Wiltshire, by Dr. G. B. 
Grundy; notes on some family relics of the Jacobite rebellion, 1745, 
by Mr. V. B. Crovvther-Beyniin ; late medieval sculpture from the 
church of St. Peter, Tiverton, by Miss E. K. Prideaux ; the statutes of 
the collegiate church of St. Mary and All Saints, Fotheringhay, by 
Mr. Hamilton Thompson ; English alabasters of the embattled type, 
by Dr. Philip Nelson. 

The Journal of Hellenic Stndies^vcA. 41, part 2, contains the following 
papers : — When was Themistocles last in Athens ? by Mr. P. N. Ure ; 
Hermes Chthonios as Eponym of the Skopadae, by Miss Grace 
Macurdy ; Ptolemaios Epigonos, by M. M. Holleaux ; the Crypto- 
Christians of Trebizond, by Mr. F. W. Hasluck ; Archaic Terra- 
Cotta Agalmata in Italy and Sicily, by Mr. E. D. Van Buren ; an 
Overseer's Day-book from the Fayoum, by Mr. A. E. R. Boak ; Some 
Vases in the Lewis collection, by Mr. C. D. Bicknell ; Hellenistic 
Sculpture from Cyrene, by Mr. Gilbert Bagnani ; on a Minoan Bronze 
group of a galloping bull and acrobatic figure from Crete, with glyptic 
comparisons, and a note on the Oxford relief showing the Tauro- 
kathapsia, by Sir Arthur Evans ; Archaeology in Greece, 19 19-21, by 
Mr. A. J. B. Wace. 

Ancient Egypt, \<^ii, part i, contains papers by Dr. F. F. Bruijning 
on the Tree of the Herakleopolite Nome ; by Mr. R. Engelbach on the 
Sarcophagus of Pa-Ramessu from Gurob, and by Miss Murray on 
Knots, showing that there was a prejudice in the early dynasties against 
their representation. 

The Journal of Roman Studies, vol. to, part i, contains articles by 
Professor G. A. T. Davies on Topography and the Trajan column ; by 
Miss L. R. Taylor on the site of Lucus Feroniae; by Mr. H. 
Mattingly, on some historical Roman coins of the first century A.D. ; 
by Professor W. M. Calder, on Early Christian Epigraphy ; by 
Mr. St. Clair Baddleley, on a Romano-British cemetery at Barnwood, 
Gloucestershire ; by Professor R. Knox McElderry, on the date of 
Agricola's governorship of Britain ; by Mr. A. M. Ramsay, on a Roman 
postal service under the Republic ; by Dr. R. E. M. Wheeler, on the 
vaults under Colchester Castle, a further note ; and by Signor V. 
Pacifici on some recent discoveries at Tivoli. 

The English Historical Review, April 1922, contains the following 
articles : — The Sheriffs and the Administrative system of Henry I, by 
Mr. W. A. Morris ; the great statute of Praemunire, by Mr. W. T. 
Waugh ; the Transition to the Factory System, by Mr. George 
Unwin ; an appreciation of the late Lord Bryce, by Dr. Ernest Barker ; 
St. Benet of Holme and the Norman Conquest, by Mr. F. M. Stenton ; 
the Text of the ordinance of 11 84 concerning an Aid for the Holy 
Land, by Mr. W. T. Lunt ; Law Merchant in London in 1292, by 


Mr. H. G. Richardson ; the Stamford Schism, by Rev. H. K. Salter ; 
the capture of Lord Rivers and Sir Anthony Woodville in 1460, by 
Miss C. L. Scofield ; a declaration before the Ecclesiastical Com- 
mission in 1562, by Dr. W. P. M. Kennedy; the Social status of the 
clergy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, by Rev. Dr. Mayo. 

Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 4th ser., vol. 4, con- 
tains the following papers : — Presidential address by Sir Charles Oman 
on some medieval conceptions of ancient history ; Status of * villain ' 
and other tenjints in Danish East Anglia in pre-Conquest times, by 
Rev. W. Hudson ; Family-, Court-, and State-archives at Vienna ; the 
Council of the West, by Miss C. A. J, Skeel ; Illustrations of the 
medieval municipal history of London from the Guildhall records, by 
Mr. A. H. Thomas ; Notes from the ecclesiastical court records at 
Somerset House, by Mr, F. W. X. Fincham ; the extent of the 
English forest in the thirteenth century, by Miss M. L. Bazeley ; the 
Norse settlements in the British Islands, by Dr. A. Bugge. 

The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Iftstitnte, vol. 51, part 2, 
contains the following articles of archaeological interest : — The 
Archer's bow in the Homeric poems ; an attempted diagnosis, by 
Mr. H. Balfour ; on an Early Chellian-Palaeolithic workshop site in 
the Pliocene ' Forest-Bed' of Cromer, Norfolk, by Mr. J. Reid Moir ; 
Notes on some archaeological remains in the Society and Austral 
Islands, by Mr. and Mrs. Scoresby Routledge. 

Man^ •931, contains the following articles of archaeological 
interest :— Quartz artefacts from West Africa, by Mr. A. W. Cardinall 
and Dr. Seligman ; a remarkable flint implement from Piltdown, by 
Sir Ray Lankester ; the evolution of climate in N.W. Europe, by 
Mr. C. E. P. Brooks ; a new find in palaeolithic cave art — the figure 
of a man, probably a sorcerer, in a cave known as the Trois Freres, by 
Mr. M. C. Burkitt ; new light on the early history of Bronze, by 
Professor Sayce ; a Chinese bronze with Scythian atfinities. by Sir 
Hercules Read ; a recent discovery of rock sculptures in Derbyshire, 
by Mr. G. A. Garfitt ; Egyptian palaeoiiths, by Professor Petrie ; Les 
Tombes des Martres-de-Veyre, by Professor AndoUent ; note on some 
brooches from Wiltshire, by Mrs. Cunnington ; the date of rosette- 
stamped ware found in Britain, by Mrs. Cunnington ; Two Irish finds 
of glass beads of the Viking period, by Mr. E. C. R. Armstrong ; the 
manufacture of Etruscan and other ancient Black wares, by Dr. Randall 
Maclver ; Archaeological notes on the ' Neolithic ' temples of Malta, by 
Mr. A. V. D. Hort. 

Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Liverpool, 
vol. 9, nos. 1-2, contain the following papers : — The influence of 
Egypt on Hebrew literature, by Mr. A. B. Mace ; A sidelight upon 
Tacitus, by Mr. W. R. Halliday ; Problems of megalithic architecture 
in the Western Mediterranean, by Mr. E. T. Leeds ; AsIh Minor, 
Syria, and the Aegean, by Mr. C. L. Woolley. 

British Numismatic Journal, vol. 1 5, contains the following papers : — 
The coins of Harold I, by Mr. H. A. Parsons; the prototype of the 
first coinage of William the Conqueror, by Mr. H. A. Parsons ; 
a remarkable penny of Henry II, by Major Carlyon-Britton ; two 
tragedies, a medieval charm and a note on the mint of Rhuddlan, by 


Mr. W. J. Andrew ; halfpennies and farthings of Henry VIII, by 
Mr. R. Carlyon-Britton ; silver coins of the Tower mint of Charles I, the 
sixpences and the smaller denominations, by Mr. G. R. Francis ; 
a review of the coinage of Charles II, by Lt.-Col. H. W. Morrieson; 
Royal charities, part 4 — conclusion of Touch pieces for the King's Evil, 
by Miss Farquhar ; the coinage of Ireland during the Rebellion, 1641- 
53, by Mr. F. W. Yeates ; a cut New-England threepence attributed 
to the Leeward Islands, by Mr. H. A. Parsons. 

In the Geographical Journal for March 1922 (vol. 59, no. 3) is 
a paper by Dr. H. O. Forbes on the Topography of Caesar's last cam- 
paign against the Bellovaci in 52 B.C. The April number contains 
a paper by Mr. O. G, S. Crawford on Archaeology and the Ordnance 

The Genealogist, vol. 38, part 3, contains an article by Mr. G. H. 
White on Constables under the Norman Kings ; and continuations of 
Mr. Moriarty's paper on the origin of the Gififords of Twyford, of Mr. 
Murrays extracts from a seventeenth-century note-book, and of Canon 
Nevill and Mr. Boucher's Marriage Licences of Salisbury. The number 
also includes further instalments of Poltalloch Writs, of the Index to 
Marriages from the Gentleman's Magazine, and of Hampton Wills 
and Administrations, and Mr. Aspinall contributes the twenty-first part 
of his history of the Aspinwall and Aspinall families of Lancashire. 

Miscellanea Genealogica ct Heraldica, 5th ser., parts 7, 8, and 9, con- 
tain the following articles : — Marten Wills : Lewes (Sussex) Registry ; 
William Curtis, F.L.S. ; Grant of arms to William Watson of Lance- 
lyn, 1905; Diary of Sir Kdward Heath of Brasted, with pedigree; 
Griffin book-plates ; continuation of the paper on the family of 
Melborne of Somerset and Monmouthshire ; Grant of arms to Sir 
Paul Ogden Lawrence, 191 9 ; Kentish Wills ; Pensacola, West Florida, 
Register of Births and Burials ; further instalments of the Registers of 
Holy Trinity, Knightsbridge ; of the Feet of Fines of Divers Counties, 
Henry VIII ; of Monumental inscriptions of Bromley, Kent ; Pedigree 
of Poultney of Leicester ; Grant of arms to Francis Chatillon Danson 
of Grasmere ; London Pedigrees and Coats of Arms ; Grant of arms to 
Alban Stepneth (Stepney), 1605-6; Haselwood pedigree; Official 
seals of the Diocese of Worcester — seals of the bishops — by Mr. Harvey 

The Library, vol. 2, no. 4, contains some notes upon the Manuscript 
Library at Holkham, by Mr. C. W. James ; the Early career of 
Edward Raban, afterwards First Printer at Aberdeen, by Mr. E. G. 
Duff; Worcester Cathedral Library Report, by Canon Wilson; the 
earliest editions of the ' Rime ' of Vittoria Colonna, by Miss E. M. 
Cox ; Dr. Johnson as a bibliographer, by Mr. E. G. Millar. 

The Mariner s Mirror, vol. 8, nos. 3-5, contain the following 
papers: — Development from Log to Clipper, by Mr. D. D. K.Willis; 
Brigantines and the introduction of the Smack-sail in Square-rigged 
vessels, by Mr. C. G. 'tHooft ; the state of Nelson's fleet before Trafal- 
gar, by Dr. Holland Rose ; the Mayflower, II, by J. W. Horrocks ; 
the Boatswain's whistle, by Mr. G. E. Mainwaring; County Naval 
Free Schools on waste land, a proposal originated by Jonas Hanway, 
by Captain Bosanquet ; Some additions to the Brigantine problem, by 


Mr. R. C. Anderson ; Some Ballads and Songs of the Sea, by Mr. J. 
Leyland ; a document dated 1676 laying down the conditions under 
which Midshipmen Extra and Volunteers might be borne in H.M. Ships; 
the Haaf fishing and Shetland Trading, II, by Mr. R. S. Bruce. 

Journal of the Society of Army Historical Research^ vol. i, no. 3, 
contains the following papers: — Irish troops at Boulogne in 1544, by 
Viscount Dillon ; a contemporary ballad on Culloden, by Professor 
Firth ; Disbanded regiments : the New Brunswick Fencibles, after- 
wards 104th Foot, by Mr. W. Y. Baldry and Mr. A. S. White ; Notes 
upon Uniform Dress as worn by the Scot's Brigade in the Dutch 
service, c. 1700-10, by Col, Field ; a concluding instalment of the diary 
of a ' Royal American ', by Major Bent ; a continuation of Col. Mac- 
donald's paper on Medieval artillery ; and The Evolution of the 
Gorget, by Captain Oakes-Jones. 

Records of Buckinghamshire, vol. 11, no. 3, contains the following 
articles : — Association of Oath Rolls for Buckinghamshire, by 
Mr. Wallace Gandy; Newton Longville Parish Register, by Mr. W. 
Bradbrook ; the original charter of Aylesbury, by Mr. PL. HoUis ; 
Bletchley Bans, by Rev. F. W. Bennitt ; Hillesden Account Book, 
part 1, by Mr. G. Eland; Fragment of folio MS. of Archdeaconry 
courts of Buckinghamshire, article 3, by Rev. F. W. Ragg. 

Journal of the Architectural, Archaeological^ and Historic Society 
for the County and City of Chester, vol. 24, part 1, contains one paper, 
a full history and description of the Grey Friars of Chester, by 
Mr. J. H. E. Bennett. 

Proceedings of the Dorset Field Club, vol. 42, contains the following 
papers on archaeological subjects : — Eggardun Hill, by Rev. H. S. 
Solly ; the Helstone, by Mr. V. L. Oliver ; the travels of Peter 
Mundy in Dorset in 1635, by Mr. N. M. Richardson ; the Apple 
Tree Wassail — a sui-vival of a Tree cult, by Mr. W. O. Beament ; the 
church screens of Dorset, by Mr. E. T. Long ; the founding of Dor- 
chester, Massachusetts, and the Rev. John White, by Captain J. E. 

Transactions of the Essex Archaeological Society, vol. 1 6, part 2, con- 
tains the following papers: — The fifteenth-century stained glass at 
Clavering, by Mr. F. C. Eeles ; Parsloes, Becontree Heath, Squirrel's 
Heath, and Dewes Hall, by Dr. Round ; Killigrews alias Shenfields, 
by Dr. Round ; Essex Chapel, by Mr. R. C. Fowler ; the Obits of the 
Abbots of Colchester, by Mr. G. Rickword ; Roman Roads in Esse.x : 
an addendum, by Mr. Miller Christy. Amongst the shorter notes con- 
tained in this number the following may be mentioned : — Wall paint- 
ings at Eastbury House, Barking ; the Court House, Barking; Discovery 
of a portion of a pre-Norman stone coffin-lid at Great Maplestead ; 
Discovery of Parge-work at Wood Farm, Broxted. 

Yhe Essex Review, April 1922, contains the following articles: — 
John-Orrin Smith, engraver, by Mr. H. W. Lewer ; Epping : I, His- 
torical Sketch of the government of Epping Forest, by Mr. C. B. 
Sworder and Miss Chisendale- Marsh ; Essex references from the Parish 
register of Bishops Stortford, Herts., 1561-1712, by Mr. J. L.Glasscock ; 
a contribution to an Essex Dialect Dictionary: supplement III, by 
Rev. \\. Gepp. 


Archacologia Cmitiana, vol. '^^^ contains the following papers : — 
A Roman Cemetery discovered at Ospringe in 1920, by Mr. W. 
Whiting ; Ash Wills, by Mr. A. Hussey ; Queen Court, Rainham, and 
Queendown, Hartlip, by Mr. H. G. Faussett-Osborne ; Churchwardens' 
Accounts of the parish of St. Andrew, Canterbury, part 4, by Mr. C. 
Cotton ; Architectural notes on Kingsdown church near Sevenoaks, 
by Mr. F. C. Elliston Erwood ; the latest excavations at St. Augus- 
tine's Abbey, by Rev. R. U. Potts ; the Earliest Rochester bridge: 
was it built by the Romans ?, by Mr. A. A. Arnold ; Rochester bridge: 
the Roman bridge in masonry, by Mr. J. J. Robson ; Teynham church: 
architectural notes, by Mr. F. C. Elliston Erwood. 

Transactions of the Laiicashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, 
vol. 38, contains the following papers : — EUenbrook Chapel and its 
seventeenth-century Ministers, by Mr. E. Axon ; Further legendary 
stories and folk-lore of the Clitheroe district, by Mr, W. Self Weeks ; 
the church bells of Lancashire: IV. the hundred of Amounderness, 
by Mr. F. H. Cheetham ; the battle of Brunanburgh, by Rev. J. B. 
McGovern ; Notes on the bells at Downham, supposed to have come 
from Whalley Abbey, by Mr. W. Self Weeks ; a note on Hyde Hall, 
Denton, by Mr. F. H. Cheetham ; Robert ClifT, LL.D., Warden of 
Manchester, by Mr. T. Brownbill. 

Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural His- 
tory Society, vol. 67. contains besides an account of the Annual Meeting 
held at Crewkerne,Sir Hercules Reads Presidential address on Somerset 
archaeology, a suggestion ; Part 7 of Dr. Fryer's paper on Monu- 
mental effigies in Somerset ; Excavations at Murtry Hill, Orchardleigh 
Park, 1920, a chambered long barrow, by Mr. H. St. George Gray; 
Somerset volunteers of the eighteenth century, by Mr. H. Symonds ; 
the earliest English Herbal, by William Turner (1510-68), Dean of 
Wells, by Miss I. M. Roper. 

The Bradford Antiquary, October 1921, contains an article by 
Mr. P. Ross on the Roman road north of Low Borrow bridge, to 
Brougham castle, Westmorland, and on the route of the 10th Iter, 
and a paper by Mr. H. J. M. Maltby on early Bradford Friendly 

Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, vol. 55, con- 
tains the following articles : — A Bronze Age hoard from Glen Trool, 
Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, by Mr. J. Graham Callander ; notices of 
cinerary urns from Kingskettle, Fife, and an Early Iron Age cist on 
Kippit Hill, Dolphinton, by Mr. Callander, with a report of the 
human remains, by Prof. Bryce ; notes on the discovery of a cist at 
Stairhaven, Wigtownshire, by Rev. R. S. G. Anderson ; Fast castle 
and its owners, by Mr. W. Douglas ; the Broch of Dun Troddan, 
Gleann Beag, Glenelg, Inverness-shire, by Mr. A. O. Curie ; the 
Balvarran cupped stone, the ' Bloody Stone ' of Dunfallandy, and a 
cup-marked stone in Glen Brerachan, by Mr. J. H. Dixon ; relics of 
the family of Innes of Balnacraig and Ballogie, Aberdeenshire, by 
Rev. J. Stirton ; report on the excavation of Dun Beag, a broch near 
Struan, Skye, by Mr. Graham Callander; notes on the discovery of 
a coped monument and an incised cross-slab at the graveyard, 
St. Boniface church, Papa Westray, Orkney, by Mr. W. Kirkness ; 


notes on five Donside castles, Pitfichie, Tillycairn, Balfluifj, Asloun, 
and Culquhonny, by Mr. W. D. Simpson ; account of the, excavation 
on Traprain Law during the sumnfier of 1920, by Messrs. A. O. Curie 
and J. E. Cree ; prehistoric cairns and a cross in the parish of 
Kirkmichael, Banffshire, by Rev. J. G. Duncan; clothinpj found on 
a skeleton at Quintfall Hill, Barrock estate, near Wick, by Mr. S. Orr ; 
relics of the body-snatchers, by Mr. J. Ritchie ; notes on Berwickshire 
forts, by Mr. J. H. Craw ; cross-slabs in the Isle of Man brought to 
light since December 1915, by Mr. P. M. C. Kcrmode ; notes on 
a chalice veil in the National Museum of Antiquities, by Miss L. K. 
Start ; the Orkney Baillies and their Wattel, by Mr. J. S. Clouston ; 
shaft of a Celtic cross from Longcastle, Wigtownshire, by Sir Herbert 
Maxwell ; a hoard of coins found at Perth, by Dr. George Macdonald ; 
the Methuen cup : a piece of sixteenth-century Scottish plate, by 
Mr. F. C. Keles. 

T/te Scottish Historical Reviezv, vol. 19, no. 3, contains the following 
articles : — P^ighteenth-ccntury Highland Landlords and the Poverty 
problem, by Miss M. I. Adam ; Aesculapius in Fife: a study of the 
early eighteenth century— three doctors' bills; by Sir Bruce Seton ; 
Letters from Queen Anne to Godolphin, by Mr. G. Davies ; Bellen- 
den's translation of the History of Hector Boece, by Mr. R. W. 
Chambers and Dr. W. Seton ; rent-rolls of the Knights of St. John 
of Jerusalem in Scotland, by Mr. J, Edwards ; the Professional 
Pricker and his test for witchcraft, by Rev, W. N. Neill ; a Franco- 
Scottish conspiracy in Reveden — the Mornay conspiracy of 1573, by 
Hon. G. A. Sinclair. 

History of the Berwickshire Naturalists Club, vol. 24, part 3. contains 
among other papers which do not deal with archaeology, notes on the 
Priory of Abbey St. Bathans, by Mr. J. Ferguson ; notes on the abbeys 
of Kelso, by Mr. J. Ferguson ; Sir Walter Scott's connexion with 
Rosebank, Kelso, by Rev. J. F. Leishman ; Northumbrian Moorland 
Crosses, by Mr. Howard Pease ; and Berwick Burghal families, by 
Mr. J. C. Hodgson. 

The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, vol. 51, 
part 2, contains the third part of Mr. Westropp's paper on the 
promontory forts of Beare and Bantry ; Murchertach O'Brien, High 
King of Ireland, and his Norman son-in-law, Arnulf dc Montgomery, 
c. ijoo, by Prof. V.. Curtis; Cannistown church, co. Meath, by 
Mr. H. S. Crawford ; some notes regarding Slemain Midhe. the 
probable site of the battlefield of Garrich and Ilgarrich, and other 
places in Westmeath referred to in the Tain Bo Cuailgne, by Mr. T. J. 
Shaw ; the Cock and Pot, an apocryphal anecdote relating to Judas 
Iscariot, by Rev. S. J. Seymour ; New Gate, Dublin, by Mr. C. 
McNeill ; Black abbey, co. Down, by the late Mr. G. E. Hamilton. 

Archcuologia Cantbrensis, vol. 76, part 2, contains the Presidential 
address by the Archbishop of Wales on Dmidism ; a report on the 
excavations at Segontium in 1921 by Dr. R. P2. M. Wheeler; and 
articles on Three monastic houses in South Wales, Whitland abbey, 
St. Dogmael's priory, and Haverfordwest priory, by Mr. A. W. Clap- 
ham ; St. Asaph Cathedral, by Mr. E. W. Lovegrove ; the ancient 
hill-fort on Moel Fenlli, Denbighshire, by Mr. Willoughby Gardner; 


' Clede Mutha ', identifying this place-name in the English chronicle 
with a fort at the mouth of the Clyde, by Dr. C. A. Seyler; the 
excavation of a Bronze Age tumulus near Gorsedd, Holywell, by 
Mr. H. Williams; St. Peter's church, Ruthin, by Mr. E. W. Love- 
grove ; the houseling pew in ROg chapel, by Mr. J. Gardner ; Ruthin 
corporation records. Among the Miscellanea are an account of the 
funeral helmet and spurs of Archbishop John Williams at Llandegni ; 
a wheel cross from Port Talbot ; excavation of a Long Barrow at 
Llanigon ; excavation of a megalithic tomb at Ffostill in Breconshire ; 
some early crosses. The number contains also a fully illustrated 
report of the Association's annual meeting at Ruthin. 

Annates de VAcaditnie royale d Archdologie dc Belgique^ vol. 69, 
part 3 : M. F. Donnet writes on the ' Papen Moer ' at Berchem, 
a piece of land between that village and Antwerp ; M. J. Casier 
contributes an illustrated article on some of the furniture and other 
movables formerly in the Cistercian abbey of St. Bernard at Escant ; 
and M. P. Saintenoy communicates a paper on the Archduchess Marie 
Klisabeth, governor of the Netherlands, and the burning of the Palace 
of Charles V at Brussels in 173 1. 

Vol. 69, part 4, contains the following articles : — Rene del Mel, a 
sixteenth-century composer, by Dr. G. Van Doorslaer ; Pierre and 
Jean Pierre Verdussen, painters of battle subjects, by M. Bautier ; 
the tithe of roses at Tournai in the fourteenth century, by M. Soil de 
Moriame ; Guillaume van der Mont, the Antwerp jeweller (1582- 
1642) by M. Dih's. 

Revue beige dc philologie et d histoire, vol. i, no. i, contains, as well 
as articles of a philological character, the following papers : — The 
place-name Astanetum, by M. Feller; the Literature of the outlaws 
in England, by M. Hamelius; the chronological limits of the Middle 
Ages, by M. Leclere ; Mahomet and Charlemagne, by M. Pirenne ; 
the villa and oppidum of Saint-Trond, by M. Hansay ; the date in the 
acts of Philip the Good (1419-67} showing that the place and date 
of attestation of a charter does not necessarily prove the presence of 
the duke himself at the time, by M. Nells ; on the method to be 
adopted in equating the values of modern money with the values 
stated in Belgian documents from the eleventh to the eighteenth 
centuries, by M. Tourneur. 

Revue archeologique, vol. 14, November-December, 1921, contains 
the following articles : — Veiling in ancient Assyria, by the late 
Dr. Jastrovv ; Montreuil-sous-Bois and master Peter of Montreuil, 
by M. de Lannay ; Gallo-Roman jewellery in the Museum at Geneva, 
by M. Dronna ; Mills in Ireland and the legend of Ciarnat, by 
M. Vendryes ; Notes on Scandinavian gold bracteates, by M. Janse. 

Comptes rendus de t Acaddmie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres : 
The parts for July-October, 1921, November-December, 1921, and 
January-February, 1922 contain the following articles: — Dante and 
French fifteenth-century art, by le comte Durrien ; the Fort at 
Bezereos on the Tripqlitan limes^ by M. Merlin ; the Albis of Claudian 
not the Elbe but the Rauhe Alp, by M. Julh'an ; summary note on 
a fresh inscription frorn Brousse, by M. HomoUe ; the palace of 
Philopation near Adrianople, by M. Papadopoulos ; notes on remains 


of Roman wooden centerings found at Vienne, by M. Formige ; an 
Imperial estate near Teboursouk, by M. Poinssot ; C. Julius Asper, 
proconsul of Africa, by M. Poinssot ; a study of Mexican archaeology, 
by MM. Arsandaux and Rivet ; the Aramean-Sogdian alphabet, by 
Lt.-Col. Allotte dc la Fuye ; the excavations at Byblos in the 
autumn of 1921, by M. Montet; Roman and Christian cemeteries 
at Carthage, by M. Lantier ; the work of the Service des Antiquit^s of 
Morocco since 1919, by M. L. Chatelain ; two milestones from Syria, 
by M. Cagnat ; the work of the P>ench schools of archaeology at 
Athens and Rome during 1920-1, by M. E. Chatelain. 

L Anthropologies vol. 31, nos. 3-4 (November 1921). The first 
instalment of M. de Morgan's memoir on Asiatic influence on Africa 
at the dawn of Egyptian civilization starts with his own bibliography 
since 1889, and aims at proving that culture on the Nile was of 
African origin, but reached the historic stage under the influence of 
Asia ; hence the beginnings of Chaldean civilization preceded those 
of predynastic Egypt. By the dawn of culture he means the discovery 
of writing, of metals, and of the industries to which the human race 
owes its development. In view of recent approximations, it is inter- 
esting to have his opinion that important geological changes separated 
quaternary man from the precursors of oriental culture, whether in 
Asia or Egypt. On the other hand, some would demur to the 
statement that no palaeolithic industry in situ has been so far found 
in the Nile valley ; and again, that the industries of Chelles, St. Acheul, 
and Le Moustier were there contemporary. In his opinion recent 
discoveries show that metal was known to many peoples and in many 
periods hitherto regarded as neolithic, and ' many prehistorians are 
now inquiring whether the term neolithic has any real meaning '. 
The Abb6 Breuil (p. 354) feels justified in stating that the classic 
neolithic culture of the Paris basin was contemporary with the 
aeneolithic (copper-age) of the south of France. This and other 
remarkable statements were no doubt prompted by his recent visit 
to the British Isles, and should start discussion on this side of the 
Channel. The so-called limpet-gouges of the Scottish shell-mounds 
he regards as chisels for use with a stone hammer in flaking flint, and 
assigns the painted pebbles of the brochs to the date of those 
structures (later Iron Age). Among the plentiful traces of Tardenois 
culture in Britain he compares the pygmy-graver with a series from 
Haute-Vienne ; and asserts that on the Mediterranean coast that 
stage overlaps the earliest aeneolithic. The occurrence of the same 
pygmy type from the Sahara to Scotland points to a racial migration. 
The Abbe also has a paper on new caves in the province of Malaga, 
with engravings and paintings chiefly of deer and horses, of pre- 
neolithic date. M. Deonna criticizes at some length the views of 
M. Siret on the connexion between the maple and the neolithic 
goddess (noticed in the Journal, 1921, p. 259). 

In numbers 5-6 (March 1922) of the same volume M. de Morgan 
continues his study of the influence of Asia on Africa, and emphasizes 
many Egyptian and Mesopotamian analogies in pottery decoration 
(boats, human and animal figures,fish,foliage, and stone-work), figurines, 
the style and subjects of sculpture, cylinder and other seals, and 


architecture in brick, terminating this chapter with some metrological 
data. Welcome is the news conveyed by M. Hubert that a neolithic 
site (Fort Harrouard, Sorel-Moussel, Eure) has become public property, 
and is being systematically explored. Of somewhat piquant interest 
is the discovery by Count Begouen and the Abb^ Breuil of baked clay 
in a deposit of La Madeleine date, sealed by stalagmite, in the passage 
between the caves known as Trois Freres and Enlene, Montesquieu- 
Avantes, Ariege. There is a marked disinclination to call it pottery, 
though Dr. Henri Martin asserted that other cases were known in 
France and Belgium, and asked why they were all rejected. 
Professor Boule contributes a full obituary notice and bibliography 
of our Hon. Fellow Emile Cartailhac of Toulouse, one of the founders 
of prehistoric science, who died 25th November while on a lecturing 
tour in Switzerland, at the age of 76 ; and the volume closes with 
a few pages from the Professor's pen on the Rhodesian skull : ' Some 
day perhaps, in some remote part of Africa the mysterious, will be 
found living examples of the last representatives of Neanderthal man or 
of the Rhodesian variety of that type.' 

Bulletin de la Socidtd archiologiqiie de la Corr^ze, vol. 43, part 3, 
contains a further part of M. Forot's paper on Saint-Robert in the 
Correze ; notes on Beaulieu, by M. Rousset ; a curd of Sarlat — the 
Abbe de Betou (i 741-1806), by M. de Lemaze; note on the letters of 
a lieutenant of the light infantry in 1798-9, by M. Lalande. 

Vol. 44, part I, of the same publication contains another part of 
M. Forot's paper on Saint-Robert in the Correze ; the portraits of the 
Noailles family painted by Oudry, by M. R. Fage ; Colonel Delmas, 
by Dr. Grilliere ; Walks in old Brive, by M. de Nussac ; Inventory of 
the archives of the town of Brive before 1791, by M. Lalande. 

Mimoires de la Commission des Antiquitds du Ddpartement de la 
C6te-d'Or,vo\. 16, contains the following papers: — Pendant rib-bosses 
carved with the arms of Chambellan at Dijon, by M. Chabeuf ; the 
nave roof of St. Benigne at Dijon in the eleventh century, by 
M. Calmette ; note on the partial reconstruction of the church of 
St. Benigne in the twelfth century, by Canon Chomton ; Antoine Rude, 
by M. Calmette ; wooden panel, carved with shields of arms, in the 
Dijon Museum, by M. Chabeuf ; excavations at Mont Auxois (Alesia), 
by M. Esperandieu ; the influence of the church of St. Andoche at 
Saulieu on those of Avallon, by M. Calmette ; the architectonic limits 
of Burgundian gothic, by M. Calmette ; the Tomb of Charles the Bold 
at Nancy, by M. Chabeuf; the Hdtel de Grancey et de Langres at 
Dijon, by M. Langeron ; an amateur artist at Dijon : Jean Godran, 
advocate (1606-83), by M. Oursel ; Notre-Dame, Dijon, and Canter- 
bury Cathedral, by M. Chabeuf ; official list of historical monuments 
of the Cote-d'Or on 31st December 1913. 

Bulletin historique de la Socidti des Antiquaires de la Morinie, vol. 
13, parts 2 and 3, contains a paper by M. J. Decroos on a sentence of 
perpetual imprisonment in the Salpetri^re in the eighteenth century ; 
a letter written in 1408 concerning the public protest of the duchess 
of Orleans regarding ttie murder of Louis, duke of Orleans, by John of 
Burgundy; on a feudal relief paid by the abbey of St. Bertin at Houllc, 
by M. Platiau ; the beginnings of the paper industry in the valley of 


the Aa, by M. de Pas ; the seigneurs of Blendecqucs, by abb^ 
Dclamottc ; two documents dealing with counter-revolutionary activity 
in the north of France, by M. vanKcmpen. 

Bulletin de la SociiU des Antiqnaires de Normandic, vol. 34, 
contains the following papers : Gerberon, the Jansenist editor of the 
works of St. Anselm, by M. Filliatre ; ancient camps, fortified 
enclosures and mottes in the departement de l^Eure, by M. Doranlo ; 
the building of the church at Flamanville (Manche) 1669-71, by 
M. Rostand ; Blaise Le Prestre, the church of Notre-Dame de Saint- 
Ld (Manche) and the chateau of Fontaine- Henry (Calvados), by 
MM. Lecacheux and Prentout ; the furniture in the abbey church 
of Val- Richer, by Abb^ Simon ; Le Matharel, Seigneur of Montreuil- 
en-Ange, by Abbe Simon ; the relics formerly in the church of the 
Holy Trinity at Caen, by M. Sauvage ; the Caen ancestors of Barbey 
d'Aurevilly, by Abbe Simon ; the excavations at Banville (Calvados), 
by MM. Gidon and Doranlo; the house of the Exchequer at Caen, 
and the treasures of Mont-Argis at Cambremer (Calvados), by M. 
Lesage ; an aqueduct at Bernicres-sur-Mer (Calvados), by M. Gidon; 
statue of a saint, early sixteenth century, from the chateau of St. 
Vigor-des-Mezerets (Calvados), by M. Heurtevent ; the Museum at 
TourlaviJle (Manche), by M. Rostand ; the house of the Eudists, 
the house of the ' Levrettc ' and the ' Croix de fer ' Inn at Caen, by 
M. Lesage ; a thirteenth-century statue of St. Anne and the Virgin 
at Grosville (Manche), by M. Rostand; ancient cave-dwellings in the 
Pays d'Auge, by M. Morin, with remarks on their date by M. Doranlo; 
the brothers Jallot, Norman privateers of the seventeenth century, by 
M. Lesage ; the possessions of the church of the Holy Sepulchre at 
Caen in 1618, by M. Carel ; Caen artists and craftsmen of the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, by M. Lesage ; the find of 
bronze axes at St. Pierre-Eglise, by M. Besnier ; the place-name la 
Trigalle, by M. Doranlo; the stages of the Bronze Age, by M. 
Doranlo; the retable at St. Ebremond-de-Bonfosse, by M. Rostand ; 
a strike of advocates at Bayeux in 1687, by M. Lesage ; a memorial 
addressed to Colbert in 1666 on the trade in copper ware at Villedieu- 
les-Poeles (Manche), by M. Sauvage ; on the titles rector, curd and 
parson, by M. Lesage. 

Bulletin trimestriel de la Socidti des Antiqnaires de Picardie, 1921, 
parts I and 2, contains a paper by M. A. de Franqueville on medieval 

Oud/ieidkundige Mededeelingen nit 's Rijksmnscnm van Oud' 
heden te Leiden, vol. 2 (new series), part 2, contains an article by 
Dr. Holwerda on the oppidum of the Batavi and the camp of the 
10th Legion found at Nijmegen, and another by Dr. Remouchamps 
on the swastika ornament in Anglo-Saxon pottery. 

Aarb0ger for Nor disk Oldkyndighed og Historic, ser. iii, vol, x 
(Copenhagen, 1920). 

This is an important volume of 322 pages, beautifully printed and 
illustrated as usual. It opens with an account of the meeting of 
Northern archaeologists at Copenhagen in 191 9, giving summaries 
of the various papers read and a list of those present. Our Hon. 
Fellow, Dr. Sophus Miiller, deals with new finds and forms, and 


pictorial art in the Bronze Age. On p. io6 are illustrations of 'what 
is perhaps the finest existing specimen of the best period of Migration 
art' — an oval gold brooch with garnet cell-work, not of northern 
origin but, to judge by all its details, probably of Anglo-Saxon work. 
His second contribution includes stones and other objects with a cross 
within a circle, and a stone carved to represent the impressions of two 
human feet ; also several illustrations of engraved bronze razors. A 
treatise on Northern and foreign ornament in the Viking period by 
J. Br0ndsted bids fair to become a classic, and has a full index of its 
own. Much has been discovered since Dr. Sophus Miiller's famous 
work on the subject appeared in 18H0, and Danish scholarship is now 
within reach of finality. Use is made of the Anglo-Saxon material, 
especially in connexion with the vine-scroll with included birds and 
animals ultimately derived from Syria; and the author shows at 
length how successive waves of culture broke over Scandinavia in 
Viking times. The oriental style, generally named after the ' grasping 
animal ', arrived towards the end of the eighth century ; Irish influence 
from about 850 gave rise to the Jellinge style; and the 'great beast' 
that characterizes the art of the eleventh century is traced to northern 
England. Full advantage is taken of the Winchester and Canterbury 
illuminated manuscripts, and many of our best known antiquities are 
discussed and given their place in the sequence. Somewhat un- 
expected attributions to Anglo-Saxon artists are the Lindau book- 
cover and the Tassilo chalice, but the suggestion is not made here for 
the first time. A good deal is said of the influence exercised in 
western Europe by Coptic art which is described as a blend of 
Hellenistic, Syrian, and Persian traditions; and various art-motives 
in European art are thus traced to their place of origin and assigned 
a chronological limit. It is a paper that would stand unlimited illus- 
tration, but references abound and in these days the student would be 
grateful even for the bare text of such a masterly survey of so wide 
a field. 

Berge7is Museums Aarbok, igi^-ig20 (Bergen, 192 1). — Studies of 
the Viking period by Jan Petersen refer particularly to tortoise- 
brooches, single and double-edged swords, scythes, iron bars in the 
form of Osmunds, and trefoil brooches, the last being assigned to the 
century 850-950 A. D. The principal paper is A. BJ0rn's survey of 
the Stone Age in S0ndm0r, a district in Romsdal, south of Molde, 
adjoining the northern end of the narrow coastal area known as 
Westland. It lies in the latitude of the Faroe Islands, and it is not 
surprising to find traces of the so-called Arctic culture, though the 
author holds that recent research has disproved the usual interpreta- 
tion of the slate industry (p. 53). The finds are not numerous, but are 
here set out on modern lines with ample illustrations. Once the types 
are mastered, such a survey comes within the scope of local archaeo- 
logists, who can confirm or modify the current principles of classifica- 
tion, and furnish the material for prehistoric research on national and 
international lines. A question of more than local interest is discussed 
(pp. 47-50), that of the amygdaloid flints in Scandinavia first raised 
by the late Professor Montelius. The theory that these were un- 
finished implements intended to be eventually much smaller does not 


entirely meet the case, and northern archaeology is not likely to leave 
the matter much longer in doubt. 

Fornvdnnen : Meddclanden frhi K. Vitterhets Historic och Anti- 
kvitets Akademien, 1921, Haft 3-4 (Stockholm). — Hr Sune Lindqvist 
resumes his study of burials in the Ynglinga saga, and gives on p. 194 
the conclusion of the whole matter. A gneiss boulder with a cross 
engraved within a ring on the east and west faces, found on the border 
of Halland and Vastergotland, is described by Dr. Bernhard Salin, who 
considers it the first known example of direct stone-worship among 
the Teutonic population of Sweden. A technical paper by Vivi 
Sylwan deals with the Brickband, with special reference to fabrics 
dating from the fifth century and 700 years later. This pattern is 
a variety of 'crossed weaving*, in which the warp-threads are inter- 
twisted amongst themselves and give an intermediate effect between 
ordinary weaving and lace, as in gauzes ; and the name is derived from 
the angular plates {brickar) of wood or bone which are pierced to take 
groups of the warp threads, one thread in each hole. The groups are 
more or less twisted or folded over in weaving, and a peculiar type of 
pattern results. The concluding article, by R. Ekblom, describes the 
routes followed a thousand years ago by Northmen and western Slavs 
along the waterways between the Baltic and the Black Sea. The most 
frequented route was from Lake Ladoga along the River Volkhoff by 
Novgorod to Lake Ilmen, thence by the River Msta and land-transit 
to the head waters of the Volga, the boats being dragged over the 
watershed on rollers. In the later Viking period Constantinople was 
the magnet that drew these sea-rovers south, and a shorter route was 
adopted. The Baltic was left by the Duna (Riga) or the Niemen 
(Tilsit), and one or other of the Dnieper's tributaries reached ; or the 
Duna was joined up the Lovat, which flows into Lake Ilmen. More 
problematic at that period was the route up the Vistula past Cracow, 
across to the head waters of the March, a river that joins the Danube 
between Vienna and Pressburg ; but this was much used many 
centuries before, for trade with south and central Europe. From 
Galicia the Bug gave access to the Black Sea, but a more direct route 
was by the upper waters of the Dniester, with a transfer to the Pruth 
and Danube. Traces of the Varangians are discovered in place-names, 
and it is noticed that the trading-stations or posts of the Northmen 
were on secluded tributaries, not on the main streams of the great rivers. 

Annales du Service des Antiquith de P^gypte, vol. 20, contains 
the following articles : a bas-relief of an equerry of Rameses II, by M. 
Daressy ; Ramesside statues with a large wig, by M. Daressy ; the 
scarab of the heart of the high priestess Ast-m-kheb, by M. Daressy ; 
selected papyri from the archives of Zenon, by Mr. C. C. Edgar ; the 
tomb of Petosiris, by M. Lefebvre ; two steles from Bubastis, by M. 
Daressy ; a statuary group from Saft el Henneh, by M. Daressy ; a 
' Royal son in Nubia,* by M. Daressy ; the princess Amen-Merit, by 
M. Daressy ; the discovery, inventory, and history of the tomb of Sen- 
nezem, by Seiior E, Toda ; a group of statues from Tell-el-Yahoudieh, 
by M. Daressy ; the animal of Seth with ass's head, by M. Daressy ; 
fragments from Memphis, by M. Daressy ; the bishopric of Sais and 
Naucratis, by M. Daressy; a sarcophagus of Medamoud, by M. Daressy ; 



texts from the tomb at Petosiris, by M. Lefebvre ; the god "Hpcov in 
Egypt, by M. Lefebvre; a Greek inscription from Deir-el-Abiad, by M. 
Lefebvre; Greco-Egyptian and Roman sanctuaries, by M. Perdrizet. 
American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 36, part i, contains the 
following articles : Pilgrimage sculpture, a study of the medieval 
school of sculpture which flourished in S.W. France and in Spain, by 
Mr. G. Kingsley Porter; an amphora of Nicosthenes in Baltimore, by 
Mr. D. M. Robinson ; Dynamic symmetry from the designer's point 
of view, by Miss G. M. A. Richter, with a reply by Professor Carpenter. 


Books only are included. Those marked * are in the Library of the 
Society of Antiquaries. 

*The Building of the Cathedral Church of St. Peter in Exeter. By Herbert E. 

Bishop and Edith K. Prideaux. 8|x5^. Pp. v+i86. Exeter: Commin, 

1922. loj. dd. 
*A History of Architecture on the comparative method for students, craftsmen, 

and amateurs. By Sir Banister Fletcher. 6th edition rewritten and enlarged. 

9 X 5^. Pp. xxxiv + 932. London: Batsford, 1921. ;^2 2j. 
A Guide to English Gothic Architecture, illustrated by numerous drawings and 

photographs. By Samuel Gardner. 11x75. Pp. xii+238. Cambridge 

University Press, 1922. i6j. 
*The Renaissance of Roman Architecture. By Sir Thomas Graham Jackson. 

Part n. England. 9^x7. Pp. xii + 228. Cambridge: at the University 

Press, 1920. \2i. 

*Memoires de la Mission archeologique de Perse. Tome XVL Mission en Susiane. 
Empreintes de Cachets 61amites par L. Legrain. i3^xio|. Pp. 59, with 
23 plates. Paris: Leroux, 1921. 

*Oxyrhynchus Papyri. Part XV. Edited by B. P. Grenfell and A, S. Hunt. 
\o\y.'j\. Pp.250. Egypt Exploration Society. 42J. 

Greek Archaeology. 

Korakou, A prehistoric settlement near Corinth. By C. W. Biegen. i2X9y. 

Pp. XV + 139. American School of Classical Studies at Athens. 
The Island of Roses and her eleven sisters or The Dodecanese, from the earliest 

time down to the present day. By Michael D. Volonakis. 8^x5|. Pp. xxv + 

438. Macmillan, 1922. 40J. 

History and Topography. 

*Lists of the Records of the Treasury, the Paymaster-General's Office, the 
Exchequer and Audit Department, and the Board of Trade to 1837 preserved 
in the Public Record Office: Lists and Indexes. No. XL VI. 13x8. 
Pp. X+217. London: Stationery Office, Imperial House, Kingsway, 1921. 
£\ IS. fid 

*Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts relating to English affairs existing in 
the archives and collections of Venice and in other libraries in northern Italy. 
Vol. XXIII. 1632-1636. Edited by Allen B. Hinds. Published under the 
direction of the Master of the Rolls. 10^x7. Pp. lii + 743. London: 
Stationery Office, Imperial House, Kingsway, 192 1. £i is. 

*CaIendar of hine Rolls, preserved in the Public Record Office. Vol. VI. 
Edward III. A. D. 1347-1356. io^x6j. Pp. vii + 620. London: Stationery 
Office, Imperial House, Kingsway, 1921. £2 iis. 



•Historical Manuscripts Commission. Report on the Manuscripts of Allan George 
Finch, Ksq., of Burley-on-the-Hill, Rutland. Vol.11. 9^x6. Pp. xxii + 636. 
London: Stationery Office, Imperial House, Kingsway, 1932. i.o/. 
•Ancient Deeds belonging to the CorporAtion of Bath, xiii-xvi cent. Translated 
and epitomised by Rev. C. W. Shickle. 1 1 x 8j. Pp. xvi-fi65. Bath 
Records Society, 192 1. 
•F'lint Pleas, 128^-1285. Edited by J. Goronwy Edwards. SjxsJ. Pp.lxx + 76. 

Flintshire Historical Society Publicitions, vol. 8. 
•Calendar of persons commemorated in Monumental Inscriptions and of abstracts 
of VV'ills, Administrations, &c., contained in books relating to Lancashire and 
Chcshire^^ Compiled and edited by F. C. Beazley. Lancashire and Cheshire 
Record Society, vol. 76. 8^x5 J. Pp. xx + 225. Printed for the Record 
Societv, 1922. 
•Marriage Bonds for the Deaneries of Lonsdale, Kendal, F'umesi, Copeland, and 
Amounderness, part of the Archdeaconry of Richmond, now presen-ed at 
Lancaster. Part H, 17 11— 1723. Edited by R. Stewart-Brown, Lancashire 
and Cheshire Record Society, Vol. 75. 8^x5^. Pp. 379. Printed for the 
Record Society, 1.92 1. 
•Oxfordshire Record Society. Ncwington Longeville Charters. Transcribed and 
edited with an introduction by the Rev. H. E. Salter. Oxford Record Series, 
no. HL 9^x6}. Pp. xlvi + ii24. Oxford: issued for the Society, 192 1. 
•An abstract of the Court Rolls of the Manor of Preston (Preston Episcopi). 
By Charles Thomas Stanford. Sussex Record Society, vol. 27. 8| x 5^. 
Pp. xxviii + 86. 
Ailred of Rievaulx and his biographer, Walter Daniel, by F. M. Powicke. loj x 6}. 

Pp. Vii+ii2. Manchester University Press, jj. 
The Study of Medieval chronicles. By T. V. Tout. ioj-x6|. Pp. 29. Man- 
chester University Press, u. 6t/. 
•Cripplegate, oneofthetwenty-six wardsof the City of London. By Sir John James 
Baddeley, Lord Mayor of London. ioJx8|. Pp. xix + 339. Printed for 
private circulation. 
•The ruined Norman chapel of Netherton, near Elmley Castle, Worcestershire. By 

E. A. B. Barnard, six 8 J. Pp. 31. Privately printed. 
•Social Life in the days of Piers Plowman. By D. Chadwick. 8j x si. Pp. xiii + 

125. Cambridge: at the University Press. loj. 6d. 
•Henry VL By M. E. Christie. 8f^x 5^. Pp. viii + 420. London: Constable. i6j. 
•The Deanery of Harlow : a small contribution to the history of the Church in 
Essex. By John L. Fisher. 7^x5. Pp. vii + 372. Colchester : Renham & Co., 
1922. los. 6d. 
•British Flags : their early history, and their development at sea ; with an account 
of the origin of the flag as a national device. By W. G. Perrin Illustrated 
in colour by H. S. Vaughan. 9^x6j. Pp. xii + 208. Cambridge: at the 
University Press, 1922. 30J. 
•The City of London against the War with the American Colonies 1775—78. By 

Charles J. Phillip*. 7^x4^. Pp.19. 
•The History of the Village and Church of Escombe, co. Durham. By Brigadier- 
General Conyers Surtees. 8^x5!-. Pp.35. Privately printed, 1922. 
•Andrew Marvell Tercentenary celebrations at Hull. A Record by T. Sheppard. 

8jx 5^. Pp. 21. Hull: Brown & Sons. is. 
•Wilberforce House: its history and collections. By T. Sheppard. Hull Museum 
Publications, no. 124. 8^x5!. Pp.8. 
History of Hingham, Norfolk, and its church of St. Andrew. 7 + 4J. Pp. 51. 
•A History of Northumberland, issued under the direction of the Northumberland 
County History Committee. Vol. XI. The parishes of Carham, Branxton, 
Kirknewton, Wooler, and Ford. By Kenneth H. Vickers. 11 x 82. Pp. xii + 
509. Newcastle: Reid ; London: Simpkin, 1922. £2 2s. 
•Some account of the Oxford University Press 1468— 1921. 9}x5|. Pp. iii. 

Oxford : at the Clarendon Press. 
•Centenaire de I'jfccole des Chartes 1821-1921. Compte rendu de la journ6e du 
22 F^vrier 1921. 9jx6j. Pp.109. Paris: £cole nationale des Chartes, 192 1. 
•L'Academie Royale de Belgique depuis sa fondation (1772-1922). 9 x 5 J. 
Pp. 345. Brussels: Lamertin. 

V a 


*Journal of the Travels and Labours of Father Samuel Fritz in the River of the 
Amazons between 1686 and 1733. Translated from the Evora MS. and 
edited by the Rev. Dr. George Edmundson. 8fx5^. Pp. viii+164. Hakluyt 
Society, and Series, li. 

Indian Archaeology. 
*Annual Report of the Mysore Archaeological Department for the year 192 1, with 

the Government review thereon. 13X8J. Pp.37. Bangalore, 1922. 
*The Temples at Palampet. By Ghulam Yazdani. Memoirs of the Archaeological 

Survey of India, no. 6. i2|x 10. Pp. vi + 175-185, with 7 plates. Calcutta,. 

1922. 2 rupees 8 annas. 
*Some recently added sculptures in the Provincial Museum, Lucknow, By Pandit 

Hiranandra Shastri. Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India, no. 11.. 

i2|x 10. Pp. vi+i7, with 5 plates. Calcutta, 1922. 2 rupees. 

*The Gilbertine Rite. Edited by Canon R. M. Woolley. Vol. I. Henry Bradshaw 
Society, vol. 59. 8jx5|. Pp. lv+150. London. 


A descriptive catalogue of the Latin Manuscripts in the John Rylands Library at 

Manchester. By M. R. James. 2 vols. i2fxio|-. Pp. xxvii+328; viii,. 

with 187 plates. Manchester University Press. 84J. 
Greek and Latin Illuminated Manuscripts, x-xiii centuries, in Danish Collections. 

20 X 15. Pp. 51, with 64 plates. Milford." ;^io los. 

Mexican Archaeology. 
♦Excavation of a site at Santiago Ahuitzotla, D. F. Mexico. By Alfred M. Tozzer. 
Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnology, Bulletin 74. 9x5!. Pp. 56,. 
with 19 plates. Washington, 1921, 

*A Catalogue of the Greek coins of Arabia, Mesopotamia and Persia. By G. F. 
Hill. 9x6j. Pp. ccxix + 559, with 55 plates. British Museum. 50J. 
The Temple coins of Olympia. By C. T. Seltman. iiJxSf. Pp. x + 117. 

Cambridge : Bowes and Bowes, 
♦Yorkshire Tramway Tokens and Counters and Yorkshire Seventeenth-Century 
Tokens. By T. Sheppard. Hull Museum Publications, no. 127. 8^x52- 

Pp- 139-151- 
♦Catalogue of Love Tokens and other engraved pieces in the Hull Museum. By 
T. Sheppard. Hull Museum Publications, no. 126. 8^x5^. Pp. 109-129. 


♦Meditations on the Life and Passion of Christ from British Museum Addit MS. 

11307. By Charlotte D'Evelyn. Early English Text Society, no. 158. Shx 

5|. Pp. xxxiv+86. London: Milford. 20s. 
♦English Prose Treatises of Richard Rolle de Hampole. Edited from Robert 

Thornton's MS. in the Library of Lincoln Cathedral. By G, G. Perry. 

Early English Text Society, no. 20. 9x5^. Pp.55. London : Milford, 1866, 

1921. ss. 
♦Officium de Sancto Ricardo de Hampole. Early English Text Society. 9 x 5^. 

Pp. 31. Printed c. 1867 ; published 1921. 


♦English Goldsmiths and their Marks. By Sir Charles James Jackson. Second 

edition revised and enlarged. ii|x8j. Pp. xvi + 747. London : Macmillan, 

1921- ;^5 5J- 
Prehistoric Archaeology. 
♦List of Papers bearing upon the . . . prehistoric archaeology of the British Isles, 

issued during 1920. By T. Sheppard. Reprint from Report of British 

Association 1 92 1. 8^x5^. Pp. 499-549* 
♦Bronze Age "Weapons in 'the Scarborough Museum. By T. Sheppard. Reprint 

from The Naturalist, December 1921. 8ix 5^. Pp. 391-399- 


*Hun Museum : Quarterly record of additions, no. Ixiii. Remains of the Elk in 

East Yorkshire ; two East Yorkshire bronze axes : a bronze mpuld; British 

pottery made by ^ Flint Jack'. Edited by T. Sheppard. Hull Museum 

publications, no. 128. S\x 5J. Pp. 285-362. 
* Early British Trackways, Moats, Mounds, Camps, and Sites. By Alfred Watkins. 

8J X 6. Pp. 41. Hereford: The Watkins Meter Co. London: Simpkin. 

192a. 4j. 6</. 
*Cranial Trephination in Prehistoric Great Britain. By T. Wilson Parry, yjx 

4?. Pp. 23. Reprint from Medical Press and Circular, November 1921. 
•The Prehistoric Trephined Skulls of Great Britain, together with a detailed 

descriptidn of the operation performed in each case. By T. Wilson Parry. 

9 J X 7. Pp. 16. Reprint from Proc. R. Soc. of Medicine, xiv, no. 10. 

Romano-British Archaeology. 

•British Museum : A Guide to the Anticjuities of Roman Britain in the Department 
of British and Medieval Antiquities. 8 J x 5^. Pp. xii+ 136. Printed at the 
Oxford University Press by order of the Trustees, 1922. 2j. 6J. 

♦The Roman Road, north of Low Borrow Bridge, to Brougham Castle, West- 
morland, and on the route of the loth Iter. By Percival Ross. 9x6. Pp. 15. 
Reprint from * The Bradford Antiquary ', 1931. 

Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries 

Thursday, 2}rd February ig22. Sir Hercules Read, President, 
in the Chair. 

The following were admitted Fellows: — Rev. S. W. Wheatley, 
Sir W. H. Wells, Mr. Albany Major, and Mr. F. B. Andrews. 

Mr. John Humphreys, F.S.A., and Mr. E. A. B. Barnard, F.S.A., 
read a paper on recent discoveries of Saxon remains in the valley of 
the Warwickshire Avon, which will be published in the Antiquaries 

Thursday^ 2nd March 1^22. Sir Hercules Read, President, in the 

Dr. W. L. Hildburgh, F.S.A., exhibited seven alabaster tables and 
figures, and an enamelled processional cross. 

Mr. H. G. Beasley, exhibited through Mr. O. M. Dalton, F.S.A., 
a wooden figure of a lion. 

The following were elected fellows : — Mr. Percival Ross. Mr. Bertram 
Edward Sargeaunt, M.V.O., O.B.E., Lt.-Col. Henry Howard, Mr. 
Ernest Carrington Ouvry, Major Clement Rolfc Ingleby, Mr. Joseph 
Piatt Hall, Rev. Robert Ullock Potts, Mr. William Bell Jones, 
Dr. Eliot Curwen, Mr. Stanley Casson, Mr. George Stuart Robert- 
son, K.C. 

Thursday, gih March ig22. Sir Hercules Read, President, in the 

The following were admitted Fellows: — Major C. R. Ingleby, 
Mr. G. S. Robertson, Lt.-Col. Howard, and Canon T. A. Lacey. 

The President referred to the death of Mr. Horace William Sandars, 


Vice-President, and moved the following resolution, which was carried 

* The Fellows of the Society of Antiquaries have heard with the 
greatest regret of the death of their Vice-President, Mr. Horace 
Sandars, and desire to express to Miss Sandars their sincere con- 
dolence with her in her bereavement. 

' Mr. Sandars's attainments as an archaeologist have earned him a 
distinguished place among his contemporaries, and the Fellows will 
not easily forget his ripe learning and ready courtesy.' 

Mr. W. A. Littledale, F.S.A., read a paper on the seal of Robert 
Fitz Mildred (see p. 211). 

Dr. G. H. Fowler, Local Secretary for Bedfordshire, read a paper 
on the devastation of Bedfordshire and the neighbouring counties in 
ic66, which will be printed in Archaeologia. 

Thursday, i6th March ig22. Sir Hercules Read, President, in 
the Chair. 

Mr. K. C. Ouvry was admitted a Fellow. 

Mr. P>ic Maclagan, F.S.A., read a .paper on the panels of a 
Carolingian ivory diptych in the Ravenna and South Kensington 
Museums and on two fourteenth-century ivory groups (see p. 193). 

Dr. W. L. Hildburgh, F.S.A,, read a paper on an Ibero-Roman 
silver treasure. 

Thursday, 2)rd March i()22. Sir Hercules Read, President, in 
the Chair. 

Rev. R. U. Potts was admitted a Fellow. 

Mr. J. H. E. Bennett, F.S.A., was appointed a Local Secretary for 

A letter was read from Mr, Edmund Sandars on behalf of Miss 
Sandars thanking the Fellows for the message of condolence passed 
on the death of Mr. Horace Sandars. 

Mr. E!. C. R. Armstrong, F.S.A., read a paper on Irish bronze pins 
of the Christian period, which will be published in Archaeologia. 

Mr. Armstrong also read a note on the Hallstatt period in Ireland 
(see p. 204). 

Lt.-Col. Bidder, F.S.A., read a paper on fuller excavations in the 
Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Mitcham which will be published in the 
Antiquaries Journal. 

Mr. Garraway Rice, F.S.A., exhibited a Romano-British earthenware 
vessel and an Anglo-Saxon bronze bowl found at Mitcham. 

Thursday, joth March ig22. Sir Hercules Read, President, in the 

A special vote of thanks was passed to Mr. W. A. Littledale, F.S.A.» 
for his gift of the Visitations of England^ edited by J. J. Howard and 
F. A. Crisp. 

Dr. Eliot Curwen was admitted a Fellow. 

Mr. O. G. .S. Crawford, F.S.A., exhibited three volumes of drawings, 
mostly by W. Stukeley, made about 1725, the property of Mrs. 
St. John. 


Mr. G. Kruger Gray, F.ij.A., exhibited an early fifteenth-century 
Itah'an wooden crucifix. 

The Vicar and Churchwardens through Major Farquharson, F.S.A., 
exhibited three funeral helmets from Kittisford Church, Somerset. 

Lt.-Col. Karslake, F.S.A., read a paper on Coldharbours (see p. 240). 

Thursday^ 6th April ig22. Sir Hercules Read, President, in the 

Mr. R. W.'Crowther was admitted a Fellow. 

The report of the Auditors of the Society's accounts for the year 
1921 was read, and thanks were voted to the Auditors for their 
trouble, and to the Treasurer for his good and faithful services. 

Sir Martin Conway, Vice-President, read papers on an early 
Christian bronze group of St. Peter and St. Paul (see p. 255), and on 
the reliquary of the True Cross at Poitiers and the Talisman of 
Charlemagne, which will be published in the Antiquaries Journal. 

Tuesday, 2jth April ig22. Anniversary Meeting. Sir Hercules 
Read, President, in the Ciiair. 

Mr. Garraway Rice and Mr. V. B. Crowther-Beynon were appointed 

ru ators of the ballot. 

The following report of the Council for the year 1921-23 was read : 

The Council in laying its report for the year 1921-22 before the 
Fellows is gratified to be able to state that the year that has passed 
has been in all respects a prosperous one, and it may confidently be 
asserted that the ill effects of the war are now slowly passing away. 
The cost of printing — our main expense — still remains high, but that 
too is dropping, although it cannot be hoped that the normal will be 
reached for some time yet. 

The question of Finance has been fully dealt with by the Treasurer 
in his report circulated with the accounts, so need not be touched 
upon here, but the Council wishes to congratulate the Treasurer on 
the great success of his financial measures. These have been much 
assisted by the generous co-operation of the Fellows. 

Owing to the provision made for an extra ballot when the Statutes 
were recently revised, more Fellows have been elected this year, but 
in spite of this tlie number of candidates awaiting ballot is still as 
great as ever, and in fact in the year 192 1 more candidates were 
nominated than in any year since 1900, and to judge from the present 
state of the list it seems probable that the present year will see a still 
larger number. 

The most important event of the year that has passed has been the 
completion of the first volume of the Antiquaries yournal\ when the 
last Report was presented only two numbers had been published. 
The amount of outside support the Journal has received has been 
satisfactory, with the result that a considerable part of the cost of 
production will be met from the proceeds of sales and subscriptions. 
The Council would impress upon the Fellows the necessity of their 
doing all in their power to make the Journal still better known, and 
of forwarding to the Editorial Committee any items of archaeological 


news that may come to their notice. The Council desires to recognize 
the activity shown by many Local Secretaries in making communi- 
cations which have added much to the interest of the Journal. Still 
more may, however, be done in this direction. 

The volume o{ Archaeologia for J 921 will be ready very soon after 
this Report is presented. 

With regard to the Library the periodicals received by exchange or 
purchase have been coming in regularly. There are still considerable 
arrears of binding to be made up, but much of the most pressing work 
was done during the past year and it is hoped that this year will see 
this department normal once more. It has been deemed advisable 
both on the score of expense and also of durability to substitute cloth 
and buckram for leather bindings. The question of repairs to books 
is still pressing. A considerable amount was spent last year under 
this head and still more has been allocated for the present year. 

The number of books issued to Fellows from the Library during 
the past year has been 420 ; the actual number of Fellows borrowing 
books was 112. 

In the matter of Research Colonel Hawley has continued his 
labours at Stonehenge during the past year, and his second report 
was presented in June and printed in the January number of the 
Journal. A further report will be read in June next. 

The accidental discovery of a Late Celtic Cemetery at Swarling in 
Kent in the summer of last year demanded immediate investigation, 
and the Council accordingly authorized the Research Committee to 
carry out excavations on the site. Owing to the willing co-operation 
of the owner, Mr. Collard, the Committee was enabled to proceed 
with the work at once. In July Mr. C. L. Woolley spent a fortnight 
excavating the cemetery, and in October Mr. Bushe-Fox and Mr. May 
were able to spend another month over the work, with the result that the 
greater part of the Cemetery is now thoroughly explored. Although 
no startling discoveries were made, such as at Aylesford, a large 
quantity of Late Celtic pottery and other objects was obtained and 
the Council feels that its action in undertaking the excavation of the 
site has been fully warranted. 

Grants have been made from the Research Fund in aid of exca- 
vations at St. Augustine's, Canterbury, Langley Priory, Norfolk, the 
Roman Fort at Ilkley, the Meare Lake Village, and to the Bronze 
Implements Committee of the British Association. 

Since the last Anniversary Meeting the proposals for administering 
the Haverfield Bequest to the University of Oxford have been approved 
by Convocation and are now in working order. This bequest to the 
University by Professor Haverfield is for the purpose of promoting 
the study of Roman Britain. Under his Will the scheme had to be 
approved by the Council of the Society, which was further empowered 
to nominate two members of the Committee appointed to administer 
the bequest. The Council accordingly appointed the Director and 
Mr. Reginald Smith to represent the Society. 

The losses by death duiing the past year have been rather more 
numerous than usual, including three very distinguished Honorary 


The following have died since the last anniversary : 

Ordinary Fellows. 
George Holmes Blakesley, 21st April 1922. 
Gery Milner Gibson Cullum, 21st November 1921. 
Hermann Frederick Williams Deane, 21st December 1921. 
Rev. Francis John Eld, 15th February 1922. 
Henri Favarger, 30th January 1922. 
Algernon Graves, 5th February 1922. 
George Eley Halliday, 5th April 1922, 
Lewis, Viscount Harcourt, 24th February J 922. 
Rev. Albert Augustus Harland, 12th December 1921. 
Henry Seaton Harland, 31st July 1921. 
Henry Paul Hawkshaw, 6th April 1922 
Captain George Harry Higson, 8th November 1921. 
Canon George Edward Jeans, 7th August 1921. 
Brian Piers Lascelles, 17th January 1922. 
George Blundell Longstafif, M.D., 7th May 1921. 
John Wickham Legg, M.D., 28th October 1921. 
Gervaise Le Gros, 21st October 1921. 
Keith William Murray, Portcullis, nth January 1922. 
Lawrence Barnett Phillips, 14th April 1922. 
William Niven, 7th November 1921. 

Horace William Sandars, Vice-President, 26th February 1922. 
Lt.-Col. John Glas Sandeman, 7th December 1921. 
Lt.-Col. Edward Mansel Sympson, M.D., 15th January 1922. 
Nathaniel Hubert John Westlake, 9th May 1921. 
Rt. Rev. Huysshe Wolcott Yeatman-Biggs, D.D., 14th April 1922. 

Honorary Fellows. 
Emile Cartailhac, 25th November 1921. 
Oscar Montelius, 4th Novertiber 1921. 
Guillermo Joaquin de Osma, 6th February 1922. 

Mr. Hermann Frederick Williams Deane was elected a Fellow in 
1900. He was born in 1858 and educated at Repton and Trinity 
College, Cambridge. For many years he was Head Master of St. 
George's Choir School, Windsor, and at his death was librarian and 
chapter clerk to the Dean and Chapter. He took a considerable 
interest in educational matters and was Editor of the Public Schools 
Year Book and other similar works. He does not appear to have 
taken any part in the work of the Society. 

The Rev. Francis John Eld was elected a Fellow in 1899, and 
although he never made any communications to the Society, he did 
useful work for the Worcestershire Society when he resided at 
Worcester, and afterwards in Suffolk while he was rector of Polstead. 

Mr. Algernon Graves, who was elected a Fellow in 1895, was 
a prominent figure in the art world. The younger son of Mr. Henry 
Graves, he entered his father's business in 1864 and eventually became 
head of the firm, from which he retired in 1907, subsequently becoming 


connected with Messrs. Agnew. Mr. Graves will ever be remembered 
as an historian of English Art. During the last twenty years he had 
published twenty-one large volumes, among them being Royal 
Academy Exhibitions, Dictionary of Artists who have exhibited 
works in the principal London Exhibitions, History of the works of 
Sir Joshua Reynolds ^ A Century of Loan Exhibitions, and Art Sales, 
all of which show a laborious and painstaking industry, as well as 
being indispensable as works of reference. 

Mr. George Eley Halliday, who was elected a Fellow in 191 1, was 
educated at Uppingham and abroad. He had for many years held 
the position of architect and surveyor for the Diocese of Llandafif, and 
had had much to do with the repair and preservation of the more 
ancient churches in that diocese, many of which have had the benefit 
of his careful and considerate treatment. In most instances he was 
able to combine his wide experience as a practical architect with the 
true antiquarian spirit of conservation. Mr. Halliday was a past 
president of the South Wales Institute of Architects, and had 
published several works, the best known perhaps being his History 
of the Chnrch Plate of the Diocese of Llandaff. He had also written 
numerous archaeological papers, some of which are to be found in 
Archaeologia Cavibrensis. 

The work of Viscotmt Harconrt, who was elected a Fellow in 191 7, 
lay principally in the domain of Politics, and he had held the offices 
of First Commissioner of Works and of Colonial Secretary. As First 
Commissioner he played an important part in administering the 
Ancient Monuments Act, and he took a considerable interest in the 
subject of the preservation of ancient monuments. He was prominent 
as a Trustee of the London Museum and was also a Trustee of the 
British Museum, of the Wallace Collection, and of the National 
Portrait Gallery. He was made a Privy Councillor in 1905 and 
raised to the peerage in 1916. 

Mr. Henry Seaton Harland who was elected in 1882, made several 
communications to the Society, amongst the subjects being flint 
implements, bronze celts, and Roman coins, found in Yorkshire. 

Captain George Harry Higson was only elected a Fellow eight 
months before his death, so that he had no opportunity of taking 
a part in the Society's work. He had, however, been active in 
archaeological work in Wales and had excavated an important Roman 
site near his home at Beddgelert. 

Canon George Edzvard Jeans was elected a Fellow in 1892. He 
was a Fellow of Hertford College, Oxford, and had been Assistant 
Master at Haileybury. He had written several works on classical 
subjects and had also compiled a list of monumental brasses in 
Lincolnshire and written handbooks to Lincolnshire, Hampshire, and 
the Isle of Wight. In 1898 he contributed a paper to the Society 
on the remains of the Chapel of our Lady at Smithgate, Oxford, 
but beyond this he does not appear to have taken any part in the 
Society's work. 


Beyond exhibiting in 1 899 a bronze knife in the Harrow Museum, 
said on insufficient authority to have been found in Egypt, Mr. Brian 
Piers Lascelles does not appear to have taken any active part in the 
work of the Society, of which he was elected a Fellow in 1S96, but 
he was a not infrequent attendant at the meetings. He was educated 
at Magdalen College, Oxford, where, owing to his extreme height, he 
was known as the Magdalen giant. In 18S5 he was appointed a 
master at Harrow, and subsequently became librarian and curator of 
the Museum. He took an active interest in local politics, was a 
member of the District Council and of the Education Committee, and 
Honorary Secretary of the Cottage Hospital. 

Mr. Gervaise Le Gros was elected a Fellow in 1905. He had been 
President of the Socidte Jersiaise and was a great supporter of 
antiquarian work in Jersey. He does not appear to have taken any 
part in the work of the Society, but was a regular attendant at the 
Summer Meetings of the Royal Archaeological Institute. 

Dr. George Blundcll Longstaff was elected a Fellow in 1902, but 
does not appear to have made any contribution to the Society's 
proceedings nor to have taken an active part in its work. He was 
educated at Rugby, New College, and St. Thomas's Hospital, where 
he was Mead Medallist. He took a keen interest in Municipal affairs, 
was a member of the London County Council from iJ'89 to 1903, 
and took a prominent part in drafting and getting through Parliament 
the London Building Act of 1894. 

An obituary notice of Dr. John Wickham Legg has already ap- 
peared in the Antiquaries Journal (see p. 67). 

Mr. Keith William Murray, Portcullis Pursuivant of Arms, was 
elected a Fellow in 1891. For five years he edited the Genealogist, 
and in 191 1 became Carnarvon Pursuivant Extraordinary, being 
promoted to Portcullis in 19 13. He never appears to have contributed 
to our proceedings. 

Mr. William Niven, who was born in 1846, was elected a Fellow 
in 1884, and for many years had served as one of the Local 
Secretaries for Buckinghamshire. In his earlier years he had con- 
siderable reputation as an architect of ecclesia.stical buildings and 
received a medal of the Royal Institute of British Architects for 
measured drawings in 1880. He worked under Sir Gilbert Scott, 
and the most important building that he designed was probably 
St. Alban's, Tcddington, in which Scott's influence is clearly seen. 
He retired from practice some years ago. He made several com- 
munications to the Society, was the author of several books on old 
houses, and had for many years been editor of the Records of Bucks, 

Mr. Lawrence Barnett Phillips, who died at the age of 80, was 
elected a Fellow in 1885, and made several exhibits before the 
Society, several of them being examples of early silver plate. He 
was a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society and an Associate 
of the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers and Engravers. He was 


formerly in business as a wholesale chronometer and watch manu- 
facturer, and was famous as the inventor of the keyless watch. As 
an artist he had frequently exhibited at the Royal Academy and 
other exhibitions, and amongst his other activities was the compilation 
of the Dictionary of Biographical Reference. 

The death of Mr. Horace William Sandars has removed one who, 
by his unfailing courtesy and ever ready help, had endeared himself 
to every one who had the privilege of his friendship. Mr. Sandars 
was well known to most of the Fellows, if not personally, at least by 
the valuable communications which he made to Archaeologia and the 
other publications of the Society. His business interests took him 
much to Spain and to Roumania, and on Spain he had written several 
papers for the Society, prominent amongst them being those on the 
weapons of the Iberians, and on a collection of Ibero-Roman silver 
jewellery. He also communicated an important paper on the deer- 
horn pick in the mining operations of the ancients. His last com- 
munication was a valuable summary of Spanish archaeology printed 
in the October number of the Antiquaries Journal (vol. i, p. 342). 
Mr. Sandars served on the Council on several occasions, was a Vice- 
President at the time of his death, and his advice and assistance were 
ever at the service of the Society. It may perhaps now be permissible 
to state that had the first Franks Student been able to prosecute his 
studies in Spain, Mr. Sandars was prepared considerably to augment 
the emoluments of the Studentship. Mr. Sandars, who was elected 
a Fellow in 1906, died after a lingering illness in February last. 

Lt.-Col. John Glas Sandeman was elected a Fellow in 1898. He 
was born in 1846, and after being educated at King's College, 
London, entered the army as a subaltern in the Royal Dragoons 
at the age of seventeen. He served in the Crimea and was present 
at the battles of Balaclava and Inkermann, and at the siege of 
Sebastopol. At his death he was the senior member of H.M. Body- 
guard of Gentleman of Arms, in which corps he took a great interest, 
writing its history under the title of The Spears of Hotwur and the 
Gentlemen Pensioners. He also collected Greek and Roman objects 
of art. He made but one communication to the Society in which he 
corrected some errors as to the Gentlemen Pensioners occurring in the 
edition of the Ordinances of the Household, published by the Society 
in 1790. 

Dr. Edward Mansel Sympson was educated at Shrewsbury, Caius 
College, Cambridge, and St. Bartholomew's Hospital, where he 
became both House Physician and House Surgeon. He was after- 
wards surgeon to the Lincoln County Hospital and to the General 
Dispensary. As an antiquary he was an acknowledged authority on 
all matters concerning Lincolnshire. He edited the Lincolnshire 
Notes and Queries^ was co-editor of the Associated Architectural 
Societies' Reports, and had published many articles and papers on 
Lincolnshire antiquities, being particularly interested in the Church 
Plate of the County. Although he was only elected a Fellow in 
1913, he had before that date served as Local Secretary for Lincoln- 


shire and was holding the appointment at his death. During the War 
he became a Lt.-Colonel in the R.A.M.C. 

Mr. Nathaniel Hubert John Westlake^ who died at an advanced 
age in May, was elected in 1869, and at his death only three Fellows 
were senior to him. Mr. Westlake was a prominent student of ancient 
painted glass, on which he had written a monumental work. He 
made several communications to the Society, amongst them one on 
the glass in Fairford Church, and shortly before his death arranged to 
exhibit a paYiel of heraldic glass before the Society, his intentions 
being carried out by his daughter shortly afterwards. 

The Right Reverend Huysshe IVolcott Yeatman-Biggs had resigned 
the see of Coventry only a few weeks before his death. He was born 
in 1845 and was educated at Winchester and Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, of which he subsequently became honorary Fellow. In 
1891 he was consecrated Bishop Suffragan of South wark, and had 
much to do with preparing the way for the division of the diocese of 
Rochester and of organizing the Collegiate Church of St. Saviour's, 
Southwark, which ultimately became the cathedral church of the new 
see. In 1905, when Southwark became a separate diocese, Dr. Yeat- 
man-Biggs was translated to Worcester, becoming in 191 8 the first 
bishop of the newly constituted see of Coventry, when he had success- 
fully carried out the division of the Worcester diocese. 

He was elected a Fellow in 1903 and, although his public duties 
prevented his taking any active part in the work of the Society, he 
was keenly interested in archaeological matters and especially in 
church architecture. This knowledge stood him in good stead when 
questions of the restoration of churches in his diocese came up, and he 
was quick to veto any proposals which were likely to damage any 
historical or archaeological feature. On the other hand he was ever 
ready to assist schemes of real restoration, as his appeal for the 
Beauchamp Chapel, Warwick, issued shortly before his death, and for 
the saving from destruction of some of the old houses in Coventry 
amply testifies. 

Of the three distinguished Honorary Fellows who have died during 
the past year an appreciation of the work of Dr. Oscar Montelius was 
published in the January number of the Antiquaries Jo7irnal (p. 68), 
and notices of M. Cartailhac and of Senor de Osma will be found in 
the present number (pp. 267, 269). 

The Treasurer made a statement on the general state of the Society's 
finances and presented his accounts. 

The scrutators having handed in their report the following were 
declared elected as Officers and Council for the ensuing year: 
Sir Hercules Read, President; Mr. William Minet, Treasurer; 
Mr. C. R. Peers, Director; Mr. Ralph Griffin, Secretary. Mr. W. 
Paley Baildon, Mr. A. W. Clapham, Mr. O. M. Dalton, Rev. E. E. 
Dorling, Mr. M. S. Giuseppi, Lt.-Col. J. B. P. Karslake, Mr. C. L. 
Kingsford, Mr. P. G. Laver, Mr. C. J. Praetorius, Mr. H. Sands, 
Mr. C. O. Skilbeck, Rev. H. P. Stokes, Mr. W. M. Tapp, Mr. E. P. 


Warren, Sir Lawrence Weaver, Mr. E. A. Webb, and Rev. H. F. 

The meeting was then adjourned until 8.30 when the President 
announced that he had appointed Mr. W, Paley Baildon and Mr. 
M. S. Giuseppi to be Vice-Presidents of the Society. 

The President then delivered his anniversary address (p. 177), at 
the close of which the following resolution was proposed by Mr. 
Jerome Bankes, seconded by Mr. William Dale, and carried unani- 

*That the best thanks of the meeting be returned to the President 
for his address, and that he be requested to allow it to be printed.' 

The President signified his assent. 

Thursday, 4th May ig22. Sir Hercules Read, President, in the 

Dr. R. E. M. Wheeler, F.S.A., read papers on a new beaker from 
Wales ; on recent discoveries in the Roman fort at Cardiff, which will 
both be published in the Antiquaries Journaly and on the recent 
excavations at Segontium. 

Mr. J. Murray Kendall, F.S.A., read a paper on the Siege of 
Berkhampstead Castle in 1216, which will be published in the Anti- 
quaries Journal. 

Thursday, nth May ig22. Rev. E. E. Dorling, Vice-President, in 
the Chair. 

Mr. C. E. Keyser, F.S.A., exhibited a series of lantern slides of the 
fourteenth-century sculptures on the wall-plates of the churches of 
Bloxham, Adderbury, Hanwell, and Allerton, Oxon., and Brailes, 



Antiquaries Journal 

Vol. II October, 1922 No. 4 

IVew Discoveries at Knossos 
By Sir Arthur Evans, Hon. Vice-President 

It niight have been thought that after eight campaigns — 
extending back to 1900 and supplemented by minor investiga- 
tions — the Palace site of Knossos would have been pretty well 
exhausted. The work indeed on my first volume about the 
House of Minos had brought out certain lacunas in the evidence 
which it was of the first importance to fill in, and the probings 
that it had been possible to carry out in the period immediately 
preceding the Great War led me to the conclusion that the site, 
if seriously attacked, might still be productive of archaeological 

Certainly the circumstances of the times made it a serious 
burden for the excavator to take on his own shoulders. The 
price of labour, owing to the exceptional drain of men from Crete 
for service abroad, had gone up to above five times its pre-war 
level, even allowing for the fall of the drachma. But it was 
possible to secure many of my old Moslem workmen (these being 
unaffected by the levy), and some of these had attained great skill 
in former excavations. Operations began in the middle of 
February, with developments that took quite a dramatic turn, 
and necessitated the continuation of work till the first of July last. 

I was able to secure, as before, the valuable assistance of 
Dr. Mackenzie, and architectural and artistic help from Mr. F. G. 
Newton, fresh from his work at Tell-el-Amarna, and Mr. Piet 
de Jong, later on engaged with the British excavators at Mycenae. 

Early in the campaign the operations were somewhat distracted 
by an interesting discovery in the large neighbouring village of 
Arkhanes, which lies about an hour's ride above Knossos in a 
beautiful upland glen. The central part of this village was found 

VOL. II z 



actually to rest on the base-slabs and orthostats of a considerable 
building, the ' Summer Palace ', we may suppose, of Minoan 
Knossos. The site is immediately overlooked by the peak of 
Juktas with its votive sanctuary, and flanked by a knoll already 
known to be the seat of an identical cult. As the village itself, 
which is the second as regards population in the island, could 
hardly be removed, 1 had to content myself with exploring 
the interior of a ring of great hewn blocks brought to light by 
recent house-building on its outskirts, which when cleared out 

Fig. I. Circular Minoan Reservoir. 

proved to be a circular reservoir or well-house ot massive con- 
struction with descending steps and a stone conduit for its surplus 
waters (figs. 1-3). It belonged, as its ceramic contents showed, 
to the beginning of the Late Minoan Age. Minoan remains 
indeed abounded on every side. But it was high time to recall 
our ' flying column ' for the main onslaught on the Palace site ot 
Knossos itself. 

The chief objectives of this new attack had been clearly marked 
out. By means of indications, followed with singular flair by my 
foreman, AH Baritakis, it was possible to trace out the broad 
foundations of an outer bastion by the Northern Entrance, enclosing 
the great Pillar Hall on that side, while an early magazine for 



huge oil jars that also came out within this area threw a new 
light on its use as a depot for stores brought into the building 
by the Sea Gate here from the Harbour Town of Knossos. The 
neighbouring North-East House, also rich in evidences of storage 
and containing important remains of M. M. III-L. M. I jars, 
produced an inscribed seal impression of an official who had charge 
of vesselsi in precious metals. It may be mentioned in this 
connexion that a minute examination of literally thousands 
of fragments of clay seal impressions from the * Treasury' 

Fig. z. Reservoir, showing steps and opening of conduit. 

area of the Palace itself enabled me to restore a series of types 
affording new illustrations of the religion, sports, and daily life 
of its closing period. To these sphragistic records must be 
added, moreover, two three-sided clay sealings from the site of 
the Harbour Town which, though of a different clay, present 
fantastic types identical with those of Zakro,* affording curious 
evidence of Custom-House connexions with East Crete, and 
pointing to itinerant methods on the part of the fiscal officers. 

' Hogarth, J. H, S., xxii (1902), p. 76 seqq., nos. 21, 23, and 61 similarly 
grouped, and nos. 80 and 134, also similarly groujjed. This clay, with its coppery 
grains, resembles that of the early pottery of Vasiiiki and points to a neighbouring 
port on the north Coast as the place of fabric. 

Z 2 



Below the Minoan paved way that led to the North Palace 
region from the west the * Magazine of the Arsenal ' was further 
excavated by means of a deep cutting and an abundance of bronze 


K^S.^Ko'S^r SECTION .A.A^i^n^BButs 

Fig. 3. Plan and Section of Circular Reservoir. 

arrow-heads, and some more inscribed clay tablets brought to light. 
This extensive store-house was found to overlie an earlier building 
of the same kind with cist-like repositories in its basement floors 
analop:ous to those of the M. M. Ill Palace. 

Fresh developments of great interest took place in the West 
Pprch, unquestionably the State Entrance of the Palace. The 


removal of the large fallen blocks with which it had been hitherto 
encumbered brought out for the first time its true inner lines. 
Opening out of what was clearly a reception area, where the 
Priest- Kings sat in state, there proved to have been a separate 
lodge for a warder — a recurring feature in the Minoan Palaces. 
Evidence, moreover, accumulated that the Porch itself had been 
preceded by a more ancient entrance running due east. 

The Corridor, running south, with the remains of processional 
frescoes, to which this State Entrance, as it existed in later times, 
gave access, had originally taken a turn East to a Propylaeum on 
the South Terrace, from which again a broad flight of steps led to 
the great columnar Hall of this section of the Palace. Many new 
evidences of this approach were brought to light by the present 
investigations, but it was on the north borders of the columnar 
Hall that the most surprising new developments took place. 
Here the piano nobile consisted of an elongated space, approached 
from the Central Court by a stepped Portico, of which the remains 
of a second column base (fallen into a basement below) now came 
to light belonging to its uppermost steps. Blocks and slabs, either 
lodged on the wall-tops or sunk into the basements, showed that this 
Portico, which led on the left to a corridor giving on the Great Hall, 
was faced on the right by the rising steps of what had been the main 
staircase of the West Palace wing — slightly broader than that of the 
' Domestic Quarter ' on the east. The elements of reconstruction 
were indeed so full that I have been able to restore twelve steps 
of the first flight, so that, with the upper steps of the Portico 
also completed, the whole has become a monumental feature of 
the site. For the first time we have direct evidence of a second 
story to the west wing, and so full are the materials that 
Mr. Newton has been able to draw a detailed elevation of this 
section of the fa9ade, overlooking the Central Court and bordering 
the Room of the Throne. 

The most dramatic revelations, however, came out in the course 
of further excavation within and about the South-East Palace 
angle. Interest on this side was whetted by the results of the 
further exploration of a house on the east border of this angle, 
belonging to the beginning of the Late Minoan Age. The west 
end of its principal room was shut oflFby a balustrade with a central 
opening — forming a real 'chancel' screen — enclosing a stepped 
recess, within which, against the further wall, was a stone base for 
a seat of honour — perhaps of some priestly dignitary — recalling 
the apse and basilican arrangement of the Megaron of the ' Royal 
Villa '. 

It had long been observed with regard to the neighbouring 




Fig. 4. Excavated Vault beneath SE. Palace Angle showing sunken base-blocks 

and artificial Cave. 




Palace angle that the great base blocks of its walls — some 
exhibiting the largest incised signs found in the building — had 
sunk down in a manner suggesting that here, as in the case of 
the South Porch, there had been some earlier vault of circular form 
below. Such indeed was found to exist ; but, since in this case 
there was no trace either of filling in or of deep foundations, we 
must suppose that it had remained intact till the moment when 
the superincumbent structures collapsed. Within the cavity were 
tumbled blocks accompanied by sherds belonging to the close of the 
last Middle Minoan Period, marking the date of this collapse (fig. 4). 
But a further series of discoveries in the area abutting this Palace 
angle to the South threw an unexpected light on the character of 
the catastrophe that had produced its collapse. In the eastern 
section of this area were uncovered the basement rooms of a small 
house, the existence of which had been cut short by huge blocks, 
some about a ton in weight, hurled some twenty feet from the 
Palace wall by what could only have been a great earthquake 
shock. Here, too, the sherds uniformly belonged to the latest 
phase of M. M. Ill, while beneath were remains of stone lamps, 
some of them uncompleted, showing what had been the house- 
holder's craft. One of these lamps of black steatite, made for 
four wicks, was of quite exceptional size, an object for Palace use. 

The neighbouring house to the west — though here were no 
fallen Palace blocks — had clearly shared the same contemporary 
fate. Pottery and other relics of the same date were here found 
in masses, largely the result of a methodical filling in. A note- 
worthy feature, moreover, here presented itself In opposite 
corners of the South Room lay two large skulls of oxen of the 
urus breed, the horn cores of one of them over a foot in girth at 
the base. In front of these were remains of portable terra-cotta 
altars with painted designs and tripod bases (fig. 6). In other words, 
previous to the filling in there had been a solemn expiatory 
sacrifice to the Powers below — recalling the words of the Iliady 
* in bulls doth the Earth-shaker delight '.' There can be little 
doubt that the great deposits throughout a large part of the 
Palace area, all illustrating an identical cultural phase and indicative 
of a widespread contemporary ruin, about 1600 b.c, were due to 
the same physical cause. The great earthquake of Knossos, in 
fact, sets a term to the Third Middle Minoan Period, 

The Earth-Shaker does not seem to have been well pleased 
with our clearance work, for just as the evidences of his former 
havoc were beginning to come out, a sharp shock, accompanied by 
a deep rumbling sound, was felt on the site. It did no material 

' //. XX. 405, yavirrai 8e re TOi? ivoa-ixOwv. 



damage, however, though it nearly threw over our cook. This 
shock occurred at 12.15 on 20th April last, and the disturbance, 
starting, it appears, from the seismic centre between Santorin and 
Crete, was also noted at the Observatory at Athens at 1 2.22 m. 50s. 
on that date, coming from a epicentre 280 kilometres distant. 

As a matter of fact slight earthquakes are frequent in the Candia 
district and there is indeed an earlier record, supplied by Dictys 
Cretensis, of a somewhat serious shock at Knossos in Nero's time, 
to which the first emergence of the inscribed Minoan tablets 
seems to have been due.' 

■ RED 


Fig. 6. Horn and jjart of skull of Sacriiiced Ox and tripod altars of painted 

terra-cotta. From M. M. Ill house. (D, enlarged illustration of black and 

white grained band of C.) 

The far earlier earthquake of which such convincing evidence 
is now forthcoming corroborates suspicions that I had already 
entertained, and accounts for many phenomena on the site. Among 
these may be noted the definite abandonment at this epoch of the 
Southern Corridor o«- Verandah of the Palace, and the burial of 
so many pottery stores along the East Slope, though the Domestic 
Quarter, supported on three sides by cuttings into the hill-side, 
clearly suffered much less. The earthquake seems to have been 

' See my Scripta Minoa^ i, p. io8 scqq. 


confined to this part of the northern coast. There is no evidence of 
any such contemporary catastrophe atPhaestos or Hagia Triada,and 
the continuity between M. M. Ill and L. M. I is there unbroken. 

It seemed at first a tempting supposition that the seismic 
disturbance of which we have the evidence at Knossos might have 
been connected with the great eruption that overwhelmed the early 
settlements in Santorin and Therasia. But a careful re-examina- 
tion of the Santorin pottery preserved in the French School at 
Athens has made it clear to me that the native wares there found 
were executed under a strong Cretan influence of the early part 
of the First Late Minoan Period — indeed, an imported Minoan 
sherd of that date seems to have been actually found. They 
connect themselves, therefore, with a later ceramic phase than that 
represented by the filling in of the Knossian houses. 

The ceramic and other relics supplied by the filling of the 
overwhelmed houses were among the richest and most abundant 
found on the site and were partly, no doubt, derived from the 
Palace itself. The houses themselves, moreover, rested on the 
lower walls of earlier dwellings cut short by an earlier catastrophe, 
namely, the great destruction, so general in Crete, at the close of 
the Second Middle Minoan Period. In and about these earlier 
structures there came to light a brilliant series of polychrome 
vessels. These included bowls of * egg-shell ' fabric, a remarkable 
ewer of * pilgrim ' shape, and a magnificent jar, three-quarters 
of a metre in height, with bold and elaborate decoration in which 
the hatched bladder motive played a conspicuous part. Among 
the remains in the upper deposit of special artistic value was 
a terra-cotta figurine consisting of the torso of a youth, made 
to be applied to a flat surface. It was exquisitely modelled in 
very high relief, and is shown bending back as if in the act of 
supporting some heavy vessel of ofi^ering, like the ' Cup-bearer ' 
of the Palace fresco. The pottery of the time of the catas- 
trophe presented various new types. Certain vases, looped 
above for suspension, and with wide-open mouths on their sides, 
may have been devised to tempt nesting swallows. Another 
utensil, curiously constructed as if for the winding or unwinding 
of skeins of wool through a slot, was dubbed * Ariadne's clew-box '. 

Fables certainly seemed to be coming true. The excavation of 
the neighbouring vault within the Palace angle — dangerous work, 
which had to be conducted slowly — had brought us to a floor-level 
about thirty feet down. Here were no signs of earlier human 
occupation, but on the south-east side appeared the opening of an 
artificial cave with three roughly-cut steps leading down to what 
can only be described as a lair adapted for some great beast. 




The larger vault itself does not seem to have been open above, 
and we must therefore infer some access to it from the slope of 
the hill. 

Is it possible that lions — already, as we know, frequent subjects 
of Minoan engravers before the date of the foundation ot the 
Palace — were kept for show in the precincts of the more ancient 
Residency that seems to have existed on the hill of Knossos ? The 
traditions of » such an usage — doubtless with other accretions — 
may well have contributed to the origin of the later tales of the 

a b c 

Fig."?. Minotaurs on Minoan (^ and c) gems and a seal-impression from Zakro (a). 

Minotaur that haunted the site in historic times. Among the 
monstrous forms already current in Minoan art man-lions occur 
as well as other semi-human monsters. At the same time it is 
clear that from the first the man-bull was the prevailing form, and 
is that which is most constantly repeated on the gems and seal- 
impressions (fig. 7).' It survived, indeed, to form the principal 
type on the coins of Hellenic Knossos, a thousand years later. 
The bovine part in the monster's composition in fact connected 
itself with Minoan religious ritual. 

' From Palace of Minos, i, fig. 260. r, d^ e. 

Notes on Rarly British Pottery 
By E. T. Leeds, M.A., F.S.A. 

[Read 12th January 1922] 

In a brief note, appended to an account of 'A Burial of the 
Early Bronze Age discovered at Berden ', Essex, by Messrs. 
Guy Maynard and G. M. Benton, Mr. A, G. Wright, Curator of 
the Colchester Museum, raises the question whether the globular- 
bodied beakers of Lord Abercromby's type A originated in South 
Britain, and suggests the possibility of approximately contempo- 
raneous landings of the people who introduced the beakers at more 
than one point on the coasts of Britain. This suggestion is con- 
tested by Lord Abercromby himself in a short reply following 
Mr. Wright's note. 

The fundamental idea underlying the whole of Lord Aber- 
cromby's investigation of the Bronze Age pottery of Great Britain, 
particularly of the beakers, is that of form, and it is the discovery 
at Langham in Suffolk of a globular-bodied beaker of the earliest 
type which Mr. Wright adduces as one of his chief arguments for 
his objection to Lord Abercromby's theory that South Britain 
(Dorset and Wilts.) was the starting-point for the diffusion of the 
beaker throughout Britain. 

It may, however, be questioned whether the answer to the 
problem can be satisfactorily based on considerations of form 
alone, and whether it may not be possible to derive some aid 
towards its solution from an investigation of the ornamental 
motives employed on early British pottery as a whole. Lord 
Abercromby has not omitted to remark on these motives nor to 
draw attention to those employed on the beakers of the Conti- 
nent, particularly from the central European areas, where those 
styles prevailed which have led to the distinction among German 
archaeologists of two ceramic groups under the names of 
* Schnur- ' (cord) and ' Zonen- * (zone) * keramik '. He does not 
seem, however, to have assigned much weight to the variations of 
the decoration of British pottery as a basis for a solution of the 
problem of origin. The present paper is an attempt to present 
some aspects of the question as viewed from the standpoint of 
ornament as opposed to form. 


(i) The recognition in recent years by British archaeologists of 
a distinctive class of ceramic, to which a Neolithic date can be 
certainly assigned, has in one respect allowed the present investi- 
gation to be approached along an entirely new line, because it is 
now at last possible to obtain some idea of the systems of decora- 
tion of pottery in vogue in this island before the arrival of the 
beaker-people. The material available consists of several complete 
examples of 'the characteristic round-bottomed bowls and also 
a considerable quantity of sherds from various sites. 

The principal methods of decoration are impressions by means 
of a twisted cord or the finger-nail ; grooves made with a pointed 
stick are also known. As clearly proved by the material from 
Peterborough previously described,' the cord technique precedes 
that of the finger-nail, but one of the phenomena for which an 
explanation still appears to be lacking is the herring-bone or 
vertical chevron design. Presumably it is derived from basketry 
or weaving, which doubtless supplied the potters of this early 
period with many of their decorative motives. Otherwise 
one might have expected the finger-nail decoration to be the 
earlier and the vertical chevrons in cord technique to be simply 
an attempt to imitate the effect of vertical nail impressions. 

What is, however, certain is that the vertical chevron persisted 
as a feature of Neolithic decoration in Britain to the end of the 
period, but that the cord technique is superseded first by nail- 
impressions, the vertical application of which, as well as their 
arrangement in rows, seems prompted by a desire to copy the 
chevron pattern of the older cord technique — a good example is 
a sherd from the Thames (London Museum, a. 13667) ; secondly 
by a direct imitation of the cord carried out by means of a toothed 
comb or wheel, sometimes possibly only a pointed implement. 
Examples are the bowl from the Thames at Kew (5. A. P., i, 
pi. XXX, fig. 21) and sherds from the Thames (London 
Museum, a. 13593 ^"^ -^- ^3^70 ^'^^ from Peterborough. 

On the Kew bowl the pattern is arranged in regular rows, but 
in many cases it is executed in a slap-dash manner, the result of 
making the arms of the chevrons so long as to intersect one 
another, e.g. London Museum, a. 13271, where, however, it is 
still quite clear what pattern was intended. On the other hand, 
on the bowl from the long barrow at Swell, Gloucestershire, the 
chevron has degenerated into a confused mass of ornament 
covering the whole body of the vase. In spite of this, the motive 
did not die out, as is proved by its reappearance on many Bronze 
Age food-vessels. 

' Antiquaries Journal y ii, izo. 


The derivation of these from the Neolithic round-bottomed 
bowl has been fully demonstrated by Mr. Reginald Smith, and it 
is, therefore, only natural to find this essentially native class of 
ceramic decorated in the equally native style of vertical chevrons. 
It has, however, to be noted that these chevrons are usually 
incised and but seldom executed in cord-technique. They occur 
on food-vessels from Somerset (B. A. P. 4) ' and Oxford (6), on 
numerous examples from the East Riding of Yorkshire (22, 35, 
45-47, 54, 57, 106, 126-129, 131, 132, and 136), from Scotland 
(249, 250, 344, 361, 363, 366, 369), and in Ireland (354 
and 403). 

On beakers, apart from its use to fill the interior of zones 
usually bounded by horizontal lines (a zonal motive commonly 
found in central Europe), the employment of the vertical chevron 
to decorate a considerable portion of the vase, as on Neolithic 
bowls, only occurs twice, once on a beaker from Carnarvonshire 
in cord technique (B. A. P. 97) and once on a beaker from 
Cumberland (5. A. P. 182), both from regions where the native 
ornamental technique would retain its hold longest. 

It also occurs on the older classes of cinerary urns with a deep 
rim, never on more than the upper two-thirds of the height of 
the vase, e.g. Lincoln (B.A. P. 72) and Desborough, Northants 
(5. A. P. 93). The close affiliation of some of these early urns to 
Neolithic wares is further borne out by the use of alternating 
groups of horizontal and vertical lines on their collars, sometimes 
in cord-technique, e.g. North Riding [B. A. P. 107), more usually 
incised, a motive which occurs on pottery from the Thames 
(London Museum, c. 939). 

Vertical finger-nail impressions are found neither on food-vessels 
nor on beakers f the only instance of their employment is on an 
urn from Calais Wold, East Riding, the collar of which is decorated 
in cord technique. It is possible that the rows of vertical dashes 
made with a pointed stick or bone, as on a beaker from Suffolk 
[B.A, P. 6^)y represent a degeneration of the finger-nail technique,^ 
the more so as they occur very rarely on beakers, e.g. from 
Dorset, Norfolk and Suffolk, Derby and East Riding (B.A. P. 31, 
62, 80, 82, and 114), not commonly on food- vessels and very 
rarely on cinerary urns. 

' For explanation of the numeration adopted see the bibliography at the end of 
this paper. 

^ An exception to this is the manifestly native copy of a beaker from Peter- 
borough [supra, p. 215, lig. 5). 

^ An alternative explanation of the decoration of this beaker is suggested below 
(§ iv). 


It thus becomes clear that there was some survival of Neolithic 
decoration on Bronze Age pottery, particularly in the food-vessels 
and collared urns, both of which sprang from ceramic types of the 
British Neolithic Period. 

(ii) It is well known that the area in which most of the con- 
tinental beakers belonging to the cord-pottery have been found 
lies between the Saale district and the Middle Rhine, and since it 
is admitted 'that much of the British beaker ornamentation is 
derived from that of the zone- and bell-beakers, the habitats of 
which lie farther east, it follows that the British beakers must also 
have come under the influence of the more westerly class. 

A distinctive feature of the decoration of the cord-beakers is 
its restriction to the upper half of the vase and its termination 
below in a zone of pendent triangles or a fringe of vertical, some- 
times diagonal, incisions. On the other hand, one of the most 
marked features of British beakers is its extension over the whole 
vase, as in the zone-beakers, for, as Mr. O. G. S. Crawford has 
recently, observed, * that they [the beakers] did not develop (or 
rather originate) in these islands is proved by the fact that when 
first found here they are already fully developed ' {Man and his Past, 
p. 81). Consequently it is impossible to cite exact parallels to any 
continental cord-beaker. There are, however, strong indications 
that certain elements in the decoration of British beakers were 
derived directly from the cord-beakers. 

(a) Fringe. On one beaker from the East Riding (5./^. P. 129) 
the decoration is confined to the upper two-thirds of the vase, and 
the lowest zone, consisting of a group of four horizontal lines, is 
finished off below with a fringe of small diagonal strokes, closely 
analogous to the fringe of the cord-beakers. Others from the 
East Riding, Northumberland, Midlothian, and Aberdeen (B. A. P. 
135, 149, 179, i8r, 207, and 260) exhibit zones of ornament 
fringed in the same way, and it is only in the addition of similar 
zones on the lower part of the vase that they differ from the first- 
mentioned example. There is merely an assertion of a desire to 
decorate the whole vase. This style of ornament seems not to 
have been used in southern England except on a beaker from 
Kent {B.A.P. 37) and another from Erith (London Museum, 
A. 17460), in both cases executed in wheel technique. Note should 
here be taken of a beaker from the North Riding {B.A. P. 157) in 
which, apart from the absence of a fringe, the restriction of the 
ornament to the neck of the vase strongly recalls the cord- 

(^) Pendent triangles. In the East Riding there is a whole 
series of beakers in which this motive is employed. The most 


striking examples are B.A.P. 99, 106, 112, and 131-3, and 
40 YearSy 5 40. In some of these the pendent triangles are 
followed by zones of other ornament to complete the decoration 
of the bottom of the vase, but in others, and notably in three of 
the last four examples cited above, the decoration, though reach- 
ing to the base of the beaker, terminates in pendent triangles. 
Examples similar to these last, from farther north, come from 
Northumberland, Argyll, Perth, Lanark, and Aberdeen (B. A. P. 
180, 185, 192, 213, and 241). These triangles also commonly 
appear on food-vessels from the East Riding (5. A. P. 23, 35, 
172, 185, 197, 210, and 222), from Lincoln (199), and Derby 
(41 and 178, the latter somewhat abnormal in form), and in all 
cases the remainder of the vase below is left plain. They even 
occur on an urn from the North Riding (B. A. P. 1 1 1 a). 

In all cases but one, where details of exploration are available, 
both beakers and food-vessels thus ornamented were deposited 
with primary interments. 

(iii) Among the British beakers there are certain specimens 
which immediately strike the eye by reason of a somewhat effective 
ornamentation of the rim. This consists of the use of plain 
horizontal ribs, in alternation with depressed intervening bands 
filled with decoration. Such are B. A. P. 133, 149, 160, and 245 
from the East Riding, Northumberland, and Aberdeen. B. A. P. 
144 from the East Riding appears to show a degenerate example 
of the same ornament, in which the decorated intervening bands 
have been omitted. Nos. 149 and 133 have already been cited as 
instances of the use of fringes and pendent triangles respectively. 
This combination of plain ribs and decorated interspaces occurs 
on beakers of both squat and taller forms in Holland (B. A. P. 
48 * and 5 1 *, Prae. Ztsch. iv, pi. XXXIII, fig. 2, and p. 372, fig. 5), 
as also on one with tall neck and globose body (Aberg 242), and 
is more than probably due to influences from Jutland (cf. B.A. P. 
13* and 46*). The correctness of this interpretation of the 
decoration of these British beakers wins striking corroboration 
from discoveries made by Dr. J. H. Holwerda at Uddelmeer, 
Veluwe, Holland, in a tumulus which contained two burials, one 
above the other. The lower burial was accompanied by a cord- 
beaker with the typical fringe at the swell of the belly, below 
which the vase is unornamented. With the upper burial was 
associated a beaker decorated with two bands of incised horizontal 
lines, one round the neck, the other round the belly, with a plain 
zone at the shoulder. Below the lower band of lines, and close 
to the base of the vase, are two rows of vertical incisions, which 
manifestly are copied from the fringe. In short, this latter beaker 


is nothing more or less than a decadent beaker (Dr. Holwerda 
terms it * of local fabric ') oh which the ornamentation is extended 
to the whole of the vase instead of being confined to the upper 
half as in the prototype (JPrae. Ztsch. iv, pi. XXXV, fig. 2, and 

P- 370> % 3)- 

(iv) One of the more curious types of Bronze Age pottery is 

a bowl supported on four small feet, which are in some cases 

perforated, ^everal examples are known, all from the counties 

on the East Coast north of the Wash. Three with unperforated 

feet from Heighington, Lincolnshire ; Amotherby, North Riding ; 

and Weaverthorpe, East Riding (5. 5., fig. 74 and p. 88) in point 

of form belong to the food-vessel class. So also a second specimen 

from Heighington (5.5,, figs. 75-6) ; but here the four feet are 

merely apparent, since the base of the vessel is pinched in so as 

to form four lobes, which, viewed externally, produce the eflFect 

of feet. Each of the lobes is, however, perforated from side to 

side. A somewhat similarly constructed vessel, but unperforated, 

comes from the Blanch Group, East Riding (5. A. P. 224). The 

remaining examples are bowl-shaped. One from Appleton-le- 

Street, North Riding (5. J. P. 223 lis) has four unperforated feet ; 

a second from Acklam Wold, East Riding (B.A.P. 222), has 

perforated feet, and in the last from Corbridge, Northumberland, 

the feet are more in the nature of perforated lugs attached to the 

base of the bowl.' Otherwise both the feet and also the particular 

form of bowl of the Appleton-le-Street and the Acklam Wold 

examples are exotic amongst British ceramic. 

Close parallels, however, in both respects, occur on the Continent 
in the area from which the beaker-people are considered to have 
come. Such is a bowl on four stout feet from Giebichenstein, near 
Halle {^A.u.h. V., v, 1 1 14) belonging to the ' Zonenkeramik', while 
a bowl from Neu-Dietendorf, near Erfurt, of the ' Schnurkeramik 
class, though deeper and furnished with an everted lip, has four 
perforated lugs at its base, like those of the Corbridge bowl. 

The perforated lugs of the Neu-Dietendorf bowl appear to be 
a derivative from the megalithic pottery of Jutland and North 
Germany, where vases with perforated ears for suspension are by 
no means uncommon, e.g. from Sylt {A.u. h. y., v, 122-3) ^"^ 
Seeste, Westphalia (Aberg 249). The strong influence which 
this northern culture exercised on the cultural groups lying 
immediately to the south has been so forcibly demonstrated by 

' Apart from these examples from the east of Britain the only other occurrence 
of such feet is on a one-handled bowl or mug from Wiltshire {B. A. P. ^\ bis). 

' A small four-footed bowl of a somewhat similar form comes from Fauerbach, 
near Friedberg-i.-d.-Wetterau (A.u.h. F., v, 1130). 

VOL. II A a 


Aberg that it would be superfluous to do more than mention the 
fact here. Such ornament, as that of the Acklam Wold vase, in 
itself strongly recalls that of certain vases from the megalithic 
area, e.g. Jutland (Aberg 231). Somewhat akin to the megalithic 
pottery is the decoration of a beaker from Suffolk with incised 
vertical dashes (Stichtechnik) (B. A. P. 68 ; see § i above). 

(v) So far the specially noted features of ornament and form 
in British Bronze Age pottery have found their analogues in the 
Neolithic pottery of the Continent, and when it is remembered 
that it is now accepted as certain that the beaker- people arrived 
here before the introduction of the use of metal, there must be in 
point of time a very close relationship between many British 
beakers and their continental prototypes. But it may well be 
questioned whether all the influences came over from the 
Continent in one short burst, or whether there were not rather 
successive waves of immigration, each bringing some fresh idea 
to contribute to the common stock of British ceramic decoration. 
That something of this kind did in reality take place seems to be 
suggested by another class of decorative style. In the whole of 
south and part of central Germany, in Alsace, and in the Rhine 
districts as far north as Andernach, there occurs a class of pottery 
assigned to the Early and Middle Bronze Age, in which the 
decoration is carried out principally in triangles and lozenges in 
such a manner as to produce the appearance of carving (//. u.h.V., 
v, pi. XXXI I). This same method of ornament, executed in 
an identical manner, appears on some Early Bronze Age vases in 
this country. It occurs, however, only on food-vessels. Typical 
examples are from the East Riding {B.A.P. 155 and 40 Years, 
380), N. Riding {B.A.P. 188), Edinburgh {258 and 259), and 
Arran (252). The infrequency of the use of this decoration may 
be an argument for independent origin,' but equally it may repre- 
sent a final contribution at a time when long settlement by the 
beaker-peoples in this country was causing the links with the 
homeland to weaken or break. 

The above investigation of the decoration of Early British 
pottery would seem to show that both in the matter of motives 
and technique clear cases of borrowing or introduction from 
continental sources can be detected, and, moreover, that the 
districts in which this borrowing is to be observed lie on our 
east coast and not in the south of England. The natural corollary 
is that there was direct communication between the Continent and 
the East Coast, and more particularly with the East Riding of 

' Thus pottery similarly decorated has been found at Bahria, Malta, and 
Somaens, Spain. 


Yorkshire. If that is so, it would seem that perhaps too much 
stress has been laid on the form of British beakers. Even in 
Holland types like Aberg 242, with tall neck and the typical fringe 
of the cord-pottery, occur side by side with the squat form of 
B.A. P. 48-53 with zone-pottery ornament, and their approximate 
contemporaneity is demonstrated by the employment on the neck 
of both types of horizontal ribbing to which attention has been 
drawn above.' These cord-beakers belong to a series diffused 
from Jutland, where they are found in * Single Graves' {Enkelt- 
graver\ to Holland, and if it is possible for pottery of the Danish 
passage-grave type to be found at West Hartlepool (Knut Stjerna, 
Fore Hallkisttiden^ p. 103, and R. A. Smith, Proc. Preh. Soc. E. Anglia^ 
iii, 25, plate I), it is surely not unreasonable to hold that influences, 
at any rate from north-western Europe, if not from Jutland, 
should have reached Yorkshire direct without needing to pass 
through southern England. 

The very mixture of beaker-forms in Holland represents the 
half-way house towards a gradually increasing divergence in this 
country from the continental prototypes. It may well be that 
early immigrants brought to southern England the beaker in a 
fairly pure form, but nowhere in the south are such clear traces 
of cord-beaker ornament observable as in the eastern counties. 
Where both fall short of the original models, for one cause or 
another, those beaker-makers who retained in such unmistakable 
wise the decorative traditions of the continental beakers have at 
least as good a claim to be placed among the early immigrants as 
those who brought the traditional form. 

In any case, is it possible in the present stage of our knowledge 
to say from which particular district the immigrants into a given 
part of this country came } If not, the wide diversity of the 
beaker forms on the Continent itself hardly allows us to regard one 
beaker from any British district within easy access to the Continent 
as earlier than another on grounds of form alone, unless there is 
definite evidence in the way of associated relics to support the 
assumption. The examples cited above in support of the earlier 
part of the present argument belong, as has been shown, almost 
without exception, to primary interments with no associated relics 
to show, for example, that the Yorkshire beakers need be later 
than accepted early specimens from Wiltshire. 

In conclusion, attention should be drawn to a vase, now in the 
Colchester Museum, for the excellent photograph of which, here 
reproduced (fig. i), I am indebted to Mr. A. G. Wright. Its 
history is unfortunately obscure. It was purchased from a dealer 
in Colchester, but without definite provenance. The vendor is 

Aa 2 


known to have bought a good deal of pottery from local work- 
men, and his sphere of activity appears to have been confined to 
Colchester and its immediate neighbourhood. There is at least 
some presumptive evidence in favour of a local origin, in a small 
measure confirmed by its imperfect condition. In such event it 
is of the highest importance, since it is certainly not British in 
fabric. The paste is dark brown throughout, and the incised 

Fig. I. Beaker in Colchester Museum. 

pendent triangles at the junction of the neck and the body, coupled 
with a linear decoration round the neck, stamp it at once as a true 
cord-beaker of continental manufacture. It can be closely 
paralleled in point of form, paste, and decoration by beakers from 
Benndorf, near Merseburg, Saxony, now in the Klemm collection 
in the British Museum. It is thus possible that the Colchester 
vase is an importation by some of the earliest immigrant beaker- 
people coming from the continental home of the beakers. 


B. A. P. The Hon. John Abercromby, Bronze Age Pottery^ i vols. Oxford. 
191 2. (N.B. — Numerical references are those of the particular class of 
B. B. Greenwell and Rolleston, British Barrows. 
40 Years. J. R. Mortimer, Forty Years' Researches. 
Aberg. Nils Aberg, Das nor disc he Kulturgebiet in Mitteleuropa iv'dhrend der 

Jiingeren Steinzeit. z voll. Uppsala. 19 18. 
A. u.h. V. Lindenschmit, Altertumer unserer heidnischen Vorzeit. 
Prae. Ztsch. Praehistorische Zeitschrijl. 

An Accou7it relating to Sir jfo/m Cobliam^ 

A.B. 1408 
By Sir \^. C. Maxwell Lyte, K.C.B., F.S.A., F.B.A. 

The document printed below has been recently discovered in 
the muniment room at Dunster Castle, incorporated in a roll of 
accounts of Sir Hugh Luttrell, who died in 1428. Its presence 
there is not inexplicable, for Sir Hugh's mother. Lady Elizabeth 
Luttrell, was sister to Lady Margaret Cobham, wife to Sir John 
Cobham, styled also * he Sire de Cobham ', both being daughters of 
Hugh Courtenay, earl of Devon. 

There is no need here to trace the chequered career of this 
Sir John Cobham, 'a man of great age, simple and upright*;' 
the docuriient deals with arrangements made after his death, which 
occurred on the loth January 1408. 

A mention in it of a canon of' Bradele' shows that the place at 
which Sir John Cobham died was Maiden Bradley in Wiltshire, 
where the nuns had been replaced by Augustinian canons. He 
seems to have lodged in the monastery there,] ust as he had previously 
lodged at a Carthusian house unspecified. Having laid aside his 
knightly armour, except a jack of defence, he had more use for 
two books of prayers, a psalter, and two rosaries. At the time of 
his death, he owed money to various persons for meat, rabbits, 
fresh fish, bread, wine, beer, vegetables, clothes, shoes, horseshoes, 
and washing, but nothing to the canons. A chamberlain and 
another servant are mentioned. 

It is usually stated that this Sir John Cobham was buried at 
the Grey Friars in London, where there was formerly the tomb 
of a Sir John Cobham, a baron of Kent. The document printed 
below shows, however, that his corpse was taken to Cobham for 
interment. This was only natural. His well-known brass there, 
undated and believed to have been engraved in his lifetime, 
describes him as foundeur de ceste place^ and his wife had been 
buried there in 1385. 

COMPOTUS Johannis Coggere, ministratoris bonorum domini johannis 
Cobham, militis, inventormn apud Bradelegh xx° die Januarii anno 
regni Regis Heniici quarti post conquestum ix". 

' Many particulars are given in the Dictionary of National Biography (vol. xi, 
pp. 155, I J<J), others in ylrchaeologia Cantiana (vol. xi, pp. 70-86). 


Idem respondet de xx.d. de j. materas debili vendito. 

Et de ij.s. iiij.d. de iij. carpeys venditis. 

Et de xv.s. de iij. manteles venditis. 

Et de vj.d. de j. pulche ' vendito. 

Et de iiij s. de iij. togis venditis. 

Et de iij.s. iiij.d de j. armilausa ^ vendita. 

Et de xij.d. de j. canapeo vendito. 

Et de XX. s. de ij. togis de worstede venditis. 

Et de xij d. de iiij°' qui.ssones ^ venditis. 

Et de iij.s. iiij.d. de iij. tapctis venditis. 

Et de XX. s. de j. jakke of defens vendito. 

Et de iiij.s. de una toga cum capucio vendita. 

Et de ij.s. de j. doublet vendito. 

Et de xj.s. vj.d. de iij. mappis mensalibus cum iij. manitergiis, 
j. facitergio,* et j. mappa poculari^ cum vij. manitergiis vocatis 
' bruweriis ' venditis. 

Et de x.s. de j. pari linthiaminum cum j. lintheamine vocato 
' hedshete ' vendito. 

Et de v.s. de rideliis^ nigris de carde^venditis. 

Et de x.d. de j. remenaunt de bostian ^ vendito. 

Et de xl.s. de j. portiforio^ vendito. 

Et de xlv.s. de j. alio portiforio vendito 

Et de viij.s. ij.d. de ij. pelvibus, ij. lavatoriis et ij. pelvibus rotundis 

Et de ix.s. iiij.d. de ij. chargers, xij. platellis, ix. potagers et vj. 
saucers de peauder^ venditis. 

Et de xiij.s. v.d. de iiij. ollis eneis et iij. patellis eriis venditis. 

Et de viij. d. de j. cathedra vendita. 

Et de ij.s. de v. barelHis venditis. 

Et de x.d. de j. veru '° ferreo vendito. 

Et de v.d. de j. mele" h'gneo vendito. 

Et de vij.d. de j. craticula " vendita. 

Et de vj.d. de j. aundyrio '^ vendito. 

Et de ij.s. ij.d de xiiij. standardiis, j. barellio, v. idriis "* h'gneis et 
j. dobbe venditis. 

Et de x.s. de ij. ma.seriis venditis. 

Et de xxiiij.s. ij.d. de xj coclearibus argenteis venditis. 

Et de xij.d. de ij. candelabris venditis. 

Et de xvj.s. de j. pari vestimentorum vendito. 

Et de xx.s. de j. pari precum de laumbur '^ vendito. 

Et de xiij.s. iiij.d. de ij. cistis navalibus venditis. 
— Et de xx.s. de j. salterio *^ vendito. 

' A pouch. ^ A cloak. 

^ Cushions. * A towel for the face. 

^ A cloth for wiping cups. ^ Curtains. 

^ Bustian, a cotton fabric. '^ A portuary. 

^ Pewter. . '° A spit. 

" A mallet. '^ A gridiron. 

'■^ An andiron. '* Waterpots. 

'5 Beads of amber. '^ A Psalter. 


Kt de xij.d. de ij. flageitis ' venditis. 
~Et de xvj.d. de j. pari geet' vendito, et les gaudees 
sount do argent endoreez. 

Et de xx.d. de j pari trestallorum vendito Johanni Coggere. 

Kt de iiij.d. de j. tabula et j. pari trestallorum venditis Johanni 

Ht de ij.s. iiij.d. de j. coopertorio cum celura vendito. 

Et de viij.d. de j. olla de pevvder vendita. 

Et de iij.s. ij.d. de ij. tapetis virid' et blu venditis. 

Et de ij..s. de j. cappe blu vendito. 

Et de ij d. de j. banker debili vendito. 

Et de iiij.d. de j. ligone^ vendito. 

Et de iiij.d. de j. securi vendita. 

Et de .xij.d. de j. dres.syngknyf vendito. 

Et de XX. s. receptis de Nicholao Mauncel. 

Et de xxxiiij.s. receptis de Johanne Coppere de bonis domini 
Johannis Cobham per dictum Johannem Coppere venditis. 

Summa xx.l. xxiij.d. 

De quibus in expensis Johannis Cleymond, Johannis Ylcumbe et 
Johannis. Coggere existencium apud Bradele super inventarium bono- 
rum predictorum faciendum, vj.s. 

In expensis Johannis Ylcumbe et Johannis Coggere existencium 
ibidem super vendicionem dictorum bonorum, iiij.s. 

In expensis Johannis Coggere equitantis de domo sua usque 
Londonias ad prosequendum domino Hugoni Loterel pro sequestra- 
cione habenda dictorum bonorum de archiepiscopo Cantuariensi, una cum 
expensis ejusdem Johannis Coggere equitantis de Bradele versus 
Londonias pro dictis negociis per vj. vices, eundo, redeundo et ibidem 
commorando, xxiiij.s. 

Item in denariis solutis Willelmo Thykkes, baker, pro pane et 
cervisia pro domino emptis, xxxviij.s. 

Thome Cardemakere pro vino empto, xxiij.s. 

Johanni Denyas pro carnibus emptis, xxij.s. 

Nicholao Mauncel pro panno lineo empto, x.s. xj.d. 

Walter© Danyel pro pissibus recentibus, xxxij.s. 

Johanni Colette, taillour, pro arte sua, x.s. 

Nicholao ate Mere pro pissibus recentibus, iiij.s. vj.d. 

Johanni Box pro cervisia, iiij.s. ij.d. 

Simoni Fyssher pro pissibus recentibus, ij.s. vij d. 

Philippo Luddok pro cervisia, iiij.s. 

Johanni James pro stipendio suo aretro, xiij.s. iiij.d. 

Johanni Gille pro cariagio liberarum petrarum, vj.s. viij.d. 

Johanni Hamberghmakyer pro hernesio de la lyter, vij.s. 

Ricardo Kyng, canonico de Bradele, xiij.s. iiij.d. 

Waltero Dobbe pro cuniculis emptis, vj.s. ix.d. 

Johanni Wykyng pro debito domini acquietando per j. obliga- 
cionem, c.s. 

Item solui* pro factura j. calicis de capella de BienknoUe, x.s. iij.d. 
Summa xvij.l. xviij d. 

' Flasks. " Beads of jet. ^ A hoe. 


Waltero Baron pro expensis suis cariando corpus domini de Cobham 
de Bradele usque Cobham ad sepeliendum ibidem, x.s. iij.d. et adhuc 
eidem debentur ij.s. 

Thome Dab pro sotularibus, xvj.d. 

Johanni Box pro cervisia, ij.s. 

Uxori Nicholai atte Mere pro ollis luteis perdidis (sic), xij.d. 

Uxori Willelmi Kytbury pro cervisia, xvj.d. 

Henrico Sompter pro busca carianda, xvj.d. 

Johanni Smyth pro ferrura equorum, xvj.d. 

Johanni Rodul pro panno lineo lavando, v.s. 

Alicie Broun pro fabis ab eadem emptis, iij.s. 

Edwardo Pallyng pro pissibus recentibus, ij.s. viij.d. 

Johanni Yarbet pro labore equitando ad domum senescalli domini 
ad premuniendum dictum senescallum de morte domini, xij d. 

Matillidi Boclyve, oratrici domini, xij.d. 

Johanni Gyffard pro pissibus recentibus, xij.d. 

Thome Gyffard, camerario domini, xiiij.d. 

In expensis Johannis Cleymond et Johannis Hody, ij.s. ob. 

In expensis eorundem alia vice, ij.s. iij.d. 

Item solut' Johanni Lynbrenner, iij.s. 

Item solut' Waltero Cartere, iij.s. 

Omnes denarii supradicti distribuebantur per ordinacionem et 
disposicionem Johannis Cleymond et Johannis Hody. 

Item in expensis Johannis Ylcumbe existentis apud Bradele ad 
loquendum cum Johanne Cleymond de ministracione bonorum dicti 
domini Johannis de Cobham, xvj.d. Summa xlv.s. j.d. ob. 

Summa omnium expensarum et solucionum vj.s. vij.d. ob. 
Et debentur xv.s. iiij.d. 

Memorandum quod Johannes Ylcumbe recepit de Waltero Dobbe, 
firmario de Bienknolle et collectore redditus de Chussebury,' xxx.s. 
Item idem Johannes recepit de Willelmo Crips, messore de Chussebury, 
viij.s. Item idem Johannes recepit de domino Johanne Wise vj.s. viij.d. 
Summa xliiij.s. viij.d. 

De quibus in denariis datis domino Johanni Wyse ad celebrandum 
pro anima domini Johannis de Cobham unum tricennale de Sancto 
Gregorio, xiij.s. iiij.d. 

Item dat' domino Johanni Wynge ad celebrandum unum tricennale 
de Sancto Gregorio pro anima dicti domini, xiij.s. iiij.d. 

Item dat' domino Roberto capellano de Berewyk ad celebrandum 
pro anima dicti domini unum tricennale de Sancto Gregorio, xiij.s. iiij.d. 

Item idem Johannes petit alloc* pro expensis suis veniendo de domo 
sua usque Bradele pro bonis domini Johannis de Cobham vendendis 
per vj. vices, vj.s. 

Item in denariis solutis Johanni Gowayn pro debitis dicti domini de 
Cobham acquietandis, c.s. per j. obligacionem in presencia Nicholai 
Mauncel et Johannis Coggere. Summa vj.s. 

Et sic dictus Johannes Ylcumbe solvit plus quam recepit cj.s. iiij.d. 

Nomina debitorum domini Johannis de Cobham, militis. Johannes 

^ The deceased had property av Cliisbury (in Bedwin) and Bincknoll (in Broad 
Hinton), both in Wiltshire. 


Whatyndon, xiij.s. iiij.d. Walterus Saundres, vj.s. viij.d. Dominus 
Johannes vicarius de Froxfelde, xiij.s. iiij.d. Dominus Johannes rector 
de Crokeseston, xiij.s. iiij.d. Johannes Brounman, v.s. vj.d. Summa 
lij.s. ij.d. 

Liberatum Willelmo Mey, clerc, per manum Johannis Cogger, 
j. equum presii xl.s. Item pro stipendio j. plaustri cum viij. bov' et 
j. homine per xiiij. dies in autumpno, xviij.s. viij.d. quoh'bet die xvj.d. 
Summa Iviij.s. viij.d. 

The Age of Stonehenge 
By T. Rice Holmes, Litt.D. 

The article on Stonehenge that appeared in the January 
number of the Nineteenth Century demands consideration. The 
writer, Mr. E. Herbert Stone, after re-stating and defending Sir 
Norman Lockyer's views, which I shall presently explain, notices 
'some criticisms', including those of Mr. Arthur Hinks and my own. 
* Rice Holmes ', he says, * sets forth the old arguments in favour 
of the Bronze Age theory, many of which are fallacious ' . . . the 
deservedly high position occupied by Mr. Rice Holmes in the 
literary world has led some archaeologists, who have not under- 
stood the technicalities of the subject, to accept his opinions with- 
out question '. 

I doubt whether the said archaeologists were influenced by my 
' position '; and if they were ignorant of ' the technicalities of the 
subject ', I fear that Mr. Stone's paper will not enlighten them ; 
for he adds no verifiable facts which might dispel their ignorance 
to those which I recorded, except perhaps that the axis of Stone- 
henge itself was determined with * a surprising degree of accuracy ' 
by Flinders Petrie. I say 'perhaps' because Lockyer himself was 
not satisfied with the ' surprising degree '.'' The ' technicalities ' 
are not formidable. Most people understand what is meant by 
ascertaining the bearing of a line ; even archaeologists have heard 
of the obliquity of the ecliptic, and know that the sun, viewed 
from any given spot, does not appear to rise at exactly the same 
place now as it did three thousand or even one thousand years 

' 'Many' of four (Ancient Britain, pp. 215, 468, 470-1, ^76-7)1 Mr. Stone 
{Nature, 29th April 1922, p. 563) attempts to demonstrate the fallacy of one. 
Quoting the following sentence from Ancient Britain (p. 476) — 'The stones were 
certainly not standing when round barrows were first erected on Salisbury Plain ; 
for one is contained within the •vallum, which, moreover, encroaches upon another' — 
he says, 'this argument is based on the assumption that mound No. 94 is really 
a Bronze Age barrow. The mere fact that in it was found a cremated interment 
is, however, inconclusive, as we know that the Round Barrow people had a cuckoo- 
like habit of depositing a cremation in an existing hole or position originally intended 
for some other purpose.' _ Now round barrows were erected towards the end of the 
Neolithic Age in Scotland, Yorkshire, and Derbyshire ; but Mr. Stone is, I believe, 
the first to suggest that a round barrow of that period exists at Stonehenge. 

^ Nature, Ixv, 1901, p. ^6. 


ago ; and if they distrust Sir Norman Lockyer's reasoning, they do 
not question his figures. If Mr. Stone had informed himself, he 
would have seen that the date which Lockyer assigned to the 
[hypothetical] reconstruction and re-dedication of Stonehenge not 
improbably fell within the Bronze Age.' When 1 wrote that 
Lockyer had * assigned a date to Stonehenge with which these 
facts [stated in one paragraph on pp. 215-16 oi Ancient Britain] 
are irreconcflable ', I had in mind his theory that Stonehenge *was 
originally built a thousand years before the trilithons were added '. 

The recent excavations at Stonehenge, which are minutely 
described in The Antiquaries Journal^ revealed much pottery of the 
Bronze and Romano-British Ages and other Romano-British 
objects, besides cremated human bones, a bone pin, flint hammers 
and other flint implements, and deer-horn picks. No neolithic 
pottery was found. Stone implements were used long after the 
introduction of bronze ; deer-horn picks were used not only in 
the Neolithic, but also in the Bronze Age, and even under Roman 
rule.^ ' * The excavations ', says Colonel Hawley, who directed 
them, * so far appear to indicate . . . that the ditch and rampart 
were made at a date considerably anterior to Stonehenge.* They 
tend to confirm the view that the stones were erected in the 
Bronze Age. 

Mr. Stone concludes his vindication of Sir Norman Lockyer's 
theory with this pronouncement : ' Hence the azimuth of the 
Stonehenge Axis having been ascertained, the date at which mid- 
summer sunrise took place at that position can be determined 
approximately by any competent computer.' Yes — if the azimuth 
has been ascertained and if the assumptions which Lockyer was 
obliged to make can be granted. 

Before Lockyer could begin his inquiry he had to assume, first, 
that the avenue, about four hundred yards long, which extends 
from the north-eastern point of the trench that surrounds the 
rampart of Stonehenge, and on which stands the pillar called the 
Friar's Heel, was not only intended to point to the solstitial sun- 
rise, but was so intended at the time when Stonehenge was, 
as he supposed, rebuilt, in other words, that the construction of 
the avenue was contemporary with the alleged rebuilding ; 
secondly, that, although the Alexandrian astronomer who con- 
structed the Julian calendar miscalculated the date of the summer 
solstice, the prehistoric inhabitants of an island remote from the 

' Ancient Britain, p. 127. Cf. Guide to the Bron'z.e Age (British Museum), 19*0, 
p. II. 

' i, 192 I, pp. 19-41 ; ii, 1911, pp. 3^-52. 
^ Ancient Britain^ p. 471. 


civilized world could tell it exactly at a place where the solstitial 
sunrise is rarely visible ; ' thirdly, that, although, as he himself 
found, the avenue is not perfectly straight, the builders laid out 
its axis with sufficient accuracy for his purpose ; fourthly, that the 
alleged sun-worshippers adopted as the moment of sunrise the 
moment when the sun's upper rim appeared, not when his centre 
appeared, nor when his lower rim seemed just to rest upon the 
horizon. Everything depended upon fixing the moment correctly, 
for, as every one knows, in our latitude the sun does not rise at 
right angles to the horizon, but at a considerable slant. Further- 
more, says Mr. E. J. Webb,"" *as every one who has watched the 
sun rise must admit, it is practically quite impossible to be certain 
when any one of these moments occurs. Lockyer tacitly admits 
this when he arbitrarily takes as the moment of first appearance 
the time when 2' (about ^^^g) of the sun's disc are risen '.^ What 
further assumptions he was obliged to make in the course of his 
investigation 1 shall note presently, as critical readers of Mr. Stone's 
paper must have already done. Meanwhile I may remark that, 
although, as every one who has studied the subject knows, from 
the point of view of an observer standing on or behind the Altar 
Stone, the sun's upper rim first appears north of the Friar's Heel 
and appeared still further north when Stonehenge was built, it 
does not follow that the Friar's Heel was not used for observing, 
or that Lockyer was right in leaving it out of his calculations. 
Two thousand years ago the entire disc appeared just above it ; 
a millennium or two before an observer could have seen the upper 
rim appearing close to the stone, if it was then standing ; and, 
asks Mr. Hinks, * who shall say that the builders of Stonehenge 
required any more than that .'' ' 

In case my readers have not Mr. Stone's article at hand, I will 
reprint a few sentences from Ancient Britain (p. 472). * Sir 
Norman Lockyer felt obliged . . . to confine himself to attempting 
to determine the orientation of the avenue. The method which 

' On the 22nd of June, 1903, a correspondent of The Times wrote from Salisbury, 
' For the first time for nearly ten years visitors at Stonehenge yesterday morning 
saw the sun rise '. 

^ j4ncknt Britain. \u 474 

^ Mr. Stone asserts ihui, ' an examination of a diagram [not included in his 
paper] showing the position of tiie sun's disc at different stages of sunrise and at 
different dates of possible Stonehenge lifetime will convince any one that for the 
present inquiry only (a)' — the moment of the 'first gleam', 'when about one- 
sixteenth of the sun's diameter' was above the horizon — 'is reasonably possible'. 
Mr. Hinks was apparently 'not convinced ; for, like Mr. Webb, he pointed out that 
' lastly there is the grave difficulty that everything depends upon guessing right what 
is the critical phase of the sunrise '. 


he . . . adopted was to peg out as accurately as possible " the 
central line between the low and often mutilated banks "... and 
then to measure " the bearings of two sections of this line near 
the beginning and the end ". " The resulting observations ", he 
tells us, " gave for the axis of the avenue nearest the commence- 
ment an azimuth of 49° 38' 48'', and for that of the more dis- 
tant 49° 32' 54''-" But neither of these measurements was 
adopted by 'Sir Norman. He found, or thought that he found, 
that the mean between the two values which he had obtained, 
namely 49° 35' 51'', was "confirmed by the information, supplied 
by the Ordnance Survey, that from the centre of the temple the 
bearing of the principal bench mark on the ancient fortified hill, 
about eight miles distant, a well-known British encampment 
named . . . Sidbury, is 49° 34' 18'' ; and that the same line con- 
tinued through Stonehenge to the south-west strikes another 
ancient fortification, namely, Grovely Castle, about six miles dis- 
tant, and at practically the same azimuth, viz. 49° 35' 51". For 
the above reasons", he says, "49° 34' 18'' has been adopted for 
the azimuth of the avenue ". Having regard to the rate of 
change in the obliquity of the ecliptic, he concluded that the date 
of the foundation of Stonehenge was 1680 b. c, but he admits 
that this date " may possibly be in error by + 200 years ".' 
Mr. Stone, remarking that * the rate of decrease in obliquity has 
been determined with greater precision ' than in Stockwell's Tables, 
which Lockyer used, substituted 1840 for 1680. 

Thus, while Lockyer thought that the mean, 49° 35' 51", was 
confirmed by the bearing of the Sidbury bench mark, 49° 34' 18", 
he discarded the former in favour of the latter, because the latter 
was * practically the same ' as its continuation towards Grovely 
Castle, which was itself identical with the discarded mean. 

* It appears', says Mr. Stone (p. 107), * that the Axis line [of 
the avenue] had at some time and for some purpose, now un- 
known, been produced to Sidbury Hill.' Does it ? One desires 
evidence of the prolongation and at least some plausible, or con- 
ceivably possible, explanation of the * unknown ' purpose. 
Evidently Mr. Stone holds that the avenue had already been 
made or planned when the builders of Stonehenge determined to 
prolong its * Axis line ' to Sidbury Hill, which from Stonehenge 
they could not see.' Their alleged purpose may well be called 
* unknown ' ; for since the axis of the avenue pointed ex hypothesi 
to the solstitial sunrise, what was to be gained by producing it } 
What, one would like to know, does Mr. Stone mean by the 
word * produced ' .'' He cannot mean that the avenue was con- 
' Only the trees on the top of the hill can be descried. 


tinued over hill and dale till it struck the place of the bench mark 
on Sidbury Hill ; for it now terminates four hundred yards from 
the ditch surrounding Stonehenge, and in 1 8 12 Sir Richard Colt 
Hoare' stated that *five hundred and ninety-four yards' from the 
ditch it ' divided into two branches ', one of which led northward 
* in a gentle curve towards the cursus', the other towards the east. 
Mr. Stone can hardly mean that the axis of the avenue was pro- 
longed in imagination to the invisible hill : that would be an 
assumption rather too bold. Or, if he does mean that, what, 
I ask again, did the builders gain by producing it ? What 
reasonable purpose could they have had .'' It is pertinent to 
quote from Mr. Hinks's comments on Lockyer's theory, for 
Mr. Stone has something to say about them. ' On the one hand 
we may suppose that the avenue was drawn to lead over the 
down to Sidbury camp [though it actually stopped at the end of 
a few hundred yards], and had no intentional relation to the place 
of sunrise. On the other hand we may suppose that Sidbury is 
in the sunrise line not by accident but by design. . . . And since 
the camp occupies the summit of a steep and isolated hill [hidden 
from Stonehenge by an intervening down], while Stonehenge lies 
on a wide and gently sloping down, it is plain that the camp end 
of the Stonehenge-Sidbury line must have been fixed first, and the 
site of the temple determined by prolonging the line sunrise- 
Sidbury till it struck a suitable place on the down. There is 
nothing impossible in this : the question is, can it be said to be 
so probable that one is justified in fixing a date for Stonehenge 
from the direction of the line so drawn ? . . . Was it done so 
accurately that it is worth measuring accurately now, and drawing 
from the measures an exact statement of date ?'' I need only add 
that, as the reader has doubtless seen, an integral part of Lockyer's 
theory excludes even the faintest probability of the second alterna- 
tive. Stonehenge in its original form was built, according to 
Lockyer, a thousand years before the date which he fixed for the 
solstitial sunrise over Sidbury Hill ; and at that time the place of 
the bench mark on Sidbury was not * in the sunrise line '. 

But Mr. Stone, who forgets or ignores this part of Lockyer's 
theory, undertakes to remove Mr. Hinks's objections — or rather, 
that one which he chooses to notice. Remarking (p. 1 1 2) that 
Mr. Hinks's 'view is that either the Axis was directed to the 
midsummer sunrise, or it was directed to Sidbury Hill . . . you 
cannot have it both ways ', he tells us that * The matter, however, 
appears to admit of very simple explanation '. Repeating his 

* Ancient History of Wiltshire, i, 1812, pp. 157-8. 

* Nineteenth Century, June 1903, p. 1009. 


assertion that * at some time in the past (possibly when Stone- 
henge was built) ' — I presume that he means, in agreement with 
Lockyer, * rebuilt ' — * a prolongation of the Axis had been carried 
forward ... as far as Sidbury Hill ', he observes that as ' This 
gave a line of . . . eight miles instead of a quarter of a mile', its 
azimuth was adopted by Lockyer. Then, substantially repeat- 
ing Lockyer's statement, which I have already quoted, to the 
effect that * the Axis had also been prolonged backwards towards 
the south-west ... as far as Grovely ', he affirms that ' Whatever 
may have been the date and purpose of the Sidbury and Grovely 
extension lines, it is clear that their agreement with Norman 
Lockyer's observed azimuth is too close for a mere chance coinci- 
dence, and they must be regarded as having been purposely set 
out, with a considerable degree of accuracy, as continuations of 
the Stonehenge Axis '. 

I suggest the omission of the bracketed word ' possibly ' ; for 
unless the axis was prolonged to Sidbury when Stonehenge was 
(according to Lockyer) rebuilt, the Stonehenge-Sidbury line is 
useless for determining the date of the rebuilding. Whether 
Stonehenge was built where it stands because the site was * deter- 
mined by prolonging the line sunrise-Sidbury till it struck a suit- 
able place on the down ', or, as Lockyer maintained, it was 
originally built a thousand years before the Stonehenge-Sidbury 
axis was adopted, it is clear that, unless observers were to be 
stationed at Grovely as well as at Stonehenge, the prolongation 
of the axis * backwards ' had no relation to the midsummer sunrise, 
and anyhow no conceivably intentional relation to anything else. 
Since no avenue was made towards Grovely, Mr. Stone's suppo- 
sition that * the Grovely extension line ' was ' purposely set out ' 
is a baseless guess. 

Non tali auxilio nee defensoribus istis 
Tempus eget. 


The Amulet of Charlemagne 

By Sir Martin Conway, M.A., F.S.A. 

[Read 6th April 1922] 

In January 814 Charlemagne died at Aix-la-Chapelle and 
was there buried on the same day. The event was of stag- 
gering importance. The Roman Empire of the West, which 
the barbarians had overthrown, was remembered even by them 
as the greatest thing in the world. Theodoric had tried to 
revive it and failed. It had lain dormant for more than 
three hundred years and then Charlemagne had apparently 
succeeded in reviving it, and had signalized the year 800 by being 
crowned Emperor by the Pope in the church of St. Peter at Rome. 
And now Charlemagne was dead. Would his work fall to pieces 
or would it stand upright and bring peace on earth } As they 
bore the dead hero to his grave such were the questions they must 
have been asking. The populace, indeed, did not easily believe 
that so great a being could die. He had gone to sleep, but in 
due season he would return to reign over a millennium of peace 
and prosperity. He should at least be buried in all the material 
splendour attainable. So they clothed the body in richest vest- 
ments and seated it within the cave-like grave upon a throne. 
They placed a crown on its head, a sceptre in its hand, and 
a golden chain about its neck. From the chain depended a cross 
and an amulet containing a relic of the Virgin's hair. The place 
of sepulture was marked by a ' golden arch ' or arcosolium. 

Sixty- seven years later Aix-la-Chapelle was captured by the 
Normans, who destroyed the Imperial Palace, the Royal Chapel or 
Cathedral, and the Golden Arch. Thenceforward the position of 
Charlemagne's grave was forgotten. For a quarter of a century 
the cathedral lay waste. Its restoration then went slowly forward 
and was sufficiently advanced in 936 for Otto I to be crowned 
within it, and still Charlemagne sat in his grave with his treasures 
about him and the amulet upon his breast. 

In the year 1000 Otto III desired to see the great dead 
emperor face to fsfce, but no one knew the place of his burial. 
Excavations were undertaken ; the tomb was found and solemnly 
entered by the emperor, two bishops, and Count Otto of Lomello, 

Thk Antiquaries Journal 




Vol. II. pi. XXIII 





the last of whom left a description of what he saw. The body 
was still in good condition except the nose. The nails had grown 
long. They were cut and the nose was patched in gilt. One 
tooth was extracted as a relic and the pectoral cross was taken 
away. The body appears to have been lain in the antique 
sculptured sarcophagus which still exists. This was again opened 
by Frederick 3arbarossa in 1 165 and the contents removed. The 
bones were placed in a wooden coffin decorated with silver, and in 
121 5 translated into the famous and splendid silver-gilt and 
enamelled ch^sse which still exists. 

Various treasures belonging to the original burial found their 
way into the treasury of the cathedral and were honourably 
preserved there till the beginning of the nineteenth century. 
Beside the amulet there was also a very precious little figure of 
the Virgin, about 2 J in. high, made of a light green agate, and 
inscribed as the work of St. Luke. This also was said to have 
hung frorn the neck of Charlemagne in his tomb. There was 
also a silver-gilt casket containing a smaller gilt box and other 
treasures, and with it was another gilt casket adorned with the 
figures of the Twelve Apostles. 

On 4th May 1 804 Napoleon assumed the title of emperor and 
set out to revive the empire and traditions of Charlemagne. The 
Empress Josephine arrived at Aix-la-Chapeile on 27th July, and 
five days later inspected the relics in the cathedral and the bones 
of Charlemagne. By order of Napoleon the Fete of Charlemagne 
was revived and elaborately celebrated on 12th August, and when 
Napoleon himself arrived at Aix-la-Chapelle on 2nd September 
he was received by the bishop in the cathedral where a Te Deum 
was sung and the relics were again displayed. It was on this 
occasion that the above-mentioned treasures were presented to 
Josephine. She kept them as long as she lived. On her death 
they were divided, the amulet becoming the property of Queen 
Hortense and the remainder passing to the Viceroy Eugene. 

1 have not been able to follow the fate of Eugene's inheritance. 
The Charlemagne relics belonging to him appear never to have 
been published. Possibly they are now in the possession of the 
family of the Dukes of Leuchtenberg. The amulet came in due 
succession to Napoleon III and the Empress Eugenie. She 
regarded it with much devotion, and kept it near her at the time 
of the birth of the Prince Imperial. When a friend of hers was 
seriously ill at Biarritz she lent it to him, but whether it proved 
efficacious in his cure is not recorded. Shortly before her death 
she gave it to Father Cabrol, Abbot of Farnborough, instructing 
him to take it to Cardinal Lu^on, Archbishop of Rheims, so that 

VOL. II B b 


it might remain in his cathedral for ever, and this was done. 
No worthier place for it could have been chosen than the treasury 
of the coronation church of the long line of the kings of France. 

The only authentic publication of this amulet is in the volume 
of the Bonner J ahrhucher ioiX 1866.' This is illustrated with one 
photograph and two woodcuts, showing the front, back, and one 
side. They are not entirely satisfactory, but they give a good 
idea of the character of the object, and are here reproduced. It 
may be described as a massive kind of locket, having on each 
of its circular faces a great cabochon sapphire set within a 
gold band richly ornamented. On one face the sapphire is 
oval, on the other roughly square. The oval stone is perfect 
in quality and of a light blue colour. The square stone is 
duller and imperfect. Through the oval stone a relic of the 
true cross is visible, but the hair relic of the Virgin does not show. 
The fact that Charlemagne presented a relic of the true cross to 
the royal chapel at Aix-la-Chapelle is recorded. The big cabochons 
are held in each case by a foliated openwork band of gold rising 
out of the flat frame. There is also a roughly cubical excrescence 
at the top of the locket to which the loops are attached for the 
suspending chain. Both faces of the main frame are similarly 
adorned. There is a garnet at the top on the face of the cube 
and below it an emerald, and at each quarter of the circle is 
another emerald. Halfway between the emeralds is a cabochon 
garnet. A pearl is set midway between each of these eight stones. 
On the edge of the amulet there are again alternate stones and 
pearls, starting and ending with a garnet on the fixed loop for the 
chain. Four sapphires, three amethysts, and eight pearls complete 
the circle. Each stone is held by a ribbon of gold fastened 
down on to the flat gold surface of the frame. This flat surface 
between the stones is embossed into little palmettes and flowers, 
and the mounts of the stones and the edges of the faces are 
outlined with a fine gold wire like a string of small gold balls. 
Every one of these details is proper to the Carlovingian style of 
goldsmith's work. 

Thus we find raised foliation applied as decoration on the 
beautiful gold and enamel ewer at St. Maurice d'Agaune, which 
Charlemagne is said to have presented to that abbey. Embossed 
foliation similarly employed decorates what would otherwise be 
flat surfaces on the elaborate binding of a manuscript at St. Gallen, 
which is of about this date. Big stones held by rings of metal 
foliation are conspicuous on the Capsa aurea at Monza, and 

' Jahrh. des Vereins von Alterthumsfreunden im Rhein/ande, Bonn, 1 855, pp. 265- 
.271, pis. 4, 5, 6. . 


likewise on the jewelled cross in the same treasury, both objects 
being connected with Berengarius, while the small stones on the 
latter are mounted just in the same fashion, within a plain ribbon 
of metal surrounded by a beaded wire, as are those on the 
amulet. Thus, as far as technique goes there is every confirma- 
tion of the tradition which carries the amulet back to the days of 

Tradition and the evidence of the object itself being thus in 
perfect accord we may with confidence regard it as what it 
professes to be — the actual locket which the great emperor was 
wont to wear in life, and which hung from his neck in the tomb 
where his body was so dramatically set up. Few relics of the 
past, precious in themselves, can be compared with it for senti- 
mental value, and it is pleasant to think that it will find for ages 
to come a place of honour so distinguished as the cathedral of 
Rheims, long and gloriously associated with all that was most 
splendid. and much that has been most memorable in the history 
of France. 


Mr. Clifford Smith had long been hunting for the jewel, and had 
come to the conclusion that it had been burnt in the Tuileries, as the 
article in Bonner JalirbilcJier did not give its history after 1866. The 
story now revealed was most remarkable, and no more fitting resting- 
place for the jewel could be found than Rheims Cathedral. 

The President thought Sir Martin Conway had proved his case, 
and himself could see no objection to the date assigned. For ten or 
fifteen years he had known where the jewel was kept, but was under 
a pledge of secrecy ; and it was only a short time before her recent 
death that the ex-Empress Eugenie determined to send it to Rheims. 
The Fellows must have been deeply interested in the romantic story 
told by Sir Martin Conway. 

B b 2 

Hallstatt Pottery from Eastl?our?te 
By the Rev. W. Budgen 

[Read 26th January 1922] 

Adjoining the northern boundary of the parish of Eastbourne 
and extending to the foot of the downs on the west, there is an 
area of arable land until recently forming part of the Motcombe 
Farm, part of the property of the Duke of Devonshire. The 
district was formerly called Northwick, and later Green Street : 
it was crossed by an ancient way called * Green Street Drove ', 
running east and west. The land has recently been acquired by 
the Corporation of Eastbourne for the purpose of their housing 
scheme and for allotments. 

This neighbourhood has produced several finds of archaeo- 
logical interest. When the road called Victoria Drive (following 
the line of an ancient track) was made in 1891, remains of a 
Romano-British pit-dwelling were discovered at the point marked 
A on the plan' (Suss. Arch. Coll.^ vol. xxxviii, p. 160) ; and six 
years later, when the old droveway (now called Eldon Road) was 
straightened, a kitchen midden was cut through at B on the 
plan, about 420 yds. from the pit-dwelling {S. A. C, vol. xli, p. 4). 
Farther away from the area under consideration, about 6co yds. 
in a north-easterly direction, a Saxon cemetery was discovered in 
1909 on the Ocklynge ridge (5. /f. C, vol. lii, p. 192). This 
cemetery was again encountered in 1921 during road widening. 

The downs to the westward have numerous round barrows, 
and at the foot of the hill there was brought to light in 1907, near 
the point marked C, an extended burial beneath 4 ft. 6 in. of 
undisturbed soil {S. A. C, vol. lii, p. 189). From an examination 
of photographs taken at the time of the discovery, and considering 
all the circumstances recorded, Mr. Reginald Smith is inclined to 
attribute this interment to the Neolithic period ; and Sir Arthur 
Keith, who has examined the skull, reports that its features are 
consistent with this view. An existing bridle-way crossing the 
area diagonally at 'its eastern end is the probable line of a Roman 

' All the discoveries mentioned have been plotted on a map, which is in the 
Jceeping of the Society. , 


road {Joum. Eastbourne Nat. Hist. Phot, and Literary Soc.y vol. viii, 
110. 21, July 1 91 8). 

In the summer of 192 1 Mr. H. D. Searle, an allotment holder, 
in digging his plot, noticed a considerable patch of dark soil, and 
later found fragments of ancient pottery. This led him and his 
son to search further, and information was also given to myself as 
local secretary to the Sussex Archaeological Society. In result, 
a small pit wis discovered, about 18 in. in diameter, and in it, at a 
depth of trom 12 in. to 20 in,, there were portions of rough pottery, 
including three bases, the subject of this note. When some of 
the fragments were pieced together it became evident that the 
vessels had collapsed in the process of riring, and portions had 
been burnt to a cinder, making complete restoration impossible. 
The obvious conclusion was that the pottery was made at or near 
the spot where it was found, and that it had been deliberately 
buried, possibly to hide the evidence of neglect or want of skill on 
the part of the maker. 

Two of the vessels were fairly large, the rim of one giving a 
diameter of about 8 in. : the paste was rather soft, and the outside 
had considerable remains of pigment of a purplish maroon tint. 
The other large pot was probably of about the same size, but was 
much distorted ; it had, in addition to traces of colour, remains of 
black brush marking of a diamond pattern. The third vessel 
was rather smaller and of a superior type, the paste being finer 
and harder and faced with a deep chestnut pigment. The pottery 
was pronounced by Mr. Reginald Smith to belong to the Hallstatt 
period, about the seventh century b. c. 

On the same plot, and about 5 ft. away from the pit just 
described, there was found a larger pit, measuring 4 ft. by 3 ft. 
and about 32 in. deep. At the bottom there were a number of 
large flints forming a somewhat incomplete floor, and a good many 
smaller calcined flints. In this pit was found a fairly large portion 
of a Late Celtic pot and other fragments of a similar date, but 
nothing of the type found in the small pit ; there were also small 
pieces of birds' bones, and the bones of small animals. On the 
whole there was little to indicate that the pit had been anything 
but a rubbish pit, but it may have been connected with the pottery 
kilns and afterwards have been used for rubbish. 

The sites of the pits are marked D on the plan. 

Mr. Reginald Smith added the following notes : 

The transition from bronze to iron in Britain has always been 
a chronological diflFiculty, and a decision has been delayed by the 
scarcity of datable material. Among others, Sir Arthur Evans 
has brought forward arguments tending to suppress a Hallstatt 




period in this country, and to prolong the Bronze Age till the period 
of La Tene I. In Proceedings, xxii (i 908), p. 128, he concludes that 
the real Iron Age in Britain only begins with the Late Celtic settle- 
ment, from about b, c. 400, but recent discoveries have reinforced 
the arguments based on brooches and other bronzes of the Hall- 

FiG. I. Hallstatt ware, Eastbourne. (A) f 

Fig. 2. Hallstatt ware, Eastbourne. (^) 

statt period {Proceedings, xxi, pp. 97-117), and pottery is all the 
more convincing as it is less portable than bronze. Apart from 
isolated fragments in museums, which were noted but never 
published by our late Fellow Mr. Percy Manning, Major Bushe- 
Fox's discovery of a whole class of fine black ware, which he 
assigned with little hesitation to a date before La T^ne, may be 
said to have opened a new era in the study ; and the surprising 


yield of All Cannings Farm, near Devizes, described by Mrs. 
Cunnington in this /owrw^/ of January 1922, is supplerwented by 
a discovery, in many respects quite distinct, now brought to our 
notice by Mr. Budgen, to whose zeal and ingenuity is due the 
partial restoration of the vessels on exhibition. 

Some far-reaching deductions may at once be made without 

Fig. 3. Hallstatt ware, Eastbourne. (^-) 


Fig. 4. Hallstatt ware, 
Eastbourne. (-|) 

Fig. 5. La Tcne ware, 
Eastbourne. (-|) 

difficulty or qualification. The sherds (figs. 1-4) belonged to 
vases which in shape, quality, colour, and decoration belong to the 
Hallstatt culture of central Europe ; and were found deliberately 
buried together close to our south coast, and therefore on one of 
the routes from the Continent. 

Painted pottery is practically unknown in Britain before the 
Christian era, and was certainly not adopted before that date by 
our native potters. Hence the Eastbourne fragments were of 


foreign manufacture (the series of lozenges being alone sufficient 
evidence of that), but were evidently fired in this country, and 
therefore in a sense of local manufacture, as wasters of this kind 
would never have been imported across the Channel. It is clearly, 
therefore, a case of immigration, not of ordinary trade. 

It should be possible to trace the route and original home of 
these immigrants, and determine the date of their arrival : nor is 
it hopeless to ascertain their language, which was probably quite 
different from that of the indigenous population, for these Hall- 
statt people may eventually prove to have been the first Celtic- 
speaking inhabitants of our islands. 

The illustrations are of selected specimens more or less recon- 
structed and found in the two separate pits described above by 
Mr, Budgen : 

Fig. I. — The upper half of an urn with about half its circumference, the lip 
especially distorted in firing ; the paste hard and yellow tending to orange, black in 
the interior, with fine grit. Round the shoulder traces of three contiguous lozenges 
painted in black and each enclosing three others ; elsewhere a few patches remaining 
of the lustrous reddish-brown surface that originally covered the outside, and may 
be described as burnt siena with more or less carmine added. Diam. outside lip, 
8'4 in. ; at shoulder, io-2 in. 

Fig. 2. — Similar urn, the foot complete and attached to about 5 in. of the side made 
up of fragments ; one part of the foot over-fired, but little distortion there or else- 
where, and the lip supplied from another fragment : the reddisli-brown outer surface 
better preserved than in the preceding. Ht., "]•"] in. ; diam. outside lip, 7 in. ; at 
shoulder, 9-2 in. 

Fig. 3. — Neck and shoulder of similar ware, complete though made up of 
fragments much distorted in firing : the foot separate, perhaps of the same vessel, 
over-fired and distorted ; a good deal of the reddish-brown surface preserved, but 
no trace of painted decoration on shoulder. Estimated ht., T'-j in. ; average diam. 
of lip, 7-8 in. ; of the foot, 4-6 in. 

Fig. 4. — A hollow foot of the same paste but with traces of black surface, 
distorted in firing; probably of a tall cup. Diam., 3-3 in. 

Fig. 5. — Part of an urn, heavier, softer, and thicker than the above, from a pit 
about 5 ft. distant : dull yellow surfaces, with much charcoal in the body of the 
ware. Diam. of base, 3-7 in. 

This last belongs to a class of ware familiar in England and 
evidently of La T^ne date, quite distinct from the other specimens 
illustrated and probably some centuries later. The rest are 
homogeneous, and, as the circumstances show, were the result of 
the unsuccessful firing of a kiln by potters accustomed to a ware 
that has not been recorded elsewhere in England, but has obvious 
affinities abroad. 

In profile the urns are analogous to the black ware excavated on 
Hengistbury Head, and classed among the earliest Iron Age 
products of the site (Class B, Report, plate XVII) ; but there are 
notable differences. The lustrous black Hengistbury ware has 



cordons on the neck and shoulder, no painted decoration, and an 
omphalos base ; and there seems, to be no parallel for the profile 
or reddish-brown surface in the large series from Devizes. Both 
in quality and colour the surface-coating is identical with urns 
and platters in the British Museum from Hallstatt burials in 
Wortemberg ; whereas there seems to be nothing similar in the 
Halstiitt pottery from France collected by Baron de Baye and 
described by M. Hubert in Revue Prehistorique^ v (19 10), p. 97. 

Painted ware of Gaulish origin has long been known to date from 
the period of La Tene, and a few fragments may have been found 
on this side of the Channel ; and there can be no hesitation in 
attributing to foreign craftsmen the lustrous reddish-brown coating 
of the Eastbourne group, which can be traced direct to south-west 
Germany. The eighth-century ware of that region is well known, 
and adequately represented in the British Museum. The ordinary 
source of information on the subject ' is Alterliimer unserer heid- 
nischen Vorzeit^ vol. v (191 1), where on p. 402 Dr. P. Reinecke 
illustrates some typical pottery of his C period (when large iron 
swords were in use, see plate LXIX). Here, on different speci- 
mens, can be seen the colouring, the lozenge pattern, and the 
profile which inspired the Eastbourne potter ; and if a century is 
allowed for transmission and development, the newly discovered 
sherds can be assigned to the seventh century b. c. The find 
thus corroborates other recent evidence of a Hallstatt period in 
Britain ; and besides those already mentioned, two others in 
Sussex acquire additional significance ; pottery attributed to this 
period was found in a pit near Cissbury last year {Journal^ 
April 1922, p. 139), and Mr: Garraway Rice, F.S.A., reported on 
some sherds of the so-called GOritz type found in 1 910 at Pul- 
borough {Proc. Soc. Antiq.^ vol. xxiii, pp. 376, 385). The south 
coast might have been expected to show the clearest traces of alien 
immigration, and the increasing number of finds is a good augury 
for the chronology both of the Bronze and Early Iron Ages of 


Major BUSHE-Fox said it was of great interest to see the gap being 
filled up between the Bronze Age and Late Celtic times. The pottery 
found by Mrs. Cunnington was closely allied to that of the Pyrenees and 
the south of France, and further finds of the sort would be very wel- 
come. In the museums of south-east England there was a striking 

' The latest pronouncement is Dr. Karl Schumacher's Siedelungs- und Kultur- 
geschichte cler Rheinlande, vol. i (Mainz, 1911), where the polychrome ware is assigned 
to the seventh century. 


absence of pottery dating from the Hallstatt period, but an abundance 
of it in Hampshire, Hengistbury Head being specially prolific. 

Mr. Crawford had been over the Hallstatt site near Devizes, and 
knew of several finds in Hampshire, as between Andover and Ludger- 
shall. One piece found by Mr. Engleheart was in Salisbury Museum, 
which also possessed a fragment of burnished red-ware. More had 
recently been found at Winchester, on the new housing site south-west 
of the city. It was difficult to imagine that Mrs. Cunnington's series 
came from the Pyrenees, and he would rather suggest the south 
German plain or Silesia Germany might indeed have been the 
common centre of the Hallstatt culture found in the Pyrenees and in 

The Chairman (Mr. C. L. Kingsford), in thanking the author of 
the paper, congratulated him on his interesting find at Eastbourne, and 
expressed the indebtedness of the Society also to Mrs. Cunnington for 
allowing specimens of the All Cannings Farm pottery to be exhibited. 

Roman Cardiff : Supplementafj Notes 
By R. E. M. Wheeler, D.Lit, F.S.A. 

The Roman walls and bastions discovered in 1889 and sub- 
sequent years under the Norman or medieval earthworks of Cardiff" 
Castle have been described by the late Mr. John Ward, F.S.A., 
in Archaeologia ' and Archaeologia Cambrensis.^ It may be recalled that 
the remains indicate a quadrangular enclosure some %\ acres in 
extent, with central gateways in the north and south sides and 
with semi-octagonal bastions along the walls. The fort thus corre- 
sponds closely in size and general character (though not in 
detail) with that at Porchester, and clearly represents a westerly 
branch of the coastal defence system instituted, or at least 
extended, in the reigns of Diocletian and Constantine 1. It 
stands in the middle of the Monmouthshire-Glamorganshire 
lowlands where, alone in Wales, Roman civil life developed on 
a scale sufficiently extensive to require special protection from 
Irish or Teutonic raiders. 

Within the last twenty-five years the walls have been cleared 
externally and, with the north gateway, * restored ' by the 
Marquess of Bute. Care has been taken to distinguish the new 
work from the old, but externally little else than modern masonry 
is now visible, and the walls lose in interest what they gain in 
completeness. Scarcely any excavation of a scientific nature has 
yet been carried out on the site, but coins and pottery have been 
found from time to time during the restorations, and it is now 
possible to add something to the published evidence. Thanks 
are due to Lord Bute's architect, Mr. J. P. D. Grant, A.R.I. B.A., 
for every possible assistance in the collection of information. 

The General Tlan — It is now almost certain that the western 
curtain wall, mostly of medieval date above ground, follows the 
line of the Roman wall and does not, as Mr. Ward supposed, 
deviate from it towards the south-western corner. In the Castle 
kitchen, which abuts upon the wall considerably south of the 
centre, a fragment of the Roman masonry still stands to a height 
of some 10 ft. Mr. Grant tells me that the Roman road has 

• LVII, pp. 33s ff. 

" 1908, pp. 29 ff; 191 3» pp- 159^- Also, Haverfield, Cytnmroiiorion Soc. 
Trans., 1908-9. 



been found under the eastern jamb of the present South Gate, 
indicating that the Roman gate here stood slightly further east 
than this. It would thus be nearly central in the existing south 
wall, and Mr. Ward's re-adjustment of the south-west corner in 
order to centralize the gate is no longer necessary. 

The recent (1922) demolition of modern external buildings 
abutting against the eastern half of the south wall has revealed 
the lower part of the bastion which stood midway between the 
south-eastern corner and the south gate. The site of eleven 

Fig. I. Junction between main wall effort (left) and first bastion north 
of SE. corner. 

bastions is now accurately known ; the original number was 
presumably eighteen. 

The Roman Bank — The Roman wall is from 10 ft. to io| ft. 
in thickness. Behind it, Mr. Ward shows in plan and section 
a Roman bank. This is an unusual feature in forts of this type, 
and Professor Haverfield complained that it was * insufficiently 
recorded '. Recently, in order to settle the matter, Mr. Grant 
kindly had three pits sunk through the medieval bank against 
the back of the north wall. These pits clearly verified Mr. Ward's 
observations. The Roman bank, of earth and gravel, was of 
similar material to that of its medieval covering, but there was 
a consistent line of demarcation between the two works at a 





height of 12 ft. to 13 ft. above the ground-level. Circum- 
stantial evidence had already anticipated the results of these 
excavations, for it had been observed that (i) the ashlar on the 
inner face of the walls had everywhere been preserved at least 
to this height, whereas the external facing stones had in many 
places been robbed almost to the footings ; (ii) the arrises of the 

Fig. 3. NW, corner, showing inner curb of divergent footings and inner face of 
main wall. The abutment of the modern wall at the top indicates the approximate 
height of the former Roman bank. 

interior facing stones were still as sharp as when they were first 
placed in position, and had evidently not suffered the exposure 
which] had rounded the external ashlar; and (iii) the offsets 
which occur on the inner face of the wall at a height of about 
8 feet vary in number and height in different cuttings and are 
unlikely, therefor?, to have formed a visible architectural feature. 
It is now certain that they were all covered by the Roman bank. 
The Footings — Mr. Ward noted that, whilst the bastions and 
the walls are of one build above the footings, the footjngs them- 


selves present several points of difficulty. The difficulties are, 
(i) that the footings of the bastions are at different levels from 
those of the main walls, and abut on to them clumsily and 
haphazardly (fig. i) ; (ii) that at the north-east corner (the only 

Fig. 4. Interior of NE. corner, showing divergence between wall and footings. 

corner thoroughly examined in this respect) the footings of the 
main wall are carried round in a continuous curve behind the 
projecting bastion (fig. 2) ; (iii) that the main wall itself bears 
a very inconstant relationship to its footings, som.etimes even 
projecting beyond them ; and (iv) that the footings, with remains 
of two superimposed courses of masonry, were found beneath the 



floor of the bastion which flanks the north gate on its eastern 
side (see Archaeologia^ Ivii, p. 344, fig. 3). These disparities' may 
be of considerable importance, and though some of them were 
noted and discussed by Mr. Ward it is desirable to direct further 
attention to their nature and extent. The illustrations (figs. 2-4) 
show the relationship of the footings (Mr. Ward's ' plinth ') to 
the superstructure and the bastions at the north-west and north- 

FiG. 5. Interior of SE. corner after removal of Roman bank, showing divergent 
footings. Height of Roman wall, 1 7 ft. 

east corners. The latter is not quite accurately shown on the 
earlier plans, and the former has only recently been completely 
uncovered. It is significant that a similar irregularity occurs at 
the south-east corner (fig. 5), where it is permanently visible in 
a chamber constructed within the bank by Lord Bute. The 
area enclosed by the footings is thus identical with that of the fort 
as we now know it. 

It is not at present possible to draw any very certain deduction 
from these disparities. The relationship between footings and 
superstructure is often very casual in medieval building, and the 


irregularities and eccentricities of Roman construction are still 
more notorious. It is clear that Roman military works were 
often built in sections by separate squads, doubtless in competi- 
tion." Bastions in particular are often fitted quite casually to the 
main structure. At Lymne (Stutfall Castle) a circular bastion is 
bonded into the main wall on one side but shows a straight Joint 
on the other, although the whole work bears the impress of one 
period ; and other examples readily present themselves. It is 
not safe, therefore, to assume generally that, in Roman work. 



Fig. 6. Samian pottery from Roman tort, Cardiff. 

either straight-joints or divergent footings necessarily indicate 
difference of period or modification of plan. 

Nevertheless, the presence of both these features together at 
Cardiff rouses a suspicion that they may there be the product of 
more than mere accident. This suspicion is reinforced by the 
ruined or incipient superstructure which survives upon the 
footings of the main wall beneath the floor of the east bastion 
at the north gate. One of two inferences seem possible ; 
either the footings of the main walls belong to a previous fort on 

' A notable example on a large scale is afibrded by the Antonine Vallum, which, 
as Dr. George Macdonald has recently shown, was built in regulated lengths by six 
separate legionary detachments. 




the site, or they represent an unfinished work which, in its initial 
stages, was remodelled in the form in which we now know it. 
Of these two possibilities, the latter is preferable. It is highly- 
improbable that a wall lo ft. or more in thickness would be 
pulled down and replaced by a similar wall on an almost (but not 
quite) identical plan.' The rubble core of the existing Roman 
walls contains a few blocks of discarded ashlar, and, as will be 
seen, the pottery and coins show that the site was already 
occupied in the first century ; but a fort nearly lo acres in 
extent with lo-ft. stone walls at that period — or, indeed, at any 
subsequent period until the late third century- — is not a reasonable 

Pottery— \t would be premature to publish the pottery in 
detail, but the Samian (forms 29, 15/17, and 18/31) illustrated 
in fig. 6 is of importance as a definite indication of a first-century 
occupation of the site. It will be seen that six of the coins are 
of Vespasian or earlier, and it is safe to assume a Flavian settle- 
ment which, in Wales, can hardly have been other than military 
in character. 

Coins — The following twenty coins have been found within 
the fort. Those marked with an asterisk are recorded by 
Mr. Ward, but their whereabouts is now unknown. The 
remainder have been seen by me, and Mr. G. F. Hill has very 
kindly examined doubtful specimens. 

1. Claudius I (a. d. 41-54). 2 b. 

2. Probably Claudius I. 2 b. 

3. Probably Nero (a. d. 54-68). 2 b. 

4. Vespasian (a. d. 69-79). 2 b. 

5. Vespasian. 2 b. 

6. Vespasian. 2 b. 

7. Probably second century. 3 b. 
*8. Faustina (which, not specified). 

9. Faustina the Younger (d. a. d. 175). i b. 

10. KAIA KOPNHAIA (a. D. 253). 3 b. 

*ii. Victorinus (a. d. 265-7). 

12. Victorinus (or near date). 3 b. 

*I3. Tetricus Junior (a. d. 268-73). 

*I4. Carausius (a. d. 287-93). 

15. Third century, base metal (c. a. d. 270-80). 

' The possibility that the footings, which are about 1 2 feet wide, may have 
formed the basis of an. earthen or turf wall, like those of some of the Antonine 
forts in Scotland, is rendered improbable by the superimposed courses of masonry 
under the floor of the bastion, as mentioned above ; unless these courses (which are 
not now visible) be regarded as part of an earlier gateway. 


P *i6. Constantine I. 

*ij. Julian the Apostate (a. o. 335-363). 

^l8. Constans (a. D. 337-50). 3 b. 
19. Valentinian I (a. D. 364-75). 3 b 
20. Valentinian I. 3 b. 

With the exception of the * Faustina ', the coins noted by 
Mr. Ward were found ' in or near ' the North Gateway. The 
only coin, however, of which precise information is preserved is 
no. 9, found, as Mr. Grant tells me, on the ground-level beneath 
the Roman bank near the south-eastern corner. 

In addition to these coins from the fort, others have been 
found at various times in the area covered by modern Cardiff. 
A * second brass ' of Trajan was found with Roman pottery 
under Lloyds Bank, in High Street, 100 yards south of the 
southern wall of the fort {Jrch. Camb.^ 1893, p. '279), but no 
structural remains definitely Roman in character are recorded 
outside the enclosure. Amongst other coins may be mentioned 
two, of Gallienus and Carausius respectively, found in excavating 
the New Mount Stuart Graving D.ocks, near the mouth of the 
TafF. The latest coin known to have been found in Cardiff is 
a ' third brass ' of Gratian, but the exact site is not stated. 

Summary — The history of Roman Cardiff is thus emerging 
slowly and fragmentarily from such few materials as chance and 
the modern builder have revealed. Coins and pottery indicate 
a first-century occupation, probably before a. d. 85, and almost 
certainly military in character. We may suppose that Cardiff, in 
the middle of the great alluvial plain where the three rivers, 
Rhymney, Taff, and Ely approach each other and the sea, was 
chosen as the site of one of the numerous forts which were built 
at strategic points throughout the greater part of Wales in the 
quarter-century following the final subjugation of the peninsula 
by Frontinus and Agricola. The evidence is inadequate to show 
whether the original fort, like others in Wales, was evacuated in 
the earlier half of the second century, since the present scarcity 
of second- and early third-century coins may be fortuitous. 
The six coins of the latter part of the third century, however, 
suggest renewed activity on the site, apparently accompanied by, 
or culminating in, a rebuilding of the defences. The footings 
were now laid for a fort of unusual size, with bluntly-rounded 
corners and without external bastions. The scheme, whilst in its 
initial stages, was apparently altered, for the corners of the super- 
structure, though still rounded, were struck from a different 
centre, and footings for projecting bastions were added somewhat 

t clumsily to the existing work. Nevertheless, above the footings, 
c c 2 


the walls and bastions were carried up in one build. The new 
walls were backed by an earthen bank 12 ft. to 13 ft. high and 
of unascertained width. This bank was built later than the third 
quarter of the second century, since it covered a coin of Faustina 
the Younger ; and it is, indeed, clearly contemporary with the 
walls and bastions. The latter are identical with those which 
were added to the south wall of Caerwent — a wall which was 
itself an addition to an independent earthern rampart. Similar 
polygonal bastions occur in the fourth-century forts at Augst 
and Stein on the upper Rhine. The recorded migrations from 
Ireland to South Wales at the end of the third century, and the 
epigraphical evidence for road-making or repairing in Glamorgan- 
shire at this period,' combine to reduce the margin of probable 
error. Coins show that the site was still occupied in the time of 
Valentinian I, c. 375 a. d. 

Cardiff lies only thirteen miles south-west of Caerleon. It is 
perhaps not likely that a fort of the present size would be 
established at Cardiff if the legionary fortress at Caerleon were 
still fully effective. The Notitia 'Vignitatum places the second 
Legion Augusta (or part of it) at Richborough in the fourth 
century. May we not suppose that the implied reduction of the 
Caerleon garrison was in some way associated with the reconstruc- 
tion of the fort at Cardiff .'' Since the establishment of Caerleon 
in the first century, Roman civil life had gradually penetrated 
westwards along the Welsh coast, and had thus diminished the 
immediate strategic value of that fortress. It is a reasonable 
inference that the transfer of troops to Richborough and the 
re-building of the fort at Cardiff mark the end of Caerleon as 
a military base of primary importance. 

' Cymmrodor'ion Soc. Trans. ^ 1908-9, p. 158 ; 1920-1, p. 93. 

Roman Coffi?is discoyered at Keynsham^ i()2 2 
By H. St/GEORGE Gray, Local Secretary for Somerset 

Interesting archaeological remains of the Roman period, 
including two coffins, were discovered in digging for the founda- 
tions of Messrs. J. S. Fry & Sons* new factory and garden city 
at Keynsham Hams, Somerset, on ist May 1922. Having 
heard of the discovery from Mr. J. E. Pritchard, F.S.A., I made 
arrangements to visit the site on 4th May. Mr. A. Bulleid, 
F.S.A., joined me during the afternoon and took some photo- 
graphs. The position is three-quarters of a mile east of the 
Cemetery and Mortuary Chapel on the Bristol Road, where cut 
stone, tesserae, tiles, and pottery of the Roman period, indicating 
occupation, have recently been found. 

Both the coffins (fig. i), which appeared to be of oolite (Bath 
stone), had stone covers, the tops of which were about 2 ft. below 
the surface of the ground. They were close together and the lids— ^ 
shown in dotted lines in theaccompanyingdrawing(fig. 2) — touched 
each other at one point. The position in which they were found 
was about 63 ft. above mean sea-level, and only 400 ft. west of 
the River Avon, which divides Somerset from Gloucestershire. 
The Roman Road from Bath to Avonmouth passes three-quarters 
of a mile to the north of the coffins. 

Coffin I, the most northerly, which contained a female skeleton, 
was rounded at the head, the foot being squared. Coffin II 
differed in being squared at both ends and contained a male skeleton. 
The lid of Coffin I was of the same shape as the coffin, length 
6-4 ft., maximum width 2-5 ft., minimum width i-8 ft. Its top 
was ridged lengthwise, with a maximum thickness of about 06 ft. ; 
at the margin it measured 0-4 ft. in thickness. The underside 
was flanged along the margin so that it might the better fit the 
top of the coffin proper. The external length of the coffin was 
6 ft., maximum width 2 ft., diminishing to 1-25 ft. at the foot. 
The internal depth was o- 8 5 ft., and the internal width varied from 
1*45 ft. at the head to 07 5 ft. at the foot. The coffin is stated 
to have been found almost filled with earth. This, however, 
had been mostly removed before my arrival, and some of the 
bones of the skeleton had been disturbed. The facial bones and 



the lower jaw had been broken. There was some overlap of the 
tibia and femur in both legs (when seen by me), and it is possible 
that the knees were flexed at the time of burial. The face of the 
skeletons was upwards in both cases ; and both were adults. The 
heads are to the west, as shown in the drawing. 

The length of the right femur (in Coffin I) was taken in the 
ground as 173 in. (441 mm.), and of the left femur 17^ in. 
(438 mm.). According to Rollet's method of calculation this 
gives a stature of 5 ft. 4-3 in. if female, and 5 ft. 3-4 in. if male. 
The bones were in sequence and appeared to occupy a length ot 

Fig. I. Roman coffins found at Keynsham, 1922. 
From a photograph by Mr. A. Biilleid, F.S.A. 

only 5 ft. in the coffin, but the skull, etc., had been moved from 
the original position before my arrival. 

Coffin II also had a heavy cover, the west end of which was 
badly broken by the tools of the workmen, but there were also 
two ancient fractures across the block of stone. The length of 
the cover could not, therefore, be clearly ascertained, but its 
width towards the larger end was 2-7 ft., and at the smaller end 
2-15 ft. It was 0-6 ft. thick, except at the margin where there 
was a worked edge to fit the rebate (i in.) round the coffin, 
which increased the thickness to o-68 ft. The coffin proper had 
an external length of 7 ft. ; the external width was 2-4 ft. at the 
head and 1-85 ft.'a,t the foot. The outer depth of the coffin was 
1-5 ft., inner depth at the sides i-2 ft. Within the stone coffin 
was a lead shell or lining in a good state of preservation, but 


shorter than the coffin proper. The leaden receptacle measured 
5-9 ft. in length, and in width i.-6 ft. at the shoulders, 1-3 ft. 
at the head, and 105 ft. at the foot. The internal depth was 
0-85 ft. The leaden cover (length 6 ft.) was detached from the 
rest but had originally been soldered. The thickness of the stone 
sides of the outer coffin was 0-3 ft., of which 01 ft. was rebated 
at the top, so that the cover might the more easily fit. The ex- 
tended skeleton occupied a length of 5 ft. 4 in. Length of the 


Fig. z. Plan of Roman coffins at Keynsham. 

right femur lyj in. (445 mm.) ; left femur, ditto ; left tibia 14 in. 
(359 mm.); left humerus 12-2 in. (318 mm.). The leg bones 
give a stature, if male, of 5 ft. 4 in. Calculated from the humerus 
only, the stature worked out at 5 ft. 3-6 in. 

No relics were found associated with the skeletons, but the 
interments are undoubtedly of the Roman period, and in 
trenching to the south several fragments of Romano-British 
pottery were found, down to a depth of 45 ft. below the surface, 
including part of a tazza (shallow), lathe-turned, with ring-base, 
brown and black outer surface, and ' basin-shaped ' rim-pieces ; 
also some oyster-shells and remains of horse, ox, pig, sheep, and 
small dog. 

At a distance of 2 fr. from the coffins on the south side a 


silver denarius of Gordianus Pius, a. d. 238-^244, was found. 
The following is its description : 

Obv.: IMP. CORD I AN VS PIVS FEL. AVG. = Laureated head to I 

Rev.: P. M. TR. P. III. COS. II. P. P. = Female figure seated, 

holding an olive branch. In good preservation. 

Since the coffins were found a * third brass' coin of Constantius 
II, A. D. 337-361 (well preserved) was uncovered near by. Also 
a bronze needle, 5^ in. long, finely patinated. 

Obv.: CONSTANTIVS P. F. AVG. = Head to right. 

Rev.: GLORIA EXERCITVS = Two soldiers, each with a spear, 

regarding a central standard with M. on the banneret. 

In exergue, TRP (?). 

I understand that a * second brass ' coin of Maximianus 
(a. D. 286-305) and a * third brass' of Constantinus I (a. d. 306- 
337) have also been found. In extending the digging north- 
westwards stone roofing-tiles, some "having the iron nails still in 
position, have been uncovered in some numbers ; they were 
more or less piled up, indicating the remains of a Roman building 
which had suddenly collapsed. Large pieces of worked stone 
were also found close by, and more pottery including fragments 
of terra sigillata. The work is temporarily stopped in this 

Leaden coffins found within Roman sarcophagi are unusual ; 
but they have previously occurred in Somerset and elsewhere, 

A stone coffin containing another of lead was found at a place 
called Hobb's (or Hobbs's) Wall (or Well) near Barrow Vale 
Farm, Farmboroue^h. This place is six miles south of Keynsham 
Hams ; and the coffin is of the same dimensions as the larger 
coffin from Keynsham. The leaden remains from Farmborough 
were sent to Bristol Museum in 1886, but it has been stated on 
good authority that a few months subsequently they found their 
way to the melting-pot.' 

A freestone coffin found (depth about a foot) in a field called 
Great Wemberham, in the parish of Yatton, in 1828, is described 
as containing bones of a skeleton and some parts of a leaden 
coffin. "" Probably much of the leaden shell had perished. The 
head of the coffin pointed to the north-west. 

A stone sarcophagus found in 1853 at Haydon Square, near 
the Minories and the Tower of London, contained a lead coffin 
with an ornamented lid.^ 

' Proc. Clifton Ant'tq, Club, i, 109-13. 
^ Rutter's Delineations of Somerset, 70, 
^ Archaeol. Journ., x, 255; Collect. /Intiqua, iii, p. 45 et seq., and plate xiii ; 


Another large Roman sarcophagus lined with lead was found 
near Caerwent in 1854/ 

A stone coffin found at Whatmere Hall, Sturry, Kent, con- 
tained a lead shell in six pieces, put together without solder/ 
Another lined with lead was found at Crowle, Worcestershire ; ' 
and another similar was found at York/ 

In 1916 a lead coffin of a child, of the Roman period, was 
found at Cann, near Shaftesbury. The coffin rested on a tray of 
what on close examination proved to be an artificial cement. 
This remarkable ' find ' I have figured and described.^ 

There is evidence of other leaden coffins having been found in 
Somerset, but without outer cases of stone. One was found 
near Wiveliscombe," of which there are fragments in the Somerset 
County Museum. Fragments of a leaden coffin found at North- 
over House, Ilchester, in 1836, ornamented with a plaited 
herring-bone design, are also exhibited in the Museum. The 
same collection includes a piece of another from Chillington 
(1848);^' and a larger fragment of one found near Bearley Farm, 
parish of Tintinhull, a mile north of the Fosseway. 

A large number of stone coffins of the Roman period have 
been found in and around Bath,' and at Midford, but no 
specimen, 1 believe, with an inner shell of lead. There is a 
record of a leaden coffin having been found at Sydney Buildings, 
parish of Bathwick.'° 

In the Lansdown excavations conducted by the Bath Branch 
of the Somersetshire Archaeological Society a number of stone 
coffins of the Roman period has been found, but none with 
lead linings. See plates in Reports for 1906, 1907, and 1908. 

Gu'uit: to Roman Britain (Brit. Mus,), 1922, pp. 16 and loi, and plate x; Proc. 
Som. Arch. Soc, v, ii, 67. 

' Archaeol. Journ., xii, 76-8. 

^ Hasted's History of Kent, iii, 615 ; Collect. Antiqua, vii, 190. 

^ Nash's IVorcestershire. 

* Proc. Clifton Antiq. Club, i, 1 1 2. 

^ Proc. Dorset Field Clul;, xxxviii, 68-73. 

^ Som. and Dor. N. and Q., ix, 8, 58. 

' Proc. Som. Arch. Soc, li, ii, 150; Ixiii, 117, Som. and Dor, N. and Q., 
ix. 230 ; xiv. 33 J. 

" Proc. Som. Arch. Soc, xlviii, ii, 52. This account is corrected. 

'^ Aquae Solis^ by the Rer. H. M. Scarth, 97-105 ; Proc. Som. Arch. Soc, v, ii, 
'° Aquae So/is, 99. 


Discoveries in East Anglia. — Abroad, as in England, Pliocene Man 
has had a mixed reception, but the evidence is accumulating ; and 
Mr, Reid Moir's discoveries, which have entailed a considerable outlay 
of time and money, are now accepted by some of his chief opponents 
of yesterday. The Abbe Breuil's revised judgement was delivered at 
the Liege Congress and appears in the Report published in Revue 
Ant/iropologiq7(c, September-December 1931, p. ^^6, This deals more 
particularly with the rostro-carinate and other types from below the 
Crag at Foxhall, near Ipswich ; but Professor Capitan goes further in 
the March-April number, 1922, and gives photographs and (much 
better) outline drawings of several flint specimens from the Crag pits 
near Ipswich, dating from the lower Pliocene, and proving the existence 
of a tool-making creature at that early date. His table on p. 134 gives 
a pre-Chelles date to the Forest -bed of Cromer, and equates the Boulder- 
clay, in which early Le Moustier types are found, with the third or Riss 
glaciation. ' Par suite ', he concludes, * I'antiquite de I'homme se trouve 
terriblement rcculec.' The same view was taken last year by Professor 
Fairfield Osborn, of the American Museum of Natural History, who 
published articles on the Foxhall and Piltdown discoveries in Natural 
History (New York), November-December 1921, pp. 565-90. 

The beginnings of sculpture. — An illustrated article by Professor 
Osborn in Natural History (New York), January-February 1922 
sketches the early development of sculpture in the round and in relief; 
and, in accordance with all the evidence available, locates that develop- 
ment in southern France. The subject was also treated by Dr. Capitan 
and M. Peyrony in Revue Anthropologique , March-April 1921, p. 92, 
in connexion with fresh discoveries at La Ferrassie, Dordogne ; and the 
conclusions reached arc that art in the widest sense began with the 
Aurignac period, and was in origin simply the ritual of a complicated 
system of magic. Contemporary or earlier are the cup- marked stones 
illustrated in Revue Anthropologique, 1921, pp. 102 and 3^4-5 ; and the 
survival of this practice into modern times is a notable example of the 
tenacity of superstition. The discussion of M. Dharvent's paper on 
figure-stones at the Liege Congress {op.cit,,^. 370) shows more sympathy 
than usual with his ideas, and may lead to a general recognition of 
a rudimentary art in the Drift period, of which Mr. W. M. Newton has 
for years been an advocate in England. 

Pygmy Industry on Northumberland Coast. — The Stone Age in the 
north of England is being investigated by Mr. Francis Buckley, of 
Greenfield, Yorkshire, who sends the following note. Basalt Crags 
near Bamburgh (200 ft. O. D.) and Craster (100 ft. O. D.) recently 



denuded by fire, provide evidence of the Tardenois industry in the 
mixed sand and debris overlying the rock. Near Hamburgh, in addi- 
tion to small long flakes and cores, 7 trapezoid pygmies, 4 pygmy 
points, 5 small round scrapers and a beaked (graver-like) tool were 
found. Near Craster the small long flakes are abundant ; and here 
a pygmy trapezoid, awls, and various small scrapers were found ; also 
the Tardenois graver with scar on the bulbar face. The occupation 
was probably not dense, but migratory and persistent for a considerable 
time. The whole scries is equivalent to one of the later phases of the 
pygmy industry in West Yorkshire. It may be added that a discussion 
of the Tardenois industry at the Liege Congress is reported in the 
Revue Anthropologique^ 1921, p. 374- 

The Cissbury cartlnvorks. — In the Sussex County Herald, 2Sth June 
and iSth July 1922, Mr. Herbert Toms commends to the newly-formed 

Worthing Archaeological Society the preparation of an accurate plan 
of the camp, including the lynchets or cultivation terraces which he 
finds to be both inside (11 and 12 on plan) and outside the main 
enclosure. The conclusion is that the camp was constructed after the 
slope of the hill had been prepared in that laborious manner for agri- 
culture ; and the seven layers of turf on the inner slope of the vallum 
he considers a Roman feature (as on the Antonine Wall) and in favour 
of his view that Cissbury was fortified in the Roman period. The 
accompanying plan, here reproduced by permission, shows the results 
of his own survey. South and east are original entrances ; 5, 9, and 13 


are recent. Nos. i-x are small earthworks now much reduced. The 
thin line from i to 9 indicates a shallow ditch inside the rampart ; and 
the ground is irregularly scooped out (perhaps the mouths of prehistoric 
flint-mines) in the shaded areas marked 8 and 4. From 7 starts a bank 
17 ft. across with a 7 ft. ditch, which can be traced south-west from 
the counterscarp for a distance of 166 yards, perhaps a covered way ; 
and at 2,3, and 6 are said to be signs of reconstruction at the entrances, 
but even this does not make Cissbury look like a Roman camp. 

Discoveryof a Bronze Age cinerary urn near Marlborough. — Mrs. M. E. 
Cunnington reports that in May 1922 men digging gravel about five 
miles east of Marlborough, close to and north of the main road to 
Hungerford, came across a small Bronze Age cinerary urn inverted 
over burnt bones. The urn was about 3 ft. from the surface without 
any sign of a barrow or mound to mark the spot. It was broken on 
removal from the gravel, but has since been mended and is now prac- 
tically complete. The urn, 9I in. in height, is of Thurnam's ' moulded 
rim ' type, and would be included in Abercromby's Type I, of tripartite 
vessels. The neck is slightly concave with a considerable ridge at the 
shoulder. The rim is covered externally by a series of lines of the 
* impressed cord ' type, forming a lattice pattern ; round the shoulder 
lines are arranged in a herring-bone pattern. The urn and its contents 
have been secured for the Wiltshire Archaeological Society's Museum 
at Devizes. 

Pits in Battlesbnry Camp, Wilts. — In the spring of 1922 a tank was 
placed on the highest point in the camp, and a trench was dug from 
the tank across the camp and out through the north-western entrance. 
The trench was dug in the chalk and intersected at several places 
patches of dark soil in w hich were fragments of pottery, bones, etc. 
Having obtained the necessary permission Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunning- 
ton cleared out these patches and found them to be pits of a type 
commonly found on sites inhabited in prehistoric times. Eleven pits 
were found, all roughly circular with vertical sides and flat bottoms, 
varying in depth from 4 ft. to 6 ft., and of about the same diameter. 
In two cases the pits were double, i. e. two pits were so close 
together that their circumferences intersected ; in each case the 
communicating pits were of different depths. From the general 
character of the pottery and other objects found, the pits appear to 
belong to the latter part of the pre-Roman Iron Age. Some twenty- 
five roughly moulded sling bullets of baked clay were found together 
in one pit ; other objects found include a perfect example of an iron 
sickle-shaped key, iif in. long ; an iron saw, an iron knife-blade, a thin 
sickle-shaped blade of iron with turned-over tang ; three heavy iron 
rings or bands, 5 in. in diameter ; iron cleats and rivets ; two bone 
implements ; part of a rotary quern ; a saddle quern, or mealing stone ; 
four flint hammerstones ; fairly numerous potsherds ; fragmentary bones 
of animals, and a piece of a human arm-bone (radius). The only piece 
of bronze found was a small pin that may have belonged to a penannular 
brooch. The iron saw blade is interesting ; it averages about an inch 
in vvidthj and is %\ in. long, i| in. of this forming the handle or tang 

NOTES 379 

for insertion into a wooden handle, to which it was fastened by two 
iron rivets still in place. Like modern oriental and most; if not all, 
prehistoric saws the teeth slope towards the handle, so that the sawing 
was done when the blade was drawn back towards the operator, and 
just the opposite way to that of modern saws. The teeth are set in 
pairs, alternately from side to side ; they number sixty-six. This 
interesting object may be compared with an iron saw found complete 
with its wooden handle at the Glastonbury Lake-village, which curi- 
ously enough'has the same number of teeth. A fuller and illustrated 
note describing these finds will be published in the Wiltshire Archaeo- 
logical and Natural History Magazine, and the objects found will be 
placed in the Society's Museum at Devizes. 

Excavations in Ayelinc's Hole, Somerset. — A report on excavations in 
Aveline's Hole, Burrington Coombe, Somerset, is contained in Proceed- 
ings of the Spelaeological Society (University of Bristol), vol. i, no. 2 
(1920-21). Besides a series of worked flakes well reproduced in out- 
line, was found a specimen rare in England — a harpoon of red-deer 
antler with three barbs on either side, characteristic of a late stage of 
La Madeleine culture. Mr. Newton describes the bird bones, Mr. Martin 
Hinton the mammalian remains, and Professor Fawcett gives details of 
three human skulls, all of young women, apparently of the Tardenois 
period. The Keltic (Read's) cavern has produced some decorated 
pottery of Glastonbury type. The Society also reports discoveries in 
Rowbarrow cavern and on Brean Down. 

Find of Roman remains at Great Berkhampstead^ Herts. — One of 
the local Secretaries for Herts., Mr. G. Ebsworth Bullen, F.R.H.S., 
Director of the County Museum, reports that Mr. W. B. Hopkins of 
Dudswell Rise, near Great Berkhampstead, recently brought to his 
notice a small ' find ' of Roman objects, which that gentleman had 
discovered during the levelling of a tennis-lawn at the back of his 
house, which is situated on the Berkhampstead to Tring Road, close 
to the second milestone from the former place. According to 
Mr. Hopkins the site was considered to be virgin soil, and in the 
process of digging only slightly below the surface the workmen came 
across a different patch of earth, which was full of sandy grit 
(mixed with the loam) and free from stones, the normal soil being 
a very flinty heavy loam. Digging was continued at this point, and 
at a depth of about 3 ft. below the original surface, there was 
discovered a ' rough flint floor *. During the excavation a number 
of pottery sherds, etc., came to light, which upon examination at 
the County Museum showed the following : — third Brass of 
Constantine the Great, SOLI INVICTO COMITI type, struck at 
Lugdunum, third Brass of Carausius, probably of the PAX type, too 
poorly struck to be readable, but showing the figure on the reverse 
standing between two standards, also a third Brass, which was practi- 
cally indecipherable, but possibly attributable to the elder Telricus : 
a ring brooch, of bronze, 21 mm. across at its widest point, with 
slightly ornamented knob terminals; two fragments of a quern in 
millstone grit ; fragments of roofing tiles together with numerous 


pottery fragments. These latter do not present any unusual 
features, comprising as they do a mixed assemblage of Red Gaulish 
and other similar wares (wholly of the un-ornamented class), no frag- 
ments bearing potters' stamps, sherds of mortaria, deep and shallow 
paterae, etc., in common buff and black ware, together with a fairly 
high percentage of fragments of finer ware approximating in character 
to pottery of the Castor type, covered with slip and decorated with 
incised and ' trailed ' ornament. Incidentally there were also found 
a few sherds of medieval pottery and an iron axe-head, of a type 
frequently associated with deposits of the Tudor period in London 
and Southwark. 

Roman remains in Ireland. — The list published in the English 
Historical Review, xxviii, i (January 191 3), by the late Professor 
Haverfield does not include a Roman burial of which a record has 
just come to light among sketches made by Sir Wollaston Franks ; 
and as this may be the only trace of an unexpected discovery, it 
obviously merits publication here, belated as it is. The cinerary urn 
is of glass, 10 in. high, of oval form with flat lip ; and of the same 
material is a cylindrical phial, commonly called a ' tear-bottle '. 
These, with a circular bronze mirror, are stated to have been found 
protected by stones in a field near Stonyford, co. Kilkenny, about 
eight miles south of the county-town, and may be assigned to the 
second century of our era. Most of the Roman finds in Ireland are 
coins and other booty from Britain, but a formal Roman burial 
inland argues a certain amount of peaceful penetration. 

Roman Remains in North Somerset. — Mr. Bulleid, F S.A., Local 
Secretary for Somerset, reports as follows : Including two burials found 
in 1917, an interesting series of six stone cofiins at five distinct sites, 
and the foundations of two Roman villas have recently been found near 
Bath. In every instance the coffin was cut out of a solid block of 
oolite or Bath stone. The first of the series was found at Priston, 
a village five miles south-west of Bath, during the draining of a field. 
The coffin contained a female skeleton, with two bronze bracelets 
encircling the wrist. The maximum length outside was 6 ft. and the 
head of the coffin was rounded. 

The second was discovered during the ploughing of a field at Midford ; 
this also contained the skeleton of a female, but as the contents of the 
coffin had been removed and buried in a neighbouring churchyard when 
the writer visited the site he was unable to seek for coins or nails. The 
maximum outside length of the coffin was 72^ in., and the head was 
semi-circular as in the Pri.ston example. 

Coffins 3 and 4 were discovered in the finst week of May 1922 at 
Keynsham, and are fully described by Mr. St. George Gray in this 
number (p. 371). 

The fifth coffin of the series was discovered in May this year in the 
back garden of a house in Walcot Street, Bath. 

The last coffin was discovered at Burnett, a village 2^ miles south 
of Keynsham, on or about 10 July 1922, during the alteration and 
widening of the road leading from Burnett to Keynsham. The coffin 

NOTES 381 

was found 18 in. below the surface at the margin of the old road and 
about 500 yds. north of Burnett cross roads. The coffin contained the 
skeleton of a woman, and iron nails were found at the feet. The head 
of the coffin was rounded, and the measurements were as follows : 
maximum outside length, ,5 ft. S in. ; maximum width at head end, 
22 in, ; maximum width at foot, 12^ in. 

In the field adjoining that in which the coffins were found at 
Keynsham, the foundations of a house have been exposed together 
with a thick lifte of Roman roofing tiles overlying them. As the 
excavations for the factory in this situation are in abeyance for the 
time being, the size or purpose of the building is as yet uncertain, but 
we can only surmise that it is a villa, and that the two burials close by 
were of two of its occupants. It has been known for some years that 
there was a Roman villa covering a considerable area of ground in the 
Keynsham cemetery. Foundations of walls and tessellated pavements 
have been cut through from time to time in digging graves. It is said 
that the chapel which is now situated in the middle of the ground covers 
a large area of pavement. Recently the cemetery has been enlarged, 
and during the drought of 1921 scorched marks over the foundations 
were clearly seen, although not sufficiently defined to show the shape 
or size of rooms. This year more destruction was necessary in the 
digging of graves in the new extension, when the matter was taken in 
hand by some members of the Burial Board, and trial excavations made 
which resulted in the exposure of foundation-walls and a pavement of 
red, white, and blue tesserae. Lying on the pavement was a broken 
column of Bath stone. At another trial hole two massive and well- 
worn stone steps were unearthed. 

Some recent finds on Ham Hill, South Somerset. — Ham Hill con- 
tinues to yield numerous relics, showing its occupation from the Later 
Stone Age to the end of the Roman occupation of Britain ; and our 
Fellow Dr. Hensleigh Walter, Local Secretary for Somerset, reports 
the following finds on one site: (i) Well preserved bronze scales of 
armour, alternate scales being tinned ; (2) iron hand-pin (L. 5 in.), the 
ring being decorated with three pellets, and a portion of a much larger 
one ; (3) bronze hand-pin (L. 3-6 in.), with ornamented ring ; (4) bronze 
harness-ring, oval (max. int. diam. i'2 in.) ; (5) hand-made harness-ring 
of shale (int. diam. i-i in.) ; (6) harness-ring of antler (int. diam. 07 in.), 
highly polished (Hallstatt) ; (7) bronze awl with flattened tang (Bronze 
•^g^) i (^) numerous worked flints including one barbed and tanged, 
and two leaf-shaped arrow-heads ; (9) fragments of characteristic 
pottery were found stratified : finely finished decorated Samian, 
decorated Late-Celtic ware, coarse British pottery in varying grades, 
the older being comparable to Mrs. Cunnington's Hallstatt types. 

On sites near by have b'^en found (i) bronze and silver British coins 
(degenerate horse type) ; (2) a finely modelled and patinated bronze 
brooch (L. 2-7 in.) with a conventionalized animal's head, the neck 
expanding into a trumpet-shaped spring-cover ; the coiled spring, on 
an iron axis, terminates in the pin ; the catch-plate is pierced with 
a comma design ; (3) a portion of a decorated beaker (H. 3-7 in.) in 
glazed ware (1st cent. A.D.) ; (4) a fragment of a moulded glass ' race- 


cup ' of greenish tint, depicting scenes from the arena (early and 
cent. A.D.). 

In the middle of July this year Dr. Walter was informed of the 
discovery of a complete skeleton in the same locality. This appeared 
to be that of a young adult 4 ft. 10 in. in height, the body carefully 
extended and lying due north and south. The head and shoulders 
had been encased in rough slabs of Ham stone. On the right of the 
head lay a shallow bowl of black Romano-British ware (H. 2*2 in., 
max. diam. 6-2 in.) close to which was a barbarous copy of a third 
brass Roman coin (late 4th cent. A. D.). Near the right hand of the 
skeleton lay a water-worn pebble (L. 2*4 in.) which had evidently been 
used as a pounder. 

In August a well-preserved silver penannular brooch (diam. o-8 in.), 
the ring beaded and decorated, with transversely beaded terminals 
returned in the plane of the brooch, was found associated with a larger 
bronze one on a site which had previously yielded first cent. Romano- 
British relics. 

At a recent meeting of the Council of the Somersetshire Archaeo- 
logical Society it was decided to undertake an exploration of the 
supposed site of the Roman cemetery on Ham Hill, provided permission 
to do so were obtained from the Duchy of Cornwall. 

Course of the Wansdyke. — A summary of the paper read on this sub- 
ject to the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society 
is given in the Somerset Cotinty Herald (8 July 1922). Our Fellow 
Mr. Albany Major has traced this enormous earthwork, consisting of 
a rampart with ditch on the north side, from Portbury near Portishead 
on the Bristol Channel to the foot of the downs below Inkpen Beacon, 
a distance of about 60 miles. General Pitt-Rivers found at one point, 
on the original level under the rampart, Roman remains proving that 
the earthwork was of Roman or later date ; and Mr. Major has come 
to the conclusion that it is a composite work, made up of lengths 
perhaps of widely different dates, as it seems to vary in plan and 
construction at different points. It includes some large earthworks 
and avoids others, settlements in its vicinity affording an excellent 
opportunity of ascertaining by excavation the culture and affinities of 
the people it was intended to delimit or defend. A combined attack 
on the problem should not be beyond the resources of the Somerset 
and Wiltshire Archaeological Societies, and would have an important 
bearing on the early history of the South. 

The Curie Collection. — The important series of antiquities from the 
Baltic island of Gotland acquired from Mr. James Curie, F.S.A., by 
the British Museum last year (with the generous assistance of the 
National Art-Collections Fund) is now for the most part exhibited in 
the Iron Age Gallery, Cases 55 and 56, and a very opportune paper 
on those extant in Scandinavia is published by Birger Nerman in the 
last ViMWib^x o{ \kv^,Antiqvarisk Tidskrift for Sverige (vol. xxii, part 3). 
A further instalment is promised, but enough is illustrated to show the 
main types and lines of development in the grave-furniture of Gotland 
between A.D. 550 and 800. There are 176 figures, and a large propor- 

NOTES 383 

tion have their counterparts in. the jewellery and other specimens that 
Mr. Curie spent many \ears in collecting. Brooches constitute the 
largest section and include the disc, box, animal (or boar's) head and 
square-headed type, the last being remarkable for the disc on the bow 
and garnet cell-work elsewhere. The following dates are now estab- 
lished for the Gotland burials: A.D. 550-600, cremations but some 
inhumations ; 600-675, cremations and signs of return to inhumation ; 
675-725 and 725-800, both periods characterized by inhumation. 
This change may reflect the invasion of Gotaland and the adjacent 
islands by the Svears of Uppland about 550, and a subsequent 
blending of the two races. 

Saxon Gold Pendant from Somerset. — Mr. BuUeid, F.S.A.. Local 
Secretary for Somerset, forwards the following report : This ornament 
was found in July 1922 on the surface of some recently moved earth 
by the side of the new road at Burnett, about ico yards south of the 
Burnett Cross roads. The pendant is made of a thin circular plate of 
gold, measuring 24 mm. or \% in. in diameter. It is ornamented with 

Gold Pendant from Somerset, (y) 

a finely-beaded raised margin, a cross of fine two-ply twisted wire 
arranged in triple lines, and a central setting of a dark purple stone or 
paste surrounded by a beaded-line similar to that at the margin. At 
the top is a small thin loop of gold attached to the plate in front, and 
carried down for a quarter of an inch at the back where it tapers to 
a point and appears to be free. The back of the plate is unornamentcd. 
It has been dated by Mr. Reginald Smith 6th or 7th century A.D. 

Gold Finds in Sweden. — A treatise in French by O. R. Janse {Le 
Travail de Vor en SuMe : Orleans, 1922), based on a mass of statistics, 
deals with gold coins, ornaments, ring-money, and ingots from Sweden, 
dating from the Merovingian or Migration period ; and opens with 
a sketch of the Scandinavian wanderings in Europe. The importation 
of gold on a comparatively large scale began towards the end of the 
third century A. D., reached its maximum in the fifth, and ceased about 
550, owing to the conquest of Gotaland and the islands of Gotland 
and Oland by the Svears of Uppland, who were then on a lower level 
of civilization. An interesting suggestion, borne out to some extent 
by their runic inscriptions, is that the bracteates embossed with a 



horse, man, and bird represent the Hun Attila, whose badge was a 
falcon, and whose career deeply impressed the imagination of Europe 
in the fifth century. Another paper on this subject by the same 
author was pubHshed in Revue ArcJiMogiqiie^ 5th Ser., 14 (1921), 

The first common seal of Newcastle-upon-Tyite. — Mr. C. H. Hunter 
Blair, F.S.A., sends the following note : It has been generally believed 
that there is no known example of the seal of an English city or town 
which can be dated before the last quarter of the twelfth century. 
Sir W. H. St. John Hope in his article upon the ' Municipal Seals of 


First Seal of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. (^) 

England and Wales' ' does not mention an earlier one than that of 
Exeter which is of that date, nor was there an earlier one known to 
me until, whilst writing upon the seals of this northern city, I had 
occasion to examine closely its first common seal, an illustration of 
which is here given. It represents a castellated gateway, the lower 
part masoned by intersecting diagonal lines which are also upon the 
single merlon at each side. The closed door is also marked by 
similar, though finer, lines, probably to indicate ironwork. Above 
the gateway rises a lofty battlemented tower represented with a plain 
surface as though to show that it is of wood ; upon the face of this 
tower are two plain Norman kite-shaped shields. The legend in 
Roman capitals reads : 


The whole style of the seal speaks of its early date. The restraint, 
the sense of dignity and proportion of the central device are typical of 
mid-twelfth century art, whilst the kite-shaped shields with uncharged 

^^Proc. Soc. Ant.^ xv, p. 435. 

NOTES 385 

surfaces tell the same tale, as they are not found on seals after 
c, A.D. 1 13 ',-40. The form of the legend, its early type of Roman 
capitals with the rude uncial G, the open E, and above all the 
reversed N (N) all point to a date in the first half of the twelfth 
century, but even if this is considered too early I do not think it is 
possible to date it later than c. A.D. 1150, so that, if I am right, it yet 
remains, by some quarter of a century, the earliest-known seal of an 
English town. The earliest impression now on record is Michaelmas 
A.D. 1233,' the» earliest one now extant is attached to a deed of 
A.D. 1308.' It continued in regular use for close upon five hundred 
years, being ' lost at the storminge of the Towne ' ^ by the Scots on 
19th October 1644, when all the archives of the town perished 
with it. 

Hangmans Stones.— \ti. a communication to Notes and Queries, 
15 July 1922, our Fellow Mr. O. G. S. Crawford gives a descriptive 
list of all known instances in Kngland and Wales (19 entries), and 
suggests that the name was due to a gibbet in the immediate 
neighbourhood. He finds that the stones are frequently on high 
ground at the junction of three or more parishes and old trackways ; 
and in three cases open-air courts are known to have been held on the 
spot. It was customary to hang those convicted of sheep-stealing and 
similar offences immediately sentence was delivered, and gallows hard 
by the place of meeting would therefore be convenient. But the ques- 
tion arises whether the Hundred Court had the power to hang a man 
for that or any other offence ; and .Mr. Crawford thinks that if the 
answer is in the affirmative, the origin of Hangman's Stones is no 
longer a mystery. 

Easter Sepulchre in East Bergholt Church, Suffolk. — The Easter 
sepulchre has recently been discovered in East Bergholt Church in 
the usual place. It was obviously made at some time later than 
when the wall was built, as the plastering of the recess is very 
uneven. The figure of our Lord painted on the wall seems to be 
wearing a cope, fastened at the neck, but not showing any fastening, 
and a body cloth. The right hand is raised in blessing ; the left is 
also raised and may be holding a staff. The right leg is outside the 
tomb, and the left one within it, as far as the knee. The plaster 
background on which this figure is painted in black outline is 
coloured red, now faded to a pink. The whole of the background 
not taken up by the figure is covered with a beautiful free-hand 
arabesque pattern in black. The date is perhaps the middle of the 
fifteenth century, or a little later. The size of the recess is about 
4 ft. 4 in. in length, and 2. ft. 6 in. in height. Its present depth is 
9 in., but probably it was as much as double this depth originally. 
The shelf would project, and there would be sides and a wooden top 
or canopy, outside the face of the wall. 

' Madox, Formulare /Ingticanum, p. 375. 

■" Durham Treas., Misc. Chart., No. 6873. 

^ Newcastle Council Minute Book, N.C. Record Series, i, 43. 

D d 2 



Supposed Relic-holder from Shepperton. — Dr. Eric Gardner, F.S.A., 
Local Secretary for Surrey, forwards the following note : Shepperton 
Manor House stands on the north bank of the Thames, above Walton, 
almost exactly half-way between Shepperton church and the site of 
the old church which was washed away in the latter half of the 
sixteenth century, and now lies in the bed of the river. Remains 
of it are dredged up from time to time, and its foundations occasionally 

Supposed relic-holder from Shepperton. (i) 

obstruct the river steamers when the water is unduly low. The 
leaden vessel, here illustrated, was found in the river just off the east 
end of the Manor House lawn, in association with the sunken masonry 
which lies there. It measures approximately 6\ in. in height, and 
4^ in. in diameter. Its close resemblance to the leaden relic-holders 
described in the Antiquaries Journal, i, 271, makes it probable that it 
is the relic-holder from the altar of old Shepperton church. 

Mural painting i7i Little Baddow Church, Essex. — The Rev. J. Ber- 
ridge in a letter in the Times Literary Supplement o{6t\i]v\yig22 reports 
the discovery of a wall painting of St. Christopher in the usual place 
on the north wall of Little Baddow church. The painting, which 
measures about ic ft. by 7 ft., was until recently covered by a thin 
coat of plaster and colour work. The saint is represented leaning on 
his staff and carrying the Christ child, who holds an orb. At the side 
is a church with belfry, bell, and turret, and other figures are also to 
be faintly seen. The background is red powdered with flowers. The 
upper part of the painting is well preserved, but the lower is con- 
siderably worn. Beneath the painting can be seen in places traces of 
earlier decoration, suggesting blocks of masonry. 

Excavations af Abingdon Abbey. — Mr. A. E. Preston, F.S.A., on 
behalf of the Excavation Committee, forwards the following report: 
Excavations on the site of the former Abbey of Abingdon have been 

NOTES 387 

in progress for some weeks under a committee including the Director 
of the Society (Mr. C. R. Peers) and Mr. A. \V. Clapham, F.S'.A., both 
of whom have given a general oversight to the operations. The work 
was undertaken with the object of recovering the position and dimen- 
sions of the Norman church and conventual buildings of about 1091- 
U20, with so much of the two earlier Saxon churches as it might be 
possible to find. The latter churches date from about A. D. 700 and 
A. D. 960 respectively. 

The position of the earlier of the Saxon churches relative to the 
Norman church is approximately known from the Abbey Chronicle, 
but there is no guide to the situation of the strange intermediate 
church built by Ethelwold in the middle of the tenth century. 
Trenches have been opened in various directions and have revealed 
ditches filled with mortar and small stones showing where walls once 
stood, and here and there the solid stone foundations of walls have been 
met with. These unfortunately never continue for more than short 
distances. The transepts and cloisters have been approximately located. 
It is hoped that, if funds permit the excavations to be continued, more 
definite results may soon be obtained. 

From an. exhibit in the Reading Public Museum of two Romano- 
British vessels found some years ago, in conjunction with skulls and 
other human remains, it was suspected that there had been a Romano- 
British occupation of the site long before the Abbey, and this is now 
made evident by the abundance of sherds found in almost every 
position. The occupation seems to have been of a permanent character 
as, according to the Ashmolean authorities, the sherds cover about 
the first three centuries of our era. 

Everywhere on the northern and western sides of the supposed site 
of the Norman church human remains are plentifully found — always in 
a state of great disorder except as regards the surface and bottom 
layers. Many of the deeper burials are in parallel grave spaces or 
rows formed by slabs of stone placed edgewise, and in some cases 
with thin pieces of stone placed over the head and shoulders. No 
relics to mark the period of these burials have so far been found, but 
few of them have yet been properly examined. 

The first excavations were begun at a point designed to be in the 
quire, and a full-length skeleton (apparently medieval) was found 
immediately underneath, at a shallow depth. This was surrounded by 
a cement pavement or bed that may have carried an altar-tomb to 
cover the head of the body that was slightly projecting above the 
ground-level. Below this skeleton was a 15-inch layer of black earth 
teeming with Romano-British fragments, and below that again a cobble 
pavement, something like a cart-way, resting on the natural soil. The 
pavement is a parallelogram of about 14 ft. by 8 ft. At least one 
other skeleton was found on the black earth above this pavement. 
On the south side of the pavement the ditch of a wall about 3 ft. thick 
abruptly terminates it. 

Two instances of burials of children (from 6 to 10 years of age 
according to the teeth) have been met with in the thickness of the stone 
foundations at about 2 ft. under the surface. The masonry seems to 
have been hacked out for the purpose. Fragments of encaustic floor 


tiles of the thirteenth and fourteenth century have also been found — 
some of them bearing heraldic designs. 

Details of levels, depths, and so forth, are being preserved to enable 
proper plans and sections to be prepared in due course. 

Egypt Exploration Society. — The expedition to Tell el-Amarna 
under the direction of Mr. C. Leonard Woolley worked on four distinct 
sites. In the city itself the vizier Nekht's house was the most imposing 
yet found. In the eastern foothills a complete plan of the walled village 
(discovered last season) was obtained. It was evacuated under Tut- 
ankh-amen. A river temple, partly underlying Hagg Gandib, pro- 
duced Akhenaten reliefs, but was occupied as late as XXVI th dynasty. 
Finally, Maru-Aten, the Precinct of the Disc, was uncovered at the 
south end of the plain. In the centre lay a lake, around which were 
grouped trees, flower-beds, and a number of buildings in stone or 
brick, some of them richly decorated. Outside stood the royal kennels 
containing the bones of the king's greyhounds. 

An exhibition was held early in July at the Society of Antiquaries. 
The walls were hung with plans, coloured elevations, drawings of 
painted pottery, and naturalistic decoration — the work of Mr. F. G. 
Newton. Original objects included relief-heads of Akhenaten, the 
inscribed door-jamb from Nekht's house, specimens of frescoed pave- 
ments, fragments of sculptured drums and panels, Aegean sherds, and 
many objects of domestic use from the walled village. 

British School of Archaeology in Egypt. — Last winter's excavations 
by Professor Flinders Petrie were conducted first at Abydos between 
the Shuneh and the Deir, and afterwards at Oxyrhynchus. On the 
former site 1st dynasty and later graves were found ; on the latter the 
great theatre and the colonnade were examined and planned. 

The antiquities brought to England were exhibited, as usual, at 
University College, Gower Street, throughout July. The fine collec- 
tion of 1st dynasty objects included two ivory tablets of king Zer, 
ivory figures of lions used as gaming pieces, seven stelae with names, 
four ebony cylinder seals, aragonite vases, and copper tools. Other 
noteworthy dynastic finds were some thirty inscribed stelae of Middle 
Kingdom and later dates, strings of carnelian beads (one with lions' 
claws) of Xllth dynasty, and large portions of a papyrus of the Book 
of the Dead with delicately painted vignettes (XVIIIth or XlXth 
dynasty). Of Christian date were a number of Greek papyri, Hebrew 
MSS. of second and third centuries, a beautiful green glass bottle with 
engraved patterns, and some fine architectural sculpture from the 
Oxyrhynchus theatre and tombs belonging to the age of Justinian. 
Besides the above was a very large collection of High and Low Desert 
flints from Abydos and microliths from Helwan which have been 
catalogued by Miss G. Caton-Thompson. 

Spanish Archaeology. — Discoveries in the Iberian peninsula may at 
any moment throw light on prehistoric times in the British Isles, and 
three recent publications are worthy of attention. The bell-shaped 
beaker is certainly of Neolithic Age in the caves of centr^U Spain, and 

NOTES 389 

especially in Andalucia, and spread to other parts of the peninsula in 
the early Copper Age. Professor Hubert Schmidt's opinion that the 
bell-beaker originated in Spain is confirmed by Serior Alberto del 
Castillo, who recognizes its predecessor in the incised ware of the cave 
region {La Cerdviica incisa . . . f crimen del vaso campaniformc : 
Barcelona, 1 922). The t)'pe spread from south to north, and reached the 
extreme north-west and north-east of the peninsula, though the route 
is still open to Qonjecture. Professor Bosch Gimpera publishes a longer 
paper on the Kelts and their civilization in the Iberian peninsula 
(Madrid, 1921), with plates of objects and maps of distribution. In 
a table he divides the Early Iron Age into (i) post-Hallstatt I, fifth 
century to about 330 B.C. (2) post-Hallstatt II, from about 330-250 
B.C., and (3) Iberian or Keltiberian, represented at Numantia, about 
250-133 B.C. The Kelts came without doubt in the sixth century 
B.C. from southern France through the western passes of the Pyrenees 
(Roncesvalles), as the Iberians in the north-east of Spain were hardly 
touched by the Hallstatt culture. The large iron sword of Hallstatt 
is unknown in Spain, but the bronze antennac-sword is fairly common ; 
and as it belongs to the period 650-500 in France, it serves to date the 
Keltic invasion. The ancient texts are here carefully reviewed ; and 
a special study of those relating to the south-west has lately been made 
by Mr. George Bonsor {Tar /esse : Hispanic Society of America). 

Proposed Internatioual Institnie of Classical Archaeology.— K\. the 
invitation of Mrs. Arthur Strong, F.S.A., and M. Jean Colin, a few 
scholars of different nationalities — American, Belgian, British, Dutch, 
French, German, and Italian — met a few weeks ago at the British School 
of Rome, to consider the advisability of the formation of an International 
Institute of Archaeological Studies, with the object of bringing to the 
notice of scholars all over the world, more easily and rapidly than has 
hitherto been possible, the literary activities of different countries in 
the field of archaeological and hfstorical studies, and of initiating the 
publication of large works of a general character, which require the 
collaboration of institutes and scholars of various nations. 

In view of the immense output of the present day, it was considered 
absolutely necessary to provide summaries and bibliographical notices 
of publications with as great completeness as possible, and it was 
further thought that it would be advisable to establish an understand- 
ing between various institutes and reviews, which already publish 
bibliographical indexes, with a view to the unification of their work. 

It was also thought that it might be advisable to initiate the publi- 
cation of some large corpus or repertoire of archaeological material, 
for example a corpus of small bronzes or reliefs, etc., and to publish 
a bulletin, which would without undue delay give a summary of new 
discoveries in the whole of the classical world, descriptions of which 
had already been published in the various countries. In order to 
ensure the completion of a work of this kind, it was considered that it 
would be necessary to have in each country correspondents for the 
various branches of study, who would send information to Rome to be 
collected and co-ordinated by the International Institute. The tem- 
porary address of the Institute is the British School, Valle Giulia, Rome. 


Archaeology in Palestitie. — The Mandate for Palestine constituting 
Great Britain the Mandatory Power, which was approved by the 
Council of the League of Nations on 24th July, contains the following 
provisions regarding the antiquities of the country : 

Article 21. — The Mandatory shall secure the enactment within twelve 
months from this date, and shall ensure the execution of a Law of Antiquities 
based on the following rules. This law shall replace the former Ottoman Law 
of Antiquities, and shall ensure equality of treatment in the matter of archaeo- 
logical research to the nationals of all States Members of the League of 
Nations : 

1. 'Antiquity' means any construction or any product of human activity 
earlier than the year 1700. 

2. The law for the protection of antiquities shall proceed by encouragement 
rather than by threat. Any person who, having discovered an antiquity 
without being furnished with the authorization referred to in paragraph 5, 
reports the same to an official of the competent Turkish Department, shall be 
rewarded according to the value of the discovery. 

3. No antiquity may be disposed of except to the competent Turkish 
Department, unless this Department renounces the acquisition of any such 
antiquity. No antiquity may leave the country without an export licence from 
the said Department. 

4. Any person who maliciously or negligently destroys or damages an 
antiquity shall be liable to a penalty to be fixed. 

5. No clearing of ground or digging with the object of finding antiquities 
shall be permitted, under penalty of fine, except to persons authorized by the 
competent Turkish Department. 

6. Equitable terms shall be fixed for expropriation, temporary or permanent, 
of lands which might be of historical or archaeological interest. 

7. Authorization to excavate shall only be granted to persons who show 
sufficient guarantees of archaeological experience. The Turkish Government 
shall not, in granting these authorizations, act in such a way as to eliminate 
scholars of any nation without good grounds. 

8. The proceeds of excavations may be divided between the excavator and 
the competent Turkish Department in a proportion fixed by that Department. 
If division seems impossible for scientific reasons, the excavator shall receive 
a fair indemnity in lieu of a part of the find. 

Obituary Notice 

William Goivlafid. — William Gowland was born in 1842. After 
completing his studies with distinction at the Royal School of Mines, 
of which he became an Associate, he went to Japan, and there held 
the position of Head of the Mint for many years. After his return to 
England, he sought admission to the Society of Antiquaries and was 
elected a Fellow pn 7th March 1895. His knowledge of chemistry 
and of mineralogy was of great service to the Society, and his first 
contribution to our Proceedings was based on a chemical analysis of 
the bronze and copper hoards at Grays Thurrock in Essex and 


Southall in Middlesex, described by our present President on i«th 
March 1H97. He added to this and frequent subsequent Communi- 
cations observations on ancient metallurgical processes in the light of 
those with which he had become familiar in Japan and in Korea. 
On 2cth April and 6th May in the same year, he read a paper on the 
chambered tumuli and burial mounds of Japan, which is printed in the 
fifty-fifth volume oi Archaeologia. Thenceforth our Proceedings con- 
tain irequent ^evidence of the part his profound knowledge enabled 
him to take in our discussions. He was elected on the Council in 
1 899, and on the i8th May of the same year read a second Archaeologia 
paper (Ivi) on the early metallurgy of copper, tin, and iron in Europe 
as illustrated by ancient remains and primitive processes surviving in 
japan. Other papers followed on the remains of a silver refinery at 
Silchester, and on the early metallurgy of silver and lead, both in 
Archaeologia Ivii. 

Perhaps his most notable service to the Society was that which he 
successfully carried out at Stonehenge. He undertook in 1901 the 
restoration to its original position of the Luge stone which was then 
leaning at a dangerous angle, and his account in the fifty-eighth 
volume o{- Archaeologia of the measures he adopted for that purpose, 
of the objects of archaeological import which were revealed by his 
excavations and of their bearing on the probable age of the monu- 
ment, is of great interest. More recently, when Stonehenge and the 
adjacent land had been given to the nation by Sir C. H. Chubb, and 
HM. Oflice of Works had entrusted to our Society the direction of 
the work, the Council unanimously requested Mr. Gowland to act for 
them, but his health did not enable him to do so. 

Mr. Gowland was appointed by Lord Dillon a Vice-President of the 
Society in 1902, and served the usual term of four years. He was 
again appointed to the same office by Sir Hercules Read in 1908, and 
since 1902 he had been a member of the Executive Committee. 
During this long period of servfce, he was assiduous in his attendance 
at the weekly meetings of that committee, and his advice was of great 
value to the Society. In 1905 he was appointed professor of 
Metallurgy in the Imperial College of Science and Technology. He 
was elected F.R.S. in 1909. He also served as President of the Insti- 
tute of Metals and of the Royal Anthropological Institute, before 
which he delivered a Huxley Lecture. 

His last paper read before us was on 30th May 1918, on silver in 
prehistoric and protohistoric times, being the first part of a complete 
study of silver in Roman and earlier times. It appears in the sixty- 
ninth volume of Archaeologia. 

He was a typical instance of the high place in the study of antiquity 
that a man acquires who makes himself a complete master of one 
branch of it. Those who were honoured by his friendship do not need 
to be reminded of the genial qualities of his character. 

Edward Brabrook. 


La civilisation incolithique dans la pdninsnle ibdriqnc, par Nils Aberg 

(Vilhelm Ekmans Universitetsfond, Uppsala, No. 25). io|x6f; 

pp. xiv + ao4. Uppsala, Leipzig, and Paris. 15 kr. 

The great advances in archaeological research which have been 
made in recent years in the Iberian peninsula, more particularly in 
Spain, have reawakened among archaeologists outside the peninsula 
the interest which was raised nearly forty years ago by the publication 
of the late Professor Cartailhac's Les ages prihistoriqiies dans I'Espagne 
et dans le PorUigal. The abundance of material discovered since the 
appearance of that work has placed the archaeology of the peninsula 
on an entirely different footing, and consequently Dr. Aberg's book is 
very welcome, inasmuch as it presents a very useful survey of the 
chalcolithic period as known up to the present time. The more so, as 
with its numerous illustrations it supplements the admirable con- 
spectuses published in recent years by Professor Bosch Gimpera in 
his appendix to Schulten's Hispcinia (Spanish translation) and his 
Preliistoria Catalan. 

But the purpose of Dr. Aberg's work goes beyond a mere survey. 
He, like other northern archaeologists, in seeking for an explanation 
of certain problems of northern and central European prehistory has, 
by his study of the material from the Iberian peninsula, arrived at 
a point when, to quote his own words used in a particular connexion, 
' Je crois pouvoir dire aujourd'hui avec quelque certitude^que I'influence 
etrangcre . . . est I'influence iberique '. In short. Dr. Aberg finds in 
Spain and Portugal the clue to many phenomena, not only in France 
and the British Isles, but also in Germany and Scandinavia. His 
conclusions are mainly based on a study of the pottery, and in what 
he terms the Palmella-Ciempozuelos pottery to which the beakers of 
the peninsula belong, he sees the forbears, not only of the whole 
beaker-pottery of Central Europe, but also of such classes as the 
Schonfelder ceramic of Germany and the Augerum pottery of 

This diffusion of the Iberian influence follows, in his opinion, two 
lines, one by way of Western France perhaps by land or sea, the other 
through France along the Rhone to the Rhine. The suggestion of a 
connexion between the beakers of Central Europe and Spain is not 
new, but not even the adducement of material from Haute Savoie 
makes the leap-frog transmission of the beaker and allied types 
by a land-route from Spain to Central Germany, which Dr. Aberg's 
argument postulates, any easier to accept. Nor is such a theory 
helped by the comparisons (to which allusion is made) between the 
wares of El Argar and those of Unetic and the like. In both cases 


the difficulty is the same, natnely, the existence of wide intervening 
areas in which no substantial link occurs. The wholesale transporta- 
tion of pottery-types from one region to another is only affected by 
migration of the makers themselves, and any such migration in the 
present case is inconceivable. 

Dr. Aberg, in placing the centre of his chalcolithic culture in 
Portugal, assigns to it a comparatively short duration, and thinks that 
the dolmens, megalithic tombs and grottoes, with their numerous 
burials, represent a dense population. If this be so, what happened to 
this population in the Bronze Age, of which the remains are admittedly 
scanty as compared with those of the earlier period ? It may be that the 
extension of the use ofbronze into the north of Europe diverted the trade 
in copper in part from the peninsula to other sources, such as those of 
the British Isles to which Cornish tin and Irish gold lent additional 
attractions. In that event the chalcolithic culture of the peninsula, even 
after it had begun to influence other parts of Europe, may have survived 
in simple form unaffected by outside influences over several centuries, 
followed by a like persistence of the El Argar culture. Thus it may 
be possible to bring the latter, as suggested by the long swords of 
El Argar, -to within measurable distance of the traditional founding of 
Tartessus and the coming of the Iron Age, filling the gap with the 
Bronze Age types of implements which are more numerous than 
Dr. Aberg's lists would suggest. 

In tracing the expansion of Iberian influence to the British Isles 
some interesting suggestions are made, notably that the decoration of 
a class of round-bottomed food-vessels is derived from the Palmella 
group of pottery. This particular class of food-vessel is practically 
confined to Ireland, with offshoots into western Scotland, and so far 
keeps step with the diffusion of tombs of the New Grange type. But, 
whereas the megalithic tombs and the Palmella pottery are con- 
temporaneous in the peninsula, there is no proof that the same holds 
good for Britain and Ireland. And why, if Ireland shows so much 
influence from the Palmella bowls, did she not adopt also the Palmella 
beakers in an equal degree ? The Irish bowls stand typologically too 
late in the British scries to have any links with Portugal, and Dr. Aberg's 
comparison omits all consideration of the evolution of the distinctive 
British food-vessel from the equally distinctive British Neolithic pottery 
as traced by Mr. Reginald Smith. In England, again, this influence 
must have been of a more indirect nature than Dr. Aberg would lead 
us to suppose. Apart from a certain type of zonal decoration which 
is found in all the beaker groups, only one or two English beakers 
bear the faintest resemblance in form to the Spanish type. Further, 
however much the Folkton drums may recall Iberian objects, they are 
certainly not imports, for Canon Greenwell distinctly states that they 
are made of local stone. 

There is perhaps at the moment a tendency to overestimate the 
influences emanating from the peninsula in prehistoric times. The 
general conclusions arrived at by Dr. Aberg are nevertheless suggestive, 
and will need to be borne in mind in any future research into the 
problems which he discusses. 

E. T. Leeds. 


The E7iglish Village : the Origin and Decay of its Coniinwiity. By 
Harold Peake, F.S.A. ^|x5|; pp. 251, with 14 plnns. Benn 
Brothers, 1922. 15J. 

The material contained in this book formed the substance of lectures 
given at the request of the Newbury Trades and Labour Council. 
O fortunati sua si bona norintl 

In the first few pages Mr. Peake describes the village community 
of the south of England, and its various types, as it existed in its 
prime. He shows the absolute equality of the villagers as a whole 
only to present the reader with the anomaly of the existence of a 
drone in the hive, who lives by the work of others. 

General considerations might, perhaps, explain this state of things 
to a certain degree. A community based on the principle that none 
is after or before another postulates, it would seem, the existence of an 
impartial arbiter, to whom the disputes which arise even in a band of 
brothers can be referred for a decision which none may gainsay. It is 
only natural that the son should assimilate his father's experience in 
the >ettlement of disputes and be his normal successor. An hereditary 
judgeship would thus be formed, to which the charges and perquisites 
of leadership would gradually be attached. 

It is, however, well for the reader that the author does not accept 
this obvious and, perhaps, crude explanation. For in the following 
chapters he deals with the history of mankind from the earliest times 
and in the most remote places so clearly, that every one may read 
and grasp the meaning of much that in less human pages can only 
carry its message to the specialist. He shows how successive periods 
of world famine, and the migrations caused thereby, in their latter end 
superimposed on the peaceful, progressive, and democratic land- 
workers of an English village a Nordic chief, whose remote ancestors 
roamed the steppes, a chief whose virtues were independence, pride of 
race, strength, and justice, and who failed in those domestic qualities 
which had made his subjects reach a state of civilization in many ways 
far beyond his own. 

In this part of his work Mr. Peake is wise in presenting probable 
theories without too many qualifications and in laying down the rule 
without emphasizing the exceptions. Any other method would have 
been fatal to a clear presentment of his theory in the space at his dis- 
posal. He is, however, dealing with so long a period that his evidence 
changes its character as the book progresses. It is at first archaeo- 
logical. From Anglo-Saxon times onwards it becomes, as he indicates 
on p. 134, progressively diplomatic ; from the reign of Elizabeth there 
is also the evidence of a body of literature ; and there is a fourth period, 
which is continually shifting, when the discussion ranges around what 
we ourselves have seen and our fathers have told us. 

The author's treatment of the second of these periods, which is the 
most vital of all to his story of the rise and fall of the village com- 
munity, carries conviction of its general truth and its accuracy in 
details. There is, however, one curious omission, and there is a tendency 
to antedate events and to anticipate the death of moribund institutions. 
He places due emphasis on the economic importance of the Black 
.Death ; but he has little or nothing to say of the central events of the 



two following centuries, the Wars of the Roses, and the partial decay 
and total dissolution of the monasteries. 

To the small class of Nordic lords the Wars of the Roses and the 
subsequent Tudor rule must have been a territorial cataclysm ; even in 
mere numbers their loss must have been comparable to that which the 
whole community sufifered at the time of the Great Pestilence. iWovi 
homines then, as now. took their place ; and, then as now, they failed 
to fill the place of their predecessors in the esteem of the countryside. 
The effect of \hc change in the manorial system must have been 
wholly bad. The Dissolution removed the other great class of land- 
lords and let in a fresh flood of new men, who probably failed to live 
up to the high traditions which Glastonbury and the other great 
monasteries had established first as pioneers in uncultivated places 
and then as landlords. Both these events were directly responsible for 
the existence of rogues and vagabonds, which (p. 180) the author 
appears to attribute solely to the break up of the manorial system. 

It is hardly correct to say (p. 172) that after the Peasants' Revolt 
the manorial system broke down completely: it would be closer to the 
mark to say that its decline was continuous from that date ; again, on 
p. 167 the. dates given for the use of brick in building appear to be 
earlier than is compatible with what is known of the history of brick- 
making in England. The statement (p. 130) that the shire court 
met rarely in Saxon times, and that we have little evidence as to its 
procedure, is hard to reconcile with the fact that the early plea rolls 
contain a number of entries in which the proceedings in the county are 
recited at some length ; being a survival of earlier times it is unlikely 
to have changed its functions or increased its activity during the 
century succeeding the conquest. 

Interwoven with the elaboration of the main theory of the book is 
a clear and patently fair account of the Inclosures, and also a number 
of passages in which much light is thrown on the relations of various 
local units of administration, such as the township, the manor, and the 
parish. The latter is a subject that would amply repay close investi- 
gation. It is hedged around with difficulties. There is local divergence : 
in some counties, such as Cambridgeshire, there is generally the same 
name for parish, manor, and township ; in others, such as Hertfordshire, 
the parish contains a number of manors, but townships other than 
manors are comparatively rare ; in others the divergence between the 
three is very marked and reaches, perhaps, its widest in Devonshire. 
It also appears probable that for fiscal purposes, as in subsidy rolls, the 
unit chosen approximates more closely to the parish than in Feet of 
Fines and other purely legal records, where lands are defined as being 
situated in places apparently so small that it is not certain that they 
could be properly described as townships or village communities, or 
as anything more definitt than localities. 

Mr. Peake is evidently a careful proof-reader ; the only misprint of 
any interest is in a note on page 91, where, from the spelling of a well- 
known bridge in Oxford, one may infer that the author's interests are 
on the Cam rather than the Isis. 

The index is brief but clear and, so far as it has been tested, accurate. 
There is also a Bibliography of some length ; the omission of Record 


publications is surprising and the insertion of friends of our youth, ' 
such as Horace and Lucretius, is perhaps unnecessary. 

The plans are, generally, obscure. Thrown on the screen and 
explained by the lecturer, they were probably adequate ; but in a new 
edition they could be greatly improved by the insertion of a few place- 
names, and the use of clearer boundary marks. The plans of the ideal 
village in the last chapter suggest a forbidding rectangularity such as 
that of the second book of Euclid, which, it is clear from the letter- 
press, is not the author's ideal. 

This chapter, in which Mr. Peake describes the English village of 
his dreams and hopes, demands a paragraph to itself. Just as one can 
read the book as a whole and give unqualified praise to the clear and 
careful way in which the evolution of the township is traced, without 
accepting the underlying theory of the Nordic Overman, so the last 
chapter commands the sympathy, not only of the optimist, but of the 
pessimist. The latter, however, sadly recognizes that mechanical 
science, with its ruthlessness and its scorn of the functions of the indi- 
vidual worker, is the foe of much that is best in our civilization, and 
that the motor-car and motor-lorry will -probably exercise a centralizing 
effect which may prevent Mr. Peake's dream of a self-sufficient village 
community from attaining reality. The doctor, the butcher, and the 
baker will prefer to use their motors to work large tracts of country 
from one of the larger market-towns, such as Leighton Buzzard, 
Devizes, or, may one add, Newbury ; the farm labourers will be taken 
in lorries to their daily labours ; at nightfall the village will, in the 
main, become a place of rest for pensioners with a taste for gardening, 
parsons, poets, and antiquaries. C. T. FLOWER. 

The Saxon Bishops of Wells : a Historical Study in the Tejith Century. 

1 91 8, pp. 70. 5J-. St. Oszvald and the Church of Worcester. 1919, 

pp.52, ^^s. 6d. Somerset Historical Essays. 1921, pp. viii-f- 160. 

io.y. 6d. By J. Armitage RoBiNSON, D.D., F.B.A., Dean of 

Wells. London, British Academy (Milford). 

The six essays contained in the last of these three publications can 
be taken together with the two papers which preceded them as a series 
of contributions to the history of the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth 
centuries in the west of England. Beginning with the foundation of 
the see of Wells in 909 or 910, and ending with the exile of Bishop 
Jocelin in 1209, our Fellow the dean of Wells has subjected a con- 
siderable number of documents to a patient and searching criticism, 
and has arrived at conclusions, interesting in themselves, which involve 
a good deal of revision of such works of reference as Hardy's edition 
of Le Neve's Fasti. The Saxon Bishops of Wells is mostly concerned 
with the criticism of the lists of bishops to be found in MS. C.C.C. Cam- 
bridge, 183, as compared with those in MSS. Cotton, Vespasian, B. 6, 
and Tiberius, B. 5 and with the evidence of chronicles and charters. It 
makes out a very, good case for placing Athelm's translation to 
Canterbury on the death of Archbishop Plegmund in 923 instead of 
the accepted date 914. The dean of Wells, agreeing with Mr. G. J. 
Turner, accepts as genuine the charter (Birch, Cart. Saxon. 641) which 


fixes the coronation of Athelstan on 4 September, 925, and makes 
Athelm one of the bishops assisting. Accordingly, he places Athelm's 
death on 8 January, 926. Incidentally he discusses the date of 
St. Dunstan's birth, and shows that it is almost impossible to accept 
925, providing at the same time a reasonable explanation of the 
appearance of that date in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The succession 
of the bishops is brought down to the death of bishop Brihtwig in 

Si. OsicaU dud the Church of Worcester controverts the view that 
there was a Church of St. Mary at Worcester, in addition to the 
cathedral church of St. Peter, before St. Oswald's time. Here, as in 
the previous paper, the argument rests on the evidence of charters, in 
the criticism of which the author makes no claim to be an expert. It 
can only be said that in both cases he seems to prove his point, and 
perhaps the more convincingly because he appeals to considerations 
which are within the comprehension of the unlearned, rather than to 
the judgement of the ' Phronimos '. 

The first of Xhe Essays is a close examination of William of Malmes- 
bury's De Autiquitate Glastouieusis Ecclesiae as compared with the 
so-called third edition of his Gesta Rcgum. The result of this is an 
almost conclusive proof that the text of the former work has been 
largely interpolated after its author's death, and that the more mythical 
parts of it can be safely rejected as late additions. The second essay, 
on The SaXon Abbots of Glastoubury, compares William of Malmes- 
bury's list of the early abbots with that in MS. Cotton, Tiberius, B. 5, 
which is regarded as a tenth- century compilation from tombs and 
martyrological entries, and therefore less trustworthy, as regards the 
earlier abbots, than the list made by William from the evidence of the 

The next essay, on The First Deans of Wells, deals with the trans- 
ference of the see to Bath by bishop John of Tours, and the refounding 
of the chapter of Wells about 1140 by bishop Robert on the model of 
that of Salisbury with a dean instead of a provost. The history of the 
deans is continued in 12 13, and relates the contest between the houses 
of Wells, Glastonbury, and Bath for the right of electing the bishop. 
Early Somerset Archdeacous. the fourth essay, supersedes Hardy's 
imperfect list by a carefully constructed table, mainly from the docu- 
ments included in the Calendar of the MSS. of the Dean and Chapter of 
Wells published by the Historical MSS. Commission. The puzzling 
description of the same person alternately as archdeacon of Wells and 
archdeacon of Bath is duly noted and explained. 

The last two essays are on Peter of Blois and Bishop Joceliu and the 
Interdict. The former of these maintains the substantial authenticity 
of Peter's Letters as against the view of the late Mr. W. G. Searle, and 
incidentally corrects Le Neve's list of the archdeacons of London. The 
latter shows from the evidence of the Patent and Close Rolls that 
Jocelin and his brother Hugh, afterwards bishop of Lincoln, stayed by 
King John until his personal excommunication made it impossible to 
do so any longer. 

It may be said in conclusion that these essays are not only of 
permanent value, but are very pleasant reading, and not least because 


of the modesty of their tone and the deference shown to earlier scholars 
whose mistakes they correct. The author and the British Academy 
are both to be congratulated on the series. CHARLES JOHNSON. 

Uancien art Serbe : Ics kglises. By Gabriel Millet. i2|xio;pp. 

208. Paris ; E. de Boccard. 1919. 

The distinguished author of this book, well known for his studies 
on the monastery of Daphni, the churches at Mistra, and the Greek 
school of church building in Byzantine times, introduces us in this 
finely illustrated volume to the attractive field of Serbian architecture. 
The material is treated with the lucidity to which readers of M. Millet's 
archaeological work are accustomed. The first part, introductory in 
character, gives a summary of Serbian history and civilization, a general 
survey of religious foundations in the country, and an appreciation of 
Serbian art, with an investigation of its origins and of the influences 
affecting its development. In the second part the chief buildings are 
passed in review and critically examined. 

The Serbs, a pastoral people, crossed the Danube in the seventh 
century, and were converted to Christianity in the ninth. Over- 
shadowed by the Bulgarians in the tenth century, and subjected to 
the Byzantine Empire during part of the eleventh, they did not fulfil 
their destiny until the time of Stefan Nemanya, who reigned in the 
latter part of the twelfth century, and died in A.D. 1200 in the newly- 
founded Serb monastery of Chilandari on Mount Athos, where his son, 
under the religious name of Sava, was at the time a monk. The .series 
of the greater Serbian churches opened with Stefan Nemanya's founda- 
tion at Studenitza, and continued with slight intermission until the final 
Turkish triumph of 1459. 

The geographical position of Serbia brought its people into relation 
with Dalmatia and Italy on the west, and on the south with Salonika 
and Byzantium, by way of the Morava and Vardar valleys. The 
character of Serbian art is due to the skilful manner in which the 
Latin and Byzantine elements were taken up into a new art, eclectic, 
but following the lines marked out for it by the national genius. The 
economic basis for the great expansion of building activity in the reign 
of Milutin (1282-1321) is to be sought in the exploitation of the mines 
of Novo Brodo and Yanyevo, which made the Serbian kings wealthy, 
and led to important commerce with Dalmatia and Italy, chiefly 
through the port of Ragusa, Without the material resources thus 
placed at their command the numerous monasteries with their graceful 
and often sumptuous churches could never have been founded. 

Serbian churches fall into three main groups : (i) those erected by 
Stefan Nemanya and his successors down to the close of the thirteenth 
century in the north and west of the country ; (ii) those built by Milutin, 
Dushan, and others from that period down to the last quarter of the four- 
teenth century in the region, partly in the upper Vardar valley, under 
Byzantine artistic influence ; (iii) the foundations of the Despot Lazar, 
his widow Militza.and his .son Stephen before the disaster of Kossovo, 
and afterwards, in the respite of half a century afforded the Serbs by 
the Turkish defeat at the hands of Timur at Angora. The centre of 


this activity was again the north of the country, but now more to the 
east, in the valley of the lower Morava. 

The first group shows decided " Dalmato-Italian influence. The 
churches are stone, single-naved, with Lombard blind arcading, and 
Lombard ornament in their decorative sculpture. There is a little 
French influence in the first half of the thirteenth century, chiefly 
derived through Benedictines in the south of Italy. Hut Serbia never 
carried the reproduction of Gothic far; her western models were in 
the main Romanesque, and her earlier sculptured ornament often has 
the same origin. 

The second group began when the Serbs advanced into the Vardar 
valley and took Skopliye (Uskub). They now built in brick, or with 
alternating courses of brick and stone, developing the Byzantine ' Greek- 
Cross ' type of church with nave and aisles, on lines of their own, often 
losing the balance and proportion of the Byzantine model, but 
succeeding in their effort after striking effect. In this period alone is 
Serbian architecture closely assimilated to that of the East Roman 
Empire, but even here the distinctive features are important and 
numerous enough to refute the common belief that it is no more than 
a branch of Byzantine. 

The third group represents the period when the Serbs, already 
shaken by the Turkish attack, drew back into the north, but into the 
Morava region towards Hungary and Wallachia. We now find in 
certain respects a reversion to the style of group i : the single-naved 
church returns with Lombard arcading, and (by exception) facing with 
stone. But other features are new, such as the free use of decorative 
sculpture in stone upon brick buildings, the ornament inspired no 
longer by Lombardy, but by the east ; and the addition of lateral 
apses, giving the end of the church the trefoil or ' trilobal ' form, the 
origin of which has been so frequently disputed. In M. Millets judge- 
ment the form entered Serbia simply through imitation of a plan 
common in the monastic churches on Mount Athos. These late 
churches with their richness of external ornament in new combina- 
tions of material, and with their unusual height, present us with types 
which offend against Byzantine proportions, but undoubtedly have 
individuality, and express the aspiration of a people different in tempera- 
ment and nature from the Byzantine Greeks. Like the wonderful 
mural paintings with which, in common with the older churches, they 
are profusely decorated, they reveal a new artistic province of the 
greatest interest for the interaction of East and West in the high 
Middle Ages ; these paintings have already provided M. Millet with 
much material for his iconographical studies, and it is to be hoped 
that he may be able before long to make a number of them accessible 
by a publication worthy of their intrinsic merit. 

In the description of the buildings illustrating the work of the three 
periods all the famous churches are shortly noticed, and of many 
among them admirable photographic views are given, illustrating 
either the whole, or some interesting detail : Studenitza, Dechani. 
Lesnovo, Ravanitza, Krushevatz, Manasiya are presented in all their 
variety of form and external decoration. Those members of the 
Society of Antiquaries whose interest in Serbian architecture was 

VOL. II E e 


awakened by Sir Thomas Jackson's paper on the subject in Proceedings 
XXX, lofif., will find in the figures and plates of this longer and 
more comprehensive study an excellent illustration of what they then 
heard, while the text will still further widen the horizon of their 

The volume is appropriately dedicated to the valiant Serbian people, 
the depth of whose national feeling will be more perfectly understood 
by those who have learned to appreciate the individual character of 
Serb art, and the monuments in which, through many centuries of 
chequered history, it has found such durable expression. 

O. M. Dalton. 

Calendar of Fine Rolls. Vol. vi. i 347-1356. ig|: x 7 ; pp. vii + 620. 

London : H.M. Stationery Office, Imperial House, Kingsway, 1921. 


In the latest volume of the Calendar of Fine Rolls, which has been 
prepared by the late Mr. A. E. Bland and Mr. M. C. B. Dawes, the 
French War and its consequences naturally fill a large place. The 
volume opens with a series of documents relating to the loan of 
20,000 sacks of wool intended to enable the King to continue the war 
to a good end. The apportionment amongst