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THE 



ANTIQUARY: 

A MAGAZINE DEVOTED TO THE STUDY 

OF THE PAST 



Instructed by the Antiquary times, 
He must, he is, he cannot but be wise. 

Troilus AND CRESSIDA, Act ii. sc. 3. 



VOL. IV. 

JULY DECEMBER. 



London: ELLIOT STOCK, 62, Paternoster Row. 

New York: J. W. BOUTON. 
1881. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE 



Barnard's Inn, Holborn r 6 

The Kentish Garland 60 

Hop-Picking in Kent 61 

Westminster Abbey : Poets' Corner 138 

Wooden Trough, Found in Crannog at Loch Lee . . . . .211 

Oak Canoe and Paddle, ditto . . 211212 

Carved Ash Wood, ditto. . . . , 212 

Moss Fringe, ditto 213 

Nailed Leather, ditto 213 

Church of St. Regulus, St. Andrew's 249 

Brechin Tower 249 

Beehive Cell on St. Michael's Rock, Kerry 251 



THE GETTY CENTER 



ARMORIAL CHINA. 




The Antiquary, 



JULY, 1881. 




armorial Cbina. 

By George W. Marshall, LL.D. 

AM not aesthetic enough to pose in 
an attitude of admiration in front 
of a plate or pot of the most 
precious old blue ; the finest group 
of Chelsea figures has no charm for me, and 
I can see no more beauty in Wedgwood, 
Spode, Worcester, and Japanese, than in the 
common crockery which adorns my kitchen 
dresser. I have no pretence to be sufficiently 
learned to point out from the paste or paint- 
ing the factory from which a teapot emanated, 
or even to guess the date of a saucer out of 
which Dr. Johnson might have imbibed his 
tea. I neither know nor care about old 
crockery, except in so far as the few speci- 
mens of it to be obtained serve to illustrate 
heraldry and genealogy, of which so-called 
" gentle sciences " I have some knowledge. 
Like most persons afflicted with a hobby, I 
have a taste for collecting such things as 
bear upon it, and hence I have formed a 
rather extensive collection of old bowls, 
cups, plates, mugs, and teapots, adorned 
with the arms of their former possessors. 

Having thus confessed my ignorance of 
the history of pottery and porcelain, by way 
of introducing myself to my readers, I pro- 
ceed to point out my reason for -thinking 
that a careful study of the armorial bearings 
found on old china would not be an alto- 
gether uninstructive pursuit to those who are 
interested in ceramic art. 

The custom of painting arms on china 
probably arose about 1700, or a little later. 
I am not acquainted with any specimens to 
which an earlier date than 1720 can be 
safely assigned. At this time the fashion 
had, however, become popular among the 
wealthy London citizens who traded with 

VOL. IV. 



the East Indies, and hence, no doubt, we 
find that all the earliest specimens are of 
oriental porcelain. The manufacture of 
armorial china in this country does not 
appear to have begun earlier than 1750. 
From 1760 to 1800, there seems to have 
been a rage for this method of marking the 
ownership of all kinds of china in domestic 
use. I have numerous articles, from a tea 
cup to a punch bowl, emblazoned with 
arms. After 1800 the drawing of the arms, 
from a herald's point of view, became exe- 
crably bad, and by 1820 the rage' had died 
away. 

The chief use of a collection of armorial 
china is, that it enables us to fix approxi- 
mately, and sometimes very nearly, the date 
at which a particular piece of ware was 
manufactured. This knowledge attained, I 
imagine that those well acquainted with the 
peculiarities of the paste, glaze, and paint- 
ing, of different china- works, would be able 
to tell, with much greater certainty, the par- 
ticular factory at which the ware was made, 
than they could without such an important 
clue. 

For example, it is a common notion that 
a great proportion of china painted with 
arms was made at Lowestoft, where a china 
factory was established in 1756, and much 
apparently oriental ware has the credit of 
having been made there ; now, if from the 
heraldic bearings upon a particular piece it 
can be shown that it must have been made 
previous to the year 1756, however like the 
paste, glaze, or decoration, might be to 
Lowestoft china, the arms would be conclusive 
evidence that the china on which they were 
painted was not made there. We learn the 
date at which arms were painted in several 
ways. If the arms of the owner are impaled 
with those of his wife, or her arms are 
placed on a shield of pretence, the ware 
must have been made after the date at which 
the marriage took place, and before that at 
which either of the parties died. If the 
coat be a quartered coat, the china must have 
been made after the right of the bearer to 
the quartering accrued ; if it bears the badge 
of a baronet, or the coronet and supporters 
of a peer, after the title was conferred ; or 
it may be that some difference, such as a 
knight's helmet, an order, a mark of cadency, 

B 



ARMORIAL CHINA. 



or a knowledge of the date at which the 
coat was granted, may enable us to identify 
the particular individual for whom it was 
made. Having ascertained when he was 
born and when he died, it is easy to arrive 
at the approximate date of the piece. But 
more than this, the modes of tricking 
changed so much between 1700 and 1800, 
that there is very little difficulty in saying 
from the tricking, or to speak less technically, 
drawing of the arms, within twenty years, at 
what date they must have been painted. 

In order that my meaning may be made 
perfectly clear I will illustrate it by describing 
some specimens now before me. 

Teapot. Oriental. Arms : Quarterly, 

1 and 4, Azure a fess indented Ermine between 
three lions' heads erased Or. Fellows. 

2 and 3, Argent, two barbel haurient respec- 
tant Sable. Coulton. On an escutcheon 
the Ulster badge. 

John Fellows, of Carshalton, sub-governor 
of the South Sea Company, was created a 
Baronet 20th of January, 17 18-19, an d died 
26th of July, 1724, s.p., when the Baronetcy 
became extinct. This teapot was therefore 
made between these dates, and is the earliest 
specimen to which I can attach so undis- 
putable a date. 

Mug. Oriental. Arms : Gules, on a 
fess Argent between three boars' heads Or, 
a lion passant Azure. Gough. Impaling, 
Gules, a chevron between three hinds Or. 
Hynde. Crest. A boar's head Argent 
pierced by an arrow Gules. 

Harry Gough, M.P. for Bramber, and 
an East India Director, married in 17 19, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Morgan Hynde. He 
died in 1751, leaving issue, Richard 
Gough, F.S.A. (the celebrated Antiquary), 
to whom this mug belonged, together 
with a large oriental service of the same, 
some painted in colours, and some in blue 
with similar arms. This service was made in 
the East, and portions of it still remain 
among the descendants of Mrs. (Richard) 
Gough's family. From the tricking of the 
arms, the date appears to be about 1720, 
soon after Mr. Gough's marriage, which is 
also more probable than nearer the period of 
his death. 

Plate. Oriental. Arms : Quarterly, 
1 and 4, Gules, two chevrons Ermine between 



three eagles displayed Or ; 2 and 3, Azure, 
two chevrons Or between three goats' heads 
erased Argent. Parsons. Impaling, Vert, 
on a chevron Or, a star between two cinque- 
foils Gules. Crowley. 

Crest. A leopard's face Gules, sur- 
mounted of an eagle's leg erased Or. 

Humphrey Parsons, twice Lord Mayor of 
London, married in 17 19, Sarah, daughter of 
Sir Ambrose Crowley, Kt., and died March 
2r, 174041. 

Bowl. Lowestoft? Arms: Gules, a 
bezant between three demi-lions rampant 
Argent, with six quarterings. Bennet, Earl 
of Tankerville. On a shield of pretence, 
Gules, a lion rampant Argent, on a chief Or, 
three martlets Azure. Colebrooke. 

Crest. A double scaling ladder Or. 

Supporters. Two lions Argent, crowned 
Or, and charged on the shoulder with a 
bezant. 

Motto. De bon vouloir servir le Roy. 

Charles, fourth Earl of Tankerville, married 
October 7, 1771, Emma, daughter and co- 
heir of Sir James Colebrooke, Bart. He died 
in 1822. From the tricking of the coat, 
which is finely painted, this bowl must have 
been made about the date of Lord Tanker- 
ville's marriage. It is of very similar character 
to the well-known " Wilkes and Liberty " 
bowls, mentioned by Mr. Chaffers as of 
Lowestoft make. 

Mr. Chaffers gives in his " Marks and 
Monograms on Pottery and Porcelain," 
p. 636, a list of mottoes and inscriptions 
on Lowestoft porcelain, mostly taken from 
armorial specimens. His descriptions are, 
however, so careless and inaccurate that 
perhaps little reliance can be placed on 
his assertions e.g., he describes a tea-ser- 
vice painted with the arms of Wilson, and 
motto Sincerity, as having a lion rampant in 
the arms, and a demi-lion rampant for the 
crest (it should be a wolf), and ascribes the 
coat to Sir T. Maryon Wilson. Sir T. 
Maryon Wilson succeeded to the Baronetcy 
in 1798, and, putting aside the absence of 
the Ulster hand in the coat, the design is 
hardly of so late a date. The china with the 
motto, Generoso genuine germo, is attributed 
by Chaffers to "Wilton, a Suffolk family," 
whereas it bears the coat of Branthwaite. 
What the following example of his heraldic 



ARMORIAL CHINA. 



talent may be intended to represent must 
for ever remain a mystery. " Azure of two 
boars' heads, or a helmet and bezant." 

Arms were sometimes, but not often, 
painted on delft. Argent, two chevrons Azure, 
between three trefoils Vert, De Cardonnel. 
Impaling, Argent, two bars Azure. Crest, 
a goldfinch; occur on a delft plate in my 
possession. This coat was granted in 1773 
to the family of De Cardonnel, of Chirton, in 
Northumberland. This shows that the plate 
was made after 1773, and the tricking is rude 
for that period ; but at what factory it was 
made I am quite unable to hazard an opinion. 
I have one or two specimens of arms on delft 
of an earlier date. 

A Plate of oriental ware, with the arms of 
Lowther, Earl of Lonsdale, shows that 
the manufacture of china in the East went 
on concurrently with its manufacture in this 
country. The arms are : Or, six annulets, 
three, two, and one, Sable. Crest. A dragon. 
Supporters. Two horses Argent, each gorged 
with a chaplet proper. Motto. Magistrates 
indicat virum. The shield is surmounted by 
a Viscount's coronet. The first earl was 
created Baron and Viscount, 24th May, 1784, 
and died 24th May, 1802. He was succeeded 
by his cousin, Sir William Lowther, who was 
created Earl of Lonsdale, 7th April, 1807. 
The date of this plate is therefore between 
1784 and 1807. 

It is, I believe, a common opinion that 
china was sometimes made in the East, 
and sent over to be painted with arms in this 
country. I very much doubt the correctness 
of this opinion. If there be any ground for 
it, a plate in my collection, which appears to 
be of oriental ware, and to have been painted 
on the glaze, may serve as an example, and is 
more than ordinarily curious because of its 
early date. 

Arms : Sable, a fess chequy Or and 
Azure, between three bezants. On a shield of 
pretence, Sable, two wings conjoined Argent. 
Crest. A stork argent. Supporters. Two 
falcons, wings elevated, beaked, membered, 
and belled Or, and gorged with a chaplet of 
red-roses proper. Motto. Amitie. 

The shield is surmounted of a baron's 
coronet. These are the arms of Thomas 
Pitt, with those of his wife, Frances Ridgway, 
daughter and heir of the Earl of London- 



derry, on a shield of pretence. He was created 
baron in 1719, and in 1726 Earl of London- 
derry. Trie date of this plate is, therefore, 
between 17 19 and 1726. He was uncle to 
William Pitt. 

A dish, with blue border, coarsely made 
(probably Lowestoft), has the arms of James, 
third Duke of Chandos. Argent, on a cross 
Sable a leopard's face Or, with quarterings, 
supporters, crest, coronet, and motto 
Maintien le droit ; and on a shield of pretence, 
quarterly one and four, Argent, two chevrons 
between three human legs Azure, two and 
three, Gules,' three conies Argent. This is the 
coat of his second wife, Ann Eliza, daughter of 
Richard Gamon, to whom he was married, 
June 21, 1777. He died September 29, 1789. 
The date of this piece is therefore ascertained 
within twelve years. 

I could cite many other instances of arms 
which enable us to fix the date when the 
china on which they are painted was 
made. I hope, however, I have said enough 
to show that my case is made out. The 
manufacture of armorial china was not con- 
fined to the East or to Lowestoft it was 
made at all our well-known potteries. As a 
general rule it was not marked ; but I have 
a sufficient number of marked specimens to 
prove this assertion correct. I give a few as 
examples. 

Swansea. Marked, Swansea. This mark 
was used circa 1815. I have it on an oval 
dish, with the arms of Parker, Earl of Maccles- 
field. Gules, a chevron Or between three 
leopards' faces Argent, with crest, supporters, 
and motto, Sapere aude. The fourth earl suc- 
ceeded in 1795, and died in 1842. The arms, 
&c, are in the worst style of heraldic art. 

Wedgwood, so marked. Arms of 
Ramsey. Argent, an eagle displayed Sable, 
charged on the breast with a white rose 
proper, in chief a fleur-de-lis of the second. 
Impaling, Argent, three bends Gules, on a 
canton Azure a spur Or. Knight. Motto : 
Ora et labora. I have seen portions of an 
oriental service of this pattern, and conclude 
that this must have been made to match it. 

Derby. Plate with Arms of Collinson 
impaling Sowerby. Argent, on a fess Azure, 
between a squirrel mordant in chief, and 
three battle-axes in base proper two mullets 
Or. Impaling, Barry of six Sable and Gules, 

b 2 



ARMORIAL CHINA. 



on a chevron between three lions rampant. 
Argent as many amulets of the second. 
Crest. A squirrel, as in the arms. Mono. 
Respice finem. 

C. S. Collinson, of the Chauntry, near 
Ipswich, married April 30, 1803, Maria, 
daughter of John Sowerby. 

This has the crown # and D used from 
1 7 80- 1 830. 

A small plate with the arms, and ten 
quarterings of Sir Roger Gresley, Bart., 
impaling those of Coventry with four quarter- 
ings, in right of his wife, Sophia Catherine, 
daughter of the 7 th Earl of Coventry, to 
whom he was married June 2, 182 1. He- 
died in 1837. This is marked with Bloor's 
mark (a crown within a circle, on which is 
printed " Bloor Derby "), used about 1830. 

Worcester. A mug with the arms of the 
Earl of Essex, the painting of which is un- 
finished, is marked O, I presume a Wor- 
cester mark. I have also a bowl, with a 
square Chinese mark very similar in character 
to some given by Chaffers as Worcester 
marks. Specimens of arms painted on what 
I believe to be Leeds, Chelsea, and Bow are 
among my collection, but being unmarked I 
do not feel competent to express an opinion 
about them. 

The armorial china fashion was not 
peculiar to England ; plenty of specimens of 
foreign manufacture may be picked up in the 
antiquity dealers' shops in Paris, and other 
continental towns. Some of them closely re- 
semble the ware made in this country, and 
perhaps they were so made ; but in others 
the difference in the style of painting, for 
instance those decorated with a peculiar 
pink shell border, are clearly the production of 
some foreign pottery. Many foreign pieces 
are of fine egg shell, apparently Japanese. 
English arms are rare on this kind of china. 
A few years ago when some half-dozen 
persons were known by the London dealers 
to be collecting specimens of armorial china 
(I speak advisedly, for I do not believe there 
are more than half a dozen, if so many, 
collections of this class of china), it entered 
into the mind of some person or persons, 
that specimens might be advantageously 
forged. The dealers were so ignorant of 
heraldry that they would not be likely to 
detect the fraud, and so were, in my 



opinion, the collectors. In the course of 
a few months the dealers' shops were flooded 
with the fictitious articles, all, I believe, the 
work of the same man. Unfortunately for 
him he was entirely ignorant of the laws of 
heraldry, and consequently exposed his trick 
at once to those who knew good blazon from 
bad. Having apparently found out that 
designing original coats was beyond his 
capability, he took to reproducing those 
already well known. His method was ingeni- 
ous ; having taken an old piece of china, he 
erased with acid sufficient of the design to 
admit of painting on it the fictitious device, a 
plan well calculated to mislead the unwary pur- 
chaser. Having apparently succeeded by 
this means in deceiving some of the dealers, 
he next tried painting the whole thing, de- 
coration and all, on new porcelain. The 
plate known as the ** Pompadour Plate " was 
one of the most successful forgeries per- 
petrated. This is a plate of foreign make, with 
pretty pink shell border, and has the Arms : 
Azure, two fishes between three estoiles 
Or. Crest. A demi-otter proper, collared Or. 
The whole service was, I believe, a few years 
since in the hands of a London dealer. Some 
of it fell into the hands of the Paris 
marchands d'atitiquites, and one of them, 
more learned than the rest, knowing that 
Madame de Pompadour was a Madlle.Poisson, 
and seeing that the arms werethose of Poisson, 
asserted that the coat was that of Madame de 
Pompadour, and that consequently the service 
must have belonged to that distinguished 
lady. Unfortunately for this ingenious theory 
the arms are those of a man. Had the service 
been made for Madlle. Poisson, the spinster's 
lozenge would have contained the coat, and 
not the warrior's shield ! High prices were 
soon obtained for plates, as much, and more 
I am told, as 120 francs, the actual value 
being about 10 francs. It is some years since 
I have seen any new forgeries, and I hope 
that form of the art of armorial china painting 
is dormant, if not extinct. 

Arms painting on china has ceased to be 
in fashion, and the few modern specimens we 
meet with, chiefly of Worcester manufacture, 
are sad parodies on the carefully executed 
trickings of the last century. They are not 
likely to be of any interest to the heralds or 
china collectors of the century to come. 



BARNARD'S INN, HOLBORN. 



Bamarto 3nn t ibolborn. 




HIS veritable relic of Old London, 
which, in part, escaped the Great 
Fire, has lately been sold, and will 
shortly be demolished. Known 
originally as Mackworth's Inn, from having 
been the residence of Dr. John Mackworth, 
who was Dean of Lincoln in the reign of 
King Henry VI., it was afterwards leased by 
his successor and the Chapter (as an endow- 
ment for the services which were to be 
celebrated over his grave in the Cathedral) 
to a gentleman named Lionel Barnard, from 



Liberties." In more recent years it became 
celebrated as the last abode of Peter 
Woulfe, who, surviving Dr. Price, of Guild- 
ford, may fitly be termed the last of the 
Alchemists.* That singular being singular 
in each sense of the word lived into the 
beginning of the present century. Sir Hum- 
phry Davy has left us a description of 
the home, the personal appearance, and 
eccentricities of the philosopher, whose 
seclusion and researches were unbrightened 
by any of the cheerfulness which, as Ed- 
wards, his old schoolfellow, naively told 
Dr. Johnson, he had found to effectually 
discourage all continuance in the one or 




whom it received the name it now bears. 
The repose and solitude that invest its three 
courts are typical of the mystery which hangs 
over its fortunes. The history of Barnard's 
Inn is involved more or less in obscurity. 
One or two facts, however, are definitely 
ascertained. Rebuilt in 1510, soon after the 
accession of Henry VIII. to the throne, it 
was constituted an Inn of Chancery, being 
attached to Gray's Inn. During the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth as many as fourteen de- 
pendent Inns had gathered around the great 
Inns of Court, like Colleges around a Uni- 
versity, and Barnard's then formed one of 
" the houses of the Chancery within the 



prosecution of the other. Here he died as 
he had lived solitary; whatever secrets he 
may have discovered remained secrets to 
all the world besides. Desolate and other- 

* .See, however, the account given in A Personal 
Tour through the United Kingdom, by Sir Richard 
Phillips, of a visit made by him in the year 1828, to a 
Mr. Kellerman, at Lilley, a village midway between 
Luton and Hitchin. Kellerman claimed to have dis- 
covered the art of making gold, and the sublime alkahest 
(or universal solvent), the " fixing" of mercury, and 
the " blacker than black" of Apollonius Tyanus. He 
laboured under the delusion that every Government 
in Europe was in league to obtain possession of his 
secret by force. In the course of the interview he 
quoted Woulfe, amongst other authorities, in justifi- 
cation of his pursuits. 



BARNARD'S INN, HOLBORN. 



wise forgotten has been this little Inn for 
generations past, but it was a brave place in its 
day. Tradition still lingers, with whispering 
voice, around its isolated quadrangles of the 
once youthful Ancients, of their nine Com- 
panions with the Principal at their head. 
The Companions, elected by the Principal 
and the Ancients, enjoyed the privilege of 
countless dinners in the Hall. The Ancients 
had an additional title to the receipt of 
certain " little fees," whilst the Principal, as 
master of the revels, had no graver respon- 
sibilities cast upon him than lay in keeping 
his small society within the easy limits of a 
moderate de- 
corum. 

The Royal 
Commission 
which sat in 
1854 on an in- 
quiry into our 
Inns of Court 
and Chancery, 
failed to elicit 
any evidence 
of material im- 




portance in re- 
spect of the an- 
tecedents of 
Barnard's Inn 
or its posses- 
sors. No 
students, it was 
stated, had ever 
belonged here ; 
but this does 
not agree with 
what Stow tells 
us, or, indeed, 

with the subsequent admission that during the 
latter portion of the seventeenth century a 
reader in Law would occasionally come over 
from Gray's Inn. But the library was afterwards 
sold, as consisting of u a few old books which 
were of no use ;" and all traces of earlier con- 
dition or constitution of the Inn rapidly dis- 
appeared. A treasurer and a secretary, it is 
true, responded to the call to go before the 
Commission. But they had little story to 
tell other than that the account books of the 
Inn covered a period dating from more than 
three hundred years ago ; and that the pro- 
perty was held under a lease renewable every 



fourteen years at a fine of ^1400. Their 
rent-roll then brought in an income of the 
annual value of about ^iooo. 

Turning out of Holborn opposite Furnival's 
Inn, through an insignificant though substan- 
tially built gateway, over which appear the 
date and letters 1758, P.R.W., we walk along 
a narrow passage into the first and outer court, 
with a brick archway at its south-eastern 
corner. This court has for its southern side 
the archway and diminutive Hall of red brick 
which are shown in my sketch. The Hall, 
as will be observed, has a very plain eleva- 
tion, and is unusually well lighted with side- 
latticed win- 
dows,andacen- 
tral lanthorn. 
Though not es- 
pecially re- 
markable in any 
other way, the 
Hall forms an 
interesting fea- 
ture in a district' 
which, includ- 
ing its more at- 
tractive neigh- 
bour, Staple 
Inn where 
Johnson wrote 
his " little story 
book," as he 
termed his 
Eastern tale 
is yet untouch- 
ed by the Apol- 
lyon of utility 
and improve- 
ment. It has, 
interior, fitted and 
manner, and 
King Charles 
Verulam, the 
Lord Chief 
do not ex- 
feet by 
The 



however, a pleasing 
decorated in the customary 
adorned with portraits of 
II., Lord Burghley, Lord 
Lord-Keeper Coventry, and 
Justice Holt. Its dimensions 
ceed a plan of about thirty-six 
twenty feet, with a height of thirty feet, 
coats of arms of past Principals, in 
stained glass, ornament the side windows. 
But a high wall, which shuts off its northern 
side, and a hideous yellow brick structure 
forming its entrance from the south, greatly 
disfigure the exterior of the Hall. Beyond 



BARNARD'S INN, HOLBORN. 



the middle and smallest quadrangle, which is 
almost wholly occupied by the yellow brick 
entrance to the Hall, is a larger court, having 
at its south-eastern corner the Jacobean 
buildings represented in my other drawing. 
The Alchemist lived in the second floor 
chambers of the staircase No. 2. The 
mullions above the windows, with the over- 
hanging upper story and two bays on the 
right are very picturesque. A large tree 
stands equidistant from the three entrance 
doorways. There are buildings of a more 
modern age on the western side of this, the 
furthest court from Holborn, and they also 
have trees planted before their doors. Charles 
Dickens, in Great Expectations, indulges in 
a few characteristic strokes of humour at the 
expense of Barnard's Inn, but his pleasantry 
is applicable to scores of places that have 
been suffered to fall into neglect and decay. 
Here, as elsewhere, his graphic pen seems to 
me to miss the true genius loci. 

W. E. Milliken. 



Httdent fllMsconceptions of 
3nterval6 of Gfme. 




VERY one knows that Julius Csesar 
instituted the bissextile cycle, and 
ordained it to consist of four full 
years ; and that upon his death, 
before the first cycle had been completed, 
the Roman Pontiffs, upon whom the ob- 
servance of the institution devolved, sup- 
posing that the last year of every cycle 
should also be the first of the next (thus 
counting one year in each cycle twice over) 
practically reduced the period to three years, 
and caused a disarrangement of the ordinance, 
which lasted for thirty-six years j until, at 
length, upon the mistake being discovered 
and. compensated, it was restored to due 
observance by Augustus Csesar. But it has 
not, I think, been recognized that Julius 
Caesar himself was induced by a similar 
misconception to reckon both termini of an 
interval inclusively just as though the mile- 
stones at both ends of a mile were to be 
considered as parts of the mile : and this 
misconception on Caesar's part, is, no doubt, 



the true explanation of the supposed error " 
in the text of his Commentaries, which 
attributes the occurrence of high tide in the 
English Channel twice in the space of twelve 
hours bis accidit semper horarum XII 
spatio {De Bello Gallico, in. 12) translated 
by Golding 300 years ago "the rysyng of 
the tydes which ever happened twice in 
twelve houres space." Editors are, as a rule, 
too prone to solve difficulties of text by 
altering what they cannot explain, and in 
this case they have altered Caesar's XII to 
XXIV ; but they have not done so without 
question, for Julius Celsus remarked respect- 
ing it, " mimerus XXIV est emmendatio 
recentiorum nullius codicis auctoritate fulta." 
Now, in point of fact, the tide may after all 
be said to flow twice in twelve lunar hours, 
provided the morning and afternoon tides 
be included in the same interval although, 
of course, if repeated in series, an error 
would result, in the aggregate, similar to that 
of the Pontiffs. 

This misconception has affected the 
estimation of intervals down to comparatively 
recent times. It has caused the Olympiad 
quadrennial to be reckoned at five complete 
years notably in the dates of some books 
in the 15th century. In a book, for example, 
the Epistles of Phalaris, mentioned by Mr. 
Blades in his interesting article, " The First 
Printing Press at Oxford," in the January 
number of The Antiquary, the date he 
assigns to it is 1485, but that date is 
curiously expressed in five-year Olympiads 
as follows : 

Hoc opusculum in alma universitate Oxonise a 
natali Christiano ducentesima et nonagesima septima 
olympiade feliciter impressum est. 

And there is another example in a book 
printed at Venice in 1472, which date is ex- 
pressed in this way : 

A nativitate Christi ducentesima nonagesima quinta 
olympiadis anno II. Idus VII Decembris. 

And what renders this last example 
specially noteworthy, is, that it is affixed to 
a volume containing the Epigrammata of 
Ausonius, an author who consistently esti- 
mated the Olympiad at four years only 
thus he says of his father in his eighty-eighth 
year : " Undecies binas vixit Olympiades," 
and again in the Epicedium after his father's 



ANCIENT MISCONCEPTIONS OF INTERVALS OF TIME. 



death he states his age to have been ninety 
years. 

Another misconception, still more glaring, 
existed with respect to the Roman week, the 
termini of which were called nundinse, and 
as those termini were both included in the 
reckoning, the week was supposed to consist 
of nine full days, whence the name. But 
the remains of Roman Calendars have been 
found with the eight first letters of the 
alphabet prefixed one to each day of the 
Roman week precisely as the seven dominical 
letters are prefixed to our own seven-day 
week. And yet Macrobius believed in all 
the nine days, and enumerated them literally 
" Octo quidcm diebus in agris rustici opus 
facerant nono autem die intermisso rure 
Roman venirent. 

Even to this day trinundinum is defined in 
Latin Dictionaries as "spatium dierum viginti 
septern " being just the same error as if three 
of our own weeks were accounted twenty-four 
days by giving two Sundays to each week. 

Now Caesar's double tides in twelve hours 
was obviously the same misconception as the 
Roman week of nine days, and, like it, was 
caused by including both termini in the 
interval. It was the conventional error of 
the time, and it is more than doubtful 
whether, if Csesar had expressed himself 
with more strict accuracy, he would have been 
understood by those for whom he wrote. 

I might have elaborated these discrepancies 
more fully, but that my principal object is to 
show that the text of the Commentaries 
ought to be explained, as being in conformity 
with the prejudice of the time, rather than to 
be arbitrarily altered to suit our own more 
strict ideas : a brief foot-note, " both tides 
being included? would be a sufficient ex- 
planation. A. E. Brae. 

Guernsey. 

Zhe Jfirst parliament in 
Hmerica (1619). 



APTAIN GEORGE YEARDLEY 
was chosen Governor of Virginia 
in the autumn of 1618 in the 
place of Lord De la Warr, who 
had died in Canada, and he had orders to 




depart immediately thither with two ships and 
about 300 men and boys. So wrote John 
Pory to our Ambassador at The Hague, when 
he also told him that the greatest difficulties 
of that Plantation had been overcome, and 
that the people there were beginning to 
enjoy both commodities and wealth. John 
Chamberlain, one of the greatest news- 
writers of that day, speaks contemptuously 
of Yeardley's appointment, calls him " a 
mean fellow," and says that the King, to 
grace Yeardley the more, knighted him at 
Newmarket, u which hath set him up so high 
that he flaunts it up and down the streets in 
extraordinary bravery, with fourteen or fifteen 
fair liveries after him." 

The new Governor meets, however, with 
greater justice from the historian Bancroft, 
who tritely remarks that from the moment of 
Yeardley's arrival in Virginia, dates the real 
life of the Colony. Sir George Yeardley 
arrived there in April, 161 9, and brought 
with him Commissions and Instructions from 
the Virginia Company for the better estab- 
lishing of a Commonwealth there. He made 
Proclamation that those " cruell lawes" by 
which the ancient planters had so long been 
governed were now abrogated, and that they 
were to be governed by those " free lawes" 
under which his Majesty's subjects lived in 
England. It was also granted that a General 
Assembly should be held once yearly, which 
was to be composed of the Governor and 
his Council, with two Burgesses from each 
Plantation, to be elected by the inhabitants 
themselves, and this Assembly was to have 
power to make and ordain whatsoever laws 
and orders should by them be thought good 
and profitable for their subsistence. 

In accordance with these Instructions, 
Governor Yeardley sent his summons all 
over the country as well to invite those of 
the Council of Estate, that were absent, as 
also for the election of Burgesses, and on 
Friday, July 30, 16 19, the first Parliament 
ever held in America, assembled at James 
City. 

Beverley, the early historian of Virginia, 
denies that there was any Assembly held 
there before May, 1620. Stith gives an 
account of it, though he was unable to find 
a record of its proceedings, so that he errs a 
little in the date. No traces of it were met 



THE FIRST PARLIAMENT IN AMERICA (1619). 



with by Jefferson and Hening, and those 
who followed Hening believed it no longer 
extant. The historian Bancroft himself, in 
the early edition of his great history, quoting 
Hening, says this Assembly was held in 
June> 1 619. Indeed, until about thirty 
years ago, when a record of the proceedings 
was discovered in H.M. State Paper Office, 
it was given up as hopelessly lost. 

The " reporte of the manner of proceed- 
ings" of this Assembly was sent to England 
by John Pory, the Secretary and Speaker, a 
familiar name in the history of Virginia, to 
Sir Dudley Carleton, at that time English 
Ambassador at The Hague, to whose energy 
and marvellous powers of letter-writing and 
news-gathering we are indebted for many 
historical details which, but for him, would 
have been lost to us. 

The first published notice of the existence 
of this State Paper occurs in the Proceedings 
of the Annual Meeting of the Virginia His- 
torical Society in 1853. It is printed in full 
in the New York Historical Collections for 
1857, with an introductory note by Mr. 
Bancroft, and also as a Senate document 
(extra) of Virginia in 1874; but these are 
consultable only by a favoured few, whereas 
the proceedings of this first Parliament in 
America are surely of sufficient universal his- 
torical interest to be circulated among the 
many. 

This document is now preserved among 
the Colonial State Papers in H. M. Public 
Record Office. It comprises thirty pages, 
and may be abstracted as follows : 

A reporte of the manner of proceedings in the 
General Assembly, convented at James City in Vir- 
ginia, July 30, 1619, consisting of the Governor, the 
Counsell of Estate, and two Burgesses elected out of 
eache Incorporation and plantation, and being dis- 
solved the 4th of August next ensuing. 

First Sir George Yeardley, Knight, Governor and 
Captaine General of Virginia, having sente his sumons 
all over the country, as well to invite those of the 
Counsell of Estate that were absente as also for the 
election of Burgesses, there were chosen and ap- 
peared 

I Capt. William Powell, 
j Ensigne William Spense. 
For Charles Citty . . . ) Samuel har P e > 



For James Citty 



Samuel Jordan. 

For the Citty of Henricus j Thomas Dowse, 
( John Polentine. 



For Martin Brandon, 
Capt. John Martin's Plan- 
tation 

For Smythe's hundred . 

For Martin's hundred 

For Argal's Guifte . . 

For Flowerdieu hundred . 

For Capt. Lawne's Plan- 
tation 



For Capt. Warde's Plan- 
tation 



For Kiccowtan 



Capt. Wm. Tucker, 
William Capp. 



( Mr. Thomas Davis, 
C Mr. Robert Stacy. 

SCapt. Thomas Graves, 
Mr. Walter Shelley. 
I Mr. John Boys, 
( John Jackson. 
I Mr. Pawlett, 
( Mr. Gourgainy. 
( Ensigne Rossingham, 
j Mr. Jefferson. 
I Captain Christopher 
< Lawne, 
( Ensigne Washer. 
{ Capt. Warde, 
( Lieut. Gibbes. 

It will be seen that the Assembly con- 
sisted of twenty-two Burgesses who were 
elected to represent three cities, three hun- 
dreds, four Plantations, and one " Gift," and 
they met in the Choir of the Church, "the 
most convenient place they could find to 
sit in." 

The Governor being seated, those of the 
Council of State sat next him on either side 
except the Secretary, who was appointed 
Speaker, and sat right before the Governor, 
Sir George Yeardley, John Twine, Clerk of 
the Assembly, being placed next the Speaker, 
and Thomas Pierse, the Sergeant standing 
at the Bar 

to be ready for any service the Assembly should com- 
mand him. But for as muche as men's affaires doe 
little prosper where God's service is neglected all the 
Burgesses tooke their places in the Quire till a prayer 
was said by Mr. Bucke the Minister that it would 
please God to guide and sanctify all our proceedings 
to his own glory and the good of this plantation. 

All the Burgesses were then entreated to 
retire into the body of the Church, and 
before they were fully admitted, they were 
called in order and by name, and so every 
man (none staggering at it) took the Oath of 
Supremacy, and then entered the Assembly. 
The Speaker then took exception to Capt. 
Ward, his plantation being " but a limb or 
member" of Capt. Martin's plantation, and 
said there could be but two Burgesses for all, 
so Capt. Ward was commanded to absent 
himself. Other " obstacles removed," the 
Speaker delivered in brief (his ill-health not 
allowing him to " pass thro' long harangues ") 
the occasions of their Meeting ; he read the 
Commission for establishing the Council of 
State and the General Assembly, the Great 
Charter or Commission of Privileges, and 



IO 



THE FIRST PARLIAMENT IN AMERICA (1619). 



the Orders and Laws sent out of England. 
These last were divided into four books, and 
two Committees of eight Members each 
were proposed "not to correct or control 
anything therein contained, but only in case 
we should find ought not perfectly squaring 
with the state of this Colony." When these 
Committees were appointed " we brake up 
the first forenoon's Assembly." 

Every day's proceeding of this General 
Assembly is carefully entered in detail. 
Various petitions were presented and dis- 
cussed the instructions given by the Coun- 
cil in England to several Governors " as 
might be converted into laws " were debated. 
Laws against idleness, gaming, drunkenness, 
excess in apparel, and on a variety of other 
subjects, were enacted. Orders for the 
planting of corn, mulberry, silk, flax, hemp, 
and aniseed, were established, and resolu- 
tions on other matters were passed. 

On Sunday, August 1, 1619, the entry is 
only one line, "Mr. Shelley, one of the 
Burgesses, deceased." But the sultry days 
of August had arrived, the season was one 
of the hottest hitherto known in that southern 
climate, the Governor was not well, the heat 
had overcome many of the Members, and 
so, on Wednesday, August 4, 

by reason of extreme heat both past and likely to 
ensue and by that means of the alteration of the 
healths of divers of the General Assembly, the 
Governor, who himself also was not well, resolved 
this day should be the last of this first session. 

Thus ended the first and last Session of the 
first Parliament in America. The Speaker 
was commanded by the whole Assembly to 
present their humble excuse to the Treasurer, 
Council and Company in England, 

for being constrained by the intemperance of the 
weather and the falling sicke of diverse of the Bur- 
gesses to break up so abruptly before they had so 
much as put their laws to the ingrossing. 

The Governor, Sir George Yeardley, then 
prorogued the Assembly until the first of 
March 1620, "and in the mean season 
dissolved the same." 

W. Noel Sainsbury. 




Sbafcespeare an& Gloucester* 
sbire. 

By W. P. W. Phillimore, M.A., B.C.L. 

PASSAGE from Shakespeare's play 
of King Henry IV., in which Davy 
is made to say to justice Shallow, 
" I beseech you, sir, to countenance 
William Vizor, of Wincot, against Clement 
Perkes of the hill," and which is quoted by 
Mr. Hales in his article, "With good fat capon 
lined," in the March number of the Antiquary, 
deserves a note of explanation in this maga- 
zine, as the real significance of the allusion to 
Vizor and Perkes, though pointed out in one 
or two local books, seems to have escaped 
the attention of most Shakespearian writers. 
Mr. G. R. French, indeed, has noticed the 
reference to Perkes in his " Shakespereana 
Genealogica," but only to infer from it that 
the poet was accustomed to take his local 
colouring from the people and places he was 
familiar with in Warwickshire. The fact, 
however, that the scene is fixed by the poet 
in Gloucestershire, and the introduction of 
these two names together, makes it almost 
certain that Shakespeare refers to Dursley in 
that county. " Wincot," or rather " Woncot," 
as some readings have it, is evidently a rude 
attempt to represent phonetically the local 
pronunciation of Woodmancote, a hamlet 
or suburb of Dursley, and " the hill" is yet 
the name by which Stinchcombe Hill on 
the other side of the town is pre-eminently 
known in the neighbourhood. Moreover, it 
is said that a family of Perkis was anciently 
possessed of a messuage on Stinchcombe 
Hill, and it is certain that the Vizars (or as 
the name is now spelt, Vizard) have been a 
leading Dursley family from Shakespeare's 
time to the present day. Arthur Vizar, gent., 
whose tomb, dated 1620, still exists in 
Dursley churchyard, was bailiff there in 161 2, 
four years before the poet's death. We can 
hardly doubt, therefore, that Shakespeare in 
this passage does allude to the Dursley 
Vizards, and from the very uncomplimentary 
way in which Justice Shallow speaks of 
William Vizor, it may be inferred that the 
poet had some personal spite against the 
Vizard of his time either Arthur Vizar, 



SHAKESPEARE AND GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 



11 



above mentioned, or perhaps some relative 
named William. 

In this instance people and places seem so 
clearly pointed at that it does appear as if 
Shakespeare occasionally satirized individuals, 
although this has been denied by some. 
Other evidence is not wanting to show that 
he was acquainted with Gloucestershire. The 
words of Northumberland in Richard II. 
are very appropriate, and bespeak a personal 
knowledge of this part of the county. 

I am a stranger here in Gloucestershire ; 
These high, wild hills, and rough uneven ways 
Draw out our miles and make them wearisome. 

And a little further on Northumberland 
questions Harry Hotspur : 

How far is it to Berkeley ? And what stir 
Keeps good old York there with his men of war ? 

And Percy replies : 

There stands the castle by yon tuit of trees. 

All who are acquainted with the glorious 
view from the top of Stinchcombe Hill will 
acknowledge that Shakespeare's allusion to 
" the castle" is an accurate one, even at the 
present day. 

A local tradition even claims that Shake- 
speare once lived at Dursley, and " Shake- 
speare's Walk," near the town, is usually cited 
to prove the assertion. 

There are also indications which seem to 
suggest that Shakespeare may have had kins- 
men in Gloucestershire. Persons bearing 
the name formerly lived in and about Dursley. 
Mr. Blunt, in his Dursley and its Neighbour- 
hood, notes the marriage of Thomas Shake- 
speare, weaver, at Dursley, in 1678, and the 
subsequent baptisms of his children ; that 
another Thomas had a u seat-place" in the 
church allotted to him in 1739; that Betty 
Shakespeare obtained "poor's money" in 
1754; that James Shakespeare 'was buried at 
Bisley in 1570; and that Edward, son of 
John and Margery Shakespurre, was baptized 
at Beverston in 1619. Other Shakespeares 
have been long settled at Newington Bag- 
path, not far from Dursley, and claim a 
traditional kinship with their great namesake. 

All these places are within a few miles 
of Dursley. Moreover, the Hathways, or 
Hathaways, were in like manner connected 
with Gloucestershire. The name is frequently 
found throughout the seventeenth century in 



the registers of Cam, the next village to Durs- 
ley; and at Kingscote, not far from Newington 
Bagpath, Thomas Hathway and John Hath- 
way of Bulley were assessed " in goods" to 
a lay subsidy in 1571. The name also occurs 
in the Beverston registers, and is still to be 
met with in the neighbourhood. 

All these facts justify the conclusion that 
at some time Shakespeare visited Dursley, and 
became well acquainted with the district. It 
is not unlikely that his marriage, in 1582, 
with Anne Hathaway, who was so much his 
senior, may have offended his Stratford friends, 
and compelled him to take refuge with his and 
his wife's kindred in Gloucestershire, some 
time between that date and his removal to 
London. Perhaps, too, as both families were 
near neighbours in Gloucestershire as well as 
in Warwickshire, there may have been some 
early relationship between them which after- 
wards brought about Shakespeare's alliance 
with the Hathaways. 

But enough, however, has been said to 
show the use of local knowledge to illustrate 
Shakespeare. 

flDeirose Hbbe$. 




O the Antiquary as well as to the 
readers of Sir Walter Scott, the 
ancient Abbey of Melrose must 
be one of the places of supreme 
interest in the Border Counties of Scotland ; 
and to lovers of the beautiful and the pic- 
turesque the venerable ruins of the ancient 
monastery and mother church cannot but 
possess peculiar charms. 

Situated in one of the delightful valleys of 
the south of Scotland, and surrounded by a 
district which has been famed for ages for 
cultivation, Melrose Abbey has played a not 
insignificant part in the history of the coun- 
try. At the time when it was founded the 
people of Scotland were in a state of almost 
total ignorance of learning, and it was in 
order to secure for his subjects the oppor- 
tunities for education which they so much 
required, but had not hitherto attained, that 
David I., in the twelfth century, built and 
endowed the many abbeys, monasteries, and 
other places of learning and religion that he 



12 



MELROSE ABBEY. 



did, Melrose Abbey among the rest This 
monarch, as sometimes happens with men 
who live, as it were, before their time, was 
much misunderstood, misjudged, and even 
nicknamed for the provident care of his 
people's mental condition. But it is to him 
undoubtedly that the Scottish nation owe the 
first beginnings of their educational system, 
which has so much contributed towards 
making Scotland what it is ; and when we 
consider that in those times it was only in 
buildings such as Melrose Abbey that the 
learning of the country could be preserved,, 
and where, therefore, those in search of know- 
ledge had to resort, surely David I. may no 
longer be styled the "sore saint," but be 
accorded the honourable place he deserves 
of being the first great patron of -learning in 
a country which has not failed to render to 
knowledge many noble services. 
' It is thought that the ancient inhabitants 
of Scotland were worshippers of the sun. 
The circles of stones still to be found on 
some of the outlying islands in the north are 
supposed to have been places for worship and 
the rites of religion. Even yet, it is said, 
when a highlander meets another on the way 
to church he does not ask, " Are you going 
to worship?" but in Gaelic, of course 
" Are you going to the stones?"* The first 
Christian teachers had to address themselves 
to these sun-worshippers, and St. Cuthbert, 
the prior or head of the Abbey of Old Mel- 
rose in the seventh century, is related to have 
been one of the earliest pioneers of the Chris- 
tian doctrine amongst the villages where 
sun-worship was prevalent. 

The Abbey of Old Melrose, a once cele- 
brated seat of learning and religious zeal, 
stood on a peninsula formed by the river 
Tweed, fully two miles eastward from the 
present well-known ruin ; but excepting the 
missions of its prior, St. Cuthbert, and that 
the inhabitants were Culdees, comparatively 
little important matter in its history is re- 
corded. 

The building on the site of the present 
Abbey of Melrose was begun in 1136 under 
King David I. It was a distinct foundation 
of a new abbacy, and not a transference from 
the more ancient monastery at Old Melrose, 
which latter was carried on for many years 
* Wilson's Bonier History, 



separately, although it had ultimately to give 
way to its younger rival. This early edifice 
has now entirely disappeared. 

Amid the general darkness of the nation, 
bright lights occasionally shone forth. Thomas 
the Rhymer, the first purely English poet, 
and Michael Scot, philosopher and reputed 
wizard, flourished during the thirteenth 
century, and were intimately connected with 
Melrose Abbey. It is almost certain that 
both received a considerable part of their 
education at some abbey on the Tweed, and 
that their taste for culture was derived from, 
and nourished by, monkish teachers in one 
of those abbeys, most probably Melrose. 
Both the personages are still regarded by 
the borderers with peculiar veneration. 
Michael Scot, to whose traditional story the 
first two cantos of the "Lay of the Last 
Minstrel" owe so much of their impressive- 
ness, was a perfectly definite character, and 
although many imaginative stories are told of 
him, there is no historical doubt as to his 
having existed. 

The enterprising, yet often unfortunate, 
Edward II., in his last invasion of Scotland, 
met with disasters as annoying as they were 
unforeseen. Having been forced from want 
of supplies to retire from Edinburgh, his 
army marched through the valley of the 
Tweed towards the south. Their supplies 
having been cut off by the Scotch, neither he 
nor his soldiers were in a mood to receive, 
without stern retaliation, any further insults. 
Near Melrose, where they had anticipated 
remaining in peace for a short time, the 
advance-guard were unexpectedly attacked 
by a band of Scots led by Lord Douglas, who 
killed a large number of Edward's military 
and compelled them to retire on the main 
army. One of the friars of Melrose having 
rather imprudently joined in the skirmish, 
the soldiers were incited to sack the abbey, 
and they did not leave it until most of the 
valuables had either been demolished or 
appropriated. The abbot was murdered, and 
a number of the defenceless old monks, infirm 
and blind, were also slain. The Southerners 
continued their way, leaving behind them 
blackened walls and sacrileged church pro- 
perty ; but the monks not long after bestirred 
themselves to get their abbey restored. It is 
considered that the building which was 



MELROSE ABBEY. 



13 



destroyed at this time was greatly inferior to 
the one erected immediately after this assault, 
and whose ruins now adorn the Tweed. The 
description of the older one is extant, but it 
is understood to have been a plain building 
without either style or ornament. 

It is to the zeal and energy of King Robert 
the Bruce that Scotland owes the present 
buildings of St. Mary's Church at Melrose. 
Shortly after the destruction of the old abbey, 
he gave sums of money and made large 
grants of forfeited lands for the renewal, or, 
rather, re-erection of the building. As well 
as this, many presents were made by the 
surrounding inhabitants ; for although, as a 
rule, the Lowland Scot did not much frequent 
the Church in these times, still, it was to 
places such as Melrose that the religiously 
inclined turned, and it was there where the 
awful powers of the spiritual world were 
exercised. The bold borderer, therefore, 
even though he was often one who had been 
expelled, either from England or Scotland, 
for treason or crime, usually respected the 
quiet dwelling-places of the monks, and 
occasionally paid them visits to have his 
sins shrived, when his conscience grew too 
troublesome ; and then he did not fail to 
bestow handsome presents on the priests. 
The monks, being possessed of sufficient 
funds, and being so liberally encouraged by 
the reigning sovereign, set about the work of 
re-construction of the abbey; and, as an 
appreciation of the aesthetic was not deemed 
by them inconsistent with the love of the 
Scriptures, they seem to have determined 
that their new monastery should be worthier 
of the name and fame of Melrose than either 
of the former ones were. 

When the older monastery was built, such 
erections in Scotland did not receive the at- 
tention they did at the period at which the 
newer one was projected, but the time was 
ripe for an abbey to be conceived and carried 
out which would be magnificent in its design, 
execution, and artistic effect. The Gothic or 
Pointed style of architecture, about the origin 
of which so much has been written, and 
which is still undetermined, was nearing the 
commencement of its decay, but was still in 
its splendour, and realized in this abbey a 
wonderful degree of charm which age and 
sacrilege have not been able to destroy, but 



have rather enhanced. This was the style in 
which the monks of Melrose decided to build 
their abbey, knowing the grand effects it was 
capable of producing as exemplified in Eng- 
land, but more especially as in France, for 
they had more communication with the latter 
country than with the southern part of the 
island they lived in, even although they had 
frequently been under English rule. 

According to an inscription still decipher- 
able on the wall, the abbey was erected by 
one John Morvo, or Morow, who is thought 
either to have been Italian or French. The 
writing itself says he was born in " Parysse," 
but as this was probably engraven years after 
his death, not much reliance should be placed 
on it. The greatest likelihood is that he was N 
a Scotsman of the name of Murray, and in 
those days of spelling very much according 
to pronunciation, it may have been written as 
even still pronounced by many Scottish people 
Morow. It is also conjectured by a recent 
writer that Melrose Abbey was executed by 
Scotsmen, who, though they knew some- 
thing of English and French art, were deter- 
mined to leave the mark of their own hands 
and minds on the building. And it is to this 
throwing the soul into their work whoever 
they were does not signify that helps to 
make the abbey of such interest to us, for 
we may still enjoy the shattered result of the 
work they were happy in the execution of, 
and gave their best efforts to produce. 

No chronicle exists telling the exact length 
of time that elapsed between the endowment 
of the abbey by Robert the Bruce and its 
final completion, but many years must have 
been spent in its erection. The change of 
style exhibited between different parts of the 
building points to the fact that the original 
design was considerably modified towards the 
termination of the building work. Whether 
or not the abbey was ever entirely finished 
cannot now be ascertained, but it probably 
was very nearly complete, if not altogether 
so. The present partly unroofed and bare 
remains of the building cannot give a good 
idea of its interior as it existed in its glory, 
but a lively imagination may fancy it peopled 
with kneeling worshippers murmuring their 
petitions as they count their beads, while the 
priest, clothed in all the grandeur of a high 
dignitary of the Church of Rome, exalts the 



H 



MELROSE ABBEY. 



Host for the adoration of the devout assem- 
blage. Or, perhaps, it may still hear the echo 
of the solemn Te Deum sung on the great 
feast days, or of the evening hymn chanted 
forth by the choir in the gathering dusk of 
the evening, when are 

Storied windows richly dight, 
Casting a dim religious light. 

Then it was that the Abbey of Melrose 
was a power in the land. The abbot was 
always the friend and often the special 
adviser of the king in his difficulties. Then 
it was also that the result of David I.'s 
policy in giving so much land to the monks 
became apparent It is wellnigh certain 
that when this king, who was a wise and 
acute politician as well as a religious monarch, 
gave these abbots the luxuriant valley of the 
Tweed and other fertile parts, he perfectly 
understood that he thereby secured immunity 
for many of his subjects and much of the 
best soil from plundering by his own people 
and from inroads by the enemy. The 
monks' possessions were respected for cen- 
turies, in time of war as well as during peace ; 
and it was, therefore, of importance that as 
much good land as practicable should be 
held by those who enjoyed such immunity. 
The inhabitants of these districts were also 
quite content to be under the rule of the 
monks. Under them they had prolonged 
peace and ample security. If they served a 
feudal lord they were liable to be called to 
fight on every possible occasion, while the 
servants of the Church, only for exceptional 
and under extraordinary circumstances, were 
requested to give their assistance. The 
more peaceable and wealthier class, therefore, 
considered themselves better to live under 
a monk than under a secular landlord. 
Another reason why the fields on the borders 
were given to the monks was, that large 
towns could not securely exist near the 
borders, lying open as they would to the 
incursions of the enemy. Therefore, in many 
ways the monks were more able than others 
to get all possible good out of the land. 

By the middle of the fourteenth century 
the abbey was nearly complete ; and then it 
appeared in all the freshness of a newly 
carved creation, with pillar and font, buttress 
and niche, vying with each other in variety 



and finish. Then the bells rang gladly over 
the rich valley and up the quiet mountain 
sides, calling to prayer the pious and to 
repentance those who had gone astray. 
Then the hundred inhabitants of the abbey 
were busy with their charitable deeds and 
religious exercises, abbot and monk ful- 
filling their offices with all the zeal of men 
who laboured not for themseves, but that 
others might reap what they sowed, and 
while they were still inspired with the 
enthusiasm received from dwelling once more 
in a building not unworthy their profession 
the good of their fellow men. 

But these prosperous and happy times were 
not to last. Years rolled on and the abbey 
was several times attacked and finally almost 
destroyed by the Southerners. The cause 
was just a repetition of its former troubles; 
the English, in 1544 and 1545, first pillaged 
the abbey and then gave it to the flames. 
Lords Surrey and Dacre had already attacked 
Melrose, but it was Lord Hertford and his 
officers, Sir Ralph Eversand Sir Bryan Latoun, 
who completed the work of destruction. 
Henry VIII., in revenge for the opposition 
made to the espousal of the young and 
beautiful Mary, Queen of Scots, with his son 
Edward, sent an army to ravage Scotland. 
The commanders mentioned received instruc- 
tions to plunder and lay waste any buildings 
in the districts through which they passed ; 
and, coming to Melrose, they did not spare 
the residence of the now worldly monks. 
The abbey was entered and the church 
property destroyed ; the very tombs were not 
spared, but fell a common prey with the 
other portions of the building. At the end 
of the year these leaders and their soldiers 
again returned, and though Melrose was so 
damaged that little more could be done to 
deface it, they set to work and destroyed the 
few remaining memorials of the dead, among 
them the monuments erected over the resting- 
places of the Dark Knight of Liddesdale 
and the Douglas of Otterbourne. These 
structures had been spared before, and it 
would have been well for the destroyers if 
they had let them remain, for the descendant 
of the Douglas, "whose coronet often counter- 
poised the crown," took a terrible revenge, 
He gave battle to the English, and wholly 
defeated and mercilessly slaughtered the 



MELROSE ABBEY. 



i5 



men who had ventured to touch the tombs 
of his ancestors. The defeat only enraged 
the English king more, and the commander- 
in-chief, Lord Hertford, was sent the next 
year to take summary vengeance on the 
conquerors of the generals. He reached 
Kelso, about a dozen miles from Melrose, 
on September n, 1545, at which date he 
writes his sovereign that " To-morrowe we 
intend to send a good bande of horsemen to 
Melrose and Dryburgh to burne the same, 
and all the villages in their waye, and so 
daylie to do some exploytes." Tradition 
tells that the monks had rung their bells in 
defiant exultation as the army marched near 
them, which they thought would not halt to 
seek vengeance on a religious house, long 
sacred even to a brutal soldiery. But alas ! 
the day had now gone past for such immunity, 
and the venerable building was soon a greater 
heap of ruins than before. 

The often too-hasty partisans of the Refor- 
mation, bad as they were in destroying 
architectural beauties, would be unjustly 
accused if they had the destruction of 
Melrose added to their list of errors. Some 
years were still to pass ere John Knox was 
to begin to preach, and many years before 
his vehement harangues against Popery took 
effect by inflaming the people to overturn 
the altars, burn the pictures, and break in 
pieces the images. Oliver Cromwell also 
has been charged with bombarding the 
abbey from the hills; but the so-called 
cannon-ball marks are more like decaying 
stones than the result of the implements of 
war. 

The abbey was now completely ruined, 
but a number of the monks continued to 
inhabit the monastery until the Reformation. 
It is a matter of history that sixty renounced 
Popery at that period. As a consequence, 
nothing was done to repair the abbey, and 
it cannot have altered much since that time. 
Doubtless the surrounding inhabitants utilized 
the loose stones to build to themselves houses : 
as a matter of fact, erections are still pointed 
out which clearly contain pieces of the abbey. 
Only last year (1880) there died in Newstead 
an old lady, a descendant of a colony of 
French masons, who, after the building of 
Melrose Abbey, settled in Newstead, about 
a mile away. This Mary Bunyie, or Bunzie, 



owned a neat old cottage which was built, it 
is thought, almost entirely of stones taken 
from the ruins of Melrose Abbey. Notably 
the arch over the gate of her cottage is one 
which was formerly a part of the ruin, and 
which seems to have been transferred bodily 
to where it now stands. This old lady, it 
may be mentioned, had in her possession a 
few pieces of old tapestry which were taken 
from the abbey at the Reformation. It is 
also asserted that great parts of the abbey 
were taken down to repair a mill, build a 
prison, and to erect a house, still standing, 
called the Priory. But we may believe that 
the loose stones would be first employed, and 
that not much of the standing portions were 
removed, although possibly the now entirely 
demolished western wall was extinguished at 
this time ; and if it were so, we know not how 
much beauty may be lost; but the main body 
of the church, and the part on which* the 
architect, builder, and carver spent their 
utmost united strength, is fortunately still 
preserved. Here still we may study the 
evidences of the energy and affection of 
former times, when workmen laboured for 
love as well as for pay, and grudged not to 
give their highest thoughts to their produc- 
tions and all their mental power on then- 
designs. 

The broken beauty of the fair abbey as it 
now exists, presents almost the same appear- 
ance which it did when the rough, unfeeling 
soldiers had finished their work of destruc- 
tion ; save that the niches want the statues 
which were taken away by the stern hand of 
the Protestant. Inside, the Reformers have 
almost as barbarously left their mark on the 
building in the huge coarse wall overshadow- 
ing the church, and hiding from view the 
consenting symmetry of the refined pillars 
which form the nave ; but the abbey, though 
handicapped in the race for beauty by this 
lamentable piece of masonry, can yet hold 
its own; for the eye instinctively turns to 
view the perfect purity of the complete 
design, to examine more closely the diversity 
of ornament on the columns, and to discover 
the entire keeping of the individual details 
with the breadth and beauty of the undivided 
whole. 

D. C. Thomson. 



i6 



MISCELLANEOUS EXCHEQUER ACCOUNTS. 




HIMsceUaneous jEycbequer 
Hccounte. 

From the "Pipe" and "Audit." 

IHESE are a set of accounts which 
few persons, perhaps, would care to 
investigate, as they contain but 
little personal or local information 
of importance, except such as can be gathered 
indirectly from the entries of prices. To the 
general historian and social economist, how- 
ever, their value will appear far greater, since, 
like most other sources of information which 
are dull and unconnected of themselves, they 
possess at least the merit of impartial truth- 
fulness. 

When these bare extracts have been dressed 
with the historical significance due to the 
periods or events to which they refer, it is 
hoped that they will present attractions to 
the curious which they certainly did not 
promise in their original form. 

Agents for Special Services. 

The accounts under this heading are of 
a very mixed description, the earlier ones 
dealing chiefly with the payment of the 
Sovereign's debts abroad by his resident 
or special agents. These, in the case of 
Henry VIII., were chiefly contracted in Ger- 
many, and under Elizabeth in Flanders, or, 
through her Flemish agents, in France. 

In 1547, 2,000 "kyntales" of copper were 
ordered from Flanders by the English Govern- 
ment, the purpose for which the metal was 
required being hedged round with some 
mystery, though probably connected with 
the debasement of the currency. 

At home, the expenses of the works at 
Dover under Elizabeth will interest those 
who have followed the details of that extra- 
ordinary undertaking in contemporary State 
Papers. 

Another account of the same reign refers 
to the employment of the proceeds, in part, 
of estates confiscated after the rebellion of 
1569. Sir T. Gargrave was deputed to 
expend these in payment of coat and conduct 
money, probably for the army under Sussex, 
which crossed the Scotch Border early in 

Between this time and the Restoration 



there is only one account, that of the subsidy 
sent by Charles I. to his sister, the Queen of 
Bohemia. 

This service was administered from 1673 
to 1685 by the notorious William Chiffinch, 
and was expressly defrayed out of the jointure 
of the late Queen Dowager. 

An inspection of the accounts will show 
that Charles often put his mother's fortune 
to no very creditable uses, a large part being 
absorbed by the expenses of his mistresses. 

In 1673, a M. Hennard was paid ^500 as 
the price of two suites of tapestry hangings 
for the Duchess of Portsmouth. In the 
following year ^780 is set down for a "free 
gift" to the Duchess of Cleveland. Nell 
Gwynne is more frequently mentioned. In 
1674, from the end of May till August, her 
" diet and other necessaries" whilst at Wind- 
sor cost ^394 14?. In the same year ^280 
is also set down for "diet." Curiously 
enough she seems to have retained a partiality 
for oranges and lemons, and the sums ex- 
pended on those fruits would once have set 
her up handsomely in the trade. 

Other charges incurred on her behalf were 
for the removal of five loads of her goods 
from the water-side to her house ; for twenty- 
two loads of dung for her new Windsor 
garden, and as much as .30 for a private 
pump in the castle. 

Amongst Charles's expenses the most im- 
portant are those incurred in- the purchase, at 
various times, of lands and cottages round 
Windsor, with payment of the rates due 
thereon. We also find mention of the plant- 
ing that was being carried out along the new 
wall in Windsor gardens, with the salary of 
the head gardener, ^30. ^500 was paid 
for the king's yacht, The Charles, and ^290 
more for her furniture and fittings. 

In 1 68 1 occurs the entry, "To sundry 
persons, for watering the Ring in Hide Parke 
from iiij. to xxiij. Aprill" jQ\2 3s. 8d. 

A hogshead of claret, with twenty-two 
dozen bottles, corks and hampers, cost 
16 12s. 

Amongst less strictly personal expenses, 
,4,000 was paid to E. Seymour, part of 
6,000 due for his salary as Speaker. 

As much as 536 13J. was expended on 
Plate, Prayer-books, Bibles, &c, for "the 
princess of Auranges chapell." 



MISCELLANEOUS EXCHEQUER ACCOUNTS. 



17 



It is pleasing to note the gift of ;ioo, 
"by H. M. Pleasure," to the ministers and 
churchwardens of St. Saviour's, Southwark, 
to be distributed amongst " the poor water- 
men whose living depends on the river 
Thames." 

Chiffinch himself was lucky enough to 
get the arrears of his salary of ^220, as 
Keeper of the Royal Hawks,* paid up after 
his master's death. 

Ambassadors, &c. 

The first account in this set mentions the 
money gifts bestowed by Edward VI. upon 
certain foreign ambassadors, "by way of 
reward, at their departure from England." 
The Venetian Ambassador received as much 
as j3, several Frenchmen from ^150 
to jQ 2 S, and the emissary of "Swethen" 

In'1620- 1, James I. sent his Master 
Falconer, Sir Anthony Pell, with a present 
of four cast of hawks to his "good brother" 
the King of France.! Of these, " twoe caste 
of Hemes" cost 2>o, and two of " Brooke 
hawkes" 60. In this case the cost of 
carriage just exceeded the value of the gift, 
as jQs was paid for four suits for the 
attendants, $2 for four horses, and 60 
for expenses by the way. 

It is amusing to contrast this modest 
offering to his "good brother," with the 
extravagant entertainment provided by the 
old king for the homeward voyage of " baby 
Charles" from Spain. 

As the subject is one of general interest, 
and the occasion of great historical import- 
ance, it may be useful to describe these 
preparations somewhat minutely. 

In 1623, the accountant, Nich. Payne, 
was appointed " to make provycon of fresh 
meate, with many other provycons incidentc 
thereunto, for the dyett of the prynce his 
Hignes, the Spanishe ambassador, and sondry 
lordes and others at sea, aboarde eighte of 
the kinge's majesties owne shippes and two 
pinnaces, sente thether for his Hignes' trans- 

* The representative of a still older institution 
the Royal Harper had actually died of want. 

f Louis XIII. It will be remembered that this 
king was then in the hands of the favourite De Luynes 
nicknamed the "bird-catcher," from his skill in 
falconry. 

VOL. IV. 



portacon from Spayne ; whoe, with his trayne 
of Englishe and Spanishe nobility, came to 
St. Andera on Friday, the 12 September, 
1623, and by meanes of foule weather layc 
abourde the Defyaunce that nighte. The next 
daye came aboarde the Prynce Roiall, and 
went noe more on shore. On Sunday his 
Hignes feasted the Nobility of Spayne that 
attended him from Madrid, and uppon Thurs- 
day followinge, beinge the 18th, sett sayle for 
Englande, and landed at Portesmouthe the 
fifte daie of October followinge." 

The estimate of the victualling was origi- 
nally formed to cover only fourteen days, 
though it will be seen that twenty-four were 
spent on the voyage. 

As a well-stocked cellar was held to be of 
the first importance, great care was taken to 
provide a choice, and, above all, a plentiful 
assortment, of wines. Of these, ten tuns were 
French, costing about ^20 a tun ; but there 
were also twenty gallons of red, one tun of 
Spanish, and a hogshead of Canary, besides 
an unmeasured quantity to fill up the casks 
before sailing. 

The wine for sixty dozen bottles cost ^21, 
and may thus be considered equal to a tun. 
The process of bottling, however, was most 
expensive, costing nearly ^10 more. Accord- 
ing to this calculation, there were on board 
about 800 dozen of wine ! 

In addition, there were thirteen and a half 
tuns of beer, and thirty dozen of bottled beer, 
then, surely, a luxury, as the cost was 6s. 3^. 
per dozen. 

Perhaps, considering the task set them, the 
crews were wise in shipping only empty casks 
for water j though certainly those who were 
responsible for these orders seem to have 
been unmindful of the fate which befell the 
crew of the Blanche Nef. 

The linen was such as might befit a prince, 
consisting of 108 yards of "tabling," at from 
is. to io.y. 6d. a yard ; 350 yards of 
"towelling" and napkins, 180 yards of diaper, 
and thirty dozen " course" napkins. 

" Sallets," composed of " olyves, capers, 
samphire, pickeld lemons and cowcumber," 
figured in proportion to the three hogsheads 
of vinegar, white and brown, that had been 
provided. 

There was also an unlimited supply of sweet- 
meats, conserves, ambergris, "sents,"and other 

c 



iS 



MISCELLANEOUS EXCHEQUER ACCOUNTS. 



delicacies ; while the " spicerye" alone, for 
the banquet at St. Andera, mentioned above, 
cost ^8 1, including ^37 8 s. for "oranges, 
lemons, and other frutes." 

It is not to be supposed that the more 
substantial provisions were omitted, for they 
were supplied on even a more liberal scale 
than the beverage. The following entries 
will give some idea both of their quantity 
and variety. Imprimis : 

Fifteen oxen, 180 sheep, eleven "veales," 
four pigs ; with bacon, tongues, barrelled beef 
for roasting, and pickled legs of mutton. 

Amongst other dainties may be reckoned 
" twelve payre of vdders at v)d. the payre,"* 
eight pots of " mynced meate," 220 West- 
phalia "gamons" at $s. Sd, twenty-four 
barrels of anchovies, eleven pounds of 
"Bolonia" sausage, at $s. per pound. Of 
fish, there were sent fifty-five firkins of stur- 
geon, at 30J. ; ling, cod, " eeles 1 barrall 
102s." herrings, and "other sea-fish." 

But, after all, the provision of game and 
poultry is the most astonishing. This com- 
prised "Three stagges and fowerbuckes from 
the foreste of Dartmore," thirty-seven phea- 
sants at 7 s. lod. each, fifteen "partriches" 
at only yd., eleven dozen of " godwyttes and 
ruffes," and thirty dozen of quail. Two pea- 
cocks at 95., and two peahens at 7s. Almost 
a thousand "capons," "hennesand pulletts," 
and " chickinges," at 15. 6d, nd, and ^\d. 
each respectively. Eighty-six turkeys at 
25. id., over a hundred geese and ducks at 
is. 3d. and 6d., and twenty-one couple of 
" rabbetts" at 1 id. per couple. There must 
be a mistake in the entry which mentions 
3,400 quarters of eggs at 2s. $d. per hundred ! 

Of vegetables there were "Artichokes, 
Cow-cumbers, Carretts, Turneppes, and 
Cabages," with apples and sweet herbs. 

As though this were not enough, there is a 
famous receipt, under the head of " Pastrye," 
which is commended to the notice of modern 
yachtsmen : 

" Beofe iiij c xxxiii lbs., neates' tounges 
ccii lbs., xx* salmons, veale, lambs' fur. 
Turkies twoe dozen, capons three dozen and 
nine, Phesants five, geese tenne, Pigeons 
seven dozen and sixe ; withe rye and wheate 

* This delicacy and some others mentioned below 
are quoted as especial dainties by a contemporary 
poet Ben Jonson, Alckymist, ii. 1. 



meale, sugar, sente and spices, larde, butter, 
egges, and other thinges for makinge of 
ccclxxx,xv colde baked meates to carry to 
sea." 

For such an expedition a small army of 
cooks, poultrymen, &c, was of course requi- 
site ; amongst whom may be mentioned a 
" turne-broche," and a " skowrer," neither ill- 
paid at is. 6d. per day. The expedition 
sailed from Plymouth, which must for a time 
have borne a close resemblance to Leaden- 
hall Market, especially when we read of the 
" hyer of iij houses and yeardes to kepe the 
poultrye together till the coming of the 
ships." 

The Earl of St. Albans, as English ambas- 
sador to France in 1660, was compensated, 
amongst others, for expenses incurred during 
the Commonwealth. 

Large subsidies were sent to the Prince- 
Bishop of Munster in 1665 and 1666 as 
being " in confederacie with His Majesty," 
and as " in relation to the Dutch warr." This 
money was raised in rather a discreditable 
manner, the original grant of Parliament 
having been absorbed, we may suppose, by 
the king's personal extravagances. Large 
quantities of tin were bought up by the 
Crown, by means of its right of pre-emption, 
at low prices, and stored at Falmouth till 
they could be pledged for a larger sum, 
thus reverting to a well-known expedient of 
Charles I., though perhaps a legal one. 

We are not surprised to see the name of 
Chiffinch as accountant for the ^689,750 
received by Charles II. " from y e ministers 
or agents of Lovis y e French King pursuant 
to a Treaty formerly made, or some other 
agreement." Two-thirds of this sum were 
handed over to Clifford, who obtained a dis- 
charge for its employment. The rest was 
expended in the usual manner. Large sums 
were given to certain courtiers, including the 
Dukes of York, Monmouth, and Buckingham. 
Nearly ^3,000 was paid to a French uphol- 
sterer. To the Duchess of Sutherland, " on 
her allowance," the king was "pleased to 
give" ^400. 

In February, 1672, we find "for a george 
sett with diamonds which was sent to y e 
Prince of Aurenge, ^"400." 

Then, " for repairing Walsingham House 
for ye Lady Marshall, ^2 00." 



MISCELLANEOUS EXCHEQUER ACCOUNTS. 



19 



The Earl of Sunderland managed to get 
hold of 3,oco guineas, but the rest was 
devoted to the repair of the parks, the keep 
of the deer, and to the use of the navy, in- 
cluding of course the king's yachts. 

In 1670 an agent was appointed to receive 
" that part of Her Majesty's portion which 
hath been long in Arreare, and which, upon 
the negotiation of Sir R. Southwell" (Envoy 
Extraordinary to Portugal in 1669), "was 
adjusted, and agreed to be 659,093 cruza- 
does." The following is a good example of 
the confused wording of many of these 
entries : 

" The Crowne of Portugal being acknow- 
ledged to remaine due to his Maty, by the 
s d instrument, signed and certified as afores d ," 
for i37,o56cruzadoes. 

Attainders, Forfeitures, ore. 

With two or three exceptions, these 
accounts refer to the fines levied from Popish 
Recusants, and to the compositions extorted 
from "malignants" by the Commonwealth 
Committees.* 

The first account records the management, 
by a commission of the Crown, of the affairs 
of the Duke of Somerset, attainted. The 
" works" in progress at Sion House and 
Stroud Place received most attention, though 
a thousand sheep were sold on one of the 
duke's farms for jQioo. 

Large quantities of lead were removed 
from Stroud Place, and it reads like a retri- 
bution upon the spoiler of City churches, that 
a large parcel of wainscoat oak, in the great 
hall there, should have been bought by the 
churchwardens of St. Bride's-Without. It 
may be noticed, in passing, that one of the 
workmen at Stroud Place is designated as a 
" free-mason." 

A valuable emerald ring, belonging to the 
duke, came into the possession of the 
Bishop of Ely, being discovered in a " privie" 
at Sion House. The Bishop sold it to Sir 
Thomas Carey for 15. 

At the commencement of the next reign 
we have another commission that appointed 
to administer the property of Lord Cobham, 
attainted for his share in the " Rye" plot. 

The entries for the sale of cattle, &c, are 
particularly complete and interesting, giving 

* Notably that which sat in the Goldsmiths' Hall. 



a good idea of the value of stock on a well- 
worked Kentish or Surrey farm. 

The account (in the Audit) of the profits 
accruing from sales or leases of the Cobham 
estates should be interesting to local anti- 
quaries. 

The manor of Albury, Surrey, was held in 
fee-farm by Sir E. Randall for the yearly 
sum of 41 5 j. id. 

The Chantry and Warden lands, in the 
town of Bedford, were leased for 22 Ss.: 
while 50J. was received from Rochester 
Church, and 106s. 8d. from Rochester Bridge. 

Ickham Court was let to the Dean of 
Canterbury for 120 per annum, and Den- 
ton Farm to the Dean of Rochester for 72. 

Canterbury Park, in a dilapidated con- 
dition, for 75. 

Large quantities of building material were 
sold from Cobham Hall,* including " allo- 
blaster," black table-stone, cave stone, and 
four " colombes of rainite with bases and 
capitolls." 

The following are set down amongst the 
assets : 

Charde and Chardeborough, sold to the 
Earl of Devonshire for 500. The fee-farm 
of Cherbury, to the Earl of Hertford for the 
same sum. That of Albury, to the lessee 
for 19$. 

Perkes Place, and the chantry and warden 
lands in Bedford, to Mr. Paradyn for 800. 

The manor of Cranbrook, in Newington, 
&c, valued at 110 per annum, to Paul 
Baning, in fee simple, for .1,430. 

A tenement and lands in Greine, yearly 
value 102.?., to the same for 100. 

Under Elizabeth, heavy fines were inflicted 
for exporting bullion from the realm, and for 
other offences against the penal statutes. 
The chief offenders seem in the present 
instance to have been the merchants of 
Devon and Cornwall, who were mulcted 
over "2,000 in three months. One gentle- 
man, however, had the wit to defray the 
heavy fine demanded of him in French crowns 
and " pistolletts," the very day before the 
proclamation which forbade that practice, and 
thus the Government lost 53 on the ex- 
change. 

The fines levied from Popish Recusants 

* Milo Rainford was in possession as " Custos" by 
letters patent 2 James I. 

C 2 



20 



MISCELLANEOUS EXCHEQUER ACCOUNTS. 



were, as we know, not very rigorously exacted 
under James I. and Charles I. 

From 1627 to 1639 the yearly revenue 
from this source amounted, in the southern 
districts, to ,4,000 or .5,000. 

It is here mentioned that this money is 
intended for the sole use of the navy. 

Later still, under the presidency of Went- 
worth, the law seems to have been enforced 
with far more severity in the northern coun- 
ties.* 

Two interesting local notices occur one 
of the payment of "ioo, as a fine for recu- 
sancy, in 1596, by John Thynne of Long 
Leake, co. Wilts ; the other of a considerable 
sum demanded from Wm. Shearman, gent., 
of Fuller's Rents, par. St. Andrew's, Holborn. 

In these days the option of a fine would be 
unavailing to most of the inhabitants of this 
quarter. 

A very curious copy of directions for 
collecting the revenues of Recusants is here 
preserved, and shows the enormous powers 
at the disposal of the Government were they 
inclined to avail themselves thereof. 

The following is an abstract of these in- 
structions, which are addressed imperatively 
to a Commission "appointed out of the Court 
of Exchequer" to " find out the lands and 
goods of Recusants." They bear the stamp 
of a vigorous hand, and one rather of a states- 
man than a lawyer. The last four clauses, 
together with the conclusion, appear again to 
have been added by another author, or at 
least in a different spirit, as it will be seen 
that they are far more arbitrary in their 
nature. 

Preamble. 

Whereas it is apparent how good and profit- 
able a thing it is that the penal statutes should 
be put in force against professed Recusants, 
therefore this Commission has been appointed 
to that effect But, as such have been and 
may again be liable to errors of procedure, it 
has been thought expedient to issue the fol- 
lowing directions : 

1. Inquisitions are to be registered, and 
tried by twelve jurors of course " probi et 
legales homines" of the country. 

2. Goods, when designated, are to be regis- 

* Vide Hallam, ist ed. i. p. 516. This may have 
been owing to his jealousy of the Cottington faction, 
vide p. 532, note. 



tered at once by the sheriff or bailiffs, "that 
they be not purloined in the meantime," then 
an inquisition shall be returned. 

3. To find how estates of convicted persons 
are seised in them. 

4. It will be sufficient to find that they are 
so seised. 

5. The nature and situation of the lands 
are to be ascertained. 

6. Exact specifications will be necessary. 

7. If holding by lease, the nature and length 
thereof. 

8. Any matter in doubt, or unfavourable to 
the Crown, not to be allowed, but referred to 
the Court of Exchequer. 

9. All who in any way hinder the work to 
be reported to the Court for punishment 
according to the gravity of their offence. 

Conclusion. Since many things cannot be 
specified, to use such despatch in H. M.'s 
interests as to deserve well of the same; " and 
that all things be done for ye best advantage 
and profitt of His Majesty." 

During the Commonwealth, as may be 
supposed, the sums levied from Recusants 
were enormously increased, and to these are 
now added the compositions for Delinquents' 
Estates. 

From 1649, the estates of John, Marquis 
of Winchester, were administered, amongst 
others, by one Robert Wallop, as a compen- 
sation for his losses during trie war by Act 
of Parliament. They are charged, however, 
with sums in favour of the State. 

From 1649 t0 J ^53 tne fi nes 0I " delinquents 
in the four Northern counties amounted to 

,37>- 

From 1650 to 1655, the profits on the 
lands of Recusants in the county of Lincoln 
were "33,000. 

In 1651 350,000, and in 1652 "800,000, 
were raised from the sale of delinquents' 
estates by the process of " doubling," which 
is explained in the roll. Of this "200,000 
was devoted to the navy. It is only just to 
observe, however, that at this time many 
noble Royalists and widows of Cavaliers were 
in receipt of handsome pensions from the 
Government. Thus, the Lords Powis, Ches- 
terfield, and Worcester each received from 
3 t0 $ P er week. Two men of literary 
note, Peter de Moulin, and Samuel Hartlib, 
the economist, held pensions of ,100 a year 



MISCELLANEOUS EXCHEQUER ACCOUNTS, 



21 



from 1643 to 1653. The former, indeed, ill 
repaid this bounty by his virulent and cowardly 
attack upon the Republic, and we can only 
account for the continuance of his pension 
from the reputed willingness of his antagonist 
Milton, to conceal the real authorship of the 
" Regii Sanguinis Clamor." Though Hartlib 
is commonly said to have received ^300, his 
pension is only mentioned here as ;ioo from 
the Lord Protector. 

What few accounts exist of the fines levied 
from Recusants under Charles II. and James 
II., show them to have been as moderate in 
amount as might have been expected. 

Attainders and forfeitures crop up again in 
the years succeeding the rebellion of 17 15, 
and these now include the confiscation of 
estates " put to superstitious uses."* 



1Ret>ievp0. 




Voyages of the Elizabethan Seamen to America. 
Thirteen Original Narratives from the Collection of 
Hakluyt, Selected and Edited, with Historical 
Notices, by E. J. Payne, M.A. (London : 
Thomas De la Rue & Co. 1880.) Small 8vo, 
pp. xxiv.~396. 

N a well-appointed library there are few old 
books that retain the original freshness 
and charm which is to be found in the 
volumes of Hakluyt's Voyages and Pur- 
chas's Pilgrimes. These have, however, two 
disadvantages for the ordinary reader, in that they are 
both very expensive and rather voluminous. It was 
therefore a good idea of Mr. Payne to select some of the 
most important narratives, and to place them before 
modern readers in a handy form. The volume opens 
with the accounts of Hawkins's three voyages, one main 
object of which was the selling of slaves. Then follows 
a record of the three voyages of Frobisher, who was 
the pioneer of Arctic exploration. The names of all 
the sailors whose voyages Mr. Payne records are 
household words, but none of the others attained to 
the fame enjoyed by Francis Drake, whom the editor 
is not afraid to call a buccaneer. Sir Humphrey 
Gilbert, Raleigh's half- brother, sailed for America in 
1 583, and his is stated to be the first colonizing expe- 
dition which left our shores. Philip Amadas and 
Arthur Barlow were the discoverers of that part 
of America which Queen Elizabeth allowed to be 
called Virginia after her. Drake made his second 
voyage to America in 1585, and his armament was 
the greatest that had ever crossed the Atlantic. 

* Notably the Bolingbroke estates, Bucklebury, 
Berks. The writer has been through the interesting 
litigation which arose respecting these in 1719. 



Thomas Cavendish went on two voyages in 1586 and 
1 59 1, and the account of Raleigh's unfortunate expe- 
dition to Guiana completes the volume, which con- 
tains much valuable information respecting the English 
voyages to America from 1562 to 1595. We hope 
that this excellent little book will have many readers, 
and that, when these readers have finished it, they 
will turn to the original collections for more of a like 
character. 



Eastern Proverbs and Emblems illustrating old Truths. 

By the Rev. J. Long. (London : Triibner & Co., 

1 88 1.) 8vo, pp. XV.-280. 

The old truths are those found in the Bible, and 
the author has gathered from more than a thousand 
volumes the popular philosophy of Indians, Chinese, 
Persians, Turks, and other Eastern peoples to illus- 
trate those so familiar to us all. Although we all 
allow that much is to be learnt from proverbs, it is 
not so easy to arrange them in a satisfactory manner, 
and most compilers have to fall back upon the alpha- 
betical order. By Mr. Long's method the difficulty 
is to a certain extent overcome, although probably a 
more religious character is given to these sayings 
than they would otherwise bear. It is, however, very 
instructive to notice how little originality there 
appears to be in these expressions of popular thought. 
Almost identical ideas occur among the most widely 
divided peoples. The Turkish, " In washing a negro 
we lose our soap;" the Tamul, " Though he wash 
three times a day, will the crow become a white 
crane ?'' and the Veman, "If you take a bear-skin and 
wash it ever so long, will it instead of its naked 
blackness ever become white?" form excellent illus- 
trations of the better known "Can the Ethiopian 
change his skin, or the leopard his spots ?" (Jeremiah 
xiii. 23). The Arab says : "It is hard to chase and 
catch two hares," and the modern Greek pairs off 
with " two water-melons cannot be carried under one 
arm." The Russian " Man plans, but God fulfils" is 
merely a paraphrase of the English ' ' Man proposes 
but God disposes." With regard to the importance 
of his subject, Mr. Long remarks, " Orientalists are at 
last recognizing the truth that proverbs are as deserv- 
ing of their research as coins and inscriptions ; and 
that whereas the latter refer chiefly to kings and the 
upper classes, proverbs throw a light on the dark 
recesses of social life, on archaisms, old customs, 
history and ethnology," and again 

" Proverbs were before books they come from the 
great books of Nature and common sense from powers 
of observation, not blunted by book-cram ; hence 
among the proverbs in this book, though principally 
eastern, there are very few that are not intelligible to 
the European mind." 

The following explanation of the expression of 
heaping coals of fire on an enemy's head (Proverbs 
xxv. 22) is worthy of quotation : " Metal is difficult to 
melt placed on the top of a fire of burning coals ; it 
may be placed at the sides, still no melting; but put 
the coals on the top or head of the vessel, and the 
metal soon flows down in a stream. So your enemy's 
hostility to you may be softened by kindness in every 
way; as fire to the metal, so kindness to an enemy." 

We have said enough to show that this book is full 



22 



REVIEWS. 



of interesting matter, and that it is a valuable addition 
to the literature of proverbs. 



The First and Second Battles of Newbury and the Siege 
of Donnington Castle during the Civil War, a.d. 
1643-6. By Walter Money, F.S. A. (London: 
Simpkin, Marshall & Co. Newbury : W. J. 
Blacket. 1881.) 8vo, pp. xii.-2i6. 
That troubled period in our annals, when the two 
great parties of modern times took their origin, must 
always have a living interest for Englishmen. One 
truth of this is prominently brought before us in the 
dedication of this book, for it is inscribed to the Earl 
of Carnarvon, who is a leader of the Conservative 
party, and also represents ancestors who took a pro- 
minent part in the great Civil War. Here, however, 
is one of the main difficulties in the way of our getting 
true history, for writers are too apt to fight the battles 
of to-day when relating the battles of the past. Mr. 
Money very justly complains that the subject of his 
book has not hitherto been treated with due attention 
to its importance. There is some excuse for the his- 
torian of a long period, as it is hardly possible for him 
to visit all the localities about which he writes. Mr. 
Money has this special knowledge. He writes : " Born 
under the shadow of the grey walls of Donnington 
Castle, near which my ancestors dwelt, during the 
occurrences of these stirring events, I have naturally 
felt a special interest in anything that concerns the 
varied fortunes and associations of the old fortress, 
which figures so prominently in these local, but at the 
same time national, transactions." The result of this 
natural interest has been that the author has produced 
a book which is a definite addition to our knowledge 
of the two battles of Newbury. Each battle is fully 
described, and is illustrated with a plan of the position 
of the troops, and in the appendixes we have fuller 
accounts of the details, biographical notices of the 
officers, lists of the sequestrators of the estates of 
" Delinquents, Papists, Spyes, and Intelligencers " 
for the county of Berks. The book is fully illustrated 
with photographic copies of portraits of the chief men 
on both sides of the memorable struggle. 



Chronicles and Stories of the Craven Dales. By. J. H. 
Dixon, LL.D. ; with an introduction by the Rev. 
Robert Collyer, of New York. (London: Simp- 
kin, Marshall & Co. Skipton : Edmondston & Co., 
1881.) Sm. 8vo, pp. xiii.-472. 
Dr. Dixon's Ancient Poems, Ballads, and Songs of 
the Peasantry of England has long been known to 
all lovers of ballad literature as a most delightful work 
of one who wrote too little. The author had the 
somewhat rare power of gathering up oral traditions 
overlooked by others. These chronicles and stories 
were originally contributed to a monthly magazine, 
published at Skipton, and Messrs. Edmonston deserve 
our thanks for issuing them in a book form, so that 
they may have a more extended circulation. Legends 
and traditions of this beautiful district of Yorkshire 
are interspersed with anecdotes of celebrated men. 
One of them is interesting as connecting Craven 
Buildings, Drury Lane, with the Craven dales. 
William Craven, of Appletreewick, was a pauper lad, 



and took the name of the district from which he came. 
His journey to London was a successful one, and in 
clue course he became Lord Mayor, and was knighted. 
He was a worthy, and did not forget his origin. In 
1 61 2 he repaired and beautified the old parish church, 
an event which was recorded in the following remark- 
able verses : 

" This church of beauty, most repaired, thus so bright, 
Two hundred pounds did coste Sir William Craven, 

Knight. 
Many other works of charitie, whereof no mention 

here, 
True tokens of his bountie in this parish did appeare. 
The place of his nativitie in Appletreewick is seene, 
And late of London citie, Lord Mayor he hath beene. 
The care of this work, so beautiful and faire, 
Was put to John Topham, clerk, by the late Lord 

Mayor 
Of that famous citie of London so brighte, 
By Sir William Craven, that bountiful Knighte. 
Borne in this parish at Appletreewick towne, 
Who regarded no coste, so the Work was well done." 

It is said that instead of ,200 Sir William actually 
expended j6oo, but this sum included the building of 
the churchyard wall and the erection of the wick-gate. 
The son of the old tradesman entered the army, and 
in due course was created Baron of Hampstead 
Marshal, and Earl of Craven, and is supposed to have 
married the unfortunate Queen of Bohemia, sister of 
Charles I., whose cause he had warmly espoused. 
The memory of his fine old house in Drury Lane is 
kept alive by the name of Craven Buildings. Through 
a certain topographical connection we are led from 
the Craven family to Eugene Aram. Sir William 
Craven erected and endowed the Grammar School at 
Burnsall, and in that school the famous murderer was 
once an usher. The anecdotes of celebrated men are 
linked on to relics of folk-lore in a way that we can- 
not do more than indicate in a short notice. There 
is a curious account of the Rev. Benjamin Smith, B.D., 
a half-nephew of Sir Isaac Newton, and Rector of 
Linton. The Grammar School at Peresfield Wharfe 
was haunted by a goblin named " Old Pam." Mr. 
Smith was in the habit of writing his sermons in the 
schoolroom, and on one occasion he was soundly 
cuffed by "Old Pam" in the dark. In revenge Mr. 
Smith left some brandy on the master's desk, the bait 
took, and next time he visited the school " Pam" was 
discovered in a drunken state and fiercely attacked. He 
was said to have been killed outright, but anyway he 
came to life again, and is said still to haunt the place. 
Dr. Dixon died on the 26th of October, 1876, and his 
book was abruptly concluded. The Rev. Robert 
Collyer, of New York, gives his recollections of the 
author, and adds some amusing anecdotes of his own 
as that of the Craven Clerk who commemorated the 
Bishop's visitation with a new version of the Psalm 

" Ye little hills why do ye skip, 

And wherefore do ye hop ? 
Is it because that ye have come 

To see my Lord Bishop ? " 



REVIEWS. 



23 



The Poems of Master Francis Villon, of Paris, now 
first done into English Verse in the Original Forms, 
by John Payne, author of " The Masque of 
Shadows," "Intaglios," " Songs of Life and 
Death," "Lautrec," "New Poems," &c. (Lon- 
don : Reeves & Turner. 1881.) Small 8vo, pp. 
xcvL-150. 

It has become a byword that genius is erratic, but 
although many authors have been bohemians it is not 
often that we have to seek a true poet among the 
dangerous classes. Villon was something more than 
a bohemian, for he was a leader among a gang of 
thieves. Although his reputation as a citizen must 
have been very low, his reputation as a poet has 
always stood high. He was born in 1431, and before 
1542 more than twenty-seven editions of his poems 
were published. Clement Marot calls him "Le 
premier poete Parisien," and Francis I. knew him by 
heart. Little was known of the personal history of 
Villon until the year 1877, when Mons. Longnon 
published his "Etude Biographique," but now there 
are sufficient details and hints to allow of Mr. Payne's 
writing a valuable and tolerably full account of the 
poet's doings. Still Mr. Payne regrets that there is 
not more to tell. The facts are shortly these : 
Francois de Montcorbier was born, as before stated, 
in 1431, probably at some village near Paris ; little 
more is known of his parents than that his father died 
when he was young, and that his mother suffered 
"bitter anguish and many sorrows" on account of 
his turbulent career. The name by which he is 
known was that of his patron, Guillaume de Villon, a 
respectable ecclesiastic, who apparently adopted him 
at an early age. He entered the University of Paris 
about 1446, and was admitted to the Baccalaureate in 
March 1450, and became Licentiate in Theology, of 
Ecclesiastical Law, and Master of Arts in the summer 
of 1452. From this time until 1455, when he had to 
fly, in consequence of having killed a man in a brawl, 
nothing is known of his history. After this his 
career of crime commenced, he passed his time in the 
company of the thieves and vagabonds who infested 
the neighbourhood of Paris, and became a leader 
among them. In 1456 he wrote his Lesser Testament, 
in which the names of some of these more than doubt- 
ful characters are registered. In 1461 he was ar- 
rested for a crime said to have been the theft of a 
lamp from the parish church of Baccon, near Orleans, 
and condemned to death. He suffered much in a 
horrible dungeon, but was released when Louis XL 
came to the throne. At the age of thirty, when he 
wrote his Greater Testament, his debaucheries had 
told upon his constitution to such an extent that his 
life was of little value to him, and as nothing is 
heard of him after 146 1 it is supposed that he must 
have died about that time. Mr. Payne's introduc- 
tion, which contains these particulars and more, gives 
a striking and valuable picture of the disjointed state 
of society in France when that country was being 
consolidated. That Villon was a true poet no one 
who reads a page of his writing can doubt. There is 
a strength and directness in every line that contrasts 
remarkably with the ordinary writing of his time, and 
his associates are gibbeted in his two Testaments with 
considerable impartiality. Mr. Payne is so well known 
as a master in poetry that it goes without saying that 



he has done justice to his original, but he has done 
more than this. He has so thoroughly entered into its 
spirit that we read on without feeling that we have 
a translation before us. Although the love of his 
mother and the never failing-kindness of his patron 
were not sufficient to draw Villon from his evil 
courses, his heart was not so dead as to forget them ; 
of the first of them he writes in his Greater Testa- 
ment : 

" I give the ballad following 

To my good mother, who of me 
(God knows !) hath had much suffering, 
That she may worship our Ladie : 
No other refuge can I see 
To which, when stricken down by dole, 

I may for help and comfort flee ; 
Nor yet my mother, poor good soul !" 
Of the patron we read : 

"Item, to Guillaume de Villon, 
My more than father, who indeed 
To me more love and care hath done 
Than mothers to the babes they feed ; 
Who me for many a scrape hath freed, 
And now of me hath small Hesse, 

I do intreat him, bended-kneed, 
He seek not now to share my stress." 
We cannot give any adequate idea of Villon's genius 
from quotations, and our readers must go to the book 
itself, but may just allude to a powerful picture of 
a churchyard, where high and low, rich and poor, are 
laid, which commences thus : 

" Here silence doth for ever reign : 

Nothing it profiteth the dead 
On beds of satin to have lain 

And drank from gold the vine-juice red 
And lived in glee and lustihead. 
Soon all such joys must be resigned : 

All pass away, and in their stead 
Only the sin remains behind." 
Mr. Payne was well-advised when he decided to 
appeal to a larger circle of readers than that for 
which he prepared the limited issue of 1878, for we 
cannot doubt but that many will wish to possess this 
dainty volume. 



flDeetinss of antiquarian 
Society 



METROPOLITAN. 

Society of Antiquaries. May 12, Earl 
OF Carnarvon, President, in the Chair. Mr. 
Cheales exhibited tracings of some wall-paintings at 
Friskney Church in Lincolnshire. Mr. Park Harrison 
exhibited a slate tablet, found in a shingle house at 
Towyn among other ancient remains, covered with 
scribblings, which appear to represent urns, hatchets, 
baskets, and other utensils, and, Mr. Harrison 
suggested, might be the inventory of someone's pro- 
perty. Mr. Clements Markham exhibited a silver 
tazza from Arlington Church. 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



May 19 Mr. W. C. Borlase, M.P., Vice-Presi 
dent, in the Chair. Lord Arundel of Wardour exhi- 
bited a charter of William de Briwere, in the reign of 
King John, bearing a seal with a design of a merwoman 
suckling a merchild. Mr. Rivett Carnac exhibited a 
collection of spindle-whorls and votive seals found in 
Buddhist ruins in North-west India. Mr. R. S. Fergu- 
son exhibited a fine specimen of a British Bronze torque 
found at Carlisle. Mr. Myddleton read a Paper upon 
the Coptic churches in Old Cairo, illustrated by plans 
of the church of Abou Serget. 

Anthropological Institute. Tuesday, May 
24. Major-Gen. A. Pitt-Rivers, F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. Mr. E. H. Man read a Paper on " The 
Arts of the Andamanese and Nicobarese. ' He stated 
that they are divided into at least nine tribes, linguisti- 
cally distinguished, and in most, if not all, of these 
there are two distinct sections viz., inland and coast 
men. In many mental characteristics affinity to the 
Papuans would appear to exist ; and the standard in 
social and marital relations is shown to be far higher 
than could be expected from a race so entirely outside 
the pale of civilization. The previous accounts of 
their laxity in this respect are now proved to be 
erroneous. They have no forms of religion, or ideas 
of worship ; and, though they have faith in a Supreme 
Being, the Creator, their belief in the Powers of Evil 
is much more strongly developed. The habitations 
of the eight tribes of Great Andaman are of three 
varieties, partaking almost invariably of the nature of 
a simple lean-to ; while those of the remaining tribe, 
Jarawa-(da), are somewhat similar in form to the huts 
erected by the Nicobarese. The rights of private pro- 
perty are recognized and respected ; there also appears 
to be a fair division of labour, and perfect equality 
between the sexes in their social intercourse. Dr. 
Allen Thompson, F.R.S., read a paper on "Some 
Bone Necklaces from the Andaman Islands." Several 
of the specimens exhibited were constructed entirely 
of human bones, while some were composed of bones 
of various animals, and others were partly made up 
of pieces of coral. Mr. J. Park Harrison, ex- 
hibited an incised slate tablet and other objects from 
Towyn. 

Archaeological Institute. June 2. Lord 
Talbot de Malahide, President, in the Chair. The 
Rev. W. J. Loftie read some notes on ' ' Recent 
Discoveries among the Egyptian Pyramids." Mr. J. 
Park Harrison read a paper on "Incised Figures upon 
Slate, and other Remains, from Towyn, Merioneth- 
shire." Capt. E. Hoare read a Paper on some early 
tiles from Stanhoe and the ruined church of Barwick- 
in-the-Brakea, Norfolk. Mr. W. Thompson Watkin 
sent a Paper on "Roman Inscriptions Discovered in 
Britain in 1880." This is Mr. Watkin 's eighth supple- 
ment to Dr. Hiibner's volume of Britanno-Roman 
inscriptions, and his fifth annual list. Mr. J. H. Parker 
called attention to some photographs of a remarkable 
series of wood-carvings in the church of Trull, near 
Taunton, dated 1560, which represent ecclesiastical 
dignitaries and officials in " unreformed " vestments. 
Mr. W. Gain exhibited a plan and contributed notes 
on earthworks at Laxton and Egmanton, Notts. Mr. 
Loftie exhibited a very fine series of scarabs, bearing 
kings' names. Mr. Harrison sent a collection of 
antiquities, some as late as the seventeenth century, 



from Towyn. Mr. Watkin exhibited a photograph of 
the great statue found last year at York, and gave 
reasons in his Paper for suggesting that Britannia may 
be here represented. Mr. G. Joslin laid before the 
meeting a rubbing from the inscribed Roman altar 
lately found at Colchester. The Rev. A. Porter pro- 
duced a fine Roman cameo, an Indian sardonyx, found 
in the late Mr. Davis's garden at York, and represent- 
ing a youthful fawn. Mr. O. Morgan exhibited a 
drawing of a beautiful Roman tessellated pavement 
lately uncovered at Caerwent, and drew attention to 
its remarkable characteristics of the various fish of the 
district being represented upon it, the salmon and the 
eel being very apparent. Mr. Morgan also exhibited 
a couteau de chasse of the unusual length of nineteen 
inches, apparently of the sixteenth century. Mr. F. 
Rudler sent a human vertebra with a flint arrow-head 
embedded in it. This highly interesting relic was 
found by Mr. Madge in a burial-mound near Copiapo, 
Chili. 

British Archaeological Association. May 18. 
The Rev. S. M. Mayhew in the Chair. The further 
discovery of Roman articles in King's Arms Yard was 
announced by Mr. R. E. Way. An ecclesiastical 
seal was exhibited by Mr. W. S. Smith. Mr. L. 
Brock described a mould for casting pilgrims' signs 
recently found in Liquorpond Street. The Chairman 
exhibited two remarkable figures in oak found in 
London, and several other objects of Saxon and later 
dates. Mr. C. Sherborn described a dagger which, 
from its inscription, was one of those used by the 
twenty-five men who banded themselves together to 
avenge the murder of Sir E. Godfrey in 1678. Mr. 
W. Myers exhibited a large collection o f antiquarian 
objects. Among these were a gold zerf from Zanzi- 
bar, a gold statue of Bramah, some Irish ring money, 
a fine series of Egyptian articles, worked cones from 
Cissbury, and many flint instruments from Thebes and 
from Gourna in the desert. A Paper was then read by 
Dr. Rhine on certain figures of wood, confessedly of 
remote antiquity, which have been found in Britain, 
Brittany, &c, at various periods. 

June 1. Earl Nelson in the Chair. Mr. R. Blah- 
described further discoveries at the Roman station, 
South Shields, and the Rev. Dr. Hooppell an 
inscribed tile found at Lincoln. Mrs. R. Clay ex- 
hibited a gold beetle from Yucatan, said to live 
to a fabulous age. Mr. Loftus Brock exhibited 
a great number of Greek and Asiatic headless 
penates in illustration of the custom still prevalent 
of destroying the heads when discovered, to pre- 
serve the finders, as they suppose, from the evil 
eye. Mr. H. Prigg described a Roman ring with an 
intaglio found at Bury St. Edmunds. Mr. J. Brett 
reported the discovery of other Roman articles at Can- 
terbury, some of which were exhibited. The Rev. S. 
M. Mayhew described a fine collection of glass vessels 
illustrative of the manufacture of that material from 
comparatively recent times backwards to a remote 
period. Mr. H. Syer Cuming described a Saxon 
stone cross recently found during some repairs at 
Bolton Church, Lancashire. A Paper was then read 
by Mr. Cuming on the representation of mermaids in 
various mediaeval works. 

London and Middlesex Archaeological 
Society. Annual Meeting. June 22. The meeting 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



*5 



was held in the Council Chamber, Guildhall, the 
Right Hon. William McArthur, M.P., Lord Mayor, 
in the Chair. Some remarks were read by Mr. Alder- 
man Hanson, upon M Sir William Ashurst, Lord 
Mayor, 1694." Notes on some of the Paintings and 
sculpture belonging to the Corporation, were given by 
Mr. J. R. Dicksee, curator of works of art to the ' 
Corporation. The civic regalia were shown, and some 
account was given of their antiquity, by Mr. Ben- 
jamin Scott. The charters and early records of the 
Corporation were exhibited and explained by Sir John 
B. Monckton, town clerk. Early examples of public 
and private seals from the time of Fitz Ailwyn, the 
first Lord Mayor in the reign of Richard I., 1 189, were 
shown by Mr. J. A. Brand, Comptroller. The com- 
pany then proceeded to the old Exchequer Court, the 
Guildhall, and the Crypt ; some of the most interesting 
features of the Hall, the restoration of the roof, &c, 
were explained by Mr. Horace Jones. The Library 
and Museum were next visited ; an account of the 
former and its contents was read by Mr. W. H. 
Overall. 

Numismatic May 19. Mr. J. Evans, D.C.L., 
President, in the Chair. Mr. A. Grant exhibited 
four tetradrachms, a drachm, and a hemidrachm of 
Hellocles, King of Bactria ; also five copper coins of 
the Sakas. Mr. Durlacher exhibited a set of the 
different types of Queen Anne's farthings. The 
Rev. C. Soames exhibited three small silver ancient 
British coins and one copper. Mr. Krumbholz ex- 
hibited seventeen silver pennies of Edward the Con- 
fessor, of various types, mints, and moneyers. Mr. 
H. S. Gill read a Paper on some seventeenth century 
tokens of Devonshire. M. H. Sauvaire communi- 
cated an article on an inedited fels of a prince of 
Sejestan of the second branch of the Saffaride family. 

Philological. May 20. Anniversary Meeting. 
Mr. A. J. Ellis, President, in the Chair. The Presi- 
dent read his annual address, principally on spelling 
reform. 

Friday, June 3. Mr. A. J. Ellis, President, in the 
chair. The Paper read was "History of English 
Sounds, Part III., with Some Etymologies," by Mr. 
H. Sweet. 

Royal Society of Literature. Wednesday, 
May 25. Mr. Charles Clark, Q.C., in the Chair. 
Mr. C. Pfoundes read a Paper on "The Popular 
Literature of Old Japan," in which he gave an account 
of the ancient classical, poetical, middle-age, and 
modern literature of Japan, with the romances, folk- 
lore, and dramas, &c, current in that country. A 
number of specimens of Japanese books and drawings 
were exhibited, as well as photographs, in illustration 
of various Japanese customs. 

Society of Biblical Archeology. June 7. 
Dr. S. Birch, President, in the chair. Mr. Theo. G. 
Pinches read some remarks upon the recent discoveries 
of Mr. Rassam at Aboo-habba. The President com- 
municated some notes on the recently discovered 
Pyramid of Pepi (Sixth Dynasty) at Sakkara. A 
Paper from Prof. E. L. Lushington, " On the Stele of 
Mentuhotep," was read. A communication was read 
from Mr. H. H. Howorth, " Was Piankhi a Synonym 
for Sabako ? " 

St. Paul's Ecclesiological Society. June 
11. The members of this society visited Berkhamp- 



stead and were received by the rector, the Rev. J. W. 
Cobb, and by Canon Owen W. Davys, the latter of 
whom read an interesting Paper on the Church, in 
which he described the fine cruciform edifice, its fea- 
tures and monuments, and denounced the manner in 
which it is now being restored. The Grammar School, 
a Tudor structure of brick, was next seen, under the 
guidance of the head-master, the Rev. E. Bartram. 
It was built in 1541-2 by Dr. John Quent, Principal 
of St. John's Brotherhood, Berkhampstead, and Dean 
of St. Paul's, London, on the site of the Brotherhood's 
house. The members afterwards visited Northchurch 
St. Mary, a small cruciform church about a mile from 
Berkhampstead, having the high deal pews, the west 
gallery, and a lath-and- plaster partition shutting off 
the east-end as a vestry, but about to be restored. 
The ruins of Berkhampstead Castle were next seen. 
They are now reduced to shapeless masses of masonry, 
and an artificial mount and traces of a bailey sur- 
rounded by walls, outer walls, vallum, rampart, and 
moat. 

PROVINCIAL. 

Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 
May 9. Professor Duns, D.D., Vice-President, in 
the Chair. Mr. W. Jolly read a Paper on some cup- 
marked stones in the neighbourhood of Inverness. 
They are all found on the south shores of the Moray 
Firth, within a radius of twenty miles of Inverness. 
The carvings are generally of the simplest type viz., 
plain shallow cups of varying size, sometimes sur- 
rounded by single rings, and occasionally with con- 
necting gutters. Some are connected with larger 
hollow basons carved in the stone. They are mostly 
on sandstone, but occasionally in harder and unstrali- 
fied stones. The number of cups on single stones 
varies from one to one hundred and thirteen. They 
occur on stones connected with standing circles and 
with chambered cairns, and on separate monoliths ; 
and for the first time in Scotland these sculpturings 
have been discovered in connection with churchyards, 
in which they have been utilized for monuments and 
gravestones. Mr. Jolly described with great minute- 
ness of detail a large number of cup-marked stones 
which are associated with chambered cairns at Clava, 
Culbirnie, and Corriemony ; a still larger number as- 
sociated with stone circles, or carved on the stones 
composing the circle, examples of which occur at 
Gask and Tordarroch in Strathnairn, at Kiltarlity, 
near Beauly, &c. At Little Urchany, near Cawdor, 
Mr. Jolly found several cup-markings on a granite 
monolith forming one of the stones of a circle. Many 
were found on isolated stones. The largest of these 
is a stone called Clachmore, at Culnakirk, Glen Urqu- 
hart. It is 16 feet long, above 9 feet broad, with an 
average thickness of I foot, and has on its upper sur- 
face no fewer than 113 cups, 20 of which are from 2 \ 
to 4! inches diameter, and from \ inch to 1 1 inch in 
depth, many of them being united by distinct grooves. 
Other stones similarly marked, though the markings 
are fewer in number, were described from Clava, 
Moniack Castle, and at Kirkton, Bunchrew, which 
had been brought from Rhynie, Aberdeenshire. The 
most remarkable fact ascertained by Mr. Jolly was 
the occurrence of these cup-marked stones in several 
of the churchyards of the district, as in the old church- 



26 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



yard of Barevan, at Cawdor ; in Braeclich church- 
yard, near Fort George Station ; in the churchyard of 
Dunlichity, and in that of Glenconvinth, near Beauly. 
Other cupped stones, like St. Columba's font at 
Abriochan, seemed to have been originally ecclesias- 
tical, and one at Dunlichity was used within the 
memory of persons living as a baptismal font. 
Drawings of no fewer than 65 stones of these various 
classes were exhibited. In connection with Mr. 
Jolly's Paper, the Rev. Dr. Joass, of Golspie, sent 
for exhibition to the meeting a cast of a cup-marked 
stone recently found at Dunrobin, and stated that he 
only knew of five such stones in Sutherland. Pro- 
fessor Duns read a notice of stone implements from 
Shetland, some of which were found on the site of an 
early settlement adjacent to the church and manse of 
Maill, Cuningsburgh, by Rev. George Clerk. A large 
and beautifully-finished celt, found at the opening of 
a quarry in that neighbourhood, was also exhibited 
ana described. The Chairman also read a communi- 
cation from Captain W. Gillon, describing a pair of 
iron shears and a hone-stone which he had found on 
the site of the crannog at Lochlea, "near Kilmarnock, 
and which he presented to the national collection. 
He also described a polished celt found in the Burn 
of Need, parish of Sorn, Ayrshire, and presented to 
the national collection by Mr. James Gall through 
Captain Gillon. 

Batley Antiquarian Society. May 28. The 
Society paid a visit to Thornhill Church, for the pur- 
pose of inspecting the many objects of antiquity in and 
about the church and grounds. They were received 
by the Rev. Mr. Greenside, the curate, who conducted 
them through the church, and rectory grounds, and 
explained to them the various objects of interest. 
The visitors were most interested in the Savile Chapel, 
which has been the burial-place of the Saviles for 
more than four centuries. The three stones in the 
rectory grounds, with Roman inscriptions, were 
viewed with some interest. It has been ascertained 
that two of these stones are the work of the sixth to 
the ninth centuries, and the other of the ninth 
century, and they were all in a good state of preser- 
vation. 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society. May 16. 
Prof. Hughes, F.S.A., President, in the Chair. Mr. 
Jenkinson gave a preliminary notice of excavations in 
the Roman and Saxon Cemetery at Girton College, 
and exhibited specimens of the objects discovered. 
The Saxon remains consisted chiefly of sepulchral 
urns. In the urns were found burnt human bones, 
with fibulae, beads, &c, much injured by fire, and 
bone combs, or pieces of comb, which, as well as the 
bronze tweezers which sometimes occurred with them, 
showed no signs of burning. A layer of stones often 
covered the graves ; and the rectangular outline of 
many of these stones, as well as the fact that they were 
oolite, and must have been brought from a distance, 
suggested that some Roman building had furnished 
the materials ; and a mass of cement with a Roman 
brick imbedded in it, which lay at the head of one 
grave, gave further confirmation of this theory. The 
urns were often covered with pieces of similar stone, 
and occasionally with a piece of Roman tile. The 
Roman remains were almost all found in two square 
chambers, which appear to have been buried boxes, 



the nails, and portions of the wood adjacent to them, 
marking the outline clearly enough. Dr. Pearson 
exhibited to the Society a view of the earthen ram- 
part or lines of Perekop, at the Isthmus leading into 
the Crimea, taken from Pallas's Travels in Southern 
Russia. It was shown as a salient example of the 
ancient dykes, one of which was ascribed to Offa, 
King of the Mercians. 

May 30. Annual Meeting. Prof. Hughes, F.S.A., 
in the Chair. A communication was read from Sir P. 
Colquhoun on the true site of Dodona. Mr. Brown- 
ing made a communication on a Keltiberian inscrip- 
tion. When visiting the theatre of Saguntum on 
April 16, 1 88 1, Mr. Browning found, imbedded in 
the proscenium, a number of stone tablets, with Roman 
inscriptions ; among them was a stone, carved carefully 
and exactly with strange characters. Prof. Sayce wrote 
from Oxford that the inscription is in the character of 
the so-called Keltiberian alphabet, only partially de- 
ciphered as yet by the help of a few bilingual coins, 
and he gave a reading of the inscription according to 
the alphabet at present accepted. Mr. W. B. Red- 
farn exhibited and described a collection of mediaeval 
spurs, a fifteenth century solleret, "a la poulaine," 
for the left foot; three stirrups in chased and per- 
forated iron, probably for a mule, sixteenth century, 
and a curious antique horseshoe recently dug up near 
Park Side. Mr. O. Browning exhibited and de- 
scribed a sixteenth century Italian spur, from 
Scurgola. Mr. Beck exhibited and described four 
specimens of copper ring-money, used by the Liver- 
pool merchants in trading with the natives on the 
West Coast of Africa ; sixteen silver-gilt studs of 
Gothic work, forming parts of various mediaeval belts 
worn in Iceland ; three antique silver-gilt filagree ball 
pendants, from which are suspended representations 
of the Crucifixion and of St. George and the Dragon. 
Mr. Bidwell exhibited a red Romano-British terra 
cotta vase, and a fragment of a patera in Samian 
ware, and of a mortarium, all which had lately been 
found in St. Mary's parish, Ely, about one mile 
north-west from the Cathedral, and at the depth of one 
foot below the surface. 

Isle of Man Natural History and Anti- 
quarian Society. April 5. The Rev. William 
Kermode in the Chair. The Rev. E. B. Savage read 
the Paper on " Notes on the Parish Register of 
Kirk Michael, Isle of Man." The registers of Kirk 
Michael begin with the year 1610, but the first entry 
is a transcript from the original, explained by the 
following note at the beginning : " The old Re- 
gister Book being abused in the Parliament's time 
was forced to be transcribed and ye same being 
written on bad paper severall names have been lost 
and as many as were legible are transcribed in 
this Book which was bought upon ye parish charge 
by ye wardens and the vicar. Mr. Norris then in 
being in ye year of our Lord God 17 12. Price 
;oo 07s. bod." Curiously enough, the baptisms con- 
tinue yearly " in the Parliament's time," though sadly 
fallen off in numbers ; but the burials register is an 
entire blank from 1653 to 1663. The marriages con- 
tinue regularly from 1656; but, as a sign of disturbed 
times, we find against 1658 "none maryd," and only 
three couples in 1659, and those all between the 
16th and 22nd of November. Much interesting in- 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



27 



formation was given ; and as an illustration of the 
state of agriculture in the parish nearly a century ago 
the following is worthy of record: "In Deer. 
1795, a jury was impanelled to report what quantity 
of grain and potatoes was in all the parishes, when it 
was found there were, in Kirk Michael, of rye, 13 
bolls, 7 kishens ; barley, 863 bolls, 2 kishens ; oates, 
1,233 bolls, 5 kishens ; potatoes, 1,323 bolls, 14 
kishens; pease, 84 bolls, 15 kishens; wheat, 30 bolls, 
9 kishens." As to the price of grain : in 1773, the 
$ to be spent in barley at Bishop Hildesley's burial 
bought 122 kishens that is, about 1 a boll ; and 
in 1822, ' Price of a Boll of Barley left to ye Poor by 
Patrick Nelson B'renny, \ is. od.' " The Rev. \\. 
Kermode exhibited and remarked upon some remains 
of cinerary urns that had been found in the neigh- 
bourhood of Ballaugh. The Rev. R. Brearey exhi- 
bited some fine celts, which came from the same 
neighbourhood. 



bituar^ 



BENJAMIN FILLON. 
'Died May, 1 881. 

This distinguished historian, archaeologist, and 
numismatist died at Paris at the end of May. To his 
researches Michelet and Louis Blanc were both in- 
debted for documents, but it is chiefly on account of 
his remarkable discoveries in ceramic history that his 
name will live. Some of the most exquisite specimens 
of the potter's art have for years gone by the name of 
"Henri Deux Ware." About eighty pieces are 
known to be in existence, and each of these is valued 
at an enormous sum in fact, to be the possessor of 
one of these pieces is in itself a distinction. Until 
lately neither the artist who designed the ware nor the 
place where it was manufactured were known. The 
riddle was solved by M. Fillon. M. Jacquamart has 
written : " Guided by a happy conformity of facts, 
and by that intuition peculiar to true archaeologists, 
M. Fillon repaired to Oiron, persuaded beforehand 
that he should find there the real and irrefragable 
elements of the history of the pottery of Henry II., 
and, as he anticipated, proofs of every kind accumu- 
lated before him, and the discovery was made." Since 
the publication of M. Fillon 's pamphlet on the subject 
in 1862, this poterie de luxe has been known as Oiron 
Ware. M. Fillon also discovered Bernard Palissy's 
manuscript, Le Devin de la Grotte des Tuileries, which 
is now in the National Library, Paris. He made im- 
portant collections of objects of art, ancient jewelry, 
and prehistoric arms, some of which were shown at 
the Exhibition of 1870. 



MAXIMILIEN PAUL EMILE LITTRE. 

Born February 1, 1801, died June 2, 1881. 

It is not often that the scientific and literary careers 
are united so intimately in one man as was the case 
with M. Littre, whose recent death is a loss not 
merely to France but to all Europe. Before the pub- 



lication of the Dictionnaire de la Langue Fran^aise, 
which has covered his name with glory, he had already 
attained to a European fame. His edition of the works 
of Hippocrates, which contained the original and a 
translation, occupied him for thirty years, and proved 
his life-long interest in the study of medicine, although 
circumstances had prevented him from taking his 
doctor's degree and from practising in the profession 
he had originally chosen. As one of those who car- 
ried on the continuation of the Benedictine Histoire 
Litteraire de France, as a contributor to the Journal 
des Savants, and as a brilliant writer in the Revue des 
Deux Mondes, he was preparing for years for the great 
work of his life. It is hardly possible to mention the 
French Dictionary without enthusiasm, and it must 
ever remain a marvel of labour. The scientific method 
which he had learnt early in life stood him in good 
stead, and as he also possessed immense learning and 
good taste, he managed in a comparatively short time 
to produce for France the finest linguistic dictionary 
ever published. Of his political and religious views 
we need not speak here, and it is only necessary to 
say that he was- a member of the Academie des In- 
scriptions et Belles Lettres and also of the Academie 
Francaise. 



GEORGE ROLLESTON, M.D., F.R.S. 
Born 1829, died June 16, 1881. 

Although Dr. Rolleston's fame was chiefly scienti- 
fic (as a most eminent biologist) his loss will be deeply 
regretted by the archaeological world. He was a 
leader among the small band of men who feel a vital 
interest in the antiquarianism (so to speak) of science. 
Twenty years ago this party hardly existed, but now 
it has grown to be an ever-increasing power. His 
death will leave a gap in Oxford society, and in scien- 
tific circles generally the absence of his striking figure 
will be keenly felt. Dr. Rolleston was born at Maltby, 
in Yorkshire ; was educated at Gainsborough and 
Sheffield, and, after a distinguished career at Oxford 
(he was placed in the First Class in Classics in 1850), 
became a Fellow of Pembroke College in 1 851. 
After studying medicine at St. Bartholomew's Hospi- 
tal, he went to Smyrna as assistant physician to the 
British Civil Hospital during the Crimean war. On 
returning he was appointed assistant-physician to the 
Children's Hospital in London, in 1857 ; and in the 
same year was recalled to Oxford to succeed Dr. 
Acland as Lee's Reader in Anatomy at Christ Church, 
when that gentleman became Regius Professor of 
Medicine. In i860 he was appointed to the newly- 
founded chair of anatomy and physiology as the first 
Linacre Professor. He was elected Fellow of the 
Royal Society in 1862, and Fellow of Merton College 
in 1872. He filled the office of member of the Coun- 
cil of the University until his death. He represented 
Oxford in the General Medical Council, and was at 
the same time one of the most active and valuable 
members of the Oxford Local Board. He was the 
author of an outline of zoological classification, based 
upon anatomical investigation, and entitled The Form 
of Animal Life, and he also contributed to Canon 
Greenwell's British Barrows. His writings are, 
however, chiefly to be found in the Transactions of 



28 



OBITUARY. 



the Royal, Linnean, and Zoological Societies, in the 
Archaologia, and in the journals of the Geographical 
Society, the Odontological Society, and the British 
Association. 



Hntiquarian IRewa. 

* 

A Congress of Keltiberian antiquaries is to be held 
at Madrid next autumn. 

A new work on Waltham Abbey, "very copiously 
illustrated with engravings, is announced by Mr. Elliot 
Stock for immediate publication. 

We are happy to learn that under the will of the 
late Mr. Henry Dodd, Mr. W. Roach Smith has a 
legacy of ^500 bequeathed him. 

We believe that the second volume of the Hengwrt 
MSS., left unfinished through the lamented death of 
Canon Williams, will be completed by the Rev. D. 
Silvan Evans. 

A large number of old Roman coins have been dis- 
covered in excavating for' a new drive in course of 
construction at Baron-hill, the Anglesey seat of Sir 
R. Williams-Bulkeley, Bart. 

A statue has recently been found in a mound on the 
Egyptian Government railway line. It is believed to 
be 4,568 years old ; and, if this is confirmed, it will 
probably be one of the oldest known statues in the 
world. 

The annual meeting of the Somersetshire Archaeolo- 
gical and Natural History Society will be held this 
year at Clevedon, commencing on the 23rd and ending 
on the 26th of August. The president for the year 
is Mr. A. H. Elton, and the local honorary secretary 
Mr. F. Dickinson. 

Mr. Joseph Crawhall is about to publish a new 
edition, limited to 100 copies, of " The Compleatest 
Angling Booke that ever was writ." The book was 
originally published in 1 859, and deals with the history, 
legends, poetry, and practice of angling, being en- 
riched by admirable etchings, woodcuts, &c. 

The Society for Photographing Relics of Old 
London have, by the kindness of Colonel Thynne, 
been enabled to secure a series of photographs of the 
interior of Ashburnham House, Little Dean's Yard, 
Westminster. The views comprise the celebrated 
staircase and other features of this famous work of 
Inigo Jones. 

We understand that, in answer to the correspondence 
which has recently appeared in a contemporary con- 
cerning the desirability of a Church Year Book being 
issued, Mr. Elliot Stock will publish annually The 
Year Book of the Church, and that the work will be 
edited by Mr. Charles Mackeson, the compiler of 
The Guide to the Churches of London. 

Mr. A. P. Allsopp, of Hindlip Hall, Worcester, is 
preparing a dictionary of the words and phrases in 
use at the different public schools, such as Charter- 
house, Eton, Harrow, Marlborough, Rugby, Shrews- 
bury, Westminster, and Winchester. Mr. Allsopp 



will be grateful for any communications on the sub- 
ject from our readers. 

The City Church and Churchyard Protection 
Society (President, the Right Hon. the Earl of 
Devon) held its second annual meeting on Thursday, 
the 23rd June, the Lord Mayor in the Chair. The 
Society is supported by many influential men, and it 
is hoped that those interested in the City churches 
will become members. No subscription is demanded 
by the Society. 

Lambeth Palace and its Associations is the title of a 
work now preparing for publication by the Rev. J. 
Cave-Browne, M.A. It will give a detailed account 
of the architectual features of the palace, the missals, 
the collections of MSS., the portraits of the Arch- 
bishops, and other interesting historical subjects con- 
nected with this important centre of Anglican church 
history. 

Mr. Francis T. Dollman has just published, by 
subscription, a work on " The Priory Church of St. 
Mary Overie, Southwark," generally known as the 
parish church of St Saviour. The book is illustrated 
by plates in photo -lithography, containing plans, eleva- 
tions, sections, details of the architectural features of 
this church as it existed prior to the alterations of the 
1 8th and 19th centuries. 

The workmen lately engaged in the demolition of 
an old house belonging to Mr. Nash, at Wilton, came 
upon a fine specimen of plaster frieze-work of the 
17th century. It was carefully removed and forwarded 
to the Museum at the Castle, where a section of it will 
be preserved. Underneath the frieze were a number 
of panels, one bearing the date 1615, and another a 
rather rudely-executed hunting-scene. Two other 
panels were found. 

During the alterations at the church of Burgh-by- 
Sands several curious carved stones have turned up, 
apparently fragments of the chancel arch, which must 
have had a massive double cable moulding. A small 
Roman altar has also been found, on which is an 
inscription, the expansion of which would seem to be 
" Marti Belatucadro Saneto." Altars to Belatucader, 
or Mars Balatucader, are not uncommon along the 
Roman Wall. Balatucader was a local deity pro- 
bably akin to Baal. 

At the Easter vestry meeting of Prestwich the 
question as to the practicability of bolting up and 
otherwise repairing the tower of the parish church, so 
as to make it permanently sound and good, was dis- 
cussed. After a long discussion, however, a resolu- 
tion was passed to pull down the tower to its 
foundations and rebuild it, using the old material as 
far as possible, and keeping to the existing design. 
This is to be regretted on antiquarian grounds, but 
there seems to be no help for it. 

The ancient custom which has been observed at 
Tissington from time immemorial of adorning once a 
year the village wells with artistic floral designs, was 
celebrated with all the established observances on 
last Ascension Day. The usual procession took 
place, at each of the five wells, one or other of the 
three Psalms for the day, or the Epistle or Gospel 
being read, and an appropriate hymn sung. The 



ANTIQUARIAN NEWS. 



29 



wells are named the Hall Well, Hand's Well, Coffin 
Well, Town Well, Yew-tree Well. 

The ancient parish church of Wedmore, after 
having undergone thorough restoration, has been re- 
opened. The restoration of the church has been 
carried out under the direction of Mr. Ferry, and care 
has been taken to preserve and restore all that is old 
and interesting, without adding anything which can 
be designated modern architecture. The principal 
work interesting to antiquaries, includes new roofs to 
the nave and chancel, relaying and levelling the floors, 
replacing of open oak benches for the old high-backed 
pews, stripping the walls of their whitewash and 
yellow-ochre coverings, and exposing to view the 
native stone, which has been carefully pointed. 

The City Corporation have purchased from the 
executors of the late Mr. J. W. Baily, his collection 
of Roman, Romano-British, Mediaeval, and other 
antiquities found in the City from 1863 to 1872. The 
chairman of the Library Committee stated that the 
committee had taken great pains to ascertain the 
intrinsic and historical value of the relics, and they 
could testify that this was the most valuable collection 
of antiquities connected with the City ever found. 
They were all labelled and numbered, together with 
the best description obtainable. There were 2,100 
articles in the collection, including hundreds of Roman 
and Saxon coins. Among the members of the Cor- 
poration who spoke strongly in support of the pur- 
chase, were Mr. E. Dresser Rogers, Mr. Judd, and 
Sir J. C. Lawrence. 

An Exhibition of Ecclesiastical Art will be held at 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, during the Meeting of the Church 
Congress, from Obtober 3 to 8. The Exhibition will 
include articles of every description used in the build- 
ing and adornment of churches, or in connection with 
the services thereof stone and wood carving, stained 
glass, brass and metal work, gold and silver plate, 
bells, embroidery, tapestry, organs and harmoniums, 
church chairs, mosaics, &c, a large gallery being set 
apart for the display of cartoons, designs, pictures, 
architectural drawings, &c. It has been decided to 
admit also all kinds of school appliances, books, &c, 
useful in the furtherance of education. There will be 
also an extensive loan collection of pictures, photo- 
graphs, designs (old and new), embroidery, carvings, 
and objects of ecclesiastical art generally. Applica- 
tions for space, or permission to exhibit, should be 
addressed to Mr. J. Hart, Manager, Ecclesiastical Art 
Exhibition, 33, Southampton Strand, London, W.C.; 
or G. J. Baguley, Esq., 45, Carliol Street, Newcastle. 

The Council of the Society of Arts have just 
erected six new memorial tablets on houses which are 
of historic interest, as having been occupied by cele- 
brated men. These china plaques will now be found 
on the front of 15, Buckingham Street, Strand, 
where Peter the Great lived for a short time ; on 25 
Arlington Street, for many years the residence of the 
famous Prime Minister, Sir Robert Walpole ; on 14, 
Savile Row, where Sheridan lived ; on 35, St. Mar- 
tin's Street, Leicester Square, for sometime Sir Isaac 
Newton's home ; on 36, Castle Street, Oxford Street, 
where James Barry, the painter, received the states- 
man, Burke ; and on 30, Leicester Square, a new 



building, occupied by Archbishop Tenison's school, 
which stands on the site of Hogarth's home. With 
regard to the tablet to Peter the Great, in Buckingham 
Street, we may note the suggestion of the Builder that 
the opposite house, supposed to be the one that 
Samuel Pepys lived in for some years, should be 
marked by the Society. 

A remarkable instance of the revival of old customs 
occurred on May 2, at Whitelands Training College, 
when prizes, given by Mr. Ruskin (which consisted 
of twenty-seven volumes of his works, handsomely 
bound), were presented to students by the hand of the 
May Queen. After a service in the chapel, the 
students, wearing garlands, and each carrying a bunch 
of flowers, assembled in the training-room, for the 
purpose of selecting the "Queen of the May." The 
Principal (the Rev. J. P. Faunthorpe) read a part of 
Tennyson's "May Queen," and then the Queen was 
chosen by the votes of all the students from amongst 
the juniors. She retired to be arrayed in her queenly 
robes, and the students arranged themselves on each 
side of the corridor awaiting her re-appearance as 
Queen. She was preceded by six girls carrying the 
gifts, and accompanied by three maids-of-honour. 
The students then closed up, and formed the proces- 
sion back to the training-room, where the Queen her- 
self received an elegant gold cross, with a May blossom 
design on it, and a gold chain, also presents from Mr. 
Ruskin. / 

Some remarkably high prices were given for English 
coins at a five days' sale of the collection of Mr. 
Halliburton Young, of Lee, Kent. A penny of 
Alfred sold for ^15 15s. ; a penny of Edward the 
Elder, $ 5s. ; a penny of Athelstan, 5 7s. 6d. ; a 
penny of Hardicanute, struck at Exeter, 7 7s. ; a 
penny of Henry I., struck at Southwark, ^5 10s. ; a 
groat of Edmund I., 5 10s. ; a gold noble of Henry 
IV., 14 5s.; a shilling of Henry VII., ,12 ; the 
" Setim" groat of Henry VII., ^12, a rare coin, the 
only other being in the British Museum ; a gold double 
rial of Henry VII. , ^"26 ; a George noble of Henry 
VIII., 2$ ios. ; a noble or rial of Mary, gold, ^20 
ios.; a silver crown-piece of Elizabeth, 7 2s. 6d. ; a 
pattern penny of Elizabeth, ^5 5s. ; a pattern half- 
penny of Elizabeth, $ 5s. ; a portcullis crown of 
Elizabeth, ^12 ; a gold rial of Elizabeth, ^13 ios. ; 
a silver crown of James I., 7 7s. ; a fifteen-shilling 
piece of James I., 14 ; a silver pound-piece of 
Charles I., Oxford, 37 ; a half-crown, Charles I., 
Exeter, ^32 ; a Commonwealth half-crown sold for 
^27 ; a shilling, pattern piece, of fine work, 3$ ios. ; 
and a two-shilling piece of Cromwell, 2$. 

Some interesting coins have lately been discovered 
along the Kaffrarian coast opposite the spot where the 
East Indiaman the Grosvenor was wrecked in August, 
1782. There is little doubt that the coins formed part 
of the cargo of the vessel, or of the personal effects 
of some persons on board. Among the coins is one 
of silver, evidently one of the native pieces of money 
in use in India before the English conquest. There 
is another coin of gold, in an excellent state of pre- 
servation, apparently a sequin of the Venetian Re- 
public. On one side is represented the figure of St. 
Mark, the patron saint of Venice, handing a long 
cross-headed staff to the Doge, who kneels before him. 



30 



ANTIQ UARIAN NE WS. 



arrayed in the ducal robes, and wearing the well- 
known biretta. Behind the figure of the saint is the 
inscription " S. M. Venet." Above the head of the 
Doge is the inscription " Dux," and behind is the 
abbreviated name "Joan Cornal" the Senator who 
presided over the Republic at the time when the 
coin was issued. On the other side of the coin is a 
figure, probably intended for that of Christ, enclosed 
in an oval border of stars, around which is the follow- 
ing inscription, "Duca. sit. I. XPI. dat. q. tu. regis, 
isti." 

Presiding at a Whitsuntide Eisteddfod at Allt Ddu, 
near Pwllheli, Mr. Justice Watkin Williams said : 
"Of late years the English have ceased to laugh at 
and ridicule the Eisteddfod, and I hear of attempts 
being made to introduce it amongst the working 
classes of England. But the English have not yet 
ceased to poke their fun at the Welsh, and we have 
sometimes to hear, with as good a grace as we can, 
that 

1 Taffy is a Welshman, 

Taffy is a thief ; 
Taffy came to my house, 
And stole a piece of beef. ' 
But we, in our turn, are not without a rhyme upon 
them, though not written by ourselves. I do not know 
whether you are aware that to this day, just as the 
English call the Irishman 'Paddy,' and the Welsh- 
man ' Taffy,' so in a certain province of France the 
name for an Englishman is ' God-dam, ' taken from 
their proverbial habit of swearing, and this is what 
the Frenchman says of the Englishman : 
' The Englishman is a very bad man, 

He drink the beer and he steal the can ; 

He kiss the wife and then beat the man. 

And the Englishman is a very God-dam.' " 

Mr. J. Arthur Elliott (late Coldstream Guards), 
writing to the Times with reference to the recent cele- 
bration of the anniversary of the formation of the 
regiment of Grenadier Guards, says : " The Grena- 
dier Guards was first raised in the year 1657, when 
the loyal English who shared King Charles's exile were 
formed into six regiments, the first of which was called 
the ' Royal Regiment of Guards.' This force was 
subsequently disbanded through the inability of the 
King to maintain it, but in the year of the Restora- 
tion, 1660, the ' Royal Regiment of Guards' was re- 
enrolled and united with the ' King's Regiment of 
Guards,' raised by Colonel Russell, an old loyalist 
officer, for the purpose of escorting the King of Eng- 
land. Thus the Grenadier (a title accorded to it after 
Waterloo) or 1st Regiment of Foot Guards has 221 
years of existence, dating from 1660, when on its 
arrival in London it was brigaded with Monk's Cold- 
streamers (raised in 1650) and the Scots Fusiliers, the 
three famous regiments having now been a brigade of 
Guards for the long period of 221 years. ' Tria Juncta 
in Uno ' is the motto of the Brigade of Guards, and 
for all practical purposes it is one regiment, though 
each corps has immortalized itself in its own way in 
every great battle where the honour of our country 
was at stake." A subsequent writer points out that 
the Royal Regiment of Guards was not disbanded by 
Charles II., but that it was quartered at Dunkirk 
under Lord Wentworth. 



The parish church of St. Mary, Bitterley, was re- 
opened after restoration on May 24. The church is a 
substantial stone building with a square tower, and is 
believed to date from the latter half of the thirteenth 
century. One or more of the bells was cast in the 
reign of Edward I. The land on this side of the Clee 
Hill then belonged to, or was held under, Walter de 
Clifford (father of " Fair Rosamond "), as the inhabi- 
tants at that time had to pay a fee from every house 
to Walter de Clifford's foresters of a hen at Christmas, 
and five eggs at Easter. The restoration is, we are 
assured, properly done, making the present church 
identical m shape and accommodation with the original 
church. But to accomplish this how much interme- 
diate history has been destroyed ? The north wall has 
been entirely rebuilt, the north aisle and large arch 
have been removed, and the floor has been lowered 
two feet. The square tower has been rebuilt from 
the foundation with a spire, and the roof covered with 
oak shingles, and the fine Norman arch between the 
tower and nave has been restored, and a porch added. 
The stone font in this church is one of the oldest in 
the county. The cross in the churchyard is one of 
the finest relics of its kind in the county, being sym- 
metrical and proportionate, and having the remains of 
fine sculpture at the top. It stands on a base formed 
of three steps, in which is a square pediment, from 
which the graceful shaft springs. This cross is said 
to have been saved from the vandalism of Cromwell's 
soldiers by being buried in the churchyard. 

The work of restoration at St. Albans Abbey is 
still in progress, both at the western and eastern ends 
of the fabric. At the extreme east the stone mullions 
and tracery are just finished for the large window of 
painted glass which is about to be presented to the 
Lady Chapel by the Corporation of London. The 
western front the work of the Abbots de Cella and 
Trumpington which has long been in an unsatis- 
factory and almost dangerous state, is being rapidly 
" restored" by Sir Edmund Beckett, who, it is hoped, 
will proceed upon the old lines. The Early English en- 
trance porches are, we understand, to be preserved 
intact, or at all events to be restored stone by stone ; 
but the great perpendicular west window, the work 
of Abbott Wheathamstead, is about to give place to 
a new window of a decorated pattern, the cost of 
which will be borne by Sir Edmund Beckett. 
The Law Times states that Earl Cowper, acting 
under the advice of the Attorney-General, has sub- 
mitted to pay the subscription of ^500 which he had 
promised towards the restoration. It appears the 
Earl had promised this sum to the Faculty Commit- 
tee in 1877. He had paid no portion of it until the 
Committee had not only clone the work, to which he 
did not object, but had also restored the original high 
roof, in regard to which a controversy had occurred, 
when he had taken an active part against the Faculty 
Committee. Lord Cowper then refused to pay any 
of his subscription on that ground, and so pleaded in 
his defence to the action. 

It is proposed to start a Pali Text Society on 
the model of the Early-English Text Society, in 
order to render accessible to students the rich 
stores of the earliest Buddhist literature now lying 
unedited and practically unused in the various 



ANTJQ UARIAN NE WS. 



3i 



MSS. scattered throughout the public and univer- 
sity libraries of Europe. The Society looks forward 
to publishing the whole of the texts of the Pali 
Pitakas. Prof. Fausbbll, having completed the 
Dhammapada, is already far advanced with his edition 
of the Jataka book, the longest of the texts of the 
Sutta Pi/akas ; and Dr. Oldenburg has the Vinaya 
Pi/aka well in hand. The project has been most 
heartily welcomed by scholars throughout Europe. 
It is proposed to include in the Society's series those 
of the more important of the earlier Jain and un- 
canonical Buddhist texts which may be expected to 
throw light on the religious movement out of which 
the Pi/akas also arose. Analyses in English of the 
published Texts, Introductions to them, Catalogues 
of MSS., Indices, Glossaries, and Notes and Queries 
on early Buddhist history, will appear from time to 
time in the Society's publications. The subscription 
to the Society will be one guinea a year, or five 
guineas for six years, due in advance ; and no charge 
will be made for postage. Those who wish to join 
in this important undertaking should at once send 
their subscriptions to the hon. secretary (Mr. U. B. 
Brodribb, 3, Brick Court, Temple, E.C.), as the 
work cannot proceed until a certain sum is in hand. 

The work of exploring the Roman Villa near 
Brading is now proceeding with undiminished interest 
and spirit. One of the new chambers excavated has 
at its south-western corner an apse of 6 ft. diameter, 
and at its north-eastern end a deep pit or well. This 
seems to have been formed without steining out of 
the hard sandstone, is about 4 ft. in diameter, and 
has been excavated to a depth of 25 ft. At a depth 
of 14 ft. the skeleton of a young person was discovered, 
which presented in several bones the appearance of 
severe injury during life. The well also yielded a 
large number of tiles, in perfectly unbroken condition, 
of various sizes from 8 in. to 22 in. square. These 
had probably formed part of the flooring of the room. 
Many are marked with designs formed by drawing a 
comb along the surface of the tile when soft or by the 
fingers of operators. One tile, 17 in. square, after 
having been elaborately ornamented by a comb along 
the sides and diagonally across, and then with a circle 
round the centre, was turned by the workman while 
still soft on to his right hand, and bears deeply im- 
pressed over the elaborate pattern a cast of that hand. 
Another, one of the 22 in. size, was walked over by the 
naked feet of one workman and the hob-nailed sandals 
of others, and in like manner bears a cast of both feet, 
from the ball of the great toe to that of the heel. The 
series of coins from Severus (A.D. 222) to Constans 
(a.d. 350) has been rendered complete by the dis- 
covery of one of Magnentius (a.d. 250), who was the 
only missing Emperor of the series. These conclu- 
sively fix the approximate dates of the erection and 
occupation of the buildings. 

Corresponfcence, 



HOPE CHURCH, DERBYSHIRE. 

As one of the quaintest and oldest churches in the 
Peak of Derbyshire is in imminent danger of being 



subjected to a process of "restoration," which, if 
carried out, will destroy for ever the greater part of 
its historical interest, a brief account of it may be 
acceptable to the readers of The Antiquary. 

So widespread has been the destruction committed 
by churchwardens, " beautifiers," bucolic meddlers, 
and (I am ashamed to add) by clergymen, who, in 
order to introduce some novelty which may rouse the 
flagging energies of waning congregations, have not 
scrupled to make holocausts of priceless memorials of 
antiquity, that an unrestored or an unmutilated church 
is fast becoming a rarity. Until quite recently, how- 
ever, there might have been found a few churches in 
the less frequented parts of Derbyshire which re- 
mained free from stained deal and blue slates. 
Amongst those few Hope Church is still uninjured. 
It is a church which possesses that nameless charm of 
antiquity which can hardly find expression in words. 
To a faithful student of history, it is a place to reveal 
visions of a village Hampden, of a Roger de 
Coverley, and of the stout-hearted yeoman of the 
dales, 

"cui pauca relicti 
Tugera raris erant, nee fertilis ilia juvencis." 

It is a place in which are blended together the 
memories and associations of many ages. It suggests, 
in a moment, that solemn service of the ancient 
Church which Cardinal Newman has called the 
"evocation of the Eternal." A grim picture of 
Death at the north wall of the nave reminds the 
beholder of Puritan severity or Calvinistic gloom. 

In the chancel is a monumental brass, bearing a 
full-length figure of Henry Balguy, Esq., in a pointed 
hat, doublet, and breeches, having a pen in the right 
hand and a book in the left. It also bears a shield, 
charged with the arms of the family, namely, Or, 
three lozenges, azure. Upon it is the inscription : 

A MVNDO ABLACTANS OCVLOS TAMEN IPSE 

REFLECTO 
SPERNO FLENS VITUS LENE SOPORE CADO. 

WAINED FROM THE WORLD VPON IT YET I 

PEEPE 
DISDAINE IT WEEPE FOR SINNE AND SWEETLY 
SLEEPE 

QVI IMO 
HIC JACET HENRICVS BALGAY OBUT DEC 
TIMO 
SEP DIE 
MARTIJ ANNO DOMINI 1685 

CEEIMO TIMO 
ANNO ^ETATIS SVM SEPTVA SEP 
CVJVS PECCATA PER CHRISTVM CONDON 
ANTVR. AMEN. 

The ancient family of Balguy, of whom John Balguy, 
Esq. , the well-known police magistrate at Greenwich, 
is the present representative, were long resident in 
the Peak at Hope Hall, Aston Hall, Derwent Hall, 
and Rowlee, and held large possessions there. 
There are two wooden tablets in the east wall of the 
north transept, of which' the following are copies : 

The Rev d . Mr. Jacob Creswell 
Vicar. Robert Balguy, 
Joseph Eyre, Robert Heald 



32 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



churchwardens Ellis 
Woodroofe, clarke. 

Churchwarden 1 for y* 
year i66t. John Shalcross 
Esq r Robert Eyre, Esq' 
Henry Balguy Gent m 

A carved oak chair, which is said to have 
belonged to the village schoolmaster, and which 
is now within the communion-rails, bears the some- 
what mysterious inscription : Ex torto ligno non 
fit Mercurius. This inscription, as well as that on 
the Balguy monument, will cause the reader to think 
that the art of writing Latin verses and Latin 
apophthegms had been but imperfectly understood in 
the Peak since the time when Hobbes the philosopher 
wrote his hexameters, De Mirabilibus Pecci. 

Hope Hall is now the village inn ; and, though it 
has been greatly mutilated, some of the old rooms 
remain nearly in their original condition of two cen- 
turies ago. Framed in the panelling of the walls are 
a few pictures, which were doubtless put there by the 
Balguys. They are very much faded. One of them 
represents the Visit to Danae by Zeus in the Shower 
of Gold. Henry Balguy carried on the profession of 
law in North Derbyshire, where, judging from entries 
in the Diary of Adam Eyre, his practice must have 
been extensive. He is said to have possessed an in- 
ordinate love of ' ' filthy lucre. " When he died, a chest 
of his was said to have been found so tightly packed 
with guineas that they could only be got out with great 
difficulty. To him Danae in the Golden Shower, a 
picture painted doubtless by his order, would be a 
pleasant subject to dwell upon. Dozing in his panelled 
parlour, after the day's work was done, he might 
dream of the showers of gold falling upon him from 
his many clients. Possibly there is a touch of irony 
in the inscription above his tomb, which, as we have 
seen, describes him as weaning his eyes from the world, 
and yet peeping upon it. 

The pews in the church are all of unvarnished and, 
happily, unpainted oak. They bear the names, with 
dates, of the parishioners who have occupied them 
since the time of George I. The descendants of many 
of the gentry and yeomen who occupied them still 
remain in the neighbourhood. The class of yeomen 
has not died out so quickly in the north as in other 
parts of England. That love of the soil, which was 
once so universal in this country, is not yet dead in 
the dales of the Peak. The men of north-west 
Derbyshire are a thrifty race, and they hug their 
paternal acres with a more than ordinary affection. 
Railways have not reached them, and old customs 
linger, as they are wont to do, in mountain fastnesses. 
Yet even into these peaceful solitudes the Ritualist, 
who calls himself aesthetic, has entered, with his 
varnish-pot, his stained deal, and his gingerbread 
flimsiness ; and local architects more skilled in build- 
ing factory chimneys and "jerried" ricks of bricks 
than the dwelling-places of a refined religion are 
nothing loth to destroy the picturesque and silent 
witnesses of deeds and of lives which have made 
this country what it is, and to pocket their five per 
cent. 

I have given but a faint outline of the interior of 
Hope Church, and have left the imaginative and 



sympathetic reader to fill up the picture. But, in 
order to give a finishing touch to my sketch, 
and to show how modern Vandals propose to deal 
with the well-built and venerable chancel of this 
church, with all its ancient memorials of the past, 
and to "dash down its carven work with axes and 
hammers," I will quote an extract from a letter which 
has lately appeared in the Sheffield Daily Telegraph. 
Writing about a contemplated destruction of the 
chancel of this church on the 5th April, 1 88 1, some 
Goth of a churchwarden says : 

" The east end call it a chancel if you please is but 
an ugly excrescence, out of all proportion and charac- 
ter with the church proper, and like a blister upon 
the face of beauty, a cheap appendage to an other- 
wise pretty church. The exterior effect is as though 
some farmer had been allowed to run up a granary 
close to the east end of this grand old historical 
church. The true desecration of Hope Church was 
when this abomination was allowed." 

"This abomination" was built in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, in the prevailing Perpendicular style. It was 
slightly repaired by the Dean and Chapter of Lich- 
field, as an inscription states, in 1620. It is replete 
with carved oak, and contains many coats of arms. 
It has an almery, piscina, stone sedilia, &c. These 
last are "miserable relics of Romish errors," which 
the churchwarden whose published opinion I have 
quoted makes no secret that he would destroy. A 
few years ago two ancient altar-slabs were discovered 
in the church of Egam, which is near Hope, and is 
well known as the place to which the Great Plague of 
London was brought down in a box of clothes. They 
bore the marks of consecration, and were immediately 
pounded to pieces as remnants of Popish idolatry. 
This happened in the seventh decade of our boasted 
nineteenth century. If a few more such examples as 
these should meet the eye of Sir John Lubbock, he 
might be prevailed upon to include churches in his 
Bill for the Preservation of Ancient Monuments. 
S. O. Addy, M.A. 

ARCH^OLOGICAL SOCIETIES. 

In Mr. Roach Smith's Collectanea Antiqua, vol. 
vii. part 4, is a notice of the life of his friend Mr. 
Thomas Wright, which I understand has been largely 
circulated separately. The chief event in this life was 
the split in the Archaeological Society, which at the 
end of the first year was divided into the " Institute" 
and "Association." 

No one who knows the character of Mr. Roach Smith 
will doubt that this account is a fair and honest one, 
so far as his information goes ; but he is acquainted 
with one side of the question only. I am perhaps the 
only person now living who is necessarily acquainted 
with both sides ; he represents, or, as I should say, 
misrepresents, that the Institute split off from the 
Association. That the reverse was the fact can I think 
be easily demonstrated. The " Journal" of the Insti- 
tute begins a year earlier than that of the Association, 
and in the sixth number, or in the middle of the 
second volume of the "Journal of the Institute" is an 
authentic account of the meeting of the Committee, 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



33 



in which the Marquis of Northampton, who had 
been President of the Society from the beginning, 
said that so much public inconvenience arose from 
there being two " Simon Pures" in the field two 
Societies calling themselves by the same name, that it 
was desirable to make some arrangement by which 
they might be distinguished one from the other. It 
was therefore necessary to make some arrangement 
for that purpose, and as the section at the head of 
which were Messrs. Pettigrew, Wright, and others, 
refused to make any change, it was better to let them 
continue to have the name of the Association, keep- 
ing ourselves the "Journal" in our own hands, with 
the name of Archaeological. The minutes of the Com- 
mittee for the first year are, and always have been, in 
the hands of the Secretary of the Institute. 

The first general meeting was held at Canterbury, 
where Professor Willis gave his admirable lectures 
(since published) of the history of that cathedral, and 
he continued year after year to give his lectures on the 
different cathedrals to the Institute. It became evi- 
dent at Canterbury that the Society consisted of two 
distinct classes of persons the one, gentlemen of 
property and amateurs of Archaeology, who wished 
to have opportunities of communicating to others the 
information that they had collected, that it might not 
die with them, as had frequently been the case with 
many of their friends. The other party consisted of 
professional Archaeologists, and this party wanted to 
set up poor old John Britton as the leader of the 
Architectural department, in the place of Professor 
Willis. Any one who will compare the letterpress of 
Britton's Architectural Antiquities with Willis's Lec- 
tures will see the absurdity of this, and it made 
Willis's friends angry. 

The Society was originally established on a some- 
what romantic basis. jThere was to be no subscription ; 
members only pledged themselves to take in the 
" Journal," of which there were to be four quarterly 
numbers, which were to cost ten shillings a year ; all 
the writers and officers of the Society were to be 
volunteers. Mr. Wright volunteered to act as editor 
of the Journal under Mr. Albert Way, who was the 
Secretary of the Society, and who was also Director 
of the Society of Antiquaries, and a well-known anti- 
quary of the highest class. He volunteered to make 
the drawings ; he was one of the best artists of his 
time for articles of virtu. The great mistake that 
was made, that is now evident, was in not making 
Mr. Wright the paid sub-editor, a very necessary 
person who must be paid for his work. On this 
original plan 2000 names were obtained by the end of 
the first year. 

Mr. Way arranged with me to be the publisher, and 
to pay all expenses of printing, engraving, and adver- 
tising ; and part of his plan was, that after a few 
years, the woodcuts, which were engraved by Orlando 
Jewitt chiefly from Mr. Way's drawings, should be 
collected into elementary volumes on different sub- 
jects, similar to my Glossary of Architecture, which 
had then been recently published and was very 
popular. Considerable sums were subscribed by the 
friends of Lord Northampton and Mr. Way towards 
paying the expenses of the woodcuts (but this was 
carried off by Mr. Pettigrew as Treasurer to the 
Association), as most people saw that ior. a year could 
VOL. IV. 



not pay for these with other expenses. When the 
accounts were made up at the end of the first year it 
was found that there was no profit, as the preliminary 
expenses necessary in starting a new society and a 
new journal had swallowed up all the receipts, as any 
publisher of experience would have said was naturally 
to be expected. Mr. Wright's friends were very 
indignant at this, as they had calculated upon paying 
him out of profits. When the split took place the 
Society was divided as nearly as possible into half and 
half. I had 2,000 subscribers to the Journal for the 
first year, and only 1,000 the second, because the 
Pettigrew party had started a journal of their own 
with a subscription of a guinea a year. 

I carried on the Journal and the annual volumes of 
Proceedings the first five years at my own expense, in 
the expectation that the split must come to an end ; 
and as I had been an enthusiastic Architectural 
Antiquary from my boyhood, I was not willing to 
give up the Journal, but as I had. carried it on at a 
heavy loss I could not afford to go on with it, and the 
Institute was then obliged to have an annual sub- 
scription of a guinea also. Their Journal has always 
been continued to the present time, and some years 
since they obtained the Royal patronage. Unfor- 
tunately Mr. Wright or one of his friends was a writer 
in the Times ; consequently a very one-sided account 
of the split was given in that paper, and it was only 
quite recently that the Times has inserted any notices 
whatever of the proceedings of the Institute. For 
years it gave full accounts of the proceedings of 
the Association, but ignored the existence of the 
Institute, and numbers of persons have been deceived 
in that manner, and have heard or read only one side 
of the question. 

I do not think that Mr. Roach Smith's one-sided 
story should go down to posterity as the true history 
of the split, and as I have no, doubt that The 
Antiquary wishes to be impartial in the history of 
this now old story, I trust you will admit this counter- 
statement. 

John Henry Parker, C.B. 

Athenaeum Club. 



TRADITIONS ABOUT OLD BUILDINGS. 

(hi. 8, 188.) 

In his interesting remarks on the above subject, 
introduced by Mr. Gomme, the Rev. W. S. Lach- 
Szyrma refers to the Cornish proverb, " Like the 
Mayor of Marketjew, sitting in his own light," as 
having originated from a tradition that the Mayor of 
that town used to sit in a window of the Town-hall. 
I find that Mr. Hunt, in his Romanc e s and Drolls of 
the West of England, gives another origin to the 
proverb, which, however, he renders, ' ' Standing like 
the Mayor of Marketjew, in his own light." He telis 
us that a mayor of this town, who was also a brewer, 
was accustomed, whenever he had to settle disputes 
between persons, to lock them up in the brewery and 
give them as much beer as they cared to drink, and 
there keep them until they became friends. This 
being so, we can easily imagine that he never had 
much beer to sell, and though he might have been 



34 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



reckoned a very good mayor, was certainly, as a 
brewer, "standing in his own light." 

Of traditions connected with ancient buildings there 
are several in Devonshire, and a collection of these, 
together with those existing in other counties, would, 
indeed, be of interest. To mention a few, we find 
that the church of Plympton St. Mary has connected 
with it the legend so frequently attached to ecclesiastical 
buildings, of the removal by the enemy of mankind of 
the building materials by night, from the spot chosen 
for its erection, to another at some distance ; and the 
little church on Brent Tor, a lofty conical hill on the 
north-western borders of Dartmoor, has a similar 
tradition told respecting it ; but in this instance, 
instead of the site being changed from high ground to 
lower, as is the case with Plympton St. Mary, it is 
the opposite, for it is said that it was intended to build 
the church at the foot of the Tor, whereas it is now on 
the summit. There is also another tradition con- 
nected with this church, its erection on such a curious 
spot being due, w'e are told, to the fulfilment of a 
vow. The founder of this little sanctuary was in 
great danger of shipwreck, and vowed that if spared 
to reach the shore he would build a church on the 
first point of land he should behold. This happened 
to be Brent Tor, and he lost no time in fulfilling his 
promise to his patron, St. Michael, to whom the 
little shrine is dedicated. The church at Braunton is 
stated to have been built by St. Branock, who was 
directed in a dream to erect it on the spot where he 
should first meet a sow with a litter of young ones. 
There is an ancient carving on the panel of a seat 
in the church representing a litter of pigs. There 
are also several stories told in connection with the 
church of Widdecombe-in-the-Moor, and the church 
of Buckfastleigh. This latter is built on an eminence, 
and is approached on one side by a flight of steps, 
195 in number. The tradition told respecting the 
church of Stoke Gabriel is t quaint and curious, and 
many others might be given. 

That this subject should receive attention is certainly 
to be desired. 

William Crossing. 

Splatton, South Brent, Devon. 



Readers of Mr. Gomme's Paper may be glad to 
have their attention called to two other examples 
of the class of superstitions mentioned therein. 

( 1 .) A correspondent, writing under the signature 
"Derroydd," to the Wrexham Advertiser of April 
16, 1 88 1, gives the following account of a tradition 
connected with the present site of Wrexham Parish 
Church : " After Christianity was introduced to this 
country it became necessary to have churches built, 
and when that question came before the inhabitants 
of this locality, according to tradition, Bryn-y- 
ffynnon was the spot fixed upon, and the work was 
begun in earnest ; but, owing to something, believed 
then to be supernatural, what was built in the day 
was thrown down in the night, and caused much 
alarm and fear among the inhabitants. At last, 
valiant and sturdy men were found with sufficient 
courage to watch and see whether the walls were 
thrown down by an invisible being, or by a being 
possessing flesh and bones like themselves. While 



thus watching, the walls that were built the day before 
were thrown down, and the watchmen were unable to 
see any being near them ; but immediately afterwards 
they fancied there was something hovering over their 
heads, which repeatedly cried ' Bryn-y-grog,' with 

no other explanation When these related 

next morning what had taken place in the night, it 
was decided at once that Bryn-y-grog was the place 
the church was to be built upon. Bryn-y-grog was 
then the name of the place where the church now 
stands, but was in the possession of a person that was 
unwilling to part with the inheritance of his fathers ; 
but upon hearing of the mysterious being crying in the 
air, indicating the place where the church was to be 
built, his heart was melted, and he agreed to give up 
possession upon condition that another place was 
provided for him instead ; and the present Bryn-y-grog 
was given him instead, and he carried the name with 
him there." 

(2.) A curious tradition belongs also to the de- 
tached Tower of the Church of West Walton, Norfolk, 
near Wisbech. At the Meeting of the British 
Association in 1878, Mr. Peckover thus described 
this tradition: "During the early days of that 
Church the Fenmen were very wicked, and the Evil 
Spirit hired a number of people to carry the tower 
away. They set it well on their shoulders, but could 
not get it over the churchyard wall, and they ran 
round and round with it until they found themselves 
unable to get it out of consecrated ground at all, and 
so they left it at the gate." 

Alfred N. Palmer. 

3, Ar-y-bryn Terrace, Wrexham. 



CHURCH BRIEFS. 

(iii. 167, 218.) 

By way of supplement to my friend Mr. Bird's 
interesting papers, will you allow me to say that briefs 
were finally abolished by an Act passed in 1828 (9 
Geo. IV. c. 42) ? In introducing the Bill on the part 
of the Government, Sir Robert Peel called attention 
to the abuses connected with the system, and to the 
smallness of the sums collected. Referring to Par- 
liamentary returns issued in May, 1819, and June, 
1827, I find, for instance, that the sum of ^424 
was collected for a casualty at Windiford Brook, but 
the sufferers only benefited to the extent of ^106. 
Upon a brief for Carlisle (dated 1818)^197 was col- 
lected, but the net proceeds amounted to 12 only. 
In another case ^24 was all that was left out of .210, 
and a brief for repairing Wrockwardine Church, 
issued in 181 8, produced the magnificent sum of Jive 
shillings ! But there are worse cases than this, the 
result being occasionally a balance on the wrong side. 
The expenses were very great, generally amounting 
to ,150 for "collector's salary," and about ^80 for 
1 ' expenses of patent." The number printed 
appears to have been uniformly 10,800 in the case of 
church briefs, and 11,500 for fire briefs. When the 
collection was made from house to house the instru- 
ment was called a "walking brief," and Alderman 
Wood, during the debate on the introduction of the 
Bill for abolishing briefs, gave a lively account of the 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



35 



way in which people were teased out of their money 
by churchwardens attended by gorgeous beadles and 
other parochial officers. About twelve briefs per 
annum were issued during the first quarter of the 
present century. 

For a long period it seems to have been understood 
that collections in church, except for the poor of the 
parish, were, strictly speaking, not exactly legal, unless 
made under Royal authority, or under statute. We 
find, accordingly, that the Society for the Promotion 
of Christian Knowledge, and the Society for the Pro- 
pagation of the Gospel established in 1698 and 170 1 
respectively were specially empowered by Royal 
Charter to collect money for their several objects. 
The Act which abolished briefs also incorporated and 
conferred special powers upon the Church Building 
Society, the Sovereign being constituted the patron. 
For many years a sort of informal brief called a 
" Royal Letter," was issued triennially on behalf of 
the Church Building Society, and perhaps for other 
objects as well, but the practice was discontinued 
about twenty-five years ago. That date marks, I 
believe, the final cessation of formal letters recom- 
mendatory from the Sovereign to her subjects of any 
particular charitable work. 

Further information on the subject may be foimd 
in Walford's Insurance Cyclopaedia ; in the Parliamen- 
tary Returns Nos. 327, 328 (1819); No. 524 (1827); 
and in the debates in Hansard for the year 1828. 
Richard B. Prosser. 

MACAULAY'S MARGINALIA. 

I lately acquired possession of a little book which 
once stood on Macaulay's shelves, and contains half- 
a-dozen lines written by him in pencil on the back of 
the frontispiece. The booklet, consisting of George 
Barringtoris Life (London : R. Barker, 1791) ; The 
New Festival of Wit ( London : Printed for R. Rusted, 
n.d.) ; and Lee's Call Again To-morroiv, a collection 
of songs (London : J. Lee, N. D. ), is quite shabby 
enough to have come out of any of Macaulay's Bethnal 
Green bookstalls, and is interesting as an illustration 
both of his Marginalia and love of ballads. The 
pencil note runs as follows: "Most astounding to 
note that Clarke's lines on the inscription above the 
Richmond family vault at Chichester Cathedral are at 
page 27 attributed to Barrington." The text on the 
page cited, after recording George Barrington's visit 
to Chichester Cathedral, where he saw the family 
vault of the Dukes of Richmond with its inscription 
"Domus Ultima," continues : "On this, the follow- 
ing epigram is said to have been written by him, 
which being not destitute of merit, in that agreeable 
species of composition, is here given. 

Did he who thus inscrib'd this wall 
Not read or not believe St. Paul ? 
Who says, ' ' There is, where-e'er it stands, 
Another house not made with hands :" 
Or shall we gather, from these words, 
That house is not a house of Lords J" 
The Clarke, whom Macaulay rightly credits with the 
authorship of these lines, was Dr. W. Clarke, one of 
the Residentiary Canons of Chichester, the author of 
a book on coins. It was in the year 1750 that the 



Chapel of Our Lady was granted to the 3rd Duke of 
Richmond as a mausoleum for his family. 

Perceval Clark. 



FIELD-NAMES. 

Field-names are so liable to be corrupted beyond 
all recognition that without an accurate knowledge of 
their position, and of the local pronunciation, it is 
dangerous to give an opinion as to their derivation 
and meaning. Slang, Croft, and the suffix Ley, are, 
however, common field-names ; while Hey, from the 
Norman Haia, hedge, denotes an enclosure ; thus Ox 
Hey, the Ox's inclosure ; Heyhurst, the enclosed 
Hurst. In the field named Carr, I should look for 
traces of a camp (British, Caer) ; and in Carnafield, 
I should expect to see a heap of stones (British, Garn). 
There is a place in Herefordshire called Red Door, a 
corruption of Rhyd Drur (British), Ford of the water; 
and perhaps Red Jurr may have the same origin. 
Copy is a very common corruption of Coppice. 
Sharplers is perhaps a distortion of the A. S. Sceappa 
leys, sheep fields. Crook often proves to be the Br. 
Craig-rock ; and Cock, the Br. Cawc, a hollow. 
Bredbury has a first cousin in Herefordshire, in the 
shape of Bredenbury. 

M. Bevan Hay. 

GREEN THE COLOUR OF LOVERS. 

(in. 191, 236.) 

Why ** Green, indeed, is the colour of lovers" is 
explained with exquisite felicity by Calderon : 

Lo verde dice esperanza 
Que es el mas immenso bien 
Del amor. 

Green is, in fact, correctly speaking, the colour of 
Hope. In early ecclesiastical Art it had no other 
significance than this. Dante gives green wings and 
robes to the angels who came out of the bosom of 
Mary to the souls in Purgatory : 

E vidi uscir dell' alto, e scender giue 

Due angeli con due spade affocate 
Tronche e private delle punte sue. 

Verdi, come fogliette pur mo nate, 

Erano in veste, che da verdi penne 
Percosse traean dietro e ventilate. 

In modern Italian folk-lore Green is strictly asso- 
ciated with Hope. It figures in a tragic Mentonese 
song : 

Oh ! Sabe, bela Sabe ! 
V invio a ra noassa. 

A e noasse non vago pa 
Anerai a ra dansa. 

Se a ra dansa vo vene 
Viestevo tota in bianca. 
Ra bela s'en va viesti 
D'una coro ciarmanta : 
Se ro blu va ben, 

O verd ha ra speranza 



36 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



A o primo cou de tambour 

A beta intra in dansa, 

A o segond cou de tambour 

A bela tomba moarta. 
There arc variants of this song in Provence and else- 
where. The mental process by which the colour got 
its bad name is not impossible to guess at : having 
been recognized as the badge of the unfulfilled, it 
came to be connected with anticipation, bad as well as 
good. It would, however, be interesting to trace 
the stages through which it passed. Readers of The 
Antiquary will remember Chaucer's ballad, 
" Against women unconstant," with the recurrent 
line 

" Instead of blue, thus may ye wear all green." 

Evelyn Carrington. 

40MQBt 

FELLEY AND BEAUVALE ABBEYS. 

Last April I visited, with a friend of mine, Felley 
Abbey, in Nottinghamshire. It is situated in the 
parish of Annesley, about a mile and a half south- 
west of the old parish church, a hundred yards east 
of the Derby road. The remains which we found 
consisted of a building now" used as a farm-house, 
erected apparently in the sixteenth century ; a con- 
siderable number of long stone walls ranging from 
three to five feet high ; fragments of two Norman 
pillars, &c. The house, which is very picturesque, 
contaias several points of interest. One of its prin- 
cipal chimneys is singularly quaint and even beauti- 
ful in its design. The walls, which are very thick, 
are pierced with broad, low windows, with stone 
mullions. There are several pieces of carving to be 
seen, of great interest. In the north wall of the 
present garden, and facing southwards, is inserted a 
piscina. This wall appears to be the oldest portion 
of the buildings, and runs east and west some twenty 
yards north of the house. It appears to stand on the 
site of one of the arcades of the chapel, since we 
found blocked up in it the portions of pillars before 
alluded to. Some eight feet north of this wall there 
runs a shorter wall parallel to it, but not extending so 
far east. These two walls are connected at their 
western extremity by a third wall, all of them stand- 
ing some eight feet high. This, \ imagine, must have 
been part of the north aisle of the chapel. The first- 
mentioned wall is continued eastward, and is carried 
round so as to enclose about tw6 acres of land east of 
the present house. In this enclosure we saw what 
was probably the abbey fishpond, lying about a 
hundred yards from the house. 

A few days after we visited the site of the abbey of 
Beauvale, which lies about three miles west of Huck- 
nall Torkard. Leaving the high road about two 
miles trom the town, we crossed some fields, and 
getting upon a colliery line, walked about another 
mile, when we reached a very secluded and pretty 
little vale. Down in the hollow on the right of the 
line, we found all that is left of what was, perhaps, 
once a considerable monastery. It consists of a low 
stone building, now used as a cow-house, and about 
which we could discover nothing of particular in- 
terest. In the field adjoining, which was enclosed by 



a long stone wall, we noticed a good many hillocks 
and depressions in the ground suggestive of wall 
foundations. 

Is there no Society in Nottinghamshire which 
would undertake to expose to view the foundations 
of both these monastic establishments ? It is quite 
possible that beneath the green sod, undisturbed for 
centuries, may be hid many things of interest to the 
antiquarian and ecclesiological student. 

F. T. Marsh. 

St. Mary's Clergy-house, Sutton-in-Ashfield. 



PATENS AND CHALICES IN COFFINS, 
(iii. 47.) 

Sir II. Dryden asks for notes on the custom of 
burying a chalice and paten in the coffins of eccle- 
astics, and for instances. The following from my 
MS. Note-book may be of some interest : 

" Among these chalices we must distinguish .... 
the funeral chalices, mostly small, and of worthless 
metal, which were accustomed to be put into the 
grave with the bishops as a special kind of travelling 
chalice. Such a grave or sepulchral cup of the 
eleventh century, which was found in the tomb of 
the Bishop Frederick of Miinster (who died 10841, 
is preserved in the Mauritius Church at Miinster. 
Quite void of ornament, and only of brass, it is worthy 
of notice on account of the noble manner of its 
membering. On the foot we see the engraved 
cross, which, being the sign of consecration, must not 
be wanting in any mass chalice. Another grave cup, 
of irregular and rougher form, found in the tomb of 
Bishop Hezilo (died 1079), is shown in the Cathedral 
at Hildersheim {Ecclesiastical Art in Germany during 
the Middle Ages, by Dr. Wilhelm Liibke, translated 
by L. A. Wheatley ; 2nd edition ; Edinburgh, Jack, 
1873). 

1. York Minster. In the Penny Post Magazine 
for August, 1872 (p. 218), is a careful engraving of 
three chalices and patens, found at various times, in 
the coffins opened in York Minster. Archbishop 
Melton, of York, died 1340, and was interred near 
the font in the north aisle of the Minster. About the 
year 1730 Drake saw his tomb opened. "On the 
top of the uppermost coffin, near his breast, stood a 
silver chalice and paten, which had been gilt. On 
the foot of the chalice was stampt a crucifix of no 
mean workmanship, and on the inside of the paten a 
hand giving the benediction ... .his pastoral staff" 
was by his side, but no ring was found .... the 
chalice and paten were carried to the vestry. His 
grey hairs were pretty fresh" {Fasti Ebor., vol. i. p. 
436). 

2. Kirkwall. In the Catalogue of Antiquities in 
National Museum of Edinbord (edit. 1876, p. 138): 
M 14 J. Head of a crozier in oak, and chalice and 
paten in wax, from the tomb of Bishop Thomas 
Tulloch, 1 4 1 8-146 1 ; from the tomb in Kirkwall 
Cathedral," in 1848. 

3. Worcester. A chalice and paten were 
found in the grave of Walter de Cantilupe, Bishop 
of Worcester, ob. 1266. The chalice was stolen, but 
the silver paten is preserved at the Deanery, Worcester. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



37 



4. Hereford. Several instances were discovered 
here by the late Dean Merewether. He published 
particulars of the case of Chancellor Swinfield's tomb 
(A.D. 1297) ; and a full account of Bishop Swinfield's 
tomb, opened in 1861, is given in Fasti Hcrefordenses 
(4to, 1869). 

5. Lincoln. A stone coffin, containing the re- 
mains of a corpse in good preservation, was found at 
the east end of Lincoln Cathedral. A chalice and 
the remains of a staff were found with the body. 
The cross on the coffin-lid appears to indicate by its 
form that the coffin was that of an archbishop. A 
full account of this discovery and contents of coffin 
appear in Archaologia (vol. i. p. 53), Sepulchral Slabs 
and Crosses, Cutts (p. 78). 

6. Exeter. " In relaying the floor of the choir, in 
August, 1763, a large slab was removed from a very 
shallow walled grave, in which lay a leaden coffin, of 
ancient make and six feet long. The upper part was 
partly decayed ; the skeleton was nearly entire. On 
the right side stood a small chalice covered with a 
paten, and a piece of silk or linen was round the stem. 
Amongst the dust was discovered a fair gold ring, 
with a large sapphire, and on the left were some 
fragments of a wooden crozier. The remains were 
respectfully covered in, but the ring and chalice are 
preserved in the Chapter House." (Oliver's Lives of 
the Bishops of Exeter.) A sketch of chalice, paten 
and ring are given in the Transactions of the Exeter 
Diocesan Architectural Society. Bytton was Bishop 
of Exeter 1292- 1 307. 

7. Tewkesbury. The tomb of Alanus, Abbot of 
Tewkesbury, ob. 1202, when opened, contained, on 
the right side of his skeleton, a plain crozier of wood, 
neatly turned ; the top gilded, with a cross cut in it, 
5 feet 1 1 inches long ; on the left side a fragment of 
a chalice. (Archaologia, vol. xiv. 152.) 

8. Evesham. In excavations on the site of the 
Abbey of Evesham, circa 1810-1820, the tomb of 
Henry of Worcester, Abbot of Evesham (ob. 1263), 
was found and opened. A crozier was found on the 
right side, and a chalice and paten of pewter, fallen 
out of the left hand, lying across the breast. 
(Arc/ueologia, vol. xx. 568.) 

9. In Cheam Church, Surrey, during the removal 
of the old tower, a stone coffin was discovered, seven 
inches below the level of the floor. The coffin con- 
tained the remains, possibly, of one of the rectors of 
Cheam as early as the thirteenth century. A pewter 
chalice and paten were found on the left-hand side of 
the skull, apparently in the original position, &c. 
(Archceological Journal , No. 83, 1865, p. 92.) 

10. During excavation in Kirby-Underdale 
Church, among other things discovered were " the 
pewter chalice and paten in the stone coffin of a 
former rector." {Guardian circa 1872.) 

11. Charlewood Church, Surrey. An instance 
found in the graveyard of this church is related in 
Archaeological journal (vol. xviii. p. 276). 

12. St. Mary Magdalene, Doncaster. During the 
removal of the remains of this building, which were 
found embedded in the walls of the old Town Hall, 
the following discovery was made : A skeleton, 
without any traces of coffin, lay immediately under 
the high altar, and held a chalice between the fore- 
finger and thumb of the right hand. The bowl of 



the chalice was of oval shape, with an inner lid, and 
over it a raised cover the paten, said to have been 
lead, probably pewter. (History of St. Mary Magdalen 
Church, Doncaster, Rev. J. E.Jackson, pp. 35-36.) 

13. Epwortii. In September, 1880, during some 
alterations of the floor of the church at Epworth, a 
coffin, without a lid, was found, containing a skeleton 
of a full-grown person probably that of a former 
parish priest with a chalice and paten of pewter (?) 
lying on the breast. In a paragraph recording this 
in The Antiquary (1880, November, p. 225), the 
skeleton is spoken of as " apparently of a woman." 
This error is probably caused by the discovery, in the 
same coffin, of the bones of an infant also. The pre- 
sence of these latter is easily accounted for by the 
fact that the coffin was without a lid, and many other 
burials had taken place in the same part of the 
church. 

See also Bloxam's Monumental Architecture (1834). 
F. Royston Fairbank, M.D. 

Doncaster. 



I have in my possession a miniature chalice found 
on the breast of, no doubt, a priest, buried in a stone 
coffin in the north transept of the Abbey Church of 
Hexham, in Northumberland. It is of copper about 
Y ff of an inch thick, and has been strongly gilt, a great 
part of the gilding still remaining. Total height, 
2^in., diameter of bowl the same. The bowl is 
hemispherical, ij in., including beaded ring round its 
base ; the stem spherical, of an inch ; the foot 
a segment of a sphere, also of an inch, flattened out 
-J of an inch at the bottom. This very interesting 
relic came to light during a "restoration" of the 
Abbey in i860, when, alas ! much that was "old" 
was swept away, and much that is new was badly 
done. Up to that time the Abbey possessed a "Lady 
Chapel," across, and opening from, the east end of 
the choir, now removed bodily. I can remember the 
ancient altar slab lying in the pavement in front of the 
modern Communion Table, a noble stone upwards of 
nine feet long, with its five cross-crosslets. It has 
vanished, probably broken up, as the "old materials" 
became the property of the contractors. Since then 
another restoration has taken place, more careful, and 
principally of the north transept, but the area of the 
choir having been cleared for congregational seating, 
" Prior Richard's shrine," with its little altar in situ, 
the ancient "Frith-stool'' or sanctuary chair, and 
other monuments of antiquity, have been relegated to 
bye- corners. The wooden rood-screen, painted with 
figures of saints, priors, and Dance of Death, happily 
remains in its place ; and the glorious Early English 
transepts, the Saxon crypt with Roman slabs, and 
other architectural features, leave Hexham still well 
worthy of a special pilgrimage to the antiquary. 

W. Featherstonhaugh. 

Edmundbyers R, Co. Durham. 



The only instance that I know of in Suffolk was at 
St. John's, Dunwich, taken down about 1540. Under 
a large stone in the chancel was found a stone coffin 
in which was the corpse of a man having on his legs 
1 ' boots picked like Crakows," and on his breast stood 



3 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



two chalices of coarse metal. He is supposed to have 
been a Bishop of Dunwich. 

H. W. Birch. 
Ipswich. 

THE BUCKENHAM FAMILY. 

For some time past, my attention has been directed 
to investigations connected with the origin of the 
Four Buckenhams in Norfolk, as well as that of the 
Buckenham family. 

I was much pleased to see in your issue of March last, 
page 1 32, Professor Stephen's reading of the inscrip- 
tion on the Runic stone, found at Broughs com- 
mencing, "INGALANG IN BUCKENHOME," 
the date of which he sets down about a.d. 550-600. 

I find in the Rev. Isaac Taylor's "Words and 
Places," that the Roman Emperor Valentinian, in 
A.D. 371, sent over to Britain a tribe of the Allemanni 
(opposite Mayence), viz., the Bucinobantes, and he 
affirms that they settled in Norfolk, and were in all 
probability the founders of the Four Buckenhams. 
The same theory is maintained by Haigh, and pro- 
bably both have derived their opinions from the frag- 
mentary History of Ammianus Marcellinus, who, 
though giving a full account of the Bucinobantes, 
does not mention the Buckenhams. 

After the arrival of the Bucinobantes in Norfolk, 
their individuality seems to have been lost, for, as far 
as I have hitherto endeavoured to trace their after- 
movements, my efforts have been unsuccessful. 

I should indeed feel much obliged if you, or any 
one of your correspondents, would kindly give me 
any information in regard to the history of this family 
during the Saxon period viz., from A.D. 371, or 
mention the titles of any books, MSS., &c, that I 
might consult, in order to throw light on the subject. 

Their history is clear from the date of the Norman 
Conquest, indeed from a date anterior to that, 
A.D. 1042, and we have completed the pedigree of the 
family from that date ; save that there is a gap of 
about half a century back, from a.d. 1718. 

Thos. C. Newall, B.A. 

13 Little Queen Street, W.C. 



TEWKESBURY ABBEY & CRANBORNE. 

The early and close connection which subsisted 
between the Priory of Cranbome and the Abbey of 
Tewkesbury has given me, who am a native of the 
former place, an interest in the history of the latter 
ancient foundation ; hence I have read Dr. Hayman's 
" Historical Memories" (vol.i. pp.9, 55,97) soahly and 
instructively set forth in your pages, with the liveliest 
sentiments of gratification ; but, as truth is our object, 
I trust he will pardon me if I make an observation or 
two on what seems to me to be an erroneous statement 
in his Paper. It is not, however, an error of Dr. Hay- 
man's own, but is found in a passage which he quotes 
from Mr. Blunt's " History of the Abbey, " a work which 
has not come under my notice. The passage to which 
I allude (p. 58) refers to Brihtric, who is said to have 
been " seized in his chapel at Hanley, about three 
miles from Cranborne Abbey (where he had perhaps 



fled for sanctuary), on the very day of her (Queen 
Matilda's) coronation ; and had him conveyed a 
prisoner to Winchester," &c. It is quite true that 
there is the village of Handley at the distance of five 
(not three) miles from Cranborne ; but there is no 
record or tradition, so far as I know, of any chapel 
there to which Brihtric fled for sanctuary. To be 
sure, there is the parish church, which may give some 
support to the statement. But there is no authority 
for anything of the kind. All that we know about 
this cruel transaction is found in the Chronicle of 
Tewkesbury (Monasticon, new edit., vol. ii.), which 
runs thus : " ipsum in Manerio suo de Ilanleya 
coepi fecit, et Wyntoniam adduci, quo ibidem mor- 
tuus et sepultus, sine liberis decessit." It will be 
noticed that here the manor only of Hanley is men- 
tioned. In the next place we may see how Leland 
improved on this simple statement : " put hym yn 
the Castelle of Hanley, beside Saresburye, and there 
he died" (Itinerary, edit. Oxford, 1744). Here we 
have the castle, not the chapel of the Manor of 
Hanley, but we have its proximity to Salisbury 
specified. But it was neither the one nor the other, 
so far as this parish is concerned. The manor, too, 
of Handley does not appear to have been one of the 
440 manors which Brihtric held as of the Honour of 
Gloucester. The Manor, mentioned in the Chronicle, 
is undoubtedly that of Hanley in Worcestershire, 
where the Earls of Gloucester had a castle ; and here 
in his own castle he was seized, and taken from 
thence to Winchester, at that time the capital of the 
southern counties, where he died in prison, and 
where he seems to have been buried. 

I will now say a few words on another subject. 
When the chancel of Cranborne Church was rebuilt 
a few years ago by the Marquis of Salisbury, there 
were found in demolishing the old walls parts of the 
effigy of a warrior, in Purbeck marble, which had 
been broken up and utilized in the building. I have 
a fragment of the head, and other pieces which show 
that the figure was clothed in armour of ring-mail, 
gilded and coloured. This mutilation of an ancient 
monument occurred most probably at the time of a 
previous rebuilding of the chancel, which is believed 
to have been in the early part of the 15th century, 
under the auspices of Thomas Parker, the last Abbot 
of Tewkesbury, who seems to have taken pleasure 
in "bricks and mortar." His monogram, " T.P.," 
was formerly to be seen on the cornice above our 
east window, on the exterior ; and may be still seen 
within the church on the pulpit, which is a good 
specimen of old oak carving in the perpendicular 
style of Gothic. I have also a large metal button, or 
badge, with the same monogram, which has traces of 
white enamel in the letters, and may have been worn 
by the Abbot's bedemen or retainers. It was dug up 
near the churchyard. But of this monument : It is 
not at all obvious to what date or what person it may 
be confidently assigned. None of the De Clare 
family were buried at Cranbome ; but I have the 
impression that it may have been a cenotaph dedi- 
cated to the memory of Robert Fitz-Hamon, by 
Robert, Consul of Gloucester, whose marriage with 
Mabel, the eldest of his co-heiresses, became the 
source of great wealth and honour. It had mani- 
festly been a handsome and costly memorial, and it 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



39 



seems strange that its associations should not have 
made it sacred. At the time of the death of that 
great soldier, Fitz-Hamon, the building of Tewkes- 
bury Abbey was in an unfinished state, therefore his 
body was deposited in a temporary grave, from 
which it was subsequently removed to another situa- 
tion in the church ; and it was reserved for Abbot 
Parker to erect a sumptuous monument over the 
remains. This must have happened about the same 
time as the rebuilding of the chancel of Cranborne 
Church by him, and we may conjecture, I think with 
some probability, that this cenotaph, having become, 
after the lapse of near upon three centuries, defaced, 
worn, and nameless, was ordered to be broken up ; 
and thus was destroyed the last visible link of the 
historical chain which united the Abbey of Cran- 
borne with the Abbey of Tewkesbury. It has ever 
been the custom, I suppose, to erect under special 
circumstances honorary tombs and memorials to persons 
whose bodies may have been interred in other places. 
Here, indeed, is a case in point : In the " Historical 
Memoiries of Tewkesbury Abbey" (vol. i. p. 57) it 
is stated that the fragment of a memorial to this very 
Robert, Consul of Gloucester, was found under the 
altar at Tewkesbury, and it is known that his bones 
lie in Bristol. T. William Wake Smart. 

THE SURNAME "SEABORNE." 
(iii. 286.) 

This name is obviously a corruption of sig-beorn, 
or some such Teutonic combination, the first syllable 
being derived from the A.S. sige, sege, victory, and the 
second from A .S. beorn, a chief, or a cognate form, 
just as we find gftft-beorn, a warman, warrior. The 
prefix appears in several English surnames ; compare 
Sebright = sige-beorht, triumphantly, or gloriously 
bright, Seward =sig-ward, sibbald= sig-bald, &c. 
F. C. Birkbeck Terry. 

SCOTTISH COLONY IN WILTSHIRE. 

Can any reader of The Antiquary enlighten me 
as to when, and under what circumstances, the Scot- 
tish colony at Horningsham, Wilts, was formed ? Is 
it true that Scottish workmen were engaged in the 
rebuilding of Longleat House, about 1566, and is not 
a suburb of the village still called Scotland ? 

J. H. Barber. 

119, St. James's Road, Croydon. 



A CORPORAL OATH. 
(iii. 95, 141.) 
E. L. Hussey is in error as tb the conclusion which 
he draws from Coke's "Institutes." A "Corporal 
Oath" was the most solemn that could be taken, 
as it was sworn on the Host, or Corpus Christi, in 
the blessed sacrament. Edward King. 

Wenington Vicarage, Devon. 



In illustration of this expression it may be worth 
while to cite the following passages from Fielding's 
Tom Jones, book ii. chap. 6 : 

"And since he provokes me, I am ready, an't 
please your worship, to take my bodily oath, that I 
found them," &c. ; and, a page or so further on, 
"Yet, notwithstanding the positiveness of Mrs. 
Partridge, who would have taken the sacrament upon 
the matter, there is a possibility that the schoolmaster 
was entirely innocent." 

Of course these passages do not solve the difficulty, 
nor prove the derivation from corporale to be in- 
correct. 

The expression, * to lake the sacrament upon " a 
thing, reminds us of the original meaning of the Latin 
sacramentum ; but the connection is, I imagine, 
more or less accidental. Iota. 

Bristol. 



FAMILY AND ARMS OF MAULE. 
(iii. 191.) 

Mr. Edward Maule, of Godmanchester, Hunts, I 
think, can give curious information. One of this 
family, in conjunction with my namesake, published 
the History of Greenwich Hospital, 1 789-181 1. 
Another of them, Colonel Maule, published his 
military doings in Holland and Portugal, about the 
end of last century. C. C. 

London. 

RUSHES IN CHURCHES, 
(iii. 187.) 

Up to and inclusive of the last Guild Feast at Nor- 
wich, previous to the Munincipal Reform, it was the 
custom to strew the nave of the Cathedral over which 
the Mayor and Corporation walked with green rushes, 
the calamus romaticus which grows in the surrounding 
marshes and emitted a fragrant smell. 

I remember the tenure of a copyhold of a manor 
in Suffolk, as expressed in the Court Books, was by the 
service of strewing the church over every year with 
rushes. G. A. C. 



OLD ENGLISH CUSTOMS, 
(iii. 247.) 

Mr. Lach-Szyrma, in his interesting Paper upon the 
above subject, remarks that "the decking the outside 
of houses at May- day, which once prevailed in Eng- 
land, has a parallel in the decking of the outside of 
houses, barns, &c, with greens at Whitsuntide in 
some parts of the German Empire." 

I beg to say that in Norfolk, and at the present time, 
it is a very general custom to decorate with boughs of 
trees the outside of the inns at which club-feasts are 
held at Whitsuntide ; and this not only in the villages, 
but in the market-towns. Many distinctive features 
connected with the benefit-clubs are dying out ; but 
this house-decoration still continues in full vigour. 
John Armstrong. 

East Dereham, Norfolk. 



40 



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SHAKESPEARE S "DEER ADVENTURE." 



4i 




The Antiquary. 



AUGUST, 1881. 



Sbafceepeare's "Beer 
Htoenture." 




HAT Shakespeare was a leader in 
the town of Stratford during his 
youth in all the great sports and 
festivities we can readily believe. 
But the biographers, especially Oldys and 
Rowe, who came so late as 1709 into the field, 
found his name attached by report to the 
old squabble and riots that had taken place 
between the Stratford people and the Lucys. 
It was, therefore, not unnatural that when a 
dispute occurred about a stray deer which 
Shakespeare had shot on the adjoining estate 
of Fulbrooke (though he did not succeed in 
recovering his game), the event was, from 
these mixed reports, converted into a charge 
of stealing deer out of Sir Thomas Lucy's 
Park of Charlcote. Then it was magnified 
into an alleged habit or frequent practice of 
deer stealing, for which he was stated to 
have been prosecuted by that knight, and so 
severely that he was obliged to leave his 
family and take shelter in London. 

Happily the facts, as now explained, 
enable us to eliminate tolerably well the 
whole of the falsehood from these worse 
than exaggerations. 

Before Shakespeare's birth the Stratford 
people had resorted to the estate of Ful- 
brooke as a sort of " no man's land," which 
had been sequestered to the Queen on for- 
feiture by Sir Thomas Englefield on the 
Queen's accession in 1558. 

In the year 1564, on a document happily 
traced by Mr. Halliwell Phillipps in the State 
Paper Office, we find it recorded that thirty- 
five Stratford people had been charged by 
Thomas "Lucy, Esquier" for a riot in 
hunting, &c. ; but as Shakespeare was only 

VOL. IV. 



born in that year his name could not appear. 
The year is proved by the fact that Lucy 
was an Esquier, therefore not then knighted, 
an event which took place in 1565. 

Here then is proof of an astounding 
exaggeration, from lapse of time, which 
requires to be duly analyzed. First as to 
the estate, the locus in quo, it was not Charl- 
cote Park, for it cannot be proved that 
Shakespeare ever even visited the Park. 

The incident occurred on the estate of 
Fulbrooke, adjoining Charlcote, where deer 
from thence might naturally escape and take 
refuge, there being to this day many outlying 
deer in the neighbourhood as in other parts 
of England. 

Fulbrooke was of course a neglected place 
from having been in the hands of the Crown 
for nearly thirty years. It was probably all 
the more beautiful. At a much earlier time, 
when it had been also under forfeiture, it was, 
says Dugdale, the haunt of idle vagabonds, 
robbers, and murderers. It was, of course, 
open to passing visitors, and one may imagine 
it a famous resort for poachers, wood-stealers, 
and sportsmen, in search of hawks' nests, 
rabbits, and stray fawns, or even deer. 

The number of wandering persons about 
England, called " broken men," at this time 
was remarkable, many of them, it is stated, 
former recipients at the abbeys and monas- 
teries, who had not then become part of the 
settled population. So much trouble did they 
give, that on one occasion the magistrates of 
Somersetshire captured a gang of 100 at a 
stroke, and hanged fifty on the spot, and the 
remainder at the next assizes. (See Green's 
England, Vol. 2, p. 384.) 

Shakespeare himself confirms the general 
account : 

The country gives me proof and precedent 
Of Bedlam beggars, who, with roaring voices, 
Strike in their numb'd and mortified bare arms 
Pins, wooden pricks, nails, sprigs of rosemary, 
And with this horrible object, from low farms 

******* 
Enforce their charity. 

King Lear, act ii. sc. 3. 
This trouble was only finally subdued by 
the masterly and efficient machinery of 
Elizabeth's Poor-law (43 Elizabeth). Un- 
happily Ireland was left without such a law, 
and has been a sufferer ever since. 





42 



SHAKESPEARE'S "DEER ADVENTURE: 1 



The estate of Fulbrooke was given to Sir 
Francis Englefield in 4 & 5 Philip and 
Mary, but next year, on the accession of 
Elizabeth, was sequestered by her on his 
refusing to swear allegiance. It was not 
regranted, after being seized, till 1607, Eliza- 
beth probably having hopes that Englefield 
would acknowledge her as Queen. Instead 
of doing this, he consorted and plotted with 
recusants both in Belgium and in Spain. In 
1576, from some attempts apparently to 
obtain authority over his property, he was 
formally attainted and convicted of high 
treason. And in 1592 this was confirmed by 
an Act of Parliament. 

It seems possible that this conviction for 
treason and attainder gave to Shakespeare 
the feeling that, in the absence of authority 
expressly deputed by the Crown, the estate 
was more than ever free for sport to all 
comers. It appears that Lucy assumed charge 
or rangership over the estate, but no State 
authority for his doing so can be found. It 
was clearly his interest to have some such 
charge, if only for protecting his own stray 
deer. He might have done this without 
authority, by virtue merely of his magisterial 
office, and as one of the quorum, for the 
powers of a justice were then very great. 

The property did not come into the Lucy 
family till it was purchased by the grandson, 
in the year 161 5. Lucy, in addition to 
taking possession, had erected a hut, which 
he called a lodge. I speak from testimony 
on the spot, in saying it was a very slender 
affair. It was known as " Daisy Hill," and 
was used as a residence for his keeper. It 
has been recently rebuilt and converted into 
a handsome farm-house. 

This estate, then a most beautiful spot 
of wood, and hill, and dale, was the at- 
traction for such lovers of Nature as Shake- 
speare, " a desert place" (meaning deserted), 
as he styled it. Being part of the great 
Ardennes Forest, it strongly bears out our 
belief in the rumour which assigns this as the 
site of the play, As You Like It, 

That great forest extended so far that 
towns for a distance of many miles took their 
names from being included within its pre- 
cincts, such as " Henley in Arden," " Hamp- 
ton in Arden," "Weston in Arden," &c. 
Perhaps a proud feeling, that his own 



mother's early home was also within its 
borders, would give significance to the ex- 
pression put by him into the mouth of 
Touchstone, " Now am I in Arden." 

Here then, was the inducement for him, 
as a true lover of sport, to ride through the 
covert alone, or with friends, and, having 
found a deer, what should prevent him from 
exercising his right of killing it with his cross- 
bow ? No longer in a park, it was no longer 
known to the law nor to be styled game, but 
open to any one to make it a prize who could 
secure it. A deer in a legal, that is, in a pro- 
perly enclosed, park was protected by Act of 
Parliament, but, escaped from its enclosure, 
it returned to its condition of " fera natura," 
a fact that no doubt Shakespeare and all 
sporting friends knew quite well. 

Then all we have to account for is the 
assault on the lodge with which Shakespeare 
was charged, and which he openly admitted. 
The keepers, it seems natural to suppose, 
seized his game and secured it in the lodge. 
There Shakespeare would come with his 
friends, and with force try to overcome those 
in charge to regain his own, as he might 
think he had a right to do ; but in the con- 
test would be overpowered and lose the 
prize. 

It is not necessary to accept the statement, 
current on the spot to this day, that Shakes- 
peare was not only overpowered but strapped 
to the bedpost, and yet, as he had the satis- 
faction of breaking poor Slender's head, there 
must have been a sharp conflict. {Merry 
Wives of Windsor, i. 1.) 

The bedstead is so far a reality that good 
Mr. Cook, the tenant-farmer, received it from 
" Daisy Hill," within a short distance of his 
own residence ; he being one of a family of 
farmers of that name who have occupied 
farms immediately on the spot for many 
generations. The bedstead is now con- 
verted into a handsome sideboard, and has 
carved on it the year 1606, a date, as will 
be seen, at least twenty years later than the 
incident ; but a Stratford antiquary assures 
me that such a date is no guide, as it was a 
usual thing for an owner to have the date 
of the year inscribed on any such furniture 
when he himself became possessed of it. 

As Shakespeare openly admits his part in 
breaking open the lodge, we are bound to 



SHAKESPEARE'S "DEER ADVENTURE." 



43 



accept the remaining part of the statement, 
that the offence charged was that of killing 
only, so that he never got the deer. 

Shallow. Knight, you have beaten my men, 
killed my deer, and broke open my lodge. 
Falstaff. I have done all this. 

But Lucy himself obtained it, as is evi- 
dently implied by the conversation between 
the latter and Page to the effect that the 
venison of which they were about to partake 
was a gift from Lucy, and that it was the 
very deer in question, as he pointedly 
remarks it had been " ill-killed." 

This, then, disposes of any supposed 
intention on the part of Lucy to arraign 
Shakespeare for stealing. As to stealing, 
indeed, the deer was Shakespeare's own 
property rather than Lucy's, and was doubt- 
less so regarded by him. No doubt 
the knight fumed and threatened, and as 
regards the breaking open the lodge, deemed 
it a mighty offence againsthis position and 
dignity. 

The authority of magistrates being so great 
and despotic, he would doubtless bring for 
ward the words " riot and council," as having 
been running in his thoughts from the time 
of the previous disturbance by the Stratford 
tradesmen twenty odd years before ; but 
Shakespeare's bringing up these terms before 
the Queen's Court itself shows how slightly, if 
not contemptuously, he regarded them. As 
a magistrate, Lucy was a person of much 
self-importance, a magnate in Stratford town, 
where his services were often engaged as a 
justice to dispose of frequently occurring 
cases. The aldermen eagerly sought his at- 
tendance, and, according to the town records 
(still in existence, from which the following 
is an extract), rewarded him often for his 
services, and doubtless others also, by dinners 
and wine. For instance, " Paid at the Swanne 
for a quart of sack and a quartern of sugar 
burned for Sir Thomas Lucie, &c. &c." Sack 
was always drunk with sugar, and sugar was 
an expensive article viz., 16^., equal now to 
13s. ^d. per lb. 

Naturally some feeling of disgust would 
arise in Shakespeare's mind against such a 
justice, and he may have had him in his eye 
when he pictured the justice 

In fair round belly with good capon lined, 
With eyes severe, &c. 



Shakespeare could well afford to ridicule 
his talk about . the Council and Riots. It 
should be borne in mind throughout that 
Shakespeare's play was not an after-produc- 
tion. The Knight was alive, and did not 
die till 1600, so that Shakespeare's boldness 
of assertion was open to criticism. Being 
performed at Windsor, it is quite within 
belief that the story of the fat Knight and 
his deer conflict with Shallow would be 
carried about the country and become 
public talk. 

Shakespeare could hardly have found any 
medium of showing up the story and his own 
adventures equal to the introduction of it in 
connection with " Fat Jack," whose history 
and doings everybody connected with the 
Court probably knew and followed. 

Sir Thomas Lucy, dying in 1600, was 
buried with all pomp on the 7th of August. 
The illustrious Camden, then Clarencieux 
King at Arms, whose written account is 
here followed, came from the Heralds' 
Office, to uphold the coat of arms at the 
funeral. Four other gentlemen and heralds 
carried in the procession the standard, the 
pennon, the helm, and crest, &c. This was 
followed by the erection of recumbent 
statues and effigies, from which we are able 
now to observe the figures of the Knight and 
others of his family in the Church at 
Charlcote. 

One other conclusion we must draw from 
the information now available viz., that the 
dispute of Shakespeare with the Lucys arose 
solely from this one instance, for when Sir 
Walter Scott visited at Charlcote in 1828, 
as recorded by him, the then owner (Mr. 
Lucy) assured him it was not on that estate, 
but at Fulbrooke, that "the buck" was stolen. 
The vivid impressions still alive at Fulbrooke 
confirm this, and make one wonder how the 
squabbles and paper squibs which had been 
floating around for a whole generation be- 
tween the people of Stratford and the Lucy 
family should have settled upon the name 
and fame of one individual that of Shake 
speare alone. 

Not only does the transaction, as now 
ascertained, free Shakespeare from participa- 
tion in previous disputes (it may be for 
twenty, nay thirty years), and so reduce his 
share to the limits of one upstanding contest 

2 



44 



SHAKESPEARE S "DEER ADVENTURE: 1 



for the deer which he shot and claimed as 
his own, but it has, by the discovery of the 
twenty or thirty year old disputes of the 
Stratford people with the owners of Charl- 
cote, virtually shown that the verses, the 
satirical odes, and what else they may be 
termed, would naturally begin their career at 
the same early period ; and that if all those 
which had their probable origin before 
Shakespeare was born, and during the follow- 
ing twenty years, should be dismissed from 
all connection with him, there are no 
grounds (and certainly no proof whatever) 
for imputing a connection of any one with 
his name. 

We may therefore hope that in future 
biographies they will be left out, and his 
name be freed from all such injurious and 
worthless associations. 

William Henty. 

[It is with sincere regret that we announce the death 
of the author of this article at Brighton on July I ith. 
Mr. Henty was formerly Colonial Secretary of Tas- 
mania, and made the acquaintance of Sir John 
Franklin in his voyage out to that place.] 




Brasses of Ibuntfngfconsbire. 

By the Rev. Dr. Valpy French, F.S.A. 

HE county whose monumental 
brasses I propose to consider 
labours under the disadvantage of 
possessing no historian. The 
smallest county (one only excepted), situate 
in the immediate vicinity of the Fens possess- 
ing no archaeologist of mark since the days 
of the distinguished Sir Robert Cotton, 
Huntingdonshire has been suffered to be 
passed by almost unnoticed. I do not in- 
tend, however, to act as Advocate-in-General 
for the county, and tell of its religious houses 
so numerous, its Saxon mintage so nearly 
established, its Roman roads and remains ; 
but simply to direct attention to the monu- 
mental brasses which still remain, and to 
make some remarks upon costume, inscrip- 
tions, armour, genealogies, heraldic bearings, 
architectural design, and other details illus- 
trative of this important branch of mediaeval 
art. 

The following are the churches con- 



taining brasses, in alphabetical order: 
Broughton, Bythorn, Diddington, Godman- 
chester, Little Gidding, Offord D'Arcy, 
Overton Waterville, Sawtry All Saints, 
Sawtry St. Andrew, Somersham, Stanground, 
Stilton, Little Stukeley, Thurning, Win- 
wick. 

In addition to these are matrices of lost 
brasses in Broughton, St. Neots, Eynesbury, 
Conington, Godmanchester, and Offord 
D'Arcy. 

There are other churches, too, which once 
contained brasses, but from which every 
trace has disappeared viz., Great Staugh- 
ton, Great Stukeley, Southoe, Wood Walton, 
and All Saints, Huntingdon. 

The oldest brass is that in Sawtry All 
Saints Church, a knight and lady, date 1404. 
These were either Stourtons or Le Moignes. 
I applied for information to Lord Stourton, 
who, in reply, stated that the crest of the 
monk was assumed by the Stourton family 
in consequence of their marriage with the 
heiress of Le Moigne. It is appropriate to 
them as adherents to the Roman Catholic 
faith. The next point to be ascertained was, 
when this intermarriage took place. Sir R. 
C. Hoare states that William Stourton, of the 
family of Stourton, county Wilts, Steward of 
the Principality of Wales, who died in 1408, 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Moyne, of Maddington. He was buried at 
Witham, county Somerset, and so could 
not have been the subject of the brass in 
question. Added to this, the Christian name 
of the Sawtry lady was Maria ; this appears 
on the inscription. Reverting to the date 
upon the brass, which is 1 404, we can scarcely 
arrive at any other conclusion than that the 
knight in question is a member of the Le 
Moigne family probably a Sir William Le 
Moigne with Maria his wife. ' We know from 
the Visitation of Huntingdonshire, (p. 78), pub- 
lished in 1613, that William Le Moigne held 
the manor of Sawtry from the Abbot of 
Ramsey, who held the same from the Crown. 
The family of Le Moigne can be traced to 
the time of Henry I. They seem to have 
held manors in various counties in England ; 
and I have little doubt that the coat of arms 
surmounting the brass represents the original 
heraldic bearings of the Le Moigne family. 
The only real difficulty in this supposition 



BRASSES OF HUNTINGDONSHIRE. 



45 



arises from the fact that the whole arms of 
Beaumeys (argent, on a cross, azure, five 
garbes, or)* were made over, with their appur- 
tenances, to Sir William Moigne in 1392. 
But it is quite probable that the canopy 
was erected prior to that date, or that he 
preferred his own arms to appear upon his 
monument. 

But now to examine the armour of the 
knight in detail. His head rests upon a 
tilting helmet, to which is affixed, by a staple 
at its apex, the crest. This is a canting de- 
vice Le Moigne signifying "the monk." The 
arms are the demi-effigy of a monk, robed in 
the cappa manicata, or sleeved cowl, with 
caputium, or hood, attached and drawn over 
his head. In his hands is a flagellum, or 
flagellarium, of five knotted lashes, by which 
is intended the ancient " discipline." I be- 
lieve that no allusion is intended to the 
Crucis Fratres, or Flagellants, a monastic 
sect which sprang up in the thirteenth cen- 
tury. Other examples of crests attached to 
tilting helmets may be seen upon the brasses 
of Sir Nicholas Dagworth, in Blickling Church, 
Norfolk; of Sir William Tendring, Stoke 
Church, Suffolk ; of Sir William de Bryene, in 
Seal Church, Kent ; and of Sir John Drayton, 
in Dorchester Church, Oxfordshire. Probably 
the earliest example is the effigy of Sir Oliver 
Ingham, 1343. The most usual devices upon 
a jousting helmet are those of a beast, bird, or 
man. 

The tilting helmet was attached to the per- 
son by a chain, which passed over the left 
shoulder, and was secured by a vervelle or 
staple, which was riveted into a mameliere 
or plate of steel. This arrangement is clearly 
displayed on the brass of Sir John de North- 
wode, in the Isle of Sheppey. 

It is a curious coincidence, that in the ad- 
joining church of Conington is a sepulchral 
effigy of the fourteenth century, representing 
a knight who, in after-life, had taken the habit 
of a religious community. He is clad in a 
hawberk and friar's cowl. Mr. Bloxam 
regards this as an illustration of the virtue 
which, in mediaeval times, was popularly 
ascribed to the wearing of the friar's mantle, f 

* Harl. MS. 11 79, cited in Montagu's Study of 
Heraldry, App. A. 

+ Archaological Journal, i. 146. 



and he classes this knight amongst those in 
allusion to whom the poet writes : 

And they who, to be sure of Paradise, 
Dying, put on the weeds of Dominic, 
Or in Franciscan thought to pass disguised. 

The tilting helmet was made to fit on to 
the bascinet, a mere skull-cap of conical shape. 
Edward the Black Prince is the first who is 
represented with his head protected by a 
bascinet reposing on the tilting helmet. This 
practice continued for about 200 years. 

He wears the camail, or mail covering, for 
the neck and shoulders, which was attached 
to the bascinet by a lace drawn through ver- 
velles. Over it the moustache protrudes, 
and is as prominent as that of Thomas 
de Beaucharnp, Earl of Warwick. The 
camail obtains its name from its resem- 
blance to a tippet of camel's hair* Such an 
important feature is this tippet of mail that 
the reigns of Edward III. and Richard II. 
have been termed the " camail" period of 
armour. He wears " epaulieres," or over- 
lapping plates, to cover the shoulders. The 
other pieces of mail visible are the gussets at 
the shoulder and ankle joints, and a small 
portion of the habergeon. These are the 
dying embers of the period of mail armour. 
He wears the jupon, which may be described 
as a sleeveless overcoat, a garment made of 
silk or velvet, worn over armour. It fitted 
close to the body, reached down below the 
thighs, where it was cut straight, round, or 
bordered sometimes with leaves or flowers, 
here escaloped. The jupon was sometimes 
emblazoned with armorial insignia. An in- 
stance may be seen in Sir John Harsyck, 
Southacre Church, Norfolk. Beneath the 
jupon is seen the habergeon, a smaller form of 
hawberk. Many readers will remember that 
the knight in the prologue to the Canterbury 
Tales is said to have worn a gipon of fustian 
" alle besmottered with his habergeon." This 
has created confusion from the circumstance 
of both the military garments jupon and 
habergeon being superseded by defences 
of plate, to which the old names are applied. 
He wears rere-braces, also called " demi- 
brassarts." These are plates covering the 
upper part of the arm. They are first ob- 
served in De Fitzralph's brass in Pebmarsh 
Church, Essex. Vambraces, or, Avani Bras, 
* Sir S. Meyrick. 



46 



BRASSES OF HUNTINGDONSHIRE. 



encase the lower part of the arm. Coudieres, 
or coutes, of convex plate protect the elbows. 
These were sometimes of circular, sometimes 
of heart, shape. Gauntlets of plate, the 
knuckles being furnished with gadlyngs. 

The hands are joined in attitude of prayer. 
And so with all these : the warrior in armour, 
the ecclesiastic in vestments, the civilian in 
official robes, the female, too, in ordinary 
dress, all alike are represented as in the act 
of prayer : being dead, they yet speak to us 
of a power whose influence reached beyond 
the grave. The posture in later ages was 
changed from that of prayer to meditation. 

He wears moreover a bawdrick, or sword- 
btelt, broad and richly ornamented, of leather, 
girded over the hips horizontally. The 
sword is long, straight, tapering, with an 
octagon pommel or knob. The hilt and each 
extremity of the scabbard are ornamented. 
The guard formed a cross : half of this is 
broken off. Beneath are two quadrupeds 
and a row of guttae. 

We read of the warrior of those times often 
digging his sword in the ground, whose guard 
formed a cross, and praying before that sym- 
bol. Let us not leave this weapon without 
recalling those lines of Coleridge 

The knight's bones are dust, 

And his good sword rust, 

His soul is with the saints, I trust. 

On his right side, and attached to the hip- 
belt, is the anebace, also called the misericorde, 
or dagger of mercy. This was a small, 
straight dagger, without guard. The hilt and 
extremity of the sheath are ornamented. It 
was called M misericorde," because with this 
the conqueror put an end to the pain of his 
captive by using it to stab him when disabled 
by the larger weapon. Cuissarts of plate 
cover the legs above the knees. Jambarts, 
called also jambs, jambers, greaves, and 
skin pieces, enclose the legs below the 
knees. They were at first made of leather or 
quilted linen, afterwards of plate. 

His knees are protected by genouilleres, 
" poleyns" or knee-caps of plate ; above 
and below are double plates for additional 
security, called genouailles, as , on the brass 
of Sir Marys Russel, in Dyrham Church, 
Gloucestershire. Upon his feet are sol- 
lerets, or pointed shoes. The upper portion 
is composed of "laminae," or overlapping 



pieces of plate. His spurs are rowelled. 
The early spurs were like a spear head. 
Henry III. was the first king who wore spurs 
with rowels. In the fifteenth century they 
are sometimes like a serrated wheel, some- 
times like a star. His feet rest on a lion 
couchant. Amongst many examples of this 
may be mentioned the brasses of Sir John 
Bettesthorne, in Mere Church, Wilts ; of Sir 
Henry English, in Wood Ditton Church, 
Cambridgeshire ; of Sir William de Eching- 
ham, in Etchingham Church, Sussex ; 
and Sir Thomas Massyngberde, in Gunby 
Church, Lincolnshire. What was in- 
tended by the lion? It is found at the 
feet of knight, noble, priest, and judge. 
Animals, we know, often represent per- 
sonal badges of the family of the deceased 
e.g., the "bear" of the Earls of Warwick. 
Again, they occasionally are employed as 
rebuses, as the rabbit on the brass of Walter 
Coney, in St. Margaret's Church, Lynn, and 
two hares at the feet of Bishop Harewell. 
But personal badges or rebuses will account 
for the use of a very small proportion of 
animals. We must regard them as symbolical, 
and the symbol in each case to be appropriate 
either to the individual or to his office. By 
the lion, strength, physical or moral, would 
be denoted in the majority of instances. 

In taking leave of Sir William le Moigne, 
we may notice that this brass is far the best in 
the county, and is exceeded in excellence by 
few in the kingdom. Upon the same brass, 
recumbent at his right hand, is Maria, his wife. 
The Rev. C. G. R. Birch, rector of Brancaster, 
and son of the former rector of Sawtry, 
in whose church this brass is placed, supposes 
this lady to have been, before her marriage 
with Sir William, a Drury of Rougham, 
Suffolk, from the arms on the stone canopy 
above the brass, and from its great resem- 
blance in style, costume, and execution to 
the brass of Sir Roger Drury and lady. This 
is an excellent example of the costume of 
ladies towards the close of the fourteenth 
century. She is clad in a tight-fitting kirtle, 
or body-gown, low at the neck, with light 
sleeves, buttoned underneath the forearm, 
and partly covering the hands. Over this 
she wears a flowing mantle, which is secured 
by a cordon drawn across the breast. This 
is often attached on either side to a fermail 



BRASSES OF HUNTINGDONSHIRE. 



47 



of jewels. The tasselled extremities of the 
cordon are pendant. A very similar costume 
may be seen on the brasses of Lady Berke- 
ley, in Wotton-under-Edge ; the first wife of 
Sir Lawrence Pabenham, Offord D'Arcy; 
Philippa Byschoppesdon, Broughton Church, 
Oxfordshire ; Lady de Cobham, Cobham 
Church, Kent ; Anna Martyn, Graveney 
Church, Kent j Lady Halsham, West Grin- 
stead Church, Sussex ; Lady Ferrers, Mere- 
vale Church, Warwickshire ; Lady Margaret, 
Countess of Warwick. The latter is specially 
interesting, inasmuch as the gown is charged 
with the armorial bearings of her own family, 
the mantle with those of her husband. Per- 
haps the latest example is that of Lady Clere, 
Ormesby Church, Norfolk. 

But it is the head dresses in this period 
which present the chief variety in costume. 
The example on this brass is a modifica- 
tion of the reticulated head-dress, or cap of 
protuberant fret-work or netted drapery. The 
special name given to this head-attire is 
" crespine," or " crestine." It was a netted 
caul worn over the head, confining the front 
hair over the forehead and in two small 
bunches above the ears. A roll seems to 
have encircled the head to keep the head- 
dress in its proper position. Over this a 
veil or kerchief was thrown, which fell upon 
the shoulders each side. I may mention 
here that a fine sculptured illustration of head- 
dresses occurs in the springing of one of the 
cloister arches in Southwell Collegiate 
Church. It is engraved in Carter's Ancient 
Costume. The head rests upon a bolster and 
pillow very similar to the supports of the 
head of Lady Berkeley before mentioned, 
and Lady Bagot, in Baginton Church, War- 
wickshire, and Lady Drury, in Rougham 
Church. This is not an uncommon arrange- 
ment; the effigy of Joan of Navarre, in 
Canterbury Cathedral, affords another good 
specimen. Sometimes these cushions are 
beautifully diapered ; sometimes they are 
supported by angels.* 

The sleeves are buttoned down the arms, 
and cover the back of the hands. These 
are sometimes seamed with precious stones 

* Frequently the upper of the two cushions is set 
as here, lozenge-wise. The same may be seen on 
the brass of Eleanore de Bohun, in Westminster 
Abbey. 



e.g., those of Beatrice, Countess of Arundel. 
At the feet of a lady is a dog, generally 
regarded as an emblem of vigilance or fidelity. 
Of the inscription, the following words only 
remain : 

Mens' Aprilis An D'ni M cccc iiij et Maria 
vx. eius Quor .... Ame'. 

Diddington Church, or " Dodington," as it 
used to be written, possesses two brasses. 
The one is attached to the east wall of the 
south transept : that of Alicia Taylard is 
riveted to its slab which lies loose in the 
chancel. It will be seen that portions are 
lost. One portion wanting of William Tay- 
lard is preserved at the vicarage. 

The monument is to the memory of 
William Taylard and Elizabeth his wife. He 
quarters the arms of Chapell of Gamlingay, 
Cambridgeshire, his mother's family. These 
arms are canting. The lady, who was a 
daughter and co-heir of John Anstye, quarters 
with her paternal arms those of Streete, 
Raynes, and Scudamore. Her maternal 
grandfather was " Henricus Streete," whose 
arms were three horses courant. This man's 
wife was Cecilia, daughter of John Reynes. 
This John Reynes was twice married, first 
to Catherine, daughter and heiress of Petrus 
Escudamore, whose arms were gules, three 
stirrups with buckles and straps, or. From 
the heiress of Taylard, her arms were 
derived to the Brudenells, and they now 
form part of the quarterings of the Earl of 
Cardigan. 

Here is an example of the kneeling atti- 
tude before a prie-dieu, or prayer desk. 
A similar arrangement may be seen on the 
brass of Sir John Spelman, in Narburgh 
Church, Norfolk : and another in the same 
church to John Eyer and wife ; in this latter 
case, however, the scrolls proceed from the 
face parallel to each other. 

The scrolls contain the words : " Miseri- 
cordia tua domine super nos quemadmodum 
speravi in te." 

The lady is clothed in the pedimental 
headdress and in heraldic dress. The 
inscription runs : 

Willelmus Taylard pariter cum conjuge grata 
Elizabeth sibi nupta diu hac latitat urna. 
Mors vivos seperat, seperare cadavera nescit ; 
Cum Christo vivant, haec vivit et ille quiescit, 
Anno millesimo quingentesimo quoque quinto 
Vita privatur perpetva luce fruatur. 



4 8 



BRASSES OF HUNTINGDONSHIRE. 



This is a more respectable attempt than 
most of the metrical epitaphs. But it will be 
at once seen that more than one of the tritest 
rules of versification is infringed. 

The shafts occupying the sides of this brass 
contain six figures beneath elaborate canopies. 
The three male figures on the side of the 
man, and the three female on that of the lady. 
They are placed in order of precedence. 

First, the figure of our Saviour, his right 
hand in the attitude of blessing; his left 
holds a globe, surmounted by a cross. 
Below, a figure of John the Baptist, clad 
in a long mantle, fastened at the neck by a 
quatrefoiled morse. In his left hand he 
holds a book with a lamb impressed upon it, 
surmounted by a cross. His right hand points 
to the same. 

Below him is St. John the Evangelist. 
He holds in his right hand a chalice, with an 
eagle sitting upon the top of it ; his left hand 
supports the base.- The eagle frequently 
symbolises St. John on brasses and painted 
glass, the reason assigned for such being, 
that, as the eagle flies highest and looks at 
the sun, so this holy apostle gazed especially 
at the glory of our Lord's Divinity. At the 
top of the sinister shaft is the Blessed 
Virgin, holding in her right hand the in- 
fant Jesus, and in her left a sceptre sur- 
mounted by the fleur-de-lis. Beneath her is 
St. Mary Magdalene, represented with long 
hair flowing down her shoulders. In her 
right hand is a peculiarly shaped box of oint- 
ment. Beneath her is St. Catherine, the patron 
saint of Diddington Church. She is crowned, 
to denote (i) her royal descent, she being 
daughter of Costis, King of Egypt ; (2) her 
martyrdom. She holds in her right hand a 
wheel, in her left a sword ; the former de- 
noting the torture prepared for her by the 
tyrant Maximin, the latter representing the 
instrument of her execution.* 

I will only add of this brass, how great is 
the misfortune that it is imperfect, as it is an 
exceedingly fine specimen of architectural 
and heraldic design. 

Alicia Taylard, widow of Walter Taylard, 
eldest son of the afore-named William Tay- 
* It is curious that all of these figures, except that 
of our Lord, are represented on the frontal orphrey 
of the cope of John de Sleford, Master of the Ward- 
robe to King Edward III. upon his brass in Balsham 
Church, Cambridgeshire. 



lard, and brother to Dr. William Taylard, 
of Offord, whose brass we shall notice pre- 
sently. This Alicia was daughter and co- 
heir of Robert Forster, who was buried in 
the Temple Church, London, whose arms 
are impaled with those of Taylard beneath 
her brass. 

She is represented in a pedimental or 
angular head-dress, which was generally made 
of velvet or embroidered cloth, and was 
characteristic of the latter part of Henry 
VII.'s reign and that of his successor. The 
lappets fall over the shoulders and back. She 
wears a barbe, which, though a conventual 
form of dress, was adopted by elderly widows. 
A similar example may be seen on the brass 
of Elizabeth Porte, in Etwall Church, near 
Burton-on-Trent. It was a common practice 
for widows to retire to some religious house, 
and assume the veil, in proof of which we 
may notice the brass of the widow of John 
Braham, in Frense Church, Norfolk. She is 
there described as vidua ac Deo devota. But 
without such retirement the dress was con- 
stantly assumed by widows. The barbe was 
a linen neckerchief, plaited in front in per- 
pendicular folds. Lady Philippa de Beau- 
champ appears thus clad on her brass in 
Necton Church, Norfolk. In mourning, 
however, a kind of barbe was adopted by 
females of all ranks, though the sumptuary 
laws of Henry VIII. ordained that countesses 
and ladies of still higher rank might be 
barbed above the chin, that baronesses might 
be barbed about the chin, and all other gentle- 
women beneath the gullet. 

A scroll issues from her mouth : u Jesu 
merci Ladye help." The same words may be 
seen on a slab in Kirby-in-Ashfield Church, 
Notts. Another scroll addressed to the 
Virgin is engraved on the brass of William 
Berdewell, in West Harling Church, Norfolk : 
Sancta Dei genetrix ora pro me. More fre- 
quently they are addressed to our Saviour. 
The scroll points appropriately to the 
Virgin Mary, to whom it is addressed ; she 
is nursing the infant Jesus. A similar repre- 
sentation of the Virgin and Child may be seen 
over the triple canopy of the beautiful brass 
to the memory of Thomas Nelond, Prior of 
Lewes, and in that of Sir Nicholas Hawberk, 
Cobham Church, Kent. 

Kneeling behind the widow are three 



BRASSES OF HUNTINGDONSHIRE. 



49 



daughters children are usually grouped; 
sometimes they stand at the feet, sometimes 
kneel behind. Sons are placed at the father's 
side, daughters by that of the mother. And 
when a man has a family with two wives, 
care is taken that each has the honour only 
of her own. The insertion of kneeling chil- 
dren commenced in the middle of the 
fifteenth century, and became quite common 
in the sixteenth. Several interesting ex- 
amples are engraved in Cotman's Sepulchral 
Brasses of Norfolk and Suffolk. 

The date is subscribed in Arabic numerals 
"1513. In this year by her last will she 
ordeyned that her body be buried in Doding- 
ton Churche." 

{To be continued.) 




%ofb Ibungerforfc of Ibexes* 

By William John Hardy, 
part 1. 

N Canon Jackson's Guide to Fair- 
leigh Hungerford will be found 
several versions of the curious le- 
gends which still attach to Farley 
Castle, implicating some member of the Hun- 
gerford family in a crime that was once com- 
mitted within the castle walls. So widely 
do these legends differ as to the nature of the 
crime, the period when it was committed, and 
the name of its perpetrator, that we might at 
first feel inclined to dismiss them as idle 
tales, mere scraps of village gossip, which 
after generations have woven into a connected 
narrative. But on reflection we shall remem- 
ber that there are suspicious circumstances 
connected with certain members of the Farley 
line of the Hungerford family that will make 
us pause before dismissing, as idle these dark 
legends which, outliving the decay of their 
scene of action, linger on to be told to 
visitors of the present day at Farley. 

To persons in three successive generations 
of the Hungerford family, all living during 
the sixteenth century, these suspicious cir- 
cumstances attach ; and to these persons it 
would seem that the legends of Farley owe 
their origin ; they are: 



I. Agnes, second wife of Sir Edward 
Hungerford, who was hanged at Tyborne, 
in 1523, for being instrumental in obtain- 
ing the murder of her first husband, John 
Cotell. The murder was committed actually 
within the walls of Farley Castle, and the vic- 
tim's body thrown into the kitchen furnace 
there. 

II. Walter, Lord Hungerford, of Heytes- 
bury, only son of the above Sir Edward, by 
his first wife. He married three times ; be- 
haved with cruelty to each wife, especially to 
the last, whom he imprisoned for several 
years in one of the towers of Farley Castle. 
Lord Hungerford was finally charged with 
treason and an unnatural offence, found 
guilty, and executed on Tower Hill with 
Thomas Lord Cromwell ; and 

HI. Sir Walter Hungerford, known as 
" the Knight of Farley," eldest son of the 
executed Lord Hungerford. Like his father, 
he married three times, and made but. a little 
better husband. From his second wife he 
was divorced, and married his third, pro- 
bably on the point of death. 

Lord Hungerford of Heytesbury, the per- 
son of whom we are about to speak, was 
then one of those who had a share in origin- 
ating the legends of Farley. The story of 
the unfortunate Agnes has been too recently 
told in the pages of this magazine to need 
repetition now ;* and mention of the incidents 
connected with the life of " the Knight of 
Farley" must be reserved for some future 
occasion. 

Walter was the only son of Sir Edward 
Hungerford by his first wife, Jane, a daughter 
of Lord Zouche of Haryngworth; he was 
born about the year 1503, being aged "nine- 
teen and upwards" at his father's death in 
1522. Sir Edward (who left the whole of his 
personal estate to his second wife, Agnes) 
makes no mention of his son in his will, and 
the first we learn of him is on the 26th of 
June, 1523, four months after his step- 
mother's execution, when he was party to an 
Indenture made with the King prior to 
obtaining livery of his father's lands.f The 
Livery itself is dated on the 15th July fol- 
lowing, and gives to Walter license to enter 
upon all the lands, &c, of which his father died 

* The Antiquary, vol ii. p. 233. 
t Close Roll 15 Hen. VIII. m. 22. 



So 



LORD HUNGERFORD OF HEYTESBURY. 



seized, and which his stepmother had held 
for term of her life.* Walter's first wife was 
Susan, a daughter of Sir John Danvers, of 
Dauntsey, who bore him one child, the 
" Knight of Farley." This marriage must 
have been contracted at an early age, as in 
1 5 28 Walter was the father of three daughters, 
all of whom, according to the pedigrees, 
were born of his second wife, Alicia, one of 
the daughters of William, Lord Sandys, of 
the Vine, Hampshire. The authority for 
this statement is a curious Indenture,! made 
on the 14th of April, 1528, between Walter 
Hungerford and Sir William Stourton, Knt., 
son and heir of Edward, fifth Lord Stourton, 
by which for the sum of p8oo the ward- 
ship and marriage of Charles (son and heir 
apparent of Sir William Stourton) were sold 
to Walter. 

"To the intente only that the said Charles shall 
marye and take to his wyfe oon of the three daughters 
of the saide Walter, Elynor, Mary, or Anne ; to wyte 
suche of theym as the saide William shall hereunto 
appoynte," the M appointment" to be made " thisside 
the feaste of Ester next comyng ; Yf the saide Elynor, 
Mary, or Anne, or any of theym to the saide maryage 
wyll assente." 

If Charles happened to die, it was further 
agreed that Andrew, Sir William Stourton's 
second son, should become Walter Hunger- 
ford's ward, and marry one of his daughters. 
These matrimonial arrangements, however, so 
carefully agreed upon by Stourton and 
Hungerford for their respective children, do 
not seem to have proved acceptable to the 
parties principally concerned in the matter ; 
and, as there is no record of any Hungerford 
having become the wife of a Stourton, we may 
conclude that neither Eleanor, Mary, nor 
Anne " to the saide maryage" did " assente." J 

In October, 1 53 2, Walter married his third 
and last wife, Elizabeth, daughter of John, 
Lord Hussey of Sleford, the lady who was 
afterwards, by her husband's order, incar- 
cerated at Farley. Till this time Walter does 

* Pat. Roll 15 Hen. VIII. part ii. m. 5. 

+ Printed in Grose and Astle's Antiquarian 
Repertory \ vol. iv. p. 669. 

X Eleanor married ( 1 ) William Maister, gentleman ; 
(2) Sir John Hungerford, of Down Ampney ; and died 
in 1591. Mary married (l) James Baker, (2) Thomas 
Shaa. Anne died unmarried. 

See " Inquis. P.M. of Sir Walter Hungerford," 
No. 1 59, 6 James I. 



not appear to have been prominent in public 
affairs ; but very soon after his last marriage, 
we find his new father-in-law writing to 
Secretary Cromwell that Walter (who had now 
taken up his knighthood) "much desired" to 
be acquainted with the minister, and that he 
(Walter) had asked the writer " to be a means 
of furthering him in the same."* To make 
sure of obtaining the sought-for friendship, 
Walter had, it seems by the same letter, sent 
for Cromwell's acceptance " a patent of five 
marks a year." This had the desired effect, 
and a little later we find Lord Hussey again 
writing to Cromwell, thanking him for 
his " godnes shewed unto my sone S r Walter 
Hongerford," and further asking that, by 
Cromwell's aid, Walter might be the next 
sheriff of Wiltshire ; Lord Hussey adding 
that Walter did " so deserve it that I am 
sure ye wilbe contented."! 

An introduction once obtained to Crom- 
well, Walter was not slow in following it up to 
advantage, and from this time his pen was 
frequently employed in writing letters to the 
Secretary, soliciting favours, occasionally in 
acknowledging the receipt of them. Some 
dozen or so of these letters will be found in 
vol. xviii. of the Cromwell Correspondence at 
the Public Record Office. It is much to be 
regretted that they throw so little light upon 
his domestic life at a period when any 
glimpses into it would be most interesting. 
Still these letters deserve notice here, because 
for the most part they treat of the way in 
which the writer dealt with those who were 
brought before him on the charge of having 
spoken treason against the King, the very 
crime for which Walter was afterwards him- 
self convicted. , 

On the 8th of June, 1536, Walter had 
summons to Parliament as " Walter 
Hungerford de Heytesbury Chev." Crom- 
well was created Baron Cromwell of Oke- 
ham on 9th July following; the principal 
portion, therefore, of Walter's letters, ad- 
dressed to Cromwell as " His good Lord- 
ship," were written after the latter date. 

One of the charges brought against Lord 
Hungerford at his trial was for having retained 
in his service, and generally befriended, a 

* Cromwell Correspondence (Public Record Office), 
voL xviii. 
Ubid. 



LORD HUNGERFORD OF HEYTESBURY. 



5i 



certain priest named William Birde, who was 
guilty of treason; and therefore the most 
important letters of Lord Hungerford, in 
the series before us, are those in which he 
treats of the traitorous priest ; these are two 
in number, and we will quote them, one in 
full and the other in part, as being interesting 
in subject and illustrative of Lord Hunger- 
ford's style of writing. The first of these 
is dated at Farley on the 22nd of June.* 

Pleasyth hyt your Lordshypp to be advertysed that 
ther come to me on y e XIX'" daye of June, last past, 
one Wyllyam Wyllyams, bayly off Bradfford to my 
house at Farleygh, and ther detectyd byfore me one 
S r Wyllyam Byrde, vyker of Bradfford, and parson of 
Fytylton, of hygh treson, as more further hyt aperyth 
by hys conffessyon hereyn inclosyd, wych Y have 
send unto your good Lordshyp. Y have noo more 
recorde of y 8 words y* was spokyn by hym, but onely 
hym selffe, but y e mater of hyt selffe ys soo heynus, 
and y 8 words soo detestable yt me thynke of my 
boundyn duty and alleagens to my Prynse, and 
Soverayne Lord and King, I can do noo lesse but to 
asertyne your Lordshypp theroff. And as consernyng 
y seyd Wyllyam Wyllyams, y have send hym uppe by 
my servant Hary Pane, y ra berer. And also y have y 
seyd Vyker inlykneyse yn hold untyll y doo knowe of 
your further pleasur thereyn. Also I dyd ask y 8 
seyd Wyllyam Wyllyams whye he dyd kepe ys treson 
soo long, and he seyd y* he wold have utteryd hyt 
many tymes er thys, but he was lothe too doo hytt, 
forbycowose y e seyd Vyker was hys unkyll, and of 
late y e seyd Vyker, layd untyll hys charge, y* he dyd 
stele hys geldyng, and sertyn mony of hys. Wher- 
apon y 3 wordes aforseyd was y rather by hym spokyn, 
or ells my thowght by hym he wole never have 
utteryd hyt ; but truly my Lord hyt ys peyte y* such 
a wrech shold lyve soo longe, knowyng any such 
maters to be trewe by any man to be spokyn, and 
wold althys longg space keppe y 8 treson yn hys bely. 

And y' y may further knowe your pleasur yn y 8 
premisse, & y shall fullfyll your comandment accord- 
yngly. And further y besech your Lordshyp to have 
me yn your good remembrans yn such old sutes as 
my seyd servant shall informe your good Lordshyp, & 
he shall gyve hys delygent attendans to knowe your 
further pleasure thereyn, & y* hyt maye please your 
Lordshyp to gyve further credens unto my seyd ser- 
vant. And y 8 y rest at your comandment. At 
Farleygh yrs present xxii th day of June 
By your Lordshyppes most 

bowdyn, and at your comand', 

Water Hungerford. 

Endorsed " Letter from the Lord Hungerford of 
the detection of the Vicar of Harford, "f 

So then we see Lord Hungerford, accord- 
ing to his own account, a zealous officer of 

* The Indictment against Lord Hungerford (Parlia- 
ment Roll, 31 and 32 Hen. VIII., m. 42) states that 
proceedings were first taken against Birde in 1536. 

t Clearly a mistake for Bradford. 



the King, anxious to bring to justice and 
punishment rather than befriend the rash 
utterer of treason. The next letter, dated 
on the 5th of October, evidently in the 
same year, contains the following allusion 
to Birde. 

And further that wher your lordshpp dyd co- 
mande me to sende y vyker of Forde* unto ye comyn 
jayle, thereto remayne w'owt bayle, or mainprise, for 
hys abhomynabell words, that he had azeust ye 
kynges hyghnys, he ys at large yn hys paryshe not- 
w'stondyng your comandment, and as yet w'owt 
punysmente. And also he doth dayley use hys tonge 
as unthryftly as ever he dyd ; and what youer plesur 
shalbe done heryn, y' y myght have knowlege, and 
hyt shalbe fullfyllyd. accordyngly, for y have send 
many tymys unto your good lordshype, and had 
never answer as yet, of your plesure thereyn. 

By the foregoing it would seem that Lord 
Hungerford was powerless to execute Crom- 
well's order for the committal of the traitorous 
vicar, much as he desired to do so. 



XKHoofcspring priory 
Somersetshire. 




F all the barbarous examples of sanc- 
tuaries degraded and profaned, 
that of Woodspring (now so 
called, really Worspring) Abbey 
Church is perhaps the most offensive 
extant. In some instances, the waste of 
time has been so effectually reinforced by 
dilapidating violence that the more sacred 
parts of the whole monastic pile have dis- 
appeared, those only surviving which some 
economic use has rescued. Such is Cleeve 
Abbey, in the north-western part of the same 
county. There refectory and barns survive 
the demolished walls which enclosed the 
scene of divine worship. In other cases, 
too numerous to mention, the whole has 
gone impartially to wreck together, and there 
has been no " survival of the fittest " for 
daily human needs. But the case of Wood- 
spring is that of a church, every ancient 
member and feature of which unmistakably 
suggests its sacred character, deliberately con- 
verted into a farmer's family house, and with 
the group of its appurtenant chimneys crop- 
* Bradford. 



52 



WOODSPRING PRIORY, SOMERSETSHIRE. 



ping up into the sky-line through the roof of 
the nave. The domestic buildings proper to 
the monastic establishment have been de- 
molished in this instance ; and into the very- 
area sacred for centuries to the solemn strain 
of praise and prayer, the physical uses of 
human life have intruded. The Lar fami- 
miliaris of the homestead, with rites of tea- 
kettle and washing-tub, of mop and pail, 
and cheese-press, now claims it as his own. 

The church is thus a " domestic establish- 
ment," and pays its rent, its rates and taxes, 
we hope, punctually. The only "Hours" now 
observed are meal-times and milking-times ; 
and the farmer now walks into his parlour 
through the very door where the Augustinians 
of former days passed in from the covered 
way, under their now vanished dormitory, to 
their daily orisons. 

There is a sadly widowed look about the 
west front the first which meets the eye by 
the ordinary approach. A well-developed 
string-course divides it into upper and lower 
members. The stones of the great west 
window are still dotted in the masonry, with 
its full-length niche right and left, and a 
smaller one in the gable over the point of 
its arch. In that on the left stood once a 
pontifical figure, perhaps a " St. Thomas of 
Canterbury," now left flat, lumpy, and 
featureless, with all its relief chipped sheer 
away; looking somewhat like a sugar-loaf 
cut through in a grocer's shop, but betraying 
in this state of havoc some lines as of mitre 
and crozier. Below the string-course looks 
out a modern house window through part of 
the space once filled by the western door of 
ample proportions, the rest being walled up 
with clumsy stones. This front is hand- 
somely turretted at its angles, and from the 
northern one springs a horizontal range of 
nondescript structure, added since the 
church was put to secular uses, their line 
diverging at a very small angle from the line 
of the nave ; so that, when you look down 
from the battlements of the church tower, 
these lines look like those of a forked stick ; 
while, seen from the ground on the western 
side, the effect is like that of features with a 
villanous squint in them. To judge from a 
date over one of the doors, the early part of 
the eighteenth century may be credited with 
this bit of architectural bastardy. This 



range of building, which is mean enough, has 
yet an air about it which looks as if it might 
be a Somersetshire mason's caricature of 
some remains which possibly were standing 
when it was built. 

At the foot of the right or southern turret 
is a small porch of modern structure, which 
disguises an ancient door, with a small bit of 
ancient wall, having rough-hewn gurgoyles and 
other tokens of an early character. Passing 
through the door we see the south wall of 
what was the church, and on it, near its 
western end, the scar of a gable, showing that 
a building sprang at right angles from it, and 
the corbels which supported the roof-timbers 
of this building still adhere, at no great ele- 
vation, to the reverse or inner side of the 
ancient wall, through which we have now 
passed. This structure, now no more, would 
have formed the western member of the 
general ground-plan, the church being the 
northern, while the southern is still represented 
in a ruinous hall, of good and fairly ample 
proportions, with an arched doorway near its 
western end. This hall is probably conjec- 
tured to have been the chief business-room 
of the monastery, where questions of rent 
and dues and fees would be adjusted, and 
such as were payable in money would be paid. 
The ogee-headed windows on the north side 
of it, and its timbered roof, not yet gone to 
utter decay, are noteworthy ; and there are 
tokens of its line having been continued 
westward at a somewhat lower elevation, as 
the west window was partially intercepted 
by the gable of the roof of such continuation. 
This noble hall is now a cattle-shed. Its 
chief doorway was northward, communicating 
perhaps with the Prior's own lodgings, while 
the south side has for its most conspicuous 
feature the remnant of a circular stair, which 
may have led to some muniment room at a 
high elevation, where the necessary docu- 
ments connected with the transaction of busi- 
ness below would be kept. 

The original plan of the church was simple 
a tower between nave and choir. A north 
aisle added to the nave was perhaps a later 
extension of the plan. The tower in the 
thirteenth century was probably low and 
" squat," and certainly massive, with scanty 
elevation for bells ; and its summit was 
reached by an external stair-flight. It stands 



WOODSPRlNG PRIORY, SOMERSETSHIRE. 



5i 



now in a fifteenth-century case, and is 
topped by an upper stage of the same date ; 
whilst, again, its lower storey contains an 
11 inner skin " of light perpendicular work in 
whitish Caen stone, with open arches elegantly 
supported on recessed shafts and a fan-vault- 
ing springing from each angle. It is not 
often that we meet so curious a piece of in- 
crustation of style by style in such thorough 
harmony of spirit yet such startling contrast 
of form. 

The later casing, however, is not symme- 
trical with the proportions of the original 
tower, the ground plan of which was not 
square but oblong, whilst that of the later 
tower distributed its enlarged area unequally 
between the north and south sides. On both 
these sides the older tower, or what was left 
of it by the fifteenth-century architect, stands 
masked under a stone pent-house with sloping 
roof, having something of the air of a buttress 
broadened out; but on the south side the 
front of the ground plan was advanced to take 
in the projection of the external flight of 
stairs above referred to, which the later south 
face conceals, all save the upper portion. 
These stairs only rise to about one-third of 
the height of the later and taller tower, which 
would be about one-half the height of the 
older and shorter one. This width, on what 
we may call the first floor of his tower, the 
later architect has turned to account by 
creating a little parapet walk of a few paces 
between the southern wall-face of his own 
tower and the casing of the old. On this 
walk the staircase lets the visitor out at its 
head ; and its octagonal pyramid cup of 
fifteenth century work, crowned by a finial, 
and with cornice decoration of the York and 
Lancaster rose, looks over the parapet at the 
top of the lower stage of the tower, and forms 
one of the most pleasing features of the 
whole south frontage. 

The internal corbels in the second storey 
of the tower entered from the stairs are part 
of the old structure, and mark something 
which disappeared when it was altered. 
They may have supported floor-timbers or, 
more probably, the framework on which the 
bells were hung. These in the older fabric 
were probably rung from the ground; the 
ringing-chamber of the later tower being 
about the height of the belfry of the earlier. 



By a simple and beautiful device of mechani- 
cal structure, the belfry windows, facing 
nearly the cardinal points, would hold music 
as a sponge holds water, letting it as it were 
dribble out to seem suspended in the air. 
Each window is blocked by slabs to about 
one-third of its height, while each window- 
head is a massive plate on which the external 
ornamentation lies in relief. Thus the escape 
of the sound is concentrated upon the mid- 
most panels. These are elegantly pierced 
in numerous foliage-shaped eyelets, till each 
panel becomes a sieve of sound, through 
which it floated forth sifted into finer 
vibrations, filling the - sky with mistdrops of 
prolonged melody. How pitiable a sight is 
this economy of sweet reverberations amidst 
havoc and desecration ! It is an extinguished 
lantern whose radiance was not luminous 
but resonant. The tongues which "dis- 
coursed" the music have been torn away, 
but the delicate organization of their voice- 
chords is their mute abiding witness. 

The tower once terminated in a pinnacle 
at each angle, with an added secondary in 
the middle of each of its faces. Its parapet 
is worked in a continuous series of framed 
panels, every panel having an open quatrefoil 
cut in the heart of its square, and every such 
opening a foliaged or fruitaged ornament in 
its central eye ; and as much artistic care is 
lavished on the details of these small centre- 
pieces at this rarely visited height, as modern 
architects mostly reserve for those more 
ambitious ornaments which stare one in the 
face below. 

The ruinous eastern member of the church 
presents problems which the spade might 
help to solve ; but the spade is busy for other 
more purely terrestrial purposes at Wood- 
spring now, and the problems meanwhile are 
so far insoluble that speculation may well be 
forborne. The north aisle, once a chantry, 
dedicated, as is believed, to Becket, serves 
now either as a cider cellar or some similar 
adjunct of the farm-house, whose site is the 
desecrated nave. Whether such an aisle 
formed part of the thirteenth- century struc- 
ture may be questioned. It has been dread- 
fully mauled, alike by the sacrilegious havoc 
of the sixteenth and perhaps every succeed- 
ing century, and by the demands of eco- 
nomic degradation. The gable of its eastern 



54 



WOODSPRING PRIORY, SOMERSETSHIRE. 



extremity preserves a fragmentary outline of a 
window of three lights, deformed by the 
modern intrusion of a secular-looking win- 
dow, picked up probably from the wreckage 
of the humbler purlieus of the Abbey. It 
had four buttresses on its north side, of 
which three remain ; the third, at the north- 
west angle, being much the stoutest. Each 
wall-curtain between successive buttresses 
contains a window, windows as well as 
buttresses being in the perpendicular style. 
These are, of course, precisely the portions 
in which alteration or addition is most likely; 
yet in the absence of any indications of a 
contrary conclusion their date may be as- 
sumed as that of the building. 

Here again, we may observe, that the 
answer to the points which have been noticed 
as doubtful may lie below the surface ; and 
it is worth while adding that foundations, if 
once laid bare, are probably capable of 
yielding traces of successive historic styles 
hardly less distinct than those shown in walls 
which they supported. Analogous differences 
to those which strike the eye in the super- 
structure would probably reward the equally 
careful student of the substructure. At 
present it is thought enough to determine, 
by digging, the lines of vanished wall above 
the surface, and that is commonly the only 
question asked of the spade. But founda- 
tions may some day be made the subject of 
scientific classification on their own merits. 
Something in the depth attained, or in the 
lay of the stones, or in the temper and 
quality of the mortar, would probably tell 
its own tale. Of course the expense, as well 
as difficulty and tediousness of the work, 
would be likely to deter any but wealthy, as 
well as resolute, enthusiasts. On the other 
hand, whatever lessons buried stones may 
have to teach, would probably be deduced 
with absolute certainty, because the earth as 
jealously preserves what it hides, as weather 
and the havoc of devastation decay and 
deface whatever is exposed to them ; and 
now that "the endowment of research" has 
become a popular demand, who shall say 
that such explorations are impossible ? 

The connection of Woodspring Priory 
with the memory of Becket was not the mere 
fortuitous result of the fashionable saint- 
culture of the thirteenth century. This 



Priory was founded byWilliam de Courtenaye, 
probably grandson of one of Becket's 
murderers, that same William de Tracy, who 
was first flung by the archbishop on the 
cathedral floor at Canterbury, in the pre- 
liminary struggle, and then with his sword 
struck the defenceless prelate to his knees. 
It was further enriched by the grand-daughter 
of another of the murderers, Hugh Brito, 
" in the hope," says Dean Stanley, whose 
M Memorials of Canterbury " we are here 
following, " that the intercession of the 
glorious martyr might never be wanting to 
her and her children." The same authority 
adds, p. 83, ed. 1855 : 

In the repairs of Woodspring Church, in 1852, 
a wooden cup, much decayed, was discovered in a 
hollow in the back of a statue fixed against the wall. 
The cup contained a substance which was decided to 
be the dried residuum of blood. From the connection 
of the priory with the murderers of Becket, and from 
the fact that the seal of the prior contained a cup, or 
chalice, as part of its device, there can be little doubt 
that this ancient cup, was .thus preserved at the 
time of the Dissolution, as a valuable relic, and that 
the blood which it contained was that of the mur- 
dered Primate. 

This statement is slightly incorrect. It 
was not in 1852, nor in "Woodspring 
Church," but in or before 1849, in the 
parish church of Kew Stoke, in the northern 
part of which parish Woodspring Priory 
Church stands, that the relique was found. 
The Journal of the Archaeological Institute, 
1849, pp. 400, 401, states, 

On taking down the north wall of the nave (of this 
church) it became necessary to remove a block of 
stone, sculptured with a demi figure, on the inside of 
the church. It was discovered that in the back of 
this block was hollowed out a small arched chamber, 
within which was deposited an oaken vessel, or cup, 
partially decayed and a little split open; in the bottom 
was a dry incrustation of what appeared to have been 
coagulated blood. The cup has a rim at the top, as 
if to receive a cover ; the cavity in the stone was 
firmly closed with a small oak panel, which fitted to a 
rebate. 

Dugdale's Monasticon, vol. iii. p. 47 (ori- 
ginal edition) is referred to as containing 

A curious letter to Jocelin, Bishop of Bath, from 
William Courtenaye, detailing his intention of found- 
ing a convent of Augustine monks near Bristol, for 
the benefit of the soul of his father, Robert, &c. , who 
should serve God, the Virgin, and the blessed Mar- 
tyr, St. Thomas. 

The Journal adds, after noticing the pro- 
bability, agreeably to custom, that a portion 



WOODSPRING PRIORY, SOMERSETSHIRE. 



55 



of the saint's relics e.g., a phial or vase of 
the blood of the martyr should be deposited 
in any monument to his memory, that 

There seems nothing unreasonable in supposing that 
the little cup at Kew Stoke may have been the de- 
pository of some of Becket's blood. The form of the 
niche and the mouldings are of a date earlier than 
the part of the parish church in which it was placed, 
but coeval with the conventual Church. It is not un- 
likely that it was brought from the Priory at the time 
of the suppression, and placed for security in the site 
in which it was lately found. There might still, at 
that period, have been sufficient reverence for the 
martyr's relic, to have induced, the ecclesiastics to take 
steps for its preservation. It may, however, have 
been the depository of the heart of some person or 
note, or benefactor to the fabric. 

This is, we think, a probable suggestion. 
The sculptured block which had guarded some 
such relic at the Priory was not meant to be 
shown. The Priory also possessed this relic of 
the blood of " the holy blissful martyr," which 
was of course displayed to the admiring eyes of 
devotees at his shrine. When flight and con- 
cealment became necessary, the parish church 
afforded an asylum to the latter relic, but it 
was then entombed in a mural figure taken 
from the Priory Church, and embedded in the 
wall of the parish church. It was rescued, 
hoarded, buried, and forgotten, until three 
centuries and more afterwards, the work- 
man's tool split the cavity, and, like a toad 
from a block of marble, the relic saw the 
light again. 

3fcenttfication of heftier* Zel 
Wo\\> witb tbe Birs IFlimruk 

By William Francis Ainsworth, F.S.A.,F.R.G.S. 

HE visions seen by the Prophet 
Ezekiel are related in the Book of 
the Prophet to have occurred 
" among the captives by the river 
of Chebar." u The word of the Lord came 
expressly unto Ezekiel the priest, the son of 
Buzi, in the land of the Chaldeans, by the 
river Chebar." 

Further it is related in the same book, that 
the Prophet, upon receiving his mission from 
God, " came to them of the captivity at Tel- 
abib, that dwelt by the river of Chebar," 
(Ezek. iii. 15). 
The river Chebar has, from some similarity 




in name, been identified with the Chaboras 
or Khabur ; but it is sufficient to disprove 
this identification that both Ezekiel and 
Jeremiah (i. 3) describe the Chebar as being 
in the land of the Chaldeans. Chebar and 
Chabor are, it is also to be observed, not the 
same words ; the former being written with 
a caph, whilst the latter is written with a 
cheth, in Kings and Chronicles. 

The river of Babylon, by which the cap- 
tives sat down and wept (Ps. cxxxvii. 1), is 
rendered Chobar in the Septuagint, and Pliny 
(vi. xxvi.) having given to the Nahr Malcha 
the name of a Persian satrap, Gobares, Sir 
Henry Rawlinson (Herodotus, iii. 449), sug- 
gested that he may have got that name from 
the Semetic Chobar. 

But Cellarius, in his Notit. Orb. Antiq., p. 
630, quotes the " illustrious Huetius," as iden- 
tifying in his work on Paradise, the Nahr 
Sares with the river of Sura, and as the same 
as the Chobar or Ghobar. The Nahr, or Na- 
har Sares, with its lakes, constituted the head 
waters of the western Euphrates the Palla- 
copas of the Macedonians. In its prolonga- 
tion it passes the Birs Nimrud, or Borsippa, 
where it was known to the Jews as the Perath 
of Borsi, or " the Euphrates of Borsippa." 
(Neubauer, Geog. du Talmud, pp. 327-346). 
The further prolongation of this river was 
also known to the Jews as that of Gobya, or 
Kufa (Vologesia), which corroborates the 
identification made by Huetius of the Nahr 
Sares with the river so called, and which the 
latter further identifies with the Chebar or 
Chobar of Scripture. Kufa itself may be 
another reading for, or version of, Chebar. 

Rabbi Petachia, Travels translated by Dr. 
Benisch p. 33) identified the river of Chebar 
with the Hindiyah, a branch of the western 
Euphrates, because the tomb of Ezekiel (figured 
in Loftus's Chaldoea and Susiana, p. 34), is 
situated at Keffil on its banks. 

The Hindiyah, and the river of Borsippa, 
were in Loftus's time only one vast lake-like 
expanse of the same waters ; and if not the 
Gobya or Chobar, it formed part of the same 
system of irrigation in older times. 

Dr. Hincks says, " It is almost certain that 
Birs is a relic of the ancient name, Borsippa. 
This was, we believe, first suggested by 
Ainsworth ; but the identity of this site, with 
the ancient city or suburb of Borsippa, was 



56 IDENTIFICA TION OF EZEklEVS TEL ABIB WITH BIRS NIMR UD. 



first established by Rawlinson, who found in 
the ruins clay cylinders, with inscriptions, in 
which Nebuchadnezzar describes the works 
that he had carried on there, calling the place 
Borsippa." 

What was said in the Researches in 
Assyria, &c, p. 168, was : u This Birs Nimrud 
has been generally looked upon as the 
remnant of the great pile of Babel ; but from 
what has been detailed, it will appear much 
more probably to have belonged to the 
city of Birs, Bursif, and Borsippa, which was 
perhaps one of the quarters of the Babylon 
of Herodotus." 

Birs is, we have seen, the actual name of 
the place. Bursif is the name given to it in 
the Sidra Rablia of the Sabaeaus. It ap- 
pears also as Biri in the Talmud of Babylon 
(Erubin, 45a), and as Borsi in Kidduschin 
(72 a); and the Talmud also notices a temple 
of Nebo, as being at * Borsip" (Tal. of Baby I. 
Adobah Zarah, 11, 6). Strabo called the 
place, Borsippa; Ptolemy wrote it Barsita; 
and Josephus, Borsippus. 

It is strange that Neubauer should say, 
" no traces have yet been found of this re- 
markable town." Mannert expressed his 
hopes that some traveller would succeed in 
discovering it, guiding himself by the bats, 
which, according to Strabo, are of greater size 
there than elsewhere, and which were smoked 
before being eaten. This is at all events an 
illustration of bats being used as food in 
olden times, and whence their prohibition by 
the Mosaic law. 

Neubauer was, however, acquainted with 
the Birs Nimrud, which, he says, Oppert 
sought to identify with the Tower of Babel. 
" But," he adds, " the Talmud makes men- 
tion of another site of idolatry, which it calls 
Beth Nimrud (House of Nimrod), and which 
would be best represented by the Birs Nim- 
rud" (p. 345)- 

This identification has a further interest in 
shewing that the Talmudists made a distinc- 
tion between the temple of Bel, and the Birs 
or Beth Nimrud. Neubauer adds, indeed, 
as if in explanation of the difference, " The 
ruins of Babel are to be seen in the present 
day to the north of Helle" (Hillah or 
Hilleh). 

Sir Henry Rawlinson agrees so far with 
Oppert as to identify the Birs Nimrud with 



the temple of Belus of Herodotus, and Dr. 
Hincks is also of the same opinion. This 
because Herodotus said that the temple and 
the king's palace were on different sides of 
the river. 

But the mound of Babel is separated from 
the Mujaliba by the bed of a canal, and 
this canal was apparently once a large 
derivative from the Euphrates, if not the 
main stream of the river itself, as Abu'Ifada 
describes it, adding that it flowed to the city 
of Nil or Nilyah, after which it was called 
Nahr Sirat {Res in Assyria, &c, p. 169). 

Mr. Loftus has also since pointed out 
{Chaldaea and Susian, p. 95) that even in 
Abu'Ifada's time the Euphrates struck off 
from the modern channel at Babel. "Its 
sunken bed," he says, " may still be traced 
on the west of the old pile of Al Haimar (the 
red), which some authors include within the 
circumference of the great city of Nebuchad- 
nezzar. Its course terminated in the Tigris, 
above Kut al Amara, whilst a main artery, 
derived from the old Euphrates, near the 
City of Niliya, flowed southward past Niffar." 

Supposing, then, the mound of Babel to 
represent the Tower of Babel, afterwards the 
temple of Belus ; and the Mujaliba, the 
ancient palace, with the Kasr (Nebuchad- 
nezzar's palace) superadded, the two would 
be separated by the old Euphrates river, or, if 
not so, at all events by a river or canal, 
which appears to have been the Nile of 
Babylonia. 

Herodotus not only says that the palace 
and the temple were separated by the river, 
but he also tells us that they were sur- 
rounded by walls of their own in the middle 
of the two divisions of the city made by the 
river. This would imply that the two divi- 
sions were in juxtaposition, and only separated 
by the river, whereas the temple of Borsippa 
is several miles away. 

The fact appears to be, that each town 
had its own Birs, or Baris, or temple, and 
whilst Babel was the temple of Belus in 
Babylon, the Birs Nimrud was the temple of 
Belus in Borsippa, if it was not, as the 
Talmudists report, dedicated to Nebo. 

The identification of the Birs Nimrud with 
the Tower of Babel, made by Mr. Rich, as 
well as by M. Oppert in his Expedition 
Scientifique en Mesopotamie, &c, p. 200, has 



IDENTIFICATION OFEZEKIEVS TEL ABIB WITH BIRS NIMR UD. 57 



been supposed by some to be corroborated 
by its being called Tela Chib, or " the Hill 
of Greif," in the Syriac version of the Old 
Testament. 

But this designation would appear to be 
connected with a totally different association 
of ideas that of the wailing of the Israelites 
and to be another name for the Tel Abib 
of Ezekiel, the latter being, as we have 
shewn, on the river of Chebar, or the Euphra- 
tes of Borsippa, and the same as Tela Chib, 
and as the Birs Nimrud. 

It is hence not at all improbable that this 
was the so-called Tel or eminence from 
whence, in the time of the Captivity, the Pro- 
phet denounced the rebellious children of 
Israel. Rabbi Petachia, we have seen, called 
the Birs Nimrud, Al Ajur, another reading or 
version of Tel Abib; and it is remarkable 
that the Greek translators rendered Tel Abib 
by meteoros, or " in mid air," from an old 
tradition that the Prophet was supported in 
mid-air when denouncing the Israelites a 
hyperbolic mode of expression of which a 
position taken up by Ezekiel on the top of, 
or on the steps of, the tower of seven 
stages, would be at once the most suitable, 
and the most acceptable, illustration. 



Iking IRicbarb's Crusabe. 




UCH valuable information respect- 
ing Richard Cceur de Lion and 
his Crusade has been lately brought 
to light by letters and documents 
found in Genoese archives ; for it was on 
Genoese ships that the kings of France and 
England sailed for Palestine, and in their 
capacity of" carriers " the Genoese displayed 
all the astuteness of a commercial race, who 
carefully secured by contracts that they 
should incur no financial loss in the part 
they took in the Holy Wars. 

As events went on, and when the strong- 
hold of Acre fell into the hands of the 
Christians, the two crusader monarchs found 
themselves at variance ; Philip of France 
returned home, and Richard of England was 
left to prosecute his plans of attacking the 
Sol dan of Egypt single-handed. 

VOL. IV. 



In this extremity he penned the following 
letter to his friends in Genoa : 

Richard, by the grace of God King of England, 
Duke of Normandy, Count of Aquitaine, to the 
venerable and most well-beloved friends the arch- 
bishop, podesta, consuls, and council, and other 
worthy men of Genoa, to whom this present letter 
shall come, sendeth greeting. 

Seeing that you, above all other men, show the 
greatest solicitude for the maintenance of the holy 
land of Jerusalem, we have thought fit to point out 
to you what are the measures we propose to carry out 
for the defence of the same. Let it be known, there- 
fore, to your kindly feeling for us, that in the coming 
summer we, with all our forces, shall hasten into 
Egypt against Babylon and Alexandria, to the honour 
of God and to the confounding of the arrogance of the 
Gentiles, if you will give us your assent ; hence do 
we instantly recommend ourselves to your sincerity, 
and implore you that out of regard for the Divine 
piety, and for your own welfare, you will join the 
Christian army with the full panoply of your forces, 
and without any delay, feeling assured that every 
part and convention which we have made with you, 
and you with us, shall be entirely observed, apart 
from the contract we have already signed for our 
transport to the coasts of Syria. 

If you will bring with you ships, men, provisions, 
and armour, sufficient for the enterprise, of whatever 
lands by the grace of God we shall be able to acquire 
from the Saracens, so much shall be given to you as 
shall be agreed between us. At any rate you shall 
obtain whatever may be proportionate to the succour 
lent by you, whether it be money, ships, or men. Be 
assured that we will pay the half of the expenses for 
the time employed by the galleys in sailing to the 
Christian army. 

As to the rest, we send you Maurius di Rodoano, an 
honoured man, and a friend of the Christian cause, 
who formerly was your consul in Syria, concerning 
the business of Christendom, begging that you will 
give credence to all he may propose to you, as to a 
true friend of the Christians. Concerning ail the 
things that the said Maurius shall say and do, we 
shall consider them as binding as if we had said or 
done them ourselves. Do you, therefore, intimate to 
him what you can do about this business, and the 
number of galleys that you will send to join the 
Christian army. 

Written with our own hand at Aeon, nth October. 

Apparently the Genoese acquiesced in 
Richard's request, for there is another letter, 
bearing no date, which says that, "if we 
obtain from Genoa the half only of what 
your messengers promise, we will freely give 
unto you the third part of all the conquests 
which, with the grace of God, we shall gain 
from the Saracens." 

But Richard must have experienced the 
full force of Virgil's cutting lines on Ligurian 
treachery 



5 



KING RICHARD'S CRUSADE. 



Yet like a true Ligurian, born to cheat, 
At least whilst fortune favoured his deceit ; 

for the promised succour never arrived. 

Of the original treaty alluded to in King 
Richard's letter I have been able to discover 
no traces in Genoese archives ; but that made 
by Philip II. of France is still extant, and 
we may presume that they made one of the 
same nature with the English king before 
they took the two kings on board their galleys, 
to the command of which two Genoese ad- 
mirals were appointed, Sunone Vento, and 
the above mentioned Rodoano. 

The Genoese came to terms with Philip of 
France in this wise : their merchants not only 
traded largely with the coast of Syria, but 
pushed far Into the heart of Fiance, hence 
they were recognized as the most fitting people 
to transport the troops. 

A contract is still in existence by which 
Hugh, Duke of Burgundy, granted these 
merchants, in 1190, enormous mercantile con- 
cessions in his towns of Chalons and Dijon. 
Bearing a date only two - days subsequent to 
this, and negotiated by the same duke on 
behalf of the French king, is the contract 
for the transport of the crusaders, the principal 
features of which are that Philip of France 
was to pay the Genoese 5850 silver marks for 
the transport of 650 soldiers, 1300 squires, 
and 1300 horses, together with their arms 
and trappings, food for eight months, and 
wine for four months, from the day of their 
departure from Genoa. In addition to which 
every concession they demanded for the ex- 
tension of their commerce in the conquered 
countries, and large immunities throughout 
France, were granted them. 

We can hardly doubt that the king of 
England's contract was worded in much the 
same way, and that the sum paid down and 
the commercial advantages were equally large. 

It is interesting to find traces of English- 
men in Genoa at the time of this crusade so 
many centuries after. There is a time- 
honoured church downhear the quay in Genoa. 
Much of it is now in bad repair, houses of 
many colours are built up against it, but there 
still remain the cell, where the Hospitallers, 
to whom this building originally belonged, as 
a commenda, used to give a meal and a 
night's lodging to pilgrims on their way to 
Palestine. 



Let into the wall, underneath the tower of 
this church, is a curious old monument, re- 
presenting a head, round which is the follow- 
ing inscription in Latin : 

Of Master William Acton I am here the home, 
For whom let whosoever passes by a pater say. 
In 1 1 80, in the time of William, it was begun. 

It is curious to find an English name con- 
nected with this tomb and this church. In 
looking through an old register of the founda- 
tion of this building, dated 30th September, 
1 1 98, I read the following statement : 

I, William, commendator of the Hospital of St. 
John, admit to having received from you, Master 
John of England, doctor, thirty-seven pounds in de- 
posit, which, deposit Master John made, fearing 
the judgment of God, in the journey of the most 
blessed St. Thomas of Canterbury, in which he set 
out, and if he did not return to Genoa, he bequeaths 
the said thirty-seven pounds to the said hospital. 

It is somewhat difficult to decide on 
two points. Is the William of the tomb the 
William of the document, and did he, as was 
customary in those days, build a home to 
receive his bones a long time before his 
death ? 

This indeed is but a matter for antiquarian 
curiosity. Sufficient is proved by it that 
Englishmen were by no means uncommon 
travellers in Italy at the time of Richard 
Cceur de Lion's crusade, and perhaps the old 
commenda of St. John could rival the more 
palatial halting-places of modern days in the 
number of its Anglo-Saxon visitors. 

J. Theodore Bent. 



Gbe Ikentfeb (Barlanb.* 




j T is somewhat strange that the in- 
habitants of the famous county of 
Kent, which has been well cele- 
brated in ballads and songs, 
should have hitherto left these memorials of 

* The Kentish Garland. Edited by Julia H. L. de 
Vaynes. With Additional Notes and Pictorial Illus- 
trations, copied from the rare originals, by J. W. 
Ebsworth, M.A., F.S.A. Vol I. The County 
General. Hertford : Stephen Austin & Sons. 1 
8vo, pp. xx. 455. ^ 

C50. 



THE KENTISH GARLAND. 



59 



the past uncollected. Now a lady comes 
forward to supply this deficiency, and, with 
the help of the well-known ballad-lover, Mr. 
Ebsworth, Miss De Vaynes has produced the 
first volume of her most interesting Garland, 
devoted to the county in general, and promises 
a second, on persons and places, to follow 
shortly. The great event in the history of 
Kent, when the men of Kent, sword in hand, 
obtained from the Conqueror the ratification of 
their customs, is fully recorded. First, there is 
Deloney's ballad of "the valiaunt courage and 
policye of the Kentishmen, with long tayles, 
whereby they kept their ancient lawes, which 
William the Conqueror sought to take from 
them," which commences : 

When as the Duke of Nonnandie, 

With glist'ring speare and shield 
Had ent'red into fayre England, 

And foil'd his foes in fielde. 
On Christmas Day in solemne sort, 

Then was he crowned here 
By Albert, Archbishop of Yorke, 

With many a noble peere. 

Then comes the most popular of Kentish 
songs, Tom D'Urfey's Brave Men oj 
Kent : 

The hardy stout Freeholders, 

That knew the tyrant near : 
In girdles and on shoulders, 

A grove of oaks did bear, 
Whom when he saw, in Battle draw, 

And thought how he might need 'em ; 
He turn'd his arms, allow'd their terms, 

Compleat with noble freedom. 

No wonder that those whom Wordsworth 
apostrophized as 

Vanguard of Liberty, ye men of Kent, 

resent the misplaced criticism of those his- 
torians who doubt the whole story of " the 
bold men of Swanscombe," and deny the 
claim that 

Left single, in bold parley, ye of yore 

Did from the Norman win a gallant wreath ; 

Confirm'd the charters that were yours before. 

A valuable note by Mr. James R. Scott, 
F.S.A., in which an attempt is made to prove 
that the leader of the demonstration in 
favour of Kentish rights at Swanscombe was 
a member of the family of Swene the outlaw, 
a son of Godwin, Earl of Kent, and brother 



of Harold, the last Danish king of England, 
is printed in this volume. 

It is a long leap from the Norman Con- 
quest to the Civil Wars, but the poets have 
little to tell of historical doings between these 
two events. We find that the Royalists 
quite outshine their rivals in the power of say- 
ing their say: rebels, and their leader, "good 
Oliver," are treated badly in The Kentish 
Fayre; but the men of Canterbury, who 
declared themselves for ' ' God, King Charles, 
and Kent," and found that their loyalty led 
them to sing like " birds in cages," receive 
due poetical honours. Although Kent 
generally stood by the King, Ashford gained 
a name as the hot-bed of Nonconformity ; 
but even there the other side dared to speak 
out. Thomas Wilson, the vicar of All Saints', 
publicly rebuked from the pulpit Andrew 
Broughton, the regicide mayor, for his share 
in the King's death, and when he rose from 
his seat to leave the Church, cried after him, 
11 he ran away because he was hard hit." 

The joy of the country when Charles II. 
was restored to his kingdom is vividly por- 
trayed in The Glory of tJiese Nations, and the 
various points of the progress from Dover to 
Walworth Fields, Newington Butts and 
Southwark, are fully described, the whole 
winding up with 

The Bells likewise did loudly ring, 
Bonfires did burn, and people sing ; 
London conduits did run with wine ; 
And all men do to Charles incline ; 
Hoping now that all 
Unto their trades may fall, 
Their famylies for to maintain, 
And from wrong be free, 
'Cause we have liv'd to see 
The King enjoy his own again. 

After the more general pieces there follow 
these headings Kentish Election, Kentish 
Volunteer, Kentish Bowmen, Kentish Tour, 
Kentish Cricket and Kentish Hop groups, 
all of which, as their names would imply, are 
of considerable interest. In a collection of 
old ballads, that popular class relating to 
wonders and miracles is sure to be well re- 
presented. One of these ballads relates how 
a distressed widow and her seven small 
children, in the Wild of Kent, lived for seven 
weeks "upon a burnt sixpenny loaf of bread, 
and yet it never decreased." Mr. Ebsworth 
has given spirited reproductions of the old 

F 2 



6o 



THE KENTISH GARLAND. 



woodcuts. The Wild, and two of the elder 
children are here represented. 





Her children cry for bread, and she sells 
the coat from off her back, but loses her 
money on her way home. 

Her very coat she from her back did sell 
For five poor shillings, as is known full well ; 
But mark how this poor soul was strangely crost, 
Her purse was cut, and all her money lost. 

Then she goes to her husband's brother, 
but he pays no heed to her prayers and 
tears. This cruel uncle, whose mercy, as 
Mr. Ebsworth says, was squint-eyed, and 
" on the north side o' friendly," is shown 
in the next cut. 




The Kentish Frolick relates how a tanner 
stole a fat pig from a butcher to satisfy the 
longings of his wife, and how, when it was 
eaten, his peccadillo was discovered. 



Thus the poor tanner he was betray'd ; 

A butcher no more will he couzen ; 
Since for the pig he a guinea hath paid, 

The which would have bought half a dozen. 

The tanner and the fat pig are faithfully 
represented in the following illustration : 




The group of songs relating to the great 
volunteer movement at the time when 
Napoleon was expected to invade our coast, 
is of great interest, as shewing the deep 
national enthusiasm evoked, which was strong 
over the whole country, but particularly so in 
one of the counties that was specially exposed. 
As Mr. Ebsworth remarks, the feeling of 
cheerful confidence which animated the nation 
was encouraged by the preaching of the 
clergy, and the pastor of Lyminge, who re- 
minded his congregation that, " perhaps 
before the next Sunday dawns we shall have 
ceased to be an independent nation," was 
one of a small minority. The Holmesdale 
Volunteer asks 

Shall unconquer'd men of Kent, 
Who withstood the Norman pow'r, 

Bow before a vile usurper, 

Kais'd in mad rebellion's hour ? 



THE KENTISH GARLAND. 



61 



and all the poets answer this, or similar ques- 
tions, with a determined negative. 

The Society of Kentish Bowmen flourished 
from 1785 to 1802 ; and had George, Prince 
of Wales, for its President. It was founded 
by Mr. J. E. Madox, of Mount Mascal, in 
North Cray parish, and consisted at first of 
eleven members. In 1787, the Society re- 
moved its meetings to Dartford Heath, and 
after obtain- 
ing the pa- 
tronage of 
the Prince 
of Wales, the 
numbers rose 
to one hun- 
dred and 
twenty-three. 
It was an 
expensive as- 
sociation, for 
every mem- 
ber paid ten 
guineas on 
election, and, 
in addition, 
an annual 
subscription 
0fjQ1.11s.6d. 
and one 

guinea a year 
for dinners. 
If a mem- 
ber married 
he had to 
pay a fine 

Of ;lOO. 

Among the 

officers were 

four standard 

bearers, a 

treasurer, a 

chaplain, an 

antiquary, a 

laureate, and 

a volunteer laureate. No record of what 

the antiquary did has come down to our 

time, but the laureate's poems are before us, 

and in them we are told 

A Bowman's life's the life to court, 
There's none can charm so dearly, 

As roving, butting, all in sport, 
To the sound of the bugle cheerly. 



******* 
For to laugh a little and quaff a little, 
To sing a little and shoot a little, 
To fiddle a little and foot it a little's 
The life of a little Bowman. 

No Kentish Garland would be complete 
without some record of the doings of Kentish 
cricketers. Here is printed a poem, "written 
in consequence of a match between Hamp- 
shire and 
Kent, Aug. 
19, 1772, 
which was 
decided in 
favour of the 
latter," that 
professes to 
be the first 
song written 
in praise of 
the national 
game. 

The vo- 
lume is com- 
pleted with 
a group of 
poems re- 
lating to that 
famous pro- 
duct which 
is almost 
peculiar to 
the county 
the hop, 
or, as it has 
been called 
the "Ken- 
tish Vine." 




The hop 
swings 
lightly, 

The hop 
glows 
brightly, 



that 
so 

that 
so 



Will sure be honour'd rightly 
By all good men and true. 

We owe it to Mr. Ebsworth's kindness 
that his charming version of Hayman's scene 
in a hop garden, which illustrates Christopher 
Smart's poem, is here given. 

We hope we have said enough to show 
that this book is a valuable addition to our 



62 



THE KENTISH GARLAND. 




national ballad literature, and that great 
credit is due to Miss de Vaynes for her spirit in 
producing it. Besides the lady's valuable in- 
troductions, Mr. Ebsworth has poured out the 
stores of his unique learning- in his numerous 
notes, which greatly add both to the value 
and the interest of the book. 

Zhc Sympathetic GelesrapFx 

Or sympathy, or some connat'ral force 
Pow rful at greatest distance to unite, 
With secret amity, things of like kind, 
By secretest conveyance. 
O wrote Milton, and so have thought 
many others, more particularly the 
famous but credulous Sir Kenelm 
Digby, who published in 1658 a 
little book, Of the Cure of Wounds by the 
Powder of Sympathy, and who is said to have 
cured Howell the letter-writer's cut hands by 
the use of the powder at a considerable 
distance from the wounds. When the 
Mariner's Compass came to be generally 
known, as it was apparently in the twelfth 
century, the supposed wonders of magnetism 
appear to have attracted the attention of 
imaginative minds. Alexander Neckam, 
monk of St. Albans (born 1157, died 121 7), 
has the credit of being the earliest European 
writer to allude to the Compass. It was 
evidently the remarkable movements of the 
needle that first induced dreamy philosophers 
to believe that a sympathetic telegraph was 
a possibility. One description is well known, 
which Addison contributed to the Spectator, 
" of a chimerical correspondence between two 
friends by the help of a certain loadstone, 
which had such virtue in it that if it touched 
two several needles, when one of the needles 
so touched began to move, the other, though 
at never so great a distance, moved at the 
same time and in the same manner." This 
is taken from Strada's Prolusions, but earlier 
writers had alluded to the supposed pheno- 
menon, and Mr. Latimer Clark has collected 
a curious series of books relating to the 
subject which he has sent to be shown at the 
Paris Electrical Exhibition.* The celebrated 
* Mr. Clark has kindly supplied the writer with a 
list of these books made by Mr. Frost, Librarian of 
the Society of Telegraph Engineers, from which, with 
some reference to the books themselves, this article 
has been drawn up. 



Baptista Porta was the first to describe the 
sympathetic telegraph, which he did in 1558 
in his Natural Magic. He is said to have 
derived the idea from Cardinal Pietro Bembo 
(147 0-1547), but the observations of that 
celebrated historian and poet on the subject 
have not yet been traced. 

Daniel Schwenter, of Nuremberg, who 
wrote under the assumed name of Jacobus 
Hercules de Sunde, was the next (in 1600) 
to allude to the supposed instrument. He 
described how attention was drawn by the 
ringing of bells by means of bar magnets, 
and how the letters were formed by one, two, 
or three strokes to the right or left. His 
ideas were purely cabalistic, but his descrip- 
tion singularly coincides with some of the 
features of the modern telegraph. B. de Boot, 
the author of the Perfect yeweller, drew 
attention to the telegraph in 1609, and 
then, in the year 16 17, Famianus Strada 
published his Prolusiones Academica. In 
this book the author printed those verses 
describing the imaginary lover's telegraph, 
which were written in imitation of Lucretius, 
and have themselves been constantly trans- 
lated and imitated by later writers. One of 
these was the Rev. George Hakewill, D.D., 
Archdeacon of Surrey, who wrote a curious 
book full of the learning of his time, which he 
entitled, An Apologie or Declaration of the 
Power and Providence of God in the Govern- 
ment of the World. It is a folio volume, 
printed in London, for Robert Allott, in the 
year 1630. The tenth chapter (sect. 4) of the 
third book is, " Of the Use and Invention of 
the Marriner's Compasse or Sea Card, as also 
of another excellent invention, said to be lately 
found out upon the Load-stone ;" and this sec- 
tion contains a versified translation of Strada, 
from which, as it is less known, a quotation 
is here given in preference to the original. 

Well then, if you of ought would faine advise your 

friend 
That dwells farre off, to whom no letter you can send, 
A large smooth round table make, write down the 

Christcrosse row 
In order on the verge thereof, and then bestow 
The needle in the mid'st which toucht the loade, 

that so 

What note soe're you lift it straight may turne unto : 
Then frame another orbe in all respects like this, 
Describe the edge, and lay the Steele thereon likewise, 
The Steele which from the self-same Magnes motion 

drew j 



THE SYMPATHETIC TELEGRAPH. 



63 



This orbe send with thy friend what time he bids 

adieu ; 
But on the dayes agree first when you meane to prove 
If the Steele stirr, and to what letter it doth move. 
This done, if with thy friend thou closely would'st 

advise, 
Who in a country off farre distant from thee lies, 
Take thou the orbe and Steele which on the orbe was 

set, 
The Christcrosse on the edge thou see'st in order 

writ ; 
What notes will frame thy words to them direct thy 

Steele, 
And it sometimes to this, sometimes to that note 

wheele, 
Turning it round about so often till you finde 
You have compounded all the meaning of your 

minde. 
Thy friend that dwells far off, 6 strange ! doth plainely 

see 
The Steele to stirre, though it by no man stirred bee, 
Running now heere, now there, he conscious of the 

plot, 
As the Steele guides, pursues and reades from note to 

note ; 
Then gathering into words those notes, he clearely sees 
What's needefull to be done, the needle truchman 

[interpreter] is, 
Now when the Steele doth cease its motion, if thy 

friend 
Thinke it convenient answere backe to send, 
The same course he may take, and with his needle 

write. 
Touching the severall notes what so he list indite. 

Dr. Hakewill then goes on to refer to the 
Annotations of Viginerius upon T. Livius, 
and as he conscientiously refers to his autho- 
rities, he tells us that on the 13 1 6th column of 
his first volume, that author says : " that a 
letter might be read through a stone wall of 
three foote thicke by guiding and moving the 
needle of a compasse over the letters of the 
alphabet, written in the circumference ; but 
the certainty of this conclusion I leave to the 
experiment of such as list to make tryall of it." 

One year before Dr. Hakewill's Apology 
appeared, Nicolas Cabeus published his 
Philosophia Magnetica, and in that work 
he gave the first picture of the telegraph. It 
merely showed a round dial with a " lower 
case" alphabet round its outer edge, and a 
magnetic needle loosely attached at the cen- 
tre. Robert Turner was the first English 
writer to represent this dial, and this he did 
in his translation of Ars Notoria : the Notory 
Art of Solomon (1657). His figure is similar 
to that of Cabeus, with this exception, that he 
uses an alphabet of capitals in place of one of 
small letters. He describes the pure steel 



needle as like that used in seamen's com- 
passes, but of double magnitude, so that after 
being touched by loadstone it may be cut in 
two, when each needle must be placed in a 
separate box. In one of Bishop Wilkins' 
curious books, Mercury, or the Secret and 
Swift Messenger : showing how a man may, 
with privacy and speed, communicate his 
thoughts to a friend at any distance (1641), 
the author alludes to the sympathetic tele- 
graph, although he does not believe in its 
virtues. His nineteenth chapter is " Of those 
common relations that concerne secret and 
swift information by the species of sight 
which are either fabulous or magical," and 
here he writes " first of those thatare fabulous. 
In which kind, that of the loadstone is most 
remarkable, as it is maintained by Famianus 
Strada in his imitation of Lucretius his stile 
and divers others." 

Besides the authors already referred to, 
there are a large number of others who 
either describe the instrument or make a 
passing allusion to it. Of these the most 
prominent are H. Van Etten (1624), Panci- 
rollus (1629), A. Kircher, (1631), Galileo 
(1632), Sir Thomas Brown (1646), J. Glanvill, 
(1661), Wynant van Westen (1663), Gaspar 
Schott (1665), W. E. Heidel (1676), L. H. 
Hillier (1682), De Lanis (1684), and De 
Vallemont (1696). It is a singular instance 
of the way in which we copy one from 
another that so many writers should have 
made mention of this purely mythical in- 
strument, some of them apparently with un- 
doubting faith in its virtues. 

In an indirect manner the name of an 
eminent statesman is connected with this 
famous dial. Cardinal Richelieu had private 
agents in many countries, who kept him so 
well informed with news that those who 
knew nothing of the agents thought it neces- 
sary to find some explanation of his early 
knowledge of events, which seemed to them 
almost like a prophetic power; so they gave 
out that Richelieu possessed a sympathetic 
telegraph. The wily Cardinal blandly denied 
the rumour with smiles, and was not sorry that 
those around him should be thrown off the 
right scent. 

Some persons believed that the dial might 
be made with human flesh. A piece of 
flesh was cut from the arms of two persons, 



6 4 



THE SYMPATHETIC TELEGRAPH 



and, while still warm and bleeding, was 
mutually transplanted. The severed piece 
grew to the new arm, but retained its sympathy 
with the old, so that the former possessor was 
sensible of any injury that it underwent. 
When the flesh had grown to the new arms, 
letters were tattoed upon the transplanted 
pieces ; and on one of the letters of one being 
pricked with a magnetic needle, the friend at 
a distance immediately felt a sympathetic pain 
on the same letter on his arm. This reminds 
one of Taliacotius and his remarkable opera- 
tions, which inspired Edmond About to write 
his singular novel, Le Nez d'un Notaire, 
in which he relates the curious results of 
sympathy between the notary's nose and the 
arm of the man from whom the flesh was 
taken. 

Allusion has already been made to Addi- 
son's remarks in the Spectator (No. 241) 
upon Strada's account, and it is worth men- 
tion, as a curiosity of literature, that the 
celebrated essayist actually repeated his 
remarks word for word in the Guardian 
(No. 119). One of the latest translations of 
Strada's verses will be found in an Oxford 
magazine entitled The Student, which opens 
thus : 

With magic virtues fraught, of sov'reign use, 
Magnesia's mines a wondrous stone produce. 

Although the telegraph, about which we have 
been writing, was purely sympathetic, and no 
provision was made for a connecting wire, 
yet some may consider it a curious prevision 
of what has since been successfully carried 
out. The dial certainly does appear to have 
borne a singular likeness to a Wheatstone 
ABC telegraph. Sir Kenelm Digby looked 
forward to the time when communication of 
this character would be general. That 
singular man wrote as follows in a work ad- 
dressed to the Royal Society : 

I doubt not but that posterity will find many things 
that now are but rumours verified into practical 

realities To those who come after it may be as 

ordinary to buy a pair of wings to fly into the remotest 
regions as now a pair of boots to ride a journey, and 
to confer at the distance of the Indies by sympathetic 
conveyances may be as usual to future times as to us in 
literary correspondence. 

Butler might laugh at those who propose to 

.... fire a mine in China here 
With sympathetic gunpowder, 



but time is apt to transform the dreams of the 
visionary into practical facts, so that the 
fanciful philosopher really made a better 
guess than the common-sense poet supposed. 
H. B. Wheatley. 



IRortbern antiquarian 
Xiterature. 




ALU ABLE helps to the study ot 
Northern Antiquities continue to 
appear in Scandinavia. If we 
begin with the extreme north-east, 
Finland, we there have a new Part, the fourth,* 
of the first attempt, on a large scale, to gather 
the archaeological materials as yet rescued 
amid the Finnish tribes, exhibited in the 
folio atlas of Prof. J. R. Aspelin, the 
distinguished Finnish archaeologist. As the 
text is in French as well as in Finnish, all 
can follow. This part contains more than 
500 figures, and embraces the Iron Age. It 
is most interesting as to objects and types, 
both those only local and those common 
elsewhere in the North. 

A longed-for continuation comes also from 
Sweden. Part II. of the customs and manners 
of Sweden in the middle age, by the Swedish 
Riks-antiquary, Hans Hildebrand.f It con- 
tains stores of valuable information, the result 
of wide research, and more than 100 illus- 
trations. Another work, by a Swedish juris- 
consult, breaks entirely new ground, the 
primitive Aryan home, as modified and 
localized in the olden Swedish settlements. \ 
The learned author is widely read on the sub- 
ject, and this first attempt to describe the 
Scandinavian membership in the , Aryan 
family is most instructive and interesting. 
When he comes to the Runes, Hr. Kreiiger 
frankly accepts the happy combination of our 
countryman, Dr. Isaac Taylor, that the 
Northern runes were a loan from the old and 

* Antiqtiites du Nord Finno-Ougrien. IV. Livrai- 
son. Helsingfors. 1880. Paris : C. Klincksieck. Folio. 

t Sveriges Medeltid, Kulturhistorisk Skildring, I. 
2. Stockholm. 1880. 8vo. 

t J. Kreiiger. Det Aryska Ekmentct i den Forn- 
svenska Familjens och Stdgtens organisation. 
Lund : 188 1. 8vo. 

Greeks and Goths ; a Study on the Runes 
London : 1879. 



NORTHERN ANTIQUARIAN LITERATURE. 



65 



flourishing Greek colonies in Scythia 600 or 
700 before Christ. One more Swedish essay 
I must mention. The great battle as to the 
origin of the Northern Mythology rages on 
two wings. Prof. S. Bugge asserts that 
the Northern God-tales were chiefly manu- 
factured by Norse Wikings in the 9th and 
10th centuries, they having pickt up Classical 
and Christian stories in Ireland and developt 
them in their own way. On the other hand, 
Dr. Bang in Christiania has contended, that 
the great heathen myth-song, Voluspd, was 
chiefly a kind of copy from the Sibylline 
books, as known to us in their Christian 
dress. Against this last theory, the Swedish 
savant, Dr. Viktor Rydberg, of Gotenburg, 
has written a brilliant paper in the two first 
numbers of Nor disk Tidskrift for 1881.* 
It is not too much to say, that a more crush- 
ing and masterly reply was never penned. 
This instructive and sparkling paper should 
appear in an English dress. 

Passing over to Norway, Prof. S. Bugge's 
first Part on the Northern Mythology, con- 
taining his Prolegomena and the myth of 
Baldor, has in general not been favorably 
received outside Norway. My own English 
Lectures against it, as delivered in the Danish 
University, will be printed in due time. I 
am informed that Prof. Bugge has happily 
abandoned his plan of continuing his work 
in gradual Parts, and that all the rest will be 
given at once in one volume. Meantime a 
remarkable and fruitful enquiry has been set 
on foot by a distinguisht Norwegian archaeo- 
logist, Hr. A. Lorange, the Keeper of the 
Bergen Museum. He has been examining 
the single-edged and double-edged Norse 
Wiking-swords of the 8th, 9th, and 10th 
centuries, many of which are beautifully 
damascened, while some bear inscriptions. 
He finds that the letters and counter-marks 
are by inlay, steel wire hammered in, and it 
now turns out that several of them are in 
Runic or mixt Runic and Roman staves, 
others bearing only Roman letters. It would 
seem, therefore, that these costly brands were 
made at home in Scandinavia itself. Rumor 
says, that Hr. Lorange intends taking up the 
whole question of the fabrication and types 
of the Wiking weapons, and I hope that this 
may prove true. 

Sibyllintrna och Voluspd. 



In Denmark I would draw attention to a 
fine folio volume, publisht by assistance 
from the Danish Ministry of Public Instruc- 
tion, on the Country Churches of Sealand.* 
The measurements have been executed by 
A. L. Clemmensen and J. B. Loffler, while 
the latter gentleman has added a valuable 
text. The thirty-six Plates give Plans, 
Views, Fonts, Details, &c, of great interest 
to the examiner of middle-age architecture, 
and English students will gather much infor- 
mation here, both technical and general. 
The Chamberlain Worsaae has publisht a 
second and improved edition of his Northern 
Fore History.\ Beginning with the Stone 
Age, which he minutely discusses, he passes 
to the splendid Bronze Period, whose close 
he places a little before Christ. The begin- 
ning of the Iron Age he dates at about the 
Christian era, thus going considerably back. 
But Dr. O. Montelius, of Stockholm, in his 
last essay, goes to about 200 years before 
Christ. Iron, however, is much older in the 
North than even this. Worsaae ends with 
the Wiking period, and adds a welcome 
short outline of his new ideas on the myths 
of the Northmen, and the ancient Marks by 
which their Gods were symbolized. His 
great work hereon, with its many Plates, is 
eagerly expected. Before I conclude, 
another extraordinary find has been made in 
Denmark, in one of the Mosses, or " Anti- 
quarian Bogs," for which this country is so 
famous, this time the Deibjerg Peatbog, 
Ringkjobing, North Jutland. It is no less 
than considerable remains of a Chariot or 
Waggon from the Early Iron Age, wood 
largely covered and strengthened with admir- 
ably workt Bronze fittings. A couple of the 
pillars have been regularly turned. Dr. 
Harry Petersen, who has superintended the 
diggings, has just returned with his spoil to 
the Danish Museum, and steps will now be 
taken to preserve and arrange and engrave 
what is left of this precious object. This is 
the second Barbarian-Roman Car, fragments 
of which have been found in Denmark. One 
such was previously discovered in Fijn, and 
was made public by the Chamberlain 

* Sjcelland's Stiftslandsbykirker. Kjobenhavn. 
1880. Large folio. 

t Nordens Forhistorie. 8vo. Kjobenhavn. 1881. 
Pp. 200 and Map. 



66 



NORTHERN ANTIQUARIAN LITERATURE. 



Schested in his splendid 4to volume de- 
scribing the Museum at Broholm. At 
present we cannot see whether this second 
Chariot was a Temple car, or one intended 
for some other use. 

George Stephens. 



Zbc Xibrar^/ 




T cannot well be said that due honour 
is now withheld from the Library, 
for the fault is rather to be found 
in the opposite extreme of expecting 
too much from it. Thus we read in a leader 
in The Times anent Carlyle's theory that 
the modern library has superseded the 
ancient university, that "it is scarcely an 
exaggeration to say that on the choice of a 
librarian for Sir Thomas Bodley's great 
institution, the whole future of learning in 
Oxford may depend." Here there seems to 
be the expression of a very exaggerated 
belief in the teaching power of a mass of 
books. Surely experience has shown us that a 
dozen books well mastered, are more useful 
than hundreds merely scanned, and further, 
that those dozen books should be the 
property of the student and always by his 
side. 

We should be the last to say a word which 
might be construed as slighting treatment of 
such magnificent establishments as the 
Bodleian, the British Museum, the Cam- 
bridge University, or the Advocates' Libraries. 
These institutions are for research rather than 
for study, and the books they contain are 
intended for consultation rather tfcan for 
reading. We fear that as public libraries 
increase, private libraries decrease, and that 
men are content to borrow rather than to buy. 
We talk largely about books, but it is a fair 
question to ask whether we really read them 
and study them as much as our fathers did. 
We would express the hope that all classes of 
libraries may go on increasing, but here we 
have to deal with the private library alone. 
Mr. Lang has written a very charming little 

* The Library. By Andrew Lang. With a Chap- 
ter on Modern English Illustrated Books, by Austin 
Dobson (Art at Home Series). London : Macraillan 
& Co. 1881. Sm. 8vo, pp. XV.-184. 



book in which he sketches with a Hght hand 
some of the scenes dear to the heart of the 
book-hunter, and really his description of 
our old friends the bouquinistes, who set 
their boxes on the walls of the embankment 
of the Seine, makes us long to be able to 
take our ticket for Paris, and visit these 
delightful hunting grounds once again. In 
spite, however, of all the pleasant stories of 
treasures picked up at bookstalls, most of us 
have to content ourselves with dirty fingers, 
when we turn over the contents of the 
miscellaneous boxes. There may be valuable 
books there ; but if so they are much like 
the proverbial needle in the bundle of hay. 
Few can hope to emulate the good fortune 
of M. de Resbecq, who bought a book for 
six sous, which has been valued at ^600, 
or of the Rugby schoolboy, who obtained 
the quarto of King John, from an old woman 
for one shilling. Mr. Lang does not appear 
to allude to the fluctuations in prices. 
One is apt to fancy that books are con- 
tinually becoming dearer, but this is a 
mistake, for while many have increased in 
price, whole classes of books have been 
depreciated in value of late years. The 
collector to be really successful should be a 
pioneer, and obtain his objects before public 
attention is drawn to them. He is hardly 
likely to find his collection grow in value 
who buys at the high tide of the fashion. We 
are glad to find that Mr. Lang alludes to the 
sad paucity of libraries among our well-to-do 
fellow countrymen. How true is the follow- 
ing picture ! "By the library we do not 
understand a study where no one goes, and 
where the master of the house keeps his 
books, an assortment of walking sticks, the 
Waverley Novels, Pearson on the Creed, 
Hume's Essays, and a collection of sermons. 
In alas ! too many English homes, the 
library is no more than this, and each genera- 
tion passes without adding a book, except 
now and then a Bradshaw or a railway 
novel to the collection on the shelves. The 
success perhaps of circulating libraries, or it 
may be the Aryan tendencies of our race, 
which does not read, and lives in the open 
air, have made books the rarest of possessions 
in many homes. There are relics of the age 
before circulating libraries, there are frag- 
ments of the lettered store of some scholarly 



THE LIBRARY. 



67 



great grandfather, and these with a few odd 
numbers of magazines, a few primers and 
manuals, some sermons and novels, make 
up the ordinary library of our English 
household." 

How different is the Frenchman's idea of 
a library, his books are few but they must be 
choice, as the Bibliophile Jacob observes 
"the book has become as it were a jewel 
and is kept in a jewel case." We do not 
entirely approve of our neighbours' ideal, 
for the selection may be too rigid, but it is 
this widely spread ideal that has caused 
Paris to continue to be what it was in the 
day of that earliest of bibliophiles, Richard 
de Bury, who exclaims, in his Philobiblon 
" O God of Gods in Zion ! what a rushing 
river of joy gladdens my heart as often as I 
have a chance of going to Paris ! There the 
days seem always short ; there, are the goodly 
collections on the delicate, fragrant book- 
shelves." 

Mr. Lang's anecdotes are very delightful, 
such is the one of M. de Latour, who picked 
up a copy of the Imitatio Christi for 75 cen- 
times, and found that it was Rousseau's own 
copy, with notes written by him, and with 
the faded petals of his favourite flower, the 
periwinkle between its leaves. Was not this 
enough good fortune for the book-hunter ! 
No ! some years after he found what he had 
not discovered before viz., an allusion to 
the Imitatio in Rousseau's works. In turn- 
ing over the leaves of the CEuvres Ineditas 
he came upon a letter in which Jean Jacques, 
writing in 1763, asked Motiers-Travers to 
send him the Imitatio. Now the date, 1764, 
is memorable in the Confessions for a burst 
of sentiment over a periwinkle, and here in 
M. de Latour's volume was the identical 
flower that Rousseau had treasured. The 
name of the publisher of a play of Moliere's, 
and his place of residence, reminds Mr. 
Lang of a scene in one of Corneille's come- 
dies, and of Gravelot's exquisite engraving of 
the scene, and so he loiters along his road 
picking flowers as he goes. We hope we are 
not ungrateful, but we somewhat resent the 
attention given to French bibliophiles, while 
so little is given to English book-lovers. 
In fact Mr. Lang seems rather less at home 
when he is dealing with Englishmen than 
when he is amongst Frenchmen. For in- 



stance, the description of a sale, on page 19, 
is so unlike that at any London book auction- 
room we know of, that we can only express 
our surprise. We are told that " the chamber 
has the look of a rather seedy * hell/ " that 
the bidders are largely Jews, that the sale is 
a " knock-out," and that amateurs who drop 
in by chance are run by the professionals. 
All this might be accurate if it applied to a 
furniture sale, but at a London book sale- 
room there are few Jews, and the booksellers 
are so used to the presence of book-buyers 
that they take it as a matter of course. 
While we are finding fault we may remark 
that the lists of famous collectors and of great 
binders seem somewhat miscellaneous, and 
show a want of thorough knowledge of the 
subject. There are, however, some very 
good suggestions as to the mode in which 
variety may be given to the ordinary mono- 
tonous half-bindings. 

Mr. Lang's colleagues have produced very 
excellent chapters The Rev. W. J. Loftie 
one on manuscripts, and Mr. Austin Dobson 
one on illustrated books, but 178 pages 
seems all too small a space to treat the 
library in, and we should have preferred had 
Mr. Lang occupied it all. We shall pass 
Mr. Loftie's contribution without notice, 
because, although it is very good in itself, it 
is too technical to be in character with the 
plan of the rest of the book. 

Mr. Dobson has an excellent subject, and 
we hope that he will take an opportunity 
in the future of amplifying this short chapter. 

The Annuals naturally occupy an important 
place in the history of book illustration, and 
we are told that about a million pounds were 
squandered in producing them. The Land- 
scape Annuals are not mentioned, and we 
think they should have been excluded 
from the censure justly passed on the 
Keepsake and its somewhat frivolous com- 
panions. Volumes of Jennings's Land- 
scape Annual, and of Heath's Picturesque 
Annual are now before us. Each year a 
particular county was illustrated by Prout, or 
Stanfield, or Harding, and delightful volumes 
were the result. One point in modern book 
illustration is worthy of special note, although 
Mr. Dobson does not allude to it. It is that 
most of the so-called illustrations in modern 
magazines illustrate nothing in particular. 



\ 



68 



THE LIBRARY. 



Cruickshank and Phiz illustrated the most 
important portions of Dickens's novels, and 
they so thoroughly entered into the concep- 
tions of the author, that their figures are to us 
an integral part of the book. Fagin seated 
in his cell is as vividly impressed upon our 
mind's eye, as is the verbal description of the 
novelist. Now, the least important incidents 
of books are taken, and the illustrations 
would often do as well for one story as for 
another. They are pretty in themselves, but 
they give the readers no ideas. There are, 
of course, many exceptions, and the most 
brilliant is Mr. Randolph Caldecott, whose 
pictures are the delight of old and young 
alike. 

In taking leave of Mr. Lang's volume we 
must not omit to mention the pretty head 
pieces, the fine reproductions of old bindings, 
and the capital series of specimens of illus- 
trated books all of which go to form a 
singularly pleasing volume. The appropriate 
black-letter verses by Mr. Dobson and Mr. 
Lang also should not be forgotten. 

IReviews. 




The Poems .of Lord Herbert of Cherbury. Edited, 
with an Introduction, by John Churton Collins. 
(London : Chatto & Windus. 1881.) Small 8vo. 
Pp. xxxiv. 136. 

|,ORD HERBERT is so original a character, 
and his fame is still so considerable, that 
we must feel thankful to an editor who 
helps us to a better understanding of his 
remarkable individuality. His Occasional 
Verses, collected by his son, and published in 1665, 
seventeen years after his death, is a very scarce 
volume, and few critics have paid any attention to it. 
Those who do not ignore Lord Herbert's poems are 
unanimous in condemning them ; and as the reader 
turns over the pages casually he will probably feel 
very much inclined to agree with the critics. If, how- 
ever, he will read Mr. Collins's Introduction, he will 
find that that gentleman has made out a very good 
case for his protege*. He shows that, although Donne 
exerted great influence over the style of his young 
friend, yet the latter's rhythm was essentially his own. 
" Where it is musical, its music is not the music of the 
older poet ; where its note is harsh and dissonant, it 
is no echo of the discords of that unequal and most 
capricious singer." He further finds verses closely 
resembling those of Mr. Browning and others recalling 
work of the Laureate's. There are few of the poems 
that are good as a whole, but some of the lines possess 
vigour, and some sweetness. We are sorry that the 



spelling has been tampered with, because in a reprint 
which follows the style of the original so carefully as 
this, the old forms seem most appropriate, and while 
nothing is gained by the change, some of the old 
aroma is lost. The paper, print and binding is all that 
can be desired. 



Introduction to the Study of English History. By 

Samuel R. Gardinkr and J. Bass Mullinger. 

(London : C. Kegan Paul. 1881.) Small 8vo. 

Pp. xvii. 424. 

This book is divided into two parts : Introduction 
to English History, and Authorities. The former takes 
up in an admirable manner the main threads of the 
events which go to make up our fourteen hundred 
years of history, and the latter gives us, in a concise and 
very useful form, the best authorities for the different 
periods. Now and then Professor Gardiner, in the 
somewhat dry process of cramming into 200 pages 
the history of a nation so full of history if we 
may say so as England, bridges over events 
with the magical powers of comprehensive thought 
which show at once a knowledge of the events 
which have led the nation on from one centuiy 
to another. These historical glimpses into the 
progress of a country are of very great value to those 
who cannot spare the time to make such necessary 
observations for themselves, and to those legislators 
as well as students we cordially recommend this book. 
Of course, it is not to be supposed that every great 
event can be fully dealt with, nor in some cases 
dealt with at all, because Mr. Gardiner is careful 
to choose those which lead on to subsequent events ; 
but we should have thought that the conquest and 
annexation of Ireland would have found a place 
in the book. Mr. Gardiner concludes his Introduc- 
tion with a few words to be recommended to many 
political thinkers of the present day. " We may be 
sure," he says, " that [the nation] is less in danger of 
shipwreck, because more than other nations it does not 
disregard its past, and because it does not hastily cast 
off, or even profoundly modify, its old institutions till 
they have become beyond all dispute hurtful rather 
than beneficial." Mr. Mullinger is a very careful and 
accurate guide through the vast mass of authorities on 
English history, and he does not forget the important 
section the beginning of our institutions which is 
being elucidated by the aid of the comparative study 
of histories. We must, however, disagree with his 
verdict upon Mr. Coote's valuable work, and cannot 
think he has studied the Romans of Britain so care- 
fully as he has the Saxons in England, by Kemble. 



An Introduction to the Science of Comparative 

Mythology and Folk-Lore, By the Rev. Sir 

George W. Cox, Bart. (London: C. Kegan 

Paul. 1881.) Small 8vo. Pp. xvi. 380. 

If we begin by objecting to the title of this most 

interesting and valuable book, we do so in the interests 

of the study of folk-lore. Sir George Cox seems to be 

wholly unaware of the original definition given to the 

term folk-lore by its author, Mr. Thorns, and of 

the liberal interpretation which subsequent students 

have given to this definition. "Folk-lore," says Sir 



REVIEWS. 



69 



George Cox, "is perpetually running into mythology, 
and there are few myths which do not exhibit, in some 
of their features, points of likeness to the tales usually 
classified under the head of folk-lore." It appears 
to us, on the contrary, that it may be more properly 
said that mythology is perpetually running into folk- 
lore. It is just because mythology, displaced as a 
national religion, becomes perpetuated as popular 
beliefs, that it can be classed as folk-lore, and placed 
side by side in that long category of manners and 
customs, superstitions and beliefs, old sayings and 
proverbs, legends and traditions, hero-tales and God- 
tales, which go to make up the lore of the people. 

In the work before us, Sir George Cox examines, on 
thelineshehas before soably worked, the oldmythology 
of Greece, Rome and Germany, and seeks for illustra- 
tion of his theories in such folk-tales and legends as fit 
in with his general conception of the subject. It needs 
scarcely be said that this produces another book, which 
those who already possess the previous works of 
the author will desire quickly to obtain. The work 
deals with the heavens and the light, the fire, the 
winds, the waters, the clouds, the earth, the under- 
world and the darkness, and the epical traditions 
and poems of the Aryan world. This arrangement 
brings together in the most concise form the salient 
features of Indo-European mythology. There are 
many occasions where we should have to differ from 
the author in the process of working out his subject. 
We think, for instance, that some of the suggested 
moral explanations of mythical ideas might be more 
forcibly and correctly explained by illustrations which 
the study of customs and ideas of primitive man 
now enables us to make. Our space will not admit 
of our going into these critical differences, but 
they do not prevent us from stating that the book 
fills up a gap in the literature of comparative mytho- 
logy, and will give some new pleasures to those who 
delight in learning still more about the gods of 
Olympia, the Vedic gods, and Odin, Thor and Fro 
of old Teutonic life. 



A Book of the Beginnings. By Gerald Massey. 

(London: Williams & Norgate. 1881.) 2 vols. 

large 8vo. 

The author of this book styles it an attempt to re- 
cover and reconstitute the lost origins of the myths 
and mysteries, types and symbols, religion and 
language, with Egypt for the mouthpiece, and Africa 
as the birthplace. Those who know Mr. Massey as 
a poet will read the poem which introduces these 
ponderous volumes with much of their old delight in 
his work ; but, alas ! on turning to the text of the 
book itself, we must confess that it only becomes 
valuable by leaving out all the comparisons and 
conclusions with which Mr. Massey surrounds his 
facts. The industry displayed by Mr. Massey in col- 
lecting a really curious assortment of customs, tra- 
ditions, and superstitions is very great ; but when we 
come to note the far-fetched and altogether erroneous 
interpretation put upon these relics of local antiquities, 
we can only regret that Mr. Massey, before under- 
taking his self-imposed task, did not think fit to study 
some of the most elementary treatises on philology 
and comparative mythology. It would be impossible 
for us to give any adequate idea of the contents of 



these" volumes without entering more fully into the 
critical questions which they raise ; and this, it ap- 
pears to us, would be far from beneficial, either to the 
author or our readers. The contents of the first 
volume relate to the Egyptian origines in the 
British Isles, and take us into subjects of hiero- 
glyphics, water names, names of personages, place 
names, popular customs, and the records of the great 
stone circles. The second volume relates to Egyptian 
origines in the Hebrew, Akkaddo- Assyrian, and 
Maori, and takes up the interesting question of 
Egyptian origines in the Hebrew Scriptures, religion, 
language, and letters. 

An Outline History of the Hanseatic League, more 
particularly in its bearings upon English Commerce. 
By Cornelius Walford, F.I. A. (London : 
Printed for Private Circulation. 1881.) 8vo, pp. 61. 
This is one of those remarkable pamphlets, full of 
information, statistically arranged, for which Mr. 
Walford is so well known. It is not so voluminous 
as some of its predecessors, English Gilds, or 
Famines of the World, but it is distinctly a gain to 
the literature and history of English commerce. 
Tracing out the rise of trading communities, such as 
the steel-yard merchants of London (who probably, 
says Mr. Walford, settled as far back as Ethelred II.], 
the author gives some of the features of the inner life 
of the members, which was as strict as a monastery. 
" It was about the year 1 167, when the commercial 
cities of Julin and Winnet had been destroyed by the 
Danes and other pirates, and when Lubeck, Rostock, 
and other cities had received their dispersed inhabi- 
tants, that the Hanseatic Confederacy acquired force. 
The first towns were Lubeck, Wismar, Rostock, 
Stralsund, Grypeswald, Ankam, Stettin, Colberg, 
Stolpe, Dantzic, Elbing, and Koningsberg." The 
cities, in order to be able to enter the League, must 
have the civil jurisdiction in their own hands, but they 
were allowed to acknowledge a superior lord. 

The Steel-yard merchants of London became the 
agents of the Hanseatic League in England ; and Mr. 
Walford has much to say about the influence of this 
upon English commerce. We are carried step by 
step, chronologically, through the main facts of this 
interesting and important subject ; and it is shewn 
very clearly how the spirit of enterprise which 
governed this dawn of commercial progress in 
Europe has been the means of originating and pre- 
serving some of the most important rights of local 
government and independence. Nay, it has done 
even more. Mr. Walford's closing words tell us that 
this combination had played a most important part, 
not only in the commercial progress, but, more or less, 
in the political supremacy of Europe for four centuries. 
It had subsidized our kings. Henry III. had granted 
the English representatives privileges in acknowledg- 
ment of money lent him. The Empejor Charles V. 
had availed himself of its bounty. It had aided in 
creating, as in dethroning, many kings and princes, 
and the only monument of its own greatness lives in 
the memories of the few who have made its real 
history a matter of personal study. We heartily con- 
gratulate Mr. Walford upon his powers of work, and 
wish he had issued this little book for sale, so that all 
might obtain it. 



70 



REVIEWS. 



The Index to the Paper and Printing Trades 
Journal. Compiled by Edwin R. Pearce. Numbers 
I to 32. (Taunton : Barnicott & Son. 1881.) 4*0. 
Pp. 11. 

We have here a curious illustration of the spread 
of interest in index literature, which has induced a 
country publisher to produce an index to the contents 
of a London periodical. The work appears to be 
fairly well done, although we notice one or two points 
which might have been improved by a little more re- 
vision as for instance, Of English Dogges under 
" O," and not under "Dog," although there is a 
reference to " British Dogs" in another place. The 
index, however, is far above the average of indexes to 
journals. 



Meetings of antiquarian 
Societies, 



METROPOLITAN. 

Society of Antiquaries. June 16. Mr. A. W. 
Franks, V.P., in the Chair. Mr. J. W. Comerford 
presented a bronze processional cross and a bronze 
figure from a crucifix. The former had been dug up 
on Bosworth Field. The figure from a crucifix bore 
traces of enamel in one eye and on the tunic. It was 
found on piercing an arch, thirty years ago, in Withy- 
brook Church, Warwickshire. Mr. J. R. R. Godfrey 
exhibited a drawing of a coffer now in Shanklin 
Church, and bearing the name of Thomas Silkested, 
who was Prior of St. Swithin's, Winchester, from 
1498 to 1524. The date on the chest was 1512. Only 
the front of the chest was old. The inscription ran : 

" DOMINVS THOMAS SILKSTED PRIOR . ANNO DNI 

1512." In the centre were the initials, "T. S.,"and 
the arms of the see of Winchester. Mr. Morgan 
exhibited a drawing of a portion of a Roman pave- 
ment found at Caerwent ; also an old knife washed 
up by the Usk, near Abergavenny. Mr. J. A. 
Sparvel-Bayly presented rubbings of two brasses at 
Laindon Church. Mr. H. Laver communicated an 
account of a Roman altar found at Colchester in some 
sewerage excavations. Mr. Leveson-Gower exhibited 
two quarries of glass, each bearing the Gresham crest, 
a grasshopper. Mr. J. H. Middleton exhibited a 
silver-gilt dish, formerly in the Demidoff Collection, 
with the "Adoration of the Shepherds" in repoussi 
work, date seventeenth century. Mr. Middleton also 
communicated an account of a Roman villa recently 
excavated at Fifehead Neville, Dorset, together with 
drawings of a tessellated pavement and other antiqui- 
ties found on the spot. 

June 23. Mr. E. Freshfield, V.P., in the Chair. 
Mr. A. Nesbitt exhibited a bas-relief, of unknown 
origin, which he had recently procured in Florence. 
It represented the head and bust of a young woman, 
wearing a close cap, and a piece of drapery thrown 
over the left shoulder, the right being left uncovered. 
Mr. A. W. Franks read an elaborate Paper on the 
Buddhist sculptures from the tope of Amravati, which 
had been placed under his charge in the British 



Museum. Mr. Franks had succeeded in elucidating 
many of the subjects on these sculptures, which had 
hitherto baffled the ingenuity of archaeologists. 

Anthropological Institute. June 14. 
Major-General A. Pitt-Rivers, President, in the Chair. 
General Pitt-Rivers read a Paper " On the Dis- 
covery of Flint Implements in the Gravel of the Nile 
Valley, near Thebes." The worked flints were 
found embedded two or three metres deep in stratified 
gravel. Mr. A. Tylor read a Paper " On the Human 
Fossil at Nice, discovered by M. Ischa in December, 
1880." Mr. F. E. im Thurn read a Paper "On 
some Stone Implements from British Guiana." Mr. 
J. P. Harrison exhibited a collection of Danish and 
French photographs. The following Papers were 
taken as read : "On Sepulchral Remains at Rath- 
down, co. Wicklow," by Mr. G. A Kinahan, and 
" Notes on some Excavations made in Tumuli, near 
Copiapo, Chili, in June, 1880," by Mr. J. H. Madge. 

June 28. Major-General Pitt-Rivers, President, in 
the Chair. Sir H. Bartle Frere read a Paper on 
" The Laws affecting the Relations between Civilized 
and Savage Life, as bearing upon the Dealings of 
Colonists with Aborigines." Sir Bartle Frere com- 
menced by sketching the historical evidence, referring 
to- the results of the Aryan immigration on the 
aboriginal races of India the effects of the contact 
of civilized with uncivilized races in Assyria, Egypt, 
and Greece, and the treatment of conquered nations 
by the Romans. He then proceeded to describe the 
various native tribes inhabiting South Africa, and 
traced the influence upon them of contact with Euro- 
pean civilization. 

City Church and Churchyard Protection 
Society. June 23. Second Annual Meeting. The 
Lord Mayor in the Chair. Mr. Wright, Hon. Sec, 
read the report. The Council were able to announce 
that the yearly destruction of a City church, which 
had been the average for the past ten years, has, since 
the formation of the Society, happily ceased. They 
cannot, however, believe that all attacks have ended, 
but have been postponed, in order that the public 
mind may be prepared for some more drastic scheme 
on the publication of the census returns of those who 
slept in the City on the first Sunday in April. But, 
fortunately, there will be equally trustworthy statistics 
from the day census taken by the Corporation as to 
the vast numbers of those who spend the greater 
portion of their lives within the confines of the City 
parishes. The attention of the Council has been 
drawn to a return published in the St. Jamefs Gazette 
for June 13, 1881, professing to give returns of the 
congregations of the City churches, which they 
believe to be misleading. That census is based on 
the attendance at the morning service ; but those 
in the habit of worshipping in the City churches 
know tha,t the evening services are frequented by 
much larger numbers. 

Folk-Lore. June 22. Annual Meeting. Earl 
Beauchamp, President, in the Chair. The Hon. 
Secretary, Mr. G. L. Gomme, being unfortunately 
absent in consequence of illness, Mr. H. B. Wheatley 
read the Annual Report. The report shows that 
there are members of the Society in Denmark, France, 
Germany, Italy, Portugal, Sweden, Turkey, China, 
Japan, India, Africa, Canada, United States, and 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



7i 



Australia. From these facts the Council justly hope 
to be able to do the best for the study of folk-lore. 
MSS. have already been received from Prof. D. 
Comparetti, of Florence, Prof. Z. C. Eedrosa, of 
Lisbon, and Lieut. C. Temple, in India, on the folk- 
lore of their respective countries ; and it will be the 
earnest endeavour of the Council to print these as 
soon as possible. Dr. Dennys, of Singapore, and the 
Rev. H. Friend have also promised assistance on 
Chinese folk-lore, and Miss Frere has promised to lay 
before the Council a scheme for the collection of 
South African folk-lore. Perhaps the most important 
feature of the meeting was the Report of the Proverbs 
Committee. This Committee was appointed by a 
resolution passed at the Annual Meeting, 1880, and it 
seems to have made some considerable progress on 
the question of dealing with the proverbs of Great 
Britain. The report sets forth the main facts with 
reference to the proverbs of Britain as follows : 
1. That existing printed collections are neither scientifi- 
cally arranged, nor possess scientifically-arranged 
indexes ; 2. That there exist in the hands of local 
collectors many very valuable proverbs which have 
not yet been printed ; 3. That the work of collecting 
proverbs might still be vigorously pushed with a con- 
siderable amount of success. Under each of these 
headings the Committee recommend some portion of 
work to be done. In the first place, they suggest the 
republication of the earliest printed collections of pro- 
verbs by Camden, Howell, and others, but so re- 
arranged as to be on the basis adopted in the great 
Russian collection printed by Snegirefin 1834, and in 
the German Dictionary of Proverbs printed by Wander. 
In 1834, Snegiref issued in four volumes his Classifica- 
tion oj Russian Proverbs. The heads of this classifi- 
cation are : Book I. Introduction : 1. On the foreign 
sources of Russian proverbs ; 2. On the relation of 
Russian proverbs to Russian philology. Book II. 
Anthropological ; proverbs relating to the moral and 
physical causes of differences between nations ; pro- 
verbs relating to heathenism, faith, superstition ; 
manners and customs in proverbs ; ethical. Book III. 
Political, Judicial: legislation; laws; crimes and 
punishments ; judicial ceremonies. Book IV. Physi- 
cal Proverbs: a, meteorological, astrological; b, 
rural ; c, medicinal. Historical Proverbs : a, chrono- 
logical ; b, topographical ; c, ethnographic ; d, per- 
sonal ; e, mottoes. The reissue of English early 
printed proverbs in the form suggested above would 
answer all the purpose of an introductory manual of 
English proverbs. Under the second heading, the 
Committee have the gratification of reporting the 
acquisition of a MS. collection of some two thousand 
Scotch proverbs, besides the offer of some collections 
by the Rev. Canon Hume, Miss Courteney, and 
others. All these will be utilized by the Society. 
Under the third heading the committee recommend the 
issue of a complete handbook of folk-lore by the Society. 
Among those who took part in the proceedings were 
Messrs. Thorns, A. Nutt, Hill, Moncure Conway, R. 
Harrison, Udal, Tolhurst, and Sir Bartle Frere. 

Historical. June 16. Lord Aberdare, Presi- 
dent, in the Chair. The following Papers were read: 
" The Struggle of Civilization from the Era of the 
Crusades to the Fall of the East (1453)," by the Rev. 
Prebendary Irons, D.D., "The Life and Character 



of President Lincoln," by the Hon. I. N. Arnold, 
and "Historical Review of the Characters of Arch- 
bishop Cranmer and Francis Bacon, Lord Verulam," 
by Mr. O. A. Ainslie. 

June 17. Lord Aberdare, President, in the Chair. 
At a special meeting of the Society, Major-Gen. Sir 
F. S. Roberts, Bart., was presented with a diploma 
of Honorary Fellowship. 

Philological Society. -June 17. Mr. Alex- 
ander J. Ellis in the Chair. The Paper read was : 
" The Psychological Method in its Application to 
Language," by Mr. Herbert Morton Baynes. Ex- 
amples were given from the following languages : 
Chinese, Egyptian, Koptic, Sanskrit, Hebrew, 
Arabic, Manka, Malay, Mponwe, Salish, Buriatish, 
Tamil, Telugu, Greek, Latin, German, Swedish, 
French, and English. In the discussion which fol- 
lowed, the President, Dr. Murray, Prof. Martineau, 
Mr. Sweet, and Mr. Furnivall took part. 

Royal Asiatic June 20. Sir E. Colebrooke, 
Bart., M.P., President, in the Chair. Mr. N. B. E. 
Baillie read a Paper " On the Duty Muhammedans 
in British India Owe, on the Principles of their own 
Law, to the Government of the Country." Mr. A. 
Gray read extracts from a report by Mr. H. C. P. 
Bell " On the Maldive Islands." The language is 
certainly Aryan, and closely connected with Sinhalese 
in its older form. M. Terrien de la Couperie 
read a Paper "On the Sinico-Indian Origin of the 
Indo-Pali Writing," in which he gave reasons for 
rejecting the Semitic, Sabsean, and Greek hypotheses, 
implying as these do an Indian influence in Southern 
Arabia, while, at the same time, he rejected also the 
" indigenous origin," as not supported by any impor- 
tant facts. On the other hand, he pointed out that 
historical facts as well as traditions demonstrate that 
relations did exist between India and China so early 
as the third century B.C. 

July 4. Sir E. Colebrooke, President, in the Chair. 
A Paper was read by Mr. V. Portman, " On the 
Andaman Islands and the Andamanese," in which he 
gave an account of the geographical position of the 
islands, of the strange savage people inhabiting 
them, with valuable details as to their social posi- 
tion, referring, at the same time, to what we already 
knew from the visits of earlier officers or civilians 
who had been employed there. Mr. Portman illus- 
trated his paper by the exhibition of a large number 
of objects he had collected there, including bows, 
arrows, personal ornaments, skulls, &c. &c 
" Royal Society of Literature. June 22. 
Mr. J. Haynes in the Chair. Mr. C. F. Keary read 
the concluding portion of his Paper "On the Genuine 
and the Spurious in Eddaic Mythology," and showed 
that as the first part had dealt with the myths of 
death and of the other world i.e., with the world in 
time so the second portion dealt with the world in 
space. The writer drew a picture of this world from 
the Eddas, and showed that the myth of the earth- 
tree (Ygg-drasill) must be referred to a Teutonic 
origin, the German races having been especially 
accustomed to a life beneath trees, and having so long 
preserved the custom of building houses round them. 
So, too, the myth of the Aohru, or rainbow, as told 
in the Eddas, forms a connecting link between the 
Medic and the mediaeval German legends of the 



72 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



Heavens-Bridge. The intrusive elements in Eddaic 
belief are to be looked at rather as a change in the 
tone of the stories than as an importation of New 
Legends. Thus, the character of Baldur has been 
altered through Christian influences-, as have also the 
concluding stanzas of the " Voluspa." 

Society for the Promotion of Hellenic 
Studies. June 16. Mr. C. T. Newton, C.B., Vice- 
President, in the Chair. Annual Meeting. The Re- 
port of the Council was read, giving an account of the 
progress of the Society for the past year. Prof. P. 
Gardner read extracts from a Paperby Dr. Schliemann, 
giving a full account of the results of his excavations at 
the Boeotian Orchomenus. Extracts were read by the 
Chairman from a Paper by Mr. Cecil Smith on an in- 
teresting vase of the British Museum which represents 
the exploits of Theseus. Miss Amelia B. Edwards 
exhibited a very beautiful gold earring, said to have 
been found at Athens, and representing two draped 
archaic female figures. 

Society for the Protection of Ancient 
Buildings. June 24. Annual Meeting. His 
Excellency the Hon. J. Russell Lowell, the American 
Minister, in the Chair. Mr. William Morris read the 
fourth Annual Report, which stated that " the Com- 
mittee have been steadily at work at the business of 
the Society since we last met together. They do not 
doubt that its principles are being more and more 
accepted ; but the fact must be faced, that ignorance 
and thoughtlessness are so busy, and are so entirely 
unchecked by any more direct influence than that 
opinion of cultivated men, of which they know little, 
or for which they care little, that the destruction of 
the art and history of our ancient monuments is still 
going on with terrible swiftness, both in this country 
and elsewhere ; and unless those who really care 
about the preservation of these treasures bestir them- 
selves, and sacrifice some time and money to furthering 
a distinct agitation against restoration, it will not be 
long before there will be no ancient building which 
can be looked on by men of sense and knowledge 
without suspicion and discomfort ; and very few 
which will be able to sustain a claim to be considered 
as ancient buildings at all. The very list of those 
buildings for whose protection the Society has in- 
terfered, shows how swift the destruction is that 
is going on at one end of the line, while we are 
laboriously building up a public opinion at the 
other end." The report went on to describe in detail 
the action which had been taken by the Committee 
with regard to the proposed restoration or destruction 
of ancient structures. Reference was made to the 
proposed widening of Magdalen Bridge, Oxford a 
step which the Committee assert to be wholly un- 
necessary as well as destructive of the beauty of the 
bridge ; to the fall of the tower of St. John's Church, 
Chester, owing to "the neglect of the advice given 
by the Committee" in reference to the building ; to 
Wimborne Minster, Ashburnham House, and other 
buildings, some of them in Italy. Among those who 
took part in the proceedings of the evening were Mr. 
R. S. Poole, who urged the Society to make strenuous 
efforts to save the Arab monuments of Egypt from 
destruction ; Miss Amelia B. Edwards, Professor 
Sheldon Amos, Mr. G. Howard, M.P., Mr. C. Kegan 
Paul, Lord Houghton, and the Hon. R. C. Grosvenor. 



PROVINCIAL. 

Newcastle Society of Antiquaries. June 6. 
Dr. Bruce in the Chair. The Rev. Dr. Hooppell 
(South Shields) read a Paper with reference 
to the demolition of property at the east-end of the 
town, and the revelations it furnished of the old 
walls of Newcastle. A long stretch of the old 
Town Wall of Newcastle has been discovered, extend- 
ing right across the Dene, from the western bank near 
the Manors, to the eastern bank at the Sallyport 
Gate. Much of it has been already destroyed, and 
little, if any, of it will be visible when the works upon 
which the Corporation are engaged shall be completed. 
The finest portion of the wall still forms the end of 
Angus's iron warehouse in Stockbridge, and will not 
be demolished, though it will soon be completely 
hidden again. This contains about 900 square feet, 
and stands about 30 feet high. From this point the 
wall ran across the Dene. As soon as the old street 
that ran up the Dene was crossed, the wall was seen 
rising to a considerable height ; and, viewed from the 
inside of the ruined houses, presented many fine 
squares of splendid masonry. Near the Sallyport Gate 
it was still standing many feet in height, and con- 
tinued so past the gate for a considerable distance 
down Causey Bank. It was faced on both sides with 
magnificent square blocks, sometimes as much as 
18 inches in length, by 12 inches in breadth, and the 
inside was grouted in Roman fashion. The thick- 
ness, from face to face, was eight feet. There are 
several peculiar features to notice at various points. 
Thus, in the splendid piece of wall forming the north 
end of Angus s iron warehouse at Stockbridge, the 
excavation revealed several coures of chamfered 
stones, one above another, rising like steps as the 
hill rises. Near to the Sallyport Gate, again, is a 
striking feature. There must have been a breach in 
the wall on the west side of the gate at some early 
period, made either by assailants in some war or 
siege, or by the authorities of the town for purposes of 
reconstruction, for the junction of new and old masonry 
is most observable. Beyond the Sallyport Gate, going 
down Causey Bank in a southward direction, there is 
a fine piece of wall, exhibiting on the outside cham- 
fered work like that at Stockbridge, and on the inside 
the remains of a tower or platform, with nine huge 
projecting corbels still in position. The occurrence of 
the chamfered work on the two banks, but not in the 
Dene, suggests the possibility of there having been in 
early times a detached work on the height of Pandon, 
which was at a later period connected with the town 
by the " Long Wall" spanning the valley. Great 
additional interest is imparted to the uncovering of 
these extensive remains of the ancient town wall of 
Newcastle by the consideration that very probably 
where it crossed Pandon Dene the wall took the exact 
line of the great Roman Wall from Wallsend to Bow- 
ness. Indeed, the lower part of the wall may be 
Roman work. On reaching the western bank of the 
Dene the wall turns northward. It does so at a right 
angle, or nearly a right angle. At the corner is a tower, 
standing about twenty feet above the plateau of the 
western bank, and very picturesque in its ruin. The 
wall, as it runs northward from the tower, stands six 
or eight courses high, exhibiting one chamfered course 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



73 



at the bottom, and making direct in the line of Croft 
Lane and Croft Street, for the recently destroyed 
Weavers' or Carliol Tower. If the connecting wall 
between the Sallyport Gate and the tower on the 
western bank of the Dene marks the line of the Roman 
Wall, the phenomena that it indicates later work at 
its junction with the portion of the Town Wall now 
forming the end of Angus's iron warehouse at Stock- 
bridge, where the Town Wall used to turn to the 
south, would be explained by the supposition that the 
Roman Wall had been intentionally broken down there 
in early times, either to allow ingress and egress to the 
lower part of the Dene, or to admit of the construction 
of a fosse along the side of the hill on the outside of the 
Town Wall, or to prevent assailants from using the 
Roman Wall as a platform from which to make 
attempts upon the Town Wall. In fact, it is certain 
that if the Roman Wall existed there, and came up to 
the Town Wall, the mediaeval builders would break it 
down where it was in near proximity to their own 
wall, unless it was included in their own scheme of 
fortification. Mixed with the grouting of the core of 
the Wall are many pieces of unburnt coal, some very 
minute, some as large as peas or marbles. 

Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 
June i. Rev. Dr. Maclauchlan, Vice-President, in 
the Chair. The first Paper read was a notice by Dr. 
Arthur Mitchell, of a small vase of bronze or brass 
which had been found in Eilean Texa, a small island, 
containing an ancient Celtic ecclesiastical site, off the 
coast of Islay. The little vessel was found about three 
feet underground, and about fifty yards distant from 
the old Church. Dr. Mitchell remarked on the great 
interest of this Islay specimen, as the first found in 
Scotland, and one of a class of ecclesiastical vessels of 
whose precise use we were still ignorant. The 
second Paper was a notice by Mr. J. Romilly 
Allen, of sculptured stones at Kilbride, Kilmar- 
tin, and Dunblane. The old burying ground of 
Kilbride lies three miles south of Oban. Close to 
the south wall of the present church, which is not 
older than 1 740, lie the fragments of a very beautiful 
specimen of a West Island cross, from which the rub- 
bings exhibited were taken. The shaft is broken in 
two places, but none of it is wanting. Its total height 
is 1 1 feet 6 inches, and it is elaborately carved on both 
sides. One side presents the Crucifixion, with the 
monogram, "I.H.S." The shaft is filled with the 
usual foliageous scrolls, and lower down is the inscrip- 
tion, which shows that it was erected by Archibald 
Campbell, of Laerraig, in 1516. On the other side is 
a shield of arms, displaying two galleys and two boars' 
heads, quarterly. No other Island cross bears a shield 
of arms. Mr. Allen suggested that the Society should 
endeavour to secure the preservation of this monument 
from further injury by its being removed to someplace 
where its permanent preservation and safety would 
not be doubtful. Mr. Allen noticed two cup-marked 
stones in the neighbourhood of the Church, and one in 
the island of Kerrera. The cross at Kilmartin stands 
in the churchyard, and is 5 feet 6 inches high. Its 
form and ornamentation are purely Celtic, thus differ- 
ing from the ordinary West Island crosses and slabs, 
which are covered with foliageous scrolls. Its orna- 
mentation consists of interlaced work, divergent spirals, 
and key-patterns or fret-work. Drawings of the cross 
VOL. IV. 



to scale, reduced from rubbings, were exhibited, and 
also photographs. The sculptured slab at Dunblane 
has been known for some years, but never described 
or illustrated. It bears a cross of the Celtic form ; 
the heading, which forms the outline of the cross, 
terminates in spirals at the top and serpents' heads at 
the bottom. The reverse of the slab is covered with 
figures of animals, human figures, and symbols. 
Drawings of both sides of the slab were exhibited. 
The next Paper was a notice of a very large and impor- 
tant collection of implements and ornaments of stone, 
bronze, &c, from Glenluce, Wigtownshire, which has 
been acquired for and presented to the National 
Museum by Rev. George Wilson. The objects, which 
are upwards of 3,000 in number, comprise a large 
number of such instruments as hammer- stones, bones 
and whetstones, polishers, celts (or imperforate axes), 
perforated axes and hammers, stones with circular 
hollows on both faces, spindle whorls, socket stones ; 
personal ornaments of stone, such as finger-rings and 
bracelets, heads, pendants, and buttons of jet and 
amber ; a vast variety of flint implements, such as 
scrapers, borers, knives, saws, flakers, chisels, &c. ; 
a very large collection of arrow-heads (about 240 in 
all), leaf-shaped, lozenge-shaped, barbed and unbarbed, 
kite-shaped and triangular; an extraordinary variety 
of objects in bronze or brass, some of the Bronze Age, 
but many of much later date, including some very rare 
varieties of implements and ornaments, such as a 
bronze knife-dagger, a long narrow chisel of bronze, 
a small bronze bell, a number of ornamental belt-tags, 
and mountings of various kinds, brooches, and pins, 
needles, and fish-hooks, of archaic forms. Among the 
metal objects is also a small ingot of silver and several 
spindle whorls of lead. The collection is remarkable 
for the great variety of objects formed in one district, 
and for the presence of objects very rare in Scotland, 
and even unique. It is the first effort in the direction 
of the formation of an exhaustive collection from a 
special district, and the result has been a very remark- 
able revelation of facts previously unknown and un- 
suspected in the archaeology of Scotland. The want 
of space in the Museum will prevent such a collection 
from being displayed to advantage in the meantime. 
Mr. John Carrick Moore, of Corswall, communicated 
a notice of some remarkable burials discovered last 
autumn, at Donnan, near Ballantrae, under several 
layers of sand and sea shells. The skulls and other 
portions of the skeletons recovered, which had been 
sent to the Museum for examination by Sir Herbert 
Maxwell, were reported on by Professor Turner and 
Dr. John Alexander Smith. They presented no 
peculiarities sufficiently distinctive to be assignable to 
any special period of prehistoric antiquity. Mr. 
Anderson described some peculiar features which he 
had recognized in the ornamentation of the silver 
brooches found at Skaill, in Orkney* from which he 
was inclined to regard them as probably produced in 
the district in which they were found, and not im- 
ported from Asia, as had been hitherto the opinion of 
the Scandinavian archaeologists. Mr. William Forbes 
communicated an additional notice of the seal of the 
fabric of Metz Cathedral, presented to the Museum 
some time ago by him. The seal, it seems, was not 
known at Metz, and so much interest was therefore 
attached to it, that a long Paper on the subject had 

G 



74 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



appeared in the fifteenth volume of the Mhnoires de la 
Society d'Arch<eologie de la Moselle, from which some 
extracts were read. 

Archaeological and Architectural Society 
of Durham. Annual" Meeting. After the official 
business was over, Canon Greenwell told the members 
they were in danger of losing their Cathedral, which 
was gradually crumbling away. He had observed 
that many of the mouldings had lost now their sharp- 
ness by this crumbling process, and any one could 
scrape off much of the surface of the stones with their 
hands. This destruction was going on over the whole 
of the Cathedral ; and unless it was stopped it would 
in the course of years prove destructive to great 
portions of the building. This was very much 
to be deplored, and they might naturally ask what 
was the cause of it. It was by exposing the surface 
of the stone to the action of the atmosphere. The 
stones had been covered for many centuries with 
whitewash, and when this was removed some sort of 
wash ought again to have been applied. A wash of 
lime of a better quality than the ordinary whitewash 
might have been used. There could be no question 
whatever that the stoves and the gas were working in 
a very injurious manner upon the stones deprived of 
their protection of whitewash. This was a subject 
of the very deepest importance. He did not know 
that they had any power to do anything ; but he 
trusted that the subject would be brought before 
the attention of the Cathedral authorities, and that 
they might take the necessary steps. 

Berwickshire Naturalists' Club. June 29. 
One party visited "Edin's Hall," an interesting 
and very extensive building on Cockburnlaw, supposed 
to be of Scandinavian construction. Another party 
went to "Fast Castle," the scene of Sir Walter 
Scott's Bride of Lammermoor, whilst the botanical 
section of the gathering went in various companies to 
Penmanshiel Wood, Blackburnrigg Dean, and the 
Pease Dean. It was through the Pease Glen that the 
Duke of Somerset led an army of nearly 18,000 
English soldiers the day before the battle of Pinkie, 
September 10, 1547. The glen is called "Peathes" 
by Holinshed, and by Hay wards " Peaths," which, 
according to the latter, is the same with Paths, and 
denotes "deep paths running slopewise down the 
descents on the sides of the hollow ground through 
which the path lies." " So steep be these banks on 
either side," says Patten, " and deep to the bottom, 
that who goeth straight down shall be in danger of 
tumbling, and the comer up so sure of puffing and 
pain ; for remedy whereof the travellers that way have 
used to pass it, not by going directly, but by paths and 
footsteps leading slopewise, of the number of which 
paths, they call it, somewhat nicely indeed, the 
'Peathes.'" At this meeting Mr. Hardy, the Secre- 
tary of the Club, was presented with a microscope 
and a purse of a hundred guineas. 

Lincoln Diocesan Architectural Society. 
June 16. This meeting was held at Sleaford. The 
places of interest in the town and neighbourhood 
were visited. The church, which is dedicated to St. 
Denis, was described by Mr. Charles Kirk. From a 
manuscript found in the parish chest it appears that 
this church was built in the year 1271, by Roger 
Blount and Roger Brickham, of Sleaford, merchants. 



The plan comprises a nave, with a double north aisle 
(of which the northernmost is modern, retaining the 
original windows), a south aisle, north and south 
transepts, chancel, west tower and spire, and south 
porch. The Bishop of Nottingham described the old 
castle. The Manor of Sleaford, with other lands, 
were given by the Conqueror to Remigius. Here 
Bishop Alexander built a castle, besides doing so at 
Newark and Banbury, in the reign of Stephen. 
These were seized by Stephen, but afterwards re- 
stored to the Bishop. The castle consisted of a large 
quadrangle, defended by strong water defences in the 
form of a feu, and a wide double moat. It was 
flanked by square towers at the angles of its massive 
walls, and was in good order in 1545, according to 
Leland's testimony. Probably the timber and lead of 
its roofs were sold by the Duke of Somerset, and the 
' stones for building purposes. In 1604 it is called 
" The late fair Castle at Sleaford," hence it was not 
destroyed by Cromwell, according to popular belief. 
Down to 1720 a considerable portion of the western 
elevation remained in a ruinous condition, but only a 
fragment of its overturned north-western tower now 
remains. The party then proceeded to Asgarby. 
The church of St. Andrew, at this village, is a neat 
Gothic fabric, with a handsome tower and spire. At 
Great Hale the church (St. John the Baptist) con- 
sists of a tower, nave, north and south aisles, and a 
chancel. The tower is Norman, but the exterior of 
the north aisle, together with the south porch, are good 
specimens of the reign of Richard I. The beautiful 
church of St. Andrew, at Heckington, attracted much 
attention. It consists of a nave, with north and 
south aisles, and south porch, north and south tran- 
septs, chancel, and a western tower and spire. The 
whole fabric is nearly of the same period, but not 
quite coeval, and may be placed between the years 
1320 and 1380. The south porch is proved by the 
shields upon it to be of the early years of Richard III. 
At Howell the church, which is dedicated to St. 
Oswald, consists of a nave, north aisle, and chapel, 
chancel, south porch, with a bell hung in an arch at 
the west end. The arch within the porch is Norman. 
At South Kyme all that now remains of the priory 
is the south front of the present parish church (All 
Saints), which has been a large fabric. According to 
Leland, a "goodly house and parke" existed in the 
parish, but of these there is now scarcely any vestige, 
except a fine stone quadrangular tower, which seems 
to have formed the northern part of the ancient 
castle. The entrance leads into an apartment vaulted 
and groined. This room, which is lighted only by 
narrow loopholes, appears to have been intended as 
a place of confinement or security. Ascending a 
staircase a chamber is reached, which seems to have 
formerly communicated with the body of the castle. 
This is called the Chequer Chamber, from the cir- 
cumstance of the floor being covered with a kind of 
pebble called "a chequer." Above this were two 
other chambers, the coof and floors of which have 
entirely disappeared. At one angle of the tower, and 
over the staircase, is an elevated position, probably 
used as a watch-tower, or signal post. The old hall, 
or castle, which was pulled down between the years 
1720 and 1725, stood on the south of the tower, to 
which it was attached, and seems to have been a large 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



75 



and handsome building. The course of a great part 
of the moat may still be traced. At Anwick the 
church is dedicated to St. Edith; it is rather a spa- 
cious edifice, with tower, surmounted by a beautiful 
spire. The interior consists of a nave, with north and 
south aisles ; the nave is supported by six slender pil- 
lars, terminating in pointed arches ; those on the 
north being surmounted with a handsome fretwork 
border, which descends to the pavement along the 
pillars, at the east and west end extremities. At 
Ewerby the church is dedicated to St. Andrew ; it is 
a handsome structure, and consists of a nave, north 
and south aisles, chancel, and south porch, with a 
lofty tower, surmounted by a beautiful spire, which is 
a conspicuous object throughout the district. Under 
an arch in the east end of the north aisle is the re- 
cumbent effigy of a knight in armour, said to repre- 
sent Sir Ranulph Rye, who lived in the reign of 
Edward I., and who is supposed to have obtained a 
charter for a market here, and to have erected a cross, 
the base of which is still extant. At Kirkby Lay- 
thorpe the church is dedicated to St. Denis, which 
consists of a low embattled tower, ornamented with 
pinnacles, a nave, north aisle, and chancel, with south 
porch. It is a small ancient structure, except the 
chancel. The entrance by the porch is through a 
fine Norman arch, with circular pillars, and the aisle 
is divided from the nave by three round pillars, 
supporting Norman arches. This church is in "a 
most lamentable condition," to use the words of the 
Bishop of Nottingham, the roofs in particular re- 
quiring prompt attention. At the evening meetings 
the Lord Bishop of Nottingham, in the Chair, 
Papers were read. The Chairman read a Paper 
entitled, " King against King, by a King of Lin- 
colnshire." These kings are James II. and William 
III., and the Paper dealt with a local incident in con- 
nection with their struggle for the Crown. The Rev. 
Precentor Venables read a lengthy Paper on " The 
Episcopal Visitation in Lincolnshire of 1614." Mr. 
Kerslake and the Rev. Precentor Venables read a 
Paper " On the Dedication of the Churches of Lin- 
colnshire as illustrating the History of the County," 
and Mr. Charles Kirk on "Kyme and its Tower." 

Yorkshire Philosophical Society. June. 
Mr. W. C. Anderson in the Chair. It was announced 
that a list of books had been presented to the Society, 
as well as a list of specimens. The latter included 
an Anglo-Saxon seal found in College Street, presented 
by Dr. Tempest Anderson ; a round box of stamped 
leather, with the inscription impressed, "Edwd. 
Hawke, 1605," presented by Mr. T. S. Noble ; and 
also an equisetum (horse or mare's tail) from Millstone 
Grit, Bramley Fall, Leeds, presented by Captain 
Twyford, of York Castle. 



bituar^ 



PROFESSOR THEODOR BENFEY. 
Born 1809; Died July, 188 1. 

After studying at Gottingen and Munich, Professor 
Benfey took his degree of Ph.D. in 1828. He first 



became known through his Grieschisches Wurzellexicon 
(1839-42), and he published, in 1848, the text of the 
Sdmaveda, together with a translation and glossary, 
followed by a complete translation of the first volume 
of the Rigveda. He now turned his attention to 
Sanscrit grammar. The result was the publication of 
his Vollstdndige Grammaiik , which appeared in 1852, 
the Kurze Grammatik in 1855, and his Practical 
Grammar in English in 1863. These were followed 
by his Sanskrit-English Dictionary in 1866. His next 
task, a translation with notes of the Panchatantra, 
contributed more than any other to spread his already 
great fame. In this he established his startling dis- 
covery that European fables are to be traced not to an 
Indian merely, but to a Buddhistic source. Besides 
these works may be mentioned a treatise on the re- 
lation of the Egyptian language to the Semitic family 
of speech, his contributions to the knowledge of Zend, 
and his decipherment of the cuneiform inscriptions. 
In 1869 appeared another very important work, his 
History of the Science of Language and Philology in 
Germany. After this Professor Benfey devoted his 
last years to the study of Vedic literature. 



REV. HENRY OCTAVIUS COXE, MJV. 

Born 181 1 ; Died, July, 8, 1881. 

Everyone must regret the great loss which the world 
of letters has sustained by the death of Mr. Coxe, 
Bodley's Librarian. Mr. Coxe had for some time been 
more or less disabled from active work by recurring 
attacks of the painful malady which finally killed him. 
He took the B.A. degree in 1833, and entered at once 
upon work in the MS. department at the library of 
the British Museum. In 1838 he became one of the 
sub-librarians of the Bodleian Library ; and succeeded 
the late Dr. Bandinel as Librarian in J 860. Mr. Coxe 
was the editor and author of many works, all bearing 
on his own department. He edited The Chronicles 
of Roger of Wendover, in 1841, The Metrical Life oj 
Edward the Black Prince, by Chandos Herald, in 1842, 
and Gower's Vox Clamantis, in 1850, as well as a 
facsimile of the Bodleian manuscript of the Apocalypse. 
He was author of various catalogues that of the 
manuscripts of the college libraries, of the Greek 
manuscripts in the Bodleian ; of the Laud and the 
Canonical collections. Many other catalogues, as of 
the Tanner, Row, Anson, and other collections, were 
edited under his superintendence; but the greatest 
work achieved under his direction has been the new 
Catalogue of the Bodleian Library. Few men had a 
more gracious and sympathetic cordiality; not only of 
demeanour but of act. Every visitor to the Bodleian 
benefited by his courteous suavity and ready help. 
He was blessed with a bright and active a tempera- 
ment, and visitors to Oxford will miss one who has 
been a friend to all book lovers for so many years. 



JOHN FERGUSON McLENNAN, M.A., LL.D. 
Died June 16, 1881. 

Mr. McLennan was the author of some remarkable 
works on the earliest forms of civilization. He took 
great interest in the early history of mankind, and his 

G 2 



76 



OBITUARY. 



work on Primitive Marriage, published nearly twenty 
years ago, and reprinted lately, together with other 
articles, under the title of Studies in Ancient History, 
marked a point of departure in the course of study 
which Sir John Lubbock, Mr. E. B. Tylor, and others 
have since successfully pursued. He has been for many 
years engaged upon a larger work on the history of 
primitive man, of which the various studies he had 
published, either as book or magazine articles, were 
to form parts. Mr. McLennan had for some years 
past been a great invalid, wintering each year in 
Algiers, where he had built a house. Mr. Tylor, who 
knew and appreciated Mr. McLennan's work better 
perhaps than any man in England, although he fre- 
quently differed on some of the conclusions arrived at 
by Mr. McLennan, has written a sympathetic and ad- 
mirable notice in the Academy. 



FREDERIC OUVRY, V.P.S.A. 

Died June 26, 188 1. 

All fellows of the Society of Antiquaries will mourn 
the loss of Mr. Ouvry, known to them so well for his 
kindly and feeling nature and for his deep interest in 
the study of antiquities. He was elected a fellow of 
the Society of Antiquaries in 1848. For twenty years 
he filled the office of treasurer to the Society. On the 
death of Lord Stanhope, his colleagues unanimously 
elected him to the vacant presidentship. Mr. Ouvry's 
literary tastes were not confined to antiquarian science. 
There was no literary undertaking of mark which he 
was not ready and even anxious to promote ; and the 
writer has often heard one of his most intimate friends, 
Mr. Thorns, mention many remarkable instances of 
this. He frequently printed from time to time fac- 
similes of rare tracts or other publications of 
which only one copy was known to exist. Fore- 
most among the literary men who were proud to 
number Mr. Ouvry among their friends was the late 
Charles Dickens, who, it will be remembered, 
drew a picture of Mr. Ouvry in one of his papers in 
Household Words, under the alias of Mr. Undery. 
Last year Mr. Ouvry accompanied, as he usually did, 
the summer outing of a small club of members of the 
Society of Antiquaries, and how he contributed to the 
enjoyment of fun and learning which these gatherings 
exhibit, all who knew him can tell. This year he 
wrote his letter to say he was coming, if possible ; but 
before he could even make the effort he was dead. 
Thus to the last he was among his friends, who loved 
him well and will love his memory. 



Gbe antiquary mote*Boofe. 



Petertide Fires at Penzance. (Communicated 
by the Rev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma.) An ancient cus- 
tom has existed at Penzance from time immemorial of 
having bonfires, not only at Midsummer Eve, but on 
St. Peter's Eve also. This year (1881) as from local 
circumstances (Thursday being market-day) it was 
inconvenient to keep up St. John's Eve in a proper 
manner, the town was placarded by bills, in the name 



of the committee (who always direct this festival), 
calling on the public to "keep up the old custom 
with spirit" on St. Peter's Eve, the other day of the 
summer fires. Although there were bonfires in the 
neighbouring villages and on the hills on St. John's 
Eve, there was not much done then. But on June 28 
the town of Penzance was the scene of a spectacle 
rarely, if ever, now seen in Europe, though in 
many of its features it must have once been common 
during the Middle Ages in European cities. In 
most of the chief streets, as the summer twilight 
waned, large bonfires were lighted, varied occasionally 
with the old English tar-barrel. Thus the town soon 
assumed one of the characteristics of a mediaeval city 
en ftte with blazing bonfires and tar-barrels in the 
middle of the streets. The Cornish custom of waving 
"torches" (i.e., blazing masses of rope dipped in tar 
and hung to an iron chain) was extensively followed 
and had a weird effect. May not this be a heathen 
custom, observed at the summer solstice, symbolizing 
the movements of the heavenly bodies. The main 
scene of the festival was the market-square another 
survival of mediaeval use, seeing that in Paris and 
elsewhere in Europe the market-places were the chief 
seats of the Midsummer fires. Here the spectacle was 
very striking and had a sort of pandemonium aspect, 
difficult to describe. There was a curious com- 
bination of the fire customs of remote antiquity with 
some excellent modern fireworks. The custom of 
leaping over the fire was, indeed, not kept up, but 
many couples danced between the fires to the ancient 
Cornish " Furry tune" (as used at Helston on Furry 
day), perchance a last survival of the very ancient 
heathen rite referred to in Leviticus xviii. 21. The 
directors of the fire-festival, quaintly dressed in red 
hunters' coats and leathern gauntlets, moved about the 
crowd with squibs and Roman candles. Nearly all 
the fireworks were let off from the hand, and some- 
times the changing effects were extremely striking. 
After the "fun" (as it is locally called) had lasted 
about two hours a set-piece was brought into the 
square and marked the culmination of the fire-festival 
with modern improvements. The history of European 
fireworks might practically have been studied in their 
main features, from the almost pre-historic bonfire 
and waving torch in the fire-dance (bringing one into 
contact with primitive Aryan heathen usages) down 
through the tar-barrel and squib to the improved fire- 
works of modern science. The fete thus combined 
in a striking manner the features of an ancient, a 
mediaeval, and a modern fire- festival. It is much to 
the credit of the good order and sobriety of Penzance 
that such a. fete could be carried out without the least 
impropriety or rowdyism. This satisfactory result 
was, however, as much due to public opinion as to 
the authorities. It must be a satisfaction to those 
who love old customs to learn that both the Furry 
day festival at Helston and the fire-festival of Peter- 
tide at Penzance were kept up this year with as much 
spirit as in days of old, and that neither festival gives 
the least symptom of dying out. The old features are 
well kept up, though they have added to them modern 
additions which tend to preserve their popularity. 

The Grave of Bradshaw, the Regicide. 
(i. 224; iii. 231.) Communicated by J. A. Finney, 
Macclesfield. As to the tradition rife in Treeton, near 



THE ANTIQUARY 'S NOTE-BOOK. 



77 



Sheffield, respecting the bones of " Bradshaw," allow 
me to say that this Bradshaw was born at Marple 
Hall, near Stockport, and received the latter part of 
his education at the Free Grammar School in Maccles- 
field. In a History of Macclesfield, published about 
the year 1818, it is stated that "after the Restoration, 
twenty-three persons, who had sat as judges on the 
King, were attainted, though in their graves. Brad- 
shaw, who died in 1659, being among the number, 
his body was taken up, and on the 30th January 1 660-1, 
the day appointed for this act of retributive justice, 
was drawn on a sledge to Tyburn, where he, Crom- 
well, and Ireton, were hanged on the several angles 
of the gallows, under which their mutilated trunks 
were afterwards buried, their heads having been first 
cut off", and fixed on Westminster Hall." 

Popular Names of Tumuli Barrows and 
Stones. (iii.280). Communicated by William Cros- 
sing. The following are the local designations 
of some of the principal monumental relics in Devon 
and Cornwall. Of those mentioned in Devon, all but 
the last two are situated on Dartmoor: 

The Grey Wethers. Two stone circles in the east 
quarter of the forest. They closely adjoin one another, 
and are both 1 10 feet in diameter. They are so called 
from their fancied resemblance, at a distance, to a 
flock of sheep. 

King's Oven. A cairn, forming one of the boundary 
marks of the forest, and thought to have been the 
locality of an ancient smelting-house. 

Bairdown Man. A maen on Bairdown, near Two 
Bridges, 1 1 feet in height. 

Devil's Prying-Pan. A rock basin on the summit 
of Great Mistor sometimes called Mistor Pan. 

Grimspound. A hut village, surrounded by a wall 
composed of immense blocks of granite, enclosing an 
area of four acres. Grim, or grimgie, is the name 
given to an evil spirit supposed to haunt the moor. 

Plague Market. The remains of a very extensive 
British village, containing hut circles, avenues, and 
other relics, near Merivale Bridge. It is said to have 
derived its name from being used as a place for the 
sale of provisions during a plague at Tavistock, from 
which it is distant about four miles. 

Spinster's Rock. A dolmen (or cromlech) in the 
parish of Drewsteignton, having a legend connected 
with it to the effect that it was raised by three spin- 
sters, when returning from their work. 

Giant's Grave. The name given to a tumulus for- 
merly existing on Mardon Down, near Moreton- 
Hampstead. A small dilapidated mound is all that 
now remains of it. 

In Cornwall there are : 

Trevethy Stone. A dolmen at St. Cleer, near Lis- 
keard, standing on an artificial mound a few feet high. 
The impost had formerly seven supporters, one of 
which has fallen inwardly. The name Trevethy signi- 
fies The place of Graves. 

The Hurler s. The remains of three stone circles 
in the same neighbourhood. The tradition goes that 
they were men transformed into stones for engaging 
in the old Cornish game of hurling on the Sabbath. 

The Other Half Stone. A fragment of a cross, 
about seven feet high, in the parish of St. Cleer. 
Near it is a part of an inscribed stone, but it is not 
thought that the two ever formed one monument. 



Nine Maidens. A stone circle in the parish of St 
Columb Major. There is also a circle called the 
Merry Maidens in St. Burian, and near it two un- 
wrought granite pillars known as The Pipers. 

Giant's Quoit. A fallen dolmen in St. Breock 
parish. The Lanyon dolmen is also called by this 
name. 

Trippet Stones. A small circle of stones on the 
manor of Blisland, about three feet in average height. 

New Bronzes recently found at Pompeii. 
Communicated by Henry Wm. Henfrey. The 
first is a statuette of a young Faun or Satyr, 
twenty-one and a half inches (55 centimetres) in 
height, found upon the front of the peristyle of a house 
in the eastern quarter of Pompei. It is of very fine 
work, but the surface unfortunately is spoiled by the 
rough green corrosion which covers it. The head of 
the Faun is wreathed with a branch ; and he supports 
on his left shoulder the leather bottle which he has on 
his arm, and from which used to flow the water of a 
little fountain. His right hand, with the fingers con- 
tracted, is stretched forward. The forcible movement 
and the look of desire which he casts upon the liquid 
contained in the bottle, and which runs over him, 
indicate the intoxication to which this disciple of 
Bacchus is a prey. There seems, indeed, little doubt 
that he ought to have had in his right hand some cup 
or glass to receive the liquid which used to run from 
the mouth of the bottle. 

The second statuette was also found in the 
peristyle of a house and represents a winged 
Cupid holding up a young dolphin on his right 
shoulder. He supports the animal with his right 
hand, while he squeezes one of its fins with his 
left. He has his eyes turned upwards and his mouth 
half open, as if he was going to speak, entirely occu- 
pied with the fish which calls for all his attention 
and as if rejoicing at having got possession of the 
dolphin. The height of the statue is a little under 
what it should be (55 centimetres); It is placed upon 
an elegant pedestal. As to the style of this statuette, 
it may be observed that some portions do not seem to 
be very carefully executed, for the drawing is less 
correct, and the surface worked with less knowledge 
than in other Greek works. Nevertheless, it deserves 
to be reckoned as a good specimen of ancient sculpture, 
showing as it does so much force of sentiment, and so 
much truth of expression. 

The last "find" is a group of statuettes, 
of smaller dimensions, which was found in the 
lararium, or family chapel of domestic gods, of a 
Pompeian house. A figure of Fortune is seated 
between two Lares, in front of whom, suspended by 
a fine chain, hung an elegant lamp. It is common 
to see in frescoes Fortune, together with the divini- 
ties called Lares, but they are only rarely met with 
in bronze and represented in this manner. The 
goddess is dressed in an ample tunic and a mantle ; 
in her right hand she holds a patera, in her left 
hand a cornucopia ; her feet are protected by elegant 
sandals. She is seated upon a chair or throne, with 
a back, which is elegantly ornamented on all sides. 
Her feet are placed upon a footstool, in front of which 
are two winged Sirens. On either hand of the figure 
of Fortune were placed (in the above-mentioned 
chapel) the two gods, the Lares, close to and in con- 



73 



THE ANTIQUARY'S NOTE-BOOK. 



nection with the goddess, but not joined to her statue. 
Each stands upon a circular pedestal, covered with 
elegant ornaments in guilloche (or " engine- turning") 
upon silver, of which Pompeii has supplied many other 
remarkable specimens. The " Lar' f who is placed 
on the right has a glass in his right hand, the otlrer 
has one in his left ; and each of them holds his glass 
lifted up to the heavens. The lamp spoken of above is 
in the form of a human foot inside a shoe, elegantly 
ornamented with silver. The throne upon which For- 
tune is seated is very beautiful, and might be cited 
as a model of the sculptured chairs which are found 
in nearly all the ruins of ancient buildings. 

[Extracted and translated from No. i of Pompeii, 
an illustrated review of archaeology, Naples, March, 
1881.] 

Roman Remains near Aynhoe, Northampton- 
shire. (Communicated by Sir Henry Dryden, Bart.) 
These were found in a field called Spitchel, in 
Aynhoe parish, near the boundary of Croughton 
parish, about three-quarters of a mile S.E. of Rains- 
borough camp, and on the S.E. of the road from 
Charlton to Croughton. The land is the property of 
W. Cartwright, Esq., of Aynhoe, M.P. The field 
has a slight fall to the S. E. It is sandy, with patches 
of limestone near the surface. In November, 1874, 
the plough dislodged some stones of oolite which 
covered the mouth of a large vase. One large thin 
one covered the mouth, and smaller ones lay on that. 
The vase is 2ft. of in. high, and ift. nin. wide, of red 
pottery, perfect except a chip in the rim, loin, wide 
in the mouth, and ioin. wide at bottom, and weighs 
861bs. It was placed upright, and one thin stone was 
placed upright on each side of it. The top was 
about seven inches below the surface. Nothing was 
found in it except a little soil. The texture of it was 
too porous to hold liquid. Either the vase was empty 
when last covered over by the users or contained corn 
or other substance which has completely decayed. 
It is said that in the museum at Oxford is a similar 
vase from some railway cutting, and at Brixworth was 
found in 1874 a somewhat similar one, but smaller. 
Round it were found bits of pottery and burnt stones, 
and about four or five yards S. were many pieces of 
pottery, and bones of cow, sheep,- and pig. Many 
stones were red from fire. The pottery was of about 
fifteen vessels of red and black ware all of common 
make and apparently Roman. Probably some dwell- 
ing had existed close by, and this jar was for storing 
corn and other dry matter. The broken pottery and 
bones were probably part of a domestic rubbish de- 
posit. About 1872 was found near the same spot 
about ten yards in length of large stones on fcdge, 
about two feet deep, and coming within a few inches 
of the surface. In the same field, about fifty yards 
S.E. of the spot where the vase was found, three 
sepulchral chests were found in February, 1881. The 
field is now let in allotments. No. 1 chest, the 
northern of the three, lay N. by E. and S. by W. It 
was 5ft. 5in. long, by ift. 2in. at head, and ift. iin. 
at foot wide inside, and ioin. deep, formed of flags 
mostly 2in. thick. The bottom was paved with thin 
flags, and the cover was formed of four stones of the 
same kind, about ift. 6in. below the surface. The 
skeleton lay on the back with the head to the S., with 
the arms extended on each side of it. The bones 



were in a very friable state, and parts were totally 
destroyed. The coffin had very little soil in it. The 
front of the skull was decayed. The skeleton was 
apparently of a young person, and measured from 
the top of the skull to the bottom of the leg bones 
4ft . 5in. No ornaments or pottery were found. No. 2 
chest lay in the same line as No. I, and to the S. of 
it, with about 5ft. interval between the two. This 
chest was 5ft. 6in. long, ift. 5in. wide at head end, 
and ift. at foot end inside. It had no stones at the 
bottom. The sides were of one long stone each, 
about 2in. thick, and one short one at the foot end. 
The cover was of several stones. The skeleton lay 
on its back with the head to the N., with the arms 
extended down the sides as in the last. The bones 
of this skeleton had been somewhat disturbed before 
I saw them, so that I could not measure the height. 
Many were much decayed or gone. It was larger 
than the last, but apparently a female. No wea- 
pons, ornaments, or pottery were found with it. 
No. 3 chest was about 10ft. from the foot end of 
No. 2, and to the E.S.E. of it. It lay W. by N. and 
E. by S. It was composed of four stones besides 
the cover, 2ft. 3m., by 9m., and ift. deep inside. 
The cover was about 6in. from the surface. This 
chest was partly filled with soil, but no bones or other 
remains were found in it. Probably it had contained 
an infant, so young that the bones had completely 
perished. 



antiquarian IRews. 

On the 6th July, the fine old church at Holtby, 
near York, after having undergone the process of 
"complete restoration," was reopened for Divine 
service. 

Mr. A. Featherman has in preparation a book to b^ 
entitled The Social History of the Races of Mankind, 
to be completed in about ten volumes, 8vo. Messrs. 
Triibner have issued the prospectus, which promises 
a formidable amount of work. 

Mr. John Potter Briscoe is editing the Sonnets and 
Songs of Robert Millhouse, the artisan poet of Not- 
tingham, who was born in 1788, and died in 1839. 
The edition will be accompanied by ft biographical 
sketch of the poet. 

A bog at Perncrenty, County Sligo, was being cut 
away, when, at the depth of six feet from the surface, 
a supposed Druidical edifice, twenty-one yards in 
circumference, was discovered, and several other in- 
teresting relics are nqw on view. 

During the progress of the works at the restoration 
of the parish church at Farnham, when the men were 
taking down the east wall of the north transept, they 
came upon traces of a three-light window of the 
twelfth century. The committee have decided to 
restore this interesting relic. 

Mr. A. H. Bullen having completed the issue of 
his edition of John Day's plays now proposes to 
issue a series of rare old English plays by various 
authors in four small quarto volumes. Subscribers 



ANTJQ UARIAN NE WS. 



79 



names should be sent to Mr. Bullen, Clarence House, 
Godwin Road, New Town, Margate. 

Not long ago, whilst some workmen were engaged 
in making alterations in the smoking-room of the Old 
White Hart Inn, Hull, they discovered an ancient 
arched fireplace, ten feet wide, in a fine state of pre- 
servation, the brickwork of which is said to be an 
excellent example of the workmanship in olden times. 

The ancient burial ground of St. Botolph's, Alders- 
gate Street, after having been closed for a number of 
years, has recently been transformed into a pleasure- 
garden, greatly to the benefit of the denizens of this 
busy and populous neighbourhood. With a view to 
date and mark this improvement, the vestry have 
erected a handsome sun-dial in the centre. 

Bentley Priory, near Stanmore, is now for sale. For 
a quarter of a century past it was the seat of Sir John 
Kelk, and previously to that of two successive Mar- 
quises of Abercorn, It is a place of considerable 
antiquarian and literary interest, and the Builder, of 
July 2, contains an excellent summary of the chief 
points in its history. 

The general opinion seems to be that the rooms 
discovered at the Roman villa, in the Isle of Wight, 
and, indeed, the entire villa, indicate military tenure. 
Mr. Roach Smith, on the contrary, we understand, 
suggests an agricultural character. Captain Thorp 
proposes that excavations be made as soon as con- 
venient, on the N.W., where he has discovered traces 
of foundations. 

Colwall Church, near Worcester, a thirteenth- 
century edifice, was reopened lately, after restoration 
and the addition of a north aisle. The aisle is separa- 
ted from the nave by an arcade of Bromsgrove stone, 
of five four-centred arches, supported on octagonal 
columns. A gallery has been removed from the 
church, the old nave opened out, and the pulpit, 
dated 1638, which a few years since was taken from 
the church, has been replaced. 

The annual meeting of the Somersetshire Archaeo- 
logical Society will be held at Clevedon this year, 
commencing on August 23. After the delivery of the 
opening address by Mr. E. H. Elton, Clevedor/ Court 
old church and rectory will be visited. On the 
Wednesday, an excursion will be made to Tickenhall, 
Wraxhall, Ashton, Flax Bourton, Cleveley and Nail- 
sea ; and on the Thursday a visit will be made to 
Cadbury, Clapton, Portbury, Portishead, and Weston- 
in-Gordano. 

One of the finest private libraries in England is 
that at Althorp. It will be pleasant and acceptable 
news to many scholars and bibliophiles to know that 
it is always open to applicants who are interested in 
books. This announcement was made by Earl Spencer 
at the Printers' Pension Festival, over which he pre- 
sided, and he expressed his surprise, almost regret, 
that so few book-lovers found their way to Althorp to 
inspect the magnificent collection gathered together by 
his grandfather. 

The old church of Kirkdale, North Yorkshire, has 
been re-opened after restoration. In connection with 
the church are various crosses and monuments of 
great beauty, the inscription on one of them being in 



Runic characters, stated to indicate its having be- 
longed to the coffin of Ethelwald, son of Oswald, 
King of Deira from a.d. 651 to 660. The present 
restoration has been confined to the chancel, and has 
been carried out by the authorities of the University of 
Oxford, in whom, as lay rectors, the maintenance of 
the building is vested. 

We regret that the amendment to the Irish Land 
Bill proposed by Mr. Cochran-Patrick has not been 
accepted by the Government. It ran as follows 
' ' That whenever advances are made from the Treasury 
for the purpose of reclaiming or improving waste or 
uncultivated land on which archaeological remains 
exist, likely to be injured by the operations, accurate 
plans, views, and descriptions of such remains shall 
be taken in triplicate, and one copy shall be deposited 
in the British Museum, one copy in the library of the 
Royal Irish Academy, and one copy in the National 
Museum of Scottish Antiquities, in Edinburgh." 

The Museum of Methodist Antiquities, Bishopsgate 
Street Within, has been enriched by a copy of 
Edward Perroult's scarce satirical poem, dated 1756, 
given by the Rev. H. L. Church, a portrait of the 
late Dr. Dixon, presented by Mrs. Nicholson, and 
several interesting objects from the collection of the 
late Dr. Punshon, the gift of Mrs. Punshon. The 
latter include a massive white metal idol of Buddha, 
the full dress of a North American Indian medicine- 
man, and letters written by Lady Huntingdon, the 
Rev. John Wesley, the Rev. T. Charles, of Bala 
(dated 1 799), and other notables. 

We referred last month to the restoration of the 
church of St. Mary, Wedmore, Somerset, a fine speci- 
men of Early Perpendicular work. The church consists 
of central tower, chancel, nave, aisles and transepts, of 
north and south chantries, and also a lady chapel of 
later date. The rough-cast coating has been removed 
from the exterior of the building, two windows and a 
doorway have been opened out in the porch, the old- 
fashioned high-backed pews and the gallery which 
blocked up the noble west window have been re- 
moved, and the building reseated. In taking down 
the framing of the sounding-board over the pulpit, a 
fresco painting, representing St. Christopher bearing 
the Child Jesus, was brought to light. 

It is proposed to form a Society for editing and 
publishing the more important texts in Early Scottish 
Literature down to the time when the written language 
began to lose its distinctive characteristics. The aims 
of the Society will embrace the re-editing and re- 
printing of those works which, from their rarity and 
price, are beyond the reach of ordinary buyers, as 
well as the publication of hitherto unprinted MSS. 
The Society will be organized as soon as 300 sub- 
scribers have been enrolled, and will at once com- 
mence work. The Rev. Walter Gregor, of Pitsligo, 
Fraserburgh, Aberdeenshire, is the interim secretary. 
We cordially wish every success to the "Early 
Scottish Text Society." 

The authorities propose to complete the design for 
the restoration of the Westminster Chapter-house by 
following out the plan originally proposed. The six 
great windows, with the smaller window over the 
entrance, are to be filled with stained glass represent. 



8o 



ANTIQUARIAN NE WS. 



ing the history of England as associated with West- 
minster Abbey during the six centuries in which the 
Chapter-house was connected with the historical 
interests of the country. The first of these windows 
is already in progress, and it is hoped that the public 
will not be slow to continue the remainder, and 
to complete a work which is so much needed for the 
proper effect of this magnificent monument of medieval 
architecture and of English history. 

A curious case was recently decided by the 
Clitheroe county magistrates. The 27th of May last 
was the day after the annual club day at Chipping, 
and, in accordance with the custom which has existed 
for years, the villagers elected the mayor, as ho is 
called, in the following manner : The man who was 
the most intoxicated was placed in a chair on a cart, 
and dragged through the village amid great uproar. 
Those who formed the procession carried mops, fire- 
arms, and sticks decorated with different colours. 
Two drunken men headed the procession, playing 
cornopeans. The police interfered, and summoned 
ten of the men before the Clitheroe magistrates for 
being drunk. They denied that they were drunk, 
and the magistrates dismissed all the cases, one of the 
justices remarking that he approved of these old 
customs being carried out. 

A correspondent writes to the Glasgcno Herald: 
" A striking instance of the reckless manner in which 
antiquities are destroyed, and the necessity for Sir 
John Lubbock's Ancient Monuments' Bill, has just 
come to light in the Shetland Islands. The other 
evening it was discovered that the venerable ruin 
called Picts Castle, situated in the Loch of Clickimin, 
but accessible from the shore, and, in fact, the only 
antiquity of any note in the immediate vicinity of 
Lerwick, was in danger of being altogether de- 
molished. A local shopkeeper was observed carting 
away stones from the ruins for the purpose of build- 
ing a stable in the vicinity. Some gentlemen who 
had observed the proceedings, remonstrated with him 
and ultimately persuaded him to desist. Steps should 
be taken to prevent the demolition of a building 
which has been visited by antiquaries from all parts of 
the country. " 

The Royal Archaeological Institute holds its Annual 
Meeting at Bedford from July 26 to August 1. The 
excursions are as follows : July 26. Visit to the site 
of Bedford Castle ; general inspection and perambu- 
lation of the town. July 27. To Dunstable, Eaton 
Bray Church, Eddlesboro' Church, the Priory Church. 
July 28. Vid Cardington Church to Cople Church, 
and Willington Church, Sandy ; to the Roman Camp, 
the Amphitheatre, near Howbury ; Risinghoe Castle, 
and Bedford. July 29. To Luton, the Church of St. 
Mary; to the Abbey Church of St. Albans, the 
Church of St. Michael, and Old Verulam. July 30. 
To Clapham Church, Colworth (Mr. Magniac's col- 
lections), to Shambrook Church, Felmersham Church, 
Stevington Church, Cross; OaKiey Church. August 
1. To Elstow Church, &c, Houghton Conquest 
Church, Houghton Ruins, Cainhoe Castle, Wrest 
Park, Wobum Abbey. 

Mr. W. Thompson Watkin, of Liverpool, is about 
to issue by subscription a work on Roman Lancashire. 



In this the author will bring together the many 
scattered records which exist of discoveries of Roman 
antiquities in the county of Lancaster, and proposes 
to engrave every article of interest now extant, includ- 
ing altars, tablets, miscellaneous inscriptions, rings, 
fibulae, and other minor articles. The roads will be 
particularly dealt with, as it is important that as much 
light as possible should be thrown upon the Roman 
itineraries. The fact of the Tenth Iter of Antoninus 
passing through the county renders it necessary to 
enter at length into the question of the sites of the 
stations upon it. A map of the county, showing the 
course of the roads and their nature, marked with the 
site of all discoveries, large or small, and the position 
of the various stations, will accompany the work. 
The destruction of the remaining vestiges of the Roman 
era, which proceeds almost daily, forms a convincing 
argument as to the necessity for a work of this nature. 
The total obliteration of Roman Manchester is an in- 
stance of this destruction, and a plan of the station, 
drawn from old maps, is the only means of preserving 
to posterity the identification of the site. The 
numerous hoards of coins found in the county will also 
form a subject of inquiry. Much new information 
has been gathered from MSS. ; and of several of the 
inscriptions photographs have been specially taken, 
with the view of obtaining absolute correctness, upon 
epigraphic points. 

Many will be interested to learn that the graves 
or trenches in which the bodies of the unfortunate 
Highlanders were buried after the battle of Culloden 
are being cared for by the present proprietor of the 
estate of Culloden. Formerly the graves were dis- 
tinguishable in the level greensward at the roadside 
only by the slightly-raised sod, but stones bearing 
the names of the clans have just been erected at the 
head of each trench. On one stone is inscribed the 
names of the clans " M 'Gillivray, M'Lean, and 
M'Lauchlan ;" and there are separate stones for " Clan 
Mackintosh." Two graves are marked, "Clans 
mixed." At the "great cairn" a slab has 
been placed bearing the following inscription : 
" The battle of Culloden was fought on this Moor, 
16th April, 1746. The graves of the gallant High- 
landers who fought for Scotland and Prince Charlie 
are marked by the names of their clans." The 
interesting prehistoric remains at Clava have also 
received some attention from the owner of the pro- 
perty. Some of the standing stones which had fallen 
down have been set up ; unfortunately, one or two 
have been made to face in the reverse way from 
what they did originally. In clearing up the ground 
round the largest circle, paved, or rather causewayed, 
paths have been discovered leading from the base ot 
the cairn in a straight line to three of the outer stand- 
ing stones. Local archaeologists have also recently 
found a great number of " cup markings " on the 
stones in this locality. One stone discovered the 
other day had cup marks upon both sides. 

The large and important collection of books and 
manuscripts relating to the history and literature of 
America, formed by Mr. Henry Stevens, of Vermont, 
and lately sold by Messrs. Sotheby, contained nearly 
all the early voyages and travels of English, Dutch, 
French, and Spanish navigators, notably Theodore 



ANTIQUARIAN NEWS. 



81 



de Bry, Voyages and Travels, 1590-1634 folio, first 
edition, complete and perfect as the Grenville copy in 
the British Museum 151. Other copies, more or 
less incomplete, were sold at from ,13 to ^18. Adrien 
Vander Donck, Beschryvinge van Nieuw Nederland, 
first edition, 1655, vellum 13 2s. 6d. Georgia: 
Transactions of the Trustees for the Colony of Georgia, 
&c, the original manuscript, 1 738-1 747, in the hand- 
writing of the first Earl of Egmont, President of the 
Board ^150. Hulsius, Collectiones Navigationum, 
&c, 1598-1650^100. Peter Martyr, Extrakt ov 
Recveil, &c., containing his letter about Cuba to supply 
the lost report of Cortes, and the relations of Her- 
nando as to the Discovery of Mexico, 4to ; Paris, 
1532 ;33 icv. Smith (Captain John, some time 
Governor of Virginia), Historie of Virginia, 1584-1626, 
first edition ; folio, London, 1632 ; some maps restored 
in margin ^10. There were also many books of 
the American Revolution and the War of 1 812, with 
examples of early printing, especially in New Eng- 
land, and numerous works of American literature, 
besides the extraordinary collection of Franklin 
letters and writings. The last named has, however, 
been withdrawn from the sale, an offer having been 
accepted of ,7,000 for it on behalf of the United 
States Government. 

The Ordinal and Statutes of the Cathedral Church 
of St. Andrew at Wells, from the MS. (No. 729) in 
Lambeth Palace Library, by the permission of His 
Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the consent of 
the Dean and Chapter of Wells, will be published 
shortly by subscription, by the Rev. Herbert Edward 
Reynolds. The contents of the MS. include the fol- 
lowing : Statutes made by the Dean and Chapter in 
the time of Bishops Joceliu and William de Button ; 
the lattter series principally affecting the status and 
duties of the College of Vicars, disclosing a some- 
what singular condition of society amongst the clergy 
of the Church in the thirteenth century. At page 
ninety-one we have the form of enthroning the Bishop, 
and at page ninety-five a general kalendar of the 
colours for each season. The " Modus vel ordo cris- 
matis faciendi, " " Juramentum ad dignitates promo- 
vendas," and the oath of allegiance, bring us to the 
table of contents, which strangely enough has no 
mention of the ordinate, but begins at page 55. The 
work, which is now nearly completed, will contain an 
explanatory preface, containing much hitherto not 
very accessible information from the registers of the 
Dean and Chapter, such as the Liber Ruber and 
Liber Albus. The Elizabethan Charter, "that strange 
document," will be added. Its identity and interest 
will be increased by numerous engravings of the most 
beautiful architectural features of this beautiful 
Cathedral, while a plan of the building and the 
Chapter House will assist the student in understand- 
ing the order of processions and the positions of the 
different altars and chantries. 

The July number of the Quarterly Statement of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund contains full particu- 
lars of the very remarkable discoveries which have 
been made in the last few months. First in interest, 
perhaps, comes Professor Sayce's commentary on the 
ne%vly-found inscription at the Pool of Siloam, dating 
from the time of Solomon. Lieutenant Conder has 



found, close to the spot where he places the site of the 
Crucifixion, which is still called the Place of Stoning, 
a Jewish tomb of Herodian period, standing alone, 
cut in the rock. A drawing and plan of the tomb have 
been made for the Society. Another drawing has 
been made of the real mouth of Jacob's Well, recently 
uncovered by the Rev. C. L. Bardsley. The well 
mouth is much worn by the friction of ropes. It was 
formerly covered over by a Christian Church, and if, 
as is possible, this Church dates back to the second or 
third century, the stone should be no other than the 
very stone on which our Lord conversed with the 
woman of Samaria. Another discovery, only in- 
directly connected with the Bible, is that of the ancient 
Hittite City of Kadesh, on the Orontes. Not the 
least surprising thing about this are the facts that 
Lieutenant Conder found it from an Egyptian record 
written 3,000 years ago, and that the old name, 
though it has disappeared from history since the 
thirteenth century before Christ, is still attached to it. 
Another paper, in the same number of the journal, 
clears up a curious mystery attached to Ain Gadis, the 
probable site of Kadesh Barnea. It is a most remark- 
able spriug it issues a full-grown stream from the 
rock ; it forms an oasis in which there is abundance 
of grass, with great trees, even in the arid desert of 
Tih ; it runs away and loses itself in the sand. 

The workmen engaged in the restoration of the 
parish church at Preston, Holderness, whilst digging 
up the floor of the nave, discovered a number of 
beautifully-carved figures in alabaster. After a care- 
ful examination, these figures proved to be portions 
of an Easter Sepulchre, which, at one time, no doubt, 
occupied a legitimate position in that ancient fabric. 
Easter Sepulchres are rarely to be met with in this 
country. They usually stood on the north side of the 
chancel near the altar, in an arched recess, resembling 
somewhat in design the canopy of a tomb. This 
recess was called a sepulchre, to represent the 
M Sepulchrum Domini," wherein were placed on the 
evening of Good Friday the crucifix and pyx. It 
was an ancient belief that the second advent of our 
Lord would take place on Easter Eve, hence arose 
the practice in the very early Church of watching the 
sepulchre until the dawn of Easter Sunday, when 
the crucifix and pyx were removed with devout 
ceremony to the altar. The purport of these sepul- 
chres was in some instances rendered more perma- 
nently apparent by a few images being carved on 
the front of the base representing usually the sleeping 
soldiers who watched the tomb. The only specimen 
of an Easter sepulchre in this immediate neighbour- 
hood is in Patrington Church, which has a represen- 
tation, amongst other figures, of three sleeping 
soldiers. Amongst the figures found at Preston are 
two representations of the Resurrection and the 
sleeping guard, as well as several incidents in the 
life of our Saviour. Many of the figures are unfortu- 
nately mutilated, no doubt through the fanatical 
conduct of the Puritans. The rector (the Rev. Edwin 
Evers) is now having these interesting groups of 
figures put together for preservation. 

The church of the united parishes of St. Margaret, 
Lothbury, St. Christopher-le- Stocks, and St. Bartho- 
lomew-by-the-Exchange, was reopened recently, after 



82 



ANTIQ UARIAN NE WS. 



having been closed for upwards of three months, for 
cleansing and repairs. The main object of the repairs 
has been to replace the church, as far as practicable, 
into the condition in which it is believed Sir Christo- 
pher Wren, its architect, intended it to be left. It is 
known that the church was intended to be without 
either galleries or an organ. These have been re- 
moved. The screen erected by Sir Christopher has 
been replaced, the only deviation from his design being 
that the pews have not been built of the height usual 
in his day. Another restoration consists in opening 
out the west window of the church, which had been 
blocked by the organ gallery, and in replacing the 
architrave of the door leading from the tower, which 
had been destroyed w!en this gallery was erected. 
In the course of the repairs the workmen found several 
interesting relics of the old church of St. Margaret, 
which was destroyed by the Great Fire of London. 
The west wall appeared to be in situ, and in the vault 
below the church were the remains of an opening in 
this wall, which must have been the entrance into the 
crypt of the old church. The fragments found show 
that the old church was partly of the reign of 
Edward II. and partly of a period about a century 
later. A small fragment of the older work, consisting 
of a stone from one of the arches, has been preserved 
and placed in the vestry. This stone bears the mark 
of the mason who originally laid it. There was also 
a curious flight of steps leading from the vault up to 
the floor of the present church. The entrance to these 
steps was and is still closed, but the steps are visible 
from the vault, and in this case also each stone bears 
the mason's mark. These steps are probably not 
older than the time of Sir Christopher Wren. The 
repairs have also established the fact that the tower 
was open to the street, and this was a common 
feature. 



Corresponfcence. 



BISHOPS OF MAN IN THE SIXTEENTH 
CENTURY. 

I shall be much obliged if any of your readers 
acquainted with Manx history can give me authentic 
information as to the succession of the bishops in the 
See of Man throughout the sixteenth century, and 
especially as to what part bishops of the house or 
name of Stanley bore in it. All the ordinary accounts 
are, I am convinced, more or less erroneous, and the 
confusion is extreme. Thomas Stanley, son (really 
illegitimate son) of Edward Stanley of Flodden, first 
Lord Monteagle, appears to be put in, put out, con- 
secrated, deprived, restored, to resign or to die, where- 
ever a gap has to be filled or an awkward corner 
turned. In seme one or other capacity he is used by 
various authors to cover all defects between 1510 and 
1570. Moreover, two writers introduce a real or 
apocryphal "James Stanley" from 1573 to 1576 ; for 
whom the compiler of a so-called Catalogue of Manx 
Bishops, attached to Seacome's History of the House of 
Stanley (Ed., Liverpool, 1741), substitutes the already 
terribly over-worked Thomas Stanley aforesaid, as 



successor to Bishop Salisbury. Seacome himself, by 
the way, correctly inverts this order, making Stanley 
Salisbury's immediate predecessor ; but he makes the 
strange blunder (in which he is followed by Train) of 
affirming that this Thomas Stanley resigned the See 
on succeeding his father in the peerage of Monteagle, 
which, since he was not legitimate, was an im- 
possibility. 

Some have suggested perhaps, rather as a des- 
perate expedient than on solid grounds that there 
were two bishops bearing the same name. Some 
authorities place Stanley's consecration in 1530, and 
allege that he was deprived by Henry VIII. in 1545 
or 1546, and restored by Mary in 1556 or 1557, on 
the death of Bishop Man. But there are great diffi- 
culties in the way of accepting any of these statements. 
In fact, the confusion is almost endless. 

So far as I can see at present, the following few 
points are clear : 

1. Huan Hesketh, Bishop of Man, was alive in 
1520 (as he was executor to his brother's will, which 
was proved in November of that year), and dead be- 
fore June, 1523, for 

2. On June 18, 1523, John Howden was provided 
to the See vacant by the death of "Hugo" (Maz. 
Brady, Episc. Sue, vol. i. p. 107). 

3. A certain "John" (Qy. Howden?) was Bishop 
of Man in 1532, as on July 31 in that year an inden- 
ture was made between him and the Earl of Derby as 
sovereign and liege lord of the island, as appears in 
the Lex Scripta of the Isle (Train, vol. i. p. 344). 

4. In 1 546, Henry Man was appointed to the See, 
then and for some time past vacant, "per mortem 
naturalem ultimi episcopi ejusdem" (Rymer, t. xiv. 
p. 85). 

5. On June 21, 1555, in Consistory at Rome, 
Thomas Stanley was provided to the see "per obitum 
bonse memorise N. [sic] vacanti" ; the provision thus 
ignoring, as was natural, the appointment of Man by 
Henry in 1546, though that bishop was still living 
(Maz. Brady, vol. i. p. 108). In this Bull of Provision 
Stanley is described as a simple cleric. " Clerici 
Sodoren. seu alterius civitatis vel dioc." 

6. Bishop Man died October 17 (or 19), 1556 (Br. 
Willis, vol. i. p. 367). 

7. In September, 1570, John Salisbury was nomi- 
nated to the See of Man, vacant " per mortem Thonue 
Stanley," and was confirmed April 7, 1571 (Brady, 
vol. i. p. p. 109, et al). But, as if errors must pursue 
the unfortunate Stanley to the last, Brady immediately 
adds, " Thomas Stanley .... died on 19 October, 
1556," which was the date of the death of Bishop 
Man. Stanley died in 1568 or 1570, exact date un- 
known. 

I shall be much obliged to any learned reader who 
can help to clear up this blurred page in the history of 
a highly interesting island. 

John Walter Lea. 

9, St. Julian's Road, Kilburn, London, N. W. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETIES, 
(iv. 32.) 
In my Collectanea Antiqua I have endeavoured to 
pay a tribute of regard to the memory of some of my 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



83 



friends and colleagues, under the title of " Biographical 
Notices." For the last volume I selected Thomas 
Wright, John Yonge Akerman, and James Robinson 
Planche. The limits and character of the work com- 
pelled me to omit others, whom I have, however, 
reserved for a separate work, should I be spared to 
write it. These notices, although they are necessarily 
of no great length, contain some salient points in the 
character of each of the deceased never before pub- 
lished, and, if known, never before dwelt on and 
emphasized. To supposed defects in the first of these 
three Mr. Parker objects ; but in a courteous and 
friendly spirit, and with a compliment which quite 
covers the charge of onesidedness for want of infor- 
mation. I believe that were the Memoir before 
the readers of The Antiquary they would see I 
was not called upon to enter into the full causes 
of a division which made the British Archaeological 
Association two Societies Institute and Association. 
My object was to show Mr. Wright's connection with 
me in the origin of the Association. To write a full 
history would require from me and Mr. Parker a 
volume. I cannot see any errors in what I have 
printed. In Mr. Parker's remarks are two or 
three, of no great importance, but which show how 
difficult it is to secure facts. Mr. Albert Way was 
never Secretary of the Association ; he was Joint- 
Secretary with me in the Canterbury Congress, but 
which he did not attend. 

I never before heard that any party wished to set 
up Mr. Britton in the place of Professor Willis. At 
the Canterbury Congress, Mr. Britton felt himself 
slighted in the Architectural Department ; but not, I 
think, in reference to Professor Willis. 

Mr. Wright was never a writer in The Times. The 
reports of meetings were either made by that paper's 
regular reporters, or by some one of the Committee 
or Council. 

Perhaps this may be a good opportunity to inquire 
why the Institute has never published a memoir of 
Mr. Way ; or caused a statue or bust of him to be 
sculptured, or a medal engraved ? Societies, as well 
as individuals, should study to be grateful and 
consistent. 

C. Roach Smith. 

Temple Place, Strood. 
July 13, 1881. 

THE VIVIFIED TAU. 
(iii. 97.) 

The able and interesting Paper on the Tau Cross 
communicated by Mr. Jewitt, has suggested to me a 
theory, which I would advance with all diffidence, of 
a possible connection between this symbol and that 
1 Mother-Goddess ' so widely worshipped throughout 
the East. 

On comparing Mr. Jewitt's illustration of the 
"headed Tau" from the Serapeum with the well- 
known coin bearing the image of the Ephesian 
Artemis, a striking resemblance is at once apparent, 
the lower part of the body tapering, in each case, 
down to the pedestal representing the swelling base 
of the Tau. The whole resemblance seems too 
curiously close to be accidental, and the peculiar 



shape of the Ephesian image, which seems unnatural 
on any other hypothesis, is at once explained by re- 
garding it a development of the vivified Tau. It 
will be remembered that this shape was conventional, 
and considered to be of divine origin (tov Aioirerovs). 

Nor is this all. Mr. Jewitt does not allude to the 
three curved lines on his "headed Tau," but may we 
not compare these with the marks which Schliemann 
terms the conventional emblems of " the Ilian 
Athene," the swelling breasts and navel, which recur 
so regularly on his specimens of the fictile art of 
Troy ? It would perhaps be going too far if we were 
to connect this Trojan goddess also with the Tau, 
though some of her rudimentary effigies might sup- 
port this view ; but the symbolic meaning of these 
marks on the headed Tau would be at once confirmed 
if we admit a connection between it and the Ephesian 
image, in which the breasts were an essential feature 
(vide St. Jerome, " istam\mu/timanomiam quam Grseci 
iro\6/xa<riov vocant, ut scilicet ex^ipsS. effigie mentiren- 
tur omnium earn bestiarum et viventium esse 
nutricem "). 

If then a possible connection may be conceded 
between the "headed Tau" and the "Mother 
goddess," the question arises, firstly, what was the 
origin of the Tau as a symbol ; secondly, how was 
it evolved into a pseudo-human form ? The first of 
these problems is probably insoluble, but may be 
connected with the prominence of the Triad in 
Egyptian mythology, and illustrated by St. Patrick's 
traditional adaptation of the shamrock as a symbol of 
the Trinity. The second point admits of closer 
examination. 

In the first place, the frequent use of the sacred 
(solar) disc in Egyptian art would seem to show that 
it was a subsequent and distinct addition to the 
original Tau, and the origin of the " loop." From 
this combination, I should imagine (though Mr. Jewitt 
does not imply it), sprang the conception of a Tau 
in human form. This development may be forcibly 
illustrated by a study of the Trojan whorls, which 
show how a human form was gradually evolved from 
the simple swastika. A quaint instance of the modus 
operandi occurs in* this rock-drawing, found in Jebel 
Shammar (Pilgrimage to the Neja), in which a 
primitive "headed Tau" is transferred into the 
figure of a Bedouin. Perhaps also, Clement- 
Ganneau's thesis (La Mythologie Iconologique chez 
les Grecs) of an " ocular mythology " might help to 
explain the subsequent development of the Tau, 
much as, in heraldry, ex post facto legends have arisen 
from a misreading of armorial bearings. 

The history of that mysterious goddess whom the 
Ephesians worshipped, but who is found under 
strange disguises in almost every religion, would 
require separate treatment. In this note I have only 
dealt of her connection with'." the headed Tau." 

J. H. R. 



FIELD NAMES. 

(iii. 252 ; iv. 35.) 

Your correspondent, Mr. M. Bevan Hay, suggests 
that the local name, Carr, may be related to the 
British Caer, a camp. In many parts of England 



8 4 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



where this word is to be found, the idea of a camp, 
British or otherwise, is out of the question. I have 
inserted the word in my Glossary of Words used in the 
Wapentakes of Manley and Corringham, Lincolnshire, 
where I have explained it as, "Low, unenclosed land, 
subject to be flooded." I find that the Rev. J. C. 
Atkinson, in his Glossary of the Cleveland Dialect, 
gives a definition which shews that in that part of 
Yorkshire the word has a meaning almost exactly the 
same as here. His words are, " Car, Carr, sb., a 
flat, marshy piece of land under natural herbage, 
usually lying at or near the foot of a bank, and in that 
sense, low : not necessarily otherwise. Generally 
used in the plural. O.N. ker, kiorr ; S.G. kcerr; 
ti.kj'err; Dan. kczr. Of the latter word, Molbech says it 
is originally a Norse word, and is commonly used to 
express a track distinguished by depth of soil, and 
burdened with accumulated water. " 

I have notes of Carrs in Lincolnshire in the follow- 
ing townships, but am certain that the list might be 
much extended : Scotter, Messingham, Gainsburgh, 
Redburne, Appleby, Haxey, Hibbaldstowe, Wadding- 
ham, Atterby, Snitterby, Blyton, Morton, and 
Winterton. Prestwick Carr is in Northumberland, 
Morden Carr in the Bishopric of Durham, Castle 
Carrs in Derbyshire, and Gringley Carr in Notting- 
hamshire. A rental of Molesby in Cleveland, York- 
shire, taken in the reign of Henry VIII., has the fol- 
lowing entry : " Uno Clauso vocato Law Carr 8" " 
(Monasticon Anglic, iv. 568). A swampy piece of 
ground near York is now called Scarcroft. The late 
Mr. Robert Davies, in his Walks through the City of 
York (p. 113), mentions this place, and says that 
" its proper name is Carr-croft, adding that Carr is 
in Yorkshire a common designation for low, marshy 
land." 

Edward Peacock. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 



I remember that near the village of Wrington in 
Somersetshire there is a locality which was, and I 
suppose still is, known by the name of " Half- Yard." 
Though, I think, usually associated in the minds of 
the inhabitants with a portion of the road at the place, 
and which happened to be perfectly straight for some 
little distance/may not this in reality, originally at least, 
be the name of one of the fields adjoining the road ? 
If so, will your correspondent kindly inform me what 
would be the origin of the name ? 

Henry Denham. 

ESSEX BRASSES. 
(Hi. 274.) 

If Mr. J. A. Sparvel-Bayly would kindly print a 
list, in your columns or elsewhere, of the interesting 
collection of Essex brasses lately exhibited by him at 
the Archaeological Institute, he would be conferring 
a great favour upon students of those memorials. 
I observe from your report that many of the brasses 
exhibited on the occasion referred to are described as 
" inedited," by which I infer it is meant that they are 
unnoticed in the best known Lists, such as those of 



Messrs. Haines, Manning, &c. I have rubbings of a 
considerable number of Essex brasses in my own 
collection, and have quite recently found brasses 
existing at Felstead, Writtle, Hatfield Peverel, &c, 
which are unnoticed by Mr. Haines in the List ap- 
pended to his Manual by far the best and fullest in 
existence. I have been also inclined to think that 
many may have escaped notice in the less accessible 
portions of the county, such as the Hundreds of Den- 
gey, Rochford, &c, and shall hope to find this 
expectation confirmed by Mr. Sparvel-Bayly. 

As a brass-rubber of twenty-four years standing, 
I regret to be able to endorse the painful statements 
of your correspondent, Mr. Arthur G. Hill, as to the 
rapid disappearance of these memorials. Whenever 
a church which contained them has been "restored," 
it is the rule rather than the exception that they 
should be swept away as the contractor's or the work- 
men's perquisite ! 

Frequently, also, if preserved, they are treated with 
much indignity, being removed from the graves of the 

f>ersons whom they commemorate, and placed with 
udicrous irreverence against the walls of the building, 
sometimes at such a height as to preclude the pos- 
sibility not only of rubbing, but of examination. 
They are also almost invariably injured during the 

f>rogress of any repairs, owing to the absence of a 
ittle intelligent watchfulness on the part of those in 
charge. Supposing these various hazards all escaped, 
we shall too often find the slabs which they adorn 
have become the chosen depositories of a lectern, a 
gas-stove, a stack of hot-water pipes, and so forth ; or, 
if free from such incumbrance, carefully obscured by 
cocoa-matting and the tenacious yet gritty deposit 
which invariably underlies that vile material. 

I should like, by the way, to indicate, as an excep- 
tion to all that I have said, the care which has been 
shown for the preservation of an interesting series of 
brasses by the Vicar of Brightlingsea, in Essex, al- 
though he has carried out an extremely satisfactory 
restoration of his noble church. 

Referring to Mr. Hill's letter it may not be out of 
place to state that the word Yenk, signifying either 
thank, or, possibly, think (which seems rather 
uncertain), occurs on the fine gateway into the 
Cathedral Close at Norwich, built by Sir Thomas 
Erpingham, somewhere about 1420. Formerly this 
was misread into pena, and an absurd belief, wholly 
destitute of other foundation, arose therefrom that 
this gateway had been erected by the knightly soldier 
of Agincourt, whose kneeling effigy at the summit of 
the structure seems designed to express his thank- 
fulness towards his Almighty Preserver, as a penance 
for imagined Lollardite proclivities ! 

The legend, " Thinke and Thanke God of alle," 
also occurs on the fine tower of Great Ponton Church 
in Lincolnshire, built by Anthony Ellys, merchant of 
the Staple, about the close of the fifteenth century. 
His tomb within that church has also been destroyed 
within my recollection. 

C. G. R. Birch. 

Brancaster Rectory, Norfolk. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



85 



TRADITIONS ABOUT OLD BUILDINGS, 
(iii. 8, 188; iv. 33.) 

Besides the parish church of Wrexham (referred to 
in my letter, published in the Antiquary for July,) 
there are, it now appears, three other churches in 
Wales concerning which has been told the now familiar 
story of the goblins that pulled down in the night 
what had been built in the day. These are the 
churches of Llangar near Corwen, and of Corwen it- 
self, and that great church which Robert Dudley, 
Earl of Leicester began to build in the outer court of 
Denbigh Castle, but which he never got completed. 

(1.) Concerning Llangar Church, I quote the 
following sentences from the " Gossiping Guide to 
Wales" : " There is a local tradition that Llangar 
Church was to have been built where the Cynwyd 
crosses the Dee. Indeed, we are told that the masons 
set to work, but all the stones they laid in the day 
were gone during the night, none knew whither. The 
builders were warned, supernaturally, that they must 
seek a spot where, on hunting, a ' carw gwyn ' 
(white deer) would be started. They did so, and 
Llangar Church is the result. From this circumstance 
the church was called Llangarw-gwyn, and from this 
name the transition to Llangar is easy." The position 
of Llangar Church is peculiar ; there is the church, 
but there is no village. 

(2.) Corwen Church. When the British Archaeo- 
logical Association visited this church in 1878, the 
rector, the Rev. W. Richardson, said, there was " a 
singular legend in connection with a rude stone which 
was built into the wall of the north porch of the 
building. All attempts to build the church on the 
site first selected were frustrated by the influence of 
certain adverse powers, till the founders, warned in 
vision, were directed to the spot where this stone 
stood." 

(3.) Old St. David's, Denbigh. -The following sen- 
tences relating to this church are taken from a 
Guide to Denbigh, published by Thomas Gee : 
"Tradition .... tells us that this great building 
could not be completed, being a vain-glorious under- 
taking, like the Tower of Babel ; that the plan and 
the site met the disapproval of heaven, and that what- 
ever portion was finished in the daytime was pulled 
down and carried to another place at night by some 

invisible hand It may have been true that 

Leicester's enemies .... did pull down portions of 
the buildings at night by way of revenge." 

(4. ) I distinctly remember a story current, twenty 
years ago, among the boys of the Grammar School of 
Thetford, Suffolk, to the effect that when a particular 
gateway on the Place Farm was bricked up, Sir 
Richard Fulmerston, driving a spectral coach and 
four, would dash through at night and throw it open. 
Sir Richard was the founder of the Grammar School, 
and had formerly lived at Thetford Place. This 
story was reported in spite of the manifest fact that 
the gateway referred to was then actually bricked up, 
and so remained. 

Alfred N. Palmer. 
3, Ar-y-bryn Terrace, Wrexham. 



THE LITTLE MIDSHIPMAN. 

One of the "little midshipmen, in obsolete naval 
uniforms, eternally employed outside the shop-doors 
of nautical instrument makers in taking observations 
of the hackney coaches " as they are described by 
Dickens is about to be removed to the company of 
his compeers in the Minories, from a post he has 
occupied for some sixty years or more by the door of 
No. 157, Leadenhall Street. It would appear that 
the principle laid down by the Court of Appeal on 
the 3rd of March last does not apply in the present 
instance. There the question at issue was the pro- 
perty of the historic signboard, representing King 
Charles II. in the Boscobel oak, of the Royal Oak 
Inn at Bettwys-y-Coed. The sign, painted in 1847 
by David Cox, was fixed by holdfasts over the 
entrance to the house, which was then held by a 
yearly tenancy, and subsequently on a lease. In 1851, 
Cox touched up the picture again. On a sale of the 
lease, in 1876, to a Miss Thomas, by Mrs. Richards, 
the assignee of the lease under her marriage settle- 
ment, the signboard was expressly excepted from the 
assignment to Miss Thomas. When Mrs. Richards 
afterwards claimed the signboard, desiring to remove 
it, the local agent of Lady Willoughby de Eresby 
interfered, her ladyship being the owner of the free- 
hold of the house. In effect the Court ruled that the 
signboard belonged to Lady Willoughby de Eresby, 
as being annexed to the freehold, and had never come 
within the category of "tenant's fixtures." The 
picture, valued at .1,000, was produced in court as 
an exhibit, having been removed by the trustees in 
certain liquidation proceedings. But the premises 
against which our little friend has been set up day 
affer day, and from which, for security, he has been 
taken down and placed indoors each night, have been 
sold, and the Messrs. Wilson are about to transfer 
their business to the Minories. There he will again 
be placed, standing with his left leg (not his " right 
leg ") foremost, dressed in his laced cocked hat, dark 
blue coat, yellow kerseymere, flapped waistcoat and 
breeches, white silk stockings, and buckled shoes of 
a bygone age. Of the two wooden midshipmen 
already in the Minories, one of nearly life-size stands 
over the quaint, old-fashioned shop, with bowed win- 
dows, of Mr. John Omer, optician, at No. 99. He 
wears the more sober uniform of the present time. 
The other, arrayed in an impossible suit of a sky-blue 
coloured coat and white pantaloons, confers special 
singularity upon a shop on the same side of the way, 
near the railway bridge. An exact counterpart of the 
former of these two, but much reduced in proportions, 
may be seen at Messrs. Hughes and Son's, in London 
Street, Fenchurch Street. Readers of Dombey and 
Son need not be reminded how large a part the 
wooden midshipman plays in the still-life of that 
story. It is not always easy to identify the places 
which Charles Dickens describes in his novels ; but 
there can be little question that the shop soon to dis- 
appear from Leadenhall Street was that of Solomon 
Gills. There we may yet see the little back parlour 
in which Old Sol and Captain Cuttle kept a reckon- 
ing day after day, and worked out the course of the 
Son and Heir, with the chart spread before them on 
the round table. In that room the simple-minded 



86 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



sailor, reading softly to himself the Burial Service the 
while, and stopping now and then to wipe his eyes, 
committed Walter s body to the deep. Into that 
room one evening later on, whilst the Captain was 
toasting a slice of bread which he had put upon his 
hook, the shadow of Walter Gay enters, to the con- 
fusion and delight of Florence. In the attic at the 
top Gills was wont to keep watch, thinking of the 
boy to whom he was so attached ; and there Florence 
found a refuge when other home or resting-place was 
denied her. To many, perhaps certainly to myself 
some of the characters in this tale are more real 
than the actual wayfarers and inhabitants who throng 
that crowded street, and it is not inappropriate that 
the coming change should be recorded in your 
columns. 

W. E. MlLI.IKEN. 
A-5, Cornwall Residences, N.W. 

STONEHENGE. 
(ii. 150.) 

At the above reference Dr. B. Nicholson alludes to 
some of the upright stones having fallen. In The 
European Magazine of January, 1797 (vol. xxxi. p. 76), 
is an account of an accident which befel these stones. 
Can this be the date that tlje stones, spoken of by 
Dr. Nicholson, fell to the ground, or is there any 
period known other of their having been displaced ? 

I have extracted the paragraphs from The European 
Magazine, which are as follows : 

*' On Tuesday, the 3rd inst., some people employed 
at the plough, near Stonehenge, remarked three of 
the larger stones had fallen, and were apprised of the 
time of their fall by a very sensible concussion, or 
jarring of the ground. These stones prove to be the 
western of those pairs, with their imposts, which have 
had the appellation of Trilithons. They fell flat 
westward, and levelled with the ground a stone, 
also of the second circle, that stood in the line of 
their precipitation. From the lower ends of the 
supporters being now exposed to view, their prior 
depth in the ground is satisfactorily ascertained; it 
appears to have been about six feet. The ends, how- 
ever, having been cut oblique, neither of them was, 
on one side, more than a foot and a half deep. Two 
only of the five trilithons of which the adytum con- 
sisted, are now, therefore, in their original positions. 
The destruction of any part of this grand oval we 
must peculiarly lament, as it was composed of the 
most stupendous materials of the whole structure. 
The above accident is to be attributed to the same 
circumstances that occasioned the disclosure of the 
subterraneous passage at Old Sarum two years ago ; 
and there is no necessity of calling in the aid of any 
other agency than that of repeated moisture on the 
foundation, and particularly of the rapid thaw that 
succeeded the late deep snow. 

The second account runs thus: "On Tuesday, 
January 3, in consequence of the rapid thaw succeed- 
ing a very severe frost, the weather being per- 
fectly calm, one of the Trilithons in the inner circle of 
Stonehenge, which were so called by Dr. Stukely from 
their being formed of three stones (an impost resting 



upon two upright stones), suddenly inclined and fell. 
It had long deviated from its true perpendicular. 
There were originally five of these Trilithons, two of 
which are, even now, still remaining in their ancient 
state. It is remarkable that no account has ever been 
recorded of the falling of the others, and perhaps no 
alteration has been made in the appearance of Stone- 
henge for three centuries prior to the present tremen- 
dous downfall. The impost, which is the smallest of 
the three stones, is supposed to weigh twenty tons. 
They all now lie prostrate on the ground, and have 
received no injury from their aerial separation." 

G. H. Osborne. 
Perry Barr, near Birmingham. 



CROMWELL FAMILY. 

(ii. 168.) 

It is rather late to call attention to a mistake which 
appeared in an article on the above subject in the 
second volume of The Antiquary. One mistake in 
that article has already been corrected ; but in the 
scrap of pedigree there given by Mr. R. S. Charnock, 
the mistakes are so frequent that it wants altogether 
re-writing. The pedigree, as far as this portion is 
concerned, should stand thus : 

Morgan Williams = Katharine, dau. of Walter Cromwell, 
I and sister of Thomas, Earl of Essex. 



Sir Richard Williams, = Frances, dau. and coh. of Sir Thomas 
alias Cromwell. I Myrffin, Lord .Mayor of London. 



Sir Henry Cromwell, of Hinchin-= Joan, dau. of Sir Robert 



brooke, called " The Golden 
Knight," died 7 Jan. 1603. 



Warren, Knt. 



Sir OHver=i. Eliz., dau. Robert Crom- = Eliz., dau of Wil- 

Cromwell, of the Lord well, M.P. for liam Steward, of 

Knight of Chancellor Huntingdon, Ely.and widow of 

the Bath. Bromley. 2. in the 35th of | William Lynne, 

Anne, widow Elizabeth. of Bassing- 



of Sir Horatio 
Palavicini. 



bourne, in co. 
Cambridge. 



Oliver Cromwell, Protector of England. 
Mr. Charnock will find ample proof of these state- 
ments in the Visitation of Huntingdonshire, pub- 
lished by the Camden Society ; Burke's Vicissitudes 
of Families ; Thomas Cromwell's Oliver Cromwell 
and his Times, and other works. 

Bertram Wilverton. 
Leeds. 

PAROCHIAL REGISTERS. 
(Hi. 46, 286.) 

Since I last wrote to you on this subject, a case has 
occurred which aptly shows the importance of keeping 
these registers where they are. An action was brought 
in the County Court, by the sexton here, for 135. 6d. 
received by a person who, claiming to be sexton, had 
intruded himself into the churchyard and wrongfully 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



87 



received the sexton's fees. The case involved the 
question not only who was sexton, but also who had 
the legal power of appointing him to that office. The 
ancient terrier decided this latter point, and, as is' 
usually the case, this terrier is bound up with the 
parish register. A fortnight ago, I, as its custodian, 
had to attend the County Court, and produce it there ; 
and it settled the case. 

No Act of Parliament so far as I am aware 
provides for the admission of a copy of a terrier as 
evidence, whatever may be the case in certain instances 
with marriages and burials, and, consequently, if this 
register had been removed to London, some one would 
have had to bring it thence into West Cornwall. 

Our County Court is seven miles from the place 
where this dispute arose, but upwards of three hundred 
from London. 

Frederick Hockin. 

rhillach Rectory. 



THE SURNAME SEABORNE, 
(iii. p. 286.) 

This Scandinavian name is doubtless=Sea-Bear. 
Many of our old Scando-Gothic nouns have a double 
form, a shorter, and a longer in -N, of which only 
one remains in the modern dialects. Thus, both Ari 
and Arin (Am), an Eagle, now only Arn (Ern) in 
English ; so Biri and Birin (Birn) ; Old-English had 
already laid aside the form in -N, and used only Bera, 
our Bear. In modern Scandinavian the shorter side- 
form has gone out, and they now have only the word 
with the N-ending, thus Bjorn, &c. Sea-Borne is, 
therefore, the modem Scandinavian man's name, Sjo- 
Bjorn, S6-Bjorn. In ancient Scandinavian Runic 
monuments this name occurs as Si-Biurn and Sai- 
Biurn. In Icelandic it is Sae-Bjorn. 

George Stephens. 

Cheapinghaven. 



THE TERMINATION "HOPE." 

Those who have been interested in the corre- 
pondence on this subject in vols. i. and ii. of The 
Antiquary will be glad to have their attention 
directed to the following extract from a Border Survey 
of 1542, printed in the introduction to The Newminster 
Cartulary (Surtees Soc, Vol. lxvi., p. xviii), from 
Hodgsons Northumberland, III. ii. 222-226. "The 
said valyes or hoopes of kydland lyeth so dystante and 
devyded by mounteynes one from an other that suche 
as inhabyte in one of those hoopes, valyes, or graynes 
can not heare the Fraye, outecrye, or exclamac'on of 
suche as dwell in an other hoope or valley upon the 
other syde of the said mountayne, nor come or 
assemble to theyr assystance in tyme of necessytie. " 

J. T. Fowler. 

ALEXANDER CRUDEN. 

Can any reader of The Antiquary throw any light 
on the history of the family of A. Cruden, author of the 
famous Concordance? I am told that the family 
originated at Cruden, near Aberdeen, in the ninth 



century, in which neighbourhood there exist to this 
day persons bearing the name of Cruden. What is 
the earliest known date of the existence of Cruden as 
a surname ? I shall be very glad of any information 
on the subject. 

M. Cruden. 

SAINT LAURENCE, 
(iii. 286.) 

In The Calendar of the Prayer Book, Illustrated, 
(Parker, 1866), it is stated of Saint Laurence : " In 
England he is one of the most popular saints, about 
two hundred and fifty churches being dedicated in his 
name, one to SS. George and Laurence, and one to 
S. Laurence and All Saints, and one to SS. Mary 
and Laurence." What is the authority for your cor- 
respondent's supposition that the saint was ever in 
England ? It is not in Mr. Baring-Gould's Lives 
of the Saints. 

Albert Clowes. 



TURNER'S PICTURE OF " BLOIS." 
Can any of your readers tell me where I can see 
Turner's " Blois" ? The engraving of it is in his 
" Rivers of France," and Ruskin speaks of it in 
"Modem Painters," but I cannot find the original. 
It is not in the National Gallery, nor is it mentioned 
in any of the catalogues of Turner's pictures in private 
collections, given in Thornbury's " Life of Turner." 
G. Washington Moon. 



A CURIOUS BOOK. 

I have in my possession a book entitled " Baptists: 
Mantuani Carmelitae Adolescentia seu Bucolica," 
bearing date 1669. Could any of your readers give 
me any information regarding it, as my curiosity has 
been awakened by the fact that it is from Thomas 
De Quincey's library ? 

A Book-hunter. 

Edinburgh. 



PETERTIDE FIRES. 

Can any of your readers inform me : 

1. Were Petertide fires common in the Middle 
Ages in England as they are in Penrith and especially 
Penzance at present ? 

2. Have we any existing cases of them on the 
European Continent in addition to the fires of St. 
John's Eve ? 

3. Is the waving of torches over the head a peculiarly 
Comish or a general ancient custom ? 

* W. S. L. S. 

CORRECTION. 
By an oversight the Latin quotation on p. 31 col. 
2 was left uncorrected. It should, of course, read 
"Jugera ruris, &c." 



88 



THE ANTIQUARY EXCHANGE. 



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THE RIGHT OF PRE-EMPTION IN VILLAGE COMMUNITIES. 89 




The Antiquary. 



SEPTEMBER, 1881. 



Gbe IRigbt of preemption in 
Milage Communitiee. 




|NE of the fundamental principles 
of the Village Communities of India 
and Germany is the principle of 
reciprocal assistance among the 
members of each commune, resulting in a 
number of privileges which the individual 
may claim from the commune and the 
commune from the individual. With especial 
jealousy did the early communes guard 
themselves from the intrusion of strangers 
into their midst, and their safeguard against 
that intrusion took the form of the Right of 
Preemption : that is, that if a villager desired 
to sell his homestead and village-plot it was 
incumbent on him to offer it first to the 
commune ; and if the seller neglected to do 
this, the commune claimed the power of 
reclaiming the lot from the foreign purchaser 
at the price he gave for it. Thus we find 
that in India 

In the stronger communities with more decided rights, 
the land was not an individual but a common property, 
and therefore one man could not, without the consent 
of the others, sell to a stranger whom they probably 
would not choose to admit into their society.* 

In Germany, where the Village Community 
flourished with luxuriance, the right of 
preemption existed in full vigour. 

A villager's homestead, before it could be offered 
to strangers, had first to be offered to individual 

* Sir G. Campbell : Modern India, 94, confirmed 
in the Cobden Club's Systems of Land Tenure, 3rd 
ed., 143, 'the communities claimed a right of veto.' 
I ought to mention that I was in error in saying 
{Times, Aug. 10) that preemption was traceable in 
the Indian law-books. I had for the moment con- 
fused with preemption the regulations for the 
inheritance of personal property. 
VOL. IV. 



communists or to the commune itself, and these had the 
right of preemption in free as well as in manorial 

villages If the homestead were sold before it 

was offered to the communists, these had the right of 
redeeming, within a certain period, the land sold to a 
stranger. ( Wellicher eyn gutt in der wallstatt verkouffte 
vnerbottenn wye vor stat, so mag dem nach der nechst 
vnnd yedes nechsten frund dem selbenn kouffer das gut 
wol abzyehenn bis zum nechstenn gericht, aber eym 
fromdenn hatt eyn yeder waltman eytijor seeks wuchen 
vnnd dry tag zil vnnd masz, alsdann aber inn syn 
hand zyehenn). Traces of the old law are found in 
France and even now in Germany. According to the 
Customary of Bayonne, the communists (voisins) had 
a right of preemption over strangers (le voisin et 
habitant de la dite ville est preferi a Vestranger 
acheteur). And if the alienation to a stranger were 
completed, they had the right of redemption (si aucun 
habitant de la dite ville et cite vend navire et autre 
batteau, le voisin de la dite cite le peut retenir pour 
mesme prix* 

A survival of the right is still, according 
to Professor Stubbs, to be found in England, 
for 

the right of the markmen to determine whether a 
new settler should be admitted to the township exists 
in the form of admitting a tenant at the court-baron 
and customary court of every manor. + 

If we extend our research beyond the limits 
of the Village Community, strictly so-called, 
we find other examples of the right. It was 
recognized by the early Hebrews, who com- 
bined it with their form of the levirate as 
one of the functions devolving upon the goel 
or next of kin. J It still survived in Talmudic 
times, but was transferred, in consequence 
of the altered circumstances of landholding. 
from the next~of kin to the bar mitzra ' the 
son of the boundary' or adjoining owner, 
who had an absolute right of preemption over 
his neighbour's property . In Muhammadan 
law the right also occurs, and has been fully 
expounded by Dr. Badger, in the Times of 
August 4, 1 88 1, to which I must refer the 
reader for details. The noteworthy feature of 

* Von Maurer, Dorfverfassung, i. 320-322 ; cf. 
Grimm, Rechtsalterthiimer, 530, 531. Hallam, also, 
speaks of the retrait lignager of French law, which 
gave the relatives of the vendor a preemption on the 
sale of a fief, and a subsequent right of redemption 
(Middle Ages, ch. ii.), but I am not well enough 
acquainted with early French law to say whether this 
custom has any historical connection with those quoted 
by Von Maurer. 

+ Stubbs' s Const. Hist., i. 84. 

X Cf. Ruth iv. passim; Levit. xxv. 33. 

Rabbinowicz, Legislation Civile du Thalmud hi. 
433 ff- Restrictions on the right were, however, 
then growing up. 



9 o THE RIGHT OF PRE-EMPTION IN VIIIAGE COMMUNITIES. 



the Muhammadan right is the limitation of it 
primarily to a co-partner in a property or in 
the benefits of a property. The Prophet is 
recorded to have said that ' the jar (neigh- 
bour) has the better (or the best) claim to 
preemption when his house is contiguous.' 
The precise interpretation of these words is 
matter of doubt among the orthodox schools 
of law, the Malikite school holding that 
neighbour must be defined solely as a partner, 
and the Hanafite school holding that con- 
tiguity constitutes a man a neighbour* 

Another form of the right or rather a 
survival of it, is found on the contract-tablets 
of Assyria. I have elsewhere pointed out 
the analogy between the great family-cor- 
porations of Assyria with the House Com- 
munities of Aryan civilization. Under the 
rule of the monarchs of the great empire 
(circa b.c. 850-B.c. 600) these great families 
became fiefholders, and there are instances 
of grants of their lands by a monarch to his 
successful generals. But the great houses 
seem to have fought for their ancient rights, 
and to have often disputed the validity of 
such grants. In earlier times it had been 
sufficient to invoke the wrath of the gods 
upon such disputants, but under the empire 
the exercise of the right of preemption was 
barred by the imposition of a heavy fine 
often ten times the amount of the purchase- 
money for which provision was made by 
a special clause in the contract of sale. The 
clause ran in a set form, which I will give 
in the Latin translation of MM. Oppert and 
Menant. f The clause refers to the sale of a 
field for five minas of silver by Nabu-irib to 
ta Samas-sillim : 

Quisquis in futuris diebus, quandocunque petet a 
me, sen Nabu-irib, sen filiits ejus, sat fratres ejus, ex 
Samas-sillim , jiliis ejus, jiliis filiorum ejus, decern 
minas argenti, unam minam auri in thesauro dece 
Istaris habitantis Ninua defionet ; pretii decima pars 
(or pretium ad decimam partem the meaning of the 



* The Malikite view is clearly given by Dr. Badger ; 
the Hanafite view may be found in Hamilton's 
Hedhya, iii. 561^, where the Prophet's words are 
given substantially as above where Dr. Badger's 
rendering is followed. 

t Documents Juridiques de F 'Assyrie, 189, 190. The 
reader should know that the French translations 
in this work are very lax, and ought always to be 
compared with the original. 



Assyrian is not clear) ad dominum suum redibit ; a 
negotia stw liberatus erit nott vendiderit.* 

The interesting point of this clause is that, 
as the learned French translators remark, the 
redemption is never absolutely forbidden, but 
simply barred by the exorbitant fine. For a 
long time the clause remained unique to me, 
the only light that appeared being in a sen- 
tence of Sir G. Campbell's : 

The ordinary form of alienation [in India] was 
not by selling or letting, but by mortgaging, if the 
term can properly be applied to the transaction. The 
mortgagee, or depository, undertook to discharge 
what was due upon the land, and obtained the use of 
it, while the original owner retained an almost in- 
definite right of reclaiming it on repaying the mort- 
gage. Nothing has been more difficult to settle than 
the adverse claims of persons long in possession, and 
of others claiming to be very ancient mortgagors, t 

This showed clearly the collision between 
the ancient custom and the necessities of 
existence in advancing times, and, so far, 
allowed the presumption that the same thing 
might have occurred in Assyria. But I after- 
wards came across a very remarkable instance 
of the conflict between communal and feudal 
tenures in Orissa. Here there appear to have 
been originally village communities of the 
normal type, with series of village officers who 
were allowed the use, in the ordinary fashion, 
of a plot of ground in return for their services. 
These offices seem to have been hereditary in 
some families, who thus had a perpetual user 
of the land without acquiring any proprietary 
right in it. But when the Mogul Empire 
spread over the land, the entire body of land- 
owners, of whatever kind, were turned into 
feudal tenants, and among them the village 
officers, who, by reason of their intelligence 
and vigour, frequently became small lords of 
, the manor. But this position, though sanc- 
tioned by the Government, was not recognized 
by the village communities ; and therefore, 
when an officer sold his office with the emolu- 
ments thereof, the~commune endeavoured to 
reclaim the land. Hence, it became neces- 
sary to convey the assumed proprietary in- 
terest in the land to the seller, and at the same 

* I give this version with reserve, as being subject 
to revision by further research, but the high rank of 
its authors guarantees the care with which it has been 
made ; and so far as I myself am able to test it, it 
seems to rest upon generally accepted values of the 
Cuneiform characters. 

f Syslans of Land Tenure, 3rd ed. 143. 



THE RIGHT OF PRE-EMPTION IN VILLAGE COMMUNITIES. 91 



time to indemnify the latter against the claim 
of the commune. From some of the deeds 
of sale, translated by an investigator in the 
early part of this century, I quote the clauses 
containing the indemnity : 

.... Let the above-mentioned take possession 
of the land, and bring into cultivation, and expend 
the profits in maintaining himself and other Fakirs 
and Baishnus. Should roe or our heirs ever attempt to 
resume it may we go to hell. 

.... neither we nor our heirs will ever here- 
after have Dawi, Dukhl, or Huq of any sort in the 
above-mentioned parcel of ground. 

.... Should any chief, or Huqdar, or neigh- 
bour, or heirs of mine advance any claims, I shall be 
responsible for satisfying them. Till the day of 
resurrection you will possess the Hita* land, and 
everything above and beneath it water, dry land, 
mineral products, ponds, wells, trees, stones you may 
cut dozvn and plant trees at your pleasured 

At the first glance one would imagine these 
indemnities to be merely formal, like the 
mention of ' heirs, executors, administrators, 
and assigns' in English deeds ; but the ex- 
press mention of the power to plant and cut 
down trees, which is a most jealously guarded 
right of the commune, combined with Dr. 
W. W. Hunter's remark that even now in 
India one never buys land itself, but only 
the right to receive the rent of it, J seem 
convincing proof that the clauses must be 
taken seriously, as an actual conveyance of 
proprietary rights, despite the prior claim of 
the commune. And so taken, they exhibit 
a stage of village history exactly parallel, in 
its own sphere of development, to that shown 
in Assyria. 

With this example my space is exhausted. 
Doubtless there are other examples to be 
found. I have not entered on the familiar 
ground of Roman law with its Oriental branches 
nor on the Byzantine codes. Still less have 
I been able in my allotted space to treat 
these examples historically, tracing the history 
of each custom, or investigating the causes 
which led Hebrews, Assyrians, and Muham- 
madans, starting from the same base, to 
develop such divergent forms. Still each 
example represents a distinct epoch in the 
history of the right of preemption. Its 
earliest form, perhaps, meets us in India ; its 

* Hita is land held rent free in return for service. 

t Asiatic Researches, xv. p. 251. On the whole 
question of Orissa tenures, see Hunter's Orissa, ii., 
200. 

Hunter, ubi supra, ii., 228. 



full development is seen in Germany ; in the 
Talmud the commune is breaking up, and 
the right has become, the private right of 
any adjoining owner. In the Muhammadan 
law the progress of commerce has still further 
restricted the operation of the right to cases 
of actual partnership, while in Assyria and 
Orissa it exists only in a modified form as a 
survival. 

Yet the mete juxtaposition of these in- 
stances will be useful if it draws attention to 
their fundamental unity of type. The in- 
dependent development of such similar 
customs in various lands is to be traced, not 
to the action of chance, but to the orderly 
working of natural causes, and those causes 
are the influences which agriculture invariably 
exerts upon the form of the communities 
which practise it. The same identity of type 
extends to all the features of communal life. 
Common holding of property is a custom of 
Zulus, Eskimo, and Germans. The periodical 
redistribution of land is common to Scotland, 
Mexico, and Afghanistan. By far the finest 
example known to me of a communal village 
is one depicted in Commander Cameron's 
Across Africa. In fact, wherever mankind 
have adopted the agricultural life, they have 
been led to adopt one and the same mode of 
social life, modified only in details. Each 
development must of course be studied his- 
torically. We cannot invoke at random an 
Eskimo custom to fill up a gap in our theory 
of the Zulus, or insert an Afghan decision in 
the middle of a German decree. But we can 
use each to throw light upon the other, and 
whichever branch we may especially study, 
we ought never to forget that it is only one 
point among many in the evolution of the 
agricultural communities of mankind. 

John Fenton. 

flDonmoutb as a Sbire 
flDarcber* 

By Hubert Hall. - 
N the earliest times Wales may or may 
not have been the reserve region 
of Keltic barbarism. 

Following this; it may or may 
not again have been a rallying ground for the 
hardy remnant of an effete British population. 

h 2 




92 



MONMOUTH AS A SHIRE MARCHER. 



Snowdon may have been a later Camp of 
Refuge of the Kelt against the Saxon, just as 
the eastern marshes were of the Saxon against 
the Frank : and the ever-narrowing circle of 
the limestone towers of Lords' Marcher the 
triumph of military genius over guerilla 
tactics. Or the former may have been a nest 
of marauders, the latter a defensive military 
cordon. 

The question whether the Saxon conquest 
of Wales was in reality such, or merely of 
the nature of a border inroad, is clearly 
immaterial with regard to the position of 
Monmouth. 

Of whatever kind it was, whether it left the 
English territory richer or poorer, it settled 
for ever, in the eyes of each future statesman 
or historian of merit, the boundary line 
between the two countries. 

This boundary, known traditionally as 
" Offa's Ditch," ran from north to south, from 
the mouth of Dee to the mouth of Wye, from 
Chester to Bristol, according to seventeenth- 
century reckoning. But, like all undefined 
boundaries, it admitted of extension, and 
this, of course, in the interests of the stronger 
and ever-aggressive nation. 

Thus, in Domesday the fairest portion 
of Monmouth, the tract between the Usk and 
the Severn, from Caerleon to Gloucester, 
broadly speaking, was counted as an appan- 
age of Gloucestershire. Thus, too, Cher- 
bury and Montgomery were both included 
in Shropshire ; so that a second line must be 
drawn within Offa's Ditch on the Welsh side, 
to make the final boundary between the 
English and Welsh counties. 

This line, we learn from manuscript autho- 
rity of the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies, will be found to stretch from the source 
of Dee to the source of Usk, or more nearly 
speaking, from Bala to Caerleon; nor was this 
a merely arbitrary and informal arrangement ; 
it was solemnly confirmed by the Exchequer 
Barons in the reign of Edward III.* Hence- 
forth Monmouth might be known as the 
marches adjoining to Gloucestershire; Cher- 
bury and Montgomery as the marches adjoin- 
ing to Shropshire. But, in fact, such a trivial 



* Pl'ita cor. Rege, Mich. T. 9 Ed. III. Thus we 
read: "Factu fuit nobis Caerlyon id est Claudio- 
cestrise in confinio Cambria." 



point soon dropped out of sight before the 
more important interests which supervened. 
Though Wales was always regarded as a 
distinct country from England, a distinction 
carefully maintained and even magnified by 
the common lawyers of the sixteenth century, 
it had from the earliest times been held, no- 
minally at least, in chief from the English 
crown ; a position laid down for the last time 
with effect in the tenth year of Henry IV. 
Thus the princes of Wales were bound to 
appear on a summons before the English 
Parliament, just as the kings of Scotland were 
before the barons at Westminster, and the 
dukes of Normandy and Anjou themselves 
before the peers at Paris. 

Thus, in official parlance, the Welsh were 
never known as " hostes," but as " rebelles." 
Thus, too, the sweeping statute of conquest 
in the twelfth year of Edward I. speaks of 
the country as " prius nobis feudali jure sub- 
jectum jam divina providentia coronae 
regni annexit et univit." 

Down to the reign of Henry IV. the con- 
quest of Wales went rapidly forwards ; and 
after that date the government of the country 
exacted a labour and a vigilance far in excess 
of the pains of subjugation. 

The advance of the Crown was uneven, 
but the result may 'be recorded briefly as 
follows : 

Comparing this progress in different reigns, 
we find that a certain portion of the Welsh 
territory was presumably more or less per- 
manently in the hands of the English kings. 
The order of Henry II. for the administration 
of justice by the sheriffs of the conquered 
districts applies to an area slightly in excess 
of that ceded to Henry III. by several 
treaties with Welsh princes ; and again 
somewhat less than that formally incorporated 
in the principality as recorded in the investi- 
tures of his son and grandson. 

In 1263, four cantreds of Wales, together 
with the whole river of Conway and the 
White Castle, were ceded absolutely to the 
English Crown for ever. 

In a treaty with Llewelyn in the same year 
this territory is defined as " Quatuor can- 
treda in finibo suis simul cu 6ib3 terris 
quas ide dfis R cep* seisire fee 1 in manu 
sua, vel alio aliq m acquisiv' extra terr. 
Anglesie." 



MONMOUTH AS A SHIRE MARCHER. 



93 



These he is to hold " freely and surely " 
" sicut ante guerra tene cosueverV 

In the 38th year of his reign, Henry 

III. invested his son Edward with a some- 
what more extensive territory, including 
Montgomery and Bristol. 

In 1277, Llewelyn made, in default of 
issue, Edward I. his heir to Anglesey as 
having been granted to him "by the same 
king his lord." 

Edward I. invested his son Edward with 
his Lordships in Wales, independent of 
the English Crown. 

Edward II. granted to Edward III. all 
North Wales, Anglesey, the four cantreds, 
and all West and South Wales, together with 
the forfeited domains of Rece ap Meredith 
and the cities of Montgomery and Chester. 

Those lands had been granted to Meredith 
by Edward L, "for his lawful service," and 
included, I strongly suspect, the north-west 
portion, at least, of Monmouthshire. But 
as neither Monmouth nor Chester were ever 
held to be part of Wales by many they were 
not even considered as shires marcher such 
an inclusion can scarcely be counted as a 
precedent. 

Edward III. invested his son, the Black 
Prince, with all his lordships and lands in 
North, South, and West Wales, and the same 
form was usual up to the reign of Edward 

IV. The investiture by that king of his son 
Edward as Prince of Wales, marks a new era 
in the history of the Welsh marches. But, 
in order to make this clearer, it will be well to 
allude to a few circumstances which had 
preceded it. 

The crown had early cause to repent of the 
absolute and unfettered jurisdiction which 
it had committed to the lords marcher ; but 
though it had the wisdom to foresee the evil 
results of its policy, it dare not at once 
reverse it. Lordships marcher were safer 
expedients than Counties Palatine in the eyes 
of Norman and Angevin kings taught by the 
experience of their own feudal relations with 
the French crown. 

Early in John's reign we find a Custos 
Marchie Wallie ; and this, according to the 
famous interpretation of Comes Littoris 
Saxonici, can only mean the marches over 
against Wales. Later in this reign we find, 
in Magna Charta, an explicit statement as to 



the existence of separate Welsh, English, and 
marcher jurisdictions in the article com- 
mencing " Si nos dissaisivimus-Wallenses." 

This jurisdiction of the lords marcher 
was again acknowledged in the most im- 
portant charter of Edward I., wherein he 
grants to his son Edward a separate autho- 
rity in Wales, independent of the English 
crown "sic t- alii marchiones hent in terris 
suis in March Wall."* 

Yet very soon the Crown began to encroach 
upon the feudal jurisdiction of its vassals. 
It had been content at first to leave them to 
settle the country and to preserve a rough 
justice in the rear of its own fitful conquests ; 
but now that a permanent hold had been 
obtained on the greater part of Wales, the 
independent rule of these turbulent barons 
was an object of increasing jealousy. 

This position of things, the strength of 
the Crown coincident with the loss of prestige 
of the lords marcher, can best be seen under 
Henry III. 

It was only natural that the border nobles 
should view the progress of the Crown with 
anxiety ; but they went further, and resisted 
it " by every legitimate means " that is, 
rather by sedition than by violence. 

Several cases exist to prove this. Richard 
de Clare was arraigned in Gloucestershire 
for a disseisin committed in Glamorgan, 
but denied the jurisdiction of the Crown as 
having transgressed "within his own 
liberties."! 

Thus, too, Simon de Montfort, for his 
wife Eleanor, claimed compensation for loss 
of the government of Pembrokcf In an- 
other case of pillage and violence, tried in 
Hereford, the accused demanded exemption 
from English jurisdiction, as the crime was 
committed in " Walshry f and he was borne 
out by his lord, who claimed trial of the 
case, " qd terra ilia est in Wallia et infra 
libtate sua et nuqua soleb' pli'tare in com 
sed infra libtate." 

Another marcher baron refused to co- 
operate with the king's justice, but raised an 
unseemly disturbance in court, haranguing 
* 13 Ed. I. 

+ Mich. T. 32 Hen. HI. A district of Glamorgan 
was called the " Inglyshrye" as late as Elizabeth. 

+ Pembroke was once to all intents a County 
Palatine. 



I 



94 



MONMOUTH AS A SHIRE MARCHER. 



the suitors by way of giving vent to his 
feelings. 

The Crown also took occasion to direct 
the administration of justice in the marches, 
through proclamations to the sheriffs, ignor- 
ing the jurisdiction of the lords marcher, 
and even curtailing it. For instance, the 
sheriffs of Stafford and Shropshire were com- 
manded to keep the peace with Llewelyn 
from Chester to Gloucester u that is in the 
marches." 

A royal investigation of the mismanage- 
ment of an inquest in Worcester was even 
threatened. Yet in the next century (1333- 
48) the whole of Gloucester, Hereford, and 
Shropshire, were admitted by the Crown to 
be " in the marches of Wales." But it was 
not till the reign of Edward IV. that the 
Crown acquired a permanent jurisdiction 
over both Wales and the marches, and this 
only in a limited degree. 

Still to this period the apologists of the 
Council of the West always looked in after- 
times for a precedent, which they readily 
found in the Charter of Investiture of the 
Prince of Wales.* 

By this instrument, power was given to 
the prince to appoint justices in Gloucester, 
Hereford, Shropshire, and Worcester, within 
or without the liberties, " eisde com et eoru 
cuilibet adjacen" as well as in Wales. 

Baronial justice was not indeed all that 
could be desired, but its course was not 
much assisted by the interpositions of the 
Crown. 

It suited the former well enough to pre- 
serve a sort of no-man's-land, blessed with 
an interchangeable code of procedure through 
which conviction for licensed rapine could 
be most safely escaped. 

The policy of the Crown, however, was 
wholly different. The English were warned 
to shun the contamination of the accursed 
Kelt for fear of perishing with him. 

For an Englishman to pillage over the 
borders, unless in the ranks of a royal army, 
was a piece of well-meant patriotism to be 
deprecated, but not punished ; unless indeed 
the Saxon were smitten with the charms of 
some Welsh maiden, in which case he was 
adjudged to lose the rights of citizenship.f 
But for a Welshman to cross the border, 
* 16 Ed. IV. + 2 Hen. IV. 



was to venture his life with every able-bodied 
marcher who obeyed the summons of the 
hue-and-cry. None of Welsh blood, it is 
needless to say, could hold any royal or 
municipal office. But, above all, woe to the 
* waster, rymer, minstrell or other vagabund," 
who dared to court an audience for his 
seditious music !* As an instance of the 
extreme animosity of the official mind against 
the alien, we may take the official document 
which bitterly complains how certain Welsh 
had been permitted to buy and sell in 
Hereford "and after return without griev- 
ance." 

Complaints, undoubtedly well-founded, 
were indeed rife, respecting the atrocities of 
the " Walshry."t Yet, I am inclined to be- 
lieve, from many circumstances, that these 
stories should be taken in connection with 
other charges of legal chicanery and arrests 
for feigned debts freely circulated against the 
Welsh. No nation perhaps was ever so 
litigious, or so deeply versed in the forms of 
the civil law as they were at a slightly later 
period a fact of which I am deeply con- 
vinced from a long study of contemporary 
suits. The remedy of the Crown then against 
these disorders was found in the creation of 
a special court, nominally under the authority 
of the Prince, really in the hands of the 
Privy Council. 

According to a later State Paper, though 
after the reign of Henry VI., there were no 
more rebellions ; yet the state of the country 
was such, that Henry VII. sent Prince 
Arthur with, for the first time,t a resident 
council " to terrefie and keepe under the 
Walshe, and to defende the Englishe counties 
adjoyning from theire spoyles." 

The shires of Shropshire, Hereford, 
Cheshire, Gloucestershire, and Worcester- 
shire were placed within the jurisdiction of 
the justices, who had powers of Oyer and 
Terminer and special gaol delivery through- 
out Wales and these the marcher shires. 
As Monmouth was not specified as one of 
the latter, and as its position did not need 
explanation till Henry VIII.'s Act of Union, 

* 2 Hen. IV., cap. 27. 

t This name is used contemptuously of both county 
and people. We may compare with it Irishry, 
Jacquerie, and some others. 

t Edward IV's. council was not res dent, as it is 
often complained. 



MONMOUTH AS A SHIRE MARCHER. 



95 



it is almost certain that it was tacitly included 
with Gloucestershire as a Lordship marcher 
placed now for the first time under the direct 
jurisdiction of a commission from the English 
Crown. The judges of the school of 
Fortescue knew their business as well as 
their brethren of the Exchequer in the days 
of Edward III. at least in the opinion of 
Elizabethan authorities. This account is 
coiroborated by the statute 17 Henry VIII. 
We there learn that from the long absence of 
a resident prince, Wales and the marches are 
fallen into a bad state, justice being greatly 
impeded by the distance from a civilized 
centre. 

All these drawbacks will, it is hoped, be 
removed by a new-modelled council ; evil 
doers being punished, and good men "con- 
dignely cherished and rewarded." There 
are also, as elsewhere, special enactments 
against comortha, a forced " benevolence," 
whereby dissolute nobles repaired their 
squandered fortunes ; and provisions to 
facilitate the valuation or management of the 
king's possessions in those parts. 

The justices, or a quorum of four, were to 
take no bribe, but work hard at receiving bills 
from complainants, and writing their answers x 
in dor so. 

No such bill however was entertained 
without the certificate of a justice of assize 
to prevent abuse of equity. 

Yet their sterner labours were also relieved 
by the care of the princely household. In 
this seventeenth year of Henry VIII.'s reign, 
the Princess Mary was the titular head of the 
Western Council. The lady governess and 
the officers of the Court were under its 
control, and were to be guided by its dis- 
cretion in their system of teaching Her 
Highness the art of her " Virginalls," and, 
in moderation always, Latin and French. 
Especially, too, these were to regulate 
her diet, and see to the " cleanliness and well- 
wearing of her garments both of her 
chamber and bodie ; " and ever to order 
themselves " sadlie " in her presence, with- 
out lewdness or profanity. 

From such trivialities as these we come 

fitly enough to the two pretentious, confused, 

and mischievous statutes of the close of the 

reign, the Act of Union and its Confirmation.* 

* 27 Hen. VIII. and 34 and 35 Hen. VIII. 



The first of these is ushered in by an Act 
in the previous year, reciting the old stories 
of Welsh atrocities, and introducing some 
tyrannical restrictions on freedom of action. 

The Act of Union itself, in so far as it 
concerns Monmouthshire, is clear enough, 
though the ignorance displayed of the pre- 
vious history of the question is not re- 
assuring. 

Whereas, it is stated, the larger share of 
the Lordships marcher are now in the king's 
hands; five of these, the position of which 
admits of doubt, shall be redistributed. One, 
Monmouth, is to be an English county, and 
sue in English Courts ; the other four 
namely, Radnor, Brecknock, Montgomery, 
and Denbigh are to have, for convenience, 
a special Chancery jurisdiction of their own. 

It is important to note, however, that none 
of these are marcher' shires proper, but lord- 
ships marcher, abutting on English or Welsh 
counties respectively, to which they are now 
respectively relegated, Monmouth being 
carved out of Gloucestershire as permanently 
an English county. 

In the Confirmatory Act, Wales is to con- 
sist of twelve counties, of which eight were 
Welsh counties in ancient times, and four new 
ones are added. 

The old counties were Glamorgan, Caer- 
marthen, Caernarvon, Pembroke, Cardigan, 
Flint, Anglesey, and Merioneth. The new 
ones, Radnor, Brecknock, Denbigh, and Mont- 
gomery, as before. 

Over and besides, the Act continues, 
the shire of Monmouth, and divers other 
dominions, manors, lordships, in the marches 
of Wales, united and annexed to the shires of 
Salop, Hereford, and Gloucestershire. 

The Act thus acknowledges, if in part it 
overrides, the verdict of Domesday, and of the 
Exchequer Barons. 

But whatever interpretation be given to 
these Acts, their existence is of little consti- 
tutional importance as affecting the position 
of Monmouthshire; for the question was 
never an open one before, and was never 
asked afterwards. 

Had it been otherwise, any sovereign 
of the Tudor or Stuart families might have 
enacted in a servile or illegal Parliament 
the redistribution of any English, Welsh, or 
French district, in such form as a particular 



9 6 



MONMOUTH AS A SHIRE MARCHER. 



courtier, mistress, or minister should suggest; 
but it is doubtful for how long the arrange- 
ment would have lasted. Local patriotism 
is, when justly stirred, very warm and very 
lasting, especially when inspired by a Keltic 
imagination. 

From this time forward the case of the 
shires marcher resumed its normal form. 
Volumes of legal and official treatises were 
compiled to prove that the "four shires" 
either were or were not in England or the 
marches. Sometimes Monmouth was included 
with them-; sometimes it was omitted. But 
none ever attempted to prove rationally that 
any of these were, or had been, parts of 
Wales. 

The confirmation of this opinion, as seen 
in the official documents at such a distance 
of time as late in the reign of Elizabeth, is 
very striking. 

In a list of the deputy-lieutenants for 
Wales and four of the march shires in the 
year 1575, we find the twelve Welsh shires 
as laid down by Henry VIII.'s Act; then 
for the march shires, Monmouth, Salop, 
Hereford, and Wigorn. In a list to be pre- 
sented to Her Majesty for the year 1572, of 
the Welsh counties which returned sheriffs, 
there are twelve counties, amongst which is 
not Monmouth. A duplicate return by the 
justices of assize bears like testimony. 

In a list of English and Welsh counties 
returning sheriffs for the year 1573, Mon- 
mouth is in its alphabetical order amongst 
the other English counties, and the Welsh 
counties are headed "Wallie." But here a 
Minister was piqued into "ticking" the four 
border counties with the letter W ! The 
same order is preserved in the Liber Pacis 
for 16 Eliz., Monmouth being included with 
Oxon, Berks, and five shires marcher in one 
circuit. 

In 1575 Monmouth is not to be found in the 
list for the Justices of the Peace of the twelve 
Welsh counties. 

In an original pricked sheriffs' list "for the 
twelve counties of Wales," November, 1589, 
there is no trace of Monmouth. In two 
original pricked sheriffs' lists, on the con- 
trary, for England, one of Elizabeth, the 
other of James I., Monmouth does find its 
place. 

In the face of such evidence as this it 



would be, I imagine, somewhat difficult to 
alter the immemorial position of Monmouth- 
shire. 



Hn Earls Cookers $oofe. 




MONGST the beautiful and rare 
manuscripts which enrich the Holk- 
ham collection is a small volume, 
which, from the curious nature of its 
contents, may well claim the attention of the 
antiquary. This Noble Boke of Cookry, 
consists of about eighty leaves, written very 
neatly and clearly in black ink still of a 
good colour, with headings and ornamentation 
in red. The paper has here and there 
suffered from damp, but is on the whole in 
excellent preservation. The style of the hand- 
writing gives the impression of a date some- 
what earlier than can really be claimed for the 
manuscript, for among the feasts placed at its 
commencement is included the installation 
feast of " Nevell, Archbishop of York, and 
Chaunceler of England," which took place 
in the reign of Edward IV. 

The first eleven leaves of the volume are 
devoted to the menus of certain royal feasts, 
and very amusing they are with their mixture 
of French and English, and their descriptions 
of the wonderful " subtiltes" with which the 
tables were adorned. On looking over these 
lists we shall surely lament that we cannot see 
the " gret swan and vi. signets echon with a 
skriptur in his bille," or " a leshe of braun with 
garters," or a " brod custad with a castell ther 
in with a stuf in the castell of a gille and the 
demon in the myddes bringing a doctur to 
suttlete in a pulpit in clothing of grene tabard 
and hood with a rolle on his hed, wrytin ther 
on 'in deo salutare meo;'" but we shall 
rejoice even more decidedly that we in these 
days are not set down to feast on stewed 
" porpases " or roasted " whelpes," or re- 
quired to eat our venison " in furmenty" (a 
sort of porridge made of wheat and milk) ; 
or "gobbettes of pork" in "custad." 

The first feast described is : " The ffeste of 
kynge henry the iiij to the herawdes and 
ffrenche men when they had justid in Smyth- 
felde;" the second is: "the crownacon of 
kynge henry the ffyfte;" the third is: "the 



AN EARLY COOKERY BOOK. 



91 



stallinge of Clifford, Bishope of Londone ;" 
the fourth is : " the ffeste of Nevell, Arch- 
bishope of Yorke, and Chaunceler of England, 
at his stallacon in York," which fills twelve 
pages, and seems to have been a very grand 
affair. These feasts have all their first, second, 
and third courses, and NevelFs seems to have 
been a series of feasts, all of three courses j 
but it is impossible to discover any sort of 
method in the courses in fact, each course 
of each feast seems to have consisted of every 
kind of bird, beast, and fish, without any 
particular order, except that "potage" of 
various kinds; or, "venison in furmente," 
generally came first, and " custad,'' " ffriturs," 
"appilles" and "peres," "wayfurs and 
ypocras" last. 
After the feasts comes 

Seruys in the monthe of jfanyuarie. 
braun and mustard lambe. cony, 

nombles to potage and bitur and 

pestelles of pork then for a soket 

and swans doucets of friturs 

martyns to potage of appilles. 

pige. pelle. 

A dener for a housold in the same monethe. 
ffurmente to potage vele. lambe 
with venyson cony, and 

beef, moton wild fowle 

swan and pigge birdes and friturs. 

martins to potage 

Then we have : 

Seruis in the monethe off ffeurielle. 
braun and mustard wigions 

gruelle ptuche (?) 

beef quailes 

pestelles of pork tansay 

swane ffrittures 

lambe wayfurs 

heron and ypocras 

The (first course. 

ffirst braun and mustard wodcok 

nombles to potage bakmetes 

beef, moton then a sewet 

pestelles of pork tansey 

capon and lesche small birds 

martins to potage bak quynces 

lambe peres and apilles with 
cony blanche pouders 

bittur , 

All these lists of dishes are picked out and 
garnished with red ink, and then, much " flor- 
ished" in red, " Her endethe the ffests ryalle 
and the seruis to a Kynge or a prince, her 
begynnethe the kalendar off the book of 
cookry." 



This kalendar is a list of all the recipes 
which follow, or should follow, for unhappily 
eight leaves of the manuscript are wanting, 
a fact which is only discoverable on careful 
comparison of the kalendar with the recipes, 
for the manuscript has been rebound so neatly 
that the end of one recipe is pieced on to the 
beginning of another, and only close examina- 
tion shows that thirty recipes are wanting. 
Of the recipes given we may mention the 
headings of a few. "To mak ij capons 
of one." " To mak a salt lampry freche in 
anyght." "Tocounterfetakidde." "Sauce 
camelyn for a whaile." " To bak porpas." 
"Pies of paris." "Mylk rostid." "Blank 
mange of fisshe." " Chekyns in cawdell." 
" Hennys in gruelle," and suchlike oddities. 

Here is evidently the ancestor of our game 
pie: 

fflesshe pies of capon or ojff ffessand. 

To mak pyes of fflesshe of capon or of ffessand tak 
good bef pork vele and venyson, hewe it smale, do 
ther to pouder of pepper clowes maces guingere and 
mynced dates and raissins of corans mele it with 
malmsey or vergius and cast in saffron and salt and 
luk it be welle sessoned then couche it in a large 
coffyn and couche in the capon or fessand hole and yf 
ye will smyt them in peces and colour them with 
saffron and put ther in other wild fowle yf ye wille 
and plant ther in herd yolks of eggs and straw on 
cloves maces dates mynced, raisins of corans quybibes (?) 
then close them up and bak them and serue them. 

In the first part of the next recipe we 
surely have the progenitor of the familiar 
" toad-in-the-hole" the toad being personi- 
fied by " smal birdes " on flesh days, and 
" wardens, or other pears," on fast days : 

To mak custad lo?nbard. 

To mak custad lombard mak a large coffyn then 
tak dates from the stones, tak gobbettes of mary and 
small birdes and parboile them in salt brothe and 
couche ther in, then tak cloues maces and raisins of 
corans and pynes fryed and strawe ther on and sett 
them in the oven to bak and luk ye have a coup of 
cow creme yolks of eggs good poudures saffron 
Sanders and salt, then fill the coffins ther with, and on 
fisshe daies boille wardens or other peres paire them 
and hole them at the crown then fill them full of 
blaunche poudur and torn them in blanche pouder 
and skoche them all about that the pouder may abid 
ther in then set the stalks upright and ye may mak 
your coup of creme of almondes and bak up your 
custad as ye did of fflesshe and when they be bak gilt 
the stalks of the peres and serve them. 

What a memorable day must that have 
been when some careless cook, having pre- 



9 



AN EARLY COOKERY BOOK. 



pared the pears to counterfeit the birds, and 
covered them with almonds and custard, 
forgot to coffyn and consign them to the 
oven, and was compelled to serve them cool 
and juicy as they were a delicious dish of 
pears in custard ! 

And now to show that, in spite of their 
oddities, our forefathers knew what was good, 
we will give the recipe for 

A stewed ca/>on. 
To stew a capon tak parsly saige isope rosmary and 
brek them betweene your handes and stop the capon 
ther with and colour it with saffron and couche it in an 
erthen pot and lay splentes under nethe and a bout 
the sides of the pot and straw erbes about the capon 
and put ther to a quart of wyn and non other licour 
then couer the pot close that no brothe passe out then 
set it on a charcole fyere and stew it softly and when 
it is enoughe set it on a Wispe of strawe that it touche 
not the ground for brekinge then take out the capon 
with a prik and luk yf it be enoughe or els stewe it 
better and mak a coupe of good wyne, mynced dates 
and canelle and draw it with the same wyne put ther 
to raissins of corans sugur saffron and salt and guinger 
and wyn then lay the capon in a disshe and put the 
fat of the sew to the coupe and pour it on. 

Indeed, we feel satisfied that many of the 
recipes are excellent. The principles of 
good cookery were the same then as now, 
but the kitchens of those days were sadly 
deficient in appliances, and the cooks had 
but a few "pouders" and "erbes" wherewith 
to flavour their dishes. The enormous 
quantities of eggs and almonds used in these 
recipes are surprising, while we see that 
every fish that swims, and every bird that 
flies (many of which are now extinct in 
England) were put in requisition. Thus, of 
strange animals, we have a "dragon," a 
" martynet," and " gotwhelpes :" beside the 
common kinds of fish, we have the 
"whaile," the "porpas," the "congur," 
and the "lampry." Of the rarer birds we 
have the " crayn," the " bittur," the " egret," 
the "brewe," " yarrowe-helpes," and the 
" sarcell." Of birds which we have but 
do not commonly eat there are the "pe- 
cock," " dotterelles," "railes," "sparrowes," 
" redshanks," " colombes." Of fruits, mention 
is made of "appilles," "peres," "dates," 
"quynces," "figges," grapes, "raissins," 
and " raissins of corans." 

Some dishes were evidently great favourites, 
as, for instance, one recipe is headed 
thus : 



Pik and eles in ballok brothe 
that must our dame have, or 
els she will be wrothe. 

Some sauces appear over and over again, as 
"Sauce Madame," a kind of rich gravy; "egre- 
douce," corresponding to our mint-sauce ; and 
" Sauce Camelyn," a sharp sauce. But there 
was one point of culinary etiquette the cook 
of those days had always to bear in mind. 
Nothing less than the whole bird or fish must 
be set before a " kynge" or "other estate;" the 
" pik and eles" above mentioned were to be 
served whole to " a lord," but to be quartered 
for the commons, and this rule seems to have 
been invariable. 

Perhaps the longest and most elaborate 
of these recipes is that which tells how 

To mak a fresche lampry bak. Tak and put a 
quyk lampry in a pot, and put therto a porcyon of 
red wyne, then stop the pot close that he lep not 
out [&c. for a page and a half, then] mak a large 
coffyn of pured flour and put thy lampry therein, 
and close it round about to the pen, for ye must haue 
a pen betweene the lidde and the coffyn to blow the 
pen that the lidd may iyse well, and luk the ovone 
be hoot, and set it into it. 

A number of the dishes are prepared with 
the addition of bread in some shape or other, 
and the reason is not far to seek, for the lack 
of vegetables is remarkable. Potatoes, of 
course, were not; but neither is there 
mention of turnips, carrots, or any other 
vegetable except onions and " yonge pesen," 
which were made into a kind of thick soup. 

Minute directions are given for colouring 
the different preparations. The finer roast 
meats were " endored," that is, egged over 
and browned ; while almost every stew was 
coloured with saffron or " sanders" or " greene 
erbes." And, when all was complete, it was 
poured into a " chargiour" or " dysshe ;" and, 
if a sweet dish, it was "florished" with 
almonds or " comfets," or strewed with 
flowers ; but the only flowers mentioned are 
"violettes," "primeroses," and "floures of 
borage." One dish of stewed apples is directed 
to be ornamented with " floures from the sam 
tre," showing that at any rate they had good 
keeping apples. 

Although we have confined our attention 
to the subject-matter of this little manuscript, 
it is not wanting in other attractions. It is 
pretty in appearance, quaint in language, and 
instructive with respect to the manners of the 
period. R. N. 



ARCHAIC LAND CUSTOMS IN SCOTLAND. 



99 



Hrcbaic Hanfc) Customs in 
Scotland 




IR HENRY MAINE happened to 
come across, during his researches 
into the history of the Village Com- 
munity, a Parliamentary Return of 
Boroughs and Cities in the United Kingdom 
possessing common land. This return gives 
a very remarkable custom, still existing in 
the Burgh of Lauder, which Sir Henry Maine 
characterizes as, perhaps the most perfect 
example of the primitive cultivating com- 
munity extant in England or Germany. Sir 
Henry Maine goes on to say that a re-ex- 
amination of Scottish agricultural customs 
might be usefully undertaken. That these 
primitive land customs existed in the north 
of Scotland has beer long known, though 
nothing definite has been collected thereon ; 
but it has been generally thought that the 
older usages had been effaced in the Low- 
lands. 

Into the general re-examination of Scottish 
agricultural customs we do not propose to 
enter; nor will the archaic customs of 
northern Scotland engage our attention. 
But it is worth while stating in these pages a 
few of the facts which the land customs of 
Lowland Scotland afford to the inquirer into 
archaic land customs. 

Let us start with the peculiar custom of 
the Burgh of Lauder. It is the most archaic 
in form, and the most complete in detail, that 
is to be found. It will, therefore, enable us to 
trace more easily the development of archaic 
custom into later custom, or its break-up 
under the influence of extraneous events. 
Within the bounds of the Burgh of Lauder 
there 

are 105 separate portions of land called Burgess 
Acres. These vary in extent from one-and-a-half 
acres to three-and-a-half acres. To each such acre 
there is a separate progress of writs, and these 
"Acres" are the private and absolute property of 

individuals No one has hitherto been 

admitted a burgess of the burgh who has not been an 
owner of one of these Burgess Acres. The lands of 
the Burgh consist of - . . . . Lauder Common, ex- 
tending to about 1,700 acres, which has, from all 
time of which there is any record, been possessed 
thus. A portion of it has been set off periodically , 
say once in five or seven years, to be broken up and 



ploughed during that time, and at the end of the 
time fixed has been laid down in grass, and grazed 
along with the other lands : when another portion of 
the common was, in the same way, broken up and 
ploughed, and again laid down in grass. The por- 
tion of the common so broken up and ploughed at a 
time, has, of recent years, been about 130 acres in 
extent. An allotment of this portion of the common 
has been given to the owner of each of the 105 
burgess acres, whether he happened to be a burgess 
or not, one allotment for each acre. The portion laid 
off for cultivation is, in the first place, cut into the 
number of allotments required, and the share of each 
person is decided by lot. The conditions attached 
to the taking of hill parts have been, compliance with 
a system of cultivation prescribed by the town 
council, and payment of a small assessment, gene- 
rally just sufficient to reimburse the burgh for expenses 
laid out in making drains, roads, &c, to enhance the 
value of the land for cultivation. These allotments 
have been called " Hill parts," and the average 
worth of each is l per annum. The whole of the 
remainder of the common has been used for grazing 
purposes, and has been occurred as follows : Each 
burgess resident within the bounds of the burgh has 
grazed on the common two cows, or an equivalent, 
and a certain number of sheep at present, and for 
some years, fifteen ; and each widow of a burgess, 
resident in the burgh, has grazed on the common one 
cow, or an equivalent, and a certain number of sheep 
at present, and for many years, twelve. 

The chief points to be noted in this ex- 
tremely archaic community are, first the 
arable mark being cultivated under rules 
prescribed by the town council ; secondly, 
the arable mark being shifted periodically 
from one part of the domain to another ; 
thirdly, the assignment of parcels within 
the cultivated area to members of the 
community by lot ; fourthly, the right to land 
for purposes of tillage being inseparably con- 
nected with the ownership of certain plots of 
land within the township; fifthly, the right 
to pasture on the part of the Common in 
grass.* All these features of the modern 
Scottish burgh are features also of the 
primitive village community, and it rightly 
enters into the field of archaeological inquiry 
to examine how far this is an isolated example 
of survival of archaic institutions in this 
particular spot, and how far it may help us to 
discover remnants of such a survival else- 
where in Lowland Scotland. So far as I 
have been able to ascertain from the Reports 
of the Agricultural Survey, published in 1798, 
the Reports of the Municipal Corporation 
Commission, published in 1835, and Sir John 

* Maine's Village Communities, p. 97. 



IOO 



ARCHAIC LAND CUSTOMS IN SCOTLAND. 



Sinclair's Statistical Account of Scotland, and 
the New Statistical Account of this century, 
Lauder appears to be the only community 
thoroughly to be identified with archaic 
society. What we have to look for, then, is 
those features of archaic society that other 
communities may have kept, while they have 
let the remaining features decay; or such 
examples of the development of archaic 
agricultural customs into modern agricultural 
customs as may be found to exist, and which 
ought historically to exist, side by side with 
the example of the Burgh of Lauder. 

Of the arable mark being cultivated under 
rules prescribed by the town council we 
have some analogous evidence. This was 
not the only duty of the primitive village 
council. They divided the lands, and deter- 
mined the rights of individual villages ; and, 
in case of alienation of the allotted land, the 
village has a droit de retrait, or right of pre- 
emption.* This right of pre-emption is an 
important one for our present purpose. 
Commencing far back in the history of the 
village community, it comes down to modern 
times, and is represented in full force in 
English manorial rites. We have it, too, in 
Lowland Scotland, modified, of course, from 
its early form, but still undeniably a relic of 
the archaic village, rather than a legislative 
enactment for a modern burgh. At Paisley, 
the following custom was observed : 

Lands, &c, within burgh are held in feu of the 
magistrates, council, and community, and by an 
ancient and peculiar practice (the validity of which 
has been sanctioned by the Supreme Court), investi- 
ture was given in burgh lands by a very simple 
process. The heir, or other person holding a convey- 
ance to lands, and desiring to be entered or invested 
in place of the ancestor or granter of the conveyance, 
appeared personally, or by attorney, and, in the usual 
manner, made symbolical resignation of his right in 
the hands of the magistrates, for the purpose of obtain- 
ing what is termed "new and heritable booking." 
This " booking " consists in the registry of the res 
gesta (including a description of the land, and a 
statement of the nature of the party's right in con- 
nexion with the person last " booked " in the record or 
chartulary of the burgh ; and an authenticated copy or 
extract of registry, under the hands of the town clerk, 
was held to complete the investiture, without charter, 
sasine, or any other written instrument. This practice, 
however, became exposed, in process of time, to great 
inconveniences, and is now, little resorted to, except 

* Laveleye's Primitive Property, p. 3 1 2. 



in the transmission of property in the different 
churches. * 

At the village of Crawford, in Lanarkshire, 
we have something more primitive still. "It 
consisted of about twenty freedoms, which 
were in the form of run-rig. Besides the 
masters of these freedoms, who were called 
lairds, and their wives ladies, there was a 
subordinate rank, who feued ground for a 
house and a yard. Each freedom consisted 
of four or five acres of croft land par- 
celled out in all the different parts of the 
town, with a privilege of keeping a certain 
number of sheep, cows, and horses on the 
hill, or common pasture. This little republic 
was governed by a birley court, in which 
every proprietor of a freedom had a vote. 
If the proprietor resided not in the place his 
tenant voted for him. The great business of 
the court, which was held weekly, was to de- 
termine the proportion and number of sheep, 
cows, and horses which the respective pro- 
prietors should keep on the common pas- 
ture."t 

I have treated upon the Burlaw Courts of 
Scotland in my book on Prifnitive Folk- 
moots, but not having come upon this par- 
ticular instance before its publication, I could 
not notice the connection between the hold- 
ing of land and the right to be a member of 
the court, which this example from Crawford 
so clearly establishes. This valuable record 
of archaic village life in Lowland Scotland is 
the link that was wanting to connect two sets 
of ancient customs together namely, the old 
forms of cultivation and the old forms of 
village legislation ; and it enables us to go 
forward to less complete relics of the vil- 
lage community with the almost certainty 
that they once belonged to as complete a 
whole as Lauder or Crawford. 

There is no evidence of the arable mark 
being shifted from one part of the domain to 
another. Of the third feature of the archaic 
example we are following viz., the assign- 
ment of parcels within the cultivated area to 
members of the community by lot we have 
ample evidence. Readers of Waverley 
will remember the description given by Sir 
Walter Scott of the lands of Tully-Veolan ; 

* Nru) Statistical Acct. of Scotland, vol. vii, 174. 
+ Sinclair's Statistical Account of Scotland, iv, 512. 



ARCHAIC LAND CUSTOMS IN SCOTLAND. 



101 



and the great novelist's ideal village, situ- 
ated in the midland county of Perthshire, 
is essentially a Lowland picture of agricul- 
tural life. The common field of Tully- 
Veolan is described as being cultivated by 
the joint labour of the villagers in " alternate 
ridges and patches of rye, oats, barley, and 
pease." These ridges of arable land, known 
by the name of the run-rig system of cultiva- 
tion, were very common all over Scotland. 
Each patch, a long narrow strip stretch- 
ing the full length of the common field, was 
allotted every year to a villager who possessed 
a right to a portion, and upon it he cultivated 
the crops determined upon by the com- 
munity. After the harvest the divided arable 
lands were thrown open to pasture land. 

In Roxburghshire and Selkirkshire this state 
of things is borne witness to by the reports 
of the Agricultural Survey, published by the 
Board of Agriculture in 1798. I quote there- 
from the two following passages : 

Of the arable district, at least two thirds are 
divided into inclosures of very different sizes and 
forms. This was occasioned partly by the irregular 
limits of some estates, which the owners were un- 
willing, and could not be compelled to alter, and 
partly by the eagerness of little proprietors to enclose 
the lots which fell to their share, upon the divisions 
of commons and of fields belonging in alternate 
ridges to many individuals, without attempting, by 
judicious exchanges with their neighbours, to render 
their possessions more compact and agreeable to the 
eye (page 61). 

In former times there were several commons in 
which the cattle belonging to different proprietors 
went promiscuously under one herd or keeper. The 
arable land, also, was possessed in alternate ridges, 
separated by broad balks, on which the large 
stones were laid when the indolent husbandman could 
take that trouble, and was pastured by the cattle, after 
being freed from the crops. Lands thus awkwardly 
possessed and wretchedly managed, might not im- 
properly be called wastes ; and though Acts of 
Parliament passed as early as 1695, for dividing, 
at the instance of any proprietor having interest, yet 
no advantage was taken of such beneficial laws till 
the year 1738 or 1739, when the lands were 
parcelled out among the several proprietors, in 
proportion to the valuation or rate by which they paid 
the land tax (page 124). 

The parish of Smallholm, in Roxburgh- 
shire, was all cultivated upon the run-rig 
system,* at Libberton, in Lanarkshire,t at 
Lanark itself,! at Largs and Kilmarnock|| in 

* Sinclair's Statistical, Account of Scotland, iii, 217. 
f/bid. ii. 242. % New Statistical Account, vol. vi. s.v. 
%/oid.vol.y.s.v. II Sinclair's Statistical Account, ii. 98. 



Ayrshire, the run-rig system is reported upon 
as being in full force. Then, coming to Ber- 
wickshire, we find,atWhitsome, where there 
is also a Burlaw Court, meeting in the open air 
on the H Birlie-knowe," the following interest- 
ing picture of bygone cultivating customs : 

To convey some idea of Whitsome as it was, it 
may be noticed that the range of land on the north 
side of the village was divided into several small 
portions, still denominated "lands." Hence, the 
possessors or occupiers were styled "portioners." 
' ' The ten lands " formed the southern part of the 
present farm of Ravelaw ; " and the nine and "the 
eight " lay east from the preceding, and are included 
in the farm of Leetside. The southern side was 
parcelled out in like manner. The space between 
the two ranges, of considerable breadth, and upwards 
of half-a-mile in length, was enjoyed in common. 
The portioners were retainers of the lord of the 
manor, to whom, according to custom, they were 
bound to render military service.* 

We come now practically to the last division 
of our subject, because the common of pasture 
is too frequent to need mention here as con- 
firmatory of the evidence that the Lowlands 
of Scotland have not allowed all their old- 
world customs and ideas to be rooted up by 
advancing civilization without first having 
been noted by the antiquary. 

Of the fourth feature of the Lauder com- 
munity I am able to mention two parallel, or 
nearly parallel, cases. Langholme in Dum- 
friesshire was erected into a burgh in 1610. 
In 1622 the head of the Nithsdale family 
granted a new charter of erection to ten 
cadets of the family upon condition that 
each of them should build a house in the 
town; and along with the houses, four of 
which were only built, he granted to each of 
them a merk land.f This is put down as 
the independent act of a Scottish baron, 
but who can doubt that he obtained his 
model from the land customs that sur- 
rounded him ? 

The burgh of Newton-upon-Ayr has a re- 
markable custom, which is thus described by 
Sir John Sinclair : X 

The number of freemen or burgesses is limited to 
forty-eight, which compose the community. Each of 
these freemen possesses what is called a lot, or free- 
dom, containing about four acres of arable land; besides 
the common, on which the burgesses have an exclusive 
right to pasture their cattle. No houses are annexed 

* New Statistical Account of Scotland, ii. sub-voce. 

t Ibid. iv. sub-voce. 

X Statistical Account of Scotland, ii. 263-4. 



102 



ARCHAIC LAND CUSTOMS IN SCOTLAND. 



to these freedoms ; but every burgess must reside in the 
borough, or possess a house as his property, which he 
may rent to any of the inhabitants. The community 
meet every two years to elect their magistrates, and at 

this election every freeman has a vote The 

right of succession to these freedoms is limited. A son 
succeeds to his father ; and a widow, not having a 
son, enjoys the property of her husband as long as 
she lives. But as the female line is excluded, the 
lots of freedom frequently revert to the town, who 
dispose of them to the most industrious inhabitant of 
the place, on their advancing a certain sum of money 
which is placed in the public fund. 

Irrespective of the evidence afforded by this 
quotation of allotment in the common land 
being dependent upon property in the burgh, 
there is something further to notice in con- 
nection with the lands of this burgh. Like all 
social institutions, the primitive village com- 
munity gave way during the progress of its 
people towards nationality and empire. It 
gave way in England, and we had feudal lords 
and manorial tenants. It gave way in Ireland, 
and the people are now thinking traditionally 
of times, when they, as well as their lords, 
had rights in the village lands. It has given 
way everywhere, and rightly so, under the 
laws which political economy has enun- 
ciated in shape of the highest culture being 
required on lands absolutely owned by capi- 
talists and tilled by farmers. But in one 
portion of the history of the development of 
communal land-holding into personal land- 
holding, we have evidence that the outcry 
against the new laws of absolute ownership 
resulted in a compromise with periodical 
redistribution. This is how Mr. Fenton looks 
upon the institution of the year of Jubilee 
among the Israelites the year when the land 
returned to the community, and was redistri- 
buted.* But I was able to point out to him, 
that in the borough of Newton-upon-Ayr 
there is exactly the same principle adopted. 
There, it was found that annual redistribution 
of lands did not fit in with the requirements of 
the advancing age, and they set in motion a 
mode of transference of their old communal 
lands into lands held by absolute ownership 
which is very illustrative of this stage of tran- 
sition in the history of land-holding. I quote 
the following from the New Statistical Account 
of Scotland : 

It would appear that the common property has 
been divided among the forty eight freemen, from 

* See Fenton's Early Hebrav Life, pp. 71-3. 



time to time, from the first erection of the burgh 
[ 1 3 1 4 ?] But the first " daill" or division of which 
there is any record, took place in 1604, and was to 
subsist until 1615. Owing however to a want of 
entries in the community book for a considerable 
period after this last date, we have no account of 
another " daill " till 1655, which was also to subsist 
for eleven years. But, from 1666 till 1771, a new 
partition was made every seven years, and the allot- 
ments made are regularly recorded. In this last men- 
tioned year the freemen resolved that the division 
which then fell to be made should continue for 57 
years. And when this period had expired, in 1828, it 
was determined that the continuance of the lots which 
were then balloted for, should be for 999 years. In 
1833, it was further agreed that few rights of their 
lots should be granted to such of the freemen as might 
wish to hold their lands in that manner. 

No better record than this could exist to 
tell the present and future generations how 
private land-holding has come about, how 
allotments of land from the village commun- 
ity, first yearly, soon became extended over 
a number of years until, in the progress of 
time, the original allotment became private 
property, and the communities who had 
granted them away had dwindled down into 
manorial courts and parish vestries. 

In these short gleanings of an important 
and a large subject from one little portion of 
Great Britain, we have gathered up fragments 
of archaic history belonging to a time when 
history was not written ; and these fragments 
will, I trust, be a welcome addition to the 
storehouse that is gathering of the relics of 
primitive life in Britain. That they are not 
all complete is merely to say that they are 
" survivals" of ancient customs ; but I think 
we have here evidence enough that, if Lauder 
be the only complete archaic land commun- 
ity in Lowland Scotland, we can make up 
others by a process of historical restoration, 
which enables us to go from one community 
to another, so long as we keep to our geo- 
graphical limits, in search of the typical 
features of the primitive form. 

G. Laurence Gomme. 

Gbe Slav anfc tbe Celt 



JHE most important of the various 
branches of ethnology, is the rela- 
tion of the various civilized races 
of Europe to each other. Some 
anthropological researches among savage 




THE SLA V AND THE CELT. 



103 



tribes may have special charms from a scien- 
tific point of view, but the ethnology of 
civilized Europe has grave political bearings 
which make it attractive alike to the student 
and the statesman. 

Of the various subjects of interest con- 
nected with European ethnology, one of the 
most striking and singular is the similarity, 
in many points, of the language, folk-lore, 
antiquities, and primitive customs of the 
Slavonic and Celtic races of Europe. One 
would suppose from ct priori reasoning that 
adjacent races would be the most similar to 
each other, but, as a fact, in ethnology (as in 
geology) we frequently find distant nationa- 
lities similar to each other, while those which 
are adjacent are comparatively distinct. So 
it is certainly the case in Europe. As one 
passes from a Celtic land through the phleg- 
matic Germanic populations of Central 
Europe, when one comes amid the more im- 
pressionable and impulsive Slavonic races, 
one is by many things reminded of the 
Atlantic-washed shores of the West. The 
Slav is perfectly distinct from the German in 
manner, voice, aspect, language, even walk. 
We feel we are among another people, and 
yet a people not so dissimilar in many points 
to the Irish, Welsh, or Cornish, which have 
been left a thousand miles in the West. If 
we look beneath the surface the impression 
is not destroyed. The Slavonic dialects, 
though semi-Indian i.e., Aryan in type are 
still in many things more akin to the Celtic 
and Latin than to the Germanic branches of 
the family j the Slavonic folk-lore is, in 
some points, strikingly like that of Ireland 
or Cornwall; and even the prehistoric remains 
have some points of similarity. 

I shall confine myself, in the present 
Paper, to two points, which are only selected 
out of a mass of cumulative evidence which 
proves a similar, if not identical, origin of the 
Slavonic and Celtic tribes of Europe, but 
which, though they may be traced through 
common Aryan origin among the Teutonic 
and Latin races, yet are not elsewhere quite 
so marked. The first is the barrows, the 
other the tribal arrangements of the clan or 
sept. 

1 . If we were asked who were the chief 
barrow builders of Great Britain, and of 
whom the barrows reminded us, we should 



certainly say of the ancient Britons, of the 
Cornish, the Cymri, the Cumbrians, or the 
Gaels, rather than of the Saxons. It is true 
that we have Anglo-Saxon graves, and that 
in Scandinavia there are not a few Scandi- 
navian mounds, yet the idea of a barrow or 
a cairn is rather connected with the memory 
of the Celts, either of the prehistoric or of 
the Romano-British period, than of the Anglo- 
Saxons. So when we meet in more Eastern 
lands the mound or barrow we are reminded 
of the works of the ancient British tribes or 
their descendants in our own island or in 
Brittany. 

The menhir, the holed stone, the proces- 
sional avenue, maybe characteristically Celtic, 
and we may not find them easily paralleled 
in Slavonic lands, possibly for the simple 
reason, not that they are developments which 
arose among the Celts in ages posterior to 
their separation from the other Aryan tribes, 
but that most Celts, or at least their more 
populous races, live in countries where large 
monoliths would be difficult to obtain. 

Now the Slavonians (whatever we may 
think of our own British barrow-builders) 
were among the greatest barrow-builders in 
the world ; nay, the barrow has produced a 
greater effect on the nomenclature, the ideas, 
the history, even the politics, of these nations 
than in Western Europe. One whole 
government of Russia takes its name from 
Mohileff,* the barrow land. Several towns 
derive their names from this root, "mogila," 
a barrow e.g., Mogilno near Posen.* The 
mogila is far more a common word in the 
language than barrow or cairn in ours. 

Among the most famous antiquities of 
Poland are the prehistoric mounds of Wanda 
and Krakus, near Cracow, marking the sup- 
posed foundation of the kingdom, or rather 
its refounding by Krakus, which are to 
Cracow what the Pyramids were to the old 
Egyptian capital, only nearer to the city. 

In a flat country like those great plains of 
the Vistula, the Don, the Dnieper, the Volga, 
&c. &c, which include most of the habitats 
of the Slavonic races, the tumulus or " mogila" 
is easy to raise, and when raised is conspi- 
cuous far and near. Hence it is that the 
Slavonic tumuli are even larger and more 

* "Mogula," Russian, a grave, a tumulus; 
"Mogila," Polish, a tomb-hill, a tumulus. 



104 



THE SLAV AND THE CELT. 



famed locally than even the Celtic barrows. 
Nor is the " mound building instinct," if we 
may so call it, as extinct among the Slavo- 
nians, as for nearly a thousand years it has 
been among the Celts, and still longer, per- 
haps, among the Germanic, Greek, and 
Latin races. One of the finest mounds or 
barrows of Europe is (by a curious and 
characteristic revival of the ancient Aryan 
custom) the Mogilo of Kosciusko, outside 
Cracow, one of the most conspicuous objects 
from every point of the city and its environs, 
which may, perhaps (supposing our existing 
historic records to be destroyed) puzzle the 
archaeologist of the future. This magnificent 
tumulus, by a national effort during the lives 
of the present generation, was erected as a 
monument. 

It has the practical advantage of showing 
the merits of the tumulus-building as a memo- 
rial to an individual in modern times. It is 
not (considering the effect produced) expen- 
sive ; it is certainly (by experience in all the 
countries of Europe, not the least in England) 
very lasting and permanent ; it catches the 
eye, and certainly has a sort of barbaric 
majesty about it. Perchance the tumulus of 
Kosciusko may not be the last barrow the 
world will ever build, and the instinct of mound- 
building is not so utterly extinct in mankind 
as it appears at present. The idea of casting 
a little earth on the grave of one we love is 
natural to mankind, and is an instinct even 
consecrated by the Christian Church. If a 
man has many admirers, and each thinks it 
a duty to express his love or regret by throw- 
ing earth or stones on the grave, a mound or 
a barrow is soon formed. This instinct is 
now reduced into a mere form ; but in one 
case though not on the actual grave the 
instinct has been given vent to in modern 
times, and so it is just possible that this may 
not be the last case of this mound-building 
instinct working in an European population. 
Fashion and prejudice alone perhaps hinder 
some of us, especially the impulsive Slav and 
Celt, being mound-builders still, and the 
mourners giving a practical and permanent 
expression to their respect for the deceased. 

2. The retentive conservatism which makes 
them stick to primitive Aryan law produces 
another curious point of similarity between 
society in Slavonic and Celtic lands. Even 



by an almost proverbial expression in 
England we acknowledge that the High- 
landers, the Welshmen, and the Cornishmen 
are " clannish." The primitive Teutons were 
clannish also once, but, except in some out- 
of-the-way parts of the German Empire, they 
have pretty nearly ceased to be so now, and 
we English have been almost forced to adopt 
and Anglicize a Celtic word to express a 
Celtic idea. But the clan is the key-note of 
the history of the Scottish Highlands, of 
Wales, and, perhaps to a far greater degree 
than is commonly supposed, of Cornwall. 
The clan or the sept lay at the basis of Celtic 
society. 

But the Celtic clan, for mutual protec- 
tion and support, may possibly be compared 
to the Slavonic "mir," which actually in- 
volves a community of property. How 
powerful the " mir," or village commune, is, 
even in our own days, in the largest of the 
Slavonic nations, may be best realized by the 
fact that, in the reforms instituted by the late 
Czar, Alexander II., it was acknowledged as 
the basis of Russian rural society. It is true 
that the Slavonic village community which 
Sir H. Maine proves to be a very ancient 
Aryan institution, with some striking parallels 
in India and Europe is much smaller than 
the Celtic clan, for the simple reason that the 
Celtic clan did not involve community of 
property. The Slavonians, as village- 
dwellers, founded these small associations, 
which lie at the base of Slavonic society, 
even where the tradition of common property 
has died out. 

All Aryan races were at one time 
clannish or tribal j and there can be no 
doubt that, at a remote prehistoric epoch, 
they had community of property, like 
the modern Slavonic "mir." So also 
all European-Aryan races the Teutons, 
the Latins, even the Greeks, as well as the 
Slavs and Celts were probably mound or 
barrow builders ; but the tradition, is, I think, 
more lively among the Slavs and the Celts 
than among the other European nations. 
Possibly the Slavs and Celts are more con- 
servative constitutionally, or the influence of 
civilization less potent with them in eradicat- 
ing and rendering obsolete ancient Aryan 
customs and ideas. 

To conclude, I am inclined to think that 



THE SLA V AND THE CELT 



i5 



if we would seek to solve the many problems 
which puzzle us about primitive or prehistoric 
Europe, the solutions may be more likely to 
be found in the traditions and remains of 
out-of-the-way Slavonic or Celtic lands in 
the mountains of Galicia or Bohemia, or the 
forests or steppes beyond the Vistula, or, on 
the other hand, in the wilds of Ireland or 
the Welsh mountains, on the Cornish and 
Breton moors than in the more central 
regions of Europe. The most interesting 
evidence of a common origin will be the 
frequent reproduction, under another form, 
of the same traditions or remains, proving 
more than an accidental similarity. 

VV. S. Lach-Szyrma. 




)arl\> Omnibuses in pans. 

By William E. A. Axon, M.R.S.L. 

T was in the year 1662 that Paris, 
the city of the rich and the 
privileged, saw the beginning of a 
democratic experiment which was 
to give to the bourgeoisie the fashion of transit 
previously possible only to the rich members 
of the aristocracy. In January of the year 
named, the king granted letters patent to the 
Due de Roannes, who was Governor of 
Poitou, the Marquis de Sourches, who was 
Grand Prevot, and the Marquis de Crenan, 
who was Grand Cup-bearer, giving them ex- 
clusive right to nin carosses a cinq sols in the 
streets of Paris. Roannes was an intimate 
friend of Pascal, and the gossip of the time 
regarded the great mathematician as the 
author of the twopenny-halfpenny coaches 
worked by this aristocratic copartnery. That 
he derived more than empty fame from them 
is also clearly shown by a letter from his 
sister, who has also left a graphic account of 
the " inauguration" of these seventeenth cen- 
tury omnibuses. These particulars were given 
by M. Paul Parfait, in one of the fetiilletons 
of the Republiqite Franqaise of September, 
1880. 

At seven o'clock in the morning of March 
18, 1662, four of the carriages were placed 
before the Luxembourg, and three at the 
Porte St. Antoine. Superintendents from 
the Chatelet were present in their robes, with 

VOL. IV. 



horsemen and archers of the town, and the 
guards of the Grand Prvot. The super- 
intendents proclaimed the establishment of 
a service of cheap coaches, explained then- 
utility, and said that the King would 
rigorously punish any attempt to injure or 
annoy the new vehicles or their passengers. 
They delivered to the coachman their livery- 
coats, which were blue, and had the arms of 
the king and the city embroidered on the 
stomach. Then the first coaches started, 
with one of the guards inside ; and a quarter 
of an hour later the second was sent after it. 
The archers and horsemen were scattered all 
along the route. The same ceremonies were 
observed at each end of the line. Madame 
Perier was delighted with the success of the 
first day. The carriages were filled several 
times during the morning, and amongst the 
passengers were several women. These hardy 
adventurers not having come to grief, many of 
their more timid sisters followed the example 
thus set. The greatest inconvenience arose 
from the fact that the carosse was frequently 
full when expectant travellers were eager to be 
accommodated in it. Thus, Madame Perier 
waited at the Porte de St Mery and saw 
five of the coaches pass her without being 
able to obtain a seat in any one of them. 
The carosses a cinq sols were objects of 
universal curiosity, and on the first and 
second day the town was almost en jete with 
the crowds of sightseers anxious to gaze 
on this latest luxury of the gay city. Yet 
they had enemies, some of whom ventured 
to ridicule them " au petit coucher " of the 
most Christian King. A jest's prosperity, 
however, lies in the ear that hears it ; and the 
King, who was much pleased with the new 
system, replied so drily that the facetious 
courtier was compelled to be silent ("Mais 
le roi y rdpondit si obligeamment et si 
sechement pour la beautd de l'affaire et pour 
nous, qu'on rengaina promptement," are the 
words of Pascal.) The carosse a cinq sols 
held eight passengers. The exterior was 
decorated with the escutcheon of the town, 
and each coach was numbered, so that those 
who had to complain either of the coachman 
or the lackey (guard, or conductor) might 
be able to identify them. The coaches ran 
in certain defined routes, from one side of 
the town to the other ; and were so arranged 

1 



io6 



EARLY OMNIBUSES IN PARIS. 



that passengers might easily pass from one 
line to another. The great success which 
attended these cheap coaches in their earlier 
days was not lasting, and in a few years, as 
the number of passengers decreased, they 
were finally discontinued. This was held 
by the ignorant to be due to the death of 
Pascal. They thought, that if he had lived, 
so great a mathematician would have cast 
the horoscope of the unlucky coaches, and 
found some means of averting the influence 
of the malign constellation under which they 
languished. In the present day, without 
resorting to any theory of magic, mathe- 
matical or otherwise, the failure of the first 
omnibus will be accounted for on more 
prosaic ground. The inventor was in advance 
of his age by two centuries. There did not 
then exist that crowd of persons to whom 
time is a business element of the first 
importance. In the seventeenth century 
Leisure, " that fine old gentleman," as George 
Eliot calls him, was still alive. In the 
nineteenth century he has had many mishaps, 
has been run over by cabs and omnibuses, 
and was finally killed in an alarming railway 
accident. 

Xast Worbs on BooMIMate0, 




3 so many of our correspondents 
and readers have interested them- 
selves in this curious subject, 
another chapter will, we are sure, 
be acceptable, and will at the same time 
clear off a too long outstanding batch of 
letters which have awaited our attention for 
some time. We have also a further en- 
couragement, in that the veteran antiquary, 
Mr. Thorns, has stepped into the arena with 
his invention of a new form of book plate. 
A copy of this is now before us. It consists 
of a portrait of the owner of the book taken 
by photography in the style of Houbraken's 
engravings. Mr. Thorns cut out the portrait, 
signature, &c, from the framework of one of 
these engravings, and substituted his own, 
from which a copy was produced. The 
result is certainly a very admirable book- 
plate. 

Mr. James W. Lloyd, of Kington, Hereford- 



shire, sends us the following notes on two or 
three old book-plates rescued from oblivion, 
he says, through attention which has been 
awakened by the interesting articles on the 
subject which have appeared in these columns. 
" In a copy of Francis Godwin's* Catalogue 
of the Bishops of England, 2 vols, small 4to, 
published in 16 15, I have a curious old plate 
of L\ Edwards, with arms and crest, and the 

mottO, NI. BYDD. DOETHNA. DDARILENNO. 

which, Englished, reads : Who reads not 
cannot be wise.' Beneath this plate I found 
another one, of Jos. Smith, LL.D., Doctors' 
Commons, the motto is : turris. fortissima 
nomen domini, without a crest ; and, again, 
beneath this, I found one of another 
member of the Smith family, 'Jos. Smith, 
LL.B., E. Coll. Reg. Oxon,' with the 
same motto and a crest on a wreath, a 
bittern (?) with snake in its bill. These 
volumes are of interest from the fact of 
their former possessors being men of note 
in the Church, and they have left abundant 
MS. notes in their pages. E. Edwards, 
whose autograph, dated 1791, appears on 
the title-page, was vicar of Llanarmon yn 
Yale, and curate of Wrexham, and was 
author of a revised and enlarged edition of 
Browne Willis's Survey of St. Asaph, pub- 
lished at Wrexham in 1801. On a fly-leaf 
is the following interesting record, ' This 
book belong d to y e Very Rev d D r Timothy 
Halton, born at Graystock in Cumbrland, 
a.d. 1632, being y e 2 d son of Miles Halton, 
Esq., High Sheriff of Cumberland sometime 
of Wingfield Mannor, in Darbyshire, who 
by M. Wyvilf his wife had a numerous 
issue. He was admitted at Queen's College, 
Oxon, Mar. 9, 1648, elected fellow of y e said 
college Mar. 1656, became afterwards chap- 
lain to William Lucy, Bishop of St. David's, 
was chose proctor of y e clergy of that 
diocese 1661, and by y e aforesaid Bishop 
made Canon of St. David's, and afterwards 
Archdeacon and prebend 1 " 7 of Brecknock 
upon y e decease of Bishop Nicholson. He 
was instituted July 10, 1675 (upon y c King's 
presentation) to y e Archdeaconry of Oxford, 
at y e resignation of Bishop Barlow, whom he 

* Francis Godwin, Bishop of Llandaff, was trans- 
lated to Hereford in 1617, over which see he presided 
till his death in 1633. 

t Granddaughter to Sir Timothy Fetherston. 



LAST WORDS ON BOOK-PLATES. 



107 



also succeeded in the provostship of Queen's 
College, Apr. 6, 1677, having been before 
abroad with S r Joseph Williamson at y c 
Treaty of Cologne. He succeeded Arch- 
bishop Lamplugh in y e Rectory of Charle- 
ton upon Otmore, in Oxfordshire, was 
Vice Chancellor of y e University, and at 
Queen Ann's accession to y e throne became 
her Chaplain in Ordinary. He dy <l July 21, 
1704, MtaX. 72, and was bury d in Queen's 
College Chapel, where he was a considerable 
benefactor.* 

" In an old Baronetage which has been in 
my family upwards of forty years, hidden 
under a circulating library label, I found the 
plate of the Countess Tyrconnel, and below 
this that of Sir Gervase Clifton, Bart, with 
the motto Tenez le Droit. 

" Among the most interesting of my heraldic 
plates are two different ones of James Wal- 
pvyn, Esq., Longworth, Herefordshire, mot- 
toes, Non deficit alter, and drwy rynwedd 
gwaed (through virtuous blood) ; and of non- 
heraldic but artistic plates I have two good 
etchings viz., one of Joseph Rix, F.L.S., 
F.R.G.S.E., L.W.C.A., St. Neots, county 
Huntingdon, the design being a group of 
old Bibles, &c, in rich bindings, with clasps, 
&c, lying round and upon an Elizabethan 
chair, the name on a scroll, and over an 
open Bible is another scroll with the motto 

QUOTCVMQVE LIBROS JVDEX VNVM JVDICEM 

lego ; the other represents a pedestal, upon 
which is lying apparently a coat of chain 
armour, and on a helmet a falcon ; against 
the pedestal is a sword, and over the front a 
shield, bearing the name " H. B. Ker, Lin- 
coln's Inn." A greyhound, collared, stands 
looking to the back, and at foot is a pair of 
spurs." 

Mr. Hamilton mentions his never having 
met with a book-plate of Robert Southey, and 
doubts his having had one (vol. i. p. 118). 
But the Rev. Hugh A. Stowell points 
out what many must know, that he is 
mistaken in his supposition. "A speci- 
men of the poet's book-plate," writes Mr. 
Stowell, "is now before me in a copy of 
Sir W. Davenant's Madagascar, with other 
Poems. The second edition. London : 
Printed for Humphrey Moseley & Co., 

* For an account of the Halton family, with 
ree, see The Reliquary, vol, v. p. 58. 



pedigr 



1648, which also bears the Laureate's 
name on its title-page in his neat autograph, 
'R. Southey, Bristol, 1803.' The plate is 
a woodcut, with an unmistakable Bewickian 
look. It represents a rock thickly crowned 
with shrubbery, from which pours a rivulet 
of water into a brook below. Against the 
face of the rock leans an armorial shield 
bearing the poet's coat, a chevron between 
three crosses crosslet. On the ground, to the 
right of the shield and in contact with it, is 
the helmet, supporting, on a wreath the crest, 
an arm vested and couped at the elbow hold- 
ing in the hand a cross crosslet. Across the 
sinister chief, corner of the shield, and trail- 
ing thence to the ground, is thrown the 
riband bearing the motto, In labore quies. 

"About 150 of these badges of former 
owners occur in the books on my shelves, in 
spite of the marauders. Of these the three 
oldest I believe to be those of Bishop White 
Kennet, John fourth Earl of Cork, and the 
Rev. Mr. Charles Lyddel, all of the first 
quarter of the 18th century. The earliest 
with a date is a foreign one, that of ' Fran- 
ciscus, Prsepositus S. Salvatoris, Pollingse, 
A 1744.' Noble names, in addition to 
those already enumerated by your contributors, 
are the Earl of Ancrum, Viscount Hereford, 
Philip, first Lord Hardwicke, Viscount Delvin, 
and the Earl of Shannon. Literature is repre- 
sented by those of John Trotter Brockett, 
F.S.A., Rev. Wm. Borlase, F.R.S., John 
Bruce, Edward King,F.R.S. and A. S., George 
Ormerod, LL.D., William Pinkerton, F.S.A., 
Rogers Ruding, F.S.A., Sam. Goodenough, 
LL.D., F.R.S. and L.S., Bishop of Car- 
lisle, Benjamin Hall Kennedy, Sir C. G. 
Young, and others. Libraries of note by 
those of Thomas Jolley, F.S.A., Maitland of 
Dundrenan, Exeter College and Christ 
Church, Oxford, West Dean, and Calwich 
Abbey. A fragmentary plate, evidently of 
Drake of Ashe, bears twenty quarterings ; 
another, nameless, but of Godwin, is printed 
in gold, with the motto, ' Win God, win all.' 
A very elaborate and neat one of seventeenth- 
century design is that of James Dix, Bristol, 
1850 subscribed 'Biblical Collection,' and 
most appropriately superscribed ' Gather up 
the fragments that nothing be lost,' while 
the heraldic motto is Y e ende crownes.' 
A very simple design, but, to my thinking, 

1 2 



io8 



LAST WORDS ON BOOK-PLATES. 



the finest I possess, is that of George Talbot 
Bagot, done probably about 1840 I only 
wish I knew by whom, and whether he still 
works at his art." 

Another correspondent, Mr. W. H. K. 
Wright, of Plymouth, remarks : 

" The articles which have already appeared 
under this heading in the columns of The 
Antiquary have doubtless awakened an 
interest in the subject outside the compara- 
tively limited circle of those to whom the 
accumulation of these unconsidered trifles is 
a hobby. It may, also, fairly be assumed 
that the remarks made by former corre- 
spondents have been fully appreciated by 
those who, like myself, whether from taste, 
inclination, or the force of circumstances, have 
become what a friend has aptly termed 
' ex-librimaniacs.' Following, therefore, the 
suggestions already made, and the example 
set by previous writers, and desiring, more- 
over, to add something to the interest brought 
forward upon so attractive a theme, I venture 
to note a few thoughts and to mention a few 
examples from my own collection. 

" First, however, it is but fair to say that 
my collection of book-plates numbers less 
than a thousand examples, and has been 
obtained within the last twelve months. In 
this it bears a striking contrast to the stock of 
a gentleman with whom I have been recently 
corresponding, who has, he informs me, some 
twenty thousand examples, and is continually 
adding to his collection. Time, however, 
will doubtless remove this deficiency in my 
case. 

"One of your correspondents dwells at 
length on the sentimental side of the ques- 
tion, and expresses his regret that the number 
of book-despoilers is so rapidly increasing. 
He cannot sanction the ruthless severance of 
the faithful companionship between the books 
themselves and the marks of their ownership. 
For my own part I quite agree with the 
sentiment, although the force of circumstances 
sometimes make me commit the sin. The 
ardent collector, in whatever pursuit, is com- 
pelled, now and then, to steel himself against 
mere sentiment ; but he who loves the books 
for their own sakes will often hold his hand, 
even in the midst of his ardour. Frequently, 
however, it is a case of sacrificing either the 
sentiment or the book-plate, as the possession 



of the plate does not necessarily mean the 
ownership of the book also. 

" A short time since I purchased several 
lots of auctioneer's rubbish, in the shape of old 
books, none of which were of the smallest 
value or use to me. On examining my prize, 
I found that one fine book-plate was the sole 
object of value, that the volume containing it 
was an odd one, and that the rest were mere 
waste paper. I had little compunction, 
therefore, about removing that plate and 
adding it to my store. Again, when having 
discovered a prize in an unexpected place (a 
waste-paper shop), I proceeded carefully and 
lovingly to withdraw it from the prison . in 
which it had been so long confined. The 
plate to which I allude, and which I considei 
as one of the gems of my little collection, was 
attached to an odd volume of the Universcu 
History. The name ' Charlton' is upon it; 
and the engraving is very fine. The arms are 
simply a lion rampant, on a field, or. Cresl 
a tiger's head. The shield is of the last- 
century pattern, surrounded by various de- 
vices, which seem to represent the Arts, 
Music, Sport, War, Peace, &c. &c. 

" One plate (that of J. L. Templer, Torr- 
hill, Devon) bears this appropriate motto 
'The wicked borroweth, and payeth nol 
again f an adaptation of the Scripture pro- 
verb which all book-possessors know to theii 
cost to be only too true. 

"Of local book-plates I have many in- 
teresting specimens. By local I mean of Devon 
and Cornwall, and I would suggest to col- 
lectors that they should each endeavour tc 
procure representative specimens of the 
principal persons and families of their own 
particular district, making that a speciality, 
although not neglecting other general speci- 
mens. By this means the pursuit might be 
made both interesting and valuable, especially 
to students of heraldry. Of local names 1 
have the following Pitman Jones, of Exeter; 
George Prideaux, Plymouth ; Thomas Gill, 
Tavistock ; Bethel Walrond, Tiverton ; John 
Harris, Radford ; Laurance Hynes Halloran, 
Exeter; Rev. John Buller, North Devon; 
Sir William Molesworth, Cornwall; John 
Augustus Barron, Plymouth ; John Hawker, 
Exon; Richard Buckland, Druggist, Truro; 
John Manley, R.N., Plymouth ; John Shelly, 
Isaac Latimer, C. C. Whiteford, T. Wool- 



LAST WORDS ON BOOK-PLATES. 



109 



combe, R. VV. Coryndon, Charles Spence 
Bate, all of Plymouth, besides many others 
that I need not particularize here. One 
Other I may mention which has a local con- 
nection, and it is one of two dated specimens 
I possess viz., 'Jean Elie Jaqueri, de 
Moudon en Suisse, Ne en 1732. H. Skinner, 
Exon, Sculpt., 1755.' The other dated 
example is that of John Peachey, Esq., 1782. 

" Of early plates with elaborate orna- 
mentation and curious devices I have many 
examples, some of them possessing charac- 
teristics interesting to the student of art, 
others to those who make heraldry their 
hobby. 'John Cheale, of Findon, Esq., His 
Book,' reminds one of the inscription attached 
to books by unlettered persons in the days 
of our youth. ' Brewse of Gawer and Bram- 
ber;' William Frankcombe; Henry Dawkins; 
Sir Atwell Lake, Bart.; of these I have each 
two examples, differing in some slight respect. 
Amongst my finest specimens I may note the 
following Sir Anthony Thomas Abdy, Bart., 
Right Hon. Lord Brooke, William Bedford, 
Thomas Beach, John Cracroft, Edward 
Davenhill, S. P. Peach, of Tockington; George 
Seeker, D.D., Charles Pye, Law Stanley,* 
Esq., Ashenhurst. In addition to many titled 
personages of the present generation, I have 
Marquis Cornwallis, Marquis of Donegall, 
De Burgh, Earl of Clanricarde; Cork and 
Orrery, Drogheda, Ramsey, Shelburne, Gray, 
Dundas of Arniston, Henry, Lord Langdale ; 
Sir Robert Boyd, K.B., Sir John William 
Lubbock, Bart., and many more. Those of 
John Claudius Loudpn, F.L.S., William 
Thomas Mercer, M.A. Oxon., George 
Ormerod, D.C.L., Sedbury Park, and others 
have special interest. 

" I have not attempted the heraldic de- 
scription of any of these plates, preferring 
for the present to leave that task to abler 
hands. Possibly an occasion may arise for 
another reference to this matter which may 
combine other features. A few curiosities of 
the devices used may not, however, be out of 
place here. Thomas Clerk bears for a motto 
' Free for a Blast,' and his crest represents 
a huntsman with the hunting-horn to his 
mouth. John Manley, already alluded to, 
bears simply a hand on his shield, and his 
motto is 'This hand is an enemy to tyranny.' 
Addis Archer bears a sheaf of arrows; John 



Reed Appleton, three apples ; the device of 
the Butlers is well known; Christ. B. Bell 
bears ' the bell ;' Darnell Bullman has for 
his crest a 'bull;' Edward W. Cox has the 
representation of two lively ' bantams / John 
Frederick Doveton, a 'dove,' &c. &c. I 
might add many more, but I hesitate to 
lengthen these notes by extending my list. 
I will therefore content myself with culling 
a few interesting examples of plates which 
have not previously been mentioned, and 
which deserve, in my opinion, a passing 
notice. One of these is of the pictorial 
order, and represents a knight in full armour 
resting on the margin of a river, which is 
depicted as rushing rapidly on its way. The 
knight is evidently spent with the fatigues of 
the fight, and he rests his head wearily upon 
his right hand, while the left is listlessly 
placed upon his shield, which reclines by 
his side. Upon the shield is engraved the 
owner's coat of arms, and beneath the picture 
appears the name of the bearer ' Gregorius 
Ludovicus Way.' It is an exquisite little 
engraving and is very appropriate. 

" Another with the motto ' Animus si 
asquus quod petis hie est,' is equally curious 
but of a different character. It represents 
a series of bookshelves, well filled with goodly 
tomes. On the top are carelessly laid letters 
and documents, while a scroll on the front 
bears the monogram of the owner 'A. A.' 

" A third has the figure of Britannia erect, 
holding a spear in the left hand, while the 
right supports a shield emblazoned with the 
owner's arms ; on the margin of the shield is 
the motto ' adsit amicum sidus.' This is 
one of many nameless plates which I have 
yet to identify. A companion plate, with the 
motto ' Candide et Constanter,' has, in ad- 
dition to the arms, a well-executed medallion 
bust of Hippocrates. It bears no name but 
that of the engraver, ' F. Garden.' I have 
another, evidently an early example, with the 
inscription, ' N. Darly, Sculp.' 

" In addition to the foregoing and many 
others of an interesting character, I have 
specimens from various public and institution 
libraries. These also have a claim upon the 
attention of collectors. 

" In conclusion I trust that as I was in- 
terested and edified by the notes of the writers 
to whose papers I have already alluded, some 



110 



LAST WORDS ON BOOK-PLATES. 



readers of The Antiquary may derive a 
little profit from these hurried and incomplete 
jottings." 

Mr. W. Louis King, referring to Mr. Shirley's 
statement (ii. 115), that book-plates do not 
occur within the covers of books until the 
end of the seventeenth century, calls to 
mind that coat armour was not uncommonly 
engraved at the back of title-pages during 
the sixteenth century, and this no doubt was 
the origin of the custom of affixing in later 
days book-plates at this position in a book, 
u Thus, in the Jewell House of Art, written 
by Hugh Platte, and printed in 1594, which 
is now before me, there is engraved at the 
back of title the armour coat of 'Robt. 
Devorax, Earl Essex and Ewe, vicomt 
Hereforde, Lord Ferrer of Chartley, Borcher, 
and Lonayne.' This vies with Sir Francis 
Fust's coat armour mentioned by Mr. 
Shirley, as it contains no less than fifty-five 
quarterings." 

A Scarborough correspondent sends a 
supplemental list of book-plates noted from 
those in his own library : 
Richard Benyon, Esq., Englefield House, 

Berks. 
William Putland, Esq. {Domine dirige nos). 
Cecil D. Wray {Et juste et vray). 
Sir Chas. Hardy, Kt. Rawlins, Oxon. 
John Travers, Esq. {Nee temere nee timide). 
Elizabeth, Duchess Dowager of Manchester. 
Bernard Brocas Beaurepaire. 
William Lee, Esq., of Hartwell, Bucks 

( Verum atque decus). 
Matt. Waters, Esq., Walls End. 
The Right Hon. George Lord Macartney, 

Knight of the Order of the White 

Eagle, and of the Bath {Mens conscia 

recti). 
Mansf* de Cardonnel Lawson (Rise and 

shine) {L y Esperance me console). 
William Brompton Hexney. 
Hum. Perrott. 

" In an old volume, entitled The Gentle- 
man's Journal (1692) which is, probably, 
the first magazine published in this country 
there is a plate of Edward Coke, of Norfolk, 
Esq., 1 701. In another ancient volume, 
Magia Adamica, or The Antiquitie of Magic 
(1650), I find the plate of Viscount Torring- 
ton {Tuebory 

Mr. F. A. Blaydes adds to the list of 



dated book-plates already given in The 
Antiquary (see vol. ii. p. 8), the following 
from a small collection in his possession : 

1702. Colerainc, the Right Hon bIe Henry, 

Lord, of Coleraine, in y e Kingdom of 

Ireland. 
1704. Bridgman, S r Orlando, of Ridley, in 

the county of Chester, Bar". 
1 7 10. Milles, Thomas, Lord Bishop of 

Waterford and Lismore. 
1757. Chilcot, Thomas, Organist of Bath. 
1797. William Moffat. 

Mr. H. Astley Williams writes : " I have 
in my collection of book-plates an interest- 
ing dated one. It consists of an oval-shaped 
portrait of the gentleman, round which is 
the inscription : ' M. Ioh. Baptista Renz 
Augustan, a.c. 1697, ^Etatis 39, Minist. 11. 
Auxilium meum a Domino. Ps. 122.' Be- 
neath, in a small oval, are the arms, and 
at the bottom the following information : 
' Gener. Anton. Reiseri Th. D. Patr. Frider. 
D. Matr. an Justina succe a stetten filia nat. 
in Patria prim, ad minorit deus ad. S. Annae 
Diacon. Postea ad S. Jacobi, nunc ad S. . 
tJlrici Pastor Evangel.' I thought that this 
might be interesting to the readers of your 
magazine, who are, like myself, collectors of 
book-plates, as it is the most diffuse in 
information that I have seen." 

Mrs. Emily Cole sends a note of the 
following in her collection : Henry, Lord 
Shelbume, 1707. The Rev. Mark Noble, 
1 802. She has a leaf out of a book in which is 
written, Francis Fust, his book, August 1, 1724. 
This is rather a contrast to the elaborate 
book-plate done after he inherited the title, 
which was about 1727 or 1728 (see ante ii. j 1 7). 
Another inscription is as follows: "James 
Pearce his valuable book, if any time lent, 
please return it. The wicked borroweth 
and payeth not again." There is no date, 
but it was afterwards in the possession of 
William Ragsdel, 1807. John Lloyd, A.M4 
1700. Charles Barlow, Esq., of Emanuel 
Colledge (so spelt), Cambridge, 1703. 

Mr. George J. Gray, of Cambridge, writes : 
"The Hon. J. Leicester Warren, in his 
Guide to the Study of Book-plates (p. 62), 
says, ' The general antiquary will be sur- 
prised to learn that we have as yet no 
English book-plate with a date to record 



LAST WORDS ON BOOK-PLATES. 



earlier than the Restoration;' he also heads 
his chronological list of English dated book- 
plates with one of 1668, as the earliest dated 
specimen that he has seen or heard of, and 
that one is 'a purely typographical speci- 
men' composed of movable type. I have 
acquired a much earlier book-plate than the 
one mentioned before, and twenty-nine 
years before the Restoration ; it is not en- 
graved, but printed at a printing-press. It 
was gummed on the back of the title-page 
of A Recollection of such Treatises as have 
bene heretofore severally published and are 
nowe revised, corrected, augmented. By Jos. 
Hall, Dr. of Divinity. London, folio, 1621. 
This is the inscription on the book-plate. 

' Franciscus Frampton. 
Bacc. Art. 
An. Dom. 1631.' 

Enclosed within a square ornamental border 
or borders, for there are two ; the outer one 
is exactly like the border on Caius's Hist. 
Cant., 1574. Printed by John Day, of 
London ; also on ' Littleton's Tenvres in 
English, London, 1608, no printer's name. 
On the book-plate is written, 'Art. Magn. 
Anno 1633/ Underneath the book-plate, on 
the book itself, is written in the same hand- 
writing : 

" ' Fr[a]ncis Frampton my Son was borne 
December the fifth betweene the howres of 10 
and 1 1 being Satterday in the yeere of grace 
1635 and was baptized the thirteenth of the 
same month his Godfathers [were] my uncles 
Thomas Lavolt of Preston and George 
Frampton of [ ] his Godmother my 

Cosin Jane Wolfoxious of Huish. The 
Preacher Mr. Thomas Rivers of AlMiallowes 
and the text Math. 28th, 19th.' 

" I think that I can pride myself on having 
the earliest English dated book-plate known 
at present for I feel sure that others will 
turn up soon when collectors of book-plates 
are more numerous. I should be glad of 
any information concerning the Francis 
Frampton to whom this book-plate be- 
longed." 




Xorfc Ibunoerforb of 1beste0* 
bur$* 

By William John Hardy, 
part 11. 

E have spoken already of the incar- 
ceration of Lord Hungerford's third 
wife in one of the towers of Farley 
Castle. The authority for that 
statement is a letter* addressed by the unfor- 
tunate lady herself to Cromwell. It has been 
shown that her marriage with Lord Hunger- 
ford took place in the autumn of 1532,! and 
we may certainly conclude, from the manner 
in which her father, Lord Hussey, refers to 
him in his letters to Cromwell, that, at any 
rate, at first, he was an acceptable son-in- 
law. In 1536, Lord Hussey was attainted, 
and executed for being concerned in the 
Lincolnshire rebellion, and all his estates 
forfeited. Now can the fact of Elizabeth's 
prospects being altered by her father's for- 
feiture have had any influence upon Lord 
Hungerford in his treatment of her ? Certain 
it is, that, for some cause or other, Walter 
desired to rid himself of his wife, and, accord- 
ing to her own statement, does not appear to 
have scrupled to practise the vilest means to 
attain his object. Here is the letter in 
which Lady Hungerford tells her doleful 
story to Cromwell : 

Most piteously cornplayng and mekely besechynge 
your good and gracious Lordship tenderly to consider 
the humble complaynt and true intent of me, your 
most powrest and unfayned bed woman, Elizabeth 
Hungerforde, now abyding as I have byn long in 
captivitie, and as a prisoner within my Lord's castell 
of Hungerforde, + where no creature is suffryd, nor 
dare come unto me at any tyme, what nede so ever I 
hathe, or shall happen unto me, for my Lord's dis- 
pleasure, but all only such as yer by hym appoynted 
at this tyme, which have not only heretofore sought 
all the means they myght to ryd me in secret out of 
my lyf, but yet dayly doth, as it is not unknowen to all 
this countrey, if it shall please your good Lordshippe 
to inquire of any gentleman, or yorhan,dwellyng about 
my Lord, I wyll except none. 

And where as my said Lord Hungreforde of late, 
unknowen to me, obteyned a commission of your 
Lordship to thyntente he wold have byn frome me 

* Cotton MS., Titus, B I., fol. 388. 

t Walter must have been married to Elizabeth 
Hussey more than seven years ; but there is no record 
of his having a child by her. 

X Farleigh-Hungerfordf 



112 



LORD HUNGERFORD OF HEYTESBURY. 



devossid for myne incontinence, as he dampnablie 
hath reported to my great slandre and utter confusion 
in [the] worlde ; obiectyng suche a crime of me unto 
your Lordship, and other, as I never offendid in, I 
take God to record. And now, perceving with hym 
selff that he cold not, nor yet can perceve any maner 
of cause on my behalff to him geven, to be devossed, 
but that I may soner obiect such matters ayenst hym, 
with meny other detestable & urgent causes, than he 
can ayenst me, if I wold express them, as he well 
knowith. 

And further, that it pleased your good Lordsheip 
of yower goodnes & charitie to advertyse hym, at 
the sendying forth of your Comission, that I should 
have thynges r.ecessarie in every behalff, as it besemyd 
for his owne honor ; and that he should depart som- 
what with me yerely towards my sustentacion and 
leving, which thynge chieffly, as I suppose, is the very 
cause only at this tyme, of his stay in the matter, for 
surely it may please your good Lordsheip thondrestand 
that it wyll greve hym not a little to depart with one 
grote at any tyme, although I am not of myself owned 
of one peny, nor yet have any erthly frend more than 
your Lordship in this world, able to help me, or howse 
to resort unto,* or that any man will or dare speke or 
do for me toward your Lordshipe, or any other for 
fere of my Lord's dysplesure ; by reason wherof 
now of his own presumpcion he hath discharged 
your Lordship's commission assigned, without any 
examinacion or amendement had or urged of his de- 
mayner towards me. 

And so am I your most wofulst & poorest bed 
woman, left in worse case than ever I was, as a pre- 
soner, alone, contynually lockt in one of my Lord's 
Towers of his castell in Hungreford, as I have byn these 
thre or fower yers past, without comfort of any 
creature, and under the custodie of my Lord's Chap- 
leyne, S'John A' Lee, t which hath once or twese 
heretofore poysond me, as he will not denye uppon 
examinacion. And, after that he hard say that your 
Lordship's pleasure was that my Lord Hungreford 
should geve me yerely a pension, for my honest susten- 
tacion, he then sayd, and promised my Lord, that he 
wold sone ryd me for that matier, and so ease my Lord 
of that money paying, yfhemyght have thekepeing of 
me ageyne, as now he hath. And I am sure he in- 
tendith to kepe promes with my Lord, yf yower good 
Lordshipe see no remedie in this behalff shortly ; for I 
have none other mete, no drynke, but suche as comyth 
from the said Prist, and brought me by my Lord's foole, 
continually, myne old servitor, as all men in these 
partes knoweth, whiche mete & drynke considering 
the Prist's promese made unto my Lord, and his acts 
herentofore done unto me, as my Lord well knowith, 
I have oft feryd,. & yet doo, eny day more than 
other, to taste, either of the same mete or drynke. 

* We may conclude that Walter's ill-treatment of 
Elizabeth began after her father's death, as she speaks 
of _being without any person to whom she can appeal 
for her help ; an expression she would not have used 
had her father been alive. 

+ John a'Lee was the last chantry Priest of the chantry 
of Walter Hungerford founded in 1443 ; he was 
appointed in 1533 (see Canon Jackson's Guide to 
Farleigh Hungerford, p. 50). 



Wherfore many and sondre [times] I have byn, and 
yet am, fayne to dreynke water, and sometimes for lack 
of water, savinge your honor and reverence, myne 
owne water, or else I should die for lacke of suste- 
nance, and had long er this tyme, had not poure 
women of the country, of their charite, knowing my 
Lord's demayner always to his wyves, brought me to 
my grcate* wyndowe, in the nyght, suche mete & 
drynke as they had, and gave me for the love of God, 
for mony have I none wherew' to pay theym, nor yet 
have had of my Lord these iiij yeres iiij grots. 

And thus my syngular good Lord, I am like to 
perishe, I fare me very sone, unlest your good Lord- 
ship, movid with petie and compassion, will comand 
my sayd Lord Hungerford, now beyng in London, as 
I beleve, to bryng me byfore your Lordship, and also, 
the seyd Priest, S'John A' Lee, by home your Lordship 
uppon his examynacion will perceive many strange 
thengs of my Lord's demayner. And to thintente that 
I may, uppon causes reasonable, be devorssed frome 
my seyd Lord, or else requyre hym to suffere me to 
come out of preson, and then wyll I come up afote, 
with some poore bodie, unto your Lordsheip, for the 
securite of my lyff; yf it may please you to condesend 
thereunto, as y shall most humblie beseche your good 
Lordship, for surely I wyll not long continue this 
wrechyd lyff with him. I had better destroye my selff, 
or begg my lyving frome dore to dore. And therfore 
on the reverence of Jesue Christ, let not his fayre 
craftie & subtill tonge, longer defraud your good 
Lordshipp in this mater, but requyre his Lordshipp to 
send for me, and saffly to be brought before your Lorde- 
ship without further delay, or els to comand some 
other, at your Lordship's pleasure, to fetch me 
from hym. And in so doing I shal be bounden to 
pray, as I doo evermore, to God, for the precervacion 
of your honorable estate longe to endure. 

By your most bounden bed woman, 
Elizabeth Hungerford. 

Even had John Cotell not been strangled 
and burnt at Farley Castle, Lady Hunger- 
ford's imprisonment and ill usage there, de- 
scribed in the foregoing letter, would be 
amply sufficient to account for the existence 
of the evil reputation and legends which 
attach to the place j for her story was, she 
says, well-known to every dweller round 
about. Lady Hungerford complains that 
she has been kept a prisoner " these thre or 
fouer yeres past." Supposing, then, that her 
incarceration began shortly after her father's 
death, we may date this threnetic letter about 
the close of the year 1539. Let us mark a 
few of the prominent facts disclosed by the 
letter. 

It has been said that Lord Hussey's for- 
feiture left Walter, the husband of a wife desti- 
tute of lands or fortune. In what way, then, 
did Lord Hungerford show his displeasure? 

i * (?) Grated window. 



LORD HUNGERFORD OF HEYTESBURY. 



"3 



Not satisfied with keeping his wife a close 
prisoner within the castle tower, he sought 
the aid of poison to finally rid himself of her, 
perhaps to be free to take a more advanta- 
geous partner. The poison system having 
failed, Walter sought a divorce from his 
wife, charging her with incontinence ; and 
without giving her opportunity to answer 
that accusation, obtained a discharge of the 
commission. Cromwell, however, in the 
commission, inserted a clause which should 
provide Elizabeth with " thynges necessarie 
in every behalff" for her. Enraged at this, 
Walter again had recourse to the aid of 
poison ; happily his prisoner knew of it. 
Every morsel of food she received, brought 
to her by Walter's servants, she feared to eat, 
and when her letter was written trusted for 
support to the charity of the villagers, who, 
at night, brought to the " greate wyndowe" 
of her prison, meat and drink, because they 
knew of her Lord's " demayner always to his 
wyves." So we see that Elizabeth was not the 
first victim of Walter's cruelty. The simple 
words in which the writer describes the vil- 
lagers providing her with a means of sus- 
tenance, brings the scene before us with 
dramatic vividness. Lord Hungerford was 
dreaded by them also, so to avoid his obser- 
vation, and escape his anger, they availed 
themselves of the cover of darkness, to 
practise their acts of kindliness to the 
prisoner. It will be noticed that Elizabeth 
concludes by herself asking for a divorce 
from Walter ; " or else," she adds, speaking 
of her husband, " requyre hym to suffere me 
to come out of preson." She will then, she 
says, come " up afote" before the minister and 
plead her case. The perils then attending a 
journey on foot from Wiltshire to London 
had no terror for her. She was ready to risk 
everything for freedom for, as she puts it, 
death itself was preferable to such captivity. 
There is something pathetic in the words 
with which Lady Hungerford concludes her 
letter ; Walter she believes to be in London, 
and may tell his own false version of the 
story to Cromwell. " Let not his fayre craftie 
and subtill tonge," she says, " defraud your 
good Lordshipp ;" perhaps, as she wrote this, 
her mind wandered back to the days when her 
lord had spoken to her many a word of fair 
promise, which time had proved to be crafty 



and subtle. Lady Hungerford's letter gives 
us no alternative ; we must either discard her 
statements as void of foundation, or accept 
them as they stand, and believe Walter to 
have been the incarnation of infamy. If we 
do the latter, it must be admitted that, 
though not perhaps guilty of the treason he 
was charged with, his life was justly ended 
on the scaffold. 

On the 23rd and 2jth of February, 1540, 
we have the fact recorded that Lord 
Hungerford was at Farley, and that he took 
the depositions of certain witnesses upon 
some point connected with a chantry founded 
by Thomas Horton * one of these witnesses 
was " Wyllam Byrde, Parson of Fitulton 
and Vicar of Bradford" It is unfortunate 
that we do not know what answer Cromwell 
made to Walter's, letter, in which he says 
that Byrde was still at large in his parish. f 
The writer, it will be remembered, was, or 
pretended to be, most anxious to hear from 
Cromwell what he should do in the matter, 
adding, that though he had asked many 
times for instructions, as yet he had received 
none. However it may have been, we see 
that in February, 1540, Byrde was still at 
large, and acting as Vicar of Bradford. 

The Parliament of 31 Henry VIII. met 
at Westminster, on the 28th April, 1539; 
Lord Hungerford, we see by the Lords' 
Journals, was present on the day of meet- 
ing,! an d frequently afterwards. The third 
session began on the 12th of April, 1540, and 
was prorogued on the nth of May following, 
on which day Lord Hungerford was again pre- 
sent. After the prorogation he seems to have 
gone back to Farley, as, a few days later, 
on the 1 8th and 19th of May, we 
find him signing the confessions taken before 
him, of several persons, who impeached others 
of treasonable words. On the 25th 
of May, the prorogued session of Parliament 
commenced its labours again. Lord Hunger- 
ford was present, and sat constantly until the 
15th of June following; two days after 
that the Bill for Thomas Cromwell's attainder 
was introduced, being read a second and 
third time on the 19th of June. On 



* See State Papers for the year 1 540. 
t See before, p. 51. 
X Journals of the House of Lords, vol. i. p. 
See State Papers for the year 1 540. 



104. 



"4 



LORD HVNGERFORD OF HEYTESBURY. 



the 2nd of July, the Bill for Lord Hunger- 
ford's attainder was introduced ; it was read a 
third time, and passed on Wednesday, the 
14th. The entry in the Lords' Journals 
stands thus : 

" Hodie. Pro tertio lecta erat attinctura 
" Willielmi Birde, Clerici et Domini Hunger- 
"ford de Heytesbury, de alta proditione, et 
"communi omnium Procerum consensu, 
"nemine discrepante, est expedita."* 

On Friday, July the 16th, the Bill was 
returned from the Commons and passed. It 
stands thus on the Parliament Roll :t 

The attainder of Byrde and the Lord Hungerford- 

Sheweth that where William Byrde, clerk, vicar of 
Bradford,! in your county of Wilts, having a traitorous 
heart mind and intent towards your most excellent 
Highnes, and also being confederate, aiding and 
" accounsaill" with the rebels, at the commotion time 
in the north parts of this your realm of England, one 
William Williams late of Bradford aforesaid, near kins- 
man unto the said William Byrde, the 1 2th day of 
October in the 28th year of your most noble reign 
[1536] at such times as he, the said William Williams 
went towards the north parts, for the subduing of the 
said rebels, came unto the said William Byrde at 
Fikelton in the same county fbr to take his leave of 
the said William Byrde, shewing him of his said going 
into the north parts, and the said William Byrde, 
nothing regarding his bounden duty unto God, nor 
yet his duty of allegiance unto your most excellent 
Majesty, then and there falsely, maliciously and 
traitorously answered and said unto the said Williams 
"lam soree therefore. Seest thou not how the King 
" plucketh doune Abbeis, and images every day ? and 
" if the King goo thither himselfe he will never come 
"home againe, ne none of them all which doo goo 
"with him, and in trueth it were petye he shulde 
" come home againe." And the said William Byrde 
of his further wilful, malicious, and traitorous mind, 
at such time as one John Mason, the 20th Day of 
Noveniber in the said 28th year of your Majesty's 
noble reign, at Fikleton aforesaid, said in the presence 
of the said William Byrde, and other persons, " Oh 
" good Lord ! I wene all the worlde will be heretick 
" in a while" unto whom the said William Byrde, then 
and there answering, said, " Doiste thou marvaill at 
"that? I tell the it is no mervayle, for the great 
" Master of all is an heretike, and suche one that is 
"not his like in the worlde," not only in manifest 

dispites, contempt, slander, &c contrary to the 

form and effect of divers Statutes in that case pro- 
vided, but also contrary to your peace, crown, and 
dignity. 

And where also Walter Hungerford, knight, Lord 
Hungerford and Heytesbury, having and bearing a 



* Journals of the House of Lords ; vol. i. p. 156. 
+ Parliament Roll, 31 & 32 Henry VIII. m. 42. 
t Bradford is in the original spelt " Bradford." 
William Williams was a nephew of William Byrde. 



traitorous heart and mind towards your Highness, 
knowing the said William Byrde to be a false and 
abominable traitor to your Majesty and to your realm 
of England, falsely, maliciously, and traitorously 
willing and minding to aid, comfort, and assist the 
said William Byrde in his said detestable .... 
treasons, the 20 day of October in the said 28th year 0/ 
your most excellent and virtuous reign caused the said 
William Byrde to be attached, and apprehended of 
treason and to be conveyed and brought to him at 
Farley, in your said county of Wilts, and then and 
there, he the said Lord Hungerford did not only falsely, 
maliciously, and traitorously, assist, comfort, and 
abet, him the said William Byrde in his said abomin- 
able treasons &c. towards your Highness, but also the 
said Lord Hungerford, did then and there, falsely, 
maliciously, and traitorously, retain and take the said 
William Byrde to be his Chaplain, by the space of one 
quarter of one year, and during the same time did give 
unto the said William Byrde, meat drink and wages. 
And the said Lord Hungerford of his further malicious 
and traitorous mind towards your Highness, being 
seduced and led by instigation of the Devil, nothing 
pondering his bounden duty unto God, nor yet his duty 

of allegiance unto Your Majesty &c willing 

and desiring by all his wicked wit and power the 
mortal death and utter destruction of Your most 
royal person, the 22nd day of March in the said 
28th year of your most noble reign, at Farley, &c. 
.... and at divers other days, and places within 

" the same county, &c "styred, &c. one Sir 

"Hugh Woodes, Chaplaine, and one Doctour Maw- 
' ' delyn, privily for to conjure to thintente that he 
" the said Lord Hungerford might know by them howe 
" long your Majesty should lyve, and howe your High- 
" nes should spede against your ennemeys, not only 
" to the great sclaundre and peryll of your moste Royall 
" person, but also contrary to your peace, croune, and 
"dignitie." And moreover the said Walter Lord 
Hungerford, being a man of false and traitorous heart 
and mind towards your Highness, replete with innu- 
merable, destable, and abominable vices, and wretched- 
ness of living, &c t/teilth day of May in the 

said 28th year of your most noble reign, at Heytesbury 

in your said county of Wilts, &c and at divers 

other times and places within the same county, con- 
tinually by the space of three years, now last past 
"hathe accustomably exercised frequented and 
" used the abhominable and detestable vice and synne 

"of with William Maister*, Thomas Smyth, 

" and other his servaunts," contrary to your laws, 
statutes, peace, and dignfty. For the which said 
treasons and offences by the said Walter Lord Hun- 
gerford, and the said William Byrde severally com- 
mitted and done, as is aforesaid Be it enacted, 
by the assent of the Lords Spiritual, and Temporal, 
and the Commons in this present Parliament assem- 
bled, and by authority of the same, that the said 
Walter Hungerford Knight, Lord Hungerford of 
Heytesbury, and the said William Byrde, and either 
of them shall by the authority of this Parliament, be 
convicted and attainted of High Treason, and that they 

* Eleanor, one of Lord Hungerford's daughters, was 
wife of a William Maister (see ante, p. 50). 



LORD HUNGERFORD OF HEYTESBURY. 



"5 



and either of them shall, by the authority aforesaid be 
taken deemed and adjudged for abominable traitors, 
and shall have and suffer such pains of death, loss of 
goods chattels and debts, as in case of High Treason, 
and also the said Walter Lord Hungerford and the 
said William Byrde and either of them shall, by the 
authority aforesaid lose and forfeit, &c, all such castles, 
manors, &c. 

On the 24th of July the Bill, amongst seve- 
ral others, received the royal assent, and 
four days later Lord Hungerford, with 
Thomas Cromwell, his former friend and 
patron, suffered death on Tower Hill. 
Holinshed supplies the fact that at the 
time of his death " he seemed so unquiet, 
that many judged him rather in a frenzy 
than otherwise." 

How far Lord Hungerford was guilty of 
the crimes laid to his charge it is impossible 
to say. The two principal counts in the 
indictment against him were for treason, and 
on that point we have for authority only his 
own statements to Cromwell, as to what he did 
to suppress treason, and the indictment itself, 
which tells us what he did to promote it 
neither authority, I think, particularly reliable. 
It is the last count in Lord Hungerford's 
indictment that if sustained Would cast an 
indelible blot upon his character. In support 
of this, we have the fact that his treatment 
of his wives had been unnatural, and the 
significant words which Lady Hungerford 
uses in her letter to Cromwell, where speaking 
of her husband's accusations against her, 
she says : " but that I may soner obiect such 
matters ayenst hym, with meny other 
destestable and urgent causes than he can 
ayenst me, if I wold express them, as he well 
knowith." 

Whether guilty or not guilty of treason, 
Lord Hungerford appears to have been guilty 
of the grossest ill-treatment of his wife. 
Sympathy for her must therefore have been 
awakened, so that it is pleasant to be able to 
record the fact that, after her Lord's execu- 
tion, she became the wife of Sir Robert 
Throckmorton, with whom she spent many 
years of presumably happy life, and by 
whom she became the mother of several 
children. 




Brasses of Ibuntinafconsbfre. 

By the Rev. Dr. Vali-y French, F.S. A. 
^ PART II. 

FFORD D'ARCY CHURCH. I 
found a brass of an ecclesiastic 
loose in the churchwarden's house. 
He is attired in a doctor's cap 
and academicals,* in kneeling attitude. Mr. 
Herbert Haynesf assigns to it the date 1530, 
and regards it as the production of one of 
the provincial engravers who appear to have 
established themselves in the neighbour- 
hood of Cambridge. I cannot pass by the 
name of Mr. Haynes without expressing the 
loss which this branch of archaeology sus- 
tained in the premature removal of one so 
devoted to. the study of Christian archaeology, 
so exemplary in every relation of life. 

There is little doubt that this brass keeps 
alive the memory of Dr. W. Taylard, brother- 
in-law of Alicia Taylard, described in the 
first part of this article, and son of the 
William and Elizabeth Taylard before 
mentioned. He is described, in the Visita- 
tion of Huntingdon, by Nicholas Charles, 
as " Utrius-que juris Doctor, persona de 
Offord et ibi sepultus." I should mention 
that the villages of Dodington and Offord 
D'Arcy are not two miles apart as the crow 
flies ; the river Ouse flows between the two, 
over which is a bridge at Offord. This Dr. 
Taylard appears as a legatee in the will of 
William Taylard, his father, and in that of 
Alicia, his widowed sister. He was also 
executor of John Taylard, of Upwood. His 
name occurs, too, in several contemporary 
indentures. Before the restoration of the 
church by the late Rev. W. Thor ,11, I am 
told by Mr. Birch that this brass was upon 
the pavement of the chancel. 

Brass of Sir Lawrence Pabenham, and his 
two wives, attached to the south wall of the 
nave in Offord D'Arcy Church. Engraved 
about 1440. This is the only brass now 
extant in the church. The inscription runs : 

Hie jacent Laurenci Pabenham Miles qui obiit x 
die Mens Jimii A d'ni M cccc. et d'na Elisabeth 
uxor dicti Laurency. 

* An ample gown completely covering the person 
and provided with a tippet, 
t Vol. i. 29 ; vol. ii. 90. 



u6 



BRASSES OF HUNTINGDONSHIRE. 



Una triu' sororu ac ffiliaru' t heredu' d'ni Joh'is 
Engeyne d'ni de Engeyne. que obiit xxiij die mensis 
Septembr Anno. 

d'ni M ccc lxxvij . Ac d'na Johanna sec'da ux' 
dicti laurency filia Egidij daubeney militis. qu ai'bu 
ppi'ciet d's Amen. 

The period speaks for itself. The plate 
armour has superseded the mail. The 
bascinet is less pointed. It encases the 
whole head. There is a gorget of plate in- 
stead of the camail. In the place of the 
jupon we see a cuirass, and attached to it a 
skirt of seven taces, or plates overlapping 
upwards. The epaulieres consist of more 
pieces. Roundels appear which are secured 
by rivets. The misericorde is worn almost 
behind the knight. The fingers are not 
divided. The belt is diagonal. The pommel 
of the sword is pyriform. 

The lower portions of these effigies ale 
lost. Among other good examples of this 
period of armour may be mentioned the brass 
of Sir John Wilcotes, in Great Tew Church, 
Oxfordshire ; of Robert Suckling, in Barsham 
Church, Suffolk ; of Ivo Fitzwaryn, in Wan- 
tage Church, Berkshire ; and a fair example of 
a knight between his two wives is the brass 
of Sir John Hanley and wife in Dartmouth 
Church. 

The ladies both wear the horned head- 
dress. The dress of the first wife corresponds 
almost entirely to that of Lady Le Moigne, 
and therefore needs no further remarks. 
The second wife wears an elegant and simple 
dress, consisting of a supertunic, encircled 
at the waist by a plain broad band. The 
collar falls back upon the shoulders, the 
sleeves hang like those of a surplice. Be- 
neath this dress was a kirtle with tight cuffs. 
A precisely similar dress appears on the 
brass of Maud, wife of John Fossebrook, in 
Crauford Church, Northhamptonshire. She 
was nurse to King Henry VII. 

Lawrence de Pabenham obtained by his 
father's will the manor of Thenford, in 
Northamptonshire. Bridges, in his history 
of that county, states that this Lawrence 
was twice married that his first wife was 
Elizabeth, the daughter of John Engayne, by 
whom he had issue one only daughter, 
Catherine, the wife of Sir Thomas Aylesbury ; 
that his second wife was Joane, the daughter 
of Dawbeney (this Offord brass teaches 



us that his name was Jiles), by whom he 
had issue one son, John, and one daughter, 
Eleanor. 

Again, in vol. ii. p. 123, Bridges remarks 
that John Engayne being a banneret and 
resident in Huntingdonshire, was required, 
with all the power he could raise, to attend 
King Edward III. into France. By Joane, 
his wife, daughter of Sir Robert Peverel, he 
had one son, Thomas, and three daughters, 
Joyce, Elizabeth, and Mary. His son, 
Thomas Engayne, succeeded to his posses- 
sions. This Thomas married Catherine, 
daughter of the Earl of Devon. Upon his 
decease without issue, his sisters Joyce, 
wife of John de Goldington ; Elizabeth, widow 
of Sir Lawrence Pabenham, Knight; and 
Mary, wife of Sir William Bemak, Knight 
became his heirs. These sisters subsequently 
divided his estate between them. 

Somersham. Brass of a Priest. On the 
ground, within the altar rails. The date, 
early sixteenth century. He is clad in 
chasuble, alb, and amice. The stole and 
maniple are wanting. He holds in his hands 
a chalice which contains a wafer, upon which 
is stamped I. H. S., the three Greek initial 
letters of the word, IHS0U2.* His head 
appears with the tonsure, and with that 
particular form of tonsure in which the hair 
is preserved and only a bald spot shows 
upon the crown of the head. This kind of 
tonsure was unknown in the Early Church, for 
St. Jerome, commenting upon Ezekiel xliv. 
20, says, " This evidently demonstrates that 
we ought neither to have our heads shaved 
as the priests and votaries of Isis and Serapis, 
nor yet to suffer our hair to grow long, alter 
the luxurious manner of barbarians and 
soldiers."! 

It seems at first sight difficult to decide 
the dates of pre -Reformation ecclesiastics 
upon brasses, but the following indications 
reveal a late date : (1) Careless delineation ; 
(2) Omissions, as here (exactly the same 
omissions of stole and maniple occur in the 
brass of the Rev. William Byggins in Sawston 
Church, Cambridgeshire); (3) The apparel 
of the alb encircles only the upper half of 
the sleeve ; (4) The material is stouter, and 

* They were first found, I believe, on a gold coin 
of Basilius I., A.D. 867. 
+ Cited by Bingham, vol. i. p. 229. 



BRASSES OF HUNTINGDONSHIRE. 



ii7 



hence stiffer; (5) The hair worn short; 
(6) The ends of the stole and maniple are 
narrower ; (7) The vestments fit looser ; 
(8) More shading is employed ; (9) The 
lines are less bold. 

The amice and alb are not certain indica- 
tions of the priestly office ; for angels, when 
represented on brasses, are often found so 
vested, as also is St. Matthew as an evan- 
gelistic symbol. 

There are three brasses of civilians in the 
county viz., at Godman Chester, Stilton, and 
Broughton. 

That at Godmanchester represents a 
civilian with his two wives. It is situated 
at the entrance of the chancel. The civilian 
remains perfect ; only the matrices of the 
brasses of the wives remain, their figures 
placed as usual to the right and left of their 
husband, faced towards him. The indenta- 
tions both of the wives and of the inscrip- 
tions below are clearly defined. This brass 
is engraved in Fox's History of Godmanches- 
ter. The date is early sixteenth century. 
The civilian is represented in a long, full 
gown, open up the front, with very full sleeves, 
which are edged with ermine ; a frontal 
orfrey of ermine is also distinguishable. He 
wears a gypciere, or purse.* The "cut-purse" 
was so termed from the manner in which he 
severed this gypciere from the girdle. 

The class of costume represented on this 
brass is common from the year 1500 till the 
reign of Edward VI. 

The figures are in standing posture, charac- 
teristic of the period. Similar costume may 
be seen on brasses in Pakefield and Little 
Waldingfield Churches, Suffolk. The hair is 
represented as long, after the year 1480. 

In Broughton Church are matrices of two 
magnificent brasses. Ot the metal, nothing 
remains but some fragmentary portions pre- 
served by the rector. One of these was to 
the memory of Lawrence Martin and wife ; 
date about 1490. Portions of the inscription 
remain a shield with initials L. M., and a 
canting rebus ; also an evangelistic symbol. 

The man wears the usual civilian dress, 
with gypciere and rosary pendant. The 

* These were generally made of stamped leather, 
or velvet, and were frequently ornamented* with 
foliated and other patterns. The frame-work was 
often of metal. 



rosary, as is well known, is a method of 
counting beads, so as to meditate upon the 
incarnation, passion, and resurrection of 
Christ. It is divided into three parts, each 
consisting of five mysteries, to be contem- 
plated during the repeating of five decades 
upon the beads. 

The Lawrence Martins are, I believe, a 
Suffolk family. They seem to have settled 
at Long Melford in the time of Richard II. 
Their cloth-mark and the initials of Roger 
and Lawrence Martin appear on thirteen 
stone shields outside the Martin chancel in 
that church. This chancel was built by his 
benevolence late in the fifteenth century. 

Mr. Almack, in a Paper read before the 
Suffolk Institute of Archaeology, speaks of a 
very ancient altar-tomb in that church, with- 
out inscription, supposed to be for Lawrence 
Martin, with the image of St. Lawrence and 
his gridiron over him. 

In Broughton Church we find a similar 
shield to that in Long Melford ; the same 
initials, "L.M.," but instead of the cloth-mark 
is the canting rebus of a tun or cask. In St. 
John's, Cambridge, Ashton is represented by 
an ash-tree growing out of a tun. In Bristol 
Cathedral, Abbot Burton's rebus is the plant 
14 burr," growing out of a tun. The rebus of 
44 Bolton" is a tun pierced by a bolt, Bishop 
Langton's rebus, in his chantry in Winches- 
ter Cathedral, is a musical note called a 
u long" inserted into a tun. The see "Win- 
ton." is represented by a vine and a tun. 

The evangelistic symbol of the ox repre- 
sents St. Luke; the explanation given of 
this symbol being that the ox, as the emblem 
of sacrifice, is the sign of a priest or victim ; 
and St. Luke dwells specially upon our 
Lord's sacerdotal power. Others assert that 
the evangelistic attributes are taken from the 
four faces in the first chapter of Ezekiel. 

At Stilton is a brass in the nave to Richard 
Curthoyse, yeoman, date 1573, and wife, 
Anne, 1606 ; also to their sons, Thomas, 
1590, and John, 1618. 

The dress of the father and son is pre- 
cisely similar. They wear a furred gown, a 
costume which is still preserved in the livery 
gown of the City of London ; they are bare- 
headed, with full ruff, high-buttoned waist- 
coat, knee-breeches. The lady wears a hat, 
ruff, open-breasted gown, padded shoulders, 



n8 



BRASSES OF HUNTINGDONSHIRE. 



stomacher, hooped skirt covering the feet, 
very like the dress of Ciceley Page in Bray 
Church, Bucks. 

The dress is conventional throughout. 
That of the father and his wife is exactly 
like the costume on a brass at Enfield, 
Middlesex, to William Smith, of the Guards, 
servant to Henry VIII., Mary, and Elizabeth, 
who died 1592. 

The son wears the much shorter dress of 
a later period the doublet and petticoat 
hose, with short cloak over all. 

The inscription under the parents is : 

Here lyeth buried the bodies of Richard Curthoyse 
late of Stilton yeoman and Anne his wife by whom 
she had issue three sones and three daughters John 
Tho William Ann Isabell and Joane the said 
Richard deceased the 15 day of January 1573 and the 
said Ann y* second of Decemb r Anno 1606. 

That beneath the sons is : 

Here also lyeth buried the bodies of Thomas & 
John sonnes of the abovesaid Richard and Ann 
which Thomas deceased the xviii day of May Anno 
Domini 1590 and John the xxii of July 1618 to whose 
pious memorie William His Brother caused this 
monment to be laid. 

In Little Gidding Church are six little 
brasses, rendered singularly interesting as 
commemorating some of the family of that 
holy man, Nicholas Ferrar, whose memoirs 
have been written by Dr. Peckard, formerly 
master of Magdalene College, Cambridge, 
and whose life appears in extenso in the 
Ecclesiastical Biography of Christopher 
Wordsworth. 

Walkeline de Ferrariis came over with 
William the Conqueror. To Henry de 
Ferrariis William gave Tutbury and other 
castles. In time the family became 
numerous, founded religious houses, and had 
the honour of peerage. One line established 
itself in Yorkshire, from which descended 
Nicolas, the father of the celebrated 
Nicolas. He was born in 1592, in the 
parish of St Mary Stayning, in Mark Lane ; 
was educated at Enborn, near Newbury. In 
his fourteenth year he entered at Clare Hall, 
took his B.A. in 16 10. In 16 13 his health 
failed, and it was suggested that he should 
join that noble party who accompanied 
Elizabeth to the Palatinate with the palsgrave, 
her husband. He formed one of the retinue, 
and was much noticed by Elizabeth. At 
Amsterdam he quitted the royal party; 



visited Hamburg, Leipsic, Prague, Padua, 
Rome, Madrid, and thence home, having 
studied deeply at several of the universities, 
and having been smitten with dangerous 
illness both at Padua and Marseilles. In 
1 6 18 he returned to England, declined the 
Savilian Professorship at Oxford, succeeded 
his brother in 1622 as deputy-governor of 
the Virginia Company, and extricated him 
from his embarrassment. He soon resolved 
upon religious retirement, and purchased the 
lordship of Little Gidding, 1624. Nothing 
was left but a large mansion-house and a 
tiny church adjoining. He obtained leave 
from Bishop (afterwards Archbishop) Wil- 
liams to have service performed. He put it 
in repair. The minister of the adjoining 
parish of Steeple Gidding performed daily 
service at eight, litany at ten, evensong at 
four. Nicholas resolved to become deacon ; 
Bishop Laud ordained him in 1626. Mrs. 
Ferrar was dissatisfied with the repair of the 
church. She floored and wainscotted it 
throughout, provided suitable furniture for 
communion-table, pulpit, and desk, taking 
care that the two latter should be on the 
same level ; she provided a new font, with 
leg, laver, and cover all of brass, and a large 
brass lectern. Beneath the east window, 
the Commandments, Pater Noster, and 
Apostles' Creed were engraved on four 
tablets of brass. These produce a curious 
effect from the west entrance. 

The devotions of the family were constant 
both in their oratory and the church. The 
procession to church was conducted in the 
following order : 

The three schoolmasters in gowns and 
Monmouth caps ; Mrs. Ferrars' grandsons in 
same costume, two and two ; her son, Mr. J. 
Ferrar, and her son-in-law, Mr. Collet, same 
dress ; Mr. Nicholas Ferrar, in surplice, hood, 
and square cap, sometimes leading his mother. 

Mrs. Collet and all her daughters two and 
two ; all the servants two and two, dress 
uniform ; then on Sundays the choristers two 
and two. 

I cannct stay to notice their attitude and 
obeisances in church, the general rigour of 
their lives, their recreations, meals, method 
of education. Suffice it simply to mention 
the system of nightly watchings. There was 
a constant double night watch, of men at one 



BRASSES OF HUNTINGDONSHIRE. 



119 



end of the house, of women at the other. 
The watchings began at 9 p.m., and ended at 
1 a.m. It was so arranged that each watch 
should, in those four hours, distinctly repeat 
the whole Book of Psalms in the way of 
antiphony; that they should then pray for 
the life of the king and his sons. Their 
watch being ended, they went to Mr. Ferrar's 
door, bade him good morrow, and left a 
lighted candle for him. At one he rose and 
betook himself to religious meditation, found- 
ing his practice upon the passage, " At mid- 
night will I rise and give thanks." The 
following pedigree is based upon statements 
upon the brasses : 

Laurence Wodenoth, Esq., of the ancient family of that name, of 
Savington Hall, Cheshire. 

Mary \Vodenoth=Nics. Ferrar (father d. 1637.) 



Israel Owen. 

I I 1 

Bathsheba=John Farrar, Nicholas, J. N. Collet = Susanna, 

d. 1657. d. 1637, 3rd d. 1657. 

son. 

I Sir T. Brook. 

1 E 1 

Nicolas. John Farrar =Annye. Solomon Mapletoft= Judith & 
d. 1719. I 15 others. 

Mary. 

The inscriptions read as follows : 

Here lyeth the Body of 
John Farrar, Esq r ., Lord of 
this Mannour, who departed 
this life y e 28 th of Sept br . 1657. 

Here lyeth the Body of 
Army 6 Wife of John Ferrar, 
Esq'. , who departed this life 
the 8 th of March, 1702, 
She was the daughter of 
S r Tho Brook. 

Here lyeth the Body of 
John Ferrar, Esq 1- ., Lord 
of this Mannour, who 
Departed this life Feb 1 
the 23, 1 7 19. Aged 89. 

Here lyeth y Body of Mary Mapletoft, Eldest 
Daughter of Solomon Mapletoft & Judeth his wife, 
& grandchild to John and Susanna Collet, she died 
y 6 14 of July, 1656. 

Here also sleepeth Susa'na, Wife to John Collet, 
Esq r ., By whom she had Issue 8 sonns & 8 Daugh- 
ters, she was y e only Daughter of M r . Nicolas Farrar, 
of London, Merchant, & sister to John Farrer, Esq 1 "., 
late L d of this Man'or, who died y e 9 th Oct br ., 1657, 
aged 76 years. 

Here sleepeth Eleanor Goddard, Daughtef to 
George Long of London, Merchant, and Relict of 
James Goddard of Marston in Wilts, Gent., who died 
April the 20 th , 171 7. 



In Stanground Church, close to Peterboro', 
are two inscriptions as follows : 

Here lyeth buried y 6 body of Elias Petit, some- 
time Vicar of this place, 4 th sonn to Valentine Petit 
of Dandelyon in the Isle of Thanet in Kent, Esquire, 
who departed this life xv th Novemb., 1634, o' the 
yeare of his age 31 th . 

Hie jacet Corpus Roberti Smith Genos, , 
qui obiit quarto die Decembris A D'ni, 1558. 
Finibus exiguis clauduntur corporis artus 
Viva vivet virtus spiritus astra tenet. 
Here lyeth buried the bodye of Alice Smith, wife 
to Thomas Smith, sonne to the above said Robt. 
Smith, who dyed the v th of Septemb', A D'ni, 1595. 
Whose constant zeale to serve the Lord, 
Whose loyall love to husband dere, 
Whose tender care towards children al, 
Remaines abyve though corpes lye here. 

Smyth. 

In Overton Waterville, north aisle, recum- 
bent, is this inscription : 

Hie jacet Johannes de Herlyngton qui obiit 
xii die January A d'ni mill'mo ccccviii. 

In Winwick, nave, recumbent, is the 
inscription : 

Here lyeth the Body of Edward Collin 8 

The son of Edward Collin of Winwick Gen 

who Departed this life the 28th day of Januar* 

1685 in the 49 th year of his age and left 

issue Edmund his only child. 

In Offord D'Arcy Church, or rather, be- 
longing to it, in the possession of the church- 
warden, is the inscription : 

Johannes Atkinsonus dudum 
Offordi' Rector utriusque 
Pius prudens vigilans fidelis 
Anno setatis climacterico 
Christo milleno sexcenteno 
Quarto que deno Junii septimo 
Vitam hanc morte vel magis vita 
Fseliciore commutavit 
Istoque est conditus monumento 
Quod illi posuit sumptu suo 
Amans amanti conjux viro. 

"Climacterico" is a peculiar expression. 
In Bythorn Church are the following 
inscriptions : 

Beneath this stone are deposited the remains of 
Philip Huslwait a native of Bythorne, 
who in the 66th year of his age 
departed this Transitory life Feb r 1 2th 1 788 
at Tempsford in the County of Bedford, 
in hope through the divine mercy of a 
resurrection to life and felicity eternal. 

" We know that if our earthly houie," &c. 

2 Cor. vi. 

Here lyeth y e body of Sillina Parris 

y 6 wife of William Parris shee 

dyed y e 31th of Octo r 1658. 



120 



BRASSES OF HUNTINGDONSHIRE. 



In Sawtry St. Andrew is an inscription to 
Mary, wife of Rev. John Newton, rector, 
1633. Chancel. 

Thuming Church : 

Aspice, die titulum legis in hoc sepulchre- 
Conjugem piam foeminam, religiosam 
Suorum nuper solatia in funus versa 
Clauditur hie amigma charitatis, sine liberis mater 
Quos enim natura negavit fecit charitas 
Quae in hoc saltern domicilio semper incaluit 
Majora velis ; tegitur hac urna Susanna Welles 
Imo ossa hie conduntur, spiritus in sinu Abrahae. 

Reade here, & learne to live under this stone 
Lye Grace & Vertue, twisted in to one 
Here rests interr 4 y Friend (there needs no more) 
Of God, of Church, of Kindred, house and poore, 
All would not save life, but here needs must lye 
So much true worth, reade here & learn to dye. 
Ita parentavit mcestissimus Nepos, S. D. 

From St. Neots Church, far the most 
beautiful in the county, all the brasses are 
gone ; the most ancient is a dark blue marble 
slab, now in the Jesus Chapel. Upon the 
face of the stone is a dog, supporting a cross, 
of which the stem is represented as budding, 
and the transverse beams as branching into 
trefoils thrice-ternate. Upon the sockets 
may be deciphered 

Joha'ne La' Lovs Le List issi.. 
Prie Pur Le Alme De Luy 
Ky Pur Lalme de Luy Pri'era 
Cent Jours de Pardoun Avera.' 

In Jesus Chapel is a piece of mural tablet, 
on which are the characters or the sov. 
Below this is an escutcheon charged with 
a crown. This has been absurdly referred 
to St. Neot. The crown on the shield was 
supposed to denote the royal birth of the 
saint (as brother of King Alfred), the r was 
copied as a b, the punctuation omitted ; and 
the archaeologist was presented with "ob-the- 
sov" for his ingenuity to work upon. Mr. 
Whitaker, who wrote the life of St. Neot, 
changed the letter o into a, and ventured 
the interpretation " Ob thesaurum in coelo," 
&c. Others suppose it 

Of your charite pray for the soul of. 

Mr. Gorhams, who, in his valuable history of 
St. Neots, enlarges upon this subject, 
imagines that the crown belonged to the 
founder of Jesus Chapel before mentioned. 

c^sssassss^=f 



IReviem 




Loci e Libra Veritatum ; Passages selected from 
Gascoigne's Theological Dictionary illustrating the 
condition of Church and State, 1403-1458. With 
an Introduction by James E. Thorold Rogers 
(Oxford : Clarendon Press. 1881.) Small 4to. 
Pp. xc. 254. 

THOROLD ROGERS has done great 
service by the publication of this book. 
SP^fl t It is a book that might have been produced 
'M64M perhaps by a publishing society, and been 
accessible, therefore, only to a few ; but 
in the ordinary way it is one that rarely meets with 
approval, either at the hands of so competent an 
editor as Mr. Rogers, or, more seldom still, at the 
hands of a publisher. Its particular value lies in the 
fact that it tells us a great deal of the social life and 
some of the political events of a period not much 
known in English history the reign of Henry VI. 
In the following passage in his Constitutional History 
(iii. p. 176) Professor Stubbs sums up an event which 
was the key-note to much that happened in those 
troublous times: "The clergy, under the guidance 
of Bouchier, were employed in the trial of Bishop 
Pecock, of Chichester, a learned and temperate divine, 
who was trying to convert the heretics by argument 
rather than by force, and who, in the strength of his 
own faith, had made admissions which recommended 
him to neither the orthodox nor the heterodox." 
That Pecock was not the enlightened precursor of 
broader views of theology ; that his trial and con- 
demnation were as much for an attempt to further the 
Yorkist cause as for heterodoxy ; that he upheld in the 
pulpit what was recognized as the crying evil of the age 
the utter worthlessness of the clergy is proved by 
Gascoigne's work. And Mr. Rogers points out with 
singular force that Pecock's tenets and preachings were 
but a sample of what was going on almost everywhere, 
and steadily bringing down upon the nation the civil 
war between York and Lancaster. That war, nominally 
the factious fight between two rival families, was really 
due to the " two cankers of the time, the total cor- 
ruption of the Church and the utter lawlessness of the 
aristocracy." How the Commons House of Parlia- 
ment stood out against these abuses, and gained 
thereby a great stride in the development of present 
constitutional law, is well told by Mr. Rogers. " To 
my mind," he says, "the parliamentary leaders 
of these six years of the fifteenth century (1 449-1454) 
are as real, as noble, and as worthy as any in the long 
succession of wise statesmen that I have read of, or 
have known." This is not saying too much. The 
Commons had to fight against the "want of gover- 
nance" in a king who was as nearly a saint as 
humanity can approach to. " There is nothing more 
touching in English history," says Mr. Rogers, " than 
the reverence men felt for Henry." Nominally, and 
through the evil counsellors who were by his side, 
Henry upheld the bad government. Then, again, the 
Commons had to fight against the power of the 
turbulent nobles, whom the king even could not check ; 
and they had to fight against thejurbulent populace, 



REVIEWS. 



121 



who had learnt rebellion from the hard school of want 
and oppression. Grand as was the career of Henry V., 
noble as was the cause of his war with France viz., 
the uprooting of religious and social abominations, 
that war cost England years of misery, though it 
gained her some of her glorious renown as a nation, 
and some of her parliamentary privileges . Mr. Rogers 
depicts Henry V. in a splendid light as a crusader 
against European immorality. Severely orthodox, 
scrupulously just, a model of private virtue, of daunt- 
less heroism, of consummate military skill are the 
characteristics of the father of that sixth Henry whose 
life was only wrong in that he was born a monarch, 
and succeeded to the inheritance of the victor of 
Agincourt. 

We cannot linger longer over this most interesting 
volume. We have no space to spare to speak of the 
social history here contained, of the new evidence con- 
tributed to the history of prices, of commerce, and of 
taxation in England. We have only to say how 
much there is to admire in the literary skill and the 
historical judgment shown in the selection here laid 
before the student ; and we lay the book down with a 
recommendation to literary men to study its quaint 
local Latin (if one may so say), and to historical 
students to study its new information. 



Records of the Past ; being English Translations of 

the Assyrian and Egyptian Monuments. Vol. XII. 

Egyptian Texts. (London : Bagster and Sons. 

1881.) 8vo, pp. viii. 161. 

We are sorry to say that this is the last volume of 
this valuable series published under the directions of 
the Biblical Archaeological Society. Whether we 
consider the political, or whether we consider the 
social and institutional history contained in these 
twelve volumes, there can but be one opinion that 
they are of the utmost value to the Biblical student. 
The present volume, in addition to the texts, now for 
the first time published, contains an alphabetical 
Table of Contents of the series of twelve volumes, 
and we are promised a supplementary volume, con- 
taining a copious alphabetical index of the proper 
names and leading points of interest in the series. 
The present volume consists of translations of the 
Book of Hades a sacred book of the Egyptians the 
dream of Thothmes IV. , and several inscriptions of 
great interest. The most interesting of these is cer- 
tainly the Book of Hades. It gives a fresh insight into 
Egyptian thought on a subject which has always 
found an important place in all systems of religion. 
How clearly the ancient thought of Egypt is paralleled 
by the thought of European nations is, however, best 
seen in the translation from a papyrus of Leyden by 
M. Maspero. In this we have a husband complaining 
of the evil condition he is in three years at least after 
he became a widower. Though the Leyden Papyrus 
is not an official document, the translator thinks it 
has a judicial character, and compares its incidents 
to the curious actions the Norsemen brought against 
ghosts in the Middle Ages. They accused, judged, 
and found guilty dead persons who rose from the 
tomb to haunt the house they lived in. In like 
manner, in this Egyptian document, it appears as if 
the husband sues " the wise spirit " of his wife, and 

VOL. IV. 



forbids it to inflict on him persecutions which no 
anterior ill-usage ever justified. To transmit the writ 
unto Ament, says M. Maspero, he probably read it 
aloud in the tomb, and then tied it to the statue 
which was supposed to represent his wife. She re- 
ceived the summons in the same way she was 
accustomed to receive the prayers and food which 
were given to her statue at certain times of the year. 
This is a glimpse of the important work we have in 
these volumes, and we congratulate the Society upon 
the successful accomplishment of its valuable labours 
labours which many might, and, indeed, must, have 
shrunk from if they had not been supported by the 
unity of effort which societies produce. 



Ancient Wood and Iron Work in Cambridge. By 
W. B. Redfarn ; the letterpress written with the 
assistance of the Rev. D. J. Stewart, M.A., and 
John Willis Clark, M.A. (Cambridge : W. P. 
Spalding.) Parts 1, 2. Folio. 
These are the first two parts of what promises to be 
a most interesting and important work. There is so 
much vamped-up woodwork to be seen now-a-days, 
that accurate representations such s are given here 
of really authentic pieces, are of special value to all 
interested in this charming branch of art. The six plates 
here produced represent a panel of bold design in Queen's 
College Lodge, carved in 1531-32, which was moved 
from the College Hall to the President's Lodge in 1 732- 
34 ; a chair in the same lodge, which, without proof, has 
been supposed to have belonged to Erasmus ; book- 
cases in Trinity Hall Library, of about 1590 ; a nobly 
proportioned chimney-piece of about 1620, at a house 
in St. Andrew's Street ; an earlier chimney-piece 
(dated 1594) at 3, Sussum's Yard, Bridge Street ; and 
a richly carved arm-chair of about 1 630. We are not 
informed as to the extent of this book, but we trust 
that before it is completed the author will add an in- 
troduction, giving an historical account of the changes 
of style in wood-work at various periods, and the in- 
fluence of foreign artists upon our English taste ; and 
we also hope that he will be able to ferret out the 
names of some of the artists who produced these 
beautiful objects. 



Southwark and its Story. By Charlotte G. 

Boger. (London : Simpkin & Marshall. 1881.) 

8vo, pp. 236. 

A series of articles in the columns of a local paper 
is the origin of this little book. The author has 
compiled some very readable matter, covering a long 
period i.e., from the time of the Romans to the present 
day. There is nothing in these pages but what is familiar 
to the antiquary ; but, as the mass of general readers 
are frequently unacquainted with the history of their 
immediate neighbourhoods, this small volume will 
prove of value in directing attention to some of those 
landmarks which are in the present day too rapidly 
disappearing. It is written in an agreeable manner, 
and cannot prove tedious to the most superficial 
reader. Southwark, the most ancient of metropolitan 
boroughs, is rich in historical interest. Mrs. Boger 
says : " It struck me that what was new and in- 

K 



122 



REVIEWS. 



teresting to myself might be equally so to others 
especially to those who have not time or courage to 
face more solid reading on the subject." The work 
tells of the visit of the Romans, Danes, and Saxons ; 
and, of course, St. Mary's Overies occupies a promi- 
nent position. The Abbey of Bermondsey and its royal 
associations are treated at some length in chapter vii. 
Some modern historical events are also graphically 
portrayed the unfortunate incident arising out of 
the visit of the Austrian General, Haynau, to the 
brewery of Messrs. Barclay and Perkins, as well as 
the large fire of 1861, the greatest conflagration which 
has occurred in the metropolis since the memorable 
fire of 1666. Mrs. Boger tells us "that she has 
omitted much of interest with regard to the inns, 
prisons, &c." These, with their peculiar associations 
and incidents, are fast becoming things of the past, 
and every year adds to their obliteration. A 
perusal of this book may awaken attention, and in- 
duce readers to refer to more comprehensive works. 
We cordially recommend it to the notice of our 
readers, and wish it every success. 

Transactions of the Essex Archaeological Society. 

Vol II. Part II., new series. (Colchester: W. 

Wiles.) 

There is much of extreme interest to the antiquary 
in this number of the Essex Archaeological Society s 
Transactions. There are " A History of the Priory at 
Hatfield Regis, alias Hatfield Broad Oak," by G. 
Alan Lowndes ; "Records relating to the Guild or 
Fraternity of Jesus, in Prittlewell," by J. A. Sparvel 
Bayly ; " Inventories of Church Goods, 6th Ed. IV.," 
and " Particulars of the Descent of the Manor of Little 
Stambridge, " by H. W. King ; and an Account of the 
town and church of Witham," by Lieut.-Col. W. J. 
Lucas. The first named Paper gives some interesting 
land records of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, 
and these are always valuable to the student of history. 
That the arable lands were cultivated upon the prin- 
ciple of the open intermixed lands of the old village 
community there is some curious evidence. We have 
the " dool, and unploughed strip of land in a ploughed 
field," which tells us of the narrow grass balks sepa- 
rating the allotments in the common fields; and there 
are one or two instances of fines for encroachment, 
which belong equally to the open-field cultivation, 
thus : ' ' The Prior was also fined sixpence for a tres- 
pass with ten of his beasts in the wheat of the Lady 
of the Manor, and fourpence for six of his pigs being 
in the same." The Paper on the Guild of Prittlewell 
gives some curious information on this important 
subject, and should be compared with the evidence 
brought together by Mr. Toulmin Smith, Mr. Coote, 
and Mr. Cornelius Walford. We have only space left 
to draw attention to the Roman pavement discovered 
at Colchester, the design of which differs considerably 
from that of any hitherto found there. The account 
of this discovery is accompanied by three illus- 
trations showing the pavement as it exists a 
conjectural restoration from the remaining details 
and a plan of the site on which it was found. We 
congratulate the Society upon its satisfactory financial 
statement, and feel sure that all the members must be 
more than satisfied with the labours of their indefati- 
gable secretary. 



An Old Story re-told from the " Newcastle Couranl." 
The Rebellion of 1 745. Printed for Private Circula- 
tion, 1 88 1. 

On the leaf next this title-page there is the 
following note : " The following compilation 
appeared in the Neivcastle Courant from week to 
week, and for that purpose was written in sections as 
it appears. It was notintended to be a complete history 
of the Rebellion, but merely a reproduction of what 
was said in the North of England concerning the 
movement at the time it took place." The excerpts 
are connected here and there by fresh matter. Those 
who have the main facts of the transaction in their 
minds will find this a very interesting narrative. It 
contains many odds and ends of information not to be 
found in histories, but which throw a good deal of 
light upon the state of the country at that time. We 
should have thought it would have found a larger 
circle of readers than that likely to arise from " private 
circulation. " 



The Western Antiquary, or Devon and Cornwall Note 
Book. Edited by W. H. K. Wright. July 188 1. 
(Plymouth : Latimer & Son.) Part. I. 
The means by which we gain knowledge of local 
antiquities are rapidly increasing and the first part of 
this new claimant is made up of some very excellent 
notes from a great many out of the way sources, and 
from the pens of many able men, among whom we may 
note Mr. J. P . Briscoe, Mr. W. H. Rogers, Rev. H. 
Friend, Mr. G. C. Boase. These notes are reprinted 
from the Weekly Mercury under the able editorship of 
Mr. W. H. K. Wright, and we cordially re-echo the 
words we said when the scheme was first started, and 
wish the Western Antiquary every success. If it 
keeps an independent course, and gathers up within 
the compass of its pages all that is yet to be learnt of 
Devon and Cornwall, it will have a career of great 
usefulness and of some considerable duration. 



Gloucestershire Notes and Queries. Parts X. and 
XL (London : W. Kent & Co. 1881.) 
These are capital continuations of previous good 
work. The real value of such publications consists in 
the fact that contributors who are interested in the 
history of their localities may send up valuable in- 
formation without troubling to put it into literary 
shape. By this means there is accumulated within a 
small compass the materials by which others may 
hereafter build up a history. We hope that Gloucester- 
shire men will enrol themselves in the good work, and 
thereby continue to make their Notes and Queries 
all that it should be in the literature of the age. It is 
much more the local inquirer than the literary man 
that can do good in this department. Among the 
most interesting articles we may mention that on the 
Custom of the Manor of Longhope, Building Tradi- 
tions, some Local Bibliographies and some Indexes to 
Monumental Inscriptions. There is also a very use- 
ful map of Gloucestershire attached to Part XI. 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



123 



Meetings of antiquarian 
Societies. 



METROPOLITAN. 

London and Middlesex Archaeological 
Society. July 29, Annual Meeting. Mr. J. G. 
Waller in the Chair. The Annual Report was read. 
It stated that the Society was in a flourishing con- 
dition, and that the funds were all that could be 
desired. The summer excursion to Enfield was, 
through the kindness of the Rev. George Hodson and 
Mr. E. Ford, one of the best the Society had had. 
The increase in the number of members was satisfac- 
tory. The report, with the balance-sheet, was 
adopted, and the officers were re-elected. 

Historical. July 21. Mr. C. Walford in the 
Chair. The following Papers were read : " Extracts 
from the first Register Book of the Parish of Penrith," 
by the Rev. E. King, being various notes referring to 
remarkable events, local and general, interspersed 
among the regular entries of baptisms, marriages, &c, 
from 1556 to 1707, referring to Border raids, visita- 
tions of the plague, induction of vicars, the Earl of 
Essex conspiracy, excommunications, &c. " Voltaire 
in his relation to the Study of General History, from 
a Philosophical Point of View," by Dr. G. G. Zerffi. 
" On the Early History of the Mediterranean Popu- 
lations from the Emblems on the Greek and Roman 
Autonymous Coins of Syria, Asia Minor, Greece, 
Italy, Spain, &c," by^Mr. Hyde Clarke. These he 
showed were symbols of the names of cities in 
Canaanite, Khita, Cypriote, Etruscan, Iberian, &c. 
From the coins, gems, and syllabaries he demonstrated 
the community of Cyprus and Attica, their resem- 
blance to Akkad in ancient India. From the numeral 
values of the Hebrew or Phoenician alphabet he 
determined their origin from the Canaanite and the 
identity of this with Khita. 

Index Society. July 25, Annual Meeting. Mr. 
Robert Harrison in the Chair. Mr. H. B. Wheatley 
read the third Annual Report of the Council, a docu- 
ment of considerable length. The main object of this 
Society was to build up gradually an encyclopaedic in- 
dex, which, being in divisions, would be in the most 
handy of forms. It was expected that before the end of 
the present year an arrangement might be completed 
by which, for a small annual sum, the Society may 
be accommodated with the use of an office in the 
neighbourhood of the British Museum. The Index 
of Obituary Notices for 1880 will be published in a 
separate volume. The Index for 1880 will be the 
largest yet issued, as it contains a considerable number 
of entries from American papers. The Chairman, 
in moving the adoption of the Report, congratulated 
the Society on its satisfactory character. The progress 
of a society like that was necessarily slow. They had 
to get friends to do voluntary work, and they had to 
spend a portion of their money in printing. It would 
be a great thing for them to have an office, with a 
permanent official, for they mainly depended on 
voluntary work at present. They looked forward to 
the foundation of a library of indexes. They rejected 



no branch of knowledge, and earnestly invited an in- 
crease of members. At present the bulk of the work 
done had been antiquarian, but other subjects had 
been and would be taken up. Mr. Tomlinson, 
F.R.S., seconded the proposal, which was at once 
adopted. On the motion of Mr. H. T. Wood, 
seconded by Mr. Gomme, thanks were passed to the 
auditors. The new Council was elected, the American 
Minister being president. 

PROVINCIAL. 

COTTESWOLD NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB. July 
12. Sir W. V. Guise, Bart., President. Under the 
guidance of Mr. Witts, the Club proceeded to examine 
the earthworks at Cooper's Hill. These are upon a 
scale so extended, and embrace so large an area, that 
it seems strange they should hitherto have escaped 
notice. The fact that these earthworks are in all their 
most salient points concealed by woodland is doubtless 
the cause that they have hitherto escaped the attention 
of antiquaries. They may be described as two con- 
centric lines of rampart and foss, extending from 
Prinknash on the west to a point in the Buckholt Wood 
on the east, a distance of nearly two miles, and resting 
either flank on the precipitous face of Cooper's Hill, 
which thus forms a natural fortification, the gorge of 
which is protected by the double line of vallation. 
The area enclosed within these boundaries is about a 
square mile in extent much too large, as it would 
seem, for a military work, but well adapted for an 
oppidum which would serve for the protection and 
settlement of an entire tribe, with its flocks and herds, 
and cultivated ground. Further to strengthen this 
extensive line of rampart, there is in rear thereof, and 
about the centre, a small irregular fort, containing less 
than an acre, which was doubtless used as a place 
d'armes. This, like the rest, has to be sought in 
thick woodland, which is so intricate and bewildering, 
that even with the aid of Mr. Witts and the Ordnance 
Map, it was not always easy to determine the relation 
of the fortification to the general disposition of the 
ground. The inner line of rampart, where exposed, has 
been much levelled by cultivation, but it is well seen on 
the eastern flank above Prinknash. The party made 
their way to the May-pole, on Cooper's Hill, and 
then, after a short delay, to the West Tump barrow, 
about a mile distant, where Mr. Witts had had the 
dry walling exposed and the excavations laid open for 
examination. This tumulus was the subject of one of 
the last letters written by Professor Rolleston, who 
from the first took a most lively interest in it, and pro- 
nounced it to be one of the most interesting barrows 
ever discovered, being a transition barrow, combining 
features both of the long and round barrow. This 
barrow is of the "horned" form, 149 feet in extreme 
length and 76 at its greatest width. It is carefully 
constructed of hand-packed stones, and is surrounded 
by dry walling, very neatly and carefully put together. 
The true entrance was not found at the "horned" 
extremity, where it would naturally be looked for, 
but at a distance of 82 feet from the southern horn a 
break was found in the exterior line of walling, which 
proved to be the entrance to a sepulchral chamber. 
Here great quantities of human bones were found 
in a confused mass, but the further the excavators 
penetrated into the interior the more perfect became 

K 2 



124 



MEETINGS OE ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



the skeletons, till at length, at a distance of 24 feet 
from the outer wall, the trench terminated in a sort of 
semicircle, around the end of which were five flat 
stones, on which, sitting in a contracted position, was 
the skeleton of a young woman, with the remains of a 
baby in close proximity. At this point the trench 
came to an end, and there were no further signs of 
bones in any direction. Professor Rolleston was of 
opinion that it was in honour of this last body that this 
great cairn of stones had been piled up who shall say 
how many thousands of years ago ? All the skulls 
found were of the long-headed type. They have been 
properly cared for, and some of them, carefully set up, 
will find a place in the Gloucester Museum. Mr. 
Witts read a Paper on the barrow, embodying the 
facts above stated. 

Surrey Archaeological Society July 27. 
The Dorking Annual Excursion. The first visit 
made was to Wotton House, noted as the residence of 
the celebrated John Evelyn. The valuable paintings, 
including the fine half-length of Evelyn, by Sir Godfrey 
Kneller, also the unrivalled collection of books and 
manuscripts in the library were inspected. At Wotton 
Church a Paper was read on its history by Mr. Milbourn. 
Having described the architectural features, he went 
on to speak of the various monuments, particularly 
alluding to those of John Evelyn and his wife, Mary 
Evelyn, in the Evelyn sepulchral chapel, and of 
William Glanvill, situated in the churchyard. The 
last-named bequeathed a certain sum of money for 
the benefit of five poor boys of Wotton, not exceeding 
the age of sixteen, on condition that such boys should 
attend on the anniversary of his death at his grave, 
and repeat the Lord's Prayer, the Apostles' Creed, 
and the Ten Commandments, also read the fifteenth 
chapter of the First Corinthians, and write in a 
legible hand two verses of the same. Mr. Evelyn 
pointed out that the ancient arch at the west end, 
which was thought by many to be Anglo-Saxon, was 
identical with one in'the chancel, for which a modern 
arch had been substituted. The party then proceeded 
to Abinger Church, and here the first thing which 
attracted notice was the old stocks, a memorial of 
bygone days, which has been carefully preserved by a 
roofing. A Paper was here read by Major Heales, 
who remarked that they were on the highest point on 
which any church in the county was built, and that 
the parish, although in length about nine miles, at 
the widest part was very little more than one. It 
was called in Domesday Book Addisbourne, the 
bourne having some allusion to the brook which they 
had seen more than once in the journey thither, and 
he said there was no doubt that the two mills situated 
on the stream were on the identical site of two referred 
to in Domesday. The earliest part of the present 
church was the nave, the chief and remarkable feature 
of which consisted in the three windows which were 
placed very high up on the wall on either side, and 
which there was every reason to believe were of an 
early Norman period, perhaps from 1120 to 11 50. 
Where the wall was thinned off, it was probable that 
there stood the original chancel arch, as it was clear 
that the present chancel was of a considerably later 
period, he presumed of the Early English period in 
the twelfth century. Having spoken of the absence 
of monuments, Major Heales called attention to the 



pulpit, the ancient carved panels of which were of 
Flemish work of the sixteenth century. He then 
spoke of the goods of the church in the time of 
Edward VI. , the inventory of which had been pre- 
served. Concluding, he said he found from the re- 
gister, which commenced in the year 1559, that in 
1654 there was a meeting of the parishioners, who 
agreed to permit a gentleman named Hussey and his 
son, of Lincoln's Inn, to build for themselves a pew, 
which was allotted to them in perpetuity, the premium 
which they paid to the parish being 5, and the 
annual rent for a 1,000 years to be a peppercorn. 
The last place visited was Shere, and the party pro- 
ceeded at once to the church, where the Rector (the 
Rev. L. R. Adams) and his curates received them. 
Mr. Ralph Nevill described the architecture of the 
church. Mr. Nevill said the earliest part of the 
church of which they had cognizance was of Transi- 
tional date, of the twelfth century, the tower and an 
arch (now walled up) leading to the south transept 
being of this date. The tower was of a too unusually 
light and good design to be Early Norman. In the 
middle story was a double round-headed window, and 
the belfry stage was lighted by three round windows 
on each side. The south aisle was divided from the 
nave by a somewhat peculiar arcade. The arches 
were certainly Early ; but he could not say whether 
the exceedingly clumsy capitals were now of their 
original shape or had been cut down, as was so easy 
where the material was chalk. In the Tower of 
London were some of Norman date of somewhat the 
same character, in which a circular shaft supported a 
square order, but in that case the projecting corners 
were roughly carved. Other features of the church 
were described, including the round arch of the south 
door, the elegant carved work in which was men- 
tioned, and the two lancet windows in the south 
aisle were said to be of Early English date. The 
decorated portion of the church consisted of the tower 
arches, the north transept chantry and window, the 
east windows of the chancel and south chapel, and 
also the two-light window on the south side, which 
was, however, of rather earlier character than the re- 
mainder, and was a graceful specimen. It was evident 
that the old Norman arches of the tower were taken 
down and replaced by those of Decorated date. The 
arch on the south side was, he concluded, built in at 
an earlier date, probably when the passage to the 
belfry was cut into the south-west pier. There was 
no distinctive moulding to the arch, but he concluded 
that it was Early from the fact of its being built of 
the local sandstone, which was not much used at a 
later date. The chancel arch and its capitals, being 
no doubt originally hidden from view by the rood- 
screen, was, as was commonly the case, of plain 
character. There was on the north side a squint for 
watching the two altars from outside the church, the 
arrangement for double view being somewhat peculiar. 
The arch could be seen on the outside. This was 
thought by some to be for the use of lepers, but he 
was inclined to think it was for the purpose of pro- 
tecting the church against robberies, which were fre- 
quent, or for watching a corpse lying in state. The 
Paper also dealt with the histories of the manors 
of Shere and Shere Vachery, and gave some parti- 
culars gleaned from the churchwardens' accounts of 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES 



125 



Henry VII. The plan adopted for raising money in 
those days seemed to have been to hold a drinking, 
the proceeds of which went to the church. There were 
records of several successful bouts, and of one held 
about 1500 by John Redford, the rector, at his own 
expense, for strangers brought together by him, at 
which he raised the sum of 1 t>s. 4^. There were 
also numerous records of king-games, a sort of 
summer May-game, and other sports that brightened 
the lives of our villagers before the icy hand of 
Puritanism and social changes reduced them to dull 
drudgery. In conclusion, Mr. Nevill said most of 
the brasses mentioned had disappeared, but most of 
the slabs remained, many being to the Bray and Dun- 
comb families. These seemed to have been of extra- 
ordinary long life, and there were two instances of 
97, and one of 92, and eleven names from slabs gave 
an average of 83^ years. Mr. Nevill then read a 
Paper, which had been prepared by Mr. Granville 
Leveson-Gower, on " The Parochial History of 
Shere. " The writer stated that Aubrey derived the 
name from the clearness of the stream at Shere, but 
this derivation was unintelligible ; and Manning was 
probably right when he derived it from " shire," a 
division or separation. Some account of the Bray 
family was given ; a brief memoir of William 
Bray, the author, with Manning, of The History of 
Surrey, who was born there, being also introduced. 
The writer stated that the earliest register now to be 
found commenced in 1691, but Manning and Bray's 
History stated that it commenced 20th August, 1545. 
He did not believe it was altogether lost, and it 
might possibly be among Mr. Bray's documents, or 
in the depths of the parish chest in the south 
porch. He trusted that inquiries would be made as 
to the whereabouts of the missing book. The present 
register had no entries which specially helped to 
illustrate the parochial history of Shere ; and there 
was an interesting book of churchwardens' accounts, 
of the time of Henry VII., from which several ex- 
tracts were given in Manning, but it deserved to be 
printed in full, and was worthy of a place in the 
Society's volumes. The Paper gave an abstract of 
the will of Robert SearclirT, rector of the church, 
who died in 1412, and whose brass in the chancel 
gives a representation of him in his vestments. The 
wills of some other rectors and inhabitants were also 
mentioned. 

The Record Society. August 9, Annual 
Meeting. Mr. James Crossley, F.S.A., President, in 
the Chair. The Report, which was read by the Chair- 
man, stated that since the last annual meeting two 
volumes have been issued to the members. These 
are an Index to the Lancashire and Cheshire Wills, 
preserved at Chester, from the earliest date, about 
154S, to the year 1650, edited by Mr. J. P. Earwaker, 
M. A., F.S.A. From these volumes it is now possible 
for any one to ascertain at once what wills, relating to 
any particular family, are there preserved, and also 
whether any will of which he may be in search is to 
be found there or not. Roughly speaking, these two 
volumes are an index to about 25 ,000 wills. In order 
to render them as complete as possible, the editor 
has added a list of the early wills copied into the 
Registers or Enrolment Books at the Bishop's Court, 
Chester ; a list of the wills printed by the Chetham 



Society ; a list of the wills examined by the Revs. J. 
and G. J. Piccope, and since then either lost or 
destroyed ; and a list of the wills found in one of the 
Harleian MSS. in the British Museum. To the 
second volume is appended a list of the Lancashire 
and Cheshire wills proved in London during the 
Commonwealth period, 1650-1660, and also a list of 
the Administrations granted in London during the 
same period. To each volume the editor has added 
an introduction, which contains much information 
bearing upon the Lancashire and Cheshire wills. 
With regard to future volumes, the Council direct 
attention to the following list : Volume V., the 
second for the year 1880-81, will be a volume of 
Cheshire Funeral Certificates, from the Harleian and 
Lansdowne MSS. in the British Museum, and a few 
from the Public Record Office, edited by Mr. J. Paul 
Rylands, F.S.A. Volume VI., the first volume for 
the year 1881-82, will be the Registers of the Parish 
Church of Prestbury, co. Chester, from the years 1560 
to 1630, edited by Mr. James Croston, F.S.A. Next 
year, being the Preston Guild year (held every twenty 
years), it has been suggested that the Guild Rolls, of 
which the earliest is dated 1 397, and which abound 
in information relating to the chief Lancashire families, 
should, if possible, be printed before then, and the 
Council hope that this will be able to be carried into 
effect. The volume will be edited by Mr. W. A. 
Abram. During the past year eighteen new members 
have joined the Society, and the present number is 
275. 

Kent Arcjleo logical Society. Twenty-fourth 
Annual Meeting, Canterbury. Earl Amherst, Presi- 
dent, in the Chair. The Rev. Canon Scott-Robert- 
son, Hon. Secretary, read the Annual Report, which 
stated that the Council were preparing to issue 
another volume of Archceologia Cantiana. Interest- 
ing discoveries of foundations containing Roman 
masonry have been recently made at St. Pancras 
ruins, in the cemetery of the ancient Abbey of St. 
Augustine, outside the city of Canterbury. Other 
discoveries have been made near Canterbury and 
Wingham by Mr. Dowker. At the Roman castrum 
of Reculver, the demolition of certain wooden out- 
buildings has exposed to view a portion of the core 
of the Roman wall, not before seen. Owing to a 
slight landslip this masonry needs to be underpinned. 
The Admiralty had resolved to underpin it, and to 
face it with new brickv/ork. The Secretary having 
represented the state of the case to Colonel Pasley, 
the Director of Works, that gentleman has most 
kindly ordered that, instead of a complete masking 
wall, nothing more than piers necessary for support 
shall be placed over the old walFcore. The Report 
was adopted, on the motion of the Bishop of Dover, 
seconded by Sir Walter Stirling. The visitors then 
proceeded to St. Martin's Church, on St. Martin's 
Hill, where the Rev. Canon Routledge read an in- 
teresting Paper on that ancient edifice. The original 
church, allowed to fall into partial ruin after the 
Roman evacuation of Britain, was probably restored 
towards the end of the sixth century, to serve as an 
oratory for Queen Bertha and her attendant, Bishop 
Leotard, and re-dedicated to St. Martin of Tours, and 
portions of that building, he believed, were existing 
even in the present day. He assigned the different 



126 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



gortions of the church, as it now stands, to Roman, 
axon or pre-Norman, Norman, Early English, 
fourteenth century Decorated, beginning of the fif- 
teenth century, and end of the fifteenth century 
periods. He called special attention to the circular 
buttress on the south side of the nave, which was very 
peculiar. It was not unlike a circular projection in 
the Saxon tower of Sompting, in Sussex. The most 
interesting of all was the font. Assuming it to be 
Norman, it was almost unique, as being built up of 
various stones in different tiers. It was more than 
probable that the whole font was pre-Norman, 
chiselled out into the present pattern. The party 
then moved down to the grounds of the Kent and 
Canterbury Hospital, where the Roman foundations 
of St. Pancras Chapel, said to have been consecrated 
by St. Augustine, have recently been excavated, 
through the kindness of the Bishop of Dover and 
Canon Routledge. The latter gentleman read a 
Paper descriptive of the chapel and remains, and 
afterwards made a brief statement as to the excava- 
tions. At the western porch there were still standing 
portions of a wall built with Roman tiles and sea- 
shore mortar, pronounced by Mr. Parker to be a 
Roman wall. They had discovered the foundations 
of a wall and buttresses exactly corresponding on the 
other side. Below the surface there were parts of 
a pavement consisting of coloured and patterned 
tiles. The foundation walls were composed of Roman 
tiles, with here and there salmon-coloured mortar. 
That there was on this spot some early Roman 
buildings, whether of a secular or religious character, 
was indisputable. The Roman tiles were pronounced 
to be of a good time, and Mr. Roach Smith says 
" there can be no doubt of the foundations being those 
of a rather extensive Roman building." The con- 
crete floors at the east end of the nave and in the 
southern porticus were apparently Roman or Saxon. 
He believed there was originally a small Roman 
church, which, falling into partial ruin, was restored 
by Ethelbert, and converted by Augustine to Christian 
worship. 

Wilts Archaeological Society. Annual 
Meeting. Sir Charles Hobhouse, President. Three 
days were devoted to excursions around Bradford- on- 
Avon and other parts of North Wilts. During the 
week's discussions the state of Stonehenge occupied 
prominent attention. The Committee reported that, 
in conjunction with the Secretary of the British 
Archaeological Association, a representation had been 
made to the Society of Antiquaries and the Royal 
Archaeological Institute of Great Britain, calling their 
immediate attention to the insecure condition of 
certain stones on the outer circle, and their imminent 
danger of falling. At the same time, the question of 
re-erecting the great trilithon which fell in 1797, and 
which had been so often advocated by the archaeolo- 
gists, was again pressed upon the parent societies. 
A. Committee of the Society of Antiquaries, includ- 
ing Sir John Lubbock, had consequently visited 
Stonehenge last month, and made a careful examina- 
tion of the stones, the result being that the whole 
question was to be submitted to a general meeting of 
the Society of Antiquaries next November. In the 
course of the discussion it was stated the leaning 
Stone was at an angle of sixty degrees, and that unless 



some measures were immediately adopted to make it 
secure, its remarkable character would be destroyed. 

[We are obliged to defer our Reports of the Annual 
Meetings of the Archaeological Institute and of the 
Cambrian Archaeological Society until next month, 
owing to pressure on our space.] 



bituar^. 



JOHN HILL BURTON, LL.D. 
Born Au. 22, 1809 ; died Aug. 10, 188 1. 
The Historiographer Royal for Scotland was a native 
of Aberdeen. His father was a military officer, and' 
died while the future Scottish historian was still 
young. Mr. Burton was apprenticed to an Aberdeen 
' ' advocate," or solicitor ; but he soon wearied of the 
monotony of that business, and set himself to work 
his way as a practitioner at the Scotch bar. He 
became an advocate in 1831, and soon began to 
devote his energies to writing, and contributing several 
papers to the Westminster Review, and subsequently 
to the Edinburgh. His Life and Correspondence of 
David Hume was rst published. The Lives of 
Simon Lord Lovat and Duncan Forbes of Culloden 
followed in 1847. Two years later was published his 
Political and Social Economy, which had a considerable 
success at the time. Mr. Burton next published An 
Lntroduclion to the Works of Jeremy Bentliam. 
Among his minor works the most interesting are The 
Scot Abroad and the Book Hunter. But some time 
before 1853 Mr. Burton had seriously devoted himself 
to the study of the history of his native country. In 
that year he published a History of Scotland from the 
Rez'olution to the Extinction of the last Jacobite Insur- 
rection. This, however, was but the introduction to 
his greater work ; and in 1867 appeared the first four 
volumes of a History of Scotland from Agricola's 
Invasion to the Revolution of 1688. Three more 
volumes were published in 1870, while in 1873 a 
second edition of the same work appeared in eight 
volumes. This work it was which brought him the 
appointment to the ancient but undefined office of 
Historiographer Royal for Scotland. Mr. Burton's 
last work was the Ilistory of the reign of Queen Anne. 



DR. FERDINAND KELLER, F.S.A. 

Born Dec. 20, 1800 ; died July, 1 881. 

We are indebted to Mr. W. M. Wylie, F.S.A., 
for the following particulars of one of the most pro- 
found and most assiduous students of archaeological 
science of modern times. Dr. Keller was born in the 
Schloss at Martalen, in the Canton of Zurich, and 
belonged to one of those old families of Switzerland 
who seem to have taken root there in perpetuity. 
There is still extant a grant of arms to the Keller 
family by the King Maximilian in 1487, at Antwerp. 
Early in life Dr. Keller seems to have resided for 
several years in England, where he filled the post of 
tutor in the Seymour family. Here probably he 
acquired his very accurate knowledge of our language 
and a strong partiality for Englishmen. However 
the mal du pays was too strong to allow Dr. Keller to 
remain absent for many years, and we find him back 



OBITUARY. 



127 



in Ziirich in 1832. Here occurred one of those little 
events which, trifling as they appear, so frequently 
shape out a man's future life and destiny. During an 
evening ramble in April, 1832, at a spot called 
Burgholzli, near Zurich, Dr. Keller found some 
peasants uprooting an ancient tree. It had fixed 
itself on some pre-historic tumulus, the contents of 
which were thus brought to light, and excited a very 
strong interest in Keller's mind. He called his 
friends together the next day to view these relics of 
ages past, and out of this fortuitous assembly arose 
the Society of Antiquaries of Zurich, which, under 
Keller's guidance, soon took brevet-rank among the 
first societies of its kind in Europe. Dr. Keller was 
elected President, and filled the post till 1871, when 
ill-health compelled his resignation. During this long 
period, however, Dr. Keller devoted himself con- 
tinually, both mind and body, to the study of archaeo- 
logy and the well-doing of the Society he had called 
into existence. Let any one take the trouble to 
examine the literary doings of the Society of Anti- 
quaries of Zurich, and the noble Museum they have 
collected, and it will be seen what can be done, with 
the smallest possible finance, when will and abilities 
are present here, to be sure, we have the will and 
abilities of Keller. His Society now stands alone on 
its mettle. Will it maintain its doings and reputa- 
tion ? Our wish is that Keller's spirit and a double 
portion of that spirit, could this be possible may 
continue to animate his successors. One thing forces 
itself on our notice that the Zurich Society have 
known how to effect much with the modicum of 
money at their command, putting to shame our 
English confederations, who, too often, waste abundant 
funds in costly working, with but a modicum of 
return. Dr. Keller's patient work and research was 
however, not without reward, for in 1853 came the 
most precious discovery of the Pfahlbauten. This, 
however, like other discoveries, might have passed by 
unknown and uncomprehended, but for Keller's pre- 
sence. He alone it was who furnished the clue to unveil- 
ing the mystery, and urged on the active research of 
others. The whole of the Swiss lakes and morasses 
were found to teem with remains of a bygone race, or 
races, who had lived above their waters during the many 
ages of the Stone, Bronze, and Early Iron Periods. In 
fact an entire old past world was opened up to us, with 
all its effete cultivation. For all this we have to thank 
Dr. Keller. Others tried to deprive him of his 
laurels, but his friends soon put things right. The 
Pfahlbauten discoveries brought Keller into much 
closer relation with our English antiquaries, and many 
visited Switzerland to profit by his acquaintance. A 
favoured few, indeed, became his intimate friends, 
and the prevalent regret of us all was that we had 
him not permanently among us. On his deathbed he 
sent us vwribundus touching words of adieu. He 
was a man of simple habits, full of a quiet zeal and 
learning, and as good and true a gentleman as ever 
lived. Dr. Keller's account of the Pfahlbauten dis- 
coveries was translated into English and published by 
Mr. J. E. Lee, F.S.A., in 1866, and they had the 
benefit of the author's revision. We may add that Dr. 
Keller's Papers were communicated to the Society 
of Antiquaries through Mr. Wylie, who translated 
them before presentation. 



Zbc Hntfquar^'s IRote^Boofe, 



Account of the Village - Officers of 
tondamandalam under the presidency of 
Fort St. George. 1. A karnam, who keeps all 
accounts belonging to the village ; enjoys a portion of 
land for his service, denominated kanakku-manyam, 
which is inserted in the Terabadi, and is generally 
situated in the extremity of the bounds of the village, 
in order to prevent others encroaching on them ; 
besides this he receives a fee called shalaga, or wora, 
for keeping an account of the measurement of heaps, 
and also, he gets a fee called kuri-kadir, or "sheaf- 
fee " for chopping the stalks from dry grain. 

2. A kavel or kavelgar, whose duty it is to watch 
the bounds of the village, crops, stacks, heaps, and 
other property of the inhabitants in the village ; he 
enjoys a certain quantity of terabadi-manyam, a part 
of which generally lies at the extremity of the limits 
of the village ; as also kavel- valakku, or fee in sheaves. 
This officer is held answerable for all thefts committed 
on the heaps of the village ; and for such of the 
property of the inhabitants as is stolen by night. 

3. A karuman, or blacksmith, is employed to 
manufacture the iron implements required for agri- 
culture, and to assist in building houses for the 
cultivators, in which former case the cultivators furnish 
him with iron and charcoal only ; and, in the latter, 
they pay him for his labour. He also possesses 
terabadi-manyam in the village, together with shema 
(or sheaf) and hand-fees. 

4. Tatchen, or carpenter, who manufactures all the 
wooden implements of agriculture ; he claims the 
same fees as the blacksmith. 

5. A tattan, or goldsmith's duty, is to shroff (to 
assay) the money collections of the village ; he also 
works in gold and silver, and enjoys a terabadi-manyam 
as well as the fees valakku and mara. 

6. A kannan, or brass-smith, whose duty is to cast 
images for . the pagodas, and manufacture brass pots, 
&c, for the use of the inhabitants ; he enjoys terabadi- 
manyam but this does not exist in every village. 

7. A kal-tatchan, or stone-cutter, to cut images, 
build pagodas, and manufacture stone mortars, grind- 
ing stones, &c, for the use of the inhabitants, for 
which purpose a terabadi-manyam is optionally 
allowed him, but not in every village. 

8. A kushavan, or pot maker, supplies earthen 
pots to the cultivators, pot-rings to the wells, and 
anai-kal, or spouts for the sluices of tanks, and 
accordingly enjoys terabadi-manyam, as well as 
valaku or sheaf and hand-fees. 

9. Navidan, or barber, attends all marriages and 
funerals of the cultivators, and enjoys terabadi- 
manyam, fees, &c, besides which the inhabitants 
optionally pay him for his trouble. 

10. A vannan, or washerman, washes the clothes 
of the cultivators, attends all marriages and funerals ; 
and is also allowed a terabadi-manyam, notwith- 
standing, he is paid optionally by the cultivators. 

11. A panisevan, or virakudiyan, literally a work- 
man, attends on the head-cultivator of the village, 
announces all marriages and deaths to the com- 



128 



THE ANTIQUARY $ NOTE-BOOK. 



munity,\ and is allowed a certain quantity of terabadi- 
manyam with sheaf-and-hand-fees. 

13. A valluvan, or tailor, sews the clothes of the 
cultivators, and prays at festivals and at the time of 
measuring the crops ; and is, in consequence, paid a 
fee in grain mixed with chaff. He sometimes 
officiates in the capacity of a kadiimi, a snake-doctor. 

13. Avaniyan, or oilman, is to press oil for the use 
of the inhabitants and of the pagodas. He has no 
fee whatever alloted for this service, but is exempted 
from professional duty. 

14. A par-vaniyan, or chetti, keeps a shop in the 
village, and supplies the inhabitants with spices, and 
is likewise exempted from duty. 

15. A yelavanyan, or gardener, to cultivate the 
gardens, and sell greens and fruits ; he is exempted 
from duty also. 

16. Valay&n, fisherman or boatman, whose business 
is to open and shut the sluices of the tank ; is 
employed at the ferry in cases where the village 
happens to be situated on the bank of a river ; and, 
in consequence, enjoys terabadi-manyam fees, &c, he 
also fishes in tanks, &c, and sells the fish in the village. 

17. A vochan, whose office it is to perform piija in 
the pagoda of the village deity, and to carry a fire- 
pot on his head when any dispute happens, is 
entitled to a fee in the village. 

18. Totty, kumbokutti, or vettiyan, who is a Pariar 
by caste, is employed in measuring all the heaps of 
grain and carrying letters and money in his first 
capacity ; in the second, he waters the fields ; and in 
the third, burns the dead. He possesses manyam 
with fees. 

In addition to these, there exists a calendar 
Brahman to point out lucky and unlucky days and 
hours for commencing ploughing, sowing, cutting the 
crops, irrigating, &c, and to officiate as a priest at 
marriages and funeral ceremonies ; there are also cow- 
keepers or shepherds to attend the cattle and sheep 
of the cultivators. 

[On the Revenue System of Fort St. George : 
Journal of Asiatic Society (Great Britain), vol. 
i. pp. 298-300.] 

Pye Book. The following curious observations on 
the word Pye, by the late Sir T. Duffus Hardy are 
taken from the Appendix to the Thirty- Fifth Report 
of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records (p. 195): 

" The derivation of the word " Pye-book" is by no 
means certain. It has, however, been suggested that 
the word pye, or pie, may be an abbreviation of the 
Greek Tll-va.%, pinax (an index), or of the Latin pyc- 
taciiim (a list or schedule), or else taken from the 
mediaeval Latin v/ord pica, a single-pronged instrument 
used by way of a pointer or index. Though the ety- 
mology is obscure, its meaning is clear enough, being 
nothing more nor less than an index of names with 
references to the places where they occur. The Latin 
word " pica" has another meaning besides that given 
above, which Ducaange explains as a directory 
(directoire). He derives his opinion from the Brevi- 
arium printed in 1555, where pica is thus defined, 
" Incipit ordo Breviarii seu Portiforii secundum morem 
" et consuetudinem ecclesire Sarum Auglicanse una 
" cum ordinali, seu quod usitato vocabulo dicitur Pica, 
" sive directorium sacerdotum ;" and under the word 



" Ordinale," he gives a similar interpretation, "Or, 
"dinele quod usitato dicitur pica sive Directorium 
" Sacerdotum." Caxton printed in 1477 a Directorium 
Seu Pica Sarum. From these instances it is evident 
that the pica was the Roman ordinal or directory, in 
which was ordained, in a technical way, the manner 
of saying and solemnizing the daily offices of the 
church ; the difficulty and intricacy of which, as well 
as the meaning of the word pye, is thus alluded to in 
the Preface to the Prayer- Book of King Edward the 
Sixth, "Moreover the number and hardness of the 
' ' rules called the Pie, and the manifold changings of 
' ' the service, was the cause, that to turn this book 
" only was so hard and intricate a matter, that many 
"times there was more business to find out what 
" should be read, than to read it when it was found." 
From this it would seem that the Directory instead of 
clearing rendered the matter more obscure, and hence 
perhaps may have arisen the typographical expression 
of type being thrown into pie i.e., to be placed in 
proper order from disorder. The pica type of later 
days probably took its name from the large letters in 
which the Anglican Portiforium was printed ; be this, 
however, as it may, it is conclusive that the word pica 
or pie signified a directory or index. I have not as 
yet been able to discover the earliest use of the word 
in the sense of a simple index of legal or civil mat- 
ters, but it seems probable that it is derived from the 
ecclesiastical term pica, abbreviated into pi, pie, or 
pye. The etymology of the word is yet to be fixed. 

The earliest occurrence that I have met with of the 
word pye, in the sense of an index, is in the year 1547 
in a document containing a list of names of persons. It 
is headed "A pye of all the names of such Balives as 
been to accompte pro anno regni regis Edwardi Sexti 
primo." 

There is also a series of books in the Public Record 
Office called " Pye Books," which are indices to the 
indictments in the Court of Queen's Bench at West- 
minster. They commence in the year 1673, and there- 
fore not so early as those at Lancaster, which begin 
in 1 660 but relate only to affidavits. 

(Signed) T. Duffus Hardy. 

Wordsworth. The following copy of aholograph 
letter of the poet in the possession of Mr. B. R. 
Wheatley, is characteristic and interesting from a 
biographical point of view : 

Rydal Mount, August 14th, '41. 
My dear Mr. Powell, 

I deferred writing to you till I could learn the 
price of the carriage upon the portraits that were sent 
down for my signature. It is $s. 8d., which be so 
good as to pay Mr. Quillinan when you may happen 
to see him. The likeness seems much approved in 
this neighbourhood, and the engraving is certainly 
excellent. I cannot suggest anything for its improve- 
ment. Our medical attendant is about to send for an 
impression, which he means to lend to a Bookseller 
in Ambleside, to be exposed at his shop-window for a 
while, and this may induce others to apply for copies. 
There is not much enthusiasm in this neighbourhood, 
so that I could scarcely venture to recommend send- 
ing copies upon trial to Kendal or Keswick in par- 
ticular. At Kendal, the Booksellers I employ, who 
publish my vol. upon the Lakes, are named Hudson 



THE ANTIQUARY S NOTE-BOOK. 



129 



and Nicholson. They are respectable people, and 
perhaps a few copies might be disposed of there by 
them. I will mention the subject to my son, William, 
who lives at Carlisle, and he will be able to ascertain 
whether there is likely to be any demand there. 
There is a shop there, kept by Mr. Turnham, who has 
prints sent down from London to dispose of upon com- 
mission; but with what success I know not; but I 
do know that there is little interest taken in literature 
or works of art in these two counties; and for my- 
self, I do honestly believe that there is not a part of 
Great Britain in which I am less thought of than in 
Cumberland and West d ., if you except my immediate 
neighbourhood. Pray thank Mr. Plow (?) on my part 
for his obliging intention of sending me a few copies 
of the print. They will be much valued by my con- 
nections. Many thanks for the package of cheeses, 
and believe me, my dear Mr. Powell, 
Faithfully yours, 

Wm. Wordsworth. 



Hntiquarian 1Rew0. 



The old parish church of Cheadle has been com- 
pletely restored, under the care of Mr. G. E. Street. 

The Rev. Kenelm H. Smith, of Ely, has been ap- 
pointed by the Society of Antiquaries of London 
Local Secretary for Cambridgeshire, by diploma. 

Among the manuscripts added to the Bibliotheque 
Nationale in 1880 is a collection of letters of Alfred 
de Musset, enclosed in a sealed chest, which is not to 
be opened before the year 1910. 

The chapel of Lincoln's Inn, which is said to have 
been designed by Inigo Jones, is about to be altered 
and enlarged under the superintendence of Sir E. 
Beckett, Bart, Q.C. 

The north porch of Salisbury Cathedral was thrown 
open lately, on the completion of a restoration carried 
out as a memorial to the late Dean Hamilton, at the 
expense of his widow. The work has been carried 
out from the designs of Mr. G. E. Street. 

Mr. James Coleman announces for early publication 
a fac-simile of William Penn's original plan and pro- 
posal for the founding and building of the splendid 
city of Philadelphia. The fac-simile will be re- 
produced from a copy of the book purchased from the 
Penn Library. 

An action by the Attorney-General, to restrain the 
Corporation of Wallingford from destroying an old 
Roman camp at Wallingford, which was used as a 
recreation ground, was recently heard before Vice- 
Chancellor Hall. We are glad to learn that the Cor- 
poration submitted to a perpetual injunction upon 
terms which had been agreed to. 

Nooks and Comers of Lancashire and Cheshire, 
by Mr. James Croston, F.S.A., author of On Foot 
through the Peak, A History of Samlesbury, &c, 
which has been for some time in the press, will be 
ready at the end of August or early in September. 



Mr. John Heywood, of Manchester, will be the 
publisher. 

The ancient parish church of Salton-in-Ryedale, near 
Malton, was recently reopened by his Grace the 
Archbishop of York, after undergoing restoration. 
This is the second of the few ancient churches of which 
Ryedale can boast that have been opened recently after 
restoration, and the work is about to be extended 
shortly to at least three other edifices in the district. 
When will this work of restoration end ? 

Colonel Wilson and Mr. W. M. Ramsay are at 
present making an archaeological tour in Phrygia 
and Kappadokia. At Doghanlu they have made 
careful drawings of the Phrygian inscriptions, our 
previous copies of which they have found to be very 
inaccurate ; and they have also taken measurements 
of the tombs and their ornaments. One of the 
chief objects of their tour is to examine the Hittite 
sculptures and inscriptions at Boghaz Keui and Eyuk. 

Mr. Robert Linton, Kilmaurs, near Dundee, who 
has lately made some valuable and rare fossil dis- 
coveries, has added another to his list. In the Annick 
Lodge shale he has found a very fine specimen of the 
Labyrinthodon order. It is embedded in a slab 31 
inches by 17, and shows 28 distinct vertebrae and 12 
ribs, above one-half of which are complete and in posi- 
tion. Mr. Linton has so carefully cleaned the bed of 
the fossil that every detail is visible to the unaided eye. 

The last portion of the ancient prison associated 
with the burning of Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer, 
known as the "Bocardo," or Bishop's Hole," situate 
at the back of the ancient hostelry, the "Ship 
Hotel," in the city of Oxford, is about to pass into 
the possession of a new owner, who will build an ex- 
tensive furniture warehouse on the site of the " Ship 
Hotel " and adjoining premises. We are glad to 
learn, however, that the " Bocardo " will be carefully 
preserved in its original form. 

We are informed that two round barrows in the 
parish of Duntsborne Abbas, which are marked on 
the Ordnance map, and are described as two of the 
finest in the county, are now in process of demolition 
for road repairs. Mr. Witts, at a meeting of the 
Cotteswold Naturalists' Field Club, suggested that 
measures should be taken to protect them, and stated 
that they are on land the property of Earl Bathurst. 
Surely Sir William Guise, the President of the Club, 
will use his influence for the preservation of these 
barrows ? 

The Antiquarian Museum, Edinburgh, received a 
valuable addition to its store of antiquities lately, in 
the shape of an ancient Scottish canoe, which has 
been presented by Dr. Bruce, of Dingwall, in whose 
possession it has been for some time. The canoe, 
which measures sixteen feet in length, is hollowed out 
of a single tree, and is a much ruder specimen than 
any of those displayed in the museum. Instead of 
possessing a prow, the bow has been roughly cut 
square across, and the stern-board, which, along with 
the prow, usually distinguishes ancient Scottish canoes, 
is missing. 

The Standard Vienna correspondent says A dis- 
covery of great interest to antiquaries and students of 



130 



ANTIQUARIAN NEWS. 



the early history of the human race has just been made 
at Hallef, near Salzburg. A tumulus has there been 
opened, containing a large quantity of human bones 
and other relics, including bronze rings of various 
sizes and workmanship, knives, coral, amber, and 
numerous other trinkets. The most important object 
among the remains is a skull of massive ouild and un- 
usual shape, and with the teeth in an excellent state 
of preservation. The mound where the discovery was 
made is believed to have been the burial place of 
members of an ancient Celtic race. 

The British Museum has purchased a collection of 
biblical and other Oriental manuscripts, which are of 
the utmost importance to the criticism and exegesis of 
the Old Testament. The collection, which was made 
in South Arabia, consists of forty manuscripts. Fif- 
teen of these are portions of the Hebrew Scriptures, 
and two are probably the oldest which have as yet 
come to light of the Old Testament Scriptures. A 
third, which contains the Hagiographa, exhibits a re- 
cension of the Hebrew text, the other two portions of 
which are already in the Museum, thus completing the 
whole Hebrew bible. Several of these manuscripts 
have the Arabic translation of Suadiah, in alternate 
verses with the Hebrew, while others have the super- 
liniary or Assyrian, vowel points, which till compara- 
tively recent times were unknown. 

In the course of the demolition of some old build- 
ings at 406 and 407, Oxford Street, last month, a 
number of objects interesting to antiquaries were 
brought to light. The premises where the discovery 
was made are situated in the rear of the north side of 
Oxford Street, near its intersection with Tottenham 
Court Road. On Wednesday week, the workmen, 
on reaching the foundations, came upon a quantity of 
old armour and weapons helmets, breastplates, 
spears, swords and daggers, some very curious in 
shape. On opening a stone vault they found some 
plate, including church utensils, such as a monstrance 
and a chalice, the workmanship of which is thought 
to be of the fourteenth century. On the base of the 
monstrance are engraven, in old English characters, 
the words: "Ave verum corpus, natum de Maria 
Virgine, vere passum, immolatum in cruce pro 
homine." 

A volume of Letters and Memorials of Cardinal 
Allen, of various dates, between the years 1567 and 
1612, is now in the press. These documents have 
been extracted from the State Papers and Vatican 
transcripts in the Public Record Office, from the Bri- 
tish Museum, the archives of the English Colleges at 
Rome and Valladolid, the Archives du Royaume, 
Brussels, the archives of Simancas, and from other 
sources. They are 280 in number, and 220 of them 
are now being printed for the first time. This large 
collection of contemporary letters and memorials must 
necessarily be of great historical value, and may be 
expected to throw additional light upon the domestic 
and foreign policy of the. Government in the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth. We understand that the work is 
edited by the Rev. T. Francis Knox, D.D., and that 
a limited edition will be published by subscription by 
Mr. David Nutt. 

It has just been announced that large portions of 
the picturesque rock at the Gowan Hill on the north 



side of the Stirling Castle are being quarried and 
blown up in masses with dynamite for " road metal," 
though abundance of material for this purpose could 
be found elsewhere. The hill thus wantonly damaged 
is the ancient Mote Hill of the district the " Head- 
ing Hill" "the sad and fatal mound," as Walter 
Scott terms it "that oft has heard the death axe 
sound," associated with some of the most pathetic 
events in Scottish history, and with the early days 
and amusements of James V. Surely there must be 
sufficient public spirit in Stirling to put a stop to this 
almost sacrilegious destruction of an ancient land- 
mark. But public indignation is fitful and not always 
easily roused, and all experience shows the urgent 
need of the interposition of the Legislature to pre- 
serve our ancient historical monuments from 
destruction. 

The Pall Mall Gazette says, the gentleman who has 
transferred to the Corporation of Conway without any 
pecuniary condition his interest in the historic ruins 
of Conway Castle has set an example which may 
be judiciously followed by other proprietors. Most 
of the owners of these relics of antiquity show a 
commendable liberality in opening them for the enjoy- 
ment of the world at large, but until these sites are 
vested in a public body there is always a danger lest 
such privileges should be withdrawn. The private 
owner who does not retain such possessions for his 
own personal enjoyment or the gratification of his 
friends alone naturally imposes upon the public the 
payment of a small fee for the privilege of entering, 
and this often has the effect of keeping outside the 
very class which would most of all be benefited by 
the right of admission. When such buildings are 
kept up by the rates they are open to all, and the 
sense of proprietorship comes home to everyone. 

A meeting of the Welsh Dialect Section of the 
Cymmrodorion Society was recently held at the 
residence of Dr. Isambard Owen in London, and 
attended, amongst others by Prince Louis-Lucien 
Bonaparte and Mr. Howell Lloyd. The general 
prospectus or scheme of the work of the section was 
submitted in draft, and after discussion and revision 
was adopted. After stating that the section has 
been founded in connection with the Cymmrodorion 
Society to carry out a systematic investigation of the 
varieties of spoken Welsh, the committee proceed to 
point out the heads under which the peculiarities of 
dialect may be arranged. The first division com- 
prises local words, phrases, and idioms ; under the 
second head are grouped peculiarities of grammar 
and syntax ; in the third place come peculiar place- 
names, and names embodying a record of historical 
events, &c. ; the fourth division consists of local 
names of animals, plants, and minerals, while under 
the fifth head is placed the mode of pronunciation 
prevailing in different districts. 

The parish church of St. Margaret, Leicester, was 
re-opened on the 13th July. The principal works 
which have been carried out under the direction of 
Mr. Street, R.A., are as follows : Interior : Nave, 
aisles, and tower The plastered ceilings, with the 
rough roofs which carried them, have been replaced 
by new open roofs covered with lead ; the plastered 
ceiling of the tower replaced by stone groining ; the 



ANTIQ UARIAN NE JVS. 



131 



floor repaved. Chancel The decoration formerly 
existing cleaned, and in injured parts renewed, with 
a slight variation in the lower part of the walls ; the 
floor of the chancel repaved except in the sacrarium, 
where theformer pavingremains; and the two western- 
most beams of the roof ornamented with tracery, &c, 
in a similar manner to the others. Exterior : The 
plinths of the south aisle have been renewed, and the 
two westernmost windows of the south wall of the south 
aisle and the west window of the nave are new. 
The buttresses at the south-west angle of the south 
aisle have been rebuilt ; the porch extensively re- 
paired and re-roofed ; the clerestory walls and 
windows extensively repaired ; the south, west and 
north doors cleansed from paint and repaired; the 
vestry almost recased with stone. The large windows 
in the tower, which were formerly blocked up, with 
bricks and plaster, have been opened, the mullions 
repaired and glazed. During the progress of the 
works the parapet of the tower was found to be un- 
safe. It has been rebuilt, but the pinnacles have yet 
to be added. 

With the demolition of the church of St. Matthew's, 
Friday Street, which, on its union with the parish of 
St. Vedast, Foster Lane, will probably soon be 
carried out, another of the few remaining churches in 
the City which were re-erected after the Great Fire in 
1666, from designs of Sir Christopher Wren, will pass 
away. The earliest record of the church, says the 
City Press, is in 1322, when the patronage was vested 
in the Abbot and Convent of Westminster. When 
this establishment was dissolved, and Westminster 
was made a bishopric by King Henry VIII., the 
living of St. Matthew's was bestowed on the new 
diocesan, but was afterwards given to the Bishop of 
London by Edward VI. , who, at the same time, dis- 
solved the bishopric of Westminster. After the Great 
Fire in 1666, by which the church was destroyed, the 
parish of St. Peter, Westcheap, was united to it, and 
in 1685, at a cost of .2,381 Ss. 2d., the present 
church was built by Sir Christopher Wren. The for- 
mation of the church presents a curious peculiarity ; 
it is 60 feet long and 33 feet broad, and the height 
being equal to the width, the area is in reality a double 
cube. The communion-table and rails, presented to 
the church by Mr. James Smyth in 1685, display some 
good specimens of carving, whilst the register books 
contain entries of the marriage, baptism, &c, of many 
members of the family of Sir Hugh Myddelton, who 
was also one of the churchwardens. The customary 
facilities will be afforded, and pecuniary aid allowed, 
by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners to relatives for 
the removal of monuments, tombstones, bodies, &c, 
claimed by them, and where no such claim is put for- 
ward, the monuments will be removed and re-erected 
in St. Vedast's, Foster Lane, and the bodies reinterred 
in the City of London Cemetery at Ilford. 

Mr. John Nanson, town clerk of Carlisle, writes to 
the Times, of July 29, as follows: "Examining 
some old deeds in my possession relating to lands in the 
neighbourhood of Penrith, Cumberland, I came across 
one bearing date the 21st Richard II., being a con- 
veyance from John Scott, of Penrith, and Elena 
Hogge, of Carleton (a hamlet in the parish of Pen- 
rith), to William Gerard, of Carleton, of several small 



parcels of land, measuring together an acre and a rood, 
lying " in campo de Penrith" that is, in Penrith 
Field or Town-Fields. The remarkable thing about 
the deed, however, is that one of the pieces of land is 
stated to lie " juxta terrain Alani Shakespere" and in 
the testing clause the name of Shakespere occurs again, 
the words being as follows : " In cujus rei testimon- 
ium huic presenti cartae nostras, sigilla nostra apposui- 
mus, hiis testibus, Roberto de Alanby, Thoma de 
Carleton, Alexandro Atkynson, Johanne Gerard, 
Willidmo Sliakespere, et aliis. Datum apud Penrith 
die Dominica proxime post festum Paschi, anno regni 
Regis Ricardi Secundi vicesimo primo.'' The date of 
the deed would, therefore, be about April, 1 398, or 
166 years before the birth of Shakespeare. May it be 
that Shakespeare's ancestors were originally settled in 
Cumberland, near the Scottish border, and that one 
of them, following the standard of the Earl of Rich- 
mond, afterwards Henry VII., settled at Stratford- 
upon-Avon after the battle of Bosworth Field ? In 
an exemplification of the grant of arms by the Herald's 
College to Shakespeare's father in 1599 it is recorded 
that 'his greatgrandfather for his faithful and approved 
service to the late most prudent Prince King Henry 
VII., of famous memory, was advanced and rewarded 
with lands and tenements, given to him in those parts 
of Warwickshire, where they have continued by some 
descents in good reputation and credit." 

Mr. Jonathan Peckover has favoured us with an ac- 
count of a remarkable discovery of tumuli at Crow- 
land. The indirect cause of their being brought to 
light was the disastrous floods of last autumn, 
threatening to inundate the surrounding district. To 
avoid the recurrence of so great a danger the Com- 
missioners determined to raise the Crowland bank of 
the Wash for a considerable distance, and for that 
purpose purchased a portion of land close to the town 
of Crowland, which at a former period had been an open 
common. Before the field was excavated the foreman 
of the works noticed a slight elevation in one part, 
which was in fact the remnant of the [largest of the 
tumuli, and it was not until the works had proceeded 
too far to preserve it, that the Commissioners became 
aware of its true nature. Three tumuli were found, 
two of which had completely disappeared, and the 
third, as mentioned above, was hardly noticeable. The 
men in digging came upon a distinctly different soil, 
containing several layers of ashes, which proved to be 
these artificial mounds resting upon a sandy foun- 
dation in a similar manner to those at Leverington. 
The depth of clay removed to reach this surface being 
two feet nine inches. The largest barrow was 66 
feet in diameter, and on the north-east side, about ten 
feet from the outer edge, and near the base, was dis- 
covered a rude urn filled with calcined human bones. 
This is in the possession of Mr. 11. E. Watson, and is 
formed of the rudely-burnt pottery made from the 
shelly gault of the district, being of a reddish colour. 
Near to it was lying a broi|ze implement resembling a 
hammer, also the tusk of a boar, and numerous flints, 
some of which appear to have been manipulated. On 
the top of the urn was a conglomerate of bones, 
stones, and ashes, these were lying in the foreman's 
yard. Near to this urn, and chiefly in the hollow that 
had been originally formed round the base of the 



132 



ANTIQUARIAN NE WS. 



mound, was discovered a collection of curious and 
perhaps unique implements made of the same rude 
pottery, the use of which it is difficult to determine. 
They are mostly broken, but appear to have been 
orginally from six to eight inches long. They are 
pointed at one extremity, with a projecting head at 
the other on one side, being from three-quarters of an 
inch to an inch square. They may have been used 
during the burning of the body. The two other 
tumuli lay in a south-easterly direction, and urns of a 
similar nature were found in each of them. Resting 
on the sandy beach on which the mounds are built 
was a layer of peat, and in this were found the roots 
and trunks of large trees, from two to three feet in 
diameter, which had fallen, and appear to be oaks 
that must at one time have formed a grove round 
these sepulchres, singularly confirming the words of 
the Anglo-Saxon chronicle In addition to the 
tumuli already mentioned, Mr. A. S. Canham has 
observed traces of another fin the same field as 
" Anchor Hill," and it is worthy of notice that these 
two, the Abbey, and the group now discovered, lie 
in one line. There is also evidence of a further 
barrow about a mile away, in Borough Fen. Besides 
the more ancient relics, the workmen came, at a 
higher level, upon two busts of gothic figures, one of 
a female, which had evidently been portions of the 
ornamentation of the monastic buildings, thus con- 
firming the fact of the gradual accumulation of the 
soil in the Fens, which in this case had in the course 
of ages all but obliterated a group of three tumuli. 
These tumuli answer in a remarkable degree to the 
descriptions given in the life of Guthlac, edited by 
Mr. Walter de Gray Birch. 



Corresponfcence. 



SHAKESPEARE'S STRATFORD. 

The day after reading the late Mr. Henty's ex- 
cellent article on the subject of Shakespeare's youthful 
" Deer- Adventure" in the August number of The 
Antiquary, I was fortunate in discovering an in- 
stance which strongly bore out his theory of the 
hereditary feud likely to exist between the good 
people of Stratford and an encroaching local mag- 
nate. 

The document, too, in which it occurred was 
nearly contemporary with the event in question, for I 
should be inclined to assign it to the years between 
1565 and 1568, certainly not much earlier or later. 

Sir Edward Conway, of Arrow, was seised of the 
manor of Luddington, without Stratford, and, being 
so seised, leased it to one Gibbes, of Luddington, for 
fifty years, at a rent of 4. a year, payment as above 
to be continued to John Conway (afterwards Sir John), 
his son and heir.* , 

Sir Edward Conway died, and his son John entered, 
the manor of Luddington being set apart as a portion 
of the jointure of Dame Katherine, his mother. 

The Gibbes, of course, held on, making only, for 

* By indenture dated 37 Henry VIII. 



precaution sake, a fresh agreement with the lady ; but 
her son set this aside, and found means to exact a 
heriot, in kind, to no small amount. Such hard deal- 
ing roused the indignation of Stratford friends and 
indeed the circumstances of the case were painful, the 
Gibbes being very ignorant and helpless folk who, 
headed by one Botts, made a forcible entry into the 
manor. 

This Botts was reputed ' ' an unquiet man in the 
country," and him and his associates, to the number 
of about a dozen,* the knight prosecuted for disseisin 
at the next Warwick Assizes. The verdict was 
favourable, on technical grounds, to the defendants ; 
but this result was wholly ignored by the prosecutor, 
who had much the best of the case in equity. 

Such instances as the above I know to have been 
but too common at the time. Public enterprise was 
held in check by the miserable foreign and domestic 
policy of the Government, and private rapacity, with 
social lawlessness, was the universal result. 

There were feuds between town and country ; 
Protestants and Papists ; patriots and courtiers that 
is, piratical mayors and Government emissaries. 
Family and local history was distorted by a thousand 
wilful and daring libels. 

The Lucys and the Conways were not the only 
objects of local jealousy and agrarian outrage. Other 
and still more glaring cases exist within this very 
period; and no one has yet arisen to rebut the in- 
famous calumnies which have blackened the name 
of the ill-fated William Darrell.f 

We know the opinion of the country gentlemen of the 
age with regard to the prevailing character of the inha- 
bitants of small industrial towns such as Stratford. 
"That thei be townes of no good government and full of 
light people as Wevers, Tuckers, Sheremen, Glovers, 
and suche other, whiche live ther losely and without 
due obedyence." It was not even safe to store the 
Queen's munition in such places, for "if suche wilful- 
nes shoulde enter into their heddes as hath bynne sene 
to often in England then mighte thei sone have th 1 
thHvere not fitte for them to use for there is no house 
so stronge in any of thies Townes that ys able todefende 
yt from them nor anie manner of p'son dwellinge in 
any of the s d Townes that dare warrante the kepinge 
of hit ; and this is the opinion flf all the gentlemen 
and wise men of o r countrye."+ 

Stratford glovers could also quarrel amongst them- 
selves ; for during Shakespeare's youth a scandalous 
suit arose between a son and mother of the name of 
Dixon. 

The former should have succeeded his father (also 
a glover) in the possession of two messuages in 
"Brydge Strete ;" "a ,barne and bakyarde" in 
"Walker's Strete att Chappell Lane;" and one other 
tenement in "Chappell Strete." The good woman, 
however, pretended that she had found a will to the 
contrary effect, which she prized so highly that she 
could not be induced to show it. 

* One of these was a John Hamlett. 

t I am happy to say, however, that I shall soon 
be in a position to entirely re-write this episode of 
family history. 

+ Reports of Commissioners of Musters, Aug. 1569, 
State Papers (Domestic). 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



i33 



Yet even this upheaval of society denotes the 
extraordinary mental and animal vigour of the age to 
which we are indebted for the genius of Shakespeare 
and the enterprise of Drake both of whom, it is 
well to note, sprang from districts notorious for their 
turbulence. 

Hubert Hall. 



FIELD NAMES. 

(iii. 252 ; iv. 35, 83.) 

The word " Carr" in East Cheshire, and some 
parts of Lancashire, is the name given to the ochreous 
deposit of iron. Carr Meadow, Carr Field, Carr Lane, 
Carr Brook, and Carr Well are names of frequent 
occurrence, and always mean that the places contain 
this ochreous deposit. Whether all the names are 
ancient or not I cannot say. Some of them are, but 
it is possible these names may have been originally 
given for other reasons, and the word " Carr," after- 
wards associated with all places where this iron 
deposit is met with. 

Joseph Sidebotham, F.S.A. 



A large extent of property, comprising this and ad- 
joining parishes, formerly possessed by the Fermors, 
Earls Pomfret (now extinct), passed to the family of 
Hollis. The last owner, Brand-Hollis, died early in 
this century, leaving directions or instructions that 
when he died he should be buried in a certain field 
named, in a hole standing upright, in the parish of 
Corscombe, Dorset, and the field to be ploughed and 
cross-ploughed the same night, so that no trace of 
him might be found. Singularly enough, he died 
suddenly in the same field near his residence. His 
and his predecessors' views were very peculiar, as may 
be gathered from the following names of fields in the 
parish of Halstock, Dorset, which belonged to the 
Hollis's, but, after the death of the upright man, all 
passed by purchase to several proprietors : Bast- 
wick, Allen, Prynne (5), Needham, Goodwin, Hollis 
(6), Hamden, Leighton, Pym, the Good Old Cause 
(4), Brooke, Northumberland (3), Leicester (2), Leslie, 
Maiden- Bradley, Peters, Valtravers, Vevay, Berne (2), 
Bradshaw, Cooke, January 30th (3), Nassau, Reason- 
ableness, Vane (2), Scott, Harrison, Comprehension, 
Hutchinson (3), Vines, Coin, Understanding, Bestall, 
Toleration, Education, Government, Holland, Consti- 
tution, Coste, Christchurch, Laypreacher, Mashem, 
Molineux, Baron, Limbury, Squire Mead, Brondoaks, 
Frogwell (2), Popple, Stockland (2), Struts, Gore (2), 
Coombepot (2), Burnham Down (3), Russell (3), 
Spence, Memmo, Plato, Machiavel, Middleton, 
Hervey, Tindell, Boomers, Sharpe, Brucketts (3), 
Elleries, Annett (3), Lecker (3), Ireton, Eames (4), 
Little Venus (2), Poor Venus, Cuckooford (2), " Quiet 
Woman " Inn, Linnards, Bransford (2), Chesford (2), 
Flexly, Merryday Hill, Dancing Hill, Clarkham (3), 
Temple, Harris, Mayhew, Cotton, Massachusetts, 
Belchier, Eliot (2), Adams, Hanover, New England, 
William III., Settlement, Stuart, Revolution, Free- 
state, Boston, Burnett (2), Saville (2), Commonwealth, 



Republic, Lampugnano, Olgiati, Plutarch, Pytha- 
goras, Aristotle, Numa, Cicero (3), Liberty, Xeno- 
phon, Buchanan, Plato, Socrates (2), Solon (2), 
Brutus, Cassius, Lycurgus, Confucius, Maber, Messala, 
Thrasybulus, Pelopidas, Timoleon, Webb, Aristogiton, 
Harmodius, Hiero, Maitland, Portland (4), Lellin (3), 
Oathams, Bacon, Stodge Park, Ganderclose, Struts, 
&c. These are in addition to the ordinary agricultural 
field names. Tradition says, the free names were 
given by the penultimate Hollis, of which family, I 
believe, there were four, all of the Republican or 
Commonwealth strain. It is amusing to hear a 
Dorsetshire farmer pronouncing some of the names, 
and considering " use makes master," they come 
almost as easy as " Homemead," " Cowleaze," &c. 
I believe many similar strange field-names exist in the 
adjoining parishes which formerly belonged to the 
Hollis's. 

R. F. Meredith. 
Halstock, Dorset. 



TRADITIONS ABOUT OLD BUILDINGS. 

Can you find space for one more example of the 
class of superstitions connected with buildings tc 
which Mr. Gomme, in his Paper printed in The 
Antiquary for January last, has referred ? 

In a report of the visit of the members of the 
Cambrian Archaeological Society, in August, 1878 
(during their Lampeter meeting), to Llanddewi Brefi, 
occurs the following reference to the church of 
Godrefarth, near Llanddewi : "The tale goes that 
repeated attempts were made to build a church at 
Godrefarth, .... but the walls fell down as quickly 
as they were built, and it was not till the present site 
was fixed upon that a church could be erected. There 
is a saying that, in the building of the tower, two oxen 
brought the stones from the Voelallt Rock. One of 
them died, and the other, lamenting his dead com- 
panion, lowed three times, and the rock at once was 
shattered, and thereafter no difficulty was experienced 
in fetching the stones for the tower" ( Onvestty Adver- 
tiser, May 28, 1878). 

Alfred N. Palmer. 

3, Ar-y-bryn Terrace, Wrexham. 



During a tour in Gloucestershire, from which I have 
just returned, I paid a visit to the village of Church- 
down, about four miles from Gloucester on the east 
and six from Cheltenham on the west. The church, 
dedicated to St. Bartholomew, is built on the summit 
of Churchdown Hill, and the ascent to it is steep and 
tortuous. It has a nave and north aisle, and on the 
inside of the tower wall there is this inscription : 
" Thys Bel hows was buyldede in the yere of our Lorde 
Gode 1601." On making inquiries about the church, 
I was told the story, of which the following account 
is from Rudder's Histo?y of Gloucestershire (1779), 
page 339 : " There is a silly tradition in this part of 
the country, that the church was begun to be built on 
a more convenient and accessible spot of ground, but 
that the materials used in the day were constantly 
taken away in the night and carried to the top of the 



134 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



hill ; which was considered as a supernatural intima- 
tion that the church should be built there." 

There is another story, which, like the one just 
given, is told by many people in Gloucestershire. On 
the other side of Churchdown Hill, as one walks from 
the railway station, there is village called Hucklecote, 
anciently Ukelcoed. It is said that during the service 
in Churchdown Church, when the people had replied 
with the usual " And make Thy chosen people joy- 
ful," one of the people from Hucklecote got up and 
said, *' And what have the Hucklecote people 
done ?" 

Whether it was on this account or not that the 
Churchdown villagers were called the "chosen" 
people, and Churchdown itself called "Chosen," I 
do not profess to say ; but it is nevertheless a fact, 
that many of the country folks round about do not 
know that the village has any other name than 
"Chosen." The rivalry between the two villages 
may possibly account for the removal of the stones 
of the church during building. 

Theophilus Pitt, A. KG 



BLOOD MONEY. 

Can any of your readers inform me what is the usual 
meaning to be attached to the term " blood money," 
when found in borough records of the reigns of (say) 
Charles II. or James II. ? It occurs frequently in the 
records of some of the towns of West Cornwall. The 
ordinary signification of the word, I used to suppose, 
was the payment of a witness in capital cases involving 
death sentence. But the frequency of the expression 
suggests some other signification. Could it imply a 
fine for an assault involving shedding of blood ? 

While on the subject, I may mention that the 
borough records of some of our old towns open an 
exceedingly interesting field of antiquarian research, 
and one which has as yet scarcely been sufficiently 
followed up. The town life of old England is brought 
before our minds vividly in some of these records, 
which have the advantage, which some documents 
have not, of being authentic, or at least authoritative. 
The periods of the Civil Wars and of the Restoration 
are especially interesting when studied in our borough 
records. 

W. S. L. S. 

Newbyn. 



HERALDIC FLAGON. 

My father possesses a silver flagon, which, I 
believe, came to him from a great aunt. On the 
flagon are the following arms : (i) Three swords 
pointing to the centre base one from dexter chief, 
one from sinister chief, and one from chief. (2) 
Between three plovers, a chevron. 

Can you tell me whose these arms are ? Most 
probably a Devonshire or Cornish family. There is 
nothing in the engraving to show the tinctures. The 
only arms I know of at all resembling the ones first 
described, are those on the retainers' arms, in the fresco 
in the lobby of the Houses of Parliament, " The siege 



of Basinghouse," and a coat of arms at the top of the 
west window of Exeter Cathedral ; but I think in 
both of these there is a bordure. 

The Hallmarks on the flagon are, (1) D, (2) a lion 
passant regardant, (3) lion's head, crowned, (4) F 8 . 
The nearest marks to that which I know are those for 
the year 1670. , 

Can any of your readers tell me whether the 
Cheshire family, of Chilcot, or Chilcote, are in any 
way connected with the Devonshire and Middlesex 
families of Chilcot, or Chilcott, alias Comyn, which 
latter family bears on its arms, in a pale, the arms of 
the Comyn family, which would look as though they 
were from the north. 

I enclose my card, and remain, &c. 

A. B. W. 

ALEXANDER CRUDEN. 
(iv. 87.) 

Alexander Cruden was born at Aberdeen, 1701, and 
intended by his parents to become a minister of the 
Scotch Kirk, which, however, was abandoned, and he 
removed to London, where he maintained himself by 
giving lessons in the classics. 

In 1732 he commenced business as a bookseller, 
employing his leisure time in the compilation of his 
celebrated Concordance. Symptoms of insanity, how- 
ever, making their appearance, which ended in lunacy, 
his friends placed him in an asylum at Bethnal Green, 
from which he made his escape, and brought an action 
for false imprisonment, but was nonsuited. He sub- 
sequently resumed his old employment of correcting 
for the press ; but signs of a deranged intellect were 
always more or less apparent, and his after-life were 
characterized by a series of intellectual obliquities. He 
died in 1770, aged 69 years. 

T. W. Henson. 

Nottingham. 



THE KENTISH GARLAND, 
(iv. 58.) 

Ashford may have been a hotbed of nonconformity, 
and it may have had men who dared to speak out on 
the other side, but as it is not a corporate town, and 
never was, and as it has no All Saints' Church, and 
never had, the anecdote recorded of Andrew 
Broughton, the regicide, could not have occurred 
there. It occurred at Maidstone, which is and was 
a corporate town, and which has and had an All 
Saints' Church. I believe Andrew Broughton resided 
at Earl Street, Maidstone, and Thomas Wilson was 
the incumbent of All Saints' Church at the period 
spoken of. 

William Rogers. 

Maidstone. 



BRASS RUBBINGS. 
Can you or any readers of The Antiquary give me 
a good and cheap receipt for making a kind of heel- 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



i35 



ball, which will produce impressions of brasses of the 
same colour as the originals ? I have tried bronze- 
powder, mixed with wax, &c, as directed by Beasley, 
but it did not answer at all ; besides, it would re- 
quire a large quantity of bronze-powder to make a 
very small quantity of heel-ball, which would cost 
more than the colour of the infusion was worth. 

Lloyd Mostyn. 
Cowes. 



PAINTING. 

I have a painting, representing a party of eleven 
persons, male and female, sitting at a table, covered 
with a white cloth, with various dishes on it, being 
served by three servants, one bearing in a peacock in 
a dish, and two others pouring wine into cups or 
glasses held by the guests. In a fold in the curtain 
hanging behind the table are the initials, P.E.V.L., 
underneath which is the date, 1634. 

I should feel much obliged if you, or some of your 
readers, could tell me what painter used the initials 
and lived at the time indicated. 

G. WOLLEN. 

Glengariffe, Torquay. 



CHRONICLES AND STORIES OF CRAVEN 
DALE. 

In your number for July the stanza quoted from 
Chronicles and Stories of the Craven Dales is, I 
believe, incorrect. I used long ago to hear the story 
told in the West Riding that the Archbishop of York 
came to confirm at Settle, on which occasion the parish 
clerk gave out in broad Yorkshire, "A hymn of my 
own composing 

Why hop ye so, ye little hills ? 

Ye hills why do ye hop ? 

Because to Settle there is come 

His Grace the Archbishop." 

William Wickham. 



HERALDIC. 

Could any reader of The Antiquary kindly in- 
form me to whom the following arms belong ? : 
Arg., a tree in pale ppr. ; over all, on a fesse az., a 
crescent, between two mullets of the field. Impaling, 
erm., three incresents, 2, 1, arg. 

There is no crest above the shield. 

W. A. Wells. 

27, Kingswood Road, Merton. 



YE LEGEND OF YE WREKIN. 

Can any of your readers inform me who was the 
author of a legend with the above title, written in the 
style of Barham ; and where it originally appeared ? 
The following lines from it are often quoted : 
Not that in Wales, 
They talk of their ales, 
But spell it, as though 'twere on purpose to trouble 

you 
With a C and a W, R and a W. 
A word to pronounce which you'd have some ado, 
But the nearest approach to the sound is cooroo ; 
For to learn the Welsh language if e'er you should 

choose 
You'll W have to pronounce like two U's. 

Askew Roberts. 

Croeswylan, Oswestry. 



SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY TOKENS. 

I shall be glad if any of your numismatic readers 
can tell me where the following token was issued : 
It is of copper, thicker than the usual specimens of 
seventeenth-century tokens, resembling in this respect, 
as well as its general appearance, some of the Irish 
tokens of this period. 

O. WILLIAME.DICK.OF. BRAID. A kiln, or 
forge, from which flames are issuing. W.D. 

J?. VIRTVTE.FORTVNA.COMES. A caduaus. 

James W. Lloyd. 
Kington. 



GAWLER'S HILL, SOMERSETSHIRE. 

I am very anxious to know the history of Gawler's 
Hill, at Chiselborough, in Somersetshire i.e., why 
the hill was so named, and why some of the fields in 
the neighbourhood are called Gawlers ? 

Julia Hall. 

Croft Cottage, Marlow, Bucks. 

"POSYE OF FLOWRED PRAIERS." 

Can some reader of The Antiquary kindly fur- 
nish me with a copy of A Posye of Flowred Praiers, 
written by Sir John Conway when a prisoner at 
Ostend (about 1588), on his trencher, "withleathy 
pensell of leade" ? 

Richard Savage. 

West Street, Stratford-on-Avon. 

POLISH PEERAGE. 

Can any of your readers tell me if there is a Polish 
Peerage, or a work on the pedigrees of the nobility 
of Poland ? 

Monro Phillips. 

17, Clifford Street, Bond Street. 

SLOPING OF CHURCH NAVES, 
(iii. 189, 239, 287). 

To your list of churches with sloping naves may be 
added Eaton-under-Heywood, in South Shropshire. 

Albert Clowes. 



136 



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WESTMINSTER ABBEY: A STUDY ON POETS' CORNER. 137 




The Antiquary, 



OCTOBER, 1 88 1. 



Westminster Hbbe^ : a tufc>s 
on poets' Corner* 




r has often been asked when the 
term Poets' Corner was first ap- 
plied to the poets' chosen place of 
burial in the South Transept. The 
question occurs in one of the early volumes 
of Notes and Queries, 1851, "When was 
the name Poets' Corner first applied to the 
South Transept of Westminster Abbey ? " 
Thirty years have elapsed, and no answer 
has yet been given. 

One would naturally hesitate to accept 
the word Corner as applicable to so large 
a space in the Abbey as that occupied by 
the transept, but by constant use the term 
has become familiar, and so many poets 
and other literary men have been buried 
there because of this phrase, that by gradual 
acceptance it has, for many years, become 
universal, notwithstanding its inconsistency. 
In dictionaries of the early and middle part 
of the last century, the word corner is defined 
to mean an angle, or remote place. It is 
also applied to an enclosed space, secret or 
retired. This definition being accepted, one 
is inclined to inquire whether Poets' Corner 
was not at one time more in accordance 
with it. 

The consideration of the exact position 
and limits of the Lost Chapel of St. Blaize, 
as set forth in the number of The Anti- 
quary for June last, has for several years 
past led the writer to the conviction that the 
term Poets' Corner was originally applied to 
the small enclosed space to the east of the 
altar wall of the chapel, and including, per- 
haps, the open space northward as far as the 
grave of Chaucer. (See the plan on page 
242, The Antiquary, vol. iii.) It is only 

VOL. IV. 



a few months since that the writer acquired 
a complete and unquestionable, but hitherto 
unlooked-for, confirmation of his supposition 
as to the position and limits of the Corner. 

The first use of the name Poets' Corner was 
probably subsequent to the burial of, and 
the first placing of Chaucer's table-tomb 
against the west screen of St. Benedict's 
Chapel, and also to the burial of Spenser, 
and the erection of his monument, by 
Ann Clifford, Duchess of Dorset, soon after 
1598. Then the art of poetry had. acquired 
greatness and popular favour, whereby a 
strong desire became implanted that succeed- 
ing poets should have their graves as near as 
possible to those of the Great Father of English 
Verse and the Prince of Poets. This feeling of 
veneration led to the choice of the graves of 
Drayton, Cowley, Denham, and Dryden,with 
others intervening and following. 

It is known that Matthew Prior desired to 
be buried at the feet of Edmund Spenser. 
This wish was faithfully complied with, and 
it indicates that Spenser lies in the narrow 
trench of earth which was then between 
the broad concrete foundation of the 
eastern wall of the fabric and the then 
existing interposed wall of St. Blaize's Chapel. 
This trench not allowing a coffin to lie 
across it, Spenser's coffin was probably 
placed with the foot to the north, and, 
Prior's coffin being placed in the same 
direction, his wish was fulfilled. It was, 
perhaps, remembered how Spenser's coffin 
was directed, although there is no record 
of it. 

It is sad to note the deplorable injuries 
which were done to the fabric : first, by the 
astounding demolition of the triple arcade 
of the east wall so as to place the table-tomb 
of Chaucer after moving it from the first 
site before mentioned, followed by the 
erection of a debased canopy covering also 
a mourner's place, by Nicholas Brigham, 
in 1558, and, secondly, by the demolition of 
the altar wall of St. Blaize's Chapel and 
the erection of the high and massive wall 
necessary for the attachment of the enormous 
monument of Prior, designed by Gibbs and 
erected by Roubiliac. These are among the 
earliest of the spoliations and intrusions which 
continued throughout the century and ever 
after. 

L 



I3 



WESTMINSTER ABBEY: A STUDY ON POETS' CORNER. 



It may be conceived that this previous 
state of the South Transept was exceedingly 
favourable to the creation of the endearing 
and reverential name, Poets' Corner. It 
might first have been called Spenser's Corner; 
and, as other burials of poets gradually 
followed, it would naturally change into the 
more comprehensive term, Poets' Corner. 

The common parlance and vulgar errors 
about the Abbey have always been remark- 
able, and might well form a theme for con- 
sideration. The Chapels, for instance, were 
generally known and called, not by the 
names of those to whom they were dedicated, 
but by the names of those who were buried 
or had monuments therein. So arose the 
names of the Nightin- 
gale, the Exeter, the 
Dean's Chapels, &c. 
This nomenclature is 
not yet obsolete. No- 
thing, therefore, could 
be more natural than 
that the ultimate name, 
Poets' Corner, should 
have continued so long. 
The phrase being thus 
started among the offi- 
cials and visitors of the 
Abbey, and with such 
an origin of use and 
growth, we shall never 
know to what person 
nor to what exact time 
to attribute its inven- 
tion. The name is net 
used by Addison, who, 
in his first allusion to the place in the Spec- 
tator, No. 26, calls it the Poets' quarter. 

This approbation of the phrase and its 
great popularity seems to have led to the 
application of it to the street or road south 
of Henry VII.'s Chapel, which street is also 
called Poets' Corner simply. The ground of 
this part of the Abbey land was once a 
cemetery ; for, on searching there for the 
suspected remains of the foundation of the 
lost southern buttress of the Chapter House, 
and in digging for a new drain, several stone 
coffins were brought to light, and the excel- 
lent foundation of the ancient buttress was 
found in true position, and thereon after- 
wards was erected the sixth flying buttress, 




of which no trace or tradition had re- 
mained. 

John Dart, the author of Westmonastc- 
rium, has not written the name in question, 
although it might have been common in his 
day, if not even invented by him. He was 
himself something of a poet ; witness the 
poem of forty-two folio pages, containing 
more than a thousand lines, printed in long 
primer type, and prefixed to his great work. 
But although Dart has not named the 
Comer, he has most ingeniously shown and 
realized it in one of the vignette initials pre- 
ceding some of his chapters. In the first 
volume, page 75, it occurs, and again in the 
second volume, at page 1 of the supplement. 
This remarkable 
initial seems to have 
remained entirely un- 
noticed, for neither he 
nor any other writer 
alludes to it, and so it 
has at last become al- 
together overlooked. 

The initial is a Roman 
I, standing in the midst 
of a perspective view 
of this original Poets' 
Corner. 

In the left-hand 
angle is shown the 
open door and doorway 
of the eastern, or palace, 
entrance. Behind it 
is the door of the 
south-east turret, and 
the way to the crypt of 
the Chapter House. On the right is the 
lower part of the wall of St. Blaize's Chapel, 
against which is the mural monument of 
Shadwell, and at the corner is shown a part 
of the monument of St. Evremond. Behind 
the initial is the monument of Edmund 
Spenser, and on the left wall is the monu- 
ment of Butler in its first and original place. 
The monuments of Drayton and Ben Jonson, 
though then in place, are, perhaps for artistic 
reasons, omitted. 

This state of things seems to answer all 
the conditions of Poets' Corner, and gives 
its exact position and limits, soon after 
through the loss of all trace of the Chapel of 
St. Blaize to be expanded to the whole of 



WESTMINSTER ABBEY: A STUDY ON POETS' CORNER. 



i39 



the transept, so as to include the graves of 
succeeding poets, as well as the monuments 
of some of them and cenotaphs of others. 

It will be remembered that in the Paper 
on " The Lost Chapel," allusion was made 
to an authority for the clustered pillars and 
bases named as having existed at the two 
northern angles of the chapel. This autho- 
rity is the vignette in question, in which 
Dart has shown the pillar and base of the 
eastern of these angles, to which appears 
attached the monument of St. Evremond. 
This attachment shown is somewhat erro- 
neous, as his plan puts the monument on 
the plain wall, between the corner of the 
chapel and the main pillar, westward, of the 
fabric. 

It may well be imagined from all this with 
what veneration Poets'. Corner, as it then 
existed, was held by John Dart and his con- 
temporaries, and has so continued up to the 
present time. 

Having alluded to the probability that 
the table-tomb of Chaucer was once against 
the screen of St. Benedict's Chapel, it may 
not be inopportune here to follow out .the 
probable story of it. 

The tomb proper is evidently due to the 
period of the death of Chaucer. Its quatre- 
foils bear his shield of arms, and around 
at least three of the sides with the verge 
moulding, which probably bore a painted in- 
scription. In 1556, there was perhaps some 
necessity for totally removing the tomb, of 
which advantage was taken by Chaucer's ad- 
mirer, Nicholas Brigham, to place it where 
it now is, and add to it a handsome, though 
debased, canopy of Purbeck marble, and also 
a similar marble slab, with a new inscription 
in Latin, that of the marble table having be- 
come decayed and illegible. This slab has 
undergone great decay and disintegration, 
so much so as to almost totally obscure the 
inscription, as reported by Neale in 1823. 
Fifty years' more disintegration followed with 
still further obscuration, when the writer 
closely scrutinized and cleansed the slab, 
discovering traces of all the letters but four. 
Without any attempt to strengthen the en- 
graving, the lettering was developed by 
painting all the remaining traces with gold- 
coloured paint, and with the same pigment 
reproducing the four absent letters ; and now 



the inscription of 1558 is quite distinct and 
perfectly durable. 

The table of the tomb has lately been fully 
cleansed of dirt and adhesions, beneath which 
the moulding, as well as much of the surface, 
was found still to retain its original polish, 
which the adhesion had preserved. Now 
the table displays a fine specimen of the best 
Purbeck marble, which need never become 
dull again. 

In the year 1850, a good antiquary, Mr. 
Samuel' Shepherd, F.S.A., called attention to 
the decay and ruin going on in Chaucer's 
monument. He obtained the sympathy of 
many other antiquaries, and it led to the 
appointment of an influential committee, 
headed by the then Presidents of the Anti- 
quarian and Camden Societies. Subscribers 
were enlisted, and closer examination and 
trial was made, in which the writer assisted ; 
but the difficulties of treatment were so many, 
and the satisfactory result appeared so doubt- 
ful, that the proposition was, happily, aban- 
doned. 

This Paper might with propriety and great 
interest be extended to include a description 
and account of the probable positions of the 
graves, the erection of the monuments, and 
the changes on some of them ; as well as the 
cruel havoc made to place them on the 
arcades and walls of this grand transept. 
This may well form a future addendum to 
the present paper. 

Henry Poole, 
Master Mason of the Abbey. 
The Old Rectory, Smith Square, S.W. 

Sutler's Tflnpubltsbeb 
IRemains. 




T is somewhat surprising that manu- 
scripts of so great a genius as the 
author of Hudibras should remain 
for many years unprinted, and that 
some of these should even now remain un- 
edited ; but so it is. When Samuel Butler 
died all his manuscripts came into the pos- 
session of his friend, William Longueville, a 
bencher of the Inner Temple. Upon the 

l 2 



140 



BUTLERS UNPUBLISHED REMAINS. 



decease of this gentleman, his son Charles 
became possessed of them, and he bequeathed 
them to John Clarke, and in 1754, Clarke 
certified that the manuscripts which Robert 
Thyer proposed to publish were genuine. In 
1759, Thyer published two volumes of Gene- 
ral Remains in Verse and Prose of Mr. Samuel 
Butler, with a long list of subscribers, con- 
taining over 1,000 names. In 1826, Joseph 
Booker, the bookseller, reprinted the Poeti- 
cal Remains with a selection of five charac- 
ters. He had intended to reproduce the 
whole work, but apparently he did not receive 
sufficient support, and he contented himself 
with a portion only. The reason he gives is 
as follows : " On a careful perusal, however, 
of his prose writings there was found so much 
which, from its dryness, coarseness, and pro- 
lixity, would ill suit with the more refined 
taste of modern readers, that the idea has 
been abandoned." 

There is nothing in these books to indi- 
cate that more remained behind unprinted, 
but such is the case. A large collection of 
MSS., some few in the handwriting of Butler, 
the majority consisting of transcriptions, are 
now in the possession of Mr. Thomas Boone, 
who has kindly allowed me to make use of 
them. Thyer's edition of the Remains, 1759, 
contains one hundred and twenty characters 
viz., an Affected man, Affected or formal 
man, Alderman, Amorist, Anabaptist, Anti- 
quary, Astrologer, Atheist, Bankrupt, Duke 
of Bucks, Bumpkin or Country Squire, Busy 
man, Choleric man, City wit, Cheat, Catholic, 
Churchwarden, Clown, Complimenter, Court- 
beggar, puffing Courtier, modern Critic, 
Cuckold, Curious man, Debauched man, 
Disputant, Drole, Embassador, Empiric, 
Epigrammatist, Factious Member, Fanatic, 
Fantastic, underserving Favourite, Flat- 
terer, Glutton, Haranguer, Hen-pect man, 
Herald, Hermetic Philosopher, Horse 
Courser, Hunter, Humourist, Hypocrite, 
Imitator, Impudent man, Inconstant, Insolent 
man, Intelligencer, Jealous man, corrupt 
Judge, Juggler, Justice of Peace, Knave, 
Knight of the Post, Latitudinarian, Lawyer, 
Leader of a Faction, Libeller, Litigious 
man, Lover, Luxurious man, Mathemati- 
cian, Malicious man, Medicine taker, 
Melancholy man, Miser, Mountebank, News- 
monger, degenerate Noble, hypocritical 



Nonconformist, Obstinate man, Opiniaster, 
Overdoer, Pedant, Pettifogger, Pimp, Play 
writer, Philosopher, small Poet, Politician, 
modern Politician, Popish [Priest, Prater, 
Pretender, Prodigal, Projector, Proselite, 
Proud man, Quaker, Quibbler, Rabble, 
Ranter, Rash man, Rebel, Republican, 
Ribald, Risker, Romance writer, Rude man, 
Sceptic, Seditious man, Shopkeeper, Sot, 
Squire of Dames, State Courier, modern 
Statesman, Superstituous man, Swearer, 
Taylor, Tedious man, Time server, Trans- 
lator, Traveller, Ungrateful man, Vintner, 
Virtuoso, Wittal, Wooer, Zealot. 

The following is a list of those sixty-six 
characters which still remain unprinted, and 
are to be found in this collection : An 
Antisocordist, Banker, Bowler, Brisk man 
pert, Broker, Buffoon, Catchpole, Clap'd 
man, Coffee man, Coiner, Conjurer, Con- 
stable, Court-wit, Coward, Credulous man, 
Cruel man, Cully, Cutpurse, Dancing master, 
Detractor, Dueller, Dunce, Envious man, 
Fencer, Fidler, Fool, Forger, Gamester, 
Hector, Highwayman, Host, Ignorant man, 
Impertinent, Impostor, Incendiary, Informer, 
Jailor, Juror, Lampooner, Liar, Merchant, 
Modish man, Musitian, Negligent, Officer, 
Oppressor, Parasite, Perfidious man, Plagiary, 
Player, Proud lady, Publican, Quareller, 
Rook, Sailor, Scold, Scrivener, Self con- 
ceited or singular, Sharke, Silenc'd Pres- 
byterian, Soldier, Stationer, Tennis player, 
Usurer, Vainglorious man, Voluptuous. 

It is easy for the editor of 1826 to 
detract from the merit of these characters. 
They are certainly coarse, but it is hardly 
fair to charge them with prolixity. They 
are sketched with a powerful hand, and are 
full of curious little touches, that exhibit 
forcibly the habits of the seventeenth century. 
Of the Banker we read : " He is both usurer, 
broker and borrower a triple cord that is 
easily broken. He borrows with one hand 
and lends with the other, and having as 
much to do as he can turn both to has never 
a third to pay. He lives by use upon use or 
taking up usury upon interest; for he 
borrows of Peter to pay Paul five in the 
hundred and lends it to John for fifteen." 

A Coffee Man is described as keeping " a 
coffee market, where people of all qualities 
and conditions meet to trade in foreign 



BUTLERS UNPUBLISHED REMAINS. 



141 



drinks and newes, ale, smoak, and con- 
troversy. He admits of no distinction of 
persons, but gentleman, mechanic, lord and 
scoundrel mix, and are all of a piece, as if 
they were resolved into their first prin- 
ciples." " A Fool is the skin of a man stuff d 
with straw like an alligator, that has nothing 
of humanity but the outside." " A Lampooner 
is a moss-trooping poetaster, for they seldom 
go alone whose occupation is to rob any that 
lights in his way of his reputation if he has 
any to lose." " A Liar is a crooked gun 
that carries wrong and his bore is a great deal 
too big for his bullet." " A Merchant is a 
water spaniel that fetches and carrys from 
one country to another. Nature can hide no- 
thing out of his reach, from the bottom of the 
deepest seas to the tops of the highest rocks, 
but he hunts it out and bears it away." " A 
Plagiary is one that has an inclination to wit 
and knowledge, but being not born nor bred 
to it takes evil courses and will rather steal 
and pilfer than appear to want or be without 
it. He makes no conscience how he comes 
by it, but with a felonious intention will take 
and bear away any man's goods he can lay 
his hands on. He is a wit sharke, that has 
nothing of his own, but subsists by stealing 
and filching from others." " A Scrivener is 
a writer of great authority and one whose 
works are for the most part authentic ; for if 
he be discover'd to have committed a fault 
he expiates the offence with t his ears, as 
Caligula made the bad writers of his 
times do theirs with their tongues." " An 
Usurer keeps his money in prison, and 
never lets it out but upon bail and good secu- 
rity, as Oliver Cromwell did the Cavaliers, 
. to appear again upon warning." These 
short extracts from some few of the 
characters will give readers an idea of these 
unprinted works of a great genius ; but as 
extracts are not altogether satisfactory, I will 
add two characters in full. The latter part 
of The Modish Man is, however, omitted, 
as it is hardly fitted for printing in these 
pages : 

"a juror 

Is a sworn officer, that takes his oath to 
measure other men's oaths by, like a stan- 
d ard ; and if they agree not perfectly, they 
will not pass for good and lawful perjuries, 



but are void and of none effect. He plys 
at a court of justice as a rook does at a gam- 
ing ordinary, that though his name be not in 
the list, if any that are make default, he may 
come in with a tales, and do a job of justice 
on the bye. His business is to pass on 
men's lives and fortunes, in which he might 
make himself considerable advantages, if it 
were not for his conscience, but chiefly his 
ears, which he knows not well how to pre- 
serve, or be without : for if they were lost he 
were incapable of dealing any more in his 
profession, and while he keeps them they 
lose him more than his head is worth. His 
employment is a kind of work of darkness ; 
for when he is upon service, he is shut up 
without fire or candle (as cardinals are at the 
election of a new Pope) that his conscience 
may play at blind 'man' 's-buff with the rest of 
his fellows, until they are all tir'd into the 
right or wrong, and agreed among themselves, 
whose fortune it is to be hang'd, and whose 
but undone, which, if they had but been 
allow'd light, they might have done as well 
by casting lots, or throwing cross or pile. His 
jurisdiction extends but to matter of fact, in 
which words are included by a figure in law : 
for words, that will bear an action, are held 
sufficient to make one, as the law makes no 
difference between bearing of witness and 
making of it. His oaths, though of less 
bore, are found to do greater execution than 
those of common swearers ; for wheresoever 
they hit they either kill or maim." 

"the modish man 

Is an orthodox gallant, that does not vary 
in the least article of his life, conversation, 
apparel, and address from the doctrine and 
discipline of the newest and best reform'd 
modes of the time. He understands exactly 
to a day what times of the year the several 
and respective sorts of colour'd ribbands 
come to be in season, and when they go out 
again. He sees no plays but only such as he 
finds most approv'd by men of his own rank 
and quality, and those he is never absent 
from, as oft as they are acted ; mounts his 
bench between the acts, pulls off his peruque, 
and keeps time with his comb and motion of 
his person exactly to the music. He censures 
truly and faithfully according to the best of 
his memory, as he has receiv'd it from the 



I 4 2 



BUTLERS UNPUBLISHED REMAINS. 



newest and most modish opinions, without 
altering or adding anything of his own con- 
triving, so help him God f It costs him a 
great deal of study and practice to pull of 
his hat judiciously and in form, according to 
the best precedents, and to hold it, when it 
is off, without committing the least oversight. 
All his salutes, motions, and addresses are, 
like true French wine, right as they came 
over, without any mixture or sophistication 
of his own, damn him upon his honour. His 
dancing-master does not teach, but manage 
him like a great horse ; and he is not learnt, 
but broken to all the tricks and shews. He 
is as scrupulous as a Catholic of eating any 
meat that is not perfectly in season, that is, 
in fashion, and drest according to the canon 
of the church, unless it be at a French house, 
where no sort of meat is at any time out of 
season, because the place itself is modish, 
and the more he pays for it and is cheated, 
the better he believes he is treated. He is 
very punctual in his oaths, and will not swear 
anything but what the general concurrence of 
the most accomplisht persons of his know- 
ledge will be ready, upon occasion, to make 
good." 

I shall hope to give in a future article 
some notice of the poetical portion of these 
unpublished Remains. 

Henry B. Wheatley. 

Sbafcespeare as an angler. 

By the Rev. H. N. Ellacombe. 


AS Shakespeare an angler ? If we 
are to trust Sir Harris Nicolas, 
we must answer in "the negative. 
In his beautiful edition of Walton's 
Angler, he gives an appendix of quotations 
on angling from the earlier poets ; and among 
these Shakespeare's notices of the art are 
confined to four quotations. Mr. Roach 
Smith, in his Rural Life of Shakespeare, 
gives the same four quotations only, and 
dismisses the subject in a few words. Miss 
Bessie Mayou, in her Natural History of 
Shakespeare, gives a rather longer list ; but 
as her quotations are selected with reference 
only to the fishes named, and not to catching 
them, we learn little from her book of 




Shakespeare's practical knowledge of the art. 
Yet we think there is little doubt that he was 
a successful angler, and had probably en- 
joyed many a day's fishing in the Warwick- 
shire and Gloucestershire streams, to which 
he looked back with pleasant and refreshing 
memories while he lived and wrote in London. 
This appears in many ways. 

There are scattered throughout the plays 
many actual descriptions of fishing ; but they 
are necessarily short and incomplete, for it is 
not in a tragedy or comedy that we should 
expect to find a technical description of 
fishing or any other art. But his knowledge 
of the art, and his practical love of it, come 
out rather in numberless indirect allusions, 
in proverbial expressions, in the uncon- 
scious use of the terms of the art, in the use 
of words and phrases which show his perfect 
familiarity with it, and in the many little 
hints which show that he was no " prentice 
hand," but an experienced craftsman. They 
come out also in his not very frequent, but 
always accurate, accounts of different fishes ; 
and they especially come out in his almost 
loving descriptions of brooks and running 
streams, and in his bright word-painting of 
river scenery. There are many such, which 
will at once occur to the memory of every 
angler; and among these, there are some 
which few but an angler would, and some 
even which none but an angler could, have 
written : 

I. The actual descriptions of fishing are 
these : 

1. Ursula. The pleasant'st angling is to see the fish 

Cut with her golden oars the silver stream, 
And greedily devour the treacherous bait ; 
So angle we for Beatrice ; who even now 
Is couched in the woodbine coverture. 
Fear you not my part of the dialogue. 
Hero. Then go we near her, that her ear lose nothing 
Of the false sweet bait that we lay for it. 
Much Ado about Nothing, act iii. s. I (26).* 

2. Cleopatra. Give me mine angle ; we'll to the 

river ; there, 
My music playing far off, I will betray 
Tawny-finn'd fishes; my bended hook shall 

pierce 
Their slimy jaws ; and, as I draw them up, 
I'll think them every one an Antony, 
And say: "Ah, ha ! you're caught." 
Charmian. 'Twas merry, when 

You wager'd on your angling ; when your diver 

* The quotations and line numbers are from the 
Globe Shakespeare, 



SHAKESPEARE AS AN ANGLER. 



[ 43 



Did hang a salt- fish on his hook, which he 
With fervency drew up. 

Antony and Cleopatra, act ii. s. 5 (10). 

Shakespeare was evidently impressed with 
Antony's love of fishing. This practical joke 
of Cleopatra's is recorded in Plutarch's Life 
of Antony. It is a story which an ordinary 
reader would laugh at and pass by ; but an 
angler would dwell upon it with especial 
delight, and would be sure to store it in 
his memory and, if he could, would perpetuate 
it as Shakespeare has done ; as he has also 
recorded Caesar's character of his "great 
competitor :" 

He fishes, drinks, and wastes the lamps of night in 
revel. 

3. Hamlet. Thrown out his angle for my proper 

life, 
And with such cozenage. 

Hamlet, act v. s. 2 (66) . 

4. Claudio. Bait the hook well, this fish will bite. 

Much Ado about Nothing, act ii. s. 3 (113). 

5. Leontes. I am angling now, 

Though you perceive me not how I give line. 
Winter's Tale, act i. s. 2 (180). 

6. Third Gent. One of the prettiest touches of all, 

and that which angled for mine eyes (caught 
the water, though not the fish) was when, &c. 
Winter's Tale, act v. s. 2 (90). 

7. Gratiano. I'll tell thee more of th^s another time ; 

But fish not with this melancholy bait, 
For this fool gudgeon, this opinion. 

Merchant of Venice, act i. s. I (100), 

8. Salarino. Why, I am sure, if he forfeit, thou wilt 

not take his flesh ; what's that good for ? 
Shylock. To bait fish withal ; if it will feed 
nothing else, it will feed my revenge. 

Merchant of Venice, act iii. s. 1. (53). 

9. Third Queen. He that will fish 

For my least minnow, let him lead his line 
To catch one at my heart. 

Two Noble Kinsmen, act i. s. 1 (123). 

10. Wooer. As I late was angling 

In the great lake that lies behind the palace, 
From the far shore, thick set with reeds and 

sedges ; 
As patiently I was attending sport, 
I heard a voice, a shrill one, and attentive 
I gave my ear, when I might well perceive 
'Twas one that sung, and by the smallness 

of it 
A boy or woman I then left my angle 
To his own skill, came near, but yet perceiv'd 

not 
Who made the sound ; the rushes and the 

reeds 
Had so encompast it ; I laide me down 
And listned to the words she sung, for then 



Through a small glade cut by the fishermen, 
I saw it was your daughter. 

Two Noble Kinsmen, act iv. s. I (71).* 

11. Caliban. I'll fish for thee. 

******* 

Caliban No more dams I'll make for fish. 

Tempest, act ii. s. 2 (166, 184). 

12. Hamlet. A man may fish with the worm that 

hath eat of a king, and eat of the fish that hath 
fed of that worm. 

Hamlet, act iv. s. 3 (28). 

These are the chief passages in which 
angling is at all described ; but before going 
on to the more numerous passages in which it 
is otherwise mentioned, it is worth while to 
notice the way in which Shakespeare, and 
other early writers, use the word " angle ;" for 
the word has a curious history, and gives a 
good example of the way in which words 
rise, change their meaning, and disappear. 
Without questioning whether the word is 
derived from Angulus, or dyKvXoc, or aynurTpov 
(all of which have been suggested), it is 
enough to note that it is an old Anglo-Saxon 
word, meaning the fishing-hook, as dis- 
tinguished from all other hooks. In the 
Colloquy of Archbishop vElfric (in the tenth 
century) there is a conversation between 
Magister and Piscator: " M. Quomodo 
capis pisces ? P. Ascendo navem et pono 
retia mea in amne et hamum projicio et 
sportas et quicquid ceperint sumo," where 
the Anglo-Saxon gloss on " et hamum pro- 
jicio " is " aud ancgil vel aes projicio." From 
the hook, the word was soon extended to the 
whole tackle required for river fishing ; and 
the verb " to angle " and "angling," and the 
substantive " an angler," were formed.f The 
Book of S. Albans uses the word only in 
its larger meanings. " Here begynnyth the 
treatyse of fysshynge with an angle." " The 
beste to my symple dyscrecon whyche 
is fysshynge ; called Anglynge wyth a rodde 
and a lyne and a hoke." Yet the word was 
still sometimes confined to its original mean- 
ing of " hook." The Vulgate reading of 
Matt. xvii. 27, is "vadead mare, et mitte 
hamum," translated by Tyndale (1534), "goo 

* I give these two quotations from Littledale's 
edition, without entering into the question of the 
authorship of the play. By the best authorities the 
first quotation would be assigned to Shakespeare, the 
second to Fletcher. 

t " Angylle To take with fysche." \ Prompt. 
Parvu. 1440. 



144 



SHAKESPEARE AS AN ANGLER. 



to the see and cast in thyne angle;" by 
Cranmer (1539) "go thou to the see and cast 
an angle;" by the Geneva translation (1557) 
" go to the sea, and cast in thyne angle f 
while the earlier translation of Wiclif (1380), 
had been " go thou to the sea ; cast an hook." 
Shakespeare uses the word for rod and line 
and all the tackle ; but it is very little used 
after his time in that sense, nor is the verb 
"to angle" much used and gradually the 
word has almost entirely fallen into disuse in 
common conversation, and is only met with 
in books (which still speaks of " angling " and 
" an angler " but never of " an angle " or " to 
angle "); or on the signposts of pleasant, old- 
fashioned river-side inns, of which a few may 
still be found with the inviting names of 
"The Angler's Delight," "The Angler's Rest," 
or " The Jolly Angler." The word still exists 
in the Flemish words, " angel," a hook ; 
"angelaar," a fisherman; "angelijn," and 
" angelsnoer," a fishing-line. It also still exists 
in the German, and in the Italian languages. 

But to return to Shakespeare's angling. 
It is not every enthusiast in fishing that writes 
a treatise on the art of angling, but if he is 
an enthusiast, it will very soon show itself in 
his constant reference to his hobby ; in his 
applying the technical language of the art to 
matters of everyday life ; and in his drawing 
from it his proverbs and illustrations. And 
this is just what Shakespeare does. Angling 
terms and phrases are used in abundance, 
and many a wise saying is hidden under a 
homely fishing proverb, and many a good 
lesson driven home by an illustration from 
the gentle art. And it is noteworthy that 
these proverbs and illustrations do not take 
the hackneyed form of the old Moralities, ' ut 
pisces esca sic homines voluptate capiuntur,' 
but they are given with a freshness and 
reality which tell that he was thinking of 
actual fishes and fishing, and not of the pithy 
sentences that they might suggest. 

The proverbial expressions are ucb as 
these : 

1. Pistol. Hold hook and line, say I. 

2 Henry IV., act ii. s. 4 (172). 

The proverb in full is " Hold hook and line, 
and all is mine ;" and is interesting in con- 
nection with the angling literature of Shake- 
speare's time. Steevens says it is found in 



the frontispiece of a black letter ballad 
entitled The Royal Recreation of Joviall 
Anglers ; and it also appears on the frontis- 
piece of The Secrets of Angling, by J. D. 
(/'. e., John Dennys), a work which was not 
published till two years before Shakespeare's 
death, but which had been written long 
before, and which he may have seen, as it is 
not at all unlikely that he may have known 
the author. 

2. Edgar. Frateretto calls me ; and tells me Nero is 

an angler in the lake of darkness. Pray, 
innocent, and beware the foul fiend. 

King Lear, act iii. s. 6 (8). 

3. Iago. She, that in wisdom never was so frail, 

To change the cod's head for the salmon's tail. 
Othello, act ii. s. I (155). 

4. Leontes. His pond fish'd by his next neighbour, by 

Sir Smile, his neighbour. 

The Winter's Tale, act i. s. 2 (194). 

5. Angclo. O cunning enemy, that, to catch a saint 

With saints dost bait thy hook. 

Measure for Measure, act ii. s. 2 (180). 

6. Morton. But for their spirits and souls 

This word, rebellion, it had froze them up, 
As fish are in a pond. 

2 Henry IV, act i. s. I (198). 

7. Speed. What, are they broken ? 

Lance. No, they are both as whole as a fish ? 

Two Gentlemen of Verona, act ii. s. 5 (19). 

8. Parolles. I love not many words. 

First Lord. No more than a fish loves water. 

All's Well that Ends Well, act iii. s. 6 (91). 

9. Dromio oj Ephesus. I pray thee, let me in. 
Dromio of Syracuse. Ay, when fowls have no 

feathers, and fish have no fin. 
Dromio ofEp/iesus. For a fish without a fin, 
there's a fowl without a feather. 

Comedy of Errors, act iii. s. 1 (79). 

The "finlessfish" was one of the "strange 
concealments" and " skimble-skamble stuff" 
by which Glendower "angered" Hotspur, and 
"put him from his faith." 

10. Aufidius. I think, he'll be to Rome 

As is the osprey to the fish, who takes it 
By sovereignty of nature. 

Coriolanus, act iv. s. 7 (33). 

In Shakespeare's time the osprey was the 
proverbial royal fisherman by nature, and it 
has always been an object of admiration to 
fishermen, not only for its beauty, and as a 
special ornament in the wild scenery of 
Highland lochs, but also for its wonderful 
skill in catching fish, often literally " robbing 
the fisher of his prey." In another passage 
Shakespeare alludes to the fable that the 



SHAKESPEARE AS AN ANGLER. 



M5 



osprey fascinates the fish, who thus becomes 
an easy booty : 

Your first thought is more 
Than others' laboured meditance ; your premeditating 
More than their actions ; but, oh Jove, your actions 
Soon as they move, as ospreys do the fish 
Subdue before they touch. 

Two Noble Kinsmen, act i. s. 1 (146). 

11. Imogen. The imperious seas breed monsters; for 

the dish, 
Poor tributary rivers as sweet fish. 

Cymbeline, act iv. s. 2 (35). 

12. Tamora. I will enchant the old Andronicus, 
With words more sweet, and yet more dangerous, 
Than baits to fish, or honey-stalks to sheep ; 
When as the one is wounded with the bait, 

The other rotted with delicious feed. 

Titus Andronicus, act iv. s. 4 (89). 

13. Kent. I do profess to be no less than I seem ; to 

serve him truly that will put me in trust ; 
.... and to eat no fish. 

King Lear, act i. s. 4 (13). 

This is not in any sense an angling pro- 
verb ; but it is a proverb that preserves the 
record of a religious intolerance of which the 
fishermen of Elizabeth's day justly com- 
plained the branding a man as a Roman 
Catholic, and therefore hostile to the Queen's 
Government, because he ate fish. 

14. Lady Capulet. The fish lives in the sea. 

Romeo and Juliet, act i. s. 3 (89). 

This proverb is one of Lady Capulet's wise 
saws, by which she tries to recommend Paris 
to her daughter; but the force of it as applied 
to Juliet has not been quite satisfactorily 
explained. 

15. Benvolio. Here comes Romeo here comes 

Romeo. 
Merctitio. Without his roe, like a dried herring : 
O flesh, flesh, how art thou .fishified. 

Romeo and Juliet, act ii. s. 4 (38). 

16. Measure my strangeness with my unripe years. 
Before I know myself, seek not to know me ; 
No fisher but the ungrown fry forbears. 

Venus and Adonis (524). 

1 7. But whether unripe years did want conceit, 

Or he refused to take her figured proffer, 
The tender nibbler would not touch the bait, 
But smile and jest at every gentle offer. 

Passionate Pilgrim (51). 

It may be said that all these are common 
every-day proverbs, and hackneyed illustra- 
tions. Of course they are ; but, as a matter of 
fact, we can generally make a good guess 
at an author's tastes, amusements, or busi- 
ness, by noting the proverbs and illustrations 
he make's use of. Authors do not use 



technical terms in the familiar way in which 
Shakespeare speaks of fishes and fishing, un- 
less the terms really are familiar to them 
by frequent use ; and while we find these 
terms and allusions used by Shakespeare in 
an apparently unconscious way, as the 
natural turn of his thoughts, we do not 
find in all Milton's poetry the slightest 
mention of fishing ; and he speaks of fishes 
only as parts of the Creation. Of course 
this would be partially explained by the fact 
that all the early years of Shakespeare were 
passed in the country, and of Milton in the 
town ; but it is more fully explained by our 
knowledge that the tastes and amusements 
of the two were entirely different, and the 
difference is shown very clearly in their 
writings. 

But beyond these homely proverbs, 
similes, and illustrations, Shakespeare's 
knowledge and love of fishing is perhaps 
even more shown by his use of angling terms, 
or terms ordinarily used in connection with 
fishes, where other writers would have used 
non-technical words ; such as these : 

1 . Hotspur. And by this face, 

This seeming brow of justice, did he win 
The hearts of all that he did angle for. 

I Henry IV., act iv. s. 3 (82). 

2. Cressida. Perchance, my lord, I show more craft 

than love ; 
And fell so roundly to a large confession 
To angle for your thoughts. 

Troilus and Cressida, act iii. s. 2 (160). 

3. Folixenes. I fear the angle that plucks our son 

thither. 

Winter's Tale, act iv. s. 2 (51). 

4. Falstaff. They would melt me out of my fat, drop 

by drop, and liquor fishermen's boots with 

me. 

Merry Wives' of Windsor, activ. s. 5 (100). 

5. Bertram. She knew her distance, and did angle 

for me, 
Maddening my eagerness with her restraint. 
All's Well that Ends Well, act v. s. 3 (212). 

6. Chorus. But to his foe supposed he must complain, 

Andshesteal love's sweet bait from fearful hooks. 
Romeo and Juliet, act ii. Prologue (7). 

7. Gonzalo. Is not, sir, my doublet as fresh as the 

first day I wore it ? I mean, in a sort 

8. Antonio. That sort was well fished for. 

Tempest, act ii. s. 1 (102). 

9. Troilus. While others fish with craft for great 

opinion, 
I with great truth catch mere simplicity. 

Troilus and Cressida, act iv. s.4 (105). 



T46 



SHAKESPEARE AS AN ANGLER. 



10. Servant. It is written that the shoemaker 

should meddle with his yard, and the tailor 
with his last, the fisher with his pencil, and 
the painter with his nets. 

Romeo and Juliet, act i. s. 2 (41 ). 

11. Clown. I will henceforth eat no fish of fortune's 

buttering. 
All's Well that Ends Well, act v. s. 2 (8). 

Any one of these passages, taken by itself, 
would give but small proof that Shakespeare 
was an angler ; but it is the collection of small 
hints and casual notices that make a sort of 
cumulative evidence that fishes and fishing 
were much in his thoughts. And it should 
be noticed that in many, or even in most of 
the passages, the character of the speakers 
does not call for allusions to fishing they 
are not fishermen so-called, or even country 
gentlemen while in some cases the allusions 
may almost be said to be out of character. 
These are not the only instances where 
Shakespeare, as speaking his own feelings, or 
as interpreting the feelings of the time, is 
careless in observing too closely the exact 
fitness of the supposed speakers, whether as 
regards their date or their country ; but such 
instances are of the greatest value to all who 
can read between the lines, and so look 
through his characters upon his own life, or 
the history of his time. 

Shakespeare's love of angling may be fur- 
ther proved from his special mention of many 
different fishes. Leaving such general ex- 
pressions as "fishes of the sea," "beasts, 
birds, and fishes," " fish and fowl," "ravenous 
fishes," and such like, we find that he men- 
tions by name, among freshwater fishes, 
salmon, trout, pike or luce, eels, dace, min- 
nows, carp, tench, gudgeon, and loach. 

With salmon "the most stately fyssh that 
any man can angle to in freshwater" 
Shakespeare seems to have had but a small 
acquaintance, and he probably only knew the 
fish as an article of food. There are only 
two passages in which he speaks of the 
monarch of freshwater fishes, and neither of 
them refer to fishing for it : 

1 . Fluellen. There is a river in Macedon, and there 
is also, moreover, a river at Monmouth ; 
it is called Wye at Monmouth ; but it is 
out of my prains what is the name of the 
other river ; but 'tis all one, 'tis so like as 
my fingers is to my fingers, and there is 
salmons in both. 

Henry V., act iv. s. 7 (28). 



2. Iago. She that in wisdom never was so frail, 

To change the cod's head for the salmon's tail. 
Othello, act ii. s. 1 (155). 

Nor has he much more to say about trout ; 
and the little he does say proves that he was 
not acquainted with, and did not practise the 
noble art of fly-fishing for trout. 

1. Mrs. Overdone. But what's his offence ? 
Pompey. Groping for trouts in a peculiar river. 

Measure for Measure, act. i. s. 2 (90). 

2 . A/aria. Lie thou there ; for here comes the trout, 

That must be caught with tickling. 

Twelfth Night, act ii. s. 5 (24). 

In the present day catching trout by tickling 
is considered to be poaching, though it can 
only be done by great carefulness and delicate 
handling. But in Shakespeare's day it seems 
almost to have been the accepted system for 
catching 

The wary trout that thrives against the stream. 

Quari.es. 

Shakespeare's contemporaries and fellow 
workers, Beaumont and Fletcher, speak of it 
as quite the regular way : 

I told him what would tickle him like a trout ; 
And as I cast it, so I caught him daintily. 
****** 

Here comes another trout that I must tickle, 
And tickle daintily. 

Rule a Wife and Have a Wife. 

The pike, or luce, was probably better 
known to Shakespeare, and the opportunity 
of a pun on his old neighbour, Sir Thomas 
Lucy, of Charlecote (through whose park runs 
the Avon, with a plentiful supply of luce, or 
pike), was not to be lost. 

Slender. All his successors, gone before him, hath 
done't ; and all his ancestors that come after 
him, may ; they may give the dozen white luces 
in their coat. 

Shallow. It is an old coat. 

Evans. The dozen white louses do become an old 
coat well ; it agrees well, passant ; it is a 
familiar beast to man, and signifies love. 

Shallow. The luce is the fresh fish ; the salt fish is an 
old coat. 

Merry Wives of Windsor, act i. s. I (14). 

This, again, has no reference to the catching 
of pike, but to the old coat of arms of the 
Lucys ; one of the oldest bearings in English 
heraldry, and borne not only by the Lucy 
family, but by many others. (See Moule's 
Heraldry of Fish.) But the following pas- 
sage is a distinct account of trolling for 
pike : 



SHAKESPEARE AS AN ANGLER. 



M7 



Fahtaff. Well ; I'll be acquainted with him if I re- 
turn ; and it shall go hard, but I will make him 
a philosopher's two stones to me. If the young 
dace be a bait for the old pike, I see no reason, 
in the law of nature, but I may snap at him. 
1 Henry IV., act iii. s. 2 (354). 

The dace is not mentioned elsewhere. 

{To be continued.') 

(Livic Xtfe in bggone Centuries. 




RECENT search among the archives 
of the Corporation of Leeds has 
discovered some quaint records, 
which date back for more than two 
centuries. They lift the curtain from curious 
aspects of municipal life prior to the reign 
of Charles II., throwing a side light upon the 
eventful times of Oliver Cromwell, and the 
memorable days when Milton had just given 
his immortal epic to the world. Some of 
these antiquated chronicles are almost as 
difficult to decipher as the shorthand in 
which Samuel Pepys had then begun to 
write his celebrated diary of the Restoration 
period. This is no fault of the ink, which 
must have been of very good quality to keep 
its colour so long. The old manuscripts are 
now, however, stained and time worn, bearing 
unmistakable evidence that full two hundred 
years have passed since the crooked and 
antiquated handwriting of these official pages 
was penned. 

Some of the earliest entries give a rather 
droll revelation of the convivial and festive 
customs then largely associated with public 
business. Thus, we read that, in February, 
1662, the Corporation, "having received 
great testimony and satisfaction to the abilitye 
and fitnesse of Thomas Gorst in the per- 
formance of the art, trade, or mistery of a 
cooke," ordered that the said Thomas Gorst 
should " be reported and taken to be the 
sole and only Cooke to the now present, or 
hereafter Maior and Aldermen of y e sayd 
burrough;" and that he should, "from tyme 
to tyme, vpon any publique occation, dress 
or order to be dressed, the several dishes 
appoynted for any such meeting or solemp- 
nitye." The Corporation also forbade any 
person to interfere with him in his profession. 



Upon minor occasions the feasting was 
enjoyed in some favourite public house : and 
there are, accordingly, many entries of pay- 
ments to certain landlords on account of 
the " treate " with which newly elected 
Councillors or Aldermen invariably com- 
mended themselves to the jovial circle of 
municipal magnates. In a memorandum by 
the town clerk, dated September, 1765, 
with regard to the date and mode of choosing 
new Mayors, it is formally notified that, 
" afterwards the old Mayor, the Mayor-elect, 
and the rest of the Court, go and drink a 
glass. The old Mayor pays a guinea, the 
Mayor-elect icy. 6d., the Aldermen 2s. a 
piece, and the Assistants (or Councillors) one 
shilling each. What is spent above is paid 
by the treasurer out of the Corporation 
stock. Sunday after the last mentioned day, 
the new Mayor goes to Church with the old 
Mayor the former in a scarlet, and the latter 
in a black gown ; and dine together at the 
old Mayor's. After the Michaelmas Quarter 
Sessions, go to the Court to swear the new 
Mayor, and then sup ivith him. Waites 
playing before them from Court. New 
Mayor gives the old Church ringers ten 
shillings." The last sentence but two 
evidently refers to the festive duties of the 
Town Clerk himself, concerning whom we 
find it unanimously agreed, at a Court held 
in October, 1755, "that the Town Clerk do 
dine as usual with the Mayor." At a later 
date, more than one payment of six guineas 
was made to the Mayor, as " half of the 
annual sum allowed for the Chief Constable 
and other attendants, in lieu of eating at His 
Worship's." Subordinate officers, such as the 
Beadle and Mace Bearer, enjoyed several 
perquisites, one of which was an allowance 
" in lieu of dinners " on what were known 
as Gown Sundays, when the Corporation 
went in State to Church. At the same period 
there was an annual grant of ^45 to the 
Mayor " towards the support of his dignety." 
And yet the "dignety" was one which 
some gentlemen refused to accept. In 1753, 
a worthy townsman chosen as chief magis- 
trate, was so contumacious and ungrateful, 
that he would not yield until the point was 
decided against him by Lord Justice Mans- 
field, at York Assizes; and then he only 
consented on condition that the duties of the 



148 



CIVIC LIFE IN BYGONE CENTURIES. 



office might be discharged by his brother. 
Many others selected against their will for 
civic honours equally objected to serve, but 
did not carry their resistance to the extremity 
of litigation, preferring to pay the heavy 
penalties imposed for their refusal. The 
lines prescribed by the Corporation, so late 
as 1830, were ^400 for every Assistant, and 
^500 for every Alderman failing to take 
office within ten days after election. Fines 
of equal amount were payable for resignation 
without the consent of the Corporation, unless 
the member had ceased for twelve months to 
reside within the borough, or the Alderman 
had attained the age of seventy years. It was 
also provided that there should be a penalty 
of ^400 for refusing to serve the office of 
Mayor never having served ; ^300 for re- 
fusal, after having served once ; ^200 for 
twice; and ^100 for every. subsequent re- 
fusal. As the records shew, these were no 
idle enactments. In December, 1786, four 
individuals paid amongst them no less than 
;8oo in this way. The exacting conditions 
were, indeed, so often enforced that we are 
inclined to suspect the sly old Councillors of 
having elected wealthy but unwilling bur- 
gesses in order to extract these substantial 
fines from them when the corporate ex- 
chequer was at a low ebb. The civic purse 
does seem at times to have got rather 
empty; for at a Court held in May, 1720, 
it was "agreed and ordered by a majority 
of votes that no more money shall be ex- 
pended upon any public or com'on treate, 
out of the Corpora'con's stock until the Cor- 
pora'con is out of debt." This self-denying 
ordinance was of brief duration. 

After accepting office, some members seem 
to have been lax in their attendance. A fine 
of 5X. was ordered for such Aldermen, and 
2S. 6d. for Councillors, who failed to attend 
within half-an-hour of the time specified in 
the notice convening each Court. As even 
this failed to secure punctuality, the penalties 
imposed upon defaulters were doubled in 
1705. In the case of one or two daring 
absentees who refused to pay the fines, the 
Recorder was consulted as to " the properest 
way to recover the same." The first bye- 
law among these old Yorkshire records is 
dated March, 1662, and reads as follows : 

For the more Regular and due behaviour of all and 



every person and persons, now or hereafter members 
of y Corporac'on of this burrough, in the Transaction 
of any matter or thing in this Court ; it is Ordered that 
vpon any matter put to question and in debate, noe 
member shall take vpon him to speake dureing such 
tyme as the Maior or any Alderman or any one of 
the Common Councell is in his discourse to the matter 
soe in question, vpon penaltye of every Alderman 
soe offending y summe of five shillings, and every 
Common Councell man or Assistent y e summe of 
2s. 6d. 

Perhaps it would not be amiss if this whole- 
some regulation were still in force for the 
"due behaviour" of some public bodies in 
which interruptions and irregularities of de- 
bate are by no means unknown. The 
earliest mention of civic robes in these 
Chronicles is in a minute dated 1668. It is 
there noted that Madame Danby, the Mayor's 
wife, presented a scarlet gown to be worn by 
her husband and succeeding Mayors. After 
awhile the minor dignitaries apparently 
became envious of His Worship's grandeur; 
and so, at a Court held on May 10, 1 701, it 
was ordered that every member of the Cor- 
poration, "except old Mr. Hargreaves," 
should provide himself with a suitable gown, 
under a penalty of ^5 afterwards increased 
to 20 with the addition of a small fine if 
they failed to attend the Mayor in their 
official robes, when summoned to Church 
service upon festival days, or other 
public and solemn occasions. In order 
that there might be no evasion of these 
edicts it was required that the Aldermen 
and Assistants " do show their gowns to the 
Sergeant-at-Mace, on request," or be fined 
for refusal. In 1773, it was resolved " that 
the Mayor be provided with a new gown out 
of the Corporation stock, and that the 
Sergeant-at-Mace have the Mayor's old gown," 
an amusing compromise between extra- 
vagance and economy. This same mace- 
bearer was a functionary who sometimes 
united in himself a singular combination of 
offices, as witness the following entry under 
date March 5, 1736 : 

This day Morgan Lowry was elected Sergeant-at- 
Mace in y house of William Mitton, by John Brooke, 
Esq., (Maior), the Alderman and Councillors, and 
did then take the oath of office. 

At same time and place he was, in like manner, 
elected Clerke of y e Markett, and did then take the 
oath of office. 

At same time and place he was, in like manner, 
elected Coroner, and did then take the oath of office. 



CIVIC LIFE IN BYGONE CENTURIES. 



149 



Such a plurality of offices sounds strange 
in our day, and rather out of keeping with 
the dignity of the coronership ; but the lucky 
Morgan must have been a favourite, and 
doubtless showed his gratitude by a "treate" 
to his civic masters, as they met in generous 
mood that day at "y house of William 
Mitton." 

Even more striking than the change in 
social customs is the revolution in thought 
which has occurred since the stirring time 
when these old records were written. The 
Corporations then were close and self-elected 
bodies, too much under the jealous control 
of royalty to show any popular sympathy 
for the cause of either civil or religious 
freedom. As the present 'Mayor of Leeds 
is a Quaker, it is especially interesting and 
suggestive to find that one of the earliest 
records relates to a persecution of his 
Worship's co-religionists. The intolerance 
of the local authorities went farther than 
even so bigoted a monarch as James II. 
was then inclined to sanction. Accordingly, 
we read that, in 1687, a letter was read from 
the king with reference to some goods be- 
longing to John Wales and other Quakers 
of Leeds, which had been taken from them 
I on account of their religious worshippe," 
and remained unsold in the hands of the 
constable. His Majesty signified his pleasure 
that the Mayor and Aldermen should cause 
" ye said goods" to be forthwith returned 
to the respective owners, without any charge 
an order duly obeyed. By an entry, dated 
1680, we are reminded of the unrelenting 
rigour with which Nonconformists were per- 
secuted in the previous reign. At that date 
the Mayor and Alderman were each re- 
quired by a Royal Commission to state 
and here are their statements, preserved to 
this day whether they had duly observed 
the Test Act, which required from all persons 
accepting office, a declaration against the 
Solemn League and Covenant and also that 
they should within one year have taken the 
Holy Sacrament according to the rites of 
Church of England. 

Profligate and unworthy as was the 
monarch Charles II. who imposed these 
religious conditions, his death was lamented 
in due form by the local dignitaries of the 
period. In an address to the new king, in 



which congratulation and condolence are 
oddly mingled, Charles is lamented as our 
late gracious sovereign of blessed memory, 
" Yo r maty es most deare and intirely beloved 
brother." The loyal address adds : 

We do in all humillitye beseech y r maty' to 
p'rmitt us to lay our most thankfull congratulacions 
at y r Royal Feet for yo r maty* 8 late most gracious 
declarac'on. 

In the first year of his reign, James granted 
to Leeds, as to other towns, a new charter, 
in which, however, he took care to subject 
the Corporation, and the appointment of all 
its leading officers, to the power of the Crown. 
Besides submitting to further restrictions of 
their liberties, the Town Council had to meet 
the expense of the new Charter. This duty 
the members set about personally, in accor- 
dance with the following quaint resolution, 
dated 1685 viz., 

That M r . Maior and 4 or 5 of y Aldermen, with as 
many of y assistants as please, doe meet on Wednes- 
day, att y e house of M 13 . Hannah Johnson, by seaven 
of y e clock in y e morning, to goe about to collect y e 
same. 

In our own day it would scarcely be in 
accord with aldermanic habits to start at 
seven o'clock in the morning from a public- 
house on a collecting expedition ! 

As each successive monarch came to the 
throne, his advent was welcomed with a loyal 
address, and proclamations by the mayor and 
aldermen, on horseback, at the Market Cross*; 
after which, as in the case of George II., 
" the Corporation do adjourn to the House 
of Mr. James Wainman, to solempnize the 
day, where an entertainment is to be pro- 
vided at the public charge." Upon the acces- 
sion of George IV., besides a coronation 
banquet to the Town Council, an allowance 
of ix. per man was allowed to the soldiers 
in Leeds, also $s. per man to the local 
yeomanry, and an equal sum to the volun- 
teers, "to drink his Majesty's health." 

During the rebellion of 1745 in favour of 
the exiled house of Stuart, the Leeds Town 
Council, like others, passed a resolution de 
nouncing " the Popish Pretender ;" and they* 
did not fail to celebrate the victory of the 
King's troops with abundant festivity. At 
the commencement of the eventful war with 
France in 1793, a loyal address, which we 
find fully set out in these records, was sent 



iS 



CIVIC LIFE IN BYGONE CENTURIES. 



from Leeds, promising the King a firm sup- 
port in its prosecution. Volunteers having 
enrolled themselves in the national cause, the 
thanks of the municipality were voted to them, 
in 1794, for their prompt enrolment: and 
an " elegant " sword was presented to the first 
commandant of the local battalion. In 1 798, 
when England was in expectation of being in- 
vaded by France, the Town Council records 
refer to the French "as our inveterate enemies, 
making preparations to invade our land, 
destroy our commerce, and enslave our 
persons." A resolution was passed ex- 
pressing " fixed determination to assist in 
repelling these tyrannical efforts by the most 
vigorous means in our power." An address 
was at the same time presented to the King, 
promising that "your Majesty may have 
ample supplies to provide for the effectual 
protection and safety of this kingdom," and 
humbly offering " our deliberate opinion 
that the finances of the Government ought 
to be strengthened at this important crisis by 
such a legal but general contribution out of 
the annual income of all property, real and 
personal, by a rateable proportion, as may be 
fully adequate (under the blessing of Divine 
providence) to defeat all the machinations of 
our foes." Since that time, Governments 
have not been slow to profit by this self- 
sacrificing suggestion of an income tax. Not 
content with merely verbal expressions, it 
was further resolved that "^500 be sub- 
scribed out of the Corporation stock, in aid 
of the supplies requisite for the defence of 
the country, and that it be subscribed in 
the following terms: 'The Corporation of 
Leeds, having no property or income what- 
ever, save the interest of a capital of about 
;i,8oo arising from fees of admission, or 
fines paid by persons refusing to serve, ordered 
that the Treasurer do dispose of shares in the 
Leeds Water Works, towards raising a sum 
for the purpose aforesaid." When peace was 
restored, in the first years of the present 
century, two pairs of colours were publicly 
presented to the local volunteers, who were, 
moreover, entertained to dinner at a cost of 
nearly ^300. And yet, in 1800, local trade 
and social comfort were at a low ebb, as 
witness the following dismal petition from 
the Town Council to Parliament : 
The condition of the labouring people of this 



populous borough and its neighbourhood is extremely 
deplorable, owing to the excessively high price of corn 
and other articles of sustenance ; that the petitioners 
are manufacturers of woollens, or connected therewith, 
and that the produce of their labour is almost unsale- 
able, from the general inability of the poor to purchase 
clothing ; that the master manufacturers a numerous 
and most valuable class of men have struggled some 
time with the greatest difficulties, in endeavouring to 
find employment for their workmen, but from the 
causes above stated their goods cannot be vended in 
sufficient quantity, even at prices below the actual 
cost, and that the most ruinous accumulations of them 
remain in their hands, whilst their stock of trading 
capital (a source of incalculable benefit to the country 
when employed by them) is sinking so rapidly that, 
unless some immediate and effectual remedy to the 
evil can be applied, the most fatal consequences to 
them, and all who depend on them for employment, 
must inevitably ensue. 

Since this lamentation was written, a good 
many fortunes have been made in the West 
Yorkshire woollen trade. The manufacturers 
had not then, as in a more recent period of 
depression, hit upon the expedient of trying 
to divert the fashions by inducing members 
of the royal house, from patriotic motives, to 
wear clothing of local make. In 1812 the 
Town Council petitioned, in alarmist terms, 
against Catholic emancipation. Congratula- 
tions upon the " glorious victories" gained 
over Napoleon Buonaparte are recorded in 
1813. In the following year an address was 
sent to the Prince Regent, congratulating 
him upon " the glorious events which have 
led to the downfall of tyrrany and the re- 
storation of the Bourbons to the throne of 
their ancestors." In 1831 the civic body, 
laying much stress on the protection of the 
interests of property, petitioned against the 
Reform Bill, which was passed in the follow- 
ing year. Apart from any political partisan- 
ship, it now sounds singularly to read how 
they express their "dread of the consequences 
of intrusting the interests of the few to the 
protection of the many, which would be the 
case in a legislative assembly elected, for the 
most part, by large bodies of people gene- 
rally indifferent, oftentimes opposed, to such 
interests, and too likely to be swayed in the 
choice of their representatives by matters of 
partial and temporary interest, at the dicta- 
tion of ambitious demagogues or the inter- 
meddling of political associations formed for 
the purpose of controlling elections." 

The reformed legislature of the nation 



CIVIC LIFE IN BYGONE CENTURIES. 



151 



naturally turned its early attention to the 
need of reforming the civic parliaments. A 
Commission was accordingly appointed in 
1834, and reported in the following year 
that 

There prevails among the inhabitants ot a great 
many of the incorporated towns a general and, in 
our opinion, just dissatisfaction with the municipal 
institutions ; a distrust of the self-elected municipal 
councils, whose powers are subject to no popular con- 
trol, and whose acts and proceedings, being secret, 
are not checked by the influence of public opinion a 
distrust of the municipal magistracy, tainting with 
suspicion the local administration of justice and 
discontent under the burden of local taxation, while 
revenues are diverted from their legitimate uses. 

Moved by virtuous indignation, the Leeds 
Town Council petitioned, but in vain, against 
being included in this sweeping condemna- 
tion. The records of the unreformed Cor- 
poration close with an unfinished minute, 
dated 19th December, 1835 municipalities 
entering in 1836 upon an era of progressive 
improvement under the new Act. 

J. D. Shaw. 



lEssey ^rassea. 




HE following article contains some 
additions and corrections to the 
list given in the Manual of 
Monumental Brasses, by the late 
Rev. Herbert Haines, M.A. 

Ashen. A small brass, circa 1520, repre- 
senting a man in armour, and his wife. 
Inscription and shields lost. 

Althome. 1. Inscription: " Of yo' charite 
pray for the soule of Margaret Hyklott which 
decessed the xxvij. day of August in the 
yere of our lord M 1 V c two, on whose soule 
Jhu have mercy. Amen." The figure of 
Margaret Hyklott is, unfortunately, gone, but 
above the matrix there remains the figure of 
the B. V. M. seated in a chair, crowned and 
with long flowing hair, holding upon her 
knees the Infant Saviour. Beneath the 
inscription are two female figures, children of 
the deceased, one a widow, the other a nun, 
with left hand raised in the act of 
benediction. 

2. The full-length figure in civilian costume 
of William Hyklott. Above it is a repre- 



sentation of God the Father, seated in a 
chair, supporting the crucified Saviour. 
Beneath the figure is the following inscription : 
" Pray for the soule of Willm. Hyklott of 
Althorn, which paide for the werkemanship 
of the wall of this churche the same 
Willm. dyed the xvj. day of September in 
the yere of our lord M 1 V c viij. on whose 
soule Jhu have mercy, ame." These brasses 
are very well preserved. 

Bowers Gifford. The highly interesting, 
though mutilated, figure of Sir John Gifford, 
is now restored to this church. 

Benfleet, South. A mutilated Latin in- 
scription. 

Chadwell St. Mary. English inscription 
and shield of arms to Cicilye Owen, who 
died 1 8th August, 1603. 

Coggeshall. Nos. 1 and 2 appear to be 
lost. 

Corringham. An inscription in Roman 
capitals, " Here lieth the body of Robte. 
Draper, Person of Corringham, who decesed 
ye 18 of December, 1595." 

Cricksea. Three escocheons of arms, with 
very long English inscription to Sir Arthur 
Herris, of Creeksea, who died in 1631. He 
married Ann, sole daughter and heiress of 
Robert Cranmer, of Chipsted, in Kent ; and 
secondly, Dame Ann, widow of Sir H. 
Bowyer, Kt, sole daughter and heiress to 
Sir Nicholas Salter, Kt., of London. 

Downham. Two brass plates, fixed in a 
large slab of stone, were found during the 
recent restoration of this church, at a depth 
of more than a foot beneath the pews in the 
nave. The first is inscribed : 

Mons Thomas Tyrell gist ici 
Dieu de s'alme eit verraie mercy 

The second : 

Alice q fut feme de Mons Thorns 
Tyrell gist ici Dieu de s'alme eit m'cy 

Beneath this is shield of arms, chequy. Sir 
Thomas Tyrell died at the close of the 
fourteenth century. 

Fryerning. The brass in this church is 
now lost. 

Hanningfield West. 1. The half-length 
figure of a lady, circa 1400. The figures of 
the husband and a second wife, with inscrip- 
tion, lost. 2. Two escocheons of arms with 
two fragments of an inscription, the remainder 



'52 



ESSEX BRASSES. 



of the composition consisting of male and 
female figures ; two shields lost. 

Harlow. Add, i. The small full length 
figures of Thomas Aylmar and Alys, his wife. 
He is in civilian costume, wearing the long 
fur trimmed cloak. She wears a tightly 
fitting dress with elaborately ornamented 
girdle, and the kennel head dress ; behind 
her is a group of four daughters, and behind 
the male figure is a group of seven sons. 
The inscription, rather roughly engraved, is : 
" Here lyeth Thomas Aylmar, gent, and Alys 
his wyfe which decssyd the xxviij. day of 
August anno dni. m ccccc c xviij." 

2. The full length figures of a civilian and 
his wife, with four sons and five daughters. 
The lady wears the horned head dress with a 
short veil. Inscription lost. 

3. Three shields of arms. The centre one 
is engraved upon a circular plate, and bears 
a Moor's head as a crest. 

Horndon, East. The lady is represented 
as a widow. 

Hutton. An inscription to George White, 
1584. 

Laindon. By comparing the figures with 
the list of rectors, as given by Newcourt in 
his Repertorium, there appears little doubt 
but that No. 1 commemorates John Kekil- 
peny, rector, who died in 1466. and No. 2, 
Richard Bladwell, rector, who died in 15 13. 

Latton. Nos. 3 and 4 are apparently lost. 

The inscription to Emanuell Woolloye and 
Margaret his wife has been replaced ; also the 
three shields. 

Leigh, near Rochford. No. in. These 
figures are undoubtedly of earlier date, and 
probably commemorate members of the 
Chester family. 

Littlebury. No. 6. The name of Byrch 
should be Byrd. 

Margaretting. A man in armour (head 
lost) and wife, with three sons and four 
daughters. One shield of arms (mutilated) ; 
inscription lost. Add : three shields and 
English inscription to Margaret Whetcombe, 
and one shield and English inscription to 
Peter and Julian Whetcombe. 

Nettleswell. Thomas Laurence is in civi- 
lian costume. This brass contains groups of 
two sons and five daughters. No. 2. The 
daughter is deceased, and represented as a 
chrism child. 



Ockenden, North. No. 2 is apparently 
lost. 

Pitsea. Latin inscription to Elizabeth 
Parlevant, 1588. 

Parndon, Great The full-length figure of 
Rowland Rampston. He is in civilian cos- 
tume, long fur-trimmed cloak, with hanging 
sleeves, low shoes, short hair, beard and 
moustache. Inscription : " Here lyeth buried 
the body of Rowland Rampston, late of this 
Parishe, Gent, who married Mary the eldest 
daughter of Captain Edward Tvrner of Can- 
nons, Esquire ; begotten on y e body of 
Martha, the daughter and heire of John 
Hanchet, Esquire : w ch Mary, in kinde re- 
membrance of her lovinge hvsband provyded 
this monument, who departed this lyfe in 
the faithe of Christ and in an assvred hope 
of. a happie resvrrection the x th day of 
September, 1598." 

Rettenden. No. 2, with probably some 
other brasses, is now covered by floor- 
boards. 

Roydon. No. 3 is now missing. 

Stow Maries. A very well executed full 
length female figure, in the Paris headdress, 
with large ruff. On each side is a group of 
children four daughters and three sons. 
Above is a shield of arms. Beneath is the 
inscription in Roman capitals : " Here lieth 
the body of Marye the daughter of Thomas 
Cammocke of Maldon in the county of 
Essex, Esq. and late wife of William Browne 
of Stow Marris in the said county Gent, by 
whome she had iii. sones and iiij. davghters 
and she departed her life the xvij. day of 
September 1602. In the 35 yeare of her age." 

Southminster. 1. Two escocheons of arms. 
2. A square plate, elaborately foliated, bearing 
a large shield surmounted by a crest. Be- 
neath the shield are four Latin verses. This 
is the sole remnant of the noble monument 
erected to " Master William Harris," High 
Sheriff of Essex, who died in 1556. 3. The 
full length figures of a civilian and his wife, 
circa sixteenth century ; above her head is a 
shield of arms. One other shield and the 
inscription lostj 4. The small full-length 
figure, in short cloak and trunk hose, of John 
King, Gent, who died on the 14th of July, 
1634. According to the English inscription, 
he married " Ann, daughter of John Henbone, 
Yeoman, late of Bursted Magna." 



ESSEX BRASSES. 



J 53 



Stock. *TJie Tweedye memorial is now 
mural. 2. Inscription to Z. Pearse, rector, 
and Elizabeth his wife, 1707. 

Thurrock Grays. The male figure is now 
lost. 

Upminster. Nos. 4, 5, 6 and 7 apparently 
lost. Add the full-length figure of a lady 
holding a book. She has a Venetian mirror 
attached to her girdle. Also a small full 
length figure of a civilian, in long fur- trimmed 
cloak, low shoes, and long hair. Also a 
Latin inscription to John Stanley. 

Waltham Abbey. Add English inscrip- 
tion commemorating Robert Rampson and 
his charity. Also, a long English epitaph upon 
Sir Edward Denny, Kt, who died in 1599. 

Waltham, Great. No. 1 commemorates 
Richard Everard and Clemence his wife. 
He is in civilian costume. She in the dress 
of the period, with very high hat. She died 
in 16 1 7. Three shields of arms, and English 
inscription. No. 2, described as " a civilian 
and 2 ws, c. 1600," is the memorial of 
Thomas Wyseman. One wife is now lost. 
Above the figures is a square plate, with 
shield of arms ; beneath, is an English inscrip- 
tion, and a mutilated group of three daughters 
under the second wife. Add a full-length 
civilian figure, habited in long cloak, shoes, 
and wearing beard and moustache, probably 
one of the Wyseman family. Also an English 
inscription to Dorothie, wife of Thomas 
Wyseman ; she died in 1589. 

Waltham, Little, 1. An inscription : 
" Hie jacet Ricardus Walthm. qui obijt xxviij. 
die mensis Octobr. a'.dni. mccccxxvi. cuius 
ane p'prciet d'ns. Ame." 2. A very fine 
figure in armour, similar in every respect to 
the knight, circa 1450, in Isleworth Church, 
Middlesex, engraved on page excii., and 
probably by the same artist. Inscription 
beneath the feet : " Hie jacet Johes Walton 
armig. quondm. dns ista. ville qui obijt xxi. die 
Decembr. a dni mccccxlvii. cui aie ppciet de 
ame." The whole composition is in wonder- 
fully good preservation. 

Warley, Little. An English inscription is 
beneath the demi-figure of Anne Hamner. 

Weald, South. The whole of these brasses 
were given away in 1863 (?) by the then recfor, 
but thanks to Notes and Queries several have 
been recovered, and will be replaced by the 
present rector. 

VOL. IV. 



Writtle. The three groups of children 
described as belonging to No. 2 form portion 
of a recently uncovered brass representing 
a civilian and his four wives. It is in very 
good preservation, but unfortunately the in- 
scription is gone. Add also a fine brass 
representing the full-length figures of Edward 
Bell, gentleman, and "Margaret his onlye 
wife." The English inscription shows that 
he died in January, 1576. Beneath are the 
figures of three sons and one daughter. The 
whole surmounted by a shield of arms. 

In Little Burstead Church there are three 
seventeenth-century inscriptions. I also 
possess rubbings of the brasses in the fol- 
lowing churches, and find them correctly 
described viz., Aveley, Baddow (Great), 
Barking, Dagenham, Faulkbourn, Ingrave 
(remarkably fine), Ockendon (South), Orsett, 
Rayleigh, Rawreth, Rainham, Runwell, San- 
don, Shopland, Springfield, Stifford, Stondon 
Massy, and Willingale Doe. I may add 
that I commenced my Essex collection in 
August, 1880. 

J. A. Sparvel-Bayly, F.S.A. 

Billericay, Essex. 




liver Cromwell anfc Genoa. 

By J. Theodore Bent. 

URING the Protectorate, a very 
close intimacy existed between 
England and the Italian Republic 
of Genoa; perhaps not so much 
owing to the excuse alleged by Cromwell 
when the Spanish Ambassador complained 
of the favour shown to the emissary of 
Genoa. " Do ye not perceive," said Oliver, 
"that England and Genoa are both Repub- 
lics? Hence, they wish to do themselves 
mutual honours, being, as they both are, 
under the protection of St. George." But 
more probably it may be attributed to th 
close relationship which existed between 
Cromwell's family and the wealthy house of 
Pallavicini, in Genoa. 

Sir Horatio Pallavicini came from Genoa 
to England in Queen Mary's reign, and 
settled here, being appointed collector of the 
Papal taxes in this country. On the acces- 
sion of Queen Elizabeth, he put into his 

M 



154 



OLIVER CROMWELL AND GENOA. 



pocket all the dues he had in his possession 
at the time being, and was knighted shortly 
afterwards for lending to the queen a portion 
of his ill-gotten gain. 

Sir Horatio had three children by his first 
wife, who was Genoese, and shortly before 
his death, on her demise, he married a Dutch 
lady, who only remained his widow for a 
year and a day, when she gave her hand to 
Sir Oliver Cromwell, the Protector's grand- 
father. He, too, was a widower, with several 
children ; and so pleased with the arrange- 
ment did the respective families of Cromwell 
and Pallavicini seem, that three of the Crom- 
wells married the three Pallavicini, and hence 
the Protector had two Genoese uncles and 
one Genoese aunt. 

This will easily account for the intimacy 
which existed between Cromwell and the 
Ligurian Republic, without going further 
afield for a reason. There is a report cur- 
rent in Genoa that Richard Cromwell, the 
Protector's son, died at the Scoglietto Palace 
in Genoa; but there is only evidence as to 
his having spent a short time there. 

In the archives of Genoa, the corre- 
spondence between the Genoese ambassadors 
and the Republican authorities is kept in full, 
forming several large folios, and each letter 
abounds with accounts of some pleasing 
audience he had had with the Protector, and of 
the amicable commercial terms which existed 
between the two countries. 

Hidden away amongst these are two letters 
of the Protector's, one professing to be a 
translation and copy of one he wrote shortly 
after the battle of Worcester, and the other 
being written in his own hand and signed 
with his own signature. 

Of the first of these I here append a trans- 
lation. It was written to Guglielmo Sentalle, 
Orator of the Parliament of Genoa, who sup- 
plied the translation, which is now in the 
archives, appended to a letter from the 
Genoese Ambassador in London, describing 
the same event. It runs as follows, and is 
without date : 

I cannot at present give you full details of the 
successes which the Lord has been pleased to work 
for this Republic, and yet I cannot keep silent ; and 
so, according to my powers, I will sincerely represent 
the events as they occurred. 

The battle was fought with varied success for some 
hours, but always with good hopes on our side, until 



at last we became completely victorious, so much so 
that the total ruin of tliu hostile army was the result ; 
and when they were all put to flight the fall of the 
city of Worcester soon followed, which gave itself up 
to us. 

Our soldiers entered in almost on the heels of the 
enemy, fighting with them in the streets with great 
courage, and getting hold of their baggage and 
artillery. As to how many dead there may be I can- 
not give an exact account, since a revision has not been 
made ; yet there are many, since the dispute was long 
and hand to hand, and sometimes from hill to hill, 
and from one point of defence to the other. 

Our prisoners are from six to seven thousand, and 
many noblemen of high rank, and officers ; the Duke 
of Hamilton and the Earl of Ross, and several 
earls and marquises, and others, who will be fitting 
subjects for our justice. 

We have sent a considerable body of troops after 
the enemy who fled in haste, and I have already 
heard they have taken a considerable number. 
Another very important thing is that the whole 
country round has risen against the enemy. I think 
that my forces, which, by divine Providence, betook 
themselves to Stroud, Shrewsbury, and Stafford with 
those beside under Colonel Selbourne, seem in a 
manner to have foreseen what would happen, and have 
been greatly instrumental in preventing the return of 
the enemy into Scotland. I hear besides that the 
enemy have not more than a thousand horsemen in 
their flight, and that we have nearly four thousand 
following them, and others who are to interpose them- 
selves between them and their return into Scotland. 

Of a truth the battle was hard fought ; yet, neverthe- 
less I do not believe we have lost more than two 
hundred men ; the dimension of a debt to the mercy 
of God passeth my understanding. Truly this appears 
to me a crowning mercy, and if it is not such, at all 
events it will prove to be so, if we, to whom so much 
is given, render the thanks due to God, and if the 
parliament, in changing the government, does His 
will and that of the nation, seeing that the people are 
so willing in defence, and that the diligence of our 
servants has been thus signally blest in this last great 
work. 

Therefore, I take upon myself the hardihood 
humbly to beg of you that all your thoughts may 
only have regard to the exaltation of His honour, 
who has worked such great salvation, and that the 
maintenance of those continued mercies may not 
cause pride or vanity, as formerly similar ones caused 
to His chosen people ; but rather that the fear of the 
Lord God alone by His mercy may hold rule, that the 
people thus prospered and blessed may be humble 
and faithful, and that justice, rectitude, and truth may 
flow upon us on returning thanks to our gracious God. 

These will be the prayers of your most humble and 
obedient servant, 

Oliver Cromwell. 

The second letter is written in Latin, pre- 
sumably not the Protector's composition, but 
in his handwriting and with his accustomed 
signature, and is a purely business letter to 
the Doge, as follows : 



OLIVER CROMWELL AND GENOA. 



i55 



Oliver Cromwell, Protector of the Republic of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, to the Most 
serene Doge and most illustrious Governor of 
the Genoese Republic, sendeth greeting. 

Most serene Doge. Most illustrious Governors : 
Whereas we have deemed it necessary to send a fleet 
of ships of war fnto the Mediterranean, for the 
security and protection of the navigation and com- 
merce of the Republic and its people ; it has seemed 
good to us to advise your most serene Republic of the 
fact that we do this without the slightest intention of 
causing any injury to any of our confederates and 
friends, amongst whom we number your Republic, 
and that, in fact, we have given express orders to our 
Admiral, Robert Blake, whom we have set over our 
fleet, to conduct himself with all kindness and grati- 
tude towards them all. 

On your part we feel confident that our existing 
friendly terms will urge you, as often as our fleet 
touches at any port or station of yours, to supply it 
with provisions and everything necessary, and will 
receive it on most friendly terms ; and that you will 
be willing to receive in perfect good faith the request 
we make of you in this letter, and that you will be good 
enough to inform your prefects and local governors by 
messenger or by letter when the occasion may occur 
to receive our Admiral, whensoever and wheresoever 
he may require. 

May the Great God sustain and protect your most 
serene Republic. 

Your good friend, 

[Signature.] 

Given at Whitehall, Westminster, 

[Old style] August 5th, Year 1654. 

The following is a passport given to Fiesco, 
the Genoese Ambassador, by Cromwell, like- 
wise reposing in the archives, and illustrating 
the style of credential necessary for travelling 
in those days : 

Whereas his excellencie the Lord Ambassador 
Extraordinarie from the Commonwealth of Genoa 
now residinge here is upon his Retorne home"; And 
our will and Pleasure beinge that the said Lord 
Ambassador in his passage thither should travell with 
all safetie and honour not only through theese Countries 
Butt at sea alsoe, Wee doe therefore heereby will and 
require you that you permitt and suffer the said Lord 
Ambassador to passe from England, beyond the seas 
to Genoa, with his Retienue, followers, and servants, 
consistinge of about thirtie-five persons, as alsoe his 
goods, necessary baggage, and foure Horses, without 
search, payment of Custome, or any other lets or 
interruptions, and that you use and treate the said 
Lord Ambassador with all the honor and respect that 
is due to a person of his degree and qualitie. Whereof 
you are not to faile ; and for so doinge this shall be 
the said warrant given at Whitehall, the 25th of 
March, 165^. 

To all our admirals and commanders att sea, and 
our officers, as well Civil as Militarie, at Land, 
the Commissioners of our Customes, and all 
others whome these may concern. 

[Signature.] 



The small kindnesses which passed between 
the Protector and his Genoese friends, private 
as well as public, are attested in the volu- 
minous correspondence of the ambassador, 
and on the death of Cromwell, the Doge and 
Senate of Genoa sent an address of sym- 
pathy to "Richard Cromwell, Protector of 
the Republic of England, Ireland, and Scot- 
land," in the following words : 

Inasmuch as Francesco Bernardi, our agent at your 
Court, has given us advice how the Lord God has 
been pleased to take from this world the most serene 
Oliver, formerly Lord Protector, and that your most 
serene Highness, as his first-born, and legitimate suc- 
cessor, by his last will has been clothed with the said 
office and dignity ; Therefore we have expressly com- 
manded the said Francesco Bernardi, now our resident 
minister, to present himself before your serene High- 
ness and to express by word of mouth our lively grief 
and feeling for so great a loss, as also on the other 
hand the extreme satisfaction we feel on hearing that 
your serene Highness has been deservedly raised to the 
above named dignity, praying you benignantly to listen 
to our resident at your Court, and to give the same credit 
to his words as if we ourselves were present, knowing 
well that he never could sufficiently express our good 
inclination and immutable affection to your serene 
Highness and the ardent desire that we have to con- 
tinue with you in that sincere good correspondence 
already carried on with your most serene predecessor 
of happy memory, whilst we pray to heaven for a 
long life, health, and contentment for you. 

Another little document attached to the 
English correspondence, and of interest to 
us, is an autograph letter, sent by Andrew 
Marvell, Milton's friend, and Poet Member 
for Hull, to the Genoese Ambassador, inviting 
him to attend the funeral of Oliver Cromwell. 
It is written in excellent French, and runs as 
follows : 

Sir, His serene Highness having commanded me, 
on account of the indisposition of "Chevalier Fleming," 
to invite you, amongst other foreign ministers, to be 
present at the obsequies of his Father, of glorious 
memory, which will be celebrated on Tuesday next, 
I have learnt from the said Chevalier that you are not 
well, and hence I have decided the rather to let you 
know of it in writing ; nothing doubting you will 
pardon and excuse me for having chosen rather to 
lose the honour of rendering you this service in 
person than to inconvenience you by a visit out of 
season. 

At any rate, I assure you that I am, Sir, 

Y r most humble and affectionate servant, 

Andkew Marvell. 

Whitehall, Nov. 20, 1658. 

Bernardi, the Genoese Ambassador, care- 
fully informs his Republic that he considers 
this invitation a mark of especial favour, con- 

m 2 



i56 



OLIVER CROMWELL AND GENOA. 



sidering the fact that he had only been a short 
time in England, and that, owing to ill-health, 
he had as yet been unable to present his 
credentials at Court. 

Shortly after this he writes to say that he 
had been present at the obsequies ; that 
they were "wonderful to behold;" but adds 
that the climate of England was most 
atrocious, and that he had well-nigh caught 
his death of cold on the occasion ; and on 
this plea excuses himself from sending for 
the present a detailed account of the cere- 
mony. 

After having recovered sufficiently from 
the effects of his cold, Bernardi writes a long 
account of Cromwell's funeral to Genoa, 
which letter is inserted along with his other 
correspondence, and is as follows : 

The guests invited to the ceremony exceeded I, SCO 
in number, to whom his Highness (Richard Crom- 
well) had sent personal invitations for them and for 
their suites as well, who formed double that number. 

All these people assembled at nine o'clock precisely 
at Somerset House, where each was received and, in 
conformance to his rank, conducted into a room pre- 
pared for the purpose, all hung with black cloth, and 
adorned inside with the arms of the deceased. 

The street from the said Palace all the way to 
Westminster (which is over a mile) was closed by 
carriages, guarded by soldiers, so that none could 
pass down the centre except the invited guests ; the 
banners of the companies draped in black and the 
drums muffled. 

The effigy, or rather statue, of the deceased, life- 
size, and which up to then had been stretched on a 
bed, was now set upon its feet under a canopy, with 
regal vestments, a crown on the head, and in one hand 
a sceptre and in the other a globe. 

One hour after mid-day it was placed on a bier, 
richly adbrned, and carried under the canopy by 
twelve persons to the spot where the hearse was in 
waiting, open at all sides, and then the effigy was 
placed upon it. 

The roof of the hearse was adorned with many 
plumes and banners, covered with black velvet both 
outside and in, and all around hung velvet, ten spans 
in length, down to the ground, and held up by gentle- 
men of quality, whilst two servants sat, one at the 
head, and the other at the feet of the effigy. 

The said hearse was drawn by six horses, likewise 
adorned with many feathers, all covered, except the 
eyes, with black velvet, which almost trailed on the 
ground. The coachman and postillions had long 
robes of the same material. 

When all was in order, the king-at-arms sent his 
heralds to summon below the guests from the different 
rooms. He began with the lowest class, as follows : 

1st Division. Sixty poor people, just the numbei 
of the deceased's years, all dressed in new long robes 
of black, and followed by two flags. 

tnd Division. The inferior attendants of the 



guests and low officials of the Court, followed by two 
flags. 

yd Division. Court officials of middle rank and 
the superior attendants in the train of the guests, with 
two other flags. 

4I/1 Division. The Poor Knights of Windsor, 
dressed like priests at the High Mass, being a most 
ancient custom at the funerals of the Kings ol England, 
which same caused so much laughter and noise 
amongst the crowd, who had not seen it before, that 
the soldiers had some ado to quell them. They also 
carried two flags. 

$t/i Division. The under officials of the Secretary 
of State, of the Army, Admiralty, and Treasury, and 
gentlemen of the embassies and of the public 
ministers. 

6th Division. The head officials of the Privy 
Council and Houses of Parliament, with the phy- 
sicians and advocates of the most serene Protector, 
followed by a horse, all covered with black cloth 
and plumes, and led by two men. 

Tlh Division. The Masters in Chancery and of 
the Court of Common Pleas, with the Aldermen and 
the principal officials of the City of London, followed 
by a horse as above. 

Sth Division. The Judges of the Supreme Court 
of Admiralty and of Wales, followed by a horse as 
above. 

gth Division. The supreme Judges of England, 
followed by a horse as above. 

10th Division. The head officials of the army, 
followed by a horse, as above, but covered with black 
velvet down to the ground, and adorned with many 
more plumes. 

1 \th Division. The Lords of the Great Seal, 
followed by a horse as above. 

12th Division. The Lords of the Treasury, fol- 
lowed by a horse as above. 

I3AS Division. The resident and public ministers 
of the Prince, followed by a horse as above. 

14th Division. The noblemen, or rather peers, ot 
the kingdom, followed by a horse as above. 

i$th Division. The ambassadors, followed by a 
horse as above. 

161/1 Division. The Lords of the Privy Council, 
followed by a horse as above. 

\"]th Division. The relatives of the deceased, 
followed by a horse, with black velvet trappings down 
to the ground, and covered with black armour; with 
plumes and jewels of great value, led by six men in 
black velvet, each of whom carried a portion of the 
armour of the deceased. 

i&th Division. The effigy of the deceased in the 
above-mentioned hearse, accompanied on all sides by 
heralds of arms and many banners ; ten trumpeters 
on horseback, in black velvet, who sounded dolefully, 
whilst the velvet, which hung on the ground on all 
sides, was supported by men of quality. 

Finally came the Governor of the City of London, 
in the place of the present serene Protector (by which 
was shown a peculiar favour to the said city), and the 
procession was concluded by the Life Guards of his 
Highness and halberdiers. 

When the hearse reached the door of the Church 
of Westminster, the nobles, public ministers, &c, 
were shown their appointed places ; and ten of them 



OLIVER CROMWELL AND GENOA. 



157 



carried the effigy under a canopy into the choir of the 
church, wherein it was deposited on a royal couch under 
an edifice made expressly after the fashion of a pavilion, 
which cost more than .4,000 sterling, where it will re- 
main three months, exposed to public view, and thence 
will be taken into another edifice in the chapel of 
King Henry VII, and will be placed over the 
monument, under which' is laid the body of the de- 
ceased, just as has always been the custom at the 
obsequies of the kings and princes of this nation. 

All the aforesaid people followed behind the noble- 
men, dressed in the finest cloth, the shortest of whose 
trains trailed two spans upon the ground, some eight 
snans, some twelve, and some sixteen, carried by the 
gentlemen of their suite. The shortest train of the 
ordinary people touched the ground, and they con- 
sider that the cloth given by his Highness for this 
solemnity cannot have cost less than ,30,000 
sterling. 

Your humble servant, 

Giovanni Bernardi. 



(Sreefc anb (Botbic Hrt at 
IRome** 




R. TYRRWHITT has produced a 
really valuable book, and one that 
will live ; but it is to be feared that 
it is too thorough to become 
popular. He has not spared his own labour, 
but he expects a good deal of work from his 
readers also. To understand it properly the 
reader ought to have before him the plates of 
Seroux d'Agincourt's History of Art by its 
Monuments; but as these were originally 
engraved about the middle of the eighteenth 
century, from drawings or tracings made at 
that period, their accuracy is not always'to be 
depended upon ; from the 3,335 subjects 
given on these plates an immense mass of 
valuable information is to be obtained ; but 
although the work was republished , by 
Longmans & Co. in 1847, the plates were 
not re-engraved, and it is easy to see that 
these old plates cannot be entirely depended 
upon. To remedy this he refers also to 
many of Mr. Parker's 3,354 Historical 
Photographs. This may be all very well for 
Mr. Tyrrwhitt's pupils in Oxford, where both 
the old engravings and the new photographs, 
often of the same subjects, are readily acces- 

* Greek and Gothic Progress and Decay in the 
three Arts of Architecture, Sculpture, and Painting. 
By the Rev. R. St, John Tyrrwhitt. London : Walter 
Smith. 1881. 



sible ; and readers in London will most 
probably find both, either in the British 
Museum or at South Kensington ; but even 
Cambridge does not possess a set of 
Mr. Parker's photographs, and for a part of 
this book the use of these is quite necessary. 
The numerous extracts from other books add 
greatly to the value of this. It is time, how- 
ever, to let Mr. Tyrrwhitt speak for himself, 
but it is almost necessary to begin with one 
of his extracts : 

Greek Art in Rome. 

The arch, says Fergusson, was never properly 
understood till the Roman tiles were used for it. As 
with Babylonian bricks of more distant time, they 
were duly dated, with time and place, maker's name, 
and consulate, and are often important chronological 
evidence. The 22nd Legion has been traced 
through great part of Germany by bricks which bear 
its name. Bricks of the 6th and 9th Legions are 
found at York ; and dates thus obtained have been 
found of great value in determining the period of 
Christian sepulchral chambers, as in the cemetery of 
S. Domitilla, which contains dated tiles of Hadrian's 
reign. Mr. Parker's photographs of the House of 
Pudens contain excellent specimens of first and 
second century brick or tile work, and illustrate its 
excellent application to radiating arches. The use of 
less splendid materials seems in time to have worked 
both ways, and ministered to pride of science instead 
of pride of state. Mr. Street has explained, in a 
manner equally interesting and convincing, how 
the progress of architectural skill, in building vast 
structures with bricks or stones of small size, no larger 
than a man could carry, gradually engrossed attention, 
so that men began to vie with each other in wonder- 
working ingenuities of construction, and to think less 
of sculpture and painting, or expression of solemn or 
inventive thought (p. 82). 

Mr. Parker's photographs have their usual interest 
here, as documents beyond dispute ; and the pictures 
of the brick arches are specially valuable, as giving 
the reader a clear idea at one glance of what the true 
first-century brickwork, or rather tilework, of Rome 
really was (p. 88). 

Fergusson and Street are both high authori- 
ties on the subject of Architectural History, 
and though they do not always agree, yet in 
these extracts which Mr. Tyrrwhitt has made, 
the one only adds to what the other had said ; 
and it was difficult to find a passage that 
would so well explain the nature of Mr. 
Tyrrwhitt's book : 

Scriptural Cycles of Catacombs. 

As to the antiquity of the catacombs ; as to their 
very generally, or almost entirely Christian origin ; as 
to the important and decisive differences between the 
catacomb and the arenaria, or sand-pit ; as to the in- 
frequent instances and difficult expensive works by 



i 5 8 



GREEK AND GOTHIC ART AT ROME. 



which an arenaria could be made useful as a catacomb ; 
as to the peculiar strata of soil adapted for these 
cemeteries, called granular tufa a dry, friable stone, 
midway between the puzzuolana sandstone, which was 
too soft for the purpose, and the lithoid tufa, which 
was too hard ; as to the way of beginning a catacomb 
by excavating a passage all round your lot of ground, 
and driving galleries across and across ; as to table- 
tombs, arcosolia, luminaria, ambulacra, and cubicula, 
all this is accessible in one view, and with equal fulness 
and accuracy, in the late lamented Mr. Wharton 
Marriott's article on " Catacombs " in Smith's new 
Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, which is very 
generally accessible. 

Mr. Parker's photographs are the best or final 
authority for the present state of cemeteries. They 
fully confirm the accuracy of Bosio, the pioneer of all 
subterranean inquiry in Rome, though too many 
paintings have perished since his time (p. 116). 

The usual method of construction was to secure a 
piece of ground on the right sort of granular tufa, so 
many feet in front, facing the road, so many deep in 
agro; to excavate a passage all round it, burying 
people in the walls as you went on ; and then to drive 
galleries across as you wanted more graves (p. 126). 

The first and second centuries were the spring 
sowing of the word ; and for a time it grew with 
little molestation, before the burning heat of summer 
and thick undergrowth of thorns. 

The cemetery of S. Domitilla is Professor 
Mommsen's chosen example of an ancient burial 
chamber, and of the development of such a tomb into 
a regular Catacomb, either by extension underground, 
or by other subterranean additions, till a Catacomb 

was established This was S. Flavius Clemens, 

Domitilla's husband. He may have been a man of 
too retiring or indolent a character j but I should not 
think, after Juvenal's Fourth Satire about the "last 
Flavius" (Domitian), that any kinsman of his was far 
wrong in keeping out of the way while he could. At 
all events, Flavius Clemens undoubtedly underwent 
death for atheism and Jewish superstitions as a Chris- 
tian martyr (Suetonius, Dotnit. 15, and Dion Cassius, 
lxvii. 14), and was contemptuously spoken of by 
heathendom in consequence. By some he is thought 
to be Clemens Romanus himself, Bishop of Rome at 
the end of the first century, and it is quite possible. 
He died, and Domitilla was sent after his death to the 
island of Ponza, where she probably ended her days in 
exile (p. 132). 

He (Christ) was Lord of Life and Death ; but in 
primitive days people seem honestly to have looked 
over and beyond Death, and to have considered it as 
a brief passage between two lives, rather than the 
final consummation of a suffering and dubious exist- 
ence here. They dwelt on the Lord's victory rather 
than on His sufferings (p. 145). 

That word the Christian Faith alone could teach. 
But when the barbarian had once mastered it, he could 
take very easily to all the great Order and Law of 
ancient Rome. To forget all we have received through 
Rome is to ignore or quarrel with history ; and it is 
in history that the strength of our case lies against 
the Roman Curia, whenever that case has to be gravely 
asserted (p. 149). 

Our age is a fast one, and expects that quality in 



all clergy. They are to strive for pace instead of 
peace, and shew well in front of every movement ; if 
possible, they are neither themselves able to see, nor 
su gg es t to others, which way it ought to move, or 
where it ought to stop (p. 152). 

These extracts show that the author has 
succeeded in giving a clear account of the 
difficult subject of the Roman Catacombs in 
a very succinct manner. He gives all that is 
really true, avoiding the fables and the 
blunders of the Roman Church, without any 
feeling of animosity to it. It has been well 
shown by Dr. Christopher Wordsworth, that 
the greater part of these are not wilful decep- 
tions, but blunders of sheer ignorance. The 
ignorance of nearly all the Romanist authori- 
ties for centuries past appears incredible until 
it is proved ; but those who have read Dr. 
Wordsworth's works, from his Travels in Italy, 
thirty years ago, to his recent pamphlet, in 
which he shows the application of the 
prophecy of St. Paul to the Roman Papacy, 
must see that it is undeniable. Those Angli- 
cans who were in Rome between i860 and 
1870, and were accustomed to visit the 
Catacombs with the official guides, will re- 
member the wide difference between the 
history of the Catacombs as given on the spot 
by two of them on different days. One was 
Dr. Smith, a credulous Irishman, who either 
did believe, or pretended to believe, every- 
thing, and De Rossi, the very opposite, who, 
without exposing the rubbish, smoothed off 
all the angles, and explained away what he 
called the " imaginary difficulties" in so in- 
genious and charming a manner that it was 
almost impossible not to be led away by him 
for the moment, although little consideration 
and examination of the evidence showed that 
it was all a delusion. The very name of 
Catacomb is a misnomer when applied to the 
Catacombs of Naples or Syracuse ; it is not 
the name of the family burial vaults them- 
selves, but of the locality in which some of the 
earliest for the Christians were made, in the 
valley under the hill, on the summit of which 
stands the well-known tomb of Cecilia 
Metella ; the Circus of Maxentius is made in 
the same valley, and is said by contem- 
porary authorities to have been made in 
Catacumbis ; and the Church of S. Sebastian, 
in the same valley, was the principal entrance 
to a large number of them in the third cen- 



GREEK AND GOTHIC ART AT ROME. 



i59 



tury, the time of the chief persecutions. But 
Mr. Tyrrwhitt, though always writing as an 
Anglican, carefully avoids, as much as he can, 
all those irritating questions which make the 
ultramontane party so angry. They make 
it almost a matter of the faith, that nearly all 
these Catacombs, and the paintings in them, 
belong to the first three centuries ; whereas 
Mr. Parker's Historical Photographs have 
demonstrated to all those who know anything 
of the history of painting, that three-fourths 
of them are of the eighth or ninth, when the 
Catacombs were restored by the Popes after 
they had been annihilated by the Lombards, 
as recorded in the Pontifical Registers pub- 
lished by Anastasius, the librarian of the 
Vatican, in the ninth century. The name of 
Roma Subterranea, used by De Rossi, con- 
stantly misleads all strangers who come to 
Rome. They naturally expect to find them 
under Rome, and are amazed to find they are 
two or three miles from it. 

ON CHRISTIAN SYMBOLISM. 

Agape. These representations must be symbolic. 
Meetings certainly took place from Apostolic times, 
which may be described as suppers preceding the 
actually Eucharistic breaking of bread. It is at least 
probable that the order of the Last Supper would be 
followed on such occasions; and that the breaking 
and pouring forth the actual celebration would 
.come at the end (p. 155). 

At all events, the general presence of bread and 
fish in these pictures, instead of bread and wine, point 
to a distinction between the Eucharist and the Agape 

which cannot but be maintained Two Agapes 

are represented in the Catacomb of SS. Marcellinus 
and Peter (known otherwise as that Inter duas Lauros, 
on the Via Labicana). Raoul Rochette selects them, 
with those from the Calixtine, as the most ancient 
with which he is acquainted, and has no doubt what- 
ever of their relation to pictures in Herculaneum and 
Pompeii (p. 156). 

In both of the Via Labicana Agapes, men and 
women are present together ; in both, the provisions 
and wine are not placed on the table, but appear to 
have been handed by servants ; and in one the requests 
of two of the guests are strangely painted above their 
heads: "Irene da cal(i)da{m)," "Agape, misce mi" 
(Juv. Sat. v. 63). The names, as Rochette observes, 
are probably significant .... it must be supposed 
to be a Christian Agape. Yet the guests are evidently 
meant to be reclining at table, not sitting, and some 
are crowned with Horatian wreaths of flowers. The 
names, Sebie and Vincentiu, are written above two 
of them. This picture would of itself be a perfect 
link between the classical and Christian work (p. 
-57)- 

Symbolisms and personifications of the Church 
(setting aside that of lambs or sheep attendant on 



the Good Shepherd) are very numerous. The Shep- 
herd sometimes has goats with Him as well as sheep, 
and frequently the sheep issue in two bands from 
separate buildings or folds one called Hierusalem, 
the other Bethleem, representing the Hebrew and 
Gentile sides of the Church. Sometimes, as in the 
baptism of S. Pontianus's Catacomb, the Lord stands 
by the mystic "Jordanes," and then the stag repre- 
sents the Gentile Church, with the lamb Let 

the building be turned lengthways to the east .... 
"it is like a ship" (p. 161). 

Dove or Doves. The single dove, in representations 
of the Lord's Baptism, as in S. Pontianus's Catacomb 
at Rome, at Ravenna, and passim, stands for the pre- 
sence of God the Holy Spirit (p. 162). 

At all events, the earliest representation of the four 
Gospels is the four books or rolls, or the four rivers of 
the rock, on which the form of Christ stands, from the 
fourth century (p. 163). 

Many who read this will have seen or heard of 
some of his [Mr. Parker's] lectures, pamphlets, and 
photographs on the House of Pudens. The great value 
of such writings is, that you have the photographs 
to refer to at every step, and they are original docu- 
ments ; it is like being there, and being told where to 
look seeing the actual bricks and stones in their places 
(p. 190). 

The brethren met in the vaulted cellars during per- 
secution, and in the basilica above at ordinary times ; 
and we have, in the subterranean church of refuge, as 
in the Catacomb chapels, the type of our long, massive, 
round-arched and vaulted Early English buildings. 
So, again, the fair Basilica above developes into our 
later Gothic (p. 193). 

THE BASILICA. 

The little Church of S. Clemente, at Rome, still re- 
mains an almost perfectly preserved example of the 
inner arrangements of a primitive church (p. 202). 

This passage shows that Mr. Tyrrwhitt 
himself has never seen the Church, or he 
would not call it a little church. 

Its plan, and a picture of its interior, is given in 
D'Agincourt [Architecture, pi. xxiv.) ; and it is repre- 
sented in Gaily Knight's Italian Churches, and many 
other books. lb. 

He forgets that Gaily Knight's and these 
other books, were written forty years ago ; and 
he is not aware that the great excavations 
made by Father Mullooly during those forty 
years have thrown an entirely new light upon 
the subject. To the amazement of the good 
Father, he found the original church under 
the present one, and the floor of it 20ft. 
below the level of the beautiful mosaic 
pavement of the upper church. The so- 
called original arrangement, therefore, does 
not apply to the existing church ; although it 
is, in fact, the same church, it has been 
most materially altered. The original church 
was built at the level of the old Via Labicana, 



i6o 



GREEK AND GOTHIC ART AT ROME. 



which, like all the old roads, was a fosse-way, 
or hollow way, twenty feet below the level 
of the ground ; the roof of this church, and 
all that would burn, was burnt by Robert 
Guiscard and his Normans at the end of the 
eleventh century; before that time, a new road 
had been made, on the natural level of the 
ground, leading from the Via Sacra and the 
Colosseum to the Lateran Palace of the 
popes, when all the upper part of the church 
had to be rebuilt. The old church was filled 
up with earth to the level of the new road, 
and an entrance made through the side wall 
at that level, and the beautiful mosaic pave- 
ment was then laid upon that earth. When 
Father Mullooly was appointed, it was all in 
waves, which was supposed to be from the 
irregular settlement of the earth ;* and it was 
to remedy this by building brick walls under 
it, that Father Mullooly began his excava- 
tions, when to his great surprise he found not 
only the floor of the great church, but the 
arches of a side aisle, now under the garden 
of the monastery. But those arches supported 
the north wall of the present church ; in the 
twelfth century they had made the nave 
considerably narrower than the old one, and 
so included an aisle in what was the width 
of the church below. All this has been 
excavated, and the north aisle of the old 
church is now under the garden. A new altar 
has been made on the old pavement, and a 
subterranean church or crypt made of it, 
which is used on certain festivals, when this 
lower church is lighted up. Mr. Tyrrwhitt 
is hardly to blame for this mistake ; it is one 
of the many that have been made by people 
ignorant of the enormous excavations that 
have been going on in Rome. Many things 
that were quite true fortyyears ago are entirely 
erroneous now ; for instance, twenty feet of 
earth have been removed from the whole 
surface of the Forum Romanum ; and Canina's 
book on the Forum, which was the best book 
on the subject in his time, like many other 
books on Rome, was made up of guesses as 
to the sites of building recorded to have been 
in the Forum, but not specified in what part 
of it ; and nine out of ten of Canina's guesses 
have turned out to be erroneous. 
( To be continued.) 

* But see ante, iii. 153. [Ed.] 




Ibenrs Hnbrews, almanac 
Compiler. 

By William Andrews. 

HE name of Henry Andrews is 
familiar to the literary and scienti- 
fic world as the compiler for many 
years of Old Moords Almanac, but 
the particulars of his life are not generally 
known. His career, although not an event- 
ful one, was most honourable, and furnishes 
a notable example of a man, who, from a 
humble beginning, by perseverance attained 
an important position in life. 

He was born at Frieston, near Grantham, 
on February 4, 1744, of parents in poor cir- 
cumstances, who were only able to afford 
him a limited education. In his earliest 
years he appears to have had a love for astro- 
nomy, a science in which he afterwards be- 
came one of the most proficient in his day. 
It is recorded that when only six years old 
he would frequently stand in his shirt looking 
at the moon out of his chamber-window at 
midnight ; and when about ten years of age 
he used to fix a table on Frieston Green on 
clear frosty nights, and set a telescope thereon 
through which to view the stars. The young 
student would afterwards sit by the fireside 
with a table covered with books, making 
astronomical calculations. 

At an early age he left home to earn his 
own living, the first situation he filled being 
that of a servant to a shopkeeper at Sleaford. 
We next trace him to the city of Lincoln, 
where he was engaged to wait upon a lady. 

During his leisure time he took every 
opportunity to make weather-glasses and 
weather-houses. The last situation he held 
as gentleman's servant, was, under J. Feri- 
man, Esq., who found Andrews so intent on 
study that he kindly allowed him two or 
three hours daily to devote to that purpose. 

We are told that on the 1st of April, 1764, 
he went to Aswarby Hall, the seat of Sir 
Christopher Whichcote, to view the eclipse 
of the sun which was visible on that day. 
A number of ladies and gentlemen had as- 
sembled for the same purpose. Having pre- 
viously calculated a type of this eclipse, he 
presented the same to the company, showing 
them the manner of its appearance in a dark 



HENRY ANDREWS, ALMANAC COMPILER. 



;6 



room upon a board, and, after it was over, 
they unanimously declared that his calcula- 
tions came nearer than any given in the 
almanacs. 

Shortly after the above meeting he opened 
a school at Basingthorpe, near Grantham. 
We presume the venture did not prove satis- 
factory, for we find that he was afterwards 
engaged as an usher in a clergyman's board- 
ing-school at Stilton. His next move was 
to Cambridge, hoping there to obtain assist- 
ance in prosecuting his studies from the 
men of science in the University. Accus- 
tomed to a quiet life, he could not endure 
the bustle of the ancient seat of learning, so 
he left, and settled at Royston, Hertfordshire, 
where he opened a school, and continued to 
reside until the day of his death. He had 
only reached the age of twenty-three years 
when he took up his residence at the latter 
town. 

A few years after Andrews settled there 
we find his name on the title-page of an 
almanac, also an advertisement of his 
school. The title-page of the publication 
is curious, and reads as follows : 

A Royal Almanac and Meteorological diary of 
the year of our Lord, 1778, and of the Julian period 
6491, the second after Bissextile, or Leap year, and 
the eighteenth year of the reign of his Majesty, King 
George III. Containing the Feasts and Fasts of the 
Church of England ; the times of the lunations ; the 
vising and setting of the sun ; the equation of time for 
the regulating of clocks and watches ; the moon's 
rising and setting ; the times of high water at London 
Bridge, morning and afternoon ; the aspects of the 
planets and weather. Also, of every sixth day, the 
increase and decrease of day ; the beginning and end 
of daylight ; the nightly rising, southing, and setting 
of the planets and seven stars ; adapted to the 
meridian and latitude, London. Likewise an exact 
meteorological journal for the preceding year, or the 
state of the barometer and thermometer, with the wind, 
weather, &c, as they were registered every day. Also 
the depth of rain which fell, and the observations 
made every month. To which are added the eclipses 
of the sun and moon, and other remarkable pheno- 
mena, that will happen this year ; the Middlesex 
commencement of the Sessions of the Peace ; a table 
of the terms and their returns, and for finding the 
times of high water at most of the seaports in this 
kingdom. By Henry Andrews, Teacher of Mathe- 
matics, at Royston, Herts. London : Printed for 
T. Carman, in St. Paul's Ciiurchyard, who dispossessed 
the stationers of the privilege of printing almanacs, 
which they had unjustly monopolised 170 years, 1778. 
Price is. tm 

The advertisement states : 



At Royston, Herts, Young gentlemen and others 
may be commendably boarded with the Author of this 
Almanac at reasonable rates, and be taught by him 
as follows viz.: Writing, Arithmetic, Mensuration, 
Geometry, Trigonometry, Navigation, Astronomy, 
the Use of the Globes, &c. 

For forty-three years Henry Andrews com- 
piled Moore's Almanac for the Company of 
Stationers. The following extract from a letter 
written by Andrews' only son, proves that he 
did not receive liberal remuneration for his 
arduous task. Mr. W. H. Andrews stated : 

My father's calculations, &c, for Moore's Almanac, 
continued during a period of forty-three years ; and 
although through his great talent and management he 
increased the sale of the work from 100,000 to 
500,000 copies, yet, strange to say, all he received for 
his services was 25 per annum. Yet I never heard 
him murmur even once about it ; such was his delight 
in pursuing his favourite studies, that his anxiety 
about remuneration was out of the question. Sir 
Richard Phillips, who at times visited him at Royston, 
once met him in London, and endeavoured to persuade 
him to go with him to Stationers' Hall, and he would 
get him ^100 ; but he declined going, saying that he 
was satisfied. 

He was compiler for a time of the Nautical 
Almanac, and on retiring from the appoint- 
ment, he received the thanks of the Board of 
Longitude, accompanied by a handsome pre- 
sent, as a just tribute of long and able services, 
for which he would not receive more than a 
nominal payment. 

In 1805, Andrews built a house in High 
Street, Royston, and in it he spent the re- 
mainder of his life. It is worthy of note that 
he paid the builders for the work as it pro- 
gressed, on account of the men being in poor 
circumstances. We think this is a good proof 
of his kind consideration. 

At the age of seventy-six Andrews closed 
his well-spent life. We find in the Gentleman's 
Magazine of February, 1S20, a short notice 
of his career, concluding thus : 

His profound knowledge of astronomy and the 
mathematics was acknowledged by all scientific men 
who were acquainted with his abilities, but the great- 
ness of his mind was never more conspicuous than 
during the period of his last illness ; and on his death- 
bed not a murmur escaped his lips, but the serenity 
of mind, patience, and resignation were constantly 
depicted in his countenance, in which amiable situa- 
tion he continued until the vital spark fled. 

He was interred in the new burial-ground, 
Royston, and over his remains was placed 
a tombstone, bearing the following inscrip- 
tion : 



162 



HENRY ANDREWS, ALMANAC COMPILER. 



yln memory 
of Mr. Henry Andrews, who by his own 
industry, from a limited education, made 
great progress in the liberal sciences, 
and was justly esteemed one of the best 
astronomers of the age. He was for many 
years engaged by the commissioners of 
the board of longitude as a computer of 
the nautical ephemeris. He departed this 
life in full assurance of a better, January 
xxvith, mdcccxx. aged lxxvi years. 

Also near lies interred Ann, his wife, 
who died August xivth, mdcccxiv. aged 
lxvii years. 

A portrait of Henry Andrews was pub- 
lished, and is now very rare. Dr. Charles 
Mackay, in his entertaining volume entitled, 
Extraordinary Popular Delusions (issued by 
Routledge), gives a small portrait, and under 
it states, " Henry Andrews, the original 
' Francis Moore.' " This is a mistake, as the 
Almanac was named after Francis Moore, 
physician, one of the many quack-doctors 
who duped the credulous in the latter period 
of the seventeenth century. In Chambers's 
Book of Days (vol. i. pp. 9-14) will be found 
some very interesting information respecting 
almanacs and almanac writers. We find it 
stated that " Francis Moore, in his Almanac 
of 17 1 1, dates from the sign of the Old Lilly, 
near the Old Barge-house, in Christ Church 
Parish, Southwark, July 19th, 17 10." Then 
follows an advertisement in which he under- 
takes to cure diseases. Lysons mentioned 
him as one of the remarkable men who, at 
different periods, resided at Lambeth, and 
says that his house was in Calcott's Alley, 
High Street, then called Back Lane, where 
he practised as astrologer, physician, and 
schoolmaster. Moore's Almanac had appeared 
some years prior to 17 n. 



Zhc Gower of Xonbon in tbe 
Etgbteentb Centura 




HE worthy John Newbery, "the 
philanthropic publisher of St. 
Paul's Churchyard," as Goldsmith 
calied him, did not occupy himself 
solely with books for children, for I find, 
among the many important works of this 
kind which appeared with his imprint, several 



intended for the use, edification and amuse- 
ment <lf older folk. Among these may cer- 
tainly be reckoned a series of guide books, 
published under the general title of The 
Curiosities of London and Westminster, 
They were four in number ; and in perusing 
them the reader may gain some glimpses of 
London as it was 130 years ago. The first 
of them is entitled An Historical Descrip- 
tion of the Tower of London and its 
Curiosities, and is " written chiefly to 
direct the attention of spectators to what is 
most curious in this Repository; and to 
enable them afterwards to relate what they 
have seen." It is " Printed for J. Newbery, 
at the Bible and Sun, in St. Paul's Church- 
yard," and is dated 1 753. 

I propose very briefly to call attention to 
some of those passages in this brochure 
which to me possessed some novelty, so I 
imagine that there may be others who may 
be also interested in them. 

At this time " The Office of Records" was 
in the Tower, " and here," we are told, 

all the rolls from King John to the beginning of 
the reign of Richard III. are deposited in fifty- 
six preserves, and contain the antient tendres of all 
the lands in England, with a survey of the manors : 
the originals of all laws and statutes : the rights of 
England to the dominion of the British Seas : 
leagues and treaties with foreign princes, the 
atchievements of England in foreign wars : antient 
grants of our Kings to their subjects : the forms of 
submission of the Scottish Kings : with many others 
of great importance all regularly disposed and pro- 
perly referred to by indexes. 

A favourite practical joke on the first of 
April, was the sending of simple folk to the 
Tower, to see " The Lions washed." At the 
time this little book appeared, the lions, at 
least, were there, as well as many other animals, 
which were, I believe, subsequently removed 
to the Zoological Gardens ; and we have a 
long description of them, each one distin- 
guished by its name ; some interesting anec- 
dotes are related of some of the animals. 

There is, of course, a full description of 
the jewels, which were then pretty much as 
they are now; and an account of Colonel 
Blood's attempt to carry them off, in the 
reign of Charles II., is given at length. 

Less than a page is devoted to the Mint, 
which was removed from the Tower early in 
the present century. The remarks are most 



THE TOWER OF LONDON IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 163 



meagre, and no description worthy the name 
is given. 

A very curious and noteworthy fact is, that 
no reference whatever is made to those scenes 
of splendour that have been enacted within 
the walls of this historic pile ; and no allusion 
is made to the more sombre and tragic in- 
cidents of which it has been the theatre. 
There is no long record of its prisoners, with 
its thrilling human interest ; no account of 
any one of those exalted personages who 
have suffered death within its walls. 

The compiler evidently thought the Spanish 
Armada a more important subject. And there 
are, accordingly, several pages devoted to 
the history of this enterprise, together with 
an account of "The rehques that are pre- 
serv'd in the Tower of this memorable vic- 
tory, so glorious for our country," in which 
there is a good deal of fine writing. Indeed, 
our author seems to be ill at ease when 
writing bare descriptions, and takes every 
opportunity of embellishing his work with 
ornamental writing such as this (he is 
speaking of the royal train of artillery): 

To see so many and such various engines of 
destruction, before whose dreadful thunder, 
churches, palaces, pompous edifices, the noblest 
works of human genius, fall together in one common 
and undistinguished ruin : one cannot, I say, reflect 
on this without wishing that the horrible Invention 
had still lain like a false conception in the Womb of 
Nature, never to have ripened into birth. 

The book bristles with anecdotes of more 
or less authenticity. Nearly every object 
to which attention is directed suggests either 
some story or a piece of moralizing. Here 
is an anecdote that is at least amusing. It 
occurs in the description of the horse 
armoury : 

The only (Breastplate) that was wont to be shown 
as a Curiosity, hangs upon a beam on the left hand 
as you pass thro' the entry [the reader must remem- 
ber that the whole of the armoury was re-arranged 
about fifty years ago, so that it will probably be in 
vain to look for this piece now]. It has had the 
lower Edge of the left side carryed away by a slant 
shot of a Cannon Ball ; and, as an old Warder used 
to tell the story, the Rim of the Man's Belly that 
bore it, and Part of his Bowels, were carried away at 
the same Time ; notwithstanding which, being put 
under the care of a skillful Surgeon, the Man re- 
covered and lived ten years afterwards ; This story 
the old Warder constantly told to all strangers, till 
his late Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, coming 
to see the Curiosities of the Tower, and it falling to 
the old Man's lot to attend his Highness, when he 



came to this Breastplate he repeated to him his 
accustomed Tale : His Royal Highness listen'd to 
him with seeming Pleasure, and when he had done, 
looking upon him with a smile : And what, Friend, 
said he, is there so extraordinary in all this ! I re- 
member myself to have read in a book, of a soldier 
who had his head cleft in two so dexterously by his 
Enemy that one Half of it fell on one shoulder, and 
the other half of it on the opposite shoulder : and 
yet on his Comrades clapping the two sides nicely 
together again and binding them close with his Hand- 
kerchief the Man did well, drank his Pot of Ale at 
Night and scarcely recollected that ever he had been 
hurt. 

This, we are told, "so dashed the old 
Warder that he never had the Courage to tell 
his story again." 

The following passages occur in the de- 
scription of the horse armoury. They show 
a freedom in dealing with some matters of 
social life which are spoken of with more 
reticence now. 

No. n in the horse armoury is : 

The Droll figure of Will Somers, as the Warders 
tell you, King Henry Vlllth's Jester : an honest 
man, sayHhey, of a woman's making : He had a 
handsome Woman to his Wife, who made him a 
Cuckold ; and wears his Horns on his head because 
they should not wear holes in his pockets. He would 
neither believe King, Queen, nor anybody about the 
Court that he was a Cuckold, till he put on his 
spectacles to see being a little dim sighted, as all 
cuckolds should be ; in which antic manner he is here 
represented. 

12. A Collar of Torments, which, say your Con- 
ductors, used formerly to be put about the womens 
necks that Cuckol'd their Husbands ; or scolded at 
them when they came home late ; but that Cus- 
tom is left off now a days to prevent quarrelling 
for Collars, there not being Smiths enough to make 
them, as most Married Men are sure to want them at 
one Time or other. 

There was, however, one sight in the 
Tower of London at this time which is not 
referred to in this guide, but it is sufficiently 
remarkable to notice here, showing, as it 
does, a laxity of that perception of decency 
and fitness that in these much abused later 
days is at all events more rigid. 

A pamphlet lies before me, entitled : "An 
Epistle to the Bishop of London, occa- 
sioned by His Lordship's Letter to the Clergy 
and Inhabitants of London and Westminster 
on the subject of the two late Earthquakes ; 
in which the manners of the clergy and 
gentry are considered : some glaring incen- 
tives to vice are pointed out, and the 
mischiefs arising from thence exemplified in 



1 64 tHE TOWER OF LONDON IN 7 HE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 



\ 



several real histories." By a Foreigner. Lon- 
don : Printed for J. Newbery, at The Bible 
and Sun, in St. Paul's Churchyard. 

One of these " glaring incentives to vice " 
was to be found in the Tower of London, 
and it is thus described : 

Upon my first arrival in London I was led by a 
Curiosity customary with all Strangers to see every- 
thing which was said to be worthy pi notice ; the 
Tower, my Lord, was one of the first places to which 
I paid a visit ; I was honoured with the company of 
a very worthy gentleman, a widow Gentlewoman and 
her daughter, a young lady of about 15 years old. 
We had finished our observations on one of the rooms 
when we came up to a figure in Armour before which 
was standing two young men, and as many girls, 
attended like us by one of the warders of the Tower. 
My friend was leading us by it in seeming Haste, 
saying, as he passed behind those who surrounded the 
Figure : " That is our Harry the Eighth famous for 
shaking off 'the power of the Tope and laying t lie first 
foundation of the Reformation ;" then, taking the 
young Lady by the hand, appeared intent upon 
hurrying her away, when stopping suddenly she 
observed that the Men were persuading the young 
women to stick a Pin into a Pincushion belonging to 
the Man in Armour, adding that she must see what 
they were about. As this was spoken pretty loud we 
all stopped, and turning our heads were in an instant 
shocked with a sight that we could never have 
expected ; a Piece of Indecency that seemed even an 
Affront to Majesty, and at the same time such an 
Insult on Modesty as must shock every mind that had 
the least sense of Virtue ; an Indecency that I am 
sure ought not to be countenanced in a Christian 
Country, or in any Country that has, or would be 
thought to have, the least regard to Virtue, or the 
Morals of the People. 

Several instances are given of the baneful 
effects which a contemplation of this figure 
has produced, and the moral is thus en- 
forced : 

From these Instances my Lord, what Evils may we 
not justly suppose this Effigy has produced ? Is it 
thus, my Lord, that this wise and polite nation treats 
the memory of its deceased Kings ? If it be necessary 
to represent the infamy of a Prince who shook off the 
Shackles of Rome, and to hand down his Immoralities 
to Posterity, may not this be done in a more decent 
manner? If not, my Lord, the Effigy of a dead 
King may do more real Mischief than it was possible 
for him or the greatest Tyrant to do when living. 
While this is tolerated, can the Legislature justly 
complain of and suppress the comparatively unmean- 
ing Pictures, the paultry Prints that have been exposed 
to view? While this is tolerated, will it not be 
considered as countenancing and giving encourage- 
ment to the most obscene representation, since nothing 
can give a greater affront to Common Sense or to the 
Common Law of the Country? It is an evil my 
Lord that may, and doubtless will, increase by Tolera- 
tion and the next Century may add a Charles to a 



Harry, till at last the Lusts of your Kings may be 
exposed in every Corner, till the Tower of London 
shall not only reflect Dishonour on the British Annals, 
but be generally esteemed a place as dangerous to 
Virtue as the most Public and infamous Stews. But 
this, my Lord, you may easily prevent, since the 
slightest intimation from your Lordship to those in 
Power will readily obtain a removal of all that is 
indecent. 

Doubtless this powerful remonstrance had 
the desired effect. That such an exhibition 
should have been tolerated, even in those 
days of comparative licence, seems to me 
remarkable. 

Charles Welsh. 



Gbe public IRecorfcs. 




HE Forty-second Annual Report of 
the Deputy Keeper of the Public 
Records which has been recently 
issued, contains an abundance of 
new and interesting matter, filling a volume 
of no less than 746 closely printed pages. 
This is good evidence of the progress 
which is being made in the arduous work of 
calendaring and indexing the ancient records 
of this realm. With such annual instalments, 
the completion of the referental aids to the 
earliest and most difficult manuscript collec- 
tions, is certainly brought within a " measur- 
able distance," and the historical student will 
at length be in possession of the important 
and minute information contained in these 
early muniments. 

The Calendar of the Norman Rolls, pre- 
pared by Mr. A. C. Ewald, is continued and 
concluded in the Report before us. With the 
rolls from the seventh to the tenth years of 
Henry V., dealt with in these pages, the 
series terminates. In a previous number 
(vol. ii. pp. 214, 215), we have drawn atten- 
tion to the valuable contents of these rolls, 
and the editor has now added on complet- 
ing his labours a most useful glossary of 
the more obsolete French words used in 
them. 

Mr. W. Basevi Sanders, Assistant Keeper 
of the Records, who is at present engaged at 
Southampton superintending a full edition of 
fac-similes of Anglo-Saxon Charters, reports 
a curious point in connection with one of 



THE PUBLIC RECORDS. 



165 



the early charters belonging to the Exeter 
collection. In that portion of Doomsday 
Book which relates to the Devonshire estates 
of the Church of Exeter, it is stated, with 
reference to the Manor of Newton, held with 
that of Crediton: "De hoc manerio ostendit 
Osbernus Episcopus cartas suas quce testautur 
(Ecclesiam Sancti Petri inde fuisse saisitam 
antequam Rex Edwardus regnaret. Insuper 
tempore Regis Willielmi diratiocinavit coram 
Baronibus Regis esse suam." A charter of 
/Ethelstan, granting a hide of land in Newton 
to St. Peter's of Exeter, of a date more than 
100 years before the accession of King 
Edward, is now preserved at Exeter, and is 
probably one of the very charters produced 
by Bishop Osbern to the Commissioners of 
William the Conqueror, as evidence of his 
rights. The boundaries set out in these 
Anglo-Saxon charters are of great topographi- 
cal interest ; those in the neighbourhood of 
London being especially deserving of notice. 

Nearly 250 pages of the Report are devo- 
ted to the new and exhaustive Calendar of 
the Patent Rolls of the reign of Edward I., 
commenced by Mr. F. Scott Haydon. The 
period covered is but a single year ; a remark- 
able instance of the vast amount of informa- 
tion contained in this important class of 
Chancery Rolls. But, as Mr. Haydon tells 
us in an admirably written introduction, " at 
least seven-tenths of the roll are filled by 
appointments of justices to try assises of 
novel disseisin, assises of mort dancestor, 
assises of darrein presentment, assises of 
nuisance, juries, and certificates or certifica- 
tions arising out of these, all of them arraigned 
between parties named in the appointments, 
the subject of litigation being also specified." 
Consequently and we do not remember to 
have seen this fact pointed out before the 
Patent Rolls for this period serve as a fairly 
complete index to the Assise Rolls. 

The other entries on this roll are of the most 
varied nature, including documents relating 
to monastic and ecclesiastical matters ; resti- 
tutions " of temporalities ; presentations to 
benefices ; grants of custodies of lands and 
wardships of heirs ; liveries to heirs of full 
age ; appointments to offices ; mandates for 
extents ; protections and safe- conducts ; post- 
mortem mandates ; and licences for the expor- 
tation of wool. In connection with these 



wool licences, Mr. Haydon has been led to 
investigate the correctness of Misselden's 
estimate* of the number of sacks of wool ex- 
ported in 28 Edw. III. As a result, it appears 
that the quantity of wool exported in that 
year was very nearly 45,000 sacks, instead of 
31,651, the number given by Misselden on 
the authority of a record in the Exchequer. 

The voluminous Calendar of Depositions 
by Commission in the Court of Exchequer, 
well deserves careful examination. The 
subject-matter of these records is by no 
means altogether of a dry, legal character. 
As a specimen, we may cite a case abstracted 
on pp. 236, 237, in which the matter in dispute 
was an agreement between one Thomas Cust, 
of Danby Hill, in the parish of Danby Wisk, 
Gent., plaintiff, and Ralph Thompson and 
Martin Dunn, defendants, touching a match 
or main of cocks to be fought at Bishop's 
Auckland, co. Durham. To elucidate the 
legal points, it was found necessary to obtain 
evidence as to the rules and methods of 
cock-fighting, and particularly those rules, 
&c, " when a battle comes to sett (i.e., 
handing the birds and inciting them to fight) 
or when one or both of the cocks refuse to 
fight, or when one of them is so hurt that a 
wager of ten pounds to five shillings is 
offered to be laid against him." The match 
seems to have been a remarkable one, oc- 
cupying five days from the 18th to the 
22nd of August, 1746. An extract from 
the evidence of John Sutton, of Warrington, 
in the county of Lancaster, cock-feeder, is 
quite worth reproducing : 

To the sixth interrogatory, this deponent saith that 
he was present on the twentieth of August, in the 
year 1746, in the forenoon, when a battle was fought 
in the main between a red dunn cock belonging to the 
plaintiff Cust, and a yallow winged gray cock be- 
longing to the defendant Dunn ; that very soon after 
the setting the cocks down, the complainant's red 
dunn cock knocked down the defendant Dunn's yallow 
winged gray cock, and had greatly the advantage 
over the defendant Dunn's cock, in so much that ten 
pounds was laid on the part of the complainant's 
cock to five shillings on the part of the defendant 
Dunn's cock ; that upon the said ten pounds to five 
shillings being wagered, this deponent, according to 
the usual and known rule, accounted forty, and ac- 
counted either twice or three times ten, which he can- 
not set forth; that then the defendant Dunn pretended 
that his cock had fought, began accounting, and said 
upon the first setting to three or four times, refused, 

* Circle of Commerce, London, 1628, p. 119. 



i66 



THE PUBLIC RECORDS. 



and brought his cock unfairly to, and pusht him upon 
the complainant's, hastily accounting the number ten, 
not distinctly so as to be understood, and in such 
manner as is usual for handers to account ten, and 
hastily took his cock away, which unfair transaction 
this witness complained of to the gentlemen then 
present, who (to no purpose) spoke to the defendant 
Dunn, but he persisted in and did carry his cock 
away dead, as this witness verily l>elieves ; that then 
this witness, for the satisfaction of all the gentlemen 
present (altho' by the rules of cock-fighting he was 
not obliged to do it), fetch'd a fresh cock, and put 
him upon the sod to the complainant's cock, and that 
the complainant's "imediately and vigoriously," 
fought such fresh nock ; that had the defendant Dunn's 
cock had the advantage over the complainant's cock, 
yet by taking his cock away before he had fairly and 
distinctly accounted ten times ten he had lost the 
battle ; saith that after the ten pounds to five shillings 
was laid, and this deponent had accounted forty, the 
cock of the said defendant Dunn never fought or 
made battle at the complainant's cock to this depo- 
nent's observation, and which he, this deponent, saith 
he must have observed if he had fought or made 
battle at the complainant's cock, being this deponent's 
business so to do. 

For further details of this curious dispute 
we must refer our readers to the pages of the 
Report, which will amply repay the perusal. 

The Appendix to the Report has so fully 
occupied our attention, that our space will 
not permit us to do more than notice in the 
briefest manner the Calendars of State 
Papers and Chronicles issued in 1880. The 
Calendars included: (1.) The fifth volume 
of Mr. W. Noel Sainsbury's State Papers ; 
Colonial Series, relating to America and the 
West Indies, from 1661 to 1668; (2.) The 
eleventh volume of the Foreign Papers, 1575 
to 1577 ; (3.) The sixteenth volume of State 
Papers of the reign of Charles I, April to 
August, 1640 ; (4.) The fifth volume of 
Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of 
the reign of Henry VIII, for the years 1531 
and 1532, edited by Mr. James Gairdner, 
Assistant Keeper of the Public Records, who 
had previously been engaged with the late 
Rev. J. S. Brewer, in editing the former 
volumes ; (5.) The fifth volume of Irish 
State Papers, 16 15 to 1625. 

The series of Chronicles and Memorials 
received an addition of three volumes during 
the same period. 



IRetnews. 




English Etchings : a Monthly Publication of Original 
Etchings by English Artists. (London : William 
Reeves. 1881.) Parts 1 to 4. Folio. 

HE revival of the taste for etching in Eng- 
land has been so marked, and the demand 
for good specimens of this art has been so 
widespread, that it is not surprising to 
find publishers coming forward to supply 
the demand. We have four numbers of a new 
periodical now before us, which contain a considerable 
variety of good work. There are four etchings in 
each number, so that subscribers cannot complain of not 
having a sufficient return for their money. We cannot 
give a list of all the subjects, but we would especially 
draw attention to "Baiting his Hook," by A.W. 
Bayes, a singularly pleasing little subject, characteristic 
in treatment, and rich in colour, and the "Sacristy 
Door," by the same artist. The projector of this series 
appears to have the definite object of making a charac- 
ter for it by giving representations of definite places, 
which are much more satisfactory than mere fancy sub 
jects. One of these is Ribbesford Church before it was 
restored, which is treated with much taste by S. H. 
Baker. With reference to this, a letter from Mr. 
Ruskin is quoted, in which the great art critic says 
of the old Perpendicular traceries: "If they are 
already too much decayed to hold the glass safelj 
(which I do not believe), any framework which maj 
be necessary can be arranged to hold the casemenl 
between them, leaving the bars entirely disengaged, 
and merely kept from falling by iron supports. Bui 
if these are to be ' copied,' why in the world cannol 
the congregation pay for a new and original c/tttrci 
to display the genius and wealth of the nineteenth cm 
tury somewhere else, and leave the dear old ruin U 
grow grey by Severn side in peace ?" The italics ar< 
ours, and we should like to print them in letter 
of gold. Another interesting picture is ' ' Lad] 
Dorothy's Doorway, Haddon Hall," by W. Holme; 
Hay ; and we are promised a series of etchings of the 
odd nooks and corners of London, which will com 
mence in Part 5, for October. This is an admirable 
scheme, and we look forward to its successful fulfil 
ment with much pleasure. The get up of thes 
numbers, with their neat portfolios, is in every waj 
admirable. 



The Etcher : a Magazine of tlie Etched Work 4 
Artists. (London : Sampson Low, Marston, Searl< 
& Rivington. 1881.) Parts 21 and 25. Folio. 
This well-established magazine keeps up th< 
character of its well-earned reputation. The in 
terior of an old Swedish church, by Axel Hermai 
Haig, is an elaborate piece of work, very success 
fully carried out; and Arthur Evershed's view 
Twickenham is poetically treated, and at the same tim< 
thoroughly truthful. We also like Southwold Har 
bour, by Charles Keene. The literary portion con 
tinues to be carefully prepared, and the Jul] 
number contains an obituary notice of the charming 
artist, Samuel Palmer, with a list of his works wit! 
the etching needle. 



REVIEWS. 



167 



historical Handbook to Loughborough. By the Rev. 

W.G.Dimock Fletcher, M.A. (Loughborough: 

H. Wills. 1881.) Sm. 8vo. 

Mr. Fletcher has been for several years employed 
n collecting materials for a complete history of 
oughborough, and he asks for copies of old docu- 
nents, pedigrees, or other information that may be 
iseful in elucidating the history. As this work is still 
ar' from finished, the author has issued this little 
Handbook, which contains much information respect - 
ng the old Leicestershire town, in a convenient 
"orm. 



falatine Note-Book : for the inter-communication of 
\ Antiquaries, Bibliophiles, aud other investigators 
into the History and Literature of the Counties of 
Lancaster, Chester, &c. Vol. I. Nos. 1-9, Jan.- 
Sept. 1881. (Manchester : J. E. Cornish). Sm. 
4to. 

Mr. J. E. Bailey, F.S.A., has here produced a 
model of a local magazine. It is full of valuable 
natter which will be of interest to antiquaries gene- 
rally, as well as to those of the Counties Palatines. 
Besides the longer articles, which consist of accounts 
fcf worthies such as Nathan Walworth of Ringley, 
I Ienry Newcome, Dr. Samuel Hibbert- Ware, Dr. 
George Downame, Bishop of Derry, Rev. John 
Whitaker, and Mrs. Elizabeth Raffald, and a variety 
jof subjects both of general and local importance, 
there are notices of such interesting points as the 
original version of ' ' The Three J ovial Huntsmen," 
Quincey's Birthplace, Mother Shipton, Prynne's seat 
in the Long Parliament, Queen Anne Farthings, and 
Crowing Hens. The valuable Chronogical List of 
theChetham Society's Publications, 1843-80, and the 
'account of Manchester Collegiate Church, in 1603, 
are worthy of especial mention. The editor quotes 
Sir Hugh Evan's resolve, " I will make a prief of it 
:in my note-book" (although he improves upon the 
Welsh Parson's orthography), and he acts up to the 
spirit of the quotation, for he makes a brief of many 
valuable things. 



Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. Vol. IX. 

London : 1881. 8vo. Pp. xxiv.-267. 

This volume contains several papers of value. 
Mr. Chapman treats of the persecution under Eliza- 
beth, and brings forward a heavy indictment against 
the Queen and her counsellors for their treatment of 
the Roman Catholics. Mr. Fleay analyzes the Actor 
Lists, 1 5 78- 1 642, and gathers together a large 
amount of information respecting a most important 
point of our dramatic history. The particulars of 
the old actors and their companies, which are spread 
about in various places, are eminently confusing, and 
Mr. Fleay has therefore done good service in collect- 
ing the different lists extant, and arranging them in 
tables for comparison. Although he has found a 
dozen complete casts of plays, with actors' parts 
assigned, they are all subsequent to Shakespeare's 
death. With all our research, we have to rest con- 
tented with a very limited knowledge of the parts 
taken by the actors in the plays of our greatest 
dramatist. Mr. Fleay, however, is of opinion that 



Shakespeare himself was one of the chief actors, 
"fit to head the company in acting as well as in 
writing," because his name appears second in most 
of the lists, and in one holds the first place. He 
thinks there is little doubt " that Shakespeare played 
the parts of Richard II. and James I. in the two 
plays that got his company into so much trouble in 
1601 and 1604 viz., Richard II. and the Cowry 
Conspiracy" The position in the lists most probably 
had as much to do wijth the share in the property of 
the company as with artistic excellence. 

The next paper, Mr. Cornelius Walford's " Out- 
line History of the Hanseatic League," we have 
already reviewed in these columns. The Rev. A. H. 
Wratislas contributes a " Life of Dubravius, Bishop of 
Olmutz (1542-1553) ;" the Rev. Dr. Irons an article 
on the " Re-construction of Civilization of the West;" 
Mr. Howorth, a continuation of his learned articles 
on the Norse stories (The Early History of Sweden); 
Mr. James Heywood, an article on the transference 
of the German Weimarian army to the crown of 
France in the seventeenth century ; and Dr. George 
Harris completes the volume with a continuation of 
his researches on " Domestic Every-day Life, Man- 
ners, and Customs." 

A more Exact and Perfect Relation of the Treachery, 
Apprehension, Conviction, Condemnation, Con- 
fession and Execution of Erancis Pitt, aged 65, who 
was executed in Smithfield, on Saturday, October 
12, 1644, f or endeavouring to betray the garrison 
of Rushall Hall, in the County of Stafford, to the 
Enemy. Published by Ithiel Smart and Edward 
Archer, two ministers who were acquainted with 
him in his life, and present with him at his death. 
(London : John Field, 1644. Reprinted by W. II. 
Robinson, Walsall, March, 1881). 4to. pp. 16. 
This is a careful and well-executed reprint of one 
of those pamphlets which were so common during the 
period of our Civil Wars. Mr. Pitt's account of his 
proceedings is highly instructive. He proclaims him- 
self a friend of the Parliament, but he was willing to 
betray one of their strongholds to the Royalists, and 
his reason was not a bad one " Hetold us in private 
that two garrisons of the king being near to it (Leich- 
field and Dudley), the county was forced to pay to 
both sides, which was a sore burden to them ; better 
to pay to one only, as he supposed." The reprinter 
has not given any explanation of the cause of the re- 
print, or any account of the tract itself. Had he done 
so the interest of a curious publication would doubt- 
less have been increased. 



The Book of British Topography : a Classified Catalogue 

of the Topographical Works in the Library of the 

British Museum, relating to Great Britain and 

Ireland. By John P. Anderson. (London : W. 

Satchell&Co. 1881.) 8vo. pp. xvi.-472. 

It is now sixty- three years since Upcott's admirable 

Bibliographical Account of the Principal Works relating 

to English Topography was published, and although 

many full bibliographies of particular counties have 

since been issued, no general book on the subject was 

attempted. It was therefore high time that this im- 



i68 



REVIEWS. 



portant subject should be grappled with, and we are 
glad to be able to congratulate Mr. Anderson on the 
production of a singularly useful volume, which is a 
worthy result of many years of labour. What labour 
there is collecting the titles of 14,000 books on a 
particular subject, only those who have attempted 
similar works can adequately judge. The plan of the 
work includes Scotland and Ireland, and the arrange- 
ment adopted is as follows : I, Catalogues ; 2, General 
Topography under various headings ; 3, Counties of 
England in alphabetical order, with the towns and 
villages arranged under the names of their respective 
counties ; 4, Wales and its counties ; 5, Scotland and 
its counties ; 6, Ireland and its counties. There is an 
index, which will be of considerable assistance to 
those who forget the name of the county in which 
the town they arc seeking for is situated. It must be 
borne in mind that this volume only refers to the 
books in the library of the British Museum, and 
although that library is particularly rich in topo- 
graphical works, it is somewhat deficient in privately 
printed and subscription books. The cumbrous 
headings of the British Museum catalogue are retained 
here, and they seem rather out of place where the 
titles are arranged in chronological instead of in 
alphabetical order; for instance, the constant repetition 
of P.P. for Periodical Publications looks awkward; and 
moreover, the arrangement is not consistent, for on 
p. 253 we find two Bath directories under Bath, 
and two others under P.P. Bath. Again, such a 
heading as Academies, etc. Board of Agriculture, 
draws off attention from the real title of Donaldson's 
Agriculture of Northampton. The reason Mr. Ander- 
son gives for this is that it will facilitate the labour of 
referring to the Museum catalogue, and there is some 
virtue in this plea. Those who hold that catalogues and 
bibliographies are dull reading should glance their eyes 
over the pages of this work, and after doing so it is 
not unlikely that they will change their opinion. It 
is really a most interesting occupation to read column 
after column of Mr. Anderson's book, for we there see 
how much has been done to illustrate the nooks and 
corners of our land, and learn for the first time of 
books that would otherwise have been unknown to us. 



The Library Journal. Official of the Library Asso- 
ciations of America, and of the United Kingdom ; 
chiefly devoted to Library Economy and Biblio- 
graphy. Vol. VI. Nos. 1-7, Jan. to July, 1881. 
(New York : Leypoldt. London : Triibner & Co. ) 
4to. 

We welcome this sixth volume of a most valuable 
journal with more than common pleasure, because it 
appears to have taken a new lease of life. It is in- 
vigorating to find how much interest is felt in 
questions of library management and bibliographical 
accuracy in the New World. One thing we miss, and 
that is, the little attention that seems to be paid to old 
books. Differences of opinion as to the reading of 
fiction, and questions as to books for boys and girls, 
are well worthy of discussion; but we should be glad 
to see some evidence that a proportion of the readers 
in the public libraries care to consult our great clas- 
sics in their original editions, and have been educated 
up to reading something superior to the mere current 



literature of the day. The reference lists and notices 
of books generally are of very great value. Mr. W 
L. Fletcher has contributed useful lists of novels 
published in serials in the March and May numbers, 
The April number contains a report of the Con' 
ference of Librarians, held at Washington, in February, 
which appears to have been a very successful meeting! 
Mr Cutter discoursed on "Classification on th< 
Shelves. Mr. Poole, on "The Construction of Li 
brary Buildings;" Dr. Homes, on "Libraries witl 
Museums;" Mr. Green, on "The Distribution ol 
Public Documents ;" Mr. Warren, on "The Place 0: 
Libraries in a System of Education ;" Mr. Melvil Dui, 
on "Heating Libraries;" Prof. Robinson, on "Th< 
Relation of Libraries to College Work ;" and Mr, 
Green, on "Library Aids," a Paper which contains j 
large amount of practical information. Here is t 
very varied and important programme, and the utter 
ances of these authorities on their respective subject! 
cannot be without valuable results. 



Nit'.ingham Free Public Libraries. Catalogue 
the Central Lending Library, University College 
By John Potter Briscoe, Principal Librarian 
(Nottingham. 1881.) 
Annual Report of the University College and Frt 
Library Committee, 1879-80. (Nottingham. 1881. 
8vo. 

These two publications show the prosperous con 
dition of the Nottingham Free Library. The tota 
number of volumes in the libraries is 27,108, am 
during last year 2,308 volumes were added tha 
is, 1,192 by purchase, and 1,116 by gift. Of book 
issued for home reading and for consultation in th< 
libraries the daily average has been 555 volumes 
This is highly satisfactory ; but the constant lendinj 
out of the books necessarily wears them out, and th< 
Library Committee have been unable to replao 
many of the popular books, which have become un 
readable by long usage. Mr. Briscoe's catalogue i 
made on the dictionary system, and is doubtless fount 
very useful by the users of the library. The arrange 
ment of some of the headings strikes us as rathe 
confusing ; as for instance, British, when the line c 
repetition might have been more sparingly used. W 
notice a misprint merely as an instance of the eas 
with which the written letters /and {/maybe misreai 
by the printer. Mr. Gladstone's Juventus Mima 
appears as Lnventus Mundi. This is an exactl 
similar misprint to one we noticed in a newspape 
a short time ago, when Mr. Wills's play of Juan 
was called Inana. 



Leviathan; or the Matter, Forme, and Forcer of 

Commomvealth Ecclesiastical and Civil/. B 

Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury. Londoi 

Printed for Andrew Crooke at the Green Drago 

in St. Paul's Church Yard, 165 1. (Reprini 

Oxford: James Thornton. 1881.) 8vo, pp.573 

Hobbes was a writer who appears to have stumblec 

as it were, upon a good subject by accident. Thei 

can be little doubt that his treatise on governmer 

owes its origin to his detestation of the Long Parlif 



REVIEWS. 



169 



nent and its effect upon English monarchical power, 
ilis book was political, not academical. How, then, 
B it that the present time seems to call forth a re- 
isue of it ? We do not altogether understand how 
ach a book as Hobbes' Leviathan can be of use at 
Oxford ; but the answer to the broader question is to 
ie found in the undoubted genius of the work itself, 
ilobbes, it is true, wrote for a political object, but he 
/rote on scientific principles, and he so applied him- 
elf to his subject that his successors, Bentham and 
Austin, although finding much to alter in detail 
>erhaps, owed great debts to the result of his work. 
Iobbes applied himself first to the question of the 
jiigin of society. He here formulated the famous, 
nit altogether unscientific, theory of a social contract, 
dankind, he supposes, were originally in a state of 
var, and they made a compact, under which every 
nan abandoned his powers of aggression. Hence 
(rose sovereignty. Monstrous as this theory seems 
the school of inductive thinkers, who have worked 
ip, from materials that Hobbes could not have pro- 
:ured, the question of the origin of society, it was 
he right way, as Sir Henry Maine so strongly in- 
ists, to commence his work on sovereignty. That 
ie failed was due, to a great extent, to his want of 
naterials, not to a want of the true conception of 
,overeignty. But leaving this part of his treatise, we 
;tand upon different ground when we consider his 
;xamination of sovereignty itself, and its analysis in 
he great body of jurisprudence. He arrives at 
nearly the same conclusions as Austin in our own 
ime has arrived at. Sir Henry Maine has supplied 
;ome chapters in the elucidation of sovereignty which 
Austin had altogether left out, but then Sir Henry 
Maine has called to his aid the evidence of history, 
.vhich neither Austin nor Hobbes touched. Thus, 
.hen, Hobbes stands in a very instructive position 
"or those who study political philosophy. 

In matters of reprints such as this is, it is always 
veil to retain as much as possible the old spell- 
og and the old form of printing. By this means 
.\-e are constantly reminded that we are reading a 
;sventeenth century writer and not a nineteenth ; 
ind hence students ' will apply more checks to 
:heir process of reasoning than they might be in- 
clined to do if the book were printed in modern 
"orm. This is, we are glad to say, applicable 
the present excellent reprint, which is issued in old 
spelling, and contains in the margin the figures of the 
pagination of the first edition. There is a fac- 
simile of the original engraved title-page. But we 
nust express our surprise that so good a reprint in 
hese respects should not have been edited for the use 
rf modern students, and, above all, should not possess 
even an index. 



A Grammar of the Friesic Language. By Adley 
H. Cummins. (London : Trubner & Co. 1881.) 
8vo, pp. 2C.-75. 

We have too long neglected the study of Friesic in 
England. We know a good deal about Friesic institu- 
tions and Friesic early history, because our historians 
know that English history began when the early 
\- risians invaded and subsequently occupied Britain. 
VOL. IV. 



Their continental home was on the north-west coast 
of modern Germany, between the mouth of the Rhine 
and of the Ems. It is a characteristic of the Frisians 
that they have ever retained their primitive location. 
It has been cut down on its borders, but it has never 
been entirely wiped out of European geography. The 
language of the Frisians has been equally enduring, 
though now, says Dr. Cummins, spoken by but a 
small number of persons. It is a reflection on Eng- 
lish students that an American has been the first to 
introduce the language to English readers. The 
Grammar before us is a lucid exposition, and we cor- 
dially welcome its assistance in this most interesting 
study. It consists of four parts phonology, etymo- 
logy* syntax, and prosody ; and, as the illustrations 
are almost all necessarily drawn from old laws and 
old alliterative poems, this little book will doubtless 
be of considerable use to others besides philologists. 
Already it has brought about a stir in the antiquarian 
world. Mr. Hyde Clarke, following up some sug- 
gestions from Mr. Thorns, has set to work in Notes 
and Queries to see whether that journal cannot insti- 
tute yet another society namely, a Friesic Guild. If 
Dr. Cummins' book brings about this it will indeed 
have done good service. 

flDeetinga of antiquarian 
Societiea, 



Berwickshire Naturalist Club. July 27, 28. 
Redesdale. At Elsdon, a visit was paid to the 
church, which is dedicated to St. Cuthbert, being one 
of the resting-places of the bones of that saint when 
the monks wandered from Holy Island to Durham. 
The skeletons of the three horses' heads, which were 
found during the restoration built up in a chamber of 
the tower, were shown, and placed in the same 
pyramidal form they were in when discovered. The 
curious mote hill was next visited, and a Paper was 
read by Mr. Arkle, attributing to it a Druidical 
origin. Two Papers were afterwards read by Dr. 
Robertson "On Elsdon Church," one in reference to the 
horses' heads, the doctor maintaining that they were 
the relics of a Pagan worship which had been pre- 
served down to the present time. The other Paper 
was an account of the immense number of human 
skulls which were found buried beneath the church 
and its walls in one part, the wall having been built 
over them, and it is supposed the skulls were those of 
men of high degree who had fallen at the battle of 
Otterburn. On the 28th the Roman Station of 
Bremenium was explored, and although much of the 
excavations have been filled in again, yet enough of 
the masonry of the outer walls and gateways remains 
to indicate the strength and importance of this 
military station. Otterburn Tower, which withstood 
the assaults of Douglas and his army on the eve of 
the battle, was next visited. A Roman altar from 
Bremenium is to be seen here in a good state of pre- 
servation. 



170 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



British Arch/eo logical Association. Aug. 
22-27. Malvern. The Very Rev. Lord Alwyne 
Compton, President. The President devoted his 
address to the subject of ' ' Restoration." After com- 
menting upon the dangers of over- rest oration, he 
especially commended much that had been done 
with our cathedrals and churches during the last fifty 
years, and spoke of Worcester Cathedral and its 
recent restoration as being carefully and w ell carried 
out. The party then inspected the Priory Church. The 
first meeting for the reading of Papers was held on 
the 24th at the Malvern College. The Rev. 
Gregory Smith, Vicar of Malvern, presided. The 
Papers were by Mr. J. Tom Burgess, on the " Mal- 
vern Intrenchments," and by Mr. Norton the " Glass 
of the Priory Church at Malvern." The party went 
first to Bosbury. Here the church was examined, 
and returning to Ledbury, they were shown over a 
fine old church. The party then went to inspect Much 
Marel Church. At Kempley some interesting pre- 
serves were examined. Subsequently two Papers 
were read. Mr. G. R. Wright, F.S.A., read a Paper 
on "The Alleged Assassination of Prince Edward 
by Richard of Gloucester." The second Paper was 
by the Rev. Canon Dunnington Ingram, on "The 
Ecclesiastical State of the Diocese of Worcester 
during the Episcopate of John Carpenter." The 
excursion on the 25th ult. was carried out amidst the 
discomforts of a thoroughly wet day. The places 
visited were Castlemerton, where the castle and turret 
were described by the Rev. E. C. Dobree Fox, the 
vicar ; Portsmorton, where the church was described 
by the rector, the Rev. R. Pelson ; Paynes Place, 
an ancient house in which Queen Margaret of Anjou 
is said to have taken shelter after the battle of 
Tewkesbury ; and Severn End, an old timbered 
mansion house, belonging to the Lechmere family, 
near Upton-on-Severn. At the evening meeting a 
Paper was read by Mr. C. H. Compton, on " The 
Antiquity of the Game of Golf," which was followed 
by another, by the Rev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma, on 
" The Records of Municipal Corporations, with 
special reference to those of Penzance and Marazion." 
Friday, the 26th ult., was devoted to a visit to 
Kidderminster, Areley Kings, and Moor Hall. On 
arriving at Kidderminster, the party proceeded to the 
council-room of the town hall, where they were re- 
ceived by the mayor, who remarked that, in antici- 
pation of the visit, search had been made on the 
previous day for any old documents that might prove 
to be in the possession of the corporation ! The 
result had been the finding of several, which had not 
been taken much account of, but which were then 
upon the table ! The documents were then examined, 
and proved to be the charter of King Charles I., in- 
corporating the borough, together with several other 
papers of considerable local interest. Mr. W. H. 
Cope read an inscription upon an elegant silver- 
gilt loving cup which had been placed on the table 
for exhibition. Proceeding to the church, the party 
assembled in the chantry, built by Simon Ryas about 
1530, and which had been restored as a parochial 
room. Its position is that of a detached chapel, in a 
line with the church, and, at its east end, having 
access to the church only by a small doorway. The 
body of the building, which is of considerable size, 



is of the fifteenth century, while the restored chana 
is about a century earlier. The tower, which is t 
the south-west corner, is Perpendicular in its styh 
and in a dilapidated condition. The party then pre 
ceeded to Warshill camp, where Mr. Brinton read 
descriptive account of the earthwork of one of th 
hill forts or towns of early date, which occur in grea 
numbers in the district, there being one on almos 
every elevated site, and which appear to be so place 
for purposes of general defence, and for signaller 
from one to the other. A halt was made at A 
church of Ribbesford, remarkable for the curiou 
sculptures over the tympanum of the Early Normal 
door of the north porch, where an archer is repre 
sented as apparently shooting a stag and a beaver 
a seal with the same arrow, which has given rise t< 
much local comment. Proceeding along the banks 
Severn, the church of Areley Kings was visited. I 
is a small building on high ground, from which a fim 
view is obtained. At the evening meeting, at Gita 
Malvern, the following Papers were read : 1. " Som 
Flowers of Chivalry and Fields of Rue, 1458-71, 
and 1642-57," by Mr. Thomas Morgan, F.S.A 
2. "The Church of Garway, Herefordshire," by Mr 
E. H. L. Barker. This is an interesting building 
with a belfry only connected with the church by 1 
passage of later date, and in the author's hands foi 
careful restoration. 3. "Some Extracts from the 
Ribbesford Paris Registers and the Chapel and Bridge 
Wardens' Accounts of the Parish of Bewdley, " wit! 
notes and introductions, by the Rev. John & 
Burton, B.A. Saturday was spent at Worcester ant 
other localities. The party proceeded to the adjacen 
camp on Midsummer Hill probably an outwork U 
the greater one above it and thence to the ruins 0; 
Branshill Castle. A visit was paid to the mansior 
of the Earl Somers, known as Eastnor Castle. Thi 
closing meeting took place in the evening, when t 
Paper was read by Mr. G. H. Piper, F.G.S., "Or 
Branshill Castle," in which various details were ren- 
dered. This was followed by an account of the battli 
of Tewkesbury, by the Rev. W. S. Symonds, M.A. 
Cambrian Archaeological Association. 
Thirty-sixth Annual Meeting, Church Stretton, Aug. 
1-5. President, Professor Babington. TheJPresidew 
gave an address on " The Camps and Other Primseva 
Fortifications. " He proposed to arrange the existing 
remains under four heads : 

1. Simple earthworks. 

2. Earthworks, with external stone supports ; 

revetments. 

3. Drystone walls. 

4. Simple earthworks again. 

The camps of the first period consist of one or more 
banks of earth or stones, according to the charactei 
of the ground, and external ditches. These are ex 
ceedingly common, and very difficult to distinguisr 
from the comparatively modern camps of the Romar 
period. The second class consists of much mon 
elaborate works. They have the appearance 
having been constantly occupied by a garrison, and 
provided more or less conveniently with water. Here 
again, the banks are formed of earth and stones, sur 
rounded by formidable ditches. But one or more 
the, banks was strengthened externally by very large 
stones being placed upright against it, forming a kind 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



171 



revetment. There was also usually a well-con- 
ived entrance, passing diagonally through the 
efences, and formed by a narrow passage, flanked on 
tch side by large upright stones, supported by banks 
hich might be used by the defenders as a cover 
hen resisting an attempt to force an entrance. 
"sually, also, there is a tolerably extensive enclosure, 
efended by a moderately strong bank, attached to 
se other works. This was doubtless intended for 
jie defence of the flocks in time of danger. It may 
|e well to mention a few instances of this class of 
forks. One of the best examples is very accessible, 
ram being close to a much frequented place Dinas 
?inorwig. It is also in very fair preservation ; 
Jthough many of the characteristic stones have been 
feed in the erection of a new farmhouse adjoining it. 
pin Sylwy, in Anglesea, and Lligwy, in the same 
iland, are beautiful examples of this class, but they 
ire not very easily accessible. These are both ap- 
parently of somewhat later construction than Dinas 
^inorwig, for the upright stones bear a far greater 
proportion to the mass of the defences, and confer a 
ir more marked character upon them. At Dinas 
i)inorwig the stones play a veiy subordinate part to 
fie banks, except at the entrance, where they were as 
jiarked a feature as at those two places just named. 
^t these forts in Anglesea the rows of stones seem to 
'institute a kind of wall, as we might almost call it, 
jnd the earth and rubbish simply fill up the space 
letween them ; for there is an internal as well as an 
xternal row of stones. The defences consist of 
.nes formed of two rows of upright stones, which 
tresent a remarkably regular appearance from the 
ock splitting in flags. These stones are placed so as 
o touch each other, and the space between the rows 
s filled with loose stones of all sizes and rabble, 
'he entrances are very ingeniously planned in both of 
hem. These works show a decided advance upon 
)inas Dinorwig, but the plan of the builders is the 
ame, and there is no approach to the walls found 
p the next class. The third class shows a further 
iecided advance in constructive power. The works 
)f this class are very numerous, but they are usually 
dilapidated as to be far from easy of detection, 
fhese defences often seem to be only confused heaps 
;>f stones, and it is only by very careful and somewhat 
killed search that their true structure is discovered, 
hit although usually so little is at first apparent, even 
n some of the most stupendous of them, a careful 
xamination shows how skilfully they were built. On 
he top of Penmaenmawr is a dilapidated one, and 
rre 'r ceiri on the Rivals is still tolerably perfect. 
Works of this class are by far the grandest and most 
nteresting forts of which any remains exist in Britain, 
hich are anterior to the Roman period. They were 
ntirely walled forts, or even towns, built with a skill 
vhich would do credit to a modern architect and 
nodem masons. At Tre 'r ceiri the walls are still 
ifteen feet high in some parts, with very nearly per- 
pendicular external and internal faces. These walls 
ire so perfect that a person may walk along the top 
>f the wall behind a breastwork or banquet rising 
rom the outer face. This breastwork is sufficiently 
iigh to have protected the defenders of the place from 
nost of the missiles of an enemy. In this more per- 
ect part of the wall there is a very curious sally-port, 



with slightly converging sides, and covered by enor- 
mous slabs extending across it ; in these respects much 
resembling some of the magnificent pre-historic forts 
in Ireland. The true entrances to these fortresses are 
usually defended by flanking walls of great strength 
and thickness ; the opening itself being narrow, 
perhaps about eight feet in width. A fine example is 
furnished by Cam Goch, near Llandovery. There 
the walls are even more obscured by fallen stones 
than at Penmaenmawr. Another work to be men- 
tioned is the great "camp" upon Worle Hill, 
above Weston-super-Mare, in Somersetshire. This 
appears to have been a primaeval town, with very 
strong fortifications, consisting in most part of dry 
walls of great thickness and height, with diagonal 
entrances flanked by outworks. In the part which is 
open to approach along the ridge of the hill there are 
the remains of two walls extending across the hill, 
and external to them several deep trenches ; and, 
again, further out a considerable space is surrounded 
by an intrenchment of inferior strength. In the in- 
terior of this very strong place there are many pits of 
28 to 30 feet in diameter, which were doubtless the 
foundations of huts. Each pit is lined with a wall 
of uncemented masonry, which does not now reach 
the level of the ground, and probably never rose much 
above it. There is a very curious approach to this 
outer part of this fortress from what was probably an 
inlet of the sea. It is a flight of upwards of 200 steps, 
extending from near the base to the top of the hill. 
This is similar to the steps forming part of the ap- 
proach to a fort of apparently this class near Abergele, 
called Castell Cawr, which the author recently men- 
tioned in the Arckceol. Cambrensis. But there is one 
other place to refer to called Castel Caer Helen, or Pen- 
y-Gaer. It caps a hill overhanging the Conway valley. 
The entrance to it is defended by having a great 
number of stones so placed on end as to obstruct the 
approach of an enemy. The fourth class can be sum- 
marily treated. We have near this town a remarkable 
example of possibly very late date in Caer Caradoc, 
and also one which may be of very early date, called 
Bedbury Ring, upon the top of the hill above the 
town. As long as distinct and often hostile tribes in- 
habited the country such works as these retained 
their value ; indeed, even to the time of the wars 
between the Welsh and old English or Normans, they 
were of much use. On Tuesday the Association 
visited Shrewsbury Castle. In the inner ward, Mr. 
Leighton explained on a map the probable aspect of 
the town and its fortifications in the time of Henry III. 
Then pointing out the early British fortress, near Laura's 
Tower, the existing castle of Edward I.'s time, and the 
Gateway, the only remnant of Roger Montgomery's 
Castle, the party passed the site of the beautiful little 
chapel of St. Nicholas cruciform, with apsidal east 
end in the outer baily, where now stands themodern 
chapel of the English Presbyterians. The Gateway 
and Council House of the early Court of the Marches 
were next inspected ; thence to the Free Grammar 
School of Edward VI. and Elizabeth. The party 
proceeded to the Water Gate of St. Mary, where 
the town was entered at the siege in Charles I.'s time. 
From thence to the beautiful church of St. Mary, the 
architectural gem of the town. Then to the Drapers' 
Hall, in which quaint room is an old portrait of 

N 2 



I 7 2 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



Edward IV. Thence to St. Alkmund's Church, 
whose beautiful spire is the only remnant of the 
original church ; then to Double Butchers' Row, 
where the fine old timber mansion, the Guild House 
of the Fraternity of Holy Cross in St. Alkmund's 
Church, was pointed out to the admiration of all. On 
Pride Hill were seen several old timber houses, and 
at the bottom an ancient mansion, termed Bennett's 
Hall in the time of Richard II. On Wednesday, 
Thursday, and Friday the Association visited the 
chief places of interest in the locality viz., Much 
Wenlock, Acton Burnell, Stokesay Castle, Urico- 
nium, &c 

Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian 
and Archaeological Society. August 30, 31. 
Egremont. At Calder Abbey the party alighted, and 
a short Paper descriptive of the Abbey was read by 
the Rev. Canon Knowles. The ruins were then in- 
spected, and Mr. Jackson and Canon Knowles made 
some remarks upon three mutilated stone effigies of 
mailed knights which lie against one of the walls ; 
while Mr. Ferguson, F.S.A., directed attention to 
what is styled a cresset stone a square block (of 
red sandstone, having sixteen circular holes. These 
stones, several of which have been found about old 
abbeys, had long puzzled antiquaries ; and Mr. Lees, 
of Wreay (a member of the Society), has the credit 
of discovering their use. It was the business of the 
cook in the monastery, it appears, to keep these holes 
filled with tallow or fat, into which a rush was set ; 
and thus fitted up, the cresset stone was used to illu- 
minate the dormitory. A walk along the romantic 
path by the Calder brought the party to St. Bridget's, 
Calderbridge, the attraction here being a curious port- 
able or super altar, one of a number which had been 
blessed by the Archbishop of York about the middle 
of the fifteenth century, by permission of Pope 
Nicholas V. The altar, on which several small crosses 
are sculptured, was found at Calder Abbey. The 
party drove on to Gosforth Church. Here the curious 
old cross in the churchyard was inspected, and re- 
marks as to its age and the probable meaning of the 
well-nigh undicipherable figures carved upon it were 
made. Dr. Parker considered it much earlier, and 
narrated what local tradition said on the subject. This 
was to the effect that the cross had been erected by 
Danes who settled at Gosforth, and were converted 
to Christianity. The party next visited the church, 
and the rector exhibited some quaint old communion 
plate, some of it of pewter, and a black-letter copy 
of the Book of Homilies, folio, 1633. The carriages 
started again for Seascale Hall. Mr. E. T. Tyson, 
Maryport, here read his Paper on " The Senhouses, 
Stewards of Holme." The old church of St. Bridget 
was next visited, for the inspection of its two famous 
crosses. In the evening the Rev. W. S. Calverley 
read a Paper entitled, "Illustrations of Teutonic 
Mythology from Early Christian Monuments in Brig- 
ham and Dearham Parishes." The Paper was illus- 
trated by diagrams hung on the walls. Mr. Jackson 
followed with a Paper, " The Mesne Manor of Thorn- 
flatt and its Owner, 1656-59." Papers on Church 
Plate were next taken. On the second day Mr. Fer 
guson read a Paper by Mr. G. T. Clark, on "The 
Mediaeval Defences of the English Border." Mr. T. 
L. Banks then read a Paper on " Egremont Church." 



During the pulling down of the ancient pari; 
church, many things unknown and unsuspected wei 
revealed, and although as a building it is no long 
existent, these new revelations may prove interestir 
to lovers of church architecture. The Paper di 
scribed the appearance and building of the interior 1 
the church as found on demolition, and after referrir 
to sundry indications furnished by the exterior appea 
ance, adds : The base and one stone of the respon 
pier were found in the foundations of the model 
chancel. They fit in exactly into the arch stones 1 
the modern chancel arch. It is interesting to noi 
that the windows, buttresses, plinths, and stria 
courses are almost identical with the best portions < 
St. Bees. Some crosses and sides of graves of earl 
and late Norman work were found in the walls of tb 
church ; none that can certainly be pronounce 
Saxon. The tower had a number of stones whic 
evidently never belonged to the church, and whic 
most likely came from the castle, for the castle seeir 
to have been the common quarry about the time tl 
steeple was built. These stones were battlemei 
stones, castellated, tracing windows of fifteenth an 
sixteenth century architecture, a gurgoyle, &c. R< 
specting dates, the Norman chancel could not be muc 
later than 1 1 30. Except the string at the chano 
arch everything speaks to a much earlier date. Tl 
Early English church was probably built between tl 
years 1 195 and 1214. The almost Norman sedilii 
west door, and depressed window arches point to tl 
earlier date, while the exceeding beauty of the deta 
incline to the later. The party then went to Egr 
mont Castle, where Canon Knowles read a Paper an 
distributed lithographed copies of a ground plan 1 
the grand old stronghold. The members then pr< 
ceeded to Ravenglass to inspect the excavations whic 
for some time have been going on at Walls Castle, 1 
the remains of a Roman villa, near Walls farm, a: 
popularly called. Mr. Robinson has been lately e 
cavating here, with most gratifying results, a hyp< 
caust, or subterranean heating chamber, having bee 
discovered, thus satisfactorily dispelling any litt 
doubt that might remain as to the villa being indue 
table Roman work. The hypocaust takes the form 
a small tunnel, so to speak, supported by tiny columi 
of tiles ; the floor was laid over these, and a furnai 
was so constructed, that the heated air passed throut 
these underground flues and effectually warmed tl 
building. Tiles, stones, and a fragment of pottei 
were exhibited, and Mr. Jackson also showed son 
small pieces of glass, presumably of Roman manufa 
ture, which had been found in the course of tl 
excavations. The party afterwards proceeded | 
Muncaster Castle. They were shown over the prii 
cipal apartments, including the room traditional 
said to have been used by the unfortunate Henry VI 
when in hiding at the castle. The well-kno* 
painting of Tom Skelton, the Fool of Muncast 
(who is said to have flourished during the Civil Wan 
was on view ; and Mr. Ross exhibited the fama 
"Luck of Muncaster," a curious glass basin abo 
seven inches in diameter, and said to be of Venetk 
manufacture. It is carefully preserved in wool in 
box, and the greatest care was shown in handlir 
and exhibiting it. 
Glasgow Archaeological Society. Sept. 6.- 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



i73 



^he annual excursion was this year to Dumfries. 
)n arriving there the party was received by the 
'rovost, the office-bearers of the local Natural His- 
ory and Antiquarian Society of Dumfries, and others, 
yfter inspecting the Siller Gun presented to the town 
iy James VI., the old bridge built by Devorgilla, 
fie site of the monastery where Robert Bruce slew 
he Red Comyn, and other places of interest, the 
arty drove to Caerlaverock Castle, eight miles distant, 
/here a Paper was read by Mr. J. E). Duncan. On 
he way a visit was paid to the grave of "Old 
lortality." On returning to Dumfries the two 
Societies dined together in the room in the Com- 
nercial Hotel where Prince Charlie held his court in 
he year 1745. 

: Royal Archaeological Institute. July 26-30. 
Bedford. Mr. Charles Magniac, President of the 
meeting. The inaugural address dwelt upon the 
mportant aid which archteology gave to the pro- 
gress of civilization, and pointed out how unjust and 
.illy it is to regard the present race of antiquaries as 
nere collectors of curiosities. Afterwards various 
objects of interest in the town were inspected. Bed- 
brd Castle, was the first place visited. Some founda- 
.ions have recently been discovered among houses, 
ind the proprietor of the property kindly ordered 
excavations to be made which have exposed the angle 
jf a wall, but there is little to indicate of what part of 
the castle it once formed a part. All the buildings of 
Shis great fortress have long since been swept away, 
but one remarkable feature remains a vast mound of 
sarth on which a shell keep may once have stood. Of the 
churches visited, St. Paul's church is a mixture of De- 
:orated and Perpendicular work. St. Peter's Church 
las a central tower, the lower and middle portions 
}f which are pretty certainly of Saxon work, though 
whether executed before or after the Conquest may 
ulmit of question. The nave is Perpendicular, the 
:hoir Decorated ; both have been much restored. 
3n the south is a very fine Norman doorway. In the 
:vening, Papers were read by Mr. M. H. Bloxham, 
'on Earthworks." Mr. G. H. Hurst, "On the Church 
)f St. Mary," and Mr. J. Day, " On the Church of St 
Paul." Wednesday was devoted to Leighton Buzzard, 
Wing, Stewkley, and Eddlesborough, the churches of 
vhich places were severally explored under the 
guidance of Mr. Albert Hartshorne, Mr. J. H. Par- 
ser, Mr. M. H. Bloxham, and others. At Leighton, 
he fine tower and spire, the scroll work on the south 
ioor, and the restored market-cross came in for their 
hare of admiration. At Wing, the ancient crypt, 
>elieved to be very early Saxon, if not Roman work, 
vas inspected, Mr. J. H. Parker acting as interpreter. 
ITie great likeness between Stewskley and Iffley 
:hurches was noticed. At Eddlesborough they in- 
pected the early English church, recently restored, 
ind also an ancient barn, with windows and timbers 
)f at least Early Tudor date. Eaton Bray church is a 
cry fine specimen of the Early English style. The 
Papers read on Tuesday evening wereas follows: "On 
Jhaucer's Monument in Westminster Abbey," by Mr. 
tf . Bloxham; " On the Church of St. Mary, Bedford," 
>y Mr. G. Hurst; and "On St. Paul's Church," by Mr. 
Day. Thursday was devoted to the annual general 
neeting of the institute, which was held in the Bed- 
ord Assembly Rooms, under the presidency of Lord 



Talbot de Malahide. The annual report, which was 
read and adopted, recorded the fact that the Council 
had joined with the Society of Antiquaries in con- 
sidering the steps necessary for the preservation of 
Stonehenge, and had also entered its strong protest 
against the destruction of the west front of St. Albans 
Abbey, which is still going on under the name of 
" restoration." At the close of the meeting the party 
left for Cople Church, where they inspected the 
monuments, brasses, and heraldic bearings of the 
Launcelyns, Lukes, Rolands, and Greys. The next 
halting place was Willington, where the monuments, 
and especially the helmet and tabard of Sir John 
Gostwick, Master of the Horse to Henry VIII., were 
inspected. These, it was stated, were probably worn 
by him on the Field of the Cloth of Gold. Leaving 
Willington, they proceeded to Caesar's Camp, in the 
pine woods above the town. Thence they made their 
way to Galleyhill Camp, where a similar construction 
was noticed. The general opinion was that these 
camps were of British, not of Roman origin, though 
they might possibly have been used by the Romans 
during their occupation of this country. They after- 
wards inspected Howbury Camp and Risinghoe 
Castle, two curious earthworks, probably also of 
British origin. In the evening there were sectional 
meetings in the Bedford-Rooms, when papers were read 
by Messrs. Wormall, Copner, Micklethwaite, and others. 

On Friday the expedition organized was to St. 
Albans and to Luton. At St. Albans Abbey the 
archaeologists were conducted over the building by 
Mr. J. T. Micklethwaite, F.S.A. He explained the 
various features of the structure from the first founda- 
tion of the present Abbey in the early Norman times, 
when Saxon and Roman materials were worked into 
the walls of the new fabric. He also explained the 
curious history of the recent discovery and reconstruc- 
tion of the shrines of St. Alban and St. Amphibalus. 
They then inspected the church of St. Michael and the 
monument of Lord Bacon, and reconnoitred the re- 
mains of Old Verulam and of the British city on the 
banks of the Ver, the abbot's boathouse, and the large 
earthworks at Bernard's Heath. In the evening, 
papers " On the Earthworks of Bedfordshire," " The 
Mural Paintings at St. Albans,"" On the Churches and 
the Bells of Bedfordshire," were read by Dr. Prior, 
Messrs. Ridgway-Lloyd, Foster, and North. On Satur- 
day they visited Clapham Church, conspicuous all 
around by its lofty Anglo-Saxon towers; Sharnbrook 
and Felmersham, where they inspected the churches; 
Stevington, where they admired the Anglo-Saxon 
work in the tower, and also a curious low side-win^ 
dow, perforated through the wall to enable wor- 
shippers in the south chancel aisle to see the elevation 
at the high altar ; Oakley a parish almost wholly 
belonging to the Duke of Bedford, whose pew in the 
Church is partly roofed by an old rood-loft, much of 
which still stands in situ. 

Slssex Archaeological Society. August 
Meeting. Pevensey. The visitors repaired first to 
Westham Church, in the vicinity of the station, a 
plain but rather interesting old church. From West- 
ham the party proceeded to the fine ruins of Pevensey 
Castle, which is one of the most perfect of castellated 
remains of Roman origin. The outer walls of the 
castle inclose an area of about eight acres, and are 



174 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



almost 20 ft. in height. In the interior is a smaller 
fortification of a quadrangular form, with round 
towers, and which was once entered by a drawbridge. 
The circumference of the outer walls is about 260 
rods, and they must at one time have been of 
immense strength. The village of Warding was 
inspected. A well-preserved Catherine-wheel win- 
dow and a Pelham buckle of more than the ordinary 
size in the outer wall are worthy of notice here. 
The wooden spire is rather a rarity in Sussex. Ash- 
burnham Church was rebuilt in 1693 5 an ^ one of its 
features is that in all the windows the mullions are of 
oak instead of stone. The church consists of a tower, 
a nave, and a chancel with two side chapels to its 
north and south. The nave is entered from the tower 
by seven steps, and from it there is a similar approach 
to the chancel. The effect of this arrangement is 
extremely striking, the sacrarium standing out in 
grand relief as you approach it from the west end of 
the building. The tower, not unlike that of Battle 
Church, is built of local grey sandstone, and with its 
embattled turrets and ample buttresses, and approached 
as it is by a steep incline, is sufficiently imposing. 
The party were then conducted to the mansion of the 
Earl of Ashburnham, where they entered by the west 
door, in the entrance-hall of which are hung several 
very fine portraits of the Earl's ancestors, and other 
celebrities of days gone by, amongst them King 
Charles I., Queen Elizabeth, Mary Queen of Scots, 
Prince Rupert, and the Earl of Marlborough. The 
visitors were conducted to the magnificent manuscript 
library. 

Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographi- 
cal Association. Aug. 29th. Helmsley was the 
place selected for the annual excursion, with the 
object of visiting the ruins of Helmsley Castle and 
Rievaulx Abbey, access to which was kindly per- 
mitted by the Earl of Feversham. Colonel Brooke, 
of Huddersfield (Chairman of the Council), read a 
Paper by Mr. G. T. Clarke, F.S.A., on the Castle. 
After inspecting the ruins the party then proceeded 
to Rievaulx Abbey, and spent some time in inspect- 
ing the magnificent ruins. This was the first 
Cistercian house built in Yorkshire, and the second 
in England. It dates from 1131, and was founded 
by Walter PEspec, who afterwards became a 
monk, and was buried in the Abbey. Mr. J. T. 
Micklethwaite, F.S.A., briefly alluded to the rise of 
the Cistercian Order, and described the architectural 
features of the Abbey. 

[Our report of the Annual Meeting of the Somerset 
Archaeological Society is deferred until next month, 
owing to pressure on our space.] 

Wtuar^ 



a valuable addition to our stores of Cornu-British folk- 
lore. His taste for Cornish folk-lore developed in 
his early childhood, and more than half a century ago 
he delighted in collecting the quaint Cornish legends 
in a region where they are especially rife the weird 
country of the "S. Levan witches," where every 
estate and hamlet has some wild tale told of it. We 
believe it was by the advice of the present editor of 
7 he Cornish man, Mr. A.C.Wildman, that his valuable 
collection of Cornish stories was given to the public. 
Besides his own published writings, many students of 
Cornish folk-lore and antiquities consulted him, and 
derived much valuable information, which has ap- 
peared under many forms. Mr. Bottrell resided 
latterly at Penzance, and was there taken by the 
lingering illness (paralysis) which terminated with his 
death. Having lost the power of using a pen, he 
confided the preface of his last work to the Rev. W. S. 
Lach-Szyrma. Having seen his third volume published 
and revised, the " Old Celt," as Mr. Bottrell quaintly 
called himself, passed away to the company of those 
" old men of Cornwall" about whom he had written 10 
much. 



_. REV. ROBERT W. EYTON. 
Born December 25, 1815 ; died September 8, 1881. 

Mr. Eyton was the son of the late Rev. John 
Eyton, vicar of Wellington and Eyton, Salop. He 
was educated at Rugby, and at Christchurch, Oxford, 
where he obtained a second class in classics and gra- 
duated in 1839. He was rector of Ryton, Salop,, 
from 1 84 1 to 1863, during which time he composed 
his great work, the Antiquities of Shropshire, in 
twelve volumes, which brings the history of the 
county to the reign of Edward I. Mr. Eyton was the 
author of Digests of the Domesday Survey of Dorset, 
Somerset, and Staffordshire, works which, though not 
making large volumes, are replete with classified facts 
of the times, and do more, perhaps, to throw light 
on some of the most difficult portions of Domesday 
than anything else published. Mr. Eyton also com- 
piled the Itinerary of King Henry II. His last 
work was for the William Salt Archseological Society, 
for which he edited the "Pipe Rolls" and "Early 
Charters of Staffordshire." 



WILLIAM BOTTRELL. 

Mr. William Bottrell was well known as a collector 
of Cornish folk-lore. He published three volumes of 
Traditions and Hearthside Stories, which have formed 



JOHN WINTER JONES, F.S.A. 
Barn 180$. Died September 7, 1881. 

He was the son of Mr. John Jones, some time 
editor of the Naval Chronicle and the European 
Gazette, and grandson of Mr. Giles Jones. Mr. Winter 
Jones first entered the British Museum in 1837, and 
rose through all the grades until, on the retirement of 
Sir Anthony Panizzi in 1866, he was appointed 
Principal Librarian. This post he held up to his re- 
tirement in 1878. He edited three volnmes for the 
Hakluyt Society ; and recently printed, for private 
circulation, a Paper upon Mr. Rassam's discoveries 
in Mesopotamia. As one of the Vice-Presidents of 
the Society of Antiquaries he delivered the annual 
address on an occasion when Lord Stanhope was 
prevented from attending. 



OBITUARY. 



i7S 



JAMES THORNE, F.S.A. 

Bom September, 1815; died September % 1881. 

Mr. Thome was the author of Rambles by Rivers, 
which was first published by Charles Knight, be- 
tween 1844 and 1849, in his series of " Weekly 
Volumes," and in which was interspersed much use- 
ful antiquarian and historic matter, along with glean- 
ings of fairy and folk-lore. His most important 
work was the excellent Handbook to the Environs of 
London, published about five years ago by Murray. 



Gbe Hntiquars's Wote^Boofe, 



Extracts from Parish Registers of South 
Stoke, Wallingford (Communicated by the Rev. 
P. H. Nind). The Copy of a Supplication made to 
the Lord Archbishopp of Canterbury by the chief 
inhabitants of Woodcote and Exlade, which then were 
resyants there Mr. William Palmer, Lord of the 
Manor of Hyde, then living and dwelling at South 
Stoke beneath the Hill ; Mr. Richard Knapp, sojourn- 
ing or dwelling at Henley, which was then ffermor of 
Rawlines ; Mr. Richard Wintershull, Lord of Ueane 
fferme, dwelling at Little Stoke ; and John Wylder, 
heire of Fables, in minoritie, remaining in the County 
of Berks ; one Will m Coxe then beeing tenaunt in his 
twoee parts of the sayd fferme of Pables, a.d. 1597. 
In most humble wyse complaining show unto yo r 
Grace yo r pore and dayly orato rs Will m Ffrewen, 
Nicholas Wylder, Henry Cruchfield, Jun r , Edward 
Blackhall, Will m Nicholls, Will m Coxe, and Will 
Allnott, inhabitants of the hamletts of Woodcote and 
Exlade, in the Parish of South Stoke within her 
Highness County of Oxford : that whereas yo r Lord- 
shipp's pore suppliants and dyverse other the inhabi- 
tants of said twooe hamletts whose several habitations 
and dwellings are of some twooe miles, and the 
greater part three miles distant from their Parish 
Church of South Stoke aforesayd, have always (as 
also their predecessors) in tyme out of mynde, at such 
times as unseasonable wether, by snow, sleete, or 
rayne, or foulness of the wayes, some tyme in the 
short dayes, hath hindered them from going to their 
Parish Church every Sunday, and otherwyse also at 
other times, when they have bene at their owne 
Parish Church at morning prayer for lyke tyme out of 
mynd, without any vexation, usually frequented and 
resorted, for the hearing of God's Word and the 
divine prayers, unto the Parish Church of Checkendon 
within the same County, being but one quarter of a 
myle from the habitations or dwellings of most of 
them, and from the other half a myle ; as lykewyse on 
the contrary, the inhabitants of an Hamlett of the 
Parish of Checkendon aforesayd, three myles or more 
distant from their own parish Church, but within one 
halfe myle aforesayd have and doe still without moles- 
tation and trouble resort to the Church of South 
Stoke (a thing generally tolerated throughout the 
whole realme, for any thing that they heare to the 
contrary, where the occasions be lyke). Nowe, may it 
please your good Lorshippe to bee advertised that one 



M r . Owen Thomas (a man, while hee was Vicar of 
Taynton on the other side of this Shiere, but a five 
years since, by verdict of a jury of twelve men at an 
Assises in this County, convicted for a common bar- 
retter and drunkard) having gotten the possession of 
the Parsonage or rectory of Checkendon aforesayd, 
were hee is and remayneth nowe Parson, hath for 
those twooe years past and more, eftsoones prosecutes 
them, and procured the Churchwardens to present 
them into the Archdeacon's Court of this diocese of 
Oxford for coming in such sorte, as is above sayd to 
heare divine service at Checkendon, without any dis- 
turbance there or mislyke of the parishioners. Into 
which Court yo r pore suppliants being presented, have 
been as often called and cyted as presented to their 
great trouble and hinderance from their worke whereby 
they live and intolerable expences (in respect of their 
small liabilities) by their journeys to Oxford and costs 
day and night there, with charges and fees of the 
Courte ; and so are still threatened by the said Owen 
Thomas, parson of Checkendon, never to be left in 
quyett by him, till hee have compelled them altogether 
to refrayne his sayd Church, and only to frequentt 
their own, contrary to his solemne advised (?) protes- 
tation, and as yt weare a kynd of sacramentail oath 
before many witnesses, that hee would never trouble 
them agayne, so that they would surcease from a suyt 
agaynst him (which he feared but they mentt nott) of 
endyting him again for a common barretter, whether 
of delight he taketh to continue his former conditions 
or of malice prepensed they will not say : but sure 
they are (by himselfe uttered) for this yere past, of 
desire of revenge agaynst them all for that, by reason 
of twoe women parishioners of South Stoke, of 
Woodcote and Exlade, among others, his purpose was 
made frustrate, when he unmercifully, unchristianly, 
and unjustly (as yt was thought) at the Assises a yeare 
since, sought the lyfe and blood of a poore boy of a 
dozen yeres of age, and also to putt them the sayd 
inhabitants of Woodcote and Exlade (without re- 
spect whether able or not able to endure yt) to an 
endlesse and intolerable toyle and travell of xii 
myles by the day, yt they shoidd twise a day be 
compelled to their owne Parish Church. Whereupon 
will ensue, as y r Grace can most wysely and honor- 
ably consider, that even the ablest of them, often 
the lame, the impotentt, the aged, and most women 
and children necessarily shall be enforced her High- 
nesse most wholesome and godly laws in that behalfe 
provyded; and their yonger children whom they care- 
fully desyre may be trayned upp to frequent divine 
service and the hearyng of God's word somewhere, 
for wantt thereoff shall lack that good education and 
instruction in some part, which they wish for them, 
and (which is to be feared) that many shall continue 
still in darknesse and ignorance; and falling into 
neglect of the ordinary hearing of divine service and 
the word of God, without regard of keeping the 
Lord's Sabbath; shall rune into recklessnesse of their 
Christian duties to God and their Prince, &c. ; and in 
the end, to make no account of any religion at all, to 
the high displeasure of Almighty God and their utter 
destruction in soule. In pitifull and tender considera- 
tion whereof, may it please y r Grace of y r most 
Christian accustomed clemency, to vouchsafe unto 
y r sayd poore suppliants (being not able to give 



iy6 



THE ANTIQUARY S NOTE-BOOK. 



allowance to one to serve at a Chappell that standeth 
neare unto them at Woodcote, where they have ser- 
vice duely but only upon the day of the nativitie of 
o r Saviour Christ, upon Easter day, and upon some 
working dayes, as y r falleth out for thanksgivinge of 
women and marriages) yo r Lordshippe's favorable 
lycence or toleration, for frequenting of divine service 
at Checkendon, without disturbance of the parish- 
ioners there, in such sorte, as is above-sayd that they 
and their predecessors have, for tyme out of mynde 
used, being so neare and convenient for them. Not 
of any dislike they have or contempt of their owne 
Parish Church or minister, but only of desyre and 
love, in duty towards God, to spend the wholle Sab- 
both and other festivall dayes in hearing the word of 
God and resorting to the divine service, which they 
cannot so welle accomplishe at their own Parish 
Church, so fare distant, without intolerable toyle and 
some daunger to their healtes at some tymes, but 
specially lame folks and impotentt with most part of 
the aged and of women and children. Being all most 
willing and ready without any recusance or anyone 
rescusant amongst them, as they have always done, 
still to be partakers of the Lorde's Supper at their 
own Parish Church; and lykewyse at all other tymes 
thither to repayre as often as with convenience they 
may. And all yo r Lordshippe's sayd poore sup- 
pliants and all the sayd inhabitants shall, as they are 
most bounden, dayly pray to Almighty God for yo r 
Grace's long, prosperous and happy life. 

Will m ffrewen, at the tyme of exhibiting this suppli- 
cation, was lyving, but deceased afore the lycense was 
made, and so Leonard his sonne therein named, 
succeeding him. 

Then follows 
The copy of the testimony which Hilary Fishwicke, 
then Vicar, gave unto his neighbours and parishioners 
of Woodcote and Exlade, when they went about their 
lycense : 

Paraechos Hosce meos Gulielmum ffrewen, Nicho- 
laum Wilder, Henricum Cruchfield, Seniorem, 
Richardum Buckridg, Gulielmum Coxe, Henricum 
Curtchfield, Juniorem, Edwardum Blackball, Guliel- 
mum Nicholls, et Gulielmum Allnott, aliosque 
Woodcotae et Exladiae incolas, at homines novi 
simplices et apertos. Vitseque et conversationis 
placidae, ita verbum Dei audiendi, precibusque divinis 
publicis et ccena Christi sacra rite debitoque modo 
participandi, cupidos omnes et perquam studiosos 
nemine refractario, compertum habeo. Quapropter 
eis secundum petitionem ab illis exhibendam; eatenus 
mihi, quatenus Dei cultum et sui suorumque in 
timore Dei instituendorum et educandorum curam 
spectat, probatam tolerationem et indulgentiam iis 
de causis, eodemque modo quo ab ipsis expetitur, 
modo reverendissimo ita placeat Archiepiscopo 
summe exopto. 

HlLARIUS FlSHWICCIUS, 

Vicarius Ecclesiae quae est South Stoke dicecesios 
Oxon. 

The licence, under the seal of the Chancellor of 
the Archbishop, is as follows : 

The Archbishop's Licence. 
Johannes divina providentia Cantuarius Archi- 
episcopus, totius Anglise Primas et Metropolitanns ad 



quern omnis et omnimoda jurisdictio Spiritualis ct 
Ecclesiastica quae ad Episcopatum Oxoniensem sede 
plena pertinuit ipsa sede jam vacante notorii dignoscitur 
pertinere, dilectis nobis in Christo, Leonardo ffrewen, 
Nicholao Wilder, Henrico Crutchfield, Ricardo Buck- 
ridge, Edvardo Blackall, Wili m0 Nicholls, Will mo All- 
nott, Georgio frailer, et Will" 10 Etheridge, villarum sive 
hameletarum de Woodcote et Exlade infra parochiam 
de South Stoke, dicecesis Oxoniensis, nostraeque pro- 
vinciae Cantuariae et aliis inhabitantibus dictarum 
villarum sive hameletarum de Woodcote et Exlade 
praedicat salutem in omnium salvatore. Porrecta 
nobis nuper pro partibus vestris petitio continebat. 
Quod Ecclesia vestra de South Stoke praedicta. Fa 
domibus sive mansionibus dictarum habitationum 
vestraorum infra villas sive hameletas de Woodcote 
et Exlade prredictis, tam longe distat, videlicet per 
spatium trium aut duarum milliarium ad minus, ut vos 
propter locorum praedictorum distantiam viarum atque 
itinerum adeo praesertim et hyemalibus temporibus 
difficultatem, corporumque vestrorum aut aliquorum 
vestrorum incolarum ibidem nimirum puerorum, 
faeminarum, senum et valetudinariorum imbecdlitatem, 
dictam Ecclesiam vestram parochialem de South Stoke 
prout alias de jure astricti estis, ac positi essetis (ut 
asseritis) adire et eandem ad divina audienda et 
sacramenta participanda ita saepius frequentiusve com- 
moda non possitis neque valeatis, Cumque praeterea 
ubi eadem continebat petitio, ecclesia parochialis de 
Checkendon dictae Oxoniae diocesis nostraeque Can- 
tuariensis provinciae domibus sive mansionibus dictarum 
habitationum vestrarum et aliorum inhabitantum villa- 
rum sive hameletarum de Woodcote et Exlade praedictis 
multo majis vicina existens(?) et commoda ut per 
unius quarterii milliarii spatium aut cocirciter distat, 
ut earn multo facilius et cum minore labore corporum- 
que vestrorum discrimine quam dictam Ecclesiam 
parochialem de South Stoke ad divina audienda diebus 
dominicis et festivis adire et frequenter possitis et pos- 
sint, ideo nobis supplicium fecistis et fecerunt humiliter 
quatenus (pra?missorum intuitu) licentiam et facultatem 
sub modo et forma inferius descriptis vobis et aliis 
dictarum ullum (?) sive hameletarum inhabitantibus in 
posterum concedere dignaremur. Nos igitur precibus 
et supplicationibus vestris et eorum in hac parte utpote 
justis et rationalibus (praemissorum impedimentorum 
intuitu) favorabiliter inclinati, ut vos et omnes alii 
post hoc inhabitantes dictarum villarum sive hamele- 
tarum de Woodcote et Exlade pnedictis, cum liberis et 
omnibus aliis domesticis et familiis suis de tempore in 
tempos Ecclesiam parochialem de Checkendon prae- 
dicta adire et eandem ad divina audienda et sacra- 
menta participanda frequenter, liberi liciti et impune 
possitis et valeatis, possintque et valeant dummodo 
ecclesiae vestrae parochiali de South Stoke et ministris 
ejusdem vel dictae ecclesiae parochiali parochianis de 
Checkendon nullum ex inde prejudicium damnum 
vel gravamen aliter inde generetur, licentium et facul- 
tatem nostras ex causis praedictis et aliis, nos in hac 
parte moventibus (quantum in nobis est et de jure 
legibus et statutis hujus regni Anglias (hac in parte) 
possumus) benigni vobis aliisque praedictis cum familiis 
vestris suisque concedimus et impertimur per pre- 
sent es. Ita ut ex causis supra dictis (quatenus semper 
inoffensi legibus, statutis ac consuetudinibus hujus 
regni Angliae nobis (hac in parte) licebit nee minister 






THE ANTIQUARVS NOTE-BOOK. 



i/7 



de Checkendon vel de South Stoke prsedictis, nee 
etiam ullus inferior ordinnius pro tempore existens 
dietos incolas cum familiis suis, vel eorum successores 
ibidem praamissorum occasione molestare vel inquietare 
quovismodo valeat vel praesumat Proviso tamen 
semper quod juxta provisionem statutorum ea in parte 
editorum vos ac quilibet vestrum aliique inhabitantes 
ibidem pro tempore existentes quater ad minimum 
quotannis idque temporibus maxime ad id opportunis 
adeuntes divinas preces ac condones, sacramenta, 
participanda ad parochialem Ecclesiam vestram de 
South Stoke accedere teneamus ac teneantur, prae- 
missis vel eorum aliquo non obstantibus. 

In cujus rei testimonium sigillum quo in hac parte 
utimur praesentibus apponi fecimus : datum quarto die 
mensis Junii anno Domini millesimo quingentesimo et 
nonagesimo septimo et nostrae translationis anno 
decimo quarto. Tho : Redman. 

Jo : Coston. 

The principall followers of this suyt, in their own 
name and the name of the rest, to London, Lambeth, 
and Croydon, were Richard Buckridge and Henry 
Crutchfield, Senior. 

The foregoing is as true a copy as can now be 
deciphered from the old Register (1557) of South 
Stoke, Oxon. 



antiquarian 1Re\x>s. 



"The Ballade of the Scottysshe Kynge," to which 
is ascribed, by authorities on the subject, the honour 
of being the first printed English ballad, is about to 
be reprinted in /ac simile, by Mr. Elliot Stock. A 
full historical introduction and copious notes, in eluci- 
dation of the subject, will be added. 

The Rock states that a considerable portion of the 
superstructure of the shrine of St. Frideswide at 
Oxford has been lately found thrown carelessly into a 
well in the rear of one of the canons' houses at Christ 
Church. It is hoped that a further search will bring 
the rest of this most interesting structure to light. 

The trustees of the Lenox Library in New York 
have issued a Shakespearian Catalogue, containing a 
variety of curious information as to the spelling of 
the poet's name. After consulting the principal 
authorities, it is found that thirty-three are for Shak- 
spere, III for Shakspeare, and 282 for Shakespeare. 

A stone coffin, containing human remains, has just 
been discovered at Ipswich, during some excavations 
on the site of the College founded by Cardinal 
Wolsey. The coffin lid is missing, so that there is no 
clue to the identity of the remains, but they are be- 
lieved to be those of one of the monks of St. Peter's 
Monastery. 

Preparations are being made for widening Fleet 
Street from Chancery Lane to the corner of Bell 
Yard ; and, in the demolition of the block of houses, 
a place of interest will be "improved" from this 
thoroughfare viz., the old Cock Tavern, long asso- 
ciated with the names of Johnson, Boswell, Gold- 
smith, Steele, and Addison. 



The restoration of the Old Crypt School, Glouces- 
ter, a work which has been going on for some time 
past, has been completed. The building, which is 
350 years old, is in the Late Perpendicular style. The 
best feature in it is the gateway and oriel window over. 
The lower room, with its dark oak wainscoted walls 
and ceiling, was used formerly as the Crypt Grammar 
School. 

Three months ago an archaeological exploring ex- 
pedition was sent out from Austria to Lycia in Asia 
Minor. The members of the party have just returned 
to Vienna, and report that their excavations and re- 
searches on the sites of some of the principal cities of 
the ancient kingdom in question have resulted in very 
important discoveries, the particulars of which will 
shortly be made known. 

In the course of the excavations for a new fort at 
Lier, in the neighbourhood of Antwerp, a number 
of bones of extinct animals, mammoth s teeth, and 
the almost complete skeleton of a rhinoceros have 
been dug up. It was in the same district that, in 
1760, was found the immense skeleton of a mam- 
moth, which has been preserved in the Natural His- 
tory Museum at Brussels. 

The date of the sale of the Sunderland library, to 
which we have already alluded, has now been fixed. 
The catalogue of the first portion, consisting of 2, 700 
lots, has been issued by Messrs. Puttick and Simpson, 
who will sell the books by auction on the 1st of 
December and nine following days. The articles are 
very fully catalogued, and the descriptions promise a 
rich treat for the lovers of fine books. 

The restoration of the parish church of Market 
Drayton is being proceeded with. On removing the 
floor, the workmen discovered several hitherto un- 
known vaults ; and the whole edifice seems to be 
honeycombed with such. Over one vault was found 
a large alabaster slab, the inscription on which, with 
the exception of three Latin words, is entirely worn 
away, but the lettering shows that it belonged to the 
fourteenth century. 

The fourth Biennial Congress of the Students of 
American Archaeology will be held at Madrid, from 
September 25 to 28, inclusive. The Congress meets 
under the patronage of King Alfonso and of the 
Municipality of Madrid ; and strangers will have a 
rare opportunity of examining the various interesting 
museums and collections in the Spanish capital. It is 
reported that the lineal descendants of Montezuma 
and Columbus are to preside at some of the meetings. 

An important discovery of ancient silver coins is 
reported from Tarlasco, province of Lomellino, Pied- 
mont. A countryman found a vessel containing 600 
silver coins, mostly belonging to the first Roman 
epoch, as shown by the effigies of Brutus and Col- 
latinus designated as primi Consults. Others of more 
recent period, dating from the time of Caesar, Pompey, 
Antony, and Antoninus Pius, are still of great archaeo- 
logical interest. 

The parish church of Melksham was re-opened on 
the nth of August, after restoration. The alterations 
to the structure principally affect the chancel. An 
entirely new ceiling of panelled oak has been pro- 



i 7 8 



ANTIQUARIAN NE WS. 



vided for the chancel, and the walls of the chancel 
and chancel arches have been thoroughly cleaned. 
This latter work led to the discovery of some in- 
teresting work in the shape of portions of a Norman 
arcade running along a part of the north and south 
sides, with one pillar in the north-east angle. 

Clapton-in-Gordano Church is in course of exten- 
sive restoration. It is an interesting structure, 
perched on an eminence, and is of singular and irre- 
gular outline. It consists of nave, chancel, and 
western tower, with a sort of transept chapel north 
of the nave, and a very narrow chapel north of the 
chancel. The earliest part of the church is the 
tower, which is supposed to be of the thirteenth, 
century. Another curious feature of the church is 
the reeedos, in which are two Early English capitals. 

The Naples correspondent of the Daily Neivs 
writes : " During the excavations in Strada Cam- 
pagna, in this city, a marble tomb has been brought to 
light, the bust of a female, and a Hermes column. 
The bust represents a young woman, the hair 
arranged in a net resting on the neck. To judge by 
the arrangement of the hair and the rather slovenly 
execution, the bust seems to belong to the end of the 
second or beginning of the third century, about the 
time of Caracalla. The Hermes presents a head of 
robust form, with short hair, cut in a circle on the 
forehead, evidently belonging to the same period." 

Ashbourne Church is being restored. The work of 
cleaning the walls of the nave and south aisle by 
scraping off the plaster which has disfigured themfis 
being very carefully and actively proceeded with. An 
ancient doorway in the north wall of the nave has 
been brought to light. The removal of the galleries 
has exposed to view the beauties of the arches and 
pillars, and the fine proportions of the nave and aisle. 
Some interesting frescoes have been discovered, one 
of them being the Lord's Prayer in Elizabethan 
characters, with a curious ornamental border. Por- 
tions of these have been carefully copied. 

A very curious and remarkable seal has recently 
been found on Wash-common, the scene of the first 
battle of Newbury, September 20th, 1643, near the spot 
where the Falkland Memorial is erected. The seal is 
circular, and made of brass, measuring one inch and 
eight-tenths in diameter. It bears the device of a 
skeleton with the surgeon's knife in the dexter hand, 
and.an hour-glass on the sinister side. The legend with 
which it is inscribed is as follows : " THE ' SOSCIETY 
AND ' LOYALTY * OF " CHYRVRGEONS ' HALL 

London." This seal is supposed to have been used by 
those members of the Chirurgeons' Company of 
London attached to the Royal army at Newbury, and it 
was probably lost in the encounter. 

Avenbury Parish Church, an ancient structure, built 
on the banks of the river Froome, about a mile and 
half above Bromyard, has been re-opened after re- 
storation. The interior restoration consisted in taking 
down the old lath and plaster, and cutting a new 
ceiling. By this the whole of the old oak timber in 
the roof hip to the apex and most of which is in 
good preservation now stained and varnished, will 
be displayed to view. The old oak screen, which 



was formerly partially covered with plaster and white- 
wash for many years, has been completely restored 
and varnished, with new oak gates of very good de- 
sign. The entrance porch has been entirely removed, 
and a level entrance is now made into the church. 
There is also a new gate leading into the churchyard. 

The Cairo correspondent of the Times sends full 
details of the discovery, made a few weeks ago, at 
Deir-el-Bahari, near Thebes, of thirty-nine mummies 
of royal and priestly personages. Twenty-six are 
now identified, and the correspondent sends a list of 
them furnished by Herr Emil Briigsch, the acting 
director of the Boulak Museum. Twenty-four out 
of the twenty-six are mummies of kings, queens, 

Erinces, or princesses, and the other two are those of 
igh priests. Among the kings is Rameses II., the 
third king of the nineteenth dynasty, and the Pharaoh 
of the Jewish captivity. The remaining thirteen of 
the thirty-nine mummies discovered require more 
searching study and investigation before they can be 
identified with absolute certainty. 

A story which appears almost incredible has been 
sent to us from Cornwall. It is reported that the 
church of Minster, near Boscastle, has been " re- 
novated" by the substitution of deal pews for a 
quantity of most curious and interesting carved oak 
seats, the devices on which appear to have been most 
singular. These have been treated as rubbish, dis- 
persed through the village, and in part burnt. - The 
innkeeper has a considerable quantity locked up in 
his stable and has offered them to the vicar to replace 
in the church if he likes. Surely such a matter ought 
to be inquired into, with a view of rescuing at any 
rate some portion of these treasures while it may not 
be too late. But we hope some correspondent may be 
able to tell that the report is exaggerated. 

A find of considerable interest to the city of Berne 
was made a few days ago, at Niedersteinbrunn, in 
Alsace. As two men were digging a ditch on the 
site of an old house, they came upon an earthenware 
jar, containing 4,000 gold pieces, of which the weight 
was nearly twenty pounds. The pieces are all of the 
same mintage, about a millimetre in thickness and the 
diameter of a mark. On one side is the effigy of a 
double eagle, with the inscription, " Bercht. V., Dux 
Zerin. Fondator," and on the reverse appears the arms 
of Berne a bear on a mown field. The inscription 
signifies that Berchtold V., Duke of Zeringhen, was 
the founder of the city. The dates on the coins 
run from 1617 to 1623, and they were probably hidden 
where they were found at the time of the Thirty Years' 
War. 

The ancient documents of Wells Cathedral have re- 
cently been examined by Mr. W. De Gray Birch, of 
the British Museum, and the Rev. Chancellor Ber- 
nard has just made the following report to the Dean 
and Chapter : "Many of the documents contain im- 
portant notices of historical and political events, both 
general and local ; records of matters of the highest 
value in relation to the history of the revenues and 
fabric of the Cathedral ; and instances of great interest 
to the student of church and monastic antiquities, 
palaeography, manners and customs, and topography. 
Many have also been exposed to damp and dust for so 



ANTIQ UARIAN NE WS. 



179 



long a period that they have become seriously injured 
and mutilated." Mr. Birch also pointed out that a 
somewhat similar collection of documents in possession 
of the Vicars-Choral is in a very deplorable condition. 

The Church of St. Lawrence, Frodsham, an in- 
teresting ecclesiastical edifice in the north-west dis- 
trict of Cheshire, is undergoing extensive restoration. 
The church is in part Norman, and is believed to 
belong to the early part of the twelfth century. 
Additions, in later periods of architecture, have been 
made to it from time to time, and in the eighteenth 
century the whole of the south aisle was restored. 
The work was begun about a year ago, when the 
building was quite dismantled. The roofs of the 
south aisle, nave, and north aisle, and the low gal- 
leries and high square pews, were entirely removed. 
The walls of the south aisle have now been partly 
made good, a string-course and three new windows 
fixed, and new priests' doorway and buttresses have 
been constructed. In the nave the old Norman 
pillars have been cleaned and partly restored. 

The rearrangement of the City library at Mayence 
has just brought to light some literary treasures in the 
shape of valuable manuscripts, and very rare printed 
books. Among these latter are two books printed by 
Guttenberg. One is a Bull of Pope Pius II., ad- 
dressed to the Cathedral Chapter of Mayence, con- 
cerning the deposition of the Archbishop Diether ; 
the imprint bears the date 146 1. The other, consist- 
ing of twenty leaves, is Tractatus rationis et con- 
scientia; and is dated 1459. Both books are in good 
condition ; they are printed with the same types as the 
Catholicon, but are neater and better defined. A copy 
of the Catholicon also is in the library. The Bull is 
believed to be a unique copy, since no reference to 
another copy is to be found in any known catalogue ; 
but there is another copy of the Tractatus in the 
National Library at Paris. 

The village church of Micheldever, which has 
recently been restored by the Earl of Northbrook, 
has just been re-opened by Bishop McDougall. The 
works have consisted in the removal 'of the plaster 
aisles in the chancel, and rough casting of the walls, 
and the substitution of a new pencilled roof; the 
construction of a new organ chamber and chancel 
arch ; new mosaic floor, oak stalls, altar table and 
rail, choir seats, marble credence table, &c. In the 
nave the oak seats have been re-constructed, the 
gallery removed, and the fine old Perpendicular arch 
brought to light in the tower. There are some 
beautiful monuments of the Baring family in the 
church. The excavations disclosed interesting re- 
mains of the ancient church, showing specimens of 
the Early English, Decorated, and Perpendicular 
styles, also remains of two Norman fonts, and of a 
decorated stone reredos, or screen. 

The Gazette de Lausanne says that an extraordinary 
and scarcely credible story is afloat as to the discovery 
of a well-preserved city, of immense antiquity, under 
the waters of the Lake of Geneva. An American 
gentleman, who lost a valuable hand-bag by the up- 
setting of a boat, employed two divers to seek for it 
They not only recovered the American's property, 
but brought up with them, from the depths of the 



lake, a splendid vase of Etruscan form, and they 
related further that they had discerned a large quantity 
of houses. The Communal officials of Bex here- 
upon went forth in boats to view the spot indicated 
by the divers. The archaeologists of Bex settled that 
the town must have been built by the Combri, or 
earliest Gauls. The Cantonal Council of Vaud is to 
be urged to construct a great dam around the spot 
containing the town, and to pump the place dry, in 
the interests of historical science. 

The following letter appeared in the Times recently: 
" Permit me to draw the attention of those who are 
interested in the preservation of ancient monuments to 
the present state of things at Furness Abbey. I was 
present in the ruins for three hours one after- 
noon, and was extremely shocked at the spectacle 
I witnessed. The place was filled with a rough and 
noisy crowd of excursionists, and large numbers of 
children, apparently under no control, were climbing 
in and out of the beautiful sedilia and over the sculp- 
tured capitals of the fallen pillars, which lie on the 
ground in the ancient Chapter-house, to the extreme 
danger, I fear, of destruction of. most exquisitely- 
carved work. On remonstrating with the guide, he 
merely expressed his inability always to prevent 
mischief. I hope that some means may be taken to 
prevent what I fear may end in serious injury to a 
priceless treasure." 

A work of the greatest interest and antiquarian 
value has lately been purchased by Mr. Samuel 
Caswell, Meole Brace. It is the private collec- 
tion of etchings, water-colour, sepia, and pencil 
drawings of old streets and buildings in the town of 
Shrewsbury, made at the beginning of the present cen- 
tury by the late Archdeacon Owen, the historian of 
Shrewsbury, and his son, the Rev. E. Pryce Owen. 
The work consists of three large quarto volumes, and 
contains all the original drawings for the illustration of 
Owen and Blakeway's history, and a vast number 
of which have never been published. The total number 
of drawings and sketches is over four hundred, the 
most rare being numerous early views of the old 
English and Welsh bridges, the Castle Gates, the 
Abbey, St. Mary's, old St. Chad's, old St. Alkmund's, 
and old St. Julian's churches. We believe it is in con- 
templation to publish a copy of the views which have 
never been published before. 

Several workmen engaged in the works along the 
Via Flaminia, outside the Porta del Popolo, Rome, 
have discovered near Tolentino a group of tombs 
containing the skeleton of a child with the head 
resting on a splendid black cup, a boy and several 
warriors with lances and other arms lying at the feet. 
A precious epigraph was found during the excavations 
for the new Exhibition Palace in the Via Nazionale. 
The officers appointed by the Ministry for Public 
Instruction to superintend and to inspect all works of 
excavations at Rome perceiving a large stone, had it 
carefully removed. This new discovery will enrich 
the splendid collection which has been forming in 
Rome since 1870, and which occupies several of the 
large halls at the capital. Hardly a new house has 
been constructed in Rome since the occupation which 
has not led to the discovery of some important object 
of art. The archaeological bulletin which is being 



i8o 



ANT1Q UARIAN NE WS. 



published by the Roman municipality contains every 
week long lists of new objects discovered and photo- 
graphs of anything considered worth reproducing. 

The rector of Prestwich and the churchwardens have 
applied to the Manchester Diocesan Registry for a 
faculty to rebuild the tower of Prestwich parish church. 
The application states that the old slated roof is to be 
replaced by a lead flat roof, and the existing south- 
west turret staircase is to be superseded by a new one 
to be built at the north-east corner of the tower. The 
foundations of the tower are to have " proper spread- 
ing footings, and to be put in with the least possible 
disturbance of the adjoining graves. The present 
design of the tower to be retained as far as practicable, 
according to the plans and particulars of the said re- 
building now deposited in the Public Episcopal Regis- 
try in Manchester." The ultimate shape the alteration 
will assume, is, however, by no means agreed upon. 
This week the whole of the plaster has been removed 
from the inside of the tower in order to see if the crack 
is there apparent which is so visible above the ringers' 
chamber, but nothing of a nature to cause the slightest 
alarm can be discovered. The base of the tower 
appears to be perfectly sound and free from all decay. 

In the course of the restorations now going on in 
the nave of St. Giles's Cathedral, the workmen have 
come upon a very interesting relic of antiquity in the 
wall of the Albany Aisle, consisting of an arched 
recess for a mural shrine. The arch is in the north 
wall of the aisle, opposite the central pillar, and 
measures eight feet high and about seven feet wide, 
being sufficient for a recumbent figure. The recess 
within the arch is two or three feet deep. On the 
front around the arch is an exceedingly fine moulding 
in carved stone of the style of the thirteenth century. 
Unfortunately, rather more than one-half of the 
moulding is gone, a result of different mutilations. 
Latterly, the whole had been enshrouded in some 
common kind of building and plaster, on the removal 
of which this beautiful and ill-used work of art was 
brought to light. On Mr. Hay, architect of the 
restorations, making the fact of the discovery known 
to Dr. Chambers, he received orders to restore the 
moulding of the arch, where it was deficient, in 
exactly the original style, and also to mend any other 
broken parts of the monumental structure. 

The restoration of Sidbury Church has been com- 
pleted. The general fabric was found to be in a very 
dilapidated condition. The whole of the roof has 
been stripped, and the mortar removed from all the 
exterior walls. The stonework has been repaired, 
and partly rebuilt in herring-bone to correspond with 
the old work. The old timbers in the roof (where 
required) have been removed, and the space between 
the rafters plastered and left visible, including the 
bold oak principals. The chancel has a pitch-pine 
boarded ceiling, formed in panels with moulded ribs. 
The turret old timbers have been properly recon- 
structed, and new louvre-boards to belfry windows ; 
new roof to the same, covered with tiles, and the apex 
finished with a wrought-iron ornamental finial. The 
old porch has been taken down, and a new one built to 
correspond with the other portion of the work. The 
old stone paving has been removed, and the aisle and 
chancel are paved with encaustic tiles. The whole 



of the seating in the chancel and nave is in pitch 
pine, with solid, elaborate and moulded bench-ends, 
with capping on the top, the front portion of the 
seats having traceried fronts. The pulpit and reading 
desk have been reconstructed with the old oak fram- 
ing, with carved panel fronts. The ancient font has 
been restored and cleaned. 

The ancient custom of proclaiming the Fair at 
Newcastle took place on August 9, at noon. This 
being the August or Cow Hill Fair, the , Mayor, 
accompanied by the Sheriff and Committee Clerk, 
attended the Guildhall, St. Nicholas Square, and 
Newgate Street, where the proclamation was duly 
read at each of the three places. At the Guild- 
hall several offthe merchants on 'Change turned 
out to hear the proclamation read, at the end of which 
lusty cheers were given for the Mayor. The following 
is a copy of the proclamation : " O Yez ! O Yez ! ! 
O Yez ! ! ! The Right Worshipful the Mayor, the 
Sheriff, and the Aldermen their Brethren, Give 
notice the Fair of this Town begins at 12 o'clock 
this Day, and will continue for the next Eight Days 
after, when it shall be lawful for all Persons to come 
to the Town with their Wares to sell. And it is 
strictly charged and commanded no Person, of what 
degree or quality whatsoever, be so hardy during the 
time of this Fair to carry any manner of Weapon 
about him, except he be a Knight or Squire of 
Honour, and then to have a Sword borne after him. 
Notice is Hereby Further Given, That a Court of 
Piepowder will be holden during the time of this 
Fair, that is to say, one in the forenoon, another in 
the afternoon, where Rich and Poor may have Justice 
administered to them according to the Law of the 
Land and the Customs of this Town. God save the 
Queen, the Worshipful the Mayor, and the Sheriff." 

Respecting the discdveries which have just been 
made in certain caves in Moravia, some interesting 
details are published in the Augsburg Allgemeine 
Zeitung. For some months past excavations have 
been going on upon the Kotoutsch Hill, near Stram- 
berg, which have already brought to light a large 
number of remains of the highest scientific interest. 
The spots where the most important discoveries have 
been made are the two caves of Schipka and 
Tchertova Dira (or the Dwarfs Cave). The objects 
which have been found and the position in which 
they were discovered prove in the clearest possible 
manner that both the caves mentioned were inhabited 
by men in prehistoric ages. The objects obtained in 
the Schipka cave comprise thousands of bones of 
antediluvian animals, as the mammoth, rhinoceros, 
cave bear, horse, cave ox, stag, reindeer, &c Far- 
ther, there are thousands of separate teeth and horns 
of these animals, besides numerous well-preserved 
stone and bone tools, which were dug up as far 
down as three metres below the cave. In the 
Tchertova Dira the discoveries include bones of the 
cave deer, reindeer, edelhirsch, primeval ox, &c, 
besides numerous pieces of horn, showing artificial 
work, and many well-preserved bone objects and 
tools, such as awls or bodkins, and pins or needles, 
pierced with holes, three and four-edged arrow heads, 
rough and unpolished stone tools of flint, jasper, and 
chalcedony ; fragments of very different kinds of 



ANT2Q U ART AN NE WS. 



181 



earthenware vessels, with and without graphite coat- 
ing, which had been made by hand without the use 
of the potter's wheel, and which are covered with 
characteristic ornaments. 

Mr. G. H. Birch writes to the editor of the Surrey 
Advertiser, as follows : " It may interest some of 
your numerous readers to hear that more substantial 
traces of the Roman occupation of Staines than coins 
or flue tiles have come to light. In digging a rain- 
water tank for a cottage for Mr. E. Budgen, in Tilley's 
Lane, Staines, at the depth of about five feet from the 
surface the workmen struck upon a portion of a mosaic 
pavement in situ. The tesserae composing it are of 
the ordinary small square shape, and there are no 
traces of a pattern. They rest on the usual tenacious 
bed of fine concrete, and are covered with a fine layer 
of black earth, which invariably accompanies and 
overlies Roman remains. I much regret that, from 
the cramped nature of the site, I am unable to pursue 
any further investigation; nor is the pavement itself 
of sufficient artistic excellence to wan-ant it. Such 
pavements are common enough in London. In an 
archaeological sense the find is most interesting, proving 
the Roman occupation of Staines on the Roman Road 
from London to the south of England, via Bagshot, 
where portions of the road can still be traced. I 
would add that no traces of walls were discovered, 
and that the pavement itself is uneven, a portion of it 
being inclined at an angle of 30 degrees, giving the 
appearance at first sight of it being the lining of a pis- 
cina or impluvium, but from careful investigation this 
part has been probably disturbed at some time or 
other, and does not occupy its original position. I 
hope to preserve a portion as a record, and regret that 
the requirements of the building now being erected 
under my superintendence compel me once more to 
bury it beneath the soil. It is possible that this 
portion may be only the outer border of a more 
ornamentalp avement buried beneath the adjoining 
cottages." 

During the first week of September an interesting 
find of archaic pottery has been brought to light in 
excavating the foundations for a new wing about to 
be added to Chesfield, Lower Teddington Road, 
Hampton Wick, the residence of Mr. H. E. Tatham. 
At a depth of from eighteen inches to two feet the 
workmen came upon a number of earthen vessels, 
which their pickaxes unfortunately reduced in a great 
measure to potsherds before the arrival of Mr. Tatham, 
who was happily in time to save several from more 
than partial destruction, one being secured in an 
almost perfect condition. This last was the smallest 
of them all, being no more than about six inches in 
diameter at the bulging central portion, whence it 
tapered upwards and^downwards. It may stand eight or 
nine inches high, and is furnished with a pair of well- 
proportioned, and not altogether inelegant handles. 
Two others are cylindrical in shape, are without 
handles, and are about a foot in width and altitude. 
To the same type as these two belongs another, 
which was broken to pieces as it was being extricated 
from the soil, all the fragments, however, having been 
carefully gathered and preserved. The whole of the 
vases present the appearance of cinerary urns, and this 
appearance is confirmed pretty decisively by their 



contents, which in every instance turned out to be 
charred bones and other animal remains. Whether 
these bones belonged to man or to his fourfooted 
friends, has not yet been scientifically ascertained. 
No portion of these ceramic remains bears a trace 
of the potter's wheel, and the whole have been 
sun-dried, not fired in a kiln. Among the detached 
potsherds are found portions of a chain-shaped orna- 
ment, which seems to have traversed the bulging 
body of an urn. Similar pottery is said to have been 
found at Hampton Court or its neighbourhood. Mr. 
Tatham deems it not unlikely that his new finds may 
date from a very early age, possibly before the 
Roman occupation of Britain. Urns of unbaked 
clay of a like type, he remarks, have been discovered 
in the barrows on Salisbury Plain, near Stonehenge ; 
but it must not be forgotten, he adds, that in their 
immediate neighbourhood were found beads of glass 
and amber, heads of spears, swords, and bronze 
articles, and in some of the barrows the burnt bones 
of dogs, fowls, horses, and other animals. But no 
metal, no glass or amber, not even a single flint im- 
plement has been discovered in association with the 
Hampton Wick urns, whence Mr. Tatham infers 
that these urns must be referred to a remoter period 
than that to which belong those found in the barrows 
on Salisbury Plain. We learn, says the Times, that 
the whole of this new and interesting ceramic find 
will shortly be submitted to the judgment of the 
authorities at the British Museum. 

The repair, alteration, and enlargement of the 
church of St. Andrew, Auckland, is progressing, and 
the Neivcastle Courant gives particulars of some 
interesting relics of the earlier edifice, that must have 
stood upon the same site, which have been brought 
to light. This remark applies particularly to a num- 
ber of stones which once formed portioas of the 
arches of doorways of Norman date. There are six 
or seven, exhibiting the quaint beaked moulding, 
having sculptured on two adjoining faces two singular 
heads, with noses like the beaks of birds which meet, 
or nearly so, at the angle which formed the edge of 
the [arch. The remains of a round-headed window 
have come to light in the chancel, on the north 
side, next to the chancel arch. The mouldings of 
this window are the same as those of the fine lancets 
still remaining in the chancel, but the breadth of the 
window is greater, the apex of the arch lower, 
and the arch decidedly semi-circular, not pointed. 
It is situated in a wall built of very fine large 
stones, much finer and larger than those employed 
in the inside work of the nave. Opposite to it, in 
the south wall of the chancel, next the chancel arch 
on that side, are the remains of a door, the lintel of 
which seems to have been interfered with by the 
lancet window above it, and which looks, therefore, 
like a doorway of earlier date than the lancet. 
At some [subsequent period this doorway was 
blocked, and a small window, like those generally 
called "lepers' windows," was inserted in the block- 
ing. Besides the beak-moulded arch stones, many 
small grave covers, both of males and females, as 
signified by the sculptured sword in the one case and 
shears in the other, were found in the walls of the 
south transept and elsewhere, and several fragments 



l82 



ANTIQ UARIAN NE WS. 



of larger grave covers with floriated crosses sculp- 
tured upon them. There was also found a very 
curious grave cover, evidently belonging to the last 
resting place of a priest, small, whence it may per- 
haps be gathered that the size of the grave cover was 
not in all cases regulated by the age of the deceased. 
Upon it are sculptured the Sacramental Wafer, and a 
right hand elevated, as in the act of blessing, with the 
thumb, forefinger, and middle finger extended, but 
the fourth finger and little finger bent down. But 
perhaps the most interesting finds at St. Andrew, 
Auckland, remain to be mentioned. These are the 
fragments of a Saxon cross, of most elaborate and 
beautiful workmanship, which have been taken from 
the tower, in the walls of which they have been 
buried for centuries. There are seven fragments in 
all, though they may not all belong to one cross. The 
base of the cross was three feet three inches in height. 
It tapers rapidly upwards, and was hollowed out at 
the top to receive the shaft. It was broken apparently 
into eight pieces, three of which had been recovered. 
The three pieces give three-fourths of one of the 
broadsides, which bore sculptured upon it three robed 
figures, with flowing hair encircled within nimbi. The 
sides of these blocks furnish other two figures, lead- 
ing to the conclusion that originally there were ten 
sculptured around the base of the cross. A consider- 
able length of the shaft of the cross has also been re- 
covered. Upon one side of it, at the lower part of 
the shaft, are likewise two figures. Above them, and 
on each side, and on the back are waving branches 
and birds devouring fruit. The word PAX is in- 
scribed upon the side which is without human figures. 
Two of the other fragments appear to have also 
formed portions of the shaft, but they are but small, 
and it is difficult to assign them their proper place. 
The seventh fragment is a portion,of the extremity of one 
of the horizontal arms of this, or of some other'cross. 
The more important of these fragments were taken 
from the tower one from the outside wall, near the 
ground on the north side, where the tower returns ; 
two from the wall, inside the church, above the tower 
arch, looking towards the nave ; two from within the 
belfry. Some of them show, by their change of 
colour, that they have been exposed to great heat. 
From the circumstances of fragments of Saxon work 
being found in the tower, and the fragments of 
Norman work in the transepts, the opinion arrived at 
on other grounds that the tower was probably the first 
portion of the building executed at the re-erection, 
derives further confirmation. Among the fragments 
are a corbel displaying a bold, well executed, though 
somewhat grotesque, head ; and a stone representing 
a body swathed in grave clothes, and which is pro- 
bably of Saxon date. There is also a most interesting 
grave cover of Saxon workmanship, representing the 
cross planted on the hill of Calvary, decorated within 
and without, with a profusion of cable sculpture, and 
surmounted with numerous pellets. This was found 
in the excavation made for the heating apparatus, at 
the depth of about eight feet from the present surface 
of the ground, serving as the cover of a rude stone 
cist. 



Correspottoence, 



ROMAN VILLA AT BRADING. 

Will you kindly insert in your next issue of The 
Antiquary the accompanying copy of a letter which 
my esteemed friend Mr. C. Roach Smith wrote tome 
containing a few words upon the Roman villa at ' 
Morton, Isle of Wight, under the belief that, as one 
of the Committee of Management, and as the dis- 
coverer of the villa, I should have been present at the 
meeting of the London and Middlesex Archaeological 
Society, at Morton, on the nth of last month, when 
I should have had the pleasure of reading Mr. C. 
Roach Smith's letter before the members? But, unfor- 
tunately, I was not present at the meeting, and the 
letter therefore was not read. 

John Thorp. 

St. Wilfried's, Brading, Isle of Wight. 

My Dear Captain Thorp, Although I cannot 
conveniently be with you, I should like to make a few 
remarks on the Morton Villa, in addition to what I 
have printed in the Collectanea Antiqua, in case you 
may have an opportunity to read them to the meeting, 
and may care to do so. 

I find that some persons consider that the villa bears 
a military character. I do not share in that view ; for 
these among other reasons : No feature whatever bears 
any resemblance to military constructions. But pro- 
bably it was only intended to mean that the villa was 
the residence of military officers. This, I conceive, 
supposes a military establishment somewhere near. 
Of such there is no vestige in any part of the island. 

After the conquests of Vespasian under Claudius, 
the south of Britain seems to have quietly submitted 
to the Roman rule; and thus we have no instance in 
any remains extant of a permanent garrison. There 
are castra (vestiges) at Bittern, on the Itchen, and at 
Porchester; but they are probably of comparatively 
late date ; and from their peculiar situations are more 
significant of defence against foreign invasion than 
against internal risings or rebellion. All the castra 
to the eastward, from Pevensey to Reculver, and to 
Brancaster, on the Norfolk coast, are of late date. 
Their origin is well-known. They were built to pro- 
tect the province from invasion by the Saxons. 

The entire absence of fixed military establishments, 
or walled castra, in the south of Britain, is conclusive 
evidence of the pacific state of that part of the pro- 
vince. The important inscription discovered at 
Chichester, and preserved at Goodwood, affords testi- 
mony of this in showing that a British chief, or Rex, as 
he is termed, held the high office of a Roman Legate. 

In comparing the extensive villas at Bignor, Abbot's 
Ann, Apethorpe, and others with that of Morton, it 
is obvious that the last named is inferior in extent as 
yet laid open ; and compared with Bignor,* Bram- 
dean, Thruxton, &c, itsembellishmentsare artistically 
inferior. That in no way lessens its interest. It must . 

* Bignor should never be named without mention 
of Mr. Tupper's liberality in keeping it up at his 
own cost and risk. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



183 



still have been an important building; and we naturally 
speculate on its history and object. 

The great incentive to the conquest and retention 
of Britain, at enormous cost in men and money, was 
its wealth in mines, corn, cattle, sheep, and other pro- 
ducts, the mines especially. The entire province 
became tributary. The securing of the tributes neces- 
sitated, as a matter of course, imperial depositories ; 
and these, 1 submit, are represented by the remains of 
the extensive building such as those referred to, Morton 
included ; many of them covering acres of ground ; 
and revealing not only spacious dwelling apartments, 
but all the accessories needed for storing agricultural 
products ; granaries, stables, barns, sheds, and the 
various appendages such as are common to large farms. 

In the long apartments of the Morton villa, with 
the well at one end and the dwelling room at the 
other, I recognize these indispensable adjuncts, and 
the bailiffs or steward's room. 

A few words on the pictorial floorings. Most of 
the subjects are common, and all are artistically in- 
ferior to many in this country, far inferior to many in 
France, Germany, and Italy. Seldom have they 
reference to the locality or to the owner ; but were 
selected in accordance with the taste, the skill, or the 
means of the artist or tessdlarius. From the mixed 
and incongruous characters of the subjects the artists 
seem to have been allowed to exercise their own judg- 
ment and fancy very freely. Occasionally they inserted 
inscriptions relating to the subjects or to the place. In 
a villa at Lillebourne, of a superior order, the artist 
has recorded his own name, birth, and parentage. 

One of the compositions of the Morton pavements is 
of a very unusual kind, and rather obscure in its mean- 
ing. It must of course be accepted as a caricature ; 
but a caricature of what ? I think of the dog-headed 
god Anubis. The Egyptian myths had been received 
at Rome at a comparatively early date ; and they 
soon penetrated Gaul and Britain. Coins of Postumus 
show that he selected* Serapis as his companion or 
comes. A unique coin of the younger Tetricus in my 
possessionf has the figure of Anubis in a temple. An 
inscription records a temple of Serapis at York ; while 
throughout France are preserved dedications to this 
deity and also to I sis. The ^ware-religious character 
of the composition, I think, is implied by the small 
temple, or sacellum, above the figure. If the figure be 
a caricature, as I suggest, I cannot conceive what else 
it can possibly be a caricature of. You are aware of 
the important part Anubis played in the mythology . 
of the Emperor Julian. 

Hoping the excavations will soon be resumed, and 
wishing you and your colleagues continued success, 
believe me, dear Captain Thorp, Yours sincerely, 
C. Roach Smith. 

THE "KENTISH GARLAND." 

(iv. 58,134-) 
It seems to be a pity that Mr. William Rogers did 
not look at the Kentish Garland, which he implies to 

* One is included in the Morton collection, 
t Serapidi Comiti Avg. Figure of Serapis. See 
Collectanea Antiqua, vol. v. 



be inaccurate. Nobody wrote concerning any "All 
Saints' Church, Ashford." In the Kentish Garland, 
so favourably reviewed in your pages, 58-62, these are 
the words, which you will permit me to quote, as 
proving how utterly unnecessary was Mr. William 
Roger's note: "Ashford was always considered a 
perfect hotbed of Nonconformity, and the energy of 
its professors greatly troubled the busy spirit of 
Archbishop Laud. If we may trust our satire (On 
the Grey-Friars of Ashford, by Henry Tubbe) they 
seem to have been equally powerful in numbers and 
noise, though in notoriety fhey were outdone by 
Maidstone, which produced two such ' lights ' as 
Andrew Broughton, the regicide mayor (whom Thomas 
Wilson, the Vicar of All Saints', publicly rebuked 
from the pulpit for his share in the King's death, and, 
when he rose from his seat to leave the church, cried 
after him that 'he ran away because he was hard 
hit ') and Thomas Trapham," &c. (Kentish Garland, 
1881, vol. i. p., 70). Nor can it be pretended that 
the error was in the review of Miss de Vaynes's 
work, for on p. 59, the sentence concerning " Thomas 
Wilson, the Vicar of All Saints'," and his rebuke of 
Andrew Broughton, the regicide mayor, is absolutely 
distinct from the one which had previously been de- 
voted to Ashford, "as the hotbed of Nonconfor- 
mity (which it was, and is) ; but even there the other 
side dared to speak out ;" which is all true. Unfor- 
tunately, the word "Maidstone" was omitted, 
apparently by mistake, after All Saints'. 

Let me add that I am long behind time in furnish- 
ing some of my own promised contributions ; but 
this delay has been caused by other pressing duties, 
and by no indifference to the success of THE 
Antiquary, which is already a valued friend. 

J. WOODFALL EBSWORTII. 

Molash Vicarage, by Ashford, Kent. 

MR. ALBERT WAY. 

Mr. Parker, in his communication to The Anti- 
quary two months since, did not overstate the great 
services rendered by the late Mr. Way to our national 
archaeology. From his remarks I was led to inquire 
in what shape the Institute, so especially served and 
helped by him, intended to show its gratitude. 

As no reply has been given, I venture to suggest 
one mode of doing honour to his memory, which may 
commend itself, not only to thejlnstitute, but to others. 
Before the division took place, Mr. W. J. Taylor 
commemorated the Canterbury Congress by striking 
a medal in silver and in copper. Mr. Taylor did this 
entirely at his own risk, from warm feeling and 
sympathy. He is, I am happy to say, yet living, in 
health. Of his unquestioned eminent skill in medal 
engraving there are many proofs. To him, I suggest, 
should be entrusted the engraving and striking a 
medal of Mr. Way, with his profile on the obverse, 
and some appropriate design, with an inscription to 
be chosen by the Institute, on the reverse. 

I will not, and I need not, say more, beyond sug- 
gesting that, if my notion be adopted, the medal be 
struck by subscription. 

C. Roach Smith. 

Temple Place, Strood. 



184 



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SOME EARLY BREACH OF PROMISE CASES. 



185 




The Antiquary. 



NOVEMBER, 1881. 



Some lEarty Breacb of 
promise Cases. 

By S. R. Bird, F.S.A. 




HERE are, amongst the Early Chan- 
cery Proceedings formerly in the 
Tower of London, a considerable 
number of Bills of Complaint 
grounded on ' an alleged breach of promise, 
or rather breach of contract of marriage, some 
of which date back as far as the middle of 
the fifteenth century. At that period, and 
indeed till the passing of the Marriage Act of 
26 Geo. II., the solemnization of matrimony, 
according to the laws of holy church, appears 
to have been altogether subsidiary to the 
civil contract or espousals, which often pre- 
ceded the actual marriage by a considerable 
period. A pre-contract of this kind was, 
till the 32nd year of Henry VIII., and 
again after 2 and 3 Edw. VI., considered 
an impediment to marriage with any other 
person ; and, until the statute of 26 Geo. II., 
above referred to, a suit might be brought 
in the Ecclesiastical Courts to compel a 
marriage in consequence of such contract. 

If a formal betrothal of this kind, to be 
duly committed to writing and attested, were 
at the present time declared to be the only 
legal basis on which an action for breach 
of promise could rest, a great saving of 
time to the judicial bench would ensue, 
and the public would be spared the recital of 
much of the amorous nonsense with which 
more or less facetious counsel endeavour to 
influence a sympathetic jury in assessing the 
amount of damage, from a pecuniary point of 
view, done to the outraged feelings of many 
a too seductive or too enterprising damsel. 
The law reports would, however, then be 
deprived of one of their most amusing fea- 

VOL. IV. 



tures, and one on which the ordinary news- 
paper reader seizes with avidity. 

That the courts of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries were not altogether without their 
sensational trials of a somewhat similar kind, 
appears from the curious records now 
under review. I have before me copies of 
four documents, all apparently bearing date 
between the years 1452 and 15 15, which are 
peculiarly interesting as illustrative of the 
social life of that period. They show, in fact, 
that then, as now, amongst a certain class of 
persons, marriage was regarded principally in 
the light of a commercial speculation, the 
bargains made in some of the cases being spe- 
cified with a minuteness of detail as amusing 
as it is unromantic. The first of these is a 
complaint preferred to the Cardinal Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, Chancellor of England, 
between the years 1452 and 1454, by Mar- 
garet Gardyner and Alice Gardyner (pre- 
sumably her daughter), against one "John 
Keche of Yppeswych," who, in spite of his 
unpleasantly suggestive name (in these days, 
at least), appears to have been in consider- 
able demand amongst the fair sex, as, 
according to their own statement, the said 
Margaret and Alice agreed to pay him the 
sum of twenty-two marks on condition of 
his taking the said Alice to wife; but the 
faithless " Keche," after receiving ten marks 
from the said Margaret and twelve marks 
from the said Alice, " meyning but craft and 
disceyt," went and took to wife one Joan, the 
daughter of Thomas Bloys, to whom he had 
been previously assured, " to the gret disceyt 
of the said suppliants and ageyne all good 
reason and conscience ;" and although at 
divers times required by the said suppliants 
to refund the twenty-two marks, he persis- 
tently refuses so to do; whereupon they 
pray for a writ directing him to appear 
before the king in his Chancery to answer to 
the premises, which is granted to them 
accordingly. 

The plaintiffs in this suit appear to have 
regarded the matter purely from a business 
point of view, for they seek only to recover 
the money fraudulently obtained from them 
by the defaulting " Keche," without making 
any claim for compensation to the lady whose 
affections had been so cruelly and wantonly 
disappointed. 



1 86 



SOME EARLY BREACH OF PROMISE CASES. 



In the next instance before us it is the 
gentleman who is the victim of a too implicit 
confidence. 

In this case the complainant, John Anger, 
states that he, " of the grett confidence and 
trust that he bare to one Anne Kent, syngle- 
woman, entendyng by the mediacion of her 
friends to have married the said Anne," and 
upon a full communication and agreement 
between himself and the friends of the said 
Anne that a marriage should take place 
between them, " sufferid the same Anne 
to come and goo resort and abide in his house ." 
after remaining in which for the space of a 
month and more, she departed therefrom 
without the knowledge of the plaintiff, taking 
with her " dyvers evydences mynyments and 
chartres concernyng the seid house and also 
dyvers juells of the value of iiij//.," of which, 
" although oftyntymes requyred" by the 
plaintiff, she refuses to make restitution; 
wherefore he prays a writ commanding her to 
appear on a certain day before the king in his 
Chancery, &c. Here the parties to the 
suit appear to have discounted the actual 
marriage by setting up an experimental 
household immediately after the conclusion 
of the marriage contract. Apparently, some 
" incompatibility of temper," or perhaps the 
innate fickleness of the " said Anne," induced 
her to bring the experiment to an abrupt 
conclusion; in carrying her resolution into 
effect, however, she committed the mistake 
of endeavouring to indemnify herself for the 
error into which she had fallen, or perhaps to 
vent her displeasure on her quasi-husband, 
by carrying off with her all the valuables she 
could lay her hands on. This the quasi-hus- 
band appears to have strongly objected to, 
although he does not make any sentimental 
grievance of her desertion, and, so long as he 
recovered his property, was evidently pre- 
pared to consider himself well rid of his 
bargain. 

The complaint of " Maister Walter Lein- 
ster, Doctour of Phisik," which follows, dis- 
closes a very curious story, and affords a 
striking example of pertinacity in following 
up an absconding suitor. The primary 
motive, however, in this, as in the preceding 
instances, seems to have been merely the 
recovery of monies actually expended, 
although the lady's distress of mind and the 



consequent injury to her health form a 
moderate item in the schedule of expenses 
incurred by the unlucky doctor. 

In his bill of complaint, addressed to 
" The right reverend fader in God the Arche- 
busshop of York and Chaunceller of Eng- 
land," the worthy Doctor alleges that " one 
Maister Richard Narborough, Doctor of Law 
Sivill, in the moneth of May in the ix. yere of 
the reigne of the Kyng oure soveraigne Lord 
(Edward IV.), att Cambrigge in the countie 
of Cambrigge, in the presens of your said 
oratour," affianced one Lucy Brampston, the 
daughter-in-lawe of the said plaintiff, to have 
her to wife, and the said Lucy affianced the 
said Richard to have him to her husband: 
immediately after which affiance, the said 
Richard informed the plaintiff and the said 
Lucy that he would "depart over the see 
unto Padowe, there to applie his stodye for 
the space of ij. yeres," at the end of which 
time he promised to return to England and 
to " espouse the said Lucy according to the 
law of Holy Chirche," at the same time 
especially desiring the plaintiff to maintain 
the said Lucy and a maidservant to attend 
upon her, providing them with meat, drink, 
clothing, and all things necessary, until his 
return from beyond the sea, when he pro- 
mised faithfully to repay to the plaintiff all 
the costs and charges which he had incurred 
in that behalf; to which the plaintiff agreed, 
"giffyng full trust and confidence to the 
promises of the said Maister Richard." The 
latter, however, departed to " Padowe," and 
there and in other places absented himself 
from England for the space of ten years, " to 
the full grete hurt and hevynes" both of the 
plaintiff and of the said Lucy, who, together 
with her maid, was provided by the plaintift 
during the whole of that time with meat, 
drink, clothing, and all other necessaries. 
After the expiration of the ten years the said 
" Maister Richard" returned to England, and 
being required by the plaintiff to fulfil the 
contract of marriage between himself and the 
said Lucy, and also to reimburse him for the 
maintenance of her and of her maid during 
his protracted absence, with other " grevous 
hurtez, costez, and charges," incurred by him, 
utterly refused to do either, "which is not only 
to the greate hurte and hevynes of your said 
besecher, but also to the greate per ell and 



SOME EARLY BREACH OF PROMISE CASES. 



187 



iopardy of soule of the same Maister Richard ;" 
and which sums of money, with other "rea- 
sonable considerations" which ought to be 
paid to the said plaintiff, are set out in a 
schedule annexed to the plaintiffs bill. And 
the said Richard having of his own free 
will bound himself "by his obligacion of 
the Statute of the Stapull" in the sum of 
^200 to appear before the king in his 
Chancery on the Holy Trinity next 
coming, " which shalbe in the yere of oure 
soveraigne Lord Kyng Edward the iiij th the 
xxj," and so from day to day to answer all 
such matters as shall be alleged against him, 
the plaintiff being fully prepared on such 
appearance to prove the truth of all the 
foregoing statements, prays that it may be 
considered, adjudged and decreed " that the 
seid Maister Richard Narborough pay and 
content to your seid oratour all such summez 
of money as is by your seid oratour for rea- 
sonable causes asked, and in the seid Cedule 
playnly declared." The Schedule referred 
to, the items in which are very quaintly ex- 
pressed, is as follows : 

Imprimis : For bedde and boorde for 
Lucy and hir mayde by the space of 
x. yere by his agrement and special . 
desire, paying by y 6 week iijj. iiij</. for 
them twayne cxxx marks 

Item : For hir arayment yerely delivered 
to hir, to buy gownys, kirlells, smokkis, 
&c xx. It. 

Item : For arayment of hir servande 
yerely delivered xiijj. ii\)d. . . . . x. marks 

Item: For necessary expences made uppon 
hir in tyme of hir sore and gret sekenes 
causid thrugh his onkyndnes and 
chaungeablenes, ful hard to escape with 
lyiffe, as al the cuntrey knowith wet ; *J 
and as yet apperith on hir, for evir sith 
she hath ben sekele thrugh sorowe and 
pensyffenes whiche she toke for his new- 
fangles xiij. //'. xiijj. \\\)d. 

Item : For diverse expencis made ovir see 
to seke hym, at Loven, at Bruges, at 
Gaunt, and at Paddua, sumtyme byy* 
Archedecan of Northfolke, and by 
Maystir Edmunde Wryght, Doctor of 
Lawe, and diverse other marchaundes 
at many tymes, to my gret troble and 
charge as it apperith more at large by 
billys thereof made xij /;. xv]s. 

Item : For my costis at many diverse 
tymes in comyng from Cambrige to 
London and ther abiding and sekyng 
hym to speke with hym for the same 
causis, sumtyme a monythe and sum- 
tyme more & sumtyme leesse, during ye 



time and space of x. yere, to my gret 
hurt, losse, and trowble xl. it. 

Item : For necessary costis & chargis 
doon and made at this last tyme in 
the Mayor of London his Coort, and 
the Shireffs', &c. ; and in condytyng 
ye seyd Lucy from Cambrige to 
London at his special desir to speke 
with hym; ther abidyng and tarying 
for remedy of hir gret wrong the space 
of iij wekys xlviijx. xd. 

Item : For myn interest and grevous 
trowble in al the tyme and space of y* 
said x yere, whiche God knowyih yef y 
myght a chosen y wolde not a suffrid 
for the wynning of ccc li. and more, y 
remit to your noble wisdome, &c. 

In the foregoing proceedings, it is worthy 
of remark that the plaintiff, having affianced 
his daughter-in-law to an eligible suitor, con- 
siders himself thereby relieved from the duty 
of maintaining her to the same extent as if 
she were already the wife of the defaulting law- 
student, which in effect she was. It is to be 
regretted that the decision of the Lord 
Chancellor in this interesting case is not, as 
was at that period frequently the case, en- 
dorsed on]the bill of complaint. The facts, 
however, so far as they are put before us, 
appear to have been clearly against the ab- 
sconding lover. 

Unjustifiable, however, as the defendant's 
conduct seems to have been, the claim for 
damages to the unfortunate Lucy represents 
only the sum actually expended on her in 
consequence of "hir sore and gret sekenes" 
caused by his " onkyndnes and chaungeable- 
nes," and makes no pretence to compensa- 
tion for her shattered hopes and wounded 
feelings, which in a modern suit of this kind 
would have been assessed at no inconsider- 
able figure. 

In the fourth of these curious actions, the 
date of which appears to have been between 
the years 1504 and 15 15, the gentleman is 
again the plaintiff, and seems, according to 
his own statement, like the defaulting swain 
first referred to, to have been considerably 
sought after ; both the lady's father and her 
uncle having used " gret instaunce and 
labor" to induce him to take her to his 
affections, although they seem, for some un- 
explained reason, to have afterwards changed 
their minds ; not, however, before the plain- 
tiff had bestowed on the chosen lady many 
tokens of affection which, matter-of-fact man 

o 2 



i88 



SOME EARLY BREACH OF PROMISE CASES. 



that he is, he now seeks to recover, together 
with his expenses in going to visit her. 

The plaintiff in this case, one John James, 
who appears, curiously enough, to have also 
been a "law-student," alleges that one 
Thomas Morgan, of Northampton, scribe 
there to the commissary of the Bishop of 
Lincoln, and Robert Morgan, his brother, 
" instantly labored your said besecher to take 
to wyfe one Elizabeth Morgan, daughter to 
the said Robert Morgan, with whom your 
said besecher suld have in hand by ther 
bromes ioo marks in redy money" upon 
which " promes, gret instaunce and labor" 
made to him by the defendants, the plaintiff 
" resorted to the said Elizabeth to his gret 
costs and charges." And " thorow the de- 
saveabull comforde as well of the said Thomas 
and Robert Morgan, as of the said Elizabeth " 
delivered to her many tokens namely, " a 
ryng of gold with a dyamont ;" " a ryng of 
gold set with certen stones lyke to a dragone's 
hede :" "a ryng of gold called a serjeaunt's 
ryng f "a crosse of gold with a crucyfyx ;" 
" a ryall in gold f " a nobull in gold f " thre 
pomaunders f " a rebon of sylke f " a 
pyncase of cloth of gold f with other many 
small tokens to the value of ten marks and 
more; "and also was at gret costs and 
charges t/iorow his many/old journeys taken 
in that behalf" which he estimates at other 
ten marks. But now the said Thomas and 
Robert have, "by ther crafty and fake 
meane," caused the said Elizabeth to take 
to husband one John Maurice, since which 
time the plaintiff hath many times demanded 
his said tokens, with his costs and charges, as 
well of the said Robert and Thomas, as of 
the said Elizabeth, which " they and every of 
them at all times hath denayed and yit doth 
denay, contrary to right and good con- 
science," and therefore he prays a writ, &c. 

So far the plaintiff's story. We now, how- 
ever, hear quite a different version, for the 
defendant, Thomas Morgan, after pleading 
that the matter in dispute is determinable at 
common law, "by action of detynewe," 
and not in the court of Chancery at all, goes 
on to state that the plaintiff, on a certain 
" Low Sunday in the third yere of the reign e 
of our soveraigne Lord the Kyng that nowe 
is," in a private conversation between them, 
submitted for his consideration a certain 



"communication of matrimony" that had 
taken place between himself and one 
" Mastres Gray of Bedfordshire " whereupon 
he gave it as his opinion that the communi- 
cation between them " wold not wey to any 
contract of matrimony " and said that, "if he 
might be credebly enformed that the seyd 
John James cold clerely discharge hymself of 
the seyd Mastres Grey, and also were lykely 
to be lerned yn the lawe, and of good a fid sub- 
stancyall demeanour" then he would be 
willing to speak to his brother Robert on his 
behalf for his daughter Elizabeth. But the 
plaintiff afterwards stating to the said Thomas 
that he heard say that the lady in question 
was contracted to another man, the defendant 
declined to act any further in the matter, and 
denies utterly that he ever " labored the seyd 
John James to take to wyf the seyd Eliza- 
beth," or promised him a hundred marks 
with her, or endeavoured in any way to bring 
them together. 

Moreover, Elizabeth herself, and her hus- 
band, "John Mares," make answer to the 
plaintiff's bill, pleading that the suit is de- 
terminable at common law, and denying 
his allegations in toto. According to their 
version of the affair, the plaintiff, John James, 
was in the habit of resorting to the house of 
one "John Bele of Radwell, in the county of 
Hertford, gentylman," where the said Eliza- 
beth was then staying, and divers times 
"required her of marriage," whereunto she 
very properly answered, " that he shuld 
fyrst move her fadur in that matter, and then 
he shuld knowe further of her mynd." The 
said John afterwards informing her that he 
had spoken to her father, " desyryng his 
goodwyll in the seyd matter, wych he could 
yn no wyse opteyne," and asking her to 
devise a remedy, was told by her " to take 
no more trouble in the matter, for he would 
only lose his labour." She further states 
that " during the tyme he resorted to her," 
he sent her by John Bele the younger "a 
ryng lyke a dragon's hede," and by one 
Anne Earre, " a gold nobull," both of which 
she refused, but, at their earnest entreaty, 
agreed to keep them till the plaintiff came 
again to " Mr. Bele's." He also, during the 
same period, left with her, " ayenst her wyll,'' 
two other rings, a " crosse," a " riall weyng 
ix s." a " rebyn," a " pyncase," and " oon 



SOME EARLY BREACH OF PROMISE CASES. 



189 



pomaunder, a lytell ball of wax covered 
wyth pomaunders f which, he said, he freely 
gave her, " wether ever he might have her 
or not ; but she did not so accept them." 
she also states that, both before and after 
her marriage with the said John Mares, she 
offered to deliver to the plaintiff the afore- 
said riall, noble, and one of the said rings, 
and " cast theym ynto hys sieve," but he 
cast them out upon the ground. Since which 
time the said John Mares has been at all 
times ready to deliver the said riall, noble, 
ring, and pomaunder, and has them now in 
court for that purpose ; and the other tokens, 
with the exception of " the ryng set with a 
dyamond," and two of the three " pomaun- 
ders " which the said Elizabeth states that 
she never received, have been already 
delivered to the plaintiff by the aforesaid 
John Bele and his wife. And finally, the 
said Elizabeth denies that she gave the 
plaintiff any encouragement whatever to 
resort to her. This action, in fact, seems 
to have been prompted by the resentment 
of the rejected lover, and is chiefly remark- 
able for the business-like manner in which 
he calculates the costs and charges to v which 
he asserts himself to have been put in the 
prosecution of his ill-starred suit. 

From the documents above quoted, which 
are fair specimens of a tolerably numerous 
class, the action for breach of promise of 
marriage, as we understand it at the present 
day that is to say, an action seeking sub- 
stantial damages as the result of a favourable 
verdict, appears to have been almost unknown 
to our ancestors. The specific fulfilment of 
the contract formally entered into at the 
betrothal might, however, as has been stated, 
be compelled in certain cases by an appeal 
to the Ecclesiastical Courts. 

Since writing the above, my attention has 
been very kindly directed by the Rev. J. T. 
Fowler, F.S.A., to the report of a case con- 
cerning a pre-contract of marriage, which is 
printed in the Ads of the Chapter, &C of 
Ripon Cathedral, edited by himself for the 
Surtees Society (vol. lxiv. p. 159), and in 
which very interesting details are given by the 
witnesses as to the words and manner of the 
contract. 



$i6bop 1ball. 




JASCOIGNE'S Steel Glass may be 
called the first formal English 
satire. But, with all its merits as 
a first effort, it is but a crude per- 
formance. The first notable satires pub- 
lished, which may deserve to be ranked in 
the series to which the masterpieces of 
Dryden and of Fope belong, are those of 
Hall, afterwards Bishop of Exeter, and then 
of Norwich. 

The satirical spirit may be, and has been, 
variously embodied. In the Middle Ages it 
frequently used the form of a tale or a fable ; 
its most trenchant expression in the Elizabe- 
than period was the dramatic; as, for instance, 
in the plays of Ben Jonson, who is nothing 
if not satirical ; it has frequently taken a 
lyrical shape. No wonder if, in the age of 
the Renascence, under the example and 
influence of Juvenal and Persius, it assumed 
a form of its own, and there began to be a 
Jiterature, not only satirical in spirit, but 
satirical in form, according to the great 
Roman models. 

Satire is the expression of scorn and dis- 
gust and hate, rather than of admiration and 
praise and love. Therefore, it is an evil 
thing for an age when its literature is mainly 
satirical. Only in ages debased and fallen, 
as in that of the Restoration, can it be so. 
Happily, in the Elizabethan, nobler senti- 
ments could prevail, and prevailed; the 
time was not out of joint ; at all events, if 
there was then, as at all times, some cause 
for discontent and indignation, there was yet 
more for satisfaction and pride ; and the 
greatest geniuses did not surrender them- 
selves to merely satirical impulses ; they 
were minded to bless rather than to curse. 
In several of Shakespere's plays a satirical 
element is perceptible is obvious ; but it 
never becomes supreme. When Jacques, in 
As You Like It, longs for the liberty of the 
satirist longs for leave 

To speak my mind, and I will through and through 
Cleanse the foul body of th' infected world, 
If they will patiently receive my medicine, 

the Duke administers to that witty pessimist 
a rebuke most worthy of the consideration of 



190 



BISHOP HALL. 



all persons who conceive they have a right to 
scourge their neighbours. 

Duke. Fie on thee ! I can tell what thou wouldst do. 

Jacques. What, for a counter, would I do, but good ? 

Duke. Most mischievous foul sin, in chiding sin ; 
For thou thyself hast been a libertine, 
As sensual as the brutish sting itself ; 
And all th' embossed sores, and headed evils, 
That thou with licence of free foot hast caught, 
Wouldst thou disgorge into the general world. 

It is surely interesting to note that the 
Duke's words were first uttered just about 
the time when satirical literature, in the 
technical sense, was beginning. Of about 
the same date as As You Like It not to 
mention that Ben Jonson's plays were just 
then coming out appeared the satires of 
Hall and of Marston. 

Hall's first three books of satire, " poeti- 
cal, academical, moral," " toothless satyrs," 
as he called them {satire and satyr were 
identified by Elizabethan scholarship), were 
published in 1597; and in the prologue he 
claims to be the first practiser of the art : 

I first adventure, with fol-hardy might, 
To tread the steps of perilous despite. 
I first adventure, follow me who list, 
And be the second English satirist. 

In the following year appeared three more 
books ; those called " biting satires." The 
general tide of the whole series was Virgi- 
demice, from Plautus' Virgidemia (a canage), 
a comical analogue of Vindemia (a vintage). 
In the same year (1598), appeared Marston's 
Scourge of Villany, and also his Metamorphosis 
of Pigmalions's Image and certaine Satyres. 
But when Hall, whom Marston so closely 
followed, satirizing the satirist, boasted of 
leading the way, some at least of Donne's 
satires had been written, though not pub- 
lished, for at least four years. Thus, both 
Donne and Hall conceived independently 
the satirical idea, Donne before Hall ; but 
to Hall belongs the honour of prior publi- 
cation. 

Hall writes with skill and with spirit. It 
can scarcely be said of him : Facit indignatio 
versum. He finds a pleasure in imitating, 
and in some sort reproducing, his Latin 
models ; and this is rather his inspiration 
than any moral fervour. And the chief value 
of his work is its vigorous picture of Elizabe- 
than ways and manners. Whatever the old 



comedy did for Athens in the way of illus- 
trating the old Athenian life, that satire 
did for Rome, and with inferior, but yet 
no mean force, Hall did for Elizabethan 
London. It is no contemptible service to 
have helped to keep alive for us an age so 
fascinating, so glorious, so momentous. 
Whoever would picture to himself the very 
town in the midst of which Shakespeare 
moved, its lights and shadows, its whims 
and phantasies and follies " a mad world, 
my masters" see " the very age and body of 
the time, his form and presence," and learn 
what were its daily thoughts, interests, cares, 
credulities, passions will find truly valuable 
aid in Hall's satires. 

John W. Hales. 




Zhe basilica of Wola. 

By Lady Margaret Domvile. 

NE of the earliest Christian churches, 
of the plan and decoration of 
which we have any precise account, 
is that built at Nola, about the 
year 400, by Paulinus, a wealthy Roman 
patrician. Nola, said to have been founded 
by a colony of Greeks, was a town of some 
repute in Roman annals. Under its strongly 
fortified walls the victorious career of Hanni- 
bal was checked by the Consul Marcellus. 
The birth-place of Augustus; it was there 
that the curtain fell on the long drama in 
which the dying emperor claimed, not un- 
duly, the merit of having played his part 
well. But at the latter end of the fourth 
century Nola's title of honour was as the 
place of death and burial, not of Augustus, 
but of Felix, a Christian martyr and bishop, 
over whose tomb a small church had been 
erected in very early times. This church, 
however, no longer sufficed for the rapidly 
increasing Christian community, and Paulinus, 
who, having renounced all personal use of 
his great possessions, had ample means at 
his disposal, undertook to build another. 

If, as we believe, it may truly be said, 
that Christianity has transformed art, the 
change has been wrought not by any sudden 
or violent change in its external conditions, 
but by permeating it with new ideas, by 



THE BASILICA 01 NOLA. 



191 



breathing into it a life more spiritual. When 
the Christian church first emerged from the 
catacombs, architecture, painting, sculpture, 
poetry, eloquence were flourishing some of 
them in a degree of perfection which has never 
since been surpassed. Nor did Christianity 
strive to destroy them. If a portion had to 
be cast out as unholy, much more was gradually 
and in process of time pressed into the service 
of religion ; that which is the essence of art, its 
materials, its methods, its immutable laws, 
was left untouched. Thus it was that the 
first thought of the builders of Christian 
churches was, not to found a new style of 
architecture, but to select, from the materials 
around them, what best fitted their purpose. 
The pagan temples, however exquisitely and 
temptingly beautiful, were even in outward 
structure, ill-adapted for Christian worship. 
The gods of the heathen, made in the image 
of man, dwelt in houses just large enough for 
the priest to enter alone for sacrificial pur- 
poses ; while in the Christian mysteries the 
whole people took part. Besides, though 
we, viewing them from a quickly vanishing 
distance, see in the fair forms of ancient 
religious art the utterances of natural piety ; 
in the ceremonies of the heathen, and the 
care and taste they lavished on them, an 
expression, however perverted, of the striving 
of the human soul to do homage to the 
Supreme Being, it was not so with those who 
had but "just saved their souls alive" from 
the awful captivity of paganism. In their 
eyes there could be nothing in common 
between Christ and Jupiter. On the other 
hand, the noblest features of Roman civiliza- 
tion were love of justice and respect for 
law; these were the foundations on which 
the greatness of Rome had been built, and 
even in her decadence something of them 
survived. The awfulness which had long 
deserted the senate and the forum, hovered 
over those judgment-seats where the majesty 
of Roman law was yet vindicated. So that 
the very names of temple and fane were 
rejected as heathenish and profane, and the 
basilica at once seized upon as the usual 
(though not universal) type of the great 
religious edifices now required by Christian 
congregations. 

Therefore, when St. Paulinus of Nola (for, 
though by birth a Gaul, it is by this name he 



is most generally known) set about building a 
church, he had no need to originate a plan. 
His recollections of what he had seen in 
Rome and in Milan sufficed. The building 
of the church of Nola occupied three years, at 
least ; and in the letters written by Paulinus 
during that period to his friend Septimus 
Severus, the general design and decoration 
are minutely described. Other details have 
been gleaned from his poems and miscel- 
laneous writings. 

The plan was that or a basilica with an 
apse, or, as it was then more frequently 
termed, a bema; two rows of columns 
divided the main portion into a centre and 
two side aisles. Into the outer walls of the 
aisles were built little chapels or cellae, 
destined for special purposes ; some probably 
for private prayer, others as places of burial 
for the dead, who, according to the custom 
of the time, lay in the House of God, await- 
ing the resurrection. The altar was at the 
junction of apse and nave. The outer facade 
had three doors, and the building was turned, 
not as was usually the case, eastwards, but to 
the tomb of St. Felix. A ruined church, 
which filled up the space between the basilicas, 
was pulled down, and openings made in the 
wall of the older one, corresponding to the 
three doors of the newer, so that a full view 
could be had from the one church into the 
other. They were connected by a vestibule, 
in the centre of which a fountain threw up its 
crystal waters, while the walls were covered 
with inscriptioi s in mosaic. A distich over 
the entrance gave the salutation of peace to 
all who entered the sanctuary with pure 
hearts. On each of the side doors of the 
basilica of Paulinus was painted a cross, 
wreathed with flowers, on which doves 
nestled ; over one an inscription, which was 
as follows : 

See, in the atrium of Christ, this crowned cross ; 
it is the symbol of the rewards which await our 
labours: take up the cross, all ye who would bear 
away the crown. 

Underneath was written : 

Ey the virtue of thy cross make us die to the world, 
and the world be dead to us. May death to sin give 
our souls life ; of us too, O Christ, thou wilt make thy 
beloved doves, if peace dwell in our purified souls. 

The inscription over the centre door ran 

thus : 



192 



THE BASILICA OF NOLA. 



As Christ our peace has filled up the gulf which 
divided the two nations, and breaking down with his 
cross the wall which separated them, of the two has 
made onf ; so see we here, after the destruction of the 
older building (it will be remembered that a former 
church had been removed) : the two basilicas are 
joined and united. Here, too, a. fountain lends its 
waters to those who would wash their hands before 
they enter. In the double sanctuary of Felix the 
people adore Christ. Paul, the bishop, rules them 
by his word. 

The great door of the new basilica was 
also surmonnted by an inscription telling 
that it was consecrated by Paul the Bishop 
to the blessed celebrations; it is characteristic 
of Paulinus that each time the foundation of 
the basilica was alluded to, the name written 
on the marble was not his own. 

Over the arches which formed the outer 
court of the basilica, Paulinus had built 
rooms for the use of pilgrims. Beyond, to 
the right, was a larger atrium, which he 
called the area interior ; it was surrounded 
on the four sides by pillars, and open to the 
sky. In the centre rose a beautiful fountain, 
and at the corners four smaller ones richly 
sculptured; to supply them, piscinae had 
been constructed outside. This outer court 
is frequently alluded to by Paulinus in his 
poems ; he delights in telling how the pil- 
grims, resting between their devotions, used 
to pace the cloisters, sheltered alike from the 
summer heats or the winter storms, then 
leaning against the ballustrades which linked 
the columns, watched the sparkling waters 
break forth with joyful and pleasant sound. 

The internal decorations of the basilica 
were no less carefully executed. The choir 
was formed by a triple apse {trichord), of 
which the central portion was considerably the 
largest Of the two side recesses, called by 
Paulinus secretaria, one served as a recep- 
tacle for the sacred vessels artd sacerdotal 
vestments ; in the other were deposited the 
liturgical books and Sacred Scriptures. It 
was likewise used as a place for private prayer 
and meditation. The sanctuary was paved 
and its walls incrusted with precious marbles. 
Above glowed a lustrous mosaic, which, by 
symbols familiar to the Early Church, re- 
called to the worshippers the principal mys- 
teries of the faith the Trinity, the Incarna- 
tion, the Atonement ; a hand issuing from a 
cloud symbolized the Eternal Father say- 
ing, " This is my beloved Son, in whom I 



Am well pleased." Beneath were the mystic 
Dove, and the Lamb of God bearing the 
cross on which ha was immolated. The 
cross was red, surmounted by a crown of 
light, signifying the royalty of Christ, who by 
the shedding of his blood had conquered the 
world. On each side of the cross were 
grouped doves, representing the twelve 
Apostles. The feet of the Lamb rested on 
a rock, from which issued