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THE 



ANTIQUARY: 



A MAGAZINE DEVOTED TO THE STUDY 

OF THE PAST. 



I • I 



JnsirucUd by the Antiquary times^ 
He mustf he is, he cannot but be wise. 

Troilus and Cressida, Act ii. sc. 3. 



I • I 






• • 



• • • 



• • • 



• • -• 



» . * 



* • 






VOL. V. 



JANUARY— JUNE. 



Lonijon: ELLIOT STOCK, 62, Paternoster Row. 

New York: J. W. BOUTON. 

1882. 



ty 



w 



• • 



imW YEAH CUSTOMS. 



tt 

*■ ^jb »^<* 






The Antiquary. 



JANUARY, 1882. 



Dew ]?ear Custome. 

By the Rer. Walter G&egor. 

Kind ReadiTy we wish you and yours a Hdp^ 

New Year. 

£t car laeta tnis dicnntur rerba kalcndis 
£t damns alternas acdpimiisqae preces ?^ 

The god of the New Year answers : — 

Omina prindpiis (iiMjmt) inesse solent. 
•Ad primam aocem timidasadaertitis anres* 

£t uisam primtim consolit augar anem. 
Templa patent anresqae deoin, nee lingua cadacas 

Omcipit ulla pieces, dictaqae pondns habent.f 

In the opinion of Bamabe Googe, Chris- 
tians have taken up the custom of New Year 
greetings from the heathen : — 

And good beginning of the jeare they wishe and wishe 

againe, 
According to the anntient guise of heathen people 

▼aine.^ 

Such greetings, whether heathenish or 
Christian, are kmdly. 

Every human heart b hmnan, 

and will give vent to its feelings, despite laws 
and threats of all kind, whether from State or 
Church. 

It was in vain Theodosius forbade all kinds 
of idolatry by the most severe punishments 
(392), bishops undertook the destruction 
of heathen temples, and numbers of monks 
were sent through the provinces with full 
power from the Roman emperors to root out 
every trace of heathen worship. It was to 
little purpose Ambrose, Augustine, Leo the 
Great, and other leaders used their elo- 
quence and influence to put a stop to Pagan 
customs. The lads in Qeveland will still call 
through their neighbour's key-hole : — 

♦ Fasii, i. IL 175, J 76. + Ihid, 11. 17S-182. 

X Th€ Po^ Kingdom. 

vou v. 



I wish yoa a xsjtsrf Chjisring\ 
And a happy New Yeais*; • / • 

A pantry foU of roast beeC * •* .* 
And a barrel full of beer. '* / 

and the boys and girls in the West Rldii^/ J: 
will repeat the same words as they go theif --'^ 
round seeking New Year's gifts, while Dim- 
bar has given his New Year's greeting to 
James IV. :— 

My Prince in God gif th^ guid grace, 
Joy, glaidnes, confort, and solace, 
Plav, pleasance, myrth, and mirrie dieir. 
In hansell of tlus guid New Yelr ^ 

with "many Fraunce crowns," and Alex- 
ander Scott, in " Ane New-Yeir Gift to the 
Queue Mary, quhen scho come first hame" 
(1561), has uttered the wish — 

To seiss thy sabiectis so mlnf and feur 

That rydit and reasoon in thy realme may mle, 
God gife th^ grace aganis this gnde new-zeir ; 

and Buchanan has paid his homage to the 
same unfortunate queen : — 

Do'qnod adest, &C. ; 

and the poets laureate of England, from 
Thomas Shadwell (1688) to Henry James 
Pye, who died in 1813, and in his last ode 
paid a tribute to the heroes, who risked every- 
thing : — 

That climes remote, and regions yet unknown, 
May share a George's sway, uid bless his patriot 
throne; 

and composers have done their best to set 
them to music, and musicians to sing themi 
and the Council Chamber of St. James has 
seen the king and his courtiers assembled in 
all their bravery to hear them sung. 

Feasting held a prominent place in the 
New Year festivities. 

Human nature is much the same in all 
ages and in all countries, and what was done 
on the banks of the Tiber was done in the 
north-east comer of Scotland. The old 
Roman put on his holiday attire, and en- 
joyed the sights to be seen in the streets — 
the inauguration of the magistracy, with all 
its imposing ceremonies. 

Vestibns intactis Tarpeias itiir in arcea^ 

£t popnlns festo concolor tpte sao at 
lamque noui praeeunt fiuces. Bona puzpuni fulget, 

£1 nooa conspicuum pondera sentit €bax. . 
Colla rudes operum praebent lisrienda inTCiici, 

Quos aluit campis herfaa Falisca snis.'t' 

* Dunbar's Poenu^ ed. by D. Laing; toL L p. gi. 
t Fasii, i. IL 79^ 

B 






• • 



• • I 

• • • 
• • • • 



IfStV Y£Ak CUSTOMS. 






• • 









. •• • 



In thc.*liQrd^-east of Scotland, after all 
n^ess^/i/erlic had been accomplished as 
ea% as-pbsdble, every one dressed and gave 
**tiie;day to pleasure-seeking — some visiting, 
/iome going to shooting-matches, some 
" thigging." Each household, however poor, 
made exertion to have something dainty for 
food. At ni^ht there was card-playing, some- 
times in pnvate houses, sometimes in ale- 
houses, ^en a good deal of strong drink 
was used ^' for the good of the house," and 
sometimes there were balls. Not seldom in 
all this there were excesses. 

Their tablet do they furnish out with all the meate 

they cant 
With march-payneS} tartes, and custards great, they 

drink with staring eyes, 
They rowte and revell, teede and feaste, as merry all 

aspyesi 
As if they should at th' entrance of this New Yeare 

hap to die. 
Vet would they have their bellies full, and auncient 

friends allie.* 

The Church raised its voice against such 
revelry. Maximus says : — 

Quis sapiens, qui dominici Natalis sacramentum 
colit, non cbrietatem condemnat Satumalium, non 
dedUiet lasdviam Kalendarum ? — Nam ita lasciviunt, 
ita vino et epulis satiantur, ut (|ui toto anno castus 
et temperans fiierit, ilia die sit temulentus atque 
pollutus.t 

In some places {e,g. Banff) it was not un- 
usual for the servants and children of the 
better-class households to dine together, 
when the master and the mistress saw to 
their comfort, and the master made the 
punch and distributed it, offering his congra- 
tulations and good wishes to the domestics. 
This is the counterpart of the Roman treat- 
ment of slaves on the Saturnalia (17th 
December), 

Satumalibus, Optimo dierum,^^ 

when the liberty given was such that it be* 
come proverbial :-— 

Age, libertate Decembrl, 
Quando ita maiores voluenmt, utere.§ 

In the north-east of Scotland, with all the 
merriment the poor were kept in mind. Sub- 
stantial presents were made ; rafiles, balls, or 
shooting-matches were set on for some of the 
more needy. One mode of giving help was by a 
kind of begging, called " digging." A few of 

* Popish Kingdom. f Hom. ciii. 

% Catullus, xiv.| 15. § Horace, Sat. ii. 7, 11. 4, 5. 



the young men of a district started eaily in the 
morning to collect meal or money for an old 
man, or woman, or frail couple, as the case 
might be. On approaching each house they 
sang a song, in which the wants of the needy 
were set forth : — 

It*s nae for oorsels it we come here^ 

B*soothan, b'soothan, 
It's for sae scant o' gear, 

An awa b' mony a toon, &c. 

Then they told their story, got their alms (a 

cogfld of oatmeal, or a few pence), partook 

of hospitality. Between kindly greetings, 

news of the day, a little good-natured banter 

with the guidewives^ and an occasional 

salute from the maidens^ it was a day of glee. 

When a boy, often have I stood at my 

father's door and watched the stalwart happy 

lads scouring the district-side on their errand 

of mercy, feeling little the weight of the bag 

of meal on the back. 

The brute creatures shared in the common 

joy. In BanfiSshire it was till lately, and it 

may be still the custom, to give to each of the 

horses and cattle a small quantity of un- 

threshed oats (" a rip o' com") as the 

morning provender. The "clyack" sheaf, 

(Gsel. caiUeach^ an old wife), which had been 

taken home in triumph when the crop was 

all cut, and carefully kept in store against 

tliis day, was given to the oldest mare, if in 

foal, and if there was not a mare in foal, it 

was given to the oldest cow in calf, lliis 

custom extended to other parts of Scotland. 

Bums says : — 

A guid New- Year I wish thee, Maggie I 
Hae, there's a nipp to thy auld baggie.* 

The Roman citizens gave Strena to each 

other, and to their mlers. At first these gifts 

were simple and such as the poorest could 

give, mere expressions of goodwill and of 

good wishes for prosperity during the coming . 

year. With the increase of wealth and power, 

and the loss of the austere mode of life, they 

became next to a tax on those who, from 

their rank, orofhce, or wealth, were required 

to give. The Emperors looked for them, 

and gladly accepted them, and gave in return. 

Of Augustus it is said : — 

Omnes ordines in lacum Curtii quotannis ex TOto 
pro salute ejus stipem jaciebant : item kalendis Janoa- 
riis strenam in capitolio, etiam absent! .f 

■II' - ■■ II. I ^" ■ ■-■■ ■!■ I ■■ I I — M^— ^— ^W^i^^.^"^^— ■■ 

* Bums, vol. i. p. 2^3, Chambers' Library Ed. 1856* 
t Sueton. XIL Casara : Octav. Aug. 57. 



IfBW YMAR tD^TOMS. 



Nero would accept gifts only on the fiist of 
January, and issued a decree against what 
was called '' strenanim commerdunL" 

Quotidiaxia oscnUi pfroliibQit edicto ; item strenanim 
commerdam, ne ultra Kalendas Jamuuias e ia o er e tu r. 
Consaeverat et qoadniplam strenam et de mana red- 
dere.* 

Caligula exceeded all the emperors in his 
greed of gold, and it is told of him that he 
used to roll himself on heaps of it : — 

Edixit et strenas ineante amio se reoeptonim ; stetit* 
qae in vestibolo aediom Kaleodb Januariis adcap- 
tandas stipes qnas plenis ante earn manibos ac simi 
omnis geiieris tnrba fonddiatt 

Claudius abolished the custom. 

The Italians have inherited the word, 
and Dante testifies to the value put on the 
gifts: — 

Vtx^^o inverso me qaeste cotali 
Parole its6 ; e mai non faro strenne, 
Che fosser di piacere a queste equalL^ 

The French have adopted the word, and 
call a New Year gift itrenne^ and speak of 
^' le premier dimanche apr^ les estraines,*^ 
as weU as " le jour de Testraine " : — 

Mes dames & mes damoiseUes, 
Se Diea tous doint joye proachaine, 
Etcootex les dares noavdles 
Une j'oay le joor de Testraine.! 

All along, with their refinement of manner, 
they have followed the custom of giving 
presents on New Year's Day; and "bone 
estraine" came to signify in a great measure, 
prosperity : — 

Mais Diex, qai est donnerres de joie sooTeraine, 
Li a cestai miidi envoie bone estreine.^ 

while '' malle estraine" meant misfortune : — 

Pres nemont moit ; Diex lor dolat malle estiaioe.** 

It is, perhaps, in France that any one 
single New Year's present has reached the 

* Tiberias Nero, 34. t Caligola, 42. 

% Purgatorio, canto xxviL IL I18-120. 

§ ** It€m, Ladite confirairie (des drapiers] doit 
sevir le premier dimanche apres les lestraines, se celle 
de Nostre-Dame n'y eschevit, demandc & obtena 
oongie de notre prevost de Paris, & i y cellai siege 
appeU^ nostre procoreor. — (Denis Francois) Secoasse 
Oraonnances des roys de France de la troisieme race. 
Tome iii. Paris : 1732 ; in folio, p. 583, Na 3. 

n Lis CEuvfYS dt wtaistre Alton Chartier^ &c, 
Paris: 1617 ; in-4to, pp. 525, 526. 

% Li Romans dt BerU aus ^raus piis^ coapl. L p. 
73. Pablie par Fanlin, Paris, 

** ChamoHs dt ChAUlaim de Cmuy^ cfa. xiy. p. 57. 



greatest cost — that of Louis XIV. to Madame 
de Montespan. This gift consisted of two 
covered goblets and a salver of embossed 
gold, ricUy ornamented with diamonds and 
emeralds, and was valued at ten thousand 
crowns. 

Kings at times approached each other 
with gtfts on New Year's day : — 



Tbomas Channelle, dieYalier trenchant de 
Roy d'Engleterre, leqael est vena apporter Pestzaine 
da Roy d^ngleterre da joor de Fan.* 

In England the nobles sent a purse with 
gold in it to the king, and retainers made a 
present to their lords, often a capon : — 

Yet most he hannt his greedy landlord hall 

With often presents at ech festiraU ; 

With crammed capon's every new year's moraf 

In Scotland, presents were made, and till 
lately, on Hansel Monday. Mistresses on 
the morning of this day gave a small gift, 
commonly a piece of dress, to each of her 
domestics. In some districts scholars pre- 
sented their masters with small tokens of 
goodwill On this day in parts of Buchan 
some gave nothing away till something was 
got Such an act would have given away 
the luck of the year. Town corporations 
made presents to such as had the means of 
forwarding or hindering the prosperity of the 
towns. Leicester may be cited as an example. 
In return for a gift of two corslets, a pike, a 
musket, a sword, and a dagger, sent on New 
Year's Day, 1610-11, by Mistress Elizabeth 
Haslewood, the corporation sent ^' a runlett 
of wyne and one suger lofe,** of the value of 

Although the Church tried to put an end 
to the practice of giving presents on New 
Year's Day, it was to no purpose. Maximus 
excl^xims : — 

lUod aatem quale est, qnod sorgentts mattne ad 
pablicam com manascalis, h.e. strenis anasqaisqne 
procedit, et salatataras amicos, salotat prsemio 
anteqaam oscalo.§ 

It is only according to human nature to 
try to forecast the future and to use means 
to secure its prosperity. The good Bishop 

* Notice des hnoMx^ bijowe ^ objeis divtrs^ expcsh 
dans Us ^aleria dm musie du Louvre^ He. partie, 
docununts <&• glcssaire^ p. 307. Faris, 1853, ui-ia. 
M« Leon de Laborde 

t Bishop HaU's Satires^ v. i. Chiswick, 1824. 

X Notes and Qtteriis^ 5th Series, voL xl p. 24* 

I Hom. ciiL 

Ba 



J\rjBW YEAH CtrSTOMS. 



Maximus lets us know what the people of his 
time did to find out what lay before them. 

Notnim annum Januarias appellant Calendas cum 
vetusto semper errore et horrore sordescant. Auspicia 
etiam vanissimi colligere se dicmit, ac statam vita: 
suae inambus indiciis sestimantes, per incerta avium, 
ferarumque sigpa imminentes anni futura rimantur 
• . . . I*le auspicemini, ne auguriis intendatis.* 

In many a house in BanfiEshire, the last 
thing done was to cover up the peat fire 
with the ashes and to smooth it over. It 
was carefiilly and anxiously examined in the 
morning to see if there was in the ashes, 
anything like the print of a foot with the 
toes towards the door. If such a print was 
traced it was a forecast that one of the 
household was to leave, if not die. The 
first fire, too, was watched If a peat or 
live coal rolled away firom it, there was to b^ 
a break in the family drcle. 

The first foot held a prominent place in 
forecasting what was to be the course of 
fate during the coming year. A woman 
as "first-foot" forboded evil (North of 
England); one having flat-soles was the 
bringer of much ill-luck (North of England 
and Patrick) ; a sanctimonious person 
brought nothing good in his steps (Patrick). 
To meet a cat as die first-foot was the 
worst thing that could befall one (Banffshire). 
In the same county there were some men 
and women who were at all times looked 
upon as harbingers of good fortune, and to 
receive hansel firom such, on setting on a 
journey or on entering upon an undertaking 
ensured success. To meet such a one 
on New Year's morning as the first-foot 
brought fiill measure of success. One with 
a highly-arched sole (North of England) as 
well as a bachelor (Stamfordham) was a good 
first-foot, and for a maiden to meet her lover 
was a most happy circumstance. St. Agnes* 
Eve or Day, however (January ai), was of 
more moment and was much observed by 
maidens to divine who were to be their 
husbands. By certain ceremonies and cer- 
tain formulae, St. Ague, was pleased to send 
them dreams which revealed the future as to 
marriage. In Durham the words are : — 

* I$i CircuituUicne Domini, sine de KaUndis 
yanuarii Ittcrepatio Lugduni^ 1633. 



Fair Saint Agnes, play thy part, 
And send to me my own sweatheart, 
Not in his best nor worst array, 
But in the clothes he wears every day ; 
That to-morrow I nuy him ken. 
From among all other men. 

So much stress was laid by some on th^ 
"first-foot," or "lucky-bird" in Yorkshire 
speech, that means were often taken to secure 
that one who had the reputation of canying 
fortune in his steps, should be the first to 
enter the house. Of course the first-foot 
had to partake of hospitality — "to get's 
momin " in Scots phrase. 

Divination by the Bible has been practised 
from the earliest times of Christianity not 
merely on New Year's day, but on other 
occasions. Nicephorus Gregoras speaks of 
such a practice. Heraclius is said to have 
asked counsel of the New Testament. 
Augustine refers to it This is but the 
Greek ffr^xof^oprdofOT " Sortes Sibylline." 

The weather entered into the forecasts of 
the coming year, and the d3ang year as well 
as New Y^s Day, and o^er dajrs was 
supposed to give indication of it On the 
north-east comer of Buchan there were those 
who pretended to forecast firom the appear- 
ance of the stars on the last night of the year 
what the crops were to be, and in many parts 
of Scotland is current the rhyme : — 

If New Year's Eve night-wind bloweth south. 

It betokeneUi warmth and CTowth ; 

If west, much milk, and fish in the sea ; 

If north, much cold and storms there will be ; 

If east, the trees will bear much fruit; 

If north-east, flee it, man and brute. 

St Paul's Day (January 25) held an im- 
portant place in weather lore: — 

Clara dies Pauli bona tempora denotat annx. 
Si nix vel pluvia, designat tempora cara. 
Si fiant nebulse, morietur bestia quseque 
Si fiant venti, praeliabunt poelia gend. 

In France also this day was much observed 
as a weather indicator. It may be mentioned 
that it is Candlemas Day from which it is 
divined in Banfifshire how long the winter is 
to be: — 

Gen Candlemas day be clear and fair. 
The half of the winter is t'gang an mair. 
Gen Candlemas day be black and fool (foul). 
The half o* the winter is deen at Yule. 



NEW YEAR CUSTOMS. 



The common idea is expressed in the 
Latin rhyme : — 

Si sol imt splendescmt Maria porificante, 
Major erit gUdas post festun qaam ante. 

The old Roman avoided the utterance of 
every word considered of ill-omen : 

Nunc dioenda booo sunt bona uerba die. 
Lite nacent anicsi insanaqne protinns absint 
Jnrgia.* 

Not only were ill-omened words avoided, 
bat ill-omened deeds. Thus in Banfifehire 
among children it was a matter of serious 
resolution, even in my own recollection, not 
to CTf^gretiy as such an act brought in its train 
greeiin the whole year. If one under pain or 
vexation began to give way to tears, he was 
reminded what day it was, and the rising 
tears were checked. 

It would have brought misfortune on mis- 
fortune if anything had been given out of the 
house till somethmg had beoi taken in. If 
one's fire had been unfortunately allowed to 
go out, no one would give a live-coal to 
kindle it again. The Lincolnshire rhyme 
is: — 

Take out, and then take in. 
Bad lack will begin ; 
Take in, then ta£e out. 
Good lack comes aboat. 

In Banff and Aberdeenshires water along 
with a little grass or moss was first carried 
into the house. The grass or moss was laid 
on the hearth. Peats were next brought in, 
the ashes carried out, and the fire put on. 
In some, drawing water at midnight was a 
mode of securing luck. The water then 
drawn was called the cream of the well 
(Scotic^, " the reem o' the wall"). In one 
village in the parish of Rathen, the first 
stroke of the dock at midnight was the sig- 
nal for a general rush to the wells. The water 
then drawn was carried home, poured into a 
tub and a little grass cast amongst it On 
farms part of this cream of the weU was used 
to wash the dairy utensils, and the remainder 
was given to the cows to drink. This act of 
creaming the weO was at times done secretly, 
as it was supposed to take good fortune firom 
others who drew water from the well It is 

* Ftuti^ i. 11. 72-74. 

t Folk-Un of the Northtm Cwnties^ by W. 
Hendenon, p. 73. 



not many years since a few young folks in a 
fishing vUlage on the entrance of the Moray 
Firth watched if anyone would come to cream 
the village welL Exactly at midnight a 
woman, suspected to be more wise than ordi- 
nary, came peering cautiously along, ap- 
proached the well and began to ''reem.'* 
The watchers suddenly mi^e their appear- 
ance, and the woman made her way home 
with all speed. 

To secure a good crop it was the custom 
not forty years ago in many parts of Buchan 
to yoke a cart, fill it with dung, drive over 
the fimn and leave a little of it (Scotic^, 
guidin^ Dan. godning) on each field. Along 
the sea-coast, on the farms on which seaweed 
ijtpaar) was used as manure, it was made a 
matter of much moment to be the first to 
get seaweed from the shore. Many a one 
used to start at a very early hour to anti- 
cipate all his neighbours. A small quantity 
of the much-coveted weed was laid down 
at each door of the £surm-buildings as well as 
on each field. 

In Russia there is a pretty ceremony. A pile 
of sheaves is heaped up ovd: a laige pie, and 
the father,after seating himself behind the pile, 
asks his children if they see him through the 
sheaves. On their answering that they do 
not, he expresses the hope that the coming 
crop may be so rank as to hide him when 
walking through it A similar custom pre- 
vailed about the twelfth century among the 
Baltic Slavonians, with this difference, that it 
was a priest who seated himself behind the 
pile of sheaves instead of the father. 

Another Russian custom to secure a good 
crop is the preparation of the dish Kiuha. 
This word is a general term for grain, which 
is looked upon as a great lady, coming at- 
tended by ^' Honourable Oats" and '' Gokien 
Barley," and met by boyars and princes. In 
some districts of Russia, on the Feast of the 
Epiphany, a number of sheaves of different 
kinds of grain is piled in a heap, and the 
cattle are driven up to them, when sheaves 
and catde are sprinkled with holy water. 

On Twelfth-day in some of the counties 
of England in which apples form such an 
important crop, the apple-trees were blessed, 

* Son^ of the Russian People, bj W. R. S. Ralston, 
p. 205. 



I/E1V YEAR CUSTOMS. 






or wassailed, with much ceremony and sing- 
ing to secure a plentiful crop. 

The Roman tradesman had his own mode 
of propitiating fortune during the year. He 
wrought at his calling for a short time on New 
Year morning, and then gave the rest of the 
day to amusement :— 

Quiaqae mas artes ob idem delibat agendo 
Nee plus qvam solitam testificator opus.* 

The fishermen on the north-east of Scot- 
land had their mode of securing luck for the 
coming year. It was' the endeavour of each 
crew to reach the fishing-ground first, cast 
and haul the lines first, and thus draw the 
first blood, which ensiured prosperity. If the 
weather prevented the boats from going to 
sea, those who could handle the gun were out 
by the earliest dawn to draw bl^Dd from the 
first wild animal or bird they coidd strike. 

So with kindly greetings, with feasting and 
mirth, with gifts as tokens of good-will and 
prosperity, and with many a ceremony to read 
the future and to secure success, men have 
begun, and do now b^;in, and likely ever 
will begin, each New Year ; and so, without 
being a heathen, good reader, I bid you 
adieu, and wish you and your dear ones many 
a happy New Year. 







^be t)olftbam Suet of 
tTbuc^Mbee. 

|H£N, in the middle of last cen- 
tury, the Earl of Leicester was 
arranging the antique treasures he 
had brought from Italy and else- 
where, the grand portrait-tust that fills the 
place of honour in the sculpture gallery at 
Holkham was selected b^ him out of^^his 
store, in ignorance of its highest qualification 
for that position. The massive grandeur of 
its features, the grave elevation of its ex- 
pression, the extraordinary fineness* of the 
marble and excellence of the workmanship, 
justified a choice made, in all probability, 
quite irrespective of the name it bore. There, 
where it was placed a century and a half ago, 
it has stood ever since, and not one of its 

• fasti^ L 11 i68, 169. 



many admirers guessed, till quite late 
real claim to distinction. The fcx 
pedestal on which this fine bust stan 
modem, and bears the name of '^1 
dorus," an inscription that no one 
thought of questioning till the Hoi 
gallery was visited, a few years ag( 
Professor Bemouilli, of Basle, and 
other learned arehseologists, who p< 
out the impossibility of this bust being 
a Metrodorus. 'It was, however, res 
for the obsjervi^t eye. and patient res 
of Professor Mic^lis, . of Strasbur 
demonstrate that we have *here, not an 
curean philosopher, but the great hisi 
Thucydides. 

In the National Museum at Naples 
is a double Herme, cpmpMed of the 
of Herodotus and Thucydides. Its h 
can be traced back to the middle of th 
teenth century, when it was one oi 
famous collection, of portraits, busts, 
coins formed by Fuhaus Ursinus, ai 
1570 it was engraved and pub) 
by him. Of Herodotus there is an 
portrait-bust in the same Museum, as 
as a coin .representing him; but hit 
no other portrait of Thucydides has 
known but that on this double Hen 
Naples. Now the bust at Holkham, 
called Metrodorus, corresponds as e: 
with the Naples Thucydides as a ver 
work can with a very inferior one. 

This double Herme, now at Naples, c 
traced back with its inscriptions, "Herod 
and "Thucydides" to the middle of tl 
teenth century. It was brought to Nap 
1787, with the other antiques of the Fa 
family, previous to which it was see 
Winckelmann in the entrance hall c 
Famesina at Rome. There, too, Viscon 
the heads of Herodotus and ThucycUde 
double Herme having been no doubt sa 
two to enable them to be used more 
veniently for wall decoration, the trac 
which mutilation are still visible ii 
marble now pieced togeUier agam. It 
into the Famese family from Fulvio C 
who at his death bequeathed to them h 
collection of antiques. In the first ai 
iconography published (Rome, 1569 
the French engraver. Ant. Lafir^ie, 
mentioned as bein^ in the Museum Ce 



THE HOLKHAM BUST OF THDCYDIDES. 



Lthat Orsini either bought it or got it as a 
Irpresent from Cardinal Cesi, between 1570 
land 1598. Then we find it among the 
K-cigbteen Hennas* which flanked a vine- 
\ (Covered arcade, the special oniament of the 
* Eftutiful gardens attached to the famous 



beard, and a peculiar and very unusual 
division of the beard on the under-lip, 
are exacdy alike. There is, however, one 
great difference between the two^the Naples 
Herme is the work of a mere mechanical 
copyist, the llolkhani bust is the work of a 




BUS^r OF THUCYDIDES, 



' villa of Pope Julius HI., and beyond this all 
traces of it are lost. 

With one head on this interesUng double 

Herme, the head inscribed " Thucydides," 

the Holkham bust exactly agrees in size and 

f in every detail. Every lock and fold of hair, 

I even to the layers of the closely-trimmed 

* BoixMivJ, Aitlijuil, KamaH., vi. .(7. 



trae artist Both are copied from one and the 
same original, and Professor Michaelis points 
out from certain indications in the Holkham 
bust that this original must have been a 
bronze, and that a slight elevation of the right 
shoulder, with the turn of the head to the 
right, and the drapery over the shoulder 
suggest that this bust was copied Irom a 



THE HOLKHAM BUST OF THUCYDIDES. 



statue representing action with the right arm. 
These hints, together with the style of the 
sculpture, reminded Professor Michaelis that 
just such & statue of Thucydides is described 
by Christodorus in the beginning of the 
sixth century as one of those which adorned 
the Zeuxippos at Constantinople, and he 
is of opinion that the statue described by 
Christodorus and tlie busts at Holkham and 
Naples were all copies of a still older 
statue — in fact, of one contemporary with the 
great historian himself,* or made so shortly 
after his deatli as to preserve faithfully the 
characteristics of his appearance. Indeed 
the whole character and style of the Holk- 
ham bust betokens the best period of Greek 
portrait sculpture, and takes us back to the 
fifth century b.c, and we may well suppose 
that we have here, if not the work of Phidias 
himself, at least that of one of his disciples, 
or perhaps of his great rival Kresilas, of 
whom it was said that by his art illustrious 
men became more illustrious 

AVhen Thucydides was i4hittcd to return 
to Athens, after an exile of twenty years, he 
is supposed to have been about fifty years of 
age, and his death probably occurred not 
many years afterwards. This is about the 
age represented in the Holkham bust ; the 
grave and reflective expression of which 
shows the pressure of mental effort and 
anxiety. 

The bust is wonderfully well-preserved, 
being quite perfect, but for a few chips on 
the chest, two slight injuries on the left cheek 
and eye, and a very small piece broken off the 
edgeofthe left ear. The extreme point of the 
nose, having been slightly injured, has been 
cleverly restored. The height of the bust 
without the modem foot is two feet ; the 
length of the face, from forehead to chin, from 
nine to ten inches. The head is therefore 
somewhat more than life size ; the marble 
exceedingly fine. Minute portions of the 
soil in which the bust had lain are still to be 
found between the locks of hair at the back 
of the head. The features are by no means 

* Professor Michaelis has given sn ethanslive 
(ccount of this iMst in a h-nchure (German), which 
lias been tiamlated for privale circulation in England. 
It contains two beautiful photographs of the bust, of 
wtiich also cists nmy be obtniiud from D, Bnicciar.i, 
Great Kutscll Slcecl, London. 



faultlessly handsome, but we feel that it is a 
life-like portrait of the great historian. The 
broad hea\7 brow, the massive nose, the pro- 
truding tip remind us that Thracian mingled 
with Attic blood in the veins of Tiiucydides, 
while the force and energ>' of the whole ex- 
pression is most cliaracteristic. 

R. N. 



Monumental Sraases. 

[HE following corrections and addi- 
tions to the list given by the late 
Rev, Herbert Haines, in his 
Manual of Montimeital Brasses, 
have been obtained by personal inspection 
and rubbings taken during comparatively the 
last few months; and are submitted in the 
hope that others ivill place upon record the 
result of their researches. Although the 
church restoration mania of the past thirty 
years has, it is much to be feared, swept 
away many important and highly interesting 
memorials, it has also undoubtedly brought 
to light many long-hidden and forgotten 
brasses. The recording of such, and a state- 
ment of the present condition of those which 
may have suflered since the publication of 
Mr. Haines's Manual twenty years ago, can 
but enhance the value of his great work. 

ESSEX. 

Homchurch. — No, a, English inscription, 
and the group of daughters, now mutilated. 
Add : English inscription to " Homphiy 
Dryivod," 1595- Also a fifteentli century 
group of five sons. 

Gosfietd. — Add : three shields of arms, 
all that now remains of the brass to 
John Greene, who married the daughter of 
Thomas Rolf (No. i). Also three shields 
of arms on the altar-tomb to Sir John Went- 
worih, who died in 1567. About nine other 
shields now lost. 

East Mersea. — English inscriprion to 
Mawdiyn, wife of Marcellanus Owtred, vicar, 
•569-1574:— 

Miiwdl)Ti thy name, it did so hite, 

AVhiles here thou didst remoine. 

Thy soul is fled to >Ieavea right, 

Ofthislamcerlaine. 

Owtred also, by liusband lliyne. 



MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 



Thou hadst likewise to name. 

ThoDg^ thou fromhence hast take thy flight, 

Yet hexe remaines thy flEune. 

Thy bodie now in grave remaines 

All covered m clay. 

Whiche here sometimes, didst live as we, 

Do nowe still at this day. 

A thousand and fyve hundred eke 

Seaventie and two also : 

She left this life for heavenly joy, 

As I do truly knowe. 

December month when dayes are colde, 

She buried was in ^ve. 

The eight thereof right justly tolde 

Witnes by booke we have. 

HERTS. 

Baldock. — No. 2. The female figure is 
now replaced. 

Broxboume. — Nos. 4, 5, and 6 apparently 
lost. 

Eastwick. — One shield and part of inscrip- 
tion only remaining. 

Hitclun. — No. i. Merchant's mark now 
lost No. 8 has one heart-shaped shield, 
bearing "the five wounds." Nos. 10 and 
are apparently lost Add : (j.) English 
13 inscription to John Parker, 1578. {p.) 
Two groups of children, four sons and four 
daughters, the latter in butterfly head-dresses, 
(r.) A much-worn full-length female figure, 
circa 1470. {d.) The fiill-length figures of a 
civilian and his three wives. He wears the 
usual fiur-trimmed gown. The wives are 
dressed alike, excepting that the first has a 
girdle with buckle, while the second and 
third wear sashes tied round their waists. 
All three have hats similar in shape to the 
modem '* Tam o' Shanter." (^.) Full-length 
figures of a civilian and his wue, circa 148a 
He wears the fur-trimmed gown ; she has the 
short-waisted dress with full sleeves. 

Sawbridgewortfa. — No. i. To this brass 
are four shields, bearing the royal arms of 
England. No. 2. The name of the second 
wife is spelt Johanna. No. 7 is apparentlv 
lost Add : (a.) A shield of arms, witn 
two groups of children, twelve sons and 
six daughters. (^.) A square plate, with 
nearly obliterated Latin inscription. 

* 

KENT. 

Margate. — No. 2 is a palimpsest with in- 
scription to John Dalton, and^icia, his wife, 
who died in 1430. Add: (j.) Latin inscrip- 
tion to William Norwood, who died in 2605 ; 



to it is attached a shield of arms. (^.) Two 
English inscriptions imd shield of arms to 
Henry Pettit and Deonis, " his widdowe," 
1583-1605. (r.) English inscription to 
Rachael Blowfield, z 600. (^.) Latin inscrip- 
tion to Thomas Cleeve, 1613. (^.) English in- 
scription to Joan Park^, 16 — . The. lower 
portion of a female figure, with restored Eng- 
lish inscription to John and Lavinia Sefowl, 
147 5* (/) Engli^ inscription to Thomas 
Fliit and Elizabeth (Twaytts) his wife ; it 
is a most curious pahmpsest, being portion 
of the border of a large Flemish brass, repre- 
senting, perhaps, the Seven Ages of Life. It 
is now placed in a fi!ame, and hung so that 
rubbings of both sides can be obtained. 

Nordifleet. — No. 3. Inscription all lost 

Southfleet — ^No. 5 should read ^'4 sons 
and 2 daughters." 

Swanscombe. — No brass was found during 
its recent restoration. 

Westerham. — No. i. Wife and children 
jost (?). No. 4 is one civilian only. No. 
II lost The liisses described as 'Moose 
at the Vicarage" are now placed upon the 
walls of the Church. 

LONDON. 

St Dunstan-in-the-West — Na 2 lost 

St Mary Outwich. — This Church is now 
pulled down, and Nos. i and 2 are now 
placed in Great St. Helen's, Bishopsgate. 

St Olave, Hart Street— Add : two ladies 
kneeling at desks, on which lie their rosaries. 
Between the desks is a group of two sons, 
beneath them a scroll, beanng the names 
William and John. Behind the right-hand 
lady is a group of three daughters. 

St Mary Magdalene, Old Fish Street- 
Add : Five shields of arms ; one, large and 
foliated, bears a leg (mailed) as a crest. 

N9RFOLK. 

Aylsham. — ^Add : (a.) A much worn Eng- 
lish inscription to that *^ painefull preacher," 
John Furmary, B.D., Vicar, Archdeacon of 
Stowe, Prebend of Walton. No date visible. 
(^.) A shield bearing a merchant's mark. 

Blickling. — ^Add : ^a.) Four shields to No. 
2. (^.) Latin inscription to Anna, daughter 
of William Boleyn, 1496. (r.) A very mudi 
worn Latin inscription. 

Cressinghanii Great— The inscription to 



xo 



MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 




No. 2 is now all lost. Add : headless female 
figure, with one shield of arms. 
Norwich. St. Giles. — No. 3 has Latin 

inscription " Orate p aia Johls Smyth capella 
qui obijt viL di e NovSbf a"* diii mcccclxxxxix. 

cui aie ppicit d6 ame.*' Nos. 4 and 5 
apparently lost No. 6. for Francisca read 
Elizabeth. 

Norwich. St John, Maddermarket — ^No.3 
probably commemorates Ralf Segrym, and 
Agnes, his wife. He was M.P. for Norwich, 
in 1449, Mayor in 1451, and died in 147a. 
No. 8. For 4 sons read 5. Nos. 1 1 and 12 
are apparently lost. Add English inscription 
to Margaret, wife of Robert, 1463. 

Norwich. St Peter, Mancroft. — Nos. 2, 3, 
and 5 apparently lost Add a mutilated and 
nearly defaced plate, bearing two shields of 
arms and portion of an English inscription, 
including the name ''Thomas Waller, and 
ElizabeU) his wife." 

Norwich. St Peter, King Street — 1. 
Skull, cross-bones, shield of arms, and English 
inscription to John ^ 1620. 2. Latin in- 
scription to the Rev. WUUam Weeles, S.T.B., 
1620. 3. English inscription to Robert God- 
firey, 1646. 

Oxnead. i. Latin inscription, " Hie jacet 
Anna, filia Johannis Paston.** 2. Latin in- 
scription to Galfridus Brampton, 1586. 3. 
Three shields and English inscription to Alice 
Paston, 1608. 4. Two shields and English 
inscription to Edmund Lambert, 1608. 

Swanton Abbot — ^Add : 2. Inscription in 
English, Latin, and Greek to Elizabeth 
KnoUes, 1641. 3. Latin inscription to Mar- 
garet, wife of Simon Skottowe, no date. 4. 
English inscription, '' Here resth the body of 
Maigget, the wife of John Wegge, who died 
the 4. of MayAno Dom 1621. 

HAMPSHIRE. 

Hartley Wespall. — i. Mutilated Latin in- 
scription to John Waspaill, patron of the 
church, who died in 2448. One escocheon 
of arms. 2. J^ortion of a fine maiginal Latin 
inscription, bearing date 1474. 

Heckfield. — Add : 2. An English inscrip- 
tion to Thomas Wyfold, Gent, and Annes, 
his wife, 15 21. 3. Two emblems (SS. Luke 
and John), and a shield bearing the initials 
'*J* C.'' Between the letters is a rei^resentation 
of a well Mrith a cross in it; being a rebus for 



the name Cresswell. Beneath is an En| 
inscription to John Cresswell, and Isabel] 
wife, '* Lord of this Towne at the tyme of 
byldyng of thys stepyll and the new yle 
chapel in this cherche." He died in 151 
Sherfield — i. A shield of arms and I 
inscription to Edmund Molyneaux, 1 
1532/. 2. A very mutilated and worn n: 
brass, dated 1595. It represents a 
kneeling, surrounded by a numerous & 
of sons and daughters. Beneath is an 1 
lish inscription; surmounting the com] 
tion are tluree small shields of arms. 

OXFORDSHIRE. 

Thame. — No. 5. Of the children 
daughters only remain. 

In the possession of the Rev. J. Fi 
Russell, F.S.A., &c. 

No. I. Finely-executed small figure < 
lady kneeling at a desk, upon which i 
open book. She wears the Paris head-c 
and veil, large fur -trimmed sleeves, 
jeweUed girdle. 

No. 2. Full-length figure of a civ 
wearing a long beard and a moustache, 
is habited in the fur-trimmed cloak 
hanging sleeves. His feet are encase 
low shoes. 

No. 3. Small figure of a man in | 
armour, wearing an heraldic tabard. He 
a beard and moustache, and is represe; 
kneeling at a desk. This has no connec 
with No. I. 

John A. Sparvel-Bayly, F.S.. 

BUIcricay, Essex. 



a Sfietcb of tbe Xow Countri 

{Temp. James I.) 

The following curious document, originally > 
the "Coiiway Papers,'* is now preserved amon 
State Papers (HoUand), in the Public Record < 
It cannot fail to interest and amuse the read 
The Antiquary. The Sketch opens with 
humorous introductory letter : — 

Ho:ff 

I should bee joyfull to heare 
you fare. lam well in bodie now; b 
Relapse latelie had almost kilPd mee, A 
looke like an Embleme so ill drawne 
you would scarce know mee but by the 



THE LOW COUNTRIES, TEMP. JAMES I. 



It 



ceipt If drinking be a Crime, I conclude 
myselfe feulty; for I have tipled w*** such 
Appetite as if I had been Composed of 
Spunge & Stockfish, and that recovered 
mee, Soe one Evill hath expelled a worse. 
Heere I hare sent you a badd olid piece 
new drawne, and Composed in the Furie of 
LubecMs beere. Pray reade it : As you like 

send 

this I'le finde* {sU) you a better. You that 
have the better part of mee, my heart, may 
commaund J* S. 

Egipt, this 

22, Jan. 

THREE MONETHS 
OBSERVATIONS OF THE LOW COUNTREVS, 
ESPETIALLY HOLLAND. 

They are a generall Sea-Land. There is 
not such a Marish in the World, that's flatt. 
They are an universall Quagmire epitomized ; 
A Greene-Cheese in pickle ;t Such an aquili- 
brium of Mudd & Water, as a strong 
Earthquake would shake them into a Chaos. 
They are the Ingredients of a black-pudding, 
and want onely stirring together, ells you 
will have more blood then gretts. And then 
have you noe way to make it serve for any- 
thing, but to spread it imder Zona Torrida^ 
and soe drie it for Turfes: Thus stiffned you 
may boile it ith' Sea : otherwise all the sayles 
of y* Cuntrie wiU not furnish you with a Poke 
bigg enough. 

It is an excellent place for despairing 
Lovers, for each Corner affordes them wil- 
lowe ; But if Justice shoulde coudemne one 
to bee hanged on any other Tree, hee may 
live long & be confident. 

It is the buttock of the World ; fiiU of Veynes 
& blood, but hath noe bones in it Had S' 

suffer 

Stfphan been condenmed to have hem stoned 
to death\ heere, hee might have lived still : 
for (unlesse it dee\, in their paved Townes) 
Gold is more plentifuU then Stones. 

It is a singular place to fatten Monkies in ; 
for there are Spiders as bigg as Shrimpes, 
& I think as many. 

You may travaile the Countrey without a 

• In the original the word "finde" is underlined 
for deletion. The superior words denote, in all in- 
stances, the emendations to be substituted for the 
words immediately below them. 

t The punctuation of the original is retained. 

^ These words in italics are marked for deletion. 



Guide ; for you cannot baulke yo'Rode with- 
out hazard of drowning. A King that hates 
crowding may heere runne away without 
staying for his Usher; for hee can goe no 
whither but his way is made before him. 

Had they but Cities as lai^e as their 
Walls, Rome were but a bable to them. 
Twenty Miles are noething to be hurryed in 
one of their Wagons ; When, if yo' Foreman 
bee sober you travaile in safetie. But de- 
scending from thence, you must have 
stronger Faith then Peter had, or you sinke 
immediatlie. If yo' way bee not thus, it 
hangs in the water, & at the approach of 
yo' Waggoner, shall shake as if it were Ague 
stricken. The Duke d'Alvar^s taxing of the 
Tenth penny fiighted it into a Palsey, w^ all 

bredd 

the Mountebanks they have had since 
know not how to cure. 

Sometimes they doe those things w^ seeme 
wonders : for they fish for Fire in the Waters, 
w** they catch in Netts, & after transport 
it to land in their boates, where they spread 
it smoothUe, as a Mercer doth his Velvett 
when hee would hooke in an heire at 
Eighteene. Thus lying in a Medow you 
would suppose it a Cantle of green Cheese 
spread over w*** black butter. Their ordinary 
Pack-horses are framed of wood, carr]ang 
their Bridles in their Tailes, & their burthen 
in their bellies, a Strong Tide, and a stifie 
Gale are the Spurrs that make them speedie. 

They dresse their Meate in aqua calesti ; 
for their Water springs not as ours, from the 
£arth, but comes to them (as Manna to the 
Israelites) from heaven. 

The Elements are heere at variance, the 
more subtile overflowing the more grosser. 
The Fire consumes the Earth, and the Ayre 
the Waters ; for they bume Turfes, & draine 
their ground w*^ Winde-mills, as if the 
Chollick were a Remedie for the Stone. 

The little Land they have, is kept as neately 
as a Courtier's beard, and they have a Method 
in Mowinge. It is soe interveyned w*^ Waters 
& Rivers, as it is impossible to make a 
Common amongst' them, even the Brownists 
are heere at a stand. 

The Poore are never complamed of heere 
for breaking of hedges, surely had the Wise 

must 

Men of Gotham lived heere, they would have 
studied some other Prison for the Cuckowe 



IJ 



THE LOW COUNTRIES, TEMP. JAMES I. 



Their Ditches they frame as they list, & 
distinguish them into workes and nookes, as 
my Lo. Maiof^s Cooke doth his Custards ; 
They dense them often (but it is as 
Phisic'ons give their Potions) more to catch 

cast 

the fishy then to throw out the Mudd. 

Though their Countrey bee part of the 
Mayne, yet every house stands as it were in 
an Island; and that (though but a Boare 
dwell in it) lookes as Smugg as a Lady new 
painted. A gallant's Maskinge Suite sitts 
not more neately then a thatdi'd Coate* of 
inany yeares wearing : If you finde it dry, it 
is imbraced by Vines, and if lower seated, it 
is onely a Close Arbour in a plumpef of 
WiUowes and Alders ; pleasant enough while 
the Dogg-daies last, but those once past over, 
you must practize wading and swimming, or 
remaine Prisoner till the Spring, onely a hard 
frost, w^ the helpe of Hammers and Sledges 
may chance to release you. The bridge to 
this is an outlandish planke, w^ a box of 
stones to poize it withaH, lUce a Qumtine, 
w** w^ the least helpe tumes round, like a 
Headsman ; that when the Master is over, 
stands drawne, and then hee is in his Castle. 
Tis sure, his feare that renders him suspitious; 
That hee may therefore certainly see who 
enters, you shall ever see his window made 
over his dore, but it may bee it is to shew 
you his Pedegree : for though his Auncestors 
were never fcuowne, their Armes are there, 
which in spight of Heraldrie, shall beare 
their Atcheivments w*** y*hehnett of a Baron 
at least, Marry, the Feild perhapps shal bee 
charged w*** 3 basketts, to shew his Father's 
trade portraied. 

When you enter into one of their bowses, 
the first thing you shall encounter is a 
Looking Glasse, the next are the Vessells 
ipartiallized about the howse like Watch- 
men, all is neate as if they were in a 
Ladies Cabbmett ; for (unlesse it bee them- 
selves) there are none of God's Creatures 
loose any thing of their native Beautie. Their 
howses (espeaaliy in their Cities) are the 
best Eye-beauties in their Countrie, for cost 
and sight they farr exceed o" English, but 
want Uieir State and Magnificence, Their 
lyning is yet more rich then their Outside, 



♦ Cottage. 



'f Sic. 



not in hangings, but in Pictures, w^ the 
poorest there are plentifullie fiunished w^ : 
Not a Sowtor* but has his toyes for Orna- 
ment. Were the knacks of their houses sett 
together, there were not such another 
Bartholomew Faire in Europe. Their 
Artists for these are as rare as thought And 
if you want their Language, you may leame 
a great deale of it on their signe Posts, for 
what they are, they ever write tmder them. 
In that onely they deale plainely, And by 
this device hang up more honesty then they 
keepe. Their Roumes are but so many 
severall Sand-boxes. If not soe, you must 
either swallow yo' spittle, or blush when you 
see a Mappt brought Their bedds are noe 
other then Land Cabines, high enough to 
need a Ladder or Staires, Once upp, you are 
walled in w^ Wainscott, And that is good 
discretion, to avoide the trouble of making 
yo' Will every night; for once falling out 

presently 

would break yo' neck perfectly ; But if you 
die in it, this comfort you shall bee sure to 
leave your friends, that you died in Cleane 
Linnen. 

Whatsoever their Estates bee, their howses 
must bee fine and neate; Therefore 
from Atnsterdanu Iiave they banished Sea- 
coale, least it should soyle their buildings ; 
of which the statelier sort are* sometimes 
sententious, and cany in their fronts some 
conceipt of the Author. Their howses they 
keepe cleaner then their bodies, & their 
bodies cleaner then their Soules. Gee to 
one place, you shall finde the And}Tons shutt 
up inNett-worke ; at a second, the Warming- 
pan mufled up in Italian cutt-worke; at a 
third, the Scummer dadd in Cambricke ; for 
the woman shee is ever y* head of the Man, 
and so takes the home to her own charge ; 
which she sometimes multiplies, bestowing 
the increase on her husband. For their pro- 
pension to Venerie, 'tis true that their Woemen 

are not so ready at the sport as 

[come short of] J o' English,) for neither are 
they soe generally bredd to't, nor are their 
Men such Linnen lifters. Idlenes and Court- 
ship hath not banish't honesty fix)m among 
them. They talke more, and doe lesse; 

• Shoemaker or cobbler (mtor), 
t Mop [rnappa^ a napkin). 
X The words between brackets are underlined to 
denote deletion. 



THE LOW COmrtRIES, IRMP.yAMRSt. 



jret didr blood tNimes h^ and dior 
yejnes are foD, v^ aigncs stioii^ie» tlial 
if ever die Courte tmne dicm Gallants, 
they win taJce iq> die Costome of 
entertajmpg Tadip% And having once 
done it, I bdieve thej wilbee noCaUe, fior I 
have heard tfaey tiade moie ibr love then 
Money, bat it is for the tndc, not the Man ; 
and therefore when they l&e the labc^ 
they win lewaid y* Wockeman ; odierwise 
thetr grosse feediiig and dovnish education 
hath ^xiiled diem for bong noUie minded- 
But I most give yon dus, <mdy on report, 

not 



but m^ bee bredd to bee a Statesman, none 
of them having die ginft to bee 9oe nice con- 
sdenced bat that they can tnine oat Rdigion 
to ktt m PoDkae. 

Their Coandtrey is die God they wor- 
shipp, Wair is dieir h^ven. Peace dieir 
Hdl, And die ^xmiard didr Divdl, Cos- 
tome is dieir Lavre & Will their Reason. 
Yoa TOKf sooner Convert a Jev, then make 
an ordinary Datchman yeild to Aigmnents 
that crosse ImiL An oQd Bawde will sooner 
and more easily bee made tome Poritane, 
then a Wagoner bee peiswaded not to baite 
twice in njne mile : His Soole is composed 
of YjogpgStk Beere (That makes him head- 
strong) & his bodie of pic^kd herring (They 
render him costive and tcstie). The» two, 
w* a little batter, are die Ingredients of a 
meere Datchman, w^ a Voyage to die East 
Indks^ by die heat of die EqmnactiaU con- 
solidates. If yoa see him fiitt, bee hath been 
coopt op in a Root-yard, & that has bladerd 
him. If yoa see him naked, yoa will intreate 
him to pitt off his Gkives, & Maske, or wiA 
htm to hide his hands and fiu:e that bee 
may appeare more lovdy. 

For dieir condition, they are dmrlish, 
& withoat qaestion very aontienf, for 
they were bredd before manners were in 
£»hion. Yet all y* they have not, they 
aocoant s up q fluiti e, w^ they say mends 
some, & mans more. They would make 



They are sddome deceived; for they trast 
noe bodies soe by Gonseqoence they are better 
to hoOd a Fort then to winne it ; yet they can 
doeboth. Trast them yoa most, if yoa travailc^ 
for to call to diem for a BiD, were todiveinto 
a Wa^>es-Nest. Con^ilement isanldelness 
they are not trained iqip iiL Anditisdieir 
h;^[Hnes that Coart vanities have not stde 
away thdr mindes finom bosines. Their 
being Sailers and Soldiers have manM two 
parts already, If they badie once in Coort 
oyle they will soone marr die rest : they are 
painted trapp dores ; & diallf then soffier die 
Jewes to boild a Qtie where HmHim Maw€ 
is, & then coasin diem oa'L They wiD abase 
a Stranger for noethiii^ and after a fow base 
terms scoldi and snee one anodier into Or- 
bonadoes,*as diey doe dieir firyed Roaches, 
Noediing qaiettes diem bat Money and 
Libertie; which having once gotten, diqr 
presently abose bodi ; bat if yoa tdl diem 
soe, di^ awake thdr fory, and yoa may 
sooner calme theSea, then conjore that into 



good Justices, for they neither respect 
persons, norappardL A Boore in his batter- 
slopp shallbc^ entertained eq^ially vr* a 
Courtier in his braverie. 



They are in a manner all Aqoatiles; & 
therefore die ^amiard calls diem Water- 
doggs, altogether I agree not widi him, 
yet thinke withall they can catch a dnd 
as soone. They love none bat sodi as 
doe for them, & when their tome is served 
ne^^ect them. They have noe firiendes bat 
thor ki ndred, w^ at every weddii^g feast meete 
among thensdves like Tribes. All that 
hdpe them not, theyhdld Popish, and thinke 
it an Argument of great honestie to raile a^ 
die Kingof Spaine. 

Their Shipping is the Babdl they boast 
in, for the ^^one of their Nation; ^Tis 
indeed a wonder; And they will have it 
soe ; JBot wee may well hope they will never 
bee soe potent by Land, least they shew 
us how doggedly they can insuh, where oocm 
diey gett the Mastery. Their Navies are the 
Scootge of Spaine, the Pills w h erew ** diey 
purge the Indies : Nature hath not bredd diem 
soeacdvefor the Land as someodiers; but 
at Sea ^ey are Water-DiveDs, & atten^ 
thii^ incredible. Their Shij^ lie like hi^ 
woodes, in winter if you view diem on die 
Nordi side^ yoa freeze withoat hdpe, for they 
ride soe Hadk that through diem you can see 

* X iteak facoiled oa the coals (cjd^mm^). 



t4 



THM tow COVNTHJtMS, TeUP. yAMsS I. 



no Sonne to wanne you with. Savlers 
among them are as common as Beggers w*^ us ; 
They can drinke, raile, sweare, juggle, steale, 
and bee lowzie alike; but examining the 
rest, a Gleeke of their knaves are worth a 
Moumevall of o*^. All among them are 
Sea-men borne, & (like frogges) can live 

Threister 

both on land & Water. Not a Thrasher 
among them but can handle an Oare, steere 
a Boate, raise a Mast, & beare you over the 
roughest Passage you come in. 

Their Government is^Democracy^ and there 
had need bee many Rulers over such a Bab- 
ble of Rude-ones. Tell them of a king though 

wiU 

but in jest and they could cutt your Throate 
in earnest ; The very name implies Servitude. 
They hate it more then a Jew hates Images, 
or a woman oUd Age. None among them 
hath Authority by Inheritance; That were 
the way to parcell out the Countrie into 
Families, They are all chosen as wee choose 
Aldermen, more for their Wealth then their 
witt, w^ they soe over aflfect that Myne Here 
shall pace the street like an old Ape without 
a tayle after him. And if they may be had 
cheape, hee shall dawb his faced cloake with 
a stoters worth of pickled herrings, w*"** him- 
selfe. shall carry home in a string. Their 
common voice hath given him preheminence, 
And hee looses it but by living as hee did 
when hee was a Boore, But if pardon bee 
granted for wants (?)* past, they are about 
thinking it time to leame more civilitie. 
Their Justice is strict, if it crossenot Pollicy ; 
but rather then hinder profitt or Traffique 
theylet toUerate any thing. 

There is not under heaven such a Denne of 
severall Serpents as Amsterdame is ; you may 
there bee what divell you please, soe yoir push 
not the State with yo' homes : 'Tis an Univer- 
sitie of all opinions, w^ grow in it confusedly, 
as Stocks in a Nourcerie, without either order 
or Pruning. If you bee unsettled in yo' 
opinion touching Religion ]^ou may heere see 
and try all, and take what you like. If you 
fancie none, you have a Patteme to follow of 
Two who wilbee a Church by themselves. 

The Papist must not Masse it publiquely ; 
not because hee is most hated, but because 
the Spaniard abridgeth the Protestant : and 

♦ W* in the originaL 
t SU for thc/ll. 



they had rather shew a little spleene then 
not cry quitts with the enemie. His Act is 
their Warrant, w** they retalliate justlie even 
to a haire ; and for this Reason, rather then 
the DunJdrks they take shall want hanging, 
Amsterdam^ who hath none of her owne, 
will borrow a hangman at Harlem. 

In their Families they are all Equalls, and 
you have noe way to know the M' and M* 
unles you finde them in bedd together ; it may 
bee those are they. Otherwise Malkin will 

prate 

parle as much, laugh as lowde, and sitt on 
her tayle as well as her M*^. Ha^ the first 
Logitians lived heere. Father and Sonne had 
never passed soe long for Relatives, they are 
heere whollielndividualls, forno demonstrance 
of Duetie or Authoritie can distinguish them, 
as if they were created together, & not 
borne successively; For yo' Mother, bidding 
her ^ood-night, & kissing her, is punctuall 
blessmg. Yo' Man shalbe inconveniently 
sawcie, & you must not strike him ; If you 
doe, hee shall complaine, and have Recom* 
pence. 

It is a daintie place to please Boyes in, 
for the Father shall bsugaine w^ the 
Schoolem' not to whipp his Sonne, if hee 
doe, hee shall Revenge it on him with his 
knife, & have Lawe for it. 

Their Apparell is civill enough, & good 
enough, but verie uncomely, usually it hath 
more Stuffe than Shape ; Onely the Woemens 
Hukes* are commodious in Winter, but it is 
pittie they have not the witt to leave them off 
when Sommer comes. Their Woemen would 
have some good Faces if they did not marr 
them in the making. Men & Woemen are 
starched soe blew, that when they are growne 
olid, you would verily believe you sawe 
winter standing up to die neck in a barrell of 
blew Starch. The Men amongst them are 
cladd tollerably, unlesse they incline to the 
Sea fashion,* And then are their Slopps yawn^ 
ing at the knee, as if they were about to 
devoure their shankes unmercifully. They 
are farr from going naked, for, of a whole 
Woeman you can see but halfe a face, as for 
her handes, they shew her to be^ a shrewd 
labourer ; w*^ you shall allwaies finde (as it 
were in Recompence of her paines) laden 

* Cloaks, 
t The words in italics arc marked for deletions 



TBB LOW COUNTRIES, TEMP. yAMES L 



JS 



with Rings even to the cracking of her 
Fingers, and she wiH rather want Meate then 
a Cart-rope of Silver about her hong with 
keyes. Their Gowncs are fitt to hide great 
Bdlies, iMit withall they make them shew 
soe mihandsome, that Men doe not care to 
gett them. Marry, this you shall finde to 
thtir commendacon, their Smocks ate ever 

fiuTSveeter 

whiter then their Skinnes, & cleaner. They 
raile at Us for o^ various change of habitt ; 
but pleade for their owne, more earnestly 
then Lay Caihoii^ua for their Faith, w^ they 

Aoocston 

are resolved to keepe because their Fathers 
lived & died in it 

For their Diett, ttey eate much, & spend 
little : When they sett out a Fleete to the 
East Indies, they live tiiree Moneths after 
on the Ofiall, which Wee feare would surfeit 
€f Swine. In their lK>wses, Roots and 
Stockfish are Staple Commodities. When 
to their Feasts they add Flesh, they have 
the Art to keepe it hott as long as o' Fleet- 
lane Cooks keepe their measled Poike. 
Being mvited to a Feast they come readily ; 
But being once sate, you must have Patience : 
for they are longer eating Meate then wee 
are dressing it : If it bee at Supper, you 
conclude timely if you gett away by day 
breake. It is a point of good manners (it 
there bee any) to carry away a peece of 
Apple-Pye or Pastie crust in yo' Pockett 
The time they spend, is, in eatinge well ; in 
drinking much; in prating most; for the 
truth is, yo* compleatest Drunkard is yo' 
English Gallant, His healths tume liquor into 
a consumption : Many, the time was the 
Duck had the upper hwd; but they have 
now lost it, by prating too much over their 
Potts. They drinke as if they were short 
winded, and (as it were) eate their drinke by 
Morsells, the English swallow it whole, 
as if their livers were afire, & they 
strove to quench them. The one is drunke 
sooner, the other longer, as if^ striving to re- 
cover the Wager, the Duch still wouJd bee 
the noblest Soker. 

In this progresse you have heard somewhat 
of their Ills : Now of their good parts ; Ob- 
serve them. Salomon teUs us of 4 things very 
small, but fiiU of \^^sedome : The Pistmire, 
The CuNNY,The Spider, and The Grasshop- 
PEr: They are all these : for Providence they 



are the FiUmires of the World ; Who having 
noethmg of themselves, but what the grasse 

affoniji 

yeilds them, are yet for all provision become 
the.S^<f-A^^ofallChristendome. They are 
frugall to die Saving of Egg-shells, and main- 
taineitfora Maxime, that many an oUd thing 
mended will last longer then a new. Their 
Cities are their Molehills: Their Shippes & 
Fly-boates creepe & retume loaden w^ store 
for Winter. For dwelling in Rocks, they are 
Cunnus. Where have you under heaven 
such impregnable Fortifications? Where 
Art besuitifies Nature, & Nature makes Art 
invincible. Indeed, heerein they dififer, The 
Cunnies finde Rocks, & they make them. 
And (as if they would invert Moses his 
Miracle) they raise them inthebosomeof the 
Waves. Benister-land,* where within these 
13 years shipps furrowed the pathlesse 
Ocaui, the p^u:efull plough unbowells the 
fertile Earth, w^ at night is canyed home to 
the £urest manc'ons in Holland. For Warr 
they are Grasshoppers^ and goe out (without 
kings) in bands to conquer kings. There b 
not upon Earth such a Schoole for Martiall 
discipline. It is the Christian Worid's 
Academic for Armes ; unto w*^ all Nations 
resort to bee instructed. Where you may ob- 
serve, how unresistable a blow many small 
granesof Powder heaped togetherwiUgive; w** 
^you separate, can doe noethingbut sparkle 
and die. For Industrie they are Spiders, and 
live in the Pallaces of Kings. There are 
none have the like Intel%ence. Their 
Merchants at this day are the greatest of the 
Universe. What Nation is it into w** they 
have not insbuated themselves. Nay, w** they 
have not almost Anatomized, and even dis- 
covered the intricated veynes of it ? All they 
doe is w^ such labo', as it seemes extracted 
out of their owne bowells. And by them wee 
may leame. That Noe Raine fructifies like 
the Dewe of Sweat, 

You would thinke, being with them, that 

* Here is a doe to the date of this docmneiit. 
When was thb BtmsUr-landreoonnxtdfiOBi the Sea? 

Bemster-lamU for which this seems to be tnteoded, 
was the result of thednuning and dikii^ of the Bem« 
ster Lake, which lay between Amsterdam and Hora^ 
doe north of the former place. This work was com« 
mcnced in 1607, and fintthed in 1612 ; the date of the 
docmnent is, tberelbrt^ fixed as about the year 1625. 
—See l>vm*% Uisiory of HcOand^ voLiL 422, 



i6 



THE LOW COUNtRlMS, TEMP. JAMES /. 



you were in olid ISRAELL : foryoufindenota 
Bagger amongst them : If hee will depart, hee 
shall have Money for his Convoy; if hee stales, 
hee hath worke ; if hee bee unable, hee findes 
an hospitall : Their care extends even from the 
Prince to the catching of Flies, and least you ' 
loose an aftemoone in firuides mourning for 
the dead, by two a clock all Burialls must 
end: Even their Bedlam is a place soe curious, 
that a Lord might live in it. Their Hospitall 
might lodge a Lady, Their Bridewell a Gentle- 
woman, And their Prison a Rich Citizen : But 

best 

for a Poore Man, it is his onely Refuge ; for 
hee that casts him in must maintaine him. 

They are in some sort Gods : for they sett 
bounds to the Seas, and when the^ list, lett 
them passe. Even then: dwelhng is a 
Miracle, for they live lower then the Fishes, 
in the very lappe of the Flouds, and encircled 
in their watry Armes, they seeme like the 
JsradUes passing the Redd Sea; Then: 
Waves wall them in, and, if they sett open 
their Sluces, drowne their Enemies. They 
are Gedeons Army upon the march againe. 
They are the Indian Ratt^ gnawing the 
bowells of the Spanish Crocodile^ to which 
theygott when he gap'd to swallow them. 
They are the Serpents wreathed about the 

kggt 

loynes of that El^hant w^ groanes imder 
the power of his allmost innumerable 
kinghe Tides. They are the Sword-fish 
under the WliaU^ They are the Wane of 
that Empire w^ increased in Isabella^ and in 
Charles the Fift was at full. They are a 
Gkuse^ wherein Kings and Princes may see, 
that an extreame Taxac'on is to steale away 
the Honey while the Bees keepe the hive. That 
their owne Tyrany is the greatest Enemie 
to their Estates, That a desire of beeing 
too absolute, is to presse a 77iome that will 
prick you. That nothing makes a more 
desperate Rebell then a Prerogative too fair 
urged. That oppression is to heate an Iron 
till you bume yo' hand. That to debarr a 
State of aundent Privileges, is to make a 
Streame more violent by stopping it. That 
unjust Pollicie, is to shoote fas they did at 
Ostend) into the mouth of a charged Cannon 
and soe have two Bullets returned for one. 
That Admonitions from a dying Man, are too 
serious to bee neglected That there is noe 
thing certainc; that is not impossible. Thai 



a CobUr of Vlushmg was one of the greatest 
Enemies that ever the King of Spain had. 

To conclude, The Countrie itselfe is a 
Moated Castle, keeping two of the richest 
Jewells in the world in it. The Queene of B^ 
hemiay^QXi^ihtPrinaofOrenge. The People 
in it, are all Jewes of the New Testament, and 
have exchanged noething but the Lowe for die 
Gospell. And being gathered together arc 
like a Man of warr riding at Anchor in the 
Downes of Germany for forreyne Princes 
to helpe them. And it is wise (yea selfe-wise) 
Polliae to doe soe. But when diey have made 
them able to defend themselves against 
Spaine^ they are at the PaU^ If they ayde 

goe 

them to offend others, they are beyond it 

If any Man wonder at these Contrarieties^ 
lett him looke into his owne bodie, for as many 
severall humors ; into his owne heart, for as 
many various Passions ; And from both tiiese 
hee may leame that there is not in aU the 
world such another Beast as Man. 



Z)ttlwicb CoIIcdc A>anUi^ 
0crfpt0tt 




|F posthumous iame is of any value, 
Edward Alleyn may be considered 
fortunate. His munificent ^^ have 

'kept his name alive, and it is well to 
remember that they were gUls during life as 
well as bequests. He made part of his money 
out of the Fortune Theatre, which was sitoa- 
ted in St Giles's, Crippl^ate, and in tbis 
parish he founded the almshouses in Bath 
Street, St. Luke's. He was bom in St 
Botolph's, Bishopsgate, and in his will he 
directed his executors to build ten alms- 
houses in that parish. He lived for several 
years in Soutibwark, and made a fortune out 
of certain of the places of entertainment on 
the Bankside, so he left his executors the 

* Elizabeth, daughter of James I., known as the 
"Queen of Hearts." 

T Catalogue of the Manuscripts and Monuments «f 
^eyn's CoUege of God*s Gift, at Dulwich, by Geoige 
F. Warner, M. A., of the Department of Manuscripte* 
British Museum. (London: Longmans, Green, & 
Ca, 1881.) 8vo. pp. liv., 388. (^/rs 



DULWICH COLLEGE MANUSCRIPTS. 



ir 



same directions for St Saviour's parish. 
When also he made arrangements for his 
greatest endowment— the " CoUege of God's 
Gift," he did not forget the places in London 
in which he was interested, for the pensioners 
and scholars were to be chosen exclusively 
out of the four parishes of Cripplegate, St 
Botolphy St Saviour, Southwark, and Cam- 
berwell, in which Dulwich was situated. Had 
Dulwich College never existed it is highly 
probable that Alleyn's valuable MSS. would 
long ago have been lost sight of^ as so many 
other important documents have been. As 
it is, the recognition of the importance of the 
Alleyn Papers is a thing of late date. Aubrey 
does not mention them in his Natural 
History and Aniiquities of Surrey^ (j^7'9)» 
athough he does mention the Library and 
Pictures, and the first notice of them is in the 
BiagraphiaBritannica^ {1*141), The discovery 
of Henslowe's Diary was made by Malone, 
and the manuscripts were lent to him without 
reserve. He kept them during the remainder 
of his life, and they were only returned to the 
College after his death, by ms literary execu- 
tor, James Boswell, the younger. Mr. Payne 
Collier subsequently used the MSS. in the 
compilation of his History of Dramatic Poetry^ 
(1831). In 1 84 1 he published his Memoirs of 
Edward Alleyn^ his AUeyn Papers in 1843, 
and Henslaw^s Diary in 1845. Since the 
public manifestation of the value of the 
Dulwich MSS. they have been frequently 
referred to, but the want of a register of them 
was keenly felt In some cases there are 
duplicates of certain documents, and it was 
not possible for students to be sure when they 
consulted one that it was the identical with 
that which had been described. At last the 
making of a Catalogue was decided upon, and 
Mr. G. P. Warner, of the British Museum, has 
made a thoroughly satisfactory one. Mr. 
Warner gives the following description of the 
state in which he found the manuscripts—- 
*' But although now jealously preserved, the 
collection up to the present time has never 
been catalogued. The letters and papers also 
still remained in the utmost possible con- 
fusion ; and it was necessary, therefore, in the 
•irst place to reduce them to order. Their 
mutilated and fragmentary condition, and in 
many cases the absence of dates, made this 
a task of some difficulty ; but all have now 
vou v. 



been carefully repaired and boimd, and the 
contents of the several volumes into which 
they are divided have been chronologically 
arranged. One result is that some papers, 
thought to be lost, as MS. i and 106, prove to 
be safe, while, on the contrary, others which 
survived to so comparatively recent a date as 
to be printed by Mr. CoUier, have been re- 
ported as now missing." The necessity of 
such a guide was the more apparent in that 
several of the manuscripts have been tam- 
pered with, and allusions to Shakespeare in- 
serted by a forger. Mr. Warner has made this 
very clear in his excellent introduction, and he 
has distinctly stated which documents are un- 
trustworthy, by which means the genuine ones 
gain in interest as being unchallenged. Pre- 
viously there was an uneasy feeling that others 
might also have been manipulated. All the 
supposed references to Shakespeare are found 
in documents that have been tampered with. 
Mr. Warner writes : — 

Besides the letter of Joan Alleyn, the treatment of 
which is peculiar, there are in the coUection no less 
than twenty-two actual forgeries, which, however, by 
counting under one head those which relate to the 
same subject may be reduced to eighteen. The 
general motive which underlies them all is identical — 
namely, a desire on the part of the forger to palm off 
upon the world supposititious facts in connection with 
Shakespeare and otner early dramatists. 

There is only one reference to Shakespeare 
among the genuine MSS., and that has not 
been noticed before Mr. Warner brought it 
forward. It is to the effect that Alleyn 
bought in 1609 '^a book^ Shaksper Sonetts" 
for 5</. 

Alleyn was bom in 1566, and he early 
established a high reputation as an actor. 
Thomas Nash wrote, '*Nbt Roscius or iEsope, 
those tragedians admyred before Christ was 
borne, could ever perforiine more in action 
than famous Ned Allen.'' Ben Jonson 
also likened him to the same ancients, and 
added : — 

" Who both their graces in th3rselfe hath more 
Outstript than they did aU that went before.'' 

Fuller held "that he made any part, especially 
a majestic one, to become him;" Dekker 
alluded specially to his " well-tunde audible 
voice;'* and Thomas Heywood called him 
" Proteus for shapes and Roscius for a 
tongue." 
Although Alleyn made part of his fortune 

C 



i8 



DULWICH COLLEGE MANUSCRIPTS. 



by acting, yet a still larger portion of it was 
obtained from his partnership with his father- 
in-law, Philip Henslow, in the mastership 
of the Royal Bear Garden. Paris Garden 
Theatre formed a part of the endowment of 
Dulwich College, and the funds of that insti- 
tution suffered considerably in consequence 
during the Civil Wars. In 1649 the inside 
was destroyed by a company of soldiers, and 
in 1 66 1 the whole place was advertised to be 
sold. 

In estimating the value of the manuscripts 
collected by Aileyn as contributions to the 
history of the stage (and their value is very 
great), we cannot but be struck with the 
strange fact that no reference to Shakespeare 
himself should be found among them, although 
the two men must certainly have come in 
contact with each other. As before stated, 
the only mention of the great name is in that 
entry from which we learn that Alleyn bought 
a copy of the Sonnets. 

Besides the r^ular series of manuscripts, 
the important collection of muniments pre- 
served at Dulwich College is also fully cata- 
logued. Many of these have a considerable 
topographical value, and throw much light 
upon the origin of names which otherwise 
could not be explained conclusively. A 
trustworthy catalogue of these treasures has 
long been desired by literary men, and it is a 
gratifying fact that now that the trustees have 
satisfied the demand, they have been able, 
with Mr. Warner's help, to do so in such a 
satisfactory manner. 



ITbe Xcdenb of St Sunnefa; 



HE countless little rocky skerries 
and mountainous islands, some of 
them many miles long, which lie, 
like forts and outworks, along 
nearly the whole coast of Bergenstift, pre- 
sent a picture of little but monotonous bar- 
renness to the modem traveller as he hurries 
past them in the steamer. Few and far be< 
tween are the signs of cultivation; a few 
miserable huts, each on its little green plot 
near the water's edge, are often all that is 
to be seen of human habitation. He hears, 




with surprise, that this rude, iron-bound 
coast is yet the home of as well-marked a 
parish system as England ; that there are 
missionary societies, parish libraries, even 
book clubs on a small scale, and good ele- 
mentary and middle-class schools. Should 
he, as the writer has often done, attend the 
service at one of the large wooden churches 
which he passes every now and then, such as 
Askevold, or Stavang, or Bremanger, he 
will wonder whence the congregation can 
come which can fill so large a building, as he 
sees from many a little bay and sound and 
fjord, perhaps a hundred boats converging, 
all filled with church-goers. Besides these 
conspicuous churches, there are a few others 
of a very different character. These are of 
stone, small, massive and ancient Such are 
the churches of Kin and Thingnoes in Sond- 
fjord, or Edo in Nordmore — churches which 
bear witness to the establishment of Chris- 
tianity fi:om very early times indeed. 

But, on the whole, the most interesting 
relic of ecclesiastical antiquity on this coast 
is St. Synnove's Kloster, on the little island 
of Soelo, or Selje, which lies a few miles to 
starboard, as the north-going steamer, leav- 
ing the shelter of Ulvesund, between Vaagso 
and the Fastland, crosses Sildegabet, on her 
way to round the dreaded Stadt 

The legend of St. Synnove, Sunnefa, or 
Sunniva — ^for I fear that it is pure legend — 
survives in the Codex FlateyenHsy which is 
printed in Langebek's Scriptores rerum JDani" 
carum. Langebek gives the original Icelandic, 
with a Latin translation byTorfoeus,a native of 
Iceland, who became Historiographus Regius 
at Copenhagen. The legend is also repeated 
in the Offidum et Lectiofies de Sanctis in Selio 
ex breviario Nidrosiensi^ which follows. The 
slightest possible smattering of Icelandic 
m^es it easy to see that Torfoeus' transla- 
tion is not too literal, as indeed may b<e, 
perhaps, said of most or all translations from 
Icelandic into Latin; and this from the 
necessity of the case, for there can be no 
two more incongruous languages — at least the 
associations are of a very different sort. It 
is amusing to see *' Lendermand" repre- 
sented by " Satrap," " Harald Haarfager" by 
" Haraldus Pulcricomus" — expressions quite 
literal, indeed, but which seem more proper 
to Cyrus the Younger and to ApoUo, than to 



THE LEGEND OF ST. SUNNEFA. 



19 



to the simple, rough, hardy Northmen of the 
heroic age. 

The l^end runs as follows :— 

In the days of Otho I. (936-973), and of 
Haakon Jarl (962-995), the then king of 
Ireland, dying, left, as heiress to his kingdom, 
a daughter Sunnefa, a maiden beautiful and 
wise beyond her years. She had been brought 
up in the Christian faith, and herself lived, 
and encouraged her subjects to live, a Chris- 
tian life. Her kingdom and her beauty 
attracted many — ^and those Pagan — suitors ; 
she had, however, devoted herself to a life 
of chastity, and yielded neither to persiiasion 
nor threats. One of her suitors making war 
upon her in order to obtain her kingdom 
and herself, she, finding no other hope, 
trusted herself to God, and with a number 
of followers — ^men, women, and children — 
embarked on board three ships, disdaining 
the use of oars, rudders, or other tackling, 
and committed herself and her followers to 
the God whom the wind and sea obey. 
Thus they were borne, safe and sound, to 
that part of Norway known as Firdafylke, 
now Nordfjord and Sondtjord, and landed, 
some of them on the island of Kin — and of 
these we hear no more — Sunnefa herself, 
with the remainder, on Selje, thirty or forty 
miles further north. There, on the western 
side of the island, they found certain caves 
in the mountain side, in the which they lived 
for some time, serving Christ in abstinence, 
chastity, and poverty, and supporting life by 
fishing. These outside islands were in those 
early times uninhabited, but were used by 
the dwellers on the mainland as pasture for 
their kine. Some of these kine having been 
lost, their owners, believing them to have 
been stolen by Sunnefa's followers, desired 
Haakon Jarl, who then ruled Norway, to 
come with an armed force to destroy them. 
This wicked Jarl — ^the son of sin and a limb 
of the devil's body — ^landed on the island to 
slay the servants of God. But Sunnefa and 
her companions fled to their caves, and 
prayed to God that, whatsoever might be 
the manner of their death, their bodies might 
not fall into the hands of the heathens. Their 
prayer was heard, and a mass of stones, 
falling from the rocks above, closed the 
entrance of the caves, while the souls of the 
martyrs ascended to heaven. Their enemies, 



nowhere able to find them, returned to the 
mainland. 

Some time after this, Haakon having 
perished miserably in Guldal, at the hand of 
his thrall, Kark, Olaf Tryggvesson became the 
Christian King of Norway. He zealously, 
with the helpof Sigurd,Bishopof Throndhjem, 
promoted tiie Christian faith among his 
subjects. He had not long been made king, 
when two men from Firdafylke, of great 
riches and worth, though still heathens — 
Thord Egileifeon and Thord Jorunason — sail- 
ing'out from Ulvesund, and pastSelje, on their 
voyage to Throndhjem, beheld a pillar of 
light, which shone over the whole island and 
the adjacent mainland. Wondering what 
this might be, they steered to the island, and 
landing, went up to the place where they be- 
held the fire-pillar. Then they found a shining 
human head, fair to look upon, and emitting 
an odour more delicious than that of any 
ointment. Being still heathens they knew 
not what this might be, but they took away 
this head, this priceless treasure, more 
precious than all tlieir merchandise, feeling 
sure that Ha^on, a man of so great wisdom, 
would be able to explain it. Soon afterwards 
they rounded Stadt, and then heard that 
Haakon was dead, and that Olaf was king. 
They nevertheless pursued their vojrage. 

Olaf received them with great kmdness, 
and easily persuaded them to become Chris- 
tians and to be baptized ; and then, asking 
them about the southern part of his kingdom, 
heard irom them the account of the wonder- 
ful head. There was present Sigurd, the 
King's bishop, who had followed Olaf firom 
£ngland — a man of great goodness and learn- 
ing. He at once pronounced the head to be 
the head of a saint, and pressed the necessity 
of baptism more urgently than ever on the 
two Thords. "Although," said he, "neither 
the eye nor ear nor mind of man can con- 
ceive of the divine mercy and foresight, yet 
what we have seen makes it manifest how 
great is the reward of earthly labours. This 
sight calls on you at once to renounce the 
worship of idols, and to turn to the true 
religion by the washing of regeneration." 

The two, moved by these words and by 
the miracle, at once desired to be baptized 
with all then: followers. They were enter- 
tained by thf king at a splendid banquet. 



90 



THE LEGEND OF ST. SUNNEFA. 



were clothed in the white weeds of neophytes, 
and received instructions to teach them the 
first eFements of the faith. 

The king and the bishop next held a 
"Thing" at Dragsheida, now Dragseidet, 
between Stadt and Selje. There they heard 
from a Bonde that he had lately lost a horse 
on Selje, and had at length found it standing 
under a " hammer^ (projecting rock), whence 
arose a white and brilliant light. Olaf and 
Sigurd going to the spot, found a cave closed 
by a mass of rock which had fallen not very 
long before. In the cave they found human 
bones with a sweet smell, and, at last, the 
body of Sunnefa herself, still fresh and un- 
corrupt, as if only just dead. These sacred 
relics were at once removed and enshrined. 
The island began to be inhabited ; a church 
was built in front of the cave in which the 
body of the saint had been found. Her 
relics, having been worshipped during 
several reigns, were translated in the reign of 
Magnus Erlingsen, and were enshrined to the 
honour of God in the Cathedral of Bergen, 
September 7, 1170, the same year, adds the 
Codex^ in which the blessed Archbishop 
Thomas of Canterbury went to God in the 
triumph of martyrdom, and Sunnefa became 
" Bergensium Patrona." 

Another legend adds to this, that Sunnefa 
had a brother, Albanus, who followed her, and 
met with the same death, and' that the monas- 
tery which was afterwards built near St. 
Sunne&^s Church was dedicated to him. 
This Albanus has obviously been confounded 
with the Protomartyr of England. 

This legend has been thoroughly investi- 
gated by Professor Bugge, of Christiania, and 
the results are given in an extremely interest- 
ing little book, Norges Hdgener^ by Professor 
Ludvig Daae. Let us, as briefly as we may, 
follow what he says : — 

First: he compares the legend with the 
well-known legend of St. Ursula and the 
eleven thousand Virgins. 

Ursula was the daughter of Deonotus,* 
king of England. A certain heathen king 
desired to obtain her in marriage for his son, 
and endeavoured to compass his end by 
presents, promises and threats. Neither 

* Deonotus and Deonntus are not names, but 
merely descriptive epithets, something like o2 A^toc in 
the New Testament. 



the father nor the daughter would consent ; 
but as they were not strong enough to resist, 
Ursula betook herself to prayer, and was 
directed afterwards in a dream to choose 
ten virgins, noble and beautiful, and, in 
addition, a thousand more for herself and for 
each of the ten ; to fit out eleven ships, and 
to demand a respite for three years. This 
was done, the three years were nearly ended, 
and the virgins, praying that their own and 
Ursula's chastity might be preserved, com- 
mitted themselves to the sea. The wind 
rose, and blew for a day and a night, and 
carried them to the mouth of the Rhine, up 
which they sailed to Cologne, where their 
bones now rest in peace. How they after- 
wards became martyrs need not be said. 

We find nearly the same story in Geoffiy 
of Monmouth. There, Conanus, King of 
Armorica, asks of Dionatus, King of Corn- 
wall, successor to Caradoc, a number of 
British maidens, as he could not allow his 
followers to marry Gaulish wives. Dionatus 
accordingly collects eleven thousand noble 
maidens, and seventy thousand of lower 
rank, in London, with ships for transport. 
In due time they sailed for Armorica, 
but the fleet was shattered by a storm. The 
ships which weathered it were carried to the 
barbarian islands on the north coast of 
Germany, where the surviving maidens 
suffered martyrdom at the hands of the 
Huns. 

These stories are, clearly enough, from the 
same source. Ursula and Sunnefa both came 
from the same country ; for, in the confused 
geography of those early days, there is no 
great difierence between England and Ire- 
land ; and, indeed, Scotland and Ireland are 
sometimes used as convertible terms. Both 
are kings' daughters who desire celibacy, both 
are in danger from heathen suitors, both es- 
cape by sea with numerous followers, both 
suffer martyrdom in distant countries, and 
both are afterwards held as saints. 

There are other variants of the story 
Geoffry of Monmouth's barbarous islands 
would seem to be Heligoland. In an ancient 
catalogue of the lordships and churches oif 
North Friesland — a MS. of the sixteenth cen- 
tury — the island is spoken of as " St. Ursula's 
Island," vulgo " Helgerlandt" Henrik Ran- 
zan, who died in 1599, in his description 



TtiE LEGEND OF St. SUHNEFA. 



2i 



of the Cimbrian Peninsiila, derives die word 
Heligoland either from a Bp. HilgOy or from 
the eleven thousand viigins. Johann Adolfi, 
in his CkronicU of the Onmty of DUiwuursch^ 
sajs : ** Hil%e Land is a rock in the middle 
of the sea. It is said that the deven thousand 
viigins landed there, and that it was then 
a great and good lajod, but that the inhabi- 
tants were so ungodly that they ruined it ; 
wherefore the land ssmk, ruined, and turned 
into stone ; and I have myself seen apiece of 
wax candle thence, which was quite petri- 
fied." 

The comparison of the stories of Ursula 
and Sunnefii is as old as Adam of Bremen, 
(about 1067). The Scholiast to Adam, pro- 
bably, according to Professor Daae, Adam 
himself^ repeats an older account of the seven 
sleepers reposing in a cave in the country of 
the Scrithfmni, in the furthest north. The 
Scholiast goes 00 to say, ^ Odiers maintain 
that some of the eleven thousand virgins 
came hidicr, and that dieir ships and peopk 
were overwfadmed by a rock, and that mi- 
racles are wrou^t there. Here Olaf built 
a churdi." Again, Johannes Messenius, die 
Swedish historian, rnakes Sunned one of the 
eleven diousand, next in rank to Ursula, and 
has carried her bodfly back to the fourth 
century. 

Professor Bugge has proved conclusively 
that the story of Sunned and the men of 
Selje is, from b^;inning to end, a legend, the 
historkal kemd of which can neither be 
sought for nor found. The name Surmefa is 
peaiHar to the Norsk story, but it b not a 
Norsk name, and the legend must come from 
the same source as the name ; and it may be 
confidendy said that it b not Irish. There- 
fSore, the story cannot have come from Ireland 
to Nomajf. 

The most andent form of the name b 
imdoobtedly Suime£^ and thb b undoubt- 
edly a Fnmkish name. It appears in the 
form of Scnnoveifii in the Ttsiawumt of 
Si. Remdpms (5J3). Thb name in time 
got to be prooomiced Sonnet (compare 
Genove£i), and then, as the old Ldkvangr 
on the Sogne Fjocd has become Leikangr, 
so Sunnv^ has become SunnefiL 

It foQows that die legend of Sonnet came 
over from Nordi Gcnnany, and diat its 
original home was aoHOK m 



ing people. But how did it find its way to 
a little Norsk island? 

Professor Bugge believes dib to have 
been due entirely to the original name of 
the island, and thb ofnnion b confirmed 
bj the way in which the name of the same 
bland comes into another and a totalfy 
di£Rerent story. 

When Olaf Handdsen (the saint) sailed in 
hb two merdiant ships from Nofdiumber- 
land to make hb fimious attempt on Norway, 
he encountered "fiirious hard weather," says 
Snorre, **but having a good crew and the 
king's luck, he landed on an island called 
Saela, near Stadt. Thereupon the kir^ said 
that it must be a lucky day on which they 
had landed on Saela (luck), and that it was 
a good omen that tt had so luqipened." 
That Selje b meant b proved by the e xp r e s s 
statement that ^ the king thence sailed south 
into Ulvesund/' and, m or eo ve r , Selje forms 
a harbour known for its security time out of 
mind, and b the very place on whidi he 
would be likely to come ashore after hb 
stormy voyage across the North Sea. 

But the island's name b Sdja, not Soda, 
and the word has nothing to do widi Inck. 
It comes from Sel, a saeter-hut, a chalet on a 
summer pasture — an explanation, also, which 
agrees with the statement in tibe legend diat 
the Bonder turned out their catde there. 

Thus^ it came to pass that the I^^m! of 
Smmefii found a local habitation in Sdja, 
becanse the name of the island was taken to 
mean ''the blessed island," exacdy as was 
the case in die story of St. Olafl And just 
in the same way, the name Helgdand, Holy- 
land, brouglit it about that it was there that 
Ursula and her companions were believed to 
have landed. 

One Anther proof was wantii^ — viz^ that 
the bones of the saints should be discovered 
on the island ; and this, suggests Professor 
Rygh, could be found in bones actually 
dscovercd in the rocky caves in the island, 
which, as was the case with other caves oa 
the west coast of Norway, had been used as 
dwdlings in very ancient times. 

One additional confirmation of the view 
that the l^end has a North German origbn, 
b the statement that Sannefii lived in die 
days of Otfao L, an exytoMU U which would 
be nnac toimLiMc hadit oonie in die come 



H2 



THE LEGEND OF ST. SUNNEFA. 



of an account of the settlement of an Irish 
saint in Norway. 

We need not follow Professor Bugge mto 
any further details, which would have no 
interest for an English reader, though their 
accumulated force is very great. Let us see 
what is to be said about the worship of 
Sunnefa by Professor Daae. The earliest 
trace of it is found in the latter half of the 
eleventh century, in which it appears that 
Jarl Haakon Ivarson had a daughter by 
Magnus the Good's daughter, Ragnhild, 
which daughter was called Sunniva, after 
the Saint, bom, probably, about the close of 
Harald Hardraade's government Later, 
Bemhard the Saxon became Bishop of 
Selja. He transferred the See to Bergen, 
but the supposed remains of Sunnefa, as we 
have seen, were not removed to the cathedral 
at Bergen till 1170. Meanwhile, a Benedic- 
tine monastery was founded at Selja— one of 
the earliest in the country. It was not 
dedicated to Sunnefa, but to the English 
Saint, Albanus, who was afterwards, in the 
Sagay altered into her brother. Sunnefa had 
on the island a church or chapel close by, 
a little higher up the mountain side, near 
tibie caves, and near it was St. Sunnefa's 
Spring. 

The day of St. Sunnefa and her followers 
was July 8 (Festum sanctorum in Sella, 
Seljumannamessa). These saints were ac- 
knowledged over the whole country, though 
more especially in Bergenstift, as local saints. 
Very few churches were dedicated to Sun- 
nefa. Besides that at Selja there was one at 
Bergen; there were also altars in the 
cathedrals of Bergen's and Throndhjem ; 
but there are few traces of her worship 
in other parts of Scandinavia. And, just as 
it sometimes happens, says Professor Daae, 
that, a book having been translated into a 
foreign tongue, the translation, now assumed 
to be the original, is again retranslated, so at 
last did the original Sunnefa, by means of 
the Hanseatic merchants, find her way back 
to North Germany as a Norsk saint. For 
she obtained a " Vicarie," along with St. Olaf, 
in St. Mary's Church at Lubeck. In Ber- 
genstift she survives now, the writer be- 
lieves, as a not very common female name, 
but is perhaps best known in the name given 
to the heroine of Bjomson's early and beauti- 



ful story of Synnove Solbakkm^ written in his 
best days, long before he had sunk into the 
vulg^ socialist orator. 

The " Ofl&cium et Lectiones de Sanctis in 
Selio" occupy several folio pages in Lange- 
bek. A few lines from one of the ** hjrmns" 
may serve as a specimen : — 

Regain descendens stipite, celi scandit ad atria 
Socio stipata milite, Sunniva Regis filia. 
Camem domant cilicioi quondam yestiti mollibas, 
Delicias exilio, crebrisque risum fletibus. 

Devotum fide populum educavit Hybemia, 

Qui Seliensiom scopulum petit pro domo r^;ia. 

The church built in Sunnefa's honour by 
Olaf Tryggvesson (995-1000) — one of the 
very earliest churches built in Norway (Moster 
Church was the earliest of all) — became the 
mother church of all Gulathingslagen, which 
included Bergenstift, Hallingdal, Valders, 
and Stavanger and Nedenoes Amts, and was 
enriched by the gifts of many pilgrims. The 
island became the See of a bishop, and con- 
tained five churches besides the monastery. 
The See, as has been said, was translated to 
Bergen by Bishop Bemhard, and the shrine 
of Sunnefa at a later time (1170) by Magnus 
Erlingsen. The date of the foundation of 
tlie monastery is not known — but it was pro- 
bably in the time of Sigurd Jorsalafarer, at 
the beginning of the twelfth century — nor yet 
the date of its destruction. It seems to have 
been the starting-point of a party which joined 
the seventh and last Crusade, in 127 1. 

Lange {De norske Klostres Htstorie) states 
that imintemipted accoimts of Selje Kloster, 
of elections of abbots and canons, were kept 
up to the middle of the fourteenth century, 
when the black death, which is said to have 
utterly destroyed the whole population in 
some parts of the west coast of Norway, 
entirely put an end to them, though the 
Kloster continued to be powerful for a 
hundred years later. He mentions two 
monks who, in 1424, were, by some person 
and for some reason unknown, the one de- 
capitated, the other burned. The manner 
of the destruction, however, whenever it 
happened, seems to have been by fire, the 
proof being the quantity of ashes and burned 
rubbish discovered on the pavement, not 
only of the monastery itself, but also of the 
other buildings, some of which were too far 
distant for a conflagration to have spreiul 



TBE LEGEND OF ST. SUNNEPA. 



n 



from one to the other. And this confirms an 
old tradition, that the church was plundered 
and burned by pirates, or by an enemy. In 
the parish register of Selje there is a notice 
by a priest, who died in 1759 : — 

That some hundreds of years ago, three or fonr 
Swedish men-of-war came into the Stadt waters, and 
destroyed the monastery by bombardment. The 
monks, in their dismay, sunk their valuables in their 
large gildekjedel (a huge caldron used when a Christ- 
mas feast was ^vtXL to the Bonder on the neighbour- 
ing Fast-land) mto the sea by a rope, which broke 
when, on the departure of the enemy, they en- 
deavoured to haul up the cauldron ; so that aU their 
precious things, including the church bell, were lost 
at the bottom of the sea, to the S.£. of the island. 

This is a very vague story, which cannot 
be credited, though it may be grounded on 
the ravages of some French pirates in 1564.* 
But the priest may be more accurate when 
he mentions that certain documents which 
had belonged to the monastery, and which 
had been preserved in the " Praestegaard/' 
were destroyed in 1688 by the widow of the 
last priest, out of spite because his successor 
would not marry her. In 1545, the property 
of the monastery was confiscated by Chris- 
tian III., and bestowed on St George's 
Hospital at Bergen, now one of the hospitals 
for lepers, the foundation of which, according 
to Lange, is built of stones firom Selje. And, 
last of all, the stones of the churches and 
monastery seem to have been carried away 
and used in public buildings in Denmark, 
for it is known that, in 1643, as many as 518 
hewn soapstones were sent fi-om Selje and 
Lysekloster to Copenhagen. 

The most conspicuous of the still existing 
remains is the Church of St Alban, of 
which the tower, '46 feet high, is still standing, 
close to the Fjord. The foundations can 
still be traced of the nave, 85 feet long, 
besides the tower. The remains also of the 
cotutyard, refectory, and storehouse can be 
made out Between this last and the other 
buildings there was a little beck, which 

* Not that this coast has never heard a cannon 
shot On July 22, 1810, the English frigates Behn- 
iUre^ 36, Capt Byron, and NewuHSf 28, Capt Ferris, 
being inshore of Stadt, sent their armed boats to cut 
out the gunboats Balder^ Lieut Dahlnip, and Tkcr^ 
Lieut. Rasmussen, of two long 24-pounders and 45 
men each, and a third,of one 24-pounder and 25 men. 
The two larger boats were taken, and the smaller wai 
run ashore and abandoned, and then burned by the 
English, who it is plain were in iu stronger force 
than their opponents* 



rises in the spring of St Sunnefa. About 
a hundred yards to the east of St Albans' 
Church and monastery, near the spring, and 
128 feet higher up on the fjeld side, are 
the remains of St Sunnefa's Church, which 
must have been very small, the internal 
dimensions of the nave being 24 feet by 15, 
with a chancel 1 1 feet square. It stands on 
a made terrace, whence one [has a splendid 
view of the open sea, and on the right, of 
the projecting mass of Stadt From the 
church a flight of steps leads first to a cham- 
ber, 23 feet long by 14, in the overhanging 
rock, called " Sunnivahiller" in the &Biga^ 
whidi rock forms a sloping roof to both 
the stairs and the chamber, adjacent to 
which is the larger of the two caves, 13 
feet deep, 20 wide, and 7 high. From 
this, a flight of steps led, it seems, to a 
second chamber^ and from this to the inner 
cave, at the western end of which was found 
an altar 4 feet high. These caves, when 
cleared out some years ago by Capt Kreft- 
ing were nearly filled with the dung of the 
island's sheep and goats, which had for gene- 
rations used them for shelter. I may add that 
Captain Klrefling's accoimt of his survey of 
the ruins, which I have here abridged, is, with 
its accompanying plans, a model of complete- 
ness, accuracy, and clearness. 

The museum at Bergen contains a few 
things discovered among the ruins in Seljci 
though of no great interest Among them is 
a silver coin of either Edward I., II., or 
III. of England, and a picture of Sunnefa 
from the church at Graven. 

In the museum at Christiania are several 
more such pictures, all from the west coast 
She is commonly represented standing, some* 
times with, sometimes without, a crown, and 
with a piece of rock in her hands. 

F. C. Penrose. 



tTbe funeral of tbe 01b 
pretender. 

[ES FREDERIC EDWARD 

STUART, commonly known as 

the Chevalier de Saint George, 

died in Rome on the first day of 

the year 1766. For some yean before be 




u 



THE PUIfERAL OP THE OLD PRETEHDER. 



had been sufifering greatly fix>m indigestion ; 
even so fiur back as 1756 we find a letter 
bearing date March 24, from Pope Bene- 
dict XIV.| which gave Urn leave, owing to 
his great infirmities, to take a restorative 
after the midnight preceding the taking ot 
the Holy Commmiion ; and now, at the a^e 
of seventy-seven " James III. of Great Britam 
of glorious memory," passed away in the 
"full odour of sanctity." 

His body was opened and embalmed, 
and then dressed in his usual garb, and 
exposed for four days to public gaze in the 
antechamber of the '' Royal Palace," which 
was hung with black cloth, lace, and cloth 
of gold; on a bier with a golden coverlet, 
edged with black velvet, lay the corpse, 
under a canopy aroimd which numerous 
candles burnt 

James Stuart had expressed a wish for a 
private fiineral, and to be allowed to repose 
by the side of his deceased wife, Maria 
Clementina, who had been buried some 
months before in the Church of the Twelve 
Apostles in Rome. But Henry Stuart, the 
Cardinal Duke of York, the deceased's 
second son, and Pope Clement XIII. 
deemed it unseemly that the representative 
of the lost papal hold on England should be 
laid aside Uius obscurely, and orders were 
given- by the Pope for a funeral to be held 
befitting the rank and claims of the de- 
ceased. 

On the 6th of January, the body of his 
'' Britannic Majesty" was conveyed in great 
State to the said Church of the Twelve 
Apostles, preceded by foiur servants carrying 
torches, two detachments of soldiers ; and by 
the side of the bier walked twenty-four 
grooms of the stable with wax candles ; the 
body of the deceased was dressed as before, 
and borne by nobles of his household, 
with an ivory sceptre at its side, and the 
Orders of SS. George and Andrew on the 
breast 

On the 7th, the first funeral service took 
place, in the Church of the Twelve Apostles. 
The facade of the church was himg with 
black doth, lace, and golden fringe^ in the 
centre of which was a medallion, supported 
by skeletons with cypress branches in their 
hands, and bearing the following inscrip- 
tion : — 



Clemens XIII. Pont Max. 

Tacobo III. 

M. Britannbe, Frandae, et Hibemije Regi. 

Catholicse fidei Defensor!, 

Omnium nrbis ordinum 

Frequentia fbnere honestato. 

Suprema pietatis offida 

Solemni rita Persolvit. 

On entering the chmrch, another great 
inscription to the same purport was to be 
seen ; the building inside was draped in the 
deepest black, and on a bier covered with 
cloth of gold, lay the corpse, before which 
was written in lai^e letters : — 

Jacobus III. Magnse Britannise Rex. 
Anno MDCCLXVi. 

On either side stood four silver skeletons 
on pedestals, draped in black doth, and 
holdmg laige branch candlesticks, each 
with three lights. At either comer stood a 
golden perfiime box, decorated with death's 
heads^ leaves and festoons of cypress. The 
steps to the bier were painted in imitation 
marble, and had pictures upon them repre- 
senting the virtues of the deceased. Over 
the whole was a canopy ornamented 
with crowns, banners, death's heads, gilded 
lilies, &c. ; and behind, a great doth of 
peacock colour with golden embroidery, and 
ermine upon it, hung down to the ground. 
Over eadi of the heavily draped arches 
down the nave of the church were medallions 
with death's head supporters, and crowns 
above them, representing the various British 
orders and the three kmgdoms of England, 
Ireland, and Scotland ; and on the pilasters 
were other medallions, supported by cherubs, 
expressing virtues attributed to the deceased, 
each with an inscription, of which the follow- 
ing is an instance : — 

Rex Jacobus III. vere dignus imperio, quia natat 
ad impenuidum : di^us quia ipso regnante virtatcs 
imperassent : dignissunus quia sibi imperavit. 

On the top of the bier, in the nave, lay the 
body, dressed in royal garb of gold brocad^ 
with a mantle of crimson-velvet, lined and 
edged with ermine, a crown on his head, a 
sceptre in his right hand, an orb in his left. 
The two Orders of SS. George and Andrew 
were fastened to his breast 

Pope Clement regretted his inability to 
attend the funeral, owing to the coldness of 
the morning, but he sent twenty-two cardinals 



THE FUNERAL OF TttE OLD PRETENDER. 



^5 



to sing Mass, besides numerous church 
dignitaries. 

After the celebration of the Mass, 
Monsignor Orazio Matteo recited a funeral 
oration of great length, recapitulating the 
virtues of the deceased, and the incidents of 
the life of exile and privation that he had 
led. After which, the customary requiem 
for the soul of the departed was sung, and 
they then proceeded to convey his deceased 
Majest/s body to the Basilica of St. Peter. 

The procession which accompanied it was 
one of those gorgeous spectacles in which 
the popes and their cardinals loved to 
indulge. Every citizen came to see it, and 
crowds poured in to the Eternal City from 
the neighbouring towns and villages, as they 
were wont to do for the festivals at Easter, 
of Corpus Domini. 

All the orders and confraternities to be 
found in Rome went in front, carrying 
amongst them 500 torches. They marched 
in rows, four deep ; and after them came the 
pupils of the English, Scotch, and Irish 
College in Rome, in their surplices, and with 
more torches. 

Then followed the bier, around which were 
the gaudy Swiss papal guards. The four 
comers of the pall were held up by four of 
the most distinguished members of the Stuart 
household. 

Then came singers, porters carrying two 
large umbrellas, such as the Pope would 
have at his coronation, and all the servants 
of the royal household, in deep mourning, 
and on foot After them followed the papal 
household; and twelve mourning coaches 
closed this procession. 

The body was placed in the Chapel of the 
choir of St. Peter's, and after the absolution, 
which Monsignor Lascaris pronounced, it 
was put into a cypress-wood case, in presence 
of the major-domo of the Vatican, who made 
a formal consignment of it to the Chapter 
of St Peter's, in the presence of the* notary 
of the "Sacred Apostolic Palace," who 
witnessed the consignment, whilst the notary 
of the Chapter of St Peter's gave him a 
formal receipt 

The second funeral was fixed for the fol- 
lowing day, when everything was done to 
make the choir of St. Peter's look gorgeous. 
A large catafalque was raised in the mic&t, on 



the top of which, on a cushion of black 
velvet embroidered with gold, lay the royal 
crown and sceptre, imder a canopy adorned 
with ermine ; 250 candles burnt around, 
and the inscription over the catafalque ran as 
follows : — 

Memoriae seterme Jacob! III., Magnse BritannuB 
Franctae et Hyber. regis Parends optimii Hauitas 
Card. Dux Eboracensis moerens jasta persolvit 

Then the cardinals held service, thirteen 
of whom were then assembled. After wfaich, 
the Chapter of St. Peter's and the Vatican 
clergy, with all the Court of the defunct 
king who had assisted at the Mass, acoom- 
panied the body to the subterranean vaults 
beneath St Peter's, where the bier was laid 
aside until such times and seasons as a fitting 
memorial could be placed over it 

The third funeral service in honour of our 
deceased countryman was held at the sugges- 
tion of the Cardmal Duke of York, and took 
place in St Peter's on the 22nd of January, 
at which the Chapter of St Peter's, and all 
the clergy of the Vatican, assisted to pray for 
the soul of James Stuart. A laige tuniulus 
was erected in the midst, on die top of 
which was a portrait of the defunct; the 
crown, the sceptre, the royal mantle, and the 
orders were placed on a cushion by the side 
of the portrait ; 300 candles burnt around, 
and each of the numerous spectators bad a 
lighted taper placed in his lumd, which made 
the ceremony highly impressive. 

On the 24th of January, in the Church of 
St. Thomas, the English College held a grand 
funeral service, at which the crown, the 
sceptre, and the mantle were a^ain put on 
a cushion over the catafalque, which was sur- 
rounded on all sides by inscriptions express- 
ing their loydty to the House of Stuart. 

On the 30th of January, the Cardinal 
Duke of York celebrated almost the grandest 
service of all in the Basilica of St Lorenzo 
in Damaso, his own peculiar ^ commendamP 
The tumulus was surpassing in magnificence, 
covered with royal devices, and at the top 
was an urn, painted like porphyry, with panels 
let in, on which were seen portraits of the 
deceased, and the followmg inscription : — 

Jacobo III. M.B. regi. Christiani omnibus 

yirtutibas 
sed catholicse hi primis reUgionis otitis proqua 
invicte toenda, propagaadaqoe avita regvu^ aeqae 



a6 



THE FUNERAL OP THE OLD PRETENDER. 



totum devovit clarissimo Patri optimo 

Henricos Episcopus Tusculanus, Cardinalis Dux 

Eborac^nsis 
S.R.E. vice-cancellarius ex animo moerens parentat 

On the ist of February, the Chapter of the 
ancient and noble Basilica of Santa Maria 
in Trastavere celebrated another sumptuous 
funeral service in honour of the deceased's 
memory, and a fimeral oration of great length 
was pronounced by Signor Angelo Fabroni, 
in which he spoke very disparagingly of the 
House of Havover, and of "one George 
Brunswick/' who had turned the Stuarts out 
of their patrimony. 

On the 8th of March, the final funeral 
service was celebrated by the Cardinal Duke 
of York, in his own cathedral of Frascati, 
which was decorated to excess with all kinds 
of gold and black drapery for the occasion. 
The crown, &c., were brought from Rome. 
A hatchment with the royal arms of England 
was put up over the cathedral door. The 
interior was covered with inscriptions to the 
same purport as those we have quoted, and 
an oration, longer, and even more fulsome 
than the former ones, brought the ceremony 
to a close. 

J. Theodore Bent. 




1Ret)lew0^ 



The Hai^ oj Bemersyde: a Family History, By 
John KUSSKLL. (Edinburgh and London ; W. 
Blackwood & Sons. 1881.) 8vo, pp. xiii., 496. 

BOUT any genuine old family history which 
is not a mere succession of genealogies 
there is a use as well as a oiarm. Its 
readers dean from it a new perception of 
the life ^niich was actually lived loi^ ago — 
a perception which serves to correct false or incomplete 
impressions left by history written on a grander scale. 
If the family be Scotch, and one turns up to see what 
side its chidf espoused in Wallace's time, and whether 
his descendant scoffed with the Cavaliers or snuffled 
with the Covenanters, it is an even chance that we 
find the early laird concerned chiefly about the acqui- 
sition of certain contiguous acres, and the contem- 
porary of Montrose noting in his rent accounts that 
one tenant is still due a fat capon, while another's 
tribute is short of a ** kain" salmon. It reveals the 
vast slow movement of ordinary prosaic business upon 
very common-place Unes that imderlay those stirring 
scenes whidi constitute the romantic history of the 
nation. This is a prominent lesson in the volume before 
nS| for not often do families boast a series of domestic 
lumals so complete as that which has been put at 



Mr. Russell's disposal. He has used his matter wisely, 
moreover — ^not smothering interest beneath a monn- 
tain of dry extracts, or condensing so ruthlessly as to 
lose the flavour of the quaint origmal. Undoubtedly, 
the salient point about the Haigs of Bemersyde and 
their histoiy is that well-known prophetic couplet 
about them which is attributed to Thomas Rhymer 
of Ercildoun. Current in numerous shapes, it is 
perhaps most familiar as Sir Walter Scott puts it : — 
** Betide, betide — whatever betide 
Haig shall be Haig of Bemersyde." 
But this our author objects to, on the ground that it 
"doth something smack'' of a nursery jing^. He 
declares for 

" Tyde what may be betyde 
Haig shall be Haig of Bemersyde," 
which is certainly simpler, straighter, and therefore 
more germane to its age and origin. When James 
Haig, last direct heir male, died in 1854, Thonoas 
the Rhymer's reputation was like to receive a 
severe shock. But, mirabUe dictUy the de(>arted 
seer manifested himself in a way quite as im- 
pressive as did dead Michael Scott when William of 
Deloraine stole the book of Abracadabra from his 
tomb. On the day of James Haig's funeral, the sky 
showed gloomy indications of an approaching tempest : 
— "All the morning great black clouds swept up the 
valley, gathering in ominous darkness overhead; and 
as the funeral procession moved away from the houses 
the wan Ught of the short January afternoon was 
rendered all the more dismal by the lowering clouds 
that prognosticated storm. When at length the old grey 
ruins of Dryburgh were reached — the very moment the 
feet of the bearers touched the consecrated ground, and 
the voice of the officiating ^clergyman was heard to 
utter the first words of the solenm service, a blinding 
flash of lightnin£ leaped forth from the black line of 
cloud immediately above, followed instantaneously by 
a crashing peal of thunder ; nor did the storm abate 
till the completion of the ceremonial. The signifi- 
cance of the event, the solemnity of the surroimdmgs, 
and the unusual occurrence of a thunderstorm at that 
season of the year, were all fitted to excite the imagi- 
nation of those who had forebodingly gathered toge- 
ther for the occasion, and each interpreted the pheno- 
menon as his fears or fancy suggested. Less wUd and 
weird accompaniments would not have sufficed, in the 
popular estimation, to mark the apparent f^ulure of a 
prophe<y which had been credited with conferring a 
charmed existence upon the house of Bemersyde 
through so many long centuries of vicissitude and 
triaL" This Mr. Haig s three immarried sisters, able 
to keep up the tradition while they lived, were sorely 
exercised about its failure after they should die. One 
day, however, a Haig was reported in the papers to 
have been figuring in connection with iJie English 
Court Inouiiy reported him a yoimg man and 
goodly ; ana when the heralds pronounced him de- 
scended from a second son of the seventeenth Laird 
Haig of Bemersyde, who had settled in Stirlingshire 
about 1627, no time was lost in endowing him with 
succession to the estate. And so the Rhymer's 
rhyme was not onlv a prophecy, but a true one, to 
wit! Colonel Haig has fitly inaugurated his entry into 
possession by aauorizing the pnblication of this de* 



HEVJMWS. 



47 



lightfiil fiimily^tory ; and his lack has followed him 
in the selection of an author. Althoogh, as in duty 
bound, Mr. Russell has let nothing slip which could 
add to the distinction of the Haig family, he shows a 
rare and resolute discrimination respecting what he 
asks his readers to believe. For one uing, it is 
impossible not to admire the way in which Mr. 
Russell has contrived to link the later generations 
of Haigs with the immediate ancestors of Sir Walter 
Scott, and with the Mi^ty Borderer himself. To be 
in any way identified with him, is to possess a never- 
dying element of interest, although that was not 
needed to make the Haigs of Benursyde a book 
which every Scottish Lowlander would Uke to read 
and possess. Its printing, its illustrations, and its 
binding are worthy of the publishers. 



A SnppUfiuniAry English Glossary, By T. Lewis 
O. Davies. (London : G. Bell & Sons, 1881.) 
8vo. pp. xvi., 736. 

This is just one of those books that bookmen love. 
It originated, as bookmen love to originate such 
books, for it b^an its existence in the shape of manu- 
script additions in an interleaved copy of Halliwell's 
Archaic Dictionary, From this it grew to a definite 
form, with the result that is now before us. Under 
these circumstances we are quite prepared to find 
many blanks in the alphabet as we run the eye down 
the closely printed columns, but the blanks are such as 
may be dften filled up with tolerable readiness by a 
reference to the older authorities. On the other hand, 
the author's method has been not quite so exact as it 
has been discursive. We do not altogether object to 
this, because one feels a great sarisfaction in having 
noted down for us in dictionary form the words, 
quaint or rare, which occur, not only in our old 
authors, but in such distinctive modem writers as 
George Eliot, Thackeray, the Brontes and others, 
while our old and tried fiiiend, NoUs and Qturia^ has 
been laid under contribution very extensively. 0(xa- 
siooally Mr. Davies might hSuve said much more about 
the terms he undertakes to explain. St. Monday, for 
instance, should have been noted as the hdiday 
specially devoted to shoemakers, according to the 
curious legend of Cromwell having instituted it as a 
reward to a shoemaker of Perth, for having composed 
the best lines on^the soidde of a Roundhead soldier 
named Monday. ' The lines are sufficiently curious to 
note : — 

" Blessed be the Sabbath day, 
But cursed be worldly peU, 
Tuesday will b^in this week. 
Since Monday's hailed himself, " 

We particularly notice that Mr. Davies has paid 
great attention to recording many popular games, a 
very curious subject, and one that b lildy to be over- 
looked unless enshrined \Ff the inquirer into the out- 
of-the-way fiurts of English society. Altc^ether, then, 
we may recommend Mr. Davies' book to our readers 
as a scholariy contribution to the minute ardiaisms oC 
onrlai^uage and our customs, and we fed ouite sore 
that those who like to rtad dictionaries^ as tlhere are 
assuredly many iHio do^ will peruse these pages with 
interest md wiD cone to Uic ooodttsioii tint Uiey 



possess a volume which has been compiled l^ one 
actuated by the truest instincts of love for his library 
friends. Mr. Davies gives a list of the books he uses, 
and invariably supplies full references to the passages 
quoted. This adds considerably to the value of the 
Dictionary. 

GloiuesUrshire Notes and Queries. Part xiL 
8vo. (London : Kent & Co. 1881.) 
This admirable counhr record still continues its 
career of usefulness in gathering up the many scattered 
scraps of information which exist in out-of-the-way 
places, and which, but for such a publication, would 
be lost. We should like to see every county in Eng- 
land have sudi a publication, with as good an editor as 
Mr. Blacker. One word of warning we would give 
is, that extracts from known printed sources should 
not occupy too much space, wnen there b so much to 
be done in the way of recording the yet unwritten items 
of Gloucestershire history. The indexes to monu- 
mental inscriptions are particularly usefuL The pre- 
sent part contains a capital illustration, and a fairly 
good index completes the volume. 



An^Scucon Brilain, By Grant Allen; Small 
8vo. (London : Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge. 1881.) Pp. viii. 237. 

Mr. Grant Allen has produced a very excellent 
summary of early English history, for the benefit oC 
the many readers who use the books issued by the 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. Not 
only are the best authorities of old times md under 
contribution, but also the best authors of our day ; 
and moreover, Mr. AUen has sufficient di^inctiveness 
of research and opinion, to have the right to saj 
where and how often th^ authorities are of use in 
travelling over the period occupied by his book. He 
takes us, as Mr. Freeman does, to the Teutons oC 
North Germany for the origin of all that is best and 
most permanent in the .^iglo-Saxon elements oC 
Fjiglisn history, but he by no means ignores the 
in£ences which the contest with RomanoOltic 
Britain must have exercised. Accordingly, we have 
here a tolerably safe guide for the general reader to 
follow in the disputoi r«ults of An^o-Saxon his- 
tory. Mr. Allen shows how the ear^ English ia- 
vaders colonized the coast of Britain from the shores 
of the Baltic ; how they settled in their new 
hmnes ; conouered the interior, and piQaged, with 
fire and sword, the wonderful monuments of Roman 
occupation. Then, dealing with the first effixts of 
this state of things in heathen England, he traces 
the course oC history through the Damish invasioa iq> 
to the decadence of Saxon power. Chapters oa 
Ai^o-Saxon literature and language, and Anglo- 
Saxon influences in modem Britain, close an admir- 
able little book. 



A Biographical Catalogue of Portraits at LangfeaL 
By Mary Boye. (Elliot Stock.) 

This work is an extended catalogue of all the 
portraits in the gallery of the Man^nis of Bath's seat, 
at Loogleat; SM contains a concise description of 



38 



HMVtEJVS. 



each picture, with references, when needful, to the 
painter and the circumstances under which it was 
painted ; also an historical account of the personages 
whose portraits are represented in the collection. 
This last is the most important feature of the work, 
as it fiimi^es much interesting and yaluable infor- 
mation concerning the Bath family and its various 
blanches, as well as of many well>known historical 
chanicters. The work has been tastefully produced, 
the printing is ^od, and the cover an excellent 
specimen of artistic binding. 



,.?;'/' 



nDeetinoa of Bntiauarian 
Societie0. 

METROPOLITAN. 

Society of Antiquaries. — Nov. 24. — Mr. H. 
Reeve, V.P., in the Chair. — The bust of Mr. F. 
Ouvry was presented to the Society. — The 
bust of the late Mr. Thomas Wright was also pre- 
sented tcr the Society by the subscribers, and the 
presentation was accompanied by a few words from 
Mr. Brabrook, who called attention to the services 
rendered to archaeology and literature by Mr. Wright. 
The Report was read of the Stonehenge Committee, 
appointed by the Society last year to examine the 
condition of the megalithic remains, with a view to 
their preservation, and to advise on the expediency of 
re-erecting some of them in their former vertical posi- 
tion. Considerable discussion ensued on this subject ; 
the Report itself of the Committee was far from being 
unanimous. The balance of opinion in the meeting 
seemed to be in favour of leavme the stones alone ; 
and the suggestion which met with most approval — 
if anything was to be done at all — was to place con- 
crete round the bases of the stones which now threa- 
tened to fall. 

Royal Society of Literature.— Nov. 23. — 
Mr. J. Haynes in the Chair. — Mr. Trelawny Saunders, 
read a Paper " On the Survey of Western Palestine 
as executed by the officers of the R.E. employed by 
die Palestine Exploration Fund," in which he gave a 
detailed account of the work which hod been done 
during seven or more years. The survey extended 
from the Kasimeveh, or Litany, river on the north to 
Gaza Mid Beersheba on the south ; and from the 
Mediterranean to Uie river Jordan and the Dead Sea. 

British ARCHiBOLocicAL Assocution.— Nov. 
16. — Rev. S. M. Mayhew in the Chair. — The dbcovery 
of a Roman villa, evidently of considerable extent, at 
Wingham, Kent, was announced. Mr. L. Brock 
also reported the efforts madebv the Association wiih 
respect to Stondienge since the meeting there last 
jrear, and read a letter from Sir £. Antrobus, the 
owner, who disclaimed all intention 6l " restoration'' 
in the works undertaken there by him. These are but 
for the safety alike of the monument and the 
visitors. Nothing permanent will be done until 
the spring. — Mr. Way exhibited some mediaeval 
pottery from Southwark; the Rev. S. Maude a 
unique denarius of Gallienus with the name of Ger* 



manicus on the reverse ; and Mr. R. Soames a 
drawing of remarkable sculpture in Brixworth Church : 
it is called an eagle, and is supposed to have 
been brou^^t from the Roman villa which existed 
close to the building where it is now built mto one of 
the walls. Mr. G. R. Wright exhibited some draw- 
ings of Mulgrave Castle, Yorkshire, and described 
some of its curious windows. — ^The first Paper was 
" On the Bourg ez Zifiur, Cairo," by Prof. H. Lewis. 
This is one of the angle bastions of the wall of Cairo, 
now almost covered hy sand. It has an octagonal 
central chamber, 26 ft m diameter, formed of recently 
cut stone. It dates probably from the time ot Saladin. 
— ^The second Paper was by Mr. G. M. Hills, and 
was on the measurements of Ptolemy applied to 
the northern part of Britain. He identified Hornsea 
Lake, east coast of Yorkshire, as Ptolemy's Portus 
Sinus, and Penrith as the starting-point of the tenth 
Iter. Salava, the second station, he placed at. 
Gallaber, near Tebay. 

Anthropological Institute. — Nov. 8.— Prof. 
W. H. Flower, V.P., in the Chair.— Dr. J. G. 
Garson exhibited some improved forms of anthropo- 
metric instruments. — ^Mr. Everard F. im Thum read 
a Paper *' On the Animism of the Indians of British 
Guiana." The author stated that the animism of the 
Indians of Guiana in common probably with that of 
many other American tribes, is not only of an exceed- 
ingly pure and rudimentary kind, but is much more 
pnmitive than has yet been recognized by students 
of religious evolution. The Indian belief is that each 
object and phenomenon of the visible world consists 
of bodv and spirit ; and Uiese countless dual beings 
differ from eacn other only in bodilv form, and in the 
degree of brute force or cunning wnich they possess, 
but are none of them distinguished by the p<»session 
of any sort of divine character. There is no belief, 
of genuine Indian origin, in gods or a god in heaven 
or hell, or in reward or punishment after death ; nor 
is any form of worship practised. 

Nov. 22. — Mr. Hyde Clarke, V.P., in the Chair. 
— ^The following Papers were read :— ** On the Asiatic 
relations of Polynesian Culture," by Mr. E. B. Tylor. 
The author called attention to some new evidence 
relating to the transmission of civilization from the 
Indo-Chinese district of Asia through the Indian Ar- 
chipelago to Melanesia and Polynesia. The drawings 
of wooden tombs in Borneo, by Mr. Karl Bock, show 
architectural design apparently derived from the roof- 
projections of ps^[odas of Cochin- China. The flute, 
played with the nostrils may be traced from India 
(where it is said to have a ceremonial use to prevent 
defilement through touching a low-caste mouth) tnrough 
South-east Asia mto Borneo, to the Fiji Islands, and 
down to New 2^ea]and. Among the traces of mvthical 
ideas ha^ng spread from Asia into the South Sea Is- 
lands, Mr. Tylor mentioned the notion of seven or ten 
heavens and hells, apparently derived from the plane- 
tary spheres of the Pythagoreans. The Scandinavian 
myth of the fishing up of the Midgard serpent bears, 
as Prof. Bastian, of Berlin, has pomted out, a striking 
resemblance to Manias fishing up the island of New 
Zealand ; and the Maori myth of the separation of 
heaven and earth has one of its best representatives 
among the Dyaks of Borneo. Leaving the question 
of race on one side, it is beconung more ana more 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



»9 



certain that much of the cultnre of the Polynesians 
came in some way from civilized nations of Asia. — 
••On Fijian Ridges." by the Rev. L. Fison.— 
•• On the Suture of the Inhabitants of Hungary," by 
Dr. J. Beddoe. — "Notes on the Affinity of the Me- 
lanesian, Malay, and Polynesian LAnguages," by the 
Rev. R. H. Codrington. 

Numismatic— Nov. 17.— Dr. J. Evans, President, 
in the Chair. — Mr. Krombholz exhibited proofe in 
silver of the Prussian silver coinage of 1867, a Rou- 
manian marka of 1874, a restruck Brazilian dollar, 
and a specimen of the Hamburg Jubilee medal of 
1803. — Mr. J. J. Nunn exhibited a groat of Henry VI., 
with a mark resembling the Arabic numeral 4 after the 
king's name.— Canon IPownall exhibited two iMise tes- 
toons of Edward VI., one with the mint-mark on both 
sides, a liarp, 1552, found in Ireland ; the other, very 
rare, with the lion mint-mark. The first of these coins 
is counter-marked with the greyhound, according to 
the prodamation of Elizabem (September 27, 1560). 
Canon Pownall also exhibited, from his own cabinet, 
three base testoons of Edwazd VI., one having the 
bolt mint-mark, 1549, counter-marked with a port- 
cullis, as ordened by a subsequent proclamation of 
Queen Elizabeth (October 9, 1560), and two with 
the harp mint-mark and Lombardic lettering. With 
reference to these coins. Canon Pownall quoted an 
extract from King Edward's diary, under date June 
10, 1552. — Mr. W. Bramsen read a Paper on 
Japanese iron money, in which he traced the nistory 
of the coinage of Japan from A.D. 708 to the present 
time. 

New Shaksperk Society. — Nov. 11.— Mr. F. 
J. Fumivall, Director, in the Chair. — The first Paper 
read was —I. *' Notes on AlCs ^fV//," by J. G. A. 
Dow. This was a Paper sent up by one of the 
Society's branches, the Monday Shakspeare Club, 
Glasgow. — Mr. Fumivall then read an old Paper by 
Mr. Richard Grant White, " The Tale of the Forest 
of Arden." 

Philological. — November 18. — Mr. A. J. Ellis, 
President, in the Chair.—Prince L. L. Bonaparte 
concluded his Paper *' On the Simple Sounds of all 
the Living Slavonic Languages, compared with those 
of the principal Neo-Latin and Germanic Tongues." 
— Mr. B, Dawson read his " Notes on the n of an, 
&c., in the Authorized and Revised Versions of the 
Bible." The object was to determine what principle 
settled whether the contracted or uncontracted forms 
of the words <m, fwne, mitie, thitu^ should be used 
before words beginning with h in the Authorized Ver- 
sion. It was evident that the translation had been 
made piecemeal, and had not enjoyed general editorial 
superintendence. 

Society of Biblical ARCHiCOLocY. — De- 
cember 6. — Dr. Samuel Birch, President, in the 
Chair. — Mr. C. Pinches read some remarks upon 
the Cappadocian Tablet, preserved in the Bibliothdque 
Nationale, and that in the British Museum, Casts of 
the Tablet were exhibited. The subject of the Tablet 
seems to be a gift of silver to the Sun-God, whose name 
occurs in thenrst and fourth lines. 

St. Paul's Ecclksiological Society. — Nov. 29. 
— Mr. J. T. Micklethwaite gave an extempore address 
on " The Buildings of the Chief Monastic Orders in 
England.'' The lecturer exhibited plans of normal 



monasteries, including Westminster, Durham, Canter* 
bury, and Fountains. Having explained that to the 
great Benedictine order the largest monastic houses 
belonged, Mr. Micklethwaite took Westminster Abbey 
and its subsidiary buildings as a typical example of 
such an establishment. It consisted of four great divi- 
sions : first, the great cross-shaped church, in which the 
monks worshipped ; second, the cloister, in the walks 
of which they nved, and which was not, therefore^ as was 
commonly supposed, either a mere passage or a ceme- 
tery ; third, the domestic building all at Westmin- 
ster placed on the east or south sides of the cldster» 
incluaing the refectory, the dormitory, the com- 
mon room, the parlours, lavatories, and Mrber^s room ; 
and fourth, the guest-chambers, which were to the 
south and west These were for three classes ot 
guests — tramp, who were merely rdieved ; middle- 
class folks, wno were entertained by the cellarer ; and 
royal and other high personages, who received hospi- 
tality from the abbot. Then there was the chapter* 
house, usually oblong, with a rounded east end, but 
which, as all were aware, was rebuilt at Westminster 
on a magnificent scale as an octagonal room; the 
treasury, which at Westminster was boM^th the 
chapter-house, and was now known as the Chapd of 
the Pjrx; the infirmary, for the aged and sick 
brethren, always placed on the most retired' portion 
of the site ; and the abbot's private apartments. At 
Durham and Worcester the plan was turned round, 
as it were, most of the subordinate buildings being 
removed from east to west, or west to east, in con- 
sequence of the river, which formed in each case the 
western boundary. A Cluniac house differed from a 
Benedictine one chiefly in the greater pmnp and cere- 
mony of the ritual. A tjrpiod house was that at 
Wenlock. The Cistercian order, on the other hand, 
was a Puritanical offshoot, and the members dispensed 
entirely with the aid of pictures or images in their ser- 
vices, and permitted no ornament to 1^ used in their 
buildings. A splendid example was Fountains Abbey, 
which was described in detail with the akl of a plan. 
Of Carthusian houses, which consisted of isolated cells 
bound together. Mount Grace Priory, Yorkshire, was ' 
selected as an example, Mr. Micklethwaite observing 
that the Charterhouse had been so greatly altered as 
to be almost unrecognizable. 



PROVINCIAL. 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society. — Nov. 14. — 
Rev. R. Bum, Presulent,in the Chair. — A Paper, by Mr. 
C. W. King, was read " On two Early Christian Iniagli 
of Lapis Lazuli," which had been lately brought firom 
Alexandriib The smaller and better one, both in die 
workmanship and in the quality of the stone, is en- 
gmved with a maiden, amply draped and kneeling on 
one knee, who gazes in fervent adoration on a Latin 
cross which she holds on high with both hands. Tlie 
other gem represents a young man, in the simple tunic 
of a shephero, agreeing with the primitive representa- 
tion of the *' Pastor B<mius," appears bruising with his 
staff, tipped with the sacred monogram instead of iron, 
the hesul of the Old Serpent, whose bust indeed is' 
human, but body that of a crocodile, the belly hideously 
swollen, and the back garnished with a row of spikot, 
or simibur protubenmces, to make its aspect yet more 



30 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



terrific, whilst the snaky tail, upon which the victor 
firmly plants one foot (as does Hercules on the 
Hydra's, in the coin of Phaestos), goes cnrUng up into 
the field behind him, and terminates as a barbed 
arrow-head. The human-headed serpent, as typifying 
the Evil One, first makes his appearance upon the 
iolidus of Valentinian III. (a.d. 420-435). — Prof. 
Hughes exhibited a bronze helmeted bust, from the 
Banks* collection. It consists of the bust proper, seven 
inches high, the helmet two inches hi^, and the 
crest, which stood one inch above the helmet. They 
were all separated, most likely owing to the decompo- 
sition of the solder which had originally held them 
together. The bust is that of a Roman Emperor. 
Mr. King suggested that it represented Marcus Aure- 
lius. The chief interest of the specimen is, however, 
in the helmet, which represents the face of a Gaul or 
Briton. The same character of face, the same lips 
and moustache, may be seen in the statue of the Gaul 
in the Villa Ludovisi, on the Dying Gaul of the 
Capitol, or the earlier Pergamene sculpture. On the 
forehead is an ornament, like the ring-money ot 
ancient Ireland or modem Africa ; and behind that, 
on either side above the ears, are two snake-like 
figures. As it would not do to represent the hair in 
strong relief on a casque, it is merdv indicated by a 
rough etching, which seems also used for shading on 
other parts of the izat. The specimen is said to 
have been found near Cottenham, but unfortunately 
the exact circumstances of the "find" are not 
known. From the same district came the Earith 
bronze, now in the British Museum, and various less 
important bronze objects in the Banks collection and 
elsewhere. It seems not improbable, therefore — un- 
less these were spoil carried away from the Romans 
— that we may find by-and-by that there were stations 
and villas of considerable importance and wealth on 
the gently rising grounds that run into the Fen lands 
north of Cambridge. — ^Dr. Bacon showed two speci- 
mens of mediaeval pottery, dug out recently at Ditton, 
and consistii^ of two vases or jugs. One was un- 
broken, and had remains of a dark bluish colour, and 
was glazed. It was 104 in. in height, the mouth had 
a diameter 4 in., and the greatest circumference was 
23 in. The other was of a light red colour, and 
glazed, and had some yellow lines of ornamental 
tracery. ;The measurements of this were very 
nearly the same as the last. The cubic capacity of 
each would be about 3} pints. They were found in 
an old well which was being excavated, and at a depth 
of 18 ft. The red one was broken by the pick of the 
excavator. — Mr. Wilkinson exhibited a silver-gilt vase, 
25 in. hi^, enriched with repousie work of the close 
of the sixteenth century. A shield on the inside of 
the cover bears the arms of the Austrian family of 
Miielich. Figures in relief^ representing Faith, Wis- 
dom, and Justice, adorn the lower part of the bowl. 
The cover is decorated with oval medallions, and 
surmounted by a Minerva in full armour. — Mr. F. 
H. Fordham exhibited two gold coins of James I., 
the one dating before, the other after, his accession 
to the throne of England, which had been recently 
found near Roystone. 

Cambridge Philological Society.— Nov. 3. 
—Annual Meeting, — The President, Prof. Mayor, 
in the Chair. — Mr. Magniisson read a Paper on 



"Aiimdo** a compound which, he observed, in its 
present state must be taken to represent an older 
compound in which the elements of composition 
came more clearly to light As it now stood it (x>uld 
not be made up of any two words which in form were 
identical to the composition elements, ^wi and At?, 
It clearly bore the stamp of strong wear and tear upon 
its face. The hitherto proposed etymology from 
Celtic cam "crooked," could not be admitted, on the 
ground that it gave no such clear sense as would 
satisfy the mind, and warred altogether against the 
logical method in which languages built up their 
compounds. For cam attenuated Jttm = **bent,** 
and do » "bent" would make ^m^ with a sense 
•* bent-bent'' or " bowed-bowed,** which scarcely could 
have any meaning. A clearer light was thrown on 
this obscure word by the Icelandic kcng^boginn and 
the Middle-English kene-bawe, JCeng-bogmn meant 
" bent as a crook.*' ICeng was the stem of kai^^ 
which in Icelandic was the name for the object which 
in English was called a "staple,** a hook or crook of 
metal driven into uprights of timber, posts, &c, for 
various purposes; boginn was the past participle of a lost 
strong verb, of which it was the only remnant left. 
Ken^ was found mentioned diiefly in connection 
with doors and door-posts, gates and gate-posts, though 
it was also found used in connection with other 
domestic appointments. In primitive times it was 
undoubtedly chiefly used as a contrivance to fasten 
doors by, and was the rude primitive forerunner of the 
el^;ant instrument which, with advancing civilization 
and retiring honesty, took the shape of a key. In a 
derived sense kengr meant the bena of the body such 
as, for instance, the cat made when it set up its back. 
It was not used in Icelandic to signify any bight- 
formed appearance, however, of the limbs. In one 
g>int, therefore, the Icelandic kmg-boginn and the 
n^lish akimbo stood quite disconnected — ^namely, in 
their application. While the Icelandic referred ex- 
clusively to the bend of the body or of the spine, the 
English referred chiefly to the bend of the arms. This 
point was of paramount importance for the derivation 
oiakititbo* The word occurred now chiefly in the 
phrase "to stand a/&fm^,** or "to stand one arm," 
or "both arms, akimbo,^* which meant to stand with 
the arms bent out, and the hand on the flank, in 
such a way that the bight so formed by the arm 
or arms resembled the appearance of a staple driven 
into a post. This was a purely English development 
of the sense, and quite foreign to the Icelandic keng' 
boginn. How did that happen ? Of the three pos- 
sible ways in which it might have come about, 
Mr. Magnusson adhered to that which seemed the 
most natural — namely, that the Englishman of old 
must have had ready at hand in his daily language 
both the elements of which the proto-compound oi 
akimbo was made up. But this assumption involved 
another — namely, that the Engli^ then possessed a 
name'for " stapl^' whose form was capable of naturally 
changing into kim. This, Mr. Magnusson meant, was 
the case with the first element of Uie compound kent' 
bowe^ which Prof. Skeat had addu^d under akimbo 
from The laic of Beryn, Here kene could mean 
nothing but a " staple ;'' it stood for kencg^ Mr. Mag- 
nusson thought, the g having been dropixSd before b 
in order to avoid harshness of sound, as was so fire- 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



3X 



tibe caue in 

hfne-bti €or hyntg-iot^ cywi-kail 
for cymtfiatLt &c. Tbe ^ once dropoed the trairafinn 
frooi ke me h tiwe to im-£mry aid at tlat agun into 
ix»^9B% to finaOy becoaae iucAs^ was of sndi % 
commoa type that the matter need not be gooe into. 
Ba was then the pp. hogm of A.-S. itroog iw^vx, 
to **bend ;** an obvionsly natmal case of dcnndatioQ 
in a lan^nage mhkh had been bo^ €or oatories in 
Himhianng its weak tenninartnns, Ahhoogh the Ibnn 
hnteg was not on recoidy Uie concspoadiiw lodandic 
kem^ made its r»*«»***'*' qoite probable, for the 




lence of the two forms ezprcsed a general 



law of pazaHelism bctncen sach forms in Icelandic 
and Aog{o>SaxQa; sac^ for intfanfr, was the case 
with A.-S. cynex and Icdandic kongr^ and a similar 
one that of thu (for older iSBBa/f)» Icelandic timdr^ the 
'^toodi" of a mke or a haxxow. That iaug there- 
fore was ooce npon a time tibe Eaiif English name for 
a staple was thns rendered not only quite probable from 
the tonnal point of view, but from the pcxnt of view 
of the sense it bore in Jov-iv^ kiaiio^ quite certain. 
Finalljy Mr. Magn^twrn saggcsted that A.-S. cmg^ 
a "kejy" was an ouffiwnr of the older ctmig, a 
statple, whidi mnst have done the serrice among the 
primitiTe Teatoos for farming doors» as kemgr had 
done among their Scanfinarian ne^^boors ; iatgr, 
£emigmad cca^, therefore^ wcre^ in all probabQitj, oog-> 
nate names for one and tibe same object Thebaseof 
kengr was iat^ (in^)^ and remained still ofasemble 
in the coOoqntal SKjmg in lodand at iamga vtV 
ibtrfi, ^to ratde with the key in a door," which 
showed that key with its base cagam was a cognate 
to itmgr. ^Batkm^Of though co nn ected with kmgr 
by the k xia j granhrw , had nnrhmg to do with tint 
wordy bnt was aLov Latin introdnctinn, firom cingmia^ 
'*a roand, cotn-formed onamcnL" — 5Cr. VenaUread 
a Paper on ^Esch. 4f • X^^ *¥)- 

Not. 17. — 3fr. lisaro^ Picsident, in the Chair. 
— Mr. Postg^ read a Paper on the Refonn of 
the Pmmmoation of Latin and Gredc, considered 
practical U niieisil/ qncsrinn. — A di 



JSXic Hntiatun^'0 Dote^SooIu 



StQneheilge.— (See ante iL 150-51 ; it, 86). We 
propose printing from time to time description^ 
takoi from anthmriratrd soarces, of the prehistoric 
monmnents of the Briti^ Isles. Of coarse many of 
these will be known to onr readers in some shape or 
other, bat it b thoaght that to have at hand a rcfor- 
ance to them woald be carrying oat one of the most 
salient foatnres of the NoCe-b(»k. At the present 
time special atf ftition has been drawn to the conditinn 
of Stnnehenge, and hence we begin with this wdl- 
known monoment, and the ntore readily becanse, by 
the coartesy of Messrs. Longmans we are able to 
gire a reproduction of the engraTiiig afiExed to the 
newly-pBhWicd fooith edition of Sir John Lnbbodc's 
Ortgim •/ GariSKmtiom^ We haie afready spokenof 
Stondsenge, and therefore in the present note shall 
rest contented in gnrii^ some information additcoal 
to that o£Dr. Nicholson in the second Tofamie of this 
joamal, and to Mr.Qsbome^sasefol qaotatknsfrom 
^^ EmrxtpetM Magmau npon the foUof someof the 
stones in 1797. Profosor Boyd Dawkins has de- 
scribed Stonl^enge as it or^inally stood, and places 
its date as a monnment of the Bhmze age : — 

'* It cnnsi^fd of a drde loofr. in djameter of large 
vpri^ bloda of sarsen stone 12ft. TiiL high, bearing 
imposts doifctailed into eadi other so as to form a 
mfirrnnnos architxaTe. Nine feet within this was a 

this fire c^reat 



followed, mwhich d^ Ercsidcnt, Prot Mayor, Proi: 
Skeat, Mr. Vcnall, Ifr^Candy, and Mr. Ridgeway, 
took part. AresofaitiaBvaspamedthat aConunittee 
be appointed for the pmpoic of dra w ing vcp a sdieme 
for the reform of tike pracnt p t iMMiw i^ tion of Latin, 
tobesnbmittedtnthpSociffyataiabscqnentMeetiqg. 

Glasgow Amcbmouoglqai, Soamr.— Not. 17. 
— At the ammal ^enecd m e eting, the Report of the 
Conneil was «■*— **f«i sad ap pror ed . It is intended 
to pobiish a new part cf the dodct/s Tramsaftimr^ 
before the end of sesion i8Si-ft2. The Marmus of 
Bate, the Marqms cf Lothian, Dr. Arthur Mitchdl, 
Mr. W. J. Thoms, F.S.A., Mr. Wahcr de Grey 
Birch, F.S.A., and Mr. G. L. Gomme^ F.S.A., 
werc^ on the reoonmendation of Ae Comcil, ad- 
mitted honocBT members. The office^teaxcis forthe 



r. Aleaander GaDoway, Foreign Sodely, read a 
Paper npoo the archaeological work reoentfy vndcr- 



<'^' V r 



trilirhons of saisen stone, forming a horseshoe ; then, 
a hocseshoe of fordgn stones eight foeth^i, and in the 
centre a slab ol micaceoas sandstone caSed the altar- 
stone. When periiect it probably formed a temple like 
the restoration made by Mr. Brown. At a rti*»«M^ 
of lOGfr. from the oater line a small camp, with a 
ditch ootsxde, formed the oater cirde, 300ft. in dia- 
meter, which cots a low barrow, and mrlmi^ «nrt»ii^^ 
and therefore b erideiidy of later d:^ dian some of 
the barrows of the district. A foreign block near the 
first great trilithon, on the north-eastern side, has two 
holes in it, whidi, in the'opinion of Mr. Stevens* hare 
probably been intended to receiTe libations like the 
df-stones and csp-stoncs. The fore^ stones com- 
posing the inner drde and the iimer apse^ somecf 
which are igneoQS, may haTe been derived from Wale^ 
Cornwall, or fi:om the Channd Islands It is obTions 
that they wonld not haTe been transported to Salisboiy 
Plain e x cep tiug onder die inflamcr of some strong 
rdigions feeling and a prrnKar vafaie mnst haTe been 
attached to the material, since the stone of the nei^i- 
boorhood woald have satined all the porposes of a 
monnment. *■ If Stonehenge,' writes Mr. Stevens, 
*■ was erected at two distinrt pniods,the horseshoe and 
drde of foreign stone probably formed the 
temple.' It may even have been e 
at some former period, and then transported to 
Safisbozj Plain and agun set op. An intrusive and 
canqoermg people may hare brooght these haQowed 
stones with them, and have added to the impremive 
appearance of their old temple in its new sanation by 
repeating its featares on aw lm]ger scaler ming local 
stone for theporpose. The date of Stondiei^ is in- 
dicated by the smooDding tcmbs. Sir Ridtaud Colt 



Tb£ ANTlllUARYS HOTE-BOO^. 



i,i 



Hoare counted 300 barrows within twelve square miles, 
and in the days of Stukelcy 128 were visible from a hill 
close by."— Dawkins, Early\Man in Briiain^ pp. 37a. 
376. William Smith, in his Particular j:)escripHm oj 
England, 1588, a MS. edited by H. B. Wheatlcr 
and £. W. Ashbee, figures Stonehenge in the twenty, 
second plate. The circle is represented as very nearly 
complete, though its quaint drawing does not allow us 
to compare it with any degree of preciseness with the 
figured restoration in Mr. Dawkins' Early Man in 
Briicun, p. 374. Still the leaning; stone now in dis- 
pute seems to be in its original position, and the south 
side, which is now very mudi disturbed, seems to 
be tolerably perfect The whole circle is represented 
as snrixNmded by a rampart. Unfortunately Smith 
does not say anything about the monument in 
his MS. 

Remains of Stoke Old Church.— The fol- 
lowing Paper, by Mr. C. Lynam, of Stoke, taken from 
the Ste^fordshire Advertiseft on the "Remains of 
Stoke Old Church," which have recently been re- 
erected in the churchyard, should fina a place 
in The Antiquary : — One day, passing along 
the dry beds of the former water-courses near 
to Upper Boothen Mill, the writer hereof noticed a 
stone, shaped to some special purpose. He looked 
further, and observed several others, and amongst 
them, one, not only shaped but modelled. . This, it 
was dear to him, had been the base of an ancientpillar, 
and it was soon perceptible that, these stones were the 
remains of Stoke Old Church. With this idea they 
were sent to his garden, at HartshiU. As the work- . 
men got up one stone, others appeared, and in time 
some cart-loads were turned up. At Hartshill they 
were sorted and nidely put tc^ther, when the Rector 
visited them, and expressed a wish to have them 
erected in the old part of the church]^urd. Excava- 
tions were then made, and the foundations of the old 
work were come to, and these remains (taken out of. 
the overflow course from the mill-pond at Boothen) 
have been erected on their former site. They mainly 
consist of two arches and their piers. The western 
pier is a " respond," and has been rebuilt as such. 
One of the others b octagonal, and the other cir- 
cular. The arches are semi-circular, and are formed 
of two orders, with moulded edges ; they are sur-. 
mounted in part by their original dripstone. In the 
spaces between the arches have beeia placed some 
carved stone heads from the old church* . which had 
been at Clif^rille for some years ; also one carved 
corbel, which had been a long time in possession 
of the writer ; and at the termination of the western 
^pstone on the north side a carved head, most kindly 
given by Mr. Holtom, from Stoke Hall. In addition 
to the aax:hes and their supports, parts of other pieces 
have been put up, and, what peniaps b of more in- 
terest than any odier part, some Norman remains of 
the arch of a doorway were also found at Boothen, ' 
and have been embodied in the re-erection. It is 
a s'^gnlar ^ct, that a carved capital belonging to 
those early Norman remains had been preserved at 
CliffviUe, and is now built in with the others. In addi- 
tion to the erection of the arches, the foundations of the 
old chancel have been raised and clearly defined. The 
original aJtar-slab, which has lain on theground against 
te east wall of the dumoel ever liiice uie old caoidi 



was taken down, has been raised, whereby its 
various parts may be distinctly seen. The old font, 
which has also been preserved at Cliffville, is re- 
erected in what may be considered its original posi- 
tion. A portion of the shaft of the churchyard 
cross, found some, years ago against the south wall of 
the chancel, has been put up near to the vestry of the 
present diurch. Of the date of these early remains, 
It may be fairly said that the bit of the shaft of the 
cross is the earliest, being, no doubt, prior to the 
year A. D. iioo. Next come the fragments of Norman 
workmanship, which are early in that style, and may 
be said to have been executed before a.d. i 150. Then 
come the piers, with their moulded capitals and bases, 
and the arches they beu", which may be assigned to 
the period between a.d. 1200 and 1245. The base of 
the chancd walls, the altar-slab, and font are also of 
this date. From these remains, and from various 
illustrations of the old church, it may be pretty safely 
accepted that Stoke Church, includinp; the chancel, 
nave, and aisles, was uniformly rebuilt in the first 
half of the thirteenth century. It would be interest- 
iii^ to find whether there is any record confirming 
this view. Something should be stated as to the man- 
ner of the erecttpn of the old stones, and it may at 
once be emphatically said that no stone now again 
put up hasioeenaltcaied in any wa^ or shape. Every 
one of them is now as it was found, so that the 
genuineness of their origir.al form is absolute. This 
has been the ruling idea throughout the work, and 
in order to .further it and. to pronounce it, the neces- 
sary filling^n has been done m common brickwork, 
which, while it draws a sharp line between itself and 
the ancient work, sufiidently insures its own modem- 
ness. If stone had been used instead of bricks, in 
the course of time the identity between ancient and 
new work would have been obscure ; now it b clear, 
and will always remain sa The next idea in the 
ei'ection was that the work shou]|d be put up in a sub* 
stantial manner, and to thb end cement has been 
used throughout the rebuilding. Then, it was con- 
sidered desirable that the work should be put toge- 
ther so as to avoid dilapidation as much as possiUe^ 
and for thb reason the waUs have been covered 
with tiles so as to throw the weather off the work. 

.Popular Names of Tomuliy 9lq< (iv. pp. 77, 

219). — Merry Maidats, Utaily m the circles in the 
neighbourhood of St. Buryan s, Cornwall, are called 
Merry Maidens or Nine Maidens, irrespective of the 
njimber of stones really contained in them — ^the tale 
running that the stones are maidens petrified in the 
act of dancing on Sunday. Journal of Anthropologi- 
cal InstituU^yol. i^ appendix, page 2. 

Lognn Rock. A huge block of granite, weighing, it 
b said, 60 or 70 tons, on the summit of the cufis 
by the sea coast, andt rocks slightly when pushed. 
TTie promontory on which it stands is called Treryn 
Castle. Cornwall. Journal of Anthropological InsH" 
tute, vol. t, appendix, page 3. 

Nine Maidens, at Boscawen-un. About sixty feet in 
diameter, and consisting of nineteen stones, with one 
nearly -in the centre leaning in a north-easterly direc- 
tion, and about 9 ft. high by 2( by 14. Journal of 
Anthropological Institute, V0I.-L, appendix, page 3. 

Chun Quoit, A column consisting of four upright 
stones, two of them 74 to84ft.long,and I toi4ft 



thick, Hung about 4!). above the ^und outiide and 
7 ft above the ground iiuide. They stand about 5 1^. 
apart, fonning the sides of a chamber, one end of 
which is ahnost entirelr encloted bj another stone. 
Cornwall. JeumnloJAHthTOpolesKallmtiluU, voL i., 
appendix, page 3, 

Mtn-aa-TuL An upright slone 3 fL 8 in. high, 3 ft. 
10 in. ynity andjibout 1 ft. thick, having! holeabout 
18 in. in diameter Ibrough it. It faces about north- 
east and saiith-wc4t, and has a four-sided upright 
stone, 4 ft. high and l| ft. aciosseach side, placed 7i 
ft. 10 the north-east, and a slone, similar but three- 
sided, at the same diiUuices 10 the south-west, against 
which another similar stone lies flat on the ground. 
Beyond each of these two equidistant opright stones 
but not in the same straight Ime, stands a small up- 
right stone. Near Pcnumee. journai of AMhTopa- 
logical /miUuic, vol. i, appendix, page 4. 

Jiurlers (The), in the p«^ of St. Cleer, Cornwall, 
Tbey appear to lie three ovals, standing as it were on a 
line runnmg in a north-easterly direction, ytmrnalof 
AnlirBfclegKol Inititiiti,va\. i., appendix, page J. 

Lensitone CircU, on Scorhill Tor, Dartmoor, An 
oval circle, the diameters of which are respectively a 
little more and a little less than 80 ft. It now con- 
sists of twenty-four upright and six fallen stones. 
JoMmal ofAnlhropetesical Imtiluie, vol i,, appendix, 
p. 6. 



Hntfauarfan "news. 



The researches undertaken for a few months at 
Epidanrus, by the Greek Archaeological Society have 
been succ^sful. One of the most celebrated theatres 
of antiquity, that of il^ulapius, has been discovered. 
It is constructed of Pentelic marble, and was capable 
ofboldingat least 30,000 spectators. The theatre is 
built under a hill, the summit of which was covered 
with a sacred grove. In form it is a hemicydc ; the 
steps are divided intotwo parts — theupper.measuring 
on the lowest level about 133 yards in length, consists 
of twenty rows of seats traversed by twenty-four stair- 
cases, which enabled spectators to gain thnr places 
with ease. The lower part, separated fromtheupper 
by an esplanade several yards wide, contained three 
rows of seats and thiiiy-two of steps, to which access 
was given by twelve staircases. Several statues were 
unearthed, ^1, however, unfortunately, in a mutilated 
condition. The results hitherto obtained cannot but 
encourage the society to .continue its work. 

There ate in the British Museum several texts of 
great interest for the tight they throw upon the reli- 
gion, superstition, &c., of the ancient Assyrians and 
Babylonians, Mr, T, G, Pinches communicales (o 
the Society of Biblical Archaeology an account of 
these texts. They comprise what have be«n called 
Hametologies (of which several fragments CKist, toge- 
ther wilb one almost complete) and calendars. Of 
the latter we have two in the national collection, each 
of ■ different chatuter. The more complete of 
the two, of which two copies exist, is extremely 
difficult to translate, but what is certain is often of a 



most interesting character. Most of the directions are 
very commonplace, such as, " In the month of Nisan, 
the first day is wholly lucky;" or "thefourth, half the 
day is lucky;" or, "the eleventh, a day of joy of 
heart," Some of the directions, however, are veiT 
curious, as those for the fifth and sixth of lyyar. That 
for the fifth is, "If one take not a wife, one grows 
old ;" and that for the sixth, "Take a wife and grow 
old." On the ninth of lyyar there is the infomuitioD 
that '■ If one eat lish, one takes evil ;" and th« 



it being only here and there directed that "one should 
not pay money," or that " one should not ride in a 
chanot," or in a "ship," on certain days — recMnmcnd- 
ntions made, not on account of the sacrednets of the 
day, but only because it was considered nnlockyta do 
these things. 

The workmen who were making a trench for a. 
drain across the road at the bottom of the WyU, 
Shrewsbury, found, at the distance of about 8fL 
from the shop front, the remains of a red sand- 
stone wall, of very good masonry, at least ^ft- 
thick, and at 14ft. further south similar remains of 
another wall running parallel to the first. These 
seem to mark out the Une of rood leading to the Old 
Bridge. 

From the excavations now being mode for the 
sewer in St, John's Road, Hertford, it appears that 
the monks who inhabited the ancient Prioiy must 
have been buried in that spot. The enves dog in the 
grave! are dearly visible, and contain a quantity of 
human remains, many of the skulls being in a very 
perfect stale of preservation. From the tact that not 
a particle of iron or other metal has been found with 
the remains, it is evident that no coffins were used for 



in cloaks or cassodts, and laid on a layer of flintt. 
No medal or coin of any description has been found 
to determine the dale of ihdr burial. 

We leatn, from a report presented by Mr, F. H. 
Middleton to the Royal Institute of British Architects, 
that the High Wycombe Grammar School is about 
to be pulled down. The oldest oort of tlie building 
now remaining is a very tine late Norman hall, about 
itfo, arranged with nave and aisles. The nave is 
63 ft, by 16 ft,, and the aisles are 8 ft. wide. The 
arcade is formed of plain square semi-drcular arches 
in five bays. The pillars are alternated round and 
octagonal, a ft, in diameter and S ft, 6 in. high. 
Tbey have square moulded abaci and are carved in a 
very spirited manner with foliage and dragons. All 
this fine stonework is as fresh and sharp as if it were 
new. At the north of the nave is a curious bread- 
oven, which appears to be contemporary with the 
Norman wall it is in. At the dissolution of religious 
houses the building was granted by Eliiabelh to the 
corporation, to found a grammar school, and for tbis 
purpose it has been cut up into many room& 

The oldest remaining half-limber house in Here* 
fold was offend for sale by auction recently. The 



AtinQUARIAN NEWS. 



35 




36 



ANTIQ UARIAN NE WS. 




contemplated, namely, the restoration oT the noble 
west front of their Cathedral, which has never yet 
been properly nnd architccturall)^ restored since it 
iUKained such Icnible dinmge during the siege of ihe 
Close. L'nilci: the guidance, however, of the late 
Sir Gilliert Scott, plans have been completed by which 
the rcraainine original features of architectural beauty 
may be permanently reproduced. The two western 
spires are now thoroughly restored and furnished with 
lightning conductors on approved principles. The 
wfiole of the south-west lower and the upper stage ol 
the north-west towei', as well as the inte^ening gable, 
with the great western porch beneath it, are now 
completed, leaving yet unrestored the greater part of 
the north'Wesl lower. This it is proposed to com- 
plete in three stages, for wiuco three separate 
estimates have been prepared. 

The ancient custom of making a present of tine 
doth to certain high officers of State and geolleinen 
of Her Majesty's household, has just been observed 
bya committee of the Court of Aldermen of the City of 
Ijindon. The custom seemt to have originated in 
a desire to encourage competition in the ancient 
woollen cloth worlc of the City by sending specimens 



the trade in former days, covered the spot where the 
City Library nout stands. The official order for Ihe 
distribution, soys the CiVy Prtss, provides that pieces 
of cloth of four and a half yards each shall be sent to 
the first SecretaiT of State, the Lord Chancellor, the 
Chamberlain of the Household, the Vice Chamberlain 
ol the Household, the Lord Steward, the Comptroller, 
the Lord Chief Justice of the Common Fteos, the 
Chief Baron of Ihe EJichequer, the Master of the 
Rolls, the Recorder of London, the Attorney- 
General, the Solicitor -General, and the Common 
Seijeant. ILe order fiirthcr states that six yards of 
black cloth and six yards of green cloth shall be 
given to the Town Clerk, four yards of black and two 
yirds of green doth to the chief clerk in the Town 
Clerk's office, four yards to the Attorney in the Ex- 
diequer and four yards to the Attorney in Chancery, 
four yards to the Recorder's deik, and four yards to 
the luher of the Court of Aldermen. The distribution 
is carried out by the hallkeeper. 

An exhibition of heraldiy, seals, and genealogical 
reconls will be held at Berim fmm April I to May 31 
reit, under the palrooagp of H.R.H. Prince Charles 
of Prussia. The participation and support of all 
persons who are interested in heraldic art are invited 
on behalf of the above-named exhibition, to which 
the Royal Family of Prussia have promised to con- 
tribute an important and highly interesting collection 
of the genealogy, heraldry, and seals of the house of 
HohenzoUern. It is hoped that the numerous and 
valuable collections of objects of interest suitable for 
»uch an exhibition in the possession of the nobility 
and ^ntry, as ivell as of public and corporate in- 
stitutions In Great Bntain and Ireland, may be well 
represented in this forthcoming exhibition. 

The head master of Westminster School published b 
the TiuKs of November 28, some remarks upon Ash- 
bumham House and a memorial to the governing 
body. These state thallhc Chapter themselves have in 



past years greatly altered and disfigured Ashbumham 
Hoose. It had originally two wings ; one was 
destroyed and never restored. About 1S4S the roof 
was taken off, a story added, and a dome in the 
ceiling of the drawing-room demolished, the external 
elevation being mined. Tlie house now has no 
beauty extemaUy, and hardly any features of interest 
intenially, except the staircase,. which would in any 
case be preserved. We do not think, judgiDg from 
subsequent letters in Ihe Times, that all these state- 
ments are confirmed, and we hope that Ashbnmhaiu 
House in its present state may be preserved IHmi the 
school aathotiites. 

An interesting antiquarian discovery has been made 
on the premisesof Mr. H. Boxall, 19, Mary-te-Poft 
Street, Bristol, during some alterations, a fine free- 
stone mantelpiece, ornately sculptured, and bearing a 
shield charged with the arms borne by George Har- ' 
rington, Mayor of Bristol in 1617, having been ex- 
humed from a thick covering of mortar. Harrington's 
residence, whilst mayor, was in Com Street. Mt. J. F. 
Nichols, City Librarian, points out that this coat, 
which in the Mayor's Calendar is ascribed to the 
above Mayor, is there tinctured incorrectly, colour 
upon colour. The curious thing in connection with 
these aims is that they occur twice in the same street 
— vii : on the fronts Tof Nos. 3S and 40. below the 
first-floor windows. This raises a question 
whether these were not the arms of the Brewers' 
pany of Bristol, and were borne by Harrington with 
a difierence for his own coat, he being a brewer, just 
as Robert Aldworth bore for his coat the arms of Ihe 
Marchants Venturers with a diifereoce. 

The Cambridge Antiquarian Society visited Roy- 

ston recently, "nie cave was seen under the guidance 
of Professor Hughes, who remarked opon its position 
at the junction of four parishes, and called attention 
to the rudely.cut figures and other carvings on the 
wall, which he attributed to the eleventh or twelfth 
centuries. The Rev. S. S. Lewis said the cave was at 
the junction of two Roman roads, the figures on the walls 
represented the High Altar, St. Katherine, St. Chrisio- 

E her, St. Lawrence, St. John, and St, Thomas of Canter- 
ury. A hermit of Royston existed in Edward VI.'s 
time ; but there was no intimation that he lived in 
this cave ; the only bones found in it were 
those of domestic animals. The priory church 
was next visited, Mr. W. M. Fawcett, M.A.. 
explaining its leading features, and eiipressing his 
r^ret tMt the fine chancel-screen, described in 
Cussans' l/isloiy of HtrtfuTdihire, had been removed 
in modem times. Mr. Bendall said the screen was 
cut up and reformed into the present pulpit and 
readbg desk ; the original font was turned out by the 
late vicar, and was bought from the stonemasons by 
a farmer, who used it as a trough under a pump. It 
eventually was purchased by a neighbour, Mr. 
Phillips, to place in his garden. 

The chancel of Caynham Church, Shropshu^ has 
been opened. It was found necessary some tine since 
to take down the ancient Norman church on account 
of its dangerous condition. On the thatched rafters 
of the roof and some portion of the main walls being 
removed, the whole stmcluie gave way, with the ex- 



s 
»■ 



ANTIQUARIAN NE tVS. 



3? 



ception of the curious triple arch dividing the nave 
trom the chancel. The north, south, and west walls 
of the tower have also been preserved. 

The parish church of Ebberston, Yorkshire, was 
reopened early in the month, after restoration, begun 
in 1869. The tower has been carefully restored, much 
of the walls of the nave and chancel rebuilt, the 
former rough roof of oak and fir, with lath-and-plaster 
ceihng, has been replaced by an open roof ofpitch- 
pine. 

Sir Henry Cole wrote to the Times of Nov. 14, as 
follows : — " Some of the most valuable specimens of 
wall paintings, centuries older than the Reformation, 
are preserved in this country in the Chapter-house of 
Westminster Abbey, and they have been brought to 
public view by the judicious restoration of the Chapter- 
house, freely open to the public daily. I have known 
these wall paintings for more than 50 years. In 1830 
they were hidden behind the record presses, and 
were certainly in much better condition than they 
now are. Indeed, every time I see them they appear 
to be more and more decaying, and a wedc ago I 
observed little parts were about to peel off. The 
paintings are^ well worth looking to, and I recommend 
class covering as necessary to preserve them, which 
snould be placed before them without delay. I write 
this in hope that the proper authorities may be moved 
to do what is necessary to preserve these very rare 
remains of ancient pictures." 

Mr. Joseph Anderson delivered early in November 
the fourth of the present course of Rhind Lectures in 
Archaeology, at Efdinburgh, when he dealt with " The 
Brochs, or Dry-Built Round Towers of Scotland." 

Among the many fast disappearing objects of an- 
tiquity in the City of London, we understand the 
authorities propose removing that interesting piece of 
old London wall now standing in St. Martin's 
Court, Ludgate Hill, for the purpose of widening the 
entrance to Littie Bridge Street, Blackfir&rs. We 
trust every care will be taken during the demolition 
to note anything of interest that may be brought to 
light 

A monument of considerable interest and import- 
ance has arrived at the British Museum. It comes 
from Terabitts, on the Euphrates, the supposed 
site of ue ancient city of Carchemish. It is of basalt, 
standing nearly six feet in height, and having a figure 
sculptured on the one side, and an inscription of five 
Imes in hieroglyphics on the other. It seems likely 
that the inscription is of a religious character, the 
sculptured figure — which is unfortunately ihutilated by 
the absence of the head — ^bein^ probably that of a 
priest in sacerdotal attire^ The inscription belongs to 
the class which has been termed *' Hittite." A some- 
what painful interest attaches to the new monument 
as haviiig been examined and copied by the late Mr. 
George Smith on his last journey to Asia — a journey 
during which his valued life was lost to his country 
and to science. Mr. Smith drew up, at least tenta- 
tively, a Hittite alphabet, which together with his 
drawing of the monument, is preserved in the British 
Museum Library. 



Corre0pon^ence» 



ANGLO-SAXON ARCHITECTURE. 

Many of my friends are aware that I am endeavour* 
ing to collect all the information that I can on the 
subject of the buildings commonly called Anglo-Saxon; 
an^ although Mr. E. A. Freeman objects to that name 
for them, it is the name by which they are generally 
known, and it is likely long to be so. 

My object is to get together as far as possible all 
that IS extant on the subject, with a view to a new, 
improved, and enlarged edition of what was, for about 
forty years> the Appendix to Rickman's work on 
Gothic architecture. His system begins with the 
Norman style, and his object was to instruct architects 
for practical work ; whereas anything before the Nor- 
man style is evidentiv a matter of antiquarian interest 
only, and it is well known that the Appendix was 
originallv an addition to the third edition of Rickman, 
from information supplied chiefly by Mr. William 
Twopeny. In the seventh edition of Rickman, pub- 
lished last year, I have omitted this Appendix, with 
the intention of making a separate work of it During 
the last summer a good deal of fresh information on 
the subject has come under my observation. I have 
seen, perhaps, a dozen examples, wherein walls of the 
Ahglo-Saxon period have been brought to light by 
scraping off the plaster in the restorations of the Vic- 
torian era. 

During the recent visit of the Archaeological 
Institute to Bedford I saw three instances of this, 
in addition to which I have heard or read of other 
cases, in which the surface of the walls, covered with 
shallow sculpture, in a sort of diaper work, has been 
found under Norman work. At Kirton-in-Lindsay, 
Lincolnshire, the priest's door on the south side of 
the chancel has the tympanum carved with such 
diaper work in good preservation, under bold Nor- 
man arch mouldings, clearly showingthe use of older 
materials in the Norman period. The church is a 
curious and interesting one in many ways, and it was 
one of the three tiiat were given by Bishop^ Remigius 
to the chapter of Lincoln Cathedral, of which Stow is 
another, where the transepts are also of the Aiif[lo- 
Saxon type. In St. Leonard's Church, at Walhng- 
ford, in Berkshire, the piers of the chancel arch are 
carved with this sort of early and shallow diaper work, 
which was brought to light only by scrapiiig off the 
plaster in the recent Victorian restoration. At Bamp- 
ton, Oxfordshire, a very fine church of various periods^ 
in the vault, under the central tower, there is some of 
this sort of early diaper work, evidentiv used as old 
materials by the builders of the thirteenth century. I 
have nodoubt thatmanymore similar instances are to be 
found if looked for, and I shall be glad to be informed 
of any not already in the list published in the Glossary. 
I have had a list made of all the stone churches that 
are mentioned in the Saxon Chronicle, and in Bede, 
and other earlv chronicles, and I hope to find more 
instances in wiiich the records fit with the existing re- 
mains, which is always the difficulty. 

The excellent lectures of Mr. Anderson on ScoHana 
in Early Christian Times, recentiy published al Edin- 
burgh (see ante, iv. 248)4 throw a good deal of newUg^ 



COXSBSFOlmENCE. 



on the architKtural hiitoiy, but show it came from Ire- 
land and not bam England, aod, therefore, U orij in- 
directl}' connected with the present subject ; but no 
doubt the gcneml characteristics of each century 
would be the same in both countries, though perhips 
dnriog one generation one country may have been 
rather in idvance of the other. In part of Scotland 
there is a remarbable series of lomb^ones, eight feet 
high, with shallow sculpture, called by some Celtic 
and by others Runic. These seem to agree with two 
ancient stones in the Ashmolean Museum at Oiford, 
on which the sculpture has always been called Runic. 
This opens a wide Geld for examination and compori- 
SOD, but without much reference to Anglo-Saxon 
work. A good deal more attention has been given 
to Ibis subject recently than appears to have ever 
been given to it before. 

John Hsnkv Parker, C.fi. 



ARMS OF WOLVERHAMPTON. 
I shall be glad if any of your readers or correspon- 
dents can inform me how it happens that the borough 
of Wolverhampton bears, besides its proper coal of 
anns, the arms of King B^ward the Confessor, a cross 
patonce between five martlets ; and also the arms of 
England and France quarterly. The fonner appear 
in a small escutcheon on the dexter aide of the shield 
containing the arms of the borough, and the latter in 
a small escutcheon on the sinister side of it. I cannot 
understand it at nil. The town of Wolverhampton 
existed, I believe, in Saxon limes ; but the existence 
of the borough dates only from the Refotm Bill of 
iSja. I mav mention, at the same lime, that we 
read in Hone s Voir Bnei (p. 77a), of an escutcheon, 
on which were the arms of Edward the Confessor im- 
paling those of England and France, surmounted by 
a crown set with crosses and fleurs-de-lys, and sup- 
ported by angels in long robes and ermine tippets 
which appeared till the year 1830 on Ihe east wall of 



had the Archbishops of Canterbury 10 do.with the 
arms in quenion ? 

Montagu Wlbstkr, 
\ Hill Vicani£e, Sntton Coldfield. 



SLOPING NAVES, 
(iv- 13s, 318, 3J8.) 
At CockingtoD Church, near Torauay, in the re- 
storation of whiiA I am now engageo, there are six 
steps frota the tower at the west end down to the 
nave, and there b a slope in the nave pavement of 
six inches from west to easL The cburcn consitts of 
nave, aisles, and chancel, with chapels ; the entire 
fabric, with Ihe exception of a portion of the west 
wall of (he north aisle, being Perpendicular work 
of one period. There is at present a single step up 
to the chaocci, and another to the Eacranum; yet I 
found Ihe piscina in the south wall less than eighteen 
inches above the pavement, and the blocked-up 
priest's doorway on the opposite side only about 
ihiee feet high above the piremtnt. I arrived. 



therefore, at the conclusion that, beiidet the prcKot 
steps, leading down from the west doorway to the 
sloping Hoor of the nave, there must have been origi- 
nally steps down to the chaocci, and again further 
east 10 the altar. I am given lo understand that Mr. 
Christian, architect lo the Ecclciisstical CommU- 
sioners, has visited the church since my inspection, 
and generally coincides in this opinion. The church 
is situated in the park of Cockbgton Court, and the 

?ound outside rises westward very coniiderablr. 
be unusual levels of the church, therefore, would 
appear to have been suggested by the peculiarities of 
the site. The effect from the w^em entrance must, • 
I think, have been impressive. As is eenecaUy 
known, the altar, in Devon and Cornwall churchet, 
was seldom raised high, and the sill of the < 
window is usually low. It was the scrtm — u ^ 
Cockinglon, where it remains— which conveyed the 
idea of sanctity and mystery. 

Jamss HtNS, F.R.LB.A. 
Plymouth. 

Tawslock Church, North Devon, has the floor 
lower towards the cast end. At the first piere from 
the west end of the nave there ore two or three steps 
extending across the nave and aisles, the floor slopes 
thence to the chancel-arch at which there is a 
descent of four or five steps into the chanceL The 
fall of the ground is from west to east Halifax pariah 
church has live or six steps descending from the 
western tower (which b open to the church) into the 
nave. Between these and the cross passage from Ihe 
porch doors, the floor is at two levels extending across 
the whole circle of nave and aisle, with steps down 
from each level. From the cross-passage there ii a. 
slight fall to the chancel screen, from whence Ihe 
floor eastward is raised by steps in the usual manner, 
a vestry being formed under the chancel The gronnd 
here (aJlsfrom west to east. 

St. David's Cathedral has not only the luive floor 
inclined upwards from west to east, as mentioned by 

J'our former correspondent, but the whole of the floon 
allow the same inclination, Tonartb the east end 
of Ihe nave is a. flight of steps to tlic platform in front 
of Ihe vaulted choir screen. This platform slopes, and 
so do the floors under the screen, the choir ffcor, the 
several grades of the Presbytery tloor, and the &itM 
pace. By the several slopes and steps the altar-pac- 
is raised lo the height of about 13ft. above the floor 
at the west end of the nave. The transept floon. like 
those of other parts, fall from east to west. Thar« is 
no crypt, but the inclination of Ihe fioocs is a follow- 
ing of the declivity of ihe site. 

In B Dew church now about lo be built on a hill. 
side near Citiydon, it is proposed to slope the nave 

Charles R. B. Kinh. 



SOME EARLY BREACH OF PROMISE CASKS. 

(iv. iSj.) 

Mr. Bird will be glad to hear thai the recult of 

Master Walter Lempsier's action on behalf of Ijoey 



CORRRSPONDRNCE. 



S9 



Bnuii|M(oii— or nther on his own behalf —maT be 
gathered from the wfll of the said Lempster, which 
was prored in the Prerog. Court of Omterbniy, in 
1487 (fo. 3 "Milles.") In that win occur these be- 

3 nests: — 
decte servienti et filie mee in \t^ Lnde Bimmpston 
filie Katerine nxoris mee dncentas maicas .... 
Item com qnedam accio i»er me mota extitit et adhnc 
~et in Cnria d'ni Regis de Scaccario sno apnd 



pend< 
West 



estm' adTersns Johannem Tate et Johannem Swan 
nnper vicecomites Civitatis Ixmdoniensis pro recoper- 
aciooe tricentarom marcamm in qiiibus qoidam Ricar- 
dusNarbiuq^michi legitime ooodempnatas extitit et 
eade cansa m prisona de Ludgatc^ London' at prison- 
arias detentas et extra eandem prisonam ob ddectam 
bone costodie erasos Yolantas mea inde est Si dicte 
tricente maice adversos dictos naper yioecomites ad 
nsam meam impostenun recuperate ioerint tunc Tdo 
qaod dicta Katerina uxor mea habeat oentam marcas 
ad inde inveniendum onam Capellannm idoneum 
Divina pro anima mea ac animabus parentom fiatrum 
soromm et benefoctorum meorum ac omnium fiddium 
ddfunctorum .... c^ebraturum . . : . £t volo <|uod 
dicta Lucia habeat inde alias centum marcas ad mde 
(arimdam suam liberam voluntatem. 

Which for the convenience of some of jour readers 
I wiU thus translate : — 

" I leave to my beloved servant and daughter-in- 
law, Lucv Brampston, daughter of Katherine m^ wife» 
two hundred marks. Also, whereas a certain suit, pro- 
moted by me has been proceediiy and still is depend- 
ing in the Court of Exdieqner of our lord the Kms at 
Westminster against John Tate and John Swan, uite 
Shoiflb of the City of London, for recovery of three 
hundred marks in which a certain Richard Narburgh 
stands lawftdly condemned to me^ and was on that ac- 
coont detained as aprisonerin the prison di Ludgate. 
London, and by deuiult of good custody has escaped 
from ^e same prison, my will as to the same is that if 
the said three nundred marks shall be hereafter re- 
covered to my use i^;ainst the said late sheri&, then I 
will that the said Katherine Iny wife shall have one 
hundred marks to find therewith a convenient chap- 
lain to celebrate mass for my soul, and for the sotus 
of my parents, horothcrs, sisters, and benefactors, and 
all the fiuthful deceased. And I will that the said 
Luor shall have thereof another hundred marks to do 
her tree will therewith. " 

Periiaps Mr. Bird will be able to pursue the story 
still further in the Exchequer RoUs. 

Waher Lempster was buried at St. Antonine's 
Chuidit Lcmdon, and Weever gives a cop^ of his epi- 
taph in which he is described as physician to King 
Henry VIL 

J. CSALLBNOR SMITH. 

90^ Charch Rood, Richmond. 



THE BIDDENDEN MAIDS. 

In the parish of Biddenden^ near fitaplehurst, Kent, 
there exists a carious custom. It consists in givin^to 
aU applicants, after service on Easter Sunday, cunons 
little cakes, bearing the effigy of two maicUm ladies, 
tHio were JQined together at birth and throughoat 



their lives, in much die same way as the late 
twins. 

Being curious to know whedier the custom is still 
kept up— after the lapse of more than seven centuries 
— ^m strict accordance with the terms of the bequest, 
I wrote to Mr. Bouroe^ the parish derk at Biddenden, 
and have received from him a very courteous reply, 
in which he says : — " The custom of giving away to 
applicants a quanti^ of cakes, bearing the impression 
representing them, is still kept up on Easter Sunday 
after the afternoon service ; and in addition, a number 
of loaves tS. bread, with a proportionate quantity of 
cheese, is dispensed to all applicants, being hana-fide 
residents of the parish. The weight of the loaves varies 
from year to year, according to the price of flouTi 
generalhr about a 4 lb. or 5 lb. loa£" 

Mr. Bourne has kindly sent me two of the cakes, 
but unfortunately they have arrived broken ; they 
would measure entire about 4 in. by 2{ in. thick, and 
are moulded to represent the original donors. 

£. Oakkliy Newman, F.R.H.S. 

[Mr. Newman has since kindly sent as one of the 
cakes in a perfect condition^— Ed.] 



^\<!^n 



A RAPIER. 

(iv. 231, 277.) 

The weapon which '< R. B. W." calls " a rapier" is 
an old Scottish claymore. I have a similar one in 
my possession* 

Tnqr were manufactured at Solingen, and imported 
in large numbers into Scotland. 

I vras in correspondence with the late Mr. Borland- 
Smith, at the time of hb lamented death, about this 
Question, but we had not arrived at any certain con- 
lusion as to the date. 

Like *< R.B.W.," I should be glad to learn the date; 
Mine has a part of the old figured leather scabbard, 
vrith steel mountings. 

E. K. 



( \^* t 



HERALDIC, 
(iv. «77.) 

Mr. Parker's ouery is easily answered. D is 
''eventual heiress^ in his first case, and " heiress in 
her issue" in his second. So much misconception 
prevails as to the heraldic term "heiress," that it 
mav not be out of place to attempt a comprehensive 
definition. 

An '* heiress" is a daughter who has no brothers, or 
whose brothers^ issue is extinct. If these conditions 
are only fulfilled after her death (and she has left 
children) she b then an " heiress in her issue."* No 
woman, of course, can be an heraldic heiress unless 
her fiither is entitled to bear aims. 

J. H. Round. 

\ 

* This would comprise all cases, except the occa- 
sional ones where (tfaroufi^ re-marriages) a dan^ter is 
heiress to her mraer, out not to her fiuher, or viu 
vend. In sodi cases the term brothers must be 
qualified by the proviso ixparU de pA kmres esi. 



lb 



TBB AM'tQUARY EXCSANGE. 



Mi^ft^M 



XTbe Hntfquan? fycbange. 



Enclose^, for the First 12 JVords, tmd id. for etuh 
Additional Thru Words. All replies to a number should 
he enclosed in a blank envelope^ with a loose Stamp, 
and sent to the Manager. 

Note. — All Advertisements to reach the office by 
the i$th of the months and to be addressed— Tht 
Manager* Exchange Department, Th& Anti- 
quary Office, 62, Paternoster Row, London, 
E.G. 

For Sale. 

South Carolina Bill for Seven Shillings and Six- 
pence, dated 1775.— A Five Dollar Confederate Note. 
—A Six (Spanish Milled) Dollar Note, 1777, and 
Two other U.S. Fractional Currency Notes. — What 
offers? — 145, Care of the Manager. 

Queen Anne ; Privy Council Letter to the Duke of 
Bedford, 1705; signed by Seven Lords. — What 
offers?— 147, Care ofthe Manager. 

A Block Print, in colours, of SS. Nicholas and 
Catherine. — What off"ers? — 148, Care of the Manager. 

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^ 



ST. VAlMtfTIlfSS DAY. 






iThe Antiquary. 



FEBRUARY, 1882. 

St V)aIcnttne'0 Bai^. 

By Prof. John W. Halbs. 

1 ROUND many names ideas and 
associationshave gathered, which 
would in all probability greatly 
surprise, or, indeed, have greatly 
rpriscd, the name-owners. Zadok, we learn, 
i never a Sadducee, Epicurus never an 
^icurean, Wilkes never a Wilkite. And 
e maybepretty sure that "Saint Valentine, 
Priest and ManjT," would vastly wonder at 
ihe customs that have for long centuries 
re^-ailcd on his day. " Valentine," as Alban 
hitler informs us, " was a holy priest in Rome, 
ibo, with St. Marius and his Entity, assisted 
' e maityis in the persecalioD imder Claudius 
:. He was apprehended, and sent by the 
mperor to the Prefect of Rome, who, on 
iding all his promises to make him renounce 
i faith ineffectual, commanded him to be 
saten with dubs, and afterwards to be 
iKheaded, which was executed on the 14th of 
Sfebruary, about the year a;o. Pope Julius I. 
"« said to have built a church near Ponte 
Hole to his memory, which for a long time 
ptve name to the gate now called Porta del 
?opolo, formerly Port> Valentini. The 
part of his relics are now in the 
Aurch of St. Praxedes. His name is cele- 
tated as that of an illustrious martyr in the 
'aeramentary ef Si. Gregory, the Roman 
mssal ef TtwtHOiius, in the Calatdar ef F. 
~ nlo, and that of Allatius, in Bede, Usuard, 
», Notker, and all other roartyrol<^es in 
a da^." 

Obviously, there is nothing in this brief 

* r to explain or justify the later customs 

Tved on the saint's death-day. And we 

' may say at once that the connection of such 

co slona mtit the name of Saint Valentine is 

vol. T. 



purely accidental Theydid not in any way 
originate with the saint; possibly they are 
far older; certainly in their rise they are 
quite independent of him. For certain 
reasons, to be presently mentioned, they 
prevailed in February ; and as it happened 
the saint's day fell in February. And it was 
in this way that the saint's name and such 
alien customs were brought into contact ; and 
so Saint Valentine became the Saint of 
Lovere, 

There are indeed traces, and more than 
traces, of far other duties appertaining to the 
Saint. He is said to have been subject to 
attacks of epUepsy, and after his death to 
have been regarded as the special patron 
of epileptic persons, it being thought, we 
suppose, that having himself had experience 
of the disease he would be likely in 
the other world to take a tender interest In 
subsequent sufferers from it, and to make 
earnest intercession for them. And so, 
according to Adelung, c^u/i Hampson's Afaiii 
j£,vi Caiatdariutn, epilepsy is known in some 
German dialects — particularly in Upper Ger- 
many — as Valentine's Sickness, and also 
Veltins- Dance. In Bamaby Goer's transla- 
tion of A'iwyiwpM' Pof'Uh Kingdom {1570), 
we are told that — 
Stint Valentme bcsde to ndt atdo bli power 
The alHiw tickncn Knds, ud bdpi the mao Aat 

(The words of the original, Rtg. Pap. iii, 
are: 

Pom) Valentiiias morbuin iprctoribai iddit 
Ucrcalnun, uuUinmcoamimploiaiilibiis aflcit.) 

And so Burton, in his Anatomy oj Mdan- 
eJiofy, discussing the question " whether it be 
lawful to seek to saints for aid in this disease" 
— that is, in melancholy — remarks how " the 
Papists on the one side stiffly maintain how 
many melancholy, mad, demoniacal persons 
are daily cured at St. Anthonie's Church, in 
Padua ; at St Vitus, in Germany ; by our Lady 
of Lauretta, in Italy ; our Lady of Sichem, in 
the Low Countries ; qufe etc£ecislumeu,3cgTi5 
salutem,monuis vitam,claudisgressumreddit, 
onmesmorbos corporis, atumicurat,et in ipsos 

demoncsimperiumexercet They have 

a proper saint almost for every peculiar in- 
firmity ; for poison, goats, agues, Petronella ; 




ST. VALBNTmES DAY. 



Si. Romanus for such as are possessed ; 
VaUntine for Ihe falling sickness ; St. Vitus 
for mad men," &c. (" On Si. Vitua's Dance" 
sen p. 90 of 1836 edition of Burton, and 
Hecker's EpiiUmks of the Middle Ages). 

Brand quotes from a French almanack of 
167a-. "Du 14 Fevrier, qui est le propre 
jour Sainct Valentin on souloit dire— 
Saigmfe du jour Saincl Valentin 
Fiict du sang net soir cl matin ; 
Et Li saigniedu jour devant 
Garde de fitvres en toutl'aii." 
Ben Jonson protests against the saint's 
degradation by the popular associations of 
his day : Bishop Valentine, he says, in The 
Tale of a Tub — 



mplc to do deed of charity, 
: huneiy, clothe thenaked, visit 
The weak and sick, to entertain the poor. 



And give the dead a Christian [iineral ; 
These were Ihe works of piety he did practise 
And bade us imitate ; not look for lovers ; 
Or handsome images to please oui senses. 

It is not the popular aspect of the saint that 
is in Halt's mind when in the fourth book, 
I. i. of his Virgidemiie he writes : — 



3. But whatever other aspects Saint Valen- 
tine may have been regarded in, whatever 
other functions he may have discharged, it is 
certainly as the Saint of Lovers that he was 
most commonly known, at least in England ; 
(Simrock, in his Handbuch der deutschcMylluh 
logic speaks of England, North France, and 
the Netherlands, as the special " Valentine" 
districts) ; and we will now explain how this 
association came about. 

Briefly, it came about in this way : it was 
the popular belief that in or near the middle of 
February (let it be remembered that in the 
" Old S^le" this would fall later in the year, 
*>., nearer the spring-time than now) — birds 
paired ; and it was thought that human beings 
should follow the exampleof the feathered and 
should likewise pair. 
In the spring a young man's fancy lightly tams to 
thoughts of love. 
Saint Valentine's Day falling just then, the 
medieval mind, in the habit of assigning all 
departments of life to superintending saints, 
naturally connected this pairing season with 
the name of Saint Valentine. 



Let us first illustrate the popular belief just 
mentioned, and then speak of the observances 
and fashions that came to prevail in hurnan 
society. 

In his Assembly of Fowls, Chaacer de- 
scribes, as the name of the poem indicates, a 
great gathering of birds ; every bird, he says, 
was present : — 

For Ihb was on Saint Valentine's Day, 
When evety fowl cometh to chose his make, 
Of every kinde tJiat men thinkc may ; 
And that so huge a noise ganne Ihey make. 
Thai earth, and sea, and tree, and eveiy lake 
So full was, that unnelhc was there space 
For me to stand, so full was all the place. 
And right IS Alain in the Plaint of kind 
Deviselh Nature of such array and face. 
In such array men might her there find. 
This nohle Empress, ftdl of alle grace. 
Bad every fowl to lake her ownc place. 
As they were wonl alway fro year to year. 
Saint Valentine's Day to slonden there. 

After a full description of a special strife 
as to with whom a certain " formel eagle^ 
shall pair, during which the other birds grow 
somewhat impatient, the poem continues 
thus :— 

And when this werk all brought was lo an end. 
To every fowl Mature gave his make 
By even accord, and on their way they wend; 
And, Lord ! the bliss and joy that they make I 
For each of them gan other in his winges uk^ 
And Willi their neckes each gin other wind. 
Thanking alway the noble goddess of kind. 



The note, I tiou'e, maked was in France ; 
The woides were such as ye may here find 
■The nexlc verse, as I have now in mind. 

Qui hien aimc, a tarde oubUe — 
Now welcome, summer, with thy sonne soft, 
That hast this winter wealher'a overshake ; 
Saint Valentine, thou an full Ugh on hDft, 
Which drivcst away the longe nighlei black — 
Thus singeii smnle towles for thy sake ; 
Well have they causa for to gladden oft ; 
Since each of them recovered halh his make, 
Full blissful may they sing when they awake. 

Again, in the Cotnplaint 0/ Mars and Venus, 
Chaucer refers to this great bird festival : — 

"Thegladenight is worth an heavy morrow," 
Saint Valentine, a fowl thus heard I sing 
Upon your day, ere the sun gan up spring. 
Vet song this fowl : " I rede yoil ail awake ; 
And ye that have not chosen in humble wise, 
Withoute repenting choseth your make. 



Sr. VALENTINES DAY. 



43 



Yetittibis 

And fe tint iHcve fidl daosen as I derise^ 
Coafizaedi it pcipctiuJI^ to dnre. 
Aid paaentff tiherii joor svcutiire.'' 

In the CjkIm^ ««/ N^kUngale, a poem 
tfiat used to be amibnted to Chancer, bat 
wfaidi is of kter date, the wrher, whoever it 
was, desczibes a br^t May moming, with 
tiie birds *'tEq>ping oat of their bowets," and 
rejoicing in the dajli^: — 

Tliey pnmed dioii* and nsKle diem ri^ gay. 
And daaoedea and Ifpteu on tbe ^xay. 
And eramore two and twom fere. 
R%iu » as tliqr had daosen dieai to year. 
In Fevcrae npon Saint Vakatine's Day. 



So in the MidsMmwur Ni^s Drtam^ on 
finding the lovers in the wood, Theseos 



St. Valentine is past ; 
Begin theK woodbods bat to oonple nov? 



^ And Drayton, in a song to his Valen- 



Mnse^bidtibe 



£acli biid dodi chooee a nnte^ 
TUn daj^ St. Valentine's. 
Getnp^ andktnssee 
What bcaitty it shall be 



Each fittle biid, tkis 
DoA choose her loved peer. 



In wcdiocfc an die year. 
As Natnre is their ginde. 

So amy we two be tnie 
This year, nor donee fcr 
As turtles oonpled are. 

And Dome, in his Epithalaniiam in honoor 
of die PiiDcesB EExabedi and the Coont 
Palatine, who were married on St Valentine's 
Day:— 

Hail, ffiihnp Vakndne ! whose day this is 
AH the air ■ d7 <fioocse^ 
And an the chnpini^ cboRsters 
And other biids are tby 



The lyxic lark and the gExve wldspering dove. 

The sparzow diat nqgiects his life for love. 

The hoosebold biid widi the red stosachcr ; 

Thon nak'it the blackbird speed as soon 

As dodi the goldfinch or the halcTon ; 

The hu%>Mn i [ cock looks oat, and stxa^j^ is sped. 

And mates his wiie, which brings her feadier- 



This day mofe cheerfiifij Aan 
Tl«.d.y, which nngfe 



^ysdf, old 



And Herrick, in lines to his Valentine on 
St Valentine^ Day :— 

Oft have I heard bodi yooth and vngins say 
Birds dHse their mates, and conple, too^ ths day ; 
But by thevm|^ I never can divine 
When I shall couple with my Valentine. 

And so, not to go on quoting for ever, 
Cowper, in Fmrimg Tiau AjitidpaUd; — 

It chanced, dien, on a wmter's day. 
But wazm and lx%fat, and calm as Hay, 
The birdsi c u nce iviu g a design 
To forestall sweet Saint Valcnfmr, 
In many an orchard, c o |]ae^ and giove^ 
Assembled on affiuxs of love. 
And, with mnch twitter and nmch chaftcr. 
Began to agitate die mattci^ 

It is dear, then, dot St Valentine becaae 
associated widi ^ great festital of birds, 
and, as we hare said, this assoriati on was 
doe to die accidental occnnence of his di^ 
about the time of die pairing seascm. How 
the h""**" cddxation was sugg e ste d by that 
of die birds, is wdl expressed by the writer 
of lines, ** To Dorinda on Valentine's Day," 
to be foond in avidimie entitled Saijrs ^f 
BmUa» iwuiaM, wUk aOur F§ems^ 1696, 
quoted by EDis in hb editioQ of BouMfi 
Pltfwlsr AMtifUMtui : — 

Look how, ny deax^ die foadMxed kind, 
Bv nmtnal caresses jooied, 
BiO, and seem to teach ns two 
What we to lote and cB S tan i owe. 

Shall only yon and I forbear 
To meet and make a happj pair ? 
Shan weakoedday to hTe? 
This day an age of bbs amy give. 

And, again, in certain fines in Tkt Britisk 
AfoOo^ also afmd Ellis's Bcancfs/V- Amt, :— 

Why, Valentine's a day to 

Amisties, 

Hay I my 



« 



To 

And oonpie like ti^ 

We win add what Baiky says of Valentines : 
(In England) about dits time of the year 
(Feb. 14) die Birds chose their Mates : and 
probably thence came die custom 6i die 
yoong Men and Maidens choosing ValaUina, 
or special kmng friends an. this day^ (^^g- 
Dia^ 13th cd^ i759> 

3. We have now to consider in what 
manner die festival dms or^inated was kept 
—what rites and 4 usloiitt came to form part 
of its observance* 

E a 



Sr. VALENTINES DAY. 



As the birds paired, so youths and maidens 
were to pair. A sort of alliance to last a year 
was to be formed, with more or less of hope 
that it would be more than temporary — 
would be for life. Persons standing in such a 
relation to each other were called Valentines. 
It was understood that they should exchange 
presents, or, at least — the custom altered in 
course of time — that the gentleman should 
make a present to the lady. Probably 
enough the presents were often accompanied 
with verses; and, in course of time, the 
verses went without the present — the verses 
became the present. 

Our literature abounds in allusions to and 
mentions of this custom. We have already 
quoted from Chaucer's Assembly of Fmvls, 
where, though he talks of birds, he has evi- 
dently human lovers in his mind ; and a 
question of considerable interest for Chau- 
cerian students is, what particular lady withher 
suitors is there denoted. Cower in his thirty- 
fourth Balade, speaks of the bird-gatherings 
with a like inner meaning. Lydgate, Charles 
Due d'Orleans, the Pas ton Letters, Buchanan, 
Spenser, Pepys, Gay, Goldsmith, and endless 
' Other writers and documents refer to the 
I custom ; Shakespeare, Drayton, Donne, Ben 
Jonson, Herrick, we have already cited. 

One of the oldest, if not the oldest, direct 
references is given by Mr. Halliwell-Philltpps, 
in his invfiaMeDictionaryofArckaicanil Pro- 
vincial Terms, from MS. Harl. 1735, f. 48 : — 
Thow it be alle other n-yn, 
Godya blescyng have he and niyn. 
My none genlyl Volonlyn, 
Good Tomas the frere. 
Friar Tliomas was clearly one who was not 
thought by the writer to cut himself off from 
secular frivolities, or to be indifferent to 
creature comforts. These lines form a 
V 'nlentine in the modem acceptation of the 
Ijenn ; and are, perhaps, the oldest specimen 
I ■extant. Such as they are — valentines are 
J not, as a rule, famous poetry — they seem 
I to have been composed by one John Crop- 
' hill, of Suffolk, who flourished icmp. Henry 
IV. They are, therefore, older than the 
" Valentines" of Charles due d'Orleans, 
_which are mentioned and quoted from by 
Douce as the earliest specimens of this kind 
of writing {Illustraiions of Shakespeare, pp. 
47i-i», ed. 1839). 



As Spenser will have it, Cupid holds his 
court every St. Valentine's Day : — 

unto the whicli all Iotcd do resort. 
That of their love's success Ihey there may make 

And, with his characteristic gracefiil fluency, 
he describes one of these sessions : — 



\t other violence despoiled. 

Then found he many missing al his crew. 

Which woni do sail and service 10 his mighl, 

or whom what was becomen no man knew. 
And he proceeds to investigate the cases 
of such defaulters, and especially of one 
Mirabella, in whom it is commonly thought 
the poei imaged a feir maiden who had 
turned a deaf ear to his own ardent vows. 

Let lis pass, for a moment, to those curious 
documents. The Pas/on Letters, which carry 
us back with such wonderful reality into the 
England and the eastern counties of the 
fifteenth century. In the third volume of 
Mr.Gardner's excellent edition, the publication 
of which is not the least of Professor Arber's 
manygood services for English literature, there 
are several references that concern the sub- 
ject of this Paper. About the close of 1476, 
or early in 1477, there begins to be enter- 
tained a marriage between Mistress Maigeiy 
Brews and Mr. John Paston. Dame EUza^ 
beth, Margery's mother, is anxious it should 
be accomplished. The young man's fervour 
seems lo have been tempered by pecuniary 
considerations ; he thoi^ht papa ought to do 
rather more than he was willing to do. The 
girl herself was evidently warmly attached to 
tliis calculating suitor ; and for some time 
the matter is in debate, often in danger of 
being broken off, but ending happily — ending 
in a marri^e at least. 

And Cosyn [writes my lady in Fehniary, 1477], 
upon Friday ii Sent Volcniynes Day, and erei^r Kid 
cnoselh hym a mate ; and if it like you to come en 
Thursday at night and so purrey you that yc may 
abide there till Monday, I trusty 10 God that ye shall 
so speak lo mine husband ; and I shall pray that we 
shall bring the matter lo a conclusion. 

Next we have a letter from Margery herself 
—a fifteenth-century " love-letter." John 
had accepted my lady's inviution, and 



57: VALENTINBS DAY. 



45 



I chosen his mate, and is now the daughter's 
" Valentine." 

Right reverend and woislmjful xnd mr lighl well- 

beloved VaJenline (vtites Maij^ery], 1 reo:imiacnd 

— -■o you, full heartilj desiring to bear of jrour 

, which I beseech Almigiilj God long for to 

, , e unto His pleasure anil j^ui bean's desire. 

1 And if i[ please you lo hear of my wclfire, I am 

~ot in good heal of body nor of hurt, nor shall be 

U I hear from you. 

I And then she seems to try her hand at a 

rime or two. Clearly, John had possessed 

I himself of her heart, whatever in that way 

. he was ready to offer, or had to give, in re- 

But with all her affection for him she 

was no mere idolater ; and in the next letter, 

I of which we quote some passages, she tries 

to make it plain to him that he had better 

, not come again to sec her if he will not modify 

[ his conditions ; John, indeed, had threatened 

I to let the affair drop, if Sir Thomas Brews 

I would not modify his. 

Kight woFshipfuI and well-beloved Valentine, in 

P aif most umble wise I recomwetid me unto you. 

J • . . . And as. for myself I have done and onder- 

i ttuid in the matter that I can or may, as God 

I boweth ; and I let you plainly understand that my 

I father will no more money part with all in that t>e- 

I Wf but oil C/i'[/loo] and/nnr^, which is right 

I. far fro the accomplishment of your desire. Wherefore, 

■ V thai ye could be content with that good and my poor 

pencn, I would be the merriest maiden on ground. 

Xnd if je think not yoaiself so satislied, or that ye 

n^ht have mech more good as 1 have understood 

L fcy you afore, good true and loving Volenline, Itiat 

f [£<•■ I b^ that — her grammar somewhat tailing her, 

I poor soul, in such troabie] ye take no such laborupon 

— n OS to come more for that matter ; but !et is [it ?] 

u and never more to be spoken of, aa I may be your 

:e lover and beadwoman during my life. No more 

Baoto you at this lime ; but Almighty Jesus preserve 

— a both Ijody and soul, &c. 

By your Voluntine, 

Margsbv Brews. 

4. The question now to be examined is 
I what way or ways in the old days was 
's relationship of Valentines arranged and 
mined. 

' Probably in some cases it was a matter of 
'tee choice; most commonly it was settled 
r drawing tots, sometimes by methods of 
■ 1 (so says Mr. Halliwell-PhiUipps, 
ind he speaks with authority) ; fourthly, the 
'rst unmarried person met in the morning of 
' the day was to be one's Valentine. 

The most common method was certainly 
of drawing lots. From Lydgate to Misson, 



a French traveller in England of Queen 
Anne's time — /.c, from the beginning of 
the fifteenth century to the bi^ginning of 
the eighteenth — references to this method 
abound ; and I daresay both earher and later 
references might be discovered. I speak 
according to what I have myself noted, or 
found already noted. It is often said to be of 
Roman origin ; or perhaps one ought to s.iy 
that Douce asserted it to be of Roman origin, 
and subsequent writers have repeated what 
Douce said. *' It ivas the practice in ancient 
Rome during a great part of the month of 
February to celebrate the LupitxaHa, uhicb 
were feasts in honour of Pan and Juno, 
whence the latter deity was named Feimata, 
Fibruaiis, and F^rulla^ On this occasion, 
amidst a variety of ceremonies, the names of 
young women were put into a box from 
which they were drawn by the men as chance 
directed," &c. (Ultislralions of SAakaptare, 
p. 470). ^Vhat is Douce's authority fur this 
statement? I have found none; and my 
friend Dr. Leonard Schmitz, the learned 
writer of the article Luptrcalia in Smith's 
Dictionary of Grak and Roman Antiguitits, 
has been good enough to inform me that he 
cannot find "the slightest trace" of any such 
custom. Certainly one would expect the 
Feast of the Purification, rather than that of 
St. Valentine, to exhibit some reminiscence 
of the Feast of Jimo Februata. Douce's 
langu^e in the passage quoted is otherwise 
inaccurate; for theLupercaliawas celebrated 
on a definite day — viz., February 15. And 
in the context Douce shows a certain 
tendency, once common enough among 
scholars and by no means yet extinct, 10 
exaggerate Roman influence on Teutonic 
life. That this custom of drawing lots for 
lovers is of Roman descent has yet to be 
proved. It seems scarcely necessary to go 
to Rome for it. 

To turn to some literary illustrations ; as 
Lydgale : — 

Saint Valentine, of euslora year by year 

Men have mi usance in this r^on 
To look and searche Cupid's kalendet 
And choose (heir choice by ^eat aHedion, 
Such as ben pnck by Cupid s motion. 
Taking their choice as their sort doth fall ; 
But I love one which exccUelh all. 
In Privy Purse Expenses ef tin Primtss 
Mary, of her afterwards so miserably known 




as "Bloody," edited by Madden, we find 
this entry in February, 153^ t "Item, given 
to George Mountejoy drawing my lady's 
grace to his Valentine." And on p. 97 in 
the Inventory of ytwels is mentioned " a 
broach of gold enamelled blaclc with an 
Agate of the story of Abraham with iii. small 
rockt rubies," which the margin states to 
have been " given to Sir Antony Brown 
drawing her grace to his Valentine." And 
so Drayton, whose charming lines to his 
Valentine may be found quoted in Chambers's 
Book of Days, if they are not elsewhere 
accessible ; — 

Let's laugh at Ihem that choose 

Their valentines b; lot, 
To wear their names that ose. 

Whom idly they have got. 
Such poor choice we refuse. 

Saint Valentine, berriend. 

And Buclmaan, in his Valentiniana : — 

Festa Valentino redlil lux; frigora languent ; 
Et liquat horrentes mitior aura nives 

Pabula persultant \x\.x pecudesque fercque ; 
Qutsque sibi sodam jam legit ales avenu 

Inde ubi dominam j<er sortes quierere in annum 

Mnniit nb antiquis mos repelitua avj^. 

I .Qaisque \tpX dominam quam caslo observet amore, 

I I Quam nitidis sertis ob»equioque colat, 

' Mitfere cui possit blandi munnscnla veris, 

PaUcntes violas, purpureamque rosam. 

Qoxque Euis vicibu^ i;ascentia sutRcil annus 
Munera lempotibus non aliena suis, 

Pepys' Diary contains several entries to 
our purpose. Thus, in 1667, he writes: — 
This morning [February 14] came up to 
my wife'5, bed side (I being up dressing) little 
Will Mercer to be her Valentme, and brought 
her name written upon blue paper in gold 
letters done by himself, very pretty ; and we 
were both well pleased with it But I am 
also this year my wife's Valentine and it will 
cost me Ji^s ; but," he thoughtfully and self- 
consolingly adds, " that I must have laid out 
if we had not been Valentines." And on 
the i6th : " I find that Mrs. Pierce's little child 
is my Valentine, she having drawn me : 
which I was not sony for, it easing me of 
something more that I must have given to 
others. But here I do first observe the 
fashion of drawing mottoes as well as names, 
so that Pierce who drew my wife, did draw 
also a raotto, and this girl drew another 
forme. What mine was, 1 forget; but my 
wife's was 'most courteous and most fair;' 



which as it may be used or an anagram upon 
each name, might be very pretty." And 
there are other relevant passages, if our space 
permitted further citation from the famous 
gossip. It will be observed that our friend 
has two Valentines— holds the relationship 
to two persons— -viz., Mrs. Pierce's little child 
and Mrs. Pepys. A moment's reflection 
will show how this would happen — how this 
would generally be the case. Or we may let 
the French traveller) Misson, whom we have 
named above, explain it. We take the 
passage from Brand, giving it exactly as he 
gives it, with all its sins and imperfections on 
its head : — 

Valentin, la veille du 14 Fevrier,jour de S. ValcDtto, 
et lemps auquel loule la Nature vivanle tend i 
I'accouplement, les jeunes gens en Anglelerre et eo 
Ecosse auKsi, par nae eoflwme fort aneiennc, celebrent 
une petite FSie qoi rise au mcme bat. Nombn egat 
dc Gar(ons et de Filles se trouvent ensemble ; chaom 
et chacune ccrivent leurs vniis noms ou des nojn* 
empruntez sur des billets scparei, roulent ces billets et 
tirent au sort, lea Filtes prenant les billets des Gti^ns 
et les (jai^ns les billets des Filles, de sorte que 
cfcique Gar9on rencontre une Fille qu'il appelle sa 
Valentine, et chaque Fiile recontre im Gar^on qu'eUe 
appelle son Valentin. De cette maniere, (Jucun a 
double Valentin et double Valentine, mais le Valoilin 
s'attache plus k la Valentine qui Ini est echcne, qn'a 
la Valentine k laqaelle il est echll. Le sort ayaat 
ainsi assode le compagnie en divers couples, les 
Valentins donncnt Bals et Cadeaiu^ portent peadact 
plusiers jours sur le cceur ou sur In manche les billeli 
de leurs Valentines et assez souvent I'amour 5*7 boule- 
Celte petite ceremonie se pratique avec divetsite dans 
les diverses provinces, et selon les plus ou le moins de 
severile des Mesdamesles Valentines. OntienI encore 
pour aulre sorte de Valentin ou de Valentine, le 
premier Gar^n ou la premiere Fille que le basard fait 
renconirer dans la rue ou ailleurs, le jour de la File. 

It would not oflen happen that a lady and 
gentleman would draw each other. 

Several zealous pastors, as Alban Butler tells 
us, substituted Saint's names in the place of 
those of living and familiar men and women. 
Thus St. Francis de Sales "severely forbad the 
custom of Valentines, or giving boys in writ- 
ing the names of girls to be admired and 
attended on by them ; and, to abolish it he 
changed it into the giving of billets withthe 
names of certain Saints for them to honour 
and imitate in a particular manner." One of 
Bailey's definitions of Valentines is, " in the 
Church of Rome, Saints chosen on Saint 
Valentine's day as patrons for the year 
ensuing." 



Sr. VALENTINES DAY. 



47 



Mr. Halliwell-PhiUipps, as we have seen, 

mentions that Valentines were also appointed 

by "methods of divination" — i.e., by other 

methods than sortilege. But I am not sure 

that I have encountered any instance of any 

I snch methods ; though 1 have met with 

, Kveral allusions to the use of divination to 

discover who was destined to be one's Valen- 

I tine, which is a very different thing from the 

[ use of di\'ination for the appointment. There 

I world of difference between predicting 

I ftnd ordaining, between guessing and dccid- 

[ ing. Thus it is surely to an attempt to make 

I out who the Valentine will be, not to nomi- 

f nate and appoint him, that Herrick refers in 

these verses : — 

VirEins, weep rot ; 'twill come, when 
As (he, 10 yon'i! be ripe for men. 
ThCD grieve her nol, with saying 
She must no more a maying, 
Or by roaebuds divine 
WhoT! be her Valentine : 
Nor name those wanton reaks 
You've had at bactey breaks. , 
But now kiss her, and tbcn say, 
Take time, lady, while ye may. 

(Herrick seems to write as if only maidens 

I coutd take part in the pastime of February 

14, and this was probably the case at 

first J there was certainly no such exclu- 

siveness in Pepys' time, as we have seen j 

but perhaps Herrick means that only a 

maiden could use rhodomancy, if we may 

use such a word.) So, in the passage quoted 

by Brand from the Connoisseitr, the object of 

' the rites practised is merely to know before- 

' hand, not to appoint, the Valentine. 

Undoubtedly, a not uncommon and an old 
method was to accept for one's Valentine the 
first immatiied person — the first lady in the 
, case of the gentleman, and vice-versA — met on 
the morning of the eventful day. This 
method would seem to be the one referred 
to in one of Ophelia's songs in Hamlet: — 
To-morrow U. Saint Valentine's day, 

Alt in the moTTow bctime, 
And I maid at yonr window. 
To be yonr Valentine. 

That is, the speaker would present herself at 
the young man's window so as to be the first 
of her sex to attract his eyes. So, perhaps, 
in the first passage quoted above from Pepys' 
I Diary, " Little Will Mercer" becomes Mrs. 
Pepys' Valentine, as first seen by her on 



awaking. This method existed side by side 
with the " drawing" method ; and both are 
often mentioned together, as in Ben Jonson's 
Tale of a Tub. In that play Mistress 
Awdrey Turfe "did draw" John Clay, of 
Kilbum, for her Valentine : — 
Which chance it hath m taken her father and mother 
(Because themselves drew so on Valentine's Eve, 
\ifas Uiirly yeai) as they will hnve her married 
To-day by any meant. 

On the other hand, Lady Tub rides out in 
the morning to provide herself, availing her- 
self of the day and its custom to do a deed 
of charity : — 

Is the nng ready, Martin ? Call the Squire. 
This frosty morning we will take the air 
About the fields ; for I do mean lo be 
Somebody's Valentine in my velvet gown. 
This moniing, though it be a begpr man. 
Presently enters Dido Wspe. 
Lady T. How now Wispc ! Have you 

A Valentine yet 1 I'm taking the air to choose one- 
Wisft. Fate send your ladyship a lit one then. 
Laify T. What kind of one is that ? 
Wiipt. A proper man 

To please your ladyship. 
Lady T. Out of thai vanity 

That takes the foolish eye ! Any poor creature 
Whose want may need lay alms or courtesy 
1 rather wish. 
And then follow the lines quoted above as 
to what Bihhop Valentine's example should 
rather teach us. So in the passage from 
Misson and in the Pepysian extract we see 
both methods in use. Mrs. Pepys has three 
Valentines, one as first seen, one certainly by 
" drawing ;" the third, her husband, probably 
also by drawing ; if by choice, then three 
methods were in use at once. Gay, in his 
admirable SAepfierd^s Week, has a capital 
description of the " first seen" method : 
Last Valentine, the day when birds of kind 
Their pammours with mutual chirpings find, 
I tearty rose, just at the break of day, 
Before the sun had chased the slan away ; 
Alield I went amid the mominedew 
To milk my kine (for so should housewives do). 
Thee first I spied, and the first swain we see. 
In spite of Fortune shall our true love be. 
See, Lubberkin, each bird his partner take ; 
And canst thou then thy sweetheart dear fonakc? 
Perhaps, as the Greeks and Romans at- 
tached so much importance to the first object 
met when they crossed the threshold, we 
shall be assured that this method too is of 
classical origin. Some writers seem to forget 



48 



ST. VALENTINE'S DAY. 



that the English are Aryans as well as the 
Greeks and the Romans; and, Aryans or 
not, that they are quite capable of developing 
superstitions of their own. 

5. Such was the celebration of St. Valen- 
tine's day in "meny" Old England. Its 
customs had once, no doubt, their charm, byl 
in course of time they lost it. In the greater 
sensitiveness of modern society such a rela- 
tionship as that which existed between 
** Valentines" might well grow exceptionable 
and irksome. A lady might possibly enough 
find it somewhat inconvenient and annoying 
to have a gentleman, or two gentlemen, es- 
pedally allied with her for a year, the assign- 
ment being made altogether by lot. Such a 
relationship must have involved a more or 
less close intimacy, and given any one who 
would fain make the tie yet closer, excellent 
opportunities of attaining his purpose. We 
often talk of the lottery of marriage — that is 
to say, worldly-wise and experienced people 
do so ; but no lover thinks of marriage — at 
least his own marri^e — in that light He 
has heard, of course, that love blinds its 
votaries, and he readily believes that you or 
I were as blind as bats when we made our 
choice ; but for himself, as he steps confi- 
dently up to the "hymeneal altar, he has no 
misgiving; he holds himself to be the 
keenest-eyed and most discerning of mortals, 
and is convinced that his own admirable 
judgment has eliminated the element of 
chance. And so for the lady : she is per- 
suaded that her eyes are wide open ; that the 
suitor whom she has honoured with her ac- 
ceptance is a quite unique creature, reserved 
and set apart forher in some wonderful way, and 
fiilly tested and proved by her discriminating 
mind. In neither case is the idea of a lot- 
tery to be entertained ; in both cases such 
an idea would be highly repulsive. And so 
we say, with regard to the relationship we 
are considering : to have a Valentine— a 
special friend — assigned by lot must often 
have proved a trying arrangement. Chance 
must often have been unfriendly, and the 
issue perverse ; and the result would be that 
the connection would become nominal ; and 
so the custom would be honoured in the 
breach rather than in the observance. Again, 
the relationship must often have been found 
somewhat fettering and coercive. Designing 



kinsfolk might turn it, and no doubt often did 
turn it, to account. Valentines must ofien 
have felt themselves to be standing towards 
each other in a semi-engaged altitude, have 
seemed to have entered a sort of connubial 
ante-room, and to have left the open air of 
freedom and independence. And so, to say 
nothing of those immediately concerned, 
whilst matchmakers might be vastly well 
satisfied with this custom, in their eyes a fine 
piece of matrimonial machinery, other and 
more refined natures might well have their 
suspicions of it and be glad that it should 
become obsolescent and obsolete. Lastly, 
no doubt, the giving expensive presents con- 
tributed to its decay. These must have often 
amounted to a somewhat serious imposi- 
tion. We have already heard Mr. Pepys 
refer to this point, and elsewhere he refers to 
it. Thus, on Feb. aa, 1661, he writes: 
" My wife to Sir W. Batten's and there sat 
awhile, he having sent my wife half-a-dozen 
pair of gloves and a pair of silk stockings 
and garters for her Valentines." Feb. aj, 
166S : " This evening my wife did with great 
pleasure show me her stock of Jewells, eo- 
creased by the ring she hath made lately as 
my Valentine's gift this year, a Turkey stone 
set with diamonds ; and with this and what 
she had she reckons that she hath above 
£ 1 50 worth of jewels (say some ^^500 now) 
of one kind or other ; and I am glad of it, 
for it is fit the wretch should have something 
to content herself with." On April 26, 
1667, he notes that the Duke of York, being 
once Mrs. Stewart's "Valentine," "did give 
her a jewell of about X^oo ; and my lord 
MandeviJle, her Valentine this year, a ring of 
about ^300." Giving presents is a delightful 
custom, and the more people give, the better ; 
but there should be no constraint. The 
delight vanishes, if one cannot choose ; and 
one pays a tax, does not make a present 
This is why there is usually so little pleasure, 
nowadays, in dispensing Christmas boxes; 
they are for the most part merely a variety of 
Christmas bills, or another form of " rates." 

Whatever the cause or causes of the de- 
suetude, decay the Valentine observances did. 
What words can express their present miser- 
able degradation ? ■ 

One of the earliest " notes" of their decay 
occurs in Dudley Lord North's Forest of 



V 



ST. VALENTINE'S DAY. 



49 



yariities, pubUahed 1645. Writing to his 
brother, he says : " A lady of wit and ([ualilie 
whom you well know, would never put lier- 
■elf to the chance of a Valentine, saying that 
■he would never couple herself but by choice. 
The custom and charge of Valentines is not 
01 left, with many other such costly and 
idle customs, which by a tacit genera! consent 
we lay down as obsolete." So that in good 
society in the time of Charles I. the custom 
was already growing discredited. The Puri- 
tans, too, as might be expected from their 
go common — not universal — ungeniality, 
opposed it. "They solemnly renounced 
lemmas Day, Whitsunday .... Fairs named 
by Saints and all the rcranants of Popery 

Hallow Even, Hogmyne night, 

Valentine's £ven" (Law's Mimortals). 
(The " drawing" seems to have taken place 
on the eve of the day; see Ben Jonson's 
Tale of a Tii6.) This solemn renun- 
ciation, as might be expected from the de- 
testation Puritanism had secured for itself, 
probably gave some new spirit to the obser- 
vance of the day in the age of the Restora- 
tion. But on other than Puritanic grounds 
St. Valentine was doomed to lose his wor- 
ship and glory. All through the eighteenth 
century his rites were sinking into obscurity. 
A race was arising that knew him not, or knew 
him only as a saint unshrined and fallen. 

What words, we have already asked, can 
express his present miserable degradation? 
And every year seems to make it more com- 
plete. The word Valentine has long lost its 
personal meaning; it means now only a mis- 
sive, except occasionally in the unmitigated 
rubbish which stands for poetry in the said 
missives, where the old sense is now and then 
maintained. Thus, Jamieson defines it to 
be " a billet which is folded in a particular 
way, and sent by one young person to an- 
other on St. Valentine's Day." But these 
"missives," what are they? Whatever of 
good taste or of grace sunives in them — we 
speak, of course, of the general custom, not 
of any particular provincial or local usage — 
is to be found, we suppose, in such as are 
inlcTchanged between girls and boys, be- 
tween quite young children. So far as adults 
are concerned, these " missives" circulate, for 
the most part, in the lower middle class of 
society and the class below it ; and the ele- 



ment of burlesque and buffoonery predomi- 
nates in them. A Valentine nowadays is 
apt to be something offensive and rude — is an 
anonymous insult. So one must conclude 
from the things displayed by thousands in 
certain shop-wmdows in February. They may 
be safely described as the choicest produc- 
tions of quite graceless humour, of the 
clumsiest fun, of vulgarity unmixed and pure. 
St Valentine, it would seem, is supposed to 
give a license to be impertinent. But his 
name is taken in vain. The sooner such a. 
fashion becomes wholly extinct the better. 
How it was evolved from the older custom 
would be a curious inquiry, if our space 
permitted. 

In different parts of the country there are, 
or have been, some strange survivals or cor- 
ruptions. Mr- Thiselton Dyer mentions in 
his English Folklore that " formerly it was cus- 
tomary in Derbyshire forgirls to peep through 
the keyholes of housedoors before opening 
them on St Valentines' Day ; when, if for- 
tune was good to them, and they saw a cock 
and hen in company, it was regarded as a 
certain omen that the person interested would 
be married before the year was out" Douce 
speaks of an old ballad in which " the lasses 
are directed to pray cross-legged to St. Valen- 
tine for good luck." Miss Vonge, in her 
History of Christian Names, informs us that 
" at the end of the last century it was the habit 
at Lymington, in Hampshire, for each boy to 
send a sash on Valentine's day to the damsel 
of his choice, who was bound to return a 
band of ribbons to ornament his hat at ^Vhit- 
suotide." In Northamptonshire, we are told 
in Miss Baker's Northamptonshire Glossary, 
" the children of the villages go in parties, 
sometimes in considerable numbers, repeating 
at each house a ' salutation,' " some verses of 
which, along with two or three other odd 
Valentine customs, Miss Baker records. 

How greatly our Literature is illustrated by 
some knowledge of the usages of which a 
brief account has been given in this Paper, 
has been pretty clearly shown. A full and 
intelligent scrutiny of them could not fail to 
help us in understanding and interpreting the 
life of our forefathers. Trivial as they may 
seem in their best days, and debased as they 
have become in later times, yet they have in 
some sense embodied the traditions and be- 




52 



THE ROMAN VILLA AT MORTON. 



with a cock's head, we must, I think, be 
forced to accept this figure as the whim of the 
artist or the designer ; a humorous represen- 
tation or caricature of something ; and, if so, 
most probably of Anubis. The figure of Anu- 
bis, in or before a temple,* upon the coin of 
Tetricus Junior, could never have been 
selected without consideration, for t!ie en- 
graving of dies for a coin demand both 
artistic skill and mental reflection ; and it 
seems almost impossible that Anubis should 
here be given unless he, as well as Serapis, was 
worshipped in both Gaul and Britain. Both 
coins and inscriptions testify to the common 
adoration of Serapis in these provinces. 

In the panel in the larger room is a 
draped female figure in the attitude of sur- 
prise or alarm, and a nude male figure hold- 
ing the bipennis. These I am inclined to 
inlerpret as Achilles and the daughter of 
Lycomedes ; and it may be that the same 
subject is intended in the mutilated panel of 
the adjoining angle. 

The pavement, representing Oq>heus, is 
the latest found of a very popular subject, of 
which there are several good examples in this 
country ; and many in France, Germany, and 
Italy. One of the best is preserved in the 
Museum of Laon, stated to have been dis- 
covered at Bazoches. A well-drawn figure 
of Orpheus, a little under life size, is seated 
between two trees playing on a well-defined 
lyre resting upon a table covered with a 
cloth. The drapery both of the table and 
of the figure of Orpheus is gracefully 
arranged ; and the shadowing of the folds 
soskilfullyexecuted, that, at a short distance, 
the composition has the effect of a fine 
painting. Upon one tree sit a partridge, a 
peacock, and a bird like a rook ; upon the 
other, an owl and a woodpecker. On one 
side stand a boar, a bear, and a leopard ; on 
the other, a horse, a stag, and an elephant ; 
all well characterized. The borders are filled 
with fish and various designs. In certain 
parts, as, for instance, in the plumage of the 
birds, coloured glass has been used, a 
material to be found in all of the higher 
class tessellated pavements. t The myth of 
Orpheus did not share the common fate of 
Pagan representations at tlie hands of the 

* CoHtcianat Aniifia, voL v. pL xxviii, fig. S. 
t /Wi/.t vol. vi. p. zgi, , 



early Christians ; it was tolerated and soon 
adopted. 

Some of the wall paintings were elegant, 
especially those of one of the rooms, of 
wiiich an example has been present It 
represents a birdiwell designed and coloured, 
reminding us of the decorations of one of 
the apartments of the villa of the younger 
Pliny, which he describes as painted with 
birds among foliage. Of this and some of 
the other designs, Mrs. John Thorp has made 
e.vc client illustrations. 

While excavations are yet proceeding at 
Morton (suspended only for the winter) it is 
premature to compare the extent and arrange- 
ment of the villa with others. Captain Thorp 
has reasons for believing that much towards 
the north-west has yet to be laid open. The 
nearest villas for comparison are those of 
Bramdean and Thruxton, in Ham])shire ; 
and Bignor, in Sussex. The first of these 
included two apartments of good mosaic 
work ; the one arranged in an octagonal 
series of busts representing the deities pre- 
siding over the days of the week, with a head 
of Medusa in the centre ; the others, in a 
central octagonal compartment, portrayed 
the combat of Hercules and AJitseus.* I 
am not sure if e.\cavattons were carried be- 
yond the rooms preserved ; but these were 
most carefully and substantially protected 
by the Greenwood family ; and the late 
Colonel George Greenwood spared no pains 
to protect them. Time, the eJax rerum, and 
public apathy,t a more fell destroyer, have 
been too much for the villa ; but the libe- 
rality of the owners has secured the remains 
of one of the pavements for the Winchester 
Museum. 

The villa at Bignor is one of the largest in 
this country, and it occupies some acres. 
Some of the more interesting and perfect 
portions have been preserved by the liberality 
and intelligence of the Messrs. Tupper, father 
and son, the proprietors. They have, for 

• See plates in ColUclanfa Antigua, vol, ii. 

t When Ihe British Aretixological Associstion 
held its second Conp^ nt Winchesier, it received, 
through me, ^d invitation to the Villa and to Brook- 
wood 1 but, to my regret, this vias superceded foi a 
profitless excavation of British barrows '"" 

Catharine's HiU, I shall ever 



alriul set 



J 



THE ROMAtf VILLA AT MORTON. 



SJ 



half 2 centuiT, sacrificed the produce of the 
land, at great cost, never ha%-ing been 
adeqoauly compensated by the public The 
nUa is not in die beaten track of fashionable 
life i and only the few eamest aichsologists 
visit it By the pedestrian it is best approached 
upon the Roman road, from Halnakcr, ceai 
Chichester, which is in good presenratioa, 
and from which, just before it descends the 
high ground opposite the village of Bognor, 
the site of the villa can be seen. Or, it 
can be easily reached from .\nindel by 
walldng across the downs in a direct line \ 
or by the longer and circuitous carriage road. 
The plan of the Bignor villa, like that of 
Woodchester, is more regalai than that of 
most of our villas ; but scarcely to be recon- 
ciled to the rules laid down by Vitiuvius as 
some have attempted to show, not considering 
the difference of climate and other influences. 
It is remarkable that under this villa were 
found walls that appeared to have belonged 
to an older building ; and similar evidence of 
two epochs have been noticed at Morton and 
in many other villas. The hypocaust over the 
wait, as shown in the plans of the Messrs. 
Price's " Description," is an instance. The 
long series of apartments to which this wall 
was an appendage, resemble in character and 
position those to be seen in the plans of other 
large villas. They must certainly, I believe, 
represent the buildings required for the gra- 
naries, the store-rooms, the sUbting, the stalls 
for oxen, and other necessary constituents 
of Pilia ntsHca, among which are to be looked 
for rooms for the latwjurers, and that most 
essential appendage, the bakehouse, which 
it is possible may be represented in the 
latest discovered apartment, No. jxd. of the 
Plan in the " Description." 



TTbe UraMtional 

Sirtb-placc of flDicbael Scot, 

tbc ^f3ar^. 

So single featuie in the aspect of an 
old country, as compared witli a 
new one, possesses more interest 
. to an intelligent stranger than the 
Tutlu, secular and ecclesiastical, which every- 



where adorn the Uodscape. The sources of 
this interest are veiy various. Some structures 
have important claimsin as srchttecttualscosc; 
others arrest the attention of the aotiqiuu7 
by their great age, their unique character, or 
other peculiarities ; while a sdll larger number 
are famous for the great ei-eots of which Acy 
have been the scene, or the historic names 
associated with them. Balwearic Castle, the 
subject of this sketch, belongs to what may 
be called the historical, or l^eoduy cate~ 
gory. It has its own interest, doubtless, as 
a venerable relic of the Middle Ages, and as 
a fair example of the fortified houses of the 
lesser Scottish barons of the period ; but its 
chief title to the regard of posterity is its 
association with the name of Michael Scot, 
the Wizard, who is said to have been bom in 
it early in the thirteenth century. 

The situation, on the south-east coast of 
Fifeshire, amid highly diversified scenery, is 
peculiar and interesting. Three or four smalt 
^■alleys, with gently-sloping uplands between, 
run in a north-westerly direction for a mile or 
two above Kirkcaldy (the birth-place of Adam 
Smith), flanked on the whole north-eastern 
side by the magiuficent woodlands of Raith. 
On one of these Hattish ridges, at the ex- 
tremity of a solitary, weird- looking, treeless 
road, is the old tower, or keep, described by 
Sibbald, in his History of Fife as " niinous," 
nearly two centuries ago. It is a little over 
thirty feet within the walls, of the usual type 
of the lesser baronial residences, the chief 
apartment, or hall, occupying the greater 
part of the middle floor, with two stories 
above, and two of a ruder sort below.* 
Only the eastern side now remains, with a 
small portion of the north and south walls, 
about one-half of the castle hanng fallen 
about a hundred years ago. This is the 
more surprising, as the remnant looks soHd 
enough to endure for ages. It is built of 
freestone of a peculiarly close and durable 
kind, and the quoins and other exposed parts 

* A conxtantly recwiog thoaghl in tzamiDin^ 
such tiny old castles, is how the onlinuj uncnilie* 
of life could be observed wiih the linilcd ■cconimodA. 
lion. There are very conflictbg opinions rciprdiiq; 
the amount of tdincincnt to be found in ihcsc txiXy 
households, Profeaot Cosmo Innes, in his work, 
ScaUattd i« Ikt JUidiUt Aga, presents a humilUliiie 
picture of the mde nuumen aiid habits utual among 
the small landvwnen at the period. 



54 



BIRTH-PLACE OF MICHAEL SCOT, THE WIZARD. 



are still sharply defined, showing no signs of 
decay. If the old ballad may be trusted, the 
castle was the work of a foreign mason ; and 
this is likely enough on other grounds. The 
hall must have been a handsome chamber, 
with pleasant recessed windows looking south, 
east, and possibly west The remains of 
one, apparently with transoms, and larger 
than the others, on the south wall, suggests 
the inference that the principal outlook would 
be in this direction. The building is about 
sixty feet in height, with a projectmg parapet, 
supported on a corbel course. From the top 
there is a limited view of the coast, the Bass 
Rock, and the German Ocean visible in die 
extreme distance. 

Anciently the castle, which is supposed 
to be about six hundred years old, was en- 
compassed by a lake on the south side, the 
bed of which is now a verdant valley. That 
this is no fancy is sufficiently proved by the 
physical conditions of the site, which would 
easily admit of a lake being again formed. 
But there is another bit of more direct evi- 
dence. The tenant of the adjdining farm, a 
gentleman bom on the spot, and in every 
way worthy from taste and culture to be the 
custodian of such an interesting ruin, pos- 
sesses a small sketch of the castle as it 
was about 200 years ago. It represents the 
building much more entire than it now is, 
with a lake reaching to the foot of the south 
wall A boat, with figures, is seen on the 
water, and on the margin of the drawing is a 
small chapel. Not a vestige of the latter now 
remains, but its existence is corroborated by 
a portion of the mullion of a church window 
found in the neighbourhood, and now in the 
possession of die gentleman referred to. 
What a singular verification of a once actual 
fact, but of which no other record exists, 
these two waifs from the stream of time 
present 1 An old rude picture and a little 
fragment of carved stone, both telling their 
story so plainly^ and each a silent witness to 
the truth of the other. They speak of a time 
when the lairds of Balwearie were great and 
extensive landholders, in the county where, 
territorially at least, their name is now un- 
known* And the lord of the broad domains,* 
of which Balwearie forms a part, may find, as 

* Balwearie now belongs to the Fergusons of 
Raith. 



he looks down firom his stately home, across 
the valley, on the ruins of six centuries, a fit 
theme on which to moralize on the vicissi- 
tudes of families. Here,fix)mLamont'8Z^»if7, 
is a little incidental note, possessing a certain 
touching interest, as probably the very last 
record of the family in their native district: — 

1666. An^t. — ^Robert Whyte, provest of Kiik- 
caldie, depairted oat of this life, at his howse ther, 
and was interred at the said chnrch* Angnst 6^ in die 
dajrtime. That same day also a daughter of tlie 
deceased Balweiny, sumamed Scot, above sixty 
years of age, never married, was inteired in the sa^ 
place. 

The account of the descent of the Scot 
family in Douglas* Baronage is, perhaps, a 
tolerable approximation to &e trudi ; at least 
we have been able to verify, firom cdier 
sources, many of the entries. The faxsSLy 
was for a long period an influential one among 
the lesser barons. A rather unusual drcnm- 
stance is that the estate was handed down 
direct firom father to son. during the whole 
period they flourished. But as Douglas 
sometimes only mentions the eldest son's 
name, it is not easy in every case to reconcile 
his chronology with that of other Imown 
occurrences. The interesting question, for 
example, of the exact relationship of Michael 
Scot, the Wizard, has never been satisfiic- 
torily explained. By some it is said he was 
the fourth laird, the son of that Sir Micliad 
who married the sole heiress of Sbr Richaid 
Balwearie of that ilk. Others think he was 
a cousin only. This latter hypothesis is 
the more probable of the two. A comparison 
of dates and occurrences shows that the 
philosopher could not have been either the 
second or third Sir Michael ; and besides, if 
he had been '' laird," it is very unlikely he 
would have remained abroad the greater part 
of his life. No actual evidence exists of his 
having returned home at all, although there 
is a tradition current in the district of his 
watching the stars from a lofty tower in the 
castle. That he is the Sir Michael who, 
with Sir Michael Wemyss, was sent to Nor- 
way in 1290, to bring home the grand- 
daughter of Alexander III., is utterly unten- 
able.. He was in the height of his &me at 
the Court of Frederick II. about 1230^ and he 
cannot therefore, be the same person who 
was an ambassador sixty years afterwards, 
still less the Michael Scot who, as we find in 







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56 



BIRTH-PLACE OF MICHAEL SCOT, THE WIZARD. 



Of the Balwearie ballads the principal is 
The Lammikin. Professor Aytoun, in his 
collection, suggests doubts as to the locality 
of the ballad, but we do not know if there is 
any good reason for scepticism on the point. 
Lord Wearie, whose castle is spoken of, is a 
proper enough designation, either of the 
Scots or of the Balwearies, the fonner 
owners. In Scotland, we need scarcely say it 
was, and still is, quite usual to designate pro- 
prietors by the names of their estates, and lord 
for laird was a very common usage as well. 
Whether there was ever any actual occurrence 
in the annals of the family corresponding to 
the dismal story embodied in the ballad is not 
known. Several readings are extant, but there 
is no essential difference between them. They 
all narrate, with the customary amplicity and 
directness of statement, the dreadful revenge 
taken by the mason who built Lord Wearie's 
castle, for neglect or refusal to pay him for his 
work- Here is the prelude to the tragedy, 
taken down from the lips of the peasantry of 
the district, but evidently modernized in the 
process of transmission: — 

Lammikin was as gnde a macon 

As ever hewed a siane ; 
He biggit (boill) Lord Wearie's outle, "' 

But wages c^l he mine. 



Tired of calling with his "litdebil!" a dia- 
bolical thought occurs to him, and with the 
help of a nurse (the fause noiurice), who had 
private wrongs of her own to avenge, he car- 
ries it out with hellish vindictiveness. He 
comes to the castle while Lord Wearie is away, 
and murders, with circumstances of much 
barbarity, the sleeping infant in the cradle, 
and then the mother. The latter begs for 
mercy; — 

" O mercy, mercy, Lammil^in 1 
Hae mercy upa 



He leaves the decision to the nurse, who 
turns down her thvimbs, and the poor lady 
shares the fate of her child. In the simple 
horror of its details the ballad is almost too 
painful for recapitulation, and we therefore 
only add that on Lord's Wearie's return, re- 



tributive justice overtook Lammikin and his 
accompUce : — 

" Come here, come here, (aUe nourrice, 

..S5' ■ " 

He hung her 
" Come here, come here, noo Lammikin, 

And I'!! gie ye ye're hire ;" 
The dear won hire he paid him. 
He bnint him in Ihe bre. 
Another compositionrefers to the alienation 
of some church lands, always a serious oflfence 
in the eyes of the priest. We have seen it in 
print, but it is undoubtedly modem. One 
stormy night a monk comes to Balwearie, and 
tlms anathematizes the household : — 
' ' My curse be now upon yis hoas, 
And on that tminiie near ye ; 
Lane \x ye bowels an' bare ye towers 
Of ye castelo' Balwearie." 
Havmg delivered himself of this pleasant 
commination he departed, lost his way, and 
perished in the snow near the castle. But the 
prophecy was fulfilled, 

" Bat, oh, his corse has been o'er trew. 
And nought on earth can checi me ; 
Our bonnie bairn d wined awa 
In ye caslel o' Balwearie."* 
By some compilers Balwearie has also 
been mentioned as Ihe scene of the balltd 
of " The Water of Wearie's Well," but on 
somewhat slender grounds. The lake, how- 
ever, already referred to, would suit some of 
the versions of the ballad. 

Many memories thus linger around this 
hoary tower. It is but a small text from 
which to preach so large a sermon, but a 
ruin like Balwearie is something more than 
so much stone and lime. History, legend, 
and poetry combine to shed on diis lonely 
spot an enduring radiance, for, like many 
other such places in all lands, it is forever 
associated with departed genius. 

T. HUTCHBSON.' 

1bf(}blan& Hmts an& 2>re00. 

|HE Society of Antiquaries of Scot- 
land were fortunate in obtaining 
the fine series of drawings of 
Scottish Antiquities which Mr. 
James Drummond left behind him at bis 
* A single verse — the heading of a chnpler of JW 
"flv— has cvidenUy been I' ' ' 

tllod has been conslructcd. 



HIGHLAND ARMS AND DRESS. 



S7 



death. The drawings of Sculptared Monu- 
ments in lona and the West Highlands were 
reproduced and issued to the Fellows of die 
Society in a volume which we have already 
noticed.* Messrs. Waterston obtained finom 
the Society permission to issue to the public 
facsimile reproductions of the series of draw- 
ings ot Scottish arms, implements and orna- 
ments, and the result is one of the most 
beautiful volumes ever produced by a British 
publisher.f The plates are both truthM and 
artistic The details are most carefully 
shown, and the grouping of the objects and 
the colouring are in exquisite taste. The 
publishers are also to be congratulated on 
the fact that they have induced one so 
thoroughly at home in his subject as Mr. 
Joseph Anderson to describe the objects and 
to write a general introduction. 

The Icdandic Sagas contain the eariiest 
allusion to the distinctive character of the 
Highland dress, and they relate how Magnus 
Okdison, theKlingof Norway,andhis followers, 
when they returned finom ravaging the West 
Coast of Scotland, " went about bave-legged, 
having short kirtles and upper wraps, and so 
men odled him Barelegs." This was in the 
year 1093. Little can be made out of the 
eariy sculptured monuments of the Celtic 
period, which are weatherworn and indistinct, 
and we obtain no definite information respect- 
ing the different garments worn by the High- 
landers undl the sixteenth century. From 
the incidental notices and descriptions 
gathered together by Mr. Anderson, " it may 
be inferred, though there is no precise testi- 
mony on die subject, that there were two 
varieties of the Highland dress — ^the belted 
plaid and the trews ; and that of these two 
the belted plaid was the older andmore general 
and distinctive. This was the conclusion to 
which Mr. Drummond came after an exhaus- 
tive examination of all the materials within his 
reach.** 

By the Act passea in 1747 prohibiting the 
wearing of the Highland dress, ''it was 
enacted that neither man nor boy, except such 

• VoL hr. p. 256. 

t AfuktU SetUUk Weapmu. A Series of Draw- 
ii^ by the late James Dminmood, R.S.A. With 
Introdactioii and Descriptiire Notes, by Joseph 
Andenon, Castodier of the National Museum of 
Antiqiitties, Edinboigh. (Geofge Wafcenton, Edin* 
Imzs^ and Londoo. 1881.) Folia 

VOL. V. 



as should be employed as officers and soldiers, 
should on any pretence wear or put on the 
clothes commonly called Highland clothes, 
viz., tiie plaid, philabeg or little kilt, trowse, 
shoulder-belt^ or any part whatsoever of 
what peculiarly belongs to the Highland 
garb ; and that no tartan or party-coloured 
plaid or stuff should be used for greatcoats 
or for upper-coats on pain of imprisonment 
for six months, without the option of a fine, 
for the first offence, and of transportation for 
seven years if convicted a second time." 
The belt-pouch or sporran holds a dis- 
tinguished place in the Highland costume ; 
one of these, preserved in the museum at 
Elgin, has the following distich engraved on 
its brass clasp : — 



Open my mouth, cnt not my 
And then yoa'U see what is therein. 

Most of these pouches have metal clasps, 
but some have a leather flap, and others are 
gathered up at the mouth, and have tags and 
tassels of twisted thong. Prince Charles 
Edward, when on foot in his (miinary dros, 
wore a purse of buckskin, embroided with 
gold and closed with a silver check-top ; bat 
when marching at the head of his army, and 
completely armed with broadsword and 
target, dirk and pistols, he wore a purse of 
velvet embroidered with gold and silver, hung 
with gold cords and tassels, and mounted 
with a gilt check-top, the semicircle of which 
was fitted with the royal arms and supporters, 
richly chased, and circumscribed below by a 
line of sQver firinge. 

Highland brooches in considerable variety 
are figured in Mr. Drummond's drawings and 
some of them are very beautiful in design. 
One has a large rock-crystal in the centre, 
round which is inscribed the distich : — 

De * serve and haif 
The * herin * babaif. 

On the same plate with this is afine represen- 
tation of the CUuhDearg^ a ball of rock crystal, 
mounted in two hoops of silver, with a loop 
for suspension. This has been long in the 
possession of the Stewarts of ArdvoirUch, and 
was formerly held in great repute in the neigh- 
bourhood as a charmh^tone for curing diseases 
of cattle. Very different finom these practi- 
cally useful brooches are the heartrsnaped 
silver brooches known as the lAickenlx>oth 



S8 



HIGHLAND ARMS AND DRESS. 



brooches, because they were sold in the 
Luckenbooths, the row of sheds which once 
stood under die shadow of St Giles's Cathe- 
^bral| in the High Street of Edinburgh. Some 
of them have such mottoes as : — 

Of cftithly joys 
Thoa art my chcMce ; 

or the inscription, ^'Ruth I and i6th/' an 
appropriate verse. 

We must now pass on to notice the arms 
and armour of the Highlanders. The here- 
ditaiy smiths and armourers of the chief 
towns had plenty of employment, although 
many of the armed men appear to have 
worn quilted leathern jackets^ known as 
galloglasses. 

In 1 318 it was enacted that persons worth J^io 
in goods should have an acton and bassinet, or a 
habergeon and hat of iron, with eloves of iron, a 
qpear and a sword ; while those who were worth a 
cow were each to possess a waoA. spear, or a good 
bow, with a sheaf of twenty-toor arrows. In 1448, 
persons coming to the Host, and worth £\^ of land, 
or forty merks in goods, were to have a horse, a hau- 
bexkin, a steel bonnet, a sword, and a da^er ; those 
worth between forty and 100 shillings of umd^ were 
eadi to possess a bow and arrows, a dagger, and a 
knife; such as were of less estate were to have 
gysarms (i.^., hand-axes), bows and arrows ; and all 
others, bows and arrows only. In the early part of 
die fifteenth centuiy, the scarcity of arms and armour 
in the country is indicated by the fact that merchants 
were enjoineid to bring home from each voyage 
harness, armour, spear-shafts, and bow-staves, in pro- 
portion to their merchandise. 

Disarming Acts were passed after the Re- 
bellion in Scotland^ and were so rigorously 
enforced, that the proscribed arms became 
very rare. Some were given up to tiie agents 
of Government, and others were taken to the 
forges and turned into working tools and 
other peaceable instruments. Targets were 
made to serve as covers to the buttermilk 
barrels. Highland targets of wood and 
leather, with brass bosses and most artisti- 
cally designed ornamentation, are well exhi- 
bited in a i^es of seven plates in this book. 
Swords of all kinds — the basket-hihed, tfie 
two-handed, with Andrea Ferrara and other 
blades — are admirably grouped. On one of 
these two-handed swords is this inscrip- 
tion: — 

I will venter selfe in batel strong 
To vindicate my master's wroing. 



A Highland dirk is distinguished firom 
other weapons of the same kii^ by its Icuig 
triangular blade, single-edged and thick 
backed. The handle is usually carved in 
knotwork, and is cylindrical without a guaidy 
die grip swelling in the middle. The eailiett 
mention of the dirk as a part of the Hiflii- 
land equipment occurs in 1512, when Jran 
Major described the laige dagger, sharpened 
on one side, but very sharp, which the High- 
landers wore under the belt Mr. Drum- 
mond figured a dirk, upon the one side of 
which was engraved the inscription ''A soft 
answer toumeth away wrath," and upon the 
distich :— 

Thy King and countries cause defend, 
Though on the spot your life should end. 

On another is engraved, '' Fear God, and do 
not kil. 1680." 

The powder horn is made of neats* honiy 
flattened and fitted with a wooden bottom 
and a plug for the mouth. The decomtiob 
of these highly-prized objects was most 
carefully attended to, and many of the 
designs are truly elegant Many of them 
have inscriptions, such as : — 



And— 



I love thee as my wyffe ; 
I*U keep thee as my lyffe. 

A man his mynd should never set 
Upon a thing he cannot get 



These two distichs are on one powderhonif 
which is dated 1689. 

Much might be said, if we hiayd the space, 
of the pistols, the richly deccnated mnsket 
stocks, the war axes, the Lochaber axe, the 
Jedbuxgh staff, the glaive and die partisan; 
all of which weapons are fully represented m 
Mr. Drummond's collection. Plates of die 
bagpipes, of the ''Queen Mary^ haip^ the 
Lsumont harp and the Irish harp, of methexs 
or drinking vessels, of spades, of the militaiy 
flail, of the caschrom, of the Swedidi feadier 
and of the Scottish distaff and spindle, close 
this magnificent book— a book which reflects 
the highest credit upon all those who have 
been employed in its production. 



THB TOMBS AT 



59 



tTbe tTombd at Cbilton. 




|H£ small Gothic Church of CHiilton, 
near Sudbury, Suffolk^ is lost away 
amoQgst corn-fields, and behind 
the organ of this church are lost 
away some of the finest miarble monuments 
in the possession of any church of like size 
and character. They are erected to the 
memory of the Cr;^e family, and teiribly 
battered they are. By pulling ofi" benches, 
and removing other rubbish, you may dis- 
cover the tombs c^ Lady Arundel and of 
Robert Crane, Lady Arundel being his wife, 
and widow of Sir Ralph ArundeL She has 
recently lost a nose and some fingers, whilst 
the dog at Robert Crane's feet has been lately 
attacked by some destructive marauder. 

Some items firom the will of this good lady, 
who lies here on the stiff Gothic tomb, are 
quaint and interesting; it was signed in 
1508:— 

First, I commend and beqneatlf my soul to Almighty 
God, to oar lady Saint Maqr, and to all the Saints in 
heaven ; my body to be boned in the Chapel annexed 
unto Chilton Church, by the grave of Rooert Crane, 
sometime my husband : if I die within thhtj miles of 
the said Chilton Church, I will that my body be brought 
and decently buried there. 

lUnu I assign to the high altar of Chilton Church, 
in recompensing of my duties negligently forgotten, 
six shillings and eightpence. 

Item. I will that every household in Chilton parish 
have twentypence at my burying, and other poor 
people one penny apiece, as far as forty shillings will 
stretch. 

Item, I win*yiat one mass be sung at Scala Celi 
in Rome for the souls of me, Dame Anne Arundel, 
Andrew and Alice, oiy fiither and mother, Dame 
Alices my grandam. Sir Ralph Arundel, Knight, 
Robert Cranc^ Esquire, sometime my husbands. 

Itim, I will have at my burying day six poor men, 
and I assign to each of them abU^ gown and black 
hood, and I assign for the gowns ajid hoods twenty 
shillings* 

Item, I give to Mistress Frances my best block 
gown furred with white. 

Item, I give to Margaret Hutton my best black 
gown furred with white. 

Item, I give to Elizabeth Balls my fur of grey and 
my best black gown lined with velvet. 

Item, I give to Frances my best worsted " kirtill," 
to pray for me. 

Item, I give my best blue velvet gown to Chilton 
Church, to make a vestment and tunykill for a 
deacon. 

Behind the organ is another marble monu- 



ment, massive in its structure, and interesting 

in its detail, to one Shr Robert Crane and his 

two wives, a person of considerable celebrity 

in the first half of the seventeenth century. 

The individual himself is kneeling on a 

cushion, between two women in devotion on 

either side, representing the two wives : but 

to the first of the three figiures only is an 

inscription put up ; Sir Robert and his second 

wife have been neglected by their survivors. 

This inscription, afler stating that Dorothy 

Lady Crane, daughter of Sir Henry Hobart 

of BIyckley, baronet^ and sometime Chief 

Justice of the. Common Pleas, died on the 1 1 th 

of April, 1624, has the following quaint 

rhyme: — 

Reader, listen, and give eare, 
Vertue lyes interred here ; 
Under me I hide it, then 
Seeke it nowhere amongst men. 
From the female it is gone^ 
Now that all are dead in one. 
Wonder not at what I say. 
Rather weepe, and hast away. 
Least that tnou a statue be 
With amazement, like to me. 
If thou readest with eyes dry. 
Thou a marble art, not I. 

Sir Robert was knighted by James I. at 
Newmarket, when eighteen, in 1605, and 
entered into public life i ith of December in 
that year, as a knight of the shire for Suffolk. 
He was a constant speaker in the House on 
behalf of his constituents ; nevertheless, he 
lost his seat at the following election, but was 
returned for the borough of Sudbury. 

In 1627, Sir Robert was made a baronet, 
in the hopes of attracting him to the Royal 
cause, but without avail, as he sat in the 
Long Parliament, and sigried the Protestation 
of the 3rd of May, 1641. Six monthsbefore his 
death he assisted at the escape of Lady 
Rivers from a mob at Long Melford, and for 
this cause was obliged to have a '^ trained 
band'* in his house at Chilton to protect 
him, Parliament man though he was. He 
died in February, 1643, and Lady Crane got 
Mr. Speaker's warrant to carry tiie body of 
her husband to Chilton, to place him imder 
the magnificent tomb he had prepared for 
himself as far back as 1626. 

The contracts for the erection of this tomb 
are interesting, and are to be seen in MS« 
Tanner 97. Gerard Christmas, a marble^ 

F % 



6o 



THE TOMBS AT CHILTON. 



carver of considerable note, was summoned 
fixym the parish of St Giles% Crippl^iate, to 
execute it 

The same to be perfonned and made of black 
maible and alabaster, according to tbe plot or draught 
thereof made, whereanto both tiie said parties have 
sabscribed their names. The said tomb or monunent 
to contain in breadth 7 feet, and in height proportion- 
able to the breadth according; to the said plot or 
draught. Provided always that the said Sir Robert 
Crane and his assigns do and shall deliver or canse to 
be delivered unto the said Gerard Christmas or his 
assigns tiie arms and epitaph to be engraven on the 
said monument within the space of one month next 
ensuing the date thereof. . .-. . 

The sum of twenty pounds of lawful English money 
to be paid in hand at me sealing and delivering hereof 
and thirty pounds of like lawful money, residue of the 
said sum <n fifty pounds, the next day after the said 
tomb or monument shall be erected. 

One of Sir Robert's four daughters by his 
second wife married a Walpole, and became 
ancestress of the Orford family. 

Considering the money spent by Sir 
Robert, and the artistic merits of all the 
tombs in this oigan-loft, hidden from the 
view of all save marauding chorister boys, it 
is a pity that measures are not taken for the 
preservation of the same. 

J. Theodors Bent. 




Clarence : tbe ® ddin, an^ 
Bearers of tbe ^itle/ 

By the Rev. Thomas Parkinson. 

|HE recent elevation, by her Majesty 
the Queen, of her youngest son, 
Prince Leopold, to the dignities of 
Duke of Albany, Earl of Clarence^ 
and Baron Arklow, has created a renewed 
interest in these ancient titles. The second 
one — that of Clarence-— originates from Clare, 
a small town, of great antiquity, in tlie 
county of Suffolk, and, to the antiquary and 
archaeologist, one of the most interesting in 
the kingdom. This place is almost unknown 
in modem times — its fame and interest rest 
entirely in the past. The illustrious name 
which it has inherited is among its chief pos- 
sessions. That name, imparted by it to its 
lords 800 years ago, was spread, by them, so 

* The substance of a Paper read by the writer 
before the SuffoUc and Essex Archasological Societies 
at Clare, August, 1868. 



far and wide, and became, through them, io 
incorporated in our national history and lite- 
rature, that in one, or more, of its forms it 
is ^miliar wherever the English language is 
spoken. 

^^Clare^ a town, a county, a river, m 
Ireland are so designated from thdr con- 
nection with Richaid de Clare, sumamed 
Strongbow, the conqueror (about X172) of 
a large portion of that coimtry. 

Clare Hall^ or College, Cambridge, rebuilt 
and endowed, in 1326, by Elizabeth de Clare, 
planted the name in that seat of learning. ^ 

'' Clarence^ the royal title, is an adaptatkm 
of the Latin Clarensis-^Dux Clarensis. 

ClarmcieuXf the designation of the SouAem 
King-at-Arms, adopted in the place of the 
older one of Surroy, is from the same 
source, and contains an intimation of the 
importance and extent of the castle and 
domain of Clarentia^ of which Lionel, son of 
Edward III., was, in a.d. 1362, created fiist 
Duke. 

The question arises, haw came the town by 
its '' bright" name ? Only conjecture can ht 
offered ; and that points to a Roman origin. 
Nothing seems more probable than tbat the 
word is the Latin ^^ Clarus^ '^ illustrioiis,* 
"bright," "clear," or "renowned.** If so 
we have in it strong evidence, strengthened 
by the presence of earthworks, supposed to 
have been a Roman camp, that it was a 
place known to that people, if not an 
"illustrious" town, in the days of their occnpa- 
tion of this country. The place certain^ 
possessed the name in the later Saxon timei^ 
and it is not one likely to have been best o wed 
upon it by either Angle, or Saxon, or Dane. 
It was in their times a border fortress be- 
tween the kingdoms of East Anglia and the 
East Saxons. In the reigns of Canute, 
Harold I., Hardicanute, and Edward die 
Confessor (a.d. 1017 to 1066) Clare was 
held by Earl Aluric or Afi&ic, the son of 
Withgar. 

The Norman William came; and he be- 
stowed the Lordship of Clare, and many 
other lordships in the county, upon Ridiard 
Fitzgilbert, of Briant, in Normandy. The 
entry in " Domesday Book," translated, is as 
follows : — 

The lands of Richard, son of Count Gilbert 
Aloric held Clare, for the manor, twenty-daie 



CLARENCE: THE ORIGIN, AND BEARERS OF THE TITLE. 



6i 



cancttesof laad, IB flie time of Kag Edwnd. At 
an times (there wis) a msiirft, and now (diere are) 
fortj-three b nrg es acs . Afauic, son of Wugar, Em 
this manor to Saint Jobn in tbe time of Kii^ 
Edwaid, Ins son aaenting dMreto^ and he set over s 
a oeitain priest, Ledmaz^ and others with him. Alio 
this gnat being settled, he oomnittBd the chmchand 
ereiy place to Abbot Levestan for safe keepo^ and to 
the protection of Wi^ his son. The denes were 
tnilj unable cidMr to give away or afie^e this hmd 
from SL John. But afiawaidSf Kag William came 
(and) he seiaed it into his own hands. 

Richard KtzGObcrt, tbe fisst lord to whom 
William thus gave the town and lofdship, 
resided chiefly at his casde of Tmibiidge, in 
Kent, and hoice was known as Richard de 
Tunbridge. He gave Clare to his son 
Gilbert Gilbert maJdi^ Clare his princqud 
seat, became known as Gilbert de Clare — the 
fixst of the De Clares. He was socceeded 
by his son, Richard de Clare, Earl' of Clare. 
Strongbow, the conqueror of Irdand, was the 
nei^iew of this man (beii^ the son of his 
brother, Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Pembroke). 
Earl Richard was slain in some fray in Wales, 
in AJ>. 1135, and was succeeded by his son, 
also namedjRidiard de Clare. 

Under each soooeeding monarch the fiunily 
grew in fiune and in power. At different 
poiods between a.d. 1070, and the early 
part of the fomteenth centmy, these De 
Clares, Lonls of Clare, were ateo Earls of 
Ttmbndge, Gloucester, Hereford, and Pem- 
broke. They held possessions in almost 
every part of the country south of the Trent, 
and especially in the west One of them 
(Gilbert the RedX who lived in the reign of 
the first Edward, is reported to have once 
told even that king, ''that though his majesty 
had two feet in England, he (the earl) had 
one." 

The casde at Clare was rebuilt, or enlarged 
and strengdiened, by members of the family ; 
as were ako the cables of Tunbridge, Abe- 
lystwith, Morlais, Haverfordwest, Cardigan, 
Cilgeran, Pembroke, and Caerphilly. Tintem 
Abbey had a Richard de Clare for its founder; 
while he, or others of die family, founded also 
the/Vuvirx of Wareham,Tunbndge, Carbrook, 
and Clare. The abbejrs and churches of 
Walnngham, Ety, and especially Tewkesbury, 
and others, owed nmch to their liberality and 
influence. In Dugdale's British TravdUr 
alone, diere are mentioned forty-three manors, 
churdies, or rdigious houses, with which the 



fiunily was coonected, and to many of whidi 
the diffiocnt membos of it were libenl 
patrons. 

"^ Richard de Clare, Earl of Clare and 
Hertlcxd," and ''Gilbeit de Clare, his sod. 
Earl of Gloucester,* were the two barons 
whose names stand fixst on thelist of twcn^- 
five i^)pointed, November 20, a.d. 1215, at 
Bury St Ednnmds,to enfixoe die observance 
of Magna Charta on King John. 

Earl Gilbert, sumamed tb; Red, succeeded 
to the earldom on his father's (Ridiard) deadi 
in A.D. 1262. He was allied with Simon de 
Montford against Hemy HI. ; and com- 
manded a body c^ troops at ^e battle of 
Lewes, ajx 1264, where he took the King 
of the Romans prisoner. He played a most 
important part during the last eig|it years of 
Henry's reign : now on the side of Mont- 
ford, now on that of the kii^. In a.d. 1265 
he arranged for the escape 0^ Prince Edward 
from the custody of the former. When that 
prince, in a.d. 1270, went on a crusade to the 
Holy Land, he deemed it most conducive 
to the peace of the kingdom to take Red 
Gilbert with him. And so he did. The 
earl, however, seems to have quickly returned; 
for wiien Edward was summoned bade, in 
A.D. 1272, to occupy the throne, vacant by 
his father's death, the earl was at home at 
his casde of Tunl»idge, where he received 
and entertained the Imig with such magnifi- 
cence, that, in spite of haste to reach his 
capital, Edward remained there several 
dajTS. 

During the greater part of Edward's rdign 
the earl was the most powerfiil baron of die 
kii^dom. He had married Ann, dai^ter 
of Cjuy, Earl of Angoul^e ; but, divorcing 
his wife, he married again, in a.d. 1290, 
7!mm ^Acre — so named from the place of 
her birth in the Holy Land— daughter of die 
king and his heroic wife, Eleanor of CastQe. 
The bride was then in her eighteenth year. 

The earl died five years afterwards, in 
AJ>. 1295. Joan married (secondly) one 
of the squires of her household, Ralph de 
Monthermer, and died at her Casde of (Hare 
at the age of thirty-four, in a.d. 1307. She 
was buried in the church of the Augusdne 
Friars there — " in a chapel of her own foun- 
dation." 

Scott, with a poef s license, makes one of 



62 CLARENCE : THE ORIGIN, AND BEARERS OF THE 7T1ZS. 



his heroines in Afarmum to be descended 
from this nobleman :** 

De Wilton and Lord Marmion wooed, 
Oara de Clare of Glo'ater'i blood. 

And she is twice made to allude with pride to 
this supposed descent : — 

Mamuon must learn, ere lon^ 

That constant mind and hate of wrong, 

Descended to a feeble giri, 

From H^ de dare, stoat Cloister's earl : 

Of snch a stem, a sapling weak. 

He ne*er shaU bend, although he break. 

And again, when dismissing her lover, De 
Wilton, to take his part in Flodden Field, she 
is made to say : — 

Go, then, to fight ! Clare bids thee go ! 
Cbire can a warrior's feelings know. 

And weep a warrior's shiune ; 
Can lied Earl Gilherfs spirit feel. 
Buckle the spurs upon thy heel. 
And bdt thee with thy brand of steel. 

And send diee forth to £une ! 

The issue of the marriage between " Red 
£ail Gilbert" and ''J<Mm of Acre" was one son, 
Gilbert, and three daughters, who, after their 
brother's death, became co-heiresses to all the 
estates, casdes, titles, and honours of the De 
Clares. 

Gilbert, the son, first succeeded. In 
A.D. 13 14 he accompanied his imde, Ed- 
ward II., in his disastrous expedition into 
Scotland, and there, leading on a wing of the 
English army with heroic impetuosity against 
the serried ranks of Bruce at Bannockbum, 
he fell, the last of the De Clares, of Clare, 
pierced by a score of Scottish lances, at the 
early age of twenty-three years. 

He had married Maud, daughter of John 
de Buig, Earl of Ulster, and left by her 
a son, who, however, died in early infancy. 
And then his three sisters, daughters of Red 
Earl Gilbert, succeeded to the estates and 
lordships. 

Eleanor, the eldest, married Hugh de 
Spenser, who became, in her right. Earl of 
Gloucester. Margaret, the second, married, 
first, Piers Gaveston, and, secondly, Hugh de 
Attdley, who also became, in her right, after 
the death of her sister and her husband. Earl 
of Gbucester. Elizabeth, the third, married 
John de Buigh, Earl of Ulster, for her first 
husband, and had the lordship and castle of 
Clare for her portion. She is usually desig- 
nated " the Lady de ClareP 



After losing three saccesnTe hfttbaads 
(John de Buigh, Theoboldi Loid Venton, 
and Roger Damony^ in ei^^t years (13x3 to 
1321), she spent a long widowhood at Que 
Castle. 

In A.D. X3S6, she lebuSt akid eddowed 
University Hall, Cambridge, firom that time 
named Clare Hall or Cott^e^ Her iriD, 
dated A.D. 1355, and ^done at Clare,* u a 
curiosity in its way. It contains the names 
of 125 legatees, chiefly servants and de- 
pendants, to whom are left di£feient articles 
of clothing and domestic utensib. There 
are also bequests to many religioos hooMS ; 
also, a bequest, to her granddaughter 
and successor, of seed com, for the manon 
of her inheritance en la baUHe of Claxe. 
She appoints seven chief execators and fi^ 
subordinate ones. 

Her only child by De Buigh, her fint 
husband, was William de Bni]^ iHioae 
daughter, Elizabeth de Buigh, inherited her 
grandmother's possessions. 

This lady, Elizabeth de Burgh, married, in 
A.D. 1360, Lionel, third son tAEdwofd III^ 
who thus, jure uxoris, became Eail of CHaie. 
Shortly afterwards, in a.d. 136a, Liond was 
created by his &ther,''Z>i^^C&if«Mr.*' His 
wife, the Lady Elizabeth, died the following 
^ear, a.d. 1363 ; and the duke, after many- 
ing secondly, in a.d. 163^, Violenta, sitter of 
the Duke of Milan, died, in A.D. 1638, 
without having returned fiom Italy, whither 
he had gone for the manriage ; and was ulti- 
mately interred, according to die dferire 
expressed in his will, in the church of the 
Augustine Brethren at Clare, in the cfadr 
before the high altar, along with his first 
wife. An old monastic Latin record says of 
his tomb : — 



Ed. ter innato^ post fataqae tic tmnnlato 
Ut Tides exiqua, i»ro tanto prindpe timiba, 
Inqiie chori medio. 

The only child of Lionel and his wife, Eliza- 
beth de Burgh, Lady of Clare, was Philippa, 
and she married Edmund Mortimer, Eul of 
March, whose descendants (as those ^ the 
only child of Lionel, third son of Edward III.^ 
after die death of Richard II. wiAout 
issue, became the rightful heirs to the crown 
of England, and the descent of the castle and 
lordship of Clare is from that time the same 
as the descent of the royal crown. / 



CLAMBSCMz TBE ORIGIN^ ANDBEAMtEMS OF THE THUBL 




Tte liftiiiHiMiiga mode ifte CjBflflf of GEscc bcei Wb^ b Ixr own n^gPES — ^hbl, Cfisc 

of tt&iBB Ksi&mQciL T^cv saGc hcBOBt. CawffnT jna loBoAigic wcr^ \ff AtX of ItHfift* 

Eirftawi, Dote of Bcnii (jod Hcacj YILj^ niiitfii a init to t&e 

Dofts CflBgy ba£ Aic Qmi was ia posKmii of 

of K orit^ nUh 90B v^ finnn JJJ-t— HBd tne thcB^ jbb uocftBc xammv Gmpik vp to 

Dafts of BBT llJTJt^ B JL2DL I^03> 

offtB Tbear SOB. HcHj TUL, 

to OIC BBOBC JIgpBmt ifis 4c90CidHtS HHIini ilLUlMJC JB A BOBS \ff 




of £Aavd ITLv far aft IcatiL two of ftii wcpol FinB dkc 
of ^hc SoBC9^ mssBsfeEi^ aoooott aod oAto^ ooooDCBfis *^ 

t&e Fiiiiic Rflooid Qnoe; w>e leant t&at 

QnecB CihIIbiiimh of •%iifn|fflii was XjAf of 

Ac tdkmfic Cbffc 6oB tfte ttoK of hcrftiHinBtfs 

&BS SOB B JLOL Ij'^ ^ \XX *^^*^ il 

▲JUL i5jfiL These k a Biijiiiniinnj, pwhaWf 



rdut rattSTj Imd- Ksmedaft Oba^ and dbtt s&c aos tikefasc to 
to t&c cffownL <Mi miy l&c < jutlr jb a. w yiji iiotL Atbip 

of t&c BoQeya was bribfailrrf b ll»r, XJ^. i] 



TlK^fMtidIlBaKift9^jd^Bdfttki>(anoBBai& w QoBCB fioB 11^ <^ sane BOBribX 

xjdl i ^h jl to kcr iSea^ b OcbBks^ jlol 
^ i517»'Bd^^^c>oonBfispss«etdbaitsftie.dii3i|^ 



W^tDBB IB BnBSO 





of lA Acft of 

JuS SBu ^^B j'lUjyi^A 3BSB JSaBV^^'^DC JDD^BBBB 

m^- • - - — ^j*. n >« yjwfl aDSBEBL SDCSDuDDC tBC affiVOWSOB OS waC 

JfaoBBiKadBB^.EBdifCnidBaaR^'vi^'iBKam ^ n ^ . « ■ n ni, , rk__ n _ ^^ t ^ 

T« BflMmfi IdB^kjs, E&wrf& limff s ifitt ciiuBA, w ro am eagd to toe ^oti^ Of 1^ 

of waikM tney Mm .a. |MHrt;M'Ji at tpae 



jy her I qan gg Skji^wiHii. abc^OBliKBr pnCBQEft ttlSBie* 

T&Ey^MrflfaB&jiiaipyyAraM Bcodcs lioDcl idbcBC love teea {One 



Sflvfl'AeaHBr^fsfiK^&irflDD iK Ifioft was XmODBBI^ 9001 of nCBiJ IV^ 

^""""— ^ lwtfnwi';#h^ jHMiiyywi J «■» ^™|p GCBtod DdKCls^ SBSBBCB' B AJ^ L^^ I- He 

Smwmil AfS qf Ein^ Mmry fX, jBJt m. *. *. acoannaaied Ub ^tM«<*^f^ HcBJ V- is 2ns 

ikfter tiie iitail lBtt£]e oft BfiBwoBt& Fsdl^ isnaskn of Fkaaoe; aad was licit ^ inm b 

Lgl^ fir Todmds apeie dfqplanpd, aokS ^^^M«muaMA ^ & ixurttaoB of ttiie Fagffiifti aooDf 

HcBjy £ad of fiaduBOiufL, aocxsikdei ^le b ^usl caaataj^ The Scotts wese MmwU i ^ 

HcBjTIL He caamo&datod in t&e fwndbaft aioitaim^ and licDdkewas 

dfiwibdfifl dbons Si^^ SBannage wii& libdii in lasoSe ia AByiwy ia i ifc i4-si« Sij a 

Flifalhrtii^ dk^est i \^\^f\n cf E^graod IV. Sosilcb kaoi^ aamod Alte SvitoOL TIbb ii 

Wkit <BDe wioidd kwe coBJtiiwB i to love iteCZbHsoeof tteflmftFoci^iiKsBrv fZ 



64 CLARENCE : THE ORIGIN, AND BEARERS OF THE TITLE. 



Clannee. What would my lord and iather ? 
JRmg Hmry. Nothing bat well to thee^ Thomas of 
Clarence. 

How chance thoa art not with the prince, thy 
brother? 

He loves thee^ and thou dost neglect him, 

^ Thomas; 

Thou hast a better place in his affection 

Than aU his brothers ; cherish it, my boy, 

And noble offices thou mayst effect, 

Of mediation, after I am mul. 

Between his greatness, and thy brethren. 

«««««« 

Learn this, Thomas, 
And thou shalt prove a shelter to thy friends ; 
A hoop of gold to bind thy brothers in. 
That tne united ressel of their blood. 
Mingled with venom of suggestion 
(As force perforce, the age will pour it in), 
Shan never leak, though it do work as strong 
As aoonitum or rash gunpowder. 

Stccmdpart of King Hemy /K, act iv. s. 4. 

The next Duke of .Clarence was Geoige, 
the brother of Edward IV. He is die one of 
the butt of knalmsey notoriety. His brother, 
who had then just come to the throne, in 
A.D. 1461, created him duke under this title. 
He married Elizabeth, the daughter of the 
great Earl of Warwick, the " lUng-maker," 
and Bulwer Ljrtton's Last of the Barons. 

This Duke of Clarence was a man too 
open, frank, and impulsive for the dangerous 
time in wluch he Lved. To impetuosity of 
temper, rather than to premeditation, is to be 
attributed the share he had in the death of 
the young and intrepid Prince Edward, son 
of Henry VI. To^ed about between the 
often opposing influence of his brother, the 
King, on the one hand, and of his father-in- 
law, ^e King-maker, on the other hand, he 
certainly was not always consistent in matters 
of State; yet, probabljr, he ought to be 
r^iarded as suffering in the end, more 
tfaiough the times and circumstances under 
which he lived than for personal crimes or 
faults. At any rate his personal character 
mav be contrasted, to his advantage, with that 
of his plotting, treacherous brother, the Duke 
of Gloucester, afterwards King Richard IIL 

Where is that deril's butcher, 
Hard favoured Richard? Richard, where art 

thou? 
Thou ait not here I Murder is thy alms deed ; 

for blood thou ne'er put'st back. 



does in another place, where he makes him 
to say: — 

Go tread the path that thou shalt ne'er retnzii. 
Simple plain Clarence I I do love thee so^ 
T^t I wiU shortly send thy tool to hesten. 
If heaven will take the present at oar hands. 

While, on the other side, the passages iriudi 
the poet puts into the mouth of Clarence, 
when pleading with his hired assawrins^ are 
among the finest ascribed ev^ to his most 
attractive characters- 



Shakespeare, the highest judge of charac- 
ter, thus hits off that of Richiuxl, as also he 



Ciarence. Erroneous vassal I the great King of kiogs 
Hath, in the table of his law, commanded 
That thou shalt do no murder, wilt dioadicn 
Spurn at this edict, and fulfil a man's ? 
Take heed i for He holds yeogeanoe in his hand. 
To hurl upon their heads thattsftak his law. 

Again: 

Tell him (Gloucester) when that oar priaody 

fiOher, York, 
Blessed hb three sons with his Tictoriousanii, 
^id chuged us from his soul to lore eadi odier. 
He little thought of this divided firiendshtp ; 
Ba Glo'ster think of this, and he wUl weepl 

Richard IIL^ act IL a. I. 

Clarence was put to death in the Tower 
A.D. 1478. 

From this time, until aj). 1798, the tide 
(Duke) lay dormant In that year Geoige 
IIL created his third son, WilUam Hoiiy, 
Duke of Clarence. He was the sailor-prince 
of the last generation, but is remembeied 
best by the few who remain of it, and known 
by those of the present, as our late gracioas 
sovereign. King WiUiam IV. So fitr he wis 
the last Duke of Clarena. 

The tide of "Clare" has, in modem tunesi 
been twice revived. James I., in aj>. xdaj, 
created Sir John Holies, Eari of Clare. The 
writer is not, however, aware that this penon 
had any connection with Clare or its an- 
cient earls. His grandson married MaigaieC, 
daughter of Henry Cavendish, Duke of New- 
castle, and was, by William III., made Duke 
of Newcastle, and Mar^ms of Clare. H^ 
however, died without issue. But Geoige I. 
conferred the same tides upon Holies Pd- 
ham, the son of the Duke's youngest sister. 
The marquisate is, however, extinct again. 

Clare Casde is now in ruins. All that re- 
mains is die large mound on which the keep 
was built, crowned still by a portion of tint 
buOding, together with some fragments of 
boundary walls and earthworics. 



CLARENCE : THE ORIGIN^ AND BEARERS OF THE TITLE. 



65 



A remazkable gold idiqaaiy-cross was 
disc o T o ed on catting duo^^ tiie mound 
sepaimting ttie inner from the outer bailey, 
in A.IX 1865. ^^ ^^^ fonrarded, at her own 
request, to tiie Queen; and the Secretaij 
of the TVosmy, after cansing search to be 
made imo its history, wrote that ''There is 
strong reason for bdieving that the cross at 
one time formed a part of the royal collec- 
tion of jewds bdoi^;ing to King Edward III. 
Sndi a cross is described in a list of jewds 
of tiiat king's reign, and it disappears from 
all fotore lists, until restored, after an inter- 
ment of 500 years at Qare, to the Rx^ 
Jewds of Her present Majesty.* 

Her Gtadoos Majesty has just created 
her yoongest son — the esteemed sdiolarly 
Prince Leopold— Doke of Albany, and Earl 
rfClarema. The htter title, as will be seen 
from what has been already said, b a new 
one. There were several Earls of Chre^ 
ancient and potent ones — and an Earl, and 
Marqnn of Clare in comparatively modem 
times {itw^. James L and Geoige I.), bat 

e of ttie Royal £unily, or 



There have been four Dmkes of Claraut^ 
all of diem the sons or brotluss df the 



Hb Royal Hig^iness Prince Leopold is 
die first .fiof/ of Clarence. 

EngHtfimen perhaps might have wished 
that ^ andent and historic dukedom had 
been revived, and taken precedence of the 
Scotch title of Albany, as wdl as the Irish 
one of Aikfow; bot Ei^ish loyalty will be 
content since, intentionally or unintentionaDy, 
each of die ^ree ancient kingdoms, of Great 
Britain and Irdand — now miited under the 
ooerqyal crown — finds a representative tide 
in the d^;nities bestowed by its bdoved 
bearer upon her youngest son. 

Long and hapinly — as we are certain 
he will wcMlhily — may he wear the rose, the 
shamrock, and die thistle thos miited in hb 
princdy crown, and may the miion be another 
bond to bind them more firmly and dosdy 
together in the royal diadem of hb house. 




Itoman Itemaine at flDalta* 



|H£ Government andiorities at 
Malta have, with praisewocdiy 
zeal and discreti<m, placed in the 
hands of Dr. r^mana^ the librarian 
of the Public Library at Malta, die woHl of 
preparing a Report upon the recent disco- 
veries at Notabile. Thb Report, accom- 
panied by very excellent photographs, has 
just come to hand ;* and we propose laying 
before our readers an account of the very 
important discoveries dironided therein, and 
of the valuable histcmcal commentary idiidi 
Dr. Caruana has added. 

It appears that on the jrd of February, 
1881, while some workmen were engaged 
digging holes for planting ornamental trees 
on the large esplanade c^ Sakkaja, without 
the walls of Notabile, midway between the 
Gate of the Greeks of that dd town and 
Ghariezhem in Rabuto, some remains of <dd 
Roman mosaic were (UsooveredL Thb was 
broug^ to the notice of the Governor, and 
Dr. Camana was instructed to visit the site, 
to ascertain whether it was worth while ex- 
ploring fiirdier. Upcm Dr. Caruana's report 
a committee was at once formed, and the 
work commenced. 

Now that the woHl b done, die ground- 
plan of die building b found to consist of 
four large rectangular rooms, a peristyle, and 
a portica The four rooms are on one line 
fiicingthe south, on whidi side aj^nrently 
ran the line of the old street On die side 
of these rooms, towards Notabile, b die 
perbtyle, endosmg a compluvium 22 ft. 4iiL 
by 21 ft. 4 in. ; and in the directicm of the 
longer axb of die peristyle, towards die east^ 
there b a porch inth two columns. There 
exist regular openings between the rooms, and 
between die rooms and the peristyle. Some 
of these c^ienings were apparently square, 
are fiimished witib one or two steps, and still 
show the holes at the comers to allow them to 
receive the hinges of the docns ; and others, 
as would appear firom the width of the open- 
ings and the rotundity of their jambs^ had no 

• We have to diaak lli» Todmia Snith Sbr the 
ofip oaimU^ of obtaiaingja copy, ooly a few of wkich 
have CwuMi dor wqr to E^gfataiL 



66 



ROMAN REMAINS AT MALTA. 



doors hanging. The traces of the exterior 
wall to wluch the porch belongs, on the side 
of the peristyle towards Notabile, show that 
another wing of the old building extended 
towards Notabile. 

The following is a list of the objects 
found : — 

Mosaic Pavements. — ^A suite of five large 
floors, some of them measuring 30' 4" by 
37' 10' ; a large peristyle, surrounded with 
sixteen columns, enclosing a large com- 
pluvium; traces of sever^ other appur- 
tenances unexplored, all paved with mosaic 
in the Pompeian style, recording ''/ bei 
tempi deir arte/* several remains of mosaic 
scattered abou^ having been displaced either 
by falling or settlement of the ground ; and 
the mosaic pictures, inserted in the pavements, 
show evidently the profusion of adornment 
with which the sumptuous buildmg once 
existing on this site was decorated. The 
perimeter of three of the rooms, which were 
probably the most important, and of the 
peristyle, is adorned with single or double 
borders of Roman mosaic called " vermicula- 
tum^ formed of small pieces of white, red, 
and green marble, c^ an ornamental character, 
having variegated meandering patterns on 
white^ grounds, interspersed with masks of 
superior workmanship. These borders en- 
circle a large band of mosaic in yellowish 
monochrome, and a large central rectangular 
ground of marble lozenges (red, white, black, 
and green), having regular form and size and 
well fitted together. The other pavements 
and the compluvium are only bounded by a 
strip of monochrome mosaic, having the 
central portion paved with marble lozenges 
like the other floors. 

In the proximity of the peristyle were 
found the remains of ^ coarser sort of floor, 
made of shards of broken tiles and small 
pieces of marble compacted together, and 
well consolidated in a bed of mortar, the 
'' Opus Signinum" with which the less con- 
spicuous parts were generally floored by the 
Romans. 

Mosaic Pictures. — ^Three mosaic pictures, 
embedded in matrices of stone, and in no 
respect inferior to those of Pompeii, have 
been found inserted in these pavements. 
One measuring \' 10" by a', inlaid in hard 
lime, represents a young man with curly hair. 



in one ot his hands a bunch of 
grapes entwined with vine brandies, and in 
we other apparently a pomegranate ; a dove 
flying towards the grapes, and a dock on Ae 
Idt side of the picture. The left shooldcr 
of the figure, which, aoccNtding to Father 
Garucd represents Autumn, is much damaged. 
The second picture, inlaid on a marble sU> 
measming %* by i! i", of highly soperica- 
workmanship to the preceding and in a better 
state of preservation, exhibits a standing node 
male figure, whose feet and hands are tied 
with cords, a lion's skin andadub at his feet 
Afemale figure, on the right, is engaged bind- 
ing the hands of the central fip;ure; another 
female figure, on the left, havmg a pair of 
sdssors in the right hand, and with me left 
holding by the beard the male figire, iriiich 
is in evident distress at being about to be 
deprived of it. The drapery is veiy d^^t, 
and its folds well arranged, with bright colouii 
and various shades, and the whole ccanposi* 
tion exceedingly well grouped and executed 
with precision. It is most likdy one of the 
episodes in the life of HerculeSf— namdy, the 
sale of him by Mercurius to the Lydian 
queen, Omphale, when it was decreed that 
he shoukl serve a mortal for three yean, as 
an atonement for havii^ killed IphitoSy aon 
of the King of CEchalia. A third pktnie 
represents two drinking doves sitting on the 
brun of a bowl, with the reflection of their 
heads in the water. This picture is in the 
centre of the compluvium where the Romans 
used to place a fountain. Another haid 
limestone slab of the same size as No. i, and 
evidently the fellow to it, contained a fourth 
mosaic picture which has been quite 
destroyed. 

Sculpture. — ^The remains of three white 
Carrara marble statues were recovered fix>m 
the rubbish. The one 4' ^ ^h, rather a 
good work of Greek art, represents a male 
figure, covered with the Roman military 
cloak (paludamentum) ; without^ arms and 
head, but exhibiting a small cavity between 
the shoulders, just where there is the articular 
tion of the neck with the bust, where a pco- 
visional head with a neck might be fitted. 

The second 4^ 9" high without bust, yAasStL 
must have been partially nude, as the fold- 
ing of the upper portion of the apparel, 
adjusted on the waist and covering the body 



MimMW 3l3EmMKS JET it^sntA. % 



snd one of &e ks^, ^ _ 

ItehfiMl a <H wliitTitir jiieiiettU^^piflhflllyqgf 'gag mr 'Qifai^ '^'^b^ 'itaEi. virii "Xt ^Hr rtett ^Hk 



qTflttapitlH i^tH^,^E^ttoy 'writiTiwiiifliiDttii&i^^ jj^yAiSK SET 'hiilimiiug titg wutlL lif 
iTxnii, -flODie Twiieh wkil TiwiHfi iiw'Hwfl ibi sdbi. ^Omtf. Ikwiiliii^ 'Coins, "WL ti. ^. ^^fo 



'flier nifll nnftBr *fiie ]]ilHtt8iifl^. DunL^nflBsr JL tthiid baMB^MPCiHiUHmiahn yLD. " s^g rstfe. 
Immt hwwFB ^pne ieAr) fiwiikl jd "tlK '■niK 0ii iSttt 'xAwettt". 'ihe inul ^iff "Utt fSBBJptBcatt 



rooDL iriK'fluifl timiK ^ ^,^wil!l!Ddt Imifl hwniwg & onvrxi sdoxned 'with "jioKilb mhB 

HnflBimiyTgyBggnaBiELTmmr ^vmiiig inuiai gt?THB, xne mHt cdvszsu wizu tir im^Bnu 

flie finne ^gmuisiit ab *&& <OexB^ dEDonfi 'St THHTifltr. "vsiyi^leBr, mid "tiip K'g*m ** J). jK. 

GazD mfl juummifl in iis TOligiriron iff Cniwi a nnu B P. BP. Aug.*' On tiir 



rf TifferffiT 'ffiiiiiUMnriig), itfjin^'iitnig s. Hs haBi&. ~wi& the IggffHil '^BRel tour ^Sb^- 



iflinak, te hdk Inrnleen. ^emaHL oiiBBr ymttiD,** cndm-thgifiBm tfaeT!y;itoK£JM 

iBHiHiiiB 'ol* tm> I ifli—fl iniiljfe <imiicii fSwrna nirmftii ^jBBOMgnu^ fitei. iniflRl Cnff. 

asm^, «nne iff -tiie fii^pss, twD isaids, frae IkinfliTTi-ii ^Cniis, inter iHiiuit^ , ^mL £. ;]>. 

leg diUHLd wmiBiund iff noadkxn^ rifflffigut 3^* A'fbiifl faneg iff'CuniiiliuninrJiip^JiLi^ 

£TOn*fiic Tannin 'mfinnms, 'ond ihk tfiiot:; ^7* '^^ ^^ i^3¥eiscr: the iieid iff ^:flR 

Ac JBCt jnd ^1 iIihIhIb iff ^flnaee oHicriiizinir £ii^Bniriaxiwiiid,szid*1iiele^|isid*^^Ci]nBtni> 

stHtneB*; toA b, niee loa^ge l^nmHTi imfl, tranB^m*" 'ilie !ne9tt *tivi> 'wards lAnd. 'On 

XDnERllliv ISmOBBttllDEr IHIP'OT TTlf ^WTfWFWWg uKMCBVSBK'! 'Ti VP' mtfrlff "tiff i 'utwi \ > fTlHttllfflllHi 

Same mislilinttmal """"""H. vb fifaa&B iff jhh tMHi)yjui&rmimi "tfaelg^gnd ^!Pii9uiilBiitii*' 

ftHiifliminr ■Boric 3fflgi8, ' a rfntiTEW Bs, oimiceK, virile; and Hf^gtfiiDf^igttgrsm. ggfl 

«rt^rf^ frfh^rppTte iw*]niigiiy*tT> -rtw* i iimiiiii^ fff a cmifD jp Ae "nwcffflg. Coiff. 3mdixn, ^voL 

^tp pwliiiiguL^ -flrp^fitttJAnjiw* iiF -ftip Tmifiiyi^^ ji.p. 341). 

iuar^&na, — IFxagmentE iff tiiity lafiD Sevezal lBZ]ge haiBriig (iocis lannatana) iff 

iiHiifijiiimM on wliiie inniiir mUs wne i^^ovyy lonie indies long, 'tDiDSlBizi'tbe'&eBRsfl 

KHimi ^ sivD HI TUflin m HD inijiiifigpcewna*- moK luur at ifumeii punmi on Toe 'occipot. 

9mmr\mmirTt^-wwtAj^tn^t%\ liri^^jmiiafc^T^tMwL « SoiHT JWBIWK iff Wind limHilllBaitB '^tdMl) 

A Isqpc ^B^ment iff dbe Hiiid me afhifigB id nnde iff In^e, flhtnuui^ cJuul^' *£& 'fiu^o- 

AenngnRiprfl miler iff •flteDBiJiimagly Ac fitp]x, and b lB]|ge cjmiiill^ iff "fni^nnrnte iff 

irttBT j3BCiir. rii f 11 iBLwiHfe 'vbhub. 

Cairn* — 9iD -raedak woe -xecofciefl, Intt To'&eBeinqiottflnt detrnksBtniiiexctiaA 

only HLWiiLiiQ jfifltfffl Ikbsb minK, mnitfly lemans {hut luive been "fimiifl^ Ilr. *Cminiii 

rfTaiyfl, an^ iiDxir iff iiiem beii^ Ifgtbte, snd adds an iiBtarical nuliiT as Id iSnt pn 



ncns liehmgmgiD iis £ixQ>en]is Qf~tiK£ast. iiHhirrond ifljjgct^iff'feeiinniliiBBH maaen^ 

llie four ams aic : a oecond faxooE iff miied on Ab site, and '&e igm^ iff their 

GkirdiBn, a;d. 3^B-f243. Qn iiic obveue: conBtmctian and dumiioii. The letics iff 

'&e head of liie enipci'Qi crowned witii laurel, thfiie moste^teces of Wasair puveutsnts 

and Ibelqpenfl, Imp.'GsB. H. Ant. GardiB- helniigBd-evidentiytDtfae i^heofiienlSdita, 

ms AliH'Hmjfc An|imii«^ ^Qn "thr leveiOL, "flieiianie iff "flie old LiipitHl ifflSalta. Kons 

apjiBieni^ afemak %nie enect, Inflding in over, tiK xmns have a clrae tiignaigxaphiai 

idoi^Ti^^aOi loDid 'tis l"mw*l* iff atzeCy and on connection with"ftc nmMifiiuil TenuiiiB; uPtwii 

^le aiAB of ^le ^mcdK Mtos £. C splendid madjle bnikiiii^which adomed ^e 

vtsj -ckabte. 'Can£ J. l^aillant 'vd- i. p. old cBpitBl,atenq}leaiid a theadoeauaediD 

15Z. A iSuzfl Inms of Ameiian, A3. 37»- ApoDo, disuiveied in T747, on the some 

274. Qb &e olweae : -&^ bead of the plateau of Kotabile, and atanost in "^r 

FiinjiBim xadiatBd, ^tiie liod^ anned witii nnnipdime ne^iibouzlRiod. Tlginc , H19S 

iaooL On :aie revene : ^k Emperar I>r. Camana, tiie dose pmodmiiy of "te 

csDwiififl with laurel, and clad in &e leiarnfli' discovered ^wrflrtn^ to twD iff tltt 

Impedal imnttfe, leaning wxSi lik 3dt arm luosl may nfiay iH iwlfliiffn ofKigfea,-fwhihithi|^ 

npop a lyear, and j goe iving a crown ofhond tnces iff Ae same gnradeor and iqitaaidoar 

fitna 'flie it^g^ hand iff a figme iff T^ctav^r. gTisuusiiwi'iiiiir; "fte 'ODaqHCHOBB ywni im^ 



63 



ROMAN REMAINS AT MALTA. 



the site itself, it being the centre, and, 
according to appearance, the most aristocratic 
part of die old town ; the domestic arrange- 
ment and uncommon extent of the buildings, 
are all circumstances which make the con- 
jecture highly probable that they were the 
abode of the representative of the Caesars. 
From Pliny, Diodorus Siculus, and Cicero, 
who mention the magnificence of the villas at 
Melita as just in tibeir time coming into 
vogue, we gather that the villa must have 
been constructed sometime about b.c 88. 
As to the duration of their existence, 
Dr. Caruana goes into the question very 
deeply and instructively, and by showing 
the date of the introduction of municipal 
institutions into the island to have been 
much later than a.d. lai (the coming 
of St Paul), he concludes that these Pagan 
buildings must have been preserved for the 
use to which they had been originally destined 
up to the time of Aurelius Constantinus. 
The coins found in the last discoveries fully 
warrant us in dating the permanence of the 
building up to Constantius II. in a.d. 360, 
whilst the total absence of remains belonging 
to the epoch of the Greek Emperors under 
whose sway the islands remained up to a.c 
870, does not warrant us in presuming that the 
same building was still in existence lon^ after 
A.D. 370. In fact, the mere inspection of 
these ruins, and the wild destruction of so 
many statues, shows the over-zeal of the 
Christians against Heathenism towards the 
middle of the fourth century. 

These premises belong to the architectural 
dass of private buildings, the domestic 
arrangement of which Ls detailed by Vitruvius. 
The private buildings of the Romans con- 
sisted of the front portion for the reception 
of clients, who resorted by daybreak to their 
patrons either for advice, or support in civil 
matters, or pecuniary assistance, and other 
importunate visitors, which formed, says 
Pliny, the public part of the house. They 
were, principally, the vestibule, the prothy- 
rum, the atrium, the alse, and the tablinum. 
The penetralia, or the inner division, was 
appropriated for the eating and sleeping 
apartments — that is to say, the hearth of the 
£unily, and consisted of the peristyle, tri- 
dinium, bedchambers, &c. The relative 
situation of the two principal divisions was 



always fixed, but that of the parts composii^ 
each division, especially the interior depart- 
ment, was not so. For instance, very often 
the atrium and pexistylium were placed on 
the same axis at right angles with the 
entrance, so as to af^rd one view of the 
nucleus and arrangement of the house, as it 
is in the house of the tragic poe^ and 
other houses at Pompeii But veiy ofken 
the peristylium was in one of tfie sides of 
the inner building, as in Sallusfs house. 

We have thus laid before our readers the 
substance of this very valuable report The 
islands of Malta possess a very interesting 
architectural history, there being at least four 
historical periods — ^namely, the Phoenician, 
the Roman, the Christian, and that of die 
Knights of St John. .The area of the two 
islands is dotted with monuments of CWrclo- 
pean character, as well as with .Phcemcian 
tombs and other remains in a much better 
state of preservation than the dolmens and 
cromlechs of Druidic Gaul; whilst the 
numerous and extensive catacombs at Notar 
bile, Siggieni, Mintua, &c., are still unex- 
plored. 

With the invaluable help of Dr. Caroana 
and his enthusiastic zeal in the cause of 
antiquarian research, we trust that the 
Government of Malta (more generous than 
die Home; Government of Downing Street) 
will do all that is requisite in getting together 
these fine remnants of a past age into the 
safe custody of competent authorities. 



"•»'n9» "■•»<' 



'Revievos; 



The Head-hunters of Borneo ; a Narratkfi ofThwdup 
the Mahakham and down the BarUo ; aUoyourmy- 
ings in Sumatra, By Carl Bock. (Londoii: 
Sampson Low & G>. 1881.) 8va pp. zvi. 344. 

IHIS new contribution to anthropologicd 
stadies is presented with aU tluB ■^^'tftmt 
that make a book at once attncthre and 
usefuL With thirty coloured plates, a 
map, and some engravii^ the reader has 
placed before him a vivid account of the wild people 
among whom Mr. Bock has travelled, and aboat 
whom he tells us much that is most interesting. It it 
well known that archaic society is studied frcm two 
different classes of materials — ^namely, the gtrnctaral 
remains and the ancient customs still ezistiiie in 
civilized countries, and the customs and mode^lile 
incidental to savage society. Of this last, the book 




fcr k taka m 



by tbcir sdti (ciitut) to pt 



q( X rhiiiiy 




He 



Eiciy Oyak BBS bis zBe-odd, ott 
be gfOfws sBOKXBt nr bis 



of bis EuBiljy to 




the asbes of wbkh 
their rice, the Dyaks boild sanll bats ia die fields 

tin die ■iu i afi e plaiita are tzaas- 

tbe ata ly^ltaicd add. now^ tbis 

of nicakare aanas the I>yaks of 

M f tjntlj ukt snae as tbut desonbed by 

Mr. Haater as eiirtn^ aanas tke bin tribes oflaifia ; 

i wtt bere aa andtwlitBd ^fpe of the eazfiot 

of nT 

of liriiliinBaiat, dia fines of 




thewaatof a 




not tke 01^ 

biiiMhfs of carfy 
mil. X jior bas alicjaly certified to die 





of tbeaiytkcrf^ tke 

We have tbcir amziice castoaB^ Aeir bifdi 

of an of wbii^ Mr. Bock 
Wkbdie soecial inddeal of 
Bock B |MitKalaf ly i 
and Aoa^befid aot ia bis tcarcb actaaSy 
war party, or aoe tbe nle utifcjiBicd, be gi^cs plenty 
OK ewQCBoe aa so ks Dcacticcv aau bo as ^aflacaoe over 
die people. Ahnptbo^ ia tbe aanative o£ trstdy ia 
tke lecofd of old 
BaiaiaiM.BW, 
ofwar, a»n 

tbe w r?^f aad poGlical ft ^T of tbs 
Mr. Bock's book wfll be finad af 
greatiralaeto tkemdeatof cariyflna. Wecaaaot 
gire a list even of tke ht ialifcfly«CMCBted draviaB 
taken on die spot by Mr. Bods, and repodaoed m 



place* Racosa 
^OBi tkefaad. 



1877 and i8Si,be 
bennfiv 



appcanaoe^ as diencs front tke 



f^^ 



ai hatOs, m a si^ aot be 



fbapfcT to 
woabi be baid to 




He 



: -H 



la aay 
bigb 




boidks 
It 




and that 
ttin befisand 




dbe 
of 



wkb Mr.Fi 



We amtan 
as to what be sajs i rtpn ting -■^^J'^'-r* 
I waslartat Stadato. a nocesvas mamt 



bat they add pcady to die irakK of die book, 

they gjke tbe mdeat lAat caanoe always be o^ 



of detail as to 




die coloar of tke afcias aad of tbe 

mcnts of tke aativeiL Qaito apart 

polcgioBl iralae of tke book, every pcne is ^k to 

the pabliAcrt and tke aaftor, 

to tihoto of 
ap that branck of aadquri 
with tbebabils and way^ tbe 

die 



tftk£ Imdaei 53k* TMii 
; Aaamrf *r riPiPF--. By J. 
PAKKHAULBcnr, MJLOzon. (Landoa 
Qoantcb. 1881.) 410^ pp. tL ao (4 pbtta). 

latbe aataam of 1879^ a piece of wocked 



\ apoB TtLf was discovcied by Mr. Haaiiiuiey 

of Pb» Edwaids» at Towya (Wcfak fiv 

Saady 1^\, a flaaU town on die coart of Merionetk- 

on tke fine <a lailway 



SkdcMa frmm Ag 
Vmke, By~ 



Art and pBOspentjr 
fiir 



IMgUamr Umis wf fint 
A.7uncA3^D.CL.,LLJ>. die 
ft Col, 1S81.) tvopp-aiz, tbatiC 

diey 
[II iiBii ■■iril. 111 
Itilya 




to 



Rbysacadcad;bBftke^ 




beseatto 
die Gsfaaiy 




toscetf 




inipcctioo of tlie frontispiece to this pamphlet, wbicb 
teprcsenti tlic object in the exict size of tbc oiiginal. 
wUl entirelj ilupcl any such notioii. It is auite clear 
that the mvks have been made with on object, uid 
have a meaning : but as to what that meaiung is, 
there will douhtte^ be conxiderable differeace of 
opinion. Mr. Harrison matte a special investigation 
of the building in which the slate tablet was dis- 
covered, and searched for any objects thst mieht 
throw light upon its histonr and date. He succeeded 
in finding B stale haod-ihavel, three engraved frag- 
tnent; of sUle counters, a. stone muUcr, or pounder, B 
'mall frngmenl of Koman teiracotla, two iiOQ dart- 
hi;,iJs ^uvrral iron otqecti, the eomerofastoBeilab, 



objects for use in another state. The change had 
been gradual from the sacrilice of the most valued 
oiunments or weapons to that of inferior, and even 
miniature articles, and the practice may here and 
there have died out in outline representatioits of (he 
objects required," 

Mr. Harrison has gone most elaborately into (he 
meanings of the various torms, and compared Ibem 
with objects irhich they resemble ; but we cannot 
follow hun into this infjuirjf. Wc will only add thai 
the work is a valuable contribution to the history of 




with lines, a similar fragment, twelve fragments of 
pol rims, the comer of a rectangular tenacolta dish, 
the lower half of a thice-bandled cup, the neck of a 
glass vessel, two round stones from the beach, a 
worked implement of slate, and several pebbles. 
The^e objects threw little or no light upon the date of 
the slate. Mr. Harrison writes ;— "In odopting the 
view that the tablet may contain a funereal list of 
objects required by a deceased chief, I am merely 
fullDwing Su John Lubbock and Mr. Tylor. If these 
views are correctly applied in the present case, the 
interest that attaches to the slate tablet is increased, 
for it would be, perhaps, the latest instance that has 
been met with ta the Celtic foneral ciutom of butying 



.Sir John Lubbock, B*rt. FoajA 
editbn, wilh numerous additions. (LowdoQi 
Longmans, Green, & Co. iSSa.) Svo, pp. la. 
548. 

Sir John Lubbock's interest in antiquities is m 
well known, and his great services so highly appre- 
ciated, that we quite nnderstand that the time has 
come for the issue of yet another edition, the foanh, 
of his work nn TAc Origin tf CivHiiafiBti, Those of 
us wtio have looked among second-hand catalognes in 
vain for a copy will now be contented, and those who 
luve not yet introduced themselves to this important 
work on prehistoric archaMlogy should do so itnne- 



REVIEWS. 



71 



diately. Let it be stated at once Tn^ierein savaf^ 
archaeology is of importance to civilized aichffologjr. 
We examine and measuxe and describe our monu- 
ments of antiquity— Stonehenge^ Aveboiy, and others 
— and vet we cannot make them tell us of the men who 
erected them, of the scenes and actions whidi at one 
time took place around them. But once step across 
the bordenand of national archasology into tne com- 
parative sdenoe^ and then the old-world monuments 
of our own b«aame» as it were, links between us and 
our primitiye ancestors — links that connect thoughts 
and fancies and actions as well as stone memorials. 
This is the great object of Sir John Lubbock's labours 
in the present work. We printed in our last issue 
the illustration given in this volume of Stonehense, and 
we give now (see p^ 70) the illustration of a sacrea dance 
as practised by t£e natives of Viiginia. It is very in- 
teresting says Sir John Lubbock^ to see here a circle 
of upri^ stonesi which, except that they are rudelv 
carved at the upper end into the form of a head« 
exactly resemble our so-called **Druidical temples." 
Sir John Lubbock pa]ns particular attention to the 
important subject of the'svstems of consanguinity, and 
he traces out me stages of social development which 
they illustrate and £fine. Since the fint edition ap- 
peared this chapter has been considerably strengtn- 
ened ; and Sir John Lubbock's opinions against the 
theories of Mr. McLennan and Mr. Morgan have re- 
ceived mdi additional evidence. We cannot, how- 
ever, timv^ over iH the ground occupied by the book, 
but for the oonvenienoe ol our readers we give the 
headings of the contents: — Art and Ornaments; 
ManUige and Relationship ; Religion, Character, and 
Monls; Langna^ and Laws. Aa Appendix is 
added on the Primitive Condition of Man, which 
^ves an aUe and complete answer to the opposite 
views C Kpi esee d by Archbishop Whately uid the 
Duke of Argyll to those heki by Sir John Lubbock 
and the leadii^ anthropologists. We recommend 
this important work to our readers on eveqr ground. 
Of its value we have already spoken, and it is well 
known and established both in England and on the 
Continent It is wdl illustrated, containing five plates 
and twenty woodcuts ; and Sir John Lubbock gives 
a good iaoex, and a most useful list of the principal 
works quoted in the volume. 

Thi Thaen and SitepUs desigfud by Sir Chnstophir 
Wrm. A Descriptive^ Historical, and Critical Essay, 
with numerous Illustrations. Bv Adrian T. Tay- 
lor. (London : B. T. Batsford, x88i.) 8vo. pp. 
viii. 47. 

England has produced two great original architects 
— ^Inigo Jones and Christopher Wren. Time has 
destroyed mudi of the wonc of the former, and he 
never had such opportunities as the latter had given 
him by the Fire ofLondon. Wren's works, however, 
have ibumd in the present day a c^reater enemy than 
Time, and it is sad to see beautifuTchurches destroyed 
because the land upon which they stand is too 
valuable to be wasted upon a temple to God when a 
temple to Mammon might be erected in its place. 
Wren was a philosopher first, and an architect aftei> 
wards. He was a man of the most marvellouft 
resources. Every church he built was specially fitted 



for the position it held. His towers and steeples are 
siiignlany unlike each other. Some of them are even 
ugly whoi taken idone^ but they harmonize together 
as a whole in a most remarkable manner, and the 
great ardiitectural elory of London (almost its only 
one) is to be founa in the forest of churches that 
surround and look up to the grand cathedral of 
St. Paul's. The rutnless hand of the destnyjrer has 
been laid upon ten of these churches, and thirty-one 
out of the remainder have been marked for destruc- 
tion. Surely the Church and Churchyard Protection 
Society has not been founded a day too soon. It is 
the duty of every antiquary to do all in his power to 
stop any further destruction. Mr. Taylor has produced 
a ver^ useful book, the illustmtions of which are 
peculiarlv interesting. These bring the chief features 
of Wren's work before the eye in a most convenient 
form, and though the book is small it is a 
worthy monument to the genius of the great architect. 
The subject is arranged as i^G^nv'^Stoni Sieves: 
(11) consisting of Sl Mary-le-Bow, Campanik of 
St. Paul's, St. Bride, St. Vedast, Christ Church, 
St. Dunstan in the East, St Michael Royal, St. 
Stephen, St James Garlick Hill, St. Mary Mag- 
' dalen. Timber and Lead Spires and Lanterns : (19) 
St. Magnus, St Margaret Patens, St. Swithin, St. 
Anne and St. Agnes, St Augustine and St. Faitii, 
St Benet and St Peter, St Edmund the King, St 
James, Westminster, St Lawrence Jewry, St Mar- 
garet Lotiibury, St. Martin Lud^Ue, St Mary 
Abchurch, St Mary Aldermanbn^, St Michael 
Bassishaw, St Michael Wood Street, SL Mildred, 
St Nicholas Cole Abbey, St Peter Comhill, St 
Stephen Coleman Street. Towers: (i2)StAlban, 
All Hallows, St Andrew by Uie Wardrobe.; St 
Andrew Holbom ; St Bartholomew, St. Oettient 
and 8t Martin Orgar; St. Geom Botolph 
Lane, St Mary Aldennanbury ; St Maiy at HilL 
St Mary Somerset, St Matthew, St IHichael 
Comhill ; St Olave Jewry ; Westminster Abbey, 
Western Towers. Steeples^ Spires and Towers 
pnlleddewn, St AnthoUn, All Hallows tiie Great; All 
Hallows Bread Street, St. Benet, St. Benedict, St 
Christopher ; St Dionis Backdiurch ; St. Michael 
Crooked Lane ; St Michael Queenhithe ; St Mildred 
South. Towers and SUtijies outside London :St.yiMXfi 
Warwick ; Entrance Tower, ChristchurchCollqge^ 
Oxford, The Monument, Chichester Spire. 



Old Yorkshire. Edited by William Smith, with 
an Introduction by the Rev. Canon Rainr. (Lon- 
don : Longmans. 1881.) 8va pp. xx. 313. 

Mr. Smith continues his useful work into the second 
volume, containing the following divisions relative to 
old Yorkshire— abbeys, antiquities, artists, brasses, 
batUes, castles, ceramics, churches, civil engineers, 
clergy sufferings, etjonologies, fairs and festivals, 
famSies, folk-lore, manuscripts, constituencies, cor- 
porations, peerages, poets, regiddes, religious houses, 
royalists, nunous trees, and worthies. Our readers 
will gather from this that no subject is left untouched, 
and as each article is complete in itself and is written 
hy competent authorities, we have a volume whidi 
will be of value to the student of local antiquities. 
The sections on etymologies oontaint a chi^iter on 



12 



XEVIEWS. 



field names, whidx we specially recommend, while 
we have again to commend Uie useful section on cor* 
poration antiquities, a subject that has long been too 
mndx neglected. The section on folk-lore is the least 
satis&ctoxy in the book, because it contains nothing 
new, and so much has been done in this field that we 
could well have spared the space for something else. 
Canon Raine's excellent introduction gives additional 
value to a most pleasing book. The binding and 
printii^ are good and there are many ex^Uent 
engravii^. 

TramadioHs of the Cambridge Phiioiogieal Soeuty, 
VoL I., firom 1872 to 1880. Edited by T. P. PoST- 
GATB. (London: Tr&bner & Co. 1881.) 8vo. 
pp. ziiL 430. 

The Cambridge Philological Society was founded 
in 1872, chiefly through the joint efforts of Professor 
Cowdl and Mr. R. C. Jthh, the public orator, and 
now Professor of Greek in the University of Glai^gow. 
The earliest list of members contains 54 names, and 
the numbers now are 147. A large proportion of 
the subjects discussed at the meetings rdate to |x>ints 
in classical philology, although certainly Professor 
Skeat's name continually appears attached to notes 
on English etjrmology. There- seems in this pre- 
ponderance somewhat of a protest against the promi- 
nent position given to English and other modem 
European languages at the Philolo^cal Society of 
LondoiL Since the deaths of Professor Key and 
Professor Maiden, and some other of the founders of 
the older Society, few papers on classical philolo^ 
have been read in the council-room at University 
College. It is, of course, impossible to give in a few 
lines any just idea of the mass of valuable information, 
and not less valuable suggestions, contained in a 
volume consisting of the transactions of eight years. 
Otoe portion, however, must be specially commended, 
and that is an Appendix, which contains reports of 
the iUustrative literature on five great authors pub* 
lished in i88a These are Homer, by Mr. W. Leaf; 
Plato, by Mr. R. D. Hicks ; AristoUe, by Mr. H. 
Tackson ; Propertius, by Mr. Postgate ; and Servius, 
Dy Mr. Nettlcship. The editor has prefixed to this 
volume an interesting introduction on the work of a 
Philological Society. He suggests that notes of 
passages in the classical writers, or of points in com- 
parative philolo^ or grammar, which are insufficiently 
treated in the existing editions or text-books, should 
be sent to tibe secretary ; and asks for the contribution 
of ad^tions and corrections to Liddell and Scott*f 
Greek Dictionary, and Lewis and Short's Latin one, 
interleaved copies of which books have beenpresented 
to the Society by the Delegates of the Clarendon 
Press, Oxford. 

Bromsgrcve Church; its History and AntiquitieSf 
with an Account of the Sunday Schools^ Churchyard 
and Cemetery , Compiled from the Parish Books, 
Registers, and other authentic sources, by William 
H. Cotton. (London: Simpkin, Marshall) 
4to. pp. 158. 

This is a most excellent little book, and we should 
like to see its example followed with respect to other 




districts. What a noble record of all that Iim 
the nation great lies buried in our parish dmrehea ; 
and what a noble libiaiy m^t be aooonuilidied if 
eveiy parish churdi had but one such a wdvipper ai 
Mr. Cotton I BromsgroveChnrdiisaiiobleatnutare^ 
consisting of a chancel, vestry on north skJcb iwve 
with clerestory, aisles, and western tower, and wput^ 
which is 198 feethi|di» andservesasakndmaikfor mm 
the country round. Portions of the chnrdi areof Lale 
Norman period, about the latter half of the twdffii 
century, portions are of thirteenth oeatory Gothic and 
portions of the Decorated or Second PointBd ^ttfkt. 
Of course the hand of the rertorer has been at ipoA 
here, and Mr. Cotton supplies a detailed deaaiptaoo of 
the alterations made under this £Use name. Mr.Cottai 
gives fiill architectural deUdls of the dnirdi and nil 
particulars as to the registers, and the tomb^ and 
monuments, which give details of fiunShr history. He 
also gives us a full ust of the parish libmy, wl^cb is 
of such a suggestive nature that we bdieve it will be 
reprinted in our contemporary, the BHHogr^ker. 



Some Notes on the Deeds r dating to thiPgritki 

Charities of Wattdswortk. By WALTB& RVB. 
(Privately printed. 1881.) 8vo. PPW4S. 
The members of the Vestry of the Chmdi of 
Wandsworth have lately been investigBting die old 
deeds in their possession, aikl have adkd in the aid 
of Mr. Walter Rye. The result of this investigirtion 
is the pamphlet before us, which fn^*^w»m ^g^ ^g^ 
stance of forty-two old documents. The eniiiest dalt 
is 1254, when, on a trial at law, the jnron found tfnt 
there were three acres in " Wcnlesworth ** bdoqgw 
to the church there, and not to Simon le Buber mI 
MatiSa his wife. Besides the documents rdnti]!^ lo 
the charities, the first fonnal Constitation of the 
Wandsworth Vestry, confirmed and sanctioned ii 
1627, is here given. It " contains mndi i nt e r e sti ng 
and amusing matter, and especially a power lor the 
majority of me vestrymen to eject any brothermember 
guuty of unseemly speeches or usage." We hope 
many other parishes wiUfoUow this aomiiibleeianqiie 
set b V Wandsworth, and that the authorities of dwBe 
parishes may find experts as capable as Mr. Ryck 



Pedes Pinium, or Fines relating to the Cmmiy ^ 
Norfidh, levied in the Kingi Court from tke tkird 
year of Richard L to the atd of the rdgm efyjku 
Edited b^r Walter Rys. Fifth poftei, TMi^ 
Introduction, Indices, &c. (Nonridi: A. H* 
Goose & Co. 1881.) 8vo. 

The <' Feet of Fines" are written inaireiyaHll 
hand on little pieces of parchment, and to tfioae who 
are not used to sndx documents they axe Tenr i^el- 
sive in appearance. In consequence very little me 
has been hitherto made of the large amonnt of val»> 
able information which they do contain. Abont 
twenty years aco, the Rev. G. H. Dashwood jointed 
a dozen Norfolk Fines for the Norfolk and Nonrich 
Archaeological Society and then tht pablicatka was 
dropped. Now Mr. Rye has made a pvdcis of 801 
Fines for the same soaety, and written a most inte- 
resting introduction to explain the **•***«*£ cf the 
documents. He writes :— " I bdieve Uus ie the fiat 



3S 









rtihrtinn Ak jbmL ramrllmt pigpc rf wnA. ll x :&e 
fist ftn^ flf 'tis Idad 'fisi nw ^et njpoDsd id 
antiQsaziB fliiiM^gfa liic: juuif <^*^^**^ 

li^ iuitPEwet, fbeu iil»|rri s, ■s'v^e my mOl lupe* Id 
ZBanc it wilii addxttonb, '•«£ idbtall on^ Ik too •fhiirik- 
&d &r flic jiHMHil di^iy, for it snKt lame '''"'■'"^"*H* 
-M^cooid Bsd wodifl add Id itE ^nhe ly 

•Aft as 'SBODlB, JO^ESQ. CD ]tt 

'tnKl oK muQsal of nty of ^bc 
Sidk iBJiei'itd to^ ImowD on]^ ^nm cd|uf — namel^^ 
Hk Canalni HaiQ, has iesc d iimwci gd, and tiiot it 
^nO iie, JBD dooiiL, pubiidied ly one of ^ An±s»- 

_^^ Tfe l«t «n« Ml jBticnkB rf 

xall rf 




7%r Jkwf!? Jtepm. nitnrrtgg mid Drngwed ^ 
ifae SLdt. Saxtcsl Cuioa;, *■■—'"'-- i^BButer rf 
ihe ChmA in ^luiiOm aaH3KinittBr rf^dL^taBCt- 
Fink, ^ffjiiiiiiril , -vtifii & Iftminr rf ile toJhnu, 
^ iis Tinumiilyia , ^. TT. C. {l.nwim : ?^xv«ae|9r 
jiriiUBil In/^ ^'yuBL. Ml :Sin&. 3flBi«) Tttmc, j^ 
ackii. laff lifie, :ttik, ^^ i;;^ 

TTbcBev. SomBelOBik irbk a -wmfii^ iBernksr ^ 
Tfis 3*izriSBii jaz^ in tfie Onzn^ and a aDMr-wafamfr- 
SDiKatiflnit. 3otB linWri^ lyiimii Hsc&mdiQa^ Bk 
ifliiMimffl ^bc lamUii^ rf AJuattBi, n ^^kuse iMuiiit 
Sor i&^ fiiiaflay ^oubb and jaixv and IkJumu 9B 

flmiiJHm AlrrttBt.^^ 3ScsiCBSBd(dii2iBittiii^.diaRBi 
mcBuBBK* mc T^y* jEDKiaiiiuBS anc jntconBB' 
■datfe ^fisiBazted Ixnu, andiicaBK^^iadlDiaiMciCblLai- 
dna, alls! laiwifligliiusL at J&loBBtsr jammc^ws* TZSk 
rfiSi.3k!aisi-3^^iiikweumuingd' 




"frnmlns '^au^izi 



uaHmut ^Up wmi'iiccfc, 
uBBtxinB^ aaoi JB iliv— 

ailisBnnsfi 'vdfii luttgigd 




anffle tpwank JteE iKifli Opi iiwi m^ sifirsm ladkinigK.^ 
Thr ioDparingia&aatnBi i; Diw r uui - rf CaMnam : — '*^Jk 



itatill; 
_ a wiutEsc nam inxtL *&£ aia^K 

aad^etlKiDnsitatilL*' ThelaibkiBaarallalj 
rf ifagjei|giDPK3ag!imnrr iS'ftsttnut^ and jbkIi 
jimciiiised iKifli ii i tin ttc TTncun^inal'Zuie 
and it iwitfljy rf ijuiUBluBt, cigBP jar^te 
TSk Samfj; Jbmga^ m- n ^Aos- iff yip. ^ i itm£ 




^ " a lalaaii rf love 'wi& "fbit gflitat 




g/fSmb^eeti, Bf ILoBCCT Hjlekbok. Snjiyiifflwmnl 
Tohiitte, iSt^-sSBd. (Lxmdmi: Z3, Si. ~ 

The Catakigt^ i^tkt Jjmtbm JJSbrmy m mc rf 
moBHoOnablr wora^ rfTgirrmnringpowem, and 'as 
:fliere£QR ivsLcome most coxdial^ the SnjigiiBmuui, 
aaxtamsac armnnT rf ^le additkos rf 




74 



REVIEWS. 



inahandyionn. Wenodoeoiiegraittmpioircniaitia 
the Subject Index, and that is» tfe addition of mitiak 
of Christian names of writen in the cue of tevenl 
aothofswith the same sonianies. The London Libmy 
is a most prospcroos imtitntion, and desenredl^ so. 
Doubtless, most of our readers are wdl aoqnamted 
with the privileges of membenhlp, bat if we are in any 
way instrumental in making them more widely known 
we shall be glad. 

English Etchings. Parte 5, 6, 7, and 8. 
(London: William Reeves.) 

This admirable collection of etchings continnes to 
increase in interest. In part 5 the series of old 
London localities is commenced with an excellent 
represen t ati o n of Sir Paul Pindar's house in Bishops- 
gate-street ; bv Mr. Percy Thomas, thii> we hope will 
be foUoMTcd by others of the same character ; Mr. 
Snape's plate of trees near Petersfield is veiT rich in 
effect. Fart 6 contains a speaking likeness of the late 
Dean Stanley, by Mr. Thomas. The interior of the 
Cock Tavern, Fleet Street, by Mr. A. W. Bayes, b a 
pleasing reminiscence of an old carved chimney 
piece ; and the view of the chancel of Norbnry Church, 
u a veiy deli^tfiil representation of this singularij 
beautiful comer with its fine old altar, tomb of Sir 
Ralph Fitzgerald and his wife. We are glad to see 
the editor ^ving a permanent value to his publication, 
by producing pictures of definite interest, and wish 
his series all the success it richly deserves. 



^^>ss;hi^jt<^ 



flDeetind0 of Elntiauarian 
Sodctiee* 



METROPOLITAN. 

Society op Antiquaries. — Dea i. — Mr. 
E, FreshfieU, V.P., in the Chair.— Mr. Freshfield 
exhibited a further instalment of brasses whidi 
he had presented to Winchester College for erection 
in the chapel in the room of those which had been 
removed, and had subsequently been lost on the 
"restoration" of the chapeL — The Science and 
' Art Department exhibited a coloured photograph of 
the CoVentxy tapestry.— Mr. H. S. Ashbee exhibited 
and presented a carved stone from the Jain Temple at 
Sravanbelgola, in the province of Mvsore. The sub- 
ject of the carving of this stone, the &ce of which was 
a sunk panel, eleven inches square, was an elephant, 
lavishly decorated with what may be called bracelets 
and necklets, and carrying two figures, the foremost 
of whom, astride on the neck, is probably the^dbiver, 
and^ the other, or hindermost, some personage of 
distinction. In the two upper comers of the panel, 
were representations of the lotus flower. The sculp- 
ture was probably of the thirteenth or fourteenth 
century. 

Dec. 8.— Mr. A. W. Franks, V. P., in the Chair. 
—Rev. F. Warren, of St. John's College, 
Oxford, exhibited some photographs of pages from 
the Leofric Missal, one of which contains an entry 




oQooeniing the maanmission of a serf at 
where four cro»-foads met— a cnstoai of irincih there 
has hitherto been haidly anj dioinct cvidanoc^ 
though it has beea inferred from eafirewsns ia 
An^Sazoa lawsL— The Rev. Dr. John Bavoo es- 
hibited a drawing of a wedding cfaeSt, poidiaied at 
Bamstiyle, decorated with figorei of a man and 
woman in the costume of the eariy part of the 
teenth oenturr, surroonded by ui insaivtkai in 
very intelligible Portuguese. — ^Dr. Baron s3ao rrhihitrd 
a very small MS. on the art of stenognqpl^, by J. 
Will, circa 1600. The same gentleman also reada 
paper upon the church of Manmngfofd Bnioe, WihL 
which consists merely of an apse^ chancel and naire^ ana 
has accordingly, no east window, the windows in tfie 
apse being very small, and about eleven leet above the 
floor. 

ARCHiCOLOGICAL IN ST I TDTJL— DeC. I. — BCt. J. 

Hilton in the Chair. — Mr. 8. Tocker, Somcsset 
Herald, read a paper *' On the ficrt Parish Rcgistcn 
ordered by Cromwell, in 1538, and the sabaeqncnt 
Transcripts," and illustrated his subject by hqiiw 
before the meeting the original register on paper at 
the paruh of Warkleigh, co. D^von, I$j&-I576^ 
whioi he bdieved to be unique of its kud. 
Tucker supplemented his piqper by quoting 
extracts firom other registers of about tfie sanie period. 
—The Rev. C. W. King sent a paper " On the 
Votive Tablets of the * Scriba,' Demctrios at Yoffc," 
in which, by the theory he advanced, he identified the 
**Scriba" with that Demetrius the 
mentioned by Plutarch in the opening ofhis 
" On the Cessation of Oracles," as having yaaX ie> 
turned firom Britain. Mr. King gave his raaaons fer 
believing that Demetrius visited Britaht, probablf 
Anglesoi, *'b^ the emperor's mdcr," wuhin tM 
reign of Domitian, and that his visit was made in aa 
ofBdal capacity, and was not unoonnected widi the 
instruction of the new subjects of Rtmke in letten^ 
a feature of the general civilization of the Britoos 
sedulously promote by Agricola, if we nuqr bdieve 
Tadtus.— Mr. J. A. Sparvel Bayly exiubited a 
large collection of rubbings from bnsses in Esmx. 

B&ITISH ARCHiCOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION.— DeC. 

7. — Mr. T. Morgan in the chair. — Major P. di 
Cesnola exhibited a large collection of ancient Greek 
glass vessels from Cyprus, showiii£[ the pr ogi ew of gjav 
manufiEicture. — ^Mr. W. Myers exhibited a ooQeetion of 
antiquities of continental origin. Amoitf these were 
some worked flints acquired at CopenLagen, and 
many fine and beautiful specimens of Roman fibok 
and Egyptian bronzes — Mr. C. H. Compton de> 
scribed some Roman Samian ware from Gemaay, 
in every respect similar to what is foond in Londoe, 
aflbrdmg additional evidence of the fidnication of the 
articles in the Rhenish provinces. — Mr. R. AOca 
exhibited a series of drawings of Truiational Nonaaa 
ironwork from churches in Shropshire. — ^A Report 
was then made by Mr. L. Brock of the unooveiing d 
the remains of Carrow Nunnery, Norwich, by Mr. J. 
J. Colman, M.P. It is found to sgree with the gene* 
ral arrangements of a Benedictine monastery. The 
church is cruciform, and has had a central tower. 
The bases of several of the late eleventh eentniy 
columns remain, and also those of two of the side 
altars. The chapter-house has been a anall iquut- 



MBBTINGS OF ANTIQVAHIAN SOCIETIES. 



rs 



metit, while the day-room has been of considerable 
extent. A quantity of elaborately-moulded stones and 
carved capitals have been recovered. 

Dec. .14.—^.. W. H. Cope in the Chair.— Mr. W. 
G. Smith exhibited a large number of pre-historic 
hammers, formed of hard pebbles of circular form, all 
of which had been bored for the passage of the 
handles. They were principally from Irduid. — Mr. 
J. T. Irvine communicated a description of the font 
of Elschester Churchy a small early bowl on a circular 
shaft, the stone probably derived from some Roman 
building, bein^ of similar description to that in the 
Roman remains around the church. He also de- 
scribed some artistic carving of tiie same date, found 
recently at Bath among the remains of the great 
Bath, dose to the Abbey Church.— Mr. A. Chase- 
more exhibited an interesting series of Tradesmen's 
Tokens of the seventeenth century.— Mr. A. C. Fryer 
contributed a Paper on a pewter communion cup, 
recently found at Cheadle Hohne, supposed to be the 
same that was lost in 1672.— The second Paper was 
by the Rev. C. Collier, descriptive of a scries of 
remarkable pit dwellings near Redenham Park. 

Numismatic Society.— Dec. 15.— Mr. John 
Evans, President, in the Chair.— Mr. R. A. Hoblyn 
read a Paper on •• Groats of Henry VIII."— Mr. B. V. 
Head read a Paper on •* The Coinage of Boeotia," 
in which he attempted a chronological classification 
in successive pericKls, ranging from about B.C. 600 
down to Roman Imperial tmies. 

Anthropological Institute.— Dec. 13.— Mr. 
Hvde Clarke, V.-P., in the Chair.— Mr. M. J. 
Walhouse read a Paper on " Some Vestiges of Girl- 
sacrifices, Jar-Burial, and Contracted Interments in 
India and the East" The great megalithic forms of 
interment, consistixi£of kistvaens, or sepulchral under- 
ground chambers, rormed of four huge slabs covered 
with an imm e n se cap-stone, surrounded by a circle of 
standing stones, abound in nearly all the provmces of 
the Madras Presidency ; but, beside these, there is 
another description of tmrial peculiar to the region of 
the Western coast firom Malabar to Cape Comorin. 
This consists of huge mortuary jars or urns, pear- 
shaped, usually about five feet high by four feet in 
cirUi round the shoulders, and tapering to a point at 
the bottom. They are, of course, thick, rea ware, 
wide mouthed^ generally with a rude incised cross- 
pattern round the neck. These great urns are buried 
upright in the ground — not in anv kist or chamber — 
and a large fiat stone or slab is laid over them, but 
no circle of stones is ever placed around. They are 
filled with earth, and contain at the bottom a quantity 
of bones broken small, some bits of iron, and 
occasionally a small urn also filled with bits of bone^ 
or sometimes with dean sand, red or white, which 
must have been brought from a distance.— M. G. 
Bertin read a paper on "The Origin and Primitive 
Home of the Semites.'* 

Folk-lore.- Dec. 16.— Mr. W. R. S. Ralston, 
V.-P., in the Chair.— Mr. Karl Blind read a Paper 
" On some Finds in Germanic and Welsh Folk-lore." 
After detailing a number of strange cat stories, their 
connexion with the old circle of Vaenir deities was 
shown ; the Irish Brendan uid other legends were 
adduced by way of comparison. The strong influence 
of the Tentooic element on the water tales of South 



Wales by the Flemish immigratioii and bjr the older 
Norse invasions, and the proSable Germamc character 
of the Finn or Ffonn race^ which in mythic times is 
found in Irdand, Britain, and Norway, formed 
another part of the lecture. Several of the Welsh 
tales were gathered from more than octogenarian 
people. Mr. Karl Blind remarked that these waife and 
strays, this flotsam and jetsam of an ancient water 
cult, should be collected whilst there was yet time. 

Royal Asiatic Society. — Dec. 19.—- Colonel 
Yule, V.P., in the Chair. — M. Bertin read a Paper on 
"The Origin of the Phoenician Alphabet." — Mr. 
Simpson gave an interesting account of a sculptured 
tope, represented on an old stone at Dras, near Ladak, 
which has, curiously, been overlooked by General 
Cunnin^^iam in his description of the same localitjr* 
The chief value of the representation of this tope is m 
its bearing on the form of the topes in the Jelialabad 
Valley and near Peshawar. All the Indian topes, he 
showed, have round bases ; while those on the otheir 
side of the Indus have square bases, with stairs, or 
the remains of them, leading up to the top of the 
square base, as exemplified in those found beyond 
the Khyber Pass. — Colonel Yule exhibited a Lolo 
MS., written on red and blue satin, which had been 
recently sent to him by Mr. Colborne Baber, the pre* 
sent secretary of the Chinese Legation at Pekin. — 
M. de la Couperie stated that the MS. contained about 
5,750 words, ranged, generally, in verses of five words 
each, though in uus the red and the blue sides did not 
always agree ; the writing, however, was not Chinese. 
— ^The Rev. Professor Beal briefly stated some conclu- 
sions to whidxliis recent studies haid led him with regod 
to die probable meaning of pi. xxviii. fig. i, in Mr. Fer« 
gusson's Dree and Serpent Warships second edition. 

Royal Historical Society.— Dec. 15. — Dr. 
G. G. TasSl in the Chair.— Mr. Hyde Clarke read 
"Notes on the Ligurians, Aquitanians, and BelgL" 
He aigued that the Ligurians and Aquitanians were 
of the same stock as the Iberians. The Ligurians 
consisted of fragments of tribes, whidx never con- 
stitute a political power. The Belgi belof^ged to the 
same race, and used the same languages. The Celti, 
had, however, obtained the upper hand ; but it was. 
most probable that descendants of these peoples now 
existed in Cornwall, Wales, and parts of Ireland — 
The second paper was by Mr. H. £• Maiden, entitled, 
*' History on the Face of England." 

Philological. — ^Dec 2.— Mr. A. J. Ellis, Presi- 
dent, in the Chair.— Mr. Cust gave a report of the 
late Oriental Congress at Berlin, on behialf of Mr. 
Sayce a^ himself, the two delegates of the Society 
at the Congress.— Mr. T. Piatt jun., read papers on 
*< Some P(nnts in Old "English Grammar " and '*0n 
Ancio-Saxon Pet Names."— Dr. Murray read a paper 
oouie vidue of the change firom "an eye of a needle " 
to "a needle's eye" in the Revised Version of the 
New Testament ; and on the histories of the words 
"ammunition," "amyl," "abnormal," ** Alcohol;" 
he asked when "antennae," "anther," "aphelion," 
«• perihelion," were first used ; what *• antimon^yr " 
comes from ; and then gave the histories of "antic" 
(ItaL anHco^ grotesoue), ••antique," "antier" 
(ramus ttntioeuMris^ tne lowest tine of the horn), 
"anthem," "halt." "ambush," ''animal spirits" 
(the lierves)* 

G a 



76 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



Dec. 16.— Mr. A- J, Ellis, President, in the Choir, 
— Mr. Henry S«-eet read a Paper by Mr. Thomas 
Powell, of lioolle College, Liverpool, on "The 
Treiibnent of Borrowed English Words in CoUoquinl 
Wdsh." 

Niw SnAKSPERE.— Dec. g. — Mr. F. J. Fumival!, 
Director, in the Chair.— Mis E- H. Hicltey read a 
Paper on "Komeo and jHliel." — Dr. B. NichoUon 
read some notes on the following passages in Hamlet, 
t. " Mortal coil," which he defended against Mason's 
and Prof. Elce's changes, and guve instances in favour 
of the nautical sense of the word ; 3. " Sables," 
obscure onlj because coaunentatocs did not considei 
how Shakespeare dressed his characters : Hamlet in 
" inky" black, Claudius and Gertrude, in, as it were, 
half-moumins ; 3. "ComniB," which he declined to 
change; and 4. "All the world's a stage," which, 
with the " seven ages," was not original. He quoled 
instances 60m the Fathers, fl:c., the Globe motto was 
"Totus mundos a^t histrioiiem," and there were 
other examples, as in Withals's Dictionary. 

Royal Society of Lite rat uke.— Dec 14. — 
Mr, Joseph Haynes in Ihe Chair.— Mr. A. J. Ellis 
read a paper contributed by Mr. Arthur Laurensoii, of 
Lerwick, Shetland Islands, on *' The Colour-sense o{ 
the Edda," 



PROVINCIAL. 

Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. — Dec 
II.— Mr- R. W, Cochran Patrick, M.P., Vice-pre- 
sident, in the Chair. — The first Paper was a notice of 
a bronze anvil, by Dr. John Alexander Smith, secre- 
tary. Bronie anvils arc of great rarity, and are 
mo&lly of small siie. Not more than half a dozen are 
known in Europe. The anvil now exhibiied, which 
has been deposited in the Museum by Mr. Ramage, 
btassfounder, is of small size, and has been cast in a 
very rude mould. It is of the modem form of anvil, 
however, and the analysis by Dr. Stevenson Mac- 
adam shows a very peculiar composition of the metal, 
and was on that account, as well for its rarity, an 
object of considerable intemt, — The next Paper was 
a notica; of a "Knockin' Stanc," Or barley mortar, 
found at Ballachulish, and presented to the Museum 
by Sir Robert ChrisLison, Bart. Il was the property 
of John Mackenzie, Sir Robert's boatman and gardener 
there, and had lain neglected and turned upside down 
on the roadside at the comer of his cottage, until the 
Rev. Mr. Stewart, of Ballachulish, acddenlaUy dis- 
covered its true character. It is an oval, water-rolled 
boulder of a light grey syenitic granile, with a well- 
shaped basin, several inches deep and wide, hollowed 
in Ihe centre. Sir Robert communicated various par- 
ticolan regarding the maimer of use of the knockin' 
slanc when it was a common requisite of every 
Scottish household for preparing barley for the broth- 
pot. The grain was placed in tne hollow of the stone, 
and bealen wilh a wooden mallet until the husk was 
entirety scaled off, and the barley thus made fit for 
use. A long-handled mallet for this purpose from 
Shetland, which is in the Museum, was exhibited 
along with the knocking-stone, and the process ex- 
plained.— 'ITie Chairman, Dr. Arthur MilcheU, Mr. 
Goudie, Mr. Grieve, Mr, Milne Home, Mr, Manholl, 



and Dr. Monro followed with remarks on the varieties 
of knocking'Stones, ihc process of making \a.-Aej, and 
the archa:ological lessons taught by such specimens. — 
The next Paper was a notice of a hoard of bronze 
weapona found at Killin, commonicaled by Charles 
Stewart, of Tigh'n Duin, Killin, The hoard consistol 
of a bronze socketed Celt or axe-head of peculiar 
form, a bronze gouge, a portion of the hiit-end of a 
small bronze sword, also of peculiar fomi, a la^e 
hollow bronze ring, seven plain bronze rings, and a 
fine socketed spear-head of bionie, S inches in length. 
The deposit was found fourteen years ago by John 
M'Diarmid, Moumore, Killin, in Irencliing a small 
round knoll immediately behind Ihe westmost boose 
in Monmore. The bronzes lay in a clnsler, as if they 
had been tied together with some kind of string, at a 
depth of about a foot under the surface, and near ibc 
summit of Ihe knoll. The hUlock itself was of gravel, 
and apparently entirely of natural formatittfi. Mr. 
Stewart also described a small whetstone or burnisher 
of quartzite and a flint scraper which had been tiatd 
in the same neighbourhood. These articles have been 
obtained for the Museum by purchase through the 
good offices of Mr. StewarL Mr. Anderson remarked 
that the hoard uf bronze implements was interesting, 
both on account of the rarity of sudi hoards, and 
because it contained specimens of peculiar varieties of 
implements. — The next Paper was a notice, by Mr. J. 
R. Kindlay, of a pot of brass or bronze which was 
recently dug up near Edmonstone House. Bicgar, and 
was exhibited by Mr. William Allan Woddiop, of 
Garvald House, Dolphintun. It was found fiill of 
earth, month uppermost, four inches only below the 
surface, and no coins, bones, or other articles near it 
It is interesting, as reiaining the iron bow handle, 
which none of the specimens in the Museum show. 
Mr. Findlaf called attention to the fact that a con- 
siderable number of these pots had been found at 
various times in the Biggor district He also exhibited 
the original account of ex|)enscs of the funeral of Mn. 
Margaret Marjoribanks in 1697. — The next Paper was 
a notice of some shell mounds neat LossicmotlCh, by 
Mr. Edward Cordon Duff. These mounds consu of 
layers of the shells of Ihe common edible shell-fish of 
the sea-shore, and are tlluated about (wenty yards 
from high tide mark, but at a very much higher level, 
the shore being rocky atvd steep. The shell deposils 
lie in a black loamy soil, which is eight feel below the 
present surface. The first shell layer, consisting <A 
shells and bones of various animals, but containing 
few fragments of pottery, lies about six inches undo- 
the upper snrbce of this loamy soil, and below it, and 
at a depth of thirteen feet from thesuifiiCE, is a second 
layer of shells, mingled with numerous fragments of 
small earthenware vessels, coated with a strong greoi 
glaze. Some remains of iron implements and a small 
Iragnient of bronze were found among the shells. A 
number of the fragmetits of pottery which have been 
presented by Mr. UuQ'to the Museum were exhibited. 
Camuriuce Antjijoakian Society, — Not. 
a8.---The Rev. R. Bum, M.A., Preadcnt, in tbe 
Chair. — Dr. Walker read a Communication on the 
units of measurement in Domesday and bqjan by 
referring to the variety of opinions as to the eu« of ■ 
Norman liule, the principal being (I) that it wu 
about 240 modem statute acres ; (2) that it wu too 




MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



77 



oi 110 ; (3) that it was unconoMted wiih acreage, and 
> mere a&sesament unit. In each of these vien's, he 
twiieved, an element of truth is contained. He 
showed bjr tabulation of the hides aligned to the 
Manon in Cambridgeshire, that the aviragf hide 






3 cal- 



I 



I 



hundred of Chesterton to 474 in the woodland and 
marsh of Staplehow. By comparison of entries the 
iqrjjaA' appears lo be a quarter of (he hide, and equal to 
thirty acres. This apparent discrepancy arises from 
the tactthattheTirgotcisaquBrlerofthcmcajwi-B/part 
of the hide, each hide averaging 120 acret of measured 
land— 1 J'., oF plough-land and enclosed meadow — and 
120 acres more unmeasured but represented by its 
tliare in the common pasture. The hide was generally 
larger where woodland prevailed, the woodland being 
of Tittle value ; and the hide was always an omount 
of land chargeable with six ihiBings of Danegeld. 
Remarks were made on the two sorts of acres used 
in the sarvey, one five times as laige as the other ; on 
indications that the juries of dilTerent hundreds used 
dilTcrenl acres in their reckonings : on the number of 
men in a team (eight) ; the omoanl of meadow con- 
sidered adequate to maintain a team (five to eight 
acres), and the amount of wooJ denoted by " sufficient 
for so many swine " — probably some twelve acres for 
each hog. — Professor Skeat made the following 
remarks upon points which Dr. Walker had raised ; — 
The use ot rmtum in the sense of I30 is paralleled by 
the use of the English word humiriil m the same 
sense. There is a good instance of this in Fiuher' 
ben's Book on Husbandry, where he speaks of a 
hundred of herrings, clearly meaning 120 from the 
remarks on the price of them. Again Ifrra, in the 
sense of aratlt land, may be paralleled by the \ae of 
Und in English. TTiete is a good example in Purct 
tite PlimgiuHatii Cridt, where the term lands end 
has reference to the end of a licld which is being 
ploughed. So also in the provincial English kttuiland 
(also corrupted into adland), used of the end of a field 
where the hordes turn, and which is last ploughed. 
The etymology of Kidi is given in my EtyiHelogical 
£>iiliBHBry, where I show that it is connected with 
kivt, in the old sense of "household," and has no 
eonneclion with hidt, a ikm, nor with the tale of 
Queen Dido, who enclosed land with strips of skin. — 
Hr. Bradshaw suggested that the variation in the 
amount understood liy the term " hide'' might partly 
be accounted for by the [act, upon which Mr. Frederic 
Seebohm laid great stre^ in his researches and dis- 
cusdons on this subject, that the hide was not a single 
piece of land, but a mass of often widely scattered 
pieces within the same manor. He mentioned a book 
which be bad recently obtained from a collector at 
Liverpool on condition of its being placed in the 
University library, which illustrated this. It was a 
ttrranttm or terrier of the Campi pteidmfala Carte- 
triguu, and originally belonged to the Uruversity, 
thongh for some lime m possession of Corpus Chiisli 
College. Here the actual holdings consisted of 
portions amounting to one or more stliena, a measure- 
menl which had iKcn reduced to modem acreage by 



a later hand. The date of the book was about 1400 ; 
the date of the reduction to acreage was 1517. It 
appeared that, though a selion was, properly speak- 
ing, half an acre, there was no strict consistency, and 
five ^elions were by no means always five half-acre*. 
Going back from this point as certain, it would follow 
that a still greater variation would be found inattempt- 
ing to reduce a bide to modem acreage, sedng that 
the hide was made up of a multitude of these small 
holdiiigs. — Dr. Walker agreed with Mr. Bradshaw's 
remarks as to the scattered character of arable land 
in three fields, subdivided into qudrantilae, and these 
into sdionn, and referred to Terrier of Ijuidbeoch 
which hod been drawn up by Archbt shop Parkcrin 1540. 
— Professor Hughes after alluding to the difficulty that 
we find in thb country when we attempt to assign an 
exact date to fictile objects of any period later than 
Roman, with the exception of the Saxon cinerary 
ums, went on to lay before the Society the results of 
bis inquiry into the age of certain vessels and tobacco- 
pipes which were found under one of the two targe 
elms known as "the Sisters." which were blown 
down in the gale of Oct. 14, i8St, in the grounds of 
St. John's Collie. There were several very different 
kinds of ware represented among them ; the liottle- 
shaped jug known as a Bellairoine or grey beard, 
which would probably have reached thiscountry from 
Cologne or possibly have been manufactured in Urilain 
in the early part of the levenleenth century. The bright 
blue (lowered stone ware, similar to that which was 
being so lai^y rqiroduced in recent times, he had 
not found any of himself, and fell that there was 
always a source of error in the possibility of there 
having been new earth dug in about the roots of the 
tree during its early period of growth. There were 
several pans, pipkins, and other vckkIs of diifercnt 
uies and shapes of red earthenware with a rough 
gkue. Vessels of this class range back to a very 
remote period, while they are also very like those used 
at the present day. They have all the common lead 
gkze. He did not feel sure that any of the objects 
had the salt glaie which came in during the lost 
quarter of the seventeenth century. There were pieces 
of several gourd-shaped glass bottles with long necks 
and one small piece of gmss, which looked as if it had 
formed part of a stained glass window. On the 
whole it seemed to him that the objects probably be- 
loi^ed to the thiid quarter of the seventeenth centory, 
and being an associated series with so mudi collateral 
evidence as to their date, he thought it would be 
interesting to keep them together for the present. — 
Dr. Hooppell rave an account of the exploration 
recently made oT the Roman Station of Binchester, 
near Bishop's Auckhind. Dr. Hooppell said that the 
Roman name of the Station was Vinoriiim, of which 
there could be no donht, as the distances in Antonine's 
Itinetary decisively fixed it. It was on the great 
Roman road from York to the border of Scotland. 
This road, called, in the neighbourhood, the Watling 
Street, ran right through the centre of the Statior. 
A trench had been dug for more than a hundred 
yards along one side of the street, exposing the Fronts 
of numerous extensive buildings, standing, in some 
cases ten courses of stones in height, and pre.ienting 
some very remarkable features. One point of e5|ieciil 
interest was the discovery, in every part of the Roman 




MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



. desolation between. Dr. Hooppell's 
address was iUu<itrated by > large number af beanti- 
fuU]' executed painted rqiresentations of tbe remains, 
in which this fact was very stiikingiy brotiBht out. 
Another singular Tcature was in connection with Ihe 
massive rampart, which encircled tbe Station, and 
which was round at the north-east corner in admirable 
presertalion. The wall was here dght feet sii inches 
ax breadth, and beneath it, at one point, was an 
excellently constructed arched culvert, paved at Ihe 
boliom, furnished on the outside with a huge stone, 
which partially closed the orifice, communicatiilg 
with a channel which led to a square chamber in the 
bottom of the fosse, the use of which had remained, 
(o ilie present time, an unsolved mysteiy. Dr. 
Hooppell described also a very perfect hypocaust, 
with a lac^c chamber atxive it, in which the flue-tiles, 
when found, were all in position, and decorated plaster 
upon Ihem, In connection with this chamber a 
statute of Flora, or Forluna according to some 
aulhorilies, was found brolien in Roman times, and 
put to an i^ominious use Bs a building stone, in the 
time of CoDstantine. A most interesting votive 
tablet dedicated to Aesculapius and Salos, by the 
medical officer attached to Ihe Ala of Vettonian 
Dragoons, was also found in this neighbourhood. 
Another bath, at a distance from the above, of a 
circular shape, was eiplored. In this was found a 
very perfect sirigil, and. a number of coins of the 
earlier emperors.— Mr. A. G. Wright, of Newmarket, 
exhibited a leaf-shaped arrow-head found on the 
training-grounds and a cell (measuring 64 + 311d.) 
from Iclilingham, which had taken this shape from 
natural cauies, being a water-worn mass of itrfulac 
from the Oxford clay. 
Architectural Sociktv op the Aschdra- 

CONRIES OF NORTHAMPTOJl AND OaKHAM.— 

Dec. 12— Annual Meeting.— Sir Henry Dryden,Bart., 
in the Chair. — The Secretary read the Report which 
showed rather smaller amount than usual of Church 
building in;the past year. It adverted to the great loss 
theSocietyhassustiinedbylhedcathoftheRev. N.F. 
lightfoot, for eighteen years Secretary of the Society. 
A vote of sympathy with Ihe widow and family, and 
an acknowledgment of the greal obligation [he Society 
had long beenunder to Mr. Lightfoot was passed, and 
ordered to be comraunicaled to Mrs. Lightfoot. — The 
Rev, B. Hull, Vicai of All Saints, Northampton, and 
Rural Dean, read a Paper on the Parish and Church 
of " All Saints." This was illustrated by photographic 
views of the Church and buildings connected with it, 
and by plans and sections of the existing Church and 
Tower, carefully worked out by Sir H. Drydco, and 
tinted to indicate the changes m Ihe .tituctutc during 
past centuries. — Mr. S. Sharp then read a Paper on 
" Norlhomplon Castle" and the remains lately found 
in the earthworks of it. Some inaccuracies, in ihe 
commonly received history of certain persons connected 
with the Castle were elucidated. The formation of 
the earlhvforks was described, and the remains founii 
were grouped, under the heads of Roman, Roman- 
British, Saxon and Norman, The greater part of 
Ihem were exhibited. 



CAMBRIDGB PKILOIJ3GICA1. SOCIETY. — Dec I. 

— Mr. Monro, President, in the Chair,— Mr. Jacksom 
read a Paper on several suspected interpolations in 
Plato's Hefuilk.—FTaiessoT Skeat read a Paper " On 
Ihe Roots SAC, SKA, sKAR in English." The root 
SAC, lo cut, appears in LaL sttan, to cut ReUced 
words are itcant, talion, stgmml, biifcl, mttct, ftc 
Also sictU, of Latir, origin ; aisifragf, sattafrat ; 
scion, of French origin ; and probably terratal. 
English words from the same root are ioiu, set-tan, 
ttylht, scdgt. Risk is Spanish, from resecart, as $hown 
by Diet. The root ska, to cut, appears in the ex.- 
tended forms skan, skad, skap, skar. The base 
SKAN accounts for E. icatA^ and CQitiy ; also tot 
tanal, ehamtd, kennd, of Latin origin ; the initial < 
being lost in some cases. The base skad acconnts 
for schiduU, of Greek origin ; and the E. snttur, 
originally to burst asunder ; whilst the £. thai, 
to part, is closely allied. It also appears in the 
weakened foim skid, whence uhiim, ithist, uil, 
squill, absiind, racind, abscissa, shin^i in the old 
sense of "wooden tile," sJttath, shaithe, shide, an old 
word signifying a thin piece of board, and skui. 
With loss of initial i, we have Lat. caedtrf, to tut, 
connected with nhidi are atsura, eandic, dttidt, 
prtiisf, hamiiHi; also chisel and scissors, the lut 
being misspelt, owing to a false popular elymoloejr 
from scindtft, Tlie base seap, ouo kap, to cut, 
accounts for apocoft, syncopt, cemma, ihsf, thumf, 
scoof, cafioii, sheep, shape, skip, shave, scab, ikaiiy, 
shaft. The- base SKAR, to shear, accounts for s\tar, 
share, shirr, shore, score, shirt, skirt, shard, Atrd, 
scaur, skerry, scarify, siieer cff (which is Dutch lor 
" lo cut away"), and even jeer. Also for charaaer, 
cuirass, scourge, scorch, and perhaps curt. This base 
also appears as skal, whence scale, scall, skull, lAaii, 
she/1, scolhp, scalp, shelf. There is also a form 
SKUR or SKRV, to cut, whence scruiiny, serufit, 
shroud, shred, screcf, savll, and probably teras. 
The base skar is also extended to SKARP or Skalf, 
to cut ; hence excerpt, scarce, scalpel, sculpture, sAarf, 
scarf; also harvest, pave, grave, groes/c, grapktc, 
graft ; also strap, scrip, scarp, escarpmeiU. All these 
con be fairly traced, explained, and accounted for ; 
and show that the Aryan root SAK, to cut, with ita 
various developments, is a well-attcsled fact which is 
worthy of being carefully considered. 

Clifton Shakespeare Society. — Nov. 26; 
1881.— Reports in connection with ThtMtny H^hieief 
Windsor were presenled from the following depart- 
ments ; Sources and History by Mr, John Williamt ; 
Rare Words and Phrases by Mr. L. M, Gnfhlhs. A 
paper on " Fnlstaff." by Mr. J. W. Mills, B.A., 
was read. The Rev, H- P. Stokes, M.A., LL.M., 
read a paper on " The Relative Order of the Filsiaff 
Plays.' Mr, P. A, Daniel's Time-Analysis of Tkt 
Merry ffrtis of Windier was also read. 

Dec, 17, 1881.— Mr.E.Thelwall, M.A,, President, 
in the Chair. — Much Ado About Nolhm^ was tbepby 
for criticism.- Mr. C, U. Saunders sent a report on 
the instrumenlal music — Papers were also read " On 
Beatrice;" "Dogberry and Verges;" "On (Certain 
Expressions used by Beatrice;" "A Medley from 
Much Ado About Nothing ;" "On the Falling in Love 
in Much Ado Ateiil Nolhing." 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



[We 3xt unfotluDalely obliged to postpone am 
report of lh< December meetii^ of the Norfolk aod 
Norwich Arclupolo£ical Society until next issue in 
con^oence of the giot dentands on our space.] 



©bituart- 



LEWIS H. MORGAN. 
Ditd Dnemirr 17, iSSl. 
By llie death of thi; world-known scholar, anthro- 
pological science losei another of its great chieiii. 
Ranked among the small bond which includes Mr. 
Tjlor and Sir John Lubbock at the bead, and wliich 
has just lost Mr. MacLennan, Mr. Morgan's researches, 
aided as they were by the Uaitcl States Government, 
brought to the study of mankind the immense benefit 
of endence from the North American ladissE. The 
Nation publilhet a sympathetic notice of Mr. MoTcan's 
career, andfnunil we gather the following particulars : 
— A nifTve of western New York, at an early age he 
becsunc interested in the Iroquois Indians ; and he 
eained by intercourec with the Indians a thorough 
insight into the constitution of their confedency, 
into their manners and customs, and, above nil, into 
their curious system of tribal intettnarriage. Together 
with some kindred spirits, he founded a " New Con- 
federacy of the Iroquois" — a .siort of antiquarian society, 
having as a sabsidiary aim the promotion of a kindlier 
feeling towards the red man. The Papers which he read 
before this society in 1844-46 have been since repub- 
' lishedmore than once, under the title of Tii Ltagtuef 
the Iroquaii. A visit that he paid to Lake Superior 
fcd to two results— one was his exhaustive and highly 
teadsble monograph on 77i/ ABifruan Ban'er and his 
ifKrh (1S67) ; the other was his discovery that the 
system of tribal intermarriage in the " Sii Nations" 
prevailed also among the American Indians genenlly. 
Subsequent investigations, conducted partly by means 
of schedules a( questions sent out 10 missionaries and 
*cho1art in all ports of the worid, induced Mr. Morgan 
to r^ard this system as a fundamental fact in the dc- 
telopment of the human race. The results of his 
nudies appeared in the SmUAtonian CotitridutiOTii 
Ibi 1873. In 1877 he pnblidied his important 
work, AmuHl Setitty ; or, Ratarchti in tht Lint of 
Human Pngrat frsm Savagiry, Iknrtigk Barbarism, 
ittle' Chiliialiari. Mr. Morgan's Inst investigation 
Was into the pueblos of New Mexico, from the study 
of which he concluded that the mound-build ets were 
village Indians of New Mexican origin, and that 
Ihe mounds were platforms for their long wooden 
communal houses. It was only on his dealh-bed that 
he received his vciy latest printed work, Himia 
and Haast-lije of the A/ntricaii Ahrigina, fob- 
llshed by the Bureau of Ethnology of the Uniled 
Slates Government. 



pealed to the antiquary, by supplying to Ihe public 
romances founded upon the events of the past. To say 
that he was a legitimate follower of Scott is to say what 
conldnot be; bat still he did meet the tastes of tho*e 
who like the past in the shape ^ (iclion, and it is to be 
hoped that lie created in some vbai Scott must 
hare dc*ie in many — n genuine tosle (or antiquarian 
studies. In 1834 he published XevitoMd. Its succett 
was immediate. To reprint a list of all his pub- 
lished books is anoecessary here ; bat we may remind 
our readers that in 1845 he became proprietor and 
editor of the JVesi Aftnlh/y JIfagatuit. Meanwhile, 
he had begun to paint tluit long series of pictares 
of the past on whidi his Eune chiefly rests — Criciun, 
Guy Favta, Old St. Fault, Tht Misa't Daugkltr. 
Windsor Caille, St. JaiHe^t, LancaiiUrt Wittha, The 
Star CAam&er, Tht Flittief Bacon, OviHtdtanGrangf, 
Tht ConilaiU of tht Tinotr, The Lord Mayor of Lon- 
don, Cardinal I'bU, and yohn Law. Replete with 
incident, written in a lively style, and exhibiiing a 
knowledge of the periods they iUustraied, these novels 
were all received with more or less favour. In OJd 
SI. Pauts we have exact and vivid descriptions of 
the Plague and Great Fire of London. In 1873, 
Mr. Ainsworth gave to the world his novel of Tkt 
Good Old Timii, the story of the Manchester Rebels in 
1745. laBeairiet Tyidtilty, Mr. Ainsworth dctcribeil 
thejacobite trials in Manchester in i^Vil while in 
Thr Ltagnrr of Lolhem, a Tale of Ihe Civil tVar in 
Laniaskirr, and b Preiton Fight, or tht fniurration 
0/1715, other historical events were bandied. 



Died Dteembtr 30, l8St. 
Genenti Allan was one of those true lovers of books 
who collected a library together becaose he spent the 
happiest portions of his life amongst books, and be- 
cause he was always u^g them in the compilation of 
his many useful additions lo Scottish antiquarian litera- 
ture. Yet we cannot point to any book which bean 
General Allan's name on the title-page. He worked 
hard, but generally for others. Many of the moat 
learned notes to the publications of the Grampian Club, 
notably the Kegiilers of Cupar Angus, veie supplied 
by General Allan, andrcadersof A'iHViaH^QtHnc; will 
soon learn that they have lost a good friend when they 
miss the long-known signature. "A.S,A." Thewriler 
of this noiicehad the honottrd^ General Allan's frienii- 
ship during the loiter years of his life, and be knew 
him OS n genuine, kind-heaned antiqnary, who would 
always give up his griBt knowledge on Scottish history 
and genealogy to uose who asked him. 

G. L. COWMK. 



i HABKISON AINSWORTH, 
Bom FdirHary 4, 1805 ; dial yannary 1, iSSi. 

The death of Mr. AinswoTtb deserret a nottee in 
these columns, because in some sort of way he ap- 



5be Hntifluarv'8 'notc^BooIi. 



IiOIlllon Stone. — It b singular that so little hot 
been done to discover the origin of this curious relic 
That it is prc-bistoric, there i* 
,_ Vina ,r. hi, Mmimtnttt 



of pre-historic 



reason to believe. King, 11 



Antigua, ^vcs iii a short fonn all [ha[ has been said 
about it by autboiitie* bolli before and since his time, 
for the latter have done liltle eUc ihao copy the 
opinioni of Slow and others. King also gives the 
description of its present position. He says:— 
"London Stone preserved with such reverential care 
through so many iges and now having its top incased 
within another stone in Cannon Street, wna plainly 
deemed a record of the highest antiquity of some 
still more important kind ; though we are at present 
unacquainted with the original intent and purport lor 
which it was placed. It is fixed at present close 
nnder the south wall of Sl Swithin's Church, but 
was formerly a little nearer the channel lacing the 
same place ; which seems to prove its having had 
some more ancient and peculiar designation than that 
of having been a Koman milliaiy ; even if it were, 
ever used for that purpose afterwards. It was fixed 
deep in tlie ground, and Is mentioned so early as the 
time of Aethelstan, King of the West Sa:ianf, with- 
out any particuhti reference to its having been con- 
sidered as a RoDmn Milliuy Stone." And b a note 




he adds : — " Sir Christopher Wren, 
the depth and largeness of its foundatic 
vinced that it must have beensome more considerable 
roonument than a mere milliary stone." (King's 
MuHimaUa Antiqua, L 117, See also Pennant's 
London; CtnSleman's Magaaine, xL (ii.) p. 126, 
for some useful notes.) It is clearly seen from these 
remarks that the stone itself gives evidenceof a higher 
antiquity and a more important use than is incidental 
to a Roman milliary ttone. Mr. Heniy Charles 
Coote, F.S.A,. was the first to open up a new phase 
of this bleresting question. In a paper read at a 
meeting of the London and Middlesex Archieological 
Society, and printed in their Transactions for 1878, 
Mr. Coote rescues the traditions about London Stone 
from a mass of irrelevant material, and thoroughly 
indentilles " London Stone the fragment with London 
Stone the house of FitzaylM'in, the fir« Lord of 
London." But in the process of this identification 
we pass a piece of municipal folklore, as Mr. Coote 
so aptly terra* it, which leads ns a great deal further 
back than the li — -' "'■ ' ' 



way into London, he first of all proceeded to London 
Stone, and having struck bis sword npon it, said, in 
reference to himself and in explanation of his own 
action, " Now is Mortimer lord of this city." And 
Mr. Coote rightly concludes that this act wits not a 
piece of foolish acting— it meant something to the 
mob who followed the rebel chief. Mr. Gomme in 
his PrimUhit Folkmoots {pp. I(|S~6) takes np ihe 
matter at this point and places the tradition implied 
by Cade's significant action as belonging to times 
when the London Stone was, as other great stones 
wera, the pkce where the suitors of an open-arr 
assembly were accustomed to gather together and to 
legislate tor the government of the City. There is 
some kind of tramtional evidence of this fact, besides 
curious historical parallels elsewhere in London. 
Thus, at the Lord Mayor's Court, the sununons or 
calling of the defendant was orally made, and in 
eariy times was, without doubt, a substantive sonimaas 
and bidding of the debtor to appear in court, and 
by some supposed to have been at London Stcoe 
(Brandon's Cuslomary Lam 0} Foragn AltaeMauni, 
p. 6), which has been considered to be the spot whcte 
all public Droclamations and general sammonses were 
mode, and the tendering and making payments trf 
debts, &c., and the place of meeting for merchants 
( Brandon's Lard Maym's Court of thi City ef Lendan^ 
p, 14, note P). Nor is this all The AtMnumm of 
May 7, 1 88 1, contains a letter which points out that 
the action of lock Code at London ts exactly 

?iralli:led by the action of the Mayor at Bovey 
racey. Here the Mayor osed to ride round the 
village cross and strike it. This is a municipal 
custom connected with the election of Ihe Mayor and 
his rights of headship in Ihe borough ; and so must 
the Jack Cade incident have been. Apain it is a 
curious illustration of, or perhaps par^Iel to, this 
Irailitioual evidence of London Stone to observe that 
the justices itinerant in the time of Edward I. sat at 
the stone cross (opposite the Bishop of Worcester's 
house, now Somerset House) in the Strand. Thh 
venerable monument, which was even then andetit, 
is mentioned by Stow, as standing headless in 159$. 
The justices probably, in bad weather, sometimes sal 
in the bishop's house (Ritson's Court Liits, Introd. 
p. ix. »). 

Popular Namee of Tumuli, etc. (ir. 77. 
ii9;v. 33)- 

Quern Bleari/s Slant. — This stone stood on the 
farm of Knoe, midway betwixt Renfi^w and Paisley, 
and about 240 yards to the west of the present road. 
It was an octagonal column about 10 feet in ho^it. 
without any inscription or sculpture whatever.— 
Hamilton's DescriftiBns of Lanark and Jtmfrm 
(MaitUnd Club), p. 197. 

DivWi Night Ca/.— Afailestone or Eggletone 
is the name given to a rock of large siie which 
from its peculiar shape and position has frequently 
been considered 10 have connection with draidicaj 
worship. The country people call it "The Devil's 
Night Cap," and have a tradition that it was 
hurled by his Satanic Majesty from the Isle o( 
Wight, for the purpose of destroying Corfe Castle, 
but that It dropped short in the place where we now 
find it. (yeumiU ef Ihe Arehaelogicat Atsotiation, 
xxviii, 2210 



THE ANTTQUAItrS NOTBrBOOK. 



8i 



IfOgal i\>Ik IiOre.~Bdbre d>e ■ Ji odm li on of 
Christisiiitj, the auit h cin mtwMS mmm»ww^\ the fimc- 
tioQsoftbejwigetodiessoadotal ofioe; and sooie 
ofthe txaditiavaf the law cu be canoady efaKkUted 
bf the £d)les of aadenC amerstitkB and ■TthologT;. 

An aid Id the reoobectiaB vas oftea aflbrded 

bjr poetiy. Tlie aaiked alfilentioB of the 

Anglo-Saxao lavs is to be lUuiul to dn 



and pithj ih jmes ia whidi the dodriBcs of the 
law of the old daae are aot ■ ■ficq a ct ly reoonled. 
Thus, the KfnfkliMm aaoted die fiberty of bis 
garel-ldiid tcnare by the lude distich of— 

"The Tidcr to the boKlie--ad the soo to the 



He redeeincd bis lands fron die \jbA by repeating^ 
as it was said, in the langvage of bis 
"Nigfaoo skhe ycld-«nd 
▼if pmd for dte 




TheioRst 

-Dog 

bloody band' 
(Inst 4- pa94), jmtified theTodererinfais! 
ezecntioii of the o fl endcr. And ia Kng Athdstane*s 
gnut to die good men of B cf o ky, iasotbed bcncatb 
his effigy in &e lOutei^— 

'<Als 6e— mak I dice— asheait 1^ dunk— or e^ 



85) 



bare pobaps the 



(Rot. PazL ToL it 

ancient farm of 

(Ste P^dgimre, EmgHsk Commmnomltk^ i. 42, 45.) 

The following jHO f Cibs are Ibended upon the legal 
cnstom of pnrmase and cmandpation preceding 
marriage of ueanea with slaves : — 

Trittst dn meine benae* so wiist dn mein bahn. 

Die unfreie band zichl die 6cie aadi sicfa 

En fonnariage le pire caporte le bon (KemUc^ 
Saxems m En^Umd^ i fOC). 

A Iietter firom wnt. Vioolflon to John 

Syetyn^^Commiinicated by the Rev. E. King.) 

The foDowing chai-actemtic letter, the dr^nal 
of which is in my collection, fiom the learned anthor 
of the Historical Library of Great Britain to the 
odebrated Johif Evdjm, is perhaps worthy of a 
phoe in The Amtiquaet :— 

Nicholson was, at the dale be wrote it, 1699, 
Rector of (^reat Salkeki and Ardideaoon of Carlisle, 
of which See he was shortly afterwards consecrated 
Bishop. 

Address to letter : — 

For 
John Evelyn Esq' at bis House 
in Dover Street 
London 
This letter is docfcetted in Evelyn's own band :^- 

Mr. Nidiolson 

Salkeld 4 : icf^— -99* 
Answered 9 Biar: — 99 

(78) 708. 
Honoured S' 

On Saturday last I rec4 your most kind and oblige- 
ing Letter ; which is no small sopport to me under 
some late disconragem^ and (as I thought) severe 

" •1699. 



TVeatment, w^ I had fitom odier bands. I am 
dandy sensible what a rashness it was in oae 
my poor cumuftlanccs to pnhlwh a Ceasait 
Law- Writes : And I m%ht have fcrseen ^y, I 
did foresee it) that some of those who are bmer 
aoq[BaiatBd with them, than I aa^ woald ros^ihlylet 
BK know that I was a mrdbng Fool, amdomt •ftaj 
spktre. This has been aiy Fate. I hope the same 
gendemen will not td ok that I was abo oott ^wgf 
spkant when I took upon ok to ofophesy. 

I heaitily ootic ui r with you, §% m my wi^es thai 
our Universities would commute some of dieir present 
eaeicryfs for others diat kan more lowaids the stndy 
of our Municipal Laws. My Lofd Privy SeU* has 
btdy erected a School here at Lowthei; wherein 
(besklesdie three Languages of Greek, Ladae and 
Freach) the mastos are obl^ to instract their 
Youth in Elhicks and Oratory. I hare diat just 
HoDOur for my mother and her sistcrt that I do aot 
desire to hear of His Lordship*s example beii^ 
followed in odier parts of the Kmgdooie. But diis 
profect takes so well in die North, that (unless the 
great men in Oxford aad Cambiid|e be alarmed by it 
into some new measures) I am i£mid it may lessen 
the Bumben diat have hitherto been sent to our two 
antient aad (yet) flourisbii^ Universities. 

Amoagst the many uadeserv'd fiivouis wbidi I 
have had from S'Jos. WHliaBnoo, I diooght it no 
small one that He was pleased to make use of my 
services in sorting a deal of ooafuaed Writmgs in the 
Paper-office ; tho' himself bad dass'd the greater part 
of 'em, before I had the Honour to hare any 
dependaace upoo him. I was then troubled to 
obserre (what your Letter takes notice of) that there 
are most lamriilable defects in the M emoiis of almost 
evciy year ; whidi methinks might 0^ a great 
measure) be snpply^d by procnreiqg Transcripts, at 
least, of an sach as are now in the hands of the Hetis 
of those Ministers of Slate, who bareformeriy cany'd 
them off. It was my ICaster^s mnstant practioe to 
bare an the Letters, Instractioos, &c rq^ered in 
two different Books ; oae w h ereo f was alwaise trans- 
mitted mto the Pkper-Office^ and the odier reserv'd 
for bis own private use. Had this method beea 
observed by his predecessors, the collection ofpre> 
cedents bad not been so lame as now we find it ; uid 
there would have been a £ut less embezlement of this 
part of the King's Treasure. 

I am sorry, S*, to bear that your communicative 
Goodness to some of the neighbouring Kingdooie 
should rob you of any materius, jou had in store, 
towaxxis the completing df their Histocr. This is a 
mishap wfaidi (my firiend) Mr. Thoresby complains 
of. He was prefvailed with to lend them S'Tha 
Craig's M.S. Treatise de Hoimnis; udiid^ was trans- 
lated and publish'd in English, by Mr. Redpath. 
But, whether the Translatour or Printer are to Uame^ 
the Book was never retum'd to bim. I have not the 
like reason to complain of the Usage I have met with 
amongst the learned men of that Nati<»i. I have had 
very pressing Invitadons firom several of 'em to diaw 
up another Historical Library for them, in somewhat 
of the same Form with that of the English one and 

• John, Visoount Lowdier. 
t Oxford and Cambridge. 



THE ANTIQVARTS NOTE-BOOK. 



the plentiful Assislances which they hive already 
^ven, and promb'd, have forced mc into the 
Atlcmpt' I nave made aomc con<idenihle Advances 
in it; and 1 hope (if God continues my health) to 
finish and publish it the next Summer. 1 design 
ft in one entire Folio Voiutoe ; w* {I guess) wiE be 
ftbout Ihe bigness of your Numispiala. There are 
nuny pieces in our English Libraries thai I must cn- 

Xiire afler. Mr. Wolton has kindly promised me an 
cc' of those in my L' Longncville's ; and I expect 
the like Snppliea from othera. May I not also hope 
that you will Vonchsafe me amorepartirularAccoimt 
of yours than the printed Catalogue hns given me ? 
Vou have, I find, a MS. Life of Maiy Q. of Scots in 
Italian. T would humbly b^ what In^nnation you 
can afford me of the Author and Contents of that 
Book ; and I should be likewise very thankful for y* 
like BhoK View of Another Life of the same Queen 
in Mr. Pepys's Library, Besides these, yon have 
ttill (I see) some of her Letters. Vou have also 
S' Culhberl'i Life. I know not whether this may 
not be different from Bede's, and all others wh'*" I 
have taken notice of in the Second Part (A tay 
Libraiy- 

You see, S', what trouble you have created to your 
lelf by stooping to such an impertinent correspon- 
dence as mine is like to prove, if you shall give it any 
further encouragement. The truth is. I am hungry 
and in want of those provisions where of you have 

Kat plenty ; and, if I snatch too greedily, you roust 
p at a erealer distance from 

Hon^ S- 
Vour most oblig'd and 
most humble servant 

Will. Nicolsos. 
Salkeld 
Dec. 4. 99. 



Hntlquarfan "newe. 



mniour has reached us that the interesting little 
I church of Northoipc, near Kirton.in-Lindsey,Lmco!n- 
■hire, is about 10 be restored, and that il is proposed 
lo sell the old leaden roof for the purposes of the 
leslornlion fimd. ll is hoped that our informant is 
infTering under some misapprehension. The roof of the 
nave and chancel are late Perpendicular, and, con-se- 
qnently, of a low pitch. If the lead be removed, it 
will be needful to replace these old roofs with some- 
thing of a higher pitch, or the Vain wiU be driven 
under the sLites in stormy weather. Now these 
roofs, though plain, are of very good character, and 
a little carcliil repair would make them lost for 
ceoturies. There are some good bosses upon them ; 
one or more of them are annorinl. VVe dblinctly 
call to mind the shield — a single garb — of the old 
family of Shaw, ot Frodinsham. A more senseless 
piece of destruction cannot be imagined than replac- 
uig these old timbers by "a spider-legged'' erection 
of modem pine. The whole of the church is very 
interesting, and has suffered little, The arcades are 
lale Norman of tine bold character ; the aisles and 
clerestory Perpendicular. The choir has two lovely 



Geometrical- Decorated windows. The east window 
is late Perpendicular — probably made after the 
Reformation. One of the lights has a curioi« 
irrq^arity in the head which is thought to have been 
a blunder. OF this we are doabtful. Whether a 
blunder or not, it certainly ought not to be neplacrd 
by any new Ihlnj; in the most correct modem tasti^ 
for it is an interesting specimen of local work. ThcR 
are several brasses in memat7 of members ot the 
Monson family, of which Ihe present Lord Mooson it 
the representative. The pulpit is a pleasing specimca 
of Queen Anne's time, or Uie Early Georgian crk,. 
The south door is of carved oak — CoTrilincst- 
Decoraled — and has the reputation of being one rf 
Ibe lincst things of its class in Britain. Tlie roadi 
screen and oak stalls were destroyed at the beginning 
of this century. The present pews whicji leplacidl 
them are so uglyand inconvenient that we should not 
regret th,eir removal We are glad to be able to add 
that Mr. Edward Peacock, P.S,A., has Uken the 
matter up, and is doing all be can to tender tUi 
useless spoli ' 

A very interestmg piece of news for f^yptriloent* 



That gentleman is now traveUing i» 
Egypt with M. Maspero, Ihe director of the Egypliaa 
Museums, who has determined on opening a^ the 
Pyramids that have not yet been explored, and im 
further searching those that are not thoroughly knoviL 
Among (he Pyramids situated on the borders of the 
Lybian Desert is that of Meydoum, said to be the 
most mysleriousof all. ll appears that its entrxnse 
has never been discovered, Ibrahim Fasba evea 
endeavoured to effect a breach in its walls with 
artillery, in the hope of finding a treasure coneealed 
therein. It is to ihis pyramid that M. Matpcro h 
nowdevotine his attention. Byremovincsoroe cf the 
ground on the north side of the art^cial maond 
which surrounds the pyramid he has succeeded 



tions were well founded. Thirteen days of active 
labour, with skilled workmen, has su£&ced for the 
discovery of a secret which was believed to lie undit- 
coverabie. The spades of the fellahs have exposal la 
view the opening, which is situated nearly at the lop 
of the orlilicia] mound. On entering the Pynunid the 
visitor passes through a corridor, admirably constrac- 
ted, which takes him about 40 jiardsinagentle decline, 
as is the case in the great Gizeh Pyramid. Here, for 
the moment, he is stopped by the debris, which ii 
being rapidly cleared away. M. Masp^ has already 
found two sacred inscriptions, in ibe style of the 
Twentieth dynasty, giving the names of two scribes 
who had visited the ^ramid. Hopesarc entertained 
that no one may have set foot in il since, and thai il 
may be found lo be inlact ; " but, " concludes N, 
Gabriel Charmies, "whatever happens, the opeaing 
of Ihe Meydoum Pyramid will sliil unra.vel one S 
those mysteries which have for so many centuries 
hung over ancient Europe, and which one by one k« 
yielding to Ihe efforls ot modem science." The lale 
Marietle B^, in one of his works, said that the Fyn- 
mid was called by the Arabs Haram El Katdab — the 



ANTIQUAAIAN NEWS. 



8S 



Fabe ^pimimd— as the^ bdxeved it to be Ttnthiag bst 
a kacr nek shaped aa a pfxamkL TUa tnditiaQ maj 
ke^ped ti> pRSBve it ' 



ioDoviiig heads : i. — His birth and cooise of joittk. 
a. — His hasbanddei and hospitalities. 3.— His 

— aadde- 



The w3I of JKc&. ilfKs Jaae Hvgo^ widour of the 

Recfior of West HadaMj, who 
Acd OB Ottobct II las^ was ifcfaily piofcd* The 
tctfatrg, aaaoBgfltikr Tfgafir% beqarJths thecoDee- 
tkai of papm aad biiibmii li^iti aade bj her kne 
Wi«iii«»r< Irw A^ hintwry of j^ i M M^r w » A ffi^ to the British 

Masena ; the cnilrrtiinn of papers and mamwrripts 
for the histtsj of Tmmtno, to the S oa a trset shne 
A irh g w i nyr al Sodrty; the O tf aky e of Ae British 
IfiBenHi Maaasanpts aotpnicd between 17S2 aad 
i835»of whidh^ei^fiEwwefepriBtedt to die Society 
of Aati^Bsiks ; and one of the aaeicat chalices coOected 
by her late hmtfianrf, each to the West Ha^mej 
Chazdiy Chritf Churchy Marjieboney St. CjpruuKy 
Maryiebooe, and TaoBtoa Chvch. The collectioQ of 
tibe woffks» eapamaeiy >^ Uodsof Bewick, left to 
her by her hashanrf^ is to be oflered to the Britisk 
Masena at oae-half of die ¥alae placed opoB them by 



V d^ holder of ai 

for three years by as 
in the appcr 



been leported by asy pre- 

OB the sile has been sadi ss to pic 
of a rick yidd bodk of ianrntiaw aad of 
of arc Mr. FiMaj^s accowt of hia re- 
win be pablkheir in the mat amber of the 
joanal of the Society fcr the Piosotna of Hdleaic 



&^kt&. 5. — Hb parckaa e s aad sales of land. 6u — 
ifis law suits. 7. — His alms and derotiGns. SL — His 
livWIani e s . 91 — ^Hiswife. la — His issae. il. — His 
seals of ams. 12. — His death aad place of bariaL 
13.— ThekadsofirittckhediedseimL'' Thesecoad 
partcoat a in s adeseiiptFFeaccoaat of tke Hnadredof 
bcrkelcyy witk aQ the aauiorst laad% aad ad^owsoas 
thereto pertainia^ with their derohitiOQy respectirdy, 
£roaa tiie date of the Drwarsday Surrey to Sii^Fth's 
own time. To this desertpckm b iqipcnded a very 
irmii t able coBectioo of Old Gkmcestershire pru nrer ba 
aad folk kxe. 

The parish chnrdi of Wrodcwardine has been re- 
opened after vadergota^ rcstocitiao. The stractme, 
wnidi is oae of die most ancient in the cooatyj^ 

inputs^ The 
die bdfry, 
Notmanarch. The tower^ wki^ 
had wjnuMtxtf been supported by props^ has been 
amieTptaniid and made secme at each eoracr. The 
Bsre has been reHToofed on die sooth side. In carry> 
mg oat the work of reaao^na^ die {^Bater, sereral 
fiae old afiihe^ have beea duseowercuy which fcrmeify 
were CTrfranrm to d^ baildia^ aad these have been 
allowed to 




Oar leadeB win be Briaccstcd, we mittk, m 
that amodel is being e ah ft tted of Ely Cathedralatgglk 
Street, T.iamhi. This aaodd:, whick fiithfidlyre- 
prodaoes aQ the varied st^es of architectnre to be met 
with ia the aoble aad sacred edifice, is the worit of two 
aetf-taaBht bmb^ BCr. m> Gu Stnppe^ of Wmbeda^ aad 
hissoa. ItBfoaaedofold£ngi^oak»which,whfle 

Uoar oa the artiaaak poBKSKs a 



to Btr. J* Bb tkm 




paiti of the baikfiflK 



aickifc^ booi 

The Dcaa aad Chapter of Garfisle are siailiBS 
of Btr. Sktppniirs ^isit to hare aaaecoimt 

ap of their cathe i luf moards; aad I>r;. 

mlm, \matf mat aceem to the 



great ddQ; it is indeed a 
of the ac|pat ongmaL There are 
ia the mode!, of whick too 
it is ligblml ap ia the 



the 



A dfieovcry of 
gold omaaaeats aaa piei 
at Vit&rfire, in Swcoien, by a peasant 



The CoBBcfl of 6be Bnlol aad Gk m rnfrrshu e 
Aidaeological Society aaaosace.dkat Lord Fitt- 
aaidiBge has ^veiy nbecafly and ooarteoaBy giicn his 
consent to the ^cry vaiaBble MSS. of John SmTdi, 
the aatkimBy. wnltca ia the cmly pmt of dm 





.aad the 




attribated to the twelftk oentory, decorated with 

three of the fci a itff.mh 
with figarcs of St. (Ma^ the 

the 



oentBzy of 



Ewaagiefirts, aad the Apostles in refieC 



of die 



Abbey of St 
aenredin Uk Mi 

being poated by the Society for ksammfoers^ ItwiH 
beeditadbySvJokaMadeaa. Smith's works coa- 
sst of tao Attiact parts^ The first cootaias the 
'*Lhpcs of dbe BerkeSejs.* Uader diis head Mr. 
J H. Cooke asfs »—*' la dbis work he <Smydi) gives 
a co m p l e te bio^aph y of every ked of Beriseley 
Fitnsiai^gedi 




ia a boa, the oafy re- 
of troBWork. 



lord's lifit ait gh«% 




gold araJcts^ 
appear to hav 

of wmdh are 

Priace Gaetaa Fikagieri, of Naples, the 

of the work on the Sdeace of Lf giila 
prcseated to the ■ wnicipa l it y of Naples the 
coBrctinn of artitfic aad archaeological objecu which 
his fife ia fcnaiaci aad which is valasd 



at £€ajaoa. He has abo proauied to eiect a gUlery 
for te cjkihitioa, aad to provide aa cfldoawcaL 
dM corneals are aMvypictvci by dbe old 



ANTIQUARIAN NEWS. 



masters, incloding several by Domenichino; s nnique 
leries (^ coins and mediUs ; a. coUeclion of armonr of 
the Middle Ages, and of oriental weapons of the 
fifteenth and siiteenlh centuries ; faience ware, glass, 
wood-carrinB, fens, Eastern carpets, Src. 

Mr. Ruskin has changed his plans with respect to 
the mnseoni he bas Tounded at Shcdield, and it is his 
intention to devote the lenainder of his life to making 
it about the most complete institution of the kind in 
the world. He has decided to send there his unique 
■nd almost priceless library from Brentwood. Finns 
(or the extension of the buildings haiVe been prepared, 
and a public subscription, whidi the Duke of Albunjr 
has promised to head, will shortly be opened to de- 
fray the cost of the enlargement. 

Ererleigh House, near Devizes, belonging lo Sir J. 
D. .\slley, Bart., lilsham Hall, near Brigt was, on 
Dec, 13 lust, totally destroyed by fire. The house 
was traditionally the residence of the old Saion king 
Ido, wliosc hunting lodge is said to have stood near 
the Sidbury encampment. The mansion just destroyed 
was probably built by Sir Ralph Sadleir, to whom the 
lordsnip was granted by Henry VIII. Sir Ralph was 
afterwords falconer lo Queen Eliiaheth, and was so 
fond of hawking that when he w«s appointed custodian 
to Mary Queen of Scots, at Tutbury, he allowed his 

Erisoner lo participate in the sport, which brought on 
im the reprimand of Eliiabeth. Sadleir's portrait 
was slill lo be seen in the old house, which had passed 
into the hands of (he Astley family. Everleigh House 
was the home of that Sir Francis Astley whose 
electioneering exploits in 1818 occupy a conspicuous 
place in Wiltshire annals. It was mainly a commo- 
dioos residence of early eighteenth-century date, built 
of brick, with slate and leaden roofing. An older 
part of the building was a drawing.room of grand 
proportions and ancient style, looking out on a superb 
Eliiabethin lawn, with fine yew and box shrubs of 
quaint form. 

The historical "Shaftesbury Hoitse," standing -in 
Aldersgate-street, was sold by auction recently. It 
was built by Inigo Jones for the Tuflons, Earls of 
Thanet, and was hence known as " Thanel House," 
till it passed, in the reign of Charles II., into the 
hands of the family of the notorious Anthony Ashley 
Cooper, Earl of Shaftesbury, whose town-house it was 
for many years. 

The Guildhall Library are aixiut to provide cases 
for the display of (he Roman, Romano- British, 
Mediasval, and other antiquities recently purchased of 
the executors of the late Mr. J. Walker Bnily, and a 
cabinet for (he collrcction of historical portraits con- 
tained in the illustrated copy of Granger and Noble's 
Biegrapkical Nisliny ef England. 

The fifth annual report of the Town Clerk as to the 
records of the Corporation of the City of London was 
submitted to a recent meeting of the Common Council ; 
and Mr. Hart, the Chairman of the Library Com- 
mittee, obtained authority to expend ^^150 in the 
compilation of a general index to the Repertories 
Irom 1700 to 1S57, and a further sum of /zj in the 
repair of certain early rolls of deeds, wills, pleas, and 
memoranda, &c. 

Instructions have been given by the Duke of 



Hamilton for the sale of the libraries and MSS. at 
Hamillon Palace. The collections include the famous 
"Beckford Library," and in variety of subjects and 
beauty of condition the books may be said 10 sorpon 
those in the celcbnited Sunderland Library. 

It is proposed to publish by subscription a new 
edition of Mr. R. Johnson's Amitni Cttstomt of 
Herffirrd, which contains an accoiml of the laws and 
customs of one of the oldest cities in the kingdom. 
No written account of these laws has been tninsmitled 
previous to the time of William the Conqueror, but 
when this warlike Norman took possession of the land 
he found Hereford possessing a code of laws of its 
own, with a royal mint and monlers attached thereto. 
This book will conUin Imnstations of the charters 
granted by divers kings to the cirizens, also an account 
of court-rolls, bailiffs account rolls, grants, and pro- 
clamations, notice of freemen, their courts and 
privileges, also of the various trades and guilds. But 
perhaps the most important part of the work, in an 
historical point of view, are the copies of letters and 
other document sent by the Lords President of the 
Marches of Wales. Very mnltifarious ore the subjects 
to which these refer, but two leriers especially attract 
attention ; one from Queen Mary, endeavouring lo 
reconcile her sulyects to (he proposed marriage with 
Philip of Spain ; the other from (Jueen ElSabelh, 
defendmg that courtly favourite the Earl of Leicester 
in her usual firm imperious style. The subscription is 
lOf. 61/., and subscribers* names may be sent to 
Mri. Johnson, The Steppes, Eync, Hereford, 01 the 
Rev. E. L. Barnwell, Melksham, Wilts. 

The National Society for Preserving the Memorials 
of the Dead, in the Churches and Churchyards of Great 
Britain, has now been organized, and has made 
considerable progress. The object of the Society is 
to fresrrvc a.tiA prelal the memorials of the dead in 
the parish churches and churchyards of Great Britain, a 
much needed work, and on alt hands an acknowledged 
want. The rules of the Society surest various ways 
of accomplishing tlie work, t.g., by securing a record 
being made of s«>ulchral memorials now existing, &c. 
The late Mr. G. £. Street, four days prior to his 
death, accepted the post of honorary nrchitecL 
Honorary secretaries are appointed for the counties 
of Cambridge, Durham, Lincoln, Middlesex, Norfolk, 
Noltingliam and Warwick, by whom names of 
persons wishing to become members are received, and 
of whom ajiy information may be obtained. The 
Secretary is Mr. William Vincent, Lower Hellesdon 
Road, Norwich. 

Dr. Phend, whose interest in serpent-mounds is so 
well known, visited Gala Park, near Galashiels, at 
the latter end of last year, to inspect a mound there, 
which is bcUeved to be of prehistoric origin. He 
examined its exterior on all sides, took measurements 
of it, and determined its position ou the ground vrith 
relation to Galahill and the Eildons, and the hearings 



of all these to Ihe east. He found that what 



appears 



artificially formed road, here and there 
showing traces of pavement, runs along the ridge of 
the mound from end to end ; that in general form the 
mound is distinctly serpentine, and he is under the 
impression lba(, though the mass has been originally 



d 



ANTIQUARIAN NEWS. 



8j 



deposited by ordinary geological agencies, jret it has 
been cut and shaped by human himds (o give it the 
reptilixa aspect. The position of tbe mnuod, with 
relation lo the hiils mentioned and the direct ea«t, 
agrees with the [>o3ition leiative lo the rising sun 
which is shown in those serpent mound! in this 
country and in Europe which he has examined. The 
mcsl elevated portion of the long ridge is its south- 
east end, and this fonns what may be prDvisionally 
called the serpent's head. On reaching this point 
it was patent to any observer that it had Dcen artifi- 
cially lUttened, and shaped into nearly a true circle, 
of which Dr. Phen^ took the enact measurements. 
Upon the circukr space, at some comparatively recent 
time, had been deposited a capping of about two and 
aha^feet of eartll, forming a snaller circle with a 
sloped margin all around. This elevation he con- 
sidered the piindpal portion of the mound, all the 
rest of il beitig merely an appanage. The bearings 
from it to Ihe east, and townnb the hills already 
named, were taken with a compais, and found to be 
in harmony with the general relation to the sun which 
other terpent-momids occupy. This Battened crownof 
the serpent, he concluded, was the sacred spot upon 
which me son- worshippers who shaped the mound had 
sactiliccd their bnmtolTertngstothe sua asthesymbol 
of the energy controlling the operations of Nature. 
The next step waa to communicate to the owner of 
the grounds the first impressions r^arding the mound, 
and lo ask permission to carry a trench through the 
crown of the height in sealuh of the charcoal, which 
Dr. Phen^ seemed quite assured he would find. Mr. 
Scott's assent was immediately given, and he placed 
the services of some of his labourers at the disposal of 
the investigator. A trench was cut in the mound, from 
the south ma^in in a line true north, lo Ihe centre of 
thcmonnd. It was carried down afewinchesinto Ihe 
ori^nal level, but no trace of human works was 
obtained. A second trench was dug from Ihe west 
margin lo the centre, the line taken beine due easL 
There, at a depth of three feet beneath the surface, 
and some few inches below what Dr. Phen^ had con- 
sidered the surface when the ground was used as an 
altar, was fomid a considerable quanlily of charcoal, 
perhaps about a cubic foot alti^ther, thus curiously 
coofirmine the soundness of the general impression 
Dr. Phen? formed from ihe mere eitemal form and 
position of the mound. 



Correspon&encc. 



CREEK AND GOTHIC ART IN ROME. 

(iv. I5S.) 

t I observe that the reviewer of Mr. Tyrrwhilt's 
■k, in Ihe Antiquary tor October, writes of Cavet. 
RoMi as being in the habit of leading visitors to Ihe 
*~--rmbs near Rome, to believe that which was 
deluuun." 

I I think is really not fair lo that distin- 
gniihed antiquary. No doubt his leaning is to believe 
that which the Roman Cbnrch has sanctioned by 



accepting as fact, but I Ihink that those who study 
his writioffs will fmd that be never allows this bias lo 
overcomehis regard for truth, and that he, in doubt- 
ful cases, puts the evidence (kirly before the reader. 
In my jwrsonal intercoune with him I have always 
found him most candid. 

As the choir arrangements of S. Clemenle are so 
often referred loaa examples of those of a " primitive 
church," it would perhaps have been well if the re- 
viewer bad said what their real date is. This, it 
cannot well be doubted, is no earlier than the tilth 
century. Several of the shbs which form the enclo- 
sure of the chorus bear a monogram containing the 
letters of the word "Johannis." Now John, the second, 
Pope.A.D. 533-53S, was previously Presbyter of the 
church under the name of Mercunus, and he and his 
fellow clerics gave the altar and its ciborium as is evi- 
denced by inscriptions on the capital of one of the 
columns of the ciborium (now attached to the monu- 
raeni of Cardinal Venerio in Ihe church], and of a 
fragment of the altar found in the excavations. We 
may therefore most reasonably conclude that he, after 
he became Pope, gave the choir enclosure. 

In the illustrations accompan^ng ■ paper published 
in the AnlueslBsia of the Society of Antiquaries for 
the year 1S66, (vol. xL), one of the slabs bearing the 
monogram of Pope John and the capital bearing the 
name of Mercuiius are engraved, and though when 
I wrote the Paper I was not aware that Mercurius and 
John the Second were one and the same person, 
I ventured on the soggestion that Mercnrius was 
the donor ofthe ciborium, and that one of Ihe 
Hopes of the name of John, of the sixth century, 
that of the choir enclosure. It is needless to enlarge 
on the value of an example belonging to a period so 
remote and so obscure to which we can a/fix a date 
with so mnch confidence, whether we regard it ax 
a link in the history of decorative sculpture or of 
that of the anangements of churches fitting them for 
ritual observances. 

Alex. Nisbitt. 

Oldhmds, UckGeld. 



BOOK-PLATES. 



Hunts, l>cfore he took his M.D, degree. 

Tile " plate '' in ([uestion was not strictly an "etch- 
ing," but merely an amateur anastatic drawing, for 
which I am responsible. It was intended, wUle 
preserving the semblance of some old hmily furni- 
lure— (1 thmk not so old as the time of Queen 
Elixabelh)— to illustrate ray brother's favourite motto, 
"Quot cunque libros judex unum judicem lego,"' by 
showing, not "a group of old Bibles," but one or two 
Bibles anil a variety of other books ; among them 
notably Gorham's History of St Naii, ai which my 
brother had a copy nobly illustrated by himself, in 
elephant folio. The legend on his " book-plate " is 
not "f-.L-S., F.R.G.S.E.,L.W.C.A.," but F.X,S- 
F.R.C.S,E., I,.S.A. 

These corrections are due to the memoir of one of 



t 



THE ANTIQUARY EXCHANGE. 



Vaz antiquary jeychangc. 



Enchietid.farlkf First It Words, end \d. far ttuk 

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Miller'3 EI7 Calhednl, large paper, Sto, tSoS, 
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l8t4, lU. 6d. — Harwood's Landscape Ajinua!, 184!, 
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Curiosities — Fancy shaped Oil Painting-topped 
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Set o( Harleian Society's Publications, all uncut, 
comprising :— Visitations of I«ndon, 1568, L^estcr, 
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Cornelius Agrippa'i '" Of the Vanitie and line, 
laintie of Attes and Sciences," calf antique, bound tn> 
Riviere, £i is., black letter. 1575.— John Stow's 
"Survey of London," rare, black letter, 1003, £1 51. — 
Ruskin s "King of the Golden River,"' y. &/.— Joseph 
Lucas. Claiemont House, Cawley Road, South Hack- 
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Autographs. — Mr. Law, 38, Chalcot Crescent, 
London, has daplicales of eitreme rarity, which lie 
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Memoirs of the Marshal Duke of Berwick, i 
volumes, fine copy, book-plates Henry Drummond, 
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Autograph Letters for sale, at very low prices, by 
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Particular, Account of the Names of Popish Reca- 
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— 164, Care of Manager. 

An Account of the Estates of Papists iu Middleiet, 

fp. 104, with alphabetical tables of the tuunet of 
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165, Care of Manager. 

Curious Presentment of the July of WestmiiiEter, 
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Jack Shmjard, papers relatine to— vii., Pdjlioll 
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duplicates not objected 10.— H., core of Manager. 



LADY DAY. 



89 






^ ^ 

yy <»■'' 






The Antiquary 



MARCH, 1882. 




By James Britten, F.L.S. 

[HE wealth of popular tradition and 
custom which has clustered round 
so many of the feasts of the Chris- 
tian Church is curiously absent 
fix)m Lady Day. Indeed, its chief claim to 
popular recognition at the present time in 
England, rests in the fact of its being one of 
the quarter days; and its associations are 
thus more practical than pleasing. We find 
associated wiUi the Feast of the " Annuncia- 
tion of Our Lady," as the 25th of March is 
styled in the table of proper lessons in the 
Anglican Kalendar — the only place, by the 
way, where the old term "Our Lady," is 
recognized in the Anglican Liturgy — ^very 
little of popular interest; a proverb or a 
saying here and there, indeed, we have ; but 
so little, that the feast finds no mention in 
Brand, nor does Bamaby Googe commemo- 
rate it in his characteristic verse. \Ve will 
brings together the few scattered notices of 
Lady Day, in the hope that some little of in- 
terest may be found among them. 

As to the name, Hampson,* says : — " All 
the festivals of the Virgm are properly Lady 
Dajrs, but this falling in Lent, and being the 
first quarter-day for rents and other pa3anents, 
readily became Lady Day/ar excellence^ This 
reasoning is far from conclusive : indeed, it 
may be more plausibly urged that the fact of 
the feast falling in Lenl, and thus receiving 
comparatively little of solemn observance, 
helps to explain the absence of popular 
custom in connection with it. We should 

* Medii jEvi Kalendarxum^ i. 206 ; see also Dyer's 
J^rpuiar Customs^ p. 180. 

VOL. v. 



rather find a reason for the name in the fact 
that the day commemorates the initial stage 
in the mystery of the Incarnation — " the 
first Joyful Mystery," as it is commonly 
styled in the Catholic Church — and therefore 
received special recognition among the feasts 
of the Blessed Virgin.* Alban Butler says 
that the Tenth Council of Toledo, in 656, 
calls this solemnity, The Festival of the 
Mother of God, by way of excellence ; he 
says that both Eastern and Western Churches 
celebrate the Annunciation on this day ; 
*^ and have done so at least ever since the 
fifth century." Mr. Baring-Gouldf says : — " It 
has always been very highly observed in 
England. The Synod of Worcester, a.d. 
1240, by one of its canons, forbade all 
servile work upon it, and this was afterwards 
confirmed by various provincial and diocesan 
councils, in all respects except agricultural 
labour." Nevertheless, it does not seem to 
have been as greatly honoured as the Feast of 
the Assumption (Aug. 15th), which, although 
not now to be found in the Anglican Kalendar, 
was in pre-Reformation days a feast of especial 
solemnity. At the present time, we restrict 
the name Lady Day to the 25th of March ; 
but if we cross the Irish Channel, we shall 
find the name bestowed with almost, if not 
quite equal frequency, upon the isth of 
August. Notices of meetings for Lady Day, 
meaning this latter date, on which, being 
a "Feast of Obligation," no servile work 
is done, are common in all the newspapers, 
and the term is thoroughly recognized. 
That this was formerly the case among our- 
selves, every reader of early literature knows ; 
herbalists spoke of plants flowering "be- 
tween the two Lady-Days," or ordered them 
to be gathered "about Lady-Day in August. t 
That the other feasts of Our Lady were also, 
though less generally, known as Lady- Day is 
likely enough ; indeed, we find an instance 
in the Peyton Letters y% where a letter is dated 
" Thursday before Lady Day the Nativity." 
For much antiquarian matter concerning the 
former observance of the feasts of the Blessed 
Virgin in England, reference may be made 



* Lives of tJu Saints^ March 25. 

+ Lives of the Saints^ March, p. 45 1. 

t So in Paston Letters (ed. Gairdner), iii. 320 (A.D . 

1485). 

§ Ibid.y iii. 304. 

H 



90 



LADY DAY. 



to Father Bridgett's Our Lad^s Dowry^ 
which seems hardly to have met with the 
consideration it merits as a contribution to 
the history of religion in this country. 

Mr. Swainson* gives us several proverbs 
connected with weather-lore which apply to 
Lady Day, which he says is called in Belgium 
*• D'otts Lieve Vrouw Beklyving," /.^., Notre 
Dame de la Prosp^rit^; because anything 
transplanted on this day easily takes root, 
and seed sown prospers. It is also believed 
that the year will be fruitful if before sunrise 
the sky is clear and the stars shine brightly. 
An Italian proverb tells us that if there be 
hoar frost on the morning of the feast, it will 
do no harm. 

Se a la madona de Marz ven gi6 la brina, 
No la fo altra ruina ;" 

though this contradicts some French weather 
sayings— ^.^., 

S'U g^le le 25 Mars 

Les prairies cUminuent d'un quart 

S'il pleut le jour de la Bonne Dame, il pleut ^ 
toutes ses fStes ! 

A Notre Dame de Mars 
V '. ■; Si le soleil fait le luzer (j>., is not bright) 
II y a quarante jours dTiivcr. , 

Mr. Swainson also gives a German say- 
ing, which has reference to the fact that m 
Germany farm-servants generally leave off 
candles in the evening^ on this feast, and 
begin to use them again at Michaelmas : — 

Mariekelen pustet dat Licht utb, Michel steckt et 
wedder an ;t 

which finds a parallel in the Italian : 

A la Madona de Marz de scoven, 
A la Madona de Setember se troven.t 

Another proverbial saying, not however 
connected with the weather, may be added 
here : it has reference to the possible concur- 
rence of Lady Day with Good Friday — 

When our Lord falls in our Lady's lap, 
Then shall England have great mishap. 

This coincidence, although not common, is 
not of very unfrequent occurrence. It hap- 
pened in 1864 and in 1853, neither of which 

t Mary blows^ out the candle, Michael lights it 



* Weather Folk-lore^ p. 64. 
agRin. 



years, so far as we remember, were espedally 
unfortunate, so that the fulfilment of this 
prophecy need not be dreaded 

One local custom connected with Lady 
Da^ is recorded in Notes and Qmeries^ 4th 
senes, xi. 412. We read there that certain 
cakes called *' Pope Ladies," are, or then 
recently were, made dtld idld at St Albans 
on this day. The story accoimting for this 
is to the effect that " a noble lady and her 
attendants were travelling on the road to 
St. Albans (the great north road passed 
through this town) when they were benighted 
and lost their way. Lights in the clock-tower, 
at the top of the hill, enabled them at length 
to reach the monastery in safety, and the lady, 
in gratitude, gave a sum of money to provide 
an annual Sstribution, on Lady Day, of 
cakes, in the shape of ladies, to the tkKir of 
the neighbourhood. As this bounty was 
distributed by the monks, the ' Pope Ladies' 
probably thus acquired their name." With- 
out being able to surest a better, we venture 
to doubt whether this was the origin of the 
name : the well-known " Biddenden Cakes" 
afford another instance of cakes of this shape 
being made and distributed. '^ 

This scant narration is all that we have 
been able to get together of interest about 
Lady Day, apart, of course, from its ecclesi- 
astical history. It shows better than any- 
thing else could do, that although an early 
festival of the Christian Church, it is not one 
of those which became really popular in 
England^ and which in so-doing left their 
impress upon the minds and customs of the 
people. 



•v^t >v«^ *■*>. 



. At our Lady in March we put them by ; at our 
Lady in September we take them up. 



0I^ l^ome. 



|T seems to me that your readers will 
be amused by a comparison of two 
abridgments of laiger works on 
Ancient Romef (Mr.. Bum's and 
my own) by seeing how remarkably we dififer 

* Hone's Every- Day Book^ ii. adl-S24; and 
Chamber's Book ofDays, i. 427; steante, pi 59 and p. 
135, in this number. 

t Old Rome : a Handbook to thi Ruins of thi City 
and the Campagna, By Robert Bum, M.A., Fellow 




OLD ROME. 



91 



in opinion on every point, although both are 
evidently honest in their views, and the 
difference is not intentional, only each sees 
em object fix)m exactly the opposite point 
of new. The two works might almost be 
printed in parallel columns with the same 
lesDlt throughout ; at the same time, a great 
diad x& information that would be new to 
most English readers would come out during 
the process ; but to do this would to some 
seem tedious. I propose, therefore, only to 
select die most salient points. At first sight 
it wonld appear that these two works must be 
veij much dlike ; each is an abridgment of 
a laiger work on the same subject Mr. Burn 
is a Cambridge tutor of great experience, and 
no doubt is well '* up to the mark " in scholar- 
ship ; t am a well known architectural anti- 
quary, and never pretend to much scholarship, 
but rely more on the evidence of the existing 
fTMOfivx, which I have done much to bring to 
light and explain. Practically, the two books 
are as different as possible in every respect. 
kr. Bum follows explicitly the German 
school, and believes the Niebuhr and 
Arnold theory to be the true history. I, on 
the contrary, consider it entirely a delusion 
of the scholars of the last half-century, whose 
views are demolished by the existing remains, 
diiefly brought to light within the last twenty 
years, since the time of Dr. Arnold, with 
whom I was personally acquainted ; and I 
have often said that if Dr. Arnold were living 
now, and could go to Rome, he would see at 
once that Niebuhr's view was a dehisiou. 
This view is practically that the so-called 
" family legends of old Rome" are fabulous 
— a sort of historical romance of the time of 
Augustus — beca,use the earliest written record 
ofuiem that we have is in the histories of Livy 
and Dionysius, both of whom refer to Fabius 
Pictor as their earliest authority, he having 
been the first person to collect the family 
traditions and commit them to writing ; and 
he lived, as we know from Liv/s history, 
in the b^inning of the sixth century of 
Rome. These traditions were handed 
down from father to son, for five hundred 
years, by word of mouth only, before they 

of Trinity Collie, Cambridge, being an epitome of 
his larger work, Rome and the Camfta^na. 

The Arthitictural History of the City oj Rorne^ 
•biMfled from J. H. Parker's Archaology of Rowie^ 
!(« the use of students. 



were committed to writing. I admit this, 
but say, so were the " Homeric Hymns" and 
all other ancient works of that early period 
before the use of writing. The jews were 
expressly ordered to commit their history to 
memory in this manner ; the fathers should 
tell their sons the wonders they had witnessed, 
and the sons should repeat them to their sons, 
generation afler generation. The only written 
copy of the Books of Moses and of the early 
prophets was enclosed in the Ark, or " Holy 
Box," which the Jews always carried with 
them, and to which so much importance was 
attached that it was protected even by 
miracles in case of need. The main point 
in the architectural history oT Rome, is that 
the only possible mode of explaining the 
remains that have been brought to light is by 
the family legends, and all these agree in the 
most remarkable manner, including rt'en the 
measurements of some of the most important 
buildings, as the Temple of Jupiter Capitoli- 
nus, and the great rampart and fosse of Servius 
TuUius. When Dionysius says that the fosse 
of Servius Tullius is one hundred feet wide, and 
thirty feet deep, every one formerly thought 
there must be some mistake. A part of this 
fosse has now been excavated under the 
direction of Signor Fiorelh, for the Italian 
Government, and the measurements are found 
to agree exactly. This great excavation, 
which is near the railway station, is lefl open, 
so that the most incredulous can go and 
measure it for themselves; this alone is 
decisive of the question. I >vished to make 
the excavation ten years ago, but could not 
get permission from the Pontifical Govern- 
ment for this, although Cardinal Antonelli 
generally gave me permission to do all that 
I asked of this kind. 

I will now begin the extracts, comparing 
one with the other. The Forum Romanum, 
the very heart of old Rome, is naturally the 
most interesting to begin with. Mr. Bum 
begins his description at the south end, from 
the Palatine. I have begun mine from the 
north, the Capitol ; and as the latter appears 
to me the most easy and natural, I will follow 
that rule in my selections. 

*' Properly speaking, the Forum began out- 
side the wall of the original Sabine fortress 
on the Mons Satumi, or Capitoline Hill, which 
was entered by the Porta Satumi; but this 

U2 



92 



OLD ROME. 



wall of partition having been destroyed after 
the union of the two hOls into one city, the 
buildings immediately under the south-eastern 
face of the Capitoline, and reared against it, 
are understood to bs included in the Forum. 
The whole of that front towards the Palatine 
is occupied by the high and massive structure 
called the Tabularium, or Public Record 
Office, with which were connected the 
.^rariura, or Treasury, under it, and the 
Senate-house behind it. 

"At its base are the remains of three build- 
ings, filling up the whole space along its wall : 
that to the east, or extreme right in the plan, 
is the Temple of Concord, the central one 
the Temple of Saturn, and the third the Por- 
ticos of the Dei Concentes, with the Schola 
Xantha imdemcath it." — Parker, ch. xi. p. 

" This ruin is generally called the Tabu- 
larium, but it has been shown by Momrasen 
that there is no ground for supposing that 
the name was ever applied to it m any ancient 
writings, and that the name is, more properly, 
yErarium Populi Roraani, or i^rarium Satumi, 
and that it was attached to the Temple of 
Saturn. Many of the temples in Rome had 
teraria attached to them, and it does not 
appear that any central place of deposit ever 
had the name of Tabularium alone, without 
further title especially applied to it." — Bltrn, 
ch. ii. p. 57. 

The Tabularium is a long narrow arcade, 
all the arches of which were open to the 
market-place until they were built up in the 
sixteenth century to enable them to support 
two upper storeys, then added by the muni- 
cipality, who still keep possession of the 
whole building, which they now call the 
" Municipio." Against the back wail of 
this arcade the marble labUh or tabula, with 
the names of the consuls, were fixed, whence 
the name. These tabula were removed to 
the house of the conservator, on the west 
side of the square on the lop of llie Capi- 
toline- hi II, in which many objects are 
preserved for which there was not room in 
the museum on the opposite side of the 
square. The jTLrariiim under it is a scries 
of small chambers with extremely massive 
walls, and a single narrow light for a window 
to each ; at the back was a passage only, 
with a doorway to each chamber. It would 



be impossible to contrive a more safe place 
for keeping a laige quantity of coin, and it 
was used for that purpose during the whole 
period of the Republic. The construction 
of this part of the building is of the time of 
the kings. It i."* recorded that when Julius 
Csesar robbed the public treasury he found 
some of the money of Servius Tulhus still 
remaining in it. What had these separate 
treasuries for each temple to do wilJi the 
public treasury? A room over the porch, on 
the south side of the Royal chapel of St. 
George, at Windsor, was called the .iSrarilim ; 
had that anything to do with the public 
treasury at Whitehall, or the cellars of the 
Bank of England, in which the coin is kept ? 
I have never seen these, as the public is not 
admitted to them, but they must bear con- 
siderable resemblance to the jlilrarium of the 
time of the later kings and the Republic, which 
consists of a series of vaulted cellars, as 
secure against robbers or fire as they could 
be made, under a great public building, 
whicii appears to me must be the same 
as the building which Tacitus calls the 
Capitolium, which contained all the public 
offices of ilie early city. In justice to Mr. 
Bum it should be mentioned that the old 
it:rarium in Rome had been filled up with 
rubbish for centuries, and was entirely for- 
gotten, until about ten years ago, when tlie 
municipality had it cleared out at my instiga- 
tion, with the help of my friend, Signor 
Rodolph Lanciani. It is probable that Mr. 
Bum has never seen it. 

" Litde doubt now remains that the ruin 
of tlie eight columns, Che name of which has 
been so much discussed, belonged to the 
temple of Saturn," — Burn, p. 48. 

"To the south of these three edifices, nearest 
the Tabularium, runs the pavement of the 
road called Clivus Capilolinus, which wound 
up from the Arch of Septimus Severus at tlie 
level of the Forun», in front of tlie Capi- 
tolium. On the southern side of that street 
is another temple, witli eight columns of 
the Ionic order, and a considerable portion 
of its basement well defined. This is the 
Temple of Vespasian, or as it is called in 
the Regionary Catalogue, of Vespasian and 
Titus, as joint Emperors, The relative posi- 
tion of this and the central one of the three 
first temples is usually reversed, the name 



OLD ROME. 



93 



of Saturn being given to that with the 
eight columns, and the name of Vespasian 
to that with the three. But as it is now cer- 
tain that no treasure-chambers existed be- 
neath this one, and there could have been 
no communication between it and the public 
offices in the Capitolium, the naities are 
rightly assigned as here given. The original 
structure was reared by Domitian in ho- 
nour of his father and brother, and restored 
by Septimus Severus." — Parker, pp. 124, 
125. 

I have shown that the temple of Saturn 
was closely connected with the ^Erarium. 
There is little doubt that the entrance to the 
Treasury was by the narrow passage still re- 
maining between the temples of Saturn and 
Concord, though the doorway at the end of 
the passage has long been walled up. Inside 
the wall is the stone staircase leading up to 
the Senaculum at the top of the building, and 
passing first by the door of the ^rarium on 
the left, or west side. 

" Of the temple of Saturn, three columns 
remain at the south-east comer, with that 
portion of the inscription on the cornice 
which agrees with the recorded inscription 
on that temple. A fourth column was taken 
from it by Smaragdus,and used for the column 
of Phocas, with an inscription put on the 
base on which it was then placed. This was 
the nameless column of Byron. The name 
has been found by excavations since his 
time. 

" To the south of the arch, the modem road 
crosses the Fomm at a high level ; but under- 
neath that road runs a subterranean passage 
connecting the arch with the area of the Fomm 
beyond, the whole of which has been excavated. 
Close to the mouth of this passage stands 
the column of Phocas, usurper of the imperial 
throne of East and West, to whom it was 
erected by Smaragdus, Exarch of Ravenna, 
A.D. 603. The name of Phocas was erased 
by Heraclius, his successor, the last emperor 
that visited Rome. The shaft is simply a 
marble pillar taken from some older building, 
and apparentiy matches those remaining of 
the Temple of Saturn. The base is very 
radely constmcted of heterogeneous frag- 
ments, and shows the decadence of art in the 
seventh century." — Parker, p. 126. 

" The centre pavement now laid bare is of 



travertine flags, while the roads are marked 
by basaltic blocks. On the side of the cen- 
tial space runs a row of seven large masses 
of brickwork, which seem to be the bases 
of pedestals which supported dedicatory 
columns, or statues, similar to the one stiU 
standing at the end, which has become known ' 
to English travellers as ''the nameless 
column with the buried base" of Byron. 
Since Byron's time the base of this has been 
unburied, and bears the name of Smaragdus, 
proclaimed exarch of Italy for the eleventh 
time, who erected it in honour of the Em- 
peror Phocas." — Burn, p. 41. 

What Mr. Bum has called " large masses 
of brickwork," are all hollow, and there is a 
doorway into each, though now walled up. 
They are the wineshops down the eastern 
side of the central street of the Fomm, and 
are called by the German school the bases 
of gigantic columns; but if columns were 
placed on them they would speedily go 
through to the ground. 

** The space in the Forum devoted to the 
assemblies of the citizens in their Comitia 
Curiata was itself called Comitium. Just 
beyond the monument of Phocas are remains 
of two marble partition walls in the Comitium, 
covered with fine sculpture on both sides; 
they are replaced upon the old stone bases of 
the time of the Republic, and stand ten feet 
apart. The purpose of these walls originally 
was to keep off the pressure of the crowd in 
going up to vote by their Curiae. They were 
at first of wood, but when rebuilt in the 
time of the Empire, were of marble highly 
ornamented. On the inner side of each 
screen are figures of the three animals pre- 
pared for sacrifice, the boar, ram, and bull, 
hung with garlands, composing the ofifering 
called Suovetaurilia, which was a special 
feature of the ceremonies observed in taking 
the census at the end of every Lustmm, or 
period of five years. One of the outer sides 
represents a procession of persons carrying 
tablets, and throwing them into a heap to be 
bumt ; this is to commemorate an act of the 
Emperor Marcus Aurelius in remitting taxes 
due from the people, and buming the records 
of the debt, in imitation of a similar act of 
Hadrian. The remaining side shows two 
subjects ; one, on the lefl, of an Emperor 
addressing the people from a raised platform. 



94 OLD I 

with coins dropping from his hand into that 
of one of the foremost of the populace, who ' 
holds out five fingers, while the next figure 
holds out three, to make the number of eight 
gold pieces, which they demanded and 
obtained, as is recorded by Dion Cassius ; 
the other, on the right of the same, on his 
throne of state, with attendant officers " — 
F,iR£ER, pp. 136, la;. 




"Trajan's bas-reliefs. — Two of the most 
interesting monuments which have been 
brought to light by the recent excavations in 
Rome were discovered in 187a, near the base 
of the column of Phocas, where they have 
been re-erected. They consist of marble 
slabs, sculptured with bas-reliefs and form- 
ing low screens Each screen is constnicled 
of -ilabs of unequil size, and some of these 




THE EM1>ER0R MARCUS AtlRELlUS AmRESSISC THE CITIZENS. 



Sculpture from one of the 
Ma RULE Walls. 

"Theprincipal figure is the EmperorMarcus 
Aurclius Antoninus (much mutilated) ; he is 
addressing the citizens, when they intemipt 
him by crying out ocloi celo! demanding 
(ight golii piccfS, which he gave them (as 
related by Pion Cassius, lib. Ixxi. c. 32). 
The figure of the Emperor is seen standing 
on the rostrum, witli coins dropping from 
his right hand (whicli, with the head, are 
unfortunately destroyed) ; the two foremost 
figures of the citizens are each holding out 
a hand, one with five fingers extended, the 
other with three, and the money is seen 
falling into them. 

"This engraving is from a photograph, take 11 
at the time of the excavation of these marble 
walls in 1S71. 



have been unfortunately lost Their origbal 
l>osition has been restored as nearly as 
possible, and tliey stand parallel to each other 
in a line crossing the area of the Fonim. 
On the inner sides of both of these sculptured 
screens, the sacrificial animals — the boar, 
sheep and bull — always offered up at the 
Suovetaurilia, are represented. The other 
sides, which arc [uTncd outwards, represent 
scenes in the Forum, and are commemorative 
of some public benefaction of one of the 
emperors, probably Trajan or Hadrian." — 
Burn, p. 42. 

" A little below this temple, eastward from it, 
and between it and the Arch of Sevena, are 
the remains of the Rostra, from which orators 
addressed the people. 'ITicre were two such 
stages or pulpits in the Forum, and this one 
was distinguished as the Rostriv Vetera, 



OLD ROME. 



95 



I From the remains of the stonework forming 
i Ihc foundations, it would seem that the shape 
I of these raised pUtforms was the segment of 
R circle, the orator being free to move within 
F the enclosed space, and to turn himself in 
I qteaking either to the flat or the curved side." 
I — Parksr, p. 125. 

A ViKW OF ONE OF THE ROSTKA IN THE 

I FoKUM, of the time of Constantinc, from a 
I scnlpture on his arch. 

I It represents the principal rostrum near 
I Ihe Temple of Saturn The two sealed 
I ^ures, one at each end holding a staff are 
^CUtucs of gods — in t] p ctntri. sui I the 



Some Wotes on Vac Hamca of 
Momen. 

By Robert Fesccsos, M.P. 

Isabel a«u/^T/<nN 0/ Elizabeth, and kow 
it came to te sc. 
|IS5 YONGE, in her ITtst^ of 
Christian Namts, is no doubt right 
in taking Isabel to be another 
form of Klizabeth, with which it 
is historically shown to have interchanged: 
But the etymological process by which this 
has bti.n irouolt ib ui has been always 





^W^iliJii^'il.i^'Gsil, 





ftarators, protected by a low screen of pierced 
1 aiarblc (called tTans(nna), addressing the 
K<itizeDS from a raised platform j the crowd at 
\ each end are the citizens — the building in 
the background is the Tabularium (p. 115). 

"A representation of the Rostra of the 
Empire which may have stood here is given in 
^ the relief on the face of the Arch of Con- 
ine, which looks towards the Coliseum, 
B three arches are seen, corresponding to 
: Arch of Sevems on the right, and one 
:h corresponding to that of Tiberius on 
I Ae left. Constantine is shown in this bas- 
I tehel addressing the people from the Rostra." 
I —Burn, pp. 54-55. 

As I have said, similar contrasts might be 
Ktepeated to any extent, but probably these 
Kfew will be sufficient for the present. 

John Henry Parker, C.R, 
AihmcileMi MuKiun, Oxfurd. 



somewhat of a puzzle, and it is upon this 
point that I have to suggest an explanation. 
Now the key 10 the puwle is this ; that the 
early Franki^li converts, in the time of Char- 
lemagne, introduced the name, not only in 
its Latin form of Elizabeth, but also, and 
indeed more frequently, in its Hebrew form 
of Elischeba — it was Elischeba that was 
made into Isabel, and not Elizabeth. Frt>- 
lected by its strong ending, Eliiabeth has 
retained its form unchanged. Elischeba has 
been entirely lost to sight under a cloud of 
transfonnatioas. Slightly modified to suit 
Prankish pronunciation, it was introduced in 
the first instance as Elisaba, Eltsabia, All- 
sabia, and Elisavia, all names of women in 
the Polyftiqtu dt lAbbi Irminea and the 
Polyptiqiie de Saint Rrmi <it Rtimi. two old 
Prankish records, the former of which con- 
tains a list of the names of all the seris and 
dependants of the Abbey of St Germain- 



96 



SOME NOTES ON THE NAMES OF WOMEN. 



des-Pr^s, in the time of Charleniagne, and 
the latter a similar list of those of the Abbey 
of St. Remi de Reims, in the middle of the 
ninth century. In the fourteenth century 
(if, indeed, it did not take place earlier) we 
find this old Frankish form £l(isaba) abbre- 
viated into Isabeau, its ending being made 
to conform to French ideas of spelling. Isa- 
beau was the name of the wife of Charles VI. 
of France, and the name was still recognized 
as being the same as Elizabeth. We have got to 
forge the connecting link between Isabeau 
and Isabel, but the process is not a violent 
one. It would not be difficult to suppose 
that the French idea of the fitness of things 
in the case of a woman's name would lead 
them to change this masculine-seeming 
ending, bcau^ into what they would conceive 
to be its appropriate feminine, and so make 
Isabeau into |sabelle. We need not suppose 
that this took place all at once, or that be- 
cause one man changed Isabeau into Isabel, 
everybody else forthwith proceeded to follow 
his example. It is more probable that the 
two names existed side-by-side, together, for 
some time before the struggle for existence 
terminated in the survival of (what seemed) 
the fitter. Throughout all these changes 
the identity of. the name with Elizabeth had 
always been recognized; but when Isabel had 
finally succeeded in establishing its claim 
as the representative, the deposed Isabeau, 
its origin having been forgotten, might have 
become a man's name, and so capable of 
transmitting surnames, which would account 
for Isabeau as a family name in France at the 
present day. 

But these are not the only changes which 
have come over this unfortunate name, for 
we find Elisavia, another of the old Frankish 
forms before noted, forthwith abbreviated 
into Lisvia, and further corrupted into 
Lisavir and Lisabir, all names of women in 
the two old Frankish chronicles before 
referred to. And if we can again suppose 
the name Lisavir (or rather Elisavir), its 
origin having been forgotten, to have become 
a man's name (towards which its masculine- 
looking ending, z;/>, might have assisted) it 
might well give the the origin of the name 
Elzevir, of the famous printers at Amsterdam. 
Not that the name would necessarily be of 
Frankish origin, for the Hebrew form seems 



also to have been introduced into Germany, 
where we find the woman's name, Elisba, in 
the ninth century ; and, it might be, also into 
Holland, while the phonetic principles which 
regulate such changes are more or less of 
general application. Again, it seems not 
improbable that the Spanish woman's name, 
Elvira, for which no derivation at all satis- 
factory has been suggested, might be pro- 
perly Elzvira, and so again another form 
derived from Elischeba. And now, having 
dealt with the diversified forms that have 
grown up around Elisabeth, I shall have, in 
a succeedmg note, to endeavour to show that 
Eliza, which might more certainly than any 
other form be supposed to be derived from 
it, is, in fact, of entirely different origin, and 
a name that was in use long before Elizabeth 
was introduced ; though at the same time we 
cannot doubt that as soon as ever that potent 
name came in, Eliza would beat once appro- 
priated by it 

But in the meantime I may refer to some 
other names which seem cast in the same form 
as Isabel; as, for instance, Annabella, Arabella, 
Claribel, Christabel, and Rosabel. With 
regard to these names, I am disposed to 
come to the conclusion, that though moulded 
into the same shape, they are not by any 
means all of a similar origin. Annabella 
would be a very natural corruption of 
Amabilla, a name in the Liber Vita of Dur- 
ham (a record of benefactors to the shrine 
of St. Cuthbert from about the ninth to the 
fifteenth century, and a most valuable reper- 
tory of Old English names). The same 
record contains, as names of women, Ama- 
bilis, Amable, and Mabilla, of course from 
Latin amabilis — whence our Mabel, on this 
theory the same name as Annabella. Arabella, 
again, might be a corruption of the old 
Frankish Heribolda— ^<7/fl?, as. an ending 
often changing into hel^ as in our surnames 
Grimble and Wimble, from Grimbald and 
Winibald, and Tremble (most infelicitouslyX 
from Trumbold (Anglo-Saxon trum^ firm, 
strong). So also, Claribel might be from an 
Old Frankish Clarebalda, of which, however, 
we have only on record the masculine form, 
Clarebald. This appears to be from Latin 
clarusy illustrious, and is not the only case in 
which the old Franks at that period mixed 
up Latin and German in the same name. 



SOME NOTES ON THE NAMES OF WOMMN. 



97 



It is possible that Christabel might be from 
a similar origin; for the early Frankish 
converts at that period freely adopted the 
name of Christ, and mixed it up with 
Crerman compomids, such as Cristhildis, a 
woman's name, from hild^ war. But on the 
whole I am rather disposed to suggest a 
different origin for Christabel. Finding among 
the Frdnks at that period such names as 
Firmatus, Stabilis, Constabulis,* and the 
woman's name, Constabilla, in the sense, no 
doubt, of " established in the fisiith," it might 
not be unreasonable to suggest such a com- 
pound as Christabila, " established in Christ," 
as the origin of Christabel. As to the last 
name, Rosabel, the ordinarily-received ex- 
planation of '* fair rose '' would be a natural 
and graceful name for women if the French 
had to form names at a later period. But 
there is a woman's name, Rosibia, in the PoL 
Irminan^ which looks rather like as if it might 
have something to do with it It seems from 
its ending, like that of Elisabia, to be also 
from the Hebrew, and suggests a possible 
process like that in the case of Isabel — viz., a 
corruption into Rosibeau, and then a change 
into Rosibel. However, as in this case the 
connecting links are wanting, I can only put 
this forward as a conjecture. 

Maud properly a tnan^s name. Its inter' 
change with Matilda an ancient mistake. 

As Isabel interchanged in former times 
with Elizabeth, so did Maud with Matilda, 
among other instances being that of the 
daughter of Henry I., who was called by 
both names. Yet, etymologically, Maud can 
no more be derived from Matilda than can 
Giles from iEgidius, by which it used formerly 
to be always Latinized. And the interchange is 
rendered all the more curious by the fact that 
Maud, when traced up to its origin, seems to 
be properly a man's name. There has evi- 
dently been some ancient mistake or misap- 
propriation, the origin of which I hope to be 
able to accoimt for. The names Maid, 
Maald, Mauld (all names of women), found in 
the Liber Vita before the introduction of 
surnames, and the Christian name, Maulde, 
found in the fifteenth century, show the form 
from which our Maud is immediately derived. 

* l^ossibly, at least in some cases, the origin of the 
surname Constable. 



Then we have the older forms, Mahald, 
Mahalt, and Maholt,all also apparently names 
of women. And in one case, about the twelfth 
or thirteenth century, the name stands as 
** Mahald vel Matilda.'' Now no one who has 
given attention to the subject can doubt that 
Mahald, Mahalt, and the French form, 
Mahault, are the same as an Old Frankish 
Magoald, eighth century, from Gothic magan^ 
posse, valere, and wold, power. This is dis- 
tinctly a man's name ; indeed, wcUd^ as an end- 
ing, is almost exclusively confined to men's 
names, as the ending hild^ as in Matilda, is to 
those of women. There is but one way that I 
can see out of the difiiculty, and it is this. 
There is in the Lil>er Vita another nAme, 
Mahild, which is no doubt the same as an Old 
Frankish Mahilda, which Foerstemann {Alt- 
deutscJus NamenbucK) takes to be a contrac- 
tion of Matilda. It would seem, then, that 
some mistake or confusion has in old times 
arisen between these two names, and that 
Mahild, which really represents Matilda, has 
been set aside in favour of Mahald, an 
entirely different name. The fact, however, 
of our having Maude as a surname would 
rather seem to show that this misappropriation 
was not universal, for surnames are not — 
unless it be in some very exceptional case — 
taken from the names of women. 

Alice properly a matCs name^ and Eliza 
its proper feminine. 

I have seen it stated, though I cannot at 
present recall the authority^ that in one of our 
ancient families Alice is a name given to the 
sons and not to the daughters. This would 
at any rate be etymologically correct, for 
Alice is properly a man's name, and not a 
woman's. It is, there seems little doubt, 
derived from Ang.-Sax. Adelgis, of which the 
female form was Adelgisa. It is clear that 
Alice (Aliss) represents Adelgis, and not 
Adelgisa, and that the proper female form 
would be Alisa, or, for euphony, Aliza. I 
venture to suggest that our Eliza, generally 
and very naturally assumed to be an abbrevi- 
ation of Elizabeth, is in fact this missing 
name. Now, for the proofs of Aliza as the re- 
presentative of Adelgisa, we must refer to the 
Liber Vitce of Durham, in which we can trace 
the changes that have taken place in Adelgisa 
since the first noble lady of that name laid 



98 



SOME NOTES ON THE NAMES OF WOMEN. 



her gift upon the altar. First we find it con- 
tracted into Adeliza, and then, from about 
the twelfth century, into Aaliza and Aliza, the 
latter name being henceforward rather a 
common one. The former of these two con- 
tracted forms, Adeliza, though not a name 
in common use, is one still given to the 
daughters of certain of our noble families j 
the latter form, Aliza, I take to be the origin of 
our Eliza. (The initial vowel is of no account, 
the ancient names beginning indifferently with 
a or €, and Alice in some families appearing as 
Ellice). But concurrently with the above 
forms in the Liber Vita, we have also Adaliz, 
Adliz, Aliz, and Alis, at an early date, some 
of them at least being certainly names of 
women, so that the misappropriation is at any 
rate an ancient one. 

Towards the close of the record, and about 
the end of the fourteenth century,another form, 
Alicia, begins to make its appearance in the 
Liber Vitcey and appears to have become at 
once a very favourite name. Then, as now, 
fashion seems to have ruled, and when a new 
name came in, there seems to have been a 
run upon it. But by this time Elizabeth had 
come into use, and as soon as ever that took 
place, the two names, Eliza and Elizabeth, 
would begin to get mixed up together as they 
are now, so that a new female form would, 
so to speak, be required for Alice. Alicia (or 
more properly Alisia), is an attempt to supply 
the euphony which is lacking in Alisa, by 
supplementing it with a vowel, just as, for the 
same reason, Amala has been made into 
Amelia. 

About the beginning of the fifteenth century 
another Christian name for women, Alison, 
begins to make its appearance in the Liber 
Viice, This name, however, I take to be 
firom an entirely different origin. There is an 
old Frankish woman's name, Alesinda, Ele- 
sind, Alesint, of the eighth century, from which, 
dropping the final d^ it would naturally come, 
and which is derived by Grimm from Gothic 
alja^ alius (in the probable sense of stranger 
or foreigner), and sind in the sense of com- 
panion or attendant 

Janet : Not from Jane or any female 
fort?i of J OHU. 

It may seem rather a paradox to suggest 
that Janet has nothing to do with Jane, and 



yet I think that a pretty good case can be 
made out. We find Geneta as a woman's name 
in the Liber Vita in the thirteenth century, 
before Jane or Joan or Johanna were in use. 
And in the two following centuries we have 
Gennet, Janeta, Janette, and Janet, of common 
occurrence as Christian names. ^One of these 
cases is a very curious one. It is that of one 
Willelmus Richerdson and his wife Christina, 
who having a family of eighteen children, 
seem to have been so completely at their 
wits' end for names to give them, that two of 
the sons are called Johannes, two Willelmus, 
after their father, two of the daughters Chris- 
tine, after their mother, and no fewer than 
three called Janet Such reduplication of 
Christian names does not, however, seem to 
have been unusual at that time.) Now it 
seems clear that the above name, Geneta, is 
the same as our Janet, and equally clear Uiat 
it is not derived from any female form of 
John. Foerstemann (Altdeutsches Namen- 
buck) has an old Frankish woman's name, Ge- 
nida, tenth century, from a Codex of Lorraine. 
And I find also the woman's name, Genitia, 
in the FoL Rem.^ one of the old Frankish 
chronicles before referred to. These old 
Frankish names might well leave a woman's 
name behind in France, which in after times 
might get mixed up with Jean, and fi-om 
which our name may also have been derived. 
I may observe that we have also Gennet and 
Jennett as surnames, and the Germans have 
also Genett. But these, though ftom the 
same stem, must be taken to be fitrni another 
form of it — viz., from Genad, eighth century, a 
man's name. From the same stem Foerste- 
mann derives the woman's name, Genoveva, 
sixth century ; whence, through the French, 
our Genevieve. As to the etymology of ^m, the 
Germans are not agreed, Leo suggesting a 
borrowed Celtic word, with the meaning of 
love or affection, while Foerstemann seems 
to prefer Old High German gan^ magic or 
fascination. 

Emma. As to its derivation. 

The generally-received derivation of Emma 
fi'om a Teutonic word signifying grandmother, 
or nurse, cannot, I think, be maintained in 
face of the fact that among the old Franks, 
from whom we have derived the name, the 
man's name, Emmo, was quite as common as 



SOME NOTES ON THE NAMES OF WOMEN. 



99 



the woman's, Emma. Though we have so 
freely adopted the woman's name, I cannot 
find any trace of the man's name at any time 
in England, though we have as surnames 
several names from the same stem, and a 
(perhaps obsolete) Christian name, Emmott 
As to the etymology, which is considered by 
the Germans to be obscure, I have elsewhere 
ventured to suggest Old Northern ymia^ 
stridere ; whence the name of the giant, Ymir, 
in Northern mythology. The sense is that 
of a harsh and loud voice, which suggests 
huge stature. So, from Gaelic fuaim, noise, 
strepitus, cornea fuaim/tatry a giant, of which 
we may possibly have a lingering tradition in 
the nursery — "Fee, Fa, Fum^^ representing 
the giant's dreaded war-cry. And from what 
follows, " I smell the blood of an English' 
man" one might almost think of the nurse as 
a Saxon, and the o^e as one of the earlier 
Celtic race, who might in those days be dan- 
gerous neighbours. To return to our text. 
I think that Emmeline, comparing with an 
Old Frankish Emelina, eleventh century, and 
an Emalina, about the twelfth century in the 
Liber Vita, may be placed as a diminutive form 
to this stem. Miss Yonge suggests Amalinda 
{iind^ snake) to which there is no objection 
further than that the derivation above given 
is more simple, and involves less alteration. 




(^leaninga from tbe public 

Hccorbe* 



|HE curious and extraordinary entries 
to be found among the public 
records are not confined to the 
comparatively frivolous examples 
given in the last paper on this subject, 
imder the title of "Some Curiosities of 
Records." Interesting, and occasionally valu- 
able, information can be gathered from them 
as to the ways of the lives of our remote 
ancestors, which will be useful to the historian, 
while entertaining the casual reader. The 
majority of extracts that it is proposed to 
present in this article are to be found in the 
more purely technical and formal muniments 
<tf the country, ^and though not ranking with 



those scraps of amusing information, pre- 
served generally among &e State Papers, they 
constitute exactly the diverticula amcena 61 
history which Livy advocates so strongly. 
The following cunous and very grim piece 
of evidence as to prison life in the early days 
of the Plantagenets has been taken from the 
Coram Rege Rolls of Henry III. The trans- 
lation of its runs thus : — 

Assizes held at Lndinglond. 

The Jury present that Willam le Sauvage took 
two men, aliens, and one woman, and imprisoned 
them at Thorlestan, and detained them in prison 
until one of them died in prison, and the other lost 
one foot, and the woman lost either foot by putre^ 
faction. Afterwards he took them to the Court of 
the Lord the King at Ludinglond to try them by the 
same Court. And when the Court saw them, it was 
loth to try them because they were not attached for 
any robbery or misdeed for which they could suffer 
judgment. And so ihey were permitted to depart 

This ghastly story is unfortunately by no 
means the only one that can be taken from 
the Coram Regc Rolls. 

The severity with which the Plantagenets, 
and John in particular, visited the Jews, is 
familiar to most people from the pages of 
Scott's Ivanhoe, and that the picture given 
in that work was not exaggerated may be 
gathered from the following extract, taken 
from the Oblata Rolls of 2 John : — 

Moses the Jew of Gloucester gives the King 20 
marks of silver to have his peace of 200 marks, imless 
he owe them to the Lord the King as a debt or a 
tax. 

And William de Warrenne is commanded that 
he cause him to be dealt with as the other Jews 
who owe ihe Lord the King nothing. ' And the same 
William and his companions are commanded to 
take security, because the Lord the King prefers to 
have 200 marks than 20 marks. And he shall be 
summoned by the pletlges of the Jews. 

Cancelled because the Lord the King prefers to 
have 200 marks from him than 20 marks. 

The unhappy Jew must have considered 
himself lucky if he got off at 200 marks, 
which was a comparatively light extortion 
as the times went. If, on default, he had to 
undergo such misery as the prisoners in the 
preceding extract are said to have done, a 
very instructive comparison between past and 
present is suggested. 

It is refreshing to turn from pictures of so 
dark a hue to a pleasant custom, established 
probably by some beneficent landlord, 
which, according to the Special Commissions, 



ioo 



GLEANINGS FROM THE PUBLIC RkCORDlS. 



obtained in West Drayton. " Every inhabi- 
tant within this manor," runs the record, 
" being a father of a family (exisUns pater- 
familias) has by an ancient custom the 
liberty of fishing in the common stream there 
for three days in every week.'* One can 
picture and envy the idyllic existence of 
these tenants and early disciples of Isaac 
Walton, and it would be interesting to 
contrast the marriage or baptismal registers 
of West Drayton with those of other and 
less fortimate parishes. There may yet be 
a good lawsuit if some enterprising tenant of 
the manor, ^' existens paterfamilias" and an 
angler to boot, chance upon The Antiquary. 

A curious old document was unearthed 
from the obscurity of a semi-private collec- 
tion of manuscripts — for it is not, properly 
speaking, a record — and is well worth 
attention, not only as a memento of a dis- 
tinguished lady, but as evidence of what 
may be considered as the usual regime of a 
pious household in the Middle Ages. It is 
a detailed account of the daily life of the 
Princess Cicely, mother of Edward IV., and 
in the original extends over several pages of 
foolscap; a few of the most salient points, 
however, are all that can be noted here. 
The princess spent her time as follows : — She 
rose at seven and began the day with matins, 
after which she had breakfast. This over, 
she returned to her religious exercises, and 
continued so employed till eleven o'clock, 
when she with all . her household dined. 
Having concluded her dinner and given an 
hour's audience to such tenants or others as 
might desire that privilege, the Princess slept 
for a quarter of an hour, and rising, it is to be 
hoped refreshed, from a singularly short siesta^ 
she returned to her prayers and so continued 
till "evensong," to which ceremony she 
immediately proceeded, allowing only a short 
interval for the consumption, as we are told, 
of "wine or ale." Evensong concluded at five 
o'clock, she went to supper, and, on edifying 
thoughts intent, during the progress of that 
meal recited the lecture she had heard at 
dinner to those about her. 

Relief, however, was at hand, and the 
Princess's sufferings for the day were over — 
stem duty was to be succeeded by mild 
dissipation, for on rising from the table, she 
gave herself up, as we are informed, to an 



hour's '^ mirth" ! Histoi^ is silent as to the 
peculiar kind of jollity mdulged in by this 
pious lady, but, after the supper and its 
accompanying lecture, even chess must have 
appeared a reckless indulgence, and the 
frolics of a jester, or the stately measure of 
a dance, a positive orgy. The hour of gaiety 
being spent, the Princess Cicely went 
upstairs and, after praying again, retired to 
bed, reaching that haven at eight o'clock ! 
The touch of sly humour which the courtly 
old chronicler, who apparently finds the 
lady's daily exercises too much for his gravity, 
inserts at the end of his account, is worth 
quoting:— **I trust," says he, "our Lord's mercy 
that this noble Princesse thus devydeth the 
howres to his high pleasure." 

The account is not yet concluded; the 
following information as to the menage of the 
household may be of interest 

The dinners on Sunday, Tuesday, and 
Thursday consisted principally of boiled beef 
and mutton, one roast joint in addition being 
allowed ; on Monday and Wednesday the 
meal was much the same as on the other 
days of the week, with the omission of the 
roast. The suppers uniformly consisted of 
roast beef and mutton. The dinner on 
Saturday was salt and fresh fish aUd butter 
— the supper being salt fish and eggs. Friday 
is not mentioned ; but, as it was a fast day, 
the meals were probably worse than those of 
Saturday. 

The head officers alone had breakfast, and 
to them also was allowed the luxury of 
bread and ale for supper. 

The two following rules, almost Draconian 
in their severity, must conclude the notice of 
this interesting document : — 

By the constitutions of the house if any man comes 
late to matins, &c., he has only bread and water for 
his supper. 

Every man at Easter must bring a certificate to 
show where he was shriven or received the Sacrament, 
or he loses his place. 

It is probable that such a way of life was 
rare, even in those days of priestly influence; 
and surely there could be but few servants 
found to submit to a rule as strict as that of 
Edward's mother. But the broad features of 
the case have their value, and would probably 
apply to most regimes of the period. 

A similar example may be found in the 



GLEANINGS FROM THE PUBLIC RECORDS. 



lOI 



rules given by £dward IV. for the lives of 
his poor little sons, Edward V. and Richard 
Duke of York, to their guardians. Lord 
Rivers and the Bishop of Rochester, in 
which the King commands that their dinner 
shall be at ten and supper at foiu:. 

Of a later date is a set of English transla- 
tions of Latin phrases and proverbs preserved 
among the State Papers. Very quaint and 
amusing some of them are, though occasion- 
ally tainted with the coarseness of the time 
(Elizabeth), which renders many interesting 
scraps of literatiure unfit for ears polite — 
the translations being free in two senses of 
the word. The following are some of the 
least offensive : — 

Siremu pokire: To drinke till the ground waxeth 
Uew. 

Nil moror ilium : I care not two chippes for him. 

O catlum^ ierra^ o f acinus : Oh, the blonde of an 
orchin. 

/VwAr pofus: Well tippled. 

JViAil kabtntibus diffidlimHm est: It is hard to get 
a breeche of a bare-backed man. 

The originals of some of our modem 
slang expressions will be found here, and 
the last example as a proverb will fill up a 
gap in our collection. 

The Public Records again, as affording us 
important side lights of history, are invalu- 
able. That during the progress of a civil 
war, buying and selling of real property and 
other business transactions would be at a 
standstill, seems a pretty tenable proposition 
by itself, but it is proved beyond all question 
when the Close Rolls of the latter part of 
Charles I.'s reign, are inspected. From huge 
rolls of many parts at the beginning of the 
rejgp they dwindle down to starveling 
records of half the size at the end of Charles's 
career, to spring up again and flourish 
on the establishment of Cromwell's govern- 
ment 

The Protector's difficulties at the begin- 
ning of his rule are also amply illustrated by 
the Records. A jury appointed to survey 
the King's possessions in the hundred of 
Nantconwey, Carnarvonshire, thus apologize 
for a very meagre return : — 

May it please ytmx honour the reason why we have 
so briefely sett downe the towne of Penachno aKas 
Fennachino, aforesaid (and other places in the Hun- 
dred), was because we could discover noe more from the 
ciintiey ; and to goe upon the premisses to survey or 



finde out any thinge we diii$(;no{, beinge soe diT4ishIy 
threatned by the malignant^ ^.V . 

Recipes are as plentifufk^lilackberries in 
an autumn lane ; and it wcml4*s^em that the 
scribes and accountants of Ibi'i^-. hundred 
years ago had nothing better to de\|Mi their 
spare time and pages than air their Icnowledge 
of physic for the benefit of a fiiture genen\tibn. 
Room can be found for one alone which domes.-, 
from Diurham, and is probably as far-fetcHad';-'. 
and extraordinary as any that ever emanated -': 
from a superstitious old peasant or specious ' . 
quack. It is a " medycyne for the pestilence," 
and is as follows : — 

Take a great reid onyon & if hit be not grete take 
the mo smaU & take ane handfull of rewe & bray 
hit & and when hit is brayd take the onyon and cut of 
the hede and take out the core thereof ; and put the 
rewe into the onyon and put therto als moch triacle . 
[treacle !] into the onyon as of the rewe, and if the 
triacle be not thyk put more of the triacle therto. 
And when all this medycyne is put into the onyon of 
ichen a ouantite then set the onyon upon the fyre 
and rost nit weU to hit be verra softe, and then take 
hit of the fyre and take ij wid trenchers and wryng 
the jus in to a cup of good vyneagre of the best ye 
can get & strongest, and geif the p'son infecte with 
the seiknesse the said jus to drynke all in the cupp 
and kepe them warm after, &c. 

Surely, in all fairness, the adventurous patient 
who could take this nauseous compound de- 
served a cure as a reward for his audacity, if 
not for his common-sense ! 

Poetry among the records always has a 
charm (bad as it generally is) for its very 
incongruity, and perhaps also for the delight- 
ful inconsistency of the co-existence of law 
and poetry. Should a collection of such 
poems ever be made (and it would be very 
easy to get sufficient material), it would truly 
be a heterogeneous one, ranging from an 
original ode of Skelton's (found among the 
Exchequer Treasury of the Receipt, and since 
published in a collection of his works) down 
to such poor stuff as this, whose only merit 
consists in its being of very early date : — 

Soth in mouth, loue in herte, trewe of dede, clene of 
lyues, chast of al the body ; 
Wan thou hast these five, than shalt tou thriue. 
Fals in mouth, hate in herte, thcf of hond, crocket of 
lyues, lecheur of the body ; 
Whan thou hast these fyue, than it schalte neuere 
thriue. 

The next (and last) example, however, is 
of a higher order, and points to a more tower- 
ing intellect than that of the average scribe 



t03 



Gt^k(ffGS PkOk TtTE 



• • *«• 









who is credited with tVit)5l of the poems found 
in records. tfc/f8i4' tolerably fair specimen 
of that hybrid[f(rfui'ot verse known as Maca- 
ronic, whi^ttja^urished in the thirteenth cen- 
tury, ai^d't^V used as a literary exercise 

later :-v '•• ' 

• • • 

'•Righte as the rose cxcellcth all floures, 
, \ Winter ligna florixa, 
' '.•. •• So doth wy^e oy*e Ucoures, 
'■'►.•• Dat multis soluttfera. 

The p'phete Dauld saycs yat w jnci 

Letificat cor hois. 
It ameids mcne chere if it be fyne, 

Est dignu laude nois. 
"^Tien Ypocras or Galyene wold dispute 

Cum viris sapientibus, 
Gode wyne before was their refute, 

Acumen p'bens sensihus. 
If wyne be goode and right welt fyned, 

pKxlest sobrie bibenlibus. 
It whikkens man^s spiret and his mynd, 

Atidaciam dat loquentibu^. 
Goode wyne received soh'ly, 

Mox cerebrum vivlficaL 
Drunken also moderately wine 

Membnun fortificat. 

Natural! hete full well is strengt, 
Degestionem uberius. 

Hell of body also it lengthy 

Vim matutinam p'sperans. 
Gode W3me p'voks sum men to swete, 

£t plena laxat viscera. 
It maks men well to ett y'e mete, 

Quia corda prospera. 
If ane olde man drynke wyne that is good, 

Facit ut esset juvenis. 
It genderis full gentiU blode, 

Nam purgat venas sanguinis. 
Be thies saide causes, Sirra, methynks, 

Que stmt rationabiles, 
That gode wyne newe is the best drynke 

Inter potus potabiles. 
Fill now the cupp well to be my 

Potum michi mox jugere. 
I have seyd to my lippys, Be dry, 

Vellem jam vinum bibere. 
GentUl blode loves gentill drynk. 

Simile amat simile. 
Uadd I a cuppe filled by the brynk, 

Parvum maneret bibile. 
Wyne drynkers awe w« gret honn', 

Semp* laudare dnm. 
The which ordenyd this gode liveinge. 

Propter salutem hoim. 
Plente till yt leives goode wyne, 

Donee Deus his largitis, 
And bryng them sone when they go hyne, 

Ubi non siccant amplius. 

For these, and the thousand other curio- 
sities to be found among our inexhaustibly 
interesting Records, we ought to be truly 



grateful to otir ancestors. They are hot only 
valiiable in themselves, as swifl and sure 
means of, in part, exploring oiir mysterious 
and buried past, but, by amusing the un- 
initiated, they will perhaps convince those 
irreverent scoffers that the labours of the 
antiquary are not uniformly dull, and that 
Dr. Dryasdust's name was a libel. 

M. H. Hewlett. 




nDUcblanb; ox, Olesston (tadtle. 

By Hbn&y Hayman, D.D. 

HERE is a ruine arid wauUes of a 
castle in Ldhdistershire cawlyd 
Gleston Castell, sometyme 'long- 
ynge to the Lorde Haringtons, 
now to the Marquis of Dorset. Itstonditha 
two miles from Carthemaile." So says Leland 
in his Itinerary and from this it appears that 
in the time of Henry VIII. the castle was 
already a ruin. It is a fine remain, which 
has been ascribed by local critics to Uie late 
twelfth century ; but we incline on the whole 
to assign the late fourteenth or early fifteenth 
as its probable period. It is quadrangular, 
but deviates from the strict parallelogram 
form, by reason of the rise in the ground 
at its northern extremity. The angles of the 
entire area have each its tower, and these 
angles nearly face the bardinal points. The 
position is on the line of a parish toad, from 
the hamlet of Scales to that of Oleaston, about 
three-quarters of a mile from the former and 
a quarter of a mile from the latter. It stands 
about three miles from Furness Abbey, asd 
is nearer ten than two miles from Cartmell, 
Inland's " Carthemaile. " These angle- 
towers are connected by curtain walls, the 
longer sides of the included area are eddi 
about ago feet long, being the north-western 
and south-eastern faces. The north-eastern 
about 170 feet, and the sduth-westetn 



IS 



about 130 feet in length. The tower of the 
northern angle was far the largest l\A ndlth- 
western face is 56 feet long, and its ncrtth- 
eastern was about 6oj but isalmost demolished. 
This was about one-third of the whole length 
of that face of the eiiclt>sed area. The two 
towers at the sdtithem and weilterh angles 
are the bei^t preserved, and b&ve been each 



MVCHLAND; OR, GLEASTOH CASTLE. 



103 



somediing over ^Ry feet high. Under the 
remains of their connecting curtain a farmer's 
homestead is sntiglf nestled, and a good 
many of the farm buildings look as if the old 
castle had been their quany. 

The southern tower has a continuous stair- 
case in the thickness of the wall, which 
measures some ten feet at the base, and the 
staircase emerges under an overhanging hood 
of masoniy, the dwarfed remains of an an- 
gular turret of the tower, having traces of 
staiis to a still higho' point of outlook than 
die platform of the battlements, the width of 
which is now nothing else than the thickness 
of the tower's own walL The battlements are 
entire on two £u:es, and two rainspouts, one 
having a fragment of an exteimal guigoyle, 
are yet traceable. The throat of the now 
roofless tower has a thick growth of scnib and 
young tree. These have seeded themselves 
in the mortar and native earth, which latter 
was used instead of cement in the deeper 
thickness of the massive walls, to embed the 
smaller stones. And one, a young ash-tree, 
curled over by the prevailing wind, clothes 
the stony cap of the angular turret like the 
crest of a helmet. There could never, owing 
to the conformation of the ground, have been 
any moat The garrison relied solely on the 
thickness of their walls, and Chaucer's line, 

A hegge (hedge) as thicke as a castell wall, 

receives abundant illustration at Gleaston. 
The chief approach seems to have been at 
the south-eastern face of the western tower, 
where a steep flight of jagged stone steps, 
turning a sharp angle as it rose, and com- 
mand^ by a window pierced obUquely in the 
adjacent face of the tower, as well as by 
arrowslits further ofi" and higher, led up to an 
entry on the first floor. The lowest stage of 
each tower was dark, and might be used for 
a store-room, dungeon, cellar, or, "" possibly, 
stable, that of the western tower shows 
signs of a modem byre for cows -, while the 
hollow, ivy-bndded upperworks, with black 
holes for rafter ends, and broad shallow fire- 
places, their backs still black with the smoke 
of the Middle Ages, with ripped-up chimneys 
and riven staircases, are ondy alive with small 
birds and bats. There was perhaps once, added 
at a still later period, a fine doorway in the 
northrwestem curtain, near its juncture with 



the northern tower ; its head is a much flatter 
arch than any other in the building ; its ex- 
ternal facing is all torn away, having probably 
been of better and squarer stones — more 
tempting to the pilferer. In the interior 
area, the site of what was once a keep is only 
marked by a bold rise in the green sward, 
forming a continuous moimd up to the base 
of the northern tower, the ruins of the larger 
part of which lie mingled beneath the siuface 
with those of the keep. There is excellent 
limestone close by ; and from a range of its 
quarries, in work at this day, the materials of 
the castle have come, taken, however, from 
the topmost stratum only, and therefore rag- 
ged and chinky. For door and window 
settings Permian sandstone has been used, 
which occurs largely in the south-west and 
south of Fumess. These, except the one door 
above mentioned, have acutely-pointed head- 
ings, trefoiled in the upper stages but mere 
lancets in the lower, and all iiidely splayed 
within. 

The large area of the enclosure, being over 
4,800 square yards, as also the recessed fire- 
places, and chimneys over them in the wall's 
own thickness, wluch therefore must have 
been part of the original fabric, all forbid 
the assumption of an earlier date. The 
argument for an earlier date rested mainly 
on the narrow lancet and trefoil-headed 
windows. But these, although out of date 
in a fourteenth or fifteenth century church, 
are by no means so in a castle of the same 
period. For defence against hand-missiles, 
the narrowest form of window was as essential 
then as before. The keep, which has wholly 
perished, may possibly have been earlier. 

This castle was no doubt the chief resi- 
dence of the Lords of Aldingham, of whom 
the first on record. Sir Michael Le Fleming, 
of the Norman period, seems to have com- 
municated his name to the manor : since 
" Muchlands," said, but probably erroneously, 
to be a corruption of " Michael's lands,'* is 
the term by which it is distinguished from 
the estates of Fumess Abbey, in a charter of 
King Stephen, confirmed by King John, con- 
veying privileges to the Abbey. " Muchland," 
as meaning ** large manor," is probably the 
simple account of the name. The latter 
Sovereign in 1x99 granted court-leet and 
court-baron to a Sir William Le Fleming, 



104 



MUCHLAND; OR, GLEASTON CASTLE. 



reserving a jQ\o annual rent for "Much- 
land." That fountain of pious donation, 
King Henry III., bestowed that rent upon 
the monks of Fumess. The Le Fleming 
issue male expired about 1270. Their heiress 
married a Caunesfield or Cancefeld ; but in 
1293 male issue again failed, and the Har- 
rington* name came in until 1457, when 
similarly, it gave way to the Devonshire 
BonviUes. William Bonville, Lord Har- 
rington, taking his title from his wife*s name, 
was slain at the battle of Wakefield, in 1460, 
leaving an heiress, who married Grey, Mar- 
quis of Dorset, from whom was descended a 
later Marquis of Dorset and Duke of Suffolk, 
who became involved in the attainder of the 
imhappy Lady Jane Grey, and thereby the 
Crown became Lord of the Manor of Alding- 
ham, or ** Muchland," and patron of its 
benefxe. In illustration of the name " Much- 
land," it may be remarked that the next parish 
is " Much Urswick," from which the minor 
hamlet oi Little Urswick has become contra- 
distinguished in local nomenclature. JJrs- 
wick was an acquisition of the Le Flemings 
by marriage, temp. Henry III., when it 
became annexed to the "Much Land" 
manor. The utterly insignificant part played 
by casties, fortified places, and sieges in the 
Wars of the Roses, must strike every student 
of history. It seems as though no art of 
defence, commensurate mth the powers of 
artillery to attack, had as yet been devised ; 
and at or before this period, it is likely that, 
their raison (P^tre having ceased, many 
castles were allowed to go to ruin. That of 
" Muchland" may also have ceased to be a 
residence when the family, owing to their 
forming a royal connexion (for the Greys 
were connected with King Edward IV.), 
shifted their position southwards ; and even 
in their earlier " Bonville" period, the same 
influence might have operated. The Har- 
ringtons, on the contrary, were a north- 
country family, and there is a hamlet of the 
name not far from St. Bees. By one of them 
this castle was probably built. 

* There is in the chancel of Aldingham Church a 
single reUc of stained glass, being a shield which bears 
sable, a fret, argent, known as the Harrington coat. 




arcbaic Xanb (Tenure in 
2)ome0bai?« 



R. FREEMAN, in the pages of his 
Norman Conquest^ has expressed 
his surprise at finding so little men- 
tion of land held in common, 
though we can tell fh)m the cases which still 
survive that it must have been considerable in 
extent. And yet I have reason to believe 
that, even in the cases he quotes, the land 
which he assumes to have been held in 
common, can be proved to have been held 
in severalty. On the other hand such rights 
of common as those over half-year land 
would naturally be unrecorded. But my 
present object is to call attention to some 
important glimpses of Archaic Land Tenure, 
which we may read between the lines of the 
Domesday Record. 

The September number of the Antiquary 
contained two most interesting articles,* 
dealing with the " Village Community " and 
specially with the " Right of Pre-emption." 
On turning to the Survey of Lincoln {Domes- 
^^y^ i- 336) we find this remarkable 
passage : — 

Hanc ecclesiam ct terram ecclesise (xiL toftes et 
iv. croftes) et quicquid ad earn pertinet habuit Godric 
filius Gareuinse sea, eo facto monacho, abbas de Burg 
obtinet. Burgenses vero onmes Lincolis dicunt quod 
injuste habet, quia nee Gareinn nee Godric filius ejus 
mc ullus alius dare potuerit extra civitatem nee extra 
parentes eorum nisi concessu re^is, Hanc ecclesiam 
et quae ibi pertinet clamat Emuin presbyter hereditate 
Godrici consanguineL 

Mr. Freeman quotes this passage in full,t 
but without perceiving its peculiar import- 
^ance, nor, as far as I am aware, has any 
writer on these subjects discovered the in- 
ference to be drawn from it. Bat, on com- 
paring it \vith Mr. Fenton's article, it becomes 
rich with meaning. " With especial jealousy," 
he tells us,t " did the early communes guard 
themselves from the intrusion of strangers, 
and their safeguard against that intrusion 
took the form of the Right of Pre-emption." 

* Mr. Fenton's Right of Pre-emption in Village 
Communities^ and Mr. Gomme's Arehaic Land Cus- 
toms in Scotland, 

f Norman Conquest^ iv. 209. 

X Afife^ vol. iv., p. 89. 



ARCHAIC LAND TENURE IN DOMESDAY. 



X05 



For farther details I may refer the reader to 
the article itself; but there is one point 
requiring special notice. The prohibition 
extended not only to strangers {extra 
eivitatem\ but also to members of the com- 
munity who were not of kin to the deceased 
{extra parentes) : this would seem to confirm 
Mr. Connell's view,* as against Mr. Fenton's. 
Mr. Connell traces the custom 

to the theoretical descent of each co-sharer in the 
estate from a common ancestor, according to which 
Hindu law, the possessor of ancestral proMrty in land 
is only a life tenant .... Hence it foUows that as 
no temporary occupant of ancestral property in land has, 
in the eyes of strict Hindu law, an absolute power of 
disposal, a ri^t of receiving the offer of purchase 
obtains to eadi relative {i,e, potential heir) in the 
paternal line, according to proxunity of relationship. 

{Clamat Emuin presbyter hereditate Godrid 
eoMsofiguinei sui.) In Emuin's case the 
question of re-purchase would obviously not 
arise, as the Umd had been given and not 
sold. It should be observed that we may 
also learn from this entry how completely the 
king had usurped the position of the 
original ''Community." His sanction was 
now required to the admission of a fresh 
member,! just as the sanction of the com- 
munity is still required in the courtbaron 
of the manor. { 

The importance of this passage is of course 
great, as bearing .upon the origin of an 
Fnglish commtmity dwelling in a Roman 
Coionia. It would seem to confirm in a 
striking manner the views of the "Old 
English" School. 

If we now turn to the account of Torkesey, 
which is found on the following page (i. 337), 
we find that this archaic ** right of veto,"§ 
which at Lincoln had passed from the com- 
munity to the king, was here non-existent. 
''Quod si aliquis burgensium alibi vellet 
abire et domum qua esset in eddem villd 
cw«^^/sine{IgSg;}praepositi, si vellet, posset 
facere.** What conclusion must we draw 
firom this difference ? Possibly we may 
assume that a powerful corporate community, 
such as Lincoln^ with its twelve Lawmen, 
remained to the days of William, would 

♦ Aniiquafy^ iv. « 26-227. 
+ Nisi ccncessu regis. 
X Stnbhs'B Const Hist, i. 34. 
I "The communities claimed a right of veto." 
Systems of Land Tenure (Cobden Club), 3rd ed. p. 143. 
VOL.* v. 



preserve intact its traditional customs, while 
weaker communities would suffer them to 
lapse.* And the archaic right of veto 
would naturally commend itself to a jealous 
oligarchy as a valuable weapon to their 
hands. 

At Ho-eford we meet with a striking trace 
of this Aryan custom : — 

Si quis eoramyoluisset recedere de civitate; poterat 
concessti propositi domum suam vendere alUri hcmini 
seryitiom debitum inde facere volenti, ethabebat pnc- 
positus tertium denarium hujus venditionis. 

Here we have (i) the "Right of Veto" 
vested in the Reeve, as the representativo of 
the King, and, through him, of the com- 
munity, (2) the transfer of the servitium debt- 
tum^i which had an exact parallel in Hindu 
law. jffita^ according to Mr. Fenton, is 
" land held rent-free in return for service ;"t 
and the mode of transferring the land is thus 
described by Sir G. Campbell : — 

The ordinary form of alienation (in India) was not 
by selling or letting, but by mortgaging, if the term 
can properly be applied to the transaction. The 
mortgagee or depositary undertook to discharge what 
was due (servitium tUbitum) upon the land, and 
obtained the use of it. 

(3) We have a heavy fine imposed on 
the alienation (et habebat pnepositus tertiuvi 
denarium hujus venditionis). This must not 
be compared with the fine quoted by Mr. 
Fenton from the Assyrian records, though it 
would be tempting to do so. It rather repre- 
sents a composition for an offence against the 
community, which, as we have seen, the 
alienation of land was deemed to be.§ 

• So, Freeman (Norman Conquest v. 466), ** The 
marks or townships which had come together in the 
shape of boroughs had been more lucky tluui those in 
the open country, in being better able to keep the 
common land, which in many cases they still keep to 
this day.*' But he leaves out of sight the opposing 
influence of the facts that common land would be of 
les3 value to an urban than to a rural community, 
while the inducement to enclose in severalty would 
be greater. 

t This is without prejudice to the then meaning of 
servitium. Whether rent was supplanting personal 
service or not, the principle would be the same. 

X ** Village officers who were allowed the use <?/* a 
plot of ground in return for their services** iv. p. 90 ; 
see also iii. p. 252-6. 

§ It should be noticed that Mr. G>ote (Romans in 
Britain, 242, 24S-251, 370) skilfully traces this 
custom to the Roman doctrine of possessio. But 
this assumes that it was relative to the State, while, 
in these cases, it was relative to the community. 

I 



to6 



ARCHAIC LAND TENURE IN DOMESDAY. 



In another part of the Survey we may 
discover a valuable hint of the manner in 
which tenure in several had been growing 
upon the town-lands : — 

In bnrgo Snotingeham fiienmt clzxiii. bargenses et 
xix. villani. Ad hoc buigum adjacent vi. carucatae 

terrse, ad geldum regis ffme Urra partita juit 

inter xxxviii. burgenses (L 280). 

Compare with this the succeeding entry : — 

In burgo Derby T. R. £. eiant cadiii bargenses 
manentes et ad ipsom boij^m adjacent xU. carucatae 
terrse ad geldum quas viii. caracatae possunt arare. 
H€tc terra partita erat inter xli. burgenses (i. 288). 

Was tliis '' partitio " an equal division ? If 
so, it is of the greatest importance. We 
have fortunately a passage m the case of 
Nottingham which will, I think, decide the 
question : — 

In Snotingeham est una ecdesia in dominio regis 
in qua jacent iii. mansiones burgi it v. bovata terra de 
supradictis sex carucatis. 

The exact area of the bovate is imcertain» 
but if we may put it at twelve acres, (or l^ 
carucate), these five bovates would then be 
just the proportion due to three of the lot" 
houses^ the mansiones burgi. In any case, 
we have here what Mr. Gomme describes* as 
" the right to land for purposes of tillage " 
{carucatai) ** being insepambly connected wit& 
the ownCTship of certam plots of land within 
the township." 

But the striking feature in these two cases 
is the disproportion between the allottees and 
the whole number of ** burgesses." At Not- 
tingham only two of every nine burgesses, at 
Derby only two out of every twelve, shared 
in the partitio of the common land. Here 
again we turn to Mr. Gomme's article, and 
we find, in the forty-eight freemen of Newton- 
upon-Ayr, whose number was never allowed 
to*increase,t an exact parallel to these thirty- 
eight at Nottingham, and forty-one at Derby. 
We are told how " the common property has 
been divided among the forty-eight freemen, 
from time to time, from the first erection of 
the burgh."J We should also compare with 
these English boroughs Mr. Gonune's cases 

* Archaic Land Customs in Scotland^ 
t The number of bui]gesses is limited to forty-eight, 
which compose the community/'— .Sir y, :SXt$clair* 
Z iv. p. loa. ^ . 



of the Burgh of Lauder with its 105 '^ burgess 
acres," and the village of Crawford with its 
twenty ^'freedoms," the number being con- 
stant in each case. The latter is specially 
interesting as affording an instance of '^a 
subordinate rank" of buigesses. Then is 
more than one hint in Domesday of a dis- 
tinction between the maj<Mr and mincnr 
burgesses, the former being, of couxse, the 
holders of the original '' lots,"* and bearing but 
a small proportion to the lesser buigesses, 
who were occasionally not accounted as bur- 
gesses at all.t Thus, in the survey of Col- 
chester, we find single burgesses holding as 
many as twenty or diirty houses, the inluibi- 
tants of which are not even alluded to. The- 
importance of this distinction lies in die &ct 
that we have here, as Professor Stubbs has 
truly observed,t the germ of the future cor- 
poration. I shall hope on a future occasion 
to adduce some further evidence in support of 
this view as against that which would derive 
the corporation, in its inception, firom the later 
and less national orgamzaticni of the guild."§ 

J. H. Round. 

* Mr. Coote (J^omoHs in Britain, 350^ 368) sees 
in these upper buigesses the descencknts of Uie 
original Latin colonists. The reverse was prc4)ably 
thecase. 

t Ellis, in his Introduction assumes too hastily that 
the numbier of houses would give the number cii bur- 
gesses (i. 463, *' Allowing, therefore, one burgess 
to a house."). He makes this mistake thron^out. 
** This disproportion between the two classes is« says 
Maine {Village Communities^ pp. 85, 88|^ "a point of 
some interest, since an epoch m the history of these 
groups occur when they cease to become capable of 
absorbini^ strangers. .... The En^^ish cultivating 
communides may be supposed to have admitted new^ 
comers to a limited enjo^ent of the meadows^ up to 
a later date than the period at which the araUe land 
had become the exclusive property of the older 
families of the group." 

t Const. Hist, i. Aia '* The only oiganisatioii of 
the existence of which we have certain evidence^ the 
fully qualified members of the township or hnndied- 
conrt of the town*' (compare the Scotch burlavheourts 
in Gomme's Primitive Folk-Moots) " as already con- 
stituted. These were .... the burgage-tenants." 

S Thompson's Municipal Antiquities, passim. 
Compare Stubbs' (^/ij/. Hist. i. 94. " There is nothW 
to justify Uie notion that they were the basis on whicE 
the corporate tonstitution of the burgh was founded." 



-•v/^ .»• 



BARTOLOZZI, TBE ENGRAVER. 



107 




BartolQ33it tbe finaraver. 



^T suuqr jeirs ago the w<h1c8 of 
Baitdoad were commoii enough 
and to be purchased for a smidl 
sum, but wmi the revival of inter- 
est in eighteenth - century art diey have 
come to be regarded with more esteem, and 
their price has ruturally been greatly en- 
hanced. The interest fdt in these engrav- 
ings is widespread, and Mr. Tuer records* 
some curious anecdotes of die exaggerated 
value set upon them by certain persons. 
One of his correspondents had a set of the 
'^filements*' and an historical print, all in 
fiik condition, but cut dose, which the 
propriet o r supposed to be worth about 
;f 700 (Mr ^800 apiece. Before, however, 
even this sum was accepted, Messrs. Christie 
were to be asked to value the prints, 
in case they might be worth still more. 
This is ignorance of one sort Here is 
ignorance of another sort. A lady took a 
print out of a frame, folded it up in a letter, 
and asked for an opinion as to its value, 
e]q[>]aining that she prized it highly because 
it had d^cended to her from her grand- 
mother. 

Bartolozzi's style of art caught the taste 
of his own day, and he became the fashion. 
Charles James Fox on one occasion, seeing 
Peter Beckford's Thmghts upon Humting 
(which has a frontispiece of Diana attended 
by diree females) on a bookseller's counter, 
asked the price. On leamii^ that it was 
five guineas, he is said to have ynH down the 
money, torn out the frontispiece, and walked 
out of the shop, leaving the imperfect book 
behind him. 

Mr. Tuer calls these prints "exquisitely 
beautifril," but we think this is too strong a 
form of expression. They are exceedingly 
pretty, but most of them are deddedly w^ 

• BarUhai and hu PVarks. By AQ}}rew W. 
Tscr. A Inognphical and descriptive acci ;:nt of the 
life and career of Francesco Bartolozzi, R.A (illus- 
tnted). WiUi some obsenrationsoathe present demand 
for, and value of hb prints. .... a ii:kt of upwards 
of a,ooo— the most extensive record jret compiled — 
of the great cnrnver's works (London : Field & 
Tuer, a vok. 4to). 



and wanting in variety. We speak more 
particukriy of die stipple prints, which are 
now the fashion, as me line engravings by 
which, as Mr. Tuer says, ^ he achievra his 
real and lasting reputation" are less generally 
known. 

Francesco Bartolozzi, the son of a gold- 
smith and worker in filigree, was bom at 
Florence, in the year 1727. He made lus 
first effort with the graver at the age of nine, 
and two heads are in existence which he 
produced in his tenth 3rear. These are said 
to show, ^' in a remarkable degree, his 
wonderfiilly precocious, though as yet un- 
developed, power." He studied anatomy 
and made a large number of drawings of 
bonesand muscles at the Florentine academy, 
for we must not forget that he was an ori- 
ginal designer as well as the reproducer of 
die works of others. He visited Rome, was 
articled at Venice, where, at the expiration of 
his apprenticeship, he married a Venetian 
lady of good biith, Lucia Ferro by name. 
He lived for a time in Rome, and then re- 
turned to Venice, by which time his fame 
had spread over Europe. In 1764, he was 
persuaded, at the age of thirty-seven, to 
settle in England, and he at once found out 
his old fellow-student, Cipriani, with whom 
his name and fame are so indissolubly 
associated. His first work of importance in 
this country, was a fine series of prints firom 
Guerdno's drawings in the King's collection. 
This was followed by a grand engraving of 
Aimibal Caracci's *' Silence." At this tmie 
the stippled red chalk process of engraving 
had become the rage, and Bartolozzi was soon 
forced by the printsellers to adopt the style 
which is now looked upon as peculiarly his 
own. 

At the foundation of the Royal Academy, 
in 1 769, our artist was nominated as one of the 
original members, to the lasting chagrin of a 
greater engraver--Sir Robert Strange, who 
was not one of the forty. After a residence 
of thirty-eight years in England, and in his 
seventy-fifth year, he accepted a twice-re- 
peated invitation from the Prince Regent of 
Portugal to settle in that coimtry. The 
honour of knighthood was conferred upon 
him, and he received a pension of ^80 a 
jrear. An Englishman who visited Bartolozzi 
m Lisbon expressed his surprise that he who 

I a 



to8 



BARTOLOZZI, TBE ENGRAVER. 



could make ;^i,ooo a year in England should 
be contented with so small a sum. ^Ha! 
ha r* replied the artist, '' in England I was 
always in debt for the honours showered on 
my talents, and I was quite tired of work. 
Here I go to Court, see the King, have many 
friends, and on my salary can keep my horse 
and drink my wine. In London it would 
not allow me a jackass and a pot of porter." 
On the 7th of March, 1815, after a short 
illness, Bartolozzi died at Lisbon, aged 
eighty-eight. All trace of his tombstone is 
lost, but Mr. Tuer has erected a noble 
monument to him in the two handsome 
volumes which have given occasion for this 
article. It is now too late to obtain fresh 
biographical information, and in spite of 
researches widely made Mr. Tuer has not 
been able to add largely to the particulars of 
Bartolozzi's life. He has, however, collected 
much material in illustration of the artist and 
his works. Some of this may appear a little 
outside the subject, but all is of interest; 
the chapters on the ''Art of Stipple En- 
graving" and on " How to Handle Prints," 
are particularly valuable. It is amazing how 
careless persons who ought to know better 
are in handling engravings, and all who 
possess such works of art must show them to 
their friends with fear and trembling. Even 
the plates of books are often irretrievably 
spoilt by the way in which the leaves are 
turned over. Two anecdotes given by Mr. 
Tuer, showing the cruel damage done by the 
ignorant we^thy, we will transfer to our 
pages. 

An amateur, wishing to illustrate a book with a 
head of the Virgin Mary, bought of one of our largest 
print-dealers a proof worth about £fio of MlUler's 
•' Madpnna di San Sisto," after Raffaelle. When he 
had paid for it, he calmly proceeded in the presence 
of the astonished dealer to cut out the head of the 
Madonna with a penknife, saying he did not want 
the remaining portion of the prmt, which he left 
behind. Some years afterwards the amateur died, 
and his effects were sold at Christie's, amongst them 
was the small book containing the head of the 
Madonna, which the print dealer bought at the sale 
for a mere trifle. The head was carefully removed 
from the book, and sent, together with the remaining 
portion of the print, to the restorer, who inlaid it so 
well that it appeared uninjured. 

The next instance is still worse : — 

A nobleman now living commissioned a print-dealer 
some five years ago to make a collection of fine prints, 



princi|>ally fiinc^ subjects after Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
tor which, as might be enected* he gave long prices. 
When he thought he haa accomulated suffideot for 
his pnrpo^ he had his treasures cut out into various 
shapes to fit harmoniously, as he thought, one into the 
other, and mounted, brilliantly varnished over, on a 
a three-leaved screen ; but when the work was 
finii^bed he did not like the appearance, so fmrthwiih 
had the prints canefiilly taken ofl^ and the varnish re- 
moved, lor placing in a scrap book. 

Surely if the proprietors of works of art were 
to realize that they are onl^ trustees for 
posterity, and that wealth gives them no 
moral right to destroy their treasures, such 
enormities would not be committed. 

In concluding this article we may sa^ that 
the book under notice is most exquisitely 
produced. The plates are good, especially 
the benefit ticket — an example of a class of 
work in which Bartolozzi excelled — and the 
specimens of retouched plates are instructive. 
The type is bold and striking, the paper is 
rich and does justice to the printmg, and 
the vellum binding is extremely tasteful. It 
would not be easy to find a modem book 
which could compete with it in beauty of 
appearance. 



IQ^JCJS. 



Z\iz Site of Carcbemieb. 

By WiLUAM F. AiNSWORtrf, F.SA., F.R.G.S. 

LCHEMISH is mentioned in 
Isaiah (x. 9), among other places 
which had been subdued by an 
Assyrian king — ^it is supposed by 
Tiglath-pileser. That Carchemish was a 
stronghold on the Euphrates appears from 
the title of a prophecy of Jeremiah against 
Egypt (xlvi. 2) : — " Against the army of 
Pharaoh-necho, king of Egypt, which lay on 
the river Euphrates, at Carchemish, and 
which Nebuchadnezzar, the'king of Babylon, 
overthrew, in the fourth year of Jehoiakim, 
the son of Josiah, king of Judah." 

According to 2 Chronicles (xxxv. 20), 
Necho had five years before advanced with 
his ally, Josiah, the father of Jehoiakim, 
against the Babylonians on the Euphrates, to 
take Carchemish. . 

These Scriptural notices convey two definite 
facts. First, that Carchemish was a city or 




THE SITE OF CARCHEMISH. 



109 



town of Babylonia— even if a fnmtier town 
as it seems to have been ; and, secondly, that 
it was on, and not at a distance fh>n]y the 
river Euphrates. 

Taking these £u:ts into consideration, 
Biblical scholars and comparative geogra- 
phers have hitherto sought to identL^ Car- 
chemish with the stronghold situated on the 
Euphrates where that river is joined by the 
Chaboras or Khabdr, and which was known 
to the Greeks as Kirkesion, and to the 
Romans as Circusium or Kircusium. The 
Hebrew name of Carchemish or Karkhemish 
is (with tiiie license pemussable in the muta- 
tion of vowels common to all Oriental lan- 
guages) more or less preserved in both these 
etymologies, and equally so in its actual 
Arabic name of Karkistya. 

The river Chaboras or Aboras was, wc 
know from Sir H. A. Layard's explorations, 
dotted with towns of greater or less import- 
ance in Assyrian times. It was evidenUy at 
that time die high road from Nineveh to 
*' Rehoboth on the river," now Rahabah, and 
the countries beyond. 

We know also from the Arabian geogra- 
phers that it was a high road, with towns or 
stations, in the time of the Khalifat ; and it 
continued to be so in the time of die Cru- 
sades, when Saleh-eddtn, the Ata-beg of 
Mosul, constructed the fortress, still desig- 
nated as Salahiyah, close by Rehoboth, 
as a stronghold between ^yria and Meso- 
potamia. 

It is therefore reasonable to suppose that 
a strong place situate at the jimction of the 
Khabiir with the Euphrates was of import- 
ance even in the time of the Babylonians, 
and became, as a frontier town, coveted alike 
by Assyrians, Hebrews, and Egyptians. 

Circusium, Circesium, or Circessum, as it 
was variously spelt, was, according to Zozi- 
mus (iiL 12), situate at the confluence Qf the 
Aboras and the Euphrates. Ammianus Mar- 
cellinus (xxiiL 6) speaks of it as an island 
surrounded by the confluence of the two 
rivers. Procopius {E. -P., ii. 5) confirms this 
account of its position, and he describes its 
fortifications as forming a triangular figure, 
at the junction of the two rivers. He 
further mentions, in hb work, De ^dificiis 
(L 6) that Diocletian added additional out- 
wofks to the place, a statement which is 



also coitoborated by Ammianus. So exten- 
sive, indeed, are the ruins of the place in the 
present day that the Arabs designate it as 
Abii Serai, or '' the father of palaces," as well 
as Karki'sfya. 

Cellarius justly remarks upon this, in his 
NoHtut Orbts Antiqui (iu p. 608), that it can- 
not be doubted that a place occupying so 
important a position was inhabited from a 
remote antiquity ; sUid this is the reason why 
many think that Circusium was the same as 
the Carcemis ^as he writes it) mentioned in 
the Sacred Scnptures. 

Bochart {Geo, Sac. iv. xxi.) also says that 
learned men deem Cercusium and Carcemis 
to be the same. So also Rosenmiiller, in his 
Biblical Geography. Benjamin of Tudela, 
who travelled in the time of the Khalifs, also 
speaks of Karkesia as having been formerly 
called Carcemis. 

The members of the Euphrates Expedition, 
who explored both M&mbej and Karktstya, 
advocated the same identification ; and Mr. 
Vaux said, in the Dictionary of Greek and 
Roman Geography (art. "Circesium"), that 
" there is every reason to believe that Circe- 
sium represents the place mentioned in the 
Bible under the name of Carchemish." 

Such was the state of the inquiry until 
modem Assyriologists were led, by the read- 
ing of certain inscriptions, to believe that 
Carchemish was identical with Mambej, and 
had been the capital of the northern Hittites ; 
and further, that the Assyrian and Babylonian 
name for Circusium had been simply Cirki or 
Kirki. 

The name of Mambej appears to have been 
read as Kargamus ; which has by some been 
very aptly traced to a corruption of Kar- or 
Kir-Chemosh, the stronghold of Chemosh. 
Others have opined that the latter part of the 
name is an A^an termination, and that the 
whole name was a dialectic variation of Per- 
gamus, meaning a fortress, or a city situated 
on a rocky elevation. 

This identification, established by the in- 
scriptions, receives support firom the Syriac 
version of 2 Chronicles (xxxv. ao), in which 
Carchemish is rendered Mabung. 

We know from Pliny (v. xxiii.) that the 
Syrian Hierapolis was called Magog (which 
has been more correcUy read as Mabug), as it 
is still called Mambej, as well as Jerabulus, a 



no 



THE SITE OF CARCHEMISH. 



corruption from Hierapolii. Just as Mambej 
was convetted by the Greeks of the Low 
Empire into Bambyce or B&mbuke, and as 
the English have converted the same name 
(Mambej) into Bombay. 

It is curious that a site marked by exten- 
sive ruins, at a rocky pass on the Euphrates, 
not far from Mambej, and which appears to 
have been the port to the city, is called Kara 
Bambuch by the natives. This may be 
looked upon as a corruption of Mambey or 
Bambye (B&mbidce) ; or it may be assumed 
to indicate that Bambyce was a different 
place to Hierapolis. But the latter assump- 
tion would be opposed to the direct testi- 
mony of Strabo, Pliny, iElian, and other 
geographers. 

Ritter, in his Erdkunde (x. 1056-1066), has 
eliminated much curious information with an 
attempt to connect the Bambyce of the lower 
jBmpire, with Bombycina urbs " the city of 
the silk-worm;" but there is no evidence 
of the growth of the mulberry-tree (which 
delights in moist and sheltered valleys, as at 
Seleucia pieria, Amasia, Tokat, Brusa, and 
other well-known sites in Western Asia) on 
the uplands of North Syria. It is much more 
probably a corruption of Mtobej, pronounced, 
as it is, as Mambey. 

Mr. Birch justly remarked upon the Rev. 
T. Dunbar Heath's reading of the Hittite 
Jerabulas, and Jerebis " was the name in 
existence in the time of the Hittites ? " {Proc. 
of Soc. of Bib. Arch.y Dec. 7, 1880.) 

The fact is that Mambej was not called 
Hierapolis till the time of the Seleucids. We 
have the authority of iElian (H.A. xii. 2) to 
die effect that it received its Hellenic name 
from Seleucus Nicator. 

It has been said that it received that name 
owmg to the city being the seat of worship 
of the Syrian goddess, of whom Pliny spoke 
zsprodigiosa Atargaiis^ Graedslaulem Derceto 
dicta ; but it is far more probable from its hav- 
ing been also a seat of worship of Chemosh — 
the sun, or god of fire. 

However this may be, as Jerabulus was 
a corruption of Hierapolis, the name 
could scarcely have been in use with the 
Hittites. 

But as there were several towns known by 
the name of Hierapolis, or *^ Cities of the 
Sun," as in Phrygia and in Cilicia, as well as 



in Syria;* so there may have been more tlian 
one Carchemish, supposing that name to im- 
ply the "city of Chemosh — as there weremany 
Ecbatanas — that name implying *^ treasury 
city." If this was tiie case, die error in the 
Syriac version may have arisen from the 
Karchemosh or Kargamus of die northern 
Hittites, having been confounded widi die 
Carchemish of Babylonia* « 

What is remarkable in the inquiry is, that 
not only was die Scriptural Cardiemish a 
Babylonian city — ^which the Hittite Kaigamus 
never could have been — but it appears also 
to have been a place where the Assyrian 
kings hunted elephants. 

Dr. W. Lotz has shown, in his work JDie 
Inschriften 7^M-Pi^^/., that the Assyrian 
word which has been generally trandated 
" horses," has really been borrowed from the 
ancient Accadian language, and means an 
elephant. 

As Tiglath-pileser states that he hunted 
these animals in the neighbourhood of Car- 
chemish, it has been assumed that the 
elephant, which was also hunted in the same 
locality by the Egyptian King Thothmes III., 
continued to exist in that part of Western 
Asia at least three or four centuries later. 

We axe told by Strabo (xvi. 517) that 
Seleucus fed five hundred elephajits at 
Ajpamsea, at the junction of the Marsjras 
with the Orontes, where there are ponds and 
marshes. It is possible, then, that these may 
have been of Asiatic origin. 

Geologically speaking, we know that re- 
mains of the elephant tribe have been found 
in climates and places no longer suited to 
their habits ; but there is no reason to believe 
in any marked change of climate in Western 
Asia within historical times. 
' This being the case, the Kargamus of the 
Hittites was utterly unsuited for the abode 
of elephants. It stands on a lofty upland, 
with a spare vegetation — ^no trees or shrubs 
— and litde water. Nor in the same region 
are the banks of the Euphrates more fiivour- 
able to the abode of dephants. They are 
grassy, with a few clumps of shrubby v^eta- 
tion, at other places rocky ; and at the best 
only capable of affording support to flocks 
and herds of the nomadic Arabs. 

The Euphrates at, and about the junction 
* Notoriously Jerabnlas on the Biiplirates. 



THE SITE OF CARCHEMISH. 



Ill 



of the KhaMr^presents a very different aspect. 
Its banks are for the most part wooded — 
in phices marshy— and the climate is very 
different finom what it is on the uplands of 
North Syria, where, if hot in summer, the 
winters are often very severe. 

It could indeed, as far as all probabHites 
are concerned, have only been at Carchemish 
on the lower Euphrates, and not at Carche- 
mish on the uplands of Syria, that Thothmes 
and H^di-pileser huntol elephants. 

There is no doubt that the Assyrian 
monaidis moved, upon occasions, in their in- 
vasiocis of North Sjrria, by a northerly line of 
route. They have left traces of their domi- 
nation at Haran, at Seruj, and at Mambej, to 
reach which they most probably crossed the 
Euphrates, at the feny where now stands the 
ruined castle known as Kalah en Nesjm, or 
'* Castle of the stars," said to have been once 
the residence of Al Mamto. From Mimbej 
they proceeded by Aleppo, or as Mr. Rassam 
has pointed out, by Azass, and the valley of 
the Afihi, to the coast of Uie Mediterranean. 

But it is equaUy evident, from the far more 
extensive remains of Assyrian times met with 
on die liver Khabiir^remains which indicate 
a permanent occupation of a country to 
which the Jews were removed at the period 
<^ the first captivity — ^that they also availed 
themselves, especially in olden times, of the 
long^used route by that river and by Carche- 
mif^ in their invasions of Judah and Israel 

It was from its central and peculiar position 
at the junction of two rivers, and from its 
bemg a fix>ntier town between Babylonia and 
Ass^ia, that. Carchemish not only derived 
its importance, but became also the pivot oi 
contest for supremacy. 

Between its capture by Sargon and the 
attacks on it by Pharaoh-necho, an interval 
of somewhat more than a hundred years, its 
history is unknown ; but it probably changed 
its masters several rimes, as the rival powers 
of Ethiopia or Egypt, and of Assyria and 
Bab]donia, were in the ascendancy. 

In the invasions by the Egyptians, the 
Babylonians are spoken of as having the 
Hittites for allies. This would scarcely have 
beoi the case, if it had itself been the capital 
of the Northern Hitrites — ^the southern tribes 
bdng on the Orontes. 

Hmt, agaiUi could the Egyptians under 



Pharaoh-necho have been doing in North 
Syria? or how came they, if there, to be 
opposed to the King of Babylon ? The 
Scriptural history of events, as associated with 
Carchemish, are indeed inexplicable on the 
supposition of that city being represented by 
Mambej. 

It roust, then, be left to Assyriologists, after 
thus pointing out the difficulties involved in 
the question, to determine if Kirki is not 
merely a part of a name — a fragmentary or 
incomplete inscription— or an abbreviation 
for Kirkimish or Carchemish ; and whether 
the inscriptions at Mambej, read as Karga- 
mus, should also be read as Carchemish or 
Kar-Chemosh ; and if so, if there were not 
two Kar-Chemoshes— one in Syria, the capital 
of the northern Hittites, the other a frontier 
stronghold between Babylonia and Assyria. 

The question is all the more worthy of 
attention on the part of Assyriologists, as not 
an historical event, or, as far as the writer 
knows, not a single authority can be adduced 
in favour of the Scriptural Carchemish being 
identical with the northern Carchemish, 
Mambej, or Hierapolis, 



r:s!y:^Ji^--> 



1£ax\^ ]BooIt0 on 6ip0ie0« 



REIXMANN, one hundred years 
ago, prefaced his well-known 
Dissertation on the Gipsies by 
saymg, that : — 

Although much has been said and written con- 
cerning the Gipsies, nevertheless, except the article in 
the Vtmna Gazitie^ about the Gipsies in Hungary, 
nobody has ever thought of publishing a circum- 
stantisd, connected, account of the oeconomy of these 
people, their opinions and conditions, since they have 
Deen in Europe. Whatever has appeared on this 
subject has been in detached pieces, occasionally 
communicated by writers of travels, or by persons who, 
having made particular inquiries about tnc origin of 
the Gipsies, formed a S3rstem of their own concerning 
them ; or, lastly, such hints as were buried in old records 
or dispersed in various other books. ^ 

Grellmann mentions over i8o writers of 
" fugitive detached pieces," all of which he 
diligently examined as a foundation for his 
Dissertation; and since then the world has 
been liberally dosed with dilutions of his 




XI2 



EARLY BOOKS ON GIPSIES. 



ideas, as well as with divers substantial 
works, which are the outcome of the interest 
which his book aroused for this peculiar 
people. 

A bibliographical list of either the authors 
who preceded Grellmann, or of the books 
written since, would be far too lengthy for 
The Antiquary, however appetizing the 
caviare might be to a few. It was in 1844 
that Dr. A. F. Pott, of Halle, published his 
philological treatise, Die Zigeuner in Europa 
und Asien^ while Mr. Borrow, by his Lavengro 
and Romany Rye, has done much to popu- 
larize the subject in England, and Dr. A. 
G. Paspati, of Constantinople, in 1870, put 
forth his vast collection of the words and 
idioms used by the Turkish Gipsies. 
Amongst others, too, who have by detach- 



dispersion right and left throughout Western 
Europe. 

The first period, the pre-historic, is a very 
interesting one, but being anterior to 1413, 
and in spite of M. Bat^ard's enthusiastic 
industry and that of others following lus lead, 
its authorities remain meagre, and the results 
more or less speculative. 

The first contemporary writer who men- 
tions the race durmg die second period, 
(1413 to 1438), seems to have been Hermann 
Comer, a monk of the order of Dominican 
Friars, who, in 1406, when probably a jroung 
man, i^^as present at the Provincial S3niod of 
Hamburg, and who wrote the Chrtmica 
Novella usque ad annum 1435 deducta^ which 
was first printed in 1723, in the Corpus hist, 
pted avi, by Eccard (vol. iL p. 1225). He 



ments given an impulse and made gre^^ dates their advent quarto anno Sigismundi^ 
additions to the subject, are Monsieur t^ qui est Domini 1417% firom wluch it is 
Bataillard, of Paris, and Professor Miklosich, a argued that, as Sigismund became Emperor 
of Vienna, and a useful rSsumi of these and 9 8 Nov. 141 4, the advent would be between 
many more will be found in Mr. F. H. 
Groome's able article on Gipsies^ in the 
ninth edition of the Encyclopedia Bri- 
tannica. 

So much for the books on Gipsies, which 
have succeeded Grellmann. Those pre- 
ceding him have been so well garnered by 
him and by Mons. Bataillard, that it is pre- 
sumptuous to try to glean after them. Still, 
many may not have had an opportunity of 
consulting their works, and, without claiming 
originality, a few notes as to these earlier 
soiurces of information may be acceptable to 
the general reader. 

Grellmann's array of 180 jotters dwindles 
down on examination to a very much smaller 
number of originals, for many of them are 
simply appropriators ^without acknowledg- 
ment. 

Mons. Bataillard, who is the most sys- 
tematic in his dealing with these early 
fragments of gipsy history, divides them into 
three periods, the first relating to what may 
be called the gipsy pre-historic age, ending 
A.D. 1413 ; the second embracing the short 
period between 141.3 and 1438, during which 
he very plausibly argues that only an ex- 
ploring party of about 300 wandered up and 
down Western Europe ; and the third period, 
dating fi'om the return of these scouts, accom- 
panied by the mam body, and tracing their 



8 Nov. and 25 Dec. 141 7 (Julian), or 29 
Oct, and 15 or 21 Dec, 1417 (Grqgorian). 

Next comes Albert Kiantz, who was bom 
in the middle of the fifteendi century, and 
died 7 Dec 151 7, and whose Saxonia was 
first published in 1520, at Cologne, and 
again in 162 1, at Frankfort (Bk« xL ch. 8, 
p. 285). 

Comer says they called themselves Secani^ 
the Latinized form of the word which is repre- 
sented by Germ. Zigeuner^ French, Tsigane, 
Italian Zingari^ Turkish Tchinghiane, 
Krantz, in whose days they were more 
widely spread, tells us the people called 
them Tartars, and in Italy, Ciani. 

The rest of these early descriptions is best 
realized by referring to the illustrations given 
in the chapter, on '' Gipsies, Tramps, and 
Beggars," in Manners^ Customs^ and Dress, 
during the Middle Ages, by Lacroix (London, 
1874), or Callot's spirited engravings, remi- 
niscent of his boyish ramble with them some 
200 years after their ancestors' invasion. 

Wilhelm Dilich, or Schafer, whose Hessiscke 
Chronik was published at Cassel in 1617, 
says (p. 229), under the year 1414, that 
'' about this time came for the first time into 
this coimtry a thieving, wicked, fortune-telling, 
beggar-band of Gypsies." These abusive 
epithets have been repeated cut nauseam to 
the present day whenever gipsies are named, 



EARLY BOOKS ON GIPSIES. 



113 



and form a fugue to the next notice, which is 
found in the De rebus Misnicis (Meissen in 
Saxony) of Georgius .Fabricius, which was 
published at Leipzig in 1560, and states that, 
in 1416, '' the Zigans, a wandering, wicked 
race of men were, by oiderof Prince Frederick 
driven forth, propter furta^ stellionaium et 
IMditus** So Seth Calvisius, in his Opus 
Chronoiogicum (Frankfort, 1650, p. 873), says, 
ibax in 1418, '' The Tartars, commonly called 
2geuner, a wicked, wandering people, first 
seen in these regions, were expelled from 
'hUmstti propter furta et libidmes^^ generously 
omitting steUionaium^ which Du Gauge's 
Gicssarium explains by sortiUgium^ or divi- 
nation. Tobias Hendenreich, in his Leipzig-^ 
ische CAnmiie (Leipzig, 1635), uncharitably 
sajrs that, in 141 8, '' the Zigeuner, a malicious, 
thieving, fortune-telling crew, appeared for 
the first time in Leipzig." 

It seems likely that all these dates reflect 
more or lessthe date of Sigismund's accession, 
he having given these first comers a passport 
or letter of protection, which they displayed 
with great pride and assurance wherever they 
went. 

The next batch of authors hails fix>m Switz- 
eiland, and is admirably summarized by 
M. Bataillard in his pamphlet, De PAppari- 
tum^ d'r., dcs Bohhniens en Europe (Paris, 
1844, p. 27). Their names and works are 
Joh. Rud. Stumpf, Schweitzer CAronie(Tiganf 
16 16, p. 731); CEgid. Tschudi, Chronicon 
Heheticum (1736, voL ii. p. 116); Christian 
Wurstisen, Baslcr Chromck (Bale, 1580, p. 
240); Daniel Specklin, Collectanea (MS., 
Strasbourg Library) ; Joh. Guler, Rhatia 
(Zurich, 1616); Fortunat Sprecher, Pallas 
Rhatica (Bale, 161 7) ; Joh. Grossius, Kurtze 
Bossier Chronick (Bale, 1624, p. 70) ; Gabriel 
'^zSsa^Appenzdler Chronik {^l.QtTii^jaLf 1740, 
pu 366). M. Bataillard has critically exa- 
mined all these, and has shown how they 
copied from one another, or from one of the 
first three — Stumpf^ Tschudi, or Wurstisen. 

^fany other short notices are quoted by 
M. Bataillard, but space forbids fiirther detail, 
and finishes this dry-as-dust recital with a 
reference to the invaluable entry in the diary 
of the anonymous Parisian, published in the 
fortieth vcrfume of Buchon's Collection, and 
in Pasqoier's Rechercha de la Frana, detail- 
ii^ the fim visit of a band of these pious 



pilgrims to Paris in 1427, and what they did 
there during their stay from the 1 7th of August 
to the 8th of September. As a counterpoise 
to the epithets of Dilich and Fabricius it is 
pleasant to end with the words of this bour- 
geois, who writes " vrayement j'y fus trois ou 
quatre fois pour parler k eux, mais oncques 
ne m'apercu d'ung denier de perte.'* 

H. T. Crofton. 




Communal 1>al>itation0 of 
primitive Communitied. 

By G. Laurence Gomme, F.S.A. 

|RCHAIC society, as is well known, 
is studied from two different source^ 
of evidence by modem inquirers. 
On the one hand, there are the 
ancient structures and the archaic customs 
still extant in civilized society; on the 
other hand, there are the contemporary struc- 
tures and living customs still extant in un- 
civilized society. These two sources, widely 
apart as they are, geographically and ethno* 
graphically, are, strictly speaking, bound 
together by the closest ties, so soon as they 
come to be considered by the comparative 
archaeologist If we can link on the archaeolo- 
gical remains of early village life in Britain, 
for instance, to the living elements of primi- 
tive village life, as seen in unprogressive 
Aryan races like the Hindus, or the eastern 
European races, and from thence to the living 
elements of primitive life, as seen in savage 
races, we get a long chain of evidence which 
is of value to the student of eariy mankind, 
and of the utmost interest to the antiquary 
who delights in what remains to him of the 
antiquities of our land. I conceive that 
the work of the antiquary is not finished 
when he has put on record the result of fresh 
discovery, or when he has told us something 
more about the details of already known 
antiquities. This is where his work begins. 
The next step is to hand this w(^ over to 
other branches of research, for the purpose 
of having it fitted in its proper place in the 
great museums of the world's past ages. I 
conceive that English antiquaries w1k> take 



114 COMMUNAL HABITATIONS OF PRIMITIVE COMMUNITIES. 



up that branch of our study which relates to 
pre-historic antiquities, monumental or custo- 
mary, should never rest content until they 
have docketed and identified every item of 
their research in the wider study of compara- 
tive archaeology. Every such item has a 
place somewhere, and* it tells us something 
of our ancestors from whom it comes. 

It is in this spirit that I have pursued my 
researches into the early village-life of Britain. 
On a previous occasion I laid before the 
readers of The Antiquary the results of 
one section of these studies — namely, the 
land customs of the primitive village com- 
munities, as shown by the caxious tenures 
existing in Scotland. In a paper treating of 
the traces df the primitive village community 
in English mtmicipal institutions, which has 
been printed in Archaologia^* I pointed out 
diat, though not then dealing with the purely 
village life of early times, I hoped to turn to 
this subject at some future time, and I then 
treated entirely of that branch of the primitive 
village community which belonged to the 
cultivation of the lands. I pointed out that 
the decay of the old village system began in 
the village itself, and that therefore the traces 
of this section would be more difficult and 
less exact than those of the land section. 

And now that I come to deal with it, I find 
my prognostications more than verified. I 
suggested to myself that the habitations of 
primitive communities would be founded 
upon the same principle as the other portions 
of village life were founded upon — ^namely, 
community of interests and community of 
tenure. But at the very outset, I come upon 
the fact that though the villager of primitive 
times never held property in hmd, but 
always worked in common with his fellows, 
yet he did hold something very like absolute 
ownership in the village homestead where' he 
' dwelt, and which formed the basis of his 
rights in the village lands. And I found in 
all Aryan society that this homestead was 
fenced round and sanctified by the rites and 
associations of a house-religion, and by the 
deepest reverence for household deities. All 
this intensified the ideas of absolute owner- 
ship, and lessened the idea of communal 
ownership in a village homestead. 

♦ Archaologia^ voL xlvi. pp. 403-22. 



But though I think I have discovered 
where the vUlage life of Aryan society broke 
away irom the village -life of more primitive 
society — a subject ot which I hope to give 
some researches some day — I have dis- 
covered, too, that there still underlies the 
whole S}rstem of Aryan home life the principle 
of communal origin and tenure. The house- 
hold religion of the Aryans nullified some ot 
the effects of this, as it existed in savage 
society; but it did not disturb the actual 
fact that the habitations were communaL 

I will state very shortly the results of my 
researches in accordance with the above- 
mentioned propositions, and then turn to the 
evidenceinsupportofthem. The Aryan village 
community consisted of groups of families 
living together in clusters of homesteads, and 
cultivating their lands in common and using 
their produce in common. Each homestead 
was occupied by a family — not the family as 
known to modem politics, but the family as 
known to primitive politics — the family, that 
is, consisting of the chief, his sons and grand- 
sons, with their respective families and 
servants. This family was the unit of the 
village, the individual villager not being 
recognized. The homestead occupied by 
this fiunily was a communal habitation — it 
belonged to the fkmily and not to the 
individual — ^it was built by the combined 
work of the village. How clearly these two 
circumstances identify the Aryan homestead 
with the commimal habitations of primitive 
communities, is shown by the &ct that we 
can cany them both bade into non- Aiyan 
communities until, in the archaic re-arrange- 
ment of social institutions, we come upon that 
stage of society where the cluster of families, 
forming together the village, has dwindled 
down to the one family only representing the 
village— one family, that is, living under one 
common roof. 

There are two sources by which we may 
recognize the archaic homestead among the 
relics of early village life in Britain — ^first, the 
structural remains; secondly^ the survival 
of customs which directly take us to the 
communal household. Neither of these 
sources is rich in accumulative evidence — I 
mean that we cannot go over the length and 
breadth of our land and detect many 
remains which belong to this department of 



tXatMRBtXL SdSITJSJaKS OFJX2M777TE COMMilMSySHS. 



"5 



SfdiKcdogy ; biit magre s imy be our 
cndence in tliB re^gct, it b T Jrti in lisni^ 
yCTWfTcd •111 J iiejily nttsct alt the sttribates 
fey wtaidi wr mi^ link it on wiHi the endence 

ID iiilEi|Jiet It XE ertdence wiiicii nndoiditEdtf 
«dlB ns of tiic CKtly village life of oar 

^ dK p Muiili TC -viUige hoaie. We -teul in 
t hy T tBT Ji l im^ Kccomits of thf aeiiculQir&l 
tVimitifti. j£ Scotlaiul tfait it IE the caEtom in 
■ome dntiicts for the people to retiig in the 



commonly spoc^Q u u bcsme 

snd at (me time were so doolA the pemu- 




carly villageis. Dr. 
Wrtr4i^l1 fau dealt widi the subject of bee- 
km bouses in a tcit instructive maimer in 
1h excellent msk, TTte Past in the Pnsatt; 
but diere is one contribution to aichso- 
lopcal ■"f*"*, preserved in their peculiar 
tens ci (gmslru ction, whidi he has not 
fcHP***^ npcrn. The most interesting featoFe 
it Hkk bednve houses to me is &at they 
1 1 Jii n to be fanmd, not sin^ and isolated, 
fert jt^Md togeAer in gronps. TIk b« 



giTHp deasibed bjr Dr. UitcbeB* coesinB 
di two bediivc hoitses, making two ^mt- 
ments openii^ into each other. " Thimfh 
nctemallylbe two blodcs looked round in 
their otttline, and wen, in tact, nearly so, 
intemalty the OBc apartment m^ht be de- 
scrU>ed as in^ulaitji itmnd, and Uie other 
xi irr^olaily sqoare." The floor space of 
one was abotit six feet square, and of the 
odirr six feet by nine. But this onion of 
beehive huts is extended to a greater num- 
ber than two. A remarkable instance of 
rtiig is described and figured by Dr. 
HitcbcIL+ It has several entrances, and 
would accommodate many families, who might 
be^token of B living in one mound rather 
jten indvaae noL" Looking at the ground 
plan of these bediive fauts as figured by Dr. 
MitrheH {set next page), one cannot resist the 
conclusion that the dinner has grown up by 
acoetion, as it were ; that it has been added 
to by the beehivemen to meet 'the increased 
wHb of the primitive family who resided in 
it. One other form of tire beehive hut I 
most notice here. Dr. Mitchell says the 
mins of it arc still older, still more complex, 
llian any to be seen in South Uist Its 
intaior is ronnd, and measures afi ft in 
diameter. Withm this area there are ten 
pters or pillaiE formed of blo(±E of dry-stone 
masonry. The stones are entirely undressed 
and of eveiy possible size and shape, 
and there is no evidence of the use of any 
tool by the btulders. This beehive house 
would accbmmodate from forty to fifty 
people^ 

Now, what I conceive to be the next step 
in the anihaudogical retrospect afforded by 
snch evidence as that we have just considered, 
is t» ascotain iriiether these clusters of bee- 
hive houses tell us anything of the men who 
inhabited Aem in ptmiitive' times— ^rhethcr, 
in fact, they can be linked on to other phases 
of archaic life in order to reconstruct the 
broken picture of the past. I cannot coitceivc 
that our wmk is ended when we have 
measured them, and examined theirmatenal, 

' Faaim iluFntni,'^mtt(<^ I htic to •dcMiw- 
lodge mj jnAebiednCTs to the coaiteoni ki&dnen of 
Mr. Dooglu, the publisher, for the lou of the blocks 
nimtTstnig this papsr. 

f Arfm/if /yanitf,page64. 

X IMd. pp. 6S- 69. 



Il6 COMMUNAL HABITATIONS OF PRIMITIVE COMiWNITIES. 



\ 



and drawn out their plan of construction*— 
there were human hands at work once 
amongst them, and there were human 
minds which gave tliem for some purpose or 
other the shapes which their ruins now 
assume, and of this humanity we ought lo 
know something more aJiouL 

Our next stage, then, lakes us into the 
science of comparative archaeology, for we 
know well enough that however primitive 



the Hindus. I am not speaking now of 
comparison of structural dtlatl, but of struc- 
tural moiif. In India, Sir John Phear tells 

us, each dwellbg is a small group ot huts, 
generally '•four, and is conveniently termed a 
homeatead. The huts ofwhich the homestead 
is composed are made of baraboo and mat- 
ting, or of bamboo wattled and plastered over 
with mud. Each hut is one apartment only, 
about twenty feet long, and ten or fifteen feet 




Scottish or English antiquities, structural or 
customary, may in ^ality be, they are isolated 
in existence, and linger only in the outskirts 
of our advanced civilization. I think there 
are points of comparison between the beehive 
houses of Scotland and the village houses of 

* That IhejF are occupied and used now docs not 
iuTilidile their origin ai prehistoric habilBtions. LT. 
^bum. Anh, An., xviii. p. 116, 



wide, commonly without a window ; the side 
walls are low, the roof is high peaked, with 
gracefully curved ridge, and is thatched with 
jungle grass. These huts are ranged on the 
sides ofa platform facing inwards, and though 
they seldom touch one another at the ends, 
yet they do in a manner shut in the interior 
space which thus constitutes a convenient 
place for the performance of various house- 



COMMONAL HABITATIONS OF 



COMMUNITIES. 117 



hold u p eialMMtt , and miy be tenncd &e 
home space. If the finmtjr is mcne tiaoi 
oidiiiuify wdl off the hoine group m^ 
silt of more tiaoi foor huts.* Of these 

ae read in tiie Imdimm Amiipmry, that 
of tiie hooaes in tiie Himalaya viUages 
ntBiid to E great lef^ft, and aevexal gcnaa- 
tiODs often live tinder one loaT-u^u, additions, 
wiA si^&ruit €MipuM£eSj fioinung a cominop 
front iFcnoidahy havii^ been made from time 

totime.t 

Here, then, ipegettiiecliietotheardaeolo- 
^cal xeason of tte grooping tpgedKr of the 
beehive hooses of SrfUhmd The ^fiftf- 
people" spoken of in a geooal wmy by lir. 
^fitdieQ as aqaUe of u uc apjiu g them, 
oeoome nriniHeiy leuognuea as xne lamiiy 
of archaic society — tiie nnit of tbc jaiiiiiliwe 
▼iflage. What tiis fimnly is may be di slinc fly 
known by applying to the faJcts of Hindn 
viDa^ life. I inll qnote two definitions of 
die Hinda fimnly as spedaUy showing how 
it qnadxates widi the &ct5 we have obtamed 
from the stractnxal remains of the beehive 
houses of Soothmd. 

The ICnda £unily lives together joint and 
divided^ generation after generation. Fadiecs, 
sons, nndes, cousins, n^th all thor wives, 
widows, and children, coQaleal branches as 
well as those in the direct line, have a ri^^t 
to reside, and often do reside, in die same 
frmOy mansion.} 

Ward says: ''A grandfather with his 
children and grandchildren, in a direct line 
amounting to nearly fifty person^ may some- 
times be fbmid in one frmily.'^ 

This is the self-same femily that in the 
archaic villages of England and Scotland re- 
sided in vilhge communides, and cultivated 
their lands in the communal holdin^^s 
which Sir Henry Maine has made known to 
us, and innumerable relics of which exist 

• Sir Jolm FheMi^s Aryan Villagt, pp. y-ia 

^ Imtamm Amtifmary, t. i6i. 

X Cakmetm Review^ vnl liL (1871), p. 249. 

I " Tu giuum ^ha-Tirkkn-Pii nch an H nd, who lived to 
be abont XI7 jeus of age, and was well known as the 
aMtt leaomed man of his time, had a family of seventy 
OTMfaty iadiridDals, among whom were his sons and 
dai^fbten, gmidioiis, gieat-cnmdsons, and a great- 
giCBt-gindaan. In this funOj, for many years, when 
St m wp d diBg or on any other occasion, the ceremony 
caDed the snuldha was to be performed, they called the 
oldfeOa and presented their offerings to them." — 
Wafd^fl ilwidhnir, voL L p. 196. 



I iittik :mI 



among the land customs of die 
and manozs of £n|^and. T6 have trued 
bade diese land cnstoms to their origin as 
survivals of the system of agriculture pur sue d 
by p r imiuv e Tillage communities, is a very 
i mp t H l au t woik in the history of early viUi^ 
life in England ; but how much more im» 
portant, how much more complete, is die 
ardiaic picture we can produce when, in 
addidon to the primitive land customs, we 
can trace back also the primitive homesteads 
of die village ! 

It is not to be supposed diat the structmal 
remains of eady villi^ homesteads in Britain 
would be preserved to a great extent down 
to modem dnies. It must not be foigotten 
diat die bedhive houses of Scotland exist 
BOW, and are sometimes inhabited now.* 
Nowhere else in Britain do wefind such a conn 
plete survival of ancient institutions in modem 
times. But, turning to the ardueological 
remains of early Britain, we shall be able to 
see how fax the evidence as to group-habita- 
tions, in disdncdon from single dwellings, is 
borne ouL Professor Boyd Dawkins, lor 
instance, in his Early Man in BritmMy 



In various parts of the coontry are to be seen 
chatgrs of ciicolar depressions, within the immpaits 
of a camp, and on the summits of hills and on die 
sides of valleys wiiere the soil is saffidently porous to 
allow of dramage. These pits or hot-drdes are the 
remains of ancient habitations, datii^ as far bad: in 
this umuU y as the Neolithic age, and in use, as 
proved by tiie discoveries at HaiwUkc and at Brent 
Kncdl, near Bomham, as late as the time of the 
Roman occupation. Those at FUherton, near Salts* 
bury, explored by Mr. Adlam, and described by the 
late Mr. Stevens in 1866^ may be taken as tjrpical of 
the whole series. 7*hey occur singly and in groups. 
At the bottom they vary from five to seven feet in 
diameter, and gradually narrow to two and a half or 
duee feet in dixuneter in the uoper parts. The floors 
were of chalk, sometimes raisecl in the centre, and the 
roofs had been made of interlaced sticks, coated with 
clay, imperfectly burned. The most interestiitf 
group consisted of three circular pits^ and cnt snm* 
circular, communicating with each other (p. 267). 

The hut habitations discovered at Holy* 
head by the Hon. W. O. Stanley afford us 
very important evidence. In many parts of 
Anglesey are to be seen, in rough and 
cultivated districts of heathy ground, over 
which the plough has never passed, certain 
low mounds, which on examination are 

* Ct Jmrnai 0/ ArcK Ass^ xviii. I16. 



f i8 COMMUNAL HABITATIONS OF PRIMITIVE COMMUNITIES. 



ound to be formed of a dicalar wall of 
stoneSi but are now covered with turf and 
dwarf gorse or fern. These walls generally 
enclose a space of from fifteen to twenty feet 
in diameter, with a door-way or opening 
always facing the south-west, and having two 
large upright stones, about four or five feet 
high, as door-posts. These sites of ancient 
habitations are usually in clusters of five or 
morej* but at Ty Mawr, in Holyhead, they 
form a considerable village of more than fifty 
huts, still to be distinctly traced. Mr. Stanley 
describes these dwellings as placed without 
any regular plan, and some have smaller or* 
eular rooms attached without a separate ex- 
ternal entrance. Here, I think, the modem 
terminology of '* room" has led the explorer 
into an error. He ascribes the use of these 
attached rooms to dog-kennels; but I do 
not hesitate iu thinking them to have been 
the group-habitations of primitive conununi- 
ties.^ 

King, in his MunimerUa AnHqua (p. 12), 
describes ''the remains and traces of the 
most antient dwellings of the first people" of 
England 

to have been mere clusters of little round or oval 
foundations of stone, on which were erected small 
structures, with conical roofs or coverings, which 
formed the very circumscribed dwellings and rude 
hovels of the first settlers of Britain. 

Quoting Rowland (Mona AnHqua^ pp. 35- 
27), King goes on to narrate : — 

I have oft observed in many places in this island, 
and in other countries, clusters of little round and oval 
foundations, whose very irregularities speak their 
antic^uity. On the hills near Porthaethwy there are 
prodigious plenty of them ; and upon some heaths 
the very maJce and figure, and other circumstances of 
these rude, mishapen holds, seem to indicate that they 
were the retreating places of those first people (who 
mifrated here), when they began the work of clearing 
and opening the country — very necessity obliging 
those people then, as custom does some to this day, 
to choose such movable abodes ; and no one can well 
deny th^e to have. been little dwellings and houses.t 

Rowland says that the British houses were 
little round cabins ; yet they were generally 
in clusters of three and four, which it seems 
served them for rooms and separate lodg- 
ments. And sometimes many were included 
together within the compass of one square or 
court {Mona Aniiqua^ p. 246). 

• ^\rch, yot/m.f xxiv. 229, 
t Mttn. AnHq,^ i. 14-15. 



Grimspound,* in Devonshire, within a 
circular enclosure, says Fosbrooke, situated 
in a marsh, exhibits a fortified village of 
circular stone houses. Specimens of these 
huts and dwellings are to be found in every 
part of Dartmoor. The huts are circular, 
the stones are set on their edge and placed 
closely together, so as to form a secure 
foundation for the superstructure— whether 
they were wattle, turf, stone, or other material. 
These hut circles measure twelve to thir^ 
feet in diameter. The single foundation is 
most common, but some have a double- drek. 
A very perfect specimen is found in the 
comer of a most remarkable enclosure. The 
hut is in a state comparatively perfect 
It appears to have been shaped like a bee^ 
hive, the wall being formed of large stones 
and turf, so placed as to terminate in a point 
The circumference is twenty yards. Both the 
kinds found in the Orkne3rs appear to have 
existed in Dartmoor. Withvery few exceptions^ 
these ancient dwellings arefotmd in groups^ 
either surrounded by rude endostu'es or not 
On the banks of the Walkham, near Merivale 
Bridge, is a very extensive village containing 
huts of various dimensions, built on a hill slop- 
ing towards the south-west (Fosbrooke, Ency- 
clopcedia of Antiquities^ i 100). 

Now separate from these descriptions tlie 
portions which are incidental to the old style 
of antiquarian writings, and we have, I think, 
evidence of the group-habitations with which 
I am dealing. Not to unnecessarily lengthen 
these descriptions, let me note that the 
researches of Dr. Guest into the remains of 
the early settlements in Britain led him to 
exactly die same conclusion as that arrived 
at by Professor Boyd Dawkins; and that 
without, I venture to think, looking at the 
question from the same standpomt as I have 
done. Dr. Guest in one of his many papers, 
says of the Hampton Down Camp, ''that 
the divisions of the settlement are still 
distinctly visible-— each family or clan had its 
allotted space, enclosed by mound."t This 
is a conclusion arrived at entirely from the 
archaeological remains, and not from a study 
of archaic institutions. 

Next month I propose in continuation to 
give an account of some curious building 

• See y<mm. Arch, Ass^ xviii. 1 19, 
t See also Joum, Arch, AsscciaHon^ xiiL 105* 



CQMMmiAL WABTTATfOKS QF^itmimm COMOinNJTJSX. >t9 



CQstomSy And to rirpliTn tiie p«**ii^i 
nuinal habimiiuns of pmiiiufg sooeij. 

(3» fc i wrn t im mf .) 



- f ^ . 



mr^ti 



tir VI]' > 



in tbc 3dc 
of Vligbt 




( Wt Ml -.''iH 



wrathfT, wuiimg on 
a yeryblaik ipot on tbe Middle 
West Down, Nmiwcll, Iste of 
'Wi^bft, funng the noith imd cast 
(by kind pezmnBan fitan liidj Qgimdfi, 
liie owner of the pBopeity) I leoiored about 
liftffgn Tnrhrs of eaitii from tiie jHtKiit 
inT&rgj OD.a ipot 1 had pEevioadymnked, 
ittl&Dg convinced from its pmuHar shape 
(once, no doubt, an eUcmi f e moond or 
tmnnlnSy bat now flattened) and its 
ODuine of mmced chala. fifumry a 
ciicley baielj peiccptible on the gmandy now 
jilnnghfld up £ar futiue coltnatiany that 
OTiifthmg wQiihy of invesUgatam hqr hidden. 
By rfmipa» I made 1117 trcnrhes flbe msth, 
yi^iti*^ eas^ a"H west, coomenciK to 
cscavate from die north to the oentxe, when 
I qnickly came i^xm a most cooipact body 
of flints of frur size, so placed, that when the 
whole surfrboe was uncovered it bore the 
exact shape of a huge mushxoom head ; for, 
l^xm ezaminatian* I found it equal on all 
sides from die apex to the oo^ide of the 
csrde lemaikab^ well put tpgedier; in fruct 
like a solid paved causeway, measunng in 
^^fiatnmtt^ twenly-twD feet and a half^ and 
neatly two feet six inches, the depdi in the 
centre of die mound, n ar r o w in g down to 
twelve inches. Under diis extiaordinaiy 
mass of flints and exactly in the centre 
of die didet there was a round stone {naf 
ifni/), as if placed to mark the oeodtre, 
and act as a guide round which the flints 
were to be placed to fonn a projier circle. 
Close to this stone was an um, with 
two hatMiW»g^ standing upzight, well fumed, 
five inches and three-quarters high, and eight 
inches wide, apparently unbaked day, with 
TCiy mde diamond-sh24>ed markings sdl over 
its cmtside. It only oontained earth, and a 
few cfaqis of flint. On the left side of this lun, 
and tonrhin it, I So/and a human skull (the 



back of the head doe east) in &ir presarva- 
tian,the iaws dose 4o the nm #f ilie «m; 
and on the li^t side of the skull, immediately 
over the ear, a hole two inches Umg and 
needy half4m-inch wide at spots marked, 
deaniy cut in the bone, as ii by a sharp 
weapon. Upon tother vemovinig ^lhe oaith, 
I bud bare die skeleton of a we Bfro ^ m 
man, appeariT^g to have been buriod in a 
sitting position; most of the rfttt and 
otiier snudl bones had crumbled awav— 4he 

* 

body bei^g so placed and doubled up as to 
fan&igtite knees level with the chest Thisfact 
snggnrt tite idea that it is the grave of an 
Amdmt^riimu Close under the jaws I found 
a flint flake correspondinig with the sh^pe of 
theiiolein die ^aill,and which I coittider 
wffiit have ^'■"•^ t hf' deadi'-wound. havina, 
as it were,frdlen oat of the idnill as the body 
mooldeied awav. Tlte skeleton lav doe east 
andwesL I could not discover any renmant 
of metal of any description, but on either 
side of die body were two smooth stones 
the sire and shape of an ^gg — one a flint, the 
other a shore pebble. Between die skeleton 
and die flints was a laver of small bits ot* 
chalk about two inches deep similar to the 
siibsrance which surrounds the outer dicle, 
and which had evidently been removed to 
fionn an outer trench, from which no doubt 
was raised the anginal mound over the bed 
of flints. The outer drele of brokim chalk 
measured nearly one hundred and eight feet 
in drcumlerence. 

My labourer who assisted me in my fl^% 
daysand a half hard work — an old experienced 
feller of timber, and used to measurement — 
computed with myself that the amount of 
flints over this grave could not be less than 
one hundred tons, in one compact mass. I 
trendied in various parts of this mound, 
N. S. £. W., but could only find the one 
skeleton. 

I also opened trenches on other spots 
showii^ tokens of tumuh. I found that they 
had e^odenUy been disturbed at some remote 
period, and bereft of any human remains Ihcy 
once had. In one instance, about ^htecn 
inches bdow the surface, appeared a con- 
siderable quantity of flints, greatly scattered^ 
but put together in a similar way to those in 
the mound I have fully described, 

John Thokp. 



120 



RECENT DISCOVERIES ON THE CONTINENT. 




I^ecent Bidcoveded on tbe 
Continent 



|N interesting address, delivered by 
Herr Schneider, of May^nce, at 
the recent Frankfurt meeting of 
the German Historical Association, 
deals with Roman remains found in the 
bed of the Rhine, which point to the 
existence in past ages of a bridge between 
Mayence and Castel. The wooden piles and 
the implements discovered afford sufficient 
elements for the formation of an opinion as 
to the bridge architecture of the Romans. 
According to the National Zeitung of Berlin, 
the date assigned to the structure is about 
A.D. 335 ; an inscription on the woodwork, 
L. VALE, being considered by Herr Schneider 
as referring to Licinius Valerianus, who, pre- 
vious to assuming the imperial purple, had 
gone through the various, ^teps of military 
service. In connection with this bridge, the 
finding of remains of a fortress near its Castel 
extremity, completes what ma^ justly be con- 
sidered as an interesting discovery. The 
fortress was apparently small, the traces found 
showing it to have been only half the size of 
that recently brought to light at Deutz, to 
which we have already alluded {ante, iv. 271). 
In Mayence itself, the discoveries of Roman 
remains have continued, particular interest 
being attached to the gravestones lately un- 
earthed. Two of these bear inscriptions of 
a military character, while on a third are the 
words, yucundusy Marci Terentii Hbertus 
pecuarius ; followed by a disiichotiy reciting 
the details of the assassination of the indi- 
vidual thus commemorated. Amongst the 
most recent discoveries is a collection of 
Roman glass vessels. Antiquarian research 
has been stimulated by the recent opening of 
a museum at Worms, which is described as 
already possessing numerous bbjects of in- 
terest 

Some other discoveries, of more or less 
value, have recently been made in various 
parts of Germany. A grave, which has been 
brought to light near Dillingen (Bavaria), con- 
tains a skeleton, which, from the inscription 
01^ the stone, and the valuable jewels foimd, 



is supposed to be that of a Christian princess 
of about the sixth century. 

From Andemach discoveries of Roman 
and Frankish places of sepulture at the 
adjacent village of Karlich are reported. 
The objects found in the 600 graves which 
have been traced have been brought to- 
gether in the form of a small exhibition by 
Herr Graef. The articles comprise gold, 
silver, and bronze ornaments of various 
kinds, vessels of glass and pottery ware, and 
weapons of several descriptions. The latter 
are supposed, by their shapes, to have 
belonged to the Franks who were interred at 
this spot 

Not only in Germany but also in other 
parts of Europe, have Roman remains of 
antiquarian interest lately been disinterred. 
In Paris a stone coffin was recently found 
during the excavation of the foundations for 
a house in the Rue Lacdp^e, at a depth of 
about six feet. A well-preserved medal 
representing the Emperor Nero was dis- 
covered at the feet of the skeleton contained 
in the sarcophagus. The inscription on the 
medal runs thus : — on the firont, Nero 
Imperator ; and on the reverse side, Senattis 
Populusque RonianuSy and the figure LX^ 
supposed,by the correspondent of the Vossisdu 
Ztitungy of Berlin, to refer to the date. From 
Rome particulars are reported of an interest- 
ing antiquarian discovery at Cometo, where 
the local authorities have lately caused 
excavations to be made in a hitherto im- 
explored part of the Necropolis of Tarquinia. 
According to the Kolnische Zeiiungy a number 
of small chambers have been brought to light, 
containing large pottery-ware vessels, wWch 
are supposed to be of earb'er date than any 
Etruscan remains yet discovered. Seven- 
teen such vases have been found, fifteen 
inches in hdght, and thirty-seven inches in 
extreme circumference, with a single handle 
placed low. They are of common ware, without 
glazing or painting, simply coloured brown, 
with linear and other simple ornamentation. 
Amongst the other objects found, are two 
pottery-ware candelabra, with nine arms and 
lamps, sixteen inches in height ; and a gilded 
brass helmet eight and a half inches high. 
It is remarked that this discovery indicates 
with certainty the fact of commercial relations 
having existed between this coast and the 



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VOL. Y. 



T^B^ vims' xxaisf xr^ ^inucr ilnrerer sa? j&egr 

XBHX^ Ir SL X iUL SSUL OI fBtaUkAIM C. BP - 

limtirr-tne rinrim 1^ ^ggrr if ciai. ir 



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isa 



REVIEWS. 



At the tim« of the Doomsday Survey it contaiiied 
more inhabited houses than any other town in Berk- 
shire, and was, Mr. Hedges considers, then a royal 
residence. Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, held the manor 
of Wallingfbrd, and an extract from the inquisition 
tak^n upon the earl's death, in I3cx\ shows its total 
value to have th^n been £,A ws. t\d, (vol i« p. 353)> 
Mr. Hedges prints, at page i6^ of his second volume, 
the order of the Parliament, dated i8th November, 
165a, for the final demolition of Wallingford Castle, 
which, in the late civil ?mr. had, by the stout resist- 
ance of the gallant Colonel Bla^ge, given the Parlia- 
mentarian army so much trouble to subdue. After 
^is time there is little of national historic importance 
connected with Wallingford, though Mr. Hedges 
fills many pa^s more with matters of interest con* 
ceming the internal ai&irs of the town. Throughout 
his work he has largely consulted the Public Records, 
as well as Uie recoil of the Corporation itself ; these 
latter valuable monuments were reported upon some 
vean back by the Ute Mr. Riley, for the Historical 
MSS. Commission* Mr. Hedges remarks in his 

Preface, "The wonder is that the history 

of this highly privileged borough, rich as its associa- 
tions have oeen, has never appeared except in a very 
meagre and fragmentary fbmu" Certainly it was 
quite time that a comprehensive history of Walling- 
ford did make its appearance, and we can onlv add 
our opinion that it is fortunate the compilation of such 
a history has fallen into the hands of so able and dili- 
gent an antiquary as Mr. Hedges has proved himself 
to be. 



^"*i 



The Records of St MichaeVs Parish Churchy Bishop's 
Stortford. Edit^ bv J. L. Glasscock, jun. 
(London : Elliot Stock. 1882.) 8vo, pp. xii., 235. 

Antiquaries are not accustomed to see books like 
the one before us produced outside the realms of 
antiauarian societies. When a publisher takes them 
up tney are usuallv spoiled by being overweighted 
with so-called popular material \ and the real value of 
the work is thus hidden. But in the present case we 
have all that can be desired. Transcripts of Church- 
wardens' Accounts, Inventories of the Church Goods, 
Church Rentals, Accounts of the Collectors for the 
Poor, Findings of the Charities Commission, 1692, 
Monumental Inscriptions are given in all their ori- 
ginal form. The eaitor has supplied very instructive 
notes to many of the entries contained in these tran- 
scripts ; but he has erred on the side of restriction 
rather than expansion. But, after all, few notes are 
required for the antiquary to unfold a long chapter of 
valuable history from such records as these. We 
should like to urp;e again, as we have urged before, 
that every parish m the kingdom should set to work 
to get their records published. They tell us of merry 
England and all that is best in the days gone by, and 
the quaintness and form of each entry seems to easily 
expand into a drama of the reality they record. 
Reading among the receipts, we come across items 
obtained from the " Hokkyng Ales," " two drink- 
inp called May Ales," ** Profit of the Play," and 
'* i^e of a drinkine nxade in the church here after the 
day of the aforesaid play." And what do these tell 
us of? Mot of village debauchery and license, not of 



ttttemperanoe and viae, bat of a stem and strong race 
keeping up customs dear to tjbem» because d«ir to 
their mthers — customs that kept them lovingly to 
village homes and village church, and taught than to 
love merry England as no nation has ever loved, to 
fi^t the battles of merry England, as no nation has 
ever fought. 

We cannot go through the immense quantity of 
interesting items contained in these record^ But 
diey abound in important illustratioos of old village 
life. Take for instance such an entiy as that for 1505, 
when money is paid for " wood and coles agenst Ester 
Eve," and how much does it tell us ! — of the ever- 
burning fire of the old hearth-cult, which was renewed 
at Easter by flint and steel, and went on buning for 
another year^-of all the old world-life that the sur- 
vival of this custom teaches. Other quaint customs 
are recorded — amcmg them, that of adorning the 
top of a steeple with a cock is a practice of very 
great antiquity. Of course there are otfier important 
items of knowledge — there is the desci^ition of the 
church plate as it is bought; there \& the record 
of prices for all kinds of objects and all kinds of 
services ; and there is the old spellii^ and use of 
words. One spelling is worth noticing : it is '' vel- 
vett," a word that U generally, in parish accounts 
of this date, spelt "welvett *' or *< welwett," variants 
of this kind telling us of the mode of probouncing 
letters in different parts of England. B^. Glass- 
cock gives us a most elaborate index of names, 
which is curious from the great number of surnames 
there registered. 

•^^"■^"■*. 

The Old Bridge of Athione, By the Rev. John S. 

JOLY, AM. (Dublin : G. Herbert 1S81.) Sm. 

Svo, pp. 88, 

The bridge was removed in 1844, and had become 
almost forgotten when Mr. Joly began his inquiries 
respecting its history. He found Siat the onginal 
stone tablets, which were inserted in the bridge, 
are preserved in the Museum of the Royal Irish 
Academy. A description and representation of them 
are given by the author in this valuable brodiure, and 
an illustration of the bridge itself is also given. 



The Western Anii^uaryf or Devon and Cornwall Note- 
Book, Edited l^ H. K. Wright. Part III. (Ply- 
mouth: Latimer & Son. 1882.) 4to. 

The Western Antiquary is one of the most valuable 
and best conducted of the many local antiquarian 
periodicals that are now in course of publication, and 
It does not lose in interest as it proceeds. AU the 
entries are more or less connected with the two 
Western Counties, but most of them have idso a valoe 
for all antiquaries. We can only mention a sample 
or two of the contents, and those who want to know 
more must go to the book itself. There are some usefiil 
notes on potwallers or potwallopers, on parish stocks, 
on ancient rid^e-tiles, extracts from parish registers, 
notes and oueries on celebrated Devonians and Cor* 
nishmen. These are two interesting extracts finomtht 
Barnstaple records : — 

" 1434. The Nicholas of Barnstaple, Capt. Gobbe, 



HEVJBWS. 



U5 



lieeiuied to take forty pilgrims from Barnstaple to the 
Shrine of ComposteUa. 

1451. The Trinity FitzWarren, WilUam Bourchier, 
Barnstaple, master, licensed to take forty pilgrims to 
the same Shrine." 

Here is a good epitaph from St. Mary's Church, 
Bickleii^ near Tiverton, 1618 : — 

Carewes daughter, Eriseyes wife — 
Elisabeth that night- 
Exchanged life for Death, to give 
A Sonne this world's light. 
To God she liv'd, in God she died, 
Young veerd, in virtues old — 
And left untUl it rise againe — 
This tomb her corps to hold." 



«<i 



Musterfmch fur Mobdiischler, Erste] Lieferung. 
(Stnttgart : J.)Engelhom. London : A. Fischer. 
188 1.) Folia 

This part contains some excellent representations 
of carved wood furniture. The designs are good and 
worthy of study by our workmen. 



MustfHmeh fur Bildhauer, Erste Lieferung. (Stutt- 
gart : J. Engelhom. London : A. Fischer, 1881.) 
Folio. 

We have here 'the first of a series of engravings 
illustrating the plastic work of all periods and nations. 
Some of the grotesque heads are full of spirit. 



Modem AlphabeU. Designed by Martin Gkrlach, 
(London : A. Fischer. 1881.) 

Mr. Gerlach has produced seven alphabets on nine 
plates which do much credit to his powers of design. 
The first one^is specially elegant and original. 



English Etchings. Part IX. (London : William 

Reeves. ) 

We have noticed the previous parts of this tastefiil 
series with praise, and now have particular pleasure in 
drawing attention to the view of Stonehenge by moon- 
light by Mr. Snape, which gives a distinct value to 
this part. It has been etched from sketches taken on 
the spot specially for this book. The other etchings 
are " Besieged,'' by A. W. Bayes and a ** Study from 
Nature," by S. H. Baker. 



The Soeiai Life of the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, and 
Eighteenth Centuries Pictorially Re^esented. Edited 
by Dr. George Hirth, Munich. Vol. I. Six- 
teenth Century, Part I. (London : A. Fischer, 1 1, 
St Bride Street. 1 882. ) Folio. 

An idea that must often have occurred to those who 
are acquainted with old books and old engravings is 
here most excellently carried out. The editor has 
gathered together a series of curious woodcuts, prints, 
etchngs, ftc, illustrating costumes, scenes in town and 
country, sports and other features of social life, and re- 
produced them for our instruction. The works of 
Albert Duier, Lucas Cranach, Hans Seb«ld Beham, 



Callot, Hollar, and many other great artists have bees 
laid under contributions; and if the future numbers ara 
as good as this first part the book ought to have a 
large circle of subscribers. In this number we find 
interiors showing the furniture, the books on a shelf, 
and the various objects on the wall ; exteriors showing 
gardens, parks, &c., banquet scenes, battle scenes 
showing old weapons, and, perhaps, most interesting of 
all, authentic portraits of great men. Here are Martin 
Luther, Melanchthon, and Frederic Elector of 
Saxony, and several other celebrities. The work is 
to be completed in three volumes, one for each of the 
centuries mentioned in the title. It will be of great 
use to historians and artists, as giving accurate repre- 
sentations of ancient costume, and we wish the under« 
taking success. The selection of the examples mint 
have been a work of great labour. 

Through Siberia, By Henry Lansdell. (London : 
Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington, 1882.) 
2 vols. 8vo, 

The Rev. H. Lansdell has produced a book which 
will greatly add to our knowledge of a country 
respecting which the popular notion is altogether 
erroneous. The name Siberia has come to be almost 
a synonym for a hell upon earth, and yet in many 
parts of the country there is fine scenery and plenty 
of food. Some of the convicts have expressed the 
wish that they had known how comfortable a place it is, 
so that they might have committed the offence that sent 
them there still earlier in life. The author's objecte were 
to visit prisons and to distribute religious books ; and 
the account of his success in both these undertakings 
forms an exceedingly interesting work. Siberia is not 
a place where one would expect tp obtain much 
archaeological information, but the author takes note 
of some excavations. The clifif at Tyr, on the lower 
Amoor, is mentioned as interesting by reason of its 
Tartar monuments with inscriptions, the origin of which 
are somewhat doubtful. We can recommend these 
volumes with confidence as both valuable and enter- 
taining. , 



nDeetind0 of Hntiquarian 
SodetieSt 



METROPOL ITAN. 

Society of Antiquaries.— Jan. 19.— Mr. E. 
Freshfield, V.P., in the Chair.— Mr. J. H. Middleton 
presentwi impressions of four seals of the City of 
Gloucester.— Dr. C. S. Perceval laid before the 
Society some interesting notes on a collection of seals 
known as the Tyssen Seals, now the property of Mr. 
Hankinson. 

Jan. 26.— Mr. E. Freshfield, V.P., in the Chair.— 
Mr. W. S. Weatherly exhibited and nresented a litho- 
graph of a drawing of an effiey of John the Baptist in 
Henry VII.'s Chapel. The Rev. H. J. ChwUes ex- 
hibited an imperfect urn and numerous pieces of 

R 2 



124 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



broken pottery, found in cavities which he had explored 
on the south-east coast of Lincohishire, and which he 
belieyed to be middens of very great anttqaity. — 
Canon Greenwell, however, observ^ that he believed, 
firom the specimens exhibited, that they were of no 
vexy ancient date. Most of the fragments of pottery 
seemed to him to be mediaevaL 

British Archaeological Association. — ^Jan. 18. 
— ^Mr: T. Morgan in the Chair. — Mr. T. B. Green- 
shields exhibited two elaborately carved ivory sword 
handles, of Spanish work, evidently intended for 
purposes of ceremony. They were brought from the 
south of Ireland. — Mr. A. C. Fryer exhibited a silver 
coin of late Greek date, found at Nazareth. — Mr. A. 
Cope produced severals portions of highly enriched 
encaustic tiles found on the site of Chertsey Abbey, 
remarkable for the beauty and elaborate nature of the 
designs. — Mr. Lofhis Brock exhibited a series of old 
engravings, &c., of Romano-British mosaic pavements, 
and call^ attention particularly to the artistic patterns 
of those found at Wellow, Somerset, many years ago. 
— Mr. C. Park described tie unrolling of an Egyptian 
mummy from Thebes, obtained for the purpose of 
produang the celebrated brown colour so much 
esteemed by artists. — ^The firet paper was by the 
Chairman, on the subject of the Roman pavements 
found in Britain. The frequency of the subject of 
Orpheus on such pavements was referred to, and the 
principle was applied to the figures recently found at 
Norton Farm, Isle of Wight, in a manner to saggest 
several alterations in the designations given to them. — 
The second paper, *0n St. Agnes' Eve,' by Mr. H. 
Syer Cuming, was then read. 

Feb. I. — Mr. Thomas Morgan, in the Chair. 
—Mr. R. E, Way exhibited a collection of Roman 
pottery found in the excavations now in progress in 
King Arms' Yard, Southwark. The fragments shown 
included examples of almost every ware usually found 
on Roman sites. — ^Mr. C. H. Compton exhibited an 
inscribed Scarob of Early Egyptian work, of great 
beauty.— Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock exhibited a heavy 
plaque of bronze with figures beneath an architecturu 
canopy. — ^The first paper was on the stone circle at 
Duloe, Cornwall, by Mr. C. W. Dymond, and was 
illustrated by a carefully prepared plan of the remains 
from an actual survey. The dimensions are small, 
being but 44 feet from stone to stone, in the greatest 
diameter, and there are but eight stones. — A paper on 
" Screw Dollars," by Mr. H. Syer Cuming, was read. 

Numismatic. — ^Jan. 19.— Mr. J. Evans, President, 
in the chair. — Mr. Evfins exhibited a ** Hog-money" 
shilling of the Bermuda Islands. — Major A B. Crceke 
exhibited a styca in silver of Ulfhere, Archbishop of 
York, A.D. 854-895. — Mr. Pearson exhibited a small 
brass coih purporting to be of the Emperor Procopius 
with the inscription soli invicto comiti, struck at 
Trdves, but probably in reality a coin of Constantine 
altered. — Mr. Evans read a paper on a hoard of Roman 
silver coins lately discovered by some workmen engaged 
in digging a railway cutting; near Nuneaton. The 
coins represented in this " find" ranged from the time 
of Vespasian to that of Marcus Aurelius. — Dr. A. 
Smith contributed a paper on the Irish coins of 
Richard III. 

Society of Biblical Archaeology.— Tan. 10. 
Dr. Samuel Birch, President, in the Chau:. — This 



being the anniversary meeting, the secrataiys feport 
for me year 188 1 was read, and the officers and coon* 
dl were- elected for the coming year. Dr. Birch con- 
tinues president, and Mr. W. Harry Rylands, secretary. 
— A communication was read from Pro£ W. Wright, 
of Cambrid^ upon three ancient Hebrew seals re- 
cently acquired oy the British Museum. No. i, a 
crystal signet, which Prof. Wright believes to date 
probably firom before the Exile,'(biearB the inscription, 
*' to Nehemiah, the son of Micaiah ;" No. 2, a dial- 
cedony cone, bears the inscription, '' to Sheharhor, 
the son of Zephaniah," Sheharnor being the masculine 
form of the word translated *'black in the Sang of 
SongSy i. 6 ; No. 3, an agate scaraboid, with wir^ied 
figures, bears the inscription, '' to Eliam." 

Feb. 7. — Dr. Samuel Birch, President, in the 
Chair. — A communication was read on the Birds of 
the Assyrian Records and Monuments by the Rev. 
W. Houghton, F.L.S., &c. After a sketch of 
the ornithological fauna of Assyria uid the adjoining 
countries, Mr. Houghton proceeded to the considera- 
tion of bird-names which occur in the records. Vul- 
tures and eagles are frequently mentioned. Eagles 
are not generally distinguished by name from vul- 
tures. Ofthe Stngidae, owls are freauently mentioned. 
The great eagle owl {Bubo ascalapkus\ and the little 
wailing owl {Scops ^iu), may be respectivdy ^e es-si^ 
bu or Khu-sfi^ ** Prince + Homed Burd" (Accad.), and 
the piar'ro'tuv, or ** mournful owl," of the As^rrian 
colunm. Of the order Picariae, woodpeckers {/^cida) 
are definitely mentioned, as the aH'pa-hiVf "the 
waving bird, ' in allusion to the undulating mode of 
flight, or as the du-si bar^maif " the vari^ated tap- 
ping bird,'' referring to the noise occasioned by the 
taps of the bird's beaJc on the stem or trunk of a tree. 
Another Accadian name is iz zir, ''woodbright," and 
may well denote either the common black and white 
Picus syriacus, or other spedes known to exist in 
these lands. The cuckoo is the Assyrian ka'W'U or 
ht'U'ku, whether the great spotted spedes or our 
common bird. By the Accadians it seems to have 
been regarded with favour, and was called su gum^ — 
that is, probably, '' the beneficial bird to man." The 
swallow is known by various names, some of whidi 
are imitative Among the Sylinada or warblers, 
the reed-warbler or the sedge-warbler is likely to be 
denoted by ih^ tsi-isil-du^ 01 its-tsur gi^zi^ "the war- 
bling bird of the reeds ;" while ^toul-bulox ni^t- 
ingale is perhaps the Ass3rrian tsu-la-mu or Us-tsur 
mu-si, ** bird of the shade or of the night." Among 
the Stumida^ or starlings, may be mentioned the 
common starling, denoted evidently by the Accadian 
sib-tur, or " little shepherd bird," and by the Assyrian 
al'lal4Mv, Another shepherd bird is named as the 
ri-hu; this is the Pastor' roseus. Of tbe Corvida^ the 
raven is the a^ri-bu, or ^Aa-^^ir— imitative again, like 
our word ** crow." The carrion crow is the pa-M or 
ka-ka^nuy both onomatopoeic. The hu^ku-ur i-ni, or 
"picker out of the eyes,'' would suit both these 
Corvida, Several doves or pigeons' names are men- 
tioned, one of the most interntin^ of whidi is that of 
the turtle-dove, which in Accadian has the pretty 
name of ** eye-bright" or " eye-star," si muL 6f the 
OtUtut^ the sudirniu^ or gilgidoHu, " the long-legged 
pouch (?) bird," is dearly the ^reat bustard {Otis 
tarda). The a^ba^gaya^ or um'mt m^e, ** mother of 



UMEtlNGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES, 



tiS 



wmteiSi" pcflitps is die TamUUmt falcimtOus^ or even 
the Ibis religinm^ tbong^ now not faaid m Western 
Asia. Tlie Mvmidkn cnne is unluiiifc die Aasfaat 
its-tsmr Hrmuttti^ **biidar^ie flocks/' said from its 
great beauty b well diaracteriaed as the '* Divine 
Lady BinL'*(?) Thebii£Pbacked heroo, ArJea rmaaiA, 
nearly always seen with cattle, and often on their 
badLS, is probably die Aocadian Ua {Um) "cattle- 
bird, "wfaidi exactly answers to the name ** cow-bird," 
used to des^nate this species of heron. The swan 
among the Amserts is piobably denoted by the e-asm 
(strong bird) and cm-m-pm^ and was used as food. OC 
the Strutkitma^ the ostrich is both figured on the 
monnments, and mentioned in the lists; it is the ^ww- 
gam-wiM^ /m'ka-4Mv^ and si-ip thrik of the Assj^nans, 
the nir gid dm of the Aocadians» " the long-legged 
widl-diqposed Inrd." Among die PeHamkUt the 
PeHfmmt omtcroUlus has been weU rcfened by Dr. 
Dditzsch to the a-ta^n nakmr% '*the she«9s bird of 
die risers," in allnsiom to its harsh and mipleasant 
cry, which reKmbles the bray of the animal wfaidi 
has given one of its names to ^biid. 

The To p ogi np hical Society of London. — 
Febmary 3. — ^The Lord Mayor, President, in the 
Chair.— Mr. T. F. Ordish, the Hon. Secretuy, read 
the report It is prxyosed that when several maps of 
m particolar period have beenprodnoed, a volnme de- 
scriptive of an of them diaU be issoed. Anodier 
branch of the Society's work is that of registering the 
diai^es c ontinu ally takii^ place in LoodoiL It is 
propoae d to arrange a system of local committees, 
SQch as was pi o po ied at the inangmal mfcting of the 
'Society. If this can be done at once it will be 
posable to ^ve the results of the woric of the various 
committees m the report presented at the next annual 
meeting. The extracts, bearing on the history of 
London, firom the Calendars ^ State Papers, are 
being proceeded with, and wiD probably be printed 
soon alter the completion of Wyngaerde s view. Tlie 
Lord Mayor was aected President for the year, and 
Earl Beanchamp, the Eari of Rosebery, Sir. J. Bazal- 
gette, and Mr. G. Godwin, Vice-Presidents. — ^Among 
die speakers at the mfcting were Mr. Grace, Mr. 
H. B. Wheadflr, Mr. Fumivall, Mr. Owen Roberts, 
Mr. Stevens^ Mr. R. Harrison, and Mr. R. B. Prosser. 

Asiatic.— Jan. 23. — Sir H. C. Rawlinsoo, V.P., in 
theCbur. — A P»per was read, contributed by Mr. £. 
Thomas, " On Arab Vojrages to^ India durii^ the 
Ninth Century A.D.,*' the decipherment of a Nagari 
legend containing the word " Vahuratja" on certain 
Aiakan coins having suggested a new uid unexpected 
e^>bnation of the dtle " Balhara," used by the Arab 
infprhfl"»* who visited India at that period. 

Anthropological.— Jan. la — Major-General Pitt- 
Rhren, Preadcnt, in the Chair. — Mr. B. Wright ex- 
hibited a series of sixteen portraits of the Incas, 
copied from the originals in the Temple of the Sun. 
«-Mr. W. G. Smith exhibited some stone implements 
from the north-east of London. — General Pitt-Rivers 
vend apaper "On the Entrendiments of the York- 
diire Wolds and Excavations in the Earth-work 
called Danes' Dyke at Flamborough." At Danes' 
jyfkjt the author had found flints and flint flakes, 
dearly proving that the constructors and defenders of 
the eaiwrork used flint, and lived not later than the 



Bronze Period. The whole district was the scene of 
the operations of a people mnch earlier than the 
Danes. — la the absence of the author, the Director 
read a pvier, by Mr. J. R. Mortimer, " On the Dis- 
covexy of Ancient Dwellii^ on the Yorkshire 
Wolds," 

HistocicaL — Jan. 19.— Mr. J. Heywood in the 
Chair. — A Paper by Mr. H. H. Howorth was read, 
entitled, '* The Eariy Interco«xrse of the Franks and 
Danes." 

Polk-Lore.— Jan. 17.— Mr. A. Nutt m the Chain 
— ^The Rev. J. Sibree, jun., read a Paper ** On die 
OratcHy, Songs, Legends, and Folk-tales of the 
Malaga^." After giving a sketch of vdiat had been 
done hitherto to give in an Ei^;lish dress the tradi* 
tional lore of Madagascar, Mr. Sibree pointed out 
that it was only within the last five or six years tibat 
a laige mass of folk-tales had come to li^t, and his 
object in this paper was to reproduce m Ei^^ish 
extracts from a book of sonte size published in 
MadaCTscar by the Rev. Louis Dahle, of the Norwe- 
gian LAtheran Mission, and also from die pabhoh 
tions of the Malagasy Folk-kre Society. Specimens 
were then given of the different brandies of folk-lore 
treated of in these works, commmring with oiatorical 
flourishes or figures of speech, whidi are lar^i^ 
employed by the Malagasy in their public speakmg. 
These abound with figures and similes, sometimes 
expanded into an aUcgory, and present many striking 
illustrations of native ideas and habits of thought on 
all kinds of subjects. Examples were next given of 
native conundrums and riddles ; of soi^s, some 
addressed to royalty, as well as ballads, canoe ditties, 
and funeral chants; kabarys, or ooblic qieedies; 
children's games, some remarkably like those phiyed 
by Fjigfish diildien, sudi as " Oranges and Lemons," 
''Fox and Geese," &€., and songs and ditdes in- 
tended to help in learning to count; and fitbnlons 
animals and goblins. One or two of the shorter tales 
were, however, given, and die outlines of some half* 
dosen briefly sketdied. Many are frbles, chiefly 
reierring to animals ; some are mythic, profesang to 
explain the origin of man and Nature ; some are giant 
stmies, in whidi a monster named Itrimob^ is a pro- 
minent actor ; and some partake of the diaiacter of 
nursery rhymes. There are several examples ako of 
stones of men tumii^into animals, and then devouring 
and ravaging towns and districts until de s troyed by 
superior cunning or stratagem. 

jPhilological Society. — Jan. aa — Mr. A. J, 
EUis, President, in the Qiair. — ^Dr. Murray gave ms 
annual report on the progress of the Soaety's Dic- 
tionary. The seventeenth century has been vi-ell read ; 
few fresh words had come in of late, though aAoifdv 
for "abasement*' had arrived that very day. The 
eighteenth century was one of bondage to Addison ; 
it coined few new words. The nineteenth century 
was like the seventeenth in its adventurousness 
and licence. The sixteenth-century books had not 
been fully read ; they were very scarce, and but few 
had been reprinted. They would doubtless cany back 
the history of many words lOO years. The histories 
ofamtiCf groiesqtu, 'S^{ of "oxygen'*), antJktr, am^ 
tenndy and the groups of " astound, astony, astonish," 
and *' praise, price, prize, prize-ring, prizer,'* were 
then given, Ine printing of A woixld begin in March; 



126 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



but the Dictionary could not be finished much before 

1900 A.D. 

New Shakspcre 8ociety.»Jan. 13.— Mr. F. J. 
Fumirall, Director, in the Chalr.—The first Paper 
read was on ** Suicides in Shakespeare," by the Rcy. 
J. Kirkman. — ^The second paper was by Mrs. J. H. 
Quicker, of Clifton, on Constance.— The third paper 
uraa by Mn C. H. Harford, on **Shakspere*8 
Chanu:ter." 

Society of Arts.— Feb. i.— Mr. George Godwhi, 
F,R.S., in the Chair.— The Paper read was " Stained 
Glass Windows; as they Were, Are, and Should Be," 
by Lewis Foreman Day. Of the date at which 
stained glass was introduced into Europe, all that 
appears to be ptorcd is, that as early as the twelfth 
centunr the art existed in France, if not in England, 
hi a toir state of development. Doubtless, the first 
stained windows were simply mosaics of tinted glass, 
the pieces framed, perhaps, in wood, or terro-cotta, 
or plaster, as thesr are to this day in the mosques of 
Egypt. Of existuig early glass in England there 
remains more in the choir of Canterbury Cathedral 
than in any other church in this country. There was 
another kind of early glass — namely, those white or 
silTery-pattem windows which are called "grisaille." 
There is a quantity of this kind of glass at Salisbury 
Cathedral, but the best known windows of this cha- 
tacter are the five long lancets occupying the end of 
the north transept at York Minster, which go by the 
name of the "Five Sisters, To be impressed with 
the grandeur of early coloured glass, one must go to 
Chartres, Le Mans, or Bourges ; each of these cathe 
dials is a perfect treasure-house of jewels— not any of 
them of the purest water, but collectively as gorgeous 
as that Indian jewellery where stones are precious, 
not according to intrinsic value, but for their colour 
and effect. There is something barbaric about the 
brilliancy of this early mosaic ; somethii^ that per- 
haps betrays iti Byeantine origin. The figures are 
always mde^ often grotesque ; the design is wanting 
in proportion— the detail Ucks grace. But the colour, 
where it has escaped restoration, is splendid, and 
there is commonly a dignity about the larger figures, 
for all their faults of drawteg, that is little short of 
majestic The glass which has been spoken of, dates 
from the introduction of the art into England until 
nearly the end of the thirteenth century— and is knbwn 
by the name o{ early glass. The fiishion of the glass 
of the fourteenth century followed naturally in the 
wake of architecture. Already, in the last quarter of 
the thirteenth century, certain changes in the cha- 
racter of windows crept in, and soon the style called 
techni(^ly *• Decorated " began to assert itself. One 
very distinct evidence of the change was the use of 
natural foliage in the place of purely conventional 
ornament. In this century, the altered form o*f 
church windows necessitated other designs for filling 
them. In lieu of broad, round-headed Norman 
windows, or the separate lancets of Early English 
architecture, we have now large windows, of many 
tall lights, having only a slight mull ion between them, 
and, in order to counteract the upward tendency of 
the lines in these M-indows, and to bind them to- 
gether, as it were, the practice was adopted of divid- 
ing them horizontally mto bands alternately of light 
and dark, or of grisaille and colour, any harshness of 



contrast being obviated by introducing into each» some- 
thing of the other. Yodc Minster is richly furnished 
with decorated glass. The chapter-houe and its vesti- 
bule are fuU of admirable windows, whidi illustrate 
distinctly the horizontal treatment which I have men* 
tioned as characteristic of the pfirk>d. The nave 
windows at York are of the same century. Another 
new feature in the development of glass painting 
about this time, was the use of a ydJow ite i*. It 
was discovered, about the beginning of the fourteenth 
century. Examples of decoimted ghsa are more fre* 
quent than any other in our KnyiJih chnichei. In 
France, it will suffice to mention 'Fkoycs and Evrenx ; 
in Germany, Freiburg, Ratisbon^ Munich, and 
NurembUrg. The windows at Strasbnrg are also 
ascribed to this date, and without doubt they were 
put together then. The third and last penod of 
Gothic glass, the Perpendkruhir, may rongfa^ be said 
to cover the fifteenth century ; but it eatends, in fact, 
over rather more than Uiat period. It offers a 
complete contrast to the earUest glass, but it is none 
the less admirable in its way. The subdivision of the 
windows into panels containing figures under niches 
or canopies was continued during this period, but in 
a milder form. These canopies were now of silvery 
white glass, almost in direct imitation of stonework, 
touched here and there with yellow stain. In the 
figures and figure-subjects beneath them, a good deal 
of colour was used. There are some windows of this 
character on the north side of the choir of York 
Minster (with bishops standing under canopies aw^ 
small subjects under smaller canopies below) . Among 
the characteristics of this style^ the following are 
prominent. The colours introduced are less deep in 
tone than formerly, the blue in particular havii^ a 
tendency toMrards grey, whilst white gUiss is lavishly 
employed, so that the general result is that the 
windows are distinctly lighter and gayer in effixt 
The windows at Fairford, in Gloucestershire, are 
perhaps better known thaji any other late Gothic 
glass m EngUnd ; but, fine as they are^ they scarcdy 
deserve that supreme notoriety. In the rendering of 
the subject of *<The TempUtion," at Fairfoid, the 
tempting serpent has the head and bust of a woman, 
not very beautiful, but the slimy tail below, grey-blue 
changing to palest green, is b^utifully opakscent in 
colour. The notion of paradise in the background is 
quaint, with its architectural features and trim little 
fountain. It is characteristic of old gla.ss, up to the 
very end of Gothic times, to attempt impossible pic- 
tures. **The Creation" was always a £ivourite 
subject, and the difficulty of portraying the division 
of the light from the darkness, the separation of the 
earth from the sea, and so on, was often very 
ingeniously solved, though not altogether in a way 
that would commend itself to us. The Creator, im 
example, is sometimes represented as a venerable 
Pope with crimson robe and a crown 00 his hc»d. 
In a church at York, is one of the most daring designs 
that was ever put into glass. It illustrates an old 
Northumbrian poem, called the "Pryck of Con- 
science," and boldly undertakes to show "the fishes 
roaring," '•♦the sea a fire^*' "a bloody dew," and 
finally, the "general conflagration of the world." 
"We come now to the Renaissance— to ekst of the 
sixtecndi century,or, as it is tehnedi the Cume cento. 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



127 



In 1IUUI7 respects, the Cinqne cento gkss only carries 
farther the traditions of the latest Gothic work. In 
fa ct, un less there are some details of oostmne, ardii- 
tectnre, or ornament, to goide one, it is often 
impossiMe; with certainty, to ascribe a subject to one 
period or the other. It is mainly in the detail and in 
the fnrther point to which realism is carried, that the 
difference of style betrays itself. But we are not rich 
in examples of the purest Renaissance architectare in 
tUs oountrr, nor have we much good glass of the 
period to boast of, though the Gurge windows at 
iGng's College Chapel are attributed to Holbem. 
There Is a good window, too, at St. George's, 
Haaover-soaare, which might be studied with ad- 
vantage. In France it abounds, and notably in some 
of the smaller churches of Rouen. In this French 
glass there is no very great deviation from Gothic 
precedent. The same pictorial effects are sought, 
. and by much the same means ; only the stone mul- 
lions of the windows are taken less into account in 
the design, and it became more and more customary 
to fill a window with one large subject running 
through all the lights. In Fleimsh glass the depar- 
tare from the traditions of the art is more marked. 
The fiunons windows in the Chapel of the Holy 
Sacrament in the Cathedral at Brussels, and the two 
large windows at the ends of the transepts belong to 
the period — i54<>-7i &c. In these windows we have, 
in place of tne Gothic canopy, a grand altar-like 
structure, having a central arch, the effect of which 
is re p re se nted in deen shadow ; against it, dependent 
wreaths of stain and colour sparkle like gold and 
jewellery. In front of this altar is the subject, the 
figures over life-siie, and through the deeply sha- 
dowed archway we get glimpses of distant country, 
painted on the grev blue glass (which represents the 
sky), in a manner that is marvellouslv delicate. The 
figures stand out In strong relief against the distance. 
Indeed, there is a relief of the objects in these 
windows that surpasses anything that nad been done 
before ; but it is arrived at I7 a sacrifice of glass-like 
qnalihr, which, though we may condone it here, in 
coosiaeration of such grand restilts, led inevitably to 
the decline of the art ofglass paintii^. 



PROVINCIAL. 

Society of Amfqnaries of Scotland.— Jan. 9.— 
Rev. Dr. Itfadanchlan, Vice-President, in the Chair. 
— The first Paper read was a communication by the 
Marqnb of Bute on the regnal years of David II. 
It Is wen known to students of Scottish history 
tiiat In the latter part of the reign of David II. his 
Rgmal years are dated incorrectly, behig one year less 
ttei tey ou^ to be. That this is done by omitting 
exactly one year appears from the consistency of the 
chartecs witn one another, and also from certain par- 
tleaiar docnaients, and a critical examination of these 
doctttoents shows that the years are reckoned rightly 
^ to the twenty-third, inclusive, whidi began June 7, 
ijti. It frirther appean from certain documents in the 
.wltQsth Chartolary, which the Marquis cited, when 
thcie ite eofilptred with others in the Rotuli Scotiae, 
tluil tlie year fMned over fai tiie reckoning is that 



from Jime y, 1352, to June 7, 1353, the real twenty* 
fourth of the King's r^nal years. But nothinv had 
been disclosed by the investi^tion to account tor to 
extraordinary a change havin|r been made in the 
enumeration of the years of this King's reign. — ^The 
second Paper, by Mr. G. H. Thoms, Sheriff of Ork- 
ney and CaitfainesB, dealt with the relations of local 
museums to archseological objects, and gave a luractical 
illustration of the manner in which many objects of 
great archseological and historical interest have beoa 
lost to the coun^ and to science. — The third Paper, bv 
Prof. Duns, D.D., was entitled, "Jottings in Lochaber,'* 
the district within which they were made, in the 
course of two months last summer, being that lying 
between the Spean and the Nevis. — The last Paper 
was a notice of^ an exceptionally fine and large stone 
hammer, of peculiar form, found at Claycrop, in the 
parish of Kirkinner, Wigtownshire, and now pre- 
sented to the National Museum, along with a whet- 
stone from one of the crannogs in Doi^^ton Loch, }aj 
Mr. Vans Agnew, of Bambairoch. 

Norfolk and Norwich Archseological Society. 
— Dec. I. — A large number of the members of this 
Society and their friends met at Carrow for the pur- 
pose of inspecting the recently uncovered rains of 
Carrow Abbey. Considerable portions di the walls 
of the church and conventual buildings have been 
uncovered, sufficient to show the general arrange- 
ments of a mediaeval priory. A Paper was read by 
Mr. R. M. Phipson, who also exhibited a ^ound plan 
of the buildings, showing the existing remains and also 
suggested restorations to complete the same. There 
was a hospital here in the time of King Stephen, and 
perhaps earlier, dedicated to St. Mary and St. John. 
We know at any rate that Stephen gave lands and 
meadows to Seyna and Leftelina, two of the sisters in 
1 1 46, bat it is stated that they founded a neua Priory, 
from which we may presume thsU there was some in^ 
stitution of the kind here before. The ruins are clearly 
of many different dates, from the twelfth to the six* 
teenth century, and this makes it more difficult to mark 
out clearly the plan of the priory — a plan constantly 
varjring from century to century. This priory be- 
longed to the Jlciudictine Order. The chief feature 
is the Cruciform Church, which was dedicated to 
the Blessed Virgin and St. John the Evangelic 
It consisted of a nave 1 01 ft. long by 24 f^. 3 in. 
wide. North and south aisles of similar length II ft. 
wide, a central tower 32 ft. square on the outside— 
choir and chancel 62 ft. 6 in. by 23 ft wide ; a 
south chapel dedicated to St. John the Baptist, and 
a north chapel dedicated to St. Catherine. There 
were also north and south transepts extending 42 ft. 
6 in. beyond the tower, and 23 ft wide. On the east 
side of the sonth transept is the sacristy. It has a 
wide arch and an altar, which was a very usual 
feature in a sacristy. The church proper would 
appear to have been begun, as was Irequently the 
case, at the east end, erecting the chancel and choir 
first, then the tower and traosept<(, and finally the 
nave and aisles. The chancel, choir, tower, and 
transepts were certainly built in the latter part of 
the twelfth and in the beginning of the thtrteentii 
century ; whilst the nave and aisle are of early English 
work, pure and simple, of the middle and latter part of 
the thirteenth century. The eastern part of the chancel 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



was nised two steps, as can »till be pkinlv seen, and 
the east wall was doubtless jfilled witb Uiree single 
ILeht semi -circular-headed windows in deep reveals. 
Tac western part of the chancel contained the Cantus 
Cantoium, and the walls of this were highly enriched 
wilh stone arcading. Then comes the very massive 
tower, one pier of which is entirely gone. Here begins 
traces of later work, or early in the thirteenth century. 
The transepts, which had no aisles, are evidently of the 
same date as tbe tower, He walls of these were 
also arcaded, and there would appear to have been a 
rubble wall seat all round them. Further west we 
come upon clear and pronounced Ear^ English work, 
the base of one pier of which is lelt pretty perfect. 
The nave doea not run eiactly in a. line with the 
chancel, a. very usual occurrence. On the north side 
of St. Catharine's Chapel, and also on the north side 
of the north aisle of nave, have been found the remains 
of walls, evidently of a much later dale than the church 
itself, luid were the foundations of buildings ascd for 
secular jiurposes. Under some of these walls were 
found three shallow circular sinkmgs, and one oval 
one, all varying from ten to twelve feet in depth. 
They could noi have been water wells, for the live 
well is close by, and b 34 ft. deep, and is now nearly 
dry, showing that the level of the springs has lowered 
considerably during the last 400 years. For what 
purpose these bnildioes were used it is difficult to 
guess. It is, however, likely that they were occupied 
by priests who conducted the services of the church. 
It is possible they formed part of the anchorhold, for 






r the 11 



I road. We 



< the 



domestic and semi-domestic departments, and first 
the slype or passage, out of which the circular stair- 
case leads. TbU slype formed a communication 
between the cloisters and outer grounds and detached 
buildings, and always intervened between the transept 
and chapter house. Beyond is the chapter- house, 
mnning east and west. It had undoubtedly a groined 
ceiUng, the central portion of it springing from columns 
in the middle of the room, and had a door into the 
doisiera. Beyond was the day room,or, as it was 
called in priories and monasteries occupied by men, 
the fralry. This also had a groined ceiling, ojid was 
divided with columns, from which the centra] groining 
sprang. In thiscase they were circular shafts, a portion 
of one of which still remains. There were seven of 
these, forming eight bays, which can still be easily 
traced by the corresponding corbels in the walls, 
from which the other sides of the groining sprang. 
Over the chapter-house was the scriplorum or 
library, lighted bva window to the east — probably a 
circular one — and with an open wooden roof; and 
over the day-room was a Ions donnitory ako with an 
open roof. To the east of these buildincs stood the 
Hospital or Infirmary, the site of which has not been 
excavated. It probably consisted of a day room 
and dormitory with small kitchen and offices, and was 
reached by a covered passage leading from the day- 
room, the foundations of which can still be traced. 
On the north side of this passage were the gongs ; 
close by, and on the east side of the chapterhouse, 



was aburia!-phice,butinoslofihe nuns were probably 
buried in the centre of the cloisters. Three graves are 
still existing, one of which was opened in the writer's 

gresence, and at a depth of about 3fL 6 in. human 
sues were found, which, from their smaliness, were 
evidently those of a female, buried without cither 
stone or wood coffin, a thing very usual at this time. 
The slab, which 15 most perfect, is, from the crass 
that is on it, evidently of the latter part of the 13th 
century. On the south side of the church wen: the 
cloisters. On the south side of these cloisters were the 
refeetoiy, kitchen, and chambers over, and on tha west 
side the domus conversorum conversi, for coovtm, 
workpeople and servants. — Subsequently the parly 
proceeded to make a tour of inspection aloM King 
Street- The first place visited was the church of St. 
Peter Southgate — an ancient building, with nave, 
chancel, north chanci, south porch, and a square 
flint tower. St. Ethelred's Church, next visited, is 
supposed to be the oldest in the city ; and it is 
certain that a church stood on this ule before the 
conquest. There is a very fine Norman doorway 
in the south porch, and on the exteroat walls are some 
interesting remains of a Norman string course, with 
other portions built into the wall in the course of 
reparation. The roof of this church is covered with 
thatch in a very dilapidated slate, some of the win- 
dows are boarded up, and its condition altoplher 
discreditable. St, Julian's Church was also viuted. 
It is a small building principally of the Nonnan 

Ceriod, but the lower is believed to be Saxon, and 
ence is an object of interest. The old Music 
HouM, once the residence of Sir Edward Coke — who 
was Recorder of Norwich and afterwards Lord Chief 
toslice of England— was, by permission of Messrs. 






visited by the parly. 

the church of St- Peter per Mounteinle. The 

church was built in i486, is It; feet long by 46 

feet Iiigh, but is without special distinctive features. 
The vestry, behind the Communion table, is said to 
have been a chapeL The chancel stalls, though of 
course there is a good deal of modern work about them, 
are substantially the same as belonged to the Collie of 
Five Friars demolished at the Dissolution. The octa- 
gonal rood-stair turret has been preserved, and also 
some portions of the nncient screen. Of the monu- 
ments, which Blomefield says were numerons, only 
one of importance remains, that of Roger Bemey and 
his wife, who belonged to the Hobart family— vrith 
recumbent effigies, erected in 1 663, and made irf stucco 
painted. In the nave was Imried Thomas Codd, who 
was Mayor of Norwich at the time of Ketl's rebellion, 
but this monument has been lost. The register ol 
this parish is dated 1538, and is in a remarkably good 
state of preservation ; arid there was also shown the 
deed by which the parish of St. Faith's was annexed 
' this pari.sh in 1564. Amongst the plate is a chalice, 
s the mark shows, in 156$, and a spoon dated 
1013, with a crucifix handle. 

Penzance Natural Hietoiy and Antiquarian 
Society.— Jan. 13.— Mr. W. C. Borhise, M.?., in the 
Clmir.— Mr. W. Bolitho had borrowed from a friend 
a copy of Hals' Corim-all, a complete copy of which 
is unknoun, in consequence of a fire destroying many 
of the printed sheets while ihey were at an Exeter 
bookseller's. Mr. Stokes, of Bodmin, bad been pre- 






MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



129 



sented by Mrs. Taunton, a daughter of Whittaker's, 
with some part of the MS. of Hals, whose book con- 
tained admixtures of tmth and fdsehood, and stories, 
told with some dttjee of the coarseness which marked 
the literature of fa times in which it was written. 
As specimens of the quaint, unobjectionable, and valu- 
able portions, Mr. Bolitho read several extracts relative 
to ^otnsflemine, Bodmin, Pengersick, Trewoofe, 
and Poldice Mine, &c. Ten ^ years ago a copy 
could be got for £,^Q ; now the price is 100 guineas, 
so many copies have been in demand for /Gnerica. 
— Mr. Borlase introduced a book, printed in Paris 
in 1607, and interesting to people of the West 
Conntrie because it had so many references to the 
Coortenays. He also explained and handed round 
three or tour coats of arms of the Borlases, uid dwelt 
on them, and the origin and meaning of their original 
name of Tailiefer (found at St. Wenn in the reign of 
Edward I., and termed "liegemen of the county — 
time out of mind**). — Mr. Comiph described a present 
from Mr. John Donnithome, part of the backbone of 
a whale, a great curiosity ; a wasp's nest, lent by Mr. 
and Mrs. T. Reynolds ; and the cabin-fender of Sir 
Cloudesley Shovel's flagship, the Assoiiationt wrecked 
at Sdlly neariy two centuries since^ and which had 
been a heirloom in the family of Capt^ John Tregarthen. 
— Mr. Cornish noticed the singularity, that while the 
name of St. Anthony (one of the patron saints of 
Penzance) and that of St Clare were not lost, and the 
sites of their chapels were guessed at, the names and 
chapels of St. Raphael and St Gabriel, in the east 
part df the town, were entirely lost. — The Bonython 
flagon, of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, got back by 
a representative c? the family now in South Australia, 
was shown. 

Yorkshire Archseological Association.— Jan. 
17. — Annual Meeting. — Mr.Thos. Brooke, F.S. A., the 
President, in the Chair.— Mr. S. T. Rigge read the Re- 
port, which states that the excursion to Helmsley and 
Kievaulx was unfortunate as regards the weather. This 
was especially to be regretted, as Mr. Micklethwaite 
had spent some time in making a careful survey of the 
ruins, which would have resisted in raising several 
important questions which will have the attention of 
the Councu at .<iome future time. The completion of 
the Poll-tax in the last number of the ytmmal, is an 
important circumstance. The publication of these in- 
varaable rolls has met with considerable attention on 
all hands ; so much so, that the council have .decided 
on issuing the surplus prints to the public ; and a table 
of contents, &c., is now being prepared which will 
add to the ntiUty of the volume, ihis book will be 
sold to the public at a moderate price, and it is hoped 
that a large accession of new members will follow. 
The next number will contain the first portion of a 
valuable series of deeds connected with Ribston, 
which has been arranged by the Rev. R. V. Taylor, 
B.A., in whose hands they have been placed by the 
owner, J. Dent Dent, Esq. A very valuable set of 
diawin0 has been made 01 Conisbrough, by Mr. A. S. 
Ellis. j[t \m intended to use them as iBustrations of a 
Paper on the Castle which Mr. G. T. Clark has pro- 
mised to contribute to the youmal. With the cordial 
concurrence of Mr. Brown, Q.C., the owner of the 
iroperty, the Council has du-ected its attention to 
'ooBt GiBce Priory, which, as is well known, is the 



g 



only place in England where the arrangements of a 
Carthusian convent can be adequately observed. An 
elaborate survey of the ruin has been made, which 
will be reproduced by photo-lithography and published 
in the Journal, 

Newcastle Society of Antiquaries.— Jan. 25. — 
Sixty-Ninth Annual Meeting. The Earl of Ravens- 
worUi in the Chair. The Secretary, Mr. Lonestaffe, 
read the Annual Report, which dealt principaUy with 
the project of utilizing the Black Gate for museum 
accommodation. In the case of the Black Gate of the 
Castle, Henry III. employed a good architect, who, 
in his turn, employed good masons. The original 
parts of the Black Gate, of which they knew both the 
date and cost, presented peculiar features, highly in- 
teresting — wheUiertotheardiitectural, the antiquarian, 
or the military eye; To the artist's eye Uiere could 
be few such effective combinations of objects as oc- 
curred upon the banks of the Tyne. As to the want 
of museum accommodation, the report went on to state 
that the splendid collection of Anglo-Saxon sculptures 
accumularing at Durham were in the longest room in 
England and well lighted. It must be admitted that 
every fmd did not go there; consequenUy, the 
most beautiful Anglo-Saxon stone, discovered at 
Chester-le-Street, disappeared, he being unable to 
exhibit it. The committee then rderred to the 
discoveries of the year, and in doing so said that Mr. 
Bkur and Dr. Hooppell, with other members, had paid 
considerable attention to the remains of the chapel at 
North Gosforth. The will of the late Mr. Laycock 
had been proved, and application had been made for 
permission for the Society to expend a few pounds in 
excavations at the chapel at North Gosforth. Before 
leaving the subject, attention might be drawn to half of 
a picturesque bridge of the fourteenth century, at 
Gosforth, called Salters^Bridge. The particular Salters 
Road looked like a communication between the Blyth 
district and the ancient borough of Newbum. 
The Society were gratified by the observation of 
the care bestowed by the Corporation of New- 
castle on the remaining ancient buildings of the 
town. After the Castle, old churches, and the 
Black Gate, the most interesting one was the 
perfect Herber Tower. The officers, with the Duke 
of Northumberland as patron, and EUu-1 Ravenswoith 
as president, were then re-elected. — Mr. Hodgkin 
presented an urn which had been found near his house 
m Benwell Lane, and further south than anything yet 
discovered. It was evidently Roman, and was found 
at about joo yards from the south w^ of the camp. 
Mr. Longstafie said everything tended to show that 
Benwell was a mansion of the Kings of Northumber- 
land, and a place of considerable importance. — The 
Rev G. R. Hall exhibited to the meeting the mould 
or framework in which the French assignats were 
forged in the time of Pitt. It had been lent to him 
by Mr. William Smith, grandson of Mr. Smith of 
Haughton Castle, who was the then owner of the 
paper mill there at which the assignats were made. 
It was thought of no interest, and placed.in one of 
the lumber rooms, and after having been found it was 
restored by Mrs. Smith herself. It had upon it the 
date of the forging of the assignats. He understood 
that a Mr. Magnay was the then Court stationer in 
Newcastle, and his father was Ihe foreman of the 



AMTJQUAJilAN NE WS. 



customs of Queen Anne. Thelitertirass- 
the spot will, however, outlive those of plea 
amosemenli. It is conneetedin — 



MS of 



degree 
with the livel nf Byron, Shelley, Coleridge, Leigh 
Iloat, Keats, Alfred Tennyson, Romney, Morlanil, 
HaydDD, Bkke, Collins, and SlanfieH. 

Historii; muior-booses, like historic libraries, come 
from time to timeioto the market. Among the estates 
to be sold in the coming spring is one including the 
ancient Manor House of BurweTl, Lincolnshire, where- 
in Saiah Jennings, afterwaids the famous Duchess of 
Marlborough, was bom. 

In one of the houses at Pompeii, not yet entirely ex- 
cavated, \ai been found a mosaic fountain, the deeo- 
ralions of which ore far superior lo any ol (he kind yet 
found. On the roof of the founlain is a representation 
of the sea, with Aphrodite issuing ftom her shell. The 
goddess holds the arm of a half-submerged Cupid, and 
other Cupids are viable here and there in the walet. 
Below this group ii a Cupid embracing a dolphin, 
preceded by a nereid, who spreads out ber mantle 
in the form of an arch over his head. On (he left Ivro 
women are seen on the shore — onestandingrestingher 
chin on her led band, the other seated on the ground 
and holding up her right band in an attitude of admi- 
ration. Both are in profile. On the right hand a 
woman stands on the shore, and in the centre of the 
piclnre another female ligurc kneels beside a box and 
gazes at the sea, her back lieing turned to the spectator. 

While ploughing the stubble held, un the form of 
Quarryfotd, Haddinglon, tenanted by Mr. Haig, on 
the Ycsler estate of the Marquis of Tweeddale, a clay 
urn, containing calcined human bones, was discovered 
by one of the servants on the farm. The urn was 
only about three inches below the surface. 1(5 lop 
was broken by the share of the plough, otherivise it 
is in very good condition, and from its appearance 
seems to be of considerable anliquity. 

The Commissioner of Works is progressing with 
his work of restoration at Hampton Court Palace. 
The new groined ceiling in the principal entrance 
gateway is now approaching completion. This ceiling 
will be somewhat similar in general appearance to 
that recently restored under the second gateway of (he 
palace, but of much larger dimensions, being ^ofl. 
in length and 20ft. in width. The ceiling, or groin, 
has been constructed in accordance with whai is be- 
lieved lohave been the form and design of the original 
ceiling, no part, however, of which remained, with 
the exception of some angle shafts and springing 
stones, which denoted its position. An unsigmly lath 
and plaster ceiling bad for many years taken the place 
of the stone ceiling phiced there by Cardinal Wolsey. 
The ceiling b conitructed entirely of masonry, (he 
material used being Bath Oolite, and forms a c<]fnple(e 
dome, or groin, ofsolid masonry, without i 



: elaborately 
moulded ribs, -springing from the shafts in each angle 
of the gallery, and spreading in a fon-tikc form 
towards a central compartment filled with tracery 
panels, with Tudor detail, and ornamented with quatie- 
Kuls, containing shields, upon which will be carved 
the arms and other devices appertaining lo (he various 
offices held by Cardinal Wolsey. Upon (he centre 



For many yean post it has been contemplated to 
reslore the interesting and ancient church of Ashill, 
SomerseUhire. The tower was replaced and repaired 
some twenty years ago, and the 'roof recovered. A 
few years aflerwards the chancel was rebuilt by the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The chnrch contains 
an unusually large proportion of Norman work in 
very fair Condition, consisting of the chancel archway 
and the eastern and western doorways of the church. 
The Early Englith Decorated and Perpendicular 
Periods are also represented, together with some 
carved work on the pulpit and some oak seals of a 
far later date. The church was formerly seated through- 
out with hoe old solid oak benches. Most of these 
have been cmdually " improved " an-ay by one-inch 



mural monuments, one o: 



There was formerly a rood luA, and it is said that 
the doorway to the stairs may yet be seen. The roof 
is a *' wa(»gon-headed " one, but has been ceiled, and 
consequently much of its beauty lost. There are no 
remains of any stained or painted glass, the winilows 
having been glazed some hundred years ago, and 
their centre mullions and part of their tiacery re- 
moved. But a more general restoration is now being 
undertaken, and all is intended to be completed by 
Midsummer next. It is at present proposed lo 
rc-door and rC'Seal the church throu^out, restore 
and enlarge all the windows, repair and re-cover 
the roof, clean and restore all the Ham stonework 
ihroughout, lower Ihe exlerior ground, and well 
drain o round. Attention will be given to the 
most interesting parts of the church in the Norman 

Hampstead, near Saffron Walden, in Essex, hat 
possessed a fine old church with a lofty western tower 
strengthened by empanelled buttresses. For some 
time It has been noticed that the tower lias been 

K'ving way, and the strain on the south wall had 
come so great that it was determined that Ihe belU 
should be no longer chimed nor the clock wound uj). 
At a little after seven o'clock on Salnrday, ibe 291I1 
January, ihe south wall began to crumble away a few 
feet above ihe ground, and in less than an hour Ihe 
greater part of the fine old tower slipped down, bring- 
ing with it about half Ihe roof and one arch of Ihe 
south wall of the nave, and letting down also a good 
part of the roof of the south aisle. Thegalleiyat (he 
west end of the nave of Ihe church, the children's 
seats, Ihe front, and the stove, are all buried in one 
huge mass of dibrij. Where are (he restorers in 
this case? TTiey are busy enough in places where 
nothing is wanted ; but such shameful n^lecl as the 
aliove episode reveals is allowed to take place without 

An interesting discovery has been made at Fown- 
hope, near Hereford during the restoration of St. 
Mary's Church there. Whilst the men vrere excavating 
beneath Ihe church, they came upon a brick vault 
with an arched roof, and in this vault was IoiuhI a 



ANTIQUARIAN NEWS: 



133 



handsome oak coffin of extraordinary length and 
breath. The coffin crumbled to pieces when touched, 
disclosing a human skeleton of gigantic proportions, 
which, when the air struck it, dissolved into dust. The 
length of the body from head to feet was nearly 8ft. 
6in., and the breadth 3ft 6in. 

The Manchester City News records a curious fact 
interesting to the student of ancient town customs. 
Jacob Wilson, town-crier of Birmingham for more 
than half a century, died the last week in Januar}\ 
The appointmoit was regarded as hereditaiv, and the 
deceased was the sixth Jacob Wilson who had acted 
as town crier during a period of 300 years, each being 
the 3roungest son of his parents. 

The Essex Field Club have reprinted, in pamphlet 
form, with elucidatory plates, Major General Pitt- 
Rivers* interesting Paper on the recent excavations at 
the ancient camp or oval-shaped earthworks in Epping 
Forest, known as '*Ambresbury Banks/' and popularly 
associated with Queen Boadicea. The works, whicn 
were conducted at the expense of the Club, under the 
eye of a body of gentlemen interested in the subject, 
were limited to one cutting twelve feet wide across the 
lines of circnmvallation, but they yielded nevertheless 
a number of objects of interest, chiefly composed of 
fragments of pottery. From their position they are 
considered by MaiorGeneral Pitt-R ivers to be necessarily 
coeval with the formation of the camp ; and they are 
pronounced by this excellent authority to be British — 
thongh whether belonging to a period before or after 
the Romsm occupation is still undecided. Large col- 
lections of pebbles also found are considered to have 
been used as sling stones. It is to be hoped that 
since this slight ^ort has been so successful some 
further attempt will be made to solve a problem which, 
it is observed, '*has exercised the best wits of the 
neighbourhood from the dajrs of Camden to our time. " 

We understand that the relics found in the course of 
the work at the Baths at Bath have all been deposited, 
by direction of the Baths Committee, in the record 
room at the Guildhall in the custody of the Town 
Clerk. 

At an auction sale, on January 20th, of the effects 
of the D'Olier Street Club of Dublin, an old high-backed 
oaken chair, elaborately carved with Irish emblems, 
and described as the chair of the " Speaker of the Irish 
House of Commons," was sold to Mr. Cecil Guinness. 
An inscription on a brass plate on the chair set forth 
that it was presented many years ago to the Dublin 
Library by Lord Cloncurry. 

Owing to the lowness of the water in the Lake of 
Constance, in Switzerland, some interesting Lacustrine 
habitations have been laid bare, and several valuable 
finds of nephrite axes and other objects have been 
made. 

The committee of the Cumberland and Westmore- 
land Antiquarian and Archaeoloeical Society have 
determined to issue the accounts of the church plate of 
the diocese of Cariisle, not in their Transactions^ but 
separately. The book is expected to be ready in 
August. 

It is announced that the Dean and Chapter of Lich- 
field are having their moniments arranged and cata- 



logued by the Rev. J. C. Cox, and that many docu- 
ments relating to York, Peterborough, &c, have 
already been found. We know of no one more fitted 
to undertake this work than Mr. Cox, and we shall, 
no doubt, have a valuable report from him. 

The historic house known as Dolly's Chop House 
in the neighbourhood of St. Paul's is to be pulled down. 
"Dolly's has an illustrious history, and its mention 
recalls the names of Addison, Steele, Pope, Swift, 
Congreve, and other literary celebrities. It was the 
only house in the immediate vicinity that survived the 
great fire of 1666. We hope to give some particulars 
of this place in a future number. 

A facsimile has been made, by the process of photo- 
lithography, of the remarkable MS. of Marco Polo pre- 
serval in the Royal Library at Stockholm. The work 
has been undertaken at the expense of Baron Nor 
denskiold. A limited number of copies have been 
printed before the plates were rubb^ off, and sub- 
scribers in this country should address themselves to 
Mr. Bernard Quaritch. The work is issued in one 
volume (quarto), bound in the Roxburghe style ; and 
its value is enhanced by an elaborate introduction from 
the pen of M. Delisle, of the Biblioth^ue Nationale 
at Paris. 

Mr. J. H. Middleton communicated to the Society 
of Antiquaries on the 9th February a curious discovery 
which had been made on the previous day during the 
repairs at one of the Canon's houses'at Westminster. 
At the back of the canvas lining of the walls were 
some well-designed paintings in bkck and white done 
in tempera on plaster. They were of Henry VIII.'s 
time. 

We understand that the works in connection with 
the restoration of Whiston Churdi have been arranged. 
They consist of a new nave, chancel, organ chamber, 
and vestry, with seats for the whole church. This 
division will be undertaken by the Earl of Effingham, 
on the part of Lady Charlotte Howard, and will be 
commenced forthwith. Then there are to be extensive 
repairs of the fabric of the present nave, chancel, and • 
porch, and alterations to the tower. 

The ancient parish-church of Cowthorpe, near 
Wetherby, has been re-opened after restoration. The 
church, which is dedicated to St Michael, was a 
Norman edifice of a late type, built during or shortly 
after the Third Crusade. The chancel has bwjn paved 
with coloured tiles, and the aisle is laid down with 
stone upon a concrete bed. The sittings are of pitch- 
pine. The pulpit and reading-desk are of the same 
kind of wood, and also the seats and fittings in the 
chancel. The old oaken Communion-rail, of the 
Queen Anne period, has been retained. The Norman 
font, after being cleaned, has been replaced nearly in 
its original position at the north side of the nave nearly 
underneath the tower. 

A very fine volume, under the editorship of M. 
Camillede Roddaz entitled VArtAncim i vkxposiion 
Beige ^ has just been published at Bru^els by M. 
Rozcz, and by M. FirmmDidotat Paris. It contains 
a highly illustrated account of the chief exhibits of 
various countries, and forms a history of Fine Art. 

The grand old parish church of Edington, in Wilt- 
shire, is now rapidly falling to decay. It is a building 



n4 



ANTIQUARIAN NB WS. 



that cannot fail to arreit the attention of all intoettcd 
in church architecture. It is 1 60 feet long, thtt chancel 
alone being 60 by 25. Funds are ur]g^ntJy needed to 
prevent the fabric from falling, and we hope, in our 
next issue, to give our readelfS^ note of this interesting 
ohnrch. 

mstorie Notices of the Borough of Mnt^ by Mr. 
Henry Taylor, deputy constable of.Flint Castle, is in 
the press, and will be published shortly by Mr. Elliot 
Stock, llie work will contain much curious information 
concerning local usages, drawn from charters and offi- 
dal documents, ana vrill be illustrated by facsimile 
woodcuts. 

At the solicitation of the members of the Sidcup 
Natural History and Literary Society, Mr. Roach 
Smith, on the 7th February, delivered a lecture at the 
New Hall, Sidcup, ^n the Evidences of Shakespeare's 
Eariy Countnr life shown in his Works." Mr. Roach 
Smim stated that in the enormous amount of 
allusions to country and farmhouse life, the Shake- 
spearean student could not but arrive at the conclusion 
tnat Shakespeare had spent his early days in the 
country. Mr. Roach Smith was the first to draw 
attention to this point in bis Rural Life oj Shake- 
speare. We are 'glad to see] that Mr. Roach Smith's 
health enables him to undertake this task. 

We learn that Mr. Qiarles Welsh has in preparation 
a work which will be published bv Messrs. Griffith & 
Farran, entitled "A Bookseller of the Last Century,** 
being some account of the life of John Newbery, and 
of the books he published.. The philanthropic pub- 
lisher of St. Paul's Churchyard, as Goldsmitn, in his 
Vicar of Wakefield^ has called him, is a figure of some 
interest in the literary history of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. The first bookseller who made the issue of 
books for children a business of any importance, he 
brought before the world a nimiber of books which 
have proved of incalculable benefit. But not only is 
he to DC remembered as the publisher of Goody Two 
ShoeSy and kindred works, he was intimately asso- 
ciated with Dr. Johnson, Oliver Goldsmith, Smart, and 
many others ; and he busied himself with many pro- 
jects of a seemingly more important character than 
the publication of works for the young. The volume 
will be supplemented by an alphabetical list of 
books publuhed bv the Newberys, from about 1 730 
to 1800, which the author has spent some years 
compiling. 

A History-— Topo^phical, Archxological, Genea- 
logical, and Biographical — of the parishes of West and 
East Bradenham, with those of Necton and Holme 
Hale, in the County of Norfolk, from Public Records, 
Court Rolls, Wills, Parish Registers, and Private 
Sources, by Mr. G. A. Carthew, F.S.A., with illustra- 
tions, and an Introductory Essay by Dr. Jessopp, will 
be shortly published. 

A work entitled Salaminia : {Cyprus) its History 
TYcasures, and Antiquities^ by Alexander Palma di 
Cesnola, is anounced for pubhcation by subscription. 
It will contain an account of the principal objects of 
antiquity derived from ancient sites which were 
excavated by A. P. di Cesnola from 1876 to 1879 in 
the Island of Cyprus. The collection amounts to 
upwards of fourteen thousand specimens. It contains 



Phoe n ic ia n, Emtian, Greek, and Roman remains, 
from Kitium, Pwhos, Marium, Kourium, Idalium or 
Dali, Soli, and above all, from Salaminia, the ancient 
Salamis of Teucer, which yielded a large proportion of 
the recovered treasures — a site which no excavator has 
ever before examined with success. The relics 
comprise a vast variety of valuable objects in gold, 
silver, and bronze ; gems, cylinders, precious stones, 
ivory,and terra-cottas. Among them may be mentioned 
finger-rings, ear-rihgs, necklaces, leaves of bcaiten 
gold foil for head-attires or to cover the features of 
tne dead ; masks, swords, knives, and other 
weapons ; corns, pins, aladastra, toys, urns of large 
size adorned with geometrical patterns, other urns 
of sepulchral use, finely modelled statuary groups and 
statuettes, portable hand-warmers, and numerous 
inscriptions, of the highest value. 



Corre0pon^ence 

EXCAVATIONS AT HERTFORD, 
(v. 34.) 
Seeing in your January number a short note of the 
discoveries which have been recently made on the site 
of the ancient Priory at Hertford, and that, at that time, 
no coffins had been found, 1 1 thought it might inte- 
rest some of your readers to learn that two coffins were 
found on December a 1st ult. One of liiese was in a 
fiEiir state of preservation, but unfortunately was 
firactured by the workmen in removal ; the other,' 
which appeared to be equally sound, was not moved, 
but was again filled with earth (neither of them having 
a lid). Both were l3ring in a direction due east and 
west, the feet bemg turned towards the east. When dis- 
covered they were only about two feet from the 
surface of the ground. The one that was taken up 
measured 6ft« 9in. in length, ift. in depth, and 
gradually widening from ift. at the foot to 2fL at the 
head. The sides were i^in. thick, except at the 
broader end, where the thickness was fully 3 inches, 
and the coffin itself was cut out of a solid block of 
stone. Inside were found a skull and a few other 
human remains (teeth, arm, and leg^bones, &c.). In 
the Omtlemm*s Magazine for May, 1802, is an account 
of several stone cofiins found near Ware Priory 
(about two miles from here), which seem to have 
resembled those mentioned above, with the exception 
of the ithickness, which was 4 inches, and also in 
the fact of their all having lids. 

Henby Robins, jun. 
Hertford, 



TUMULUS AT HAMPSTEAD. 

In the fields about half-way between Hampstead 
and Highgate, and not far from the footpath, stands 
a conspicuous tumulus, bearing a few trees, and sur- 
rounded by a decayed hedge. It is duly marked as 
antique in the large-scale Ordnance Map, but I have, 
not been able to find any information about it in Park's' 
History of Hampstead^ or in any other books or maps. 
Considering how near it is to the seats of so many 
archseological societies this is curious. I believe that 



CORRSSPOlfDBNCE. 



»3S 



there is an interesting history attaching to this tumulus, 
but should be much obligea to any person who omild 
put me in the way of gaining authentic information 
on the subject 

W. Stanley Jevons. 
4, The Chestnuts, Branch Hill, 
Hampstead Heath. 



THE BIDDENDEN MAIDS, 
(v. 39) 

There is very little doubt that the figures of the two 
feaoales impre^ed on the cakes which are distributed 
at Biddenden, Kent, on Easter Sunday, has led to 
the supposition that they were joined together, as 
Mr. Newman says, in his letter, *' in mudi the sanie 
way as the Siamese twins." A curious old print in 
my possession, dated 1778, shows the two females 
joined as Mr. Newman describes. 

As the story goes, it is said that they were two sisters, 
who were bom in the year 1 100, joined together at 
the hips and shoulders ; that they lived thus tor thirty 
yean, and died within about six months of each other, 
leaving twenty acres of land called the *' Bread and 
Cheese Land,*' from the proceeds of which the cakes 
are distributed. Mary and Elizabeth Chalkhurst are 
said to be the names of these benefactors. Ireland, 
in his "History of Kent," dated 1829, states that 
the whole thinf; is but an idle tradition, origina- 
ting in times when superstition was more prevalent 
than at present ; and at page 1208, vol. iii. of the 
Beauties of Kmt^ dated 1806-7, there appears the 
following footnote : — " Hasted says (vol. viL page 
138, anno 1798), that the print ot the women on the 
caJces 'has taken pUce only within these fifty years,* 
and that the truth seems to be that the land was the 
gift of two maidens named Preston." It is there- 
fore extremely probable that the story of the con- 
joined Biddenden Maids has arisen solely from the 
rude impression on the cakes, and been chiefly 
promulgated \s^ a sort of handbill, which is called, 
** A Short but Concise Account of Elizabeth and Mary 
Chalkhurst," That there were really no such persons, 
the silence of all the early historians of Kent on the 
subject affords a strong presumption ; and also the 
proceedings on a suit in the Excheauer, brought for 
the recovery of the lands, as given for the augmentation 
of the glebe, by the Rev. W. Homer, Rector of Bid- 
denden, in 1656^ who was, however, nonsuited. It 
may be remarked that a similar tale is told of two 
fenudes whose figures appear on the pavement of 
Norton St. Philip Church, in Somersetshire." The 
fore^ing may be of interest to many readers of the 
Antiquary, and it would seem to be conclusive ; as 
Ireland says, "the whole thing is an idle tradition," 

Belvedere, Kent. H. W, Smith. 



THE EARLY COINAGE OF THE UNITED 
STATES OF AMERICA, 
(iv. 276.) 

The letter of B. H. Cowper on the above subject has 
certainly been instmctive to me. In mentioning the 
Connecticut cents of 1787 with a head on the obverse 



and Avdori. Connie., I have been able to recognize a 
coin in my collection as being one of the same kind. 
Mine is in excellent preservation, and the reverse has 
a figure very much like Britannia seated, with an olive 
branch in the right hand, and INDE. ET. LIB. 

B. H. Cowper does not say if the letters INDE 
occur on the reverse of his specimen. 

Presuming that they do not, I may be giving him 

H.W.S. 



some im formation. 



fL>3r.*^a: i% 



THE LOW COUNTRIES. 
Temp, James I. (v. 10.) 

The "Sketch of the Low Countries" appeared in 
the additions to Feltham's Resolves (12th ea. 1709, pp. 
605-625). I know not whether it be in any earner 
edition. There is some additional matter in the Feltham 
text. On the other hand, the introductory letter and 
some suceeding portions of your text are omitted in 
Feltham. The phraseology and punctuation of Uie two 
versions differ, but the variations are not important. 

W. G. Stoke. 

Shute Haye, Walditch, Bridport, 

I have found in a volume of the Mirror a copious 
extract from "Three Weeks* (not "months") 
Observations of the Low Countries," by Owen 
Felltham, published in 1670, and stated in the 
preface to have been written some years prior to its 
appearing in print" {Mirror ^ vol. xxi. p. 422.) This 
extract, so far as it goes, agrees almost word for 
word with the interesting "State Pap«r" in the 
Antiquary^ entitled, " A Sketch of the Low Coun* 
tries {femp, James I.). The variations consist chiefly 
in verbal alterations and the omission of several 
sentences. At flrst it appeared that I had detected an 
instance of literary plagiarism, which reminded me of 
the cool manner in which several pages of Hervey's 
Meditations were "borrowed" by the author of 
•' Epistles to the Churches on the Eve of Time " (1 
quote the title from memory). But I see that " J. S." 
calls his paper "a badd olid piece new drawne." 
Can any of your readers throw light upon the question 
of date and also of authorship ? 

H. B. Waterfield. 

[The version of the "Three Moneth^ Observations 
of the Low Countreys, espetially Holland," printed 
in our January number, is, we have good reason to 
believe, the original of Feltham's version, which 
appeared as a separate work in 1662, under the title 
of "A Brief Character of the Low Countries," &c. 
The discovery of the original manuscript opens up 
some curious points with regard to this, about which 
we nuiy have something further to say in a future 
number. — Ed.'\ 



BROCKLEY MONASTERY. 

Can any reader of the Antiquary give me the title 
of a book containing an account of the old monastery 
at Brockley ? 

F. R. 



13*5 



THE ANTIQUARY EXCHANGE, 



iTbe Bntiquatn? fiircbange. 



Enclose i^, for the First 12 Words^ and id, for each 
Additional Three Words, All replies to a number should 
be enclosed in a blank envelope^ with a loose Stamp, 
and sent to the Manager, 

Note. — All Advertisements to reach the office by 
the i$th of the months and to be addressed— 'Wit 
Manager, Exchange Department, The Anti- 
quary Office, 62, Paternoster Row, London, 

E.C. 

The Manager wishes to draw attention to the fact that 
he cannot undertake to forward POST cards, or letters^ 
unless a stamp be sent to confer postage of same to 
advertiser. 

For Sale. 

Particular Account of the Names of Popish Recu- 
sants living in Westminster in 1680, MS., pp. 100. 
— 164, Care of Manager. 

Louisa T^dning's "Symbols and Emblems of Early 
and Mediaeval Christian Art." — Cash or exchange. — 
171, Care of Manager. 

Genevan Bible, 4to, 1597, Black Letter, with Con- 
dbrdance, bound in new black calf, antique. Ex- 
ceedingly clean and tall copy, 9J inches x 6J, ;f 3. — 
Ruskin's Giotto and his works in Padua, complete, 
£1 IS, — Two Paths, 1st edition, with plates, scarce, 
£2, — Stones of Venice, 1874, with author's autograph, 
6\ guineas. — Bibliography of Ruskin, ^s, 6d, — ^Joseph 
Lucas, CLuremont, Cawley Road, Soum Hackney, K, 

Army List, Roundheads and Cavaliers. — VoL $. 
Chetham Miscellany — Visitation of Derbyshire, 1662 — 
Weiss, French Protestant Refugees. — Spilbury's 
Lincoln's Inn. — Apply B.F. S., Parkhurst, Dorking. 

Hogarth's Works, Atlas folio. — Matthewes* Bible, 
1 55 1. — The Genealogist, vols, i and 2 boimd. — 172, 
Care of Manager. 

The Old Clock, belonging to the ancient Abbey of 
Reading, Berks, is for sale and can be seen at 1 1, Coley 
Hill, Reading. The date is 1525. It has been ipr 
ages in the possession of the same family, and was 
recently given to a Bazaar in aid of a Church at 
Reading, Dy a broker into whose hands it had fallen. 
It has a painted copper dial, the case is made of 
oak, very dark from age ; it stands about eight feet 
high, and keeps good tmie. Miss E, Cooper, of 11, 
Coley Hill, Reading, will be glad to give full parti- 
culars concerning it to any intending purchaser. 

A curious old Bible, to be sold, published A.i). 
1614. A well-preserved Bible in black letter, with 
marginal Notes, bound up with The Book of Com- 
mon Prayer, two- leamea Concordances or Tables, 
the Apocrypha, and also the Psalms in metre with apt 
Notes to sing them withal. Interspersed in the Volume 
is an interesting Pedigree, 34 pages, indicating the 
lineage of Chnst fh)m Adam, also a description of 
Canaan, with a Map, the Translators' dedicatory 
Epistle to King James, and a copious Preface. — 
Address G. Mackenzie, 131, Eversleigh Road, Shaftes- 
bury Park, Wandsworth. 

Savage's War Head Dress, 6s. 6d, — CuriousbNeedle- 
work, dated 1684, lOj. 6d» — Carved Frame, 4J. — 



Pocket Flint Pistol, 51. 6</.— OM Sword, Js, W.— 
Returnable List, Curious Books, Queen Anne's 
Bracket Clock, 15J.— Mr. Shaw, WritUe, Essex. 

Autograph Letters of Tennyson and Disradi (Lord 
Beaconsfield).— Apply W. E. Morden, 30, the Parade, 
High Road, Lee, Kent. 

Autograph Letters.— Apply to R. H., 15, Brook- 
13m Road, Shepherd's Bush, W. 

Letter from Bums, addressed *'Dr. Moore, London, 
pr. favor of Mr. Nielson," dated Ellisland, 23d 
March, 1789 : " The Gentleman who will deliver you 
this, is a Mr. Nielson, a worthy clergyman in my 
neighbourhood, &c.," signed " Robt. Bums," 3 
pages quarto. Price, £$0, — Letter from Bums, ad- 
dressed " Mr. William Nicol, of the High-School, St. 
Patrick's-square, Edinburgh," dated Auchtertyre, 
Monday [Oct. 15, 1787]: " I feel myself 'very com- 
fortable here, &c." signed ** Robert Bums," I page 
quarto. Price, £^, — Manuscript Poem, "Queen 
Mary's Lament," in Bums's handwriting, 56 lines, 
3 pages quarto. Price, ;f20. — Manuscript Poem, 
"Lonl Gregory,^* in Bums's handwriting, 20 lines, 
I page quarto. Price, ;f lo. — 170, Care ofManager. 

Seventeenth-Century Tokens — Sussex, Cambs, 
Kent, Hants, Wilts, Oxon, Warwicks, SUflTs, &c. ' 
&c., for sale. — 169, Care ofManager. 

Wanted to Purchase. 

Poll Books for County Elections in Essex, Herts, 
and Cambs. — ^Thomas Bird, Romford. 

Dorsetshire Seventeenth Century Tokens, also Old 
Maps, Cuttings, Scraps, &c, relating to Dorset. — 
J. S. Udal, Inner Temple, London. 

Armorial Book-plates purchased or exchanged. — 
Dr. Howard, Dartmouth Kow, Blackheath. 

Wanted. — History of Surrey, Manning and Bray, 
3 vols, folio, complete sets or any odd volumes. — 
Tradesmen's Tokens (Seventeenth Century) of Surrey, 
— George C. Williamson, Guildford. 

Seventeenth Century Tokens of the Town and 
County of Nottingham.^. Toplis, Arthur Street, 
Nottingham. 

Seventeenth Century Tokens of Lancashire, at 2s, 
each, or will exchange with collectors of other 
Counties. — N. Heywood, 3, Mount Street, Man- 
chester. 

Wanted.— Gentleman's Magazine for 17S4, 1786, 
1S41 (Part I.}, 1843 to iSoa—Plates relating to 
Yorkshire, from the Gentleman's Magazine. — St. 
Views of Picturesque Scenery in Yorkshire, by G. 
Nicholson. — Seventeenth Century Tokens of Settle 
'Tradesmen. — Views, &c., of Jervaulx Abbey. — T. 
Brayshaw, Settle, Yorkshire. 

Selections of Curious Articles from Gentleman's 
Magazine, 3 vols., 1809. — 161, Care ofManager. 

Blount's Tenures of Land. — 160, Care of Manager. 

Collection of Book- Plates, about 2,000 or more, 
duplicates not objected to. — M., care ofManager. 

Books or MSS. on Astrology, Magic, Sorcery, 
Charms, and any Occult Literature, in any language. 
— E. Wilson, II, Woodville Terrace, Alexandra 
Road, Homsey, London, N. 

Wanted to purchase Dr. Pickard's Life of Nicholas 
Farrar. — State form and condition to R. W. Bums, 
Diglis House, Worcester, 



EASTER. 



*37 




The Antiquary 



APRIL, 1882. 




£a0ter. 

By John Fenton. 



Sparsum cruorem posiibus vastator horret angelus : 
Fugiiqui divisum mare^ mergunhtr hostes fliutibus. 
Jam Pascha nostrum Christus est, Paschalis idem 

Victimay 
Et pura puris mentibus sinceriiatis azyma. 

Vesperale Roman um. 

|HE story of Easter is, as it were, the 
story of humanity. For Easter is 
not like those feasts that arose in 
primitive times and then decayed, 
nor like those that have arisen in later days 
and have no linkings with the past Neither 
is it like those feasts that keep always within 
the circle of the race that gives them birth. 
But Easter, being bom in primitive times, has 
grown with humanity and has gathered into 
itself memorials of each generation that has 
observed it ; and from being at first a feast of 
the Semitic race has passed into Aryan lands 
and taken an Aryan name. Hence it comes 
that fully to understand the feast as we keep 
it now, we must seek to know it from its 
beginnings among the children of Shem in the 
ages of the past. 

Sf)e Semitic JFeasst : ^Pesak^ anli &ivi%m^. 

And here, at the very outset, there meets 
us a living relic of primitive times, for this 
ancient yfoidpesakh^ so ancient that even in 
Hebrew it is obsolete save as a name for this 
one feast, has passed through the paskJia* of 
the Septuagint into the Latin /oj^Z/dr, which is 
still the Roman name of Easter, and has an 
offshoot in our English paschal, the epithet 
of the sacrificial lamb. 

The origin of the Pesakh-feast we know 
not ; but we may conjecture it to have been 



• Heb. PIQD, Gr. riax^ 



VOL. Y. 



somewhat thus. In those far-off ages, when 
as yet Hebrew and Arab, Phenician and 
Assyrian were not, because the Semitic 
people were not yet divided, but pastured 
their flocks and herds together as children of 
the great High-Father, their worship was 
simple as their life. The cattle which formed 
their wealth and sustenance, furnished also 
the victims for sacrifice. If the evil spirit of 
the desert carried off a member of the herd, 
or if the evil spirit of the murrain swept off 
the flocks, he was propitiated with a sheep or 
a goat ; and when the herds were kept safe 
from disease and harm, the gratitude of the 
shepherds found expression in slaughtering 
an unblemished animal from the herd.* 

But the nomad pastoral life, necessitating 
journeys by night under the cool clear light 
of the moon and stars, led the Semites to the 
beginnings of that study of astronomy which 
was afterwards so deeply cultivated on the 
Babylonian plains. Guided in journeying by 
the silvery light of the moon and reckoning 
the lapse of time by the periods of hist 
revolutions, the nomad Semites looked upon 
the moon both as the measurer of time and 
as a beneficent power. Hence there arose 
both the ancient reckoning by lunar months, 
and the ancient worship of the god of the 
moon. The days of the new and the full moon 
are familiar to us all as ancient holy days of 
the Semites. In addition to these, the tenth 
day of the month was also hallowed, for some 
reason that cannot now be recovered. But 
beyond these days in each month there were 
special seasons when the invocation of the 
moon-god seemed especially needfuL One 
of these was the vernal equinox. To us in 
western lands the equinox is the beginning of 
spring and the new life of the year ; but in 

* The Assyrian tablets of magic and incantations 
have shed great light upon primitive Semitic thought. 
Cf. Lenormant : La MagU chn Us ChaltUens^ 5, 6, ff. 

f To the Semites the moon was a God. Dr. 
Goldziher {Der Mythos bH den Hebrdem, 68^.) treats 
excellently of the value of the moon to nomad peoples. 
Mr. Spencer (Principles of S<fcioicg}\ i., App. p. «.) 
doubts whether primitive man took much interest in 
the moon. But certainly peoples who are fair types 
of primitive man find the moon ver^ useful. Dr. 
Sprcnger tells how the Arabs find him so (Leben u, 
Lehred. Mohammad^ iii. 530). CzsaY^^^Les Bassouios^ 
150) and Moffat (Mission Lcibcurs, 260) show his use 
to South African peoples. Cf. also, Hahn : Tsuni' 
tGaam, 41,42. 



138 



EASTER. 



the east it is the beginning of summer, when 
the early harvest is abready ripe, when the 
sun is parching the grass and drying up the 
wells, when, as Egyptian folk-lore has it, a 
serpent wanders over the earth infecting the 
atmosphere with its poisonous breath.* Then 
on the tenth day of the lunar month sheep 
were sacrificed and their blood sprinkled over 
the gates of the folds and the entrance of the 
tents that the spirits of drought and pestilence 
might pass over and harm not the shepherd 
and the flock. Such, so far as traditions and 
survivals enable us to reconstruct it, was the 
Ur-Semitic feast of Pesakh : the sacrifice of 
Sparing or Passing over,\ 

But not in this form does Pesakh meet us 
in the Old Testament The time came when, 
under the influence of the Great Prophet, the 
sons of Jacob exchanged their primitive 
henotheism for the worship of Yahweh ; and 
Israel, revivified by the new creed, burst the 
bonds of Egyptian slavery. And when tradi- 
tion told in after years of the wondrous 
deliverance from Egypt, and how the Pesakh- 
blood kept Israel safe when the destroying 
angel laid low their Egyptian foes, then the 
memories of that deliverance gathered round 
Pesakh and transformed it The sacrifice 
remained unchanged. The lamb was still 
chosen on the tenth day of the lunar month 
after the equinox, and the blood sprinkled on 
lintel and doorpost ;t but it was no longer a 
cry to the moon-god for aid against the 
demons of the drought, but a song of thanks- 
giving to Yahweh for his great deliverance. 

Then came the entrance into Canaan, the 
great change which made Israel an agricul- 
tural people with higher beliefs and newer 
customs. Of these latter, one especially 
demands notice. Everywhere the beginning 
of the harvest has been held by primitive 
agriculturists as a season especially holy. 
There is the Pongol festival in Southern 

♦ Klunzinger: Uppfr Egypt j 184. 

+ Ewald (Aiierthiimer da Volkes Israel^ 460 /) is 
still the only satisfactory authority on primitive 
Semitic festivals. Dr. Wellhausen^s work {Geschichte 
Israels f i. 84/), excellent from the philological side, is 
sadly marred by the author's lack of anthropological 
knowledge. He calls human sacrifices, for instance, 
a " supplementary generalization. " The human sacri- 
fices ot the Mexicans were "generalized" enough, 
without doubt, but not in Dr. Wellhausen's sense of 
the words. 

i £xod. xii. 1-14. 



India, to inaugurate the use of the new rice. 
There is the great feast of the Zulus in 
December, when the king sacrifices a bullock, 
and so renders it lawful to eat the new-ripe 
mealies.* Nay, some German and English 
communities which do not allow com to be 
cut till the village oflUcer has ceremonially 
opened the harvest, show a relic of the same 
belief. And this special inaportance of the 
harvest is emphasized by the solar reckoning 
which accompanies agriculture. For thus the 
cycle of the year is forced upon the attention 
of the people, and with the recurrence of 
each harvest the old cycle is seen to be com- 
pleted and a new one begun. This, too, 
Israel felt and expressed in the Feast of the 
Massoth, the imleavened cakes. When the 
grain was grown ripe, the sheaf of the first-fruits 
was presented before Yahweh, and then for 
seven days the houses were purified of the 
old com and the old leaven. Only the 
simple com was eaten during those seven 
days until the old com and the old leaven 
were clean passed away, and then the new 
leaven was eaten with the new com in the 

new year.t 

But in Canaan and Egypt the harvest 
comes in March, so that the festival of the 
unleavened cakes fell at the same time as the 
Pesakh-feast And the older feast gathered 
into itself the harvest-feast as it had gathered 
up the deliverance from Egypt. J Hencefortli, 
on the foiuteenth day of the month the lamb 
of the Pesakh-feast was slain and eaten with 
the unleavened bread of the Massoth-feast, 
a memorial in brief of Israel's whole history, 
of their early henotheism and their worship 
of Yahweh, of their nomad and their settled 
life, of their bondage in Egypt and their con- 
quest of Canaan. 

Thus transformed the aneient feast was 

* Cover, in jfoumal of Royal Asiatic Soc^ N.S., ▼• 
9^tff* South African Folk-lore Journal, i. 134 f. 

t Lev. Hmi. 1-15. 

t Deut. xvi. 1-8. Dr. Wellhausen, however, 
thinks that the Massoth saved Pesakh from decay. 
TTiis is again an instance of the necessity for controlling 
philology by anthropology. The philologist, who 
always begins with late and corrupt forms, and works 
back toilfully and often in vain to earlier and more 
perfect forms, is tempted to thii^k that the old always 
yields to the new ; whereas the anthropologbt, who 
has numerous early forms to study and to compare 
with the more corrupt, knows that the exact reverse 
is the rule. 



EASTER. 



»39 



kq)t year by year till there came that 
memorable Passover when One was crucified 
on Calvary, closing the book of Hebrew 
history for ever, and opening the one that is 
yet mifinished. But for the disciples of Christ 
His death gave a new significance to the 
Passover-feast, a significance which the 
Apostle of the Gentiles himself shall tell us : 
" Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us : 
therefore let us keep the feast, not with old 
leaven, neither with the leaven of maHce and 
wickedness ; but with the imleavened bread 
of sincerity and truth.'' These words, the 
germ of a newer and a higher symbolism, St 
Paul wrote to the little church of Hebrew 
Christians in Rome, and in so doing trans- 
planted the Passover with its new meaning 
into the very centre of Aryan life. 

C^ SLtjan JFeast: £a$ter. 

I need not pause to tell how that little 
church grew into the great Papal Church of 
Rome, nor need I dwell on the details of the 
change from the Passover on the Saturday 
to the Feast of the Resurrection on the 
Sunday, or on the discussions that have 
grown thereout Let us rather notice another 
point. The Passover was a stranger in the 
Roman Calendar. It was not a Roman holi- 
day, offering the Christians a convenient 
time to gather together, and so becoming 
transformed into a Christian feast as the em- 
pire became Christian. The reckoning of 
the Passover, too, was lunar still, while the 
Roman Calendar was solar, so that the per- 
petual shifting of the Passover, year by year, 
kept it from imiting with any pagan feast. 
And so the Passover gathered up little of 
Aryan customs until, along with the first 
missionaries of Rome, it came into contact 
with Teutonic paganism ; and then it not 
only gathered up Teutonic life into itself, but 
even reflected that life back upon Rome. 

But what was this Teutonic life ? 

It was none other than the old Aryan life, 
such as it was in the old Aryan home before 
the Vedas were sung and long before the 
splendid Brahman ritual had grown up. The 
feasts and sacrifices were still feasts and sacri- 
fices of the family or the village, ordered by 
no calendar, but offered up whenever there 
was need or whenever the change of the 



seasons demanded prayer or praise. There 
were feasts of the New Year, of the Spring, 
and of the Harvest, but they varied some- 
what from year to year, and even fix)m village 
to village. There were feasts at each season 
in each Teutonic village, but there were as 
yet no great ieasts of the Teutonic people 
held simultaneously over the whole land. 
And this again affected the Passover feast 
For though it came in along with the Roman 
Calendar, which helped to gather the Teutonic 
feasts roimd its own fixed points, yet the Pass- 
over was but one such point out of several, and 
had nothing in common with the pagan feasts 
to attract them to itself. So that though 
it gathered up Teutonic life it did so jointly 
with the other Christian feasts, and as it 
varied itself from year to year and the pagan 
feasts varied from village to village, it hap- 
pened that the pagan feast that was celebrated 
at the Passover in one village was celebrated 
at Pentecost in another, and that which was 
celebrated at Pentecost in one year was 
celebrated at Passover in the next. And 
so the relics are scattered still; and to 
recover the early Passover customs of the 
Teutons we shall have to gather up fiagments 
firom St Valentine and Pentecost and St 
John. 

And the Passover seems moreover to 
have had in itself something that attracted 
the new converts, for they dropped the 
Roman Pascha and gave the feast their own 
Teutonic name of Easter^ the meaning of 
which alas ! is no longer certain, now that the 
Teutonic goddess Ostara has faded away in 
the light of criticism. And in this peculiar 
attractiveness of the Christian element of the 
feast lies, perhaps, the explanation of the 
fact that in some parts — it may be from re- 
vulsion of feeling-— all the old Aryan customs 
have died away; while in others — out of 
simple love and reverence — the people have 
gathered round Easter usages that do not 
really belong to it. 

Yet we can still trace in Easter aistoms 
the relics of three ancient ceremonies of our 
Aryan race : the Blessing of the Fire ; the 
Blessing of Marriage; and tlie Blessing of 
the Fields. 

Firsts the Blessing of the Fire, — Ancient 
among the most ancient beliefs of the 
Aryan race is the belief in the protecting 

L 2 



I40 



EASTER. 



power of fire. Even the poets of the Rig- 
Veda knew as an old tradition that 

" The friends of the holy law had kindled Agni, the 
men of the olden time to bring them aid."* 

Evening and morning in the Vedic times 
were die fire-sticks twirled till the young god 
sprang forth to protect his worshippers from 
the ghosts and demons of the night, to herald 
the approach of the dawn, and to shower 
down upon his faithful long life and peace 
and abundance of blessing.t On two points 
did the Vedic poets lay especial stress : that 
the fire should be pure and that it should be 
perpetual. Already these ideas, in a less 
developed form, had been carried from the 
ancestral Aryan home by the two great 
Western branches of the race. The Classic 
branch laid emphasis upon the perpetual 
nature of the fire, and for Greek and Roman, 
Hesda and Vesta, with the sacred fire eter- 
nally burning in their temples, stood in the 
place of the ancient AgnL 

But to the Teutonic branch the purity of 
the fire seemed its most essential attribute. 
So long as that purity was maintained, pros- 
perity remained; misfortune and disease 
came so soon as the fire was profaned. Then 
it became needful to procure a new, pure fire 
to drive away the evil. And this new, pure 
fire — ^the "need-fire** — still lingers in our 
midst ; created too in the very manner the 
Rig-Veda commands. In Scotland, when 
the "quarter-ill" made its appearance, the 
"muckle wheel" was set in motion and turned 
till fire was produced. From this virgin flame 
fires were kindled in the byres. At 5ie same 
time, live coals were given the neighbours to 
kindle fire for the punfication of their home- 
steads, and turning off the disease.! In 
England, also, the same " need-fire" lingers 
on, kindled too by the violent and continuous 
friction of two pieces of wood ; and if the 
catde pass through the smoke their well-being 
is assured.§ Nor is it lacking in Germany, 
as the researches of Dr. Mannhardt abun- 
dantly show.|| Had the fires developed alone, 

* -^f^- Veda^ V. 8, I ; Ludwig : Rig- Veda^ i. 373. 

t R^'Veda^ i. 36, 14, 15 ; L 148, I ; iv. 1 1, &c. 
(Ludwig, i. 284, 315, 363.) 

X Gr^or : Folk-lore of N,E, Scotland^ j86. 

§ Henderson : Folk-lore of Northern Counties^ 167, 
168. 

II Mannhardt: Der BaumkuUus der Germanen^ 
518 ^. Let me here express my great obligation to 



there might have been a Teutonic fire- 
worship; but Christianity came while the 
" need-fires " were yet unsystematized, and 
so they attached themselves in various wa3rs 
to the various Christian feasts. In Scotland 
they gathered chiefly round Beltane-day and 
Hallowe'en. In England the holy seasons 
were thought to hdlow the fire that was 
alight when they dawned, so that the new 
fire was supplanted by the permanent fire 
whose sanctity was renewed by each holy-day.* 
In Germany, too, the fires gathered round 
various feasts. But the German mind, 
tending thus early to mystic symbolism, was 
touched sympathetically by the likeness 
between the new fire and the unleavened 
bread, each denoting a putting away of the 
old and unclean, and a beginning afresh with 
the new and pure. So they .came, as they 
come even now, to the priest on Holy Satur- 
day that he may strike new fire fit)m a flint, 
whereat to light the long oaken and beechen 
stakes they have brought with them. These 
they carry home alight, one portion to kindle 
the new fire ready laid on the hearth, praying 
the while that God will keep the homestead 
firom fire, hail, and lightning. Another stake is 
carefiiUy preserved and laid on the hearth 
during storms to keep away the thunderbolts. 
A thmd portion, burnt to ashes, is carried on 
to the fields to keep them from harm, thus 
in every way presendng the Aryan tradition.t 
And good old Bishop Boniface, not knowing 
how these things might be, wrote to Rome 
to ask if they knew the custom there of 
striking the new fire fix)m the flint To whom 
Pope Zachary replied that they knew it not.t 
But the Church, ever quick to see how pagan 
ceremonies might be transformed, took up 
the new fire and embodied it in the OflSce 
for Holy Saturday as a memorial of Him who 
died and rose again, and the rubric now 
stands thus : — 

Dr. Mannhardt*s exhaustive collection of fects. I 
cannot better endeavour to discharge my indebtedness 
than by recommending the book to all who do not 
already know it. It is smcerely to be regretted that 
Dr. Mannhardt was not spared to complete the work 
he had so excellently begun. . 1 

* Gregor : u,s. 167 ; Henderson : uj. 72. 

t Mannhardt, u^, 503, 504. 

t Mannhardt, u,s, 503; Martene: De aniiquis 
ecclesia ritibus (Bassani, 1788), ill 142. In Florence 
the new fire was kindled by a stone brought from 
Jerusalem (Martene : ilL 145;. 



EASTER. 



141 



Bora cpmfetemti dicuntur Hora, . . . Interim excuU" 
tur ignis de hpitU fans EccUsiam, et ex eo accendns^ 
tmr carbena .... Dicta Nona^ Sacerdos . . . asUe 
portam Ecelesia, si commode poU^^ vd in ipso aditu 
EccUsiOf henedieit novum ignem. 

In this form the new fire came back to 
England, and has spread wherever the Roman 
Church is known, so that Easter, as was said, 
not only gathered up Teutonic life into itself, 
but even reflected it back upon Rome.* 

Next^ of the Blessing of Marriage,— 
There are two ways in which marriage in 
early society differs from marriage in our 
own. The ideas of primitive peoples concern- 
ing relationships are not as ours. Where we 
begin with the individual and divide and 
subdivide a group until we know distinctly 
the relation^p of each individual to every 
other, primitive men begin with the group 
and collect individuals under one common 
class, so that all the old men are " fathers'' to 
the middle-aged men, to whom all the young 
men are as '' sons." And so all the members 
of a class are "brothers" to each other. 
This arrangement has the effect of bringing 
into relationship individuals very slightly 
connected by blood, f In this way the foun- 
dation was laid of the feeling of kinship that 
afterwards plays so considerable a part in the 
village community. In respect of marriage, 
this led in some cases to an extension of 
marital rights from the individual to the 
group ; but where this was not so, the group 
naturally concerned themselves in their 
brother's marriage, for it was of consequence 
that he should not marry a woman with whose 
relatives there was a blood feud, who wor- 
shipped hostile deities, whose coming into 

* There seems to be little doubt, on the evidence, 
that the new fire came into Rome from Germany. 
There are, of course, various other new fir^ that of 
the Greek Church in Jerusalem, for instance, and the 
grand ritual of the old Mexican Church in Bancroft's 
Native Races of the Pacific^ iii. 393 ff, 

t This doctrine is practically that classificatory 
theory which Mr. L. H. Morgan propounded. The 
theory is gradually turning out true. I myself 
adduced evidence a year ago {Early Hebrew Life^ 
15-20) showing that such a classification lay at the 
bottom of the Semitic terms of relationship, and now 
the excellent work of Messrs. Fison and Howitt — 
Kamilaroi and Ji^umai—prowcs the existence of the 
classificatory systeni in Australia, In thus adhering 
to the general doctrine of a classificatory system, I do 
not necessarily assent to all Mr. Morgan's hypotheses, 



their group might in some way provoke the 
ancestral gods to wrath. So that every way 
there grew up a communal interest in mar- 
riage, and a religious interest withal. 

Moreover, primitive peoples delight to cap- 
ture their wives, a custom arising principally 
from the constant practice of war, in which 
spoils, of whatever kind, confer honour upon 
the warrior.* There may very possibly have 
been also local reasons in addition to this 
general one ; and the influence of all was so 
great that even when actual capture had died 
out, the form of capture was still preserved 
as a fundamental usage of the polite society 
of early times. 

Now, of both these customs — communal 
interest in marriage, and marriage by capture 
— survivals remain in Teutonic Easter cus- 
toms. 

Of the interest of the village community 
in the marriage of its members — a subject 
which will elsewhere be treated by another 
pent — I will only say that the earliest record 
of it in Aryan literature is in the Rig-Veda 
(x. S^y 26, 27), where the bride at her home- 
coming is presented to the vidatha^ the reli- 
gious assembly of her husband's village;^ and 
perhaps the latest in Mr. Thomas Hardy's 
Under the Greenwood Tree, in which the re- 
luctance of a modem bride to comply with 
the old custom by circumambulating the vil- 
lage is very skilfully delineated. I pass on 
to note that it is in the spring, when, as one 
of my predecessors§ correctly observed, 

" A young man's fancy lightly turns to thoughts 
of love,*' 

that the Teutonic peoples seem to have con- 
centrated their attention upon this important 

* This is the explanation of Mr. Spencer, whose 
discussion of early marriage is the most satisfactory 
hitherto publi^ed {cf, his Principles of Sociology^ i. 
650 /). In saying this I imply that I conceive Mr. 
McLennan's work, epoch-making though certain hold 
it to be, to be something musty. It is valuable, how- 
ever, as a collection of references. Mr. Darwin 
{Descent of Man, chaps, xvii., xix) seems to incline to 
look upon wife-capture as a survival of the Law of 
Battle among mammals. 

t My friend, Mr. G. L. Gommc, who opened up 
to me this aspect of primitive marriage. He will go 
more minutely into it in his Folk-lore Relics of Early 
Village Life, which will appear anon. 

X Cf Ludwig : Rig-Veda, iii. a6i. 

I Prof. Hales, Amtiqua&y, v. 42, quoting Tenny 
son. J 



142 



EASTER. 



subject, and that we have accordingly a whole 
series of marriage customs rangmg from early 
spring to early summer. St Valentine has 
already been shown to have become a centre 
of " love-antics ;" and my successor should 
notice a whole group of May marriage cus- 
toms illustrating the Miltonic story of 

" Zephyr with Aurora playing, 
As he met her once a-maying.*' 

One of the earliest forms of the survival is in 
the village of Thondorf, in Saxony, where it 
is customary for a young man and a maiden 
to hide themselves on Pentecost outside the 
village among the bushes, or the long grass. 
The whole village turns out with music to 
seek the ** bridal pair." Having found them, 
a triumphal return is made to the village.* 
Here there is a palpable survival of capture 
and communal interest, and in other similar 
customs in Germany, the ceremonies are un- 
questionable relics of actual consummation of 
marriage.f In Silesia the girls are parcelled 
out to the youths on Easter Monday by an 
official temporarily chosen for that purpose ; 
in others there is a sale of them by the village 
justice. In England both forms are very 
well preserved. In our Northern Counties 
the boys on Easter Day pull oflf the girls' 
shoes, for which the girls retaliate on Easter 
Monday by pulling oflf the boys' caps. In 
Lancashire, Cheshire, and Staffordshire the 
youths "lift" the girls on Easter Monday, 
and the girls the youths on Easter Tuesday. J 
In the Book of Days^S the ** lifting" is de- 
scribed as being performed by the lifters join- 
ing their hands across each others* wrists, 
and then, making the lifted one sit on their 
arms, lifting the individual two or three 
times. 

That this taking off of shoes and lifting is 
a relic of an earlier capture, is shown by the 
old "Hock-day" custom for towns-people 
to divide into two parties on the second 
Monday after Easter and draw each other 
with ropes. The Hampshire " hocking," as a 
rough seizure, stood just midway between 
capture and lifting. || Notes and Queried 
gives an authentic instance of lifting at Crewe, 

* Mannhardt, u.s. 431. + Ibid. u.s, 469. 

X Henderson , u^, 84. § Vol L p. 425 . 

I Strutt : Sports and Pastimes', bk. iv. ch. iii. No. 
14 ; Brand : Pop, Antiti, s.v. Hock-day. ^ 

II Scr. I. vi. 194. 



in 1852. In this case the person lifted was 
placed in a chair, a form which furnishes a 
transition to the custom of swinging the girls 
instead of lifting them. This usage is referred 
to in a popular song of the Wot people of 
Livonia, which is, perhaps, novel enough to 
bear quotation : — 

Dorfes Knaben, liebe Briider, 

Schaukelt nor nicht allzu heftig, 

Schwinget nur nicht aUzu kiaftig, 

Dass ich nicht zur £rde falle ; 

Bei der Schaukel steht kein Bruder, 

Unterhalb sind keine TUcher, 

Niemand der mich fassen konnte, 

Der mich aus dem Schmutzen hobe. 
« • • « 

Lass mich meine Schaukel sehen^ 
Welchem Baume sie entsprungen, 
1st doch nicht aus Erlenbkumen, 
Nicht gemacht aus Weidenbaumen ? 
Gar zerbrechlich ist die Erie, 
Gar zu beugsam ist die Weiden, 
Ahomholzem sind die Schlingen, 
Ulmenhblzem sind die Stiitzen, 
Und die Unterlag* aus Weiden.* 

Another group of customs connected with 
marriage is the ball-playing at Easter. The 
origin of the game I must leave to future ex- 
plorers, but its connection with marriage 
seems indisputable. In North Germany the 
young people call at the house of a couple 
who were married in the previous year, and 
beg the " bride-ball" with this song : — 

Wir mahnen uns den brude-ball, 
Und wenn se tms den ball nicht gewen. 
Den wiU'n wi ihr den mann wegnehmen. 
Den wiirn wi *n ihr verschenken, 
Se sol da wol dran denken.t 

Here the gift of the ball is evidently a kind of 
fine or release to the commune, such as are very 
common in early society ; and the numerous 
traces of bride-balls collected by Dr. Mann- 
hardt,! all point to some such origin of the 
usage. In England, the Corporation of New- 
castie were wont to go out in their robes to 
witness the football game on Easter Monday ; 
and in Yorkshire and Durham, Brand tells 
us, the pulling off of shoes was wound up by 
an entertainment of dancing on Easter Wed- 

* Schiefher, in Melanges Pusses (St. Petersbuig), iii. 
225. 

+ Kuhn : Nord deutsche Sa^n^ 372. 

% Baumkultus, 471^ This doctrine is confirmed 
by the evidence collected by Dr. Schmidt in his inte- 
resting Jtis Prinuc noctis. The examples he gives 
show clearly the transition from the actual to the 
symbolic fine. 



EASTER. 



i« 



nesday, at which a tansy-cake is made. Com- 
bining this with the doggrel commencing ^^At 
stool-ball, Lucia, let ns play," there seems to 
be a general linking of tansy-cakes and ball- 
playing and mairiage customs. But how the 
reverend and celibate Fathers of the Roman 
Church came to take up with this game 
of ball, as there seems no doubt they did, is 
at present inexplicable.* Still, enough has 
been said to show what interesting relics of 
early marriage customs were incorporated with 
the Easter feast. 

FincUly^ of the Blessing of the Fields.— 
Here the Easter customs have undergone 
another change. In England they have 
suffered greatly from the Reformation and the 
great Puritan movement. It is not the least 
regrettable incident of the fervour of that 
movement that its leaders, in their hatred to 
the Church of Rome, swept away with that 
Church many of the purely Aryan customs 
that had grown up round it, and included in 
their denimciations of " Popery" much that 
" Popery" could never have created. This 
fervour did not much harm the primitive fire 
and marriage customs, for these were old and 
pre-Christian ; but it did great harm to agri- 
cultural customs, which, being of later origin, 
had frequently taken a Christian shape. 
Hence I have found scarcely any trace in 
England of the manifold minor beliefs and 
usages which are so numerous in Germany. 
If any such exist, they are not to be found in 
the great collections of our folk-lore. In 
Germany, the cattle are stroked with holy 
palms, and the fields smitten with the same ; 
fruit-trees are bidden to bud, lest they also 
be beaten ; squirrels and hares are hunted ; 
bees are rendered industrious by placing holy 
palm on their hives. If, therefore, any 
readers ol this paper should meet with similar 
customs in their villages at Easter they will 
do a good deed by recording them in these 
pages for the benefit of future researchers. 

Only two customs have left perceptible 
traces in England. One, the perambulation 
of the fields, has passed to Whitsuntide, and 
therefore falls beyond my boundary; the 
second, of which 1 have now to speak, is that 
of the Easter egg. 

Where shall we seek an explanation of the 

* Brand : Pop, Ant,^ i. 151 ; Mannhardt: Baum- 
kuUus^ 478. 



Easter egg? Shall we seek it in the mytfio* 
logies of Egypt and Babylonia with Adr 
mystic specukuions on the kosmic ^g ? or 
shall we seek among our own forefathers for 
an explanation, homely perhaps, but tnie?* 
Our forefiithers, let us remember, were not 
men of high culture. Their fiithers before 
them had believed that to become brave, one 
should eat brave men's hearts, and to become 
wise, eat wise men's brains, and their children 
after them used all manner of magic, from the 
hand of glory to the ladybird. Yet they 
were not unthinking savages. Agriculture 
and the traditions of migrations had given 
keenness to their intellects and awakened an 
interest in things around them. What could 
such men say about the eggs they saw in 
their farmyards and henroosts? The egg 
was unlike the young of any other creature. 
Crush it, and it was a mere shapeless liquid 
mass : leave it to be hatched, and there 
came out a little bird. The conclusion at 
which they arrived was that the egg was in- 
habited by a little bird, just as the Ehsts still 
believe that luck-eggs have little birds in 
them. Then the analogy between eggs and 
acorns, beans and similar seeds,f seems to 
have impressed our forefathers, and the belief 
in the little bird in the ^g% developed into a 
belief in the life in the egg. Thus we have 
the fairy story of the giant whose heart was in 
an egg, the crushing whereof brings about the 
giant's death, with still further developments 
in the wonderful bird's wing in the magic 

* If the reader has been surprised that I have 
hitherto ignored mythology, his surprise will no doubt 
here increase to its extreme height. My answer most 
be simply that I am here dealing with social customs* 
which are distinct from mythology. Mythology, if it 
be anything at all, is the meditation of tne intdlect on 
the facts of physical nature ; social customs are the 
outcome, often unconscious, of the circumstances of 
daily life, the quarrels and wants and successes of 
primitive society. Mythological ideas about Ba'al and 
A^i have nothing to do with the social necessities 
which produced the fire>drill ; and communal marriage 
does not result from a contemplation of the ''goings on" 
of the heavenly bodies. That mythological ideas may 
in later times have influenced men's views on the origin 
of the fire-drill and communal marriage is very likely, 
just as it is likely that the fire-drill ana communal mar- 
riage influenced men's ideas of the gods; but the 
origins of mythology and social customs are perfectly 
distinct, and are got at by different methods. 

t Cf, the "fairy-eggs," the nuts from the Azores, in 
Scotland. 



144 



EASTER. 



acorn and the splendid dresses that Cinde- 
rella draws from her walnut shells.* 

Nor was the belief confined to fairy tales, 
but was an influential factor of daily life, and 
numerous relics of it still remain. Primarily 
comes the eating of the egg in order to gain 
tiie strength- that is in it. This still survives 
in some parts of Ireland, where the young 
men on Easter Day eat eggs till they become 
well-nigh ilLf In a more refined form we 
find the idea in the Benedictio ovorum of the 
Roman missal : 

Subveniat, qtiasumus^ Domine, tua benedicHonis 
gratia huie ovorum creatura: ut cibus saiutaris fiat 
fideUbus tuiSf in tuarum graiiarum actume summtibuSf 
ob resurrectionem Domini nostri Jesu Christi, 

In whatever way, in fact, the egg was 
assimilated, the virtue passed into the eater. 
Thus in Germany the plough is driven over 
a loaf and an egg buried in the field in order 
to secure a finitful harvest ; or the plough- 
man will eat two new laid eggs on the newly- 
ploughed field. This indeed is a double 
survival, inasmuch as the virtue passes not 
only from the egg to the eater, but from the 
eater to all his possessions. Or, again, a loaf 
and an Easter ^g are put into the first sheaf 
to ensure an abundant crop in the new year. 
And this leads us directly to that more deve- 
loped Easter custom, common to England, 
Scotland, and Germany, where the boys 
neither eat the eggs nor bury them, but 
simply roll them over the fields, to enrich the 
seed-corn beneath. In Westfalen, the bells 
of the churches are believed to fetch the eggs 
firom Rome ; in the north of England, they 
are found in hares' nests, t 

A further development, due probably to 
the influence of the Christian feast, is the 
belief in the special virtues of eggs laid during 
Easter time. In Westfalen, eggs laid on 
Maunday Thursday give cocks that change 
colour every year. Elsewhere, eggs laid on 
Good Friday are held to have the power of 
extinguishing fire, especially when thrown 
into it backwards. In Suflblk such eggs will 

• CampbeU: Tales of the West Highlands, i. io,ii ; 
Kreutzwald : Ehstnische Mdrchen, 264, 343 ; Coote's 
CaUkifiy in Folk-lore Record, iii. 2, 3. 

t Folk-lore Record, iv. 107. 

i Mannhardt: Baumkultus, 158; E. Henderson: 
Folk-lore of the Northern Counties, 83 ; Gregor : Folk- 
lore of N, E, Scotland, 166; Kuhn: IVestfalischc Saqen, 
xl. 143; Nord deutsche Sagent 373, 



never go bad and are an excellent preser- 
vative against colic* 

Nor are the virtues of the egg exhausted yet 
In Westfalen, at Easter-time, eggs laid in a 
row on the ground are taken up one by one 
and put in a basket, while others are run- 
ning to a bush near at hand, to bring 
back a green twig; a relic, apparently, of 
an old (Uvination, though now degenerated 
to a wager. In Lausanne the same divination 
is practised by dancing backwards through a 
number of Easter-eggs laid on the ground. 
If successfiilly accomplished, this feat^ like 
jumping over candles and so on, predicts a 
prosperous new year.f 

Moreover, the Easter-^g is found in con- 
nection with holy water. In Westfalen egg- ' 
shells filled with water are emptied out on to 
the fields to protect the harvest ; of which 
custom there seems to be a relic in Scotland, 
where the children, on Peace Sunday, float 
eggshells in water, without any notion, how- 
ever, of any meaning in their sport J 

Here, with the conclusion of the third great 
Easter custom, I will cease. With one ex- 
ception, that of Good Frida}r buns, which I 
omit of set purpose, the remaining beliefs are 
unimportant, and may be dealt with in a note.§ 

And now let the sociologist be permitted 
to preach somewhat by way of summing-up. 

It was said tiiat the story of Easter is, as it 
were, the story of humanity. It is so, in 
telling of the passmg of the feast fi-om Semitic 
to Aryan lands, and of its interweaving of 
Semitic and Aryan customs, mirroring thus the 

• Kuhn : Westfalische Sdgen, ii. 133 ; Brand : Pop, 
Antiq,, i. 129; Schonwerth: Aus der Oberpfaiz^ ii. 85; 
Henderson, u,s, 85. 

t Kuhn : Westfalische Sagen: ii. 152 ; NoUs and 
Queries, ser. 4, vi 68. 

X Kuhn: Westfalische Sagen/rL 147; Gr^or: m.j. 

167. 

§ Among such beliefs are the dancing or three steps of 
the Sun on Easter Day, and the divination of a good 
year by the height of the water on that day. Hare 
hunting and decoration of wells and holy springs are 
common customs. Divinations of weather are of the 
usual kind. Only one is worth quoting, predicting 
what will happen in 1886 when Easter falls on Apm 

25: 

Quand George Dieu criicinera, 
Quand Marc le ressuscitera, 
Et oue St. Jean le portera, 
Le nn du monde arrivenu 

iNotes and Qumes^ ser. 2 viL 45. 



EASTER. 



145 



fusion of Semitic and Aiyan culture which from 
modem Europe is leavening the whole world. 
It is so, in telling of the rising and decaying 
of the aistoms that from time to time have 
been part of the feast For these ancient 
customs, that some gaze on with curiosity, 
and others with disgust, are, as Ewald well 
said, token-deeds. They express the best 
and highest thoughts of the men who origi- 
nated diem ; and in their transmission from 
father to son they betoken the influence 
that each generation has exercised upon its 
successor. And in their gradual decadence 
from grave earnest to simple sport, they tell 
how each generation has purified and en- 
nobled the ideal of humanity, letting slip the 
thoughts that were no longer worthy of man, 
and replacing them by others that were 
higher. So in thus coming down to us laden 
with the memories of the past, the ancient 
feast is a token to us of the manifold heritage 
that we have received in order that we may 
hand it on. For each of us Easter will have 
its special meaning; but for all of us it 
should have this : that it is one of the links 
that bind us to the fathers who have passed 
away and to the children who are to come. 




ZYic ITbeft of a Sbroub. 



|0M£ while ago we called the 
attention of the readers of The 
Antiquary to the existence and 
survival, even to the present dajr, 
of an Italian popidar song which was one m 
all essential points wi£ the well-known 
Anglo-Scandinavian ballad of ''Lord Ronald'' 
— the lover or child to whom poison was 
administered in a dish of broiled eels. The 
ballad with which we have now to deal has 
had probably as wide a currency as that of 
" Lord Ronald." The student of folk-lore 
recognizes at once, in its evident fitness for 
local adaptation, its simple yet terrifying 
motifs and the logical march of its events, the 
elements that give a popular song a free pass 
among the peoples. But as yet we have 
been tumble to trace the "Shroud-theft" 
through more than a limited number of its 
possible vicissitudes. 



M. All^e took down from word of 
mouth and communicated to the late 
Damase Arbaud a Proven9al version, which 
runs as follows : — 

His scarlet cape the Prior donned, 
Ding dong, dong ding dong ! 

His scarkt cape the Prior donned, 
And aU the souls in Paradise 
With joy and triumph fill the skies* 

His sable cape the Prior donned, 
Ding dong, dong dinc^ dong I 

His sable cape the Prior donned, 
And all the spirits of the dead 
Fast tears witnin the graveyard shed. 

Now, Ringer, to the belfry speed. 
Ding dong, dong ding dong ! 

Now, Ringer, to the bclfi^ speed, 

Ring loud, to-night thy ringing tolls 
An office for the dead men^ souls. 

Ring loud the bell of good St. John : 
Ding dong, dong ding dong ! 

Ring loud the bell of good St. John : 

Pray all, for the poor dead ; aye pray. 
Kind folks, for spirits passed away. 

Soon as the midnight hour strikes, 
Ding dong, dong ding dong ! 

Soon as Sie midni^t hour strikes. 

The pale moon sheds around her light, 
And all the graveyard waxeth white. 

What seest thou, Ringer, in the close? 

Ding dong, dong din^ dong I 
What seest thou. Ringer, m the close ! 

" I see the dead men wid:e and sit 

Each one by his deserted pit" 

FuU thousands seven and htmdreds five, 
Ding dong, dong ding dong I 

Full thousands seven and nundrais five. 

Each on his grave's edge, jrawnine wide, 
His dead man's wrappings lays aside. 

Then leave they their white winding-sheets. 
Ding dong, dong ding dong ! 

Then leave they their white winding-sheets. 
And walk, accomplishing their doom. 
In sad procession firom the tomb. 

Full one thousand and hundreds five. 

Ding dong, dong ding dong ! 
Full one thousand and hundreds five. 

And each one faUs upon his knees 

Soon as the holy cross he sees. 

Full one thousand and hundreds five, 
Ding dong, dong ding dong I 

Full one thousand and hundreds five 
Arrest their footsteps, weeping sore 
When they have reached their children's door. 

Full one thousand and hundreds five, 
Ding dong, dong ding dong 1 

Fall one thousand and himdreds five 
Turn them aside and, listening, stay 
Whene'er they hear some kiod soul pi»y. 



146 



THE THEFT Of A SHROUD. 



Full one thousand and hundreds five, 
Ding dong, dong ding dong ! 

Full one thou^ind and hundreds five, 
Who stand apart and groan bereft. 
Seeing for them no friends are left. 

But soon as ever the white cock stirs. 
Ding dong, dong ding dong ! 

But soon as ever the white cock stirs, 

They take again their cerements white, 
And in their hands a torch alight. 

But soon as ever the red cock crows, 

Ding dong, dong ding dong ! 
But soon as ever the red cock crows. 

All sing the Holy Passion song. 

And in procession march along. 

But soon as the gilded cock doth shine. 
Ding dong, dong ding don^ ! 

But soon as the gild«l cock doth shine, 

Their hands and their two arms they cross, 
And each descends into his foss. 

'Tis now the dead men's second night. 
Ding dong, dong ding dong ! 

'Tis now the desul men's second night : 
Peter, go up to ring ; nor dread 
If thou shouldst chance to see the dead. 

" The dead, the dead, they fright me not," 
Ding dong, dong ding dong ! 

" The dead, the dead, they fright me not," 
— Yet prayers are due for the dead, I ween. 
And due respect should they be seen." 

When next the midnight hour strikes. 
Ding dong, dong ding dong t 

When next the midnight hour strikes. 

The gpraves gape wide and ghastly show 
The dead ^o issue from below. 

Three diverse ways they pass along. 
Ding dong, dong ding dong ! 

Three diverse ways mey pass along. 

Nought seen but wan white skeletons 
Weeping, nought heard but sighs and moans. 

Down from the belfry Peter came, 
Ding dong, dong ding dong ! 

Down firom the belfiy Peter came, 

WhUe still the bell of good St John 
Gave forth its sound : Darin, baron. 

He carried off a dead man's shroud. 

Ding dong, dong ding dong ! 
He carried off a dead man's shroud ; 

At once it seemed no longer night. 

The holy close was all alight. 

The holy Cross that midmost stands. 
Ding dong, dong ding dong ! 

The holy Cross that midmost stands 

Grew red as though Mrith blood 'twas dyed, 
And all the altars loudly sighed. 

Now, when the dead regained the close. 
Ding dong, dong ding dong I 

Now, when the dead regained the close 
— The Holy Passion sung again — 
They passed along in solemn train. 

Then he who found his cerements gone. 
Ding dong, dong ding dong ! 



Then he who found his cerements gone 

From out the graveyard gazed tad ngned 
His winding-^eet would be reiigncd. 

But Peter evexy entrance dosed. 
Ding dong, dong ding dong ! 

But Peter every entrance closed 

With locks and bolts, approach defies, 
Then looks at him— but keeps the prize ! 

He with his arm, and with his hand. 

Ding dong, dong ding dong I 
He with nis arm, and with his himd. 

Made signs in vain, two times or three. 

And then the belfry entered he. 

A noise is mounting up the stair. 
Ding dong, dong ding dong ! 

A noise is mounting up the stair. 

The bolts are shattered, and the door 
Is burst and dashed upon the floor. 

The Ringer trembled with dismay, 

Ding dong, dong ding dong I 
The Ringer trembled with dismay, 

And still the bell of good St John 

For ever swung : bann, baron. 

At the first stroke of Angelus, 
Ding dong, dong ding dong ! 

At the first stroke of Angelus 

The skeleton broke all his bones. 
Falling to earth upon the stones. 

Peter upon his bed was laid. 

Ding dong, dong ding dong ! 

Peter upon his bed was laid. 

Confessed his sin, repenting sore. 
Lingered three days, then Uved no more; 

It will be seen that, in this ballad, which 
is locally called, " I/)u Jour des Mouerts," 
the officiating priest assumes red vestments 
in the morning, and changes them in the 
course of the day for black. The vestments 
appropriate to the evening of All Saints' Day 
are still black (it being the Vigil of AU 
Souls*), but in the morning the colour worn 
is white or gold. An explanation, however, 
is at hand. The Feast of All Samts had its 
beginning in the dedication of the Roman 
Pantheon by Boniface IV., in the year 607, 
to S, Maria ad MartyreSy and red orna- 
ments were naturally chosen for a day set 
apart especially to the commemoration of 
martyrdom. These were only discarded 
when the feast came to have a more general 
character, and there is evidence of their 
retention here and there in French churches 
till a date as advanced as the fifteenth 
century. Thus, we gain incidentally some 
notion of the age of the song. 

Not long after giving a fi^t reading to the 
Provencal ballad of the Shroud-thef^ we 



^4f 



bfyjTTic. coDCTE^ x£ isB pilifUHimal ulrinii^ 
vidi M, poem wliuHc HiTthnfT imli^ yuiis 
anodicr xsnk to tiai of tii£ iwmffirsF iolk- 
pocL Goedi£^ ^' TodtsD Tanr ^* tmriF Isb 
to ed&zdan lian ^ liiu jour dss Mcniexxs :** 
DOT luB it, we "^'itiii^ XD tiiix^ an eqoal 
powei. We moB thr jHiHitIii: j mill it* of the 
oanQaaua cf sad giuasts: tiiBR A- it ^^l iii ^ 
Lefuic l^bt vi^pside i jimj j^ ; liitflL liiigriiii^ 
hf thnr rhilchm^s lliifffciini^ : thffsf iistSD- 
iDg to the psn^szs of ttif* pions od their 
bfthati"; these a&sxs iveepii^ £b TfieuKf qui 
n'ani plats d'amuc. Bm the divexgence of 
Uraimmt cammt hide the iasl that the two 
ballads aie made oot of one tak. 

The X>akcx: or I^eath. 

in t^K dcBii f^lhe »*^g^* 



all xnmnd in ker lig^ — 
bqniiiig. 
then ynnthrr besHU : 

and thrrt: stcp^ £> xmm. 



Oc gXXTCS 2Z1 tXSD 

Tlie moGD Elrr|is the 

Tb dear as 2* HOOD 
Oxtegnnre gapcQ aprt, 
Hrre iaztb stcpbA 

On sport iSbsj detsmxiic, nor pause thcr ior iun^, 

All ied far the measiire adruoxig ; 
The TJfii and tiie poor, the cM and tivr jTomig ; 

Bm wiadiuK- ribeets lunder the danrmg. 

^iwT ^****^ 01 ^^1 I'M mil Qo ioocer 'f**f*^^i^^i 
Tliey iausen to ^lake themselves het of their weeds, 
Aiid nunhtfnnffs are quickl}' beshronded. 

Tlien legs kick aboat and are lifted in air, 

Stxaage gesiur e and antic repeating ; 
The faoaes ' " ^ ^ and «ttl»-, tmrl dUuii here and then:, 

As if to keep time tiie>' were beating. 
The si^xi filk the watcher with mirth 'stead of fear. 
And the sir na*^ the Tempter, speaks low in hL> car : 

*'* Now go and a windixig-sheet plunder f 

The hint he sood foUowed, the deed it was done, 
Tlien ^^*^"*H the chnrch-door he sooghi sbeiier ; 

Tlie aaooD in her splendour unceasingly siionc. 
And still dance the dead helter-skelter. 

At last, one bj one, they all cease irom tiie play, 

And, wrapt in the winding-sheets, hasten away , 
Benesdi the tmf silently sinking. 

One only still staggers and stumbles along. 

The grave edges groping and feeling ; 
*Tis no brother giiost who iias done him the wrong ; 

Now his scent shows the place of concealing. 
The chnrch door he shako, bu: hi» sucugtl 

repicst ; 
Ths well for the watcher the portals are blest 
By croMCS resplending protected. 



i> 



His shirt he must have, upon this he is bent, 

No time has he now for reflection ; 
Each sralpriire of Gothic some holding has knl, 

He scaJes and he climbs each projection. 
I>read vengeance overtakes him, 'tis up with the spy ! 
Fnan nrch nnto arch draws the skeleton nigh, 

like lac;tky-kaBed hoiribk spider. 



The watcher tnnB. pak, and he tiembks hiC sore, 

Tiie shrond to iwam he hnrerhef. ; 
Bxn I. claw iv. i.<> dime, he is livxqg no nuur), 

A chnr to theshrmd bar^ Teaches. 
Tne TOwmligh: grow> ium ; i: strikes one bf tiie 



Clock ; 




bnrsi wx^ £ terrihk shod: 
the Af i ^ t - fl gi c^a^^iy d. 



Ii needed but small penetxatiaD to guess 
that Goethe had neither seen nor heard tif 
tiie P iDven sal song. 1: seemed, therefore, 
cenam that a version of the Sbroud-theft mmt 
exist in Germany, or near ii— «d inferenoe 
wt found to btr correct on consulting thai 
excelieni woik, Ciroedie's Gedichit trlatde^i 
7*on Hanrid: Fiekaff fSmttgait, 1870), So 
fr- as tOL' title and the incident of the 
danrin^ axe concerned, Goethe apparent^ 
had recourse to a popular stoij given in 
.^jpd's 3mM: m S^torcs, wbsrt it is Tested 
how, when the guards of the tower looked 
out at midnight, they saw Master Wiliibert 
nse irom his grave in the moonshine, seat 
himself on a high tombstone, and bqg^ to 
perform on his pocket pipe. Then sevesal 
other tombs opened, and the dead came 
forth and danced cheerily over the mooads 
of the graves. The white shrouds fluttered 
round their dried-up limbs, and dieir bones 
clattered and shook till the clod: struck 
one, when each returned into his naxxow 
house, and the piper put his pipe tmder his 
arm and followed their example. The put 
of the ballad which has to do directly widi tiie 
Shroud-theft is based upon oral traditions 
collected by the poet during his sojourn at 
Teplitz, in Bohemia . in the summer of 1S15, 
Viehofif has ascertained that there are also 
traces of the legend in Silesia, Moraiia, and 
Tirol In these countries the stoi^* would 
seem to be oftenest told in prose ; but 
Viehoff prints a rb}Tned rendering of tiie 
variant localized in Tirol, where the events 
are supposed to have occurred at the \'iliage 
of Burgeis : — 

The twelve night strokes have ceased to sound, 
The watchman of Burgeis looks around. 

The country all in moonlight sleeps ; 
Standing the beliry tower beneath 
The tombstones, witii their wreaths of death, 

The vran moon's ghastly pallor steeps. 

** Does the jroung mother in childbirth dead 
Rise in her shroud from her lonely bed. 

For the sake of the child she has left behind ? 
To mock them (they fliy) makes the dead ones gneve, 



148 



THE THEFT OF A SHROUD. 



Let's see if I cannot her work relieve, 
Or she no end to her toil may find." 

So spake he, when something, with movement slow, 
Stirs in the deep- dug grave below, 

And in its trailing £roud comes ont; 
And the litUe garments that infants have 
It hangs and stretches on gate and grave. 

On nul and trellis, the j^ird about 

The rest of the buried in sleep repose. 
That nothing of waking or trouble knows. 

For the woman the sleep of the grave is killed; 
Her leaden sleep, each midnight hour. 
Flees, and her limbs regain their power, 

And she hastes as to tend her new-bom child. 

All with rash spite the watchman views. 
And with cruel laughter the form pursues. 

As he leans from the belfry's narrow height, 
And in sinful scorn on the toWer rails 
Linen and sheets and bands he trails, 

Mocking her acts in the moon's wan light 

Lo, with swift steps, foreboding doom, 

From the churchvard's edge o'er pjave and tomb 

The ghost to tne tower wends its ways ; 
And climbs and glides, ne'er fearing fall, 
Up by the ledges, the lofty wall. 

Fixing the sinner with fearful gaze. 

The watcher grows pale, and with hasty hand, 
Tears from the tower the shrouds and bands; 

Vainly I That threatenins; grin draws nigh 1 
With a trembling hand he tolls the hour, 
And the skeleton down from the belfry- tower, 

Shattered and crumbling, falls from high. 

This story overlaps the great cycle of 
popular belief which treats of the help given 
by a dead mother to her bereaved diild. 
They say in Germany, when the sheets are 
ruffled in the bed of a motherless infant that 
the mother has lain beside it and suckled 
it Kindred superstitions stretch through 
the world. The sin of the Burgies watdi- 
man is that of heartless malice, but it stops 
short of actual robbery, which is perhaps the 
reason why he escapes with his life, having 
the presence of mind to toll forth the first 
hour of day, when — 

Whether in sea or fire, in earth or air, 
The extravagant and erring spirit hies 
To his confine. 

Our information regarding the Shroud-theft 
remains fragmentical ; still, such as it is it has 
interest as well from the intrinsic features of 
the tradition as for the sake of analogy. 
The Shroud-theft is a product of the peculiar 
fascination exercised by the human skeleton 
upon the mediaeval fancy. The part played 
by the skeleton in the early art and early 
fiction of the Christian sera is one of large 



importance ; the horrible, the grotesque^ the 
pathetic, the humorous---all are grouped 
round the bare remnants of humanity. The 
skeleton, figuring as Death, still looks at you 
from the fa ade^ of the village churches in 
the north of* Italy and the Trentino — some- 
times alone, sometimes with other stray 
members of the Danse Macabre; canying 
generally an inscription to this piuport : 

Giunge la morte piena de egnaleza. 
Sole ve voglio e non vostxa ricbeza. 
Digna mi son de portar corona, 
£ che signoresi o^ persona. 

The old custom of way-side ossuaries con- 
tributed no doubt towards keeping strongly 
before the people this symbol and image of Uie 
great King. We have often reflected on the 
effect, certainly if unconsciously felt, of the 
constant and unveiled presence of the dead. 
We remember once passing one of die still 
standing chapels through the gratings of 
which may be seen neatly ranged rows of 
human bones, as we were descending late 
one night a mountain in Lombardy. The 
moon fell through the bars upon the village 
ancestors ; one old man went by along the 
narrow way, and said gravely as he went the 
two words : " E tardi 1" It was a scene 
which always comes back to us when we study 
the literature of the skeleton. 

Evelyn Carrington. 




FEW months ago we had an article 
on « Old Cambridge " (iv. 26a), in 
which we reviewed Mr. Farren's 
Cambridge and its Neighbourhood^ 
and we took as our title one whidi was used 
a few years ago by Mr. Redfam for his care- 
ful and interesting sketclies of the most- 
characteristic features of the town. Many of 
the buildings represented in this book have 
had to succumb to the spirit of "improve- 
ment" which is now so general, and have 
disappeared. Here is the " White Horse," 

• Old Cambridge : a Seriei of Original SkOcka^ 
7oUh Descriptive Letterpress, By W. B. Red&m. 
Cambridge : W. P. Spalding. 1876. Oblong. 

f Ancient Wood and Iron-work in CamMdfgt, By 
W. B. R^fam. Part IV. FoUa Cambridge : W. 
B, Spalding. 



OLD CAMBRIDGE. 



149 



better known as Cory's House, which was 
pulled down to make way for the new build* 
ing of King's College. Tradition said that 
the Cambridge Reformers who were engaged 
in the compilation of the Liturgy, met in 
this house, and an old wainscotted settle 
which is figured in the book was known as 
Miles Coverdale's Seat Many of the old 
beetle-browed buildings are here preserved 
in all their quaintness. A view is given of 
Fosters' Bank, in Trinity Street, with its carved 
corbels and elaborate pargetting ; and several 
of the curious carvings in the interiors of the 
old houses are also given, such as the carved 
chinmeypiece in 7, Peas Hill, and that in 
the " Cross Keys," which is described as one 
of the most elaborate in Cambridge. Hob- 
son's Conduit, the first stone of which was 
laid in 1614, still stands at the comer of 
Lensfield and Trumpington Roads, but its 
original position was on the Market Hill, and 
it was only in 1856 that it was re-erected in 
its present position. May it long remain 
there. 

Besides the various sketches of the 
town as distinct fi-om the University, there 
are several views of some of the most in- 
teresting of the architectural bits in the 
Collies. The President's Lodge, at 
Queen's, was built some time after 
the foimdation of the College, but it is 
quite in character with the old-world charm 
of tfie rest of the buildings. There is 
probably no part of Cambridge more in- 
teresting to the antiquary than these cloistered 
courts. Nevile's Buildings, Trinity College, 
which owe their origin and name to Dr. 
Thomas Nevile, master at the dbmmence- 
ment of the seventeenth century, are very 
interesting, (although the cobble-stones are 
somewhat painful to the feet of those who 
have corns), and a plate of one part which 
is given here is very effective. King's old 
gateway is a grand specimen of early fif- 
teenth-century architecture, but standing as 
it does alone among modem surroundings, 
it seems an obvious mark for the destroyer. 
We hope, however, that it will be long before 
it is swept away, and that whatever enlarge- 
ments may be made of the University 
library or the Geological Museum, this 
delightful doorway may be allowed to stand 
as it does now undestroyed and unrestored. 



Mr. Redfam is now producing a very 
valuable artistic work on Wood and Iran 
Work in Cambridge^ the first three numbers 
of which we have already noticed. The 
fourth number, now before us, contains 
three plates of woodwork. The sections 
of moulding dated 1634, which formed a 
part of the Old Hall of Pembroke, are very 
spirited, and one cannot but regret the im- 
happy destruction of this hall in 1874 and 
1875. The history of a carved desk-end in 
Jesus College Chapel is a curious one. The 
chapel was ''beautified" bet^veen 1789 and 
1792, when the oak stall-work was replaced 
by plain seats of deal, and two only of the 
stalls were left. The rest, with the pulpit 
and screens, went to the Church of Land- 
beach, Cambridgeshire. In 1878, however, 
laandbeach Church was itself restored, and 
the stall- ends not being required were sold 
back to Jesus College. 

The inhabitants of Cambridge may con- 
sider themselves fortunate in having artists 
who love the past, and are able to repro- 
duce the old buildings and their ornamenta- 
tions with so much accuracy and spirit. 
And all antiquaries will welcome these 
beautiful books. 



fii*^W'>i» 




Society?* 



|HE Soci^td des Anciens Textes 
Fran9ais, which has just com- 
pleted its seventh year, is not so 
well known in England as it 
deserves; though, among the numerous 
printing and literary societies to which 
inodern research and scientific treatment of 
literature has given birth, none is more 
worthy of support on this side the Channel 
A few words, showing what are its objects 
and what it has performed, may not be out 
of place at a time when we are again asked 
to stretch out our s}Tnpathies and to welcome 
tiie new Scotch Text Society. Old French 
literature has so much to say to our early 
works of letters, whether in North or South 
Britain, the contact between our island and 
French influence has been so long and sq 



ISO 



THE EARLY FRENCH TEXT SOCIETY. 



powerful, that a society which aims at putting 
within the reach of moderate means the 
earliest monuments of the French language, 
the best products of its early prose and 
poetry, carefully edited by eminent scholars, 
has a strong claim upon the attention of 
English students. All the more, too, now, 
when the great epic of France, the Song 
of Roland (" the charter of French nation- 
ality," as Miss A. Lambert calls it, in her 
eager exposition — Nineteenth Century for 
January, 1882) has been made known to 
English readers by Mr. O'Hagan ; when our 
own Text Society finds it necessary to print the 
early English fragments of the Charlemagne 
romances ; and when even the history of an 
English archbishop, Thomas k Becket, pub- 
lished in the grave series of the Master of the 
Rolls, is not complete without the fine French 
version of the tale. 

Urged on, like the founders of the Early 
English Text Society, by a feeling of shame 
that a large part of the early national literature 
should lie almost unheeded at home, and 
should owe better treatment to foreigners, 
the Society pointed out at the commence- 
ment the importance of their work for the 
history of ancient ideas, sentiments, and man- 
ners; for the right knowledge of the language, 
towards " un glossaire de la langue d'oil et de 
la langue d'oc, une grammaire compar^e des 
dialectes frangais et provengaux, enfin, cette 
ceuvre magnifique, une histoire de la langue 
fran9aise," none of which could be done 
without a supply of trustworthy texts ; for the 
surpassing literary interest in connection with 
the history of other literatiu'es — " la littdrature 
fran^aise du moyen ige est-elle en quelque 
sorte le patrimoine commun de TEurope, car 
toutes les nations de TEurope la retrouvent 
k la base de la leur." Lastly, with a truly 
patriotic feeling, they called attention to the 
value of their own noble ancient writers in 
the national education — the inspiration of a 
Song of Roland^ of a Joinville, ought to be 
placed near those of Homer and Herodotus ; 
as in Germany every youth glories in the great 
deeds of his country's gods and heroes and 
knows the Niehelungenlied ; as in England 
we are, alas! only beginning to know oi;r 
Beowulf, our Caedmon, and our Chaucer. 

The rich field of the Society's labours ex- 
tends from the first monuments of the lan- 



guage to the Renaissance. All tastes may be 
suited; they aim at various departments. The 
North (their care extending also to Anglo- 
Norman productions) gives its epic poetry and 
chansons de geste^ romances, travels, lives of 
saints, and holy legends, die religious and 
popular drama of the Middle Ages, didactic 
works ; they have lyric poetry of both North 
and South (Provehgal) ; poets as yet imper- 
fectly printed, or not at all ; in short, '^ all 
writings in the vulgar tongue." 

The members usually get three volumes 
and the Bulletin for tlieir annual guinea ; 
nineteen volumes have been already issued ;* 
besides (in 1875) ^ ^^ album, containing 
nine photographic ^-Jxw/Vkr of the oldest 
existing writings of the French language of 
the ninth and tenth centuries. The Bulletin 
of the Society comes out three times a year. 
It gives the opportunity for printing short 
pieces ; but the most noticeable feature of it 
is, that in it are published careful and de- 
tailed reports, not only on MSS. at home 
hitherto unknown or insufl[iciently described, 
but on the French manuscripts to be found 
in countries outside France, as England, 
Spain, Italy, &c. These reports, sometimes 
including a critical and comprehensive mono- 
graph on the MSS. of a special subject — e.g,^ 
on those of the Chronicle of Bruty in Anglo- 
Norman {Bull, iii. 1878), and on the Prise de 
JhruscUem {Bull, iv. 1875) — ^^ largely due 
to the indefatigable pen of the Secretary, M. 
Paul Meyer. By degrees, a valuable body 
of information will thus be brought toge- 
ther, which will enable French students to 
register their literary possessions, and to see 
what has fo be done to render them avail- 
able. It is to be hoped that after a time 
a good index may be compiled to these 
Bulletins^ which will then become a sort of 
Warton for early French literature. It is a 
comment on the influence of early French 
that its MSS. should be so widely dis- 
persed. While the English MSS., for ex- 
ample, to be found on the Continent are few, 
and, for the most part, unimportant, French 

* The issues of 188 1 are delayed, owing to illness 
and death among some of the members, but the arrears 
are being made up. Among the books promised is 
the Vic de St, Cilles^ with a valuable introduction on 
the hagiology and literary and linguistic questions 
arising out of it, by M. Gaston Paris. 



THE EARLY FRENCH TEXT SOCIETT. 



«S» 



MSS. possessed in England are nnmeroiiSy 
and many of them of the highest interest. 

Passing the works ah^ady issued under 
rapid review^ according to the class of subject- 
matter rather than in the order of their pub- 
licadon^ we have among the chansons de geste^ 
two of the thirteenth century ; one tells the 
story of Aioly his lather Elie, and his wife 
Mirabel (1877), a romance which was imi- 
tated later by the Dutch, the Italians, and 
the Spanish; the other, which tells the 
adventures, till his marriage with Avisse, of 
Aiol's father. Elude St Giiie (1879X belongs 
to it, both being connected with one of the 
three great French epics — viz., the Geste de 
Manglane. M. J. Normand and M. G. 
Raynaud together edited Aiol^ the latter 
alone finished Eiie, The story of EiUj less 
popular than Aioi, is only known in one imi- 
tation, the Scandinavian Elissaga ; this being 
of considerable interest, a prose translation 
by Prof. Kolbing, of Breslau, is added. The 
glossaries to these two volumes are comple- 
mentary to each other. 

A third chanson de geste drawn from 
the south ; Daurel ct Bcton, edited by M. P. 
Meyer (1880), from a unique MS. belonging 
to M. A. Didot, is the first Provencal text 
issued by the Society. Attached to the great 
Charlemagne cycle — for Beton was his 
nephew — this tale of a false friend, an affec- 
tionate widow, and a faithfiil bard protecting 
the infancy of the hero is now brought to 
light for the first time; according to the 
habit of the careful and talented editor the 
volume is enriched not only by the aids of 
full anal3rsis and glossary, but by observations 
on the character and composition of the 
poem, its language and place in the debated 
epic literature of the South. By this scien- 
tific examination he establishes further his 
conviction of " Tinddpendance absolue de 
r^popde fran^aise, dans toutes ses parties, k 
regard des compositions ^piques du midi." 
The Didot MS. contains seven other pieces, 
which are all fully described in this, one of 
the most complete and interesting volumes 
of the series. 

Among romances of the fourteenth cen- 
tury we have three, Guillaume de Paleme^ 
edited by M. Michelant (1876), the original 
poem of the story known in England as 
WUliam and the Werwolf (edited by Prof. 



Skeat in 1867 for the Eariy English Text 
Society) ; two versions of the prose Rommm 
des Seft Sages, French being one out of six- 
teen languages in which one group merely 
(setting aside the Oriental part) of that popu- 
lar collection is known ; this is edited by M. 
Gaston Paris (1876), unrivalled for his skill 
in unravelling the tangled relations and 
descent of popular stones. The third is 
Bmn de la Montcugne (editor, M. P. Meyer, 
1375X A hitherto unknown fragment of a 
poetical romance which gives the adventures 
in love and war of the hero Brun, influenced 
by the forest fairies, one of whom is, of 
course, malignant. Students of the Arthur 
cycle may be interested in the part played 
in this story by the fairy Morgana, cousin of 
Arthur. 

In the department of ancient religious 
drama the Society has two large undertakings 
on hand, of great importance for their sub- 
ject matter and the excellent manner in 
which they are produced. The Miracles de 
Notre Dame (begun 1876), a collection of 
forty plays, is being edited, for the first time, 
by MM. G. Paris and U. Robert, fi*om the 
unique fourteenth-century MS. in the Biblio- 
th^que Nationale; five volumes, containing 
thirty-two miracles are already out, while a 
sixth is in progress; two further volumes 
with notes and a glossary will put the public 
in possession of a work valuable on account 
of its rare character, because " la forme de 
ces mystferes et leur brifevetd les distinguent 
nettement des drames religieux de T^poque 
qui a pr6cdd^ et de celle qui a suivi." A 
melancholy interest attaches to the second of 
these works, the Mysth^e du Viel Testament^ 
from the recent sudden death at an early age 
of the gifted and generous editor. Baron James 
de Rothschild, to whose memory a memorial 
notice appeared in Le Livre of December 
last. One of the principal founders of the 
Society, and taking throughout an active part 
in itsproceedings,he showed the warm interest 
that he felt in its prosperity by the commence- 
ment in 1878 of a fine edition of this vast 
collection of plays (a collection so long that 
it must have occupied twenty-five days in 
the whole peHbrmance, as it took place at 
the beginning of the fifteenth century); 
which he not only presented to the Society 
free of cost, but edited with a learning and 



iS> 



THE EARLY FRENCH TEXT SOCIETY. 



varied research of high order. No one, on 
turning over the pages of the two volumes 
akeady issued (which contain the annotations 
proper to each portion without waiting for 
the completion of the whole), will be sur- 
prised at the mournful tribute paid to the 
literary powers of the Baron by the President 
of the Society in his Report for 1881 ; and 
the remark that, French at heart while re- 
maining faithful to his peculiar race, he felt 
a special attraction in illustrating this great 
work ''oil se reflate la mani^e dont les 
Frangais d'autrefois ont compris Fhistoire 
d'Israel," shows the true character of the 
man and his work. We rejoice to learn 
that the four volumes yet necessary to com- 
plete the Mystlre du Viel Testament will be 
presented to the Society by the late Baron's 
widow imder^the able editorship of his friend, 
M. Picot Vols. I. and II. (1878, 1879) 
contain twenty-three plays, from the Creation 
to the casting of Joseph into the well ; the 
third will soon be ready. 

One of the first issues of the Society was 
a charming volume of Chansons du i^e 
Sikle (1875), edited from a MS. in the 
Bibliolhfeque Nationale by M. G. Paris; 
popular songs which are, as the editor says, 
"Fexpression fidfcle et spontande du gdnie 
frangais." And not only the words, but if 
we choose to listen, here are also die old 
melodies of the 143 songs transcribed from 
the MS. into modern musical notation by the 
care of M. Gevaert, Director of the Con- 
servatoire of Brussels. Could the poetry of 
antiquity go further? In 1878 and 1880 
have been issued the first two volumes of a 
complete edition of Eustache DeschampSy an 
undertaking that will extend over several 
years, under the zealous care of M. le Marquis 
de St. Hilaire. Out of the immense number 
of poetical pieces, over 1,480, which this 
great contemporary and fiiend of our Chaucer 
left behind him, we have here 303 Balades 
de Moralitez and twelve Lays, Many 
students probably know his balade to Chaucer 
when sending him his works, in which he 
addresses the English poet thus : — 

O Socrates plains de philosophie, 
Seneque en meurs et Anglux en pratique, 
Ovides grans en ta poeterie, 
Bries en parler, saiges en rethorique, &c. ; 

but fewer will perhaps guess the curiosities 



that await the scholar in English history who 
may dip into these volumes with a seeing 
eye. Such are the balades 'f Contrei'Angle- 
terre," 1385 ; and "De la prophede Merlin 
sur la destruction d'Angleterre qui doit brief 
advenir." The editor, persuaded that great 
part of Deschamps' poetry is inspired by 
contemporary events, reserves his historic 
notice of the life and works of the poet till 
the text shall be printed, a completion of his 
task which will be looked for with much 
interest 

The remaining prose issues are of various 
interest Le Saint Voyage de yherusaUm du 
seigneur d'Angiure in the fourteenth century 
will attract the attention of those who love 
the quaint old narratives of travel, especially 
to the Holy Land, of the Middle Ages. This 
volume is edited by the scrupulous care of 
MM. F. Bonnardot, and A. Longnon (1S78), 
witji illustrative appendices. The Chronipu 
du Mont St. Michel fi-om 1343-1468, 
edited for the first time, with notes and 
documents relative to that place and to the 
national defence in Basse Normandie during 
the English occupation, by M. Sim^n Luce 
C1879), appeals to \ht patriotism of French- 
men, but no less to the genuine interest of 
every student among us of the English wars 
in France. Its importance lies, as the editor 
remarks, in the elucidation of one of the most 
dramatic episodes of French annals of the fif- 
teenth century. What Englishmen now cannot 
honour the brave defenders and maintainers 
of French executive administration within 
the rocky fortress during a blockade of 
twenty-six years ! Lastly, equally attractive 
to the English scholar for a later period, is 
The DAate between the Heralds of England 
and France^ edited by M. Paul Meyer (1877), 
which is not a piece of dry heraldry, but a 
reprint of two tracts, one written by a French- 
man about 1456, to uphold the superiority of 
France over neighbouring nations, and es- 
pecially over England ; the other printed in 
1550, in English, by John Coke, in answer to 
it. The heralds plead before Lady Prudence 
the claims of their respective countries to be 
approached by Honour ; in the course of their 
debate we learn many curious particulars of 
the condition of both countries, political 
allusions, and popular beliefs which passed as 
history. We do not all of us remember that 



THE EARLY FRENCH TEXT SOCIETY. 



^^l 



Charlemagne conquered England, or that the 
English for their sins must wear tails ! John 
Coke, not a whit behind his French antago- 
nists, searching chronicles and histories, 
throws his facts with a " Nowe ! syr heralde, 
to dygest your dyner/'&c. An English trans- 
lation of tiie French tract was published by 
the late Mr. Henry Pyne in 1870. The present 
volume commands a wider interest from the 
fuller details of social life in both countries 
told in the quaint originals, corrected and 
supplemented by the abundant notes of the 
editor, who is nearly as much at home in 
English as in French. Antiquaries who love 
Tudor England should not neglect this book. 

In dosmg this sketch of work done, one 
or two points remain to be noticed. The 
aid aflforded in the way of glossaries occurs 
in the followmg : to the Chansons AM and 
ElU de St. GiUe for French of the thirteenth 
century; toBrun de taMontaigneiox fourteenth 
century ; to Saint Voyage de yherusalem for 
Metz idiom of fifteenth century ; to Daurel 
and Beton for Provengale. Others will follow 
in due course on the close of works begun. 
The books that will have most attraction for 
English readers are perhaps Guiilaume of 
PcSerne^ the Mystere du Viel Testament for 
the highly interesting comparison with early 
miracle plays of our own country, the 
poems of Deschamps^ the D&at and the 
Chronique de St. Aitchel^ on the grounds we 
have endeavoured to show above. The 
Society is open, and each book may be 
purchased separately ;* while as far as out- 
side goes, paper, prmt, and good binding are 
all ^t could be desired, of excdlent 
quality without extravagance. 

Notwithstanding the severe losses sustained 
lately by the death of M. Paulin Paris 
(father of M. Gaston Paris) — whose literary 
activity of nearly fifty years helped greatly 
to pave the way for the young Society — of 
M. Littr^, and of the English scholu Mr. 
Henry Nicol, the third Bulletin for 1881 
shows renewed exertion and promise that the 
future work will fully sustain the character 
of the past. Among projected issues are a 
coUection of ancient versions of the Gospel 
of Nicodemus, which will be of great value 

• The publishers are Firmin-Didot & €*•., 56, 
Rue Jacob, Paris.) Subscriptions are] paid to M. £. 
Picot, 135, ATcnne de Wagxam. 

VOL V. 



to both English and German students of 
middle-age literature; the Vie du Pape St, 
Gregoire ; and a new edition of the chanson 
de geste^ Raoul de Cambrai^ important firom 
showing a series of episodes of the feudal 
history of the ninth century ; that it is to 
be edited by MM. Meyer and Longnon, is 
enough to guarantee full and rich illustration. 
The long works already begun will steadily 
continue, and as soon as possible the publi- 
cation of a collection of Sotties\ farces et 
morcUiiks from the earliest time of the French 
drama, which the Society have long promised 
themselves, will be set in hand. 

If a French scholar sets before himself as 
a law of criticism *' the knowledge of the 
sources of every work, be it historic or 
literarj' " because we thus arrive at " a clear 
idea of the value of every composition, 
distinguishing what is the result of the 
imagination or reflections of the author from 
the elements borrowed from other works" 
(M. Meyer's Report, Bulletin ii., 1879), 
English students are no less doing the same, 
of which eminent examples are not far to 
seek, as in the recent treatment of Chaucer, 
&C. The further we go the more each 
country will have need of the other. Let us 
hope that Englishmen, whose literature and 
history are so entwined with those of France 
in early times, will not be backward in 
supporting sudi worthy efforts, which, the 
more help they receive, will yield the better 
and greater harvest for the in-gathering. 

L. TouLMiN Smith. 



Vx^M/WV'Kakf 



Itilcolman Caetle. 



ILCOLMAN CASTLE is out of the 
ordinary track of the tourist ; it is 
not in the list of places to be visited 
by the traveller in search of memo- 
rable spots; no initials are carved on its 
ruined walls. To most people the very name 
of it is unfamiliar, and its associations un- 
known ; yet it is a place of more than ordinary 
interest, for, during the best years of his life, 
it was the abode of one of our greatest poets, 
Edmund Spenser; here the Faerie Queene 
was chiefly written, and from the character of 




»S4 



KILCOLMAN CASTLE. 



the scenery of the surrounding neighbourhood 
much of the imagery of that poem was taken. 
The Castle, now a complete ruin, is in the 
County of Cork, near the village of Buttevant 
—the nearest town of any importance being 
Mallow, nine miles distant Though mas- 
sively built, its proportions are extremely 
small — indeed the title of castle would seem 
to be. as in the case of so many Irish resi- 
dences, one of courtesy, and Spenser himself 
spoke of it as " my house at Kilcolman.'' 
His residence here began about the year 
1588 ; the castle was granted to him by the 
Crown, together with three thousand acres of 
land, from the forfeited estates of the Earls 
of Desmond, and he was thus an object of 
particular dislike to the natives. And their 
hatred, constantly manifested during the ten 

J ears — among the most troubled in Irish 
istory— of his life here, finally culminated in 
the burning of his home, and his flight fi'om 
the country, — ** Ireland for the Irish" being 
an article of national faith of no modem 
creation. 

In one respect only has the aspect of the 
coimtry changed much since the time when 
Spenser lived here — namely, that it is less 
wooded. The thriftless landlord of the past 
has left his mark all over Ireland in this 
respect, and the peasant has been his assis- 
tant; for timber, and especially young 
timber was, and is, unless a vigilant watch 
is kept over it, systematically stolen. But in 
most respects the country is not altered. We 
may look round from the Castle and see still 
much the same scene as met the poet's eye : 
the wide valley, " Armulla Dale," as he calls 
it, stretches far away on all sides, except the 
north, where the purple heather-clad hills 
of Ballyhouraare close at hand, and eastward 
rise gradually till they terminate in the blue 
summits of the Galtee mountains. Five or 
six miles southward is another chain of hills ; 
but to the west the plain extends far away to 
the Killamey mountains, to Mangerton, and 
the Magillycuddy's Reeks, all clearly visible. 
It is a fertile green valley, cut up with grey 
stone walls, and great broad banks, grown 
with furze. Here and there, like little is- 
lands in the expanse of meadow, and furze 
bloom, are patches of woodland, which 
surround the houses of the large landowners, 
the " great houses," as they are called. But 



the ugly whitewashed houses of the tenant- 
farmers and squireens stand naked, and 
have seldom a tree or a bush near tfaem. 
The Englishman will miss the hedges and 
hawthorns, which in the most treeless English 
region, give a wooded appearance to the 
scene ; but he will notice thiat the great banks, 
yellow with gorse, and with the deep dyke on 
either side, filled with ferns, and briars, and 
wild fiovtrers, are a feature as constant in the 
scene as are the hedges in England. 

Down from the Ballyhoura Hills — called 
by Spenser, " Father Mole," flows the little 
river Awbeg, Spenser's " MuUa Mine" (and 
he seems to have, in most cases, substituted 
names more melodious, or easy of scansion, 
for the originals), passing within a mile or so 
of the Castle. And in Colin Cloufs come home 
again^ a poem in which Spenser tells us more 
than in any other place of his life at ELilcol- 
man, we find this allusion to it and the 
district : — 

Old Father Mole (Mole hight that mountain gray 
That walls the Northside of Armulla Dale), 
He had a daughter fresh as floure of May, 
Which gave that name unto that pleasant vale ; 
Mulla, the daughter of old Mole, so hig^t 
The Nimph, which of that water course has charge, 
That, sprmging out of Mole, doth run downe right 
To Buttevant, where, spreading forth at large 
It giveth name unto that auncient cittie, 
Which Kilnemullah cleped is of old. 

The name '^ Kilnemullah" has entirely dis- 
appeared j but that Buttevant was once so 
called points to the fact " Mulk" is not, as 
is generally supposed, a merely fanciful title, 
but one of more ancient date than Awbeg. 
The etymology of the word Buttevant is 
itself curious, and the place, which is now an 
insignificant village, sadly belies it It is 
derived from an old French word hutez^ 
meaning '^ push" and en avant; but as there 
are traces in the ruins there that it was once 
a place of more importance than now, " that 
auncient cittie" seems to have pushed back- 
ward rather than forward. At Buttevant the 
little river makes a bend, and again flows 
within a short distance of the Castle, after 
passing the ruined monastery of Ballybeg. 
Thence it runs down to Doneraile, soon 
after to mingle with the beautiful Blackwater, 
the— 

Swift Awniduff, which of the English men 
Is cal'de Blacke Water, 



KILCOLMAX CASTLE. 



I5S 



as it is mentioned amaog odier ilwas in tiie 
fourth book of t!ie Faerie Qmesoc, 25 present 
at the marriage of die rirer Thames widi the 
Medway ; and among these, also, the fittle 
Awb^ is again beantifally alhided to 

MoIIa mimtg vhasevsres viiikan I tsng^ to 



It was mendoned that Spenser recexred his 
property from the forfeited estates of the 
Eaiis of Desmond. It vas the costom at 
this time to make soch grants to Englishmen, 
with a view to the settlement and administra- 
don of the coontiy ; and it devolved upon 
the receivers to look after the wd£ue of their 
neigbbomhood and bring the land into 
cultivation. Sir Walter Raleigh, an old friend 
of Spenser, had received a amUar grant; and 
during the poefs residence here payed hnn at 
least one visit. It is posable, though hardly 
probable, judging from his prose work, 
A VUw of the Present StaU of Ireland^ that 
Spenser thought more about writing verses 
and Fairyland than of doing his duty by his 
estate; or that the very occupation of a 
poet seemed one of idleness to his adven- 
turous friend, or it may have been only 
banter, but Raleigh certainly accused him of 
want of industry, for in the preface to Colin 
Claufs come home again Spenser writes to 
him thus : — 

Sir, 

That yoa may see that I am not alwaies ydle» 
as yee thinke, though not greatly well occapied, nor 
altogether nndntifdl, though not predselT omdoos, I 
m^e yoa present of this simple postorall, &c. 

Among other local matters alluded to in this 
poem, he shows how difficult the dudes 
attending his posidon' were, and that the 
occupation of land in Ireland was as danger- 
ous a business then as it is now. 

The following verses give us a picture of 
the state of things. In contrasting another 
region with this he says : — 

No waylii^ there nor wretchednesse is heard, 

No bloodie issaes nor no leprosies, 

No griesly famine nor no raging sweard 

No nightly brodrags [border raids], nor no hue and 

cries ; 
The shepheard there abroad may safely lie 
On hills and downs, wUhouten dread or daunger ; 
No ravenous wolves the good man's hope destroy, 
Nor ontlawes fell affray the forest raunger. 

Further on, his visit from Sir Walter is 
commemorated. He describes how, as he 
was sitting one day, as was his custom, 



''under the foot of Mde," keepix^ his 

sheep ''amongst the cooly shade of die 

green aiders by the MuUa's shore," a strange 

shepherd (Sir W^Jter) chanced to find him 

out, who called himself the shepherd of the 

ocean. 

And said he came hx hom the main^sea deepe, 

He, satting me besade in that same shade, 

Provoked me to p^aie some pleastnt fit ; 

And wben be beaxd the mnsacke which I made. 

He foimd himsilie fdl greatly j^easd at it : 

Yet «*-nnnlif^ [enmlatxx^ my pipe, he tooke in hood 

My pcpe bdore that aemnled of many. 

And pbid thereon (lor well that skill he cond ;) 

Hzmsilfe as skilfiol in the art as any. 

He pip'd I simg ; and when he sang I piped.'* 

*' He pip'd I sung," and remembering that 
it was Sir Walter Raleigh who did so, we can 
almost fancy a tobacco-pipe must have been 
referred to, and that he would have felt more 
at home with this in his mouth than a reed- 
flute. But it is interesting to picture these 
two great meiu fiiends here, and imagine how 
pleasant it would be to Spenser in his 
solitude to hear the news of the Court, and 
the distant world which Raleigh would brir^, 
and the schemes he would put forward as 
they walked togedier *' by the green aiders 
of the Mulla's ^ore." 

One result of Raleigh's visit was^ that he 
induced Spenser to pay a short visit to 
England, during which he arranged for the 
publicadon of the complete part of the 
Faerie Queene. 

He found another companion, though, ere 
long. Soon after his return, he was married 
to the lady to whom his soimets were 
addressed, and who, for so long, withheld her 
love from him. 

The bringing home of his '* beautifiillest 
bride'* to Kilcolman is described in his 
Epithalamiumy that sweet song of her praises 
to which, as it runs — 

The woods did answer and their echo ring. 

And in this song made in lieu of many 
ornaments, he again alludes to his little river, 
and to the lake before the Castie — 

Ye nymphes of Mulla, which with careful heed 
The silver scalv trouts doc tend full well, 
And greedy pikes which use therein to feed ; 
(Those trouts and pikes all others doo excell). 

The trout-fishing in the Awbeg is certainly 
good, but that they excel all others is a point 
which modern fishermen would dispute with 

M a 



^S6 



KILCOLMAN CASTLE. 



the poet And here with his wife and 
young &mily he continued to live apparently 
a happy and studious life until the year 1598, 
tiie last of his life. In that year, another 
rebellion broke out, and he was one of its 
victims. The hatred of the people to the 
foreigner found vent — ^they broke upon his 
house, and set fire to it, and he and his 
fiunily barely escaped ; indeed, his youngest 
child is said to have been burnt. Little 
more is known of him ; than that he died 
shortly afterwards in London, in poor cir- 
cumstances, and was buried in Westminster 
Abbey, tiie funeral being attended by many 
illustrious persons. 

Isolated and far from his friends as 
Spenser was in his Irish home, the place in 
many respects suited his genius. There is 
about this country here, though its beauty is 
by no means remarkable, a charm of its own, 
a remoteness from the world of men, and a 
wild picturesqueness, which may, combined, 
have had no little effect in shaping the 
fancies of the poet. It is a region teeming 
with traditions, wild stories, and fairy lore to 
this day. Its separation from the busy 
world was, in Spenser's day, almost com- 
plete; no dweller in the backwoods of 
America is at the present day so isolated as 
was the English settler in Ireland then. 
To a man of literary habits, who had not 
a love of solitude, a residence here would 
amoimt to a banishment the most miser- 
able. But though Spenser often may have 
sighed for the society of congenial spirits, 
of that brilliant circle, which at the time 
surroimded the throne of the Queen he so 
delighted to honour, he was the best fitted 
for this isolation of all his contemporaries. 

To imagine Shakespeare here, indeed, is 
almost absurd. In the world of men in 
which he moved he was in his true element ; 
but with human nature Spenser had little to 
do. His characters, whenever they occur, 
are abstractions, embodiments of moral 
qualities, or natural scenes, and in the 
presence of Nature he was seldom lonely. 
The rivers and mountains and woods 
aroimd him constantly figure in his poems 
which, no doubt, also were influenced by 
the fkiry lore of that wild region. There 
are, at the present time, few places where 
belief in the world of spirits is so strong 



as here. Hills and wells, the very fields 
here have fairy legends connected witfi them. 
And "the fairy's field," "the litde man's 
hill,'' and such like, are frequent names. 
Cluricoms, elves, banshees, " little people" 
and " good people" are firmly believed in ; 
and few peasants will venture near suspected 
spots after nightfalL But all traces of 
Spenser himself, and his beautiful world of 
Faerie, have disappeared^ if, indeed, they 
were ever known, from the place where they 
had birth. 

You may meet a peasant near the Castle, 
and ask him if he ever heard of Spenser, who 
lived there once, and he will answer " No" 
or "Yes, yer honour, I heard tell of a 
Misther Spinser, who was agent to Lord 
Doneraile, over — an English gintleman he 
was." But nothing nearer the mark than 
this. The Casde stands there lonely and 
unvisited, a few cottages are near, and the 
sheep feed on the green slope where the 
poet and his wife — perhaps Raleigh, too — 
have sat in the evening and watched the sun 
set far away over the hills of Killamey. Old 
Father Mole stands in the background, 
and the little MuUa flows hard by. But there 
is a silence and a loneliness about the place, 
few sounds ever break it, except when occa- 
sionally the huntsman's horn is heard, or the 
wildfowl scream, as they come home at night 
to the little reedy lake in front of the casde. 

Sidney Lysaght. 

Redland, BristoL 



H Cbat about CbatvBooIiBt 




SHORT time since I published in 
Notes and Queries^ by the courtesy 
of the editor, my desire for some 
information as to the German 
Volksbuch version of the Infantia Salvatoris^ 
of which I had formerly a copy, but which I 
have lost or mislaid. On Saturday, the 4th 
of February, I had the pleasant surprise of 
receiving by post, thanks to the courtesy of 
Dr. Kohler, of Weimar, a copy of the book 
itself. It is not the edition I formerly 
possessed, but for the information of those 
who may share my interest in it, I transcribe 
the title-page x-^DesHerm/esu ChrisH Kinder- 



A CSAT ABOUT CBAP-BOOKS. 



m 



Sutk, sier Bitifrie nm yoadiim md Anna, 
t^irir dtnt TtdHerDtsymigfmu Maria, dot 

Grwsstltmt, mtdEitam wtwrr Hemt, sa wU 
nw dtam dimrt mui Auferziekmtg, saner 
FiacAi, tamir Ridckdtr imd saner graaen 

Wnmieneerkt a ytmadem umo., 148 

It is one of 1 collection of 77 Volksbacher 
pob&shed zt Rending bj Fn'tsJi" and 
I-aiblm. As I have leqaested Messrs. 
ivmiuns i No^Ic to impcvt for me a set 
of this int n e stiu g coIlectioQ of Chap Books, 
anjr of my readers who may desire a. copy o£ 
Da Strm yau Ckris^i Xixder-BatA wOl, no 
doab^ soon find one in Honieta Street. 

How nztmalfy 
does the mattiDn 
of Ch^^Booka re- 
call to my mind 
Die mcnoty 01 ny 
dearoldleuned — 
and kind as he was 



place with woodcuts, without much iqpid to 
the connection be^reea the text ^d the 
pictures iriiich were mppoMd to illiutnte ic 
Sut I do not think he had noticed what I 
discovered only a few yeais ago, that maay al 
the wood blocks used in illostrating these 
Penny Histories had been imported houi 
abroaJd — iome of them being identkaJ widi 
those used in ttx folio eriition of I>st 
Heldeninck, published at Frank fort^oa- Maine, 
in 1569, which is printed in doable eofanaas 
and enriched with a great nnmber of wood 
engravings. The reader iriio ia interested 
in die subject of this library intercoone, JBttf 
le&rto i1&feca«^Qw7ier, Second Ser.ToLfK, 
p. 3i,«Aeiiehew3l 
lind a short paper, 
in iriiich I eade** 
TOored to eiiGrt 
sooie scholar, wiA 
more letstse aad 
knoiried^dua I 
possess, To take op 
and prawe au» iB- 




deifiil Itbiaiy in 
Gower Street was 
spent in a gossip 
over tiiae curious 

first frtdts nf T.itFT -.. 

atorc. How it ° 
originated X know 
not: pcfaaps in 
my tdlrng him of 
a recent piece of 
Book Lmx (don't object to the woirf, Gemle 
Reader? ?aa mxf, if I bzre health, hear 
much more about it) in picking up a Tery 
coriaaB coQectian of Old English Penny 
Histories ; hot however the gassip may have 
originated, my old &iend disconrsed most 
doquenriy on their or^ln and liistory-. f 
remember his telling me that he hart iieard, 
from a man who in his time published wch 
dniq^ that as die cost of setting in type in^ 
mcreased with die increase of finnters'-vagcn, 
thepnblidieis, to curtail the quantity of printed 
matter, were in the habit of snf^lying^ lu 



pointed oat AnS 
'• KeptetriOe^m 
deariy came t» 
OS frwB die Lew 
Coomries; The 
Merry yat ^ m 
Man that igm 
eaOed Btmle^gif, 
probably AtMigh 
the same soorce; 
YMtDoaorJfitmtia 
immigrated ftotA 
Germany, and die 
firust 1^ X^aien- 
/lerg, that curiotw 
companion to FMenspiegd, from the saaie 
comitry." 

A history of English rhap-hookA is !»dly 
wanted; .-uwi at the fonnation rtf ih« ?olfr 
I/ire Sweety, in F878, I injwlirtomly pm- 
mited to iindrrtalffl ihe rompilation (if a 
frrah .rffort in this rtire/^iion- * irfomine, how- 
CTW, whi-^h I now irf\ mywlf ntUTly iinikbhi 
to fulfil, iwW on .iTViMint f»f itlminished 
int*T«!t m ill* iiitilrfl, Iwi for thr nrwr 
rrf rny iwrt-a»ini( /ra« \iM\r\\ rtrnder 

Imv* in il>"il' \(<M<i ('liMIn ,« WiMtM 



Xm\V 



XS8 



A CffAT ABOUT CffAP^BOOKS. 



it impossible for me to undertake the hard 
work it involves. By a happy coincidence, 
since this was written and put in t3rpe this 
want has been partly supplied by Mr. A^hton's 
interesting and amusing volume, Chap-Books 
of the Eighteenth Century^ published by Chatto 
&Windus; in which at p. 276 the reader 
will find " The Wise Men of Gotham," the 
illustration of which is copied from the head- 
ing of a ballad in the wonderfiil collection of 
Roxburgh Ballads in the British Museum. 

A learned friend, knowing I was contemplat- 
ing this paper, has written to me as follows — 
One of the most curious points in connection 
with the history of chap-books is the variations 
that occur in the issues from different towns, 
and readers of the Antiquary will be doing 
good service by recording from time to 
time lists of chap-books, with the place 
of publication. The following few titles 
will afford specimens of what such lists 
would consist of: — The History of Four 
KingSy Aldermary Churchyard ; Chrisfs 
Kirk on the Greene j Stirling ; History 
of Mother Shipton^ London; Ship ton and 
her Prophecies^ Stirling ; The Battle of 
Bannockbunty Edinburgh; The Wandering 
Young Gentlewoman^ or Catskin (Catnach) ; 
Life and Death of Tliomas Thumbs Edinbmrgh ; 
History of Jack and the Giants^ Newcastle ; 
The Virtuous Wife of Bristol^ Tewkesbury ; 
The Life and Exploits of Rob Roy McGregor^ 
Stirling; The Life and Exploits of Poor 
Robin, the Merry Saddler of Walden, Fal- 
kirk; AH Baba, or the Forty Thieves, 
Stirling ; The whole Art of Fortune Telling, 
Gateshead. But I am boimd to say that the 
country-printed chap-books in my possession 
do not bear out my friend's theory. 

The mention of Catskin, however, reminds 
me of the curious paper by my kind 
and learned friend Mr. Coote, in the 
third volume of the Folk-Lore Record, in 
which he throws so curious a light on the 
present state of what was once the only 
" Popular Literature," in this country that I 
must be permitted to quote it at length. 
Mr. Coote says of the story of Catskin — 

In all probability another English version still de 
facto exists in the heart of London, however little 
hope there be of its ever confing to light. I mean the 
version once prevailing in our metropolis, which imtil 
twenty years ago was bought and sold in Seven Dials. 
My knowledge of this curious fact is of very recent 



date. Towards the end of last Febmaiy a feeling of 
prevision took me to Monmonth Court, Seven Duds, 
to the shop of Mr. W. S. Fortey, printer and publisher 
of what literature still survives in that somewhat 
unsavoury locality, and there I learnt what follows : — 
Thirty years ago his house took over from Mr. Pitt, 
a printer of the neighbouring Little St Andrew Street, 
his business, his copyrights, and his unsold stock. 
Our re<liscovered Catskin was amongst the latter, and 
the new purchasers continued to print and sell her 
story until about twenty years ago,^ when the public 
demand flickered and its re-production ceased. Old 
narrative poetry of this sort had been superseded by 
more appetizing pabulum. A similarlv once popular 
ballad, called the Fish and the RiHg^ shared the same 
fate at the same time. Since that epoch Catskin has 
never been set up. She and her old-world sister, still 
unsold, were relegated to the obscurity of a garret in 
Mommouth Court, and there they are. "It would 
take three or four whole days to look them through," 
said Mr. Fortey, "and without that lookmg through 
there would be no chance of finding Catski n ." Her 
ballad, I further learnt, was a little (penny) book, 
adorned with four woodcuts, perhaps one to each 
canto. One of these cuts was still agreeably fresh in 
Mr. Fortey's memory, for the recollection made him 
mirthful even in the gloom of a wet afternoon in 
February. In this cut Catskin sat nursing her cat. 
Does not this latter circumstance look like a special 
feature peculiar to the London version ? This cat may 
be Catskin's fairy adviser, and through her mysterious 
agency may have come the feline doak, which has given 
a lasting name to the heroine. I found Mr. Fortey 
pleasant and intelligent, but firm in maintaining the 
inaccessibility of his stores— a resolutionthe more to 
be regretted as they promise much to the Folk-Lorist. 

In common with all who have the advan- 
tage of numbering Mr. Coote among their 
friends I earnestly hope that he may soon 
be restored to his wonted health and strength. 
I remember Mr. Douce telling me, on the 
occasion I mention above, a curious story of 
Miss Banks, the sister of Sir Joseph Banks, 
who interested herself a good deal in literary 
and antiquarian inquiries, going to purchase 
some of these chap-books at a shop in Shoe 
Lane. She was a very plain quiet-dressing 
old lady, and when she said she wanted to 
buy a dozen Penny Histories, the bookseller 
spread a number of them on the counter for 
her to choose from, when he, who supposed 
her to be a dealer, reproached her for not 
knowing her business as she had selected 
only twelve (instead of thirteeen or fourteen 
to the dozen, as the custom of the trade was). 
Miss Banks then made up her packet to the 
required number, and quietly putting down 
her shilling on the counter to pay for them, 
was bidding the bookseller " Good morning,'^ 
when she was onciei more reproached by the 



A CHAT ABOUT CHAP-BOOKS. 



159 




good man of the shop for not knowing her 
business and waiting for the threepence 
change out of the shilling. Miss Banks 
quietly submitted to the reproof, pocketed 
both that and the threepence ; and used to 
relate the story to the amusement of her 
friends. 

But methinks I have now chatted long 
enough. 

William J. Thoms, 



P^J^^t^LX^k. 



Xinbeei? 5u0tice0 of peace in 
tbe 1?eifin of Ibenn? IDlll^ 

[E records of the realm are being 
slowly brought into order. But a 
few years ago they were scattered 
in countless repositories, and in 
many cases liable to all the varied dangers 
which ignorance atfd carelessness could 
inflict; now they are for the most part 
gathered together in one place and are 
preserved with all the care that the most 
scrupulous antiquary could desire. If the 
work of cataloguing and calendaring goes on 
but slowly, we may well .be patient when we 
call to mind what an almost inexhaustible 
store of treasure has alrpady been brought 
to light. At the present rate of progress 
however, there will be much left to do when 
the present generation of students has passed 
away. The Star Chamber records, for 
example, are almost unknown^ though manu- 
script calendars of a portion of them are to 
be found on the shelves of the search room 
in the Public Record Office. Why these 
highly curious papers have attracted so little 
attention it would not be easy to tell. The 
evil odour into which that court fell during 
the latter years of its existence would, one 
might have thought, have stimulated cui;iosity 
as to its proceedings. It has not been so, 
and the student of the manners of the 
sixteenth century has suffered some loss 
in consequence. To give an idea, however 
&int, of the general character of these old 
papers is beyond our present purpose ; we 
wish to direct attention to two documents 
only which relate to a riot at Caistor sessions 
in the twenty-fifth year of Henry VIII. 
They are of considerable local interest, as 



almost every person concerned in the 
turmoil belonged to one of the more 
important families of Lindsey, and nearly 
all of them were justices of the peace. 
The office of justice of peace, it may be 
remarked, though of great antiquity, does 
not seem to have been considered a very 
important post, when the feudal system was 
in its full vigour. It is not until the Wars of 
the Roses had weakened the power of the 
great nobles that we find the justices exercis- 
ing the local influence which we are ac- 
customed to associate with the office. In the 
reign of Henry Vlll.thejustices of peace for 
counties had become jmportant functionaries, 
and they were always or almost always chosen 
from the ranks of the aristocracy. Lincoln- 
shire has three commissions ; whatever 
modem books of reference may say to the 
contrary, there is no such thing as a justice 
of pe^ce for Lincolnshire ; they are justices 
for Lindsey, Kesteven, or Holland only, 
although there is no restriction now, nor 
has there been at any former time, hindering 
the same person being on the commission of 
each separate division. I have examined 
many lists of our sixteenth-century justices, 
and cannot call to mind a single instance of 
a man filling the office who did not belong 
to the higher rank of the gentry. All those 
whose names I am about to mention were 
members of the higher untided houses — 
nobles, if I may be'permitted to use the word 
in what is now, but was not always, a foreign 
sense.* It was not till quite the end of the 
reign of Elizabeth, when the century was 
near its close, and when religious strife had 
rendered many of those best qualified for the 
post unable or unwilling to fill it, that the 
sarcasms as to the ignorance and rusticity of 
the men on the bench became a jest which 
never failed to raise a laugh among those who 
had been impeded in their amusements, their 
work, or their crimes by men whom they did 
not consider of higher standing than them- 
selves. Then it began to be conunon to talk 
of "basket justices," who were described as 
men "that for half a dozen of chickens will 
dispense with a whole dozen of penal 

* For evidence of this see Coke, ImHtutes^ ii. 667 ; 
Legh, Accidence of Armorie^ 17 ; Whitelock, Aie» 
mortals, ed. 1732, 66 ; Heylin, EccL Hestaurataf fcL 
1S49, i. 63 ; Nota and Qhcria, 3 S. ill 156^ 



i6o 



LINDSEY yUSTICES OF PEACE. 



statutes/'* It must be borne in mind that 
the disgraceful scene which we have to bring 
before our readers was enacted by men 
bearing the most honoured names in the shire. 
^ The Lindsey sessions have from time to 
time been held at various places in the divi- 
sion. Now they take place at Lincoln and 
Grimsby, but this is a new airangement 
Kirton-in-Lindsey, Spital-in-the-Street, Spils- 
by, and Caistor have at various times been 
honoiured by the sittings of this local court 
In 1533, Caistor was the place, or one of the 
places, selected for the assembly. And it is 
almost certain that Sir William A3rscough, of 
Stallingborough, Knight, the person who is 
believed to have been the father of Anne Ays- 
cough, or Askewe, the Protestant martyr, was 
chsmman on the occasion.' It would appear 
that in those da3rs the justices sat on the bench 
in positions according with their rank, though 
how such a very indefinite matter could have 
been settled it is not easy to imderstand. 
On this occasion Sir William A3rscough had 
taken his seat, and with him were John 
Copledyke, of Harrington, George Saint 
Paul, of Snarford, Vincent Grantham, of 
Saint Katherine*s-juxta-Lincoln, Thomas 
Moigne, of Willingham, and John Boothe, of 
Middlesoil, in Killingholme, Esquires. The 
public business seems to have been going on 
in a quietly satisfactory manner when WiUiam 
Tyrwhitt, of Scotter, one of the justices, and 
son and heir of Sir Robert Tyrwhitt, of 
Kettleby, came into court with his sword girt 
about him, gloves of mail on his hands, ac- 
companied Dy all his servants, armed with 
swords, bucklers, and short daggers, and 
going up to John Copledyke, " with a hye 
and a dysdanus countynans,*' accused him 
of occupying his rightful seat. Copledyke 
maintained that the place was his own, 
whereupon Tyrwhitt, waxing more violent, 
cried out " I wyll have ytt mawgry of thy 
hede." Copledyke replied in language 
which, considering the provocation, was not 
by any means violent, whereupon Tyrwhitt 
swore "by godes body" that if his father 
were not there he woidd make Copledyke 
"ete a dager." Sir Christopher Ayscough 
now saw that matters were becoming serious, 
and intervened on the side of peace by offer- 
ing William Tyrwhitt his own seat, which the 



^ • H. T. Buckle, MisceU Works, ii. 553, . 



*^ 



violent man at once accepted. There now 
seems to have been a general shuffle of 
places ; Sir William A3rscough (the chairman, 
as I believe) moved lugher up, nearer to Sir 
Robert Tyrwhitt, the fether of the factious 
William. By this means, it seems that William 
got the place that he originally strove for. 
Not content with this virtual success, he 
began to upbraid Copledyke, saying, '* now I 
have my place in the sp3rte of tiby tethe." 
Copledyke replied that he would give the 
father, Sir Robert, but not the son, room, 
whereupon Sir Robert Tjnrwhitt, who hitherto 
had conducted himself m a reasonable 'man- 
ner, lost his temper also, and said that he 
wished Copledyke had certain offensive matter 
in his teeth; and, turning round on him, 
called him a '' fooU and a dawe.'' Cople- 
dyke answered, no doubt fiercely, "dawe of 
thy hede," and laid his hand on his dagger ; 
whereupon the two Tyrwhitts drew theirs, 
and all their servants, with their daggers in 
their hands, rushed to the bench. The bag, 
or ' box, containing the official records, 
was overthrown, and its contents scattered 
abroad, so that, '* by a good space after, the 
darke of the peas and the vnder scheriiSr 
coude nott fynde the seid recordes." Two 
of the Tyrwhitts' retainers. Bower and Bel- 
lingham, were among the most violent. 
Blood would have been shed by them had 
not two of Sir William Ayscough's servants 
grasped their arms and held them. Sir William 
Ayscough now interfered, and chaiged all 
men to peace in the king's name, and ordered 
all servants firom the bar. Sir Robert Tji- 
whitt seems at last to have been ashamed of 
his conduct, and also endeavoured to quell 
the riot. The disturbance at length sub- 
sided; but the younger Tyrwhitt, when in 
the street, threatened to renew the fray if his 
proper place were not conceded to him. 
This, however, seems only to have been mere 
wild talk. Thus ended the first affiray. On 
the 15th of July, of what year is not stated, 
but there can be no doubt that it was 1534, 
William Tyrwhitt went to Caistor sessions, 
with thirty retainers, and when Sir WiUiam 
Ayscough was about to charge the grand jury, 
which had already been sworn, he, in com- 
pany with William Monson, of South Carlton, 
and James Mussenden, of Great Limber, 
swore, '^by the blode of god/' that Sir 



LINDSEY yUSTICES OF PEAC^. 



t«i 



WQliam should read no bill there, and gave 
him many violent and opprobrious words. A 
bill of indictment was at length preferred 
against certain riotous persons, and Uie grand 
jury having found a true bill, \^^lliam Tyr- 
whitt took the document off the file, and 
put it in his purse. Sir William Ayscough, 
with a mildness which would be indeed sur- 
prising, if we could be convinced that the 
scene was quite accurately reported, remon- 
strated by remarking thatTyrwhitt '^ handelled 
not hymselffe well or discretely in that place ;" 
which seems to have enraged Tjrrwhitt so 
much, that he drew his dagger, and would 
have stabbed Sir William on the bench, had 
he not been hindered. 

Here darkness settles down on this strange 
feud. The decree books of the Court of 
Star Chamber for this period are believed to 
be lost ; should they ever be recovered, we 
may perhaps ascertain how the quarrel ended. 
Its origin is enshrouded in darkness. The 
dispute about the seat on the bench was pro- 
bably only the colourable reason. All the 
persons concerned were either relations by 
blood or connections by marriage, and it is 
tfierefore, almost certain that it was a long 
standing quarrel which blazed forth into light 
at Caistor. It is not easy to estimate the 
characters of those so long dead, of whom so 
litde is recorded. We are, however, inclined, 
fircHn all we know of the persons, to think 
that,in all probability, the right was not on the 
side of William Tyrwhitt 

A pedigree, showing the connection of all 
the persons mentioned in this drama, may be 
seen in the Proceedings of the Society of Anti- 
quaries for April 29, 1869, where also these 
documents are printed in fulL 

Edward Peacock. 

Bottesfocd Manor, Brigg, 



Communal t^abitatione of 
primitive Communitiee. 

PART II. 

By G. Lauhencb Gomme, F.S.A. 
[O the somewhat scanty structural 
evidence of communal habitations 
recorded in the last issue I have 
to add some very important evi- 
dence fiom local customs. The houses of 



the archaic village, communal in origin and 
in use, were built, not at the instigation, 
or by the personal labours, of individual 
villagers, but at the will and by the assist- 
ance of the whole village. 

The Hindus claim the assistance of the 
whole community in the building of their 
houses,* In erecting his hut, the Mug of 
Chedooba Island has only to purchase mate- 
rials; the neighbours assemble as soon as 
these are prepared, and his house is established 
in a very short space of time. They are all 
constructed on the same plan — ^raised on 
poles from the ground several feet.f ^Vhen 
a man marries among the Lakhimpurs 
he and his bride leave the paternal roof, 
and set up a house for themselves. In 
building this they are assisted by the com- 
munis ; and all the component parts having 
been previously collected, prepared, and 
arranged, the house is framed, floored, 
thatched, and ready for their reception in 
four-and-twenty hours.! Among the Nagas 
the bridegroom takes his bride home to a 
house which has been built for him by his 
fellow-villagers.§ 

This is the evidence of early Hindu 
society, and it exists, too, among the out-of- 
the-way customs of our own land. In Sir John 
Sinclaur's Statistical Account of Scotland (iL 
221) we read : — 

The fannhooses ia general, and all the cottages, at 
Domock in Dumfries-shire, are built of mud or clay. 
The manner of erecting them is singular. In the 
first place they dig out the foundation of the house, 
and lay a row or two of stones ; they then procure, 
from a pit contiguous, as much day or brick earth as 
is suffiaent to form the walls ; and having provided 
a quantity of straw, or other litter, to mix with the 
clay, upon a day appointed, the whole neighbour- 
hood, male and female, to the number of twenty or 
thirty, assemble, each with a dung-fork, a spade, or 
some such instrument. Some faU to the working the 
clay or mud, by mixing it. with straw ; others cany 
the materials, and four or six of the most experienced 
hands, build and take care of the walls. In this 
manner the walls of the house are finished in a few 
hours ; after which they retire to a good dinner and 
plenty of drink, which is provided for them, when 
they have music and a dance, with which, and other 




♦ Asiatic Researches, xvii. p. 398 ; cf. Lewin*s Wild 
Races ofS. E. Indian pp. 120, 252. 

t Joum, As, Soc. Ben^/t x. 42$. 

t Hunter's Sfat. Ace, 0/ Assam, i. 334, 342. 

§ Ibui. ii 383 ; cf. y<mrH. As. Sac. Bengal^ xii 
951. 



i62 COMMVNAL HABITATIONS OF PRIMITIVE COMMUNITIES. 



marks of festivity, they conclude the evening. This 
is called a daubing. 

There was much the same state of affairs 
in Ireland. In the early part of this century 
it was recorded that : — 

Pat tells his honest tale to Judy as they return home 
from the dance ; she is not obdurate. A situation is 
pitched on for a mud cabin, which is speedily erected 
with the assistance of the neighbours, who cneerfully 
contribute to the comforts of the new married couple.* 

In the same manner I would interpret the 
meaning of some peculiar wedding customs 
in Scotland and in Wales. They are known 
generally by the name of the penny-wedding 
— a genersd collection being made from the 
villagers for the purpose of setting up the new 
couple in life. The following is a good de- 
scription of the Scottish custom : — 

At a young Highlander first setting up for himself, 
he goes about among his near relations and friends ; 
and from one he begs a cow, from another a sheep, a 
third gives him seed to sow his land, and so on, until 
he has procured for himself a tolerable stock for a be- 
ginner. This they call thi^^ing,^ 

I conceive that these ancient customs 
come to us from the primitive village com- 
munities which once existed in our land, 
when property was not individual but com- 
munal, in respect of agricultural matters. In 
this latter example the building of the house 
by the village has dropped out in the course 
of ages ; but we have it still surviving under 
the guise of an English manorial custom, 
one record of which I have been able to 
discover. A manorial custom in Lancashire 
and some parts of Cumberland, says Hamp- 
son, compels the lord of the manor to grant 
a piece of ground for a house and garden 
to a newly-married couple. All the friends 
of the bride and bridegroom assembled on 
the wedding day, and set to work to con- 
struct a dwellmg for the young couple of 
clav and wood.t And perhaps we have a 
rehc of the same thing in the manorial 
service of enclosing the hall-garth or court- 
yard. 

Of course, in these examples from modem 
local custom, we have to interpret their de- 
tails into the language of archaic times ; we 

* Rawson's Statisiical Sw^ey of the County of Kit* 
darf^y, 23. 

t tiurt*s Letters from Scotland^ 1815, vol. ii. pp. 1S8, 
189 ; cf. Gregorys Folk- tore of N, E. of Scotland^ p. 
178. it^ Medii /Evi Kaletutariiwif i. p. 289. 



have to replace the expression, ''all the 
friends of die bride and bridegroom,'' by the 
expression, all the members of the commu- 
ni^. But I need not, I think, detain my 
readers to point out how such interpretation 
is one of the very essentials of the survival of 
ancient custom in modem times. It only 
amoimts to saying that ancient custom, per- 
manent as has been its foothold in modem 
civilization, has been influenced in minor 
matters by the surroundings which encom* 
pass it. 

The two facts relative to the habitations of 
primitive communities which have now be- 
come known to us are, first, that they were 
occupied by the undivided family; and, 
secondly, that they were built by the joint 
labour of the whole community. We need 
not stop at the Aryan stage of society in look- 
ing back upon these relics of ancient man, 
for they are extant among the non- Aryan and 
savage races, and by examining the forms in 
which they appear here, we shall see more 
clearly how significant are the forms we have 
been considering from our own land. 

We will then examine the evidence in non- 
Aryan societies — first, of groups . of huts 
enclosed within a court or joined together ; 
secondly, of large huts occupied by groups 
of men and women ; thirdly, of the building 
by the joint labour of the whole community. 

In New Zealand, those whose families are 
lai^e have three or four houses enclosed 
within a court-yard.* 

All Dahoman villages consist of a series of 
huts and courtyards within an enclosing 
walLt 

The houses of Car Nicobar (one of the 
Nicobar Islands) are in the form of a cone 
or bee-hive. They are generally in groups of 
from ten to twelve in number, thus foraunga 
succession of small villages (if they may be 
called so), and each has its head man, who 
seems to be invested with a certain amount 
of goveming power. J 

The houses in the Island of Savu are 
generally divided into three rooms of equal 
size, the centre room being set apart for the 
use of the women, and sometimes smaller 



* Pinkerton, ix. 542. 

t'Skcrtchley's Dahomey as It Is^ p. 78; 
p. 496. 
X Joitnt. Anthrop, JhsU iii, 3. 



alto 



COMUl/NAL HABtTATlOJtfS OF PRtMlTlvn COMiiUNlTl&S. lii 



rooms are enclosed from the sides of the 
building, the whole of which is thatched with 
the leaves of the palm-tree.* 

The dwellings of the Columbian Indians 
are often built sufficiently large to accom- 
modate many families, each of which, in such 
case, has its own fireplace on a cential longi- 
tudinal line, a definite space being allotted 
for its goods — but no dividing partitions are 
ever used. The dwellings are arranged in 
small villages.t The tribes of the Oregon 
district occupy houses 75 feet long by 40 in 
width, and probably 15 feet high in front 
Each house is occupied by separate families, 
their respective portions being separated by 
partitions two or three feet high-J 

I think we have here types of the group^ 
buildings we have discussed in reference to 
Hindoo and British types. But to show how 
curiously parallel the features of the com- 
munal habitations run in widely separated 
societies, I will note a custom among the 
Indians of the Isthmus of Darien: — 

After the marriage ceremonies (Bancroft tells ns) 
the bride was returned to her father, who kept her 
shot up in a house with him for seven days. During 
that time, all the friends assisted in clearing a planta- 
tion and building a house for the couple, while the 
women and children planted the ground.§ 

One cannot help recognizing here the same 
group of examples which have already been 
discussed in their Aryan form. The American 
tribes do not seem to have built out from a 
common centre new huts for new family 
branches, but they divided the one big hut 
into family sections. The difiference is one 
of execution only, and this is quite explain- 
able on the facts of a different line of social 
development in the western continent from 
that in Europe and India. The near parallel 
will be seen to even a greater degree when we 
come presently to the customs incidental to 
the creation of a new home. 

Our next stage in the form of the struc- 
ture is the l^ge hut not divided into 
group-huts. Just as in Eastern India, so 
among the wild Indian tribes of Central 
America^ the children of the Quiches remain 
under the parents' roof until married, anfi 

* Pinkerton^ xi. 562. 

+ Bancroft's Ncuivt Races ofAmctica, i. 259. 
X Americtttt Ethnology^ L 174. 
§ Wif4 Triba of Central America ; Bancroft, Native 
Jiaeet, 1. 773. . 



frequently after, several generations often 
living together in one house under the rule 
of the eldest.* Among the Califomians, 
each hut generally shelters a whole family of 
relations by blood and marriage, so that the 
dimensions of the habitations depends upon 
the size of the family. Thatched oblong 
houses are occasionally met with in Russian 
River Valley. Along the centre the different 
families or generations had their fires, while 
they slept next the walls. f Some of the houses 
says Ellis, were exceedingly large, capable of 
containing two or three thousand people. J 

In all these examples we have still the 
family divisions of the tribe kept tolerably 
intact The communal homestead is the 
liabitat of several families in the primitive 
meaning of that term. But there is evidence 
of the habitations of the tribe being not 
divided into family homesteads — as, for in- 
stance, among the Dayaks of Borneo, who 
inhabit large houses which contain the whole 
tribe ;§ among the Central Americans, a 
village among whom, says Bancroft, consists 
of one large building, often 100 feet long 
and 30 feet wide ;|| and among the Sound 
Indians, where frequently a whole village 
lives under one roof.lT Then, turning to the 
hill tribes of India, we have something of the 
kind in Assam. On the northern frontier there 
are about ten clans so small that they find 
room each in a house by themselves. Some 
clans number only thirty souls, others sixty to 
a himdred ; yet each of these petty clans has 
a chief whom they style Raja.** 

This evidence takes us to the initial stage 
of village life. Of course, I am now only 
dealing with one phase of it, and I am not 
stopping to consider some of the by-paths 
of inquiry which such researches open up. 
Still, I venture to think such evidence gives 
us very distinct glimpses into early village 
life. And I have yet to notice the addi- 
tional evidence afibrded by the dwellings of 
primitive communities having been erected 
by the whole village, and not by the indivi- 
dual^ or even the family. How can we 

* Bancroft, ioc, cit, L 704. 

t Ibid, \. 372. 

X Ellis, Polynesian Researches^ i. k 75. 

§ Journal Geographical Soc.^ xvi. 298. 

II Native Races, L 718. 

IF American Ethnology^ i.215. 

*• Journal Asiatic Sec. of Bengal, xxvii. 196^ 



x64 COMMUNAL HABtTATIONS OF PklMlTIVE COMUt/NlTtES. 



resist the conclusions which such parallels 
between English customs and primitive 
customs tell us of? In Scotland and in 
England we have seen that the custom was 
followed of building the new house by the 
assistance of the villagers. 'In Africa and 
America, among the native races, the same 
thing occurs. 

In Hawaii, when a chief wants a house, he requires 
the labour of all who hold lands under him; and 
[says Mr. Ellis] we have often been surprised at the 
despatch with which a house is sometimes built. We 
have known the natives come with their materials in 
the morning, put up the firame of a middling-sized 
house in one day, cover it the next, and on the third 
day return to their lands. Each division of the people 
has a part of the house allotted by the chief in pro- 
portion to its number ; and it is no unusual thing to 
see upwards of a hundred men at a time working on one 
house.* 

A more animated scene than the thatching 
of a Fijian house can scarcely be conceived. 
When a sufficient quantity of material has 
been collected round the house, the roof of 
which has been covered with a net-work of 
reeds, from 40 to 300 men and boys assemble 
to finish the work, which is done amidst 
much rejoicing and shouting.f Among the 
New Mexicans, Bancroft says : — 

Houses are common property, and both men and 
women assist in building tnem ; the men erect the 
wooden frames, and the women make the mortar and 
build the wallsJt 

And again : — 

When a Guatemalan wishes to build a hut, or re- 
pair one, he notified the chief, who summons the 
tyibe to bring straw and other useful materials, and 
the work is finished in a few hours ; after which the 
owner supplies the company with chocolate.§ 

In South America, when a marriage takes place, 
the husband clears a sufficient space of grouna for a 
plantation of plantains ; which is not, however, all 
his own work, for he gives an invitation to a party of 
his friends, who meet, and over a jar of masata or 
ohicha decide on the place of plantation ; and on the 
following day they all assemble and clear it. When 
clear it is made over to the care of the woman, who 
from that time has the whole management of it.|| 

I have now laid before the readers of the 
Antiquary the whole of my case. I could 
have illustrated the complete types of 

♦ Ellis, Missionary Tour through Ha'^aii^ 292. 

t Builder^ July 1881, p. 154. 
' % Bancroft's Native Races^ i. 535. 

§ Ibid, i. 693. 

II Smith and Lowe's Narrative of Journey from 
Lima to Para^ p. 208. 



evidence I have brought forward by many 
references to less complete types, and I could 
have brought forward examples of develop- 
ment from the primitive types we have con- 
sidered to some more general types which 
still exist in many shapes and forms among 
our local institutions. I could have appealed 
to the curious facts of modem Russian society 
— where houses, built in storeys as civilized 
Europe is wont, shelter still the family in 
its primitive form, and not in its modem 
form — the family, that is, consisting of several 
generations, all bound together by obedience 
to a common parent or his representative. 
But to have done all this would have needed 
an examination of the forms of development 
from the primitive types to the modem types, 
and my researches would, I think, have ap- 
peared in a less clear light than I trast they do 
now. What we have done in the study of early 
village life is to add some definite information 
about the habitations of the primitive villagers. 
We have ascertained that in Scotland to this 
day there exist ancient dwellings, which, as 
interpreted by the light of modem research, 
tell us something of the primitive ancestors 
of our race who once occupied them. These 
dwellings are occupied by men of modem 
days, and thus unconsciously the ignorant 
and uncultured shepherds of northern Bri- 
tain have helped the cause of historical 
inquiry by preserving for archaeologists these 
curious memorials of long past ages. Ancient 
man is known to have lived in the open 
air, to have performed there all the daily 
avocations of life, to have legislated there, 
to have worshipped there ; he only took to 
shelter at times of rough weather and for 
sleep. Thus these early group-habitations 
do not mean exactly what the modem house 
means. But so much the more do they 
help us to contemplate, even in fancy, some 
of the pictiu'es of early village life in Britain. 
Then from the foundations of early habitations 
discovered in England the same evidence as 
to group dwellings has been found. And, as 
if to add a life-giving interest to these historic 
stones, we have seen, too, what was the 
fashion of erecting the early village house. 
By showing that both the group-habitation and 
the mode of building taken from the antic^ui- 
ties of our land belong to the actual livmg 
facts of primitive lifei as shown by Uie Hindu, 



COMMUNAL HABITATIONS OF PRIMITIVE COMMUNITIES. 165 




the African, the Australian, and the North 
American, we establish on clear grounds 
that we have discovered features of early 
village life in Britain which have filtered 
down to modem times fix)m the times when 
the Aryan race hdd not separated into 
European and Hindu — when they lived a 
life parallel to modem savage life. 



/rtL^ ^ f^Jr 



Myths of the Odyssey in Art and Literature, By 
L. £. Harrison. (London : Rivingtons. 1882). 
8to» pp. xzvi. 219. 

^M£R bears repeating again and again. 
Pope's and Cowper's verses do not deter 
later writers from attempting translations, 
and even Messrs. Butcher and Lang's truly 
beautiful prose-rendering of the " CMyssey*' 
has had its successor. But the author of the book 
before us asks a new question, and answers it, too, in a 
very admirable manner. Because the myths of Homer 
himself are told in words that are matchless, is it well 
that the story which art has left us should remain un- 
read ? The vase painter and the gem engraver may 
help us to understand somewhat better the spirit of 
their mighty kinsman. It is this imread commentary 
of Art which is here laid before us, side by side with 
the literary form it at once embodies and elucidates ; 
and without wishing to exaggerate our expressions of 
opinion, without ¥dshing to record higher prabe 
than is properly, in our opinion, due to the conception 
and the execution of this book, we unhesitatingly 
afiirm that it meets a distinct want, long felt by the 
lovers of Homer, and long known to art enthusiasts, 
in a manner that deserves all praise and reward. 

Taking the materials for the illustrations from the 
Terra Cottas in the British Museum, Etruscan Sar- 
cophagi, Greek Vases, Marble Statues, Gems, Wall 
Paintings at Pompeii and Sepulchral Etruscan Wall 
Paintings, Roman Lamps, and other objects of art, 
the book contains sixty-two very beautifully executed 
outline engravings, and seven autot3rpe plates of the 
myths of Uie Cyclopes, the Laestrygones, Circe, the 
Descent into Hades, the Sirens, and ScyUa and 
Charybdis. The fresh knowledge and insight into 
these ancient myths which are thus afforded is very 
marked ; the transition of Homeric myths into later 
Greek, and thence into the literary and artistic myths 
of modem culture, is more plainly and distinctively 
placed before the reader than it could have been un- 
aided by the gem and vase artists who time after time 
tamed their art-yearnings to Homer for inspiration. 
To those of our readers who study folk-lore and its 
fascinating outcome — to those who love Homer for 
bis literary form — to those who wish to wander into 
the dreamland so soon created by the art-productions 
of the ancient Greeks — we recommend this book, and 
we feel assured they will give it a prominent place in 
their libraries. We conclude by quoting the descrip- 
tion of the very beautiful engraving of a Siren 
mourner, chosen as a frontispiece to the book. ** The 



design is from a small terra-cotta now in the British 
Museum, about fdur inches in height, found with a 
funeral vase at Athens. This terra-cotta has been 
gilt, and bears traces of painting. The figure is winged, 
and has a bird's tail, so beautifully contrived, however, 
that it seems onlv a sort of tectonic support to the 
kneeling human form. The bird's wines are long and 
graceful; the Siren has something of the aspect of a 
sorrowing angel. With her left hand she tears her 
hair, and wim her right she beats her very fully 
modelled breast. The left foot is broken away, but 
the right ankle is a delicate bird's claw. The whole 
figure is finely executed, full of tenderness and charm ; 
perhaps it is m part specially attractive because of the 
skill and tact with which the bird element is pre« 
served yet subordinated." 



The Library Journal: Official Organ of the Library 
Associations of America and of the United Kinj^. 
dom^ chiefly devoted to Library Economy and Btb' 
liography. VoL VI. Nos, 8-10. Vol. VII. No. I. 
(New York : F. Leypoldt. London : Triibner & 
Co. 1881-82.) 4to. 

We think this excellent joumal increases in interest 
as it proceeds, and certainly some of the features are 
most valuable. We are pleased to see the annouce- 
ment in the last number, that " The Library Journal is, 
at last, self-supporting, and the publisher feels gratified 
in being able to announce its continuation." No. 8 
contains an important '* Bibliography of the Pre- 
Columbian Discoveries of America," by P.B.Watson. 
The special reference list in Nos.9-10, is on ** Tenure 
of Land." The answers to the prize question have 
resulted in a prize list of loo books, wliich should be 
found in every library for general r^ers. 



The Story of Our Bell, By the Rev. John S. Joly, 
M.A., Rector and Vicar of Athlone. (Dublin : 
George Herbert 1881.) I2ma, pp^ 31. 
The author has traced the history of the church 
bell of Athlone, back from 1683 — when it was said to 
have been cast with great solemnity— to the year 
1552, when it was stolen by the English from Clon- 
macnoist. and taken to Athlone. In 1683, the old 
metal was re-cast by Tobias Covey ; and, in 1691, 
the bell rang out Ginkell's signal in the siege of Ath- 
lone. To record the many associations that gather 
round this beU, Mr. Joly has written this interesting 
pamphlet which he originally delivered as a lecture. 



Old Deccan Days; or Hindoo Fairy Legemls current in 
Southern India, Collected from oral tradition by 
Mary Frere. With an Introduction and Notes 
by the Rt. Hon. Sir Bartle Frere, Bart., G.C.B., 
&c. With illustrations by Catherine Frances 
Frere. Third edition, revised. (London : John 
Murray, Albemarle Street, 1881.) Small 8vo. pp. 
xxxvi. 304. 

The delight with which every one who loves a good 
story must naturally pounce upon a collection of 
absolutely new ones, is quite sufficient by itself to 
account for the popularity of this book when it first 
appeared in 1866, but when is added to that the special 
charm of the narrative, and the literary skill with 



t66 



HE VIEWS. 



which the stories are presented to the English public, 
ve can quite understand how it is they become 
dassiod. For some years the book has been out of 
print, and we gladly welcome this third edition, which 
will introduce the stories of the wonderful cobras, the 
horrible ndcshas, and the clever jackalls to a still 
larger public. All who read these pages will unite 
in giving warm thanks to Miss Frere for the pleasure 
ihe has afforded them. 



Th History of Maidiiont, By J. M. Russell. 

(Maidstone : W. S. Vivish. 1881.) 8vo. pp. xi. 423. 

The beautifully situated town of Maidstone 
possesses its fair share of historical associations, and 
Mr. Russell has given an excellent account of them in 
his pleasant volume. The old ruin of AUington 
Castle, on the river Medway, is of great interest in 
many respects, and well worthy of being the object of 
a pilgrimage. The castle came into possession of the 
Wyatt family in the year 1493, and Sir Henry Wyatt, 
the first possesser, entertained Wolscy here in 1529. 
Lady Wyatt once ordered the Abbot of Boxlcy to be 
put in the stodcs, and Sir Henry, being called upon 
ty the Privy Council to answer for his wife, said, **if 
any of you had done what the Abbot did she would 
clap you into the stocks also." The next lord of 
AUington was Sir Thomas Wyatt, the poet, courtier, 
and diplomatist, who was chosen for high employments, 

but 

" Loved the more, 
His own grey towers, plain life, and lettered peace, 
To read and rhyme in solitary fields. 
The lark above, the nightingale below, 
And answer them in song. 

His son, Sir Thomas Wyatt the younger, left Ailing- 
ton to raise the'standard of revolt against Queen Mary, 
and the result of his unfortunate expedition was that 
his head was stuck upon a pole in Hyde Park. Lord 
Romney's seat, " The Mote," has a long history, and 
the author gives a good account of it ; but we do not 
see any reference to the curious subterranean passage in 
the grounds. Maidstone cannot boast of many 
distinguished men amonp: its natives ; but Woollett the 
engraver, and William Hazlitt, stand high on the list. 
Mr. Russell gives a good account of the churches, the 
grammar-school, the old houses, the charities, and all 
that goes to form a trustworthy history of a town. 



A Noble Boh of Cookry Ffor a Prynce Houssolde or 

my other Estately Houssoldes. Reprinted verbatim 

from a rare MS. in the Holkbam Collection. 

Edited by Mrs. Alexander Napier. (Elliot 

Stock : London.) 4to, pp. xiii., 136. 

From internal evidence the MS., which has been 

so beautifully printed by Mrs. Napier, dates from 

the last quarter of the fifteenth century. We may 

here feast with "Nevell, Arche-bishope of York, 

and Chauncelor of England, att his stallacon in 

York," and even sit down with the invited guests ati 

*• the crownacon oflf kyng hemy the flyfle." 

Dinners and suppers are, of course, the only meals 
here provided, but we gain from the menus and 
receipts a very fair idea of the excellent appetite of 



ourancestors on the one hand^and the appetizing dishes 
provided for satisfying them on the other. Izaak Wal- 
ton's " manchet " (or fine bread) enters^into the com- 
position of many ; while Shakespeare's " stockfish '* 
appears fried ; and the abundance of spices which 
each receipt prescribes reminds us of fais clown in 
The Wittter^s Tale^ who " must have safifron to colour 
the warden pies-; mace, dates — none ; that's out of my 
note ; nutm^s, seven ; a race or two of ginger, but 
that I may bqg ; four pound of prunes, and as many 
of raisins o' the sun" (4, 3, 50). ,Our ancestors seem 
to have been remarkably fond of almonds, which 
figure in many of these dishes with "Sannders," 
which Mrs. Napier appears to be in doubt about. 
It is really a kind of strong-smelling Eastern spice. 
The wora appears again in Cower. Sauces, too, 
were many in the fifteenth century, both sweet, sharp, 
and a combination of both. The method of appor- 
tiomng the day's meals between dinner at ten or 
eleven and supper at four or five, approximates to the 
modem *Frencn hours for eating. Instead of the 
early cup of coffee, and afternoon tea of modem 
times, our ancestors would indulge in a cup of spiced 
wine or small beer, while the £iy wonld aid with 
**ypocrasand wayfurs." Profusion must have been 
the mark of their banquets, rather than small but 
carefully cooked flats, Mrs. Napier does not admire 
the **' good old tunes, *' so far as cookery goes \ but 
if we remember the violent exercise and out-door 
lives led by our forefathers, we shall not be astonished 
at the quantity of meat required for each meal, and 
the substantial character of the dishes. Every meal 
thus necessarily resembled our modem meat break- 
fasts and collie dinners, where robust appetites must 
be catered for — quantity aimed at mther tnan quality. 
Two other fields of resesu-ch are opened by this 
interesting book to archaeologists : the variations in 
the supply of the fish and fowls which our fore- 
fathers ate compared with those which enter into our 
own bills of fare. As the face of the country has 
chanced, so have its winged inhabitants. It is curious 
that bustards are not found among the fowl concerning 
the cooking of which directions are here so amply 
civen; nor do they appear among the "quayles, 
fowls called rees," (reeves), and the rest which were 
cooked for Archbishop Neville's installation feast, 
1467, and the list of which is quoted in the Appendix of 
this book. The externals of^the book are everything 
that can be desired, the paper, print, and bmding 
being such as to meet the taste of^ the most fastidious 
book-lover. 



Note sur les Sceaux de VOrdre dt St, yean de ^Sfri/- 
salem. Par J. Delay ille le Roulx. Extrait 
des Memoircs de la Society Nationale des Anti- 
quaires de France. Tome xli. (Paris : 1881.^ 

Des Sceaux des Pricurs Attglais de VOrdre dt VH6' 
piial aux Douzihne et Treitiime Sihles, Par T. De- 
laville le Roulx. Extrait des Melanges 
d'Archeologie et d'Histoire, public par I'Ecole 
Fran9aise de Rome. (Rome : 18S1.) 

Several difficulties have hitherto presented them- 
selves to the sigillographic student, who approached 
the documents of the renowned Order of St John of 
Jerusalem. It has occurred to M. DelaviUe de Roulx, 



REVIEWS. 



167 



who has been lor some tiae ai 
mimiiiieiits of die Ordav dot some dL tixK doidiCs 
inight be resolied by taloqgtjbe stadyon t^ Ifrimi 
side ; and in the fint of diese P^pen ^ jaabJidys a 
statute of the Older of the niddie of &£ i^irteeodi 
centniy (fiom a MS. m the BhL Katksoile), viskh 
" pasMS in review, not onlj the seals of ihe Gxand 
Master, but also ^ose of the pnaczpal digai l aiifs of 
the Order," entitled " C dit des bafies oae k BaasSie 
etles antics bailfisderHdpilalbidleDi.^ TheTalne 
of this dirn p fimt fiesnol on}j in the lu i agnHit de- 
scriptions of seals abeidj kwrnn, bat still mcve of 
ntuneroas otheis as jet nnknovn, frcan want of pre- 



serration. The andbor &cn brisgs fonnud in 
nection with this aU dat s known of the seals 
themselves^ of the Gcand Mster and CasTeot, of 
the Grand Master alone; and of the other dinxiazies, 
priors of the dHferent lai«es ; diaai u g his fKts 
mxn the Archives of Maha, Banche&^-RhSoe, 
Turin, &&, as wdl as frca Pasli, SfiWamlanger, 
and many odier aiah oBi ii es. His note imon a seal 
of the Pnoiyof St. E^^diss is the Bfititti Museozi 
is of eqiecial interest, asbeaiixf an the ongin of the 
seal of the Enefidi Prioij. Ol the Gssnd Master*s 
seal in both lead and vuc ftvo distinct trpes^ as 
well as of othen taken from ori^salf, excelloit le- 
pnxiactians in heLotjpe axe grren in both papers. 

The second paper will be ra.lnabk' to historians of 
the £1^^ ''laai^ae," aboni the earij Priors of 
whidi &fe is not nmcb known, the lists eiren in 
Dngdale and in a j^^'t*'^ on ^The Fngiish or 
Sizdi Lnagae,** in iSSo. bdng inooaoplete. B7 
caicfid atadf and oo ni p ari son of dales of dififexent 
docnmeals r— **n**i on the Charter, Qose, and Psilent 
RoUs^ and of Charters pi t as ei T c d in the British 
Mnseam, M. Delaville le Ronlx, has oonsiderab} j 
rectified the chronology of the Engiish Priors of the 
twdfih and duxtecnth oentnries, and has added at least 
two moceto the namber. The presenoe of two otber^ 
fViUiam de Vilerm in 120S, and an Alam^ mentioned 
in die saaae jvar, are points not vet cleared up. Bnt 
all these leoofds are in Ensknd — ^whj does not 

toil? 



A Memmiml Histmy tf tki CampUUs of MJ/. ri, 
Argylakire, By liL O. C. 4X0, pp. >i., 124. 
(London : Simmnns and Botten, 18S2). 
This very handsome vofazme gives the records, line- 
ages, and f*f * f » gf< T^ of the Campbells of MelfurL the 
Campbells of Acittladcr, the Macdoogals of Macdou- 
gal, the Campbdls of Lodtend, the Campbells c^ 
Kenloch, and odier (unjlies with whom the Melfort- 
CampbeOs have intermamed. The lands and barony 
of Melfoft wexe granted by King David Bruce to Sir 
Ardufaald Camj^ell, Knight of Lochaw, in 2343 ; and 
their int eres ti ng records from this time contain many 
vexy iastmctxve lUixstratiaDS of the social and clou 
history of Sootland, besides affording perhaps, one of 
the nkort interestiQ2r of fiamily histories. Scottish 
iamOy hutonr m"^"" more links with an archaic 
clan nifltorrthan perhaps any other people in Europe ; 
and, dierewre, over and above the value and interest of 
this book to proliased genealogists, there is an intexest 
to the htitnnral Undent as weU. How pertinaciously 
the danicbtiaashiphdd iioisi is shown for instance in 



the old cattcm pccalnar to Ae Campbefls of Donstag- 
n^ge, Domova, and MeSforu When the head of the 
framiy died, the chief noaxnecs wonld be the dhcr 
twolaiids; one a ap port e d the head to the grave, the 

other waSbcd before the corpse, and even Uke eldett 
son was not pezmiiied to artfifrfe with this aixasge- 
mesL This kgendaiy custom was fnTiird oat forcbe 
last lime ax the fnTyml of Coiand John CaaxibdL in 
1S61. 

The pedigrees and mrmorial aconfimts aie aH care- 
fsBy compued; and, when we lecqgniae that the 
CampbdOs of Midfoot hare made a reiy oonsidenikile 
name in the annals of their conntxy for militaxy aervio^ 
and ofrfnrhnr militazy hercusm, when we bear m 
mind that ihcy indnde Sir Coihs CampS^eD amo^g 
thrm. we can wcU andersiand that this bool: has been 
a labonr of lore to its indc^Btigable compiler. Theie 
is an Appendix of charters and deeds now *-^*«», 
relating to Melfort property, and these aie all more or 
less interesting and vahtable. £adi pedigree is also 
SBLpplemenled with very nsefsl notes. In condnska^ 
vre can ^seak very hi^^y of the taste in which the 
bool^has been prxidnced. 



flDeettnos of Btitiatiarian 



^ ..^ ^A^ 



i:«rwii 



METROPOLITAN. 

Society of Antiqnnnes. — Fdaroajy a. — ^Mr. 

EdwiD Freshhdd, V.-P., in the Chair — ^Mr. Bugent 
exhibited a drawix^ cf the aims of Milton, or Middle- 
ton, Abbef, Dorset, from a window in Ibbertoa 
Chnrdi, Dorset, which di&r from the engiaTix^ ia 
Tanner's A'Miha MmuuHca. 

Fcbroaiy 9.— Mr. E. Fxeshfidd, V.-P., in the Cliair. 
— Mr. G. W. G. Leveson-Gower exhibited a qnany of 
glass presenred with soaoe heraldic glass from Titsey, 
Surrey. — ^Mr. J. U. Middieton exhibited some cit^ects 
of interest whidi had been found on the site of a Rcanaa 
villa, at Fifehead Neville, DorseL In a small hol^ 
cut in the centre of the fioor of one of the room^ m 
number of ornaments vreie hidden mwar, and amo^g 
these, in addiiion to some bronze braodet^ vrere tiro 
silver rings, presenting the vexy unnsnal feature of 
Christian devices. 

February 16— Mr. E. Freshfidd, V.-P., in the Chair. 
— The Ke\'. A. Pownall exhibited a gold ring foond 
at Gilmorton, Warwickshire, inscribed inside, *' The 
King's Giit'' It was s^>paxent]y of the time of 
Charles I.— Mr. H. B. Hull exhibited a MS. Lst of 
the Royal Ka\y in 1660, with tbe name of ** Edward 
Dering, Mercator Regius," on the cover. The list 
gives the names of the ships, the tonnage, a^ where 
end by whom built, and otlier parucuiars. hi the end 
are tables of wages and allowances, weights of cnbles, 
and other useful information. — Mr. Ni|^tingale exhi* 
bited a bronze seal found at W}*ndbEtm l^k, near 
Salisbury, bearing the name of Vilhelm Pelhisier. — 
Mr. Peacock contributed an account of a pxesentmeot 
of a man to the Bishop of Lincoln, in 1611. for refus- 
ing to kned at the Communion, and for naming his 



i6S 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



child Ichabod, as a sign that he considered the glory 
had demited from the Church of England. — Sir 
Henry Dryden contributed a Paper "On Saxon 
Remains at Marston St. Lawrence, in Northampton- 
shire." 

February23. — ^Mr, A.W. Franks, V.-P., in the Chair. 
— Mr. Middleton read a Paper upon " Consecration 
Crosses in Churches." These crosses were marked 
when the church was built, before the consecration, 
in order to show the places which the bishop would 
anoint with oil as part of the service. The proper 
number is twelve inside and tw^slve out, but there are 
few churches in England now which exhibit the com- 
plete number, thou^ in one case — St. Mary Otterys — 
where the crosses are very ornamental, consisting of 
demi-angels holding shields surrounded by quartre- 
foils, additional crosses were added during the process 
of restoration, so that there are now thirteen outside. 
— Mr. Bailey read a Paper "Upon some Historical 
Aspects of the Law of Attainder,*' 'which he illustrated 
by tracing the estates held by Richard Neville, Earl 
of Warwick, until they finally became forfeited to the 
Crown. 

March 2. — The Earl of Camanron, President, in 
the Chair. — Mr. C. K. Watson invited the attention 
of the meeting to a monstrous proposal now before 
Parliament (which the Council had aecided to oppose 
by all means in their power), the object of whicn was 
to enable the L3mn and Fakenham Railway to extend 
their line through the precinct of the Cathedral 
Church of Norwich. Such an extension would have 
the result of destroying a very ancient Watergate, 
which was the admiration of every antiquary and of 
every artist, and of obliterating other interesting re- 
mains and associations.— This being an evening ap- 
pointed for the ballot, no papers were read. 

Archseological Institute. — February 2. — Mr. J. 
Hilton, in the chair. — Mr. J. H. Middleton read some 
notes on Ashbumham House and the site it occupies. 
— Mr. F. C. J. Spurrell described the great collec- 
tion of shallow pits on the north coast of Norfolk, and 
added accounts of similar large groups, such as the 
pen-pits and others, in various parts of this country 
and abroad. He pointed out that these great collections 
of pits, in contradistinction to minor collections, were 
all, as far as he knew at present, connected with the 
earliest traces of Uie use and manufacture of iron. 
Taken as a whole, he did not doubt that they werp 
dwellings and true hut circles, and that they could be 
distinguished from iron or stone mines. The simplicity 
of their construction, and the comparatively slight 
traces of permanent occupation in some instances, 
denoted their temporary use, and showed that they 
were the shelters and dwellings of tribes collected 
together for limited periods (probably in summer), and* 
that the paucity ot relics of utensil-*, &c, denoted 
poverty. It was possible that some of them might 
represent the huddling together of a population driven 
to extremity by an invading host, such as the Romans. 
In comparison with the largest groups of the true Stone 
age, they suggest a great increase in the population in 

feneral. — Mr. Spurrell exhibited a large collection of 
'alseolithic flint implements from new situations, 
recently found in the gravels of the Thames, and the 
Darenth and Medway in Kent. 
March 2.— Sir J. S. D. Scott in the Chair. Mr.S. 



Clarke, jun., read a Paper on the remarkable late 
Norman font in the Church of Saint Nicholas, 
Brighton. — Mr. E. Newton read a Paper on the dis- 
covery, in 1879, of a Romano-British cremation urn, 
at a depth of eighteen feet below the pavement in 
Cheapside. — Mr. J. O. Scott exhibited a cast oi the 
upper portion of an effigy of a late fourteenth centozy 
civilian from North Curry Church, and portions <n 
fragile plaster figures of cows and other animals found 
walled up in the chancel of that church. Mr. Mickle- 
thwaite was disposed to think that these were votive 
objects. Mr. A. E. Griffiths sent a fine example of a 
British urn full of ashes and bones in an undistnibed 
state found at Hampton Wick. — Mr. R. S. Feigosoa 
sent three examples of funeral chalices and patens of 
pewter found in Cumberland, and contributed notes 
upon them. — Mr. J. A. S. Bayly exhibited a collectioa 
ot rubbings of brasses and ecclesiastics firom Essex and 
elsewhere, which were commented upon by Mr. 
Micklethwaite. 

British Archseological Association. — ^Febnftuy 
15. — Rev. S. M. Mayhew in the Chair. — A portrait of 
Milton, supposed to have been painted at an eazly 
period of the poet*s life, was described by Mr. E. 
Walfoi^.— Mr. W. G. Smith exhibited a ^ass 
muller-like object used in the straw manufacture of 
Dunstable, but similar in form to many objects of the 
same material frequently found in London. — Mr. 
Loftus Brock descnbed various ancient articles of 

S>ttery from London WaU. — ^The first Paper was by 
r. Phend, on recent explorations and excavations 
made by the author in Scotland. — ^The second Paper 
was by the Rev. Mr. Lach-Szyrma, and was descnp- 
tive of St. Hilary Churchjrard, Cornwall, where 
monuments of the Roman and Celtic periods are to 
be met with, which, with the old tower of the church, 
attest the continuance of Christianity in the disbict 
probablv firom the fourth or fifth century. 

March i. — Rev. S. M. Mayhew in the chair.— Mr. 
W. G. Smith described several Neolithic flint imple- 
ments recently found at Highbury, only eighteen 
inches below uie surface of the undisturbed gravel, 
the edges being sharp and the polish as perfect as 
when deposit^. The Chairman descried a fine 
collection of ancient articles. Among these were a 
walrus bone pin found in London, apparently of 
Roman date; the haft and summit of a Norman 
standard of bronze ; a silver Roman pig ; and several 
fine examples of Spanish and German figured glass. — 
Mr. W. H. Cope read the first Paper, *^On the His- 
tory of Ancient Stained Glass.'' — The second Paper 
was by Mr. C. Brent, '' On a Newly Discovered 
Roman Building at Little Holms, Methwold." The 
site is only four feet above the Fen level, and the 
remains are the first of this early date that have been 
met with in the locality. The remains consist of 
foundations of walls formed of flint, with alternate 
layers of rubble and sandstone. A floor of concrete 
was also found, lined out to form a tile pattern. 

The Society of Biblical Archaeology. — 
March 7. — Dr. Samuel Birch in the Chair. — A 
Paper was read by Mr. Le Pajge Renouf : *' Egyptian 
Mythology, Mist and Cloud.' —A Paper by Sir. W 
Flinders retrie, " On Pottery and Implements col- 
lected at Gisdi and the neighbourhood, from De- 
cember, t88o^ to June, 1881/' wss rnd by the 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



169 



Secretaxy. — ^A letter was read from Prof. W. Wright, 
calling attention to a Hebrew inscription of great 
interest and antiquity that forms part of a mosaic 
MTement in the mausoleum of the Empress GEiUia 
Fladda at Ravenna, built by her between a.d. 432 
and 44a 

Numismatic Society.— Feb, 16.— Mr. W. S. W. 
Vaux, V.-P., in the Chair.— The Rev. Canon Pownall 
exhibited a tin-foil impression of an Irish halfpenny, 
now in the collection of the Irish Academy, struck at 
Waterford during the reign of John, and beUeved to be 
unioue. This coin is of special interest, as it tends to 
confirm the attribution to John of certain coins in the 
English series wiih the cross pomnUe^ but with the in- 
scription HENHicvs rbx. — M. Terriende la Couperie 
xeaa a Paper " On the Coinage'of Tibet issued during 
the second half of the] last century and during the 
bennning of the present one." 

Anthropological Institute.— Jan. 24. — ^Anni- 
▼ersary Meeting^Major-General Pitt-Rivers, Pre- 
sident, in the Chair. — ^The President delivered his 
Annual Address, in which he reviewed the work of 
the past year. 

Feb. 7.— Mr. F. G. H. Price, Treasurer, in the 
Chair.— Mrs. E. C. Hore read a Paper '*0n the 
Twelve Tribes of Tanganyika.**— Mr. G. W. Bloxam 
read a note "On a Patagonian Skidl brought from 
Carmen, at the Mouth of the Rio N^ro (lat. 44*)," 
by Capt. Hairby. — The Assbtant- Secretary read 
** Notes on the Napo Indians,*' by Mr. A. Simson. 

Feb. 21.— Dr. Edward RTylor,V.-P., in the Chair. 
— Mr. J. E. Price read a " Note on Aggri Beads.'* 
These beads are occasionally dug up in the 
Gold Coast territory, and sell for more than their 
wdght in gold, being among the most valued of 
royal jewels. They have been found in various parts 
of England, some of those exhibited having oeen 
obtained from Colchester, where they were found 
associated with human remains, while others were 
discovered during the recent alterations at Leadenhall 
Market. Mr. race thought that the appearance of 
these beads in England might be accounted for by the 
fact that when the Romans occupied the country they 
brought with them many African slaves, who wore 
necklaces with Aggri beads, and that when these 
slaves died their necklaces were buried with them. — 
Dr. Madarlane read a Paper on the " Analysis of 
Relarionships of Consanguinity and Marriage.'* — And, 
in die absence of the authors, the Director read a 
Paper entitled "From Mother-right to Father-right," 
by Mr. A. W. Howitt and the Rev. Lorimer Fison. 

Rojral Society of Literature. — Feb. i. — Sir 
Patridc de Colquhotm in the Chair. — Sir CoUingwood 
Dickson read a Paper on " Dr. Faustus and the 
L^[ends connected widi him,** contributed by Sir P. 
de Colquhoun. It was contended that Dr. Faustus 
was unquestionably an historical personage, as his 
death is mentioned by Gesner, who compares him to 
Paracdsus, and as he is referred to in Luther's 
** Table-Talk.*' The oldest account of Faustus, in 
which it is stated that he was bom at Roda, near 
Weimar, goes back to the year 1587. 

Feb. 15. — ^Mr. Joseph Haynes in the Chair. — Mr. 
Fleay read a Paper on "Homer and Comparative 
MyUiolopr." 

RoyalAsiatic Society.— Feb. 2a— Sir Edward 

VOL. V. 



Colebrooke, President, in the Chair. — The Rev. Mr. 
Schon read a Paper on " The Haussa Language," the 
linpta franca of Western Africa, of whidi he has 
published a grammar and a dictionary, texts and 
translations of the Holy Scriptures, having acquired 
his knowledge during a long residence in that part of 
Africa. — Mr. R. N. Cust followed with a Paper on 
•• African Scholars." 

Society of Hellenic Studies.- Feb. 16.— Prof. 
C. T. Newton, V.-P., in the Chair.— The Chairman 
read extracts from a Paper by Mr, W, M. Ramsay, 
describing some of the results of his journey into 
Phrygia, and exhibited drawings by Mr. A. H. Blunt, 
and photographs representing some of the monuments 
discovered. The passages read to the meeting de- 
scribed Mr. Ramsay's researches on three sites in the 
heart of Ph27p:ia. (i) Duganlu. The tomb of Midas 
existing on this site was dbcovered by Leake in 1810, 
and luis several times since been visited. Mr. 
Ramsay explored the plateau on tiie side of whidi 
this tomb exists, and found a road leading to the 
summit, bordered by a procession of fissures advancing 
downwards. Near the top of the road was a place of 
worship, with rock-altar, and a rock-cut relief repre- 
senting a figure like the Greek Hermes. In this 
place also is a grave, and the worship connected with 
It seems to be that of the dead. (2) A necropolis 
first discovered by Mr. Ramsay at Ayazeen. Here 
were a multitude of tombs, some in the fashion of 
that of Midas, others mere caverns in the rode. One 
opening in the rock was rendered remarkable bv being 
surmounted by an obelisk, on either side of which was 
an enormous lion ; but these lions completely differ 
in style from those over the gateway at Mycensr. 
Mr. Ramsay found an important fragment of another 
similar relief in the shape of an enormous lion*s head 
of splendid archaic work, and seven feet in diameter. 
(3) Kumbet. Here Sir C. Wilson and Mr. Ramsay 
discovered a remarkable block of stone, rudely fieish- 
ioned in the shape of a ram, and having its sides 
covered vrith rdiefr representing hunting scenes. 
These reliefs, however, were rude and much injured 
by time. — A second Paper, sent by Mr. E. L. Hicks, 
was read by Prof. Gardner. The writer selected 
several details in the descriptions of characters by 
Theophrastus, and showed how they could be fully 
understood only by a comparison with Attic inscrip- 
tions, especially monumental stelae. — A third Paper 
was reaa by Dr. Waldstein, wherein he traced the 
origin of a figure of Hermes which occurs as an 
emolema on a patera from Bemay, in France, to the 
figure of Hermes on one of the pillars from the 
temple of the Ephesian Artemis, in the British 
Museum. 

Philological Society.— Feb. 3. -Dr. J. A. YL 
Murray, V.-P., in the Chair. — The Papers read were : 
(i) " Observatiuns on the Partial Coreciiuns of 
English Spellings approvd by the Filolojical Society,** 
by Mr. H. Vogin, of Amsterdam. (2) Mr. Sweet's 
" Notes on Points in English Grammar.*' 

Friday, Feb. 17.— Mr. H. Sweet, V.-P., in the 
Chair. — Mr. Cayley read a Paper on ** Greek Pronun- 
ciation and the Distribution of the Greek Accents." 
He attempted to trace a revolution in the Greek 
sounds to the vast extension of the lanmiage under 
the Macedonian kings, and^ubsequently to large bodies 

N 



170 



MEETINGS Of ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



of migratoiy Jews and Syrians who fonned the nadei 
of the Christian churches. Mr. B. Dawson read 
some ''Notes on Translations of the New Testa- 
ment" 

New Shakspere Society. — Feb. lo.— F. J. 
Fumivall, Director, in the Chair.— The Rer. W. 
Wjnell-Mayow read a Paper on "Hamlet's 'speech 
of a doien or sixteen lines' in the Sub-Play.''— Dr. F. 
Landmann then read his Paper " On Shakspere and 
Euphuism : Euphuism an Adaptation from Guevara." 



PROVINCIAL. 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society. — Februanr 
27.— Rer. R. Bum, in the Chair.— The Rer. J. 
Collingwood Bruce read a Paper " Upon the HistOTf 
and Present State of Hadrian's Wall in North Britain.^' 
The author diowed a map of the course of the wall, 
and of the Tjrne in relation to it, also of the river 
Eden, which joins the Tyne 'at the east end of the 
wall or " Wall's-end." The river Eden was con- 
sidered sufficiently strong as a means of fortification 
to render it unnecessary to extend the wall further in 
that direction. But at its mouth two forts were erected, 
imd in ^eir locality some very interesting results had 
beoi dbcovered. One of the forts was opposite 
Jarrow, the birthplace of the Venerable Bede. From 
thb pdnt the wall ran on to the high ground above 
and to ^e north of the Tjme valley, where agriculture 
conld be most successfully conducted, and which, it 
seemed, the Romans wanted to secure. The wall was 
continued to Bowness, where the Solway ceased to be 
fordable. They next turned to the plan of the wall. 
First df all it was about 8 feet thick. How high 
it had been was not known ; it was now about 9} feet 
in some places. Bede said it was 12) feet high. He 
was probablv speaking of it in his own neighbourhood. 
Camden said it was 15 feet high ; and another writer 
said 2 1 . The facing stones were of sandstone, very well 
squared toauniform size and projectinginto the vrall, so 
as to bind it well together. No tiles were needed. The 
mortar to this day was in some instances harder than 
the stone itself. To the north of the virall was a ditch, 
which in some places was about 6 feet deep and 15 feet 
across at the top. Stationary camps were planted 
at distances averaging four miles from one ano^er, 
and varjnng in size from four to seven acres in extent. 
These camps usually had northern, southern, eastern 
and western gateways. The largest camps had two 
^eways on the eastern and western ramparts. In 
addition to the camps, there were at distances of a 
Roman mile square enclosures measuring about fofieet 
a side ; and now called " mile-castles." In dl proba- 
bility a number of soldiers were drafted off to occupy 
the spaces between the mile-castles for twenty-four 
hours, or for a week at a time. In addition to the mile- 
castles there were what were called " turrets. * ' He him- 
self called them stone sentrv-boxes. These had been so 
much interfered with that ne could not tell how many 
there had been. They were 12 feet square, and the 
walls were 3 feet thick. Running alongside the 
wall, and always on the ffouth side, was a military 
road. The next drawing showed in section the abut* 
ment of a bridge crossing the Tjrne at Cilumum, now 
called Chesters. In the river at Cilumum could be 



seen, when the water was dear, the foondatioos o£ 
the piers of the brid«. The cfaaiacter of the masoiuy 
indicated that it had beeh ooDstracted at two difierent 
periods of time Drawings showed the remains of the 
gates of Cilumum, with the holes in the stone still 
remaining in wliidi the pivots of the gates used to 
turn. Drawing 3 gave an idea of the character of the 
ground over whidi the wall ran in the centrd part of 
Uie district A great basaltic dyke ran forten or twehre 
nules through the country m this neichboozhood. 
Here was part of an altar erected to Jupiter, and 
bearing the usual monogram LO.lif. Near the sta- 
tion represented in thb drawing was an amphithaatve. 
similar to Uioae found at some other parts of the wbU, 
and intended as a place of amusement for die sokiierk 
Drawing 4 showed one of the great faaaaltie rodcs 
over which the wall ran. Drawingf 5 showed ^* The 
Nine Nicks of Thurlow." These were nicks In the 
mountainous chain of rocks, the wall numingpeithuu 
doosly over each of them. The interior of the wall 
was well made of rabble^ but tiie facing was always 
freestone. Drawing 7 represented the northern fesae 
of the wall. Insomeoftne mile-castles the levd of 
tiie floor had been raised, and in making excavatioiii 
traces of devastation were found, and marks of fise. 
At one place had been found a lady's eaz^drap, a 
centleman's fing^ ring, and a coin of Commodos. 
They knew that in the reign of Commodns (i&>-i98 
A.D.) the Caledonians made an irruption on the wafl, 
sacked one of the Roman stations, and killed one of 
the commanders. Dr. Brace next showed some draw- 
ings of altars found at different stations on the wall^ 
some gravestones, and some other stone objects. On 
one slab of stone was carved a r^resentation of Cereii 
Here was a figure of Victoiy, a female careering over 
the earth with outstretched wings, her garments flyinfi^ 
behind her; she bore in one hand a pum, and in tiie 
other a laurel wreath. 

Society of Antiquaries of 8eotland.-^Fdi. 
13.— Sir Walter Elliot, of Wolflee^ in the Chair. 
Tne first paper read was a notice of two ^ery fine 
pieces of old Scots panelling in carved oak* whidi 
were exhibited and described J by SCr. J. J. Rdd. 
They formed the partition between two garvets in an 
old house at Montrose, pulled down about four years 
ago, and were subs^ently ao^uired by Mr. Rcid 
and Mr. CampbdL The larger piece contained spaces 
for eighteen panels, some of which were waitfin& bat 
enougn remained to show the beauty of the wotk and 
the ^^ehr of the desi^ with which the panels were 
filled. The smaller piece was a door, the fonr npper 
panels of which are carved, the two lower plain. The 
carvings consist of foliageous scroll* work, with con- 
ventional representations of thisUes, && The centre 
pand of the larger piece contains a diidd of nrmi 
which seem to be those of the fiunOy of Panter, onoe 
of Newmanswalls, near Montrose. One of the panels 
contains a thistle exactly like that on a single remain- 
ing panel in the Abbot's House at Arbroath, of which 
monastery Walter Panter, of the Newmanswalls 
family, was twentieth abbot. In the Chapter House 
at Arbroath, built, it is believed, 1^ Abbot Panter, 
there are on the capitals of the pillars representations 
of birds sitting on the branches of trees pecking at 
frait, which are similar in style to the canrfain on 
some of the panels. Others have grotetqiie cttragi. 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



17X 



ryesentipg swine dressed up as monks. From cer- 
tim oonsidaitions connected with the style of these 
ctirings and the histoiy of the Hospital of St. Marf , 
reboilt and endowed by Patrick^ Panter, Bishop of 
Roes and Abbot of Camboskenneth, the date <» the 
cardngs mieht be placed about 15 15. Mr. f. W. 
Small and Mr. Geo(]ge Seton confirmed Mr. Reid's 
condnsions. The second psper was a notice of a dst 
with an Wtt, discovered at Parkhill, near Aberdeen, 
in October last, in digging ballast for the railway. 
In the dst was an nm of degant shape, 54 inches 
high* and of the taU Tariety known as of drinking-cup 
Iotul The other contents of the dst were the bones 
of a skeleton placed in a contracted position, and 
some fragments of diarcoaL With the human bones, 
however, there was found a bone of the left fore-leg 
of a boar. The human bones were covered with a 
matted fibrous substance, and in the case of a dst 
d i s co v e re d in the same locality in 1867, ^^ ^^ \i/tei^ 
ascertained by Professor Struthers, of Aberdeen, that 
it consisted partly of hairs and partly of the mycelium 
of a ciyptogamous plant There are two features of 
this interment that are peculiar, the presence of 
duttooal in the dst with an unbumt body, and the 
presence of the boar's bone. The urn, which is a re- 
markahly fine ooe^ is presented to the National 
Mosenm. The Rev. R. Herbert Stoxr contributed 
a notice^ with a rubbing of a sculptured slab^ 
reoendy disco ve red at Roseneath. Dr. Robert Munro, 
Kilmaraock, gave an account of the discovery of a 
cnanqg in the toch of Friar's Carse, Dumfirieshire. 
The lowering of the level of the water of the loch had 
shown ti^t the island in its centre was composed of 
oak beams^ supporting an oval surface of about So 
feet by 70 feet, covmd with a thickness of from 
3 feet to 3 feet of soil and stones, largdy mixed with 
bones, diarooal, and ashes. A drcular portion of 
the log pavement near the centre was covered with 
flat stones for a hearth, and in some other parts a clay 
flooring vnu found. Dr. Munro exhibited a large 
wectoe^haped stone hammer which had been found 
in the crannog. A canoe and a paddle and some 
firagments of pottery wero also found. Grose, in his 
Antiquities ot Scotland, had referred to the crannog 
as a place of refuge for the monks of Friar's Carse. 
The ust Paper was a notice ITof undescribed stones 
with cupmarkhigs in the central districts of Scotland 
by J. RomQIy ADen. In an appendix he added a 
complete lirt of all the stones of^ this peculiar class 
known in Scotland, showing their geographical dis* 
tzibntion, and a list of die books, papers, and 
antborities on the general subject of this class of 
pfdiistoric scdpturings. 

Bnglish Dialect. — Annual Meeting, February 
aa<— The Mayor of Manchester (Alderman Baker) in 
the Chair. — ^Bilr. J. H. Nodal, the honorary secretary, 
read Uie annual report, which, in the first place, enu- 
merated and descnbed the publications of the past 
year. These are as follows : — Leicestershire, Words, 
Phrases, and Proverbs, a revised and considerably 
enlarged edition of the Leicestershire Glossary of the 
late Dr. Arthur Benoni Evans, published in 1S48, 
and edited for the Sodetjr by his son, Dr. Sebastian 
Evans. The latter, in his introduction, calls attention 
to tibe topographical and other influences which 
'*have confmed on the Ldcestershire dialect a 



marked predominance in determining the literary 
language of the country." The chapters on the 
literature'of the county, the Domesday measurement, 
the local nomenclature, and the Place-names — the last 
an elaborate list of some sixty colunms — will be wel- 
come alike to the historical student, the antiquary, 
and the philologist. By the kindness of the Rev. 
Christopher Wordsworth a list of Rutland words is 
appended. The second volume of the year is a col- 
lection of Original Glossaries, comprising a glossary 
of Isle of Wight Words, compiled in the first instance 
by the late Major Henry Smith, and completed and 
edited for the Sodety by hb brother, the distinguished 
antiquary, Mr. Charles Roach Smith; two lists of 
Oxfordshire and Cumberland Words, by Mrs. Parker 
93A Mr. Dickinson respectivdy ; a glossary of North 
Lincolnshire Words, gathered by Mr. Edward Sutton, 
now of Manchester, in the marsh, wold, and fen dis- 
tricts around the town of Louth ; and a list of words 
in use in Radnorshire, contributed by the Rev. W. 
£. T. Morgan, of Morriston, near Swansea. The 
last of the publications of the jrear is a reprint of the 
very rare black letter-book, William Turner's Nanus 
of Harbes^ A.D. 154S, edited by Mr. James Britten, 
F.L.S., the earliest work in English to which the in- 
troduction of certain plants can be traced. Two 
propo^ds had been ur^ntly pressed upon the atten- 
tion of the society during the last year or two— the 
publication of a General Dialect Dictionary and the 
collection and publication of Place-names as part of 
the Sodet3r's work. It was considered, however, 
that these things do not fidrly come within the 
Sodet/s province. Mr. A. J. Ellis, F.R.S., and 
Mr. Thomas Hallam, two members of the Sodety, 
had succeeded during the past two years in tracing a 
verv important dialectal line or series of lineo. Mr. 
Hallam had ascertained the boundarv line across 
England between the midland and southern forms or 
sounds of short u in up, but, &c. ; abo between the same 
forms or sounds of tf, short and medial, in other, ton, 
done, some, &c The northern boundary of the mid- 
land and eastern counties, according to Mr. Ellis, 
passed (very roughly) north of Fumess in Lancaster, 
east of Craven in Yorkshire, north of Leeds and 
Selby, and then suddenly dips south by the Isle of 
Axholme in Lincolnsliire, and reaches Uie sea about 
Great Grimsby. These apparently formed the two 
great lines across England. The boundaries between 
northern English and Lowland Scotch was (also verv 
roughlv) that of the kingdoms. This divides aU 
Englisn speaking counties into four great divisions, 
distinguished by their treatment of the Anglo-Saxon 
short and long «. 

Cambridge Philological Society. — February 
9. — Professor Skeat in the Chair. — Prof. A. S. Wilkins 
communicated a Paper on a MS. of Cicero's De 
Oratort in St. John's College, Oxford. It seems 
to have been first collated by Thos. Cockman {De 
Oratore Oxf, 1696) ; and Abp. Pearce, who knew it 
from Cockman, praises it highly. The collations of 
the other MSS. b^ Lagomarsini, EUendt (1S40), 
Piderit, and Ravaisson (Codex Albiftcensis)^ now 
enable us better to estimate its value. The MS. is 
a small folio of 28 leaves (^5 pages, the last blank) 
written in double columns, m a neat and dear hand. 
The ink has kept its colour except on the first page. 

N 2 



172 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



It has numerous contractions, such as the Tironian 
abbreviations for ct and cons^ Uie misunderstanding of 
which latter has led cop3rists to change comuUs 
into asinos (Wattenbach, EinUiiung, p. 74). Dr. 
Waldstein read a Paper on '<Ar. Eth. N. p. nil 
(Bekk.).*' Aristotle is enumerating the categories of 
harmful human action, which, from particular ignor- 
ance on the part of the agent, are not to be considered 
criminal. These categories are illustrated by definite 
instances from real life. As the text stands, it fails 
to illustrate the category, and cannot be construed 
into good sense. This is especially caused by our inde- 
finite knowledge of the nature of the dKpoxiifii9/i6t> 
For if, as has been supposed, this game consisted of 
boxing, wrestling, or sparring, the illustration falls 
flat. A painting on a vase in the possession of M. 
Camille Lecuyer at Paris, together with a relief 
published by Claiac, and another published by 
Krause show this game to have been similar to one 
practised by boys with us, in which the fingers are 
mterlaced, and the point is to bring the adversary 
to his knees by forcing back his wrist, only with the 
important addition that the Greeks did not begin 
with interlacing their hands, but stood opposite one 
another and strove to seize the most favourable grip 
of the hands, the most decisive part in the game. In 
this act, the one striving to seize, the other to avoid 
the hand of his opponent, involuntary striking must 
have been a most frequent occurrence. — Dr. Wiudstein 
then read a Paper on "The description of the 
Polygnotan pictures in the Lesche of the Cnidians at 
Delphi, described by Pausanias." Professor Paley 
communicated a paper on Sophocles, O.T. 13S0. 

Glasgow Arcnseologicid Society. — February 16. 
— Professor Lindsay in the Chair. — Prior to business, 
Mr. W. G. Black, Hon. Secretary, intimated that a 
letter from the Marquis of Bute proposes some work 
for the Society to undertake, and it would be imme- 
diately laid before the Council. 'Mr. D. Murray 
then read " A Note on Glasgow and other Provincial 
Coins and Tokens.'' Mr. Murray historically reviewed 
the art of coin-making. The Scotch pennies were 
few in number, one of the most beautiful being the 
Paisley penny of 1798. The Edinburgh hal^eimy 
of 1 791 was the first, and in the same year the first 
Glasgow halfpenny was issued. — ^Mr. W. G. Black 
read a Paper *'0n the Ori^and Theory of Charms," 
after which there was exhibited an old jug of Preston- 
pans or Portobello stoneware, with a view of the 
Broomielaw, by Mr. J. Wyllie Guild. A book, en- 
titled, " The Former and Present State of Glasgow 
Contrasted — A Dream : Glasgow, 1787," by Mr. C, 
D. Donald, Jun. ; and '* Eight old painphlets of 1633' 
1643, 1653, and other dates," by Mr. Robert Guy. ' 
Clifton Shakspere Society.— Jan. 28, 1882. — 
Mr. J. H. Tucker, in the Chair. — Reports in connec- 
tion with As You Like Jt^ were presented. Mr. 
Francis F. Fox read* a Paper on "Touchstone." 
Papers on "Jaques," by Miss Florence O'Brien, 
ana by Mr. £. Thelwall, M.A., were read. 
The Rev. H. P. Stokes gave a communication *' On 
the Son^ in As You Like It,*' and "On Shake- 
speare's References to Marlowe." 

Feb. II, 1882.— Mr. E. Thelwall, M.A., President, 
in the Chair. — The following communications were 
given :— " Notes on the Poems^^ by the Rev. H. P. 



Stokes, M.A., L.L.M.; '<0n Venus and Adonis,*' hy 
Mr. L. P. Hairis, BJl, ; " On Lucrece;' by Mr. 
Tucker. 

Penzance Natural History and Antiquarian 
Society. — February 10.— Mr. W. C. Borlase, M.P., 
in the Chair. — ^The President cordially acknowledged 
a gift to the Society firom Mr. W. H. Trouoson, in the 
sluipe of a pair of most curious old nut-crackers. 
The Rev. w. S. Lach-Szyrma read a papo: on 
"Observations on the Planets." The President 
commented npon antiquities supplied by Mr. Couch, 
the first being a most remarkable teapot, firom which 
there was no cover to £dl off, the pot being 
filled from the bottom. The next object of in- 
terest was a mortar and pestle. Mr. Couch further 
showed a very curious little trinklet made of gold, such 
a one that was in use amongst ladies about a cen- 
tury ago. The President showed a curious Wedg- 
wood teapot, upon which was a picture of John 
Wesley, surrounded by a number of his various 
preachers. He further read extracts firom a curious 
old tract, entitled "A true account of a strange and 
wonderful relation of one John Tonkin, of Pensans, 
in Cornwall, said to be bewitched by some women." 

Manchester Geological Society. — Feb. 21. — 
Mr. George Gilroy, President, in the Chair. — Mr. 
Robert Law read a Paper, prepared jointly by him- 
self and Mr. James Horsfall, on the discovery of flint 
implements on the elevated moorlands, near Roch- 
dale. They stated that a series of investigations into 
the distribution and mode of occurrence of Neolithic 
flints were began by them in the spring of 1879. The 
work had been carried on more or less succ^sfiilly 
for a period of two years. The places visited were 
the highest summits and most prominent hills in those 
parts of the Fenine Range which lie within a radius 
of about twelve miles of Rochdale. The first point 
was Dean Clough, a small upland stream about a 
mile north-east of a place called Junction-in-Saddle- 
worth, where no fewer than 150 flints were found. 
These consisted of chippings, flakes, one or two 
small cores, and in one instance a beautifully worked 
arrow-tip of the barb pattern. In subsequent visits 
to this locality other flmts had been found, one of the 
most interesting being an el^antly-fashioned and 
delicately-chipped leu-shaped arrow-head. Flints 
appeared to oe so abundantly scattered on this ele- 
vated moorland that in nearly every case, where an 
opportunity was offered for an examination of the 
subsoil, one or more of them could be found. The 
most striking example was met with on Mardi Hill, 
a conical eminence overlooking the vale of Marsden 
This hill is completely isolated from the surrounding 
moors, and although of comparatively small dimen- 
sions, more than 1,000 flints were discovered on a few 
small patches of bare ground on its southern side. 
The number of small chips and flakes was so great at 
this place as to lead to the conclusion that flint imple- 
ments were manufactured there during pre-historic 
times. On the side facing the north, although there 
was bare ground, not more than ten pieces were 
picked up. As far as their investigations had gone, 
they had failed to detect any trace of polished stone 
celts, and in only two doubtful instances had grinding 
or polishing of the flints been observed. Had these 
ancient Britons been in the habit of using polished 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



173 



ttone hatchets, it was not unreasooaUe to suppose being fitted into one another, or filled np with smaller 

fKa» lome of the firaffinents of them woold hare been ''^ — ^'' ^^^ ' — 

left behind, espedaUy at places where implements 
^>peared to have been mmnfaftored. It had been 
pointed oat that on two hills flints had been foond 
more abondantljr on the soathern than on the northon 
slopes, and this was true of almost all the eleraxed 
plaoes where thej had jet been able to detect flints. 
This might be explained .by the sapposition that 
andoit men selected the more sanny and warmer 
ade of a hill for pitching their tents andcaxTTxng on 
the woriL of ffsihioning their tools and wcapoms. 
Svtheilmnd Field Clnb.—Annnal M eerin g.— 

feb, aS. Dr. Toass in the Chair. — The President 

nnd his anmial address. Under the head of archx- 
okffT. he noticed the cop-marked stone foxmd in 
the Uppat Woods, with the Paper in connection 



therewiSdescribing the known oamDlem Suther- 
land. These occur at Ribigill, Kmloch, kintradweil, 
f'yp^tli^fK of Dnnrobin, Embo, and Uppat, a small 
nnmber for sndi a wide field, coosideTing their abun- 
dance m Ross and Inreniess shires, but the attemion 
BOW directed to the snbjea may result m the dis- 
coveiT of more. They are of extreme mt«r^ as 
the oldat known stone-camngs m Bntam, pertiaps 
in Emope. A fine specimen of an early Celtic shoe 
from thepeat moss at Carhill was presented to the 
linaeum. iSough Mr. Baxter. It is a real 
"bcone." pcifoiated to let out the inevitable water, 
and^ mai£of mitanned ox hide, with the hair 
\f,^^ji^_ Some wdl-formed and ornamented stone 
wfaoils ha^ 9ho been secured. Mr. Stevemoo, 
whoae large coUection of local Amt i«P^ts 
fonns one of the attractions of the Museum m 
£^[|llba|ri^ has, orer the same ground, made a 
Mcond coUcctioo. modi smaller, inaeed. but of 
^TinttfKSt, which he has presented to the local 
MnKom. Of work done in the domam of recent 
historr. Mr. Fowler's description of the Macleod tcrab 
i!iUmt.duii»fintno^^ Notes were also bixwght 
bdbre the Cbb on the early histonr of DMrobmfrom 
-Bimhikhed documents, and on the iiunay of Gordon 
* . .,. sutheriand. 



rWe are unfoftunatdy obliged to let our reports 
of the meetings of the Cambridge Antiquw^n Soaety 
en M«»>kM^ and the Penzance Natural Histoir and 
^tkioarian Socte^ on:the loth of March, stand over 
till ncaiEt month. — ^£d.] 



*r-» r .v-v 



Zbe Bnttquarp's tlotc-'Sooft. 



Bdin*t or Woden's Hall, Cockbnm Law.— 
Coabom Law rises from a base of at least six miles 
fncncBmlereDoetoaoonicaltop. On the north side, 
and a little below the middle of the hill, are the rains 
tftf & wtrw old buikling, by some called Wooden's Hall, 
SiTSmoolycSll^ The 

farifiiWy is constmcted entirely of stone, without any 
QCbCTiMteriaL The stones haTc not been united t^ 
oretoicbiy. They hare, howerer, been Toy 
' ' {daces, their iiregularities 



stones, the whole presenting a 
of dry stone masonry, llie fonn of the edifice is 
drculax, except for a short space on the south, where 
the building is reduced to the level of the surrounding 
de'bri& The len^jfih of the exterior diameters are from 
north to south 92! fee:, from east to west 90 ieet, 
from south-east to north-west 92 1 feet, from south- 
west to nonh-east 92 feet. The thickness df the wall 
varies at different places from 15 feet 3 inches to 19 
feet 2 inches. The doorway and passage, which led 
through the wall from without to the area within, lay 
on the east side of the building. The length of the 
passage was about 17 feet. T^ external entrance of 
It was entire about the year 1 793. In the heart of the 
walls, open SDaces formerly existed. In two plaoes 
we can trace the entire figures of distinct chambers. 
These form loi^ narrow apanments, of which the ends 
are semidrcnlar, and the sides partake of the currature 
of the walls. In breadth they are about 7 feet, and 
in length they are respectively about 33 and 23 feet. 
There are indications of an entrance to each of thoe 
cells, from the central area of about 3 feet in width. 
It is very improbable that an edifice of such ma^i- 
tude, aiid erected by such artists, could have had a 
roof which covered the whole of it Eastward from 
this principal building, the grosnd is marked by the 
foundations of other buildings. On a carefiil examina- 
tion, the foandaiions of four circular buildings can be 
traced, and there may have been othen. Sudi build- 
ings must have been erected by a people very little 
advanced in the arts. It is probable they originated 
in a wall raised as a screen around the fire of a family. 
The most probable account of the origin of Edhrs 
Hall if that it H-as erected as a palace for Edwin, Khig 
of Northumbria, who reigned between 617 and 633. 
The details in evidence (2 this conjecture are given in 
Mr. G. Turnbull*s account of the structure in the 
Tramsactions of the Bersnckskirt Naturaluti Cluh^ 
1850, pp. 9-20^ from which the abore description is 
taken. Other descriptions are contained in Scoi/ 
Afagaane. 1764, roL xxvi. p. 431 ; Sir John Sinclair's 
Statistical Account of Scoikmd^ iT. 3S9-390 ; Sne 
Statistical Actommt of Scotland \ but these are not 
accurate either in measurement or descriptions. 

Edington Chureh (ante, pp. 133-4). — A corre- 
spoixlent from Trowbridge sends us the following 
account of this interesting church, with a view of 
drawing attention to its present deplorable condition. 
The present church ai Edington was dedicated by 
Robert Wyril, Bishop of Salisbury, to SS. Mary, 
Catharine, and All Saints, in 1361. The building 
was commenced about 1347. There is no doubt that 
the erection, as it at present stands, is the church built 
by William of Edington, as the style answers to the 
date when the Decorated was giving way to the Per- 
pendicular. It consists of a chancel about 60 feet 
long by 15 feet wide, a,north and south transept, and 
a luve with side aisles. * A tower rises from thecentre 
of the church. As far as can be ascertained, the 
whole length of the fabric was 1 50 feet ; the wi<ith of 
the nave and aisles 54 feet ; the length of the transept 
75 feet. On the south side of the nave is a porch with a 
parvise over iL The rhancrl, so spacious in its pro- 
portions, is not seated for the congif^ation. Within the 



174 



THE ANTIQUARYS NOTE^BOOK. 



altar rails on the south side is a magnificent tomb of 
alabaster and marble to the memory of Sir Edward 
Lewys, of ±e Vane, Glamorganshire, and Ann his wife, 
daughter of Robert Sackville, Earl of Dorset, and 
widow of Edward Seyinour, Lord Beauchamp. This 
Sir Edward Lewys resided at Edington in the mansion 
(now destroyed) that was the monastery. There is a 
curious epitaph on the monument : it reads : — 

" Since children are the living comer stone, 
Where marriage built on both sides meets in one, 
Whilst they survive our lives shall have extent 
Upon record, in them our monument*' 

The full-length figures of Sir Edward and his wife 
are on the tomb ; in front are the effigies of their 
children, kneeling ; from underneath the canopy is a 
cherub hovering over the recumbent figures with the 
crown of glory in his hand. It appears this figure is 
only painted wood, the original having been stolen or 
lost. The reredos is some carved wood that was for- 
merly a mantelpiece in the mansion ; on either side of 
the east window, are two empty niches, and two con- 
taining headless figures. Tne chancel floor is higher- 
than the transept by about three feet. It is separated 
by an arch, which still contains the rood loft, beneath 
which is a carved oak screen. The stairs to ascend 
into the loft are on the north side, in the angle. Thev 
are now closed. Passing firom the chan^ through 
the doors or the screen into the transepts, is noti(^ 
the front of the rood loft adorned with the royal 
arms, painted on canvas, bearing the date 1783, and 
on either side are the tables of Uie Commandments, 
the Creed, and the Lord's Prayer, whilst on the 
south end are some sentences in black letter fix>m 
the Proverbs, of the supposed date of Edward VL 
Against the south wall of the south transept is a 
canopied tomb, on which reposes the figure of an 
ecclesiastic, an Augustine canon ; no epitaph or date 
affords an v clue to the name of the deceased, but 
on several portions of the erection is the figure of a 
tun or barrel, (rom out the bunghole of which issues 
a branch of some tree, which bears the initials I. B. 
The small organ stands in the south transept ; 
there is here also a flat gravestone to the Pepler 
£eunily, earliest date December 6, 1769. Detacned 
on the ground is a monument that formerly stood 
against the wall, to Mary, daughter of Martin and 
Anamoriah Taylor, September 13, 1769. Brass 
lettered S. P. 1799, the vault of Sarah Price, whose 
monument just above it is dated March 23, 1799. In 
this transept, underneath the east window, which 
contains a quantity of old stained glass, stood an altar; 
the piscina, and a small niche which bears the traces 
of paint and gold, still remain. There is no vestry in 
the church, but the north-west angle of this transept 
is enclosed for the purpose by a wooden partition ; m 
this angle also is a night of stairs leading on to the roof. 
At the west end of this aisle stands the font, and 
some of its windows still contain ancient stained glass; 
the cloisters were outside thb portion of the church ; 
the lights are, therefore, small and high up in the 
wall. The west end of the building boasts a magnifi- 
cent window ; under it are the doors^ now never 
opened, as the stone- work above is so Insecure. 
In the centre aisle stands one of ^e old relics of 
the church, in the shape of a canopied altar tomb, 



which formerly bore two recumbent effigies in brass. 
In Michael's History of Edington Churchy Uiis tomb 
is mentioned as containing the bodies of Sir Ralph 
Chcsiey and loan Paveley his wife, a co-heiress of 
the Paveleys, lords of Westbury. To this statement 
there is the objection that the armorial bearings are 
those of a bachelor and the arms of Cheney only. 
The oak pulpit, and reading desk under, stand in the 
centre of the nave. It appears that the present ceiling 
of plaster, with raisea devices, painted pink, was 
pk^ therein 1663, as that date and the letters N.D. 
are on the walls of the north and south transept The 
interior retains the appearance of the country church 
of the last century, with high square pews ; at the 
west end of the soudi aisle are a few of the old carved 
oak seats of the original type. Here and there, be- 
neath some of the windows, are to be seen the small 
crosses which were sprinkled by the Bishop at the 
dedication, and were covered with brass. On the 
floor, just inside the pordi door, are the arms of 
Winchester See, incised in stone, partially hidden by 
the heating apparatus, and several slabs in different 
parts of the floor show where brass effigies have been 
torn away. The tower contuns a fine peal of bells, 
six in number, and one small or parson's bell ; this 
latter is dated 1671 ; the large l]^ is dated 1723. 
The windows of the tower are traced in the shape of 
a cross flory ; this has been thought to have arisen 
from the fact of its having been built by the Paveleys, 
but their arms were a cross patonce, not a cross flory. 
At the east end of the church is a grand old yew, 
whose trunk is twenty feet in circiunference ; the 
north side of the churchyard was, till recently, in the 
old abbey gardens, ami the walls of the fabric still 
show where the firuit trees were nailed against them. 
The parish registers date from 1695. 

The present condition of Edington Church is most 
lamentable ; the wet penetrates through the roof and 
walls, and in many pla^s the floor is green with 
damp. Some portions of the building are insecure, 
notaohr the west end, where the great doors are 
walled up to sustain the east window over. 

Shakespeare in Lancashire. — Mr. Edward J. L. 
Scott, of the British Museum, has sent to the 
Athemeum a letter which he has recently found in a 
volume of correspondence between the English and 
Scotch Courts during the negociations for the marriage 
of James VI. and Anne of Denmark. Mr. Scott con- 
siders the letter is of interest as possibly showing the 
whereabouts of Shakespeare in 1589, under the sup- 
position that he was a member of the company 
of players, called the Queen's Companjr ; and Mr. 
Scott quotes it to show that the poet was m Edinburgh 
at the time of the trial and burning of certain witches, 
who were accused of raising the storms that imperilled 
the life of Anne of Denmark. From witnessing these 
incidents Mr. Scott thinks Shakespeare obtained ideas 
for his subsequent conception of the witches in Mac- 
beth^ which was written m 1606. The letter is spe- 
cially worthy of note. The following is the document, 
which was written by Henry le Scrope, ninth Baron 
Scrope of Bolton, governor of Carlisle and warden of 
the West Marches, to William Ashley, English Am- 
bassador at the Court of James the Sixdi : — 

" After my verie hartie commendacions : upon a letter 
receyved from Mr. Roger Asheton, signifying unto me 



THE ANTIQUARYS NOTE-BOOK. 



'75 



that it was the kiapt camest desire for to have her 
Majfrtiei plajvi for to repayer into Scotland to his 
pace : I djd forthwith oiqMitcfae a servant of my 
owcn OBlD then wheir they were in the furthest parte 
of Lasgkethiie^ whereupon they made their retorae 
hrathrr to Carilrtl, wher they are, and have stayed for 
the qiaoe of ten dayes, wherof I thought good to 
nrfe jow Botioe in respect of the great desyre that 
the hyi^ had to have the same come unto his grace ; 
Aadwmiall to pnye yow to gyve knowledg therof 
to his Majfitip. So for the present, I bydd yow right 
hartdie mrewelL Carlisle the zxth of Septeml^, 
15SQ. Yovr Terie assured loving friend. H. Scrope. 

Calleva.— In our review of Mr. Hedges' History 
if WmBk^gfird^ in the March immber of The Anti- 
QVASY (page I2i)» we alluded to the author's argu- 
ment in mToar of the view that the town of Walling- 
fovd maila the site of Uie Roman Calleva AtrebiU 
torn. Mr. Roach Smith has favoured us with the 
ibilowing extract frosn his forthcoming woris, entitled, 
XihwfeOiomt^ respecting this point :» 

''Mr. Hatcher, in defiance of a host of hostile 
authorities^ very clearly proves that Silchester repre- 
KDts Ca/ZfM / and yet he does not adduce the peculiar 
cmdenoe which, to me verr obvious and conclusive, 
has been, and yet is, stxancely overlooked. It is this : 
Eve^ station whidi heads and every station which 
tirmmatrf an Iter was walled. Of these walled 
rtatinnf> often towns or dties, there are yet remains in 
tfont masonry. I know ofno exception; and the reason 
is palpaHe why th^ should have been walled and 
important places. Not only do distances point to 
Sifchnrter as Cattetfa ; but there is no other fortification 
anywhere in the locdUt^ lo which it can be referred. 
Aa for J%idoaus or Vindomum^ its being classed by 
Ridnid of Cirencester as a stipendiary town is one 
off die rtraog ainunents against the authenticity of the 
«€ik hearing his name published by Stukeley and 
tnntlated bv Hatches. Hatches locates Vmaomum 
oonectly. It was a subordinate station ; and recent 
CBcavations made by the Rev. £. Kell, Mr. C. Lock- 
Imit, and others most satis&ctorily show that it was 
A lame icsting-place^ a spacious inn, or caravansary, 
Bke that at ThMe in France." {Cai. An/,^ vol. iL) 
-^Mtiiv^tecfimUf Sociai ami Arckaohgical^ p. 30. By 
CiRoadi Smith. 

Rare Axi^o-Sazoii Carvings. — Mr. John Batty, 
£ait Ardsley, forwards to the Leeds Mercury the fol- 
loiiK OQixeq>ondence he has had with Professor 
Gea Stephens, the well-known Danish arch^eolc^gist, 
en rabbingi taken from stone work in Rothwell 



'' East Aidsley, near Wakefield, Yorkshire, 
*• England, January 30, 18S2. 

"Dkar Sir, — ^Knowing that you are eminent 
tlnonglioat Europe as a Runic scholar and archaeo- 
logisl; I Tentnre respectfully to submit to vour learned 
*«'T— *^^*" the accompanying drawiiije of two panel- 
shj^ied carved stooei. They are built into the iimer 
soath-west and west walls of the M parish country 
chwch of Rothwdl, near Leeds, in separate places, 
cvidotfly for the purpose of preservation, when this 
oldest portion of the present edifice may have been 
idmiltppibbably in the fourteenth ceritury. Thesuace 
which encloses ue carving is slightly hollowed froni 



the face of the stone^ but the carved work is mainly 
in relief, and the higher portions stand out above the 
face. The groundwork of the sketdi is got from a 
rubbing, in order to ensure the exact form and 
prominent marking of the stone — the lines and hollow 
parts are filled in by hand. Altogether, the repre- 
sentation is as near a fac-simile as we can get — 
without the aid of photography — sufficient, I judge, to 
give you a good idea of the ^tesque figures of 
animals and ornamental work which cover the stones. 
There are no runes or characters of writing in con- 
nection with them, and the stones are quite different 
and have no affinity with any of their surroundings. 
I should deem it a great fiivour if you would give me 
jrour opinion on the merits of these carvings, as to 
their probable aecp style of work, and the meaning 
or symbolisin (U an;^) involved. You would, I 
venture to think, by tlus also confer a favour upon the 
archaeologists of Yorkshire, as I believe no antiquary 
has ever noticed them, and I have the impression 
they are full of valuable meaning if rightly under- 
stood. My own humble opimon (but which I 
tremblingbr submit) is that they are Anglo-Saxon, 
and are fragments of a churdiyard cross ; but, of 
course, I may be mistaken. The old name of Roth- 
well was originally Rode-well or Rood-well, that is, 
the cross near the well. 

" I remain, yours most truly, 

"John Batty." 

" Cheapinghaven, Denmark, Feb. 4, 1882. 

'* My dear Sut,^Allow me to thank you heartily 
for the two valuable rubbings you were so kind to 
forward me. There is no doubt that 3rou have come 
across treasure-trove of the most valuable description. 
Every bit of Old English work, bearinp; carved mark- 
ings or ornaments or figures, and with or without 
Runic or Roman letters, is a fresh luik in the great 
chain of this branch of old-lore, and throws light 011 
the rest. The name of the place where these pieces 
exist— the well near the Rood, the Roodwell — is in 
itself a proof of antiquity. There has been a holy 
vrell there of old. Of course, I can only give hints 
and helps in reply to your queries : — 

" I. Ace. As fiir as I can see, seventh century or 
early in the eighth. 

<*2. Style. What I have called, in mv Old 
Northern Runic Monuments of Scandimnna and 
England^ Kelto-Northumbrian. 

'*3. Symbols. The ornamentation ofiers rare 
variations, and is very precious. I would not call 
the ropework and dracontine figures symbols, properly 
so called. They appear to be onlv decorative. 

" Is there any trsdition as to the date of the old 
church to which these bits probably have belonged 
which can eive us a due in this direction ? Are 3rou 
sore that these pieces are not carved also on the 
other sides ? Could you take them out, and deposit 
theminyour local museum? If not, could you cut 
away some of the stone- work above or below them, 
so as to see whether there is anything carved there? 
Such cuttings could be easily refilled with cement, 
&C. I caxmot see how they can have belonged to a 
cross. More likely they have been parts of a frieze ; 
possibly of a sarcophagus^haped coped tomb. In 
any case, I hope you will persuade our Yorkshire 



176 



THE ANTIQUARY S NOTE-BOOK. 



Society to engrave these costly old-lores, and that 
von will publish them with a memoir in the proceed- 
ings of the Society. As I collect such drawings from 
flJl Europe, I will, with your permission, keep those 
3roa have submitted to me. But if you cannot spare 
them, I will return them at once. By this post I 
have the pleasure of forwarding for 3rour acceptance 
one of the antiquarian essays I have published . Some 
parts of it will, I think, interest you. Again thanking 
you for your friendly courtesy,— I remain, with great 
respect, very obediently yours, 

'* George Stephens. 
•• J. Batty, Esq., England." 



Bntiquadan flewa. 



On the loth of March the workmen enraged in the 
renewed excavations at the base of the Temperance 
Hall Park, Wick, Caithness, for the site of a building 
to be erected by Provost Rae, came upon a smaU 
bronze pot in a fiiir state of preservation. The place 
where tnis interesting relic was found was in the re- 
mains of an old wall left standing when some excava- 
tions of last year were completed. The pot corre- 
sponds in form and appearance with the three-legged 
,iron pot of evenr-day use, with the body rather more 
elongated, but the size is much less than the smallest 
uf the culinary utensils of this description of the present 
day. Its height is 5 inches ; diameter at widest part, 
4^ inches ; depth 4 inches ; diameter at mouth, 3^ 
inches ; and lenc:th of foot, \\ inch. Round one side 
of the neck stiU remains a portion of a rod or small 
bar of iron, which seems at one end to fit into an ear 
or hook of bronze. This is the "bonis" by which 
the pot was lifted on and off the fire. There is a 
peculiarity about two of the feet which would lead to 
the supposition that they had been affixed after the 
utensil was cast, as they stand out from the body with 
a shoulder — the other foot being straight. The relic 
is rude .and roughly cast, and is devoid of ornamenta- 
tion. It was found in close proximity to the spot 
where the gold coins were discovered in June last. 

Some twelve or fifteen years ago, while the Rev. 
Thomas Hugo was penning his account of Taunton 
Priory, Mr. Edward Jeboult directed his attention to 
A fine old oak door, which at that time was doing 
duty in a fowls' house, and was not allowed to be 
removed. Within the past few weeks this has been 
<lone, and the following appear to be the particulars 
concerning this interesting relic : — At the dissolution 
of monasteries in the reign of Henry VIII., the 
carved fieices of the figures of guardian angels and 
apostles on the doors were struck off, togemer with 
the mitre and the Bible ; the doors were then sold and 
hung at the entrance to a farm-house between Trull 
and Pitminster, that was then probably being erected. 
After remainii^ here until the old building was pulled 
down, some fii^ years ago, they were allowed to lie 
about, and the tradition has followed them that they 
belonged to the Taunton Priory. On removing the 
moss and other rubbish with which the carvings were 
choked, the following discovery was made :— On the 



meeting rail are three rosaries ; on the first panel a 
guardian angel bearing a shield, containing the arms of 
the patron of the Priory, Richard Fox, Bishop of 
Winchester, from A.D. 1520 to 1528 — ^the pelican in her 
piety, with the mitre and ornaments. These arms have 
been very carefully inserted in the original door. The 
centre panel contains a finely carved figure of St Paul 
(one of the patron saints), holding in his right hand a 
sword, and m his left a Bible, exactly agreeing with the 
design shown on the seal of Priory. The next panel 
has also a guardian angel bearing a shield wim the 
initial letters •' W. Y.," denoting WilUam Yorke, the 
last Prior but one, and who was appointed in 1^5, 
and died a few years after. Below, the letters is a 
pastoral staff and ornaments, but no mitre of the Prior, 
and it is noticeable that the Bull from the Pope 
gpranting permission for the use of the staff and orna- 
ments, but no mitre, is yet in existence at Lambeth. 
By comparing the dates, a space of only about seven 
years could have occurred, in which Fox was Bishop, 
and York was Prior at die same time, so that we get 
the age of the doors within that short period ; and as 
the Priory was destroyed in 1539, these beautiful doors 
were in place only a very ^ort time — some twenty 
years or so. It should ble mentioned that the door 
also has very beautifully carved draped rolls on the 
frame, and that these rolls pass through buttress caps 
in a very original and unusual manner. The haxiging 
stvle of the door is carved throughbut with a multitude 
ot small fleur-de-lis, most beautifully executed, while 
the panels below are of very nicely carved drapery or 
linen-fold pattern, while the diagonal framing clearly 
points out that the door is but one of a pair, which, 
unfortunately, got divided some thirty vears ago ; but 
inquiry and investigation is being made for the other 
one, and with evenr probability of success. The fore- 
going account will show that local traditions should 
not be despised. 1 Here is one at least 350 years old, 
which, altnough constantly disputed, has turned out 
to be correct, and that without any doubt ; for the old 
doors tell their own story, and history will confirm 
them in all respects. An opportunity will be afforded 
shortly to the' public to see these interesting old relics. 
The mound upon which stands the old oak tree, 
sometimes call^ <* The Fairy Oak," at Wrexham, has 
been purchased bv Mr. W. E. Samuel, and will be 
enclosed in the pleasure grounds of " Fairy Motmt," 
a bouse now in course of erection. The tree and 
mound are to be carefully preserved, but as it became 
necessary recently to remove some of the adjacent 
soil, it was decided to cut a narrow trench, and ascer- 
tain, if possible, something of the history of the 
mound, without, however, disturbing the root of the 
tree. It is a bowl-shaped British Imutow. This par- 
ticular barrow in the Faixr Field, must have been in 
the district of the tribe of the Oidovices, and some- 
where near their frontier, which extended along the 
river Dee from Chester to near Llangollen. This 
tribe, however, seemed to have confined themselves 
chidRy to the mountain country, and the ancient 
British camp on the top of the gravel bank between 
Oresford and Rossett was . apparently one of their 
frontier outposts, from which they could make expedi- 
tions into the ridier territory of their neighbours on 
the phuns. The excavation lately made was cut 
partly through the tumulus from ,east tQ west, and 



ANTIQUARIAN NEWS. 



K7 



on the origiiml level of the groand about 25 feet 
from where the opening was commenced, and at a 
depth of feet a heap of human bones was found. 
The bones were very much decomposed, and no urn 
or ciittvaen was found, nor even any considerable 
(quantity of stones near them, but the remains lay in a 
simple heap surrounded by the soil. It must have 
been soch an interment as Mr. Bloxam speaks of in 
the fi^wing terms :~" Interments by cremation in 
bnnowsy in which the ashes have been simply de- 
posited in a circnlar cist, or on the floor, without 
either nms, arms, or ornaments, are common; 
weapons^ pins, beads, cups, and other articles have, 
howerer, not nnlrequently been found with a simple 
deposit of burnt bones.'* In this case the bones had 
probably nndei]p>ne cremation, which would explain 
why thqr were m small fragments and in a confused 
heap. A little distance from the bones and towards 
the north were found four or five fragments of rude 
p ot t e r y. As only a small jx)rtion of the tumulus was 
ezpkmd, traces of other mterments may exiat The 
sappotition that the mound was raised over the 
▼Ictmis of the Plague is, of course, unfounded. The 
ground was restored as soon as the partial exploration 
wms completed, and the owner of the Fairy Oak is 
now enclosmg Uie mound. 

Excavations are proceeding steadily beneath Abbey 
PusQ^ at Bath,and there will, it is expected, speedily 
be endenoe of the accuracy of Mr. Davis's antid- 
mtians and the wisdom of the work of the Antiquities 
Committee. At a very considerable depth below the 
present pavement the workmen have come upon the 
pavement 0^ the Roman bath, which is to be un- 
coveredf parts of the pilasters which supported the 
roof, &c. They have also found a quantity of hollow 
tHes which formed the roof, pieces of carved masonry, 
pottery, &c., as well as a quantity of the horns of 
oxen, and bones, some of them human. Miss Perren's 
ahop has been removed, and the handsome front of 
the house which is to be removed is exposed to view ; 
it is called bv tradition the Queen's Lodging, and is 
believed to nave been the abiding place of Queen 
Anne. The state of the front of the house and of the 
floor of the odlar shows conclusively that the subsi- 
dence at Uiii spot is an old one. 

One bjr one the picturesque old courts and houses 
of London are being swept away. The next part 
threatened is Brick Court, on the west of Middle 
Temple Lane, a group of buildings boasting no 
ardutectnral grandeur, but simple r^-brick houses, 
with pedimented doorways, good oak staircases, and 
massive external cornice. It is the presence of these 
qniet old buildings that gives so great a charm to the 
oonrts of the two Temples, and makes a few steps 
thither from the bustle and roar of Fleet Street seem 
like a mfig^'f^^ escape from the feverish hurry and tear 
of modem life into Uie quiet past of the seventeenth 
or eighteenth century. Surely, says the Academy^ some 
serioiit protest should be inade against this needless 
destroction of TR^at has a real picturesque value in itself, 
and is linked with a thousand historical associations 
which ongjht not lightly to be obliterated and forgotten. 

The threatened destruction of Goldsmith's house in 
the Temple grieves many others than antiquaries or 
hefo-woiriiippert What valid reason can exist for 



pulling down a building which is apparently sound 
and is certainly commc^ious, and on a level with 
the requirements of modem life for the purpose of 
habitation, it is difficult to divine. London has all 
too few relics of our successive literary epochs, and 
far too many of our ancient historic buildings have 
fallen under the stroke of a vandalism discreditable 
to an age which professes to be highly cultured. 

The restoration of the interesting church of St. 
George, at Staverton, near Totnes is progressing. 
The chancel was renovated some few years ago, ami 
now, under the direction of Mr. Ewan Christian, the 
nave and usles are being dealt with. The most in- 
tereresting part of the work, however, is the restora- 
ation of 3ie old rood-screen, by Mr. Harry Hems. 
This screen was erected in the fifreenth century, and 
is of oak. It measures over 50 ft. long, independently 
of its two handsome parcloses. A solid moulded oak 
sill is being put through the entire length, and the 
upper parts are being tenderly cared for. Mr. Hems 
has also the restoration of the old Jacobean pulpit and 
prayer-desk in hand. 

Mr. Smith, farmer. Grind, St. Andrew's parish, 
Orkney, in making a road from his house to the new 
Tankemess road, came upon an ancient stone cist 
containing the skeleton of a child. Information was 
brought to Mr. John W. Cursiter, F.S.A, Kirkwall, 
who visited the place, and carefully examined it. 
The cist was 21 inches long by 124 inches wide, and 
15 inches deep, constructed of rough slabs of stone 
joined toother by half-checking in their width, and 
covered by a heavy, rather water-wom slab, 5 
inches thick. A stratum of clay, 8 inches thick, 
was lying over it, and about four inches of peat over 
all. The cist was situated about 300 yards due 
east of the house of Grind. The skeleton was lying 
with the head to the east, but the bones were very 
much decayed, and had crumbled to some extent on 
being exposed to the air. The skull was very well 
formed, and the remains of the jaws showed several 
undeveloped as well as full-grown teeth of a child. 
In addition to the bones of the skeleton, a small bone 
implement or ornament was found, about 2) inches 
lone, and as thick as an ordinary lead pencil, 
wim a small notch cut aroimd one end of it. It was 
well made, and seemed as if it had originally been 
polished. The grave was situated on the side of a 
low mound, and it seems not unlikely that more than 
one burial had taken place in it, thouch as yet only 
one grave has been come across. A large quantity 
of quarried stones form the bulk of the mound, and 
have probably been conveyed to the spot, as there 
seems to be no rock near the place where it stands^ 

Some interesting discoveries have lately been made 
near Kirkwall of ancient implements and remains. 
Mr. George M. Fergus found a well-formed stone 
celt in one of the fields on the farm of Laverock, and 
further investigations led to the discovery of a number 
of rough stone hammers, part of a polished granite 
axe, and a fine specimen of a gnmite perforated 
hammer-head. 

The second of the old monuments which was stored 
away in the tower on the completion of St. Mary's 
Church, Andover, nearly forty years ago, and there 
lost sight of, has been restored by the Vicar, and 



178 



ANTIQUARIAN NEWS. 



placed on the right-hand side of the diaoceL It is a 
noUe momimeiity consistiiig of two laise fignies, male 
and fenude, koeelixig^ wi£ a tomb between tfaem» 
and, witib Uie scroll work, pillars, and canred capitals, 
presents a very chaste and eood design of the period. 
It bears date 1621, and ue inscription on a brass 
plate sets forth that it is the monument erected to 
Kidiard Venables and his wife Dorothy, the same 
who left jf 100 in the hands of the Corporation for 
fifteen poor people to receive each a 20 loaf evoy 
Sunday at tne church porch, a charity itill in exis- 
tence. 

Valuable antiquarian researches have been made at 
a spot cfldled the "Twmpath," near Cdlwinstone, on 
the Pwllywiach estate. At Cowbridge several findy 
ornamented earthen vases, containing pones, were dis- 
covered, and also some flint tools and relics. It is 
supposed that the various objects found cannot be less 
than 800 years old. The excavations axe still in pro- 



The Rev. Francis T. Vine„ of Patrixboume, Kent, 
gives the following account of the results of further 
explorations of an ancient kist-vaen in Girseley Wood, 
diMOvered a short time ago : — ^The tumulus first opened 
wasyhe says, the largest of three tumuli, the arcum- 
ferences of which touched each other, their centres 
bein^ in one straight line, and the mounds bang pro- 
gressive in height The two other tumuli have smce 
been explored. The second (next to the largest) con- 
tained a kist-vaen, the dimensions of which were 
exactly the same as those of the first — ^namely, length 
4 ft, breadth 2^ ft., depth lift The earth of the 
mound had fallen in, and nearly filled the chamber. 
Two small pieces of charred bone and a few minute 
fragments of thin glass were all that could be dis- 
covered amongst the debris. The third mound was 
nearly on a levdl with the surrounding ground. In 
it was a third kist-vaen quite perfect, but of smaller 
dimensions (length 3ft, Ineadth 2ift, depth 3ft ) Mr. 
Vine says it is remarkable that the depth of tins kist 
was equal to its length, while that of each of the others 
was the same as the breadth. The contents also were 
different, for in this small firagments of bones were 
found, a medical gentleman being able to trace portions 
of the skull, and of most other parts of the human 
skeleton. Some of the bones appear to have been 
burnt, but the greater part had escaped the fire. A 
small firagment of bronze and a few pieces of fine glass 
were also found in the last, and in the mound itself 
two fractured urns. At the bottom were some large 
flint stones, possibly those on which the body had beoi 
placed for cremation and, therefore, reverentially pre- 
served and deposited with the bodv. The direction 
of each of die kist-vaens was nearly the same ; that 
of the first two being north-west and south-east, thit 
of the third being slightlv more inclined to the north. 
The centre also of the middle kist-vaen was eauidistant 
firom the centres of the two outer ones. Thus there 
was harmony of des^ both in their construction and 
relative positions. Mr. Vine says it is a subject for 
inquiry whether these kist-vaens were intended to 
represent a temple, as were some of die Grecian 
sepulchres : whether one of them may externally have 
represented an altar, which the slrall placed upon 
one seems to indicate ; or whether the three tumuli 



placed in dose proximity were intended to transmit 
to posterity a knowledge ol the Triune God. That 
the kist-vaens vdiich, in conjunction with a friend, he 
has been permitted by Lord Coirmg^m's kindness 
and at his expense to open, are firitish, he has no 
doubt 

A splendid hoard of ancient bronze weapons has 
recently been found by labourers in cutting a drain in 
the parish of Wilburton, near Ely, on the property of 
Mr. Claude Pell, of Wilburton Manor. The collection 
consists of about no spear and javelin heads, ten 
sword blades (broken), two socketed cdts^ a pcdrtave, 
ferrules for die butt end of spears, and of sword 
sheaths, and other articles. Tne spear heads are of 
various sizes and slu4)es, but all elegant in des^ This 
collection of Celtic weapons lav in a heap upon die 
day below the fen peat; ana their deposition is 
supposed to have beoi the,result of a boat acddent 
A fen fire which occured at the spot some years bstdc 
reached these treasures, and fused and injured many of 
the weapons, but the greater number are stiU wdl pre- 
served and in good condition. Mr. John Evans nas 
undertaken to brin^ this interesting hoard before the 
Society of Antiquanes. 

The Wydif Society has just been founded to remove 
from En^and the disgrace of having till now left 
buried in manuscript t& most important works of her 
neat earlyreformer, John Wydif. It is only of late that 
the smallest effort hais been made to repair the n^ect 
of centuries. Wydif died in 1384. Not till 466 years 
after was his En^^ Bible printed. Not till 4S5 
years after did his SeUct Enghsh Works appear, and 
not till last year were the rest of his English works 
printed. Out of the great mass of Wj^HTs Latin 
writings, only one treatise of importance, die 
THalogus^ has ever been printed. Published abroad 
in 1525, and apin in 1753, it was edited for the 
Oxford University Press in 1869 bv Dr. Lechler. A 
fiew tracts (not ico pages in all) are contained in 
Shirley's Fasdadi Zuaniorum ; and this is all that 
England has done to make the chief works of this 
grnt son of hers accessible. The subscription to die 
Wydif Sodety is one guinea a year, payable at once 
for 1883, and on the first of January for every after 
year. Members' names and subscriptions should be 
sent dther to F. J. Fumivall, 3, St George's Square, 
Primrose Hill, London, N.W.; or to F. D. Matthew, 
94, King Henry's Road, London, N.W.; or to Prof. 
Montagu Burrows, 9, Notham Gardens, Oxford, or to 
die Honorary Secr^ary, John W. Standnwick, Esq., 
General Post Office, Lcmdon, E.C. 

The excavations of the Roman villa at Wingham, 
on the estate of Lord Cowper^ are still going on. 
Three rooms, having tessellated floors and an extensive 
hypocaust, have aueady been uncovered, at an ex- 
pense so small that it has been more than defirajred by 
the spontaneous contributions of visitors and a few 
subscribers who have taken an interest in the matter 
finom the beginning. Operations on a larger scale, 
involving considamble outlay, are about to be under- 
taken, imd a preliminary meeting of gentlemen has 
been held at Canterbury for the purpose of decting a 
general committee and for making arrangements for a 
continuatidn of the excavations. Lord Cowper was 
appointed chairman, and on the committee are the 



ANTIQUARIAN NEWS. 



179 



Rer. Canon Scott Robertson, Sir John Lubbock, 
M.P., Mr. Loftus Brock, F.S^, Mr. J. Brent, 
F.S.A., Mr. C. RoMh Smith, Mr. Hilton Price, Mr. 
W. S. W. Vans, Mr. J. B. Sheppard, and other weU 
known archseologbts. The site of the villa is within 
an easy walk <» Adisham station, on the London, 
Chatham, and Dover railway. 

The parish church of St Mary, at Rawtenstall, in 
the Kossendale Valley, is re-opened, having been 
doeed since April last for the purpose of undeigoinjg 
a thofOQ^ restoration, both as to the external fabric 
aadthe mterior fittings. In the course of the restora- 
tioD the dmrdi has iMen enlarged to the extent of two 
bayi* The old tower at the west end has been taken 
down, and on the south side of the church a new one 
partially bnUt, the completion of it being delayed for 
want of funds. The galleries have been entirely re- 
oonstructed in pitch pine and at a much lower level 
and altered inclination, and the aisles have been 

Cved with onuunental tiles. The old ceiling has 
en entirely removed and an additional hei^t of 
about dght reet obtained by opening out a part of the 
ioo( the timbers of which have be^ cased with pitdi 
nine. The western window of five lights has oeen 
tailed with stained glass. 

FVom the report of the recent annual meeting of 
the " Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History 
SodetyJ our readers would gather that the Rev. 
W. A. Leighton had retired, and the editorship was 

St in commission, but we are glad to learn from 
I OsweOry Adoertuer that he wul still act as editor 
of the 7>mMi^^Mij. 

On Janoary ai, while a workman was crossing 
the moor south of Gordon, in Berwickslure, he found 
a veiy fine celt, which measured 6 inches in length 
ti^ a indies in breadth at the widest port of me 
*' edge.** It was roughly formed of dark-grey flint, 
motUed over with white spots. 

At a nle held eariy in February, a curious rdic of 
Holt Church was offered for sale — namely, the Royal 
Ams of Geoige III., cast in metal, about 18 inches 
by 17. These arms are subsequent in date to the 
vniOD with Ireland, as they do not quarter France. 
They are the arms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
qnaitefed, with an escutcheon in right of the 
snonaidi's Hanoverian dominions ; and on another 
etcntdieoQ the crown of Charlemagne, as Arch 
Treanrer of the Holy Roman Empire. It is a great 
pity that snch objects should be removed from our 
cfanrches; rather we should follow the example of 
BeckingtOD, which contains the shields of Elizabeth, 
date IC749 and Anne, dated 1702, to say nothing of 
Victona, The arms to which we allude are a very 
good specimen of casting in metal, and are worthy to 
Ee replaced in their original position in Holt Church. 

Shaftesbury (or Thanet) House, in Aldersgate-street, 
liaa DOW been handed over to the house wreckers, and 
levelled to the ground. Many persons visited the 
n^><»u»t» nMmsioQ and were curious to see the room con- 
taiaiag the carved oak mantelpiece and wainscot to 



la the excavations necessary for lajring down a drain 
in the centre of the city of San Francisco, near the 
cfamchy perhaps one of the largest ** finds " of pre- 



historic bronzes ever made was unearthed. At a small 
distance below the surfiice, under a stratum of ashes 
and charcoal, the pick and shovel laid bare one €d 
those immense urns in terra-cotta. The urn broke on 
contact with the air, displaying inside an extraordinary 
collection of bronze objects all carefully packed, so as to 
occupy the least possible amount of space, the heaviest 
and largest at the bottom and against the sides, the 
lightest at the top and in the centre. There were 
found literally several hundreds of hatchets, represent- 
ing all theMeaiterranean and Danubian types — sickles, 
chuels, saws, files, gouges, knives, razors, bracdets, 
plaques covered with enibossed ornaments, more than 
2,000 fibukst lanceheads, poniards, swords, and ingots 
of metaL Altogether there were 14,000 objects, the 
weight exceeding a ton and a half. The greater part 
were well worn or purposely broken up. Some of the 
jewelry had been menaed with iron rivets, that metal 
being then doubtless considered as precious. It was 
easy to recognize that either a foundry or the stock of 
a bronze-smith of the first Iron Age had been un- 
earthed. This large quantity of old bronze, belonging 
to preceding periods, had, without doubt, been 
gathered in uie neighbourhood by some industrious 
metal-worker, who was perhaps on the point of re- 
smelting the whole, when, surprised by a war, by a 
siege, or by an invasion, he determined to bury the 
mass in his workshop, hiding the place with the ashes 
from his fireplace. The danger over, he intended to 
unbury his treasure ; but the accidents of war, his 
d«ith, or that of those to whom he may have confided 
the secret, prevented the discovery of the store, which 
was left to the present generation, to show us some- 
thing of the otherwise undiscoverable existence of 3,000 
years ago. Competent authorities agree in decJaring 
that nothing comparable to this " find" of pre-historic 
antiquities has ever been made. 

In the course of some excavations which are being 
made in the out^irts of Pompeii, thirty human skele- 
tons, in different states of preservation, have been 
fourul. One of them, stretched at full length, appeared 
to be in the act of elapsing to its breast some kind of 
purse, the shape of which was still traceable, and 
whidi containea a gold coin of Vespasian, six silver 
and ten bronze coins, eardrops, pearls, and engravad 
precious stones. Near the other skeletons were found 
gold and silver coins of Galba, Tiberius, Nero, and 
Domitian, with gold bracelets and eardrops, and a 
few pearls and precious stones. 

Amongst the latest additions to the Egerton MSS. 
in the British Museum is a Raster of Inauisitiones 
Post-mortem for Cheshire from Edward III. to 
Richard III. 

The Parish Church of Hoggeston, Bucks, is about 
to be restored from plans prepared by Mr. William 
White, F.S.A 

A last service has been held within the ruined walls 
of the ancient church of Temple, near Bodmin. The 
building has been vdthout roof for 150 years, and 
services have been held at a farmhouse, except those 
necessary to meet legal requirements ; but the church 
is now, alas I to be re-roofed and restored. 

The Committee of the Royal Literary and Scientific 
Institution, Bath, are taking steps to prevent the re- 
moval from the Institution of the valuable geological 



z8o 



ANTIQ UARIAN NE WS. 



collection of the late Mr. Alderman Moore. Mr. 
Davies had, after a careful examination, valued the 
collection at ;f 1,100, at which sum it can be pur- 
chased. The desirability of not allowing it to pass 
into the possesion of strangers was uimesitatingly 
affirmed, and the earnestness of this conviction was 
attested by the fact that about ;f 400 has been pro- 
mised towards the sum required. It was resolved to 
endeavour to raise the balance by subscription. 

St Paul's Church, Warrington, has been reopened 
after restoration. |The old seats have been taken awa^ 
and replaced by sittings worked in pine. A pulpit 
and staircase of wrought-iron and polished brass has 
been added to the church. 

The statue in marble, and laxger than life, which 
was lately discovered in the island of Samos, is now 
exhibited in the hall of the Louvre which is devoted 
to ardiaic Greek sculptures, under the ceiling on 
which Prudhon represented Diana. 

A letter has been sent to various local authorities 
from the principal librarian of the British Museum, 
stating that the trustees had caused electrotype copies 
to be made of a choice selection of Greek coins in the 
national collection for distribution to local institutions 
for educational purposes. 

Mr. William Smith has intimated that he intends 
publishing another volume of "Old Yorkshire'* in 
the autumn of the present year. 

A paper has been discovered in the archives of 
Venezuela, dated 1780, which gives an historical 
summary of early projects for piercing the Isthmus of 
Panama. The first goes back to the reign of Philip 11: 
of Spain, who^ at the instigation of the Viceroy of 
the Indies, sent certain Flemish engineers to investi- 
gate on the spot the feasibility of the undertaking. 
Their report was altogether adverse ; and thereupon 
Philip II. threatened the penalty of death against who- 
ever should again bring up the project. 

The MS. collections of the late Rev. R. W. Eyton 
are to be sold by auction in the spring, unless in the 
meantime the whole collection is purchased by some 
public library. Notes and Queries sa3rs they contain 
the labours of the lifetime of the greatest antiquary of 
our time, and it would be a great pity that they should 
be dispersed, because the volumes are full of cross 
references. The minuteness and accuracy with which 
Mr. Eyton's proofs are worked out can only be realized 
by those who are familiar with the method employed 
in his Domesday studies of Somerset and Dorset The 
whole collection fills about fifty volumes, written in a 
diaracter so minute and precise that many readers 
will require a magnifying glass. 

The British Archaeological Association has been 
invited to hold its next annual Congress in Plymouth, 
and has accepted the invitation. 

Some Roman remains have been discovered at Gill's 
Clifis, Ventnor, bv a gang of quarrymen engaged on 
the spot. They cniefly consisted of domestic utensils. 

At a recent meeting of the parish council of Chester- 
le- Street, the rector referred to the fact that in a short 
time the church would have completed its thousandth 
year. Once the cathedral church of the diocese, it 
possesses a hiatory not inferior to any oth^ in the 



north. He desired to commemorate such an event in 
a befitting manner. There were many improvements 
in the stui grand old fiibric which every lover of the 
church would be glad to see carried out We trust, 
however, that the rector does not consider *' restora- 
tion'* a befitting way of commemorating the evpnt 

The parish church of St. Bartholomew, Horley, has 
been re-opened, after thorough restoration. The church, 
which is a commodious edifice, in the Late Early Eng- 
lish style of architecture, consists of nave, chancel, and 
north and south aisles, substantially built with stone, 
and on the south side a transept was added towaids 
the end oC the last century, and fitted up with pews, 
belongpg to Gatwick House. At the north-west angle 
is a slungled tower, containing eight bells, surmounted 
by an octagonal spire. Formerly the upper compart- 
ments of tnree windows in the nortli aisle, and the 
north window of the chancel, were ornamented with 
shields of arms, and there were also the figures of two 
knights kneeling upon cushions. Of these Uiere are 
some richly coloured remains. The church contains 
some fine brasses, and within the north aisle, and 
behind an open ornamental arch on the north side of 
the chancel, is an ancient effigy of a man in armour in 
stone, with no inscription, but there is a vague tradi- 
tion that it was raised to the memory of Lo^ Sondes 
or Sandes^ resident at Coulsdon Court, and thought to 
be the builder of Horley Church. The arms upon the 
monument, however, appear to be those of Saleman, 
of Chertsey. The roof of the nave has been stripped 
of its original whitewash, and the timbers exposed, 
and the old galleries removed. The organ gallery has 
been taken down and replaced in the Gatwick chapeL 
The old screen around the steeple has been removed, 
and a platform, with balustrade, erected at the end of 
the north aisle for the ringers. The windows round 
the church have been remodelled, but the original 
designs preserved. The old font, of simple Norman 
design, has been transferred to the west end, and the 
pulpit is of ^tone and carved oak. The whole churdi 
has been re-pewed with open seats. During the resto- 
rations the bases of the original flooring of very good 
design were discovered below the surface. The peaceful 
"God's acre," from which a picturesque and tranquil 
view is obtained, including, on a clear day, the distant 
tower on Leith Hill, and in which are two venerable 
vews, has had a low brick wall built round it, and 
been made generally to present a neat appearance. 

An interesting discovery is reported to have been 
made by Dr. J. E. Taylor, in a field adjoining Sproughton 
Church, where excavations are going on to obtain stone 
for road-making. It is descril^ as a fine British urn, 
which was embedded in the graveL The urn measures 
in height about 18 in., and its diameter is about 12 in. 
The outside of the urn is ornamented with zigzag 
scratches. Inside the urn were the remains of bones 
which had been partially incinerated. The urn has 
been taken to the Manor House, Sproughton. This 
is said to be the first discovery of any sudi remains in 
the particular neighbourhood mentioned. 

The Naples correspondent of the Daily News writes : 
— " Two or three weeks ago a touching discovery was 
made during the excavations at Pompeii. In one ot 
the narrow streets were found signs of human remains 
in the dried mud lying on the top of the strata of lapilli 



ANTiq UARIAN NE WS. 



i8i 



letdiiiig to the second floor of the houses, and when 
the Qsnal process of poorin^ plaster of Paris into the 
hollow left bjr the impression of a body had been 
aooomplished, there came to li^ht the form of a little 
bojr. Within the house opposite to the second-floor 
window of which this infantile form lay were found a 
gold bracelet and the skeleton of a woman, the arms 
stretched towards the child. The plaster form of this 
woman could not be obtained, the impression being 
too much destroyed. It is evident that the mother, 
when the liquid mud began to flow, had put her little 
boy out of the window into the lapilli in the hope of 
saving him, and he must no doubt have been over- 
whelmed. The plaster figure of the child has not yet 
been placed in the little museum near the entrance of 
Pompeii, but is kept in a house not far from the Temple 
of IsaT" 

A detailed account of the Bells in all the old Parish 
Churches of Gloucestershire, their founders, inscrip- 
tioDs, &c., &C., with more than one hundred illustra- 
tioDx, will shortly be published by the Rev. H. 
N. EUacombe, F.S.A. This account of the Bells 
of Gkwcester^iire was read as a paper on October 
4th, 1877, for the Exeter Diocesan Architectural 
Sode^, and it is now embodied in the fourth volume 
of their Transactions. There' is added to the above a 
Budget of Waifs and Strays relating to Bell matters of 
general interest. 

An interesting addition has just been made to the 
already large coUection of antiquities in the possession 
of the Sussex Archaeological Society, deposited in 
Lewes Ootle. It consists of a cinerary urn, probably 
of the Briti^-Roinano period, about nine inches in 
height The vessel is of sun-dried clay, and about 
seven inches in diameter at its widest part, the mouth 
being about five inches. It was discovered by some 
labourers engaged in flint-digging on Mr. Homewood's 
fifmoDy at Jevington, a little time ago. They were 
working at the foot of Jevington hill and came upon 
several urns embedded m a quantity of loose flints, 
lyii^ about two feet below the surface of the dowi^ 
lan£ There were no tumuli or other outward indica- 
tions that Uie spot had been used as a burying-phice. 
Unfortunately the ^[reater part of these relics were 
dcrtr oy ed by the picks of the labourers before the 
nature of the discovery became apparent. One, how- 
ever, remained intact, and this fiict was communicated 
to the hon. sees., of the Society, who at once organized 
an expedition to the spot The visit was made on 
March 8th, and the " find '* carried ofl* in triumph. 
Those present were Rev. W.Powell, Rev. P. de Putron, 
Mr. R. Crosdcey» Mr. J. C. Lucas and Mr. Griffith. 

Mr.ArthurG. Hill has ready for the press an important 
work on an almost entirely n^lected subject — "An 
Essay on the Organ Cases and Organs of the Middle 
Ages and Renaissance;*' to be fully illustrated b^ 
numerous original and detailed drawings from his 
own pen, of fine Gothic and Renaissance Cases in 
various churches of France, Germany, Holland, Italy 
and Spain. The work will be in imperial 4to, and 
will be published for subscribers. 

WhUe some labourers were recently turning up the 
sod on a plot of ground situate on the banks of the 
Erne river, at Bdleek, co. Fermanagh, a consider- 
able immber of human skeletons (in all about forty) 



were brought to light The only chamcteristic rdici 
found with the skeletons were a few tobacco-pipe^ 
having very small bowls, the base of which terminate 
in a "spur." These pipes are called by the country 
people " Danes' pipes. The eround wliere the bones 
were found has remained un£sturbed for centniieL 
The discovery took place within si^t of the old castle 
of "Bellyke," which was occupied by an English 
garrison as late as the Jacobite war period, and just 
overlooks an old ford on the river Erne, at whidi 
many military engagements took place. It seems 
probuible that the remains now discovered are those of 
men who fell in some of these encounters. 

Mr. £. H. W. Dunkin, author of the Church Btlis 
of Corfiwali, is about to publish, by subscription, a 
quarto volume, entitled, Thi MonumaUtU Brassa tf 
Cornwall — Sixty^omt lUustraiive Plaies^ with Descrip- 
tive^ Genealogical^ and Heraldic Nota. Subscriben* 
names will l^ received by the author, Kenwyn House, 
Kidbrooke Park, Blackheath, S.E. 

Mr. John Grant, of Edinburgh, has issued pro- 
posals K>r restoring, by subscription, the ruins of the 
Chapel-Royal, Holyrood. He says:— "It U 750 
years since King David I. raised this beautiful buiU- 
m^ to the glory of God. It was there, in 1449, that 
King James II. wedded the Princess Mary of Gueldres, 
whose church of the Holy Trinity and beneficent 
foundation of a hospital are yet a benefit to the 
citizens of Edinburgh. It was mere King James III. 
espoused his Queen, Margaret of Denmark and Nor- 
way. It was there King James IV. was united to 
the Princess Margaret Tudor of England ; and there 
again was married the beautifiil and unfortunate Mary, 
Queen of Scotland, to Henry, Lord Damley ; and 
their son. King James VI., was there wedded to the 
Princess Anne of Denmark. In this chapel have 
been crowned many of the Scottish kings. There 
lie interred King David II., King James II., Queen 
Mary of Gueldrn, King James v.. Queen Mary of 
Guise, Queen Madalene of France, and many other 
high and noble personages ; and yet no stone com- 
memorates their names, or points out the last resting- 
place of a nation's sovereigns." Every antiquary 
must regret that this beautiful building has been 
allowed to become a ruin ; but we have no sympathy 
with restoration which must, to all intents and pur- 
poses, be rebuilding. 

" A Critical Inquiry into the Scottish Language with 
the view of illustrating the Rise and Progress of 
Civilisation in Scotland," by M. Frandsque-Michel, is 
announced for early publication by Messrs. Black- 
wood. The volume is an attempt to illustrate the 
extent to which this French influence pervaded the 
life of the Scottish people,— the part that French 
influence exercised in Scottish progress, finding its wav 
into every rank and into every walk of life. "Hie book 
is not set forth as a complete exposition, but rather 
as an opening up of a question of much general 
interest in the history of British culture, and now, 
after much labour, submitted to the learned of the two 
countries that have alwajrs shown such goodwill to 
eadi other. The contents of the volume are : — 
Architecture, Furniture, Banqueting and Vivers; 
Clothing, Fine Arts, Money, Animals, Education, 
Medicine^ Law, Rogues and Vagabonds — Punish- 



li2 



ANTIQTJARIAN NEWS. 



ments ; War — Military Terms ; Sea Terms ; Music — 
Musicdl Instruments, Dances, Games and Amuse- 
ments ; Words Expressing Abstract Ideas ; Sundries 
— ^Phrues derived m>m the French ; with two Appen- 
dixes'—Words firom the Norse, Words from the 
Cdtic. 

On the nifi^t of March 7th last, about half-past 
eleven o'clo<^ the roof of the fine chantry on the 
south side of Holy Trinity Church, in Goodramgate, 
York, suddenly collapsed, and unless something is 
done this unique edifice will soon become a ruin. The 
dmrch is now rarely used for public worship. It con- 
tains some of the finest old stained glass to be found 
in the kingdom. We should be delighted to hear that 
some effort is being made to save it firom ruin. Not 
more than two monUis ago a &11 of masonry from the 
tower did considerable damage, which the church- 
wardens were enabled to repair; but the present 
calamity is beyond their means, and therefore, unless 
they receive extraneous support, we fear that this 
venerable pile of architecture unll soon be beyond 
reparation. 



Corre0pon^ence 



SHAKESPEARE AS AN ANGLER, 
(iv. 142.) 

In my PAper I stated that Mr. Roach Smith, in 
his "Rural Life of Shakespeare," gives four quota- 
tions only, and dismisses the subject in a few words. 
I ^was quoting fiiom the first edition, and so did not 
do fiiU justice to Mr. Roach Smith's research ; for my 
attention has since been called to his second edition, 
in which I find that he refers to eleven passages in 
which Shakspeare more or less refers to angling. 
I did not mean to suggest that Mr. Roach Smith had 
done his work negligently, and I r^ret that my 
words should even in appearance have implied such a 
charge. ^ 

I am glad to take the opportunity of supplementing 
my own quotations by two which I ought not to have 
omitted. 

'' She tonch'd no unknown baits, nor fear'd no hooks." 

Lucrece^ 103. 
*' Lust is . . . .no sooner had 
Past reason hated, as a swallowed bait 
On purpose laid to make the taker mad ; 
Madf in pursuit, and in possession too." 

Smneis^ 129. 

Among Shakespeare's descriptions of river scenery, 
the following ought to have been noticed : — 

SaUshury.—IXiLt a bated and retired flood. 
Leaving our rankness and irr^;ular course, 
Stoop low within those bounds we have o'erlook'd. 
And calmly run on in obedience 
Even to our ocean."— ATm^J^^, Act v. sc 4, 

I should like also to add Bums's testimony to what 
Wordsworth calls "the power of waters over the 
minds of poets" : — 



" The muse na poet ever fand her 
Till by himsell he learned to wander 
Adown some trottin bum's meander, * 
And no think lang." 

EpistU U Wtn. Simpson. 

And to the notices of angling in our early writers, 
I should add two passages in " The Geste of Kyng 
Horn," '66$ and 1133 (in Ritson's edition). 

I take the opportunity also to correct two printers' 
errors in the paper : in p. 145, line 35, for "Juliet" 
read "Paris;" and in the same page (2nd column) 
quotations 7 and 8 should be as one quotatioiL 

HxNRY N. Ellacombk. 



A SKETCH OF THE LOW COUNTRIES. 

(v. ID.) 

The curious introductory letter prefixed to the 
version of Three Months Obervations of the Low 
Countries, especially Holland, signed by "J. S.," 
which appeared in the January number of The Akti- 
QUARY, raises some interesting points with regard to 
this X9JC9 production. The account has been lutherto 
credited to the pen of Owen Felltham, from its having 
appeared among the Lusoria of the later editions (n 
Fdltham's Resm^es, 

The discovery of the letter above alluded to, how- 
ever, throws some doubt on Felltham's claim to the 
authorship. It, therefore, now remains to be seen 
whether another author can be traced to whom these 
initials would apply. 

As a first result of some researches I have made, 
with the energetic assistance of my friend, Mr. James 
Greenstreet, there seems to be considerable proba- 
bility that this satirical sketch of the Low Countries 
was the work of the "ingenious" poet, Sir John 
Suckling. 

An important factor in this conclusion exists in the 
Utter printed in W. C. Hazlitt's edition of the poet's 
works (voL ii. pp. 177-179), dated November 18, 
1629. Mr. Hazlitt is, however, incorrect in stating 
that this letter was printed by him "for the first 
time," inasmuch as it originally appeared in the 
GentlemofCs Ma^anm^ at page 16 of vol. Ixvi. 
Suckling's latest editor also nuuces a curious blunder 
with refund to the place whence the letter was written. 
Mr. Hs^itt gives It as London, and adds a note to 
this effect : — " Althourii dated from London, it seems 
doubtful whether this letter was really written there ; 
it rather seems to have been penned and despatched 
somewhere on Sucklmg's route homewund from 
Dunkirk." The letter was in fact written firom 
Leyden, as it is correctly given in Black's Catalogue of 
the Ashmolean MSS. (No. 826), and m the Gentle- 
man*s Maganne, 

If you can spare me the space, I hope to be able 
to lay before your readers, m an early number, the 
facts I have ooUected with regard to these " Observa- 
tions." 

Walfo&d D. Sklby. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



i«3 



TRADITIONS CONNECTED WITH 
BUILDINGS. 



BIDDENDEN. 



Cifi. 8, 188 ; iy. 33, 85, 133, 279) 

In mcMt of the intUnccti qaoted by correspondents* 
itawic agency ftppeftrSi 

The following note contains a tradition of <iaite a 
contnury diancter* 

'*'This Tillage,' said my guide, 'is called Los 
Angeles [between Padron and Cape FinisterreL be- 
came its church was built long since by the angels ; 
they phoed a beam of gold beneath it, which they 
iHOOgnt down firom heayen, and which was once a 
rafter oifGod'Si own house. It mns all the war under 
the gToand from hence to the cathedral of Compos- 
tdla?**— BoROw's Bible in Spain, di. zxix. 

Georok L. AppBRSOir. 

The Common, Wimbledon. 



vr<r . :s^r> 



NEW YEAR'S CUSTOMS. 

(▼. 4.) 
The Article on New Year's Costoms refers to the 
prominent place held b]^ the " first foot" in the series 
of cnstoms connected with the saperstitions determin- 
atioa of the coarse of £Ue daring the coming year. 
That custom has mat force in the East Riding of 
Yorfcshize. In Holdemess the same notion as to the 
" first foot" is entertained in relation to other days 
besides New Year's Day ; and I should be glad if any 
of your readers ooald explain how it came to be thus 
* - ^ Yot instance^ a woman going to market. 



whaterer day of the week it may be, although Friday 
is the most unportant, always endeavours to meet a 
man or b^ fint. If she sees a woman coming she 
win call to hear and tell her to get out of the way, and 
if the woman will not, or cannot go round another 
way, she will torn back. If a womangoing to market 
meets two or three men or boys together, she thinks 
she will have great good luck, but to meet a ¥roman 
first is sore sign of iU-luck. 

C S. Wakx. 
HnlL 



BELLBfAN LAWNE 

Can any one tell me where there is or was a place 
called " fidlman Lawne?" I believe it to have been 
a place where horse-races were held in the reign of 
Queen Elisabeth and James the First, and thinl^ but 
are by no means sure, that it was somewhere in 
Yoifcshiie. Edward Peacock. 

Bottcsford lianor, Brigg. 



ANGLO^AXON CHURCHES. 

At Woodhom and Whalton Churches, near Mor* 
peth, thcare are Saxon tower arches. At Escombe, 
near Bishop Auckland, there is a complete Saxon 
dnndi ; some of the windows are similar to those in 
the dMncd at Jarrow Church ; Gainford Church, Dur- 
ham, stands on the site of an earlier one; built in the 
north porch are some Saxon carvings. The greater part 
of the present dmrch is transitional Norman work. 

T. R. Morrow. 



I read with much interest the article on "The 
Biddenden Maids," and write a few lines to say »l»^t- 
we have many other objects of archaeological interest 
in this place. 

Our r^iisters date firom 1538, and are in a good 
state of preservation, containing many quaint entries. 

Our dmrchwardens' accounts date firom 1645, ^i d 
are in a good state. 

Our overseers' accounts date firom 1758, and an 
interesting, as giving an insight to the mode of doing 
business by the inhabitants of that period. We have 
also the Old Market House, now degraded into a 
Cattle Lodge, having been taken awav firom the 
Green many jrears ago by one of the landed pro- 
prietors, and convertra to that use on his own land. 
There are also many good brasses in the church, one 
commemorating a death in 1462 (as I read it). 

We have alM> ^among others) the house fonneriv 
the residence of Sir Edward Henden still bearing his 
initials, coat of arms, and date 1624, on the front of 
the houses and sun-dial on the south side. 

Jenkyn Haoux. 

Biddenden, loth of January, iS8s. 



f\.Xi') 



PATENS AND CHALICES IN COFFINS. 

(iil 47 ; iv. 36, 38, 279.) 

At the restoMtion of St Nicholas Church, Noith 
Bradl^, Wilts, in 1863, a coffin was excavated from 
beneath the floor beside the chancel. It contained a 
few firagments of bones, induding a portion of the 
skull, together with a metal chalice and paten, which 
are now to be seen in the chancel of North Bradley 
Church, under a glass case. The coffin was a portion 
of an oak tree, alighUy shaped at the sides, and 
hollowed to receive me corpse. 

A. Farquharson. 
North Bradley. 



VIKING SHIP. 

Civ. 254 ; V. 87.) 

Mr. Howard Payn in his interestii^ note in the 
The Antiquary for February &st, on the 
*< Viking Ship," says at d. 87, that the ri^t side of 
the ship was called ''Starbord" because she was 
steered firom that side, and that the English word 
*' starboard" is thence derived. If this is so, how 
does he account for the word *' larboard." The fol- 
lowing derivation, given in Cka$nberis Cyclopadia (ed. 
1874, vol. vi. p. 34), is more probably accurate : — 
" The term ' stari)oard ' and ' larboard ' were origi- 
nally Italian : ' questo bordo,' this side (the right), 
and ' quello bordo '—that side (the left) ; which were 
contracted into 'sto bordo' and 'lo bordo/ and finidly 
became 'starboard' and 'larboard.' The word 
'port' is said to be an abbreviation of *porte la 
timone '—carry the helm, suggesting the analogy of 
porting the arms on the left hand." 

Grorgk Mauls Allkn. 



1 84 



THE AirriqUARY BXCBANGR, 



ZTbe Bntfquari? jercbanoe. 



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MAY DAY. 



i8s 




The Antiquary. 



MA F, 1882. 



Bj the Rev. W. S. Lach-Szy&ma. 

■BffiBUCH of the poetzy of old England 
AM 9 gBLihrntA around May Day. It was 
^BBfl tiie spring festival, the Floialia of 
""^""^ the English people. That which 
now is confined to a mere child's play (even 
where not utterly extinguished by modem 
|)RJndices), was once a great national festival, 
in which all ages and all classes were bound 
to jcin — a great feast of flowers and spring 
joys. Even our kings sometimes took part 
in May Day festivities, ^^., Henry VIII. and 
Queen Catherine of Airagon went from the 
palace at Greenwich to the highlands of Kent 
to meet the Corporation of London on May 
Day and grace the Maying. Chaucer also 
says : '' Forth goeth all the court, both man 
aad beuty to fetch the flowers fresh." 

The origin of the May fetes in England, 
and indeed throughout Europe (for though 
especially an English f8te, as the English 
people have ever had an especial love of 
NatureX is obscure. In Germany, in Holland, 
in Fiance, in Lithuania, in most Slavonic 
lands^ amid all primitive peoples — Teutons, 
^V8| Latins, or Celts — it was, and indeed 
to some extent may still be said to be, in 
vigpur. The Afais dt Marie^ even in Latin 
lands, may be a modernization of antique 
May customs, the natural expression of joy 
of Aryan races in the dawn of spring, but 
tamed by the Latin Church into a Christian 
meaning. 

One remarkable pomt is that if May Day is 
kept up with tolerable spirit, more than in 
most parts of Western Europe, in West Com> 
wall, at the same time at the other end almost 
of ^irope, amidst the Aryan people, generally 
supposed (from the striking resemblance of 
their language to the Sanscrit) to be the last 

VOL. V. 



comers of the Indo-European migration — #>., 
the Lithuanians — the festival is kept up with 
almost equal spirit. This is singular frxxn 
another point, for while May 1 is the usual 
May Day for the intervening region, these 
extreme eastern and western Ayrans — Le^ 
the Lithuanians and the Cornish Celts — 
keep up also the one, the first Sunday in 
May, the other May 8, in the Furry dance. 
This would seem to imply an ancient octa^-e 
or week of fetes, in which there were two 
May Days, but in which the Sunday was, in 
Christian times, a special day as a holiday 
suitable to the peasants. This point is one I 
would scarcely venture to suggest, were it not 
that there could scarcely be any collusion 
between the Cornish and Lithuanian octave 
of the festival Most ancient festivals seem 
to have been observed for more than one 
day. The Roman Floralia, almost certainly 
the ancient Latin expression of the modem 
May Day, was sa The Lithuanian obser- 
vance is to go out Maying in the morning, 
and plant green trees adorned with ribbons 
in the villages, and dance to the bagpipe, 
sing a song—" O May, May, bring us a nch 
and profitable year." 

This Lithuanian case is striking, as the 
same rule apphes to the Midsummer fires. At 
the same evening — f>^ St. John Baptist Eve — 
the bonfires are blazing on the Carpathians 
and the Baltic shores, on the Cornish cams, 
and the Breton and Scottish hills—the blaz- 
ing greeting to summer. 

One explanation of the origin of a part of the 
May Day festival is suggested by Aubrey:— 

'Tis commonly say'd, in Germany, thai the Witches 
doe meet in the night before the first day of May 
upon an high mounuin called the Blocksberg, where 
th^ together with the Devils doe dance and feast 
and the common People doe the night before >-« said 
day fetch a certain thorn and stick it at their house 
door believe that the witches can then doe them no 
harm.* 

If this be an explanation of the decking 
doorways with hawthorn or other boughs, the 
custom manifestly had a heathen origin, for 
much of the witch beliefs of Germany marked 
the survival of the last wreck of old Teutonic 
heathenism. 

In any case there used to be a great deal 

• Remaints of Gentilismt and Judaime, edit. 
Britten, p. 18. 

O 



u 



MAYDAY. 



of it in England. Of many a village it might 
have been said in the Middle Ages : — 

How each field turns a street and each street a park 

Made green and trimmed with trees; see how 

Devotion gives each house a bough 

Or branch : each porch, each door, ere this 

An ark, a tabernacle is 

Made up of white thorn neatly interwove. 

Not merely in our villages was this done, but 
in London itself it appears that many houses 
were decked with boughs. The Cockney has 
ever had a natural craving for the countzy, 
and in the ages before excursion trains, this 
desire was satisfied by May and other similar 
festivals. A May Day in old London must 
have been often a bright and gay spectacle, a 
general holiday of Nature, even in the city 
where the presence of Nature was not at 
ordinary times much felt. 

The blowing of horns to greet May Day 
was an old English custom, still lingering in 
Oxfordshire and in Cornwall. Aubrey says 
(p. 1 8), in his day, *^ at Oxford, the Boyes doe 
blow cow's horns and hollow caxes all night*' 
In Cornwall the custom still flourishes, of 
making lovely May mom hideous by the sound 
of horns, too often, not mere cow-horns, but 
less rustic tin trumpets. At any rate here 
we have a definite survival, and a very 
vigorous one, of the ancient custom. In 
some villages I have heard a local band 
perambulating just before daybreak on May 
mom, in the same way as the "Waits" 
perambulate on Christmas Eve, the latter at 
midnight, the former at dawn — ^the symbol- 
ism is somewhat the same, the Christian 
Church greeting the birth of the Lord of Life, 
the World greetmg the joyous spring dawn. 

For the girls to go " a-maying," singing as 
they go, in large parties just after sunrise, and 
making garlands, is another custom still sur- 
viving in Comwall, and, I believe, in many 
parts of England. In olden times it had a 
religious conclusion, for, as Aubrey says, 
"the young maids of every parish carry about 
their parish garlands of flowers which after- 
wards they hang up in their churches" (p. i8). 
This hanging of garlands in churches is a 
very old Clmstian custom, but seemingly, 
from an ecclesiastical standpoint, more suit- 
able to the great Christian festivals—^.^., 
Easter, Ascension, Whitsuntide— than to 



May Day, which, however, with her general 
tendency to consecrate heathen festivals, and 
adapt what is harmless in heathenism into 
her system, was only a secondary feast of 
the diurch — />., the Feast of the Apostles 
St. Philip and St James. I may say that in 
th^ Samm Missal, though, there is a special 
collect, lesson, sequence, &c., for this day, 
but it does not contain any reference to 
flowers or to the Spring. The only natural 
reference is in the Offertory, " O Lord the 
very heavens shall praise Thy wondrous 
works and Thy tmth in the congregation of 
the Saints." This may have a distant 
reference to the glory of the Creation. 

The custom of hanging garlands in 
churches, but with a funeral significance, 
exists still in Germany. Our modem floral 
decorations are to some extent a revival of 
the custom, though I do not think they are 
much used at May Day. 

The Dutch, who were always great lovers 
of flowers, had their May booms or straight 
yoimg trees set up. This was a common 
Continental custom also. In some Slavonic 
lands the boughs which are brought home 
firom the forests are decked with ribbons and 
so made temporary Maypoles. In Germany 
there are regular Maypoles, adorned some- 
times with figures — €^., at Egydien, near Salz- 
burg, is a Maypole with the figures of two 
peasants climbing up it. 

Perhaps these May booms may have been 
the original t3rpes of our English Maypoles. 
The May booms seems to have existed in 
England, and in some parts — e.g., at Wood- 
stock — there used to be a custom of going on 
May Eve into the park and fetching some haw- 
thorn trees thence which were planted before 
the doors. In Westchester this was done at 
Midsummer Eve. In Germany it used to be 
done at Easter and Whit Simday, but only 
birches were then used. I have noticed at 
Whitsuntide (which by-the-by is called in 
Polish Ziclan^ swUte^ or green festival, fi'om 
this custom) the houses decorated with 
greens cast in firont of the doors and on the 
gables. This may have been the adaptation 
of an ancient May custom to the greatest 
Church festival near to it. 

The Whitsuntide customs appear in many 
places to have been intertwined with the 
May Day customs — f.^., the Moin's dance 



MAY DAY. 



187 



was, it seemSySometimes kq)t up on May Day, 
and some thmk that Maid Marian was a sort 
of variant of the May Queen. The subject 
is curious of the intertwining of festival with 
festival — what is considered appropriate in 
one country to the one being adapted in 
another country to the other. 

At any rate the Maypole was a great 
English institution, and was appropriated to 
this season. At one time — f.^., during the 
reign of the Stuarts — it affected materially the 
political affairs of the nation. In 1644 the 
Parliament ordained that ''all and singular 
Maypoles that are or shall be erected shall 
be taken down." At the Restoration^ on the 
other hand, die cavaliers avenged themselves 
for the abolition of the May games by a 
general setting up of the hated Maypole 
and re-institution of the revels of the good 
<dd times of merrie England. It would 
seem, however, that the May Day festivities 
never quite recovered the blows inflicted by 
Puritanism : they may have recovered for a 
while under the Merry Monarch, but in the 
dghteenth century they went down, and in 
our nineteenth have died out in most parts 
of England, except among children. The 
■ London chimney-sweepers' fete and the milk- 
maids' dance, however, lingered till recent 
times. 

The great Maypole of St Andrew's Under- 
shaft must have been quite a civic institu- 
tion of old London. The Church is said to 
have derived its name from it The " shaft" 
was set up every year on May Day in the 
morning before the south door of the Churchy 
and was higher than the steeple. During 
the rest of the year this famous shaft was 
hung upon iron hooks fixed in the walls of 
the houses, and was sheltered from rain by 
their projecting penthouses. It was de- 
stroyed in the reign of Edward VI. at the 
Reformation. 

Another famous City Maypole was that at 
Basing Lane, near St. Paul's ; it was forty 
feet mgh. This was moderate compared to 
the great Maypole of the Strand, set up in 
1 66 1 by the Duke of York (afterwards 
James II.), which was 134 feet high. 

"Where the tall Maypole once o*erlooked the 
Strand." 

It was ultimately removed, and used as a 
support for Newton's telescope. 



A few Maypoles survive, and probably 
many more existed not many years aga 
The fate of one, to an archaeologist a painful 
illustration of the destruction of ancient curio- 
sities, I may relate. I remember it in my 
boyhood as a curious ornament to the village 
in which it stood, illustrious for no other 
thing. Recentiy I made inquiries about it, 
and was told that a farmer of the parish had 
cut it down, and used the wood. Thus 
some of our most interesting antiquities 
are destroyed for no purpose whatever. 

Aubrey says " I doe not remember that I 
ever saw a Maypole in France, quaere if there 
are any there" (p. 119, «.). I may join in his 
query. I never noticed a French Maypole. 
But it by no means* follows that if there 
were not many Maypoles in the English 
form on the Continent, that there were no 
May dances or May games. As for May 
dances, though ou^ English ideal is of a 
dance around the Maypole, rather than a 
dance in a procession through streets or on 
a road to the woods, yet even in England 
there must have been a processional May 
dance. 

There was an old English May custom, 
used at Newnton on Trinity Sunday, it 
would seem, which illustrates one use of the 
May garland. "Then was a garland of 
flowers made upon a hoop brought forth 
by a Mayd of the Towne upon her neck." 
A young man, a batchelor, kissed her three 
times. Then the lady takes off the garland 
and returns the compliments. The gentie- 
man then gives her a present.* This curious 
custom illustrates the ways of the peasantry 
of old. The gift of a garland by a maid was 
counted in old Germany a great compliment 

A whole volume could be filled with the 
history of May garlands. Garlands, it is 
needless to say, played an important part in 
the festivals of antiquity, gestatory garlands 
worn roimd the neck (like those just men- 
tioned), postilory for feasts, pensile hung on 
the posts of the doors. All these classes of 
garlands would seem to have been in use in 
old English May day f^tes \ they were worn, 
they were carried about, and hung on the 
doors and in the churches. 

Among the best known to modem English 



\ Aubrey, p. 137. 



O 2 



i88 



MAY DAY. 



readers, of the old English May Day obser- 
vances, is the f§te of the May Queen and the 
observances connected with her. But,fpro- 
bably, this is not due so much to folk-lore 
studies, or to the survival of the custom in a 
few villages, as to the beautiful, though now 
hackneyed (on account of its very beauty) 
verses of the Poet Laureate on this subject. 
The May Queen will probably never be lost 
sight of, or quite forgotten, as long as the 
English language survives. 

But setting the poetic side of the question 
aside, what is the origin of the May Queen ? 
Some have been inclined to attribute it to a 
definitely Christian symbolism, such as cer- 
tainly exists in the South of France at the 
opening of the Mois de Marie, when a young 
girl, crowned with flowers, holding a leafy 
sceptre, personifies her who was ''blessed 
among women." But even this French f(§te 
and its flowery symbolism may itself be a 
Christianization (so to speak) of an ancient 
pre-Christian Aryan custom — i.^., a personifi- 
cation of the Latin goddess Flora, in her 
great feast of the Floralia, which began at the 
end of April, and lasted several days. If so, 
this woidd not be the only instance of 
Christian missionaries adopting and adapt- 
ing the more harmless rites of the heathenism 
they found established in popular prejudice. 
In Slavonic lands, also, there is a May Queen 
as well as in England and France. 

The French "Virgin of May" is still 
enthroned in her arbour. So was the 
English ** Lady of the May," or May Queen. 

As I have seen the Lady of May 

Set in an harbour 

Built by the Maypole.—BROWV, Pastoral, 

The Queen sat in her shrine of flowers, with 
her floral ornaments, and it would seem did 
not join in the games and dances of her 
subject*!. The custom of a king or queen of 
the festival, it har41y need be said, was a 
common one in the Middle Ages. They had, 
in the West of England, an Epiphany king 
and queen, and the Lord of Misrule was a 
form of the same idea — of a king of the 
festival. There was also a king and queen 
of the Whitsun ale. 

The idea of the Maypole was not merely as 
a stand for floral decorations, but a centre of 
the May dance. The rings around the May 
poles, or hoops, were probably intended as 



modes of attaching the ropes of the pole to 
it, and were used for the dance. The 
English May dance was, it would seem, 
usually a circular dance, but the foreign 
dances were often processional, the couples 
going forward, and not dancing round in a 
rin^. It is a curious point that the only sur- 
viving May dance on anything like a 
mediaeval scale in England — ^/.^., that at 
Helston, on the Furry or Flora day — is also 
processional, and not circular, except in its 
finale, in going round the Helston bowling- 
green. It thus is, in one sense, the survival 
of a foreign custom, but with most of the 
English May usages gathered around^ it. 
There is another point curious in this sin- 
gular Cornish festival, in that it is on the 
octave of May i — i.e,^ May 8 — the legendary 
festival of the apparition of S. Michael on 
S. Michael's Mount (some ten miles off). I 
think, however, it is undoubtedly a May Day 
festival, postponed, in all probability (in 
spite of the legend of the ending of the 
plague in Helston, and also of the apparition 
of the archangel) for local convenience. At 
least most or nearly all the Helston obser- 
vances can be traced either in England or 
on the continent of Europe. The only 
singularities are the dancing in and out 
of the houses (like threading a needle, going 
in at the front door and coming out of the 
back) ; and that which is now dying out, but 
which till lately was observed, of hospitality 
being oflered, which the dancers were ex- 
pected to eat dancing, without any stop. 
The former is, probably, a mere result of the 
clannish and independent spirit of the old 
Cornish, no man being allowed to shut his 
door against the dancers of his clan. The 
other, a mere result of the hospitality to the 
clan, which could not be too freely used, and 
so the dancers were compelled not to stop 
while consuming the viands oflered. 



t!im S)ai? : HDoIbekin of tbe 
TCbirteentb (Ccnturi?* 



HE choosing of the May Queen was 
one of the most idyllic and pic- 
turesque of our old English cus- 
toms. But it is not in its poetic 




MOLDEKIN OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY, 



189 



iq>ect alone that we wish to regard it 
Although we may not share the ecstasy in 
which Washington Irving indulged at the first 
sight of an Ei^lish Maypole, by the banks of 
the Dee, beside the quaint old bridge which 
spans the stream at Chester, few can look 
back upon a custom, so fondly cherished by 
our forefathers, without interest. That May 
Day has been set apart, from the far- distant 
penod when the m3rstic circles of Stonehenge 
were pfled, is beyond question. It was con- 
nected with one of the first steps in dawning 
civilization, the domestication of the cow; 
being marked by an annual sacrifice, to secure 
the well-being of the herds before they were 
driven out to the summer pasture. 

Brand, in his Popular Antiquities (Ellis's 
ed., voL L p. 245), throws great light upon 
the origin of the Maypole. Speaking of the 
May-day gatherings, and quoting from an old 
pamphlet, he says : — 

The oolnmn of Ma^ (whence our Maypole) was 
the great standard of justice in the £y-commons or 
fields of May. Here it was that the people, if they 
•aw came, deposed or punished their governors, their 
barons, and their kings. 

After the Conquest, the May games were 
continued as a national festivity, and archery 
meetings appear to have taken &e place of the 
ancient open-air courts. But the most interest- 
ing circumstance connected with them, as the 
years roll on, is their evident association 
with the first successful struggle for English 
freedom, when the confederated barons 
wrested the Great Charter firom the worth- 
less John. 

Green, in his Short History of the English 
PwpU^ and Sharon Turner, both agree that 
the poisoning of Fitzwalter's daughter by King 
Johh was the spark which kindled into flame 
the ever-deepening hatred of the nation, and 
changed despair to resistance. 

Whether we accept or reject the legendary 
stoiy which links the heroic girl with the bold 
outlaw of Sherwood, we find her undoubtedly 
personified by^e rural May Queen, the Maid 
Marian of the ifiorris-dancers of the Middle 
A^eSy the delight and darling of the people, 
alike in. borough market-place, and village- 
green. Wherever the Maypole reared its 
garlanded head. Maid Marian was crowned 
beneath it Churchwardens' accounts and 
chamberlains' books, up to the time of 



Henry VIII., afford unquestionable proof of 
this, m the curious entries they contain of 
expenses incurred for the dresses of Maid 
Marian and her companions. 

The details of the morris-dance have not 
been handed down to us ; but in the absence 
of a full description, we have numberless 
allusions among the old writers of that period. 
From these we gather that it was a' kind of 
sword-dance and rustic opera combined. 
The rude drama thus enacted by clowns and 
villagers formed the groundwork of many an 
after-play and poem, in which the murdered 
girl appears as the well-known Malkin, or 
Maid Marian, the May Queen, the forest 
mistress of Robin Hood, showing how fondly 
the memories of that stirring time were 
cherished by the masses, and with what 
faithful devotion the ** vast multitudes who 
followed the barons to Runnymede per- 
petuated the remembrance of Uieir leaders' 
wrongs, and kept alive the watchfires of 
liberty, as year by year the May Day greet- 
ing was repeated, * Remember the poor May 
lady.' " 

How well the charge has been handed 
down through the long line of generations, 
which link the bows and bills of Runnymede 
with the England of to-day ! ^ We hear it yet 
from the lips of country children, on the 
May Day morning, in the nooks and comers 
round classic Cianbridge, whose long-for- 
gotten castle was a favourite residence of 
King John. 

But setting legend and romance aside, 
let us ask of history if any ties really existed 
between the noble leader in the first success- 
fid struggle for English liberty, the local May 
Day gatherings, and the Forest outlaws. 

Henry Il.had broken the power of the Saxon 
party, if so it could be called. He had de- 
stroyed their retreat, when he levelled with the 
ground the Saxon stronghold of Hunter's dune, 
in the midst of the vast forests by the Ouse 
and the Nene, where the red-deer roamed at 
will, and the wild-fowl dived in the reedy 
lakes of Whittlesea and Ramsey meres. In 
Saxon days the conmiand of this castle, 
being a place of importance, was given by 
appointment. Siward held it at the Con- 
quest ; Waltibeofi his son, retained it as an 
hereditary possession, when became to terms 
with the Norman William, after the surrender 



i9o 



MOLDEKIN OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY. 



of the Castle of York. For Waltheof had 
won the respect and admiration of his 
antagonists by his gallant defence of the 
northern fortress. William gave him his 
niece Judith in marriage, and restored to 
him both his earldoms, Huntingdon and 
Northumberland. According to Orderic, 
Waltheof was afterwards involved in the 
conspiracy of the Norman Earls of Hereford 
and Norfolk. Although refusing to join 
them, he was sworn to secrecy; but his 
perfidious wife betrayed his knowledge of 
the enterprise. Even his Norman judges 
were divided in opinion. Lanfianc made 
many efforts to save him ; but alter a year's 
imprisonment he .was condemned and 
executed, in the grey of the next morning, 
for fear of rescue by the citizens, should his 
doom be known. The common people 
mourned him, as the victim of woman's 
treachery and Norman injustice, and revered 
his memory as that of a martyr. 

The hand of his faithless wife was promised 
by William to one of his Norman followers, 
Simon St. Liz, or Luce, or Lucy, for the name 
is variously spelt But Judith refused to 
marry the deformed soldier. To punish her, 
the king gave him instead Matilda, the eldest 
daughter of Waltheof, and invested her with 
both her father's earldoms. Simon de St. Liz 
thus became Earl of Huntingdon, but dying 
in the beginning of the reign of Henry I., his 
widow was married to David, brother to the 
king of Scotland, who in her right inherited 
the possessions of Waltheof, and was made 
Earl of Huntingdon and Northumberland. 
He succeeded his brother on the throne of 
Scotland. Waltheofs daughter had two sons, 
young Simon de St. Liz by her first husband, 
and Henry, Prince of Scotland, by her second. 
On Stephen's accession. Prince Henry was 
first admitted to the earldom of Huntingdon, 
but when his father took up the cause of his 
niece Matilda, Stephen restored the earldom 
to young Simon de St Liz, whose name is 
appended to Stephen's charter. He must 
have had actual possession of his boyhood's 
home at the battle of the Standard in 1 141. 
For one of the conditions of the peace, which 
was at length concluded between Stephen and 
David, insisted upon Prince Henry's claim to 
the earldoms of Huntingdon and Northum- 
berland by maternal right But it appears 



that his half-brother still held the Castle of 
Huntingdon secure from kingly interference, 
behind its moat and wall, until Henry Plan- 
tagenet assumed the English crown in 1154- 
Finding it a retreat for the disaffected, he 
demolished it utterly, and outlawed St. I^iz. 
The earldom was restored to the Prince of 
Scotland, and became a fertile cause of dis- 
pute between the English and Scottish kings; 
whilst the elder of Waltheof *s grandsons took 
refuge in the greenwood with his bow and 
hounds, as his faithful lieges have portrayed 
him on their municipal shield. The castle 
was destroyed after 11 54. The borough of 
Huntingdon was incorporated in 1 206. In 
so short a space of time neither Waltheof nor 
his grandson could have been forgotten. The 
demolition of the castle was within the re- 
collection of the Huntingdon borsholder or 
borough elder. Were the burgesses of Hunt- 
ingdon likely to be misled when they called 
the rightfiil heir of the earldom, the outlaw 
Robin Hood? 

Their attachment to the descendants of 
Waltheof is proved by this device adopted 
for their arms and seal. 

The mother of Robert Fitzwalter was 
Maude de St Liz, of the family of the Earls 
of Huntingdon. She must have been the 
sister of the younger Simon, and the grand- 
daughter of Waltheof. 

Can we doubt that the fearless leader of 
the Barons' army, like Simon de Montfort, in 
the following generation, inherited his love 
for his country from his Saxon mother ? Such 
is the light which genealogy can often shed 
on tradition. Certainly it goes far to esta- 
blish the much discredited epitaph, which 
marks the spot where 

Thev buried bold Robin Hood, 
Near to the fair Kirkleas— 

a Cistercian nunnery near Dewsbury, where 
the grave of the famous outlaw is still shewn. 
The epitaph calls him Earl of Huntingdon, 
and gives 24 Kal Dekembris, 1347, for the 
date of his death. All accounts agree that 
Robin Hood combined a championship for 
the cause of the old national independence 
with deer-shooting and robbery, and a chival- 
rous defence of womanhood. He is first 
mentioned by the Scottish historian Fordun, 
who wrote in the fourteenth century, and h^ 



MOLDEKIN OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY. 



191 



as well known in Scotland as in England, 
a fact which does not discredit the supxx>- 
sition that Robin Hood was a nephew by 
the half-blood of Prince Henry. We thus 
fiiul that Robert Fitzwalterand the outlawed 
heir of St Liz were cousins, the descendants 
of the much-loved Waltheof, the last Saxon 
eaiL 

Waltheot's Saxon household was never dis- 
persed. The deformed St. Liz ruled over 
it but a short time. In the hands of David 
\t Scot, whose brother's Court was the con- 
stant refuge of the Saxons, the strong for- 
tress of Edward the elder would become a 
ready retreat for the fugitives. In the hands 
of Waltheof s own grandson, we can well 
believe that it became a rendezvous for the 
£uthftd few who still cherished the good old 
cause of the people's freedom. Every other 
castle in England had been given to William's 
Norman foUowers, who, afraid to trust the 
conquered natives, surroimded themselves 
with their own retainers. Huntingdon alone 
remained Saxon in heart. The description 
of the misery of the common people during 
Stephen's distracted reign, given in the Saxon 
Chromcle^ shows us the Saxon husbandmen 
fleeing from the neighbourhood of the castles, 
and building for themselves miserable hovels 
against the walls of the churches. The very 
contrast would endear the descendants of 
Waltheof still more. The destruction of 
Huntingdon Castle by Henry II., the set- 
ting aside the just claims of the second Simon 
de St Liz, might well rouse the indignation 
of the tomisfolk of Huntingdon. There was 
nothing for them to gain, but rather some- 
thing to risk, in calling Robin Hood their 
outlawed earl, and choosing to portray him 
as such on the arms and seal of their cor- 
poration. If they were right, the life story 
of the outlaw gains an added interest In 
any case we find that both Robin Hood and 
Robert Fitzwalter were alike devoted to the 
good old cause of national independence. 
More than this, both were alike remarkable 
for personal prowess worthy the descendants 
of tiie dauntless Waltheof; who, when the 
besieging Normans forced the gates of York, 
mshed sword in hand to meet the entering 
host, slaying Norman after Norman with his 
own hand until overborne by weariness and 
immbers. Of Robin Hood's daring, who 



need speak ? If the same blood were not 
flowing in Fitzwalter's veins, the same spirit 
animated him. At the tournament which 
took place in the presence of the French and 
English kings, during the truce in 12 13, he 
entered the lists in disguise, haviug fled from 
England rather than place his young son as 
an hostage in John's hands. At 3ie first 
course, man and horse went down before 
himj making the English sovereign swear, 
" By God's tooth, he is a king indeed who 
hath such a soldier in his train." 

The involuntary praise was heard by friends, 
who seized the chance to restore Fitzwalter 
to the tyrant's fevour. He was recalled to 
England, but the reconciliation was of short 
duration. It was probably during this inter- 
val that King John made acquaintance with 
Fitzwalter's daughter. She is twice mentioned 
by Collins, in his English Peerage— onct as 
Alice Fitzwalter, once as Maud. Probably 
she was called by both names. It was no 
unusual thing for ladies to assume the name 
of Matilda. In her case it was a family 
name, her grandmother and great-grand- 
mother having borne it. Her exceeding 
beauty attracted the king. The interdict was 
just removed : the nation was outraged by 
John's renunciation of his crown to the Papal 
nuncio. Stephen Langton, Ae English bom 
but French taught Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, had alone dared to brave the resent- 
ment of Church and Court by solemnly pro- 
testmg against the infamous compact. 

Backed by the power of the Pope, in the 
May of 1213, John's tyranny reached its 
climax. The highest nobles in the land were 
powerless to protect wives or daughters from 
his deadliest insults. Although we cannot 
ascertain the exact date of Alice Maud Fitz- 
walter's death, it most likely followed quickly 
upon her father's disgrace ; for before the end 
of the year Fitzwalter was again charged 
with disloyalty, his baronial home at Dun- 
mow razed to the ground, whilst he " must 
to the greenwood go — " 

Alone, a banished man. 

Most probably the fair girl fled from the 
ruthless devastators to the shelter of the 
sanctuary, for she died in the Priory of Little 
Dunmow, founded by her great-grandmother, 
Juga, the sister of Baynard, whose forfeite4 



192 



MOLDEKIN OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY. 



honours had descended to her father, Fitz- 
waiter. 

Under these circumstances, the incident 
narrated in the old black-letter plays of 160 1 
seems most natural ; that she should receive 
a letter, by the hands of Robin Hood's most 
trusty follower, Little John, or, as the older 
balladscall him, Liell, — ue,^ Leal John, charg- 
ing her to escape to the greenwood in the 
disguise of ''Maid Marian," to which she 
answers— 

I am contented, reade on little John, 
Henceforth let me be named Maid Marian. 

Douce, who considers the^ character of 
Maid Marian a dramatic fiction, superadded 
to the historic accounts of Robin Hood, tells 
us there is no historic proof of such a person 
ever having existed in Sherwood Forest at 
alL Certsunly, Alice Maud Fitzwalter never 
arrived there, or she would have been safe 
from her kingly persecutor. But she might 
also have travelled in the di^uise of '' Maid 
Marian," the name of the shepherdess in the 
old French May Day drama of the eleventh 
century, when her father first fled with his 
wife and children to France. The Fitz- 
walters journeyed from Dunmow to the 
Scottish Court, and thence to France. The 
cousins on boUi sides the Border may have 
been equally ready to protect and assist the 
fugitives. All we know is, that th^ reached 
their destination in safe^. Durmg those 
long cross-country rides, Fitzwalter's child 
might have been remarked by the country 
people as — 

Robin's mistress dear, bis lored Marian, 

The sovereign of the woods, diief ladT of the guiies ; 

Her clothes tacked to the knee, and dainty tmuded 

hair. 
With bow and qniver arm'd. 

King John became enraged by continual 
defeat, and had her poisoned at Dunmow 
Priory. The ancient chronide kept by the 
religieuse there, has preserved her story. A 
grey altar tomb, in the south wall of Litde 
Dunmow Churdi, is still pointed out as her 
burial-place. The alabaster figure of the 
lady is richly habited, and the hands are 
clasped in pra3rer. The effigy is supposed 
to have beoi originally painted — the fingers 
still show traces of red colour; which 
tradition asserts to be indicative of the effect 
of the poison given by King Joha 



Few could look upon that silent marble 
now, unmoved, and remember how, in dying, 
she sent the voiceless message round the 
land, making it felt, not heard — ^that it is 
better to die than ]rield to wrong. Can we 
wonder at the devotion with which her 
memory was cherished — the Moldekin 
Malkin of the country side — the Alice of 
Stephen Langton*s impassioned ballad — the 
sainted lily. We have but a few snatches 
quoted in an all^orical sense, in a sermon of 
his own, preserved in a MS. in the Duke of 
Norfolk's library. But the play upon the name 
Alice, so obvious in the old Norman French of 
the stanza, could only apply to Fitzwalter's 
daughter, — 

Ceste est la bele Aliz, 

Ceste est la flnr, ceste est la lis. 

We find it translated in Thompson's Essay 
an Magna Charta thus, — 

This, this is Alice fidr to see. 
The flower, the lilj, this is she. 

Again, we must bear in mind her Saxon 
grandmother. She was a Liz, a descendant 
of Waltheof— a Liz, therefore a lily, there- 
fore Aliz. And perlutps this is the real 
explanation of the variations in her name. 
Such plays upon words were common in the 
thirteenth century, when Norman and Saxon 
were both in use. We need only instance 
Edward I.'s angry jest, when Bigod, Earl of 
Norfolk, refiisai to serve in the French wars. 
'* By God, Sir Earl, you shall either go or 
hang." To which Bigod answered: "By 
God, Sir King, I will neither go nor 
hang." 

We have one more verse of Stephen Lang- 
ton's to consider, which seems to show the 
shadow of the reason why the fair Aliz was 
ever after associated with the wreath and the 
May garland: — 

Bele Aliz ikiatin leva, 
Sar cois vesti et para. 
Enz mi veiger 5*01 entra, 
Cink flenrettes 7* troava 
Un chJ4>eIet fit en a, 
De Rose florie. 
Pur Dea trahez voos en a la, 
Vos ki ne amez mie. 

Fair Alice arose in the morning ; 

She pot on her Test, and made her readj. 

Then she went into her bower. 

And Iband there five flowerets, 



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194 



MOLDEKIN OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY. 



of the five flowerets, seems to suggest the idea 
that the poison was given to Fitzwalter^s 
daughter in the May Day custard amid the 
festivities of the previous year. 

Tradition asserts that John conveyed the 
poison to her in an egg. This £surt is men- 
tioned in Collins's Peerage. The name of 
Jack-pudding, ordinarily bestowed upon the 
fool, tends to confirm this supposition. The 
pantomime of war, with clashing of swords, 
succeeded, and the fool was driven back. 
The first dancers personated Robin Hood 
and his men, or else they were really the out- 
laws of Sherwood. 

Certain it is, fiom this period the May Day 
customs received a firesh bias. A new picture 
was fitted into the old fiiame. 

In Robin Hood's name and during his life- 
time this sword-dance was introduced, and, 
in spite of the heavy pains and penalties 
already cited, was kept up with an enthusiasm 
which could not be extinguished. 

For centuries after the second disforesting 
of Huntingdonshire by Edward I., the playing 
a Maid Marian was the fitvouiite national 
diversion. Not only no May Day, or Robin 
Hood's day, as it was as fi-equently caUed, 
but no bride ale, Whitsun ale, or yuletide 
gathering, could be suffered to pass without 
it There are traces of many variations and 
additions. Some have thought the king was 
exchanged for the hobby-horse, who appears 
to have used the r^al foot-doth, and to have 
carried the ladle in his mouth. As the sig- 
nificance of the rude and sarcastic pantomime 
was weakened with the lapse of time, some 
GCMifiision in the parts assigned to the diflferent 
characters may have crept in, until it was 
finally degraded to the low buffoonery of the 
clown: 

Tossed out to widier like unsiglitlT weeds, 
From the worid's garden htnished. 

We of the nineteenth century, who have 
seen how the caustic pen could shake a 
throne, can understand how great an influence 
the originator of this graphic pageant exerted, 
and recognize in him a true champion of the 
good old cause. If we cannot positively 
say this was the work of Robin Hood, we 
must admit it was in his name the wc^ was 
accomplished. 

E.S, 




By C. H. Crowx>sr« 

|AVING read several interesting 
paragraphs in The Antiquary on 
garlands and May Day customs, 
perhaps a few recollections of my 
own, concerning festivities and observances 
which, conmion enough in my school-days, 
have died, or are rapidly djdng out, may 
prove of interest to some of your readers. 
Forty years ago, the 29th of May, " Royal 
Oak Day," was a fiunous anniversary amongst 
schoolboys, and boys of even larger growth. 
In my boyish recollections the royal anniver- 
sary and fine sunny weather are inseparably 
connected. Weeks before the momentous day 
came round, the country for many miles was 
ravaged by keen birds'-nesters (the cruelty 
was then little thought of), intent on gather- 
ing a store of all descriptions of bir&' eggs 
wherewith to decorate ^e garlands on the 
29th. Pliant mothers and good-natured 
cooks were wheedled into " blowing" instead 
of breaking the ^gs with which puddings, 
&c., were prepared: the said '' blowing" being 
performed by perforating the egg at each end, 
then applying the mouth to one orifice, and 
so driving the contents out at the other, leav- 
ing the ^ell practically entire. Not a very 
cleanly process, certainly, but the times were 
less fiistulious than now, and this, as well as 
the ruthless cruelty of robbing nests, was un- 
heeded by enthusiastic schoolboys or their 
abettors. At length the longed-for morning 
dawned, generally bright and sunny, as ever 
sung of by the poets. £very lad, and many 
men with laddish hearts, wore a sprig of oak 
in their hats or caps ; every horse's head was 
decorated with the same natural greenery ; 
the coaches, especially the royal nudls, were 
profiisely ^' oaked ;" and most of the inns 
and many private dwellings would show the 
royal emblem. Happy Sie boy who could 
have the oak in his cap glorified by gilding, 
and hapless the lad who through forgetfiilness 
or indifference ^ed to sport his oak : sooner 
or later in the day, a rotten ^g or other ob- 
jectionable missile would be an unpleasant 
reminder. The garlands were prepared 
over-night with great care, and in some 
cases irs^ good taste. Birds' eggs of eveiy 



MAY: OAK-APPLE DAY. 



195 



shape and hue, from the tiny torn- tits to the 
comparatively gigantic duck's egg, being^ 
strung like many coloured beads on a thread, 
here and there a gilded hen's egg shining 
like a golden nugget, interwoven and inter- 
spersed with the sweetest flowers of May 
(collected from sympathizing fnends), and 
with odds and ends of gaudily coloured 
ribbon, the whole wound around and pendent 
from two hoops, a small one within a larger, 
formed an exceedingly pretty object A 
strong cord was stretched across the 
street from the upper windows, the gar- 
land hanging in the centre sufficiently lofty 
to allow coaches or high-tilted waggons to 
pass under, as also to escape damage from 
stones or other missiles hurled by rival gar- 
land owners, for there was strong rivalry in 
the town of which I write in the matter of 
garlands, as well as in things of greater im- 
port The "up-town" display was jealous 
of the "down-town," and vice versd^ a 
jealousy which now and then culminated in 
stone-throwing and fisticuffs, stimulated by 
blasts from cows'-homs, bellowing defiance 
from either contending party. Well do I 
remember the punishment after a day's horn- 
blowing, the angle of each jaw just beneath 
the ears aching with what from other causes 
would have been considered an intolerable 
ache, but which under the passing excite- 
ment was borne with wonderful equanimity. 
Policemen were unknown in those days, the 
majesty of the law being represented by a 
burgess constable, with two or three sub- 
constables of the Charley order. The superior 
officer was a man of some standing in the 
town, rotund of person, and to the juveniles 
of awe-inspiring aspect. I recollect mentally 
applying to him the lines from Shakspeare's 
Smn Ages J which had recently been a school 
lesson — 

And then the justice, 

In iaXt ronnd belly, with good capon lined, 

With eyes severe, and heard of formal cut, 

All except the beard fitted him admirably. 
My boyish perspicuity being too immature to 
know the wide gulf 'twixt a justice of the 
peace and a burgess constable. Notwith- 
standing our awe, it was our delight to vex 
him, our youthful agjUity being more than a 
inatch for his dignified though ponderous 
f^tjfit pf precession. He had a horror of 



horn-blowing, and well we knew it : and he 
being equally obnoxious to the rival garland 
factions, these after saluting every garland in 
the town, uniting their forces for once to 
annoy the common enemy, would assemble 
within ear-shot of his residence and blow a 
mighty and terrible blast, loud enough 
(almost) to raze the walls of another Jericho. 
This usually brought him from his lair 
breathing threatening and slaughter, when, 
of course, a general stampede of his tor- 
menters would take place. When evening 
arrived the garlands were taken down, and 
what was caJled ''smash egg" commenced. 
The ^gs were unstrung, laid upon the 
ground in a row of five or six at once, one 
of the merry-makers was then blind-folded, 
armed with a stick, and after a m3rstifying 
twirl round, sent off to smash the eggs if he 
could. Some would by mere accident walk 
straight to the spot and demolish the whole 
lot, whilst others would wander far wide of 
the mark, and strike the ground at the very 
opposite point of the compass to where the 
quarry lay, causing of course much fun and 
merriment to the on-lookers. Next morning 
not a garland would be seen, the only me- 
mento of the apth of May being the aching 
jaws of many a school lad in the town. 



'^fi^r^'t'Sr 



Ztbc learUcst Snbustrial 
Census. 

By G. Phillips Bevan, F.G.S. 

|HE exigencies of continually increas- 
ing population have imposed upon 
all civilized countries the necessity 
of a fixed period for taking the 
commencing from the time when 
David first numbered the men of Israel and 
Judah. It is only of late years, however, 
that the rapid development of modem indus- 
trial life, with its ever-changing phases, and 
the momenttmi with which it forces its resist- 
less way into all matters, political, com- 
mercial, and social, has made it incumbent 
upon the authorities to take a special indus- 
trial census, as a supplement to that of the 
general body of the people. England, France, 
Germany, and America, have long felt this 




census. 



X96 



THE EARLIEST INDUSTRIAL CENSUS. 



necessity, and have acted upon it with different 
degrees of perfection and minuteness, the last 
two countries especially looking upon the 
matter as one of great importance. It is to 
France that we are indebted for having given 
us the first industrial census on record — viz., 
that of 1292, presented to us through the re- 
searches of M. Fagniez. Not only is this list 
interesting in an antiquarian point of view, 
but it throws much light upon the industrial 
condition of France (and, indeed of all civil- 
ized countries) of that early period. 

Paris then, as now, occupied a leading 
position in trade, and particularly in the 
manufacturing trades associated with handi- 
craft In the thirteenth century, machinery 
did not enter much into the calculations of an 
artisan, and, if it did, was of such a rude 
kind, as scarcely to deserve the appellation ; 
and thus we have, in the census of operatives 
whose names were found in the lists prepared 
for taxation purposes, both in 1292, and, a 
few years later on, in 1300, an excellent sketch 
of Uie crafts which mostly prevaOed in those 
days. Geraud, a writer who was interested 
in these subjects, estimated the number of 
artisans in Paris, exercising a special calling 
in 1292, at 4,159 : but the list of 1300 in- 
creased them to the amount of 5,844. In 
those eight years, the working population of 
a city Uke Paris would naturally have in- 
creased somewhat ; but we must not look too 
closely into any discrepancy of numbers, for 
even in these days, with the assistance of a 
large staff of practised experts, it is a most 
difficult thing to issue a correct census table. 

The textiles and clothing trades figure 
pretty conspicuously in these early Paris 
lists of 1292 and 1300, which, for die pur- 
poses of this article, we may consider iden- 
tical. They include doth dressers (afdeeuri 
de toUis) and amfalieeurs^ whom Gcxaud be- 
lieved to be in some way connected with 
polishing, but who were really workmen who 
stretched the cloth upon the poles. There 
were also calenderers ; women hecklers of 
flax and hemp (cerenaressa); felt dressers, and 
spinners, the material of whose work is not 
specified, though subsequently two spinners 
of wool and thnty-six of silk are mentioned ; 
teazlers of cloth, both men and women, whose 
duty it was to raise the pile ; bobbin makers ; 
carders {pigneresses) of textile materials ; cloth 



shearers {^rdonduurs\ so as to give it the 
desired gloss ; yam twisters, who probably 
acted the parts of our doubling and roving 
machines, so as to furnish the proper tenacity 
for the weaving operations ; silk winders ; 
linen weavers {teliers or toiiurs)) cloth fullers, 
and one velvet maker. The textile dyers 
included thirty-three general dyers, three of 
silk ; one maker of azure blue ; and one of a 
peculiar colour called fueil^ thus alluded to 
m an old gild charter: "L'en ne pourra 
faire draps tains (teints) en moul^e en fiieil 
ne on fostet" Although, of course, this list 
of textile workers does not embrace those 
living in the country (and, doubtless, a great 
deal of the wool, flax, and silk, was prepared 
there, cotton being unknown in those da3rs), 
it furnishes a curious contrast with the vast 
array of operatives and mill-hands which now 
find occupation in France under this head. 
Of all the textile employ^ in Paris, the 
spinners were the most important, there 
having been no less than four distinct gilds 
or corporations — ^viz., the female spiimers of 
wool, with whom were united the women 
carders ; the hemp and flax spinners ; the silk 
spinners, who spun with large spindles, and 
those who used smaller ones. It seems 
curious why there should have been two dis- 
tinct sets of workers in the latter category : 
but the &ct was, that the first of these two 
(fiUartssis a grand Jusereaux) undertook also 
the operations of reeling, spinning, doublmg, 
and roving, and were presumably a more im- 
portant and responsible body of workwomen. 
The raw material, however, being very valua- 
ble, the fiUarases could not always resist the 
temptation of selling it, when it was delivered 
to them by the merchants ; and heavy penal- 
ties were enacted against any who bought 
silk fi-om other dian the proper merchants, 
and also against the spinners who sold it or 
pledged it, whilst in their possession : " Que 
aucun ou aucune ne soit si hardis d'aller 
acheter soye et de changer soye por soye en 
maison de personne ne a personne qui file 
soye." 

There was a greater variety of trades and 
handicrafts in articles of dress, for even 
in those early days the name of Paris was 
synonymous with luxe^ fashion, and all that 
was excellent in taste. The list of 1300 in- 
cludes two makers of aiguiiletUs^ by which we 



THE EARLIEST INDUSTRIAL CENSUS. 



197 



understand shoulder-knots or tags \ but the 
Old Red Book of ChateUty a hundred years 
later, increases this number to twenty-six — a 
remarkable rise in a detail of costume, which 
must have been so limited. A like discre- 
pancy is shown in the makers of aumaniersj or 
ecclesiastical charity-bags, who are put down 
as 3 in the census of 1300, but of whom 134 
are mentioned as plying their trades at the 
end of the centuiy. Embroiderers, in like 
manner, mounted up from 23 to 139 in 1319. 
The hatters, or head-dress makers, were rather 
numerous, and included felt hatters, pearl 
head-dress makers zxi'dichapeliers de soie, who 
wove the silk veils known as couvre-chefs 
(kerchiefs ?). There were three other corpora- 
tions engaged in working head-dresses, not 
mentioned in the census of 1300 — viz., in 
flowers, peacock feathers, and sea-birds' 
feathers. Besides these, there were hood- 
makers, chaudersy or sock makers, coute-poin- 
tiers or makers of coverlets, and crepinthres^ 
who appear to have been workers in a kind 
of trimming. Quicherat, in his History of 
C0stumej tells us that the crepini^es made a 
^sort of head-dress in silk and thread, while 
other branches of this trade furnished fringes 
for pillow-cases and the decorations of altars. 
The ribbon makers (dorelotiers\ the cloth- 
sellers, and the mercers, furnished a strong 
contingent to the commercial ranks, and 
their articles of shopkeeping contributed one 
uf the greatest attractions to the visitors to 
Paris, who, then as now, came from all 
quarters of the globe. 

£t reviennent de toz pais 
Les bons marcheans a Paris 
For la mercerie achater. 

^ Jean Jandun, who wrote the Elogede Paris y 
in 1323, gives a most graphic description of 
the display of goods in the shape of clothes, 
fans, silks and stuffs, which were exposed for 
sale on the ground floor of the shops, while 
the story above was devoted to the lighter 
object de luxe^ such as toilet details, ivory 
pins, head-gear, girdles, gloves, &c. That 
the trade was a lucrative one, is evident 
from the fact, that the heaviest assessment 
was made on this class of shop, varying from 
30 to 150 livres. It is worth while noticing, 
that though makers of woollen, silk, and 
lace goods were somewhat numerous, those 
of linen were very few, only eight in number, 



which seems to imply that the linen trade 
was comparatively little known in those days, 
and that the material was not much used. 
Allusion has abready been made to the hat- 
ters ; but we must not omit to mention the 
tnortdiers (from whom perhaps our slang 
university term of " mortar-boards" has been 
derived), a rather powerful and important 
craft, who gave their name to the Rue de 
Mortellerie. There were also no less than 
five makers of hats from peacocks' feathers. 
The furriers, of whom there were 350, 
formed one of the most powerful trades-gilds 
of the time ; and we also find, that the old 
clothes men flourished at that period, under 
the significant title of rafreschisseeurs^ or reno- 
vators of old garments. Tailors, who num- 
bered 160, occupied an important position in 
the clothing trades, although the profession 
was very much divided into specialities, 
there being, besides tailors proper, corpora- 
tions of doublet makers, braces makers, 
shoulder-knot makers, &c. The tailors were 
at that time under several peculiar rules and 
laws. The customer always found the cloth, 
and the tailor's province was merely to cut 
the garment ; and if he did not do diis pro- 
perly, he was liable to a fine from his gild 
and the cost of the damage done to the cloth. 
A paper pattern was first of all taken of the 
intended suit, and this pattern was kept by 
the corporation as evidence in case of any 
complamt, either of misfit, or of not using up 
all the cloth, which was considered a point of 
great heinousness. This, however, was not 
limited to France, for we find the same cus- 
tom prevalent also in England in early days, 
as shown by the following : 

Memorandum : That John Rowter received iiii 
yerdes of brod cloth blew to make Master Robert Ry- 
don a gownne, upoun the wheeche, the sayde Master 
Robert complayned of lacking of his clothe. And dier 
wasse dewly proved iii quartens ofbrod clothe convayed 
in pieces, as hit apereth by patrons of blacke paper in 
our comen kofer of recoro, at any tyme reay to 
shew. 

In royal establishments, and great houses 
generally, the tailor was a regular servant, 
receiving wages and wearing a livery; and 
indeed, in the king's palace was a complete 
tailor's shop, just as the ladies of the house- 
holds kept their dressmakers and seams- 
tresses. Notwithstanding the rather strict 
division of labour amongst the difierent 



198 



THE EARLIEST INDUSTRIAL CENSUS. 



branches of the tzade, there was ahrays an 
attempt being made by the taOors to extend 
their miiicr into these branches, and in tiie 
case of the doublet makers, or pourpoirUiers^ 
this encroachment was succe^fol in 1358, 
up to which time the latter had a monopoly. 
Bat the fact was, that the wearing of doublets 
became so universal that the pourpointiers 
could not supply them &st enough, and the 
Provost of Paris therefore gave judgment to 
the effect that there was work enou^ for the 
two corporations, and that the taiJ^ mi^t 
henceforth make them as well as the daubU- 
tiers. The only difficulty was, diat the tailors 
were obliged to make them to measure, 
while the others were allowed to sell them 
ready made. The braalurs were makers of 
braces {praca^ femoralid)^ a light pair of 
drawers kept over the hips by a shoulder- 
strap {praat)^ presently to become the modem 
braces. Six of them are mentioned as 
plying their trade, in the census table. As- 
sociated with the cloth trade was the im- 
portant gild of dyers, who numbered thirty- 
six, and who were under very strict regulations 
respecting the dyes which they used. The 
dyeing materials then in vogue were the 
woad (Jsatis tincioria\ cochineal, madder, 
dyer's weed {Reseda luieola)^hT2LLiX and indigo. 
A dye-stuff named motUeey made of elder-bark, 
iron filings, and cutlery dust, was considered 
too corrosive, and was forbidden to be em- 
ployed, though the colour that it yielded, 
made it in fevour with purchasers, if they 
could use it without getting into trouble^ 
Richard le Magon was summoned for having 
a cloth dyed in moulke^ but was let off on 
pleading that he had it for his own use, and 
not for sale. Two dyers were prosecuted 
for having dyed fourteen pieces of cloth in 
ntoulie^ and they called as their witness, Peter 
Waropel, the treasurer of the Duke of Bur- 
gundy, to prove that it was done by his 
orders. There was only one corporation of 
dyers in Paris, who dyed wool and cloth, but 
they never meddled with silk, the dyeing of 
which was carried on by the mercers. But 
there was always a kind of feud going on 
between the dyers and the cloth weavers, 
the latter of whom asserted that they pos- 
sessed the right of dyeing in woad, although 
this office was limited to two of their number ; 
and when one of these two died, the Provost 



of Paris appointed his socoessor out of the 
same body. Thedyer5.on didr part, denied 
this right, and ^)oke of it as a kind dTplmai- 
ism whicii was inconsistent Pinding, how- 
ever, that die dodi-weaving fiatemity was 
too strong for diem, diey tried to get the 
weaving corporation thrown open to djrers, 
arguing that as the weavers were allowed to 
practise both trades, they (the djrers) should 
have the same priyil^es. Much ill-feeling 
was caused by this undefined limitation of 
trade practices, and in 1277 the dyer^s gild 
brought an action against a weaver named 
Michael Horret, beouise he also exercised 
the trade of dyeing ; and it demanded that, 
according to one of the gild rules, he should 
select which of the two occupations he pre- 
ferred, and confine himself to it He dien 
chose that of dyeing, whereupon an objection 
was brought forward, that he had not served 
the regular dyer's apprenticeship of three 
years. His answer was, that he had learnt 
to dye under his father, who was an expert 
in this branch ; and upon an appeal to the 
Parliament, a verdict was given in his favour. 
In the end, however, there were such con- 
stant disputes and law proceedings, that 
Philip the Bold had the whole question in- 
quired into, and ordered that the two cor- 
porations should in future confine themselves, 
each to its own mHier^ as was the custom at 
other great manufacturing centres, such as 
Rouen, Bruges, Mechlin, Ghent, and Brussels. 
Before quitting the subject of early textile 
industries, it will be interesting to give a list 
of the trades involved, and the numbers who 
were employed. 

n- J r _7' «. T'ii. Census CensHS 

Trad*. Engluk Tii/e. ^,^, ^y^^, 

Afeteeurs de toiles Linen Dressers i 



Aiguulettes, fabncai 


nts Makers of shoulder-laiots 


or 


Aumonicres 


Makers of alms-bags 


3 


Azur, Caibricants 


Dyers (axurc blue] x 
Button and thimble makers i6 




Boutonniers 


«3 


Braaliers 


Brace makers 6 


9 


Bresil, batteurs 


Brazil crushers (dyeing) 


X 


Brodeeurs 


Embroiderers 14 


23 


Calendreeurs 


Stuff calcnderers a 


6 


Cerencesses 


Flax and hemp hecklers ^fem.) 3 




Chapeliers 


Hatters 47 


39 


Ch. de perles 


Hatters who covered the 






hat with pearU 


a 


C3i. de soiet 


Kerchief makers 


3 


Ch. de feutre 


Felt hat makers 7 


10 


Chaperonieres 


Hood makers 6 


6 


Chasubliers 


Chasuble makers s 


4 


Chauciers 


Shoe makers 61 


48 


Coquillieres 


Makers of head-dresses, 






adorned with shells 3 





* In 1397 these had increased to 26. 
t These were tne **couvre-chefs/' worn as veils. 



THE EARLIEST INDUSTRIAL CENSUS. 



199 



COIl tff p e w Htl C l S 

Goutnncn 
Coaturiera de gBBts 



SmgUik TitU. 

Corerlet maken 
Cutters (clothes) 
Glore cutters 



CetuMt Cemstts 
8 x8 



detote 
fiuscunde 



derobei 



m em- 
broidery mnd silk 
TlunUe maiken 
Ribbon makers 
Qoth mmchants 
(Hddothesmen 
Felt madcers 
SDinuas , 
Silkspuuiers 
Fullers 
Makers of the dye of that 

Glove maken 
Frinse maken 
Qotnteazlen 
Wo(^ merchants 
Dress cieancn 



Z03 153 

z 

3« "9 



Cap Cmortar-boanT) ma- 



z 
14 

»9 
zax 

zo 

5 

8 

94 



ax 

3 



3 
70 





Shuttle maken 
Lace stripe maken 
Peacodc oat maken 
Maken of patemostent 
Funien 
Pftarl merchants 
Garden of textiles 
Clothes restoren 
Qoth-pile cutten 
qui can- SiDc-yam winden 



qui den- Silk yam-winden 



8 

4 



«4 

ai4 

6 

3 



za 
S6 

8 
36 
83* 



40 

z 

.1 

z 
8 

Z39 

6 

z 
z 
z 

14 

34a 

6 

a 

3 

a 



de robes 



Vdf«t,fiw«us 



SiOcworken 
lUon 
Robeznaken 
Gsipet maken 
Dyen 
Kobedyen 
Linen weaven 
Linsey-wolsey maken 
Weaven generally 
Qothdqmen 
Vehret maken 



z 
X34 zoo 



37 

29 

33 



IS 

24 

a 
zz z 

8a 360 
30 36 

z 




Jlbc ColO00ettm at 'Rome. 

By John Hxnry Parker, C.B. 

|H£ favourable reception that has 
been given to my last communica- 
tion, comparing, or rather contrast- 
ingy the views of the scholar who 
considers that Ifaming is all-in-all, and the 
pnurtical observer, who considers that /^ 
aisiing remains of the buildings of the 
period are better evidence of the facts than 
anything that has been written, or that 
can be written, about them, has led me to 
tikx a continuation of it In the case of 
the Forum, these remains had been entirely 

' * Tins cwponrtion must have rery largely increased afterwards, 
for It isttatad thsit fai the procession before Philip the Bold, 
be tnaakted die bones of St. Louis, over 300 fullers ook 



t That is, chapleti of coral and shells for telling one's bcadi. 



buried for centuries, and have only been 
brought to light by the enormous excavations 
of the last few years. This is equally the 
case, or more so, in the Colosseum. No dis- 
respect to Mr. Bum is intended by making 
use of the abridgment of his great work as 
an embodiment of the scholar's view — gene- 
rally entertained by German scholars, followed 
too blindly by the English, who will not take 
the trouble of going to Rome to use their own 
eyes, or even looking at any photographs of 
the objects brought to light by the recent ex- 
cavations ; and sdthough both Pope Pius IX., 
with Caidinal Antonelli, and, ten years 
afterwards. King Humbert, with the Italian 
Government, have called me a benefisxtor of 
Rome by " demonstrating the truth of the early 
history which had been considered as fabulous 
for the last half century;^ and this latter, 
as the Italian ambassador was directed to say, 
was " after consideration and inquiry. ^^ Still 
scholars are so blindly prejudiced that they 
cannot see the truth when plainly put before 
them. I now proceed to show the same 
contrast in the Colosseum (I prefer to take 
this form to the one used by Mr. Bum of 
Coliseum)y and I am giving engravings from 
photographs as my witnesses. 

The entablature of the first storey is surmounted by 
an attica, with projections corresponding to the 
columns below. Above these stand the arcnes of the 
second storey, between Which half-colunms of the Ionic 
order are placed. The details of the architecture here 
are in a very meagre style, for the spiral lihes on the 
volutes are omitt^, and also the usual toothed orna- 
ments of the entablature. Tlie same remark applies 
to the third storey, the half-columns of which nave 
Corinthian capitals, with the acanthus folia£;e very 
roughly workexl. The fourth storey has no arches, but 
consists of a wall, pierced with larger and smaller 
s<^uare windows placed altematelv, and is decorated 
with pilasters of the Composite order. Between each 
pair of pilasters three consoles project from the wall, 
and above these are corresponding niches in thq ental> 
lature. The purpose of these was to support the 
masts upon which the awning were stretched. The 
second and third of the prmcipal concentric walls 
contain arches corresponding t6 those in the outer 
waU. Corridors run between Uiese concentric walls, 
and on the first and second floors of the outer ring, 
and the first floor of the inner ring, these circles afTonl 
a completely unobstructed passage aU round. The 
other corridors are blocked up m parts by various 
staircases leading to the upper rows of seats. — Burn, 
p. 65. 

There is plain proof of other and later addi- 
tions to the upper part of the amphitheatre. The 
highest gallery of all, for the women, was originally of 



THE COLOSSEUM AT HOME. 



wood ; but (his luivitifi been destroyed by fire, caused 
by lighlning, in the tfmc of Moximiu, it w«e replaco! 
in stone, and completed in Iwenty-tfaree years under 
Goidianus IIItA.d. 240, This upper storey is built in 
a manner very inferiar to llie rest, bring put loeethi 
partly of old materials, H-ilh [rieces of comice, and of 
columns Of ftafimenls o( old tombs inserted in patch' 




work fashion. And to support the great additional 
weight at that enormous height, piers of travertine 
were introduced at short inlervals, as if the architecU 
were afraid to tniFl the soft tufa lo bear so vast a 
pressure ; these piers go right through ihc walls from 
top to bollom.— Pabker, chap. xiii. p, 154. 



again on (o the arena. This contrivance U repicsvnted 
by a rude delineation on maible, discovered is the 
excavations of the Coloaseuni, showing the tcrecn 
spoken of resting on the pavement in front of the 
podium. iJelow the pavement are seen the tops of ■ 
scries of arch^ with bors ocrois the headings, which 



THE COLOSSEUM AT ROME. 



201 



are intended for the dens of the wild beasts in the 
area, and in front of them some sort of perfonnance 
is Spring on. Such rough kinds ol carving or shallow 
indsioiis, called ^fu^/^ nsoally made on the plaster- 
coating of walls, WLTe firequentlj occurred in the 
mins M Romc^ and many of them have been trans- 
ferred to mnsenms. The spectators were protected 
from the heat of the son bv an awning, Vdariuwt^ 
which was suspended by coros from the tops of masts« 
For supporting these masts, exposed to astrain neces< 
aariiy verr great, the contrivances were of an ingeniooa 
kind, and are sdll distinctly visible where the upper 
storey remains perfect On the exterior wall, ten feet 
below the summit, there is a row of corbels projecting 
for the feet of the masts to rest upon, and holes are left 
in the cornice above through which the body, of the 
masts passed ; and on the inner side of the uppermost 
wall are other corbels, to which were lashed tne stays 
for keeping them uprigfaL From each mast-head a rope 
was stretdied, sloping down inwards towards tne 
arena, and upon these ropes the sections of the 
▼darinm were spread, running upon rings. At the 
bottom of the galleries next the podium are similar 
contrivances, evidently for supportmg standing poles. 
The awning was wonLcd by a staff of seamen, who 
wrere detached for this purpose from the fleet stationed 
off Blisennm, in the Bay of Naples, and hence the 
quarters provided for them within the walls were 
called Cfutra Misemiimtn^ In one feature, {lowever, 
die Roman amphitheatre differed from all the rest^ 
namdy, in havmg -doable oorridors all round the 
gaOaiies ; the auence of this outer passage made 
a different adaptation of the stairs to the vomxt^rim 
ncccasBJj between this and the other amphitheatres» 
where the spectators went out stnught throi^h eadi 
aidiway.-^rAKKXKy pp. i58-i6a 

The complete excavation made down to the pave- 
ment of the substructures reveals modes of building in 
veiy different styles, and plainly shows that the whole 
mass cannot be attributea to one date or a few years. 
It also enables us to understand the nature of the 
stagna, the relation of the arena to them, and the 
provisions for introducing and exhibiting wild beasts 

(p. iSa). 

First, then, it is seen^ by the removal of earth 
filling the interior of the Colosseum to the depth 
of twenty-one feet, that the basement, contaimng 
complicated arrangements for the various uses of the 
theatre, is to a great extent composed of large blocks 
of ta&, which are evidently not of imperial date: 
There are plenty of mstance^ of the adaptation of that 
nuiterial for foundations, when old sites were built 
over again, but not any of an original work reared 
by an enmeror i^on a'new basement of tufa. The 
sofaitioii oc this difnculty is most probably to be found, 
as has been proposed, in the conclusion that a pre- 
▼ioos stmctnre of a similar kind existed on thb site 
before the time of Vespasian or even of Nero. Pliny 
describe s the theatre of M. iEmilius Scaurus, the 
step-son of Sylla, as the greatest work ever made by 
bwDMB hands, capable of containing aj^A/y thoHsand 
pcoplei The same number is recorded for die Flavian 
amphitheatre, and this is the only theatre in the 
world that would hold that number. Scaurus was 
cande mdUe B.C. 58. The earliest ports of the struc- 

▼OL. ▼. 



ture being of tu£i, the brickworic of Nero succeeded 
to them when the design of making his naumachia 
and arena was carried out. Around Sie central space 
occupied by them, the first galleries for spectators 
were conmienced : and of that finest kind of brick- 
work which distinguishes the time of Nero ; but the 
exterior was not finished in any part That the stone 
galleries and corridors were not of the original con- 
struction is shown b^ there being no bond between 
them and the older bnckwork ; there is a straight and 
wide vertical joint where the two materials come 
together, which is conclusive as to the outer mass 
havixig been subsequently built on to the upper por- 
tion. The three styles sufficiently indicate three 
periods of construction : of tufa, brick, and travertine. 

When the French occupied Rome, and it was 
Incorporated into their empire in the four 3rears 
preceding the battle' of \Vaterloo, the Frendi 
Government carried out considerable excavations in 
the arena of the Coliseum ; and, besides clearing 
the podium and the chambers annexed to it, they 
opened .the CiTptoporticus which runs underground 
towards the Coelian Hill, and also discovered the 
passages beneath the arena, which have been now 
excavated again. A great controversy was raised at 
that time as to the real level of the original arena 
between several of the archaeological professors and 
antiquarians of Rome. The same controversy has 
now been again revived, and the same questions as to 
the probable date of the underground constructions 
have been again raised, but with as liitle hope as 
ever of arriving at a satisfactory solution. The truth 
seems to be that, as in most amphitheatres, these 
hyp^^sea were constructed at the very first erection of 
the Coliseum, but have been altered, n^lected, filled 
up, and again cleared out many times during the 
eventful history of the building, and that it has now 
become impossible to trace the various stages of such 
destructions and restorations. As often as the drains 
which were intended to carry off the water became 
choked, and failed to act, these lower chambers and 
passages were filled with water and rendered useless. 
—Burn, p. 68. 

The excavations of 18 10-14 ^ *^ ^^^"^ ^^ \ix^^ been 
carried deep enough to show the floor of the hypogsea ; 
and, among the principal new objects of antiquarian 
interest discovered by the recent operations, have 
been some large blocks of travertine sunk in the floor 
of the passages, and pierced in their centre with large 
round holes. These holes have evidently been the 
sockets into which upright posts of some kind were 
fixed. In some of these sockets a metal lining still 
remains, and in one of them the remains of a wooden 
post are said to have been found. — Burn, p. 69. 

The original drawings of the French engi- 
neers of their excavations in the Colosseum, 
with their account of them, have long been 
preserved in the British Museum, where I 
saw them some years since. They -state, 
distinctly, that they were stopped by water. 
For the excavations made at my request bjr 
Signor Rosa, for the Italian Government, this 



202 



THE COLOSSEUM AT ROME. 



water was drained ofi^ at first by a steam 
engine, subsequently, by restoring the drain 
into the Cloaca Maxima, and on into the 
Tiber, in order that these important dis- 
coveries should not again remain under 
water. There is, therefore, no seeming in 
the business; it is simply plain matter-of-fact, 
open to all observers who will take the 
trouble to go and see them, or the photo- 
graphs or photo-engravings in my book. It 
was in these lowest ten feet that the most 
important discoveries were made. 

The arrangements connected with the nanmachia 
are made intelligible since the clearing out of the 
area; we see the water-channels, which were filled 
and emptied at pleasure, and were also boarded over 
at will, so as to convert the whole internal space into 
an arena, or floor covered with sand, for athletic 
contests and wild-beasts shows. There is a great 
central passage extending beneath the whole length 
of the building ; and on oich side of it are two canals 
parallel to it, and to each other, with an interval of 
about six feet between them. They were ten feet 
deep, with a passage ten feet high underneath them ; 
so that their soles did not go down to the pavement 
of the area, but were reared upon substructures. 
Thty are, however, of unequal width, the canal 
nearest the centre being narrower than the other ; while 
the outer and larger canal had its inner side straight, 
and its outer side curved, following the oval line of 
the building, so as to be widest in the middle, and 
tapering offat both ends. The narrower channel has 
been supported upon great cross-beams of timber 
resting upon the niassive walls ; the places in iM^iich 
thesebeuns were inserted are seen at short intervals 
in the waUs. The larger of the two was su]^ported 
on brick arches. When the water was let in, it filled 
the channels ; and as it probably overflowed also the 
space between them, it formed an unbroken liquid 
snriace resembling a stagmtm or lake, one on each side 
of ^e centre, about 300 feet long by 50 wide in the 
middle. The vessels moving in parallel lines along 
the ^Vw«^l«, when they came abreast, would be 
kshed together, and the attempt of one of the crews 
to board the other's ship constituted the naval fight 
The great mass of material underneath the cor- 
ridors is of tufa ; and in the interior are two walls of 
the same stone, in concentric curves, composing the 
outermost circle of the area. They are of the usual 
large blocks ; but the inner one of the two has been 
faced with bricks, and it carries on its own inner side 
the largest of the canals. Between these two walls 
of tufa were placed the Pegmata — firames of wood, or 
lifts, on whidi the wild bMSts when put into cages 
were raised to the level of the arena. In the sides of 
these walls are seen the grooves cut vertically in 
the stone for the lifts to work up and down ; also 
deeper grooves! about a yard long for the counter- 
. weights, pondera reducta. Outside of these walls 
agam, and under the path in front of the podium, 
are a number of chambers serving as dens for 
tiie wild aQin^ils; and in front of each is an 



opening large enough to allow the creatures to pass 
through into the cages attached to the lifts. But for 
beasts of the largest size, such as elephants or camelo- 
pards, there are four dens of greater dimensions, two 
on either side of the central passage. In front of the 
dens is a small channel for water, supplied fromjthe 
aqueducts, out of which the animals drank ; and 
behind each one is a small cell about four feet square, 
opening from above, but not reaching lower thsm ten 
feet from the ground ; this allowed a man to go 
down and feed the beasts in safety. Such attendants 
were called Catabolici, the den itself being a Cata- 
bolnnu In thepassage connected with the dens are seen 
sockets let into the pavement for a pivot to work in ; 
these were for the revolving posts or capstans, round 
which were wound die cords which hoisted the peg- 
mata. These contrivances, as parts of - the stage 
imichinery in a theatre, enable us to understand the 
descriptions given by historians writing in the time of 
the Empire, of the sudden appearance^ simnltaneoody, 
on the boarded stage, of numbers of "inld beasts, sduch 
seemed to the spectators to rorine out of the ground. 
Herodian and Ammianus Marcdlinus both mention 
the exhibition of a hundred lions at once in this 
manner. Besides these provisions round the outer 
circle, Uiere are lines of small square closets for lifts 
on both sides of the central passage^ through which 
men and dogs could ascend from below by trap-doors 
on to th^ arena. On the floor of this central passage 
is a remarkable firagment of an ancient wooden frame- 
work remaining, ^whidi has the appearance of the 
lowest portion of a cradle for a vessel to stand oti, 
and also for it to slideonwhen requiring to be moved. 
It IS laid in two lines with transverse beams ; and 
on each side of the passage is a series of stone dabs 
which are perforated ; these seem to have sec^ied 
for fixing tne cradle for the vessels, so that they 
might stuid upright. When the naumachise were 
exhibited there must have been some machinery for 
lifting up tiie ships, and placing them on the 
can£ ; and they must also have been remoived 
when the water was let ofi^ and the wooden floor 
replaced for the shows on the arena. Probably ^hxj 
never quitted the building, but were left in the vantt 
as described, and hoisted up when required (p. 157). 

A large wooden framework has been found in the 
central passage, blackened by long exposure to the 
water. This seems to have been a contrivance for 
making an inclined plane on which heavy machinrs 
could be dragged up from below. — Burk, p. 70. 

The mode in which the naval contests, mentioned 
by Dion as having been exhibited in the Coliseum, 
were conducted, cannot be stated with any certainty. 
They were given by Titus at the dedication of the 
building, and probably before its completion, so that 
the space now occupied by the hypogxa may then 
have oeen filled with water previously to the construc- 
tion of the dividing walls. — Burn, p. 70. 

What Mr. Bum calls ^*a large wooden 
framework" is what is called in dockyards a 
cradUy on which a vessel stands before it is 
launched ; and in the Colosseum it was evi- 
dently used for the galle3r8 prepared for the 



THE COLOSSEUM AT ROME. 



•OS 



naval fights to stand upon when not m use, 
and was at the greatest depth in order thai 
it might be out of sight. The galle}' was 
drawn up by pulleys, and phiced on the csnal 
that iras supplied with water from an aqueduct, 
which could be let in or dra^-n off as required. 
There is enough remaining to show how this 
was done. 

It should be borne in mind that what 
Pliny calls the insane work of Scaurus, 
because he had expended such ; 



appeared to be of stones four feet long and 
two feet wide, and the other of stones two 
feet square. This is the usual character oC 
the wilb of the Etruscan kings ; and it is 
evident that to make the foundations of this 
colossal struciurr, the tufa blocks were brought 
from the south end of the Palatine, )vin of 
the fortifications of the city on the two hills, 
no longer wanted in the time of Sylla, so that 
Scaurus was peimilted to do this. Part of 
the walls at the south end, having been used 



■•^l-•^l|£pfc;»•♦L*f 




in, COLOSSetTM, PKOBABLG RESTOKATION 



OP THX SraSTRUCTURi 



nm of money on a wooden tfualre that was 
destroyed by lire a few years afterwards, that 
theatre is said to have held 80,000 people I 
To support the weight of that enormous 
number, the builders could not trust to 
wooden foundaliom ; all the substructure was 
of stone, and the foundations were of the 
massive blocks of tufa, of which each block 
is a ton weight, four feet long, two feet wide, 
and two feet thick, arranged alternately 
lengthwise and crosswise, so that one range 



to support the Porticus Livise, was suffered 
to remain, and a small part of it still remains. 
In another part, marks of the great blocks of 
tufa are distinctly \Tsible in the plaster 
covering of the walls of rubble stone, which is 
the real support. For some years T had been 
puzzled as lo what had become of this south 
wall of the Palatine, which i^-as cvidciiily 
necessary lo complete the fortitications of 
the City on the Two Hills ; mid I had exca- 
vations made in two or three places, in search 



204 



THE COLOSSEUM AT ROME. 



of any remains of it — without success, of 
course. When the great excavations of the 
Colosseum were made, the explanation became 
evident ; the stones of this wall had been 
used for foundations there. 




Z)evon anb Cornwall Dotes* 

|HE sensitive foreigner in Far Cathay, 
if he has learned to appreciate the 
beauties of the tongue spoken by 
the Celestials there, will often 
have his sensibilities shocked by hear- 
ing himself spoken of as Hung-mcuhjin^ 
"the red-haired man," or Hung-mao-kwei^ 
" red-haired devil." If he is inclined to be 
witty he will take off his hat and ask for 
a closer inspection of his hirsute regions ; 
which, if they turn out to be dark or black, 
will provoke great merriment. Foreigners 
have long been known by this opprobrious 
epithet in China ; but it is strange to read 
that not long ago a man was charged with the 
crime of being a "red-haired Dane," the 
charge bemg brought by an Englishman 
living near Land's End, against anodier man 
of the same parish.* The memory of Danish 
or Dutch craft and cruelty still lingers on the 
coast of England, as it does on the coast 
of China^ and in both countries the hated 
foreigner is known by the epithet "red- 
haired." In Lancashire, as a friend reminds 
me, it is unlucky for a red-haired man to be 
the first to enter a new house. In Devon 
it would appear that the memory of the 
Danes still lingers on. Not far from the 
famous Torquay stands the village of Den- 
bury. It has for its back ground a beau- 
tiful conical hiil, surmounted by a minia- 
ture forest. This hill has all the appearance 
of having been worked up artificially ; which 
fact, together with that of the name of 
the village, has suggested the idea that Den- 
bury is Dane-barrow — " the burying place of 
the Danes." A curious local rhyme is still 
repeated by the people, which tells its own 

• Vide Folk-lore Record^ iii. 129 ; Contemporary 
Review^ August, 1881, p. 206 ; Giles' Glossary of 
Eastern Terms, p. 63 ; and Strange Stories from a 
Chinese Studio, ii. 179 ; Neumann's Pir4ies (Oriental 
Thmslation Fond), p^ xxv.-xzvi, 



tale of a former belief in the existence of 
vast treasure deposited here : — 

If Denbiuy Down the level were, 
£ngland would plough with golden share. 

In recording the following notes on Devon 
and Cornwall antiquities, my object has 
been to direct attention to, rather than to 
exhaust, the subjects they treat of^ for eveiy 
fragment is of value to the student, and may 
be lost if not noted at once. The first 
fact which strikes us is that which re- 
lates to 

LOCAL NOMENCLATURE AND TRADITIONS. 

Cornwall especially is rich in old names, and 
very quaint are some of the traditions which 
have arisen to account for the old British 
names still in existence. Such words as 
Pennycome quick (/.^, Pen-y-cwm-g-wic. 
"village at the head of the creek or valley") 
or Penny - cross (1.^., Pen-y-croes^ " Head 
of the Cross [road]") will be sure to 
afford scope for ingenious speculation, 
and many are the tales already collected 
respecting them. I may here give one or 
two illustrations from Devonshire local tra- 
ditions. Legends connected with Berry- 
Pomeroy CasUe are numerous, but I have not 
seen the following in print. This castle was 
built long ago by one Pomeroy, who, when 
he had finished his work, planted a beny in 
the grounds. From this berry sprang a 
beautiful oak^ and that oak still stands in the 
place where the berry was planted — Whence 
the name of Berry-Pomeroy Castle. Some 
say the tree which grew up was a beech, 
which is now known as the " Wishing-Tree." 
It is said that ^ou have only to utter in a soft 
whisper any wish you have, against the trunk 
of this tree, and it will be suxe.to be granted. 
There is a small country hamlet lost among 
the hills in the neighbourhood of Ashburton, 
known properly as Sutton's HilL This place, 
I am informed, was once called Louse Hall, 
and the original explanation afforded me 
was to the effect that an old gentleman by 
the name of Hall used to occupy one of the 
houses in the village, and as he was remark- 
able for the quantity of vermin which his 
person supported, the village was named after 
hiuL This explanation, I may remark, was 
given me in perfect good faith by a former 



DEVON AND CORNWALL NOTES. 



205 



overseer of the parish, and an extensive land- 
holder. I have not found the proper way of 
writing the name, but think it probable that 
Louse may be a corruption of some forgotten 
word, perhaps the British Llys: in which case 
the second syllable HaU would be a transla- 
tion of the former, and so the name would be 
another example of words, which, like Avon 
water and Penlepoint, contain two syllables 
of different origin, yet alike in meaning. 

FIELD NAMES. 

We should expect to find among the 
Devonshire and Cornish hills a goodly 
number of places named Combe. This 
proves to be the case not only with names 
of villages and towns, but also with those of 
fields. Thus we find Widdycum (Widde- 
combe, with or by the combe or valley ; 
compare Bideford, i.e,y By the ford, the By 
or With being like the Latin cum in many of 
our place-names*), Femycum (Fern-valley), 
Smallyciun (Little vale), &c. Then the word 
" Park" is constantly applied to fields. Behind 
the£umhouse stands the Bampark, connected 
with which we find Dowerpark, Stanpark (or 
Stony-field as we might call it), Hillpark, 
Shinnelpark, &c. " Close" and "mead" are 
words constantly in use, as Kilnclose, Froggy- 
mead ; while the field at the immediate back 
of the house is known as " Backside." On 
the slope of the hill we find "Sidelings," 
" Hole," and " Field" often become haU and 
^ or t^ in the mouth of the common people. 
Some names are fiill of interest, as Skipsey, 
i«., SceapeS'hegCy sheep-field. There is 
Zi^eraxen, a field near the river Teign, and 
probably so-called from the former existence 
of a path (A. S. siiK) by the side of the river. 
About the pretty town of Chudleigh Homer 
is a common field-name. It was once the 
name of a bird, the word y^Xoyf-hammer still 
retaining a trace of the same. 

PLANT NAMES. 

When one reaches this part of the country 
and finds that the digitalis (foxglove), ranun- 
culus (buttercup), imd primula^ are alike 
called '' cowslip," he begms to think he has 

* But see Trans, Deo, Assoc., x. p. 276 seq, 
Mr. WorUi's interesting paper suggests that Wide- 
valley, or Withy-Talley may be the meaning, but then 
ysrhMl is to be said ot a narrow field or a meatUw 
bearing such a name ? 



found a valuable field for antiquarian re- 
search. It is interesting to hear the 
narcissus called "butter-and-eggs" or "hen- 
and-chickens;^ and the marsh-mangolds 
spoken of as '^ drunkards," because '' if you 
gather them you will get drunk." Green 
onions are called '^ chibbles," an interesting 
word when taken in connection with its 
numerous relatives, such as the German 
Zwiehd, Italian cipoUa^ &c. The iris which 
adorns the hedgerows and marshes of Devon- 
shire is variously known as '* dragon-flower,** 
" daggers," " flag," and " water-lily /' and the 
wild arum (Arum maculatum) glories in such 
titles as " parson-and-clerk," " parson-in-the- 
pulpit," "wild lUy," adder's food," and a 
number of others. I have referred to the 
digitalis^ and it will no doubt surprise some 
to learn that it is not only called " foxglove," 
and " cowslip," but also " flox," " flop-top," 
" flap-dock," and " cow-flop," whilst the juve- 
niles call it "rabbit's flower," and "poppy." 
These are only a few of the many local 
names by which even the commonest flowers 
are known j but they are sufficient to show 
how interesting and valuable a study the 
subject of wild flowers may form. I have 
treated it more fiilly in a work on Flower- 
LorCy to be published shortly by Messrs. 
Sonnenschein & Co. 

ANCIENT CUSTOMS. 

Some ancient customs still linger on in 
these far western counties, which have become 
extinct elsewhere. Every one will remember 
the Helston Furry Festival, to which refer- 
ence was made in The Antiquary, iii. 284-5. 
This is no doubt an interesting survived, 
calculated, when fully investigated, to throw 
much light on early May customs (see ante^ 
p. 185). It is not in Norfolk alone that 
boughs of trees are used to decorate inns 
at the time of club feasts. Between Teign- 
mouth and Dawlish, I recently passed an 
inn thus decked out, and though Uie custom 
is not universal in these parts, it is by no 
means imcommon. There is a curious cus- 
tom, referred to in the Western Antiquary^ 
still observed in some parts of Cornwall under 
the title of " The Snail Creep Dance." Mr. 
Wade says : — 

The jToong people being all assembled in a large 
meadow, the village band strikes up a simple but 



2o6 



DEVON AND CORNWALL NOTES. 



lively air, and marches forward followed by the whole 
assemblage leadin|[ hand in hand, the whole keeping 
time to the tune with a lively step. The band, or head 
of the serpent (which it represents), keeps marching in 
an ever narrowing circle, whilst its train of dancing 
followers become coiled around it incirdeafterdrde. It 
is now that the most interesting part of the dance com- 
mences, for the band, taking a sharp torn about, com- 
mences to retrace the cirde, still followed as before, 
and a number of young men, with long leafy branches 
of trees in their hands as standards, direct this counter- 
movement with almost military precision. 

CREDULITIES. 

One word may be added respecting the 
superstitions and folk-lore of the people. A 
respectable lady recently informed us that 
sometime ago she broke her wedding-ring, 
and was told that it was a sure sign she 
would soon lose her husband. He died 
fifteen months after. Now her ring has again 
broken, which forebodes the death of another 
member of the family, and as her only 
daughter is delicate, she firmly believes in 
the omen. Coming across some fields in an 
outlying village in Devonshire the other day, 
I overtook a farm labourer, and began to ask 
him the names of certain flowers. He re- 
marked that many arbs grew in the neigh- 
bourhood which were of great virtue. 
His wife once had a kind of leprosy 
which the doctors could not cure. A painter 
at Torquay, who was a seventh son^ made 
some herb tea and cured her. He also cured 
another friend who had broken breasts. 
Great stress was laid on the fact that the man 
was a seventh son. It thus appears that we 
have not yet exhausted these fields of study. 

H. Friend. 



^t >v* ?'*>. 



Zf)c Clopton flDonumentd at 
StrattortJ'On^avon. 

By WlLUAM Brailsford. 

XPERIENCE teaches us that the 
great in life overshadow the little. 
No wonder if, in the contemplation 
of some vast prospect of mountain 
and alpine height, we are apt to disregard 
the peaceful valley nestling beneath. PD- 
grims to th^ English Mecca, as a rule, do not 
trouble themselves to stay beside other lesser 
memorials of the past. They are attracted 




to the Church of the Holy Trinity at Strat- 
ford-on-Avon to see the monument of Wil- 
liam Shakespeare, and, liaving so far attained 
the one object of their ambition, never care 
to linger in the fine building which really 
contains many other, though it may be 
granted lesser, objects of interest. For 
example, there is a fine altar tomb in 
memory of Dean Balsall, and the effigy of 
John Combe, together with other very curious 
instances of mediaeval and later fimereal 
sculpture. In the north aisle there is a 
chapel, formerly dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary. This chapel is now filled with monu- 
ments of the Clopton family, who were the 
lords of the manor and possessors of large 
estates in the parish, their dwelling-house 
being called Clopton to this date. Like 
many other old families in the realm, they 
appear to have gradually died out Sepa- 
rating the chapel from the body of the church 
is an altar tomb made of stone, with a black 
marble slab. Upon this there are neither 
inscriptions nor effigies of any kind. Round 
the sides are panels, once holding enamelled 
coats of arms, only the broken nails which 
kept them in situ being now visible. This 
tomb is under a pointed arch. On a space 
below are the arms of the City Company to 
which Sir Hugh Clopton, Knight, belonged. 
He was Lord Mayor in 1492, and from this 
and other circumstances it is to be accepted 
that this tomb was erected to his memory in 
the early part of the sixteenth century.* 

Over against the north wall is an altar 
tomb, round whose sides are the armorial 
bearings of the Clopton and Griffith families, 
and the legend, ^* Vincit qui patitur." On 
a slab above are the recumbent effigies of 
William Clopton and his wife Anne, the 
daughter of Sir George Griffith. The arms 
of the two families, Clopton and Griffith, 
are painted on glass on one of the panes 
in the oriel window of the Hall at Clopton 
House, and are dated 1566. The figure of 
William Clopton is habited in armour of the 
middle of the sixteenth century. Under the 
tassets may be seen a coat or fringe of 
mail. The head is uncovered, and rests on a 
helmet; the face is bearded, and there is 

* Dying unmarried, and in London, he was buried 
at St. Margaret's Church, Lothbury, according to the 
terms of his will. Vide Dugdale. 



THE CLOPTON MONUMENTS AT STRATFORD-ONAVON. 



S07 



a moustache. The hands are raised as in 
jnaycTy and on the fingers are signet rings. 
Round the neck is achain, which passes over 
the thumbs of both hands, and appears to 
be connected with a book held by the figure. 
The lady b plainly dressed. She wears a 
wide and fiill-plaited ruff, and from the back 
of her head a weeper depends, which is kept 
in its place by a jewelled coronal or band. 
It was about this date that ruffs were mostly 
in fashion and the custotn of starching came 
into vogue, having been introduced by a 
Dutchwoman, one Mistress DLngham Van der 
Plasse. Both effigies are of marble. From 
an inscription round the edge of the tomb 
we learn that William Clopton died in April, 
1592, and his wife Anne in September, 1596. 
lliere is a quaint group of figures on the 
wall above this monument It consists of 
the roughly-carved effigies of three girb, a 
boy, and three chrysom children. They re- 
present the children of the above William 
and Anne Clopton, and are named respec- 
tively, Elizabeth, Lodowiche, Joyce, Mar- 
garet, Wylliam, Anne, and Wylliam. The 
manner of exhibiting the appearance of 
chrysom children in sculpture is here in 
exact accordance with siinilar work in the 
Church of St Peter ad Vincula in the Tower 
of London.* There is a tablet underneath 
widi an inscription stating that the Right 
Honcuable Dame Joyce, Countess of Totnes, 
their eldest daughter, caused this their monu- 
ment to be repaired and beautified. Anno 
163a On a smaller tablet we read that, 
^'Sir John Clopton, ICnight, their Great 
Grandson, caused this again, and ye rest of 
these monuments, to be repaired and beauti- 
fied, Ano Dmi 17 14." Close to the east 
wall of this chapel, and partially built in the 
wall, is the monument of Geoige Carew, 
Earl of Totnes and Baron of Clopton, and 
his Countess Joice, who was die eldest 
danj^iter of William Clopton and Anne. 
The effigies are coloured, and are composed 
of alabaster. They lie on a black marble 
slab, under a richly decorated arch, having 
Corinthian columns on either side, which 
are surmounted by two coloured emblematic 
figures. Aprofusionof shields of arms covers 

* In the chancd of St Giles' Chnrch, Chesterton, 
oo the Pejto momunent, may be seen a like repre« 



the niches of the entire memorial The £azl 
is in armour, over which he wears the robes 
of a peer. On his head is a coronet ffis 
beard is pointed, and his hands are raised as 
in prayer. The knees have sufifered damage. 
The Countess also wears the robes of a peeress, 
and rings are on her fingers. A lion is at her 
feet This latter object had probably been 
fixed at the feet of the Earl at some fonnor 
period. The costiune of gallants^t the time 
when opinions were so divided as during die 
reign of Charles the First was as various as 
possible, but it became, as we know firom the 
portraits by Vandyke, of the richest and rarest 
quality. There are three Latin inscriptions on 
the tablets in this monument One of these 
and one on the wall adjacent in English are 
remarkable, as testifying the amiable quali- 
ties of Lord and Lady Totnes. Descended 
originally fix)m the illustrious fimiily of the 
Fitzgeralds, Lord Totnes derived the surname 
of Carew fiom a Welsh ancestor. Bred to the 
profession of arms, he was commanded by 
Queen Elizabeth to quell the rebellion in 
Ireland, where he became Master of die 
Ordnance of that part of the kingdom. 
Recalled to England, King James the First 
made him Baron Clopton, and likewise gave 
him several important offices, conferring upon 
him the Master of the Ordnance to all 
England. Charles the P^irst raised him to the 
dignity of an Earl His career was highly 
successful, and his merits undoubtedly veiy 
grei^t. There is a three-quarter length por- 
trait of him in the hall at Clopton. In that 
he is seen with an extensive ruff and a white 
pointed beard. The right hand grasps a 
baton, a sword being in the left. On the 
firont of the tomb, sculptured in white marble, 
are trophies of arms, being exact representa- 
tions of those in use in the Ordnance depart- 
ment in the early part of the seventeenth 
century. Lord Totnes died March 27, 1629, 
aged 73. His Countess survived him till the 
14th of February, 1636, being then 78. The 
tide became extinct, the Earl dying without 
issue. One of the Latin inscriptions com- 
memorates Sir Thomas Stafford, the Earl's 
private secretary in Ireland, and afterwards 
Gentleman Usher to Queen Henrietta Maria. 
This gentleman desired to be buried in the 
Clopton vault with the firiends whom he sur- 
vived, but it is uncertain whether this wish 



2o8 



THE CLOPTON MONUMENTS AT STRATFORDONAVON. 



\ 



was carried out By the side of the large 
monument is the portraiture in stone of a 
woman kneeling at a desk. The figure is very 
diminutive, and the dress very closely re- 
sembles those worn by a lower section of 
society, as depicted in Speed's Map of Eng- 
land. We learn by the following epitaph 
for whom it is intended : — 

** Heere lyeth interred ye body of Miss Amy Smith, 
who (being about ye age of 60 yeares and a maide) 
departed mis life at Nonsuch, in Surrey, the 13th day 
of Sep., A® Dni, 1626. She attended upon the 
Right Honble. Joyce Ladie Carew, Coyntesse of 
Totnes as her waiting gentlewoman ye space of 40 
▼eares together ; being very desirous in her life tyme 
mat after her death she might be laide in this Church 
of Stratford, where her lady ye sayd Countesse also 
Herselfe intended to be buned, and accordinglie to 
fulfill her request, and for her so long trew and faithful 
servise ye said Right Noble Countesse, as an evident 
toaken of her affection towards her, not onely caused 
lier body to be brought from Nonsuch heidier and 
lumorably buryed, but also did cause this monument 
and superscriptioQ to be erected in a gratefull memorie 
of her whom she had found so good a servant"* 

This terminates the series of monuments in 
this chapel. Sir Hugh Clopton was a real 
power in the land, he not only rebuilt a part 
of the chapel of the Holy Cross, and repaired 
the transept in the Church, but he built the 
stone bridge which crosses the Avon from 
east to west, at the north-east point of the 
town. New Place, where Shakespeare died, 
came eventually to his grand-daughter Lady 
Barnard At her death it was sold to Sir 
Edward Walker, Garter King of Arms, from 
whom it descended to his only child Barbara, 
the wife of Sir John Clopton, of Clopton. 
His youngest son, Sir Hugh Clopton, became 
possessed of the properQr, and was residing 
in the house in 174a. His executor and 
son-in-law, Henry Talbot, sad.to say, sold it 
to one Francis Gastrell, who pulled the house 
down and destroyed the garden. By the fact 
of this occupation of New Place, a kind 
of identity with the great poet is established. 
On the staircase of the house at Clopton is 
the full-length portrait of a young girl, who is 
recorded as the last descendant of the once 
great Clopton family. Their monuments in 
Stratford Church afford very striking ex- 
amples of the varieties of memorial sculpture 
in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 

* Above the kneeling figure may be seen a coat of 
arms, three greyhounds courant* 




A family of the name of Clopton resided at 
Kentwell Hall, at Long Melford, in the county 
of Suffolk, for centuries. Sir William Clopton 
dying without male issue, his estates went to 
his daughter, the wife of Sir Symond D'Ewes, 
who in turn left an only daughter, Lady Darcy, 
who died childless in 1661, and dius the 
Suffolk Cloptons became extinct. 



■»K«K'^9^'«»h' 



lectured on £arli^ fDan* 



|T Owens College, Manchester, Pro- 
fessor Boyd Dawkins has just 
finished a course of six lectures on 
" The Ancient World at the Time 
of the Appearance of Man," and so valuable 
are they to the student of antiquities that 
we give a summary of the course. 

The lecturer began by giving a few leading 
ideas bearing upon the problem of his subject, 
so far as we know it at the present time. 
Until within the last few years the certainty 
of primeval man was based altogether upon 
documentary evidence, and seeing that these 
documents only went a comparatively short 
dbtance backwards, the previous past of 
mankind was looked upon as altogether 
speechless and voiceless, and the history 
of the human race taken to be wholly out- 
side our possible knowledge. At this time 
a new series of knowledge was opened to 
us in the most wonderful manner, and dis- 
coveries were made all over the world, and 
there was now no great break existing 
between the time of which he treated and 
that of to-day. 

At the second lecture. Professor Dawkins 
showed that at the close of the meiocene age 
there was an extraordinary geographiad 
change. As regards the configuration of this 
country, there was no evidence of seasouthward 
at that time, as at present. It was in all pro- 
bability one solid mass of land, and affording 
a free bridge, over which animals could 
migrate to and fro as their wants led them. 
Passing on to the examination of the types 
of ancient animals, the lecturer said the 
point of all his remarks tended to the ques- 
tion — '' Is man to be numbered among these 



PROFESSOR BOYD DA WKINS LECTURES ON EARLY MAN. 209 



creatures as an inhabitant of £urope in the 
iddocene age?" Among the fragments of 
evidence upon which man's presence at that 
period had been asserted was the disputed 
discoyeiy of a human skull, at a depth of 
fifteen metres, in a railway cutting at Olmo, 
near Aiezzo. He had reason to believe that 
that skull, which he had examined in the 
museum at Florence, was not pleioceue at all, 
but belonged to the neolithic period Pro- 
fessor Capellini had met with certain bones 
in Italy undoubtedly in pleiocene deposits ; 
but he was not satisfied that they were 
in situ^ for in the same collection was a 
fragment of pottery, and he did not suppose 
that the most daring anthropologist would 
assert that the potter's art was known in the 
pleiocene age. 

The third lecture came to the pleistocene 
period, when man made his appearance in 
£urope^ and was surrounded by most of those 
forms of animals which are now familiar to 
our eyes. In the mid-pleistocene deposits 
of the Thames valley, characterized by the 
abundance of the remains of animals similar 
to species now inhabiting temperate climates, 
we met with the first evidence of the presence 
of man in this quarter of the world. Two 
flint chips, found by Messrs. Fishp^, Cheadle, 
and Woodward, had afforded the clue to a 
recent discovery, by Mr. Spurrell, of vast 
numbers of flintflakes, scrapers, and knappers, 
in association with the remains of rhinoceroses, 
mammoths, and horses. The last named 
gentleman was fortunate enough to hit upon 
the very place where the ancient hunter had 
sat and made these implements, and, by 
collecting the splinters thrown aside by him, 
the surface of the original blocks of flint out 
of which the implements were made had 
been in some cases restored. One-half of a 
flint axe he (Professor Boyd Dawkins) was 
fortunate enough to discover. The perfect 
axes were, of course, carried off for use. The 
whole group of implements were rude and 
rough, and belonged to what was called the 
river-drift type, which was almost world-wide 
in its distributiorL In them we had evidence 
that man was present in the valley of the 
Thames, living by the chase, hunting the 
bison and the horse, the young mammo& and 
die yoong woolly rhinoceros, and having to 
oooteodfor mastery with the grizzly bear and 



the lion. When pleistocene man was at 
Crayford the Thames itself was haunted by 
beavers and otters, and the stillness of the 
woods on its banks was broken by the snort 
of the hippopotamus as he rose from the 
water. 

In the fourth lecture. Professor Dawkins 
said that towards the close of the pleistocene 
age the land gradually rose, and Britain again 
became a part of the Continent They found 
implements in the river gravels of the Thames, 
in association with the remains of the anim^V p 
he hunted — reindeer, bisons, horses, and mam- 
moths. They found man also in the Eastern 
Coimties as frir as Norfolk, and in the Mid- 
land Counties as far to the north as Bedford ; 
and in all these cases his implements lay either 
in deposits which were composed of materials 
washed out of the boulder days or in deposits 
which rested upon them. In other words, he 
was evidenUy there after the re-elevation of 
the land fix>m beneath the sea. His imple- 
ments were found in the valley of the £lwy, 
near St Asaph, in the caves of Cresswell, and 
in those of Kent's Hole near Torquay; so 
that they must believe that from time to time 
the hunter took refuge in caverns. He was 
not, however, found over the whole of Great 
Britain, and was conspicuous by his absence 
over ku:ge areas. He had not been found as 
yet in Ireland, nor in those regions whence 
the traces of ancient glaciers were the 
freshest, such as in Cumberland and West- 
morland ; nor were there any traces of him in 
Scotland and in the higher parts of Wales. 
Neither in these areas did they find traces of 
the animals on which he lived. 

The fifth lecture considered the river- 
drift hunter in India and North America, 
and the sixth and last lecture dealt with the 
numerous discoveries made in France, Bel- 
gium, and Switzerland, which enabled them 
to form a tolerably definite idea as to the 
cave man's habits and mode of life. He 
dwelt for the most part in caves, and accu- 
mulated enormous masses of refuse — bones of 
the animals on which he lived. In these 
refuse heaps were numerous implements of 
stone, bone, and ander — spear-heads, arrow- 
heads, scrapers, elaborately cut harpoon- 
heads, elaborate needles of bone and antler ; 
and along with these occurred curious carv- 
ings representing the surroundings of the cave 



2IO PROPESSOX BOYD DAWKINS LECTVUES ON EARLY MAN. 



man, and for the most part reproducing the 
forms of animals on which he lived. Pro- 
fessor Dawkins described in detail the evi- 
dences which exist as to the habits, customs, 
and modes of life of the cave men, who, he 
said, were hunters pure and simple, without 
knowledge of the metals, without domestic 
animals, and even ignorant of the potter's 
art. The range of the cave man over the 
world was very much more restricted than 
that of the river-drift hunter. The answer 
to the question whether the cave man could 
be identified with any living race was to be 
found in their habits, implements, and art, and 
from various hnes of argument which he 
adduced he iofened that the Esquimaux of 
the present day was in all probability his 
living representative. At the close of the 
pleistocene age in Europe a great geo- 
graphical change took place, by which tlie 
coast Unes became almost what they were 
now. Ail that could be said regarding the 
antiquity of man on the earth was that he 
appeared in the pleistocene age, and that 
that age was immeasurably removed from the 
present time. 

(Brceft an& "Roman Sculpture. 



[|ygp^j|[REEK art has excited the admira- 
8lP]b5^ tion and envy of every succeeding 
iBJHel age. It has remained unequalled, 
and probably always will remain 
so. So much of the artisdc spirit finds ex- 
pression in fragile materials, that we cannot 
be too grateful that the Greek has impressed 
his beautiful conceptions upon stone and 
marble. Thus, we are in possession of a 
wealth of beauty which would otherwise have 
been lost to us. On all sides in the chief 
galleries of Europe we can educate our eyes 
and improve our taste by careful examina- 
tion of exquisite works' which have come 
down to these times, some of them unhurt, 
through the vicissitudes of centuries. We 
are too apt to forget the long period over 
which Greek art extended, and to confuse 
together the works of different ages. Agood 
guide through the labyrinth has been long 
wanting, and we therefore welcome the 
I)eautifully printed and illustrated volume 



which Mr. Perry has produced-* Hegives a 
full account of classical sculpture in a very 
convenient form, and in doing this he has 
had a threefold object in view. He wished 
^i) to give an historical sketch of the art, 
(2) to bring prominently forward the artistic 
character of the great works of antiquity, and 




(3) tu (iiii^ci iiit' aluucltLa aUention tO thc 

incidents of Greek life, and to show the in- 

• Crttk and RomaH Sadpturt : a Papular Inlre- 
i/uctim fo tit HUtery of Grtek and Roman Sculpttln. 
By Walter Copland Petry. LoodoD : I-onginans, 
Green & Co. iSSa. 8vo, pp. uz. 70a 



GREEK AND ROMAN SCULPTURE. 



tiinate relation between Greek art aad the 
reUgioas, ptriitical Bud social life of the Greek 
people. In canying out his object, the 
witbor is helped by the admttable iltostrations, 
which have been most judidously selected. 
The subject is divided into six periods, the 
fiist commendng with Olympiad 70, and the 
last eoding with the Graeco-Roman period. 
After the influence of Homer on the direc- 
tion of Greek art, and the character of the 
woits of the fbundcn of the earliest school 
of sculpture in Greece have been considered, 
we are informed as to the history of the 
forerunners of Phcidias. Pheidias himself, 
and his immortal sculptures in the Parthenon, 
are fully described in several chapteis. Pass- 
ing over lesser known men, we come to 
Fnudtela, who, representing the spirit of 
his age^ fimnded a new school of sculpture. 
Then Eirnsciui art, and the migration of Greek 
art to Rocne, are treated of, and the works of 
the artists of Asia Minor are described. The 
two last chapters are devoted to the interest- 
ing subject of portrait sculpture. The life- 
size statue aS Sophocles (Fig. i) is a work of 
surpassing interest, 
bodi as a veritable 
reprcscntarion of the 
great tragedian and 
as a splendid ex- 
ample of the sculp- 
tor's art. The statue 
was found, not long 
before the year 1839, 
in Terracina ( Anxur), 
and was presented 
by Count Antonelli 
to Pope Gregory 
, XVI., who placed it 
I in his new museum 
I in the Lateran. It 
I is supposed to be a 
I copy of the bronze 
I original, set up on the 
motion of the orator 
Lycurgus, b.c. 368. 
Afier it was discovered, Tenerani restored 
the statue with skill and care. The bust of 
Pericles (Fig. 2) in the British Museum, is 
supposed to be a copy of the head of the 
statue by Cresilas of Cydonia, which was so 
highly fnaised by Pliny. The exquisite totso 
of Eios (Fig. 3) was discovered by Gavin 



Fig. 3. 




Hamilton in Centocelle, and fis itov m Ike 
Vatican. Mr. Perry supposes it to be acopy, 
on accounted the infcnmity of the c 

Fig. '3. 




EKOa OV CENTOCELLE. 



but of sufficient beauty of design to help u« 
to realize the conception of Praxiteles. The 
beautiful head of j£sculapius (Fig. 4} in die 
British Museum, is of much interest on ac- 



count of the 
likeness to the 
received busts 
and statues of 
Jupiter. The 



Fie.4- 



riage 



of 




Heracles and I 
Hebe or ra- 
ther the fonnal ^ 
surrender 
the bride to 
bridegroom, a 
relic of Pelo- 
ponnesian art 
from a relief 
discovered at 
Corinth, has a 
special archxo- 
logical interest 
as well as an 
artistic one. 
We cannot do better than quote Hr. 
Pory's descriplioa of this work, and thus 



dta 



GREEK AND ROMAN SCULPTURE. 



conclude our notice of his most valuable 
volume :♦ — 

Hendes is bearded, and carries his customary 
attribatesy the lion's skui and the bow. Athene, as 
his patroness, j^recedes him, with her helmet in her 
hana, and he is followed by his mother, Alcmene^ 
who, as a matron, is richly dreraed. The figure of the 
bride, and all her surroundings, are portrayed with 
nnusual delicacy and refinement With drooping head 
and maidenly reluctance, holding up a flower m her 
left hand, she half follows and is half drawn alone by 
Aphrodite, who tarns to her, as if chiding her delay. 
Behind her is another figure, probably Peitho, the 
goddess of persuasion, who lays her hand on the elbow 
of the lingering Hebe. In front of Aphrodite marches 
Hermes, and Mfore him Here, the mother of the bride, 
who^ like Alcmene, is heavily and richly robed The 
style of this relief lies between archaic stiffiiess and the 
freedom of a later period, on which account it is some- 
times classed among ' archaistic rather than archaic 
works. 




ZTbe fDafting of Englanb. 



|H£NC£ this England of ours has 
grown up — whether from Celtic 
remnants which survived the storm 
of Roman conquest ; whether from 
Roman centres of power and civil and mili- 
tary organization; or whether from the 
settlements Qf the fierce Saxon and English 
warriors, after their work of extermination 
had been accomplished — ^is a question which 
still divides the historians of England into 
hostile camps. The supporters of the Celtic 
origin of English civilieation are not wanting 
either in numbers or importance ; while on 
the Roman side we all know the famous book 
of Mr. Coote's, Thd Ramans of Britain, and 
on the Teutonic side we have the celebrated 
names of Kemble, Freeman, Stubbs, and 
Green. Mr. John Richard Green has said quite 
enough, in his History of the English People, 
to let the student know the views he would 
take on this question ; but now, turning 
aside from the lengthy narrative of the 
history of the English people, he takes up 
the smaller question, and presents (as might 
be expected from his masterly pen) to the 
histoncal reader a narrative of the making 
of England, teeming with vigorous and 
beautiful word*pictures, rich in imaginative 

* We are indebted to Messrs. Longmans for the 
use of the blocks that iUustiate this article. 



scenes which fill up the interstices of his 
chronicle or archaeological authorities, and 
withal a warm glow of true admiration and 
love for the men he is telling us about, or the 
institutions he is describing, which imparts to 
the reader more than once during his passage 
through the pages thrills of literary enjoy- 
ment* 

To begin the story of the early village 
settlements in England at the earliest stage 
possible, we must first answer the question, 
what were the physical conditions of the 
island? Mr. Green takes us through all the 
evidence of this, and he condudes that *' in 
spite of its roads, its towns, and its mining- 
works, it (Britain) remained even at the close 
of the Roman rule an ' isle of blowing wood- 
land,' a wild and half-reclaimed country, the 
bulk of whose surface was occupied by 
forest and waste" (p. 8). The Romans 
occupied their walled and fortified towns, 
communicating with each other by the 
roads which were cut through the heart of 
forest or swamp ; and they governed their 
Celtic subjects, as they governed elsewhere 
throughout the length and breadth of their 
wide dominion, by allowing them to retain 
their own laws, customs, and religion so long 
as they paid tribute to and obeyed the 
behests of their masters. These Celtic 
subjects dwelt in their hut-habitations, skirt- 
ing the forest, or in the midst of the wide 
plains natural to the country: their litUe 
self-acting communities feared the wild 
wolves of the desert, the wild bulls of the 
forests, feared, too, the unknown spirits of 
mountain, rivers and woods, with a fear 
which prevented the conquest of those 
mighty forces of Nature, and which made them 
shnnk away from the exertion which would 
have proved to them, as it proved to their 
stalwart successors, that man can bring all 
things to his use. Thus then these were the 
forces which met the fierce English invaders 
— the remnants of Roman power and civiliza- 
tion, the crystallized groups of Celtic com- 
munities, the unhewn forest, the mireclaimed 
swamp, the inaccessible mountain or hill 
heights. Mr. Green quotes a letter which a 
Roman provincial, Sidonius Apollinaris, wrote 

• 7^ ^aiM^^£if^/8iK/, by John Richard Green. 
With Maps. London : Sfacnullan & Co., 1881. 8vo, 
pp. xxviiu 447. 



THE MAKING OF ENGLAND. 



«i3 



in warning to a friend who had embarked in 
tiie Channel fleet, for a glimpse of these 
freebooters, as they appeared to the civilized 
world of the fifth century (p. i6)— a glimpse 
whidi tells us of the marauder and pirate 
who knew no pity^ who struck down the men 
of Britain with a merciless vengeance, who 
sacrificed their prisoners to the gods of their 
own gross superstitions, who in fact by the 
exercise of their ungovernable savage natures 
cleared the land right out of all obstacles, 
whether of man or nature, and, when both 
Celtic foe and swamp and forest and desert 
had succumbed to their conquering progress, 
settled down upon this selfsame land, tilled 
it and loved it, and called it Engle-land. 

This is, in a few words, the story that Mr. 
Green has to tell his readers, and in a manner 
that we all know. That this version is quite 
the true one, we forbeJur from endorsing; 
but that in the main it does represent the 
&cts of the EngUsh conquest of a portion 
of Britain there can be no reasonable 
doubt Where we are inclined to differ from 
this school of historians is as to the final 
results of the English conquest : that they 
fought and conquered the Celt, and what was 
left of the Roman is an established fact ; but 
that they settled down after the work in old 
Teutonic fiishion, and went on progressing in 
Teutonic foshion, requires more proof than we 
have yet seen. How severe the fight was 
we can yet perceive. The villas and the 
great buildings of Rome were not destroyed 
without dose contact and conflict with the 
Roman power. From the remains of the 
forum excavated at Silchester by the Rev. 
J. G. Joyce, such a picture — true to the life — 
as the following can be made out. A bronze 
ea^e was found in the forum buried deep, 
below ten inches of burnt timber. From the 
position it was found in there can be little 
doubt as to how it got there. It fell imques- 
tkmably in or with the timbers of a flat 
cdling down upon the floor below it 

If we assume, says Mr. Joyce,* this eagle to have 
been once the Imperial Standard of a Roman legion, 
•rase aqoilifer of tne revolted troops shat up here as a 
liiit stand, despairing of its safetv and of his own life, 
and whilst the who& western side of this basilica was 
bdeagnered, rather than surrender his trust tore away 
the bad from flie fiilmen which its talons had grasped 

* AriJUtUcgia^ voL zlvL p. 364; Green, p. 116. 



upon the summit of its stafi^ wrendied off its wim^ 
fastened only by an attachment to its bads, and hid it 
in the wooden ceiling of the aerarium, pladig it above 
a beam, as Romans are known occasional to have 
secreted treasure. He himself, no doubt, perched in 
the wMi. The basilica was taken, and was fired at 
the centre (there is evidence that this took place), but 
the conflagration did not consume the aid room on the 
south of the range, and so the eagle hidden in die 
timbers of the aerarium remained where its guardian 
had deposited it till the final fires, kindled by bar- 
barian hands long after the Romans ceased to dwell 
there, consumed this basilica for the last time, and 
buried the Roman bird in that grave from which he 
has been happily rescued. 

As at Silchester, so it must have been else- 
where. The Teutonic communities had before 
them the remains of a higher civilization than 
their^own. Speaking of the Roman Villa at 
Wingham and its history, Mr. Roach Smith 
says in these pages {ante^ iv. 238), " it would 
be strange indeed if the Saxons did not 
utilize the substantial Roman buildings which 
they found overspreading the land." Mr. 
Green does not ignore, though we think he 
minimizes, the ^ect of this contact with 
other life. Mr. Kemble's picture is, in the 
main, Mr. Green's picture also. 

On the natural clearings in the forest, or on spots 
prepared by man for his own uses; in valleys bounded 
by gentle acclivities which poured down fertilizing 
streams; or on plains which here and there rose, 
clothed with verdure, above surrounding marshes ; 
slowly and step by step, the warlike colonists adopted 
the habits and developed the character of peaceful 
agriculturists. All over England there soon existed 
a network of communities, the principle of whose being 
was separation, as regarded eaeh other ; die most inti- 
mate union as respected the individual members of 
each.* 

Such a picture is only realizable to the 
student of early English history when he 
becomes conscious that the old rites of 
settlement adopted by the early settlers else- 
where still remain an item of English folk- 
lore. Who can compare the haUowing of the 
newly-settled land by fire, as recorded in the 
story of Burnt Njal by Sir George Dasent, 
with the custom of carrying fire round the 
fields in the rural provinces of England,t 
without recognizing at once one of the old 
customsjof the village settlement of England? 
This setdement went on gradually, and for 
many generations. It was not completed at 
the Conquest — it was the growth and the de- 

* Kemble's Saxons in England^ i. p. 70. 
t Mitchell's Past m the Present, p. 145* 



214 



THE MAKING OF ENGLAND. 



velopment of ages. In Russia, M. Laveleye 
tells us, '' when the mother village became 
overcrowded, a group was detadhed which 
advanced towards the east into the profound 
forest and vast steppes."* And so no doubt 
it was in England. The daughter commimi- 
ties carried with them the names of their 
mother communities, and we can yet trace 
out the progress of this peaceful settlement 
in the names of the towns which owe their 
origin to this enuf These village settlements, 
long lost to the historian imder the mass of 
State history and State politics which has 
hitherto engaged his attention, are now again 
being restored ; and it is the perusal of such 
boo^ as Mr. Green gives to his readers 
that will more and more bring out the neces- 
sity of preserving every scrap of archaic cus- 
tom or superstition, every item of local 
archaeology, in the hopes that we may yet 
restore much that is now broken and uncertain 
in the picture of early English history. 



;^- .tv •vtl" 




1?evievp0; 



Sonnets of Three Centuries : a Selection, including 
many examples hitherto unpublished. Edited by T. 
Hall Caine. (London : Elliot Stock. 1882.) 4to, 
pp. xxxvi., 351. 

|HER£ is so peculiar a charm in a good son- 
net, that we are not surprised at the many 
collections of this peculiar form of poem 
which are being produced. The editor of 
the present collection claims for it the merit 
of containing, not only the best sonnets in the 
language, but also a large number by living writers 
whidh have never been published before. In respect 
to this latter point, we may say that of these unpub- 
lished sonnets several are very good, and worthy of a 
high place in the book, but others would not have 
been greatly missed had they been omitted. In turn- 
ins over the pages of this book we shall see that 
alUiongh all poets are united in adopting the rule that 
the poem shall be limited to fourteen lines, they are 
not united on any other principle. Mr. Caine has 
written an interesting Introduction, in which he sets 
forth his theories as to classification. In his Index of 
Metriod Groups he arranges all the sonnets he has 
printed under uiese headings : — i. Sonnets of Shak- 
npearean Structure ; 2. of Miltonic Structure ; 3. of 
Contemporary Structure. We fear that this arranse- 
ment breaks down in some particulars, because the 
fourth division is miscellaneous, and this word is the 
opprobrium of the classifier. The word sonnet was 

* Primitive Property, p. 34. 
t Taylor's Words and Places, 6th edit pp. S6-87. 



ori^nally used by the earliest Italian writers to de- 
scribe a short poem devoted to the exposition of a 
single idea, sentiment, or emotion, and it was only 
gradually that it became confined in application to a 
lyric of fourteen lines specially constructed. Taking 
this into consideration, and holdup that there was no 
need for English writers to follow slavishly the 
Petrarchian structure, Mr. Caine sets himself to claim 
for the Shakespearean soxmet not only unsurpassable 
excellence, but also unimpeachable purity. Criticism 
on these points is pretty sure to follow the individual 
taste of the critic : thus we must acknowledge we 
prefer the so-called Miltonic structure, and treasure 
Wordsworth's soimets as our prime favourites. '* Earth 
has not anything to show more fair,'' *' Milton ! thou 
shouldst be living at this hour," and "The world is 
too much with us ; late and soon," are gems to make 
every Englishman proud. We know that selection 
will make it necessary to exclude some fine poems, 
but we must ask why *' Tax not the royal saint with 
vain expense" is not printed here? We have 
eight charming poems by Mrs. Browning, and we feel 
some surprise at finding nothing by Robert Browning, 
until we remember that he never wrote a sonnet. This 
volume has been most luxuriously produced, and it is 
a true pleasure to seq our favourites so well cared for. 
We can linger over them as they stand, one sonnet 
on a page, each undisturbed by the presence of his 
neightx>ur. 



The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language, 
By John Ogilvie, LL.D. New Edition. Edited 
by Charles Annandale, M.A. Vol. II. (Lon- 
don : Blackie & Son. 1882.) Royal 8vo, pp. vi., 
694. 

We have already noticed the first volume of this 
noble work, and the second volume exhibits the same 
admirable diaracteristics which were apparent in the 
first The alphabet is carried from "Depasture" to 
**Kythe,** and these two words, neither of them 
common, show the fulness and completeness of the 
Dictionarv. The quotations are short and to the 
point, and the illustrative woodcuts are most judi- 
ciously introduced, so as to explain what could not be 
so well explained in words, and yet not to confuse by 
unnecessary multiplication. The etymology is quite 
up to the learning of the day ; and we may speaally 
notice that the curious steps by which the wonl herse, 
from expressing a barrow, has come to mean a car- 
riage for bearing a dead body to the grave, are 
clearly set forth. We look forward eagerly to the 
time when this really indispensable work will be com- 
pleted, and we are glad to see that Messrs. Blackie 
are bringing out the successive volumes with exemplary 
regularity. 

Passio et Miracula Beati Olauu Edited from a 
twelth-century MS. in the Library of Corpus Christi 
College, Oxford. With an Introduction and Notes 
by F. Metcalfe. (Oxford : Clarendon Press. 
1881). 4to, pp. 130. 

Mr. Metcalfe has done a real service in giving this 
MS. to the world. There are few subjects of more 
burning interest to the student of early English history 



REVIEWS. 



ai5 



I between England and Scandinavia, 
this MS. provides yet another contribution to 
tktt itill votold lustoiy. Of all the saints of the 
NutwuiiB caktidar there was none so renowned as 
Kv Obf the BCartyr, and the Norse ecclesiastics 
woui be sure as soon as they coold to make their 
fiiiaids IB Eni^bmd acquainted with the merits of their 
Kiaft national Saint. This they accordingly did 
iatbeitiinng lines of this old MS., and that it took 
•ooe hold Qpon their friends in England is evidenced 
by the l en u tf u King Olaf has always obtained. How 
interestng are these rueged sons of the North — 
roorii, brutal, if you will^ but terribly in earnest in 
the Mtftle of life, m the path they had chalked out for 
do^ ; and terribly in earnest, too, but still grand in 
tone and power, nngs out their battle cry, " Forward, 
Forward, Christmen, Grossmen, Kingsmen 1" 

Mr. Metcalfe has given us a valuable introduction, 
wherein he traces out very graphicallv and lucidly the 
** mirafnla** to be found in this twelfth-century MS. 
And one cannot read these miracle-stories without 
being struck with their old-world aspect, their folk- 
lore characteristics rather than their church-lore 
diaracteristica, because we find miracles here attributed 
to Olaf, which elsewhere are attributed to the heroes 
of folk-tales — witness the traditional miracle of Uie 
wandering for a year with a penance girdle or chain, 
which bursts asunder on entering a church, the 
parallels to which Mr. Metcalfe gives on page ninety- 
six. And th'is custom of attaching popular tradition 
to the person of a tribal or national hero is one of the 
many characteristics which an examination of bioera- 

ghittl myths so clearly illustrates. Mr. Metcalfe, 
owever, gives us a side-light into the history of tibis 
great chnrch-hero, which explains to some extent the 
work of the churdi in this system of saint-making, if 
we may so term it, and by so doing we have not only 
an interesting and valuable addition to our folklore 
materials, but we have a not uninteresting addition 
to eariy diurch history. For both we heartily thank 
Mr. Metcalfe. He has done his work with care, skill, 
and a rare combination of detailed and comprehensive 
learning. We have in addition, as might be expected 
from the Clarendon Press, good printing, and above 
all a capital index. 



Arekaofogia yEliana. (Published by the Society of 
Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tjrne.) Newcastle, 
1882. 

The recently issued part contains some valuable 
Papers, one of which, by Mr. John Clayton, F.S.A., 
is on t]»e Centnrial Stones found on the Koman WalL 
It deserves to be read with attention, as it expresses, 
not only the writer's opinion, but that also of the 
Society itself, and of most, if not all, antiquaries, in 
opposition to the published theories of Mr. H. C 
Coote, F.S.A. and of Dr. McCaul, of the University 
of Toronto, who also differ frx>m each other. 

These inscribed stones, according to the views of 
Mr. Clayton and his friends, were set up under the 
direction of the centurions, whose compames had been 
employed to execute certain portions of the great 
stone barrier. Mr. Coote adopts a startling theory, 
that they indicate the portions of land assigned to the 
military. Mr. Clayton, among other arguments, 



shows that much of the land which, mider Mr. Coote's 
opinion, had been assigned as frurms, is mere mdk ; 
and that, in fact, most of these inscriptions have been 
found in the great wall, where cultivation would have 
been impossible. Dr. McCaul has a different theocy; 
but it is remarkable that neariy all the eminent foreign 
antiouaries take Mr. Clayton's and Dr. Brace's notion, 
whicn certainly seems the most simple and, indeed, 
obvious and irresistible. 

An elaborate Paper by Mr. Thomas Hodgldn, gives 
by far the best account vet published of the great 
earthen wall called Pfahlgraben, thrown up by the 
Romans between the Danul^ and the Rhine, to separate 
the Roman provinces from the barbarians. So fiur as 
extent goes, our northern barriers are trifling to this 
ereat work, which extends over 300 miles. Mr. 
Hodgkin's essay should induce our archaeologists to 
study this great example of Roman skill in engineer- 
ing. He gives maps which would ensure them from 
losing their way. The engravings are good and 
numerous. 

The newly-discovered Roman sepulchral stone at 
Hexham is the subject of a Paper by Dr. Bruce. It 
is to the memory of Flavinus, a standard-bearer of the 
cavalry wing (o/o), called Petriana. The Ala 
Petriana^ Dr. Bruce and others consider to be so 
called from the station by the great wall west of 
Anibo^lannay or Birdoswald. This is disputed by 
Mr. R. Carr Ellison, who has a communication on the 
term Ala Petriana^ worth attention, but not convincing. 

The other papers in this very attractive publication 
are : — I. ** William Hutchinson, Merchant Adven- 
turer: His Life and Times," by James Clephan ; 
2. "Sergeant Hoskyns and the WaUas Epitaph," by 
the same ; 3. *' Saxon Names of Certain Roman 
Roads," by Ralph Carr Ellison; 4. "Discovery 
of Ancient Bronze Implements near Wallington,'' by 
Sir C. E. Trevelvan ; 3. " The Black Gate," by 
Robert James Johnson; 6. ** Place- Names," by 
J. V. Gregory. C.R.S. 

Gloucestershire Notes and Queries, Parts 13 and 14. 
(London : W. Kent & Ca 1882.) 8vo, pamphlet 
We are beginning to welcome this excellent local 
" Notes and Queries" with the same kind of feeling 
that alwa^ animates the book-lover when the postman 
brings him his week's Notes and Queries, We still 
object to the title, but for the matter, under the dis- 
crmiinating guidance of Mr. Blacker, we wish to speak 
in terms of great appreciation. It is a storehouse of 
knowledge upon Gloucestershire, which cannot find 
any medium of publication elsewhere, and therefore is 
of exceptional value to The Antiquary. The present 
parts appear to be particularly rich in Church and 
family history. We will offer a suggestion to Mr. 
Blacker — ^namely, to give us lists of field-names, curious 
place-names, river-names, hill-names and the like. 
These are absolutely without a chronicler at present, 
since the Dialect Society have said nay to thenu 



The Sextants Wheel and the Lady Fast. By theRev. 
W. H. Sewell. (Norfolk and Norwich Archaeo- 
logical Society.) 8vo, pamphlet. 

This paper explains the use of a very curious object 
found in Long Stratton Church, Norfolk, and of a 



si6 



JtE VIEWS. 



similar one in Yaxley Church, Suffolk. This object 
is called the " Sexton*s Wheel," and consists of a pair 
of wheels formed of sheet iron, made to revolve back- 
wards and forwards when held up or hunc^ by the 
handle, which keeps the two wheels together. Its 
origin and use Mr. Sewell has, we believe, the merit 
of nrst clearly establishing. It was for the purpose 
of ascertaining from whidi of the six days devoted to 
Lady Fasts a devotee should begin his fast, and this 
was done by the wheel being set in motion, and the 
intending observer of the fast catching hold of one of 
the pieces of string attached to a mark on the wheel 
answering to the difiierent da^ of the Lady Fast. 
Mr. Sewell has given us a cunous and learned Paper 
about an item of "popular religion" not before fully 
known. 



Aun^ifvyle Society Publications, July, 1881, to March, 
1882. (Edinburgh: 1881. Privately printed.) 
Eight parts. 8vo, pamphlet. 

In a handy form this Society has reprinted the 
following curious and acceptable contnbutions to 
antiquarian knowledge. "Flagellum Parliamen- 
tarium,'' sarcastic notes on members of the first 
Restoration Parliament, from a contemporary MS. 
" Hentzner's Journey into England, 1598," "A Gar- 
land of Old Historical Ballads, i6a<>-i752," ** Frag- 
ments of Ancient Poetry," Macpherson's first Ossianic 
Publications, and "The Romance of Octavian, 
Emperor of Rome, circa 1250." Here is material 
enough to gratify the tastes of our readers, and when 
we add that the reprints all seem to be very carefully 
edited, and paged separately as wdl as collectively, so 
as to meet tne wishes of aU, it becomes our pleasing 
duty to wish the Societv all prosperity with reference 
to the future bibliographical varieties that it promises 
us. We shall greet them with pleasure if they equal 
these we have before us. 



Byegmes relating to Wales and the Border Counties, 
July, 1881, to March, 1882. (Oswestry : Caxton 
Works.) Three Parts. 4to, pamphlet. 

We have already accorded our high appreciation of 
this medium for the waifs and strays of local history. 
The present parts equal, if they do not improve upon, 
their predecessors. One interestine feature, which is 
more fullvdeveIoped,is the reports of the local societies, 
such as the Caradoc Field Club, and the Powys Land 
Club. •* Old Welsh Almanacs" " Corporation^' notes, 
** Parish Registers," ** Ploughing Customs," are items 
which appear to us to deserve special mention. The 
index, though full, and of course very useful, might 
we think have been compiled by a more experienced 
hand. 



Prehistoric Devon : Address tit the Opening of the 
Seventieth Session of the Plymouth Institution, By 
R. N. Worth. 8vo. 

Mr. Worth goes over the whole ground of his sub- 
ject with a light but firm and comprehensive touch. 
Structural antiquities and customary lore are rightly 
brought into contact with eadi other in the elu^dii- 



tion of the subject in hand, and the researches of 
scientific inquirers into savage archaeology are also 
brought into requisition. The Address is a thought* 
ful and valuable addition to the study of which it 
treats, and members of the PlymouUi Institution 
would do well to take it in hand, and fill up its bold 
outlines with the necessary detailed eviaence t^it 
abounds in the county. 



Caer Pensauelcoit ; a Long»Lost Unromanized British 
Metropolis, By Thomas Kerslake. (London: 
Reeves & Turner. 1882.) 8vo. 
This is a curious controversial pamphlet on an impor- 
tant subject. We think Mr. Kerslake establishes his 
assertion that the Penselwood Pits are remains of 
ancient habitations ; but we hesitate to follow him into 
his creation of a pre-historic civilization, wherein the 
ancient Briton is represented as possessing a culture 
and polity on a scale of magnificence which yet 
wants a great deal of evidence to prove it. Still, 
there is fireshness about Mr. Kerslake's new con- 
tribution on Caer Pensauelcoit. 



fDeetinga of antiquarian 
Sodctica* 

METROPOLITAN. 

Society of Antiquaries.— March 9. — The Earl of 
Carnarvon, President, in the Chair. — Mr. A.W. Franks 
read a communication on two " finds,** or portions of 
" finds," made in Ireland, at Lusmagh and Dowris 
respectively. The Lusmagh'hoard lias only just been 
discovered in a box to which they were consigned, and 
consists of nine exquisitely delicate bronze implements, 
in excellent preservation, such as an anvil (an object 
never yet found in England), two bronze hammers, 
two gouges, two chisels, a ferrule, and a ''rubber." 
Mr. Franks conjectured that they may have belonged 
to a native goldsmith. The Dowris hoard was part of 
an enormous "find" — " at ledst a horse-load,** is the 
statement of the discoverers. Mr. Franks considered 
that it had all the characteristics of a true founder's 
hoard, probably at a late date in the Bronze period. 
It comprised palstaves, socket celts, gouges, a ham- 
mer, razors, knives, a dagger, leaf-shaped sword, 
spear-heads, a scabbard end, a ferrule, trumpets, 
tubes, crotals or oval bells of bronze, a *' chinstay** of 
a helmet, cooking vessels, rubbing-stones, and molten 
bronze. — Mr. £. Green exhibited a group portrait of 
the master and two wardens of the Company of Painter- 
Stainers in 1629. The picture itself was completed 
in the year 1631. The centre half-figure, or master, 
was Mr. C. Pargiter, while the two wardens were Mr. 
W. Peacocke and Mr. T. Babb. Mr. Green believed 
the picture to be byJansonvanKeulen(f!i/., Cologne), 
an artist who has been robbed of many pictures really 
his in this country by the desire to attribute them to 
Vandyck.— The Rev. R. S. Baker exhibited a large 
collection of "finds*' from Northants— British, Roman, 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



«i7 



and Saxon— from Crmnslej, Irchester, Twywell, and 
Islip. 

Ilardi t6i — ^Tbe Earl of Carnarvon, President, in 
tlie Ouur. — ^Tlie Chevalier de Reichel exhibited a 
portkn of the Hassehnan collection of illuminated 
initial letters, whidi had been cut out of MSS. and 
books — a baifaaioos proceeding, now, we tmst, no 
longer in TQgne ; also a Book of Hours, by Kerver 
(date drta 1505), and a service book of Compline. — 
Mr. J. Evans exhibited a gold ring found in Sussex, 
and baarine the following inscription in relief (St. 

ifohn xviiL o) : " Ci eigo me quentis cinite eos baute 
sky* The last word Mr. Evans considered to be 
prc^ablj intended for the "abire" of the Vulgate. 
Was the inscription selected as a charm ? — Mr. D. G. 
C. Elwes exhibited a small oval bronze seal of the 
Ibaxteenth oentnrj, foond near St. John's Church, 
Bedford. It bene the Apms Dei, with the usual in- 
scription. — Mr. G. L. Gower exhibited an urn and a 
small armiUa, with exouisitely delicate patina, found 
at Godstone, Surrey. — Mr. J. D. Leader communicated 
an accoant of a careful restoration now being carried 
on in the Shrewsbory Chapel in St. Peter's Church, 
Sheffield, on the tomb of George Talbot, fourth Earl 
of Shrewsbury. — ^Mr. R. S. Ferguson exhibited four 
cops or dialices from the north of England. — Mr. J. 
Parker communicated an account of the Hospital of 
St. John the Baptist, at Chippii^ Wycombe, together 
with illustrations of the existing Norman remains. 
These remains are threatened with destruction. 

March 22. — Mr. A. W. Franks, V.-P., in the Chair. 
— ^Mr. C R. B. King presented two lithographs from 
drawings made by hiifi of the crypt of the ancient 
Priwy Church of St. John at ClerkenwelL — Mr. R. 
P. Greg communicated a Paper '*On the Origin 
and Meaning of the Fylfot or Suastika,'* with the 
object of showing that it was a religious symbol 
among the earlier Aryan races, and was intended 
by them in the first instance to represent, in a 
cmcifornit an ideograph or symbol suggested by the 
forked li^tning, ana well ^own b^r our letter Z, 
two of vnikh crossing one another in the middle 
admiiablj represent^ tne ordinary device known by 
the names of the gammadion^ croix-pattic^ fylfot, and 



BritiBh Archceological Association. — >farch 
15. — l€r. T. Morgan in the Chair. — Mr. L. Brock 
described