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THE 



ANTIQ.UARY: 



A MAGAZINE DEVOTED TO THE STUDY ^ 

OF THE PAST 



Instructed by the Antiqtiary times, 
He must, he is, he cannot but be wise. 

Troilus and Cressida, Act ii. sc. 3. 



VOL. VI. 

JULY DECEMBER. 



London: ELLIOT STOCK, 62, Paternoster Row. 

New York: J. W. BOUTON. 
1882. 



THESEnY CENTER 
U6RARY 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAOE 

Wayland Smith's Cave 30 

Abbey Church, Dorchester, Oxon 70 

Thorne Old Hall , . . , .117 

Figured Stone at Pluscardyn , 129 

Bronze Vessel Found at Pluscardyn . . . , 129 

Primitive Cheese Press 177 ( 

Ancient Rush Stand . . . , 178 

Ancient Hand Mill 272 

Ancient Quern 272 

Old Soke Mill, Bradford 273 



ST. SWITHIJSrS DAY. 




The Antiquary. 



JULY, 1S82. 




St Switbin'0 2)a^. 

By Henry B. Wheatley, F.S.A. 

lOPULAR delusions often appear 
to be endowed with a perpetual 
youth ; and this perhaps may be 
accounted for by the fact that they 
are seldom entirely false. Thus, the wide- 
spread faith in the meteorological influence 
of St. Swithin is not altogether without a 
certain foundation in truth. An industrious 
sceptic actually took the trouble to examine 
the Greenwich observations for twenty years, 
in order to prove the fallacy of this popular 
superstition, and he found that during that 
period there were six wet St. Swithins and 
fourteen dry ones. Moreover, he found that 
the average of rainy days was greater after 
the dry than after the wet fifteenths of July. 
Such a result might very naturally have been 
expected, for statistics and general assertions 
are not likely to run amicably together; 
nevertheless, the original spirit of the super- 
stition may have been correct in the main, 
although the letter was wrong in the particu- 
lar instances. The period fixed for the 
duration of the wet should have caused us to 
see that the prophecy was not intended to be 
taken literally, for the number forty has been 
generally used to imply the indefinite ; and 
we must, therefore, allow the same latitude 
as to the exact time as we do in the case of 
quarantine, a word in which the original idea 
of forty is now entirely lost. If we under- 
stand the prophecy to mean that when rain 
sets in in July it is likely to last for two or 
three weeks, we shall find that it is in the 
main correct. 

Those persons in all ages whose occupa- 
tions have taken them much in the open air 
have usually been observers of Nature, and 
the result of much of their observation has 

VOL. VI. 



come down to us in the form of proverbs. It 
seems highly probable that these observers, 
wishing to draw attention to a likely time of 
wet, should connect it with some saint's day, 
in order that the people might remember it 
the better. It is rather curious that several 
saints have had the character of patrons of 
rain attributed to them ; but St. Swithin has 
beaten the others out of the field, and his 
fame has survived to the present day. The 
Rev. Leonard Blomefield (late Jenyns), a 
veteran meteorologist, has given some atten- 
tion to these weather saints, and written a 
valuable and interesting Paper upon them, 
which is printed in the Proceedings of the 
Bath Natural History and Ajitiquarian Field 
Club. The days of these rainy saints are, 
with one exception, all in June and July, 
and Thomas Forster, the meteorologist, re- 
gards this as a proof that the superstition was 
"founded on the experience of those who 
had observed, that whatever weather set in 
soon after the summer solstice was of long 
continuance." Mr. Blomefield also points 
out that meteorological observations, extend- 
ing over a long period of time, indicate the 
percentage of wet to be very high both in 
July and August. The first in point of 
time of the ominous saints' days is that of 
St. Vitus, which falls on the 15th of June, 
but as he comes so early he is only allowed 
thirty days of wet. In the Sententics 
RythmiccB of Buchlerus the following lines 
occur : 

Lux sacrata Vito si sit pluviosa, sequentes 
Triginta facient omne madere solum. 

A few days after this, on the 24th, is St. 
John the Baptist's Day, rain on which is 
sure to be followed by forty days of wet, as 
an old Latin proverb informs us. The 2nd 
of July is the Festival of the Visitation of 
the Virgin Mary, the day of Saints Processus 
and Martinianus, and the festival of St. 
Swithin in the Roman Martyrology, and the 
same prophecy about forty days of wet has 
been applied to it. The 4th is the day 
of the translation of St. Martin, and rain 
then betokens either twenty or forty days of 
wet weather, the prophets disagreeing a little 
in the matter. In Scotland it used to be 
called St. Martin of Bullion's day, and there 
was a proverb that if the deer rose dry and 

B 



Sr. SWITHIN'S DAY. 



lay down dry on that day it was a sign of a 
good harvest, in accordance with the old 
couplet 

Bullion's day gif ye be fair, 

For forty days there'll be nac mair. 

In considering these different dates, we 
ought not to forget that they are not the 
same as when the superstitions first grew up. 
If we take into consideration the change 
made in our calendar in the year 1752, and 
add eleven days, which is the difference 
between the old and the new style, we shall 
find that St. Vitus's Day would fall on the 
26th of June, St. John the Baptist's on the 
5th of July, the Festival of the Virgin's 
Visitation on the 13th of July, St. Martin of 
Bullion's Day on [the 15th of July, and St. 
Swithin's on the 26th of July. 

Foreigners do not recognize our rainy 
saints, but have different ones of their own. 
In France, Saints Medard, Gervais, and 
Protais are looked upon as exerting con- 
siderable influence over the weather. St. 
Mddard's day falls on the 8th of July, and 
some old lines say 

S'il pleut le jour dc Saint Medard, 
II pleut quarante jours plus tard. 

The 19th of the same month is dedicated 
to Saints Gervais and Protais 

S'il pleut le jour de Saint Gervais et de Saint 

Protais 
II pleut quarante jours apres. 

Saint Mt^dard's Day is still watched with 
anxiety in the rural districts of France, and 
the old proverb quoted above has been 
amplified into the following lines : 

Du jour de St. Medard, qu'est in Juin, 

Le laboureur se donne soin. 

Car les vieux disent que s'il pleut, 

Quarante jours durer il peut ; 

Et s'il fait beau tu est certain 

D'avoir abondance en grain. 

Of the rainy saints' day in other countries 
we may mention St. Godelieve in Flanders, 
the Festival of the Seven Sleepers (July 27), 
and two others in Germany, St. Galla (Oc- 
tober 5) in Tuscany, and any day within 
the octave of the Feast of St. Bartholomew 
the Apostle (August 24), at Rome. This 
last is in contradiction to the English coup- 
let, which says that 

All the tears that Swithin can cry 

St. Bartlemy's dusty mantle wipes dry. 



The English notion as to St. Bartholomew 
arises from the fact that his day falls exactly 
forty days after St. Swithin, so that should the 
latter be wet, the former brings about a 
change of weather. 

Having dismissed the rivals who have in 
vain attempted to drive St. Swithin from his 
chief place as a prophetic meteorologist, we 
will now say a few words about the saint 
himself and his day. Most of us are fami- 
lair with the lines 

In this month is St. Swithm's day, 
On which if that it rain they say, 
Full forty days after it will. 
Or more or less some rain distil. 

These were amplified by Gay in his Trivia ^ 
who added to them a little moral lecture 

Now if on Swithin's feast the welkin lours, 
And every penthouse streams with hasty showers; 
Twice twenty days shalt clouds their fleeces drain, 
And wash the pavement with incessant rain. 
Let not such vulgar tales debase thy mind ; 
Nor Paul nor Swithin rule the clouds and wind. 

Gay here glances at the popular belief, to 
which we shall refer further on, that the 
weather on St. Paul's Day (January 25) was 
an omen of what the year would turn out. 
The most usual belief as to St. Swithin's 
Day is limited to the wet ; but some say that 
if the 15th of July is fine, the forty following 
days will also be fine, and this view is taken 
in the Northern proverb 

St. Swithin's day, gif ye^do rain, 
For forty daies it will remain ; 
St Swithin's day, an ye be fair, 
For forty daies 'twill rain nae mair. 

Ben Jonson mentions the belief in St. 
Swithin's in his play of Every Man out of his 
Humour ; but it does not appear to have 
been more literally true in the seventeenth 
than in the nineteenth century 

O, here's St. Swithin's, the fifteenth day ; variable 
weather, for the most part rain ; good ! for the most 
part rain. Wliy it should rain forty days after, 
now more or less it was a rule held afore I was able 
to hold a plough, and yet here are two days no rain, 
ha ! it makes me muse. Act i. sc. i. 

It is time now to ask who St. Swithin was, 
and why he should be connected with wet 
weather ; but the first part of the question 
is easier to answer than the last. 

St. Swithin, or more properly speaking 



ST. SWITHIirS DAY. 



St. Swidhun,* architect and statesman, was 
born in the neighbourhood of Winchester 
about the year 800. He was a monk of the 
old Abbey of Winchester, then prior of the 
brotherhood, and lastly, from a.d. 852 until 
his death in 862, Bishop of the See. Egbert, 
the king, chose him as preceptor to his son 
Ethehvolf, and he obtained a name respected 
for uprightness and humility. His last desire 
is said to have been that he might be buried 
outside his own cathedral, under the eaves, 
where his body would receive the droppings 
from the roof, and his grave be trodden by 
the feet of the passer-by. This is pretty 
well all that is actually known of this cele- 
brated saint ; but popular regard has not been 
content with such meagre materials, and fur- 
ther particulars have therefore been invented. 
Report affirmed that about one hundred 
years after his death an attempt was made to 
remove his body to the inside of the church, 
but that this endeavour was frustrated by a 
storm of rain which came on suddenly, and 
continued for forty days. In consequence, 
the scheme had to be given up, and instead 
of the saint's bones being moved, a chapel 
was built over his grave, where many miracles 
were performed. This, however, is all false, 
for instead of being a failure, the translation 
was a great success. The truth of the matter 
is as follows: Bishop Ethelwold, the re- 
builder of the cathedral, looked back upon 
the list of his predecessors in the See, and 
he found Bishop Swidhun to be the most 
worthy of honour there. Information reached 
him that that worthy had appeared to divers 
persons in a vision, and the facts were then 
taken down in writing, the result of which 
was that Swidhun was proclaimed a saint by 
acclamation. King Edgar was informed of 
the reports, and he gave directions for the 
formal translation of the remains from without 
the north side to within the east end of the 
church. On July 15, 971, after Swidhun 
had been one hundred and eight years in his 
humble grave, there was a vast gathering at 
Winchester to witness the translation, which 
took place with great eclat, and with the 
most propitious weather. A few years later, 

* This name is formed of the two words sTvif, strong, 
bold, and hun, the meaning of which is obscure, 
although it frequently occurs in names. 



on October 20, 980, Ethelwold's new cathe- 
dral was dedicated to St. Swidhun, and his 
merits formed the theme on that occasion. 
The old cathedral was dedicated to St. Peter 
and St. Paul, and the new fabric was known 
as St. Swidhun's until Henry VIII. ordered 
the name of the Holy Trinity to be substi- 
tutedi The earliest example that has been 
found of a calendar in which our saint's day 
appears is one in the library at Rouen, of 
about A.D. 1000. 

We owe our better knowledge of St. 
Swidhun to the Rev. John Earle,* one of 
our most learned Saxon scholars, whose 
researches have added another instance to 
the many already existing, of the curious 
way in which a man may be connected in 
the popular mind with a superstition that 
history shows us to be inconsistent with 
the facts of his life. We therefore can 
have little difficulty in agreeing with Mr. 
Earle that the belief in a forty days' rain 
must date back to a period long anterior 
to the age of St. Swidhun. 

Intimately connected with the weeping 
saints we have been considering are those 
that inaugurate a more cheerful and agree- 
able weather. Near the end of most years 
we have a brief resurrection of summer, 
which is called in the United States the 
" Indian Summer," in Northern and Midland 
Germany, " Old Wives' Summer," and more 
rarely, the "Girls' Summer." De Quincey 
speaks of it as "a resurrection that has no 
root in the past nor steady hold upon the 
future, like the lambent and fitful gleams 
from an expiring lamp, mimicking what is 
called * the lightning before death ' of sick 
patients when close upon their end." It has 
four names in England, according to the 
time* in the year it commences, which are 
Michaelmas Summer (Sept. 29), St. Luke's 
little Summer (Oct. 18), Halloween Summer 
(Oct. 31), and St. Martin's Summer (Nov. 11). 
The two last are mentioned by Shakespeare. 
Prince Harry says to Falstaff: "Farewell, 
thou latter Spring ! Farewell All Hallow'n 
Summer" {First Part of King Henry IV., 
act i. sc. 2), and in the First Part of King 
Henry VI. (act i. sc. 2), Joan la Pucelle 
says : 

* GloMCster Fragments, London, 1861, 4to. 

B 2 



ST. S WITHIN' S DAY. 



Assign'd am I to be the English scourge. 
This night the siege assuredly I'll raise : 
Expect St. Martin's Summer, halcyon days, 
Since I have entered into these wars. 

Here is the place to mention the one ex- 
ception to the rule that the watery saints are 
all in June and July. The Feast of St. Simon 
and St. Jude has obtained the credit of com- 
mencing a rainy period, and in Middleton 
and Decker's old play, The Roaring Girl, or 
Moll Cutpurse, one of the characters ob- 
serves : " I know it as well as I know 'twill 
rain on Simon and Jude's day." This fes- 
tival falls on the 28th of October, which 
is about the time of the usual autumn 
rains ; and, according as the rainy season 
comes earlier or later, one or other of the 
second summers we have just mentioned is 
likely to occur. 

January 25, the day dedicated to the Con- 
version of St. Paul, was considered, as we 
have mentioned before, to be ominous of the 
future weather of the year. In Heame's 
tdx'tion oi Eobert of Avesbt{ry this is set out 
in the following translation of some Latin 
lines : 

If St. Paul's day be fair and cleare, 
It doth betide a happy yeare ; 
If it do chance to snow or raine, 
Then shall be deere all kinds of graine : 
But if the wind then be aloft e, 
Warres shall vex the realm full ofte ; 
And if the clouds make darke the skie, 
Both neate and fowle this yeare shall dye. 

Somewhat the same belief was current as 
to St. Urban's Day (May 25). If this day 
is fair the Germans count on a good vin- 
tage, but if it is stormy they fear a bad 
one. The image of this saint used to be 
carried to the market-places and crowned 
with flowers, but if these fair-weather saints 
were unpropitious the people vented their 
anger upon them. Schenck, in his Treatise on 
Images, says that in Germany the people 
used to drag St. Paul and St. Urban in 
effigy through the streets down to the rivers 
if their respective feasts happened to occur 
in foul weather. Besides wet and fine- 
weather saints, they have in France three 
Icy Saints : 

Saint Mamert, Saint Pancrace 

Et Saint Ser\'ais, 
Sans froid ces Saints de Glace 

ne vont jamais. 



The festivals of these saints occur on three 
consecutive days viz., the nth, 12th and 
13th of May, and Mr. Blomefield remarks 

that these three days coincide with one of those 
short periods of anomalous cold, or wintry relapse, 
which occur in the earlier months, and of whiqh that 
in May is perhaps the one most generally known ; 
thereby again establishing the truth of an old adage 
though the phenomenon to which it bears reference 
has only of late years, comparatively speaking, 
attracted the attention of meteorologists, or been 
clearly ascertained to be a fact. 

The results of the consideration of these 
meteorological landmarks may be summed up 
as follows, in the words of Mr. Blomefield : 

Taking one year with another, there is relatively 
speaking a dry half of the year and a wet half, the 
latter being further divisible into two wet periods 
separated by a dry period. In other words, some por- 
tion of the summer is wet, and some portion of the 
autumn is also wet, the saints'-days above named 
pointing in a general way to the setting in of those 
periods. But between these two wet periods there 
usually occurs an interval of fine settled weather, this 
being also, curiously enough, associated with other 
saints ; if the first wet commence, as it normally would 
do, about the end of July and continue through 
August so that it can be fairly laid to the charge of 
St. Swithin then when the dry comes in September, 
St. Bartholomew is considered as bringing about the 
change. If this dry period does not set in till later in 
the season we have then no less than four saint or 
festival days brought in to mark the fine settled 
weather, especially if mild as well as fine, and lend- 
ing their names to what is considered as a second 
summer. 

It is therefore a mistaken notion to imagine 
that the association of varieties of weather 
with certain saints had anything originally to 
do with superstition. At the present day it 
is in many instances the proverbs and tradi- 
tions only that keep the saints in memory ; 
but it was different in old times,and no better 
mode of impressing upon the masses the 
results of observation could have been hit 
upon. It is also not a little remarkable that 
meteorologists such as Forster and Blome- 
field, who have given careful attention to the 
subject, should find, after consulting a series 
of records, that, in the main, the so-called 
superstition of our ancestors was founded 
upon broad and sound generalizations. 



THE DOMESDAY OF COLCHESTER. 



y 




houses, 



^be Dolne6^a12 of Colcbeater.* 

PART II. 

NHABJTANTS.lt is somewhat 
strange that the Survey does not 
record the total number of bur- 
gesses, or the total number of 
either T.R.E. or T.R.W. We 
may, however, discover from a financial 
entryt that the number of houses in the 
iota civitas was 450 T.R.E.; and by a careful 
analysis of the Survey we can account for 
about the same number as existing in 10864 
This figure (which would imply a population 
of somewhat over 2,000 souls) seems curiously 
small when compared with the " Hundred of 
Norwich'^ with its 1,300 burgesses T.R.E., 
or even the " Half-Hundred of Ipswich" with 
its 538 burgesses T.R.E. ; or, to take the 
case of a sister colonia, the civitas of 
Lincoln, with its 970 inhabited houses 
T.R.E., must have had more than double 
the population. Colchester had clearly been 
distanced in the race, and had been relatively 
receding in importance. 

The lengthy list of burgesses which forms 
the bulk of the Survey affords us more in- 
formation than would at first sight appear 
probable. According to Mr. Ereeman, 

A long list is given of English burgesses who kept 
their houses, followed by a list of possessions within 
the borough which had passed into the hands of 
Norman owners. 

But this is not so. The list is, to some ex- 
tent, divided into two, but several Normans 
among them landowners in the county 
are to be found in the first half, while the 
second half contains at least two names of 



* References to sketch map of Colchester in 1086 
(Vol. V. p. 246). 

1. King Street. 

2. Site of Castle. 

3. Site of St. Helen's Chapel. 

4. Moot-hall. 

5. Cellars of an early Norman house. 

6. Ditto, assigned to Eudo Dapifer. 

7. St. Peter's Church. 

8. Trinity Tower (eleventh century). 

9. The Bishop's Fee. 

10. The Schrebbe Street (to Maiden). 
+ See under "Finance." 
X Apparently between 440 and 450. 
Arch. Joum. xxxiv. 68. 



English owners who have kept their houses.* 
Nor are the estates in the latter part 
''possessions within the borough," for the 
term burgus, as I have shown, is only used 
twice in the Survey, and is then strictly ap- 
plied to the space within the walls. If we 
examine the first half, headed, " Isti sunt 
Burgenses Regis qui reddunt consuetudi- 
nem," we find the names of 276 burgesses, 
several of them owning many houses and a 
few owning none the grand total of their 
houses being 355. Their land, which was 
divided into unequal plots, amounted to no 
less than 1,296 acres of arable and 51 
of meadow. Most of the plots were but a 
few acres in extent, often but one or two, 
and suggest a very large element of " peasant 
proprietors," dwelling probably on their little 
holdings, of which many must have been 
distant from the walls. There were also 
several properties of from twenty to thirty 
acres ; and the whole effect produced is that 
of a land-owning commvmity, with scarcely 
any traces of a landless, trading element. 
Hence, we may presume, the relative sparse- 
ness of population ; hence also the want of 
development in the community. Among the 
burgesses we find seven priests and nearly 
twenty women, one of the latter, Leofleda, 
being perhaps the wealthiest of the towns- 
folk,! with her three houses, her twenty-five 
acres, and her mill.J The pure English 
element is of course predominant in the 
names, and lingered long among the fields 
and copses after fashion had banished it 
from the font. But Hacon and Tovig, 
Osgod and Segrim, were names that told of 
Norse descent. And followers of the Con- 
queror as well figured among the king's 
burgesses. Rossel and Dottel occur among 
the names, as do Walter and Got Hugh. 



'' * ' Mansune ii. domus et iv. acras, Goda i 
domum." 

t Compare the " una mulier soror Stigandi," who 
vms a wealthy burgess of Norwich. 

t See "Mills." 

Eadric (Eddrichescroft), Cedric (Cerrichescroft), 
Eadwig (Eduiefield), Leofgar (Levegorismede), 
Eadwine ( Edynelonde), ^^Ifwine (Aylwynesmere), 
Godgifu (Goodith-hide, Godehye), Eadgifu (Edithes- 
londe), &c. &c. These are mostly taken from deeds 
of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. "Golden," 
which still occurs in land-names there, must be a cor- 
ruption of Goldwine. 



THB DOME^JPAY OF COLCHBSTER. 



Ralph Pinel, the Lord of Bromley,* is among 
them also, but has declined, after the manner 
of his comrades, to pay the dues on the houses 
which he holds, as a burgess, within the 
walls,"!" Two other Normans, with the singu- 
lar names of Half White {Dimidius Blancus) 
and William Sin ( Willielmus. Pcccatum), are 
ilder-tenants of lands in the county.f 
Tescho (Tedesco?^, another foreigner, has 
also withheld his burgage-dues. Even St. 
Eadmund figures on the burgess roll of Col- 
chester. A puzzHng problem is presented 
by two Englishmen, " Cousiiio Godwine" and 
" Consiiio vS:ifheah." What office did these 
men hold, consiiio being evidently an official 
prefix? Were they, as at St. Edmunds, in 
later days, the nominees of the king's reeve, 
the men who convened the moot of the 
hundred, and carried the horn of office ?|| 
Nor must we omit " Wulfwine the Crier,"^ 
the only bearer of that venerable office re- 
corded in the pages of Domesday. It is a 
singular coincidence that " a parcel of land 
called the Toii'tie Clapper^ was still to be 
found at Colchester as late as the sixteenth 



ii. 97. 

t " Radulphus Pinel iv. domus infra muros et v. 
acras et non reddidit consuetudinem" (ii. 106) . 

X ii- 39, 77, 78. 
" Abbas Sti. Eadmundi ii. domus et xxx. acras" 
(ii. 105). A century later he owned " duas ecclesias 
in Colecestra" (J. de Brakelonde). 

II " Et nominati sunt eadem hora duo burgenses 
Godefridus et Nicholaus ut essent prsefecti, habitaque 
disputatione de cujus manu cornu acciperent, quod 
dicitur mot-horn^ tandem illud receperunt de manu 
prions" (J. de Brakelonde, 54). Cf. the Pusey horn, 
Seymour horn, Boarstall horn, &c., as cases of 
horn-tenure. It is but fair to Mr. Coote to point out 
that he might here discover a trace of the long-lost 
duumviri (Romans of Britain, 354,358). 

H ii. 104, " Uluuin monitor." I follow Ducange 
in rendering monitor as "crier," though 1 should 
myself prefer "the wakeman," on the analogy of 
that primitive officer at Ripon, who originally blew 
" a horn every night at nine of the clock" (compare 
the vesper-horn of the Swiss Alps) as a police warn- 
ing to the inhabitants. (For details see Gent's 
Ripon, pp. 101-2.) But we should also compare 
" the Burghmote horn" at Canterbury, by which the 
governing assembly was summoned "from time 
immemorial" down to J 835 (Hasted's Kent, 1800, xi. 
p. 29; Brent's Canterbury, 1879, p. 233), unless this 
should be rather identified with the horn mentioned 
in the note above. It should be observed that at 
Ripon the mere "wakeman" developed into the 
mayor, while at Canterbury the convener degenerated 
into the crie 



century.* Mr. Gomme may be able to tell 
us whether we may here discover the trace 
of an immemorial custom conspicuous in the 
Aryan system.f 

The precise status of the owners in the 
second half of the list is not easy to deter- 
mine. Among them are the names of great 
Norman landowners, + but their possessions, 
like those of the English burgesses, were 
all charged with quit rent to the Crown, 
though they had mostly endeavoured to 
evade payment. The distinction, therefore, 
if any, must be sought in jurisdiction, and 
not in tenure. Both classes were equally 
entitled to share in the common pasture. 

Lexden. The boundaries of the civitas 
of Colchester are plainly to be discovered in 
Domesday. The Colne was its northern 
limit, for beyond it, as we shall see, lay the 
King's Wood, of which the Survey could 
take no cognizance. On the east it extended 
beyond the Colne over the outlying lands of 
Greenstead, closed in to the north by wood 
and waste. Its southern portion, subse- 
quently known as West Donyland, was by far 
the most extensive, and embraced the swell- 
ing uplands between the valleys of the Colne 
and of the " Roman river." On the west, it 
was protected by no natural boundaries, and 
was there consequently most open to aggres- 
sion, even in the days before the legionaries 
of Rome had stormed the ramparts which 
to this day remain. It here adjoined the 
Lordship of Stanway, one of those which 
had passed at the Conquest fror^ the hands 
of Harold II into those of King William. 

* Among the obit-lands confiscated under 
Edward VI. 

t See Mr. Gomme's invaluable Introduction to the 
Index of Municipal Offices, p. 35, where a Bellman's 
acre is quoted. There was also at Colchester a 
/iangmau's pond, and a Parson's acre will be found 
below, while a Knaves acre still remains in the 
grounds of the Ilythe Rectory. 

X See " Manorial Houses." Earl Eustace, Sweyn of 
Essex, Ralph Peverel, Geoffrey de Magnaville, Hamo 
(Fitz-hamon), and Eudo (of Rye) occur among the 
names. 

There was still extant in Morant's time a list of 
the burgage-lands (from which, as Professor Stubbs 
observes, the Crown rents were due), taken in 161 2, 
to assess the aid pur fille niarier. It is now probably 
among the Ashburnham MSS. 

Ii It had contributed to the endowment of his 
famous House of Waltham, the Abbey's land here 
being known later as the Aula de Walt ham (Tallage 
Roll), 6 Ed. II. 



THE DOMESDAY OF COLCHESTER. 



The portion of the lordship nearest to Col- 
chester was known as the Berewite of 
Lexden,* and early in the Survey the tale of 
WTong is thus told by the Burgesses : 

Et burgenses calumpniantur v. bidas de Lexsen- 
dena ad consuetudinem et Scotum civitatis qua' 
jacuerant ad praedictam terram quani tenebat God- 
ricus (ii. 104}. 

On this most instructive entry Mr. Free- 
man observes : 

We see the burgesses of Colchester already form- 
ing a recognized body, holding common lands, and 
claiming other common lands as having been ttnjustly 
taken from tkeiH.\ 

We have here an excellent instance of the 
necessity for minute investigation if we would 
interpret aright the facts recorded in the 
Survey. For (i) the land was not " common 
land," J but " belonged to the land which 
Godric held;" (2) The burgesses did not 
claim the ownership, but merely the power of 
rating (" ad consuetudinem^^ &c.). 

This claim should be compared with an 
entry in the Survey of Chester.|| 

In each case the grievance was the same. 
The rateable area of the civitas had been 
wrongfully lessened, and the land-gafol {\ht 
consuetiido, or crown quit-rent) on that por- 
tion had been transferred to the owner of 
the land, though the Crown continued to 
exact the same sum from the community, 
among whom the remaining landowners had 
to make up the deficiency. Notice that this 
implies the existence of a fixed commuta- 
tion.^ If we now turn to the opposite side 
of this picture, as presented by the descrip- 
tion of Stanway, we detect at once the guilt 

* " Adhuc pertinet i berewita i\wx vocatur Les- 
sendena de iv. hidis" (ii. 4). 

t Arch, yourn. xxxiv. 68. 

+ See " Common Land." 

This "claim" of the burgesses iii 1086 is sin- 
gularly analogous to their claim in 1810, when they 
asserted their right to rate the castle and its bailey, 
which had previously been deemed an exempt 
district. 

II Terra in qud est templum Sancti Petri, quam 
Robertus de Rodeland clamabat ad teinland, sicut 
diratiocinavit comitatus, nunquam pertinuit ad 
manerium extra civitatem sed ad burgum pertinet ; et 
semper fuit in consuetudine regis et comitis sicut (terra) 
aliorum burgensium (i. 262 b.). 

H For the meaning of " Scot" in this case see 
*' Finance." 



of the king's reeves,* The total value o^ 
the Stanway lordship had increased 50 per 
cent, since the days of the Confessor, f 
Further proof of its wrongful extension is 
found in the suspicious entry under Lexden 
of " xvi. socmanni de ii. hidis et xxxvi. 
acris," formerly, we may presume, burgesses 
of Colchester. J Nor is it without signifi- 
cance that a mere " berewite " had swollen 
to such proportions. It is singular to note 
that the invasio would have been contra 
regem, but that it happened to be the aggres- 
sion of a Royal reeve on the rights of Royal 
burgesses. 

Greenstead. ^The point to observe in the 
description of this division is that it stood 
on a different footing from the rest of the 
civitas. It had been held by one man, and 
not by a crowd of burgesses ; it had been 
held free from that rent to the Crown which 
was paid by the rest of Colchester. || When 
we remember that it also lay outside the 
geographical limits of the ancient Camulo- 
dunum, we are tempted to combine the two 
facts, and to look upon it as a late addition, 
and not an integral part of the original 
English civitas. Is it too fanciful an assump- 
tion that tlae latter was co-extensive with its 
British predecessor ?^ Greenstead had be- 
longed, T. R. E., to Godric,** a " freeman." 

* See Mr. Freeman's admirable exposure of their 
doings in his Appendix on The King's Reeves in 
vol. V. p. 811. 

t Tunc valuit totum xxii. libros ; modo Petnis inde 
recipit xxxiii. libros ; and iii. libros de gersuma (ii. 5.) 
This Petrus was Peter de Valonges, then sheriff and 
fermor of the king's manors. 

J These " sokemen" held about as much land as 
the better class of burgesses, and apparently lived on 
their holdings. This change of burgesses into soke- 
men confirms Professor Stubbs' statement (i. 409) 
' ' The burgage tenure answers to the socage of the 
i-ural manors."' For a similar transfer of sokemen 
see ii. lOO: " Addidit Hamo dapifer ii. sochemannos 
quos invasit super regem." Also i. 137. 

I attribute to this extension of Lexden the present 
proximity of that parish to the town walls. The 
rights of the burgesses were, however, efifectually 
restored, and the later lords of Lexden did suit and 
service at their court. 

i! That this depended on the land and not the 
oii'ucr is shown by Godric's possessions south of the 
Colne being all charged with consuetudo. 

If Greenstead appears, oddly enough, in the six- 
teenth century as " Greenstead Peutrice''' (RoL Pat., 
1557), a name savouring of the Wealhcyn. 

** Probably identical with "Godric of Colchester," 
a holder in East Donyland, T. R. E. (ii. 30). 



8 



THE DOMESDAY OF COLCHESTER, 



Dying before the Conquest, his sons had 
divided* it into four parts, which they had 
subsequently forfeited. Two of them the 
Conqueror had retained, one he had granted 
to Earl Eustace, and one to a certain 
Waleran, who had died shortly before the 
Survey, and whose son John now possessed 
it.f This division should be carefully com- 
pared with that at Lammarsh, on the borders 
of Suffolk, as illustrating the retention of 
Old English boundaries-^ The shares of 
the four brothers had here been exactly 
equal in value, though one of them com- 
prised the church, and the other the mill 
of the hamlet. On their forfeiture, their 
shares were kept intact, except that the mill 
was now divided among the four. It is 
noteworthy that the church was apparently 
not worth dividing. || Godric had owned 
here four " mansiones terras." This obscure 
term would seem in this case to mean 
" capital messuages. "IF May they not have 
been the farmsteads of the respective shares ? 
If so, that of P^arl Eustace would be now 
represented by " Greenstead Hall," and one 
of the king's would be " Greenstead Park."** 
To the King's shares belonged two houses 
within the burh,tt and three houses in Green- 



* I follow Mr. Freeman's reading. The original 
is dimiserunt. 

+ He was a large owner in Suffolk, &c. He ap- 
pears at Kenny (ii. loi) as succeeding to an invasio 
of his father Waleran (cf. ii. 84). Waleran was of a 
somewhat " invasive" disposition, and had seized a 
house in Colchester, which the monks of St. Audoen 
claimed in right of their lordship of Mersea (ii. 22). 
It does not appear here. Was he the Waleran Fitz- 
Ralph who gave lands at Pantfield, Essex, 1076 ? 

+ See ii. 74. Two brothers had divided it into 
two shares (one twice the size of the other) T. R. E. 
Those shares were kept quite distinct after Ralph 
Peverel received the manor, and were held by 
separate tenants. 

Tlius making the shares unequal. See " Mills." 

11 Probably it had no glebe land. The church re- 
mained till recently a very ancient structure. 

H According to Ellis (ii. 242) " In the return for 
Essex, the two words mansio and manerium were 
considered as synonymous." But these mansiones 
term are seen to have been only homesteads. 

* The Earl's share and those of the King passed 
to Eudo, who granted them to St. John's. One of 
them was made a park by the Abbot. The church 
(standing on Eustace's land), passed to Eudo, carry- 
ing the tithes with it. He granted them also to St. 
John's. 

H" " Quibus pertinent duo domus in btirgo.'^ 



stead were held from Waleran by Turstin 
Wiscard.* 
The King's Lands. 

" Dominium regis in colecestra cii acrsc terrae de 
c[uibus sunt x prati in quibus sunt x bordarii. Et 
ccxl acrae inter pasturam et fructetam, et hoc totum 
jacet ad firmam regis" (ii. 107). 

The first point to notice here is the use of 
the term " demesne." In one sense the whole 
civitas was " in demesne" of the Crown, but 
in its aspect of a Crown manor it had, like 
any other manor,t a portion set apart as the 
peculiar demesne of the Lord,:f a kind of 
impermm in imperio. The rest of the 
civitas was the ut-land, or geneat-land, from 
which accrued the gcfol, or tribute which was 
due to the king qud lord, and formed the 
consuetudo of the Survey. 

* Afterwards given by Eudo to St. John's (Carta 
Eudonis). Proved to have stood in Greenstead by 
Inq., taken at Colchester 8 Ed. IV. Waleran's 
quarter was afterwards given to St. Bololph's, it is 
not known by whom. I have discovered tlie donor 
in a Hastings who married John's heiress (Rot. Pip., 
31 H. I.). 

+ " The manorial possessions of the sovereign did 
not differ from those of his subjects." 'ITiey were re- 
garded as landed estate. (Hale, Domesday of St. 
PauPs, xxxiii.) 

X Vulgo terrce dominicales (Spelman). 

The identity of the landgafol in the Old English 
towns with the tributum of the Roman colonists is a 
cardinal point in Mr. Coote's theory {Romans in Bri- 
tain, pp. 252-259, 366, &c.). His argument is briefly 
this. The tributum of the Romans was paid after the 
English Conquest to the English kings, in the early 
period of the Monarchy. It was then " remitted to 
the Roman subjects, in respect of land in the shires" 
{territoria) but " still levied upon the houses of the same 
Romans in the boroughs" (p. 257.) This latter por- 
tion he indentifies with the laiuigafol, " not a rent, 
but a permanent land tax" (p. 367) " a payment made 
by the citizens to the king" (p. 366.) From this view 
I must differ wholly. It is essential to distinguish 
thejisealia or public burdens (practically the geldum) 
paid as a tax to the king qiid king, from the 
consuetudo or head-7-ent paid to the king i/ud lord, 
just as it would be paid to any private lord of a sub- 
ject town or even of a manor (for this same term 
consuetudo is used of manorial rents throughout the 
Sur^^ey a further illustration of the close analogy 
between town and country in Old English days). 
This confusion partly proceeds from Mr. Coote's 
theory of the territorium, which I have disproved 
above, and which blinded him to the true territorial 
character of the Old English town. He accordingly 
assumed that the land-gafol was only paid on house 
property, and it is a fatal objection to his theory 
that we here find it paid by land also within the 
borders of the territorial civitas. 



THE DOMESDAY OF COLCHEStEk. 



It will be noticed that the area of these 
lands is given in acres and not in hides or 
carucates.* The reason of this is to be 
found in their not lying together, though the 
bulk of them (as shown on the map) formed 
a compact parcel. 

The expression " hoc totum jacet ad 
firmam regis," has been wrongly translated 
" is let out to ferm by the king." It should 
be rendered " belongs to" (the strict meaning 
oi jacet ad) "the King's Ferm." That is to 
say, the estate must have been rented by the 
collective burgesses, and the rent formed 
part of the Ferm they paid to the Crown, f 
When King Stephen handed over eighteen 
acres of these lands to the Hospital of St. 
Mary Magdalen, an equivalent portion 
(35-. 5(/.) of the total rent paid by the bur- 
gesses was thenceforth paid by the brethren. 
Ten borders (.r. bordarit) were the only 
labourers on this demesne. " The bordarii of 
the Survey," says Ellis, " appear at various 
times to have received a great variety of 
interpretations." The fact, it should be 
noticed, which is clearest in connection with 
them is that, here at any rate, they formed 
the class into which the villani were sinking 
and the servi rising.! Now when we learn 
what these " bordars" really were, we shall 
perceive the significance of this change. 
We find them at Colchester the only 
labourers on the demesne lands. This 
corresponds precisely with the observations 
of Mr. Larking in Kent, and Mr. Eyton in 
Dorset-ll They were the lord's ploughmen, 

* They occur in the 11 30 Pipe-Roll as dominiae 
carucata: regis, but this was a conventional formula. 

+ Just as their ferm was raised by 40^. while they 
rented the King's Wood. 

t So at Stan way, *' Tunc xii. villani, post et modo ix. 
Tunc X. bordarii post et modo xii." At Lexden, one 
villain had sunk to a bordar, and one serf had risen 
to the same, ^n St. Peter's land, at Colchester, one 
serf had risen to be a bordar, &c. &c. A very 
striking instance will be found at Writtle, in Essex 
(ii. 5) where the villani had been reduced from 97 to 
73, and the sei~^'i from 23 to 18, while the bordarii 
had increased from 36 to 60. 

The bordarii were, strictly speaking, the labourers 
of the demesne lands of the manor {Domesday oj 
Keiit, App. xxi.). So too on pp. 167-8. 

il "The bordarii, so far from being 'cottars' (as 
lord ColvC supposed) or ' dwellers on the border of 
an Estate' .... dwelt round the court-house, the 
centre of the manor. Doubtless they constituted the 
highest class of farm labourers employed on the 



the labourers, as we should say, on the home 
farm. Now observe that this change in their 
relative numbers corresponded with a 
simultaneous change in the amount of land 
under cultivation. We find that between the 
days of the Confessor and the period of 
the Survey there was little or no diminution 
in the demesne land under cultivation,* but a 
great falling off in the number of tenants 
{villani) and their teams.f Thus, the marked 
increase in the bordarii would be due, not to 
the conversion of iit-land into demesne, but 
to the necessity of providing additional 
labour on the demesne to replace the prsedial 
services rendered by the former villains.| 
And so one phenomenon serves to explain the 
other, and to throw fresh hght on this obscure 
but important period. 

J. H. Round. 

{To be continued.) 



(Tbe preservation of parieb 
IReGistera. 




jHE short Billfor this purpose, brought 
in and prepared by Mr. Borlase and 
Mr. Bryce, will, we hope, shortly 
become law; meanwhile, it may 
not be amiss to note its provisions, and the 
need there is for them. 

Parish registers have had an existence ot 
300 years ; they were instituted by Cromwell 
under Henry VIII., when, as Ecclesiastical 

estate. They were housed, fed, appointed, and 
directed by the steward or bailiff" {Dorset Domesday, 
p. 49.) Thus Ellis' view (p. 83) that '^bordarii were 
merely cottagers" is wrong. Hale {Kegist. IFon: 
xiii.) confessed that how the bordarii differed from 
them (the villani) does not plainly appear. Jones 
{Domesday of WUts, liv.) believed the demesne was 
worked by servi. 

* Thus, on analyzmg the king's manors in Essex, 
I find that the teams in demesne had only decreased 
from 69 to 62, but those of his tenants from 318 to 
228. So, too, on the Bishop of London's lands, the 
demesne teams continued to be 30, while those of his 
tenants had decreased from 159 to 91 ! 

+ So at Orsett : " Tunc xxxiiii carucoe hominum 
Modo xxii. Tunc xxxiii villani, Modo xxii." (ii. 9. ) 

X This could of course be effected either by con- 
verting the villanus or servus into a bordarius, or by 
engaging labourers from elsewhere. 



10 



THE PRESERVATION OF PARISH REGISTERS. 



Vicegerent, he issued the Injunction of 1538, 
ordering "every parson of every church to 
keep one book wherein he write the day and 
year of every wedding, christening, and 
burial," with minute directions for its safe 
custody *' in one sure coffer with two locks 
and two keys." Parish registers, as such, 
may be said to have closed with the Civil 
Registration Act of 1837, when the State 
undertook the duty, and the General Regis- 
ter Otfice was formed in London. 

Mr. Borlase has lately reprinted from the 
Law Magazine of May, 1878, an article by 
Mr. Tasweil Langmead, with a preface by 
himself, in which the necessity of collecting 
and preserving, arranging and indexing parish 
registers as national records, both valuable 
and interesting, is earnestly pleaded, and the 
urgent need for it set forth ; Mr. Borlase's 
Bill is added ; and the two " printed by 
Pewtress & Co.," in twenty-five pages. The 
Bill provides for what should be done, and 
how to effect it ; the essay furnishes the argu- 
ments, or rather the reasons, why it should 
become law as an Act of Parliament. The 
Bill itself is of but twelve short sections, or of 
nine besides the title and interpretation clauses. 
Its main provision is the transfer to the custody 
of the Master of the Rolls of all parish re- 
gisters, and also of any transcripts thereby 
embracing the Bishops' Transcripts origina- 
ting with the Injunction of Queen Elizabeth 
prior to the istofjuly, 1837 /.^., prior to 
the Civil Registration Act; it provides for their 
removal ; for the validity after removal ; for 
indexes and extracts ; for the use of them in 
evidence ; for inventories, and the like ; and 
for expenses. By an important last clause, 
and as it were supplemental, the Act is ex- 
tended to all cathedrals and collegiate 
churches or hospitals, and to their burial- 
grounds, and to ministers though not paro- 
chial. 

Parish registers are therefore now passing 
into a new and further phase. Two im- 
portant dealings with them have before taken 
place prior to the Civil Registration Act of 
1836, which entirely changed their character. 
In 1 813 the registers of each parish in Eng- 
land started afresh with a new set of books, 
and since that date they have been kept on 
one uniform system, so that the year 1813 
may be taken as one departure marking the 



end of the old and the beginning of the 
modern registers. This was effected by what 
is now remembered as Rose's Act, and also 
remembered for a conspicuous example of 
carelessness, one section imposing the penalty 
of fourteen years' transportation for falsifying 
a register, and another directing that half the 
penalty should be received by the informer. 
Excellent as were the important improve- 
ments then introduced, especially in the form 
of registration, so as to form, as we say, a 
division between the old and the modern 
registers, and constituting of itself an era 
in their history, there is little doubt that the 
fresh set of books carried with it this mis- 
fortune, that it caused the old books to be 
treated with even less care than formerly. At 
any rate, at the next dealing with them, in 
183 1, the Population Abstract Return, printed 
by order of Parliament two years after, dis- 
closes a strange account of the then parish re- 
gisters. The answers of incumbents, 4,000 
letters of special explanations, are deposited 
in the British Museum, and occupy six big folio 
volumes. It thereby appeared that, after 
300 years of clerical custody, out of about 
11,000 parishes, half the registers prior to 
the year 1600 had utterly disappeared, and 
not above 812 registers commenced in 1538, 
the year of their institution. Canon LXX., 
under James I., in 1603, an important mark 
in the history of registers, and stringent in its 
careful regulations, seems also to have been 
signalized by the commencement thereabouts 
of nearly 2,500 registers, and so downwards ; 
while about 600 or 700 have commenced 
only since 1750, and some even in the pre- 
sent century. Few registers which have 
survived are perfect from their commence- 
ment; gaps of ten, twenty, thirty years are 
frequent ; volumes are lost, leaves torn out, 
single entries obliterated, whether by damp 
or mildew, or by fraud. An immense num- 
ber have been destroyed accidentally by fire. 
Such are some among the entries on the 
return ; sufficiently piquant are some others : 
" twenty years ago, churchwarden, a shop- 
keeper, used some of the registers to enfold 
his goods ;" " early registers are reputed to 
have been burnt;" "registers deficient, 1800 
to 181 1, owing to the ruinous state of the 
church;" "all registers previous (to 1794) 
destroyed;" " earlier registers burnt in a fire, 



fkE PRESERVATION OE PARISH MeGISTERS. 



n 



which consumed the parsonage house of a 
neighbouring parish ;" " no register can be 
found prior to 1813," is repeated in several 
parishes ; " a vokime of registers sent to the 
House of Lords on the Leigh peerage ;" " two 
register books taken away by the archdeacon 
in 1824 " "early registers in possession of 
the patron ;" " register supposed to be in the 
Court at Norwich ;" " register produced at 
Launceston Assizes but now lost;" "register 
mutilated, apparently to write bills in, as a 
butcher's bill remains on the last leaf." Such 
are some of the answers in the return of 183 1. 
But from many other sources we may fully 
believe the neglect and indifference with 
which the older registers were kept in paro- 
chial custody. "Coventry on Evidence," 
edit. 1832, mentions that requisite registers 
of baptism had been obliterated and in part 
destroyed, by the parson's favourite grey- 
hound being allowed to rear a litter of 
puppies in the chest containing them. Mr. 
Bell, in his account of the claim to the Hunt- 
ingdon peerage in 1820, tells that the early 
registers of Christchurch, Hants, were used 
by the curate's wife to make kettle-holders. 

We have however said enough, we think, 
to substantiate the need there is for better 
care than at present of the parish registers, 
especially of the older, though it is not alone 
the oldest that are ill protected ; it is not 
many years since the registers of Kew, con- 
taining the baptism and marriage of the Duke 
of Kent, the Queen's father, were stolen, and 
have never been recovered. 

The proposed Act indeed deals, for the 
present, only with registers prior to 1813 ; 
and for twenty years to come leaves in their 
present custody those from that date to 1837, 
the date of the Civil Registration Act ; at 
the end of twenty years those later registers 
are to be also transmitted to the Record 
Office ; thus securing to the clergy, the cus- 
todians, a continuance of the search-fees for 
that period i.e., in effect the whole of the 
modern registers, from which, for all but a 
very small part, arise the fees for searches or 
extracts. The former opposition by the 
clergy may therefore be supposed to be 
obviated, as they will have all they could 
ever have had. 

Not only the preservation of registers, but 
their use, or convenience for their use, is 



gained by their being brought to one place 
the Public Record Office as national docu- 
ments, instead of being dispersed all over the 
kingdom in 1 1,000 different depositories, and 
almost in effect inaccessible for genuine 
search. Nor is it without its weight that the 
small fee for searches, while inappreciable 
when, as now, the search is to be made in 
scattered parishes, will suffice as a whole, and 
in the aggregate, to defray the expense of thus 
bringing together this mass of valuable and 
curious records. That they are curious and 
valuable, will become more and more evident 
as they are made use of. They are the 
sources not alone of family history, but of 
the earlier national statistics of the country ; 
they often throw unexpected light on chapters 
of more than parochial history, if only in so 
small a thing as the prevalence of certain 
Christian names. We can add one small 
illustration of the kind from the register of 
the obscure parish of Cam, near Dursley, in 
Gloucestershire ; it is, too, an illustration of 
the odd turn legislation had taken in Church 
matters, even before our own day. The 
wisdom of Parliament has in that respect 
before now provided, e.g., that Lent should 
be carefully observed, assigning for reason 
the encouragement thereby given, not to 
piety, but to the fisheries : it levied, too, but 
did not assign the reason, a heavy duty on 
the marriages of bishops and archbishops, 
and it required the burial of man, woman 
and child in woollen, for the encouragement 
of the woollen and paper trades a vexatious 
and troublesome piece of legislation which 
continued in force until nearly the battle of 
Waterloo. The parish register of Catn is 
unusually full in m.aterials for showing the 
operation of this law. On the passing of the 
Act a new title was given to the register : 
" Here followeth the register of such as have 
been buried in woollen at Cam, pursuant to 
the late Act Caroli IL di. Tricesimo." In 
1678 a long entry of "no certificate that 
burial was in woollen only," and of a warrant 
by the Justices for levying ,$, and a dis- 
tribution of one moiety to the poor, and the 
other to the vicar of Cam, who informed." 
Mr. John Henry Blunt, in his history of 
Dursley, notes of its register, " opposite the 
years 1641-8 is the mem., 'no weddings 
registered; few christenings or burials all 



li 



THE PRESERVATION OF PARISH REGISTERS. 



these eight years in the heate of the warre.' " 
It may, however, be quite taken for granted 
that all readers of The Antiquary will fully 
recognize the importance on every ground of 
the Preservation of Parish Registers, and the 
propriety of securing it by the Bill now pre- 
sented to Parliament. As legal evidence, 
" all the property of the country, or a large 
part of it," said Chief Justice Best in the 
Oldham case, "depends on the registers." 
In claims to peerages they are all-important, 
while the minor matters, and incidental 
notices of public and local affairs of the 
time, offer a large field of research for his- 
torian, and biographer, and statistician. 

B. L. Lewis. 




Sbakeepeartan ifoIk^Xote- 

Slips of yew, sliver'd in the moon's eclipse. 

Macbeth, act iv. so. i . 

O consider the various ingredients 
of the witches would be almost 
to circle the study of folk-lore. 
So varied are the articles selected, 
so great is the skill shown in their combina- 
tion in the spell, that one can almost believe 
that Shakespeare among his many other 
quests had pursued investigations in the 
domain of popular antiquities. His abun- 
dant knowledge of all the beliefs and super- 
stitions of rural England is evident in every 
play, but now and again it seems obvious 
that the acquaintance of Shakespeare with 
witchcraft was of a more special kind, that 
he had read deeply in the works of the 
magicians of mediaeval Europe, and known 
men who, if they had not themselves dabbled 
in the Black Art, were not unfamiliar with 
those who had knowledge beyond the com- 
mon. The witches had not quitted England 
when Shakespeare lived. It was long after 
his time that the fairies ceased to dance in 
the woods, and so long as they played pranks 
in the green spaces, the witches had no need 
to prepare their brooms for flight. The 
question indeed of demonology must have 
been often debated in Shakespeare's hearing. 
In one sense, it was the main topic of the time. 
Scepticism was abroad, but met with little 
encouragement. The Vulgar Errors of Sir 
Thomas Browne, who was a schoolboy when 



Shakespeare died, would alone show how 
hard it was even for the vigorous manhood 
of the seventeenth century to get rid of the 
swaddling bands of superstition and impos- 
ture. Even in our own day it is not im- 
possible to find illustrations of passages, where 
such discoveries would seem improbable 
enough. The sympathetic treatment intro- 
duced by Sir Kenelm Digby, is practised 
after a fashion in many an English county 
in this year, and stories as strange as those 
that remarkable man told in his address to 
the nobles and learned men at Montpellier, 
may be found in the garners of the English 
Folk-lore Society. 

The few words I have quoted at the head 
of this Paper suggest so much that is 
curious, that on this occasion they may be 
taken to illustrate Shakespeare's remarkable 
knowledge of two departments of folk-lore. 

The yew-tree has long been associated 
with gloom and sadness. The torches of the 
furies were made of yew, and though there 
is doubt as to whether the ancient taxus 
is the same tree as our Taxus baccata* the 
influence of the classical legend has neces- 
sarily been felt. Again, the character of 
" sad," given it by Pliny, would be abun- 
dantly borne out by its poisonous qualities. 
There is scarcely a month passes that some 
case of injury to cattle or mankind is not 
recorded, due to tampering with yew-leaves. 
Evelyn says the yew-tree in the medical 
garden at Pisa was so poisonous that the 
gardeners, when they went to clip it, could 
only continue at work for half an hour at a 
time, as it caused headache. It was not for 
this reason, at least, that the yew was planted 
in churchyards, but that gave it a new title 
to the melancholy epithet. The dark colour, 
and its great longevity, had much to do with 
its selection as a church tree the colour 
representing the mortality of man, Avhile the 
seemingly unfailing trunk spoke of immor- 
tality, and hopes to the mourners who 
gathered by its gloomy boughs. There is 
another reason, however, given for its selec- 
tion. It was very generally adopted as a 
substitute for the palm. Caxton, in his 
Directory for Keeping the Festivals, says, 
'* For reason that we have non olive that 

* See Notes and Queries, 5tli S. xii. p. 191; this 
note contains much curious information as to the yew. 



SHAKESPEARIAN FOLKLORE. 



13 



berith grained leef, therefore we take ewe 
instead of palme and olive." In Ireland the 
yew-tree was and probably is called by 
the lower classes, the palm, and branches of 
it are borne on Palm Sunday. 

After the consecration of the yew to 
religion it was but a small step to sorcery, 
for it will generally be found that witchcraft 
was most powerful when it exercised mys- 
terious influences through instruments usually 
associated with the Church. Thus, for ex- 
ample, it is said that there is an idea in the 
north of Scotland that he who holds a branch 
of churchyard yew in his left hand the left 
hand is always selected in such cases may 
speak as he pleases to one near him, for 
he will not hear, but those around will 
hear; and a story is told of a man, who, 
desiring to insult openly the chief of his clan, 
approached him with yew-branch in hand. 
He spoke loud and defiantly, but his chief- 
tain heard not, while his brother clansmen 
did. 

A practical reason alleged for the growth 
of the yew in churchyards should be noticed. 
The yew was used to supply the parish 
bows ; it was unsafe to grow it elsewhere ; 
it could do little harm in the churchyard, 
and was ready for immediate use. Shake- 
speare speaks of the '^ double-fatal yew," in 
King Richard IL, act iii. sc. 2, and the 
explanation given by Warburton, and adopted 
by Dyce, is " called double-fatal, because the 
leaves of the yew are. poison, and the wood 
is employed for instruments of death." It 
is right to add, however, that the evidence 
for the compulsory planting of yews in 
churchyards, for the purpose of supplying 
village boughs, is doubtful, and that foreign 
yew seems to have been preferable. 

One writer* has told us that the yew, like 
the mountain-ash, is "a very upas-tree to 
the witches," and gives as explanation " pos- 
sibly because of its constant proximity to 
churches." I think the opposite was the 
case, and that the explanation is not a suffi- 
cient one. The ash was certainly obnoxious 
to witches ; but as to the yew save when 
confounded with the palm I fail to see any 
more sufficient reason for its omission from 
the book of the wise men than for the omis- 

Wakie MSS. Henderson, Folk-lore of the Nor- 
them Counties, p. 226. 



sion of divination by key and book of 
Psalms, of charms by coffin-rings, and grave- 
yard grass. The great age of the yew 
naturally marked it out as eminent among its 
companions. The market and fair of Lang- 
sett in former days was held round an old 
yew-tree in Alderman's Head grounds ; a yew 
which still flourished in the last century, and 
under which the court for the manor of 
Penisale had been held from time imme- 
morial.* This one example out of many 
shows, that the repute of the yew was pos- 
sibly more ancient than the introduction of 
Christianity into England ; so, too, if it be a 
fact that often as certainly sometimesj 
the yews are planted in a circle round the 
church, we may be led to believe that the 
reverence for the yew is a relic of heathen 
days ; that no association with later religious 
edifices has removed the ancient respect ; 
and thus, that althouglj apparently conse- 
crated to worship of an entirely opposite 
character, the yew was the most suitable of 
all trees for a witch's purpose, adapting to the 
circumstances the almost incontestable rule 
that the holy things of one faith, become the 
accursed, or at least mysterious and dreaded, 
things of another succeeding and conquering 
religion. The dark yews that showed the 
forest circle in time, became the ring that 
surrounded a Christian church ; but despite 
the symbolism which the branches and the 
endurance taught, the tree still remained also 
significant of older days, and fitly gave the 
magic cauldron a slip sliver'd in the moon's 
eclipse. 

How much the splitting or tearing off of 
the slip had to do with magic we learn from 
a piece of Slavonic folk-lore. It is unlucky, 
says Mr. Lach-Szyrma| to use for a beam, 
a branch, or a tree broken by the wind. The 
devil, or storm-spirit, claims it as his own, 
and, were it used, the evil spirit would haunt 
the house. It is a broken branch, then, the 
witches choose ; a sliver'd slip the woodman 
will have none of. 

I do not think it necessar}' to consider at 
any length the great importance of the moon 
in matters of magic. Bede tells us, " No 
Christian man shall do anything of witchery 

Gomme, Primitive Folk Moots, p. 133. 
t Notes and Queries, 5th Series, xii. p. 468. 
1 Folk-lore Record,-vo\. iv. p. 54.. 



M 



SHAKESPEARIAN FOLK-LORE. 



by the moon ; if he doth, his belief is 
naught."* Dalyell truly says, " No preju- 
dice has been more firmly riveted than the 
influence of the moon over the human frame, 
originating, perhaps, in some superstition 
more ancient than recorded by the earliest 
history."! In the present day the supersti- 
tions connected with its first appearance, its 
waxing and waning, would of themselves 
make a bulky volume. How the growth of 
plants, the killing of cattle, the very life and 
death of men depends upon this luminary, 
might be illustrated at once from histories 
the most dry, and from the pages of David 
Coppet field. It is not surprising, therefore, 
that the eclipse of the moon should, among 
all peoples, have given rise to evil fore- 
bodings and superstitious practices. The 
popular belief in China is, that the sun or 
moon is being devoured by a dragon. The 
people endeavour to frighten away the dragon 
by beating dogs and firing crackers. J The 
Romans, Lloyd says, " would take their 
brazen pots and pannes, and beate them, 
lifting up many torches and lincks lighted, 
and firebrands into the aire, thinking by these 
superstitious meanes to reclaime the moone 
to her Hght." So did the Macedonians. 
" The Irish, or Welsh," says a writer of 1656, 
** during eclipses, run about beating kettles 
and pans, thinking their clamour and vexa- 
tions available to the assistance of the higher 
orbes." No Hindu, it is thought, should do 
any work whatever during an eclipse ; and 
all earthenware used is broken, and food in 
the house at the time of the eclipse thrown 
out.ll The Chiquitos of Brazil called the 
moon their mother; and when she was 
eclipsed they thought she was hunted across 
the sky by huge dogs, who tore her till the 
blood from her wounds quenched her light ; 
so they fired arrows into the air to drive 
away the dogs.^ The Indians of Tlascala, 
when the sun and moon, as they thought, 
v/ere fighting, offered the reddest people they 
could get to the sun, and albinos to the 

* Cockayne, Saxon Leechdoms, iii. p. 267. 

+ Dalyell, Darker Superstitions of Scotland^ p. 286. 

X Denny, Folk-lore of China, p. 37. 

Brand, Popular Antiquities, p. 664. 

II Conway, Demonology and Devil-lore, vol. i. pp. 

44. 45- 

If Dorman, Origin of Primitive Superstitions, p. 

44. 



moon. The Ojibways also think the sun 
and moon fight. They make a great 
clamour, and endeavour to divert the atten- 
tion of the combatants to themselves. The 
general explanation is, that an animal is try- 
ing to swallow the moon. The Chinese, as 
we saw, says a dragon does this ; the Noot- 
kans say a codfish ; the Turks make choice 
of a dragon or a bear, as the following extract 
from the Constantinople Messenger of Dec. 
23, 1880, shows : 

Mgr. Mamarbasci, who represents the Syrian 
Patriarch at the Porte, and who resides in St. Peter's 
Monastery in Galata, underwent a singular experience 
on the evening of the last eclipse of the moon. 
Hearing a great noise outside of the firing of revolvers 
and pistols, he opened his window to see what could 
be the cause of so much waste of powder. Being a 
native of Aleppo, he was at no loss to understand the 
cause of the disturbance as soon as he cast his eye on 
the heavens, and he therefore immediately withdrew 
his head from the window again. Hardly had he 
done so, however, ere a ball smashed the glass into 
a thousand pieces. Rising from the seat into which 
he had but just sat down, he perceived a conical ball 
on the floor of his room, which, there is every reason 
to believe, would have killed him had he remained a 
moment longer on the spot he had just quitted. 
From the yard of the mosque of Asat-Djami, which is 
in front of the prelate's window, the bullet had, it 
appears, been fired with the intention of frightening 
tile dragon, or bear, which according to Oriental super- 
stition, lies in wait to devour the moon at its eclipse."* 

Sir John Lubbock says : 

" I was at Darhoot, in Upper Egypt, one year, 
during an eclipse of the moon, and the natives fired 
guns, either to frighten away the moon's assailants, or, 
as some said, out of joy at her escape from danger, 
though I observed that the firing began during the 
eclipse."j- 

The Greenlanders have a low opinion of 
the moon's conduct during her eclipse. She 
is sister of the sun, who constantly pursues 
her ; during an eclipse she goes from house 
to house to steal skins and eatables.| The 
Caribs thought the moon hungry, sick, or 
dying; and the Peruvians endeavoured to 
comfort her by making their dogs howl, to 
accompany a frightful din made by instru- 
ments. The Cambodians, who imagine 
" some being" has swallowed the sun and 
moon, make much noise, and beat the tom- 
tom with much the same reasoning that 

* Cited in Notes and Queries, 6th S. vol. iii. p. 305. 

+ Origin of Civilization, pp. 232, 323. 

X Ibid. p. 229 ; cited Archceol. Americana, vol. i. 

p. 351- 
See Tylor, Primitive Culture, vol. i, p. 297. 



SHAKESPEARIAN FOLK-LORE, 



IS 



makes the Emperor of China down to our 
own time solemnly beat a tambour.* 

Enough has, perhaps, been said to show 
that an eclipse of the moon is universally 
regarded with fear and dread. Grotesque as 
may be the conceptions enumerated and 
many more might have been added they all 
bear witness to the belief that in the absence 
of the moon, evil and evil in uncivilized or 
semi-civilized countries is always witchcraft 
finds its best opportunity. What does our own 
literature, as exemplified in Milton, say as to 
eclipses? In what ship was Lycidas lost? 

In, surely 

that fatal and perfidious barque 
Built in the eclipse and rigg d with curses dark. 

When the night-hag, lured with the smell of 
infant blood, comes riding through the air 
to dance with Lapland witches, 

the labouring moon 
Eclipses at their charms. 
Does not " disastrous twilight" with fear of 
change perplex monarchs ; and did it not al- 
most prevent the publication of /*izm^/x^Z<7J-/.? 
Among peoples where astronomical science 
has not advanced into popular knowledge, 
an eclipse is looked upon as caused super- 
naturally, but remediable by extraordinary 
human intervention; in those of more ad- 
vanced culture the reasoning is reversed, 
and the eclipse attributed to the malice of 
fellow-mortals, and only, if at all, remediable 
through their supernatural powers. Shake- 
speare chose to make use of the latter 
reasoning. In a time of mystery and horror 
the yew was slivered ; and now by powers as 
evil as those which evoked the darkness, if 
they themselves did not, the slip is consigned 
to the seething wrath of Hecate, while yet 
the parent tree, 

not loth to furnish weapons for the bands 
Of Umfraville or Percy ere they marched 
To Scotland's heath ; or those that crossed the sea 
And drew their sounding boughs at Azincour, 
Perhaps at earlier Crecy, or Poictiers, 

might live again to throw funereal shadows, 
on the ground when the full light of the dis- 
enchanted moon should fall across a stretch 
of church's land, and the sisters dire have 
ceased to work their soul and body destroy- 
ing sorceries on English ground. 

William George Black, 

* Lubbock, pp. 231, 232. 




n the Dates of tbe Ztwo 

IDcrsions of ** leveri? flDan in bis 

Ibumour/'* 

PART I. 

F these two versions, the first, quarto, 
or Italian - scened with Italian- 
named characters though the 
manners and customs are English, 
and the taverns, The Mitre and Mermaid 
was published in 1601, after the publication of 
Jonson's subsequent " Every Man out of his 
Humour." The second, or London-scened ver- 
sion that generally known since his time 
was first pubhshed in the folio of 1616, and in 
accordance with Jonson's habit in later life of 
giving the birth-year of each play, it was 
stated that it was "A Comedie Acted in 
the yeare 159B." In it some of the minor 
incidents were varied, as were portions ,of 
the dialogue. 

On these facts Mr. GifFord put forth these 
theories : first, that the quarto version was 
written in 1595 or 1596, and acted in 1597, 
by Henslowe's company, at the Rose, though 
it bears on its title-page " As it was acted 
by the Lord Chamberlaine his servants" i.e., 
by Shakespeare and his fellows ; that it was 
then published by Henslowe's company from 
their play-house copy, without Jonson's know- 
ledge, and against his interests; thirdly, 
that it was the folio version that was first 
acted in 1598. I, on the contrary, maintain : 
First, that the quarto play was first acted in 
1598, and, as stated on its title, by the Lord 
Chamberlain's servants ; secondly, that, like 
his other plays, it was published by and 
under the superintendence of Jonson him- 
self; and thirdly, that the folio version 
as can be proved by internal evidence was 
altered and revised from the quarto about 
the year 1606. I now take questions one 
and two, reserving the third for Part II. 

Gilford having made, as do too many, his 
author his hero, took up the theory that 
Ben had never quarrelled with Shakespeare, 
or that, if he had, Shakespeare had been the 

* This Paper in its substance would have been read 
at the New Shakspere Society, in December, 1876. 
My illness prevented this, and its place was supplied 
by a Paper by Mr. II. B. Wheatley on the same 
subject. 



i6 



''EVERY MAN IN HIS HUMOUR:' 



aggressor. This, notwithstanding that the 
latter was known as " the gentle," while no 
one in the many panegyrics written on the 
vain, domineering, and irascible, though after 
a time readily appeased Jonson, ever thought 
of giving him that attribute. Notwithstand- 
ing, also, that we have the knowledge that 
Jonson had in one of his prologues parodied 
a line in '* Julius Caesar," and in another play 
sneered at Caliban and " The Tempest." Gif- 
ford's so-called proof is the noble verses by 
Jonson on Shakespeare written, it may be 
remarked when the fames of both poets were 
established, and after Shakespeare's death ! 
The strangest of proofs that he had never 
quarrelled with him. But Gififord had also 
to get rid of this most ugly and conflicting 
fact, the prologue lines to the foHo version ; 
these every one else had taken to be sneers 
against certain of Shakespeare's plays. This 
was got rid of, by the theories of dates above 
mentioned, and by the theory that this folio 
prologue had really preceded the quarto 
version, but for some reason rightly un- 
mentioned it had not been printed with it, 
though the Latin motto to the play had. Set 
forth in 1597, it could not possibly have hit 
at plays yet unpenned. 

Taking the fact of the quarto having been 
published before the folio, and the statement 
as to date already quoted from the title-page 
of the folio, and adding some less than un- 
supported assertions, GifFord makes the fol- 
lowing statements " Every Man in his 
Humour, is the first piece in the [Henslowe] 
list which we can appropriate, and this was 
then a popular play ; having been acted, as 
Mr. Henslowe says, eleven times between 
the 25th of November, 1596, and the loth 

of May in the succeeding year The 

success .... appears to have encouraged 
the author to attempt to render it yet more 
popular ; accordingly, he transposed the scene 
.... to London .... and introduced 
such appropriate circumstances as the place 

of action seemed to require According 

to the custom of the times, Jonson regained 
the property of his comedy by these numerous 
alterations ; it was thus acted for the first time 
in 1598 at the Black Friars, and Shakespeare's 
name stands at the head of the principal 
performers in it" {Memoir of yonson). Hence 
the quarto must give the Henslowe-sold ver- 



sion, and Gifford says in a note : " The old 
play probably remained at the Rose, where 
it had been brought out." And in the intro- 
duction to the play (where he further ante- 
dates its first appearance as in 1596 or 1595) 
he asserts : "the quarto edition appeared in 
1601 ; there is not the least probability of 
its having been given to the press by Jonson, 
whose name is misspelt in the title-page, and 
who, indeed, if the property of the. play had 
been in his own hands, would naturally be 
inclined to suppress it altogether. It had 
neither dedication nor .prologue, and was 
probably printed from the book-holder's copy 
at the Rose." 

I remark on these seriatim. 

(i) Gifford 's dates are erroneous. The 
play spoken of by Henslowe was a ne {i.e., 
new) play not produced on the 25th of 
November, 1596, but on the nth of May, 
1597; afterwards this "popular" play was 
played eleven times, up to the 13th of July; 
and after endeavours to resuscitate it on the 
nth of October and the 4th of November it 
vanished, never to re-appear. 

(2) But the next point is more curious and 
important. *' ' Every Man in his Humour' 
is," says Gifford, " the first piece in the list 
that we can appropriate." Now Henslowe 
ten times calls this play " The Comodey of 
Umers," and four times (including an inven- 
tory taken " after 3 March 1598") *' Umers j" 
never anything else. Neither is Jonson's 
name in any way connected with it. Could 
no one but Jonson have written a Comedy 
of Humours ? Had he a patent for the use 
of a word so commonly fashionable, that in 
three of his plays he rails at its over-constant 
abuse ; one at last so cant, that it had become 
a stock phrase in Corporal Nym's mouth in 
1599. But Gifford so cunningly contrived 
his phrases as to make the reader believe 
that " Every Man in his Humour," or words 
that unmistakably indicated it, were to be 
found thirteen, or as he gives it, eleven times 
in Henslowe's Diary. Beyond saying that 
his phrase of "appropriation" was a fitting 
one, I forbear from comment. 

(3) Jonson, according to Gifford, having 
then altered his play, though the latter's 
phrase, " numerous alterations" conveys as 
was probably intended an exaggerated idea 
of the changes made, " he, according to the 



''EVERY MAN IN BIS HUMOUR." 



17 



custom of the times, regained the property of 
his comedy." For such a " custom" the 
reader is remitted to his own or to Gifford's 
inner consciousness. Only the bare assertion 
is given, nor have I anywhere come across a 
proof. But judging from what I know of the 
views prevalent, either then or now, I should 
say that I feel certain that no one would at 
this day restore his copyright to Jonson 
because he had so altered it, nor on the 
application of a Henslowe, or proprietor of 
the first-copy, permit another company to act 
the second version. And I feel, if possible, 
more certain that such things would be less 
allowed then than now. Then, one thought 
as much of prior rights of possession, and 
much less of authors' rights being reclaimed 
by unimportant changes of wording and 
incident. The two versions are in title, 
language, general incidents, and plot essen- 
tially one play. 

(4) Next comes Gifford's only stated proof 
that this 1 60 1 quarto was not given to the 
press by Jonson : " [his] name is misspelt 
on the title-page." As I have said in The 
Antiquary (ii. 56), Jonson's publications 
before his part of y^afnes' Entertainment, 
1604, were these : "Every Man out of his 
Humour," 1600, before which only his initials 
were'placed; our present play, 1601, "Cynthia's 
Revels," 1601, and " The Poetaster," 1602 
the two latter expressly allowed by Gifford to 
have been published by Ben himself. Yet all 
three spell the name " Johnson." His jFames' 
Entertainment was the first book in which 
the form (this time in Latin) " B. Jonsonii" 
occurs. It needs only to be remembered 
that Gifford had all the quartos, and read 
and consulted them all. 

(5) Though no argument other than this 
misspelling is set forth, Mr. Gifford would 
insinuate another doubt into his reader's 
mind by adding as to the quarto : " It had 
neither dedication nor prologue ;" to which I 
would add, nor preface. But the man who 
wrote this knew well, that many contem- 
porarily published plays had none of the 
three. He knew that in Shakespeare's com- 
plete works, edited by his actor associates, 
there are no prologues before his fourteen 
Comedies, three only before the same number 
of Histories, and three before his thirteen 
Tragedies. Yet he would bQ a poor reasoner 

vol.. VI. 



who inferred that Shakespeare disliked pro- 
logues, and that in deference the actors 
in his case gave up a custom to which 
audiences looked forward. Gifford knew 
also, when he penned these words, that no 
one of Jonson's five plays, up to " Sejanus" 
inclusive, had a dedication; that none but 
"Sejanus," 1605, had a preface, except a note 
of five lines at the bottom of a page before 
"Every Man out of his Humour;" that 
" Sejanus" has no prologue, and that " Every 
Man out of his Humour" and "Cynthia's 
Revels" have only an induction and a form of 
prologue, " The Poetaster," 1602, being the 
first with a prologue in the usual form. 

(6) According to Gifford's argument, 
though he carefully avoids mention of the 
fact, Henslowe not only put forth his copy 
surreptitiously, but prefaced it with the lying 
statement : " as it hath beene sundry times 
publickly acted by the right Honorable the 
Lord Chamberlaine his servants." 

(7) Assuming, with Gifford, that this quarto 
was from Henslowe's copy, and that the title- 
page bore a lie placed with intent to deceive ; 
I ask, how is it that Henslowe one who at all 
times looked after his self-interest, and with a 
self-interest still more aroused by anger at 
the loss of the improved play, and at the 
death of a favourite and, therefore, paying 
actor, Gabriel Spenser, killed by Jonson just 
before the 26th of Sept. 1598 how is it that 
he delayed publishing it until 1601 ? In 1598 
and 1599 the improved play was in vogue. 
In 1 60 1 it had comparatively passed out of 
date; 1599 saw its equally, or rather more 
successful successor, " Every Man out of his 
Humour;" 1600 saw "Cynthia's Revels" 
played by the then most popular little eyases ; 
while in 1601 the town was taken up with 
the quarrel which early in that year pro- 
duced Dekker's " Satiro-Mastix," and " The 
Poetaster." 

(8) Again, one asks, is it likely, that during 
the new version's successful run at the Black 
Friars, Henslowe would not have tried to 
benefit by it, and posted and acted it as 
" the true and original piece ?" Such seems 
a necessary prelude to the unauthorized and 
lying publication. But one asks and gains 
only a negative reply. Henslowe'.s Diary is 
extant, but the " Umers " appears not after 
the 14th of Nov. 1597. 



" E VERY MAN IN HIS HUMOUR." 



(9) I ask, also, is it likely that Henslowe, 
having had his version entered on the 14th 
of Aug. 1600, and published in 1601, with a 
direct lie on the face of it evidently directed 
against Jonson's reputation and interests ; is 
it likely, that the conceited, arrogant, and 
vindictive Jonson, then smarting under stage 
and other literary attacks on himself and his 
plays, should on the 25th of Sept. 1601, have 
quietly gained and accepted from Henslowe, 
as shown by the Diary, forty shillings " upon 
his writtinge of his edicions in Geronymo ?" 

(10) Is it, too, probable or possible, that 
such a one as Ben should have chosen the 
publisher of this surreptitious quarto as the 
publisher of his next printed play ? Yet he 
did this. Our quarto was entered by Walter 
Burby and Walter Burre, and published by the 
latter in 1601. On the 23rd of May, 1601, was 
entered " Narcissus, or Cynthia's Revels," 
by Walter Burre, and it was set forth by 
him in 1602. 

(11) Not only so, but the title-pages, 
mutatis mutandis, may be called almost 
fac-similes the one of the other. Under 6 
I have given part of the 1601 one; the 
corresponding portion of the 1602 runs : 
"As it hath beene sundry times privately 
acted on the Black Friers by the children of 
her Maiesties Chappell." In the 1601 quarto 
we find "Written by ben iohnson," the 
same words, so spelt, and in the same types 
appear in Narcissus. Was Jonson then so 
enraptured with the appearance of the copy 
printed against his wish and interests, and 
falsely asserting itself to have been revised by 
him for the Shakespeare Theatre ? Or was 
he the editor of both ? Need I pause for a 
reply even for the second or two that did 
Brutus ? 

(12) Attention is also and especially called 
to this. The quartos of " Every Man in his 
Humour" and " Cynthia's Revels" were en- 
tered in .1600 and 1601, within ten months 
of one another. For the first, second, and 
only times (until the folio which has the 
second line on the title-page of the first- 
named play) they bore this motto from 
Juvenal : 

Quod non dant proceres, dabit Histrio 

Haud tamen invideas vati quern pulpita pascunt. 

Gifford, in remarking on this as prefixed to 
the " Revels," says and, I think, rightly 



'' that it was probably due to some circum- 
stance now unknown." Yet, according to 
him, one of two things. Either Jonson 
placed this on the fore-front of his play- 
house copy for the delectation and informa- 
tion of ignorant men, with Henslowe igno- 
rantissimus at their head ; and they then 
printed it on their title-page, though they 
struck out Jonson's prologue. Meanwhile, 
Jonson adopted another motto for his *' Out 
of his Humour," and then, after two or three 
years, recurred to it for the last time in his 
*' Cynthia's Revels." Or this Henslowe, void 
of Latin, with intuitive perception picked out 
of the whole range of that literature the very 
two lines which Jonson was about to use for 
another play. Instead of either of these 
absurdities, is it not simpler to believe that 
one like Jonson, vehement but not implacable, 
used this motto under the influence of strong 
feeling, and then took up a new one. 

(13) The most casual glance at this 1601 
quarto, shows it to possess in a marked 
degree that which Mr. Gifford himself calls 
a characteristic of Jonson's publications, 
accuracy; accuracy of printing, of text, ot 
spelling, and in especial an attention to 
punctuation. Most quarto plays are deficient 
in these qualities, and a surreptitious publica- 
tion was more likely to be so, especially as 
regards punctuation. Somewhat accustomed 
to old quartos, I was at once struck with the 
family hkeness of this 1601 work to Jonson's 
undoubtedly legitimate progeny, and, though 
I had then not begun this inquiry, I almost 
unconsciously exclaimed, " Aut Jonsonio, aut 
Diabolo." 

(14) I have not yet remarked on GifFord's 
statement that it is the 16 1 6 folio version 
which says on its fore-front that it was "Acted 
in the yeere 1598," though this seems strongly 
to support his theories. Neither has any 
direct proof been set forth that the first ver- 
sion was first played in 1598. I have 
showed, however, incidentally, that while the 
two versions varied a little in their minor 
incidents and wording of the dialogue, they 
were but one play, one in title and one in 
general plot. Now, the very title-page that 
Gifford quotes does not say that " this new 
or second version," but that this play of 
" Every Man in his Humour : a Comcedie 
[was] Acted in- the yeere 1598." I also 



''EVERY MAN IN HIS HUMOUR:' 



19 



noted that Mr. Gifford rightly rightly so far 
as his desire to prove his own argument is 
concerned omitted, in his notice of the 
quarto title-page, to quote the words " as it 
hath beene sundry times publickly acted by 
the right Honorable the Lord 'Chamberlaine 
his servants." And anent this -I ask the 
reader especially to remember that Jonson, 
up to just about the 26th Sept. 1597, when 
he fought with Gabriel Spenser, was in 
Henslowe's employ, a sharer in his theatre, 
and a writer for it, but that after this he had 
perforce to take his ware elsewhere, and as 
it happened it was accepted by the Lord 
Chamberlain's servants. Thirdly, I instance 
from Jonson himself the proof that he held 
different versions to be one and the same 

' play. 

'* Sejanus" was first acted and damned ui 
1603. In 1605 Jonson published his altered 
and revised version of it, thus prefaced 
" Lastly, I would informe you that this Booke, 
in all numbers, is not the same with that 
which was acted on the publike Stage, 
wherein a second Pen had good share ; in 
place of which I have rather chosen to put 
w-eaker (and no doubt less pleasing) of mine 
own, then to defraud so happy a Genius of 
his right by my lothed usurpation." Yet in 
the 161 6 version, the copy of this 1605, 
second, or Jonsonian version, both in the 
title-page, and at the end of the play, are 
placed these words " First acted in the 
yeere 1603," a date only applicable to the 
original or double-author version. 

I do not summarize these arguments and 
objections, thinking it sufficiently shown that 
Gifford's assertions, taken in their most 
favourable light, are but baseless fabrics, and 
that this quarto is what it and every known 
circumstance proclaim it to be. But, though 
it matters not either way to my arguments, I 
would notice a play spoken of in Henslowe's 
Diary, which while answering in point of date 
to " Every Man in his Humour,' cannot be 
otherwise explained. On p. 106 we find, re- 
peated almost verbatim on p. 116 : "Lent 
imto Bengemen Johnstone, the 3 of desembr 
1597, upon a Booke w'^'^he was to writte for 
us before crysmas next after the date hereof, 
w''' he showed the plotte unto the company : 
I saye lente in Redy money unto hime the 
some of xxi\" Now taking a year (or less, 



the plot being laid) as Jonson's usual time 
for a play, and the Christmas not that within 
twenty-two days, during which he could not 
have written his dialogue, but that of the 
following year, as I think we are entitled 
from Henslowe's illiterate mode of expressing 
himself to assume ; remembering also that just 
previous to the 26th of Sept., 1598, Jonson 
killed G! Spenser, we can readily believe 
that this was Jonson's first complete play, 
afterwards proffered by him to Shakespeare's 
company, and played by them in 1598. 

Brinsley Nicholson. 

Xetter from BenmarF?, 




INCE I wrote last, several important 
works in your department have 
appeared in Scandinavia. 

In Sweden we have Part I. of a 
splendid work on The Rock-carvings of BoJms- 
Idn, carefully drawn by L. Baltzer, with an in- 
troductory notice by Dr. V. Rydberg.* There 
are two plates, the one in double-folio size. 
When completed, this will indeed be a re- 
markable work on a remarkable class of 
antique remains, those curious figures of 
men and ships, animals, wheels and other 
objects cut or punched on the living rock, 
which are so abundant in Scandinavia, es- 
pecially in parts of Sweden and Norway; 
and Bohuslan was once a province of Nor- 
way. They doubtless date from the Bronze 
age. The text is in Swedish and French. 
Another valuable novelty is the second 
edition of Hildebrand's Anglo-Saxon Coins 
fotind in Sweden.^ In the first issue (of 
1846) the number described was 4,232; in 
the present we have 10,458, but with the 
120 Irish coins here added, 10,578 pieces. 
The venerable author is so distinguished 
as a learned and careful numismatist, that 
we handle his elegant volume and its 
many plates with entire confidence. His 
English series commences with Eadgar 

* Hdllristninsar frS,n Bohtisldn (Sverige). Teck- 
nade och utgifna af L. Baltzer. Iv!cd Forord af 
Viktor Rydberg. i Haftet. Goteborg. 1881. Folio. 

+ Anglosachsiska Mynt i Svenska Kongliga Mynt- 
kitbinettet ftinna i Sveriges Jord, 8vo. Stockholm. 
1881. 

f ; 3 



20 



LETTER FROM DENMARK. 



(959-975)5 but the great mass are ^thelred's 
and Cnut's, &c. Thus, " Dane-gelt" money, 
chiefly found in Gotland (the trade-emporium) 
and in Scania (once Danish land). English 
collectors will of course find this handsome 
and very cheap volume indispensable. 
Part III. of Swedeti in the Middle Age, by 
the numismatist's gifted son, the present 
Swedish Riks-antiquary,* is a welcome in- 
stalment of this excellent work, so needful 
for all British students, of which I have 
already spoken. An essay which breaks 
ground in a new direction is J. Kreliger's 
T/ie Aryan Element in the Old Swedish 
Family and Clan.\ Herein the author for 
the first time throws Scandinavian light on 
questions now under debate religion, mar- 
riage, the father and his children, slaves, 
freedmen, inheritance, the village com- 
mune, &c. 

Passing over to Norway, we ^gain meet a 
welcome gift to British coin-collectors. In 
a handsome quarto pamphlet Dr. Stenersen, 
Keeper of the Christiania Cabinet, carefully 
describes the famous coin hoard found at 
GrseslidJ in 1878. These silver pennies, 
more than 2,200 in number, are nearly all 
Norwegian, and many hundreds of them bear 
Runic inscriptions. These pieces were struck 
for Harold Hardrede and his sons, Magnus 
and Olaf, and the hoard was buried late in 
the eleventh century. Very many of the 
coins are " barbarous," that is, the work of 
moneyers who lived by cheating the king of 
his mintage-tax. Several of the runic legends 
are very interesting. The commonest is : 
KUNAR (with variations), a (or o), mot (or 
MOTi), t-is (or hsA, J>iTA, &c.). One of 
these last pronominal differences is 1'isy or 
i'lSYi, where the clear y has been incorrectly 
printed and read by Dr. Stenersen as k. In 
like manner we have Lofrikr a mot )'ita. 
So the genitive formula : konars mot I'isa 
(with variants), and the absolute formula, 
KUNAR mot I'ISA, &c. One curious type is 
lettered : askell o penek ^en {Askell owns 
Penny this), penek instead of the usual mot 

* Sveriges Medeltid. Kulturhistorisk Skildring. Af 
Hans Hildebrand, i. 3. 8vo. Stockholm. 1881, 

t Det Aryska Elementet / den Fomsryenska Fainil- 
Jens och Slagtens Organisation. Af J. Kreiicer. 8vo. 
Lund. 1881. 

X Myntfimdet fra Graslid i Thydalcn, beskrevet. 
Af Dr. L. B. Stenersen. Christiania. 1881. 



or moti.' The non-Runic give on reverse : 

VLFCEL ME FE (/), and LEFRICS MOT. On 

seven plates no fewer than 225 coins are 
figured, either one side or both. We heartily 
thank the author for this contribution to Runic 
and numismatic science. It is only a step 
from coins to another branch of old-lore, 
The Beginnings of the Irofi Age in Northern 
Europe, a Study in Comparative Prehistoric 
Archceology .* This inquiry has been taken 
up by Dr. J, Undset, the gifted Norse old- 
lorist, and his book is the result of long 
labours in the chief museums at home and 
abroad. It is not too much to say that this 
is the best work on the subject yet published, 
and that its perusal will immensely help and 
enrich all who feel any interest in this wide 
and wonderful field. The material is well 
mastered and arranged ; thirty-two plates of 
antiquities are added, besides several in the 
text, and various valuable notices are given. 
Thus it will soon be in many hands. I 
would only remark that, in my eyes, my 
excellent friend makes his Scandinavian 
dates far too low, for I look upon both 
Iron and Runes as centuries older in the 
North than Dr. Undset will admit. I also 
claim other centres whence olden arts and 
art - motives have come than Switzer- 
land on the one side, and Austria on the 
other. Behind and older than these, are 
the East, Asia Minor, Greece, the Crimea, 
Grecian colonies in Scythia, and so on. I 
will only now speak of one other Norwegian 
book, the charming Essay by the Rev. Dr. 
Bang, on Julian the Apostate.^ It only 
holds 170 pages, but is full of matter. Its 
tone is entirely objective, does justice to 
every better quality in that famous pervert 
(who, in fact, never was really a Christian), 
and as little hides his faults. Every source 
of information has been ransacked, many 
ingenious results obtained. The whole is 
admirable reading. 

Coming riow to Denmark, the great 
literary event has been the establishment 
at last of " The University - Jubilgeum 
Danish Society," formed in commemoration 

* yemalderens begyndelse i Nord-Europa : en 
studie i sammenligende forhistorisk arkceologi. Af Dr. 
Ingvald Undset. 8vo. Christiania. 1 881. 

t Julian den Frafaldne. Af Dr. Theol. Chr. 
Bang. Svo. Christiania. i88r. 



LETTER FROM DENMARK. 



at 



of the four-hundredth anniversary of the 
Danish University. Owing to the lamentable 
misunderstanding in late years of the Ice- 
landic language, which is a modern, very 
peculiar and very difficult local dialect (though 
of immense value on account of its literature, 
like as Anglo-Norman, Provencal, Tuscan, 
Castilian,or any other), looking upon it as once 
the mother-tongue of all the folk-lands after- 
wards united as Sweden, Norway, Denmark, 
and England northern philology has in 
this century taken a wrong direction. It has 
in fact regarded the ancient languages and 
dialects of the Scandinavian main as con- 
temptible peasant-patois compared with the 
" holy" Icelandic, monstrously and absurdly 
by this school called " Old Northern." 
People now see that this whole idea is im- 
possible nonsense ; that the northern lands, 
like all others, have had very many con- 
tinually changing clan-dialects ; that all 
book-languages are, to a certain extent, 
" schooled" and conventional ; and that to 
understand the national speech in general 
we must study everything of every age, from 
the oldest runes to the modern provincial 
talks. Hence a great Dialect Society has 
been formed in Sweden (Upsala), another in 
Norway (Christiania), and a third in Den- 
mark (Copenhagen). All three are of special 
interest to us, as the bulk of our population 
and speech is of Scandinavian origin. But 
this renders a knowledge of English, in all 
its older and later forms, necessary for 
Scandinavians, for England is Scandinavia's 
oldest great colony, as Iceland is its second, 
and English speech is even yet essentially 
(apart from its Romance element), the same 
latiguage as that of Scandinavia before the 
latter locally developed the post-article and 
the passive (or middle) verb, changes which 
sprung up in Scandinavia so late that they 
were unknown to the ninth and tenth century 
Wiking settlements in Great Britain and Ire- 
land. Particularly are the old North English 
dialects the key to the Scandinavian, for they 
show the same rapid nasalizing of the N, and 
other such slurrings, as the Scandinavian; 
while the old South English (the vulgar 
" Anglo-Saxon") for centuries holds fast the 
N and other olden forms. Hence, also, no 
one can know English who has not examined 
the monuments and dialects of the mother- 



country, particularly Danish, for the northern 
colonists in England (from the third century 
downwards, and through the Wiking period) 
were chiefly from Denmark. 

The Danish Society is, therefore, highly to 
be encouraged by all English-speaking lands. 
Its object is, to pubhsh dictionaries of the 
book-language and of the great local dialects, 
to prepare works on proper names and place 
names, to print olden Danish manuscripts or 
unique pieces already in print, to help the 
study of all these things by papers in a 
journal, and so forth. It consequently unites 
in itself more than is attempted by both the 
Early English Text Society and the English 
Dialect Society put together. Its members 
receive all its publications gratis {plus book- 
post). Life members pay only i oo kroner 
(less than jQd sterling). Annual members 
pay lo kroner (about i \s. 6d.). But even this 
small sum will be reduced when a sufficiently 
large number of members has joined. It has 
already about 200 on its roll. Fresh names 
will be gladly received by its honoured 
treasurer, the Danish publisher, Carl Reitzel 
(Address : Lovstraede, Copenhagen, Denmark). 
British and American ' students and libraries 
should hasten to help, by sending in their 
subscriptions. 

This excellent club has only been one year 
in active existence. But it has already pub- 
lished : I. A facsimile reprint, with wood- 
cuts, of a unique Danish fly-sheet, dated 
1607, curious and laughable, The Legend of 
St. Peter'' s Three Daughters. 2. Blandinger 
{Miscellanea)^ contributions on Danish, among 
them an English paper, by Prof. G. Stephens, 
on a Dano-English name-list from Yorkshire, 
early eleventh century, here first printed. 3. 
Parts I and 2 of a Lexicon of Olden Danish, 
from 1300 to 1700, by Otto Kalkar, 208 pp., 
in double columns, large octavo, running to 
the word bivre. This will be an immense work 
when completed. Its publication has been 
assisted by a large grant from the Carlsberg 
Fund. 4. Old Jutlattdic Law Documents, 
part I, edited by Dr. 01. Nielsen, from 1444 
downwards, of great value, as written by 
unlearned scribes, and thus largely in t/ie 
yutlandic dialect. The next part will con- 
tain a learned introduction and glossary. 
The Society has received an annual grant 
from the Danish Ministry of Public Instruc- 



23 



LETTER FROM DENMARK. 



tion, and many gifts of money from private 
persons are coming in. In preparation are : 
The costly olden Danish Leech-books; 
Tales and Legends in the Vendelbo dialect, 
N. Jutland, with Danish translation ; the 
Alexander Saga ; the Rev. H. F. Feilberg's 
great Dictionary of the Jutlandic Dialects ; 
Thomas k Kempis in olden Danish, &c. &c. 

Nearly connected with all this activity is 
the completion of the remarkable chartulary, 
called Codex Esromensts, edited by Dr. 01. 
Nielsen, This vellum carries us back to the 
establishment of the famous Cistercian 
monastery at Esrom, in Zealand, in the middle 
of the twelfth century, with its subsequent 
fates. As might be expected, the older writs 
are in Latin, the Danish commencing in the 
middle of the fifteenth century. This work 
is of great value for Danish history, as well 
as in other directions. Lastly, the Danish 
poet, Ernst von der Recke, has published a 
highly interesting book on Danish verse- 
systems. It is a storehouse of information 
on this head ; but it errs in basing the whole 
on the classical metrical systems, instead of 
on the accent-verse of our Northern fore- 
fathers. George Stephens. 




History of ike Religious House of Pluscardyn ; with 
Introduction^ containing the History and Description 
of the present state of the Mother House of the Order 
of Vallis Caulium ( Val des Choux) in Burgundy. 
By Rev, S. R. Macphail. (Edinburgh : Oliphant, 
Anderson & Terrier. 1881.) 4to, pp. xxii. 285. 

HE niins of the Priory of Pluscarden in 
the west end of Elgin are truly magnifi- 
cent. The church was never completed, 
as the foundations of the west part of the 
cross were only laid. There are small 
pieces of fresco painting that remain under an arch in 
the church whi^h are tolerably accurate in the design) 
and the colours lively."* These are the few signifi- 
cant words which represent, to a considerable extent, 
the species of vague and incomplete information 
which has hitherto obtained about Pluscardyn and its 
religious house. Mr. Macphail has now come forward 
to tell us a longer and a better story. His book is 
one to be appreciated, because he goes into the 
question from the very beginning, and carries it right 
out to the end. 

* Sinclair's Statistical Accmmt of Scotland, 1793, 
V. 18. 



The Priory of Pluscardyn was founded as a house of 
the order of Vallis Caulium, or Val des Choux. Its 
mother house was in Burgimdy, and Mr. Macphail 
rightly goes there for the initial facts of his history. 
Having traced out the fall and destruction, and given 
a view, ground plan, and other illustrations of this 
Burgundian priory, Mr. Macphail transplants his 
readers to Morayland, civil and religious, before the 
founding of Pluscardyn. There they find a record of 
primitive life and primitive beliefs and fancies ; the 
former gained from chronicle history, the latter from 
the study of popular superstitions still existing. Any 
one who thus pursues the instructive history of 
monastic life will at once see it in its true and full 
significance. From this era of wild and imcivilized 
life we come to the facts attending the founding of the 
priory. .The original foundation charter is dated 
1230. Other charters are dated 1233, 1236, and 
1237. These three original pharters are reproduced 
in facsimile, and are also extended in an appendix. 
They grant to the priory twenty nets above Inverspey, 
the mill of Elgin, with the mills of the Castle of 
Forais, the mills of Dulpotin with all their multures, 
tlie fishing of Polfode, &c. These and such like 
grants convert the monastery into a civil corporation 
for the administration of great landed estates, and it 
is this fact that makes early monastic history of such 
great value to the general historical student. Mr. 
Macphail does not lose sight of this important phase 
of his studies, as, for instance, when he points out the 
true significance of the Convention of Burgesses in the 
churchyard of St. Giles at Elgin, in 1272, when a 
dispute between the monks and the town was settled 
a fact that the author rightly concludes to be an 
item of positive evidence of meetings being held in 
cimeterio, as against the negative evidence of the same 
fact advanced by Mr, Gomme in his Friinilive Folk- 
moots. Into the internal history of the priory, and the 
interesting personal account of the priors, we will not 
venture to enter. Of the structural beauty of Plus- 
cardyn we have ample evidence in the exceedingly 
good illustrations which have been supplied to the 
volume. Like Elgin Cathedral, the priory is partly 
of the first-pointed period, and partly of the second- 
pointed period. The author tells us of the "finds" that 
have been made in the neighbourhood, and from this 
evidence gives us an interesting chapter on the art and 
industry of the monks. There are the beautiful frescoes, 
in want it seems of preservation ; the remains of an 
extended system of horticulture, the working of iron, 
and above all, the manufacture of glass. All this is 
extremely interesting, and add greatly to the varied 
interest of a work which is well illustrated through- 
out, has a good index, and is worthy of the atten- 
tion our readers despite some faults of style. 



The Fall of the ATonarchy of Charles /., 1637- 1649. 

By Samuel Rawson Gardiner. (London : 

Longmans, Green & Co. 1882.) 2 vols. 8vo. 

Mr. Gardiner is the authority for this interesting 

period of English history. He has long been working 

up to this book, and now that it has come there is but 

one opinion as to its right to a place among the best 

histories of our nation. That so short a period should 

occupy so large a space is evidence that nothing has 



REVIEWS. 



33 



been neglected to make the book worthy of its subject. 
Preoccupied with no fanciful theories, patient in the 
research and study of original authorities, paying just 
attention to the labours of previous authors, possessing 
a most excellent and pleasing, if not actually brilliant, 
style, Mr. Gardiner has succeeded in giving us a work 
which should interest a large class of general readers, 
as it will, no doubt, those who study this period of 
English history. Is it too much to say that every 
family in England has a word to say about the struggle 
that brought out the best of Charles's character, and 
revealed the heroism of Cromwell ? We mourn the 
martyr king, but we glory in the Englishman who 
made himself feared throughout Europe. But Mr. 
Gardiner deals not with these nineteenth century 
reflections, but with the hard stem facts of the seven- 
teenth century. He divides his book into chapters, 
having for their subjects the religious opposition, the 
constitutional opposition, the riots in Edinburgh and 
the Scottish Covenant, the Assembly of Glasgow, the 
march to the Borders and the pacification of Berwick, 
the Assembly and Parliament of Edinburgh, the Short 
Parliament, passive resistance, the Scottish invasion, 
the Long Parliament, the trial of the Earl of Straf- 
ford, the King's visit to Scotland, the Irish rebellion 
and the grand remonstrance, the arrest of the five 
members, and the eve of civil war. Throughout all 
the events foreshadowed under these heads, Mr. Gar- 
diner leads his readers safely and securely ; and in 
addition to the qualities of his good authorship, we 
have excellent maps, good indexes, marginal notes, 
and all that makes a book useful and valuable to the 
student. We should like to see the records of English 
history dealt with in this way right throughout its long 
years of great and grand existence. There are still 
great gaps in the chain between Mr. Gardiner's His- 
tory, Mr. Fronde's, and Mr. Freeman's ; or, looking 
to later times, from Mr. Gardiner's and Lord Macau- 
lay's there are still greater gaps. Neither Mr. Free- 
man nor Mr. Gardiner can or should widen their area 
of work, but with two such names before us, are there 
no other students capable of completing a work begun 
like this ? 



Report on the Phanician and Roman Antiquities in 
the Group of the Islands of Malta. By A. A. 
Caruana, D.D., Librarian of the Public Library, 
Malta. (Government Printing Office, Malta. 1882.) 

It would be difficult to find gathered together else- 
where so much information on the early and historic 
remains of Malta before the time of the Knights, as is 
embodied in this Paper, and it greatly enhances its 
value, that Dr. Caruana has ^dded to a certain number 
of copies about forty photographs illustrative of tl>e 
objects of his Report. He describes many of the 
principal monuments from personal inspection, com- 
paring their present state of preservation with the 
descriptions of older writers ; where possible he takes 
note of all remains in private possession, as well as 
of those carried to foreign museums abroad ; he re- 
cords those of which now little or nothing but records 
exist ; and he takes account of all inscriptions, whether 
Phoenician, Greek, or Roman, connected with Malta. 

Beginning with the early or "Rough Stone" 



monuments, commonly attributed to the Phoenicians, 
the author gives very interesting accounts of the 
three great remains, the Gigantia in the isle of Gozo, 
and those at Hagiar Kim and at Mnaidra in Malta. 
No settled theory for the object of these famous 
buildings has yet been found, some doubt even 
attaches to the idea of their Phoenician origin, which, 
however. Dr. Caruana does not share ; while he con- 
siders Mr, Fergusson's conjecture that they were 
places of sepulture as untenable, grounding his opinion 
on the knowledge of the localities and of known local 
burial-places. Indeed, the thoughtful visitor to these 
striking monuments of ancient skill and strength finds 
it hard to agree with Mr. Fergusson's argument. 
Passing on to the ruins of the Temple of Melcarte 
and a few others, a bold attempt is made " to trace 
the primitive Phoenician topography of Malta," and 
the old centres of th^ir habitation. 

Still among the Phoenicians, we have a chapter on 
their pottery and glass, which are said to be distin- 
guished from the Greek by various marks ; another 
upon relics of sculpture, some of which looks rather 
Egyptian, though there is no trace of the Egyptians 
ever having been in Malta. Several very good pho- 
tographs from the collection in the Public Library 
illustrate these chapters, among which may par- 
ticularly be instanced one of the seven queer squat 
stone creatures called Kabiri. Fifteen Phoenico- 
Maltese inscriptions are known, and of these par- 
ticulars are given as to their discovery, where they 
are preserved, publication, &c. The " five undoubted 
Phoenico-Maltese coins" are the subject of a short 
chapter and a photograph; and, going beyond the 
bounds of tangible relics, a chapter on the "Phoenician 
remains in the Maltese idiom" forms the conclusion 
to this section of the antiquities. 

The second portion of the Report is devoted to 
Greek, Carthaginian, and Roman antiquities, for the 
period between 216 B.C. to 400 A. D., usefully intro- 
duced by a slight historic sketch. The only remains 
of the Carthj^inian rule appear to be some gold and 
brass coins. The Greek and Roman remains are 
classed together ; architectural monuments, such as 
temples, villas, baths, and other signs of dwellings ; 
sculpture ; pottery ; gems ; coins ; all pass under 
review, and the story gives a lamentable view of 
demolition and dispersion. Very few remains of the 
buildings now exist or are cared for. A long number 
of inscriptions are dealt with, copies and other details 
given, and three or four classes of coins are described 
and photographed. Nor must be forgotten two chap- 
ters, one on Pagan (/.if., Phoenician, Greek, and 
Roman) tombs, the other on Early Christian tombs 
and cemeteries, an interesting and little-known theme. 

Dr. Caruana does not claim to be exhaustive, even 
for the period to which he was limited; but enough 
has been said to show the interest of the volume. Of 
the numerous photographs the best are those taken 
from objects in the museum ; there are some, also 
highly instructive, copied from Houel ; but with the 
beautiful photographs of the Royal Engineers at hand 
many of those representing the "Phoenician temples" 
are disappointing. Yet, with all the difficulties 
attending the prcxiuction of a work of this kind in an 
island like Malta (and they are not a few), it is un- 
grateful to look at shortcomings. The author's 



H 



kE VIEWS. 



English is for the most part excellent, only casual 
expressions recalling that he is not bom to the 
language. 

The Regulations of the Old Hospital of the Knights of 
St. John at Valetta. With Translation, Introduc- 
tion, and Notes explanatory of the Hospital Work 
of the Order. By the Rev. W. K. R. Bedford. 
(Blackwood & Sons. 1882,) 
To provide for the sick in hospitals has been through 
all ages a work of Christian charity, but the casual 
visitor in Valetta does not always ponder over the 
representative character of the old hospital buildings 
he perchance visits at the bottom of Strada Mercanti. 
Those buildings mean that before the first Crusades a 
hospital was founded by a few good souls in Jerusalem 
for the sick and weary pilgrims who resorted thither, 
that the founders presently banded together to defend 
the pilgrims, and that thus arose what became the 
mighty brotherhood of the Knights of St. John, called 
of Jerusalem, of Rhodes, or of Malta, according, to their 
then abode. Wherever the knights were located, it 
was an essential part of their existence to provide and 
to care for a hospital for the sick ; and whenever their 
history comes to be written from their records, not the 
least interesting part will be that which gives details 
concerning the old hospitals before they came to Malta. 
That some such details exist, for example, of the pro- 
vision made for food and service for the hospital in 
Rhodes in the fourteenth century, there is no doubt ; 
and a careful search among the archives at Malta would 
be probably well rewarded. The compiler of the hand- 
some book before us, however, does not lay claim to 
such exhaustive work, though we cannot but think 
he has missed a good opportunity. The knights came 
to Malta in 1530 ; their hospital in Valetta was opened 
in 1575 ; we have here a reprint of the "Regulations" 
(in Italian), printed at Rome in 1725, with a descrip- 
tion and plan of the buildings (pp. xi. 48). The 
notes contain a few illustrative particulars, including 
John Howard's Report on the hospital in 1789, and 
heraldic descriptions of nineteen coats-of-arms of the 
French governors of the hospital. A curious fac- 
simile is given of an old print of the great ward for 
the sick, taken from a German work printed in 1650 ; 
but the title of this work is nowhere given. The 
" Regulations" afford a most interesting insight, not 
only into the management and service of the Hospital 
(Infermeria), but also into a system of charity con- 
nected with it for all the sick poor of Malta. Tables 
at the end show the number, amount, and kind of 
their officers, stores, and charities. We commend the 
work to others besides the members of the present 
"Order of St. John" in England, whose thanks Mr. 
Bedford, as one of their chaplains, deserves. 



answers the question why a line of demarcation should 
be drawn between the two counties of Devon and 
Cornwall and the rest of Great Britain, He points 
out that the main factors which have contributed 
largely to give to these counties a joint individuality 
and make them what they are, are first their geo- 
graphical position, and secondly, their internal re- 
sources. In the two hundred and sixteen pages of 
this volume a vast number of curious antiquarian 
points are raised, and in many cases settled satis- 
factorily. In the present day subscribers object to 
waiting a quarter of a year for anew number, and Mr. 
Wright has therefore tliought it advisable to change 
the Western Antiquary into a monthly. The first 
number of the new issue is before us, and it quite keeps 
up the high character which the first volume had 
already attained. We wish every success to the new 
series, and we do not doubt but what a large increase 
of subscribers will prove the wisdom of the change. 

flDccting6 of antiquarian 
Societies* 



The Western Antiquary, or Devon and Corn'wall Note- 
Book. Edited by W. H. K. Wright, Public 
Librarian, Plymouth. Part IV., March, 1882. 
Index Number, Vol. I. ; New Series, No. i. May, 
1882. (Plymouth: Latimer & Co.) 4to. 
With the fourth part of this interesting journal 
Mr. Wright completes his first volume. Mr. Borlase, 
M.P., has written an Introduction, in which he 



METROPOLITAN. 

Society of Antiquaries. May 4. Mr. Fresh- 
field, V.P., in the Chair. Mr. J. H. Middleton com- 
municated a note on an interesting discovery which had 
been made in the library of the Deanery of Westmin- 
ster. On removing some of the boards of the floor, a 
pavement of encaustic tiles was discovered. It is pos- 
sible that this may eventually, on further examination, 
prove to be the floor of the chapel of the old abbot's 
house, the position of which has hitherto been a 
matter of doubt. Mr. F. M. Nichols laid before the 
Society an historical poem of the fifteenth century on 
the mutability of fortune, illustrated by the fate of 
Eleanor Cobham, and the deaths of John, Duke of 
Somerset, and Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, and 
containing some interesting particulars as to the cause 
of King Henry's animosity. The Rev. J. Baron 
read a Paper on certain representations of St. George 
and the Dragon, in continuation of a previous Paper 
on the same subject. 

May II. Mr. A. W. Franks, V.P., in the Chair. 
The Rev. W. F. Creeny, of Norwich, exhibited a 
collection of i-ubbings of monumental brasses from 
the Low Countries and Germany. 

Archaeological Institute. May 4. Mr. T. H. 
Baylis in the Chair. A communication from the Rev. 
C. F. R. Palmer was read, consisting of notes on the 
Priory of Dartford, Kent, compiled from the archives 
of the Dominicans at Rome. A Paper, by Canon 
Venables, on Carrow Priory, Norwich, was read. 
This house was so utterly demolished at the dis- 
solution that nothing of it remained, except the 
prioress's house, which was turned into a dwelling- 
house, and the cores of the walls of the cloister garth, 
which were preserved to enclose a garden. The 
Rev. Edward King exhibited a dish, bearing the 
name of " Thomas Toft," which he has had the good 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



25 



fortune to pick up near'Werrington, in the county of 
Devon. 

British Archaeological Association. May 17. 
Mr. T. Morgan in the Chair. Mrs. Dent sent a 
plan of the Roman villa now being excavated in 
Spoonley Wood, about a mile from Sudeley Gastle. 
Mr. E. Walford described two Roman coins found at 
Hampstead. Rev. G. B. Lewis exhibited photo- 
graphs of the little known tapestries now preserved 
in Knowle Chapel, having been found in an attic 
several years ago by Lady Delaware. Mr. G. M. 
Hills read a short description of several examples of 
acoustic pottery found in ancient churches. Sir H. 
Dryden exhibited a photograph of a remarkable 
chessman of Norman date, found at Northampton 
Castle. Rev. S. M. Mayhew described a fine series of 
glass pottery carvings, and other works of much 
artistic merit. The first Paper was by Mr. J. Green- 
street, on the Camden Roll of Arms recently found 
by Mr, W. de Gray Birch in the British Museum, 
where it has remained for many years apparently un- 
noticed. It is the earliest known series of arms, 
there being 270 shields, and the length of the parch- 
ment being five feet three inches. It was in Camden's 
possession about 1605 ; but it dates from the time of 
Henry III. or Edward I. The second Paper was by 
Mr, E. P. Loftus Brock, on the remains now being 
excavated on the site of the new Stock Exchange. 

Anthropological Institute. April 25. Mr. 
Hyde Clarke, V. P., in the Chair. Mr. E. H.Man 
read a second Paper "On the Aboriginal Inhabi- 
tants of the Andaman Islands." He touched first 
upon the important subject of language ; and next 
proceeded to describe the Andamanese system of 
adoption and the recognized degrees of affinity, espe- 
cially as bearing on the question of marriage. Nu- 
merous superstitions, beliefs, and traditions were 
related. Mr. Man was careful to state that he had 
taken the precaution to obtain his information from 
members of distant tribes, who had had no opportunity 
of intercourse with Europeans or other aliens residing 
at Port Blair ; and he added that it was extremely 
improbable, for the reasons noted in his Paper, that 
any previous generations within historic times of 
these islanders could have obtained their versions 
from strangers. 

May 9. General Pitt-Rivers, President, in the 
Chair. Mr, G, M, Atkinson made some remarks upon 
a palaeolithic implement found eighteen feet below the 
bed of the Thames at Chelsea, and upon a jet ornament 
from Garvagh, Co. Londonderry, exhibited by Mr. A. 
G. Geoghegan. Mr. Worthington G. Smith exhibited 
a series of large paleolithic implements recently dis- 
covered. Dr. Bedcioe read a Paper on "The Evi- 
dence of Surnames as to Ethnological Changes inEng- 
land." In a Paper on " The Survival of Early Racial 
Features," Mr. J. P. Harrison showed, from measure- 
ments derived from ancient skulls and tracings from 
plates in the Crania Britannica, that the facial 
skeleton of the men of the Bronze period in this 
country differed essentially from that of the Saxons 
(i) in the greater prominence of their brow ridges, 
(2) the sharp projection of the nasal bones, (3) the 
length of the face, and (4) a more pointed chin. Now, 
a long, but not narrow, face, prominent brows, a 
high-bridged nose, and a fine chin, accompanied by a 



stature above the average, fair hair and eyes, and 
thin lips, characterize a large part of the population 
of the three kingdoms at the present day. And 
another equally well-defined type is also seen among 
us. Its distinctive features are a smooth brow, a 
straight or slightly incurved nose, ending in a bulb, a 
rounded face, a heavy chin, moulded lips, light hair 
and eyes, a stature about the average, with more or 
less substance. Mr. Harrison said it could not be 
doubted that living subjects, possessing respectively 
all these peculiarities, represent the two races above 
alluded to. The first, considered by the late Dr. 
Rolleston to be Cymric, would appear to include 
Danish, Belgic, and, perhaps, Anglian tribal varieties ; 
the second, Saxons, Franks, and Teutons generally. 
Early Danish and Belgic skulls differ from German 
in like manner. 

Royal Society of Literature. May 24. Sir P. 
de Colquhoun in the Chair. Mr, J, H, Heaton read 
a Paper "On the Origin, Manners, Customs, and 
Languages of the Natives of Australasia," 

Numismatic. May 18. Dr. J. Evans, President, 
in the Chair. Mr. J. G. Hall exhibited a four-ducat 
piece of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain (1474-1504) 
struck at Segovia, also a denier of Stralsund, obv. 
MONETA svNDENSis and a broad arrow, rev. devs 
IN NOMINE Tvo and a cross patee. Mr. H. 
Montagu exhibited a proof in silver of the gold 
broad piece of Oliver Cromwell, also a rare half- 
groat of Edward III. with an annulet on each 
side of the king's head. Mr. C. J. Rodgers ex- 
hibited nine silver coins of Cashmere bearing the 
names of different kings, but all dated in the year 
842, the reason for which Mr. Rodgers was unable to 
explain. M. J. P. Six communicated a paper on a 
unique silver stater of Cyprus, struck in the names of 
the two kings Nicocles and Demonicus, sons of 
Euagoras I., B.C. 410-374. The coin was probably 
issued shortly after the death of Euagoras. On the 
obverse is a seated figure of Zeus, and on the reverse 
a goddess standing, holding a patera and a branch. 
J. F. Neck read a Paper on a hoard of coins of Edward 
I. discovered at Northampton, in which he also made 
some remarks on the coinage of Edward II. and 
Edward III. 

New Shakspere Society. May 12. Mr. F. J. 
Fumivall, Director, in the Chair. A Paper was 
read by the Rev. W. A. Harrison on "The Juice of 
Cursed Hebenon" {"Hamlet^'' I. v. 62), which he 
described as being complemental to that by Dr. 
Brinsley Nicholson on the same subject. Premising 
that the poison intended must be the same as Mar- 
lowe's "Juice of Hebon" ("y^K/ ^/J/(7//rt," HI. iv.), 
he pointed out that the yew is called Hebon by 
Spenser and by other writers of Shakspere's age ; 
that in its various forms of Eben, Eiben, Ihben, &c., 
this tree is so named in no less than five different 
European languages, and produced most important 
medical testimony on the point. 

Royal Asiatic Society. Anniversary Meeting, 
May 15. Sir Edward Colebrooke, President, in the 
Chair. The Secretary, Mr. Vaux, read the Report of 
the Council, which stated that fifty-five new members 
had been elected during the past year ; and, at the 
same time, gave brief biographies of lieceased mem- 
bers and of others distinguished for various Oriental 



26 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



researches, including those of Prince Frederick of 
Schleswig-Holslein, Sir Erskine Perry, Profs. Benfey, 
Dowson, and Gregorief, and Messrs. Muir, Kraff, 
Lramsen, and Nain Singh. A notice was also added 
of the progress of Oriental studies since the last 
anniversary. 

Philological Society. May 5. Mr. A.J. Ellis, 
President, in the Chair. A Paper, entitled " Some 
Notes on Grammar," was read by Mr. E. L. Brandreth. 
It was contended that words ought to be classed as 
parts of speech with reference to their functions in a 
sentence, not by attaching meanings to them inde- 
pendent of such functions, and that some of these 
functions were primary, others secondary. 



PROVINCIAL. 

Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. May 8. 
Professor Duns, D.D., in the Chair. The first 
Paper read was "An Examination of the Place- 
names in Islay," by Captain F. W. L. Thomas, the 
list of farms in the Valuation Roll of Argyleshire 
being taken as a basis for the modem forms ; the 
charters of fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Blaeu's 
Atlas, and other sources, having been consulted for 
the older forms. Having collected all the forms of 
the names that could be got, maps and lists were 
searched for cognate names in the Hebrides and 
West of Scotland, and such as were considered to be 
of Norse origin were sought for in Orkney, Shetland, 
and Iceland. The greatest peculiarity in the Norse 
names of Islay is the prevalence of bolstndr, home- 
stead, which is found in about one-third of the whole 
Norse names, and usually indicates good land . The 
frequency of this term and the absence of vollr 
(usually Englished as the termination wall) points to 
some dialectic peculiarity in the Norse "name-men" 
or settlers. The difference between the place names 
of Islay and those of the neighbouring island of Mull 
is so marked that it has given rise to a proverb. 
The result of the examination was that in the 
Valuation Roll of Islay there are (including English 
names) 162 entries, of which 55 are place names 
derived from the Norse, and 107 derived from the 
Gaelic. In Lewis, when the English names are 
rejected, the Norse are three-fourlhs of the remainder, 
and the proportion of Norse to Gaelic is as four to 
one. It follows from this that the Scandinavian 
element, when compared with the Gaelic, is eight 
times stronger than in Islay. The second Paper was 
a notice by Dr. John Alexander Smith, Secretary, 
of an ancient ecclesiastical bell, of the Celtic form, 
now preserved in the Kelso Museum. The bell is 
1 1 inches in height and 8 by 64 inches at the mouth. 
It is of the usual Celtic form, tall, narrow, and 
tapering, with flattened edges and bulging sides. ' It 
is made of sheet iron, rivetted up the sides and 
bronzed by being dipped in melted bronze after it 
was made. Dr. Douglas has found evidence that it 
was brought from the parish of Ednam. It is the 
only relic now extant which is old enough to carry us 
back to the days of Thor the Long, the founder of 
the church and parish of Ednam, and is specially 
interesting as being the only specimen of its kind now 
known in the southern districts of Scotland.;^ In the 



third Paper, which was entitled "Observations on 
the Structure of St. Giles's," by Robert Rowland 
Anderson, and Andrew Kerr, architect, the results' 
of a visit paid to St. Giles's on the 4th of March last, 
were communicated to the Society. Their attention 
had been principally directed to the outline of five 
pointed windows which had been built up, situated 
immediately over the arches between the south pillars 
of the nave, remains of springers of arches roof out- 
lines of different dates which were then made visible 
by the operations for the restoration. It was con- 
sidered probable that the church to which the Norman 
door taken down in 1829 belonged, may have been 
erected in the reign of Alexander I., and may have 
been the church burned in 1355 by Edward III. The 
contract entered into in 1380 to vault over a part of 
the church implies that a new structure had been 
erected, which was again burned by Richard II., 
1385. The portion of St. Giles indicated by the 
octagonal pillars, embracing the choir, transepts, 
nave, and central tower, was apparently the church 
erected at this period. The vaulting of the north 
aisle of the choir is the oldest in the building, and 
remains apparently in its original state. Mr. David 
Cameron contributed a Paper on " The Ancient 
Circular Dwellings, Hill Forts, and Burial Cairns 
of Strathnairn." The Paper, which was illustrated by 
sketch plans of a number of the structures described, 
gave a summary of the Author's observations as to the 
character and contents, the dimensions and situations, 
of the various classes of structural remains that are 
met with in the district. The most numerous are 
the circular dwellings on the hill slopes and valleys, 
of which he had enumerated 118, varying from eight 
to fifteen yards in diameter. The district is also rich 
in cairns, and stone circles, and hill forts are not rare. 
Mr. James W. Cursiter communicated an account of 
the stone balls found in Orkney. Mr. Cursiter also 
exhibited casts of the two sides of a curious medalet 
in horn of early workmanship, showing on one side 
St. George and the dragon, and on the other, two 
figures supporting a cross. A fine cinerary um dug 
up at Quarryford, and presented by the Marcjuis of 
Tweeddale ; an urn of drinking-cup type dug up at 
Drem, and presented by Mr. James Reid ; an um 
found at Carnousie, near Turriff, and presented by 
Dr. A. J. Manson, were exhibited. Mr. Kirsop also 
exhibited an um found at Dalserf, and some Abyssi- 
nian and Indian curiosities. Rev. Dr. J. Joass ex- 
hibited an anvil of the Bronze age, and two massive 
bronze blades found in Sutherlandshire. 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society. May 8. 
Professor Babington in the Chair. On behalf of the 
Mayor of Cambridge, two yellow vases {^\ in. and 
5 1 in. high) were exhibited, that had been found 
during excavations in King Street, last July, at the 
depth of nine feet ; they probably belong to the latter 
part of the 15th century, and are notable for the un- 
usual perfection of the glaze. Professor J. E. B. 
Mayor read a Paper on "A Marsupial in Cambridge 
in 1700." In a note on Lucian's Vera Historia i. 
24, Moise Du Soul (Solanus, as he called himself; 
Soulius, as he is also called by Reitz and Gesner) 
tells us that a live marsupial was exhibited here in 
1700. Passing from the spectacle to the spectator, 
Du Soul, it appears that he is unknown to almost all 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



27 



biographers. Meagre notices in Haag's La France 
Protestante, and in Nichols' Lit. Aneai. iv. 286, are the 
only voices of the vatcs sacer to do him justice. He 
was grandson of Paul du Soul of Tours, Rector of the 
Academy of Saumur in 1657 and 1661. He fled from 
persecution ; was in Cambridge (possibly drawn by 
the fame of Bentley) in 1 700; A.M. per regias 
litteras 1701 (the year when Uentley was Vice-Chan- 
cellor); in 1702 a dissertation from his pen on the 
style of the New Testament was inserted in the syn- 
tagma of Rhenferd ; in February, 1708, he published 
at Cambridge a specimen of an edition of Lucian ; 
in 1720 he sent his collections for Lucian to the Wet- 
steins ; in 1722-1723 we find him at the Hague ; in 
1722 he published at Amsterdam a French translation 
of Prideaux' Connexion ; after the death of Augustine 
Bryan of Trinity he was engaged by Tonson to com- 
plete his edition of Plutaich's ZjV^'j, Lond. 1724-9; 
5 vols. 4to. At that time he was living in the 
country. He lived to 1733, or beyond that year. 
Mr. Griffith exhibited a series of rude pottery rings of 
two distinct types, found near the river at Harston and 
Barrington, which appeared to belong to the Roman 
Period, and which he suggested might have been in- 
tended for sinking nets. He compared them with 
rings of the same two types found in the Swiss Lake- 
Dwellings, which have been supposed to be stands for 
round-bottomed pottery vessels. Mr. Jenkinson gave 
some account of the discoveries made at Girton in 
September last. The traces of the Roman period had 
culminated in a rubbish-pit, which contained below 
broken urns of Roman fabric, several fragments of 
sculpture in oolite. He exhibited a lion's head about 
the size of life ; the torso of a military figure that had 
stood about four feet high ; the broad collar, the belt, 
the close-fitting coat, apparently of metal, and a short 
kilt-like garment peeping from under it, were clearly 
visible : one arm had been raised. These features 
showed a certain similarity with those of the bronze 
statuette found at Earith in 1826. Large numbers of 
Saxon urns had continued to occur, a diagram show- 
ing upwards of seventy in an area 50 feet square. One 
had been made with a square piece of glass in the 
bottom, for what purpose was not known ; a similar 
one, but smaller, had been procured from Hasling- 
field. Three spindle-whorls, one of stone and two of 
bone, two faceted crystal beads, shivered in the fire, 
were found ; and an incomprehensible implement of 
bone, consisting of two narrow pieces an inch and a 
half long, held parallel and six inches apart by a broad 
brace behind and two naiTow ones in front, rigidity 
being secured by two rivets at either end. The two 
pieces first mentioned had each two deep notches on 
their inner edge, the lower of which notches was con- 
tinuous in outline with a shallow depression cut in the 
edge of the braces. More beads and brooches had 
been found ; and also a bronze basin, of the usual 
Saxon t)T)e, in company with a bronze-hooped pail : 
these lay on either side of a body. The cemetery 
appeared now to have been completely explored. 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society. Annual 
Meeting, May 22. The Rev. R. Burn, Presi- 
dent, in the Chair. A Paper by Mr. C. W. King 
was read upon an antique cameo of agate-onyx (of 
which a cast was exhibited) measuring 8 in. x 7 in. : 
the bust engraved upon it was identified by the flowing 



and massy curls, by the ccgis, and especially by the 
prominent forehead wreathed with chestnut-leaves, as 
Jupiter of Dodona, under which type it was added 
that a portrait of the Emperor Antoninus Pius may 
possibly be adumbrated. Dr. Bryan Walker exhibited 
a Terrier of I^ndbeach drawn up in 1549 by order of 
Matthew Parker, who was then Master of Benet Col- 
lege and Rector of Landbeach. The parish contained 
at that date two Manors, of which the lands were 
intermixed, one belonging to the College, the other 
now the Manor of the Worts Trustees to Sir 
Richard Kirkby. The arable land of the parish was 
884 acres, divided into four fields or Cavtpi, contain- 
ing respectively 279, 259, 229, and 117 acres. There 
was also a field of meadow, containing 189 acres. 
These fields were each subdivided in 1 5 or 20 smaller 
portions called Qiia7-cntela:, and each Quarentela into 
Selions, averaging about half an acre each, but not 
uniform in size. Thus the 884 acres of arable land 
lay in 1,806 separate portions, separated by balks or 
strips of grass, Mr. Jenkinson exhibited two Roman 
rings from Cheiterford. One of these was of brass ; 
and the device, a mask, was embossed upon a thin 
plate of metal, which had been soldered to the ring. 
The other was of iron, and exhibited in two places a 
simple form of decoration : the metal being worked 
to resemble two ends meeting, one of which is forked 
to receive the other which tapers, and a few transverse 
lines convey the appearance of binding or lashing. 
From a rubbish-pit recently encountered by the gravel- 
diggers several pieces of pottery were shown as specially 
interesting in form. A Samian saucer, having an up- 
right inner rim and, in addition to this, another rim or 
horizontal ledge projecting outwards, was the first 
complete specimen of the kind that had been obtained ; 
and it was suggested that the outer rim was original 
to the design, the inner one being a development to 
increase the capacity. The potter's mark was CONSTAS. 
Tlie bottom of a Samian saucer was also shown, which 
after the upper part was gone had the fractured 
edges ground down, apparently to be inverted and 
used as a small cup. It showed a potter's name, 
apparently unpublished, SATINVS. The only other 
vessel worthy of notice was of shining black ware, 
about six inches high. The upper part was concave 
in outline : there was a sharp angle between this 
curve and a short horizontal line inwards, from which 
the lower part springs M'ith a convex outline to the 
base. The rubbish-pit which furnished these objects 
had not yet been worked out, but its contents were 
remarkable. Three human skeletons occurred, whose 
position proved them to belong to the Roman time. 
The brass ring above described lay close to the head 
of one of them. A layer of burnt wood lined the 
whole width of the pit at a low level ; and the frag- 
ments of an amphora formed an adjacent layer almost 
as extensive. 

North Hants Archaeological and Field Club. 
May 25. 'An excursion* was made by the members 
of this Club to Bramley, Silchester, and Beaurepaire. 
The excursionists first proceeded to Bramley. The 
church was visited. Mr. Cooksey explained the ob- 
jects of interest, first drawing attention to two mural 
paintings, in tolerable preservation. One represented 
the murder of Thomas a Becket, and the other St. 
Christopher carrying the infant Christ across the 



28 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



stream. These are acknowledged of Early thirteenth- 
century work. Having inspected the font of ancient 
Sussex marble, attention was directed to the magnifi- 
cent tomb to the memory of Bernard Brocas, who 
died November 8, 1777, aged 48. He was the lineal 
descendant of Sir Bernard Brocas, Knight, son of 
Earl Foix, of Normandy, who attended the fortunes 
of William the Conqueror in England, and was re- 
warded for his services by a grant of land near 
Basingstoke, on which he built a mansion-house, 
calling it after the name of the ancestral seat in 
Notmandy Beaurepaire. Immediately within the 
rood-screen was pointed out the dedication cross, 
painted on the wall to the left as one enters. The 
church is essentially Norman, as indicated by windows 
and doors, though very little of the original remains. 
It is dedicated to St. James. The tower appears to 
have been built in 1625. The party then started for 
Silchester. The Forum was thoroughly inspected, 
and the party then passed on to the remains of the 
Temple. Having inspected a recent excavation of a 
Roman villa, the party crossed over the roadway to 
the baths, and there Mr. Cooksey explained the pro- 
bable method of heating the baths. The party then 
passed to the outer wall ; at one point in this is a 
hole which is called " Onion's Hole," from a tradi- 
tion of a giant who lived at Silchester. The coins 
found about here are called by the people "Onion's 
pennies." Near the south gate the old Roman guard- 
rooms were pointed out, and by the gateway were 
capitals of pillars. Passing out by the south gate they 
walked round by the wall, which is here very distinct 
and shows its massiveness plainly. The party having 
returned to the Forum, the Secretary read a Paper 
on Silchester, by Dr. Stevens. The Paper was ac- 
companied by a map of the ruins and their sur- 
roundings. The party next went to the Museum, 
which has been re-arranged, and were received by 
the Rev. Mr. Joyce. Here they inspected the inter- 
esting collection of archseological curiosities which 
had been collected from the excavations adjoining. 

Manchester Field Naturalists' Society. May 
13. Mr. Carr read a sketch of the history of Holford 
Hall. " Holford," as a surname, was first adopted 
about the year 1 3 16. The mother of these first 
Holfords was descended from one Gralam, whose 
inheritance included the neighbouring estate of 
Lostock, and hence the present name of the railway 
station hard by. The last of the Holfords in the 
direct line was an only child, the celebrated Lady 
Cholmondeley, and it was by her that this place 
was rendered noteworthy. Originally the old hall 
composed three sides of a quadrangle, the boun- 
dary of the fourth side being formed by tiie moat 
and the bridge, the latter still intact, though the 
former has long since been dry, and now serves as 
an appendix to the orchard and kitchen-garden. A 
very curious feature of the hall is the piazza upon the 
inner western side. The upper storey projects con- 
siderably over the lower one, and is supported by 
crude wooden pillars. The eastern portion of the hall 
has totally disappeared. Such of it as remains is now 
used as a farmhouse, no Holford appearing to have 
resided here since 1625, the year of the decease, aged 
sixty-three, of the " Bold Ladie of Cheshire," as King 
James I. was wont to style the vigorous mistress 



with whom the celebrity came to an end. The 
epithet would seem to have been merited, since she 
not only "builded anew, repayred, and enlarged" the 
hall, but waged war with her relatives over the lands 
to which they laid claim for forty years, when the 
mediation of friends at length prevailed. Her son was 
created Earl of Leinster by Charles I. 

Bath Field Club. May 23. An excursion of the 
Club to the Seven Springs, the supposed source of the 
River Thames, took place. A Paper was read by the 
Vice-President, in wliich he examined the opinions that 
had been expressed by earlier writers as to the source 
of the river and the origin of the name. He also gave 
an account of the ancient worship of streams, the 
remains often found at their source, both in Britain 
and on the continent, but stated that no such remains 
had been found at the Thames head, nor yet at the 
head of the Tiber, of which he also gave a brief 
account. A single stone alone marked the rise of the 
Thames, and no coins are recorded to have been dis- 
covered. The remains of the Roman villa at Wit- 
combe were afterwards inspected. They lie in the 
ascent of the rising ground to the south sufficiently 
high to command a good view of the valley as it ex- 
tends to Gloucester and the Severn, having the ancient 
Roman road from Cirencester to Gloucester running 
in a direct course tlirough it. Two rooms of the villa 
having tessellated pavements, now enclosed under shed.s, 
were examined, and the patterns noted. The decora- 
tions are composed of cubes worked into the form of 
fishes of different kinds, chiefly salmon, and the outer ' 
border formed into the key pattern. These floors, 
divided into apartments, the doorways of which 
remain, rest upon supports, and are hollow under- 
neath. Some of the supports have fallen, and they 
are therefore rendered uneven. Near there is another 
chamber containing the bath, and an adjoining cham- 
ber, which has also a hypocaust underneath, and the 
external stove for heating. Higher up are the re- 
mains of the tank which supplied the water, but the 
stream is now diverted. 

North Staffordshire Naturalists' Field Club 
and Archaeological Society. May 23. The 
second excursion of the present season took place at 
Wetton and the valley of the Manyfold. Arrived at 
Grindon, they proceeded to walk down tlie fields 
through Lady-side Wood to Thor's Cave. Here 
the president for the year, Mr. W. U. Spanton, 
read a description of the cave, written by the late 
Mr. Samuel Carrington, of Wetton. A splendid 
view of the surrounding country was obtained from 
the summit of the cave, the eye having an extensive 
unbroken reach over some most charming hill and 
valley scenery. Leaving the Thor, lieadway was 
made up the Manyfold valley. The party rested at 
a picturesque nook at Wetton Mill, returning to 
Grindon by way of Ossam's Hill, from which spot 
another exceptionally fine view of a splendid country 
was obtained. 

Edinburgh Architectural Association. The 
closing meeting of this Society for the session was 
held on May 17, when the retiring president, Mr. 
MacLachlan,- read " Notes of some Old Edinburgh 
Architects." The first architect mentioned was 
William Burn (a pupil of Mr., afterwards Sir 
Robert, Smirke), who restored St. Giles's Cathedral. 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



29 



The buildings in Edinburgh designed by him are 
St. John's Episcopal Chapel, the New Club, the 
Melville Monument, John Watson's Hospital, and 
the Music Hall. Tlie next architect mentioned was 
David Hryce, to whom we are indebted for the 
British Linen Company's Bank, the Western Bank, 
now the Scottish Widows' Fund Office, in St. 
Andrew's Square, the Clydesdale Bank, Subscrip- 
tion Library, North British Lisurance Office, Fettes 
College, Sheriff Court House, Royal Infirmary, Union 
Bank, and ihe addition to the Bank of Scotland. 
The other architects of whose lives .sketches were 
given were Robert Reid, who designed St. George's 
Church and the frontages of Charlotte Square ; 
James Gillespie Graham, the friend of Pugin, and 
the author of the Assembly Hall the spire of this 
hall is claimed for Pugin, who seems to have assisted 
Graham with many drawings St. Mary's Roman 
Catholic Chapel (Pro-Cathedral), and St. Margaret's 
Convent ; John Henderson, who designed Trinity 
Episcopal Chapel, Dean Bridge, St. Luke's Free 
Church, St. Columba, Momingside Parish Church, 
also Episcopal College, Glenalmond, Lady Glen- 
orchy's, Greenside and Holyrood Church and School, 
Highland Society Office and RJuseum ; Alexander 
Black, of Heriot's Hospital, and several of the Out- 
door Schools; David Cousin, many Free Churches 
after the Disruption, Com Exchange, Slaughter 
Houses, Savings Bank, Music Class-room, Park 
Place. These notes were a continuation of Mr. Mac- 
Lachlan's inaugural address, when he had sketched 
the lives of James Craig, who designed the plan of 
the New Town ; Robert Adam, architect of the 
Register Office ; Elliot, of the Regent Arch and the 
Calton Jail ; Thomas Hamilton, of the Hi<^h School, 
George IV. Bridge, Royal College of Physicians, 
Burns's Monument, and Free St. John's ; W. H. 
Playfair, the Interior Front of the University, 
Observatory on Calton Hill, Regent and Royal 
Terraces, Royal Institution, St. Stephen's Church, 
Surgeon's Hall, Donaldson's Hospital, and Free 
Church College. 

Liverpool Naturalists' Field Club. The second 
field meeting was held on June I, at Malpas. At 
Edge Hall Mr. and Mrs. Dod met them. The garden 
is on the site of the old moat. The present house, 
which is very picturesque both in structure and situa- 
tion, is of about the time of Charles I. but there are 
vestiges of an ancient mansion, probably the original 
residence of the family, who date back to the time of 
Henry II. An Edward Dod was Baron of the Ex- 
chequer in the reign of James I. From Edge Hall 
the route lay across the park and through a dingle, 
hiding an old mill, then up the meadows by Kidnall 
and under Overton Scar, passing the gipsy caves in 
the rock by Chorlton Hall, the seat of Sir William 
Hamilton, to Overton Hall, the summer abode of 
Mrs. Gregson. The chief part of the building is now 
a farmhouse, adapted to dairy purposes ; but some 
additions have been made to accommodate the family 
when they seek retirement. A part of the old 
building in the Cheshire half-timbered style remains, 
and also of the moat with an old pointed stone arch. 

Cambridge Philological Society. May 4. 
Mr. Munro, President, in the Chair. Professor Mayor 
sent a Paper on '* Senec. Ep. 121. 4, non desistam... 



uoluptates ituras in dolorem compescere et uotis obstre- 
pere. quidni ? cum maxima malorum optauerimus et 
ex gratulatione nalum sit quicquid adloquimur." Mad- 
vig. Adversaria 11. 522, proposes amolimur. But if 
any word ought to be sacred from corruption, it is 
adloqui, Professor A. Palmer (T.C.D.) sent an 
emendation of Horace, Sat. I. 6. 6. Mr. Ileitland 
sent a reply to Mr. Ridgeway's Paper on Ar. Pol. 
I. 2. 6. 

Monday Shakspere Club, Glasgow. May 31. 
The annual business meeting of this Club. During 
the past session eleven Papers have been read two 
on Hamlet, two on Othello, two on Macbeth, one on 
Lear, one on jfulius CcEsar, and three on general 
Shakspere study. The committee recommend that 
the reading meetings of the Club should be sus- 
pended for a time. Mr. William George Black 
was elected president; and Mr. Robert MacLehose, 
M.A., hon. secretary and treasurer for the session 
1882-3. 

[We have been compelled to postpone our reports 
of the meetings of the Society for Protection of 
Ancient Buildings ; Society of Antiquaries of Scot- 
land, June 14 ; and Tettenhall Antiquarian Society, 
May 29. Ed.] 



-*sSiiISii2S^ 



bituarp* 



COLONEL JOSEPH LEMUEL CHESTER. 

Died May 26. 

Our announcement last month of the dangerous 
illness of Colonel Chester has to be followed, as we 
then feared, by our record of his now spent life. 
English students of history have suffered a severe loss 
by his death. He was by birth an American citizen, 
and upwards of twenty years ago sat as a member of 
Congress. For many years past he had devoted all 
his energies to tiie study of genealogy, and with a 
patient thoroughness for which few equals can be found 
in the whole range of literature, he investigated every 
source whence the knowledge he required could be 
drawn. His manuscript collections are enormous, and 
relate to all classes of the people, but more especially to 
those families whose connections helped to found the 
colony of New England. Colonel Chester's generosity 
in communicating his hard-earned knowledge was re- 
markable. No fellow-student ever applied to him 
without receiving a courteous reply, and few without 
receiving substantial help in their pursuits. In the 
last year of his life Colonel Chester received the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Civil Law from the 
University of Oxford. Although the only published 
work from his invaluable archives is the Registers oj 
Westminster Abbey, 1876, yet we can well judge from 
this, which is a most remarkable monument of accurate 
scholarship, of the untiring energy and great skill which 
characterized all his researches. His true function 
was that of collector, and the material he gathered 
together from all England will form the means of 
giving work to generations of future genealogists. 



30 



THE ANTIQUARYS NOTE-BOOK. 



ZTbe antiquarp'0 mote^^^Booli. 



Wayland Smith's Cave. On the western limits 
of Berkshire, in an interesting district which borders 
on Wiltshire, there is in the parish of Ashbury a 
monument which has obtained more individual 
celebrity than most similar remains. It has suffered 
great dilapidations, but enougli remains to show that 
It has consisted of a rather long rectangular enclosure, 
with two lateral chambers formed by upright stones 
roofed with large slabs, and the whole was probably 
once covered with a mound of earth. The group of 
stones is made up of four large blocks and of a number 
of smaller pieces, part supporting, but most merely 
lying on_the ground in the immediate neighbourhood. 
There can be no doubt of the sepulchral character of 




this monument, and it belongs to that class which is 
commonly called Celtic. Mr. Fergusson says : " It 
is a three-chambered dolmen, almost identical in plan 
with Petrie's No. 27 Carrowmore, but with this differ- 
ence, that whereas the arch of stones in the Irish 
example contained thirty-six or thirty-seven stones, 
and was sixty feet in diameter, this one contained 
probably only twenty-eight, and was only fifty feet in 
diameter. This, and the fact of the one consisting of 
sarsens, the other of granite blocks, account so com- 
pletely for all the differences between them, that I 
cannot believe that so great a lapse of time as eight 
centuries could have taken place between the 
erection of the two. I fancy it must have been 
erected for the entombment of a local hero in the 
early centuries of the Christian era" {Rude Stone Momi- 



mcnts, pp. 123-124). It appears evident, says Mr. 
Akerman, in Archaologia (xxxii. 313), from the 
scattered fragments lying around that, although these 
chambered tumuli have been almost obliterated, they 
were often originally enclosed within a circle of stones. 
Traces of this circle are still visible around the crom- 
lech, and in the arrangement of the vault we recognize 
a striking similarity to that of the dilapidated Crom- 
lech du Tus. But though Celtic in origin, it bears a 
legend which is undoubtedly of Teutonic origin. Mr. 
Wright thus describes the current popular tradition. 
The cave was supposed to be inhabited by an invisible 
smith ; and it was believed that ^f the horse of a 
traveller passing that way happened to cast a shoe, he 
had only to take the animal to this cave and, having 
placed a groat on the capstone, withdraw to a distance 
from which he could not see what was going on ; on 
his return he would find that the horse had been well 
shod during his absence, and that the money had 
been taken away. Journal ArchcBological Association, 
vol. xvii. p. 50. It is well known how Scott uses this 
tradition in his romance of Kenilworth, but those who 
wish to follow up the traditional history should con- 
sult Mr. Wright's article mentioned above, and also a 
work written on the subject by G. B. Depping and 
Francisque Michel, translated from the French, 
with additions by S. W. Singer, and published in 
1847. This monument is included in Sir John 
Lubbock's Ancient Monuments Bill, and is described 
and figured in Mr. Hains Jackson's Ancient Monu- 
ments and the Lands around them, pp. 6, 7, from 
whom we are permitted to borrow an illustration. 

Curiosities of Parish Registers. Now that 
parish registers are receiving more than usual, 
because legislative, attention, the following note is 
Apropos. It is from the Gentleman'' s Magazine for 
1783, p. 579. Extract from Worldham Register, 
1621 or 2 : 

"Mem. That at this present, viz. June 9th, there 
are, in Worldham parish, ten women living wlio have 
buried fifteen husbands, of which women two have 
married again, and eight remain widows, which eight 
have buried thirteen husbands, and might perhaps 
have had buried many more, if they had had them ; 
but all the men of Worldham parish at this time living 
have had buried but three wives." 

" 1622. George Fay, born, as himself saith, 1563, 
was buried Allhallows Day. At this time there are 
so many women dwelling in Worldham parish as have 
buried fifteen husbands, but all the men now dwelling 
in Worldham have buried but one wife." 

The Gentlejnan' s Magazine asks why the air of 
Worldham should be so particularly fatal to married 
persons of the male sex. 

Lists of Round Towers in Ireland. The 
following publications contain lists of the Round 
Towers in Ireland : Map oj Ireland, published by 
the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge 
(1845) ; Vallencey's Collectanea (1786) ii. pp. 141-2 ; 
Beaufort's Memoir of a Map of Ireland (1792) pp. 
138-141 ; Anthologia Hibernia (1793) i. pp. 90-91 ; 
Ledwich's Antiquities of Ireland (1804) pp. 167-8; 
Hoar's yotirnal of a Tour in Ireland (1807) pp. 
288-292 ; Bell's Essay on Gothic Architecture in h-e- 
land (1829) pp. 77-98; Hall's Ireland {184^) vol. 
iij. p. 191 ; Wilkinson's Practical Geology and Ancient 



THE ANTIQUARY'S NOTE-BOOK. 



3t 



Architecture of Ireland {1%^$), pp. 69-Si ; Kilkenny 
Archceological Society Transactions, ii. pp. 253-254. 

The Via Sacra and the Regia. We summarize 
the following important account of recent dis- 
coveries from the Times. The Minister Baccelli 
has succeeded in accomplishing his desire in removing 
in time for the celebration of Rome's " Birthday" 
the greater part of the 15,000 cubic feet of accumula- 
tion which, two months ago, formed an embankment- 
like roadway, 35ft. in height, across the eastern end of 
the Forum, from the Temple of Antoninus and Faus- 
tina to the corner of the Palatine. The results of the 
excavations thus far have been most interesting, Wlien, 
about the year 1876, the works had extended from a little 
in front of the arch of Septimus Severus to past the 
remains of the Temple of Julius and the podium of 
the Temple of Vesta was being uncovered on the one 
side beyond, and the space in front of the Temple of 
Antoninus and Faustina cleared on the other, it was 
expected that each blow of the pick would disclose 
the remains and site of one of the earliest, if not the 
first, of the triumphal arches erected in Rome, the 
celebrated Fornix Fabius mentioned by Cicero, which 
commemorated the triumphs of the Fabii, including 
that of Q. Fabius Maximus (Consul B.C. 121) over 
the Allobroges, who is supposed to have built it. But 
not a fragment or indication was found. There 
appeared to be no doubt that the arch must have been 
situated on the strip of ground still covered by what we 
have likened to an embankment. At the beginning of 
the last week in February the work of cutting it away 
was commenced. When about a third of it from the 
Temple of Antoninus and Faustina had been removed, 
a number of the voussoirs of the arch, with some of 
the blocks belonging to the piers, and other details, 
were found all lying close to each other amo)ig the 
rubbish. Each following day it was expected that 
at least the foundations of the piers would be dis- 
covered i}i situ, but it remains as much a mystery as 
before. The discovery of its site was the more 
especially desired because of the light it was expected 
to throw on the direction of the Via Sacra as trod by 
Horace. The portions of the Regia left buried in 
1879 under the embankment have been uncovered, and 
from their position, importance, and construction, it is 
now declared that these mosaic pavements and walls 
imdoubtedly formed part of the Regia, where, accord- 
ing to Servius, " Numa habitaverit, in radicibus 
Palatii finibusque Romanifori." The Regia in which 
Numa lived, and which was built by him, had, how- 
ever, disappeared long before that which replaced it 
was burnt in the year 210 B.C.; but in the vestiges 
now disclosed after having been hidden for more 
than eighteen centuries we see the remains of the 
Regia in which Julius Caesar dwelt after his election to 
the dignity of Pontifex Maximus there can be no 
doubt. It is the house from the doorway of which he 
went out on the morning of the fatal Ides of March, 
after Calphurnia had dreamt that its pediment, erected 
by the senate to do him honour, had fallen down, and 
to which his corpse, with one arm hanging from tho 
bier, was carried back from the curia of Pompey. 
The same into which Clodius, disguised as a female 
musician contrived, some years before, when Pompeia 
was mistress there, to gain admittance during the 
celebration of the mysteries of the Bona Dea. The 



Regia was burnt down in the Neronian conflagration. 
Its use had passed away when Augustus, on assuming 
the Pontificate, removed the residence to his house on 
the Palatine, and other edifices were built over it, their 
walls diagonally crossing its pavements, and their 
floors, placed on a level some three feet higher, 
covering and preserving at least as much of them as 
has been found. Alas ! since 1879, left uncared for, 
and exposed to the devastating effects of the weather 
and Foirstieri, they have greatly suffered. Some of 
the more beautiful coloured details have disappeared ; 
but now that their historical interest is at last recognized, 
efforts are being made to preserve what is left from 
further dilapidation. The most important features 
remaining, or, at any rate, discovered thus far, are 
fragments of some of the mosaic floors, and what may 
have been a grand entrance or part of a peristyle. Of 
this there is a pier with an engaged column of traver- 
tine of which the base and some four inches of the 
shaft remain covered with a thick coating of intonaco 
painted a deep red? and on what covers the remains of 
the shaft there are perpendicular lines indented a third 
of an inch to represent flutings. In exact line with 
this is the base of an isolated column, corresponding 
in every detail, and between it and the pier there 
doubtless stood another, the base of which may still 
exist under the remains of later constructions built 
across at this point. That these are remains of the 
Regia, as rebuilt after the fire in 210 B.C., the material 
and style afford sufficient proof, and to the same period 
belong other details, such as some of the mosaic floors, 
a will-iiead, two other travertine bases of columns, 
also in situ, and in line, and some of the walls. But 
there is also evidence that alterations had been made 
before the house was destroyed, for together with t.hft 
walls of opus quadratum, of tufa, and travertine, there 
are some of early brickwork. There are no traces of 
marble decoration or panelling anywhere, but on the 
walls of the rooms looking towards the Temple of 
Vesta are remains of the painted stucco facing. What 
has been found of this historic building is far from 
sufficient to permit of any attempt to restore its plan, 
but there is enough, taking the direction of the columns 
and the lines of the walls and floors behind, at more 
or less right angles from them, to show that the Regia 
stood with one side probably the front facing llie 
Temple of Vesta, and somewhat diagonally towards 
the area of the Forum, and the other on the Via Sacra 
as, coming along it from the Capitoline, it turned 
gently to the left after passing in front of the Temples 
of Castor and PoUux and of Vesta. That that was the 
original direction of the Via Sacra these last excava- 
tions have clearly established, and especially do they 
disprove the theory that the road descending from the 
Velia continued on at any time in a direct line only to 
the Arch of Septimus Severas. By the western 
corner of the Temple of Romulus there is a distinct 
bifurcation, going towards the Forum. Between that 
point and the Temple of Castor and Pollux there is a 
flagged pavement of travertine, roughly laid, where 
the level had, in still ancient times, been raised to the 
extent of some 3ft, or 4ft. above the road which passed 
onwards by the Temples of Vesta and Castor and 
Pollux to where it appears again in front of the Basilica 
Julia. The area between the Temples of Antoninus 
and Faustina and Vesta may be described as a kind of 



32 



THE ANTIQUARY'S NOTE-BOOK. 



topographical palimpsest, of which the earlie 
characters have yet to be deciphered. There are, how" 
ever, indications of constructions of apparently an 
early date a short distance in front of the Regia, which 
may merit notice from the fact, which mav be 
accidental, that they are on a line exactly parallel to 
the columns, and because, on the same line, and more 
or less also on the original line of the Via Sacra, are 
two piers, apparently the remains of a gateway, which, 
judging from its construction, must have been built in 
the Middle Ages. Considering the peculiar position 
in which it stands, with no remains of a corresponding 
edifice to which it belonged, and the mystery connected 
with the site of the Fabian arch, which, according to 
all records, stood somewhere about this spot, one is 
tempted to hazard the conjecture that its foundations 
may, perhaps, be hidden under these piers, built upon 
them. From measui-ing the voussoirs of the Fabian 
arch found, it has been ascertained that its span was 
4*95 metres ; the openings between these piers 
measure 4*50 metres. The fragment of the Capitoline 
plan found among the accumulation describes the space 
situated exactly between the Temple of Vesta and the 
east side of that of Castor and Pollux, and shows that 
no paved street passed between those edifices ; nor have 
indications been found of any street passing between 
the Temple of Vesta and the Regia. On the bit of 
the Capitoline plan there are, to the south, lines which 
seem to indicate the beginning of a cliviis, with steos 
across at intervals, and this, it is thought, may be the 
foot of that ascent to the Palatine which Signor Rosa 
named the Clivus Victoria;. 

[We have received contributions to our " Dates and 
Styles of Churches" from Mr. T. Powell, on York 
Minster, and from Mr. J. Jones, on Staffordshire 
Churches, which we hope to print next month. Ed.] 



Hnttauarian 1Rcw0. 



Among the more recent finds in clearing out the 
old Roman Bath at Bath, is a small figure of Minerva 
in high relief, with a stone frame rising to a peak on 
the upper side. The figure is very rudely carved, and 
is somewhat defaced, but the emblems are sufficiently 
well preserved to identify it as the goddess of wisdom. 
More funds, we understand, are required to prosecute 
the excavations, which, we trust, will not be stopped 
from this cause. 

A large Lacustrine canoe, in excellent condition, 
has been found near Bex, 4,000 feet above the sea- 
level, and nearly 3,000 feet above the Valley of the 
Rhone. No Lacustrine relics have ever before been 
met with in Switzerland, at such an elevation. 

The architect Senhor da Silva has discovered in the 
neighbourhood of Thomar, in Portugal, the old 
Roman town of Nabancia, to which references occur 
in the classics. Four streets and sixteen houses have 
already been cleared out, and columns and capitals of 
M'hite marble, coins, and mosaics have been dug up. 
The explorers are in hopes of finding the fonun, 
theatres, circus, baths, and temples. Thomar is in 



the province of Estremadura, sixteen miles north-west 
of Abrantes on the Nabao. 

The beautiful structure of Archbishop Zouche's 
chapel at York Cathedral, with its fine-groined roof, 
was built by Archbishop Zouche during the time he 
was Primate, between 1342 and 1352, in the reign of 
Edward IIL The mullions of the windows and the 
buttresses had for a long time been in a very dilapi- 
dated state, and some months ago the dean and 
chapter resolved that the necessary repairs should be 
effected. The work is now rapidly approaching com- 
pletion, and the windows are in course of being re- 
glazed with cathedral glass. The fragments of old 
stained glass will be preserved, and again inserted 
in the window. 

The ancient Parish Church of Adwick-on-Dearne, 
near Mexbro' which has been closed for several 
years has been re-opened after thorough restoration. 
The edifice, which is dedicated to St. John the Baptist, 
dates from the time of Henry I., and probably even 
earlier. Twelve months ago it was determined that 
the church should be restored. The repairs consist 
of re-roofing the whole church, the re-glazing of the 
windows, the removal of the old-fashioned pews, and 
the substitution of open pitch-pine benches, the re- 
newal of the base of the pulpit, and a new reading 
desk. 

During the excavations now in progress for the 
improvement of Little Bridge Street, Blackfriars, the 
workmen have discovered a fully-developed skeleton of 
a man beneath a cellar. Appearances indicate that it 
must have been buried there at a comparatively recent 
period ; but that is a matter of conjecture. Several 
members of the London and Middlesex Archaeological 
Society have inspected the remains, having been 
informed that they may belong to the pre- Roman 
period ; but at present this theory is defective, as no 
trace of any coffin has been found. 

The Kent Archa;ological Society have just issued to 
members vol. xiv. of the the Society's Transactions, 
illustrated by portraits, views of churches, houses, &c. 
The Society has now been in existence twenty-four 
years, and numbers 900 members. 

The ajmual meetmg of the Folk-Lore Society will 
be held on June 30, and ladies or gentlemen desirous 
of cards for admission should apply to the honorary 
secretary, Mr. G. L. Gomme, 2, Park Villas, Lons- 
dale Road, Barnes, S.W. 

The ancestors of the poet Longfellow were originally 
settled in Yorkshire. The local papers .say that in a 
sale which has just taken place at Bradford there was 
an old chest from a farmhouse at Ilkley, which upon 
its centre panel bore the following inscription : "Jon 
Longfellow and Mary Rogers was marryed ye tenth 
daye off April, Anno Dm. 1664." 

Major D. Papazoglou invites visitors to his rare 
collection of antiquities found in Roumania during 
the last forty-five years, and consisting of statues in 
bronze, marble and terra cotta, antique Roman vases, 
ancient jewellery coins, &c. He has recently dis- 
covered an antique sword of great rarity. His 
address is Rue Vacaresci, Bucharest. 



ANTIQ UARTAN NE WS. 



33 



The Old Manor House, Carlton Miniott, which is 
supposed to be between four and five centuries old, 
and known as the Durham Ox Inn , in the village of 
Carlton Miniott, was unroofed by a recent gale, and 
now it will be necessary to pull the structure down. 
Some few weeks ago the lord of the manor, Mr. R. 
Bell, caused the principals to be secured, otherwise 
the roof must have fallen inwards. The rafter pins 
broke from the centre beam, and the mass of thatch 
and rafters fell into the front garden, greatly alarming 
the villagers. The walls are cracked in various 
places. 

Mr. J. Jones is preparing for publication a History 
of Tettenhall Church and Parish, Staffs. The work, 
which will be ready early in August, will embrace 
the ecclesiastical and topographical antiquities of the 
parish. It will also contain full genealogical lists of 
the Wrottesly, Fowler, and Wightwicke families, 
folk-lore, inscriptions on old tombstones, and abun- 
dant extracts from the parish accounts. The work 
will be fully illustrated throughout, with several 
etchings, and numerous engravings of the principal 
objects of interest in the parish, and will be published 
by subscription. 

The interesting church of Ashill is now being re- 
stored under the guidance of the diocesan architect, 
Mr. T. D. Sedding. It contains a larger quantity of 
ancient Norman work than any church in the neigh- 
bourhood, and also several handsome old mural 
monuments of good design, probably of the twelfth 
century, although for whom erected is now unknown. 
The roof of the church, which was concealed by a 
lath-and-plaster ceiling, has been opened and restored. 
The tower-arch, being of decayed stone-work, ought 
to be restored in solid masonry, and we are told there 
are several other details requiring attention. 

There is now, we understand, on exhibition, at the 
Post Office, Brading, a beautiful cornelian, cut as 
a stone, and bearing the crest a lion encircled 
with the Order of the Thistle, and surmounted by a 
coronet. The seal was picked up close to, Brading 
Quay, and, assuming it to be what it is stated, it is an 
interesting subject for speculation how it came there. 
King Henry VIII. is known to have visited the 
Island, and the supposition is that the wearer of the 
seal might have been one of his attendants, and 
dropped it. 

The St. Albans' Abbey Reparation Committee 
having finished their work of repairing the nave and 
paid off the whole of the debt, it was unanimously 
resolved at their last meeting "that they do now 
resign to the Bishop their powers under the Faculty 
of 1877." There are, it is said, still three im- 
portant and most interesting works of reparation 
required First, the groining of the north aisle of 
the nave to correspond with the south aisle ; 
secondly, the erection of stalls of carved oak befitting 
the choir of this great church ; thirdly, the reparation 
of the Saints and Lady Chapels. 

Messrs. Puttick and Simpson have issued their 
catalogue of the third portion of the great Sunderland 
Library, which is to be sold from July 17 to July 27. 
It contains, as the former parts did, many great rarities, 
among which are some fine copies of Homer, Horace, 
Tuvenal, Livy, Justinian, and other classics, and 
VOL. VI. 



Louis XIII.'s copy of the Decretals of Pope Gregory 
IX. Some magnificent vellum books are included, 
one of which. The Customs of Orleans, by A. de 
Harlay, printed at Orleans by S. Hotot in 1583, is 
beautifully bound in ornamental morocco, with the 
arms of the town on the sides. The alphabet is con- 
tinued from " Germon" to "Martinellus." 

The ancient and interesting parish church of Llan- 
pumpsaint, South Wales, has been re-opened after 
restoration. A communion cup of the church bears 
the date of 1574. The font is evidently a great deal 
older. A holy- water stoup has been preserved. A 
great flat stone, on which the communion table now 
stands, has been removed from the churchyard. A 
number of crosses are iioscribed upon it, so that it 
probably formed part of an altar tomb, but some 
earlier and more obscure marks have suggested the 
theory that it was used in pre-Christian times in con- 
nection with religious rites. For some unknown 
reason the country people have been accustomed to 
call it "the Stone of the Five Saints." 

On Ascension Day the ancient custom of "beating 
the bounds" was observed in the several parishes of 
the metropolis. After the parochial authorities and 
the Charity School boys attended the special morning 
services at the various churches, the processions were 
formed. These consisted of the boys in their quaint 
uniforms, armed with long willow canes, and marching 
in twos, headed by the clerk and beadles of the parish 
in their official dress. In some cases the processions 
were marched through houses and factories. On 
being told the spot that divides the respective pa- 
rishes, the boys struck the ground with their canes, 
repeating the wards of the clerk, " This is the boun- 
dary." 

What is supposed to be an ancient grave was dis- 
covered a few days ago on the fann of Kirkton, Fyvie, 
in a pit from which material for road-making is being 
taken. In the course of the excavation the end of 
the grave became exposed. It is built of stone on 
the sides and top, and has the appearance of a 
common drain. The bottom of it is about 3 feet 
from the present surface of the ground. Its internal 
dimensions are length, 6 feet 3 inches, width, 15 
inches, and height, 22 inches. It lies from W\N.W. 
to E.S.E. A soft honeycomb- looking stone in con- 
nection with it has a rough circle about 3 inches 
in diameter hewn on it. Such stones do not belong to 
the locality. 

A meeting of gentlemen interested in the preserva- 
tion of parish registers was held in Leeds on June 3, 
to consider the proposal to remove these records to 
London. The meeting, while recognizing the desira- 
bility of better care being taken of the registers, 
expressed in the strongest terms its disapprobation of 
the proposal to remove them. A committee was 
formed to frame a scheme for the preservation, and, 
as far as possible, the publication of the Yorkshire 
registers; The Rev. Canon Hubbert, of Almonbury, 
presided, and amongst communications read from 
clergy interested in the matter but unable to be pre- 
sent were letters from the Rev. R. V. Taylor, of 
Richmond ; the Rev. T. Milville Raven, of Crake, 
and the Rev. T. Parkinson, of North Ottermgton, ar.d 
many others. 



34 



ANTIQUARIAN NEWS. 



The annual ceremony of dressing or decorating 
artificial wells v/as observetl at Wirksworth on Wed- 
nesday, May 31. There was the usual amount of 
rejoicing in the town. Wirksworth, Tissington, and 
Buxton are now the only places in North Derbyshire 
that observe this custom. Tap dressings, we believe, 
have been honoured in other parts of Derbyshire, and 
have gained much popularity ; but they have now 
become extinct. However, Wirksworth has lost none 
of its ancient appreciativeness of this annual event. 
The street decorations were elaborate and numerous, 
and many garlands were displayed, which appeared 
to have demanded a lot of attention. Many houses 
also displayed some kind of evergreen, which it 
could be seen was some new design, and fresh treat- 
ment. 

The visit of the Prince and Princess of Wales to 
Leicester is an event which happened, says the Daily 
Neius, in spite of two superstitions. One of these is 
historical. It is set forth in a book of antiquarian 
lore that it forebodeth evil to a king, as the prince 
some day should be, who should enter or even behold 
the town. Mr. W. Kelly, the author, not only records 
this ancient superstition as preventing a visit from 
King John, but points out that, commencing with the 
legendary woes of Leicester's legendary founder, 
King Lear, down to one of its latest royal visitors, 
Philippe of Orleans, misfortune attended most of 
those royal princes who came within Leicester's walls- 
The evil spell was, however, broken by a certain 
visit paid in 1843. The Queen and Prince Albert 
then passed through the city and were splendidly re- 
ceived. 

It has been definitely decided to restore the fine old 
Norman church of St. Michael's, Malton. We un- 
derstand that the restoration is a continuation of work 
commenced twenty-five years ago, soon after the 
endowment of the living by Earl Fitzwilliam, but 
then stopped from want of funds. Mr. Fowler Jones, 
architect, of York and Malton, has been entrusted 
with the restoration, which will include the enlarge- 
ment of the chancel ; the removal of two old galleries, 
which destroy the lines of some fine examples of 
Norman architecture ; the re-roofing of the two aisles 
and nave; enlargement of vestry, and erection of 
new organ chamber and choir stalls ; and the provision 
of an outer protection for the church, which stands 
in the centre of the market-place, and is frequently 
subject to much desecration by the proceedings taking 
place therein. 

The Hall Barn Estate, Beaconsfield, which has 
just been sold to Mr. Levy Lawson, is one of the 
most interesting properties in Buckinghamshire, 
Hall Bam was built by Edmund Waller, the cousin 
of Oliver Cromwell, who settled at Hall Bam in 1652, 
after his return from exile, and he there hung up the 
portrait of the stony-hearted " Sacharissa" Lady 
Dorothea Sidney who is said to have made fun of the 
amorous verses which he wrote in her honour. Hall 
Bam is a " substantial family residence" of red brick, 
and stands in a delightfully-timbered park, in the 
midst of the most charming portion of Bucks. The 
estate extends to over three thousand acres, and in- 
cludes the Manor of Beaconsfield. Since Waller's 
time it has had more than one distinguished owner, 



among them Sir Gore Ouseley, who, we believe, 
once entertained there King William IV. and Queen 
Adelaide. 

Neen Savage church was re-opened on May 17, 
after restoration. The edifice dates back to an early 
period, and to the antiquaiy presents many interesting 
features. These the architect, Mr. Thomas Gordon, has 
preserved with care, all that was really interesting hav- 
ing been retained, and somehiddenfealuresof the build- 
ing have been brought to light. The ceiling has been 
opened, the walls have been scraped and replastered, 
the floor tiled, the tiles in the Sacrarium being an 
imitation of a few which were found in the building, 
and which dated from the 14th century. Open seats 
have taken the place of the old-fashioned pews. By 
the removal of the gallery a Norman arch at the 
west end of the building has been brought to view. 
The windows are Norman decorated, and late perpen- 
dicular. The porch, which is of the decorated period, 
has been restored. Below the tower is the vestry. 
Tlie spire, which was destroyed some sixty years ago, 
has not been rebuilt. 

As a labourer of Montacute, near Yeovil, was 
clearing rubbish from the rocks near the famous Ham 
Hill quarries, to repair the parish roads, he struck 
his shovel against a piece of crockery, which turned 
out to be a Roman urn filled with coins, and near the 
same spot another man found a crock, also containing 
medallions, some of large size and heavy weight. 
The whole find is said to be considerably over a 
hundredweight. The coins are in a good state of 
preservation, and date chiefly from a.d. 81 to A.D. 
182. Specimens are found with the heads of Severus 
and Commodus. Unfortunately, the men sold a number 
of these coins for a few pence, but eventually the 
majority of tliem found their way to a neighbouring ^ 

rectory and mansion, the occupants of which are in 
communication with the authorities as to the right 
disposal of these antiquarian treasures. The village 
of Montacute and the adjacent hills abound with 
interesting relics of the Roman occupation, and also 
of monastic times. On Ham Hill is the celebrated 
Frying Pan, once a Roman circus and a camp of 
observation overlooking Sedgemoor. 

An interesting discovery has within the last few 
days been made at Abbots Kerswell, in Devonshire, 
the church of which place is to be shortly restored. 
The outline of an upright figure was seemingly visible 
behind the plaster of the south wall of the chancel, 
leaning apparently against the left jamb of the eastern- 
most window. On taking off the plaster, all doubt 
was removed. The figiue, nearly 7 feet in height, 
proved to be that of a female, crowned, and sculptured 
with a cope, fastened by a clasp or brooch under the 
throat. There has also been the representation of a 
full flowing robe, of which some of the painting and 
gilding remains, the colours being a pale brown, 
black, and red ; but the sculpture of the folds of the 
dress is much defaced ; in fact, the whole figure has 
been sadly mutilated; the entire face, both the breasts, 
and a great part of the right arm, apparently, are 
pone. The bend, however, of the latter is quite dis- 
tinguishable. The figure, with the exception of the 
head, has been at some time hollowed out behind. 
The curls falling loose on the shoulders are 



ANTIQ U ART AN NE WS. 



35 



very carefully sculptured. It would be interesting 
to know how this figure came to its present place. 

A humble building, but the cradle of the last two 
centuries of English history, is threatened with de- 
struction. The house in which the Revolution of 1688 
was plotted might surely have been deemed historic 
enough to justify its careful preservation, but it is, we 
are informed, about to be pulled down. The " Cock 
and Pyot" was the name of this quaint thatched 
building in the days, two centuries ago, when it was 
an inn. It stands in the village of "Whittington, 
some ten miles south of Sheffield, and is now occupied 
as a cottage. According to tradition, the Earl of 
Devonshire, Lord Danby, and Mr. D'Arcy met here, 
one day in 1688, and leagued themselves together to 
bring about the revolution. The story is that the 
tliree conspirators were hunting on Whittington Moor, 
when they drew away from their companions and rode 
hastily to the "Cock and Pyot." The room in 
which they deliberated received the name of the 
"plotting parlour." The descendants of the con- 
spirators visited the house on the first centenary of 
the Revolution. We learn that the Duke of Devon- 
shire will probably erect a memorial on the site of 
the cottage, should it be demolished ; but we hope 
the report of its coming destruction is unfounded. 

Several ancient silver and bronze coins have been 
found during the formation of the new street called 
Grove Park Avenue on the Clifton Grove Estate, 
Clifton, and several broken pieces of Roman pottery 
have been found in the excavations for the villas now 
being built on the estate. In close proximity to the 
sites we are told, in the Rev. C. Wellbeloved's Ebora- 
cum, that in 1813 a small portion of a tessellated 
pavement was discovered at Clifton Grove by the 
workmen employed in digging a sunk fence about the 
garden. It is very probable that much more than 
was brought to light and destroyed yet remains buried 
in the earth. In the same work it is stated that in 
the same year some workmen found tAvo very large 
coffins of grit stone placed close to each other ; one 
side of each neatly panelled, and the lids as usual 
slightly ridged. Each coffin contained an entire 
skeleton. These coffins were presented to the dean 
and chapter of York, by whom they were deposited 
in the north aisle of the choir of York Minster among 
incongruous monuments of modem ages, where they 
suffered much damage in the burning of the choir in 
the year 1829. It is much to be wished that they 
could be seen with coeval remains in the Museum of 
the Yorkshire Philosophical Society. 

The Berlin sculptor, Alexander Tondeur, has re- 
ceived permission from the Berlin Museum to copy 
(restoring the missing parts) two of the most beautiful 
and best-preserved bas-reliefs of the Pergamen an- 
tiquities. In the centre of the first bas-relief is seen 
Zeus, brandishing in his left hand the a-gis with which 
he has overcome a youthful Titan ; with his right 
hand he flings forth his lightnings against another 
Titan, who is hurling a rock with tlie right hand, 
while the left is stretched out, enveloped in the skin 
of a wild beast. The body of this giant ends in two 
serpents, which are attacked by the eagle of Zeus ; a 
third Titan has sunk to the ground, wounded in the 



leg by the lightning. The second relief represents 
Athene dragging a young Titan to the ground by the 
hair, her serpent has at the same time wound itself 
round the giant's body. Above floats a goddess of 
victory, who places a wreath of laurels round the 
helmet of Athene. Between Athene and the Titan 
the body of the earth-goddess, Gau, half issues from 
the ground, her hands are raised in an attitude of 
petition. From these copies models in bronze are 
being cast, and from these models are taken copies in 
ivory and plaster of Paris, which resemble in colour 
the originals. The plaster casts preserve all the sharp- 
ness of outline only to be procured, in such small 
dimensions, in bronze. 

The handsome court at South Kensington Museum, 
lately occupied by the celebrated antiquities from the 
site of Troy, is now occupied by a collection from 
Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. Only a small por- 
tion of the present exhibition deals with those 
remarkable antiquities of the Bronze age, for which 
those northern countries are so remarkable, the mass 
of the collection consisting of articles of textile fabrics, 
pottery, jewellery, carving, saddlery, and so forth, of 
the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, yet the 
greatest proportion is throughout so strongly tinged, if 
not altogether imbued, with the essence of far earlier 
origins and designs, as to give it a singular and un- 
usual value. The Handerbetets Vanner of Stockholm 
have contributed a number of articles, such as bed and 
bench covers, curtains, tablecloths, and lace, woven 
after different styles and patterns by the peasantry of 
various districts, many of them from old traditional 
designs. Amongst similar articles contributed by the 
Nordiska Museum of Stockholm, are many costumes 
and some marriage girdles worn by brides, and ribbons 
for the decoration of the hats of bridegrooms. The 
Royal Museum of Copenhagen contributes a fine series 
of Danish drinking-horns ; one, carved with inter- 
lacing ornament and mounted in silver, being from 
Iceland. Of tapestries there are also two very 
interesting examples, one series representing King 
Eric IV. of Denmark (a.d. 1241 to 1250) ; the second. 
King Abel of Denmark (a.d. 1250 to 1252), and 
made partly at Elsinore and partly in Iceland, by 
Knieper, of Antwerp, between 1581 and 1596. 

On Tuesday, May 23, there were discovered in 
Milbome St. Andrew, Blandford, a large number of 
very ancient swords. They were accidentally brought 
to light by the iron prongs of a drag, which in cleans- 
ing the field of weeds entered the earth to a depth of 
about six or eight inches. It was with the greatest 
difficulty that the blades could be separated one from 
the other ; in fact, in order to facilitate this they were 
roughly knocked against the iron drag, and about 
eight of them were broken into several pieces, the 
remainder being in fairly good preservation. There 
were eighteen in all, all being rusted together in a 
mass. They laid on the chalk just underneath the 
surface soil, the edges of the blades being uppermost. 
The spot in which the swords were discovered is 
situated about two-thirds of a mile due west from the 
celebrated Roman encampment of " Weatherbury 
Castle," or "Castle Rings," as it is locally termed, 
and not far distant from the road which coimected the 
camp with the high road leading to Dorchester. 

D 2 



36 



ANTIQUARIAN NEWS. 



These swords are of the simplest construction, 
consisting of a blade which is compressed, or 
rather turned over at the broadest end, thus form- 
ing a rude, but serviceable handle. They do not 
appear to have any sharpened edge, but are tapered to 
a point. The following are the measurements of the 
most perfect specimen : Length of blade, 2ft. 4in. ; 
length of handle, 4jin. ; width of blade at broadest 
part, I in. The only other localities in which similar 
weapons have been found are in the neighbourhood 
of Pimpeme, Hodhill, and Spetisbury, in Dorset, and 
near Montacute, in Somerset. 

The recent number of our contemporaiy Romania 
contains an account of an important manuscript 
French poem of the thirteenth century, lately unearthed 
at Cheltenham, in the Phillipps' collection. This 
poem, hitherto unknown, contains in 19,214 lines 
the history or biography of William Marshall, Earl 
of Pembroke, who was one of the wisest and greatest 
barons of England under King John, and regent of 
the kingdom during the first three years of Henry III., 
then a minor. Beginning with the earl's family, and 
some part of his father, John Marshall's life, William 
first appears in the history as a young boy at the siege 
of Newbury, in 1 152, respecting his part, in which 
some touching things are told. M. Paul Meyer, the 
discoverer, tells us that ' ' the poem is completely in- 
dependent of all the historic narratives that we pos- 
sess for this period." Many details are entirely fresh 
throughout, filling up, or confirming, what other 
chroniclers tell for example, in the stin'ing story of 
the death of Henry II. Thus, the work, which was 
written after the earl's death in 1219 by order of his 
eldest son, chiefly from material supplied by John of 
Erly, a trusted servant and friend, promises to be a 
valuable contribution to English history. The author, 
a skilled writer, is at present unknown. It is likely 
he was a herald, an eye-witness of much he describes, 
English in spirit, though probably of Norman-French 
origin. The work ought to attract the notice of our 
historians. In France it has excited quite a sensation 
among scholars on account of its literary merits. It 
is declared by competent judges to combine historic 
interest and literary value to a degree not found in 
any work, prose or verse, before Froissart. This is 
saying a great deal ; but it more nearly concerns us 
that we should be enabled to know our manly old 
English hero better than we do. We trust the work 
may soon be put into print. 

On June 10 the fine collection of antiquities be- 
longing to the late William M'Pherson, of Loch 
Kinnord, was exposed for sale by public roup. Among 
his heterogeneous collection, which he was always 
willing to show to the curious, were numbers of 
curious firearms from the ancient flint lock to the 
modem revolver ; ancient swords begrimed with rust, 
some of which were said to have been at Drammossie 
Moor ; fine wrought ivory-handled dirks, stone ham- 
mers, stone cannon-balls, flint arrow-heads, &c. 
There was a large attendance at the sale, nearly 300 
being present. An old cartridge case and bayonet, 
said to have been taken from one of Napoleon's men 
at Waterloo, was sold for 3J. dd. A very ancient- 
looking blade, said to have been out in '45,' was sold 



for;^3 4J. The price of a couple of stone cannon- 
balls was Ss., while that of a curious stone hammer 
was ;^l I3J-. A very strange pebble, which goes by 
the name of an "adder stone," and which, it is 
maintained, will cure the stings of adders on being 
applied to the wounded spot, be it ever so severe a 
bite, after a spirited competition, was knocked down 
at 1 14s. Three flint arrow-heads, complete and in 
capital condition, were sold for Js. A very antique- 
looking sporran, with a pouch of such dimensions as 
would hold provisions enough to serve the most 
ravenous Highlander for several days, was disposed 
of for^i. A number of ancient copper coins fetched 
Ss., while twelve rare silver ones brought 10s. A 
powder-horn, with the date 1692, fetched 30J. ; one 
of the year 1439 brought 17^. A very fine large- 
sized horn was sold for the sum of ;^3 12s. 6d., and a 
pretty bugle-horn, dated 1774, and grown on the 
shores of Loch Kinnord, was taken out at 12s. A 
very old and decrepit sporran top was sold for i is. 6d.; 
and a "kail guUie" a very ancient-looking article 
fetched lis. A sheep-clip an instrument which one 
may not see in a lifetime was taken out for is. 6d., 
while a weapon for spearing foxes fetched lOr. 6d. 

Since Easter, another church in the North of Devon 
has been taken in hand for a thorough restoration, 
that of Nymet St. George or George Nympton, near 
Southmolton. The building, which consists of nave, 
chancel, north aisle, and tower, with a porch on the 
south side, and vestry on the north side, is of the 
usual type of Devonshire churches (except the tower), 
built in the perpendicular period of Gothic architec- 
ture, the nave and chancel both having had barrel 
roofs, some remains of which have been found. 
Fragments of the original east window have also 
been found embedded in the east wall. The nave has 
now two perpendicular windows on the south side, 
while the north aisle has a very early two-light per- 
pendicular window, and two others of more recent 
date. It is proposed to rebuild the east and south 
walls of the chancel, placing a new traceried head to 
the east window. The whole of the plastering and 
the ceilings of the nave and chancel have been re- 
moved, and the latter will be restored as nearly as 
possible to its original form, with ribs and carved 
bosses. It may be stated here that the ceiling and 
ribs of the north aisle do not require renewal, and are 
in good preservation. The porch will be rebuilt, and 
the tower arch opened out. The two remarkable 
features of the church are the tower and the remains 
of the old carved seat ends. The tower was rebuilt 
of brick or cloam as it is called in North Devon 
in the years 1669-74, the church being known for 
miles round as having a "cloaming tower;" the 
bricks were made on the glebe from a pit which was 
filled in, some twenty years ago, by a man now living 
in the village ; and the churchwardens' accounts of 
that date are still preserved in the parish church, 
giving many interesting and amusing details. The 
other feature is the quantity of old carving found 
sadly cut up and ill-used throughout the church. The 
base the panels and sill of the old oak screen were 
found in sitti; and under the square seats were found 
the remains of some twenty carved seat ends, many of 
which can be restored, though none are complete. 



ANTIQUARIAN NE WS. 



37 



Mr. J, H. Middleton communicates to the Academy 
particulars of the discoveiy of Roman remains inWest- 
minster Abbey. It appears that when the grave for 
the late G. E. Street, R.A., was being dug, the in- 
teresting discovery was made that a Roman villa had 
once stood on the site of the nave of Westminster 
Abbey church. Some ten or twelve feet below the 
level of the present pavement various fragmentary 
remains of a hypocaust were found ; and some of the 
large square bricks which had formed the pilae, or 
short pillars supporting the hollow floor, were appa- 
rently in situ. Fragments also were discovered of the 
broad flange-tiles which rested on the pilae, and carried 
the cement and mosaic, which formed the upper layers 
of the floor. The mortar is of two kinds one very 
coarse in quality, made of lime and gravel, used to 
bed the pilae-bricks ; and another finer variety, made 
of lime, sand, and pounded brick, such as the Romans 
generally used to bed the tesserae of their mosaic 
floors. The ground where Westminster Abbey now 
stands was probably, when this villa was built, a 
small island in the middle of a large but shallow lake, 
extending over the present St. James's Park, most of 
Lambeth, the south part of Pimlico, and other land 
besides. Across this lake there was, in Roman times, 
a ford, which probably passed from the shore to the 
island, and then from the island to the opposite side. 
This ford was on the line of a Roman road, the 
position and direction of which is still marked out by 
the long straight Edgware Road, and its southern 
continuation. Park Lane. After crossing the lake 
the road passed on, extending through Surrey, and 
then probably (as suggested by the Rev. W. J. 
Loftie in his pamphlet on " Roman London ') 
joined the southern branch of the Watling Street from 
Dover to Canterbury. It is impossible to say when 
the site of Westminster Abbey ceased to be an island. 
The term Thorney Island is applied to it till after the 
Norman Conquest ; but this of course proves nothing, 
as the name " island" often survives long after a piece 
of land has ceased to be surrounded by water. This 
discovery of Roman remains is not altogether unex- 
pected. John Flete, Prior of Westminster, who 
wrote in 1443, mentions a tradition that a Christian 
church had been built on Thorney Island in 184, and 
that in the time of Diocletian's persecutions it was 
taken from the Christians and dedicated to the service 
of Apollo "Thurificat Apollini suburbanaThorneia." 
Though much reliance cannot be put in this state- 
ment, yet the tradition as to the Roman temple may 
have some foundation in fact. 

Corre6pon^ence, 



THE DOMESDAY OF COLCHESTER. 

(v. 244.) 
Mr. Round's very interesting Paper was especially 
attractive to me, because in several points he arrives 
at conclusions very similar to those which have forced 
themselves upon me while investigating the develop- 
ment of agricultural communities in other than 
English lands. Mr. Round's view that the town was 
originally not " a walled town with land belonging to 



it, but an urban district of which a small fraction was 
comprised within walls " [Antiquary, v. 247), is one 
which I think no anthropologist would deny. Every- 
where, I fancy, the appropriation of a district has 
preceded the erection of a town. Nomad peoples 
have always their own hunting or pasture grounds on 
which no trespass is allowed ; but on which they 
themselves wander without fixed abode. A little 
higher in culture there are numerous people with 
portable habitations, such as the Wahuma of Central 
Africa, who " roam about with their flocks and build 
huts as far as they can from cidtivation " (Speke, 
Discovery of the Source of the Nile, 124). One 
could fill several columns with the different kinds of 
portable dwellings in use over the world. The im- 
pulse to the formation of the town occurs when two 
or three small tribes join togetherfor mutual protection, 
and build their hamlets close together. Thus Pethe- 
rick speaks of "the village, or rather the group of 
hamlets amounting to five in number, called Neangara 
.... an insignificant capital for a large district 
extending southwards and eastwards " ( Travels in 
Central Africa, i. 276). So, too, the Arabian Meccah 
arose out of a similar congregation of tribes, and Sir 
W. Muir's account of its institutions shows that its 
inhabitants were still nomads at heart [Life of 
Mahomet, chaps, ii. iii.), each tribe living its own in- 
dependent life in its own quarter of the town. It will 
be seen that we have here come upon parallels to Mr. 
Round's " five limbs" of Colchester, and there is an- 
other in the five families who seem to have formed 
the typical Ur- Aryan community. But from India we 
get a closer parallel. A Hindu king " shall cause to 
be built a town and a palace .... (At a little 
distance) from the town to the south (he shall cause 
to be built) an assembly-house with doors on the south 

A 

and on the north sides" (Apastamba II. 10, 25 (3, 
5) m. Scured Books of the East, ii. 159, 160). This 
exactly hits Mr. Round's point that the Colchester 
court was a " hundred court," and now see how the 
urban district is shown to date from pastoral times. 
The elders appointed by the king " must protect a 
town from thieves in every direction to the distance of 
one yojana [and of] one krosha from each village 

(Apastamba, u.s,, 162). On which Dr. Biihler's note, 
ad locum, is : "A yojana is a distance of 4 krosha. 
A krosha, kos or gau, literally * the lowing of a cow^ 
is variously reckoned at 1^-4 miles." Nothing can be 
clearer than that the town is here a mere appendage 
of a rural pastoral district. Very similar evidence will 
be found in von Maurer's Dorfverfassung respecting 
the German communities. Mr. Round will, I hope, 
be gratified to find that there is so much collateral 
support for the doctrine which I apprehend he is right 
in claiming as novel in respect of the English town. 

I have left myself bare space to speak of Mr. 
Round's theory of the transformation of the civitas 
into a burgus. Here again I substantially agree with 
him. In writing on the Hebrew village community a 
year ago, I had occasion to sketch the development 
of the village into the town, both in Germany, Italy, 
and Phoenicia. I must refer the curious to my book 
itself for details (J. F. , Early Hebrrw Life, Triibner, 
1880, pp. 54 ff). I will only mention that, following 
von Maurer, I traced the change to the influence of 



38 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



the "outsiders," the "metics,"instead of to the citizens, 
as Mr. Round does. The divergence is interesting, 
as showing the influence of local circumstances upon 
the development of individual communities. 

These notes have, of course, only an indirect bear- 
ing upon Mr. Round's Paper, but I hope they will 
prove interesting, and perhaps afford one or two ser- 
viceable hints. 

John Fenton. 

8, John Street, Adelphi, W.C. 



TRENCHARD FAMILY. 

In Chalmers' General Biographical Dictionary, vol. 
XXX. p. i8, it is stated that "John Trenchard, an 
English political writer, of the democratic cast, was 
descended of an ancient family, the son of Sir John 
Trenchard, Secretaiy of State to King William III.," 
&c. ; and in Biographic Universelle, torn. xlvi. p. 472, 
"Jean Trenchard, ecrivain politique anglais, fils d'un 
secrctaire-d'etat de Guillaume III.," &c. In these 
two standard authorities there is a mistake with 
regard to his parentage, inasmuch as he was the son, 
not of Sir John Trenchard, but of William Trenchard, 
Esq. , of Cutteridge, in the parish of North Bradley, 
Wilts. Burke, in his Landed Gentry (1849), is correct 
in this particular, and rightly says that Sir John 
Trenchard, Knt., of Bloxworth, the Secretary of State, 
was the younger son of Thomas Trenchard, Esq., of 
W^olverton. Some, however, have adopted the state- 
ment of Chalmers and the Biographic Universelle. 
I therefore think it well to give the following literal 
copies (lately taken) of inscriptions in the south aisle 
of the parish church of North Bradley, which have 
reference to the family, and decide the point in 
question : 

I. 

" Near this place is deposited | the body of William 
Trenchard, Esq, | of Cutteridge, in the County of 
Wilts I (by y body of Ellen, his beloved wife), | in 
theyear of our Lord 1713, | and in the 70' year of 
his age. | His wife was the daughter of | S' George 
Norton of Abbots Leigh, | in the County of Somer- 
set, I by whome he had ten children, | whereof four 
lye bury'd in this church, | and only four survived 
him, I viz', John, Anna, Frances, & Ellen, | w'ch 
three daughters he made joint executrixes, | who in 
performance of his will, | & in gratefuU memory of 
their indulgent | parents, erected this monument. " | 



" Underneath are deposited [ the remains of Henry 
Long, Esq', | of Melksham, in the County of Wilts, | 
who departed this life 23*^ of October, 1727, | aged 
40 years, j And also of Henry Long, Jun"", his young, 
est son, who | departed this life so**" of August, 1 739, 
aged 26 years. | As likewise I of M" Ellin Long, 
relict to the first & mother j to the last of those 

f;entlemen. She was the youngest daughter of | Wil- 
iam Trenchard, Esq', of Cutteridge, in this parish, | 
& sister to the celebrated author of the Independent 
Whig I & other valuable works. She inherited the 
vertues of that | ancient & worthy family : in every 
stage of life pious & prudent : { charitable to the poor, 



& a most sincere friend. Thus, much | beloved 
while living she died lamented July the 9"', | 1752, 
at the age of 65 years, & to her memory ] particularly 
this monument was erected by the | appointment of 
her gratefull daughter, | Mrs. Ellin Thresher, in May, 
1756." I 

The only other inscription in the same part of the 
church (commonly called the Trenchard or Long 
chapel), refers to one connected with the Trenchard 
family, and may fitly be appended to the foregoing 
two : 

" In memory of | William Long, Esq', \ of Melk- 
sham, who departed | this life June the 15"*, 1773, 
in the | 64"" year of his age." 

Beavkr H. Blacker. 

Clifton, Bristol. 



HAMPTON COURT PALACE, 
(v. 132.) 

Will you allow me to correct one or two inaccuracies 
in your description of the new groined ceiling, West 
Entrance of Ilampton Court Palace ? In your issue 
for March you say : "The ceiling has elaborately 
moulded ribs springing from the shafts in each angle 
of the gallery, and spreading in a fan-like form to- 
wards a central compartment filled with tracery panels 
with Tudor details, and ornamented with quatrefoils 
containing shields upon which will be carved the arms 
and other devices appertaining to the various offices 
held by Cardinal Wolsey. Upon the centre boss, or 
keystone, will be carved the royal arms of the Tudor 
period." There are no shields in the quatrefoil panels 
of the centre compartment, but twelve square paterae, 
one to each panel, on which are carved, in groups of 
three, alternately, the Crown, V. R., and the Rose of 
England, The Mitre,_T. C, and the Pallium. 

On the centre boss is a shield, surrounded by the 
garter, on which is carved the royal arms of the 
present period, 

Samuel Ruddock, 

Sculptor. 



SHAKESPEARE. 

It may be of interest to notice an inscription in the 
Church of St. Mary at the Tower, Ipswich, which is 
almost a copy of that over the grave of Shakespeare 
in Stratford-upon-Avon. It is a flat stone let into 
the floor at the south-west corner. On it is the 
following inscription : 

"Under this marble resteth the body of William 
Edgar of y Parish, Gent, who was bom i^' January 
1637 and dyed single 3"* October 1716. 

' ' Good friends for Jesus' sake forbear 
To move the dust entombed here. 
Blest be the man that spares these stones. 
And curst be he that moves my bones." 

The arms above the inscription are party per 
chevron, two fleur-de-lis in chief, across the base six 
lozenges, each charged with an escalop, above the 
shield the helmet of an esquire. The crest : on a 
wreath are two figures ; the dexter one appears like 
a number of thongs bound together part of the way 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



39 



up ; the sinister, a bird's head to left, with long neck ; 
the whole being in a circle with mantling. 

This inscription is remarkable, as being used just 
ICO years after the death of Shakespeare. Is it 
known in any other part of England ? I do not re- 
member ever having seen before the announcement 
that the person buried was " single." Has that word 
been much used in similar cases ? 

Colchester. T. Forster. 



BRASSES OF CORNWALL, 
(v. 278.) 

Referring to the letter of the Rev. F. W. Davis 
in your June number, in which your correspon- 
dent remarks, "I trust some gentleman in Corn- 
wall will emulate Mr. Sparvel-Bayly on the subject 
of brasses ere it be too late," I have much pleasure 
in informing your correspondent, and any other 
reader of The Antiquary who may take an inte- 
rest in "brasses," that I have in the press an en- 
tirely new work on The Monumental Brasses of 
Cornwall, which will contain sixty-two plates in 
royal quarto. Many wills are introduced into the 
letterpress, and most of the material is new, being 
only obtainable from MS. sources. Many old Cor- 
nish families are represented the names of Arundell, 
Basset, Boscawen, Coryton, Cosowarth, Courtenay, 
Eryssy, Killigrew, Lower, Mohun, Pendarves, Rash- 
leigh, St. Aubyn, appearing with many others. My 
work seems to "do" for Cornwall just what your 
correspondent desires. E. H. W. DUNKIN. 

Kenwyn House, Kidbrooke Park, Blackheath. 

THE HOLY GHOST CHAPEL AND MARIE 

CUFAUDE. 

(v. 239.) 

Your contributor, " F. C. L.," asks for further 
information concerning the children of Sir Geoffrey 
Pole, of Lordington. 

I have a History of the Life of Reginald Pole, 
published in 1767, 2 vols. (2nd ed.), without author's 
name. This contains a pedigree of the family 
"taken out of the Heralds' Office." According to 
it. Sir Geoffrey Pole, in right of his wife of Lording- 
ton, = Constance, elder daughter and co-heiress of 
Sir John Packenham of Lordington. 

Ilis son, Geoffrey Pole, = Catherine, daughter of 
Dutton, of Dalton, in the County Palatine of 
Chester. 

Then the daughters : 

Catherine, died without issue. 

Catherine, first surviving daughter, = Sir Anthony 
Fortescue, Kt., Marshal of Ireland. 

Elizabeth, = Wm. Nevil, of Torksey, Lincoln- 
shire. 

Mary = Wm. Cuffold, of Cuffold, county of 
Southampton. 

Margaret, = Walter Windsor. 

Anne, = Hildershaw, Esq., ofTetsworth, Cam- 
bridgeshire. 

This, therefore, gives six daughters. 

Five sons are given viz., Arthur, Thomas, Edmond, 
Geoffrey, and Henry. M. Oppenheim. 



ST. THOMAS A BECKET. 

There is a valuable representation, in glass, of St. 
Thomas b. Becket and St. Thomas of Hereford in the 
church at Credenhill, near Hereford. The figures are 
perfect, about fifteen inches in height, surrounded by 
quarries and a border. Both are in vestments, with 
mitre, pastoral staff in left hanc^ right hand being 
erect. Legend above records their names. Tlie work 
appears to be Early Fourteenth Century. As I am 
about to publish a facsimile in colours, I should be 
greatly obliged for any reference to other examples, in 
glass or MSS., of these celebrated ecclesiastics. 

F. P. Havergal. 

Upton Bishop, Ross. 



DOCTOR'S HOOD. 

An artist engaged on an historical painting would 
be grateful if any reader of The Antiquary could 
inform him, through the medium of your journal, 
what distinguishing colours the hood, gown and cap 
of the Doctors of Philosophy (Leipzic University) 
were in the olden time. E. J. 

Aberdeen, June 12, 1882. 

CHURCH MONUMENTS. 
(V. 275.) 
In reference to a remark in your last number, 
permit me to say that I never believed that the re- 
sources of any society could meet what is wanted for 
the preservation of our church monuments. In my 
opinion nothing short of an Act of Parliament will 
be any avail. This I ever advised societies to keep 
steadily and earnestly in view. 

C. Roach Smith. 
Strood. 



LAMBETH PALACE CALLED CANT 
HOUSE. 

In a succession of entries occurring in the Lambeth 
Burial Register, for the year 1645, recording the 
deaths of prisoners within the Palace, then turned 
into a State Prison, each is thus described : " A 
prisoner in Cant House." Can any of your readers 
refer me to any book or newspaper of that time in 
which Lambeth Palace is thus described, or is it 
merely used in irony by the Puritan Rector, Dr. 
White, who had taken the place of the deposed Dr. 
Featley ? If any of your readers can enlighten me, 
and will communicate with me direct, I shall deem it 
a great favour. J. Cave-Browne. 

Detling Vicarage, Maidstone. 



HUNTINGDONSHIRE FEAST. 

Amongst some old sermons in my possession, I 
have one entitled : " A Sermon preached at the 
Huntingdonshire Feast, June the 26th, 1702, at St. 
Michael's, Comhil, London." Where can I find 
some record or account of the said Huntingdonshire 
Feast, which from the tone of the sermon was for a 
charitable purpose ? H. R. Plo.mer. 

Ettrick Bank, Birkdale Park, Southport. 



40 



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A set of 60 Consular Denarii, collected in 
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LAMMAS TIDE. 



4i 






The Antiquary. 



AUGUST, 1882. 




Xammas Zi^c. 

By G. Laurence Gomme, F.S.A. 

IIF among my predecessors in these 
articles devoted to the customs 
and festivals of the months I note 
that the history of Easter is claimed 
as a representative " story of humanity," and 
that " New Year" and " Midsummer" take us 
back, by very sensible stages, to far-off primi- 
tive types of society, I may claim also that 
the customs of Lammas Day remind us of the 
time when lands belonged, not to the indivi- 
dual, but to the village community; when the 
village community represented an almost in- 
dependent unit of what was scarcely a national 
society; when, in short, society was just at 
that initial stage which precedes the dawn 
of progress, when, as in the Western world, 
civilization goes on, and which crystallizes 
into stationary fragments when, as in India, 
we meet with the stage of arrested progress. 
I shall, it is true, be able to give only 
the outline of this primitive period in the 
history of Britain, to sketch out one or two 
typical examples of the evidence necessary 
to prove this position claimed for Lammas 
customs ; but if I leave my readers on the 
border-land of this interesting subject, there 
are not wanting works devoted to the inquiry 
which they can consult, and learn therefrom 
how much modern times are intermixed with 
the survivals of ancient times. 

Lammas Day is properly the ist of August. 
The Act of George IL which established the 
new style in England excepted the days for 
the commencement of Lammas rights from 
the operation of the statute. Lammas Day, 
under this operation, is now the 13th of 
August. It is one of the four cross quarter- 
days, as they are now called. Whitsuntide 

VOL. VI. 



was formerly the first of these quarters, 
Lammas the second, Martinmas the next, 
and Candlemas the last. Such partition of 
the year was once as common as the present 
divisions of Lady Day, Midsummer, Michael- 
mas, and Christmas. Some rents are still 
payable at those ancient quarterly days in 
England, and they were not long ago, even if 
they do not still continue, general in Scot- 
land.* It is a day on which many quaint 
customs were enacted ; but the one great 
custom which marks it as a link ^vith a very 
remote past is the removal of the fences 
from many lands throughout the country, and 
the throwing open to common pasturage of 
lands which, till this day from the end of last 
Lammastide, had been used as private pro- 
perty. In fact, it is not too much to say that 
in this custom of Lammastide we have the 
key to the whole system of ancient agricul- 
ture. Wherever we find Lammas customs in 
England we may take it for granted that it is 
the last remaining link of a whole group of 
customs which together make up the history 
of the primitive village community. It is 
curious to observe with what varying degrees 
of integrity customs have lived in various 
parts of the country. In some places, for 
instance, we may find only the bare mention 
of Lammastide, and the throwing down of 
fences and the consequent opening of the land 
to common. In other places, as I shall show, 
there is much more at the back of this single 
Lammas custom there is sufficient to enable 
us to open the great book of comparative 
politics, and to take our studies to that ancient 
Aryan land, India, or even still farther back 
in the history of primitive society, the native 
savages of Africa. But we must stop far 
short of this just now. It will not do in the 
limits of one Paper to wander far away from 
the immediate subject, and therefore we must 
restrict our researches to the comparatively 
narrow limits of Lammas customs. There 
is the one important fact to note, however 
namely, that old customs have been, as it 
were, fighting these thousand years or more 
against the advancing progress of civilization. 
In some places this fight has been successful, 
but in the great majority of instances, one by 
one of the old features and the old elements 
of the once-prevailing customs of ancient 
* Brady, Clavis Calendaria^ ii. p. 107. 

E 



43 



LAMMAS TIDE. 



times have been lopped off ; and hence, while 
we have many instances of Lammastide being 
known by its old name, having some of its 
old features, there are very few instances in- 
deed where Lammas customs remain one with 
another a part and parcel of a great and im- 
portant whole. 

We have such an example recorded from 
the tenantry customs of Sussex, and I shall 
proceed to give the details of this as recorded 
in the third volume of the Sussex Archceologi- 
cal Collectiotis, and with the less hesitation 
because, strangely enough, this particular 
volume of this valuable set of books is ex- 
tremely scarce, and there are many sets which 
have to mourn the loss of this one of their 
brethren. The Paper is by Mr. William Figg, 
and it relates to the Drinker Acres. 

Many of the parishes on the South Downs, 
in the neighbourhood of Lewes particularly, 
have a considerable quantity of brooks 
(locally so called) or marshes within their 
limits, and generally, where the Down land 
was fed in common and the arable was in 
tenantry, some portions of the brooks were in 
tenantry also. In the parishes of Kingston, 
near Lewes, and Southease, it was so until they 
were enclosed, the former in 1830, the latter 
in 1842. In both these parishes were parti- 
cular brooks called Wishes, and in each also 
there was a small piece of brookland called 
The Drinker. It has been for years past a 
matter of curiosity to know the origin of the 
name and the purpose for which these 
Drinkers were originally set out. In Kings- 
ton, the custom connected with the Drinker 
appears to have been discontinued for many 
years, but at Southease it was kept up until 
the inclosure took place. The arable in 
these parishes was divided into yardlands, 
and according to the number of yardlands 
held by each proprietor the rights of de- 
pasturing the Downs and mowing and feeding 
the tenantry brook were regulated. 

It appears that up to a certain day in the 
spring the brooks called Wishes were fed 
in common by the stock belonging to the 
tenants, in proportion to their rights; they 
were then laid off for mowing, and were, 
on a subsequent day, trodden out that is, 
divided into pieces to be mown for hay, 
each tenant taking such quantity as he might 
be entitled to according to the number of 



yardlands he held. The Drinker in Kingston 
appears to have been used by the tenants of 
certain yardlands in a regular rotation of ten 
years, as described in " A true and certeine 
note" of the custom as practised at Kingston, 
in the time of Queen Elizabeth, and of which 
Mr. Figg embodies in his Paper a copy from 
a contemporary manuscript. The above 
note fully explains this custom in Kington ; 
and it would appear that the person or 
persons to whose lot the Drinker fell by 
succession had the right to mow and de- 
pasture the same during the whole year, or 
until the next '' trading of ye wish" took 
place, he or they paying eighteenpence " to 
make them a drinking," that is, the other or 
" resydue" of the tenants who were present 
at the treading out of the Wish. 

In the parish of Southease the custom 
appears to have been somewhat different. 
The rights with which the Drinker was con- 
nected were confined to a portion of the 
North Wish, which was divided into fourteen 
parts called hides, and thirteen called clouts ; 
this land was cleared of stock, or, as it is 
usually called, laid off for mowing, on April 6 
(old Lady Day) in every year. On July 10, 
those tenants who possessed rights met on 
the ground and drew lots for the hides, com- 
mencing at the south end. The mode of 
drawing lots was as follows : Fourteen pieces 
of stick five or six inches in length were 
severally notched or marked with a knife, 
with certain characters, named as follows : 



One score. 
Two score. 
Three score. 
Four score. 
Five score. 
Six score . 



7. Seven score. 



8. The Doter. 

9. Dung hook. 

10. Cross. 

11. C. 

12. C. 

13. D. 

14. The Drinker. 



These hides were not each mown wholly 
by one tenant, but in various proportions ; 
for instance. No. 8 was in six parts ; No. 9 
in six parts; No. 10 in three; 11 went to a 
tenant in Heighton; 12 to two tenants in 
Heighton; 13 the same; while the whole of 
the seven scores were held by tenants of the 
adjoining parish of Telscombe in various pro- 
portions. The tenants having met, the fol- 
lowing was the mode of proceeding : these 
marked pieces of stick were put into the 
pocket of one of the party and drawn at 



LAMMAS TIDE. 



43 



random by those who had rights. As soon 
as the first stick was drawn it was stuck into 
the ground on the south side of the first hide, 
and the turf was cut with a mark similar to 
that on the stick, in order that no mistake 
might be made as to whom the hide belonged 
at mowing time ; and so on, till all the sticks 
were drawn and the several pieces marked. 
Another portion of the North Wish eastward 
of, and lying between the hides and the river 
Ouse, was divided into thirteen pieces called 
clouts, which were mown and divided in the 
same manner and proportions as the hides, 
beginning at the north end, each hide taking 
a clout, except the Doter, which had no 
clout. 

If the hay was not cleared off by old 
Lammas Day the tenants of Southease could 
carry away all that might be remaining. 

The right of mowing and feeding half the 
Drinker hide was, at the time of drawing lots, 
let yearly by auction to the highest bidder, 
and the proceeds spent. The tenants dined 
together, spending one half the amount^ and 
the other half was given to the labourers of 
Southease, "to make them a drinking," in 
order that they also might enjoy themselves. 
The man who acted as auctioneer was called 
the crier, and received one shilling for his 
trouble, and was afterwards employed in set- 
ting or treading out the hides and clouts at 
mowing time. Some portion of the North 
. Wish (lately called stumped pieces) was for- 
merly called Garlands. 

Notv here we get the full surroundings of 
Lammas Day. It occurs, not as the set 
ceremony of one particular period of the 
year, having no reference to any customs or 
ceremonies that have gone before, but it 
takes its place in the long series of agricul- 
tural events which, having survived in Sussex 
in this unique form, enable us to travel back 
over the centuries of political nationality in 
Britain to times when the tribe and the vil- 
lage commune were the boundaries of society. 
This, it appears to me, is the true way to study 
customs. Isolated and detached, they mean 
very little in the science of archaeology, but, 
linked on to their proper units in the chain 
of social development, we can view them in 
their own archaic setting, and not in a modern 
setting. In this Sussex custom we have some 
of the principal features of the primitive 



village community, and when we go forward 
to collect our examples of Lammas-day cus- 
toms we can refer back to this as the type 
of the primitive times to which they belong. 

Professor Nasse, of Bonn, in his remark- 
able monograph on the agricultural com- 
munity, thus connects I^ammas lands with 
the state of things just described : 

In many parts of the country plots of arable land 
in the same township lay intermixed and uninclosed, 
so that the lands of a rural property consisted of 
narrow parcels lying scattered in a disconnected manner 
all over the extent of the village district. These arable 
parcels were for the separate use of individual posses- 
sors from seed-time to harvest, after which they were 
open and common to all for pasturage. They were 
designated " open commonable intermixed fields," 
and also "Lammas lands," because "Lammas" is the 
fete Petri ad vincula on August i or, according to 
the old calendar, by which the reckoning was then 
taken, August 13 which was the period of the com- 
mencement of the common rights of pasturage.* 

Now, it is well known that the end of the 
harvest is in almost all lands, savage or civi- 
lized, a time when the gratitude of man 
breaks out into actual demonstrations. We 
cannot, of course, go into the large question 
of harvest thanksgivings. It is a subject that 
stretches all along the line of human pro- 
gress from the savage to the civilized eras. 
But there is evidence that Lammas Day is one 
of the days which has retained some of the most 
archaic forms of harvest thanksgiving. The 
derivation of its name is often given as from 
" Loaf mass," a mass of thanksgiving for the 
firstfruits of the earth. In that curious col- 
lection of old customs published by the 
Master of the Rolls, Cockayne's Anglo-Saxon 
Leechdoms, there is the following fragment of 
a charm, which is peculiarly parallel in motifs 
if not in form, to the practices of many primi- 
tive peoples : 

So that there be a mark of a cross upon it and take 
from the hallowed bread which is hallowed on 
Lammas Day, four pieces, and crumble them on the 
four corners of the bam.t 

This should be compared with the following 
quotation from Moir's Inquiry into some of 
the most Curious Subjects of History, Antiquity^ 
&c. (London, 1857), pp. 167-168: 

The solemn blessing of new grapes was performed 
both among the Greeks and Latins in some places on 

* Nasse, Agricultural Community, p. 4. 
t .See vol. iii. p. 291. 

E 2 



44 



LAMMAS TIDE, 



the 1st, in other* on the 6th day of August, and is 
expressly mentioned in ancient liturgical books, as 
Cardinal Bona and others take notice. See Bona, 
de Rebus Liturgicis and Constantine Porphyrogenetta, 
de Ceremoniis Aulce Byzantina:, c. Ixxviii. p. 217, 
who describe the ceremonies with which the Emperor 
and the Patriarch went before the vintage, from the 
country palace of Ilieria, to a neighbouring vineyard 
with a great procession, where on a marble table the 
Patriarch blessed a basket of grapes, after which the 
Emperor gave a grape to each patrician nobleman and 
officer among his attendants, &c. For the Latin, see 
the Notes of Don Menard on the Sacramentary of St. 
Gregory the Great, and the comments of the Jesuit 
Azevedo on the Ancient Missal of the Lateran Bazilic, 
published by him at Rome in 1754. 

I will now give an account of some cus- 
toms which are strangely typical of primitive 
society.* In the first volume of the Archceo- 
logia Scotica, published by the Society of 
Antiquaries of Scotland in 1792, there is 
a very good description of the manner in 
which the Lammas festival used to be 
celebrated in Midlothian about the middle of 
the eighteenth century. This account is all 
the more valuable because it is in all proba- 
bility unique. From this Paper it appears that 
all the herds within a certain district towards 
the beginning of summer associated them- 
selves into bands, sometimes to the number 
of a hundred and more. Each of these 
communities agreed to build a tower in some 
conspicuous place near the centre of their 
district. This tower was usually built of sods, 
though sometimes of stones. It was for the 
most part square, about 4 ft. in diameter at 
the bottom, and tapering to a point at the 
top, which was seldom about 7 ft. or 8 ft. from 
the ground. In building it a hole was left in 
the centre for admitting a flagstaff, on which 
were displayed their colours on the great day 
of the festival. This tower was usually begun 
to be built about a month before Lammas, 
being seldom entirely completed till a few 
days before. From the moment the foundation 
of the tower was laid it became an object of 
care and attention to the whole community, 
for it was reckoned a disgrace to suffer it to 
be defaced. As the honour that was acquired 
by the demolition of a tower, if effected by 
those belonging to another, was in proportion 
to the disgrace of suffering it to be demolished, 
each party endeavoured to circumvent the 
other as much as possible. To give the alarm 
of the approach of an attacking party every 
* See Spencer's Political Institutions, p. 249. 



person was armed with a tooting-horn. As 
the great day of Lammas approached each 
community chose one from among themselves 
for their captain. They marched forth early 
in the morning on Lammas Day dressed in 
their best apparel, each armed with a stout 
cudgel, and, repairing to their tower, there dis- 
played their colours in triumph. If news was 
brought that a hostile party approached, the 
horns sounded to arms. Seldom did they 
admit the approach of the enemy, but usually 
went forth to meet them. When the two 
parties met they mutually desired each other 
to lower their colours in sign of subjection, 
and if there appeared to be a great dispropor- 
tion in the strength of the parties, the weakest 
usually submitted to this ceremony without 
much difficulty. But if they were nearly 
equal in strength none of them would yield, 
and it ended in blows, and sometimes in 
bloodshed. When they had remained at their 
tower till about midday, if no opponent 
appeared, or if they themselves had no inten- 
tion of making an attack, they then took 
down their colours and marched with horns 
sounding towards the most considerable 
village in their district, when the lasses and 
all the people came out to meet them and 
partake of their diversions. Boundaries were 
immediately appointed and a proclamation 
made that all who intended to compete in the 
race should appear. A bonnet ornamented 
with ribbons was displayed upon a pole as 
the prize" of the victor. The prize of the 
second race was a pair of garters, and the 
third a knife. When two parties met and 
one yielded to the other they marched together 
for some time in two separate bodies, the 
subjected body behind the other; and then 
they parted good friends, each party perform- 
ing their races at their own appointed place. 
Perhaps, in conclusion, I may be permitted 
to point out how valuable would be a list of 
places in Great Britain where Lammas 
lands exist. It is not enough to know of 
the custom, to know its historical importance, 
to know its archaic origin. There is a great 
lesson yet to be learnt by tracing out the 
lines along which certain old customs exist. 
Such a work would tell us a great deal about 
the ethnological peculiarities of the English 
people. If, for instance, we had on record 
a complete list of the localities of Lammas 



7 



LAMMAS TIDE. 



45 



lands we should have mapped out before us, 
I venture to think, the area of Anglo-Saxon 
influences and settlement. By comparing 
such a list with that other much needed list 
namely, of places where Borough English 
exists or has existed a custom which Mr. 
Elton has done so much to elucidate we can 
scarcely over-estimate the value of the new 
light that would be unquestionably thrown 
upon the primitive times of English history ; 
and The Antiquary could not perhaps de- 
vote itself to more fruitful sources of inquiry 
than the compilation, by the aid of its readers, 
of those materials for the science of archjeo- 
logy. 



^be Crable of fiDobcrn Com^ 
mercial iBntcrprise, 




RN the city of Genoa, down by the 
quays, can be visited to-day a spot 
of surpassing interest to the mer- 
cantile world. The building may 
not stand long. It has been already con- 
demned by the Vandalism of the present 
Government to demolition, to make room for 
a fine new street, yet as it is the old Bank of 
St. George still exists, the origin of which is 
to be traced far back into the Crusading days, 
and the building itself dates from 1260. 
. The inscription which confronts you as 
you enter runs as follows : 

Guglielrao Boccanegra, whilst he was captain of 
this city, ordered in the year 1260 that I should be 
built. After this was decreed, Iva Oliviero, a man 
divine for the acuteness of his mind, adapted me with 
great care to whatever use should then or ever after 
be applied to me by the Captain. 

Now the use to which it was applied forms 
the object of our search. 

Ascend the stairs begrimed with the filth 
of an Italian custom-house, and you enter a 
vast hall surrounded by statues of Genoa's 
worthies, shareholders in this bank, who gave 
of their riches to the support of the State. 
These statues are arranged in a scale, peculiar 
to themselves. Those who only presented 
25,000 francs to the State were deemed 
worthy only of a commemorative slab ; their 
more liberal brethren, who gave 50,000 francs, 



were honoured with a half-figure bust. One 
hundred thousand francs entitled the donor 
to a full-figure statue, standing over the heads 
of the most liberal of all, who, in a sitting 
posture, were placed close to public gaze. 

We loved that hall, tho' white and cold, 
Those niched shapes of noble mould, 

A princely people's awful princes, 
The grave, severe Genovese of old. 

Tennyson, Daisy. 

In this hall were originated some of the 
most important steps in early commercial 
enterprise ; early financial speculators as- 
sembled here ; all that is now brought to 
perfection by money-makers of the nine- 
teenth century passed its infancy within these 
walls floating debts, irredeemable debts, 
funded capital and the manipulation of in- 
terest were all discussed here and initiated. 
There is the tribune still to be seen, where 
once sat the directors of this bank ; there are 
the niches still where the numerous clerks 
once had their desks. Moreover, there are the 
archives, now placed with those of the State, 
with the help of which we may hope to un- 
ravel the history of the rise of banking systems 
under the roof of the building Avhence was ad- 
vanced money for European enterprises centu- 
ries before the Fuggers of Augsburg, or the 
Rothschilds, came into notice. 

It is difficult to assign to this bank an 
exact origin. The Crusades and the prepa- 
ration of galleys, which foreign monarchs en- 
trusted to the Genoese, introduced the idea 
of advancing capital for a term of years as a 
loan to the Government on the security of the 
taxes and public revenues ; but the Crusades 
were soon over, and the Government took 
care to secure its profits with all speed, and 
to pay off its creditors. However, the 
Saracen and Moorish wars were otherwise, 
and were undertaken at considerable risk. 
The town of Ceuta, in 1231, had to be de- 
fended against the Moorish king of Seville. 
It behoved the Genoese to man a fleet, and 
to do this they sold a portion of the revenues 
to capitalists who were willing to advance 
money for the expedition ; these capitalists 
were called monisti, and in the Genoese dia- 
lect their loan was called a maone or Mahone, 
a word of doubtful origin. To this Mahone 
there might be any number of subscribers, 
merchants, religious corporations, and so 



46 



THE CRADLE OF MODERN COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE. 



forth, and if the expedition was successful 
they got a large share of booty, or grants of 
land ; in this manner the Genoese family of 
Giustiniani became lords of Chios. 

This system of Mahones was the key of 
Genoa's future success, and the origin of the 
Bank of St. George. The first debt was thus 
incurred by the Government, and to meet the 
occasion the same system was adopted which 
continued in vogue, subject, of course, to 
great development, down to the days of the 
French Revolution, when the Bank of St. 
George ceased to exist. 

A meeting of creditors would be held im- 
mediately the money was advanced, and from 
amongst themselves they would elect a council 
of administration, to which council the 
Government handed over the revenue in 
question. The council of administration 
Avould then elect consuls. Every loo francs 
would be termed a share {luogo), and each 
creditor was called a liiogatorio. 

Each shareholder's interest in the loan was 
summed up as a column (colonna), and entered 
in a book called the cartulario. 

Each loan was called a compera, and col- 
lectively these loans by degrees became known 
as the compere of St, George, which in later 
years became better known as the Bank. 

When a loan was raised it was called after 
the saint on whose day the subscription fell, 
or the name of the object of the loan was 
given to it ; for example, there were the loans 
of SS. Peter and Paul, the loan of Scio, 
Cyprus, the Great Peace of Venice, &c. The 
subscription was obtained by public auction 
in the loggie, with which ancient Genoa was 
full, when the auctioneer would sell the in- 
vestment to the highest bidder. 

As early as 1252 the number of these loans 
began to create anxiety, and it was deemed 
advisable to unite them under one head with 
a chancellor, and other minor officials to 
M'atch over them. 

Again, in 1302, the archives tell us how 
commissioners were appointed at a general 
meeting, two hundred and seventy-one articles 
and regulations were drawn up to give addi- 
tional security, and for the future no loan was 
to be raised without the approval of the con- 
suls of the loans, and the consent of the great 
council of shareholders. 

It was thus that this curious monetary 



system gradually established for itself a 
hitherto unprecedented power within the Re- 
public ; it was as time went on a Republic 
within a Republic, and essentially the ruling 
power of the whole. No interference was 
tolerated on the part of the Genoese rulers ; 
if they were in difficulties the Republican 
governors would apply to the Bank for finan- 
cial aid. If the governors of the Bank saw 
the necessity for advancing money, they did 
so willingly ; if not, they closed their purse- 
strings. 

Now and again, when in difficulties with 
their colonies, the Genoese rulers would 
hand them over to the Bank. Thus Cyprus 
was once ruled over entirely by the Bank ef 
St. George. When the Turks came, the 
Genoese colonies in the Crimea were given 
to the Bank. Corsica, too, and various towns 
on the Riviera, fell under the same jurisdic- 
tion. Their archives are full of volumes in 
which are entered the minutes of these 
temporary governments. Unfortunately for 
the honour of the Bank, they invariably were 
harsh and grasping taskmasters ; they drained 
the colonies of all they could, and then handed 
them back to the Genoese rulers in a de- 
plorable state. Thus the Turks easily sub- 
dued the Crimea. The island of Cyprus 
cast off the Genoese yoke, and even Corsica, 
close at hand, was for ever in open insur- 
rection. 

But let us consider more closely the con- 
stitution of the Bank in its earlier days. 
The consuls of the debts were always inter- 
ested in them, and bore the name of Sapienti. 
Under them were numerous minor officials, 
such as key-bearers, visitors, &c,, who over- 
looked the different departments; and whereas 
the Government of the outer Republic was 
factious, revolutionary, and for ever changing, 
the Government of this inner Republic re- 
mained firm and maintained its credit un- 
flinchingly. 

The year 1337 was a great date in the 
annals of this financial corporation. After seve- 
ral large loans, or mahones, had been raised 
to conquer Cyprus and quell the insubor- 
dinate nobles in Monaco, it was deemed 
necessary to put the affairs of the Bank in the 
hands of a Commission, and this date many 
give as the origin of the Bank; but the. 
archives, as above mentioned, prove that this 



THE CRADLE OF MODERN COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE. 



47 



was merely a step in the direction of consoli- 
dation. The results of the conquests were 
farmed out to the shareholders for three years ; 
all the several loans were united into one, and 
half a century later the final act of consolida- 
tion took place, which fixed the organization 
of the Bank, and which remained unaltered 
to the end. 

During certain political troubles which 
harassed Genoa towards the close of the 
fourteenth century, the scheme of multiplica- 
tion of interest was invented by a patriotic 
citizen, whose name calls for a much more 
prominent place in history than has been 
allotted to it. At the time in question taxes 
were placed on every available commodity ; 
a man could not sweep snow from his door- 
step without paying a tax j the State had 
reached the threshold of bankruptcy. 

Francesco Vivaldi was a retiring, hard- 
working merchant of Genoa, who had gained 
for himself the name of a miser rather than 
otherwise ; but at this critical moment he 
stepped forward, and by one single act of 
generosity he saved his country. 

On the 1 2th of April, 137 1, Vivaldi came 
down to the Council Hall of the Republic. 
All were silent ; they knew he had something 
to propound for the welfare of the State. I 
will give his speech as it was entered in the 
documents of the Bank : 

Sirs, I recognize the wants of my country, and I 
feel the burden of our debt, as it is befitting a good 
citizen should. I have carefully kept for you the 
value of my shares in the Bank of St. George, since 
they belong to you, being the governors and adminis- 
trators of the people ; use them in accordance with 
the design I have now in mind as I offer them to you. 
These shares are inscribed in my name, inviolate 
and sacred, and so shall they remain, as I despoil 
myself of them. Those of you who have the charge 
of the "compere" seek to draw the interest from 
this sum never later than the fall of each year. 
With this interest I propose that other shares be 
bought, to bear fruit also in their season ; and thus 
fresh fruits and fresh gains may multiply with the 
course of years, until a sufficient sum is accumulated 
to pay off the shareholders in the loan you call of 
" the great peace."* This accomplished, the capital 
must be employed in laying by interest to pay off 
all the other loans, be they heavy or be they light. 
Nor must you ever stop, as long as a single debt 
remains in the Republic, and whilst you read in the 
books a single subsidy which weighs on you and on 
my fellow-citizens. This is my will, and if it is 

* A loan raised to indemnify losers in a war with 
Venice, 



transgressed, or in part neglected, I will cancel the 
gift, either myself if alive, or by the hands of my 
successors if I am no more. 

It is to be regretted that Vivaldi's gift, at 
a time of great misery, only entitled him to a 
bust, now hidden by cobwebs in a corner of 
the building of the Bank. He was the great 
financial mover of his day, far more deserv- 
ing of praise than Andrea d'Oria and other 
Genoese heroes whom posterity has chosen 
to remember with honour. 

The credit of the Bank of St. George was 
universal. Hospitals, churches, confraterni- 
ties, placed their capital in it. If a wealthy 
man wished to endow a church, he presented 
the building with some of his luoghi in the 
Bank, and it was secure. Vivaldi's example 
was followed by many who were anxious to 
tie up the interest on their capital until some 
large amount had been reaUzed ; but though 
in Vivaldi's case the working was excellent, 
as each loan was paid off in succession, yet 
these frequent " multiplications" caused the 
State no little trouble, diverting money out of 
profitable channels and tying up large sums 
for an indefinite period. 

In 1407 the Bank directors appointed a 
Commission for regulating the expanded 
business of the Bank. All the shares were 
again united into one. Seven per cent, was 
to be the interest on all. An agreement was 
drawn up with the Government of the Re- 
public, by which unlimited power was given 
to the " protectors" of the Bank, as they 
were henceforth called. Every judicial sen- 
tence passed by them was without appeal. 
Self-government was granted to them without 
any interference from without. 

Out of thirty-two citizens elected by ballot 
from amongst the shareholders, the ballot 
was to extract eight, and these were to be 
the protectors^ and were to have the chief 
executive power. There was the president, 
the treasurer-general, superintendent of the 
sale of shares, and three judges, who looked 
into frauds, &c., and two secretaries. These 
eight officials remained in office for a year. 

The general council of 480 controlled the 
protectors, and to this council every one over 
eighteen years of age, and whose interest in 
the Bank was over ten shares, whether 
Genoese or alien, was eligible. This council 
could put a veto on the advance of any new 



48 



THE CRADLE OF MODERN COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE. 



loan, and had a power in the State superior 
even to that of the nominal ruler of the 
Genoese Republic. 

There were naturally in so large an under- 
taking many minor officials. The syndics, to 
whom all complaints were made, and who 
decided on minor points of law ; the consuls, 
who sold the shares at the street auctions ; 
bookkeepers, clerks, and lawyers, who sat in 
alphabetical order round the great hall, and 
were ready to show the accounts to every 
comer. 

Thus, if a curious Genoese was anxious 
to find out how much his neighbour was 
worth, he had but to step into the great 
hall, and cast his eyes down the neatly-written 
columns of assets and debits, as we can to- 
day in the grimy old books up in the archives, 
which are now chiefly consulted by those who 
are anxious to make out their pedigrees. 

In 1425 we have an instance given us of 
the absolute power conceded to the Bank, 
when safe-conducts granted by the Govern- 
ment of Genoa were not recognized by the 
Government of the Bank. And later on, in 
1528, it was definitely decided that no person 
could hold an appointment in both Govern- 
ments at one and the same time. 

A Floating Debt was created in 1456, when 
owing to the Turkish onroads in the East, 
the bank had advanced a considerable sum 
of money, what were called entered debts, 
were then invented. In the fourth year 
they paid the interest due on the first. On 
the fifth year the interest due on the second, 
and so on in perpetuity. 

An irredeemable debt was not introduced 
till about a hundred years later, when the 
Government of the Republic was somewhat 
hard pressed, and saw fit to hand over to the 
Bank certain revenues in perpetuity, instead 
of for a fixed term of years, or until the loan 
was paid oft" as heretofore. 

It is difficult to find a parallel elsewhere 
for so much power being possessed by a body 
within the State apart and distinct in every 
way from the regular governing body. Our 
own East India Company suggests itself at 
once as a case in point; but the Genoese 
Bank diff"ered from the East India Company 
inasmuch as the government of one was 
seated in the lieart of the metropolis, whilst the 
pther ruled at the opposite side of the universe. 



So fond were the Genoese of their time- 
honoured building, and of the old custom of 
selling investments by auction in the streets, 
that it was not until 1675 that the Bank 
thought it necessary to open branches in 
the city and provinces, for the more con- 
venient transaction of business. And it was 
not till that date that the old name of the 
compere of St. George gave place to the more 
modern appellation of tlu Baiik. The old 
Strado delle Compere, in Genoa, is all that is 
left to record the name which this flourish- 
ing commercial Republic bore throughout 
the whole of its palmiest days. 

Though hard pressed many a time by 
drains on its resources, the Bank of St. 
George never once lost its credit. In 1745 
the Austrians invaded Genoa, and demanded 
large instalments of money. These the Bank 
supplied; though it was found necessary to 
impose taxes on commodities, &c., of a 
most startling nature. For instance, we read, 
that " every dead body was taxed for the 
benefit of the creditors of St. George." By 
such means the protectors managed to stave 
off the threatened bankruptcy, and it was 
not until the revolutionary days at the close 
of the last century, that this time-honoured 
Bank gave way. The new order of things 
which Genoa had learnt from France deemed 
it inconsistent with liberty that taxation should 
be in the hands of a corporation, and when 
the taxes were taken from them the directors 
of St. George found their notes of but little 
value. 

In 1 8 14 attempts were set on foot for the 
revival of the Bank, but its day was done ; it 
had worked a great work for the world at 
large by initiating those systems of finance 
so essential to the well-being of commercial 
enterprise. On it tlie fortunes of Genoa were 
built, and of it Machiavelli spoke, when the 
Bank was a marvel of success, even to the 
opulent Florentines. 

All example indeed most rare, by philosophers in 
all their imaginations and conceptions never found, is 
that system of administration adopted in Genoa in 
the compere of St. George. .... So that if it could 
happen that this city (Genoa), full as it is of ancient 
and venerable customs, might fall entirely into the 
possession of the Bank of St. George, which doubtless 
with the process of time will happen, it v.'ill then be a 
Republic of greater importance than even that of 
Venice. 



THE CRADLE OF MODERN COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE. 



49 



There is a romance attached to the build- 
ing itself, though squalid as seen to-day. 
At the date at which it was built (1260), the 
Genoese had obtained, by treaty, large com- 
mercial advantages from the Emperors of 
Constantinople, to the detriment of the rival 
Venice ; Michael Paleologus gave them the 
fortress of Pancralore, which had been built 
by the Venetians; so by way of spiteful 
revenge they carried off this fortress stone by 
stone, to Genoa, and built their Bank with 
them. There are three lions' heads let in on 
the outside of the building, which point to 
rude Eastern workmanship, and go towards 
attesting the veracity of this tradition. 

On the walls outside were hung the chains 
which once went across the mouth of the Pisan 
harbour. When Conrad D'Oria broke these 
chains, and ruined the rival Pisa in 1295, he 
brought them home, and part of them were 
hung up here. Only a few years ago, when 
Genoa and Pisa were brought into the fold 
of Italian unity, generous Genoa gave them 
back to Pisa, and they hang to-day in the 
Campo Santo of that city. 

The bell of the Bank, which tolled regularly 
over the waters of the Genoese harbour, 
to warn the busy mariners of the lapse of 
time, has long been silent. It was brought 
from Canea, in Crete, and has an inscription 
in it, which reads thus : " Divide thy time, 
like the measured tolling of this bell." 

No more instructive, and at the same time 
melancholy, visit can be paid at Genoa than 
to this wreck of Genoa's greatness. There 
are exquisite slabs of carving still to be seen, 
representing St. George in his mystic struggle 
with the dragon . There are the very niches 
into which letters were dropped 400 years 
ago for the directors, the consuls, and the 
syndics of the Bank. The antiquary who 
wishes to study mediaeval maritime law can 
do so to his heart's content in the volumes of 
the Archives. There is the old Gazzaria 
code by which Genoa governed her colonies 
and her merchandise in the Black Sea. 
There are lists of the duties and taxes on 
all commodities, both at home and abroad. 
Here we see the complete ruin of Genoa 
exemplified in the very heart of her formj^r 
greatness, the keystone of her mediaeval 
prosperity. Her palaces, her grandeur, her 
collections of art, rivet the attention of the 




traveller, but they all emanated from this 
spot down by the quays. And not only did 
this Bank enrich Genoa, but it taught others 
how to develop their financial affairs. With- 
out the lessons learnt from Italian traders, 
the Portuguese, the Dutch, and the English, 
would be centuries behind in their knowledge 
of commerce. 

J. Theodore Bent. 

Z\)c IRcville nDonument0 at 
Branccpetb an^ Burbam. 



N the church of St. Brandon at 
Brancepeth, besides many very 
interesting memorials, and some 
architectural features both curious 
and rare, there are remaining some monu- 
ments of the Nevilles, Earls of Westmore- 
land. These, however, are by no means of 
so striking a character as those described in 
the Paper on the Neville tombs at Staindrop, 
nor can they lay claim to the same remarkably 
fine construction. The church, it may be 
said, en passant, is replete with objects which 
cannot fail to be noticed by the antiquary. 
There is a screen in front of the chancel 
elaborately carved, which contrasts strongly 
with the very sombre colour of the pulpit and 
pews, which follow an old EHzabethan type, 
and which resemble not a little the dark 
balustrades in [the church at Ryton, in the 
same county. Over against the chancel 
walls are the celebrated geometrical panels, 
presumed to have formed part of the rood 
screen, and to a description of which the 
archaeologist Billings devoted a volume. A 
quaintly carved oak chest, dated 1450, of ex- 
cellent workmanship and design, is in the old 
chantry of Jesus, founded by Ralph, Lord 
Neville, and Isabel his wife. The registers 
kept here begin on the last day of the last 
year of the sixteenth century. A brass on 
the pavement of the south aisle was purloined 
from its place, but accidentally discovered and 
restored, the memorial fitting into an inden- 
tation in the pavement. Under a panelled 
semicircular arch in the south wall of the 
chancel are stonework and a slab, on which 
the ancient wooden figures once reposed. 



50 THE NE VILLE MONUMENTS AT BRANCEPETH AND D URHAM. 



Reverting to the monuments, the oldest of 
the Neville family is that of a knight crusader, 
carved in stone and habited in chain mail. 
He has a shield over the left arm, on it are 
the arms of the Nevilles, whilst a small sword, 
something like a misericorde, depends from 
a belt underneath the shield. The hands are 
elevated as in prayer, the legs are crossed. 
Though portions of the figure are injured, 
yet the whole is in very good preservation, 
and it lies on the floor of the chancel facing 
the altar. No positive evidence can be found 
as to the identity of this efiigy. The Nevilles 
held possession of the adjoining castle of 
Brancepeth soon after the Conquest, and no 
other family of anything like the same im- 
portance resided near. The hauberk, ac- 
cording to Father Daniel, was the proper 
armour to be worn by a knight. In France 
the double coat of mail was appropriated 
only to persons having"^ certain fiefs or estates 
called fiefs cThaubert. The account given 
by Daniel tallies very exactly with the ap- 
pearance of this Brancepeth crusader. " One 
may judge," says he, " by all this how our 
knights were loaded when they had all their 
arms, for they had besides their ordinary 
clothes, the gambeson, which of itself, in 
summer, must have been very hot, being 
stuffed with wool or cotton ; above this was 
their coat of double mail, and consequently 
of an extraordinary weight." The shape of 
the shield on this knight resembles that on a 
knight engraved in Montfaucon's Histoh'e de 
la Monarchic Francaise, and is also very 
similar to those seen in the Bayeux tapestry. 
As a general rule the shields on effigies of 
cross-legged knights are triangular. Similar 
shapes prevail on seals, and in the devices on 
stained glass windows. Stone effigies of cross- 
legged knights were sculptured down to the 
reign of Edward II., if not a little later. It 
is certain that the Brancepeth figure has not 
always been in its present situation, but has, 
at some time or other, been removed from a 
less conspicuous site. By its side are the 
wooden effigies of Ralph, the second Earl of 
Westmoreland, and his second wife the 
Countess Margaret. The hands of both 
these figures are pressed palm to palm. The 
carving resembles, in character and general 
design, that on the tomb of the fifth earl in 
the church at Staindrop. Formerly they were 



placed on an altar tomb, the sides of which 
were richly sculptured with niches and a 
variety of imagery, and stood in a different 
position. It may be noted that the shield of 
the great house of Neville occurs amongst 
the decorations of the roof of the nave, which 
dates distinctly from the fifteenth century. 
Annour at about this period had begun to 
lose much of its special beauty and excel- 
lence. Accoutrements, equipments, and indi- 
vidual parts degenerated. This deterioration 
can be succinctly traced in the brasses where 
all kinds of armour are so admirably en- 
graved. We turn from the effigy of Sir John 
de Cobham, circa 1375, in the church at 
Cobham, in Kent, or the very fine representa- 
tion of Nicholas, Lord Burnell, a.d. 1382, 
at Acton Burnel in Shropshire, to the later 
century, when in the Aobey Cliurch at St. 
Albans, in Hertfordshire, we behold the figure 
of Sir Anthony de Grey, a.d. 1480, alto- 
gether less splendidly worked. There is, 
however, much to admire in the Brancepeth 
Nevilles, and it is interesting to observe a 
kind of similarity in the features of these de- 
parted worthies. Time or human spoliation 
have destroyed the inscription which was at 
one time to be seen. 

Archaeologists will be certain to observe 
other features of interest in the church, 
such as the sanctus bell turret on the 
gable of the chancel arch, as well as a 
sculptured stone of the date of the tower, 
1260, representing the Deity seated on a bow 
within the vesica piscis, the spandrils being 
filled with the symbols of the Evangelists. 
The baronial castle of Brancepeth adjoins 
the church, and here are traces of the Nevilles. 
One of the towers is called Neville, and in 
the Baron's Hall there are some fine modern 
stained glass windows. One of these repre- 
sents the great battle of Neville's Cross. 
There are also life-size or full-length portraits 
of the first Earl of Westmoreland and his 
countess in other windows in the same hall. 
Brancepeth living was forierly in the gift of 
the Nevilles, but after their attainder it was 
vested in the Crown. The estate was the sole 
property of the Saxon house of Bulmer, and 
they built the castle for a baronial residence. 
Bertram was the last of the line; he left an 
only daughter, Emma, who married Geoffrey 
Neville, grandson of that Gilbert de Neville 



THE NE VILLE MONUMENTS A T BRANCEPETH AND D URHAM. 5 1 



who came to England at the time of the 
Conquest. The marriage which united the 
properties of the Bulmers and Nevilles took 
place in 11 90. The dun bull, which is the 
badge of the Norman Nevilles, was in reality- 
derived from the Saxon Bulmers, though it 
has been thought by some antiquarian 
searchers to have had its origin from the 
wild cattle which, once on a time, like those 
still existing at Chillingham, roamed in the 
park here, then, and at a later date. 

Passing from the quiet sanctity of Brance- 
peth, a walk of nearly five miles takes us to the 
Cathedral of Durham. Here may be noticed 
very dilapidated remains of the Neville monu- 
ments. In the south aisle there stood the 
chantry of the family, where John, Lord 
Neville, contributed largely to the cost of the 
altar screen of fine alabaster, and to other parts 
of the edifice. The chantry was used as the 
place of sepulture of the Nevilles of Raby. It 
is now destroyed, and the tombs of these once 
famous lords stand between the grand, massive 
pillars which divide the nave from the aisles. 
They are in utter niins, with small trace of 
their old grandeur. The first in order is the 
altar tomb of John, Lord Neville, who died 
1388, or as some say, 1389, and his wife, 
Maud, the daughter of Henry, Lord Percy. 
The sides are filled with canopied niches, 
with small figures, in better preservation than 
the eftigies of alabaster above, which are too 
mutilated for any kind of recognition. This 
tomb was once coloured and gilt. Near to 
this is the monumental slab of the good ' 
Robert Neville, the Bishop of Durham. It 
is composed of grey or blue marble. The 
outline of the brass which at one time adorned 
it is distinctly visible. He was the fourth son 
of Ralph, Earl of Westmoreland, by Joan of 
Lancaster, the sister of Henry IV. Further 
on to the east is another altar tomb in 
memory of Ralph, Lord Neville, the hero of 
Neville's Cross, who died in 1367. The 
mouldings of this monument remain, the rest 
is really a shapeless mass. Once the effigies 
of Ralph and those of Alice, his wife, were 
to be seen on the slab. He was buried in 
the nave, and was the first layman to whom 
the honour was granted. The originators of 
the grievous mischief by which these me- 
morials were defaced were a large body of 
Scottish prisoners who were enclosed in the 



cathedral after the battle of Dunbar. This 
great family of Nevilles came to an end at 
the beginning of the seventeenth century. 
Camden says that from them sprang one 
queen, five duchesses, six Earls of Westmore- 
land, a Marquis of Montacute, a Duke of 
Bedford, one Baron Ferrers, one Baron Lati- 
mer, and one Baron Abergavenny, besides 
countesses and ladies innumerable. It seems 
more than probable that the fall and decline 
of the illustrious family took its origin from 
the " Rising of the North" in the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth, when the Duke of Norfolk, 
a relative of the sixth Earl of Westmoreland, 
tried to induce Mary Queen of Scots to 
marry him. The earl escaped to France, and 
lived there in indigence and seclusion. 

William Brailsford. 

iS)Ib 3foot0tep0 of tbe 

Sayon Hnceetora of tbe lenglbb 

IRation \xi (Bermani?, 




E would like to lead the reader into 
a region of Germany which, though 
not very well known, and lying out 
of the way of travellers, neverthe- 
less would be of no little interest, especially 
to your Enghsh countrymen. It is that hilly 
district which is situated near the Porta 
Westphalica, near the old Prussian fortress 
Minden and the Doehrenschlucht, in the 
neighbourhood of Detmold, that little capi- 
tal of the little Prince of Lippe. The Weser, 
and the Suental, a picturesque mountain on 
the banks of this river, form the northern 
borders of this province, whilst the Teuto- 
burger Wald bounds it on the south. The 
Westphalian Werra flows through it in a 
south-western direction, and the river Ems 
takes its origin at the foot of the Toensberg 
(Mount of St. Antonius), near Oerlinghausen, 
a little Lippian village. It is not a large 
area, indeed, which this region has, but there 
is no doubt that the history of Germany has 
had, in its earliest period, one of its principal 
scenes between these hills ; and, as I shall try 
to show, there must have been then a near con- 
nection between the inhabitants of this district 
and the old Saxon colonists of Great Britain. 



52 



OLD FOOTSTEPS OF THF SAXONS. 



Whether, however, those are right who 
maintain that this is the region where the 
Roman legions of Augustus were beaten by 
the German Duke Arminius, is very difficult 
to prove. Sixty years ago Mr. Kloster- 
meyer, the historiographer of the Prince of 
Lippe, in his essay. Where Herviann defeated 
Varus, affirmed it confidently ; and in our 
time Mr. Schierenberg, at Horn, near Det- 
mold, defends the opinion with all the vigour 
of his Lippian patriotism, but most modern 
historians no longer allow us to think so. 
The scene of that battle, which has been of 
such important consequences, was, according 
to those, rather to the south of that moun- 
tain that Tacitus calls "SaltumTeutoburgense" 
on the banks of the river Lippe, or Lipia. 
In confirmation ofthis, they cite especially the 
fact that there is on the banks of that river a 
little village which yet keeps the name of 
the Roman castle Aliso, mentioned by 
Tacitus as the centre of that combat, 
which was so destructive to the legions of 
Augustus. 

But however that may be, we can assert, 
without fear of contradiction, that this dis- 
trict is one of the centres of early German 
life. This was the scene of those bloody 
and important wars between the Franconians 
and the Saxons during the second part of 
the ninth century, and the name of Wittekind 
is still in memory of the people there as the 
great national hero. They show his dwelling- 
place at Wedigenstein, near Minden, and 
other places, where he is said to have had 
his residence. They show also his tomb at 
Engern, near Herford, where also you can 
see some remains of his skull, carefully and 
piously preserved. You can hear many 
stories of this hero told by the people on the 
long winter nights ; you will meet also with 
old families, who proudly derive their origin 
from that great Saxon duke, and from his 
knights. 

And we shall find footprints of even 
remote times. Not that we have any written 
documents from this early period of th e German 
nation, but there are many other memorials 
left in that country, which show that the 
original German civilization, whatever it was 
before Christianity was brought from Scot- 
land and England, had here a prominent 
centre. If a few stakes, put in certain order, 



as we find in the lakes of Switzerland, and 
the remainders of some primitive household 
furniture, give us the right to conclude that 
this was formerly a scene of human life, 
should we not be entitled to the same con- 
clusion, when we find in the names of moun- 
tains, villages, forests, and other places, traces 
of times which are no more.-* And of such 
names we meet in that country between the 
Weser and the Teutoburger Wald, with a 
great number reminding us of a religion and 
of events that are forgotten now by the 
people, that used them, but that, neverthe- 
less, are the remains of a civilization which 
had a full life in the hearts, as well as in the 
actions, of the people during that early 
period. 

There is, for instance, in the neighbour- 
hood of the small Lippian town Salzullen, a 
hill, called the "Asenberg," that is '^Mount of 
theAsen." Who would not think immediately 
of the old German gods, of whom the "Edda" 
gives us intelligence, especially when he knows 
that there is still at this time a tale in the 
mouth of the people, that the " Wild Man " 
has his abode in the forest ? For this " Wild 
Man " is no other than the old German god 
" Wodan" or " Wuotan," the chief of 'the 
German gods, whom they call in other places 
for instance, in the Bodethal of the Harz 
the " Wild Hunter." There was an old 
church in the neighbourhood of the " Asen- 
berg," at Schoetmar, sacred to St. Kilian, one 
of the old Scotch apostles in Germany, which, 
without doubt, was one of the eldest Christian 
churches in that country. It was said that 
when they removed an old crucifix that stood 
on the altar, there appeared immediately the 
leg of ahorse. Does not also this legend remind 
us of "Wodan," to whom the horse was sacred, 
and from whom the devil, in the imagination 
of the people, had got his horsefoot. There 
are still other places which derive their names 
from the "Asen" a village, the name of which 
is *'^i-^/dorf," and another called "y^j-(?missen." 
The name oi "Frejesmissen" calls to our mind 
"Freya" or "Frigga," the old German Venus ; 
and the "Ho/knstein," and the "Ifo//e/iha.gen" 
two other hills near the "Asenberg," probably 
have received their names from " Frau HoUe," 
the protectress of matrimony; "Zokhausen," a 
village nearly two English miles from the 
"Asenberg," sounds as if it might have been 



OLD FOOTSTEPS OF THE SAVONS. 



53 



the abode of " Loki ;" and the name of the 
hamlet, " WadenhaM^tn" is simply " Woda?i- 
hausen," derived from the old father of 
all German gods. The name of the forest, 
Seligen Warden, situated also not far from 
the "Asenberg," can be traced to the same 
origin. The people say that there is heard 
there sometimes beautiful music and the 
sound of a banquet, at which many heroes 
are assembled perhaps a remembrance of 
the " VValhalla" where, they say, the heroes 
are dining and drinking after their battles. 
They speak, also, of an old true-hearted man, 
warning those who venture to approach the 
true Eckart, who plays the part of monitor 
in the tale of the " Wild Hunter." There is 
also a legend of a huntress having often been 
seen making a strange and dreadful noise 
possibly one of the old goddesses. The 
people say that it was the mistress of an 
estate in the neighbourhood, who had killed 
her son, and was therefore condemned to 
rove about through the forest; but those 
who know that she was banished by the 
Christian priests into a lake, from which she 
was not allowed to escape, unless the water 
would dry up, can see in this merely a recol- 
lection of that time, when the Christian priests 
were fighting the old Pagan idols of German 
people. 

But besides these and others of a like kind, 
there are names in that country, like those 
we have mentioned, old, and showing us the 
early age of the German nation ; but re- 
markable, above all, for their similarity to 
names of estates, as well as of villages and 
towns, and even of persons in England. 
You have in England a Buxton, and in 
this region of Germany, of which we speak, 
you will meet also with a large estate called 
Biixten , and there is no doubt that this name 
in Germany is as old as in England. You 
have a great sailor. Sir Francis Drake-, but 
here is an estate, the owner of which has had 
the same name, Drake., ever since the estate 
existed that is, since the most remote period. 
For the custom in this country is, that every 
one who inherits an estate, or marries its 
heiress, or even buys it, must adopt its name, 
and this has been the custom from times im- 
memorial ; so that' we can rightly say the 
names that are attached to the estates have 
come down from the time when the Saxons 



lived there. But, further, you have a Lord 
Lyndhurst, and in the neighbourhood of the 
Weser there is also a place called Lindhorst -, 
you have a Bathurst, there is here also a 
Pathorst ; you have a Hereford, there is a 
Herford here ; you have an Exeter, you will 
meet here with an Exter ; you have 
a Ravensburg, and here a county near the 
Teutoburger Wald is called Ravensberg ; and 
so it would be possible to find a great many 
names which are the same, or nearly the same, 
in both countries, as old in the one as in the 
other, and all lying closely together in that 
small district the borders of which we have 
sketched above.* 

Moreover, the language which is spoken by 
the people in that region between the Weser 
and the Teutoburger Wald, would strike an 
Englishman by the similarity of many of its 
sounds and many of its words to those of his 
own language, and these are no longer used 
in the modern German dialect, but preserved 
here in the mouth of the Ravensburg people 
and the peasant of Lippe. Your English 
language, of course, has got its own peculiar 
and highly cultivated form since that early 
period when your Saxon ancestors left Ger- 
many for a new home ; but he who knows 
English literature, as well as the dialect, which 
is spoken still in our days on the banks of the 
Westphalian Werra, and around the source of 
the river Ems, cannot but recognize a near 
relation between the two languages, origina- 
ting, without any doubt, at that time when the 
Anglo-Saxons were still Germans. Such 
striking peculiarities of pronunciation, of 
grammar, and of word-roots, are still preserved 
by the inhabitants of that region, that this 
affinity is undeniable, and I do not hesitate 
to say that this affinity is in no part of Nor- 
thern Germany so evident as here to the 
south of the Porta Westphalica. 

Let me give a few examples. *' Yes," for 
instance, is in some remote valleys of this 
region viz., in such as have kept the old 
dialect in its oldest form not " Ja," or *' Jo," 
as with the other German people, but 
" Yea," pronounced nearly in the same man- 
ner as you pronounce this old word in your 
language. In the county of Ravensberg and 
of Lippe, as well as in England, you will meet 

* Cf. Taylor's Words and Places, cap. vii., on this 
interesting subject. [Ed.] 



54 



OLD FOOTSTEPS OF THE SAXONS. 



with the word " meet," quite forgotten in the 
modern German dialect, or with such words 
as "pink," "pin," "black," to "blacken," 
"unawares," "rail," to "wring," to "burst," 
in the meaning of a " runaway," to " spread," 
" stake," " steak," " quick," " slower," " skill," 
to "shake," "drove," "boast," "shall," 
"egg," "heaven," "tell," "one," "noon," 
" goose," " inlet," " tough," " broom," "knife," 
"throat," "flour," "among," "sister," 
" ox," " bam," " big," &c. &c. ; and he who 
would take the '.trouble to search would 
find many more of the same kind, and words 
which those who are educated only in the 
modern German language, would not under- 
stand at all. So also with reference to pro- 
nunciation. The inhabitants of that county 
at the Werra would never pronounce, as 
the modern Germans do, an " sh" before 
the " w," or before any other consonant, but 
always in such cases an " s " only. The old 
dialect of the Teutoburger Wald makes no 
difference between the dative and accusative, 
especially in regard to the personal pronoun. 
"Me,""de," "em," ''us," "ye," " se," are 
significations as well of the dative as of the 
accusative, and the nominative of the plural 
is " we," " ye," " se," the last word pro- 
nounced almost as you pronounce " they." 
Then, in reference to the verbs, the coinci- 
dence is as great in their conjugation as in 
their construction ; and he who considers 
that both languages have had their own 
history, uninfluenced by each other in any 
way for more than a thousand years, will be 
struck by this conformity, and must believe 
that there is an historical connection between 
them. 

But it would be the work of a book and not 
of a short treatise, as this only can be, to 
enumerate all the coincidences and resem- 
blances between these two languages. If we 
were to inquire, however, as to the cause of 
these striking circumstances, would we not be 
right in saying that these facts we have stated 
prove that there, on the banks of the West- 
phalian Werra, in the counties of Lippe, and 
of Ravensberg, was one of the German re- 
gions where the Anglo-Saxons lived formerly, 
and from whence they emigrated to the British 
Isles ? Not that this region was the only one 
from which England has got its Saxon 
colonists, but that emigrants came from this 



part of Germany also, for there seems to be 
no other way of accounting for this surprising 
conformity. There is also another fact that 
would seem to confirm this view, though I 
would not lay much stress upon it. There is 
in the mind of the people still a remembrance 
of " a great hero," or " general," called 
" Hengist," who had, they say, emigrated from 
here. There, in the neighbourhood of Lemgo, 
an old Lippian town^ is a large plain called 
" Hengstheide," and once, when I was there, 
I met with an old peasant from the neigh- 
bourhood, of whom I inquired as to the 
origin of that name, whether it had not been 
formerly a horse pasture? for the word 
" Hengst" means a stallion in the German 
language. But " No," he said, " he had been 
told that once, a long time ago, a great general 
had gathered (his folk) there ;" and when I 
asked him who had told him that, he an- 
swered, " I have heard it from my ancestors ; 
it is a common saying here about." However 
that may be, I would not urge this popular 
tradition. For even if it contains somewhat 
of an historical basis, it is so uncertain and 
deformed, that we cannot use it as a proof of 
our view. 

A more significant fact, however, is that 
the region we speak of was in that early 
period the meeting-place of the Angle and 
Saxon limits. No doubt the Saxons in 
the northern parts of the Weser were settled ; 
but in the neighbourhood of the Werra, and 
on the banks of the Ems, we meet with 
another tribe of the German nation, which, 
I believe, was that from which the British 
island got its name England. Remember 
that Wiitekind, the hero of this district, 
was the Duke of the Engern and Saxons ; 
and there is yet near Herford the old resi- 
dence of this great antagonist of the Fran- 
conian Emperor, Charles the Great, which 
bears the name of Enger, or Engern. Why 
cannot this tribe of the " Engern" be that of 
the Angles, from whom, by mixture with the 
Saxons, the Anglo-Saxons took their origin ? 
Tacitus places in this region, on the banks 
of the Ems, the " Angrivarians ;" and the tribe 
of the " Engern" is called in old documents 
for instance, in the History of Westphalia, 
by Schaten the "Angern." Certainly, there is 
no reason why we should not believe that 
" Engern," " Angern," "Angela," are the same 



OLD FOOTSTEPS OF THE SAXONS. 



55 



words, and that the district of the Engern tribe 
viz., the region on the banks of the Werra 
and Ems is Old Anglia in Germany, and at 
least one of the German countries, from which 
the Anglo-Saxons departed for that island, 
that was to be their new and glorious home. 

Add to all this, not only that the people in 
that region yet are accustomed, every year in 
spring time, to migrate to the western parts of 
Europe in search of work, returning in the 
Fall, but also that here you will meet with a 
race of men who have in their stature and face, 
as well as in their character, a surprising re- 
semblance to your countrymen, and you will 
concede, at least, that there is reason for ex- 
amining into these matters more closely. 

Frederick H. Brandes, D.D. 

Gottingen. 




Ib 3ron MorF^- 



IHERE are few more satisfactory 
results of the moderh aesthetic re- 
vival than those which follow from 
the renewed interest in arts that 
had previously been allowed to fall into 
neglect. The art of the blacksmith is one 
of these, and Messrs. Gardner have done a 
good work in gathering together a repre- 
sentative I^oan Exhibition of Ancient 
Wrought Iron Work at their house in West 
Strand, London. It is understood that this 
is intended to prepare the way for an exhi- 
bition on a larger scale, to be arranged later 
on, under the auspices of the Ironfounders' 
Company. 

The initial difficulty in arranging an exhi- 
bition of this sort is found in the unwieldi- 
ness of many of the objects. The old 
blacksmiths beat out the most elegant designs 
on the gates and railings intended to orna- 
ment the fine old buildings of former days. 
These are not likely to be removed unless 
the building itself is destroyed.; but, owing 
to the ruthless destruction of many of the 
City churches, much fine work is available 
for exhibition. It would be, however, a 
serious mistake to suppose that the worker 
in iron confined his attention to large objects, 
for he was as much at home in emulating 
the minute skill of the worker in the pre- 
cious metals. Specimens of both large and 



small objects were to be seen at Messrs. 
Gardner's interesting Exhibition, which re- 
mained open from the end of June to the 
middle of July. 

In ironwork, as in most other arts, the 
distinctive characteristics of the different 
nations are very marked. Probably, it will 
be safe to place Germany and Flanders in 
the first rank as leaders in the art, the city 
of Augsburg being specially distinguished. 
The open grilles to be seen in all parts of 
Germany are often singularly beautiful, both 
in design and execution. There was in this 
Exhibition a very fine specimen of the lan- 
diers, at one time so common in the fire- 
places of mediaeval mansions. This was Flem- 
ish work of the fifteenth century, and very 
elaborate in its arrangements. Besides the 
ordinary dogs, there were braziers for warming 
small pots that could not be placed on the 
ordinary fire, and hooks for suspending pots. 

French work of various periods was well 
represented; for example, a beautiful grille 
of the date of Francis I., in which the reticu- 
lations are formed \n\.o Jleiirs-de-lys, and some 
fine work attributed to the respective reigns of 
Louis XIIL, Louis XIV., and Louis XV., each 
with the distinctive characteristics of its par- 
ticular period. Venetian work is specially 
remarkable for elaborate design in flowers ; 
this, although very artistic in itself, is not 
always to be admired for the use it is put to. 
There were in this Exhibition a shovel and 
tongs of the most ornate character, which, 
although marvellous work, did not please us 
on account of their unfitness for the duty 
expected from fire irons. 

The blacksmith's art was revived in Eng- 
land after the Great Fire ; and in a Paper 
on the subject which Mr. G. H. Birch, 
A.R.I. B.A., read before the members of the 
Architectural Association on their visit to 
Messrs. Gardner's Exhibition, some of the 
fine examples that still remain were specially 
referred to. Much of the beautiful ironwork 
in St. Paul's Cathedral was by a foreigner 
named Tijan, or Tijon ; but, as Mr. Birch 
points out, it is pervaded by a thoroughly 
English spirit. Any one who will take the 
trouble to wander about some of the old 
bye streets, will find handsome gates and 
railings which will well repay him for his 
trouble. These are gradually being swept 



56 



OLD IRON WORK. 



away, and within the last few years several 
fine railings have disappeared from Great 
Ormond Street and Hammersmith Mall, 
which were' at one time specially distin- 
guished for fine specimens. Much^ of course, 
still remains in the front of the old Queen 
Anne's houses in some of our country towns. 

The City churches are rich in ironwork, 
such as the sword rests, communion rails, 
and railings round important tombs. Every 
day these become fewer ; and some good 
specimens were to be seen at this Exhibition 
taken from the places where they should 
still be if those in authority had any appre- 
ciation of the importance of preserving old 
buildings. There was an iron bracket with 
pulley and chain for the purpose of raising 
the font cover taken from the destroyed 
church of St. Michael, Queenhithe, We 
are often told that only those churches are 
pulled down which are without architectural 
interest. Yet this church of St. Michael 
was built by Wren, and contained some fine 
wood carving in Grinling Gibbons's manner. 
Surmounting the tower was an iron vane in 
the form of a ship, capable of containing 
a bushel of grain, the staple of traffic 
at Queenhithe. The design of a pendant 
for a chandelier from St. Catherine Cree, is 
attributed to Inigo Jones, the architect of 
the church. 

The locksmith was a man of consider- 
able importance in old times ; and to judge 
from the locks, bolts, and keys which 
have been preserved to us, we must rank 
him very high in the artistic scale. After 
speaking of the beauty of the locks and hasps 
of the fifteenth and sixteentli centuries, in 
which the ironworkers seem to sport with the 
rebellious metal, and to find a positive plea- 
sure in bending it to their fanciful conceits, 
M. Jacquemart adds : " But these locks, 
these bolts, are as nothing compared with 
the keys masterpieces, real jewels of iron ; 
and one can understand why certain ama- 
teurs of the present day have made them 
the object of their special collection. There 
busts, monograms, coronets, historical enig- 
mas, are set in their lace-works of tracery, or 
enriched with delicate acanthus foliage, which 
causes the bow of some of these keys to rival 
the most delicate jewellery ; the guillochures 
of their shafts, and the cotnplication of their 



wards, correspond to this elegance, and en- 
title some of these keys to take their place 
beside those of enamelled solid gold in the 
collection of the Baron Alphonse de Roths- 
child."* 

There were many fine specimens of keys 
in this exhibition, but the most beautiful of 
all was the exquisite master key, which is said 
to have belonged to Mary, Queen of Scots. 
The key is small, and the tracery most deli- 
cate in execution, initials and the thistle being 
worked into the design with the greatest 
skill. One would be glad to know the name 
of the artist who produced this, so that his 
name might be registered in the Temple of 
Fame. There were some iron book-covers, a 
clock-case, and an early two-pronged fork. 
We may remark, in passing, that the iron 
hands of some of the solid old English clocks 
show marks of true artistic taste in their 
workmanship. 

A fine wrought-iron chest, with a lid hiding 
a secret lock, dated 1550, formed a remark- 
able object in the collection. Near it were 
two oak travelling chests, in which the wood 
is covered with ornamental iron bands and 
scrolls. Door-knockers, tinder-boxes, snufiers, 
and sundry miscellaneous objects were repre- 
sented. One object of considerable interest 
was a double candle-holder with shade, which 
once belonged to Hogarth. It was so made 
that each candlestick could be taken off the 
stand and used separately. Of the work of 
the armourer, specimens of which were exhi- 
bited, we shall say nothing here, as this is a 
branch of ironwork in which considerable 
interest has always been felt. The historical 
importance of spurs, swords, stilettos, and 
daggers is at no time likely to be overlooked. 

We may mention, however, some fine spe- 
cimens of damascene work, a favourite style 
of decoration in the East and in Europe since 
the time of the Renaissance. There was 
also a fine piece of repousse work of the seven- 
teenth century, in- the form of a copy of Van- 
dyck's picture of the children of Charles I. 
With regard to the iron railings for staircases, 
which are often so elegant in old houses, we 
may remark that, at the end of the last cen- 
tury and beginning of this, they were made 
remarkably plain, so that in place of the flow- 
ing curves of an earlier period, we find in 
* History of Furniture, 1878, p. 300. 



OLD IRON WORK. 



57 



good houses mere straight unoraamented up- 
rights. 

To those who know ironwork only from 
the lumpish and heavy railings now so com- 
mon, which are weak in design as well as 
clumsy in execution, it will be a sort of 
revelation that the blacksmith may really be 
a decorative artist of the first class. Happily 
there are signs that the age of deadness has 
nearly come to an end. We have little 
doubt that it is the consumer who needs to 
be educated, and if he demands artistic work, 
there are men now living who could emulate 
the triumphs of Huntingdon Shaw. Towards 
this desirable end, the exhibition so admirably 
arranged by Messrs. Gardner is likely to be a 
great help, and we shall look forward with 
hope to the promised exhibition of the Iron- 
founders' Company. 



^be 3nfluence of ipaatoral Xtfe 
on tbe DillaGC Communit^^ 




ijO what extent the Village Community 
owes its peculiar features to the 
influences of a prior civilization, is 
a question that has hitherto not 
been much discussed. Neither of the two 
great historians of the Village Community 
Von Maurer and Sir Henry Maine has 
attempted to trace the origin of the institu- 
tion in any earlier stage of society. On the 
contrary, our English authority seems rather, 
by his sceptical attitude towards the doctrine 
of the evolution of the patriarchal family 
from an earlier type, to discourage the idea 
that any such origin can be traced. On the 
other hand, Sir Henry Maine's chief oppo- 
nents Mr. Herbert Spencer and Mr, L. H. 
Morgan have recorded their belief that the 
Village Community, in some of its principal 
features, is nothing more than a continuance 
of pastoral life with such modifications and 
developments as the practice of agriculture 
would naturally induce. I propose in this 
paper to dwell upon one or two new features 
in which the influence of earlier times upon 
village life may be observed. 

The beginning of the permanent dwellings 
which developed into the Village Community 

VOL. VI. 



is to be found in pastoral or even pre-pastoral 
life, and is directly traceable to climatic 
influences. The simplest form of dwelling is 
naturally the cave or artificial hollow used 
by so many peoples to furnish a shelter from 
inclement weather.* Where the constructive 
arts have made some progress, the cave 
shelter rises into a double set of dwellings, 
one for summer and one for winter. The 
summer dwellings are of a light, frail charac- 
ter, while the winter dwellings are stronger 
and more substantial. The Modocs of Cali- 
fornia, who subsist on fish and wild animals, 
dwell in summer in light huts made of poles 
covered with tule matting or ferns, and in 
winter in huts made of stouter poles well 
plastered with clay.f Summer and winter 
houses are very common in the American 
races. Some of the Tatar tribes have two 
kinds of tent, one light for summer travels, 
the other stronger and heavier for winter 
repose. 

With small and purely nomad tribes these 
dwellings are set up wherever the tribe may 
happen to be at the commencement of the 
dry or wet season ; but when the tribes grow 
large and become herdsmen, a change ensues. 
The location of the encampment is no longer 
dependent upon the choice of the tribe, but 
upon the extent of ground which the con- 
current growth of neighbouring tribes will 
allow it to occupy. Thus the summer and 
winter pasture becomes restricted in locality, 
and the situation of the encampment makes 
a corresponding progress towards permanence. 
Of this kind of summer and winter pasture 
we have a familiar instance in the Swiss 
Alps ; while in Turkish law the two pastures 
are recognized as appurtenances of a village, 
and have distinctive names qishlaq, the 
summer; iailaq, the winter, pastiu-e. J It is 
here, too, that the practice of agriculture 
begins, although subordinate to cattle-keep- 
ing ; and here, therefore, the interest of the 
student of the Village Community deepens ; 
for it will be seen that the permanent en- 
campment furnishes the form of the future 
village. 

* E.g., the Katnsehatkans and various Russian 
peoples, Armenians, Bushmen. 

f Bancroft : Native Races of the Pacific States, u 
334, 336, 

+ Journal Asiatiqw, 5me serie, xix. 304. 

F 



58 



THE INFLUENCE OF PASTORAL LIFE. 



A typical instance of the half-permanent 
pastoral tribe is furnished by the Hassanyeh 
Arabs of the White Nile. They are nomads, 
possessing few horned cattle, but considerable 
flocks of sheep and goats, and they live in 
small tents formed of matting, covered over 
in the rainy season and winter with a thick 
woollen cloth. During the summer, they 
wander along the banks of the Nile, but at the 
commencement of the wet season, when the 
Nile overflows its banks, they go into the more 
elevated interior of the country. Their 
camp consists of two long rows of huts in a 
straight line and parallel to each other; the 
huts being about fifteen yards apart, and a 
broad passage, like a street, fully fifty yards 
wide, separating both lines. Behind each 
hut is a small enclosure made of dry thorns, 
which serves as a pen or fold for the calves 
and lambs. In addition to the pen at the 
back of each hut, a large fence to confine 
the cattle at night is made in common by 
the men of the settlement. At a little distance 
from the encampment are the cornfields of 
the village. In this camp the tribe remains 
until the inundation of the Nile has subsided, 
when they pack up their huts and descend 
to the lowlands, returning to the neighbour- 
ing spot in the next season.* This descrip- 
tion of the Hassanyeh encampment agrees 
precisely with that of an ordinary communal 
village. The arrangement of the huts in a 
wide street is that of the village houses ; the 
enclosure for the young cattle and the space 
between the huts is the germ of the later 
courtyard and garden ; and in the separation 
of the cattle pasture and the cornfields is the 
beginning of what afterwards became the 
pasture and arable marks. The market-place, 
even, of the village finds its prototype in the 
cattle-fold of the Basutos and the allied 
peoples of South Africa. The villages of 
these people are permanent, but they them- 
selves are still herdsmen, migrating in the 
summer to distant pastures, and reverting in 
time of drought to their former hunting life. 
Their villages are formed of huts ranged in 
a circle, with the pens for the herds in the 
centre. In the centre, too, just in front of 
the chiefs hut, is the common meeting-place 
of the village, where questions of police and 
politics are discussed, where in fact the 
* Petherick : Egypt, the Soudan, ^c, 148, iGgf. 



village parliament holds its sittings.* We 
may even go a step further, and find a com- 
munity in which the pasture mark is actually 
coming into existence. The natives of 
Kamaon leave their villages during the heat 
of summer after having sown their crops, 
and retire to the shade of the woods, where 
each community has its own allotted share, 
to which it returns year by year.f 

Nor is this gradual advance of type from 
the simple summer and winter dwelling up 
to a settlement which is not a village com- 
munity only because it is not permanent, an 
accidental one ; for there is evidence that 
some peoples, at least, have passed through 
all these stages. In the Turko-Tartaric race, 
the catagaic oj, meaning a valley, hollow or 
tent, is applied in the form oj, to mean a tent, 
house, dwelling; and a derivative verb, 
ojlenniek, meaning literally to get oneself a 
house, and hence to marry, takes us up to 
the verge of the village community, in which 
the acquisition of a house is the necessary 
preliminary to admission to the commune 
and to marriage, t So, too, the Mongolian 
yuri, meaning originally a tent, is applied by 
those people to their own half-permanent 
wititer dwellings in the qishlaq, and by the 
Russians to denote the huts of the subject 
races of Siberia. 

Coming nearer home to the village com- 
munity, the early Eranians termed their 
dwellings mndne/n, in modern Persian, jndn ; 
and this dwelling also was portable. They 
also used the word khao, modern Persian 
khana, from the root khan, to dig ; and the 
development from the hollowed cave through 
the movable tent to the fixed house is still 
preserved in the modern expression khan u 
niAn, which denoted a house and all its 
appurtenances.il From Germany and India 
the evidence is even more complete. The 
very Teutonic name for a large village, tUn, 
zaun, tow?i, reminds us that our towns started 
from the cattle fences like those of the 
Hassanyeh Arabs. The Sanskrit gosht/m, 

* Casalis: Les Bassoutos, 129, 130, 162, 180. 

+ Asiatic Researches, xvi. 185. 

X Vambery : Etynwlog. Worterbuch d. Turko-ta- 
tdrischen Sprachen, 47. 

Quatremere : Histoire des Mongols, 54, 55. The 
history of this word, as related by M. Quatremere, is 
itself an epitome of the types of human dwellings. 

II Spiegel : Eranische Alterthuviskunde, iii. 675. 



THE INFLUENCE OE PASTORAL LIFE. 



59 



first meaning a cow-pen, and then transformed 
to mean an assembly, a discussion, links the 
early Aryan village parliament, like that of 
the Basutos and Zulus, with the cattle-fold. 
The village money was originally cattle, the 
measures by which the land itself was sold 
were measures based on cattle and named 
after them.* Everywhere, therefore, as re- 
gards houses and land, the viliage community 
is based upon pastoral life. 

Nor has pastoral life been without influence 
upon some customs of the village community 
which would seem at first sight to be of 
purely agricultural origin. Let us take, for 
instance, the prohibition of the wanton 
cutting down of fruit trees. The Hindu 
law books enforce a penalty for cutting 
down fruit-trees, and a double penalty for 
cutting down trees which grow in a grave- 
yard, churchyard, boundary, or consecrated 
place, or which are " notable trees. "f These 
"notable trees" are frequently met with in 
Hindu literature. They are the abode of a 
wood spirit, who is invoked by the people in 
his neighbourhood, who threaten from time 
to time to cut down the tree, and so end 
the spirit's life, unless he complies with their 
prayers. The cutting down of such trees is 
not merely a legal but also a religious offence, 
and they who wantonly commit that crime 
go to the Asipattra-vana hell, the leaves of 
whose trees are swords.| In Germany 
similar phenomena appear. Many of the 
Village Communities forbid the cutting down 
of fruit trees ; but the prohibition popularly 
extends much farther. Dr. Mannhardt has 
collected numerous legends of human souls 
dwelling in trees ; in the Oberpfalz, in par- 
ticular, wherever a person has died a 
violent death, a tablet is fixed upon a 
neighbouring tree, in which the spirit of the 
deceased thereupon takes up his abode. 
Further, there are many trees in which the 
guardian spirits of the house or village re- 
side. When these trees are injured, blood 
flows from the wound ; frequently the evil- 
doer is afflicted in the corresponding part 
of his own body. 

* See Williams : Saiisk. Diet., s.vv. goshtha, gavya, 
gosharman ; and in general Max Miiller : Chips, ii. 
T.'jff; and Pictet : Les Origines Indo-Europeetmes, ii. 

t Stenzler : YajnavalJzycC s Gesdzbuch, 227, 228. 

+ Wilson : Vishnu Purana, 1st ed. 209. 

Mannhardt : Der Bauvikulius der Germanen, 39, 



In both India and Germany, therefore, 
the felling of trees appears unrestricted 
originally to fruit trees j and my suggestion 
is that fruit trees were originally preserved 
as the abode of good fairies when other trees 
were cut down, and that as the belief in 
fairies decayed the prohibition remained and 
was kept up for its practical usefulness. As 
an illustration of this process, the Lake 
Nyassa men may be quoted. These people 
bury their dead near their villages, and place 
on the graves articles of clothing and house- 
hold utensils for the service of the deceased. 
They do more. They plant a banana tree at 
the head of each grave, that the deceased may 
still enjoy the fruit he loved in life.* These 
trees are sacred, for the Lake Nyassa men 
are in great awe of their deceased relatives, 
and will do nothing that might anger them. 
These Lake Nyassa trees are precisely inter- 
mediate between the fairy trees and fruit 
trees of the Village Community. They are 
sacred from their connection with the 
deceased forefathers ; and from their position 
near the village, they form the germ of the 
future orchard. As the belief in ancestral 
anger dies out, the traditional immunity will 
remain, and the Nyassa people will begin to 
see a utilitarian reason for retaining it. And 
of this stage the Chinese author of the Book 
of Punishments and Rewards is a type ; for 
he writes that there are spirits that preside 
over wells and hearths, and that if you heed- 
lessly leap over them, you not only insult the 
gods, but you show that you have forgotten 
what two things are the foundation of human 
life.f 

In religion, too, the Village Community 
retains much that belongs to the preceding 
stage of culture. In pastoral life the sacrifices 
are chiefly, if not wholly, of cattle, for these 
form almost the only material of which 
sacrifices can be offered ; and as Dr. Moffat 
well remarks, it is not to be wondered at 
that among peoples whose choicest viand is 
broiled or boiled meat, and to whom fat of 
any kind is like the richest cordials, every 

40, and ch. I, passim. Similarly in Persia trees are 
known as dirakJit-i-fazl, the home of the genii, and 
are invoked accordingly. Ouseley : Travels, i. 386. 

* Livingstone : The Zambesi, 38 1. 

t Stanislas Julien : Le Livre des Recompenses et des 
Peines, 475. 

F a 



6o 



fHE INFLUENCE OF PASTORAL LIFE. 



event or circumstance should be solemnized 
with beef.* But cattle-keeping and agriculture, 
as they are practised by primitive peoples, 
are incompatible with each other. As 
agriculture extends, the herds diminish, and 
either disappear entirely, or are confined to 
flocks of the smaller animals. The Has- 
sanyeh have already been mentioned as pos- 
sessing few horned cattle; their neighbours, 
the Dor, who are settled agriculturists, have 
few even of sheep and goats, while among 
the Dards of India a positive dislike of cows 
has developed itself.f It might therefore be 
supposed that the typical cow sacrifice would 
be supplanted by newer agricultural sacri- 
fices. And, undoubtedly, agriculture does, 
as I hope on some future occasion to show, 
introduce an entirely new series of religious 
beliefs and customs; but yet the typical 
pastoral sacrifice remains with extraordinary 
tenacity. 

Thus among the people of Kamaon it is a 
custom for one of the villagers, just before 
the beginning of the sowing season, to cross 
a small valley by a slight suspension bridge 
made of a grass rope. If he succeeds, it 
betokens a good crop of corn ; if he fails, 
his life pays the penalty, and is sacrificed 
to avert the anger of the gods. Under our 
rule this latter provision is in abeyance ; but 
the idea remains ; for a bit of the rope, or 
some hair from the man's head, is held to 
produce fertility in the fields of those who 
can obtain it. But the anger of the gods 
infallibly lights on the unfortunate bridge- 
crosser. His fields will never yield, and 
the villagers who have profited by his 
devotion, must support him.J Here there- 
fore is a survival of even a pre-pastoral rite 
that of human sacrifice. 

Of pastoral sacrifices among agricultural 
peoples, I will only mention a few, and then 
pass on to India, where the tenacity of the 
cow sacrifice is best seen. The Khyens, or 
hill tribes of Arakan, worship a tree, and 
sacrifice cattle to it, although they are purely 
agricultural. The Tshuwashes of Siberia have 
a great cattle sacrifice in early Spring, and 
scatter the ashes upon the fields to produce 

* Moffat : Missionary Labours, 277. 
+ Petherick : Egypt, the Soudan, &=., 398, 401 ; 
journal of the Asiatic Soc. of Bengal, xlvii. 28. 
X Asiatic Researches, xvi. 224. 



good crops. In Esthonia, as late as the 
seventeenth century, an ox was sacrificed, 
with prayers, for successful sowing and reap- 
ing.* 

In India, the veneration of the cow has 
long been waning, for the author of the 
Vishnu-Purana, taking his cue from contem- 
porary feeling, predicted that in the coming Kali 
age, cows should be venerated only in so far 
as they produced milk. But the cow still 
remains an integral part of the great Agnish- 
toma sacrifice. This sacrifice consists, 
briefly told, in the ceremonial offering of 
cattle and rice cakes. To account for the 
presence of both cattle and rice, the Brahmins 
tell a quaint legend of the sacrificial virtue 
passing from the human being to the horse, 
from the horse to the ox, from the ox through 
several animals to the goat, and finally from 
the goat into rice and barley. To what 
extent this legend is a systematized memorial 
of the traditions of sacrificial materials may 
be doubtful : the point of interest is, that 
the Brahmins, nevertheless, do not regard 
the rice sacrifice as sufficient in itself, but 
merely as the completion of the cattle sacri- 
fice. They thus instruct the worshipper : 

When the animal is the offering, then many parts 
of the offering go off, are not used (hair, skin, blood, 
&c.) In what way is the deficiency to be made up ? 
The answer is : If they sacrifice purodasa [the rice 
cake] divided into its proper parts along with the 
animal, then the animal sacrifice is made complete. 
When the sacrificial essence had gone from the 
animals, both rice and barley sprung out of 
it. When they offer purodasa divided along with the 
animal, then they should think, "our animal was 
sacrificed with the sacrificial essence in it. Our 
animal has been sacrificed in its entirety, "f 

Here, then, is the pastoral sacrifice remain- 
ing alongside the agricultural and retaining 
the supremacy. I But the form in which it 
survives in the more popular sacrifices is still 
more striking. The same writer who 
lamented the decrease of the veneration of 
cows, introduces his heroes as performing a 

* Asiatic Researches, xvi. 264, 265 ; Melanges Russes 
(St. Petersburg), iii. 278ff. ; Grimm : Deutsche My- 
thologie, 1st ed., 119. 

t Haug : Aitareya Brahmana, ii. 98. 

X So, too, cow's flesh satisfies the deceased ances- 
tors for a much longer period than cooked rice, and 
is, therefore, preferable. Wilson : Vishnu Purana, 
333 ; Manu,\\\. 267, 271. The Parsis still retain the 
animal, but instead of slaughtering it, only present a 
hair of it to the sacred fire. 



THE INFLUENCE OF PASTORAL LIFE. 



6i 



meritorious sacrifice by liberating a black bull, 
and Prof. Wilson, in a note, mentions that 
this ceremony of liberation was a recognized 
substitute for slaughtering it. In this form 
the sacrifice remains unto this day. For, at the 
great Pongol festival the feast of ingathering 
in Southern India, after the new rice has 
been prepared, and placed over the fire, and 
after the joyful shout has gone forth, " It 
boils, O Suriya, it boils," thus heralding 
a good and plenteous harvest, the cows, 
decorated with the sacrificial garlands, are 
no longer slaughtered, but are hunted madly 
through the village till they are wearied out, 
and then the rejoicing villagers spend the 
rest of the day in chasing hares.* Even so 
does the sacrifice survive in Germany, where, 
at the spring feast of the budding grain, 
hares, and squirrels, and foxes are hunted 
over the fields, that these may be fhiitful and 
the harvest plentiful.! 

And here, albeit much more might be said, 
I will end, seeing that this pastoral sacrifice 
still survives in the Agricultural Community. 
John Fenton. 



XTbe (Breat Case of tbe 
3mpo0ition0, 

By Hubert Hall. 

PART I. 

N Michaelmas Term 4 James I. an 
information was brought in the 
Exchequer against one Bates, a 
Turkey merchant, for refusing to 
pay an imposition of 5^. on the cwt. of 
currants, in addition to the 2s. 6d. already 
levied. 

The case was argued in the Exchequer 
chamber, and judgment given for the Crown. 
The immediate result of this decision was the 
Book of Rates for new impositions on mer- 
chandise ; the gain to posterity consists in 
the survival of one of the most important and 
interesting constitutional arguments to be 
found amongst the unequalled historical 
records of this country. 

yournal of the Royal Asiatic Soc, N.S. v. giflF. 
+ Kuhn : Westphalische Sagen,\x. 143; Liebrecht: 
Zur Volkskunde, 261. 




It will be necessary to pause here to ex- 
plain both the sources of information for the 
history of this mighty case, and the use that 
has been made of these by certain modem 
writers, especially as the course that has been 
there adopted may be taken as pointing to 
the results obtained in other cases. 

There are two classes of information open 
to us for the study of such a question as that 
raised in Bates' case the right, that is, of 
the Crown to impose. There are, firstly, the 
ancient records of the realm, rolls of Parlia- 
ment and the like, to which may be added, 
not as a mere gloss upon them, but as living 
and impartial witnesses of the actual system 
in work, the various sets of accounts that may 
have happened to survive.* Secondly, there 
exist, and chiefly in a manuscript form, the 
arguments based upon the former of these 
records ; precedents collected with a diligence 
and arrayed with a skill such as we can never 
hope to see again, by the great legal historians 
of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 

Now, strange as it may seem, we, in this 
later and presumably more enlightened age, 
cannot, in the majority of cases, avail our- 
selves of either of these sources of informa- 
tion to the extent of our historical require- 
ments. We, most of us, are content to take 
our history from the popular historian of the 
day, and this gentleman has neither the 
patience nor the ability to decipher records. 
His information, then, and ours in conjunc- 
tion with him, is derived at second or third 
hand from contemporary authorities; but 
here again fresh difficulties present them- 
selves. 

The great lawyers, who brought a wealth 
of precedents to the argument of any single 
case, were, nearly without exception, partisans 
on either side in the political contests of the 
day. They were evenly matched in profes- 
sional ability ; they were dogmatic with all 
the confidence of historical insight, and 
zealous to the verge of want of scruple for 
the cause of Crown or people. 

They asked for and stated nothing beyond 
a bare history of the facts ; and for this pur- 
pose they appealed to none but original 
authorities. Indeed, each of them might 
have boasted with Hargrave that, " confident 

* These are chiefly to be found in private collec- 
tions. 



62 



THE GREAT CASE OF THE IMPOSITION'S. 



in the strength of Parliamentary records, he 
would appeal to them only." 

But what of that ? It was, after all, prece- 
dent against precedent, interpretation against 
interpretation, assertion against denial. Let 
any dispassionate reader without an indepen- 
dent knowledge of the question follow out the 
arguments on both sides in the case we have 
before us, and he will soon become hopelessly 
lost in the endless citations of conflicting pre- 
cedents, with the marginal reference to roll 
and membrane, written in the same cramped 
hand, or closely printed in the voluminous 
pages of the State Trials ! 

But there is something worse than this 
behind. Historians of far greater credit are 
not only unequal to collecting precedents for 
themselves, but cannot even read those mar- 
shalled by their unassuming predecessors ; or 
at least they cannot always read them cor- 
rectly. Probably most people have acquired 
their knowledge of the facts in Bates' case 
from Hallam and the State Trials, but chiefly 
from Hallam : I shall show presently how 
incompetent was even this great historical 
writer to deal with the manuscript autho- 
rities he delights in citing. The race of 
original historians expired with Francis Har- 
grave : let us be thankful that it is born again 
in the two Hardys, in Rogers, and in Stubbs. 

We find it recorded in a Hargrave manu- 
script,* that Queen Elizabeth, in her thirty- 
fourth year, incorporated a company of Turkey 
merchants trading to the Levant, to have a 
monopoly of their trade in those parts for 
twelve years next following. But when the 
Queen attempted some years later to impose 
a new custom of 5^. 6d. per cwL on currants 
and 6s. Sd. on the butt of canary, the mer- 
chants stoutly resisted the exaction. The 
Letters Patent were of course revoked on the 
spot, and a new company was got together, 
which paid as much as ;j^4,ooo for a charter 
granting "larger liberties" than the former 
one. But when, after the accession of her 
successor, a proclamation was issued against 
monopolies, this new company honestly sur- 
rendered its charter. Few commercial mem- 
bers of the community at this time are seen 
to more advantage than these Turkey mer- 
chants : yet from henceforth they were marked 
men. 

* No. 27, fo. 92d. 



We see, then, in the case of Bates a fixed 
and deliberate resolve on the part of the 
Crown to assert a right to impose by its own 
authority upon merchandise. The thin end 
of the wedge had already been inserted. 
Cloth, sweet wines, and tobacco, amongst 
others, had already been made to bear in- 
creased duties in the face of the jealous 
opposition of the common lawyers. But now 
the Crown had a body of judges after its own 
heart. The agent who dictated its mandate 
on this occasion was doubtless the Lord 
Chancellor EUesmere, than whom a more 
subtle tool never armed the hand of a grace- 
less tyrant : but the moving spirit was 
Salisbury. 

The Barons of the Exchequer, as was be- 
fore said, gave judgment for the Crown. The 
case was learnedly argued, but only two of 
the speeches have come down to us, those of 
Clark and Fleming, preserved in Lane's 
Report. 

The arguments of both these eminent law- 
yers are terse, dogmatic and plausible, as 
Hargrave himself admits. They point to the 
increased custom on the tax of wine under 
Edward I., to the new custom under Henry 
VIII., and the impost under Mary, and these 
they rightly esteem as arbitrary requisitions. 

So too the prizage of wines was never 
granted to the Crown by any statute. The 
impost was, they assert, paid over and above 
the subsidy, and so it should be in the case 
before them. 

I shall endeavour to show how little ex- 
ception can be taken to their main argument 
of commercial expediency. 

The most important of contemporary argu- 
ments on the other side is that contained in 
Hakevvill's speech in the Commons during the 
session of 1610. He disposes very powerfully 
of the earlier precedents relied on for the 
Crown, but in answer to that of the increased 
customs conceded by merchant strangers for 
the Carta Mercatoria, he observes that the 
king none the less yielded liberties in return 
for these namely, exemption from prizage 
which they yet enjoy. Now to show the im- 
satisfactory nature of these arguments, we may 
notice that Chief Baron Fleming had em- 
ployed the very same deduction in exactly a 
converse sense. The exactions of Edward I., 
he says, must necessarily have been legal, or 



THE GREAT CASE OF THE IMPOSITIONS. 



63 



he would never have been so highly recom- 
pensed for their abandonment. 

The fact is, that although the theory of the 
revenue was perfectly understood by these 
great authorities, the actual practice in point 
was wholly ignored by them. 

The state of the customs' revenue in the 
twenty-fifth year of Edward I. was as fol- 
lows : There was a prizage of wines due to 
the Crown by ancient prescription ; a custom- 
ary tax upon wool, woolfells and leather ; 
and an undefined toll upon merchandise at 
the ports, chiefly in the interests of a pro- 
tective policy of trade, upon foreign imports. 

All these had their origin in the early 
prerogative of the Crown : but all three 
were about this time regulated on a scale 
which endured in principle for centuries. 
Such, however, have been the confusion and 
inaccuracy characterizing the statements of 
even our most eminent modern historians 
upon this subject that it will be well to enter 
a little more deeply into the question. 

By the twelfth chapter of Magna Carta, 
no unusual scutage or aid could be levied 
without common consent of the realm ; and 
by the forty-first chapter of the same, foreign 
merchants were allowed to traffic free of ex- 
tortionate imposts, notwithstanding we fre- 
quently find both of these provisions 
violated. A maltolte became stamped as 
illegal by its very recurrence, and Plow- 
den is reported as quoting an invitation 
of Henry III. to the foreign merchants 
to visit this country without fear of paying 
arbitrary customs or a maltolte to the king.* 
In the third year of Edward I. a grant was 
made to the Crown of half a mark upon the 
sack of wool, and the same sum upon an 
estimated sack of 300 woolfells, with a mark 
upon the last of hides. Henceforth this be- 
came the ordinary charge, and any deviation 
from it may be ascribed to four well-defined 
causes, which should be clearly borne in mind 
to the necessities of the Crown ; to its 
emancipation during short intervals from con- 
stitutional restraints ; to attempts to compen- 
sate for losses to or frauds upon the revenue ; 
and to a persistent scheme of one-sided 
commerce. 

In 1294, the Crown saw fit to extort an 

* Harg. MSS. No. 27. Vesp. c. xiv. 16. H. 3. 
m. 20. 



arbitrary toll upon the wool of foreign mer- 
chants. In 1297, a maltolte of 405. was 
required from all. These exactions, coupled 
with the king's unpopular foreign policy,* 
produced the episode of the refractory earls, 
followed by the confirmation of the charters 
and the clauses De Tallagio non con- 
cedendo in the Regent's act of confirmation 
and pardon. 

In the more authentic of the two last- 
mentioned instruments, the Crown had 
reserved the right to its "ancient aids and 
prises due and accustomed." Therefore it 
still enjoyed the custom on wool and hides 
as regulated in 1275, and it also had the 
ancient prizage upon wines, and a discre- 
tionary toll upon all merchandise. 

It is with regard to these two last points 
that such grave misconceptions have usually 
obtained. 

In 1303, Edward had recourse to the 
wonted expedients for raising money to meet 
his necessities. He came to an agreement 
with the leading alien merchants, whereby 
he not only settled an auxiliary tariff for the 
great customs, but agreed besides to com- 
mute the prizage for 2s. paid down on every 
tun imported. All other merchandise to be 
rated at 3^^. in the ,. 

Subsequently, at a "colloquium" of 
denizen merchants, he endeavoured to extend 
the same principle to their case also ; this, 
however, they stoutly refused, and continued 
to pay prizage as of old. 

Now, in dealing with this question, Pro- 
fessor Stubbs has stated that the object of 
this " colloquium " was to gain the consent 
of the English merchants to an increase in 
the custom on wool, woolfells, and leather, 
without mentioning any other motive, and, I 
venture to think, without recognizing the 
true position of the parties.! 

The point which he and others have 
missed is a very fine one, but it is all import- 
ant. In commenting on the scale of customs 
fixed by the Carta Mercatoria, this author 
asserts that " imported wines paid, besides 
the ancient prizage, 2s. on the cask.J 

* The popular parly wished for the represssioii or 
consolidation of Scotland and Wales, not for a French 
war. 

+ Select Charters, p. 490. 

X Constitttt. Hist. vol. ii. p. 524., 



64 



THE GREAT CASE OF THE IMPOSITIONS. 



Now, if we turn to the proposals of the 
King in this year to the EngUsh merchants, 
we shall find it stated that, "because we 
have understood that divers merchants of our 
kingdom that they themselves may be quit 
of our prizage, and may be able to use and 
enjoy divers liberties granted by us to 
stranger and alien merchants, are willing to 
pay to us out of their goods and merchandizes 
certain new charges and customs which the 
said, &c., do pay," &c. 

How then can these aliens be said to pay 
prizage, " besides " 2s. on the cask, or butler- 
age ? The contrary fact was perfectly well 
known to Hale, from whom Professor Stubbs 
chiefly draws; and Hakewill before him 
alludes to the exemption of the aliens from 
prizage as " a freedom they yet enjoy." 

The point is made quite clear in the 
answer of the assembled merchants, " that 
to the increase of the maltolte, or to the 
customs contained in the aforesaid document, 
they will in no wise consent." This distinction 
between the custom and the prizage is every- 
where maintained in contemporary relations. 
The great object of the Crown was not to 
get a present advance on the wool customs, 
but to settle permanently the scale of the 
charge upon wines and merchandise of the 
parvse custumse, not the magnse custumse. 

In this object it failed, and the distinction 
was always subsequently preserved to the ad- 
vantage, in this case, only of the foreigner, 
till matters were equalized by the much- 
abused imposts of the later Tudors. No 
English merchant could bear the self-imposed 
burthen of the prizage, though I strongly 
suspect that it was frequently the policy of 
the Crown to continue a state of things which 
tended so directly to preserve the balance of 
trade by discouraging a native carrying-trade 
in imported luxuries. 

It was the undefined nature of the prizage 
that was always contended for by the advo- 
cates of the prerogative in later times. The 
prizage of wines. Baron Clark stated, in 
Bates' case, was not given to the Crown by 
any statute. The prizage had survived the 
subsidy of tunnage, and the impost had (he 
implied) grown out of both. Professor Stubbs 
speaks of the prizage subsequent to 31 Edw. 
I. as though it were soon practically merged 
in the ParUamentary grant of tunnage and 



poundage, and Hallam ventured the same 
assertion still more explicitly. 

But the gravest mistake of all is committed 
by the former writer, when he defines the 
prizage of wines as the right of the Crown to 
take one cask out of every ten at 20^. the 
cask. Such a view of the matter, indeed, 
at once destroys the whole force of Clark's 
and Fleming's argument, as proving that the 
prizage was primarily an adjustable custom, 
and that any attempts on the part of the 
Crown to go beyond it could only be looked 
on as an unjust and arbitrary extortion, and 
not as a well-meant, though interested, en- 
deavour to maintain that protective system 
of commerce which was considered of vital 
importance to the revenue. 

The fact is, that no such scale was in use, 
but prizage was only taken under the follow- 
ing conditions : " De quat? nave in se hente 
X. dol. vini et ultra non extend, ad xx. dol. 
ppsa pdca j dol. vini ; et de quat? nave in 

pdca 



ultra 



ppsa 



se hente xx. dol. vini et 
duo dol. vini." 

Thus, ships carrying less than ten casks 
were free of prizage altogether, and the 
heaviest cargo paid no more than two 
casks. How then are we to explain Pro- 
fessor Stubbs' assertion? This is most 
authoritative, and includes three references 
to Maddox, to the Liber Albus, and to 
Hale. 

It may seem incredible, but if we refer to 
these authorities we shall find that their ver- 
dict is exactly the opposite, in one case at 
least, to what Professor Stubbs has repre- 
sented it to be, and alike in none. The pas- 
sage in point in the Liber Albus is worth 
notice. It is as follows : 

Si noef tonelx des vyns, ou meyns de neof, veig- 
nent en nief ou en bat, Le Chaumberleyn le roy ne 
doit ricen prendre a le pryse le roy 'par dreit. Et si 
X. tonelx veignent il prendra j tonelle ; et silia xix. 
tonelx il ne doit prendre a la pryse de la prys fors un 
tonelle ; et de xx. toneux il prendra deux. Et si C 
ou CC toneux veignent ensemble en une nief, le 
Chaumberleyn ne prendra a le prys le Roy fors deux 
onelx.* 

With regard to his assertion that the rate 
was laid at 20s. on the cask for prizage. 
Professor Stubbs has, I believe, been misled 
by Maddox. 

* Liber Albus, I. 247-8, 



THE GREAT CASE OF THE IMPOSITIONS. 



65 



That writer, indeed, does not anywhere 
actually say as much, but he certainly im- 
plies that a due of 20^. on the cask of wine, 
" in acquietando " was an ordinary one. 

Now, if I understand the question rightly, 
Professor Stubbs has followed Maddox in 
error. The above statement of the latter 
writer is made on the authority of the Cham- 
berlain's accounts for London and Sandwich 
under Henry VII. The position, however, 
of the king's chamberlain in the former of 
these ports at least was, as early as the reign 
of John, an anomalous one. The fact is, 
that neither London nor the Cinque ports 
were liable to prizage,* but they were liable 
to " frectagium," which Maddox and Stubbs, 
perhaps, have mistaken for prizage. It was 
only from Southampton and other outports 
that regular prizage was taken, and the 
" liberi homines " of London and Sandwich, 
both then independent franchises, paid only 
freightage dues at 20s. the cask ; the prizage 
being then worth at least twice that sum. 
Even as late as Henry III,, an official account 
has an entry " in acquietacone" of 20s. a cask 
on certain wines in the port of London ;f 
while it will invariably be found that where 
prizage is regularly levied, " frectagium sive 
alia onera " are light, and vice versa. 

The right definition of the prizage was 
used by Baron Clark, who described it as 
taking for the king one cask before the mast 
and another behind that is, one or both, 
according to the bulk of the cargo. An 
Elizabethan customer's account also speaks 
of prizage as "of every shipp havinge in her 
tenne tunnes, one cask : and of every shipp 
havinge in her xx. tonne and above, two 
tunne ; one before the maste and th'other 
behinde."t 

The state of the revenue from wines pre- 
vious to the impositions under Mary was 
fairly consistent. There was the subsidy of 
tunnage and poundage, with certain petty 
dues and prizage or butlerage. The policy 
of 1558 was only foreshadowed by the new 
custom of 6s. 8d. in the reign of Henry VIII. 

In his speech before the Commons in 
16 10, Hakewill glanced complacently at the 
fact of the absence of any precedents for the 

* Hale, iii. 133; 

t This was expressly allowed for the frectagium. 

X Galba, B. x. 



impositions of the later Tudor sovereigns 
between the reigns of Edward III. and Mary. 
If we are content to admit this, the circum- 
stance is of little value in itself. All that is 
proved thereby is the excessive weakness of 
the monarchy which could neither venture 
to warp commerce to its own ends, nor even 
to regulate it in the supposed interests of the 
nation. Hakewill, indeed, dwelt both upon 
the impecuniosity of some of these sovereigns 
and their notorious want of scruple in sup- 
plying their necessities. 

Of Henry VI. he boasted that " As for 
impositions, notwithstanding his great wants, 
he thought not of them." Perhaps Hakewill 
and some of those who have endorsed all 
his opinions, failed to realize the depths of 
degradation to which the Crown could sink 
when placed betwixt an overwhelming peer- 
age and an orthodox and ultramontane 
Church. I have seen the original draft of 
Letters Patent to be granted to Richard, 
Duke of York, for the purpose of repaying 
a sum of 10,000 marks for which he was 
out of pocket by his government of Ireland. 
He was to have licence to export wool, 
wool-fells, and leather free of custom for an 
indefinite period. It would be hard to 
imagine any better set-off against a straining 
of his prerogative by a strong king than such 
an advantage taken of the position of a weak 
prince by the avowed leader of the constitu- 
tional party. 

Zhc ancient fll>onument0 I61IL 




T is a distinct advance to observe that 
Sir John Lubbock's Bill of nine 
previous Sessions has become the 
Government Bill of the present 
Session ; for, although we fear there is no 
chance of it being passed, yet it is something 
to have induced the Government to take up 
a measure connected with so non-political a 
subject as ancient monuments. But here all 
satisfaction ceases. It is too great a national 
disgrace to have to say that such a Bill has 
not long ago passed into a statute ; it is too 
great a cause of regret to the antiquaries and 
the cultvured of this country for us to be at 



66 



THE ANCIENT MONUMENTS BILL. 



all jubilant over this minor success. There 
are archaeological societies or field clubs in 
almost every county of Great Britain and 
Ireland ; we have now, and we have always 
had, many distinguished antiquaries and men 
of letters in both Houses of Parliament 
there are Mr. Gladstone, Sir John Lubbock, 
Sir Charles Dilke, Mr. Borlase, Mr. Leonard 
Courtney, Mr. Thorold Rogers, Mr. Boord, 
in the Commons; Lord Carnarvon, Lord 
Beauchamp, Lord Verulam, Lord Stanhope, 
and many others in the Lords, who take 
definite and well-known interest in the anti- 
quities of our land : and yet, with all this 
wealth of influence, the Ancient Monuments 
Bill has not yet become the Ancient Monu- 
ments Act. The fact is that the Government 
of this country ought to encourage the study 
of archaeology instead of ignoring it. There 
are ancient monuments of one sort or another 
in every district, in every country town. They 
tell us more or less of the eighteen hundred 
years of history which have swept over this 
island. But they only become known by the 
individual exertions of local inquirers, all of 
whom work independently and with difierent 
objects. What is wanted, however, is the 
controlling intelligence of a Government- 
appointed staff" of workers. We ought to 
have a Government survey and record of 
every object of antiquity in our land, and at 
the back of this we ought to have Govern- 
ment control over every monument. Both 
in India and Malta the Government have 
expended, and are expending, moneys upon 
archaeological surveys ; and if in these 
branches of our Empire, why not in the 
home-land itself? Other countries are not 
so tardy. France and America have done 
work far in advance of England, and it is a 
burning shame to think of the yearly de- 
struction going on, either from ignorant 
"restoration" so called or wanton mischief, 
and not a voice lifted up to say that it shall 
be no longer. Is it too much to ask our 
readers to band together into an " Ancient 
Monuments Legislation Association," to work 
towards the object that Mr. Roach Smith, in 
our last number, showed that he had suggested 
years ago ^to endeavour to influence every 
representative in Parhament to recognize the 
claims of the monuments left to us by our 
ancestors ? If The Antiquary succeeds in 



doing this, it will be one of the proudest 
mementoes of its usefulness. Surely there is 
enough room for this good work. If every 
archaeological society or club were to nomi- 
nate one or more of its members to a central 
committee ; if under the guidance of this 
central committee each society would set 
about compiling lists and facts concerning the 
ancient monuments within its jurisdiction, 
and then, with this accumulative power, the 
central committee were to frame a Bill to 
present before Parliament, and to obtain the 
assistance of members of Parliament, the 
country would begin to see that antiquaries 
were in earnest, and had really something to 
say on the subject. We are not without hopes 
that this may be done. 

The Ancient Monuments Bill of the present 
year is not substantially different from its pre- 
decessors. The " Commissioners of Works" 
are appointed the guardians of the ancient 
monuments, and they have power to appoint 
inspectors, to inflict penalties for injury, to 
purchase or to receive as gifts any ancient 
monuments mentioned in the schedule to the 
Act. The list of ancient monuments thus 
to be dealt with is scanty enough, though 
it includes, no doubt, the most important 
belonging to the period of prehistoric archaeo- 
logy. They go as far back as the Neolithic 
age, and extend into the Anglo-Saxon period. 
Thus Stonehenge is Neolithic, Wayland 
Smith's cave Celtic or early Saxon. It is 
ominous to observe that the Bill of this year 
excludes the famous monument known as 
Caesar's Camp, at Wimbledon. Is it because 
it has become past preserving because the 
builders and the iconoclasts of to-day have 
taken legislation into their own hands and 
placed Caesar's Camp out of the reach of the 
preservers of ancient monuments ? 

As the list of monuments to be dealt with 
has never yet appeared in the pages of The 
Antiquary, we record it here, and hope that 
its representative character may induce our 
readers to see how much even is as yet to be 
done to bring the ancient monuments of our 
land under the protecting powers of the 
Government. 

LIST OF ANCIENT MONUMENTS TO 
WHICH THE ACT APPLIES. 

ENGLAND AND WALES. 

The tumulus and dolmen, Plas Newydd, Anglesea. 



THE ANCIENT MONUMENTS BILL. 



67 



The tumulus known as Wayland Smith's Forge, 
Ashbury, Bei-kshire. 

Uffington Castle, Berkshire. 

The stone circle known as Long Meg and her 
Daughters, near Penrith. 
. The stone circle on Castle Rigg, near Keswick. 

The stone circles on Burn Moor, Cumberland, 

Tlie stone circle known as The Nine Ladies, 
Stanton Moor, Derbyshire. 

The tumulus known as Arborlow, Derbyshire. 

Hob Hurst's House and Hut, Bastow Moor, 
Derbyshire. 

Minning Low, Brassington, Derbyshire. 

Arthur's Quoit, Gower, Llanridian, Glamorgan- 
shire. 

The tumulus at Uley, Gloucestershire. 

Kits Coty House, Aylesford, Kent. 

Danes Camp, Hardingstone, Northamptonshire. 

Castle Dykes, Farthingston, Northamptonshire. 

The Rollrich Stones, Oxfordshire. 

The Pentre Evan Cromlech, Nevern, Pembroke- 
shire. 

The ancient stones at Stanton Drew, Somersetshire. 

The chambered tumulus at Stoney Littleton, 
Wellow, Somersetshire. 

Cadbury Castle, Somersetshire. 

Mayborough, near Penrith, Westmoreland. 

Arthur's Round Table, Penrith. 

The group of stones known as Stonehenge. 

Old Sarum. 

The vallum at Abury, the Sarcen stones within the 
same, those along the Kennet Road, and the group 
between Abury and Beckhampton. 

The long barrow at West Kennet, near Marl- 
borough. 

Silbury Hill, Abury. 

The dolmen (Devil's Den), near Marlborough. 

Barbury Castle, Ogboume, Wilts. 

SCOTLAND. 

The Bass of Inverury, Aberdeenshire. 

The vitrified fort on the Hill of Noath, Rhynie, 
Aberdeenshire. 

The pillar and stone at Newton-in-the-Garioch, 
Culsalmond, Aberdeenshire. 

The circular-walled structures called ' ' Edin's 
Hall," on Cockbum Law, Berwickshire. 

The British walled settlement enclosing huts at 
Harefaulds in Lauderdale, Berwickshire. 

The Dun of Dornadilla, Durness, Sutherlandshire. 

The sculptured stone called Suenos Stone, near 
Forres, Elgin. 

The cross slab, with inscription, in the churchyard 
of St. Vigeans, Forfarshire. 

The British forts, on the hills, called " The Black 
and White Catherthuns," Menmuir, Forfarshire. 

A group of remains and pillars, on a haugh at 
Clava, on the banks of the Nairn, Inverness. 

The Pictish Towers at Glenelg, Inverness. 

The Cairns, with chambers and galleries partially 
dilapidated, Minnigaff, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

The Catstane, an inscribed pillar, Kirkliston, 
Linlithgow. 

The Ring of Brogar and other stone pillars at 
Stennis in Orkney, and the neighbouring pillars. 

The Chambered mound of Maeshowe, Orkney. 



The stones of Callernish, Uig, Ross. 

The Burgh of Clickanim, Shetland. 

The Pictish tower at Mousa in Shetland. 

The inscribed slab standing on the road-side lead- 
ing from Wigton to Whithorn, and about a mile from 
Whithorn, Wigtonshire. 

Two stones with incised crosses, on a mound in a 
field at Llaggangairn, Wigtonshire. 

The pillars at Kirkmadrine, Wigtonshire. 

IRELAND. 

The earthen enclosure and mounds called the Navan 
Fort, Eglish, Armagh. 

Stone monuments and groups of sepulchral cists in 
Glen Maulin, Donegal. 

The earthen inclosure and Cromlech called the 
Giant's Ring near Ballylessan, Down. 

The earthen fort at Downpatrick (Dunkeltair), 
Down. 

Stone structure" called Staigue Fort, Kerry. 

The earthen mound at Greenmount, Kerry. 

The stone monument at Ballyna, Mayo. 

Cairns and stone circles at Moytura, Mayo. 

The tumuli. New Grange, Knowth and Dowth, 
Meath. 

The earthworks on the hill of Tara. 

The earthworks at Teltown (Taltin). 

The earthworks at Wardstown (Tlaghta), Meath. 

The two central tumuli on the hills called Slieve 
Na Calliagh, Meath. 

The Cairn at Heapstown, Sligo. 

Sepulchral remains at Carrowmore. The cairn 
called Miscaun Mave or Knocknarea, Sligo. 

The cave containing Ogham inscribed stones at 
Drumloghan, Waterford. 

The stone monument called the Catstone and the 
cemetery on the hill of Usnagh, Westraeath. 



antiquarian Discoveriee in 
(5ermani2 




JIHE town of Eisenberg known by 
the name of Rutiana in the time 
of the Romans was recently the 
scene of an interesting discovery 
of Roman antiquities. These mostly consist 
of pottery ware, and prove the variety and 
perfection to which this branch of industry 
had arrived amongst the former occupants 
of the place. To the present day the clay 
of this particular district is esteemed in the 
higher branches of the ceramic art. In the 
immediate vicinity of the spot a potter's 
house and workshop were not long ago dis- 
covered during excavations connected with 
a Roman burying-place, which had already 
furnished objects of antiquarian interest to 



68 



ANTIQUARIAN DISCOVERIES IN GERMANY. 



the Nuremberg Museum. Thus the connec- 
tion of this most recent discovery with the 
ancient local industry is established. The 
vessels found are of the substance known as 
terra sigillata., of yellow and blue colour, and 
in some cases glazed. A fragment of a fine 
bluish-grey dish bears the mark taivba, 
a term which seems to be new to those 
best versed in the antiquarian lore of the 
Rhine districts. Some coins were also found 
which are considered to indicate the fact that 
this particular colony (about three miles to the 
west of Worms) was destroyed by fire about 
the end of the fourth century. 

According to the Bremer Nachrichten (of 
Bremen) two interesting discoveries of pottery 
were made by country people, under almost 
similar circumstances, in the vicinity of 
Wehden and of Cassebruch. In the former 
case (in which the articles found are stated to 
be funeral urns) some of the vessels are of 
common clay, and are supposed to be 3,000 
years old ; while others, by their form and 
style of ornament, show a grade of advance- 
ment in ceramic art which indicates their 
probable age as not being more than 1,000 
years. A number of objects connected with 
the pottery industry were found in the urns. 
In one of them was a smaller urn, with some 
remains of human bones. It is proved 
(according to the Hanover Courier^ that it 
was an ancient custom X.o bury the remains 
of mother and child together when they both 
died at the birth of the latter. This is con- 
sidered as the most acceptable explanation of 
the circumstance referred to. Some of the 
vessels found near Cassebruch are in a 
good state of preservation, and have a well- 
known form, being narrow at the upper and 
lower extremities and full in shape towards 
the centre. The largest are 12 inches 
high, with an extreme diameter of about 
14 inches. They are of a brownish colour, 
and show traces of having been glazed. They 
have a high rim, and evidently once had both 
covers and handles. They were discovered 
only 12 inches below the surface, and 
must, it is considered, have suffered in con- 
dition from that reason. 

During the last twelve months the members 
of the Rhenish Antiquarian Society have been 
actively prosecuting researches in their respec- 
tive districts, the results of which have been 



published in the Society's annals. Herr 
Keller, of Mayence, has been examining 
with minute attention such Roman antiquities 
as were met with during the progress of the 
sewerage works at that city. An altar of 
Jupiter bears only the initials of the dedicator 
(m. p. p.). Hence its exact date cannot be 
assigned. An interesting contribution is the 
description by Herr Hettner of a number of 
false moulds, for coins of dates ranging from 
about A.D. 193 to 235. The learned numis- 
matist explains in detail his reasons for 
considering these matrices to have been 
intended for the manufacture of base coin. 
Professor Duntzer, of Cologne, has been 
investigating a gravestone of a veteran of the 
Twentieth Legion, and other objects found at 
Amoldshohe. These include a large head 
which he considers to belong to some repre- 
sentation of a Deus Lunus. Herr DUtschke, 
of Burg, near Magdeburg, records his views 
as to a bronze statuette shown at the Diissel- 
dorf Exhibition, which had for some thirty 
years been at the Castle of Rheineck. He 
considers it is an image of the Emperor 
Caracalla, in the earlier part of his reign, and 
remarks that the excellence of design and 
workmanship shown in this figvue prove what 
a degree of perfection this branch of art had 
reached at such an early period as that 
represented by the reign of the Emperor 
referred to. 

Though not strictly within the limits of the 
subject of these remarks, the Austrian 
Archaeological Expedition to Asia Minor 
merits attention, as the news received by 
the Neue Freie Press, of Vienna, records con- 
siderable activity on the part of all concerned. 
Attention has been given to the preparation 
of a road for the transport to the coast of the 
sculptures, &c., which may be selected, and 
though one half of the projected work has 
been executed, the most difficult portion of 
the task remains to be accomplished. It is 
intended for a part of the expedition to push 
forward, under the direction of Professor 
Petersen, for the purpose of exploring the 
ruins of a temple of Hecate at Lagina. Pro- 
fessor Benndorf remains at Goldagdsche in 
order to cope with the difficulties of the main 
expedition. The monument at that spot is 
of high antiquarian and artistic value, accord- 
ing to the opinion of the learned Professor 



ANTIQUARIAN DISCOVERIES IN GERMANY. 



69 



and his companions. It is considered that 
Attic workmen must have assisted in the 
erection of this monument, which was evi- 
dently intended to be in memory of some 
mountain prince whose seat of government 
was at this spot. In his attempts to decipher 
the ancient name of the city from the in- 
scription, Professor Benndorf has traced more 
or less distinctly the name Trysa, or Tryssa. 

1Re\)tew0; 




A Critical ittquiry into the Scottish Language, with a 
view of Illustrating the Rise and Progress of Civi- 
lizatioft in Scotland. By Francisque Michel. 
(Edinburgh and London : Blackwood and Sons, 
1882.) 4to, pp. ix.-457. 

HE veteran author, Francisque Michel, has 
come forward to give us what cannot but 
be considered a very remarkable book 
remarkable for its varied learning, its his- 
torical and philological value, and for 
its " new departure" in the application of language 
to the elucidation of history. There can be no doubt 
that there is much yet to be done in the way of 
claiming the asistance of language in unlocking some 
of the hidden treasures of the past, and M. Michel 
has shown the way to one branch of it that has been 
somewhat neglected. We all know how the science 
of language has been applied to some of the higher 
branches of man's history how it has traced out for 
us the lines of ethnological migrations and settle- 
ments ; but in the humbler sphere, showing the 
influence of nations upon nations, the borrowings of 
one people from another, instead of the independent 
growths, we have not yet any important researches. 
M. Michel asks himself the question WTiat words 
of French origin have become incorporated in the 
Scotch language ? The answer to this, occupying the 
very handsome volume before us, reveals unmistakably 
the fact that most, if not all, of the key words, relat- 
ing to architecture, furniture, banquetting and rivers, 
clothing, fine arts, money, education, medicine, law, 
punishments, music, dances, &c., have been incor- 
porated into the folk-speech of Scotland from the 
French. But, of course, the subject does not end 
here. M. Michel has far too wide a knowledge of 
his subject to leave it in skeleton form. He takes up 
the outlines of his first inquiry and proceeds to fill 
them in with the rich materials of his learning, 
and we soon find some interesting pictures rising 
before us, having for their object illustrations of the 
early history of civilization in Scotland. The mere 
incorporation of a word into a language does not tell 
us much, except we know when and under what cir- 
cumstances that incorporation took place. In the 
examples M. Michel brings forward, it is shown that 
the words came with the objects themselves or, 
rather, that before the coming of the words, the 
objects were absent from Scottish society. And 



although, perhaps, we regretfully part with some of 
our old notions as to the indigenous growth of Scottish 
culture, although we have hitherto hesitated to trace 
the work of the Norman and of the later Frenchman 
on the northern portions of our island home, yet 
regret and hesitation soon give way before the new 
stores of knowledge M. Michel lays before us. We 
cannot give space for examples of the work ; for these 
our readers must consult the book, which they will 
find very beautifully printed on handmade paper in 
all the best style of the celebrated house who issue it. 
M. Michel supplies a good index and useful appen- 
dices of words coming directly from the Norse, and 
words derived from the Celtic. It is a book that 
Scottish antiquaries cannot do without, and it will 
serve as a model for similar work elsewhere. 



Notes from the Muniments of St. Mary Magdalen 
College, Oxford, from the Twelfth to the Seventeenth 
Century. By William Dunn Macray. (Oxford 
and London: Parker & Co. 1882.) i2mo, pp. 
viii.-i48. 

This is one of those remarkable little books that 
at once take the affection of the antiquary. He 
knows it is the work of an accomplished and sympa- 
thetic scholar, because, though it may chiefly consist 
of dry lists, yet there is the full charm of artistic treat- 
ment in every page. And then it gives such valuable 
information. It consists of memoranda made by the 
editor for his own use, while engaged upon a cata- 
logue of the Magdalen College muniments, the total 
number of documents ranging to nearly fourteen 
thousand. They consist of copious materials for local 
and family history {e.g.^ the families of Braose, De 
Quincy, Peche, Rich, Poer, St. Liz, Freyne, Multon, 
D'Amory and others), and the notes compiled by Mr. 
Macray give us ample indication of the value and im- 
portance of these muniments. The notes give the 
following information : Masters of the Hospitals of 
St. John Baptist, Oxford ; at Aynho; of SS. John and 
James, Brackley; of St. Leonard, Brackley; at Rom- 
ney, Kent; Priors of Sele, Sussex; inventory of 
church goods at Selbome Priory ; inventory 6f plate 
at Battle Abbey; expenses of a lawsuit A.D. 1264-6; 
letter to Bishop Wayneflete; terrier of Rowney 
Priory, Herts ; inventory of goods at Wanborough 
Chapel, Wilts ; extract from process against the last 
prior of Sele ; inventory of goods of R. Bemys ; bar- 
gain for property, 1513 ; example of Corrody ; list of 
wills ; list of letters in English ; halls in Oxford ; inns 
in Oxford ; academic tradesmen ; parochial clergy ; 
report on the College almshouse, 1596 ; inventory of 
goods in Eastbourne Priory, Sussex; payments on 
settlement of Sir John Fastolf s affairs ; quit rents in 
kind ; land measures ; prices; Christian names of men 
and women ; surnames, seals, mottoes, &c. 



The History of Dorchester, Oxfordshire, British Earth- 
works, Roman Camp, Bishopric, and the Architec- 
tural History of the Church. Compiled from the 
best authorities, with a General Introduction by 
John Henry Parker. (Oxford and London : 
Parker & Co. 1882.) 8vo, pp. xlviii.-i04 ; xvi.-i76. 
We are not quite sure whether we are grateful 

enough to Mr. Parker for this book. That it is good 



70 



REVIEWS. 



is to say that it is Mr. Parker's. But we must be 
pardoned for preferring a book which is wholly Mr. 
Parker's to one which is partly his and partly that 
of others. It is perfectly true that the "others" 
include the formidable name of Mr. Freeman, besides 
those of Mr. Bams and Mr. Macfarlane ; still we 
should have preferred one whole piece of work from 
Mr. Parker to the volume before us. But here our 
fjrumbling ends. It relates to manner, not matter. 
We know quite well that Mr. Parker's love of archi- 
tectural archaeology has induced him to put together 
these valuable papers for the guidance of students, and 
that perhaps if he had had to do it in any other way 
we should not have had it at all. 

Dorchester, in Oxfordshire, is a lemarkably inter- 
esting place. It has British earthworks, Roman 
camp, and one of the finest abbey churches in England. 
The restoration of this magnificent church forms really 
the raison d^itre of the volume before us. Com- 



from the Rev. T. Barns on Dorchester in British and 
Roman times ; Mr. James Parker's Lecture on the 
Earthworks ; a short account of Dorchester, Past and 
Present, ^ by the Rev. W. C. Macfarlane ; Mr. 
Freeman's Essay on the architecture of the Abbey 
Church, written in 1851 ; and some account of the 
Abbey Church, by the Rev. H. Addington. We need 
scarcely say that here is material enough at all events 
to make up a really valuable and interesting history 
of Dorchester, and when we add that the pages are 
embellished by over fifty beautiful woodcuts by Mr. 
Orlando Jewitt, one of which we are permitted to 
reproduce, besides several excellent plans, we have 
said enough to show that nothing has been left undone 
that would in any way aid the student in understanding 
the architectural history he has before him. 




ABBEY CHURCH, DORCHESTER, OXON. 



mencing under the prescient guidance of Mr. Freeman 
when at Oxford years ago, the work of restoration 
has had a somewhat chequered career, according to 
the fashions of the times with regard to architectural 
antiquities, but Mr. Macfarlane has carried on the 
work throughout, and now Mr. Parker comes forward 
to give him his powerful assistance. We do not think 
restoration can go wrong under the guidance of such 
men as Mr. Freeman and Mr. Parker, and we there- 
fore heartily wish the scheme every success, and 
recommend this valuable and interesting volume to 
the notice of our readers. 

It would be impossible, in the space allotted to us, 
to go into the various interesting archrcological matters 
which the history of Dorchester presents to us, and we 
therefore must content ourselves with giving a brief 
account of the contents of the volume before us. Mr. 
Parker opens with a general introduction ; then we have 
extracts from Professor Hussey's account of the 
Roman road from Allchester to Dorchester ; a letter 



The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language : a 
Complete Eiuyclopa:dic Lexicon Library, Scientific 
and Technological. By John Ogilvie, LL.D. 
New edition, carefully revised and greatly aug- 
mented. Edited by Charles Annandale, M.A. 
Vol. III., L Screak. (London : Blackie & Son. 
1882.) Roy. 8vo, pp. vi.-799. 

This great work, the first and second volumes of 
which we have already had the pleasure of highly 
commending, is now rapidly arriving towards com- 
pletion. We will quote the last article in the present 
volume, as it is a good example of the method upon 
which this dictionary has been planned '* Screak 
(skrek) v.i. [an older and northern form of screechy 
shriek, which are weakened forms. Sw. skrika, Icel. 
skr-cekja, to screak. It is equivalent to creak, with 
prefixed intens. s, and is no doubt imitative. See 
Screech]. To utter suddenly a sharp, shrill sound 
or outcry ; to scream or screech ; also to creak, as a 



REVIEWS. 



71 



door or wheel. Written also Screeke and Scrike. 
See Screech. 

I would become a cat 
To combat with the creeping mouse 
And scratch the skreeking rat. 

TurbervilleP 

The engravings continue to be admirably selected, 
and are a great assistance to the proper understanding 
of the letterpress. Many of these are of archaeological 
interest, such as that of some Lacustrine dwellings 
restored by Troyon, the various representations of 
disused musical instruments, and we may add that 
architectural details and articles of costume are 
specially well illustrated. We have tried the alphabet 
with several crucial words, but have not yet found it 
wanting, although in the present day it is by no means 
easy for the dictionary maker to keep up with the 
word manufacture now going on. He who has these 
four volumes at his right hand is not likely to be often 
at a loss for an explanation of English words either 
in use or out of use. 



A Description oj the Monument and Effigies in Porlock 
Church, Somerset. With Reasons deduced from the 
Documents pertaining to the Manor and Chantry of 
Porlock for attributing the Tomb to the Memory of 
John fourth Baron Harington, of Aldingham, and 
Elizabeth (Courtenay) his wife, afterwards wife of 
William Lord Bonvile, of Chewton, Somerset. 
By Maria Halliday. (Torquay : Torquay 
Directory Company. 1882.) Roy. 8vo, pp. x.-8o 
(12 plates). 

In the autumn of 1880, Mrs. Halliday happened 
to be in the beautiful village of Porlock, when a visit 
was proposed to the village church, a building in 
which she had hitherto taken no interest. From the 
circumstances attending the visit then made this 
charming book has grown. Porlock Church is 
dedicated to St. Dubricius, the first Bishop of Llan- 
daff, who died A.D. 612. It is somewhat out of 
repair, and has few features of interest, but in this 
commonplace country church there is a stately altar 
tomb which has hitherto been without a history. 
"The effigies, executed in alabaster, no doubt from the 
quarries of Watchet, Somerset, were once richly 
painted and gilded according to the custom of the 
period .... the position of the tomb is altogether 
anomalous ; for though it stands under one of the 
arches {i.e. the easternmost) which divide the nave 
from the south aisle, its situation is clearly not the 
original site, because the arch runs through the soffit 
of the canopy ; and further violence has been done 
to the west face of the canopy, in order to force in 
the tomb to its present place." 

Curiously enough nothing seemed to be known of 
this beautiful monument. In Collinson's Somerset, 
mention is made of the " Effigies in the church at 
Porlock, of a Knight Templar and his lady," which 
is rather ludicrous, as the male figure is in plate 
armour, and could not therefore be a Templar, not to 
mention the absurdity of a Templar's wife. Savage, 
in his History oJ Carhampton, alludes to " Recumbent 
figures, male and female, in white marble," but, as 
already stated, the monument is of alabaster. Not 



finding much help from the authorities, Mrs. Halliday 
set to work to seek further. Her first clue was the 
crest of the Haringtons, which she found on the 
helmet that underlies the knight's head in the tomb. 
Following this clue, and eliminating those members of 
the family to whom the tomb could not be attributed, 
she arrives at the conclusion that " there remains no 
other Harington, Baron and Lord of Porlock, to whom 
the tomb can possibly be ascribed, save John the fourth 
Baron (d. 1417) with his lady" (Elizabeth, d. 1472). 
The steps by which this conclusion is arrived at, and 
the illustrative documents which go to prove it, are of 
considerable interest, but they must be sought for in 
the book itself. The plates showing the figures, the 
canopy (apparently of a later date), the details, the 
remains of the soffit, and the Easter tomb, are beauti- 
fully executed by Mr. Roscoe Gibbs, who has also 
written the notes explanatory of them. 

We wish that the history of more of the monu- 
ments spread about the country were recorded in the 
same thorough and worthy manner that Mrs. Halliday 
has treated the Porlock monuments. 



The Altus of St. Columbia. Edited with a Prose 
Paraphrase and Notes, by John, Marquess of 
Bute, K.T. (Edinburgh and London : W. Black- 
wood & Sons. 1882.) 4to, pp. iv.-48. 
Lord Bute, who is well known as an author, from 
his translation of the Roman Breviary, has done good 
service in producing this handy and well- printed 
edition of one of the most interesting specimens of 
ancient Celtic Latin poetry, which has been ascribed 
to Columba in unbroken tradition from the Saint's 
own time. There is a swing about the rhymed Latin 
verse that makes it pleasant reading, but none the 
less will most readers be glad to use the paraphrase, 
for many passages are very difficult to construe. The 
illustrative notes also add to the interest of the work. 



The Seals and Armorial Insignid of the University and 
Colleges of Cambridge. By W. H. St. J. Hope. Part 
, I. The University. (London : W. Satchell. 1882.) 
We heartily welcome this first part of what promises 
to be a most handsome and valuable work. There 
are eight seals of the University and University 
officers, three of which only are in use. The first 
seal of the University dates probably from the time 
of the Charter of Henry III., granted in 1261, and 
Mr. Hope has met with an impression attached to a 
deed dated 1291, which is among the muniments of 
Peterhouse. The shape of this seal is pointed oval, 
the centre is occupied by a representation of a 
chancellor, wearing a round cap and holding a book ; 
he is seated on a chair between two disputing scholars. 
The three figures are contained within a straight-sided 
trefoiled arch, surmounted by a pediment, with the 
sun and moon on either side. The base is a four- 
arch bridge. The second University seal is of a 
somewhat similar design, but of a more ornate 
character. The earliest impression Mr. Hope has 
seen is appended to a dee'd dated 1420, at Trinity 
College. The third and present seal was given by 
Matthew Stokes, one of the Bedells in IS&3. The 
five seals of the officers are, two of the Chancellor, two 



72 



REVIEWS. 



of the Vice- Chancellor, and one of the Commissary. 
All these seals are carefully reproduced in Dallastype, 
and in addition there is a beautiful chromo-lithograph 
of a disused shield of arms of the University not re- 
corded at the College of Arms. Of this, Mr. Hope 
gives some interesting particulars. If the remaining 
twenty-four parts are equally well-executed with the 
one before us, we shall possess a work of first-rate im- 
portance and a real addition to sigillarian literature. 

History of Shorthand; with a Review of its Present 
Condition and Prospects in Europe and America. 
By Thomas Anderson. (London : W. H. Allen 
& Co. 1882.) Sm. Svo, pp.viii.-3i1. 
The object which the author had in view in pro- 
ducing this useful volume appears to have been so to 
state the history of shorthand, and the present condi- 
tion of the art, as to help on such improvements as he 
considers necessary. He holds that the constant issue 
of new systems is a symptom of dissatisfaction with 
the older ones, and that there is ground for hope that 
in the end a system both simple and accurate may be 
originated which will be universally adopted. A 
considerable space is devoted to the consideration of 
the archaeology of shorthand, with the result of ex- 
plaining the systems adopted by the Greeks and 
Romans, and here necessarily Tyro, the freedman of 
Cicero, holds a high place. The epochs of shorthand 
are stated to be i, from the invention of writing till 
the date of Catiline's Conspiracy ; 2, from the Con- 
spiracy till the decline of the Roman Notes ; 3, from 
the tenth till the sixteenth century ; 4, from the date 
of Dr. Bright's publication down to the present 
time. The various foreign systems are described, 
and a bibliography of the subject and a list of short- 
hand writers are added. This book cannot fail to be 
of great use to lovers of shorthand, and will also be 
of considerable interest to the general reader. 

The Spelling Experimenter and Phonetic Investigator. 
Conducted by W. R. Evans. (London : F. Pit- 
man. 1882.) Svo, pp. iv.-i32. 
Why this strange production should have been sent 
to us we are at a loss to conceive, except upon the 
supposition certainly not an unreasonable one that 
The Antiquary, being " devoted to the study of 
the past," should take notice of such movements of 
the present day as are likely to be of interest to the 
antiquaries of the future when the present has itself 
become the "past." From this point of view, the 
Spelling Experimenter certainly deserves record as a 
link in the history of " Heterography," as it has 
been styled. The antiquary of the future will find in 
the pages of this little volume a great deal of interest- 
ing information about the inner life of the hetero- 
graphic movement, of which Professor Sayce is at 
present the patron. Meanwhile, as the subject of 
phonetics is thus brought under our notice, we may 
say that it would be an exceedingly good thing if our 
younger antiquaries would acquire such an elementary 
knowledge of phonetics as to enable them at least to 
analyze the sounds of their own language. We should 
then be spared a good many of those haphazard ety- 
mologies that so disfigure many antiquarian works, in 
which Latin and Greek and Hebrew and Choctaw and 
Kamschatkan are mixed up in inextricable confusion. 



An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. Based on the Manu- 
script Collections of the late Joseph Bosworth, 
D.D., F.R.S. Edited and enlarged by F. North- 
cote Toller, M.A. Parts I.-II. A Hwi. 
(Oxford : Clarendon Press. 1882.) 4to, pp. 576. 
Dr. Bosworth, whose name is indissolubly associ- 
ated with the study of the oldest form of the English 
language, published his Elements of Anglo-Saxon 
Grammar in 1823, and his Dictionary of the Anglo- 
Saxon Language in 1 838. It might have been ex- 
pected that a man who had so many years ago forged 
the tools with which generations of students have 
gratefully worked, would have been inclined to leave 
to younger men the task of bringing his Dictionary up 
to the requirements of the scholarship of to-day ; but 
this was not the case. The study of Anglo-Saxon 
was the mainspring of Dr. Bosworth's life, and it was 
a beautiful sight to see the aged scholar toiling to the 
last at the work which formed a part of his very being. 
When he died he left his work fairly complete, but 
the 288 pages, which form the first part only, had been 
finally revised by him. Mr. Toller has therefore had 
a difficult task to perform, as he wished to work in 
the spirit of the author, and yet was often obliged 
to set aside the conclusions at which the author had 
arrived. He has acquitted himself in his task with 
great ability. As a whole, Mr. Toller has not altered 
the text to any considerable extent, but has left certain 
points of dispute to be treated in the preface or 
appendix when the work is completed. It is scarcely 
necessary to say how full this Dictionary is as com- 
pared with Dr. Bosworth's former one, but if this were 
not at once seen by the difference in size of the two 
books, it would soon be discovered by a reference to 
the list of books referred to. A large number of these 
books have been published long since Dr. Bosworth 
commenced his labours. In this list will be found 
the books we owe to the learning of Dr. Morris, Prof. 
Skeat, and Mr. Sweet, and it will also be noted that 
the works of the still earlier school of philologists have 
been issued since Dr. Bosworth's first Anglo-Saxon 
Dictionary. It is much in itself to be thankful for 
that the words collected in the publications of the 
JSXiric, Camden, and Early English Text Society 
should here be gathered up and garnered. The 
work is produced in that clear and compact style 
which the Clarendon Press has led us to expect in 
their fine series of Dictionaries. The issue of this 
work should form an era in the histoiy of Anglo- 
Saxon studies. It has long been wanted, and will be 
heartily welcomed. 

flDcetinae of antiquarian 
Societies^ 



METROPOLITAN. 

Society of Antiquaries, June 8. Mr. J. Evans, 
V.P., in the Chair. Mr. A. W, Franks exhibited 
and presented a collection of architectural and topo- 
graphical drawings by Samuel Lysons, the author ot 
the "Reliquiae Brit. Rom," 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



73 



June 15. The Earl of Carnarvon, President, in 
the Chair. Mr, Milman gave an account of some 
early deeds relating to Burton Abbey exhibited by 
Mr. Henry Griffiths, one of which records a lost 
charter granted by Richard I. creating the borough 
of Burton. Mr. G. Payne exhibited some pottery 
and glass found at Sittingbourne and drawings of 
mosaic pavement at Wingham, and Mr. Hodder E. 
Westropp a small bronze statuette of Apollo. 

British Archaeological Association. ^June 7. 
The Rev. S. M. Mayhew in the Chair. It was 
announced that the Duke of Somerset had been 
elected President of the Association for the ensuing 
year, and that the annual congress would commence 
at Plymouth on the 21st of August. Mr. J. Gunn 
called attention to the mutilation, many years ago, of 
some of the piers supporting the central tower and 
spire of Nonvich Cathedral, and made suggestions 
for their being strengthened. Mr, E. Way exhibited 
a number of Roman articles found in Southwark. 
Mr. C. D, Sherborn produced a representative collec- 
tion of flint and stone implements from America and 
European countries. Mr, C. H. Compton described 
a fine collection of fictile objects, some from Athens, 
and many recently discovered in London, among 
which was a standing lamp of leather, formed evi- 
dently by compression in a mould. Mr, L. Brock 
exhibited a series of Venetian beadsfound in Aldgate, 
The Chairman described a large number of beau- 
tiful objects which he produced, among which a 
jewelled cross and a silver cover to a Roman thurible 
were of great interest. The first Paper, on " Cuddy's 
Cove, Northumberland," by Dr. A. C. Fryer, treated 
of a little-known natural cavern, the traditional place 
of abode of St. Cuthbert. The second Paper was by 
Dr. J. Stevens, on "Urn Burials at Basingstoke." 
During some recent building works two grave-like 
excavations in the chalk have been found in which 
were various food vessels and other vases of late 
British date. All appearance of interments apart 
from these had disappeared. The third Paper was 
by Mr. W. Myers, on "A Roman Villa at Benizza, 
near Corfu." 

Archaeological Institute. June i. Mr. J. 
Hilton in the Chair. Capt. E. Hoare read a Paper 
on " Egyptian Sepulchural Statuettes," by Dr. Birch, 
with some introductory remarks by himself. Mr. 
W. M. F. Petrie gave a detailed account of a collec- 
tion of antiquities from Egypt, including several glass 
figures of great rarity and portions of glass inlay. 
Sir H. Dryden sent a photograph of a draught-man 
of walrus tooth, and a drawing of an early chess 
piece found at the same place. Mr. J. G. Waller gave 
an interesting description of the silver "cassa"' carried 
in the Corpus Christi procession at Genoa. The Rev. 
W. Loftie exhibited a fine Egyptian bracelet of thick 
gold wire from Sakkara, and an earthenware vase in- 
scribed with the name and titles of Necho, the 
Pharaoh who slew Josiah, King of Judah, circa 600 
B.C. Capt. Hoare exhibited an Egyptian sepulchural 
statuette of great rarity, covered with hieroglyphics 
on all sides, which, in rare fashion, read in vertical 
lines from bottom to the top. Mrs. Rudyerd 
sent a holograph letter of "Lady Elizabeth, first 
daughter of Scotland," Queen of Bohemia, and 
"Queen of Hearts,'' to Sir Benjamin Rudyerd. 

VOL. VI. 



Society of Biblical Archaeology. June 6. 

Dr. S. Birch, President, in the Chair. The following 
Papers were read : "The Epoch of Joseph : Amen^ 
hotep IV. as the Pharaoh of the Famine," by Mr. 
L. Lund; and on "The Decipherment of the Hittite 
Inscriptions," by Prof. Sayce. 

Society for the Protection of Ancient Build- 
ings. Annual Meeting, June 9. Mr, James Bryce, 
M,P,, in the Chair. The report of the work of the 
Society during the past year was read by Mr. William 
Morris. There are hopeful signs of the impression 
which the Society has made in awakening a keener 
interest in the preservation of those relics of art and 
history which yet remain to us. On the other hand, 
it should not be forgotten that this matter of the pre- 
servation of ancient buildings is one of those cases in 
which there is no time to spare. At the beginning of 
the year, in order to raise money for necessary ex- 
penses, it was determined to give a series of lectures 
on matters connected with art. Several gentlemen 
kindly offered their services to the Society, and the 
receipts of money from this source were considerable. 
Messrs. Macmillan have undertaken the publication 
of these lectures, which are now in the press. They 
are as follows : Mr. Reg. S. Poole on the " Egyptian 
Tombs ;" Prof, W. B. Richmond on " Italian Fresco- 
painting ;" Mr. E.J. Poynter on " Decorative Paint- 
ing;" Mr. J. T. Micklethvvaite on "English Parish 
Churches;" Mr. William Morris on " The History of 
Pattern-designing and on the Lesser Arts of Life." 
The report read by Mr. Morris contains a long list of 
cases in which the Society took steps to prevent the 
destruction of, or injury to, some ancient building ; 
in many cases a deputation of two or more members 
of the Society visited the building and made a carefiil 
survey and report about it. These reports formed the 
basis for practical suggestions as to what ought or 
ought not to be done in the special case. In many 
cases the advice of the Society has been thankfully 
received, and then carefully acted upon. In other less 
successful instances the Society's protests have acted 
as a check, and prevented a great deal of harm which 
would otherwise have been done. 

Royal Asiatic Society. June 19. Sir Bartle 
Frere, Bart., President in the Chair. A Paper was 
read by Mr. Holt on " The Importance of the Study 
of Chinese Literature, with Especial Reference to the 
Chinese Library of the Society, recently catalogued 
by him." Mr. Holt showed that there was good evi- 
dence for a very early communication from near 
Martaban, or along the valley of the Irawaddy, to 
the North-west capital of China, then at Se-ngan-foo 
or Honan-Foo. He argiied that the name of " China" 
was derived from the Indians, who first knew China, 
and was not due to the Tsin dynasty, but, more pro- 
bably, came from the name of the compass, speci- 
mens of which were supplied to the early envoys, the 
Chinese being thus known in India as the " Compass 
people," just as the Seres, another Chinese population, 
derived their Western name from " Silk." That the 
knowledge of this fact was lost to both Indians and 
Chinese is clear from the use by Hiouen-Tsang and 
later writers of two symbols to designate the country, 
as these, while giving the sound of "Che-ha," indi- 
cate that they are substitutes for original words of 
like sounds, the true sense of which cannot now be 

G 



74 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



recovered. Having shown that M. Reinaud's view 
of an intercourse between China and Egypt in the 
first century A.D. has no real foundation, Mr. Holt 
further stated that there was no evidence of an 
embassy from M. Aurelius having gone by sea to 
China in a.d. i66. In conclusion, he urged that, in 
his judgment, there was no proof whatever of any 
knowledge of a maritime way to China before the 
fourth century A.D,, the voyage, even of Fahian, at 
that period, being open to serious criticism. He 
believes, therefore, with M. Gosselin, that the Cat- 
tigara of Ptolemy was probably not far from the 
present Martaban, and that India for a considerable 
period, up to the seventh century A.D., dominated 
over Cambodia, 

July 3. Sir Bartle Frere, Bart., President, in the 
Chair, Papers were read by Mr, W. Simpson on 
"Buddhist Caves in Afghanistan," and on "The 
Identification of a Sculptured Tope with Sanchi ;" 
also, by Mr. C, Gardner, on "Written and Unwrit- 
ten Chinese Laws." 

Royal Society of Literature, ^June 28. Mr. 
Joseph Haynes in the Chair. Mr. Alfred Marks 
read a Paper on " The ' St, Anne' of Leonardo da 
Vinci." 

Philological Society. ^June 16. Dr. J. A. II, 
Murray, President, in the Chair. The Papers read 
were: (i) "Some Latin Etymologies," by Prof. 
Postgate, (2) "On the Distribution of Celtic 
Placewords," by Mr. Walter R. Browne. This Paper 
was illustrated by a list of the principal first elements 
of Celtic place-names (aber-, ben-, &c.), with numbers 
to show the relative frequency of their occurrence in 
Wales, the Lowlands and Highlands of Scotland, 
and in Ireland. The materials were drawn from the 
exhaustive list of Irish townlands given in the Census 
recoi-ds, the Welsh and Scotch names being taken 
from MacCorquodale's Gazetteer; Mr. Skene's results 
for Scotland being also added, Mr. Browne said that 
the result of his tabulation was that it failed to show 
the existence of a Kymric language in Scotland at 
all ; that the existence of a Kymric population in the 
Lowlands, although it may be true historically, has 
left no mark whatever on the place-names of the dis- 
trict. The table shows that, while many names are 
peculiar to a single one of the four districts (such as 
Bettws to Wales), while others are common only to 
two or three out of them, some, lastly, being common 
to all four, there is only one viz., ;5z which is 
common to Wales and the Lowlands of Scotland 
only, (The Highland j>ens are really corruptions of 
different words.) Even this example is open to doubt, 
for in the Lowlands pen appears to be mainly used 
in the sense of " hill," which is not the case with the 
Welsh pen = " head." The Lowland pen is probably 
a mere corruption of the Highland ben. 

Society for the Promotion of Hellenic 
Studies. ^June 15. Annual Meeting. Prof. C T. 
Newton in the chair. The following is the substance 
of the report of the Council. The most important 
event in the history of the Society during the past 
year was its share in Mr. Ramsay's Phrygian expedi- 
tion. On the whole, the Society might fairly be 
congratulated on the result of its first venture in the 
field of exploration, and feel encouraged to further 
efforts in the same direction. With a view to carrying 



into effect one of the principal objects indicated in 
the Society's rules, the Council had sanctioned the 
reproduction by photography of the famous Laurentian 
Codex of Sophocles, provided that one hundred sub- 
scribers could be found at 6 each, the total cost for 
one hundred copies being calculated not to exceed 
;[C6oo. A circular would be issued to members, and 
the Council hoped that there would be no difficulty 
in making up the subscription. Another appeal which 
the Council had decided to sanction, though under- 
taking no responsibiHty, was for a fund of ^500, to 
enable Mr. Ramsay to fulfil the conditions of an 
Extraordinary Fellowship, to which, in the interests of 
archaeology, one of the colleges at Oxford was pre- 
pared to appoint him, with a view to his continuing 
his researches in Asia Minor. The Council thought 
that this appeal deserved the hearty support of mem- 
bers of the Society. The fund would be administered 
by a committee appointed by the subscribers. The 
Council then stated that since the last annual meeting 
arrangements had been made for the use by members 
of the various books and periodicals which had been 
acquired by the Society. 

Anthropological Institute. ^June 27. Gen. 
Pitt-Rivers, President, in the Chair. Mr. Villiers 
Stuart, M.P., exhibited and described a drawing of 
the funeral canopy or tent of an Egyptian queen, and 
some casts of bas-reliefs discovered by him within a 
short distance of the tent. Mr. E. H. Man read a 
further account of the natives of the Andaman Islands, 
in which he treated more particularly of their home 
life. A communication was received from Mr. H, C. 
R. Becher on some Mexican terra-cotta figures found 
near the ancient pyramids of San Juan Teotihuacan ; 
from a comparison of these figures with those in the 
museum at Palermo, the author argued that they were 
produced by people of the same race, and that the 
builders of the ancient monuments were Phoanicians. 



PROVINCIAL, 

Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. ^June 14. 
The concluding meeting of the present session, 
Sir Wm. Fettes Douglas in the Chair. The first Paper 
read was a notice of "Newark Castle," Renfrew- 
shire; by George W. Browne. The first notice of the 
ancient barony of Newark which he had found was in 
1373, and the earliest notice of the place of Newark 
in 1484. The oldest portion of the existing castle was 
probably built by George Maxwell, of Newark, about 
the middle of the fifteenth century, and the more 
modem part at 'the close of the sixteenth century by 
Patrick Maxwell, whose monogram appears in the 
window-heads and the tympanum of the entrance 
door. Here also is cai-ved the legend, "The 
blissingis of God be heirin," and the date 1597. The 
earlier parts of the building are the two blocks form- 
ing the southern extremities of the eastern and western 
wings. The second Paper was a notice of " Recent 
Discoveries of Coins in Scotland," by George Sim, in 
which the different varieties of coins found in the 
deposits, recovered by Exchequer, and submitted 
for examination, were detailed. Rev, George Gordon 
contributed a notice of " A Hoard of Silver Pennies, 
chiefly of Henry III. of England, vnih. a few of 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



75 



William the Lion of Scotland," found at Cauldhame, 
near Keitli, in Banffshire ; and Mr. Edward Bums added 
a notice of the interesting points connected with the 
history of the coinages which the preservation of such 
hoards would elucidate. Dr. Gordon presented three 
of the coins to the Museum. Dr. John Alexander 
Smith gave a notice of a " Stone Celt," found on the 
farm of Stobshiel, which he presented to the Museum, 
and of a cinerary urn found on the same farm, and 
presented by Mr. John Hyslop, the farmer ; also of a 
cinerary urn found on the farm of Quarryford, and 
presented by the Marquis of Tweeddale ; and an urn 
of the so-called drinking cup type, found on the farm 
of Drem, and presented by Mr. J. Reid. Mr. W. 
Lowson gave an account of a number of cinerary 
urns, found in a sand-pit at Magdalen Bridge, near 
Joppa. The urns, nine in number, have been pre- 
sented to the Museum. One gf the largest was pre- 
sented by Mr. C. W. Cathcart ; a portion of another 
by Charles Gordon, and seven by Mr. Lowson. 
Rev. James Peter contributed a notice of some stone 
implements found in Old Deer, Aberdeenshire, which 
had been presented, through him, to the Museum. 
Miss C. Maclagan, Stirling, sent some notes on the 
stone forts of Argyleshire and the Western Isles ; 
and Mr. W. G. T. Watt described the excavation 
of the Broch of Burwick, near Stromness. 
Dr. R. Angus Smith, of Manchester, contributed 
the results of a curious investigation on the 
"Archaeology of the Voice;" and the Rev. Dr. 
Maclauchlan (Vice-President) gave some notices of 
his observations of a kindred nature, on the Celtic 
tone remaining in districts where the language had 
ceased to be spoken. Mr. John Sturrock exhibited 
and described a series of stone lamps, recently found 
in the. parishes of Monikie and Inverarity, Forfar- 
shire. The next Paper was a short notice of some 
antiquities observed in the island of Tiree, by Mr. J. 
Sands, the chief of which were the duns, or hill tops, 
fortified by dry stone walls. Of these, Mr. Sands 
enumerated thirteen, and in some of them he found 
pottery and implements of bone. Mr. Angus J. 
Beaton communicated a second notice of the anti- 
quities of the Black Isle, Ross-shire, relating chiefly to 
the Drumnamarg and Belmaduthy districts, in which 
are the circular stmcture called Fort Allanriach, the 
remains of a circular structure called "The Temple," 
and several burial cairns and cists. Mr. M.W.Taylor 
contributed a notice of a sculptured stone, with cup 
and ring markings, which formed the cover of a cist 
recently discovered at Redhills, near Penrith, con- 
taining an interment after cremation, but no pottery and 
no implements. Rev. J. M, Joass exhibited a curious 
quadrangular brooch, found at Sciberscross, in Suther- 
land. Mr. J. B. Murdoch exhibited and described 
the circumstances of the discovery of a very large 
polished celt or axe-head of felstone, 13 inches tn 
length, which was found recently on the estate of 
Naemoor, the property of Mr. J. J. Moubray, in the 
parish of Muckhart, Kinross-shire. The celt was 
found in digging a drain in a field near the bank of 
the Devon, and near it were two slabs of wood, about 
6 feet long by 16 inches wide and 2\ inches thick at 
one side, running to an edge at the other side. 

Batley Antiquarian Society. June 9. The 
members visited Almondbury, near Huddersfield, and 



were met at the Parish Church by the Rev. Canon 
Hulbert, M.A., vicar, who conducted them through 
the sacred structure (of which he is publishing the 
annals), and pointed out the various objects of beauty 
and antiquity in the church and side chapel, and also 
some curiosities from his own library, such as a copy 
of Tyndall's New Testament, 1552, and Valerius 
Maximus, 1478, and the late Mr. Nowell's copy of 
the first Almondbury Parochial Register, 1557 to 1653. 
They also visited Wormald's Hall, and proceeded 
thence to Castle Hill. They had a fine view of the 
surrounding country and the ancient ramparts of this 
Saxon fortification, which were explained by Canon 
Hulbert. 

Tettenhall Antiquarian Society. May 29 to 
June 3. Annual Summer Meeting. Mr. J. Jones, 
President. Albrighton and Donington were first 
visited. The tower and nave of Albrighton Church 
are Early English, the lower part of the tower being 
the oldest portion. The chancel is Decorated, and 
contains some very fine monuments of the Shrewsbury 
family. The greater part of the nave and south aisle 
was restored in 1853. During the excavatiotts a fine 
altar tomb was discovered, eighteen inches below the 
floor. It is in excellent preservation, and is covered 
with different armorial shields, some of which have 
been recognized as belonging to several families in the 
neighbourhood. It is now placed outside the church, 
in the angle formed by the south aisle and chancel. 
Near to it are the remains of an old Saxon cross, 
restored in 1855, and now surmounted by a floreated 
cross. Donington Church is chiefly fourteenth cen- 
tury, but was entirely restored two years ago. Below 
the rocky eminence on which the church is built is a 
medicinal spring, known as St. Cuthbert's Well. In 
Donington Churchyard there are also the remains of 
an old Saxon cross ; the cable ornament on the base 
is in excellent preservation. It is now surmounted by 
a sun-dial. Tong was next visited. After an in- 
spection of the church, which contains some of the 
finest monuments in the Midland Counties, the Society 
visited the old Abbey ruins. In the tower of this 
church is a very large bell, weighing seven tons, very 
rarely used now on account of the shaky condition of the 
edifice. In this churchyard there is also an old Saxon 
cross, not in such good preservation as those at 
Albrighton and Donington. Codsall was next visited. 
After an inspection of the church, which contains 
some very fine monuments of the Wrottesly family, 
the party went to inspect the old Roman remains in 
Wrottesly Park, which Plot supposes to have been a 
Roman city of considerable importance. Camden 
believes it to be one of the Roman stations. Very little 
traces of the remains are now visible, owing to the 
cultivation of the land, but there are still preserved at 
Wrottesly Hall some large squared stones, evidently 
once used in the fortifications, which have been found 
in the park. A visit was then made to Pattingham. 
Half way to Pattingham, at a place called Merton 
Hill, is a narrow winding lane, along which His 
Majesty Charles II. journeyed when he escaped from 
Worcester, on his way to Boscobel. The Society 
were also shown an old fireplace, cut in the solid 
rock, once part of a cottage, where local tradition has 
it that the king halted and refreshed himself before 
proceeding on his journey. On amving at Pattingham 



76 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



a visit was made to the church, which is dedicated to 
St. Chad. Nave and chancel are Early English, 
tower Perpendicular. There is very little of interest 
in this church, it having been restored about ten 
years ago. In the churchyard are the remains of an 
old Roman cross, very well preserved. Some poi-tion 
of the base and shaft were restored in 1850. 

Belfast Field Naturalists' Club. ^June meeting. 
It was reported that a very interesting discovery of 
an ancient Celtic settlement had just been made in 
Lough Mourne, near Belfast. The lake is being drained 
with the object of constructing waterworks to supply 
Belfast with pure water, and as the level was lowered 
the remains of four crannogs or lake dwellings were 
exposed to view. Others are gradually emerging as 
the water drains off, and are said to be unusually good 
examples of these primitive homes. The timber piles 
on which they were built retain their shape and posi- 
tion, but are soft as sponges. Marks of the sharp 
instrument that fashioned them may still be seen, but 
the exceedingly treacherous and slippery state of the 
mud in which they are imbedded prevents, as yet, a 
thorough examination of the huts they supported. A 
canoe of the dug-out form generally found in such 
remains has been discovered, and a row of piles leading 
shorewards proves that the inhabitants of the cran- 
nogs had a causeway of a rough sort, and did not 
depend entirely on the canoe which, as an old chronicle, 
quoted in the Ulster Archaologkal Journal ^V3X&%, was 
for the use of the chief. Such crannogs have been 
found in many parts of Ulster, and one was not long 
since examined in Ballylough, in county Antrim. 
There can be little doubt that a rich find will reward 
the exploration of the Club, who are undertaking the 
careful investigation of the Lough. A sub-committee 
was appointed, in whose hands have been placed funds 
for the requisite works, and as the gentlemen of the 
committee are members of the Royal Irish Academy, 
and well known as antiquaries, the results of their 
labours are eagerly looked for. 

Berwickshire Naturalists' Club. Meeting at 
Haddington. May 31. The hills were first visited. 
The large circular British camp on Kae Heugh is 
triple-ringed on three sides, and is defended by a pre- 
cipice on the fourth. It has been placed on a bare 
rock-scalp, and there are no tokens of hut circles or 
interior erections, and it is apparently waterless. It 
is said this camp is visible from another eminence 
near Newbattle, in Mid-Lothian. The site of " the 
Chesters" was not seen, nor the more peculiarly forti- 
fied hill above Drem (Drem Hill), said to be Pictish. 
There are Pictish, or at least Gaelic, place'names in 
the vicinity, such as Drem, Kilduff, Ballencrieff, but 
these indicate a newer stratum of history than that 
characterized by the rude hill forts and their outlying 
burial places, with inartistic clay urns and slab cists. 
Returning to Haddington, some of the more antique 
buildings were pointed out by Mr. James Robb. The 
Earl of Bothwell's house, called in the records of 
Haddington "the town house of the Master of 
Hailes," that bore many tokens of antiquity in its 
turret staircase, its effaced coat of arms, and its 
patched walls and roof, was entered and ascended. 
The story is that Queen Mary, in flying from Borth- 
Vfick Castle to Dunbar in the disguise of a page, 
changed her attire here, and then continued her flight 



to join Bothwell. Old houses with similar turnpike 
stairs were seen in the Nungate, a very old suburb of 
the town, and in another of the streets of Haddington. 
In the Nungate the chief object is St. Martin's Chapel 
in ruins, one of the very early ecclesiastical buildings 
of Scotland still extant, though now becoming dilapi- 
dated, and not over well kept. Alexander de St. 
Martin signs as a witness the charter of the Countess 
Ada, mother of Malcolm and William, Kings of the 
Scots, of a toft of land in Haddington to St. Andrews. 
This was before 1 178, when she died, and possibly be- 
foi-e the death of Malcolm {1165), as she mentions by 
name only her husband Henry, who died in 1 152, to 
be benefited by the services which the gift secured. 
St. Martin gifted the nuns with the " lands and tene- 
ments of St. Martinesgate, with the mills, and other, 
their various pertinents." But the early documents 
containing the particulars of the donation were burnt 
in the time of Edward III., before 1359, when they 
were renewed in substance. When he transferred the 
lands of St. Martin's Gate to the abbey, the patronage 
of the chapel followed the lands, and the nuns pos- 
sessed this privilege. Nun's Gate has superseded the 
original designation of St. Martin's Gate. Another 
Alexander de St. Martin signs the charter of William 
de Malvoisin about the vicarage of Haddington ; and 
a confirmation of it also, by Bishop David de Bern- 
ham, which is dated at Tyningham, 1240. He was, 
perhaps, master of the convent of nuns at the Abbey, 
and possibly a descendant of the earlier Alexander. 
The church edifice belongs to the transition between 
the Norman and first pointed period, subsequent to the 
death of David I. (1153). The long and narrow 
lanciform windows of one light more or less nearly 
flush with the external wall, and opening inwardly 
with a deep and wide splay, universally obtain in the 
smaller churches of the first pointed period. At pre- 
sent the eastern end is terminated by an arch, but there 
are traces on the walls that there had been an apse 
attached to complete the structure, as seen in other 
churches of that age, in which some form of window, 
or a combination of narrow lights, was situated. In 
more modern times the pulpit was placed in the north- 
east corner, and when, on some occasion, excavations 
were made where it stood, a pit filled with human 
bones was discovered underneath. The property at 
Giffordgate, reputed to have been the small heritage 
of the ancestors of John Knox, the Scottish Reformer, 
was pointed out ; but the old dwelling on it has been 
replaced by a substitute. The name Giffordgate is 
very old. The nuns of the Abbey had an annual rent 
of one merk out of a certain field (terra campestre) 
near " Guffardgate" granted them by Simeon de Sal- 
toun. This was confirmed to them in 1359. In 1576, 
William, Lord Hay de Yester, held the lands of Giffert- 
gate and the superiority of the same. The site of St. 
Catherine's Chapel, so particularly noticed in Knox's 
History of the Reformation, under date 1549, is ascer- 
tained by the name of " Katie's Garden," still sub- 
sisting ; that of the Minorite, or Franciscan, Monas- 
tery is occupied by the present Episcopal Church. 
The church of this monastery, in one of its phases, 
was, owing to the splendour of the light that flashed 
from its windows, and the sumptuousness of its archi- 
tecture, generally known as the " Lamp of Lothian." 
This was burnt by Edward III. in 1355. From the 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



77 



Chamberlain Rolls, we learn that it was rebuilding in 
1362, It survived the Refoimation, but in 1572 the 
east gable was granted to Thomas Cockbum of Clerk- 
ington, to be demolished and carried away ; and the 
pavement was transported to the parish church (St. 
Mary's), and laid there- The monastery appears on 
record in 1281, in the reign of Alexander IIT., but may 
belong to the previous reign. There was an altar to 
St. Duthac in the Minorite Church. The church of 
St. Mary's was gifted to St. Andrews by David I. be- 
fore 1 147, that being the date of the death of the 
second witness to its charter ^John, Bishop of Glas- 
gow ; and the renewal of this charter by William may 
in a similar manner be ascertained to have been before 
1 166. The present edifice belongs to the second 
pointed period; and the architecture of the tower 
has third pointed features The eastern portion, 
now roofless, stands on a foundation of a different 
level from that division occupied as the parish church, 
which is thought to be of more recent construction. 
Some of the sculpturing on the eastern portion and 
above the western door is in admirable preservation. 
The mason marks were mostly on the western end. 
Besides the altar of the Virgin, we read of that of .St. 
Blaise, the woolcomber's patron, and the chapelry of 
the " Holie Blood" within the Collegiate Church 
of Haddington. It is worthy of note that in the 
pew in the parish church which is devoted to the 
use of the municipality of the burgh the old Episco- 
pal service books, which were in use during the thirty 
years that Episcopacy was the established religion of 
Scotland, are still in their places : they have never 
been removed. Curious old pre- Reformation alms- 
dishes were seen, as well as a valuable solid silver 
chalice, which had been in use for the last 250 years 
in the parish church. After dinner a Paper was read 
by Mr. Hardy, "On the Seals of the Burgh and Cor- 
poration of Berwick-upon-Tweed." It was occasioned 
by the recent discovery, near Morpeth, of a leaden 
seal of Henry IV., with the arms of Berwick, being 
an impression of the great seal of the realm, as the 
inscription purports, for his land beyond the Tweed. 
A cast of this, communicated by Mr. Woodman, 
Stobhill, Morpeth, was exhibited, also a tracing of the 
burgh arms in the reign of Alexander II., and impres- 
sions of the present Mayorial and Corporation seals 
of this ancient town. 

Keith Field Club, June 12. The ground chosen 
for the sixth excursion was the Kirk of Mortlach and 
Balvenie Castle. Malcolm II. defeated the Danes 
here in loio. It is also told in certain records that, 
in fulfilment of a vow made, he added three spear- 
lengths to the church, in gratitude for the victory, and 
a mark is yet left in the wall where it is said to have 
been joined. It is further noted that a number of the 
heads of the slain were built into the wall ; but a more 
graceful expression of the king's gratitude was the 
creation of a bishopric, called the Bishopric of Mort- 
lach, being the second in Scotland, The See was 
translated by David I. from Mortlach to Aberdeen, 
by a charter dated July 30, anno 1 142. We under- 
stand relics of the battle have at various times been 
dug up in the neighbourhood. On the " haugh" 
below the church there was examined an upright stone, 
some seven or eight feet in height and two in breadth, 
evidently of very ancient date, but unfortunately there 



is no key to its histoiy. Certain of the sculptured 
figures are easily enough made out, such as a horse 
and rider, a bull's head, and a serpent, on one side, 
with what appears to be two upright fishes on the 
other. After lingering as long as time would admit, 
the party walked doM'n Dulan side, passing the site 
of the bishop's palace in early days. On reaching 
the old castle of Balvenie a halt was made, and old 
Mr. Coutts, the respected keeper of the ancient pile, 
at once joined the party, and, beginning at the mottoes 
and heraldry on the outer walls, went over the whole 
place, pointing out everything of any note. The walls 
are of great strength and thickness, and the east side, 
known as the Pictish Tower, is in splendid preserva- 
tion, it having, we understand, been despoiled of its 
roof within recent years. 

Liverpool Naturalists' Field Club. June 8. 
The second field meeting was held at Malpas. At 
Edge Hall, Mr, and Mrs. Dod met them. The 
garden is on the site of the old moat. The present 
house, which is very picturesque both in structure 
and situation, is of about the time of Charles I., but 
there are vestiges of an ancient mansion, probably 
the original residence of the family, who date back to 
the time of Henry II. An Edward Dod was Baron 
of the Exchequer in the reign of James I. From 
Edge Hall the route lay across the park and through 
a dingle, hiding an old mill, then up the meadows by 
Kidnall and under Overton Scar, passing the gipsy 
caves in the rock by Chorlton Hall, the seat of Sir 
William Hamilton, to Overton Hall, the summer 
abode of Mrs, Gregson. The chief part of the build- 
ing is now a farmhouse, adapted to dairy purposes, 
but some additions have been made to accommodate 
the family when they seek retirement. A part of the 
old building in the Cheshire half-timbered style 
remains, and also of the moat with an olc\ pointed 
stone ai'ch. 

Alford Field Club and Scientific Society. 
June 3. A visit was made to Cairn Cur on the borders 
of Terpersie and Warrackston. Part of this cairn 
.^vas opened some years ago, when stone coffins and an 
urn were found. A large part has, however, been 
left untouched, and it was resolved that the Society 
should undertake to explore the remainder if leave 
were obtained. Thereafter earth dwellings on the hill 
east of the farm of Hillock and on the Hill of 
Drumbarton were visited, as were also the Thieves' 
Slack and the Clatterin' Kists. The Thieves' Slack 
seems to have been a resort of cattle-lifting marauders. 
It is very near the old North and South Road, which 
was then the chief highway in the- county. A Paper 
was read by Mr. Pithie, on "Terpersie Castle," 
Tei-persie, or as it is sometimes called Dalpersie 
Castle, is situated in Glen of Terpersie, in the parish 
of Tullynessle and Forbes. The clay plastered walls, 
the dingy, ill-lighted rooms, the great thickness of the 
walls, seem to correspond with the rugged character 
of the times, and would indicate more the den of the 
robber than the abode of the chivalrous knight. The 
original building is a parallelogram, which measures 
28 feet by 18 feet, and is defended at opposite corners 
by two circular towers. That portion, which is now 
falling most rapidly into decay, was built after the 
main structure, about the year 1600, it is said. The 
foundation of this portion is bad, mostly sand, and as 



78 



MEETINGS QF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



there was a hollow immediately behind it, which was 
frequently full of water, the foundations have been 
gradually undermined, and now a considerable portion 
of the newer part is about to fall. In the older 
portion, the whole internal accommodation?.^., 
without the newer part was three chief rooms, one 
in each floor, and the smaller rooms in the towers, 
used possibly as bedrooms. The fireplace was in the 
east wall. In the basement the fireplace has been 
built up. The entrance door, which faced the east, is 
now within that portion of building which is rapidly 
falling. It was, however, the original entrance. 
Here was a massive door, and behind it a ponderous 
bolt. Into the mason work the bolt slipped as far as 
to allow the door to close, when the bolt M'as again 
brought forward and placed in a similar hole on the 
other side. The walls are well supplied with loop- 
holes three inches wide in the outside, but extending 
to about two feet in the inside, giving a very wide 
range to the defenders, and a very small mark to those 
who dared to assault it. Nor is this all, the flanking 
towers are liberally supplied with similar loopholes. 
This is a peculiar arrangement, and one which would 
allow the defenders to sweep away their enemies from 
every portion of the house. The ground floor of the 
towers are vaulted, and may have been used as places 
of confinement for prisoners. The stairs form part of 
the towers, and are supported on corbels. The 
house contains the usual complement of hiding-places 
and secret repositories. The latter had been 
apparently used for deeds and charters, and had stone 
slides which could be drawn out and in. The date on 
the house is 1561, with the boar's head, and in another 
place the letter " G." The castle belonged to a cadet 
of the Gordon family. The traditional account of the 
origin of the name is as follows : A knight came to 
Scotland in the time of Malcolm Canmore. The 
borders were then devastated by a huge boar, which 
this knight killed, and received the name " Gored 
down" in consequence. Whatever be the origin of 
the name, it is generally agreed that Adam de Gordon 
is the founder of the family which soon had pos- 
sessions in various parts of Scotland. The Terpersie 
branch sprang from the Lesmoir family, whose castle 
was near the old church of Essie. James Gordon, 
the first of the Lesmoir family, lived in the time of 
James III., and was succeeded by his son James, who 
was the father of William of Terpersie. This 
William of Terpersie's brother had the lands of 
Easter Crichie granted him by Royal charter, dated 
*5S5.- George lost his lands after the battle of 
Corrichie, but was re-instated in 1567. 

Nairn Literary Institute. July i. Field Ex- 
cursion. The party started for Lochindorb, visiting 
various points of interest along the route. Dr. Grigor 
gave an interesting account of the castle. Lochindorb 
was in times long gone by the great stronghold of the 
Comyns, Cumins, or Cummings of Eadenoch, the 
descendants of an early and distinguished historian 
and statesman of France, Philippe de Comines. This 
great name appears from time to time in the early 
history of Scotland, indeed from the time of Malcolm 
Canmore, in the eleventh century, and contempora- 
neous withWilliam the Conqueror the first one being 
Robert Comyn, a fighting Norman follower of King 
William's ; but, perhaps, the first real celebrity was 



William de Comyn, chancellor to David I. Then, 
after a generation or two, we have another William, 
created Earl of Menteith and Lord of Eadenoch, to 
whom the estate and loch of Lochindorb and other 
Scotch possessions were given in royal grants ; and 
thus the house of Comyn was founded. With John 
the Red Comyn the name of Comyn was proscribed 
and thus came to an end. For some thirty years after 
that the castle seems to have been given by the royal 
grant of David II. to the Constable of Edinburgh 
Castle, and it was during this period that the famous 
siege of Lochindorb took place. We have then King 
Robert II. giving " the strong castle" of Lochindorb 
and the investiture of the lordships of Eadenoch, and 
Bucban parts of the old inheritance of the Comyns 
to his brother Alexander. It seems to have bean 
of the period of Norman architecture in England or 
of Scotch Romanesque in Scotland a style that con- 
tinued about 100 years. This grim fortified island, 
rivalling, as we are told, in its extent and power of 
defence the fortresses of royalty with its surroundings, 
must then have formed an interesting though a gloomy 
picture a fit scene for the last days and death of the 
Black Comyn, who was the third Earl of Eadenoch. 
On the south side of the loch the nearest point to 
the Castle tradition has it that there the besieging 
force of King Edward lay. If the position was ever 
marked by any irregular camping ground or moat, 
these are effaced. Whatever implements of destruc- 
tion they had probably only stones no part of the 
destroyed walls could be the result of the force of the 
catapults and engines in use at that time. The de- 
struction we now see has been produced by the ruth- 
less hand of time, and what had been carried out by 
the Thane of Cawdor, who had been empowered to 
destroy it by the king. For this work of demolition 
the Thane got the sum of ii,. The present 
tower of Cawdor was then being built, and we have 
some evidence of one thing being removed from this 
old keep to it viz., the iron gate which now forms 
the doorway into the old tower of Cawdor, and 
exactly above which we have the machicolations or 
projecting gallery for the pm-pose of defence, and 
through which boiling lead or various missiles could 
be sent down on the heads of the intruding enemy. 
This iron gate had been carried on the back of a 
Highland Samson across the hills and moors, from 
the one keep to the other. Previous to 1606 the 
estate of Lochindorb was part of the large land hold- 
ings of the Earl of Moray, who sold it, "lake, 
buildings, and adjoining sheilings," to Sir John 
Campbell of Cawdor, when the work of demohtion 
was almost finished, leaving the ruin as we now see 
it. The deed of sale betwixt the Earl of Moray and 
Sir John Campbell is extant. Lochindorb was then 
transferred by the Campbells of Cawdor by excambion 
or exchange to the Seafield estates, in whose hands 
it now is. 

Caradoc Field Club. ^June 16. The first meet- 
ing of the season was held, a large number of members 
starting for the Black Hill. Some remarkable erratic 
boulders scattered on the hill attracted attention. The 
President (Rev. J. De la Touche), in giving a short 
address on the geological features of the surrounding 
country, threw out the suggestion that these boulders 
njight have been transported originally from the bed 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUAEIAN SOCIETIES. 



79 



of conglomerate which lies to the west of the Long- 
mynd. Moving down the hill the main body pro- 
ceeded to the site of a supposed British cromlech, 
where a Paper was read by Mr. Luff, of Clun. They 
next visited, under the guidance of Rev. C Warner, 
the Vicar, the fine old church of Clun, a magnificent 
specimen of Norman architecture, not long since 
restored by the late Mr. Street. 

[We have been compelled to postpone our re- 
ports of the Meetings of Shropshire Archaeological 
Society, and Surrey Archaeological Society.] 



Zbc antiquarp'0 1Rote*Boolft. 



Popular Names of Tumuli. The Devil's Bible, 
a small valluted work, much resembling an open book. 
Glynde, Sussex. Lower : Hist. Sussex, i. 196. 

Spinster's Rock, a cromlech on Dartmoor, so called 
from a tradition that three spinsters, or unmarried 
damsels, constructed it one morning for amusement 
before breakfast. Saturday Magazine, September 29, 
1838, p. 144. 

Fairies jbi?/. Long-chambered tumulus of an oval 
shape, measuring 150 feet from north to south and 75 
from east to west, about 1 5 miles from the sea, in the 
ancient forest of Selwood. Journal Archaolo^cal 
Association, xxxii. 178. 

Hickathrift. A mound close to the Smeeth Road 
Station, between Lynn and Wisbech, is called the 
Giant's Grave, and the inhabitants relate that there 
lie the remains of the great giant slain by Hickathrift 
with the cart wheel and axletree. A cross was 
erected upon it, and is to be seen in the neighbouring 
churchyard of Torrington St, John's, bearing the 
singular name of Hickathrift Candlestick. Journal 
Archceological Association, xxxv. 11. 

Maiden Bower Crag. About a mile eastward from 
Dumfries, is a rock or craig curiously hollowed, 
known by this name. Sinclair's Statistical Account of 
Scotland, v. 132. 

Pooka! s {the) Grave. A deep-trench tomb, situate in 
the townland of Ballymartin, a mile to the south-west 
of Sisterling, on the borders of the baronies of Ida and 
Knocktopher, but within the latter. It is about four- 
teen feet long and four wide, its sides secured by 
coarse upright flags. It lies east and west. Kilkenny 
Arch.Soc, i. p. 12. 

Ancient Mexican Education of Youth. In 
a series of ancient Aztec paintings, which give a 
hieroglyphical history of the Aztecs, are represented 
the manner in which children were brought up, the 
portion of food allowed them, the labours they were 
employed in, and the punishments resorted to by 
parents for purposes of correction. Purchas relates 
that the book containing this picture-history, with in- 
terpretations made by natives, was obtained by the 
Spanish Governor, who intended it for a present to 
tlie Emperor Charles V, The ship on which it was 
earned was captured by a French man-of-war, and 
the book fell into the hands of the French King's 
geographer, Andrew Thevet. At his death ft was 



purchased for twenty French crowns by Richard 
Hakluyt, then chaplain to the English ambassador at 
the French Court, and was left by him in his last will 
and testament to Samuel Purchas, who had woodcut 
copies made from the original, and published them, 
with explanatory text, for the benefit of science and 
learning. In that part of the work which relates to 
the bringing up and education of children, a boy and 
girl with their father and mother are depicted : three 
small circles, each of which is given in the chapter 
which represents one year, show that the children are 
three years of age, while the good counsel they are 
receiving issues visibly from the father's lips ; half an 
oval, divided in its breadth, shows that at this age they 
were allowed half a cake of bread at each meal. 
During their fourth and fifth years the boys are 
accustomed to light bodily labour, such as carrying 
light burdens, while the girl is shown a distaff by 
her mother, and instructed in its use. At this age 
their ration of bread is a whole cake. During their 
sixth and seventh the pictures show how the parents 
begin to make their children useful. The boy follows 
his father to the market-place, carrying a light load, 
and while there occupies himself in gathering iip 
grains of com or other trifles that happen to be spilt 
about the stalls. The girl is represented as spinning 
under the close surveillance of her mother, who 
lectures and directs her at the same time. The allow- 
ance of bread is now a cake and a half, and continues 
to be so till the children have reached their thirteenth 
year. We are next shown the various modes of 
punishing unruly children. When eight years old 
they were merely shown the instruments of punishment 
as a warning. At ten, boys who were disobedient 
and rebellious were bound hand and foot and pricked 
in different parts of the body with thorns of the 
maguey ; girls were only pricked in the hands and 
wrists ; if this did not suffice they were beaten with 
sticks. If they were umruly when eleven years of age 
they were held over a pile of burning chile, and 
forced to inhale the smoke, which caused great pain. 
At twelve years of age a bad boy was bound hand 
and foot and exposed naked in a damp place during 
an entire day ; the naughty girl of the same age was 
obliged to rise in the middle of the night and sweep 
the whole house. From the age of thirteen years the 
allowance of bread was increased to two cakes. 
Between the ages of thirteen and fifteen the boys 
were employed in bringing wood firom the mountains 
by land or in canoes, or in catching fish ; the girls 
spent their time in grinding com, cooking, and 
weaving. At fifteen, the boys were delivered to 
the priests to receive religious instmction, or were 
educated as soldiers by an officer called Achcauhtli. 
The Native Races of the Pacific States of North 
America, by Hubert Hoive Bancroft, ii., 240-242. 

Dates and Styles of Churches. 
York l/Lin^tQV. {Communicate by Mr. Thomas 
Powell.) 

Western Towers, Perpendicular . . 1430- 1 470 
Central Tower, Perpendicular, parts 

of it Norman 1400-1420 

Nave, Decorated (Gothic) . . . 1291-1345 
West Front, Pure Gothic . . . 1291-1345 



THE ANTIQUARY S NOTE-BOOK. 



-North Transept, Early English (Lan- 
cet Arch, Gothic, Double Aisles) . 1228-1240 

South Transept, Early English (Lan- 
cet Arch, Gothic, Double Aisles) . 1230-1256 

Choir, Perpendicular, Vaulted Roof 1373-1400 

Choir Screen, exquisite Tabernacle 

work 1475-1485 

Lady Chapel, Perpendicular . . 1363-1373 

Chapter House, Decorated (finest in 
existence) 1 300-1 330 

Crypt, Norman (parts of Norman 
Chancel may be seen), Saxon (some 
Saxon fragments in the Crypt) . 1070-I170 

Staffordshire Churches. (Communicated by 
Mr. y. Jones.) 

Breivood (St. Mary's) : Early Englisli, tower Per- 
pendicular ; peal of six bells ; register dates from 
1562. 

Bushbury (St. Mary's) : Gothic ; peal of six bells ; 
register dates from 1700. 

Codsall (St. Nicholas') : Tower, nave, and chancel, 
Early English ; nave, chancel, and south aisle rebuilt 
in 1 848 ; peal of six bells ; register dates from 1 587. 

Pattingham (St. Chad's): Nave and chancel. Early 
English ; tower. Decorated ; peal of six bells ; register 
dates from 1556. 

Patshull (St. Mary's) : Italian, dome-top tower ; 
peal of six bells ; register dates from 1559. 

Penkridge (St. Michael's) : Gothic ; peal of eight 
bells ; register dates from 1575. 

Penn (St. Bartholomew's) : Tower, nave, and aisles. 
Early English ; chancel and chancel aisle, Decorated ; 
peal of six bells ; register dates from 1570. 

Tettenhall (St. Michael and All Angels') : Tower, 
nave, and north aisle, Early English ; chancel. 
Decorated ; peal of six bells ; register dates from 
1606. 

Trysull (AH Saints') : Chancel, nave, and aisles. 
Early English ; tower, Norman ; five bells ; register 
dates from 1 561. 

Willmhall (St. Giles'): Decorated Early English ; 
peal of six bells ; register dates from 1642. 

Wombourne (St. Benedict) ; Tower, Perpendicular ; 
nave, aisles, and chancel, Decorated; peal of six 
bells ; register dates from 1570. 

[Further contributions have been received and will 
be printed in due course.] 

The Apostles of Toulouse (Communicated 
by William E. A. Axon). Amongst the curious 
matters in the Sloane MSS. there is a modern 
prophecy which deserves to be resuscitated, if only for 
the sake of the circumstantial comprehensiveness of its 
melancholy vaticination. The original of the prophecy 
has probably been some French broadside or folk- 
book. There are two versions one in Dutch and 
the other in English both giving the same alarming 
and mysterious account. The following is copied ver- 
batim, literatim, et ptmctiiatim from the Sloane MS. 
647.4, fol. 86 : 

" A Coppye of A wonderfull prophecye of two Old 
Men who now are in ye city Thoulouse, in 
the Province of Languedoc. 

" A few dales agoe there came into this City Thou- 
louse Two Old Persons, who are called Apostles, 



haveing the Spirit & Truth ; No man hath seen 
them come into the Citye ; The garments they weare 
are not according to ye Ordinary fashion, Their like 
hath not been seen by any, & they goe preaching 
through ye foresaid Citye to bringe the folke to Con- 
version, & to ye Leaning of their wicked Hues ; 
Also that God is greatly Angry e aganst Rome; They 
say that this City is a Second Sodom, That ye un- 
righteousness of ye people is come up to Heaven & 
that within three months (if they bee not convirted) 
The city shall bee Consumed with fire. And haueing 
preached eight dales long in ye city, with folded 
hands, uncouered heads, & naked feet. They are by 
the City forbidden to Preach, whereupon they An- 
swered, That they M'ere sent from (or by) God to 
bring the folke to Conversion. Men have set y in 
prison, where the Jesuits have visited them, disputing 
with them in the Latine, Hebrew & Caldee Toungs ; 
They also know them that live wicked lines ; Their 
Eating & drinking Consists of Bread and water. 
They name ye very day when the Lord shall Come ;" 
And when they were askt, when the Time (or day) of 
judgm* should come ; It was by them Answered, that 
ye world shall come to an end in the year 1690 ; & 
y* the first day of that year shall be ye last day of the 
World ; They say that they are a thousand yeares Old. 
Furthermore being asked by the Magistraet from 
whence they came, it was by y" answered from Galia- 
don in Damas a City of Galilee ; Sent from God to 
preach repentance to the World. The Jesuits have 
Sought of ye magistrts that they may be carryed unto 
Rome, to his holiness ; The Apostles Sayd they knew 
well the thing that should fall out, & that there was 
noe need for y"" to lye so magnificently in Chaines ; 
& that they had great desire to goe to Rome ; there- 
withall breaking'their chaines in peeces ; At which the 
People stood in amazement, & they were iudged to be 
Saints ; They haue Prophecyed That in ye year 1681 
there should bee War going through the world, 1682 
Noe Pope ; 1683 they y" selves shall preach through 
ye whole world ; 1684 the Lord Christ shall bee made 
knowne. 1685 A great Person shall stand up. 1686 
There shall bee a great Earthquake. 1687 Affrica 
shall bee consumed by fire. 1688, The four Parts 
of ye world shall stand in great amazement (or won- 
derment). And in the year 1689 shall be ye time 
when God shall come to Judge mankinde. " 

This is endorsed " Languedoc prophets' prophecy. 
1680." 

A difficulty with most modem prophecies is that 
they carefully avoid precise dates, and if the Apostles 
of Toulouse had been wise in their day and genera- 
tion, they would have been equally reticent. The 
particularity of dates is, however, atoned for by the 
very general character of the events indicated. That a 
person should "stand up" in 1685 is finely balanced 
by the conflagration of an entire quarter of the world in 
1 687. Positively the last appearance of the world is an- 
nounced for 1689. Like other popular favourites, the 
old globe has had many last performances advertised. 
We cannot say "superfluous lags the veteran on the 
stage, " but we may apply the words rightly or wrongly 
attributed to Galileo, and say that, in spite of the 
Apostles who foretold its stoppage in X689, E pur st 
muove. 



ANTIQ UARIAN NE WS. 



8] 



antiquarian flew0* 



What has been thought to be an ancient grave has 
been come upon by the workmen in the employment 
of the road trustees at Kelso. The colour of the soil 
for a certain space favours this idea, but as yet the 
bottom has not been reached. The foundations of 
buildings have been dug up in two places, the mortar 
was still adhering to the stones when they were thrown 
out. The buildings do not seem to have been either 
of size or importance. In addition to other chiselled 
stones, part of the upper stone of a quern, formed of 
a very friable rock, has been unearthed, as well as two 
or three round freestone balls. A ** whorl" of a spindle, 
fragments of pottery, fragments of horses' shoes, &c., 
have also been found. The quantity of stones which 
have been excavated continues to be large. A con- 
siderable portion of a strong wall formed of large hewn 
stones has been laid bare. 

A History of Colchester Castle, which is to contain 
much fresh material connected with the architecture 
and the associations of this interesting old relic, will 
shortly be published by Messrs. Benham, of Col- 
chester. 

During the additions and alterations to Tickford 
Abbey, Bucks, for Philip Butler, Esq., now being 
carried out under Mr. E. Swinfen Harris, jun., a 
number of stones, chiefly archivolts, were discovered 
built in at random into an old chimney of huge dimen- 
sions which had to be removed ; some are of the Tran- 
sitional period, many of thirteenth-century work, and 
a few portions of vaulting ribs of fifteenth century work. 
There is also a singularly beautiful cap, of thirteenth 
century work, belonging to a nook shaft. The whole 
will be carefully built into a new wall in such a 
way as to preser%'e them from the weather, and, at 
the same time, to allow them to be studied by any 
persons interested. 

A curious case was recently heard before the magis- 
trates of the Division of Hatherleigh, arising out of 
the old Devonshire custom of " mock stag hunting,'' 
or "skimiting riding." It would appear that this old 
custom was originally introduced in the Devonshire 
villages, as a means of showing the disapprobation 
that the villagers had towards any licentious or im- 
moral personage, and is carried on in the following 
manner : The villagers assemble in large numbers 
and select one of themselves to act the part of the 
hunted stag ; the remainder of the party, some 'on 
horseback, wearing hunting and other costumes and 
with horns, being the huntsmen and the hounds. The 
stag, being previously disguised with antlers and other 
paraphernalia, is given a few yards' start, and forth- 
with runs, pursued by the huntsmen and the hounds, 
up and do-wn the village, in and out of the courts and 
passages, and is eventually pulled down at or near to 
the house of the offending person, where there is much 
blowing of horns, and shouting and spilling of blood 
(which has been got ready forthe purpose in bladders), 
to render the scene more realistic. The custom in 
various forms has great antiquity, and has been in 
many ways the subject of litigation. Its deathblow 
was, however, given by the decision iu Papping v. 



Mayiiard, wherein it was decided that this hunt or 
' Skimiting Riding " was a game within the meaning 
of the Highway Act, and rendered the players therein 
liable to a penalty not exceeding sps. By this decision 
it would appear clear that the custom can no longer 
be legally continued in its original form, accompanied 
with running and shouting. The Buddhists of India 
recognise the fact that there are social and moral 
evils which do not come within the pale of the reme- 
dies afforded by the law, and in a modified form the 
mock stag- hunting or skimiting riding is recognized 
among certain castes as the proper mode of punish- 
ment the only difference in the form of the custom 
carried on in India and in Devonshire being that in 
the former place the offender himself is hunted, and 
when caught, mutilated, whereas, in Devonshire, the 
mock stag is only caught near the offender's house, to 
show that his crime is known and universally con- 
demned by the neighbours. 

Among several interesting paintings lately tmcovered 
during the excavations in a garden of Region VIII., 
at Pompeii, there was one the subject of which seems 
identical with the Judgment of Solomon. In this 
mural painting the figures are all pigmies. In the 
centre is a bench with three judges ; kneeling at their 
feet, in an attitude of prayer, is a woman ; further 
towards the foreground is a butcher's table, and upon 
it a naked babe, which a man is preparing to kill 
with a large knife, while beside him stands a second 
woman with an indifferent air. Soldiers and people 
close the scene. 

Recently, as the shepherd on the farm of Glengyle, 
at the upper end of Loch Katrine, was casting 
peats in a moss near his house, he found a wooden 
box embedded in the moss a foot and a half below the 
surface. On an examination of the contents of the 
box, he discovered some two or three swords and two 
or three muskets in a pretty good state of preserva- 
tion. One of the swords was four feet long. The 
find is generally considered a relict of "the bold 
outlaw," Rob Roy M'Gregor, or others of his con- 
freres. 

There are few churches in Yorkshire more interest- 
ing, whether architecturally or historically, than the 
Church of St. Mary at Birkin. Built in the twelfth 
century, it originally consisted only of a two-storeyed 
tower, a nave with high-pitched roof, the housing of 
which is distinctly marked on the wall of the tower 
a chancel, and an apse. Whether it owed its exist- 
ence to a Count de Lacey, to whose family the Con- 
queror had given a large tract of land in the district, 
or to a fraternity of Knight Templars, who established 
a preceptory in the parish at Temple Hirst, is uncer- 
tain. A monument, recessed in the north wall, and 
representing a knight recumbent and cross-legged, but 
unarmed, with the hands closed in prayer, bareheaded, 
and habited in a loose robe, conveys the impression 
that either some dignitary of the Order selected this 
as his burial-place, or that it was some of the com- 
munity who had survived the suppression of his Order. 
In the fourteenth century the south wall of the nave, 
as far as the chancel arch, was taken down, and a 
south aisle, or chantry, erected in decorated Gothic, 
the tracery in the windows being flamboyant. At the 
east end of the aisle there is still a very perfect piscina, 



82 



ANTIQUARIAN NEWS. 



and in the transporting of the original Norman south 
door to a corresponding position in this Gothic aisle a 
striking tribute is paid to its great beauty. It was at 
this time that the tower was raised to its present height 
of three storeys, having four windows of two lights, 
an embattled parapet, with eight crocketed pinnacles 
and four gurgoyles. It is not known whether the 
fabric or its internal fittings underwent any alteration 
' at the time of the Reformation, but there is abundant 
evidence that it received severe handling during the 
time of the Commonwealth. A monument in the 
chancel states that the then rector, Robert Thornton, 
was deposed from his living for his loyalty, and 
dragged ignominiously at a horse's tail to Cawood 
Castle. As to the treatment of the church itself, the 
fact that the present pulpit and communion rails are 
Caroline, that the font (a singular production) bears 
the date of 1663, and tliat the chalice was purchased 
for the use of the parishioners of Birkin in 1662, all 
testify that the spirit of mischief was rife in those days. 
At this moment, it is said, the church stands greatly 
in need of repairs. The draining of the churchyard 
within the last fifteen years has had a disastrous effect 
upon the church itself. Serious ciacks have appeared 
in the chancel arch, along the entire length of the 
chancel ceiling, and in almost all the \<>indows of the 
chancel and the apse, particularly the latter. Mr. 
Scott has undertaken to superintend the work of repa- 
ration. 

In pulling down an architect's house in the Rue 
Vieille du Temple, No. 26, in Paris, some workmen 
have discovered, 'hidden in an old wall, a copper 
vessel, said to contain forty kilogrammes of gold coins 
of the reigns of Jean le Bon and Charles V. Supposing 
the quantity of gold to be really as large as represented, 
it would be worth as metal alone over five thousand 
pounds sterling. Information was given to the Com- 
missary of Police, who decided not to interfere in 
the matter, as the discovery was made upon private 
property. 

Satisfactory progress is being made with the work 
of restoring Penkridge Parish Church, which has been 
closed since May I. On removing the floor of the 
church many bones and skulls were discovered, more 
or less near the surface, and on one day no less than 
ten barrow-loads were removed to a grave dug on the 
south side of the tower, where all the remains found 
will be buried, and the place marked by a cross. The 
tower arch, which had been bricked up, has been 
pierced, displaying the west window, one of the 
beauties of the church. During the clearing out of 
the church one or two objects of interest have been 
found ; some ancient encaustic tiles here and there, 
and three slabs marking the resting-places of those 
whose names are inscribed on them. One of these 
lies near the centre pillar of the nave on the south 
side, of which sufificient of the inscription is visible to 
mark the spot as the vatilt of the Eggington family of 
Rodbaston, whose mural tablet may be seen over the 
south porch. Another is near the south-east pillar of 
the nave, and a third is under the site of the Teddes- 
ley pew, and marks the btirial-place of Edward Little- 
ton, late of Pileton, and Susanna his wife, who died 
respectively in 1704 and 1722. These two evidently 
lie in a vault which extends from under the west 



window of the south aisle, the entrance to which is 
distinguishable from the inside of the vault, in which 
lie the bodies of the late Sir E. Littleton and Frances 
his wife, which was laid bare when the old woodwork 
was removed. 

The estate near Brading, in the Isle of Wight, on 
which the very interesting Roman villa was recently 
discovered, has been purchased for Lady Oglander, 
of Nunwell, the representative of the oldest family on 
the island, the Oglanders having owned Nunwell since 
the Conquest. 

The church of St. Mary, South Cowton, built in 
the reign of Henry VI., is about to be restored. 

Lauder Parish Church has been for some time under 
repairs and cleaning. This church was built in 1673, 
is both plain and pretentious, being built in the form 
of a cross, with a spire in the centre, and appears to 
have been covered with thatch in the olden time. It 
was repaired in 1822, an additional gallery put in, and 
part of the basement seated. It was all re-seated and 
new galleries erected in 1864. The original parish 
church was situated in front of Thurlestane Castle, 
the seat of the Earls of Lauderdale, about half a 
mile from the town. In the reign of David I. the 
advowson, along with nearly the whole of Lauderdale, 
was given to Sir Hugh Morville, constable of Scot- 
land ; and through many a changeful age it continued 
an appurtenant of the manor, till it passed into, the 
possession of Devongillar, the wife of the first John 
Baliol. By this lady the church, with its pertinents, 
was given to the monks of Dryburgh, and it continued 
to be a vicarage under them till the Reformation. In 
July, 1482, the church in front of the castle was the 
scene of the meeting of the Scotch nobles, which 
issued in the murder of James III.'s menials on Lauder 
Bridge, and in the capture and imprisonment of the 
king. These nobles the Earls of Angus (" Bell the 
Cat"), Huntly, Lennox, Buchan, and others entered 
the king's lodging at Lauder, where he was encamped 
with a weak army to resist the Duke of Albany, who 
had invaded Scotland under the protection of King 
Edward, where they accused him of adverse things 
contrary to hi^ honour and the common weal of his 
realm. They then took Thomas Cochran, called the 
Earl of Mar, William Rodger, and James Hommil, a 
tailor, and hanged them over Lauder Bridge. This 
bridge has long since gone, and all traces of it are 
lost. When the site of the chiurch was changed from 
the castle to the town, a number of tombstones were 
brought up to the present churchyard, where they can 
be readily distinguished by their dates and quaint in- 
scriptions. Many of the ministers of Lauder parish 
have been men of mark, and among them James 
Guthrie the martyr, who was ordained in 1642. He 
preached before Parliament in 1 649, and was trans- 
lated to Stirling in the same year. 

The completion of the restoration of Cardington 
Church, by the re- opening of the tower, was cele- 
brated on June 28. The fine old parish church, dedi- 
cated to St. James, is a stone building in which three 
distinct eras of building are very plainly marked. 
Portions of the church are 700 "years old, and the 
architecture of the Norman, Early English, and Gothic 
periods are visible in its construction. For sixteen 



ANTIQ UARIAN JNE WS. 



^Z 



years the work of restoring this grand structure has 
been carried on. First, the chancel and the nave was 
done, this portion being opened on September ii, 
1 868, and now the entire completion of the work is 
signalled by the re-opening of the embattled tower. 
Entering the church through a handsome porch, there 
is an oak tablet bearing date 1639. The roof is open, 
showing massive cross beams of oak. In the nave 
is a handsome monument erected to the memory of 
William Leighton, of Plaish Hall, a judge, and one 
of the Council of the Marches of Wales, who died 
on December 20, 1607. A curious legend is extant 
here about this same gentleman. He lived at Plaish 
Hall, a remarkably fine old mansion in the Tudor 
style, about two miles from Cardington. Surmount- 
ing this mansion are seven chimneys built in the most 
eccentric and beautiful varieties of style. Some are 
built with serrated .edges, looking like a giant cork- 
screw, and others in fanciful diamond patterns. The 
legend has it that the secret of the building of these 
chimneys was known only to one workman. This 
unfortunate man was, it appears, brought before the 
judge charged with some offence of a trivial character, 
but, in those days, punished by death. The judge 
condemned the unhappy man to death, but finding 
no one able to complete his chimneys, reprieved him 
until the work was finished, and then he was hanged. 
The old gallery, formerly in the interior of the church, 
has been removed, and an arch built as an entrance 
under the tower. The tower was the most in 
need of restoration and repair of any portion of the 
sacred edifice. It is square, and of considerable 
height. The parish registers date from the year 
1598. The old registers are written on parchment, 
and are most carefully preserved. 

The Annual Congress of the Cambrian Archaeolo- 
gical Society, will be opened at Llanrwst on Monday, 
July 31, and will continue the four following days. 
Among the objects to be visited are the inscribed 
stones at Pentrevoelas, Penmachno, and Guytherin, 
effigies and brasses at Bettws-y-coed, Yspytty Evan, 
and Llanrwst Church. The opening of a tumulus at 
Llangemiew will also be an interesting part of the pro- 
ceedings. 

While engaged in digging gravel on the estate of 
Mr. H. H. Gibbs, of Aldenham House, near Wat- 
ford, two labourers made a remarkable discovery of 
old coins. The treasure was contained in an earthen- 
ware pot. It consisted of more than two hundred 
and fifty coins, mostly belonging to the reign of Queen 
Anne. They are in an excellent state of preserva- 
tion. 

St. Peter's Church at Willerby, near Scarborough, 
has been re-opened. The sacred edifice is a very 
ancient one, its erection dating back to the year 1180. 
The structure got into such a dilapidated condition 
that a thorough restoration was determined upon. 
This renovation commenced about ten months ago. 
The floor was completely taken away, and the work- 
men found two feet beneath the surface of the nave 
an old stone altar, on which was very distinctly carved 
five crosses. They also brought to light the base of 
an old font and channels for holy water, and traces 
also of a Norman building were discerned. The tower 
is a later work, having been built in 1400, and this 



and the porch remained intact. The church has in 
other respects had to be repaired, the walls have 
been pointed, and new stones have been inserted 
where necessary. New window mullions have been 
put in. 

Some interesting objects which have just been 
found in Neuchatel are considered by Swiss archajo- 
logists to throw a new light on the history of the 
lake-dwellers, and the discovery is consequently 
looked upon as one of importance. Amongst the 
objects are a carriage-wheel with iron rim, iron 
swords, and many human bones. 

The late Sir William Heathcote's Hursley estates, 
near Winchester, the outlying portions of which are 
about to be sold, have. Land says, an interesting 
history. Purchased about 1639, from Sir Gerard 
Napier, by a certain Mr. Richard Major, a man of 
great fortune, the property was carried by his daughter 
and co-heiress, Dorothy, to Richard Cromwell, eldest 
son of the Protector. The marriage, which took 
place in 1649, was a very good thing for Mr. Major. 
The influence with Cromwell which it gave him pro- 
cured his return to Parliament as Member for South- 
ampton, and his appointment to the Privy Council 
when Cromwell became Protector. Mr. Major 
reached the highest pinnacle of his dignity when his 
son-in-law succeeded as Lord Protector, but Richard 
Cromwell's deposition, and the Restoration which 
followed, seem to have broken him down, and he 
died in 1660 at the early age of fifty-six. Hursley 
was the only estate belonging to the deposed Pro- 
tector which the Government did not seize, in conse- 
quence of its being settled upon his wife and her 
issue. Upon the death of Dorothy Cromwell in 1675, 
her eldest surviving son, Oliver, succeeded to Hursley. 
When, in 1705, Oliver Cromwell, the son of Richard 
and Dorothy, died, his father, who was still living, 
became entitled under the settlement to a life interest 
in the estate, and his daughters took possession on 
his behalf. These ladies had a devout belief in the 
efficacy of possession, and refused to give up Hursley, 
proposing instead to allow their father a small pen- 
sion. It was, indeed, not until he put the law in 
motion against his daughters that he recovered 
possession. After their father's death, in 1712, the 
daughters sold the Hursley estates for ;^3Sj0oo to Sir 
William Heathcote, Bart. The estates have now 
been in the possession of the Heathcotes for 170 
years. 

A destructive fire took place on July 4 at the 
White Hart Hotel, Silver Street, Hull. This building 
is an ancient one and celebrated for its oak room, 
traditionally known as " The Plotting Parlour." The 
premises underwent, some time ago, great structural 
alterations, the old oak staircase and the "Plotting 
Parlour" being preserved intact. The White Hart Inn 
was built about 1550, by Thomas Allured, who in 
1561 was Mayor of Hull, and in 1577 represented the 
borough in Parliament. It subsequently came into 
the possession of his grandson, Thos. Allured, who 
was one of the seventy judges who signed the 
death-warrant of Charles I. Sir John Hotham, a 
mihtary Governor of Hull, occupied the house by 
virtue of his official position, and " it was during the 
residence here of this soldier that the house came 



84 



ANTIQ UARIAN NE WS. 



into prominence, for in the oak room, or * Plotting 
Parlour,' as it was afterwards called, was held the 
council of war, over which Sir John Hotham pre- 
sided, and at which it was resolved to refuse King 
Charles admittance within the gates of Hull." The 
old oak staircase, the chimney comers, and the plotting 
parlour, with its secret panel, remained in very much 
the same state as they were two or three hundred 
years since, especially the staircase and the parlour. 
Fortunately the "Plotting Parlour," although seriously 
damaged, is not destroyed. The building otherwise, 
however, is practically a ruin. 

It is highly probable that the work of restoring the 
grand old Parish Church of Chard will be commenced 
forthwith. The necessary faculty has been obtained. 

Mr. George W. Marshall has just issued The Visi- 
tation of Wiltshire, taken in 1623, by Henry St. 
George, Richmond, and Samson Lennard, Blue- 
mantle, Marshals and Deputies to William Camden, 
Clarenceux. This is the original Visitation, signed 
by the heads of the families whose pedigrees are 
entered. It will be printed verbatim from the original 
manuscript, and illustrated with facsimiles of arms 
and seals, and uniform in size and type with the pub- 
lications of the Harleian Society. Many of the 
Visitations already printed differ so .widely from the 
MS. they profess to reproduce, as to interfere very 
much with their value to students of genealogy ; 
hence this work has been undertaken as an example 
of what is the most useful method of reproducing a 
Herald's Visitation. 

A Committee has been formed in London for the 
preservation of the magnificent Church at Blythburgh, 
Suffolk, now on the verge of ruin. The Church is one of 
the finest specimens of semi-Flemish thirteenth century 
architecture in this country ; and the Committee seek the 
assistance of those who would regret to think that such a 
fabric should become a ruin, and this will be inevitable 
in the course of a very short time, unless an immediate 
effort be made to avert such a catastrophe. The 
Bishop of Norwich has ordered the Church to be 
closed, for it is no longer safe in its present state. The 
late Mr. Street, R.A., had, within a few weeks of his 
death, examined and reported upon the building. The 
sum required for even ordinary repair is far in excess 
of the amount which can be collected by the Local 
Committee. The General Committee, therefore, ap- 
peal to all who are interested in the preservation of 
our grand old churches and monuments for help in 
this great work, by donations, or by acting upon the 
Committee. In consequence of Mr. Street's decease, 
the Committee have conferred with Mr. A. W. Blom- 
field, M.A., the eminent architect, who is willing to 
take up the work. Subscriptions, or promises of 
assistance, will be gladly acknowledged, and any in- 
formation will be given by S.Sutherland Safford, Esq., 
of 4, Garden Court, Temple, E.C. 

A curious bronze flagon has been found on the East 
Sands of St. Andrews. The banks and hollows of the 
Sands are continually changing, but they have lately 
been doing so to an unusual extent. In one place a 
bed of clay was exposed, and there the bronze flagon 
was found half buried. It has three legs, and is 
8i in. high. The shape is very elegant ; but whether 



it is Roman, British, or Scandinavian it is difficult to 
say. The metal is commonly called Celtic brass, and 
is the same colour as gold. Though it has been cast 
in one piece it bears no trace of a mould mark, but 
has a plentiful supply of air-holes instead, and there 
are two circular holes in the neck which almost 
appear to have been drilled. In July, 1863, a flagon 
almost identically the same was found near Biggar, 
the inside of which was as bright as if it had been fresh 
from the foundry, causing its discoverer to imagine 
that his fortune was made. And there is another 
very similar to it in the Edinburgh Antiquarian 
Museum, which was found while draining the Loch of 
Leys in Kincardineshire. 

In the north wall of the old choir of the Parish 
Church of Auldearn there is a stone with the follow- 
ing inscription : " This Monument is erected be Sir 
Robert Innes Younger of that Ilk, in memorie of 
Alexander Drummond of Meedhope, Sir Johne 
Murray and Maister Gideon Murray, who lyes heir 
interred, who fighting waliantly in defence of their 
Religion, King, and native Countrye died at Aul- 
deme, 9th May 1645." We are sorry to hear that 
the stone of this interesting monument is fast going 
to decay, part of the inscription is already illegible, 
and the whole of it will soon have scaled off". 

Mr. Alexander Maxwell has in the press a History 
of Old Dundee, narrated out of the Town Council 
Register, and other sources. This work extends 
over an interesting period in Scottish history, and 
narrates local incidents which are connected with 
events of great national concern from the Reforma- 
tion to the Union. This was a period of great pro- 
gress. The multiplication of books had stimulated 
the desire for learning, and the ancient Grammar 
School began to flourish with vigour ; a Music School 
was established ; and the old Library was enlarged. 
Then we learn how, in times of danger, the inhabi- 
tants were mustered for " wapinshawing," for holding 
rendezvous, and for keeping watch and ward ; and 
how, in ordinary seasons, they were restrained from 
* ' tuilzie" and riot, by the shortening of their swords, 
and the imposition of penalties for slaughter and for 
" bluidwite." Also, about the strange punishments 
that were administered : how drunkards were cast 
into the thief's hole, or subject to an assize of neigh- 
bours ; how blasphemers were summarily put to 
silence by having their heads enclosed in the branks ; 
how offenders against morality were, at mid-day, 
publicly set in the gyves, or " doukit" in the sea ; 
how brawlers who had disobeyed magistrates were 
made to expiate the offence upon their knees at the 
Market Cross ; and how viragoes who had banned 
their neighbours were placed ignominiously in the 
cuck-stool. 

We are glad to notice that Mr. Halliwell-Phillipps 
has published a much enlarged edition of his valuable 
Outlines of the Life of Shakespeare. The first edition 
was privately printed, and therefore very few readers 
were made acquainted with the author's remarkable 
discoveries. 

A valuable and interesting painting, writes the 
Geneva correspondent of the Daily News, has lately 
been recovered at Baden, in canton Aargau. The 
history of this painting one of Annibale Caracci's 



ANTIQ U ART AN NE WS. 



85 



masterpieces is remarkable. The convent at Baden 
owed its existence to the " passionate preaching" of 
two Capucin friars, whose names "in religion" were 
Ludovicus and Saxonia. The members of the Diet 
of 1588, which met at Baden still a Catholic town 
were so impressed by the preaching of these friars, 
that it was resolved to commemorate their services by 
building a convent and a chapel. The project was 
warmly supported by the ambassadors of France and 
Spain, and large sums of money were collected for its 
execution. The Spanish ambassador paid for the con- 
struction of the high altar, and his master, Philip II., 
presented for its adornment a painting by Caracci. 
In 1 593 the convent church was opened with an im- 
posing ceremony, at which officiated the Suffragan of 
Balthazar, Bishop of Constance. A century or so 
thereafter nobody knows exactly when the painting 
was handed over to a local artist to be cleaned and 
touched up. The local artist did his work so badly 
that the monks, instead of replacing it in its former 
position, put the picture away in a lumber-room. In 
1 841, when the convents of the canton were secu- 
larized, the gift of Philip II. was, among other things, 
sold by auction for a few francs. The buyer was about 
to turn it to use as a piece of old canvas, when Herr 
Brunner, father of the present proprietor of the Ship 
Hotel at Baden, bought it from him for next to 
nothing, and without having any idea of its value, 
hung it up in his house. A few months ago it 
occurred to the present Herr Brunner to have the 
painting cleaned and restored, and he sent it for that 
purpose to Caesar, the famous picture cleaner of Augs- 
burg. When the thick coating of dust and dirt was 
removed, the identity of the painting with the re- 
nowned altar-piece of Philip II. was discovered ; and 
as it bears the artist's signature, Annibal Carracius 
Bononianus, and the dale 1592, there can be no 
question that it is really a work of that master. The 
canvas is 318 centimetres high by 217 wide. The 
figures, of which there are five, are life size. 

A movement has been set on {foot for the purpose 
of raising a suitable memorial to Samuel Pepys, in 
the Church of St. Olave, Hart Street, where he was 
buried. An influential committee has been formed 
for the purpose of arranging for the memorial ; and 
all those who have received pleasure in reading the 
immortal Diary are asked to subscribe. The trea- 
surer is Mr, Owen Roberts, clerk to the Clothworkers' 
Company, and the hon. secretary Mr. Henry B. 
Wheatley, 6, Minford Gardens, W. 



Correapon^ence, 



DEERHURST. 

E^rl Odda's Tower at Deerhurst is perhaps the only 
example of genuine Saxon architecture to which we 
are enabled to fix a definite date 1053-1056. Is there 
any proof that Abbot Baldwin, of Bury St. Edmunds, 
was the designer ? Historical testimony is wholly in 
favour of this hypothesis, although I know of no 
distinct assertion that this was the fact ; the evidence 
being purely circumstantial, and yet so strong, that we 



cannot but fail to connect the name of the Abbot 
of Bury with the solitary tower of the remote cell at 
Deerhurst. 

The facts and dates amount briefly to these : On 
the banishment of Godwine and his sons in 105 1, of 
the three earldoms then left vacant, that held by 
Swegen, or rather a portion, was granted to Odda : 
this is well known as a matter of history. Between 
the years 1053-1056 the church at Deerhurst was built 
by him as an offering for the soul of his brother ^Ifric, 
who died 1053. Three years after, 1056, the earl him- 
self died. 

Baldwin was made Abbot of Bury between the 
years 1062-1066, and before his promotion had been 
prior at Deerhurst, and as only some six or seven 
years had elapsed since Odda built his church, there 
is every probability that Baldwin was at the time 
prior, and, if so, naturally superintended the works. 
Lastly, the rude primitive character of the tower itself 
bears witness that it was not the work of Norman 
hands. Odda himself was kinsman to the king, and 
was probably of English extraction, if we may judge 
by his own and his brothers' names. Baldwin had 
been a monk at St. Denis before Prior of Deerhurst 
"a certain presumption, though not amounting to 
proof, of his French rather than Norman origin."* 
We might compare the works of Edward at West- 
minster, and Plarold at Waltham, with the primitive 
character of this work, proving beyond doubt that no 
Norman was employed here. Hence, it follows that 
either Odda himself, who was a monk, and seems to 
have lived in some seclusion, was his own architect, 
or Baldwin, afterwards Abbot of St. Edmundsbury. 
Possibly some one could elucidate this matter. 

Charles L. Bell. 

Chesterton Road, Cambridge. 



CHURCHWARDENS' ACCOUNTS, 
(iv. 231, 277.) 

In replying to the questions asked by H. C. I. in 
the November publication of The Antiquary, 
under the abrJVe heading, as to the meaning of these 
words: " Kidcote," "Waver," and " Skiterick," 
perhaps he will allow me to correct him, by stating 
that those words are only to be found amongst the 
items of the constable's, or town's, accounts, and not 
the churchwardens', as the following statements will 
show : 

Kidcote. This term was used in olden times in 
" Merrie Wakefield" for a Lockup or Local Prison, in 
which persons taken up by the constable for theft, or 
disorderly conduct, were incarcerated, prior to being 
brought before the magistrates, and that name always 
appeared in the town's accounts. The Kidcote was 
taken care of, and kept in repair, by the constable of 
the town, and his deputy, and the expense was charged 
in the constable's accounts. The original Kidcote was 
in a cellar at the corner of a block of buildings be- 
tween the Bull Ring and Northgate, until the year 

* Freeman, Norman Conquest, vol. ii. Appendix 1., 
from which all the above dates are taken, and else- 
where in the volume. 



86 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



1800, when a new one was erected in George Street, 
and regularly used down to the advent of the new 
police, but it has since been converted into a black- 
smith's shop. 

Waver. The place where this is situated is outside 
the Vicarage wall, and consists of four large watering 
troughs, used for cattle to drink, and for other pur- 
poses. They are at the bottom of a back street, 
known by the name of the Spins;s, and as such it ap- 
pears in the Court Rolls of the Manor of Wakefield, 
as far back as 1515. This watering-place has, from 
time immemorial, been called the '* Waver," and it 
has been suggested that it took its name from the word 
JVaifer, the pound for waifs, as lost cattle are called, 
the original Pinfold being close by ; and which is ren- 
dered peculiarly interesting from its connection with 
Geor^e-a- Green, the renowned Pinder of Wakefield, 
who fought and vanquished Robin Hood. 

Skiterick. In the time of Henry VHI. or Elizabeth, 
it was a small stream. Prior to the Wakefield Paving 
Act (1771), it was a surface drain, having springs at 
its head on East Moor, and flowed at the back of some 
houses in Kirkgate, and then ran along the middle of 
the street down to the corn mills at the bridge foot, 
where it discharged itself into the river Calder. In 
1766, May 5, a town's meeting ordered "that 
,^ \2s. lid. arrears. owing to the constable should be 
collected, and paid to the vicar. Dr. Bacon, for the 
repairs and covering of the Skiterick, which should 
be thereafter always repaired by the constable." 

I shall be glad to know if any of the above names 
are to be found in any other town in England. 

Quidnunc. 

ANCIENT ARMOUR. 

I have recently acquired, through the kindness of a 
friend who is a very large collector and resident in 
this county, a number of pieces of ancient armour, of 
various dates and shapes and styles of ornamentation. 
I have a very large ribbed back-plate, with three 
lower plates, which has the traces of a considerable 
amount of gilding on it. Also another back-plate, 
with a broad band of engraved or embossed work 
running down in the centre, and a very beautifully 
embossed and engraved gorget. There is also an odd 
pauldron, and the fragment of its fellow, bearing some 
curious stamped work on them, in the form of a series 
of masonry arches, between which are double-headed 
eagles, each head having an antique three-pointed 
crown above it, and on the breast of each eagle there 
appears to be some device. I should be glad if any 
of your readers could give me some idea as to the 
bearer of these devices. I observe in Gwillim's 
Hera/dr/e (edition of 161 1) it is stated that Nicholas 
de Ponte, Duke of Venice, bore a bridge as his de- 
vice ; as also did Pope Sixtus IV. Did either of 
these bear a crowned eagle ? 

From the same collection I have a considerable 
portion of a suit of beautifully fluted tilting armour ; 
and also some good specimens of ribbed, embossed, 
and engraved arm'our. Among other mediaeval devices 
I observe embossments of Turks' heads, women's heads, 
knights in armour, and other figures. There is a 
shoulder-piece with some of the original rose-colour 
silk lining still attached to it by rivets ; and a paul- 



dron having a small piece of the original velvet lining 
attached in the same manner. This pauldron appears 
to have been white, painted or enamelled, at one time. 
There are also a thigh- and knee-piece, the former 
having part of its thick leather lining remaining (both 
fitted closely around the limb). I have also two long 
greaves, or lower leg-pieces, with some of the original 
chain-mail attached to their sides, thus marking their 
connection with the period of partial transition from 
mail to plate armour. 

Some time ago I was fortunate in becoming the 
possessor of a very fine pair of ancient chain -mail 
trousers, from an ancient mansion in Comvcall. 
They are very long, and each link is riveted, but in 
a very corroded state. I have never met with a 
description of any similarly long specimen existing in 
any collection, but have no doubt there are similar 
ones. The date of this might possibly be thirteenth 
century, and probably not later than the fourteenth 
century, when plate-armour came partly into use. 
As some of the above are out-of-the-way specimens, 
I thought t^is communication might interest those 
of your readers who make armour their study ; and 
as the British Archaeological Society intend visiting 
Plymouth next month, I shall be happy to exhibit 
my small collection to any visitors interested in the 
subject. 

W. C. WADE. 

Plymouth. 

MAXWELL OF MUNCHES. 

Will you kindly inform me where I can get any in- 
formation respecting I. The history of the Maxwells 
of Munches, in Dumfriesshire. 2. The history of 
Caerlaverock Castle, in Dumfriesshire, and of the 
family to whom the castle now belongs ? 

I am a descendant of the Maxwells of Munches, 
and this branch of the family is a cadet of the 
Earls of Nithsdale. 

Helen Maxwell. 

Southport. 



BUENOS AIRES. " 

In the locality of Cape St. Antonio, Province of 
Buenos Aires, I have found great quantities of flint 
arrow-heads, spear-heads, fragments of pottery, and 
other Indian remains, but am unable to find any works 
that throw light on the date of the tribe which manu- 
factured them. The two local authorities I consulted 
on the subject, suggested respectively the beginning 
of the present century, and an antediluvian age as 
the era of the tribe ; but the variance of their opinions 
slightly shook my confidence in them. If any of the 
readers of The Antiquary can refer me to books on 
the subject I shall remain deeply indebted to him. 

Herbert Gibson. 

Aj6, Buenos Aires. 



PAPAL BULL^. 
During the Middle Ages, the Papal bullae were 
apparently twofold those styled by the French 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



87 



antiquary, De Vaines, as being en forme rigoureuse, 
and which had the bulla, or seals, attached to the 
rescript by means of small hempen strings or cords ; 
and those en forme gracieuse, which had the suspend- 
ing tapes of silk or of wool. 

What idea does the writer wish to convey by a bull 
en forme rigoureiise, and on what occasions would 
such be promulgated ? By a bull en forme gracieuse, 
I interpret the meaning as having reference to a 
document which announces to the various prelates 
and dignitaries of the orthodox Western and Eastern 
Churches the holding of a council or other assembly, 
and requiring their presence, for this end, at the 
Pontifical Court. 

J. S. 

Warrington. 



if any correspondent woiJd inform me where I could 
obtain a copy. 

.Runic Cross. 

BUILDINGS IN THE SEVENTEENTH 

CENTURY. 

Can any reader of The Antiquary give a list of 
buildings erected in the British Islands between the 
death of King Charles I. and the accession of King 
Charles II., such as churches, country-houses, or 
official buildings ? 

Edward S. Dodgson. 

Pitney House, Yeovil. 



CHARLES .MATHEWS. 

I should be thankful for any information relative to 
the ancestry of the two Charles Mathews, the come- 
dians ; or concerning the descendants of the elder 
Charles's six brothers and six uncles, of whom I can 
discover nothing. 

Also ; is anything known about the family of John 
Mathews, the first commander of the old ship Great 
Britain ? 

J. H. M. 

Malta. 

OLD BOOK ILLUSTRATIONS. 

' Mr. Thoms informs us {ante, iv. 156-159) that many 
of the wood blocks used in illustrating chap-books 
were imported from abroad. Allow me to add that 
the plates of Wither's Emblevis, printed by A. M., 
for Richard Royston, in 1635, were (as stated in 
the preface) procured from Holland, having been 
"graven in copper by Crispinus Passreus." 

Quarles's Emblems were also, if I mistake not, the 
work of a foreign artist. 

Frederick Hockin. 

Fhillack Rectory. 



FITZ-URSE DE MERTON. 

Can any of the readers of The Antiquary direct 
me to a source from which I can obtain information 
of the families of Fitz-Urse de Merton (of whom was 
Walter de Merton, founder of Merton College, Ox- 
ford), Beau Sarvire, and the Shane O'Neils of Ulster. 

Also, what were the arms of Beau Sarvire ? 

Oakeley Fisher. 
\ 21, Maida Vale, W. 



RUNIC CROSS. 
Can any of your nuiherous readers give me a descrip- 
tion of the Runic Cross in the churchyard at Bew- 
castle, Cumberland East ? There was a description 
published a considerable time ago by the late minister 
of the parish, Rev. Mr. Mangan, and I should be glad 



SYMBOL. 

Can any of your readers or correspondents inform 
me as to the meaning, origin, and historical bearing 
of the symbol of the Angel in the Sun (Angelux) ? 
Is it a Rosicrucian or a Templar badge of truth, bor- 
rowed from the Apocalypse? And where can any 
information be found concerning it ? 

An Earnest Inquirer. 



COVENANTER'S HAT. 

Several years ago several large felt objects, in the 
shape of hats, were exhumed from the peat bog at 
the foot of Esthwaite Lake, near Hawkeshead, in 
North Lancashire. Quite lately one of these has 
come into my possession. Mr. J. Postlethwaite, 
landlord of the Sun Hotel, Hawkshead, asserted that 
when these were discovered they were decided to be 
Covenanters' hats. The one in my possession is 
made of a soft but coarse felt substance, and is of a 
reddish brown colour ; it is quite flexible, and some- 
what resembles in shape " Heath's lawn-tennis hats." 
It has been suggested that they were placed in the 
peat for the purpose of dyeing. I ought to have 
mentioned that all six were neatly wrapped up, and 
laid in the same position one on the top of another. 
Perhaps some of your readers could enlighten me as 
to what they are and why placed in such a position. 

H. S. COWPER. 

Elmwood, Sudbury, Harrow. 



BRASSES. 
May I be permitted to point out in reference to the 
letter on this subject in your June issue, iv. p. 278, 
that the late Mr. R. J. King touched onthe matter of 
Devonshire examples of sepulchral brasses, &c., in his 
article on Devonshire, first published in the Quarterly 
Review, April, 1859, and since reprinted in the author's 
interesting and valuable "Sketches and Studies" 
(London: John Murray, 1874), pp. 332-4- 

IIiLDRic Friend. 

Newton Abbot. 



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MICHAELMAS. 



89 



^jm'Amm^a^M. 



The Antiquary. 



SEPTEMBER, 1882. 




fll>icbaelma0. 

By Edward Peacock, F.S.A. 

ROM the earliest ages when light 
dawns on the history of the Chris- 
tian Church we find angels objects 
of love, reverence and devotion, 
enter into the dark and controversial 
region in which the origmes of Christianity are 
laid would be to step into thorny grounds 
which are at present in this country almost 
entirely left to the professed theologian. 
When light becomes clear we find the 
angelic host recognized as the protectors of 
men, and divided into ranks, classes, or 
orders. The Church from an early period 
told of nine of these classes Seraphims, 
Cherubims, Thrones, Dominions, Princi- 
palities, Powers, Virtues, Archangels, and 
Angels. The germ of this classification may 
be found in the ^vritings of Saint Paul, who 
on two occasions* furnishes what may be 
considered lists of the heavenly hierarchy 
as it was understood in the first century. Of 
this vast host pervading all space, Michael, 
the protector of the people of God first of 
the Hebrews and afterwards of the Christian 
Church is the most prominent in history and 
legend. In the book of Daniel we are told, 
"At that time shall Michael stand up, the 
great prince which standeth up for the 
children of Thy people."t Here we see him 
as the protector of the children of Abraham, 
aUke from the heathendom by which they were 
environed and oppressed, and also from the 
evil spiritual influences which, as they believed, 
surrounded on all sides the chosen people 
of God. Jewish tradition tells us of the 
angels, that God creates multitudes of them 
daily, but of the princes of the angelic host, 

Eph. i. 21 ; Col. i. i6. f Daniel vii. i. 

VOL. VI. 



Michael, Gabriel, and the rest who are their 
equals, that they are not created again, " but 
remain in their glory wherewith they were 
invested in the six days' creation of the 
world, and their names are never changed."* 
The mass of literature and tradition 
concerning angels, and especially Saint 
Michael, must have been immense. Much 
has no doubt perished, but the uncanonical 
Hebrew writings are as yet an almost 
unworked mine of angelic legend. To 
some such narrative allusion is made in 
the General Epistle of Jude, where we are 
told that Michael the Archangel, " when con- 
tending with the devil, he disputed about the 
body of Moses, durst not bring against him 
a raihng accusation."t Among Moslems 
the reverence for Saint Michael has been as 
great as among Christians. The children of 
Islam do not invoke saints or angels, but 
otherwise the honour they show to the great 
Captain of the host of Heaven is as marked 
as it was in mediaeval Christendom. 
Michael's name and office were well known 
to Mohammed. Whether the author of the 
Koran derived his knowledge of Hebrew 
history from contact with Jews, or from a 
distinct line of tradition, has been for ages 
a matter of bitter controversy. We shall 
not enter into it, further than to observe that 
such evidence as is attainable by those who 
are not Arabic scholars, points to independent 
sources of knowledge on the part of the 
great', prophet of Arabia. The most cele- 
brated and the longest Sura in the Koran is 
called the Cow. There Mohammed says : 
" Whoso is an enemy to God or his angels, 
or to Gabriel, or to Michael, shall have God 
as his enemy, for verily God is an enemy to 
the unbelievers." t This passage is highly 
interesting as showing, first, the distinction 
between angels generally and the archangels 
Michael and Gabriel ; and secondly, as indi- 
cating Mohammed's attitude to the JcAvish 
and Christian worlds. Gabriel is from 
Mohammed's point of view the especial 
guardian of Islam. Through his agency the 
Koran was revealed as a confirmation and 
re-promulgation of the previous revelation. 

* Buxtorff, Traditions of thejeivs, vol. iL p. 73. 
t Jude II. 

t Rodwell, El-Koran, 2nd edition, 378. Cf. Sale, 
Koran, edition 1825, vol. i. p. 18. 

H 



90 



MICHAELMAS. 



Michael, on the other hand, was the protector 
of Jewish and Christian monotheists. Whoso- 
ever was the enemy of either was on the side 
of the unbelievers and an enemy of God. 

Saints' days arose gradually in the Church. 
There does not seem to be evidence that the 
festival of Saint Michael existed earlier than 
the fifth century. The famous church of 
Monte Gargano in Italy was, it is affirmed, 
the first Saint Michael's in the west, and the 
feast was instituted at the time of its dedi- 
cation. The mole of Hadrian was placed 
under the invocation of Saint Michael in 
6 ID, and from that period the worship of the 
great angelic protector spread rapidly through 
Europe. Some of the oldest churches in 
our land are dedicated to him. It is, indeed, 
impossible to examine a list of the church- 
dedications of any county in England with- 
out the Saint Michaels attracting attention 
by their number. In the lands which re- 
ceived Christianity from Rome the churches 
dedicated to Saint Michael are usually 
on hills. Saint Michael's Mount in Brittany, 
and its sister in Cornwall, are examples of 
this. He has indeed come to be regarded 
as the patron saint of mountains, and it has 
been remarked that even in flat countries the 
churches dedicated to Saint Michael are 
usually found on the highest ground in 
the neighbourhood. There are twenty-six 
churches dedicated to Saint Michael in Lin- 
colnshire, most of which stand on compara- 
tively high ground.* The popular devotion 
to Saint Michael was no doubt in a great 
degree due to the fact that the Christian 
legends represent him as weighing the souls 
of the dead. How far we may trace this 
notion back, and in what pre-Christian 
system it took its rise it is for the present 
purpose useless to inquire. It was fully re- 
ceived here at an early period, and countless 
works of art in sculpture and painting helped 
to keep the idea vividly before the people. 
Our village churches seem, almost all of 
them, to have had a picture of Saint Michael 
and his balance. The common place for it 
was over the chancel arch above the rood. 
The early Protestants, in their unrelenting 
war upon mediaeval usages, did not spare this, 
to us, very harmless piece of symbolism. 
* We paint St. Michael weighing the souls, 
* jfotirn. Arch. Inst., xxxviii. 371. 



and stick up a candle to flatter him, and to 
make him favourable to us," says Tyndale, in 
his answer to Sir Thomas More ;* and the 
scurrilous John Bale tells his readers that in 
the Day of Judgment " none shall be found 
able at that day to restrain the least part 
of His purposed vengeance, neither Mary 
throwing in her beads into St. Michael's 
balance, John Baptist with his lamb, Peter 
with his key, nor yet Paul with his long 
sword."t 

Michaelmas Day, September 29, the Feast 
of Saint Michael and All Angels, holds a 
double position. It is a great Christian 
festival. It also represents something far 
earUer the old heathen rejoicings, when the 
harvest is gathered in. The two blended in 
the popular mind and in common practice. 
Michaelmas tide was a popular holiday, half 
religious, half secular, throughout the whole 
of northern Europe. Work was to cease in 
the field, spinning in the house ; men and 
maidens were to keep holiday. In the 
Anglo-Saxon Church it was' specially pro- 
vided that the three days before Michaelmas 
were to be set apart as a solemn fast, all ser- 
vile work was to cease, that men might be 
the better able to prepare themselves for the 
great festival. There were to be barefoot 
processions, and the congregation were to go 
barefoot to church on these days. The oldest 
example of the word which I have met 
with, though I do not doubt that it occurs 
earlier, is to be found in the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle, under the year ion, where we 
learn that the northern pillagers besieged 
Canterbury between the Feast of the Nativity 
of our Blessed Lady (Sept. 8) and "See 
Michaeles maessan."t To separate the Chris- 
tian feast from the earlier festival, with which 
it has become blended, would perhaps be 
impossible. In this instance, as in so many 
others, the Christian stream, having its source 
in the East, and in Semitic modes of thought, 
has mingled with a northern current utterly 
unchristian at the first. The two have now 
become so blended that we believe the cun- 
ningest historical chemistry must fail in 
separating the one from the other. Traces, 
however, of both have been preserved. The 

* Parker Soc Ed., 163. 

t Image of Booth Churches, Parker Soc. Ed., 523. 

X Thorpe'*s Ed. i. 266 ; ii. 117. , 



MICHAELMAS. 



91 



dedication of churches to the great Arch- 
angel, the burning lights before his altars,* 
the special services in his honour, the 
legends of his appearances at Rome and 
elsewhere, and the notion that his very name 
was a terror to evil spirits,! are part of the 
development of the great Christian tradition. 
The glorious Latin hymns in his honour by 
Adam of Saint Victor and others,! of course 
are purely Christian; but when we look at 
home we find gross feasting and humorous 
play a main feature in the festival. This is 
surely a survival of the harvest feasts of men 
who had not bowed before the Cross. 

Bonfires are said to have been burned, ale 
drank, ballads sung, and tales told around 
them, on Michaelmas Eve, in Lincolnshire 
and Yorkshire, until the period of the great 
enclosures at the end ot the last century, 
when the habits of life became so different 
that old-world customs such as this, which 
required a stationary and semi-independent 
people, naturally died out. We have never 
conversed with those who have seen the 
flame of a Michaelmas bonfire, but have been 
fortunate enough, on more than one occasion, 
to come in contact with old folk who could 
remember the Michaelmas Eve feasting in 
the farmhouse kitchen. We are not sure 
that it was of a kind that the higher culture 
of the present would approve. Master and 
man were for a time on equal footing, ale 
flowed freely, and songs were sung and tales 
told which would have charmed every mem- 
ber of the Ballad and Folk-lore Societies. 
The peasant is like a child. When he hears 
a good tale, his instinct is not to go off into 
criticism, but to exclaim, " Tell it again !" 
We apprehend that the tales of one Michael- 
mas Eve were well-nigh identical with another. 
From what we can gather, the Christian 
element was almost entirely wanting, but 
something older than Christianity had sur- 
' vived. A handful of each sort of com that 
the farmer had grown was given that night to 
his cattle for their supper, and some of the 
grain scattered in the court for the wild birds 
to pick up. This was, we are told, for the 
purpose of bringing luck to the homestead. 

* Glasscock, Records of St. MichaeVs, Bishofs 
Stortford, 38. 

+ Beyerlinck, Mag. Theat. Vita HumancE, i. 426. 

+ Several of these are given in Kehrein's Latein- 
ische Sequenzen des Mittelaltcrs, 134-140, 



Perhaps the most singular survival of the 
old Michaelmas customs is to be found in the 
Lawless Court, at King's Hill, Rochford, in 
Essex. This assembly is held on the Wednes- 
day morning after Michaelmas Day, at cock- 
crow in the morning. It was probably in 
its origin no mock court at all, but a serious 
business, made jocose of set purpose. At 
the present time, though shorn of some of 
its interesting features, it presents us with a 
curious dramatic representation of the life of 
our forefathers in its business aspect. Life 
was rough with them, and jesting and horse- 
play supplied the place of much that we now 
have, which, if more refined, is perhaps not 
more virtuous. As boy bishops parodied the 
rites of the Church with full ecclesiastical 
sanction, and without a thought that there 
was anything profane in the performance, so 
here we find a serious business gone through 
in the form of a parody a parody on itself. 
The title of the old court-roll is of course in 
Latin, but it is so corrupt that I may be for- 
given for giving the late Mr. Black's trans- 
lation of it, as it is quoted by Mr. Gomme 
in his valuable work on Primitive Folk- 
Moots :* 

The Court of our Lord the King 

Called the Court without Law, 

Holden there 

By custom thereof 

Before sunrise, 

Unless it be twilight. '" 

The steward alone 

Writes nothing but with coals, 

As often as he will, 

When the Cock shall have crowed 

By the sound of which only 

The Court is summoned. 

He crieth secretly for the King 

In the Court without Law ; 

And unless they quickly come, 

They shall the more quickly repent ; 

And unless they come secretly, 

Let not the Court attend. 

He who hath come with a light, 

Erreth in behaviour. 

And until they be without a light 

They are taken in default. 

The Court without care, 

The Jury of injury. 

It seems certain, from Mr. Black's researches, 
that the spot where this court is held, which 
is marked by a wooden post, renewed from 
time to time, is a Roman landmark. If this 
be so, we are carried back very far indeed, 
* P. 126. 

H 2 



92 



MICHAELMAS. 



perhaps to something even beyond the Teu- 
tonic settlement of Essex. The secrecy and 
the darkness, now used symbolically, had 
once a real significance. In the present 
state of knowledge it might be rash to guess 
what that was. We may be assured that it 
is something pre-Christian, and it perhaps 
would not be unsafe to affirm that it was a 
secret connected with the harvest and the 
fecundity of the earth. The Church blessed 
the crops, and used her services to supplant 
the old-world superstitions, but it is not im- 
probable that here you have a relic of the 
old folk-moot held at night, for the purpose 
of performing some of those ancient incan- 
tations on which the Mass-priests looked 
sternly. The blazing faggot, which is part 
of the ceremony, even now seems to give 
some support to this guess. 

Another custom, which can have no con- 
nection, however remote, with religion, but 
which may well be a remembrance of a hea- 
then procession in honour of the harvest, is 
recorded from Hertfordshire. On Michael- 
mas day every seven years, says a London 
newspaper of 1787, a great number of the 
young men of Bishop's Stortford assemble 
in the fields, and one of the most active is 
nominated as leader. Him they are bound 
to follow, and he chooses the roughest road 
he can find, 

Through bog, through bush, through brake, through 
brier. 

Every one whom they meet is roughly 
treated. Women usually stay at home on 
these occasions, but some of the more ven- 
turous join the throng for the sake of the 
ale and plumcake which the publicans 
on the route, by immemorial custom, are 
bound to give to the revellers. One of the 
most noteworthy points in this curious sur- 
vival is the fact that these gangers must par- 
take of nothing but the cake and ale given 
them, and that the night, if the weather be 
fair, is spent in the open fields.* 

Much has been written about the Michael- 
mas goose, but usually to little purpose. The 
goose does not seem to have any further 
connection with Michaelmas than the fact 
that, being in season at the festival, some 
manorial rents in kind have been paid by a 

* Dyer's Popular Customs, 380. **^ 



goose at that time. It has, however, been 
the subject of much unintelligent trifling, and 
has consequently helped to swell our books 
on popular antiquities. There is a story 
afloat which, whether true or false, has nothing 
really to do with Michaelmas, that Queen 
EUzabeth was eating a goose on Michaelmas 
Day when the news of the defeat of the 
Spanish Armada reached her. 

A paper such as this might be indefinitely 
extended. We shall have gained our object 
if we have shown that in the customs con- 
nected with Michaelmas there are two lines of 
tradition, and that for any intelligent realiza- 
tion of past fife, we must be able, in thought 
at least, to separate the ancient and non- 
Christian elements from the latter additionsby 
which the Church, acting on the advice which 
St. Gregory gave as to heathen temples,* has 
endeavoured to sanctify them. 

^^^^^^' 

^be Xtne of agticola'6 fiDarcb 
from tbe Dee to tbe dli^be. 

By Henry Hayman, D.D. 

JHE line of march pursued by Agri- 
cola northward to Caledonia, in the 
campaigns of his second and fol- 
lowing years in Britain, is a question 
of much interest, on which Tacitus, who de- 
scribes the expedition {Agricola, ch. 20, foil.), 
throws little direct light. His point of de- 
parture may, from ib. 18, be presumed to have 
been near the mouth of the Dee perhaps 
Chester itself; and there is no indication of 
a single definite point till an estuary called 
" Taus," or (as two MSS. give it) " Tanaus," 
is reached. What this under either name 
represents is uncertain, nor was it certainly 
on the actual line of march. It is only given 
as the limit of a devastation to intimidate 
the natives, and might, as far as this shows, 
signify even the Tay, on the eastern side of 
Scotland. But in the absence of contrary 
indications, it is safest to assume it on the 
same westeru side as that on which the march 
began. He started from an estuary, and 
" estuaries" form with "forests" the only touch 
of local feature noticed by the historian 

* Bede, i. 30. 




THE LINE OF AGRICOLA'S MARCH. 



n 



astiiaria ac siluas ipse prmtentare {ib. 2 o). Now 
such inlets of the sea are frequent from the 
Dee to the Clyde, where he paused awhile in 
his progress, and turned his attention to Ire- 
land, with probably the S.W. comer of Scot- 
land for his basis ; and further, his fleet 
attended his land forces, and co-operated 
with imposing effect on the native mind {ib. 
2^). It therefore seems most likely that the 
whole line of his movement was nowhere 
very far from the coast of England and Scot- 
land, between the points indicated. His first 
object seems to have been to secure that 
coast-line as a step to operations further in- 
land. The sea, while tenable, would enable 
him to send or summon succour to any threat- 
ened point from Chester, supposed the head- 
quarters of Agricola's operations for this 
purpose ; and by aid of his fleet provisions 
for the winter might easily be thrown into all 
his successive stations and depots. 

From the brief record of Tacitus, not 
merely all names, but all topographical details, 
are tantalizingly absent. That abundant 
materials were before him in the official re- 
cords of the progress of the expedition we 
cannot doubt ; but his object is moral rather 
than physical, the character of Agricola rather 
than his exploits, or their scenes as objec- 
tive facts; and thus the actual res gestae, are 
scantily slurred over. He states, however, 
that it was "a new part of Britain" to the 
Romans {ib. 20) ; which could hardly have 
been true if Agricola had taken a more 
easterly or inland route. He must in that 
case either have struck into the probably im- 
practicable region of fells and mountains, 
where the country could only have been 
penetrated by rather narrow river- valleys, 
thus giving the natives every advantage of 
locality and experience ; or, if he had tried 
further east, would have come upon the ter- 
ritory of the Brigantes. But these last had 
already been subdued, or, at least, invaded 
and overawed, and their borders could hardly 
have been distinguished as a nova pars 
Britannice. But the one fact on which 
Tacitus lays repeated stress is the frequent 
fortifications erected, their well-chosen sites, 
and the permanency of their character, from 
which one may judge Agricola to have been 
a consummate engineer.* By these he forged 

* The expressions are {AgrUola 20) : " Multae ciui- 



a set of fetters for the country which he pene- 
trated, which was never shaken off until the 
break-up of the Roman supremacy in the 
fifth century. 

I shall show reasons for thinking that these 
fortresses were so planted, as not only to keep 
up communications along the line of march, 
but to command the practicable avenues to 
the interior by the river-valleys ; thus at once 
checking the flank attacks of the natives, and 
preparing for the penetration of the interior 
at a farther stage. We should expect that such 
works from the hands of Agricola would have 
left their mark, either in names or in recog- 
nizable sites, or in both, with sufficient dis- 
tinctness ; and this is what the facts now to 
be noted disclose. Before detailing them I 
would notice one element of uncertainty in 
fixing them precisely. There is evidence of 
land, which is now twenty-five feet above sea 
level, having been at no very distant period 
washed by the sea. This is known to anti- 
quaries all round the Lancastrian and Cam- 
brian littorale. But there exists no absolute 
test to show whether the upheaval had been 
accomplished before or after the expedition 
of Agricola in a.d. 79. Indeed, at nearly 
four times that elevation shells, whole or 
fragmentary, are found overlying the surface 
gravel south of Ulverston towards Morecambe 
Bay. And even allowing for the higher reach 
of the tide in a recessed estuary, this suggests 
a comparatively recent date for the raising of 
the last twenty-five feet. It is, then, safer to 
assume that the estuaries were ampler and 
their arms longer at the time of Agricola than 
now. Further, when the land was low, the 
western margin of the County of Lancaster 
would be swampy and mossy. If this was 
its condition at the time of his march, it 
would push the line of that march eastward 
in its earliest stage, while at the same time 
covering its western flank. In accordance 

tales .... praesidiis castellisquecircumdatae;" (21), 
"ponendisque insuper castellis spatiuin fuit." Of 
these he says: "aduersus moras obsidionis annuls 
copiis firmabantur." Again, he says of the region 
from Clyde (Clota) and Forth (Bodotria): '* quod turn 
praesidiis firmabatur," so that an inner circle was 
occupied, and the hostile natives driven, as it were, 
to another island outside. He adds that a reactionary 
impulse led the Britons to attack these " castella," 
but that none were ever either captured or aban- 
doned. 



P4 



THE LINE OF AG RICO LA'S MARCH 



with this, we find Ribchester, nearly midway 
between Preston and Clitheroe, the first name 
in the direction required which clearly marks 
Roman occupancy. It commanded the pas- 
sage of the Ribble, the mouth of which may then 
have formed a larger estuary than now. The 
configuration of the interior shows no line of 
superior accessibility to induce an invader to 
deviate from the coast, where the sea would 
always protect one flank of the communica- 
tions, besides furnishing an avenue of supply 
most important for permanent tenure. 

Beyond Lancaster, which we may assume 
for the next point of importance, the More- 
cambe estuary would possibly cause an 
amount of detour even larger than at present, 
supposing transport across it inconvenient. 
The word prcBte?itare, already cited, suggests 
the selection of fordable passages in the 
higher portions of these inlets : and as the 
higher edge of Morecambe Bay was traversed 
by coach within living memory, the line of 
Agricola's march^ even although considerably 
inland by modern landmarks, might then 
have dipped below high-water mark. I 
assume not only the suffix -caster, or Chester, 
but the prefix, and, perhaps, suffix Brough, 
burroiv, &c., in its various forms, as marking 
a spot round which habitations clustered in 
the subsequent Saxon period, owing to its 
previous occupancy, presumably by the 
Romans. We have, then, the following names 
as our stepping-stones, first northward and 
then westward from Lancaster : Hincaster, 
Broughton-in-Cartrael, Broughton-in-Furness, 
Street, Muncaster, and thence, after a con- 
siderable interval, northward again, Great 
Broughton, Kirkboro', Hayboro', Ellenboro', 
the last three forming a group near Mary- 
port, on the coast. Thence, pursuing the 
line of the Solway Firth, there are said to be 
the remains of one Roman camp traceable 
between Mowbray (bray again, perhaps = 
Borough) and AUonby, and of another near 
Silloth. 

Of these, Hincaster is the most out of line, 
and there the march would make a very 
sharp angle, coming from the south and 
turning back south of west. But the ancient 
extension of the estuary may have justified 
this, or local conditions have called for it. 
The term " Street" is an old name given to 
the coast-road through Bootle, between the 



Silecroft and Eskmeal stations on the 
Whitehaven and Furncss Railway, through 
which exact line of country I assume 
the march to have passed. If we ex- 
amine the sites of these supposed castella 
on the map we shall find them all such as 
I have said. Hincaster is about one and a 
half mile from the river Kent, Broughton- 
in-Cartmel lies between the Winster and the 
Leven, Broughton-in-Furness overlooks the 
Duddon, Muncaster commands the Esk, 
Great Broughton the Cocker. The only 
stream of importance omitted is the Ehen, 
before reaching which a minor one, the 
Calder, would have to be crossed. As re- 
gards this region Mr. W. Jackson says :* 

On all the earliest maps of our county (Cumberland) 
there is laid down an ancient road running from 
Drigg to Calder Hall, and on this stands Seascale 
Hall, very near to the site of an old circle marked by 
a solitary stone, all the others having been buried at 
the commencement of this century. There are, I 
believe, indications that a road once traversed the 
Calder at this point, and, passing by Sella Park, was 
continued by existing roads to the venerable church 
of St. Bridget, with its so-called Runic Cross, close 
to which, on an eminence over the Eden, is a field 
called Castley, where old foundations have been dis- 
covered ; whilst on the other side of the river is a 
gravelly eminence known as Burrough Hill, which 
the river is, and for years has been, undermining. 
Another prominent point of a ridge abruptly cut off 
by the river's attrition is called Warborough Nook, 
on which was lately found a stone celt or hammer. 
The road from Braystones (Burrow-stones) by Saint 
Bees runs within half a mile of, and parallel to, the 
coast for the whole distance, and certainly is very 
ancient. 

These names and vestiges Castley (Caster- 
ley), Burrough Hill, Warborough, Burrow- 
stones, seem to pick up the track again, and 
supply the missing links between the Esk 
and the Cocker, with traces of one or more 
castella commanding the Calder and Ehen 
mouths and vallies. It is not to be supposed 
that actual Roman remains have been found 
at all or most of the spots mentioned. A 
gold coin of Vespasian is mentioned as found 
in a railway cutting near Ravenglass,f Coins 
have also been found at Castle Head, near 
Hincaster, and in the Cartmel valley, as well 

* Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmore- 
land Antiquarian and Archaological Society. Paper 
read at Wigton, 1876, p. 14. To this gentleman's 
remarks I beg to express general indebtedness beyond 
the passages cited. 

+ Ibid, &'c., p. 21, 



tROM THE DEE TO THE CLYDE. 



95 



as other Roman remains in an old road near 
Wraysholme; and " immediately after passing 
the (Cumberland) Esk we find ourselves in a 
locality once noted for its Roman remains, 
but which of late years has ceased to furnish 
any further indications of its ancient occu- 
pants."* Camden mentions Ravenglass as a 
spot where Roman antiquities had been 
found, and Mr. Jackson refers to Lysons as 
describing two bronze tripods found in 
the low alluvial ground near the mouth of 
the Esk, which he takes to have been Roman 
camp-kettles. f As regards the Taus or 
Tanaus, Mr. Jackson adds : 

If we might suppose the Tanaus to be the Stuna 
of a later geography, the Solvvay Firth would be 
reached at the end of the first summer's march, and 
the Clyde at the expiration of the second ; and con- 
sidering the effectual manner in which the work was 
done, this is a more rapid advance than we could have 
anticipated. 

More rapid also, I think, than Tacitus allows 
us to suppose. We learn that sometime, 
perhaps late, in the third year of his com- 
mand, being the second of this march, 
Agricola reached the Taus or Tanaus estuary, 
and fixed in the next, or third year of the 
same, his terminus awhile at the Clyde. The 
progress, however, is still ample for the time. 
The large enclosure, 140 yards by 120 
yards, near Muncaster, once supposed a 
Roman camp, is more recently believed to be 
the enceinte attached to a Roman villa for 
the custody of cattle, &c. On three sides it 
shows traces, tolerably continuous, of a 
rampart and fosse, the fourth being a steep 
slope towards the river Esk. It is adjacent 
to a ruin known as " Walls Castle," believed 
by Mr. Jackson to be the remains of the 
villa itself, "in a much more perfect con- 
dition than are to be found anywhere in 
England, if not in a wider district." Other 
local antiquaries, as he states, support him in 
this opinion. The description of the site 
itself, however, which is one of great interest, 
Celtic as well as Roman, I must defer for 
the present. 




* Transactions, &'c., p. 13. 



t /^. p. 18. 



^be Domeebai? of Colcbcster* 

By J. H. Round. 
PART III. 

HE KING'S MEAD. Of the 
King's lands, ten acres were meadow 
(de quibus sunt x prati). No entry 
in the Survey is of greater interest 
than this. For these very ten acres unite, 
on the page of Domesday, the remotest 
ages with our own. Annexed by the Crown 
to the Royal Castle, they were specially 
mentioned in its terriers, and, passing with 
the Castle into private hands, are annexed 
to this day to its possession.* They consist 
of three detached portionsf lying in what is 
still known as the King's Meadow. The 
meaning of the name, however, has long 
passed out of sight. But the point to be 
observed is that they are the shares of the 
common mead of the community which were 
owned by the King qua Lord, his acres being 
as strictly bounded as those of any other 
member. J It is this which gives them their 
peculiar interest. There was a " King's 
Mead" of eight acres at Canterbury, and 

* See Will of George Gray, Esq., M.P., of 
Colchester Castle (1781). He mentions his "ten 
acres in King's Meadow." 

t Though always known as the "ten acres," it is 
noteworthy that their true area is only 7a. 2r. 36p., 
and it is very remarkable that the proportion of these 
conventional "acres" to the modern acre is nearly 
constant. Thus, in the "three- acre piece," it is 750 ; 
in the "six-acre piece," it is '775 j and in "Parson's 
Acre," it is "800. If then these calculations can be 
relied on, the Domesday acre must have here been 
equivalent ^^to some | or |- of the modern one. 
Now, Mr. Eyton speaks with confidence of the 
Domesday acre being co-extensive with the modern 
one. He also asserts that any older Saxon measure- 
ments were based on a longer perch {Dorset Domesday, 
p. 30) . A shorter perch can only be accounted for by 
a survival of the (shorter) Roman foot, which makes 
this phenomenon significant at Colchester. The ex- 
tent, however, of these Domesday acres would be only 
about half-way between the English acre and the 
Roman. 

X One portion was known as Parson's Acre, pro- 
bably as belonging in yet earlier times to the Parson 
of the Village Community. (See Gomme's Index.) 

Ibi viii. acrse prati quae solebant esse legatorum 
regis, modo reddunt de censu xv. solidos. Domesday, 
i. 2. Larking {Domesday of Kent) identifies it with 
Kin^s Mead, close to the river in St. Stephen's Parish, 
See also Hasted's Kent (1800), xi. 5. 



^6 



THE DOMESDAY OF COLCHESTER. 



another at Oxford,* but that at Colchester 
stands alone as a relic of the Village Com- 
munity preserved to this day intact. 

The King's Wood. The existence of 
this district can only be glanced at, as it is not 
directly mentioned. The name of King's 
Wood lingers about it still, though its mean- 
ing is as forgotten as Kin^s. Meadow. It 
was always attached to Colchester, and was 
formed eventually into a straggling parish 
within the liberties of the Borough. 

The Queen's Land. 

Otto aurifaberiii. domus que jacent ad esceldeforde 
quas tenebat Alueua comitissa et reddebant consuetu- 
dinem regis et modo non reddunt et hoc est de terrd 
regina: (ii. io6). 

This entry, which appears somewhat un- 
meaning, is, in truth, full of information. 
Otho, the Conqueror's goldsmithf (a name 
here strangely preserved in that of " Gold- 
smidesfield,") possessed this property in 
right of the Manor of Shalford, which he held 
at ferm from the King. Now, the point to 
observe here is, that Otho had been specially 
provided for out of property which had be- 
longed T. R. E. to Earl ^Ifgar of Mercia, 
and, after the conquest, to Queen Matilda, 
reverting to William at her death (1083). 
This interesting fact is clear from an analysis 
of his possessions, Gestingthorp, which he 
held as a tenant-in-chief, | Finchingfield and 
Shalford, which he held at ferm,|| and 
Sudbury with Cornard (in Suffolk), which 
he held also at ferm, jointly with William 
the Chamberlain.^ Comparing these entries 

* *' Two Water Mylnes under the Castle of Oxon, 
with the Mede called the King's Mede." Rot. Pari., 
I H. VII. 

t He lived to work the shrine over his master's 
tomb, and left descendants of his own name who 
inherited his post of goldsmith. 

X Glestingethorp tenuit Comes Algar modo tenet 
Olto (ii. 98). 

Phincinghefeldam tenuit idem Algar T.R.E. 
Post regina. Modo idem Otto ad censum (ii. 4). 

II Celdefordam tenuit Comes Algar T.R.E. Postea 
tenuit Regina. Modo Otto aurifaber ad censum in 
manu regis (ii. 3) . . . . de hoc manerio deest 
XXX. acrze silvae quas regina dedit, &ca. &ca. This 
illustrates her power of alienation, a power which the 
Conqueror usually recognized. The pious Queen, in 
her love for the clergy, had bestowed many a fair 
manor on Gislebert the Priest, and Walter the 
Deacon, the latter, presumably the younger man, 
receiving the lion's share (ii. 87-98). 

II Terra Matris Morchari Comitis quam W. came- 
rarius et Otho aurifex servant in manu regis. Sutberie 



with that quoted at Colchester* we gather 
that ^Ifgifu, after the Earl's death (1062 ?), 
succeeded to these estates (it is to this 
that her holding " T.R.E." refers), but was 
evicted (if she survived the Conquest) for 
Matilda's benefit. For that she lived (as Mr. 
Freeman believes) to retain them, T.R.W. is 
rendered, by these entries, extremely doubt- 
ful.f 

It should be noticed that this was still 
" the Queen's Land " nearly fifty years after 
the day when Matilda was quick and dead. J ' 

The Bishop's Land. 

"In Colecestra habet episcopus xiiii domos et 
iiii acras non reddentes consuetudinem przeter scotum 
nisi episcopo. In Eadem tenet hugo de episcopo ii 
hidas et i acram et reddit consuetudinem" (ii. 11). 

Here are two properties, the Bishop's Fee, 
which is bodand and exempt from quit-rent, 
and the Bishop's Fields, which are gafol 
land, and pay quit-rent like the rest of the 
civiias. The former we are enabled to iden- 
tify by the thoughtful industry of Morant. 
The "two lanes" which, in 1206, bounded 

tenuit Mater Morchari Comitis T.R.E Cornier- 
dam tenuit mater Morchari Comitis T.R.E. (ii. 286b.) 

* Shalford is said to have been held by .(Elfgar, 
but the Shalford houses in Colchester by iElfgifu 
(Alueua). Of this very Shalford entry, Mr. Freeman 
observes that "pes tea can only mean after the con- 
fiscation of the sons of yElfgar" (v. 742). In this he 
is clearly wrong, for the Colchester entry incidentally 
proves that Shalford passed to iElfgar's widow, and 
not to his sons. Indeed, though it might naturally be 
guessed that the earl's lands would pass to his sons, 
we may safely infer, from the absence of their names, 
that none of these estates did so. 

t Mr. Freeman says (ist ed. ii. 658), "Her name 
appears in Domesday in a position which clearly 
shows that she survived the Conquest, and that she 
retained her lands, or parts of them, but that she was 
dead at the time of the Survey. But in the entries 
on which he relies (i. 231 b. ii. 286 b.), she is 
specially said to have held " T.R.E.," and not 
"postea" or " post adventum." The mere heading 
Terra Matris, &ca., proves no more ih.z.n ' Terra 
Stingandi (ii. 286) which, like it, appears in the 
Suffolk Terra Regis, and only refers to a holder 
T.R.E. Ellis {^Introduction, ii. 345), is altogether 
astray : "Alveva, the mother of Earl Mcrcar, con- 
tinued, at the time of the Surz>ey, to hold lands in the 
same county. So also in Suffolk." He has been 
even more misled by the Terra Matris formula. 

X She died 1083, and the Terra Regince at Col- 
chester occurs in the Pipe Roll of 1130. 

See note to his transcript of the Survey, " Unam 
sokam cum pertinentiis in Colecestra quae se extendit 
de venella Ste. Marie usque ad venellam juxta 
Havedgate, &ca." 



THE DOMESDAY OF COLCHESTER. 



97 



the four acres, bound them still to this day. 
The then Bishop sold them in that year, but 
retained the advowson of the Church in 
their midst, which right, with special privi- 
leges, preserved, at least to Morant's day, 
the tradition of the Domesday Record. This 
little district is proved by his researches to 
have formed a distinct franchise, with a curia 
parva hundredi of its own.* Its subsequent 
name of the Haymsokne greatly needs ex- 
planation.f I have not called it a Soke in 1086, 
because it cannot be proved such from the 
Survey. But it must probably have been one 
already. It certainly was so at Leicester,^ 
but at Chester the case is doubtful. The 
term habet should be noticed here, and also 
the exemption from consuetiido. But the 
Bishop's men, as at Chester,|| " scotted" with 
the rest. 

Tumipg to the Bishop's Fields, of which 
Hugh was the under-tenant, Tf their position 
seems marked by that of the parish of the 
Bishop's Church of St. Mary, which, to the 
west and south-west, stretches out into the 
country. It is interesting to observe that, 
on this hypothesis, the church must have 
been provided by the bishops for the spiritual 
need of their tenants. The peculiar shape 
of the parish would thus be instructively 
accounted for. 

The entry : "Willielmus nepos episcopi II. 
domus quas tenebat thurkill" (ii. 106), may 
perhaps illustrate a remark of Mr. Freeman.** 
The then Bishop was Maurice, the builder 
of St. Paul's, but he had not yet been con- 
secrated. 

* Unam sokam] vocatam Haymsokne .... et in 
eadem tenet curiam suam de tribus septimanis in tres 
septimanas &ca. (10 Ed. II.) It occurs as the " soca 
jac, in Havedstrete" as late as 6 H. viii. 

t ^' Handsoca or Hamsoam occurs but once in 
Domesday. It was a breach of the peace in a man's 
house." {Iniroduciion ii. 2~So.) How were the words 
connected ? 

J Domesday, i. 330. 

In burgo episcopi {Domesday, i. 263.) 

II Hse geldabant cum civitate. lb. At Leicester 
this was not so till 1281 (Thompson Munic. Ant., 
p. 68) ; see also i. 152 {bis) 336. On identity of scot 
with geld here, see " Finance." 

IT Possibly the under-tenant of Ockendon, " Mode 
tenet Hugo de Episcopo" (ii. 11). 

** We trace out .... recorded no less faithfully 
the nepotism of the Bishop who made a maintenance 
for his kinsfolk out of the estates of the church 
entrusted to him" (v. 44). 



The Common Land. 

In commune burgensium iiiixx. acrae terras ; et circa 
murum viii. percse. de quo toto per annum habent 
burgenses Ix solidos ad servitium regis si opus fuerit. 
sin autem, in commune dividimt (ii. 107) 

This entry sparkles with information, some 
of it of unique value. First, as to the 
commune burgensium (for Ellis, as the con- 
struction shows, is right in taking them 
together). The famous term commune^ ac- 
cording to Mr. Freeman (v. 469), appears 
first in 1 140, but he probably alludes to the 
French, and not to the Latin form. The 
latter, which is used in this sense here alone 
in the Survey, clearly denotes the (later) 
Commonalty, the aggregate of full burgesses. 
These, as I have shown in a previous article,* 
were only a minority of the townsmen. 

Secondly, as to the land. The eighty acres of 
arable {terrce) were undoubtedly identical with 
the Borough Field (or Fields) lying on the 
Lexden Road.f But the mention of the 
" eight perches" has led me to a singular dis- 
covery. Around the north-eastern angle of 
the walls there can still be traced on the 
Ordnance Map the remains of an external 
rampart J Now the outer face of this ram- 
part is Just eight perches from that of the town 
wall. Thus this seemingly arbitrary limit is 
simply that of the Roman mound and ditch. 
Hence in Domesday we find the proof that 
this rampart originally extended round the 
whole of the curtain.|| 

* Archaic Tenure in Domesday (v. 104). 

+ Morant's Colchester, passim. 

+ This rampart has never been assigned to the 
Romans, but see Antiquary, iv. 275, for discovery of 
a similar ditch and rampart round the Roman Bonna 
(Bonn). I find that at Colchester they were fifty per 
cent, wider, and it is singular that the line of walls 
was fifty per cent, longer. Yet even round the rela* 
tively--small station of the Saalburg these external de- 
fences were seventy feet wide [Macfnillan's, June, 
1882). Compare Vegetius, Deire mi/itari {lib. iv.)., 
"Fossae autem ante urbes altissimje latissimaeque 
faciendae sunt." 

Compare the right of pasture over the grassy 
baulks of the common fields. In this space Mr. Coote 
would probably detect the Pomccriuvt {Romans in 
Britain, 349, 361). But as to the retention of the 
Roman name, he forgets that the word was employed 
by the Norrtians " x acras terrae ad faciendum pomg- 
rium." Domesday, i. 280. .^.'^i^ 

II Dr. Duncan (in his article on the Colchester 
CloAca) spoke of " the broad fosse which characterizes 
the defences of Colchester towards the north-east.' 
But we now see that it surrounded the town. 



9 



THE DOMESDA Y OF COLCHESTER. 



Thirdly, as to the payment. The extent 
of the whole land being about one hundred 
acres, these sixty shillings would be many times 
its annual value. Why was this, and why 
was the payment optional {si opus fuerit) ? 
Nay, why was it paid for at all, if it was 
common land? So strangely few are the 
common lands assigned in Domesday to 
Boroughs,* that the only clear case we can 
find to compare with that at Colchester is 
Port Meadow at Oxford {pasturam reddenteni 
vi. solides et viii. denarios). But this throws 
little light on these difficult questions. The 
optional clause should be specially noticed as 
anticipating in some sort the later auxilium 
or donum. But though not always presented 
to the Crown, the sixty shillings were always 
forthcoming, for they were in that case di- 
vided among the commune.\ Could this 
ground have been leased out by them,J and 
if so, why was the rent so high ? In any 

* We have noticed under " Lexden," Mr. Free- 
man's haste to assume the existence of common lands. 
He also finds them that at Stamford (iv. 2l6), Exeter, 
and Lincoln (iv. i lo). But neither at Stamford nor at 
Exeter are they entered as held in common, while at 
Lincoln they are proved to have been held in several. 
Again at Norwich he translates hcec terra burgensium 
as "the common land of the English burghers," but 
as we find, in the same sentence, " omnes terrse istae 
iam militum qtiam Intrgensium^^ it is seen to mean 
the land held by burgesses as against the land held by 
knights. So too the entry Terra Burgensium de Bede- 
ford (i. 218) heads a long list of small holders in 
several. The source of this confusion lies in the 
fact that the Norman officers looked on tenure in 
several as the normal condition, and on tenure in 
common as the exception. Hence their extreme care 
in specifying the latter. So " Omnes burgenses 
Oxeneford habent communiter," &c. Where burgenses 
is not qualified, we must not assume tenure in common. 
This mistake, however, has been systematically made. 
Thus, at Colchester, the entry " Eudo Dapifer v. dom 
et xl. acras terrse quas tenebant Burgenses" should 
clearly be rendered " held by Burgesses," not " held 
by the Burgesses," or at Maldon close by, " habet rex 
clxxx domos qtias tenent Burgenses^ obviously means 
" are held by Burgesses." So too at Norwich, "bur- 
genses tenebant xv. ecclesias" (ii. 1 16 b.) "tenent 
burgenses xliii capellas" (ii. 117). These could ob- 
viously not have been held " in common." 

+ As the proceeds of the commuted rights of com- 
mon are to this day among the free burgesses {Ac- 
counts and Papers, 1870, vol. Iv. p. 9). 

+ As the corporate estate at Mile End still is by 
the Corporation. 

Have we not here a hint of the reason why un- 
doubted common-land is so rarely assigned in Domes- 
day to boroughs viz., that (as I suggested in Archaic 
Tenure, ANTIQUARY, v. 106) "tenure in several had 



case this corporate action is of the greatest 
historical importance. 

Mr. Freeman, in his William Rufus (ii. 
464-5), alludes to this common land in a 
passage so curiously full of errors, that it is 
impossible to pass it by unnoticed, especially 
as such weight is justly attached to the dicta 
of this eminent historian : 

Eudo ruled the town with great justice and mercy, 
relieving the inhabitants from their heavy burdens, 
seemingly by the process of taking to himself a large 
amount of confiscated land, and paying the taxes laid 
upon the town out of it. " Teiras damnatorum, , . . . 
dum nemo coleret, exigebantur tamen plcnaliter 
fiscalia, et hac de causa populus valdfe gravabatur. 
Has ei-go terras Eudo sibi vindicavit, ut pro his fisco 
satisfaceret et populum edtenus alleviaret."* 

The sense of the Latin is here clear and 
definite, and though it cannot be brought 
into agreement with the above rendering, it 
does agree perfectly with the elementary fact 
that lands vastce (or out of cultivation) were 
often excused from paying geld, and that its 
payment in such a case was deemed a hard- 
ship. This explains the whole story. Certain 
lands at Colchester, deserted by their owners, 
had fallen out of cultivation, but the Exche- 
quer insisted on the town still paying its geld 
in full (j>lejialiter).-\ Eudo, by taking these 
lands into cultivation, made himself respon- 
sible for the geld due from them {pro his), and 
relieved to that extent {eatenus) the towns- 
men, who had to make good the defi- 
ciency. But Mr. Freeman, having arrived at 
the strange conclusion that Eudo is repre- 
sented as devoting the actual proceeds of 
these lands to ^' paying the taxes laid upon 
the town," unluckily attempts to rationalize 
the story, and plunges deeper into trouble : 

The latter part of the story seems to be a confu- 
sion or perversion of an entry in Domesday (ii. 106), 

been growing up on the town-fields," through leases 
from the community to individuals ? This would 
explain such cases as Lincoln. In this, again, Col- 
chester was behindhand. 

* This extract is from the Chronicle of St. John, 
in the Monasticon, and the italics are my own. 

+ This was a grievance of which we find burgesses 
constantly complaining. There is a good Domesday 
instance at Shrewsbury, where the full geld was still 
exacted, though there were far fewer to pay it. As 
Mr. Eyton well expresses it, "a reduced number of 
contributors had to make good the same total of taxa- 
tion as had been formerly borne by many" {Dorset 
Domesday, p. 72). 



THE DOMESDAY OF COLCHESTER, 



99 



which rather reads as if Eudo had become possessor, 
and that in the time of the elder William, of the 
common land of the burgesses. " Eudo dapifer v. 
denarios (!) & xl. acras terrse quas tenebant burgenses 
T.R.E. et reddebant omnem consuetudinem burgen- 
sium. Modo non reddunt nisi de suis capitibus." 
This looks as if the burgesses had hitherto paid the 
royal dues out of their corporate estate, but that 
when that estate passed to Eudo a poll-tax had to 
be levied to defray them. 

On this unfortunate suggestion I would 
observe (i) that, by an incomprehensible 
error, "d." {domus) is rendered denarios; 
(2) that the " common land of the burgesses" 
was (as Mr. Freeman observed in 1876) still 
in their possession,* and had nothing to do 
with these " 5 houses and 40 acres ;" (3) 
that tenebant burgenses merely means (as 
shown in my note), "were held by bur- 
gesses" (not by " the burgesses") ; (4) that 
Mr. Freeman here confuses the seignorial 
dues {consuetudo) with the national " geld" 
{fiscalid)) (5) that the consuetudo is distinctly 
stated to have been always paid by the 
householders severally, and not out of any 
'* corporate estate f (6) that, like other 
Norman grantees, Eudo is here recorded to 
have shirked paying over this consuetudo; 
(7) that the meaning of this entry is thus 
perfectly clear viz., that the tenants of these 
houses had formerly paid the full burgage- 
dues (omnem cojisuetudinem hiirgensiuni) but 
that they now only paid the portion levied 
by poll-tax. t In most cases, the king had 
even been defrauded of this portion of his 
dues as well. 

Not only, therefore, is Mr. Freeman's 
theory shown to be utterly untenable,'but also 
the illustrative value of the passage, when 
we substitute its correct interpretation, proves 
the advantage of that minute analysis for 
which I contended at the outset. 

'jurisdiction, as is well known, was prized 
chiefly for its profit*. Crime and vice were 
charged for by a tariff, calculated with exqui- 
site nicety,! and the town which had secured 
for its sons economical indulgence in these 
luxuries, set forth with jealous care the record 

* See above. 

+ The distinction between this portion of the con- 
suetudo and the rest is illustrated by the case of 
Hamo's burgesses, "ad hue reddunt Burgenses de 
mis capitibus .... sed de ten a sud .... non est 
leddita consuetudo." 

X Adulterium vel raptum faciens viii. s. et iv. d. 
emendat homo et femina tantundem (i. 26). 



of its proud privilege. But at Colchester, as 
was observed by Mr. Freeman, we miss this 
instructive record. Its burgesses were the 
king's men, and therefore in the king's soca. 
That is all we know. But to one medial 
holder in Colchester the right of jurisdiction 
over his tenants had been granted by the 
Crown.* And here the character of their 
tenure must be explained. 

Every house was "held" subject to the 
consuetudo, or quit-rent, payable to the King 
quA Lord. When a house was "granted" to 
a medial owner, he received from its tenant 
the full rent, and having paid out of it the 
consuetudo, kept the balance for himself. Of 
course, his great object was to obtain a remis- 
sion of this quit-rent, and thus to become 
full owner. f This favour, as we have seen, 
the bishops had obtained, f Per contra, the 
thegn Thurbern had obtained the privilege of 
jurisdiction, but not (save for his own hall) 
of exemption from quit-rent. 

Hamo dapifer i. domum et i. curiatim et hidam 
terrse et xv. burgenses et hoc tenuit antecessor suus 
Thurbern, T.R.E. Et hoc totum prceter sitani aulam\ 
reddebat consuetudinem, T.R.E., et adhuc reddunt 
burgenses de suis capitibus. 

It should be noticed that while all others 
appear as holding houses, Thurbern held 
burgesses,*^ as having power over their per- 
sons {i.e., jurisdiction). His rights had passed 
intact to Hamo,** including his so-called 

* Sometimes the king thought fit to grant some 
part of a city or town to a private owner or to a re- 
ligious house" (Larking, Domesday of Kent,^, 179). 

+ This privilege the Norman grantees had usurped 
on every side (Domesday ^ passim). 

X Whether they also obtained the jurisdiction is, 
as we have seen, doubtful. Perhaps habet favours it. 

So at Ipswich, "habuit stigandus ii. burgenses, 
T.R.E., cum saca et soca, et Rex habebat consuetudi- 
nem" (ii. 289). 

II So at Lincoln, " Tochi filius o uti habuit in civitate 
XXX. mansiones prreter suam hallam . . . . et suam 
hallam habuit quietam abjomni consuetudine" (Domes- 
day, i. 336). 

^ Their terra sua was apparently held by them (as 
terra bttrgensium) from the K'ing, but the hide from 
Hamo. It illustrates the slovenly analysis of Domes- 
day, that the Colchester burgess belonging to Riven- 
hall Manor has been overlooked in the official index, 
and that Ellis, on discovering him, adds, "he is no 
doubt included in the fifteen burgesses entered as be- 
longing to Earl Eustace in the account of Colchester 
itself "(!). (Introduction, ii. 441.) 

** Son of Hamo Dentatus, the Conqueror's early 
foe. Strange to find him by his fellow dapifer, the 
son of the Conqueror's preserver ! 



lOO 



THE DOMESDAY OF COLCHESTER. 




curia, which puzzled Mr. Freeman sorely.* 
I venture, quite apart from "local know- 
ledge," to suggest that we must clearly take 
it, not as referring to Hamo's mansion, but to 
the jurisdiction which he alone enjoyed. f 
For, from the mention of the dovius before 
the curia, I gather that the former was the 
mansion referred to as sua aula.X 

{To be continued.^ 

accounts of Ibenri^ W* 

By Sir J. H. Ramsay, Bart. 

HE investigation of these accounts 
yields results no less interesting 
than those that attended our 
examinations of the accounts of 
previous reigns ; in some respects the reve- 
lations are more surprising than any yet 
made. The analysis of the accounts does 
not raise our estimate of Henry's ability, 
but it bears witness to his honesty, and 
on the whole raises a feeling of pity, if not 
of sympathy, for his case. The accounts 
show that a little prudent economy in the 
first years of his reign might have saved the 
quarrel with the Percies, and given, perhaps, 
a different complexion to the rest of his life. 
The unfortunate profusion, which was at- 
tended with such painful results, does not 
appear to have been caused by vicious or 
wanton extravagance, but merely by igno- 
rance or carelessness. Even in private life, a 
man of small means coming suddenly into 
a large estate is apt to be bewildered ; he 
cannot judge what is or what is not a 

* "An entry of special interest, which I trust will 
be thoroughly explained by some one who has local 
knowledge. Hamo besides a house had a airia, a 
rare word, whose use here I do not fully understand." 
Arch, yourn., xxxiv. 68. 

t " Curia, which occasionally seems to have im- 
plied the court or manor-house only of the lord, in 
one or two entries appears to have the more imme- 
diate reference to manorial jurisdiction." {^Introduc- 
tion, ii. 234.) But we have direct and far stronger 
evidence in the "Laws of Edward the Confessor" 
(ix.). "Barones autem qui curias suas habent de 
hominibus suis j" and in the Assize of Clarendon (5). 
" Et illis qui capti fuerint .... nuUus habeat 
curiam" &c. &c. 

J So at Maldon. "In Melduna habet Rex 
i, domw?t , . . . de halla regis semper exeunt ii. 
solidi et viii. denarii" (ii. 5b). 



reasonable allowance for a given department. 
Henry had been in the enjoyment of a large 
fortune before, but the rise from the largest 
baronial fortune to the command of the re- 
venues of England was enormous. Henry 
had risen by a sudden revolution ; he was 
overwhelmed with business ; he was sur- 
rounded with dangers ; he had to be careful ' 
of making enemies; he found an extrava- 
gant system of housekeeping, established by 
Richard II. Under all the circumstances, 
it is not to be wondered at that he did not 
at once effect the necessary reductions. He 
_cannot, however, be acquitted of all blame in 
the matter; and an able man would have seen 
the absolute necessity of having money in 
hand for the defence of the realm. Anyhow, 
the consequences to himself were lamentable. 
Want of means to repay the money expended 
by the Percies, in their operations against the 
Welsh and Scots, led to the battle of Shrews- 
bury and the death of the popular hero, 
Hotspur a grievous blow to the king's 
popularity. Hotspur's rising led to that of 
Archbishop Scrope, whose execution gave 
deadly. offence to churchmen. The illness 
that from that time clouded Henry's life was 
always pointed at as a visible judgment on 
his impiety. Scrope's execution was followed 
by a Bloody Assize in the North ; and the 
last desperate effort of the old Earl of 
Northumberland, in 1408, led to further 
bloodshed. Henry's throne was safe but 
all his enjoyment in life was gone. 

The receipts and expenditure of the reign 
correspond so nearly in the terms for which 
both Rolls are available, that I have not 
thought it necessaiy to print the totals both 
of the receipts and issues. In one or two 
cases, where there was a Receipt Roll but no 
Issue Roll, I have given the total of the 
Receipt Roll as indicating the probable 
amount of the expenditure for the same 
term, and I have pointed out in the notes 
the cases of substantial difference between 
the receipts and the expenditure. Thus, in 
Michaelmas Term, in the fifth year, we have 
the receipts given as ;^ 65,7 70 5^-. td., as 
against an apparent expenditure of about 
.;^54j368 ; in Michaelmas, in the ninth 
year, the total receipts are given as 
.p^9>399 i7-$"- 9^-> ^s against a stated ex- 
penditure of ;a"5 3,367 5^. i\d. ) but this Roll 



ACCOUNTS OF HENRY IV. 



lOI 



ends with the 28th of November, so that the 
account must be incomplete. Again, in the 
ensuing term, Easter 9, we have the receipts 
given as ;^49,36o 17^. 2d., as against an 
apparent expenditure of about ;^4i,soo. 
On the other hand, in Easter Term in the 
eighth year, the expenditure exceeds the 
income by ;^2,7oo. On many of the 
rolls no totals whatever are given. The 
labour of adding these Rolls is so great, 
that I have not been able to present the 
reader with as complete a table as I could 
wish. I have noted with an asterisk 
those totals which are given either at the 
foot as in a properly made up Roll or on 
the margin. 

Taking the expenditure at the highest, it 
only comes to about ;^53,ooo the term, or 
;^i 06,000 a year; the fir^t half of the reign 
being above, and the latter half below, the 
average. The receipts may be taken to have 
been the same. The highest figures are those 
of the fourth year, which exceed ;^i35,ooo, 
and of the ninth year, which probably reached 
;^i 40,000 ; the lowest, those of the twelfth 
year, which are under ^81,000. 

The income of the Lancaster estates, how- 
ever, should be added, not as part of the 
strict public revenue, but of the funds which 
the king had at his disposal, the distinction 
between the two being more nominal than 
real. 

The Lancaster revenues do not appear 
on the Pell Rolls ; separate accounts were 
kept of them. From these Lancaster 
accounts in the Record Ofiice, we learn that 
all the possessions' of Henry IV. that 
were his before his accession yielded, for the 
year from the 2nd of February, 1 399, to the 
2nd of February, 1400, ^^4,770 4s. 2,d., includ- 
ing p^i20 of arrears. For the next year, to 
the 2nd February, 1401, the receipts fall to 
;^a,643 ^s. ?>\d. This, of course was due to 
Owen *' Glyndwr." The receivership of 
Monmouth and Kidwelly, which in the first of 
the above years was good for about ;)^i,3oo, 
in the second year yields "/7;" the coun- 
ties of Lancashire and Cheshire are repre- 
sented by the same entry, "//,-" so are 
the castles of Pontefract and Tutbury. In 
subsequent years the returns appear to have 
varied from -^^2,200 to ^^2,600 in round 
numbers. Like the royal revenue, the Lan- 



caster estates had their establishments and 
pensions to maintain : the latter amounted 
to over .:^5oo a year. 

An account of the receipts of the Duchy of 
Lancaster for one year, from Oct. i, 1397, 
with arrears and all, comes tO;^2,333 4^, 2\d. ; 
these were the possessions of John of 
Gaunt ; the difference between that sum and 
the ;^4,77o 45. 8d. above given for 'all 
the possessions' of Henry IV. will represent 
the value of the Hereford and Northampton 
estates Henry received with his wife. Even 
with his private possessions it will be seen 
that Henry's revenues were considerably below 
those of his predecessor, which averaged, 
perhaps, ;^i4i,ooo a year or at any rate, 
p^ 13 1,000 a year. This falling oif was not 
due to any action of Parliament. Henry 
apparently received more grants than Richard 
had done, in proportion to the length of his 
reign. In Richard's reign of twenty-two 
years, we made out 13 J lay subsidies;) 12 
Canterbury subsidies; and 10 York sub- 
sidies ; besides the two poll-taxes which 
affected both clergy and laity, and one 
special grant of i^. 4^. on the 13^-. 4d. 
from the clergy. In Henry's reign of 
thirteen and a half years, I make out 
8 lay subsidies, with one grant of is. on 
the ;i of land, and one of 6s. Sd. on the 
;;i^20 of land ; from the Convocation of Can- 
terbury I make out 10 or 10^ subsidies, 
with two minor grants; and from York 
6 1 subsidies, with one minor grant. Leav- 
ing out the special grants, of the amount 
of which I can offer no trustworthy estimate, 
if we take the lay subsidy at ;^38,ooo, 
the Canterbury subsidy at ;^ 16,000, and 
the York subsidy at ;!^4,ooo,* we shall 
get a gross total of ;j^49o,oooas the proceeds 
of the direct Parliamentary grants, making 
an average of over ;!^36,ooo for each year. 
If on the average of three years we could 
take the customs as yielding ^^50,000^ one 
year with another, we should get more than 
;^86,ooo a-year derived from Parliamentary 
taxation, out of a total income which may 
be safely taken as under ;("i 10,000 on the 
average. 

This shows how completely dependent 

* See the figures taken from the Taxatio, Stubbs, 
ii. 550. I give them roughly. 



102 



ACCOUNTS OF HENRY IV. 



the Crown now was on Parliament and Con- 
vocation. 

The receipts from the Old Crown Reve- 
nues of the first year were probably above the 
average, being swelled by the large forfeitures 
incurred by Richard's friends. The clerical 
tenth appears during the reign to have yielded 
the amount at which we estimated it in pre- 
vious reigns namely, ;^2 0,000 in round 
numbers. The lay subsidy, however a 
fifteenth from the counties and a tenth from 
the boroughs appears to have yielded more 
than before. A minute of the Privy Council, 
based on the collectors' accounts of the sixth, 
eighth, and ninth years, gives the amount of 
a half-subsidy as ;^ 18,962, &c. ; and another 
minute gives the amount of a whole subsidy 
as something over ;;^36,ooo.* These esti- 
mates are fully corroborated by the Receipt 
Rolls ; the produce of a half-subsidy in the 
second year appears as exceeding ;!^i 9,000. 

The customs, or, to speak properly, the 
wool duties, were still the backbone of the 
revenue ; it will be seen that in the first year 
they furnished ;^53,8oo out of a total reve- 
nue of ;^io8,ooo. In the second year of 
Richard II. we found that the general cus- 
toms, or "tunnage and poundage," only 
yielded ;^3,7oo out of a total of ^52,200 : 
during Henry's reign the proportion appears 
to have been something similar : in the first 
year the proportion assignable to the general 
customs was even less, as the collection of 
those dues were suspended by Henry for a 
time, as an act of grace. In the second year 
of the reign the receipts from all the customs 
rose to ;:^63,5oo, and the entire revenue to 
;^i 28,400; in the twelvemonth from April 2, 
1 410, to March 23, 1411, the customs fell 
to ;^4o,6oo, and the entire revenue to 
^83,600. 

This falling off in the customs was doubt- 
less due to the privateering for which Henry 
was responsible through his neglect of the 
navy. In 1406 the evil was so pressing that 
Parliament made over for a time the keeping 
of the sea to a body of merchants, who were 
t6 receive tunnage and poundage, and a 
fourth of the wool duties, f 

Throughout the reign the wool duties were 

* Proceedings, &c., P. Council, H. Nicholas, i. 
345, il. 107. 
t See Rot. Pari. iii. 569 ; Fcedera, viii. 437. 



granted by Parliament at the same rates 
viz., soi". the sack of wool and 240 wool- 
fells from natives ; and 6oj. from aliens ; the 
duty on the * last' of leather being in each 
case double. From Easter, 1 401, to Easter, 
1403, tunnage and poundage were levied at 
2S. and 2>d. respectively; during the rest of 
the reign the rates were y. and xs. 

Of the Issues as given in our table of the 
fourth year, the striking feature clearly is the 
amount of the household expenditure. Our 
classification includes four heads namely, 
Wardrobe, or Household proper ; Great 
Wardrobe ; Private Wardrobe; and Chamber, 
or Privy Purse ; in the Easter Term we have 
a fifth head in the Queen's Privy Purse. The 
entries on the rolls under these several heads 
make up the enormous total of ;^,59,oio; 
and that out of a total expenditure of 
^135,300. In the fourty-fourth year of 
Edward III. (October, 1369 September, 
1370) the amount was _;^ 2 5,600 on an ap- 
parent total expenditure of ;^i49,ooo. In 
the twenty-first year of Richard II. (1397- 
1398) the year of Haxey's remonstrance 
the total was ;^45,ooo on an apparent ex- 
penditure of ;^i39,ooo. Now for the fourth 
year of Henry IV. we possess full detailed 
accounts for two heads ' Wardrobe of the 
Household' and ' Great Wardrobe ;' and I 
must state at once that they do not exhibit 
amounts as large as I make them from the 
Pell Rolls. The accounts of the 'Ward- 
robe of the Household,' per Thomas More, 
Keeper, show only jQ^^^ooo drawn from the 
Treasury for the year, where I make out 
p^27,4oo. But besides the payments through 
Thomas More we have a concurrent set of 
payments for household expenditure made 
through Thomas Tuttebury, one of which, 
amounting to ;!^382, may be seen in Mr. 
Devon's extracts, p. 297. These may ac- 
count for the difference between the two 
above totals. 

With respect to the Great Wardrobe, it 
will be seen that I make the drawings in the 
Easter Term alone over ^8,900. The draw- 
ings in the Michaelmas Term were unfor- 
tunately not taken out separately, so that I 
cannot give the total for the year apparent 
on the Rolls ; but the special account of 
William Loveney, Clerk of the Great Ward- 
robe, gives the total drawn from the Treasury 



ACCOUNTS OF HENRY IV. 



103 



as about ^10,000. As I cannot allege any 
second set of payments under this head, that 
amount must be accepted. I did not know of 
this account till after I had made my analysis 
of the Michaelmas Term, or I should have 
taken out the details of the Great Wardrobe 
payments for the sake of comparison. Lastly, 
my table must be rectified by withdrawing 
the " Private Wardrobe" altogether from the 
head of personal expenditure : it was an 
account for arms kept at the Tower, and 
therefore ought to be allowed as military ex- 
penditure. Again, it is unfortunate that I 
did not take out these items in both terms ; 
but doubling the items given in the Easter 
Term, we should get ^3,100. The pay- 
ments on account of the Queen's Purse, 
which are only for half a year, are probably 
correct, although the amount 'assigned' 
to her by the King was 10,000 marks 
(^6,666 13^. 4^.).* The ' Chamber' may be 
fairly assumed as ^^4,000, that amount (the 
same as in Richard's time), having been 
assigned by Henry by a writ of his third 
year ; the amount may have been more, but 
certainly not less. If, then, we were to give 
Henry the benefit of every doubt, and to 
charge him only with the sums which appear 
in the detailed accounts, the corrected 
account might stand as follows : 

Household, per More and Tuttebury, say ^27,000 

Great Wardrobe lo,cxx) 

Chamber 4,000 

Queen's Purse . . . ' 1,087 

;^42,o87 

But then the receipts for the year would 
have to be reduced also by some p^" 14, 000, 
or the balance between them and the 
Issues would be destroyed ; the Household 
expenditure would then stand as ;^42,ooo on 
;^i2i,ooo. But I am satisfied that these 
figures are too low, and that there were 
numerous payments for arrears or sundries 
that did not pass either through the Great 
Wardrobe or 'Wardrobe of Household,' as 
in this very year a sum of ;^i6o, if I re- 
member right, for gilding a chariot for the 
king's younger daughter, the Lady Philippa. 
The systematic erasures and interlineations 
on the Pell Rolls, of which I have not yet 

* Devon Issues, 300, and Issue Rolls, passim. 



found the interpretation, may account for 
some inflation of figures, but I fully believe 
that Henry's household expenditure for this 
year was over;;^5o,ooo. Whatever the total, 
however, we have yet to add the income of 
the private estates, which were wholly spent 
on the king and his family. 

No wonder that Hotspur felt indignant at 
the thought of the ^20,000 due to him for 
the pay of soldiers employed against the 
Welsh and Scots ; no wonder that the next 
Parliament insisted on reductions. It must be 
stated, however, that the household expendi- 
ture of this year exceeded that of any other 
year of the reign. Thus, the amount drawn 
for the Great Wardrobe in the previous years 
had been ^^7,000 and ;^8,ooo ; in the fifth 
year it dropped to ;^ 3, 46 9 ; in the sixth year 
it was ;!^4,7o7, &c. So the 'Wardrobe of 
Household' accounts for the eleventh year, 
the only other year for which household 
accounts have been preserved, show drawings 
to the amount of ;;^i 9,860, &c., including 
the ' Foreign Receipts.' These were certain 
casual sources of income, from the King's 
* prisage,' and the like, which were not paid 
into the Treasury. The ;^25,ooo above 
given as the amount drawn in the fourth year 
from the Treasury was exclusive of these. In 
that year they amounted to ^1,936 ^s. <,\d. 
a further addition to be made to the house- 
hold expenditure of the year. In the 
eleventh year the ;^ 19,860 was all spent, and 
apparently some ^1,873 besides. 

The various Wardrobe accounts give inte- 
resting illustrations of the social life of the 
time. The Great Wardrobe was primarily a 
depot of clothing for the use of the king, his 
family, and household. It was established in 
buildings of its own, close to Baynard's 
Castle, near Blackfriars. The rent of some 
shops and spare tenements connected 
with these buildings formed part of the 
' Foreign Receipts' of the Great Wardrobe. 
Besides clothing, this department also pro- 
vided and took charge of the king's personal 
armour for war or tilting, saddlery, harness, 
appliances for hawking, furniture, tents, and 
pavilions for use on the King's journeys, 
with the requisite "poles," "stakes," and 
"^ pornels ;" also the cost of transporting the 
same from place to place. 

Sundry items for the King's marriage 



104 



ACCOUNTS OF HENRY IV. 



appear in the Great Wardrobe accounts of 
the fourth year. We have a satin bed pro- 
vided for the queen, and a canopy, or set 
of hangings of pink and pale blue satin {aula 
rubeo de satyn et blodio pallido) ; also, there is 
an item of i,ooo ostrich plumes at 8^, each, 
with a label inscribed "pH ^onhrHine." 

The 'Wardrobe of Household' accounts 
give an exact itinerary of the Court for the 
period covered. The daily expenditure at 
each place is given under certain regular 
heads namely. Dispensary, Butlery, Ward- 
robe, Kitchen, Poultry, Scullery, Salsery, 
Hall and Chamber, Stables, Wages, Alms; 
the grand total of the day being also given. 



Beginning with September 30, 1402, the 
accounts of Thomas More show an expendi- 
ture varying from ;^3oo tO;j^5oo a week, 
down to Christmas week, when the total is 
;^683. The totals then sink till we come to 
the week of the king's marriage (February 
4-10, 1403), when the amount springs up to 
;^i,i57 ; then, again, we have ^^500 till we 
come to the week of the queen's coronation, 
when the amount is ^^1,344 ; all items rise 
on that day, except Alms, which remain at a 
fixed 4^. a day ! Wine comes to ;^iii, as 
against ;^ 1 7 on the corresponding day of the 
previous week ; poultry takes ^^105 against 
385. before. When the king was moving 



Table I. Issues : Henry IV. 
From the Pell and Auditors' Rolls. 



Terra. 



Mich. 
Easter 

Mich. 
Easter 

Mich. 
Easter 

Mich. 
Easter 

Mich. 
Easter 

Mich. 

Easter 

Mich. 
Easter 

Mich. 
Easter 

Mich. 
Easter 

Mich. 
Easter 

Mich. 
Easter 

Mich, 

Easter 
Mich. 

Easter 
Mich. 



Reignal 
Year. 



I 

2 

3 

4 

_5 

6 

7 
8 

9 
10 
II 
12 

13 
14 



Duration of Term. 



Friday, October 3, 1399 Wednesday, April 7, 14CO 

Monday, May 3 Monday, September 27, 1400 

Friday, October i, 1400 Saturday, March 26, 1401 

No Issue Roll on either side (Receipts April 12 September 2, 

1401, 71,244 Ss.4id. 

Monday, October 3, 1401 Tuesday, March 14, 1402 

Tuesday, April 4 Wednesday, September 27, 1402, aboutf 

Monday, October 2, 1402 Monday, March 26, 1403 (Auditor's Roll) 

Monday, April 23 Tuesday, September 4, 1403 - 

Tuesday, October 9, 1403 Thursday, March 6, 1404! 

No Pell Roll Auditor's Roll incomplete. Receipt Rolls also 

defective 
Friday, October 3, 1404 Friday, March 27, 1405. No totals on 

Pell, and no Auditor's Roll. About 

Not a total on either Roll. Receipts, May i ^July 20, about ;^5 1,083 

Saturday, October 3, 1405 Friday, March 26, 1406 

Tuesday, April 20 Saturday, August 14, 1406 

Thursday, October 7, 1406 Wednesday, March 9, 1407 

Friday, April 22 Monday, July 18, 1407 

Monday, October 3 Monday, November 28, 1407! 

Wednesday, April 25 Monday, September 10, 1408II 

Tuesday, October 9, 1408 Saturday, March 9, 1409 

Saturday, April 20? (Roll damaged) Tuesday, July 16, 1409 

Thursday, October 3, 1409 Thursday, March 20, 1410 

Wednesday, April 2 Saturday, September 27, 1410 

Tuesday, October 14, 1410 Monday, March 23, 1411 (Auditor's 

Roll) 

Monday, April 26 Friday, September 25, 141 1 

Tuesday, October 13, 141 1 Friday, February 26, 1412 

No Roll on either side. No Receipt Rolls either 
Monday, October 3, 1412 Monday, March 20, 1413 



Amount, 



s. 

*66,885 16 
*42,70o 15 
*57,2i6 17 


d. 
8i 
oh 
9 


*67,i24 18 

59,100 

*73,4i8 7 

*6i,986 9 

54,368 II 


I 



oh 


2k 



58,049 o o 



42,671 19 


24 


40,051 14 


2 


46,118 13 





*5o,79o 15 


64 


*53,367 5 


74 


41,515 3 


"4 


*65,73i 14 


2 


*42,552 5 


I 


43,134 6 


2 


47,870 12 


II 


35,851 12 


7h 


44,986 


U 


29,978 13 


5i 


44,509 18 


10 



+ Not added, some items doubtful. J Total of receipts, ^^65, 770 Ss. 6d. 

The Roll for this term must have been kept in two parts, of which only the first part has been preserved; 
the Receipt Roll was in two parts, both of which are forthcoming, and the grand total at the end of the second 
part is^*90,399 17^. gd. \\ Total of receipts ;^*49,36o 17^. 2^d. 



ACCOUNTS OF HENRY IV. 



iOS 



about the expenditure ran from ;^3oo to 
;^4oo a week. A special account of Alms 
and Oblations for the whole year comes to 
less than ^500. 

An entry in the Foreign Receipts of this 
account enables us to restore to its proper 
position an old English word which appears 
to have lost caste. By most of the readers 
of The Antiquary the term " swag " will 
probably be held slang, and perhaps 
thieves' slang, as meaning plunder. I have 
been informed that, among the working 
classes, the word properly denotes the linen 
bag, or haversack, in which labourers in 
search of employment may be seen carrying 
their goods. The entry to which I refer 
proves that, in the fifteenth century, the word 
was current as meaning, seemingly, a bag, or 
case. One of the domestics is charged for 
the value of a piece of plate lost through him : 
" cum uno sivag deauratd" ' with a gilt case.' 

Perhaps I might call attention to a printer's 
error in Table VI. of the "Accounts of Richard 
II.," Antiquary, iv. 207. The "sum of 
sub-totals given on the Roll " should be 
^69,529 IS. 4d. instead of ;!^52,629 is. ^d. 
Again, in Table V., Article i, the sum of 
;^i,9o6 135. 4^. for Privy Purse has been 
misplaced. It should be bracketed as in- 
cluded in the total ;^8,04i 2,s. o\d., and not 
given as exclusive of it. 

Table II. 

Receipts, Michaelmas, i Henry IV. 
October 3, 1399 April 8, 1400. 

s. d. 

1. Old Crown Revenues : with Fines 7,555 17 104 

2. Customs, with Assize and Ulnage 

of t;ioths 34,345 17 4 

3. Vacant Sees 146 13 4J 

4. Priories Alien 929 14 8 

5. Hanaper in Chancery . . . . 2,510 8 5 

6. Lay Fifteenths and Tenths (arrears 

from 2 1st year Richard II.) . 382 6 2 

7. Clerical Tenths (same arrears) . 261 19 11 

8. Loans 

Repaid ultimately .... 3,974 6 54 

Not repaid . . . . . . 460 o o 

9. Advances repaid 33 o o 

10. Sundries* 14,866 o o 

;iC6s,466 4 2 
Total on Roll (with balance in hand of /i,333 6j. 8</.) 
;^66,885 i6f. %\d. 



* Of this, ;^ 14, 664 13J. 4</. was apparently the 
balance of Richard II.'s treasure, the dowry of Isabella 
VOL. VI. 



Table III. 

Receipts, Easter, i Henry IV. 
April 27 September 27, 1400. 

I s. d. 

1. Old Crown Revenues, with Fines 7,352 16 6 

2. Customs, with Assize and Ulnage 

of Cloths 19)492 2 iii 

3. Vacant See (one) 88 8 2 

4. Priories Alien 912 6 8 

5. Hanaper 1,779 ^3 4 

6. Lay Fifteenths, &c. (arrears from 

last reign) 116 17 2 

7. Clerical Tenths (arrears as above) 730 12 74 

8. Loans 

Repaid 10,412 14 'j\ 

Not repaid 716 o 11 

9. Advances repaid 93 9 5 

10. Sundries 

Tower Exchange . ;^93 o o 

' Gifts' from clergy 
in anticipation of 
a Tenth ... 385 o o 

' Gifts' from well- 
disposed laymen, 
&c., &c. . . . 806 o o 1,285 3 5i 

;^42,98o 5 10 
Total on Roll, ^{^42,354 lor. (i\d. 

Table IV. 
Issues, Michaelmas, 4 Henry IV. 
October 2, 1402 March 26, 1403. 

s. d. 

1. Household, with Privy Purse t./r., 

Wardrobe or Household (about 
;^i 1,000), Great Wardrobe, Pri- 
vate Wardrobe, Chamber or 
Privy Purse 27,950 12 2 

2. Naval and Military 

Percies . . . ;^7,763 o o 

Prince of Wales . 5,333 o o 

Thomas of Lan- 
caster (Ireland) 6,546 o o 

Calais .... 3,565 o o 

Roxburgh . . 1,352 o o 
&c., &c. 

28,397 7 4 

3. Civil Service, with Law and Diplo- 

macy 6,496 19 7i 

4. Public Works 583 4 o 

5. Pensions 1,871 10 54 

6. Loans repaid 7i659 o 64 

7. Advances (to be repaid) .... 37 o 5 ^ 

8. Sundries : 

Debts of Richard 

II ;^320 o o 

\ Tower Lions, &c. 76 12 6 ' 

422 n 6 

;^73,4i8 7 04 
Not added on Roll. 



of France ; the sum was paid in by Henry IV. in 
person on December 10, 1399, in French crowns 
" in coronis de cuneo Franciae." 

I 



to6 



ACCOUNTS OF HENRY IV. 



A 



Table V. 

Issues, Easter, Henry IV. 
April 23 September 4, 1403. 

1. Household 

Wardrobe. . \(i,i^\o 13 iii , 
Great Wardrobe 8,942 7 io4 
, Private Ward- 
robe. . . . 1,622 18 2^ 
Chamber , . . 2,996 13 4 
Queen's Privy 

Purse . . . 1,087 6 10 

31,060 o 

2. Naval and Military 

Prince of Wales ^, 726 o o 

Ireland . . . 2,500 o o 

Calais .... 2,366 o o 

Earl of West- 
moreland (Car- 
lisle) . . . 716 o o 

Duke of York 
(Wales) . . 693 o o 

Sir H, Percy 
(Hotspur) Ber- 
w^ick .... 666 o o 

10,692 4 

3. Civil Service 3)656 4 

4. Public Works 7ii 9 

5. Pensions 3,773 ^5 

6. Loans repaid 7>953 ^3 

7- Advance 10 

8. Sundries, Tower Lions .... 49 IS 

;^57,897 18 Si 
Marginal Total on Roll, ;^6 1,986 <)s. od. 




n tbe Datee of tbe ^wo 

IDeratonB of "levcri^ fiDan in 

bi6 Ibumour/' 

PART II. 

T has been shown that the folio title- 
page statement of the date of 
production of the play referred 
to the quarto form of it, and not 
to this second or folio version; and that the 
quarto form was first produced in 1598, and 
put in print in 1601, not by Henslowe, but, 
as he then wrote himself, by Ben Johnson 
himself. If, then, this quarto version was 
first played in 1598 by the Lord Chamber- 
lain's servants, there can be no ground for 
the supposition that Jonson took the trouble 
to alter it, and, thus altered, have it played by 
the same '* servants" in 1598, while in 1601 he 



published the unaltered version. We now add 
that no external evidence as to the date of the 
folio version has been found, or, except Gif- 
ford's less than unsupported assertion, been 
supposed. It follows that we are at liberty to 
fix on any date between 1601 and 16 r6 which 
may be justified or required by evidence 
within the play itself I now proceed to con- 
sider such evidence. 

1. My first is but an indefinite argument; 
but it, with my second and third, will prepare 
the reader for those more definite ones which 
follow, and then strengthen them by showing 
that other facts agree with the conclusions 
that they enforce. The comedy in the quarto 
ends with a short wind-up speech by Dr. 
Clement, requiring no notice. But in the 
folio, besides that the scene is much shortened 
and altered, this speech is also altered, and 
concludes thus : " Brayn-worm ! . . . whose 
adventures, this day, when our grandchildren 
shall hear to be made a fable, I doiibt not, 
but that it shall find both spectators and ap- 
plause." Such a sentence seems to me very 
significant of a change of date and circum- 
stances. Jonson is no longer the young and 
poor author of a first play, but one whose 
position was assured, and one assured also 
that his " works" will go down to posterity. 

2. This also is indefinite. In act ii. sc. 3 
(2 Giffbrd) we find, "Drake's old ship at 
Detford may sooner circle the world again." 
Evidently he implies that it was too crazed 
and rotten to do so. But Jonson would 
hardly be likely to speak thus of it in 1598, 
or in Gifford's would-be dates of 1596 or 5, 
and accordingly the passage is not in the 
quarto. In 1606, however, the vessel would 
not only have been laid up for twenty-eight 
years Marston, Chapman, or Jonson, in 
their Eastward Hoe, 1605, spoke of its "bare 
ribs"' but was also old both as regards its 
achievements, and that its labours had been 
undergone in a former reign, since which all 
other things had become new. 

3. I would add to this the following : In 
the quarto we have, *' This speech would ha' 
done decently in a pothecaries mouth !" In 
the folio (iii. 5) ". ... in a tobacco -Xxa.o.t'^s 
mouth !" What made the change necessary ? 
Must it not have been because a new and 
rare herb was at first sold by the apothecaries 
as an item of their stock in trade, but when 



" E VERY MAN- IN BIS HUMO UR." 



107 



its fashion, and therefore its supply had be- 
come great, its sale had become a separate 
business able to maintain its purveyor ? 

4. Here I would for a moment interrupt 
the thread of my discourse to notice an 
omission at the close of Part I. The difficulty 
in which Gififord found himself as to the date 
of " The Case is Altered," a difficulty due to his 
desire to explain away Henslowe's entry of 
December 3, 1597, and the way in which he 
would wriggle out of it. As I have said, he 
would apply the entry to this play, and in 
his Introduction says : " This comedy, which 
should have stood at the head of Jonson's 
works, had chronology been consulted, was 
first printed in quarto in 1609." Now its 
known mark of date was its reference to 
Meres' Palladis Tamia, 1598, "You are in 
print already for the best plotter." How 
would Mr. Gifford evade this ? " Anthony 
might have been called ' our best plotter' be- 
fore Meares .... and indeed the words 
have to me the air of a quotation." To a 
recorded fact he opposes an unsupported 
conjecture; and he trusts to his readers' igno- 
rance of Meres. I know not how many 
sentences and phrases could be culled from 
this author, each as fully proving itself *' by its 
air" to be a quotation, to any one desirous of 
so accounting it. But we are saved all trouble 
of refutation, if so unsupported an assertion 
require refuting, by an overlooked passage, 
which settles the date as subsequent to the 
production of " Every Man in his Humour" 
in 1598. Antonio, in the first scene, is made 
to say " I write so plain, and keep the old 
decorum, that you must of necessity like it : 
marry, you shall have some now (as, for ex- 
ample, in plays) that will have every day new 
tricks, and write you nothing but humours : 
indeed, this pleases the gentlemen, but the 
common sort, they care not for 't." The italics 
are mine, for the words are proof positive 
that they were written after " Every Man in 
his Humour," and after its success was es- 
tablished, and not improbably after the " Out 
of his Humour" in 1599 : the phrase ''that 
will .... humours" seemingly indicating 
more than one play. We must, however, con- 
fine its date between 1598 and the writing of 
Nash's " Lenten Stuff' in 1599, for this notices 
the play. Unfortunately this *' Lenten Stuff" 
was not entered in the " Stationer's Register," 



though that it was early in that year may be 
guessed from its title. I may add that why 
" The Case is Altered" was never acknow- 
ledged by Jonson, never published in his 
" workes," is, I think, evident to any student 
of it and his plays. It is one of his double- 
authored pieces ; and at present I incline to 
allow to Jonson little more than the prose, or 
comic scenes. Jonson's name having become 
more popular, it was probably a bookseller's 
venture to affix the better-selling name 
only. 

To return to the arguments on the date of 
our second version. In the folio, Well-bred's 
letter (i. 2) differs from that of the quarto, 
especially in its remarks drawn from current 
events. In the quarto it closes thus " but 
live in more penurie of wit and invention 
than either the Hall Beadle or Poet Nmitius." 
That this poet Nuntius was Anthony Munday 
was made obvious to the denser among the 
audience by the suggestive pre-reference to 
the Guildhall Beadle. In " The Case is Al- 
tered" he is again brought in as ** Antonio 
Balladino, pageant poet to the City of Milan ;" 
and that he was brought in merely as a butt 
for Jonson's angry ridicule is shown by this, 
that he has nothing to do with the plot, and 
only appears in the first scene. He is brought 
in, just as Clove and Orange were brought 
into " Every Man Out of his Humour," they 
being, in Jonson's own words, "meere 
strangers to the whole scope of the play ;" 
that in the person of Clove he might vent 
his spite on Marston, while not improbably 
from his notice of the " characters" Orange 
was in dress and manner, and in his " O Lord, 
Sir," an attempted facsimile of Dekker. 
According to the date usually assigned to 
" The Case is Altered," and which we think 
we have now confirmed, Jonson for two years 
or less was at variance with A. Munday, and 
when he could do so, publicly ridiculed him. 
On Mr. Gifford's unfounded hypothesis one 
seemingly invented to get rid of a fact un- 
favourable to his other theories Jonson first 
ridiculed Munday, then having, it is to be 
supposed, made up his quarrel, expunged his 
hit, and then within two years re-vented his 
spite in an aggravated form. Putting aside 
Gifford's dates, already shown to be ground- 
less, I leave the reader to decide which belief 
is the more probable. 

I % 



io8 



ON THE DATES OF THE TWO VERSIONS OF 



5. The folio in act iii. scene i, gives us 
this : 

Bob. Faith, sir, I was thinking of a most honor- 
able piece of service, was perform'd to morrow, being 
St. Alark^s day, shell be some ten yeares now ? 
***** 

Bob. Why at the beleag'ring of Strigoniufn, where 
in lesse then two houres, seven hundred resolute gen- 
tlemen .... lost their lives upon the breach .... it 
was the first but the best leagure, that ever I beheld; 
with these eies, except the taking in of what doe 
you call it, last yeere by the Genowayes. 

The quarto whilst giving these two speeches 
word for word, in other respects, has Ghibel- 
letto instead of Strigontum, and Tortosa for 
** what doe you call it." I much regret the 
having failed to trace the name Ghibelletto, 
or the date of the taking of Tortosa, which- 
ever Tortosa it may have been ; for these 
would have given us the exact date of 
the composition, or of the production of this 
first version. But for our present purpose 
we have enough. Strigonium, or Graan, in 
Hungary, was retaken from the Turks in 
1595. Now, it would be absurd, /r/w^_/a>, 
to consider Bobadil as a fool who, having 
had days to do it in, and his position and 
daily subsistence depending upon it, was 
unable to concoct a plausible lie. Again, 
the siege of Graan having been so noteworthy 
an exploit, and one of such importance 
against an enemy then threatening to over- 
run Europe, Jonson would not have chosen 
it, and added the date of some ten years 
before, unless that date had been some ten 
years before the production of this version. 
That he and Bobadil did seek verisimilitude, 
we have moreover these further proofs. 
First, that the quarto Ghibelletto was altered 
to Strigonium. Secondly, that the Tortosa 
of "last yeare" was also struck out, but 
there having been no noted, siege or capture 
during the foHo version's "last yeare," 
Bobadil is humorously made to pretend to 
forget for more than a moment, "this best 
leagure that ever he beheld." Hence he 
exclaims after a pause, marked in both the 
1 61 6 and second, or 1640 edition by a dash 
"what doe you call it." Graan having 
been retaken by the Christians in 1595, the 
version must have been produced about 1605. 
It is worth while noting that while Mr. 
Gifford quotes Whalley's note that Graan 
bad been taken in 1597 (1595 is the right 



date), he either failed to see, or thought his 
reader unlikely to see, that such a date 
destroyed his own theories as to dates and 
theatres. 

6. In Well-bred's letter already quoted, 
we have in the folio " I have such a present 
for thee (our Turkic companie never sent the 
like to the Grand-Signior)." This is clearly 
a reference to a recent and well-known sub- 
ject of popular comment, such as might be 
expected in this " counterfeit" of a sprightly ' 
letter dashed off by a fashionable and well- 
bred gallant about town. In Elizabeth's 
reign such a present had been sent, but 
though from the loss of my notings, I cannot 
give the exact date the Company was 
chartered in 1579 it was much too early to 
have been thus noticed in 1598. Hence 
// is fiot in the 1601 printed version. But 
when the Levant, or Turkey Company was 
re-constituted and re-chartered in 1605, 
James gave themp"5,ooo to be expended in 
a present to the Porte, and without doubt, 
whether to advance the prospects and 
clientele of the Company, or to set forth and 
laud the Royal munificence, or for both 
purposes, these presents were displayed in 
public view. This reference, then, again 
brings down the production of this version to 
1605 at least, or, more probably, to 1606. 

Two series of objections, however, re- 
main to be noticed, {a) The first four, Eliza- 
bethan, though not dateable, passages in this 
foho version. In iv. 2, Bramworm says 
" I arrest you i'th Queen's name 3" and again 
" I charge you in Jier Majestie's name," 
In iv. 3, Bobadil says " Were I known to 
her Majesty ;" and Welcome, in v. 2, cries 
"You must not deny the Queen's justice, 
sir." Admitting that such discrepancies are 
not positively to be reconciled with argu- 
ments five and six, the following may be 
suggested as the probable causes and expla- 
nations : First. Jonson, while suiting certain 
phrases to the current times, was probably 
still desirous of letting it be known that this, 
his first unaided and very successful comedy, 
was written when he was yet a young man, 
and as early as 1598. His vanity and 
conceit were quite equal to such an attempt; 
in fact, it is similar to his placing that date 
year on the folio title-page. Secondly, he 
may have had this other strong motive. In 



" E VERY MAN IN HIS HUMO URr 



109 



1605 and 1606 he may have had Court and 
fashionable patronage, but many play-writers, 
and among them he himself, had been accused 
of bringing living personages on the stage. 
He certainly had so brought on Captain 
Hannan as Tucca, as also Marston and 
Dekker, the former, if not the latter, in two 
comedies ; avowedly he ridiculed contempo- 
rary absurdities and vices, and generally drew 
from the life. Lest his other caps should be 
thought to fit too closely on any known 
eccentric or humorous persons of sufficient 
rank to make such an accusation a serious 
matter, he probably wrote the words, " i'th 
Queen's name," &c. Gentlemen, he could 
say, this comedy was written in 1598, in 
ridicule of the fashions of that day, my proofs 
were spoken before you on the stage. 
Thirdly, it might have been that under a 
new king and Court, and also under Jonson's 
own ridicule in 1598 and 1599, this constant 
employment and misuse of the word 
" humour" was in 1606 dying out of good 
society. We see some probability of this, 
since Nym had adopted it in 1599, as also 
from the title oi Tidiys Humour out 0/ Breath, 
published in 1608, but probably from its hit 
at the Lottery in 1606, played either in that 
year or in 1607. Jonson would, therefore, 
by his references to an Elizabethan date, both 
gain in verisimilitude, as well as the sympa- 
thies of fashionable audiences, by ridiculing 
a somewhat antiquated and old-world 
fashion. Why, lastly, should not Jonson, 
for all or for any of these reasons, or for 
reasons n(5w unknown, have committed the 
slight discrepancy of placing the time in the 
late Queen's reign, while he introduced in 
his dialogue such references as would in- 
terest and be appreciated by his hearers ? I 
might add here that Jonson's reproduction 
of this successful play in 1606 seems to have 
suggested the titles of Day's Humour out of 
Breath, and an anonymous Everie Woman in 
her Humour, respectively published in 1608 
and 1609. 

{b.) The other series of discrepancies that 
it may be as well to notice, partly because 
their examination will really support our 
previous arguments, are the dates of Brain- 
worm's pretended services as Fitz-Sword, 
By his speech in ii. 4 (2 Gifford), he had 
sen'^ed 



in all the late warres of Bohemia, Hungarie, Dal- 
maiia, Poland, where not, sir ? I have beene a poor 
servitor, by sea and land, any time this fourteene 
yeeres ; and follow'd the fortunes of the best Com- 
manders in Chrhtendome. I was twice shot at the 
taking of Alepo, once at the reliefe of Vienna ; I have 
been at Marseilles, Naples, and the Adriatique gulphe. 

There is but one difference here between 
the quarto and folio. The former has 
"America," instead of "the Adriatique 
gulphe." Now the Venetians assisted the 
French against Naples in 1528 ; the relief 
of Vienna occurred in 1529. Allowing 
him, therefore, to have enlisted at the age 
of fifteen, he was, at the time of the first 
version in 1598, eighty-five or eighty-four 
years old ! Whether we look to his 
appearance, drawn by old Knowell, as 
Fitz-Sword, or to his having been, " a poore 
servitor, by sea and land, any time this four- 
teene yeeres," this is a ridiculous supposi- 
tion. Again, the last battle fought before 
Aleppo, though I know not that there was a 
siege, was fought in 1516 ! Nor can I find 
that there was any other siege. But this battle 
was when Selim I. defeated and killed the 
Egyptian Kham-son Ghori. Brainwom there- 
fore, who had fought under the best Comman- 
ders in Christendom, and prates elsewhere of 
serving "in his Princes cause," must have 
then fought under and with Mohammedans on 
whichever side he fought ! It is noteworthy, 
too, that though Jonson changed the names 
of the places mentioned by Bobadil, he only 
made here the one change already noticed. 
And this change appears to me significant. 
Whydid he in 1606 speak of the "Adriatique 
gulphe" ? This phrase, I think, refers to the 
battle of Lepanto fought in 1571, twenty- 
seven years, not fourteen, from 1598, but he 
mentions it in this later version because it 
paid a little indirect tribute to James, who 
had written a sonnet on that victory. The 
reader will presently see what leads me to 
this conclusion. The cause of these im- 
possible dates dates impossible to a four- 
teen years' service-man is in this, that Brain- 
worm was a mere novice, and an extempore 
one, not at lying, but at military lying. 
Bobadil, on the contrary, lived by his lies and 
bombast, and had his tales carefully prepared. 
Jonson, therefore emphasized these differences, 
and made them more apparent by this 
contrast of possible and impossible false- 



no 



''EVERY MAN IN HIS HUMOUR: 



hoods. Before leaving this subject, I would 
also remark that I am unable to see how 
either set of discrepancies can overthrow 
data founded on the time of the capture of 
Strigonium, or on that of the date of the 
present of the Turkey Company. Could 
Jonson for instance have referred to or pro- 
phesied of a present that was not thought of 
or likely to be given till at least seven years 
after 1598. 

I conclude with a suggestion as to the 
immediate cause of the production of this 
second version. The King of Denmark, 
father of James' queen, came to England in 
July, 1606, and Drummond, speaking of his 
stay, says " There is nothing to be heard at 
Court, but sounding of trumpets, hautboys, 
music, revelling and Comedies" under which 
last phrase he probably included plays 
generally. Jonson at that time was known 
and in favour with the Court. He had been 
employed to write a pageant exhibited before 
the two kings at Theobalds on July 24. 
Certainly, therefore, he would have been 
asked among others to furnish his comedy. 
But he was not so likely to furnish a new one 
as to set forth an old, whose success had 
been established. Doubtless, also, he was 
willing to exhibit one of his acknowledged 
chef d'ceuvres, his first independent work 
and one that had brought him into notice. 
Besides, he was slow in concocting a play, 
about a year was thought his usual time. 
But while setting forth " Every Man in his 
Humour," he would naturally suppose that 
he could improve it, improve its situations 
and its dialogue, and make it more what it 
was intended to be, a home thrust at English 
absurdities. By these changes also he would 
make it more of a novelty to the English 
Court audience at the first, and to others 
afterwards. In like manner I would add, 
though it is unconnected with my subject, 
that James and his Majesty's servants most 
probably took care to present Macbeth as 
showing forth James' hereditary title to the 
Crown, and the heinous sin of the gunpowder 
plotters against the predestined decree, 
centuries before registered in heaven, that 
Banquo's issue were to become the first kings 
of Great Britain, and Ireland and twofold 
balls and treble sceptres bear. 

Brinsley Nicholson, M.D. 



ZTbe Scanbinavian **^bma'' 
in Dublin^ 




T is not often that a man like Charles 
Haliday is to be met with either in 
life or in literary history ; and now 
that Mr. Prendergast, so well 
known in connection with Irish antiquarian 
research comes forward with his edition of 
Mr. Haliday's Scandinavian Kingdom of 
Dublin, and prefixes to it a life of the author, 
we cannot do better than ask our readers with 
all sincerity to read these records,* for they 
will find there some of their own best expe- 
riences of the influence of antiquarian studies 
upon the mind. Turning to the book itself, 
which is just one of those interesting chap- 
ters of history very dear to the student of 
early institutions, we propose giving an ac- 
count of Mr. Haliday's remarkable dis- 
coveries relative to the Scandinavian Thing 
in Dublin. 

Mr. HaHday claims that the Scandinavians 
settled in Dublin they did not conquer it 
as they did their other possessions in the 
British Isles. But however this may be the 
settlement was not left in peace, for we have 
a long record of the wars that took place 
between the Irish and the new comers. It 
is interesting, however, to be able to pene- 
trate through the din and clash of war to the 
times of peace and law, and that the Norse- 
men lived in Dublin as they lived in their 
own lands is now conclusively shown. By 
the assistance of place-names, a study only 
too little cultivated, it has long been known 
that Dublin possessed an ancient meeting- 
place of the Scandinavian Thing. " A docu- 
ment of the year 1258," says Worsaae "con- 
veys a gift of some ground in the suburbs 
of Dublin, in Thengmotha. This Thing 
place, which seems to have been not far 
from the present site of Dublin Castle, 
where the Norwegians had erected a strong 
fortress, gave to the surrounding parish of 
St. Andrew the surname of ' de Theng- 

* TheScandinavian Kingdom of Dublin. By Charles 
Haliday. Edited, with some notice of the Author's 
life, by John P. Prendergast (Dublin : Thorn & Co.; 
London : Simpkin & Marshall, 1882). 8vo, pp. 
cxxiii.-300. 



THE SC AND IN A VI AN " THING" IN DUBLIN. 



Ill 



mote.' "* But here our information ceased 
until Mr. Haliday took up the subject. He 
mentions a deed of the year 1241 granting 
land situated in " Thengmotha, in the parish 
of St. Andrew Thingmote." And an enrolled 
deed of 1575 gives a further clue, by describ- 
ing the property conveyed as bounded by the 
road leading to HoggenGreen called Teigmote, 
thus showing that the Thingmotha of the pre- 
ceding document was that part of the Stein 
called Hoggen Green. If, then, we assume 
that Thingmotha had its name from the Thing- 
mote, these records show that the Thing place 
of Dublin was on Hoggen Green in the parish 
of St. Andrew. Other documents leave no 
doubt that the precise position was at the 
angle formed by Church Lane and Suffolk 
Street, nearly opposite the present Church of 
St. Andrew, and about forty perches east of the 
old edifice. It stood intact until the year 
1685. It was then demolished by Sir William 
Davis, to whom the Corporation demised the 
mound, and the earth was used in raising 
Nassau Street, then called St. Patrick's Well 
Lane, the street being elevated from eight 
to ten feet. Mr. Haliday fortunately dis- 
covered a drawing and survey made in 1682, 
a facsimile of which is given in his book, and 
it appears that the mount was a conical hill, 
about forty feet high, and 240 feet in circum- 
ference. But further than this, the plan shows 
an indented outline, which gives to the mount 
the appearance of having had those terraces 
or steps which existed on the Thingraounts 
of the Isle of Man,t of Iceland, | and else- 
where. It stood otit boldly from the sur- 
rounding country. Mr. Prendergast points 
out that it appears from the Ordnance Survey 
that the base of the Thingmount, which stood 
at the same level as the base of the present 
St. Andrew's Church, was 35 feet above the 
level of low-water, so that the mound being 
40 feet high, its summit stood 75 feet above 
the Liffey when the tide was lowest. Stand- 
ing, then, on the strand, the Thingmount 
would be seen as a lofty mound overlooking 
the level plain of the Steyne. 

Near the ancient place of assembly and 
justice was the place of punishment and exe- 
cution, and the Scandinavian Thing in Ireland 

* Worsaae's Z?<.r and Norwegians, p. 322. 
+ See Train's History of the Isle of Man, i. 271. 
:;: Sir G. W. Dasent, Story of Burnt Njal, 



is not deficient in this feature. About 200 
perches eastward of the mount was the Hangr 
Hoeg, or Gallows Hill, of Dublin. Here, on 
a rocky hill, surrounded by a piece of barren 
ground, the gallows was erected, and here 
criminals were executed until the beginning 
of the last century. 

There is only one other accompaniment 
of the ancient Thing to make this example 
a very nearly complete specimen, and that 
is, the site of any Hof or Temple connected 
with the Thingmount, Mr. Haliday could 
not find any vestiges of such temples, but 
he rightly turns to the evidence of early 
history, where he finds that the Pagan temple 
became the Christian Church. Bede, it is 
well known, has preserved a letter from Pope 
Gregory to Abbot Mellitus, directing him to 
tell St. Augustine in England that he had de- 
termined that "the temple of the idols in 
that nation ought not to be destroyed, but 
let the idols that are in them be destroyed ; 
let holy water be made and sprinkled in the 
said temples ; let altars be erected and relics 
placed."* Almost everywhere the Christian 
missionaries pursued this wise course. It is 
no doubt the origin of the ancient chapel of 
St. John's in the Isle of Man, 'which directly 
faces the flight of steps on the Tinwald 
Mound, and to which there is a spacious road 
of approach from the foot of the mound.f 
And no doubt also it is the origin of St. 
Andrew's Thengmotha in Dublin. Mr. 
Haliday dra\\'s attention, in confirmation of 
this theory, to the remarkable fact that when 
the church- was rebuilt, it was built in an 
elliptical form, which gave it the name of the 
Round Church, and Speed's map of 16 10 
shows a semicircular enclosure attached to it ; 
and it is well within the bounds of proba- 
bility that this pagan form of the modern 
church is due not to the influence of modern 
architecture, but to that of ancient tradition 
and usage. 

Now this remarkable accumulation of evi- 
dence relative to an old state of things, pre- 
sents perhaps as valuable a chapter of primi- 
tive politics as could well have been written. 
We have, it is true, no picture of the forms 
and ceremonies once enacted on this historic 
ground, but these can be filled up from other 

* Historia Ecclesiasticn, lib. i. cap. xxx. 
t Train's History of the Isle of Man, i. 271. 



XI2 



THE SCANDINA VI AN THING'' IN DUBLIN. 



evidence, because we know that the place 
being so nearly like the primitive meeting- 
places of the Scandinavians, the forms and 
ceremonies must have belonged to the same 
stage of history. Mr. Haliday has collected 
much information about some curious and 
interesting municipal customs, all of which, 
there can be little question, descend to us from 
the early days of Scandinavian occupation ; 
and when we add to this the evidence as to the 
ancient " stein" or landing-place of the Ost- 
men, there can be no doubt that we have 
here some considerable and valuable infor- 
mation about the Scandinavian kingdom of 
Dublin. 



n Some (Sluaint lb Xaws 
of jenglanb* 




HAT justly renowned legal luminary. 
Lord Chief Justice Coke (1550- 
1634), considered what is called 
the Common Law of England, 
to be " the absolute perfection of reason," 
since nothing, said his lordship, that is 
contrary to reason, can ever be consonant 
with law. This highly laudatory description 
of a system of jurisprudence which has been 
so frequently modified, and in parts anni- 
hilated, may at first sight appear to a reader 
to be one of almost undue exaggeration. It 
must, however, be borne in mind that the 
word " reason," as employed by the learned 
author and judge whom we have mentioned, 
does not signify intuitive or inborn reason, 
but, as the Chief Justice himself explains it, 
that artificial perfection of reason which, as 
it were, is the result of long study and 
observation ; or probably, to express it more 
clearly, is the perfected form of that frame 
of mind which should be the natural conse- 
quence of those mental pursuits which 
produce ripe experience. Such being the 
case, it has always been assumed by sages of 
of the law that the deliberate decisions of 
superior Courts of Law ought to be handed 
down from generation to generation as 
precedents founded in this "perfection of 
reason ;" provided, of course, they are not 
on their face palpably unjust or absurd, in 



which case they could not be deemed to be 
so founded. These judgments are obviously 
exceedingly valuable, as frequently declaring 
with precision the Common Law on their 
subject-matters, and accordingly they form 
a very considerable portion of what is termed 
the unwritten Law of England. " Un- 
written " here means that the law laid down 
is that derived from apposite preceding 
declarations, gathered from established pre- 
cedents, themselves evolved as the phrase 
goes from the breasts of the judges ; in 
short, law declared otherwise than by 
Parliamentary enactments ; and this latter, in 
contradistinction to the above, or Lex non 
Scripta, is termed the Lex Scripta, or written 
law. 

The object of this paper is to present a cyr- 
sory view of the quaint side of our Common 
and Statutory Laws especially the latter at 
certain periods of the history of England 
that is to say, in other words, to point out 
those laws which, seriously enacted or 
administered by our forefathers, appear 
grotesque and absolutely ridiculous to us. 

A retrospect of this character is not merely 
amusing, it must necessarily be instructive 
also, for nothing more clearly helps us to 
understand the state of society and morals in 
a country at any given period of its existence 
than the tone and particular character of the 
laws then in force there. The progress of 
civilization in a nation may be traced almost 
minutely through the improvements from 
time to time made in its juridical system ; 
indeed, the various gradual steps which the 
the law of any nation may take towards 
perfection, measure precisely the progressive 
advance of the mental condition and public 
prosperity of that nation's population. 

And first let us look at the growth and 
character of some of the penal laws of Eng- 
land. Now, among our German forefathers, all 
crimes, with the exception of two desertion 
from the army in time of war, and the ravish- 
ment of married women were punishable by 
fines ; but after the times of the so-called 
Saxon Heptarchy in England, however, it 
was found necessary to alter this easy state 
of affairs, and to inflict capital punishment 
upon those who committed the graver kinds 
of offences. Thus, the crime of murder, 
which at one time might have been expiated 



ON SOME QUAINT OLD LA WS OF ENGLAND. 



"3 



by the payment of a mulct or fine great or 
less, according to to the " quality " of the 
person killed was, after the Heptarchy, to be 
atoned for only by the death of the murderer. 
Treason and robbery were made capital 
offences, and Alfred the Great struck a 
decisive blow at the practice of corruptly 
administering the law by hanging in one year 
no less than forty-four unjust judges (see 
Mirroir des J^ list ices, ch. 2). This fact, 
if it be really a fact, is eloquent as to the 
upright character of Alfred. His compre- 
hensive mind saw that if the conduit pipes 
of the fountain of justice were foul no 
matter how clear so ever the stream might 
be at its source those who came to drink 
thereof would be defrauded of their right to 
enjoy the current in its original purity ; and 
further, that the law would be brought into 
contempt and abhorrence. It was part of 
the subsequent policy of William the Con- 
queror although in the event he actually 
confirmed them to destroy the spirit of 
the excellent Saxon laws which he found in 
England. That he succeeded in altering the 
tenures of land is well-known, and also that 
he partially carried out his designs con- 
cerning the eradication of the Saxon system 
of judicature. Yet some of the criminal courts 
which he despised, but which helped to bring 
in an addition to the king's revenue by the 
fines and forfeitures exacted in them, were 
allowed to remain, their constitution and 
practice alone being changed, not the laws 
administered therein. In order the more 
effectually to destroy the Saxon system of 
jurisprudence if we may so designate the 
body of rules observed by our ancestors 
William caused that distinction to be made 
between the clergy and the laity in this 
country, which the Popes of Rome had con- 
trived to introduce into France. Clerks in 
holy orders were at this period of history 
about the only persons who knew the laws ; 
indeed, almost the only persons who could 
read and Avrite ; and they accordingly were 
accustomed some of them to exercise judicial 
functions while others took upon themselves 
the duties of practitioners in the various courts. 
Such being the case, William perceived that 
their removal from these respective positions 
would be the necessary result of their separa- 
tion from the general body of the people, and 



might insure the annihilation of that simple 
mode of administering the law which had ob- 
tained among the Saxons, a mode which was 
utterly distasteful to the Conqueror and his 
followers, who better loved the complicated 
system of the Norman method of legal 
procedure. 

This policy of prohibiting the clergy from 
practising in the courts was not, however, 
quite successfully carried out, for the tonsured 
advocates, unwilling to give up their old and 
lucrative occupation, managed very often to 
evade the papal canon which had been pub- 
lished on the subject, by appearing in court 
in the garb of simple laymen ; and it is singu- 
lar that the chief implement of disguise em- 
ployed by these gentlemen to conceal their 
true calling, is one that has descended to the 
present generation the last, however of its 
long career as a mark of high distinction 
amongst lawyers, and enjoyed only by judges 
and serjeants-at-law.* The reader will pro- 
bably have observed in Westminster Hall, a 
black patch on the top of the wigs of the 
learned judges, and also on those of certain 
grave-looking members of the long robe in 
the courts there. This ornament (?) is called ' 
the coif, and it is one of the traditions of the 
law that the badge in question originated in 
the attempts made by the crafty ecclesiastics 
to hide their shaven crowns when they went 
into court to conduct their clients' cases. In 
consequence of this and, no doubt, other 
transparent devices being winked at by those 
in authority, the former style of doing busi- 
ness would often crop up the old law and 
practice would be, and was, as a matter of 
fact frequently alluded to and quoted before 
the Norman judges by whom William had 
replaced the clerical presidents. Thus it 
came to pass that the old laws were not de- 
stroyed ; on the contrary, many of its pro- 
visions were retained, and became the pivot 
of that system "upon which every subsequent 
alteration was to operate." The Conqueror's 
youngest son, afterwards Henry L, however, 
almost restored the Saxon laws, which, from 
their excellence, were welcomed back, not 
only by the English, but also by the Norman 

* The order of Serjeants-at-law became virtually 
extinct on the passing of the Judicature Act of 1873, 
and actually so after the sale of their Inn in Chancery 
Lane about three years ago. 



114 



ON SOME QUAINT OLD LAWS OF ENGLAND. 



subjects of the king; and since the period in- 
dicated, their principles, except as to the de- 
scent, devolution, purchase and sale, &c., of 
lands, have been the acknowledged basis 
on which nearly all legislation has been 
founded. But the Common Law had to struggle 
against two very powerful opposing forces 
namely, the Civil Law of Rome and the 
Canon Law of the Romish Church ; and these 
two systems were upheld by the clergy. The 
laity, on the other hand, noble and plebeian, 
maintaining their regard for the Common 
Law, we find in the reign of King Stephen 
a proclamation issued by that sovereign 
interdicting the study of the two systems of 
jurisprudence just mentioned. The clergy, 
feeHng themselves unable to establish in 
England the civil and the canon law, which, 
unlike the Saxon, were deemed, and rightly, 
too, to militate against the full liberties of the 
people in short, quite unsuited to their 
genius in every way, after a time abandoned 
the attempt, and by the reign of Henry III. 
had from inclination, and also from opposition 
to their scheme, retired from the secular 
courts, both as judges and practitioners. 

In the reign of this sovereign we find that, 
although trial by jury, both in civil and 
criminal causes, was in full operation, yet, in 
certain cases, it was open to a defendant to 
defend himself either by jury or by duel. 
This latter was called the wager of battle a 
mode of trial then common in the country 
since the Conquest. The duel was fought in 
open court, and if the defendant could go on 
"until the stars appeared," he won the day. 
The institution of trial by assize put a stop to 
this extraordinary practice, but it was not 
finally abolished by the legislature until the 
reign of George III. In the reign of 
Henry III., the judges went their circuits 
for the purpose of administering criminal 
justice, as they do now, and were then styled 
justices itinerant^ or in eyre. The grand and 
petty jury also took part in the proceedings, 
and challenges were allowed, as now, to 
accused persons that is, they were permitted 
to object to any of the jurors who were to 
determine their guilt or innocence. 

In this reign also the old Saxon mode of trial 
by ordeal was abolished ; but another mode, 
the wager of law that is, by the oath of the 
accused, confirmed by those of his neighbours. 



called compurgators^ was allowed to remain. 
We find trials by wager of law employed in 
the time of Lord Coke ; and even as recently 
as the year 1824, an application was made 
to the Court of King's Bench to assign com- 
purgators to a defendant, *' with whom he 
should come to perfect his law." The word 
law, as used here, signifies oath, and wagers 
of law simply meant acquitting oneself of an 
obligation by an oath, backed up by other 
oaths. In the above case. King v. Williams, 
reported in vol. ii. of Barnewall and Cress- 
well's Reports, Chief Justice Abbott (after- 
wards Lord Tenterden) refused to grant the 
application, observing that the defendant 
must act according to his judgment. He 
brought eleven compurgators ; but the plain- 
tiff abandoned his action. Wager by law, 
one of the most ancient features in the prac- 
tice of the English law, no longer exists, 
having been abolished by the Statute 3 & 4 
William IV., c. 42. 

The Englishmen of yore always seemed to 
think a great deal of keeping the peace, as 
they termed it. By the word peace, they 
meant, as we do at present, an abstinence 
from force in the prosecution of a right, and in 
any other cases ; or, as an old writer explains 
it, ^'thatamitie, confidence, and quiet, which 
is betweene men." To preserve this quiet in 
the country, Justices, or Justiciars, of the Peace 
were first instituted, and were sometimes 
called Commissioners of the Peace, a term, 
it would seem, of a more appropriate character 
than the former. Some of the old rules of 
law on this subject are highly amusing, but 
a great many of them remain at this day part 
and parcel of the law of England. Thus, a 
wife could always demand a surety of the 
peace from her husband, just as at the present 
day. We cannot, however, quite see the 
force of the following statements, made in a 
work published in 1626 : 

The law hath conceived such an opinion of the 
peaceable disposition of noblemen, that it hath been 
thought enough to take one of their promises vpon his 
honour that he would not break the peace against any 
man. 

All Other persons, however, including knights 
and " ecclesiastical persons," 

Might be arrested for the peace lest other- 
wise it should argue them vnworthie and unmeete to 
beare or exercise any office in the Commonwealth. 



ON SOME QUAINT OLD LA WS OF ENGLAND. 



i'5 



Our forefathers had a long list of what they 
considered justifiable assaults, the commission 
of which was not deemed a breach of the 
peace. Thus, we find it laid down in the 
reign of Edward IV., that 

It is lawfull for the parents, kinsmen, or other 
friends of a man that is mad, or frantike, who, being 
at libertie, attempteth to bume an house, or to do 
some other mischief, or to hurt himselfe, or others, to 
take and put him into an house, to bind or chaine 
him, and to beat him with rods, and to doe any other 
forcible act to reclaime him, or to keepe him so as he 
shall doe no hurt. 

Thus did the law of free England directly 
sanction tho^e proceedings against insane per- 
sons which for ages formed a standing dis- 
grace to the country, and which, even in these 
days, we find resorted to by inhuman persons, 
apparently the exponents of the more repul- 
sive features in the manners and customs of 
barbarous times. It was also quite justifiable 
for " a gaolor, or his servant, by his command- 
ment, to chastise his unruly prisoners ;" a 
rule which gave facilities for the most detest- 
able brutality and extortion on the part of 
those in authority opportunities, of which we 
well know, these persons at one time freely 
availed themselves. 

In addition to the surety of the peace, our 
ancestors had another kind of surety, '* of 
great affinitie with that of the peace," called 
surety for_ the good behaviour^ and which 
exists at the present day. It was provided 
chiefly for the preservation of the peace ; 
but there was, and is, of course, more difficulty 
in performing the surety for good behaviour 
than that of the peace, it being obviously a 
question what is meant by " good behaviour." 
An old work on the law, Dalton's y^ustice, 
enumerates the offences for which surety for 
the good behaviour of the party committing 
them might have been had. A few will 
suffice to show the state of morals in Eng- 
land about the time of Charles I., the period 
of this work's publication. 

For the following, among other causes, 
surety for a person's good behaviour was 
granted : 

Against such as be generally feared to bee robbers 
by the high- way. 

Against such as by night shall evesdrop mens 
houses. 

Against night-walkers that shall cast mens gates 
or carts, &c., into ponds, &c. 

Against common haunters of Ale-houses, or 



Taverns ; but more specially if they have not whereon 
to live. 

Against common drunkards. 

Against all such as goe on message of theeves. 

Against the putative father or mother of a 
bastard child. 

Disturbers of preachers 

Popish recusants absenting themselves from 
Church twelve moneths. 

Although some of the offences above in- 
dicated did not necessarily involve an actual 
breach of the peace in their commission, yet 
as " the Common Law of England hath alwayes 
abhorred force as the capital enemy thereto," 
so it seems that acts at all likely to lead 
to force were carefully watched and severely 
dealt with by our ancestors. 

In the time of Charles I., we find the law 
concerning witches and their craft thus 
stated : 

To consult, covenant with, entertaine, imploy, 
feed or reward any evill spirit, to or for any intent or 
purpose, is felonie in such offenders, their aides and 
counsellors. 

To practise witchcraft for the purpose of 
finding lost goods, to destroy property, or 
" to the intent to provoke any person to 
love," was felony. 

The writer of these passages, a barrister of 
Lincoln's Inn, proceeds thus : 

Now against these witches, being the most cruell, 
revengeful! and bloudie of all the rest, the justices of 
peace may not alwais expect direct evidence, seeing 
all their workes are the workes of darknesse, and no 
witnesses with them to accuse them ; and therefore 
for their better discoverie, I thought good here to 
insert certaine instmctions out of the book of dis- 
coverie of the witches that were arrained at Lancaster, 
A.D. l6i2, before the judges of assize there. 

1. These witches have ordinarily a familiar or spirit, 
which appeareth to them. 

2. This said familiar hath some bigg, or other 
marke, upon their bodie, when he sucketh them. 

3. They have often pictures of clay or wax like a 
man, &c., found in their house. 

4. Witches may be known if a dead bodie bleede 
upon them. 

5. By their own voluntaire confession, which 
exceeds all other evidence. 

The difference between conjuration, witchcraft, and 
inchantment is this : conjurers and witches have 
personall conference with the devill or evill spirit to 
effect the purpose. The conjurers beleeve by cer 
taine terrible words, that they can raise the devill, 
and make him to tremble ; and by impaling them- 
selves in a circle, which as one saith, cannot keep out 
a mouse, they beleeve that they are therein insconced, 
and safe from the devill whom they are about to 
raise. 

The witch dealeth rather by a friendly and volun- 



ii6 



ON SOME QUAINT OLD LA WS OF ENGLAND. 



tary conference, or agreement between him and her, 
and the devill or familiar, to have his or her tume 
served, and in liew thereof, the witch giveth or 
offereth their soule, bloud, or other gift unto the 
devill. 

Also the conjurer compacts for curiositie, to know 
secrets, or worke miracles : and the witch of meere 
malice to doe mischiefe, and to be revenged. 

The inchanter, charmer, or sorcerer, these have no 
personal conference with the devill, but without any 
apparition work and performe some things, seemingly 
at the least, by certaine superstitions and ceremoniall 
formes of words called charmes, by them pronounced : 
or by medicines, hearbs, or other things applied above 
the course of nature, and by the devill's helpe and 
covenants made with him. 

Of this last sort, likewise, are soothsayers, or 
wizards, which divine and foretell things to come, by 
the flying, singing, or feeding of birds, and unto such 
questions as be demanded of them, they doe answere 
by the devill, or by his helpe that is, they do 
answere by voyce, or else do set before their eyes in 
glasses, christall stones or rings, the pictures or 
images of the persons or things sought for. 

Such were the provisions of a solemn Act of 
the English Parliament, passed in the reign 
of "the most high and mighty prince," 
James I. ; and it was not until that of 
George II. that the Statute was repealed by 
another, called the Vagrant Act, which, 
although more sensible in tone, is by no 
means deficient in quaintness. 

J. H. Flood. 

{To be continued^ 



1Revtew6. 




A Catalogue of Rare, Curious, and Valuable Old Books. 
On sale by Alfred Russell Smith, 36, Soho 
Square. (London : 1882.) 8vo, pp. 528. 

UR readers will be glad to know of the 
issue of this really valuable catalogue. To 
many, a booksellers' catalogue is of great 
interest, even when carelessly arranged 
and badly printed, as is too often the 
case ; but we get here a totally different kind of thing. 
These are some of the heads under which it is classi- 
fied : Agriculture, Ana, Angling, Anglo-Saxon, 
Bibliography, Manners, Brewing, Chap Books, 
Dramatic History, Finance, Fine Arts, Heraldry, 
Jest Books, Mythology, Numismatics, Pedigrees, 
Philology, Folk-lore, Prehistoric Archaeology, Records, 
and County publications. We cannot pick out any 
special books for notice, but referring, for instance, to 
the collection of versions and editions of Reynard the 
Fox, it will be at once seen that this catalogue, irre- 
spective of its value to book purchasers, is of great 
interest to students of archaeology. 1 1 contains no less 
than six thousand books for sale. 



Transactions of the Essex Archaological Society. Vol. 

ii., pt. iii. new series. (Colchester : 1882.) 8vo, pp. 

223-310. 

The papers here presented to the members of the 
Society are all of great interest. Tliey are * ' Inven- 
tories of Church Goods" 6th Edward VI., by H. W. 
King, "Liber Scholae Colcestriensis," being entries 
concerning sons of the clergy admitted into the Royal 
Grammar School, Colchester, during the headship 
of Dr. Dugard, 1637-1642 ; " History of Hatfield 
Forest" ; " Notes on an inscribed Roman altar found 
at Colchester," by J. E. Price; and "Notes on an 
Ancient Cemetery at Saffron Walden," by H. Ecroyd 
Smith. 

The most important of these are undoubtedly 
Mr. Price's, Mr. Smith's, and Mr. King's. Mr. 
Price gives some very interesting information on the 
Roman inscribed altar. It reads : 

MATRIBVS 

SVLEVIS 

SIMILIS ATTIF 

CI CANT 

V. L. S. 

and may be translated as a dedication to the Mothers 
the Sulevce, by Similis, the son of Attus or Attius, a 
citizen attached to the civitas Cantiorum. The 
Sulevre were the tutelary divinities of rivers, foun- 
tains, hills, roads, villages, and other localities against 
whom the anathemas of the Christian councils were 
hurled, and this new inscription of Mr. Price's 
clearly places them among the important deities 
"mother goddesses," whose worship was so wide 
spread. 

Every one should support the efforts of the county 
Archaeological Societies to gather together the anti- 
quities of our country, and we gladly bear testimony 
to the important work the Essex Society is accom- 
plishing. Not only in publishing, but in the case of 
their museum and the prosecution of excavations, 
this Society is furthering the cause of antiquarian 
study. We cannot speak too highly of the labours 
in respect of the museums, and we trust the Society 
will not again have to speak of want of support, for 
these local museums are national in importance and 
value. 



The Court of the Honour of Peverel, in the Counties 

of Nottingham and Derby. By John C. Godfrey. 

(Nottingham : 1882.) Svo, pp. 32. 

Local courts of jurisdiction have been so much 

pushed on one side (if we may so put it) by the more 

progressive machinery of government, that a history 

of one, even in the abridged form of that before us, 

is always very acceptable. Mr. Godfrey has not 

given much more than was already known of the 

Court of the Honour of Peverel, but then he has 

collected this into a handy and convenient compass ; 

and we are indebted to him for it. We trust he may 

make this little brochure the nucleus round which to 

collect more information.", 



REVIEWS. 



117 



'J he Level of Hatfield Chace and Parts Adjacent. 

By John Tomlinson. (Doncaster : John Tom- 

linson. London : Wyman & Sons.) 410, pp. 

vii.-3a2. 

Mr. Tomlinson has taken up a work foreshadowed 
by Abraham de la Pry me in 1698, that curious 
gossiping antiquary, whose diary is equal, in its 
way, to anything else of the kind that exists. His 
collection of MSS., together with the labours of later 
workers in the same field, have been laid under 
contribution by the indefatigable industry of Mr. 
Tomlinson, and we may congratulate that gentleman 
upon the production of a much-needed history of a 
very important locality. 



and sometimes boating, carried in his train a man 
who had other views than those who were content to 
let things be as they were. That man was Vermuyden, 
a Dutchman, who planned and carried out a scheme 
for draining and embanking this great level in 1628. 
Of the 170,000 acres comprising Hatfield Chace, 
there were, in the reign of James I., at least 60,000 
acres of no value, except for hunting, fowling, and 
fishing. Queen Elizabeth had attempted to obtain a 
plan for draining these lands, but failed ; and a com- 
mission, issued by James I., reported that the work 
was impossible. But Vermuyden thought differently; 
his own native land told him differently. Accordingly, 
in the words of Abraham de la Pryme, he "entered 




THORNE OLD HALL. 



The extensive tract known as Hatfield Chace was, 
in the times of the early Stuarts, little more than a 
vast swamp, with now and then patches of hard sur- 
face, upon which had dwelt the earliest inhabitants of 
our land, as is shown by the discoveries of barrows, 
remains of buildings, household utensils, celts, flint 
axes, arrow-heads, &c. But these little islets in the 
surrounding swamp were not compatible with the re- 
quirements of advancing progress, and it is recorded 
how Prince Henry of Wales, son of James I., pro- 
ceeding through these great fens, sometimes wading 



into Articles with his Majesty [Charles I.] upon y* 
24th May, in y 2nd year of his Reign for y* Drain- 
ing thereof, which after a few years labour he happily 
effected to y* great benefit and ease of y* country. " 
For the events attending this great labour, for the 
settlement of a great body of Walloon emigrants here 
(whose biography our author justly observes would 
be highly interesting), for the methods of bringing 
the land into cultivation, for the great and beneficial 
results, we must refer our readers to the book itself. 
In place of swamps there arose the signs of English 



ii8 



REVIEWS. 



life, plots of cultivated land, village homes, and beau- 
tiful village churches. 

Such books as the one before us have a very special 
value, because, dealing with the actual history of great 
alterations in the surface of our land, they enable the 
historian to obtain clear information of the topogra- 
phical influences on English history. How important 
tliese topographical influences really are we need not 
touch upon now ; but Mr. J. R. Green, in his Making 
of England, has shown how vastly they enter into 
the history of the early periods of English history, 
and the same influences must of course exist through- 
out, though we fear they are too seldom taken into 
account. Of the vast amount of incidental information 
contained in Mr.Tomlinson's book we cannot speak too 
highly. It is illustrated by very well executed wood- 
cuts of Hatfield, Thome Fishlake, and Barnby Dun 
churches, of Hatfield Manor House, Thome Old Hall 
(a very interesting building), Dunscroft Grange, 
besides maps of Hatfield Chace before the drainage, 
and of "the true and perfect plot" as surveyed in 
1639. It contains appendixes of very valuable docu- 
ments relating to the drainage, and a fairly good in- 
dex. We wish, however, that Mr. Tomlinson's style 
of narrative were more in conformity with the esta- 
blished rules of important historical records such as 
he has given us. 



The Western Antiquary, or Devon and Cornwall Note 
Book. Edited by W. H. K. Wright. (Plymouth : 
Latimer and Sons.) 4to, pp. 80. 
Mr. Wright has succeeded sufficiently well wit/i his 
quarterly issues to venture upon a monthly issue (of 
which several have already appeared), and we wish 
him all the success he deserves. The last part 
of the quarterly issue now before us contains a 
vast quantity of valuable local notes, and has some 
illustrations which add greatly to the value of the 
letter-press. The Editor's observations on municipal 
records will, we hope, be productive of useful results. 
Our readers should certainly make themselves ac- 
quainted with our local contemporary. 



Aungervyle Society. Parts ix. x. and xi. April 
to July, 1882. 8vo, pp. 64. 

These three new parts carry these excellent re- 
prints to a further stage. " Tlie Romance of 
Octavian, Emperor of Rome," abridged from a MS. 
in the Bodleian Library {circa 1250), by the Rev. J.J. 
Coneybeare, and edited by E. M. Goldsmid, is con- 
cluded ; and we have the two first instalments of 
" The Imprisonment and Death of King Charles I., 
related by one of his Judges ; being Extracts from the 
Memoirs of Edward Ludlow, the Regicide, with a 
Collection of Original Papers relating to the Trial of 
the King." This is an extremely interesting contri- 
bution to an always interesting subject. Ludlow was 
one of the most honest of the English revolutionists, 
and his notes bear out this characteristic. His expo- 
sure of the double practices of Cromwell is vdy 
severe, and the occasional bits of gnm humour that 
lit up this troublous age are singularly curious. 
Cromwell, on one occasion, " took up a cushion, and 
flung it at my head, and" then ran down the stairs ; 



but I overtook him with another, which made him 
hasten down faster than he desired." We congratu- 
late the Society upon their work, and would only 
suggest that they should give us more explanation of 
the sources and bibliographical value of their reprints. 



A Pro7iisional Glossdry of Dialectical Place-Nomencla- 
ture ; to which is appended a List of Family Sur- 
names pronounced differently from what the spelling 
suggests. By Robert Charles Hope. (Scar- 
borough : Theakstone & Co.) iimo, pp. 22. 
This little book will form a valuable groundwork 
for a very useful work, and the author asks for 
assistance in making a fuller list. The local pronun- 
ciation of many names is often widely different from 
the orthography, and in some instances there are 
varieties of pronunciation. Thus, Altrincham, in 
Cheshire, is called Thrutchm, Autrinjam, Altringam, 
and Autsjam ; and Macclesfield is indifferently Max- 
field, Maxfilt, or Maxlt. Some of the pronunciations 
will be found to be conflicting. Thus Accomb is 
called Yaccan, and Yardley is turned into Ardly. 
Although these forms will probably live long, they 
will without doubt gradually die, on account of the 
influence of those who only know them as written 
names. 



Transactions of the St. Paul's Ecclesiological Society. 
Vol. i. part 3. London. 1882. Royal 8vo. 
We have already welcomed the fonner parts of this 
valuable and thoroughly well-edited publication. The 
St. Paul's Ecclesiological Society is a young institu- 
tion, but it has rapidly grown in public estimation, 
and if it continues to be conducted with the vigour 
already displayed it cannot fail to continue its growth. 
The papers in this volume are of vei"y great interest. 
Several important churches are described by Mr. G. 
H. Birch ; Mr. Baden Powell and Dr.Wickham Legg 
deal with liturgical customs ; Mr. Mayhew with 
Baalism ; Major Heales with the furniture and orna- 
ments of the altar ; and Mr. Somers Clarke compares 
St. Peter's and St. Paul's. 



Our Noble Selves; or Gleanings about Grantham Sur- 
names. By the Author of Notes on the Months, 
Notes on Unnatural History, &c. (London : T. 
Fisher Unwin.) 1882. Sm. 8vo, pp. viii.-iop. 
Lincolnshire surnames are much like surnames in 
other parts of the country, and therefore the very 
interesting chapters on the origin and history of 
names in this book will be of more than local interest. 
The author writes : " Here and there I have kept 
names upon my list which are now only borne upon 
tombstones among us ; here and there I have retained 
one which has passed into currency elsewhere, and is 
in Grantham nothing more than a token of bygone 
years, and mayhap of a half-forgotten man." The 
subject is a fruitful one, and this is a book that is 
likely to make it a still more popular one than it 
already is, although we are not prepared to agree 
with all the etymologies. - 



REVIEWS. 



119 



A History of Aylesbury, with its Borough and 
Hundreds and Hamlet of Walton. By Robert 
GiBBS. Parts i. ii. 4to. (Aylesbury : R. Gibbs.) 
1882. 

The borough of Aylesbury is known to a large 
number of persons from the fame of its ; butter ; to 
others it is a representative place, on account of its 
excellent system of sanitation ; but Mr. Gibbs shows 
us that it has a history of considerable interest. It is 
not easy to criticise a work of this chai-acter with only 
two parts before us, but we hope to do more justice 
to it as it proceeds. Enough, however, has appeared 
to make us msh for more. 



Malahide read a Paper on the longevity of the Romans 
in North Africa. The author gave several instances 
of epitaphs and inscriptions on tombs of persons whose 
age had exceeded icxj years ; in some cases the ages 
of 120, 130, and even 140 years had been attained. 
Capt. R. F. Burton read a Paper on some Neolithic 
implements and other objects brought by himself and 
Commander Cameron from Wasa, on the Gold Coast. 
A large number of objects were exhibited by the 
authors and Mr. Ross. Gen. Pitt-Rivers read a Paper 
on the Egyptian boomerang, and exhibited several 
specimens. A large collection of Bushman drawings 
was exhibited by Mr. M. Hutchinson. 



The Field Naturiilist and Scientific Student. Nos. 1-3. 
June to August, 1882. (Manchester : Heywood.) 
Now that the third part of this new journal has 
appeared, we wish to record our opinion that it ably 
meets an admitted want. Field clubs are formed in 
nearly every county, and their labours as mediums of 
instruction can scarcely be overstated. This journal 
should be their especial organ, and we shall always, 
as long as it keeps to its proper functions, as it 
does now, give it our cordial support. It has much 
work before it, and it is capable, we feel, of doing it 
well. The information it contains is varied and in- 
structive ; and one letter from Mr. Darwin to a young 
naturalist exhibits perhaps one of the most charm- 
ing traits of character we have seen for some time. 
Plant-lore and bird-lore cannot but be interesting to 
the antiquary. 



fIDeettnas of antiquarian 
Societies, 



METROPOLITAN. 

Archseological Institute. ^July 6. Lord Talbot 
de Malahide, President, in the chair. The Rev. W. 
Loftie read a Paper, and offered some observations, 
upon the hawk sacred to Chonsu, with special refe- 
rence to Rameses XII. and Raneferoo, his queen, and 
described the manner in which the various towns of 
Egypt favoured the worship of different animals, and 
the high favour in which the hawk was held. Mr. 
W. Brailsford read a Paper on the monuments of the 
Seymours at Great Bedwyn, Wilts, which included a 
notice of the remarkable and lengthy inscription on 
the tomb of Sir John Seymour, the father of Edward, 
Duke of Somerset, and Jane Seymour, who died in 
1536. Prof. B. Lewis read a Paper " On the Antiqui- 
ties of Autun, the Capital of the ^dui of Cicero." 
Capt. E. Hoare read some notes on a sepulchral 
statuette, which he exhibited, of an hereditary lord 
and landowner, of a very rare type, circa 1000 
B.C. Mr. H. R. H. Gosselin laid before the meeting 
some fourteenth-century, tiles from Bangeo Church, 
Herts. 

Anthropological Institute. ^July 11. General 
Pitt-Rivers, President, in the Chair. Lord Talbot de 



PROVINCIAL. 

The Royal Archseological Institute. August 
I. On Tuesday afternoon the Institute commenced 
the business of its annual meeting in the city of Car- 
lisle. Lord Talbot de Malahide, who is the Presi- 
dent of the Institute, was again in his place at its 
head ; but the duties of president of the Carlisle 
meeting have this year devolved upon the Right Rev. 
the Lord Bishop of Carlisle (Dr. Harvey Goodwin). 
At two o'clock the Mayor and Corporation arrived. 
The Mayor wore his insignia of office, and was 
attended by his sword and mace bearers. The pro- 
ceedings were commenced by the Town Clerk reading 
an address of welcome to the Institute. After the 
inaugural meeting, the members of the Institute per- 
ambulated the city, and visited the ancient castle, 
cathedral, city walls, and other objects of interest. 
In the evening Mr. Freeman gave an address on 
"The Position of Carlisle in History." He said 
that city was one of the few cities which could point 
to a personal founder in historic times, its foundation 
being dated from a day long before William Rufus, 
and alone among cities of what we now deem proper 
England Carlisle bears an almost untouched British 
name. Dr. Bruce then gave a Paper on " The Music 
of the Borders," illustrated by pipers on the North- 
umbrian bagpipes, and by a vocal quartette party. 
Dr. Bruce explained the construction of the North- 
umbrian bagpipe, and to show how expressive was 
the music of the instrument he called upon the piper 
to play the tune "Take a Look at Maggie's Foot." 
The instrument, he remarked, could nearly speak the 
the words. The grandest of Northumberland tunes 
was the ballad of " Chevy Chase." He had no doubt 
that originally the ballad had been the wail of the 
mourners, a dirge ; but though a dirge originally, it 
had afterwards been made a battle cry, to the strains 
of which the sons and daughters of Northumberland 
delighted to hail their chieftain. The reason of the 
change was obvious. It was a cry from the dead to 
march to victory and avenge their cause, and it spoke 
well for a people when their energy was roused by 
misfortune, and when the dirge of the sire became 
the battle cry of the sons. Such was Chevy Chase. 
There were three versions of it. Two belonged to 
1450, and the other, which they had now in use, was 
of the age of Elizabeth say about 1560. The lec- 
turer next discussed and illustrated the ballad of 
" Bewick and Gram," which he said belonged to the 
western side of the Border. It had nearly been lost, 



lao 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



but was happily preserved by Sir Walter Scott, who 
obtained some of the verses from an ostler in Carlisle. 
The next piece was "The Roses Blaw," which he 
believed had appeared in a Scottish collection of 
ballads. On Wednesday there was an excursion to 
the Penrith district. The Church of Kirkoswald was 
first visited, and thence the visitors proceeded to 
Kirkoswald Castle, where only a few shattered walls 
now remain of what was once a splendid palace of 
the Dacres. A description of the building was given 
by Dr. Taylor, of Penrith, and Mr. G. T. Clarke, of 
Dowlais. The circle of stones known locally as 
"Long Meg and her Daughters" was the next place 
visited. Professor Stephens, of Copenhagen, made 
some remarks upon the cup and ring marks found 
upon the stones, the real meaning of which had given 
rise to much discussion. He thought they were reli- 
gious symbols, pointing to the worship of the sun at 
a time, in fact, so distant, as the Stone Age. From 
' ' Long Meg and her Daughters" the party proceeded 
to Brougham Castle, where Mr. Clark delivered an 
address, and the company went by way of Brougham 
Hall to Eamont Bridge. A mound in the locality, 
called "Arthur's Round Table," was visited. The 
circle of stone at Mayborough was subsequently 
visited and a smaller circle close to it, which Dr. 
Simpson and Mr. Evans agreed in declaring to have 
been a place of burial. In the evening the Anti- 
quarian Section met under the presidency of Mr. 
Evans, and a Paper on " The Antiquities of Algeria," 
by Lord Talbot de Malahide, President of the Insti- 
tute, was the chief feature in the programme. The 
meeting of the Institution was continued on Thurs- 
day at Carlisle, Lord Talbot de Malahide presiding. 
The report for the year was read by the Secretary. 
Sectional meetings were held during the day, and a 
visit was paid to Rose Castle, the residence of the 
Bishop of Carlisle. 

Shropshire Archaeological and Natural His- 
tory Society. Annual Excursion. June 27. 
The first item in the day's programme was Battle- 
field Church. This picturesque edifice is believed to 
be erected over the spot where were laid, as in one 
common grave, so many hundreds of valiant knights 
and squires, who perished in the bloody struggle in 1403, 
between King Henry IV. and the heroic Henry Percy, 
better known as "Hotspur." The original foundation 
consisted of a collegiate church for five secular canons, 
and " endowed with a piece of ground, with all the 
buildings on it within the lordship of Adbrighton 
Husee in the field called Haytelfeld, which piece of 
ground was ditched in, and contained in length and 
breadth two acres of land, together with two inlets 
and outlets along the lands of Richard Husee, one 
aoft. wide and the other 15ft. wide." The collegiate 
buildings, as well as the church, probably stood within 
this enclosure, but not a vestige of them exists at this 
day, tliough traces of the moat eastward are visible. 
Among its other endowments were the revenues of the 
churches of St. Juliana, and of St. Michael, within 
the Castle in Shrewsbury, the grant of the latter being 
in the year 141 7. In the year 1861 the present 
church underwent a thorough restoration. It 
consists of a nave and chancel or choir, separated by 
a flwarf stone screen, and contains several handsome 
monuments to members of the Sundome family. On 



the north side of the chancel is a mortuary chapel, 
built in i860, over a spacious double vault containing 
the remains of several generations of Corbets. The 
roof is constructed on the hammer beam principle, 
and on the point of each bracket is a shield blazoned 
with the arms of one of the illustrious individuals 
who took part in the battle viz., on the north side, 
Henry IV., Earl of Dunbar, Sir Hugh Stanley, Sir 
John Cockayne, Sir Nicholas Gausel, Sir Hugh^ 
Mortimer, Sir tlugh Shirley, Sir Robert Malvausin, 
Sir Madoc Kynaston, and Sir Richard Sandford. On 
the south side: Henry, Prince of Wales, Edmund, 
Earl of Stafford, Sir John Clifton, Sir Walter Blount, 
Sir Robert Gausel, Sir John Massey, Sir Thomas 
Wendesley, Sir Reginald Mottershead, Sir Jenkin 
Hanmer, and Sir Richard Husee. In the church is 
a curious piece of wood sculpture, called "Our Lady 
of Pites," representing the Virgin Mary seated, 
bearing on her knees a dead Christ. In a tabernacled 
niche over the east window is a statue (crowned) of 
the founder, Henry IV., in whose right hand was once 
a sword. In the sacrarium is a piscina and sedilia, 
and the reredos is elaborately carved in stone. After 
this inspection the party went to Shawbury Church. 
This church, which is dedicated to St. Mary the 
Virgin, is a structure of considerable antiquity ; it 
consists of a nave, chancel, and side aisles, with a 
lofty square tower, ornamented with eight pinnacles. 
It exhibits various styles of architecture, from the 
Saxon traces of which are observable in the imposts 
of the south arcade, which itself is Norman in 
character down to the Early English, Perpendicular, 
and Decorated ; and there is a curious admixture of 
red and white stone used in its construction. The 
north porch is modern, and from it a mediaeval arch 
leads into the nave of the church, which is separated 
from the aisles by Norman arcades. The Jacobean 
pulpit and reading-desk are of oak, richly carved, and 
there is also an ancient alms box cut out of a solid 
block of oak. The font is unmistakably Saxon. 
The external aspect of the edifice is bold and massive, 
especially that of the tower, which displays two dis- 
tinct styles of architecture, the Perpendicular and 
Decorated. It has been an addition to the original 
Norman church. On the north face of the tower is 
a bracket or corbel, which probably once supported 
a statue, and over it a shield, on which is inscribed 

"Thomas " The latter word not being very 

legible is believed by some to be "Charlton," others 
think it is "Morton." It is, however, too modem 
to be the name of the person whose statue stood below. 
A short distance from the church is a moated " Buhr," 
which indicates that in the Saxon days a building of 
some importance stood there. The excursionists 
then went to Moreton Corbet, or Moreton Turret, 
which name it retained until 1 5 16. The estates came 
into the possession of the Corbets by the marriage of 
Sir Richard Corbet, of Wattlesbury, with the heiress 
of the Turrets, or Turits, tempore Henry III. The 
church, which is dedicated to St. Bartholomew, is a 
handsome structure of freestone in the Decorated style 
of architecture, and consists of nave, chancel with 
south aisle, and western tower, through which the 
church is entered by a fine Elizabethan doorway. 
The tower was built in 1769 by Andrew Corbet. 
The church contains two fine altar tombs, well pre- 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



121 



served, each with two recumbent figures. One of 
these represents Richard Corbet, and his wife, 
Margaret. It bears the date of the death of the 
former only, 1667. The other is in memory of Sir 
Robert Corbet, Knight, and Elizabeth, his wife, 1563. 
In the south aisle are the remains of a piscina, and an 
aumbry of which the hooks on which hung the door 
remain. In this aisle is also a hagioscope, or squint, 
which clearly proves that the aisle is of more recent 
erection than the chancel, as the squint usually occurs 
in the external wall commanding a view of the altar 
at the elevation of the host, by lepers who were not 
allowed to enter the church. The picturesque ruins 
of the adjacent castle were also examined with con- 
siderable interest. The remains of three distinct 
buildings are to be seen. Over the portal of the older 
one are the initials S. A. C, 1576, and also I. R. C. 
1578, with the elephant and castle, the crest of the 
family. On another portion of the building is an 
enigmatic inscription O. L. L. E. D,, 15 15, A. R. C, 
also the date 1578 on a pedestal. The new house 
was never completed, though it was held as a garrison 
for the King in 1664, and was said to be very strong. 
It was, however, taken by the Parliamentarians the 
same year, and soon afterwards was seriously injured 
by fire. There are several curious traditions con- 
nected with the place. The next place to visit was 
Stanton-on-Hine-Heatb, famous as the birthplace of 
Alderman John Boydell, the munificent patron of 
engravers, and himself an engraver of the highest 
class. He was Lord Mayor of London in 1 790. The 
church, dedicated to St. Andrew, is a Norman 
structure, with a square western tower of much later 
date, the lower portion only being Norman. It is 
finished with eight pinnacles, and has very massive 
gargoyles. There is a fine timbered roof which is 
almost entirely concealed by a hideous coved ceiling. 
There is some trace of herring-bone work in the 
south wall of the chancel, which was rebuilt by 
the then patron, in 1740. Altogether the building 
appears to have been terribly mutilated according 
to the whims of successive churchwardens, some of 
whom have left their marks on one of two massive 
buttresses built in support of the tower in 1666. 
The party proceeded on foot to the Bury Walls. 
This famous Roman encampment is considered 
to be the most perfect in the kingdom. About 
twenty acres of land are enclosed and screened on 
three sides by a natural fortification, a chain of 
inaccessible rocks ; and on the fourth side by a triple 
entrenchment of impregnable strength. Many Roman 
coins have been found here, and in 1821 a spur, of 
undoubted Roman workmanship, was found in the 
garden of the Bury farm, a short distance from the 
camp. 

Surrey Archaeological Society. July 5. 
Annual Meeting. The Earl of Onslow, Vice-Presi- 
dent, in the chair. The first meeting-place being at 
the Town Hall, Guildford, Mr. D. M. Stevens read a 
Paper upon the Corporation Records and Plate. Mr. 
Stevens mentioned that Guildford was doubtless from 
its position known and occupied by both the British 
and the Romans. It became a Royal residence at 
least as early as Alfred the Great, and had become at 
the time a borough by prescription, and the settled 
abode, exclusive of Stoke, of something like 700 
VOL. VI. 



persons. He described the various charters, from the 
first, granted by Henry III., dated January 7, 1257, 
to that of Richard II., in 1378. The Corporation 
plate was next touched upon. The history of the 
small mace had never been solved, but the large mace 
was presented to the Mayor and approved men of 
Guildford by Henry Howard, afterwards Duke ol 
Norfolk, but then High Steward. The Mayor's chain 
was stated to have been presented in 1673, by Arthur 
Onslow, High Steward, and was described in the 
records as " a faire chayne of gold, double-linked, 
with a medal of massey gold whereon his Majestie's 
armes are curiously engraven, and on the reverse the 
armes of the said Mr. Onslow. " The history of the 
plate and Mayor's staff of ebony, presented by Queen 
Elizabeth, was related, and then speaking of the Town 
Hall, Mr. Stevens said a portion of it doubtless dated 
back to the reign of Elizabeth, but the front of the 
building, with the council chamber above, was erected 
by subscription in 1683. The portraits in the hall 
were those of James I., Charles II., and James II., the 
two latter said to be originals by Lely, also of William 
III. and Mary, a half-length of the Hon. Arthur 
Onslow, Recorder of the Borough from 1722 to 1768, 
and Speaker of the House of Commons, and that of 
Vice-Admiral Sir Richard Onslow, by John Russell, 
R.A., native of this towa. The company next pro- 
ceeded to Archbishop Abbot's Hospital, and after 
inspecting that fine old building, and visiting the 
museum, the Rev. F. E. Tower read a Paper upoh the 
Hospital : George Abbot, the founder, was born 
at Guildford, October -29, 1562. He was the son of a 
clothworker, or "clothier," as his father is described 
in an old lease of church property (now exhibited). 
He was consecrated Bishop of Covei|try and Lichfield, 
December 3, 160*9 ; Bwhop of London, August, 1610; 
Archbishop of Canterbury, April 9, 1611. On April 
6, 1619, the Archbishop laid the first stone of the 
Hospital, and afterwards settled on it lands to the 
value of ;^300 a year. The original statutes of the 
Hospital are in Lambeth Palace Library. The 
dining hall next the chapel demands notice. Here 
the master and brothers and sisters dined in com- 
mon. They kept Founder's Day every year, as 
well as Christmas, Easter Day, and Whit- Sunday, 
expending according to statute ten shillings among 
the company, that they might with thanks to God 
lovingly rejoice together. In the muniments-room at 
the top of the tower are some wonderful account and 
entry books which might well form the subject of a 
distinct Paper. A few pictures in the rooms and 
chapel of the Hospital (the gift of Earl of Onslow) 
are in the chapel, the Archbishop, Sir Nicholas 
Kempe, and Mayor Jackman ; in the Master's house, 
the Reformers, Fox and Wickliffe ; on the staircase, 
Calvin ; in the dining-hall, another Reformer, Munzer, 
a disciple of Luther, The visitors then paid a visit 
to the museum, and inspected many places of interest 
in the town, including the Holy Trinity and St. 
Nicholas Churches, the Castle, the crypts under the 
Angel Hotel and the opposite house, the use of 
which is uncertain, but which are supposed to have 
been occupied as winecellars by Henry III. ; and the 
unique carved wood staircase at Mr. Bull's shop in 
High Street, the finely-moulded ceilings and oak 
panelling also attracting much attention. The com- 



122 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQVARI AN SOCIETIES. 



pany assembled at the church of St. Mary, and Mr. 
Ralph Nevill read a Paper on the building. Mr. 
Nevill said the church was one of the most interesting 
and charming in the whole country, and an excellent 
example of a very clever adaptation to the necessities 
of the sites, being built with a great rise to the altar on 
account of it being erected on the side of the hill. 
He said the earliest part of the church was the tower, 
whilst there was also evidence of early work in the 
paintings which they would see on the inside of the 
two tower windows, of which no one had made any- 
thing, but whilst examining them the other day, with 
Mr. Waller, they found an inscription on the south 
side, the top line of which they made out to be 
Abraham, and the second line he afterwards de- 
ciphered as Otbfert. After mentioning that the 
church was probably built in the eleventh century, 
and was either Saxon or pre-Norman, he went on to 
give details of the various alterations which had been 
made to the edifice: He observed that the last resto- 
ration seemed to have been carried out with less than 
the usual amount of damage, and with very good 
judgment, in repairing the old work with chalk. The 
tower was in an unsafe condition, owing to the flint 
work being cut away to get in the bells, and there 
were cracks everywhere, probably of recent date, and 
the marvel was that it stood. Mr. Nevill called 
attention to many interesting points in the church, 
such as piscinas and an aumbry ; one of the former on 
the south side belonged to the two Confraternities of 
Jesus and Corpus Christi, the lepers' window in the 
north aisle, and the matrices of two brasses which 
were preserved in the vestry, but the history of which 
had perished. Alluding to the wall paintings, Mr. 
Nevill said they were among the most interesting in 
England, and it was desirable that full-sized tracings 
or exact reproductions should be made of the paint- 
ings. Mr. J. G. Waller next offered some remarks on 
the ancient wall paintings in the chapel of St. John 
the Baptist. On leaving the church, the party were 
conveyed to Sutton Place. On arriving at this 
historic mansion, the company were received in the 
splendid hall by Mr. Frederic Harrison, and con- 
ducted by him through the hall, with its panelling, 
armour, portraits, stained-glass windows, to the long 
gallery upstairs, an apartment of great length, hung 
with ancient tapestry, a portion of which was said to 
represent the story of Joseph. Some antique furni- 
ture, both here and in the rooms below, was much 
admired, notably a magnificent carved oak cabinet. 
Returning to the hall, Mr. Harrison read a Paper on 
the history of the mansion and family. The archaeo- 
logists drove to Glandon Park, which they entered from 
tlie village of Merrow by the handsome iron entrance 
gates. On reaching the mansion a hearty and kind 
welcome was given them by the noble proprietor, the 
Earl of Onslow. The hall was the first point of 
attraction, its symmetrical form, a cube of exactly 40ft. 
each way, its handsomely moulded ceilings, and cai-ved 
marble mantelpieces by Rysbrack, being generally ad- 
mired. In connection with the above meeting, a museum 
of local antiquities was open for inspection at the 
Abbot's Hospital. It is almost impossible to describe 
in detail the many things of interest shown, and the 
list given below will give a sufficient idea of them ; 
but amongst them we may perhaps note that in the 



Loseley contributions are included some very rare and 
valuable autographs, such as those of Lady Jane Grey, 
Charies I., Henry VIH., Edward VI., and Elizabeth, 
a fine specimen of the Great Seal of Elizabeth, both 
sides being perfect. Lord Onslow shows the fine 
painting by Hogarth and Thornhill, of the House of 
Commons under Walpole's Administration, with 
Speaker Onslow in the Chair ; also the patents of 
creation of the Earls of Onslow from Queen Eliza- 
beth's time, with Great Seals attached, and the MS. 
notes of proceedings in the House of Commons by 
Speaker Onslow. The Stoke parish register for 1662 
is shown by Mr. Alderman Schoobridge, giving the 
names of those parishioners who underwent the 
curious operation of being touched for the King's 
evil. A number of portraits are shown, including 
those of Samuel Russell, Speaker Onslow, Arch- 
bishop Abbot, and other local worthies. Mr. G. C. 
Williamson has a unique collection of Saxon coins 
minted at Guildford, of Harold I., Edward the Con- 
fessor, and William I., tradesmen's tokens, many of 
them of the scarcest description, one specimen, that 
of James Snelling, about 1656, being the only one 
known to be extant ; also several eighteenth-century 
tokens, bearing a representation of Bishop Blaize, the 
patron saint of woolcombers, the staple trade of 
Guildford, as it was of Godalming, and casts of the 
seals of the various priories and abbeys in Surrey. 
Playgoers will be interested in the old playbills shown 
by Mr. Stent, whilst a reminiscence of the past is 
contained in an old stagecoach bill. The two silver 
spoons used by Abbot, and still remaining in the 
Hospital, are exhibited, as also the seal of the Hos- 
pital, made in 1622, and in use ever since. Several 
fossils are on view. The following is a description of 
the interesting remains discovered at Mr. Lasham's : 
Of the objects exhibited in the temporary museum 
attention was directed to the interesting collection of 
pottery and other relics exhibited by Mr. Frank Las- 
ham. They have been recently taken from a shaft 
or pit discovered in the course of alterations at the 
rear of Mr. Lasham's premises in the High Street. 
The shaft was either excavated in the solid chalk or 
a cavity or fissure appropriated to the purpose. It 
had been filled up mth debris of various kinds, com- 
prising large quantities of animal bones, among 
which are already noticed those of the horse, ox, 
sheep, deer, wild boar, and other animals, associated 
with layers of charred wood, objects of iron, glass, 
pottery, and other relics, and but for the circumstance 
of there being indications of the pit having been care- 
fully covered in, together with the regularity as 
regards certain of the deposits, it might be viewed 
as simply a "shoot" or refuse pit of early times. 
Its object is as yet uncertain, though further researches 
may assist in forming an accurate opinion. The frag- 
ments of pottery discovered make up a large collec- 
tion, and they include a number of well-known 
patterns of Anglo-Norman, mediaeval, and other 
pottery, together with many which, found alone, 
might have been looked upon as either British or 
Roman ware. It does not, however, at present 
appear that there is anything to associate the remains 
with so early a date as the Roman occupation. It is 
well known that with the close of the Imperial rule 
the potter's art declined, together with many other 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



123 



branches of artistic industry, 'but the forms prevailed, 
and for centuries after, vessels, though rudely made, 
gave indications of their design having been derived 
from a classic source. 

Manchester Scientific Students. July i. The 
members proceeded to Dinting under the leadership 
of Mr. William Carr, on the route to Melandra Castle. 
On arrival a Paper was read by Mr. Carr, who said 
Melandra Castle was a Roman camp or station. The 
Rev. John Watson, of Stockport, was the first to 
make the discovery, and to him we are mainly in- 
debted for our knowledge on the subject. He says, 
in the third volume of the Archceologia, that in July, 
1771, the people in the vicinity did not know that the 
ruins were those of a Roman station. Part of the 
walls and ramparts and the ditch were visible. Since 
then much of the stone has been carried away and 
used for building purposes in Hadfield and Gamesley. 
In the north-east gable of the pile of buildings in 
Hadfield, of which the Spinners' Arms is a part, are 
some stones with what seems to have been an orna- 
mental design of an elaborate character in relief. 
Built into the wall over a back door of a house in 
Gamesley is a stone about eight inches square, with a 
Roman inscription upon it. These were taken from 
the ruins of Melandra. Dr. John Aikin, in his Forty 
Miles round Manchester (1794), quotes the authority 
of the Rev. J. Watson, and gives an engraving of the 
ground-plan of the station, the walls of which ex- 
tended 366 feet by 336. Within the rampart, at the 
end to the south-east, was the prsetorium. Many other 
ancient relics have been found at different times, and 
are preserved in the neighbourhood. Among these 
are a Roman coin of the Emperor Domitian, a bronze 
British battle-axe, a sword, Roman tiles, and pottery. 
On the site of the ruins are several heaps of stones, 
some with marks of the mason's tools, others bearing 
traces of having been burnt ; there are also fragments 
of tile and mde earthenware lying about. A few 
years since some men were employed in an exploration 
of the rampart, but as soon as they discovered suffi- 
cient evidence of a building having stood here they 
were ordered to desist. During the spring of 1875 
the fanner who owns the field, in digging up some 
fifty yards of the soil, came upon the foundation of 
the wall towards the'south-east, and took out a large 
quantity of unhewn stone. He discovered the re- 
mains of an entrance to the station the latest link of 
the chain of evidence. The entrance was arched over, 
as the stones clearly indicate, and was probably the 
main entrance ; it was, at least, at the same end as the 
praetorium. The stones are valuable relics of this strong- 
hold of the Romans, and ought never to be lost sight of. 
Two with bevelled edges, one having also a recess 
cut into it, seem to have been pedestals on which the 
pilasters were supported, others the parts of the pilas- 
ters ; there are also three arch stones, one apparently 
the key-stone. They are all in an excellent state of 
preservation, their angles as sharp as if newly cut. 
Dr. Aikin's plan shows one of the entrances to the 
station as having been near the place where these 
stones were found. Could the whole of the founda- 
tion be explored, many additional facts and relics 
might be obtained. The form and position of " Me- 
landra Castle" also harmonize with the assumption that 
it was a Roman station. Its form is an oblong square, 



the shape in which the Roman stations were nearly 
all built, in contradistinction from the British encamp- 
ments, which were circular or oval. On a promontory 
sufficiently high to command the whole of the valley 
in front, it was capable of easy defence, yet was not 
so high as to be exposed to the severe weather of the 
unprotected hills, upon which the natives chiefly 
dwelt. The Romans were not inured to such expo- 
sure. The ignorance of the natives of the locality as 
to the true character of the ruins previous to Mh 
Watson's discovery readily accounts for its being called 
by them "Melandra Castle." There are, for instance, 
"Mouselow Castle," and "Buckton Castle," both of 
which there is reason to believe were British duns 
of the Stone Period. Through the gateway referred 
to passed the first or Frisian cohort of the twentieth 
legion of Rome's imperial army. The inscription on 
the stone over the back-door of the farmhouse in Lower 
Gamesley is as follows : 

CHO. I 

FRISIANO 

C. VAL. VIT 

ALIS 

The Rev. John Watson renders it thus : " Cohortus 
Primae, Frisianorum, Centurio Valerius Vitalis." 
Here, then, we have proof of the presence of the first 
or Frisian cohort, and of Valerius Vitalis, a centurion 
commanding. This cohort was doubtless a part of 
the twentieth legion, which for several centuries lay 
at Chester, and at least as late as the third century. 
This stone at Gamesley also apparently indicates that 
Melandra was not in existence before the year 47 of 
the Christian era. In that year the Frisians, a people 
of Germany, were reduced to obedience to the Roman 
yoke by Corbulo, a Roman general, under the Em- 
peror Claudius. 

Manchester Scientific Students. July 19- 
24. About seventy members visited Barlow Hall. 
The members first inspected the quaint old furniture 
in the entrance hall, amongst which is a curiously 
carved cabinet with portraits, and the following in- 
scription : " Edward IV. 148 1 Lady Elizabeth 
Gray." The dining-room contains a fine old stained- 
glass window, dated 1574, and the monogram A.B., 
with the Stanley and other coats of arms. In this 
room are two heads of the royal stag, shot at Glen- 
tartney by Mr. Brooks. On the wall is a glass case 
containing a part of the original old panelling in the 
interior of the Hall. It was discovered by Mr. 
Thompson after the fire, and had been used to block 
up a window. After tea the members visited the 
celebrated ghost-room, the rest of the time being 
spent in inspecting the old part of the building, 
erected in the time of Henry VIII. On the 24th a 
large party of members visited Chetham's Hospital 
and Library. The members were conducted first to 
the quaint old reading-room with its portraits of 
Chetham, Nowell, and other early Lancashire 
worthies. The Byrom room was next visited. It 
contains the library of John Byrom, F.R.S., the 
author of "Christians Awake," but the most con- 
spicuous object is the immense portrait by Pickers- 
gill of the late Harrison Ainsworth. It was painted 
when the "Lancashire Novelist" was in the hey- 
day of his fame. From the Refectory, by a narrow 
passage, entrance is obtained to the Audit Room, one 

K 2 



124 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



of the finest in the building. With this room is 
associated the name of Dr. Dee, the wizard warden 
of Manchester. One of the carved bosses of the 
ceiling represents Saturn devouring his children, 
but a legendary explanation has grown up which 
makes it to be a picture of a former Baron of Man- 
chester doubtless Sir Tarquin whose cannibal 
appetite greatly aflfected small babies for breakfasts. 
The cloisters with their quaint inner court were also 
visited. 

Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society. 
The members of this society visited an interesting 
district of West Norfolk recently, an unusually large 

J)arty joining in the day's excursion. Proceeding 
rom Norwich to Narborough, the parish church in 
that village was the first place inspected, the fine 
brasses and monuments to members of the Spelman 
family, a series ranging from 1499 to the present cen- 
tury being viewed. Marford Church, next seen, is a 
Decorated structure, still unrestored, and containing 
foliated panelled Jacobean pews and pulpit; the church 
is suffering from decay, caused by damp. A long 
stay was made at Narford Hall, described by Murray 
as a "complete museum of paintings, books, MSB;, 
sculptures, pottery, gems, ivories, bronzes, and other 
articles of inappreciable value, and so numerous as to 
defy description." Westair Church and the ruined 
gateway to the former priory, now the entrance to a 
farmyard, having been examined, the visitors pro- 
ceeded to the interesting parish church of St. George, 
Southacre, where Mr. Herbert J. Greene read a de- 
scriptive paper. The church, a decorated structure, 
occupies the site of an earlier structure. The roof is 
a hammer-beam, one of gi-eat beauty ; it contains a 
fine brass to Thomas Leman, date about 1534, and 
some effigies and brasses to the Hartyk family. The 
extensive earthworks and ruins at Castle Acre Castle 
were next visited, and a Paper was read by the Rev. 
C. R. Manning, who urged that the earthworks were 
of Saxon date, and that the undoubtedly Norman 
masonry built into them was the work of a later 
period. 

Gloucestershire and Bristol Archaeological 
Society. Stow-on-the-Wold, July 25, 26, and 27. 
The Society's head-quarters were at St. Edward's 
Hall, a building lately erected. The President for 
1882-83 was Mr. Edward Rhys Wingfield, of Bar- 
rington Park. On the 25th ult. the members visited 
Upper and Lower Swell, and Upper and Lower 
Slaughter. The old Manor House at Upper Slaughter, 
formerly the home of the " Slaughter' family, is one 
. of the finest in the county. Near the church Mr. G. 
B. Witts has discovered some earthworks, which he 
supposes to have been raised by the inhabitants in 
Saxon times as a place of refuge during a Danish in- 
cursion. There are similar defences near parish 
churches of several Gloucestershire villages. Subse- 
quently, the Society visited Icomb, Bledington, Chas- 
tleton, Daylesford, and Oddington. Icomb was for 
many centuries the residence of the Blakets, noble 
knights who fought for their king at Agincourt and 
elsewhere. The Rev. D. Royce, who has written a 
monograph on Icomb Church and House, acted as 
guide. Chastleton formerly belonged to the Catesbys, 
who sold it in the time of James I. to Mr. Walter 
Jones, in order that they might raise funds for " Gun- 



powder Plot," hatched, so it is said, at Lypiatt Park. 
At Oddington the members examined the old Norman 
church, now deserted and falling into decay. Inte- 
resting papers on the history and antiquities of Stow 
and the neighbourhood were read by the Rev. D. 
Royce, Dr. G. B. Witts, Dr. Moore, Mr. H. Medland, 
and others. 

Devonshire Association for the Advancement 
of Science, Literature, and Art. The annual 
meeting was held at Crediton, July 25, 26, and 27, 
the President being Mr. J. Brooking Rowe, F.S.A. 
The President's address turned mainly on the making 
of history, and dealt at length with a most compre- 
hensive scheme for meeting 'a much felt want 
viz., a good history of Devonshire. This address, 
which is printed, and will appear in the Transactions 
of the Association, will be of great value to biblio- 
graphical students, as it contains as an appendix a 
list of works purporting to be histories of the county 
and of its various towns and parishes. Mr. Rowe 
contrasted the state of Devonshire literature in this 
respect with that of Cornwall, and cited the excellent 
History of Trigg Minor, by Sir John Maclean, as a 
model parochial history, and one well worthy of imi- 
tation. The President also gave some interesting 
details of the early history of Crediton. Reports of 
the various committees on " Scientific Memoranda," 
" Devonshire Celebrities," "Verbal Provincialisms," 
" Barrows," "Works of Art in Devonshire," "Land 
Tenures," "Meteorology," &c.,were brought forward 
by various members, and preceded the reading of 
original papers. The first Paper read was " On the 
Early History of Crediton," by the vicar. Rev. Pre- 
bendary Smith. It was shown that the early history 
of this little town was of unusual interest, it being 
the chosen site of the bishop's See of Devonshire as 
early as 909, and it was the birthplace of Wynfrith, 
the martyred and sainted Boniface. Crediton con- 
tinued to hold the episcopal See until 1049, when it 
was removed to Exeter by Leofricus. Mr. W. Pen- 
gelly, F.R.S., contributed several interesting Papers. 

1. " Words Current in Devonshire in the Fifteenth 
Century which are now Obsolete, or Obsolescent." 

2. " Notes on a Devonshire Sermon in the Seven- 
teenth Century." 3. "Notes on Slips connected 
with Devonshire," fifth yearly instalment. 4. "Note 
on Notices of the Geology and Palaeontology of 
Devonshire," Part IX. Mr. R. W. Cotton contributed 
a valuable Paper concerning the " Oxenham Omen," 
a mysterious superstition connected with the Oxenham 
family : of the appearance of a white bird previous 
to the death of certain members of the family. Mr. 
J. B. Davidson described some documents relating 
to Crediton Minster ; and Rev. W. Downes expatiated 
on "Chert Pits." A most interesting paper on 
"Crediton Musicians," by Mr. Alfred Edwards (who 
is preparing for publication a history of Crediton), 
followed, which led to much pleasant discussion and 
retrospective statements. " The Devonshire Farm 
Labourer Now and Eighty Years Ago," by Rev. 
Treasurer Hawker, was a welcome addition to the 
many pleasant compilations that gentleman has con- 
tributed to the Association's Transactions. Mr. R. 
N. Worth gave a lengthened account of " The Ply- 
mouth Company," and their colonization of New 
England ; and in a subsequent Paper treated his 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



125 



auditors to a descriptive account of "Men and 
Manners in Tudor Plymouth." Mr. E. Parfitt, as 
usual, treated of the Fauna of Devon ; Mr. P. G. 
Karkeek gave a budget of witch stories ; and Mr. 
Robert Dymond, F.S.A., gave a "History of the 
Parish of St. Petrock, Exeter." " The Site of Mori- 
dunum," by Mr. P. O. Hutchinson, was a very inte- 
resting disquisition; a "Glossary of Devonshire 
Plant Names," by Rev. Hilderic Friend, presented 
some valuable particulars ; two other biographical 
Papers were contributed by Mr. Charles Worthy and 
Mr. G. Townsend, on John Hooker and William 
Jackson, musicians, respectively. Mr. W. H. K. 
Wright, in dealing with " Devonian Literature and 
its Special Wants," took occasion to call the atten- 
tion of the Devonshire Association to the need for anew 
bibliography ofDevonshire,awant which hadfrequently 
been urged in the columns of the Western Antiquary, 
The Society is now in its twenty-first year. Its next 
place of meeting is at Exmouth. There was also a 
whole day's excursion to some of the delightful scenes 
with which the neighbourhood abounds. Fulford 
House, the family seat of an ancient and honourable 
family, was visited, and a large party from thence 
proceeded to Fingle Bridge, on the borders of Dart- 
moor, and near the remains of some undoubted Roman 
encampments. 

North Hants Archaeological Society and Field 
Club. ^July 27. This Club paid a visit to Southamp- 
ton and neighbourhood, and after arriving in the town 
the first object of interest visited was the Hartley In- 
stitution. Rubbings of monumental brasses were 
placed around the walls of the council chamber. The 
oldest of the brasses dated from the year 1279 and 
came down to 163 1. The largest commemorated the 
winning of the suit by Bishop Wyvell, of Salisbury, 
in 1375, against Sir Thomas Montacute, Earl of Salis- 
bury, with respect to Sherborne Castle and Bere 
Chase. Another had a local interest, being a repre- 
sentation of John de Campeden, Warden of St. Cross, 
Winchester, and a personal friend of William of Wyke- 
ham. Others contained the counterfeit presentments 
by mediaeval artists of the Earl and Countess of War- 
wick (1401) and the Countess of Oxford with heraldic 
mantles (1607). Mr. T. W. Shore then gave a brief 
account of the history of Southampton. The anti- 
quity of the town was pre-historic, which was proved 
by the fact that they had in the museum specimens of 
flint weapons found on Southampton Common and 
the neighbourhood, and one bronze implement that 
was found when digging for purposes of building at 
St. Denys. These told them that there lived in the 
neighbourhood a race contemporaneous with the use 
of these weapons. In their museum they had the re- 
mains of a long skulled man. They knew for certain 
that there was a most important Roman station here 
in the neighbourhood, and as they went to Netley 
they would pass its site, which was now occupied by 
Bitteme Manor House. Though some might differ 
with him in the belief, he believed the water there 
was often visited by the Roman fleet, which protected 
these shores from the Saxon barbarians. Many anti- 
quities had been found on the site of Bitteme Manor 
House, and there could be no doubt it was the site of 
a most important Roman station. After the departure 
of the Romans, a.d. 440, from Clausen tum, the 



British population held the station, and found it a 
secure base, notwithstanding the inroads of the West 
Saxons. Ultimately the West Saxons pushed their 
way up and round the river and captured the place, 
which must have been left|a heap of ruins for centuries, 
until in ancient times the Bishop of Winchester reared 
a seaside castle, and in that institution they had a plan 
in which the palace was delineated, and the position 
corresponded with the ruins which formed the site of 
the Bitteme Manor House, the enormously thick walls 
of the ruins being in existence to this day, and clearly 
bore out the fact that the castle was one of great im- 
portance. Coming back to Southampton they had 
evidence, from the remains of tombs and other Roman 
relics, showing that Bevois Hill and the district of St. 
Mary's were burial-places, or places were Roman out- 
lying settlements existed, and in Saxon times they 
had proof that the site of the town was situated 
near St. Mary's Church, and it was probable that 
the ancient Saxon Church was dedicated to St. 
Nicholas, and occupied a position somewhat east 
of the present St. Mary's Church. St. Nicholas was 
quoted in legend history as the patron saint of the 
sailor, and Leland in 1646 saw the remains of this 
small church standing ; and in the district of Grove 
Street skeletons had been found from the ancient 
cemetery. The late Rev. Edmund Kell discovered 
interesting relics of this Saxon occupation, and no 
doubt St. Mary's district was the site of the ancient 
" Hamton." The position and limits of the ancient 
" Hamton" were clearly settled by the walls. They 
would see a portion of these walls in different parts 
of the town, on the Western Shore, and elsewhere, 
and were about one mile and a quarter long, and built 
in successive times, and no doubt there was originally 
not a wall, but there was a fosse, and it was a stockaded 
town. Their ancient Bargate was of two dates, the 
central arch being early Norman date, and the flanks 
of the time of Richard III. The length of the wall 
was one and a quarter miles, and Leland says there 
were eight gates, and of these five entrances remained. 
There was Bargate, the gate of God's House, Water 
Gate, West Gate, and Blue Anchor Gate, and it was 
possible that between Blue Anchor Gate and West 
Gate there was an entrance from the West Quay to 
the town. The site of the castle no doubt was built 
in early Norman or Saxon times, he thought Saxon, 
from a coin of Offa having been found. In Norman 
times the fortress was referred to in the dispute be- 
tween the Empress and King Stephen as one to be 
delivered up to Henry Plantagenet on the death of 
King Stephen, and Henry de Blois, Bishop of Win- 
chester, and brother of King Stephen, was required 
to give security for the carrying out of the contract. 
The castle was now approached by two ways one 
from High Street, and the other through a series of 
unpicturesque alleys, he was sorry did not harmonize 
with High Street, from the bottom of West Quay, 
and no doubt the ancient road leading to the Castle 
could be followed. On the West Quay they would 
find a singular style of fortification, a Norman wall 
behind the arcade, and that was no doubt due to the 
fact that there existed along the Quay some Norman 
houses, and more than one eminent antiquary 
thought these arches one of the earliest examples of 
domestic architecture in the country. In one of these 



ia6 



MEETINGS OE ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



houses they would find an ancient kitchen, but the 
date was not certain, and there was no doubt after the 
invasion of the French this reputed House of the 
Kings was looted. Blue Anchor Lane he took to be 
an ancient roadway leading from this palace. Passing 
through the lane they would come to St. Michael's 
Square, the most ancient part of the town, and was 
the ancient *' Fish Chepe." In this part was 
also a portion of a woollen hall. In those times 
Southampton, when there was plenty of passing be- 
tween England and France, the town was a Norman 
French one, and it was believed that 700 years ago 
Henry II. kept his yacht here. Thespeaker having 
alluded to the old building at the bottom of High 
Street, proceeded to speak on the hospital of 
God's House, the chapel being dedicated to St. 
Julian, who was the patron saint of travellers, boat- 
men, and ferrymen, for whose use it was intended, 
and, no doubt, it was a great benefit to these men at 
that time. Allusion was made to the great abbe)rs, 
monasteries, and chantries that formerly were in the 
neighbourhood, and the privilege of having a fair at 
Chapel ; and the speaker expressed the opinion that 
the Reformation excited greater social change here 
than anything that followed or preceded it. They 
had the remains here of some distinguished churches, 
St. Michael's being of various dates, a portion being 
early Norman and some said Saxon, and the font 
resembled an ancient one he had seen at West Meon. 
Holy Rood was an ancient church belonging to the 
Priory of St. Denys. St. Lawrence was a new church, 
but on an old foundation. All Saints Church was an 
ancient church, and probably called All Hallows, but 
it was rebuilt a century ago. It contained now an 
interesting series of vaults. Formerly two large pic- 
tures of distinguished giants, of the date of Charles I., 
was outside the Bargate, but there was nothing re- 
markable about them except that they perpetuated a 
legend of the Saxon times. 

Hertfordshire Natural History Society and 
Field Club. July 15. Field Meeting at Royston. 
The first place of interest visited was the Palace 
of King James I. The palace is a brick building on 
the eastern side of the high road to Huntingdon. 
James I., when on his way from Scotland to take 
possession of the English throne, arrived at Royston 
on April 29 1603, and was the guest of Robert 
Chester, at the Priory. He was so pleased with 
Royston and the neighbourhood that he detei-mined 
to erect a hunting-box here, and during the following 
year [removed hither with all his Court. Charles I. 
spent much of his early youth at Hunsdon House and 
Royston. The visitors then proceeded to view the 
Royston Cave. In the year 1 742, as some workmen 
were engaged in digging a hole in tlie ground for the 
insertion of a post in the Market Place, in Royston, 
just on the boundary line between Hertfordshire and 
Cambridgeshire, they came upon a millstone, at a 
depth of about one foot from the surface. On clearing 
out the earth from the central hole in the stone they 
found there was a hollow space beneath, which they 
found to be about 16 ft. deep. The stone was raised, 
and oh a man descending the aperture, which was 
about 2 ft. across, with notches like steps cut in 
either side in the chalk, he found that the shaft, which 
was 4 ft. in depth, led into a large domed chamber. 



About 200 loads of earth was removed from the 
chamber, until the workmen reached the chalk floor. 
The Rev. George North, F.S.A., who examined the 
cave before the work of clearing had been quite com- 
pleted, states that the only relics found amongst the 
rubbish were a human skull and a few decayed bones, 
fragments of a small drinking cup of common brown 
earth, marked with yellow spots, and a piece of brass 
witliout any figure or inscription upon it. The cave was 
found to be about 26 ft. in height from the top of the 
dome to the floor. The latter is nearly circular, with 
a mean diameter of 17 ft. 3 in. At the base of the 
walls is a ledge of podium, about 3 ft. in width and 
8 in, in height, its inner limit being octagonal ; the 
diameter of the proper or lower floor being thus about 
II ft. At about a height of 7 ft. from the base 
is a cornice without mouldings, about 2 ft. in height, 
rudely carved in a reticulated pattern. This cornice 
recedes, as it rises, about 6 in., thus making 'the 
diameter of the base of the dome about 18 ft. Beneath 
the cornice, and extending nearly to the floor, the 
surface is covered in almost every available place, 
with rude carvings in low relief, chiefly representing 
incidents in the life of our Lord and the Saints. Much 
diversity of opinion has existed, and, indeed, still 
exists, as to the date of the construction of the cave, 
and the purpose it was intended to serve. The most 
reasonable supposition as to its origin and purpose is 
contained in a report presented to the Royal Society 
of Antiquaries by Joseph Beldam, F.S.A., who, in an 
exhaustive paper on the subject, arrives at the follow- 
ing conclusions : (l) That the cave was first formed 
by means of shafts, either of British or Romano- 
British construction, and at a period anterior to Christi- 
anity. (2) That at a somewhat later period the cave 
was used as a Roman sepulchre. (3) That about the 
period of the Crusades it received tlie greater part of 
its present decorations, and was then, if not before, 
converted into a Christian oratory, to which a 
hermitage was probably attached. {4) That it 
remained open until the Reformation, when it 
was filled up, and its existence subsequently forgotten. 
On leaving the cave, the visitors inspected the anti- 
quarian treasures of Mr. Edmund Nimn. They are 
nearly all local, having been found in Royston and 
its neighbourhood. The position in which the ancient 
cross stood the junction of the Ermine Street and the 
Icknield Way was pointed out, but all that remains 
of the structure is the boulder which formed the " foot- 
stone" of it. This is now to be seen in the garden of 
the Royston Institute. Its age cannot be exactly 
ascertained, but not improbably it belonged to Saxon 
times. It formerly stood on the spot still called The 
Cross, which was the point of junction of the two 
Roman military roads, the Ermen Street and the Ick- 
nield Way. Its dimensions are 4 feet 8 inches by 
3 feet 6 inches, by 2 feet 2 inches. It is of irregular 
shape, well worn, and the angles rounded olT. On its 
upper face is a hole, in which the upright portion of 
the cross was probably fixed. The material is mill- 
stone grit, of which many of the boulders found in this 
neighbourhood are composed. The visitors next pro- 
ceeded to The Heath. Mr. F. N. Fordham and Mr. E, 
Nunn gave some interesting reminiscences of excavations 
which had been made at different parts of the Heath, 
and descriptions of what had been found. Following 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



127 



the Icknield Way, along the road to Baldock, there are 
a number of mounds, which are undoubtedly artificial, 
as well as others, which are simply the outcrop of the 
chalk range. In August, 1856, an excavation was 
made at the top of one of these natural hillocks on 
Royston Heath, a little to the north of the old 
road, and facing the Roman villa at Litlington (co. 
Cambridge), about a mile and a half distant, which 
was discovered some years ago. At the summit of 
the mound was a depressed oval, lying north-west and 
south-east, and measuring about 31 feet by 22, On 
excavating the ground, two circular chambers were 
found, both surrounded by a low wall, and communi- 
cating with each other by an opening about 3 feet 
wide. The floor of the northern chamber was reached 
at a depth of 5 feet from the surface, and that of the 
southern at a further depth of 2 feet. The dimensions 
of the northern chamber were about 7 feet between 
north and south, and 6 feet between east and west ; 
the other chamber being somewhat larger. A bench 
of masonry, about a foot high, and the same in width, 
ran round a portion of the northern chamber. As 
there was no pavement discovered, it was the height 
of this bench assuming it to have been a seat which 
determined the level of the floor. Further excavation 
brought to light the skeleton of a dog, two iron knife- 
blades, a bone knife-handle, a small circular bronze 
ornament, an iron stylus, part of a quern, a celt of 
white quartz, a quantity of oyster-shells, some pieces 
of broken pottery, and bones of oxen and sheep. 
Nothing was found beneath the floor of the southern 
chamber. On Thursday, the members proceeded to 
Tewin and Welw^n. In the parish church at Herting- 
fordbury, is a chapel on the north side of the chancel, 
in which is a mausoleum of the Cowper family, con- 
taining several monuments of beautiful design and 
workmanship, and a mile north-west is their ancestral 
seat. In the gardens of the mansion is seen the fine 
old oak known as the "Panshanger Oak." Going 
on to Tewin, by the Hook's Bushes Wood, the church 
was visited, and then the celebrated "tomb of Lady 
Anne Grimston," to which so many people every year 
make pilgrimages. In the church some time was spent 
in examining the old parish registers, which Canon 
Wingfield kindly produced. These date from the 
year 1558, and "the very first entry gives a name long 
known and respected in the parish, that of William 
Wilshiere, who was buried on the 1 7th of November, 
1558." It should be stated that the registers of bap- 
tisms, marriages, and burials are contained in nine 
volumes, besides those now in use. In the two oldest 
and most curious of these, commencing in 1558 and 
1703 respectively, one book only was used for all 
entries ; after 1754, a separate volume was provided 
for the niarriages, and in 1780 the same was done for 
the baptisms and burials. 

Newcastle Society of Antiquaries. July 24. 
The Rev. E. Adamson presided The Rev. Dr. 
Hooppell read an interesting Paper, which referred 
to a supposed old bridge near Hylton, Sunderland, 
In his remarks he said he had long been of opinion 
that the road by which the Roman General, Agricola, 
marched into Scotland, when he made his first attack 
on that country, a.d, 80, must have passed through 
the eastern portion of the county of Durham. In a 
valuable paper, entitled " Durham before the Con- 



quest," Dr. Hooppell expressed his belief that an 
ancient line of road had been laid down from the 
neighbourhood of the present city of Durham to 
South Shields, crossing the Wear near Hylton, at a 
spot called " Le Forth." There was a mass of evi- 
dence that a noble stone-arched bridge existed in 
Roman times. At the conclusion of the Paper, Dr. 
Bruce said they were all obliged to Dr. Hooppell, 
but the matter required further investigation. Dr. 
Bruce intimated that he had received a gem from 
Mr, Clayton, which had been taken from a cornelian 
stone. 

Wiltshire Archaeological Society, August 2. 
The Society held its opening meeting at the Town- 
hall, Malmesbury, under the Presidency of Lord 
Edmond Fitzmaurice, M.P. The Rev. A, C. Smith, 
General Secretary, read the Report of the Committee, 
the President delivered his opening address, and Mr. 
C. H. Talbot read a Paper on " The Architecture 
of Malmesbury Abbey ;" and in the evening Papers 
were read by the Rev. Canon Jackson and Mr. 
Ravenhill. 



FOREIGN SOCIETIES. 

Berlin Anthropological Society. At the last 
meeting before the summer vacation. Dr. Jager read 
a Paper on " Prehistoric Pottery in Egypt and the 
Pyrenees." His theory on the subject had been 
approved by Dr. Sarnow, of the Royal Porcelain 
Factory. Various interesting temple ornaments 
illustrative of the subject were exhibited by the author 
of the Paper and other members of the Society, in- 
cluding Professor Virchow, who at a later period of 
the sitting related his explorations among the Trans 
Caucasian burying grounds. The discovery in the 
tombs of certain Byzantine coins affords a clue to their 
date. 

Berlin Academy of Sciences. At a recent 
meeting Professor Mommsen reported (from written 
and telegraphic information) the favourable progress 
of Herr Humann's explorations in Asia. The monu- 
mental relics of n.tiquity near Angora were specially 
dealt with. The Bi oussa district was also mentioned 
in connection with these researches, as being rich in 
antiquarian treasures. 

Mecklenburgh Historical and Antiquarian 
Society. At the general annual meeeting Dr. 
Wigger gave an interesting description of the policy of 
Duke Adolphus Frederick of Mecklenburgh during 
the Thirty Years' War, up to the time of his de- 
position. An excursion was made to Wismar for the 
purpose of examining the ecclesiastical remains of the 
fourteenth century still to be found there. 

Berlin Archaeological Society. At the July 
meeting, Herr Curtius described a stone tablet dis- 
covered at the Pirseus recording a contract for a build- 
ing. The distinction between painting and relief 
sculpture was dealt with by Herr Konze, with special 
reference to recent Pergamic discoveries of altars, &c. 
Herr Mommsen exhibited a leaden plate found in a 
Carthaginian tomb, with a singular inscription of a 
maledictory character. 

Berlin Historical Society. This body lately 
visited the city of Brandenburg, where it had once 
been domiciled. The Roland pillar, the churches ot 



128 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



St. Paul and St. Katharine, and other interesting 
spots were visited, historical explanations being in- 
troduced at appropriate intervals. 



tTbe anttauatp'5 IRote^'Booft. 



Hindu Marriage Ceremony. Some of the cere- 
monies performed on the occasion of a full caste mar- 
riage (shiide) are detailed below. 

(i.) Pill chithi the yellow letter. This is a notice 
written on paper smeared over with turmeric, pro- 
posing a date for the marriage, sent by the girl's father 
to the boy's father, by the hand of the family barber. 
When a date has been finally fixed on, the girl's father 
sends the 

(2.) Lagan the date. This also is a letter con- 
taining a notice of the date agreed on, and is sent by 
the family priest or barber to the boy's father. It is 
generally accompanied by some copper or silver 
money, betel nuts, turmeric, sacred grass, and some- 
times a red thread, with knots on it corresponding to 
the date agreed on. These things are given by the 
messenger to the boy before his assembled relatives, 

(3.) Tel ban the cleansing ceremony. The boy 
and girl are, for a few days before the marriage, 
rubbed over with a mixture of oil, turmeric, and flour 
to purify them. 

(4.) Baral the marriage procession. The boy's 
father gathers his relatives together, and, taking the 
boy, starts off in as grand a procession as he can form, 
for the girl's village, at the outskirts of which they 
are received by the girl's relatives in ceremonious 
fashion and conducted to a place set apart for them 
for rest and refreshment. 

(5.) Barothi the threshold ceremony. The boy 
is taken to the threshold of the girl's house, and is 
then welcomed by the girl's female relatives, one of 
whom waves round his head a tray containing a small 
lump of flour and melted butter with other things. 

(6.) Phere the turns round the fire. This is 
among the Hindus the important ceremony which 
makes the marriage binding. It almost invariably 
takes place at night under an awning specially pre- 
pared in the courtyard of the girl's house. The rela- 
tives of both parties gather here, and when the sacred 
fire (hom) has been properly prepared, the boy and 
girl, with their clothes knotted together, ai-e made to 
go round the fire seven times at first the boy in front 
and then the girl in front while the Brahmins repre- 
senting both parties repeat the marriage vows and 
perform other ceremonies. The boy and girl are then 
made to sit down, the girl being at the wife's place 
on the left hand of the boy ; and the girl's. father gives 
away the girl to him by placing her hand, with a 
copper or sUver coin, a little water, and some grains 
of rice, in his, while the Brahman pronounces the 
formula of gift. 

(7.) The badhar the marriage feast takes place 
the following day ; and on the day. after that, when 
the dowry has been presented, and the parties have 
exchanged presents, the marriage procession starts 
back again, taking with it the girl, who remains for a 



few days in the boy's house, and then returns to her 
father until puberty. 

The binding ceremony is the phere, or turns round 
the sacred fire. Tupper's Punjab Custojiiary Law, 
ii. pp. 127-128. 

Dates and Styles of Churches. 

Beverley Minster. East end and portions of nave, 
Early English ; remainder of nave, Decorated ; north 
porch and west front. Perpendicular. 

Ely Cathedral. Nave and transepts, Norman ; 
Great Western tower. Transitional ; Western porch 
and presbytery. Early English ; Octagon and Lady 
Chapel, Decorated ; Chapels of Bishops Alcock and 
West, Perpendicular. 

Bath (St. Paul's). Florid Gothic, date 1814. 

Hinton Charterhouse (Somersetshire). Early 
English. 

Woolley (Somersetshire). Debased Roman, date 
circa 1755. 

Batheaston (Somersetshire) Perpendicular; north 
aisle rebuilt 1833. 

^az/&;'^ (Derbyshire). Modern decorated, 1840. 

Hathersage (Derbyshire). Decorated. 

?Fa/j-a//(Staff"s.). St. Peter's Early English, 1844. 
St. Paul's Grecian, 1826. 

Wednesbury (Staffs.). St. John's Early English, 
1845-6. 

Barfreston (Kent). Norman, circa iioo. 

Stone (Kent). Decorated. 

Staffordshire Churches. ( Communicated by Mr. 
y. Jones.) 

Abbotts Bromley (St. Nicholas). Pointed Gothic; 
five bells ; register dates from 1558. 

Acton Trussell (St. James). Early English ; regis- 
ter dates from 1571. 

Bednall (All Saints'). Early English ; register 
dates from 1570. 

Adbaston (St. Michael). Tower, nave, and north 
aisle, Perpendicular ; chancel, Decorated ; four bells ; 
register dates from 1601. 

Aldridge (St. Mary). Early English ; register 
dates from 1660. 

Alrewas (All Saints'). Tower and nave, Norman; 
chancel. Early English ; six bells ; register dates from 

1547- 

Alstonfield (St. Peter). Gothic ; three bells ; 
register dates from 1538. 

Alton (St, Peter). Norman ; register dates from 
t68i. 

Upper Arley (St. Peter.) Tower, nave, and aisle, 
Early English ; chancel. Decorated ; six bells ; regis- 
ter dates from 1564. 

Armitage (St. John the Baptist). Tower, Norman; 
nave, chancel, and aisles, Gothic ; register dates from 

1673- 

Ashley (St. John the Baptist). Tower, Early Eng- 
lish ; three bells ; register dates from 1$$!. 

Audley (St. James. ) Early Decorated ; six bells ; 
register dates from 1538. 

Barlaston (St. John the Baptist). Tower, Early 
English ; five bells ; chancel, nave, and north aisle, 
modem Gothic brick building built in 1845 ; register 
dates from 1578. 

Great Barr (St. Margaret). Early English} en- 



THE ANTIQUARY S NOTE-BOOK. 



129 



tirely rebuilt in i860 ; six bells ; register dates from 
1644. 

Barton-under-Needwood (St. James). Tower, Nor- 
man ; chancel and aisles, Gothic ; six bells ; register 
dates from 1571. 

Baswick (Holy Trinity). Tower, Early English ; 
chancel and nave, modem red brick ; register dates 
from 1601. 

Figured Stone at Pluscardyn. An interesting 
stone, discovered in the vestry of Pluscardyn Priory, 
is here figured. The 
upper lintel of the 
window formerly the 
door into the choir 
was discovered to have 
some figuring cut upon 
it, of which a rubbing 
was taken. Subse- 
quently a considerable 
portion of the slab was 
laid bare. Evidently 
this old stone was 
found when the vestry 
was being built, and 
was made to do duty 
in its present posi- 
tion. Similai-ly figured 
crosses may be seen in 
Cutt's Manual of 
Sepulchral Stones aiid 
Crosses, plates xliv. 
and xlv., where the 
stones belong to the 
thirteenth century. 
Another, plate vi., of 
the twelfth century is 
very similar. A stone 
with incised cross is 
also to be seen at 
Rosemarkie, and is figured in Muir's Old Church 
Architecture of Scotland, p. 1 10. In Furness Abbey 
chancel is a slab almost identical in form, and there 
is also one inside Cartmel Church. Macphail's 
History of Pluscardyn, p. 162. 

Bronze Vessel found at Pluscardyn. The 
bronze vessel here figured was found on the site of 

Urchard Priory, 
and is now pre- 
served at Duff 
House, Banff. 
At the spot 
where it was 
found there were 
also discovered 
large beams of 
oak used in the 
construction of 
some pit or un- 
derground store. 
The vessel is by 
no means un- 
; common in form; 
several almost 
identical may be 
found in the Edinburgh Antiquarian Museum, and Mr. 



Anderson says no date can be assigned to them, as 
this form is common through many centuries. 
Macphail's History of Pluscardyn, p. 98. 





Enttauarian 1Flevo0* 



The Swiss papers announce an interesting anthropo- 
logical discovery the skull of one of the lake-dwellers 
in the vicinity of the Bussen-see. The skull is 
dolicho-cephahc, and apparently that of a woman. It 
was found beneath a bed of turf 15 ft. thick. 

Persons interested in the preservation of ancient 
monuments should give their attention to the state of 
the ancient church of Perranzabuloe the lost church in 
the sands, which was dug up from the sand *' towans" 
of the north coast of Cornwall, some years ago, but is 
now in danger of total destruction from tourists. This 
church has been considered by some as the oldest in 
England (for St. Martin's, Canterbury, has been added 
to, almost rebuilt in the Middle Ages, and restored in 
modern times). It is a valuable relic, to say the least, 
of the Brito-Celtic past, and ought to be jealously 
preserved. 

On July 26, in the Town Hall, was hung the fine 
oil painting taken in the year 1722, by Evans, of 
Rickmansworth Old Market Hall, as it stood in the 
High Street until the year 1805, the painting having 
been most generously presented to the inhabitants by 
Mr. J. W. Birch, Rickmansworth Park, ex-Deputy 
Governor of the Bank of England. 

The popular local feast of St Wilfrid commenced 
on July 29, at Ripon, with a procession of the patron 
saint round the streets of the city, preceded by the 
Ripon Volunteer Band. The saint was arrayed in 
robe and mitre, and bearing in his hand a crozier. 
The custom, which is an ancient one, commemorates 
the return of St. Wilfrid from Rome to Ripon in the 
seventh century. On Sunday the Mayor and Corpora- 
tion attended divine service at the Cathedral in their 
robes of office. 

Mr. Shawcross, writing to the Manchester City 
News, says : Walking last Saturday from Harlech to 
Corsygedd, in search of cromlechs, I noticed the top 
stone or cover of the largest of the two cromlechs 
behind the old school at Dyffryn, known as Coltan 
Arthur, or Arthur's Quoit (the other quoit being in 
the grounds at Corsygedd), had recently had one end 
broken off, also part of one side, by some hammer- 
man, who perhaps wanted a specimen of the bright 
copper to be seen on the under side. The fracture 
was quite new ; perhaps done that day. It is high 
time some restriction was put upon these hammering 
idiots who roam about destroying ancient monuments 
that money cannot replace. 

Beddgelert Parish Church, which has been restored 
from the designs of Mr. Kennedy, Bangor, was lately 
re- opened. It had been suggested that the building, 
which suffered from "improvements" made during 
the present century, should be demolished and a new 
church erected, but the proposal met with scanty 
support, the feeling being very general in favour of 



i3o 



ANTIQ UARIAN NE WS. 



preserving, as far as practicable, all that could be 
maintained of the ancient structure. The restoration 
includes the opening of the east window to its original 
length ; the replacing of the roof with new timber ; 
the demolition of an unsightly gallery ; the opening 
of the two arches on the north side for the formation 
of a transept, and the erection of a vestry on the 
south side. There is very little of positive data as to 
the early history of the church, but it appears to have 
been the conventual church of a priory of Augustines. 
In a history of Beddgelert Priory, reprinted from the 
Arckceologia Canibrensis, the writer says, "It is by 
no means improbable that some kind of hospitium 
had been established here from an early period of the 
Christian history of Wales, and that advantage was 
afterwards taken of this circumstance to found a more 
important establishment. Situated in one of the 
loveliest of Cambria's many lovely vales, at the base 
of the most august of all her mountains ; on the high 
road of communication, even in the remotest times 
of civilization, from the ancient Roman city of 
Segontium towards Mediolanum, and so into the 
Salopian plains round Uriconium ; dedicated to God 
under the invocation of the Virgin, and called the 
House of the Valley of the Blessed Mary of Snowdon 
it must have been considered in ancient times as a 
chosen spot of happy meditation, and as secure from 
all the chances and changes of worldly existence. " 
Charters of Edward I. are addressed to " The Prior 
of the House of the Blessed Mary of Bethkelert." 

Some months ago (see ante, iv. 123) we informed 
our readers of the somewhat peculiar circumstances 
attending the discovery of an interesting window of 
the sixteenth century, in front of the premises, and on 
the second storey, of Mr. Roberts, fishmonger, Wyle- 
cop, Shrewsbury. During the past week this window 
has been re-filled with stained glass by Mr. John 
Davies, of Wyle-cop, from a water-colour drawing in 
the valuable collection of Owen's " Etchings," in the 
possession of Mr. S. Caswell, of this town. In each 
of the openings is a coat of arms, surrounded by 
Quarry work, as follows : Shrewsbury, Berrington, 
St. George's Cross, Duke of Richmond's, arms un- 
known, and Wollascott. It is presumed that the 
premises belonged at one time to the Berrington 
femily, and that the Earl of Richmond (afterwards 
Henry VII.), when Earl of Richmond, is said to have 
stayed there when passing through Shrewsl.>ury. The 
unknowTi arms are, "Gules, a chevron, argent, 
between three bells, or." The glass has a fine rich 
antique appearance, and the window will be sure to 
find admirers among those who inspect it. 

To what extent archseology is becoming popular is 
to be seen by the excursions to picturesque old build- 
ings. Such an antiquarian excursion recently took 
place, at the invitation of Mr. John Reynolds, of the 
Manor-house, Redland. Gurney-street Manor-house, 
near Cannington, the first place visited, is a fair 
example of domestic architecture of the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries. The curious domestic chapel 
now used as a china closet was only large enough 
to accommodate the priest and his assistant. To 
render the mass visible three squints were made in the 
walls ; two affording a view of the altar from a room 
on the first floor, and' one in the side walls, opening 



to one of the rooms on the ground floor. The piscina, 
portions of the altar, and niches for two statues re- 
main. Some old coloured glass in one of the small 
windows elicited much commendation, the figures of 
the birds represented in it being quaint and very 
spirited. The party reached Stogursey, the " Esto- 
cha" of the Exon Domesday Book and the Stoke 
Courcy of later times. Stogursey Church is a fine 
building, and must have been originally one of the 
handsomest Norman churches in Somerset, "It 
was," Mr. E. A. Freeman says, "a church of a pecu- 
liar class, and therefore had a special interest ; it was 
an alien priory, a cell appendant to the Benedictine 
abbey of Lonlay, in Normandy. It was suppressed, 
with other alien priories, by Heniy V. Stoke Courcy 
church belonged to a class different from other mo- 
nastic and parochial churches, for instead of having 
aisles in the nave and no aisles in the choir, it had 
aisles to the choir, and none to the nave." There are 
two recumbent effigies in the chancel of the Verney 
family that of Sir Ralph (died 1351), clad simply 
in a tunic ; that of Sir John (who died in the reign 
of Henry VI.), is in armour. The Verneys were lords 
of Fairfield manor. The font is a fine Norman one, 
and the churchyard cross is simple and imposing in 
design. Castles are not a prominent feature of the 
archaeology of Somerset. The remains of that at 
Stogursey are sufficient to show it had two towers 
and a good moat, though the castle has laid in 
ruins ever since it was taken and burnt by Lord 
Bonville, soon after the first battle of St. Albans. 
The mill (valued in Domesday Book at sixteen pence) 
is near the Castle. Dodington Manor-house, the 
next place visited, is an interesting example of the 
house of a private gentleman of early Tudor period. 
Its minstrels' gallery, very fine roof, and handsome 
sculptured chimney-piece, attracted much attention. 
It was the residence of the Dodingtons for several 
hundred years. Blackmore Manor-house is a very 
interesting and complete early sixteenth century 
building. The domestic chapel retains the old 
arrangement, the western part being divided into 
two stories, the lower for the domestics, and the 
upper communicating with the principal rooms for 
the master of the house ; the eastern part*being the 
whole height of the chapel, for the altar and officia- 
ting priest. A similar chapel exists at Berkeley 
Castle, and at other places. 

Sir Reginald Graham has taken possession of his 
ancestral estate at Norton Conyers, recently purchased 
from Lord Downe, to whom it was sold twenty years 
ago by Sir Bellingham Graham. In April of the 
present year, Sir Reginald Graham repurchased the 
estate, which has been in the femily several hundred 
years. The history of the Grahams in connection 
vdth the district is memorable, for Sir Richard 
Graham, in the battle of Marston Moor, was despe- 
rately wounded, and fled to his home at Norton when 
the battle was lost, where, according to the popular 
story, he was followed by Cromwell, who galloped 
into the hall and up the broad staircase, and as the 
horse turned to descend, the print of the horse's hoof 
and shoe was stamped on the topmost stair, where it 
remains to this day. In the mansion are some fine 
paintings of members of the family, one of which 



ANTIQ U ART AN' NE W^. 



131 



represents Sir Richard Graham standing by the side 
of the horse upon which he took his flight from 
Marston Moor, Vahiable and antique articles of 
furniture are also contained therein, including a chair 
occupied by James I. when he came to claim the 
throne in 1603, and a bed upon which he slept. The 
hall is pleasantly situated, and the return of the 
Graham family to it was hailed with pleasure by the 
inhabitants of the district. 

A new gallery has been added to the British 
Museum, between the Elgin room and the Egyptian 
gallery. It will form an important addition to the 
Museum in connection with the Hellenic room, and 
is intended, we believe, chiefly for the reception 
of the remains of the mausoleum and the colossal 
groups of sculpture erected by Artemesia of Caria 
over the remains of her husband, Mausolus. The new 
gallery is about 150 ft. in length, 40 ft. in width, 
and 30 ft. high to the panelled ceiling. There are two 
descending flights of steps, one at each end the 
south one being in connection with the Hellenic 
room, a square compartment which connects the 
central saloon of the Egyptian gallery with the Elgin 
room, and the north entrance at the end of the former. 
It is in contemplation to make other alterations 
on the east side. The books purchased at the 
Hamilton Library sale, and other curiosities, will be 
included in the collection. The valuable additions 
that have been made of late years in this department 
of archasology have made it absolutely necessary to 
provide more accommodation, notwithstanding the 
removal of some departments to South Kensington, 
The basement of the building is filled with treasures 
that have never been exhibited. The remains of the 
mausoleum of Halikamassos, erected by Artemisia, 
B.C. 352, over her husband, Prince of Caria, are im- 
portant specimens of Greek art, which are rather 
crowded for want of room. The Ionic structure, 
which stands on a lofty basement, and was crowned 
by a stepped pyramid of white marble, is one of the 
finest examples of its class. The chariot group, 
portions of the colossal horses from which are here 
deposited, surmounted the pyramid, which altogether 
was 146 ft. high ; in this group Mausolus himself 
probably stood. Many fragments of slabs of this 
group, and the frieze of high relief which surrounded 
the basement and cella of the peristyle, are to be 
seen here. The chief frieze represented the combat 
of the Greeks and Amazons. Many architectural 
details of this unique edifice are represented by por- 
tions of the cornice, Ionic capitals, leaves, and 
mouldings. The Hellenic room, to which the new 
gallery forms an important addition, contains also 
examples of Greek architecture, which are not so 
well studied as they might be. The sculptured slabs 
of the frieze of the temple of Apollo Epicurius, 
erected by Iktinos to commemorate the delivery of 
the Phigalians from the plague, B.C. 430 ; the frag- 
ments of Doric and Ionic capitals ; and the very 
valuable sculptured remains from the Parthenon, 
the Erechtheum, and other temples, to be found 
in the Elgin room, form alone a school of Greek 
art which the student of architecture has been 
slow to appreciate. The pedimental sculptures 
from the first-named temple certainly deserve higher 



recognition than they have yet received. Many recent 
additions to the Elgin room have been made ; among 
them an interesting lion of colossal dimensions, which 
surmounted a Doric tomb of the Treasury of Atreus 
type, vaulted with radiating cells ; also a sculptured 
drum, found by J. T . Wood at Ephesus, belonging to 
one of the columns of the temple. 

In the course of the excavations for the Co-operative 
Stores, at Gloucester, the following relics have been dug 
up : Copper coin : Anglesey mines halfpenny, 1788. 
A quantity of refuse, probably from glass melting-pot, 
of greenish-blue colour, much oxydized, with nodules 
of silica. Remnant of crucible, in which silver has 
been melted ; particles of silver embedded, A quan- 
tity of shards, dating probably from the fifteenth 
century. Fragments of encaustic tiles, ornamental 
and plain, dating from fourteenth and fifteenth centu- 
ries. Fragments of delf stone-ware, quart pots, &c., 
of fine blue colour; initials A. R, (Queen Anne) and 
G, R. (Prince George of Denmark, her husband) 
existing on some fragments. Pint-pot, stone-ware, 
upper part painted red, lower part enamelled ; on 
enamelled part is, very spiritedly painted, a fox (in 
blue colour), with the legend, " We shall catch him 
anon." Portions of brown stoneware cups, quart and 
pint ; the name of " Hodack" is stamped on one pint 
cup. Remains of glass Dutch flasks ; one, tolerably 
perfect, bears a crest (a dog's head) stamped thereon ; 
the oxydation on some fragments is very beautiful. 
Portion of terra-cotta dish, painted inside a beautiful 
light blue, with portion of (qy.) head of Charles I, in 
dark blue, with yellow crown. The head has the 
characteristic long hair of Charles I, Freestone head 
of infant Christ, of thirteenth-century workmanship ; 
the carving finished on one side only, the other side 
having evidently been against a Madonna, remains of 
gilding existing on hair. Old glass phial and glass 
bottle. Enriched classic moulding in white marble. 
Two ancient earthenware pots. These relics are in 
the possession of the architects, Messrs. Medland & 
Son, but will be offered to the County Museum. 

At the end of last year M, Delaporte went out to 
Cambodia for the purpose of exploring further the 
architectural remains which abound in Cambodia. 
According to a just- published statement, M, Delaporte 
believes he has been able at last to solve the difficult 
problem of the purpose of the religious buildings of 
this ancient metropolis of Indo-Chinese civilization. 
His discoveries have led him to the unexpected con- 
clusion that these ancient Khmer temples were dedi- 
cated to Brahminism, At Angkor- Wat he detached 
from the higher parts the chefs cPceuvre of Cambodian 
sculpture ; bas-reliefs, once brilliantly gilt ; pediments, 
all the subjects of which M, Delaporte maintains, 
dowm to those which decorate the most secluded 
sanctuary, are devoted to the exploits of Rama and 
the glories of Vishnu, At Angkor- Tom, M. 
Delaporte visited several new monuments, on most 
of which he also finds on the principal pediments 
the exploits of Rama and Vishnu, He believes 
he has proved the presence of the lingo, the 
emblem of Siva. He cleared of rubbish and ex- 
plored the ancient palace of the Khmer-kings, 
the rising terraces of which are adorned with com- 
positions in bas-relief; the enormous three-headed 



132 



ANTIQUARIAN NEWS. 



elephant, Iravalti, is there enthroned in all the places 
of honour, as at the angels of all the gates of the 
city, where he is shown by the god Indra, accompanied 
by two apsaras, or celestial danseuses, of his paradise. 

Mr. J. H. Greenstreet is about to publish, by 
subscription of only lOO copies, an autot5rpe fac- 
simile of the Lincolnshire Survey, or list of land- 
holders, in the time of Henry I., from the original 
MS. in the Cottonian Library. 

A church of high interest to artists, says the AtJu' 
nccum, has lately undergone "restoration," and no 
longer possesses historical, personal, or pictorial value. 
It is that of Aldenham, near Watford, which is asso- 
ciated with William Hunt, Byrne, Edridge, and Mul- 
ready. The nave roof of this once interesting building 
was enriched with paintings, c. Henry VI., of curious 
decorative character. These have been restored under 
the decoration of Mr. A, W. Blomfield. New 
glass has been inserted in the windows, new tiles 
have been placed on the floor. The eminently 
picturesque church at Chipping Ongar, Essex, is to 
be enlarged by the addition of a south aisle and 
restored, the wooden spire repaired, the roof retiled, 
and the flint-work repointed. 

An important collection of Oriental manuscripts, 
consisting of 138 volumes, and including some of 
the oldest Arabic MSS. hitherto known, has been 
added to the British Museum Library, which now 
possesses not only the largest number, but the most 
valuable MSS. of the Old Testament. One point of 
extreme interest to the Oriental student is the fact 
that though the commentaries are v/ritten in Arabic 
they contain large quotations from Anan's com- 
mentaries in Aramaic, thus proving beyond doubt 
that Anan, the founder of the Karaites, wrote in 
Aramaic, the language spoken in Palestine in the 
time of Christ. 

It is announced that the library at Towneley Hall, 
so famous for its MSS. of importance to local history, 
is about to be dispersed. This will be no mean 
addition to the famous sales of the season ; but the 
announcement will be received with great regret in 
Lancashire, for no collection is more intimately 
associated with the history, literature, and science of 
that county than that which is now to come to the 
hammer. 

Lord Ashburnham, says the Academy, has at last 
consented to the publication of his unique fifteenth- 
century MS. of the "York Mysteries," which has 
never been printed, though its existence has long been 
known. With much liberality, he has placed it in the 
hands of Miss Toulmin Smith, who is preparing to 
edit the whole, with notes and a short introduction, 
the Delegates of the Clarendon Press having agreed 
to publish the volume. The collection is an important 
addition to our early drama. It contains forty-eight 
plays more than are found in any of the three great 
collections, which have Coventry Plays forty-three, 
Towneley Mysteries thirty-two, and Chester Mysteries 
twenty -four plays. The subjects of the first eleven 
York pieces are taken from the Old Testament, as 
far as the flight of the Israelites and the drowning of 
Pharaoh in the Red Sea ; the remainder are taken 
from the New Testament, the Gospel of Nicodemus, 



and some of the Marian* legends. The Biblical nar- 
rative is closely followed in many parts. The hand- 
writing is that of about 1450, but the composition and 
other facts point to an earlier date for the plays. They 
comprise several interesting varieties of metre among 
the rest, some fine alliterative rhyming verse. The 
volume was, in all likelihood, the official ' ' register" 
of the plays belonging to the Corporation of York, 
whose duty it was to assign the performance of the 
plays to the different crafts. We know from Drake, 
and from the evidence of the volume itself, which 
must have been in active use after 1553, that altera- 
tions were sometimes made by the performers, as well 
as revision of the text to suit later taste. Some inte- 
resting points arise as to the authorship of the plays. 
On comparison with the Towneley Mysteries, also a 
Yorkshire collection, and written in the same Northern 
dialect, four or five of the plays are found to be not only 
parallel in subject, but to be identical in long pas- 
sages and scenes ; in fact, they are the same plays 
with additions or omissions. The York collection 
being perfect, it may be expected that it will serve to 
correct the Towneley set many of the plays in which 
are imperfect, and one, at least, of which seems to be 
displaced in order as well as to supply useful varia- 
tions in readings for the parallel plays. Not the least 
interesting feature of the MS. is, that it supplies the 
scores for the music sung by the angels, recurring in 
the play on the vision of our Lady to St. Thomas, 
probably one of the earliest specimens of the use of 
music in the English drama. The MS. single play 
of this collection (the Scriveners', on the incredulity 
of St. Thomas) which has been printed first at Croft 
in 1797, and reprinted by the Camden Society in 
1858, appears to have been an actor's copy. It 
is a separate MS., lately belonging to Dr. Sykes, of 
Doncaster. The text agrees with that of the York 
play. 

Corrc0pon^encc 



THE GREAT CASE OF THE IMPOSITIONS. 

(v. 61-65.) 

Mr. Hall, in his able paper, treats of a subject of 
such great historical importance that I would venture 
to offer a few comments en the propositions he has 
advanced. I would first deal with the double 
transaction of 1 303 viz., (a) the negotiations with the 
alien merchants ; [b) the negotiations with the 
denizen merchants. But, before doing so, I would 
lay stress on the broad principle, that all negotiation 
in the Middle Ages between the ruler and the ruled 
was based on mutual concession, on " give and take." 
Wherever a privilege is granted from above we have 
to look for the "consideration" which purchased it 
from below. Of this principle the Charters to towns 
afford an excellent instance. It of course, however, 
only applies to normal circumstances and not to cases 
of force majeure. Now, the working of this principle 
in the matter of taxation I take to have been 
practically as follows : ^Just as the burgess in 
demesne obtained the right to govern himself in 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



133 



return for hard cash, so did the subject obtain the 
right to tax himself in return for an increased con- 
tribution. In the special case of traders they would 
also obtain increased privileges for trading. Let us 
then consider, in this light, the events of 1303. The 
customs revenue at this period is rightly divided by 
Mr. Hall into three sections, but, for clearness' sake, 
it will be better to define them as (l) the customs 
proper {magnce custumai) viz. , a defined tax on wool, 
woolfells, and leather; (2) the butlerage viz., a 
defined (as I shall show) tax on wine ; (3) an unde- 
fined right of "prises" on miscellaneous merchandise. 
These two last yiex&^&parvce custuma. It will be 
noticed that I speak of the "prisage" on wines as 
"butlerage," to distinguish it from the right of pri- 
sage on other goods. This is an important point, for 
Mr. Hall uses the term as though it applied to wine 
alone. When the Crown approached the aliat 
merchants in 1303 it offered them two concessions, 
(i) to commute what I have termed its "undefined 
right of prises on miscellaneous merchandise," for a 
defined scale of charges (/ ipsi de prists nostris 
notice here the plural, overlooked by Mr. Hall 
quieti esse .... valeant). This was nothing less than 
a surrender by the Crown of its right of impost and, as 
such, was clearly to its disadvantage ; (2) certain 
trading privileges (for such was practically in those 
days the meaning of libertates). In return for these 
two concessions the Crown obviously sought to attain 
the great object it had kept steadily in view viz., 
that increase on the defined taxes which could only be 
obtained by the payers' consent. This increase {nofva 
custuvia)* the aliens granted. Mr. Hall however, while 
admitting that they granted it on class i, attacks 
Professor Stubbs for stating that they also granted it 
on class 2 (wine). Unfortimately I have not the 
Fadera at hand to examine the Carta mercatoria, 
but I would submit (on behalf of Professor Stubbs 
and in opposition to Mr. Hall) that the zs. on the 
tun was over and above the existing " butlerage," 
firstly, because such increase would be co-ordinate 
with the nova custuma on wool, secondly, because 
the concessions which the crown sought from the 
denizens were avowedly based on those which it had 
obtained from the aliens, and as the is. a tun which 
it eventually succeeded in obtaining from the former 
was (according to Mr. Hall himself) over and above 
the butlerage, we must conclude that in the case of 
the aliens it had been so also. Their freedom from 
prisage, to which Hakewill alluded, referred I believe 
to that right of undefined impost which I have spoken 
of as class 3, and which, as I said, the crown sur- 
rendered to them. We now come to the negotiations 
with the denizen merchants. Mr. Hall here (p. 63) 
assails Professor Stubbs for the statement in his 
Select Charters (,'^. 6,()o) ^aX Edward "attempted to 
get the consent of the merchants to raise the custom 
on wools, woolfells, and leather." Now, even assum- 
ing that this is erroneous which I am not prepared 

* In this I follow Professor Stubbs {Const. Hist., ii. 
524) : " The increment fixed in 1303 was known as 
the ' nova' or ' parva' custuma, in opposition to the 
'magna et antiqua custuma' of 1275." Yet I find 
this very " custuma" of 1275 described by the king as 
"/a noveU cmiume" (Fine Roll, 3 Ed. I). 



to admit it is often needful (I say it in no disrespect 
to Professor Stubbs) to compare his several works 
before deciding on his conclusions. Thus here, in 
his Constitutional History (which Mr. Hall might 
surely have consulted), he speaks (ii. 156) of "their 
consent to an increase of the custom on wine, wool, 
and other commodities, which had been granted by the 
foreign merchants," thus supplying the void com- 
plained of in the Select Charters. But when Mr. 
Hall says of this transaction "the great object of 
the Crown was not to get a present advance on the 
wool customs, but to settle permanently the scale of 
the charge upon wines and merchandise" I must 
differ from him in toto. For, on the one hand, the 
whole history of the struggle proves that " a present 
advance on the wool customs" was the supreme 
object of the Crown, and that in its dire need of 
supplies it was ready to surrender its great right of 
imposition in return for this immediate gain, and on 
the other, the commutation of its right of undefined 
"prises" on general merchandise for a defined and 
limited scale was, instead of a gain (as implied by 
Mr. Hall), an actual loss not only (as is obvious) in 
money, but also, and specially, in prerogative ! 

I now turn to the " butlerage." Mr. Hall says of it 
(p. 64) " it was the undefined nature of the prisage 
that was always contended for by the advocates of tlie 
prerogative in later times." He has here I think been 
misled by his loose use of the term "prisage." As 
far as the "prises" (for the plural form, as I have 
shown, is the right one) referred to the right of 
imposition which I have spoken of as class 3, it 
was indeed as I said, "undefined," but the prisage 
of wine, that is the "butlerage," had from the first, 
on Mr. Hall's own showing, been most clearly 
defined viz., on 'nine casks or under, nil, on more 
than nine and less than twenty, one cask, on twenty 
or more, two casks. Thus, whatever the size of the 
cargo, the prescriptive " butlerage" could be at once 
determined. It is true that in this, as Mr. Hall 
points out. Professor Stubbs's definition is inaccurate, 
but when he proceeds to challenge the assertion that 
the butlerage rate was 20s. the cask, I can bring, I 
think, rebutting evidence. On the conquest of Ireland 
the right of "butlerage" was extended by the Crown 
to that kingdom, but was early granted to the family 
who took from it their name of " Butler." This 
right was defined by the 10th Earl of Ormonde as 
" one choyse tonne of wyne out of every shippe or 
bottome arriving and contayning nyne tonnes of 
wynes, and twoe choyse tonnes of every shippe or 
bottome so arriving and contayninge twenty tonnes 
of wynes or upwards." (Chief Rememb. Roll, Dublin, 
7 Jam. I.) Thus the two "butlerages" were similar 
in extension, (which proves, by the way, that this 
curious scale was at least as old as the Conquest of 
Ireland). But as in John's Charter to Dublin he 
specially reserves the right of butlerage, and authorizes 
his "butler" to take " two hogsheads of wine for his 
use for 40^., that is to say, 20s. each hogshead, and 
nothing more" (Carta Orig.), it seems certain that 
even at that early date 20s. was the butlerage rate in 
Ireland, and pari passii in England. 

Such points as these are obviously of the greatest 
constitutional importance, and hence, as Mr. Hall 
rightly reminds us, ought to be cleared from all 



134 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



obscurity or inaccurate interpretation. It is on this 
ground that I have ventured to offer these observations. 
It may be as well to add that the maltolte of 1297 
surely followed "the episode of the refractory earls," 
instead of "producing" it (as on p. 63), and that Mr. 
Hall's statement, just beneath, "therefore it still 
enjoyed the custom on wool and hides" is a non 
sequitur, that enjoyment depending not on Article VI., 
but on Article VII. "sauve a nous e a nos heirs la 
custume des leines," &c. &c. 

J. H. Round. 
Brighton. 

NEWPORT MARKET. 

* A bit of ** old London" is about to be swept away, 
which is interesting not only for the older memories 
which cluster around but for the uses to which it has 
latterly been put. The long talked-of clearance in the 
southern part of Soho for the erection of improved 
" Working-class dwellings" has been commenced under 
the auspices of the Metropolitan Board of Works. 
The larger of the two blocks to be demolished com- 
prises an area of about 40,000 feet superficial, which 
is bounded on the south by Newport Court, on the 
east by Princes Row, and along the north and west 
by Litchfield Street, Grafton Street and Little New- 
port Street. To the north-west of this is a smaller 
block already partly removed which, including 
Hayes Court, lies between Gerrard (more properly 
Gerard) Street on the south, Nassau Street on the 
west and King Street to the north. Within the 
larger block are situated what was the Market-house, 
an octagonal building with a glazed upper chamber, 
and adjoining the public-house in Princes Row the 
last of the slaughter-houses to survive the Public 
Health Act of 1849. South of the Market-house is 
an ancient barn-like structurf^ which has some 
shadowy association with King Charles I. and Oliver 
Cromwell. This is erroneously stated to have been 
the slaughterhouse, but was in fact a place where the 
live beasts were stabled for sale, the dealers and pur- 
chasers congregating in the "chaffering floor'' above. 
But drovers, butchers and slaughtermen have long 
disappeared. In this same quaint building, its fine 
old woodwork of ages ago and even the stalls yet 
remaining, many a wretched outcast without a home 
or domesticity of any kind could look for at least one 
night's shelter and food, one word of counsel, one 
effort of help ; and here some sixty wastrels are re- 
claimed from the streets, housed, clothed, fed, and 
placed in the way of earning an honourable livelihood. 
Your readers will learn with regret that the Newport 
Market Refuge and Industrial Home, ousted from 
their present quarters, are in sore straits, having but 
slender resources to find another settlement. The 
Market-house and Home are encompassed on three 
sides by Princes Row, access to which is gained by 
Market Street and openings out of Litchfield Street 
and Newport Court. Market and King streets con- 
tain some fine examples of the stately brick houses 
which were once the favourite residences of the 
fashionable frequenters of Soho. Numerous evidences 
exist of the nationality, then as now, of a portion of 
the inhabitants, in the shape of restaurants, magazins, 
and cafes. Grafton House in Little Newport Street, 



which, with the antique house next to it, will go the 
way of the rest, stands upon the site of the town 
mansion of Mountjoy Blount, whom King Charles I. 
created Earl of Newport from which title (for he was 
subsequently created Earl of Warwick and Lord Gray) 
the estate derived its name. He was then living in 
Military Square, or Garden (now Leicester Square) so 
called from the Artillery Ground which was made for 
Henry Prince of Wales, where is now Gerrard Street. 
The alterations will fortunately spare the houses of 
Burke and Dryden, Nos. 37 and 43 in Gerrard Street 
so named after Charles Gerard, or Jarard, first Earl 
of Macclesfield but will make sad havoc in a quarter 
which is full of interest for the student of the past. 
In Newport Market Orator Henley was wont to 
preach before he betook himself to Clare Market ; and 
a market poulterer a "Turkey merchant" as his son 
called him was father to Home Tooke. It was here 
that the father had the memorable dispute with the 
household of Frederick Prince of Wales about the 
making of a way from Leicester House in Newport 
Street through his back premises in the market 
beyond. In the result, as the late Earl Russell proudly 
enunciates in his Essay on the English Constitution, 
the " tradesman of Westminster triumphed over the 
heir apparent of the English Crown, and orders were 
issued for the removal of the obnoxious door." Wil- 
liam Cavendish, third Earl of Devonshire, died at 
Newport House in the year 1654, soon after which 
time it passed into other hands. In the rate- books of 
the parish of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields there appear 
under Newport Street the following names : The 
Earls BoUinbroke, Newporte, Leicester, and Hol- 
iande ; the Ladies Cornwallis, Eurett, and Harris ; 
the Lord Crofts, and so on ; whilst among eminent 
inhabitants of a later day may be instanced Charles 
Howard, first Earl of Carlisle, our ambassador to the 
Czar of Muscovy and to King Charles XI. of Sweden; 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, who in 1761 moved from No. 5 
on the northern side to Leicester Fields ; Rynier, 
compiler of the Fcedera, Vivares the engraver, and 
Carte the historian. 

W. E. MiLLIKEN. 

Cornwall Residences, N.W. 

ST. IVES, HUNTS, 
(v. 219.) 

I have read with pleasure the observations or re- 
port made by the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 
and respecting our parish church. An allusion is 
made to the ancient name of the town, Slepe, and 
which was so called in Domesday Book, and ap- 
pears to be Saxon for slipe or slepe, a strip of dry 
land, because the old town was built upon a strip of 
such land. Ednoth is said to have built a church 
here, which was destroyed in 1207. 

Now, upon referring to Domesday Book, I find the 
following statement : 

" In Slepe lib, Abb de Ramsey xx Hid ad Ged ; 
Tra xxiiii car, : in d'mo tra llll car : Ibi P'br, Eccla 
60 ac pa T.R.E. nat. XX lib, Evrard, Ingelraun & 
Plienes llll hid &c V villi vl bor'd, cir. in car : 
Ecclam : P'bm. valet XLV sol," &c. 

It appears from this extract that there were two 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



135 



churches, one maintained by the abbot and the other 
by the landowners. It was probably the latter church 
where the body of St. Ivo was found (if found there 
at all), as it stood, with the ancient priory, at the 
east end of the town, surrounded by pastures and 
arable lands. Whereas the present church is erected 
at the west end of the town, close to and abutting 
upon the river, and isolated. It must have been, at 
the time of its erection, built upon piles, away from 
habitations, so as not to be likely to be destroyed 
by fire, and at a distance of one-third of a mile 
from the former church. 

St. Ivo is said to have travelled here about 600 
A.D., and in ic7 Ednoth built a church to his 
memoiy, &c. This was 400 years afterwards, and 
200 years subsequently, or 100 years after Domesday, 
when the church was destroyed. But which of the 
two churches were so destroyed ? as there were, 
apparently, two churches at the time of the Survey. 

Further on it is stated that the building on the 
bridge was visited. I well know this cottage (it 
formerly belonged to myself, as did the house also 
visited as lately ocfcupied by Mr. Sherringham) ; but 
I am not able to concur in the notion that the 
cottage on the bridge was ever a chapel. It was, 
in my opinion, a lighthouse, erected in order to give 
light to the passengers in crossing the dangerous 
river and swamp in flood time to the south side. 
This swamp extended far away over what are now 
called Hemingford and Fenstanton and St. Ives 
Meadows. It was, until recent times, d'jr/r- parochial. 
If it ever belonged to the Priory (near to) it would 
have been sold or disposed of when the Priory was 
dissolved by King Henry VIII. The two storeys 
erected on the building were no doubt added to it 
after 1689, when a great fire occurred at the end of 
White Hart Lane, passed across the Sheep Market, 
and consumed the upper part of the cottage, and over 
the river to the two houses thei-e. But the fire did not 
extend to the paristf church, as was supposed, such 
church being nearly half a mile distant. The Priory 
and its old walls were not, it appears, visited by the 
Society. 

There is one short error in the report namely, 
that the church was served from the Abbey of 
Ramsay, which was not a very great distance from the 
Abbey. Now, it must be remembered that Ramsay 
is distant from St. Ives (straight) at least ten miles, 
a distressing distance in those early times for a traveller 
to take. The Stone Chair, nearly mid-way, was pro- 
bably erected or put down for weary travellers to rest 
upon in bad weather. 

J. King Watts, 

St. Ives, Hunts. 

POPULAR NAMES OF TUMULI, &c. 

In " Shrowl field," in the parish of East Harptree, 
Somerset, there stood until recently (I regret to say 
they have been ruthlessly broken up) two stone 
pillars, locally known as "the devil's quoits." Tra- 
dition tells that the devil on a time was "hurling" at 
our church from the vantage ground of the opposite 
hill, but that his " quoits" fell thus short of the mark. 
Though not an advanced historical sceptic, I should 



rather conjecture that they are the remains of a 
"coet" or "dolmen" laid bare (if ever covered) by 
the combined action of the weather, and the plough or 
spade. However, the legend in this form is, I fancy, not 
uncommon, and I should hardly have troubled you 
with an instance of it had I not wished to direct 
attention to the curious confusion which appears to 
exist as to the wood quoit or coit, as thus applied in 
two distinct senses to the same object. Has it ever 
been satisfactorily explained ? "Cfoet,"we are told, 
means in Breton, " a groove or wood," and is some- 
times transferred to the rude stone monument standing 
therein, as e.g., Kits Coitz House, Arthur's quoit, and 
many others. How this etymology is reconcilable 
with the situation of some ot these " quoits" I confess 
I do not understand : but supposing it to be correct, 
it would seem that the derivation of "quoit" (cestus) 
must be from an entirely distinct root, and that the 
later legends of heroic or satanic quoit throwers were 
founded on the accidental similarity or rather identity 
of the names applied to monumental and hurling stones. 
I may add that these stones were of the same con- 
glomerate formation as those of the Stanton Drew 
circles some five miles distant. The Stanton stones 
are supposed by some to have been brought from East 
Harptree, but I understand that recent investigations 
rather lead to the conclusion that they were dug in 
situ. 

C. H. NUTT. 
East Harptree Rectory. 



ECCLESIASTICAL ART EXHIBITION. 

Will you kindly permit me to appeal to your anti- 
quarian readers for contributions to the " Loan Col- 
lection" of the Ecclesiastical Art Exhibition, which 
is to be held concurrently with the Church Congress 
in October next. The Committee will feel greatly 
obliged by the temporary loan of examples of ancient 
church plate, metal work, embroidery, enamels, 
ivories, rubbings of monumental brasses, drawings or 
photographs of ecclesiastical buildings, and any other 
articles likely to prove interesting to those who attend 
the Church Congress. 

I need hardly say that the greatest care will be 
taken of all objects entrusted to the Committee. Com- 
munications should be addressed, without delay, to 
Herbert Cooper, Esq., 11, South Parade, Derby, 
or to 

John Hart. 



OLD FOOTSTEPS OF THE SAXONS. 

Reference is made in the interesting article on this 
subject in the last number of The Antiquary to 
the correspondence, respectively, between the English 
place-names Buxton, Ilereford, and Exeter, and the 
German place-names Biixten, Herford, and Exter. 

This conformity must, however, be accidental, in- 
asmuch as the English names cited are modern corrup- 
tions only of the ancient names : Buxton of Bectune, 
Hereford of Hen-ffordd or Caer-ffawydd, and Exeter 
of Exanceastre or Exacestre. 

Frederick Davis. 

Palace Chambers, St. Stephen's, S.W. 



136 



THE ANTIQUARY EXCHANGE. 



^be anttquari? jgycbanae^ 



Enclose ^. for the First 12 Words, and id. for each 
Additional TTirte Words. All replies to a numbej- should 
be enclosed in a blank envelope, with a loose Stamp, 
and sent to the Manager. 

Note. All Advertisements to reach the office by 
the l$th of the month, and to be addressed The 
Manager, Exchange Department, The Anti- 
quary Office, 62, Paternoster Row, London, 
E.G. 

The Manager wishes to draw attention to the fact that 
he cannot undertake tofonvard post cards, or letters, 
unless a stamp be sent to cover postage of same to 
advertiser. 

For Sale. 

Autograph Letters. Apply to R. H., 15, Brooklyn 
Road, Shepherd's Bush, W. 

A set of 60 Consular Denarii, collected in 
Rome, in very fine condition. Also a number of 
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ST. CJ?ISPIN'S DAY. 



137 




The Antiquary, 



OCTOBER, 1882. 




(October 25.) 
By T. Fairman Ordish. 

This day is call'd the feast of Crispian : 
He that outlives this day, and comes safe home, 
V^ill stand a tip-toe when this day is named, 
And rouse him at the name of Crispian. 
* * * * * 

And Crispin Crispian shall ne'er go by, 
From this day to the ending of the world, 
But we in it shall be remembered ; 
We few, we happy few, we band of brothers. 

Heiiry V. act iv. sc. iii. 
Then call we this the field of Agincourt, 
Fought on the day of Crispin Crispianus. 

Ibid, sc. vii. 

T accords with the idea of Shakes- 
peare, both in our own and other 
countries, that he has no meaning- 
less words, even though, through 
the accidents of time, there be possibly some 
obscure. Upon the familiar passage at the 
head of this article some light may fall from 
what can here be said of St. Crispin's Day ; 
enforcing, may be, the advantage of collateral 
study, upon which living eminent Shakes- 
pearian critics insist with such practical 
enthusiasm. 

Crispin and Crispinian are the patron 
saints of the shoemakers, who have been 
accustomed to celebrate their martyrdom on 
its anniversary, the 25th of October (the eighth 
of the kalends of November). The occasions 
have taken mostly the form of processions, 
followed by feasting, which element flourished 
more in our own country than on the Con- 
tinent. There are some interesting notices 
of these commemorations ; but in order that 
their meaning and sociological significance 
may be perceived, it will be necessary to 
make a short excursion into legendary 
history. It will then be seen that, although 

VOL. VI. 



their origin is common, there is an essen- 
tial difference between the English and 
the continental shoemaker saints. Their 
points of divergence may nevertheless be 
traced, as well as the transmutations which 
the original crede undenvent when it reached 
English soil. 

The history of the saints is brief enough ; 
and to save the reader the trouble of taking 
down from his shelves the Lives of the Saints, 
by the Rev. Alban Buder, and the book with a 
similar tide by Mr, Baring-Gould, an abridged 
account of them may be given. 

They were natives of ancient Rome, and 
it is supposed they were of noble birth. 
Embracing Christianity, they journeyed into 
Gaul, and settled at Soissons, where they 
preached their faith, sustaining themselves 
by shoemaking. They put into practice the 
Christian ideal of Charity, and gained much 
honour with the Bagundse, amongst whom 
they dwelt. When Maximinus Herculeus, 
in the course of his expedition against the 
Bagundffi, in 284 a.d., came to Soissons, he 
was inflamed by finding followers of Christ in 
that comparatively remote province ; and the 
fame of Crispin and Crispinian led to their 
being seized and handed over to Rictiovarus, 
prefect of the Gauls, to be tried and punished. 
Mr. Baring-Gould writes : "AtSoissons is shown 
now the place where they are traditionally 
said to have been imprisoned. An abbey 
called Saint Crepin en Chaie {in caved) was 
built on the spot." 

The brothers were ordered by Rictiovarus 
to be executed by the sword, and their 
bodies to be cast into the common sewers. 
This is probably all the truth of the martyr- 
dom. The Acts, however, contain much 
apocryphal matter, detailing the miraculous 
preservation of the Saints in their torments. 
Spills of wood are thrust between their nails, 
but these start out of their fingers and stab 
their tormentors ; mill-stones are hung round 
their necks and they are thrown into the 
river, but they do not sink ; boiling lead is 
thrown over them, but that refreshes them ; 
pitch, oil, and fat are stewed together, into 
which they are thrown, but still without 
damage. Rictiovarus then becomes so dis- 
gusted that he casts himself into the fire 
under the cauldron, and there stifles his 
chagrin. These circumstances are fictitious, 



138 



ST. CRISPIN'S DAY. 



but they have yielded subjects for the canvas, 
and so deserve mention. The Acts further 
tell us that, seeing their chief tormentor dis- 
posed of, the brothers placidly submitted to 
be decapitated ; and this is probably correct. 
The Emblems of these Saints are thus 
stated by Dr. Husenbeth* (who dates the 
martyrdom 280 a.d.) : 

Tied to a tree and flayed alive. Das Passional. 
1'wo shoemakers at work. Callot. 
Strips cut from a hide. Die Attribtile. 
Shoemakers' tools near them. Ikonographie. 
Instructing shoemakers in their shop. Gueffier. 

The picture representing the Saints at their 
shoemaking work is placed at the head of 
Hone's account of them, and is said by him 
to be faithfully copied from an old engraving 
of the same size by H. David. 

On pages 308-9 of Dr. Husenbeth's book, 
the October Calendars of the different Euro- 
pean countries are placed in juxtaposition. 
The Festival of St. Crispin is marked in only 
the old Enghsh of Saruni use, the French, 
and the Spanish; these are all on the 25th 
of October. It is also marked in the German 
Calendar, but on the 26th of the month. 

With regard to the burial, the relics, and 
the monuments of the Saints, something must 
be said. According to Mr. Baring-Gould, 
the burial took place on the spot where 
afterwards stood the church of St. Crdpin- 
le-Petit, at Soissons. He writes : " It is 
customary at Rogations for the procession 
to pass along the Rue de la Congregation, 
and halt before the house No. 14, which 
occupies the site of this old chapel, and there 
to chant an antiphon and collect of SS. 
Crispin and Crispinian." This is probably 
the building of which the Rev. A. Butler 
writes : *' A great church was built at 
Soissons in the sixth century, and St. Eligius 
richly ornamented their sacred shrine." But 
according to the Roman Martyrology, the 
bodies were translated in the ninth century 
to Rome, and buried in the church of St. 
Lawrence, and Mr. Baring-Gould says : 

The bodies were also translated to Osnabriick, in 
Westphalia, by Charlemagne, in the eighth century, 
where the fact of the translation is annually observed 
on June 20, with office approved by the Sacred 

* Emblems 0/ the Saints^hY'P.G. Husenbeth, D.D., 
V.G., second ed. pp. 42-3. j 



Congregation of Rites. However, the Chui-ch at 
Soissons exhibited during the Middle Ages, if not ail 
the bones of the saints, at least a considerable number 
of them. 

It may be surmised from this account that 
the Festival of St. Crispin retained its religious 
character ; and so, for a long time, and in 
the Roman Catholic countries of the Con- 
tinent, it did. That it was otherwise in 
Britain is again to be expected, for the 
insular and Protestant character of its people 
never fails to affect what comes to it from 
foreign sources. In France and Flanders, 
before the Reformation, several Shoemakers' 
Guilds had been established. Their ideal 
was very high, and was fostered by the 
church. The " Confrerie des Compagnons 
Cordonniers," was established in the Cathe- 
dral of Paris, in 1379, by Charles the Wise. 
In 1304 the company of Cordonniers of 
Ghent, framed provisions against immoral 
life amongst its members. At Namur a 
Guild of Shoemakers was flourishing in 1376. 
When the incorporation was granted, the 
authorities expressed the hope that the 
statutes would advance " the honour and 
glory of the blessed Son of God, and of the 
Virgin Mary, and of all the blessed saints of 
Paradise."* A more recent and more im- 
portant fraternity was that established by 
Henry Michael Buch, commonly called 
"Good Henry," an account of whom is 
given in a lengthy note appended to his 
short account of the Crispin Martyrs, by 
Butler in his Lives. Henry was of poor 
parents in Luxembourg, who made him a 
shoemaker. He determined on a pious life, 
took the Saints Crispin and Crispinian for his 
models, and exercised much benefit upon his 
companions. So he lived at his work several 
years at Luxembourg and Mersen, when he 
came to Paris. Here he attracted the notice 
of the pious Baron Rentz, who proposed to 
him a project for establishing a confraternity 
to facilitate the heroic exercise of all virtues 
among persons of his profession. For this 
end he purchased for him the freedom and 
privilege of a burgess, and made him com- 

* Delightful History of ye Gentle Craft, by 
S. S. Campion. 1876. Second edition, revised and 
enlarged. An interesting histoiy of leet costume, 
with illustrations ; and an account of shoemakers who 
have attained celebrity. 



ST. CRISPIN'S DAY. 



139 



mence master in his trade, that he might take 
apprentices and journeymen who were wil- 
ling to follow the rules that were prescribed 
them, and were drawn up by the curate of 
St. Paul's, regarding frequent prayer, the use 
of sacraments, the constant practice of the 
Divine presence, mutual succours and relief, 
&:c. The date of the foundation of this 
fraternity was 1645. What was its connection 
with the guild established in Paris by Charles 
the Wise does not appear. 

The martyrdom of the Crispin Saints was 
the subject of several mysteries, of which the 
most important was printed and published 
at Paris, in 1836. It is entitXad, My stere de 
Saint Crespln et Saifit CresJ>inia?i, piiblie pour 
la pre7niere fois, cTaprh le inanuscrit con- 
serve aux archives du royanme. Par L, 
Dessalles et P. Chabaille. Another form of 
dramatic representation, and of contrary 
motif is, St. Crispin^ s Triumph over Pope 
Innocent ; or, the Mo?iks and Fryers routed. 
A tragi-comedy, as it 7oas lately acted at 
Vantzick, in Poland, by the Pefor?ni?]g Shoe- 
viakers, Sfc.^ in verse. This was published 
in London, 1678. 

When we come to England we find the 
historical fact of the martyrdom clothed in 
a legend, consisting of two distinct stories, 
into which the incidents of the lives and 
deaths of the martyr brothers are split up, 
altered indeed in the process, but still recog- 
nizable. It is interesting to observe how 
the national character constructs for itself an 
ideal out of foreign elements. The per- 
sonality of the martyrs is lost. The martyr- 
dom itself becomes only the denouement 
of a romance, known as that of St. Hugh 
and the fair Winifred. The apotheosis of 
the craft is derived, not, as on the continent, 
from the holy martyrs having gained their 
livelihood by shoemaking, but from its adop- 
tion by two youths who are princes in dis- 
guise, one of whom, secretly and in very 
questionable circumstances, marries the 
daughter of the Emperor Maximian, from 
whom they are hiding. This is Crispin, who 
in name answers to the chief of the martyrs. 
The other, Crispinian, unlike the martyr so- 
called, who has no existence apart from his 
brother, is a very active personage ; he is 
" prest to the wars," and gains the Emperor's 
favour by his prowess and valour, and so 



brings about the reconciliation which is the 
end of the story. The festival in England, 
therefore, is stripped of its religious character ; 
it becomes a feast, and latterly, as will pre- 
sently be seen, a revel. 

This shoemaker's epic has long held a 
place in English literature, but whether it 
will endure so long as the 25 th of October 
shall continue to revolve is at least doubtful. 
In a restricted form it appears in The 
Gentle Craft, 1648, which is a second 
edition of The Gentile Craft, 1639, both in 
black letter. The story, however, receives 
its proper development, and attains its 
literary position, in a volume entitled The 
Delightful, Princely, and Entertaining His- 
tory of the Gentle Craft, which consists of 
the dual legend Avith a variety of cognate 
matter in the way of ballad and song. This 
book must have been very popular. There 
are three chap-editions of it in the British 
Museum. Of these only one has the 
romance of St. Hugh and St. Winifred, 
This proportion is probably significant of 
the tendency to eliminate the martyrdom 
from the legend. In the volume of chap- 
books containing the latest of the three 
editions, there is pasted a paper with these 
words : " This collection was made by me, 
James Mitchell, at Aberdeen, in 1828. It 
may be considered as the Library of the 
Scottish peasantry, the works being sold by 
itinerant chapmen about the country, espe- 
cially at Fairs." Apart from the interest of 
this statement, it has meaning and applica- 
tion to our subject, for the commemoration 
of the Feast of St. Crispin has been more 
general in Scotland than in any other part of 
the kingdom. 

But to the Delightful History. Some 
outline of it must be given. The chapter 
headings will almost suffice. Chapter I. : 
" The pleasant, entertaining, and princely 
history of St. Hugh, and his constant love 
to the handsome virgin, Winifred." She is 
daughter of Dunvallo, last king of Tegina, 
now called Flintshire. Chapter II. : '' How 
beautiful Winifred, being over much super- 
stitious, forsook her father's wealth and 
lived poorly by a springing fountain, from 
whence no man could get her to go ; which 
spring to this day is called Winifred's Well." 
In the third chapter, the Romans have de- 

L 2 



140 



ST. CRISPIN'S DAY. 



scended on Britain, and captured Dunvallo, 
Winifred's father, and sent him to Rome, 
where he dies. A religious persecution has 
commenced, and Winifred is in prison under 
sentence of death for her faith. In the 
meantime, St. Hugh, who, since his continued 
failure to win Winifred from thoughts of 
religion to those of love, had been travelling 
abroad, comes back again ; and, on his 
arrival, hears that his father has fallen in 
repelling the Roman invasion of his country. 
He is thus made a fugitive, but happily falls 
in with a journeyman shoemaker, who re- 
lieves his wants and teaches him his trade. 
He resolves again to seek Winifred, and 
journeys to Flintshire to that end. When 
he reaches there, he hears of the persecution 
and Winifred's impending fate. His grief 
attracts attention, and he is cast into the 
same prison that held Winifred. During his 
confinement the shoemakers relieved his 
necessities, in return for which he composed 
verses in their praise, styling them therein, 
"The Gentle Craft," which title has con- 
tinued to the present day. It is in the 
sensational circumstances of the execution 
that followed that we are reminded of the 
martyrdom of the saints. In consideration 
of her blood-royal, Winifred is offered choice 
of modes of execution. She instantly chooses 
to be bled to death. The tyrant caused the 
flowing blood to be caught in basins, and 
poison put therein. They were then pre- 
sented to St. Hugh, who seized them eagerly. 
Casting his eyes around, he saw several shoe- 
makers in the crowd, and, with a smile of 
noble courtesy, drank to the honour of the 
" Gentle Craft," and bequeathed them his 
bones. The body of the princess was thrown 
into a hole near the well that bears her 
name, while that of St. Hugh was hung on a 
gibbet, exposed to the fowl of the air. When 
there was nothing left but bones, the journey- 
men shoemakers happened to pass, and re- 
membered St. Hugh's affecting bequest. They 
fetched the bones away, and treasured them 
as relics, converting them into tools for use 
by the Gentle Craft, from which it became 
usual to say, when seeing a traveller pass 
along with a small bundle at his back, 
" There go St. Hugh's bones." 

The fifth chapter of the History com- 
mences the story of the brothers, The 



heading runs : " How Crispianus and his 
brother Crispine, the two sons of the King 
Logria (thro' the cruelty of the tyrant 
Maximinus) were forced in disguised manner 
to seek their lives' safety, and how they were 
entertained by a shoemaker at Faversham." 
It is noteworthy here that Crispianus is 
mentioned in the first place, and that he is 
the spokesman on the occasion of the inter- 
view with the shoemaker and his wife. They 
became apprentices of the shoemaker. The 
sixth chapter tells us " How the Emperor's 
Daughter Ursula fell in love with Crispine, 
coming with shoes to the Court, and how in 
the end they were secretly married by a blind 
Friar." Chapter the seventh : " How Crispi- 
anus was prest to the wars and how he 
fought with Iphicratis, the renowned general 
of the Persians, who made war upon the 
Frenchmen. Showing also the occasion of 
the proverb. That a Shooe-makefs Son is a 
Prince born." This chapter is headed with 
an engraving representing two armed knights 
in full tilt, with visors down, and horses 
armed and caparisoned. There is an obvious 
violence to chronology in introducing Iphi- 
cratis here, by whom is probably intended 
the Athenian general, who Hved 600 years 
before the time of Crispianus. But as he is 
said to have been the son of a shoemaker, 
his presence here is doubdess for the dignity 
of the craft. He is overcome by a brother of 
thecraft in the person of Crispianus, for whose 
prowess he testifies great admiration. The 
following chapter brings us back to Crispin 
and Ursula, and tells of the birth of their son, 
from which occasion arose the saying that a 
shoemaker's son is a prince bom. In the next 
and last chapter we read of the reconciliation 
of the brothers with the Emperor, who now 
knows of their princely station : 

At which time the shoe-makers in the same town 
made holiday : to whom Crispine and Crispianus sent 
most princely gifts to maintain their merriment, and 
ever after upon that Day at night the Shoe-makers 
make great chear and feasting in remembrance of the 
two princely brethren. 

The story was doubtless popular in Shake- 
speare's time, and largely circulated in editions 
of earlier date than those mentioned. In the 
fly-leaf at the beginning of the British 
Museum copy the following note is writ- 
ten ;-^ 



ST. CRISPIN'S DAY. 



141 



It may be conjectured this trifling work first 
appeared about tlie close of the reign of Eliz, or 
beginning of that of her successor, from the following 
epigram by Sir John Harrington : 

Of a Book called Ye Gentle Craft. 

I past this other day through Paul's Churchyard 
And heard some read a booke and reading laught ; 
The title of that booke was Gentle Craft. 
But when I markt the matter with regard, 
A new sprung branch that in mind did graft, 
And thus I said; Sirs, scorn not him that writ it ; 
A gilded blade hath oft a dudgeon haft. 
And well I see, this writer roves a shaft 
Neere fairest marke, 3'et happily not hit it. 
For neuer was the like booke sould in Poules 
If so with Gentle Craft it could persuade 
Great Princes midst their pompe to leame a trade, 
Once in their lives to worke, to mend their soules. 

No. 46 of " Epigrams both Pleasant and Serious, 
written by that all-worthy Knight Sir John Harring- 
ton, and never before printed." 1815, 4to. 

Another circumstance confirms this was printed 
before 1600, as it was probably the occasion of the 
play of the Shoemaker's Holiday being written ; the 
plot being from that part of the work which begins at 
cliapter the tenth. [How Sir Simon Eyre being at 
first a shoe-maker, became in the end Lord Mayor of 
London, through the counsel of his wife ; and how he 
broke his fast every day on a table that he said he 
would not sell for a thousand pounds ; and how he 
caused Leaden Hall to be built.] Both play and 
tract were popular : of the latter editions have been 
too numerous in the chap-shape to enumerate ; of the 
play editions are known of dates 1600, t6io, 1618, 
1621, 1631, 1657. 

Another play to which the Delightful 
History gave rise is, A Shoemaker's a Gentle- 
man. This is more directly connected with 
the legend, and is thus described in Baker's 
Biographia Dramatica (vol. iii. p. 267) : 

Comedy by William Rowley. Acted at the Red 
Bull; and afterwards revived at the Theatre in 
Dorset Gardens, 4to, 1638. The plot of this play is 
founded on a novel in 4to called Crispin and 
Crispianus, or the History of the Gentle Craft. It 
consists of a good deal of low humour, and appears 
from Langbaine to have been a great favourite among 
the strolling companies in the country, and that some 
of the most comical scenes in it used commonly to be 
selected and perfonned by way of droll at Bartholo- 
mew and South wark Fairs. 

Crispianus doubtless figured largely in the 
popular mind at that time as a typical warrior 
and soldier of fortune, and the reference to 
him in the speech of Henry V. before the 
fight at Agincourt, testifies not so much to 
Shakespeare's acquaintance with the fictions of 



that time, but to his consistent idea of the 
character of Henry, who, it is supposed, 
would not have mixed in the miscellaneous 
society of his wild days without becoming 
acquainted with so popular a history. The 
readiness with which the occasion is seized, 
points to the general character of the feast 
on the one hand, and to Henry's clear deci- 
sion and promptness of character on the 
other. The famished band of English sol- 
diers, standing like sacrifices before the 
French host, are animated by the spirit of 
their leader. He is their king, in fact as 
well as name, because he is their hero. 

He that outlives this day and comes safe home, 
Will stand a tip-toe when this day is named, 
And rouse him at the name of Crispian. 
He that shall live this day, and see old age, 
Will yearly on the vigil feast his neighbours, 
And say, " To-morrow is St. Crispian :" 
Then will he strip his sleeve and show his scars, 
And say, *' These wounds I had on Crispin's Day." 

The prophetic picture of these lines is 
probably suggested by the custom of keeping 
that day a feast ; a custom in which others 
than those of the craft doubtless sympa- 
thized. The example of Crispianus, the 
shoemaker warrior, appears to be implied. 
It was here, on French soil, that he was said 
to have won his fame, which led to his re- 
gaining his princely condition. And one 
can imagine that the inspiration of the legend 
appears in the lines 

For he to-day that sheds his blood with me 
Shall be my brother : be he ne'er so vile. 
This day shall gentle his condition. 

As if to share that battle with the prince 
is to be ennobled, in a manner resembling 
the apotheosi.5 of the craft of shoemaking by 
its having been followed by princes. And 
later on, when twitted by Henry for wishing 
for more men from England, Westmoreland 
exclaims 

God's will ! my liege, would you and I alone, 
Without more help, could fight this royal battle. 

Perhaps it would not be altogether fanci- 
ful to connect Crispianus and his warlike 
exploits in Gaul with that reference to the 
past in Henry's speech to his men before 
Harfleur 

On, on, you noblest English, 
Whose blood is fet from fathers war-proof. 



143 



ST. CRISPIN'S DAY. 



Fathers that, like so many Alexanders, 

Have in their parts from morn till even fought. 

And sheathed their swords for lack of argument. 

There are several woodcuts illustrating 
the Delightful History. That opposite the 
title-page represents the two brothers side by 
side. Crispianus is completely armed, and 
there is a view of camp tents in the back- 
ground. Beneath are these lines 

Honour and many victories do crown 
The name of Crispianus with renown, 
Whilst Crispin a new conqueror doth prove, 
And wins at home a royal lady's love. " 

Of the notices of the observance of the 
Feast of St. Crispin, there is one, a cutting, 
pasted in the volume of the Delightful 
History, in the British Museum. The ac- 
count, dated, Dublin, 25th of October, 1734, 
is as follows : 

Yesterday, being St. Crispin's Day, the Society 
of Journeymen Cordwainers, vulgarly called Shoe- 
makers, walked in Procession through this City, and 
made a handsome appearance. As they passed by 
the Tholsel, the Rt. Hon. the Lord Mayor, ordered 
them to be stopped and deprived St. Crispin's Guards 
of their arms, together with their trumpets and kettle 
drums, and, as we hear, obliged some of them to take 
the Oath of Allegiance. This disappointment, how- 
ever, did not stop their proceedings ; they went to St. 
Michael's Church and heard an excellent sermon, 
suitable to the occasion, preached by the Reverend 
Mr. Robinson. After divine service they returned 
to the Bull's Head in Fishamble Street, where they 
had an excellent dinner, and concluded the day with 
Healths to their Majesties the Royal Family, &c." 

The origin of the legend of St. Crispin 
being laid in France, the fact of its obser- 
vance being more general in Scotland than 
other parts of the United Kingdom needs 
no further explanation. 

In October, 1741, the Edinburgh shoemakers 
made a very handsome parade in honour of their 
tutelar Saint Crispin, attended by several thousands of 
the populace. Their king was very richly dressed ; 
he had on a fine crimson velvet suit trimmed with 
gold, a train of crimson satin faced with ermine, and 
a collar round his shoulders with the Order of their 
Champion Crispianus ; on his head was a rich coronet 
adorned with jewels ; a gold ribband was tied round 
his left leg, and he had a baton in his hand. He 
was attended by six Ushers, six Pages, and twenty- 
four others. The colours came after, and were very 
fine, having the resemblance of St. Crispin taking the 
measure of St. Ursula's foot. [This is one of the 
woodcuts in the Delightful History. "l He was pre- 
ceded by a set of music, and twelve officers with 
white rods, and walked through the city with great 
pomp." Saint Crispin and the Gentle Craft, 1868, 



" King Crispin's Procession in Falkirk the 
9th day of September, 18 14. A new song, 
composed for the occasion by a brother craft," 
of which the following are some of the verses, 
describes one of the celebrations : 

The Champion bold he did appear 

with his iron coat of mail, 
Well guarded by his aid-de-camps {sic) 

lest any should assail. 
They look'd like ancient warriors 

which history doth record, 
They were all dress'd in fine array 

admired by young and old. 
King Crispin he did next come forth 

in all his fine array 
Attended by his royal court, 

which grandeur did display ; 
The noble crown upon his head, 

And robe with a long train ; 
Supported by a few young crafts, 

that it might not get a stain. 
The Lord Mayor next did appear, 

with his wig and scarlet gown. 
Surrounded by his Counsellors 

then all march'd west the town, &c. 

They returned to Shearer's Inn, whence 
they started ; a sumptuous dinner, with many 
toasts followed, and at night dancing and 
merriment. 

There is a description of a Festival in the 
Percy Anecdotes, under the title of King 
Crispin. It resembles the preceding one, 
but exceeds it in splendour : 

In the morning his Majesty King Crispin, with 
the whole of his officers of State, attendants, &c. , that 
is, persons representing them, assembled in the chapel 
royal of Stirling Castle, and the company being there 
properly marshalled according to the most approved 
rules of heraldry, marched through the streets of 
Stirling in the following order : 

Three men in front with broadswords drawn. 
The champion on horseback, armed, and 
supported by two aides-de-camp, also on 

horseback, with broadswords drawn. 
The head colonel with silver-hilted sword 
drawn, sash, and gorget. 
Stand of Colours. 
Ensign with sash, gorget, and silver-hilted 
sword, supported by two captains with silver- 
hilted swords drawn. 
A military band of music. 
Lord Mayor, supported by two aldermen and 

colours. 
The ushers, with green batons, two and two, 

hats off. 

The King, in his royal robes, with a large 

^reen baton, supported by his right and 

left hand secretaries, their hats off, his 

train borne by his pages. 

Prime Minister, hat off. 



Sr. CRISPIN'S DAY. 



143 



Fifteen Iords,'with stars on their left breasts, 

hats off, three and three. 

Two captains with silver-hilted swords 

drawn. 

The corporation colours borne by two ensigns, 

supported by two captains with silver 

hilted swords, drawn. 

Commons, two and two. 

^Two stand of colours borne by two ensigns, 

supported by two lieutenants with 

silver-hilted swords drawn. 

Fifes and drums. 

I Two captains with silver-hilted swords 

drawn. 
The Indian Prince in his robes, armed with 

battle-axe, and bows and arrows, 

supported by his two secretaries in character, 

also armed, and all on horseback. 

Two captains with silver-hilted swords 

drawn. 
Lieutenant-colonel with sash and gorget, 

silver-hilted sword drawn (or pike). 

Two captains with silver-hilted swords 

drawn. 

Three broadswordsmen 

Two majors on hoi-seback. '" 

As the procession advanced through the 
town, they were greeted by the cheers of an 
immense number of spectators, and every 
window displayed beauty and smiling appro- 
bation. At five o'clock^ his Majesty in 
council entertained his loyal subjects with a 
sumptuous dinner at the principal hotel. 
After the cloth was removed, " His Majesty's 
well -beloved cousin, King George the 
Third," and various other toasts appropriate 
to the occasion, were drunk. 

The King's secretary then read a speech 
on behalf of his Majesty, after which the 
assembly adjourned to the ball-room, " where 
the merry dance on the light fantastic toe 
displayed the taste, elegance, and envied 
beauty of King Crispin's empire." 

The military or waxlike element in the 
preceding show is very pronounced, although 
Crispianus does not appear by name, St. 
Crispin's Day has received attention in the 
pages of Notes and Queries. On January lo, 
1852, "R. W. B." writes : 

In the parishes of CuckSeld and Hurstpiei-point in 
Sussex, it is still the custom to serve St. Crispin's 
Day, and it is kept with much rejoicing. The boys 
go round asking for money in the name of St. 
Crispin, bonfires are lighted, and it passes off very 
much in the same way as the Fifth of November 
does. It appears from an inscription on a monument 
to one of the ancient family of Buuell, in the Parish 
Church of Cuckfield, that a Sir John Bunell attended 
Henry V. to France in the year 1415, with one ship, 



twenty men-at-arms, and forty archers ; and it is 
probable that the observance of this day in that neigh- 
bourhood is connected with that fact. If so, though 
the names of 

Harry the King, Bedford , and Exeter, 
Warwick and Talbot, Salisbury and Gloster, 

have ceased to be "familiar as household words" in 
the mouths of the people, yet it is a curious proof for 
what length of time a usage may be transmitted, 
though the origin of it may be lost. 

If any of your correspondents can inform me 
whether St. Crispin's Day is observed in their neigh- 
bourhood, and if so, whether such cases can be con- 
nected, as in the present instance, with some old 
warrior of Agincourt, they will much oblige. {Notes 
and Queries, v, 30) 

" R. W. B." evidently was not aware of the 
legend of the patrons of shoemaking, Crispin 
and Crispinian, or Crispianus. The fact he 
communicates is very interesting neverthe- 
less. There is another notice of St. Crispin's 
Day, by "S.T.R.," dated September 11, 1852. 
The celebration was at Hexham, in Northum- 
berland, and consisted of dinner, procession, 
and dance, in the manner already described. 
" S. T. R." adds : '' There is some legend con- 
nected with the affair which I do not suffi- 
ciently remember to relate." Another 
festival in the same county occurred on 
July 29, 1822, when 

the cordwainers of Newcastle celebrated the festival 
of St. Crispin, by holding a coronation of their patron 
saint in the court of the Freemen's Hospital at the 
Westgate, and afterwards walking in procession 
through the principal streets of the town. This 
caricature show produced much laughter and mirth ; 
but, considering the rapid increase of knowledge, it 
is probably the last exhibition of this kind that the 
craft will exhibit in this place. History of Nnocasile- 
upon-TynCf vol. i. p. 88, by E. Mackenzie (1827). 

In Sunderland there is a St. Crispin's 
Friendly Society, of which the articles are 
enrolled in the county court. Among these 
it is specified that 

An annual dinner be had on every 25th of October 
(St. Crispin's Day), towards which every member 
pays is,, the rest to be paid out of the funds of the 
Society. The present state of their finances is very 

good They have a secretary and two stewards, 

who attend to the business of relieving sick members, 
&c. They have one warden, whose business is to see 
all pettites dettes paid incurred by their meetings. 
A committee is annually elected, to which all cases 
of an extraordinary nature are referred. Immediately 
after dinner on St. Crispin's Day the procession is got 
up, in which they generally personify all the male 
members of the then reigning Royal Family, together 
with the Lord Mayor of London, Aldermen, &c, 
arranged as follows : 



J 44 



ST. CRISFWS DAY. 



Champion, duly equipped. *^ 

King, in his royal robes, with crown and sceptre, 

having his train borne by four little boys. 

Royal Dukes. 

Lord Mayor of London. 

Aldermen, &c. 

The private members take up the rear, and are 

generally dressed in black coats. In this order they 

generally proceed to walking round the room a few 

times, and occasionally they have a public procession. 

But as no part of the expenses of such procession are 

allowed to be paid out of the funds of the institution, 

this public exhibition occurs but seldom. The 

arrangements, however, are nearly the same, whether 

public or private, with this difference, that when 

public, the champion is mounted on a charger, and 

the whole train, preceded by bands of music, &c. 

When private, they necessarily dispense witii the 

noble animal, and for "bands of music" substitute 

the stringed instruments. On Friday last the festival 

was kept in this way, ' * secure from public gaze. " 

Invariably in the "evening females are admitted, 
when his Majesty, ere he resigns his regal honours, 
selects himself a Queen : their Majesties then lead off 
the dance; thus they together sport on the "light 
fantastic toe," and so conclude the day. Crispin 
Anecdotes, pp. 25-7. 

Such was the custom of commemorating 
St. Crispin's Day. Is it a custom now? 
Probably not. St. Crispin in ^modern life 
may be celebrated by a dozen or two of 
gentlemen of the last in swallow-tails ; and 
in neat complimentary speeches after dinner, 
reference may be made to the past, and the 
numerous celebrities who have made shoes, 
from the brothers Crispin and Crispinian 
,?nd St. Hugh downward. The old lines 
from the Shooe-maker" s Glory 

To add more lustre unto the merriment. 
Our ancestors came of a royal descent ; 
Crispin, Crispina, and noble St. Hugh, 
Were all sons of kings, this is known to be true, 

may be repeated in the year 1882. The 
fantastic procession is probably defunct ; gone 
to the old-clothes shop. It existed in Carlyle's 
young days in his country; but he it was 
who gave significant intimations to the world 
that it was growing out of its clothes, and 
must begin to think of fresh suits. Life is 
change ; and change is development ; but 
mankind loves the past. There it is that the 
soul of things may be seen, and man's spirit, 
struggling for expression, appears before us 
in symbols often strongest where most 
grotesque. 



Ipreston (5tI^ 




ilT a time when the old Gild life 
has departed, it is pleasant to re- 
flect that its memories are still 
kept up with such vigour as we 
have witnessed at Preston. Commencing on 
Monday, the 4th of September, and continuing 
throughout the week, the festivities and cere- 
monies of this ancient Gild, which take place 
every twenty years, carry us back, in thought 
at all events, to the early history of Gilds, 
about which so much has been written, and 
about which so much has yet to be written. 
The daily newspapers having duly chronicled 
the modern doings of the Gild, we propose 
to take our readers back to the ancient 
doings, and endeavour to find out the true 
significance of the early history of Preston Gild. 
In treating of the history of Gilds and 
Municipal Corporations, it is necessary to do 
away with the notion that each Gild or Cor- 
poration has an entirely independent history. 
It has so long been the fashion to attribute 
the origin of Corporations to the charter of 
the sovereign or over-lord, that the mere 
idea of grouping the whole of the Gilds and 
the whole of the Corporations together, and 
deducing from the evidence thus accumulated 
the lines of a common history, has scarcely 
occurred to the stiident, and I venture to 
think that my contribution to Archaologia 
(vol. xlvi.), " On Traces of the Primitive 
Village Community in English Municipal In- 
stitutions," was the first effort in this direction. 
During the continuation of these studies, which 
are gradually assuming a somewhat extensive 
compass, I have ascertained some important 
facts with reference to the contribution of 
Preston to the early history of Gilds, and I 
propose placing them before the readers of 
The Antiquary. 

It is worth while, in the first place, point- 
ing out why the charter cannot be said to 
have originated the Gild or the Corporation. 
At the present day, when a town is incor- 
porated into a borough, it formulates its 
desires into a document, which becomes the 
basis of the new charter. Thus the charter 
may be said to stereotype existing facts and 
history, rather than to create a state of things 
that did not previously exist. Accordingly, 



Preston gIld. 



MS 



the study of municipal chartered rights is a 
study of the customs of the town at the 
time of the grant altered or varied, it may 
be, in some matters of detail, in some matters 
of definite privilege, or of State relief from 
taxation, but in the main elements a simple 
permission to carry on the customs and 
exercise the functions that had hitherto been 
carried on and exercised. In the case of 
Preston this is actually known to have been 
the case. The first charter gi'anted to the 
town is that of Henry II., without date, and 
known only by an Inspexijuus ; and then 
follow charters of xst John, nth Henry III., 
and 37th Henry III. The Royal Commis- 
sioners, reporting hereon in 1835, distinctly 
assert that " the three earlier charters seem to 
have been little more than confirmations of 
certain unchartered privileges which the bur- 
gesses of this town had enjoyed from very 
ancient times."* 

Now this clearing away of the obstacles 
to our penetrating beyond the times of 
charters for the early history of Gilds, enables 
us at once to ask the important question 
Does not the wide-spread existence of Gilds 
proclaim a history which begins in the earliest 
times of the English race ? Mr. Spencer, 
relying upon the evidence brought together 
by Dr. Brentano, points out with great clear- 
ness that in the Gild of later days we have 
the representative of the ancient family, f He 
rests his conclusion mainly upon the liability 
of the Gild brethren to answer for the good 
behaviour of each other, and upon the singu- 
larly curious evidence of the common family 
(/.<?., Gild) meal two institutions which 
essentially carry us back to the primitive 
family unit of a village community. But 
Preston Gild adds some further important 
evidence, the value of which cannot be over- 
rated. The family unit of the primitive 
village community held tenements in the 
village, the possession of which gave them 
their only rights in the village, in the period- 
ical distribution of arable lands, and in the 
common pasture. To each of these impor- 
tant features of the archaic family, Preston 
Gild presents a corresponding feature. 
According to the ancient Custumal, now pre- 

* See also Thompson's English Municipal History, 
p. 92. _ 
t Political Institutions, p. 557, 



served among the Corporation archives, and 
which it is curiously stated " they have from 
the Breton law" : 

No one can be a burgess unless he have a bui^age, 
of 12 feet in front. 

Also, when any burgess shall receive his bur- 
gage, and it shall be a void place, the Reeve shall ad- 
mit him so that he shall erect his burgage within forty 
days upon a forfeiture ; but if he does not erect it he 
shall be in mercy \i.e., shall be amerced] 120'.* 

This is the ancient village tenement upon 
which depends the rights of the villager. 
Another entry in the Custumal enables us to 
absolutely identify this Gild tenement as a 
relic of the archaic village tenement, for it 
carries with it the primitive rights of pre- 
emption :t 

Also when any burgess shall be desirous to sell his 
burgage, his next-of-kin is to buy that burgage of him 
before any other, and when it shall be sold and he 
hath not another burgage, when the other shall be 
seized he shall give 6,d. for the. issue, but if hath 
another burgage he shall give nothing.^ 

A further interesting feature of these 
clauses of the ancient Custumal of Preston 
is the fact that " forty days" only were allowed 
for the erection of the tenement a time that 
takes us to the ancient village habitation, 
consisting of wooden frames filled in with 
wattle and daub. Some reminiscences of 
these old buildings were retained until 
modern days. When the old buildings facing 
the market-place were removed in 1855, 
much curiosity was excited by an examina- 
tion of the framework, each tenon and 
mortise being numbered to correspond with 
each other, so that when the frame was placed 
on the site it had to occupy the component 
parts could be easily fitted to each other. 
The ancient homesteads of England exist 
still here and there let me note in passing 
the ancient wood and plaster building (con- 
sisting of one large room) at the back of 
the wall on the lower quay at Southampton 
and a study of them is very much needed. 

The next important feature of this old Cus- 
tumal of Preston is that which connects the 
burgage tenement with the rights over the land. 

A burgess hath common pasture everywhere, except 
in cornfields, meadows, and hayes.|| 

* Dobson and Harland's History of Preston Guild, 

PP- 74-75- 

+ For the archaic feature of this, see vol. iv. p. 89. 

J Dobson and Harland, loc. cit. p. 77. 
Ibid. p. 47. II Ibid. p. 77. 



146 



PRESTON GILD. 



This unfortunately does not give us com- 
plete evidence of the ancient mode of 
periodical distribution of the arable lands, it 
not being stated in what manner the "corn 
fields, meadows, and hayes" were held ; but 
on turning to the Reports of the Commission 
of 1835, we ascertain that among the present 
property of the borough, irrespective of 
special grants for charity, are some plots of 
land, let principally on leases for life or to 
yearly tenants, by public tender. Con- 
sidering the evidence to be derived from the 
general history of Corporation property, it 
is not too much to say that these modern 
life-leases and rack-rentals are the descendants 
of the earlier arable plots held by all the 
burgesses in right of their tenements within 
the village, especially as we have the pasture 
rights definitely preserved in the forest, wood, 
and swamp, the ancient "mark" of the village. 

There is one other important item of 
primitive life preserved in the Custumal of 
Preston Gild. 

The Pretor of the Court 'shall collect the king's 
farm at the four terms of the year .... and shall 
take away the door of such burgage, and the burgess 
shall not replace his door until he have paid his debt.* 

The association of the burgage tenement 
with the liabihty is very extraordinarily shown 
by this curious custom, and comparing it 
with the more severe practice at Folkestonef 
and at Hastings! of the commoners pulling 
down the chief tenement upon the refusal of 
a burgess to accept office, we may carry the 
whole practice back to that age when the 
village tenement was the centre from which 
issued all the rights, and correspondingly all 
the liabilities, of the primitive villager. 

Thus it appears to me that these old Gild 
records are deserving of still further study 
a study which shall proceed upon the lines of 
comparative archaeology instead upon the old 
plan of isolated descriptions of ancient facts 
and events. Picking out one or two of the 
leading features of the earliest Custumal of 
Preston Gild, we have been able to glean 
therefrom a contribution to the science of 
primitive politics, and by a thorough com- 
parison of the customs of other Gilds, it is 
possible to ascertain a great deal more of 
the pre-historic phases of English social 

* Dobson and Harland, loc. cit. p. 75. 

t Report of the Record Commission, 1837, p. 453. 

% Sussex Archccological Collections, xii. p. 197. 



history. Into that we cannot of coiu'se 
enter just now ; but I must be permittee to 
quote some curious facts concerning the Gild 
show at Shrewsbury, in order to give an 
example of the significant relation which 
the modern Gild bears to the ancient family. 
I cannot conceive anything more directly 
indicative of the ancient village settlement 
in families than the following mimic Gild 
festivities, and they become so only because 
they fit in with other evidence from the 
antiquities of Gild life, and because the 
picture thus produced is a counterpart of 
the picture produced by a study of the oldest 
land and village customs of England. 

At Shrewsbury, on the southern side of 
the town, separated from it by the river, lies 
a large piece of high ground called Kings- 
land. This land belongs to the Corporation, 
and it was on this spot that the Shrewsbury 
Gilds held their annual festivities ; and 
hither they directed the pageant procession, 
which, as in other places, was held about 
the feast of Corpus Christi. Portions of 
land were distributed to the different Gilds, 
the officers of which built thereupon their 
halls, or "arbours," as they were termed. 
These erections were principally composed 
of wood, and each was furnished with a large 
table or tables and benches, from which the 
members of the Gild regaled themselves at 
their annual festivals. Supplementary build- 
ings, sometimes of brick, were attached to 
the halls for the accommodation of the 
persons in charge. Each hall was appro- 
priated to a particular Gild, and all had a 
plot of ground allotted to them, usually 
rectangular in shape, which was surrounded 
by a hedge and ditch, and had also an entrance 
gate of more or less ornamental design. 

G. Laurence Gomme. 

n Some uatnt lb Xaws 
of jenglanb. 

By J. H. Flood. 
PART II. 

GAINST transgressors of the law 
generally our forefathers were by 
no means so leniently disposed as 
we are, but were accustomed to 
take full stock of all delinquents who were 




ON SOME QUAINT OLD LAWS OF ENGLAND. 



M7 



to be dealt with. The old writer, quoted in 
the last article, says on this subject : 

Now, upon the examination of felons, and the like 
offendors, these circumstances following are to be 
considered : 

His name, that is, if he be called by divers names ; 
his parents, if they were wicked and given to the same 
kind of fault ; his abilitie of body, that is, if strong 
and swifte, or weake and sickly ; his nature, if civil 
or hasty, witty and subtill, a quareller, pilferer, or 
bloudy minded, &c. ; his means, if he hath whereon 
to live, or not ; his trade ; his company, if ruffians, 
suspected persons, or his being in company with any 
other offendors ; his course of lyfe, that is, if a com- 
mon ale-house hunter, or ryottous in diet, play or 
apparell ; whether he be of evill fame or report ; 
whether he hath committed the like offence before ; 
the change of his countenance, his blushing, looking 
downewards, silence, trembling ; his answers, doubtfuU 
or repugnant ; the measure of his foot ; if he fled ; if 
he lyes lurking in a place where he had nothing to 
do; time, the yeare, day, houre, early or late. 

It may, however, surprise the reader to hear 
that, in the reign of Elizabeth, dyeing cloth 
or other material with logwood was deemed 
so heinous an offence, that persons convicted 
thereof were committed to prison, and there 
*' remained without baile " until they paid 
the penalty required by the law. 

By a Statute passed in the reign of Edward 
VI. it is enacted that : 

No person under the degree of a lord, shall shoot 
in any handgun, within any citie or towne, at any 
fowle or other marke, upon any church, house or 
dove-cote. Neither shall any person shoot in any 
place, any haile-shot, or any moe pellets than one, 
at one time, upon paine to forfeit lO;^, and to have 
three moneths imprisonment." 

A good position in society seems to have 
also been a sine qua non to all lovers of sport 
in the merry days of a still older period, 
judging from the following enactment of the 
time of Richard II. : 

If any layman, not having inlands 40?. per annum: 
or if any priest or dark, not having living ^o per 
annum, shall have, or keep any hound, greyhound, 
or other dog for to hunt, or any ferets, hays, hare- 
pipes, cords, nets, or other engins, to take or destroy 
deere, hare, conies, or other gentlemen's game, and 
shall be thereof convicted at the sessions of the peace, 
every such offender shall be imprisoned for one whole 
yeare. 

Due attendance at divine service was re- 
quired by the law in the time of "good 
Queen Bess," one of her statutes declaring 
that " persons above the age of sixteen 
yeares, which shal absent themselves from 



the Church by the space of one moneth, and 
shall be thereof lawfully convicted, shal 
forfeit for every moneth 20;^, without 
baile." 

We are informed by an old author that 
" the law abhorreth idlenesse as the mother 
of all evill ;" and it would appear that the 
spirit of this sentiment was duly observed 
by our forefathers in the time of Edward III. 
During the reign of this sovereign, Parlia- 
ment passed an Act, known as the Statute of 
Labourers, the particulars of which are 
curious, " and are a good standard to settle 
the comparative value of money." The 
object of the Statute was to rectify the 
state of disorganization existing in the labour 
market of the day, which had been caused 
by the plague of the previous year. This 
terrible visitation having seriously depopu- 
lated the country, some of the labourers, 
according to the recital of the Statute, were 
now taking advantage of the scarcity of 
hands to insist upon extravagant demands, 
while others were choosing rather to beg and 
live in idleness, than to earn their bread by 
labour. This Statute, which was a sort of 
Master and Servant's Act, declares that " a 
common labourer in the hay harvest, is to 
have one penny a day, except a mower, who, 
if he mows by the acre, is to have %d. an 
acre, or otherwise 5^. a day. A reaper is to 
have 2d. the first week in August, and 2id- 
till the end of the month, and he not to ask 
for either meat, or any other perquisite or 
indulgence " (see Barrington on the Statutes, 
p. 239). . 

In the time of Elizabeth it was permitted 
to every justice of the peace, upon request, 
" to cause all such artificers and other persons 
as be meet, to labour by his discretion, to 
worke by day in hay-time, and harvest-time, 
for the saving of corne and hay, and might 
upon their refusal imprison them in the 
stockes by the space of two dayes and one 
night" a very salutary law, which might 
advantageously be revived in these days in 
certain cases. 

A commentator upon the old enactments 
" made for the setting to worke and relief of the 
poore," recommends justices of the peace to 
use " their best endeavours for the due exe- 
cution thereof," on the ground that "infinite 
swarms of idle vagabonds are rooted out, 



14^ 



ON SOME QUAINT OLD LAWS OF ENGLAND. 



which before wandred up and downe, to the 
great danger and indignitie of our nation." 

Against offenders of this class, the law 
was extremely severe, a Statute of Elizabeth 
declaring that "any one justice of peace 
may appoint all rogues and vagobonds which 
shall be taken begging, wandering, or mis- 
ordering themselves, to be stripped naked 
from the middle upward, and to be whipped 
till their bodie be bloudie." After the rogues 
and vagabonds had been thus accommodated, 
the duty of the justice acting in the matter, 
was to present them with " a testamoniall 
under his hand and scale, testifying their 
punishment," with the date, place, &c.; no 
doubt a very gratifying species of testimo- 
nial to the fortunate recipients. The defi- 
nition of a vagabond in old English law 
books is this : " He which hath neither cer- 
taine house, nor stedfast habitation, but liveth 
idely, and loytering, and a rogue and vaga- 
bond seem to be all one." The following 
are some of those included in this cate- 
gory : 

All idle persons going about the country, either 
using any subtil craft, or unlawful! games, being 
fortune tellers, or juglers, or using any other crafty 
science. 

All Procters, patent-gatherers, collectors for gaoles, 
prisons, or hospitals, wandering abroad. 

All fencers, bearewards, common players of enter- 
ludes, and minstrels, wandering abroad. 

All pedlers, petty chapmen, tinkers, and glassemen, 
wandering abroad. 

All persons wandering, and pretending themselves 
to be ^'^gyptians. 

Poore, diseased, or impotent persons tiavelling to 
the bathes for ease of their griefes. 

When 'rogues became very bad indeed, 
they were called incorrigible, and are thus 
spoken of: 

Now these incorrigible rogues be such as shall 
either appear to be dangerous to the inferiour sort of 
people, or such as will not be reformed of their 
roguish kind of life. 

A rogue that affirmeih that hee was borne in such 
a towne in such a county, and is sent thither, if he 
were not borne there in truth, is said to be an incor- 
rigible rogue. 

Beggars were a far greater abomination in 
the eyes of our ancestors than they are in 
ours, for we read that " Master Perkins," in 
his exposition of the eighth commandment, 
" Thou shalt not steale," saith " that he breaks 
that commandment, which being lustie, lives 



by begging. And so of him which shall 
relieve, feed, or cloath stout and lustie rogues." 
Closely allied to these transgressors were 
another species, called night walkers^ defined 
in old law to be "suspected persons as shall 
sleepe in the daytime, and goe abroad in the 
nights," who were held so much in abhorrence, 
that one writer speaks thus of them : 

Such night-walkers, or night-birds, are ominous, 
like the whistlers, and such nifjht walkings are unfit for 
honest men, and more suiting to the thiefe, the night- 
whistler, and to beasts of the prey, which come forth 
from their dens, when man goes to his rest. 

It appears that the section of the British 
public commonly now known under the name 
of gipsies, were, in the reign of Henry VHL, 
the subjects of a severe enactment. A Statute 
of the twenty-second year of that king declares 
that "every justice of peace, or sherife, 
within one moneth after the arrivall may 
seise all the goods of any outlandish persons 
calling themselves Egyptians, that shall come 
into this realme, and may also keepe the one 
moitie thereof for his owne use." By a 
Statute of Elizabeth it was further enacted 
that "if any person shall call himself an 
Egyptian, or shall be in the companie of such, 
or shall disguise himselfe in apparell or speech, 
it is felonie ^vithout be7iefit ofckrgie" 

On the strength of these Acts of Parliament, 
according to Sir Matthew Hale, in his work, 
Pkas of the Crown, upwards of a dozen of 
the unfortunate wretches in question were 
executed at one time in Suffolk. Not until 
the reign of George IV. were these laws fully 
repealed, and even at this day no small 
amount of prejudice exists against the 
" strange kind of commonwealth," as Black- 
stone terms the gipsies (vol. iv. 165), who 
were so inhumanly treated in this our liberty- 
loving England: 

The phrase, " benefit of clergy," has just 
been mentioned, and it is one employed to de- 
note a very singular feature of old English law, 
which requires notice in a Paper like the pre- 
sent. It was an ancient privilege allowed to 
the clergy, of claiming, when accused of felony, 
to be delivered up to an ecclesiastical judge 
always favourable to his own order for 
compurgation, instead of being tried in the 
ordinary way before the lay judges of the 
land. In ancient times, few persons, except 
those in holy orders, could read, and ac- 



ON SOME QUAINT OLD LA WS OF ENGLAND. 



149 



cordingly the test for an accused person 
claiming benefit of clergy, was his ability 
to read. If he could not, the courts would 
not part with the defendant, but proceeded 
to try him as though he were a layman. 
Afterwards, when education became more 
general, other persons besides clergymen 
were able to read ; and so, in the reign 
of Edward III., Parliament extended the 
privilege of clergy, as it is called, to clerkly 
la)mien, and in the reign of Elizabeth this 
enactment was confirmed. Women were 
not allowed their clergy until the reign of 
William and Mary, when Parliament ex- 
tended the benefit to them. In the reign 
of Henry VII., however, a blow was aimed 
at this singular privilege as enjoyed by lay- 
men, and a statute was then passed against 
" diverse persons lettered, who have been 
more bold to commit murders, rapes, rob- 
bery, theft, as well as all other mischievous 
deeds" which enacted that persons "not 
within holy orders" accused of these offences, 
and convicted thereof, were in cases of 
murder to be marked with the letter "M" 
on the brawn of the left thumb, and in all 
others with the letter " T," to denote, it is 
presumed, that the person had been guilty 
of theft. In cases of high treason, benefit 
of clergy was never allowed to be pleaded. 
It is stated that, when an accused person 
claimed his clergy, it was usual to test his 
learning by requesting him to read the first 
verse of the fifty-first Psalm, which in Latin 
begins with the words, Miserere viei Deus. In 
addition to the extraordinary character of this 
proceeding, in which a touch of grim humour 
seems perceptible, its absurdity is apparent ; 
for, of course, men might easily have coached 
themselves up in the required test. The 
ecclesiastical judge, who was generally the 
bishop, might, however, have given the de- 
fendant anything else to read ; and in either 
case, in the event of his inability to comply, 
might have handed him over to the law, and 
this proceeding frequently meant death. A 
custom which favoured criminals solely on 
account of their good education, appears to 
us who live in times when it is justly thought 
that superior intelligence adds a stain to 
criminality of any kind, to be in the highest 
degree absurd ; yet we are told by able 
writers that the benefit of clergy, or learn- 



ing for " clergy" is here tantamount thereto 
was not so ridiculous as it seems. Without 
saying more on the subject, it may be stated 
that the privilege was abolished in the reign 
of George IV. 

In conclusion, we will present the reader 
with a specimen of an indictment for murder 
in use in this country not so very many years 
since. It is as quaint a composition as can 
well be imagined, and few persons could 
peruse its cumbersome phraseology without 
observing its childishness and narrow-minded- 
ness : 

Westmorland. yj T the general quarter sessions of the 
^^ peace holden at Appleby in and for 
the county aforesaid, the seventh day of April in the first 
year of the reign of our sovereign lord George the third 
of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, king, defender of 
the faith, and so forth. Before J. P. and K. P. esquires, 
and others their associates, justices of our said lord the 
king, assigned to keep the peace of our said lord the king 
in the said county, and also to hear and determine divers 
felonies, trespasses, and other misde?neanours in the said 
county committed, by the oath of -^^ good and lawful 
men of the county aforesaid, sworn and charged to inquire 
for our said lord the king, and for the body of the county 
aforesaid, it is presented ; 

That John Armstrong late of Appleby in the county 
aforesaid, yeoman, not having God before his eyes, but 
being moved and seduced by the instigation of the devil, 
on the thirtieth day of March in the first year of the reign 
of our said sovereign lord George the third of Great 
Britain, France, atid Ireland, king, defender of the faith, 
and so forth, at the hour of nine in the afternoon of the 
same day, with force and anm, / Appleby aforesaid in 
the county aforesaid, in and upon one George Harrison in 
the peace of God and of our said lord the king then and 
there being [the aforesaid George Harrison not having any 
weapon then drawn, nor the aforesaid George Harrison 
having first stricken the said John ArmstTong) feloniously 
did make an assault; and that the aforesaid John Arm- 
strong, with a certain drawn sword of the value of five 
shillings, which he the said ^oYva Armstrong in his right 
hand then and there had and held, the said George Har- 
rison in and upon the right side of the belly near the 
short ribs of him the said George Harrison {the aforesaid 
George Harrison as is aforesaid then and there not having 
any weapon drawn, nor the aforesaid George Harrison 
then and there having first stricken the said John Arm- 
strong) then and there feloniously did stab and thrust, 
giving unto the said George Harrison then and therewith 
the sword aforesaid, in form aforesaid, in and upon the 
right side of the belly near the short ribs of hitn the said 
George Harrison one mortal wound of the breadth of one 
inch, and of the depth of nine inches; of which said 
mortal wound, he the said George Harrison thett and 
there instantly died: And so the jurors aforesaid upon 
their oath aforesaid do say, that the said John Armstrong 
him the said George Harrison on the aforesaid thirtieth 
day ^ March in the year aforesaid, at Applehy aforesaid 
in the county aforesaid, in manner and form aforesaid, 
feloniously did kill ; against the peace of our said lord 
the now king, his crown and dignity, and against the 
form and statute in such case made and provided. 



150 



FLETCHER OF SALTOVITS WRITINGS. 



f (etcber of SaUouu'6 




had 



AZLITT remarks in one of his enter- 
taining essays that a person may 
be indebted for valuable discourse 
to a great aunt, whose existence he 
never heard of. Fletcher appears to 



have received his unquestionable temper and 
undaunted fearlessness from some grand aunt 
or uncle of the Bruces on his mother's side. 
In two lines of an old pasquil, we find him 
tersely and not inappropriately described : 

If Saltoim for freedom and property cry, 

While tyrant may be read in his tongue and his eye. 

All the notices of him by his contemporaries 
are exact. In them we find few of the lights 
and shades in character drawing to which 
we are now accustomed. They are as precise 
as the recorded verdict of a body of jurors, 
and bear the indelible stamp of his own age. 
His character is a strange and interesting 
study to a lover of the idiosyncrasies of the 
human mind, and would not inappropriately 
form the groundwork of an article on self- 
tormentors who are never satisfied ; or on 
men with ideals which the fitness of 
things can never realize ; or on men having 
no power of adaptability ; or on men with 
striking individualities. A theorist in an age 
of action, a student among men of arms, his 
ideas of government were, as Rawlinson 
sententiously puts it, " too fine spun." Alike 
in views and in temper, he was impracticable 
in a time when events hurried with great 
quickness, if not with precision. His fast- 
and-hard principles made no allowance for 
emergencies. The occurrence of extra- 
ordinary events embroiled him with men 
who had previously been his friends; all 
intimacy was severed with the Duke of 
Shrewsbury, because the Duke, in the in- 
terests of his country, again became Secretary 
of State \ and he used Lord Sunderland in 
the same manner, on his lordship voting for 
the army. His keen spirit of independence 
made his career a wayward one, and his 
haughty temper drove him into indefensible 
positions in Parliament ; he laid hands on 
Lord Stair, and gave him " the reply valiant," 



on his lordship having made a remark which 
Fletcher imagined applied to him. Whigs 
and Tories, in his emphatic way, he con- 
sidered names to cloak the knaves of both, 
and Sovereigns were only effective hindrances 
to national liberty and progress ; yet he 
entertained the hope that a republic would 
prove happy to Scodand. Mr. Hill Burton 
thinks that he would have been an ungenial 
companion and fellow-labourer for burgesses 
or boors ; and there can be no doubt that his 
own country's nobles and politicians found in 
him one on whose support they could not 
depend, and whose geniality they could not 
discover. But he stands out from among 
those of his age and his country, too many 
of whom were time- and self-servers, and 
tainted with the influence of the Courts, as a 
thoroughly honest man. All his contempo- 
raries bear enthusiastic witness to his sterling 
honesty. And it is one of the strange con- 
trasts of his character, that while he ever 
acted for what he deemed the advantage of 
his country and the freedom of the nation, he 
proposed a plan of predial slavery for the 
swarms of beggars that infested the land. 
Sir George Lockhart holds him up for his 
honesty as an example to those desiring " to 
serve and merit well of his country ;" and 
Malcolm Laing reveres and laments over 
him as being " the last of the Scots." This 
" low, thin man, of a brown complexion, full 
of fire, with a stern, sour look," was as honest 
as the sword he wore. In his strong oppo- 
sition to the Highland parties, whose inter- 
ference was seldom beneficial to the nation, 
and to the Jacobites, he claims the sympathy 
of the Saxon Lowlanders. He possessed a 
virtue, by no means common then or now, of 
being consistent in his opposition. Despite 
the power of the Governments, he opposed as 
vehemently the intrigues of the courtiers as 
he did the designs of the Sovereigns. While 
he sadly lacked statesmanlike qualities, it is 
necessary, in order that we may understand 
the fulness of his character, that we place 
ourselves to a slight degree in sympathy with 
his patriotic zeal. His learning was in advance 
of most of his equals ; and it is the opinion 
of the English historian that he bore a lively 
resemblance to Roman senators. Many of 
his eccentricities fall into forgetfulness as we 
are guided in our judgment by the noble 



I^LETCHER OF S ALTO UN'S WRITINGS. 



i5t 



spirit of the love of country which animated 
him ; and then even the cahnness of the 
Scottish Historiographer-Royal recognizes 
that few men in Scotland or in any other 
country has attained, as he did, what was 
noble in classic patriotism and courageous in 
mediaeval chivalry. 

Most of our early Scotch writers are stifif 
and formal, as if they wrote upon their oaths. 
Grace, ease, and style they sadly lacked. 
Fletcher, with his pure English, his swinging 
flexibility, and the wonderful neatness of his 
style, far surpasses most, if not all, of our 
old Scotch politicians. His writings rank him 
among the best of early Scotch authors. A 
ruddy glow of enthusiasm, a bright ideal of 
national freedom, and a noble indignation 
against corrupt manners, reign over them. 
They read as a faithful transcript of his full 
spirit, and the pages flow with a forcible yet 
elegant style, pointed with a wealth of illustra- 
tions. The pith of his power is frequently 
compressed into short, nervous sentences, 
where at once his strong personality is felt. 
His fervour not unfrequently turns his thought 
out in epigrams, which readily lend them- 
selves to quotation. 

If we may live free, I little value who is king. 

I cannot see why arms should be denied to any 
man who is not a slave, since they are the only true 
badges of liberty. 

Whoever is for making the king's power too little 
or too great, is an enemy to the monarchy. 

The sea is the only empire that can naturally belong 
to us. 

Upon the union of the crowns Scotland was totally 
neglected, like a farm managed by servants, and not 
under the eye of the master. 

They (the Presbyterians) must not tell me that their 
church can never fall, since it is the tnie church of 
God. If it be the true church of God, it needs no 
crooked arts to support it. 

This last quotation shows at once his 
quickness of sight and his keenness of touch. 
His style is free to a great degree from the 
defects of his time, and possesses the singular 
freshness which follows foreign culture. Clear, 
precise, and pithy, earnest in his convictions, 
and full of hope, with a decided facility of 
insight withal, his writings form excellent 
reading. His Saxon blood runs through his 
Saxon words. Many sentences of happy 
meaning arrest our attention. He said that 
the "mutual good offices" between the 
Sovereign and Parliament should, 



like regular tides, ebb and flow between king and 

people The king stands in need of money, 

the people of good laws Money may be given 

at once, for a long time, or for ever ; but good laws 
cannot be so enacted, the occasion and the necessity 
of them discovering itself only from time to time. 

As an accurate descriptive writer of the 
manners of his time he ranks high. His 
pictures are generally sad, though his hopes 
were ever bright. They are full of gloom, 
with the shades dull and dark and full of 
awe ; but, vivid with picturesque terseness, 
they lift his writings above the fleeting repu- 
tation of an essayist into the position ot 
valuable historical materials. Sir Walter 
Scott was among the first to recognize this 
value of his being a limner of national life ; 
and in the novelist's pages we come across 
quotations from Fletcher, which give us 
glimpses into the cavalier-like manners of the 
time and the deplorable state of the country. 
His accuracy is undoubted, and a page of his 
description is like a table of statistics clothed 
in realization. With considerable power he 
describes the state of agriculture in 1698 : 
Were I to assign the principal and original source 
of our poverty, I should place it in the letting of 
our lands at so excessive a rate as makes the tenant 
poorer even than his servant, whose wages he cannot 
pay ; and involves in the same misery day labourers, 
tradesmen, and the lesser merchants who live in the 
countiy villages and towns ; and thereby influences 
no less the great towns and wholesale merchants, 
makes the master have a troublesome and ill-paid 
rent, his lands not improved by inclosure or other- 
wise, but, for want of horses and oxen fit for labour, 
eveiy where run out and abused. 

The condition of the lesser freeholders, or heritors 
as we call ihem, is not much better than that of our 
tenants ; for they have no flocks to improve their 
lands, and living not as husbandmen but as gentlemen, 
they are never able to attain any. Besides this, the 
unskilfulness of their wretched and half-starved ser- 
vants is such, that their lands are no better cultivated 
than those laboured by beggarly tenants. And though 
a gentleman of estate take a farm into his own hands, 
yet servants are so unfaithful or lazy, and the country 
people such great enemies of all manners of inclosure, 
that, after having struggled with innumerable difficul- 
ties, he at last finds it impossible for him to alter the 
ordinary bad methods whilst the rest of the country 

continues in them To all this may be added, 

the letting of farms in most part of those grazing 
countries every year by roop or auction. But our 
management in the countries cultivated by tillage is 
much worse, because the tenant pays his rent in 
grain, wheat, barley, or oats. 

He had a patriotic Lowlander's antipathy 
against the Highlanders ; and, if the state of 
the Highlands was as he represented it to 



152 



FLETCHER OF S ALTO UN'S WRITINGS. 



be, he cannot be accused of narrowness in 
that antipathy. He thus spiritedly describes 
the Highlands and the state of the country 
with the number of lawless beggars : 

There are at this day in Scotland (besides a great 
many poor families very meanly provided for by the 
church boxes, with others who, by living upon bad 
food, fall into various diseases) two hundred thousand 
people begging from door to door. These are not 
only no way advantageous, but a very grievous bur- 
den to so poor a country. And though the number of 
them be perhaps double to what it was formerly, yet 
in all times there have been about one hundred thou- 
sand of those vagabonds, who have lived without any 
regard or subjection either to the laws of the land or 
even those of God and Nature ; fathers incestuously 
accompanying with their own daughters, the son with 
the mother, and the brother with the sister. No 
magistrate could ever discover or be informed which 
way one in a hundred of these wretches died, or that 
ever they were baptized. Many murders have been 
discovered among them ; and they are not only a 
most unspeakable oppression to poor tenants (who, 
if they give not bread, or some kind of provision, 
to perhaps forty such villains in one day, are sure 
to be insulted by them), but they rob many poor 
people who live in houses distant from any neighbour- 
hood. In years of plenty, many thousands of them 
meet together in the mountains, where they feast and 
riot for many days ; and at country weddings, mar- 
kets, burials, and other the like public occasions, they 
are to be seen, both men and women, perpetually 
drunk, cursing, blaspheming, and fighting together. 

To encourage industry and to discourage 
thieving, and as a remedy for such lawless- 
ness, he proposed his plan of predial slavery ; 
and, rather than the beggars continue a bur- 
den on his country, he said it would be 
better if they " were sold to the gallies or 
West Indies." His political opinions are 
interesting, and are strongly flavoured with 
his republican sentiments. He very justly 
proposed that all rents of farms be paid in 
money and not in grain, the evil effects of 
which in his own age he has well summarized. 
In the same Paper he made the startling 
proposal of gradually abolishing interest on 
money, with the object that all the money of 
the nation should be taken from investments 
and employed in cultivation or in trade ; and 
then he brought fonvard the republican pro- 
posal that no man was to be allowed to 
possess more land than he was able to culti- 
vate by servants, having for his objects *' the 
plough being everywhere in the hand of the 
possessor," and the race of "horses and 
black cattle much mended." His martial 
spirit is shown in the proposal that all young 



men should enter a camp for two years' 
military training ; the camps were not to be 
stationary, but to remove from " heath to 
heath." Besides the use of arms, they were 
to be taught "wrestUng, leaping, swimming, 
and the like exercises ;" and to *' carry as 
much in their march as ever any Roman sol- 
dier did." Many of the regulations are not 
without a dash of his strong humour. The 
soldiers were to 

be obliged to use the countrymen with all justice 
in their bargains, for that and all other things they 
stand in need of from them. Their drink should be 
water, sometimes tempered with a proportion of 
brandy, and at other times with vinegar. 

The patriotic Scot, recognizing that the 
young soldiers, "like wax, they may be 
moulded into any shape," was desirous of 
due care being taken that " the youth" 
should not "be infected with foreign 
manners." 

It is in " An Account of a Conversation 
concerning aright Regulation of Governments 
for the common good of Mankind," that 
Fletcher reaches his highest literary powers. 
It has been aptly described as " singularly 
natural, easy, and pleasant, showing great 
powers, both historical and dramatic ;" and 
it is valuable as a record of his manner of 
speaking, though it is barbed at times with 
biting banter and hilarious humour, and con- 
tains many of his lofty ideas and charac- 
teristic notions. But we seek in vain for 
any definite principle of government; and 
while recognizing the necessity of a union, 
he desires a union of England and Scotland's 
strength, a federative union ; his schemes 
are extravagantly enthusiastic, and un- 
doubtedly Utopian. This little pamphlet is, 
nevertheless, remarkably interesting to the 
man of letters and to the student of history 
for its delightful old charm. The tone and 
style are those of an educated country gen- 
tleman, a little pompous and high-tempered. 
There is a pleasant air of consequential dignity 
in the Earl of Cromarty's remarks of tlie 
view of London from his lodgings in White- 
hall : " You have here, gentlemen/' said the 
Earl, " two of the noblest objects that can 
entertain the eye ; the finest river, and the 
greatest city in the world. When natural 
things are in the greatest perfection, they 
never fail to produce most wonderful results." 



FLETCHER OF SALTOUJSPS WRITINGS. 



153 



And a neat touch of the old picturesque, 
approaching idyllic prose, worthy of Sir 
Thomas Overbury, appears in these words 
of Sir Christopher Musgrave : 

The county of Kent furnishes us with the choicest 
fruit ; Hertfordshire and Cambridgeshire with com ; 
Lincohishire, Essex, and Surrey with beef, veal, and 
mutton ; Buckinghamshire with wood for fuel, and the 
river with all that the seas and the rest of the world 
affords. In a word, all the useful and superfluous things 
that Nature produces, or the wit of man has invented, 
are to be found here, either made by our artificers, 
or imported by our merchants. 

It also contains one or two bits of rough jest- 
ing and some sallies of touchy tempers, which 
seem to be recorded with all their strength 
of heated passion in the words. Take, for 
example, this strikingly described scene : 

What account, said he (Sir Edward Seymour), 
should we make of Scotland, so often trampled under 
foot by our armies ? Of late years, did not the very 
scum of our nation conquer you ? Yes, said I, after 
they had, with our assistance, conquered the king and 
the nobility and gentry of England ; and yet that, 
which you call a conquest, was a dispute between 
parties, and not a national quarrel. It was, said he, 
inseparable from the fortune of our Edwards to 
triumph over your nation. Do you mean Edward of 
Carnarvon, said I, and his victory at Bannockburn ? 
No, replied he, I mean Edward the First and Third, 
whose heroic actions no princes have ever equalled. 
Sure, said I, you do not mean the honour of the first, 
or the humanity of the third, so signally manifested 
at Berwick ; nor the murder of Wallace by the first 
Edward, or the poisoning of Randolph, Earl of 
Murray, by the third, after they had both refused to 
give battle to those heroes ? 

His ever-memorable remark about national 
ballads occurs in this " Account of a Con- 
versation," and in this way : 

Even the poorer sort of both sexes (said Sir 
Christopher) are daily tempted to all manner of lewd- 
ness by infamous songs sung in every comer of the 
streets. One would think, said the Earl, this last 
were of no great consequence. I said I knew a very 
wise man so much of Sir Christopher's sentiment, 
that he believed if a man were permitted to make all 
the ballads, he need not care who should make the 
laws of a nation. And we find that most of the 
ancient legislators thought they could not well reform 
the manners of any city without the help of a lyric, 
and sometimes of a dramatic poet. 

It is noteworthy that this proverbial saying 
is said to have been quoted by Fletcher from 
" a very wise man," though it has long been 
attributed to Fletcher's own self. In the 
records of our old authors such a remark is 
not to be found, and universal belief has 
fixed the authorship upon him, It was pro- 

VOL. VI. 



bably with a little stern egotism that he 
referred to himself as being " a very wise 
man." This remarkable saying has been said 
to have been uttered by men as widely sepa- 
rated as Burns and Cobbett. In our litera- 
ture this was the earliest acknowledgment of 
the power of ballads. But the fact that in 
Scotland the kings kept bards and jonglairs 
who strolled about the country singing their 
ballads at burgh street corners, among vil- 
lagers, and at farmhouses, goes to show that 
the author of that happy saying was a Scot. 
In Scotland at that time ballads alone formed 
the literature of the people. They were 
their songs, and to their music they danced. 
Their directness and simplicity show us that, 
if not written by, they were at least written 
for, the people. Over the country they grew 
like wild flowers. Satiric-smiling pasquils 
spread over the land like briar roses. Bal- 
,lads breathed the hopes and fears of the 
people, and went straight to their hearts ; 
their highest and holiest matters were said 
in the old minstrelsy ; in times of national 
wars and national troubles, their strains 
stirred the people's blood like trumpet 
sounds J and the burdens of their loves and 
sorrows found meet expression in the sweet- 
ness of their own songs. Down in the Bor- 
derlands the ballads were the best, and it is 
not improbable that Fletcher had them in 
his memory when his lips spoke of their 
power. And, strange to say, the lives and 
manners of these Border marauders, bold 
and brave and hearty in their lawlessness, 
agree to a nicety with the burdens and de- 
scriptions of their popular ballads. The 
spirit of lawless daring, a light laughing 
scorn of personal danger, gladdens their lives, 
and the music is full of the clanking noise 
of gallant moss-troopers returning from the 
Borders with flocks of sheep and heads of 
cattle, with Englishmen in pursuit waving 
their spears and lances, and the ringing yelp 
of a bloodhound on the rievers' track. 

With the true reformer's spirit, Fletcher 
saw that real progress has first to be made 
in the national heart. It was another way 
of expressing that he would rather have 
been Homer than Alexander the Great. 
And in his own country it receives a home- 
thrust in pointed facts. Burns did more 
for Scotland than all the lawmakers of 



154 



EXTRACTS FROM YE GILD BOOK 



the Scottish Conventions or the Scottish 
ParliamenL The sentiment possesses not 
a little of the genuine power of culture. 
Half a truth, though it may be, as most say- 
ings are, it has long passed current on the 
people's lips, and found lodgment in their 
hearts ; and, proverb-like, it is as full of 
meaning and as fresh in spirit to-day as when 
it was spoken two centuries ago. It is sin- 
gular that Meusnier de Querlon intended 
writing the history of his country by a 
chronological series of songs and ballads ; 
and our Gallic neighbours will be among the 
first to appreciate the rough truth that lies 
in the words of the honest Scot. The glow- 
ing passion of the " Scots wha hae " has and 
ever will stir the hearts of Scotchmen as no 
other song can; the spirited words of the 
"Marseillaise" will long exercise its mar- 
vellous influence over the French after " The 
Feast of Pikes" is forgotten by them ; and 
the national voice with which King Henry 
was greeted on his return from Agincourt 
with the lines thus opening 

Oure kynge went forth to Normandy, 
is not lost, and still rises occasionally to the 
old ballad notes. And happy indeed is that 
country which has got a wealth of simple 
ballads, bright with generous thoughts, and 
set to the rapturous music of common lan- 
guage, for the meet expression of the national 
feeling. 

James Purves. 



jeytract0 from i^e (Bilb BooU of 
tbe Barl)cr*^5urocon0 of lJ?or?? 




jlHIS is a quaint book we have before 
us, and beautifully got up too, with 
its illuminated portraits of every 
sovereign that has ruled in England 
from Henry VII. to George II. It is all in 
manuscript on vellum, written in Gothic 
characters, and besides the constitutions of 
the gild, it has annexed some wonderful 
diagrams of cabalistic and medical lore ; an 
essay on the letting of blood, and an essay 
on cures for the pestilence. 
^ut we will for the present deal with the 



constitutions of the gild, which bring before 
us something of the life of those days ; we 
can see the barbers and the surgeons 
hurrying to the council of their gild held 
in the " room on Ouse Bridge," their gowns 
on for fear of the fine. Ouse Bridge must 
have been somewhat like London Bridge in 
those days, covered with houses. Then 
they would meet the members of other 
gilds in the fine old Gild Hall down by 
the water's edge ; and very particular were 
these barbers and surgeons of York not to 
allow any interference with their craft, no 
quack vendors of unauthorized drugs would 
they tolerate ; they and they alone were 
licensed to kill, cure, and shave the good 
citizens of the then capital of the North. 

This book tells us on its title-page that it 
was begun in i486, in the second year of 
the reign of King Henry VII., William 
Chymney being Mayor of the City of York, 
and administers to all whose names should 
be inscribed therein the following oath : 

Ye shall swear to be trusty and tnie unto the King 
our Sovereign Lord, and to this City of York, and 
also to the science of Barbers and Chirurgions 
within the same, and all good ordinances, statutes, 
usages, and customs heretofore made and used in 
the same art or science ye shall keep, support, and 
maintain at all times to your power, and the secret 
and counsel of the same art ye shall truly keep and 
learn. So help you God, and by the contents of this 
Book. 

In the year 1592 at the request and 
expense of the whole company the articles 
of the gild were expanded and corrected, 
and from these we can form a fairly clear 
idea of the working of the confraternity. 

Two searchers were annually appointed 
on the Monday after the Nativity of St. John 
the Baptist : in this year they were Master 
Henry Leach and Master George Dimming ; 
their duties were very onerous, the whole 
superintendence of the gild rested on their 
shoulders, on going out of office they had to 
" render their accounts unto the Master of 
the said art of all things belonging to them, 
upon pain of a fine of 6j. %d. to the chamber 
and the company." 

The searchers had to warn all the men of 
the art of the occasions on which they 
should appear in the Gild Hall, ()s. 8/i. 
being the fine for non-attendance after such 
warning had been received. 



OF THE BARBER-SVRGEONS OF YORK. 



155 



Then the searchers saw to the carrying 
out of the following article : 

Every man of the said art when he first sets up to 
keep shop as a member shall first be a freeman of 
the city, and then searched by the said searchers, 
whether he will be able to occupy as a member or 
no, and if the searchers approve him able, then at 
the first setting up as a member he shall pay \Zs. ^d. 
(except the sons of franchised men), and if he be 
found unable then he shall give such a convenient 
time with some brother of the said science, as shall 
be appointed and set down by the searchers. 

Again, if any man before the term of his 
apprenticeship had expired did "presume 
to set up as a member not being admitted, 
it shall be lawful for the searchers to take 
away his basins or other signs which he hath 
towards the street to shew his art, and to 
carry them to the chamber on Ouse Bridge to 
the Lord Mayor," and this functionary had 
to settle the fine the delinquent was to pay. 

Also the searchers had to see that the 
members hired no servant " to practice this 
art above six days" without a proper license, 
the penalty being ds. M. for doing so. 

About aliens and strangers practising the 
art in York, the searchers had to be very 
strict; if a man presumed to shave or to 
heal in York for more than five days he had 
to pay a fijie of 2s. per diem for each day 
beyond that limit. 

Then the searchers had to search into and 
examine all manner of cures, and to see that 
the cures were consistent with the then 
accepted rules of chirurgery, and if any 
brother of the gild " do utter or give any 
indecent words to the searchers" in the 
exercise of their office, then he laid himself 
open to a fine of y. 4^. Furthermore, if 
any member of the art was found obstinate, 
and refused to come to the hall of the 
assembly without his gown, then he had to 
pay a fine of dd. 

They were very strict on the matter of 
medical etiquette, as the following item 
proves : " None of the said company shall 
intrude himself into the company of any 
other brother, who is dressing of any pa- 
tient ether wounded or hurt, except he be 
specially requested by the patient or by 
some friend of his, upon pain of 6^. M. 
to the uses of the guild, and also no 
barber shall powle, trim, or shave any of his 
brothers' customers until such time as the 



said brother be fully contented and paid, 
upon fine and forfeiture of the same sum." 

Regulations about the Sabbath day are 
likewise set down. " It is ordered that none 
of the barbers shall work or keep open their 
shop on Sunday except two Sundays next 
or before the assize weeks." io.y. to be paid 
for breaking this rule. This seems to have 
been a rule liable to be broken, for in 1676 
there was another law laid down agains 
Sabbath breaking to the following effect : 

This court taking notice of several irregular and 
unreasonable practices committed by the company of 
Barber- Surgeons within this city, in shaving, trimming, 
and cutting of several strangers as well as citizens' 
hair and faces on the Lord's day, which ought to be 
kept sacred, it is ordered by the whole consent of 
this court, and if any brother of the said company 
shall at any time hereafter either by himself, servant, 
or substitute, tonse, barb, or trim any person on the 
Lord's Day in any Inn or other public or private 
house or place, or shall go in or out of any such 
house or place on the said day with instruments used 
for that purpose, albeit the same cannot be posi- 
tively proved, or made appear, but in case the Lord 
Mayor for the time being shall upon good circum- 
stances consider and adjudge any such brother to have 
trimmed or barbed as is aforesaid, that then any 
such offender shall forfeit and pay for every such 
offence xos. : one-half to the Lord Mayor, and the 
other to the use of the said company, unless such 
brother shall voluntarily purge himself by oath to 
the contrary, and the searchers of the said company 
for the time being are to make diligent search in all 
such as aforesaid public or private places for dis- 
covery of such offenders. 

Another regulation about Sabbath breaking 
is worthy of note : " If any brother of the 
said company shall resort to any Inn or 
Tavern or Alehouse upon the Sabbath day, 
or other holiday, in time of divine service 
or sermon, he shall pay a fine of twelve 
pence." 

If one brother absented himself from the 
funeral of another without good and reason- 
able excuse he had to pay 3^. 4^. 

Regulations about apprentices of course 
were very minute, as out of apprentices sprang 
the future members of the gild. At first he 
must be the son of a freeman, or else a fine 
was imposed upon him. This regulation was, 
however, in later days abolished. Indentures, 
recorded by the clerk of the company, had 
to be drawn up for each apprentice eight 
days after entering the service of his master. 
And if any apprentice or servant were con- 
victed of stealing from his master any goods 

M 2 



i56 



EXTRACTS FROM YE GILD BOOK, ETC. 



over the value of 6d., he was "to be clearly 
discharged forth of the said company for 
ever at the discretion of the then Lord 
Mayor." 

At the recording of every apprentice 
twelve pence was to be paid into the stock 
or common fund of the gild, over which 
the searchers held jurisdiction, and every 
member paid ^d. quarterly " towards the in- 
crease of the said stock." Also at the 
receiving of his oath each member paid 
twelve pence, and out of this common stock 
the expenses of the gild were liquidated : 
the fees due to the searchers, the fees to the 
clerk or attorney, and the expenses of their 
establishment. 

Then last, and in the eyes of many doubt- 
less not least, of this draft of 1592 was the 
following : 

It is agreed by a general consent of the company 
of Barber-Surgeons that from henceforth the antient 
head searcher upon the election day shall make the 
whole company a dinner, and every person paying 
6d. a-piece of their own charge, and the surplusage 
(if any such be) to be paid out of the stock. 

On the 8th day of June, 16 14, the Council 
of Barber-Surgeons sat again on Ouse Bridge 
to add further rules and regulations to the 
above. They are eleven in number, and 
being clearer in statements that those of 
the former, I will quote them as they 
stand : 

1. That the company of chirurgeons every year 
shall chose one of the said company to be the masler 
in anatomy, which said master shall have the dispos- 
ing of all things belonging to the said anatomy, as 
also the keeping of all things purtaining to the dissec- 
tion of the same, and to make account of those things 
at the ending of his year, and to deliver them up to 
the company, and they to the next master elected, w 

2. That the said master so chosen be a licensed 
chirurgeon, and twice in the term of the said year the 
said master shall read a lecture either in anatomy 
or chirurgery, and if he so refuse to do he shall 
pay for every such refusal lo shillings to the use of 
the Lord Mayor and Corporality of the said city, to 
be levied by distress or to be recovered by action of 
debt by the to^vn clerk of the said city for the time 
being in the King's Majesty's Court to be holden 
before the sherifif of the said city, wherein no wages 
of law shall be allowed for the defendant. 

3. Every dissection to be attended by the whole 
com]-)any, and they that shall willingly or wilfully at 
any time (if in any sort he profess chirurgery) absent 
themselves, not having a reasonable excuse, shall be 
fined for every default 3^. t^d. to the aforesaid uses, 
and to be levied and recovered in manner aforesaid. 

4. The said master at every dissection shall ap- 



point such of the licensed chirurgeons as he shall 
like best of to dissect the said anatomy, and if they 
refuse so to do, to pay for every time they deny 5^. 
as aforesaid. 

5. The said master shall describe to such as he 
shall appoint to dissect (if they be unskilful in dis- 
section of that part) the rising circumference and 
insertion of the said part, which if he do not, they 
requesting him thereunto, he shall pay 3^. 4^. as afore- 
said. 

6. That the said master, and two searchers for the 
time being, shall call before them (having such other 
company as they think fit to assist them) all such as 
be strangers and others unlicensed, practising chirur- 
gery in the city, to examine them, and finding them 
insufficient, or refusing to be examined, to forfeit 
and pay for every time offending 10s. to aforesaid 
purpose. 

7. Every one of the said company professing chi- 
rurgy shall read a lecture either in chirurgery or ana- 
tomy to the whole company out of some author in 
chirurgery or anatomy as shall be appointed by 
the master of anatomy and by one of the searchers, 
being a licensed chirurgeon, which if he refuse (having 
had reasonable warning to provide for the said read- 
ing), from such time not to practise the art of chirur- 
gery till he perform the reading of the said lecture, 
upon pain to pay for every time not reading a lecture 
iQs, to purposes aforesaid. 

8. Every chirurgeon within a month after he is 
made free shall likewise read a lecture unto the whole 
company out of some author as appointed, upon pain 
of 20s. fine. 

9. Every one professing chirurgery and living within 
the city, or others coming to this city being licensed or 
otherwise, shall either become freemen of the said 
city and company within 3 months after their said 
coming or else avoid the city, and pay for every 
month they remain after 40J. as aforesaid. 

10. That none unlicensed or such as can give no 
reason for the cure they undertake, as to have know- 
ledge of the causes and, signs thereof, or none that 
understand not the virtues of such medicines as they 
apply, whether they be simple or compound, taking 
money for their medicines, shall practise chirurgery 
upon pain to forfeit for every time 20s. as aforesaid. 

11. Every freeman or woman of this city either 
taking or using, or suffering their children or servants 
to take or use, the counsel or help of any strange or 
any other unworthy professor or unlicensed chirur- 
geon, having not first had and used the counsel and 
help of the free licensed chirurgeons of this city 
(bone-setters excepted) shall forfeit for every time so 
doing 40J. to the aforesaid uses. 

There are the decrees of one or two sit- 
tings of the gild entered in this book rela- 
tive to the precedence of the master of 
anatomy,who was adjudged to rank before a 
searcher, and to the vexed question of ap- 
prentices. Then follow the names of all 
who are entered in the guild, the last entry 
being in 1782. 

J. Theodore Bent. 



THE GREAT CASE OP THE IMPOSITIONS. 



^S1 




Zlbc (3rcat Case of tbc 
3mpo0ltion0 

By Hubert Hall. 

PART IL 

/VLLAM tells us that Queen Mary 
was the first English Sovereign 
since the accession of the House 
of Lancaster who had recourse to 
illegal means of enhancing the revenue of 
the Crown ; that in 1557 she set a duty on 
cloths exported, and afterwards on the im- 
portation of French wines. Hallam does 
not, however, say a word in explanation of 
these new duties from the history of the 
times ; neither does he seem to have profited 
by Chief Baron Fleming's powerful protest 
against confusing a bounty on a native in- 
dustry with a prohibitory tax on an imported 
luxury. 

On the other hand, our popular historian, 
being in blissful ignorance of the merits of 
the whole transaction, has wisely passed it 
over along with the rest of the social history 
of the period between the Dissolution of the 
Monasteries and the Invincible Armada. 

The truth is, that Hallam, who saw nothing 
unusual or outrageous in the tyrannical and 
vexatious trade-proclamations of this period,* 
reserved all his indignation for those financial 
innovations of the first James, which were 
but the natural outcome of such precedents. 

The merest glance at the above dates will 
tell us that in 15^7 and 1558 Mary must 
have found it highly convenient to conciliate 
the growing outcry against foreign competi- 
tion by restricting the exportation of woollen 
fabrics at the expense of her husband's 
heretic subjects in the Netherlands ; while the 
interrupted commercial relations between 
France and both England and Spain, would 
sufficiently explain a prohibitive duty on the 
chief French import, even if this fact were 
not stated at large in contemporary docu- 
ments. 

The English merchants who, according to 
Hallam, were aggrieved by this restriction, 
were also disappointed in their hope of seeing 
it removed at Elizabeth's accession. This 
assertion is indeed partly true, but it is also 
extremely vague. 

* Hallam, Consiit. Hist., first ed., p. 255, 



The great merchants who could trade mors- 
advantageously than their foreign brethren 
had little to lose from useless attempts to 
secure retail as well as wholesale profits to this 
country; but the crowds of petty traders, 
whom it was the policy of the Government to 
discourage, found their account in a free- 
trade with the Low Countries. 

With reference to a case partly reported by 
Dyer, Hallam appeals to an argument of 
Plowden which, " as far as the difficult hand- 
writing permitted him to judge," was adverse 
to the Crown, his authority being a copy in 
No, 32 of the Hargrave MSS. 

But it so happens that this copy is not in 
No. 32 at all, but in No. 27 ; a fact of which 
I am painfully aware from the tedious search 
it cost to discover it. Moreover, the hand- 
writing is not in the least difficult, but as fair 
and plain as could be wished. The writing 
throughout No. 32, however, is really for- 
midable, so that I shrewdly suspect that 
Hallam, misled by a false reference, lighted 
upon something in the latter volume which 
he took in earnest for Plowden's argument. 

This in reality is rather a valuable list of 
precedents, most of them certainly opposed 
to the prerogative, and indeed on that account 
largely quoted by Hakewill, but which are 
little more than an expression of the great 
common lawyer's well-known jealousy of the 
equitable jurisdiction of the Crown. 

But this is nothing to what follows in the 
very next passage of Hallam's history. Al- 
luding to the abrupt termination of Dyer's 
Report above mentioned, he observes : 

But we may presume that if any such (judgment) 
had been given in favour of the Crown, it would 
have been made public. And that the majority of the 
bench would not have favoured this claim of the 
Crown, we may strongly presume from their doctrine 
in a case of the same description wherein they held 
the assessment of treble custom on aliens for violation 
of letters patent to be absolutely against the law.* 

Now, in the face of such a decision as this 
the whole case for the impositions would fall 
to the ground. The right of the Crown to 
restrain, license, or even entirely exclude 
foreign merchandise was ever, notwithstand- 
ing Magna Carta, an essential of its preroga- 
tive. Most certainly it was neither opposed 
to the " common assent," nor to the *' com- 
* Hallam, p. 341. 



1.^8 



THE GREAT CASE OF THE IMPOSITIONS. 



mon profit" of the realm stipulated for in the 
highly restrictive articles of the Confirmatio 
Chartarunj, according to the current interpre- 
tation of those expressions.* If therefore 
this right was solemnly disallowed in the Ex- 
chequer itself, or rather in a conference of the 
whole bench, what precedents could be urged 
in favour of the always far more doubtful 
legality of impositions upon English mer- 
chants ? 

Hallam's authority for this statement is de- 
cisive. With reference to the above passage 
he observes in a note : " This case I have 
had the good fortune to discover in one of 
Mr. Hargrave's MSS. in the Museum, No. 
13a, fol. 66. It is in the handwriting of 
Chief Justice Hyde {iej?ip. Car. I.), who 
has written in the margin, ' This is the 
report of a case,' &c." Then he quotes 
the whole report, ending with the words, 
" And after, by Pari. 5 Eliz, the patent was 
confirmed and affirmed against aliens;" 
from which the reader must suppose as 
Hallam beyond question himself believed to 
be the case that the Government of Eliza- 
beth were driven to obtain the sanction of 
Parliament for their illegal and tyrannical 
measure. 

During some years I had made an impartial 
study of this case an object, without however 
being able to overcome the conclusive evi- 
dence offered by Hallam on this point. But 
as my youthful faith in the veracity and 
accuracy of historians came to be diminished 
by experience, I examined Hallam's quota- 
tion from Hyde more narrowly, till I pitched 
at last on the phrase "confirmed and affirmed," 
and as this seemed a somewhat remarkable 
variation of the usual form, " confirmed and 
assured," I did what everyone should do at 
first, consulted the original MS. 

Then I found that Hallam's presumably 
accurate transcript was a very inaccurate and 
misleading paraphrase. It is a painful fact 
that he could not read the manuscript. As 
this version has probably been a source of 
difficulty and error for two generations, as it 
is highly interesting in itself, even in its 
present mangled form, and as the issue which 
depends on it is of the first importance for 
the present argument, I shall make no 

* See Chief Baron Fleming in Lane's Report, and 
Coke, 1 2th Report, 



apology for transcribing it here verbatim ef 
literatim. 

[What follows in this page and the whole 
of the two next pages are in Lord Ch. J 
Hyde's own hand-WTiting.] * 

This is the copie of a report in my lord Dyer's 
written original but is not in the printed booke. 

A report of a case resolyed concerning the king's 
power to restrayne traffik and to impose. 

King Philip and Queen Marye for affection bom 
to the towne of Southampton when the sayd king did 
first arrive in England, did grant by thear letters 
patents (dated at Westm. 14 dayes after thear mar- 
riage) unto the Maior Baylifes and Burgeses of the 
towne of Southampton and to thear successors. That 
all w)mes called Malmeseys, whiche at any time after 
the feast of St. Michael the Archangel] then next 
following the date of the sayd letters patents shold 
be brought into this kingdom from foreyne partes, 
sholde be landed in no place of the realm but only in 
the port and towne of Southampton. And the sayd 
King and Queen did by the sayd letters patents pro- 
hibit al marchants denizens and aliens that none of 
those wynes sholde be landed in any other port or 
place but only in the sayd port of Southampton upon 
the penaltye of paying triple custom for them, that is 
XX' a but, the single custom being vj" viij**. 

And for as muche as divers merchant strangers of 
Venice had brought Malmeseys from beyond the seas 
after the making of the sayd charter and had landed 
them at a place called Hone end in Kent to be con- 
veyed to London whear they were landed : An infor- 
mation was brought for the Queen in the Exchequer 
Tr. I Eliz. rot. 73. for the treple custom, and thear 
was demurred in law, and the case was thear argued 
at the bar, and not at the bench. And in Hill. Term 
3 Eliz. : it was argued in the Exchequer chamber in 
the presence of all the barons of the Exchequer and of 
the Justices of bothe benches by Wray and Carus ; 
and in Ester Term next following, in the halle at Ser- 
geants In, wear of opinion against the letters patents 
Freuil baron of the Exchequer, Weston, Corbet, 
Rastell, Whiddon, justices, Saunders chief baron. 
Dyer et Catlin cheefe justices, as well for the princi- 
pall matter of restraynt in the landing of Malmeseys 
at the will and pleasure of the merchants for that it 
was against the lawes, statutes and customes of the 
realme, Scil. Ma. Ch. ca. 30, 9 E. 3, 14 E. 3, 2$ E. 3, 
27 E. 3, 28 E. 3, 2 R. 2, ca. I, and others, as also in 
the assessment of treble custom which is merely against 
the law, also the prohibition above sayd was held to 
be private and not publiqz. But baron Luke e 
contra et A. Browne, Justice censuit deliberandum, 
And after at an other meeting the same Ester Term 
at Sergeants' In, It was resolved as above, Baron 
Luke changed his opinion, A. Browne being then 
absent, and after by Parliam : 5 Eliz : the patent 
was confirmed and assured against aliens." t 

It will be seen that the mention of " deni- 

* This direction is in Hargrave's largest hand- 
writing, so that Hallam gained his knowledge of 
palaeography somewhat easily. 

t Harg. MSS. No. 132 ; 166 <r/ seq. 



THE GREAT CASE OF THE IMPOSITIONS. 



IS9 



zens and aliens" in the above, which Hallam 
entirely omits, throws a new light on the 
question. The grievance of the common 
lawyers was not so much that aliens should 
be arbitrarily taxed for the public good, but 
that denizens should be included with them. 
Still, the concluding mention of aliens is 
ambiguous, and though convinced that some 
mistake had been made, and that this was a 
later and less authentic transcript from a 
draft of Dyer's original in which the Latin 
at least of the Letters Patent must be pre- 
served, I could discover no such duplicate. 

The blame again must be laid on Hallam. 
Had he given a correct reference to Plowden's 
argument, myself or some other, or, if he had 
ever really consulted that manuscript, he 
himself would have found there, on a fly-leaf, 
in Hyde's own hand, the duplicate and more 
authentic transcript of Dyer's report. 

This is the same in substance with the one 
given above, except that, as I had expected, 
the Letters Patent are quoted in Latin, and 
the whole of the technical proceedings, from 
" and the case was thear argued" to the end, 
in Law French; and after the concluding 
word " aliens" "/ non versus Indigtnis." 

The cause of Hyde's clerical error, and of 
Hallam's ludicrous and reprehensible blunder, 
can be easily seen by a reference to the 
manuscript. The concluding sentence runs 
thus : " Et puis p Parliament, &c. le pattent 
fuit confirme et assure versus alienigen et 
non versus Indiginis." Then, in the same 
line, without any break, and with a doubtful 
capital V, the manuscript continues: " Vide 
p argum?, 2 E. 3," &c. Hyde had carried 
his eye from "alienigen" to "vide" through a 
common optical delusion. 

Hitherto I have preferred to speak of the 
impost as derived from the ancient right of 
Prizage, as deduced through the latter from 
the prerogative of purveyance or pre-emption. 
Here, however, I may easily be in error, so 
that I will mention a second theory, that 
adopted by the Crown itself during the period 
now in question. 

"The Right conteyning the matter of 
Tonnage and Butlerage and the ympost of 
wines is thus to be derived. The Tonnage 
and Butlerage are well to be maintained by 
records as the Pondage, and the ympost for 
wynes is of the same nature that the custome 



of the woole is." "' Here the impost is derived 
on the same analogy as the great customs ; 
but as the latter were always classed with the 
pre-emption of tin, &c., as an outcome of pur- 
veyance, the point at issue becomes the same 
in either case. That point is neither more 
nor less than this. Was it lawful for the 
Crown, in the interests of the nation, to 
exercise any part of that ancient and un- 
defined prerogative which had descended to 
it from the Anglo-Saxon period ? No con- 
stitutional lawyer of this or any period could 
have answered that it was not lawful. 
If the Scotch threatened the Border, who 
but the sovereign could authorize muster and 
array ? Even his surly Commons could not 
deny this prerogative to Charles I. in 1639. 
Who besides the king had a freehold or en- 
joyment of the public forest lands? The 
two first Stuarts asserted their forestal rights 
with a rigour unknown to Norman tyrants. 
Charles I. put the right of pre-emption to a 
novel use by establishing a retail pepper trade ; 
just as his father claimed a monopoly of the 
sale of tobacco, and his son made heavy 
requisitions on tin. 

Even in the present day the Crown may 
profit by treasure-trove, escheat, and for- 
feiture ; while it is only of late years that its 
guardianship of the common highways has 
been in abeyance, t 

All these rights were and are due to the 
Crown by prescription not more ancient 
than the pre-emption of wools and the prizage 
of wines. 

The objection to this argument will be, as 
it always has been, that the prerogative was 
here exerted against both the wishes and the 
interest of the nation for the sole aggrandize- 
ment of the Crown. This was partly alleged 
on Hampden's part in the case of the ship- 
money. The strict right of the Crown could 
not be denied even here, but the existence of 
an emergency to warrant its exertion was 
successfully disputed. 

During the middle-Tudor period, however, 
I unhesitatingly maintain that both the in- 
terest and feeling of the bulk of the nation 
were on the side of the prerogative, and that, 
moreover, the Crown did little more than 

* Galba, c. ii. 

t The wholesale encroachments permitted of late 
years on the river Thames are sufficiently notorious. 



t^o 



THE GREAT CASE OF THE IMFOSITIONS. 



seek to recover its undoubted revenue, which 
neural causes had diverted. 

I could point to scores of passages from 
contemporary MSS. to prove that the impost 
on imported wines was a burthen scarcely felt 
by the consumer, and dear to the heart of the 
producer in this country. 

The ships which were unladen of French 
wines, were reladen with English woollens for 
exportation. This practice not only caused a 
keen competition in the carrying trade of ex- 
ports, in favour of the more enlightened 
foreigner, but by glutting the foreign cloth 
market, and lowering prices, made it im- 
possible for the unskilled English v/eaver or 
dyer to supply the home market at current 
quotations. 

Thus, the action of the Government in 
attempting to secure the monopoly of the 
export trade to the English merchant, and of 
the retail trade to the English artisan, was 
supported by one, and virtually by both, of 
those tvvo great classes. It was only a few 
old-fashioned politicians, advocates of an 
agricultural revival, and a small but vigorous 
and enlightened minority of the nation, that 
resisted the false economical policy of the 
Government. These were the petty traders, 
mercers or grocers, who, grown rich by an 
unlimited course of trade, were fast taking 
their place amongst the landed interest. 

These were the men who, swelling the 
ranks of the Tudor yeomanry, became the 
Puritan gentry of the next century, and won 
the fight for the liberty of the subject. 

But to show how entirely the whole ques- 
tion is one of expediency decided by class 
interests, these very men were they who in 
turn imposed the Navigation Act upon their 
Dutch co-religionists. 

There is good reason, however, to suppose 
that the Government of Mary and Elizabeth 
were actuated by better motives in seeking to 
restrain the growing consumption of luxuries 
than those chiefly imputed to them. Con- 
temporary literature is replete with satires at 
the expense of the dandified consumer. The 
consumption of drink, with its ill effects on 
popular morality, was enormously on the in- 
crease, as may be gathered from the fatal 
tavern brawls which figure in the writs of 
gaol delivery for the period. 

But there is one more view of the conduct 



of the Crown, and one to which I have several 
times invited attention. 

The importation of wine had increased 
since Edward I. at least four or five times. 
The value of the butt of wine was more than 
doubled, and ships carried a larger cargo than 
of old. A smaller margin of profit was left to 
the Crown from the farm of the custom, whilst 
the purchasing power of money had increased 
perhaps a third, and the expenses of the Crown 
had increased in proportion. 

Was it then fair that the latter should still 
be content with the old and unvarying butler- 
age from Aliens, the uncertain and inadjustable 
prizage in kind, and the ancient rates of the 
subsidy ? 

It was .the same with the revenue drawn 
from the custom on cloths. The legality of 
the old custom on wool, as regulated by the 
Confirmatio Chartarum, was indeed unques- 
tioned, but what was now the value of this 
custom to the responsible executive ? 

The export trade in wool had practically 
disappeared, and an export trade in un- 
wrought cloths had taken its place. Who 
should murmur if the Crown took what was 
its own in another form ; for, by some means 
or other, the deficiencies in the customs' re- 
venue must be made up, to avoid that bank- 
ruptcy of the Government which seemed 
imminent ? This was the view taken by the 
Ministers who instigated these exactions by 
the high-principled Gardiner and the prudent 
Cecil. 

None could charge the Government of 
Elizabeth at least with prodigality. Border 
fortresses were indeed kept up, harbours or 
dockyards laid out, and a volunteer militia 
drilled and equipped. It was only a war of 
extermination by land and of reprisals by sea 
that was discouraged, a crusade of Protestant 
against Catholic that was sternly repressed. 
The Crown was far more careful of the growing 
resources of the country than its own un- 
principled subjects. 

We should, in common justice, take account 
of all these circumstances before we place 
ourselves on the side of the great advocates 
of constitutional liberty, Hakewill, Hale and 
Hargrave. As for the position of certain 
later historians, some of whose statements I 
have ventured to criticize, it matters little in 
comparison that they have failed in their 



THE GREAT CASE OB THE IMPOSITIONS. 



lOl 




attention to obscure sources of information in 
view of the general greatness and thorough- 
ness of their work. 

The true moral to be derived from the 
whole history of the question is at the ex- 
pense of the shameless impostors who, with- 
out originality or industry, and respecting not 
the dignity of history, have edited it as a lying 
romance to their infatuated disciples. 
{To be coiitinued.) 

laotes anb Bjtracts front tbe 

account^'Booh of IRicbarb Bay, 

H Surrey J^coman/ 

KEPT BETWEEN 1648- 1662. 
By Alfred Ridley Bax. 

HE book from which the following 
extracts are taken is about 14! 
inches long by 6| wide, is bound 
in parchment, and is now in a very 
dilapidated condition, many of the leaves 
being much torn, whilst many of the earlier 
and later ones are altogether wanting, their 
stumps being alone left to indicate where they 
once were ; and, as often happens, those 
which are missing just embrace that period 
when entries would have been particularly 
interesting. 

It appears to have belonged to three 
Richards in succession. The relationship 
between the first and second Richard is not 
very clear, but the second and third stood 
in the relation of uncle and nephew to one 
another. The book is now the property of 
their descendant, George Bax Holmes, Esq., 
of Horsham. 

Concerning the parentage of the writer 
we know little, and nothing certain, although 
I am strongly inclined to think that he was 
son of Richard Bax, who is described as of 
* Kitlands" in a Brief Survey of the Manor 
of Dorking, in 1622. This Richard married 
at Ockley,* on June 30, 16 12, Agnes Shoe, 
and by her he had John and Agnes Bax, 
twins, baptized July 14, 16 14, and both 
buried on the same day in the churchyard at 
Ockley, and Richard Bax, baptized Sept. 27, 
1615. 

* Register of St. Margaret, Ockley. 



It is probable that the writer of the 
Account-Book, or his father, was the first of 
the family who lived at Kitlands, although 
the name occurs in Ockley much earlier. 
In the Parish Register it is recorded that 
*' Ralph y son of John Bax was bapt. 
March, 22"* day, 1547." 

The family seems to have been settled 
before that time in Sussex, as we find Richard 
Bakkes and John Bakkes enumerated in the 
list of tenants of Rusper Priory in the 24 
Hen. VIII,, 1532 ;* the latter is rated " pro 
le Newe House in Warnham^ xijV." A few 
years later than this the name occurs re- 
peatedly in the Warnham registers. 

Our earliest trace of it hitherto is in a 
subsidy roll of the Rape of Lewes in 1296, 
copied from an original MS. by the late 
W. H. Blaauw, Esq. ;t therein it is spelt 
Bac. John Bac and Rich, le Bac are rated 
with other inhabitants of the Villate de 
Brystelmstone et Molscumbe. 

But to return to our Account-book, which 
was undoubtedly kept at " Pleystowe," a 
homestead in the parish of Capel (near 
Dorking). The earlier leaves having been 
torn out as before mentioned, the first legible 
entry is in 1648 ; it begins abruptly, and has 
reference to the quantity of oats threshed. 

It will be observed that the worthy yeoman 
appears throughout his accounts and memo- 
randa to have greatly favoured the phonetic 
system in spelling, not always with economy 
of labour to himself in writing. 

It has often been asserted that, until Dr. 
Johnson's time, orthography was uncertain 
and fortuitous, and we have only to examine 
the epistolary correspondence of persons even 
of rank and position before his age to per- 
ceive how this is borne out by facts. 
T he s ame Daye of Nouember 1648. 

Oeainingt to Richard Wright for worke . 013 4 
The Accountes of Thomas Dandey his 
Thresheinge of Oeates 

It. at one time . . .55 bushelles ) 
wherof Thomas Had 17 ,, J 4 o 

It. 3 dayes worke a grobinge ....036 
It. at one time 6 bushelles of wheat ..016 
Tho. Dandey for thresheinge of Oeates 

II qur 099 

. '. > * Sussex Arch. Coll., vol. v. p. 261, 
+ Ibid., vol. ii, p. 295. 

X Owing. Oats. 



[62 



NOTES AND EXTRACTS FROM THE 



The accountes of James Bottler, his Threshe- 
inge of Oeats 

It. for Howldinge of plowe 14 dayes 1 
It. James Bottler for Thresheinge of > oil 8 
fortene qur. of Oeates . . . . ) 
It. at one time to Allen Boughton for 

wood cotinge* _'_ *^ 

Further on he has evidently been erecting 
either a new bam or outhouses, or rebuilding 
the old ones, as there is a long account for 
"nailles," " thetchinge,"! " scaeing;"t also 
for " Boordes," " heaueings," &c. 

It seems probable that a pond was then 
first made on the property, as there is this 
entry : 

' ' s. d. 

It. to Richard Wright for the pond ....15 
It. to Richard Wright for ffelleinge of the 

Tember . 08 

Cheese was then about 2\d. a pound, as 
appears from the next entry : 

s, d. 
It. to Richard Wright for 12 pounds of cheese 2 9 

He held "Holdbrooks" at this time (a 
farm long after in the family), and he has a 
memorandum of an offer which he made to 
the aforesaid Richard of a sum for " ifelinge 
of the Tember in the HowUbruck." 

The fondness which persons in the country 
exhibit for introducing the idea of sex in in- 
animate objects is exemplified by the next 
heading : " The accountes of the Bame in 
the HowUebrucke which I have Desporst|| 
conserninge him." 

Will. Weller was his ordinary serving man 
for a long period, and we constantly find 
entries of work done by, and money owing 
to, him. 

September the 29th, 1649. 

Oeaining to will, weeller for moeing . . i 10 o 

Thomas Dandey was another in constant em- 
ployment. 

October the 9th. 

s. d. 
for moeinge of Oeates, 17 ackrsT] . . . o 16 4 
for moeinge of Broekes,** 3 dayes ...040 

for carings of Broekes, \ day 010 

for caringe of Doing, ff 4 dayes ....050 
For a dayes of waterseruing++ 028 

* Wood-cutting. t Thatching. J Sawing. 

Perhaps eaves is here meant. || Disburst. 

If Acres. ** Brooks or Holdbrooks. ft Dung. 

X% I am at a loss for the meaning of this word; it 
often occurs throughout the accounts. Probably 
serving of water. 



"The accountes of The Pease which I 
have soulde in the year 1 648." 

Then follow the names of persons and the 
number of bushels sold to each. 



Suma is 



s. d. 
6 9 



"The accountes of the Oeates which I 
have scoulde* in the year 1648." 

The total number seems to have been 129 
bushels, and the price varied from 21^. and 
23^. to 2s. a bushel. This is followed by 
" the accountes of The Wheate which I have 
scoulde sunce the 208th {sic) day of Septem- 
ber, 1648." 

C s.d. 
Imprimus Matthew Lee for a bushell of wheate. 
It. Will. Terrey for a bushell of wheate .076 
It. Rich. Lee for a Halfe bushell of wheate 036 
It. Rich. Wrighte for a bushell of wheate .068 
&c. &c. 

From the long list from which the above 
four lines are taken, it appears that he must 
have had large dealings in that commodity. 
We next come upon a singular entry : " The 
accountes of the dencherf in the RowUes 
and the monys which I have desporst to the 
workmen." 

The following is interesting as reminding 
us of the stirring times in which he lived, and 
that events which now have the romance and 
interest of history were then occurring daily. 
It will be remembered that on the 30th of 
January in this year (1649) King Charles 
was beheaded at Whitehall, and the tax was 
no doubt levied with a view of clearing off 
the arrears of pay due to the soldiers. 

The accountes of The Taxes which I have payed 
scence Sept. the 29th, 1 649. 

s. d. 
It. payed to Allen Wallis for the 3 Monthes 
pay for the Lord ffarflax {sic)'\ his army 
from ye first of September to the last of 
Desember 2 12 6 



* Sold. 

t " Dencher," vide " Diary of Richard Stapley, Gent., 
of Hickstead Place, near Twineham, from 1682-1724," 
by Rev. Edward Turner, in Sussex Arck. Coll. vol. ii. 
p. 122, where the same word occurs. This term used 
to be applied to the act of paring off the turf from 
land and burning it. The residuum was used as 
manure. The word is supposed to be a corruption of 
" Devonshireing. " The practice is, I am informed, 
now discontinued. 

Fairfax. 



ACCOUNT-BOOK OF RICHARD SAX. 



163 



s. d. 
It, payed to Tho. Henton at the same time 

for my Land in Charl wood o ^7 3 

It. for the Rowles o 13 o 

It. for Rilles Land 018 

It. payed to Simmons and ffuller from the 

last of Desember to the last of May ..226 

Hedging and ditching is regarded,! believe, 
at the present time as expensive work. Our 
friend Richard tells us what it cost him in 
1649: 

s. d. 
It. for making of 103* Rodes of hedge and 

detch in the Rowlles I 14 4 

It. for 2,04ot ffadgatesj 040 

It. for 18 Rodes and a halfe of hedge in the 

Rowlles 030 

It. for cotinge of i stack of wood in the 

Rowlles 010 

It. for cotinge of 0607 ffadgates ....068 

It. for 4 dayes worke 040 

It. for 3 dayes worke with my horse ..030 
It. for going to mell and market . . . . o i o 
It. for two bushell of Oeates o 10 o 

From the " accountes of The Oeates 
which I have scoulde from September the 
29th the year 1649," the price seems to have 
varied from i^. -^d. the lo'vvest, to 2s. <^d. the 
highest, per bushel. 

In the next year (1650) he paid " for moe- 
ing of 15 ackars and a qu. of grasse at \s. ^d. 
an ackeyr;" for saying (sawing) one day, 
\s. 6d., "for wenieing" (winnowing) xs. 6d. 
for *' Two dayes a moinge of Oeates, 4^." 

The accoimtes of the Reckneinge Betweene 
Will. Poulsden and my scelffe 

s. d. 

It. Received of him for a mare 700 

It. for 6 sheep . . , a 14 o 

ffebruary the 4th, 1 65 1. 

will wheller for a peare of shues ....040 

The accountes of Thomas Dandey, March i, 
1651 

It. for Threshinge of 2 qu. of Teeres (tares) 
at is. 8d. 

He notes at this time that John Dussell 
and Will Wheeller were his servants, and on 
February the 4th, 165 1, "Will Hill did coome 
to mee to dwell." He received of Mr. 
Budgen " for my part of the cattell on John 
Walleses farm," jC4S- Richard Wallis re- 
ceived " for going to darking fowre times, 
2s.," "for going to plowe one day, 6d." "for 

* 103 = 13 ; 10 + 3. t Perhaps 240. 

+ Faggots. Mill. 



harrouing 4 dayes," 2s., " for Emptinge the 
Kell and Rowling," is. He sold " a Kalfe" 
at this date for los., and "29 Lames" at 
Ss. 6d. a lame." 

The acoountes of the monney which Mr. Budgen 
has Received for Catell from the ffirst of June 

s. d. 

It. Rec. of John Wickenden 10 12 6 

It. for the Red Kind* at Hossumf .-.370 
It. Ed. Gilles for the pidej heffer ... 3 10 o 
It. Steuen Richman for a sheepp . . . .011 o 
It. Ed. Gilles for the black hefer .... 3 10 o 
It. at Charlwood faire. 

It. Gilles black coot 368 

It. Peekes the Redskin Budgen ....430 

It. poore the whit flank 3 13 4 

It. Spencer the black whit haft ....360 

It. Hills had the white hefer 300 

It. Gilles had the brended hefer Budgen .368 
It. Gilles had the Rede hefer Wallton . 313 4 

It. John Gardner for a hide 080 

It. Tho. Dandey for a bullocke .... 2 15 o 
It for hupps Jo Keed of darking ...560 
It. Mr. Budgen Rec. for Rent of John 

Wardes the 15th of Aprill 1653-4. ..940 
It. for 4 oxen at Smethfield 38 10 o 

From note-books like the present we often 
get the local names of plots of land, the 
memory of which has probably long passed 
away. Few, if any, could now identify "the 
Coppiss," "the Marl-field," "the soutters," 
"the Rowlles," "Youcrofts," "Gosvens," 
" Bockenden,"|| " Letell Meade," "Charlwood 
Croft," " Rowles-garne," " Cowleas," " Shep- 
powles," " Colenes," &c., &c. yet they were 
well known at that time, and are in several 
instances mentioned repeatedly in the 
accounts. 

He pays the following to Will Wheeller : 

June the 27th, 1653. 

s. d 
It. for ^vreppinge1I i day his Booy ...026 
It. for 3 dayes and a halfe aploweinge ..036 

It. for sslaing of the Bullock 004 

Nicklas Smallpeac : 
It. for a short cloth 070 

* Kine. t Horsham. % Pied. Hops. 

II Query, Pockenden. There are many farms and 
closes in the adjoining county of Sussex which owe 
their names to their having been the reputed haunts 
of fairies, such as Pookryde, Pookbourne, Pook-hole. 
The sharpened end of the seed-vessel of the \vild 
geranium, called by the common people Pook-needle, 
probably originally meant the fairy's needle. Editor's 
note, "Journal of Timothy Burrell, Esq., of Ockenden 
House, Cuckfield, 1683-17 14." by Robert Willis 
Blencowe, Esq., Sussex Artk, Coll. ^ 

U Reaping. 



164 



NOTES AND EXTRACTS FROM THE 



for whose? 042 

for a smocl^e cloth 032 

for shues 034 

As a man of enterprise he went to various 
markets to purchase stock wherever he was 
likely to obtain the best cattle. 

May the 2Sth, 1653. The accountes of the money 
which I have layed out for cattell in to (j?V) 
John Wallis, his farme 

s.d. 
Imprimis for ffowre Beese* at Chersey ..944 
It. for two Beese at Wilton upon Temest .3184 
It. for two Beese at Darking+ market ..400 
It. Layed out at Leigh for Beese . . ..768 
It. at Eouell fayre Three beese ... . 7 18 6 
It. payed to Willkens for keeping the cowe 010 

" The accountes of the ffadgats in Cod- 
worth."! They were disposed of to Richard 
Tayller and William Dennes. Then we 
have 

The accountes of The money which I have 
Desporst to The Carryers 

s. d. 

It. to Anthoney Rowley, senr 190 

It. to Thomas Chas-mowre 200 

It. to Anthoney Rowley, junr i 10 o 

&c, &c. 

Altogether he [spent ^29 9.^. at this time 
for "carrying." 

October the 30, 1655. 

s. d. 
It. for Rackings of Oeats 4 Ackyers . .\ 060 
It. by the day 4 dayes, and for . . . . i 

RichardU 4 dayes 060 

It. for my wife one day o o 10 

But before this last extract there is a sug- 
gestive entry : 

Thomas Smallpeece de Nudigate in the [sic) 
Thomas Bax. 

Of course the words which were intended 
to be added were " County of Surrey." Does 
not the use of the Norman prefix " de" indi- 
cate the possession of a class of knowledge 
beyond what an intelligent yeoman in those 
days would be likely to possess? As the 
handwriting is somewhat different from that 
in all other entries in the book, and the 
colour of the ink much darker (although the 
court hand is still retained), may it not be 

* Beasts. t Walton-upon-Thames. 

X Dorking, often spelt Darking in early times. 

Ewell. 

II Cud worth, a moated farm romantically situated in 
an out-of-the-way part of the parish of Newdigate, 
about 2 miles from Capel. 

U Who was this Richard ? 



that of Thomas Smallpeece himself? It is 
known that the Smallpeece family were related 
to the Baxes.* 

He paid for "A lanthorne at lundon" at 
this date, 8^. ; for " driving of Lames" (lambs) 
to Sutton, 5x. 

In 1654 paid to Henry Wright for ffelinge 
the great tree, \s. 6d. 

He had probably by this time obtained the 
reputation of being a thoroughly substantial 
man, to whom it was perfectly safe to make a 
loan, as there is quite a formidable list of 
persons to whom he was indebted, with the 
sums due to each. 

Veal was then ild. a lb. 

s. d 
A True and Perffect Account of the mony 

laid out by me for the Broucke at 

Pockruddon O 10 O 

Imprimus laid out for the Haruest 

It. paid to the workmen for ffeleing and for 

fflaing {su) of 39 yeards of Tann ...076 
It. paid to Richard Tayller I lod and 32 

yeardes of Tann o 16 10 

1656. 
October 23. It. payed to Jo. Democke for 

Burning of lime 200 

The next entry is of considerable interest. 
It is the record of payment for education for 
son or nephew ; the amounts have unfortu- 
nately not been filled in in the earlier instances, 
but we get them afterwards ; the names 
written at the side are probably those of the 
schoolmasters to whose care they were com- 
mitted. It should be remembered that /20 
a year was considered at this time, and even 
in 17 17, a handsome sum to defray a son's 
expenses at the University, f 

Resbey : 
Payed for all Thomas his scowlinge till the 

24 of december, 1656 ....... 

* Richard Bax m. Ann Smallpeece, of Newdigate, 
CO. Surrey, 25 Feb. 1666 ; Thomas Bax, jun., m. Ann 
Smallpece, 15 April, 168 1. There have been at least 
two matches between the Chasemores and the Baxes ; 
one before 1622, when Joan Chasemore married 
Thomas Bax, and one in 1766, when Susannah, 
daughter of Richard Bax, of Newdigate, married 
Philip Chasemore, of Horsham, The Chasemores 
became very wealthy through dealing in cattle. Mr. 
Henry Chasemore, of Croydon, miller and banker, is 
the present head of the family. 

+ Vide Sussex Arch. Coll., John Everenden, gentle- 
man, paid {circa 1620) ;^i a year for the schooling of 
his daughter Elizabeth, and 2 a year for his son 
Walter's education. Vide " Account Books of the 
Frewen and Everenden Families," by W. D. Cooper, 
Sussex Arch, Coll, vol. iv., p. 22. 



ACCOUNT BOOK OF RICHARD BAX. 



165 



fforman : s, d. 

Payed for All Thomas his Boord, till the 

31st of January, 1656 

Paid for Thomas his scouleing till the 24th 

June, 1657 

Paid for Thomas his seeding till the 

24th of December, 1658 100 

Jo. Daves. The 20th of September, 1655, 

did come to me to dwell. 
It. paid to Richard all his wadges for the 

last yeare 4150 

It. paid to Nicklas all his wadges for the 

last yeare, 1655 500 

Richard Batcheller : 
It. Rec. in 1657, Cralley fayree .... 100 
It. Rec. at one Tyme when he went to his 

mother December the 5th, 1657. 

Oats in the year 1656 appear to have risen 
in those parts from is. to 2s. 6d. a bushel ; 
many sales seem to have been effected at 
Dorking on Thursdays, then as now, the 
regular market-day. The following is highly 
amusing from its pompous diction : 

Knowe all men by these prsents that wee whose 
names are heere under written doe Exknowledge our 
scellues ffulley scatisfied for the moeing and Racking 
& Binding of The Oeats at Greenes in the yeare 
1656. 

will Scemond 
his mark 
Tho. Bull 
his mark. 

He paid at this date to '' Goody Pardee 
for 2 dayes A wedinge for Thomas, is"; 
for "haiing" of the huckeffeild, the Letell 
mead, Charlwood Croft, greate Meade, 
Rowles-garne and the gossvens (?)," also for 
" I day a haiing in the Cowleas, 85-. 8//. ;" to 
Dandey, for "3 days worke in the fforist, 
55. 6d." and for " 3 dayes at the Pound, 3^." 
On April the loth, 1658, he gives the 
" Accountes of the money laid out by me for 
the hop-game in the year 1658," total amounts 
to ;!^26 ; besides that he " payed to Jo. 
Meiller for plantes, jQ6 5j-., and to Ouleuer 
Neye for hop-poles eight hundred and a 
halfe, 2>s. the hundred, ;^3 45. 

We next come upon further expenses for 
schooling. 

It. payed for Thomas his Scouling till the s. d. 
24th of June, 1658 100 

It. payed for Thomas his Board until the 
31st of Agust, 1658 4150 

It. payed to Thomas fiqrman, Will his 
Bord from the 6th of January to the 
I2th of July, the sum of 4 15 O 

It. payed to Thomas fforman for Thomas his 
Bourd from the 31th of January to the 
I2th of July the sume of 3 ^5 o 



It. payed to Mr. hount for "Will his scowl- s. d. 

ing 100 

It. payed to Mr. Neisbett for Thomas his 

Scowling until the i ath of July . . . x o o 

The succeeding extract appears to me one 
of the most interesting in the book ; it has 
reference to his expenses in London during 
a week spent there on account of his presence 
being required in connection with the Chan- 
cery suit of a certain Anthony Thorpe.* 
Marcli the 14th, 1658. The Accounts of the money 

laid out by me Toward the sute of Anthoney 

Thorpe: 

Imprimus paid to Mr. Budgen for 1 nights s. d. 
lining at lundon, & for the order ...040 

March the 29th, 1659 

It. payed to Mr. Raworth for his flfee and 

lucking (sic) the writtings o 15 o 

It. payed unto Scergeant Mainardt for his 

ffee o 10 o 

It. for goeing Ouer the water 006 

It. for Draweing the Afe DavidJ . ...006 

It. for the Oath 002 

It. for Scerching the Supinaoses ....006 

July the 26th, 1659. 

le did go to Lundon for the order of Des- 
mecion for Anthoney Thorpe's sute in 
chanserey, 

Mickallmas Terme, 1659 : ? d. 

Munday, water 003 

at the inn ....004 

Munday, scoperll 009 

Toosday water Tempell 003 

water west to the Tempell 003 

Toosday Denner 006 

Toosday Scoper 002 

Mr. Atkines his ffee o 10 o 

The Atachment against Thorp ....070 

water Tempell to west 003 

at the Einn ...002 

wenesday Denner 006 

wensday Atkines his ffee 0100 

wensday Scoper 003 

Thursday water from OurisH to Tempell .003 

Atkines for p'te of his ffee 050 

Denner a Thursday 005 



* This suit was brought by Thorpe as agent of the 
Lord of the Manor, to prove that a part of Pleystowe 
was copyhold of the manor. In the end Richard Bax 
maintained his right to the whole as freehold. 

+ Sir John Maynard, an eminent statesman and 
lawyer, prosecutor of Strafford and Laud, afterwards 
an opponent of Cromwell, knighted at the Restora- 
tion, d. 1690. 

t Affidavit. Subpoenas. II Supper. 

IF The Church of St. Mary Overy, at the foot of 
London Bridge, a regular landing for boats, was no 
doubt established there. lie probably lodged during 
the early part of the week at one of the numerous 
famous inns of Southwark, 



x66 



NOTES AND EXTRACTS, E7C. 



s. d. 

water from the Tempell to Ouris ...003 

scoper a Thursday 008 

ffriday Denner 005 

for p'at of Mr. Atkines flfee 050 

for Eintering the order 030 

water from the Tempell to Ouris ....003 

scoper A ffriday 002 

Saterday 

fTor Coping of the order 010 

Dener a Saterday 006 

water from the Tempell to Ouris ... .003 

To Mr Spenncer for the ffee 036 

ffor the horses for ffive nights 042 

He was evidently, from what follows, an 
Overseer of the Poor in 1659. 

The Accountes of the money Layed out by 

me ill the yeare 1659 for the Relifs of the 

poore. 

s. d. 
It. for a warrant for Jo. Mearsh to Apeere 

before the Justeses at Barking ....006 
It. for consernieing the porre Booke ..006 
It. for another warrant for Jo. Marsh ..006 
It. for Exspences at gellford consceming 

Anthoney Weller o i t 

It. paid to James hilles at 3 seuerall Times o 15 o 
It. payed to the widdo Lee at tow? sceuerall 

Times 076 

It. paide to Edw. Gardyner for worke dun 

About the Almeshouse 026 

It. payed to Jo. Wonham for i daycs worke 

About the Almeshous 014 

It. paid to the widd. Lee 010 

It. paid to the widd. Lee o r o 

It. Tho. Dandey had i bu. of wheat ..070 
It. mathew mesbrucke had I bu. of wheat .070 
It. John Democke had at one Tyme ..050 

It. Rec. of Tho. Wonham I o o 

It. desporst to James Hill 050 

It. to The widdo Lee 050 

It. Rec. of Tho. Wonham 2 4 10 

It. Jo. Wonham douth Cue unto me for 

Coifein (?) Borde o 10 o 

In the year 1661 "The Accounte Milles 
and Metchenors Work in the Roles" bears 
the signature of " Thomas Smallpeec." 

Whether the following account at the end 
of the book, without date, but in the same 
hand as that at the beginning, has reference 
to the same Chancery suit already mentioned 
or not, remains uncertain : 

The accountes of the money which I have Desporst 
in Mr. Budgen's behalfe and my owne : 

s.d. 

It. laied out for Will Wheller his going to 

Lundon 030 

It. for the Bayles ffeese and the Etemey 

his ffeese 080 

It. for a line of wealle 020 

It. to Mr. Thorp his Mann o 10 o 

It. to Mr. [blank] I o 



U s. d. 

It. to Will Wheeller 020 

It. to Mr. Morgen 094 

It. to Mr. Beerd 050 

It. to Mr. Melles 040 

It. for the horses o i 10 

It. for beere to Mr. Abome 006 

It. to Mr. Aborne 100 

It. going over the water ......006 

It. at the Einn 003 

It. at one time alone for going over the 

water 003 

It. at one time for a horse hier ....050 
It. at one time a dennor for Mr. Shockford 

and Mr. Abome 010 

It. at the same time for Mr. Thomas 

Maninges Draft 004 

Anno. Dom. 1662. 

The Accountes of the work Dunn in the Rowles 

as concer*"* the Browke. 

s. d. 
It. paid to Will, ffeild for heuing of 8 lode 

ofTember 

It. paid to Thomas Whight for Scayinge in 

the Rowles 100 

This is the last entry. The day and month 
are not given. It seems fair to conjecture that 
increasing infirmities compelled him to resign 
the management of his affairs, and, with them, 
of his accounts, into the hands of a younger 
and more vigorous man, perhaps his successor 
in the property and in the possession of the 
Account Book. We gather sufficient from en- 
tries which have been quoted to conclude that 
Richard Bax was a very good specimen of 
a thrifty and industrious yeoman of the 
seventeenth century, looking well after the 
prosperity of his farms, the successful dis- 
posal of his stock, keeping his accounts with 
regularity and diligence, and discharging 
conscientiously his duties as overseer of the 
poor, and in everything maintaining the 
principles of a Friend rigid truthfulness in 
his dealings with his fellow-men, and a sim- 
plicity in manners and dress from which the 
majority of the nation had at that period of 
our history so grievously departed. 

There can scarcely be a doubt that one of 
the earliest records of burial in the Pleystowe 
register of the Society of Friends has refer- 
ence to the first owner of the Account Book. 
It is as follows : " Richard Bax Sen"" of 

mo 

Capel, buried 30. 3 : 1665 at Charlwood." 



REVIEWS. 



167 



1Rcview0; 




Tlie Visitation of Wiltshire. 1623. Edited by 
George W. Marshall, LL.D. (London : George 
Bell & Sons. 1882.) Roy. 8vo, pp. iv.-iog. 

HERE is no need to enlarge upon the 
value of the old Heralds' Visitations, 
because no antiquary would be inclined 
to doubt it. We ought not to be content 
so long as any of these remain in MS., 
and therefore liable to total destruction. There are 
among the Harleian manuscripts in the British 
Museum Visitations of the five western counties, by 
St. George and Lennard, who acted as deputies to 
Camden. Cornwall and Devon were visited in 1620, 
and Somerset, Dorset, and Wiltshire in 1623. The 
visitations of Cornwall, Devon, and Somerset have 
been published by the Harleian Society. Dr. Mar- 
shall has undertaken Wiltshire on his own responsi- 
bility, and Dorset still requires an editor. A Book 
of Pedigrees is not easily reviewed, and we can only 
say that the editor has reproduced the work in a very 
handsome form, with two plates of arms, and has 
edited it with the conscientiousness which he is so 
famous. At the end of the book is a list which proves 
that the visit of Richmond and Bluemantle to Wilt- 
shire did not give universal satisfaction. This is "a 
note of all such as have usurpet the names and titles 
of gentlemen without authoritie, and were disclaimetl 
at Salisburie in the county of Wiltsheire in Sept. a 
1623." This contains fifty-two names described as 
ignobiles omnes. 

Studies in Nidderdale : ttpon Notes and Observations 
other than Geological made during the Progress of the 
Government Geological Survey of the District, 1867- 
1872. By Joseph Lucas. (London : Elliot Stock. 
No date.) Svo, pp. xxvi.-292. 

If eveiy other member of the Geological Survey 
had possessed a little of the ability to "make a note 
of" things found exhibited by Mr. Lucas in this very 
admirable book, what really national work would 
have been accomplished ! With just a sprinkling of 
theory throughout the work, Mr. Lucas has contrived 
to get together some of the most out-of-the way facts 
connected with the old ways and doings and sayings 
of the Nidderdale folk. Every page almost takes us 
back to a past so remote that it is only by having sur- 
vived in the present that the historian can learn any- 
thing about it Mr. Lucas has disdained no information, 
and accordingly some of the very smallest trifles, only 
to be found in such rare books as this, are eagerly 
picked up by the student of ancient times. Thus the 
glimpses into the old houses, the position or absence 
of the chimneys of the fire-places, the ancient ovens 
or "bak stones," are precious morsels of the prehis- 
toric home which can only be obtained by actual 
observation. Then there are facts connected with the 
old cultivating customs of the primitive village com- 
munity the "reins," as they are known at Warder- 
marske and elsewhere though on this subject Mr. 
Lucas seems to have gone a little wild in his obser- 



vations. And finally there are some gathered scraps 
of old customs and superstitions, and an admirable 
collection of the dialects and natural histcwy notes of 
Nidderdale. We do not say one word too much\in 
expressing our unqualified gratitude for such a collec- 
tion of good notes, and we cordially recommend our 
readers to make themselves acquainted with this ad- 
mirable^specimen of an antiquary's "Note-book." 



Tlie Prophecies of the Brahan Seer. By Alexander 
Mackenzie. With an Appendix on the Supersti- 
tion of the Highlanders. By the Rev. Alexander 
Macgregor. (Inverness : A. & W. Mackenzie. 
1882.) i2mo, pp. 111.-156. 

This is the third edition of a well-known little 
work. Kenneth Mackenzie, better known as Coin- 
neach Odhar, ;the Brahan Seer, was bom in the 
Island of Lewis about the beginning of the seventeenth 
century. When he had just entered his teens, he 
received a magical stone in an extraordinary manner, 
and thus began his career as a prophet. What he 
prophesied, and the results of the prophecies, we 
shall not detail here ; but there is undoubtedly a great 
deal of curious matter in this little book for those who 
love folk-lore, but we suppose, if the contemporaries 
of the seer believed in his prophetic powers, we may 
be excused. We should much like to see some one 
take up this subject in the same way as Mr. Thoms 
has taken up longevity. The story of the Seaforth 
family is the most interesting. But, it is a pity that 
a book capable of giving so much curious information 
should be so wretchedly edited. Misprints abound, 
and, in one place, the pagination is wrong, and the 
narrative consequently misplaced. 



Report of the Proceedings of the Teign Naturalises 

Field Club for the Year 1881. (Exeter: William 

Pollard. 1882.) Svo, pp.18. 

This is a recoril of a very carefully and usefully 

arranged system of excursions to the antiquities of the 

surrounding neighbourhood, and we cordially give our 

opinion of the value of such excellent societies. There 

are Papers on the earthworks on Milber Down, 

remarks on the landing of the Prince of Orange at 

Brixham, and on the local names of wild flowers. 

Unwritten History and Hotu to Read it : a Lecture to 
the Working Classes, delivered at the Meeting of tlie 
British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
held at Southampton, August, 18S2. By John 
Evans. (London : Virtue & Co. 1882.) 8vo, 
pp. 23. 

No subject could have been better suited for the 
workmen's lectures at Southampton than this, and 
Mr. Evans was essentially the right man to deliver it. 
From the peculiarity of the position of Southampton, 
it has been occupied from pre-historic times through- 
out all successive stages of history, and the finds 
gathered from the neighbourhood, and placed in the 
Hartley Institute, formed valuable illustrations to 
Mr. Evans's observations. Mr. Evans placed the 
facts clearly and succinctly before his audience, and 
the reprint forms an admirable summary of the 
subject- 



i68 



REVIEWS. 



The Devonshire Association for the Advancement of 
Science, Literature, and Art. Twenty-first Meeting. 
1882. Address by J. Brooking Rowe, President. 
(Plymouth : W. Brendon & Sons.) 8vo, pp. 88. 

This Address mainly deals with the topography of 
Devonshire, and it admirably points out what has 
been done, and what there is to do, towards the com- 
pilation of a history of Devonshire. The Address is a 
valuable contribution to local history ; and its appen- 
dices, giving lists of MSS. relating to Devon, lists of 
histories of towns, &c., lists of monuments, dedications 
of churches, are such useful bibliographical information 
as do not often accompany president's addresses. 



Proverbde Rontanitor. English Proverbs. Proverbes 
FranQais. Deutsche Spriichwbrter. (London: Kerby 
& Endean. Bucuresci. 1882.) i2mo, pp. viii-64. 

This little book is a useful addition to the literature 
of proverbs. The object which the compiler, Mrs. E. 
B. Mawer, has had in view is to collect a certain 
number of Roumanian proverbs, and place side by 
side with these corresponding ones in English, French, 
and German. This is an undertaking which always re- 
pays the trouble spent in carrying it out. Our opinion 
of the wisdom of a proverb is naturally increased when 
we"find it in several languages. The author proposes 
to enlarge the book in a future edition, and asks for 
help in respect to French and German proverbs. 



Old Karnarvon: a Historical Account of the Town of 
Carnarvon, with notices of the Parish Churches 
of Llanbeblig and Llanfaglan. By W. H. Jones. 

\ (Carnarvon: E. Humphreys.) Sm. 8vo, pp. 186. 

No one who has ever seen Carnarvon Castle is 
likely to forget it, and we shall most of us agree 
with the words of the chronicler, Speed, who wrote, 
*' Great pitie it is that so famous a work should 
not be perpetuous, or ever become a ruin of time." 
In more ways than one the Castle overshadows the 
town, but the history of the latter is of very great 
interest in itself. Mr. Jones has illustrated his little 
book with a copy of Speed's interesting plan of Car- 
narvon, 1610, and with illustrations of several of the 
old buildings. The author has given a very interest- 
ing account of the town and its Castle, in wliich he 
traces the various vicissitudes both have undergone, 
and he has added much curious information respecting 
old customs and old people. There is a street of no 
particular importance called Ilole-in-the-Wall Street, 
but Mr. Jones has found this spelled in an old assess- 
ment of the town taken just a century ago, *' Hall-in- 
the-Wall Street," which points to the situation of the 
Gild Hall within its precincts, ;and gives a very 
probable origin for the name. 



Visits to Remarkable Places. By William Howitt. 
The illustrations designed and executed by Samuel 
Williams. New edition. (London : Longmans, 
Green, & Co. 1882.) Sm. 8vo, pp. xvi.-468. 
History is never better studied than on the spots 

where its incidents have been enacted, and no country 



is richer in such remarkable places than our own 
island. But half the benefit to be obtained from such 
visits will be lost if we have not an intelligent guide. 
Mr. Howitt's tastes have taken him to many places of 
interest, and these are described in such a manner 
that this book will always form an exceedingly plea- 
sant companion for any one visiting the same places. 
We start off with Penshurst, for ever associated with 
the Sidneys, and hence linked with the most delightful 
memories. CuUoden follows, then Stratford-on- Avon, 
and after visits to a few places in the south, such as 
Hampton Court, Tintagel, and Winchester, we find 
most of the other places in the north. In the adver- 
tisement prefixed to this edition, we are told ** that 
Mr. Howitt describes these scenes as he saw them 
forty years ago, and that lapse of time may have 
affected their aspect, though it has not changed or 
diminished their^historical interest." There are other 
points which show that this book was written forty 
years ago ; for instance, the estimate of historical 
characters is not altogether the estimate of to-day ; 
thus we read that Cromwell was a precious hypocrite, 
and that Algernon Sidney was a model of Roman 
virtue ; but^this is merely by the way, for Mr. Howitt 
is too pleasant a companion and too favourite an 
author to be criticized after this manner. The book 
is very prettily got up. 



The History and Antiquities of Colchester Castle. 
(Colchester : Benham & Co. 1882.) 8vo, pp. 148. 

This excellent little book does much more than 
demolish the monstrous theory of the Roman origin 
of Colchester Castle ; it establishes in a clear and 
forcible manner that it is not Roman, not Saxon, but 
Norman, and it performs this work by going 
thoroughly into the history of the place from original 
documents. The most interesting chapter in the 
book, so far as its express purpose as a guide is con- 
cerned, is that devoted to a description of the Castle, 
which goes into the matter so minutely and graphi- 
cally, and yet so pleasantly, that it cannot but remain 
the standard guide for all time. The author gives his 
readers, too, a glimpse outside the bare walls of the 
Castle, the chapters devoted to views from the 
Castle, the descent and demesnes of the Castle, being 
full of unusually instructive information. We may 
note that Lammas lands exist at Colchester. 



riDeetinae of antiquarian 
Societie0, 



British Archaeological Association. Aug. 21- 
28. Plymouth. The proceedings commenced with 
a reception, held in the Guildhall, by the Mayor 
of Plymouth. The regalia, consisting of maces, 
silver-gilt, of the time of Queen Anne, and other 
articles, were then inspected and commented upon 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



169 



by Mr. G. Lambert, F.S.A., who described the 
peculiarities of the workmanship. A silver-gilt cup 
of artistic design and old date, out of which Drake 
and many other of Plymouth's worthies must have 
drunk, was greatly admired. The archives of the 
Corporation were then described by Mr. R. N. Worth. 
The old cucking-stool, of wrought iron, was pro- 
duced for the inspection of the party, who then pro- 
ceeded to the parish church of St. Andrew, formerly 
a dependency upon the priory of Plympton. An 
ancient building at the south-east comer of the 
churchyard, known popularly as the "Abbey," but 
which has no written record, was most probably the 
clergy house. It is said to be attached to the church 
by a subterranean passage into a fifteenth-century 
crypt beneath the chancel. The old Custom House, 
dated 1637, was then inspected, a curious example of 
the lingering of an earlier style in the west of England, 
the four centred doorways, of granite, being similar 
to several in the neighbouring buildings fully 200 
years older. The church of Charles was also visited. 
A halt was made at the church of Buckland Mona- 
chorum, a fine specimen of enriched Perpendicular 
work, executed in granite, the columns in the interior 
of the building being worked each out of a single 
stone. There is a fine tower, with pinnacles of the 
usual Devonshire t3rpe, at the west end ; but within 
many of the ordinary featxires of the local buildings 
give place to more ornate work than is generally 
met with, the window tracery being extremely good. 
Sir James A. Picton traced the connection between 
the family of the Drakes with the Heathfields, 
and pointed out the beautifiil monument in the 
chapel in memory of Lord Heathfield, the brave 
defender of Gibraltar. The party then proceeded 
to Prince's Town, to examine the pre-historic 
remains which abound in the district. The even- 
ing of the 22nd was devoted to the reading of 
Papers, the Athenaeum having been placed at the 
disposal of the Association for the purpose by tlie 
Plymouth Institution. A Paper was read by Sir 
J. A. Picton on " The Municipal Records of England, 
illustrated by those of Liverpool." Another Paper, 
on various incideuts of Sir Francis Drake's voyage 
round the worid, was read by the Rev. W. S. Lach- 
Szyrma. The small size of Drake's ships was 
particularly emphasized, the largest being about the 
average size of a modern collier. This was followed 
by a third Paper, by Dr. Drake, on "The Antiquity 
of the Armorial Bearings of the Famjly," and various 
differences were passed in review. Wednesday was 
devoted to visits to Dartmouth and Totnes. The 
church of St. Saviour was examined, and described 
by Mr. Loftus Brock, in the unavoidable absence of 
the Rev. E. C. Brittan. It is a cruciform church, 
with aisles to both nave and chancel, and a plain 
western tower, the main portion of the fabric having 
been erected in the fourteenth century, and conse- 
crated October 13, 1372. Colonel Bramble explained 
the costume of the very fine Ilawley brass in the 
chancel (1408). The ancient houses in the Butter 
Walk were then inspected, while some of the party 
paid a visit to Dartmouth Castle and the ancient 
church of St. Petrock. On the return journey, a 
lengthy visit was paid to Totnes Church, a build- 
ing of considerable size and much artistic beauty. 
VOL. VI. 



Here Mr. Windeatt supplied many interesting items 
of information from local documents, &c., among 
which were references to the building of the tower about 
1432. The magnificent stone rood screen was erected 
by the corporation in the thirty-eighth year of Henry 
VI. Passing into the old Gildhall of the town, the 
party was received by the mayor, Mr. Harris. The 
building is a quaint structure, dating from the time of 
Edward VI. Within it a great number of deeds and 
documents were laid out and described by Mr. Wind- 
eatt at length, many notices of important historical 
events being rendered. Mr. C. H. Compton described 
the ancient charters, which were passed in review with 
the originals, and Mr. G. Lambart, F. S. A., discoursed 
upon the two silver-gilt maces and the loving cup of 
the corporation. The visit was brought to a close by 
the inspection of the ruins of the castle. This is a 
circular shell keep on a conical mound, artificially 
shaped, the masonry being pronounced by Mr. Brock 
to be no earlier than the thirteenth century, although 
the earthworks may be of very great antiquity. The 
ruins belong to the Duke of Somerset, and have been 
planted with trees and laid out as a recreation ground. 
On Thursday the archaeologists proceeded to Lidford. 
The church of Lidford is a small building, but posses- 
sing points of much interest. Part of the north side 
of the nave is of remote antiquity, and the plain cylin- 
drical font dates probably from Saxon times. The 
building is dedicated to St. Petrock. The stairs to 
the rood-loft alone remain, and there is the peculiarity 
of a hagioscope cut through the lower steps. Mr. 
R. N. Worth rendered an interesting description of the 
now decayed town of Lidford, which was of extent 
and importance in Saxon times, having a mint, and 
apparently a large population. The castle adjoins the 
churchyard, and there the party inspected a square 
keep of no great elevation, erected on a bold circular 
conical mound of earth. The arches are round-headed 
and segmental pointed. Mr. Worth narrated his in- 
teresting discovery of a series of important and exten- 
sive earthworks which entirely surround the town. 
They consist of a massive rampart and an 
outer ditch, and their appearance fully jus- 
tifies the belief that they are the remains 
of a British fortified town. Passing close to Brent 
Tor and its ancient church dedicated to St. Michael, 
the party proceeded to Tavistock. Here the church 
of St. Eustacius was inspected. Mr. Loftus Brock 
referred to the fact that the building was mentioned 
as being dedicated to this saint so early as 1184, and 
that it was until then separate fiom the great abbey of 
Tavistock close to it. A perambulation was then made 
of the site of the celebrated abbey, aided by notes and 
a plan prepared by Mr. Rundle, of Tavistock. I'he 
church, which was of great size, stood almost in the 
centre of the present Bedford Road ; the office is on 
the site of the chapter-house, and the sites of the 
other conventual buildings were fairly well made out. 
This visit was brought to a close by the inspection of 
the well-known Romano-British inscribed stones in 
the vicarage gardens, which were found to be in 
fairly good state, although standing in the open air. 
In the evening the following papers were read : I. 
" On the Finding of an Eariy Statue at Abbotskers- 
well Church," by Mr. J. Phillips. It had been found 
embedded in the wall of the building during restora- 

N 



170 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



tion. 2. "The Early History of Plymouth," by 
Mr. R. N. Worth, in which attention was drawn to 
recent discoveries, showing that an early British race 
must have occupied the site. 3. " Robert Blake, 
Colonel and General at Sea, 1657," by Mr, E. G. 
Bennett, in which many of the exploits of the gallant 
sailor were passed in review. 4. " The Exeter Book," 
by Mr. D. Slater, in which the claims of a new transla- 
tion of this important Saxon work were advocated. 
On Friday a large party proceeded to Dartington 
Hall. The style of the work tallies with the recorded 
history, the mansion having been erected in the reign 
of Richard II., whose badge appears on the vaulted 
roof of the entrance porch. It has consisted of an 
outer quadrangle, a fine central hall, dividing it from 
an outer court, the principal apartments having been 
in the latter, but only a few traces of walling remain 
here and there. The hall is unroofed and mantled 
with ivy, but its fair pi-oportions can be traced, and 
the position of the dais, minstrel's gallery, passage 
way to kitchen, &c., made out. A wide open fire- 
place exists at the end of the hall, while in the rear, 
on the opposite side, is the kitchen. The outer 
quadrangle still retains many of its buildings, including 
the retainers' hall, near to the site of the original 
entrance, and it is still covered by its open timber roof. 
The next halt was made at Berry Pomeroy Church, 
a fine and characteristic specimen of a Devonshire 
church, with a capital porch having a vaulted roof and 
a room over it, a good western tower built ' ' batter- 
ing," and an unusually good oak screen, coloured 
and gilt, extending from wall to wall across the 
chancel. Proceeding onwards Berry Pomeroy Castle 
was reached. It consists of a mass of late Tudor 
buildings, grouped ai'ound an inner court, and sur- 
rounded by an escarped bank of great height, there 
being but one approach. This is a gateway with 
spaces for two portcullises and two flanking towers. 
Mr. C Lynam related the history of the building 
within the inner court, and the party then perambu- 
lated the remains, which are very extensive and im- 
posing. The next halt was made at Compton Castle, 
a building partly in ruins, of early fifteenth-century 
date, of a very different plan, more resembling Dar- 
tington Hall, since it had a quadrangular court en- 
closed by walls in front of the principal block of 
buildings which divide it from a second court in the 
rear. Ihe buildings consist of the remains of the 
chapel, some of the best rooms, and nearly the whole 
of those for domestic purposes. Mr. C. H. Compton 
read a Paper on the families connected with the castle 
and described it. The only other Paper read was 
"Notes on the Cornish Language and its Survival in 
the Comisk Dialect," by the Rev.W.'S.Lach-Szyrma. 
On Saturday the first place visited was Slade Hall, 
the seat of Mr. J. D. Spode, who described the 
building. The hall has an open timber roof of the 
early part of the seventeenth century, veiy similar in 
design, however, to one seen at Plymouth Priory of 
the fifteenth century, affording evidence of the con- 
tinuance of old designs in the locality. Passing on 
to Cornwood Church, the building was examined and 
commented upon by Mr. Brock. It is a double- 
aisled building, the aisles, north and south, having 
transepts. The tower at the west end is a portion 
of an older church, doubtless of smaller size, the 



growth of the building to its present proportions 
being pointed out stage by stage. The next halt 
was made at Fardell, an ancient manor-house, mainly 
of fifteenth-century date, now used as a farmhouse. 
On the return to Plymouth the closing meeting was 
held at the Gildhall. Papers were read: by Mr. 
W. H. Cope, " On Old Plymouth China ;" another, 
" On a Ruined Holy Well, dedicated to St. Julian at 
Rome," by Mr. J. Hine ; and a third, by Mr. C. H. 
Compton, " On the Gilberts and Comptons of Comp- 
ton Castle." The extra day's proceedings, Monday, 
the 28th, were imder the guidance of Mr. F. Brent. 
A visit was paid to the old citadel of Plymouth, the 
last of the seventeenth-century fortifications still in- 
tact in England, on the site of ramparts of the 
thirteenth century, and that of the old Chapel of St. 
Catherine. Besides these, the site was probably that 
of a prehistoric settlement. The remains of the an- 
cient Castle gateways in Cambhay Street were then 
inspected, probably not too soon for the preservation 
of arecord,of their existence, since they will soon be 
swept away for the purposes of public improvement. 
Mount Batten was reached. Mr. Brent called atten- 
tion to the fact that the spot was in all probability 
the seat of an early Celtic race, since large numbers 
of flint flakes have been found from time to time, 
while the continuance of the settlement to a later 
period appears to be proved by the numbers of British 
coins, in silver, gold, and copper, which have been 
found. 

Bucks Archaeological Society. August 3. 
After an interval of two years the members of this 
Society had an excursion. On reaching Wycombe 
they set out for the site of the ancient camp called 
Desborough Castle. The camp consists of a double 
entrenchment, with a deep fosse on the outside, the 
inner slope of the ditch being so raised as to form 
a high bank towards the interior. Of Desborough 
Castle nothing remains but the name, but in the 
centre of the position is a considerable mound which 
evidently formed a stronghold in some primitive war- 
fare. On this the company assembled to hear a de- 
scription by Mr. R. S. Downs, of Wycombe. Mr. 
Downs explained that the origin of the camp was 
altogether conjectural, but there was clear evidence 
of a British village having existed in the immediate 
vicinity. The position of the mound rendered it 
highly probable that it was originally formed for 
religious purposes by the early Celts ; but there was 
good reason to believe that it was afterwards used in 
warfare for the purpose of resisting an attack from 
invaders passing along the road beneath. The place 
was described in Domesday Book as " Dusten- 
burg." Mr. John Parker inclined to the view that 
the camp was British, and was used by the Saxons 
after their triumph in the district. The Mayor of 
Wycombe stated that British coins had been found 
in the neighbourhood. Leaving the camp the party 
repaired to a field in the vicinity, in M'hich they found 
a large, circular, cup-shaped excavation, about 20ft. 
in depth, called "The Roman Well," but occupying 
a position which precludes the probability of its hav- 
ing been employed for the purpose of drawing water. 
Like the former relic, its history is veiled in an ob- 
scurity which no antiquarian labours can satisfactorily 
fathom. They drove through the town of Wycombe, 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



171 



till the Grammar School was reached. Here the 
remains of the old St. John's Hospital, which exist 
in the midst of the school-building, were inspected. 
An interesting description was given by Mr. John 
Parker. The hall, it was stated, was supposed to have 
been erected in 1175, and the institution was an 
asylum for poor persons, who lived in the one apart- 
ment day and night. Like many similar institutions 
on the Continent, it was under the rule of St. Austin. 
The theory that the hospital was connected with the 
Knights lemplars was shown to be an error ; it was 
not an ecclesiastical building. It was explained that 
the hospital got into private hands in the time of 
Edward VI., but that Elizabeth re-granted the build- 
ing to the town for a grammar school, to which pur- 
pose it was afterwards devoted. Passing through the 
modem structure which has been built on to the re- 
mains, the visitors were favoured with the view of 
four remojrkably fine pillars, alternately round and 
octagonal, supporting semicircular arches 13ft. in 
diameter, which formed part of the old fabric. 
Such handsome relics of Norman architecture would 
rarely be met with in a non-ecclesiastical build- 
ing. The porch was shown to contain four transi- 
tional Norman pillars, and the oven anciently 
used by the inmates which was discovered some 
years ago was found iixed in one of the walls. 
The next visit was paid to Penn Church, a plastered 
building, of the Perpendicular style, dating from the 
fifteenth century. Over this they were conducted by 
the Vicar of Penn, the Rev. J. Grainger, who pointed 
out its principal features, including a large sarco- 
phagus, five fine old brasses, of the sixteenth century, 
and some tablets of interest. One of the brasses 
depicts a lady in a shroud, who by the inscription 
below is made not only to pray for the salvation of 
her own soul, but asks " unto the souls of all true 
believers departed remission of their sins" a form of 
words which, the Vicar observed, indicated the state 
of transition of the popular mind at the period with 
reference to prayers for the dead, being shortly after 
the passing of the Six Articles. The connection of 
the family of Pen as it is spelt on the monumental 
tablets was referred to, and it was stated that six 
grandchildren of William Penn, of Pennsylvania, 
were interred in the church. After a visit to the 
exceedingly handsome little church of Tyler's Green, 
with its ornate chancel and reredos, the travellers 
took a drive to Hughenden. The Vicar, the Rev. 
H. Blagden, favoured the company with an interesting 
description of the stone effigies of members of the 
De Montfort family of four centuries from the 
Crusading period to the reign of Henry VI. interred 
beneath the church, among them being a son of the 
famous Simon de Montfort. Mr. R. S. Downs had 
prepared a Paper on "The Danes in Bucks." 

Record Society. Annual Meeting, August 22. 
Mr. James Crossley in the chair. The report for 
the year 1881-82 stated that two volumes had been 
delivered to the members since the last annual 
meeting namely, the Parish Registers of Prestbury, 
Cheshire, edited by Mr. James Croston, F.S.A., and 
a volume of Lancashire and Cheshire Funeral Certifi- 
cates, 1600 to 1678, edited by Mr. J. Paul Rylands, 
F.S.A. Volumes vii. and viii. of the Society's pub- 
lications are printed, and only require to be indexed 



and bound, so that they will be in the hands of the 
members before the end of the year. In ihem will 
be found a very comprehensive account of the various 
classes of records relating to Lancashire and Cheshire 
to be found in Her Majesty's Public Record Office, 
London, illustrated by numerous examples of many 
of the documents referred to, and by valuable lists of 
names both of persons and places belonging to the 
two counties. These books have been edited by Mr. 
Walford D. Selby, of the Public Record Office, who 
has divided his materials into two parts. Volume vii. 
deals with ( I ) the Records of the Duchy of Lancaster, 
with special reference to the Lancashire and Cheshire 
manors belonging to it ; (2) the Records of the Palati- 
nate of Lancashire ; and (3) those of the Superior and 
Abolished Courts, as far as they relate to the tw" 
counties, the value of each class of records being as 
far as possible shown by examples of the various and 
important documents they contain. Volume viii. 
deals with the various indices to the Records which 
have from time to time been compiled, together with 
such special classes of documents as Special Com- 
missions, Licences and Pardons, and Royalist Com- 
position Papers, all of which throw much new light 
on the past history of the two counties, and indicate 
the best sources of information to be consulted by 
those working at either local or family history. 
Volume ix., the concluding volume for the year 
1882-3, '^iil contain verbatim transcripts of the 
Gild Rolls of Preston, beginning with the earliest 
now preserved, that of 1397 down to 1682. This 
volume, which will be edited by Mr. W. A. Abram, 
is now in the printer's hands. Volume x. will be the 
Index to the North Lancashire Wills, proved at 
Richmond, county York, announced in the last 
report. It will contain the list of these wills down 
to the year 1690, and will be edited by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Fishwick, F.S.A., and this volume will be 
followed in due course by another, which will bring 
down the list of wills to the year 1748. Mr. J. A. C. 
Vincent's report on the Lancashire Subsidy Rolls has 
been delayed, owing to the discovery of several 
hitherto uncalendared documents, which bring up the 
number of Lancashire lay subsidies to about 400. 
It is hoped that this volume may appear at an early 
date. The Council are endeavouring to arrange for 
a volume of Miscellanies, and it is also hoped that 
the Early Marriage Licences at Chester, beginning in 
1606, will shortly be printed by the Society. 

Royal Archaeological Institute. Aug 5. The 
members visited Hexham. The party walked to the 
Royal Giammar School, founded by charter of Queen 
Elizabeth in the year 1599, but now left desolate by 
the removal of the school to a more modern structure 
at the west end of the town. Mr. C. C. Hodges gave 
a short historical sketch of the building, which has 
few architectural features of special interest except 
the position of the Jleur de lis over the doorway. 
Passing beneath the archway of the Moot Hall, the 
party crossed the Market-place to the vacant plot of 
ground on the west side of the south transept of the 
Abbey Church, originally the cloister garden, in the 
centre of the Priory. Here Mr. Hodges gave a 
ristime of the principal historical events connected 
with the monastic buildings, explaining as he went 
along the features of interest in the adjacent ruins. 

N 2 



172 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



With regard to the antiquity of the site, he said it 
could be traced back with tolerable certainty to the 
period of the Roman occupation. About 674 St. 
Wilfrid obtained from Etheldrida, wife of KingEgfrid, 
King of Northumbria, and daughter of Anna, King 
of the East Angles, her marriage dowry, consist- 
ing of lands in the neighbourhood, and with this 
endowment he founded a Saxon Cathedral, which 
was destroyed by the Danes in 875, and the only 
traces of which were an ancient crypt below the 
present church. The bishopric of Hexham termi- 
nated in 822. A second church was [founded on the 
site of St. Wilfrid's by Thomas II., Archbishop of 
York, for Canons Regular of St. Austin, early in the 
1 2th centuiy. Passing round, to the site of the nave, 
now known locally as the Campy Hill, Mr. Hodges 
pointed out a base of one of the pillars, which, he 
said, was unique as to the section of its moulding, so 
far as he knew, in this country. The nave does not 
appear to have been built before 1296. Mr. Hodges 
is of opinion that while the work was commenced 
about that time it was never actually completed. At 
all events, there are no traces of stones having been 
thrown down ; there are no stone chippings to be 
found ; and there was only one moulded stone found. 
The church enjoyed the privilege of sanctuary, the 
boundaries of the sanctuary being indicated by four 
crosses erected on the south, north, east, and west 
sides of the town. On the north side the cross stood 
in the river, and at the present time there is, about 
two miles from Hexham, on the Cross Bank, a piece 
of a sanctuary cross. The cross on the south side 
probably stood on the Gallows Bank. The spot 
where it stood on the east side is definitely known, 
and a portion of the cross is to be seen in Hexham 
Workhouse. On the west side of the town there is 
a place called "Maiden Cross," where the fourth 
cross is supposed to have stood. On gaining the 
sanctuary an offender was protected until such time 
as he was able to make an expiation of his offence, 
which the state of the law then required. The party 
then left the site of the nave and entered the church 
by the door of the south transept. Passing along to 
the north transept, Mr. Hodges described, by means 
of a ground plan, the general outline of the buildings. 
Entering the choir, he pointed out on the north side 
of where the high altar had stood the Frid or Frith- 
stool a stone chair in which offenders flying from 
justice sought refuge. Returning to the transepts, 
Mr. Hodges pointed out and described a large 
Roman slab, which was recently found in the Slype, 
when excavations were being made with the ob- 
ject of discovering a crypt which was supposed 
to exist under that portion of the church. Mr. 
Tucker {Somerset Herald) made some remarks on 
the paintings that adorn the vestry screen, and the 
Baron de Cosson, pointing to an old and battered 
sallet, suspended from a bracket on the north side of 
the choir, said it clearly dated from the end of the 
fifteenth century, probably 1480. He pointed out 
that it had no very remarkable features except a 
"reinforcing piece" over the forehead. Mr. Hodges 
said there was a tradition that the helmet was that of 
Sir John de Fenwick, who was killed at the battle of 
Marston Moor, in 1644. His skull was preserved, 
and in it was an aperture which corresponded with 



the hole in the helmet. The visitors subsequently 
inspected the Moot Hall. Mr. Hodges said the Moot 
Hall had been built about the year 1400, but by whom 
or for what purpose there were no records to show. 
At a meeting of a mixed section held at night in the 
Museum, Carlisle, the Rev. G. Rome-Hall offered 
some observations connected with remains of arch- 
aeological interest examined by him during excur- 
sions in the secluded valley of the river Gelt, which 
is well known to antiquaries in its lower reaches, 
through the famous written rock. Mr. Hall first 
dealt with some " culture terraces" between the How 
Gill or Tarnmouth Burn, an affluent of the Gelt, which 
are considered to have been used by the early inha- 
bitants of Britain for their limited cereal cultivation. 
These terraces, he said, are about twenty or twenty- 
five feet high, and eighty yards in length, and were 
formed to prevent both soil and seed from being 
washed down the declivities of valley basins, where 
the rainfall would in ancient times be much more 
considerable than at present. After giving a list of 
these embankments to be found in the district, Mr. 
Hall pointed out that on an outlying spur of Castle 
Carrock, part of the Cross Fell Range, there remained 
many traces of some of the peculiar pit dwellings 
which are found in Yorkshire and Wiltshire, and 
which are considered to be the habitations of the 
ancient Britons of a type anterior to those of the 
more usual "hut circles," with their surrounding 
defensive ditches and ramparts commonly called camps. 
Some of these were placed close to Garth Foot 
House, and others at Cardurnock or Cardunmeth 
Piko. Descending into the plains many traces of 
early habitations were also found an ancient earth- 
work existing near the vill^e of Hay ton while about 
seven miles eastwards from Carlisle a hamlet called 
the How, and the adjoining corn-mill and railway 
station, derived their name from the great earthwork 
under whose pine-clad circular slopes the village rests. 
Mr. Hall also mentioned the discovery of many 
ancient implements and weapons, which gave glimpses 
of the habits and customs of our ancient British 
ancestors. The rev. gentleman also read a Paper on 
" Romano-British Towns." 

Somersetshire Archseological Society. An- 
nual Meeting at Chard. August 15-19. Through 
the efforts of the local committee a splendid museum 
of objects of natural history and of archoeological 
interest was open at the Town Hall. The most re- 
markable collection was that of Mr. C. J. Elton, of 
Churchstaunton, who sent a quantity of palaeolithic 
and neolithic implements, twenty-four of the former 
being from the drift in the valley of the Axe, and 
the latter being from a lacustrina deposit at Zurich, 
and a greenstone or neophite weapon from New 
Caledonia. Amongst some Greek curiosities sent by 
Mr. Elton were terra-cotta heads from figures found 
at Cyrene, about 300 years B.C. A few interesting 
specimens of ancient Chinese enamels and other 
curiosities, samples of early printed books and bind- 
ings, &c., including Solomon and Marculf, Juvenal, 
Aristrenetus, Voyage de Balaruc, &c., from the 
Hamilton and Sunderland collections, Scandinavian 
silver used by the peasantry, consisting of silver 
porridge-spoons, a peg tankard, small bowls, &c. ; 
Zulu and Kaffir war weapons, assegais, battle-axes, 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



175 



and other savage implements of war were sent by 
the same gentleman. Sir Edward Strachey, of Ash- 
wick Grove, sent a collection of fourteen little gods ; 
two swords, with enamelled scabbards ; a dagger, 
with a handle from which diamonds had been ex- 
tracted ; and a variety of other articles from India ; 
some illustrated books from Persia, and some speci- 
mens of Persian poetry; the hair of a Fiji woman, 
who had been scalped ; a chalice and part of a stone 
coffin that were in the palace at Wells. Two pieces 
of Etruscan pottery, three Roman coins, and three 
pieces of vitrified material for tessellated pavement 
were contributed by Mr. E. Rodd. Two curiosities 
were supplied by Mr. Evans, one a deed of grant 
from the Bishop of Exeter to the Abbot of Forde, 
of four pounds per annum, payable out of the vicar- 
age of Thorncombe, dated 1229; and a deed rela- 
ting to Forde Abbey of the time of Charles the First. 
The borough charter was sent by the Corporation ; 
and a toast-and-ale jug, bearing date 163 1, and a 
caricature of the landing of Sir John Bull and his 
family at Boulogne-sur-Mer, were exhibited by Mr. 
Toms. Mr. Powlesland sent an exceedingly rare 
and valuable collection, which consisted of some 
palasolithic implements, discovered in the valley of the 
Axe ; neolithic implements, principally from the 
midland counties, and a variety of implements of the 
Bronze Period, discovered in Notts, Lincoln, and 
Somerset, amongst the latter being a few amber 
beads, British spears, &c. The President, Mr. J. 
Elton, delivered an address. He desired to speak 
about the history of man in this part of the 
world; and in those hills that history went back 
to a very vast antiquity indeed. The wild hunter 
tribes chased the wild horse and ox, or fought 
with the hyaena, the lion, or the bear. Geologists 
had made it certain that Somersetshire and the hills 
that bounded it were certainly 100 fathoms higher 
than they were now, and it was supposed that there 
were vast grassy plains where now the Bristol Chan- 
nel is, where the wild beasts lived ; and they knew 
their dens in Wookey Hill and the Mendips, where 
large troops of hysenas and bears lived and dragged 
their prey up to their rocky fastnesses. Banwell 
Cave was full of the debris of the ruminants which 
those carnivora had gathered together. He once, 
some years ago, took an interest in that part of the 
subject, and in the first dawning of history and orga- 
nized life of man in the island, and searched about 
in the caves, and on the other side of the Channel 
there was a limestone cave which, he understood, 
had never been broken up. He organized a little 
party and broke up the floor. In the inner cave, 
under a mass of stalactite, they found the remains 
of an enormous bear, as large as a modem horse. 
They took away half the bear and presented the 
remains to the University College at Oxford, and 
he read a Paper on the subject to the Ashmo- 
lean Society, and there the matter rested. The 
question he put to himself was. What did they 
know of the great hunters of those remote times? 
They knew of them chiefly by drawings, which gave 
them some clue as to what these hunters were like. 
He had seen in France the picture of a man standing 
by a mammoth, and another picture of a man hunting 
a wild bull. I'he man was tall, Roman-nosed, and 



extremely hairy. He seemed to be ol enormous 
strength and of low intellectual capacities. But they 
knew nothing more about these [men ; the ice came 
down from the North Pole and glaciers covered the 
country, and man shrunk away to more Southern 
climates, and that history closed, and they had no 
clue that they were connected with those hunters. 
They came next to men who were the pioneers from 
Asia, and came creeping up the valleys and estuaries, 
and they crossed England from the Yorkshire Wolds 
to the Blackdown Hills, and on to Cornwall, and no 
doubt into Ireland. Those were the people who 
made the long barrows of which they had many exam- 
ples in Somersetshire. Of them they knew a little 
more ; they were slight, dark, with long heads, which 
had caused the proverb "Long barrows and long 
heads ; round barrows and round heads." The 
women's heads and bones were in an extraordinary 
degree smaller than those of the men, which showed 
they had not much to eat ; and that the men took 
what there was and left the women very little. Mr. 
Barnes, of Dorsetshire, had described in an admirable 
way the life of those pastoral tribes of the West, and 
he had told them where in the oaken wood and in a 
smiling valley a little group of beehive huts could be 
seen, where the women were washing flannel or put- 
ting linen on a string. Above their huts was the line 
of hills, which was a guard in time of war. These 
barrows were the chief things neolithic tribes left 
them. In the barrows they found some slight details 
which would help them to realize their mode of life. 
There were pottery, wrought lines drawn upon it, 
their scrapers of flint that they dressed the hides with, 
and many other bone and stone implements, which 
showed what kind of savages they were. They also 
found some amber ornaments ; a gold stud on a breast- 
plate was the highest effort of their art. They now 
came to a much more important time. Some time 
before the Romans came here commerce began. A 
tribe of men, whom they called the Bronze Age 
men, coming from the Baltic shore, stnick on our 
island at several points and introduced bronze. They 
had weapons and instruments of all kinds, and pro- 
bably became extremely civilized. When they came 
to a couple of hundred years before Christ, the Greek 
travellers began to have intercourse with the island, 
and one who came to Cornwall said the inhabitants 
were extremely fond of strangers, and that they were 
as civilized as any people he had ever met. Their 
trade did not remain at the point at which it began. 
They bartered with the Continental people. An ex- 
tensive trade began with Brittany, on the opposite 
coast. One of the reasons why the Romans made 
war was that the English helped the Continental 
people against the Romans. The President then went 
on to speak of the Greeks, and said that in digging for 
antiquities of the Ptolemy kind it was quite clear that 
the Levantine sailors, for a couple of centuries before 
Christ, and a couple of centuries after, had intercourse 
with Britain. There was no doubt that they had 
ports at Plymouth, Exeter, and other places. These 
Bronze Age Britons lived on the hills, for at that 
time the plains were lakes and the valleys marshes. 
There was probably hardly a part of Somerset 
that was not covered with the sea. On the hills 
were found their tools of different kinds, and the 



174 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



barrows in which they buried their dead. They 
burned the rich, put their ashes in a pot in the centre 
of the barrow, and there were generally other bodies 
thrown along anyliow. The President remarked that 
the Bronze Age of civilization brought tbcm to a well- 
known period. When the Romans came they found 
the people in that stage only, of course, improving 
as they always had been. In Sussex and Gloucester- 
shire they found some iron, and it was very probable 
that they also found some there. At Combe St. 
Nicholas and Whitestaunton they had a large quantity 
of " slag," of which he had a sample. A hundred 
years after the time of Julius Cscsar came the Roman 
legions to the west. It was known that they came to 
the Mendips from the inscription found at Wookey. 
Then Somersetshire began to have an existence. They 
commenced embanking the rivers to keep out the sea, 
and they made roads. They made a road from Exe- 
ter to Bath, which was a most important city, and was 
probably held for the purposes of trade, with a small 
garrison to keep the people in awe and collect the 
taxes. They also made a road from Seaton to join 
that road. He described the construction of the 
Roman villas, which he said were generally found 
near a river, owing to their fondness for bathing. 
This brought them to the British period, when King 
Ina came into Somerset, and when the Gauls set to 
work embanking the rivers. The exact process of the 
conquest was not known, but it was probably the con- 
quest of very small districts, or what they would call 
two or three parishes. Looking down upon the vale 
of Somerset, over the top of which they were standing, 
they looked down upon one of those little districts, a 
district where 'the people retained the ancient laws of 
their own. The custom that the wife should inherit 
from the husband, the husband from the wife, and the 
younger brother before the elder, was unique. Besides 
having a code of laws of their own, they appeared to 
have a tribe or division of their own, which still re- 
mained. The five Hundreds of Taunton Deane were 
not Hundreds in the sense in which the term was now 
used. They were the little Hundreds of Taunton 
Deane. 

[The remainder of our report will appear next 
month.] 

Newcastle Society of Antiquaries. August 
30. The Rev. E. H. Adamson in the chair. Dr. 
Bruce said the members would no doubt have noticed 
as they entered the hall that night the old horsing stone 
standing at the door. It had stood for many years 
in front of the Golden Lion Inn, Bigg Market, and 
had now been presented to the Society by Mr. Pape, 
of CoUmgwood Street. He thought it was an anti- 
quity, and that the Society should thank Mr. Pape 
for his kindness. While on the subject he might 
mention that the old stone which Hulton spoke of 
in his book, and which had a bagpiper sculptured on 
it, had been formed into a horsing stone, and was 
now in one of the inn yards at Carlisle. Mr. Hodges 
said he believed the Society had a committee formed 
to preserve as far as possible the old buildings in 
Newcastle, but it required a committee also, he 
thought, to preserve engravings of them. Within the 
past few weeks two of the oldest houses in the city 
had disappeared from the Bigg Market. The houses 
would be, he thought, of the time of Henry VIII. 



Mr. Holmes said there had been a drawing made 
of the houses before they were destroyed. After 
further remarks, it was proposed by Mr Hodges, 
seconded by Mr. Holmes, and carried : "That a. 
sub-committee of the Society be appointed to pho- 
tograph, sketch, and otherwise delineate all buildings 
and remains of buildings of interest in Newcastle 
and Gateshead erected previously to the year 1700, 
and that Messrs. Johnson, Brown, Blair, Holmes, 
and Hodges form such sub-committee." 

Yorkshire Archasological and Topographical 
Association. August 30. The Sixteenth Annual 
Excursion, Mount Grace Priory, near Northallerton, 
being the place visited. Mr. William Brown read a 
Paper giving a history of the priory. He said that 
it was situate in the parish of East Harlsey, about 
eight miles east-north-east of Northallerton. The 
position of the ruins, at the foot of a steep hill covered 
with oak woods, was very beautiful, and the grey 
stone tower of the church, standing out against the 
dark green of the woods, exhibited a very pleasing 
landscape. Before the foundation of the priory, at the 
end of the fourteenth century. Mount Grace was known 
Ijy the names of Bordlebi, Bordelbia, or Bordelby. 
At the time of Domesday it was included in the King's 
land, and was held of him by Malgrin, who was also 
lord of the neighbouring manors of West Harlsey, 
Morton, Ingleby, and Arnchffe. Mr. J. T. Mickle- 
thwaite, conducted the party over the ruins, and ex- 
plained in detail the peculiarities of a Carthusian 
convent. The rules of the Carthusians were very 
severe. Such rules required special arrangements, 
and in no place in England could they be seen except 
at Mount Grace. One peculiarity was that each 
monk, of whom there were about twenty, had a house, 
each with its garden, to himself. These houses 
formed three sides of a large enclosure, the fourth side 
being formed by the church and prior's residence. 
The cells, which were two stories high, are in fair 
preservation, and the curious hatch through which 
food was given to the monks was plainly seen. There 
was a very small church and large cloister. Each 
monk had a living-room, with bed-room and store- 
room or pantry. A narrow staircase in the corner 
only lit. wide led to another little room, the use of 
which no one clearly knew. Some supposed it to 
have been a workshop. 

Cambrian Archaeological Society. ^July 31- 
Augnst 5. Visit to Llanrwst. The Annual Meet- 
ing was held on July 31, at the Grammar School. 
The retiring President, Professor Babington, M.A., 
F.R.S., briefly opened the proceedings, and gave 
place to his successor, Mr. H. R. Sandbach, of Ha- 
fodunos. The Rev. Trevor Owen, M.A., the Secre- 
tary for North Wales, then read the report. The 
report alluded to the churches of Wales still unre- 
st ored, and the care that ought to be taken that 
nothing should be introduced that was not in accord- 
dance with local style and arrangement. Instances 
were given where the work carried out had not been 
in accordance with this rule. The Tyn-y-coed Crom- 
lech, just beyond Capel Gannon, M'as the first object 
of attraction to be visited. Colonel Wynne Finch, to 
whom the property belongs, has carefully preserved 
it with a stone wall. A further drive brought the 
party to Pentrevoelas. Most of the party visited the 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



17^ 



Levelinu Stone, situated in a coppice behind the old 
mansion of Voelas, placed on a small tumulus called 
The Voel. The inscription on it is obscure, and is 
supposed to refer to Llewelyn ap Sitsyllt (slain 1021), 
and to mean "John of the House of Dyleu, Gwyd- 
helen, &c., on the road to Ambrose Wood, erected 
this monument to the memory of the excellent Prince 
Llewelyn." At Plas lolyn, the next halt, a long 
building (now used as a barn) with the remains of a 
strong tower, evidently erected for defensive purposes, 
was duly inspected, and then a move was made for 
Gilar, the arched gateway to the house proving at- 
tractive. On the front of this gateway, and over the 
fireplace of a room above, there are the initials 
" T.R.W,," and the date "1623." A further drive 
brought the party to Yspytty Ivan, the Hospital of 
St. John of Jerusalem, a most interesting village with 
a "restored" church, in which one of the ancient 
monuments has been placed upside down. The last 
object of interest on Tuesday was the Brochmael 
Stone now preservetl in Voelas Hall, a stone engraved 
and described by Professor Westwood. There was 
an evening meeting, at which Mr. Howel W. Lloyd 
read a Paper on the Life and Times of Llewelyn ap 
Sitsyllt. On the motion of Mr. Barnwell, the Presi- 
dent was commissioned to call the attention of Mr. 
Pierce Wynne Yorke, the owner of the property, to 
the fact that the roots of the trees at Maesygarnedd 
were in danger of disturbing the foundations 
of the Tjrnycoed Cromlech, and to solicit his good 
offices in the matter. The excursion of Wednesday was 
to Gwytherin, a village seven miles south-west of 
Llanrwst, in the churchyard of which are some of 
the finest yew trees in Wales. On the north side of 
the church are four upright stones, and on one of 
which is inscribed vinnemagli fil senemagli. 
Gwytherin was once a place of ecclesiastical note, 
for here St. Winefred retreated ; and Canon Thomas 
thinks the course she was directed to follow from 
Bodfari through Henllan may supply a clue to the 
long lost line of the old Roman road from the former 
place to Caerhiln. In taking down the old church of 
Gwytherin two floriated crosses were discovered near 
the altar one bearing a sword, and the other a 
chalice denoting a knight and a priest's grave. One 
of these, we believe, finds an insecure resting-place 
near the porch of the church. Two or three objects 
of interest were found inside the church ; notably a 
.bell, which it was stated had been used by a former 
village "crier," but which, by some of the party, 
was pronounced to be a (not very ancient) scaring 
bell. The next move was to Llansannan. There is 
in the parish of Llansannan, in the side of a strong 
hill, "a place wher ther be 24 holes or places in a 
roundel, for men to sit in, but som lesse and som 
bigge, cutte out of the mayne rok by mannes hand ; 
and there children and yong men cumming to seke 
ther cattele used to sitte and play. Sum caulle it the 
Rounde Table." Scarcely a traccjof what it is de- 
scribed to have been remains. At the foot of the hill 
there is a cottage called Plas Issa ; let into the wall 
of which, over the doorway, is the lid of an ancient 
coffin, having a cross fleury with a sword by its side, 
sculptured on it, in a good state of preservation. At 
Llangemiew the church was open, and its objects of 
curiosity, especially the Holy Water Stoup and Pillar 



Alms Box were pointed out. Llanrwst possesses 
several objects of interest. The choicest one in the 
church is, doubtless, the rood screen, said to have 
been brought there from Maenan Abbey. On the 
walls are several mounted brasses and tablets, but 
none possessing the interest of those in the Gwydir 
Chapel adjoining. Bettws-y-Coed was soon reached, 
and the old church of that place visited. The only 
object of interest there is the effigy in memory of 
Gruffydd, son of David Goch, natural son of Davyd, 
brother to Llewelyn last Prince of Wales, and grand- 
father of Howel Coetmore, whose effigy had previously 
been seen in Gwydir Chapel. From Bettws way 
was made to Penmachno, in the newly-built church 
of which parish certain stones are preserved that have 
attracted the attention of archaeologists. One of these 
bears the inscription, ORIA ic lACiT ; the name Oria 
is said to be very unusual. Next there was one with 
the inscription carausius hic jacit in hoc con- 
geries LAPIDUM. Above the inscription is the 
Labarum monogram of the name of Christ, said to 
be a very unusual occurrence in the stones of this 
country. Lastly, there was a stone with two inscrip- 
tions, thus : CANTIORIC HIC JACIT | VENEDOTIS 
GIVE FUIT I CONSOBRINO ; and on the other side, 

MA FILI I MAGISTRATI. This inscription, Mr. 

Westwood says, is quite unique, both as indicating 
the deceased as a citizen of Venedotia and as intro- 
ducing the word viagistrati, the precise meaning of 
which in a Welsh inscription of the sixth or seventh 
century, is open to inquiry. The day's excursion 
also included Dolwyddelan Church and Castle. At 
the evening meeting, Mr. Palmer of Wrexham, read 
a Paper on Field Names. The excursion of Friday 
commenced with a visit to Gwydir House. From 
G\vydir the party drove to Talycafn, for the purpose 
of visiting what remains of Maenan. In the old hall 
bearing the name there is much that is antique. In one 
of the chambers over the fireplace is carved a coat of 
arms, on which is a chevron between tliree pheons, 
with the letters M. and K. [Morris Kyffin ?] on either 
side. Above is the date, 1582. The high road 
regained, the party was met by Mr. Pochin, who 
piloted the visitors to a Cromlech on the side of the 
hill overhanging the Conway river. Here, again, it 
was found that the relic of the past was in danger of 
destruction, and at the evening meeting it was resolved 
to appeal (through Mr. Pochin) to the owner to get 
it properly fenced. This Cromlech is known by the 
name of Allor Moloch, and a local guide-book refers 
to a tradition which connects it with Edred, duke of 
Mercia, and Anarawd, prince of Wales, who fought 
a bloody battle in the district in 880. "As soon as 
Edred, the Saxon chieftain, was taken, a fire was 
kindled under the altar, and between the two upright 
stones, or arms of the God Moloch as some call them, 
until ail the stones became intensely hot, when Edred 
was placed there by means of tongs or pincers 
specially prepared for the purpose ; the heat being so 
great that his body was turned into ashes and scat- 
tered to the winds." Pennant further informs us that 
"Anarawd styled the battle Dial Rodri, or the 
Revenge of Roderic, for his father, Roderic the 
Great, had the year before been slain by the Saxons." 
The visitors were conveyed across the ferry, for the 
purpose of inspecting the traces of Caerhun and tiie 



1^6 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



hall. In the latter was seen the Roman shield, some- 
time back stated to have been presented to Mr. 
Gladstone. Some of the more vigorous of the party 
explored the old road at Y Ro, and others went to 
Llanbedr Church. 






Site of Roman Potteries on the Banks of the 
Medway. "My researches on the site of Roman 
potteries, on the south bank of the Medway, have 
extended over many years ; and are yet in progress ; 
for the district is very extensive, and only accessible 
at low water. I was introduced to tliem by Mr. 
Harrison, who, at the same time, brought me ac- 
quainted with the Rev. John Woodruff, of Upchurch, 
who had collected a large number of specimens of the 
fictile vessels fabricated in the potteries in the low 
land to the north of Upchurch, now called the Up- 
church Marshes. With him I was ever on most 
friendly terms up to the time of his death. One of 
his latest acts of kindness was the entertainment of a 
party of the more enthusiastic members of the Congress 
of the Archaeological Institute at Rochester, whom I 
conducted to the marshes ; and then to inspect his 
collections, now inherited, together with his anti- 
quarian taste, by his son, Mr. Cumberland Henry 
Woodruff, F.S.A. Having thus made good my foot- 
ing in this out-of-the-way district, I paid many visits, 
from time to time, on foot, from Otterham Creek, 
beyond Lower Rainham, to Lower Halstowe, and to 
the marshes leading to Sheerness, which enabled me 
to judge of the wide extent to which the land had been 
worked by the Roman potters ; and, also, to discover 
traces of what I conclude were some of their habita- 
tions. At the same time, Mr. James Hulkes, through Mr. 
Humphrey Wickham, placed his yacht at the service 
of myself and friends. It was under the command of 
Mr. Henry Coulter, whose acquaintance I renewed 
when I came to reside near Strood, finding in him a 
warm-hearted and generous friend, whose loss to me 
cannot be replaced. His death was accelerated by one 
of the periodical overflowings of, the Medway, on 
which I have much to say. By means of the well- 
provisioned yacht, armed with probing rods and light 
spades, and mud boots, we never failed to extricate 
from the creeks large quantities of pottery, which for 
some flaw or imperfection had been thrown aside by 
the makers. Of almost infinite variety in shape, 
dimension, and pattern, the pottery has generally 
such a marked character in colour and ornamentation, 
that it has acquired the name of " Upchurch Pottery," 
although it is not to be supposed that it was made 
nowhere else ; yet, such was the extent of the manu- 
factories, that it must have been sent to various parts 
of the province the situation being well adapted for 
conveyance by water.* Like modern pottery, the 

* I have printed in the sixth volume of the Collec' 
tanea Antiqua an elaborate account of the site, to- 



manufactures of the ancients can often be recognized 
by certain distinctive peculiarities, as, for example, 
those in the district of the New Forest, at Evvell, 
and at Castor ; each has a very marked character, 
and all are different from the Upchurch fabric. 
These marshes are an interesting study for the 
geologist as well as the antiquary. When the Romans 
inhabited and worked the land it lay high and dry, 
and the Medway must have been confined within 
comparatively narrow limits. It was probably some 
time after the Romans had left before the sea began 
to make inroads and submerge hundreds of acres. 
There was time enough for the earth to accumulate 
two or three feet over the debris of the kilns, ere the 
creeks formed and washed the remains into their beds 
where we now find them. As wide tracts of good 
land ihave been lost within the memory of man, it is 
probable that the serious change did not take place 
before the Middle Ages ; and it is too certain that in 
modem times the inundations are rapidly increasing. 
The Romans understood embanking, as their noble 
works on various parts of the sea coast demonstrate ; 
and they regarded the public health and safety, the 
salus populi. On the western bank of the Medway, 
where the land is yearly submerged, Roman funereal 
interments are found ; and the same at Strood. Here 
we have clear evidence that in the Saxon times the 
floods which are yearly allowed to carry with them 
desolation, disease, and death, were then unknown. 
The Saxon Cemetery adjoined the Roman, and 
both were secure from any apprehension of deluges. 
History and science warn in vain. A rich corpora- 
tion in a cathedral town, with a large population, 
year after year placidly permits a ruinous watery 
devastation which common engineering skill could 
stop for ever in a very short time. With land, houses, 
and streets periodically standing three and four feet 
in salt water, impregnated with pestilential matter, it 
is the height of irony and mockery to hear talked 
about, as being actually in existence, a Medway 
Conservancy Board and a Corportion." Frovt " Re- 
trospections, Social AND Arch^o logical," vol. 
i., by C. Roach Smith. 

[We understand that the clay of the marshes adjoin- 
ing is capable of being utilized for making excellent 
pottery ; and that it is contemplated applying a large 
tract, the property of Hxunphrey Wickham, Esq., to 
that purpose. Ec] 

Dates and Styles of Churches. 

Ripon Cathedral. (Communicated by Thomas ' 
Powell.) 

West Front . Early English, fine specimen, 103' o" 
high and 43' o" wide, with two 
tiers of Lancet Lights occupying 
its whole width. 

West Towers . Early English. 

Central Tower. 1454. 

Nave . . . Perpendicular. 

Transept . . Early English. 

Organ Screen . Perpendicular. 1460. 



gether with engravings of the leading types of the 
pottery. 



THE ANTIQUARY S NOTE-BOOK. 



177 



Choir 



Bays on North 
yide . . . 

Eastern Win- 
dow . . . 
Chapter House 

Stone Pulpit . 
Lady Loft . . 



Vestry . . . 

Crypt (St. Wil- 
frid's Needle) 



Markenfield 
1181. 



Early English, Decorated and Per- 
pendicular, all of which meet in the 
third bay from the east end on the 
South Side. 1460. 

Norman, also west end of choir is 
Norman, 

Early Decorated. (Fine example.) 

Norman Early. (Roof Early Eng- 
lish). 1 181. 

Early Perpendicular. 

1482 (Query 1330) 
For was not this the Lady Chapel 
of the old Minster. 

Norman, Decorated-Perpen dicular. 
1 160-1460. 

11' 3" long. X 7' 9" wide, 9' 4" high. 
Constructed in the seventh cen- 
tury, belonging to the church 
which was built upon this site 
either by Wilfrid or his immediate 
successor. 
Chapel atid Mallorie Chapel. 1 154 to 



is still extant in Cyprus. In the Report of H.M. 
High Commissioner for the year 1879, p. 39 (Com- 
mons' Papers, No. 2543, 1880), it is stated : " The 
titles by which land was, and is, held in Cyprus are 
exceedingly vague in the definition of the boundaries, 
and although the number of scalas and denums is 
invariably mentioned, yet this latter particular is never 
held to be binding. The words ' bounded by a hill' 
allows an [extension to a mile in that direction ; 
the words 'bounded by uncultivated land' allows 
extension to within a yard of the nearest neigh- 
bour." 

Primitive Cheese Press. "A cheese press is 
still used in the upper part of the dale, which consists 
of two uprights fixed in the ground, and joined at the 
top by a cross-bar. One-third of the way up is a 
shelf on which the cheese to be pressed is placed. 
Above this there is an arrangement of handles for 
raising a heavy stone, or lowering the same, so as to 
press the cheese, as shown in the figure. A is a 
wooden peg for holding down the handle, so as to 
raise the stone weight, when the cheese is being put 
in or taken out." Studies in Nidderdale, by Joseph 
Lucas, p. 39. 



List of Antiquities in the 
Barony of Corkaquiny, Ire- 
land : 
Eleven stone cahers. 
Three cairns. 
Forty calluraghs, or obsolete 

burial-grounds, where un- 

baptized children only are 

interred. 
Ten castles. 

Eighteen artificial caves. 
Twenty-one churches in ruins 

and nine church sites. 
Two hundred and eighteen 

cloghauns, or beehive stone 

houses. 
Sixteen cromleacs. 
Twelve large stone crosses. 
Three hundred and seventy- 
six earthen forts, or raths. 
One hundred and thirteen gal- 

launes, or immense rude 

standing stones. 
Fifty-four monumental pillars, 

most of them bearing Ogham 

inscriptions. 
Fifteen oratories. 
Nine penitential stations. 
Sixty-six wells, many of them 

bearing the name of some 

saint. 
Twenty-nine miscellaneous remains. 
Kilkenny Archceological Society Transactions^ vol.ji. 
pp. 136-137- 

Boundaries of Land in Cyprus. It is curious 
to note that the old mode of defining the boundaries 
of land by natural objects, as shown by the great col- 
lection of documents in Kemble's Codex Diplotnaticus, 




PRIMITIVE CHEESE PRESS. 

Ancient Rush Stand." There was formerly in 
use in Nidderdale a Rush Stand, originally made by 
splitting a stick, and in fact this sort of rush-stand was 
in use down to the time when the farmers gave up 
making their own candles. An important kind was 
made of iron, with a spring to compress the holder 
upon the candle. Of this kind I give a sketch, which I 
made of one belonging to Mrs. Ryder, of Middlesmoor. 
The seaves were gathered at certain places on the 



178 



THE ANTIQUARY'S NOTE-BOOK. 



moors by parties of gatherers, who went out to get 
them in the autumn, or late in the summer. They 
chose the largest and strongest, from which they 
stripped off the outer skin, so as to enable the tissues 
to imbibe the melted fat into which they were dipped. 
(The gipsies strip off two opposite sides, leaving the 
alternate ones to support the pith.) As the same 
places were visited year after year, they were known 
by names such as ' Fleet Scaves,' * Seavy Hill,' * Seavy 
Whan,' 'Seaves,' &c." Studies in NiUderdale, by 
Joseph Lucas, pp. 27-28. 




ANCIENT RUSH STAND. 



anttauaiian 1Rcw0* 



On casually examining the earth excavated from 
the foundation for the new Wesleyan Chapel at 
Clevedon,Mr. Geo- A. Hobson, Government Surveyor, 
found a quantity of broken Roman pottery. There 
are several types, including the common dark clay, 
the common red, blue-black or Durobrivian, and a 
few pieces of Samian. He also found a number of 
pieces of bones and teeth (animal) which had been in 
the fire, and a small copper coin, seemingly of Con- 
stantine or Vespasian. The above came from a stratum 
of earth full of unctuous animal matter, about three 
feet from the surface and resting on the bed rock. 
Mr. Hobson gives it as his opinion that the ridge 
adjacent, Highdale Hill, and the eminence on v^hich 
Christ Church stands, had been in the occupation of 
the early Roman settlers, and that this accumulation 
of matter mixed with animal bones, Roman pottery, 
&c., had been the debris from the camp thrown over 
the low outer Vallum, 



Messrs. Frederic S. Nichols & Co. announce that 
they have made arrangements with Mr, Percy Thomas 
to etch the White Hart Inn, Southwark. The Inn 
dates back for some five centuries ; is often men- 
tioned by Shakespeare ; was the headquarters, in 
1450, of the Kentish rebel. Jack Cade; and in our 
own times has been inimitably described by Charles 
Dickens as a scene in the elopement of Alfred Jingle 
with Rachel Wardle, and the meeting place of Mr. 
Pickwick with Sam Weller. 

It is proposed to publish by subscription, " Brams- 
hill : its History and Architecture," by Sir William 
H. Cope, Bart. The history will be traced from the 
eleventh century down to recent times, with notices 
of its successive owners and occupants ; the architec- 
ture, external and internal, of the present mansion, 
and some account of a more ancient edifice which pre- 
ceded it ; the traditions and legends of the place ; 
notices of the venerable trees which stand in the 
park ; and of the tapestries, pictures, &c. The work 
will be illustrated by photographic views, plans, and 
architectural details. 

The re-opening, after thorough internal restoration, 
of the ancient church of Gillamoor, near Kirbymoor- 
side, took place recently. The old church stands on 
an eminence commanding an extensive and lovely 
prospect over the wide moorlands. The foundation 
is very ancient, as betokened by the fine old Norman 
font and the inscription on the two bells, which are 
dedicated to the Virgin and St. John. The church 
was last restored in 1802, when some very common- 
place windows were inserted. The present restora- 
tion has been carried out under the superintendence of 
Mr. Temple Moore. The chief features of the work 
done comprise the removal of the old and unsightly 
square pews and the rc-seating of the church ; the 
panelling and decorating of the ceiling and body of the 
church; restoration of the chancel screen, and the 
replacing of the dangerous old tower by a new and 
handsome spire of oak, covered with lead. The 
windows inserted 80 years ago have also been con- 
siderably improved by the introduction of stone mullions. 

One of the buildings destroyed at Alexandria was, 
says a writer in the Architect, the castle of the Pharos, 
which was pi-actically the only specimen of Arab 
mediaeval architecture in the city. It stood on the 
site of the celebrated lighthouse, by the ancient name 
of which it was still commonly known. Mr. H. G. 
Kay says that being at Alexandria in the spring of 
last year, he visited the building. Mr. Kay's inspec- 
tion was necessarily a very superficial one, but as far 
as it could go it confirmed him in the belief that some 
indications of an old foundation are to be de- 
tected, and he noticed a spot, near one'of the corners 
of the building, where the wall could be perceived to 
run in a direction not widely but distinctly different 
from that of the presumably original foundation, with 
which it formed a gradually divergent angle. The 
Pharos was still in existence in a.d. 1326. It became 
a complete ruin between that date and A.D. 1349. 
The present building was erected by the Egyptian 
Sultan Kait-Bay, who reigned from A,D, 1468 to 
1496. It may readily be presumed that, according to 
the uniform practice of the East, the ground con- 
tinued until that time encumbered with the ruins of 



ANTlQ UARIAN NE WS. 



179 



its predecessor. The name and titles of Kait-Bay 
were imperfectly but unmistakably legible on one of 
two much-decayed limestone tablets over the 
entrance-gate. The latter was roughly formed by 
three massive blocks of granite, tvi^o of whicli, standing 
erect, served as jambs on either side, with the third 
forming a lintel across the top, the whole presenting 
a peculiarly Egyptian appearance. A wide ]Dassage, 
turning at an abrupt right-angle to the left, gave 
access to a small mosque, consisting of a hypoelhral 
court, with four arched recesses, one of which con- 
tained the kiblah and pulpit. The slight deviation 
of the walls of the castle from the lines of the ancient 
foundations may possibly have been made for the 
express purpose of placing the mosque in the true 
line of direction towards Mecca. The mosque com- 
posed but a very small portion of the building. The 
remainder, rising one storey above the other, was 
occupied by innumerable rooms of various sizes open- 
ing out of long and narrow passages, all empty, and 
for many years apparently disused. Mr. Kay was 
informed that it was capable of lodging 5,000 men 
a statement which was probably not exaggerated. 
The quarters intended for the commander and other 
superior officers were easily distinguishable by their 
superior look, and by some scanty remains of decora- 
tion and of ancient mosaic flooring of coloured marbles. 

Mr. M. S. Valentine has sent to the Anthropo- 
logical Institute of London, for exhibition, a collection 
of veiy curious articles fashioned in soapstone and 
clay, which were found lately between the ranges of 
the Blue and Alleghany Mountains near Mount Pis- 
gah, North Carolina. The objects are said to be of 
a type absolutely unique, consisting partly of human, 
partly of animal figures, either in the round or in 
various degrees of relief. Some are household uten- 
sils. They appear to have been sculptured by metal 
instruments, so perfect is their workmanship. The 
human type is alike in the various objects, but is not 
Indian. All are fully clothed in tight fitting gar- 
ments. Some are seated in arm-chairs, others on all 
sorts of animals bears, prairie dogs, birds, and other 
shapes belonging to North America. But some also 
represent types of the Old World, such as the two- 
humped camel, rhinoceros, hippopotamus. Some of 
the specimens were obviously made since the advent 
of the whites, and these are fresher-looking and of 
ruder workmanship. The inference is that the articles 
were made by an earlier and more civilized race, sub- 
jugated and partially destroyed by the Indians found 
in Virginia on the arrival of white men. 

A short time since an excavation at Pompeii yielded 
a beautiful inlaid marble table, with reclining bed 
ornamented with paintings ; a bronze vessel with 
revolving handle ; two Egyptian statues, covered with 
a patina of green glass, which is very rarely found ; a 
tortoise and frog in marble ; a Bacchus in terra-cotta ; 
two marble busts ; and a skeleton with bronze hair- 
pins beside it. There was also discovered a cavity in 
the lapilli, which, when filled with plaster, will it is 
hoped produce a figure. 

The nave, tower, aisles, vestry, and porch of All 
Saints' Church, Houghton, near Stockbridge, are 
being restored. The chancel was restored in the year 
1876, at considerable expense. The church is, in an 



ecclesiological point of view, one of much interest ; 
parts of it date from the lieginning of the twelfth 
century. It has two hagioscopes (vulgo "squints"), 
and no less than three piscinas. 

The following, says the Atheitwum, are among the 
results of the investigations made by the learned 
Director of the National Portrait Gallery into the 
history of the very important group of likenesses of 
English and Spanish statesmen he lately bought at 
the Hamilton Palace sale, which was, from some un- 
ascertained time till lately, ascribed to Pantoja de la 
Cruz. Mr, Scharf thinks the picture may with pro- 
bability be assigned to Marc Gheeraerdts, who arrived 
in England from Bruges in 1580, and was much em- 
ployed at Court. A portrait of Elizabeth signed with 
his initials, a sprig of olive being in her hand and a 
sword at her feet, belongs to the Duke of Portland, 
and is now on loan in the South Kensington Museum. 
His "Camden," in the Bodleian, bears the painter's 
name in full. Other inscribed works of his are at 
Penshurst, Barrow Green, and Wobum Abbey. The 
subject of the picture in question is undoubtedly the 
ratification of the treaty for peace and commerce 
between England and Spain, at an assembly of pleni- 
potentiaries held at Somerset House, August 18, 
1604, English, Spanish, and Austrian representatives 
being present. Stow's Annals, 1631, under the 
date 1604, p. 846, describes the conference, and 
quotes the articles of the treaty. The portraits in- 
clude those of Thomas (Sacville), Earl of Dorset ; 
Charles (Howard), Earl of Nottingham, who defeated 
the Spanish Armada ; Charles (Courtney), Earl of 
Devonshire ; Heniy (Howard), Earl of Northampton ; 
and Robert (Cecil), Viscount Cranbome, John de 
Velasco, Constable of Castille and Leon, appeared, 
with the following, for the foreign powers : John 
Baptista, de Tassis, Count of Villa Mediana ; Alex- 
ander Rovidius, professor and senator of Milan ; 
Charles, Prince and Count of Aremberg ; John 
Richardot, Knight ; and Ludovic Verreiken, Knight. 
The scene is the interior of a chamber facing a window 
looking upon an inner court, and partly screened by a 
plant of the rose tribe. The tablets on the tapestries 
are dated 1560 ; the floor is strewn with rushes. The 
scarcity of writing materials on the table may imply 
that the meeting was for the purpose of signing the 
instrument already agreed upon. No hats are intro- 
duced. The date "1594" borne by the picture must 
be wrong ; there was no historical conference in that 
year, and the English titles inscribed with this date 
and the name of De la Cruz were not conferred 
till some time after that period. Mr. Scharf thinks 
that possibly, in his endeavour to conciliate the 
Spanish king, James I. sent the picture to Spain as 
a present. The names of the diplomatists are written 
in Spanish, and the attribution of the picture to 
Pantoja is also probably Spanish. 

The fine old monastic church of Wolston is under- 
going a thorough course of decoration. The church 
bears traces of the twelfth and fourteenth century 
architecture. On visiting the church a short time 
since, a well-known ecclesiastical antiquary discovered 
that the historical tomb of Sir W, Wigston had been 
taken away no one knows where. No doubt steps 
will be taken to ascertain the whereabouts of the 
tomb. On inspecting the fine old oak roof, which is 



i8o 



ANTIQUARIAN NEWS. 



to be newly decorated, the date 1760 was found in the 
east end, this being, no doubt, the date of its erection. 
An important painting has been found at Pompeii, 
and placed in the Naples Museum among the 
Pompeian frescoes. It represents the judgment of 
Solomon, and is the first picture on a sacred subject, 
the first fragment either of Judaism or Christianity, 
that has been discovered in the buried cities. The 
picture is five and a half feet long, and nineteen inches 
in height, and is surrounded by a black line about an 
inch in width. The scene is laid upon a terrace in 
front of a house adorned with creeping plants, and 
shaded with a white awning. On a dais (represented 
as being about four feet high) sits the king, holding a 
sceptre, and robed in white. On each side of him 
sits a councillor, and behind them six soldiers under 
arms. The king is represented as leaning over the 
front of the dais towards a v/oman in a green robe, 
who kneels before him with dishevelled hair and out- 
stretched hands. In the centre of the court is a 
three-legged table, like a butcher's block, upon which 
lies an infant, who is held in a recumbent position, in 
spite of his struggles, by a woman wearing a turban. 
A soldier in armour, and wearing a helmet with a 
long red plume, holds the legs of the infant, and is 
about to cleave it in two with his falchion. A group 
of spectators completes the picture, which contains in 
all nineteen figures. The drawing is poor, but the 
colours are particularly bright, and the preservation is 
excellent. As a work of art, it is below the average 
Pompeian standard, but it is full of spirit and drawn 
with great freedom. The bodies of the figures are 
dwarfed, and their heads (out of all proportion) large, 
which gives colour to the assertion that it was intended 
for a caricature directed against the Jews and their 
religion. There is nothing of the caricature about it 
in other respects the agony of the kneeling mother, 
the attention of the listening king, and the triumph of 
the second woman, who gloats over the division of 
the child, are all manifest, and altogether there does 
not appear to be any attempt, intentionally, to bur- 
lesque the incident. 

Messrs. Reeves and Turner have published a second 
edition of Mr.W. Carew Hazlitt's Proverbs. The new 
edition is unfortunately arranged in precisely the same 
manner as the first, but it contains many additional 
proverbs derived principally from Mr. Hazlitt's exten- 
sive reading among old plays and other literature of 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 

The discovery of an egg in the decayed vegetation 
on the border of the great Roman bath at Bath has 
led to some curious investigation. Mr. Charles E. 
Davies took it to the British Museum, to consult the 
best authorities now in town, who confirmed him in 
his opinion that it is the egg of a teal, if it is not that 
of an eared grebe, a bird now almost, if not quite, 
extinct in the British Isles. Unfortunately, or rather 
in an antiquarian point of view fortunately, the egg 
did not arrive at its destination quite perfect, a por- 
tion at one end being broken The egg was partly 
full of a colourless liquid, not the least resembling 
albumen, but is apparently water, which it was the 
opinion of those consulted had gradually percolated 
through the .shell of the egg during the many years it 
bad been subjected to pressure. The fracture exposed 



to view a very curious mass of translucent crystal, 
filling one end of the egg, and which proved beyond 
a doubt its antiquity, as being the petrified yolk. In 
the British Museum is a Greek Kylix, from Rhodes, 
dating 200 B.C., containing five hens' eggs. They are 
much fractured, and with a sandy deposit form a solid 
mass. The egg now found, says Mr. Davies, in a 
letter to the Bath Herald, is the property of the Cor- 
poration, and is most valuable and unique. It is now 
being mounted, and secured with glass at the British 
Museum, when it will be returned to the Grand Pump 
Room. 

The wife of Dr. Schlieman has just described in a 
letter, addressed in Greek, to the Athens journal, 
Hestia, some of the results of that explorer's latest ex- 
cavations on the site of ancient Troy. The writer sa5's, 
" Close to the spot which we consider to be the site 
of Troy there are the remains of two buildings, which, 
in the opinion of our two architects. Dr. Dorpfeld 
and Herr Ofler, represent two temples. The appear- 
ance of the two buildings is so different that they 
cannot be said to resemble any of the well-known 
ancient temples with the exception of that of Hera at 
Olympia. This, according to Pausanias, was erected 
probably about iioo b.c. The first of our two 
temples at Troy is 30 metres in length and 13 metres 
in width, while the walls are i -4 metres in thickness. 
The other temple is 20 metres long and 7 metres 
broad, the walls being 12 metres in thickness. It 
is noticeable that the walls are built in a different 
manner. In the first there are no joinings of clay, 
but in the second there are large commissures filled 
with clay, which is also slightly burnt. The infer- 
ence is that the two temples were built at different 
periods, and that that first described is older than the 
second. It is scarcely credible that the roof of the 
first temple could be solid and without any supports, 
though of the latter, at any rate, there is nothing now 
to be found. Throughout the entire Iliad of Homer 
we find no mention of such supports ; while in the 
Odyssey where they are spoken of they are described 
as being of wood. Assuming now that there had 
been wooden supports in the first temple, they could 
not have st6od on a floor of clay. There must have 
been a stone foundation beneath them; yet nothing 
of the kind is now to be discovered on the spot. 
The internal arrangements of these temples is very 
interesting. They both have a forecourt on the south- 
west side. In the first temple this is 13 metres long 
and 10 mitres wide. It is separated from the sacred 
part by tvyo high walls, forming a majestic entrance. 
In the middle of this sanctuary there is a circular 
layer of clay 4 metres in diameter and o-6 in thick- 
ness, upon which, probably, a seated image was 
placed. Close to the two temples, in the north-east, 
there is a thu-d temple which, so far as concerns the 
style of its construction, is like the two others. It 
has a forecourt, and it seems was surrounded by a cor- 
ridor. Our two well-informed architects think that 
these three buildings were temples ; but my hus- 
band thinks, since they present great similarity to 
the houses mentioned in the Iliad (VI. 316), that 
they really were only houses, and that they were 
perhaps built, by command of Paris, by the best 
architects of the Troas. In this city, destroyed by 



ANTIQUARIAN NEWS. 



i8i 



fire, we see Pergamos with its splendid edifices, that 
being, according to Homer's description, the same as 
sacred Ilios. Of gold articles we have here found 
but few, among them being a very thin diadem and a 
set of earrings, which are of the same sort as those we 
dug up some years ago. The nails we have here met 
with appear to be of quite a different description. 
They cannot possibly be taken for keys. We have 
also found some vertebrae, bolts, and spindles, as well 
as vessels with owls' heads. None of these objects, 
however, have any great value. The most valuable 
of all our discoveries is to be found in the three 
temples or houses themselves, which are quite novel 
in their style of construction. It is perfectly estab- 
lished that the Troas of Homer was situated at the 
spot now called Hissarlik, as my husband contended 
some years ago . Through the kind intercession of the 
German embassy, at Constantinople, we also received 
permission to conduct a series of excavations at Buna- 
barsi, which some philologists still think was the site 
of the Homeric Ilios. This place is three hours' 
walk from the Hellespont. At that place, too, we 
found bolts and Greek vessels as in Hissarlik. We 
believe that that place was the site of the ancient 
Gergi, which at one time is said to have had 2000 
inhabitants." 

Important excavations are now proceeding at Lewes 
Priory. The Priory of St. Pancras, founded by 
William de Warrene and Gundrada, is one of the 
most ancient specimens of Norman architecture in this 
kingdom. The church is, moreover, of special interest 
as having belonged to the Cluniac Order, whose great 
church in Burgundy was not only one of tlie largest 
in Europe, but was built on an unusual plan, with 
eastern as well as central transepts, and a great 
porch at the west end, beyond the actual front of the 
church. At Lewes, the same plan of double transepts 
has evidently been followed, and it remains to be seen 
whether the western porch also existed. The founda- 
tions of the eastern portion of the great church, and 
also part of the chapter-house, were laid bare in the 
year 1847, at the time of the construction of the 
Brighton and Hastings Railway. The bones of the 
noble founders were also discovered. It is, however, 
sufficiently evident, from an examination of the remains, 
and a comparison with others of a somewhat similar 
nature, that beneath the surface must lie a large por- 
tion of the nave and choir of the church, together with 
the bases of the western towers ; also the substructures 
of the dormitory and refectory. The investigation has 
been already commenced, under the direction of Mr. 
Somers Clarke and Mr W. H. St. John Hope. Mr. 
Hope writes to Mr. John Willis Clark : We have 
already investigated all that the railway spared of the 
refectory, and are now hard at work on the substruc- 
ture of the dormitory. We have uncovered some fine 
walls five feet thick ; also two portions of the great 
watercourse, wit^ a sluice gate. Our researches are 
as yet too young to enable me to say more ; but a few 
days will make all the difference." When the con- 
ventual buildings are finished they will attack the 
church. Meanwhile it is desirable to make an appeal 
for funds, without which the -work cannot proceed. 
Subscriptions should be sent to Mr. Somers Clarke, 
15, Dean's Yard, Westminster. 



CocreeponDence, 



DATES AND STYLES OF CHURCHES. 
May I protest against the meagre information given 
with regard to the list of parish churches published in 
your last issue. Not only are dates omitted in the 
examples there enumerated, but the information as to 
style is vague in the extreme. In a list of this kind it 
seems to me, as doubtless to many others, that the 
information should be as exact, and at the same time 
as concise, as possible. When the date is known, it 
should be distinctly stated ; when not known, the 
approximate datemight be given, which would perhaps 
afford one a better idea of the church in question as 
regards style than the ordinary description in the 
received nomenclature of the mediaeval periods ; for, 
from a careful examination, the date can usually be 
set down with tolerable accuracy say within twenty 
or thirty years at the furthest. 

All will agree that the information with regard to 
the registers is most valuable and handy for reference. 
But there is one source of information that seems to 
me wanting, and which has never, as far as I know, 
received serious attention, but which, in a complete list 
of English churches, would be of the greatest interest 
the names of the builders, architects, or founders, 
for the exact functions of these, as we all know, have 
ever been confused. Not only would such a list be 
valuable solely as information in itself, but the com- 
parison of the different works that miglit be collected 
under the name of the same architect, for we must 
suppose each architect to have stamped his work with 
some amount of individuality, would at least give some 
basis for the theories as to whom the merit of the design 
of our mediaeval churches is due, whether to freemasons 
or ecclesiastics. I am well aware that your space is 
too valuable to be taken up with superfluous notices, 
especially in such a well-worn subject as this; but a 
complete list of churches, correctly and carefully dated, 
with the founder's or builder's name, as the case may 
be, attached ; and, if built under the auspices of reli- 
gious foundations, the head of that foundation at the 
date given might be noted. This, with the list of 
registers, would form a most valuable and unique 
catalogue of our English ecclesiastical works, and a 
catalogue moreover that, as it appeared from time to 
time in your columns, would ever be subject to the 
strictest criticism. My letter may liave extended to a 
greater length than your pages can admit, but I believe 
there are many to whom information such as I have 
suggested would be very acceptable, and in such exact 
and concise accounts as this under consideration. 

Charles L. Bell. 

Chesterton Road, Cambridge. 

[We quite agree with our correspondent, and one 

of our objects in instituting the present lists was to 

elicit and get together the scattered information he 

speaks of, but we must begin at the beginning. Ed.] 

THE TRENCHARD FAMILY. 

(vi. 38.) 

The name of Trenchard is one of the most ancient 

in the Isle of Wight, and is chiefly associated with the 

parish of Shalfleet, where the name of Walleran 



l82 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Trenchard is still preserved in the farm of Walleran. 
A copse near Wootton Creek is called Trenchard 's in 
the old maps of Worsley's and Albin's history, and 
the name of Trenchard may still be seen on sign- 
boards in the island. In the fine old church of 
Shalfleet one of those mentioned in Domesday 
Book two ancient monumental slabs have been dug 
up, which are supposed to have marked the graves of 
meml->ers of the family. One is broken in two, and 
the other is much defaced, but both bear a shield and 
spear crosswise in stone, and appear to belong to the 
I ith century or the beginning of the 1 2 th. 

Waldingwell a manor in the parish of Shalfleet, 
remarkable as being the first park in England was 
owned by Henry Trenchard, who also held Shalfleet 
and Chessel in demesne under Countess Isabella de 
Fortibus, in the reign of King Edward I., and 
the Walleran Trenchard, after whom the farm was 
named, was the younger son of Sir Henry, and re- 
ceived the farm as a gift from his elder brother. 

The names of Robert and Henerie Trenchard 
appear amongst the signatures of witnesses to the 
charter granted to Newport by Henry II., and in 
many other ancient rolls and deeds relating to the 
island history. 

Sir Richard Worsley makes frequent mention of 
the family in the rare and valuable work published 
by him in 178 1, but he is unable to fix the date of 
their coming into the island. He is of opinion, how- 
ever, that they first appeared there as landowners 
during the lordship of Richard de Redvers, in the 
time of Henry I., as the oldest accounts relate that 
Earl Richard gave Pagan Trenchard the manor of 
Ilordhall, near Lymington, and in the oldest pipe- 
roll (ann. 6 Stephen) another Pagan is charged with 
the levy of Danegeld, in the Isle of Wight. This 
ancient family chiefly resided at Hordhall, and a 
license may be found in the diocesan register granting 
leave to Richard Trenchard to have Mass celebrated 
for himself and his family in his house at Hordhall. 
In the reign of Edward II., Sir Henry Trenchard 
joined the barons who plotted against the king, and 
was declared an outlaw in consequence. The con- 
stable of Carisbrooke Castle overlooked this outlawry, 
and permitted Trenchard to retain his estates, to the 
displeasure of the island gentlemen, who petitioned 
Parliament through Ralph Gorges (head of another 
ancient family) against this contempt of law. 

Like many other ancient island families the Trench- 
ards became extinct in the male line, and their posses- 
sions passed through the families of Dupsden, 
Brutenell, Waller, Worsley, Serl, Goodenough, and 
Barrington, to the Simeons. 

Mary Damant. 

Cowes, I.W. 



MOULDS FOR FABRICATING ROMAN 

COINS. 

(vi. 68.) 
In an interesting paper, under the title of " Anti- 
quarian Discoveries in Germany," there occurs the 
following passage : " An interesting contribution" 
(apparently to the Annals of the Rhenish Antiquarian 
Society) "is the description by Ilerr Hettner of a 
number of false moulds for coins of dates ranging 
from about a.d. 193 to 235. The learned numismatist 



explains in detail his reasons for considering these 
matrices to have been intended for the manufacture 
of base coin" (p. 68). From the date assigned to 
the coins, the moulds in question would appear to be 
of just the same period as those " clay moulds for 
fabricating Roman coins" which have been found at 
Taunton, at Edington, near Bridgwater, in this 
county, and in other parts of England. 

As a point of much interest, it would be very 
desirable that some further light should be thrown 
on the moulds recently discovered in Germany as 
regards their character, and also the place where 
they were found, so as to afford a comparison with 
those which have been found in this locality, some 
of which are now to be seen in our County Museum 
in this town. Perhaps the writer of the article will 
kindly favour us with some fuller information respect- 
ing the moulds described by Herr Hettner ? 

James H. Pring. 

Elmfield, Taunton. 

THE GREAT CASE OF THE IMPOSITIONS, 
(vi. 61.) 

I have come across accidentally, since my last letter, 
upon a piece of evidence, which seems additionally 
to vindicate the statements of Stubbs and Maddox 
on the rate of prizage. According to Mr. Hall 

" Professor Stubbs has followed Maddox in error. 
The above statement of the latter writer is made on 
the authority of the Chamberlain's accounts for 

London and Sandwich, under Henry VII 

The fact is that neitlier London nor the Cinque 
Ports were liable to prizage (Hale, iii. 133), but 
they were liable to * frectagium,' which Maddox 
and Stubbs perhaps have mistaken for prizage" 

(p. 65). 

Now, among the patents of Henry VIII. we find, 
in April, 15 19 

" Sir Anthony Poyntz and Joan Guldeford his wife. 
Grant during the life of the said Joan of a tun of 
Gascon wine annually, free of all duties, out of the 
prizes of wines in the ports of London, Bristol, and 
Southampton, by the hands of the chief Butler of 
England. " 

It would seem, therefore, that, in asserting that the 
port of London was not liable to the prizage of 
wines, Mr. Hall " has followed" Hale "in error." 

I may add that, from the obscurity of the passage 
in The Antiquary (vi. 64-5), it seems doubtful if 
Mr. Hall has rightly understood Professor Stubbs' 
definition of the prizage of wines : " The royal right 
of taking from each wine-ship when it landed, one 
cask for every ten which the vessel contained, at the 
price of twenty shillings tlu ca-sk'' (ii. 522.) Mr. Hall 
seems to imply that this alludes to " a due of 20^. on 
the cask of wine" (p. 65), payable by the merchants, 
but it was something quite different from this \nz., 
the price at which the Crown was entitled to purchase 
the prizable cask. This is clear from the Irish charter 
which I quoted in my last letter, and which is fully 
confirmed by a re-grant of the Butlerage to James, 
sonof Edmond Butler, in 1227 : 

"Pro Buticulariis Hibemise de Feodo consueto. 

"Unum dolum vini ante malum et unum aliud 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



183 



retro pro quadraginta solidis mercatoribus quorum 
vina illafueruntsolvcndis." Rymer's Fccdera, iv. 269. 

T. H. Round. 
[We have in hand a letter from Mr. Hubert Hall 
concerning Mr. Round's former communication.] 



TRADITIONS ABOUT OLD BUILDINGS. 

Allow me, with reference to Mr. Round's letter in 
your June number, to direct the attention of your 
readiers to a legend of the same character as the 
Roumanian one mentioned by him, among the modem 
Greek Pastoralia (p. 390, No. 512) in Posson's most 
interesting collection. It is called "The Bridge of the 
Aria," over which river the workmen engaged in 
erecting a bridge could not succeed in their work till 
they had immersed the master-mason's wife. The 
story is very prettily told, especially at the conclusion, 
which tells how the palpitation of her heart, and the 
lifting up of her head, cause the tremor of the 
bridge, &c. 

J. M. RODWELL. 

S. Ethelberga, London. 



EXCAVATIONS AT ROME. 

Letters which I have received from Rome tell me 
that enormous excavations are still being carried on 
there of great importance for the antiquary. Any 
English people who have been in Rome will remem- 
ber the great bank of earth with a road upon it, which 
leads from the Arch of Septimius Severus, in the 
Forum Romanium, by a winding course up to the 
Piazza del Capitolio, on the upper part of that hill, 
burjring in its course some of the most interesting parts 
of the Forum itself. For the last twenty years, or 
more, it has been given out that the municipality 
were gains; /c? remove this bank, but nobody could say 
when. This bank is on the southern side of the hill. 
Ten years ago they made a new zigzag road on the 
northern side, up to the same point, at considerable 
expense. It was given out that this was done to 
enable them to do away with the aforesaid sloping 
bank and road on the southern side ; but still nothing 
was done until the present time, when the new 
Minister of Public Instruction, a man of great energy, 
good sense, and decision of character, has, with con- 
siderable difficulty, obtained the consent of the muni- 
cipality to this being done ; and, fearing they might 
change their mind and revoke their consent, he has 
set to work to do it at once, employing a large number 
of men, in order that no time may be lost, well know- 
ing that when once done it cannot be undone. For 
this he is entitled to the cordial thanks of every anti- 
quary and every well-informed person in Europe ; but 
he is roundly abused for it by the Roman newspapers 
of a low class, which call attention to the temporary 
inconvenience to certain carts and waggons, being 
obliged to make considerable dUoiir going from one 
low part of Rome to another. Every real antiquary 
should raise his voice loudly in praise of the Minister 
and of the Italian Government. Nothing more at- 
tractive to strangers for the next season could well 
have been contrived than this enormous excavation. 



The Minister also proposes to pull down the wall of 
the Famesi Gardens, on the eastern side of the Via 
Sacra, and throw all that ground open to the same 
original level. 

John Henry Parker, C.B. 
Oxford. 



THE HOLY GHOST CHAPEL, 
(v. 239.) 

Since writing the article on the Holy Ghost Chapel 
and Marie Cufaude, the author has ascertained that 
the quaint inscription to the memory of Simeon 
Cufaude of " exemplar virtue and patience in grievous 
crosses" is absolutely correct in asserting that Sir R. 
Pole was cousin german to Henry VII. that is, 
first cousin for Fuller, in his Worthies, speaks of 
him as Frater cousobrinus to the King i.e., male 
cousin ; either son of father's brother or son of 
father's sister. This is conclusive. We know Sir 
Richard Pole was not the son of the king's uncle 
Jasper, as he had no children. Sir Owen Tudor 
must, therefore, have had a daughter who must have 
married a Pole. 

The nearness of the relationship accounts for 
Henry's marrying him to the Countess of Salisbury, 
and bestowing so much wealth upon him. Moreover, 
they were brought up together at Brittany, under the 
protection of the Duke of Proven9e, by their uncle, 
Jasper, Earl of Pembroke, who took refuge there with 
the boys soon after the accession of Edward IV. The 
inscription of Simeon was either written by or under 
the directions of his father, Alexander, who survived 
him some years. He was Marie's son, and must 
have received the account of the Poles from her 
lips. F. C. L. 

[It may be as well to refer our readers to an article 
on the Cufaude family in Gentleman' s Magazine^ \ 787, 
p. 1 153, and 1788, p, 574.] 

THE KENTISH GARLAND. 

Many years ago I played upon the guitar, and my 
attention was caught by the position of that instru- 
ment in the " Woodcut of a lady ballad singer" on 
page 1^%, vol. V. of The Antiquary, which is not 
that used in playing at the present time. The strings 
are now pressed by the left hand against the frets on 
the neck of the instrument (which are not marked in 
the woodcut), and are stnick by the right hand. 
Probably the position in the woodcut is caused by the 
drawing not being reversed, and is not evidence of 
the guitar having been formerly played in a manner 
different to that now in use. 

Since my childhood I have known a reading of the 
verse on the death of General Wolfe which differs 
from that on the same page as the woodcut. It is as 
follows : 

" General Wolfe was a very groat man, 
Uncommon brave particular ; 
He clambered up rough rugged rocks, 
Almost perpendicular." 
This is all I ever knew of the ditty ; where I became 
acquainted with it I know not, 

G. W. O. 



1 84 



THE ANTIQUARY EXCHANGE. 



ITbe anttquari? jeycbange. 



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E C 

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Some valuable Roman and Greek Coins for sale, 
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Painting, "The Straw Yard," by J. F. Hernng, 
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Johnson's Dictionary, 2 vols., folio, 1784, excellent 
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Gregor's Folk-Lore of the Northern Counties, 1881. 
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Stanley, Farrar, Froude, Dickens, Macaulay, Lecky, 
Jesse, Ruskin, Rogers, Carlyle, and other good 
authors. Cheap cash. Clericus, 20, King Edward 
Street, Lambeth Road, London. 



MARTINMAS. 



i8S 



\^mm^^-^9mM. 



The Antiquary. 



NOVEMBER, 1882. 




flDartinma0.* 

N these days of material progress 
and secular ideas, it requires a 
considerable efifort of imagination 
to throw oneself back into the 
state of mind of our mediaeval ancestors, so 
as to realize fully the depth and intensity of 
that religious feeling which led them to 
associate every action of their daily lives 
with the hopes of eternity, under the direct 
teaching and guidance of .the Church. In 
business as well as in pleasure, in the market 
as well as in the house, in public as well as 
in private, they looked in all their doings for 
the guiding and protecting influence of one 
or other of the numerous saints either 
deceased martyrs, or other holy members of 
the church, or angelic beings who, accord- 
ing to their conceptions of the universe, 
stood between them and God. 

This feeling was strongly manifested in the 
specific appropriation of certain saints' days, 
or other festivals of the Church, to particular 
transactions of civil life. This particular form 
or mode of its manifestation does not carry 
us back to primitive society. It was essen- 
tially Christian, and medieeval. It may have 
been similar in spirit to the feelings which 
actuated men in earlier times, but the deve- 
lopment was its own. The philosopher who 
sacrificed a cock to ^sculapius may have 
been the forerunner of the devotee who gave 
his offering at the altar or the shrine of his 

* We have edited this article from the materials 
collected by the distinguished scholar who had 
engaged to write it. Just before the time when we 
should have received the MSS., a severe family 
bereavement, for which we cannot but express our sin- 
cere sympathy, prevented him from finishing the article. 
[Ed.] 

VOL. VI. 



patron saint, but the methods were certainly 
different, though the principle may possibly 
have been the same. The mediaeval method 
was neither a survival nor a revival of specific 
forms, but a new growth, or at least a 
new manifestation in form, if not in sub- 
stance. 

Of the eight established quarter-days, 
including the four main quarter-days and the 
four so-called cross quarter-days, five are 
designated by the word mas. These are, in 
fact, the last five in the order of succession, 
reckoning Lady Day as the commencement 
of the year; but this may be accidental. 
The names stand thus : 

Lady Day (Easter) : 

Whitsuntide. 
Mid-summer : 

Lammas. 
Michaelmas : 

Martinmas. 
Christmas : 

Candlemas. 

The natural associations of Midsummer 
have maintained their ground, and the name 
of Saint John the Baptist has not superseded 
the designation of Midsummer-day, although 
the name of Christmas has superseded that 
of Midwinter. 

The word mas in Lam-mas, Michael-mas, 
Martin-mas, Christ-mas, and Candle-mas, 
means a feast or festival, though it is not now 
used as a separate word in that sense. 
Whether this word has any connection with 
mass, meaning the Host or Eucharistic ser- 
vice in the Roman Catholic Church, and if 
so, what are the nature and extent of the 
connection, are interesting but difficult prob- 
lems. If the two words are connected, we 
are naturally led to inquire whether a " mass- 
day," in the sense of a feast day, holy day, 
holiday, was so called because it was com- 
memorated by the celebration of the " mass ;" 
or whether the mass was so called because it 
was a commemoration of the last feast or 
supper of Christ and his disciples. The laws 
of Alfred use the word in the law (c. 43) 
which provides for the "mass-days," /.<?., 
holidays, to be allowed to freemen. The full 
text of this law, in Thorpe's translation, 
{Ancient Laws and Institutes of England, 
vol. i. p. 93) is as follows : 

o 



i86 



MARTINMAS.. 



Of the celebration of Mass-Days. 
43. To all freemen let these days be given, but not 
to * theow'-men and ' esne'-workmen : xii days at 
Yule, and the day on which Christ overcame the 
devil, and the commemoration day of Saint Gregjory, 
and vii days before Easter and vii days after, and one 
day at Saint Peters's tide and Saint Paul's, and in 
harvest the vv^hole week before Saint Mary-mass, and 
one day at the celebration of All Hallows and the iv 
Wednesdays in the iv Ember weeks. To all ' theow'- 
men be given, to tliose to whom it may be most 
desirable to give, whatever any man shall give them in 
God's name, or that at any of their moments may 
deserve. 

It may be worth while to note, however, 
that a very different, or rather an exactly 
opposite, view of the origin and meaning 
of the expression, was entertained in the 
eighteenth century by some English lexico- 
graphers. Thus, Fenning's Dictionary, 1741, 
gives the following curious explanation of the 
word "mass:" "In Divinity, this word 
originally implied only a festival, and was in 
this sense used in the word Christmas, long 
before the introduction of the sacrament of 
the mass, but at length it was used to signify 
the Eucharist, and is at present appropriated 
to the office or public prayers, used by the 
Romish Church in the celebration of the 
Eucharist." This explanation is repeated in 
Rider's Dictionary (1759), and in Barlow's 
Dictionary (1772). 

Into the question of the association of 
St. Martin with the popular customs of the 
times we do not propose to enter. This sub- 
ject opens up a much broader issue than the 
limits of an article devoted to one particular 
festival ; because the history of the absorption 
of pagan customs into Christian ritual and 
observances has yet to be written. Many 
writers have touched upon the subject, and 
there are ample materials for its elucidation, 
but it is a complicated and extensive study, 
which will afford a rich mine of investigation 
to the author who succeeds in working it out 
satisfactorily. It appears to us, however, 
that the matter may be put generally in this 
manner. Under the early rule of Christianity, 
the people did not so much give up their 
pagan customs and beliefs as they crystallized 
them^ so to speak, round some celebrated 
holy day of the church. Thus St. Martin's 
Day is essentially a feast day. Sir Henry 
Ellis gathered together in his edition of Brand 
the evidences of this. It was the time when 



the people slaughtered their cattle, and stored 
it for winter use. Under the extending in- 
fluences of commerce we cannot quite under- 
stand how this should have been sufficiently 
important a custom to have become so sig- 
nificantly impressed upon the folklore of our 
land. But just step back into the past a 
little. Imagine every village of England a 
self-supporting community its own arable 
lands, its own grazing lands. Contemplate 
the approach of winter to this isolated com- 
munity, and we can contemplate the festivities 
which would usher in the season for preparing 
the food store for the coming months of cold 
and snow. This appears to be the general 
association of Martinmas with the circum- 
stances of a very ancient past. But the 
general association can be intensified into 
some more definite identification with early 
village life than this. Almost every act of 
the primitive villager is more or less connected 
with a very extensive and honoured house- 
rehgion. The homestead of early man was 
protected not so much by a village police as 
by the house-religion. Every house was a 
temple of its own the house-father was the 
priest, the house-mother, her children, and 
the servants and family adherents the wor- 
shippers. Thus much we know of primitive 
society from very many survivals of this pre- 
historic culture which have been gathered 
together by the student of primitive man. 
And Martinmas has preserved a custom 
which enables us to take it back to a similar 
pre-historic past. . It is t not sufficient, then, 
that the fact of a general time for the killing 
of cattle and storing of food should fall upon 
the student of folklore with some special 
significance this must be connected with 
the old house-religion to make the chain of 
evidence sufficiently strong to carry back 
the customs of Martinmas to a remote past. 
How it is so connected will be very clearly 
shown by an Irish custom. Mr. Dyer quotes, 
from Mason's Statistical Account of Ireland 
(1819, vol. iii. p. 75), the following impor- 
tant description of the custom at St.-Peter's, 
Athlon e, which took place on St. Martin's Day: 

Every family of a village kills an animal of some 
kind or other ; those who are rich kill a cow or sheep, 
others a goose or turkey ; while those who are poor 
and cannot procure an animal of great value, kill a 
hen or cock, and sprinkle the threshold with the 



MARTINMAS. 



187 



blood, and do the same in the four corners of the 
house, and this ceremonious performance is done to 
exclude every kind of evil spirit from the dwelling 
when this sacrifice is made till the return of the same 
day the following year.* 

This very curious custom at once gives us 
the clue to a very long history of the con- 
nection of cattle-rearing with the old house- 
religion. The household gods of the primitive 
Aryan encroached into the domain of the 
gods of agriculture. The lines along which 
that encroachment gradually worked are very 
clearly traceable in the science of compara- 
tive folklore, but even without going into this 
wide field, we have seen that the customs 
congregated round the festival of Martinmas 
tell us a similar tale. Before the food 
slaughtered and collected could be eaten, 
the ceremony of sacrificing to the house-god 
must be gone through. This ceremony is 
most curiously preserved in the Athlone 
Martinmas custom. Folklore presents other 
items of evidence in the same line. Thus, 
when the young calves cannot be reared, Mr. 
Henderson tells us that in Durham they take 
the leg and ihigh of one of the dead calves 
and hang it in the chimney, f In Ireland 
the custom survives, though in not so com- 
plete a form the portion of the dead calf 
not being placed in the chimney but simply 
brought into the house. Essentially the 
pasture-festival, as distinguished from the 
grain-festival, Martinmas, whatever its 7notif 
in mediaeval days, has preserved relics of pre- 
historic times. 

There is one other record we must note in 
these rough jottings of festival lore. A very 
important relic of the early village life is 
preserved in the custom of holding the village 
assemblies on an eminence in the open air. 
Martinmas, the cattle-festival, has preserved 
a curious relic of this, in which cattle again 
play a not unimportant part. Dugdale, in his 
Antiquities of Warwickshire, gives an account 
of the meeting of the Knightlow Hundred 
moot, but Mr. Gomme preserves, in his Primi- 
tive Folkmoots, a more detailed account, sent 
to him from personal observation by Mr. W. 
G. Fretton, F.S.A. It is as follows : 

Five and a half miles north-east of Coventry, on 
the old coach road from Birmingham to London, just 

* Dyer's British Popular Cust07ns, p. 420. 
, t Folklore of the Northern Counties, p. 167. 



within the parish boundary of Ryton-on-Dunsmore, 
and on the ridge of elevated flat land at the top of 
Knightlow Hill, stands what remains of an old way- 
side cross. It rests upon a mound of artificially raised 
earth, or tumulus, to the left on ascending the road, 
and from this mound the hill is said to derive its 
name. A new piece of road here was made in the 
early coaching days to give easier ascent and descent 
to the hill, so that now the site is hid from view when 
one is upon the road. From this high and elevated 
spot a good view is seen of the surrounding country, 
with the spires of Coventry in the distance. Here 
at this stone is annually collected for the Duke of 
Biiccleuch, by his steward, on Martinmas Eve, at sun 
rising (November 11), what is called wroth (or ward) 
money, from various parishes in the Hundred of 
Knightlow. The tumulus upon which the cross 
rested is about thirty or thirty-five feet square, with 
sides running parallel to the road, having a large fir 
tree growing at each angle, of which the people round 
about say that the four trees represent four knights 
who were killed and buried there. The portion 
remaining of the cross is thirty inches square at the 
top, with a hole in the centre to receive the shaft, and 
the whole structure would correspond with those at 
present in existence at Meriden and Dunchurch. Its 
date was probably the time of Edward III. There is 
a mason's mark on one side in the shape of a crtss, 
six.inches long, which shows it was set up by a master 
mason of his trade guild. The wroth money has been 
collected from time immemorial, excepting for a few 
years about the beginning of this present century, but 
the Scott family subsequently revived it, or kept up 
" the charter," as it is locally called. On the eve of 
St. Martin, November il, 1879, the annual custom 
was gone through at 6.45 in the morning, when the 
wroth money was collected. There were thirty-four 
persons present to witness the ceremony. The steward, 
having invited the party to stand round the stone 
(the original custom was to walk three times round 
it), proceeded to read the " Charter of Assembly," 
which opens thus : "Wroth silver collected annually 
at Knightlow Cross by the Duke of Buccleuch, as 
Lord of the Manor of the Hundred of Knightlow." 
The next proceeding was the calling over of the 
names of the parishes liable to the fee, and the 
amount due from each, when the parish, by their 
representatives present, cast the required sum into 
the hollow of the stone. The amounts collected were 

J. d. 
Astley, Arley, Burbery, Shilton, Little Wal- 
ton, Barnacle, and Wolfcote (one penny 
each parish) . . . . . .07 

Whitley, Radford Semele, Bourton, Napton, 
Bramcote, and Draycote (three half- 
pence each) . . . . . .09 

Princethorpe, Stretton-on-Dunsmore, Bub- 
benhall, Ladbrook, Churchover, Waver- 
ley, and Weston (twopence each) - .12 
Wolston, Hillmorton, Hopsford, and Marton 

(fourpence each) . . . . .14 

Leamington Hastings (twelvepence) . .10 
Long Ichington (two shillings and twopence) 2 2 
Arbury a 3l 

9 3i 
O 2 



MARTINMAS. 



Ryton pays nothing, although the stone is in the 
parish. The fine for non-payment was in olden 
time one pound for every penny not forthcoming, or 
else the forfeiture of a while bull with a red nose 
and ears of the same colour. The fine has not 
been paid within man's memory. No one seems to 
know (not even the steward of the Duke himself) 
why or for what purpose the money was originally 
collected, or why one parish should pay more than 
another. 

The perambulation of the stone, and the 
forfeiture of the white bull with the red nose 
and ears, connect this meeting at Martinmas 
with what we have already described as the 
characteristics of the Festival. 

Pass we now, in conclusion, from this 
view of Martinmas and its customs to that 
other pleasing vievv to which Shakespeare 
alludes when Joan of Arc tells the men of 
France to 

Expect Saint Martin's summer, halcyon days. 

First Part of King Henry VI. act i. sc. ii. 

St. Martin's ^' little summer," as the proverb 
has it,"^ breaks in upon us just as the autumn 
is giving way to winter, and so regular is it 
in its coming that nearly all Europe has a 
proverb on this season. The few days of 
bright autumn weather of this year in our 
own land have done much to make us think 
of the wisdom of the people in embodying 
such weather-facts in familiar sayings ; and 
if we may compare the few rays of light 
thrown upon the customs of past days which 
this article is intended to reflect, to the 
satisfying brightness of St. Martin's little 
summer, our object will not have been vainly 
attempted. 



- ** 

ilT is not our intention to discuss 
the propriety or otherwise of the 
removal of Parish Registers to 
London. Much may be said on 
both sides of the question ; but the fear that 
they may have to part with what are now 
looked upon almost as their " household 
gods," has caused no little excitement in 
many of the country parishes in Yorkshire ; 
and unless transcripts are provided for local 

* Swainson's Weatherlore, p. 143. 




use (and why should they not?) the 
parishioners will have some substantial 
ground for complaint, if these documents are 
removed to the Record Office. 

The incumbents tell you that they are 
constantly appealed to by members of their 
flock for information from the " Church 
Books," eitlier of private or local interest, 
and as in many instances they are Registers, 
not only of Births, Marriages, and Deaths, 
but also of noteable events occurring in the 
district, it is no wonder that there should 
be a growing disinclination to part with 
them. Where the Registers themselves are 
not of special interest, we often find that 
the Churchwardens' Accounts form a very 
complete history of the habits and customs 
of the people. 

In one parish, where the accounts have 
been well preserved, and date some 300 
years back, the churchwardens most faith- 
fully recorded against themselves the sums 
they spent, out of the rates, on their own 
festivities. They had their regular dinner at 
the expense of the parish when assuming and 
retiring from office, and on such days as they 
partook of Holy Communion ; the latter an 
abuse one vicar, good man, thought to put 
down by providing the dinner out of his own 
pocket ; but the churchwardens, either consi- 
dering that the vicar's dinner did not quite 
come up to the markjOr thinking it deroga- 
tory to the parish that the old custom should 
not be kept up, were quite equal to the occa- 
sion, and took their dinner quietly at the 
vicar's expense on the Sunday, supplementing 
it by r.nother, on the following day, at the 
expense of the parish. And here things 
came to such a pass that, during Easter, they 
dined on Good Friday and Easter Sunday at 
the vicar's expense, and had their dinner out 
of the rates on Easter Eve and Easter 
Monday. The present vicar (if we mistake 
not) informed us that at this season they were 
in the habit of dining together on five conse- 
cutive days, but we have forgotten how he 
accounted for the fifth. These festivities went 
on until comparatively recent times, for during 
one year, early in the present century, the 
accounts show that more than half the rates 
were expended in this way. It is also re- 
corded that, on the occasion of bells being 
provided for the church, the money collected 



YORKSHiRE PARISH REGISTEkS. 



189 



was more than sufficient to cover the expenses, 
and that the churchwardens, wise in their 
generation, quietly pocketed the surplus for 
their trouble. 

At Stavely, near Borobridge, are preserved 
the subscription lists, and rates levied during 
the seventeenth century when any great 
calamity occun-ed requiring the general help 
of the nation. These form a very interesting 
collection, since they give not only the names, 
but also the capabilities of the principal in- 
habitants. There is also given, in detail, the 
names of those parishioners who were re- 
quired to give their aid in the renewal or 
repairing of the fence round the churchyard, 
and the exact portion of work, measured off 
for each, is carefully described, so that there 
could be no mistake where one was to leave 
off and another to begin. 

At Kildwick the rate-books are of very 
early date, and in excellent preservation. 
Here [what would the foxhunter of the pre- 
sent day say if such Avere now the custom ?] 
the parish was in the habit of paying one shilling 
for the head of every fox killed within its 
boundaries, the same amount for the head 
of an "ottyr," while that either of a "fulmer" 
(polecat) or an "urchin" (hedgehog) was 
valued only at twopence. The name of the 
recipient is, in every case, given, and the 
individuals, if we may judge by their names, 
were often gentlemen of importance and 
position in the parish. The sum of 2s. 6d. 
was the fee paid to any strange clergyman 
who was invited to preach, but it is not 
stated whether this amount was intended 
to cover his personal expenses, or was the 
value the parish placed upon his sermon. 
Sums of money appear to have been fre- 
quently levied for the support of sick or 
lame soldiers left at York, Leeds, and else- 
where. 

At Aldbrough, where the Registers com- 
mence in 1538 and were transcribed from 
the originals in 16 12, the following appears 
on the first page : 

Ano. Dom. 161 2. A Trew Register of all the 
Christenings, burials and mariages w*in the p''** of 
Aldburghe according to the Antiente Register in 
Paper, from y* yere ofo'' Lorde God 1538 and from 
the 30 yeare of the Reigne of o' Souvraign L. King 
Henrie y' Eighte, until this p'sente yere of o' Lord 
God 1 61 2, newlie written in parchmente at the com- 



mande of the Dean and Chapter of Yorke By me 
John Dobson, Curate of Aldbuigh. 

Th^mat Me " \ Churchwardens of Aldburgh ' 
Arthur Buckle ) P '^" 

Received of the said Churchwardens for \ 
writing the s<* Register the 30 daye Octo- 
ber in the yere of o' Lord God 1612, By r 26s. SJ. 
me John Dobson, Curate cf the p'^*" of I 
Aldburgh 16 12. ' 

Surely this was a labour of love, for the 
Registers are beautifully written, and at, ap- 
parently, the expense of considerable time 
and trouble. Even taking into consideration 
the difference in the value of money, 26s. Sd. 
is a small pittance to offer a man of education 
for copying Registers, extending over seventy 
years, in a large and populous parish. 

On a fly-leaf at the end of one volume is a 
memorandum to the effect that in 1634, by 
order of Dr. Easdall, Michael Gilbert, the 
vicar, excommunicated about fifty persons ; 
and again, in 1663, he excommunicated about 
thirty more by the order of Dr. Burwell. 
In both instances the names are given in full. 
Then comes the following : 

Mr. Gilbert. If any recusant being excommuni- 
cated shal be buryed in any place but in Church or 
Churchyard, his executors shall forfitt thirtie Pounds 
by Statute, therefore I conceive you ought to burie 
him, but let it be according to the forme of the 
Churche of England, these directions were sent under 
Dr. Burvvell's own hand, Aug. 18, 1643, when Sir 
Thomas Tanckred was to be buried. Thomas Bur- 
well. 

There are also entries of several briefs, but 
the collections were generally made for persons 
connected with or living in the parish, and 
are of no special interest. 

In one Register there is a memorandum 
as early as the time of James I., which shows 
that organs were then in use in this church. 
The foUowins; is a copy : 

Mem'' that the xxist day of August, Anno Dom. 
161 7, it was agreed between the Churchwardens and 
Inhabitants of the p'^*' of Aldbroughe on theire p** 
and George Brownlace of the cittye of Yorke, that the 
said George Brownlace should mend and repayre the 
organs at Aldbroughe, fro' time to time, when and as 
often as shall require. And shall have for his paynes 
6* yearely upon May daye, and also be p'vided of a 
horse att the chardge of the p'*'' fro' Yorke and home 
againe. And alsoe be furnished att the chardge of 
the p'he with all things needfuU for the mendinge and 
repayre of them, as also w* meate, drinke, and lodging 
during the work. 



ipo 



YORKSHIRE PARISH REGISTERS. 



As York is distant nearly sixteen miles from 
Aldburgh, Mr Brownlace can scarcely be 
said to have been overpaid for his work. 

Mention is made among the burials of a 
"great plague at Burrowbge" in 1604 
(Borobridge was in the parish of Aldburgh) 
" wherein died 80 at ye leaste." The total 
number of burials registered in that year is 
not nearly so great ; it is a question, there- 
fore, whether the mortality has not been exag- 
gerated, or whether some other spot was used 
for the reception of the bodies of those who 
did not find their home in the churchyard. 
There is no record of any other ground being 
used in the neighbourhood for this purpose. 

In one Register (a transcript) the follow- 
ing entry is made relative to marriages that 
took place during the time of the Common- 
wealth : 

' Marriages from the year 1653 to 1658 which were 
made by Cromwell's Justices of Peace (y* impious 
Arch Rebell appointed out of the basist Hypocrites 
and dissemblers with God & man), the manner of 
whose certificates that they may appear after ages, I 
do here register one from Thos. Dickinson, whom 
Cromwel made believe he had Knighted, viz. : Ac- 
cording to A certificate written, attested by the parish 
Register with others, The s** Wm Dove and Elz : 
Clemetshaw both of the Towne & Parish of Ald- 
burgh came this day before me Mr. Sir Thomas Dick- 
inson Esquire One of the Justices of Peace within the 
West Riding of the County of York, and declared 
their desire and consents, to proceded (?) in marriage 
according to the Act in that behalf provided. Where- 
upon the said W Dove did take for his wife the said 
Elz : Clemetshaw, and the said Elzab. Clemetshaw 
did take for her wedded husband the said Wm Dove 
with consent of Parents, before me and in the pre- 
sence of W" Burnand, Tlio. Catton, Edw*" Thompson, 
Nicholas Smithson, these witnesses, on the seventh 
day of Feb : in the year 1653. 

Note y* many would not be so marryed and such, 
for the most part, as were so marryed were also 
marryed in their own parish churches by their 
minister. 

The marriages for the year 1658 wind up 
with the following entry : 

Transcribed out of an imperfect Register taken in the 
times of Oliver Cromwel's impious Rebellion by the 
Register appointed (to the Church) by one of his 
wise Justices, on the ist April Anno Dom. 1704 by 
me Edw. Morris, Vic. ibid. 

There are many other facts of interest in 
these Registers, and among them the following 
1676 : " Given by Mr. Michael Gilbert late 
vicar of Aldb. to y Vicaridge, y chamber 
over y house for y*' use of the succeeding 



incumbents for ever." There is also a list, 
probably copied from Torr's Manuscripts, 
of the vicars of the parish from the earliest 
date. 

At Knaresborough, where the Registers 
commence during the year 1561, there are a 
few entries of interest to be found. In 
the year 1642, July 5th, we find that 
*' Roger Atey was peaceably inducted into 
the vicaridge of Knaresbrough by the pre- 
sentation of Sir Henry Slingsby, Anno ^tat 
45." This reads as if in those " troublous 
times " some opposition might have been ex- 
pected. Later the induction of Leonard 
Ash is mentioned in these terms 

Leonard Ash vie. inductus fuit vicessimo sexto 
die Augusti Anno Domini 1692. Wee wh" names 
are under written did heare Leonard Ash Viccar of 
Knaresbrough, after his reading divine service in the 
said parish Church upon the eleventh day of Septem- 
ber 1692, reade the thirty nine Articles in the 
aforesaid parish Church and declare his ful and free 
assent to the same 
Witness our hands 

Tho Buckly 
Waltr Burdett 
Jo. Inman 

On a fly-leaf at the end of vol. iii. is the 
following receipt for the amount paid by the 
vicar^ to N. Brooke for that volume : 

Rece' Feb. y 19, 1668 
Of Mr. Richard Rhodes the sum of ou^ 
pound 4 shillings for this Register Booke | . s. d. 
of Parchment which contains 20 od 1- 01. 04. 00. 
skins of parchment and Bound for the j 
Best Vellum and Claspt By me, J 

Nathaniell Brooke. 

There is also an appeal to the benevolent 
from one Richard Coates, which is couched 
in the following terms : 

The bearer Richard Coates a taylor by his trade, 
but being overcharged by a great many children was 
forced to take up another method to get his Bread. 
Which is so puulickly known it needs no further 
Demonstration. In which way, for Ease and Readi- 
ness of going to the adjoin* markets, be kept a little 

Horse wiiich was stol'n from him about months 

ago and not finding him, by all enquiry he can make, 
has brous^ht the Justice of Peace to give him Leave 
to begg the Charitable Constitution of this neighbour- 
hood only to help to gett another. And if you please 
to grant this Favour he, as in duty bound, shall hold 
himself under great obligation, &c. 

We could not lielp feeling somewhat 
puzzled how to account for the following 
application to the Commissioners of H.M. 
Revenue being recorded in the Registers : 



YORKSHIRE PARISH REGISTERS. 



191 



To the Honbl' Com" & Gov" of his Ma"" Re- 
venues of Excise of Beer & Malt &c. 

These are to certifye that Joseph Leeming in the 
p'*'' of Knaresburgh in the County of York, is a likely 
man to make a good officer, is a Brisk healthy man, 
not incumbered with debts, a young man, unmarried, 
about one-and-twenty years of age, of a good family, 
sober life and conversation, well affected to the pres"' 
Govent, of the Communion of y* Church of England 
& bred a grocer. Proposeth for his securities M' 
James Collins and M' W Broadbelt of Knar, afors**. 
fie desires to be instracted by Bernard Calvert, officer 
of Knaresbrough. 

These are to certifye whom it may concern that 
Joseph, son of Joseph Leeming, was Baptized at Knar, 
in Yorkshire y 11 day of June 1686. 

L. Ash Vicar of Knar. 
Bernard Calvert off. ibid. 

In the Rate Books at Hampsthwaite, in 
the Forest of Knaresborough, there is a 
notice, published by the vicar in 1686, for 
the information of his parishioners, of the 
|(3ervices he purposes to render during Easter- 
tide. It runs as follows : 

I give notice to all the Parishioners within y* p'^ 
of Hampsthwaite that I intend (God willing) to ad- 
minister y* Blessed Com. on those days following, 
viz. Palm Sunday, Go od Friday, Easter Even, Easter 
day in the | Church | , and here will be Sermons and 
homelys on Good Friday & Easter Even by myselfe 
or some other, and I pray do not drive all till last 
day. On Tuesday in Passion Week at Thomthwaite 
Chappell. On Monday morning after Palme Sunday 
to y sick & lame p*" of Holme Sinder Hills. 

On Tuesday morning, before I begin at Chappell, 
to the sick and Lame people of Thomthwaite & Pad- 
side. 

On Wednesday morning to jr" Sick of y* Hamblett 
of Birstw* & felicliffe, and on Thursday morning to 
y' Hamb* of Hamp : Y Church wardens are to give 
notice y* night before to attend in y Hambletts. 

I desire all y* p**ioners of this p'*"^ to take notice, 
& others not of y* p** y* are concerned, t hat they 
come & reckone and pay y' Comps betwixt | now | 
and Easter day to me or some other I shall appoint. 
The reck will be taken in y* Church. 

I shall be at home or in the Church every day after 
now until Easter, except Monday & Tuesday in 
Passion Week, when I am to be at Lawrence Buck's 
to reteine y^ reck & Comps of all persons that live 
within the compasse of Sinder Hills. 

I desire the church wardens will take notice, as 
much as in them lyes, of those persons that do willfully 
absent y^selves from Sacrament, y' are above 16 years 
of age I give notice I will take no recks : nor any 
for me, on Sunday Mom: nor on Good Friday Morning 
nor on Saturday Morning. 

The Churchwardens are to provide bread & wine 
ag* those days I have appointed, at y* charge of 
y* p''"*. If any persons be able to go or ride to 
church or chappell let them not expect me at their 
houses.' 



A great Sickness I fear this ensuing year. I pray 
Gods Blessing from plag: & pestiinssis L*' grant 
me health amongst my wife and children, I fear sad 
things will befall this land this year. 

There is nothing in the books to show why 
the vicar should feel the anxiety expressed in 
the last sentence. Had it anything to do 
with the state of the country during the reign 
of James II., or was he at all doubtful about 
the payment of the Easter reckonings which 
form a somewhat prominent feature in the 
notice ? 

There are many interesting entries in the 
Registers at Skipton, and among them the 
following notice of the presentation of a bell 
to the church : "This .year 1628 the Right 
honnorable Francis Earle of Cumberland 
gave the litle Bell to p'^ of Skipton w*'^ all the 
wood belonging to the frame where it now 
hings." 

The death of one of the parishioners is 
recorded in the following manner : " Burials 
Feb. 7, 1684. John King of Skibdon was 
found pinyand and hanged in Ktaw Park." 

On a fly-leaf we observed these entries : 

Gyven to the scholars when Thorn Tomlinson dyed 
xij**, to 6 Ringers xvj" iii** (? \b%d.) in bread and ale 
and their din*" vj'^ a man. 

In June 1610 weare the leades of South Alley of 
the Church cast anew and the south side of the high 
Rouffe, and the Steeple Lead & the Vestry also by 
Robert Streete and Anthony Preston, Plumbers. The 
20* January 1610 bee the yong Ashe Speris | trees | 
set in the Church yearde by John Moorehouse of 
Skipton.j 

Ingram Jenkinson 1 

Thomas Browne > Churchwardens. 

W" Swyre J 

In 1627, the Parish Clarke makes the 
following entry : 

Memorandum, that I Thomas Preston to be 
clarke of Skipton and begun upon Sunday the 29 of 
April 1627, and tooke possession of the Skoole upon 
Monday the 30* Aprill 1627, in the presence of the 
right worshipfull Mr. Lowdon & Mr. Nues, Mr. 
Sutton, Vicar, and Mr. Barker,'Skoole master, with the 
Churchwardens. 

At Spofforth, the inhabitants had become 
so ungodly during the Commonwealth that 
a meeting was convened, and the rector, 
churchwardens, and some of the principal 
inhabitants drew up a code of laws, which we 
give below, for the better observance of the 
Lord's day. It unfortunately happens that, 
owing to damp, some of the words are 



19^ 



yoAkSHIRE PARISH REGISTERS. 



illegible. The heading and the last of the 
orders are completely so. 

Spofforth, 14 May 1654. 



"Whereas the | observance | of y* Lord's day com- 
manded by the Laws of God and enjoyned by sev'all 
Lawes of this nation hath b een of la te very much abused 
and neglected, and apar'^ | sever j all abuses and mis- 
demeanors have bein comited and doone, in and about 
the Church and Church Yard of the towne of Spofforth, 
to prevent the growing eviils and the sadd conse- 
quencies wh* may ensue thereupon, it is ordered and 
agreed by us, whose names are under written, in 
manner and forme following. 

I. Conceminge y" observation of y Lord's day. 

1 it is ordered and agreed that every man shall 
aper himselfe to sanctifie the Lord's day in pietie and 
true Religeon both in Publique and private. 

2 it is ordered and agreed if any butcher w*in 
this p's'* shall, by himselfe or any other, kill any 
beast or sell any victualls on the Lords day, he shall 
pay vj viij'' for every such offence. 

3 if any p'son shall exercise or be p'sent at any 
wrastlings, bowlings, frechings, ringerings or 
any whatever the like, if he be | over | 
fiftee n years he shall pay for every such ofence, 
and I if he be under | that age his maister or his 
parents shall pay twelve pence. 

4 if any p'son shall be on the Lords day in any 
Inn alehouse or dwellinge house, except for 
Lodgeinge or for some other ocasion alowed by the 
Justice, or if he shall be found drinkeinge or p'phain- 
ing by swearinge or Raileringe in any of these houses 
he shall pay 10" and they y* him shall pay io. 

5 if any man shall grind or cause to be ground any 
come in the mill upon the Lords day except in case 
of nessessitie, shall pay io for every such ofence. 

Item that all head oficers and inferior oficers make 
diligent search to find out and punish the sev'all 
ofenders against the several acts made for the obser- 
vation of the Lords day. 

II Concern abuses. 

1 it is ordered and agreed that all p'sons shall 
demean themselves decently and Reverently in the 
Church. 

2 it is ordered and agreed that if any p'son shall 
abuse or a dead corps in the Church or Church 
yard issuing after the interment, for the same he shall 
be ordered at the next sessions following and shall 
suffer punishment according to Law. 

3 it is ordered and agreed that if any shall Ringe 
bells, for pleasure, on the Lords day he shall sufer 
according to Law. 

4 if any man shall Ringe the bells upon ordinairie 
dales without the consent of y Minister or Church- 
wardeners he shall be indicted for the ofence at the 
next sessions following. 

5 it is ordered and agreed that if any man shall 
send for stronge drinke to tipple in the Church or 
take to he shall be complaned and sufer 
punishment for that misdemeanor. 

6 Illegible. 

This is the last, then follow the signatures 



of the Rector, Chtirchwarden^rj, and twenty- 
five of the parishioners. 

We might have lengthened our Paper had 
we been able to copy a greater number of 
the quaint entries of births, marriages, and 
burials, but our time was so limited that we 
were unable to accomplish more than half 
our proposed task. We cannot, however, 
bring our work to a close without expressing 
our most sincere thanks to the clergy of the 
parishes we visited for the very kind and 
courteous reception they gave us, and for the 
trouble they took in showing us all that is 
interesting in their Churches and Registers, 
and in giving us much curious information 
of the parishes and neighbourhood in which 
they dwell. 




!Ilim(noton, Somcr^etsbire. 

By Henry Hayman, D.D. 

[For much of the information and most of the 
references in this article I am indebted to my friend 
the Rev. H. W. Reynold?, of Soho. H. H.] 

HE history of the church of Liming- 
ton, Somerset, forms a thread on 
which many interesting memories 
are strung. Let us first glance at 
its external shell. It consists of nave, chan- 
cel, tower with four bells, and chantry. A 
church here is said to have been first erected 
in the twelfth century by the Barons Beau- 
champ of Hatch, the lordship of the manor 
being held of them by the Fitz Bernards, 
and afterwards by the Gyverneys and Bon- 
villes, of Devon and Cornwall. Earlier still, 
Roger de Curcelle possessed it, " for which 
his father gave five hides in exchange to the 
monks of Glastonbury," and even earlier 
than this " Saulf held it in the time of King 
Edward (the Confessor), and gelded for seven 
hides" {Nortnan Survey^). Between Gyverneys 
and Bonvilles the names of Power and Shares- 
hull come in as lords of Limington, having 
obtained the estate by marriage. 

Of the Gyverneys the memory is strongly 
represented in the monuments. In 1329, 

^ Taken from Collinson's History of Somersetshire^ 
ed. 179T, vol. iii. p. 218. * 



LIMINGTON, SOMERSETSHIRE. 



193 



Sir Richard Gyverney endowed a chantry 
for masses to benefit his own soul and those 
of his nearest of kin upwards and down- 
wards, wliich approximately fixes the date of 
the pretty little chantry chapel, projecting 
on the north side of the church in the de- 
corated style, with a steeply pitched roof and 
diagonally placed buttresses of two stages at 
its outer angles. Leland, in his Itinerary, 
describes the monuments of this family 
thus : 

One Juverney" [sic) was owner cf this towne and 
lordship. He lyith richely buried yn a faire chapelle 
oil the northe side of the paroche church of Liming- 
ton. Ther lyith at the feete of Juverney a woman 
vaylid, in a low tombe with an image of stone. Ther 
lyith also in tlie south arche of the same chapelle a 
gentilman and his wife, I think also of the Juver- 
neys. There is a cantuarie in the chapelle. 

Shortly after his endowment of the 
chantry, Sir R. Gyverney deceased. The 
monuments at the "northe side" of the 
" faire chapelle" may, therefore, be dated 
in 1330, or soon afterwards. Two of them 
represent Sir Richard and his wife, the 
latter being the " woman vaylid in a low 
tombe with an image of stone" (Leland 
as above). She has also a chin-cloth, and 
joins her hands in prayer. The lower part 
of the drapery and feet are broken away. 
The knight has his right hand on the 
pommel of his sword. He is in full 
armour of the period, with hood and gorget 
of mail, but with no bassenet. His legs 
are crossed, and the scallops on his shield, 
a pilgrim device, suggest the Crusades as 
their origin. The other two effigies are 
those of Sir Gilbert Gyverney and lady, 
iet?ip. Edw. III. He is in weeds of peace, 
wearing merely his sword. Both knight and 
lady here lift their hands in prayer, and are 
recumbent side by side, and the lady is, 
as not unfrequently, figured as tall as the 
knight. 

Of the Bonvilles, Sir John Maclean gives 
a pedigree as follows, in his History of the 
Deanery of Trigg Minor in Cornwall, vol. i. 
P- 394. 

" The name spelt thus, and Gyverney and Gower- 
nay, has lapsed into the modern Gurney. A record 
of the family was compiled and privately published 
by Daniel Gurney, Esq., F.S.A., in 1848, together 
with a supplement in 2 vols. 4to, very fully illustrated. 
The two were priced lately at ^24 loj. 



Sir William Bonvilie, K.G., bom at Shute,* = Margaret, dau. 



28th Sept. 1393, sum. to Pari.* 28 Hen.Vl.; 
died 19 Feb. 1460-1 ; Inq. p. m., i Edw. IV. 

No. 37. 



and heir of 
, Meriet. 



I 
William Bonvilie,' Harrington, = Elizabeth, dau. and heir of 
Senr., improperly called Lord I William, Lord Harington. 
Bonvilie, died v. p. I 

i 
William Bonvilie,* Lord Haring- = Catherine, dau. of Richard 
ton, jure matris ; died v. avi. Neville, Earl of Salisbury, 

sister of Warwick the 
" Kingmaker." 

Thomas Grey, Marquis = Cecily Bonvilie, dau. and heir, born 
of Dorset, ist husband ; I 1461 ; marr. secondly Henry Staf- 
died 17 Hen. VII. ford. Earl of Wiltshire. 



Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquis 
of Dorset ; died 1530, 



Margaret, dau. of Sir Robert 
Wotton, of Bracton ; 2nd wife. 



Henry Grey, cr. Duke = Frances, eldest dau. and co-heir of 
of .Suffolk, I55i,and Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, 

K.G. ; beheaded by Mary, Queen Dowager of France, 

'554. sister of Hen. VIH. ; 2nd wife. 



Lady Jane Grev. 

The first name in this pedigree was son 
to a Sir William Bonvilie of Chewton^ or 
Chuton, who was grandson and heir to an 
earlier Sir William de Bonvilie, who, till his 
death in 1407, held this manor of Lord 
Beajchamp. In token of dying in charity 
with all men, he left by his will* Ibrty pounds 
for masses to be said for himself and all 
Christian souls, with other bequests to the 
religious houses of White Hall," Ilchester, 
and Glastonbury Abbey, 100 marks in aid 
of the bridges and roads in Somerset and 
Devon, and 20 marks with 20 quarters of 
corn to his tenants at Limington. White 
Hall, it appears, was at first a hospital for 
the relief and succour of poor pilgrims, 
founded 1217-20; and between 1270 and 

' Shute was one of the Dorsetshire seats of the 
family. It had come into their possession by the 
marriage of Nicholas Bonvilie (died 1295) with the 
heiress. 

* As Lord Bonvilie of Chuton, 1449. He had 
done good service in the French wars of Henry V. and 
Henry VI. He was beheaded after the second battle 
of St. Albans. 

* Killed in battle at Wakefield, 1461. 

* See above. 

' Known also as Chewton Mendip. 

^ Proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaologkal 
and Natural History Society, 1 865-6, contributed 
by the late Rev. T. Hugo. 

* For White Hall, see Ivelcester Almshouse 
Deeds, pp. 169-7, '^X ^^ ^^^' ^' Buckler, M.A. 
Yeovil, 1866. 



194 



LIMINGTON, SOMERSETSHIRE. 



1280 was remodelled as an Augustinian 
nunnery. At Shute, near Axminster (see 
note 3), this Sir W. Bonville appears to have 
lived and died.'"' The last half of the fifteenth 
century found the family staunch Yorkists. 

Of the first name in Maclean's pedigree, 
Banks' Extinct and Dormant Baronage 
cites Leland, vol. iii., p. 127, as saying 
" Bonville Lord Bonville \i.e., of Chuton] 
had many bastards, among whom he left 
some land to one whose issue male yet re- 
maineth." Thus we have in Gwillim (ist 
ed., see the last note) an Edmund Bonvill, 
son of Humfrey Bonvill, of Ivybridge, in 
the same county, son of John of Comralighe 
[Combe Rawleigh] in the same, son of 
another John, who was base-born son of 
William, Baron Bonvill of Chewton. This 
Edmund would be Leland's own contem- 
porary. Readers curious about the further 
annals of the Bonville family, may be re- 
ferred to the Devonshire volume of Lysons' 
Magna Britannia. 

The third William Bonville in the pedi- 
gree, entitled " Lord Harington," has left his 
memorial in Limington Church in a carved 
armorial shield, com.bining quarterly the arms 
of Bonville and Harington, the sable and 
mullets argent of the former being borne in 
the first and fourth, the sable and fret argent 
of the latter in the second and third, to- 
gether with the initials W. C. carved below 
for William and Catherine. This, and another 
similar one, containing the roses of York and 

^^ Gwillim's Heraldry, 8vo ed., vol. ii., gives 
" Diamond six mullets pearl," as the arms of 
Sir William Bonville, Knight, Sheriff of Dorset and 
Somerset, 5th Ric. II., 1383, and of Devon, loth 
Ric. II., 1388, or, as Fuller gives it, 13th Ric. II., 
1 39 1. His son and heir was a Sir John, who held, in 
right of Elizabeth his wife, the manor and hundred of 
Chewton Mendip of the King in chief by mili- 
tary service, but died before his father 20th 
Ric. II. His son and heir was the Sir William 
summoned to Pari, as Lord Bonville of Chuton 
in 1449 (see the pedigree above). This takes 
the ancestry two degrees further back than Sir John 
Maclean's record of it there given. The same 
Gwillim's Heraldry ("The Banner Displayed"), 
fol. ed., 1734, p. \oo, gives "Sable six mullets three 
two and one argent pierced gules," as " the coat of 
Edmund Bonvill of Little Modbury in the Co. of 
Devon, Esquire." Papworth, Diet, of Coats of 
ArmSy p. 998, gives the Bonvill arms as " Sa. six 
mullets pierced arg. three two and one ;" and Fuller, 
Worthies of ^ England, as "Sab. 6. mullets 
pierced g." 



Lancaster, and therefore later than 1485, 
are on the panels of two ancient pews, but 
probably once decorated a screen. The 
Harington arms were quartered by this Lord 
Harington in right of his mother the heiress 
of that house, which, by successive inter- 
marriages with heiresses in failure of heirs 
male, represented the northern barony of 
the Le Flemings of Aldingham, in North- 
west Lancashire, and owned Gleaston 
Castle, referred to already in The Anti- 
quary, vol. v. pp. 102-4, and erected, as was 
there suggested, by an earlier Harington. 
This shield, with the coats united quarterly, 
and the initials, forms No. 5 of the plate 
illustrating the monuments of Limington 
Church." Thus we have Somerset and 
Devon in south-west England united with 
the great houses of the north-west, and, in 
the person of the Lady Catherine Neville, 
with that still loftier house of the Midlands. 
The same house after the deaths of its two 
successive heads, the Bonvilles, father and 
son, and, a few months afterwards, of their 
father and grandfather, in civil broil, in- 
termarried with the still higher family of 
the Greys on tne very steps of the throne of 
England ; and found a higher exaltation yet 
in the union of its heir Henry Grey, Duke of 
Suffolk, with Henry VIII.'s niece only to 
find in the scaffold of her cousin Mary Tudor 
the highest exaltation of all. The aspirations 
of all these lines of noble lineage were 
gathered to a head in his person, and had (as 
the Roman tyrant wished his Senate could 
have) " only one neck," thus saving the 
headsman trouble." 

To pass on to clerical names, the last 
chantry priest was a Thomas Raphlyn, who, 
in i553> received an annual pension of 
p^3 1 2s. A defective list of the incumbents 
from the year 1329 is given in the Somerset- 
shire ArchcEological Proceediitgs, above re- 
ferred to in note 8. The only name of 
note which it contains is that of Thomas 

" See Church of England Magazine, Dec 3, 1864. 

^- A Paper by Mr. Taswell Langmead in the 
Church of England Magazine, Dec. 3, 1864, 
may be referred to. It is chiefly valuable for the 
connection (therein traced, dating from the seven- 
teenth century) of his own family with Limington, 
and for the illustrative engravings, already referred 
to. See Miscellanea Genealogica for July, 1872, for 
the pedigree of this family. 



ZIMIJS/GTON, SOMERSETSHIRE. 



195 



Wolsey, 1500; by whom Mr. Langmead, 
referred to in note 12, suggests that the font 
may have been given, but offers no evidence 
to support the suggestion. From its style 
I should be inclined to place it later in the 
same century. Among the many gaps in the 
list one might be filled by Dr. Walter Raleigh, 
Dean of Wells (whose name bespeaks his 
Devonshire extraction), sequestrated for his 
" delinquency" in the Great Rebellion. Part 
of his temporalities were the impropriated 
parsonages of Limington, South Barrow, and 
Barton. All were seized, and his person 
imprisoned in several successive gaols the 
plague breaking out in one until death 
brought him release ; he being removed to 
his own residential house at Wells, and 
there murdered in cold blood by the 
Puritan constable, one David Barrett, who 
had him in charge. He was, however, 
buried with the funeral office of his Church, 
and the clergyman who read the service was 
then for that offence clapped in prison in 
4iis turn as a malignant likewise. The rela- 
tions of Dean Raleigh spared no effort to 
bring his murderer to justice ; but justice 
was not to be had, and the villain escaped 
unpunished. See in the same Society's Pro- 
ceedings, for the year 1853, So fner set shire 
Sequestrations, by John Batten, jun. 

A predecessor, certainly near, perhaps 
immediate, of this Dean Raleigh at Liming- 
ton, was one John Conant, who (temp. Jac. I. 
Car. I.) was fellow of Exeter College, Oxford, 
and rector of that parish. Of him nothing 
remarkable is recorded ; but he educated a 
nephew of his of the same name at his own 
College, who became also fellow thereof, 
took deacon's orders, and served the Church 
at I^imington for a considerable time. He 
imbibed Puritan principles, and received the 
higher grade from Presbyterian ordination. 
In 1643 we find him member of the West- 
minster Assembly of Divines, and in 1649, 
owing of course to the Parliamentary 
Visitation in the previous year, rector of his 
College, and during the Cromwellian period, 
Vice-Chancellor of the University when 
Protector X)liver was himself the Chancellor. 
In 1 661 he was ejected from the rectorship 
of Exeter, no doubt through the re-estab- 
Hshment of the Statutes, &c., of Oxford in 
1660 ; but in 1670 he was ordained priest 



by Reynolds, Bishop of Norwich, who had 
himself also been sometime a Presbyterian, 
and whose daughter he had married, and 
was also, like Reynolds, present at the 
Savoy Conference. We find him next vicar 
of All Saints', Northampton, in 1676 Arch- 
deacon of Norwich, and in 1681 Canon of 
Worcester. He was probably one of the 
more learned, moderate, and respectable of 
the Puritan Oxford party, converted by the 
events of the Civil War from a minority into 
a majority ; but through the prominent 
positions which he had filled, and the formal 
and explicit nature of the pledges (e.g., to 
the Solemn League and Covenant) which he 
had taken, was compelled to bear the brunt 
of defeat and the shock of deprivation; just 
as the recoil of an overcharged gun tells 
most formidably on the artillerist who is 
nearest to it. Thus he lay awhile under a 
cloud ; but soon emerged from it, and died 
in 1693, at the age of eighty-five, having 
lived through a cycle of changes unparalleled 
in any portion of English history. It is a 
curious question whether he knew, and if he 
knew, whether he at all cared, for the cruel 
persecution of Dean Raleigh. He must 
have been an influential man at the time it 
was going forward. Probably he had cut the 
tie of local connection with Limington and 
Somersetshire, and was entirely absorbed in 
Oxford polemics. Men so concentrated on 
party strife might live in a non-conducting 
medium in those days as regards intelligence 
from without.^* 



IRlcbarb be :i6uri5'0 
^^pbilobtblon," 

By the Rev. M. G. Watkins, M.A. 

|MONG the varied treasures of Early 
English literature, few books are 
more curious, both for style and 
allusions, than the Philobiblon of 
Richard Aungerville, of Bury. It may be 

" A sketch of his life is given in the Biographia 
Britannica, vol. iii. pp. i433-9 ^^- ^^oo. See 
also Prince's Worthies of Devon, where his uncle 
is erroneously described as rector of Lymington, 
Hants. There are also refe