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THE 



ANTIQUARY: 



A MAGAZINE DEVOTED TO THE STUDY 
OF THE PAST 



Instructed by the Antiquary times, 
He must, he is, he cannot but be wise. 

Troilus and Cressida, Act ii., sc. 3. 



>0O- 



VOL. XV. 

JANUARY JUNE. 



London : ELLIOT STOCK, 62, Paternoster Row. 
New York ; DAVID G. FRANCIS, 1 7, Astor Place. 

1887. 



THE GETTY CENTER 
LIBRARY 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGB 

Pirford Church 7 

Bisley Church Bell Turret - 8 

Grave Board, Woking * 9 

Otford Castle - j- 

Bridge over the Darent ... - 18 

Chastleton House - - 42, 43 

Fencing 56, 57, 58, 59 

Coronation of Henry IV. 73 

Birthplace of Sir I. Newton - - - 105, 106 

Residence of the Cromwells, America 141 

Oliver Cromwell of Kentucky 142 

Baddesley-Clinton Hall - - 190 

Neolithic Implements- 234, 235, 236, 237 

Harvington Hall - 259, 260 



SOME TRACES OF PAGANISM IN GAELIC WORDS. 






The Antiquary. 



JANUARY, 1887. 




^ome Ctaces of Paganism in 
Gaelic Boms. 

N the fascinating record of geology 
there is nothing more wonderful 
than the rise and the fall of cer- 
tain well-defined groups of animals. 
They appear suddenly on the arena of life ; 
they struggle on through three or four of the 
earth's great eras ; and then they pass out of 
sight into the vast abyss whence they came. 
As it is with the succession of life on the 
globe, so it is with languages. They have 
their day and use, and, when these are ended, 
they pass away, and give place to others. The 
history of language is the history of tribes 
and races, with their activities, their civiliza- 
tions, and religions. With the fall of the one 
there follows the fall of the other. The 
language of a weak and perishing people, 
unless it has a permanency given to it in a 
written form, is doomed to extinction. Its 
life and individuality will be lost, and if any 
trace of it remains it can only be in some 
fossilized shape. Like the Trilobite, or the 
Palseotherium, we can only know it by the 
rude and imperfect impression it has left on 
its surrounding medium. 

This, to a very large extent, seems to have 
been the case with regard to the language 
spoken by our pagan forefathers. If it was a 
branch of the Celtic, as it appears to have 
been, it passed away with the extinction of 
the civilization and worship which gave it 
being. Druidism, long-established and power- 
ful, made, no doubt, a resolute stand against 
Christianity and the new humanizing influ- 
ences ; but, like the paganism of ancient 
Rome, it was, in the end, defeated. With its 
defeat,' its peculiar life and modes of thought 
vol. xv. 



and speech died out, and a new civilization 
and a new language took the place of the 
old. 

But complete as the victory of Christianity 
was, the primitive Scottish religion did not 
submit without leaving some indications of 
its power. Even as the icebergs which once 
floated over our land did not finally dis- 
appear until they had imprinted traces of 
their presence on the contour of hills, and 
scratched into the hard rock the lines of their 
direction, so the old faith of our neolithic 
ancestors did not pass away without leaving 
marks of its existence and vitality. Though 
its influence as a system was dead, it still 
continued, by means of language, to per- 
petuate some of its ideas and beliefs. The 
Christian missionaries, finding it imprudent, 
or perhaps impossible, to break altogether 
with the current pagan vocabulary, were in- 
duced to adopt certain parts of it. As many 
of the original heathen words as were thus 
retained, to give expression to Christian ideas, 
are the fossils of Druidism the representa- 
tions and markings which it has impressed on 
the thought and language of the Celt. 

Take some of the ordinary words still used 
in the Highlands of Scotland, and we can see 
to what an extent this is true. 

One of the most impressive Gaelic words 
for heaven is Flaitheanas : the island of the 
heroes. This name, and the idea it repre- 
sents, are clearly pagan in their origin. In 
the Druidic system the state of bliss was 
pictured as a beautiful island of eternal spring 
and immortal youth, where the sun never 
went down, and " the rude winds walked not 
on the mountains," where the air was per- 
fumed with sweetest odours and filled with 
loveliest music, where there were fruits and 
flowers and all which could make one happy 
and peaceful. It was situated far away, in a 
calm upper sphere, undisturbed by the cares 
and strifes of this lower world ; and into it 
none were allowed to enter but the good and 
the brave. This was the Flaitheanas of Celtic 
mythology ; and it is to this day the favourite 
Gaelic name for heaven. 

The early Scottish missionaries were not, 
however, so fortunate when they adopted the 
pagan word, then in use, for the other place. 
If our present Northern divines were asked 
to give a definition of hell, they would, I 

B 



SOME TRACES OF PAGANISM IN GAELIC WORDS. 



suppose, almost to a man, describe it as a 
place of fire and brimstone, where the tor- 
ment never ceases, and the fire is never 
quenched ; and yet, all the while, the word 
they use to designate it means the very 
reverse. Ifrinn the only Gaelic word for 
hell signifies the isle of the cold land. The 
Celts, living in the inhospitable climate of the 
North, would naturally think of the abode of 
misery as a region of eternal frosts and snows ; 
whereas nearness to the sun, the bright sym- 
bol of their divinity, constituted with them 
the essence of true bliss. There is surely 
something of the irony of fate in the fact that 
perhaps the strongest supporters of a gehenna 
of everlasting fire which now anywhere exist, 
have got no word in their vocabulary to 
express it but ifrinn, or the gehenna of ever- 
lasting cold. 

An ancient writer informs us that it was 
one of the doctrines of the Druids that the 
world should be renovated at successive 
periods by fire and water. This belief is 
traceable in two Gaelic words which are used 
every day by people who have not the re- 
motest conception as to their original refer- 
ence. When a Celt wishes to declare in an 
emphatic way that there is no possibility of a 
certain event happening in the ordinary course 
of nature, he says it will not happen till the 
brath, or the dilinn /.<?., till the. conflagration, 
or the deluge. It is permissible to speak 
of the earth as destined to pass through a 
baptism of fire, but the idea of a flood to 
cleanse it is one which holds no place in the 
Christian's thought ; and, when we find it in 
his language, we are forced to regard it as the 
relic of an old-world tenet, which, though it 
may present a picture to the imagination, 
does not influence the head or the heart. 

Another word of this kind is clachan, or 
the stones. Primarily this was the designation 
for Druidical places of worship, which were 
composed of large circles of stones raised on 
end. Now it is applied to denote a church, 
or a hamlet in which there is a church : 
the Gaelic phrase, " Are you going to or from 
the stones ?" being still used instead of 
"Are you going to or from church?" It 
would seem as if the founders of Christianity 
in Scotland did not, or could not, discard the 
sacred places then in existence, and that they 
were compelled, for the purpose of extending 



their conquests, to build their churches in the 
very centre of them, or in their near neigh- 
bourhood. Thus, occupying the sites of the 
ancient shrines, the Christian places of wor- 
ship came to be called by the name originally 
applied to the pagan centres. It may be, too, 
that our own word church is derived in- 
directly from the same source. The Romans 
called a stone circle circus, pronounced kirkus 
(akin to the Greek kuklos ; old form, kel-kel, 
or kir-kir) ; and this is much likelier to be the 
parent of kirk and church, than the Greek 
kuriake or kuriakon, the Lord's house, which 
is usually credited with that honour. 

Druidh, the Gaelic form of Druid, is used 
in the Gaelic Bible as the translation for 
Magi, or the wise men. It is also used to 
translate the phrase " Who hath bewitched 
you ?" (Co a chuir druidheachd oirbh ? which is 
literally, " Who hath put Druidism on you ?") 
Gal. iii. i. 

The Gaelic word for sacrifice, lobair, 
(from lob, a raw cake, and thoir, to give), has 
an evident reference to the offering of cake 
which occupied such an important part in 
Celtic mythology. 

Eiric, a ransom, belongs to the same 
class as hbairt. It originally meant repara- 
tion made by the payment of a number of 
cattle. This was the ordinary punishment 
.which was enforced when one killed his 
neighbour. The extreme penalty of death 
was almost entirely reserved for those who 
so outraged the laws of hospitality as to take 
the life of a stranger. 

One of the most characteristic elements of 
modern Highland Christianity is the tendency 
to fatalism. That bias has manifestly come 
to them from pre-Christian times. A very 
common expression in the mouths of those 
in difficulty or distress is " Bha sud an 
dan dhomh," i.e., that was my fate. Our 
Scottish Highlanders did not need a false 
theology to teach them a rigid predestina- 
tion or fatalism ; they inherited the doctrine 
from the priests and prophets of Druidism. 

More poetical, because appealing more to 
the imagination, are dealan and dreug. The 
first signifies the lightning, and is taken 
from Be lann, the spear of God. The 
other is the word for a shooting-star, and is 
derived from Druidhe eug, the death of a 
Druid. Even at the present day meteors 



SOME TRACES OF PAGANISM IN GAELIC WORDS. 



are regarded by the common people as 
heralding the death of some distinguished 
person. 

As might be expected, there are several 
derivations from Bel, the sun-god, worshipped 
by the Celts. There is miorbhuil, the Gaelic 
word for a miracle, and from which the 
English mai~vel is perhaps derived. This 
striking compound literally means the finger 
of Bel. 

But perhaps the most interesting word in 
this connection is Belteine, or the fire of Bel 
a name still used for Whitsunday, both in 
the Highlands and Lowlands. In early 
times this marked one of the most important 
festivals in British paganism. It was ob- 
served in Scotland on the ist of May (O.S.), 
and on Hallowe'en (the 31st October), when 
fires were lighted on sacred hills, sacrifices 
offered, and superstitious ceremonies per- 
formed at the holy wells. Before the 
Belteine fires were kindled, it was com- 
pulsory that every fire in the country should 
be extinguished on the preceding night, that 
they might be relighted at the sacred fire 
consecrated in honour of the solar deity. 
All, however, who had done wrong, or had 
failed to pay the Druid's dues, were debarred 
from this privilege until they had made 
reparation, and scored off old accounts. If 
the offenders obstinately refused to do this 
they were excommunicated, and no one was 
permitted to supply them with fire, or food, 
or to show them any kindness. 

We might go on, in this way, singling out 
many words, sacred and secular, which have 
a distinctly pagan origin ; but possibly we 
have specified quite enough to satisfy the 
most incredulous. 

We cannot, however, leave our subject 
without referring to two things. 

The men with whom the early promoters 
of Christianity had to do were not, whatever 
else|they might be, destitute of thought or 
imagination. Their influence is felt to the 
present time among the Celts the most 
imaginative of all the races of the earth. 

The other remark which I would make is, 
that the first Scottish missionaries must have 
been men of broad charity and common- 
sense. They were not afraid of heathen 
ideas and customs. They were not narrow 
and bigoted and selfish. They did not seek 




to denationalize the people whom they 
sought to win to a higher manhood and a 
nobler hope. They did not quarrel about 
non-essentials. They adopted, where that 
was practicable, the current language, and 
they sought to give the prevailing thoughts 
and customs a Christian tendency and signi- 
ficance. It was thus by being inspired by a 
wide, human, Christian charity, rather than 
by being hampered by a narrow, unbending, 
lifeless creed, that they were enabled trium- 
phantly to place the banner of the cross in 
the very citadel of heathendom, and to bring 
the light of life and immortality into the 
regions of darkness and despair. 

Robert Munroe, B.D., F.S.A., Scot. 



iRemains of ID anokmrj. 

By A. C. Bickley. 



AM sorry to have to confess that, 
so far as buildings go, the parish 
of Woking is not happy. Of the 
four ancient churches within its 
old limits, three are decidedly below the 
average even for Surrey a county, perhaps, 
which contains more uninteresting churches 
than any other in England. Yet, poor as 
they are, each deserves a few words of 
description. 

Woking Church is situate in a little lane 
which leads; from the winding street to the 
river-side. It consists of a nave, south aisle, 
and chancel,* with a plain stone-built tower, 
about 63 feet high, at the west end. The 
church is built of flints, intermixed with 
rubble, and cornered with faced stones. 
The columns which divide the nave from 
the aisle are Norman, but the arches they 
support are Early English. The chancel, 
which also dates from the twelfth century, is 
fairly regular. On both sides are two narrow 
lancet windows, deeply splayed. There is 
also a so-called lazaretto, and the remains of 
a priest's door of the poorest workmanship 
I have ever seen. The east window is 
decorated ; but during the many patchings- 

* The nave is fifty-two feet long, and with south 
aisle about thirty feet wide. The chancel is about 
thirty feet by twenty feet. 

B 2 



REMAINS OF OLD WOKING. 



up the church has undergone, the stone- 
work has been scraped, and in parts renewed, 
until it is now as poor a thing as can well be, 
although in its best days it was never a good 
specimen oF the style. The chancel also 
contains a piscina, and once possessed a 
handsome rood-screen, the lower part of 
which is still visible within some pews, and 
another portion, elaborately carved, runs 
above the altar. At the west end there is an 
oak-panelled gallery, which was erected in 1622 
by Sir Edward Zouch, lord of the manor, 
who was buried in the church by night in 
1634. The church-door has some fairly 
good iron-work ; but perhaps the most in- 
teresting feature is an excrescence, half- 
porch, half-vestry, built in the time of Queen 
Anne, in a marvellous imitation of Gothic. 
Still, its bricks, their red subdued by lichen, 
contrast well with the rubble and stone, 
and make the only picturesque feature in 
the church. The building is just now under- 
going restoration, and it is consolatory to 
think that the most ardent " restorer " might 
be ungrudgingly allowed to have his will 
here ; for if he does not mend, he will find 
it hard to mar. 

The bells were recast in 1685, and the 
bell-founder's receipt runs as follows : 

"The 5 and 20th day of March, 1685. 
Received then of Richard Bird and John 
Freeland churchwardens of Woking in the 
county of Surrey, the sum of twenty and 
five pounds and eleven shillings in full satis- 
faction and payment for casting of the five 
old bells of the parish steeple of Woking 
aforesaid, into six new bells, and of and for 
all other reckoning and accounts, debts, 
deeds and demands whatsoever from the 
said Richard Bird and J. Freeland church- 
wardens aforesaid, from the beginning of the 
world to the day of the date hereof. In 
witness thereto I have hereunto set my hand 
and seal the day of year above-written. 

" Will Eldrige. 
" Wittness, Robert Westbrook, Thomas 
Bradford, Wm. Triggs." 

The third bell, which bears the inscription, 
"In multis annis resonet campana Johannis," 
is believed to have been brought from 
Newark Priory at the time of the dissolution 
of the monasteries. 



The inventory of goods in the Church of 
St. Peter, Woking, taken in the sixth year of 
Edward VI., is as follows : 

Imprimis. A pix of silver, viii oz. 
Item, four chalices, parcell gilte, thirti ounces, 
iii corporax clothes and their cases, 
iii alter clothes of velet and silke. 
iii aulter clothes of lynnen. 
ix vestimentes. 
ii coopes of velatt. 
a surplice and four rochettes. 
a desk cloth, 
ii canype clothes, ii crosse clothes,, a cross 

staffe. 
v towells, a red silk cloth quilted. 
a canype of silk, 
iiii tunacles and iiii albes, a crose of copper, a 

senser. 
ii waterpooles. 
v candel styckes. 

a latten bason and an ewere. A crosse cloth, 
viii stremars and banners. A font cloth, 
ii braunches of yron for tapers. 
v grete bells in the stepule, iiii littell small 

bells. 
,, a saunce bell. A paire of orgaynes. 

Aubrey relates, being told by the sexton, 
that the churchyard produced a weed which 
grew to within about an inch of the ground 
over the place where a body had been in- 
terred ; but which, when the body was con- 
sumed, wasted away, and adds that the 
sexton affirmed the same plant to grow in 
Send Churchyard. This flower of fancy has 
unfortunately ceased to flourish in this 
prosaic age. 

The advowson of Woking, according to 
the MS. Conway papers, was once held by 
the Abbey of Waverley ; and upon its being 
dissolved, Henry VIII. granted it {Pat. 
28 Henry VIII., p. 2) to Sir William Fitz- 
Williams, at that time Treasurer to the 
King's Household, and soon afterwards 
made Earl of Southampton and Lord Privy 
Seal. 

Manning states that in 1291 the vicarage 
came into possession of the Priory of 
Newark, which is situate in the adjoining 
parish of Send, with which it continued till 
the dissolution. After being in the hands 
of the Crown, it was given to the Zouch 
family, with whom it continued from 1637 
till 1727. It was rated in the valor of 
20 Edward I. at 12 marks, and in the King's 
books at \x and 5d. There are no monu- 
ments of interest, except one to Edward 
Emily, M.A., Prebend of Salisbury, and 



REMAINS OF OLD WOKING. 



Vicar of Gillingham, which was erected by 
Shute Barrington, Bishop of Durham, to 
whom the deceased had left a considerable 
fortune, solely from admiration of his 
character. He died in 1792. 

The register dates from 1538, but the 
earliest existing entry was made in 1653. 
Woking seems to have been particularly 
favoured by briefs, though the poor success 
they had did not give much encouragement. 
The most curious entry is one relating that 
in 1678 a female was buried in a linen 
shroud, and disinterred after seven days, in 
order that a woollen one might be sub- 
stituted, the latter material having been 
directed by law, so that the woollen trade 
might be encouraged. This substitution 
cost 7 s. 

The village of Woking is certainly not a pre- 
possessing one, being perfectly flat, and lying 
by the side of a sluggish stream, which has a 
weakness for overflowing its banks whenever 
an opportunity offers. The houses are old, 
and some few picturesque ; but scarcely one 
dates back to the Tudor period. One house 
is pointed out by the inhabitants as having 
sheltered Elizabeth ; but, unhappily for the 
tradition, it was most certainly not built till a 
century later. Of the royal palace only one 
fragment, supposed to be a guard-room, re- 
mains, although the site of the moat is 
clearly traceable. It stood by the side of 
the river, and what with it and the moat was 
clearly isolated. From the MS. accounts of 
the Clerk of Works to Henry VIII., it must 
have been a building of great size, containing 
a large number of rooms disposed round 
courts. The house was pulled down by Sir 
Edward Zouch, who used the materials to 
build himself a mansion on more elevated 
ground. This has likewise disappeared, its 
materials in their turn being used to build 
close by a mansion, called Hoe or more 
correctly Hough Bridge Place, for James 
Zouch in 1708, which still exists. The stair- 
case and one chamber are very finely 
painted; and, from similarity of style, the 
paintings are attributed to Verrio, an artist 
who was employed at Hampton Court. The 
paintings, which are in panelling, are of 
subjects principally taken from Greek mytho- 
logy. Until some thirty years ago there 
existed near here an old tower, very similar 



to an Irish round tower, which was believed 
to have been erected as a beacon to guide 
those who had business at Woking Palace 
across the heath on which it stood, and to 
have had a fire kept up on the top during 
night-time. 

Horsell was but a short time ago a pretty 
old-fashioned Surrey village ; but its proximity 
to Woking Junction is rapidly robbing it of 
its charm, which, nevertheless, is not quite 
gone. Salmon remarks that " Horshill has 
no place in Domesdei to ascertain its being;" 
and, as a matter of fact, it was a member of 
the manor of Pirford. In the reign of 
Edward I., "it had no parish church but a 
chapel under Woking, at which the in- 
habitants of Purford also attended." As 
Pirford is several miles from Horsell, and 
has a twelfth-century church of its own, the 
last statement seems unlikely. The present 
church, which dates from early in the four- 
teenth century, consists of a west tower, a 
nave, and a chancel. During the Perpen- 
dicular, a south aisle of considerable width 
was added. The most curious feature in the 
church is that the tower does not open into 
the church by the customary wide arch, but 
merely by a somewhat narrow doorway. This 
tower, which is of fair height, has two-light 
decorated windows at the belfry stage, and 
similar windows on the south and north sides 
at the entrance level. The nave is divided 
from the aisle by an arcade, resting on plain 
octagonal pillars, the faces of which are 
slightly hollowed. The nave and chancel 
are, to use the phrase of which Bridges was 
so fond, "of one pace," and there is no 
chancel arch ; but this was possibly destroyed 
when the chancel was rebuilt (of brick) early 
in the present century. The roof is curious 
from the extreme size and roughness of the 
tie-beams, and the fact that there are no king 
or queen posts. At one time the church con- 
tained a handsome rood-screen ; but this was 
removed in 1840 when the church was 
repaired, the best of it being used in making 
a reading-desk. The old entrance to the 
rood-loft has recently been discovered, and 
turned into a window ; but the steps which 
led to it are still traceable in the wall out- 
side. There are two windows containing 
tracery, both being two-light decorated, of a 
common type. The pulpit, which is a 



REMAINS OF OLD WOKING. 



creditable piece of Elizabethan workmanship, 
was made in 1602. In the churchwardens' 
accounts it is recorded that there was paid : 

Itm to Ilarryson the joyner for mending the Pewes 
in the churche chauncell for his Puylpytt xxiiijs viijd. 

Itm from Puylpytt post xijd. 

Itm for fetching the Post, the Puylpytt, makinge 
cleane the churche xijd. 

There are a number of brasses and mural 
monuments in the church, some of consider- 
able size; and one so large that it necessitated 
a gable roof being placed over the east end 
of the aisle, an eyesore within, but decidedly 
picturesque without. The earliest brass 
dates from the fifteenth century. The in- 
scription is : 

Hie jacet tumulatus Joh'n's Aleyn Capellan', anime 
cujus p'piciet' Deus. Amen. 

The most curious represents a lady, her 
husband, and an extensive family, and is to 
the memory of Thomas Edmonds, Citizen, 
and Mr. (sic) Carpenter to the Chamber, 
and Anne, his wife. He died in 1619. She, 
the plate goes on to tell, " surviving 

vntil " but here the inscription breaks off 

abruptly, as the artist had so completely 
filled up his space as to have no room to say 
when she died. 

On one page of the church register is, 
" Mr. Ayling was killed March ye 25th. And 
buried ye 28th day, 1735." On the back of 
this folio is written, " Richard Hone, his 
Righting. And hee it is that gave the fatall 
blow." There is a hint of tragedy here. All 
we know is that Ayling was the minister, and 
Hone the clerk. Whether the blow was 
struck in hot blood or by accident, whether 
Mr. Ayling was the person who received the 
fatal blow or was killed otherwise, we can 
never know ; yet the entries coming so near 
together looks suspicious. 

The inventory of 6 Edward VI. shows 
Horsell to have been rich in church furniture. 
The list is too long to give in full, but among 
the items are : 

_ j challice of sellver parcell guilt waing bie extyma- 
cion vi ounces. 

ij coopes, j of vellatt, another of sattyn of Bridges. 

j cloth to hang before the aullter paynted yellow and 
redd. 

j lent clothe, j caudron, ij iron brochis, iij belles in 
the steple the best by extymacion xiiij c , the second 
xij c , the third x c . 

A previous inventorie had been taken, and it is 
mentioned that a "challice waing v ownces " had 



been sold, " which money is bestowed uppon harneis 
and other weapons, and xviij lb of waxxe sold for the 
paynting of the churche." 

The tithes of Horsell made a part of the 
Rectory of Woking, and were with them ap- 
propriated to the Priory of Newark in 1262 
by the name of the chapelry of Horushull, 
and, together with those of Pirford, were 
valued at 15 marcs. Previous to this date, 
the Rector of Woking had appointed his 
curate here, as at Pirford and Pirbright ; but 
from now to the dissolution of the monastery, 
the priory provided from time to time a 
member of its own body to perform service. 
In 1457, Roger Haylle, a regular Canon of 
Newark, in consideration of the smallness of 
the fruits and profits of this chapelry, and 
the ruinous condition of the chapel, was 
licensed " to administer the sacraments of 
penance and the Eucharist at all canonical 
times to the parishions of the said chapel, for 
one year, more or less, according to the 
pleasure of the ordinary." After the dis- 
solution, the appointment of a curate was 
vested in the lay impropriators. Although 
the benefice was a curacy in 1679, Thomas 
Quincy, M.A., was instituted Vicar by Bishop 
Morley, and the said Bishop in his will left a 
sum for augmenting what he terms the 
Vicarage. 

Pirbright is in some respects a model of a 
Surrey village. The houses, more or less 
sheltered by trees, stand round an ample 
green, and little offshoots of the hamlet 
wander into adjoining lanes. Many of the 
houses are old enough to be picturesque; 
none, unfortunately, are sufficiently antiquated 
to have much interest. The church, which 
is dedicated to St. Michael, was rebuilt in 
1785 in the chapel style, then so much ap- 
proved, the older one having been burnt 
down. The body is of brick, but the tower 
is of hewn stones, all small and carefully 
squared.* From what can be learned of the 
old church, it was a small, aisleless building, 
low and poor, built of hewn stones probably 
obtained from quarries on the common but 
much patched with brick- work. 

This living was, like Horsell, anciently a 
chapelry of Woking, the rector supplying a 

* What the church is like may be imagined from 
the fact that, even in those days of cheap materials 
and labour, the whole cost to the parish was ,100, 
besides what was collected by a brief. 



REMAINS OF OLD WOKING. 



curate ; and was mentioned in the grant of 
the advowson to the Priory of Newark as the 
chapelry of Perifrith. Its value was 8 marcs, 
and it was charged with the payment of 
i os. 8d. for tenths. After it came into pos- 
session of the priory, an officiating minister 
was provided by it. 



Pirbright has for many years enjoyed a 
local reputation somewhat similar to Gotham 
and Folkestone. Mr. Spurgeon in one of his 
books remarks that one need not go to 
Pirbright to find a fool ; but as a matter of 
fact the people, in business matters at least, 
do not show much more folly than their 







In 1378, the Bishop of Winchester issued 
a mandate to the sequestrator of the Arch- 
deaconry of Surrey to levy certain moneys 
due to him for the purgation of this chapel, 
which had been defiled by blood. See Reg. 
Wickham, iiyj 12^. After the dissolution of 
the Priory of Newark, the living seems to 
have come into the hands of the lay impro- 
priators. 

The old court-house still exists, but has 
been so terribly modernized as to have lost 
both appearance and the interest of antiquity. 



neighbours. Most of the stories are almost 
identical with those told of a number of other 
places ; perhaps the most original is that the 
villagers were at one time much distressed 
that their church should be a building so low 
and mean. They held a meeting at which 
various ideas on the best method of raising it 
were promulgated ; and at length one bright 
spirit suggesting that manure was a grand 
thing for promoting growth, they collected 
all the dung in the village and dumped the 
correct word in the district it against the 



s 



REMAINS OF OLD WOKING. 



walls of the church. On the night after the 
operation there came a violent storm of rain, 
and the manure naturally sank, leaving traces 
upon the walls. So, early in the morning a 
villager passing observed this, and hastily 
summoned the village conclave to announce 
the fact: whereupon it was unanimously agreed 
that there was no fertilizer equal to dung, as 
it had made the church grow four inches in 
one night. Be this as it may, Pirbright is the 



church is all even a landscape-painter could 
desire, and the building itself only adds to 
the picturesqueness of the scene. It is a very 
small building, seating perhaps a hundred 
persons, consisting of a nave and chancel with 
a wooden turret at the west end. The church 
dates from very early in the 12th century, as 
is shown by the two tiny deeply-splayed 
windows at the west end, the side windows of 
the chancel, and the chancel-arch ; the last, 




only church of which I am aware where the 
mortar is for security well nailed into the 
walls. 

I have left the most charming and distinc- 
tive of the churches in the ancient parish till 
the last, for much the same reason as a boy 
eats all the inferior grapes of a bunch first. 
An eminent architect has pronounced St. 
Nicholas, Pirford, to be the very model of a 
small English village church. Placed on the 
apex of a hill which if not high is steep, and 
surrounded by beautiful trees, the site of the 



by the way, is only about six feet across. The 
north and south doors of the nave date from 
the same period, the former being ornamented 
with zigzag moulding round the arch; and it 
has had detached shafts, in the jambs of which 
one remains. In the fifteenth century the 
church was restored, two light traceried 
windows being inserted in the nave walls, 
and a massive roof constructed. About three 
feet of the east end of the nave roof is so 
arranged as to have formed a kind of canopy 
over the rood-screen which has disappeared. 



REMAINS OF OLD WOKING. 



At the north-east of the nave is the remains 
of a hagioscope. The pulpit, which is formed 
of deal panelling, is inlaid with other woods, 
and, framed with oak styles and rails, forms a 
very charming object, and has a sounding- 
board well moulded and cut. Its date is 
1628. There is also a good wooden porch 
of about the same age. 

There are on the nave walls some remains 
of mural painting, but so decayed and injured 
that the subjects are indecipherable ; all that 
can be accurately said is that they were figure- 
paintings. In the chancel are two small 
incised stone stabs, one on each side, repre- 
senting a shockingly badly drawn quartrefoil 



ground. This is the case at Bisley 
Church an adjoining parish. Another 
example may be found at Tatsfield. Probably 
none of them date back beyond the end of 
the sixteenth century, although, judging from 
the roof and the arrangement of the beams, 
it is possible that Pirford may even be as old 
as 1470. 

The same want of stone will account for 
the paucity of tombstones in this part 
of Surrey, no less from a picturesque 
point of view certainly, but a serious 
deprivation to the genealogist. The local 
substitute, a board between two posts, is, 
however much care may be taken of it, a far 




within acircle. There is a small piece of almost 
colourless glass in the east window, the 
remains of a figure of Christ in a pink robe. 

The turret at the west end is, as I have 
said before, of wood, supported on strong 
beams resting on the nave walls, and sur- 
mounted by a short spire. These wooden 
towers were common in Surrey, particularly 
in the district of which I am writing, and are 
charming because they are so distinctive. 
They were built for the same reason as the 
round towers of Norfolk and Suffolk that is, 
because of the paucity of stone, which would 
do for corners. In most cases the turret, not 
being the width of the church, is supported 
partly on the west wall of the nave, and in 
the other sides by strong posts running from 
roof to floor of the church, and buried in the 



from permanent memorial, and the instances 
in which any care at all has been taken are 
deplorably rare. These mementoes are usually 
of oak ; the board, which extends the length 
of the grave, is commonly surmounted by a 
deep moulding which to some extent protects 
the inscription from the weather ; the posts 
at either end are higher than the board, and 
frequently elaborately moulded. As the 
inscriptions are almost invariably merely 
painted on, all particulars of the dead are 
speedily lost, as are also the epitaphs, which, 
judging from those which are to be found on 
the few tombstones in the district, is an 
unmitigated misfortune. After a very few 
years' exposure these wooden memorials 
became most pleasing in form and colour, 
and it is much to be regretted that the local 



10 



REMAINS OF OLD WOKING. 



taste has lately been in favour of slips of 
stone, or even worse, of cast-iron monstrosities. 
If only a brass plate with incised lettering 
were substituted for the painted inscription, 
and reasonable care taken in securing 
seasoned wood, it would seem difficult to find 
a more pleasing form of grave memorial. 

The inventory of church goods shows that 
Pirford possessed : 
Imprimis j challice of tynn. 
Item j pyx of lattyn. 

,, ij corporis with ij cases of silke. 

,, ij krwittes of tyn. 

,, ij candellstickes of brasse. 

iij aullter clothes of lockeram. 

,, iij towelles of lockeram. 

,, j surplus, ij sackring belles. 

ij belles in the steple of jc di. 

j vestement. 

,, ij crossis of brasse with one banner clothe. 

,, ij cloothes to kover the font. 

,, j coope of silke. 
Pirford House was erected by Sir John 
Wolley, and his initials are on the arched 
gateway. It originally had a park attached 
to it, and a decoy-pool. There also remains 
a square structure, the upper part of which is, 
or was till very recently, a hayloft, the lower 
a stable which is currently called Queen 
Elizabeth's summer-house ; but, judging from 
appearances, it certainly only dates from the 
reign of good Queen Anne. 

In Pirford House Dr. John Donne, poet, 
and Dean of St. Paul's in 162 1, spent a 
considerable part of his time, during the 
short life of Sir Francis Wolley. According to 
Le Neve, after his return from the expedition 
to Cadiz, in which he had accompanied the 
Earl of Essex, Donne was secretary to Sir 
Thomas Egerton, then keeper of the Great 
Seal, and while there became enamoured 
with a niece of Lady Egerton's, whom he 
secretly married in 1602. His bride's father, 
Sir George More of Loseley, was furious 
when he discovered it, and persuaded 
Egerton to dismiss Donne, and then perse- 
cuted him till he managed to get both the 
bridegroom and the clergy who had 
married him thrown into prison. Donne soon 
obtained his liberty, but it was not so easy a 
matter to recover his wife, who had been 
taken home by her father. He, however, 
commenced a lawsuit, which, after many 
delays, and such considerable expenses as to 
, leave him very badly off, effected his purpose. 



Sir Francis Cobley, who was a distant relation, 
opened his house to him, and here, till this 
squire's decease, the young couple resided. 
Sir Francis did not stop short either at 
hospitality ; he left no stone unturned till he 
had reconciled the offended father to the 
match, and procured for the girl a portion of 

; 8o - 

Aubrey in the Antiquities of Surrey (vol. hi., 

p. 97) gives a pleasant account of the beauties 

of Pirford Park; and Evelyn in his diary 

thus records a visit to the mansion, long 

since pulled down, after it had become the 

property of the Onslows : 

" 23 Aug., 1681. I went to Wotton, and 
on the following day was invited to Mr. 
Denzil Onslow's at his seate at Purford, 
where was much company and such an 
extraordinary feast as I had hardly seene at 
any gentleman's table. What made it more 
remarkable was that there was not any thing 
save what his estate about it did afford, as 
venison, rabbits, hares, pheasants, partridges, 
pigeons, quails, poultrie, all sortes of fowle in 
season from owne decoy neare his house, and 
all sorts of fresh fish. After dinner we went 
to see sport at the decoy, where I never saw 
so many herons. The seate stands on a flat, 
the ground pasture, rarely water'd, and 
exceedingly improv'd since Mr. Onslow 
bought it of Sir Robert Parkhurst, who spent 
a faire estate. The house is timber but 
commodious, and with one ample dining- 
roome; the hall adorn'd with paintings of 
fowle and huntings, etc., the work of Mr. 
Barlow, who is excellent in this kind from 
the life." 

When I said that Woking had few buildings 
of interest, I only meant in a purely anti- 
quarian sense. The district abounds in farm- 
houses not sufficiently old to be historic, yet 
quite old enough to be charmingly picturesque. 
Deep uneven roofs of red tiles green from 
age or yellow with lichen ; huge stacks of 
quaintly shapen chimneys, outlines full of 
light and shade, are to be met with here and 
there, now standing bare against the sky in 
the open common, now half hidden among 
orchards, or in thick groves. Some are 
solidly built of dim red brick, more are half 
timbered. Here too are huge barns, boarded 
at the sides, thatched at the top, and almost cut 
in two by vast doors made to admit waggons 



REMAINS OF OLD WOKING. 



ii 



piled up with grain. Ever and again by the road- 
sides stand open sheds, new roofs of thatch, 
supported by moss-covered weather-beaten 
posts, now only sheltering a broken-down cart 
or a stray flock of geese. Nor are the squatters' 
cottages on the waste without either beauty 
or interest, for in bygone days it was common 
for a labourer to enclose a bit of the waste 
land and build himself a hut thereon. The 
land being valueless, it was worth no one's 
while to disturb him, and so in course of 
time he acquired a small freehold estate. 
As years went on he added rood after rood to 
his garden or orchard, until some of the 
holdings amount to a couple of acres, or even 
more ; and plenty of men are to be found 
within the district who can show comfortable 
balances at their bankers', yet no scrap of 
writing for the property which is their 
freehold by mere want of disturbance. The 
squatter's cottage was usually a little hut one 
story high, built of mud, and roofed with 
thatch. It possessed many advantages, being 
warm and dry, cheap to build, calling for 
little skilled labour, and easy to enlarge. 
Stone and wood, too, were difficult to procure. 
When the land became his freehold the mud- 
cabin was usually destroyed by the owner, 
and replaced by a brick one ; for even if he 
were content with his habitation, it was often 
too ruinous to live in. Mud cottages age 
rapidly, every storm making the walls 
thinner. From a sanitary point of view, it 
will of course be a good thing when the last 
of these cabins has disappeared for ever, but 
a distinctive charm will be lost to the 
district. 

It is impossible to describe on paper the 
beauties of the parish ; they must be seen, 
and that not once, but often, for they grow 
on one. Now white with snow, now purple 
with the spring heather or pink with the 
autumn, now yellow with the summer gorse, 
now green with young ferns, or brown when the 
fronds have faded in chill October, the sunny 
wastes present masses of colour unequalled 
in any other district. No wonder the 
inhabitants cling to it ; but they seldom 
realize how they love it till fate has placed 
them " far from the Surrey hills." 




an (JEp&otse in tfte appi*enttce=!Life 
of fxueen oBl^atietb's Eetgn, 

fHE unruliness of the old London 
apprentices and their mad pranks 
have been the theme alike of the 
picturesque historian and of the 
historical romancer. The privilege enjoyed 
by the apprentices of banding together on 
Shrove Tuesday for the purpose of attacking 
and demolishing houses of bad repute, appears 
to identify them witth the cause of good 
order, and to imply a responsibility analogous 
to that of the special constable of our time. 
But the apprentices themselves frequently 
occasioned considerable trouble to the limbs 
of the law. Much of this is no doubt attri- 
butable to the imperfect police over that 
part of London lying outside the gates. In 
the reign of Elizabeth much apprehension 
was felt at Court about what was then con- 
sidered the enormous growth of London, and 
we find that the western suburbs, extending 
to the Strand and to Holborn, began to be 
occupied by business people, who did not 
have over them the strict government of the 
city. In 1590 an outbreak took place, and 
an assault was made upon Lincoln's Inn, for 
what purpose is not very clear. We find an 
account of this disturbance in a proclamation 
issued by the Queen on the 23rd September, 
in the " thirty-second yeere of her raign," and 
dated from Ely Place. This proclamation 
sets forth particulars which have not yet been 
noted in connection with the history of Lin- 
coln's Inn. 

" Whereas the Queenes most excellent 
maiestie being giuen to understand of a very 
great outrage lately committed by some ap- 
prentices and others being masterlesse men 
and vagrant persons in and about the suburbs 
of the Citie of London, in assaulting of the 
house of Lincolnes Inne and the breaking 
and spoyling of diuers chambers in the said 
house, which offences her highnesse is minded 
to haue to be duely examined and thereupon 
aswel the offenders therein as also such 
persons of the said house of Lincolnes Inne 
as did by any meanes giue any occasion to 
prouoke the same unlawful outrage to be 
duely and very seuerely punished according 
to their demerits, hath therefore thought 



12 



HISTORY OF THE MORGANS OF LLANTARNAM ABBEY. 



good for the better auoyding of such like 
outrages hereafter, straightly to charge and 
command all such as be any householders 
within the seuerall parishes of S. Dunstanes, 
S. Brides, S. Andrewes in Holborne, S. Giles 
in the Field, S. Martin in the Field, the 
Strond, and S. Clement without the Temple 
Barre, !that they and euery of them doe 
cause all their apprentices, journeymen, ser- 
vants, and family in their seuerall houses 
other than such as shall be appointed to 
keepe seuerall watches to tarry and abide 
within their seuerall houses, and not to be 
suffered to goe abroad after nine of the 
clocke at night upon paine of imprison- 
ment." 

This regulation was to be in force for six 
days only, but it was doubtless sufficient for 
the purpose ; and it supplies an example of 
the way Good Queen Bess put down attempts 
at disturbance in the capital an example 
which Ministers in our day might well profit 
by. 

James F. Allan. 



CpisoOes in tfje istorp of t&e 
^organs of iLiantarnam a&fcep. 

O Iessu nam gamwedd. 
(OJesu I prevent error. ) 

UCH is the orison prefixed by a 
Cambrian herald to a Welsh pedi- 
gree of the gens Morganica or 
great clan of Morgan dated 
1596, and printed in Meyrick's Visitation of 
Wales. 

I do not intend to invite the reader to 
explore with me the interminable ramifica- 
tions of a Welsh genealogical tree, much less 
to try his patience with a monotonous con- 
tinuity of the prefix "Ap." I propose, 
during a few minutes' chat with him, to evolve 
a true story illustrative of the vicissitudes 
incidental to, and inseparable from, the life 
and fortunes of a Popish Recusant in the 
seventeenth century. 

At the period of the Dissolution of the 
monasteries in 1538, there existed, as Leland 
tells us, " Lantarnam Abbey\of white monks, 
standing in a wood Hi mile's from Cairleon," 




in Monmouthshire, and that these monks 
enjoyed a yearly income of ^71 3s. 2d. 

After the seizure of the Abbey and lands 
by the King and the dispersion of the pale- 
faced Cistercians, the site was granted to 
two individuals, who, in 1553, re-sold it to 
the head of a family then living at an 
ancient house called Pentrebach, some two 
miles hard by the village of Llantarnam. 

The name of this purchaser was William 
Morgan, a cadet of the family of Pencocd 
and Tredegar. He was doubtless of im- 
portance in his sphere and day, and filled 
the shrievalty of the county, which he also 
represented at Westminster as Knight of the 
Shire. From the very sparse records extant 
regarding him, he appears to have had the 
bump of acquisitiveness developed to an ex- 
traordinary degree. This is proved by the fact 
that before his departure hence, he had ac- 
quired the whole of the dispersed monastery 
lands, of considerable extent, which had 
formed part of the monkish appurtenance of 
the Abbey ; nor does he appear to have been 
troubled with any sacrilegious scruples in so 
doing. An Inqnisitio post Mortem taken at 
Usk on the 15th October, 1582, "found " him 
to have deceased on the 29th March previ- 
ously, and that he had left behind him a 
goodly heritage of quondam church-lands, the 
description of which occupies eight folio 
pages of abbreviated Latin. 

His son, Edward Morgan, succeeded him, 
being thirty-two years of age at the time. 
He appears to have lived much the same 
uneventful life, and followed in the shrieval 
and parliamentary footsteps of his father. 
There is nothing of interest regarding him, 
except that he has left behind him a portrait of 
himself chiefly remarkable as being the only 
family portrait now remaining wherein he 
appears attired in the long-waisted many- 
buttoned doublet in vogue at that time, sur- 
mounted by a large sugar-loaf hat, having 
the broadest of brims. His nether integu- 
ment not being exhibited, can only be 
imagined by an admiring posterity. The 
portrait is dated 1623, when he was nearly 
an octogenarian. In appearance he is robust 
and healthy looking ; but the dark costume 
and the " bands " worn in place of the ruff, 
tend to give him an ascetic appearance which 
was no doubt far from his nature. A curious 



HISTORY OF THE MORGANS OF LLANTARNAM ABBEY, 



13 



Welsh motto appears upon the portrait as 
follows : 

Y ddioddeuoedd y orny ; 

which rendered in the vernacular is, "He 
that suffered, prevailed." Whether this had 
any legendary reference to the fortunes of the 
family, or whether it was merely a scriptural 
allusion, is not quite clear. A few years 
later the family suffered as they bent under 
the stroke of persecution ; but it does not 
appear that they prevailed in this world. The 
subject of the portrait did not depart this 
life until 1633, aged eighty-nine, being pre- 
ceded to the tomb a few months previously 
by his eldest son, William Morgan, who must 
now be noticed. 

No doubt by the time that the Abbey 
estate had descended to this William Morgan, 
in his father's lifetime, it had been con- 
siderably augmented and enriched in value 
by further acquisitions, so that he was then 
a wealthy commoner. This William, in 1596, 
aspired to the hand of the Lady Frances 
Somerset, a daughter of the Earl of Worcester, 
then living at Raglan Castle, whom he re- 
ceived in marriage the same year. The 
chronicler of the family would naturally love 
to linger over so grand an alliance of plain 
Mister Morgan with her ladyship, the 
daughter of an Earl ; but the fact is that the 
Earl and Countess were "blest" with 
daughters, having their quiver full of them ; 
and, indeed, the " fair daughters of Raglan " 
were as well known in their county as in 
later times, by tradition, were the " three 
maids of Lee " in theirs. 

The advent of the Lady Frances into the 
family, instead of being accompanied by those 
blessings popularly supposed to be attendant 
upon rank and fortune, brought, as we shall 
see in the sequel, with the exception of two 
little boys and as many girls, nothing but 
suffering, the ultimate ruin and extinction of 
the family, and, after a lapse of nearly three 
centuries, the appearance of this article ! 

It is assumed that her ladyship was a 
Romanist ; but this cannot be predicated with 
absolute certainty, and muchlessso with regard 
to her husband, Mister William. There is no 
doubt that after the infusion of the Jesuitical 
element they both became perverts ; and it 
was probably the objective form of Romish 
worship which made the Lady Frances an 



easy victim to the subjective and sinister arts 
of a certain Father Robert Jones, who was 
sent into Wales by His Eminence of Rome to 
establish a Jesuit district there, in which 
object he was successful. 

There is preserved among the records of 
the Society of Jesus an ancient MS. con- 
taining a full account of their establishment 
in Wales. I quote from the MS. : 

Father Jones, born in North Wales . . . was ad- 
mitted at Rome into the Society in the year 1582. 
. . . He was a zealous operarius in North and South 
Wales, and having fortunately converted the Lady 
Frances, of Llantarnam, and by her assistance also 
converted the rest of her sisters, the daughters of Raglan, 
he gained so great an influence with the said lady thai 
she was altogether in the affairs of her soul governed 
by him. And soon after her conversion, she reflecting 
that most of her husband's estate consisted of Church 
livings, dealt -with him about making some satisfaction 
for the same. Both her husband and herself conceived 
well that missionants of the Society should be main- 
tained in both parts of Wales. . . . 

And so the Lady Frances makes a will, with 
her husband's consent, leaving money for the 
maintenance of two Jesuits, one in North and 
the other in South Wales. After securing 
which Father Jones enters into rest, and 

then Father^ Thomas Conway . . . succeeded in 
his place with the Lady Frances by whom she was 
guided. . . . 

Father Jones was probably employed during 
his lifetime to act as tutor to the four children 
of his patrons, the education of youth being a 
department in which the Jesuits have never 
been equalled. No doubt the husband of 
the Lady Frances took kindly to his spiritual 
father, for we read in the State Papers, 1605, 
a report from the High Sheriff of Hereford- 
shire regarding the Jesuits : 

Mr. Morgan the younger, of Llanternham, with 
whom the said Jones, the Jesuite, is very often, some- 
times for a moneth together. And whereas the said 
Mr. Morgan the younger was busy about armour pre- 
sently after the Queen's [Elizabeth] death, though the 
matter be made up, yet it is thought, and so muttered, 
that his meaning was to have indeed taken up arms. 
And Jones the Jesuit, the firebrand of all, was then in 
his company. 

A very nice plot, truly. But we must 
hasten on to the reaping of all this seditious 
sowing, and see what kind of a harvest-home 
it proved to their descendants. 

The Lady Frances was gathered to her 
fathers, having doubtless begged dear Father 
Conway to say some Paters and Aves for the 



14 



HISTORY OF THE MORGANS OF LLANTARNAM ABBEY. 



repose of her soul. Her ladyship was followed 
to the tomb by her husband and his father. 
The stage now being clear, we introduce the 
eldest son of this marriage Edward Morgan 
who, probably through his maternal interest, 
was made a baronet in 1642. Sir Edward 
was staunch to the Romish Communion, 
although the Jesuit MS. referred to mentions 
a slight unwillingness upon his part to defray 
the cost of the missionants in South Wales 
as provided by his mother; but at length 
"they moved him to it," and got him "to 
oblige himself" in a bond for ,1,200, which 
after his death was paid. 

We must pass over some years of Sir 
Edward's life before the records supply us 
with any landmarks. In 1629 he espoused 
Mary, daughter of Sir Francis Englefield, 
Bart, a rabid Papist, who eventually fled to 
Rome. At the Assizes, held at Monmouth 
on 9th July, 1649, both Sir Edward and his 
lady were convicted of recusancy, and the 
estate of Llantarnam was accordingly laid 
under sequestration. 

At this period civil war was raging through- 
out the country, in which Sir Edward was 
engaged upon the side of the King ; and this, 
together with the sequestration of his estates, 
besides his constant imprisonment, inflicted 
upon his family very much anxiety and 
privation. 

In his will he mentions being detained a 
prisoner at Hereford, and being there forced 
to seal certain bonds unto Colonel Birch 
upon certain conditions not performed, which 
were : 

That my person should be free to live at my house 
not actinge against the parliam', only that I should 
appe on sixteene daies sumons to make my composi- 
tion, whereas I was noe sooner arriued at my house 
but the next clay after I was somoned to Glocester as 
prisoner vnto that Gouernor beinge Collonell Morgan, 
where I remayned a prisoner aboue two yeeres, and 
am yet vpon paroll. 

Nor would the Governor of Gloucester 
stand upon any ceremony in the execution 
of the summons. Sir Edward is discharged 
from prison at Hereford, and returns home 
to Llantarnam, relieves his wife's anxieties as 
to his fate, and transforms her grief into joy. 
They have only been together for a few hours, 
when a file of Roundhead pikemen, probably, 
present themselves at the Abbey, and their 
officer demands the surrender of the prisoner. 



Then comes the parting from his wife and 
children, and two years' incarceration in 
Gloucester Gaol. 

One would think that this cruel system of 
persecution of confinement and freedom 
alternately would have been sufficient to 
tame the boldest spirit, and to make the iron 
enter into his very soul. But to all outward 
appearance it seems to have had no effect 
upon Sir Edward. There is no testimony to 
show that he swerved ever so slightly from 
his course. On the contrary, there is abun- 
dant evidence to prove that he rigidly adhered 
with obstinate pertinacity to his principles 
until the end came, which was now rapidly 
approaching. 

What he suffered in thus consistently fol- 
lowing both his religious and political con- 
victions at a time when the maintenance of 
either of them meant the forfeiture of the 
subject's possessions and the deprivation of 
his personal liberty will never be known. 

The primary cause of all this persecution 
was undoubtedly the conduct of Sir Edward's 
mother, the Lady Frances, who, even if she 
were not originally a pervert to the Romish 
Communion, had nevertheless, through the 
medium of Father Jones, poisoned the mind 
of her son with the far more dangerous and 
insidious casuistry of the Jesuits. It is a 
remarkable fact that although Sir Edward 
was a Popish Recusant and a Royalist, it is 
solely on account of the former delinquency 
that he is certified in the voluminous reports 
touching his case to be under sequestration. 

Whether Sir Edward had any prevision of 
his approaching end, or whether he felt 
stricken down beneath the stroke of persecu- 
tion, we cannot say; but in the same month 
of the year following his conviction he signed 
his will. In this document, after the usual 
exordium, he desires 

to be layd in Christian burial w th my ancestors in 
Lanternam church there neare to my father and 
mother on their left hand. 

At this time the whole income from the 
Llantarnam estate was appropriated by the 
sequestrators prior to its sale, and "Baronet 
Morgan " was diligently watched and perse- 
cuted upon the slightest occasion. But a 
release was at hand, and on Midsummer 
Day, 1653, his sufferings were terminated in 
the forty-eighth year of his age. 



ARCHIE ARMSTRONG AND ARCHBISHOP LA UD. 



15 



However much we may feel inclined to 
disagree with his religious or political prin- 
ciples, we cannot but admire the noble 
manner in which he acted up to his convic- 
tions and the traditions of his fathers. 

Of Sir Edward's brothers and sisters, 
Henry died in 1669. His youngest sister, 
Elizabeth, had married Sir Philip Jones ; the 
eldest sister, Winifrede, had eloped with, and 
clandestinely married, Percy Enderbie, a man 
of many conceits, who published in 1661 
a now forgotten volume entitled Cambria 
Triumphans, which has been severely cen- 
sured in the Athena Oxoniensis. 

Sir Edward also left behind him his widow, 
Lady Morgan, and a large family, some of 
whom, falling under the ban of persecution, 
expatriated themselves. Over the lives of 
three of his daughters a peculiar sadness is 
cast Lucy, Dorothy, and Frances who "fled 
beyond sea" and died "spinsters." His eldest 
son, Edward Morgan (a man of very different 
calibre from his father), succeeded to the 
baronetcy, and reigned in his stead. 

Blacker Morgan. 
(To be continued?) 



3rcf)ie Armstrong; ant) arc&tusJjop 
lauti. 



RITE down that Archy is no fool," 
said King Charles ; " he has 
called the Archbishop one ; and 
therefore we are all agreed, his 
Grace included, that the man has proved 
himself to be no longer entitled to the appel- 
lation." Such is the quotation appended to 
the title of Mr. Glindoni's picture in last 
year's Academy, on the dismissal of Archie, 
the King's Jester. Whether the words attri- 
buted to the King be true or legendary, it is 
a fact that between the Archbishop and the 
Jester there had long been a feud, which 
ended by the ignominious dismissal of the 
latter from the King's service. Mr. Gairdner, 
in his Fall of the Monarchy of Charles I. 
(i. 133), attaches the story to Armstrong's 
sympathy with the Scotch Covenanters, and 
relates how the Jester " railed at Laud in his 
cups, as a monk, a rogue, and a traitor. 




Laud was unwise enough to complain to the 
King. The unlucky Jester was called before 
the Council, sentenced to have his coat 
pulled over his ears, to be discharged from 
the King's service, and to be sent to the 
Star Chamber." But the Archbishop and 
the Jester were old foes, and a complete 
investigation of their relations would be an 
interesting chapter in the secret history of 
England. 

In a curious and rare volume, printed in 
1 64 1, called Archy 's Dream, ivith a relation 
for whom an odde chaire stood voide in Hell, 
the cause of the quarrel is thus related : 

" The briefe reason of Archy's banishment 
was this. A nobleman asking what he would 
doe with his handsome daughters, hee re- 
plyed he knew very well what to doe with 
them, but hee had sonnes which he knew 
not well what to doe with ; he would gladly 
make Shollers (sic) of them, but that he 
feared the Archbishop would cut off their 
eares. 

" Why I was exiled from Court, having my 
jesting coate pluckt off, few men are ignorant 
of, neither doe I much care who knowes of 
it, insomuch as my Antigonist hath now no 
power to apprehend them ; if they should 
vouchsafe a blundering murmour on my be- 
halfe, my name is as famous abroad as hee 
infamous. I would not have his litle Grace 
know so much if he were in authority at 
Lambeth-house now for the price of a paire 
of new shooes, eares and all." 

The volume concludes with the quaint 
verse as follows : 

You which the name of Archy now have read 
Will surely talke of him when he is dead, 
He knows his foe in prison whilst that hee 
By no man interrupted but goes free. 

His fooles coate now is far in better case 
Than he which yesterday had so much Grace. 
Changes of Times surely cannot be small 
When Jesters rise and Archbishops fall. 

The dream is well worth giving some 
account of, as it acquaints us with some of 
the doings and ideas of the age. 

" A poor scholler deliveres a petition to the 
stars as follows : 

" First, we are abused by such a flat-cap 
citizen who, if he perceive one of us at one 
side of the way, hee will be sure to crosse 
over on purpose to take the wall of him, 
calling the scholler saucy rascall if he but 
offer to withstand him. 



i6 



ARCHIE ARMSTRONG AND ARCHBISHOP LAUD. 



" Secondly, those which are able to buy 
great personages have them, although they 
have had never any nurture in an Academy, 
except out of a library of notes borrowed of 
some old clarke or other which he in former 
times had gathered at severall places. 

"Thirdly, if we be not made of cannon 
proofe wee are in danger of Episcopal 1 
censure. 

" Fourthly, we must not preach more than 
the Arch Bishop of Canterbury, William 
Laud, will allow off, for feare of the forfeiture 
of our eares. From these and the like greev- 
ances we most humbly desire great love to 
deliver us. 

" Which petition was no sooner sent but 
Canterbury was presented to my view." 

He then descended into Hell, and saw 
them making chairs, which were filled as fast 
as made, " Only one was set by ; for whom, I 
asked ; they answered for Laud !" He then 
describes Laud being thrown into Charon's 
boat, and then he awoke. " And so soone 
as I arose I went to a noble friend of mine 
and told him my dreame, who said to me 
(that the day before) Canterbury was carried 
into the Towre." 

Archie kept up his hatred for Laud, and 
probably he had good cause for his feelings. 
Laud certainly appears to have interfered 
with his doings to an extent which seems 
scarcely compatible with any real necessity. 
In 1642 Armstrong petitions the House of 
Lords against John Scott, Dean of York, who, 
it is recorded, " agreed to repay him a debt of 
^200 and interest by half-yearly payments 
of ^50 ; but when only ^50 had been re- 
ceived, Dr. Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
under pretence of relieving the Dean of his 
creditors, interfered at the Council Board to 
prevent any further payment."* Armstrong 
had several such debts due to him, and it 
would be curious to know for what they were 
incurred, whether for bona-fide purposes or 
for influence at Court. This famous domestic 
episode of the Court of Charles I. has sup- 
plied the subject for an excellent painting, 
and the true story told at length would 
probably reveal some secrets of Court life of 
considerable interest. 

Alfred J. Browne. 

* Hist. MSS. Com., v. 50. 




tforn Castle. 

few miles from Dartford, and near 
the river Darent, stand the ruins 
commonly known as Otford Castle, 
but more correctly the ancient 
palace of the Archbishops of Canterbury, 
and once the favourite residence of the 
greatest champion the Church has ever pos- 
sessed, Thomas Becket. Many are the tales 
of miracles and wondrous works wrought 
here by the Archbishop ; one is that being 
in want of water, he struck his staff into the 
ground, when lo, there immediately gushed 
forth an exceeding fountain of the purest 
nature. A well some thirty feet deep is still 
known as St. Thomas Becket's well, and shown 
as a proof of the miraculous power so exerted. 
Owing to the large parks and other lands for 
their pleasure and convenience, Otford 
appears to have been the principal residence 
of the primates of England, many documents 
signed by them " at their Manor House at 
Otford" being in existence. The place was 
given to the Church of Canterbury by Offa, 
King of Mercia, in a.d. 791. It was, how- 
ever, shortly afterwards the property of a 
powerful priest named Werhard ; but Arch- 
bishop Wifrid, in the year 830, regained it 
for his church, which maintained possession 
of it until the reign of Henry VIII. It was 
within the walls of this palace that the 
princely Archbishop Robert, of Winchelsea, 
entertained with great magnificence his 
sovereign, Edward I. Here, too, he lived, 
and in 131 3 died. He was a man of great 
liberality and extensive charity to the poor, 
to whom the large fragments of his table 
were every day plentifully distributed at his 
gate. It is recorded that he gave every 
Sunday and Thursday, when corn was dear, 
two thousand, and when cheap, three thou- 
sand loaves to the poor ; upon the solemn 
festivals he relieved 150 needy persons with 
money, and to the aged and infirm who 
were unable to go to his door, he sent his 
alms, bread, fish, or flesh, according to the 
season. His successor, Walter Reynolds, or 
Reginald, as his name is sometimes written, 
being the King's own nominee, obtained 
permission to enlarge the park, and other- 
wise beautify the seat. Notwithstanding 



OXFORD CASTLE. 



i7 



which, Simon Islip, upon his elevation to the 
see, considered it insufficient for his dignity, 
and still further improved the palace, pur- 
chasing also lands and meadows to form 
another enclosure, since known as the Little 
Park. This Archbishop died in 1366, and 
by his will bequeathed to the Convent of 
Christ Church, Canterbury, 1,000 sheep to 
be kept as a perpetual flock, six dozen of 
silver plates, as many silver salt-cellars, and 
four large silver basins with their ewers, 
moved by the desire, doubtless, to enable his 
church the more worthily to maintain its 
dignity in the eyes of the multitudes who 
flocked thereto in order to lay their offerings 



told: Louis VII. of France, when on a pil- 
grimage to Canterbury, was kneeling before 
the shrine, wearing on his finger this stone 
set in a ring; its brilliancy aroused the 
cupidity of the then Archbishop, who at 
once asked the King to present the stone to 
the shrine ; this the King refused, but offered 
in lieu thereof to give 100,000 florins. The 
Primate was satisfied, but the occupant of 
the shrine was not, for scarcely had the re- 
fusal and consequent offer been uttered, than 
the stone leapt from the ring and fastened 
itself to the shrine, where it remained. The 
King of France, we are told, was so moved 
by this miracle, that he not only was content 




I ftVtN?-.ffE.g : )-5JjfltP->--W^R-HAJi J S" XQ-.i^sSmS. 



E^&S&iii Wit 



before the shrine of " St. Thomas the Divine," 
who 

" Sepulchred in such pomp dost lie, 
That kings for such a tomb would wish to die." 

This shrine, we are told by old John Stow, 
was built about a man's height, all of stone, 
then upwards of plain timber, within which 
was a chest of iron, containing the bones of 
the martyr. The timber-work of it on the 
outside was covered with plates of gold, 
damasked and embossed with wires of gold, 
and garnished with brooches, images, chains, 
precious stones, and great orient pearls. 
Prominent among these was the great " car- 
buncle " or " diamond " called the Regale of 
France, to which, we are told by the late 
Dean Stanley, the attention of the spectators 
was riveted by the figure of an angel pointing 
to it. Of this jewel the following legend was 
vol. xv. 



to leave the ring, but also gave the 100,000 
florins. Some idea of the great popularity 
of Becket, the grandest specimen of an un- 
compromising Churchman the world has ever 
produced, may be formed from the accounts 
of the offerings made to the altars in the 
cathedral. Bishop Burnet, in his History of 
the Reformation, tells us that in one year 
there was offered to Christ's altar ^3 2s. 6d. ; 
to the Virgin's altar, ,63 5s. 6d. ; but to the 
altar of St. Thomas of Canterbury there was 
given ^832 12s. 3d. The next year, he 
says, the odds were even greater, for there 
was not even a penny offered at Christ's 
altar, and only ^4 is. 8d. to that of the 
Virgin, while the offerings at the shrine of 
St. Thomas the Divine rose, irrespective 
of jewels and bequests, to no less than 
^954 6s. 3d. All the nations were seized 

c 



OTFORD CASTLE. 



with that strange and lasting form of religious 
frenzy which developed itself in the wander- 
ings from shrine to shrine on the face of the 
country, no distance stopping, no hardship 
deterring. The palmer's staff was often 
adopted by the pilgrim to escape for awhile 
from home, that he might the better appre- 
ciate its loves and cares on his return list- 
less, he was in truth the tourist of the Middle 
Ages ; yet his wanderings have added several 
words to our language it was said of him 
who travelled to the Holy Land (saint terre) 
that he was a saunterer ; in like manner, the 
easy canter of our modern rides is an abbre- 
viation of the Canterbury gallop, i.e. canter, 
derived no doubt from the ambling pace of 
those who journeyed to " Canterbiere, la cite" 
vaillante," after the martyrdom in 1170. 
The flood of pilgrimage flowed from all 
Europe without intermission to his shrine, as 
year by year spring-time came round : 

"Then longen folk to gou on pilgrimages, 
And Palmers for to seken strange strondes, 
* # * # 

And specially, from every shires ende 

Of Englelonde, to Canterbury they wende, 

The Holy blissful martyr for to seke, 

That hem had holpen, when that they were sike." 

Southampton, the great port, received by far 
the most of those who came over the sea ; 
the old British track or fosse now became 
the great pilgrim's way, winding under the 
hills from the Surrey Downs through Merst- 
ham, where a lane retains its old name, "The 
Pilgrim's Lane," past this Archiepiscopal 
Palace at Otford to the Medway, and so on 
till it led the weary pilgrim to the hill-top, 
from which he could first catch sight of the 
golden angel with which the great tower of 
the cathedral was anciently crowned. Re- 
specting the name of the martyr who thus 
brought such wealth and treasure into the 
coffers of his cathedral, Wharton, in his 
Notes to Strype's Cranmer, says : " The name 
of that Archbishop is Thomas Becket, nor 
can it be found otherwise in any authentic his- 
tory, calendar, record, or book. If the vulgar 
did formerly, as it doth now, call his name 
A Becket, the mistake is not to be followed 
by learned men." 

About the year 1500, Archbishop Henry 
Dene commenced repairing, if not rebuild- 
ing, the palace at Otford ; but as he lived 



only two years after receiving the appoint- 
ment, it is probable that the work did 
not proceed to any great extent, especially 
as his immediate successor, William Ware- 
ham, upon his translation from the See 
of London, made preparations to erect in 
Canterbury a most sumptuous residence for 
himself and the succeeding Archbishops ; but 
a quarrel arising between him and the citizens 
concerning the boundary of his land, he 
changed his intention, and devoted his atten- 
tion to the house at Otford, the whole of 
which, excepting the great hall and chapel, 




he rebuilt at a cost of the then enormous 
sum of ^"33,000 ; and here he frequently en- 
tertained in the most splendid manner his 
friend and King. After having sat as Arch- 
bishop for twenty-eight years, he died on the 
3rd of August, 1532, and was succeeded by 
the martyr, Cranmer, who, being of a timorous 
disposition, and observing that this his stately 
palace excited the envy of the courtiers, sur- 
rendered it in exchange to the King, who, 
purchasing other lands in Otford, kept it in 
his own hands. Queen Elizabeth, in her 
thirty-fourth year, granted the Archbishop's 
house, commonly known as the Castle, with 



OLD CORNISH FONTS, BELLS, ALTAR AND CORPORATION PLATE. 19 




the great park, containing 700 acres, to Sir 
Robert Sydney, who, in 16 18, sold it to Sir 
Thomas Smith, soon after which the place 
was demolished. 

J. A. Sparvel-Bayly, F.S.A. 



SDIH Cormsf) jfonts, 15ells, altar 
ana Corporation Plate. 

By John Gatley. 

HERE is probably no county in 
England that contains more features 
calculated to interest the anti- 
quary than Cornwall. It abounds 
in prehistoric remains, to which full justice 
has been done by the Rev. Dr. Borlase, and 
by his distinguished descendant, Mr. Cope- 
land Borlase, the present representative in 
Parliament of the St. Austell Division of his 
native county. The numerous writers on the 
topography of Cornwall have also dwelt fully 
on the historic associations and the old castles 
and buildings, and have deplored the extinc- 
tion of the Cornish vernacular, a loss that, 
unfortunately, cannot be repaired by the few 
fragments in the shape of miracle plays and 
the vocabulary of Dr. Pryce that still remain 
to us, but which is, in some degree, lessened 
by the survival of the kindred vernaculars 
of Wales and Western Brittany. It is not 
our purpose, therefore, in the following 
observations to go over the well-trodden 
ground traversed by these writers, but rather 
to endeavour to collect and bring together in 
the compass of an article the many points of 
interest that present themselves under the 
subjects above mentioned, and the informa- 
tion respecting which is derived mainly from 
the singularly interesting and exhaustive 
i Parochial History of Cornwall published by 
\ Messrs. Lake, of Truro, in 187 1, and from 
i the earlier work of Lysons, but which, being 
j scattered throughout the works in question, 
! possibly escapes the notice of the general 
I reader, and requires to be brought together 
and compared to enable the student and 
antiquary to obtain a satisfactory survey of the 
subjects in question. 

Our readers will not fail to observe that 



many of the names mentioned below begin 
with " Pol," " Tre," or M Pen," a feature which 
did not escape the notice of Sir Walter Scott, 
who says in Kenii worth : 

By Tre, Pol and Pen 

You may know the Cornish men ; 

but the more correct saying is that given by 
Camden in his Remains, viz. : 

By Tre, Ros, Pol, Lan, Caer and Ten, 
You may know most Cornish men. 

Reverting now to the subjects included in the 
title of the present article, we think it will be 
most convenient to treat them separately; and, 
in the first place, therefore, to offer the follow- 
ing observations respecting the many interest- 
ing Fonts still existing in Cornwall. Lysons, 
when treating of a few of the more interesting of 
these, says that a large number may be referred 
to the time when Saxon architecture prevailed ; 
of these the greater part are round, though 
many are quite plain. Others are ornamented 
with mouldings resembling those on Saxon 
doorways, the most remarkable of this 
class being those at St Enoder, St. Erme, 
Feock, Fowey, Ladock, Mawgan, Lanreath 
and Whitstone. Others are square at the 
top, with human heads at the corners, and 
circles enclosing stars at the sides, supported 
by serpents ; the most notable of this class 
being those at Alternon, Callington, Jacob- 
stow, Laneast, Landrake, and Warbstow. 

The materials employed in the construc- 
tion of Cornish fonts vary greatly, and are 
chosen, no doubt, from the most reliable 
stone in the immediate neighbourhood. 
Amongst others may be mentioned granite, 
elvan, marble, Caen, syenite, sandstone, and 
the local stones of great merit named poly- 
phant, catacleuse, serpentine, Pentewan, 
green Tintagel, and the porcelain stone of 
St. Stephen's, with occasionally native por- 
phyry. Cornish fonts are of every age and 
design, with very varied ornamentation. 
From the frequent occurrence of a main 
shaft with four smaller pillars, we have been 
led to hazard the opinion that these supports 
may be typical of our Saviour and the four 
Evangelists, the former as representing the 
Divine institution of baptism. Heraldic 
designs, as a rule, are conspicuous by their 
absence ; the shaft is either round, square, or 
octagonal, and the basement square. At 
three churches, however, St. Levan, Cranlock, 

C 2 



2o OLD CORNISH FONTS, BELLS, ALTAR AND CORPORATION PLATE. 



and Burian, there is no basement whatever, 
merely the shaft. At Crowan the basement 
is singularly decorated with grotesque animals. 
Gothic tracery is present at St. Clement, 
Colan, and St. Breock in Pyder. 

Many are of Norman character, the finest 
examples being those at Egloskerry, Boyton, 
Crowan, Cubert, St. Erney, Lamorran, Land- 
rake, Feock, Lanreath, Lansallos, Launcells, 
Mevagissey and Roche. As before men- 
tioned, the method of ornamentation is very 
varied. Grotesque fibres are found on those 
at St. Austell, Crowan, St. Enoder, St. Ives, 
Lanwhitton, Luxulyan, and Southill ; the 
Norman characteristic of zigzag moulding 
at Ruan Minor and Ludgvan ; St. Catherine 
Wheels at Warbstow, and St. Stephen's by 
Launceston ; cable moulding at Boyton, 
Egloskerry, Launcells, St Levan, and St. 
Thomas by Launceston ; chevron moulding at 
St. Stephen's by Launceston, and treble at 
St. Wenn ; nail-headed moulding at one, 
Lanteglos by Fowey ; niches with the Twelve 
Apostles at St. Merryn and Padstow, and 
debased human heads at more than a dozen 
other places. 

The font at Bodmin is extremely interest- 
ing. It is 3 feet 7 inches high, with a 
diameter at the top of 3 feet 5 \ inches. It 
is covered with ornamentation in Saxon style, 
consisting of grotesque animals, foliage, etc., 
with angels' heads as capitals of pillars, and 
bases and pedestal in style of earliest Gothic 
architecture. Resembling this in form are 
those of St. Austell, St. Columb, Tintagel, 
Crantock, Cuby, Veryan, St. Dennis, St. 
Gorran, St. Wenn, Newlyn, Roche, and 
Southill, whilst those at Boconnoc, Cubert, 
Grade, Illogan, Landewenack are of nearly 
the same character, but are later, and orna- 
mented with stars and trefoils. 

Of the font at Lostwithiel, the following 
curious record is preserved of the desecration 
by the Parliamentary party in 1644. It is 
extracted from the diary of Rd. Symonds, 
one of the King's lieutenants, viz. : " One of 
their actions whilst they were at Lostwithiel 
must not be forgotten. In contempt of 
Christianity, Religion and the Church, they 
brought a horse to the fount in the church, 
and there, with their kind of ceremonies, did, 
as they call it, christen the horse, and called 
him by the name of Charles, in contempt of 
His Sacred Majesty." 



The following characteristics are also of 
interest. At East Anthony the cover of the 
font is a skeleton pinnacle of crocketed wood- 
work. At Burian on the font are angels 
supporting shields with a Latin and Maltese 
Cross. At St. Clement the font was dis- 
covered lying in a ditch where it had 
remained for sixty years, and was restored to 
its proper position by the late rector ; the 
date on that at Crantock is "AN D'M 
CCCC Lxxiiij"." At Cubert the handle of 
the cover represents a cruciform church with 
a central spire, terminating in a knob. The 
font at St. Dennis is panelled throughout. 
At Forrabury the bowl is ornamented with 
lattice-work. That at Gorran bears the arms of 
the knightly family of Bodrugan, now extinct. 
Gulval font before 1842 stood in front of 
the communion table, and is decorated with 
four shields of arms, on one of which is 
displayed Kymbal impaling St. Aubyn. At 
Helston, the bowl is inlaid with quatrefoils of 
variegated marble. On the font at St. Issey 
are the initials "I.V. L.A.," 1664. The 
characteristic of that at St. Ives is a clustered 
shaft, with an obliterated inscription which 
may be read : " Omnes baptizate gentes." 
The bowl at St. Juliot is unique, square 
externally, and internally hexagonal, on its 
face the monogram " Jfjc." At St. Just in 
Penwith, on one of the faces of the octagonal 
font is a representation of Noah's Ark in rude 
sculpture. That at Landewednack, the most 
southernly parish of England, is stated to 
have been made by a former rector in 1404, 
and bears the inscription " 5fC *J< IB. Mit : 
Sr/lftam Mt Jfecit" The font at Lostwithiel 
has a clustered shaft and small clustered 
pillars, with subjects in relief, very rude ; 
amongst others the Crucifixion, and a hunts- 
man on horseback, with horn, hawk and 
hound, also two lions passant. The inscrip- 
tion on that at St. Mewan is : " One Lord t^t 
one Faith *%< one Baptism ^." On the font 
at Mylor, within circular panels, are, in relief, 
a cross patonee, a cross moline, a fimbriated 
saltire and three chevrons in pale. In the 
parish of Roche is a legend that, to prevent 
its destruction during the Parliamentary wars, 
the carved work of the fine old Norman font 
was plastered over. A fillet of crosses orna- 
ments the rim of the ancient font at Tintagel, 
and Catherine wheels, supported by dragons, 
that at Warbstow, whilst at Week St. Mary 



OLD CORNISH FONTS, BELLS, ALTAR AND CORPORATION PLATE. 21 



is found the ornamentation, rare in Corn- 
wall, of the Tudor rose and zfleur de lis. 

Much interest attaches to Bells in Corn- 
wall, and in former years campanology and 
ringing seem to have been very popular in 
the West of England generally ; at Kenwyn, 
near Truro, ringing was the favourite pursuit 
of the gentlemen of the neighbourhood. 
Many a noble peal of bells would appear to 
have been recast, and the Penningtons and 
Abel Rudall, of Gloucester, were the founders 
generally employed in the west in the 
eighteenth century. But there are yet to be 
found spread over the county bells of a far 
earlier date, bearing inscriptions in Latin, 
showing their dedication to Saints in the 
Catholic Calendar, several of which are given 
below. The inscriptions used by the Pen- 
ningtons and Rudalls vary but little, but 
breathe a spirit of loyalty to Church and 
King, and also serve as memorials of the 
respective rectors and churchwardens; as 
do the representations of donors on the wings 
of many a celebrated picture in Flemish 
churches. 

The following observations embrace, we 
believe, the more interesting features con- 
nected with Cornish bells, but we may 
observe that it is a work of some difficulty to 
deal with this subject concisely, and to 
extract, as it were, the wheat from the chaff 
from the numerous belfries of Cornwall. 

At St. Agnes are six musical bells, recast by 
the founders, Mairs, who are stated to have cast 
them a century previously. Out of three bells 
at St. Anthony in Kerrier, two are damaged ; 
the tenor is inscribed " Sancte Maria ora pro 
nobis." There is an excellent peal of eight 
bells in the fine old parish church at Bodmin. 
They were cast in 1767 from six larger ones, 
and the sixth being cracked, was recast in 
1808, and are inscribed as follows : 

1. When you us ring, we'll sweetly sing. 1767. 

2. Peace and good neighbourhood. 1767. 

3. Fear God, honour the King. 1767. 

4. Thomas Rudhall cast us all. 1767. 

5. Prosperity to the Town of Bodmin. T. R., 1767. 

6. Prosperity to this Parish, 1808. 

7. John Pomeroy, Esq., Mayor; William Stacey, 

Nicholas Craddock, Churchwardens. 1767. 

8. I to the Church the living call, 

And to the grave do summon all. 1767. 

The peal of five at St. Breward was recast 
in 1758 from four old ones, said to be of 



Edward VI. 's time ; one is inscribed, regard- 
less of grammar: "Fitz Anthon Pennington 
cast we five in 1758." 

At Burian are three bells. The largest 
bears the following inscription to the Virgin : 
"Virginis egregise vocor Campana Marias," 
1738. A flaw or crack runs through it, for 
which tradition thus accounts. The bell 
was cast in the church village, and before it 
was hardened, a man jumped from a hedge 
near the mould, which, being disturbed by 
the shaking, rendered the bell imperfect. 
The second bell is marked : " Vocem ego do 
vobis, vos date verba Deo, 1638;" and on the 
third are the names of the churchwardens of 
1681. 

St. Clement also has but three bells. The 
largest is cracked, and bears the following 
words: "Soli Deo detur gloria," 1625. On 
the second is the invocation : " Sancta 
Margareta ora pro nobis," and two shields ; 
whilst the third bears the inscription : 
"Sancta Trinitas D'nus Deus miserere 
nobis," and the founder's mark, and letters 
{ $. A bell at Cury has the legend, 
unique so far as we know, of: "Jesus de 
Nazareth Rex Judeeorum," whilst the tenor 
bears the oft-repeated refrain : 

I to the Church the living call, 
And to the grave do summon all. 

The third bell at Germoe gives cheap immor- 
tality to the founder by the inscription : " Abel 
Rudhall cast us all." A bell at Grade bears 
the following invocation : " O Martir Chris- 
tophore pro nobis semper orare;" and this 
we believe to be the only bell dedicated to 
that saint in Cornwall. At Gulval there are 
three, one dated 1640, and another bears the 
words : 

ILE o RING o ALLWAYS MY o MAKERS PRAYES 

Between each word is the head of Charles II., 
with the legend " Carolus II. Dei Gratia," 
like a coin of the period. The frame con- 
taining these bells bears the date 1600. 

Gunwalloe has a peal of three, each bear- 
ing a Latin inscription, viz. : 

1. Voce mea viva depello cuncta nociva. 

2. Ihsois plaudit ut me tarn srepius audit. 

3. Eternis annis resonet campana Johannis. 

The weights of the bells, as well as their 
inscriptions, are preserved at Gwinear : 



22 OLD CORNISH FONTS, BELLS, ALTAR AND CORPORATION PLATE. 



ist Bell, 2 tons, 5 cwt. " I call all to follow me." 
2nd 2 6 " God preserve this Church." 
3rd 2 7 " God save the King." 
4th 2 9 " Pennington cast us all." 
5th 2 1 1 " Prosperity to this Parish." 
6th 3 4 " Ego sum vox clamantis 
parate." 

On one of the bells at Gwithian is the mark 
of a bell between the initials " A. R." of the 
founder Abel Rudhall, being a play upon his 
Christian name, Abel. 

The peal of six bells at Helston was the 
gift of Francis, Lord Godolphin in 1767, and 
the principal bears the inscription : 

At proper times our voices we will raise 
In sounding to our benefactor's praise. 
Our voices shall, with joyful sound 
Make hills and valleys echo round. 
To honour both of God and King, 
Our voices shall in concert sing. 
In wedlock's bands all ye who join 
With hands your hearts unite ; 
So shall our tuneful tongues combine, 
To lead the nuptial rite. 

The bells at St. Just, in Penwith, were cast 
in 1 741, about the time of Admiral Vernon's 
victories ; and it is a curious instance of hero- 
worship to find that the largest bears his 
name amongst those of the churchwardens. 
We were aware that representations of military 
and naval heroes frequently ornamented the 
sign-posts of taverns, but, up to this time, 
had never met with an instance of their 
names being commemorated on bells. The 
inscription runs : 

St. Just Bell cast at St. Erth, 1741, So blessKing 

George. 
James Reynolds, James Tregere and Admiral Vernon 

Ch. Wardens. 

No doubt the parishioners, out of compli- 
ment, named Admiral Vernon honorary 
churchwarden for that year. 

Of the others, the second is inscribed : 
" Scte Michael ora pro nobis ;" and the third, 
" Protege virgo pia quos convoco, Sancta 
Maria." The whole of the peal at Landewed- 
nack have Latin inscriptions, viz. : 
The ist. Sancta Anna, ora pro nobis. 

,, 2nd. Sancte Nicholas, ora pro nobis. 

,, 3rd. Nomen Magdalene geret Campana Melodie. 

Anthony Pennington recast the six bells now 
at Landulph, and on the walls of the lowest 
stage of the tower are the following inscrip- 
tions : 

Near this place lies the body of Fitz Anthony 
Pennington, Bell-Founder, of the parish of Lczant, in 



Cornwall, who departed this life April 30, 1768, 
^Etatis sure 38. 

Tho' Boistrous Winds and Billows sore, 

Hath Tos'd me To and Fro ; 
By God's Decree in spite of both, 

I rest now here below. 



Let awful silence first proclaimed be, 

And praise unto the Holy Trinity ; 

Then honour give unto our noble King, 

So with a blessing let us raise the ring. 

Hark how the chirping treble sings most clear, 

And covering Tom comes rowling in the rear ; 

And now the bells are up, come let us see 

What laws are best to keep sobriety. 

Who swears or curses, or in choleric mood 

Quarrels or strikes, altho' he draws no blood, 

Who wears his hat or spur, or o'erturns a bell, 

Or by unskilful handling marrs a peal ; 

Let him pay sixpence for each single crime, 

'Twill make him cautious 'gainst another time. 

But if the Sexton's fault an hindrance be, 

We call from him a double penalty. 

If any should our parson disrespect, 

Or warden's orders any time neglect, 

Let him be always held in full disgrace, 

And ever more be banished this place. 

So when the bells are ceased, then let us sing 

God bless the Church, God save the King. 

Speaking of these bell-founders, the follow- 
ing memoranda, extracted from the parish 
books of St. Veep, are instructive as affording 
some information as to the charges made by 
them in the seventeenth century. 

"Mem: That on June 3rd, 1678, there 
was a 4th Bell, a new Treble added, made by 
John Pennyngton of Bodmin, 634 lbs., which 
came to one and thirty Pounds and fourteen 
shillings. John Teage, Stephen Harris, Ch. W. 
Sam. May, Vicar. 

" Mem : That March 28th, 1682, were cast 
the Treble and second Bells by Edward 
Pennyngton of Bodmin, and this Treble Bell 
being then weighed came to ffive Hundred 
and three Quarters. The second Bell also 
then weighed, came to six Hundred and 
three Quarters, wanting Eight Pounds. 

" Mem : Also that May 22, 1682, were cast 
by the said Edwd. Pennington the third Bell, 
wh. being weighed came to Nine Hundred 
twenty and ffive pounds and more 33 lbs., in 
all Nine Hundred ffifty and eight Pounds. 
The said Edward Pennington was paid for 
his labour in casting the said three Bells, in 
all Nine Pounds and two shillings : Besides 
ffive shillings upon every Hundred for wast 
of old Mettal. Twelve pence for every 
pound of new mettal; wood, ffuell, Attend- 



OLD CORNISH FONTS, BELLS, ALTAR AND CORPORATION PLATE. 23 



ance, and all other things ffound and provided 
at the charge of the Parish. The said Edwd. 
Pennyngton Reed, for his Acct. in all 
*1- 01. o." 

At Lansallos one Bell only remains out of 
three. It bears the inscription in black-letter, 
" Sanxf a $&attaartf a xxtta prs naWs," and 
three shields the first charged with a 
chevron between three trefoils, the second 
bears a crosslet, and the third a chevron be- 
tween three coffee-pots. 

Lanteglos by Camelford in 3 Edward VI. 
had "one Chales of silver and iij belles." 
At Launceston, the hearty old toasts of the 
Rudhalls greet us again, viz. : 

1. God save the King. 1720. 

2. Peace and good neighbourhood. 

3. A* R* Prosperity to this Town. 1720. 

4. Prosperity to the Church of England. 1720. 

5. Abr. of Gloucester cast us all. 1720. 

6. The People to the Church to call 
And to the grave to summon all. 

The peal at Lewanick was cast by the 
Penningtons in 1767, and the bells bear 
their usual inscriptions. The following en- 
tries appear in the Churchwardens' Accounts, 
viz. : 

Mr. Pennington, towards running the new Bells ,30. 
Do. More foradditionof Bell Metal, 

6 cwt. 25 lbs. at 6 pounds per 
hundred .... ^45. 

At Ludgvan, one bears the words "Soli 
Deo gloria. Pax in bello." The date of 
those at St. Michael Caerhays is 1540, which 
is unusually early for an entire set. 

St. George is honoured at Mylor, where 
the first bell is marked " In honore Sante 
Georgii," and the second " Ego : me : preco : 
se. : clamando conterimus : audite : venite : 
1637." 

Pelynt is celebrated for one of its bells 
being the gift of Jonathan Trelawny, Bishop 
of Bristol, and afterwards of Exeter, and 
one of the seven Bishops imprisoned by 
James II., the same whose memory is kept 
green in the West-country by Hawker's ballad 
and its stirring refrain : 

And shall they scorn Tre, Pol, and Pen, 

And shall Trelawny die ? 
Here's twenty thousand Cornishmen 

Shall know the reason why. 

At St. Thomas, by Launceston, occurs the 
following : " When I am heard it pleaseth 
you, 1691 ; : ' and at Zennor, the second bell 



is dedicated to St. John, and the third to St. 
Maria. 

An instance of what Ellacombe, in his 
"Church Bells of Devon," calls "Jesu, 
mercy, Lady help bells " occurs at Michael- 
stowe, where a bell of considerable interest 
remains. It is uncommon. There is, how- 
ever, one at St Dennis, one at Marlden, and 
another at Townstal in Devon, also by the 
same founder. The legend is " Sancta 
Margareta ora pro nobis " in black-letter, as 
at Lansallos before mentioned, and three 
shields on one of which is a very elegant 
foliated cross, encircled by the words " Jesu, 
mercy, Lady help." A tradition in the parish 
says that there is a large proportion of silver 
contained in this bell. 

( To be continued.) 



&e Ducal Palace at Venice. 

By W. Carew Hazlitt. 

iHE evolutions of the Palace of St. 
Mark, from its earliest fabric and 
aspect into the building which the 
great Doge Mocenigo bequeathed 
to his country in 1423, and its farther tran- 
sition to the symmetrical and rich maturity 
which in all its main features has lived 
to be our contemporary, may be said to 
form an integral part of the Republic's his- 
tory, for the ducal residence grew with the 
growth of the Venetian power and culture. 
It is to be taken as proved that from the 
earliest infancy of a Government by Doges, 
at all events, some edifice was set apart, not 
only for the support of the dignity of the 
State, but for the practical transaction of 
public business. Prior to the development 
of administration by departments, the palace 
was the absorbing centre of political life. 

In the same manner indeed as the abode 
of the chief of the Government in nearly all 
countries, not only in the Middle Ages, as 
in the Castello di Corte of the Gonzagas in 
Mantua, but as at Paris down to the six- 
teenth century, and at Delhi down to our 
own time, the ducal residence at Venice, 
originally established at Heraclia, subse- 
quently at Malamocco, and finally at Rialto, 




24 



THE DUCAL PALACE AT VENLCE. 



was one of the leading institutions of the 
Republic. 

The earliest palpable approach to our 
knowledge of a palace, however, is the 
tidings, in 976, of its partial destruction, with 
the intimation that two reigns spent them- 
selves without seeing it brought back to a 
habitable condition. Otho III. of Germany, 
who stayed at Venice four days in 998, is 
said to have expressed admiration of the 
building as he then saw it and lodged in it. 
We know very little about it, except that it 
was built in the Indo-Byzantine taste, em- 
battled and walled. 

The historian-iron-founder Sagorninus, who 
wrote his narrative in the first quarter of 
the eleventh century, informs us that the 
palace erected by Angelo Badoer about 810 
was still standing in his time; but it had 
doubtless undergone an immense amount of 
repair and alteration in the course of two 
centuries, especially after the catastrophe of 
976, of which Sagorninus might have been 
an eye-witness. 

The Fire of 1106 committed serious de- 
vastations on the ducal abode; and its 
second restoration was a work of time. In 
it 16, when the Emperor Henry V. came to 
see a city of which the fame had reached 
him, it had probably recovered its usual ap- 
pearance, for his Majesty was as powerfully 
impressed by its beauty as Otho had been in 
998. Such as it may have been in n 16, it 
doubtless remained in 11 75, about which 
time the Doge Ziani considerably amplified 
and embellished it, and rendered it the im- 
posing Byzantine palace which in 1201 
elicited from a distinguished French visitor 
the Marechal de Champagne, whose eyes 
had rested on many a noble chateau a 
cordial encomium. Nor was Villehardouin 
impressed apparently so much by the stateli- 
ness of its proportions as by its commodious 
interior ; which for us is really a point of 
superior importance. 

But it was during the reign of Pietro 
Gradenigo, and posterior to the constitutional 
changes of 1297, that the first step was taken 
toward the replacement of the Ziani building 
by a new Gothic palace, and the provision 
not only of public offices, but of adequate 
accommodation for the deliberative councils. 
The latter hitherto had had no regular place 



of meeting assigned to their use ; but the old 
palace was expected to satisfy all wants, 
including the transaction of official business, 
the reception of distinguished guests, and 
debates on questions of European moment. 
The Arrengo, however, or National Conven- 
tion, so long as the principle of universal 
suffrage more or less nominally survived, 
the Doge's house was not calculated to hold ; 
and there is no occasion to doubt that when 
the people were summoned at stated seasons 
to meet, it was in the open air that the gather- 
ing took place. Here again the Government 
set to work piecemeal, and the superb quad- 
rangle which we have now the opportunity 
of surveying at our leisure was the labour of 
centuries, and more than that, of two succes- 
sive architectural epochs,* the Gothic, which 
was completed between 1301 and 1423, and 
the Early Renaissance. Of the Gothic 
palace certain portions were found to be 
capable of adaptation ; and the Great Council 
Chamber on the side looking toward the sea 
is substantially the room originally com- 
menced in 1340 from the designs of Calen- 
dario whose share in the Faliero conspiracy 
cost him his life and not properly finished 
till 1400. But of the edifice which Villehar- 
douin beheld in 1201, no vestiges whatever 
remain. It lay nearer to the Grand Canal 
than the more recent building, partly on 
the site of the spacious Molo ; and between 
its walls and the sea was nothing but a 
narrow passage or fondamento for pedestrians. 
It almost seemed as if in proceeding with the 
incessant work of reconstruction the Govern- 
ment was keeping steadily in view the ulterior 
contingency of removing the Gothic block, 
when its successor was ready in all respects 
for use. Yet, while such was the actual 
course eventually pursued, it is beyond ques- 
tion that the rulers of Venice, in their desul- 
tory and bit-by-bit mode of progress, acted 
a good deal at random, and were unprepared 
for the glorious outcome. The fruit of their 
fragmentary and intermittent exertions re- 
vealed itself to them as one stage .after 
another in the process of transformation was 
reached ; and it cannot have failed to inspire 

* The late Mr. Street (Brick and Marble in the 
Middle Ages, 1855, p. 148) differs from Ruskin in re- 
gard to the space of time occupied in portions of the 
building. 



THE ANTIQUARY S NOTE-BOOK. 



25 



a proud sensation when, through the coura- 
geous initiation of the Doge Mocenigo, the 
Prince's house was after all rebuilt, and the 
entire Ziani pile cleared away to form a sea 
facade, and set off in their true proportions* 
the new and costly architectural range, t 

Nor should we too hastily reproach the 
Venetians with a parsimonious or vacillating 
policy where their honour and dignity were 
so much concerned. For these alterations in 
the capital, judicious and sensible as they 
could hardly fail to appear when they had 
been achieved, were apt to present themselves 
to many in the light of unwise refinements, 
while the national resources were demanded 
for the maintenance of foreign wars or for 
domestic reforms of more general utility ; 
and we are looking at a time when a chival- 
rous enthusiasm for art was hardly under- 
stood even by the governments of Italy. 



Cfje antiquary ji3ote*15oofc. 

Women's Dress at Church in 1614. 

That the ladies of the early seventeenth 
century were not unlike some of the present 
day, let the following quotation from Rich's 
Honestie of this Age, 16 14, prove: "You 
shall see women goe so attyred to the church 
that I am ashamed to tell it out aloud, but 
harke in your eare, I will speak it softly, fitter 
in good faith to furnish A. B. H. than to 
presse into the House of God, they are so be 
paynted, so be periwigd, so be poudered, so 
be perfumed, so be starched, so be laced, 

* But, as the large print by Jost Amman, 1565, 
seems to show us, shops long continued to disfigure 
the site immediately contiguous. In a somewhat later 
engraving after Titian, published by Lacroix, these 
mean and disagreeable excrescences have been swept 
away, and the area toward the Molo is much as we 
now see it. 

+ From the early growth of a passion derived from 
Indo-Byzantine sources for sensuous opulence of orna- 
ment, a large business in gold-leaf for architectural 
purposes seems to have existed even in the earlier half 
of the fourteenth century ; for Ruskin cites, on the 
authority of Cadorin, an entry in the Procuratorial 
accounts under date of November 4, 1344, of a pay- 
ment of thirty-five ducats for making this foil to gild 
the lion over the door of the palace stairs on the site 
of the present Porta della Carta. 



and so be imbrodered that I cannot tell what 
mentall vertues they may haue that they do 
keepe inwardly to themselues ; but I am 
sure to the outward show it is hard matter in 
the church itselfe to distinguish between a 
good woman and a bad." 

Love of Books. John Halle, a cele- 
brated chirurgeon, warns young men, in one 
of his works dated about 1565, to avoid 
"games and spendyng the time in playe. 
And hereof assure thyselfe that if thou have 
not as great desyre to thy boke, as the 
greatest gamner hath to his game, thou shalte 
never worthily be called cunnyng in this 
arte. For thou must thynke and esteme all 
tyme of leysure from thy worke and busynes, 
even loste and evill bestowed, in which thou 
has not profyted somewhat at thy boke. Let 
thy boke therefore I say be thy pastyme and 
game : which (if thou love it as thou oughtest) 
will so delight thee, that thou shalt thinke no 
tyme so well bestowed as at it. Yea, thou 
must desyre it as the child doeth his mother's 
pappe ; and so will it nourishe thee, that thou 
shalt worthily growe and increase to a wor- 
shypfull fame of cunnynge and learnynge." 
Reprinted by Percy Society, vol. xi., p. xvii. 
Pref. 

James I. on the Unity of the Em- 
pire. At the present time the following 
extract from " A proclamation concerning the 
Kings Maiesties Stile of King of Great 
Britaine," etc., will be of interest. After a 
somewhat lengthy preamble, his Majesty 
characteristically proceeds : " Wherefore we 
haue thought good to discontinue the diuided 
names of England and Scotland out of our 
Regall stile, and do intend and resolue to 
take and assume unto us in maner and forme 
hereafter expressed, The name & stile of 
King of Great Britaine, including therein, 
according to the trueth, the whole Island. 
Wherein no man can imagine us to be led 
by any humour of vaine glory or ambition, 
because we should in that case rather delight 
in a long enumeration of many kingdomes 
and Seigniories (wherof in our inheritance we 
haue plenty ynough, if we thought there were 
glory in that kinde of Stile), but onely thai 
we use it as a signification of that, which in 
part is already done, and a significant pre- 
figuration of that which is to be done here- 
after; nor that we couet any new affected 



36 



fHE ANTIQUARY'S NOTE-BOOK. 



name deuised at our pleasure, but out of un- 
doubted knowledge doe use the true and 
ancient name, which God and Time haue in- 
spired upon this Isle, extant, and received in 
histories, in all Mappes and Cartes, wherein 
this He is described, and in ordinary Letters 
to ourselfe from diuers foreine Princes, war- 
ranted also by Authenticall Charters, exem- 
plification under Seales, and other Records 
of Great Antiquitie, giuing us president for 
our doing, not borrowed out of foraine 
Nations, but from the actes of our Pro- 
genitors, Kings of this Realme of England, 
both before and since the Conquest, hauing 
not had so iust and great cause as we haue. 
Upon all which considerations we do by 
these presents, by force of our kingly power 
and Prerogative, assume to our selve by the 
cleerenesse of our Right The Name and 
Stile of King of Great Britaine, France, and 
Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc., as fol- 
loweth in our iust and lawfull Stile. And 
doe hereby publish, promulge, and declare 
the same." The proclamation goes on to 
decree that in all State documents this style 
is to be observed, as also upon all coins as 
shall thereafter be minted ; and proceeds : 
" And for that we do not innouate or assume 
to us any new thing, but declare that which 
is and hath bene evident to all," concluding 
by ordering that the style shall be used as if 
it had been assumed and declared at the 
king's accession. 

Guy Fawkes Improved. There is a 
curious book which describes a plot to kill 
off all the M.P.'s on October 25, 1641. Its 
title is A Damnable Treason by a Contagious 
Plaster of Plague-sore : Wrapt up in a Letter, 
and sent to Mr. Pym : Wherein is discovered 
a Devilish and Unchristian Plot against the 
High Court of Parliament. The book de- 
scribes how the conspirator gave the letter to 
a porter with strict injunctions to deliver it 
into the hands of Mr. Pym himself at the 
Parliament House; and how Mr. Pym re- 
ceived it very courteously and opened it in 
the presence of the assembly. Then follow 
" the wicked lines that were written in the 
letter : To my honoured friend John Pym, 
Esq., Mr. Pym, doe not thinke that a 
Guard of men can protect you, if you persist 
in your traytorous courses and wicked 
Designes. I have sent a Paper-messenger 
to you, and if this doe not touch your heart, 



a Dagger shall, so soon as I am recovered of 
my Plague-sore : In the meantime you may 
be forborne, because no better man may bee 
indangered for you. Repent Traytor." The 
House ordered search to be made for the 
sender of the letter. With the aid of the 
porter and a boy he was discovered. They 
came to the " Inne " where he lay, and the boy 
having on a " tapster's Apron ranne up the 
Staires into his Chamber with a good spirit 
as he was directed, so that he might see 
whether it was the man or not. Anan, anan, 
anan Sir, saith he, what lacke ye : who being 
in bed said he did not call, but being to goe 
out early that morning before it was day, he 
therefore called for a candle which was 
brought him." The light discovered a wart 
on his nose, and a red ribbon about his arm, 
by which he was recognised ; he was appre- 
hended, and lodged in the Gate-house 
Prison. The book has a portrait of Pym, 
described " The true Effige of M. I. Pym, 
Esqr., Burgesse in the High Court of Par- 
liament for Tavistock in Devonshire," and 
underneath these lines : 

Reade in this Image him, whose deerest Elood 
Is thought no price to buy his Countries good, 
Whose name shall flourish till the blast of Fame 
Shall want a trumpet or true worth a name. 

The Way Stonehenge was Built. 
Many theories have been advanced as to the 
manner in which Stonehenge was erected, 
and it has even been conjectured that it must 
be a Roman building because of the impossi- 
bility of rude tribes erecting such huge stones. 
The following note on the Naga Hill people, 
one of the hill tribes of India, will perhaps 
throw considerable light on this subject. It 
occurs in the Jotirnal of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal (vol. xliv., pp. 319, 320), and is as 
follows : " Huge monoliths exist here. These 
stones, which are often very large, and have 
sometimes to be brought from long distances, 
are dragged up in a kind of sledge, formed 
out of a forked tree, on which the stone is 
lowered, and then carefully lashed with canes 
and creepers, and to this the men, some- 
times to the number of several hundreds, 
attach themselves in a long line, and by 
means of putting rollers underneath they pull 
it along until it has been brought up to the 
spot where it has been decided to erect it. 
Here a small hole is then dug to receive the 
lower end of the stone, and the sledge being 



ANTIQ U ART AN NE WS. 



2J 



tilted up on end, the lashings are cut adrift, 
and the stone slides into position. Some 
leaves are then placed on the top and some 
liquor poured over it. This done, a general 
feast follows, and the ceremony is complete." 
The Common Swineherd of Not- 
tingham. Readers of the book recently 
published on the Nottingham Borough 
Records, which was reviewed in the Antiquary 
(ante, xiv., p. 170), may be interested in the 
reference to the " fields " and " comon swine 
heard " contained in the following note, taken 
from the Exchequer Depositions by Commis- 
sion, now kept at the Public Record Office. 
From the Depositions of Witnesses " taken 
at the house of Anne Stanfield, widow, being 
the sign of the old Angel in Stoney Street, 
Nottingham," on 18th October, 1697, in an 
action by Sarah Beauchamp, widow, against 
Alice Doggett, Mary Wolsley, and Nicholas 
Miller Knight, it appears that George Beau- 
champ, the plaintiff's husband, had died, 
leaving his wife, the plaintiff, with seven chil- 
dren. After his death his widow, through 
poverty, " fell into a melancholy condition, 
which grew worse, till she was distracted," and 
so she continued for sixteen years. The 
witnesses describe her condition. She wan- 
dered up and down the fields gathering hips 
and haws. One witness had been in " New 
Bethleam," in London, and seen persons less 
distracted ; and persons in Nottingham have 
wondered the Corporation of Nottingham did 
not send her there. Another witness says, 
when she could get at liberty she would 
wander about in the fields, which gave them 
several times a great trouble of finding her 
out again ; and once, in one of her rambles, 
she met with the "comon swineheard," and 
had liked to have strangled him with the 
string at his neck belonging to his horn, but 
that he, throwing her down, got away from 
her. Alex. J as. Fenton. 



antiquarian jftetos. 

The British Museum has just acquired an ancient 
seal exhibiting characteristics of great archaeological 
interest, especially in relation to the inscriptions now 
known as Hittite. The newly acquired seal is of 
black hematite. It was found at Yozgat, in Asia 



Minor, a town not far distant from Boghaz Keui, 
where are some remarkable sculptures pronounced by 
Professor Sayce to be Hittile. The Yuzgat seal is 
circular, like the seal of Tarkutimme or Tarkondemos, 
to which Professor Sayce called attention several 
years ago, as furnishing an important clue to the 
decipherment of the Hittite inscriptions. It differs, 
however, from the seal of Tarkutimme in being flat, 
with the exception of a slight concavity in the centre. 
It has indications of high antiquity ; and it is, as we 
have said, of great interest in relation to the decipher- 
ment of the Hittite inscriptions. It will be held, no 
doubt, to favour the idea previously expressed by 
some scholars, that these inscriptions are in the main 
pictorial or ideographic rather than phonetic. Such a 
view, however, is not likely to be acquiesced in with- 
out a good deal of controversy. On account of the 
great interest of the seal, the Society of Biblical 
Archaeology are preparing to issue immediately an 
autotype representation. 

With reference to the proposed tercentenary cele- 
bration of the death of Mary Queen of Scots, it may 
not be generally known that the splendid oak stair- 
case in the Talbot Hotel, Oundle, originally came 
from Fotheringay Castle, and tradition says that it 
is the identical staircase down which the unfortunate 
Queen passed on the morning of her execution. 

Whilst some men were digging out a foundation for 
a new building Mr. Beagarie is about erecting in 
Priory Lane, St. Neots, near Mr. Frank Day's 
brewery, they came across a human skeleton, which, 
by its appearance, is supposed to have been buried a 
great number of years. 

During the spring of 1886, Ticknor and Co. began 
the publication of "Ye Olden Time Series; or, 
Gleanings from the Old Newspapers, chiefly of 
Boston and Salem," with brief comments by Henry 
M. Brooks, of Salem, Mass. In this series there arc 
now ready, vol. i., " Curiosities of the Old Lottery;" 
vol. ii., "Days of the Spinning-wheel in New Eng- 
land ;" vol. iii., "New England Sunday;" vol. iv\, 
" Quaint and Curious Advertisements ;" and the pre- 
sent vol. v., " Literary Curiosities." Among those to 
come are volumes on "Some Strange and Curious 
Punishments ;" " New England Music in the Latter 
Part of the Eighteenth and in the Beginning of the 
Nineteenth Century;" "Travel in Old Times, with 
some Account of Stages, Taverns, etc. ;" and "Curi- 
osities of Politics among the Old Federalists and 
Republicans." 

A testimonial to Dr. Gott, Dean of Worcester, by 
his late parishioners at Leeds, is to include eighteen 
silver soup-plates and thirty-six silver dinner-plates, 
of the reign of George III. 



28 



ANTIQ UARIAN NE WS. 



The ancient priory church of St. Bartholomew the 
Great, West Smithfield, was recently re-opened after 
the completion of an important part of the work of 
restoration. The operations so far completed include 
the completion of the apse, re-roofing of the church, 
removal of a fringe factory from over the altar and the 
south ambulatory, and the securing of the remains of 
the Lady chapel and crypt, which formed part of that 
factory. A blacksmith's forge yet occupies the site of 
the old north transept. To clear away this, together 
with an adjoining house ; to erect a shallow transept in 
its place ; to transfer the boys' school from the tri- 
forium ; to remove the temporary vestry from the south 
side of the church, erect a shallow transept in its 
place, and build a permanent vestry elsewhere ; to 
make a new west entrance, repair that end of the 
edifice, uncover the remains of the nave, and restore 
the Lady chapel, are objects which the committee 
hope to accomplish in the future. 

There has been an interesting sale of old silver and 
antique oak at Douthwaite Dale Lodge, Kirbymoor- 
side. The silver was keenly competed for, realizing 
variously from 5s. 6d. to 4. per ounce. Competition 
was equally keen for old oak. Passing from the small 
pieces such, for example, as arm and single chairs, 
deed-chests, boxes, footstools, etc. (all of which sold 
well) the cabinets, etc., were offered, many of which 
were dated very far back, the prices for them ranging 
from nineteen to fifty-two guineas. A find old dining- 
table, with extending ends, realized ^15. There was 
a very numerous company, including noblemen or their 
representatives, present on both occasions. Some fine 
Chippendale and Sheraton work brought some spirited 
bidding and high prices. 

A communication from the Rev. Joseph Hirst, 
at Smyrna, dated October 22, has been sent to 
the Archaeological Institute : "I am sorry to have to 
report from Asia Minor a very gloomy prospect for 
archxology. Owing to a newly-aroused fit of jealousy, 
and a sullen opposition to all excuse for Western en- 
croachment or interference, the sites of the Ionian 
cities and the seats of former empires are condemned 
to remain unearthed. The retrograde policy is un- 
fortunately but too rigorously enforced by some newly- 
appointed officials (in a department of the Turkish 
administration now first called into existence for the 
Inspection and Preservation of Antiquities), who have 
some tincture of European cultivation, and just that 
smattering knowledge of art which will prove preju- 
dicial. Their argument is, if treasures lie buried in 
our soil, we had better keep them ourselves ; but, as 
neither Turkish energy nor resources will allow of ex- 
cavations, the Government, dog-in-the-manger-like, 
will do nothing themselves to reap the fruits of indus- 
try, and will allow no one else to do so. Thus all 



archaeological research in the Ottoman dominions has 
come to a standstill, and there is no prospect at pre- 
sent, so I am told by our consular agent here, of any 
fresh diggings being allowed in the future. Mean- 
while, owing to greed and ignorance, a wholesale 
destruction is going on at Smyrna of the Macedonian, 
Roman, Byzantine, and Genoese walls and towers that 
crown the height of Mount Pagus and make such an 
imposing spectacle when the city is first seen from the 
sea. This work of Vandalism, begun eighteen months 
ago, will not want long to accomplish an irreparable 
injury to the lovers of art and antiquity, and to those 
who wish that the continuity of history should be pre- 
served in visible signs before one's eyes. The rapidly- 
increasing dimensions of this second city of the empire 
make the demand for building material so great that 
the so-called municipal authorities have not been able 
to resist the temptation of selling, to all comers, such 
a valuable quarry of well-dressed stones." 

An interesting relic of that great surgeon, John 
Hunter, has been presented to the Royal College of 
Surgeons. It consists of a chair which was framed 
out of the materials composing the bedstead on which 
John Hunter slept nightly for many years, and on 
which his remains were laid previous to removal for 
burial. His death happened in the Board-room of 
St. George's Hospital in October, 1793. 

The tomb of Abbot Alexander, one of the earliest 
governors of the Benedictine Monastery of Peter- 
borough, who died in 1222, and was buried in the 
north aisle of the choir, has been restored. The 
monumental slab, which is sculptured in Alwalton 
marble, on a handsome stone plinth, has been placed 
between the second bay of the north choir aisle, which, 
according to ancient engravings, is the original site. 
Upon the upper surface of the slab, which bears all 
the resemblance of Purbeck marble, is to be seen the 
full-length raised figure of the abbot (which is in an 
excellent state of preservation) dressed in his Bene- 
dictine habit, wilh tonsure and closely cut hair. In 
his right hand he holds a crosier with the head turned 
outwards, signifying his connection with the abbey in 
which his remains are laid to rest. The slab was dis- 
covered somewhat in the original position when the 
ungainly stalls were removed from the choir previous 
to restoring the piers. It was broken in two about 
the middle, possibly during the erection of the heavy 
woodwork above, but the fracture has been skilfully 
repaired with cement of the colour of the marble, and 
the break is hardly noticeable. With this exception, 
and also the laceration of the crosier-stock, the monu- 
ment would seem to be as entire as when it was first 
chiselled, thereby offering an invaluable testimony to 
the durability of " Allerton " marble. The Alwalton 



ANTIQ UARIAN NE WS. 



29 



quarries have not been worked to any extent, we 
believe, during the present century, but were much 
drawn upon for use in the erection of the cathedral 
and other buildings in mediaeval times. The hand- 
some stone font is of this local marble, and as the 
font was for many years lying unrecognised in the 
Bishop's garden, and is also little the worse for the 
great number of years and the rough usage it has 
seen, it also offers every evidence as to the quality of 
the marble from which it is cut. 

The body of Abbot Alexander was exhumed, it 
appears, in 1830, whilst the workmen were removing 
the slabs under the second bay of the north side of 
the choir. The coffin was not at a great depth, and 
it was of stone ; the body, however, was found to be 
partially gone. Only a small part of the shell was 
left, but the robe, crosier, and boots were so well 
preserved that they could be handled. Most of the 
bones were decomposed, the spine and ankle-bones 
alone being well preserved. The wood of the crosier 
had become like cork, and the horn was almost dust. 
The robe was extremely light in texture, but whether 
of linen or wool was not ascertained. The leather of 
the boots had stood the test of time better than any 
other relic. The shape of them was somewhat 
modern, being lefts and rights and square toed, 
"though less so," adds Craddock, "than the fashion 
of the last century." A piece of lead, bearing the 
words " Abbas Alexander," which had probably been 
placed on the forehead of the corpse, was found at the 
head of the coffin, in the place where it would have 
dropped when the bones of the skull had given way. 
The relics were for the most part reinclosed in the 
stone, and buried in the south side aisle, nearly oppo- 
site the burial-place of Queen Mary. 

Mr. Walter Christy has written an account of the 
Trade Signs of Essex. It is a popular account of 
the origin and meanings of the public-house and other 
signs now, or formerly, found in the county. It is 
announced for immediate publication by Messrs. 
Durrant, of Chelmsford. 

During the restoration of Waternewton Church the 
workmen have recently discovered several pieces of 
old Norman stonework, which had been built into 
the masonry of the wall of the north aisle. When it 
is remembered that while the men were engaged in 
renovating the chancel some interesting remains of 
Early English windows and doorways were discovered, 
it is a matter for considerable speculation how the 
remains of buildings of two different eras came to be 
employed in the present building, which is of some- 
what later date than either. The Early English 
remains in the chancel point to the fact of an Early 



English church having once occupied the site of the 
present edifice, but it is a question whether the 
Norman remains point to a Norman church as having 
succeeded to the Early English structure. It is 
possible that the Norman remains or even the Early 
English relics were brought from other ecclesiastical 
buildings, and were used up in the present structure, 
either at the time of its original building or at sub 
sequent restorations and additions. The existence of 
Norman work in other parts of the church would 
strengthen the idea that a Norman structure once 
occupied the present site, if it were not for the fact 
that the date of the church is certainly not later than 
Transitional Norman, or just when the Norman was 
merging into Gothic. An instance of mediaeval jerry- 
building was discovered when the columns on the 
north side of the aisle were taken down. The arches 
had not been fairly set on the capitals of the pillars, 
and to remedy this the arches were shored up while 
the columns were removed. On reaching the bases 
it was found that the mediaeval builders had not given 
any foundations whatever for the pillars to rest upon. 
A few loose stones were put together, and the pillars 
had been raised on these, which were practically the 
level of the ground. It was generally supposed that 
the clerestory windows were not of the same date as 
the rest of the nave, but that they were later insertions. 
The present work of restoration has, however, proved 
that they are original windows, occupying the places 
in which the first builders of the church placed them. 
There is absolutely no evidence whatever that they 
are later insertions, and this fact has an important 
bearing in fixing the date of the building. 

The Roman tesselated pavement, lately found in 
Culver Street, Colchester, adjoining Mr. Mumford's 
foundry, has been placed in the Colchester Museum, 
and is deposited in the first south window. A small 
amphora of light-coloured earth, and quite perfect, 
differing from any specimen hitherto in the museum, 
has also been de^jsited by Mr. Henry Laver. 

A valuable Rubens, a "Descent from the Cross," 
has been found at Montreuil-sur-Mer, not far from 
Boulogne ; whilst almost simultaneously a beautiful 
"Entombment," by Vandyck, is reported at Auchy, 
in the same neighbourhood. 

By the direction of the Primate, a visitation of the 
parish churches of Canterbury is being carried out by 
the Rural Dean. A long list of queries, drawn up by 
a committee appointed for the purpose by the Arch- 
bishop, has been placed in his hands. The investiga- 
tion is of a most thorough character, and comprises 
the condition of the church buildings, churchyards, 
parish registers, church plate, and charities. 



3 



ANTIQUARIAN NE WS. 



Some human remains have been discovered near the 
Roman road at Ashtead Park. A Roman encamp- 
ment existed hard by, and not so very many years ago 
the workmen discovered near the lime avenue a large 
number of Roman coins, pottery ware, wooden bowls, 
etc., the latter, however, crumbling into dust on being 
exposed to the air. All these Roman remains around 
the spot where the skeletons were discovered in the 
chalk might give some clue to their interment in this 
spot, and their general character. 

Lord Justice Fry will preside at a meeting which 
will be held on an early day to consider the advisa- 
bility of establishing a Society to encourage the study 
and advance the knowledge of the History of English 
Law. It is suggested that the Society shall be called 
the Seldcn Society, and that its objects shall include 
(besides meetings for the reading and discussion of 
papers) the printing of inedited MSS. and the publica- 
tion of new editions and translations of works having 
an important bearing on English Legal History, the 
collection of materials for a Dictionaiy of Anglo- 
French and of legal terms, and finally the collection of 
materials for a History of English Law. 

Two interesting manuscripts have lately been pre- 
sented to the British Museum by her Majesty's Consul 
at Chungking, China. The larger of the two fills 
seventy-three folios, and is in the Lolo character, being 
written in verse of five characters to a line. The 
smaller one is of thirteen folios, and is in the writing of 
the Shin-kia, a Shan tribe of the southern portion of 
the province Kweichow. This is the first specimen 
of the writing of this tribe to reach Europe. The 
characters are adaptations of contracted forms of an 
early kind of Chinese writing, with an admixture of 
pictorial signs. The work is one on divination, each 
sentence closing with words of good or evil augury. 

The private effects of the late Mr. Joseph Maas, the 
well-known vocalist, were disposed of last November 
by Messrs. Maddox and Son, at St. John's Wood. 
An eight-day clock, which once belonged to Izaak 
Walton, was knocked down for 67J guineas. The 
clock was contained in a handsome inlaid case of 
antique workmanship, and was made, in 1641, by John 
Roberts, of Ruabon, for the author of the Complete 
Angler, in whose family it remained for many years. 
In course of time it became the property of an angling 
society, from whom it was purchased by Mr. Maas. 

An Egyptian papyrus, 42 feet long, and containing 
all the chapters of the Book of the Dead, has just been 
received and unrolled at the Sage Library in New 
Brunswick, N.J. It was secured for the library about 
six months ago by Rev. Dr. Lansing, a missionary in 
Egypt. Experts pronounce it to have been written 
nearly 3,000 years ago. It is declared to be a fuller 



and more complete copy than the Turin papyrus, of 
which a facsimile was made by Lepsius. 

The important collection of paintings, drawings, 
engravings, etc., bequeathed to the Bethnal Green 
branch of the South Kensington Museum by the late 
Mr. Joshua Dixon, have been opened to the public. 
There are nearly three hundred works. 



sheetings of antiquarian 
Societies. 



Cambridge Antiquarian Society. Nov. Sth. 
Rev. G. F. Browne, B.D. (President), in the chair. 
The President exhibited and described reproductions, 
printed on white and coloured silks from blocks made 
this year, of the urn or island with fish, clucks, etc., 
and of the knight with hawk and hound, etc., from the 
later vestments of St. Cuthbert's body, made about 
1 100 A.D., and buried with the body in Durham 
Cathedral. Mr. Raine, of Durham, published in 1828 
an account of the opening of St. Cuthbert's tomb in 
1827, with drawings of the ornaments on the remains 
of vestments found on the body. Mr. Browne found 
that Mr. T. Wardle, of Leek, had reproduced a pat- 
tern he had found at Dantzic, consisting of a boat 
rowed by an eagle, a dog breaking its chain, and 
three swans, on a vestment brought in early times 
from Sicily, and he suggested to Mr. Wardle that he 
should reproduce the St. Cuthbert ornaments. Mr. 
Wardle at once consented, and had the beautiful 
blocks made from which the silks exhibited were 
printed. One of the blocks is in flat copper wire set 
on edge ; the other is on wood, on account of the 
numerous and rapid breakings-back of the lines, which 
render the pattern not suited for reproduction by 
means of wire. In the year 1104 a.d., Reginald, a 
monk of Durham, described three robes in which the 
body of St. Cuthbert was clothed, says they were 
taken off, and describes the three robes by which they 
were replaced in his time. These last, he says, were 
of a similar nature to those which were taken off, but 
of greater elegance. The occasion of the re-clothing 
was the translation of St. Cuthbert's body to the tomb 
prepared for it in the magnificent new Cathedral of 
Durham. From 999 a.d. to 1093 it had lain in the 
Anglian Cathedral of Durham ; and from 1093 to 
1 104 it lay in the temporary tomb prepared for it 
when they began to pull down the Anglian Cathedral 
to make way for the present Norman Church. 
Reginald says that the robe put nearest the body in 
1 104 was "of silk, thin, and of most delicate texture;" 
the next he describes as "costly, of incomparable 
purple cloth ;" the third, or outermost, was "of the 
finest linen." When the tomb was opened in 1827, 
they found first the linen robe, and then portions of 
the two silk robes. One of these robes was found to 
be of thinnish silk : the ground-colour amber ; the 
ornamental parts literally covered with leaf-gold ; the 
fringe was a braid of the same colour stitched on with 
a needle. This is the robe from which the knight 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



3i 



with hawk and hound, the rabbits, etc., etc., are 
copied. Another was a robe of thick, soft silk ; the 
colours had been brilliant beyond measure. It is the 
urn or island pattern. The ground within the circle 
is red ; the urn or flower-basket, the ducks, and the 
sea, are red, yellow, and purple ; the porpoises are 
yellow and red ; the fruit and foliage yellow, with red 
stalks ; the pattern round the border of the robe is 
red. These two correspond to the description by 
Reginald of the two robes placed next the body. The 
translation of the body having been contemplated for 
so many years, there was plenty of time for having 
special robes made. It is very tempting to believe 
that the urn represents the Fame Island, blossoming 
with Christian virtues, and bearing abundance of 
Christian fruit ; the fish and the water-birds, St. 
Cuthbert's porpoises and eider-ducks ; the knight 
with hawk and hound, the great secular position of 
the Bishop of Durham ; and so on. The robes, how- 
ever, are said to be of Eastern origin. If they were 
not made with special reference to St. Cuthbert, it 
may fairly be said that they were selected on account 
of their undesigned reference to him. It is well 
known that earlier robes than these were found on 
St. Cuthbert's body in 1827, notably a stole, beauti- 
fully wrought and ornamented, bearing a Latin state- 
ment that ^Elfflsed caused it to be made for the pious 
Bishop Frithestan. This dates the stole to 905-915 a.d. 
The whole of these precious relics are in the posses- 
sion of the Dean and Chapter of Durham. Mr. J. R. 
Clouting, of Thetford, exhibited a skull, which had 
been dug up at the depth of eighteen inches on the 
site of an ancient burying-ground about a mile from 
Thetford, on the Newmarket Road, with the follow- 
ing peculiarity : On the left side of the vertex, about 
one inch from the middle line and one inch from the 
fronto-parietal suture, was a wound, whose direction 
was obliquely from without inwards ; the length of 
the incision was 2 inches, and its depth the whole 
thickness of the bone ; there was a circular opening 
through the inner table into the cavity of the skull, 
diameter h inch. He also exhibited a celt, one of a 
large number of flint implements picked up around 
Thetford, which happened to be found within about 
150 yards of the place where the skull was dug up by 
a man whilst trenching his allotment. Mr. Clouting 
did not seek to connect the celt and skull-wound, as 
cause and effect ; but he pointed out one prominent 
peculiarity namely, that the portion of bone dis- 
placed by the injury, as indicated by the lines of the 
anterior and posterior margins of the incision, and 
the measurement of the width of the cutting-edge of 
the celt, happened to be exactly 2 inches each. The 
edges of the wound in the skull had undergone con- 
siderable amount of repair, proving that its owner 
must have lived a considerable time after the injury 
twelve months at least, but probably many years. 
There were no coins found near the skull, thus 
leaving the date of interment entirely an open ques- 
tion. Baron A. von Hiigel exhibited and described, 
as follows, various objects recently added to the 
Museum : I. A Roman bronze lamp, with chain 
attached (purchased). This beautiful lamp was found, 
some twenty years ago, in Coffin Chase Meadow, near 
Biggleswade. It was remarkably well preserved. A 
human-head mask forms a hinged lid to the largest 



orifice of the lamp ; a bird (? pelican, swan, goose) is 
nicely worked in relief on either side of its upper half, 
and a delicate pattern surrounds its widest circumfer- 
ence. 2. A leaf-shaped bronze sword (purchased). 
This sword is said to have been found in the river at 
Ely. The tongue, to which the hilt was riveted, has 
been recently mutilated. 3. A Saxon bronze-gilt disc 
(purchased). Found by Mr. J. Wilkinson, in a 
tumulus, Upper Hare Park, Swaffham. The whole 
surface is covered with very beautiful tracery, and 
there are five garnets on it, set into circles of white 
shell. These are backed with ribbed foil, which is 
nearly as fresh as on the day it was made. 4. A small 
Anglo-Saxon ivory plaque, elaborately carved, Elm- 
ham, Norfolk. Presented by the Rev. R. Kerrich to 
the society. Though one of the older treasures of the 
Antiquarian Society's collection, it was mislaid for 
some time, and has only recently found its way into 
the Museum. 5. Five bronze figures from crucifixes. 
One, which shows traces of gilding, dates from the 
eleventh century, and has been kindly deposited in 
the Museum by Mr. R. T. Martin, of Anstey Pastures, 
Leicester. Another figure is of the thirteenth century, 
and was bought, with some old keys, in a London 
curiosity-shop. This is the most recent of the five. 
The remaining three figures, all of local origin, have 
long been in the society's collection. They have now 
been placed side by side on a board to illustrate the 
gradual change which crucifix figures underwent in 
those two centuries. 6. An implement of stag's horn, 
Burwell Fen. Presented by Mr. J. Carter. The lower 
portion of a large antler has been neatly perforated 
(? for a handle, thong, celt) ; the top is cut and 
ground into a chisel-like wedge. There is in the 
Blackmore Museum a somewhat similar tool, made 
of bone, and still used in Cornwall for barking 
oak-trees. 7. Two bronze plaques from Peru. Hiigel 
Loan Collection. The larger one is covered with 
elaborate and deeply incised work. In the centre 
stands a human figure with uplifted arms, its body 
filled with spirals, etc. On either side above is a 
lizard-like creature with prominent ears and muzzle ; 
below are two other creatures, of which the design 
has, however, been already so much conventionalized 
as to render it difficult to see the animal in them. 
This plaque was no doubt, as is the case with ancient 
Mexican work, covered with pigment and studded 
with stones. The smaller specimen represents three 
human figures (two reversed). It appears to be one 
of more ancient date than the larger one. The 
British Museum does not possess anything like these 
bronzes, and one is at a loss to know with what to com- 
pare them. 8. A New Zealand weapon (patii-patu). 
Hiigel Loan Collection. A particularly fine specimen 
of old Maori carving. Owing to much of old Maori 
woodwork having been touched up by the natives 
with European tools, specimens of genuine "shell- 
carving" are very scarce. 9. A mask from New Zea- 
land. The helmet-like form of the head is strikingly 
like the classic-shaped feather helmets of the Hawaians. 
(This New Britain mask was exhibited in conjunction 
with the patu-patu and three Maori sacred images, 
recently transferred to the Museum of Archaeology 
from the Fitzwilliam Museum, to show that the form 
of the helmet is still discernible in New Zealand 
carving.) 



32 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



Chester Archaeological and Historic Society. 

October 25. The winter session of this society was 
opened by an inaugural address from the Lord Bishop 
of Chester. The Bishop, in his address, said archaeo- 
logy was a thing which ought to be defined, yet it was 
a little difficult to define it. Most things ending in 
"ology" are either arts or sciences. They could not 
call archaeology distinctly a science ; at all events, if 
it was a science, it was one which was at this moment, 
and was likely for some time to be, in solution. It 
would be a very long time before the most ardent 
archaeologists could attempt to lay down laws, or pre- 
tend they had discovered laws, which regulated the 
domain of archaeology in the same way as geology, 
theology, and the other words ending with "ology." 
Archaeology had not become a science. On the other 
hand, it had not become an art, because it did not 
teach us to produce anything. It being in that inter- 
mediate stage, he thought the proper way to describe 
it would be to call it a " study." We only look upon 
" archaeology" as the science of those ancient things 
which, by some system of continuity, are connected 
with modern life ; whereas by palaeontology we refer 
to that description of antiquity which is not directly 
continuous with modern life. The distinction might 
be a fanciful one, because he had no doubt these 
things were all really connected distinctly with exist- 
ing life ; but " archaeology," as we use it, does connect 
itself with those objects that have continuity between 
ancient and modern life ; whereas palaeontology, as 
we use it, refers mainly to that which has become so 
obsolete that in the distance we do not claim a con- 
nection between it and existing things. The study of 
those ancient things was somehow connected by pro- 
gress with natural science on the one hand, and with 
modern politics on the other. In one aspect archaeo- 
logy connected itself with anthropology, and archaeo- 
logy plus anthropology very often took the form of 
palaeontology, the science connecting itself with the 
earliest instruments of existing life, all the questions 
about stone axe-heads and such-like, which were ex- 
tremely remote and difficult to throw into any correla- 
tion with modern life. Then, on the other hand, 
where archaeology connected itself with political, civil, 
or social life, there it was the sister of history and an 
important contributor to the knowledge of history; 
or, as he had formerly remarked, archaeology busies 
itself with the formation of the concrete in which the 
foundations of history are laid. Archaeology was not 
in itself a history, but it contributed that element of 
antiquarian research which was one of the most 
charming and taking sides of historical study, and 
which on any view of history, excepting the purely 
utilitarian, drew in the largest number of students. 
Antiquarian research in all matters of genealogy was 
of the most inexhaustible character, and both in 
America and Britain there were several magazines on 
the subject, and numerous students. It was strange 
that, while the study of genealogy used to be thought 
the sign of an obsolete, effete, and worn-out nation, 
at the present moment in America the study of genea- 
logy was drawing a larger expenditure of money, in- 
vestigation, and literary power than in any other 
country in the world. Besides genealogy, there was 
local history, a study in which every man having any 
affection for his birthplace or locality would naturally 



take great interest, and a study to which men of 
almost every rank of society could contribute. In the 
remotest villages people were generally found who 
could tell facts of local history, local administration, 
or particular anecdotes of families which were, had 
been, or would be historical, and which ought to be 
collected from time to time, and put on record. 
Especially in counties like Cheshire and Lancashire, 
there were great changes going on, owing to the for- 
mation of railroads and the division of parishes, in 
which local history might derive a great deal of infor- 
mation by seizing the present moment for putting on 
record things which were likely to change very soon. 
Regarding Cheshire and North Wales, there was a 
large number of good books some so good and 
thorough that, until one had mastered them, it argued 
a certain amount of presumption to talk about Cheshire 
and North Wales antiquities. Until one had read 
Ormerod, one could not be sure a new fact hit upon 
had not been known for the last sixty years. Among 
the old school of antiquaries we also had King's Vale 
Royal and Leicester's Antiquities; and recently Mr. 
Thompson Watkin's Roman Antiquities of Cheshire, 
The History of the Hundred of Macclesfield, Mono- 
graphs of Macclesfield and Nantwich, etc., besides the 
histories of Chester proper, and Mr. Henry Taylor's 
book upon Flint, which he read with the very greatest 
pleasure a book which seemed to be quite a model 
of what local history should be, full of old information 
and new information, and all arranged in that intelli- 
gent way, and with that full perception of the bearing 
of local history upon general history, which really was 
immensely to be desired in archaeological histories. 
If they subdivided into chronological periods the field 
of archaeological study, they would see how very large 
opportunities they had in this part of the world for 
carrying on successful investigations. Dividing them 
into six classes, the first would be the section of 
archaeology which they might call indigenous that 
which was most closely connected with anthropology, 
with natural science that study which investigates 
the succession of the stone, the bronze, and the iron 
implements. The old quarrel between the bronze and 
the iron had been less before us of late years, because 
of the immense interest attaching to the discovery of 
the stone weapons. Then, again, when they got 
nearer still to anthropological study, they entered the 
region of skulls and shin-bones, and they found his 
good friend Professor Boyd Dawkins, who not only 
had investigated all those matters from the natural 
history point of view, but also had worked out his- 
torical theories from them ; and he would tell them 
how and when he had picked up the bones of a primi- 
tive indigenous person, by the broadness of shin and 
the length of skull, to what exact nationality he be- 
longed. Then, again, there was the history of the 
cave-dwellers, the lake-dwellers, and so on ; and that 
and the nature of the weapons discovered, the nature 
of the bones, was a link between natural science and 
archaeology. The second period was that of the Celtic 
pre-Roman antiquities. The third division brought 
us directly into the great channel of civilization, the 
Roman period, which had been so largely illustrated 
in the beautiful book of Mr. Thompson Watkin, and 
for which in Cheshire there was a considerable 
amount of material. Although Cheshire was a battle- 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



33 



field of considerable importance in the very earliest 
days of Anglo-Saxon Christianity, it did appear, by 
its practical exemption from Danish ravages, to be 
one of the most likely portions of England for the 
tracing of a direct connection between the ancient 
British and the Anglo-Saxon Church. He was not 
one of those who attached very great importance to 
the existence of the ancient British Church. Having 
written a large volume on the subject, in which every- 
thing on the history of the ancient British Christianity 
was put together, he had come to the conclusion that 
it really was of less historical and continuous import- 
ance than was very often given to it. The fourth sub- 
division was the Anglo-Saxon period, and for that 
period they in Cheshire had, or might have, materials 
not adequately worked. Cheshire was the most 
northerly part of the kingdom of Mercia, which to a 
very great extent escaped Danish ravages. It was 
well ravaged by the Anglo-Saxons, and there had also 
been great doings in Cheshire in the Roman times ; 
but from the Danish invasions Cheshire, he was in- 
clined to believe, did not suffer very much. It lay to 
the west side of the great line which separated, in the 
time of Alfred, the Danish from the Anglo-Saxon 
dominion in Britain ; therefore, naturally, one would 
look in Cheshire for a continuity of a great many 
Anglo-Saxon names of places, and to some extent, 
possibly, for traces of Anglo-Saxon institutions. Now, 
Runcorn, besides Chester (which was pre-eminent in 
this matter) was the site of very ancient Anglo-Saxon 
civilization. Eddisbury was another, and Thelwell 
another. He did not know, if they went to Runcorn 
and dug the whole ground over, that they would find 
any Anglo-Saxon coins ; but he did know, historically, 
that that was an important site from the ninth cen- 
tury, in the same way as at Thelwell and the great 
Forest of Wirral. His lordship then referred to 
the names of Cholmondeley, Wybunbury, Pemon- 
destall, and Bromborough as being of unmistakably 
Saxon origin. Coming down to Norman and medi- 
aeval times, they would find that material existed, and 
existed very largely, in the county of this period. To 
this period nearly all the architecture and archaeology 
of Cheshire belonged. He could not remember ever 
seeingany Anglo-Saxon work connected with Chester, 
although, as he had said, it must have been an impor- 
tant period for the city, because it was untouched by 
the Danes. But from the moment of the Conquest 
there was abundant testimony. He had himself seen 
the principal charter of the Mainwaring family, which 
was found in a hayloft a most beautiful specimen of 
a charter, printed copies of which existed, whilst the 
original was lost, and narrowly escaped being lost 
entirely but for its timely discovery. Then there was 
the great subject of genealogy, about which everybody 
should know more or less. Where an old family could 
trace its genealogy back for three generations, or to 
the beginning of the present century, it was pretty 
nearly certain that it could go back to the Reforma- 
tion. This was a very important matter, and inter- 
esting to those who had old family connections in 
Cheshire. He expressed his pleasure at the careful 
manner in which the archaeology of the county, as 
displayed in the architecture of the cathedral and old 
parish churches, was being preserved and restored. 
Coming to the sixth division, his lordship said it was 
VOL. XV. 



one in which they, as archaeologists, could do the 
greatest service at the least trouble. They were living 
in times when very many things connected with their 
own lines and ancestry were rapidly passing away. 
He referred to the old-fashioned tinder-boxes of the 
past, and to the institution of the " church ale," the 
latter of which was so marked a feature for aiding 
and sustaining the fabric of the church in olden times, 
and the precursor of the modern bazaar to the same 
end. These things marked a distinct series of steps, 
which it was desirable should be placed on record 
before they were entirely forgotten. He pointed out 
that a great deal of interest attached to old church- 
wardens' accounts, showing how the money was raised 
for supporting public matters of business, such as the 
making of roads, maintenance of the poor, etc. From 
an opportunity he had of inspecting these accounts 
for the parish of Great Budworth, it would appear 
that each township sent two representatives to an 
assembly that met four times a year, who were called 
" township-men," and collectively " the assembly of 
gentlemen, landowners, township-men, churchwardens, 
and overseers, "their constitution representing in every 
particular the Parliamentary constitution of the 
country gentlemen representing their own property, 
landowners the House of Lords, township-men the 
House of Commons ; and in the churchwardens and 
overseers they would get, as well as her Majesty, the 
Most Honourable the Privy Council and great Min- 
isters of the Cabinet. When these meetings of town- 
shipmen and others found out how much money they 
wanted, they proposed to make what they called a 
" mise." A great many might remember the use of 
the word " mise " as a unit in the collection of money. 
The district was not rated according to the holdings, 
but a certain sum represented the payment of the col- 
lective parishes. If they wanted more money, they 
raised two, three, four, or as many as five " mises." 
That was common both in Yorkshire and Cheshire, 
although he never saw the term "mise" except in 
Cheshire records. These things, to his mind, were 
very interesting, and illustrated what he spoke of at the 
beginning, as to archaeology following a particular line. 
Then, he did not doubt that there were still existing 
relics of city clubs and pensions which would soon be 
forgotten, but which were valuable as containing lists 
of names that would be lost if they were not looked 
after, or of being picked up by the first archaeologist 
who came that way. Mr.G. W. Shrubsole followed with 
a paper " On the evidence of a consideiable traffic in 
coal, lead, and lime, in Roman times, between Deva and 
the coast of North W T ales." He said it seemed highly 
probable that, Deva being the seat of Government of 
the district, any tribute the Romans might have 
thought proper to inflict on the surrounding tribes 
would be payable here ; and here they had at once 
the commencement of a regular trade route, supposing 
trade had not already begun to gravitate towards the 
place. And foremost he alluded to the tribute of 
lead, which as a natural mineral production of North 
Wales would be most liktly to find its way to Chester 
from Flint, where, and in the district, there were 
evidences of ancient smelting hearths or furnaces. 
He pointed out the facilities offered for bringing this 
tribute, as well as other produce, to Chester by the 
river on the tides ; and by means of many interesting 

D 



34 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



and curious relics recently discovered in excavating 
for a new gas-holder at the Chester gasworks, pro- 
ceeded to show not only that this was so, but that in 
all probability the Romans were acquainted with the 
value of coal, which, with limestone, was made 
an article of traffic. At twenty-three feet depth the 
ordinary gravel was found charged with Roman 
pottery, and bones of living animals (in an adjoining 
room were bones sufficient to cover the whole of the 
room in which they were met) taken from the exca- 
vation. In the latter was also found a pig of lead 
bearing an inscription corresponding with the date 
A.D. 74, as well as relics of a wooden staging. Mr. 
Shrubsole illustrated how these remains corresponded 
with a line of posts and Roman debris discovered close 
to the Watergate in 1874, and evidently pointed to 
the conclusion that a complete row of staging existed 
from one to the other at this spot ; moreover, it lent 
confirmation to the theory that the arm, or creek, of 
the river existing in those times at Blackfriars followed 
a course under the City Walls to the Watergate, 
where it turned towards the gasworks, and where 
even now there was an indentation or small creek in 
the river-bank. An old map of 1574 showed three 
sailing vessels on the river running close to the Walls, 
but another of 1753 showed the same area enclosed 
by land, and ships of the same size at the Water 
Tower. Fifty years later, however, only the rings 
that fastened them remained. Owing to the ample 
supply of timber in the neighbourhood he thought it 
might be taken that the boats engaged in the trade 
were built at Chester. The remains of the old staging, 
some part of which had been brought to the room to 
aid in illustrating the paper, were exceedingly curious 
and interesting. It was pointed out that the piles 
were not only shod with iron fastened on with nails, 
but the whole was embedded in concrete, a mass of 
the concrete, indeed, firmly adhering to each speci- 
men. The staging would enable vessels to unload at 
any stage of the tide, whether high or low water. The 
whole arrangement suggested a considerable traffic. 
The question arose, with what towns or stations this 
traffic was carried on ; and by means of diagrams the 
lecturer indicated that these could be none other than 
the ancient Roman towns in the district now marked 
by such places as Holyhead, Carnarvon, Flint, Holy- 
well, and other modern towns. In his visit to the 
gasworks he said he noticed considerable indications 
of coal among the debris, and an examination showed 
that most of it was rounded or water worn, and that 
it belonged to the valuable variety known as cannel 
coal. From first to last very little under a ton of this 
coal had been removed from the excavation, and was 
in itself evidence of a considerable traffic having been 
carried on in it. 

Yorkshire Geological and Polytechnic Society. 
The annual meeting of this society was held on 
Nov. 18, at the Bull Hotel, Wakefield, Mr. T. 
W. Embleton in the chair. Mr. J. W. Davis, the 
hon. secretary, read the annual report, which stated 
that during the past year steady progress had been 
made. The present number of members was 215, 
being an increase of five on the previous year. There 
were thirty-three life members. The attention of the 
members was requested to the fact that local scientific 
societies had been admitted as corresponding societies 



to the British Association. Such co-operation on a 
still more extended scale than at present would result 
in important gains to science, and it was with this 
view that the committee sought to extend the federa- 
tion and form an organized centre for local scientific 
societies in connection with the annual meeting of the 
British Association. The report gave an interesting 
rhumi of the work done by the society, and threw 
out valuable suggestions with a view to its further ex- 
tension. The financial statement showed that the 
funds of the society now amount in the aggregate to 
360. The Rev. J. Stanley Tute read a short paper 
on the " Cayton Gill Beds," submitting for inspection 
a number of interesting fossils which had been found 
in them. A paper on " Habitation Terraces in the 
East Riding " was submitted by Mr. J. R. Mortimer, 
F.G.S. The terraces described were lance-shaped, as 
platforms, and not to be confounded with cultivation 
terraces, so common in the vicinity of old villages. 
They occur on many of the steep hillsides of the 
wold valleys, usually on that side which faces the 
morning or mid-day sun. .Sometimes one, but 
oftener two or three, run along the side of the valley 
parallel with one another. They are from 100 to 200 
yards in length and 15 feet to 21 feet broad. Mr. 
Mortimer considers that they were made as sites for 
primitive dwellings. Several examples in Raindale, 
Fimber, Burdale, and other places were described. 
They have, he thinks, relation to a very early period 
of man's existence in this country, and are probably 
the first earthworks constructed. The wold intrench- 
ments cross these terraces, and were evidently con- 
structed at a subsequent period. Mr. J. W. Davis, 
F.S.A., read a paper on "The Relative Age of the 
Remains of Man in Yorkshire." It gave some account 
of the men and women who he believed lived in 
Yorkshire at an earlier period than any of which we 
have written or even orally transmitted history. A 
people who inhabited the Yorkshire wolds erected 
defences against neighbouring or more distant foes, 
and buried their dead, generally after cremation, in 
rude graves dug in the ground. Above the remains 
were erected tumuli, of which considerable numbers 
were scattered over the East Riding. A branch of 
the same tribe occupied rude structures built on the 
trunks of trees laid horizontally one above the other 
in the lakes and meres of Holderness. They appeared 
to have been peacefully disposed people given to 
agriculture, their clothing being the skins of animals 
which they killed for food. The men of this age were 
acquainted with the uses of pottery, rudely shaped by 
hand, the decorations being effected either by the 
finger-nail or some sharply pointed instrument. Their 
weapons were made from the nodules of flint. Pro- 
bably about the same period the caves which abounded 
in the mountain limestone districts of Craven and the 
dales of the North Riding afforded shelter to a 
primitive people of whom we knew little, except that 
they derived a precarious living from the chase. 
Valuable information was obtained of the presence 
of man at a remote period from the occurrence of 
flint flakes and implements beneath the peat, on the 
range of hills forming the Pennine chain. The great 
trees which flourished at this time probably indicated 
a warmer climate than now exists. In Victoria Cave, 
Settle, there was evidence of a comparatively recent 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



35 



occupation by men possessed of considerable refine- 
ment as compared with those of earlier times. Traces 
of the Roman occupation of Yorkshire were discussed, 
and considerable information of an interesting charac- 
ter was given. The lake-dwellings at Ulrome, seven 
miles south of Bridlington, had a peculiar interest to 
the archaeologist, as they were the first of the kind 
discovered in England. There was no doubt that a 
great part of the Holderness district was at one time 
under water, and it was during that time that the 
structures were erected that gave support to lake 
dwellings. In conclusion, Mr. Davis said that whilst 
the Assyrians and Egyptians were at the height of 
their civilization, the people in this country were a 
race of savages. The culture of the Assyrians and 
Egyptians had passed from them ; meanwhile the 
English had reached the highest state of civilized 
development hitherto attained by man. A paper on 
the prehistoric remains on Rombald's Moor, by Mr. 
John Holmes, described a number of evidences of 
man's existence on that ground. Reference was also 
made to ancient burials, and more particularly to 
urns with bones and trinkets found within a circle of 
earth and stones, measuring 50 feet in diameter, on 
the south-east side of Baildon Moor. Mr. Holmes 
also described the cup-and-ring marks which occur in 
many places on Rombald's Moor, and discussed the 
theories as to their origin and meaning. The paper 
concluded with a description of the limekilns at 
Lanshaw Delves. Mr. G. R. Vine, of Sheffield, con- 
tributed notes on the palaeontology of the Wenlock 
Shales of Shropshire. The area in which this forma- 
tion exists is in North and South Wales, Westmore- 
land, Scotland, and Ireland. The researches of Mr. 
Vine have shown that the Wenlock shales of Shrop- 
shire are far more fossiliferous than those found in 
other districts. The principal additions are in the 
minute forms of animal life, the remains of which have 
been obtained by washing the shales. The basis of 
the work is the address of Mr. R. Etheridge when 
President of the Geological Society. About twenty 
tons of the shale have been worked, and immense 
numbers of specimens obtained* Since 1881 Mr. 
Vine had given most of his leisure-time to picking out 
these minute organisms with a magnifying glass, and 
of the actinozoa, echinodermata, and Crustacea, in- 
cluding entomostraca, annelida, polyzoa, brachiopoda, 
and gasteropoda, he had at least 200,000 examples. 
A portion of these were described in the paper. Mr. 
J. W. Davis reported on the Raygill Fissure, stating 
that in consequence of a large mass of limestone in 
front of the fissure having obstructed further investi- 
gation, the operations of the committee had for a time 
been suspended. Considering the scarcity of remains 
and the difficulty and expensive operations which 
would be necessary in order to continue the investi- 
gation, it was now recommended that nothing further 
should be done at present. 

Belfast Natural History and Philosophical 
Society. Nov. 7. The President of the Society, 
Mr. W. H. Patterson, opened the session with an 
address entitled " Some Later Views respecting the 
Irish Round Towers." The President traced briefly 
the position of the round-tower controversy up to the 
period at which'-Dr. Petrie published his essay. He 
proceeded- -In 1878 Miss Margaret Stokes published 



her Early Christian Architecture in Ireland. Miss 
Stokes holds that the first round towers were erected 
in Ireland soon after the first invasion of the North- 
men, for the protection of the religious communities 
against these Pagan invaders, and that the erection of 
these church keeps or castles continued for about 
three centuries that is, from a little before the year 
A.D. 900 to about A.D. 1200. In speaking of the 
state of architecture in Ireland at the close of the 
ninth century, Miss Stokes says that, although the use 
of cement and the hammer was known to Irish 
builders, the horizontal lintel had not yet been super- 
seded by the arch, and at this point we arrive at a 
class of buildings which forms a striking innovation 
in the hitherto humble character of Irish church archi- 
tecture that is, the lofty pillar tower. In the be- 
ginning of the present century the existence of 118 
of these circular ecclesiastical towers was asserted ; of 
these seventy-six remain to the present time in a more 
or less perfect condition. Miss Stokes remarks that 
a certain development of knowledge and skill in the 
art of building may be traced in these various exam- 
ples, and that such changes are analogous to those 
which took place in the church architecture of Ire- 
land after the eighth century. She then attempts a 
rough classification of the existing round towers, 
showing the gradation in masonry and the correspond- 
ing changes in the character of the door and window 
opes. There are four divisions into which the towers 
are classified.^ {First style Rough field stones, un- 
touched by hammer or chisel, not rounded, but fitted 
by their length to the curve of the wall, roughly 
coursed, wide-jointed, with spalds or small stones 
fitted into the interstices. Mortar of coarse unsifted 
sand or gravel. Second style Stones roughly 
hammer-dressed, rounded to the curve of the wall, 
decidedly, though somewhat irregularly coursed. 
Spalds, but often badly bonded together. Mortar 
freely used. Third style Stones laid in horizon- 
tal courses, well dressed, and carefully worked to the 
round and batter ; the whole cemented in strong 
plain mortar of lime and sand. Fourth style Strong, 
rough, but excellent ashlar masonry, rather open- 
jointed, and therefore closely analogous to the English- 
Norman masonry of the first half of the twelfth 
century ; or, in some instances, finest possible examples 
of well-dressed ashlar. Sandstone in squared courses. 
Miss Stokes then follows with what she calls a broad 
classification of the towers according to the average 
styles of their masonry and apertures. Those which 
belong to the first style of masonry have doorways 
of the same material as the rest of the building ; 
sometimes the stones are roughly dressed ; the door- 
opes are square-headed, with inclined sides ; about 
5 feet 6 inches high by 2 feet wide, and 8 feet to 13 feet 
above the level of the ground. In the second and 
third styles of masonry there will be found in the 
doorways the first idea of an arch, the curve being 
scooped out of three or five stones ; the stones of the 
doorways are generally of some finer material than the 
rest of the wall, and sometimes an architrave or 
moulding is introduced. In the fourth style we find 
the doorways formed with a regular radiating arch of 
six or more stones, with architrave, or fine examples 
of the decorated Irish Romanesque of the twelfth cen- 
tury. Miss Stokes considers that the following con- 

D 2 



3* 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



elusions may be drawn from those comparisons : 

1. That these towers were built after the Irish became 
acquainted with the use of cement and the hammer. 

2. That the towers were built at or about the period 
of transition from the entablature style of the early 
Irish period to the round-arched decorated Irish- 
Romanesque style. 3. That the largest number of 
these towers were built before this transition had 
been established, and while the Irish builders were 
feeling their way to the arch. 4. That as this transi- 
tion took place between the time of Cormac O'Killen 
and Brian Borumha i.e., between a.d. 900 and 1000 
the first groups of towers belong to the first date. 
The average thickness of the wall at the base of the 
towers is from 3 feet 6 inches to 4 feet. The usual 
diameter at the level of the doorway is from 7 feet to 
9 feet internally. The towers taper, and their walls 
diminish in thickness towards the top. In height the 
towers vary from about 50 feet to over 100 feet. Intern- 
ally the towers were divided into six or seven stories. 
The floors, which were of wood, were supported in 
one of three different ways. The beams either rested 
on projecting abutments in the wall, or there were 
holes for the joists ; or, thirdly, corbels or brackets 
supported the floors. The height of the doorway 
above ground averages 13 feet, but it varies consider- 
ably. The doorways always face the entrance of the 
church to which they belong, unless in those instances 
where the church is evidently much later than the 
tower, and it is found that the position of the tower 
was usually about 20 feet distant from the north-west 
end of the church. The name by which these towers 
are usually distinguished by the writers of the Irish 
annals is "cloicthech," signifying bellhouse or belfry. 
There are numerous references in the annals of 
disasters to these belfries by fire, lightning, and other 
causes. We also learn that persons took refuge in 
these towers, and that sometimes the protection of the 
towers was sought in vain. After a very full and 
careful survey of all the matters connected with this 
subject, Miss Stokes writes : " The conclusion drawn 
from all these data being that such towers, though 
constructed from time to time over a considerable 
period, and undergoing corresponding changes in 
detail, were first built at the close of the ninth 
century, and that a number seem to have been erected 
simultaneously ;" and again, in speaking of the first 
arrivals of Danish invaders in this country : " In the 
beginning of the ninth century a new state of things 
was ushered in, and a change took place in the 
hitherto unmolested condition of the Church. Ireland 
became the battlefield of the first struggle between 
Paganism and Christianity in Western Europe, and 
the result of the effort then made in defence of her 
faith is marked in the ecclesiastical architecture of the 
country by the apparently simultaneous erection of a 
number of lofty towers, rising in strength of " defence 
and faithfulness " before the doorways of those 
churches most likely to be attacked." After review- 
ing some historical records as to the building of 
certain towers and peculiarities in their construction, 
Miss Stokes writes : " Thus we find three distinct 
periods to which these towers may be assigned fin.t, 
from A.D. 890 to 927 ; secondly, from 973 to 1013 ; 
thirdly, from 1 178 to 1238 ; and of these three periods 
the first two were marked by a cessation of hostilities 



with the Northmen, while the Irish made energetic 
efforts to repair the mischief caused by the invasions 
of the heathen. It is clear that these three divisions 
are distinctly marked by three steps in the progressive 
ascent of architecture, from the primitive form of the 
entablature to that of the decorated Romanesque 
arch. The churches built by Cormac O'Killen are 
characterized by the horizontal lintel ; the church of 
King Brian, at Iniscaltra, with its still partially- 
developed Romanesque doorway and chancel-arch, 
while retaining the rude form in its minor apertures, 
marks a period of transition from the horizontal to the 
round -arched style; and the buildings of Queen 
Dervorgilla and Turlough O'Connor, with the door- 
way of Clonfert, show what the latter style became in 
the lifetime of Donough O'Carroll. If Lusk, Glenda- 
lough, Timahoe, and Ardmore are taken as types of 
this gradation in the towers, we see such signs of pro- 
gress as lead to the belief that a certain interval of 
time had intervened between the first and last-men- 
tioned of those erections." 

Archaeological Institute. Nov. 4. J. T. Mickle- 
thwaite, Esq., V.P., in the chair. A letter from the 
Rev. Joseph Hirst on " The Archaeological Prospects 
of Asia Minor " was communicated to the meeting. 
Mr. W. M. Flinders Petrie read a paper on "The 
Finding of Daphnse." The site of Tell Defenneh, 
near Kantara, is now shown, by Mr. Petrie's excava- 
tions this spring, to be the Stratopeda, or camp of the 
Ionian and Karian mercenaries, the whole spot being 
covered with Greek and Egyptian remains of the 
26th Dynasty. The fort was founded by Psamtik I., 
and the place was desolated under Aahmes by the 
removal of the Greeks, exactly as stated by Herodotus. 
The palace-fort here was the " Pharaoh house in 
Tahpanhes," named by Jeremiah, and the pavement 
mentioned by the prophet was discovered. The 
building is still called by the Arabs " The Palace of 
the Jew's Daughter," apparently in memory of the 
" King's daughter " of Judah, who fled there with 
Johanan and the Jewish refugees in 587 B.C. The 
archaeological results are mainly in Greek vase-paint- 
ing, a great quantity of archaic pottery having been 
found. Ironwork and jewellery are also common on 
this site, besides immense numbers of weights. The 
foundation deposits of Psamtik I. were taken out from 
each corner of the fort. Mr. Petrie's other discoveries 
this year for the Egypt Exploration Fund, at Nauk- 
ratis, Buto, and Tell Nebesheh, were also briefly 
described. Mr. A. Baker read a paper upon " Archi- 
tecture and Archaeology" advocating the closer union 
of the two. Among the objects exhibited to the 
meeting was a large amphora, found with seventeenth- 
century remains. Mr. E. Budart sent some notes upon 
this vessel. It was thought by the meeting that it 
was of the period of the Commonwealth, and pro- 
bably for the importation of crude oil from the Medi- 
terranean. Mr. Petrie exhibited Egyptian antiquities, 
including some fine examples in gold. 

English Goethe Society. Nov. 3. H. Schutz 
Wilson, Esq., in the chair. Dr. R. Garnett 
read a paper on " The New Melusine." After 
briefly sketching the literary history of the story, 
and its relation to the ancient legend, Dr. Gar- 
nett read a translation, made by himself, of the 
greater part of it, and proceeded to discuss the 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



37 



opinions of the German critics respecting its origin 
and purpose. In the discussion which ensued, Mr. 
Edward Bell remarked on the resemblance of the 
New Melusine to another fanciful tale by Goethe, the 
Neiu Paris ; and Miss Toulmin Smith stated that the 
original legend of ' ' Melusine " had been dramatized 
in Germany. 

New Shakspere. Nov. 12. Mr. S. L. Lee, Hon. 
Treasurer, in the chair. Mr. F. A. Marshall read a 
paper " On the Effacement of Queen Catherine, 
Mother of Henry VI." Mr. Marshall reviewed the 
scanty records concerning the Queen from the death 
of King Henry V. to her own, including what was 
known of her private marriage with Owen Tudor, 
showing the bitterness of feeling aroused in England 
by this mesalliance a feeling which probably forbade 
her presentment on the stage except as an adjunct of 
the beloved King and famous general Henry V. 
The Chairman reminded the meeting of Pepys's visit 
to Westminster Abbey, where he saw the body of 
Queen Catherine, which had lain exposed to view 
since the destruction of the old Lady Chapel by 
Henry VII., pointing out that the body must have 
been thus exposed to public view in Shakspere's 
time, and that such treatment of the body of a queen 
was probably the consequence of her degraded posi- 
tion in the popular estimate. Mr. Marshall also read 
a note "On the Earl of Warwick in 1 Henry VI." 
showing that the Warwick in this play was Richard 
Beauchamp, the same as in Henry V, not Richard 
Neville, the King-maker ; and a note " On the Date 
of The Merchant of Venice," summarizing the con- 
siderations which should guide us in fixing that date, 
which he himself held to be 1596. 

Oct. 22. Dr. F. J. Furnivall in the chair. 
Mr. S. L. Lee read a paper " On the Elizabethan 
Drama and Contemporary Crime," showing the 
topical character of much of the drama of that day, 
and its habit of relying for matter upon current 
political and social events, and more particularly 
domestic tragedies. As specimens of political plays 
we had Chapman's " England's Joy," which had for 
subject the tragical death of Marshal Byron, and 
Middleton's " Game of Chess." Of social plays there 
were " Arden of Feversham," the " Warning for Fair 
Women," and "Two Tragedies in One," in which 
plays the fullest detail was presented on the stage as, 
for instance, the reading of the indictments and other 
legal processes, a hanging, and the cutting tc pieces 
of a body. The prologues of such plays boasted of 
this realism. Mr. Lee did not attempt to deal with 
the question of authorship. We found in these plays 
a good representation of ordinary middle-class life, 
and saw that the close relations between the Eliza- 
bethan stage and Elizabethan life was the strong point 
in the national drama of that age. The Chairman 
thought that as regarded Shakspeare he tried topical 
drama of this sort (in " Love's Labour's Lost "), and 
found that it did not suit his powers, and so left it for 
others. He could not admit Shakspere's share in 
" Arden of Feversham." Mr. A. H. Bullen said that 
the early date of " Arden " (1592) had always puzzled 
him. If young Shakspeare did not do the strong 
work in it, one did not know to whom to ascribe it, 
all the good men of that date being known. 

Numismatic Oct. 21. Dr. J. Evans, President, 
in the chair. The following exhibitions were made : 



Dr. Evans, an electrotype of a large bronze medal of 
Henry VIII. , preserved in the Antiken Cabinet at 
Vienna, having on one side the bust of the King, and 
on the other a crowned rose and the inscription 
rvtilans . rosa . sine . spina ; and also a small 
silver medallion of Gallienus. Mr. Durlacher, a rare 
half-sovereign of James I., with m.m., a bunch of 
grapes, and the word iacbvs ; and Mr. Krumbholz, 
a money-changer's silver weight with the head of 
Elizabeth on both sides, and counter-struck with the 
silver mark for 161 8. Mr. J. G. Hall read a paper 
on the types, etc., of European mediaeval gold coins, 
in which he traced the origin of the gold coinages in 
the principal European states. Mr. Grueber read a 
paper on a unique and unpublished medal of Anthony 
Brown, first Viscount Montagu, recently presented by 
Mr. A. W. Franks to the British Museum. In the 
course of his remarks Mr. Grueber attributed the 
medal to the hand of Jacopo Trezzo, the famous 
Italian medalist of the sixteenth century, who pro- 
bably executed it on the occasion of Montagu's visit 
to Madrid in 1560. Mr. G. Sim communicated a 
notice of a hoard of silver coins found in Aberdeen in 
May last. The hoard consisted of 12,236 pieces, 
comprising 11,741 English pennies of Edward I., 
II., and III., and 131 Scottish of Alexander III., 
Robert Bruce, and John Baliol ; 140 foreign sterlings; 
and 224 illegible and fragmentary pieces. 



Correspondence. 



MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 

Would you kindly allow me to call the attention of 
some of your readers to the Cambridge University 
Association of Brass-Collectors ? The association has 
only recently been formed, and aims at uniting all 
past and present members of the two Universities who 
are interested in this branch of archaeology. 

All Oxonians and Cantabs are eligible for member- 
ship. 

Rule VI. requires that the association assist in the 
better preservation of monumental brasses throughout 
the kingdom. In accordance with Rule IX., an 
exchange-book has been commenced, open to all 
brass-collectors without restriction. Communications 
respecting this book can be forwarded to the Secre- 
tary, St. John's College Cambridge. Every entry 
must be accompanied with a notice of the approxi- 
mate date, character, and style of rubbing of the 
brass. 

Any other information, as of meetings and so forth, 
can be obtained from me. 

Herbert W. Macklin, 
Hon. Sec. 



DISCOVERY OF HUMAN BONES AT COL- 
CHESTER. 
[Ante, xiv., p. 276.] 
Your correspondent appears to have overlooked the 
fact that on the west side of the Butt road leading 
from Head Gate, Colchester, directly opposite where 



3 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



these bones were discovered, was the site of one of 
the Roman cemeteries. 

On this, the west side, great numbers of burials 
took place, some of them apparently at a late period 
of the Roman occupation, in many cases by simple 
inhumation. This method of disposing of the dead 
is quite the exception in the immense cemetery, 
through which ran the London road from Colchester. 
As we know, it was the practice for the Romans to 
bury on both sides of the road. We may, I think, 
safely conclude that these bones are the remains of 
the Roman inhabitants of this town, and that they 
are not the results of hurried interments during times 
of plague. The bodies being buried in north, south, 
east, and west directions, disposes of the idea that 
they are Christian burials. 

In many of the burials, the marks in the sand show 
that they were interred in coffins formed of thick 
wooden slabs. 

The nails of these coffins are from six to nine 
inches long, and are of the same form frequently 
found in Roman graves ; but there is another strong 
reason for supposing these interments to be Roman. 
The situation is, as I said, on the east side of the 
Butt road, directly opposite a long-known Roman 
cemetery. And then there have been many cinerary 
urns turned up in the same excavations ; and in the 
adjoining field, within a hundred yards, in building 
the artillery barracks, was found a large square glass 
vessel, containing bones, now in the museum, besides 
a great number of cinerary urns of the ordinary 
types. 

Tradition says that many of the victims of the 
plague were buried in the grounds of St. John's 
Abbey ; and in the south-east corner of these grounds 
is a large mound, stated by Morant to have been 
heaped over the bodies of those who died of the 
plague. The pest-house at Myland, like pest-houses 
elsewhere, was a house set apart for those suffering 
from small-pox at all events, this was the use to 
which this house was appropriated up to the time it 
was disused. , 

I have been informed by old persons in the district 
that patients were sent there to undergo inoculation. 

Henry Laver, 
Local Secretary S. Antiq. 



THE ANCIENT PARISH OF WOKING. 
[Ante, xiv., p. 244.] 

The writer seems to identify the name Piriford with 
Peliforde in Domesday; but this may be questionable. 
Last year (after having already been engaged with 
many others by request in making inquiries for the 
Sussex Domesday volume), I amused myself by ex- 
tracting and identifying the names of manors of the 
Surrey Domesday, which I found a much easier task, 
being able in the great majority of cases to identify 
the ancient with the modern names ; and the MS. of 
this I have handed to the Surrey Archaeological 
Society. But among the fourteen names which I was 
unable to identify occurs the name of " Peliforde " in 
Godley Hundred. 

In Domesday it is said, " The Abbey holds Peliforde. 
Harold held it of King Edward. Before Harold had 



it, it was assessed for twenty-seven hides ; afterwards 
he held it for sixteen hides/' But in the margin there 
is added, " Now it is taxed at eight hides." Now, King 
William, it appears, granted to ihe Abbey eight hides 
of the Manor of Piriford, which were in his demesne 
within the Forest of Windsor ; and the date of this 
appears as "post discriptionem totius Anglie," which 
we may assume to mean the Domesday Survey. With 
these differences in names and quantities, I must 
consider that there is difficulty and doubt as to 
identity. 

H. F. Napper. 
December 2, 1886. 



IRetnetos. 



Bibliographical Notes on Histories of Inventions and 
Books of Secrets. Part III. Account of a Copy 
of the First Edition of the " Speculum Majus" of 
Vincent de Beauvais, 1473 : Supplement to Notes 
on Books of Secrets. Part II. By James Fer- 
guson, M.A. (Glasgow : Strathern and Free- 
man, 1885.) 
These papers, read before the Archaeological Society 
of Glasgow on December 18th, 1884, have been re- 
printed, and we are glad of the occasion of noticing 
them, although unable to do so adequately in the space 
at our disposal. From our point of view it is impos- 
sible to appreciate too highly the labours of an 
eminent scientific man who leaves the practical and 
everyday field of professional work to step into the 
paths and by-ways of the past, and explore the 
antiquities of the subjects to which his life is devoted. 
Professor Ferguson has already enriched the biblio- 
graphy of the history of inventions by his researches, 
and in the papers before us, which we would commend 
to bibliographers as models of careful analysis and 
criticism, he has made an important addition to the 
subject. Since the reading of his previous papers, the 
author has acquired a considerable amount of new 
material on the literature of technical receipts and 
"secrets." The history of inventions hitherto has 
been generally terra incognita among us outside 
Polydore Vergil's treatise, and Beckmann's History of 
Inventions, of which an excellent translation appeared 
in Bohn's popular series. The literature of the 
history of inventions has been so largely indebted to 
Germany and other nationalities, that we hail with 
satisfaction the advent of a worker in the subject who 
belongs to the nation which for a long time has been 
the largest contributor to the stock of inventions and 
scientific discovery. 

The History of the Forty Vezirs ; or, The Story of the 
Forty Morns and Eves. Written in Turkish by 
Sheykh-Zada. Done into English by E. J. W. 
Gibb, M.R.A.S. etc. (London: George Red- 
way, 1886.) 8vo, pp. xl., 420. 
This valuable addition to Oriental literature was 
made at the suggestion of Mr. W. A. Clouston, to 
whom the book is dedicated ; and to have inspired 
this undertaking may fairly be considered a material 



REVIEWS. 



39 



addition to that scholar's distinguished services. This 
translation has been made from a printed, but undated, 
text, obtained a few years ago in Constantinople. 
The MS. version of this text was dedicated to Sultan 
Mustafa ; there have been four Ottoman monarchs of 
that name, and as the earliest of these reigned from 
1617 to 1618, and from 1622 to 1623, the present 
edition of the forty Vezirs is somewhat recent. 
The text from which Belletete published his extracts 
(Paris, 1812) is very much older, if not the original 
Turkish version of the work ; it is dedicated to 
Sultan Murad, whose reign extended from 1421 to 
1451. Of Sheykh-Zada, the collector, or author, or 
translator of these stories, nothing is known. In his 
dedication he states that the work is a translation 
from the Arabic ; but it is not clear whether the title 
is that of the Arab original or of the Turkish transla- 
tion. This title is The Story of the Forty Morns 
and Eves, for the Saltan of the Age, the title of the 
present later text being the popular Turkish one, 
The History of the Forty Vezirs. Mr. Gibb men- 
tions other versions of the text. There is a MS. text 
preserved in the Royal Library at Dresden, of which 
Dr. Behrnauer published a German version in 185 1 ; 
and a certain Ahmed the Egyptian made an inde- 
pendent but abridged Turkish translation of the 
romance, a MS. of which is in the Municipal Library 
of Leipzig. The library of the India Office also has 
a text, but it has nothing to indicate the origin, title, 
author, or date of the volume. While there is little 
difference, save in detail, between these various 
versions, there is a vast difference in the selection of 
stories given in each, so that a knowledge of the 
various versions becomes very important. Of the 
several texts which are here presented in an English 
dress by Mr. Gibb, one alone contains the full number 
of stories, viz., eight, one for each of the vezirs, and a 
corresponding one each night for the lady. The four 
texts mentioned yield a total of one hundred and ten 
distinct stories, all of which (with the exception of 
three whose subjects render them untranslatable) 
Mr. Gibb has translated, placing in an Appendix 
such as do not occur in the text he has employed. 
Not only this, but the author has also given a summary 
of the various stories in a table of contents. It will 
thus be seen how thorough a piece of work this 
volume represents, and we think that orientalists will 
recognise the judgment shown by Mr. Clouston in 
suggesting this translation. 



Historic Towns: London. By W. J. Loftie. 

(London : Longmans, 1817.) i2tno, pp. viii., 

223. 
This is the first volume of the series projected by 
Mr. Freeman and Mr. W. Hunt ; and if it is a 
specimen of the succeeding volumes, we are bound to 
confess that the scheme is slighter than we hoped and 
expected. Mr. Loftie has produced an interesting 
and thoroughly readable book ; he has gone through 
some evidence which other writers have ignored or 
have not possessed ; he puts old facts into new light ; 
he gives us, in short, a picture of London which we 
ought to possess. But after all, he does not describe 
London as an historic town in the way we should think 
it capable of being described ; and he is dogmatic 
about some portions of his history where he is only 



entitled to be suggestive. Still, with the maps, with 
the highly interesting narrative, we are far from saying 
that this fresh contribution to the history of London 
is not very acceptable, and likely to prove of great 
service to students of English town and city life. 

Mr. Loftie thus divides his work : London before 
Alfred, the Portreeves, the Mayors, the Wardens, the 
Municipality, London and Middlesex, the Church in 
London, London Trade, London and the Kingdom. 
Of these chapters two stand out as exceptionally 
valuable namely, those on the Portreeves and the 
Church in London. It has long been a desideratum 
to have clearly placed before us the early historic 
connection between the ecclesiastical and civil history 
of London ; and we fancy that when this subject is 
approached more exhaustively than Mr. Loftie has 
been able to manage in his limited space, it must be 
upon the lines and with the help of this chapter. 

What we mean by the great suggestiveness of Mr. 
Loftie's work is well exemplified in his chapter on 
the Portreeves. By the aid of place-names, long since 
forgotten in their original connection, he is able to 
reconstruct for us some of the sites of the oldest 
settlements in the City, and to point out the spaces 
devoid of habitations. " We see," he says, " that 
the first settlers crowded about the bridge-foot, and 
spread along the two great highways towards Newgate 
and Bishopsgate. Many remained by the shore of 
the Thames ; many nestled under the shadow of St. 
Paul's." And for proof of these statements we are 
referred to the size and position of the wards. This 
is the kind of work that makes Mr. Loftie stand out 
conspicuously among London historians ; and if in 
our opinion he sometimes ignores important evidence 
such, for instance, as Mr. Alfred Tylor supplies on 
the Roman roads in London he uses the evidence 
for his own view in a masterly fashion. Neither Mr. 
Loftie nor his publisher has ignored the more 
technical parts of good book-making, and we are 
pleased alike with the index, maps, and binding. 



Rip Van Winkle : a Legend of the Hudson. By 
Washington Irving. Illustrated by Gordon 
Browne. (London: Blackie and Son, 1887.) 
4to, pp. 128. 
This famous story is printed and illustrated with 
exquisite taste in this edition, and we cannot but 
think that at this season of the year it will meet with 
ready acceptance among book-lovers. First published 
in this country in 1819, it has always been a great 
favourite, and Mr. Browne's drawings are all of them 
life-like and powerful. There are altogether forty-six 
engravings, and the text of the story is divided in 
such a manner as always to stand opposite the picture 
illustrating it a mode we believe first introduced by 
Mr. Caldecott. Mr. Browne's work is of a very sub- 
stantial and finished order, though, as in all engravings 
of the present day, it lacks that delicate softness and 
homogeneity which is to be found in the work of the 
last century. We suppose that Rip Van Winkle now 
almost ranks as an English "fairy-tale," and certainly 
it will not be easy to find a similar literary work so 
widely popular. 



[Col. Prideaux C. M. Jessop next month.] 



40 



The antiquary exchange. 



&e anttquarg Crcfmnge. 

Enclose ^d.for the First 12 Words, and id. for each 
Additional Three Words. All replies to a number 
should be enclosed in a blank envelope, with a loose 
Stamp, and sent to the Manager. 

NOTE. All Advertisements to reach the office by the 
15M of the month, and to be addressed The Manager, 
Exchange Department, The Antiquary Office, 
62, Paternoster Row, London, E.C. 



For Sale. 

Small collection of English and Roman coins ; also 
a few rare eighteenth century-tokens. State wants. 
W. H. Taylor, Erdington. 

Grand cross-hilted, two-edged Crusader sword. 
Date, twelfth century. Very rare. Price ,15.- 
Can be seen on application to S. J. B., 29, Druid 
Street, Hinckley, Leicestershire. 

Rare old English Cabinet ; old Sutherland Table ; 
several other pieces of oak furniture. Particulars on 
application. Akers, 19, East Raby Street, Darling- 
ton. 

Carved Oak Chest, Carved Oak Drawers, Oak 
Stool, and an eight-legged Table. Sketches and 
prices from Dick, Carolgate, Retford. 

Two-handed Sword ; also other Swords, Pistols, 
part of Helm or Tilting-he'.met, Chain-armour, 
Leglcts and Helmet. J. M. Smith, 34, Carolgate, 
Retford. 

Several Old Poesy, Mourning and Curious Rings 
for Sale. 306, Care of Manager. 

In one lot, or separately, about 200 quaint, curious, 
and rare books, including Ogilby's America, 1671 ; 
Vinegar Bible, large- paper copy ; old plays, tracts, 
chapbooks, manuscripts, etc. D. G. G., Build was, 
Ironbridge, Salop. 

Bibliotheca Britannica ; or, a General Index to the 
Literature of Great Britain and Ireland, Ancient and 
Modern, including such foreign works as have been 
translated into English or printed in the British 
Dominions ; as also a copious selection from the 
writings of the most distinguished authors of all ages 
and nations. Two Divisions first, authors arranged 
alphabetically ; second, subjects arranged alpha- 
betically. By Robert Watt, M.D. Glasgow, 1820. 
Eleven parts, paper boards, 4to. ; price .4. W. E. 
Morden, Tooting Graveney, S.W. 

Three rare Silver Spoons, temp. Charles I., 
William III., and William and Mary. Particulars of 
R. Levine, Bridge Street, Norwich. 

Ackerman's Microcosm of London, 1 808- 1 1, 3 vols., 
imp. 4to., 104 coloured plates by Rowlandson, uncut, 
7 10s. ; The European in India, 20 coloured plates 
by Doyley, 2 ; Antiquarian Itinerary, vols. i. to iv., 
large paper, uncut, 1 4s. ; The Antiquary in parts, 
complete from commencement. What offers ? R. 
Levine, Bridge Street, Norwich. 

Antiquary, vols. i. to iv. (vol. i. in Roxburgh, the 
rest in parts), for sale. What offers ? Address D. 
C. Ireland, 7, Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn. 

Several good brass rubbings. Apply by letter, L. , 
109, Peckham Park Road, London. 



Pickering's Diamond Greek Testament. Good 
copy ; newly bound in polished morocco (by Ramage). 
Gilt on the rough. Offers to 100, care of Manager. 

Lord Brabourne's Letters of Jane Austen ; 2 vols, 
in one ; newly half-bound in red morocco ; fully 
lettered ; interesting to a Kentish collector. Offers 
to 101, care of the Manager. 

The New Directory of Second-hand Booksellers ; 
large paper copy ; interleaved ; bound in Roxburgh ; 
4s. 6d. 102, care of Manager. 

Sub-Mundanes ; or, the Elementaries of the 
Cabala, being the History of Spirits, reprinted from 
the Text of the Abbot de Villars, Physio- Astro- Mystic, 
wherein is asserted that there are in existence on 
earth natural creatures besides man. With an 
appendix from the work " Demoniality," or " Incubi 
and Succubi." By the Rev. Father Sinistrari, of 
Ameno. Paper covers; 136 pp. ; privately printed, 
1886 ; 10s. 6d. 103, care of Manager. 

The Hermetic Works ; vol. 2. The Virgin of the 
World ; or, Hermes Mercurius Trismegistus, now 
first rendered into English by Dr. Anna Kingsford 
and Edward Maitland, 1885 ; 134 pp. ; cloth boards ; 
lay. 6d. 104, care of Manager. 

A marvellously fine old oak elbow-chair, carved 
mask head, flowers, foliage, and date, 1662. Price 
and sketch on application. Akers, 19, East Raby 
Street, Darlington. 

Speed's County Maps, 16 10; almost any county; 
3-r. each. William Newton, 20, Weltje Road, 
Hammersmith. 

Pair leglets ; also helmet, chain armour, several 
swords, pistols, and other articles for disposal. 311, 
care of Manager. 

Following old oak for disposal : Carved oak chest, 
eight-legged table, four-legged table ; also few other 
pieces of old oak. Will send sketches. Dick, Carol - 
gate, Retford. 

The Manager wishes to dram attention to the fact 
that he cannot undertake to forward tost cards. 
or letters, unless a stamp be sent to cover postage 0} 
same to advertiser. 

Wanted to Purchase. 

Dorsetshire Seventeenth Century Tokens. Also 
Topographical Works, Cuttings or Scraps connected 
with the county. J. S. Udal, the Manor House, 
Symondsbury, Bridport. 

Cooper's Rambles on Rivers, Woods, and Streams ; 
Lupot on the Violin (English Translation). S.^care 
of Manager. 

Views, Maps, Pottery, Coins, and Seventeenth Cen- 
tury Tokens of the Town and County of Nottingham- 
shire. J. Toplis, Arthur Street, Nottingham. 

Old Stone Busts, Figures, Animals, or Terra 
Cotta Casts. Price, etc., by post to "Carver," St. 
Donat's, Bridgend. 

Maria de Clifford, novel, by Sir Egerton Brydges, 
about 1812-18. Address 310, care of Manager. 

Planche on Costume, Duke of Newcastle Horse- 
manship, Gambado on Horsemanship, Sporting 
Magazines, Jack Mytton, Histories of Nottingham- 
shire ; also lists curious books. S., Carolgate, Retford. 



OLD STORIED HOUSES: CHASTLETON. 



4i 




The Antiquary. 



FEBRUARY, 1887. 




in ^torieti Rouses: Cfmstleton. 

HIS mansion is situated about six 
miles from Chipping Norton. It 
is the beau-ideal of an old ances- 
tral hall. The grand old gabled 
house, with its lofty square towers and rusty 
roof of lichen growth; the quaint little 
church (which contains some fine brasses, 
and is remarkable for having its tower curi- 
ously placed over the south porch) nestling 
by its side ; and the old entrance gateway 
and dovecote in front, form a picture which 
cannot easily be forgotten ; and it is almost 
impossible for any verbal description to do 
justice to the many and varied wonders it 
possesses. A good view of the front of the 
house will be found in Joseph Skelton's 
Engraved Illustrations of Oxfordshire 

Before we enter we must have a look at 
the old-fashioned garden, with its sun-dial, 
fantastically- shaped box-trees, and ancient 
bowling-green. 

Chastleton House was built by Walter 
Jones, Esq., between the years 1603 and 
1630, and is a fine example of Early 
Jacobean domestic architecture. The estate, 
it appears, was purchased by him from Robert 
Catesby, the projector of the Gunpowder 
Plot, who sold the manor to provide funds 
for carrying on that notorious conspiracy. 
The following letter, mentioned in Jardine's 
History of the Gunpowder Plot, was written 
from Chastleton by Catesby's cousin, Thomas 
Winter, to his brother-in-law, John Grant : 

" If I may with my sister's good leave, 
lett me entreat you, Brother, to come over 
Saturday next to us at Chastleton. I can 
assure you of kind welcome, and your ac- 

VOL. XV. 



quaintance with my cousin Catesby will 
nothing repent you. I could wish Doll here, 
but our life is monastical without women. 
Comend me to your mother, 

" And so adio, 

" Thos. Winter." 

The house from which this letter was 
written was one which existed anterior to the 
present mansion ; it was situated in the site 
of the present garden. Some of the debris 
of this house, fragments of ornamental plaster 
mouldings, etc., were recently discovered in 
cutting through a bank, and are still pre- 
served. 

Directly we enter we are carried back, as 
if by magic, nearly three centuries, for every 
detail of the marvellous interior dates with 
the house. 

The old hall, with its raised dais, carved 
screen, and panelling, is a noble and lofty 
apartment, full of antique furniture. All 
around hang representatives of the staunch 
Royalist family, among whom Walter Jones 
(the builder of the house) occupies a digni- 
fied position over the wide open fireplace, 
amid numerous swords and breastplates. His 
wife, Eleanor Pope, Maid of Honour to 
Queen Elizabeth, hangs close by; and we 
may state here a remarkable fact, that the 
golden ring represented on her finger is still 
in the possession of Miss Whitmore Jones, 
the present owner of the house (and last re- 
presentative of the Joneses). There are 
also fine old paintings of her son, Henry 
Jones, and his wife, Ann Fettiplace ; Henry 
Jones, Chancellor of Bristol, and his brave 
brother, Captain Arthur Jones (whom we shall 
have occasion to mention hereafter), who 
looks as ready as ever to fight for the King 
and the cause ; and his sword, which, by its 
appearance, has evidently done good service, 
hangs proudly by its master. 

From the hall we ramble through many 
fine tapestried and panelled rooms, full of 
mystic cabinets and quaint high- backed 
Stuart and Elizabethan chairs, and ascend 
one of the gigantic and gloomy worm-eaten 
oak staircases to a labyrinth of rooms and 
corridors, each surpassing the other in anti- 
quarian interest. 

A highly enriched doorway leads to the 
curious old drawing-room, formerly known as 

E 



42 



OLD STORIED HOUSES: CHASTLETON. 



"The Great Chamber," one of the most 
interesting apartments in the house. It is 
wainscoted to the ceiling with exquisite orna- 
mental carvings. Around this room, near 
the cornice, are twenty-four small square 
paintings on the panels, representing twelve 
Prophets and twelve Sibyls, after the style of 
the Sextine Chapel at Rome. The huge 
marble chimneypiece has in the centre the 
Jones arms, and the ceiling, with its massive 
pendants, is a most beautiful example of 
Jacobean workmanship. This room forms 



Not far off is a genuine old-fashioned 
library, abounding in curious and valuable 
works of ancient date. The bedrooms are 
particularly striking. They are all hung with 
the original tapestry and arras that was made 
for them. One of these old rooms, apart from 
the rest, and entered by a stout oak door 
that could stand a siege, looks the very per- 
fection of a haunted room ; and an inde- 
scribable gloom takes hold of us, filling us 
with an undefined sense of awe and mystery. 
The sombre tapestry and heavy faded window- 




'^^5*^k 



CHASTLETON HOUSE. 



one of Nash's pictures in his celebrated work, 
Old English Mansions, but we cannot 
help saying he has not done justice to it. 
We may mention here that an original water- 
colour drawing by him of the hall hangs in 
one of the passages downstairs. 

Sauntering along one of the twisting corri- 
dors, we notice four very ancient and curious 
portraits looking particularly severe, perhaps 
because they do not occupy a more dis- 
tinguished position in the house, as they 
doubtless think they deserve, being no less 
than the celebrated Fathers of the Church : 
St. Jerome, St. Augustine, St. Ambrose, and 
Pope Gregory. 



curtains harmonize with the hangings of the 
great gloomy bedstead, the identical state-bed 
from old Woodstock Palace, on which good 
Queen Bess slept. Above the tapestry is a 
frieze of ornamental pargeting, and the fire- 
place, with its ancient fire-dogs, has some 
quaint carved figures over it. The massive 
oak bedsteads, antique dressing-tables, 
mirrors, and the coverlets exquisitely em- 
broidered and enriched with needlework, in 
these delightful old rooms, form quite a 
museum in themselves. 

Of course an old mansion like this must 
possess a " Priest's Hole," or secret chamber ; 
and one has not to look far, for in a corner 



OLD STORIED HOUSES: CHASTLETON. 



43 



of one of the bedrooms is a hidden door 
(originally screened with arras), which leads 
to a small panelled room, receiving light 
from a little window in one of the front 
gable projections of the house. To this 
chamber Captain Arthur Jones owed his life 
at the time of the Civil War. After the fatal 
battle of Worcester, he rode hastily back to 
Chastleton, being closely pursued by a party 
of Roundhead soldiers. His wife, a lady of 
great courage (whose portrait hangs near that 
of her husband in the hall), had just time to 
conceal him when his enemies came up and 
insisted on searching the house for the fugitive 
Cavalier. She conducted them over it her- 
self, but their search was fruitless; their 
suspicions, however, being in some way 
aroused, they insisted on remaining that 
night in the bedroom, which was the only 
outlet from the secret chamber. 

Mrs. Arthur Jones made no objection 
whatever, and sent them up an ample 
supper, and a good store of wine, which 
she had previously carefully drugged. 

When time had elapsed for the drug to 
effect its purpose, she stole cautiously up- 
stairs, and listened outside the door, but 
hearing no signs of life, she stole in, having 
even to walk between the sleeping Round- 
heads, and brought her husband safely out 
of his dangerous quarters. A fresh horse 
was ready for him, and before his enemies 
awoke, he was far beyond their reach, and 
his escape was thus safely effected. There 
is no doubt as to the veracity of this thrill- 
ing story, as it comes direct from the pre- 
sent estimable representative of the ancient 
family. 

How delightful it is to ramble about such 
a grand old house as this ! We have quite 
forgotten our inartistic nineteenth-century 
houses now. The very glass in the old stone 
mullioned windows is contemporary with the 
house, and even when we peep into the 
curious old chests and cabinets, which are 
countless in number, we discern either a 
gorgeous satin coat of the time of George I., 
a lady's wedding-dress a century older, or 
the identical old Jacobean ruffs and frills 
which are represented in the portraits of the 
Joneses in the hall and elsewhere. 

The most interesting relics, however, which 
belong to the house are a miniature of 



Charles I. on copper, and a Bible given by 
that monarch to Bishop Juxon on the scaffold. 
This Bible was afterwards frequently used by 
the bishop at divine service, which was occa- 
sionally held in the hall at Chastleton. 

The miniature was discovered in a secret 
drawer of an old bureau, not very many 
years ago ; it is oval, and measures 3 inches 
by if, representing the King with the Order 
of St. George. A very curious set of pictures 
drawn on talc, illustrating the life of the ill- 
fated monarch from his coronation to his 




ENTRANCE GATE. 

execution, accompanies the miniature. A 
member of the Jones family thus writes con- 
cerning this curiosity : " They consist of a 
face and bust in one miniature, in a case, 
accompanied with a set of eight or nine pic- 
tures drawn on talc, being different scenes 
or dresses, which are to be laid on the 
miniature, so that the face of the miniature 
appears through a hole left for that purpose : 
and thus the one miniature does duty in 
every one of the talc pictures. These were 
accidentally discovered some twenty years 
ago. The miniature was well known, and 
was supposed to be complete in itself ; but 

e 2 



44 



OLD STORIED HOUSES: CHASTLETON. 



one day, whilst'being handled by one of the 
family, then quite a child, it fell to the ground, 
and being in that way forced open at the 
back, those talc pictures were brought to 
light. The careful manner in which they 
had been concealed, and the miniature 
thereby made to appear no more than an 
ordinary portrait, seems to warrant the sug- 
gestion that they were in the first instance 
the property of some affectionate adherent of 
Charles, whose prudence persuaded him to 
conceal what his loyalty no doubt taught 
him to value very highly. There is no direct 
evidence to show that they belonged to 
Bishop Juxon, nor is there any tradition that 
I ever heard connected with them. The 
two concluding pictures of the series represent 
the decapitated head in the hand of the 
executioner, and a hand placing the martyr's 
crown upon the brows." 

The Bible was given by the widow of the 
last baronet of the Juxon family (who was 
grand-nephew to the bishop) to the then 
proprietor of Chastleton, John Jones ; and it 
is not unlikely she also gave the miniature 
to him, or one of the family, at the same 
time. 

The following description, written by 
William Whitmore Jones, with an illustration 
of the Bible, will be found in the Gentleman's 
Magazine for February, 1867 : 

"The Bible is a quarto volume, hand- 
somely bound in gold stamped leather. The 
Royal arms, with the initials C. R., are im- 
pressed in the middle of each cover, and the 
rest of the space is filled with a pattern of 
the Tudor rose, the thistle, and the fleur- 
de-lis. The book was originally tied together 
by two broad blue ribbons, but one of these 
has been torn from the cover. The Bible 
shows evidence of having been in constant 
use. The date is 1629, the fourth year of 
King Charles's reign. On a blank leaf at 
the end of the volume is written 'Juxon, 
Compton, Gloucestershire.' 

" There is a curious genealogy from Adam 
to Christ in the commencement a shield, 
with a separate device, being given to each of 
the twelve tribes. There is also a map of 
the countries mentioned in the Bible, in 
which the Mediterranean is called the 'Middle 
Earth Sea.' In this sea there is depicted a 
mermaid combiag her hair and holding in 



her hand a glass ; also Jonah's whale, 
Leviathan, and four ships. The Israelites 
are represented in the act of passing through 
the Red Sea, followed by the Egyptians ; and 
below, the verse from 1 Corinthians, chap. x. : 
They were all baptized unto Moses in the 
cloud and in the sea.' The map is filled 
with illustrations of the chief events in the 
Old and New Testament, with passages of the 
Scripture written underneath ; but some of 
the illustrations are so small, or so badly 
engraved, that it is difficult to discover what 
they mean." 

We may mention here that King Charles 
slept at the White Hart Inn, Moreton-in- 
the-Marsh (which is about five miles from 
Chastleton), on his way to Evesham, on 
Tuesday, July 2nd, 1644. This old-fashioned 
town is well worth antiquarian study, having 
much fifteenth-century work in the doorways 
and windows of the old houses. 

But to return to Chastleton. There is a 
savage obscurity and vastness about the old 
deserted dimly lighted rooms on the top 
story which is very striking. Among these 
is the gallery or ballroom, upwards of 80 
feet long, and 19 wide. The ceiling, 
which is semicircular, is enriched with 
ornamental panelling in plaster, and above 
the windows that light each end of the room 
are huge monster heads devised in the par- 
geting. 

When the long shadows thrown by the 
last glimpse of the setting sun have dis- 
appeared, the wan faint twilight gives the 
quaint old rooms a weird and enchanted 
appearance. The superstitious would cer- 
tainly not feel comfortable alone here at this 
hour, for the huge banisters of the gloomy 
and crumbling staircases are now ghosts 
the grotesque figures over the fireplaces have 
now an unnatural expression, and the strange 
portraits of people who have been in their 
graves at least two centuries, look now life- 
like and animated, and seem to watch our 
every movement 

Not merely with the mimic life that lies 
Within the compass of art's simulation : 
Their souls were looking thro' their painted eyes 
With awful speculation. 

We hear strange noises, too, everywhere : 
doors open and shut of their own accord, the 
faded tapestries and sombre bed-hangings 



THE PEDLAR OF SWAFFHAM. 



45 



wave and rustle, and though we walk quietly, 
half afraid to hear the echo of our own foot- 
steps creaking on the oaken floors the 
slightest sigh of the wind in the ominous- 
looking tall trees around makes us shudder 
unaccountably. We know not why, but at this 
hour we feel a relief to be once more in the 
open air ; and as we leave the grand old 
mansion, full of old-world associations, we 
turn and give it a look of the warmest admira- 
tion, for in the dim twilight it has an appear- 
ance of even lordly grandeur, though the 
picture impressed upon our minds is that of 
a haunted house. 

All is silent within and around, 
The ghostly house and the ghostly trees 

Sleep in the heat with never a sound 
Of human voices, of freshening breeze. 

A. Fea. 



C6e peMat of ^toaff&am. 



OME time ago a full account of this 
tradition was given in the Anti- 
quary,* and Mr. Gomme referred 
to a paper by Professor Cowell, 
before the Cambridge Antiquarian 
Society, on the same subject, in which inter- 
esting variants were cited from Dort, in 
Holland, and also from the Persian poem of 
the Masnavi. I have not had the pleasure 
of reading Professor Cowell's remarks, and I 
do not therefore know whether he has noticed 
any of the stories I am about to refer to. But 
even if they are mentioned by him, I have 
thought that, as the Communications of the 
learned society in question are inaccessible 
to a large number of the readers of the Anti- 
quary, it may not be an altogether superfluous 
labour to add a few more instances to those 
which have already appeared in these pages. 
The best known version of the tale is 
found in the History of Prince Zeyn Aiasnam 
and the King of the Genii, one of those de- 
lightful narratives which Galland inserted 
no one knows whence in his translation of 
the Arabian A T ights, but which are not found 
in any of the Eastern manuscripts. The 
Prince, it will be remembered, having dis- 

* Vol. x., pp. 182, 202 ; xi., p. 167; xii., p. 121. 




read 



sipated his wealth, had fallen into profound 
melancholy, when one night an old man 
appeared to him in a dream, and directed 
him, if he wished to see the end of his afflic- 
tion, to visit Cairo, where good fortune at- 
tended him. Upon the faith of this dream, 
and in spite of his mother's ridicule, 
he set out without delay, and on arriving, 
worn out with his journey, he alighted at the 
door of a mosque and fell asleep. Again 
the old man appeared to him, and, declaring 
himself satisfied with his courage and firm- 
ness, commanded him to return to his palace 
at Balsora, where he would find immense 
riches, such as no king had ever possessed. 
Greatly chagrined, the Prince betook himself 
again to his home, and the night following 
his arrival the vision was again repeated. 
The phantom instructed him to take a pick- 
axe, and dig in the cabinet of the deceased 
king, his father, where he would discover a 
treasure. His confidence was revived; he 
obeyed the instructions, and not only ob- 
tained surprising riches, but ultimately, as 
we know, a wife of perfect beauty and un- 
sullied virtue. 

This story reeks with too true an aroma of 
Oriental imagination to have been the inven- 
tion of M. Galland. The comparatively 
commonplace adventure of the Chapman of 
Swaffham is here enshrined in the glory we 
are used to find surrounding the good Haroun 
Alraschid, his compeers, and their doings. 
But there is another version of the tale un- 
doubtedly found in the manuscripts of the 
Nights, which in the manner of its telling 
bears a greater affinity to our own traditions. 
We are told that a wealthy man of Baghdad 
who had become poor was one night directed 
in a dream, " Verily thy fortune is in Cairo ; 
go thither, and seek it." So he set out, and 
on arriving there he, too, lay down to sleep in 
a mosque. During the night some robbers 
entered through the mosque into an adjoining 
house ; but an alarm being given they es- 
caped, and the Chief of Police finding our 
hero asleep in the sacred building laid hold 
of him, beat him, and cast him into gaoL 
After three days the Wali sent for him to 
question him ; and when he learnt whence he 
came, and what had brought him to Cairo, 
he burst out laughing and replied, " O man 
of little wit, thrice have I seen in a dream 



46 



THE PEDLAR OF SWAFFHAM. 



one who said to me : ' There is in Baghdad 
a house in such a district and of such a 
fashion, and its courtyard is laid out garden- 
wise, at the lower end whereof is a jetting 
fountain, and under the same a great sum of 
money lieth buried. Go thither and take it.' 
Yet I went not ; but thou, of the briefness of 
thy wit, hast journeyed from place to place 
on the faith of a dream, which was but an 
idle galimatias of sleep." And taking com- 
passion on him the Wali gave the poor 
fellow money to take him home again. 
Homeward he accordingly went, and found 
the gold in the situation described by the 
Wali, which was in his own garden.* 

It will here be seen that, making allow- 
ance for the difference of circumstances, the 
Wali's address to the man of Baghdad is, in 
tone and substance, a complete parallel with 
that of the London shopkeeper's advice to 
the pedlar. But the expression made use of 
by the apparition, " Verily thy fortune is in 
Cairo," is much more striking than the 
simple prediction of "joyful news." This 
phrase is perhaps tinged with Mohammedan 
fatalism, and its reappearance in the variant 
I am about to cite from Palermo may in- 
dicate a direct importation of the story by 
the Saracen conquerors of Sicily. It is re- 
lated that there was at Palermo a man who 
gained his living by pickling tunny, and 
selling it on the Piazza di Ballaro. Three 
nights successively he dreamed that one ap- 
peared to him and said, " Dost thou wish to 
find thy fortune (sorte) ? Go beneath the 
bridge of the Teste and thou shalt find it." 
After the third occasion he goes to the spot, 
and beneath the bridge he sees a man all in 
rags, but being frightened he retires. The 
other, however, calls him back, discloses 
himself as his fortune, and orders him to 
look that night at midnight at the place 
where he has put the barrels of tunny : 

* Burton's Arabian Nights, vol. iv., p. 289. Lane's 
translation, vol. ii., p. 514, ed. 1840 ; p. 460, ed. 1883. 
In a note Lane mentions that the same anecdote is 
related by an Arabic writer of the reign of El-Ma- 
moon, son of Haroun Alraschid, who died a.d. 835 ; 
and the editor of the last edition adds that he has also 
found it in another Oriental MS. in Mr. Lane's 
possession, " with the difference that it is there related 
of an Egyptian saint who travelled to Baghdad, and 
was, in the same manner as above described, directed 
to his house in El-Fustat." Just the converse of the 
story in the text. 



" There dig, descend, and that which thou 
shalt find is thine." The tunny-seller in 
compliance with this instruction procures a 
pickaxe, and at midnight he begins to dig. 
Lifting a large flat stone he finds a staircase, 
and at the bottom " a magazine all full of 
golden money, and then jars and pots of 
alchymy and cheese-horses of gold." He 
becomes so rich that he lends the King of 
Spain " a million " to enable him to carry on 
his wars. The King in return makes him 
Viceroy of Sicily with plenary powers, and, 
being unable to repay the money, ultimately 
raises him to the dignities of prince and 
duke. The details of this part of the story 
do not concern us here.* Dr. Pitre, from 
whose admirable collection of Sicilian folk-lore 
I take the legend, states that it is very well 
known throughout the island. This is not un- 
natural, seeing that it has become attached 
to the noble family of the Pignatelli, who 
claim descent from the lucky seller of pickled 
tunny. 

Denmark boasts two traditions of a similar 
character ; one of these is located at Tanslet, 
on the island of Alsen, and the other at 
Erritso, near Fredericia. The latter is given 
at length by Thorpe, in his Northern My- 
thology. It is to this effect : Many years 
ago a very poor man, living at Erritso, said, 
one day, " If I had a large sum of money, I 
would build a church for the parish." The 
following night he dreamed that if he went 
to the south bridge at Veile he would make 
his fortune. He took the hint ; but walked 
to and fro on the bridge until it grew late, 
without seeing any sign of good fortune. 
Just as he was about to leave an officer 
accosted him, inquiring why he had spent 
the whole day on the bridge. On telling his 
dream the officer replied that he had also 
dreamed, the same night, that in a barn at 
Erritso, belonging to a certain man, a treasure 
lay buried. The name he mentioned was 
the man's own. The latter kept his counsel, 
hastened home, found the treasure, and built 
the church, f 

The building of Dundonald Castle, in 
Ayrshire, formerly the seat of King Robert II. 
of Scotland, is connected with a similar 

* G. Pitre, Fiabe Novelle e Racconti Popolari 
Siciliani, vol. iv., p. 11. 

t Thorpe, vol. ii., p. 253, from Danmark , s Folkesagn 
samlede of J. M. Thiele, 2 vols. Copenhagen, 1843. 



THE PEDLAR OF SWAFFHAM. 



47 



legend. The traditional name of the builder 
is Donald Din, of whom the following rhyme 
is current : 

Donald Din 
Built his house without a pin. 

This alludes to the belief that the castle was 
constructed entirely of stone, without the use 
of wood. Donald, originally poor, " dreamed 
thrice in one night that if he were to go to 
London Bridge he would become a wealthy 
man. He went accordingly, saw a man look- 
ing over the parapet of the bridge, whom he 
accosted courteously, and, after a little con- 
versation, intrusted with the secret of the 
occasion of his visiting London Bridge. The 
stranger told him that he had made a very 
foolish errand, for he himself had once had 
a similar vision, which directed him to go to 
a certain spot in Ayrshire, in Scotland, where 
he would find a vast treasure, and, for his 
part, he had never once thought of obeying 
the injunction. From his description of the 
spot, the sly Scotsman at once perceived that 
the treasure in question must be concealed 
in no other place than his own humble kail- 
yard at home, to which he immediately re- 
paired, in full expectation of finding it. Nor 
was he disappointed, for, after destroying 
many good and promising cabbages, and 
completely cracking credit with his wife, 
who esteemed him mad, he found a large 
potful of gold coin, with the proceeds of 
which he built a stout castle for himself, and 
became the founder of a flourishing family."* 
This narrative seems to have taken its 
present shape in modern and peaceable 
times, when it had become possible, not 
only to found a family by means of money, 
but also to travel to London and back with 
ease. Robert Chambers, in recording the 
story, notes further that it "is localized in 
almost every district of Scotland, always re- 
ferring to London Bridge" for which he 
assigns the reason that " the fame of Queen 
Maud's singular erection seems to have 
reached this remote country at a very early 
period." But is this the real reason ? Of 
this more anon. 

I was at first inclined to think the Ayrshire 
peasant's outspoken wife a modern and occi- 
dental embellishment, similar to the mention 
of London Bridge. This hasty conclusion is, 
* R. Chambers, Popular Rhymes of Scotland, p. 236. 



however, not in accordance with fact ; for we 
find that Donald Din's good lady's temper 
was far from being an unknown thing among 
an Asiatic and polygamous race at the time 
when the Turkish History of the Forty Vezirs 
(or the original Arabic, whence it professes to 
be adapted) was written. The tale in ques- 
tion is not, indeed, found in the oldest copies 
of that work, which date back probably to the 
early part of the fifteenth century. But then 
these copies are confessedly imperfect ; and 
after all, unjust conjugal depreciation is a 
common human experience. The Turkish 
compiler, at any rate, tells the tale with 
pointed humour. A water-seller of Cairo 
gives to his only son's teacher the camel 
wherewith he carried on his trade as the only 
fitting recompense for teaching the boy to 
read the Koran so great was his respect for 
that sacred book. Whereupon his wife up- 
braids him with indescribable clamour for 
his lavishness in thus reducing himself and 
his family to want : " Out on thee, husband ! 
art thou mad ? Where are thy senses gone ?" 
Nu'man bows his head before the storm, and 
in his distress falls asleep. A white-bearded, 
radiant elder appears to him in a dream, and 
says : " O Nu'man, thy portion is in Damas- 
cus ; go, take it." This is thrice repeated, 
and the hero determines to obey, in spite of 
his wife's opposition, arising from her fear 
that he means to desert her because of her 
complaints. On reaching Damascus he seeks, 
as usual, a mosque, and receives from a man 
who has been baking a loaf of new bread. 
He eats it, and again sleeps, when the elder 
once more comes to him in a vision and 
directs him to return he has received his 
portion. Not altogether content, he goes 
back to his home and meets with that re- 
ception from his wife which he doubtless 
expected : "Out on thee, husband ! thou art 
become mad ; thou art a worthless man. Had 
thy senses been in thy head, thou hadst not 
given away our camel, the source of our 
support, and left us thus friendless and hungry 
and thirsty ; not a day but thou doest some 
mad thing." Nu'man's heart was broken by 
the weariness of the road and the complaining 
of the woman. But the Friend of Woe 
comes to his assistance a third time ; and the 
elder appears thrice again in dreams to him, 
bidding him dig close by him : his provision 



4 8 



THE PEDLAR OF SWAFFHAM. 



is there. As might be supposed, his wife's 
bitter tongue is again loosened when he takes 
a pickaxe and shovel and begins to comply 
with this order. She mocks him and is deaf 
to his appeals for help, until at length he 
comes upon a marble slab. Then " the woman 
saw the marble, and saying in herself, ' This 
is not empty,' she asked the pickaxe from 
Nu'man. Nu'man said, ' Have patience a 
little longer.' The woman said, 'Thou art 
weary.' Nu'man replied, ' Now I am rested.' 
Quoth the woman, ' I am sorry for thee ; 
thou dost not know kindness.'" In the end 
Nu'man uncovers a well, into which descend- 
ing he finds a royal vase full of sequins. 
Thereupon his wife throws her arms around 
his neck, crying out, " O my noble little 
husband ! Blessed be God for thy luck and 
thy fortune !" Her tone changes, however, 
when Nu'man announces his intention of 
carrying the treasure to the King, and only 
asking for a bare subsistence ; but he goes, 
notwithstanding. The King orders the money 
to be examined, and it is found to be super- 
scribed : " This is an alms from before God 
to Nu'man, by reason of his respect towards 
the Koran."' 1 ' 

In outline this tale approaches more nearly 
than any other with which I am acquainted 
to the History ofZeyn Alasnam. Its religious 
motif is not unlike that of many European 
narratives of hidden treasure, though it is not 
usual in those belonging to the present group. 
The Danish legend cited above is, however, 
an example. One difference between the 
Eastern and European variants should be 
noticed. An Oriental naturally resorts first 
to a mosque on his arrival in a foreign city ; 
and therefore it is easy to understand why the 
vision or adventure causing the hero's return 
to his house should be connected with the 
sacred edifice. But wherefore should a bridge 
be the spot selected for the corresponding 
incident in Western story ? Not having seen 
Professor Cowell's paper, I do not know the 
details of the legend of Dort ; but it is cer- 
tainly very curious that, so far as they have 
been recorded, all the other European variants 

* E. J. W. Gibb's translation of The History of the 
Forty Vezirs, p. 278. Mr. Gibb, it is understood, pro- 
poses to translate another Turkish work dating from 
the end of the last century, containing another version 
of the story. 



refer to a bridge as the place where the lucky 
man is to find his fortune, or to hear joyful 
news.* In England and Scotland it is almost, 
if not quite, always London Bridge ; in other 
countries other and perhaps less remarkable 
bridges are chosen. A search for some 
earlier version in the West would perhaps 
result in the discovery of an explanation 
for this. Meantime it may not be out of 
place to remark that in the traditions of 
many nations the genius of Fate or Fortune 
is connected with the water. The Teutonic 
Norns will be in everyone's mind ; but even 
more unmistakable examples are common, 
particularly in Sicilian folk-lore. 

None of the foregoing variants include the 
incident of the discovery of the second pot 
of gold in consequence of the inscription on 
the first. Chambers gives this as a separate 
story, mentioning it vaguely as coming from 
the south of Scotland. In this case the 
first pot was found in digging after a thrice- 
repeated dream ; but it was empty. The 
characters encircling its rim were deciphered 
years afterwards by a pedlar, and the second 
pot, of course, amply compensated for the 
previous disappointment. It is easy to be- 
lieve that this incident really belongs to 
another and a different tale of a treasure 
revealed in a dream. Such tales are numer- 
ous enough. The peculiarity of " The Pedlar 
of Swaff ham " and its congeners is, that the 
hero is directed to go to a distant place, and 
then sent back to his starting-point to unearth 
the hoard. This circuitous mode of proce- 
dure is explained only in the History of Zeyn 
Alasnam, which may, therefore, in spite of 
its literary trappings, really represent a more 
primitive form than the popular versions. 
From this point of view it would be specially 
interesting to have before us the ancient ver- 
sion mentioned by Lane in a note referred to 
on a previous page. 

E. Sidney Hartland. 

* Since the above was written, Mr. W. A. Clouston 
has kindly sent me a transcript of the Dort legend. 
It also refers to a bridge. Mr. Clouston has also 
favoured me with an extract from a tale by Musseus, 
a German novelist of the last century, entitled The 
Grateful Ghost, embodying a similar legend, the scene 
of which is laid at Bremen. This points to some 
German variant as yet untraced. 



FAIRFAX HOUSE: PUTNEY. 



49 




jFaicfar ouse: putnep. 

By T. Fairman Ordish. 

i ANY of our readers doubtless know 
this fine old mansion in High 
Street, Putney, and will have felt 
much concern at the announce- 
ment of its proposed demolition. There 
appears to be some confusion as to its history. 
A lady who resided in the house many years 
claims for it an origin much earlier than that 
assigned to it by Mr. Thackeray Turner, who 
called attention to its impending fate in the 
Standard newspaper. In an interesting letter 
to the same journal, this lady writes : 

" The house was built by Abraham Dawes, 
a merchant, in the reign of Henry VIII. 
Queen Elizabeth used to breakfast in the 
oak- panelled drawing-room when waiting for 
the tide to ford the river on her journeys 
from Sheen to London. This gave it the 
name of the Queen's House, by which it is 
called in the older documents, and by which 
it was known till the present name was given, 
after General Fairfax was quartered there. 
The house was added to in Queen Anne's 
reign ; this date is given on one of the two 
sun-dials on the walls. Much more lofty 
rooms were built over the low drawing-room." 

The Daily Telegraph made a strong plea 
for the house in a leading article a few days 
later; but here again we have a different 
account of its origin : 

"As likely as not the old red-brick mansion 
situated in High Street, Putney and a 
most picturesque object never sheltered the 
Roundhead General after whom it is named. 
That, however, is a matter of comparatively 
slight importance. Undoubtedly it was 
erected, much as we see it now, at some 
time between the reigns of James I. and 
Charles II. A beautiful relic of the past 
it is, of goodly proportions, and pleasant to 
look upon, and as yet undecayed. To pull 
it down would be ' worse than a crime ; it 
would be a blunder.'" 

So far as published sources of information 
are concerned, the Telegraph writer was justi- 
fied in expressing that doubt as to the con- 
nection of General Fairfax with the house 
which is called after his name. If the pub- 
lished information be wrong, it is to be hoped 



that the present time, when public interest is 
aroused in the old house, will be utilized for 
settling the uncertainty clearly and authori- 
tatively. In the meanwhile, as it sometimes 
happens that those not so immediately con- 
cerned know the history of a place better 
than they who reside in it, we will take a 
glance at what history there is of Fairfax 
House in type. 

Imprimis, Lysons, and his Environs of 
London, date 1792. All the other books 
follow him with remarkable " exactitude. 
These works are : Manning's History and 
Antiquities of Surrey (1814); Brayley's 
Topographical History of Surrey (1841); 
The Old Houses of Putney, by Miss Guthrie 
(1870); Walford's Old and New London; 
and the Handbook to London Environs. In 
none of them is attention called to the fact 
that Fairfax was not quartered in the house 
which bears his name. Miss Guthrie eludes 
the difficulty thus: "Fairfax House is be- 
lieved to have been built by a gentleman of 
that name in the reign of Elizabeth." 

But the divergence and confusion are 
sufficiently plain ; and from misty distances 
appear greater than they really are. If the 
facts are put before the reader and they 
make a very interesting little study to those 
who are fond of microcosms of history the 
most likely explanation of the discrepancy 
will doubtless present itself. 

The house in which Fairfax actually lived 
(whether the Fairfax House of to-day be 
identical with it we will consider presently) 
has a really notable history. In 1647, when 
the General was quartered there, it was in 
possession of the Wymondsold family. 
Lysons tells us that "on the same site was 
anciently a mansion belonging to the Wel- 
becks, several of which family lie buried in 
the chancel at Putney. The present house " 
(Lysons wrote in 1792) "was built in the 
year 1596 by John Lacy, citizen and cloth- 
worker, as appears from some records of the 
manor of Wimbledon. The ceiling of the 
drawing-room was ornamented with the cloth- 
workers' arms." In Old Houses of Putney we 
get the following additional information, which 
is a little vague as to its source : 

" After making note of the following entry 
from the churchwarden's accounts at Fulham : 

" ' Paid for the Queen's Majestie's being 



5 



FAIRFAX HOUSE: PUTNEY. 



at Putney, for vyttals for the ringers two 
shillings and eightpence,' the historian we 
quote [not named] goes on to remark : 

" It appears from several subsequent entries 
that the Queen's visits to Putney were to a 
Mr. Lacy, citizen of the Clothworkers' Com- 
pany. Her Majesty, no doubt, derived either 
convenience or amusement from his acquaint- 
ance, for she seems to have honoured him 
more frequently with her company than any 
other of her subjects, and sometimes stayed 
at Putney two or three nights." * 

Lysons found (vol. i. 406) that Queen Eliza- 
beth visited Putney in 1584 and 1599, but adds, 
" no mention is made of the persons who were 
thus honoured," although the Queen's arms 
" with the date of 1596 are on the ceiling of an 
ancient house at Putney, now the residence 
of Peter Stapel, Esq." Perhaps the Queen 
honoured more than one house in Putney. 

A survey of Putney in the year 161 7 
describes Lacy's house as "a fair edifice in 
which his Majesty hath been." James I. 
was of the Clothworkers' Company, and 
would otherwise be likely to visit the same 
house that his predecessor had frequented. 
The churchwarden's accounts at Fulham 
show that James and his Queen went from 
Putney to Whitehall previous to their corona- 
tion {Old Houses of Putney, p. 14). 

The river Thames was much used as a 
highway before the roads were developed, 
and Putney was one of the stages between 
the royal residences in London and Hampton 
Court. In the reign of Henry VIII. we find, 
in a " memorandum of money laid out in the 
King's business:"! "For one boat from 
Putney to London, i6 d ; 4 servants dinners, 
i2 d ." Also, "5 servants dinners, i5 d ; and 
for one boat to Putney, i2 d ." There is also 
a note of " two loads of hay laid in Putney 
for Mr. Chancellor's horses and mine, being 
about the King's business, 18 s ," and so on. 

In these days the Welbeck family dwelt in 
a house on the site afterwards occupied by 
that in which General Fairfax was lodged; 
and their monuments are in Putney Church. 
But Putney seems to have been a favourite 
spot for residence. In 1578 we find the 
Baron of the Exchequer writing to Lord 

* " Divers entries serve to show that Queen Elizabeth 
visited Mr. Lacy no fewer than twelve times. Her 
last visit took place three months before her death." 

t R. Hist. MSS. Com. Report, viii. 



Treasurer Burghleyfrom Putney.* In 1583, 
one writes to Sir Francis Walsyngham that 
the Ambassador will go by barge to Putney, 
and there break his fast, and from thence by 
water to Richmond. Sir Edward Cecil was 
keeper of Putney Park in 1608-9, an ^ ma de 
Baron Cecil of Putney in 1625. In 161 2 
the Earl of Northampton writes that the 
Ambassador Lieger is gone to Putney. In 
the reign of Charles I., we find numerous 
letters from Philip Burmalachi to the Secre- 
taries of State concerning Dutch affairs. He 
spells Putney variously Pottne, Puttne, 
Pottner, etc.f Many residents in Putney 
at the present day will be interested to learn 
that this gentleman used to go to and from 
London for business. In a return of 
" strangers in London " by the Lord Mayor 
in 1635, we learn that his offices were "at 
Mr. Gould's house, in Fenchurch Street," 
but that "his dwelling-house with his wife 
and children and family is at Putney." % 

Now for 1647 and General Fairfax's 
quarters in Putney. It will have been 
gathered from the foregoing notes that 
Putney was a well-known and notable place, 
its position between London and Hampton 
Court having doubtless something to do with 
this. The division of the kingdom into three 
parties in 1647 will be remembered: "The 
army soon changes its quarters to Putney ; 
one of its outer posts is Hampton Court, 
where his Majesty, obstinate still, but some- 
what despondent now of getting the two 
parties to extirpate one another, is lodged. 
Saturday, September iSt/t : After a Sermon in 
Putney Church, the General, many great 
Officers, Field Officers, inferior Officers, and 
Adjutators, met in the Church; debated the 
Proposals of the Army towards a settlement 
of this bleeding Nation ; altered some things 
in them ; and were very full of the Sermon, 
which had been preached by Mr. Peters." 
In a newspaper published by authority of 
Parliament, called Perfect Occurrences, the 
quarters cf the officers are duly set down, 
and given in Lysons. The list begins : " The 
General (Fairfax) at Mr. Wimondsold's, the 
high Sheriff." This is the house that Queen 

* Calendar Slate Papers, Domestic Series, 
f Calendar State Papers, and Hist. MSS. Com. 
Reports. 

t Calendar State Papers. 

Carlyle, CromwelPs Letters, etc., i. 254. 



FAIRFAX HOUSE: PUTNEY. 



5i 



Elizabeth and James I. had visited; what 
changes these old houses witness ! We find 
some letters addressed by Sir Thomas Fair- 
fax while staying here, j In one of these he 
requests Lord Howard to move the Com- 
mittee for Sequestrations "to relieve Mrs. 
Parris, the condition of herself and her seven 
children being so sad that he could do no 
less than recommend it to his Lordship, 
though it relates not to the Army." There 
is also a "Copy of Propositions from the 
Army respecting raising forces for Ireland," 
dated here this September. In November 
he writes to the Earl of Manchester, Speaker 
of the House of Peers, about the King's 
escape from Hampton Court. In November, 
1652 (Report, vii. 76), is a document which 
refers to "a petition presented to the late 
Lord General Fairfax at Putney." 

Now, with regard to the identity of Fairfax 
House with this house in which General 
Fairfax lodged. The list from the Perfect 
Occurrences newspaper, giving the quarters of 
the officers, concludes: " Commissary General 
of Victuals at Mr. White's f and Lysons has 
the following note on the house : " This 
house now belongs to Mrs. Douglas Petti- 
ward, widow of the late Roger Pettiward, 
D.D. The Pettiwards came to Putney by 
the intermarriage of John Pettiward, Esq., 
with Sarah, daughter and heir of Mr. White 
here mentioned. Among the vicissitudes 
which usually befall a parish so near the 
metropolis, they are the only family who 
were settled here in the last century. Henry 
White was appointed High Sheriff of the 
County by the Parliament in 1653. The 
Pettiwards appear to have taken the opposite 
side. Roger Pettiward, Esq., of Putney, 
was returned as one of the persons qualified 
to be elected Knights of the Royal Oak, 
when it was in contemplation to create such 
an order after the Restoration. The Knights 
were to wear a medallion with the device of 
the King concealed in the oak ; but it was 
thought advisable to drop the design. Mrs. 
Pettiward is in possession of a portrait of 
Henry .White, Esq., who is represented in 
his High Sheriffs dress, and two excellent 
pictures of the celebrated Lord Falkland, by 
Cornelius Jansen ; and Sir Abraham Dawes, 
by the same hand. Sir Abraham was one of 
X R. Hist. MSS. Com. Report, vi. 



the farmers of the customs, an eminent 
Loyalist, and one of the richest commoners 
of the time. In the splendour and mag- 
nificence of his housekeeping he vied with 
the first of the nobility" (Eiog. Brit., art. 
" Crispe," in Notes). He lived at Putney in a 
house which he had built on some land which 
he had purchased of Mr. Roger Gwyn. This 
house was pulled down about four years ago, 
i.e., about 1788." 

Is this the Abraham Dawes referred to by 
the lady correspondent of the Standard as 
having built, in the reign of Henry VIII., the 
house in which General Fairfax lodged ? The 
above Sir Abraham founded an almshouse in 
Putney in the reign of Charles II. It is 
quite clear that White's house is the present 
Fairfax House, and consequently Fairfax 
could not have resided there? The news- 
paper quoted by Lysons may be wrong ; 
Fairfax may have resided afterwards in 
White's house ; or it might have been named 
after him merely from his residence in 
Putney at that momentous time. As to the 
"belief" that the house was built by one 
Fairfax in Elizabeth's reign, probability is 
against it, and, in the absence of other 
evidence, likelihood must decide the point. 

So that Fairfax House has a dual history, 
which has merged into the mansion which 
is now threatened with demolition. The 
General's host, William Wymondsold, died 
in 1664; his tomb is in Putney churchyard. 
He left a benefaction for the poor of the 
parish of 12 10s., to be distributed yearly 
in gowns and money. The following notice 
in the State Papers probably refers to him : 

" 1663. Names of deer-killers at Putney 
with note that Mr. Daws Womersley abused 
the messengers sent to apprehend them, call- 
ing them cheating knaves." Another letter 
in 1666 probably refers to his successor. 
" Gilbert Thomas, marshal, to Sir Wm. 
Coventry. Justice Waimonsold, of Putney, 
apprehended his servant Dan Higgason who 
was bringing six impressed men for the 
Tower, sent him to gaol, and his brother 
Thomas to the house of correction, and dis- 
charged the men. Begs redress." 

Of the White family, which held the 
present Fairfax House in 1647 (whether the 
General was their guest or not must remain 
a moot-point), we may suppose that they 



52 



FAIRFAX HOUSE: PUTNEY. 



had for some time previously been established 
in Putney. We find in Lysons that Alexander 
White, in 1608, left money to buy bread for 
the poor (vol. i., p. 424). We have seen 
that Henry White was appointed Sheriff of 
the County by the Parliament, 1653 ; but he 
was reluctant to accept the honour. We find 
in the State Papers, 1654, January 20 : 

M Petition of Edward Knipe to the Pro- 
tector. I was high sheriff of Surrey last year 
and this year Hen. White was elected in 
Parliament to serve but he refuses to be 
sworn in and execute the office. I have at my 
own charge procured his patent and given 
him notice thereof yet he still refuses to act, 
to my great damage and danger. I beg that 
I may be acquitted from the office and 
White compelled to execute it. With order 
thereon that the Attorney General prosecute 
White for refusing to execute his office to 
which he was elected." 

In July of the same year the Council had 
under consideration a petition from the 
churchwardens and inhabitants of Putney in 
reference to the relief of the poor ; and in 
1656, June 26, we find a document which 
should be interesting to the Putney rate- 
payers of to-day : 

"Petition of 13 parishioners of Putney, 
Surrey, to the Protector. By the ordinances 
of March 1654 for repair of highways an 
assessment of not more i2d. in the pound 
per year was to be raised for them. We 
have expended large sums the last 2 years, 
but our High Street being long and broad 
cannot be made by gravelling and the money 
spent will be lost unless we may pave it ; the 
parishioners will undertake the charge if they 
may be repaid from the assessments after 
other needful work is paid for." 

Fairfax House is a handsome old building, 
and the Putney people were probably proud 
of it then as now, and were anxious that it 
should have a good approach. The lady 
whose letter we quoted at the commence- 
ment of this article pleads for the garden as 
well as the house ; she truly says that such a 
variety of fine old specimen-trees is rarely to 
be met with even in much larger grounds. 
They were planted by Bishop Juxon (see 
Lysons, etc.). 

A proposition has been made that the 
Vestry should purchase Fairfax House, and 




so save it from destruction. Putney sadly 
wants a Town Hall, which could be built 
upon the stable and part of the garden ; and 
if a majority of the ratepayers decide upon 
adopting the Free Library Act, Fairfax 
House will be a library building which many 
towns in Great Britain, and America too, 
would be thankful to possess. If this scheme 
should happily come to fruition and who 
would not wish it heartily success ? we may 
hope that the associations of the old house 
may tend to cherish a taste among Putney 
people for " the study of the past." 



^cfjcol Plaps ana ame& 

ARTON gives a brief account of the 
early practice of acting plays in 
English schools, a practice which 
is so worthily continued in some 
of our schools to the present day, notably at 
Westminster. Our drama, in fact, in its pro- 
gress onwards from the religious plays of 
mediaeval life, received strength from this 
source, as well as from the Universities. 

Nicholas Udall, the author of the earliest 
English comedy, Ralph Roister Doister, was 
a master of Eton School, and afterwards of 
Westminster School. The date of this play 
is ascertained to have been prior to 1551, 
and was probably written in the reign of 
Henry VIII. 

In the ancient Consuetudinary of Eton 
School, there is a passage to the effect that 
about the feast of St Andrew, the thirteenth 
day of November, the master is accustomed 
to choose, according to his own discretion, 
such Latin stage-plays as are most excellent and 
convenient ; which the boys are to act in the 
following Christmas holidays, before a public 
audience, and with all the elegance of scenery 
and ornaments usual at the performance of a 
play. Yet he may sometimes order English 
plays, such, at least, as are smart and witty. 
" In the year 1538," writes Warton, " Ralph 
Radcliffe, a polite scholar, and a lover of 
graceful elocution, opening a school at 
Hitchin, in Hertfordshire, obtained a grant 
of the dissolved friery of the Carmellites in 
that town ; and converting the refectory into 



SCHOOL PLA YS AND GAMES. 



53 



a theatre, wrote several plays, both in Latin 
and English, which were exhibited by his 
pupils. . . . These pieces were seen by the 
biographer Bale, but are now lost." 

It is but trite to remark how regrettable is 
such a loss as this; and yet perhaps only 
those who are familiar with early plays 
realize how much information on manners 
and customs is missed by these lacunae in 
our dramatic literature. In the British 
Museum there is a school-play of later date 
than these lost plays of Radcliffe's. It is 
entitled as follows : 

" Apollo Shroving. Composed for the 
Schollars of the Free-schoole of Hadleigh, in 
Suffolke. And acted by them on Shroue- 
tuesday, being the sixt of February, 1626. 
[Willm. Hawkins.] London : Printed for 
Robert Mylbourne." 

There is a preface by the editor, who ap- 
parently was not the author of the play. It 
is addressed : 

" To my singular honest Stationer, Mr. 
Robert Mylbourne, at his shop in decimo 
sexto, by the south doore of Pauls," and 
couched in very quaint terms. The follow- 
ing is an extract : 

"As you are a true Booke-seller, you must 
approue your selfe a true Booke-restorer ; 
and therefore by hooke or by crooke see that 
you send backe my Booke. And yet not my 
Booke. For it was but a borrowed Booke, for 
which my promise and credit lye in mort- 
gage to the Author, the Schoolemaster of 
Hadley, who with some difficulty lent it me, 
hauing no other coppy of this EnglisVi Lesson 
which he prepared for a By-exercise for his 
schollars at the last Carneval. He told me 
he huddled it up in hast, and that it being 
onely an essay of his owne faculty and of the 
actiuity of his tenderlings, he was loath it 
should come vnder any other eye, then of 
those Parents and domestique friends who 
fauorably beheld it, when it was represented 
by the children." .... The preface is 
Signed " E. W.," and dated, " From Hadley 
aforesaid, March 21, 1626." 

Then follows 

" The aforesaid Stationers answer : 

" Louing, challenging, Threatning friend 
E. W., I pray you extend your loue so farre 
to your friend, and your friends friend as to 
think that neither the first will fraud you of 



your borrowed Booke, nor the second ex 
pose the Author to any inconvenience. . . . - 

" I pray you therefore, instead of his owne 
single written coppy, pacifie him with this 
packet of his owne mettall stamped and 
multiplied by the Printers Alchimy. . . . 

"London, April 25, 1627. From the 
small volume of my shop, where the South 
winde blowes into Pauls." 

The list of characters is curious : 

"The Introduction. 
Prologus, a yong Schollar. 
Lala, a woman Spectator. 

Dramatis Persons. 

Musseus, Apollos, Priest, and Iudge. 

Clio, a Muse, his assistant. 

Euterpe, a Muse, another assistant 

Lavvriger, his Verger. 

Drudo, his Booke-bearer. 

Preco, the Cryer. 

Thuriger, the Sexton of Apolloes Temple. 

Scopas, the Sexton's boy. 

Philoponus, a diligent Student. 

Amphibius, a perplexed schollar. 

Novice, a young fresh schollar. 

Rowland Retro, an hasty non-proficient. 

Geron, an old man, his mournfull father. 

Ludio, a truantly schooleboy. 

Siren, a sea nymph, a messenger from 
Queene Hedone. 

Captaine Complement, a teacher of ges- 
tures and fashions. 

Jacke Implement, his Page. 

Mistrisse Indulgence Gingle, a cockering 
mother. 

Iohn Gingle, her sonne, a disciple of 
Captaine Complement 

Iugge Rubbish, maidservant to Mistrisse 
Gingle. 

Slim Slugge, a lazy Droane. 

Epilogue." 

The Prologue begins in Latin. Lala in- 
terrupts him : " What, shall wee haue Latine 
againe? Master Prologue yongster, I pray 
you goe to the Vniuersity, and set vp your 
Stage there." He replies ; then she says : 
" I pray you then tell us so much in honest 
English." He says he will, for her sake. 
She rejoins: "For mine? nay, for euery 
shee, Whom here you see; And for our 
honest neighbours many a good man that 



54 



SCHOOL PLAYS AND GAMES. 



neuer Was infected with the rauing latine 
feuer." The Prologue requests her to be 
quiet. " Keepe silence, thou party-coloured 
chattering Magpy," he says. Lala caps this 
with : " Then speake sense, thou jabbering 
al-blacke Iackdaw, with a greene coxcombe." 

Amid interruptions the Prologue struggles 
on one of Mistress Lala's interjections 
being decidedly prurient and presently 
she says : " Sir Prologue, I fcare thou talk'st 
English extrumpery besides thy part, onely 
to beguile me, I doubt there is Latine in his 
budget." The succeeding lines are of de- 
cided interest to us at this day : 

" Prol. I auow to thee, jealous Lala, that 
this same schollers feast is drest in English. 

" Lala. I dare not trust you, for you say you 
are here in the schoole. And you schollers 
must not speake English in the schoole. 

" Prol. We are not now at our taske, but 
wee haue leaue to play, and we play at our 
best game. 

" Lala. What ? Blow-point ? or Span- 
counter? or trappe out may hap? Take 
heed, you grow Outish. 

" Prol. No, Tomboy, no. Nor scourge top, 
nor Trusse, nor Leape-frog, nor Nine- holes, 
nor Mumble the pegge : But a more Noble 
recreation, where we haue more lookers on, 
then gamesters." 

At the end of this preliminary scene, Lala 
says : " As I'me a true woman I'le trust you 
slippery schollars no further then I see you. 
I woon't away till I tast of the first dish of 
Apollos shrouing feast, and know whether it 
was an English Cooke that drest it." She 
remains during the first scene of the first act, 
saying at the end of it : " Well, I see now it 
will bee in English. It shall goe hard, but 
I'le get a part amongst them. I'le into the 
tyreing house, and scramble, and rangle for 
a man's part. Why should not women act 
men, as well as boys act women? I will 
wear the breeches, so I will." 

English school-games at that period are 
further illustrated in the fourth scene of the 
third act. Ludio says : " I think I rose not 
on the right side to-day. I haue rambled vp 
and downe, and can get no playfellowes." In 
some dialogue with Lawriger, he says he has 
read that Apollo played at Quoits. He says 
of Ovid : " I doe not think but that if he 
were here he would intreat Apollo to play at 



Quoits with me, or checke-stone, or spume- 
point." He describes a game : " Twice 
three stones, set in a crossed square, where 
he wins the game, that can set his three 
along in a row, and that is fippeny morrell, I 
trow." He asks Lawriger to entreat Apollo 
to play with him : " I challenge him at all 
games from blow-point vpward to football, 
and so on to mumchance and ticketacke." 
Then he goes on : " Sir, doe you hear ? 
rather then sit out, I will giue Apollo three 
of the nine at Ticktacke. I doe not think 
but I shall take him at a why 7iot euery other 
game." 

The Captain Complement of the piece is a 
counterpart of Ben Jonson's Captain Bobadil. 
He is thus announced : " Renowned Father 
of fashions, Count of Courtesies, Marquesse 
of moderne motions, Duke of Debonaire 
deportment, Chief Justice of gesticulations !" 
The Captain prompts : " Go on with the 
Alphabet of my titles. Comptroller." Im- 
plement continues : " I have it, Comptroller 
of Conges, Compactor of Cringes, Feat 
Framer of Fustian phrases." Complement 
says : " Sirra, you forget the Titles 
giuen me by the great Mogul, when I 
went Ambassador to him from the King of 
Calecut, a golden trumpet sounded them in 
the Persian language." Implement replies : 
" That trumpet could speake Persian well, I 
can hardly hit upon them in the originall. 
Varlette, polh-one, manigoldo." 

" Comp. You masque unknowne, unseene. 
Descend I say to the apprehension of the 
base vulgar. Give us them in translation. 

" Lmp. Indoctrinate of yong Nobility. Ac- 
complisher of King's Courts, chiefe engineer 
of cap and knee, Clock-keeper of nodde and 
shrugge, and ingrosser of all saylable, auaile- 
able adresses, garbs, faces, graces, in all 
places." 

Taylor comes in for a pretty allusion. 
Drudo says : " I wish I had no better fortune 
then to be a pretty water-Poet with a high 
forehead like I. T., that acts the swanne by 
the bankes of Thames in England." 
Lawriger says : " He meanes the easie 
smooth vollaminous vntaught Poet, that will 
row you ouer the Thames in rime, euery 
stroake of his oare cuts out the capering feet 
of his verses." 

There are some passages in the play that 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF FENCING. 



55 




go very near being indecent ; and, of course, 
there is nothing in contemporary manners to 
cause us to doubt that the words were 
actually spoken by the schoolboys before 
their papas and mammas and friends assem- 
bled. On the other hand, this questionable 
matter may have been added when the play 
was printed, at the suggestion of the " honest 
stationer," Mr. Robert Mylbourne, who pre- 
sumably had an eye to business and under- 
stood the tastes of his customers, 

Andrew Hibbert. 



&e Development of jfencmg.* 



r is an admitted paradox that the 
development of fencing was due 
to the discovery of gunpowder. 
The rise of swordsmanship in 
Europe was an outcome of the introduction 
of firearms, its decadence the result of their 
perfection. The " science of defence," all 
but lost sight of during the Middle Ages, 
sprung up again from its half-buried stock 
during that wonderful revival we know as 
the Renaissance. Attaining its highest prac- 
tical exposition during the last century, it has 
since sank almost to the level of a mere 
exercise. The breechloader and the revolver 
have for ever relegated the " white weapon " 
to a secondary position either in line of 
battle or chance medley encounter. Theo- 
retically we are better fencers than ever, but 
the foil-play of to-day, varied, graceful, and 
dazzling, is essentially that of the school and 
not of the fighting-ground. As a training it 
is admirable, but when it has to be put into 
actual practice with the sword its exponent 
finds it imperative to ignore at least one half 
of what he has learnt. 

That skilled sword-play was not so wholly 
ignored in knightly combat during the Middle 
Ages as has been represented, even by Mr. 
Castle, becomes apparent on a little investi- 
gation. As a rule no doubt the successful 
champion was he who could bear the stoutest 
armour and deal the starkest strokes. But 

* Schools and Masters of Fence from the Middle 
Ages to the Eighteenth Century By Egerton Castle, 
M.A. (G. Bell and .Sons). 



in the most perfect specimens of the ar- 
mourer's art which have come down to us 
we see a provision against the assaults of 
skill as well as those of strength. The hand 
trained to direct the lance to a hair's breadth 
at the quintain was surely capable of guiding 
the point of a sword with equal accuracy. 
In proof of this, mark the system of over- 
lapping joints and the especial care taken to 
protect the armpit by fanlike projections and 
kindred devices. The thrust through the 
eye which laid John Chandos low at the 
bridge of Leusac was from an estoc, a stab- 
bing sword. Still there can be no doubt but 
that downright shearing blows that would 
dismount or fell a man if they failed to pierce 
his armour were in most favour. The sword, 
too, was, theoretically, at any rate, a weapon 
of offence only. Theoretically, because the 
same natural impulse which leads a man to 
raise his hand to protect his head from a 
coming stroke, must have instinctively taught 
him in actual combat to fend it with his 
blade when he could not otherwise escape it. 
We can clearly trace the "cross" in the 
sense of a parry to a fairly remote date. At 
the same time it is evident that the wearers 
of armour relied almost wholly upon it for 
protection, and with good reason. A knightly 
combat was a matter of endurance as well 
as of infliction of punishment. There are 
plenty of instances of champions succumbing 
from sheer fatigue whilst yet unscathed. 

The existence of schools and masters of 
fence is also patent, although unfortunately 
there is but little evidence to show what was 
taught. The probability is that the complete 
course comprised the handling of all weapons 
used on foot, more attention being paid to 
offence than defence. Men fought in earnest 
in those days, and it must have been self- 
evident that to kill or maim a foe was to 
put a satisfactory end to a fight at once, to 
ward his blows merely to prolong its risks. 
Hence the former was the preferable know- 
ledge to acquire. Mr. Castle has pointed 
out that such schools were founded through- 
out the Middle Ages whenever towns managed 
to obtain a certain amount of independence, 
and holds that the training given in them to 
the villain or burgess was much more prac- 
tical than that acquired by the knight, since 
the former learned to rely to a certain point 



56 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF FENCING. 



on his weapons as well as on general activity 
for defence instead of on the artificial resource 
of armour. An important feature in the 
duties of the mediaeval weapon-master was 
the training of men for the ordeal by battle. 
The prolonged shrifts and purgations which 
intending combatants had to go through 
were accompanied by a course of lessons in 
the arm they were to wield, and their in- 
structors usually took a prominent part in 
the ceremonial of the encounter.* The 
reputation of these schools in England was 
not of the highest, if we are to judge by the 
edicts levelled against them and their fre- 
quenters by the civic authorities of the 



On the Continent a number of fighting 
guilds also arose, in which traditionary skill 
was handed down through generations. The 
Brotherhood of St. Mark in Germany, dating 
back to the fourteenth century, is, on Mr. 
Castle's showing, the oldest of these. It 
seems to have sprung out of the action of 
some enterprising swordsmen, who clubbed 
together in order to monopolize the teaching 
of their art. Anyone attempting to teach 
fencing in Germany found himself confronted 
by the heads of the guild, and was offered 
the choice of fighting half a dozen of them 
in turn, or of entering the association under 
their rule. As a result the headquarters of 




SPANISH FENCING IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY (THIBAUST). 



metropolis in the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries. Henry VIII., however, instead 
of seeking, like some of his predecessors, to 
suppress them altogether, incorporated all 
the most celebrated teachers of his day in a 
company by letters patent, in which their art 
is styled " the Noble Science of Defence," 
and forbade anyone to teach the said art in any 
part of England if he did not belong to this 
corporation. The employment of the term 
" Defence " suggests a verbal sop to Cerberus. 
It had probably already been put forward as 
an excuse to palliate the practice of giving 
instruction. For the earliest books extant 
on swordsmanship show very little defensive 
play. 

* See Archceologia, vol. xxix., in which this point is 
treated at length. 



the Marxbruder at Frankfort-on-the-Main 
became a kind of gladiatorial university, to 
which aspiring swordsmen flocked to take 
their degree in arms. The captain and 
several more members of the guild were en- 
countered in turn by the candidate on a 
scaffold reared in the market-place. If the 
aspirant sustained the test creditably the 
captain formally struck him across the hips 
with the sword of ceremony, and the new 
member, after placing two golden florins on 
the blade of that weapon as an initiation fee, 
was privileged to learn the secrets of the 
brotherhood in the handling of arms, to bear 
the heraldic golden lion of the Marxbriider, 
and to teach throughout Germany privileges 
recognised by letters patent of the Emperor 
Frederick in 1480. Traces also exist of a 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF FENCING. 



57 



rival corporation, the Brotherhood of St. 
Luke, but these are not found later than the 
fifteenth century. 

Similar societies existed in Italy and Spain. 
In the latter country there is evidence that 
the ancient Roman schools of fence founded 
in connection with the gladiatorial arena 
survived successive barbarian invasions, in- 
cluding that of the Moors. Records pre- 
served in the Hotel de Ville at Perpignan, 
and dating from the days when that town 
was a Spanish possession, show in all its 
details the ordeal which had to be undergone 
before the " lusor " or " scholar," passing 
through the degree of " licentiatus " or pro- 
vost, attained the full blown dignity of " La- 



weapons. That such training was in direct 
filiation from the Roman practice in which 
the point was preferred to the edge, is by no 
means improbable. The encounter between 
the Spanish infantry, armed with short sword 
and buckler, and the pike-bearing Lanz- 
knechts at Ravenna, revived the struggle 
between the legion and the phalanx. 

Hence, though Mr. Castle is inclined to 
doubt the fact, there is a fair reason to sup- 
pose that if the germ of modern fencing 
sprouted in Italy, the seed originally came 
from Spain. But whilst Spanish sword-play, 
after attaining a certain pitch, seems to have 
fossilized until it became wholly obsolete, 
that of Italy rapidly progressed, spreading 




FRENCH FENCING IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY (DANET). 



nista seu Magister in usu Palestrinse."* He 
had to show his theoretical and practical 
knowledge by fighting the whole board of 
examiners, first separately, and then together, 
with such varied weapons as spear and 
shield, sword and buckler, axe, dagger, short 
sword, and falchion. The schools of arms 
of Leon and Toledo were in high repute, 
and the names of the first writers on sword- 
play handed down to us are those of Jayme 
Pons of Majorca, and Pedro de la Torre, 
though their works, said to have appeared in 
1474, have unfortunately perished. The 
superiority of the Spanish bands over all 
other infantry, so conclusively demonstrated 
in Italy and the Low Countries during the 
sixteenth century, was due to the perfect 
training each man received in the use of his 

* Revue Archeologique, tome vi. Paris, 1849-53. 

VOL. XV. 



ultimately into France, Germany, England, 
and the Northern States of Europe. Each 
of these countries adopted its principles to a 
greater or lesser extent for the time being. 
At a far subsequent date the internal develop- 
ment of the French school of play brought 
it in turn to the foremost position, and led 
to its adoption throughout Europe with the 
exception of Spain and Italy. 

The systematic use of the sword as a 
defensive as well as an offensive weapon 
dates, as far as can be ascertained, from the 
sixteenth century, the relinquishment of 
armour due to the introduction of firearms 
being, as noted, the mainspring of the change. 
The extant literature of fencing commences 
in the same century, the bulk of it being 
Italian. Italy was at this epoch the fount of 
civilization and culture. Every kind of art 

F 



58 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF FENCING. 



and science was trained to flourish within its 
bounds. In the universal advance swords- 
manship, whether of purely native origin or 
primarily derived from Spanish invaders, was 
not likely to be neglected. Men's brains 
were keenly on the alert to acquire and 
disseminate knowledge, and the matchless 
presses of Venice and Rome multiplied a 
thousandfold the influence of successive 
masters. All things coming from Italy, even 
its vices, were welcome in courtly circles 
abroad. The Italians themselves, natives of 
different petty States engaged in continual 
squabbles, and devoid of any very strong 
national prejudices, were to be met with as 
painters, musicians, poisoners and panders, 
in every court in Europe. To these pro- 
fessions that of fencing - master was soon 



the Peninsula, and the work of Carranza, 
overloaded to excess with maddeningly com- 
plicated theories and abstruse philosophical 
disquisitions, appears to be the only produc- 
tion issued from it in the sixteenth century 
which has survived. The ultimate effect of 
this book was undoubtedly the extinction of 
the Spanish school of sword-play. Its absurd 
but plausibly expounded theories were eagerly 
harped upon by successive writers as the only 
true basis of the science, and Spanish fencing 
cramped within these limits became wholly 
stationary, and finally died out altogether. 
Yet, up to almost the close of the sixteenth 
century, the Spaniard was still reckoned the 
most formidable opponent with the rapier of 
any nation in Europe.* Incessant practice 
in camp and school gave him a perfect com- 




FRENCH FENCING AT THE CLOSE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY (LABAT). 



added. Pompee and Silvie in Paris, Rocko 
and Saviolo in London, and Fabris at Copen- 
hagen, are familiar instances. So wide a 
range tended in every way to extend the 
influence of the Italian schools of swords- 
manship, and at the same time to enlarge 
the experience of its professors, and to lead 
them on to progressive improvements. It 
was otherwise with the Spaniard. Detested 
by the Huguenot, and dreaded by the 
Catholic in France, hated by England, 
despite the hollow alliance of Philip and 
Mary, shunned by the German, once his 
fellow-subject under Charles V., he strove 
rather to retain than to disseminate his know- 
ledge. It was beneath his dignity to impart it 
to a foreigner, contrary to his faith to teach 
it to a heretic save in actual fight. The 
printing-press was but scantily patronized in 



mand over his weapon within certain limits. 
It was not until the swordsmen of other 
countries had advanced towards perfection in 
their own systems that they found themselves 
his superior. 

Fencing, like every other science, owed 
much to the invention of printing. Of course 
a man could not learn it wholly from books, 
but if possessed of even a rudimentary know- 
ledge, he could correct his deficiencies, and 
adopt such novelties as seemed to him feas- 
ible from the superbly illustrated volumes 
produced. The early fencing-masters merely 
imparted a number of tricks of sword-play, 
which they had picked up and practised, and 
which were mainly dictated by their own 
physical ability and predilection. Closing 

* G. Silver's Paradoxe of Defence, 1599. The 
rapier appears, indeed, to have been of Spanish origin. 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF FENCING. 



59 



and wrestling were looked upon as the 
natural result of an encounter, and one of 
the crudest, though not in point of date 
earliest, works known, whilst professing to 
deal with the sword, frequently winds up a 
description of a bout by an instruction to 
get the adversary on his back and deal with 
him at will.* Progress was necessarily ten- 
tative. It was only very gradually that first 
principles were admitted, and writers fre- 
quently show a tendency to discountenance 
that which modern experience has shown to 
have been a step in the right direction on the 
part of their predecessors. 

Mr. Castle has traced the development of 
the science, and further indicated these tempo- 
rary retrogressions with a care, skill, and 
patience no writer has heretofore dreamed of 



of buckler, cloak or dagger, or even the left 
hand, for parrying. Mr. Castle holds strongly 
to the opinion that the use of the sword in 
parrying, save by a counter-hit, or even 
thrust, exactly corresponding to that of the 
assailant, was wholly ignored. Reading be- 
tween the lines of some of the earlier treatises, 
it would rather seem that whilst teachers 
expressly discouraged simple parries, they 
were still made use of intentionally or in- 
stinctively by swordsmen. But in actual 
fight with long, heavy, and unwieldy rapiers, 
a blow delivered well within measure and 
simply parried, would most likely result in 
one of those closes in which skill in swords- 
manship was no longer of any avail against 
superior physical strength. This impulse to 
grapple the teacher wculd strive to check, 




ITALIAN FENCING IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY (FABRIS). 



devoting to the subject. Dealing with the 
early Italian masters from the commence- 
ment to the close of the sixteenth century, 
it may be broadly stated that the first start 
made was the accentuation of the use of the 
point. \ The rapier, now replacing the sword, 
had still two cutting edges, both of which 
were freely used ; but gradually, and in spite 
of the prejudice engendered by long habit, 
the truth forced itself upon reflective minds 
that the point offered a more deadly means 
of attack, a more effective because threaten- 
ing defence. It must be remembered that 
the main idea of defence was not to fend off 
the adversary's attack, but to devise a position 
from which to strike him on his advance. 
At the outset another relic of old manners 
survived in the ail-but universal employment 

* La noble Science des Joueurs d'Esfice. Anvers, 
1535- 



though he taught disarming as one of its 
outcomes. The main idea was to get into 
such a position as regarded an antagonist 
that an effective attack could be at once 
delivered with point or edge so as to antici- 
pate a like step on his part. Such advance 
was made by alternate steps or " passes," and 
similar passes or slips to the right or left, with 
" cavings " of the body, got the assailed out of 
difficulty. By the commencement of the 
second half of the century, a marked advance 
was shown in the still greater attention paid 
to the thrust, the inculcation of the advisa- 
bility of keeping the right foot foremost, and 
the first foreshadowing of the lunge in the 
" punta sopramano " of the Bolognese Angelo 
Viggiani. Still the main feature of sword- 
play consisted in dodging about an adversary, 
a direct advance being deprecated as too 
dangerous. Time-thrusts were held to be 



6o 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF FENCING. 



the most effective attacks, and crossing 
counters the best parries. Salvator Fabris, 
in the last quarter of the century, stands a 
head and shoulders above his contemporaries. 
After visiting France, Spain, and Germany, 
he settled at the court of Christian IV. of 
Denmark, and under his protection brought 
out the most perfect treatise that had as yet 
appeared.* He all but discards the use of 
the edge, gives the first indication of what 
we should call a guard, and defines engage- 
ments, opposition, and circular parries, though 
still emphasizing the inadvisability of parry- 
ing and riposting in two movements, and 
urging that no parry is good which does not 
strike at the same time. The very emphasis 
laid on this point by successive writers argues 
that the practice they deprecated existed. It 
was during the last thirty years of the century 
that rapier-play began to take root in France, 
Germany, and England. In the first-named 
country the Academie d'Armes had been 
founded by Charles IX., and fostered by 
Henry III., and Sainct Didier had embodied 
the teachings of some of the earlier Italian 
masters in his book.f The French nobility, 
already bitten with that extraordinary mania 
for duelling which Richelieu afterwards 
sought to check, not content with such 
instruction as could be found in their own 
country, eagerly crossed the Alps and sought 
further knowledge at Milan, Venice, Rome, 
and Bologna. In Germany the Marxbriider 
now found themselves confronted by the rival 
society of " Federfechter," whose distinctive 
weapon was the rapier, J and who were first 
formally incorporated by a charter from the 
Duke of Mecklenburg, though their head- 
quarters were afterwards transferred to 
Prague. The superiority of the new weapon 
was made, so manifest in encounters between 
representatives of the old and new schools 
of swordsmen that the Marxbriider them- 
selves adopted it. Thenceforward the two 
societies flourished side by side in honour- 
able rivalry, whilst the writings of Joachim 
Meyer of Strasburg reproduced in print in 

* De lo Schermo, overo scienza d'arme. Copen- 
hagen, 1606. He had been actively teaching before 
the appearance of this work. 

f 7'raicte contenant les secrets du premier livre stir 
Pespee settle. Paris, 1573. 

% Feder was a slang term for the rapier. The 
favourite German sword was two-handed, 



1570 the systems of Viggiani and Grassi. 
The works of the last-named author were 
further "Englished" by "J. G., gentleman," 
and with the teachings and writings of Vin- 
centio Saviolo, helped to familiarize the 
Elizabethan gallants with the weapon Row- 
land Yorke is said to have first introduced 
into England greatly to the disgust of the 
Corporation of Masters of Defence, who 
shortly found their occupation gone so far 
as regarded fashionable tuition, and seem to 
have sunk to the level of prize-fighters. 
Spain continued to follow its own method, 
the lustre shed by the great Carranza, 
"inventor of the science of arms," who 
wrote in 1569, being fostered by the labours 
of his illustrious disciple, Louis Pacheco de 
Narvaez, the " Don Lewis " of Ben Jonson. 

By the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, rapier-fighting was rapidly attaining 
practical perfection. The right foot was kept 
in front, the lunge, perfected by Giganti the 
Venetian and Capo Ferro the Siennese, was 
recognised as the most effective attack, and 
the body was covered by an engaged blade. 
Cuts were almost abandoned save when 
special opportunities occurred for their 
delivery, guards were defined and developed, 
and the sword was admittedly sufficient for 
defence, though passes and voltes, were still 
made use of to avoid attacks, and the dagger 
and cloak employed in parrying. Throughout 
the first half of the century, the superiority of 
the Italian instructors remainedunquestioned. 
Towards the sixth decade, however, the 
French, who had mainly adopted the prin- 
ciples of the Bolognese school as inculcated 
by the Cavalcaboes, began to develop one of 
their own. The munificent patronage and 
especial privileges bestowed upon the 
Academie Royale d'Armes by Louis XIV. 
favoured this movement, and at the same time 
regularized it, since no one save a graduate of 
this Academy could teach in France. Their 
great departure from the Italian school con- 
sisted in parrying and riposting in two move- 
ments, a feat now feasible with the lighter 
swords in vogue. The use of the edge was 
wholly ignored, leading to the introduction of 
light triangular blades, and the employment of 
the left hand in parrying discouraged by the 
best masters, though retained in certain cases. 
Circular parries were also discouraged, and 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF FENCING. 



61 



this holds good until well on into the eighteenth 
century. The value of the riposte was, 
however, emphasized, as was the feasibility of 
the reprise ; guards and feints were systema- 
tized, and the cut over the point introduced. 
The introduction of buttoned foils and of 
plastrons about the middle of the century 
certainly lessened the sufferings of pupils, who 
prior to this innovation had to take their 
lessons and keep up their practice with 
rebated blades of formidable weight and 
stiffness, though in the absence of masks the 
eyes were still in danger. The English 
courtiers of the court of Charles II. 
followed the practice taught at that of the 
Roi Soleil, and the Italian school died out 
in this country. It is, however, noteworthy 
that Sir William Hope, writing at the close 
of the century, endeavoured to establish 
what he styled the " Scots play " in opposi- 
tion to the French, laying especial stress on 
circular parries. In Germany Italian influ- 
ence continued paramount. The works of 
the leading Italian masters were translated 
and reproduced, and their cut and thrust 
play practised by all save a few courtly 
admirers of French fashions. It is scarcely 
right to conclude the notice of this century 
without a reference to the magnificent work 
of Girard Thibaust of Antwerp,* in which 
the principles of the Spanish system of fence 
are delineated with a matchless luxury of 
typography and engraving, accompanied by 
a maddening farrago of pseudo-mathematical 
demonstration. 

In the eighteenth century the French 
school maintained its supremacy. Closeness, 
and accuracy of play, simplification of move- 
ment, and the gradual elimination of tricks of 
agility became its leading characteristics, 
though voltes, passes and evasions were still 
recognised as of value in chance medley 
encounters against unequal weapons, and as 
serviceable in disarming an antagonist whom 
it was not desired to wound. By 1730 the 
principle of the circular parry, so important a 
feature in modern French fencing, had been 
adopted, being favoured by the diminishing 
weight of the blade, which also favoured the 
introduction of triple feints. Some twenty 
years later La Boessiere is credited with the 
introduction of masks, though it would appear 
* Academie de VEspie. Leyden, 1628. 



that they were received with disfavour as 
tending to encourage irregular and un- 
academic play. According to tradition, it 
was not until three leading masters had lost 
an eye apiece that they consented to adopt 
these protections.* From this time for- 
ward the development of the art becomes 
more interesting to the close student 
of swordsmanship than to the general reader. 
The abandonment of the practice of 
leaning forward on the lunge, the struggle 
between the classic and romantic school in 
the third decade of the present century, and 
the freer scope for individuality now recog- 
nised in the Parisian salles (Tarmes, would 
scarcely interest the latter. England during 
the eighteenth century was worthily repre- 
sented with foil and pen by the Angelos, 
whilst the national backsword was not only 
taught but demonstrated to the effusion of 
blood by Fig and his fellows. The Germans 
maintained their high repute for cut and 
thrust play, and when using the edgeless 
small sword still inclined rather to the Italian 
practice than the French. The Italians 
fell away somewhat in repute, though still 
reckoned formidable opponents ; time-thrusts 
and body-movements holding a prominent 
place in their system, and the straight arm, 
which is still characteristic of the Neapolitan 
school, being an essential feature. The 
Spaniards appear towards the close of the 
century to have sought to engraft some 
extraneous principles upon their national 
practice, but without much success, and their 
school is now extinct. The dagger seems to 
have been abandoned by both Spaniards 
and Italians at the commencement of the 
eighteenth century. 

Monte. 



Norton I&ttfrp Castle. 

T Horton Kirby, near Dartford, in 
Kent, we come upon the ruins 
of a Norman stronghold, seated 
upon the banks of the River 
Darent : 




1862. 



Les Secrets de VEpC-e. De Bazancourt. Faris, 



62 



HORTON KIRB Y CASTLE. 



In whose waters clean, 
Ten thousand fishes play, and deck his pleasant 
stream. 

We can well imagine with what dismay our 
Saxon forefathers beheld the multiplication 
of donjon keeps and battlemented walls, 
from the summits of which their most deadly 
enemy could reconnoitre the surrounding 
country and houses, with an eye keen to 
detect the existence of anything at all worth 
appropriating. This castle was erected by 
one of the family named De Ros, who held 
much land in the neighbourhood by grant 
from Odo, the fierce and warlike bishop. A 
descendant named Robert became, during 
the reign of King John, one of the twenty- 
five barons who were appointed to decide 
upon questions of illegal deprivation by the 
King, of castles, liberties and rights, an office 
in those days of no small impo; tance. Another 
of the same family, Richard de Ros, pos- 
sessed this castle, and, accordingto the Kentish 
historian Hasted, died during the reign of 
Henry III, leaving one daughter, named 
Laura, who from her possessions here was 
known as the Lady of Horton. She married, 
in the twentieth year of Edward I., Roger, 
son of Sir John de Kirby, who already owned 
considerable property in Horton. He re- 
edified the Castle, and built the mansion of 
Kirby Court Manor; so important had his 
property now become, that the very parish 
itself received the addition of his name, having 
ever since been known as Horton Kirby. 
The same historian tells us that this Roger de 
Kirby, at the enthronization of Archbishop 
Robert Winchelsea, in the reign of Edward I., 
made claim before Richard de Clare, Earl of 
Gloucester and Hertford, High Steward and 
Chief Butler to the Archbishop, to serve him 
on that day with the cup at his dinner, and 
to have the cup as his fee, by virtue of the 
possession of the Manor of Horton, which he 
held of the Archbishop, and that the Earl 
admitted his claim ; but as he was not a 
knight as he who should perform the service 
ought to be the Earl nominated Sir Gilbert 
Owen to serve for him, and to him, after the 
dinner, the cup was accordingly delivered. 
Gilbert, son of Roger de Kirby, held the 
estate in the twentieth year of Edward III. ; 
but in the following reign it was again con- 
veyed to the possession of a stranger by the 



marriage of its heiress to Thomas Stonar, of 
Oxfordshire ; after many changes by marriage 
and by sale, it finally fell into the possession 
of Queen's College, Oxford. We can imagine 
the long stately array of armour-clad knights 
issuing from its portcullis with waving plumes 
and glancing spears, to play their part, 

Seeking the bubble reputation, 
in the great tournament held by Edward III. 
in the neighbouring town of Dartford. Pic- 
ture to ourselves the rude but open-handed 
hospitality dispensed within its walls ; see the 
huge masses of fresh and salted meat spread 
upon the long, bare oaken table, the floor of 
the great hall strewed with rushes, among 
which the dogs searched and fought for the 
bones and fallen scraps, and so weave, with 
aid of fancy's eye, a tale of early chivalry. 
Later on, when civilization had more ad- 
vanced, it requires no great stretch of ima- 
gination to depict the issuing from its portals 
of the knight on his proud steed, and the 
lady upon her gentle palfrey, attended by 
esquire and page, falconer and groom, to 
watch the well-trained hawk battling in mid- 
air with the heron. All this has passed away, 
the glory is departed, and nothing but ruins 
remain to tell the tale of this Castle, which, 
like its fellows, was at once the terror and 
the safeguard, as they remain the monuments 
of our ancient fame, rising at the bidding of 
an ambitious ruler at a period when gross 
tyranny reigned supreme, and the only law 
was : 

That they should take who have the power, 
And they should keep who can. 

J. A. Sparvel-Bayly, F.S.A. 



a 2jOcrti mote about t&e Stinger* 
torn jfamilp. 

By William John Hardy, F.S.A. 



OME years ago * I wrote a series 
of papers in this magazine about 
three generations of the once in- 
fluential family of Hungerford, and 
the legends attaching to their ancestral home 

* Antiquary, vol. ii., p. 233 ; vol. iv., pp. 49, III, 
and 239. 




A WORD MORE ABOUT THE HUNGERFORD FAMILY. 



63 



at Farley Castle, in Wiltshire. The persons 
I selected all lived in the sixteenth century, 
and were : Agnes, wife of Sir Edward 
Hungerford ; her step-son, Lord Hungerford 
of Heytesbury; and his son, "Sir Walter 
of Farley," all of whom earned for 
themselves a decidedly unfortunate reputa- 
tion. The conduct of this last, Sir Walter, 
towards his second wife, Anne Dormer, was 
most heartless, and, so far as we are able to 
judge from evidence handed down to us, 
entirely unmerited. Sir Walter married this 
lady in July, 1558, and about eleven years 
afterwards brought an action, charging her 
with murder, adultery, and an attempt to 
poison him. I drew my evidence almost 
exclusively from the State Papers of the period, 
and printed two letters from Lady Hunger- 
ford, in which she sets forth her unhappy state, 
and also a petition, addressed by her to 
Secretary Walsingham. I was then unaware 
of the existence at the Public Record Office 
of a number of documents relating to the 
Darrell family, amongst them some concern- 
ing Lady Hungerford's trial. Public atten- 
tion has just been drawn to these papers by 
Mr. Hubert Hall, in his able sketch of 
Elizabethan society,* and from them we 
learn some interesting details relating to the 
Hungerford case. The person with whom 
Sir Walter's wife was alleged to have com- 
mitted adultery was " Wild " Darrell, the hero 
of the Littlecote Legend. Mr. Hall prints 
a document, which is an abstract of Sir 
Walter Hungerford's " case." From this we 
learn that his charges were to the effect that, 
during the years 1564 to 1568, "William 
Darrell, Esquire," had, at Farley Castle', con- 
sorted familiarly with Dame Anne Hunger- 
ford and slept there. That, during the 
absence of Sir Walter Hungerford, the same 
William was wont to enter the bed-chamber 
of the same Anne, and " lie down with her." 
That in Easter Term, 1565, when Sir Walter 
was sick in London, Darrell sojourned at 
Farley for several weeks, " bibendo, ridendo, 
jocando, etc.," with Dame Anne, careless of 
her husband's sickness, and that a " plaster " 
off Darreli's leg (which had been broken 
apparently in one of the frolics complained 
of) was found in Dame Anne's bed between 

* Society in the Elizabethan Age, by Hubert Hall. 
London : Sonnenschein, 1886. 



the sheets. Besides this, when Lady Hunger- 
ford was in London, Darrell "hath used to 
come to her within her lodgings, the same 
tyme in one sort of apparell and sometime in 
another, such as he used not comonly to 
were abrode," and also to adopt a poor man's 
dress to avoid detection, and visited her in 
" as secret sort and maner as possible he 
could ; because they would have no evell 
suspicion conceyved of their lewd cummyng 
or resorting together." Darrell had given 
money to Lady Hungerford, and she had 
given money to him. Finally, it was urged 
that in Farley and its neigbourhood there 
was a great belief and suspicion of the adultery 
aforesaid, and that it was " in common 
report thereabouts." The affection enter- 
tained by Lady Hungerford for the hero of 
the Littlecote Legend is an interesting phase 
of the story of her suit with Sir Walter 
Hungerford, and the statement, just quoted, 
that the adultery between them was in com- 
mon report in the neighbourhood of Farley, 
is one more fact to account for the strange 
mixture of legends which hung about the 
Hungerfords' castle. Some interesting light 
on the true relations between Darrell and 
Lady Hungerford is thrown by three letters 
written by the lady herself to the hero of 
Littlecote. Of course we get from these but 
a one-sided version of the story, but Mr. 
Hall has also printed the depositions of 
sundry witnesses on Sir Walter's behalf, 
which, if reliable, would have conclusively 
proved the alleged adultery. The question is, 
then, whose story shall we believe ? I think we 
may arrive at a fair conclusion on the point 
by considering what we know of Sir Walter 
and his after-life, by the contemporary 
opinions of his conduct, and by the judg- 
ment of the Court, which was in Lady 
Hungerford's favour on all points. The 
attempt at gaining a divorce was, in my 
opinion, simply an attempt on a husband's 
part to rid himself of a companion of whom 
he had tired. Darrell, it must be remembered, 
was himself the object of a cruel persecution 
by his neighbours and friends, owing to some 
bit of family spite, and I believe that the 
affection which existed between the Squire 
of Littlecote and Lady Hungerford was purely 
sympathetic. That Lady Hungerford did, 
however, promise to marry Darrell should 



6 4 



A THIRTEENTH CENTURY BOOK OF ETIQUETTE. 



her husband's death leave her free to do so, 
there can be no doubt, from the following 
letter : 

" Myster Dorrell, 

" I, by the othe that I have sworne 
upone the holy Angleste, do acknowledge that 
if Sir Water Hungerford my husband now 
leving do departe oute of thys lyfe,* that I 
here by the othe that I have swarne, and 
wytnes of thys my hande, that I wyll take you 
to my husbande. Wytness thereof thys my 
hand suffiesyth Anna Hungerford." 



a Cftfrteentft Centura T5ook 
^Etiquette, 



of 




T is not a very large or important, but 
from certain points of view it is 
decidedly an interesting and often 
an amusing, branch of literature, 
that which may be classed under the head 
of " Books of Etiquette." An impression 
will be found to exist, even among those 
who in any way have given a thought to the 
matter, that we are chiefly indebted for the 
creation of such manuals to the polite and 
artificial period of powder and patches, wigs 
and red heels, and, if not exactly to the very 
refined person of Lord Chesterfield, certainly 
to a century not dating further back than 
the days of that punctilious monarch " Louis 
Quatorze." It smacks therefore almost of 
some literary hoax to hear from a worthy 
monk of the thirteenth century the strik- 
ingly familiar, almost stereotyped, admoni- 
tion that when dining with friends we are on 
no account to speak with our mouth full, or 
loll with our elbows on the table, or eat 
hurriedly, or a point which by implication, 
it may be observed, would seem to carry with 
it at least some satisfaction as a proof of 
human progress that we are not, openly at 
any rate, to pick our teeth with our fingers. 
There can, however, be no doubt of the 
authenticity of Fra Bonvesin's Fifty 
Courtesies of the Table, a thirteenth century 

* Originally written "if Sir Water Hungerfer 
my husband were not livyng." 



MS. which at present exists among the many 
treasures of the Ambrosian Library at Milan, 
where it has been examined by more than 
one distinguished expert. 

Before approaching the purely social 
aspect of this interesting manuscript (a 
production in verse), the work, it should be 
mentioned, has so far only attracted the 
attention of the few philological specialists to 
whom it is known as one of the earliest 
creations of purely Italian literature. Hallam, 
in his Literary History of the Middle Ages, 
makes no reference to the work. Bruce- 
Whyte, in his Study of the Romance Lan- 
guages, published (in French) some forty 
years since, devotes a few paragraphs to the 
MS. He, however, in many points incorrectly 
interpreted the crabbed writing and strange 
orthography of Fra Bonvesin. More recently 
the MS., which to the Italians possesses, it 
can be understood, no small interest, has 
been examined and transcribed with minute 
care, and published at length by Biondelli in 
his Studii linguistici* Known therefore only 
to a few specialists, and to our knowledge never 
as yet " Englished," as our old writers put it, 
there may be some interest in examining 
these fifty rhymed maxims or "courtesies" 
which, six hundred and seventeen years ago, 
Fra Bonvesin cautioned his readers to lay to 
heart when " dining out ;" maxims, it will be 
found, worthy of quite as much attention in 
the present day as they were in those distant 
centuries to which the sweetness and light of 
modern culture, and its kindred refinement 
of social conduct, were as yet but imperfectly 
known. 

The little we know of Fra Bonvesin of Riva 
shows him to have been a monkish school- 
master with a marked turn for literature. To 
the students of early Italian literature, a local 
chronicle, as also a canticle to the Virgin, 
both penned by the pious monk, are known ; 
but it is round his De Quinquaginta Curia- 
litatibus ad Mensam that centres the chief 
interest connected with a writer who may be 
termed the Chesterfield of the thirteenth 
century. And here it may be remarked that 
quite as warmly as that worthy nobleman 
does the Milan monk impress on his readers 
the necessity of being refined and well-bred, 
as we see by his very first verse, in which one 
* See also Bartoli's Storia delta Letleraiura Italiana. 



A THIRTEENTH CENTURY BOOK OF ETIQUETTE. 



65 



is admonished, before eating, to wash one's 
hands, and wash them gracefully : 

Se tu sporzi acqua a la man 
Adornamente la sporze, guarda no sij villan. 

" Do not," we are next told, " be in too 
great a hurry to take your seat at table 
before being invited ; if you should find your 
place occupied, do not make any disturbance 
about the matter, but politely yield." Once 
seated, one is above all warned not to neglect 
to say grace. " It is to the extreme glutton- 
ous and vile, and showing great contempt of 
the Lord, to think of eating before having 
asked His blessing." Grace said, one is 
enjoined to sit decently at table, not with the 
legs crossed, nor elbows on the board. " Do 
not," one is next recommended, " fill your 
mouth too full; the glutton who fills his mouth 
will not be able to reply when spoken to." 
One is further advised, when eating, to speak 
little, because in talking, one's food is apt to 
drop, or be spluttered. " When thirsty, 
swallow your food before drinking." " Do 
not dirty the cup in drinking ; take it with 
both hands firmly, so as not to spill the wine. 
If not wishing to drink, and your neighbour 
has dirtied the cup, wipe it before passing it 
on." The fourteenth " courtesy " is a shrewd 
one, to beware of taking too much wine, 
even if it be good, "for he offends trebly that 
does so : against his body and his soul, while 
the wine he consumes is wasted." If anyone 
arrives during the meal one is advised not 
to rise, but continue eating. The sixteenth 
courtesy is noteworthy in its recommendation 
to those taking soup not to " swallow their 
spoons," while they are further admonished, 
if conscious of this bad habit, to correct 
themselves as soon as possible, as also of the 
breach of good manners in eating noisily. 
" If you should sneeze or cough, cover your 
mouth, and above all turn away from the 
table." Good manners, one is told, demands 
that one should partake, however little, of 
whatever is offered ; if, that is, the proviso is 
made, one is in good health. Do not, one is 
urged, criticize the food, or say, " This is badly 
cooked, or too salt." Attend to your own 
plate, and not to that of others. Do not mix 
together on your plate all sorts of viands, 
meat and eggs ; " it may," thoughtfully adds 
the writer, " disgust your neighbour." " Do 
not eat coarsely or vulgarly ; and if you have 



to share your bread with anyone, cut it neatly 
if you do not wish to be ill-bred " (bruto.) 
" Do not soak your bread in your wine," for, 
remarks Fra Bonvesin, for the first time 
asserting his own personality, " if anyone 
should dine with me, and thus fish up his 
victuals, I should not like it." The twenty- 
fourth " courtesy " is a recommendation to 
avoid placing either one's knife or spoon 
between your own plate and that of your 
neighbour. If with ladies, one is told to 
carve first for them ; "to them the men should 
do honour." " Always remember if a friend 
be dining with one, to help him to the choicest 
parts." " Do not, however, press your friend 
too warmly to eat or drink, but receive him 
well and give him good cheer." " When 
dining with any great man, cease eating while 
he is drinking, and do not drink at the same 
time as he ; when sitting next a bishop" 
(bishops being thus alone mentioned, we are 
led to suppose were, even at this early date, 
distinguished for their social affability), " do 
not, however, drink till he drinks, nor rise till 
he rises. Let those who serve be clean, 
and," adds the careful monk, apparently 
foreshadowing Leech's comic sketch of the 
scented stable-boy waiting at table, " let the 
servants be free from any smell which might 
give a nausea to those eating." Capital 
advice is further given not to wipe the 
fingers on the table-cloth, a sentiment in 
which all thrifty housewives will concur. 
" Let the hands be clean, and above all do 
not at table scratch your head, nor indeed 
any portion of your body." " Do not, while 
eating, fondle dogs or cats or other pets ; it 
is not right to touch animals with hands 
which touch the food." "When eating" 
(with homini cognoscenti, adds the writer), "do 
not pick your teeth with the fingers," Fra 
Bonvesin once again coming forward to 
express his personal disgust at this habit. 
" Do not," one is further admonished, " lick 
your fingers, which is very ugly and ill-bred, 
for fingers which are greasy are not clean, 
but dirty." The advice seems once again to 
be given not to speak with the mouth full, as 
one cannot under such circumstances do 
anything but stutter. " Do not trouble your 
neighbour with questions ; if you require any- 
thing from him, wait till he has finished 
eating." "Do not," one is advised, "tell at 



66 



A THIRTEENTH CENTURY BOOK OF ETIQUETTE. 



table doleful tales, nor eat with a morose or 
melancholy air, but take care your words are 
cheery " (con/ortare). " When at table avoid 
wrangling and noisy disputes ; but if anyone 
should transgress in this manner, pass it over 
till later do not make a disturbance." " If 
you feel unwell at table, repress any expres- 
sion of pain, and do not show suffering which 
would inconvenience those at table." " If 
you happen to see anything in the food 
which is disagreeable, do not refer to it ; if it 
is a fly or other matter" (presumably 
included in this would come the familiar 
hair), " say nothing about it." " In handling 
your bowl or plate at table, place your thumb 
only on the edge." " Do not bring with 
you to table too many knives and spoons, 
there is a mean " in other words Horace's 
Est modus in rebus* " If your bowl or 
plate is taken away to be re-filled, do not send 
up your spoon with it." This injunction, it 
will be seen, carries with it the (by some) 
hotly disputed question whether, in sending 
up one's plate for what is understood as " a 
second helping," the knife and fork should 
be retained in the hand, or accompany the 
plate. "To all these matters," adds the 
judicious writer, " pay attention." " In eating 
do not put too much upon your spoon at one 
time, for not only will you thus give much 
embarrassment to your stomach, but you will, 
by eating too quickly, offend those sitting 
near." " If your friend is with you at table, 
be cheerful and continue to eat while he eats, 
even if you should have had enough before 
he has finished ; he might otherwise, out of 
shame, stop before his hunger was satisfied." 
Closely connected with this admirable piece 
of advice, applicable to all time, the succeed- 
ing admonition is not uninteresting as illustra- 
tive of the customs of a period before electro- 
plate was to be found in every house, when 
each guest, it must be remembered, carried at 
his girdle his own serving- knife, an indispens- 
able piece of finery, generally as highly 
decorated as the owner's taste and means 
could afford. "When eating with others," 
remarks Fra Bonvesin, who has now reached 
his forty-eighth " courtesy," " do not sheath 

* In the past, it will be remembered, each guest 
was supposed to cany with him his own knife and 
spoon ; forks, though known from a very early time, 
not being generally used till comparatively recently. 



your knife before everyone else at table has 
done the same." The penultimate admoni- 
tion is most fitting. " When you have eaten, 
praise Jesus Christ for receiving His blessing ; 
ungrateful indeed is he who neglects this 
duty." Fiftieth and last " courtesy," " Wash 
well your hands, and drink good wine." 

Having thus rapidly glanced at the fifty 
well-meant recommendations of Fra Bonvesin, 
there remains one point to which attention 
should be drawn as not uninteresting. It is 
a feature worthy of remark that the writer's 
admonitions are clearly not addressed to what 
the theatrical Irishman is given to speaking 
of as "the height of the quality." Fra 
Bonvesin's Courtesies are not written for the 
knightly or patrician section of the society of 
his time, which had its own favourite songsters, 
its mediaeval Praeds and Austin Dobsons, 
who reflected its own peculiar tastes and 
tendencies. On the other hand, it is clear 
that Fra Bonvesin does not address the 
vulgar herd, which at such a period especially 
could scarcely have profited much by his 
advice. The Lombard monk plainly addresses 
himself to that " middle-class" which we see 
slowly rising into separate life with the 
thirteenth century, and the end of the long 
dark period of mediaeval strife and turmoil, 
with its society composed solely of Barons 
and Plebeians. Something of the refinement 
of the castle-hall was slowly influencing the 
bourgeoisie, which till now can scarcely be said 
to have been recognised, but which from this 
time is to commence a new and stirring 
period of social existence. 

T. Carew Martin. 



lonnon in 1618. 



The Glory of England, by T. 
Gainsford, 1618, London and Paris 
are thus contrasted : 

"If I beginne not at first with 
too sullen or concise a question ; more then 
the new gallery of the Louvre, and the 
suburbes of St. Germanes, as it is now re- 
edified, what one thing is worthy obseruation 
or wonder within Paris ; as for London, but 




LONDON IN 1618. 



67 



that you will say my particular loue trans- 
ported mee, it hath many specialities of 
note, eminence, and amazement; and for 
greatnes it selfe, I may well maintain, that 
if London and the places adioyning were 
circummunited in such an orbicular manner, 
it would equall Paris for all the riuers winding 
about, and the fiue bridges sorting to an 
vniformity of streets ; and as wee now be- 
hold it, the crosse of London is euery way 
longer then you can make in Paris, or any 
citie of Europe : but because peraduenture 
you will not vnderstand what I meane by 
this word crosse, it shall be thus explained, 
that from St. Georges in Southwarke to 
Shoreditch South and North; and from 
Westminster to St. Katherines or RatcliiT, 
West and East, is a crosse of streets, meeting 
at Leaden-Hall, euery way longer, with broad 
spaciousnesse, handsome monuments, illus- 
trious gates, comely buildings, and admirable 
markets, then any you can make in Paris, or 
euer saw in other city, yea Constantinople 
itselfe. Concerning multitude of people, if 
you take London meerely as a place com- 
posed of Marchants, Citizens, and Trades- 
men, the world neuer had such another : If 
you conioyne the suburbs, Southwarke, West- 
minster, St. Katherines, and such like, it 
exceeds Paris euen for Inhabitants ; or if you 
will come to vs in a terme time, according to 
our custome of resorting together, I hope you 
may be encountred either with hands or 
swords, as for Paris, you know the better 
halfe, euen of the indwellers, are Gentle-men, 
Schollers, Lawyers, and belonging to the 
Cleargy : the Marchant liuing obscurely, the 
Tradesman penuriously, the Craftsman in 
drudgery, and altogether insolent and rebel- 
lious vpon the least distasting, vnaccustomed 
impositions, or but affrighted with the altera- 
tion of ridiculous ceremonies. But let us 
search our comparison a little further : insteed 
of a beastly towne and dirty streets, you haue 
in London those that be faire, beautifull, and 
cleanely kept : insteed of foggy mists and 
clowds : ill aire, flat situation, miry springs, 
and a kinde of staining clay, you haue in 
London a sunne-shining and serene element 
for the most part, a wholesome dwelling, 
stately ascension, and delicate prospect : 
insteed of a shallow, narrow, and sometimes 
dangerous riuer, bringing onely barges and 



boats with wood, coale, turff, and such 
countrey prouision: you haue at London a 
riuer flowing twenty foot, and full of stately 
ships, that flie to us with marchandize from 
all ports of the world, the sight yeelding 
astonishment, and the vse perpetuall comfort : 
so that setting the vnconstant reuolutions of 
worldly felicity aside, who shall oppose against 
our nauy, and if wee would descend to 
inferiour roomes, the riuer westward matcheth 
Paris euery way, and supplieth the city with 
all commodities, and at easier rates : In steed 
of ill fauoured woodden bridges, many times 
endangered with tempests and frosts, you 
haue in London such a bridge, that without 
ampliation of particulars, is the admirablest 
monument, and firmest erected structure in 
that kinde of the Vniuerse, whether you 
respect the foundation, with the continuall 
charge and orderly endeauours to keepe the 
arches substantial!, or examine the vpper 
buildings, being so many, and so beautifull 
houses, that it is a pleasure to beholde them, 
and a fulnesse of contentment to vnderstand 
their vses conferred vpon them. Insteed of 
an olde Bastill and ill-beseeming Arsenall, 
thrust as it were into an outcast corner of the 
City, you haue in London a building of the 
greatest antiquity and maiesticall forme, 
seruing to most vses of any Citadle or 
Magazin that euer you saw. For the Tower 
containeth a King's Palace, a King's Prison, 
a King's armoury, a King's mint, a King's 
ward-robe, a King's artilery, and many other 
worthy offices ; so that the Inhabitants within 
the walls haue a Church, and are a sufficient 
parish. Insteed of an obscure Louure, newly 
graced with an extraordinary gallery, the onely 
palace of the King neere Paris, in London 
his Maiesty hath many houses, parkes, and 
places of repose, and in the countries dis- 
persed such a number of state, receipt, and 
commodity, that I protest I am driuen to 
amaze, knowing the defects of other places, 
nor doe I heere stretch my discourse on the 
tenter-hookes of partiality, or seeme to pull 
it by the by-strings of selfe-conceit or opinion : 
but plainely denotate what all true-hearted 
Englishmen can auerre, that to the crowne 
of our Kingdome are annexed more castles, 
honors, forrests, parkes, houses of State, and 
conueniency to retire vnto, from the en- 
combrances of the hurliburly of cities, then 



68 



LONDON IN 1618. 



any Emperor or King in Europe can chal- 
lenge proprio iure. Insteed of an old ruinous 
palace, as they terme their house of Parlia- 
ment, Hall of Iustice, concourse of Lawyers, 
or meetings of certaine Trades-men or Mill- 
eners, like an Exchange, and as it were 
promiscue, confounding all together : we 
haue in London such a Circo for Marchants, 
with an vpper quadrant of shops, as must 
needs subiect it to forraine enuy, in regard 
of the delicacy of the building, and stateli- 
nesse in the contriuing. We haue in London 
a second building for the ease of the Court, 
profit of the Artizan, and glory of the city, 
which for any thing my outward sence may 
iudge of, can equall the proudest structure of 
their proudest townes, though you should 
name St Mark's Piazza in Venice, for so 
much building. We haue in London a 
Guild Hall for a State-house, and West- 
minster for generall causes of the Kingdome ; 
two such roomes, that without further dis- 
pute, maketh strangers demand vnanswerable 
questions, and gently brought to the vnder- 
standing particulars, lift vp their hands to 
heauen and exclaime, O happy England ! 
6 happy people ! 6 happy London ! and yet 
I must confesse, that the hall at Padoa, and 
great counsell-chamber in Venice, be roomes 
of worthy note, and sufficient contentment. 
We haue in London diuers palaces for resort 
of Lawyers and their Clients, and other offices 
appropriate, all workes rather of ostentation 
to our selues, then imitation to others. 
Insteed of narrow dirty streets, neither grace- 
full in themselves, nor beautified with any 
ornament, wee haue spacious, large and 
comely streets, exposing diuers works of 
peace, charitie and estimation. Insteed of 
obscure Churches, we haue first the goodliest 
heap of stones in the world, namely Pauls ; 
next the curiousest fabricke in Europe, 
namely Westminster Chappie, and generally 
all our Churches exceede for beauty, hand- 
somnesse, and magnificent building, as framed 
of hard stone and marble, and exposed with 
a firme and glorious spectacle, as for the 
Dona of Florence, St. Marcks in Venice, 
St Marcks in Millane, the Notre dame at 
Paris, and some others in Germany (the 
steeple onely at Strasborough except, which 
is denominated Beautifull, for the height and 
handsomnesse) they are either buildings of 



bricke, or conceited structures like a fantasti- 
call bird-cage of a little inlayd or mosaijcke 
worke, worthy of applause from such as re- 
spect new dainties, and not to bee ouerpassed 
for curious pictures and paintings : where yet 
by the way you must obserue that in those 
daies of superstition, and particulars of osten- 
tation, concerning rich hangings, imageries, 
statues, altar-cloths, roods, reliques, plate, 
pictures, and ornaments, other Churches and 
monasteries of Europe come farre short of 
our glory and Popish brauery. Insteed of 
Gentle-men on dirty foot-clothes, and women 
in the miry streets; the one with an idle 
lacquey or two ; the other with no company 
of respect : wee haue fashionable attendancy, 
handsome and comely going, either in Carosse 
Coatch, or on horse-backe, and our Ladies 
and women of reputation, sildome abroad 
without an honourable retinue. Insteed of 
a confusion of all sorts ot people together, 
without discouery of qualitie or persons, as 
Citizens, Lawyers, Schollers, Gentlemen, 
religious Priests, and Mechanickes, that you 
can scarce know the one from the other, nor 
the master from the man. In London the 
Citizen Hues in the best order with very few 
houses of Gentlemen interposed, and in our 
suburbs the Nobility haue so many and stately 
dwellings, that one side of the riuer may com- 
pare with the Gran Canale of Venice. But 
if you examine their receipt and capacity, 
Venice and all the cities of Europe must sub- 
mit to the truth. Nay, in London and the 
places adioyning, you haue a thousand 
seuerall houses wherein I will lodge a thou- 
sand seuerall men with conueniency : match 
vs now if you can. Insteed of a poore 
Prouost and disorderly company of Mar- 
chants and Tradesmen, we haue a Podesta 
or Maior, that keepeth a Princely house, 
wee haue graue Senatours, comely Citizens, 
seuerall Halls, and authorized Corporations, 
all gouerned by religious Magistracy, and 
made famous by triumphant solemnities : so 
that our best Gentry are delighted with the 
spectacle, and strangers admire the brauery." 
There are many passages in this curious 
account which afford interesting glimpses into 
the social life and customs of the period, and 
it will certainly please London topographers. 



OLD CORNISH FONTS, BELLS, ALTAR AND CORPORA TLON PLATE. 69 




DID Cornist) jfonts, T5elte, altar 
ano Corporation Iplate* 

By John Gatley. 

Part II. 
|,T remains for us now to conclude the 
present papers with some remarks 
upon the altar and corporation plate 
still remaining in Cornwall, 
we are certain, unnecessary to dilate 
upon the scarcity of antique plate in this 
country. The wars of the Roses and Common- 
wealth afford no doubt the true grounds for such 
a scarcity, to which must be added the vagaries 
of the miser who buries his plate, and of the 
burglar who commits his plunder to the 
melting-pot with the least possible delay. 
The earliest marked spoon known in England 
does not, we believe, go beyond 1492, and the 
pieces of plate of a period anterior to this may, 
it is said, be almost reckoned on the fingers 
of one hand. We are unable to claim for 
Cornish plate an antiquity quite equal to 
these pieces, but it is certain, be the cause 
what it may, that there are a number of 
Elizabethan chalices ranging between the 
years 1560-1590, which are of great beauty 
and of considerable intrinsic value ; and it is 
worthy of notice that chalices in seven 
parishes are of the same date, viz., 1576. 
The earliest piece of altar plate is that at 
Temple, which is dated 1557 ; and of 
corporation plate the Killigrew cup at Penryn 
seems to be of the greatest antiquity, having 
been presented to that town in the year 1633 ; 
although if the St. Mabyn chalice be 
reckoned as domestic plate, which it origin- 
ally doubtlessly was, the date 1576 may be 
taken as being the earliest date for a festive 
cup. Want of space will prevent us giving 
a full description of the altar and corporation 
plate existing in Cornwall, but the following 
examples are worthy of notice : 

The communion plate at St. Columb 
Minor is very handsome. It bears the arms 
of Francis, Earl of Godolphin, and an inscrip- 
tion records that it was " given to God and 
his Church, 1750," by him. The chalice at 
Crantock is dated 1576. At St. Gennys is 
a chalice, with cover, weighing 16 ounces 
and a paten of 13 ounces. It is inscribed, 



11 The gift of Grace Fortescue," and bears 
her family arms and motto. At Helston, 
the valuable altar plate is inscribed, "The 
gyft of Danyell Bedford to the Church of 
Helston, 1630." The plate at St. Ives is of a 
most costly description. A paten bears the 
inscription, "Pendarves de Pendarves Eccle- 
siae dedit Anno 17 13 ;" and a chalice, "The 
guift of Alles Sise to the Church of St. Ives, 
Anno Domini 1641." A massive flagon at 
St. Just in Penwith is inscribed, "Parochiae 
d' St. Just. Ex dono Johannis Edwards d' 
Truthwall, 1747 f a cup, "Ex dono Johannis 
Borlace, 1666;" and a plate, "Ex dono 
Lydiae Borlace uxoris Johannis Borlase de 
Pendeen Arm. 1699 f and bears the arms 
of Borlase impaling those of the donor. 
A chalice at Lanteglos, by Camelford, is 
dated 1576; and a silver-gilt alms basin 
bears the Phillips arms and the inscription, 
"The gift of Ch. Phillips, Esq., M.P. for 
Camelford." Lesnewth possesses a curious 
old chalice and cover. On the latter is the 
date 1638. The stem of the chalice is 
formed of three serpents knotted in the 
middle with a head at each extremity. The 
hall or maker's mark is (III) three times re- 
peated. The altar plate at St. Mabyn is 
described by Sir John Maclean as consisting 
of a cup with a cover, two flagons, and an 
alms dish. The cup was not intended for a 
chalice, but as an ordinary drinking vessel 
on festive occasions. It is of elegant form 
13 inches in height and the cover is sur- 
mounted by the figure of a boy, nude, 
holding a shield. Both bowl and cover are 
engraved in arabesque, with birds and 
foliage, and also two storks ; whilst the stem 
and foot are ornamented with repousse* 
work. The hall-mark year is 1576, the 
maker's mark a pair of compasses enclosing 
a mullet. The paten is plain, and bears the 
inscription, " Ex dono E. H. Gent hujus 
Ecclesiae Guardiani, 1702;" the hall-mark 
of that year, and the maker's mark "RO" in 
roman letters, being the first two letters of 
his surname. The plate at Manaccan is 
valuable ; amongst the same is a goblet 
inscribed, " The gift of Alice Tanner, d. of 
Michael Tanner, of Manaccan, 1699." A 
piece at Merther is dated 1576, a year which, 
as we have before observed, saw the introduc- 
tion of several of the existing chalices into 



70 OLD CORNISH FONTS, BELLS, ALTAR AND CORPORATION PLATE. 



the county. There is a quaint chalice at 
Michaelstowe of the seventeenth century, 
with arabesque ornamentation. The cover 
is intended for use as a paten, and bears the 
inscription, " >J mey *J< hil *%* sto >%*." At 
Pelynt are a flagon and chalice inscribed, 
" The gift of Sir Jonathan Trelawny, Bart, 
Lord Bishop of Exeter, to the Parish of 
Pelynt," to whom reference has already been 
made as donor of one of the bells. The 
communion plate at Perran-ar-worthal is 
marked " Perran *%* Arworthal, 1576." In 
a very early survey made of the church at 
Perranzabuloe in 1281, we find that, inter 
alia, there belonged to the church : One silver 
chalice, partly gilt, weighing 20 ounces. A 
silver pix with a lock, and a silver dish of St. 
Pyran ; and from a terrier of Poughill in 
1720 is taken the following extract: "A 
Chalice or Bowl of silver weighing about 4f 
oz., whose top or covering is used for 
carrying about the Bread." The altar plate 
of Redruth is described in 1720 as follows: 
"2 large fflagons, a chalice, and 2 salvers." 
The little salver weighs 4 ounces ; the large 
one 18 ounces, with this inscription: "This 
was the gift of Mr. Arthur Spry, Rector of 
Redruth, in Cornwall." The great flagon 
weighs 80 ounces, and is inscribed, "This 
was the gift of Mr. Thomas Haweis to the 
Parish of Uny Redruth in Cornwall." At 
Tamarton is another communion cup of the 
year 1576; also a silver flagon, given by 
John Gayer, and dated 1722, of the weight 
of 50 ounces. The plate of the long-disused 
church of Temple was kept until recently by 
the rector of the neighbouring parish, Blisland. 
The cup is noticeable as being of an earlier 
date than any others with which we are 
acquainted, viz., 1557. At Towednack is an 
Elizabethan chalice of chaste design, and in 
good preservation ; but a modern cover has 
been substituted for the original, which was 
dated 1576. The last pieces of communion 
plate which we shall notice are a flagon and 
chalice at St. Veep. The former is marked, 
"The gift of Honor the Wife of Anthony 
Tanner, Esq., of Carynick, St. Enoder ;" and 
the latter bears the date "Anno Domini 

1576." 

Of the municipal or corporation plate, the 
following memoranda are of interest, viz. : 
At Bodmin, the corporation possess five 



silver -gilt maces, inscribed, "Ex dono 
prenobilis Caroli Bodville, Comitis Radnor, 
1690." Also a smaller mace dated 1618, 
formerly carried before the mayoress ; and a 
massive cup, presented by Sir William Irby 
in 1769, and now used at the corporation 
dinners ; from it the corporation toast, en- 
graven thereon, is drunk by each member. 
Penryn possesses a silver tankard, capable 
of holding some three quarts, the gift of 
Lady Killigrewin 1633. It bears the follow- 
ing inscription : " From Maior to Maior to 
the towne of Penmarin when they received 
me that was in great misery. I. R., 1633." 
This refers to her divorce from Sir John Killi- 
grew, to whom the Penryn people bore no 
goodwill on account of his fostering the 
neighbouring village of Smethick, the modern 
Falmouth. There are some fine maces at Mara- 
zion, two being finely engraved with the town 
arms and dated 1768, with the names of the 
mayor and corporation of that year. There 
is also a silver-headed walking-stick for the 
mayor, on which is engraved, " 1684, Francis 
St. Aubyn, Armiger, Mayor of this Corpora- 
tion." A quaint inscription of a fine cup at 
St. Ives, presented by Sir Francis Basset of 
Tehidy, afterwards Recorder, is noticeable, 
viz. : 

If any discord 'twixt my friends arise, 
Wilhin the borough of beloved St. Ives, 
It is desyred that this my Cupp of Love, 
To everie one a peace-maker may prove; 
Then am I blest to have given a legacie, 
So like my harte unto posteritie. 

Francis Basset, A<>- 1640. 

At Liskeard, the oldest plate belonging to 
the borough is a goblet with the inscription, 
" Donum Chichester Wrey Militis et Baronet, 
recordatoris burgi de Liskard." On one side 
are the Wrey arms, and on the other the 
borough arms, with the motto " Legio." The 
cup is well chased, and probably presented 
in 1665. There is also a large two-handled 
flagon, inscribed, " Donum-Boucheri Wrey 
Equitis aurati oppido de Leskeard," and the 
anti-blue-riband motto, " Qui fallit in poculis, 
fallit in omnibus." The donor represented 
Liskeard in 1689-90. Members of the 
Trelawny family also sat for the borough, and 
a wide salver bears the arms of that family. 
Our last note is on Truro, where a curious 
custom formerly obtained under which the 
borough mace was delivered on the election 



GLASS, ORGANS, AND BELLS OF VENICE. 



7i 




of the mayor to the lord of the manor until 
the sum of sixpence was paid for every house, 
an impost known as smoke-money. This 
custom is now becoming obsolete, although 
a certain sum is still paid yearly by the 
corporation to the lords of the manor. To 
this manor is also attached the privilege of 
exposing a glove at the fair which is held 
five weeks before Christmas, and into which 
toll is paid for all animals brought to the fair. 
Similar customs, we believe, also obtain at 
Chester. 



ia$0, Drgans, ana 'Bella of 
Oemce. 

By W. Carew Hazlitt. 



T is believed that the Veneti Primi 
carried with them into the Lagoon 
a knowledge of the manufacture 
of glass, with which both the 
Greeks and Romans were perfectly conver- 
sant, which has been found in the excava- 
tions of Ilium, and among the ruined cities 
of the Mississippi, but of which the origin 
and development are due to Egypt, by which 
it was communicated to the Phoenicians. 
The first ancient and the first modern people 
who attained excellence in this valuable art 
were dwellers in a sandy region. 

It is easy to understand that, at the outset, 
Venice did not concern itself with the ques- 
tion of location. Each man set up his 
furnace where he listed. Building had not 
made great progress. Space was abundant 
everywhere. Sanitary regulations, if they 
existed at all, were diffidently framed, and 
often contemptuously disregarded. 

But the day arrived when the metropolis 
at last began to awake to the necessity of 
providing for the health and comfort of a 
swelling population, and on the 8th Novem- 
ber, 1 241, a decree was published, banishing 
all the furnaces from the city and its environs. 
The Glass-workers established themselves at 
Murano, within the Tribunitial district of 
Torcello, and were constituted an indepen- 
dent municipality, with their own gastaldo. 
The Government had indulgently signified 



that such manufacturers as happened to have 
stock in a certain stage of progress were to 
be allowed to complete it; but the official 
order was so imperfectly respected, that in 
1297 a second appeared to enforce its ob- 
servance. Yet the authorities remained so 
languid and unliteral in carrying out the law, 
that in 1321 the celebrated Minorite, Fra 
Paolino, still possessed a property of that 
kind in Rialto ; and it was not till the latter 
part of the fourteenth century that the entire 
collection of scattered furnaces was trans- 
ferred to Murano, and that the latter became 
the exclusive headquarters of this industry. 
From the wording of a decree which passed 
the Legislature on the 17th October, 1276, 
the twofold inference is to be drawn, that the 
manufacture was then in a flourishing con- 
dition, and that the Republic had become 
anxious to convert it, as far as might be prac- 
ticable, into a monopoly ; and among the 
companies which joined in the procession of 
the Trades, in 1 268, the Glass-blowers occupied 
a distinguished place. 

The Glass-makers were formed into a guild 
only in 1436, when they commenced their 
Libro d'Oro, and had their master. The 
coronation oath of 1229, which does not 
forget the rights and immunities of the guilds 
(successors of the old Roman Collegia), but 
refers to both as matters of ancient usage, 
shows that the Glass-makers had been pre- 
ceded in the enjoyment of corporate privi- 
leges by several of the other Venetian trades. 
By degrees, extraordinary perfection was 
reached, and the furnaces of- Murano diffused 
over the world an infinite variety of objects 
for ornament and use, exhibiting the most 
ingenious combinations in colour and form. 
Readers of the Bravo of Venice recollect the 
poisoned glass poniard which the bandit chief 
gave to Abellino ; and if in this manufactory 
they did not, like one of the early Egyptian 
kings, extend their efforts to the production 
of coins in glass, they soon comprised among 
their staple commodities all descriptions of 
fanciful and decorative knickknacks. 

But, as still continues to be the case, the 
Venetians of the humbler classes, as well as 
those who occupied premises devoted to com- 
mercial purposes, resorted very sparingly to 
the glazier. Every population naturally has 
recourse not only to the material which is most 



72 



GLASS, ORGANS, AND BELLS OF VENLCE. 



accessible, but to the forms which seem most 
convenient, in its architectural economy.* 
In a city where narrow and dark courts 
abounded, either open longitudinal bars or 
Venetian blinds, as we call them, were apt 
to prove more airy and more secure than the 
window ; and even the casements of some of 
the old prisons under the colonnade of the 
palace were known as schiavine, and were 
made on a similar principle, so as to serve 
the double office of a window and a grating. 
Glass was, in general, reserved for eccle- 
siastical and palatial edifices ; but even in 
churches they had, in early times, substantial 
Venetian shutters, revolving on massive stone 
hinges.t 

The introduction of organ-building, which 
implies a familiarity with the art of working 
in metal, is assigned traditionally to a certain 
priest Gregorio, who is said to have brought 
a knowledge of the mode of construction 
in the eighth century from Constantinople, 
where the science was even then in high 
repute. The science which the Venetians 
had thus apparently acquired from the Greeks, 
they were not remiss in turning to a lucrative 
account. For Eginhard, the secretary and 
biographer of Charlemagne, relates that in 
826 there came with Baldrico a certain priest 
of Venice, named George (perhaps the afore- 
said Gregorio), who said that he knew how 
to construct an organ, and the Emperor (Louis 
le Debonnaire) sent him to Aachen, and 
desired that all the necessary materials should 
be given to him. A little later on (880-1), 
Dandolo writes : " About the same time the 
Doge Orso Badoer was made a Protospa- 
tarios by the Greek emperor; J and, in recog- 
nition of the honour which he had just re- 
ceived, he sent to Constantinople, as a gift to 
Basilios, twelve large bells, and from this time 
forth the Greeks used bells." We are thus to 
understand that, if Venice owed her acquaint- 
ance with organs to the East, she requited the 
obligation by imparting to Constantinople a 

* Of this the singular sliding shutters of a kind of 
mother-of-pearl at Manila supply an illustration ; and 
the same principle manifests itself in the material 
used for hedging at Penrhyn in North Wales, at the 
Cape of Good Hope, and among the African ivory- 
gatherers. 

t In Mr. Wallace Dunlop's Glass in the Old World, 
published about 1882, there is an interesting and use- 
ful account of the Venetian manufacture (pp. 142-4). 

% Opera, i. 382. 



discovery, or rather a revival, at least equally 
valuable and practically still more important. 
But it is surmisable, on the contrary, that 
Dandolo was under a misapprehension in 
supposing that the Greeks owed this service 
to his countrymen ; and the present of bells 
in 881, beyond its commercial value, which 
must have been considerable, could only 
have furnished the Byzantine prince with 
evidence of the progress of the Republic in 
an art almost unquestionably derived from 
the East, and in all likelihood from his own 
people. 

Some Greek emigrant, not improbably an 
ingenious ecclesiastic such as Fra Gregorio 
himself, may be far more reasonably assumed 
to have brought the mystery of bell-founding 
to the Republic ; and, again, if the Venetians, 
as their noble historian affirms, had really 
communicated this branch of mechanical 
science to their Eastern allies, the discovery 
could scarcely have waited for such an 
elaborate offering as this, but would have 
reached the shores of the Bosphoros, as an 
ordinary export, in a ruder stage of develop- 
ment. 

The mediseval employment of bells for 
civil and ecclesiastical purposes has been 
referred by some writers to a period con- 
siderably anterior to that here indicated ; 
but this point is more or less doubtful, and, 
certainly, even among the priesthood, their 
use was at first curtailed by the cost and 
difficulty of purchase, and the old fashion of 
striking a board to announce the hours of 
devotion or repast was long generally retained 
from necessity, if not from a conservative 
or indolent option.* 

* The most ancient bell which we can recollect to 
have seen depicted is one which occurs at page 213 
of Les Arts du Moyen Age, by Lacroix, 1869. It is 
a hand-bell or tintinnabulum, ascribed to the ninth 
century, and copied from a MS. 

Prior to the general introduction of clocks, the 
bell played a much more important part in our daily 
life than we can at first sight believe to have been 
possible. It was the universal timekeeper and sum- 
moner, and it is a point deserving of careful investiga- 
tion whether its employment as a factor in the early 
social system did not precede its adoption by the 
Church, first for the mere purpose of announcing the 
hour of prayer or devotion, and subsequently as a 
moral and religious agency. As chanticleer was the 
only clock of the primitive villager, the bell was long 
the only machinery for marking the divisions of the 
monastic clay. Elsewhere its function at the auction- 



THE ANTIQUARY'S NOTE-BOOK. 



73 



The passage from Dandolo, coupled with 
the other evidences which we have placed 
side by side with it, satisfactorily establishes 
not merely the existence of a foundry at 
Venice, but the arrival at a fair state of work- 
ing efficiency, toward the end of the ninth 



century ; and the historian Sagorninus, who 
flourished in the first half of the eleventh, and 
who was an ironmaster, conclusively shows 
that the members of his Art were bound to 
work a fixed quantity of metal annually, as 
their assessed quota of direct taxation. 



Cbe antiquary Jl3ote=15oofe. 

- 

Coronation of Henry IV. When the 
formalities attendant upon Richard's deposi- 

mart has been noted. It is of those things which 
already half belong to the past, perhaps in all its pur- 
poses, certainly in its ecclesiastical ; for while horology 
was in its nonage, and places of worship were filled 
by more scattered congregations, the bell became and 
remained a valuable auxiliary, whereas at present it 
seems to be somewhat of an anachronism. 



tion had been completed the Rolls of 
Parliament record that Henry of Lancaster 
suddenly rose from his seat near the throne, 
and made the following brief but pregnant 
speech : 

"In the name of the Fader, Son, and 
Holy Ghost, I, Henry of Lancaster, chalenge 
this Rewme of Yndlonde and the Croun, 
with all the Members and the Appurtenances, 
als I that am descendit, be right line of the 
Blode, comy'g from the Gude Lord King 




vol. xv. 



CORONATION OF HENRY IV. (HARLEIAN MSS.). 



74 



THE ANTIQUARY'S NOTE-BOOK. 



Henry Therde, and thorghe that right, that 
God of 'eis Grace hath sent me, with the 
help of my Kyn, and of my Frendes to re- 
cover it ; the which Rewme was in point to 
be ondone for defaut of Governance, and un- 
doing of the Gude Lawes." 

Of course this claim of right by descent 
was invalid, the true heir being the Earl of 
March. Not less invalid was the plea of 
conquest, which was symbolized by a naked 
sword carried before him at the coronation 
(shown in the illustration), being the sword 
he had worn on landing at Ravenspur. 
But a king was wanted, and Henry of Lan- 
caster was there. After the above speech 
he was led by Arundel (the exiled archbishop) 
up to the throne, at the steps of which he 
knelt as if in devotion. On arising he was 
conducted up the steps to the royal seat by 
the two archbishops of Canterbury and 
York. Here he made a gracious speech, to 
soften the effect of that in which he had 
made his claim. Thus ended the ceremony 
of September 30th, 1399. 

On October 13th, the coronation was 
performed with the pomp and splendour 
usual to such an event. The anointing oil 
was contained in a vessel of stone with a 
golden cover richly set with diamonds ; and 
this oil, it was said, had been brought from 
heaven by the Virgin Mary, who delivered it 
to Thomas Becket, with an assurance that 
kings anointed with it would be great and 
victorious, and zealous champions of the 
Church. 

This narrative is faithfully borne out in 
Shakespeare's play. In his final exhortation 
to his heir apparent, Henry says : 

God knows, my son, 
By what by-paths and indirect crook'd ways, 
I met this crown. 

An Old Custom at Woking. There 
is in Woking and the surrounding district a 
custom, of which there is no documentary 
evidence, but which has existed beyond the 
memory of the oldest inhabitant. It is near 
akin to the Scottish " rabbling," and is locally 
known as "rough music." When a person 
has insulted the parish by, say, beating his 
wife, or has committed some crime for which 
the law cannot punish him, the commoners 
and others collect old cans and pails, and 
anything else which will make a hideous row, 
and visit the offender some evening unex- 



pectedly. They surround the house, banging 
their implements and yelling ; at such times 
people with harsh voices are at a premium, 
and those who can perform very badly are 
eagerly welcomed if they bring their instru- 
ments of torture with them. The perform- 
ance winds up by their calling the culprit 
opprobrious names and smashing his win- 
dows. In cases calling for extreme severity, 
the entertainment lasts three nights, and the 
punishment is rendered more severe by these 
nights not being consecutive. If the funds 
run to it, the business is illuminated by fire- 
works, and, should the offender show himself 
unadvisedly, variegated by a little personal 
chastisement. It is probable that the high 
state of morality in the district is largely 
owing to this primitive form of lynch law. 
The origin of the custom would seem to be 
that on the wild heaths, of which the dis- 
trict has always been principally composed, 
ordinary legal processes were, until recently, 
virtually in abeyance, as their execution called 
for a larger force and greater expense than 
could be afforded, except in cases of extra- 
ordinary crime, and the inhabitants were 
therefore forced to become to some extent a 
"law unto themselves." Be this as it may, 
" rough music " has a salutary effect in re- 
straining crime, and is valuable as showing 
the state of public feeling thereupon. 

The Thames in 1659. In the Crown 
Garland of Golden Roses, first printed in 
161 2, and enlarged in 1659, occur the 
following verses, which give us a picture of 
the Thames which can scarcely be imagined 
by the present generation. The verses occur 
only in the second edition, and it is fair to 
presume they represented the then state of 
things, though referring to a much earlier 
period. They occur in a ballad relating to 
the " lamentable fall of the great Duchess of 
Gloucester, the wife of Duke Humphrey," 
the celebrated Elinor Cobham : 

Then flaunted I in Greenwich's stately towers, 
My winter's mansions and my summer's bowers ; 
Which gallant house now since those days hath been 
The palace brave of many a king and queen. 
The silver Thames, that sweetly pleas'd mine eye, 
Procur'd me golden thoughts of majesty ; 
The kind contents and murmur of the water 
Made me forget the woes that would come after. 

Fashions in 1604. Some verses called 
A Piece of Friar Bacon's Brazen- heads 
Prophesie, by William Terilo, London, 1604, 



THE ANTIQUARY S NOTE-BOOK. 



75 



are really a curious satire on the degeneracy 
of the times. One verse gives a list of the 
current fashions. It says : 

And now a satten gowne, 

A petticoate of silke, 
A fine wrought bugle crowne, 

A smocke as white as milke ; 
A colour'd hose, a pincked shooe, 
Will scarcely make a tit come too. 

An Old Coaching- List. The following 
list of the coaches running from Cambridge 
forty years ago is an interesting relic of the 
coaching-days : 

i. The Times, from the Eagle Inn, to rail- 
road at Bishop's Stortford, for London. 

2. The Star, from the Hoop Hotel, to rail- 

road at Ware, for Belle Sauvage, 
Ludgate Hill, London. 

3. The Telegraph and Day Mail, from the 

Hoop Inn, to Bishop's Stortford, for 
Golden Cross, London. 

4. The Rocket, from the Hoop Inn, to 

Bishop's Stortford, for White Horse, 
Fetter Lane, London. 

5. The Bee-Hive, from the Blue Boar Inn 

by Royston, to the Bell and Crown, 
Holborn, and White Bear, Piccadilly. 

6. The Lynn Union, from the Hoop Inn, 

to Bishop's Stortford, for the rail to 
Golden Cross, London. 

7. The Lynn and Wells Mail, from the 

Hoop Inn by Royston, to the Swan 
with Two Necks, and the Bell and 
Crown, Holborn. 

8. The Wisbech passes through Cambridge, 

to Bishop's Stortford, for Belle Sau- 
vage, London. 

9. The Wisbech and Holbech Mail, from 

the Hoop Inn. 

10. The Age Omnibus, from the Hoop Inn, 

to Ware, to the White Horse, Fetter 
Lane, and Golden Cross, London. 

11. The Rival Omnibus, from the Wrestlers' 

Inn, Petty Cury, to the Bull Inn, 
Holborn. 

12. The Alexander, for Leicester, from the 

Hoop Inn, by Huntingdon and Stam- 
ford. 

13. The Blucher, for Huntingdon, from the 

Hoop Inn. 

14. The Ipswich, from the Hoop Inn, to 

Ipswich. 

15. The Bury, from the Red Lion Hotel, to 

Bury. 



16. The Oxford, from the Eagle Inn, by 

St. Neots, Bedford, Leighton Buzzard, 
and Aylesbury. 

17. The Eagle, for Leamington and Birming- 

ham, from the Eagle, by Bedford and 
Northampton, to Weedon. 

18. The Rising Sun, to Birmingham, from 

the Hoop Inn, by Huntingdon and 
Northampton, to Weedon Station. 

Condition of Irish Peasantry, 1618. 
Contrasting the peasantry of various coun- 
tries, Gainsford, in his Glory of England^ 
thus describes the Irish peasantry : " In 
Ireland he is called Churle, and if we nick- 
name him in England we term him Clowne : 
He lives in great drudgery, not so much for his 
labour, as his watches. For hee is compelled 
to guard his poore Cattle, as well as he can, 
both from Theeues and wolues : insomuch, that 
although he haue but one poore Cabine, his 
cow and hogge lies with him in the same. 
But if he boast of larger increases he is then 
compelled to bring them all night into some 
bawne of a castle, or vnder the loop-holes of 
some raft, or fortification : For the Kerne 
watch all aduantages in times of peace, and 
thinke their thefts iustifiable in defiances of 
warre." 

An Interesting Spot Midway between 
Redcar and Saltburn, hemmed in on one side 
by the German Ocean, and on the other side 
by the Cleveland Hills, lies a little village 
called Marske-by-the-Sea, a veritable Sleepy 
Hollow, where Rip Van Winkle might have 
slept his twenty years in peace and security 
without fear of being disturbed. But in this 
rural village, almost forgotten by tourists, are 
many places of unusual interest. There is 
Marske Hall, a fine old Elizabethan mansion, 
occupied by the Venerable Canon Yeoman, 
Archdeacon of Cleveland, where William 
Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania, spent 
his honeymoon. Marske old church is 
another place that should never be over- 
looked. It is the burial-place of the Earls 
of Zetland, and where many of the relatives 
of the celebrated circumnavigator, Captain 
Cook, are laid to rest. 

Archie Armstrong {ante, p. 15). Our 
attention has been called by a kind cor- 
respondent to the admirable article on 
" Archie Armstrong " in the new Dictionary 
of National Biography, written by Mr. S. L, 

g 2 



7 6 



ANT1Q UARIAN NE TVS. 



Lee. Mr. Lee mentions some of the facts 
set forth in our article, and brings together 
in a small compass all that is to be said 
about this queer character of history. There 
can be no doubt that the jester used his 
opportunities to gain riches. " His wealth," 
says Mr. Lee, " had enabled him to become 
a large creditor, and he spent much of his 
time in mercilessly distraining on his debtors." 
He also became a landed proprietor, and 
lived through the Civil Wars until 1672. 
Probably the lines which close Mr, Lee's 
article aptly summarize his character : 

Archie, by kings and princes graced of late, 

Jested himself into a fair estate. 



antiquarian &zto$. 



On the downs, one mile east of Dunstable, there 
are (or rather were till lately) the remains of eighteen 
ancient British huts the earthen floors of the wigwam 
houses of the ancient Britons. The position is close 
to the intersection of the Icknield Way and the 
Watling Street. No similar collection of ancient 
hut-circles exists in this part of England, and they 
rank with the most ancient and remarkable remains 
of the Midland Counties. The whole range of the 
hut floors is less than a hundred yards in length, and 
a few feet only in breadth. The piece of land is 
almost valueless. The property belongs to the Dean 
and Chapter of St. Paul's, but a local landowner 
exercises rights of some sort over the spot, and these 
prehistoric relics are being dug away for lime- 
burning. One floor has already been demolished, 
and others, unless the evil work is arrested, will 
quickly follow. 

The English Ambassador at Rome, Sir Savile 
Lumley, has given a most interesting lecture on some 
of the late excavations in and about Rome. He 
began by recognising that the municipal authorities 
show the most rigorous attention to the preservation 
of the classical and mediaeval monuments of Rome ; 
but owing to the important public works carried on 
in Rome some of the monuments have had to be 
sacrificed, such as the Tower of Paul III. at the 
Capitol, and the Villa Montalto, the favourite abode 
of Sixtus V. He then proceeded : " In the Via 
Nazionale, excavating for the foundations of the 
National Bank, the remains of an ancient Roman 
house have been discovered of immense size and mag- 
nificence, with most interesting inscriptions. In one 



of the rooms was found a very fine statue of Antinous 
as Bacchus, larger than life. In the Via Frattina 
when repairing the chains several gigantic columns 
came to light. They were of gray granite, a metre 
in diameter, and varying from three to ten metres in 
length. Very interesting excavations have been likewise 
made at Ostia, under the intelligent direction of Signor 
Lanciani, producing results which can only be com- 
pared to what has been effected at Pompeii ; amongst 
others the Temple of Mittre in a marvellously perfect 
state." Sir Savile then proceeded to speak of exca- 
vations made by himself at Nemi Villa Livia, and on 
his own property at Civita Lavinia. The excavations 
now in process have brought to light the whole of the 
western side of the summer portico of the Imperial 
villa. The length as yet excavated is twenty-four 
metres, but indications prove that it extends to thirty- 
five metres. 

The concierge of a house in the Rue Trevise carried 
to the Police Commissary's office two little caskets he 
found on the foot pavement in front of his door. 
They were found to contain the letters patent of 
nobility and the seals of the family of La Ferronnays, 
Minister under Charles X., several letters from various 
Sovereigns, from the Comte de Chambord, from the 
Due de Berri, and from the Orleans family, with 
several wills, a roll of authentic deeds dating from 
the thirteenth to the fourteenth century, and some 
letters from different Princes addressed to members 
of the La Ferronnays family. They live in the 
Cours la Reine, and were at once communicated 
with. They were astonished when they heard of the 
discovery,' for the two caskets which had been picked 
up in the Rue Trevise had for many years been care- 
fully stowed away in the Chateau de St. Marc la 
Jaille in Brittany. 

Some excavations which have been made in the 
south aisle of the choir of Lincoln Minster from the 
retrochoir have laid bare a portion of the founda- 
tion of the original eastern termination of the 
cathedral as erected by St. Hugh, subsequently 
taken down for building the angel choir. They have 
also brought to light the tomb in which the body of 
that canonized bishop was at one time apparently 
deposited, with some small remains of its contents. 
The sepulchre of St. Hugh was discovered where it 
was anticipated, beneath the black marble table, on 
carved supports, erected by Bishop Fuller about 1670, 
bearing a Latin inscription of elegiac verses of con- 
siderable elegance, stating that the saint's body lay 
below. The original place of the shrine was the 
centre of the space behind the reredos. Beneath this 
memorial, a short distance below the pavement, the 
workmen came upon a stone coffin, which, on raising 



ANTIQ UARIAN NE WS. 



77 



the lid, was found to contain a second coffin of lead. 
The coffin was rudely formed of plates of lead un- 
soldered. Its contents were in such a state of decom- 
position that it was difficult to determine their nature. 
It is certain, however, that these were not remains of 
a body nothing more than decayed vestments, or 
perhaps linen cloths in which a body had once been 
swathed. Among the decaying fabrics were very fine 
gold threads, indicating a material of some richness. 
It was evident from the stains on the sides and bottom 
that the coffin had once contained a human body, but 
whether it was St. Hugh or not must be uncertain. 

A singular "find" is reported from Ratisbon. 
Mere accident has brought to light a statue of a 
woman which is said to be in almost every detail a 
replica of the Venus de Medici in the Tribune of the 
Uffizi at Florence. It seems to be of Carrara marble, 
and the head is unfortunately wanting. 

The following appeared in the Melbourne Argus of 
November 18th, 1886 : " Sydney, November 17th. 
Captain Thomson, of the steamer City of Melbourne, 
has written to the secretary of the Queensland Branch 
of the Geographical Society, reporting the discovery 
of what he believes to be the cairn erected by Captain 
Cook during his visit to the Endeavour River. While 
the City of Melbourne was awaiting the arrival of the 
Royal Mail steamer Jumna! s mails on the 9th inst., 
Captain Thomson, with the Hon. H. Lyttelton and 
two others, went in search of the cairn, which they 
found on a hill 1,000 feet above the sea-level. Only 
the two named reached the summit. The cairn had 
evidently remained untouched since its erection. 
Grass was growing thickly around it, and a tree was 
also growing through one side, which had caused 
some of the stones to fall off. The discoverers cut 
the tree down and burned the grass growing around it." 

In a recent letter to the Hampshire Independent, 
the Dean of Winchester describes the work being 
done in Winchester Cathedral Churchyard. A path- 
way round the cathedral is being made, and the 
churchyard is being planted with trees and shrubs. 
The high wall at the east end of the northern church- 
yard is to be removed, and a clearance is to be made 
of the soil which impedes the view of the original 
level of the Norman work. It is proposed also to 
prosecute further inquiries underground, hoping to 
find the foundations of the St. Swithun's Chapel, and 
even of the curious Anglo-Saxon tower described by 
Wolston the Monk in the tenth century. The works 
will require about 200, and the Dean makes an 
appeal for funds. The small charge made for showing 
the crypt has produced a sum sufficient to pay for the 
rebuilding of one bay of Walkelin's Lady Chapel, 
which had to be left undone last winter, and also to 
defray half the cost of the handsome tomb wherein 



it is proposed to deposit the remains of Bishop Peter 
Courteney, whose coffin, it will be remembered, was 
found last December in the easternmost part of the 
crypt. 

The Dean describes a curious circumstance con- 
nected with the excavations. The Gloucester Frag- 
ments, an Anglo-Saxon life of St. Swithun, written 
towards the end of the tenth century, tell us that the 
solemnity of moving the good saint's bones from the 
churchyard to St. Ethelwold's new church was heralded 
by a string of miracles and marvels. In one of these 
tales the saint appeared to an aged smith, bidding 
him let Bishop Ethelwold know that it was time for 
the translation to take place. The smith demurred, 
and did not do it till after the saint appeared to him 
thrice ; then, thinking the matter serious, he went 
into the churchyard where the saint's tomb was, and, 
taking hold of an iron ring securely fastened into the 
block of stone which formed the top of the coffin, he 
prayed that if he who had appeared to him lay buried 
there, the ring might come easily out of the stone. 
Then he gave a pull, and behold ! it came out as 
easily as if it had been bedded in sand. He next 
stuck the staple of it back in the hole whence it had 
been drawn, and now it stuck so tight that no man 
could move it again. This is the legend ; now for 
the curious coincidence. The Dean had set the men 
to drive a trench due north from the north-west door 
of the church, because constant tradition has affirmed 
that just there, under the drip of the eaves of the roof, 
St. Swithun was buried by his own command. The 
trench crossed the exact spot at which he was said to 
have lain till moved by St. Ethelwold ; and there, at 
a depth of 9 feet below the present surface, well 
beneath some interesting chalk cists containing bodies, 
which had certainly never been moved for many 
centuries, the men threw out an iron ring and staple 
attached. The ring is nearly 4 inches in diameter, 
the staple just 5 inches long. Though, through lying 
for ages in the damp earth, ring and staple are much 
corroded, still there cannot be the least doubt as to 
their character and original intention. It is just such 
a ring as the legend mentions. 

The old Cups Hotel at Colchester has been rebuilt. 
It had become too antiquated for present-day use, the 
only portion of the old structure left standing being 
the Assembly Rooms and rooms over. There are 
several ancient hostelries in Colchester, and amongst 
the largest and most famous is the Cups Hotel, or, as 
it used to be known, the Three Cups. How old this 
establishment may be, is not certain ; but there is 
reason to believe that though the name of "The 
Cups " is of comparatively modern origin, there was 
an ancient tavern on the same site as early as the time 
of Queen Elizabeth. That tavern was known as the 



78 



ANTIQUARIAN NE WS. 



Queen's Head. There is a passage in Morant saying 
that St. Peter's Parish extended on the east "to the 
gateway of the Queen's Head." An entry in one of the 
old Corporation Assembly Books, dated January 9th, 
1603-4, states that "The Lyon, the Angel, and the 
White Hart were appointed the only three wine 
taverns in ye town, being auncyent Innes and 
Taverns." However, there were no doubt many 
other inns in the town at that time, and though the Cups 
may not be able, like the Red Lyon, to lay claim to 
being an "auncyent inne" in 1603, it can, with some 
show of reason, insist upon an early origin, and it can 
certainly claim to have been the leading hotel in Col- 
chester for more than one generation. The old hotel, 
which has now given way to a modern and sumptuous 
building, bore upon its face the date 1790. 

The large window in the South Transept of the 
Choir of York Minster is generally considered to have 
been the gift of Cardinal Langley, Bishop of Durham, 
who had been Dean of York. It was probably 
placed in its present position circa 1420. The 
window represents in a long series of panels the 
events in the life of St. Cuthbert, the great Patron 
and Saint of Durham, consecrated a.d. 685, in 
York Minster, Bishop of Lindisfarne, a diocese which 
extended from the Tees to the Firth of Clyde. The 
Dean and Chapter have been under the necessity of 
restoring the stone-work of the window, which was in 
great and dangerous decay. Their attention, also, 
has been directed to the invaluable stained glass, 
which has been carefully examined by the Rev. J. T. 
Fowler, F.S.A., of Bishop Hatfield's Hall, Durham, 
the author of the learned papers on this window in 
the Archaological Journal. He has found that as 
many as eleven panels have, in comparatively recent 
years, been inserted in the window which have no 
connection with it at all. It is proposed to replace 
these panels by others connected with St. Cuthbert's 
history, and in more general harmony as to colour 
and design with the remainder of the window. The 
cost of the restoration of the stone-work amounts to 
about ^500, and the new panels will cost \o each. 
As the funds at the disposal of the Dean and Chapter 
are very much diminished, owing to the existing 
agricultural depression, they confidently appeal for 
help to all those who desire to see the beauty of the 
minster maintained in its integrity. Collections for 
this purpose will be made at all the services, and con- 
tributions will be gladly received by the Dean or 
Chapter Clerk, either for the Restoration Fund or the 
eleven new panels required. Mr. Knowles (of Stone- 
gate, York), in whose hands the restoration of the 
glass has been placed, has prepared very carefully 
executed cartoons of the different subjects in the 
window, which will be exhibited in the Zouch Chapel. 



A curious recognition of an unknown monument 
and remarkable proof of the truth of the assertion that 
u Heraldry is the Shorthand of History," have been 
made and endorsed in Winchester Cathedral by an able 
local heraldic citizen, Mr. H. D. Cole. In the north 
aisle is a barbarous Jacobean memorial, with no 
vestige of an inscription, and Dr. Milner, the great 
historian of the cathedral and city of the last century, 
and Dr. Woodward, the most recent writer of them, 
failed to read the history of the memorial. Mr. Cole, 
with a ladder and his heraldic talent, found a shield 
of arms in the apex of the monument, much defaced 
and faded in its blazonry, and this enabled him to 
discover the facts of the barbarous memorial by the 
arms of the deceased and his wife. It is that of 
Edward Cole, Registrar to the Bishop, Mayor of 
Winchester, 1587, 1598, 1612, and M.P. also in 
Queen Elizabeth's reign. Buried in the cathedral 
1617. The old citizen contributed ^25 for the 
defence of the kingdom against the Spanish Armada. 
The Corporation possess a good likeness of their 
former mayor, and also of his son-in-law, Lancelot 
Thorpe, mayor in 161 5, 1623-4. The Dean is going 
to have a tablet placed under the monument to record 
its history. One of the descendants of Mayor 
Cole lives and flourishes in the United States of 
America, and she has sent for photos of the tomb, 
etc., and aided the expenses of the new memorial, so 
that the discovery is in every way interesting, especially 
as it is a link between Old England and New America. 
Cole is descended from a Devonshire family, Cole of 
Shittisleigh, 1243. The initials H. B. on the frieze or 
band of the screens of the chancel of the cathedral 
are found to be those of Henry Brooke, Prior in 
1524, in Bishop Fox's time; and this was discovered 
by the arms of the Brookes close by. 

A kind of coffin containing the body of a woman 
has been discovered at Aylesford Drift, Canterbury, 
in the course of some extensive excavations. The re- 
ceptacle is apparently of a very ancient date, being 
constructed with slabs of stone. 

The Benedictine Monks at Buckfastleigh have been 
presented by a private friend with a beautiful crosier 
for their Abbot. It is made of old English oak, and 
the carving is most artistic. The interesting old 
tower at their abbey, which is the sole relic of the 
ancient Abbey of Buckfast, has just been carefully 
restored. 

A link between the last century and the present 
has just passed away in the person of Herr Jakob 
Zipffler, at the small south German town of Forst. 
Zipffler, who died at the age of 99, used to act as an 
errand boy to Schiller. One of his most pleasant 
recollections was the fact that in 1802, when taking 
home to Schiller at Jena a new pair of trousers from 



ANTIQ UARIAN NE WS. 



79 



the tailor with whom he was apprenticed, the poet 
gave him a liberal gratuity, with the words, " This is 
to refresh our acquaintance." 

The church of Sheriff Hutton is of great historical 
interest. In its windows can still be seen fragments 
of the stained glass, showing the saltire of the Nevilles, 
who held its castle in the Middle Ages, and the badge 
of the House of York, probably placed there by King 
Richard III., when it became one of his strongholds 
in the North. The tombs are of great interest and 
antiquity. One of them has recently come under the 
notice of the Society for Preserving the Memorials of 
the Dead. The tomb in question, which is of marble 
and alabaster, is that of the Prince of Wales, the son 
of Richard III. Mr. Demaine, of York, has inspected 
it on behalf of the Society, and careful drawings are 
about to be made, with a view of bringing the 
question of its restoration before the Queen and the 
Prince of Wales. The whitewash which covered it 
was removed some years since, under the direction of 
the present vicar (the Rev. John Lascelles, M.A.), 
and a very moderate outlay will suffice to put it in 
good condition. 

The Essex Field Club has resolved to start a 
monthly sixpenny periodical, to be known as the 
Essex Naturalist. Amateur journalism is not gener- 
ally satisfactory ; but we trust that the new venture 
may be so conducted as to be useful to the Club, and 
not too heavy a burden on its funds. It will take the 
place of the more ponderous Transactions which, 
as in other clubs of the kind, had become very erratic 
as to their appearance, and somewhat antiquated 
when they were at last issued. The editor of the new 
magazine is Mr. W. Cole, of Buckhurst Hill, the 
Secretary to the Club. 

An interesting account is given in some German 
papers of the discovery a little time ago, in the 
Cathedral of Worms, of the body of a mediaeval 
bishop, who has been identified as Conrad de Stern- 
berg, who died in 1154, being a contemporary to our 
Henry II., and of the great German Emperor 
Frederick Barbarossa. During the progress of some 
restorations which are being carried out in the cathe- 
dral, a stone coffin was found deep under the floor 
of the choir. It was closely cemented, and on its 
being opened in presence of a special commission, the 
body was found in perfect preservation, and arrayed 
in vestments denoting episcopal rank. On the head 
is a low mitre, the lower border of which is formed by 
a band of thick gold embroidery, of a lozenge-shaped 
pattern ; the fillets of the mitre are composed of the 
same sort of work, with deep, heavy gold fringes. 
The peaks of the mitre have their edges adorned by 
similar embroidery. The alb and amice are made of 
thin linen, very openly woven. The chasuble, of the 



old bell, is made of very thick twilled silk, and falls 
in long folds around the body, forming a sort of pad 
round the neck. In the usual way, a richly-em- 
broidered band runs perpendicularly down the front ; 
it has no special design. The edges cf the chasuble 
are simply hemmed. The tunics under the chasuble 
are also of silk. The upper one is of lighter texture ; 
it shows a pattern consisting of lozenges connected by 
rays. The under-tunic shows a very fine interlacing 
pattern of geometrical design. The stole is worn 
crossed on the breast, the lower portions being 
broader than the upper. Its ornamentation is a 
pattern of scale-like design, which shows alternately 
figures of lions and birds set in a pattern of finely- 
traced leaves. The girdle is of silk, but only long un- 
twisted strands remain. The feet and legs up to the 
knees are covered with silk stockings, which seem to 
be of a fine network texture. Three broad parallel 
bands, and as many smaller ones, are wound round 
in spiral fashion, and fasten them. The shoes, which 
come up above the ankle, and have two deep slits, 
are made of good brocade ; they are ornamented by 
circular embroideries sewed on. The soles of the 
shoes are of leather. The pastoral staff lies in the 
arms, from the right shoulder to the left foot. It is 
of soft wood, ended with a ferule and spike ; at top 
there is a spherical ball of hammered bronze, out of 
which issues a crook of soft wood, which ends in a 
bronze lily set in a square socket. At the feet stands 
the chalice, also of soft wood, very finely turned; the 
cup is a hemisphere, and on it rests the patina. 

An interesting ceremony took place in Edinburgh 
at noon on the 8th January, in connection with the 
prorogation of Parliament. A procession, led by the 
sheriffs and officials, accompanied by the pursuivants 
and heralds attired in quaint costumes, and guarded 
by a contingent of Seaforth Highlanders, walked 
from the County Buildings to the old Market Cross, 
recently restored by Mr. Gladstone, where the pro- 
clamation was intimated in due fashion to a large 
crowd of people. 

A terrible fire has almost destroyed the Royal 
Alcazar at Toledo, which has for some time been 
used as a Military Academy for cadets. It originated 
in the fine library, and spread to the whole of the 
first floor, destroying the paintings and many valuable 
books. The troops and authorities had to confine 
their efforts to preventing the fire extending to the 
old houses in the streets near the Alcazar. 

An influential meeting was held at Chester Town 
Hall on the 8th January, to inaugurate a movement 
for restoring the obelisk on the summit of Moel 
Fammau, in Flintshire, in commemoration of her 
Majesty's Jubilee Year. The tower was originally 
erected in 1809, to commemorate a similar period in 



8o 



ANTIQUARIAN NEWS. 



the reign of King George III., but has long since 
been in a dilapidated condition. 

It is proposed to celebrate the centenary of the 
birth of the Rev. Richard Harris Barham, the author 
of the Ingoldsby Legends, by the erection in Canter- 
bury of a new museum and public library. The 
Barhams are an old Kentish family, and claim 
descent from Robert, brother of Sir Reginald Fitzurse, 
one of the four knights who murdered the Archbishop 
Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral. The father 
of the author of Ingoldsby was an alderman of Canter- 
bury, in which city his son resided for some time at 
the conclusion of his University career. Subsequently 
he took holy orders, and held the curacy of Ashford 
in 1813. In the next year he proceeded to Westwell, 
and in 1817 he became incumbent of Snargate and 
Warehorne, in the vicinity of Romney, where 
smugglers then abounded. He was appointed minor 
canon of St. Paul's Cathedral in 1821, and during 
his long residence in London he enjoyed the friendship 
of Charles Dickens, Sir Walter Scott, Theodore 
Hook, and many other famous writers. 

During the recent excavations at Peterborough 
Cathedral some very ornate fragments of a clunch- 
stone monument have been turned up. From the 
carving and the formation of the various fragments 
they have evidently been used for the purposes of a 
shrine to some saint or saints who were honoured at 
Peterborough in years gone by. There are portions 
of handsome pedestals, splints of slender columns, 
fragments of moulded work, and traces of delicate 
statuary finials, etc., of clunch stone and marble. 
They bear evidence of having been the object of 
great violence, and in this respect compare similarly 
with other fragments of statuary which, it is ascer- 
tained, were destroyed by the Parliamentary soldiers 
under Cromwell. The find has naturally caused an 
amount of interest amongst archaeologists. The 
pieces discovered are very incomplete in themselves, 
and suggest but a portion of a larger work. The 
rest of the monument or shrine has indisputably 
been discovered. Visitors to the cathedral will 
remember that on the wall of the back of the apse, 
just through the iron gates of the north aisle, there is 
a whitewashed clunch-stone mural monument of very 
elegant design, having the appearance of the reredos 
of an altar, and which, from its very position, suggests 
that it is in a place utterly foreign to its original uses, 
whatever they may have been. This monument is of 
clunch stone, and this primary clue of identification 
with the recently found remains of clunch stone is 
followed up in a somewhat conclusive manner. There 
is a sort of unwritten tradition that this mural fixture 
was at one time moved from the last arch in the south 
choir aisle to the present position. The fragments 



alluded to have been found beneath the pavement of 
the choir facing this very arch. And more than these 
clues, similarity of substance and similarity of position, 
there is the all-important fact of identity of date of 
workmanship. Bridges, moreover, bears the tradition 
out of there having been a shrine or monument in the 
recesses of this arch by giving a ground-plan of it, and 
on this ground-plan are marked a series of slender 
pillars, which would agree with the fragments of the 
shafts found. It is unfortunate that this plan is not 
dated, or it would give an idea as to what period this 
shrine was in situ. But although there is reason to 
believe that it might have existed in Bridges' time, 
yet the plan is known to be older, and forms one of a 
collection in accordance with a scheme instituted by 
the gentry of the county some time after the Civil 
Wars in order to obtain county records, but which 
scheme never came to maturity. The plan as pre- 
sented by Bridges shows some forty or fifty monuments 
in the cathedral, and the sites are all numbered ; but 
the key which was undoubtedly made out at the time 
has been lost, and the plan thus has the blemish of 
presenting a show without a catalogue. Bridges, 
however, has done a service in presenting it, incom- 
plete as it is, because it fixes the old positions of scores 
of ancient monuments, few of which are now to be 
seen, including that of the mysterious one in question. 
Bridges' plan shows the arch to be separated from 
pillar to pillar with a centre wall or partition, leaving 
a space equal on the side of the choir (shown as the 
sanctuary) as on the aisle side. Twelve pillars are 
worked in on either side of this wall, which was 
doubtless one of carved and ornamental clunch stone, 
and it would appear that the mural monument alluded 
to was part of or fixed to this wall or partition. The 
fi]led-up slots in the pillars, where this central part of 
the monument fitted in, are now plainly discernible. 
By some local authorities, it is believed that the monu- 
ment was the shrine of the two virgins, Sts. Kyne- 
burga and Kyneswitha, daughters of Penda, the cruel 
pagan King of Mercia, and sisters to three successive 
Christian Kings Peada, Wulfere, and Ethelred. 
There is no doubt that the bodies of these saints had 
sanctuary at Peterborough, and their feast was kept 
on the 6th March. It is also suggested that the 
monument was a shrine to St. Tibba, who, we are 
told by Butler, was "a kinswoman of Kuyneburga, 
and a virgin, who, having spent many years in 
solitude and devotion, passed to glory on the 
13th December." Camden says she was "honoured 
with particular devotion at Rihal (Ryhall), a town 
near the Wash, in Rutlandshire," from whence her 
body was translated to Peterborough. Apart from 
the shrine being too prominent for that of St. Tibba, 
it is well known that the remaining portion of 
St. Tibba's shrine, which certainly did exist in the 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



81 



cathedral, now forms the east window of the main 
gate of the minster. There is much reason, after all, 
in the surmise that the shrine was that of St. Oswald, 
whose arm was kept in the Monastery Church, and 
was credited with many miracles. That there was a 
shrine to this saint is a matter of history, for Bridges 
quotes from contemporary authority that " In his nine- 
teenth year William, Bishop of Lincoln, visited the 
convent at Peterborough, when complaint was made 
to him that John Walpool, a monk of the house, was 
seditious amongst the brothers, and had stolen certain 
kwels out of St. OsivalcPs shrine and given them to 
women in the town, and that he frequented the tavern 
near the monaster}', and often danced in the dormitory 
until ten or eleven at night, to the disturbance of the 
others." By a strange coincidence, John Walpool 
was also the name of the prior on the surrender of the 
monastery in 1534. There is, therefore, little doubt 
that the shrine was of some importance and magnifi- 
cence, and old documents and institutions also testify 
to the veneration in which the saint was held locally. 
The remains of this mysterious shrine it is intended 
to preserve, and ultimately endeavour to put them 
together and reinstate them in the cathedral. 



Meetings of antiquarian 
Societies* 



Belfast Naturalists' Field Club. At the open- 
ing meeting of the session in November last the 
President, Rev. Canon Grainger, D.D., M.R.I. A., 
etc., delivered an address on " An Ancient Irish Lake 
Dwelling." The learned speaker, after referring to 
the widespread use in ancient times in Western 
Europe of dwellings isolated for protection, stated 
that Ireland was peculiarly rich in remains of such a 
nature, which were well known by the name of 
crannoges. He said, however, that, though much has 
been written on them, very little was still known 
with certainty of the people who constructed them 
or of the age in which they were most generally 
used. He also said that the club could claim some 
credit for endeavouring to settle these interesting 
questions by the systematic examination of the Lough 
Mourne crannoge. The reverend canon then pro- 
ceeded to refer to a remarkable crannoge that had 
lately been discovered Lisnacroghera, near Brough- 
shane, in his own parish. This crannoge has yielded 
a vast amount of interesting and valuable remains of 
stone, bronze, iron, and wood ; the first of these was 
represented by a polished stone hatchet or celt picked 
up by the canon himself on the surface of the cran- 
noge. Bronze is represented by vast quantities of 
objects of various character, several sackfuls it was 
stated, having been taken away and sold in Ballymena 
to dealers before their value became known. Many 
objects have, however, been secured, consisting of 



spears, swords, and personal ornaments. One notable 
peculiarity, however, in many of them is the combina- 
tion of bronze and iron in the same article for ex- 
ample, spear-heads with bronze rivets in them, by 
which they had been affixed to their handles ; iron 
swords in bronze sheaths, and with bronze handles, 
fittings, etc. Perhaps the most valuable relic is a 
spear-handle, complete, with a bronze knob on its 
butt-end, to the iron tang of the head on the other, 
measuring in all 6 feet. This is, perhaps, the only 
example of the kind known. Iron tools were also 
found, and several quaint wooden utensils, the uses of 
which are not now easily determined. It will thus 
be seen that the three ' ' ages " the stone, bronze, 
and iron are here blended or obliterated, and ren- 
dered valueless, so far as chronological order is re- 
cognised. Among the wood objects exhibited were the 
top and bottom of a vessel which once contained bog- 
butter. Regarding this puzzling material, the reverend 
lecturer stated that it was found in such quantities in 
his neighbourhood that the druggists of Ballymena 
sold it for cart-grease, throwing the vessels away that 
contained it. In conclusion, he stated that the general 
opinion now was, that the constructors of these lake 
dwellings were a highly advanced race, trading with 
their neighbours, and manufacturing articles such as 
are now found in their buried remains, but that they 
unfortunately seemed to have eventually succumbed 
to their more powerful and ruder neighbours. The 
next part of the evening's business was to hear 
the report of the sub-committee appointed to investi- 
gate the Lame gravels. Before proceeding to read 
the report, the Secretary asked liberty to quote ex- 
tracts from the papers read by W. J. Knowles, Esq. , 
M.R.I. A., and by Wm. Gray, Esq., M.R.I.A., which 
led to the formation by the club of the Committee of 
Investigation. Reading first from the Proceedings of 
the Royal Irish Academy extracts from a paper, Mr. 
Knowles {Proceedings, January, 1 884, p. 209) states : 
"I can refer to flints in my collection snowing human 
workmanship, which I obtained at different times during 
the past ten years, at depths of 8, 10, and 12 feet. 
. . . The raised beach at Lame, as described by 
Mr. Hull, is elevated 15 to 20 feet above high- water 
mark. Good sections of it can be seen near the 
harbour, where the railways pass through it, and 
also on each side of a new street which has 
recently been opened" (p. 213). "The boulders 
and gravel in which the flints are imbedded are 
heaped together in a most irregular manner ; and in 
the majority of sections I have had the opportunity of 
examining, there is a general absence of any stratified 
arrangement, such as would ordinarily be made by 
water. Turning all these matters over in my mind, 
the whole formation appears to me not to be a raised 
beach in the ordinary sense of the term, but rather 
something in the nature of an esker, which has re- 
ceived glacial matter on its surface at a time of sub- 
mergence. If I am correct in the various suggestions 
regarding the nature of this so-called raised beach, 
the term ' palaeolithic ' might be too modest an appli- 
cation for these implements. They would probably 
be the oldest implements not only in Ireland, but in 
the British Isles." Quoting next from Mr. Gray's 
paper {Belfast Naturalist's Field Club Proceedings, 
1883-84, p. 289), after giving in his paper the last 



8* 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



paragraph, Mr. Knowles proceeds to say: "A bold 
surmise ! Mr. Gray contended that the above 
description of the gravels was inaccurate, and the 
conjectures founded thereon untenable. The gravels 
are not heaped together irregularly ; they are mani- 
festly a well-defined, stratified, marine deposit ; they 
have no relation to 'glacial matter'; they are de- 
posited upon a thick bed of estuarine clay, and are 
thus of comparatively recent date. Moreover, the 
worked flints are not mixed through the gravel, but 
occur only on the surface of the undisturbed gravels, 
and therefore the men who worked the flints lived 
subsequent to the formation of the raised beach." It 
will thus be seen that the question the sub-committee 
was asked to determine was the position in the un- 
disturbed gravels of the flints and cores of human 
workmanship for which they are noted, and also an 
expression as to the nature or origin of the formation. 
The point selected for examination was an escarpment 
about 14 feet high on the south side of the railway 
which connects the harbour works with the main line 
of rail. Four men had been employed on a portion of 
this escarpment for the early part of the day, and 
after considerable work the face bad been freed from 
the debris that had obscured its base. The members 
were quite satisfied that the portion as cleared was an 
undisturbed clear section throughout its entire depth. 
Before proceeding to excavate, this face, as well as 
other portions of the escarpment not hidden by 
material which had fallen from above, were examined. 
The deposit consisted for the most part of gravel, 
with stones, bands of sand and clayey sand ; six species 
of shells were picked out of the face, all common 
existing shore forms. The entire deposit, except about 
2 feet 6 inches at the surface which had evidently 
been disturbed by cultivation is regularly stratified, 
the lowest beds exposed being sandy. The dip is to 
the south-west, at an angle of about ten degrees. 
The stones and gravel of the deposit were of local 
origin, basalt, chalk, and flints forming perhaps 
95 per cent, of the whole, all rounded and water- 
worn. The surface of the field above the escarpment 
was next examined. This was found to have a young 
braird of corn upon it. On this surface, thus admirably 
suited for examination, specimens of flakes and cores 
were found in great profusion, a few minutes' search 
sufficing to fill one's hands with as many as could be 
conveniently carried. Above the cleared face a space 
was next marked out, 6 feet long by 2 feet in depth 
inwards, and workmen with shovels were directed to 
send down the material from this space. The material 
as it fell was, by the other workmen, spread out, the 
better to facilitate the search. Soon a large number 
of flakes and cores were collected, several members 
picking out as many as from twenty to thirty each. 
At a depth of 2 feet the workmen above were directed 
to halt and level the bottom of the cleared space, 
while those below removed all the material that had 
been sent down. Another layer was next proceeded 
with in the same manner until a depth of 3 feet 3 inches 
was reached. Fewer specimens were found in this 
clearing, on an average from one to six to each member, 
and these were remarked to possess sharper angles 
than those found above. In the same way another 
clearing, reaching to 4 feet 6 inches, was made. From 
this no specimens which did not admit of a doubt as 



to their human origin were found, and so the work 
proceeded in levels of a few feet at a time. At a depth 
of 10 feet a clayey band, followed by one of sand and 
shells, was cut through. The excavation continuing, 
nothing was noted till at a depth of 1 1 feet 6 inches 
a well-formed flake was shovelled out by one of the 
workmen, and picked up by Mr. Praeger. The ques- 
tion was at once raised of the probability of this 
example having fallen from the higher zone, against 
which the workmen might have come in contact when 
standing erect in the contracted space in which they 
worked. No additional specimens were found in the 
section, which was excavated to the base. The com- 
mittee next examined excavations to the north of the 
railway and road, at the place where " pottery " is 
marked on the 6-inch Ordnance map. The basement 
deposit visible here was a tough blue clay, containing 
shells, among which was Scrobicularia piperata, a 
species not now found living in this district, but which 
occurs in immense profusion in the estuarine clay of 
our area, and of which it is peculiarly characteristic. 
Resting on the estuarine clay is a series of stratified 
sands and gravels, with water-worn stones about 6 feet 
in depth, very similar to the section already described 
from the south side of the railway, with the exception 
that the matrix or fine material of the coarse gravel, 
with stones, was in places of a reddish clayey character. 
No excavation was made here, as was done at the 
south of the railway. It was, however, clearly ob- 
served that the deposit was a stratified one, in every 
respect similar to it, with the exception above-named, 
and also the absence of much of the sand from its 
lower lands. The surface was, as before, a cultivated 
field, on which flakes and cores were found in abund- 
ance. An opening to the south of a newly-constructed 
road or street was next visited, but it added nothing 
new, no lower beds being exposed, and much of the 
gravel being hidden by debris. The conclusions 
arrived at are, that the sands and gravels form a 
stratified deposit ; that the various places examined 
are portions of the same deposit ; that this extended 
deposit of sands and gravels rests upon the estuarine 
clay, and is consequently of more recent date. The 
committee are of opinion that its basement beds of 
sand, and its clayey band containing well-defined 
layers of littoral shells, indicate a shore deposit, which 
accumulated at a comparatively slow rate, that the 
coarse gravel with stones indicate a more rapid accu- 
mulation, and that a subsequent upheaval left the 
Curran about its present elevation. Man seems now 
to have appeared on the scene, attracted, perhaps, 
either by the desirability of the place for fishing, or 
on account of the numerous flints contained in the 
gravels being found convenient and suitable for the 
manufacture of the rude implements which formed so 
important a part of his equipment. The flakes and 
cores in question are found only on the surface, or at 
such short depths below the surface as they might, in 
the ordinary course of time or by the disturbance of 
cultivation, have sunk. The Secretary stated that the 
report, of which the above is a summary, was sent to 
the various members who assisted in the investigation, 
with a request that each would append his remarks 
on separate sheets of paper. These were also read 
at the meeting, and they all confirmed the report ; 
and each gave as his own opinion that the flake 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



83 



found at the depth of 1 1 feet 6 inches was derived 
from the upper beds by accidentally falling into the 
excavation. At the conclusion of the reading of the 
report and personal opinions of the members of the 
Committee of Investigation, an interesting discussion 
was opened by the President, who at once stated that 
he entirely disagreed from the entire report and 
opinions ; but several speakers supported the con- 
clusions of the committee. A large series of speci- 
mens procured at the investigation was brought for 
inspection by the meeting. 

Newcastle Society of Antiquaries. At the 
November meeting, held in the Old Castle the Rev. 
Dr. Bruce presiding the Rev. J. R. Boyle moved 
that a committee be appointed to examine the 
Hodgson MSS., and to purchase them if they thought 
them of sufficient importance and value. Mr. Long- 
staffe asked how much the vendors asked. The 
Chairman said they did not ask a price, but a small 
committee which had been considering the question 
thought ^50 would be about the price. Mr. Long- 
staffe seconded Mr. Boyle's motion, which, however, 
was lost on being put to the vote. The Secretary 
(Mr. Robert Blair) read a paper, by Mr. James 
Clephan, on "The Old Tyne Bridge, and its Story," 
written in view of the reconstruction of the bridge in 
the Jubilee Exhibition of 1887. The Chairman said 
it was a most interesting paper, and the more so at the 
present time, when the bridge is to be reconstructed. 
Their thanks ought to be given to Mr. Clephan for 
his very admirable paper. The Rev. E. H. Adamson, 
Windy Nook, read a paper, "An Attempt to trace 
the Delavals from the Time of the Norman Conquest 
to the Present Day." A paper by Professor E. C. 
Clark, "On a Roman Figure of Saturn from West- 
moreland," was .read by the Chairman ; after which 
the proceedings concluded 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 22nd of No- 
vember, 1886, the Rev. G. F. Browne, B.D. (Presi- 
dent), in the chair. Mr. Jenkinson exhibited a 
volume containing Expositio hymnorwn and Expositio 
sequenliarum, both printed by Wynkyn de Worde, 
in 1502. The book, which belongs to the Church 
Library at Nantwich, was seen there in the summer 
by Mr. J. E. Foster ; and the rector very kindly lent 
it to him to examine at his leisure. No other copy of 
either book is known to exist. Frescoes at Chip- 
penham, by C. E. Keyser, M.A. The Church 
of St. Margaret, Chippenham, five miles from New- 
market, has been lavishly decorated with wall- 
frescoes, probably in the early part of the fifteenth 
century. The frescoes are still partly covered with 
whitewash, and those portions which are exposed 
are much perished. The nave stands in great need of 
restoration, and it is hoped that Mr. C. E. Keyser's 
description of the frescoes may call attention to the 
claims it has for aid beyond the parish. The Chancel 
Screen, especially mentioned in Lysons {Magna 
Britannia, Cambridgeshire), retains on the lower 
panels some of the original colouring, viz., a small 
pattern in yellow on a groundwork of red and green 
on the alternate panels. The Roof of the North 
Chapel is a lean-to, the rafters being painted in dark 
colour with stars, or suns, quatrefoils, window-tracery, 
and other ornamental designs. The Nave Arcade. 
On all the pillars are traces of colour, the two east 



on north side being most marked. On south-east 
face of the east pillar is a head. The capitals and 
abaci are also richly decorated. South Wall of South 
Aisle. St. George and the Dragon. In the centre 
is the head and body of St. George, with his cross 
painted on his breastplate and epaulettes. He is 
probably on horseback, and leaning forward in 
the act of piercing the dragon with his spear, which 
he grasps in his right hand. Behind St. George 
may possibly be made out the Princess, whom the 
saint has rescued, kneeling with her lamb ; and on 
the eastern part of the picture are seated, on the walls 
of the city, the king and queen, beholding the combat. 
A gateway with portcullis is portrayed below. This 
subject is comparatively common, but the only other 
example recorded in Cambridgeshire is at Eversden. 
North Wall of North Aisle. Occupying its usual 
situation is the upper part of a very large painting-of 
St. Christopher, placed at the east side of the north 
door and facing the southern entrance. The saint is 
staggering under the weight of his burden, in accord- 
ance with the usual rhyming distich : 

Parve puer quis tu ; graviorem non toleravi ; 
to which our Lord replies : 

Non mirans sis tu, nam sum qui cuncta creavi. 

St. Christopher is clad in rich flowing drapery, 
coloured vermilion and Indian red. Our Saviour is 
seated on the left shoulder of the saint. He is nimbed 
and clad in a red garment, but the features are de- 
faced. He holds the orb in His left hand, while the 
right is held up with the two fingers extended in the 
act of benediction. St. Christopher became most 
popular throughout England in the fifteenth century, 
and a large number of mural paintings and other 
representations of him in our churches have been 
recorded, especially in the Eastern Counties. A 
portion of a similar painting remains at Burwell, 
and other examples have been found in Cambridge- 
shire, at the old Chapel of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, Cherryhinton, Eversden, Impington, 
Grantchester, Milton, and Wilburton. Several 
examples in old glass are mentioned in Ccle's 
MS. Notes of the Cambridgeshire Churches. To 
the east of this window is portrayed the Martyrdom 
of St. Erasmus, with all its horrible details. The 
saint, nimbed and with his bishop's mitre, is laid on 
a bed, nude, with the exception of a loin cloth. Above 
are two figures on either side of a windlass, round 
which they are winding the bowel of the saint. Above, 
again, seated on a throne, is a royal personage, to 
whom two figures, in evident amazement, are point- 
ing out the scene depicted above, viz., the soul of the 
bishop being borne up to heaven in a napkin held 
by angels. The rays of heaven are shown in the upper 
part of the picture. This subject is comparatively 
rare, and the only recorded examples in mural paint- 
ing have been found at Ampney Crucis, and Ciren- 
cester, Gloucestershire, and Whitwell, Isle of Wight. 
At Buckenham Ferry, Norfolk, and Durneston, 
Dorset, sculptures have been found, treating the 
subject exactly as at Chippenham. On the north 
wall of the north chapel, to the west of the 
window, has been a large and very interesting sub- 
ject. Although a large tablet has unfortunately 
been fixed in the middle of the subject, there is no 



8 4 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



doubt that here has been depicted " St. Michael 
weighing souls, and the Blessed Virgin interceding on 
the souls' behalf." Above the tablet can be seen the 
wings of the Archangel, and on each side the scales of 
the balances which he is holding. On the west side are 
demons trying to force down the scale containing the 
evil deeds of the deceased ; while on the east is a 
majestic figure of the Virgin, crowned and nimbed, 
holding a sceptre in her left hand, while with her 
right hand she is touching the scale, which, according 
to the legend, at once goes down, and the soul is 
saved. The Virgin is clad in rich garments, with 
outer cloak, and a diaper of pomegranates on her 
dress. The ground on which she stands is gray, and 
the general background red. In the upper part of the 
picture is the coat-of-arms of the person at whose 
expense the painting was executed, viz., gules a 
chevron or, between three double-edged combs argent. 
Can these arms be identified ? The subject of St. 
Michael weighing souls is generally found in repre- 
sentations of the Great Day of Judgment, to which it 
of course always alludes. The particular treatment, 
as at Chippenham, is not uncommon. The Presi- 
dent showed a full-sized drawing of the martyr- 
dom of St. Erasmus, under Diocletian, which he 
had traced from the fresco at Chippenham ; also a 
charcoal drawing of the alabaster group found at 
Buckenham, with the same subject, enlarged by Mr. 
H. Chapman to the same size as the figures at 
Chippenham ; and a tracing of the fresco at Ciren- 
cester. At Cirencester St. Erasmus, in his full robes, 
stands above the group represented as torturing his 
naked body, much in the same position as that 
occupied at Chippenham by the half-length figure of 
the saint being carried up in a sort of hammock by 
angels. St. Erasmus is said to have been martyred at 
Formise ; the see was transferred to Cajeta in the ninth 
century, with his relics. Notes on Deerhurst 
Church, by M. Rule, M.A. Mr. Rule argued, in 
reference to the ancient church at Deerhurst, that 
William of Malmesbury's phrase (Gesta Pont., ii. 76 ; 
Rolls edition, p. 169), " Nunc antiquitatis inane simu- 
lacrum," taken with Leland's statement, " The French 
order was an erection sins the Conquest, the old priory 
stood est from Severn a bow shot," shows that thepresent 
church stands apart from the site of the old priory, is 
of post-Conquest date, and thought by William of 
Malmesbury to be a mere counterfeit of an ancient 
style. This interpretation of " inane simulacrum 
antiquitatis " will explain the curious mixture of de- 
tails which has puzzled archaeologists, ' ' windows too 
large for genuine Saxon, herring-bone in the walls 
but no long-and -short work in the angles, a baluster 
and imposts copied from debased Roman and an arch 
copied from rudimentary Norman, side by side with 
work which might otherwise be taken asgenuineSaxon." 
The President remarked that this was exactly the 
impression made upon him by his first sight of this 
remarkable church. He showed an outlined rubbing 
of the font and of a fragment of a square stone sup- 
port at Elmstone Hardwick, five or six miles on the 
Cheltenham side of Deerhurst. These are covered 
with spirals of the C pattern, very carefully and 
elaborately drawn, and they are quite unlike any 
other sculptured stones in England. The font has 
above and below the panels of spirals a very graceful 



scroll, probably of a later pattern than those on the 
Ruthwell Cross, the Drosten Stone at St. Vigean's, 
and other very early examples. He thought that the 
theory of a reproduction after the Conquest of early 
patterns and details, with more zeal than knowledge, 
met more of the difficulties peculiar to Deerhurst than 
any other theory. But he could not give up the 
" Celtic " character of the spiral-work on the font, 
and he could not conceive where the supposed copier 
could have found his original in the twelfth century. 
Professor J. H. Middleton thought that there was 
distinct structural evidence in Deerhurst Church 
sufficient to contradict Mr. Martin Rule's sugges- 
tion that the building is of date subsequent to the 
Norman Conquest. First, in the plan of the church, 
which belongs to an earlier type than such late 
Saxon - buildings as that at Worth in Sussex. 
The fact that there was no wide archway between 
the nave and the two transepts, but merely doorways 
as at Bradford-on-Avon, tends to prove an early date. 
Secondly, the evidence as to the existence of an 
atrium west of the tower, which has an archway in 
each of its four walls, arranged specially to fit this 
atrium or cloistered court ; and a small western 
baptistery, which j communicated with the tower by 
a wide archway, further tends to show that this is 
a genuine example of early Saxon architecture. 
Lastly, the very primitive character of the details, 
with a clear survival of Roman methods of construc- 
tion, gives a further proof of the early date of the work. 
It is quite inconsistent with what we know of the 
habits of mediaeval builders to suppose that they 
could in the eleventh century have designed and 
carried out an elaborate forgery of older work, 
both in general plan and in ornamental detail. 
The President read a communication from Mr. S. 
H. Miller, of Belle Vue Park, Lowestoft, on " Alleged 
Idolatry in the Fens." Mr. Browne had failed to trace 
the tradition to any source, and last year Mr. Miller 
undertook to investigate the matter. The result 
seems to show that the tradition does not point to any 
supposed survival of "Idolatry" in the Fens, but 
merely to stories about one man : " Some of the old 
labourers living in Upwell remember that between 
sixty and seventy years ago, a stranger came and 
found work at Neatmoor Farm ; his name I have not 
ascertained, but he is said to have married an Upwell 
young woman, whose name was Greaves. After they 
had been fixed in a home, the man appears to have 
introduced ' images ' of some kind, which, according 
to rumour, he worshipped ; the young people working 
in the fields would jokingly ask him about these 
objects, which they sometimes called wooden dolls. 
In some moods he showed irritation, and would some- 
times meet the interrogation by saying : ' If you come 
to my house, you shall see what images I worship.' 
Whether the images were simple ornaments or objects 
of devotion, it is certain that they gave rise to a certain 
amount of raillery among the Fen-people, and the 
young field-hands would say tauntingly, ' Go and 
worship the wooden dolls ;' just as they say in East 
Norfolk, ' Go to Bungay,' etc. But I cannot learn 
that anyone now living has ever witnessed any act of 
worship before these images. The man left Neatmoor 
Farm (then occupied by Mr. J. Nix), and went to live 
in a cottage situate two fields from Welney Bank, in 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



85 



a part then called Read's Fen, and so marked on 
Wells's map of the Bedford Level. The Fen-men 
were not allured by what they themselves called 
idolatry, and as the man had no family, his practices 
died with him ; the cottage in which he is last known 
to have lived has been demolished." 

Clifton Shakspere Society. Oct. 2. J. W. 
Mills, Esq., President, in the chair. An address by 
Mr. Mills, the outgoing President, was read on 
" Shakspere's Schools, Schoolmasters, and Scholar- 
ship." No historical materials are extant from which 
could be written a true description of Shakspere's 
school-life. Legend and tradition slowly encrusted 
his famous name. As far as they go, they give sup- 
port to the popular notion of his wild unruly youth ; 
his deer-stealing in Charlecote Park ; the prosecution 
and lampoon ; the flight to London ; the revenge in 
" The Merry Wives." His schoolboys are unwilling 
scholars. The sighs with which Shakspere credits his 
schoolboys are of more import in indicating hatred of 
book-learning than the tears that some of them shed. 
The sighs show that sternness and severity bore un- 
disputed sway in the cheerless regions of pedantry. 
In Holofernes we surely have some flogging pedant of 
Stratford grammar-school. Shakspere was probably 
very little indebted to the pedants for the develop- 
ment of his mental powers. It is pretty well agreed 
that he left school at about fourteen years of age. 
But Shakspere had another school and other teachers. 
He found " tongues in trees, books in the running 
brooks, sermons in stones, and good in everything." 

Hellenic Oct. 21. Mr. S. Colvin, V.P., in the 
chair. Mr. Colvin was appointed to represent the 
Society upon the Managing Committee of the British 
School at Athens. Mr. Poynter read a paper upon a 
bronze leg recently acquired for the British Museum 
from M. Piot, of Paris. This leg, which had 
belonged to a statue of heroic size, was armed with a 
greave, and the few fragments of drapery which alone 
had come to light with the leg showed that the figure 
must have been that of a hero in full armour and in 
motion. After communicating some notes from Mr. 
A. S. Murray, arguing that the figure could not re- 
present a runner, and assigning its production to 
about 450 B.C., Mr. Poynter proceeded to show on 
anatomical grounds that the attitude might have 
been that of a runner at the moment when the body 
was about equally poised on the two legs. The 
interest of this fragment to the artist lay not so 
much in its probable date (as to which Mr. Poynter 
was disposed to agree with Mr. Murray) as in 
its beauty of workmanship. The surface of the 
bronze was, moreover, in the most perfect condition. 
Although the leg was clearly incased in a metal 
greave, the artist had contrived to express beneath it 
the same play of muscles as if the leg had been ex- 
posed. The British Museum was to be heartily con- 
gratulated upon the acquisition of so unique a speci- 
men of the acme of Greek art. Mr. C. Smith stated 
that some further fragments of drapery had just 
reached the Museum. Mr. A. H. Smith reminded 
the meeting that this leg was one of several specimens 
of sculpture upon which M. Francois Lenormant had 
based a theory which had found no acceptance, of a 
native Tarentine school of sculpture. Miss J. 
Harrison read a paper on the representation in Greek 



art, and especially in vase-paintings, of the myth of 
the judgment of Paris. 

Huguenot. Nov. 10. Mr. A. G. Browning, 
member of Council (in the absence of the President, 
Sir H. A. Layard), in the chair. Fifteen new 
Fellows and three Honorary Fellows were elected, 
and the following papers read : "On the Walloon 
Church Festival at Haarlem," by Mr. R. S. Faber ; 
"Chevalleau de Boisragon," by Lieut. -General 
Layard ; "The Story of Jean Perigal of Dieppe," by 
Mr. F. Perigal. The last two papers were taken 
entirely from hitherto unpublished MSS. The former 
related to an episode in the career of one of the many 
gallant Huguenot officers whose services were lost to 
France in consequence of the Revocation of the Edict 
of Nantes, whilst the latter gave a vivid description of 
the imprisonment of a gentleman of Dieppe, and of 
the various indignities and sufferings endured by him 
and his family at the hands of Louis XIV. 's dragoons. 

Geological. Nov. 3. Prof. J. W. Judd, Presi- 
dent, in the chair. The following communications 
were read: "On the Skull and Dentition of a 
Triassic Saurian, Galesaums planiceps, Ow.," by Sir 
R. Owen ; " The Cetacea of the Suffolk Crag," and 
"On a Jaw of Hyotherium from the Pliocene of 
India, by Mr. R. Lydekker. 

Geographical. Nov. 8. Right Hon. Lord Aber- 
dare, President, in the chair. The following gentle- 
men were elected Fellows : Sir W. Morgan, Messrs. 
W. W. Martin, J. A. Nunn, G. H. Taylor White- 
head, and E. Tregear. The paper read was " Simi- 
larities in the Physical Geography of the Great 
Oceans," by Mr. J. Y. Buchanan. 

Philological. Nov. 5. The Rev. Prof. Sayce, 
President, in the chair. M. Bertin was elected a 
Member. The President read a paper "On the 
Origin of the Augment in the Indo-European Verb." 
The primitive vowel of the augment is g, like that of 
the reduplicate syllable ; and the reduplication of 
stems beginning with a vowel was extended by 
analogy to stems beginning with a consonant. The 
President's second paper was " On the Passive r of the 
Italic and Keltic Languages." This cannot be the s of 
the reflexive pronoun, since neither in Oscan nor Old 
Irish does .r become r. In verbal forms in r in 
Sanskrit, Zend, and Greek the r follows the stem and 
not the personal ending. This change of position 
was accounted for by comparing the passive 2 sing. 
legeri-s or legere with the active lege, and imp. 
ama-re with ama. Legor was formed on the analogy 
of legitur, the r being in all these cases originally 
sonant, and therefore not possibly the representative 
of the reflexive pronominal s. 

Archaeological Institute. Nov. 4. Mr. J. T. 
Micklethwaite, V.P., in the chair. A communica- 
tion was read from Smyrna from the Rev. J. Hirst. 
On the motion of Mr. W. H. St. John Hope, 
seconded by the Rev. F. Spurrell, the following 
resolution was unanimously carried : " That this 
Institute regrets to hear from Mr. Hirst of the destruc- 
tion which is going on in the Turkish empire, and 
requests the President and Council to take any steps 
which they may think fit to lay the matter before the 
proper authorities with a view to its prevention." 
Mr. W. M. Flinders Petrie read a paper " On the 
Finding of Daphnse." Mr. Petrie 's other discoveries 



86 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



this year for the Egypt Exploration Fund, at 
Naukratis, Buto, and Tell Nebesheh, were also 
briefly described. Mr. A. Baker read a paper on 
architecture and archaeology, advocating the closer 
union of the two sciences. Among the objects ex- 
hibited was a large amphora found with seventeenth- 
century remains. Mr. E. Badart sent some notes on 
this vessel. It was thought by the meeting that it 
was of the period of the Commonwealth, and probably 
for the importation of crude oil from the Mediter- 
ranean. Mr. Petrie exhibited Egyptian antiquities, 
including some fine examples in gold. 



Corregponnence. 



THE LONGEVITY OF VANDALISM. 
[Ante, xiv., p. 279]. 

It is with pleasure I forward the following informa- 
t ion, courteously communicated by Mr. Robert Blair, 
one of the secretaries to the Society of Antiquarians 
of Newcastle-on-Tyne, with permission to make use 
of it. "Unfortunately the Vandal, on whose land 
they (the tombs) were, is not only the occupier but 
the owner, and therefore ' a clause in a lease ' would 
not apply. The owner, I understand, threatened that 
if any fuss were made about the matter he would 
destroy the circular tomb, the only one now remain- 
ing, and the most important. He wanted some stones 
to build a shelter for cattle, hence the reason for the 
vandalism. The man was also annoyed by people 
trespassing this was the reason given for the de- 
struction of ' Robin of Risingham,' the Roman 
sculpture on the face of the rock near the next 
Roman station to the Habitancum. We hesitated 
to take any hostile steps, knowing, as we did, that 
under the Ancient Monuments' Protection Act we 
were powerless, especially after the threat. Both the 
British Archaeological Association and ourselves have 
been in communication with the vandal, who has 
promised not to interfere with the remaining tomb ; 
but never a word concerning the destruction of the 
other two tombs. 

"In a letter, dated November 18, 1886, from 
' Hopesley House, near Otterburn,' to a friend of my 
colleague, D. Hodgkin, the Goth thus writes : 'Mr. 
Hodgkin need not be afraid, nor any of the Anti- 
quarians of the Society (of Newcastle), of me destroy- 
ing the Roman tomb at Rochester. My desire is to 
preserve and protect it from destruction, although I 
suffer a great deal from trespass, climbing over the 
wall, and destroying fences ; so you may rest assured 
I won't interfear (sic) with the tomb.' Not a word 
about the two tombs so ruthlessly destroyed !" 

Mr. Blair, further, says he did not know that there 
was a wall, nor yet does he remember any fence 
about these tombs. The sketch he made in 1878 
corresponds with that made in 1855 by Mr. C. R. 
Smith ; both show three and not four tombs, so that 
one was destroyed between the visit in 185 1 of Dr. 
Bruce, and that of Mr. Smith of 1855. 

The question naturally occurs, of what use is the 



Ancient Monuments' Protection Act ? Here is a 
case to which such an Act should apply, and yet in 
which it cannot be applied. It is sincerely to be 
hoped that this case may lead to some better regula- 
tion for the preservation of historical remains. 

Charles Moore Jessop. 
98, Sutherland Gardens, 
December 13, 1886. 



MAIDEN PLACE NAMES. 
[Ante, xiv., p. 229, et a/.] 
I am glad that Mr. J. H. Round agrees with me 
regarding the necessity for a " careful topographical 
examination " of the various Maiden Forts, etc., 
which are scattered through the country. But, in 
contending that in many cases "maiden" is the 
equivalent of the less odorous " midden," I do not, 
as I said in my former letter, hang any theory on a 
hard-and-fast line. It is evident that, if the investiga- 
tion is worth pursuing at all, something more is re- 
quired to account for the numerous urban Maiden 
lanes and streets. To arrive at the origin of these, an 
historic inquiry must be superadded to the topo- 
graphical one. A beginning might be made with 
London, in which these thoroughfares are numerous. 
I have got a little book called London in Miniature, 
without date, but published about the year 1755. It 
contains a pretty complete directory of the streets, 
lanes, courts, etc., within the bills of mortality, and 
among them I find the following : 

"Maiden lane, Church str., Lambeth. 

,, Deadman's place [near Dirty lane, 

South wark].* 
Halfmoon str., Covent garden. 

Long ditch [Tothil str., West- 

minster]. 
,, Queen str., Cheapside. 

,, Wood str., ibid." 

There are also : 
" Maid court, Maiden lane, Bow lane. 

Maid lane, Gravel lane." 
Some of these names may have the same origin as 
the Nottingham Lane mentioned by Mr. A. Stapleton ; 
others may be derived from tavern-signs ; while others 
may depend on the local formation of the land on 
which the thoroughfares are situated, or may indicate 
a boundary line, as in the Dartford-Crayford instance 
mentioned by Mr. H. W. Smith. They form, at 
least, a basis for further inquiry. 

W. F. Prideaux, Lieut -Colonel. 
Calcutta. 



THE ANCIENT PARISH OF WOKING. 

[Ante, xiv., p. 244; xv., p. 38.] 
The suggested derivation of Piriford from Peliforde 
seems to be opposed to the English habits of phonetic 
change. In English local names, the rough r is fre- 
quently changed to the smooth /; but it may be 
doubted whether any examples occur of the converse 
mutation. Thus, Sarisbury has become Salisbury, 
and Shropshire has become Salopshire or Salop ; the 

* The entries in brackets are added from other parts of the 
list. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



87 



r in these words being softened to /. This is the rule 
in English, but in French the opposite practice pre- 
vails, as may be seen in the conversion of Latin 
lusciniola into French rossignol. 

D. P. F. 



CHINGFORD CHURCH. 

Could any of the readers of the Antiquary inform 
me as to the age and period of Old Chingford Church, 
situate in Chingford, Essex ? I have consulted Wright 
and Morant, but the history of the church is only 
mentioned in a most perfunctory manner. 

C. H. Barham. 



Eetrieto& 



Norfolk Records: Being a Collection of Record 
References derived from the Official MS. Indexes 
preserved in the Public Record Office. By 
Walford D. Selby. (Goose: Norwich.) 
This is the first volume of a publication undertaken 
for the Norfolk Archaeological Society. It is much 
to be wished that other societies would follow so 
excellent an example, and initiate similarly useful 
work. The idea of the publication is based on the 
fact that there exist in the Record Office MS. indexes 
to the various classes of records which " have been 
compiled at different periods during the last 500 
years." Tedious to hunt up, and often difficult, when 
found, to decipher, these indexes (which are not, 
moreover, strictly alphabetical in system) are of little 
practical use to the " researcher " in their present 
state. If, however, they were all printed on the 
system here adopted, and an index on modern princi- 
ples appended to the whole, they would become of the 
utmost value. This is what is here being done for the 
references relating to Norfolk, and we heartily con- 
gratulate the local Archaeological Society on its enter- 
prise in undertaking work of this character, and on 
securing so competent an editor as Mr. Walford D. 
Selby. With this, and with Mr. Rye's Norfolk 
Topography (Index Society), Norfolk antiquaries will 
have at their disposal aids to research which most 
other counties, we fear, may have long to wait for. 



ledge, and this little book is a good instance of the 
fact. Why Mr. Vine should have been so willing to 
follow the Rev. R. W. Morgan's British Kymry in 
dealing with the British tribes we cannot quite make 
out, because of late years much has been done 
towards elucidating this portion of history, and 
nowhere does he seem to give any heed to the 
researches of such an authority as Dr. Guest. ' Surely 
this is an oversight. Mr. Vine has printed and bound 
his book with great taste. 



Ccesar in Kent : the Landing of Julius Casar, and 

his Battles with the Ancient Britons, with some 

Account of Early English Trade and Enterprise. 

By the Rev. Francis T. Vine. Small 4to., 

pp. xiii, 242. 

Mr. Vine here gives us an interesting account of 

the first contact of Britain with Rome. His local 

knowledge has enabled him to supplement the 

writings of others, and to form an independent 

judgment upon their theories ; and in unhesitatingly 

advancing the claims of Deal to be the place of 

Caesar's landing, we are quite sure that Mr. Vine has 

settled almost beyond doubt this long-vexed question. 

Archaeology is greatly assisted always by local know- 



Society in the Elizabethan Age. By Hubert Hall. 

(London, 1886 ; Sonnenschein.) 8vo., pp. vii, 

291. 

Mr. Hall's capabilities as an historian are known to 

our readers, and we can assure them that in this 

extremely interesting volume he has given further 

proof of his capacity to deal with subjects which are 

calculated to throw considerable light on some of the 

most important phases of English social life. In 

this volume he is at once author and researcher. No 

one could have made a better selection of material, 

and few could have handled that material so deftly 

when they had had it placed before them. 

Mr. Hall's method is as admirable as it is, we 
believe, unique. From general treatises, and the 
mass of literature throwing light upon the state of 
society, he has obtained the main grouping of his 
narrative. But he renders this general notice of 
social manners and customs of real dramatic and 
historical interest by bringing into the picture the 
actual figures of personages living at the time. By 
his examination of documents, he can tell us of the 
lord and his steward and tenant, the burgess, 
merchant, churchman, courtier, vintner, and other 
phases of the life of the period ; and from the 
accounts of personal expenditure or private notes, he 
produces a narrative which is as fascinating as it is 
valuable. We have to put up with several reversals 
of the verdicts of history. Wild Darrel, the typical 
landlord, is no longer the lustful, quarrelsome, 
tyrannical embodiment of all that is bad ; but he is a 
shrewd, clever, contemptuous man, oppressed by his 
relations and the circumstances of his career. 
Gresham, again, one of the heroes of Londoners, was 
a money-making State servant, who was honest just 
because he was successful. So it is with others. We 
have the fierce light of contemporary record turned 
upon lives which have been allowed to take their 
reckoning from tradition and the halo of success, and 
the result is not always pleasing to one's sense of 
what ought to have been when Elizabeth was 
mistress. Mr. Hall is no sentimentalist, certainly. 
He does not agree with the cry of " the good old 
times," and he points out some evident evils arising 
from the Reformation, which its good has altogether 
overshadowed. The one word of adverse criticism is 
that oftentime Mr. Hall lets his style, not unpleasant 
as a whole, get the better of him, and the reader is 
left in the dark, and yearns for a footnote of explana- 
tion. But otherwise the book is one of rare merit in 
these days of overhasty work, and we are not at all 
surprised that it has already reached its second 
edition. It will certainly long remain a standard 
work of its kind. 



88 



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THE PUBLIC CROSSES OF NOTTINGHAM. 



89 




The Antiquary. 



MARCH, 1887. 




Ipu&Uc Crosses of iftottingftam. 

SHOULD have headed this paper 
" The Market Crosses of Notting- 
ham," but for the reason that one 
or two of them, it is almost certain, 
were never made use of for commercial pur- 
poses. The comparatively large number of 
crosses brought to light through our recently 
published Nottingham Borough Records (ex- 
tending at present from 1155 to 1547) is 
quite surprising in a town of such small size 
as was Nottingham, previous to the enclosure 
of the common lands, which did not take 
place until 1846. Additional light has also 
been thrown on the known crosses by these 
valuable records, which are more voluminous 
and perfect than those of any town of equal 
size, although many of the most important 
were burnt in the fire at the Town Clerk's 
office in 1724. Besides the above work, I 
have also collected information from the 
local histories of Charles Deering, whose 
work was published in 1751, two years after 
his decease, and John Blackner, who pub- 
lished his History of Nottingham in 18 15 ; 
also, in a lesser degree, from the more modern 
works of James Orange and Thomas Bailey. 
John Evelyn visited Nottingham in 1654, 
and wrote in his diary the following, opposite 
August 14th: "I lay this night at Notting- 
ham, which seems to be one entire rock, and 
I observed an ample market-place, and large 
streets full of market- crosses." Here, how- 
ever, he exaggerates somewhat, as there could 
not have been more than six at the time of 
his visit. Another historian tells us the 
market-crosses were painted in 1634. Of 
the half-score or more crosses which formerly 
vol. xv. 



graced the antique streets of this town, it is 
a matter of regret to our antiquaries that 
through false ideas of " improvement " there 
is not one remaining. As yet, comparatively 
little is known of any of them, though it is 
expected a large stock of information will be 
forthcoming on the publication of the next 
volume of our local Records. I now com- 
mence with the principal. 

The Malt Cross. In the market-place 
were formerly two crosses, the Malt Cross 
and the Butter Cross. The former stood 
about the centre, being midway between 
Sheep Lane (now Market Street), on one 
side, and St. James's Street on the other. It 
consisted merely of a pillar or column, ten 
steps high, which made it a conspicuous 
object. It received its name on account of 
the malt-market being formerly held around 
it. Here, in the words of Deering, " all 
Proclamations were read, as also Declarations 
of War in the Face of a Full Market." The 
first time we read of it is in the Borough 
Records, where it is barely mentioned in 1496 
as the " Maltcrosse." It is again mentioned 
in 1504, with the same spelling; and again 
the same year, but written in more modern 
style, " the Malt Crosse." In the account of 
the Chamberlain's expenditure for 1529 
there occurs an item of eightpence, "for a 
pottylle Malse (Malvoisy) that was dronke at 
the Crosse on Cobcryste (Corpus Christi) 
day." There is little doubt that this reference 
is to the Malt Cross. In 1542 it was 
ordered that sheepskins should be bought 
and sold in the market between the Malt 
Cross and Timber Hill, this being the last 
time it is alluded to in these Records. For 
some unknown cause this cross is not marked 
on Speed's map of the town, 1610. The 
reason for this, some local writers have 
thought, was because it was not then erected, 
but this idea has of course been refuted by 
the Records. Nottingham was one of the 
prominent participators in the struggle to 
thwart the designs of James II. ; and Lord 
Delawere, the Duke of Devonshire, and Earl 
Howe delivered powerful speeches from the 
Malt Cross in 1688, which were received 
with cheers by the multitudes present, and 
cries of " A free Parliament ! " On this occa- 
sion the Earl of Stamford and other noblemen 
were also present, with abundance of gentry 

H 



90 



THE PUBLIC CROSSES OF NOTTINGHAM. 



of the county of Nottingham, and 800 men 
were enlisted in the cause in one day. Until 
about 1715 the market-place was divided 
lengthwise by an ancient wall breast-high, 
supposed to have been erected to provide 
separate market-places for the irreconcilable 
Saxons and Normans. The wall was taken 
down about this date, and the market-place 
for the first time was paved. At the same 
time the two crosses were also taken down, 
the Malt Cross being rebuilt shortly after- 
wards on a larger and entirely different 
scale, for it was built but four steps high, 
with a raised tiled roof supported by six 
pillars. The top was also " adorned and 
rendered useful " by six sundials and a fane. 
Under the roof and about the cross stood 
the earthenware dealers, being the same 
site as they occupy at the present time. 
This cross appears also to have been used 
by preachers and other public speakers. 
The Rev. John Nelson, a Methodist, preached 
from it in 1 743 ; and so did the Rev. Charles 
Wesley the following year on February 6th ; 
likewise Rev. John Wesley on June 8th, 
1753. This cross was finally demolished in 
1804, and the only reminder of its former 
existence is a public-house in St. James's 
Street, close by, called " The Malt Cross," 
the windows, etc., of which are adorned with 
representations of the later structure. 

The Butter Cross. I put this cross next 
for the sake of order, though the following 
one is the next in importance. It stood at 
the east end of the great market-place, oppo- 
site the Exchange, and in a line with the 
Malt Cross. It had large steps around it, 
formed as seats, of four stages, and had a 
large tiled roof supported by six pillars, after 
the style of Malt Cross the second. Around 
it stood the purveyors of butter, eggs, bacon, 
etc., and near it was the fruit-market as it 
now is. It must have been a comparatively 
modern erection, as it is not once mentioned 
in the Records, and occurs for the first time 
on Speed's map. It was taken down with 
the first Malt Cross, as before mentioned, 
about 1 7 15, the sheep-folds being removed 
to where it stood ; but they have since been 
removed to a proper cattle-market. 

The Headless Cross. This, the most an- 
cient of our crosses, was in the form of a 
column standing on a large and wide octa- 



gonal base, four steps high. It was situated 
about the middle of an open space known as 
the Weekday Market, opposite the Town 
Hall, between the High and Middle Pave- 
ments. Here the Wednesday and Friday 
markets were held for the sale of butter, eggs, 
sea and fresh water fish, until it was removed 
at the instigation of Alderman Worthington 
in 1800. Some time afterwards an attempt 
was made to bring it back, and the Cor- 
poration passed a vote of hall for that pur- 
pose, but for want of money to remove some 
buildings, to render the place more com- 
modious, the plan was given up. The fol- 
lowing is a list of curious ancient allusions 
to this cross from the Records: a.d. 13 10, 
"ad crucem adcephalam;" a.d. 1311, "ad 
crucem sine capite " (at the cross without a 
head); a.d. 1315, the Heved[less] Cross; 
a.d. 1315, " attehewedlescros " (at the head- 
less cross); a.d. 13 15, "a place called 
Guedlescros ; " a.d. 1325, "the Hevedles- 
crosse " (Hevedless = Anglo-Saxon heafod- 
leas, headless); a.d. 1336, "the Hedeles- 
cros;" a.d. 1395, "land north of Gretsmyth- 
gate opposite the Hedlessecrosse." There was 
also a Headless Cross, Derby. (Compare, 
Broken Cross, London; Riley, Memorials.) 
After this we hear nothing until 1529, when 
there occurs an allusion to "the Markyt 
Crosse," which means the Headless Cross. 
After this the old name seems to have been 
forgotten, and henceforth it is named after 
the market, "the Weekday Cross." In 1540 
there occurs an item, paid for mending the 
stocks at the "Wekedey Crosse." It may 
here be mentioned that in Nottingham 
Saturday is still regarded as not being a 
" weekday," perhaps on account of its being 
the principal market-day, when the town 
assumes an animated appearance, sufficient 
to distinguish it from any other day in the 
week. This may have been the reason that 
the Wednesday market was always known as 
the "Weekday Market," or Forum Coti- 
dianum, as it occurs in Latin manuscripts 
as early as 131 1 ; the other, or great market, 
being distinguished as Forum Sabbati, by 
which term we read of it as early as 1308. 
It may interest readers of the Antiquary to 
know that on January 13th, 1770, a female 
convicted of theft was fastened to a cart, 
and whipped all the way from the Weekday 



THE PUBLIC CROSSES OF NOTTINGHAM. 



9i 



Cross to the Malt Cross, about 500 yards. 
Again, on April 23rd, an old man of eighty, 
and an old woman, for trifling thefts, were 
sentenced to be publicly whipped at the 
Malt Cross. During the same week another 
thief was publicly whipped from the Weekday 
Cross to the Malt Cross, and back as far 
as the Hen Cross (hereafter described). 
Instances of this kind are very numerous in 
the chronicles of our town, of which it is 
unnecessary to adduce further examples. 
After the Mayor-making in the olden times, 
a procession was formed which paraded the 
town, and on passing this cross the Mayor 
was publicly proclaimed ; also the following 
market-day from the Malt Cross. However, 
the old Headless Cross was taken down 
in 1804, at the same time as the Malt Cross, 
the space in the centre of which it stood 
being still known as " Weekday Cross." 

The Hen Cross. This cross is next in 
point of importance. It stood, in the words 
of Deering, "east of Timber Hill, and 
almost in the centre where four streets 
meet."* The same writer describes] it as a 
" fair " column standing on a hexagonal 
base, four steps high, and around it the 
poultry- market was held, as may be gathered 
from its name ; being still held on the same 
site. Speaking of the demolition of the 
crosses in the market-place, Blackner ignor- 
antly writes : " About the time these altera- 
tions were made, the Hen Cross and the 
Weekday Cross were erected." I cannot 
conceive how he could have erred so blindly, 
for a mere glance at either of them should 
have convinced him of their antiquity, the 
latter especially, for its erection dates back at 
least 500 years. Its earliest mention (the Hen 
Cross) occurs in 141 6, from the usual source, 
and the following shows the orthography at 
different dates : 

A.D. A.D. 

141 6 Hennecrosse. 1 443 Hencrosse. 
142 3 Hennecrosse. 1446 Hencrosse. 
1424 Hennecrosse. 1503 Hennecrosse. 
1435 Hencrose. 1531 Hencrosse. 

1435 Henecrose. 153 1 Hencros. 

Comparing the first of these with the last, 
we find a difference of four letters. This 
cross is marked on Speed's map, and on 

* Bridlesmith Gate, the Poultry, High Street, and 
Victoria Street. 



Thoroton's plan of the town, 1675. Some- 
what like the Weekday Cross, it gave its 
name to a street, probably the present 
Poultry, a list of the residents of " Hen- 
cross" being found in the records above 
300 years old ; and a short time ago I 
saw a copy of the Nottingham Mercury of 
1 72 1, which at the bottom was stated to be 
"Printed by John Collyer at the Hen 
Cross." 

The High Cross. On the occasion of 
James I. visiting Nottingham in 161 2, a full 
meeting of the Hall was convened on 
July 10, and a committee appointed "to 
view the passages on the outside of the town, 
towards the High Cross ; and cause them to 
be made convenient for his Majesty's 
passage ; and to cause all blocks of timber 
and other impediments, as well as all offen- 
sive objects, to be removed." We have no 
other reference to this cross, recent as it is, 
with the exception that in Blackner's copy of 
Deering's work was this marginal note in the 
handwriting of Mr. Ayscough, printer of the 
work : " Widow Mary Brown, relict of 
Edward Brown, barber, sells to William 
Noon, the Saracen's Head, in Carter Gate and 
Boot Lane,* a house leading to the High 
Cross dated 1706. Query where was the 
High Cross ?" By examining Speed's map 
we notice a public cross, apparently with 
three or four steps, standing in the centre of 
an open space (where, perhaps, a market had 
been attempted), opposite the bottom of 
Barker Gate. This, there is little doubt, was 
the forgotton High Cross. The date of its 
demolition is altogether unknown; and, in- 
deed, it is puzzling that so very little is 
known of it, as it could not have stood much, 
if any, less than a hundred years. Deering 
was utterly ignorant of its existence, although 
it stood in his own lifetime ; and Blackner, 
the first to mention it, makes a somewhat 
thoughtless blunder, and is blindly followed 
by all later historians. He says that it stood 
where now stands the Stag and Hounds 
public-house at the corner of Count Street. 
The row of old gabled houses, of which this 
is one, were known as Paravecini's Row, 
having been built by an Italian count of that 
name; and a glance at the style of archi- 
tecture would have satisfied him that they 
* Now Parliament Street and Milton Street. 

H 2 



9 2 



THE PUBLIC CROSSES OF NOTTINGHAM. 



could not have been built much, if any, later 
than the middle of the seventeenth century, 
while he himself produces a reference to the 
cross dated 1706. It stood, no doubt, about 
the middle of the present street (Barker 
Gate), and opposite the public-house. It 
may here be noted that we have a High 
Cross Street in the town, but it does not 
appear to have any connection with the 
cross. 

The Chesterfield Cross. Nothing is known 
of the erection, form, or demolition of this 
cross. We first hear of it in 1395, when, in 
the original, it is written " Castirffeldcroce," 
south of Frenchgate (now Castle ;late), where 
there is still a Chesterfield Street. Again, we 
read that Robert German left by his will, 
dated August 24th, 1402, a toft with a 
garden and dovecot situate near the Friars 
Minor, near Chasterfeldcros. On the third 
occasion, 1435, ^ occurs as " Chestrefeld- 
crosse," near Ratounrowe (now Walnut-Tree 
Lane). On the fourth and last occasion, 
1 54 1, we read of " a garden next Chesterfeld 
Crosse f the words for the first time being 
separated. However, it is quite clear from 
this evidence that it was situated in, or near, 
to the present Chesterfield Street, outside the 
walls of the town : so called from Henry de 
Chesterfield, an eminent townsman, who was 
Mayor of Nottingham in 1332, 1337, and 
1338. His name occurs on innumerable 
occasions in our local records, and not im- 
probably the cross was erected after his 
decease as a fitting tribute in that rude age, 
paid by the simple inhabitants of the town 
to the memory of a public benefactor, no 
doubt intended by them to record his name 
and virtues for ever ; little thinking (though 
it survived the Reformation) that their 
descendants would exhibit more of the 
Vandal even than their ancestors ! 

The Milk Cross. The site and other 
particulars of this cross are totally unknown ; 
three fourteenth-century occurrences of the 
name in our invaluable Records being all 
that is left to posterity : 

a.d. 13 15 "Ex opposito crucem ubi 
vendunt lac (opposite the cross where they 
sell milk). 
a.d. 1331 The "Milkekros." 
a.d. 1378 The " Milkecrosse." 
The Hospital Cross. a.d. 1382 "The 



Spetil Cross." The " spittle " or " spetil " is 
the term always used in reference to St 
John's Hospital, St. John's Street, Notting- 
ham, which stood on the site now occupied 
by her Majesty's prison, and a few yards out- 
side the walls of the town. Perhaps this 
cross was connected with a fair or market of 
some kind, instituted by the monks, who are 
known to have been so fond of such things. 
If so, it would no doubt stand opposite the 
main entrance, as that at Worksop in this 
county, and other places. 

The Cheese Cross. a.d. 1541 "The 
Chese Crosse." There is little doubt this 
stood in the Women's Market held on the 
Poultry, and therefore not many yards from 
the Hen Cross. The above is the only occa- 
sion on which we hear of it ; but our local 
records, at present published, extend no 
later than 1547. It is probable, however, 
that some light will be thrown on the history 
of this and other crosses in the next volume. 

Several Crosses stood in different parts of 
the town in former days, of which we now 
have not even the name. For instance, we 
read that "Thomas Thurland gave to the 
Trinity Guild, in a.d. 1460, an acre of arable 
land upon Sandclyf between the crosses." 
The Sand Cliff referred to still stands at the 
north-west corner of Wollaton Street, and 
none of the crosses yet mentioned stood in 
this neighbourhood. But one of these 
crosses, there is little doubt, stood in an 
open space a few yards from the termination 
of the cliff, which, in the centre of an emi- 
nence, separated, until recently, the town 
from the country. The other cross may 
have been the one supposed by some 
historians to have stood at the top of Market 
Street, close by an ancient well, and about 
600 yards from the former, the cliff covering 
most of the space between. It is stated by 
some writers that crosses once stood in 
Plumptre Square, Chapel Bar, Charlotte 
Street and Parliament Street, where, until 
recently, ancient wells remained. As wells 
were situated close to all the other principal 
crosses, there appears to be some reason for 
this idea ; more especially as the mayor was 
formerly proclaimed from these spots as from 
the crosses. 

The Monday Cross. About 1745 an 
attempt was made to establish a Monday 



THE PUBLIC CROSSES OF NOTTINGHAM. 



93 



Market on a piece of ground near St. Peter's 
Church, now known as St. Peter's Square. 
As then usual, a cross was erected with a 
roof supported by four pillars ; but for some 
reason the market did not answer as ex- 
pected, so the cross was walled in, and, as 
Ueering kindly informs us, " it proved a very 
convenient receptacle for the town's fire- 
engine." This convenient receptacle, how- 
ever, was pulled down in 1787, and a single 
column erected in its place, which was railed 
round and ornamented with four lamps. 
Throsby, our county historian, records the 
following : " On a brass plate, ' This column 
erected in the mayoralty of John Carruthers, 
1787.' It is topped with a handsome vane." 
Even this, perhaps on account of its air of 
antiquity, however slight, has been de- 
molished lately, and an unsightly iron lamp- 
post, flanked by massive iron pillars at each 
of the four corners, has taken the place of 
the former " obstruction." 

A large and handsome modern cross, how- 
ever, in the style of the fourteenth century, 
was erected in 1866, at a cost of upwards of 
pi,ooo, by John Walter, Esq., of Bearwood, 
in Berkshire, in memory of his father, who 
for some years represented the town in 
Parliament. This cross stands in the centre 
of an open space at the junction of Lister 
Gate, Broad Marsh, Carrington Street, and 
Greyfriar's Gate, being only about twenty 
yards from Chesterfield Street, where stood 
the Chesterfield Cross. It is really the only 
monument the town can boast, and is orna- 
mented in relief with coals-of-arms, fabu- 
lous animals, heads, etc., and suitable in- 
scriptions ; which, together with its imposing 
elevation of above fifty feet, proclaim it 
worthy of its conspicuous position. Yet this 
is but a modern imitation, and but a poor 
representative of the quaint old crosses which 
formerly adorned the town, and of which, 
thanks to our corporation, we have not a 
single specimen left, the latter seeming to 
consider a pillar-flanked lamp-post in an open 
space more picturesque than an ancient 
cross. 

A . Stapleton. 




lon&on C&eatres. 

By T. Fairman Ordish. 



VI. Cockpit, Drury Lane. 

E have now reached the history of 
a playhouse in touch with the 
present time. The Drury Lane 
of to-day, which still retains its 
distinctive character of the chief or national 
theatre, and the actors of which have still 
the right to the title of "Her Majesty's 
servants," fetches its origin from the reign of 
James I. ; and a full history of this house 
would be in a large measure the history of 
the English stage from that period. Again 
and again has the theatre in Drury Lane 
been consumed by fire ; but after each such 
calamity a new building has speedily been 
erected, and its history has been continued 
in a theatre more adapted to the times. 
That history divides itself into two periods. 
There is first the evolution of a place of 
amusement in Drury Lane, where cock- 
fighting formed the chief attraction, into a 
playhouse called the Cockpit, and the history 
of that theatre during the reigns of James I. 
and Charles I. This period ends with the 
suppression of the theatres, circa 1647. The 
second period begins with the restoration 
and the revival of the drama. The royal 
servants had been scattered and exiled; 
their theatres, the Globe and the Blackfriars, 
had been dismantled and ruined; but with 
the counter-revolution in 1660, the rem- 
nants of the company gathered together and 
resumed their calling as the royal players 
in the Cockpit Theatre, Drury Lane. With 
this theatre, therefore, is continued the thread 
of dramatic history which occupied us when 
considering the Shakespeare playhouses. This 
is both remarkable and interesting; but when 
we reflect further that the Theatre, the first 
English playhouse, is one in history with the 
Globe,* the idea of continuity becomes 
startling. Walking beneath the colonnade 
of Drury Lane Theatre to-day, we feel our- 
selves in contact with the beginning of 
London theatres a sense of nearness re- 
sembling that which we feel with the New 
World since the Atlantic cable was laid. It 



See ante, vol. xi., pp. 94, 95. 



94 



LONDON THEATRES. 



may be said without hyperbole that history 
conquers time, as science annihilates space. 

We have already had occasion to dwell 
upon the fact that the old playhouses grew 
out of existing places of amusement, where 
tumbling, dancing, and feats of agility, with 
shows of various kinds, had previously formed 
the diversion of our forefathers. In Drury 
Lane there had existed before the reign of 
James I. how long it is not known a 
cockpit, or place where cocks were set to 
fight, with the added excitement of wagers 
and betting. This source of amusement, 
presumably in the early years of James's 
reign, was superseded by stage-plays fur- 
nishing another instance of the rapid ripening 
of the drama, and the decay of ruder forms 
of entertainment in that period. 

There is practically no information available 
as to the first years of the Cockpit playhouse. 
There is nothing by which we can fix the 
date of its opening, or determine what 
company of actors first performed there. 
With regard to its precise position, Cun- 
ningham states that it stood on what is now 
Pitt Place properly Cockpit Place or Alley. 
Prynne gave it a very bad character, and 
said that it demoralized the whole of Drury 
Lane ; and if we add this hostile testimony 
to the previous associations of the place, we 
may perhaps hazard the conclusion that the 
Cockpit, in its first years, was an inferior 
house. It would appear, however, that the 
death of Prince Henry in 1612, and the 
marriage of Princess Elizabeth shortly after, 
led to various alterations in the different 
companies of actors,* one of the effects of 
which was an improvement at the Cockpit. 
A company called the Princess Elizabeth's 
was constructed the company which we 
found acted at the Hope on the Bankside in 
161 3-14. As there is nothing to show that 
these actors were at the Hope after this date, 
and as it is ascertained that they were at the 
Cockpit in 161 7, we may conclude they came 
to Drury Lane in 1614 or 1615. In 1617 
this old Drury Lane playhouse was attacked 
by the mob as a house of ill-repute ; and, as 
probability is against the Princess's Company 
having been scandalously profligate, it would 
appear that they suffered for the sins of their 
predecessors. 

* Mr. Fleay's Paper, Royal Historical Society's 
Transactions, x. 116. 



The attack upon the Cockpit was made on 
Shrove Tuesday, March 4th, 161 7; and the 
circumstances recall the riot at Lincoln's Inn 
in 1590, described by Mr. James F. Allan in 
the January number of the Antiquary this 
year. A full account of it is given by Collier.* 
Shrove Tuesday was a popular festival and 
holiday in those days, and for many years 
previously the London apprentices had 
enjoyed the privilege (whose exercise yielded 
congenial amusement while enlisting them 
on the side of morality) of attacking, and 
even demolishing, notorious houses of bad 
character. On this particular Shrove Tuesday 
they assembled in riot at Lincoln's Inn Fields 
(probably, as in 1590, " assaulting the house 
of Lincolnes Inne, and breaking and spoyling 
diuers chambers in the said house,"), and 
then proceeded to Drury Lane, the mob 
joining them from all quarters, as London 
mobs are wont to do at this day. Here they 
proceeded to attack the Cockpit, which had 
been recently built or turned into a theatre. 
Camden in his Annals, in describing the 
affair, speaks of the theatre as nuper erectum; 
and Howes, in his Continuation of Stow, calls 
it "a new playhouse." According to Camden, 
the mob pulled the house down and destroyed 
the wardrobe; but in the account of the 
transaction in the Privy Council Register, 
which was drawn up on the following day, it 
is stated that the mob " attempted to pull it 
down." The prowess of the mob was cele- 
brated in a contemporary ballad :f 

A Ballade in praise of the London 
Apprentices and what they did at the 
cock-pitt playhouse in drury lane. 

The Prentices of London long 

Have famous beene in story, 
But now they are exceeding all 

Their Chronicles of glory ; * 
Looke back, some say, to other day, 

But I say looke before ye, 
And see the deed they now have done, 

Tom Brent and Johnny Cory. 
Tom Brent said then to his merry men, 

" Now whoop, my men, and hollow ; 
And to the Cockpitt let us goe, 

I'll leade you like brave Rollo." 
Then Johnny Cory answered straight, 

In words much like Apollo : 
" Lead, Tommy Brent, incontinent, 

And we'll be sure to follow." 

* History of Dramatic Poetry, i. 385 et set/. ; 
iii. 136. 
t Percy Society Ballads, vol. i. 



LONDON THE ATE ES. 



95 



Three score of these brave Prentices, 

All fit for workes of wonder, 
Rush'd down the plaine of Drury Lane 

Like lightning and like thunder ; 
And there each dore, with hundreds more, 

And windowes burst asunder ; 
And to the tire-howse broke they in, 

Which soon began to plunder. 
" Now hold your hands, my merry men," 

Said Tom, " for I assure ye, 
Who so begin to steale shall win 

Mee both for judge and jury ; 
And eke for executioner 

Within this lane of Drury ; 
But teare and rend, I'll stand your frend, 

And well upholde your fury." 
King Priam's robes were soon in rags, 

And broke his gilded scepter ; 
False Cressid's hood, that was so good 

When loving Troylus kept her. 
Besse Brydges gown, and Muli's crowne, 

Who would ful faine have lept her ; 
Had Thesus seene them use his queene 

So ill, he had bewept her. 
Books old and young on heap they flung, 

And burnt them in the blazes ; 
Tom Dekker, Haywood, Middleton, 

And other wandring crayzes. 
Poor Daye that daye not scapte awaye, 

And what still more amazes, 
Immortall Cracke was burnt all blacke, 

Which everybodie praises. 
Now sing we laude with one accord 

To these most digni laude, 
Who thus intend to bring to end 

All that is vile and bawdie. 
And playes and whores, thrust out a' dores, 

Seductive both and gawdie ; 
And praise wee these bold Prentices, 

Cum voce et cum corde. 

On the day following the disturbance the 
Privy Council sent a letter to the Lord 
Mayor, directing him to take measures for 
the removal and punishment of the " great 
multitude of vagrant rogues" who had 
assisted in the riot. Decker thus refers to 
the event in his Owtis Almanack of the 
following year : " Shrove Tuesday falls on 
this day on which the Prentices plucked 
down the Cock-pit, and on which they did 
alwaies use to rifle Madame Leake's house 
at the upper end of Shoreditch." 

In 1619 the Queen (Anne of Denmark) 
died, and her company changed its title of 
" Queen's" to that of the " Revels" Company 
(to be carefully distinguished from the 
" Children of the Revels ").* This company 
continued to perform at the Red Bull as 
hitherto; but in June, 1623, they were about 
* Mr. Fleay's Paper, p. 117. 



to leave that theatre and take the Cockpit in 
Drury Lane.* Mr. Fleay states that at the 
accession of Charles I. in 1625, the Lady 
Elizabeth's (or Queen of Bohemia's) Company 
broke up, and Queen Henrietta's men took 
their place at the Cockpit; but this state- 
ment may be corrected by the documents 
referred to. Malone and Collier may also 
be corrected as to the companies playing at 
the Cockpit It is now clear that the Princess 
Elizabeth's Company continued at the Cock- 
pit till 1623, when they were replaced by the 
company from the Red Bull (previously the 
Queen's, now the " Revels " Company, as 
stated above). On the accession of Charles I. 
this company reverted to its title of the 
Queen's Company (i.e., Queen Henrietta's), 
and this is the origin of Drury Lane as the 
Theatre Royal. 

As its early associations died out of memory 
the theatre lost its name of Cockpit, and 
became known as the Phoenix. The refer- 
ences to it as the Phoenix are later than 
161 7, and there is ground for believing that 
this name was given to it in allusion to its 
reconstruction, and improved character after 
the attack by the apprentices in that year. 
Randolph, in his Muse's Looking-Glass, terms 
it the Phoenix ; and in the later editions of 
Heywood's Rape of Lucrece, the piece is said 
to have been performed " at the Cockpit or 
Phoenix." William Rowley's AlFs Lost by 
Lust, 1633 (in which the author played 
Jaques, "a simple clownish gentleman"), 
purports to have been "divers times acted 
by the Lady Elizabeth's servants, and now 
lately by her Majesty's servants, with great 
applause, at the Phoenix in Drury Lane." 

But before quitting the old Cockpit Com- 
pany the Lady Elizabeth's there is another 
point of Mr. Fleay's statement to be noted. 
He concludes that in 1625 the company 
broke up. But a fresh license was issued to 
this company on December 9th, 1628.+ 
" Licence to Joseph Moore, Alexander Foster, 
Robert Guilman, and Joseph Tounsend, with 
the rest of their company, servants to the 
Lady Elizabeth, His Majesty's sister, to prac- 
tise the playing of comedies, histories, 

* Documents relating to players at the Red Bull 
and Cockpit, communicated to New Shakspere 
Society by Mr. Greenstreet. 

f Calendar State Papers, Domestic, 1628- 1629, 
p. 406. 



9* 



LONDON THEATRES. 



tragedies, and interludes in and about the 
City of London, or any other place they shall 
think fitting." Hence we must conclude 
that when this company left Drury Lane in 
1623, they continued acting, although pro- 
bably not in a London theatre. We are left 
to surmise that they went on a provincial 
tour, or possibly abroad. 

Owing to the removal of the players from 
the Red Bull to the Cockpit in 1623, the 
history of these theatres becomes dovetailed 
in a very interesting way. The chief or 
leader of the company was Christopher 
Hutchinson, alias Beeston. In the Chancery 
proceedings described in our article on the 
Red Bull Theatre, his influential position is 
apparent : " And whereas your oratours and 
the rest of thier fellowes at that tyme and 
long before and since did put the managing 
of thier whole businesses and affaires belong- 
ing vnto them ioyntly as they were players 
in trust vnto Christopher Hutchinson alias 
Beeston, of London, gentleman, who was 
then one of your oratours fellowes," etc. 
When, under the patronage of Henrietta, the 
company resumed its title of the " Queen's," 
Beeston continued to be their manager. 

On 1 2th May, 1 636, the theatres were closed 
in consequence of the plague. This prohibi- 
tion was recalled on 24th February, 1637; but 
on 1st March, the plague having broken out 
afresh, the order of suppression was revived.* 
It appears, however, that at the Cockpit this 
order was disobeyed, and the players were 
ordered to appear before the Lords of the 
Council. The warrant is dated May 12, 
1637: "The Council to Jasper Heiley, a 
messenger. Warrant to fetch before the 
Lords, Christopher Biston, William Biston, 
Theophilus Bird, Ezekiel Fenn, and Michael 
Moone, with a clause to command the 
keepers of the playhouse called the Cockpit 
in Drury Lane, that either live in it or have 
relation to it, not to permit plays to be acted 
there till further order." f 

The manager made his excuses to the 
Council : " Petition of Christopher Beeston 
to the Council. Petitioner being commanded 
to erect and prepare a company of young 
actors for their Majesties' service, and being 

* Collier, History of Dramatic Poetry, ii. 16. 
t Calendar State Papers, Domestic, p. 99. See 
also Collier, ibid. 



desirous to know how they profited by his 
instructions, invited some noblemen and 
gentlemen to see them act at his house the 
Cockpit. For which, since he perceives it is 
imputed as a fault, he is very sorry, and 
craves pardon."* 

Whether or not owing to this transgression, 
the Queen's Company now removed to the 
Salisbury Court Theatre, and the "company 
of young actors for their Majesties' service" 
performed at the Cockpit or Phoenix in Drury 
Lane. Probably Christopher Beeston went 
to Salisbury Court, and remained at the head 
of his old company; but the juvenile players, 
known indifferently as the " King's and 
Queen's Boys," and " Beeston's Boys," were 
under the direction of William Beeston, 
whose name appears second in the above 
warrant issued to the Queen's Company. 
Collier says that " William Beeston on suc- 
ceeding to the theatre, succeeded to the plays 
also;"f but this was not usual. Plays were 
surely the property of the companies, or their 
managers. The Dulwich documents abound 
with records of payments to dramatic authors 
by Henslowe and Alleyn, and the property 
in those plays was surely vested in them or 
their companies by arrangement. Collier 
further says that William Beeston "appears 
to have had sufficient interest with the Lord 
Chamberlain to induce him to put forth an 
order commanding all governors and masters 
of playhouses to refrain from acting all and 
any of the plays of which a list is given in the 
order." % But this does not prove that the 
plays belonged to the Cockpit Theatre, quct 
theatre. The order was rather the effect of 
the royal prerogative, which was too freely 
interpreted in those years. The interpreta- 
tion probably was that the plays having been 
produced under the royal license, they might 
be retained for the royal delectation. The 
" King's and Queen's young company " might 
act what plays they chose. 

All this tends to invest the old theatre in 
Drury Lane with the character of " Theatre 
Royal." Collier somewhat insists that the 
Cockpit was an inferior house, the atmo- 
sphere and surroundings of which were 
socially impure and disorderly. But Prynne's 

* Calendar State Papers, Domestic, p. 254. 
t History of Dramatic Poetry, ii. 24. 
% See Collier, ibid. 



LONDON THEATRES. 



97 



strictures must be discounted, and, although 
his book was published in 1632-3, they refer 
probably to the early days of the theatre, 
before the attack made upon it in 16 17. 
Prynne would be much more likely to make 
the most of previous bad character, than 
allow for subsequent improvement. Similarly, 
Collier does not appear to have scrutinized 
Prynne's testimony, but rather to have 
allowed it to prepossess him as to the bad 
character of the Cockpit. He adduces the 
testimony of Carew's lines prefixed to 
Davenant's Just Italian (which we quoted in 
our article on the Red Bull) without mention- 
ing the counter-consideration that this play 
was produced at a rival house. The lines in 
question clearly show jealousy of the Red 
Bull and Cockpit. After referring to "the 
men in crowded heape that throng " to these 
houses, Carew goes on to say that " the true 
brood of actors " now 

Behold their benches bare, though they rehearse 
The lesser Beaumont's or great Jonson's verse. 

We may safely conclude that the intellectual 
quality of the Blackfriars and Globe plays 
was superior to the entertainments at any of 
the other theatres, but the bad odour of the 
Cockpit belongs to the years prior to the 
attack made upon it in 161 7. Along with 
Carew's testimony Collier gives the following 
from F. Lenton's Young Gallant's Whirligig 
(1629): 

The Cockpit heretofore would serve his wit, 
But now upon the Friars stage he'll sit. 

We have described how the wits and gallants 
of the period were wont to sit upon the 
Blackfriars stage; but this citation is no 
more conclusive than Carew's lines of the 
Cockpit's general inferiority. At this later 
period, indeed, when their Majesties' young 
company were performing here, there is 
evidence of a jealous regard in influential 
quarters for the respectability and good con- 
duct of the theatre and its neighbourhood, as 
witness the following document : 

"June, 1639. Minute of the desire of the 
inhabitants of Drury Lane, including Sec. 
Windebank, Lord Montague, the Earl of 
Cleveland, and divers other persons of quality. 
Since George Lillgrave's commitment, wine 
has been drawn in his house adjoining Mrs. 
Beestone's playhouse, which he attempts to 
make a tavern in contempt of the orders of 



Council. They desire that Lillgrave may 
not be released until he gives sufficient 
security not to convert that house into a 
tavern ; and further that power may be given 
to the next justices of the peace to commit 
any person who shall be found drawing and 
selling wine there, or attempting to hang up 
a sign, or a bush, or doing any work there 
towards making that house a tavern, the dis- 
order being likely to be such in the tavern 
joined to the playhouse as will not be possible 
to be suppressed."* 

It is noticeable here that the playhouse is 
called Mrs. Beeston's; there was usually a 
tavern in immediate proximity to the theatres, 
and the anxiety to prevent the establishment 
of one here indicates a wish that the place 
should be as select as possible. The Cock- 
pit had been steadily improving in position 
and character, and at this period was much 
resorted to by the fashionable world. The 
old Shakespeare and Burbage theatres were 
probably not eclipsed ; but they had occasion 
for concern at the favour bestowed upon 
Drury Lane, and to deplore their empty 
benches. The young company, under the 
espionage of Mrs. Beeston, continued highly 
popular till the troubles of the state led to 
the suppression of the theatres and the 
dispersion of the players. This ends the 
first of the two periods in the history of 
Drury Lane, of which we spoke at the 
outset. 



C6e &reat l>ouse at e&esjmnt 

By John Alt Porter. 

OT long since a most interesting 
pamphlet, entitled The Manor of 
Andrewes and Le Mot/e, and being 
a history of Cheshunt Great House, 
was written by Mr. F. D. Rees Copestick, 
Past Master and Treasurer of the Gresham 
Lodge of Freemasons, meeting in the hall 
To this account I would gratefully acknow- 
ledge my indebtedness for many details given 
below. 

The Manor of Andrewes (most probably 

so called from one John Andrew, whose heirs 

* Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1639, p. 358. 




9 8 



THE GREAT HOUSE AT CHE SHUNT. 



held part possession of its reversion in 1378), 
and " the Motte " must, Mr. Copestick says, 
have occupied an important position in the 
county of Hertford. Evidence of this is 
found in the Motte, or double moat, by 
which the mansion was surrounded, and 
which existed in 1378. The present build- 
ing, known as the "Great House," the 
" Haunted House," and the " Moat House," 
is of brick, with two projecting turrets at the 
angle of its south front. It appears to be 
built on an older foundation. A mullion 
window of the Tudor period can be seen in 
the north front, which forms part of the older 
structure. The present undignified entrance 
to the mansion is by a back door. There 
are rooms on the ground-floor tenanted by a 
labourer, by whom visitors are shown the 
interior. The banqueting-hall is a noble 
apartment, with an open-timbered roof, and 
tessellated floor. The size has been given at 
27 feet by 21, but this is an error. Its exact 
measurement is 40 feet by 23. Particular 
attention has been drawn to a portrait of 
Cardinal Wolsey in the panel of the chimney- 
piece, which, it is thought, was fixed there 
during his ownership. There is also one by 
Vandyke of Charles I. ; of Lucius Cary, 
Lord Falkland ; of Sir John Shaw, his second 
wife, and nine children, by Choeffer; and 
others by Lely and Kneller. Weapons and 
ancient armour, Cromwellian banners and 
flags, trophies taken by Lord Nelson, six- 
teenth and seventeenth century wooden 
chests, and a large open fireplace with 
antique grate, and armorial bearings, are also 
to be seen. There was formerly preserved 
in this house an ancient headpiece in the 
shape of a cup, taken from the head of 
Mordac, Earl of Fife, when he was made 
prisoner in the battle against the Scots in 
1402 ; and in the haunted room upstairs are 
the rocking-horse and armchair of Charles I. 
Through the kindness of its present pro- 
prietor, the Reverend Charles Erskine Mayo, 
the hall is the only baronial one in the 
kingdom which has been placed at the 
service of the brotherhood of Freemasons. 
The Gresham Lodge, No. 869 on the 
register of the Grand Lodge of England, 
which was consecrated on the 19th day of 
June, 1861, at "Ye Olde Foure Swannes 
Hostelrie," Waltham Cross, has, since 



October, 1875, held its meetings here. It 
is thought that this hall is part of the older 
building of the time of Henry VII. The 
vaulting underneath confirms this view. The 
arches and the piers, some of clunch, some 
of brick, date from the beginning of the 
fifteenth century. The stones are small, and 
some have vertical joints. The floor of the 
crypt, the " private chapel " of the house, is 
paved considerably above its former level 
with encaustic and embossed tiles of various 
patterns. In this crypt, in mural graves, 
were found the remains, with pitcher and 
lantern, of two unfortunate beings, who, per- 
haps, had committed the fault, and shared 
the fate, of Constance de Beverley, for a 
religious house was founded in this neigh- 
bourhood for Nuns of the Benedictine Order 
in the early ages, and stood at the western 
extremity of the meadows, bounded by the 
River Lea on the east, and on the west by 
the turnpike road. (Between that establish- 
ment and Cheshunt House it is said there 
was a communication.) 

The interior walls of the " Great House " 
are panelled throughout with wood of the 
time of Queen Anne. There were in all 
thirty-three rooms. The staircase is described 
as a magnificent piece of joiner's work, with 
three balusters to each step, and each is of a 
different design. The hand-rails are richly 
moulded, and all is in oak. 

The building was entirely modernized and 
cased in brick in 1750. It underwent its 
last alteration in 1801. Then was pro- 
bably removed the minstrels' gallery, which 
formerly occupied a place on the south side 
of the banqueting-hall. 

We now turn to the record of the lords 
and ladies of the manor, which is interesting 
and unbroken. In 1378 it was held by 
Marie de St. Paul, late Countess of Pem- 
broke, being jointly enfeoffed of the same 
with Aylmer (otherwise Aymer) de Valence 
(whose tomb is so familiar to all visitors at 
Westminster Abbey). He was the son of 
William de Valence, Governor of Hertford 
Castle, her late husband, the reversion to the 
manor being stated to belong to John, son of 
John de Hastings, late Earl of Pembroke, 
and held of the Earl of Richmond; the Abbot 
of Waltham; Philip Darcy, Knight; the Prior 
of St. Mary's Hospital in Bishopsgate without, 



THE GREAT HOUSE AT CHE SHUNT 



99 



London ; the Jieirs of John Andrew, and the 
Parish Church of Cheshunt, by the annual 
service of 66s. 8d. It then passed to 
John Fray in the reign of King Henry VI., 
a.d. 1457-8. In the twentieth year of the 
same King, 146 1-2, courts for the Manor of 
Andrewes were held in the name of Cardinal 
Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester; 
Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, the King- 
maker;* William de la Pole, afterwards Duke 
of Suffolk, and others (probably as trustees). 
In Edward IV. 's reign, 1479, tne manor was 
the property of John Walsh, his heirs and 
assigns " for ever," which was until the year 
1500, when John Walsh by deed " conveyed 
his Manor of Andrewes, with its appurte- 
nances in Cheshunt, also one messuage, 
twenty acres of land, and half the Manor de 
la Moteland," to Sir John More, Chief 
Justice of the Court of Common Pleas, and 
other gentlemen as feoffees. 

In 15 19, Henry Stafford, Earl of Wilt- 
shire, became possessed of this property, in 
accordance with the directions contained in 
John Walsh's will, and he in the same year 
sold the whole of the premises and lands in 
Cheshunt unto the Most Reverend Father 
in God, Thomas [Wolsey], Earl Cardinal, 
Legate to the Pope's Holiness, Archbishop 
of York, Primate and Chancellor of England. 
Under the will of Walsh several persons were 
interested in the property, and it was found 
necessary to complete the title by relieving 
the estate of this liability. Mr. Copestick tells 
us that, according to most local accounts, 
Cheshunt Great House was erected by the 
Cardinal ; but this statement is an erroneous 
one, though the house may probably have 
been rebuilt during his lifetime. There is, 
moreover, no proof that the Cardinal ever 
resided here, though the Manor of Moteland 
was given him by Henry VIII. But kings are 
fickle ; priests sometimes less holy than am- 
bitious. God's hand fell upon the Cardinal, 
and, with his other great houses, the Great 
House at Cheshunt was yielded to the King. 
Then there came the closing scene at Leicester 
Abbey, and through the mistful ending of a 
wasted life, the echo of that mournful wail of 

* In the Obituary Notices of the Gentleman's 
Magazine for January, 1807, is a record of the decease 
of a gentleman at "Warwick House, Cheshunt, 
Herts, said to have been the residence of the famous 
Kingmaker, Earl of Warwick." 



dark remorse. Let us hope that that remorse 
brought repentance ere it was too late. For 
the Cardinal seemed to have realized at last 
" how little is needed to take a man to 
hell that is to say, if he dies without having 
found his Saviour. For without Him the 
soul is unable to bear the smallest weight of 
wrong ; while with Him yes, with Him, she 
will wing herself to Heaven in the face of 
mountains of sin." 

After the death of Wolsey, King Henry 
granted the estate to Henry Somerset, the 
second Earl of Worcester, in 1531 ; and after 
him to his wife, at whose decease it was 
granted by the same monarch, in reversion, 
to Sir Robert Dacres. This gentleman was 
Master of Requests, and Privy Councillor to 
King Henry VIII. 

Within the communion-rails of Cheshunt 
Church, on the north side, half inserted in the 
wall, is an altar tomb, having on the verge of 
the cover-stone this inscription : 

Dormio nunc liber qui 

vixi in carcere carnis 

carnis libertas non nisi 

morte venit. Robertus 

Dacres, 1543. 

At the back of the recess is a tablet of black 
marble, thus inscribed : 

This tombe was in the 

year 1543 erected to the 

memory of Robert Dacres 

of Chesthunt in this county 

Esq : and privy councellor 

to Kinge Henry the 

Eight ; and for his wife 

Elizabeth, whose bodyes 

lye both heere interred 

and since hath beene 

the buryinge place of his 

sonne George Dacres, 

Esq : who dyed 1580, and 

of his wife Elizabeth, as 

also of Sir Thomas Dacres 

K*, the sonne of the said 

George who dyed 161 5 ; 

and of Katherin his first 

wife by whome he had only 

one daughter, and of Dorothy 

his second wife who bare 

him thirteen children, 

whose sonne and heire 

Sir Thomas Dacres K'. 

nowe living hath at his 

chardge this year 164 1 

repayred this monument 
intendinge it in due time a restinge 

place for himselfe, his lady 

Martha, and theire 

posterity. 



IOO 



BEGINNERS IN BUSINESS, 1607. 



The Countess of Worcester died in 1565, 
and the manor then came into possession of 
George, son of Sir Robert Dacres, and from 
him, in 1580, to his son Sir Thomas Dacres, 
his grandson Thomas in 1614, and again to 
his great-grandson Sir Thomas in 1668. 

Above the Dacres' monument in Cheshunt 
Church are two tablets of equal size, close 
together. One is to the memory of John 
Doddridge, by his third wife ; this gentleman 
married, secondly, Muriel, the youngest 
daughter of Sir Thomas Dacres. Against the 
west wall, which was built when the chancel 
aisle was added, is a monument of white 
marble surmounted by an urn. On the tablet 
is this inscription : " To the dear and pre- 
cious memory of Margaret, second daughter 
of Sir Thomas Dacres, jr., and dearly beloved 
wife of Sir John Walter, Knight. She died 
14 July, 1675, aged 24." Lastly, a Sir 
Robert Dacres, Kt., sold the property to the 
third Earl of Salisbury in 1675, whose son, 
the fourth Earl, conveyed it by deed, in 1692, 
to Sir Edward des Bouverie, from whose 
executors it was purchased by Sir John Shaw, 
of Eltham, in 1694. The father of this Sir 
John Shaw appears to have received his title 
the 1 2th of April, 1665, with other rewards, 
for service to Charles II., when in exile. 
From the family of the Shaws the manor 
passed into that of the Mayos, to whom it 
now belongs. 



ISerjinners in 15usme&&, 1607, 




HE age of Elizabeth presents several 
points of resemblance to that of 
which the Jubilee is about to be 
celebrated ; and one of these is 
the active pursuit of wealth. The Roths- 
child of that era was Sir Thomas Gresham, 
who built the Royal Exchange, which was 
opened 15 70-1. The confidant of the 
Queen, the creditor of her most powerful 
minister, William Cecil, in character Gresham 
was superior to other eminent mercantile 
men of his time, and justified in his person 
the title of merchant prince. He raised the 
business calling in dignity and social posi- 
tion, and the title of merchant became 



honourable, inciting the emulation, and 
giving a direction to the ambition of the 
middle-class generation which came after. 
There are various ways in which this could 
be illustrated ; but for the present purpose 
we will leave the metropolis and glance at 
some of the effects of Gresham's career and 
achievements in what was then the impor- 
tant port of Bristol. Our English trade three 
hundred years ago was chiefly to Flanders, 
France, Spain, Portugal, and the East Indies. 
By turning over the leaves of an old book, 
which was published in 1607, we can obtain 
an insight into the business of the merchants 
who carried on that trade. Those who know 
the Merchant's Avizo can skip this article : 
those who do not know this old book will 
find the matter interesting. 

And, by way of introduction, here is the 
title-page : 

" The Merchants Avizo. Very necessarie 
for their sons and seruants, when they first send 
them beyond the seas, as to Spaine and Portin- 
gale, or other Countries. 

" Made by their heartie welwiller in Christ, 
I.B., Merchant. 

" Eccles. i. Chap. 1 1 verse : The feare of 
the Lord is glorie and gladnes, and reioycing, 
and a joyfull crowne, etc. 

" At London. Imprinted by John Norton, 
1607. Pp. 70."* 

The book is addressed : " To the wor- 
shipfull Maister Thomas Aldworth, merchant 
of the Citie of Bristow : and to all the 
worshipfull companie of the merchants of the 
said Citie : your bounden in good will, I. B., 
wisheth vnto your worships, felicitie in 
Heauen and prosperitie in earth." 

The author explains : " How greatly my- 
selfe and many other of my contrimen, at 
our first going into Spayne, were troubled 
with difficulties for want of such a paterne as 
this, for ease of our tender wits." His pur- 
pose is "to worke a generall ease to all 
merchants, . . . and likewise that it might be 
some stay to young and weake wits ; yeelding 
them thereby the more freedome of minde 
toward their other businesse. Being carefuli 
in myself so to order this worke that not 
onely (as I hope) it shall be lawfully per- 

* There were subsequent editions in 161 6 and 1640, 
but they are exact reprints, no fresh matter being 
added. 



BEGINNERS IN BUSINESS, 1607. 



mitted to be seene and read in any parts 
beyond the sea but also shall instruct young 
nouices to use greater breuitie in their 
writings then commonly they are wont." He 
adds a note to say that if the book be not 
thought tolerable beyond seas, it would be a 
good exercise for every apprentice to copy it 
all out in writing, and so carry it with him 
for his instruction. 

Our author next becomes tuneful on his 
subject in the following verses, addressed 

To the Reader. 
When Merchants trade proceeds in peace 

And labours prosper well : 
Then Common-weales in wealth increase, 

As now good* proofe can tell. 
For when the Merchants trade was free, 

His ventures for to make : 
Then euerie Arte in his degree 

Some gaines thereof did take. 
The merchant made the Clothier rich, 

By venting of his cloth : 
The Clothier then sets many at worke, 

And helpeth euery craft. 
For first the Spinsser hereby Hue, 

The Weaver and the Dier : 
By cloath, the Shearemen also thriue 

When Merchant is the buyer. 
The Landlord and the Tenant sell, 

By this means all ther wooll : 
Their Biefe, their Corne, they sell the more 

When Merchants purse grow full. 
The Grocer and the Vintner, 

And Mercer profit reape : 
When Spices, Silks, and Wines come store 

By Merchants ventures great. 
The Vitler and the Husbandman, 

And handicrafts each one ; 
Make gaines, whe Merchants Ships and goods, 

Doe merilie come home. 
The Sailers herehence gets their skill, 

To rule the stately ship, 
And so become right worthie men 

For Sea and Land most fit. 
Yea diuers more the Merchants trade 

Doth succour and relieue ; 
As Bargemen, Cranemen, Porter eke, 

To him that Cart doth driue. 

Let no man then grudge Merchants state, 

Nor wish him any ill ; 
But pray to God our King to saue, 
And Merchants state helpe still. 

I. B. 
The treatise opens with "a generall re- 
membrance for a servant at his first going to 
sea." After which we have a curious series 
of model letters. 

* This was spoken when was a long stay of the 
Merchants trade, to the great decay of many a one, 
1 587. Marginal note. 



"Heere followeth a briefe forme of all 
such letters as you shall neede to write 
throughout your whole voyage. The which 
forme is effectuall and sufficient enough, 
and may still be obserued, vntil by experience 
you may learne to indite better yourselfe." 

"A letter to be written to your master if 
your ship be forced by weather into any 
place, before you come to your port of dis- 
charge." 

" A letter to be written to your Master pre- 
sentlie upon your arriuall at your Port" 

Special stress is laid on this letter in the 
Remembrance " because it is the thing 
that euerie Merchant doth especially long 
after to understand." 

" A letter to be written to your master or 
some other man that is of worship, next after 
your first letter : 

"After my dutie remembered vnto your 
Worship : I pray for your good health and 
prosperitie, &c. These are certifying your 
Worship that by a ship of London, called the 
Merchant Royall, I wrote to you before your 
arriuall here at Lisbon. But lest some chance 
should let the comminge of my letter to your 
hands, you shall againe vnderstand that on 
the 24 day of October, within 16 daies after 
our departure from Kingrode, wee arrived 
here at Lisbon (God be thanked) in good 
safetie, and the Minion and the Gabriel also. 
Touching Sales or Implements it falleth not 
out so well as I hoped and wished it would : 
but I haue done my verie best indeuour for 
you as time serued. Your 10 fine broad 
clothes, I sold them for 50 Duckets and 

6 Rialls a peece. Your Stammell brode 
cloth I haue sold for 84 Duckets and 3 Rialls. 
Your Lead I haue sold for 23 Rials the 
Kintall. The waxe for 24 Duckets and a 
halfe the Kintall. And as for your Imple- 
ments, I haue according vnto your remem- 
brance laden for you in the Gabriel 6 Kintals 
and 2 Roues of Pepper, which cost the first 
pennie 50 Duckets the Kintall. Also in that 
ship 1 Kintall of Cloues, which cost the first 
penny 75 Duckets and a halfe: and have 
marked it all according to your marke in the 
margent. 

" Mases are here worth 80 Dks. the Kin- 
tall : Cinamon 68 Dks. ; Nutmeg 80 Dks. ; 
Callicowes of S. Passes at 50 Dks. the Corge ; 
Oyles 86 Duckets the tunne; Sope at 

7 Duckets the Kintall ; Brasill 7 Dks. and 



BEGINNERS IN B USINESS, 1607. 



a halfe the Kintall ; Salt 1 1 Rials the Muy. 
Of our English commodities : Reading Ker- 
sies are worth 14 Dies, a peece; Bayes 
9 Dks. 4 Rials a peece ; Wheat 3 Rials and 
a halfe the Alquer, &c. 

"Within this foure daies wee hope to 
make readie to depart for Andalozia. God 
bee our good speed whensoeuer we gee. In 
Andalozia we vnderstand that Oyles are 
worth about 78 Duckets the tunne, and 
Sacks 12 Duckets the But. Little newes I 
heare worth the writing, &c. Thus taking 
my leaue, I commit your Worship to 
Almightie God. From Lisbon the 7 day of 
November, T5 89." 

There follow the models of other letters 
to be written : (1) " upon your arriuall from 
Lisbon unto your second Port"; (2) "to be 
sent in that ship where you haue laden goods 
for any Merchant"; (3) "to one that hath 
left some businesse to doe for him under your 
hands there in the Countrie"; (4) "to a 
friend giuing him thanks for some pleasure 
he hath done for you, and requesting againe 
some farther good turne of him"; (5) "to a 
friend when you would have him to pleasure 
you in any matter." 

The letters are interesting as giving con- 
siderable insight into the trade of the time ; 
in the selection of business terms and phrases 
they suggest clearly that they are the proto- 
types of the business letters of to-day. The 
frequent invocation of the Deity, in the 
midst of business details, reflects the in- 
security of trade in that period. The letters, 
nevertheless, give a good idea of settled order 
and method in business. 

The author deprecatingly remarks : 

"This briefe and plaine order in your 
Letters I think it best you should for a time 
use, because of easing a while your owne 
young inuention of Inditing : for after this 
manner of stile you may write to most sorts 
of persons." 

" The superscription of your Letters may 
be thus : 

" To the Worshipfull, Alderman Aldworth, 
Merchant, dwelling in Smal street in Bristow, 
giue this with speed." 

The next division of the instructions is 
thus described : 

" Certaine especiall briefe notes of waights, 
measures, and value of monies in Portingale, 



Spaine, and France, with an instruction for 
the better knowledge of diuers wares in those 
countries." 

We learn that the kintall of Portingale 
=112 lbs. ; of Spain=io2 lbs. ; of France= 
100 lbs. 

The measure of cloth in Portingale is the 
Covada=f yd. ; in Spaine, the Vare=i yd. 
1 naile; and in France, the Aulne=i yd. + 
1 naile. 

The measures of corn and salt in these 
countries is next described, and after that 
the " monaies " and their exchange value in 
the English currency. 

After this information we have " A briefe 
instruction for the better knowledge of cer- 
taine wares of Portingale, Spaine, and France," 
describing how to test and judge the qualities 
of pepper, cloves, maces, cinamon, nutmegs, 
ginger, sugar, calicowes, salt, cochenelle, 
oyles, sope, ode, iron, traine, and wines. 
We next have the forms of various business 
documents : 

" Heere followeth the forme of a Spanish 
account, and how to make a bill of lading, a 
letter of remembrance, a bill of debt, an 
acquittance, a letter of atturney, an obliga- 
tion, and a policie for assurance," etc. 

It would be impossible to describe all 
these, but the information they furnish is most 
minute and exact. Those who have no 
knowledge of the state of English society at 
the time would be astonished to note the 
perfection reached in the methods of com- 
merce. Essentially those methods are in 
use at the present day. We pass over the 
Spanish account and the bill of lading, and 
note the " letter of remembrance." This is 
a letter of instruction sent or given by the 
merchant to his representative when he starts 
upon his journey. It begins with a curious 
reference to the very book we are de- 
scribing : 

"A Remembrance for you my servant 
R. A. that principally you do with diligence 
reade and regard the cousel of that little 
booke which I now give unto you. And 
now, God willing, at your coming to Lisbon," 
etc., etc. 

Next we have "The forme of a bill of 
exchange for the countrie of Spaine." Three 
of these must be made in case of loss. " A 
bill of Exchange to be made in England." 



BEGINNERS IN BUSINESS, 1607. 



103 



Three of these to be made also. " An 
Acquittance;" "A bill of Atturnie;" "A 
bill of debt;" "A bond or obligation;" "A 
Policie or writing of Aussurance." 

The Spanish bill is perhaps more interest- 
ing than the English : 

" Worshipful : may it please you to pay 
upon this my first bill unto R. N. or the 
bearer hereof within 15 dayes after the safe 
arriuall of the Gabriell of Bristow to her 
Port of discharge thirtie and three pounds 
six shillings and eight pence. Which is for 
100 Duckets I haue taken vp by exchange 
for your use of T. M. a Merchant of London 
at sixe shillings and eightpence the Ducket. 
From S. Lucar the 16 day of December, 
1589. By me R. A." 

The history of insurance has been investi- 
gated and written ; but in the present form 
of Policy we may note this passage : 

"Touching the adventures and perills 
which wee the assurers hereafter named are 
contented to beare and take upon us this 
present voyage, are of the seas, men of 
warre, fire, enemies, pirats, rouers, theeues, 
Iettesons, letters of marke and countermarke, 
arrests, restraints, and detainment of Kings 
and Princes and of all other persons, burra- 
trie of the Master and Mariners, and of all 
other Perills, losses, and misfortunes." 

The following passage is also interesting : 

" It is to be understood that this present 
writing and assurance shal be of as much 
force, strength, and effect, as the best and 
most surest policie or writing of assurance 
which had beene euer heretofore used to be 
made in Lumbard Street or now within the 
Royall Exchange in London." 

There is a good deal of interesting in- 
formation in the State Papers with regard to 
the " Portugal voyage," and the war in 
Portugal, in 1589, in connection with which 
we encounter the names of Sir John Norris 
and Sir Francis Drake. It is curious that 
the letters and documents in the book we 
have been considering are dated in that 
year 1589. But in the years nearer the 
publication of the Merchants Avizo, the 
English merchants in Spain and Portugal 
had troublous times. We cull a few notes 
showing this, and the steps taken for remedy. 
The merchants were in favour of a charter 
of incorporation rather than Imperial pro- 
tection. 



1604, May 21. List by Thos. Wilford, 
President of the Spanish Merchants Com- 
pany, of goods manufactured in Holland 
and Zealand, imported to England, and 
thence exported to Spain, etc., with note 
that English cloth sent to Holland is often 
exported to Germany. Note by the same of 
the commodities of merchandize interchanged 
between England, Spain, and Portugal, and 
of those imported from Spain, but not grown 
there, which English merchants could import 
direct if free trade were allowed. 

1605, Documents relating to the in- 
corporation of merchants trading to Spain 
and Portugal, leading to order for a new 
charter. May 31. Charter of incorporation 
of the President, Assistants, and Fellowship 
of merchants of England trading into Spain 
and Portugal. Nov. Petition from the Eng- 
lish merchants trading to Spain and Portugal 
for redress : complain of injuries to their trade, 
and persecutions for religion, contrary to 
treaty. Note of concessions promised by the 
King of Spain. 

1606, March. Bill to enable subjects of 
England and Wales to trade freely into Spain, 
Portugal, and France. Reasons for maintain- 
ing Spanish Charter in opposition to the above 
Act. King of Spain has promised redress of 
grievances. 

1607, Feb. Petition from merchants for 
protection by letters of marque. " Opinion 
of ancient Doctors of Law, whether it be 
lawful for Princes whose subjects have been 
wronged by a foreign Prince to stay the 
bodies and goods of that Prince's subjects 
by way of reprisal ?" with application of the 
same to his own case by a suppliant, who, in 
reprisal for wrongs committed against him in 
Spain, has arrested a Spaniard. Petition 
from Freeman, Brooke and Co., merchants, 
to Salisbury, for assistance to recover the 
balance of an account due to them by the 
Spanish Government for corn, purchased from 
them in October, 1605. 

161 1, Oct. Earl of Salisbury to the 
Chancellor of Scotland. The King resolves 
to establish Consuls in Spain for support of 
merchants trading there ; the expense to be 
borne by an import on the merchandise. 
Thinks the Scots should pay the import also, 
as they will share the advantage. Nov. 8. 
Grant to Hugh Lee of the office of Consul for 
the merchants trading to Lisbon and Portugal. 



io4 



CELEBRA TED BIR THPLA CES. 




1612, Feb. 26. Proclamation in Spain 
for better treatment of our merchants. 

1613, May 20. Proclamation against 
payment of light Spanish silver coin, and 
calling in defective Spanish money now in 
circulation. May 26. Sir John Digby to Sir 
Thos. Lake. The interests of merchants 
trading with Spain are so injured for want of 
a settled company, that Parliament should be 
as anxious to re-establish as they were to 
overthrow it. Andrw Hibberi , 



Cele&raten iSttftplaceg, 

Sir Isaac Newton and Woolstiiorpe. 
|HE name of Newton has, by uni- 
versal consent, been placed at the 
head of those great men who 
have been the benefactors and 
ornaments of their species. 

" Imposing as are the attributes with which 
Time has invested the sages of antiquity, its 
poets and philosophers, and dazzling as are 
the glories of its heroes and its lawgivers, 
their reputation pales in the presence of his ; 
and the vanity of no presumptuous, and the 
partiality of no rival, nation has ventured to 
question the ascendency of his genius." 

Such is the testimony borne by one of the 
most eminent men of science of our time to 
the transcendent ability of Newton, and an 
attempt to add to its weight by any eulogium 
would indeed be to "gild refined gold." 

Probably the secret of some of the charm 
which belongs to a well-written biography of 
a distinguished person lies in the fact, that we 
are shown something, if not of the littleness 
of the great man, yet of those points wherein 
he comes near to us ordinary mortals. We 
have revealed to us those touches of nature 
which make the whole world kin, and in the 
case of Isaac Newton, whether by reason of 
the innate simplicity of his nature, or through 
the absence of dramatic incidents which 
throw a lustre even round perishable names, 
there are, especially in his early days, some 
points in which he may be said to come into 
sympathetic contact with us all. For instance, 
when we read that the genius who was to 
mete out space and span the heavens was, to 



quote his mother's words, of such diminutive 
size that he might, in his infancy, have been 
put into a quart mug ; again, when we find 
that he stood very low in the public school 
at Grantham, and was considered very inat- 
tentive to his studies ; and, still more, when 
we learn that he fought, in Grantham church- 
yard, a boy bigger than himself, and, acting 
on the advice of the schoolmaster's son, de- 
monstrated the superiority he had won in 
fisticuffs by rubbing his opponent's nose 
against the wall we are not unlikely to be 
interested in the annals of his boyhood, and 
to scan with an indulgent eye these few 
gleanings about his birthplace. 

There are two Woolsthorpes in Lincoln- 
shire, one a parish near Grantham, the other 
a hamlet in the parish of Colsterworth. It 
was at the latter that the author of the 
Principia was born. 

Just beyond the hundred-and-third mile- 
stone from London, on the Great North 
Road, is a lane leading westward to Colster- 
worth, which in the coaching -days was a 
place of some importance, many of the 
coaches and waggons making it a resting- 
place after leaving Stamford, from which 
it is distant thirteen or fourteen miles. 

The Lincolnshire Wolds begin to rise 
just south of Colsterworth, and the country 
becomes fairly undulating. The North Road 
runs along a ridge of these hills, and there 
are numerous hollows on either side of it. 
In one of these lies Woolthorpe a collection 
of cottages clustered around the Manor 
House, and with a couple of windmills on 
the opposite hill. 

The Manor House itself is a very sub- 
stantially-built structure, the front of which 
faces west. The main building remains 
pretty much in the same condition that it 
was in Newton's time, but there have been 
numerous additions. An entire wing has 
been added on the east side towards the end 
of the last century, and on the south side 
some new outbuildings have been erected 
within the past twenty-five years. The 
premises have been in the occupation of the 
family of the present tenant for about one 
hundred years. 

The occupier remembers the removal of 
the dials, but knew nothing whatever of their 
destination. A kind of shed has been built 



CELEB R A TED BIRTHPLA CES. 



i5 



against the wall where they were fixed, and, 
although somewhat discoloured from the 
occasional stacking of coal and peat in this 
shed against the wall, there are faint traces 
on the stone of the whereabouts of the dials. 
There appears to be nothing remarkable 
about the house itself apart from its associa- 
tions. A description of it was written by 
Dr. Stukeley in a letter to Dr. Mead, in 
1827, six years after he had visited it. He 
says : " The house is built of stone, as is the 
way of the country hereabouts, and is a reason- 
able good one. They led me upstairs, and 
showed me Sir Isaac's study, where I suppose 



We have Brewster's authority for saying 
that Isaac Newton was destined to be brought 
up as a farmer and grazier, and on leaving 
school, at the age of fifteen, he was frequently 
sent to Grantham on Saturdays, to dispose 
of the produce of the farm and to purchase 
the family groceries. It is small wonder 
that a lad with a brain like Newton's left an 
old servant, who accompanied him on these 
marketings, at the Saracen's Head, whilst he 
went in search of certain old books he knew 
of in Mr. Clark's garret ; nor are we sur- 
prised that " when his mother ordered him 
into the fields to look after the sheep, or 




X The dials were upon the south wall of the building just behind this shed. 



he studied when in the country in his 
younger days, or perhaps when he visited 
his mother from the University. 

" I observed the shelves were of his own 
making, being pieces of deal boxes, which 
probably he sent his books and clothes down 
in on those occasions. 

" There were, some years ago, two or 
three hundred books in it of his father- 
in-law, Mr. Smith, which Sir Isaac gave to 
Dr. Newton of our town." 

The house was repaired in 1798, and a 
tablet of white marble was put up by Mr. 
Turner in the room where the great philoso- 
pher was born, bearing the date of his birth 
and inscribed with the familiar words : 

Nature and Nature's laws lay hid in night ; 
God said, " Let Newton be," and all was light. 
VOL. XV. 



to watch the cattle, when they were treading 
down the crops, he was equally negligent of 
the obligations which were imposed upon 
him." 

It is in harmony with the unaffected piety 
of Newton's nature to find that he ever 
cherished a tender filial love for his mother, 
and when she fell sick of a malignant fever, 
caught at the bedside of her other son 
(Newton's half-brother), Isaac went to nurse 
her, sat up with her whole nights, prepared 
the blisters, administered with his own hands 
the necessary medicines, and tended her to 
the last. 

Ill though we could spare Newton from 
the bright roll of scientific pioneers, irre- 
parable as would be his loss to the sum 
of England's greatness, yet, even if he had 



io6 



CELEBRA TED BIR THPLA CES. 



never lived, the latter half of the seventeenth 
century was fruitful in great advances of know- 
ledge. The pages of Evelyn and Pepys, those 
faithful mirrors of the time, are full of traces 
of it; and though the author of the latter 
was, as he terms himself in a letter to 
Newton, but " a fumbler " in such studies, 
he had his modest share in the good work. 
Evelyn was essentially of a scientific tempera- 
ment. Buckingham, with all his follies, was 
an experimental chemist as well as poet and 
fiddler. Prince Rupert's " drops " were toys, if 
you will ; still they were scientific toys. So 
with Boyle's air-pump. All such things 



ductions of abstract reasoning by which he 
has lent so much lustre to the scientific 
record of his time, but he must have earned 
the gratitude of his contemporaries by the 
zeal and practical ability of dealing with 
affairs which he threw into his discharge of 
the duties as Master of the Mint, a phase in 
his character to which Macaulay has done 
justice in his history. 

One other side of his nature remains to 
be noticed, viz., his fondness for theological 
speculation, his "mystical fancies," as he 
himself terms them. His writings on such 
subjects are too voluminous to be overlooked j 




av^f^lS^s^f" 

X This window at the north end of the west front is the window of the room in which Newton was born. 



were first-fruits ; immature, but marking the 
opening of a great age of scientific discovery. 
It was in the memorable year which saw the 
outbreak of the Civil War that Newton was 
born. In the year of the Restoration he entered 
Cambridge,* and he made his discovery of 
the principle of gravitation in 1666 (although 
it was not made known till sixteen years 
after), whilst on the eve of the Revolution 
his Principia revealed to the world a new 
theory of the universe. 

In studying the career of this truly great 
man, one can hardly fail to be struck by the 
fact that not only has he excited the admira- 
tion of posterity by those transcendent de- 

* According to Brewster, the records of the Uni- 
versity make it 1661. 



but we have here no concern with his reli- 
gious opinions, nor with the controversy 
which has raged about them. Whether 
Arian or Trinitarian, orthodox or no, it is 
not upon such debatable ground that Newton's 
fame will rest. 

Some curiosity as to the personal appear- 
ance of such a man is both pardonable and 
natural. Happily there are several well-au- 
thenticated portraits extant. From Burghley, 
the Marquis of Exeter sent one to the 
National Portrait Exhibition of 1867, painted 
by Sir Peter Lely it represented him when 
young. Lord Dartrey contributed another 
to the same collection, the work of Lewis 
Crosse. 

At Bethnal Green may be found Vander- 



CELEB R A TED BLR THPLA CES. 



107 



bank's portrait, which was transferred from 
the British Museum to the National Portrait 
Gallery. In the last-named Sir Isaac is 
painted in a black silk flowered gown. He 
wears his natural hair, flowing and silvery, 
and a plain white neckcloth ; the dark indigo- 
blue eyes of the close-shaven face look 
steadily at us ; his eyebrows are pale in colour, 
but broad and bushy ; his lips are deep 
crimson. In stature, we are told, he was 
not above the middle size, and in the latter 
part of his life inclined to be corpulent. Mr. 
Conduitt says he had a very lively and 
piercing eye, a comely and gracious aspect, 
with a fine head of hair as white as silver, 
without any baldness; and when his peruke 
was off, was a venerable sight. On the other 
hand, Bishop Atterbury affirms there was in 
the whole air of his face and make nothing 
of that penetrating sagacity which appears in 
his compositions, he had something languid 
in his look and manner. Thomas Hearne 
says "Sir Isaac was a man of no very promising 
aspect. He was a short, well-set man, full 
of thought, and spoke very little in com- 
pany." To his gravity Dr. H. Newton, who 
lived with the great philosopher, bears 
striking testimony, saying he never saw Sir 
Isaac laugh but once during the five years he 
resided with him. He adds that he was 
very meek, sedate, and humble, without 
anger, peevishness, or passion. 

Besides the paintings I have mentioned 
there are at least a dozen mezzotints of him 
of varying degrees of excellence, after pictures 
by Kneller, Enoch Seeman, and Sir James 
Thornhill, etc. Finally we have Roubilliac's 
full-length statue of him in the anteroom of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, and the well- 
known monument by Rysbrack in Westmin- 
ster Abbey. Perhaps no more fitting words 
can be found to apply to Sir Isaac Newton 
than those which conclude the epitaph upon 
the latter j he was indeed " Humani Generis 
Decus." 

J. J. Foster. 




Cfje jFirst s^apor of Lontion. 

Eodem anno factus est Henricus filius Eylwini de 
Londene-stane, Maior Londoniarum ; qui fuit primus 
Maior in civitate. Cronica Afaiorum et Vicecomitum 
Londoniarum. 

HO was Henry fitz Aylwin ? I do 
not say that I can answer this 
question from the evidence I have 
seen during a hurried search, but 
I think it desirable to examine at once the 
elaborate account of his origin which has 
just appeared in Mr. Loftie's London, with 
Professor Freeman's imprimatur* 

It is most natural that we should desire to 
know as much as possible of one whose 
name stands at the head of the long list of 
Mayors of London, and who is said, more- 
over, to have held the office for nearly a 
quarter of a century. Dr. Stubbs, with his 
usual scholarly caution, merely tells us that 
he "may have been an hereditary baron of 
London." f But Mr. Loftie can tell us all 
about it, with the help of the invaluable 
Report on the "Historical MSS." of St. 
Paul's. 

Here, reduced to tabular form, is the de- 
scent that Mr. Loftie gives us : 

Leofstan, Orgar le Prude, 



Alderman and member 
of the Cnihtengild 
(1125). 
I 



Portreeve of London, 
temp. Edward the 
Confessor. 
I 
Ailwin fitz =p Christine. 

Leofstan {alias 

Ailwin cild). 
Member of the Cnih- 
tengild (1125). 

Henry fitz 
Ailwin, 
Mayor of London. 
The passages on which I have based this 
pedigree are these : 

(1) Leofstan [the Portreeve] is frequently mentioned, 
but his chief title to fame is in the fact that his de- 
scendant in the second generation became the first 
Mayor of London (p. 22). 

(2) The descendants of Levestan or Leofstan, 
who had also been portreeve before the Conquest, 
were probably the chiefs of this municipal aristocracy, 
and the head of the family in 1125 was Ailwin or 
" Ailwin Child," as he is occasionally called, a title 
almost certainly denoting noble or distinguished birth. 
He had married Christina, the daughter of Orgar, the 



* " Historic Towns " Series, 
t Const. Hist., i. 631. 



I 2 



io8 



THE FIRST MA FOR OF LONDON. 



Proud or " le Prude," a wealthy alderman, whose name 
figures very frequently in the annals of the time 

(P- 32). 

(3) The name of Alwin . . . was the same as 
jEgelwine, the name of the father of Henry, the first 
mayor. . . . " ^Egelwine Leofstan's son " (p. 129). 

(4) He [the first mayor] was the son of Ailwin, and 
the grandson, maternally, of Orgar, who had gone 
into the Priory of the Holy Trinity. He was both 
born to wealth and to civic honour, for he was the 
head of the greatest of the governing families, and 
the heir of Leofstan, the Portreeve (p. 36). 

Now all this is very precise, and, it will be 
seen, embodies the descent given above. 

The first point that would strike a genealo- 
gist, on looking at this descent, is that the 
two grandfathers assigned to Henry fitz 
Ailwin flourished at periods removed from 
one another by at least sixty years. For the 
Orgar of 1125 is in the same generation with 
Leofstan, who was Portreeve under Edward 
the Confessor I But, further than this, the 
first Mayor died, as Mr. Loftie tells us, in 
1212, and "was allowed to hold office till 
his death" (p. 55). He adds that "his age 
must have approached a century before he 
died," and that his father " had become a 
Canon eighty- seven years before." To Mr. 
Loftie's mind these startling figures suggest 
no improbability. This remarkably " grand 
old man" is taken as a matter of course. 
But when we turn from his father to his 
grandfather, our wonder is aroused yet more. 
For the man who died in 12 12, chief magis- 
trate of London, is actually represented as 
the grandson of one who had been chief 
magistrate of London more than a century 
and a half before ! * But even this wonder 
pales before that which we now approach. 
Henry fitz Ailwin, the first Mayor, was, we 
learn from Mr. Loftie, the son of "Ailwin 
child." t But who was " Ailwin child "? 
"We have only to turn to Mr. Loftie's earlier 
and larger work to learn that he was the 
founder of Bermondsey Priory in 1082.^ 

* Leofstan appears, from evidence I have seen, to 
have been Portreeve in 1053. 

+ So confident, indeed, is Mr. Loftie of this that 
the name is indexed " Ailwin (^Egelwine) child." By 
the way, why does Mr. Loftie spell " ^E//4elwine ' 
throughout, with provoking persistency, as ' ' ALgel- 
wine ?" The error is one notoriously springing from 
erroneous transcription of an Anglo-Saxon character. 
How can such a slip have escaped Mr. Freeman's 
editorial eye? 

X History of London, ii. 287. It is added in a foot- 
note that "Aylwin child is sometimes supposed to be 



That is to say that Henry fitz Aylwin died> 
Mayor of London, 130 years after his father's 
foundation of that house ! 

Of course, to Mr. Loftie or to Professor 
Freeman there may be nothing abnormal in 
these phenomena ; but the general reader can 
scarcely fail to see that there must be some- 
thing wrong. It will further occur to him 
that the error springs from the identification 
of two persons living at different periods, 
merely because they both happen to have 
borne the name of Ailwin. A little inquiry 
will soon show that to this same principle 
of reckless identification is to be traced the 
whole series of Mr. Loftie's statements on 
the question. Now these statements are so 
clearly erroneous that they should scarcely 
have been published even as conjectures. 
Yet had this work been merely invested 
with Mr. Loftie's own authority, they might 
have done comparatively little mischief. But 
my complaint is that they here appear under 
the editorial sFgis of Professor Freeman, and 
that, too, not as conjectures, but as matters 
of ascertained historical fact. 

Let us now deal with Leofstan. This was 
of course a common name, but there are 
only four of its bearers with whom we are 
particularly concerned : 

(1) Leofstan the Portreeve, temp. Edward 
the Confessor. 

(2) Leofstan, who is, somewhat mysteri- 
ously, mentioned in connection with the 
Cnihtengild. 

(3) Leofstan (son of Orgar) whose two 
sons (Ailwin and Robert) were members of 
the Cnihtengild in n 25. 

(4) Leofstan the goldsmith, who, with his 
son Wyzo, was a member of the Cnihtengild 
in 1125. 

Mr. Freeman does not hesitate in his 
Norman Conquest (v. 469) to identify all 
four. Mr. Loftie does the same.* It is, 
however, capable of demonstration that cer- 
tainly two, probably three, and possibly four, 

the father of Henry Fitz Aylwin or Eylwin, first 
Mayor of London. " Mr. Loftie seems here less con- 
fident than in his first volume, where (p. 160) he 
writes : " Henry, the first Mayor, was in all proba- 
bility the son of Aylwin, called ^Eglwin ' child,' who 
was wealthy enough to found and partly endow the 
Priory of Bermondsey." In the present volume, as 
we see, all doubt whatever is banished. 
* History of London, i. 74. 



THE FIRST MA YOR OF LONDON. 



109 



individuals are represented by these entries. 
Working backwards, we will take first the 
last of the four Leofstan, the goldsmith. 
Here are the data concerning him : 

(a) "Lefstanus aurifaber" heads the list 
of lay-witnesses to a deed, temp. William the 
Dean (1111-1138), apparently of special con- 
cern to the goldsmiths, as eight others of that 
fraternity were mentioned.* 

(b) "Leostanus aurifaber et Wyzo filius 
ejus are mentioned among the members of 
the Cnihtengild, in the well-known list 
assigned to 1125. 

(c) "Levestano filio Withsonis, Withsone 
filio ejus " are among the witnesses to a deed 
of this same period. t 

(d) " Witso filius Leuestani," who figures 
in the Pipe Roll of 1x30 (31 Henry I.) as 
owing "dimidiam marcam auri pro terra et 
ministerio patris sui."J 

(e) " Wizo aurifaber," who, with Edward 
his brother and John his son, makes an 
agreement with the Canons of St. Paul's. 

Now we will take the Leofstan whom I 
have placed third on my list. For him the 
data are these : 

Leofstan, son of Orgar. 

(a) "Levestan filius Orgari," who with 
Ailwin and Robert his sons, and other (ap- 
parently) of his kin, sells an acre of land, by 
St. Margaret's, for 26 marcs (17 6s. 8d.) to 
the Canons of St. Paul's, in the time of Dean 
Ralph. This exceedingly important deed not 
only gives us the pedigree of the family for 
three generations, but also enumerates, as of 
their "cognatio," Gilbert Prutfot "vicecomes," 
Azo, the Alderman, and Hugh fitz Wulfgar 

* Report Hist. MSS., App. i. 61 b. 

f Chronicle of Ramsey, p. 245. This style gives 
us, it should be noted, the parentage of this Leofstan. 

X Mr. Loftie expresses regret that the nature of this 
" ministerium " is not mentioned. We know that the 
family of " Otho aurifaber " were hereditary crown 
goldsmiths, and the descendants of "Leostanus 
aurifaber " may have held some similar position. But 
remembering that his name appears as witness (ul 
supra) at the head of the goldsmiths, it might be 
hazarded as a conjecture that he may have held the 
headship of that fraternity (? gild). 

Report, i. 63 b. The identity of this " Wizo 
aurifaber" with "Wyzo filius Leostani aurifabri" is 
not actually proz>ed, but the name being so uncommon 
(unlike that of Leofstan), their identity is all but 
certain. 



(probably son of Wulfgar, the Alderman).* 
Here we have a glimpse of the old " barons," 
the territorial aristocracy of London, allied 
to one another by family ties, and joining in 
that archaic function, a group-sale. f 

(b) " Ailwinus et Robertus frater ejus filii 
Leostani " occur as members of the Cnihten- 
gild in the list assigned, as I have said, to 
1125. 

(c) " Robertus filius Leuestani reddit com- 
potum de xvi libris de gilda Telariorum 
Londonia3."J This is obviously the Robert 
of the two preceding entries. 

(d) Ailwin and Robert, sons of Leofstan, 
witness a deed temp. Dean Ralph. 

(e) "Ailwinus filius Levestan" witnesses 
two deeds temp. Dean Ralph || 

(/) "^Egelwinus (sic) filius Levestani" wit- 
nesses a deed (temp. Dean William) of about 
the middle of Henry I.'s reign. 

(g) A deed is executed "coram omni 
hustingo de Londonia. in domo Alfwini filii 
Leofstanl"1F 

I have now separated the entries relating 
to the two Leofstans and their respective 
sons. The list of the members of the Cnih- 
tengild should have averted the confusion 
between the two;** but the Pipe Roll of 1 130, 

with its "Robertus filius Leuestani 

Witso filius Leuestani," is certainly a pitfall 
for the unwary, and one cannot, therefore, 
wonder that into it Mr. Freeman and Mr. 
Loftie fell. ft I dwell on it because it so well 

* Report, i. p. 62 b. Note that Ailwin received 10 
shillings of the purchase-money and Robert (probably 
his younger brother) only 6s. 8d. Hugh fitz Wulfgar was 
a man of consequence. I have ten references to him. 

t Ibid., p. 62 a. 

% Pipe Roll, 1 130 (31 Hen. I.). 

Report, p. 68 a. 

|| Ibid., p. 67 a. 

IT Though the name is here given as " Alfwinus," 
the fact that " Alwinus filius Leostani " (or Leofstani) 
was a prominent citizen at the time seems to identify 
it. 

** Oddly enough, Mr. Loftie himself observes that 
in this list " there are two Leostans mentioned ; one 
of them a goldsmith, whose son, Wizo, is with him ; 
the other, whose trade is not mentioned " {History of 
London, i., 164, note). 

++ Mr. Freeman {Norman Conquest, v. 469) tells us 
that Leofstan (i.e., his agglomeration of Leofstans) 
" had two sons," giving as his authority the passage in 
Dr. Stubbs's Const. Hist, (i., 406), in which the above 
extracts from the Pipe Roll are given. Dr. Stubbs, 
however, does not state that Robert and Witso were 
brothers. 



no 



THE FIRST MA FOR OF LONDON. 



illustrates the urgent need, in these cases, for 
caution in assuming identities. 

With this warning fresh in our minds, we 
may well hesitate to accept the assumption 
that Leofstan the Portreeve must have been 
identical with the " Leostanus" of Henry L's 
Charter, and with Leofstan, father of yEthelwine 
(" Ailwinus"). Much rash conjecture has 
been founded upon this assumption. As I 
said at the outset, it is at least " probable " 
that of these three Leofstans two are distinct 
and separate, namely the first and third. If 
the former was old enough to be Portreeve 
in the days of Edward the Confessor, his 
identity with a Leofstan who flourished some 
seventy years later is ct priori so doubtful 
as to require confirmatory evidence, which 
evidence is not forthcoming. As to the 
second of the three Leofstans, he may have 
been identical with the first or the third. 
But the identity is, as yet, " not proven." 
Mr. Loftie tells us that Leofstan the Portreeve 
" is mentioned as head of the old Knighten 
Guild." This refers to the Charter of 
Henry I., confirming the rights of the 
Cnihtengild as they were "tempore patris 
mei et fratris mei et tempore Leostani." But, 
as a matter of fact, this does not state either 
that he was head of the Gild, or that he was 
identical with the Portreeve. Both assertions 
must be matters of conjecture. Mr. Free- 
man, however, waxes enthusiastic over this 
obscure passage. " We see," he writes, " by 
an incidental phrase, that what the days of 
King Eadward were to the kingdom at large, 
the days of King Eadward's last Portreeve 
were to the city over which he ruled."* It 
may be so, but the statement is doubtful ; 
there is nothing to identify this "Leostanus;" 
and as to the really startling hypothesis, based 
on this passage alone, that, in London, the 
formula " King Eadward's day " was actually 
replaced by " Leofstan's day," Mr. Freeman 
should have remembered that, in this same 
work, he had himself quoted the Conqueror's 
Charter, granting to the citizens all the rights 
they had held "in King Eadward's day" 
(" on Eadwerdes dsege kynges ").t 

Moreover, there is no apparent reason why 
Leofstan should be thus distinguished more 
than any of the other Portreeves who occur 

* Norman Conquest, v. 469. 
t Ibid.,\s. 29. 



in the course of Edward's reign. For Mr. 
Freeman's statement that Leofstan was " King 
Eadward's last Portreeve " is merely that of a 
writer who "trusts to his imagination for his 
facts." 

I have dwelt specially upon this matter, 
because the identity thus assumed has been 
the basis for rash conjectures as to the official 
connection of the Portreeve with the English 
Cnihtengild. 

I would suggest that the formula we have 
here discussed should rather, perhaps, be 
compared with that employed in the Inquisitio 
Maneriorum of St. Paul's (1181) namely, 
" tempore Regis Henrici Primi et Willelmi 
Decani," where the meaning is that King 
Henry and Dean William were contemporaries. 
On this hypothesis the " Leostanus " in ques- 
tion might have been the head of the Cnih- 
tengild, under the Conqueror and William 
Rufus. 

But we must now return to Mr. Loftie's 
pedigree, and trace to its origin his assertion 
that Ailvvin, son of Leofstan, "had married 
Christina the daughter of Orgar the Proud, 
or ' le Prude,' a wealthy alderman, whose 
name figures very frequently in the annals of 
the time" (p. 32). As before, this fact is 
constructed by rolling together different 
persons who happen to bear the same name. 
" Orgar " is one of the commonest names 
found in the St. Paul's muniments. There 
was Orgar the Proud, and Orgar the Deacon, 
and Orgar the Moneyer, and Orgar the 
Cobbler ; Orgar, son of Derman ; Orgar, 
son of Manwine ; Orgar, father of Leofstan, 
etc., etc. Hence the bearers of the name 
have each a distinctive suffix. But one 
" Orgar," for Mr. Loftie, is clearly as good 
as another. Orgar " the Deacon " has a 
daughter Christine,* whose husband's name 
is not mentioned, but who left a daughter 
(and seemingly heiress), Dionysia, wife of 
John Buciunte.f Orgar "le Prude" had a 
son-in-law, Ailvvin,! whose wife's name is 
not mentioned. Mr. Loftie at once seizes 
upon Christine, and transforms her from a 
daughter of Orgar " the Deacon" to a daughter 

* Norman Conquest, i. 63 a. 

t Ibid., i. 16 . As the living was bequeathed by 
Orgar the Deacon to a son of Christine's, if she should 
have sons ("si filios habuerint "), the action of her 
daughter Dionysia implies that there were none. 

% Report, i. 63 a. 



THE FIRST MA YOR OF LONDON. 



of Orgar " the Proud ;" marries Ailwin to 
Christine, identifies Ailwin with Ailwin the 
son of Leofstan, and finally makes him father 
of the first Mayor of London ! And " that's 
how it's done." 

Here I may note an identification which I 
have myself succeeded in making. " Ailwin, 
son-in-law of Orgar le Prude," * is identical 
with the " Eilwinus " who, in the list of St. 
Paul's lands,t is tenant of the land of Ralph 
the Goldsmith. And I wish it to be noticed 
that in neither case is he described as the 
son of Leofstan. 

This same confusion between these two 
Orgars leads him to tell us that Orgar 
" le Prude " (who, by the way, is not spoken 
of as an " Alderman," wealthy or otherwise) 
" is still commemorated in the city by the 
name of a parish .... St. Martin ' Orgar' s,' " 
St. Botolph Billingsgate being also "of his 
foundation." % Elsewhere he gives Orgar the 
Prude as an instance of these "wealthy 
citizens who were church-builders ;" and 
finally he informs us, with less confidence : 
"there can be little doubt that St. Martin 
Orgar's and St. Botolph Billingsgate were 
built by Orgar the Proud."|| There is, un- 
fortunately, something more than doubt, for 
they are known to have belonged, not to him, 
but to Orgar the Deacon (" Diaconus "). 

Lastly, as to Henry fitz Aylwin himself. 
No evidence is given that he was son of 
Ailwin fitz Leofstan. Chronology certainly 
seems against itH Mr. Loftie tells us that : 

When he signs a document his name comes next 
after that of the " vicecomes," and his influence seems 
to have been enormous, whether he was like his grand- 
father, a goldsmith, or, as some have supposed, a 
draper, or, as is possible, merely a great landowner, 
the descendant and heir of Ailwin " child " (p. 36). 

There are, however, only two documents in 
the Report on the St. Paul's muniments which 
he "signs" {i.e., attests) before being made 
Mayor, and in both of these his name appears 
after those of several others; nor is any 
" vicecomes " mentioned. 

More than this, in a deed quoted by Staple- 

* Report, i. 63 a. t Ibid., p. 66 b. 

% P- 33- P- 156. II P. 159- 

IT So, on p. 42, Mr. Loftie tells us that William 
fitz Osbert, the Crusader of 1190, was " the son of 
Osbert, one of the Aldermen who had entered Aldgate 
Priory in 1 115." What is the evidence for this 
assertion ? 



ton (in his preface to the Liber) from Pal- 
grave's edition of the Rot. Cur. Reg., which 
is of the third year of Richard I., that 
is, after the Mayoralty had crowned his sup- 
posed great position, as in which, as plain 
Richard Fitz Ailwin, he occupies a ridicu- 
lously low place among the lay witnesses ; 
and in another deed in the Public Record 
Office I have seen him similarly attesting as 
eleventh of fourteen witnesses.* But, clearly, 
Mr. Loftie was thinking of the deed which 
" Henry Fitz Lefstan signs next after William 
Fitz Ysabel, the portreeve" (p. 39), and trans- 
formed, with a wave of his magic wand, 
" Henry Fitz Leofstan " into " Henry fitz 
Ailwin." There is nothing to prove that 
" his influence was enormous," and there is 
proof that the grandfather assigned to him 
by Mr. Loftie was not Leofstan the " gold- 
smith." And why, having told us that he 
was " the son of Ailwin," does Mr. Loftie, a 
few lines lower down, inform us that he was 
his " descendant and heir " ? Such a contra- 
diction, however, is surpassed on p. 139, 
where, in dealing with a Leofstan and an 
Ailwin in a deed which " must be very 
nearly contemporary with the Domesday Book 
itself," he is careful to remind us that at that 
date " the grandfather of the first Mayor was 
still young." Probably he was. But how 
could Leofstan, Portreeve of London under 
Edward the Confessor, be " still young " in 
1086? 

I hope that the criticisms in this Paper 
may be admitted to have proved, in their 
way, not only destructive of error, but also 
constructive of truth. But surely one is, in 
any case, justified in raising a vigorous and 
immediate protest against the publication as 
historic facts of mere guesses and conjectures, 
which, though, as here, they can be proved 
erroneous, are likely to be believed and 
freely accepted, not on the strength of Mr. 
Loftie's authority, but on that of his respon- 
sible editor, Professor Freeman. 

J. H. Round. 

* This deed is assigned to " 1179-1182." 



EYNSFORD CASTLE. 




CgnsfortJ Castle, 

By J. A. Sparvel-Bayly, F.S.A. 



N the banks of the " silent Darent, 
stained with Danish blood," stand 
the ruins of yet another castle, 
that of Eynsford; the walls of 
which, principally composed of flint and 
rubble, are about four feet thick, and sur- 
round the remains of the strong square keep, 
which being, as was usually the case, of 
superior workmanship than the masonry of 
the walls, is in a far better state of preserva- 
tion. It stands, not as it once was, a 
congruous whole, but a relic, and as such 
well worthy that loving care which it is the 
honour and privilege of our age to devote to 
those edifices which have been handed down 
to us among our most precious inheritances. 
This fortress was probably erected shortly 
after the Conquest, because it is quite clear 
that William of Normandy found very few, 
if any, castles in England at all resembling 
those whose ruins have descended to the 
present time ; and it is well known that 
before the death of King Stephen in 1154, 
they were nearly twelve hundred in number. 
Erected at first to protect the monarch, they 
at length became a menace to his power; 
and by a treaty between Stephen and Henry 
of Normandy, made in 1153, very many were 
pulled down. The following table, prepared 
by that eminent authority on Norman military 
architecture, Mr. G. T. Clark, F.S.A., of 
Dowlais, shows the number of such castles, 
or remains of castles, known to be existent in 
England. 



Castles. 


No. 


Castles. 


No. 


Sussex 


... 9 


Wilts 


... 9 


Warwick 


... 6 


Worcester . . . 


... 7 


Westmoreland 


... 13 


York 


39 



Castles. 


No. 


Castles. 


No. 


Bedford 


... 2 


Kent... 


... 39 


Berks 


... 7 


Lancashire . 


7 


Bucks 


... 2 


Leicestershire 


' -. 5 


Cambridge ... 


... 2 


Lincoln 


... 11 


Cheshire 


... 8 


Middlesex . 


1 


Cornwall 


... 21 


Monmouth . 


14 


Cumberland 


... 22 


Norfolk 


6 


Derby 


... 6 


Northampton 


... 4 


Devon 


... 18 


Northumberland ... qi 


Dorset 


... 11 


Notts 


4 


Durham 


... 13 


Oxon 


4 


Essex 


... 9 


Rutland 


2 


Gloucester ... 


... 7 


Salop 


13 


Hants 


... 16 


Somerset 


9 


Hereford 


... 29 


Stafford 


12 


Herts 


... 4 


Suffolk 


10 


Hunts 


... 4 


Surrey 


5 



The ditch of a Norman castle was usually a 
wet one; here the moat of Eynsford is very wide, 
it having been, of course, easily and plentifully 
supplied by the Darent. During the reign 
of Henry II. this stronghold was in the pos- 
session of William de Eynesford, who held it 
under the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas 
Becket, between whom and himself a serious 
quarrel arose. It appears that Becket had 
given the Church of Eynsford to a priest 
named Lawrence, who by some means 
offended this William de Eynesford, and was by 
him dispossessed of the church; this naturally 
incensed the ever-jealous Becket, who at once 
excommunicated the offender, increasing 
thereby the already wide breach between the 
" proud prelate " and his King. During the 
twelfth and thirteenth years of King John 
the castle was still held by one of the same 
name and family; but in 1293 we find John 
de Criol, or Cryall as Kilburne writes it, and 
Ralph de Sandwich, as owners, claiming the 
privileges of a manor. A descendant of this 
John de Criol died possessed of it in 1380; 
upon his death it passed to the Zouches of 
Harringworth, one of whom, William, died 
within two years, and left it to his son 
Thomas, who died in 1405, when it was 
sold; and in 1502 Elizabeth, wife of William 
Chaworth, was its owner ; and shortly after- 
wards it was purchased by Sir Percival Hart, 
whose descendants now own the more modern 
neighbouring Castle of Lullingstone, the 
present proprietor being Sir William Hart- 
Dyke. 



iRotes on t&e %>tmt JFamtlp of 
<nrjlano. 

By Rev. W. H. Hornby Steer, B.A. 

HE record of the English de- 
scendants of the ancient Scan- 
dinavian family of Sture is a 
peaceful one, differing widely from 
that of the same family which remained in 
Sweden. While there its sons were bleeding 




NOTES ON THE STURE FAMILY OF ENGLAND. 



ii3 



for the freedom of their country, here they 
were leading the secluded lives of country 
squires. While the parent stock has died out 
there, its branches here, and the offshoots of 
these again in America, continue to flourish 
on the soils in which they have been trans- 
planted. 

The name is spelled in various ways, which 
is partly due to the phonetic mode of spell- 
ing used by early chroniclers. It is derived 
by some from Stiur, a wild-ox. 

When family names were first adopted, 
many people selected the animals or objects 
borne from the earliest times upon their 
shields ; and really on looking over the list of 
the great Swedish and Danish families, you 
would imagine yourself to be reading the 
catalogue of a museum of natural history 
rather than that of a house of nobles : the 
following names will readily be recognised, 
either in their original or Anglicized forms, as 
existing now in England : 



Ulf . 


. Wolf. 


Gait 


. Boar. 


Sture . 


. Steer. 


Basse 


. Wild-boar. 


Bagge . 


. Ram. 


Krabbe 


. Crab. 


Drake . 


. Dragon. 


Stud 


. Bullock. 


Otter . 


, 


Kidd 


t 


Oxe . 


. 


Swan 






The founder of the Sture family in England 
probably came over as a leader of the Danes 
during their early incursions into this country. 

After the massacre of the Danes planned 
by Ethelred in 1002, we continue to find in 
the royal letters-patent nearly the same Scan- 
dinavian names of chiefs as before, amongst 
others that of Styr or Stir. 

In the reign of Ethelred, a nobleman 
named Stir or Stere, the son of Ulf, made a 
grant of Derlington, together with other 
lands, to the cathedral church of St. Cuth- 
bert, Durham. 

This was witnessed by the King, the 
Archbishop of York, and Aldhun, first Bishop 
of Durham (995-1017). 

Ughtred, Earl of Northumberland, who 
was so successful against the Scots in 1006, 
put away his wife, who was the daughter of 
Aldhun, Bishop of Durham, to marry the 
daughter of the above-named Stir, who was a 
rich man, on condition that he should kill 
Stir's enemy, Thurbrand. Ughtred failed to 
do this. He afterwards put away Stir's 
daughter too, and married the King's 
daughter, ^Elgifu. 



In the end the tables were turned, he him- 
self being killed at the instigation of Thur- 
brand in the reign of Canute. 

But it is not until the time of the Danish 
dynasty, when the throne of Cerdic was 
filled by Hardicanute, that there is a con- 
tinuous account of the Sture family in Eng- 
land. 

The son of Canute was unanimously 
chosen King at Easter-tide, 1040 ; but having 
destroyed his popularity by the exaction of 
the Danegeld, he began to revenge himself 
upon his enemies, alive and dead. 

His first step in this way was an act of 
senseless brutality towards the dead body of 
his half-brother, the late King. The dead 
Harold, the chronicles tell us, was dragged 
up and shot into a fen. 

Some of the officers of his household, Stir 
or Stur, his Major-domo or Mayor of the 
Palace ; Eadric, his steward ; Thrond, the 
King's own executioner, and other men of 
great dignity (" magnae dignitatis "), were 
sent to Westminster to dig up the body ; and 
in their company we are surprised to find 
Earl Godwine, and ^Elfric, Archbishop of 
York. Westminster was neither in Godwine's 
earldom nor in ^Elfric's diocese, so that both 
these chiefs of Church and State seem out of 
place on such an occasion. 

The offices of Master of the Household 
and Chamberlain held by Stur and Eadric 
in Hardicanute's palace, were not without 
duties to be performed either by them or by 
their assistants ; for the King "was of nature 
very curteous, gentle, and liberall, speciallie 
in keeping good cheere in his house, so that 
he would have his table covered foure times 
aday, and furnished with great plentie of 
meates and drinks, wishing that his servants 
and all strangers that came to his palace, 
might rather leave than want." 

William, son of Stur the Major-domo, held 
land in Hants, in the time of King Edward 
the Confessor. At the time of the Domesday 
Survey, William Fitz-Stur had twenty-two 
manors in the Isle of Wight, on which were 
thirty-six villeins, fifty-six borderers, and 
twenty-four serfs. 

Amongst the places held by him were 
Sopley, Calbourn, Gatcombe, Whitcomb, 
Whippingham, Whitfield, Binstead. William, 
son of Stur, by a grant of King William, had 



ii4 



NOTES ON THE STUFE FAMILY OF ENGLAND. 



two houses in Southampton free of tax. A 
few other adherents of the Conqueror shared 
a similar privilege there. 

It is not a matter of surprise to find a 
Northman holding land in the Isle of Wight, 
the " frith-stool " of the Danes, their inviolable 
sanctuary to which they constantly retired 
after their depredatory visits ; amongst other 
occasions, after ravaging Devonshire in iooi. 
William Fitz-Osborne was despatched by his 
kinsman the Conqueror to subjugate the 
island, and so became the first Lord of 
Wight. He partitioned the land amongst his 
principal followers the Fitz-Azors and Fitz- 
Sturs. 

It seems from the Domesday Survey that 
both these families held land there previously, 
but at that time their possessions were 
greatly augmented. 

In the Domesday Survey of Hants, 
Thorngate Hundred " Hugh de Port holds 
Lockerley, and Sterre held it as a manor 
allodially of King Edward . . . The same 
Sterre holds one hide which is in the King's 
forest." 

Henry I. created Richard de Redvers 
Count of Devon, and bestowed on him the 
towns of Tiverton, Honiton (noo) and the 
honour of Plympton, together with a yearly 
pension of one-third of the revenue of that 
county. The Lordship of the Isle of Wight 
was also bestowed on him in 1102, which 
remained in his lineal descendants through a 
series of De Redvers and De Vernons until 
the reign of Edward I. 

His son Baldwin, Count of Devon and 
Lord of the Wight, founded Quarr Abbey in 
1131. 

Richard de Redvers, son of Baldwin, con- 
firmed the foundation of Quarr Abbey, one 
William, son of Stur, witnessing the deed. 

William de Vernon, second son of Baldwin, 
left lands to the same Abbey in a deed dated 
1206, and also witnessed by William, son of 
Stur. The name of William, son of Stur, 
occurs as a witness to grants of land in the 
Isle of Wight in the time of Henry III. 

In Gatcombe Church is a cross-legged 
wooden effigy of a knight in complete armour 
under a semicircular arch of the north side 
of the church. The monument bears no 
inscription (the common people used to call 
it St. Rhadegund of St. Uly - " Eligius," 



" Eloy"), but from the style of the hauberk of 
mail and surcoat, which is of the time of 
Edward I., it probably represents one of the 
family of Fitz-Stur, then called de Estur, to 
whom the manor of Gatcombe (as well as 
those of Whitwell and Calbourne) belonged 
from the time of the Domesday Survey till 
the reign of Henry III. ; when Matilda, the 
daughter and heiress of Baldwin le Estur, 
married Walter de Insula, and thus their 
possessions passed to the De Insula or De 
Lisle family. The following fact no doubt 
conduced to this alliance : 

To Geoffrey de ITsle (father of Walter de 
Insula) was given, November 9th, 1224, the 
custody of Matilda de Estur, the heiress. 
She had been entrusted by the Bishop to the 
charge of the Sheriff. Her son and heir 
William bore his mother's name of De Estur 
(not an unusual occurrence at that time). 
William de Estur was succeeded, 20 Ed- 
ward I., by his brother and heir Galfrid de 
Insula. The family name remained for 
a time in the Isle of Wight, for amongst 
"The names of the nobles etc. of Hamp- 
shire, temp. Henry VII.," is that of Sir 
Bawdewyn Esture, who bore as arms, "ar a 
cherry-tree proper." There is no mention, 
however, of this family in the visitation of 

1575- 

Considerable intercourse must have taken 
place between the Isle of Wight and Devon, 
by reason of the Earl of Devon being Lord 
of Wight, and holding considerable posses- 
sions in both places. A branch of the Sturs 
of the Isle of Wight appears to have settled 
in Devon about the time when the estates 
passed to the De Lisles through the heiress 
Matilda. The Sturs probably migrated to 
Devon through the above influence ; for in 
1269 died Roger le Stur, who held land in 
the Manor of Honiton, under Baldwin de 
l'lsle, the Earl of Devon and Lord of Wight 
of that day. The union of these titles in the 
De Redvers family for so long a period may- 
account for the presence of several families 
in both Devon and the Isle of Wight. 

It is curious that numerous names of 
manors and farms too are common to both. 

A westward migration of the family is evi- 
denced by the name of William de Sture in 
the intermediate county of Dorset in the 
time of Edward I. 



NOTES ON THE STURE FAMILY OF ENGLAND. 



"5 



In a Lay Subsidy Roll of the county of 
Devon for i Edward, III. (1327) occur the 
names of Robertus Sturra, a burgess of 
" Honetone," Richard Stur, in the Hundred 
of Budleigh East and John Stur in the 
Hundred of Ermyngton. 

The Devonshire branch of Stur is further 
identified with the Sturs of Wight by the 
arms blazoned on an ancient roll as 
borne by Sturie (Swedish sound of Sture) 
of Buckley, near Honiton, viz. : "ar., a 
cherry-tree proper ;" the same as those of Sir 
Bawdewyn Esture of the Island. 

The Stures were connected with Exeter as 
early as 1356. 

The following extract from the rental of 
St. Sidwell's parish bears the above date, and 
is inserted in a Cartulary of St. John's Hos- 
pital, Exeter : 

"John, the son of John Stuer, and his 
heirs lawfully begotten, are bound to maintain 
the yearly obit of Roger, once Vicar of 
Heavitree, of Robert Brown and his wife 
Jane, of William Jebb and Cicely his wife, 
of Nicholas Brown and his wife Isabella, in 
consideration of a tenement next to St. John's 
Hospital, and of two fields called Thorn 
Park and Little Park, and to provide twelve 
wax lights of the weight of four pounds to be 
used in the chancel of the said church." 

The following letter refers to the siege of 
Exeter by the Cornish rebels, in 1549, which 
lasted from July 2nd to August 6th, when the 
King's troops under Sir Peter Carew, Lords 
Russell and Grey, were victorious, but not 
before 4,000 of these religious insurgents had 
perished. 

Sir Peter Carew, who writes to "lovinge 
ffriendes," the mayor, and his brethren, offer- 
ing the services of Mr. Sture, a lawyer, to be 
to them a continual counsellor, was at that 
time in military charge of the city : 

"After my right hartie comendacons. 
Desiringe the furtheraunce of good and cer- 
cumspecte gouvernaunce of yo r Citie I have 
according to my last communycacon with you 
in your Counsell Chambre moved Mr. Sture 
to serve you as a continuall counsailo r the 
comoditie whereof it may be affirmed wilbe as 
much o yo r honesties as ever thinge that ye 
procured for thadvauncement of yo r sealfes 
or the Citie, ffor even as ys yo r Citie be ruled 
by knowledge men will reporte and accompte 



you wurthie the aucthoritie that ye inioye. 
So if it be founde contrarie, You maie assure 
yo r selfes it will be both thought and spoken 
that yo have desired to make your Citie a 
countie and thenlargement of yo r liberties 
under a pretence to sunder good ordre, 
and do not in any parte accomplishe the 
same. 

" By this man beinge both of honestie and 
larninge you may atteine the good reporte of 
thone and avoide the reproche of thother. 
And even as his beinge amonge you shall be 
muche to yo r furtheraunce, so if you do not 
liberallie see to his paines it can not be but 
much to his hinderaunce, ffor he shall not 
onely be driven to leave his house where he 
is settled but also leave the practice of the 
common lawe in matiers abrode, which you 
may gesse is no speciall abatement of his 
living. That I maie therefore give him an 
answere I shall desire to be advertised from 
you what you mynde to give him to the 
countervailing of his charges. And there- 
upon will I wurke for yo r comoditie as I can 
best desire. And thus ffare you right hartelie 
well, from Mohuns Oterie the iiijth of June, 

" Yo r assured frend, 

" P. Carew. 
" [Endorsed] To my lovinge 
ffriendes the Mayo r of Ex- 
ceter and his Bretheren." 

Mr. Sture was Recorder of Exeter four 
years later, 1554. His arms are in the Guild- 
hall " or (now argent), a star of eight points 
sable." 

From Izacke's Remarkable Antiquities of 
the City of Exeter, we learn that John Weeks, 
Esquire, elected the first Recorder of this 
City, 28 Edward III., 1354, had a Pension 
of three pounds per annum allowed him. 
The fourteenth Recorder being " Edmond 
Stuer, Esquire, 2 Marias, 1554." He held 
the office during four years. 

About a century later the daughter and 
heiress of Frederick Stuer, of Exeter, married 
John Deeble, of Wolsdon, ancestor of the 
Cornish family of Boger. 

In the reign of Henry VIII. the Sture 
family held possession of the Manor of Dipt- 
ford. " There were 39 hydes in the hundred 
of Dippeforde in the days when the House- 



n6 



NOTES ON THE STURE FAMILY OF ENGLAND. 



carls collected the Danegeld f but it is now 
included in the hundred of Stanborough. 
The Hundred Roll shows that the lords of 
this manor exercised the power of inflicting 
capital punishment. By a grant of Henry III. 
it became the property of Nicholas Lord 
Moels, or Mules, and descended from him 
to the families of Bottreaux and Hunger- 
ford. 

The family of St. Lo, the principal branch 
of which was seated at Newton St. Laud or 
St. Lo, Somerset, flourished there till 1400, 
when the heiress married Lord Bottreaux. 
It may here be noticed that the arms of 
Sture as given in the Heralds' Visitations of 
Devon, 1564 and 1620, are the same as those 
borne by St. Lo " ar., a bend sable, over all 
a label of three points gules." 

Whether the Stures came into these estates 
through any connection by marriage with the 
Hungerfords (who became possessed of the 
property through marriage with Margaret 
Bottreaux, heiress of William, Baron Bott- 
reaux) is not known. 

Henry Sture, the first of the name who 
owned the property, died in 15 19. He was 
succeeded by several generations which in- 
termarried with the families of Darke, Sir 
Robert Dennis of Holcombe Burnell, 
Fortescue of Wood, Fulford, Hugh Foun- 
tayne of East Bawcombe (whose arms, impaled 
with those of his wife Margery Sture, are 
carved on a handsome wooden screen in 
Ugborough Church), Giles of Bowden, Halse 
of Efford, Savery of Marley, Wise of Totnes, 
and Parnell of Grimston. 

Tristram Sture or Steer died seized of the 
Manors of Diptford and Ash well in 16 16. 
He married a daughter of Sir Richard 
Hawkins (who lived at Poole, in the parish 
of Sherford, in the time of James I.), the 
celebrated naval officer ; famous son of a 
more famous father Sir John Hawkins. 
Thus these manors were held by the Stures 
from or before the reign of Henry VIII. till 
the time of William III., when the Manor 
and Rectory of Diptford, the mansion-house 
and farm called Maridge (which had once 
been a religious house) in the parish of 
Ugborough, the house and farm called 
Bradleigh in Diptford and North Huish, and 
divers other farms in the above parishes, were 
sold in 1699 by Edmund Sture, late of 
Maridge. 



The name Sture became fixed in the pre- 
sent anglicised form, Steer, almost universally 
throughout Devon about 1750; though these 
two ways of spelling it had been used for a 
century or more before this, possibly owing to 
Sture being a West-country word for bullock 
or steer. There is a yeoman family still 
bearing the name of Sture in a remote part 
of Devon (East Prawle.) 

Amongst the families in England at present 
bearing this name are the Steers of Yorkshire 
and Derbyshire, evidently descended from 
Sterr or Sterre of Yorkshire, and Levenot 
Sterre of Bradeston, Derbyshire, both of whom 
are mentioned in the Domesday Survey of 
those counties ; and these again descended 
from Stur, the son of Ulf, time of Ethelred 
II., mentioned above. 

A family of the name of Steer is found in 
Lincolnshire, where a Danish chief named 
Stur held land and possessed the right of 
administering justice on his estate, together 
with other privileges belonging to noblemen. 

It is stated that the Surrey family of Steere 
lived at Jayes, their present seat, at the time 
of the Conquest. 

The names Hester, Astor, Stower, Steer 
are derived from the old forms Stur and 
Estur. 

The interests of the Devon family of 
Sture or Steer have always been associated 
with land in the county. Philip Steer (second 
son of Henry Sture, of Hendham, Woodleigh), 
born 1 75 1, owned the estate of Bickley, in 
the parish of Halwell. He married Mary, 
daughter of Richard Paige, of Harleston. 
His grandson, the late Philip Steer, of Apsley 
House, Whitchurch, Herefordshire, married 
(1853) Emma, elder daughter and co-heiress 
of the Rev. William Harrison. M.A., of 
Chester, by whom he had a daughter and 
two sons, who are the present owners of the 
estates of Borough and Halstow, South Devon, 
and Cilgwyn in Montgomeryshire. 

A branch of this Devon family is settled in 
America. The blood of the Viking ancestry 
showed itself in the enterprise and genius of 
Henry Steer, grandson of the above Henry 
Sture, who crossed the Atlantic in 1824, and 
founded the eminent ship-building firm in 
New York of this name. 



COURTIERS AS ANTIQUARIES. 



117 




tfouttiers as antiquaries 



T will be remembered that Lord 
Treasurer Burghley was addicted 
to the study of antiquities, and 
especially of genealogy, in which 
branch of antiquarian lore he left behind him 
some remarkable collections. His Advice to 
his Son probably did not omit this study as 
part of the equipment of a courtier. But 
it is probable he was not a typical courtier. 
Elyot in his Governor says : " Some without 
shame, dare affirme, that to a great gentii- 
man it is a notable reproche to be well lerned 
and to be called a great clerke : whiche name 
they accounte to be of so base estymation, 
that they neuer haue it in their mouthes but 
whan they speke any thynge in derision ;" and 
Mr. Crofte adds a note in his edition stating 
that " A letter from Pace to Colet about the 
year 1500, prefixed to the former's De Fructu, 
shows the tone of this class of gentleman. 
One is represented as breaking out at table 
into abuse of letters. ' I swear,' he says, 
'rather than my son should be bred a 
scholar, he should hang. To blow a neat 
blast on the horn, to understand hunting, 
to carry a hawk handsomely, and train it, 
that is what becomes the son of a gentleman ; 
but as for book-learning, he should leave that 
to louts.' " 

A curious book was published in the suc- 
ceeding reign, elaborately setting forth the 
attainments at which young courtiers should 
aim. This vade mecum of place-hunters is 
addressed to George Villiers, Marquis of 
Buckingham, and is a piece of most unquali- 
fied adulation. This production was "Printed 
by Edw. Griffin, in Eliots Court in the 
Little-old-Bailey, neere the Kings-head, 1620." 
Here we have an instance of the topographical 
information obtainable from old title pages. 
There is no information about the Court 
in this disappointing book, but only long- 
winded eulogy of a bad and brilliant man, 
in which he shines with most virtuous lustre. 
But amongst the accomplishments of the 
ideal courtier, we are interested to find that 
a proficiency in antiquities is insisted upon. 
Says our idealistic sycophant : " Now then 



after the studie of Wisedome, let not the 
Courtier by any meanes omit, or neglect the 
studie of Law, Languages, and Eloquence ; 
and let him specially bend his best en- 
deauours, to attaine vnto the prompt, perfect, 
and most commendable knowledge of His- 
tories, and Antiquities, to which, indeed I 
cannot sufficiently moue and admonish him ; 
For, this Knowledge is the Testis of the 
Times, the Light of Truth, the Life of 
Memorie, the Mistresse of Life, and the 
Messenger of Antiquitie. Yea, this same 
Historicall Knowledge (if wee may belieue 
Polybius) is a most sound and sure direction, 
instruction, and preparatiue, to all well 
managing of politique affayres, and is, 
indeed, a singular tutrixe, and faithfull in- 
former, how to abide and suffer patiently 
the inconstancies, and mutabilities, of brittle 
and fickle Fortune. If, therefore (friendly 
Courtier) thou wouldst not continually shew 
thyselfe a childe, and Non-proficient, in the 
Court of thy Prince, be not (I say) rude, 
but well read, and a skilfull Antiquary in 
Histories and Chronicles." 

Which sentiments are very honourable to 
our long-deceased friend, A. D. B. : with 
characteristic modesty it is thus that he 
assigns the authorship of his book. He has 
some more remarks of the same tenor, and 
even better quality. Here, for instance : 

" Againe it is not so much desired in any 
Ambassader that he bee a meere Philosopher 
as that he be an excellent Antiquary, and 
well-red Historian, for things to come are for 
the most part like unto those which are 
already past and performed, which an Am- 
bassador must also know, as being indeed 
a Polititian." 

This idea has since been summarised in 
the words " history repeats itself," an axiom 
which so constantly recurs to students of 
history. 

Samuel F. Henty. 



n8 



VENICE AS A FORTIFIED CITY. 




Oenice m a jfortifieD Citp. 

By W. Carew Hazlitt. 



F there is one aspect in which the 
ordinary student fails to realize to 
himself the ancient mistress of the 
Adriatic, it is in that of a fortified 
place. Still, few things are more certain 
than that at the end of the ninth century it 
was found imperative to protect the capital 
and its outskirts by a system of walls and 
chains. 

In modern Europe the theory and science 
of fortification, and the development of the 
engineer's art, sprang out of the necessity, 
amid a general system of petty warfare and 
intertribal brigandage, of establishing some 
more or less efficient method for protecting 
the feudal lord against his own dependents, 
or against his seigniorial neighbours. The 
worldly possessions of these potentates were 
usually of limited extent, and could be em- 
braced within the walls of a castle, and the 
humble buildings which lay without and 
around were erected and replaced with equal 
facility. But the rise of States which had 
something more than a military and political 
rank to uphold, and something more than 
the barbarous hovels of a baronial tenantry 
or even than the scanty appointments of a 
baronial citadel to lose, brought with it a 
demand for more elaborate measures of pre- 
caution and defence, while, with new interests 
and new sources of wealth, it created new 
dangers, new temptations ; and Venice, from 
her long and exposed seaboard, her contiguity 
to the mainland, and the uniformly low level 
of her insular territory, naturally found the 
provision of a scheme for the public security 
a difficult problem. Yet its difficulty was not 
greater than its importance, when the lawless 
and rapacious character of the communities 
by which the Republic was environed, their 
indifference to the rights of property, and the 
rapid increase in the mercantile prosperity of 
the Venetians, are taken by us into account. 
But the work advanced at a very leisurely 
pace, and in a very desultory manner. 

The earliest trace of any clear and definite 
effort to provide for invasion is the vague 
account which we get of the erection of a fort 
at Brondolo, or Little Chioggia, in the middle 



of the eighth century; but the attempt on the 
part of the reigning prince to strengthen his 
subjects against their enemies was very 
generally interpreted, in the bitter conflict of 
parties, into a desire to strengthen himself 
against internal disunion ; and it was not till 
more than a hundred years after that, in con- 
sequence of the rumour of a fresh Hungarian 
inroad, precautionary steps were taken to 
embattle Olivolo or Castello, and to carry a 
rampart supported on solid foundations as 
far as Santa Maria Jubenigo, from which 
point a chain of the heaviest calibre was 
stretched across the canal near San Gregorio 
(a.d. 897-8). But the plan was never com- 
pleted ; and we are told that, when the im- 
provements of the city were in progress, 
about 1 1 75, the ninth-century wall was not 
visible. 

In these operations one cannot fail to 
observe that we hear nothing of the condition 
of the works at Chioggia and Brondolo, which 
formed the theatre of the vital struggle in 
1379 with Genoa, and witnessed heroic efforts 
on the part of the nation to render them 
impregnable. But the immense exertions 
which were made in that crisis may indicate 
that the ancient fortifications on this side 
where, and not at Lido, the first citadel planted 
on Venetian soil by eighth-century hands 
had stood were subsequently neglected, 
and that the Genoese selected, in fact, for 
attack the point from which they believed the 
capital to be most vulnerable. It is even a 
possibility that the crenellated wall round the 
arsenal shown on Temanza's plan had fallen 
out of repair in the course of more than a 
century. It is marked as belonging to the 
same school of design as that round the 
Piazza. It may have been the work of the 
same hand; and elsewhere it has been 
noticed that the Ghetto, or Government 
Foundry, at Canareggio, was similarly pro- 
tected by a strong mural girdle and a com- 
manding tower. 

Whatever its exact antiquity may have 
been, the Projectile and Weapon Foundry, 
with the smelting furnaces, first occurs to 
notice as seated in the suburban district 
of Canareggio; and it formed a walled 
enclosure throughout the Middle Ages, 
like the Arsenal and the Place of St. Mark. 
It was known as the Ghetto, and be- 



VENICE AS A FORTIFIED CITY. 



119 



came the Jews' Quarter somewhat later ; and 
when the Ghetto Nuoz>o, originally a swamp 
contiguous to the Rio di S. Girolamo, was 
drained and colonized, this became the Ghetto 
Vecchio. 

In a document of 1458, the name Ghetto 
or Getto, a Venetian corruption of the Low 
Latin jactare, seems to be satisfactorily ex- 
plained. It was the "casting depot." "It 
was called the Getto," we are here explicitly 
informed, " because there were over twelve 
furnaces, and the iron was founded and 
smelted there." But the term became, with- 
out any real propriety, generic for the Jews' 
Quarter in Italy and elsewhere, and its origin 
(like that of Archipelago) was gradually for- 
gotten. 

Metal was not yet demanded for building 
and other modern uses ; yet, comparatively 
speaking, the mediaeval foundry at Canareggio 
opened to the Republic the same source of 
advantage as the industry at present affords 
to the English. 

We see how in the Temanza map the Place 
of St. Mark is represented as still surrounded 
by a wall. Within this enclosure the Church 
of St. Mark is roughly indicated ; and between 
the Place and the Grand Canal there is 
absolutely nothing. We are left to assume 
that the palace lay close beside the church, 
the latter being in the eyes of the draughtsman 
the more important object ; but the whole 
plan is on a small scale, and there is no clue 
to the position of the gates, of which there 
must have been several. One was almost 
certainly on the side of the sea near the 
Ponte della Paglia ; and very probably a 
second abutted on the Rio di Palazzo behind 
San Mois, and was reached by a drawbridge. 
A second, but not improbably connected, 
line of mural defences covered the Doge's 
palace, and extended to the Ponte della 
Paglia ; and it recommenced at the opposite 
side of the Canal or Rio di Palazzo, and ran 
the entire length of the Riva degli Schiavoni, 
without leaving a very wide margin for pas- 
sengers. This portion of the fortifications is 
described as crenellated, and flanked with 
angular towers. The range of buildings de- 
voted to the use of the Doge, and to the 
business of the Government was thus amply 
shielded from external attack ; and although 
the wall skirting the Riva did not in all likeli- 



hood exist in its full integrity in the fourteenth 
century, the Casa Molin opposite which 
Petrarch landed, about 1350, on his diplo- 
matic errand from Milan may be securely 
judged to have been a castellated man- 
sion partly formed out of the ancient 
rampart. Petrarch mentions the towers, 
perhaps on account of their unusual shape ; 
for otherwise the presence of battlements was 
not apt to strike the men who beheld them. 
Whoever set foot from shipboard on the 
Molo, saw merely what he had left at home. 
But to us, with the city of to-day before our 
eyes, and with the means of studying it as it 
presented itself even at the close of the 
mediaeval era in the fine old picture of 1496, 
the contrast and the change are wondrous. 

St. Mark's Church and Place, and many 
of the surrounding objects, had become in 
fact before 1496, the date assigned to the 
picture in the Venetian Academy which 
portrays a religious procession on the 
Piazza, substantially as we see them, if we 
except a certain irregularity of elevation and 
the protrusion of occasional outbuildings, 
both of which lingered yet for a considerable 
time, as they at once strike the eye in the 
view of the Piazzetta published by Amman 
in 1565.* Nor, when the picture was 
executed, does the Clock Tower seem to 
have been erected, although its completion is 
usually referred to this year. 

Venice had parted, notwithstanding, at the 
end of the fifteenth century, with much of her 
middle-age costume, and her civil and ecclesi- 
astical architecture had reached their highest 
pinnacle of glory, unsullied by the decline of 
political and moral power. But, nevertheless, 
when the moment of consummation arrived, 
and the labour of love, from sire to son, 
many times told, disclosed itself to view in 
all its splendour, there was something missing. 
The poetry of outline had been sacrificed to 
a monotonous symmetry and to a too stern 
law of order. There is scarcely enough, as 

* The engraving of St. Mark's Place in Braun's 
Civitates, shewing the great fire there in 1599 actually 
raging, is very unsatisfactory, and has every appearance 
of having been executed at second-hand or from re- 
port. Its delineations are strangely unreal. The 
Piazza had probably undergone very slight change 
between 1496 and the date of the fire a century later. 
Yet one scarcely identifies the old picture and the 
view in Braun as the same locality. 



120 



THE ANTIQUARY'S NOTE-BOOK. 



one casts one's eyes round the Piazza at 
present, to console one for the loss of the 
grand old picturesque place of Titian's boy- 
hood, with its infinite variety and liberty of 
form, its exemption from scholastic man- 
nerism, and (not least) its lines of funnelled 
chimneys and cowls. 



C6e antiquary jRote^oofe* 

The Ruins of St. Botolph's Priory, 
Colchester. On the 3rd February last, a 
meeting was held in the Vestry of St. 
Botolph's. Colchester, to receive and deal 
with a report from Mr. Loftus Brock, upon 
the fine old ruins of St Botolph's Priory. 
The Chairman read Mr. Brock's report 
as follows : " The ruin consists of the 
piers and arches of the nave, the walling 
of the west front, except its upper portion, 
the base of what appears to have been a 
tower of peculiar plan at the south-west of 
the front, and the walls of the north and 
south aisles. The walling consists of brick 
taken from some ancient Roman buildings, 
in more or less of a fragmentary condition, 
of all sizes and thicknesses, fragments of 
roofing, and flue tiles. There is also flint 
walling and masses of septaria. The whole 
of this is put together with mortar formed of 
poor sand, and is not too good to resist the 
action of the elements. It is of very early 
Norman work. The design of the nave and 
arches consists of massive circular pillars, 
with semicircular arches, above which is 
another series of circular arches. The effect 
of this design is, that the upright piles of 
masonry have only the lateral tie of the two 
ranges of arches. Some of the upper and 
many of the lower arches have fallen, and 
the vaulting of the aisles, which stiffened the 
lower range, has been destroyed so entirely 
at some period probably at or shortly after 
the siege of Colchester that all abutment 
derived from it is wanting. A single arch of 
the south aisle, from wall to pillar, remains 
of the vaulting, together with indications only 
of it elsewhere. The church having been 
unroofed since the siege, the effect of the 



elements for so many years upon the masonry, 
composed as stated, has been no more than 
might have been expected. The ruin is 
weakened over its whole surface, the joints 
between the Roman brick are so open that a 
rule will pass in more than six inches in many 
places ; the masonry of the upper part of the 
nave arcade is thoroughly separated from the 
mortar, some parts of the outer rings of the 
remaining arches have fallen, and much of 
the remainder is so dangerous that entrance 
to the ruin must be denied to everyone, 
except such as may be willing to use the 
greatest care in inspecting. Parts of the west 
front, where there are two curious tiers of 
interlaced arches, have fallen, other portions 
may be expected to fall, it may be at any 
moment, and the whole mass requires atten- 
tion, particularly at the south-west end ; and 
internally, the pier on the south side of the 
remains of the rose window. The stone-work 
of this interesting feature of the work, inserted 
in older work, is very loose, and must be 
attended to. The main western portal con- 
sists of several orders of enriched stone-work, 
of late Norman date, interpolated into the 
walling of an older doorway, the work being 
of much interest and beauty. The effect of 
the passing of so many years, and the bond 
not being good necessarily through the inser- 
tion of the work, is telling seriously upon the 
whole mass ; some of the stone-work has dis- 
appeared, other parts will fall unless sup- 
ported, and the whole is weak on account of 
the wide-open joints. The south-west portal 
is original. It is formed entirely of Roman 
bricks of several orders, and is remarkable as 
being the most ancient doorway of this design 
in the kingdom. It is in a miserable con- 
dition for want of pointing. The inspection 
which I have made convinces me that un- 
less certain works of support are done, and 
done at once, material injury must result to 
the ruin. Those of the side arches which are 
in the worst condition, portions of the west 
front, and part of the masonry of the north- 
east pier of the nave, are so weak that they 
may fall at any time, and it is imperative that 
immediate steps should be taken to strengthen 
them. The above demand attention at once. 
In addition, the works I advise to be done 
are as follows : To exclude the passage of 
wet through the walling by grouting the loose 



THE ANTIQUARY'S NOTE-BOOK. 



121 



masonry on top, and afterwards covering it 
with a mass of cement concrete spread to a 
slope to throw off the wet. To rebuild the 
portions of the arches which have recently 
fallen, in order to increase the lateral sup- 
ports. To cut out all loose portions of the 
walling, and to replace the same stones and 
bricks in their original positions. To repoint 
the whole of the surfaces. To cover over the 
small remaining piece of vaulting to the south- 
west tower with cement concrete. There is 
at the north-east end of the north aisle a 
Norman window which calls for careful atten- 
tion. It is constructed of blocks of what has 
been light-coloured stone and bright-red 
Roman bricks alternately, and it is, therefore, 
a very early example of colour-decoration. 
It is now in a ruined condition, some of the 
arch having fallen, all being loose for want of 
pointing, and the whole discoloured by flow 
of rain. Special care should be taken with 
this interesting feature of the building, and if 
possible the missing parts of the arch found 
and replaced. 

"E. P. Loftus Brock, F.S.A., 

" Architect. 
"36, Great Russell Street, W.C. 

"Note. In reply to inquiry addressed to 
me with respect to the original form of the 
roof of the nave : There can be but little 
doubt but that the nave itself had a timber 
roof; that as to the aisles being vaulted, I do 
not share the general belief that the arches 
over those of the nave are those of the 
clerestory windows. The result of my survey 
is rather to believe that there was a range of 
clerestory windows originally above the latter. 
In this case the design must have been very 
similar to the very early Norman naves of 
St. John's, Chester, and Waltham Abbey, the 
triforium consisting in all alike of a large open 
arch, more or less filled in afterwards. There 
is here no passage in the thickness of the 
wall. The remaining south-west fragment of 
the gable wall will throw some light upon this 
inquiry when we can get to it. The pedi- 
ment of the central western portal is of* the 
later date of the doorway, and the lower tier 
of interlaced arches has been cut through for 
it. The pillows of the interlaced arches, 
formed of brick, are so similar to those found 
in hypocausts of Roman villas that it is pos- 
sible that they were so employed originally." 

vol. xv. 



Mr. Hawkins suggested that arrangements be 
made for the immediate restoration of the 
portion of the ruins which must be done at 
once, and in order that funds should not be 
wanting to start with, he had great pleasure 
in giving Mr. Corbett his contribution (hand- 
ing over a cheque for ,50). The Com- 
mittee then passed resolutions to the effect 
that it is most desirable that immediate 
action should be taken for their preservation 
on the lines laid down in that report, and 
thanking Mr. Horace Round for drawing 
attention to the subject. 

Prices for Caxtons. A few typical 
illustrations of the sums formerly paid for 
Caxtons will interest our readers. In 1776 
John Radcliffe's library was sold off by 
auction by Christie, the auctioneer whose 
name still survives. The collection included 
upwards of thirty Caxtons. Here are some 
of the prices : 

s. d. 

Chronicles of Englande, printed by Caxton, 
fine copy, 1480 5 5 o 

Doctrinal of Sapyence, printed by Caxton, 

1489 880 

The Boke called Cathon, printed by Caxton, 

1483 5 5 

The Polyttque Boke, named Tullius de 
Senectute, in Englyshe, printed by Cax- 
ton, 1481 14 o O 

The Game and Playe of Chesse, printed by 
Caxton ... ... ... 16 o o 

The Boke of Jason, printed by Caxton ... 5 10 o 

Legenda A urea ; or, the Golden Legend, 

printed by Caxton, 1483 ... 9 15 o 

The absurdity of these prices will be apparent 
when we mention that of several of the above 
books only some half a dozen copies are 
known to exist. A singular fact worth men- 
tioning here is, that John Ratcliffe, whose 
library included these Caxtons and many 
other rare works, originally kept a chandler's 
shop in the Borough ; quantities of old books 
were there brought to him from time to time 
for use in his shop. Printing Times, Jan. 15, 
1887. 

Horsemanship in 1584. It is curious 
to the modern reader to come across refer- 
ences to a work on horse-riding by "Mr. 
Astley," in a treatise which was published in 
London while Shakespeare lived here The 
Art of Riding, a translation from the Italian 
of Claudio Corte, 1584. At this time, when 
all the world is going to the Olympian games 
at Kensington to see whether the French can 

K 



122 



THE ANTIQUARY'S NOTE-BOOK. 



really beat the English in feats of skill and 
activity, a few notes as to how horses were 
trained 300 years ago will be of interest : 
"The Corvetta is that motion which the 
crowe maketh when without flieing she 
leapeth and iumpeth vpon the ground : for 
Coruo in the Italian toong signifieth a crowe, 
and a leape in that sort is called Coruetta. 
Presate, I suppose, were so-called of the 
verbe Pesare, which in our language is to 
waie or balance. And the Italians, hauing 
tried the wait of anie thing, doo commonlie 
saie E cosa presata : so likewise metaphori- 
callie and by waie of resemblance, they called 
those liftings vp and lettings downe of the 
horsse feete in iust time and order, Pesate. 
This motion was in ancient time among the 
Italians termed Orsata, because the beare 
vseth such a heauing vp and downe with his 
bodie .... The Zampetta, or (as M. 
Claudio calleth it) La Gambetta is when the 
horse dooth put forward one leg before the 
other, either in his manage vpon halfe turnes, 
the Coruette, or at the stop standing firme ; 
which leg would be somewhat lifted vp from 
the ground whensoever the rider dooth so 
require. A horse being perfect in this lifting 
and putting forward of his leg, dooth become 
himselfe the better, not onelie in his turnes 
vpon the ground and the other somewhat 
aboue ground, but also in the manage turnes, 
and when he is cast about swiftlie, narrowe, 
and as it were without rest or time. You 
may teach your horse the Gambetta in an 
hollow ground made like vnto a boate or 
muskell shell, hauing little hils on either side, 
so that the plaine ground betwixt the hils be 
not larger than three or foure spans; you 
must thereunto put the helps before-said. 
But you had better teach him in the stable, 
by striking him with a rod vpon the inside of 
that leg, which you would haue him lift or 
put forward, adding thereunto your voice as 
' Up ! Up !' which you must continue till 
the horse lifteth his leg. But so soone as he 
so dooth remooue your rod and giue him 
some bread or grasse, in signe he dooth con- 
tent you." A succeeding chapter describes 
" How to treat your horsse to kneele downe, 
and that he shall suffer his Maister onelie to 
ride him." 

Popular Tales. " Tales have wings," 
says Isaac Disraeli eloquently, "whether 



they come from the East or from the North, 
and they soon become denizens wherever 
they alight. Thus it has happened that the 
tale which charmed the wandering Arab in 
his tent, or cheered the northern peasant by 
his winter's fireside, alike held on its journey 
to England and Scotland." Were that judi- 
cious collector of the deltcice of literature to 
revisit the earth, says Mr. Clouston, he would 
probably be not a little surprised to know 
how universal are our household tales and 
popular fictions that our nursery stories 
reach far into antiquity, the germs of many 
being found in apologues of Hindu or Bud- 
dhist invention, which were employed as 
vehicles of moral instruction. The "shoes 
of swiftness," the " coat of invisibility," and 
the " sword of sharpness," which the renowned 
hero Jack received from the grateful three- 
headed giant; the inexhaustible purse and 
wishing-hat of Fortunatus, play prominent 
parts in the household tales of peoples so 
diverse in race, religion, manners, and customs 
as the Norwegians, Frenchmen, Portuguese, 
Italians, Greeks, Arabs, Persians, Mongolians, 
Hindus, and Sinhalese. The wonderful ram, 
in the Norse tale, that produced golden 
ducats whenever one said, " Ram ! ram ! 
make money," has its counterparts almost 
everywhere, and its prototype seems to be 
the all-bestowing Cow which figures in the 
great Indian epic the " Rdmdyana." So, too, 
the magic cudgel, that belaboured everybody 
all round when its owner said, " Stick ! stick ! 
lay on," found in the folk-tales of most 
European countries, is equally familiar to the 
people throughout India. Most of the bold 
exploits of Jack the Giant-killer occur in the 
Edda of Snorro, and in Persian and Indian 
romances. The prime nursery favourite, 
" Whittington and his Cat," is not only spread 
over Europe, but was known in Persia sixty 
years before the Worshipful Lord Mayor 
Whittington was born. But it is not solely 
in our nursery tales that this identity exists 
from Iceland to Ceylon ; such is also the case 
of popular European tales of common life. 
The subject of the humorous Scotch song, 
" The Barrin' o' the Door," is known in Italy, 
Turkey, Arabia, and India. The fine old 
ballad of "The Heir of Linne" has its 
parallels and analogues in Italy, Turkey, 
Arabia, and Persia. The familiar jest of the 



ANTIQ UARIAN NE WS. 



123 



Englishman, the Irishman, and the Scotch- 
man and the Loaf is traceable to a Buddhist 
source dating more than two centuries b.c. 
The Irish legend of the clever little fellow 
who frequently duped his big tyrannical 
brother, and always profited by his own mis- 
fortunes, is known from Iceland to the banks 
of the Ganges. Many a well-worn "Joe 
Miller " has shaken the shoulders and wagged 
the beards of grave Asiatics ages upon ages 
before the putative compiler of that celebrated 
jest-book came on the world's stage. 



Antiquarian J13eto& 

Mr. A. N. Palmer will publish by subscription, in 
one volume, The History of the Parish Church of 
Wrexham. Mr. Palmer's History of Ancient Tenures 
of Land in the Marches of North Wales is so well 
known as a splendid bit of local work that we are glad 
to be able to record this new book. 

The comparative study of popular tales has of late 
years received a stimulus in this country, by the 
establishment of the Folk-Lore Society, which has 
already done much good work ; and there appears to 
be, even among general readers, a rapidly increasing 
interest in the question of the origin and diffusion of 
folk-tales. Thanks to the labours of learned and 
indefatigable scholars, the folk-tales of many European 
as well as Asiatic countries have now been "taken 
down from the mouths of the people," and published 
in German, French, Italian, English, and other 
languages of Europe. But these collections are not 
generally accessible, and even if they were so, few 
readers could find time, or have much inclination, to 
study them separately, and afterwards compare the 
tales as they are current in different countries. It has 
therefore been thought that a work which should 
bring together variants or versions of a number of 
familiar stories, and of incidents in folk-lore, might 
be calculated to prove both useful and entertaining. 
With this design, Mr. Clouston has composed his 
work, entitled, Popular Tales and Fictions : their 
Migrations and Transformations, which will shortly 
be issued in two vols. Mr. Clouston has spared no 
labour in order to bring the information he furnishes 
down to the latest discoveries in this department of 
literature. A considerable proportion of the European 
tales which he cites have never before appeared in 
English, while his wide acquaintance with Eastern 
fiction has enabled him to trace several popular stories 
to hitherto unnoticed sources. 



Messrs. William Pollard and Co., of Exeter, pro- 
pose, should the project meet with sufficient support, 
to reproduce at an early date the articles on Devon- 
shire Parochial History, which have appeared from 
time to time in the columns of the Exeter Gazette, 
The Western Morning News and elsewhere, under 
the title of Devonshire Parishes, by Charles Worthy. 
They will include descriptions of the various Churches, 
the result of personal visits, Heraldic Notes, and 
numerous Genealogical particulars. 

A meeting was held on January 29th in Lincoln's 
Inn Hall, to consider the advisability of establishing a 
society (to be called the Selden Society) to encourage 
the study and advance the knowledge of the history 
of English law. The objects of the society include 
the printing of unedited MSS., and the publication of 
new editions and translations of works having an im- 
portant bearing on English legal history ; the collec- 
tion of materials for a dictionary of Anglo-French and 
of law terms ; the collection of materials for a history 
of English law j the holding of meetings for the 
reading and discussion of papers ; and publication of 
a selection of the papers read at the meetings, and of 
other original communications. Lord Justice Fry 
presided at the meeting, and among those present 
were the American Minister, Mr. Phelps, the Lord 
Chief Justice of England, Mr. Montagu Cookson, 
Q.C., and Mr. F. Pollock. Resolutions in favour of 
establishing the society were passed, the Lord Chief 
Justice, who moved that its name be the Selden 
Society, remarking that all the works of Selden were 
the writings of a man of great learning, of high" 
character, and, in the best sense, of true liberality of 
mind. 

An interesting discovery has been reported to the 
authorities in Salford. Some workmen were engaged 
in making excavations in connection with the erection 
of a new building in New Oldfield Road, near the 
works of Messrs. Worrall and Sons, Ordsal Lane, 
when they came across a subterranean passage. An 
examination was at once made, the result showing 
that the passage is in good condition, and leads from 
Oldfield Road to Ordsal Lane. It is supposed to 
have been connected with Ordsal Old Hall, an old 
mansion of considerable historical interest. 

There have been completed in Chester Cathedral 
a series of works in marble mosaic, which (the 
Times says) exceed in importance of aim and 
extent of area any similar work of modern times. 
This is the set of mosaics for the decoration 
of the north wall of the nave. In each bay there 
stands one of the great figures of Old Testa- 
ment history, Abraham, Moses, David, and Elijah ; 
on either side of these are panel spaces filled with 
group compositions, which illustrate some leading 

K 2 



124 



ANTIQ UARIAN NE WS. 



incidents in the life of the central figure. The special 
interest of the work consists in the fact that it is in 
marble mosaic, composed of an infinite number of 
small tessera, such as one sees in an old Roman pave- 
ment, but such as have very rarely been used in wall 
decorations either in ancient or modern times. The 
present age has seen a great revival of the mosaic art, 
but almost exclusively of the Venetian type, with 
gorgeous colours and backgrounds of blazing gold. 

Important Roman remains have been discovered at 
Lescar (Basses Pyrenees). It is conjectured that the 
explorers have lighted on the site of the Roman town 
Beneharnum, which was destroyed by the Goths as 
they passed onward to the invasion of Spain. 

On Saturday, 15th January, John Simmonds, city 
horn-blower, of Ripon, died, at the age of eighty-five. 
Deceased had held the position forty-three years, and 
succeeded his father, Benjamin Simmonds. Simmonds 
was a prominent personage at the Millenary Festival, 
where the blowing of the Wakeman's Horn, a cere- 
mony which has been kept up every night since Saxon 
times, was an interesting feature. 

Scarsdale House, Kensington, is to be sold, with 
its extensive grounds. It has been in the Curzon 
family for many years. This curious old house, which 
was built in the reign of James I., is supposed to be 
the oldest house in Kensington, and is described in 
Miss Thackeray's Old Kensington. There are some 
curious old mantelpieces in the drawing-rooms, of 
carved alabaster, all the rooms are panelled, and they 
contain some fine old china. 

The chambers known as 6 and 7, King's Bench 
Walk, Inner Temple, are about to be pulled down 
and rebuilt. Advantage will be taken of the oppor- 
tunity to widen the Whitefriars entrance to the 
Temple, which is inconveniently narrow, and a new 
and handsome gate will replace the ancient wooden 
structure at present in use. It has been suggested 
that old Temple Bar should form the new gateway. 

Sir John Steell has completed the medallion, with 
head in alto relievo, of Sir Walter Scott, for erection 
in Poets' Corner, Westminster Abbey. The basis of 
the work is the cast for the statue of Sir Walter, which 
forms part of the monument in Prince's Street, Edin- 
burgh. A mask of Sir Walter's face which had been 
taken after death has been used by the sculptor in 
modelling the medallion, so that the head for West- 
minster may be regarded as one of the most exact in 
its proportions yet given to the public. It is on a 
colossal scale the medallion measuring 30 inches by 
23 inches, and is surrounded by a plain marble mould- 
ing with an entablature at the foot bearing the inscrip- 
tion, "1771 Scott 1832." 

On the 17th ult. Messrs. Puttick and Simpson sold 
by auction a copy of the first edition of Caxton's 



The Game and Playe of Chesse. The copy was per- 
fect, with the exception of two blank leaves. Only 
ten copies of this edition are known. The book was 
bought by Mr. Quaritch for ^645. 

The church of St. Michael, Workington, was de- 
stroyed by fire on Monday the 17th January. The 
fire was discovered in the north-west corner of the 
tower about five o'clock, near the heating apparatus. 
All efforts to save the building were in vain, except as 
regards the tower and its peal of bells and clock. 
These were preserved, and the parish registers were 
rescued, but the nave and chancel were completely 
gutted by the fire. The organ and three fine stained- 
glass windows were destroyed, as were also two valu- 
able paintings in the chancel, representing the Ascen- 
sion and the Descent from the Cross. 

The parish church of Holy Trinity in Michelgate 
is about to be restored and enlarged. The building 
is Early English in style, and the original design for 
the restoration was on similar lines ; but on the ground 
of expense, effect, and historical and antiquarian truth, 
Mr. C. Hodgson Fowler, who was consulted by the 
building committee, recommended the adoption of a 
later style. The new work will, therefore, be Perpen- 
dicular in character, and will comprise new chancel, 
organ chamber, vestries, north aisle (having two 
entrances), clerestory, and roof. Only lately they 
were pulling down the old churches of York. Now 
they are enlarging them. All traces of their archaeo- 
logical value will of course be lost ; but how monstrous 
it is that these buildings should be allowed to be spoilt 
like this ! 

Excavations at Herculaneum have brought to light 
libraries in a perfect state of preservation. Escretoires 
or cases arranged along the walls held the books or 
rolls, that is, volumina or tablet -books {libri), laid on 
their sides. The libraries were suitably partitioned 
into numbered cases, for Vospicus says that the 
" sixth " case of the Ulpian Library, founded by 
Trajan, contained an "ivory book." The room dis- 
covered at Herculaneum resembled a sort of " den " 
or working-room, so small that the student or writer 
could by reaching out his hand touch either wall. 
According to Pliny, the Younger, these cases or sets 
of pigeon-holes were called armaria; Seneca terms 
them locumenta ; Juvena.], folttli; and Martial, nudi. 
These receptacles were about the height of a man. 
The book-rolls were laid in these pigeon-hole cases 
very much in the same way as a modern dealer in 
wall-paper arranges his rolls, care being taken always 
that the knob {umbiculus) bearing the pittacium, or 
title-ticket or label, should be outward, and that the 
rolls should not be piled upon one another. 

The missal that accompanied as a present from 
Rome the Papal bull proclaiming Henry VIII. of 



ANTIQ UARIAN NE TVS. 



125 



England "Defender of the Faith" is said to be the 
most magnificent manuscript in the world. It is 
executed with wondrous art in letters of gold upon 
purple vellum. The German Government paid the 
Duke of Hamilton ^"10,000 for it, and snapped it up 
while authorities at the British Museum were bickering 
for it and trying to get it for a lower price. So far as 
is known, it is the most costly book in existence. 

An interesting volume in the possession of the 
Nesbit- Hamilton family has a collection of dates 
written on the first page which are quite a history. It 
appears that a large-print Prayer-book in 1760, be- 
longing to Lady Robert Manners, was borrowed by 
Seeker, Archbishop of Canterbury, whose sight was 
failing, for use at the marriage of George III., and 
also on subsequent occasions. By degrees a super- 
stition arose connected with the use of the book that 
it brought happiness to the married couple and it 
has been, therefore, borrowed by the Royal Family 
m any times. 

A Roman leaden coffin has recently been found on 
some land leading to Plumstead Common from Wick- 
ham Lane. Mr. W. H. Smith has written an account 
of it for us, and this will be printed in our next issue. 

The " Horns " at Kennington, which is in course of 
re-erection, is a tavern with a long history and a great 
reputation. It existed as a coaching inn at least three 
hundred years ago, and probably long before. During 
the present century it has been chiefly famous for its 
great assembly-room. 

Saturday, the 12th February, was appointed for the 
private view of the Spring Exhibition of the Nineteenth 
Century Art Society, at the Conduit Street Galleries, 
and the Exhibition opened to the public on the follow- 
ing Monday. There are several pictures of interest to 
the antiquary, and the whole collection is one of 
much interest. Mr. Lott's "Crypt of Canterbury 
Cathedral," showing the Lady Chapel and burying- 
place of St. Thomas a Beckett ; Mr. Austin Carter's 
"ARomanLetter-writer;"Mr. Cooper's "Old Manor 
Farm near Windsor;" Mr. Couchman's "Doorway of 
St. John the Baptist Chapel, Westminster Abbey," 
were among those which we specially noted. 

The clearing away of the debris from the founder 
which recently took place in the ancient town wall of 
Southampton along the Western Shore Road has dis- 
closed a most interesting relic, viz. : the remains of 
the water gate to the Castle of Southampton. The 
gate is but a little above the level of the roadway, and 
from its size and position with regard to the castle, it 
is conjectured it was the principal entrance from that 
side leading up by steps into the castle. The arch 
at the top is completely gone, but the two sides, 
containing each a recess for the portcullis, are in a 

capital state of preservation, the lines of masonry being 



sharply defined, and the style of the architecture is 
Early English probably fourteenth century work. 
We hope to give a more detailed account of this in 
our next issue from the pen of Mr. T. W. Shore. 

Some time ago a portion of a cinerary or funeral 
urn was turned up in a field on the farm of Capuck 
at Jedburgh, near where the Roman road crosses the 
Oxnam Water. Mr. Walter Laidlaw, Abbey Gardens, 
for the Marquis of Lothian, got possession of the urn, 
and, having made excavations where the relic was 
found, he has been successful in discovering other 
portions of the urn, besides fragments of thinner un- 
glazed wheel pottery of smaller size and apparently 
later date, probably fragments of vessels for domestic 
use, and pieces of iron very much corroded. The urn 
seems to have been about a foot high, and it appears 
to have had two handles, a peculiarity worth noting. 
A thorough examination of the place having been 
made, the foundations of three distinct buildings were 
come upon. The walls have been three feet thick, 
and these have been supported by buttresses with a 
projection of two feet at the base and two feet broad. 
Those at the corners had a breadth of three feet. The 
buttresses are five feet apart. About ten feet to the 
left of this are the foundations of the two other build- 
ings, which are of considerably smaller dimensions, 
and show no buttresses. The stones are all rough 
and undressed. Special interest attaches to the dis- 
covery on account of the proximity of the remains to 
the Roman road. About twenty years ago the hilt of 
a Roman sword was found in the bed of the river 
close by. 



Meetings of antiquarian 

>ociette& 

- 

Society of Antiquaries. Jan. 20. Dr. E. Fresh- 
field, V.P., in the chair. Mr. G. H. Blakesley, by 
the kindness of Mr. W. K. Welch, exhibited a carved 
panel of Italo-Greek work, with a representation of 
the death-bed of St. Francis. The panel bears date 
1680. Mr. W. J. Hardy exhibited a fine example of 
an apostle spoon, with London hall-marks for 1604. 
Mr. J. G. Waller exhibited a rubbing of, and read 
some notes on, a singular incised slab at Seclin, near 
Lille, bearing a figure of St. Piat. The Rev. E. B. 
Savage communicated some notes descriptive of a cup- 
marked stone from Ballagawne in the Isle of Man, 
which was held in great fear and reverence by the 
neighbourhood. Mr. G. L. Gomme read a communi- 
cation on the history of Malmesbury as a village com- 
munity. 

Royal Society of Literature. Jan. 26. Sir P. 
Colquhoun, President, in the chair. A paper was 
read by Mr. R. B. Holt " On the Culture of the 
Ancient Britons." 



126 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



Numismatic Jan. 20. Dr. R. L. Poole, V.P., 
in the chair. Col. H. H. Kitchener exhibited a 
" Medjedieh " struck by the late Mahdi and issued at 
Khartoum. The other exhibitions were : Mr. H. 
Montagu, four shillings of Henry VII. ; Mr. Copp, a 
Tanner's ninepence and a copper farthing of Cromwell ; 
Mr. Webster, a silver medal of Cardinal Antoine 
Perrenot de Granvelle, Archbishop of Besancon, by 
Lione Lioni ; Mr. Krumbholz, a shilling of Elizabeth ; 
and the Rev. G. F. Crowther. forgeries of pennies of 
Ethered, Archbishop of Canterbury, of Alfred the 
Great struck in London, and of John struck at 
Durham. A paper on the medals of the Popes Inno- 
cent VIII. and Alexander VI., written by the late 
Archdeacon Pownall, was read. 

Historical. Jan. 20. Mr. C. A. Fyffe in the 
chair. Mr. Oscar Browning' read a paper " On the 
Attitude of England towards the French Revolution 
and Napoleon." 

Philological. Jan. 21. Mr. A. J. Ellis, V.P., 
in the chair. Dr. J. A. H. Murray made his annual 
report on the progress of the Society's "New English 
Dictionary," whichhe is editing for the Clarendon Press. 

Malton Field Naturalists' and Scientific 
Society. Nov. 6. Professor Williamson, LL.D., 
F.R.S., of Owens College, attended, as President, the 
sixth annual conversazione. The Hon. Henry Fitz- 
william, of The Lodge, had sent some old and interesting 
engravings, relics from the battlefield of Giniss, Egypt ; 
old street-lamps from Constantinople ; rock speci- 
mens collected between first and second cataracts on 
the Nile, relics from Egyptians' tombs, and other 
smaller articles of value. Mr. Banks sent a splendid 
collection of hand-painted china ; Major J. H. 
Legard a number of preserved heads of animals shot 
by himself in India, Zulu weapons of warfare, dresses, 
etc. Mr. George Howard, of Castle Howard, lent 
several valuable cases of stuffed birds, and a pair of 
half-petrified horns found in a bog 50 feet below the 
surface. Mr. Ashwell sent in curious designs worked 
in feathers and shells ; and Messrs. Hardy, Shepherd 
and Sinclair- Rogers lent a valuable lot of oil-paintings 
and engravings. The President gave an address on 
"The Transition from the Carboniferous Vegetation 
of the Northern Coal-field to that of the Yorkshire 
Oolites." 

Chester Archaeological and Historic Society. 
November 8. A paper was read by Mr. J. Hewitt, 
entitled "Notes on the Crypts and Rows of 
Chester." Mr. Hewitt assigned the formation of 
both, as they are seen at present, to mediaeval times, 
whatever may have preceded them in the Roman age. 
After speaking of the ancient architecture of Chester 
as a patchwork of many periods, though built upon 
the Roman lines, he pointed out that the ravages of 
the Danes and Northumbrians did much to destroy 
the Roman work ; and the Normans of a later period 
left no trace of the Saxon except a few interesting 
head-crosses in St. John's Church. Thus the Roman 
and Saxon erections in their turn were ruthlessly 
thrown down, to be superseded by Norman and early 
English buildings. Yet no Norman architecture had 
been preserved to us, save in St. John's Church and 
the Cathedral of St. Werburgh ; and so up to the 
twelfth century Chester must have been erected at 
least four times, corresponding to the British, Roman, 



Saxon, and Norman occupations. He had yet failed 
to read of any Roman buildings in England or on the 
Continent having the slightest approach to the features 
of our rows, although the streets of Chester were built 
upon the stereotyped Roman lines. Having briefly 
brought up the progress of the city to the Norman 
age, when the Castle of Chester was erected by 
William the Conqueror, and the walls repaired and 
strengthened, he said this protection from the Welsh 
and other enemies of the city, together with the 
powerful character of the Norman Earls of Chester, 
laid the real foundations of Chester as a seat of com- 
merce. Domestic buildings of the Norman period 
were extremely scarce in England, not one being in 
Chester. The general character of the houses altered 
little during the three centuries which followed the 
Conquest, and a description of them by Mr. Cutts 
indicated gables fronting to the streets, with a first- 
floor raised above the level of the street, and a short 
stairway leading from the street to the first-floor, 
which was the shop-floor. The cellar was lighted by 
a window, and reached by a door below these stairs. 
A passage alongside the shop on the first-floor led to 
a staircase at the back. The floor above the shop was 
used for living purposes, and the loft for the storage of 
goods, which were lifted to it by a crane which pro- 
jected from a door in the gable. Twelfth and thir- 
teenth century buildings at Cluny, St. Antonin, and 
Amiens were examples of this style of architecture. 
The period of great commercial prosperity on the 
Continent occurred in the Middle Ages, and their 
mediaeval towns were, in consequence, larger and 
handsomer than ours. In the second place, there had 
been no great outburst of prosperity in those countries 
since to encourage the pulling down of the mediaeval 
houses ; while in England our commercial growth, 
which came later, has had the result of clearing away 
nearly all of our old town-houses except a few old- 
fashioned places left outside the tide of commercial 
innovations. A walk through some of the towns of 
Normandy would enable the student and artist better 
to realize the picturesque effect of an old English town 
than any amount of diligence in putting together the 
fragments of old towns which remain to us. He had 
ventured to quote this from Scenes and Characters of 
the Middle Ages, in order to show that, with the ex- 
ception of the rows, the buildings of Chester are built 
very much upon the mediaeval plan. Bearing in mind 
that the basement consisted of a groined vault, with 
low doorway and window under the external steps 
leading to the principal floor, elevated four or five feet 
above the street-level, we arrive at the real subjects of 
the meeting the crypts and rows of Chester. 
The lecturer further showed the general agreement 
between the crypt yet remaining under the premises 
of Messrs. Brown, in Eastgate S treet, and the Con- 
tinental examples of the twelfth and thirteenth cen- 
turies. Here were still, in perfect condition, the 
entrance and windows, with the frontage to the cellar ; 
so that, leaving out the more modern encroachment 
built in front of the cellar entrance, the plan would 
correspond with the description of mediaeval houses 
given by Mr. Cutts. The ideas were the same in the 
main, proving that, although Chester streets are built 
upon Roman lines, a general reformation in the houses 
must have taken place during the period between the 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



127 



twelfth and fifteenth centuries; and the most complete 
example of an early arrangement in Chester is the 
Falcon Cocoa- House, in Lower Bridge Street. Though 
erected so late as the end of the sixteenth century, it 
is built upon the lines of a much earlier plan, thus 
seeming to be an old copy of a very much older 
original, the value of which is enhanced by its being 
unique in Chester. Here can be seen the identical 
arrangement of steps, partly external and partly in- 
ternal, leading up to the first-floor level, under a 
massive stone arch. The lecturer proceeded to show 
how the rows were, probably, formed by the building 
out of the houses above until they reached over so as 
to cover the steps already spoken of as leading to the 
ground-floor. It was probably impossible to define 
when and why the rows were formed, but it must have 
been a general undertaking when the idea did present 
itself. The formation of the crypts of Chester the 
lecturer assigned to the period between the accession 
of Richard I. (1189) and the death of Henry III. 
(1272), the oldest of them being that on the premises 
of Mr. Newman, ironmonger, Bridge Street. The 
vaulting consists of small stones similar to the general 
work in early English erections. A treasure-hole lined 
with oak was found under one of the steps. He dis- 
credited the current assumption that this crypt was 
used as a chapel ; and, proceeding to the second oldest 
crypt that under the Crypt Chambers, Eastgate Row 
said it must have been erected within twenty or 
thirty years of the completion of the Bridge Street 
crypt. The crypt in Watergate Street had been 
assigned to the year 11 80, but the architecture of it 
was coeval with the death of Henry III., nearly a 
century later (after the rise of the decorated Gothic, 
but before its full development). The crypt formerly 
under Messrs. Beckett's premises, with the massive 
arches under the old Blue Posts Inn (now the shop of 
Mr. James Jones, bootmaker) and Messrs. J. R. Dutton 
and Sons, Bridge Street, were also touched upon. His 
conclusion was that the Chester crypts were identical 
with others existing in various towns of England, and 
were beautiful examples of a general, and not special, 
character, and that they did not include a domestic 
crypt chapel. The lecturer illustrated his subject by 
means of a number of cleverly executed drawings and 
plans, copies of the latter being circulated among the 
audience. 

Midland Institute, Archaeological Section. 
Mr. J. A. Cossins presided. A paper was read by 
Mr. W. G. Fretton, F.S.A., on the Hospital of St. 
John the Baptist at Coventry. The lecturer said 
that this was a mediaeval institution founded for the 
relief of the sick, infirm, and permanent poor. Up 
to the time of its foundation there was no institu- 
tion whatever to provide for such emergencies. 
Edmund, Archdeacon of Coventry from 1160 to 11 76, 
a man of great influence, determination, and con- 
siderable wealth, took great interest in the matter, and 
procured the sanction of the Archbishop of Canter- 
bury to a grant of some lands for the purpose. He 
himself bore the whole cost of erection, and decided 
upon naming it after St. John the Baptist. The 
lecturer proceeded to detail the varying fortunes of 
the hospital from that time to the present day, noting 
the various bequests of land and gifts of money, and 
describing the rules and regulations of the institution. 



York Institute. A paper was read by the 
Rev. J. H. Wicksteed on the " Men of the Lake 
Dwellings," giving an account of his own re- 
searches in the Continental lake districts. He de- 
scribed the Swiss lakes, and alluded with particularity 
to discoveries of modern antiquaries in the "relic 
beds," which indicated the sort of people who lived 
there in very early times. The curiosities and 
relics were of three sorts, and were always found 
in one particular order. Primitive men erected plat- 
forms leading from the land to the water, which being 
removed left them secure and protected from their 
human enemies and from wild animals. First there 
were the men of the Stone Age, then came those of 
the Bronze Age, who seized the dwellings of their 
predecessors, and lastly appeared the men of the Iron 
Age, who invaded the huts of the Stone and the 
Bronze men, and went still further into the water. 
There were evidences to show that the dwellings of 
those men were thatched. In the Berne Museum was 
a skate made out of the bone of a horse, which showed 
that when the lakes were frozen over the villagers 
used to indulge in the pastime of skating. A variety 
of implements were exhibited by the lecturer as having 
been discovered by him in his lake explorations. 
One was a small sickle, which had been used for reap- 
ing handfuls of corn. Even the wheat had left its 
impression on the mud. He found large quantities of 
bones, which did not include those of either the 
mouse or the rat, and implements and utensils used 
for domestic and other purposes. In the museum at 
Como were heaps of hazel nuts and dried apples, the 
latter having been cut in two and their cores extracted. 
This showed that there had been a winter store for 
these early men. There was also linseed, showing 
that they understood the cultivation of flax. The 
lecturer explained that his second tour, to the Italian 
lakes, was a failure, the season being very wet. In 
his Austrian lake tour he discovered extensive re- 
mains of lake-dwellings. He found an earthenware 
fragment, crescent-shaped at the top, which he thought 
was part of a pillar on which early mankind used to 
rest when weary. His brother and others, who were 
good authorities on these matters, however, concluded 
that it was the fragment of an object of reverence or 
superstition. It was the only indication they had that 
those early men had any religion at all. It was known 
from ancient authors that primitive mankind paid 
reverence to the moon. Job, one of the earliest, said, 
" Though I behold the moon walking in brightness," 
eta At the present time there were many super- 
stitions in connection with it. How did these early 
men dispose of their dead ? Did they burn them ? 
Had they done so, remains indicating it would have 
been found. Some people thought they consigned the 
bodies to the water, but the nations of antiquity paid 
too much respect to their dead to adopt that course. 
The mystery as to what became of the dead had, 
happily, been cleared up, a tomb having been found 
in Switzerland in which the bodies of these primitive 
men were laid in their "last, long sleep." They 
knew the bodies were those of the lake-dwellers, 
because of the implements and other articles found 
about them. Twenty bodies were buried in a grave, 
their feet being placed towards the centre, and they 
were in a crouching attitude. Savages always slept 



123 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



with their knees drawn up and their hands covering 
their faces. As those early men died, so they were 
buried. Some of the skeletons of females in the tomb 
were adorned with ornaments and articles of jewellery; 
and beneath the head of one woman's remains were 
found a number of hair-pins as long as skewers. It 
was certain those primitive inhabitants flourished 
more than 2,000 years ago. Remains of extinct 
animals had been discovered, which left no doubt as 
to man's antiquity. Had anything been found in 
relation to that time to support the Darwinian theory 
that man had sprung from the ape ? The skulls of 
these primitive men were those of people full of 
intellectual power; they bore evidence of as great 
a brain as the average European of the nineteenth 
century. 

Newcastle Society of Antiquaries. Decern - 
ber27, the Rev. Dr. Bruce in the chair. Several articles 
of antiquity and books, bearing on difLient subjects, 
had been presented to the association by various 
societies, etc. ; and the thanks of the meeting were 
directed to be sent to those by whom they had been 
presented. The Secretary announced that the River 
Tyne Commissioners had lent the society a British 
bronze sword, which had been found in the river, and 
also a medal enclosed in a strong glass case, that had 
been placed beneath the Tyne Bridge which was 
built in 1775. A vote of thanks was accorded to the 
Commissioners, and also to the Newcastle and Gates- 
head Water Company for an ancient urn which had 
been discovered in a burial mound at West Hallington 
reservoir. The following papers were read : " Notes 
on a Terrier of the Manor of Tynemouth and Preston 
of 1649," by Mr. Horatio A. Adamson ; "John 
Cunningham, Pastoral Poet of Newcastle," by Mr. 
John Robinson; and "Notes on a Burial Mound at 
West Hallington Reservoir," by Mr. R. C. Hedley. 

Buxton Literary and Philosophical Society. 
On November 9 the Court House was crowded by 
members and friends of the above society, to hear a 
lecture by the Rev. J. M. Mello, Rector of St. 
Thomas's, Chesterfield. Mr. Mello commenced by 
referring to the different fauna and flora that existed 
in this country as compared with the earliest times 
they could trace back to. Prehistoric man was an 
interesting subject to deal with, and they gathered 
some traces of his existence in the gravel-pits and the 
deposits of floors and caverns. The works of an 
intelligent being had been dug up in certain places. 
In the rude stone implements they had distinct evi- 
dence that men were living at that remote period in 
that part of the world. No one could doubt that 
these instruments were the work of man. They were, 
considering the time, as distinct works of art as was the 
watch in these days. Man as he first appeared was 
in a very primitive state the state denoted as the 
Stone age, when tools, instruments, and weapons 
were made of stone, probably supplementing them 
with the antlers of the deer, and bones, and probably 
implements of wood, which latter had perished. They 
were at this date unacquainted with the use of metals. 
The further back they went in time the ruder and 
less differentiated were the instruments. Some speci- 
mens he had on the table which had been found in 
Cresswell Cave. These primitive tools and weapons 
were made in the simplest manner possible. The 



Eskimo scraper which was used to-day was very much 
after the style of the implement used by ancient man. 
As they rose in the scale of time they saw a steady 
improvement in the implements used. At the caves 
of Cresswell he found a marked change in the charac- 
ter of the instruments as they descended through the 
deposits of cave earth. The flint tools disappeared as 
they got farther down, when they came to hammers 
made of pebbles of the district. Cresswell Caves and 
Kent's Hole, Torquay, had yielded many examples 
of implements. The lecturer next proceeded to deal 
with the animal life of the period, and pictured the 
appearance of the surrounding country. Where they 
now lived were once heard the cries of the wild 
animals. Buried in the sand and earth accumulated 
in the caves were found the bones of the animals then 
living. The animals now called Arctic were driven 
hither by the weather. There was the elk, and the 
huge mammoth, the Elephas Arcticus, rhinoceros, 
tichorinus, the grisly bear, and the brown bear of 
Europe, wolves, and foxes, while there had been 
found remains of the wild boar. With the change in 
the weather denoted by the periods of the year some 
of these animals changed their habitation. They now 
found another influx of visitors. Among these would 
be lions, leopards, and spotted hyenas, and in some 
of their rivers the burly hippopotamus. There was 
thus an intermingling of the Arctic and other species. 
The bones they found were no chance accumulation. 
The evidence showed that many of them were de- 
posited in the various spots near to which the 
animals died. There was no Manders' Menagerie 
in those days and consequent burial of animals. 
He pointed out that an entire skeleton had been 
found in a cave at Wirksworth, where the rhinoceros 
was disinterred. They found both young and old 
animals lying together. The great devourer of the 
bulk of these animals was, they believed, the hyena. 
This animal was in the habit of dragging its victims 
into its cave, eating all the flesh and rejecting only 
the very hardest portion. Such animals as were now 
only to be found in South Africa inhabited these parts, 
and man was their companion. The early paleo- 
lithic man was an artist. On the bones and ivory 
of the mammoth and pieces of stone were found most 
realistic sketches. There were figures of the reindeer, 
bear, and mammoth itself. In some cases the human 
form was drawn. Man was represented in all respects 
as the Eskimo of to-day, clothed in reindeer skin. 
Professor Boyd Dawkins concluded that there was a 
blood-relationship between paleolithic man and those 
found in Greenland and the far north of America. 
In Belgium, recently, a cave had been explored, and 
in it, with the extinct mammalia, were found two 
skeletons undoubtedly of paleolithic man. They 
were persons of a short race, and the skull had a 
retreating forehead. One of the skeletons was that 
of a woman. He then passed on to treat of the 
Neolithic age. They found the dog, sheep, goat, and 
short-horned ox. The stone implements used by 
man at this time were not so rude, and pottery and 
earthenware made by hand and baked were found. 
Wheat, barley, millet, apples, pears, as well as peas, 
had been discovered. It appeared that the man of 
that date used rough matting and flax wherewith to 
cover himself. Mr. Mello then referred to the upward 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



129 



course of civilization and the burying of the dead. 
The Bronze age was next touched upon, and the 
lecturer alluded to the fact that they found some 
of the moulds in which the implements were cast, 
and the remains of numerous foundries had been 
discovered in Switzerland and other countries. The 
swords of the Bronze age were leaf-shaped. When 
analysed, the metals used were found to be in the 
same proportion everywhere. From the Bronze age 
they passed into the Historic period. Bronze orna- 
ments were much used by the Romans, and many of 
them had, no doubt, seen specimens at Poole's 
Cavern, and one, if he remembered rightly, beauti- 
fully inlaid with silver. Poole's Hole and Cresswell 
offered for a time a shelter to the men and women of 
that day, for it was better for them to meet the wolves 
than these un-Christian hordes. In fancy, they might 
imagine the Christian hymn re-echoing in the lime- 
stone cave, or under the spreading tree in the wood 
around. He had sketched the early remains which 
told them of the past, and they, the men of to-day, 
took their place in the triumphal march of progress 
the victories of mind over matter, the end of which 
was beyond the boundaries of time itself. 

Leeds Geological Association. Nov. 27. A 
paper was given by Mr. Benjamin Holgate, on " Sur- 
face Indications a Guide to the Geology of a District. " 
Mr. Hardcastle (President of the Association) occu- 
pied the chair. Mr. Holgate commenced by saying 
that" amongst the many pleasures accruing to geolo- 
gists, either by road or by rail, was that of observing 
the contour of the country passed through, and stated 
that, irrespective of the physical features observed, 
the colour and nature of the soil should be noted ; 
likewise the vegetation afforded a clue to the geology 
of the district. Thus it happens that many forma- 
tions close together differ in colour, and perhaps it 
may not be too bold an assertion to state that a 
geologist may go the length and breadth of the 
United Kingdom and judge by colour alone. Thus, 
he said, in the magnesian limestone of the Permians 
we have respectively the brown, red, and white of the 
lower, middle, and upper divisions, the red of the 
new red sandstone or trias, the greens and browns of 
the lias, the yellowish-gray of the lower oolites, the 
blue of the Oxford clay, the gray and white of the 
Portland beds, the white of the chalk, and the browns 
of the tertiaries. The older school of geologists 
judged principally in this manner, and were, broadly 
speaking, correct. Again, different rocks, from their 
structure and composition, weather differently. Mr. 
Holgate showed this by diagrams. A country com- 
posed of the outcrops of beds of sandstones and shales, 
alternately occurring, would by the ordinary process 
of denudation form crags and flat surfaces, with 
waterfalls. On the other hand, a country composed 
of uniform hard rocks would be undulating in its 
character. Again, the vegetation can often be relied 
upon ; for instance, who can forget in the course of a 
mountain ramble in the north-west of Yorkshire the 
sharp transition from the brown heather of the mill- 
stone grit to the bright green of the sweet grass grow- 
ing upon the mountain limestone? 

Leeds Naturalists' Club. Oct. 31. Mr. F. W. 
Branson, F.C.S., in the chair. A paper by Mr. 
George Paul on The Fossil Tree at Clayton." After 



referring to the fact that vast numbers of persons have 
visited the fossil tree at Clayton, as showing the 
general interest excited by the discovery, the lecturer 
observed that, although rare, the fossil at that place 
was not the only one known in this country, and, 
indeed, since the discovery of the one in question six 
or seven more had been unearthed in the same district. 
Attention was then drawn to the vast period of time 
which must have elapsed since the tree was in a grow- 
ing condition, during which all the subsequent geo- 
logical series of strata have been deposited, a period 
involving an inconceivable lapse of time. A descrip- 
tive reference was then made to the relationship, or 
rather contrasts, between the botanical morphology 
of the sigillaria and other coal-plants and that of 
existing plants. Mr. Adamson gave details of the 
first fossil tree alluded to by the lecturer, an abstract 
of its measurement, and a statement of its geological 
position, and briefly described the second tree since 
discovered in close proximity. The group in Darley 
Street, Bradford, was also described, and a photo- 
graph of the largest shown. The recent discovery at 
Ilkley was noticed. Two fossil teeth, probably of 
Elephas primigenius, from the gravel near Peter- 
borough, were shown by H. Berridge ; and specimens 
of Serpentine, from Cathkin Braes, Glasgow, and 
some Swiss minerals, by J. F. C. Sieber. 

Chester Natural Science Society. The fol- 
lowing paper on the " Silting up of the Dee since the 
Roman Occupation of Chester," containing much in- 
teresting archaeological evidence, was read before this 
society in November last by Mr. W. Shone, F.G.S. : 
In 1732, under the Act 6 Geo. II., cap. 30, Parlia- 
ment vested in one Nathaniel Kinderley a large tract 
of land which then belonged to the city, called the 
" White Sands," on consideration of his recovering 
and preserving the navigation in such manner that 
there shall be "16 foot of water in every part of the 
river" at a "moderate spring tide," for ships and 
vessels to come and go to and from the city of Chester, 
shortly afterwards reduced to 15 feet. This was to 
be done by contracting the river (which at that period 
diffused itself over these white sands) by means of 
sea walls, banks, etc., which should confine the river 
to one certain course from Chester to the sea. The 
White Sands extended from the new or Water Tower 
by " Blacon Marsh," to "Weppraw" Gutter^ near 
Flint. For several years before Nathaniel Kinderley 
obtained the Act for " recovering and preserving the 
navigation " of the Dee, the matter was much dis- 
cussed by the citizens of Chester in their assemblies. 
At the assembly held October 9, 1730, it was ordered 
that Kinderley's scheme be referred to a committee 
consisting of the mayor, justices of the peace, sheriffs, 
aldermen, and peers, and the rest of the members of 
this House, to meet at the Prentice (at the Cross) to 
consider the same proposal, and to take the evidence 
of the merchants, tradesmen, and masters of ships 
with regard to these proposals. This committee re- 
ported on January 30th, 1731, among other things, as 
follows : " We likewise conceive that from and after 
the river is made navigable, a property may be vested 
in the undertaker (Kinderley) in and to all soil or 
ground commonly called the White Sands, as by the 
Act of Navigation of the 12th King William III., 
was intended to be vested in the mayor and citizens 



T30 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



of Chester. And we likewise conceive that from and 
after the said river is made navigable, such part of 
the Roodee adjoining between the Crane and the 
Point (Wilcox's) as is now staked out for that purpose 
may be granted to the undertaker. But we are of 
opinion that the stones and materials of the Water 
Tower are not in the power of this city to grant, and 
as to the timber, stones, and materials of this city's 
old works, we are of opinion that the undertaker 
may have the same for and towards the perfecting of 
the navigation, and not otherwise." At an assembly 
held March ioth, 1731, they resolved to reserve to 
the citizens the Roodee, the land now known as the 
Tower Field Gardens, and a frontage to the river 
from Wilcox's Point to " Mr. Robinson's Crane." It 
would appear that the Roodee and the Water Tower 
had both narrow escapes at this time, for Kinderley 
attempted to get possession of this land, while the 
Water Tower only escaped pulling down through the 
doubt of the legal authority of the assembly to grant 
any such permission to him (see minute in Assembly 
Book for March 3rd, 1733). With the carrying out 
of Kinder] ey's scheme the river was taken from the 
Cheshire and thrust against the Flintshire shore, and 
confined within its present artificial course from 
Chester to Connah's Quay. It is important to note 
that at the time Kinderley carried out his navigation 
works the river was in a bad state, for at an as- 
sembly held at the Common Hall of Pleas, July 29, 
1 73 1, "a petition of the merchants, grocers, and 
other tradesmen within this city, setting forth that 
they of late suffered very much by the navigation 
works being out of repair, the current of the river 
being changed and now running over the said works, 
whereby two of the petitioners' boats were lately 
sunk there and the goods therein much damaged, and 
they will not be able to bring any boats or vessels 
near this city unless the breach in the said works is 
immediately repaired." In 1662, Fuller, in his 
Worthies of the City, speaks of the rings for fasten- 
ing ships existing in the Water Tower ; but " only 
for sight," as no vessel could come up owing to the 
obstructions in the river. Blome, in his Britannia, 
published in 1763, says: " Great ships in time past, 
at full sea, did come to Watergate in Chester, but the 
channel is now so choked up with sand that it will 
scarce give passage for small boats, insomuch that 
ships now come to a place called New Key, about 
six miles distant." Hollar, in his Map of Chester, 
executed in the middle of the seventeenth century, 
shows the sea at that time coming up to the Water 
Tower. The Roodee was subject to overflowings of 
the river until 1587, when it was leased for twenty- 
one years to Thomas Lyniall, a merchant, with per- 
mission for him to embank as much land as he could 
from the Dee, and to have a toll of 2d. from every 
boat going in and out, in consideration of his making 
a sufficient quay there, and paying ^20 per annum to 
the corporation. This was the origin of the Roodee 
cop. Watkin, in his Roman Cheshire, states that 
"we have many and indubitable proofs of the Rood eye 
having been the bed of the river in Roman times (and 
long afterwards), all of which need not be here re- 
counted ; but among them is an award made in 1461, 
to the effect that it could not be tithed by the rector 
of Trinity, in consequence of it being land reclaimed 



from the sea." It is evident Chester was a consider- 
able port in 1597, for a letter dated April of that year 
shows our city to have been the port from whence 
troops were embarked for Ireland. This document 
runs as follows : " From the Court at Whitehall, 
7th April, 1597. Letter from Lords of the Council 
to the Mayor of the city of Chester, ordering him to 
make provision of shipping and victuals for the trans- 
portation from Chester to Dublin of 700 men, who 
were sent to Chester en route for Ireland last October, 
and then returned to their several counties after 
waiting a month in Chester for favourable wind and 
weather." Touching the present levy their lordships 
remark " Neuertheless, yf they shalbe driuen to stay 
there any tyme, attending opportunity of wynde, wee 
hope you will take order they maie be vyctualled at 
more easy rates than they were the last tyme, whereby 
the whole wages of the poor souldier were spent in 
his diett." Among other of our old records is a copy 
of a letter dated July 9th, 1593, from the Mayor of 
Chester to the Earl of Derby, respecting the sturgeon 
taken on July 7th in the river Dee near Blacon, on 
the English side of the river, respecting which fish 
the writer is at dispute with Richard Trevor of Tre- 
vallin, Esq., who alleges that it was taken on the 
Welsh side of the river, and pertains to him as vice- 
admiral and representative of the Lord High Admiral. 
A letter from the Lords of the Council, February, 
1547, recites, " Whereas the citie of Chester, and the 
shipps and vesselles belonging, be in great decaye by 
reason of the want of a good kaye and haven there 
for the succour and harborough of shipps. Whereas 
they of the citie intend to make a new haven at 
lightfotes poole, about vi. myles distant from Chester." 
Hemingway states in his History of Chester, " that the 
Dee was navigable for vessels of great burden from 
the sea up to Chester in very ancient times is beyond 
all doubt : and it is equally certain that early in the 
fourteenth century the navigation had been materially 
impeded by the shifting of the sands. The first notice 
we have of the latter circumstance is contained in 
letters patent of Richard II., who releaseth to the 
citizens ^73 10s. 8d., parcel of the ^100 for the fee 
farm reserved by the Charter of Edward I., which the 
city was in arrears, in which also is assigned as the 
reason of this indulgence, the ruinous estate of the 
city and of the haven. Henry VI., in confirming 
all the former charters of the city, recites : ' What 
great concourse in times past, as well by strangers as 
others, has been made with merchandize into this 
city by reason of the goodness of the port thereof ; 
and also what great trading for victuals, into and out 
of Wales, to the great profit of the city,' and then 
shows how the same port of Chester was lamentably de- 
cayed by reason of the abundance of sands which have 
choaked the creek." We are not, however, dependent 
upon stray documents which have by chance been 
preserved in our city's records, to trace step by step 
the silting up of the Dee. We have accurate surveys 
of the river from time to time from 1684. In that 
year Captain Greenville Collins, hydrographer to the 
King, made a survey of the Dee to scale, which is 
still extant. Another survey to scale was made " by 
John Mackey-Math," 1732 ; also a survey by P. P. 
Burdett from the sea to Parkgate, 1771 ; and from 
Parkgate to Chester by Thos. Boydell, made for the 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



131 



River Dee Company, 1770-71. In 1839 it was sur- 
veyed by Coram. H. M. Denham, F.R.S., and R. 
Stevenson and Sons ; and again in February, 1849, 
it was surveyed by H. Robertson, C.E. There are 
few, if indeed any, rivers which have been more care- 
fully observed for the last 200 years than the Dee, the 
reason being that Chester, once an important water- 
way to Ireland, has been a decaying port for many 
years, and until the growth of Liverpool and Holyhead, 
our river's navigation was a matter of first importance 
to the Government for the time being. To examine 
these surveys in detail would require a space quite 
beyond the scope of this sketch. These charts were 
published as part of the proceedings of the Admiralty 
inquiry held at the Town Hall, Chester, on the 5 th, 
6th, and 7th September, 1849. In 1684 the Dee 
flowed in its natural channel from Chester to the sea. 
It passed under Blacon Point, and from thence fol- 
lowed a practically straight course to its mouth, run- 
ning close by Burton Head, Parkgate, West Kirby, 
to Hilbre. At Dawpool it separated into two channels, 
one flowed as now by Point of Ayre towards Wales, 
and the other by Hoylake, on the Wirral shore. 
There were 42 feet at low water on a spring-tide in 
the Hoylake channel, and 66 feet in the Welsh channel 
off Point of Ayre. At Dawpool 18 feet, Heswall 
12 feet, Parkgate 8 feet, Burton Head 6 feet ; from 
thence to Chester is not stated. In the survey made 
by John Mackay in 1732, the depth at low water in 
Hoylake channel was 41 feet, the Wild Roads 40 feet, 
Dawpool 18 feet, Heswall 15 feet, Burton Head 
5 feet, Chester 2 feet. In the survey dated 1770-71, 
we begin to see the effects of Kinderley's navigation 
scheme, which then extended as far as the Lower 
Ferry. The river had been taken from the Cheshire 
shore and thrust into an artificial channel on the 
Flintshire side, where it was turned into Weppre 
Gutter to find its way anyhow across the " Sands of 
Dee " to the sea. In the charts dated 1684 and 1732, 
the great Hoyle Bank was not divided by the channel 
which now separates it into the East and West Hoyles. 
It was one great bank lying across the entrance to 
the Dee, around which the river flowed by way of 
Hoylake (now Hoylake Gutter), and the other then, 
as now, by Point of Ayre. This great bank was then 
" 14 miles long by 3 miles broad, and 5 miles dry at 
neap-tide." When Kinderley was promoting his 
scheme John Mackay-Math opposed it, and tersely 
recorded his opinion as follows in 1732: "Between 
Chester, Flint and Parkgate, 7,000 or 8,000 acres are 
proposed to be gained from the sea, by which means 
no less than 200 millions of tons of tyde will be pre- 
vented from flowing there (twice in 24 hours), which, 
on the reflux, acquireth the greater velocity to scour 
and keep open the Lake (Hoylake) and Bar (the 
Welsh channel) ; whether these ill consequences 
(which must certainly attend the present undertaking) 
are not more likely to destroy the present navigation 
in Hyle Lake, and the river Dee, rather than recover 
and preserve a better, is humbly submitted to the 
Right Honourable the House of Lords." We shall 
shortly see that though Mackay's prediction was un- 
heeded by the wisdom of Parliament, aided by the 
then citizens of Chester, and assisted by the ancient 
land-grabber, Nath. Kinderley, the man that backed 
Nature, though single-handed, has proved, unfortu- 



nately for us, only too correct a prophet. This man 
predicted that the inclosure of Sealand, or the White 
sands, would cause the entrance to the Dee by Hoy- 
lake to silt up. This was in 1732. The inclosure 
scheme was immediately afterwards carried. At this 
time there was not the slightest sign of a channel 
opposite Hilbre through the Hoyle Bank. The next 
survey, in 1771, shows the channel by Hoylake 
rapidly closing up, and a deep opening in the Hoyle 
Bank, opposite Hilbre, nearly separating it into two, 
and called Hilbre Wash. The survey by Comm. 
Denham and R. Stevenson and Sons in 1839, shows 
the Hoyle Lake nearly silted up, and a broad and 
deep channel dividing the Hoyle Bank into east 
and west opposite Hilbre, as predicted by John 
Mackay in 1732. A more remarkable instance of the 
practical foresight of a man guided by the light of 
science over the practical experience of men guided by 
the rule of thumb has never come under my notice. 
But the rule of thumb men were in power in 1732, 
and they exercised that power according to their 
lights, and very bad lights they have since proved to 
be to all those interested in the navigation of the Dee. 
It is quite impossible in the space of this paper to 
compare in detail the several charts I have mentioned. 
It is also beyond my power to describe the position 
from time to time of the shifting course of the Dee. 
I shall, therefore, confine my remarks to the chart of 
1684, and that made in 1849. Two hundred years 
ago, as I have already observed, the Dee flowed from 
Blacon Point to Hilbre, along the Cheshire shore, 
practically straight to the sea. There was then at 
Burton Point 6 feet of water at low water of a spring- 
tide. At Parkgate 8 feet, at Heswell 12 feet. This 
channel, some 5 miles long, and an average width of 
three-quarters of a mile, is now dry at low water. 
The Bugg Bank of 1684, situated in the Wild Roads 
opposite Mostyn, was 4^ miles long, by an average 
width of half a mile ; and there was another small 
bank nearer to the Cheshire shore called Dawpool 
Patch. These two, now, are joined together, and 
form the great Salisbury Bank, which blocks up the 
river, lying right across it diagonally from Point of 
Ayre to Heswell, 6\ miles long, with an average 
width of three-quarters of a mile. The foreshore of 
the Wild Roads opposite Mostyn has, for 2 miles on 
either side of that place, advanced more than half a 
mile into the estuary between 1684 and 1849. When 
Kinderley inclosed the river by the cop he turned it 
into Weppre Gutter at Connah's Quay. Weppre 
Gutter then ran nearly straight from Connah's Quay 
to Burton Point. Between 1732, however, and 1771, 
the old course of the Dee from Blacon Point to past 
Denna had silted up, with the exception of a narrow 
gutter running from Parkgate to the Denna Colliery, 
while Weppre Gutter had been pushed by the ac- 
cumulated sands 2 miles in the direction of Park- 
gate ; and the river, instead of entering the old course 
of the Dee at Burton Point, entered it halfway between 
Denna and Parkgate. The ordnance survey in 1 840 
shows that Parkgate had silted up since 1771, and the 
river entered the old channel opposite Heswell, after 
wandering anywhere over 6 miles of constantly shift- 
ing sands. It is no use attempting, however, to 
describe these wanderings of the channel or 
channels. They vary often between tide and tide, 



132 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



while the sand that is brought into the estuary with 
the flood-tide does not return on the ebb. That part 
of the subject I dealt with in a paper read before this 
society on December i8, 1884. A comparison of the 
charts of 1684, 1732, 1771, 1839, 1840-49, exhibits 
the fact only too clearly that the river Dee from 
Chester to the sea is, without a great expenditure of 
money, doomed. It might pay a city like Manchester 
to attempt even yet to win back what Nature, assisted 
by the acts of our ancestors, is rapidly taking from 
us ; but for Chester to attempt it would be municipal 
madness. That the silting up of the Dee had not 
seriously commenced previous to the Roman occupa- 
tion of Chester, is proved by a most interesting dis- 
covery made in digging the foundations of the 
new gasometer at the Gas Works, Chester, and with 
the kind assistance of Mr. Stevenson, engineer, a 
number of most interesting Roman remains have 
been obtained. These have been already described 
by Mr. G. W. Shrubsole, F.G.S., in a paper read 
before the Archaeological Society last month. The 
site of this discovery is undoubtedly the west bank of 
the channel of the Dee at Chester in Roman times. 
The present west bank along Brewer's Hall is 100 
yards distant. The Roman remains were found in a 
hollow trough, 6 feet deep, in hard stony lower 
boulder clay. The. bottom of this hollow was 24 feet 
beneath the present surface of the ground. Mr. 
Stevenson informs me that he has seen high tides 
rise within 6 inches of the level of the surface of this 
area. The gravel was made up of stones from out of 
the boulder clay, mingled with a number of half- 
rounded fragments of our local red sandstone. The 
number of these clearly show that the river swept 
through a rocky channel, vid Queen's Park and 
Handbridge, and that it had a free course unimpeded 
by the causeway, otherwise one cannot account for 
the origin of so much local sandstone in the river 
gravel. Above the gravel the whole of the ground is 
covered with the ordinary river silt. I examined 
some fine ooze deposited in the cavities in an oak 
tree, from the lowest part of the Roman stratum. 
The foraminifera were present, but not very 
numerous. They were much worn or rolled, and 
sank to the bottom of a wine-glass of water when I 
attempted to float them out of the sand after drying 
it. Rotalia Beccarii was then, as now, the common 
form. There were some piles lying due east and 
west athwart the old river-bed, one of which retained 
a conical iron shoe. I do net intend to discuss the 
course of the channel of the river in Roman times. 
This would form the subject of a separate paper. 
But the fact of the accumulation of 24 feet of deposit 
since the Roman occupation of Chester, and that the 
river has since worn back its west bank 100 yards 
towards Brewer's Hall, at once indicates the great 
extent of the denudation of the clay cliffs of Brewer's 
Hall on the one hand ; and on the other, that the 
Roodee, from the site of the Dee Mills to the Water 
Tower, was covered to a considerable depth with 
tidal flow "twice in the natural day." The melan- 
choly story of the silting up of this grand river was 
not assisted by the unwisdom of the Roman engineers. 
They saw it, and left it, a magnificent arm of the sea, 
and it was not until the avaricious Norman that the 
causeway was built, and thereby destroyed the flushing 



of the reflux of the tide to keep clear the channel from 
Chester to the sea. I think we must conclude that 
from that period dates the silting up of one of the 
noblest rivers of Britain. 



Correspontience. 



SURREY AND CORNWALL BELLS. 

[Ante, pp. 4, 19-23.] 

It is hardly fair for your contributors (innocently, 
no doubt, but still carelessly) to make your columns 
the means of disseminating incorrect information. 
Two of the papers in your current number deal with 
a subject I have made my special study for some 
years, and I should be glad to offer a few remarks on 
the inaccuracies they contain. 

Woking. The ring was recast in 1684, not 1685. 
Mr. Bickley was no doubt misled by the date of 
the payment to the bell-founder ; but this, the 
final payment, was then always made a year and 
a day after the hanging of the new ring. The 
third bell does not bear the inscription " In 
multis annis," etc., which he attributes to it, nor 
has it done so for the last 200 years. Aubrey 
states that it did so in his day, but as he also 
states that one of the bells at St. Saviour's, 
Southwark, was dedicated to "Anna Maria," I 
am afraid he is hardly trustworthy as an authority. 
I would point out that a visit of some ten minutes 
to the belfry of Woking Church, or a still briefer 
consultation of my Surrey Bells, would have 
saved both these mistakes. 

I have a much more serious indictment to prefer 
against Mr. Gatley. He has compiled his paper from 
sources of no authority on church bells, and has 
ignored Mr. E. H. W. Dunkin's exhaustive and correct 
work, The Church Bells of Cornwall. Consequently 
he has more than thirty mistakes in five columns. 
To wit : 

St. Agnes. Messrs. C. and G. Mears (not Mairs, as 
stated) did not recast the six bells. They only 
recast four of them Nos. 1 to 4. The 5th and 
6th are by Thomas Lester, and dated 1748. 

Bodmin. On No. 5 the place is spelt Bodmyn, not 
as stated. On No. 6 the first word is Prosperaty, 
not as stated. On No. 4 the initials T R are 
omitted, as also an "and" between Stacey and 
Nicholas. 

St. Breiuard. The Christian name of the founder is 
Fitz Anthony, not Fitz Anthon. 

Burian. The churchwardens' names on the tenor are 
those of 1738, not 1681. 

St. Clement. The inscription on the tenor is " Sancta 
Trinitas Unus Deus," etc., and the founder's 
initials are T B, not T P. 

Cury. The legend is far from unique, except perhaps 
in this particular form. Bells inscribed "Jesus 
Nazarenus Rex Judeorum " are comparatively 
plentiful in the Midlands. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



133 



Grade. " Christophore " should be " Cristofore." 

Gumualloe. No. I : The last word but one should 
be "cunta," not as given. No. 2 : The inscrip- 
tion should begin "(P)lebs ois plaudit." The 
initial P was carelessly omitted by the founder. 
u Ois," it is almost needless to state, stands for 
omnibus. The last word but one should be " se- 
pius." No. 3 : The last word should be "Johanis." 

Gwinear. No. 1: "Ye" omitted between "all" 
and "to." No. 2: "The church," not "this 
church." No. 4 : ." Penningtons," not " Pen- 
nington." 

Gwithian. A R on either side of a bell is used by 
Abraham as well as Abel Rudhall, and so is not 
necessarily a play upon the Christian name. 

Helston. The tenor does not bear the inscription 
given. It was recast in 1825. In line 7 "bands " 
should be " bonds." 

St. Just in Penwith. The "bells" were not cast in 
1741. It was only the tenor. And the inscrip- 
tion really runs, "So God bless King George." 
And "cast in" not "at" St. Erth. The first, 
not the second, is dedicated to St. Michael ; but 
the first word is " See," not "Scte." And it is 
the second and not the third which is dedicated to 
the B. V. M. 

Landulph. The "ringing" verses are incorrectly 
copied. 

Landewednack. 2nd "Nicholae," not "Nicholas." 
3rd "Gerit," not "Geret." 

Lansallos. The name of the saint is " Mergareta," 
not " Margareta." 

Launceston. No. 1 is dated 1874, not 1720. Nos. 2 
and 4, " A R " is omitted. No. 5, " Rudhall " 
omitted between "Abr" and "of." No. 6 
should be : 

I to the Church the living call 
And to the grave doe summon all. 

Lewanick. The sum paid for extra metal was 

45 I7s. 
Ltidgvan. The words are " Pax in terris," not 

" Pax in bello." 
St. Michael Car hays. The bells are not dated at 

all. 
Mylor. "Sante" should be " Santi." 
Michaelstowe. "Jesu merci, Ladi Help" bells are 

far from uncommon. Quite the contrary. 

It may be objected as to some of my remarks that 
I have erred in being too precise. Be it so, I am not 
careful to answer. I think absolute correctness is 
best, even at the charge of pedantry. 

J. C. L. Stahlschmidt. 

Balham, Jan. $th, 1887. 

THE POMAKS. 

The Temps gave an interesting description of 
the Pomaks, or Mussulman inhabitants of the ter- 
ritories of Rouftchos and Kirdjali, in Eastern 
Roumelia, which reverted to Turkey in accord- 
ance with the arrangement come to on the 1st 
of February, 1886, between the Sublime Porte and the 
Bulgarian Government. The territories of Rouftchos 
and Kirdjali are both of them in the south of 
Roumelia ; the fonner being in the upper valleys of 



the Rhodope Mountain, while the latter, which lies 
more to the east, and is by far the more important of 
the two, is situated between the River Arda, which 
forms the southern boundary of Roumelia, the Ulu- 
Dere, and the mountains of Hissardjik-Dagh, which 
are part of the Rhodope chain. The district of 
Rouftchos contains sixty-four villages, with a popula- 
tion of about 12,000, the principal of them being 
Dele Klii, Balaban, Hirsova, and Nosankeuy. The 
district of Kirdjali comprises 188 villages, with about 
22,000 inhabitants, the principal of which are Kirdjali, 
Karamanti, Mersier, Karaguenchier, and Hassan- 
babalar. There is, however, a dispute as to whether 
twenty-four of these villages should belong to Turkey 
or Bulgaria, and they are in the meanwhile held by 
the latter. The inhabitants of these two districts are 
all Mussulman Pomaks ; these Pomaks being descend- 
ants of the Bulgarians who, like the Servian Begs, the 
Albanian Arnauts, and the Greek Vanalades, em- 
braced the Mahommedan faith at the time of the 
Ottoman conquests, or soon after, in order to retain 
possession of their lands. These Pomaks, though 
living in nearly a savage state, are for the most part 
of a very peaceable disposition. Confined to their 
mountains, they live mainly by agriculture, and by 
the manufacture of charcoal from the forests which 
cover the sides of the mountains. The Pomaks 
furnish the best arabadjis, or waggoners ; and the 
transport of goods between Macedonia and Roumelia 
is entirely in their hands. The Pomaks of Kirdjali 
are much better off than those of Rouftchos, as their 
territory is extraordinarily fertile, and, being irrigated 
by numerous streams, the valleys and mountain-slopes 
produce an endless variety of fruits. Grapes grow in 
abundance, and these are dried as raisins, for the 
Pomaks do not drink wine. Peaches, apricots, pears, 
apples, and nuts are very plentiful ; and the quality 
of the tobacco grown in this district is very good. 
The Pomaks have preserved some very curious re- 
ligious practices and superstitions, and, though they 
belong to the Mahommedan faith, they look upon the 
Bulgarian priests as magicians possessing great 
power. When ill they always go to them for 
advice, and do not hesitate to recite the prayers to the 
Virgin, which the priests instruct them to offer. 
When there is a severe drought they take a maiden 
from one of the villages, cover her over with palms, 
and pour water over her, chanting in Bulgarian 
appeals to the clemency of the divinities in whom 
their ancestors believed the companions in arms of 
Asparuk, Kroum, and Boris. The Rouftchos Pomaks 
have never paid any taxes either to the Ottoman or to 
the Bulgarian authorities ; and if a tax-collector ever 
applied to them for payment, they politely requested 
him to return to the place whence he came, while 
in the event of his refusing they shot him. 

Joshua Brown. 



LEARNED SOCIETIES OF INDIA. 

I believe there is no book of reference which gives 
the names and addresses of the learned societies in 
India, our Colonies, Dependencies, and the United 
States. Such a catalogue would be most useful to 
many literary men, and especially to those who study 



134 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



history and physical science. Perhaps a suggestion 
of a work of this sort made in your columns might 
induce some one to undertake the labour of compiling 
such a handbook. Would it be impossible for the 
materials for it to be gathered together month by 
month in your pages ? 

Yours etc., 

Edward Peacock. 
Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 



LAND LOOKERS. 

I mentioned these officers in my paper on Muni- 
cipal Offices (Colchester). A curious document re- 
lating to the doings of the London Viewers (i.e. 
Lookers) in 1415, is printed in Madox's Formularium 
(p. 16) : 

" Be hit had in mynde of the bowndes i founde and misured 
of the tenements and grounde of John Bernardes, cittezen and 
tanner of London, the whech lyen in the Lane called Turne- 
ageyne Lane in the parish of seint Pulcrys withoute Newgate, 
in the subburbis of London in the warde of Faryndon withoute, 
by the Maisteris Mason and Carpenter, the Mason called 
Water Walton, and William Wikeshire Carpenter, of the for- 
seid cite, the last day of Avrill in the nj yere of kyng Herry 
the Vte. ... In witness of these forseid vewes, wee the forseid 
Water & William being Vewers for the tyme of the seid Cite, 
have to these Vewes afore written putte our sealles, the day and 
yere aboveseid " [ex autographo]. 

J. H. Round. 
Colchester. 



THE MONTAGUE FAMILY. 
[Ante, xiv., p. 201.] 

In an interesting article on " Miniature Paintings " 
in the November number of the Antiquary (p. 201), 
there are several mistakes relating to the Montague 
family, which I am sure you will be glad to correct. 
I will state them as briefly as I can. 1. The eighth 
Viscount Montague was not the last. 2. The Mar- 
quis of Exeter does not, as implied, represent the 
Montague family. 3. The two youngest of the 
" Montague brothers " did not die young. The facts 
are as follows : The eldest of the three brothers 
represented in the miniature succeeded his grand- 
father in 1592, as second Viscount Montague ; from 
him the Cowdray branch of the Browne family was 
descended, and is now represented by Earl Spencer 
and the Marquis of Exeter Earl Spencer being the 
senior co-heir. The second brother, John, married, 
in 1594, Ann Giffard ; he died in 1640, and was the 
ancestor of the Brownes of Easebourne, and of Mark 
Anthony, the ninth and last Viscount Montague. 
The representation of the Brownes of Easebourne 
and of the said Viscount now rests with Mr. du 
Moulin-Browne, who is heir-general and sole repre- 
sentative of that branch of the family. 

The third brother, William, was born in 1576, 
became a Jesuit lay brother at Liege in 1613, and died 
there of the plague in 1637. 

The Antiquary is considered, and justly so, such 
an authority in all matters of past history, that I 
think you will like to have these mistakes pointed 
out to you by 

An old Reader and Admirer of the Maga- 
zine. 

Leamington, 

January 23, 1887. 



A STRANGE CUSTOM. 

In case it may not be generally known, it may be 
well to note the strange custom thus alluded to in 
Henry III.'s Charter to London (26 March, 1268). 
The citizens are empowered to clear themselves, 
in pleas of the Crown, " according to the ancient 
custom of the city, with this exception. They are 
not to swear over the graves of the dead what the 
dead would testify, if they were (still) alive. But let 
other free and lawful men be chosen in the place of 
those who may be dead and had been chosen to 
clear these, who are accused," etc., etc. This is a 
rough translation of the original passage (Liber de 
Antiquis Legibus, p. 103). 

J. H. Round. 

Brighton. 



MAIDEN PLACE NAMES. 

[Ante, xiv., p. 229 et al.\ 

I have a book called The London Complete Guide, 
of 1777, in which I find mentioned 

Falcon lane, Maiden lane, Southwark. 

Flyinghorse lane ,, Wood street. 

Gardener's lane ,, 

Gun yard ,, Southwark. 

Horseshoe ally ,, 

Maid court ,, Bow lane. 

Maidenhead court ,, 

Maiden lane, Church street, Lambeth. 

,, Deadman's place. 

,, Halfmoon street, Covent garden. 

Long ditch. 

,, Queen street, Cheapside. 

,, Wood street, Cheapside. 

Packthread ground, Maiden lane. 
Smith's yard, Maiden lane. 

J. Petherick. 
Torquay. 



Eetrietos. 



Historic Towns: Exeter. By Edward A. Free- 
man. (London : Longmans, 1887.) 8vo., pp. xiii, 
255- 
Professor Freeman has sought " to make this 
volume in some sort introductory to the other volumes 
of this series." As a new and healthy view of already 
well-known facts, as a summary of older books by a 
scholar who knows how to expand the dry records of 
local historians into a chapter of the nation's history, 
this little work may well stand as a pattern for other 
writers who are to follow in the series. But it is hard 
to have to start off with the disappointing statement 
that a work standing thus at the head of the series 
"does not represent any independent research into 
the Exeter archives." It is just this that is so much 
needed a new reading of the old municipal archives 
of English cities for here only can be truly obtained 



REVIEWS. 



135 



any adequate conception of "the city as a common- 
wealth and its internal history as the history of a 
commonwealth." Professor Freeman lays down some 
very excellent general principles at the opening of his 
chapter on " Municipal Exeter," but we are disap- 
pointed with the slender application which he has 
given to them. And yet, as a city of unique import- 
ance in English History, there is surely much yet to 
be done. " It is," says Professor Freeman, " the one 
great city of the Roman and the Briton which did 
not pass into English hands till the strife of races 
had ceased to be a strife of creeds, till English con- 
quest had come to mean simply conquest, and no 
longer meant havoc and extermination. It is the one 
city of present England in which we can see within 
recorded times the Briton and the Englishman living 
side by side. It is the one city in which we can feel 
sure that human habitation and city life have never 
ceased from the days of the early Caesars to our own. 
It is the one city of Britain which beheld the paganism 
of the Roman, but which never, save in one moment 
of foreign conquest, beheld the heathendom of the 
Teuton." This is an eloquent and graphic summary 
of the position which Exeter holds among the cities 
of England, and it is well worth bearing in mind as a 
standard by which to classify the position of other 
English cities. Some of us will be inclined to ques- 
tion, perhaps, the unique character of Exeter in 
respect of all the attributes here claimed for it ; but few 
will question that it is upon some such broad basis as 
this that city and town history must be grappled with. 
Professor Freeman is always interesting in the stories 
he has to tell us about times, places, or persons, and 
this book is no exception to the rule. He has a word 
to say for his old heroes in English kingship, and 
we recognise always the master-touch of one who has 
taught us many things. 



Journal of the British and American Archceological 
Society of Rome. Vol. L, Nos. I, 2. (Rome, 
1886.) 8vo. 

English antiquaries will gladly welcome these parts 
of a publication which deals with a subject always 
fascinating to them. Mr. F. M. Nichols and Sir 
Saville Lumley divide between them the honours of 
having contributed towards the first launching of this 
venture. Mr. Nichols's papers on the Rostra are very 
noteworthy, and so is a most elaborate account of the 
Excavations at Civita Lavini, where almost every 
stone has a history, and where excavations lead to a 
knowledge of the great city which once housed and 
educated the masters of Europe, before Europe was 
settled in her present form. It must plainly be seen 
that a journal devoted entirely to the subject was 
much needed. The two numbers before us give some 
indication of what a complete volume will be ; with a 
good index it must become one of the most valuable 
repertories on Roman antiquities ; it will contain 
records of finds which are not yet noted in the 
accepted channels, and it will stimulate research and 
interest in a subject which embraces so many branches 
likely to prove of more than passing influence upon 



all who come in contact with it. Not long ago we 
reviewed in these columns Mr. Middleton's Rome, a 
book whose value is mainly derived from the splendid 
manner in which the secrets of recent excavations 
have been put together for historical purposes. The 
British and American Archaeological Society give in 
their journal a continuation of researches in the same 
direction, and it aims at concentrating and assisting 
the researches of English and American antiquaries 
in Rome. The recent establishment of a British 
Academy at Athens has naturally suggested whether 
such a school is not as much needed at Rome. Ger- 
many and France have organizations which answer the 
purpose, and now slowly we are following suit. The 
advantages to a travelling Englishmen of such a 
centre of interest must be obvious, and we shall be 
prepared to assist in any way in our power the object 
for which this journal and the Society now seek to 
obtain support. 



Bye-gones Relating to Wales and the Border Counties. 

(Oswestry and Wrexham : Woodall, Minshall. ) 

July to December, 1886. 4to. 
A query on the Roman roads leading from Caer 
Flos near Montgomery leads us to hope that this 
valuable journal of intercommunication will be able 
to do what is much needed, namely, gather up all the 
available local information upon this important sub- 
ject of British history. There must be many scraps 
of local lore which would help to elucidate some of 
the puzzles that perplex the student in tracing out the 
old roads formed by the Romans, and we know that 
when this has been revealed the results are of great 
use. There seems very little relating to the country 
for which this journal is specially designed which 
escapes the editor, and particularly we would draw 
attention to the transcript from the Harleian MSS. of 
an account of Oswestry in 1635. 



The History of the Mastiff, gathered from Sculpture, 
Pottery, Carving, Paintings, and Engravings ; 
also from various Authors, with Remarks on the 
same. By M. B. Wynn. (Melton Mowbray : 
Loxley, 1886.) 8vo., pp. xi., 222. 
The archaeological interest of such a treatise as this 
is much wider than would at first sight appear, and, 
although Mr. Wynn is not quite aware of the signifi- 
cance of all the material he has brought together, it 
can easily be understood by those who wish to go 
further into the subject. The subject brings fresh 
contribution to prehistoric history and to the social 
history of later times the chapter on the mastiff 
during and after Elizabeth's reign being very enter- 
taining. Without saying that Mr. Wynn has either 
exhausted or dealt as scientifically with his subject as 
it deserves, we can assure our readers that they 
will find this little monograph of considerable interest, 
and we hope it may lead to similar attempts on the 
history of the domestic animals known to European 
history. Man's companions deserve a history, for 
they have shared his dangers and his successes. 



136 



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writings of the most distinguished authors of all ages 
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Eleven parts, paper boards, 4to. ; price 4. W. E. 
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Pickering's Diamond Greek Testament. Good 
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Dubnovellaunus. Struck in Kent." Price jio. 
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Breaking up my large collection of old Armour, 
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THE CROM WELLS OF AMERLCA. 



137 




The Antiquary. 



APRLL, 1887. 




C6e (iromtoelte of america, 

EMBERS of the Cromwell stock, 
though they are still numerous in 
North America, have to a great 
extent died out of the old country. 
This remark is made, not in reference to the 
Protectoral branch only, but to various off- 
shoots parting company with the central 
stem of the Midland Counties before Oliver 
became conspicuous, and now only dimly 
traceable through early parish registers, testa- 
mentary documents, and ecclesiastical pre- 
sentations. And some of these evidences, 
it may be observed, crop up in very un- 
suspected quarters. For instance, there are 
several such existing in the registers of rural 
parishes round Devizes in Wiltshire, as well 
as in the neighbouring county of Somerset, 
and in the city of Bath in places, that is 
to say, where the name of Cromwell has long 
been unheard. Moreover, the title has dis- 
appeared from the peerage. But Cromwell, 
as a patronymic, is not the only illustrious 
name which has been gradually suffering 
eclipse; and we must rest contented with 
the assurance that its memory at least will 
never die. Not a few cases of disappearance 
arose from the action of sundry cautious or 
prejudiced individuals, in the era of reaction, 
discarding the name of Cromwell and re- 
assuming the family alias of Williams ; but 
still more from the practice, which early set 
in, of emigration to New England and Mary- 
land. In that country there would be little 
temptation in aftertimes to put the name 
under a bushel. The tendency would be 
rather the other way; and the result has 
been, as stated above, that Cromwells are 
now found scattered over the Eastern States ; 
vol. xv. 



they have even penetrated California. Mark 
Noble quotes the History of Massachusetts 
Bay as authority for the existence of a valiant 
and wealthy bucanier, known in the Western 
seas as Captain Cromwell, who died at Boston 
as far back as "about 1646." We are not 
to suppose that the old sea-rover went thither 
in pursuit of religious freedom ; but in less 
than a dozen years after his death, we have 
abundant evidence in the Land-agency Office 
of Annapolis of the presence of more per- 
manent and law-abiding settlers bearing the 
same name ; of which, more anon. At a 
still earlier period than the above, namely, in 
James I.'s time, Henry Cromwell of Upwood, 
third son of Sir Henry Cromwell of Hinchin- 
broke, had interested himself in the settle- 
ment of Virginia, and was one of the 
"adventurers" who advanced money to culti- 
vate that province. The fictitious story of 
Oliver Cromwell's being frustrated by royal 
mandate when attempting to embark for 
America, no doubt obtained popular currency 
from the known fact that so many of his 
name from time to time pursued the like 
course. The principal point of attraction 
seems to have been Maryland rather than 
New England, for the following reason. As 
the Lords Baltimore had in succession pro- 
cured for their territory in Maryland charters 
favourable to religious freedom, in the in- 
terests of those who, like themselves, held the 
Romish faith, sober Protestants shared in the 
privilege ; so that it came to pass that 
members of the Church of England, who 
were excluded by rigid Puritanism from 
Massachusetts, and Puritans, on the other 
hand, who found Virginia too hot for them, 
alike found refuge in this intermediate pro- 
vince. Other inducements to colonize the 
Baltimore territory were made from time to 
time. It was understood that fifty acres, 
more or less, were free to all comers, and 
that everyone might claim it, whether rich or 
poor. Here is an early entry from the 
Annapolis records: In 1653, "Geessam [Ger- 
shom ?] Cromwell demands land for his own 
transportation and for the transportation of 
his wife and daughter." Liber iv., folio 49. 
Annapolis is the county town of Anne- 
Arundel, and capital of the State of Mary- 
land ; from the City of Baltimore it is distant 
about eighteen miles. 

L 



138 



THE CROMWELLS OF AMERICA. 



The question that Americans then naturally 
ask is : " Whence did these early Cromwellians 
spring ? Do we, or do we not, possess amongst 
us the direct descendants of the Protector? 
Our own personal tastes the tastes, that is 
to say, of some of us, together with various 
family traditions, seem to point to an affirma- 
tive issue ; though, after the lapse of two 
centuries, the documentary evidence has con- 
fessedly become obscure and intricate." 

In answering this question, it will be well 
to commence by removing certain miscon- 
ceptions ; and first, in respect of cognate 
descent from the Protector through the Clay- 
poole connection. Although it is an indis- 
putable fact that the children of Elizabeth 
Claypoole, Cromwell's second daughter, died 
without issue, the belief, nevertheless, long 
prevailed in the States, owing to the number 
and prominence of Claypooles there resident, 
that the link was well authenticated. The 
owners of the name, it is presumed, are by 
this time pretty well disabused of the con- 
ception ; but it may be interesting to make 
a short digression in their favour, before 
treating of the Cromwells proper ; First, as 
furnishing a creditable set-off against the 
moral shadow cast by Mark Noble on the 
memory of John Claypoole, the Protector's 
son-in-law ; and secondly, as associating the 
name with the triumphant march of American 
Independence. 

James Claypoole, the brother of John, 
quitted the old country for New England 
when somewhat advanced in years ; but pre- 
vious to that event, his eldest son John, 
having become intimate with William Penn, 
had accompanied the philanthropist to Phila- 
delphia in 1682, in the capacity of surgeon, 
in 1689 he was holding the more prominent 
office of Sheriff of Philadelphia. In Penn's 
Diary are preserved one or more letters con- 
firmatory of this friendship. John's- grand- 
son William was the husband of Elizabeth 
Griscom, who, as " Betsey Claypoole," long 
carried on the upholstery business in Phila- 
delphia, and was the maker of the first 
American standard flag. In this first standard 
she arranged the thirteen stars in a circle, and 
the form of her star, with its five points, is 
still retained throughout the States. Her 
house of business was No. 239, Arch Street, 
and was still standing in 1885. In Harper's 



Magazine for July, 1873, may be seen a 
narrative of George Washington's visit to her 
establishment in 1777, in company with 
George Ross of Maryland (who was her 
brother-in-law). Betsey Claypoole died in 
1833, aged eighty-six years, and the flag- 
making business continued for some time to 
be carried on by her daughter Clarissa Clay- 
poole ; but this lady, as a member of the 
Society of Friends, becoming increasingly 
unwilling that her handiwork should be 
utilized for belligerent objects, eventually 
relinquished the occupation. 

Returning to James Claypoole, with whom 
we began, an extract from a letter of his, 
written in England, in 1682, preserved in the 
Philadelphia Historical Society, may here be 
recited : " My eldest son John," says he, 
" is going away this week in the Amity, 
R. Dymond, Pens., to be assistant-surgeon 
to William Penn. I have bought five thousand 
acres of land, and have fitted John out with 
all things necessary. His employment is very 
creditable, and if he is diligent and sober, 
may come in a few years' time to be very 
profitable. ... I have a great drawing in 
my own mind to remove thither with my 
family ; so that I am given up, if the Lord 
clears my way, to be gone next Spring, it 
may be, about a year hence." 

Pursuant to this " drawing " towards a 
land of freedom, James Claypoole, in the 
following year, reached Philadelphia by the 
ship Concord, carrying with him his wife 
Helena ; his four remaining sons, James, 
Nathaniel, George, and Joseph; and his 
three daughters, Mary, Helena, and Priscilla; 
besides five servants. From this stock nu- 
merous representatives have branched oft 
in various directions ; and their annals, we 
feel assured, can well afford to stand on their 
own merits. We now go on with the repre- 
sentatives of the Cromwell name. 

In meeting a second misconception, it will 
hardly be necessary to warn the reader off 
from Negroland. Yet it may not pass un- 
noticed that among the commercial announce- 
ments made by persons of this name in 
Philadelphian and other newspapers and 
directories, the advertisers not unfrequently 
turn out, upon inquiry, to belong to the 
coloured race. Nor must we blame the inno- 
cent ambition of men who, after emancipation 



THE CROM WELLS OF AMERICA. 



139 



from the condition in which they were known 
only as Tom or Nick, and finding themselves 
at liberty to adopt their own patronymics, 
sought to identify themselves with such 
houses as Raleigh, Trevelyan, Sydney, Russell, 
Talbot, or Cromwell; besides that in many 
cases they did but call themselves after their 
own masters. If this explanation suffice not, 
more domestic consanguinity will not be 
worth the tracking. 

There were two principal Cromwellian 
groups in Maryland, those of Baltimore City, 
and those of Cecil County. The former were 
the earliest on the scene by perhaps half a 
century, though other arrivals would naturally 
occur from time to time, claiming clanship 
with their predecessors, and intermarrying 
with them ; other kindred families associ- 
ated with them being those of Hammond, 
Bond, Rattenbury, Woolghist, Trahearne, 
Wilson, etc. With the Cecil County group, 
who went over near the middle of the 
eighteenth century, descent from Oliver 
Protector is out of the question, since the 
pedigree of the Protectoral House at that 
period is thoroughly well known and defi- 
nitely recorded. If existing anywhere, it 
must be sought among those of the previous 
century. 

The first oral tradition to be noticed is 
that of Miss Katharine Cromwell of Wash- 
ington, living in 1885, and who, if still alive, 
must be ninety-four years of age. Her state- 
ment is to the effect " that among the indi- 
viduals constituting an early colony of 
Cromwells, Hammonds, and Bonds, the 
eldest of the Bonds was named Peter, and 
that one of the Cromwells was a William, 
born in the old country in 1678, and dying 
m I 735> an d that his wife's name was 
Mary." All very true probably, and seemingly 
built on transmitted dates. We have to see 
how far it dovetails with other facts. Miss 
Cromwell is aunt to Mr. Thomas Cromwell, 
of 906, First Street, N.W. Washington. 

A more positive narrative rests on the 
testimony of Mrs. Sidney Norris, residing at 
Olney, near Ilchester, in Howard County, 
Maryland {born Elizabeth, daughter of 
Richard Cromwell, of Baltimore, M.D.), a 
lady conspicuous for her intelligent interest 
in the ancestral story. Here we are first 
introduced to a barrister, named Richard 



Cromwell, practising in Huntingdonshire, in 
England, whose three sons (keeping an eye 
on the Annapolis records), John, William, 
and Richard, were grown men in 1670. But 
what was the exact era of this Huntingdon 
barrister? His age would very well fit in 
with that of Richard, the son of Sir Philip 
Cromwell, born in 1617 (Noble's Protectoral 
House, i., 3 15 7), but that Richard seems to 
have left a daughter only. This solution 
failing us, it must be admitted that there is 
no other printed record capable of supplying 
the want; and we must therefore suppose 
him to be one of the (then) numerous Crom- 
wells whose memorial is still shrouded in a 
parish register. Neither may we identify 
him with Richard, son of Henry Cromwell, 
the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, for that 
Richard, being born in 1665, could not have 
been the father of sons grown up in 167c ; 
even if it could be shown that any of Henry's 
children ever went to America. It has, 
indeed, been suggested that Richard and 
William, sons of the Lord-Lieutenant, be- 
coming, like the rest of their brothers and 
sisters, unfortunate, were dropped out of 
notice by the family biographers, and that 
the story of their obscure and early deaths 
might more truly have taken the form of 
emigration to America; but as there were 
already on the Transatlantic scene still older 
persons bearing their name, they really are 
not wanted to help us out of the difficulty, 
and we may therefore go on with Mrs. 
Norris's narrative. 

Richard Cromwell, though he appears 
never to have set foot in America, acquired 
the grant of a large estate in Frederick 
County, subsequently known as Cromwell's 
Manor. He was also one of the largest, if 
not the very largest landowner in Baltimore ; 
and the estates thus acquired, together with 
town-houses in Baltimore City, are still en- 
joyed by his descendants, who are persons 
of good fortune and standing. The family 
carried over with them from the old country 
a large stock of household plate, engraved 
with a Cromwell coat-of-arms. There is no 
trace of Richard's will in America. A search 
at Peterborough, in England, would probably 
bring it to light. The next in descent to be 
noticed is : 

John Cromwell, styled "of Fairfield," 

l 2 



140 



THE CROMWELLS OF AMERICA. 



one of the Baltimore estates. He married 
Elizabeth Todd, and had three sons, namely : 

I. Richard, of whom presently. 

II. Colonel Thomas Cromwell, of Bedford 

County, Pennsylvania, where, about 
1785, in conjunction with partners, 
he established the first iron-works, 
west of the Susquehanna. In 1 787, 
a new county being formed out of 
a part of Bedford, Colonel Crom- 
well, being on the commission, 
caused it to be named Hunting- 
don, and one of its townships is 



after her death to Hannah Rattenbury and 
her heirs for ever. The next in succes- 
sion is : 

John Cromwell, of Fairfield, who marries 
Hannah Rattenbury (Hannah was born in 
1704), and is subsequently represented by 
another Richard of Baltimore, M.D., father 
(by Miss Hammond) of Mrs. Norris afore- 
said. But it is evident that two or more 
generations have been lost sight of in this 
sketch ; and as there were divers contempo- 
rary kinsmen, it may be as well to complete 
this section by recording the titles of the 




A RESIDENCE OF THE CROMWELLS IN CECIL COUNTY, AMERICA. 



called Cromwell. Descendants of 
this gentleman are believed to be 
still extant. 
III. John Cromwell, M.D., died s.p. 
Richard Cromwell, of Fairfield. A 
will bearing his name, preserved at Anna- 
polis, 17th August, 17 17, mentions Elizabeth 
as the name of his wife, and Richard and 
John as his two sons ; while Thomas Crom- 
well is the name of a cousin. By this will, 
slaves are bequeathed, but no real estates 
are devised. One of the legacies is that of 
a negro girl to Margaret Rattenbury, and 



Cromwell charters, etc., preserved in the 
Land Office at Annapolis, not hitherto re- 
ferred to : 

1670. A warrant, granted 19th December, 
to George Yale for 600 acres. Three hun- 
dred of them, bearing the name of " Crom- 
well's Adventure," are at the same time 
assigned to John and William Cromwell, of 
Calvert County (Liber xvi., fo. 151). Sixty- 
five years later, "Cromwell's Adventure" is 
re-surveyed for William's two grandsons, 
William and John. 

1680. Will of William Cromwell, signed 



THE CROMWELLS OF AMERICA. 



141 



by himself and his wife, Elizabeth Trahearn. 
Mention is made of two brothers, John and 
Richard ; of two sons, William and Thomas, 
though there were others. The lands willed 
are " Cromwell's Adventure," " Mascall's 
Hope," and "Hunting Quarter." Will 
proved 3rd March, 1684-5. 

1723. Will of Thomas Cromwell. Two 
sons are mentioned, Thomas and Oliver. 
The lands devised are " Kensey," to his 
brother John Ashman ; " Oliver's Chance," 
to John Cromwell ; " Maiden's Chance " and 
"Oliver's Range," with "Cromwell's Chance," 
to the two sons. Proved in the same year ; 
but the four exors., William Cromwell and 
John Ashman, two cousins, viz., John Crom- 
well and George Bailey, together with his 
eldest son, all immediately after resigned the 
office. No reason stated. 

1 73 1 or 1733. "South Canton," being a 
part of the Fairfield estate, granted to Robert 
Clarkson in 1680, is now assigned to Captain 
John Cromwell. 

1733. Will of John Cromwell. Four chil- 
dren mentioned Margaret, John, Hannah, 
and Anne. Lands willed are : Three tracts 
in " Gunpowder Forest," called " Cromwell's 
Park," "Cromwell's Chance," and "Crom- 
well's Addition." The land formerly held by 
Thomas Cromwell in "Whetstone Neck" to 
be sold for his debts. His wife Hannah 
(Rattenbury) executrix. Proved 9th May, 
1734. The widow remarried within the 
same year William Worthington, at St. Paul's. 

1730. Will of William Cromwell. Four 
sons, William, Alexander, Joseph, and Wool- 
ghist. Lands willed: "The Deer Park," 
and " Cromwell's Enlargement." Witnesses : 
John Cromwell, Joshua Cromwell, and George 
Ashman. Proved 12th February, 1735. 

1745. Will of John Rattenbury, in favour 
of his nephew, John Cromwell. 

1813. " South Canton," and " Hay- 
Meadow," two portions of Fairfield re-sur- 
veyed and patented as one tract for Richard, 
son of John Cromwell (by Elizabeth Todd). 

It now remains to take note of the Crom- 
wells of Cecil County, and of their offshoot 
in Kentucky. Here we have to begin with 
Thomas Cromwell, of Huntingdonshire, in 
the old country, who in the early part of the 
eighteenth century married a Welsh lady, 
named Venetia Woolgrish, or Woolghist, and 



himself died in England, leaving two sur- 
viving sons, John Hammond Cromwell, and 
Vincent Cromwell, who, with their widowed 
mother, passed over to America in 1763 to 
join the Cromwells of Baltimore, with whom 
they claimed kinship, and apparently had 
full warranty for so doing. The elder son at 
that time was twenty years of age, and 
Vincent was eleven. The family at first 
located themselves at Port Tobacco, in the 
southern part of Maryland, but eventually 
secured an abiding-place on the ridge of an 
imposing plateau called Mount Pleasant, in 
Cecil County, in the north-east corner of the 
State: their own particular domain bearing 
the name of Cromwell's Mountain, subse- 
quently corrupted into "Cromley's Moun- 
tain," for such is the name of the neighbour- 
ing railway station on the Columbia and 
Port-Deposit line. The quaint old family 
residence, which still dominates this table- 
land, stands in the midst of a farm of 300 
acres, at a spot between the main road and 
the Susquehanna River, and about a mile 
and a half from Rowlandville Station on the 
Philadelphia and Baltimore Central Railway. 
It is constructed partly of stone, but princi- 
pally of timber, sheathed with clap-boards 
and surmounted by a gambrel roof. Inside 
the house the walls of the rooms are scored 
all over in diamond pattern, and the floors 
are, from age and settlement, far from level. 
The founders of the house sheltered it with 
Lombardy poplars ; but perhaps the most 
interesting feature of the place is a quad- 
rangular enclosure not far from the house, 
surrounded by a box-hedge six feet in height. 
This is the family cemetery, and here may 
be spelt out the brief memorials of many a 
Henry, a Venetia, an Oliver, or a Henrietta 
of the illustrious clan. 

Here lived and died the elder of the two 
brothers aforesaid, John Hammond Crom- 
well. His wife's name was Mary Hammond 
Dorsay. His children were : I. Henrietta- 
Maria, who married Reuben Reynolds, and 
became the mother of Dr. John Cromwell 
Reynolds, surgeon of the U.S. army, and 
others. By her second husband, John 
Briscoe, of Kent County, Maryland, there 
was also issue. II. Matilda, married to 
Mr. Harlan. III. Frances. IV. Delia, 
married to Richard H. Keene, of Kentucky, 



142 



THE CROMWELLS OF AMERICA. 



all of whom left descendants. His will, 
which was proved October 12, 181 9, is 
registered at Elkton (Lib. G. G., No. 7, 
fo. 309). The old family house, which it 
seems he had named " Success," he leaves 
in succession to the Harlan family, and then 
to Dr. John Cromwell Reynolds aforesaid. 
It is still occupied by relatives; but as he 



ing State of Kentucky (where, in fact, both 
the brothers had acquired estates), settling 
near Lexington, about 1793, where he died 
in the same year as his brother, 181 9. By 
his wife, Rachel Wilson, he had eleven 
children, as follows : 

I. John, born 1781, whose descendants 
live in Ohio. 




OLIVER CROMWELL OF KENTUCKY. 



had no sons the name ot Cromwell has there 
died out. One of his surviving representa- 
tives is Mrs. Stacey, of Oswego, in New 
York State, wife of Colonel M. H. Stacey, of 
the U.S. army. Among other provisions of 
his will, Mr. Cromwell frees his slaves. 

Now, in respect of Vincent, the younger 
brother of John Hammond Cromwell, he 
appears to have moved into the neighbour- 



II. Benjamin, born 1782. His children 
are : 1, John ; 2, Oliver ; 3, 
Alvin ; 4, William ; 5, Howard ; 6, 
Vincent ; 7, Marcus ; 8, Caroline ; 
9, Nancy. Of this group, John 
was recently reported as living at 
the age of eighty. Oliver, the 
second son, must be the gentleman 
who, a few years back, while pass- 



THE CROMWELLS OF AMERICA. 



M3 



ing through Cape Town on a cos- 
mopolitan tour, attracted so much 
notice by his characteristic bearing 
and physiognomy, that a resident 
artist, Mr. Barnard, was happy to 
secure several photographs from 
him. These are now in England. 
One of them we offer to the 
reader. 
III. Joseph, of Lexington, in Missouri, 
where his descendants still nourish. 
IV., V., VI. Joshua, Vincent, and Oliver ; 
this last possibly identical with 
the Oliver Cromwell of Carolina 
who, in 1828, published a poem 
entitled The Soldier's Wreath, in 
celebration of General Jackson's 
defence of New Orleans. 
VII., VIII., IX., X., XI. Sarah, Rebecca, 
Hannah, Rachel, and Mary. One 
of these daughters was the mother 
of the present Hon. Cromwell 
Adair, of Kentucky. Hannah, the 
third mentioned, married Nathaniel 
Ford, whose daughter is the wife of 
H. Hammond Randolph. Mrs. 
Ford died in 1881, at the age of 
ninety-two. 
During the War of Independence, two 
names, conspicuous on the American side, 
were Captain William Cromwell and Major 
Stephen Cromwell, both from the vicinity of 
Baltimore City. A third member of the 
family was John Cromwell who entertained 
at his house near " Rye Pond," New York, 
Generals Washington and Lafayette de- 
scribed as a descendant of John, cousin of 
the Protector, and son to Sir Oliver, of 
Hinchinbroke. 

Sidney Cromwell, in 1776, at New York, 
published an essay entitled Political 
Opinions. 

Mrs. C. T. Cromwell, in 1849, was tne 
author of Over the Ocean ; or, Glimpses of 
Travel in Many Lands. New York. 

A final notice may be taken of the name 
of Hammond, which, it will have been 
observed, is frequently found in connection 
with the American Cromwells, as it had also 
been in England. This ancient and knightly 
family, Mark Noble observes, were greatly 
divided in their religious and political 
opinions. The most notable historical figure 



among them is, perhaps, Robert Hamm ond 
the guardian of Charles I. in the Isle of 
Wight ; but there is no reason to conclude 
that the Major-General John Hammond, 
who held office in Maryland under Queen 
Anne, was other than the descendant of a 
Royalist. An entry in the register of St 
Anne's, Annapolis, states that he was buried 
by James Walton, the rector of that parish, 
November 29, 1707, who describes him as 
" the Honourable John Hammond, Esq., 
Major-General of the Province of Maryland, 
Western Shore, and one of her Majesty's 
Most Honourable Council, and Judge of the 
High Court of Admiralty in the said pro- 
vince." The funeral took place, not at 
Annapolis, but on the Hammond estate, 
three miles from that city, where the inscrip- 
tion on his tombstone is still legible, and 
states that he died in the sixty-fourth year of 
his age. He married a daughter of Colonel 
Greenberry, and left descendants at^Balti- 
more, who were subsequently joined by other 
English emigrants of the same name. One 
of the race still living, viz., William A. 
Hammond, M. D., Surgeon-General in the 
army, is a name of great and deserved emi- 
nence in the States. 

For the gathering of the above facts I am 
entirely indebted to the industrious courtesy 
of P. S. P. Conner, Esq., of 126, South 18th 
Street, Philadelphia, who has long been on 
intimate terms with various members of the 
Cromwell house ; and whose intelligent 
interest in historical matters eminently quali- 
fies him for the task of sifting evidence. 
His principal informant was Mr. William H. 
Corner, connected by marriage with the 
Baltimore Cromwells. One of Mr. Corner's 
friends, Mr. William Henry Cromwell, of 
Philadelphia, deriving from the Cromwells 
of Road, near Frome, in Somerset County, 
England, bears an unmistakable resem- 
blance to Oliver Protector ; and yet the 
Somerset Cromwells do not derive from 
Oliver direct, but rather from Sir Philip, his 
uncle. There can be little doubt that the 
early progenitors of this race must have been 
distinguished by personal traits of a very pro- 
nounced character ; and as it is a known fact 
that ancestral resemblances, both mental and 
physical, do occasionally crop up after pro- 
tracted intervals, there is no reason why the 



144 



MODERN WELSH SURNAMES. 



vera effigies of his Highness should not re- 
appear amongst us from time to time. Sir 
Walter Scott has made use of this physio- 
logical tendency in his romance of Red- 
gauntlet. Some have thought that the Pro- 
tector's countenance is traceable in the 
Addison family, of Soham, who descend 
from him through Henry, the Lord-Lieu- 
tenant of Ireland. 

James Waylen, 
Author of The House of Cromivell and the Story of 
Dunkirk. 



e^otiern mz\$h Surnames. 




HE origin and mode of construction 
of modern Welsh surnames is a 
subject of which few Englishmen 
understand anything. It is a sub- 
ject also concerning which very inaccurate 
notions prevail in Wales itself. Anyone, 
nevertheless, may see these names actually 
emerging, and familiarize himself with the 
conditions under which they came into 
existence, if he will examine carefully a series 
of ancient assessment lists of Welsh parishes, 
of deeds relating to estates in Wales which 
have remained for several generations in the 
same families, or of attested pedigrees of 
those families. Not everybody, however, has 
the opportunity or, indeed, the inclination for 
such an investigation. The following re- 
marks, therefore, by one who has had to do 
a great deal of work of this kind, may not be 
unwelcome : 

Few Welsh surnames are of earlier date 
than the sixteenth century, but they were 
adopted during that century, and the first 
quarter of the century following, by the 
greater part of the gentry, by nearly all the 
members of the learned professions, by most 
of the merchants and richer tradesfolk, and 
by many others. The mass of the people, 
however, long clung to the older Welsh 
system of personal nomenclature, or to a 
modification of that system; and surnames, as 
we now understand them, were not, in some 
parts of Wales, definitely and exclusively 
established until the beginning of the present 
century. 



The system of personal nomenclature now 
in use (in which surnames are employed) 
enables us not merely to distinguish a man 
bearing a specific Christian name from other 
men bearing the same name, but to indicate 
at the same time, within certain limits, the 
family to which he belongs. But by the older 
Welsh system this double object was attained 
in some respects still more effectively. A 
man was called then, as now, Hugh, or David, 
or Llewelyn, but if it was required to desig- 
nate him still more exactly, this was done by 
combining his own personal name with that 
of his father, or if necessary with that of his 
grandfather and great-grandfather as well. 
Thus, Griffith the son of Meilir would be 
called Griffith ap Meilir ; and if Griffith had 
two sons Jenkin and Owen these would 
be known as Jenkin ap Griffith) and Owen 
ap Griffith; or, if these names were not dis- 
tinctive enough, as Jenkin ap Griffith ap 
Meilir, and Owen ap Griffith ap Meilir. 
Griffith's daughter Gwen would similarly 
be called Gwenferch Griffith (that is, Gwen 
the daughter of Griffith), or, more fully, Gwen 
ferch Griffith ap Meilir* Every Welshman 
and Welshwoman had thus a name which, 
short enough in its ordinary form, could be 
made, by a recognised process of extension, 
absolutely distinctive, and which contained, 
in this extended form of it, a record of the 
more recent ancestors of the men or of the 
women who bore it. 

If now we take a survey of modern Welsh 
surnames, we observe that they may be 
arranged, according to the mode in which 
they arose, in five distinct groups. 

I. The first group comprises those sur- 
names which were at first merely personal 
names, either personal names of purely Welsh 
origin, such as Howel, Griffith, and Rees 
(Rhys), or names of the same kind borrowed 
from the English, such as Thomas, Richard, 
and James. Now how did these personal 
names become surnames ? This is a question 
easily answered. It sometimes happened 
that the name which a man bore embodied 
a reference to his father in a form more 
direct and familiar than that indicated above. 
Thus we find that Hugh ap David, a small 

* Ap or ab is a modification of mab=son; and 
ferch a modification of mere A = daughter. 



MODERN WELSH SURNAMES. 



*45 



freeholder of Wrexham, in the early part of 
the seventeenth century, was otherwise known 
as Hugh David. Now these two forms of 
the name have substantially the same mean- 
ing ; but the first is somewhat more cere- 
monious than the other. " Hugh ap David " 
means Hugh, son of David ; " Hugh David " 
means David's Hugh* The form " Hugh 
David " suggests a name of the modern type, 
but that it was not really a name of this sort 
is manifest from the fact that Richard, the 
son of Hugh David, was called, not Richard 
David, but Richard ap Hugh. If Hugh 
David, however, had desired to adopt a sur- 
name which his children could bear, 
" David " would be that which he would pro- 
bably have selected, no change in the form 
of his own name being involved in that 
selection. We know, in fact, from number- 
less instances, that it was actually in this way 
that surnames of the first group arose. 

II. In the surnames of the second group 
the word ap (before H and R), or ab (before 
vowels), is blended with a personal name 
following it. We know, as a fact, that in 
colloquial Welsh, during the latter part of 
the time when the use of ap and ab in per- 
sonal names prevailed, the combination of 
these words with the names following (when 
those names began with H, R, or a vowel) 
actually took place. Thus John ap Richard 
was called John Prichard, and Jeffrey ap 
Hugh, Jeffrey Pugh. Similarly Robert ab 
Evan was known as Robert Bevan, and 
Owen ab Ithel as Owen Bithel. When such 
names as these last are reached, we might 
almost suppose that definite surnames had 
been at last attained, and we should experience 
a slight shock when we found John, the son 
of Robert Bevan, calling himself, not John 
Bevan, but John Probert ; and Rowland, the 
son of Owen Bithel, calling himself, not 
Roland Bithel, but Roland Bowen. But we 

* Very often into the names constructed on this 
freer type the grandfather's name, as well as the 
father's, is introduced. Thus " Nicholas John 
Edward " means John Edward's Nicholas, or strictly 
Edward's John's Nicholas ; Nicholas being the son of 
John, and John the son of Edward. William and 
Jonet, the son and daughter of Nicholas John Edward, 
might then be called respectively William Nicholas 
John, and Jonet Nicholas John. Threefold names 
like these are common enough down to quite recent 
times. 



should presently remember that we are not 
yet dealing with true surnames at all, but with 
names which, however corrupted in pronun- 
ciation, are still constructed according to the 
old Welsh system of nomenclature. Never- 
theless, when the use of surnames began to 
be fashionable, men having, as appendages 
to their Christian names, names blended in 
the way just described, often took, we know, 
these appended names as surnames. Their 
names which, as wholes, conformed already in 
appearance to names of the English type, 
were thus made to conform to those names 
in reality also. I give now a list of modern 
Welsh surnames which have arisen in this 
way, and which are composed of the words 
ap or ab blended with a personal name 
following it : 



Prandle 


= Ap Randal. 


Price \ 
Preece/ 


= Ap Rhys. 


Prichard 


= Ap Richard. 


Prodger 


= Ap Roger. 


Probert \ 
Probart/ 


= Ap Robert. 


Probyn 


= Ap Robin. 


Prynallt 


= Ap Reinallt. 


Prosser 


= Ap Rosser. 


Prydderch"! 




Pruthero J 


- =s Ap Rhydderch. 


Prothero J 




Parbert 


Ap Herbert. 


Parry 


= Ap Harry. 


Palin 


= Ap Heilin. 


Penry 


= Ap Henry. 


Popkin 


= Ap Hopkin. 


Povah 


= Ap Hwfa (Hovah). 


Pumphrey 


= Ap Humphrey. 


Pugh 


= Ap Hugh. 


Puskin 


= Ap Hoesgyn (Eng. Hoskin). 


Powell 


= Ap Howel. 


Barthur 


= Ab Arthur. 


Batha \ 
Batho / 


= Ab Adda (pronounced Atha). 


Beevor 


= Ab Ivor. 


Beddoe 


= Ab Edo. 


Bellis 


= Ab Elis. 


Benion \ 
Beynon/ 


= Ab Einion. 




Bevan 


= Ab Evan. 


Biolyn 


= Ab Iolyn 


Bithell 


= Ab Ithel. 


Boliver 


= Ab Oliver. 


Bowen 


= Ab Owen. 


Bunner 


= Ab Ynyr. 


Bedward 


= Ab Edward. 


III. Often 


a man was distinguishe 


without further particularization, by tl 



i 4 6 



MODERN WELSH SURNAMES. 



attachment to his Christian name of an 
epithet, founded on some quality of mind or 
body which he possessed. Thus, long before 
surnames were adopted in Wales we met with 
names like the following : " Hywel Wyn " 
(Howel the White), "Gruffydd Goch" 
{Griffith the Red), " Evan Llwyd " {Evan the 
Grey), " Madoc Vychan " {Madoc the Little), 
and "Owen Sais " {Oiven the Englishman, 
that is, the man able to speak English). Now 
if we write these names according to the 
English forms of them (LJoivell Wynn, 
Griffith Gough, Evan Lloyd, Madoc Vaughan, 
and Owen Sayce), we can hardly help taking 
them for a minute as combinations of 
Christian names and surnames, like those 
which are in use to-day. They were, how- 
ever, merely personal names with epithets 
(which were not hereditary) attached. We 
see this in the case of a gentleman called 
Robert Wyn, who lived at Abenbury, at the 
beginning of the seventeenth century. If 
" Wynn " had been this gentleman's surname, 
his son Humphrey would have borne it, but 
this son, who succeeded him in his estate, 
was always called, not LLumphrey Wynn, but 
Humphrey ap Robert Wyn. Also, Robert 
Wyn himself, on one occasion, when it was 
necessary to make his identity absolutely 
clear, called himself Robert ap William ap 
Robert ap David ap Griffith ap Robert. But 
if he had desired to adopt a surname, in the 
name " Wynn " he had one already to his 
hand, and this is the one he would almost 
certainly have selected. 

IV. In other cases a man was distinguished 
from others of the same name by appending 
to his Christian name, not an epithet, but the 
name of his estate. Thus a little before the 
time of the Robert Wyn of Abenbury, just 
mentioned, there was living in the neighbour- 
hood another Robert Wyn, who, from the 
name of his house (Plas Sonlli, that is 
Sontley Hall), was commonly called Robert 
Wyn Sonlli, or, in English spelling, Robert 
Wynn Sontley. Sontley was not at first his 
surname (though his father before him had 
been similarly distinguished), but he was 
called Robert Wynn Sontley, just as we say 
John Jones, High Street. Yet so necessary 
was it to distinguish him from other Roberts, 
and other Robert Wynns, that the addition 



Sontley was nearly always connected with his 
name. When, therefore, a surname was 
wanted for his children, Sontley was that 
which was naturally suggested, and which 
was in fact taken. Other capital Welsh sur- 
names Pennant, Trevor, Mostyn, Powys, 
Yale, Glynne, Kyffyn, Tanat, and Nanney 
arose in the same way, and it is a pity they 
are not more numerous. 

V. But perhaps three-fourths of the sur- 
names of modern Wales, and all the most 
common of them, belong to the fifth group. 
In the sixteenth century, when surnames 
began to be adopted wholesale in Wales, 
some accepted method of immediately manu- 
facturing them became necessary. Now there 
was already recognised in England a method 
whereby a man took the possessive case 
of his father's personal name as his own sur- 
name. The sons of the "country chuffs" 
Hob and Hick got thus the surnames 
Hobbs a-:d Llicks. When the Welsh of the 
sixteenth century had clearly grasped this 
method, they began at once to make, out of 
their fathers' Christian names, the surnames 
they required. Thomas ap David now called 
himself Thomas Davies ; Hugh ab Evan, Hugh 
Evans ; and John ap John John being then 
pronounced Jone* John Jones. Names like 
Hughes, Roberts, Edwards, and Williams 
also arose in this way. It will be seen from 
this explanation how ridiculous is the notion 
so often entertained that all the Joneses, for 
example, belong to one great clan. Jones is 
the commonest of all surnames, simply 
because John had become the commonest of 
all Christian names. This method of form- 
ing surnames was so simple, that it was soon 
thoroughly understood, and surnames con- 
structed by the use of it often displaced sur- 
names already adopted that had been formed 
on another plan. Thus Hugh Bedward and 
Richard Pugh, inhabitants of Wrexham, 
during the last century, came ultimately to be 
called Hugh Edwards and Richard Hughes. 

But when names like "Jones," "Davies," 
and " Edwards " had been once constructed, 
so indifferent were Welshmen to the advan- 

* Really pronounced Shone, as Jenkin was pro- 
nounced Shenkin, the Welsh having at first great 
difficulty in reproducing the sound of "j," which is a 
letter that does not occur in the Welsh alphabet. 



PROPOSED RESTORATION OF THE BAR WALLS, YORK. 



i47 



tages of surnames, that, over a great part of 
Wales, these names, among the farming and 
mining folk, were, down to the first quarter 
of the present century, often treated, not as 
true surnames, but merely as patronymics 
which changed with every generation. Thus 
Edward Probert, having become Edward 
Roberts, his son William would call himself, 
not William Roberts, but William Edwards, 
and William Edwards' son John call himself, 
not John Edwards, but John Williams. An 
arrangement of this kind would be intelligible 
and in nowise misleading, so long as it was 
strictly adhered to. But cases like the follow- 
ing were not uncommon : Evan Thomas 
married Gwen Jones, and had by her three 
sons, Howel, Hugh, and Owen. The eldest 
definitely adopted his father's patronymic as 
a true surname, and called himself Howel 
Thomas ; the second made a patronymic for 
himself out of his father's Christian name, 
and called himself Hugh Evans ; while the 
third took, as a true surname, the patronymic 
of his mother, and called himself Owen 
Jones. 

From the foregoing remarks it will be evi- 
dent that the study of Welsh surnames is a 
curious one, and involves points well worthy 
the special treatment that has been here 
given them. Some readers of this paper may 
also[herefrom gather that in the names they 
bear lies the evidence of their own Welsh 
descent. 

Alfred Neobard Palmer. 



IProposen iRestotation of t&e TBar 
Oall0, gorfe, fcettoecn 15ootfr 
am IBox ann #onk 15ar, 




N connection with the restoration of 
the portion of the City Walls ex- 
tending from Bootham Bar to 
Monk Bar, as resolved upon by 
the Council at the Monthly Meeting in 
September last, the Council have had under 
consideration the interesting and valuable 
letter of Mr. G. T. Clark on the cha- 
racter of this section of the walls, and as 



to the nature of the works required in the 
restoration thereof. The following is a copy 
of Mr. Clark's letter : 

"The question under the consideration of 
that body I understand to be the putting in 
repair that portion of the City Walls facing 
Gillygate, and extending from Bootham Bar 
to the northern angle, and thence a short 
distance towards Monk Bar, where the wall 
faces the Lord Mayor's Walk ; the object 
being to place the decayed wall in a good 
state of repair, and the restoration of the 
battlement, and of the rampart wall behind 
it, technically the ' Allure,' so that the whole 
circuit of the walls may be open to the 
public. 

" The division of the walls under consider- 
ation possesses a peculiar interest, seeing that 
it rests, generally, upon the line of so much 
of the wall of the Roman Eboracum as 
covered one quarter of the station, and con- 
tained its northern angle. At two points, 
near to Monk Bar and beyond it, the Roman 
foundations have actually been laid open ; 
elsewhere, if, as is most probable, in exist- 
ence, they are covered up by the later earth- 
bank, along the crest of which the still later 
wall has been constructed. 

" Of the precise age of this wall nothing is 
certainly known, but the Conqueror attached 
great importance to the defence of York, and 
Norman work, though late in the style, may 
be detected in the central part or core of the 
Bars. Nothing, certainly, so old, has been 
observed in the walls, which are, I believe, 
attributed to the reign of Edward III., since 
which time they have been much injured, 
almost as much by restoration as by destruc- 
tion. 

" The curtain wall, from Bootham Bar to 
the northern angle, varies in height from 12 
to 15 feet, and in thickness from 3 to 4 or 5 
feet. It is reinforced by five bastions that 
is to say, mural towers not rising, or rising 
but a foot or two, above the crest of the wall. 
The two next to Bootham Bar are mere half- 
hexagonal bays ; the other three are in plan, 
about a quarter of a circle. Besides, and 
between these, the curtain is stiffened by 
twenty-nine buttresses, placed at unequal 
distances upon its exterior face, of different 
widths and projections, but all dying into the 
wall at about the level of the base of the 



148 



PROPOSED RESTORATION OF THE BAR WALLS, YORK. 



parapet. These buttresses, though fatal to 
the defence of the curtain from the flanking 
bastions, are nevertheless old, and some per- 
haps original, and should they require re- 
moval, the stones should be replaced and 
reset. 

" No doubt the whole upper part of the 
wall that is, the parapet will have to be re- 
newed; but the old stones should be pre- 
served, and their weathered faces placed in 
evidence. Part of the parapet towards Booth- 
am Bar, though rotten, is old, and the em- 
brasures have been walled up, and the whole 
capped by a later coping. In other parts the 
whole battlement has been replaced by a 
plain parapet. This must be rebuilt, and of 
course crenellated that is, notched with em- 
brasures, and care should be taken to give 
the embrasures the same depth, breadth, and 
distance apart, with those still remaining, 
though closed up. 

" The bastions should be raised about 2 feet 
above the wall level, so as to give greater 
command for the flanking defence, and the 
lower tier of loops should be clean cut and 
restored to the old cruciform pattern, a plain 
cross, with short cross arms, and oilettes at 
the four extremities. Also, the merlons of 
the bastions that is, the pieces of wall 
between the embrasures should be pierced 
with smaller loops of the same pattern. 

" The bastion capping the north angle is 
entirely gone, and its gorge, once open, is 
walled up; but the plan. of 1756 shows this 
bastion as a segment of a circle, and, though 
by no means accurate, may so far be de- 
pended upon. This bastion should be built 
up from the ground as three-quarters of a 
circle, but so as not to destroy the two ends 
of the adjacent curtains, which are chamfered 
to meet it. Perhaps it would be well to raise 
this bastion 3 feet above the wall level. It- 
should be quite plain with a chamfered 
plinth, but without machicolations, or " tour- 
elles," or pepper-boxes, or any similar 
attempts at ornament. 

" The curtain wall opposite Gillygate has at 
present only a fragment of the rampart walk. 
No doubt here, as at Lincoln Castle, the 
original intention, to save masonry, was either 
to construct a distinct arcade behind the 
wall, or to support the walk upon a scaffold 
or brdtasche of timber. The arcade seems 



to have been in favour at York, and is seen 
behind the wall near Walmgate, and about 
Monk Bar. Such an arcade is here proposed 
to be erected ; if so, it should be of the pattern 
of the fragment remaining towards Bootham 
Bar. 

"The arches should be covered over with 
large York landings, projecting about 12 
inches over the inner face of the wall, and, if 
it be desired to maintain the privacy of the 
Cathedral Gardens, a real wall, 12 inches 
thick, may be raised upon the edge of the 
landings to a height of 5 feet. This would 
leave a free passage, conceal the gardens, but 
not obstruct the view of the Cathedral, which 
on this side is peculiarly fine, and from a 
much nearer point than elsewhere upon the 
walls. 

" I observe that it is proposed to place the 
steps leading up to the new ramparts at 
Bootham and Monk Bars on the outside of 
the wall. This would be a great mistake. 
In all restorations, especially those of a mili- 
tary work, regard should be had to the 
original intention of the work to be restored. 
Steps in front of a wall would not only be of 
no use to the defenders, but would assist the 
attacking party. The steps should be inside 
the wall, as in other parts of the circuit, and 
if the space cannot at once be obtained, it 
would be in better keeping to construct the 
steps of timber, showing them to be of a 
temporary character. 

" Should it be thought desirable to intro- 
duce any kind of ornament in the new work, 
such should, I think, be confined to the 
battlements of the bastions. Some of the 
merlons in the wall near Walmgate, opposite 
to the Cattle Market, are pierced with small 
cruciform loops, and the top of each loop 
rises under a little gable into the coping, 
with a trefoiled head of simple and elegant 
design. This might with propriety be intro- 
duced into the battlements of the bastions, 
but certainly nothing further in the way of 
ornament should be allowed." 

Upon this a resolution was passed by City 
Council on 6th September, 1886 : "That the 
report of the Estates Committee now read 
be received and adopted, and that the Com- 
mittee be authorized to carry into effect the 
restoration of the portion of the City Walls 
between Bootham Bar and Monk Bar, in 



THE FOLK-LORE OF GULLLIM. 



149 




accordance with the recommendation con- 
tained in such report, and the plans accom- 
panying the same ; and that notice be given 
to the several tenants of the inner ramparts 
and moats to give up possession of the same 
in order that the restoration of the walls may 
be carried into effect." Latterly an attempt 
has been made to postpone the work, but the 
Council have finally decided to proceed with 
it. We hope they will not spoil their good 
work by over-restoration. 



Cfje jTol^lore of tfttfUim. 

By Mrs. Dam ant. 



HE Display of Heraldrie, by John 
Guillim," late Pursuivant of Armes," 
is described on the title-page by its 
author as " Interlaced with much 
variety of History, suitable to the severall 
occasions or subjects." And to the reader 
who loves the curious by-paths of literature, 
it is not least among the many fascinations of 
the book that its pages give us so many 
pictures of the manners and customs which 
prevailed at the period when Speed's good 
friend, "worthy and well-deserving Master 
Guillim," was adorning with " elaborate 
hand " the art he held so dear. 

In quaint and telling English, he describes 
the lavish modes of living which succeeded 
the days of Puritanic gloom, when " Peevish 
Precisenesse made no difference 'twixt Lord 
and Page, held that none were gentle-born, 
and that armorial bearings were but super- 
stitious idleshewes." He devotes several pages 
to the proper terms used in "the Noble 
Recreations and Delights of Hunting and 
hawking, sith it is a usual thing for the most 
part of young men to pamper Horses or 
cherish Dogs, and it is not well-beseeming 
men of a generous race to have a superficiall 
skill in professions that do beseem the Dignity 
of a gentleman." And he tells how, here and 
there, over the now peaceful land " Ingenious 
Gentlemen, and singular Lovers and Cher- 
ishers of Antiquity " were busy collecting the 
relics of " forepassed Ages," and the manu- 



scripts of the "Late dissolved Priories," 
whilst the extravagant youths of Restoration 
times were laying estates on a throw of the 
dice, and ruining themselves if they won by 
lavish gifts to bystanders, and to the " Butler's 
Box;" and the gay court ladies "hanging 
whole mannours at their sleeves." 

We read of how " hedge-hogge holy ones " 
go about wounding their neighbours by sharp 
sayings and cruel censures, how " idle masse- 
mongers work for the destruction of the 
generall good ;" we hear of poets busy with 
the "penner and inkhorn;" of worthy Cap- 
tain George Withers, " well known and much 
celebrated for his poems," and of "witty 
Master Carew of Antony." We are told of 
"late-ennoblished men," and of "worthy 
personages, Ulster Baronets, not sufficiently 
careful in their blazonings f and of " poore 
decayed gentlefolks, whom the heralds in 
their just discretion urge to lay aside certain 
armorial bearings of distinction which they 
also forbid to divers of the newly- risen 
families." We are told how, " in the recent 
factions," men were wont to wear crimson 
feathers or carnation ribbons in their hats, 
to show on which side they ranged them- 
selves; and we hear of how "the English 
plantations abroad " are being encouraged by 
merchant adventurers. 

We see the Irish peasantry attired in hairy 
mantles and hoods (like the unique specimen 
dug up some years since in an Ulster bog), 
and shod with the brogues, which are also 
found to this day in the peat, made of a 
single piece of leather. We see the Galway 
women wearing sleeves with a bag "at the 
bought of the arm," and Englishwomen 
"spinning as they goe, with the distaffe 
below the girdle, and the wharrow spindle." 

We hear how "it is the custom to passe 
livery and seizin of inheritance by the delivery 
of a Turffe and sprigs taken off the ground, 
and delivering the same to the purchaser" 
(a relic of which custom was lately described 
by a contributor to Notes and Queries) ; 
and we learn that in Guillim's day people 
still hung up helmets in churches (but not to 
serve as epitaphs, as of old time) ; and that 
at Christmas-time they decked the church 
with boughs of holly hence Guillim derives 
its name, meaning holy. 

The new fashion of kissing of hands is 



i5 



THE FOLK-LORE OF GULLLIM. 



noted, as well as that of embracing with the 
arms, a fashion disliked by the author, who 
preferred "a handful of the ancient amity to 
an armful of the new, which consists in words, 
not deeds." His censures fall heavy on the 
"freshwater soldier," the cowardly gallant, 
who beareth arms, but hath no heart for 
the fight ; and on the disdainful aristocrats, 
whom, in spite of his weakness for noble 
birth, he reproves for their pride, reminding 
them that between their boasted "generous 
bloud," and that of the meanest man, no 
difference can be discerned, save that the poor 
man's may be found the most pure and 
healthful, while the great man's is corrupt and 
vitiated. He rebukes the great ladies, and 
the citizens' wives who ape them, for not 
nursing their infants ; and he seldom refrains 
from showing his dislike for " Puritanicall 
persons, whose sharpe words pierce thorough 
all who hear them;" and his contempt for 
lawyers, " barrators, petti-foggers, and pro- 
mooters, who are ever disturbing the quiet 
state of their civill and honest neighbours." 

But our concern is not now with the 
manners of his period as portrayed by 
Guillim in the laborious work he proudly 
dedicates "to none but gentlemen," but 
with the many scraps of folk-lore, the ancient 
sayings, and the popular errors which abound 
in its delightful pages. 

That so ardent a student of heraldry should 
have but little time for other studies, and 
that, writing in the year 1660, he should dis- 
play a plentiful lack of knowledge concerning 
natural history, is only to be expected ; but 
still the gravity with which he relates the most 
marvellous stories of the habits of birds and 
of beasts cannot but amuse the latter-day 
reader. 

Take, for instance, his account of the 
lion and the leopard. He tells us that the 
leopard, being the offspring of the lion and 
the pard, and wanting the courage, of which 
the lion's plentiful mane is the express token, 
is obliged to depend upon his wits to defend 
himself from his natural enemy, the king of 
beasts. Therefore, says Guillim, " he maketh 
his den spacious and wide at the entrance, 
and narrow in the middest, so as to passe 
himself, being slenderer than the Lyon. 
When he seeth him, he maketh to him as if 
he would give him battel, then betaketh him 



to his heeles, and maketh toward his den, 
whom the Lyon eagerly persueth, dreaming 
of no danger by reason of the large entrance 
into the den. But at length he becometh 
straitened, and he, being thus distressed, his 
enemy passeth thorough his den, and gnaweth 
him to death." 

Equally " subtill," according to our author, 
is the lobster, " for he watcheth the escallop, 
oyster, and other like fishes that are fenced 
by Nature with a stronger and more defensible 
coat than himself, to become a prey unto him 
by observing when they do open their shells, 
either to receive ayre or food, and in the 
mean time with his clawes he taketh a stone, 
and casteth it between the shells of the 
oyster so she can neither save herself nor 
annoy her foe ; using his wit for a supply of 
his strength's deceit according to the old 
proverbe, ' Where the Lyon's skin is too 
scant it must be peeced out with the Fox' 
case.' " 

The lion was evidently an object of great 
interest to Guillim, who scatters here and 
there many curious notes as to his customs ; 
we learn that " he sleepeth with his eyes open, 
that his whelps come dead into the world, 
that when hunted he carefully provideth for 
his safety, labouring to frustrate the hunters 
by sweeping out his footsteps with his tail as 
he goeth ; and that he can exercise a kind of 
mesmerism by roaring till the astonished 
beasts do make a stand, whereon he maketh 
a circle with his tail in the sand which they 
dare not transgresse, and, this done, he 
maketh choice of his prey at his pleasure." 

The legend that the bear brings forth de- 
formed and shapeless cubs, which resemble 
raw flesh till she licks them into shape, 
lingered long after Guillim wrote, and is the 
origin of a proverb still in use ; but we fancy 
that his legend of the changes undergone by 
the hare is still told, and the tale of how the 
music-loving dolphin can outspeed "a ship 
under sayle in her greatest ruffe and merriest 
winde " is still held to be true, but another 
which tells how it has oftentimes been 
known to fall in love with "faire youths, 
and wanting their company to die of grief," is 
now, like so many of the fables he quotes as 
current in his day, clean forgotten. It is 
probable that no one in these days would 
describe the escallop as a creature engendered 



THE FOLK-LORE OF GUILL1M. 



151 



" of the Dew and Ayre " alone, or hold that, 
although bloodless itself, it turneth soonest 
into blood " of any other food eaten of man, 
and that to cure a surfeit its raw flesh is said 
to be a soverain remedy." And although the 
fishermen of the seventeenth century forbore 
to fish for crabs when the moon was in her 
wane, knowing that crabs had then little or 
no substance in them, their descendants of 
the present day, who do not believe that the 
moon is the cause of their being " full and 
plum, or else sheare and after a sort empty," 
pay no regard to whether the moon be old or 
new, waxing or waning, when they set their 
crab-pots. 

We do not now believe that the hair of women 
under certain conditions will turn into " very 
venemous serpents," although there are still 
found educated persons who are ready to 
assert that to their own certain knowledge 
horse's hairs have become small eels when 
left in running water for a length of time. 
No one "now-a-daies" believes that " dragons, 
wivernes, cockatrices, harpeys, mermaids, 
montegres, griffons, and other exorbitant 
animals or monsters," ever existed, but it is 
strange to find the monk-fish and the rere- 
mouse figuring in Guillim's list of such 
creatures. The habits of the cockatrice are 
apparently as familiar to him as are those of 
the common bat, and he enlarges on the 
" pestiferous and poysonful aspect wherewith 
he poisoneth the aire and infecteth it," and 
compares him to "those devillish witches 
that do work the destruction of silly Infants, 
as also of the Catell of such their neighbours, 
whose prosperous estate is to them a most 
grievous eyesore." We know that in many 
parts of the kingdom women with the dreaded 
evil eye are still thought to have the power of 
harming cattle, but they are not generally 
supposed to injure children. In Guillim's 
day, however, Herrick in the " Hesperides " 
gives a charm which " the superstitious wife " 
may use to keep "hags away while children 
sleep," and the coral worn by babies was 
once regarded (as we learn from Brand) as 
"an amulet against fascination." With the 
ways of dragons and griffins our author is 
very conversant, telling us that "no amount of 
water can cool the dragon, who continually 
gapeth for the aire to refresh him, so hot is 
he, and that he keeps, or, according to our 



English phrase, doth sit abrood upon riches 
and treasure, committed to his charge be- 
cause of his admirable sharpnesse of sight, 
and for that he is supposed, of all other living 
things, to be the most vigillant." 

Of the griffin he tells us that "he, having 
attained his full growth, will never be taken 
alive" (an observation in whose truth most 
naturalists will concur), and he compares him 
" to a valourous souldier, whose magnani- 
mity is such that he exposeth himself to all 
dangers, even death itself, rather than 
become captive." 

Of the eagle Guillim has much to record, 
how he makes proof of his young by expos- 
ing them to the beams of the sun, " and such 
as cannot steddily behold that brightnesse 
are cast forth as unworthy to be acknow- 
ledged his offspring ;" and how when they are 
" fligge or flush (as we say), or ready for 
flight, she taketh them on her wings, and 
soareth with them through the Ayre, and so 
carryeth them aloft, freeing them from 
danger by bearing them on the wings rather 
than in the Tallons." Again he tells of how, 
" when in old age the eagle's beak grows ex- 
tremely hooked, she flyeth to the rock and 
whetteth the same so long untill she maketh 
it proportionable to the nethermost, whereby 
she becometh no lesse capable of food than 
before, and so reneweth her strength." And 
yet, great as is the eagle's strength, we are told 
that " sometimes she is forced to use her wit 
to rend her prey as in breaking open all shell- 
fish, which she useth (as fortune doth many 
great men) to carry them up very high that 
they may fall and be broken up for her food. 
Whereas," says our author quaintly, " there 
is recorded one memorable but pitiful experi- 
ment on the Poet Aschylus who, sitting in 
deep meditation, an Eagle, thinking his bald 
head had been a stone, let fall a Tortois 
upon it, and so made a Tragicall ende of 
that noble Tragedian." And even after her 
death the eagle is a power, for, as in her 
stormy life she makes prey " of other fowle," 
so her feathers, being mingled with those of 
any other feathered creature, are said to 
consume them all to dust. 

Concerning the raven, the scriptural ex- 
pression, " He feedeth the young ravens that 
call upon Him," is explained by the curious 
belief that from the time his young are 



l s* 



THE FOLK-LORE OF GUILL1M. 



hatched, the parent entirely neglects to pro- 
vide them with food till he sees that they 
are black and pen-feathered like himself; 
" therefore, in the mean space, it is thought 
that they are nourished with the heavenly 
dew." 

In another note we are told that if the 
hen-raven overcomes the cock-bird in fight, 
" when eagerly assailing one another with 
their armours," she ever after holds him in 
subjection. 

Among other bird-lore, Guillim tells us 
that the martin (called by him the martlet, 
or martinet), "is used as a difference in 
the coat-armour of younger brothers to 
remind them to trust to their own wings 
of merit and virtue to raise themselves, and 
not to their legs, having little land to put 
their feet on, sithence martlets cannot rise 
from their feet if they fall ; hence their nests 
are built so high that in flying from them the 
aire may support them." The pretty, old 
poetic legend of the swan is quoted, but not as 
a fact, rather as a circumstance of which 
" divers doe write, saying that Death is so 
acceptable unto swans that, foreseeing the 
same, they sing with joy, a thing which they 
never do in their young days." 

We are told that there is a saying that 
"the Eagle is the Queen of Birds, the 
swallow or wagtail the lady, and the cock 
the knight;" and some curious expressions 
about the bee would almost lead us to 
believe that its place in Nature was regarded 
as uncertain. "He is reputed," says our 
author, " to be of a doubtful kind, in regard 
that it is uncertain whether he may be fitly 
numbered among the Savage or Domesticall 
kind of animals, wherefore they are reckoned 
his that hath the possession of them, accord- 
ing to our vulgar speech, ' Catch that 
catch may.'" A few interesting remarks 
follow on the law of the subject, from 
which we learn that if bees swarm on a man's 
trees they are not reckoned as his, but that 
immediately he gathers them " into an Hive 
they ceace to be publicke," and belong to 
the man who owns the hive, whether he own 
the land or not. And till they be hived any 
man may take the " honey combes if there 
be any ;" but should your hived swarm 
escape from you, and you pursue them, they 
only belong to you so long as you can keep 



them in sight, and " you may prosecute them 
no longer, for if they flie out of your sight, 
Fiunt occupantes." Their ruler, Guillim de- 
scribes as their " king ;" and so greatly does 
he admire their wit (which word he always 
uses in the old sense in which it is still used 
by the Ulster peasantry), that he exclaims, 
" The small and slender bodies of the bees 
are endued, if I may say it, with a perfect 
soul ;" and again, quoting the wise man, he 
says, " The bee is the least of birds, but she 
is of much virtue ;" and in another place, 
when telling us how parchment, " that silly 
instrument the pen," and the use of seals for 
deeds, " sway all men's states," Guillim quotes 
the old saying : 

The calf, the goose, the bee, 
The world is ruled by these three. 

And we find yet another note on the bee, for 
he tells us that " if he sting a dead carkase, 
the bee loseth not his sting," and finds in 
this belief an explanation for the metaphor 
of St. Paul, who describes Death as losing not 
his sting when we were as dead flesh ; but 
in touching Christ and those who are alive 
in Him the sting of Death was lost for ever. 

Speaking of another insect, called by him 
the " Gad-bee," he gives us some other names 
in use for it in his day, which may be worth 
noting. " It is," he says, " called of some 
the Dunflye and the Brimsey ;" and he uses 
for the mole a name which is probably now 
forgotten, speaking of it as the " Want." 

Of the well-known fable of the hare and 
tortoise we find a new version in these 
pages, for " a snaile " takes the place of the 
tortoise, and succeeds in distancing the hare 
" too proud of his footmanship." And 
we have a quotation of the subject of how 
" the snaile, by her constancy in her course, 
ascendeth the Highest Tower, as the worthy 
and learned gentleman, Master Carew of 
Antony, hath wittily moralized in his poem 
intituled the Herring's tail." 

Of the ant Guillim always speaks as the 
emmet, and he refers to the kitchenbob, 
palmer-worm, and cheeselip as gathering 
themselves together into a ball when 
touched ; and in speaking of spiders, " those 
poore dispised creatures," he tells us that no 
sooner are they hatched, " but forthwith they 
practise to make webs as if they had brought 
with them from the Eg, together with their 



THE FOLK-LORE OF GULLLLM. 



153 



life, the Artificiall skill of webbing." And 
in describing the said web, in making which 
"she weaveth ginnes in form of a net, re- 
pairing diligently all rents and wracks of the 
same," Guillim compares thereto the execu- 
tion of the laws, quoting the distich : 
Lawes like spiders' webs are wrought, 
Great flies escape, and small are caught. 

The antipathy to this " painfull and indus- 
trious insect," which is not wholly extinct 
even now, was strong in the seventeenth 
century, for although Guillim tells us that 
"her web is reckoned an antidote against 
poyson, yet that she herself is not only 
poysonfull but even deadly." 

Speaking of the tortoise, our author speaks 
of the origin of the harp, which, in his day, 
was made, he tells us, out of the " great shels 
of the Arcadian tortoise. Mercury, finding 
one left upon the rocks after the falling of the 
river Nilus, the flesh being consumed, and 
the sinews that remained dried up, he strake 
them with his hand, and they made a kind 
of musical sound, whereupon he framed it 
into a Harp, and caused others to imitate 
his practice unto this day." 

The phrase in the Shepherd's Calendar, 
" the lording of frogges," is explained by 
Guillim by the power both toads and frogs 
possess of holding the head perfectly steady 
and motionless when they sit ; and he ex- 
plains the "Husbandman's prognostication 
of some great shower of Raine when he 
sayeth on hearing them croak that they doe 
cry for Raine." " Every like is delighted 
with his like," says Guillim, "and sithence 
that frogges are exceedingly delighted with 
Water, when they doe apprehend a fore-sence 
of Rayne they doe rejoyce and sing (after 
their manner)." 

There is one piece of folk-lore quoted in 
these pages which is stigmatized as very 
ridiculous ; that is, the belief that if " a man 
stricken of a scorpion shall sit upon an asse 
with his face to the taile of the asse, his pain 
shall passe out of him " into the patient beast, 
which shall be tormented for him. " In my 
opinion," says the satirist severely, " he that 
will believe this is the creature that must be 
ridden upon ;" and yet he goes on to say that 
"it is an ancient observation that the oyle 
of scorpions is a chief cure against their 
stinging." 

vol. xv. 



Another cure, in which he evidently be- 
lieves, is the " milke of the seale or sea-calf, 
which is very wholesome against the falling 
sicknesse ;" but he gravely tells us that " she 
sucketh it out, and spitteth it lest it should 
profit any other." 

A curious belief concerning the wolf is 
given, that " those who suddenly look at it do 
lose their voice ;" and in explaining a coat 
armour " that standeth in a glasse window of 
thechancell of Thame Church in Oxfordshire," 
Guillim tells us how, in his day, " those who 
rob the Tiger of her young use a policy 
to detain the dam from following them, by 
casting sundry looking glasses in the way, 
whereat she useth long to gaze, whether it be 
to behold her own beauty, or because when 
she seeth her own shape in the glasse she 
thinketh she seeth one of her young ones, 
and so they escape the swiftness of . her 
pursuit." 

Turning from animated nature, we find a 
few scraps of folk-lore relating to plants and 
stones, which are worthy of recording. We 
learn, for instance, that the still existing 
Celtic belief that to sleep in a bean-field 
means never to waken again, was held in a 
less degree in Guillim's day, for he says, " the 
flower of the beane, though very pleasing to 
the smell, is hurtful to weake braines f and he 
slily adds, that the common saying that " at 
the time of their flowering there are more 
foolish than at other times," may refer to 
those who at that season "distil the Beane- 
flower to make themselves faire therewith." 

Of pomegranates we are told that they "are 
holden to be of profitable use in Physick, for 
the qualifying and allaying of the scorching 
heat of burning ague, for which end the 
Juyce is reckoned to have a very soveraigne 
vertue;" and the columbine, we are told, is 
pleasing " not only for its seemly (and not 
vulgar) shape, but as being very medicinable 
for the dissolving of imposthumations or 
swellings in the throat." 

Although he abuses " witlesse wizards and 
fortunetellers who deceive the world with their 
idle predictions," Guillim seems to regard 
several portents as worthy of attention, for he 
holds that the birth of a monster, a creature 
whose shapes and qualities bear a confused 
likeness to different animals, "foreshews some 
strange event j" and that a comet " which pro- 

M 



154 



THE FOLK-LORE OF GULLLIM. 



tracts its light like a beard, hairy bush, or 
fox's tail, and contracts its substance from 
exhalation not from creation, not being 
numbered among things naturall, prognosti- 
cates dreadfull and horrible events of things 
to come." 

Concerning the heavenly bodies, our author 
rebukes the ignorance of those whose " weak 
eyes and weaker judgment do fancy a face of 
a man in the moon;" whereas the effect which 
we " have gotten the fashion of representing 
as a face," proceeds only from " the unequal 
surface of the moon, whose reflecting surface 
(as of a looking glasse) is in some parts 
thicker and in some thinner ;" and he tells 
us that the moon is held to be " the misstresse 
by which all moist, mutable, and inconstant 
things are ruled, as a woman, the sea, rivers, 
and fountains." He relates how the old 
Germans used to shout and make a noise 
to waken the moon in an eclipse when they 
thought her in a trance, and howl till she 
looked cheerfully upon them, under the 
belief that she was angry with them. 

In his own days he tells us that out of 
" mere rustick ignorance men hold that the- 
sun doth lose his light by the Eclipse as 
doth a candle being extinct, and that the 
Sonne loseth his light on going to bed every 
night ; whereas it doth only remove it selfe 
from our Horizon to inlighten other countries." 
"The Rainbow," he says, "appearing in 
the South betokeneth Rain, in the West it 
foresheweth Thunder, and in the East fore- 
tells faire weather." 

Another little prophet of rain, the trefoil, 
" is accounted the Husbandman's Almanack " 
(even as in the Isle of Wight, at the present 
day, the rural name of the pimpernel is 
"Farmer Merryman's weatherglass"); and we 
are told that " the Mulbery tree is reputed 
the wisest of all trees," as it never buds or 
sprouts "till all extremity of cold winter be 
clearly past and gone." As to the best places 
for planting different trees, he quotes the 
following : 

The Ash in woods makes fairest shew, 

The Pine in orchards nigh, 
By Rivers best is Poplar's hew, 

The Firre on mountains high. 

And he tells us that " the Pine is holden 
of some to be the fittest representation of 



Death, forasmuch as, being once cut down, 
the root thereof never sprouteth any more." 

Without any comment we find him copying 
a coat-of-arms, whose device is a pineapple- 
tree, from which the pineapples hang in 
neatly ordered rows ; but as he speaks of 
" the unknown climate where the King of 
Spain's Indians do have their habitation," 
his ignorance is not, perhaps, much to be 
wondered at. 

Of stones he tells us, that " as in all kinde 
of minerals it is judged that they have a 
vegetable life, even so have stones this life, 
for they have a passive capacity for Sick- 
nesse, for Age, and also for Death." This 
belief is not yet extinct, for the West Indian 
negroes are said to believe that coral is 
always affected by its wearer's health, whilst 
educated persons in England are known to 
affirm that " Turkisses " and other stones 
grow dim if the wearer fall ill, or the giver's 
affections change. Guillim believed that the 
blood of a goat would " mollify the diamond," 
and that the sapphire stone "operateth much 
in according disagreements ;" but we find 
little reference to precious stones or metals 
in his book, though he reproves the custom 
of " the wearing the ring upon every me- 
ckanicke hand, though of a right none should 
wear it but such as either Bloud, Wars, 
Learning, Office, or Dignity hath made 
capable thereof." 

Among the proverbs so often quoted in 
these pleasant pages we find many which 
are forgotten, besides such familiar ones as 
" Fire and water are good servants but unruly 
Masters ;" " Make Hay while the Sun doth 
shine j" " Let another man be thy Trumpeter 
and not thine owne mouth ;" " Bread is the 
Staffe of Life;" and "The shorter the 
sweeter." 

" To the clene all things are clene," is but 
a variation of a saying we all know; but 
several of those quoted as common sayings 
are now forgotten. We still talk, it is true, 
of " eating our words," unaware that the old 
version was " He that revoketh his Challenge 
eateth his word ;" but we no longer describe 
a pliable person as " one rather drawn by the 
ears than by the Cloake," or a hypocrite as 
having " honey in the lips, gall in the heart, 
and guile in the actions." " Where is store 
of wit there needeth not a hard skin," is 



THE FOLK-LORE OF GULLLLM. 



iS5 



another proverb found in Guillim; and 
among those that deal with arms we have, 
" Compel a Coward to fight, and he will kill 
the Devill f " All the Armour in the Tower 
is not enough to arm a Dastard's heart f and 
" The true ornaments of martiall men are a 
shattered shield, a dented helmet, a blunted 
sword, and a wounded face, all received in 
Battell." 

Of the " murtherous Culvering," we hear 
that the saying goes " that it must have been 
the Devill himself who invented this hellish 
instrument for the confusion of man-kind ;" 
and yet another martial proverb tells us, that 

No smaller praise is in it, 
To hold a fort than win it. 

Of the elements, we hear that the old 
saying hath it, that 

Fire is Winter's treasure, Water Sommer's pleasure, 
But the Earth and Aire, none can ever spare. 

Another saw is, " There are more things 
in the world than there are names for them;" 
and the one that tells us, "If light eares 
incline to light lips Harme ensueth," is true 
for all time, though it has fallen out of use, 
as well as the saying, " A solitary man must 
be either Saint or Devill." 

Besides these proverbs, there are to be 
found in this quaint old book many scraps of 
now-forgotten poetry, and quotations from 
ancient manuscripts. There are various refer- 
ences to historic characters, whom we now 
regard as myths, as when we are told of King 
Lucius, the " first Christian King in the 
world " (whose memory has recently been 
revived by the parochial authorities of the 
Premier Parish Church in England) ; of 
King Belinus of Britain, "who conquered 
Rome, France, Allmaine, and all Italy ;" and 
we hear of the example of hospitality, " a 
thing in this age much commended but 
little practised," which was set by good King 
Lud, " whose tables were set from seven of 
the clock in the morning till seven in the 
evening, and whose Trumpeters summoned 
all manner of people to come and eat of his 
rare and delicate cates." 

But for these, and many even more in- 
teresting examples of seventeenth-century 
lore, we must refer the reader to the book 
itself, which is compared, in one of the some- 
what halting poems which preface the fourth 




edition, to " a curious Lantschape," which 
11 the well-willing Author " has drawn " with 
such spright," that he can never be forgotten 
so long as there are noble and gentle hearts 
(and for such alone he writes) to delight in 
his great work. 



Dln ^torieu Rouses. 



II. Compton-Wynyates. 

HE nearest spot the " iron horse " 
can place us for the wondrous old 
mansion, Compton-Wynyates or, 
as Camden calls it, Compton-in- 
the-Hole is Banbury, from which town it 
is some nine miles distant, lying in a westerly 
direction, close upon the boundary between 
Warwickshire and Oxfordshire, in a most re- 
tired and secluded situation. Should we go 
this way it would not be much out of our 
route to visit Broughton Castle, or Wroxton 
Abbey, both of which are remarkably well 
preserved and picturesque examples of 
Tudor architecture. Broughton, which 
perhaps is the finer of the two, is still sur- 
rounded by a perfect moat, and presents, with 
its numerous gables and windows, a most 
pleasing outline. In a small retired room in 
the roof, still to be seen, Lord Saye and Sele 
received the leaders of the Parliamentary 
party (among whom were Lord Brooke and 
Hampden), who held meetings here to 
organize the resistance to the arbitrary 
measures of Charles I. 

Wroxton would perhaps be more in our 
direct route, and is equally picturesque, 
being a fine example of an old English 
grange of the Elizabethan period. We have 
not space here to enter upon a detailed 
description of the interiors of these two old 
mansions ; suffice it to say, that each is a 
storehouse for antiquarian study. 

As, it will be remembered, Long Compton, 
in Warwickshire, was our starting-point for 
the old hall of Chastleton, we will again set 
out from this quaint, straggling old village. 
Connected with the history of the old gray 
time-worn church of Long Compton is the 
tradition that a miracle was once performed 

m 2 



156 



OLD STORIED HOUSES. 



here to prove the divine right of tithes an 
instance of the stratagems employed by the 
priesthood to increase the profits of their craft. 

Half an hour's good walking will bring us 
to the pretty, verdant village of Little Wool- 
ford. The manor-house here (which is 
now used as a school and cottages) was for- 
merly the seat of the Ingrams, and is a fine 
specimen of early sixteenth-century domestic 
architecture. The spacious old hall, with its 
open timber roof and minstrels' gallery ; the 
great windows, containing much of their 
original stained glass ; the old panelled walls 
and many interesting old pictures, yet remain 
to remind us of its former grandeur. Many 
ghostly traditions cling to the old building : 
one of a " White Lady " frequenting one of 
the passages at midnight ; and another of the 
Spirit of the last of the Ingrams, who, accord- 
ing to the story, arose from his deathbed, 
and mounting his favourite horse, dashed 
into the tempest that was raging, to meet his 
adversary, Death. Being found dead in the 
adjacent river Stone on the following morn- 
ing, it is not to be wondered that his restless 
spirit is still supposed to haunt his old ances- 
tral house. The most interesting portion of 
the building, to those who give credence to 
the story, is the one where it is alleged King 
Charles II. was concealed after the battle of 
Worcester. This one forms a rude projection 
on the left-hand side of the gateway, and 
opens at the back of a wide hearth, on which 
formerly, if a fire were kindled, the door was 
invisible. 

Here the fugitive King is said to have 
narrowly escaped being baked alive, for 
Cromwell's soldiers, having traced him to the 
house, suspecting him to be hidden some- 
where about the fireplace, lighted a tremen- 
dous fire to drive him out. This is indeed 
an addition to history, and puts all Charles's 
narrow escapes in the shade ! Sufficient 
doubt exists as to the King's route after his 
leaving Long Marston to give some colour to 
the assertion. It is also reported that when 
repairs were made some years ago, there 
were found I O U's given by the merry 
monarch as security for money lost at play 
while in concealment there. 

Perhaps some cavalier may have been 
hidden here ; but it seems doubtful whether 
Charles II. was nearer to Little Woolford 



than Chipping Camden, in Gloucestershire, 
save when, a boy, he saw the fight at Edge- 
hill. 

Close to Little Woolford is Barton-on-the- 
Heath Manor House, a very interesting 
Elizabethan building, not only on account of 
its antiquity and curiosities, but for its his- 
torical interest, having been the birthplace of 
the unfortunate Sir Thomas Overbury. Many 
fine monuments of the Overburys are to be 
found in the little church close by, which 
has a quaint " saddle-back " tower, and some 
good brasses. 

At the commencement of the seventeenth 
century Robert Dorer resided at Barton-on- 
the-Heath, an attorney, celebrated for having 
instituted the annual festivities (so popular 
during the Stuart period) termed the Cots- 
wold Games, immortalized by Ben Jonson, 
Michael Drayton, and other poets of the age. 

The Four Shire Stone is near the village. 
Leland says : " Near Barton-on-the-Heath 
there is a large bigge stone, a three-mile 
stone from Rollerich Stones, which is a very 
mark or line of Gloucestershire, Whichester " 
(Worcestershire), "Warwickshire, and Oxford- 
shire." 

On our way to Compton-Wynyates we 
pass through the beautifully diversified park 
of Weston, which extends over many miles. 
The old mansion-house has long disappeared, 
the site being now occupied by a handsome 
modern structure. Weston was formerly 
the property of the Sheldons, who occupied 
the manor for many generations. 

The old house was full of grand tapestry 
and antique furniture. Here was a curious 
series of maps, consisting of three large 
pieces of tapestry, nearly eighty feet square, 
woven under the direction of William Shel- 
don, the founder of this seat, a warm patron 
of the Flemish tapestry manufacturers. On 
the sale here in 1781 (shortly before the old 
house was pulled down), this tapestry was 
purchased by Horace Walpole, who presented 
it to the Earl of Harcourt. 

We cross the river Stour at Cherrington, 
pass the village of Sutton, and shortly arrive 
at that of Brailes, which, with the exception of 
the grand old church, has little to detain us. 

Compton-Wynyates (which derives its 
name from the ancient Compton family, and 
Wynyates, a corruption of vineyard, as the 



OLD STORIED HOUSES. 



157 



vine at an early period was cultivated there) 
is but two miles from Brailes ; but as there is 
no direct road to it, and the footpath across 
the fields in a very short time entirely fades 
away, it is no easy matter to find the old 
house, for it lies down in so solitary a valley 
that one unacquainted with the locality might 
pass within fifty yards of it over and over 
again without observing a trace of it ; we can 
therefore only push on in the most probable 
direction and trust to Providence, as there is 
no sign of habitation in sight where to in- 
quire the way. At last our hopes are raised 
by espying among the trees a small wicket- 
gate, which looks promising ; and in a minute, 
as if by magic, we burst upon a full view of 
the quaint and beautiful old structure lying 
deep down in a secluded hollow, surrounded 
on all sides by thick clustering trees. 

William Howitt thus describes the impres- 
sion made by this wondrous old house : 

" I know not how to describe the feeling 
which came over me at the sight of it. 
There was something so still so dreamlike 
so unlike any ancient hall which I had ever 
seen, that I stood and gazed on it in a sort of 
wondering reverie. It seemed as if I had 
suddenly come upon an enchanted region, 
or had got a peep at the Castle of Avalon, 
where King Arthur and Ogeir the Paladin 
are said still to abide with the fairy Morgana, 
awaiting the time when they shall return to 
the realms of France and England to restore 
them to their ancient chivalrous honour. 
The words of Bishop Percy's ballad of the 
Hermit of Warkworth came vividly into my 
mind : 

*' ' Behind yon hill so steep and high 
Down in the lowly glen, 
There stands a castle fair and strong 
Far from the abode of men.' 

"There stood in its perfect calm that dark- 
red old mansion, with all its gables, towers, 
and twisted chimneys ; with its one solitary 
smoke ascending above its roof, and around 
it neither other habitation nor any visible 
object or sound of life. Its hills and woods 
seemed to shut it in to a perpetual loneliness, 
and the gleam of still waters came dimly here 
and there through the openings amongst 
overhanging boughs. 

"I hastened down into the valley and 
plunged into the woody shades. I passed 



the head of those nearly hidden ponds, and 
as I approached the house, its utter solitude 
became more and more sensibly felt. It was 
now the moated grange of Tennyson's poetry. 
You might quite expect to see Mariana 
watching at one of the windows. The moat 
was not as most old moats now are, dry and 
become a green hollow, but full of water, as 
if necessary for defence. As you drew near 
a little church revealed itself under the trees 
on your right hand, while a garden on your 
left, leading down to the house, retained the 
style in which it had been first laid out some 
centuries ago." 

Part of the moat has now disappeared, but 
in every other detail the house remains the 
same. We are particularly struck with the 
wonderful colour which pervades this poetically 
venerable structure ; its countless chimney- 
clusters richly ornamented in every conceiv- 
able form, and curious gables of quaintly 
carved timber, dark with age, give it a 
wonderfully fascinating appearance. 

A solemn avenue leads to the principal 
entrance (an old projecting gateway leading 
into the inner court), over which are the 
Royal Arms of England supported by a 
griffin and a dog ; the spandrils of the porch 
are ornamented with many strange animals. 

Passing through the bullet-battered door, 
we find ourselves in a quadrangular courtyard 
round which the house is built. Here again 
the harmony of colour is very perceptible 
the purple-gray roof striking the eye with its 
tints of extreme beauty. We now enter the 
lofty great hall with its roof of black oak, 
music-gallery, and screen beneath, elaborately 
carved with leaf-tracery, grotesque figures of 
mounted knights, and an escutcheon of the 
Compton Arms. Above the gallery we notice 
the huge oak beams which form the "half- 
timber" portion of one of the principal 
gables ; and we cannot help comparing these 
tremendous oak trunks with the deal laths 
plastered in front of our houses nowadays, a 
feeble attempt to imitate this favourite style 
of architecture, and not even aiming at its 
object, viz., strength. In the hall is pre- 
served a large bullet, which was used when 
the house was beleaguered by Sir Samuel 
Luke in 1644.* 

* A view of the part of the house and of the Great 
Hall will be found in Nash's Mansions. 



158 



OLD STORIED HOUSES. 



A modern staircase (occupying the same 
place as the original) leads to a legion of 
panelled and tapestried rooms, some of which 
have very elegant ceilings and fireplaces. 

Unfortunately the original furniture of the 
mansion was sold by auction during the life 
of the late Earl of Northampton. Among 
the articles was a carved oak bedstead, on 
which it is alleged Henry VIII. reposed, 
when on a visit to his loyal companion, Sir 
William Compton. 

This representative of the ancient family 
was the first who attained great distinction in 
State affairs. He was placed, when quite a 
boy, as page to the Duke of York, afterwards 
Henry VIII, who conferred on him the 
honour of knighthood, and afterwards made 
him Chancellor of Ireland. The present 
house was built by him. In Dugdale's 
Wanvickshire is the following : " This Sir 
William erected a fair Mannour House at 
Compton, most of the brick used in that 
structure being brought from Fulbrooke, 
where a ruinous castle was, whereof he had 
the custody by the King's Grant, and keeper- 
ship of the parke ; which Castle he pulled 
down, making use of the Materials of that 
building. The parke likewise, which is very 
large, was begun by the same Sir William 
about the xi. year of Henry VIII." 

His grandson was created Baron Compton 
in 1572, and his son William was created 
Earl of Northampton in 16 18. A romantic 
episode in the life of this earl was his elope- 
ment with Elizabeth Spencer, of Canonbury 
House, Islington, in 1593.* 

This lady was greatly sought after on 
account of the large fortune amassed by her 
father, Sir John Spencer, whose only daughter 
she was, and the richest heiress of her time. 
Notwithstanding her strict seclusion at 
Canonbury, Lord William Compton, of 
whom she was enamoured, succeeded in the 
absence of her father in gaining admission to 
the house in the disguise of a baker, and 
carried her off in his basket. About a year 
later, a reconciliation between father and 
daughter was effected by Queen Elizabeth, at 
Greenwich Palace. 

Throughout the troubles of the Civil War, 
the Comptons took the side of the King. 

* Some of the carvings in the drawing-room and 
elsewhere have been brought from Canonbury House. 



Spencer Compton distinguished himself 
greatly in the royal cause. This zealous 
adherent of Charles I. fell at the battle of 
Hopton Heath, near Stafford, in 1643. His 
youngest son was Bishop of London from 
1675 to 1712, and was active in effecting the 
revolution, and settling the Government of 
King William, at whose coronation he 
officiated. 

One of the rooms in the old mansion is 
still called Henry VIII. 's room, and has the 
royal arms emblazoned in stained glass on 
the windows. A room is also shown where 
King Charles I. slept, the night prior to the 
fatal battle of Edgehill. There are two 
chapels in the house, and one of these, known 
as the Popish Chapel, is up in the roof, 
having various ways of escape therefrom by 
means of numerous staircases and passages 
leading to remote parts of the building ; for 
even in this secluded and lonely spot ready 
means of escape were absolutely necessary in 
the troublous times, when Popery had become 
illegal and had to be practised in the pro- 
foundest secrecy. Should the poor per- 
secuted priest not have time to descend one 
of these staircases, there are secret closets 
constructed between the timber of the roof 
and the wainscot into which he could creep 
and evade pursuit. 

There is such a complication of intricate 
passages, hiding-holes, and trap-doors in 
various parts of the house that the whole 
presents a weird picture of insecurity and 
suspicion. Curious rooms run along each 
side of the quadrangle in the roof, called the 
" Barracks," into which a whole regiment of 
soldiers could be packed in case of need; 
and in one part, known as the " False Floors," 
leading to a gloomy sort of corridor in the 
roof (formerly only to be reached by means 
of a ladder), should the enemy have tracked 
the fugitive priest or cavalier thus far, ten 
feet or so of the floor being removed, reveals 
an awful and ghastly gap into which the 
enemy would run headlong. In the officers' 
quarters of the " Barracks " blood-stains are 
pointed out, the scene of a great massacre 
when Royalist or Roundhead (for each party 
alternately held the house at the time of the 
Civil Wars) gained admission by means of a 
secret staircase and cruelly slaughtered their 
adversaries. 



ROMAN BATHS AT BATH. 



159 



The Protestant Chapel is on the ground- 
floor, and has an open screen upon which 
are many grotesque carvings of saintly pro- 
cessionsa combat between monks and his 
Satanic Majesty stags with colossal horns, 
etc. ; but these, unfortunately, are much dis- 
figured by white paint with which they were 
covered by " Tidy John," a bygone Earl of 
Northampton. There is a small isolated 
room called " The Devil's Chamber," reached 
by a steep spiral staircase, and another little 
room whose window is always found open in 
the morning, although closed invariably on 
the previous night Altogether there are 
upwards of ninety rooms, and to describe all 
would be impossible. 

We now reluctantly leave the wooded 
valley, ascend the steep slope once more, 
and are soon high above the dreamy old 
house with its myriad of fantastic chimneys j 
and we cannot help thinking how aptly it has 
been called Compton-in-the-Hole. 

A. Fea. 



Roman O5atb0 at 15at&. 




OME atrocious work has been com- 
mitted at Bath, in spite of the 
vigilance of the Society of Anti- 
quaries. In July, 1886, Professor 
Middleton, on behalf of this society, reported 
upon what then existed of the original Roman 
work. The chief feature is a room nearly 
square, with a series of pilasters along the 
walls. Merely the bases of these pilasters 
remain, and the rubble wall, covered with 
fine hard "opus signinum" behind them, 
was then only about 4 feet high. New watts 
and pilasters carrying arches were being built 
on this Roman work ; and the whole will be 
roofed in. 

Major Davis's scheme includes building 
new rooms over the hypocaust, the walls of 
which would cut through and practically 
destroy it. A drawing made by Mr. Irvine 
some time ago shows this hypocaust to have 
been one of very exceptional interest, being 
constructed as it is with a partially hollow 
floor, apparently with the object of forming 
a lighter floor than usual. Some of the 



arches are also formed of hollow bricks 
shaped like true voussoirs. In fact, the whole 
place is full of very exceptional interest, and 
deserves very different treatment to that 
which it has received. About two years ago 
the lead plates, which wholly lined one of the 
rectangular tanks, were stripped off and sold 
for old lead by the Corporation. These 
plates were 10x5 feet, and weighed more 
than 30 lb. to the foot. 

Mr. W. H. St. John Hope in the following 
August went to Bath, and Mr. Davis pro- 
duced a tracing showing what had been dis- 
covered in the area west of the circular bath, 
and how he proposed to build his walls on 
the Roman ones. In answer to a question 
as to the respective levels of the Roman 
floor and that proposed to be laid down ; he 
replied that the two levels would be identical. 

Since Mr. Middleton's visit the site had 
been cleared, and Roman walls laid bare in 
various directions of a height varying from 
1 or 2 to 5 or 6 feet. They in parts retained 
their original plastering, and appeared in 
good preservation. Owing to their unequal 
heights these walls were being levelled up by 
the workmen with Roman masonry from the 
debris, and then slate slabs were laid as a 
damp course and the work carried up in 
brick. 

In the large apartment next to the circular 
bath there is a piece of the hypocaust, some 
8 or 12 feet square, apparently in fair preser- 
vation, which when Mr. Hope was there was 
covered up with planks to keep it from injury. 
This large piece is in the south-east corner. 
In the north-west corner of the same room is 
a door leading into a corridor running due 
west. Immediately to the south of this 
door is another piece of the hypocaust, per- 
haps 3 feet or so square, but unprotected, 
while the whole of the corridor nearly as far 
as the street retains its hypocaust, which is 
there partly covered with planks for protec- 
tion. Mr. Davis pointed out a portion of a 
newly discovered bath on the north of this 
corridor. 

In the circular bath the works reported on 
by Mr. Middleton had been carried up to 
the original height by " restoring " the Roman 
piers and pilasters, and building on them an 
arcade all round the bath. Apart from the 
" restoration " no harm seems to have been 



t6o 



ROMAN BATHS AT BATH. 



done, and the difference between the old and 
the new work is shown by setting back the 
latter about an inch everywhere, so that the 
faces of the two works are not in the same 
plane. 

On the site of the new works, one of the 
workmen, in digging a hole for a foundation 
of a short length of wall to be built against 
the south wall* of the large room already 
described, came to the original floor on 
which the hypocaust stands, and although 
Mr. Davis had stated that with the exception 
of portions described, the whole of the hypo- 
caust had perished, it now became clear from 
what the workman laid bare that the pilce at 
any rate remained more or less perfect over 
the whole area of the room. A few feet 
farther west the workmen were clearing away 
the superficial debris, in order to lay the 
foundation of a cross wall, and here, too, a 
crowbar showed that the lower floor remained 
perfect. 

According to Mr. Davis's present plans, the 
site of the large room will be almost entirely 
filled with a staircase down to the basement. 
This will open into a corridor running north 
and south, taken out of the area of the large 
room, of which the west wall will be built 
upon and partly consist of Roman work, and 
the east wall is that to be carried on the piers 
and girders mentioned above. The floor of 
this corridor is to be laid at the level of the 
floor above the hypocaust. The Roman 
corridor with its hypocaust is to be made 
use of as a corridor opening out of the north 
end of the new corridor, and its floor will be 
lain upon that supported by pilce. The south 
end of the new corridor will rise by steps to 
clear the Roman wall there, at the top of 
which steps a trapdoor will be constructed 
to permit access to a small square Roman 
chamber beneath, which Mr. Davis calls the 
labrum. A similar trap-door is to be made 
to show the remains of the hypocaust in the 
south-east angle of the large room. 

In conclusion, Mr. Hope was of opinion 
(i) That there was no necessity to utilize 
the old Roman walls in the manner 
described, as the new basement 
floor could have been just as easily 
carried on piers and girders at such 

* This wall has two doorways in it which were 
blocked in Roman times. 



a height above the old work as to 
allow of its being accessible to 
students in the condition in which 
it was found ; 

(2) That the new work has been com- 

menced for some reason without a 
proper examination of the site 
having first been made ; 

(3) That though, in accordance with Mr. 

Davis's pledged word to the Society 
of Antiquaries, the Roman work 
will not actually be destroyed, yet a 
strong personal feeling that has 
unfortunately been aroused, through 
the persistent opposition to the 
proposed plans on account of their 
destructive character by some of 
the Roman antiquaries in Bath, 
will most certainly end in the whole 
of the ancient work being effectu- 
ally concealed beneath plaster and 
concrete, and the few trap-doors to 
be provided will be of no use what- 
ever, and only a concession made 
to those who desire that the Roman 
work should be made accessible for 
examination. 
Finally, in November of last year Mr. Hope 
and Mr. Micklethwaite visited the spot on 
behalf of the Society of Antiquaries. They 
found the intersecting walls described in the 
previous report as encumbering the chambers 
west of the circular bath, and which Mr. 
Middleton speaks of in his report, have been 
carried up and very seriously obscure the 
arrangements of the Roman work. The 
wall mentioned as that Mr. Davis ordered to 
be carried on piers is built instead with a 
continuous foundation right across the area, 
on concrete thrown in, over and around the 
pilce. which stood in its line. Parallel with it, 
at a distance of a few feet, is another brick 
wall also on a continuous concrete founda- 
tion, and in addition there is a projecting 
pier of some size which supports one side of 
an arch thrown over the east end of the large 
chamber. 

These walls therefore divide this apart- 
ment into three sections, and they abut 
against the Roman masonry at their south 
ends and conceal it. Their concrete founda- 
tions also practically destroy, and certainly 
conceal, the portions of the hypocaust em- 



ROMAN BATHS AT BATH. 



161 



bedded in them. The lower portions of Mr. 
Davis's cross walls are, most unfortunately, 
in several places constructed of rough stone 
masonry. This, in the cellar-like state of the 
place now, is very difficult to distinguish from 
the old Roman walls, and Mr. Hope had to 
recall to mind the state of things three months 
ago to remember which walls were actually 
Roman. It is also now very difficult to 
distinguish the modern masonry used to 
level up the old work from the Roman 
masonry, despite its black mortar. Further 
research has brought to light some more 
interesting Roman work on the north and 
south sides of the new works. 

After some discussion it was explicitly pro- 
mised, both by Mr. Davis and Mr. Wilkinson, 
that the new basement floor should be placed 
at such a height above the hypocaust floor 
as to allow of easy access to the Roman 
work except over the eastern portion of the 
hypocaust, which Mr. Davis proposes to put 
under a glass floor. It was also promised 
that the two objectionable brick walls should 
be so pierced as to allow of uninterrupted 
access from one end of the large chamber to 
the other end. 

The promised alteration of the levels is, of 
course, satisfactory ; but the intersecting 
brickwork will still be a concealment of old 
work, which even piercing will not undo. 
Its presence is the more to be regretted since 
it was quite unnecessary ; for the superin- 
cumbent works could have been carried on 
piers and arches of brickwork. 

In support of Major Davis's plans Mr. 
Waterhouse has been called in for an opinion. 
Although Mr. Waterhouse does not speak as 
an antiquary, it is fair to give the gist of his 
report. He says : " I have read the letters 
of Professor Middleton, Mr. St. John Hope, 
Mr. Micklethwaite, Mr. Penrose, and others, 
on the preservation of the Roman remains. 
They evince the great importance attached by 
the Society of Antiquaries to the conservation 
of these remains, and demand that nothing 
may be done in the works now in progress 
which should in any way injure them or pre- 
vent their being displayed in the way most 
favourable to their intelligent study. Major 
Davis has, however, had not only to consider 
the question as an antiquary, but he has had 
to arrange for the increased bathing accom- 



modation required by the reputation of the 
baths, and to reconcile the ideal mode 
of treating the relics of the past with the ne- 
cessities of the present and future. This, as 
is admitted by some of his critics, has been a 
difficult problem to solve. For the general 
way in which Major Davis has arranged for 
the due exhibition of the Roman remains in 
the basement, while not sacrificing his space 
for bathing purposes, I have nothing but praise. 
Almost everything of interest he is leaving un- 
covered, or at any rate accessible. There now 
only remains to be considered the treatment 
to be adopted for the exhibition and study of 
the hypocaust or hypocausts, and the small 
chamber called by Major Davis a 'labrum.' 
I have come to the conclusion that if advan- 
tage be taken of every accidental circum- 
stance to render access easy to what remains 
of Roman work below the modern pavement 
of these rooms, the preservation and the dis- 
play of these relics will be best secured, the 
modern pavement being kept level with the 
Roman pavement, or a few inches above it. 
Thus nothing should prevent the good light- 
ing of, and ready access to, that part of the 
hypocaust under the staircase where the pilce 
can be seen, and the use, as at Cirencester, 
of a part of the shaft of a column in place of 
the ordinary brickwork. The architect in- 
tends to glaze the whole area of the well of 
the staircase. Farther to the south the 
hypocaust (flue-heated) has been destroyed 
in great measure, but, I understand, before 
the present contract was commenced, and so 
there is not much, if anything, to render 
access desirable to the space below the floor 
at this spot. Towards the west front the 
cement floor over the hypocaust is unbroken, 
and nothing can be seen there of its con- 
struction ; therefore nothing of great interest 
can be hidden by superimposing the ceramic 
pavement which Major Davis proposes. I 
understand that he hopes to get a sectional 
view of the pilce outside the building to the 
west of this room. The labrum is a most 
interesting piece, but of very fragile plaster, 
most likely to be preserved intact by being 
kept to itself and covered with a trap-door, 
through the opening of which it can be 
looked down upon. The corridor pavement 
here has been raised by a flight of steps, so 
as not to interfere with the labrum. This 



1 62 EXTRA VAGANCE IN DRESS IN THE DA YS OF Q UEEN BESS. 




and the portions of the Roman walls which 
rise above Major Davis's floor level are in- 
stances of the great advantage likely to result 
from keeping his floor at the level determined 
upon. They can be well seen by the light 
coming through windows n feet in height." 

The records of these three visits are not 
pleasant reading to antiquaries, and show 
once more that local authorities ought not to 
be trusted with national treasures. 



Crtratoatjance in Dress in tfje 
Daps of Ctueen IBe**. 

| HE tendency to extravagance on the 
part of ladies has always been a 
subject for satirists in all ages ; 
and seldom or never is the satire 
directed to the real offenders. It is the 
vocation of woman to charm, and charm she 
will, if she is good for anything, just as a 
man will carry out his work, and do his duty 
according to circumstances, if he is good for 
anything. So long as men love to see 
women decorated, so long as the resources 
of art and dress serve to increase men's 
homage, the ladies will not hesitate to em- 
ploy these borrowed plumes, and their 
admirers must pay the bills. It is very un- 
fair to satirize the ladies ; they only fulfil 
their purpose of existence. The fault, if 
any, lies with the charmed rather than the 
charmers; and the preference for nature 
plus art, over nature pure and simple, would 
really appear to be, say, an error of judgment, 
if we consider how absurd the fashions of one 
age appear to another age. A fashion that 
was ravishing to one generation appears 
hideous disfigurement to a succeeding 
generation. Mr. Tuer's recent book on The 
Follies and Fashions of our Grandfathers 
and Grandmothers, aroused only amused in- 
credulity or downright disgust in the minds 
of its numerous fair readers and their devoted 
admirers. And yet those good people at 
the beginning of our century appeared very 
picturesque and interesting to each other. 

The incipient Puritanism of Elizabeth's 
time expended much splenetic abuse upon the 



extravagant dress of the period those extra- 
ordinary, nay, as we have heard them termed, 
hideous habiliments, in which ladies disguised 
fair nature and received the adoration of 
mankind. Instance the following lines from 
Marston's Scourge of Villanie (1599) : 

Peace, Cynick ; see, what yonder doth approach ! 

A cart? a tumbrell? No a badge'd coach. 

What's irvt ? Some man ? No, nor yet woman kinde, 

But a celestiall angell, faire, refinde. 

The divell as soone ! Her maske so hinders me, 

I cannot see her beauties deitie, 

Now that is off, she is so vizarded, 

So steept in lemons juyce, so surphuled, 

I cannot see her face. Under one hoode 

Two faces : but I never understood 

Or saw one face under two hoods till now : 

'Tis the right semblance of old Junus brow. 

Her maske, her vizard, her loose-hanging gowne 

(For her loose-lying body), her bright spangled crowne, 

Her long slit sleeves, stiffe buske, puffe verdingall, 

Is all that makes her thus angelicall. 

Alas ! her soule struts round about her neck ; 

Her seate of sense is her rebato set ; 

Her intellectuall is a fained nicenesse, 

Nothing but clothes and simpring precisenesse. 

Out on these puppets, painted images, 
Haberdashers shops, torch-light maskeries, 
Perfuming pans, Dutch ancients, glowe-worms bright 
That soyle our soules, and dampe our reasons light ! 
Away ! away ! hence ! coach-man, goe inshrine 
Thy new-glas'd puppet in port Esqueline ! 

The ladies, and the gallants, too, felt the 
constant necessity of consulting a mirror to 
reassure themselves into a pleasing sense of 
self-satisfaction. In Jonson's Cynthia's Revels 
(1600), Amorphus says, " Where is your page? 
Call for your casting-bottle, and place your 
mirror in your hat, as I told you : so !" The 
men wore them as brooches or ornaments in 
their hats ; the women at their girdles, or on 
their breasts, or in the centre of their fans. 

Ornaments of jewellery, too, were much 
affected. In the Taming of the Shreiu we 
read : 

And now, my honey love, 
Will we return unto thy father's house 
And revel it as bravely as the best, 
With silken coats, and caps, and golden rings t 
With ruffs and cuffs, and fardingales and things ; 
With scarfs and fans, and double change of bravery, 
With amber bracelets, beads, and all this knavery. 

Languorous perfumes were largely in vogue. 
In A Speciall Remedie against lawlesse love 
(1579), we have : 

Their odorous smelles of Muske so sweete, 
Their waters made of seemely sent, 

Are lures of Luste, and farre unmeete, 
Except where needes they must be spent. 



EXTRA VAGANCE IN DRESS IN THE DA YS OF QUEEN BESS. 163 



And in The Three Ladies of London (1584) : 

Mercatore. [I do] lack some pretty fine toy, or 
some fantastic new knack ; 

For da gentlewomans in England buy much tings for 
fantasy . . 
Gerontus . . As musk, amber, sweet-powders, fine 
odours, pleasant perfumes, and many such toys, 

Wherein I perceive consisteth that country[s] gentle- 
women's joys. 

Besides, I have diamonds, rubies, emeralds, sapphires, 
smaradines, opals, onacles, jacinths, agates, tur- 
quoise, and almost of all kind of precious stones, 

And many mo fit things to suck away money from 
such green-headed wantons. 

Nay, high-heeled shoes, or some attempt 
in that direction, were among the artifices of 
Elizabethan toilet : 

These worsted stockes of bravest die, 

And silken garters fring'd with gold ; 
These corked shooes to beare them hie, 
Makes them to trip it on the molde : 
They mince it with a pace so strange, 
Like untam'd heifers, when they range. 
To carrie all this pelfe and trash, 
Because their bodies are unfit, 
Our wantons now in coaches dash, 

From house to house, from street to street. 
(1595-6. St. Gosson, Pleasant Quippes for Vpstart 
Nnvf angled Gentlewomen, Hazlitt, 1866, p. 258.) 

Hamlet, although the scene is laid in Den- 
mark, is full of allusions to the England of 
Shakespeare's time ; and Hamlet's criticism of 
the ladies had a contemporary application : 

I have heard of your paintings, too, well enough ; 
God has given you one face, and you make yourselves 
another : you jig, you amble, and you lisp, and nick- 
name God's creatures, and make your wantonness 
your ignorance. Go to, I'll no more on't." 

A curious book was published in 1584 
which entered a vigorous protest against the 
luxury of the age, and indeed is in entire 
agreement with the spirit of Hamlet's re- 
proaches to Ophelia. The moral of this 
tract is pointed in a story entitled "A 
notable and excellent example of God's 
iudgement in his most seuere punishment of 
the rare and straunge pride of a Captaine's 
wife of Constantinople." 

This creature eschewed water and bathed 
in dew ; relinquished the obvious method of 
feeding, viz. by her fingers, and took her 
delicate morsels " from off a golden fleshe 
hooke, with her two foreteeth." " Her bed- 
chamber was garnished with such diuersitie 
of sweete hearbes, such varietie of fragrant 
flowers, such chaunge of odoriferous smelles, 
so perfumed with sweete odours, so stored 



with sweete waters, so beautified with 
tapestry, and decked so artificially, that I 
want memorie to rehearse it, and cunning to 
expresse it, so that it seemed her Chamber 
was rather some terresstriall Paradise, then a 
mansion for such a matelesse mystresse ; 
rather a tabernacle for some Goddesse, then 
a lodging for such a lothsome carcase." 

The author thus apostrophizes the ladies of 
his time : " Draw neare you wanton woorms, 
that leane your lofty heades, upon the dainty 
pyllowes of pride ; you that haue periwigs to 
curie your heaire, colours to paint your face, 
art to square your shoulders, holsters to 
fashid your waste, inuentions to chaunge 
nature, and deuises to alter kinde. . . . Your 
washing in sweet waters, your anoynting with 
sweete odours, your muske, your ciuite, your 
baulme, and a number of deuises, to make 
the body sweete, when your pride and whor- 
dome, with the rest of pride's companions, do 
make your soules to stincke, as the Poet 
Martial sayth They smell not well that 
alwayes smell well. Beholde how the Lord 
punished the pride of this woman, which 
had solde herselfe to unshamefastnesse in his 
sight, for with the shyning sword of his 
diuine iudgement, he rotted euery parte of 
this her pampered body, so that no member, 
no ioint, nor part thereof was free from the 
mouldred plague of putrefaction." 

Andrew Hibbert. 



>&ore&am Castle, Eent. 

" I do love these ancient ruins, 
We never tread upon them, but we set 
Our foot upon some reverend history." 

IR WILLIAM DUGDALE, in his 
History of Warwickshire, says, " In 
those days (pre-Norman) were very 
few such defensible places as we 
now call castles, that being a French name, so 
that though the English were a bold and warlike 
people, yet for want of the like strongholds 
they were much the less able to resist their 
enemies." So, too, Grose, in his Antiquities, 
quotes Agard, who says, " I read in the 
Historye of Normandye, wrytten in Frenche, 
that when Sweyne, King of Denmark, entered 




164 



SHOREHAM CASTLE, KENT. 



the realm against King Aired, or Alured, to 
avenge the night slaughter of the Danes, done 
by the Saxons in Englande, he subdued all 
before hym, because there were no fortes or 
castles to withstand or stop him ; and the 
reason yielded is because the fortes of 
Englande for the most part were built after 
the Normans possessed it." Other early 
writers make the same assertion, so that, 
though undoubtedly the Romans had erected 
strong castles of stone, like the great fort- 
resses at Rutupise and Gariannonum, they 
had, by reason of the frequent internal wars 
among the Saxons, and by the general occu- 
pation of the masons during the periods of 
peace, in erecting minsters and religious 
nouses, been permitted to fall into decay, if 
not utter ruin ; therefore William of 
Normandy, like Sweyne of Denmark, found, 
after the battle at Senlac, but little effective 
resistance. The defenders of Dover Castle, 
panic-stricken at the result of that battle, 
made little opposition, and opening their 
gates, surrendered that fortress, without the 
possession of which King Philip of France, 
some years later, swore by the sacred arm of 
St. James, that his son, the Dauphin Lewis, 
though holding a large tract of country, had 
not gained a foot of land in England. In 
consequence of this surrender, the men of 
Kent, for lack of fortifications, were com- 
pelled to depend upon the intricacies of 
Swanscombe wood, as related by Sprot, when 
they so manfully, though perhaps without 
due regard to the general welfare of the 
kingdom, opposed William on his march from 
London in 1067, and obtained for them- 
selves the confirmation of their peculiar rights 
and privileges ; the rescue of something from 
the general wreck the retention of time- 
honoured principles, by an act of heroism of 
which the men of Kent may be justly proud, 
and in which those living on the traditional 
site may well glory. This circumstance 
would naturally not be overlooked by so good 
a soldier as the Duke William, who immedi- 
ately began to erect castles all over the 
country to guard against invasion from with- 
out ; and when the land was parcelled out 
among his followers, they, to protect them- 
selves from the resentment of the despoiled 
Saxons, were compelled to build such strong- 
holds on their newly acquired estates. As 



the feudal system gained strength these 
castles became the heads of baronies, of 
which the owner, or governor, was the lord ; 
and he soon arrogated to himself royal 
power, not only within the walls of his castle, 
but likewise over the surrounding country, 
arbitrarily seizing forage and provision for the 
subsistence of its garrison, composed of hired 
mercenaries from over the sea, in sufficient 
number to command the services, however 
unwillingly rendered, of the enslaved natives, 
who, despite the promise made by the new 
King to be their " loving lord," were now 
reduced to so degraded a condition that it 
was accounted shame to be called an 
Englishman ; and the oppression of a bygone 
day, when the blue-eyed Saxon meeting a 
Dane on a bridge was obliged to stand aside 
till the Dane had passed over, or if he failed 
to make a low reverence when he passed a 
Dane, was liable to be severely beaten, had 
too surely returned ; and the insolence of 
these lords grew to such a pitch that it was 
commonly said " there were in England as 
many kings, or rather tyrants, as lords of 
castles," the great number of which is attested 
by the existence on the bank of the river 
Darent of the ruins of yet another the 
fourth. Built soon after the Conquest, and 
known as Shoreham, alias Lullingstone Castle, 
Leland tells us that it was a ruin in his time 
(the reign of Henry VIII.) We are told by 
the county historian that to this castle there 
was a manor appendant, called the Manor of 
Lullingstone Castle, of which Hugo de 
Poyntz died possessed in the first year of 
Edward I., and that Sir Roger de Chaundois 
paid aid for it as one knight's fee, which 
Hugo de Poyntz before held of the Arch- 
bishop. In the reign of Edward IV. John 
de Newburgh brought a plea against Robert 
Poyntz for this manor before the King's 
justices, the Archbishop having remitted for 
that occasion only the right of trying the 
same in his own court. John de Newburgh 
appears to have gained his suit, and to have 
established himself and his descendants in 
possession of the place, Roger Newburgh, 
in the third and fourth years of Philip and 
Mary, having possession granted to him of 
the manor and castle, with its appurtenances, 
holding in capite, as of the honour of 
Otford by knight's service. His son, John 



ROMAN LEAD COFFIN, ETC., AT PLUMSTEAD, KENT. 



165 



Newburgh, in the seventeenth year of Queen 
Elizabeth, sold the castle and estate to 
Thomas Polhill, of Preston, in the parish of 
Shoreham. The name Lullingstone Castle 
is now borne by the comparatively modern 
seat of Sir William Hart Dyke, M.P., in the 
parish of Lullingstone, near Dartford. 

J. A. Sparvel Bayly, F.S.A. 




Eoman lean Coffin ann ot&et 
iRemains at piumsteati, Kent 



[N proportion to the great pleasure 
which all must feel on hearing of 
the discovery of ancient remains, 
so is the disappointment the more 
intensified when, owing to carelessness, or 
the whim or caprice of some individual not 
at all interested in matters antiquarian or 
archaeological, those very things, which are 
" all the world " to the enthusiastic antiquary, 
become ruthlessly destroyed or disposed of 
in a manner which leaves them no longer 
available as a " study of the past." 

Either by want of thought or knowledge 
on the part of the owner of the land at Plum- 
stead, on which Roman remains have recently 
been found, or by a questionable assumption 
of power on the part of the vicar of the 
parish, the County Museum at Maidstone 
has lost (at least for the time being, let us 
hope) a valuable acquisition. On Friday 
morning, January 21, as some excavations 
were being made for sand on land situated 
in the " King's Highway," Plumstead, a 
small thoroughfare leading to " The Com- 
mon " from Wickham Lane, which latter 
leads from Plumstead to Bexley Heath, the 
workmen came upon a leaden coffin, at 
about 3 feet from the surface, containing 
a most perfect skeleton, apparently that of 
a female of about twenty-five to thirty years 
of age. 

Side by side with these remains another 
skeleton was exhumed, without any trace of 
a coffin, but with a Roman urn in a very well- 
preserved condition placed at the head. In 



each case the remains were lying north and 
south. The coffin was 6 feet in length, 
about 12 inches in depth, with a uniform 
width of 14^ inches inside. 

The thickness of the lead, with but very 
little variation, was about three-eighths of an 
inch, and the weight may be put approxi- 
mately at 3 cwt, including the lid, which 
was not soldered, but kept in position by a 
flange or rim of an inch and a half wide. 
Round the lid and near to the edge ran a 
raised border or moulding composed of two 
rings or beads alternating with a longer bead 
of an oval form. In the centre of the lid, 
at the head, there existed a cross formed 
of the same moulding, the two lines 
forming the cross being about 1 foot in 
length. A similar cross-shaped ornament 
appeared on the end of the coffin, at the 
head. 

No scallop-shells, which so often form part 
of the ornamentation of Roman coffins, were 
to be seen. The non-existence, however, of 
the scallop-shell as an ornament on Roman 
coffins, as yet found in Kent, has always 
been singularly noticeable. From the exist- 
ence of the cross-shaped ornaments on this 
coffin, it has been suggested that here had 
been buried a Roman Christian lady. 

Pieces of wood, much decayed, lay beneath 
the coffin, showing evidently that it had been 
buried in an outer wooden coffin. 

Within the coffin nothing was found but 
the skeleton no coins, pottery, etc, except 
two locks of dark auburn hair, which lay at 
the base of the skull. 

Altogether the skeleton was singularly well 
preserved, even to the tiny bones of the little 
fingers. 

The urn was very similar to some found 
about thirty years ago, in making excavations 
in Woolwich Arsenal, which is not far distant. 
Mr. Dawson, the owner of the land, has the 
urn in his possession, and little dreaming 
that it would be possible for anyone else to 
lay claim to the lead coffin, the latter he had 
taken to the mortuary at the churchyard of 
St. Nicholas, Plumstead, with the skeleton 
enclosed. 

The skeleton found in conjunction with 
the urn seems to have broken to pieces, but 
from the bones of the pelvis it was evidently 
that of a man. 



i66 



ROMAN LEAD COFFIN, ETC., AT FLUMSTEAD, KENT 



The coffin was viewed by many anti- 
quaries, among the number being Mr. F. C. 
J. Spurrell, F.S.A., Local Secretary of the 
Kent Archaeological Society. To him Mr. 
Dawson promised the coffin for the museum 
at Maidstone. 

But to this consummation an unusual 
difficulty presented itself. The Vicar of St. 
Nicholas refused to give up the relics, and 
informed Mr. Dawson that he should inter 
them in the churchyard. 

Rumour hath it that the vicar, the Rev. 
J. McAlister, and other " local authorities " 
(?), believe the remains to have been stolen, 
from the church, when it was in ruins. In 
the middle of the seventeenth century it was 
in ruins, and again in the early part of the 
present century. 

On a gravestone in the church there is an 
inscription to the effect that " Mr. John 
Gossage caused this church to be repaired 
after above twenty years lying waste and 
ruinous." He died April 24, 1672. 

How those can account for their opinions 
who incline to the view that the coffin was 
stolen from the church and placed where it 
was discovered until a favourable oppor- 
tunity presented itself for selling the lead, is 
not easy to say, especially when the Roman 
urn and the other skeleton were in such 
close proximity as to be side by side with the 
said coffin. 

In vain did Mr. Dawson and the anti- 
quaries protest against the vicar's deter- 
mination to re-inter the relics in the church- 
yard. The coroner was communicated with, 
and his order went forth for the burial. On 
the coroner's officer proceeding to deliver his 
instructions, it t was found that by the vicar's 
order the sexton had buried the skeleton 
and coffin on the previous evening. 

On my making inquiries as to whereabouts 
in the churchyard the remains were buried, I 
was informed by the sexton that his orders 
were to tell no one. 

It is to be hoped that if any more relics 
should come to light, the owner of the land 
will not allow them to fall into such hands. 

Even if the skeleton had received " decent 
interment," about which so much was said, 
surely the ecclesiastical obligation, if any 
existed on the part of the vicar, would have 
been satisfied without the burial of the leaden 




coffin, which is of considerable value in rela- 
tion to the history of the neighbourhood. 

H. W. Smith. 
Belvedere, Kent. 



a Jftote on tfte Dialect and 
Literature of Oenice. 

By W. Carew Hazlitt. 



HE Venetian dialect, in which Mr. 
Theodore Bent, in his able paper 
on the Estradiots, finds many 
proofs of Hellenic influence and 
descent, was remarkable for its habit of 
eliding or rejecting the terminal syllable 
in proper names. As a national speech 
grew up in the room of the middle Latin, 
such forms as Marinus, Baduarius, Corrarius 
were softened into Marin, Badoer, Correr, 
where the ordinary Italian law would 
have given Marino, Badoario, Corrario. A 
name mournfully famous passed through the 
stages of Faletrus, Faledro, Faliero, Falier. 
But in other cases, as in tafora, a metaphor, 
from the Greek /xtratpopa, the first syllable, 
in lieu of the concluding one, was sacrificed 
to the exigencies of pronunciation. Carico 
and Eliaco (the So/arium of Roman archi- 
tecture and speech) became Cargo and 
Liago. In popular parlance, at least, Mon- 
signore il Doge was Messer lo Dose. Shake- 
spear's J ago is Venetian patois for the Jacopo 
of the terra-firma. 

During the mediaeval time, while the men 
of culture were developing by selection and 
adaptation a language which was to become 
the Italian tongue, and while at Venice this 
was being adopted, subject to local influences 
and colouring, among the better classes, 
those to whom education was unknown pro- 
bably expressed themselves in a jargon which 
must have puzzled even Petrarch and his 
friend Boccaccio on their occasional visits to 
Venice, and which stood at as great a dis- 
tance from modern Italian as it did from the 
idiom which Cicero employed. The lan- 
guage of the Republic, in common with that 
of the rest of Italy, was strengthened and 



A NOTE ON THE DIALECT AND LITERATURE OF VENICE. 167 



enriched by her intercourse with the Goths 
and the Franks. The invader blighted with 
one hand, and fertilized with the other. Of the 
freedom and property of the Italians he took 
as much as they had to lose of either ; while 
he communicated to them his speech, his 
arts, his institutions, and his sentiments. 

The makers of Italian borrowed from the 
right and the left, and imported into their 
work material from all available sources, as 
the Greeks and Romans had done before, 
and as the English have done since. Of the 
composite structure which thus grew up into 
what the revivers of learning found it, the 
Venetian was a provincial dialect, more Hel- 
lenic in its phraseology, more quaintly attrac- 
tive perhaps to the ear, but more Teutonic 
in some of its inflexions, and to the gram- 
marian less acceptable than the purer and 
softer forms heard on the Arno and the Tiber. 

Perhaps sufficient stress has not been 
usually laid on the historical value of the 
archaic forms of the names of places and 
persons, and in yielding a preference for what 
is most familiar, we are apt to lose sight of 
the nomenclature which was employed by 
the very people themselves whom we have 
made it our business to describe, and which 
carries on the surface its origin and its mean- 
ing. The locality, which the Italians call 
Chioggia and the Venetians Chioza, was 
known in the Middle Ages as Clugia. Caput 
Aggeris is lost to us superficially (as it were) 
in Cavarzero. Nor do we at once recognise 
in Malipiero the transition from Magister 
Petrus and Mastropiero. A Venetian boat- 
man called his son his fiol, and he would 
have referred to the Doge Pietro Polani as 
Ser Pier Boldu. But with this philological 
argument an historian can only deal in an 
incidental way ; some uniform standard is 
essential in a homogeneous narrative ; and 
those forms which are generally intelligible 
are to be preferred on the whole to such as 
are less corrupt, yet more obscure. 

To the Englishman, who happens to engage 
in Venetian studies, there is one point in 
relation to the material coming to his hand 
which is likely to prove a surprise. With one 
or two exceptions of a wholly unimportant 
character, the historical literature of the 
Republic is in its origin secular. To the 
monkish chroniclers of Western Europe we 
meet with no counterparts ; there is nothing 



correspondent to the Scandinavian saga, the 
Saxon minstrel, or the Norman trouvere. No 
country can perhaps show such an unbroken 
series of historians or writers of an historical 
cast as England. It is traceable back to the 
commencement of the heptarchical era. But 
the names which constitute it are the names 
of ecclesiastics. 

Venice cannot be said to have produced 
any narrative pretending to elucidate or de- 
scribe the sources of her existence and her 
power till the second half of the tenth century. 
The earliest native essayist upon her Fasti 
was an intelligent ironmaster, Johannes Sagor- 
ninus, who fortunately contented himself, for 
the most part, with telling us what he knew 
and saw, rather than what he had heard, or 
what he thought. His account comes to a 
close in 1008 ; but he was the pioneer of 
other laymen, of whom some, such as Martino 
da Canale and Lorenzo de Monacis, followed 
the same narrow lines as himself, while 
others, like Dandolo and Sanudo, not content 
to put into writing their own impressions of 
contemporary events, planned their labours 
on a broader and more ambitious scale, and 
not only resorted to available records and 
evidences of antecedent times, that indis- 
pensable helpmate Tradition inclusive, but 
even brought to their work a certain share of 
critical discrimination. 

But the Venetians had no Beowulf or 
Wace, no William of Malmesbury or Henry 
of Huntingdon, no Domesday Survey or 
Great Charter. That the Republic possessed 
chronicles of a date anterior to any now 
known, it is exceedingly probable ; nor is it 
much less so that those chroniclers were 
churchmen, of whose productions their im- 
mediate successors in the same literary field 
might have had the use. The frequent fires 
which desolated the city, and the fragile 
material of which its public buildings were 
long composed, keep us here within the 
limits of conjecture ; for the citations which 
occur in the pages of such civilians as Dan- 
dolo, Sanudo, and Navagiero of historical 
manuscripts preserved in the monasteries 
such, for instance, as the Chronicle of San 
Salvador do not refer, as a rule, to compila- 
tions long anterior to their own epochs, and 
are not explicitly described as of local origin. 
But, if the admission is made that the most 
ancient writers belonged to holy orders, it 



1 63 A NOTE ON THE DIALECT AND LITERATURE OF VENICE. 



does not rob of much of its force the view 
just now propounded that in her historical 
literature Venice enjoyed a singular and 
wholesome exemption from clerical influence, 
and whatever the piece of guesswork about 
primeval annalists, of whom no vestige seems 
to survive, may be worth, it does not in the 
least degree militate against the fact that the 
Venetian temper and taste, from the moment 
when the Republic might be said to have a 
definite constitution and a distinct national 
life, were in this, as in all other things, em- 
phatically lay. In forming an estimate of 
other countries the student is referred to 
compositions which emanated from the 
cloister ; but he finds that at Venice, 
from the very commencement of any 
sort of culture -in the ranks of the laity, 
men of the world, often personages of the 
highest position, undertook to communicate 
to the ages to come what they thought to be 
interesting and important in past or current 
transactions ; and where, as at the outset, 
local authorities fail him, there come to his 
succour layfolk beyond the verge of the 
Islands, Cassiodorus, Eginard, one or two 
Lombards, and certain Byzantines, with 
whom he may spend his hours more profit- 
ably than with the harvest of the monastic 
scriptorium. Moreover, whether or not the 
Republic once possessed certain annals from 
the pens of ecclesiastics, there is no doubt 
that the earlier secular authors had recourse 
to a large assortment of original papers, which 
have since in large measure perished, and 
have transmitted their substance, and fre- 
quently their very text, like John Fox in his 
Book of Martyrs, to us with a fidelity far 
from commensurate perhaps with modern 
literary canons. 



Dtecotoetp of tjje ancient COater 
ate of Southampton tfastle. 

uHE western wall of the castle at 
Southampton, which also forms a 
part of the town wall in this direc- 
tion, has long been an object of 
much antiquarian interest. The castle en- 
closure extended eastward in shape like a horse- 
shoe, from this part of the town wall, and a 




shell keep was built on its highest position, 
formed by a large artificial mound. This 
western wall rises from the beach, washed by 
the tide to a height of about 30 feet. Within 
the last forty years a roadway has been made 
at the foot of the wall, about 8 feet above the 
level of the beach ; but the elevated platform 
which formed the castle court is still about 
20 feet above this roadway, or nearly 30 feet 
above the beach. The outward thrust of 
the loose material forming the platform 
and artificial mound appears to have been 
counteracted by large tunnel-shaped arched 
chambers of very thick walls, beneath the 
edge of the platform, and just inside 
the outer wall and parallel to it. These 
long chambers remain, in part at least, 
and appear to be of Norman date. They 
were probably also found of great use as 
places of storage ; and it has been long in- 
ferred that there must have been a water- 
gate giving access to them from the sea, and 
to the platform of the castle above. Leland 
speaks of having seen eight gates connected 
with the fortifications of the town and castle 
of Southampton ; but it has hitherto only 
been possible with certainty to identify the 
sites of seven, four of these gates still 
remaining in excellent preservation. The 
water-gate of the castle recently brought to 
light completes the number mentioned by 
Leland. A wide buttress of masonry arising 
from the beach on the western castle wall 
recently fell, through the percolation of water 
from a drain above, and in clearing away the 
loose material the remains of a very fine 
gateway were disclosed. The original 
appears to have been about 9 feet high and 
4 feet wide. The character of its mouldings 
is that of Early Perpendicular date, and it has 
on both sides a perfect semicircular groove for 
a portcullis. This buttress has now been re- 
built so as to leave the water-gate visible, as 
discovered, protected by an iron grating. 

This gate was reached by steps from the 
beach, and clearly gave access to the storage 
chambers on both sides, and by additional 
steps to the platform or court of the castle 
above. It has probably been hidden for 
about three hundred years, for Southampton 
Castle was disused as a fortress at the end of 
the sixteenth century, and being in a ruinous 
condition, was sold by James I. 

T. W. Shore. 



THE BIRTHPLACE OF BEDE. 



169 




Cbe 'Birt&place of 15tto. 

N a paper entitled " An Enquiry 
into the Origin of Sunderland, 
and as to the Birthplace of the 
Venerable Bede," by Mr. Robert 
Brown, of Sunderland, solicitor, read before 
the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne in the year 1855, and published 
by request, the author advocates the claim of 
Sunderland to the honour of having given 
birth to this great historian. 

We have it upon record that Bede was 
placed at the age of seven years under the 
care of Abbot Benedict in the Abbey of 
Weremouth. On the building of the Jarrow 
monastery, twenty-two brethren, including 
among their number Bede, then a mere 
youth, were told off to form the new society. 

Benedict, on his return from his last 
journey to Rome, obtained a further grant of 
three hides of land near the mouth, and on 
the south side, of the river Wear. This 
piece of land, now forming part of the 
borough of Sunderland, was probably in- 
tended for the habitation of monastic depen- 
dents and their families. 

Bede, in his Ecclesiastical History, states 
that he was born "in territorio ejusdem 
monasterii." In King Alfred's translation 
this passage is rendered by the phrase, " in 
sonderlande of this monastery." 

The word " sonderlande " is said by Anglo- 
Saxon lexicographers to mean land sundered 
from the adjoining land for privileged oc- 
cupation. The Sunderland of a monastery 
may therefore be denned to be land sundered 
and outlying, but within its territorial juris- 
diction. 

In the diocese of Durham there are two 
other Sunderlands, in each of which there 
is the like severance from a neighbouring 
monastic estate, combined with the like sub- 
mission to monastic control. The one is 
North Sunderland, divided from Holy Island, 
the seat of the monastery of Lindisfarne. 
The other is Sunderland Bridge, which is 
the extreme southern and outlying portion of 
the lands of St. Oswald, being sundered from 
the bulk of these lands by the Brun on the 
one side, and the Wear on the other. 

In the East Riding of Yorkshire, Sunder- 

vol. xv. 



landwick is within a short distance of Watton> 
where, in the year 686, there existed a priory 
called by Bede "Wetadun," or Wettown, 
because a considerable portion of the neigh- 
bourhood was a complete morass. This 
morass lay between the village Sunderland- 
wick and the Priory. 

In Macclesfield there is a street called 
Sunderland Street. In answer to a letter of 
inquiry, the town clerk writes : " Our street 
of that name does lead to the old castle and 
monastery now in ruins. I do not know of 
any other reason for the name." This letter 
is further strengthened by a correspondent in 
the Newcastle Daily Chronicle, who writes : 
"The street in question is a very ancient 
one. It leads unquestionably to lands cut 
off or separated from the ' Old Church,' 
and cut off mainly by water ; and although 
that water has now for many years been 
diverted, the space is still known as 'The 
Waters.' " 

It seems a fair inference from the fore- 
going premises that Sunderland derives its 
name from the fact of its being the " sonder- 
lande " of the Wearmouth monastery. The 
monastic land on the south side would 
probably be known in common parlance as 
"the] Sunderland f and with the increase of 
population, and the subsequent destruction 
of the monastery, the name would spread to 
the whole of the occupied land on the south 
bank lying opposite the monastic domains. 
Robert U. Brown. 



C6e antiquary's if3ote=15ciofc. 



MS. Collection of Dialect "He 

[Mr. Richard Waugh, a Gateshead merchant 
who died in 1808] left behind him a manu- 
script collection of local words and phrases, 
with respect to which I find Hodgson making 
anxious inquiries in 1813, after he had taken 
up his residence at Heworth. The result of 
these inquiries was that the book was, on 
Nov. 22, in the possession of Mrs. Emerson, 
of Hillgate, in Gateshead. ' She sought for 
it,' says he, ' yesterday, but did not find it ; 
but she knows she has it, and will send for 

N 



170 



THE ANTIQUARY'S NOTE-BOOK. 



me when she has found it.' It does not 
appear that the book was ever found. A 
collection of Durham words, formed now 
almost a century ago, would be peculiarly 
valuable at the present time; and I have 
placed the above memoranda upon record to 
the intent that they may be of use in any 
search which may be made for its recovery." 
Rev. James Raine : Memoir of Rev. John 
Hodgson, Author of the History of Northum- 
berland, 1857, vol. i., p. 27. 

Burmah. The Province of Upper 
Burmah has an area larger than that of 
France, and contains a population which has 
been roughly computed at 4,000,000. A 
considerable portion of this vast expanse is 
impenetrable jungle, and even in the more 
thickly populated districts there are no 
proper roads or bridges. During the rainy 
season the difficulties of communication are 
very much increased by the sudden rise of 
the rivers and numerous streams which inter- 
sect the country in all directions, and often 
for weeks at a time large tracts remain under 
water. The population, though it cannot be 
described as warlike in the ordinary sense of 
the term, has a traditional and deep-rooted 
love of desultory fighting, raiding, gang- 
robbery, and similar kinds of excitement. 
Villages have long-standing feuds with 
villages, and many young peasants, otherwise 
respectable, spend a season or two as dacoits 
without losing their reputation in the eyes of 
their fellow-villagers. If there were any 
under the old regime who had scruples about 
engaging in dacoity pure and simple, they 
always had plenty of opportunity for leading 
a very similar mode of life as partisans of one 
of the numerous pretenders to the throne, 
one or more of whom were generally in open 
revolt against the de facto sovereign. As the 
monarchy was hereditary only in the sense of 
being confined to the members of a par- 
ticular family the descendants of the famous 
Alompra each scion of the royal line con- 
sidered himself justified in raising the banner 
of insurrection if he imagined that he had a 
fair chance of success, and he could gener- 
ally plead in justification of his conduct that 
his successful rival on the throne had endea- 
voured to put him and all his near male 
relations to death. These various elements 
of anarchy no king of Burmah was ever able 



to suppress. Further Correspondence relating 
to Burmah, No. 1 (1887), p. 103. 

Curious Words from Curious Dic- 
tionaries. The following are taken from 
the first English Dictionary, John Bullokar's 
An English Expositor, 1616 : 

Apocynon : a little bone in the left side of a frog, 

of great vertue as some thinke. 
Badger : he that buyeth come or victuall in one 

place to carry into another. [See Brockett's 

North Country Words, ,] 
Bargaret : a kind of dance. 
Baubee : a small coin a farthing. 
Beame : the maine home of a hart or stagge. 
Bice : a fine blew colour used by painters. 
Broches : the first head or homes of a hart or 

stagge. 
Brumall : of, or belonging to, winter. 
Burled : it sometimes signifieth armed. 
Burnet : a hood or attire for the head. 
Camoyse : crooked vpward, as commonly the 

noses of blacke moores bee. 
Carol : a song ; sometime a dance. 
Cheeke varnish : painting used by some women. 
Closhe : an unlawful game called by some nine 

pinnes, cules, or kittles. 
Clum : a note of silence. 
Conn ex : to knit or tye together. 
Dicker : ten hides of lether. 
Explode : to drive out with clapping of the hands. 
Expression : a wringing or squeasing out. 
Face : a fable. 
Finance : an end. 
Fremd : strange. 
Gab : to prate or lie. 
Gawre : to stare. 

Glinne : a little village or part of a village. 
Gnarre : a hard knot in wood, sometimes a short 

thicke fellowe a chub. 
Grame : sorrow, mishap, anger. 
Grith : agreement. 
Guerring : brawling. 
Hague : a hard gunne of about three-quarters of a 

yard long. 
Hamkin : a pudding made vpon the bones of a 

shoulder of mutton, all the flesh being taken off. 
Heisugge : a bird which hatcheth the cuckooes 

egges. 
Hurtelen : to thrust, to provoke. 
Interfeere : to knock the legs together in going. 

Custom of Tribal Warfare, Sierra 
Leone. The native chiefs of Sierra Leone, 
in a memorandum addressed to the English 
Governor, make the following interesting 
statement : " It might be asked why are these 
wars so frequent, and why do we not make 
efforts to prevent their recurrence ? We beg 
to explain that they are the effects of an 
ancient custom in our country, namely, that 
any person of one country feeling himself 
seriously aggrieved by any other person of 



THE ANTIQUARY S NOTE-BOOK. 



171 



another country, he, the aggrieved, could go 
to any influential chief of any country 'and 
curse war ;' that is, invite that chief to bring 
war and assist him to avenge himself upon 
his enemies." Parliamentary Papers (c. 4905 
of 1886). 

Roadways in England. The paving of 
the central parts of London did not begin 
till afcer the eleventh century, and having got 
so far as Holborn at the beginning of the 
fifteenth century, it spread into some of the 
suburbs during the sixteenth century. In 
Henry VIII. 's reign a way, when too deep 
and miry to be passable, was merely 
abandoned and a new track selected. Up to 
1750 the Great North road from London was 
a turnpike for the first hundred miles; and 
north of that point there was only a narrow 
causeway fit for pack-horses, flanked with 
clay sloughs on either side. At the same 
time in Mid-England and North-England the 
roads were still for the most part entirely un- 
closed. Spencer's Principles of Sociology, i., p. 
S28. 

Witchcraft among the Matabililand 
Zulus. A great deal of the king's time 
is engaged in obtaining guidance from 
powers of witchcraft by means of stewed 
potions and mystic bones. By these means, 
during his spare time, he also protects his 
person against the machinations of those of 
his subjects who are evilly disposed towards 
him. After the return of the defeated army 
from Lake Ngami the King spent over a fort- 
night in his medicine kraal trying to "smell 
out " the individual who is responsible for 
that reverse. It is a delicate case, as the 
fault seems to lie between the general in 
command and the head doctor who doctored 
the army before their departure, who made 
them proof against bullets and assegais. 
The belief in witchcraft has proved a very 
potent factor in preventing outside influences 
from affecting the national organization. 
The missionaries and Jesuits own that they 
have been completely checkmated by it. 
During the long years that they have lived in 
the country they cannot point to a single 
case of conversion, or it appears to any im- 
pression on anyone. Their only chance has 
been with the King, who can converse with 
them freely without being liable to be marked 



down by the witch doctors, and " smelt out " 
on some future occasion for witchcraft. 
Parliamentary Papers (c. 4643 of 1886). 
Early Silk Manufacture in Bengal. 

The date of the introduction of the silkworm 
in India is still an open question. Indeed, 
the very name (desi, or indigenous), applied 
to the oldest species, shows that even the 
tradition of a foreign origin for the insect has 
died out. But the distribution of the worm, 
both within the continent of India, where it 
first occupied the valley of the Brahmaputra 
and a portion of the tract lying between that 
river and the Ganges, and in the regions 
beyond the eastern frontier, points with 
tolerable certainty to a primary introduction 
by land from the eastward. This was the 
opinion of Mr. Atkinson, Commercial Resi- 
dent at Jungypur, at the end of the last 
century. The value of silk as an article of 
trade was appreciated by the East India 
Company at an early period of its existence. 
The Calendar of State Papers, for the years 
1617-1621, teems with extracts on the sub- 
ject. But Chinese, Japanese, Siamese, 
Cochin Chinese, and above all Persian silk, 
seem to have been at first held in more esti- 
mation than the silk of Bengal. There is a 
long and interesting account of negotiations 
carried on in 16 17 and the following year 
between Sir Thomas Roe and the "Sophy" 
of Persia, with a view to secure to the 
English Company the monopoly of Persian 
silk. The export was estimated at from 
2,000 to 3,000 bales, and in 16 19 Persian 
silk sold in London for 26s. iod. per lb. The 
only specific notice of Bengal silk, on the other 
hand, in these earlier years, is an order of 1 6 2 1 
countermanding the buying of the commodity. 
But the treaty with the Shah fell through, 
and as the settlements in Bengal spread, 
Indian silk seems to have attracted more 
attention. The earliest of the Madras re- 
cords, " a letter to our Agent and Council in 
Fort St. George," dated November 9, 1670, 
notifies the despatch of four factors on ^25, 
and seven writers on ,\o per annum, of 
whom one factor and one writer, " well 
skilled in silk," were destined for Cossim- 
bazar. Again, in September, 1679, we find 
Mr. Vincent taken to task in regard to two 
Englishmen who had caused trouble and 
probable loss by trading in silk at Cossim- 

N 2 



172 



ANTIQUARIAN NE WS. 



bazar ; and in the same year the Chief of the 
Factory at Fort St. George made a tour 
through the Bengal settlements, in the course 
of which he paid special attention to the sub- 
ject of silk. Thus, under date 18th and 19th 
November, 1679, he writes: "White silk 
bought at Serpore and tannee (than! ?) silk 
examined : to be packed with coarse silk 
ropes, which may be sold in England at 
good profit, without paying freight or customs 
in the country." 

A Curious Bill-head. Recently, in 
turning over a bundle of London tradesmen's 
accounts of nearly a couple of centuries ago, 

1 came across the enclosed, which is certainly 
curious, and seems to me to be a sort of 
cross between a bill-head and a book-plate. 
The plate-mark has a margin of half an inch 
all round, the full size of the sheet itself 
being 6| by 4^ inches. 

William Gardner at the Sign of the one 
Cane-Chair, on the South Side of St Pauls- 
Church, London, maheth and selleth Cane- 
Chairs, Couches, and Cane-Sashes at reason- 
able Rates. Of dry Wood. 

At the back of this is Mr. Gardner's account, 
as follows : 

Mr. Duglas bill for cheres Nov. ye 8, 1709. 
8 wallnutt Cheres, fine mollding, the finest s. d. 
Caineofall, at 12s. ... ... ... 4 16 o. 

2 Elbow Cheres sutta ble at 15s. ... ... 1 10 o. 

in all 6 6 o. 

Rece d Nov. y e 8, 1709, of Mr. Duglas the full con- 
tents of this bill and all demands, I say Reced by me 

W.m : Gardner. 

Gardner must have been a celebrated 
chair-maker, from the fact of the goods 
having been sent all the way to Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, where the Mr. Douglas referred to 
in his bill resided. Geo. Neasham. 



antiquarian jRetos. 



We understand that Mr. J. Frederick Hodgetts, 
late Professor at Moscow, is about to deliver another 
series of lectures at the British Museum. His former 
lectures bore reference to the past, and these to the 
probable future of the Anglian race. As those treated 
of " Older England," so these will have the " Greater 



England " of the whole English-speaking population 
of the globe for their subject. True to his text, as a 
champion for the Scandinavian elements in our blood, 
mode of thought, language and principles, he will 
commence with a popular account of the discoveries 
made by the Scandinavians in the tenth and eleventh 
.centuries, and will show how the struggle between 
these Scandinavian elements and the influence of 
Rome has continued from the time of Marius to the 
present day. The unusual and unexpected success of 
"Older England" in book-form, and the very high 
praise bestowed upon the author by competent judges, 
may justify him in soaring a little higher at this 
time ; and surely no time could be better chosen for 
promulgating a view which we hope is a true 
prophecy of the ultimate confederation of the Ang- 
lians into one nation politically, as they form one 
brotherhood in blood, speech, and love of freedom 
now. 

The annual volume of the Anastatic Society, the 
issue of which has been delayed by the death of Mr. 
Llewellyn Jewitt, F.S. A., will shortly be published by 
Mr. S. H. Cowell, Ipswich. Its preparation has 
been entrusted to Mr. W. G. Fretton, F.S. A., 
Coventry. 

The Rev. W. F. Creeny, M.A., has kindly ac- 
cepted the presidency of the Cambridge University 
Association of Brass Collectors, and a number of 
corresponding members have been lately added to the 
list. Promises of assistance have been received in the 
much-needed work of revising the list of the late 
Rev. Herbert Haines, which embraces the whole of 
this country. At a meeting held on February 4, the 
vice-president in the chair, it was resolved that non- 
university men should be admitted to the association 
as honorary members. A rubbing was exhibited of a 
small brass, now in private possession, which was 
bought at a marine-store in the Minories, East 
London. H. Nunn, of St. John's, then gave an 
interesting discourse on "Heraldry in connection 
with Brasses," illustrated from a selection of rubbings. 
The association has determined to collect materials 
for an exhaustive work on The Brasses of Cambridge- 
shire ; S. H. K. St. J. Sanderson, B.A., and S. Brown, 
B.A., vice-president, both of Trinity College, have 
been elected joint-editors. Every church in the 
county will, if possible, be visited, even where no 
brasses are recorded. It is hoped that the work will 
be finished in June this year. Any who may wish to 
become members of the association, honorary or other- 
wise, are requested to communicate with the hon. 
sec, H. W. Macklin, St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge. 

Lovers of history and the picturesque, not less 
than those fond of boating and sailing, as well as the 



ANTIQ UARIAN NE WS. 



173 



ratepayers at whose expense the project will be exe- 
cuted, should notice that the scheme, which has been 
often rejected, has been again brought forward, largely 
in the interest of local builders, for embanking the 
Thames for about three-quarters of a mile between 
Hammersmith Bridge and the Oil Mills. The Upper 
Mall, already much damaged, yet still picturesque, 
would be mined. The Mall is famous for its noble 
elms, planted for Catharine of Braganza, which have 
already suffered by the low-level sewer being con- 
structed below and near their roots. As it is pro- 
posed to take in from sixty to a hundred feet of the 
river-bed at this point, and thus remove the water 
to a distance from the trees, which now stand at the 
river wall, they will surely perish. Nor is this all ; 
the historic character of the Mall will vanish, although, 
except the already much-altered Chiswick Mall, it is 
the best existing example of the ancient walks which 
were formerly so charming. 

Interesting discoveries have recently been made in 
the San Domingo mines of Spain, showing the 
methods of mining adopted by the ancients. In some 
of the mines the Romans dug draining galleries nearly 
three miles in length, but in others the water was 
raised by wheels to carry it over the rocks that crossed 
the drift. Eight of these wheels have recently been 
discovered by the miners, who are now working in 
the same old mines. The wheels are made of wood, 
the arms and felloes of pine, and the axle and its 
support of oak the fabric being remarkable for the 
lightness of its construction. It is supposed that these 
wheels cannot be less than fifteen hundred years old, 
and the wood is in a perfect state of preservation, 
owing to its immersion in water charged with the salts 
of copper and iron. From this position and con- 
struction, the wheels are supposed to have been 
worked as treadmills! by men standing with naked 
feet upon one side. The water was raised by one 
wheel into the basin, from which it was raised to 
another stage by the second wheel, and so on for eight 
stages. 

An interesting typographical find has recently been 
made at the Town Library of Treves. It consists of 
a book printed in 1539, and describing the war be- 
tween the " Holy Roman Empire of the German 
Nation " and the Turks in 1532. The letter-press on 
the cover of the binding is printed with the so-called 
" Durandus type," being one of the first types coming 
from the press of Peter Schoffer. 

While some workmen employed by Mr. W. T. 
Jefferson, solicitor, of Northallerton, were levelling 
and sodding the Friarage Field, in which the Car- 
melite Convent formerly stood, they came across a 
large slab of freestone about four feet below the sur- 
face, measuring about six feet long, two feet nine 



inches wide, and six inches deep, and upon this being 
removed there were found two perfect skeletons laid 
side by side in one grave, supposed to have been 
buried upwards of five hundred years ago. It is sup- 
posed that the spot where the skeletons have been 
found was the burial-ground in connection with the 
convent. 

In the course of the excavations now being made 
in the Old Vicarage gardens, Wrexham, in connection 
with the Wrexham, Mold, and Connah's Quay Rail- 
way, at a depth of eight feet, and in a drift deposit, 
were found some very beautiful specimens of en- 
crinital stems (limestone), which were probably 
brought during the drift period from the Mineral 
Limestone Ridge. 

A relic of Dick Whittington is, the Graphic says, 
now being cleared away through the advance of City 
alterations and improvements. It is a shabby, rustic, 
red-tiled building, inscribed " Gresham House, once 
the residence of Richard Whittington, Lord Mayor, 
1314. Rebuilt 1805," and stands in a byway between 
Milton Street and Moor Lane, which was formerly 
called Sweedon's Passage, but now forms part of a 
thoroughfare cut through the old courts and christened 
Butler Street. Originally a fine old house stood here, 
where, according to tradition, Whittington lived in 
the days of Henry IV., and, later on, in the reign of 
Elizabeth, Sir Thomas Gresham, who gave his name 
to the building. 

Human remains, which apparently belong to the 
age of the mammoth and rhinoceros, have been dis- 
covered in a Belgian cave. The discovery has been 
made by MM. Marcel de Puydt and Schest in the 
grotto of Biche-aux-Roches, near Spy, in the pro- 
vince of Namur. The floor of the cave consists of a 
layer of brown clay, which contained a skull of com- 
paratively recent age. Under this was a bone bed of 
calcareous tufa containing remains of the elephant 
and a species of deer, and flint weapons, showing 
traces of use. Under this bed was a second layer of 
ossiferous earth, containing remains of rhinoceri and 
deer, and rich in flints, bone implements, ivory plates 
of the mammoth tusk carved with rude figures, and 
fragments of pottery, including the bottom of a vase 
of regular form and baked. Beneath this bed was 
another layer of brown clay with numerous bony frag- 
ments. Here, at from five to six metres from the 
entrance to the cave, two human skeletons were 
found in a natural position, and probably entombed 
there. Along with the skeletons were found other 
objects, such as have been mentioned above. Under 
this bed was the barren carboniferous limestone rock. 
The skulls are of the type of the Neanderthal cranium, 
the bones being very thick (9 mm.) ; one, that of a 
woman, is dolicocephalous. The frontal sinus is very 



174 



ANTIQ U ART AN NE WS. 



marked, and the brow low. In short, the charac- 
teristics of the skulls approach, for the most part, 
those of inferior races, and the other bones found 
seem to indicate a race of short men. The con- 
clusion drawn from the discovery by M. Nadaillac is 
that the Neanderthal race of menj which M. Quatre- 
fages has shown to be persistent through the ages, 
even to the present day, without being incompatible 
with a very marked intellectual development, once 
lived on the banks of the Meuse in most remote times, 
working the flint, utilizing the bones of animals and 
the tusks of the mammoth, making and firing vases of 
clay, burying their dead, and, in fine, possessing the 
rudiments of civilization. 

In his address at the dedication of the new Brooks 
Library Building at Brattleboro', Vt., the Hon. 
Mellen Chamberlain, of the Boston Public Library, 
said that "before 1700 there was not in Massa- 
chusetts, so far as is known, a copy of Shakespeare's 
or of Milton's poems ; and as late as 1 72.3, whatever 
may have been in private hands, Harvard College 
Library lacked Addison, Atterbury, Bolingbroke, 
Dryden, Gay, Locke, Pope, Prior, Steele, Swift, and 
Young." 

Some interesting discoveries were recently made 
by the workmen engaged in pulling down some old 
cottages in St. Andrew's Hill, London. In the course 
of their excavations they came across a subterranean 
tunnel, together with a portion of the staircase leading 
down to it. It is believed that they formed part of a 
monastery, which years ago occupied the site behind 
the Times Office. 

A society has been formed in connection with the 
Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society, 
entitled the Somerset Record Society, the object of 
which is to seek out, edit, and print such records as 
bear upon the history of Somerset, and will aid the 
historian of the future. Prospectuses may be obtained 
of the Rev. J. A. Bennett, South Cadbury Rectory, 
Bath. 

A piece of ancient pottery has just been dredged 
up from the river Thames, below Erith. The speci- 
men in question is seven inches high, fifteen inches in 
circumference at the bulge, with a handle extending 
from the upper part of the bulge to the under part of 
the lip or neck, which latter is an inch and a half 
in diameter. With the exception of a small portion 
of the lip being broken away, the specimen is perfect. 
It appears to be a piece of the ordinary Roman 
brown ware, glazed, but with little of the glazing 
remaining, doubtless owing to the action of the water. 
The neck of a much larger piece of ancient pottery 
of similar manufacture was recently brought up from 
the Thames at nearly the same spot. The above are 
in the possession of Mr. H. W. Smith, Belvedere. 



It is remarkable that where the above were found there 
exists the remains of a vast submerged forest. From 
this forest there are frequently dredged up splendid 
antlers of deer, in fine preservation. Immense boles 
of trees, principally of yew, may be seen at low 
water. In severe winters, when the frost has caused 
the mud to bear, it is possible to get to these trees, 
some of which measure three and four feet thick. In 
some portions dredging cannot be done at all, owing 
to the roots of trees and the submerged timber. 

The Restoration Committee of Stratford-on-Avon 
parish church have decided to enter upon another 
stage of their restoration work. The work completed up 
to the present time includes the thorough repair of 
the exterior of the structure, the removal of the 
galleries on the north and south sides of the nave, the 
seating of a portion of the south transept, and the re- 
arrangement of the pews so as to obtain a centre aisle 
leading direct from the west door to the choir. The 
committee now propose to remove the great organ, 
which entirely blocks the north transept, and to place 
the instrument over the western arch of the tower 
The committee have also decided to strengthen the 
tower, as suggested by the architect, and to put in the 
two upper bells of the octave. 

At the sale of the library of the late Baron de 
Seilliere the chief interest centred in the disposal of 
Graduate et Sacramentartim, a manuscript upon 
vellum, of the twelfth century, written on 246 leaves, 
and richly illuminated with borders, ornamental letters, 
etc., in a fifteenth-century binding of oak, covered with 
stamped hogskin, with clasps. This superb manu- 
script was executed in the twelfth century, at the 
Abbey of Ottenbeuren, in Suabia, in the diocese of 
Augsburg. The first thirty leaves contain hymns and 
canticles, with a calendar. Following this are paint- 
ings representing the Saviour on the Cross, the Nati- 
vity, the Holy Women at the Sepulchre, and the 
Descent of the Holy Spirit. Twenty-four are painted 
alternately in purple, blue, and gold, with the text in 
letters of burnished gold and silver within rich borders. 
The preservation is excellent, and the colours retain 
their early freshness after a period of 700 years. 
It was put up at ^250, and finally knocked down to 
Mr. Ellis for the sum of ,910. 

The workmen engaged in clearing the ground on 
the south side of the hill of Montmartre, with a view 
to the construction of a new reservoir, have discovered 
some ruins which are believed to date from the twelfth 
century. About nine feet below the surface two 
enormous passages have been found side by side, each 
about ten feet broad and fifteen feet in height, and 
leading in the direction of the old Church of St. Pierre. 
Nothing seems to have been known respecting the 
existence of these ruins. 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



175 



Mr. Lewis Morris will publish at Easter, through 
Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench and Co., a volume of 
lyrics, under the title of Songs of Britain. The book 
will comprise, besides lyrics proper, three narrative 
poems of importance, derived from Welsh folk-lore, and 
resembling in style the author's popular Epic of Hades. 

An important and highly interesting exhibition of 
various valuable, and in some instances unique, objets 
dart was opened, by kind permission of Earl Spencer, 
at Spencer House, St. James's, on March 16th. The 
exhibition, to which a small entrance fee is charged, 
is in aid of the East London Branch of the Girls' 
Friendly Society, and is held under the presidency of 
the Duchess of Leeds. It fills three large salons, 
includes paintings, drawings, miniatures, jewellery, 
plate, porcelain, lace, embroidery, and fans, and 
comprises many choice examples never before ex- 
hibited to the public. Among the most notable ex- 
hibits were a very fine silver-mounted snuff-box, with 
medallion portrait of Mary Queen of Scots, made 
from a beam of Holyrood Palace, the property of the 
Queen, and a large case of very valuable curios lent 
by the Prince of Wales, who also sends the palette 
and brushes used by Gustave Dore. The best examples 
of art are to be found among the plate and the minia- 
tures. The collection of salt-cellars and cups lent by 
Sir George Dasent are particularly fine, and the fine 
specimens of Benvenuto Cellini's work, belonging to 
Lord de Mauley, are well worthy a visit. The minia- 
ures are exceedingly numerous, and include many 
well-known examples. The finest collection is un- 
doubtedly that owned by the Earl of Dartrey, com- 
prising 118 exceedingly fine enamels. Among other 
curios in this collection is one representing the Coali- 
tion, showing a head, one half representing the features 
of Lord North, and the other those of Charles Fox. 

The celebration of the 500th anniversary of the 
founding of Winchester College fell upon March 26th. 
Dr. Fearon, in a letter published some weeks ago, 
called attention to the ceremonies of commemoration 
which were to take place at Winchester on that day. 



Meetings of antiquarian 
Societies, 



Society of Antiquaries. Feb. 17. -The Presi- 
dent in the chair. A paper by Mr. A. Hudd was 
read, giving an account of a Romano-British inter- 
ment discovered last October by a man ploughing at 
Farmborough, Somerset. The coffins, which lay 
north and south, were of stone, perfectly plain, with 
no inscription ; and inside, a lead shell, apparently 
made of cast plates. Another paper read by the Rev. 



Ch. Wordsworth, on a Calendar or Directory of the 
Lincoln Use. A Calendar of the Seventeenth Century 
included such names as St. Thomas Becket, which had 
been expunged at the Reformation, and omitted the 
Transfiguration and the name of Jesus, which had 
been introduced in the fifteenth century. Sir. J. Savile 
Lumley exhibited some terracotta heads and ex votos, 
bronze statuettes and coins, and photographs of busts 
discovered on the site of the Artemisium near Lake 
Nemi, which has been already described by Mr. 
Pullan. Major Cooper exhibited a small alabaster 
vase and a Norse chessman of bone discovered in a 
sandpit in Bedfordshire. Mr. W. Ransome exhibited 
the stem and foot of a pewter chalice, found on the 
site of the preceptory at Hitchin ; a papal bulla of 
John XXII., and a small ivory panel of considerable 
antiquity representing the Crucifixion, with the Manus 
Dei and two angels above, and Mary and John below 
the Cross. 

Feb. 24. The President in the chair. Prof. 
Middleton read a paper on the methods of construc- 
tion used in ancient Rome. After mentioning the 
opus quadralum, the ancient method of building with 
square blocks of stone, and the unburnt bricks, of 
which no specimens remain, he stated that the ordi- 
nary brick walls in ancient Rome, none of which are 
older than 150 B.C., are really concrete walls faced 
with brick. The materials used for composing the 
concrete are, in chronological order stone, tufa, 
peperino, marble, porphyry. Two timber walls were 
set up, and the brick facing and concrete core built 
up between them. The print of these timber walls 
still remains impressed on the concrete in some cases. 
The facing was originally of small tufa stones, like 
mosaic, opus antiquum. Then about the first century 
B.C. diamond-shaped blocks were used, called opus 
reticulatum, with ashlar work of square blocks, which, 
however, were only skin deep. Thirdly, bricks were 
employed, at first of a triangular shape. At regular 
intervals courses of large square tiles, about two feet 
square, were inserted. These seem to mark the end 
of a day's work. The concrete used was so strong 
that floors of twenty feet square had been found with 
no support except at the edges. The brick relieving 
arches were only about four inches deep, and of no 
constructional value. Prof. Middleton then described 
the manner in which the walls were covered with stucco 
and marble linings, illustrating his meaning by careful 
drawings. Among the articles exhibited were a 
Norse chessman found in Leicestershire, representing 
a man being put into a pit ; and a carved wood 
reliquary of the fourteenth century, being an effigy of 
the Virgin and Child. 

Clifton Shakspere Society. Feb. 26. Mr. 
John Taylor, president, in the chair. Mr. Taylor 
read a paper on "The Two Falstaffs," pointing out 
that in the first folio of " Henry VI." the name of the 
undoubted companion-at-arms with Talbot in France, 
Sir John Fastolfe, of Caistor Castle, is spelt " Fal- 
staffe." But as it is quite clear that the Falstaff of I 
and 2 " Henry IV." is identical with the Sir John 
Oldcastle of the "Famous Victories" on which 
Shakspere founded his own work, we have only to 
re-change the name to its original form to disunite the 
Fastolfe of " Henry VI." from Oldcastle or the 
humorous Sir John, who, however, is said by Master 



176 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



Shallow to have been page to Thomas Mowbray, 
Duke of Norfolk, a post actually held by Fastolfe. 
" A consideration of a few words in 2 ' Henry IV.' " 
was read by Dr. J. N. Langley, who thought that the 
following words were invented by the writer of the 
play: " presurmise " (I. i. 168); "juvenal " (I. ii. 
22); "sortance" (IV. i. 11); "forgetive" (IV. iii. 
107) ; " considerance " (V. ii. 98). 

British Archaeological Association. Feb. 16. 
Mr. C. H. Compton in the chair. Mr. Roach Smith 
referred to various Roman interments found in Kent, 
in relation to the leaden sarcophagus which has 
recently been found at Plumstead. The Rev. M. 
Lewis read a description of some curious fourteerth- 
century glass in the Church of St. Edmund, Kings- 
down, Kent, a building which is found to possess a 
Saxon tower, while the cores of the walls of the 
church most probably also belong to the same early 
period. Mr. E. Way produced several fictile frag- 
ments found in Southwark ; and Mr. Loftus Brock 
some samples of Castor ware found in the Eastern 
Counties. The Rev. S. Surtees exhibited some flint- 
flakes found on Clifton Common, Conisborough, close 
to a number of pit-dwellings. He also described the 
little-known frithstool in Sprotborough Church, York- 
shire, and referred to the boundary-crosses in the 
locality which marked the extent of the ancient 
sanctuary ; the bases of several of these he had dis- 
covered. They appear to be of Saxon date, the same 
early period being claimed for the stool, which is of 
stone, carved with figures. A paper was then read 
" On the Communion Plate in Peterborough Cathe- 
dral," by Mr. J. T. Irvine. A second paper was read, 
prepared by the Rev. L. H. Loyd, on some parochial 
records preserved at Wing Church, Bucks. 

March 3. Mr. T. Morgan in the chair. The Rev. S. 
M. Mayhew exhibited a variety of antiquities recently 
found in various parts of the City, the most remark- 
able being a sculptured bust in marble of a young 
Roman lady found at Walbrook. Some burnt Samian 
ware was found at the same time, while at a lower 
level, and at no great distance, a flint implement was 
discovered, one of the few prehistoric relics which 
have been met with in London. Mr. C. Brent ex- 
hibited some curious Merovingian bronze personal 
ornaments, similar in general character to some of 
early Saxon date found in England. Mr. Round ex- 
hibited a unique impression of the seal of Warwick, 
the King- Maker, which, with the warrant to which it 
is attached, the latter bearing Warwick's autograph, 
was recently found in a loft over a stable at the seat 
of a relative of Mr. Round's in Essex. Mr. E. Way 
produced some Roman pottery found in Southwark, 
and Mr. Loftus Brock described a very early vase 
found at Cyprus. The first paper was on the Roman 
villa at Yatton, Somerset, by the chairman. The 
villa stood on very low-lying ground, below the level 
of the present bed of the river Yeo, only about fifty 
feet distant. The second paper was by M. Roessler, 
on recent discoveries at Fecamp. Several discoveries 
of Roman pottery have been made, many of the 
objects being of great beauty. The tomb of a young 
Roman lady has also been found, the date being about 
A.D. 400. The epitaph of William, third abbot of 
Fecamp, was described. It is a curious example of 
the use of Roman numerals, the date being 1 107. 



The Rev. Dr. Hooppell described a curious Roman 
balance, in perfect condition, of bronze, which has 
recently been found at Catterick, Yorkshire. 

Hellenic Society. Feb. 24. Mr. Sidney 
Colvin, vice-president, in the chair. Mr. Cecil Smith 
read a paper by Mr. A. S. Murray, on a vase in the 
British Museum in the form of a Sphinx. Certain 
figures painted on this vase had hitherto been desr 
cribed as " Triton, Nike and other figures." Mr. 
Murray showed that they represented the Athenian 
legend of the birth of Erechthonios. He further 
pointed out that in the same tomb with this vase 
(found at Capri in 1872) had been found other vases, 
ornamented with Attic subjects, so that it seemed 
probable that they had all been imported from Athens. 
He fixed the date of the vase in question at about 
44.0 B.C. Mr. Smith mentioned that a somewhat 
similar vase, though of inferior workmanship, and 
probably of later date, was in the museum at St. 
Petersburg, and had been described by M. Stephani. 
After discussion, in which Prof. Middleton, Mr. 
Head, and the chairman took part, the hon. sec. read 
a paper by Prof. Ridgway, on the origin and value of 
the Homeric talent. His main contention, supported 
by quotations" from Homer and other Greek writers, 
and from the Old Testament, was that the Homeric 
talent represented the value of the ox, which was 
thus the earliest unit of value, not only in Greece, but 
over all the Eastern world. This theory, if sound, 
not only afforded the means of estimating Homeric 
commodities, but also gave a natural unit on which 
to base the various systems of coinage. Mr. Head 
admitted the ingenuity of the theory, but thought that 
Prof. Ridgway had attempted to give it far too wide 
an application. So far as the Homeric talent was 
concerned, his case had been fairly made out ; but it 
was impossible to suppose that the ox had had the 
same value in all parts of the ancient world for so 
long a period. Indeed, great fluctuations in its value 
were on record in historical times. Among other facts 
which affected points in Prof. Ridgway's argument 
was this, that the earliest Greek coinage was not gold 
but silver. Gold coins were only introduced in 
Macedonian times. 

Asiatic. February 21. Mr. E. L. Brandreth in 
the chair. At the request of the Chairman and other 
members of the Council, Captain R. C. Temple gave 
a short account of his several publications, notably 
Indian IVo'es and Queries and the Indian Antiquary, 
and received the acknowledgments of the Society for 
the services he had rendered in these and other 
respects to the cause of Oriental research and folk-lore. 

Numismatic. February 17. Dr. J. Evans, Presi- 
dent, in the chair. Mr. Evans exhibited a large brass 
coin of Domitian of his eleventh consulship. Mr. 
Montagu exhibited a large bronze coin of Rhodes. 
Mr. Hall exhibited a series of Roman imperial aurei. 
Mr. B. V. Head read the first portion of a paper by 
Canon Greenwell on the electrum coinage of Cyzicus. 

Midland Institute, Birmingham. December 29, 
1886. Mr. J. A. Cossins (hon. secretary) in the 
chair. With reference to Mr. Fretton's paper on the 
Hospital of St. John Baptist, at Coventry, reported 
ante, p. 127, we have been favoured with a fuller 
account. Mr. Fretton, in the course of his address, 
observed that the St. John's Hospital, like many other 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



177 



kindred institutions of the country, originated in the 
absolute necessity for making provision for the relief 
of the sick, infirm, and permanent poor. There was, 
of course, no national organized system to provide 
for these emergencies, and the dispensing of charity 
became one of the most important duties of religious 
fraternities, while every person of any means was 
called upon to share this responsibility. Had it not 
been for these voluntary efforts, a widely spread dis- 
tress must have existed. The office of distributing 
relief to the wandering poor, either at the baron's 
castle or at the monastic gate, was no sinecure ; but 
for the permanently afflicted and the aged special 
provision had to be provided, and where possible 
suitable buildings erected and maintained. Edmund, 
the archdeacon of Coventry from 1 1 60 to 11 76, felt 
the want of this accommodation in Coventry, and, 
being a man of a determined spirit and liberal means, 
he took steps to carry out his object. A grant of land, 
part of the possessions of the Priory, was made, and, 
with the consent and approval of the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, a building was erected by Edmund, and 
dedicated to St. John the Baptist. Mr. Frelton traced 
the early struggles of the institution so far as is known 
of them, detailing the many disputes that arose be- 
tween the master, and the prior and convent, the 
Vicar of Trinity, and others, principally as to certain 
rights and privileges. The disputes in most cases 
were settled by arbitrators, whose decisions, viewed 
in the light of the present day, were of a curio'us, and 
in some instances amusing, character. The religious 
observances enforced upon the brothers and sisters by 
the arbitration of 1425 were very numerous and rigid, 
and the dress of the master, brethren, and sisters was 
fully described in the decision, as well as the rules to 
be observed in burying the bodies of the various 
officials as they died off. The fortunes of the hospital 
were not seriously affected in its struggles, and bene- 
factors still sprung up, adding to the wealth of the in- 
stitution ; and a number of interesting records of 
grants to the hospital, and conditions attached 
thereto, with singular tenures, and local place-names, 
were given, one of them being a translation of the 
Bull of Pope Honorius, 1221, and another the endow- 
ment of one bed in the Hospital Church by a John 
Blakeman, in 1444. Some remarkable disputes were 
narrated as having occurred between the master and 
a Lawrence Saunders, which lasted from 1474 for 
about twenty years. The circumstances attending the 
suppression of this hospital in 1544 were fully given, 
together with its purchase by John Hales, and re- 
establishment as a Free Grammar School, by which it 
appeared that at the dissolution its clear yearly value 
was over 67, a large sum in those days. A full 
translation of the deed of surrender, with a copy of 
the signature of William Wall, the last master, was 
given as a sample of such documents. Mr. Fretton 
described, as far as possible, the mediaeval arrange- 
ments of the hospital and its enclosure, and its subse- 
quent alterations to adapt it for the purpose of a 
school. He also gave an architectural description of 
the fabric as it now stands, and the mutilations to 
which it was subjected in 1794, and referred to the 
recent purchase of the building by the churchwardens 
of Holy Trinity as a mission-room. 
Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society. 



Feb. A paper was read in which some 
singular facts were stated respecting the sites of 
some ancient camps in Rome. The object of the 
reader of the paper was to institute a comparison be- 
tween these and the well-known cities and towns in 
Britain which are acknowledged to have had either 
their origin in, or development from, Roman camps 
in the first century of the Christian era. The ideas of 
Hyginus, the well-understood but little known author 
of the Tertiata Camp, (edited by Schelius, and the 
edition by Munkerus, Amsterdam, 1681), had been 
transferred to many diagrams, and the camps of 
Rome were shown to have the main features of corre- 
spondence with the camp areas in Britain. The 
Castra Peregrina and the Castra Equites Singularis 
were demonstrated to coincide in length and breadth 
with the camp of Hyginus, and to have the " limits" 
of the " Regions,'' also co-extensive as boundaries. 
The Castra Pretoria was also shown to be of the 
same breadth, although its length has been curtailed ; 
but the space sufficient for it is seen (outside the 
Agger of Servius Tullius). This discovery cannot 
fail to entirely alter the generally accepted ideas as to 
the Castrametation of the Romans in the first century. 
Penzance Natural History and Antiquarian 
Society. December 3rd, 1886. The annual 
meeting. The President (Mr. W. Bolitho, jun., 
J. P.) in the chair. The President, in the 
course of an able address, said that a period of 
great activity and of valuable work, as recorded 
in the Transactions, was followed by several years 
of torpor, so that its very existence was well- 
nigh forgotten ; but, Phcenix-like, it had arisen from 
its ashes, and was as vigorous and as valuable 
as of yore. So far as he knew, the owners of the 
soil on which their prehistoric and mediaeval monu- 
ments stood desired to do all in their power to protect 
them, but the spoiler's hand was difficult to stay. An 
attempt had been made to carry away the stones of 
Kenidjack Castle, but the indefatigable Secretary of 
that society was prompt to inquire into the circum- 
stances, and on verifying the fact, communicated with 
Mr. Borlase's steward. Chun Castle was also suffer- 
ing from the same cause ; and Mr. T. S. Bolitho was 
greatly concerned at the wilful damage done to what 
was commonly known as Madron Well. The Presi- 
dent said that members of the society could render 
no more valuable service than in endeavouring to 
protect those chapters of their history which were re- 
corded in stone. He urged upon them, then, the 
necessity for preserving the old songs, the old sayings, 
the old tales, and the old traditions of their county, 
believing as he did that those who came after them 
would be grateful for their labours. Mr. Bolitho 
concluded by expressing his thanks to the Rev. 
W. S. Lach-Szyrma for having acted for him 
in his enforced absence during a portion of the 
year, and by expressing the hope that the society 
had a long, a prosperous, and a useful career before 
it. Mr. G. B. Millett read the annual report, which 
referred to the resuscitation of the society seven years 
ago, and the progress made since that date. Nearly 
every branch of Cornish zoology and botany in one 
or other of its divisions had received the minute and 
attentive consideration of those members who were 
specialists on each respective subject ; and it was 



178 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



impossible to over-estimate the value of the papers 
and systematic lists which had been recorded in the 
Transactions, for they would go far towards supplying 
the necessary materials for an exhaustive work on the 
fauna and flora of Cornwall, whenever the time 
should arrive for such to be written. New fields of 
study had been opened up in the archceological sec- 
tion, and had been assiduously followed out with rich 
results. The subject of the ancient folk-lore of this 
Western district had received a large measure of 
well-bestowed attention. Yet a large field of labour 
lay open and unworked, in both sections. Mr. 
Tregelles read a paper entitled "Some Facts about 
the Reproduction of Seaweeds," by Dr. D. H. 
Scott. The writer alluded to the small amount 
that was known about the fructification of sea- 
weeds as compared with the knowledge possessed 
of the same process in flowering plants. His 
paper dealt more especially with the red seaweeds, 
and he described in detail the reproductive organs 
and the mode of fertilization in four genera. Mr. 
E. D. Marquand gave a paper on " The Royal 
Forest of Dartmoor." He said that the large tract of 
country which claimed this title offered a rare field of 
study and exploration. It was the mountain district 
of southern England a vast sweep of uncultivated 
moorland, seamed and scarred with granite ridges and 
castellated crags a rude relic of primeval Britain 
still existing in the midst of the most fertile and 
beautiful of English counties. This extensive table- 
land of heath, morasses, and rock stretched unbroken 
over some 30 miles of country, intersected by swift- 
flowing streams and foaming torrents, and studded 
with lofty peaks and colossp.l piles of stone. It con- 
tained all the features of a rude prehistoric age, and 
might well serve to link our own era with the remote 
past. By botanists, Dartmoor had always been re- 
garded as the southern representative of the Lake 
District or the Scottish Highlands. One of the best 
starting-points on the borders of Dartmoor was Horra- 
bridge, a small low-lying village between Plymouth 
and Tavistock. A good road led up through the 
quaint hamlet of Sampford Spinney to Pew Tor and 
Vixen Tor, both of them very good stations for mosses, 
hepaticse, and lichens. On Staple Tor, overlooking 
Vixen Tor, Mr. Marquand found scarcely anything 
worth collecting. Some excellent mosses and hepa- 
ticse were to be found in the copses, and among the 
rocks that fringed the river Walkham, and a day 
might be well employed in following up the river from 
Horrabridge to Merivale Bridge. The mossist would 
find it best to make his way down to Meavy, then up 
the long hillpath over the top, and down to the village 
of Sheepstor, at the back of which rises the singular- 
shaped rocky promontory. Everyone who had read 
anything about Dartmoor would be familiar with the 
name of Wistman's Wood a curious collection of 
dwarf oak-trees, not above 10 or 12 feet in height, 
although evidently of great antiquity, and supposed 
to be a relic of a sacred grove in which the Druids 
performed their mysterious rites. One of the 
finest tors on Dartmoor, taken merely as a mass of 
rock, was Hound Tor, some 5 miles or so from More- 
ton. Lydford should be visited, if only on account of 
its famous waterfall, and the splendid scenery of the 
adjacent valley. At Ivybridge would be seen some 



of the most beautiful scenery in South Devon. At 
Bridestowe the railway skirted the moor, and this was 
the nearest station to Tavy Chase, one of the wildest 
scenes in the whole district, exceedingly like many 
such among the mountains of Cumberland and West- 
moreland. Every village and every hamlet in the 
stony heart of Mid-Devon was worth a visit, either 
for its own merits or on account of some other place 
which it rendered more easily accessible ; and the 
artist, the botanist, and the antiquary would find no 
other area of the same extent in the South of England 
which, for interest, variety, and beauty, could equal 
the old Forest of Dartmoor. Mr. J. B. Cornish 
stated that an ancient cross had recently been 
found in the chimney of a house which was being 
demolished at Towednack Churchtown. It was now 
in the possession of Mr. W. K. Baker, who had had 
it placed in his garden. The cross was of granite, and 
was about 3 feet high. It was of ordinary construc- 
tion, but hitherto there had been no means of ascer- 
taining the original use to which it was put. 

December 10th. Mr. G. B. Millett, the President, 
in the chair. Mr. G. F. Tregelles read a paper from 
Mr. Marquand on a rare submarine insect, the sEpo- 
phiulus Bonnat'ret, a specimen of which he recently 
found at Mousehole. This insect Mr. Marquand wrote, 
greatly resembled in size, form, and colour, a flat, 
brown, nocturnal insect, said to abound in crowded 
towns, and dignified by a pleasing variety of eupho- 
nious epithets, and which was, he believed, unknown 
in West Cornwall. It would, indeed, be a proud 
boast if Penzance could say, in very truth, that while 
it possesses one of the only two known British habitats 
of the insect ^.pophiuhis Bonnairei, yet Acantlia 
lechlaria (the common bug) was absolutely unknown. 
Mr. Cornish gave some particulars with regard to 
an ancient mill which had been found by some work- 
men who were engaged in making an excavation at 
the back of the Wesleyan Chapel. The mill was at a 
depth of 36 feet below the surface, and how it 
came there no one knew. Mr. James Caldwell had 
found it, and presented it to Mr. Cornish. Other 
specimens of mills of this kind, and also portions of 
mill machinery, had been found in various parts of 
the town, and especially in Causewayhead. Mr. 
Oliver Caldwell said that since presenting the stone 
to Mr. Cornish, the contractor had given him some 
further information about the find. The stones 
were discovered in a pit, at the bottom of which were 
about six gallons of black wheat, which had been un- 
fortunately thrown away. The excavation where the 
stones were found was about 50 feet behind the chapel. 
The Rev. S. Rundle read four short papers, the first 
of which referred to midsummer fires in Cornwall. 
These fires, Mr. Rundle said, were usually quoted as 
convincing evidence of the Celtic origin of the Cornish. 
This, however, was a mistake, as clear proof could be 
given that these fires were common to various parts of 
England until the time of the great Rebellion, when 
the Civil Wars ended them everywhere save in Corn- 
wall, where the Parliamentary forces were not in the 
ascendant. Old customs, therefore amongst them 
the midsummer fires survived in all their wonted 
vigour. In East Cornwall, however, where many 
battles took place, the custom had completely vanished. 
An old chronicle was said to have run thus : 



MEETINGS OF ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETIES. 



179 



Then doth the joyful feast of John 

The Baptist take his turne, 
When bonfires great, with loftie flame 

In every towne doe burne. 

These lines represented the true state of affairs. The 
custom prevailed throughout England until the Civil 
Wars, when the Puritans stopped them everywhere 
except in West Cornwell. These fires then could be 
no longer regarded as an indubitable proof of the 
Celtic origin of the Cornish race. Mr. Rundle then 
read a paper on a Post-Reformation Guild at 
Helston, known as the " Guild of Cord-Wainers." 
The document containing the rules and regula- 
tions of this Guild was a very remarkable one, 
and by its means he had been able to assign a Post- 
Reformation date to the Guild. The date in the 
document was obliterated as to the first two figures ; 
the last two were clearly 59. It was naturally sup- 
posed that as the Reformation was in full force in 
1559 it must refer to 1459, and this date was accord- 
ingly fixed upon. Upon further examination of the 
document, however, he had been led to the belief 
that a later date must be fixed upon. The Guild was 
clearly a Catholic one, as the rules referred to con- 
tained directions for certain celebrations peculiar to 
that Church. Cornwall long remained attached to the 
old faith, and these rules and regulations were most pro- 
bably only an outward and visible sign of this attach- 
ment. Mr. Rundle then read a paper on "Parishes 
in Cornwall with the prefix Saint in 1602." Whilst 
differing from Mr. Lach-Szyrma's theories as to the 
history of Cornish saints, he yet could not accede to 
the position that no parishes rightly called themselves 
by the name of saints. Hals told them that at the 
time of the Domesday Book survey there was only one 
parish (St. Ivenn) to which the name of Saint was 
given. This proved nothing, as the Normans recog- 
nised no saints but their own. Mr. Cornish, in com- 
menting on Mr. Lach-Szyrma's lecture on ' ' Cornish 
Saints" stated that he believed that the name of 
"Saints," as applied to Cornish parishes, was an 
invention of the last thirty years, and especially 
mentioned the cases of Sennen, Madron, and Burian. 
In this Mr. Cornish was incorrect. No doubt the 
term "Saint" had dropped out of use, but in this 
course the Cornish only pursued the custom prevalent 
throughout England, where even well-known Saints 
had been deprived of the affix. That the adoption of 
"Saint" was not an invention of the last twenty 
years might be discovered by turning to the edition of 
Carew, published in 1602, in which the title of 
" Saints " was to be found. He subjoined the follow- 
ing list of Cornish parishes which, if antiquity went 
for anything, were certainly entitled to the prefix 
"Saint." The list was extracted from the various 
subsidies, etc., found in Carew : Just (both), Crowan, 
Gerrans, Goran, Michael, Penkevil, Illogan, Ludgvan, 
Sancreed, Ives, Zennor, Hilary, Sennen, Madron, 
Towednack, Paul, Martyn, Gluvias, Phillack, 
Gwinear, Mullyon, Grade, Manrian, Stythians, Lande- 
wednack, Mawgan, Ruans (both), Anthony (all), 
Keverne, Gunwalloe, Sithney, Wendron, Austell, 
Cuby, Samsons, Stephens (three), Dennis, Erne, 
Allen, Ewe, Creed, Probus, Perran (all), Crantock, 
Withiel, Columb (both), Weern, Enoder, Breock, 
Breage, Colan, Endellion, Warbstow, Cleer, Martins, 
Germans, Mullions, Ive, Dominick, Davidstow, 



Gennys, John Veep, Pinnock, Veryan, Constantine, 
and Newlyn. This list contained two that Mr. 
Cornish thought were the invention of the last thirty 
years. As to the third St. Burian, if they turned to Lord 
de Dunstanville's edition of Carew they would find a 
document containing a list of the Cornish parishes, in 
which a subsidy was levied in the reign of Edward III. 
In it was this entry : " Perwyth Hund. . . . Poch 
(parish) see (sancte) Biriane." After much delibera- 
tion he could come to no conclusion as to the exact 
status of these saints. Undoubtedly many of the 
churches were dedicated in their names. It was 
possible that in some cases the name was taken for 
that of a saint when no such saint existed. At all 
events, he could not allow for a moment that it was 
at all a scientific or logical mode of investigation to 
seize haphazard on some Breton, Irish, or Welsh 
saint, because the names have some faint resemblance 
to one found in Cornwall, and immediately give him 
a Cornish local habitation and name. He thought that 
they must dismiss the legends of Cornish saints as being 
devoid of historic accuracy in nearly every instance. 

Leeds Practical Naturalists. Nov. 9, 1886. Mr. 
Henry Clarke read a paper on " Insect Architecture." 
The paper opened with remarks on the wonderful man- 
ner in vvhich insects protect their eggs from the many 
dangers with which they are surrounded ; these means 
of protection being adapted to the particular dangers 
to which they are subject. Further, some insects 
seem to look forward, not only to the protection of 
the egg, but to the well-being of the larva which 
emerges from it. An example was taken in the 
mason bee. The nests of mason bees are constructed 
of various materials, some of sand, some of earth 
mixed with chalk, and some with a mixture of earthy 
substances and wood. They are usually built on 
walls, and externally look like a cake of dried mud. 
The nest contains two or more cells, about one inch 
deep, of the form and size of a lady's thimble. The 
cells are often constructed of the mortar from the wall 
to which the, nest is attached, the bee taking particles 
of the mortar and glueing them together with saliva, 
and then glueing the cell to the side of the nest. The 
essayist then went on to describe the habits of the 
mason wasps, which make burrows in sandbanks, in 
which to rear their larvae. The curious habits of the 
carpenter bees were next touched on. These insects 
make a tubular gallery in wood, each cell being filled 
with pollen and honey sufficient to rear the larvae 
within. The wonderful ingenuity of other insects was 
describedby the essayist in an interesting manner, the 
architecture of types of the social hymenoptera being 
well characterized. 

Royal Society of Literature. Feb. 24. Sir P. 
Colquhoun, President, in the chair. A paper was 
read by Mr. F. Palmer upon the drama of Richard III. 
as exhibiting the adolescence of Shakespeare's genius. 
The reader commenced with a short summary of the 
metrical tests and other literary evidence which, he 
said, point to Richard III. as being one of the earliest 
of Shakespeare's complete plays. The psychological 
aspect of the play leads to the same conclusion, for it 
presents all the hyperbolical intensity characteristic of 
a youthful writer, besides showing signs of mental 
growth, of an increasing independence of thought, and 
a throwing off of earlier surrounding influences. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Corretfponlience, 



THE NAME "COLLINS." 

Can you, or some of your subscribers, in a future 
number of the Antiquary state how so many places 
parishes, villages, and townslands in Ireland are 
called " Collinstown" ? This name for places occurs 
in the counties Dublin, Cork, Kildare, Meath, and 
Westmeath. 

Is not " Collins " a Saxon name ? 

Yours, etc., 

Subscriber. 

February 22, 1887. 

NOTES OF DISCOVERY OF PART OF A 

SHRINE AT PETERBOROUGH 

CATHEDRAL. 

[Ante, p. 8.] 

A subscriber to your journal having shown me the 
above notes, which though generally correct yet pre- 
sent certain inaccuracies, induces me to send to you 
the following corrections : 

1. The fragments found some two years ago did not 
come from below the floor of the south aisle of the choir 
in front of the arch covering the original site of the 
shrine, but from under the same floor in front of the 
western choir arch, from whence probably more of it 
will come to light. 

2. As mentioned in your account, the shrine 
appears on the plan given in J. Bridges's History. A 
question arises as to the date of this place. In the 
preface to the ordinary and last edition, it is stated 
that Bridges began to collect matter for his history 
late in life, in 1719 ; his death taking place in 1724. 
The engraved plate bears the name, " Tho. Eayre 
Kettering delin.," and as engraver " I. Harris Sculp." 
Existing slabs shown on it prove a date so late as 
1693. But the information from the work itself 
suggests a period between 1 7 19 and 1724. Strange 
enough, under the payments of chapter (year) 1720, 
appears this entry " P d Valentine Deeping for a 
ground plat of y e church : 10 : 6." This Deeping 
is possibly the same as Valentine Depup, or Deepup, 
a carpenter much employed about that period by the 
Chapter of Peterborough. 

3. Correctly or incorrectly, St. Tibba's name is at 
present popularly connected with it. 

Of what is plastered up against the apse wall 
beyond the old end of north choir aisle, the quatrefoil 
base work probably belongs to the monument of 
Abbot (or Bishop) Chambers. Its cresting to a chapel 
or something else possibly connected with Abbot 
Ramsay. That belonging to the shrine formed part 
of its solid mid- wall. From the evidence obtainable 
from the fragments last found, the shrine must have 
been of the period of Abbot Kirkton ; its ornamental 
carvings having been executed by the same carvers 
who executed the beautiful ornaments on his gateway 
to the Prior's residence, now the present Deanery. 

For the connection of St. Tibba's name, or that of 
any other saint, with it, not the slightest historical 



authority exists. So early as Gunton's time, all know- 
ledge on the subject was lost, as evidenced by his 
account (p. 97 of his work), when he says : "Towards 
the upper end of the Quire, on the south side, a little 
above the monument of Abbot John (that is, John 
Chambers, afterwards Bishop), there is a comely struc- 
ture of white chalk-stone (church), being alike on 
both sides ; but it is not known what it was raised for, 
unless conjecture may pass it for a monument of one 
Reginald Lolworth, who lieth buried by it in the 
south isle," etc. Nor was Dean Patrick (who pub- 
lished Gunton's work in 1696, with additions) seem- 
ingly able to further elucidate the matter. 

Entries in the Chapter payments for 1692, relating 
to the erection of Ihree walls in the open spaces of 
arches adjoining the apse, seem to recognise its then 
existence. 

4. It is not improbable that the removal of this 
shrine may have taken place in 1734, when the altera- 
tions of the services into the choir alone took place, and 
the old Benedictine arrangements were extinguished. 
During those good-intentioned but fearfully destiuctive 
changes by Dean Lockier, the interior of the Cathe- 
dral with the old arrangements suffered terribly, worse 
than any treatment it had undergone during the Civil 
Wars. 

Those remains of a shrine as stated at the close of 
your brief notice, used to form the present east window 
of the room over the great gateway from Market Place 
to the Close, were undoubtedly part of one of the front 
open arcades of this very shrine ; certain minutes of 
the Chapter in 1792 suggesting a probability of such 
utilization being perhaps the work of that year. 
Yours, etc, 

Jas. Thos. Irvine. 



VENICE AS A FORTIFIED CITY. 
[Ante, p. 19.] 

In reading Mr. W. Carew Hazlitt's remarks in the 
Antiquary for March, I was particularly struck with 
the following reference, in a foot-note, p. 19, to 
Braun's view of St. Mark's Place, Venice, in his 
Civitates, a work of gigantic undertaking and in- 
dustry. Mr. Hazlitt says : 

" The engraving of St. Mark's Place in Braun's 
Civitates, showing the great fire there in 1599, actually 
raging, is very unsatisfactory, and has every appear- 
ance of having been executed at second-hand or from 
report. Its delineations are strangely unreal. The 
Piazza had probably undergone very slight change 
between 1496 and the date of the fire, a century 
later." 

If Mr. Hazlitt's view is a correct one, the fact 
detracts much from the supposed value of Braun's 
great work. It hardly seems credible that a man of 
his high credit and ability could have been guilty of 
so daring a fraud, especially in those days when it 
was the business of gentlemen and scholars who did 
the continental tour to see the " bride of the sea." 

I admit that I have suspected that some of his more 
remote views, such as those on the Upper Nile and 
in Russia, may have been obtained by means other 
than a personal visit, for it seems to me impossible 
that so much work could have been accomplished by 



REVIEWS. 



181 



one man in the space of an ordinary lifetime. Braun's 
sketch of the Pyramids could hardly have been that 
of an eye-witness ; and his views of Moscow and of 
Siberia must admit of some doubt. As a rule, how- 
ever, so far as I have been able to test them, his 
pictures of the world's great capitals and fortified 
towns of the sixteenth century appear to have been 
taken on the spot, and to be fairly accurate in detail. 
The three great folio volumes which these extraor- 
dinary prints occupy must contain an agreeable sur- 
prise for anyone on first opening them. Much of 
the work is artistically fine, and does credit to the 
artistic skill of that age. I have recently given some 
considerable attention to Braun's work, and I feel 
well rewarded for my pains. 

A. Leigh Hunt. 
23, Trong Street, Norwich. 



iRetrietos- 



Third and Final Series of Bibliographical Collections 
and Notes on Early English Literature, 1474- 
1700. By W. Carew Hazlitt. (London : 
Quaritch, 1S87.) 8vo., pp. xii. 313. 
Mr. Hazlitt has done much work during the last 
thirty years, and some of it has been bitterly attacked ; 
but we venture to think that the debt of gratitude which 
all students of Old English literature owe to him for his 
bibliographical collections must remain the most en- 
during opinion of his labours. We would bid all 
readers who care for the books of the past to read the 
practical, manly, and comprehensive introduction pre- 
fixed to this volume. It forms one of the best pleas 
for the study of English literature which we know; and, 
coming close upon the important speech of Mr. John 
Morley, it takes up a phase of the subject not yet 
adequately recognised. The academic side has been 
put by Mr. Morley ; the practical by Mr. Hazlitt : 
"The England in which we dwell is one with the 
England which lies behind us. So far as the period 
which I comprehend goes, it is one country and one 
race; and I do not think that we should precipitately 
and unkindly spurn the literature, which our foregoers 
left to us and to our descendants for ever, because it 
may at first sight strike us as irrelevant to our present 
wants and feelings. . . . The considerer of modern 
opinions and customs is too little addicted to retro- 
spection. He seems to me to be too shy of profiting 
on the one hand by the counsels or suggestions, on 
the other by the mistakes of the men who have crossed 
the unrepassable line ; who have dealt with the topics 
and problems with which we have to deal. . . ." 
These are stirring and sensible words, and we should 
much like to see them more widely distributed than 
the limited issue of this volume will allow. 

It is impossible in a short notice, such as we can 
only give, to do justice to the contents of this work. 
The titles of every book or tract are given in full, 



having been transcribed by Mr. Hazlitt himself ; and 
there is often appended to the entry interesting in- 
formation about the condition, history, and, above all 
things, the present locale of the book. Such work as 
this requires labour, and skill, and knowledge of no 
ordinary kind. Now that Mr. Bradshaw is dead, there 
are few indeed who possess these qualities, and appa- 
rently only one who puts them at the service of" his 
fellows. It has been often said of late that the biblio- 
grapher and indexer are more needed than the book- 
writer ; and if this is true, as we are inclined to think 
it, Mr. Hazlitt's work must, in relation to the age in 
which it is produced, be awarded a very high place. 
It enables us to ascertain what has been done in English 
literature, and, therefore, ought to enable us to do our 
work so much the better. Almost all departments of 
study are now occupied as much with a reconsideration 
of old facts as with the discovery of new, and for this 
purpose such books as Mr. Hazlitt's are indispensable. 
We are happy to say that a competent Cambridge 
student has undertaken to compile an index to the 
four volumes of bibliography issued by Mr. Hazlitt, 
and that this will be published by Mr. Quaritch as 
soon as it is ready. 



A Road Guide to the Scottish Counties: Being a 
Description of the Chief Roads in Dumfries, 
Kirkcudbright, Wigtown, Roxburgh, and Selkirk 
Shires. By James Lennox, F.S.A., Scotland. 
(Dumfries : J. Anderson and Son, High Street. 
Edinburgh : J. Menzies and Co., 1885.) 8vo. 
There are few pursuits so mutually helpful as 
11 cycling " and the study of antiquities. This'book 
compressed, brief, clear ; an admirable book, too, in 
its shape and dimensions as a pocket-book occupies 
the position of the delightful companion who is in- 
formed enough to point out objects of historical 
interest during a journey. A few leading facts in the 
antiquities of each locality or building are briefly 
given, with references where further information may 
be found. This is a practical and commendable piece 
of work, drawn up from personal observation along 
the route described, and it avoids the commonplace- 
ness of guide-books. 



A New English Dictionary, on Historical Principles : 
founded mainly on the materials collected by the 

Philological Society. Edited by James A. H. 

Murray. (Oxford: Clarendon Press. London: 

Henry Frowde.) 4to. 
The third part of this monumental undertaking brings 
us down to the end of Bo-. It deals, in all, with 8,765 
words, and the articles which it contains will be found 
to be replete with interest and instruction to every 
reader. It is a characteristic of the letter B (shared 
only by some letters of less compass toward the end 
of the alphabet), that a very small proportion of the 
words beginning with it are derived from or through 
Latin, the great majority being Teutonic, either of the 
native Old English stock, or of the accessions which 
this received from the kindred speech of the Norse- 
men. Hence the present part deals with many of the 
oldest and most interesting words of the language, 
which are also among its most important living ele- 



182 



REVIEWS. 



ments in everyday use. In the course of their long- 
continued service, many of these have branched out 
into a vast network of senses (see Be, Bear, Beat, 
Board, Box), which it puzzles the lexicographer to 
disentangle, and even more to display in an orderly 
arrangement helpful to the reader. 

It is impossible for anyone to look at this volume 
without being struck by the enormous amount of 
labour which is imported into it. Dr. Murray and his 
assistants search everywhere for the history of their 
words, and the development in meaning which almost 
every English word undergoes. Few even of ordi- 
nary readers can fail to find amusement and instruc- 
tion in this remarkable work, and we cannot help 
urging that out of the countless readers in every home 
in England, there must be many who would still 
gladly offer their assistance in the search for words. 

Of the special points of interest in this part there 
are : I . Words in which special difficulties have been 
dealt with, in working out the history and develop- 
ment of senses, or in arranging and exhibiting the 
mass of facts. 2. Words in which new etymological 
facts or details are given, or old errors are discarded. 
3. Words of interesting origin and history. 4. Words 
of interesting sense-development, or showing curious 
change of sense. 5. Words in which the number of 
homographs, or their distinction, deserves notice. 

We cannot speak too highly of this national work. 
Every department seems to be alike in the thorough- 
ness in which the work is done, and we congratulate 
all alike upon the result. There are one or two words 
by which we have tested the work, and these are 
special words, conveying senses which must be known 
only to specialists, and nowhere do we find any failure. 
From the earliest literature to the letters of Mr. Sala 
in the modern newspaper, from the oldest to the 
latest words for instance, " boycot " material has 
been obtained to complete this work as it should be 
clone. More assistance is required, and we hope our 
readers will join in the good work. 



Was John Bunyan a Gipsy ? An Address to the 
British Press. By James Simpson. (New 
York : Thomas R. Knox and Co. Edinburgh : 
Maclachan and Stewart. London : Bailliere, 
Tyndall and Cox, 1886.) 
The history of the gipsies is altogether a curious, 
albeit an important, chapter of human history. Into 
the controversial question, as to whether Bunyan was 
a gipsy, we cannot go ; but the discussion will be of 
interest to those who are acquainted with Mr. Simp- 
son's History of the Gipsies, and we are pleased to be 
able to direct those interested where this pamphlet 
may be obtained. 



Introduction a V Histoire generate des Religions, restime 
du cours public donne d f Universite du Bruxelles 
en 1884-1885. Par le Comte Goblet d'Al- 
viella. (Bruxelles et Paris : E. Leroux, 1887.) 
8vo., pp. viii, 176. 

Our Continental neighbours are before us in their 
appreciation of the objects which ought mostly to 
interest the present age. We say ought to interest 



advisedly, because it is to be feared that succeeding 
ages will not have the chances which we possess of 
observing the facts which now come to the front. 
Facts are stubborn things, but they can be destroyed ; 
and chiefly so those that relate to the past beliefs of 
nations and people in matters of religion. M. d'Al- 
viella has done good and excellent service in putting 
this admirable resume before the world. It is well 
arranged, succinct, and, above all things, scientific. 
With some of it, of course, we do not quite agree; but 
then the subject is so vast, that we suppose no two 
students do exactly think alike. The book is divided 
into sections which will enable our folk-lore readers to 
estimate its importance as a guide to a portion of their 
own studies, and we can so recommend it. 



Syrian Stone-Lore ; or, The Monumental History of 
Palestine. By Claude Reignier Conder. 
Published for the Committee of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund. (London : Bentley, 1886.) 
8vo., pp. xiv, 472. 
This is a remarkable piece of work in more ways 
than one. The country about which it treats the 
Holy Land of the Jew, the Christian, and the Moslem 
alike the mass of information gathered together in 
its pages, the vast interest which it must possess to a 
wider circle than archaeology or history can generally 
command, combine in giving it an interest which is 
not generally attained. Lieutenant Conder does not 
come to his work unqualified or untrained. Years of 
work among the monuments he here describes are 
sufficient to assure him that he has little reason to 
fear that his pages may be thought to "contain only 
a new enumeration of well-known facts, and a repeti- 
tion of what may be found at length in standard 
works." The system alone which is adopted in this 
work is quite enough to ensure it a ready recognition 
as an original and valuable contribution to monu- 
mental archaeology. Lieutenant Conder inquires into 
the social condition of the inhabitants of the country, 
and gathers up what there is to be said concerning 
their race-origins, languages, religions, social customs, 
government, art, literature, and trade, and the basis 
of his knowledge is the architectural remains, the in- 
scriptions and sculptures, the art objects, and religious 
emblems which are to be found in the country. In 
this way Lieutenant Conder deals with the Canaanites, 
the Phoenicians, the Hebrews, Jews and Samaritans, 
the Greek Age, the Herodian Age, the Roman Age, 
the Byzantine Age, the Arab Conquest, and the 
Crusades. 

Much of Lieutenant Conder's studies throws light on 
the tribal condition of the several peoples who have 
occupied Palestine at different epochs ; and without 
saying that this portion of the work is the most im- 
portant, we will go as far as to say that it is at present 
the least known, and has far-reaching effects which 
are not quite understood. For instance, the tribal 
nature of the Arab conquest of Jerusalem is shown by 
the existence of tribal names for certain districts 
round Jerusalem which are those of the Arab tribes 
accompanying Omar. Again, the tribal condition of 
the early Hebrews is shown by the remains of the 
tribal sanctuaries which existed before the building of 



REVIEWS. 



183 



the national sanctuary by Solomon, and are remark- 
able for one common peculiarity namely, the exten- 
sive view commanded from the sacred spot. A group 
of dolmens marks one of these sites, and it is impos- 
sible to study the magnificent position allotted to them 
without understanding how the Syrians came to say, 
" Their God is a God of the hills." Lieutenant 
Conder has studied, too, the tribal marks on the 
monuments, and he declares against Mr, Robertson 
Smith's theory, that in early Arabia there were totem 
kinships and polyandrous unions. Probably the last 
word has not been said on this subject, and certainly 
Lieutenant Conder is not correct in saying that the 
existence of different totem names within one tribe is 
an argument against totem-formed tribes. On the 
contrary, it is an argument in favour of such tribes. 

One other subject we must just glance at, and that 
is the all-important question of the origin of the 
alphabet. Dr. Taylor's monumental work meets with 
Lieutenant Conder's approval, tested by his own re- 
searches ; and he gives a plate showing some picto- 
graph characters of the Egyptians and Hamathites 
compared with the Hebrew letters. This certainly 
affords a remarkable insight into the origin of syllabic 
signs. 

There is not space to deal properly with all that is 
to be found in this remarkable book. Its interest is 
far-reaching enough, and, so far as we can judge, the 
method and results of the learned author's researches 
are alike admirable and well worthy of the subject. 



The Register of Perlethor/e, in the County of Notting- 
ham. Edited by Dr. G. W. Marshall. (Work- 
sop : R. White, 1887.) Fol., pp. vi, 66. 

Our readers know full well the value of parish 
registers, and that before us appears to be more than 
usually interesting. It is one of the three oldest in 
the kingdom, dating from 1528. Dr. Marshall gives 
us an exact copy of the three small volumes, and in his 
competent hands all the most salient features are pre- 
served and brought into prominent notice, while the 
index at the end of the volume is as complete and 
well arranged as anyone could desire. 

Dr. Marshall observes that " the early date at which 
these registers begin constitutes their only claim upon 
the attention of the antiquary." We think this a little 
too sweeping in its judgment upon the contents of the 
registers themselves, as, for instance, the use to which 
the Rev. Stebbing Shaw put them in his account 
of the pedigree of Stanley connected with that of 
Wolferstan. 

Dr. Marshall has a word of much-needed condem- 
nation to say as to the practice of galling the entries ; 
for, as he justly says, " however carefully the faded 
ink may be for the time restored, sooner or later it 
blots out the record for ever." The ink of the older 
registers is, it is well known, much better than the 
later and modern registers, and there cannot surely be 
any need to introduce a practice which involves de- 



struction of these extraordinary records of early family 
history. 

The appearance of this acceptable addition to our 
printed parish registers is a model which might well 
be copied by all workers in this branch of genealogical 
labour. 



Book Prices Current. No. I, (London: Elliot Stock, 
1887.) 8vo., pp. 64. 

This is an excellent idea, and the surprise is that it 
has not been carried out before. It consists of a selected 
list of the most valuable books sold during the month, 
giving the names of the firms who sold them and the 
prices which they fetched. To booksellers this will be 
invaluable, we should think. But for book-lovers, 
and those who delight to read catalogues and such- 
like records of book-history, it will, if we mistake not, 
prove to be a source of unfailing interest. 



Palceolithic Man in N. W. Middlesex : the Evidence of 
his Existence, and the Physical Conditions under 
which he lived in Ealing and its Neighbourhood, 
illustrated by the Condition and Culture presented 
by certain existing Savages. By J. Allen Brown. 
(London: Macmillan, 1887). 8vo., pp. 237. 
The title of this book exactly describes its contents. 
Mr. Brown has been a digger for some years, and 
those of us who have heard his papers at the various 
societies before whom he has described his discoveries 
will gladly welcome this very excellent and handy 
collection of his studies. Mr. Brown does not hold 
with Professor Dawkins that the descendants of 
palaeolithic man are extinct. He compares the cul- 
ture and implements of the Esquimaux, Labrador 
and Newfoundland natives, Fuegians, Hottentots, 
Bushmen, and Australians with the finds in the 
gravel-beds at Ealing and Acton, and he suggests 
that the result of this comparison shows that in those 
backward races are the last remnants of palaeolithic 
culture and life. On the whole, we think he is 
justified in such a conclusion. 

All Mr. Brown's researches are very carefully noted, 
and, when necessary, illustrated. It will be new to 
Middlesex men to find that in the oldest days of 
human life the aspect of this part of our island may 
be fairly described. The subject is a fascinating and 
important one. The various stages into which stone 
implements may be grouped, showing a development 
in the art of producing them, are carefully considered 
by Mr. Brown, and we think this is one of the most 
important branches of his work. His theory to account 
for the absence of human remains of the palaeolithic 
period is ingenious, and is supported by evidence 
from savage custom. As a record of palaeolithic man 
in Britain the book is exceedingly valuable ; but as a 
specimen of good, sound local work it surpasses, we 
think, many efforts of the present day, and we should 
like to see it made a model for similar work elsewhere. 
All Middlesex antiquaries will certainly welcome it. 



184 



THE ANTIQUARY EXCHANGE. 



be antiquary aErcfmnge. 

Enclose i,d. for the First 12 Words, and id. for each 
Additional Three Words. All replies to a number 
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Stamp, and sent to the Manager. 

Note. All Advertisements to reach the office by the 
15//* of the month, and to be addressed The Manager, 
Exchange Department, The Antiquary Office, 
62, Paternoster Row, London, E.C. 



For Sale. 

Several Old Poesy, Mourning and Curious Rings 
for Sale. 306, Care of Manager. 

Bibliotheca Britannica ; or, a General Index to the 
Literature of Great Britain and Ireland, Ancient and 
Modern, including such foreign works as have been 
translated into English or printed in the British 
Dominions ; as also a copious selection from the 
writings of the most distinguished authors of all ages 
and nations. Two Divisions first, authors arranged 
alphabetically ; second, subjects arranged alpha- 
betically. By Robert Watt, M.D. Glasgow, 1820. 
Eleven parts, paper boards, 4to. ; price 4. W. E. 
Morden, Tooting Graveney, S.W. 

Pickering's Diamond Greek Testament. Good 
copy ; newly bound in polished morocco (by Ramage). 
Gilt on the rough. Offers to 100, care of Manager. 

Lord Brabourne's Letters of Jane Austen ; 2 vols. 
in one ; newly half-bound in red morocco ; fully 
lettered ; interesting to a Kentish collector. Offers 
to 101, care of Manager. 

The New Directory of Second-hand Booksellers ; 
large paper copy ; interleaved ; bound in Roxburgh ; 
4;. 6d. 102, care of Manager. 

Sub-Mundanes ; or, the Elementaries of the 
Cabala, being the History of Spirits, reprinted from 
the Text of the Abbot de Villars, Physio-Astro-Mystic, 
wherein is asserted that there are in existence on 
earth natural creatures besides man. With an 
appendix from the work " Demoniality," or " Incubi 
and Succubi." By the Rev. Father Sinistrari, of 
Ameno. Paper covers ; 136 pp. ; privately printed, 
1S86 ; 10s. 6d. 103, care of Manager. 

The Hermetic Works ; vol. 2. The Virgin of the 
World ; or, Hermes Mercurius Trismegistus, now 
first rendered into English by Dr. Anna Kingsford 
and Edward Maitland, 1885 ; 134 pp. ; cloth boards ; 
los. 6d. 104, care of Manager. 

Autographs : A large Album containing 225 genuine 
Autographs and Letters of great rarity and value, in- 
cluding Royalty (3) ; Prime Ministers (4) Peel, 
Russell, Palmerston, and Gladstone ; Archbishops, 
Bishops, celebrated Literary Characters, Judges, 
Generals, eminent Statesmen, Musicians, Artists, 
etc.! Z- A collection of over 500 Letters and 
Papers extending over the last 150 years, many of 
great interest, and containing many valuable Auto- 
graphs ; a large number being Letters of the Nobility, 



and others by Literary Characters well known to 
Antiquarians and the reading public, l. A fine old 
Black-letter Breeches Bible, dated 1583, including 
the Apocrypha. Two right profitable Concordances, 
the whole Booke of Psalmes in English Meeter with 
music, and Book of Common Prayer (this slightly de- 
fective), ruled with red margins by hand, in original 
binding, \ ioj. Address T. M. Dilworth, 4, Irwell 
Park, Eccles, Manchester. 

Ancient Carved Wood Mantelpiece Queen Anne 
from old mansion at Exeter. Photo on applica- 
tion. Address " Executors," care of Harry Hems, 
Fair Park, Exeter. 

Beesley's History of Banbury, uncut copy, \6s. 
Moss's Antiquities of St. Saviour's Church, South- 
wark, 1818, l$s. Old Furniture : Cabinet- Makers' 
London Book of Prices and Designs, above 200 de- 
signs by Shearer, Elbon, Hepplewhite ; rather soiled, 
305. Pedigree of the Earls of Pembroke ; illuminated 
manuscript, dated 1628. The Inn Play, or Cornish- 
Hugg Wrestler, 1727, uncut, woodcuts, not bound, gs. 
Other quaint old books and tracts for disposal. 
D. G. G., Build was, Ironbridge, Salop. 

Antique Hall Clock (Grandfather's) with richly 
carved tall oak case and brass face, very handsome, 
and perfect timekeeper, price 7 guineas ; also a few 
good old Chippendale Chairs, in perfect condition, 
for sale. Address Morton House, Morton-on-Swale, 
near Northallerton, Yorkshire. 

Several Old Swords, Pistols, Halberds, Shield, 
Chain Armour, and a few other articles. S., 34, Carol- 
gate, Retford. 

Old Oak Chest, carved ; Old Oak Stool ; Eight- 
legged Table. Sketches and prices from Dick, 
Carolgate, Retford. 

A Mortar (ornamented) made of bell-metal, dated 
1732, weighing about 2 cwt. Splendid tone; suit- 
able for gong. What offers ? May be seen at Donald 
and Co., Chemists, Cross, Chester. 

Collection of Greek, Roman, and English Coins. 
W. H. Taylor, Erdington, Warwickshire. 

The Manager wishes to draw attention to the fact 
that he cannot undertake to forward POST cards, 
or letters, unless a sta mp be sent to cover postage op 
same to advertiser. 



Wanted to Purchase. 

Cooper's Rambles on Rivers, Woods, and Streams ; 
Lupot on the Violin (English Translation). S., care 
of Manager. 

Maria de Clifford, novel, by Sir Egerton Brydges, 
about 1812-18. Address 310, care of Manager. 

Reports of old books on wrestling, quoits, and 
kindred subjects. 119, care of Manager. 

Old paste buckles, brooches, etc. 312, care of 
Manager. 

Kemble's Saxons in England, at low price. Also 
cheap books on Archseology. Parsons, 7, Preston 
Road, Brighton. 



THE KEYS OF THE OLD BASTILLE OF PARIS. 



185 









The Antiquary, 



MAY, 1887. 




tfje Eep.0 of t&e DiU IBastMe 
ofpau0. 

By H. S. Howell. 



BOUT seven years ago I think it 
was in October, 1879 * noticed 
an editorial paragraph in the Toronto 
Mail, stating that the keys of the 
celebrated Bastille of Paris were in the posses- 
sion of a St. Louis locksmith, he having 
purchased them of a young emigrant named 
Lechastel. It appears that when the great 
prison-fortress fell, in 1789, the Governor 
the old Marquis de Launay was dragged 
out into the street and there despatched; 
while the mob surged into the building to 
put an end to the Swiss Guard and the 
Invalides (had they not surrendered), and to 
search for trophies. Among the first who 
entered the courtyard of the Bastille was one 
Carwin Lechastel by name, and when the 
draw-bridge fell he secured a bunch of keys 
from one of the fleeing gaolers. These he 
stuck on the end of his pike and carried 
through the streets. Those who took part 
in this event were considered heroes by the 
Parisians at that time, and Lechastel kept 
the keys in his possession as a great trophy 
of the Revolution ; and they remained in the 
family until 1859, when a descendant of his 
emigrated to America, taking the old keys 
with him. Not long afterwards he found 
himself in very reduced circumstances in the 
city of St Louis, Mo., and having gone 
through what little money he had he resolved 
to sell the old heirloom. At first he was 
unsuccessful ; few believed his story, and he 
could speak but little English. But one day 
his attention was directed by the sign of a 
vol. xv. 



"great golden key," hanging outside the 
locksmith's shop belonging to Mr. John 
Hamilton on Morgan Street, and he went in 
and made him understand what he had for sale. 
I do not know what he asked for the old 
relics, but Mr. Hamilton bought them and 
placed them on exhibition in his shop, at the 
theatre, in newspaper offices, and various 
places during the last twenty-five years. 
After fruitless endeavours to communicate 
with the " Keeper of the Keys," I went to St 
Louis in September, 1886, for the express 
purpose of tracing up these antiquities, and 
after a great deal of trouble I found them. 
The owner would not part with the curiosities 
at first, as he had kept them so long, and had 
refused many offers for them ; but eventually 
I arranged to purchase the keys, and brought 
them home with me to Canada. Here they 
are, five in number, the largest looking old 
enough to have been used by Hugues Aubriot, 
the Provost of Paris, who built the Bastille in 
1369. It is nearly twelve inches long and 
very heavy. The smallest is of fine workman- 
ship ; it is made of steel, and the socket is 
shaped like the clover-leaf or fleur de lis. 
This key is supposed to have belonged to the 
treasure-room for Henry IV. of France 
kept his valuables in the Bastille. One of 
the keys has a heavy bevelled head, and is 
six inches in length ; and the other two are 
about ten inches long, and seem to have been 
at one time plated with brass traces of 
which are still to be seen. 

It is said that Aubriot was not only the 
first Governor, but was also the first man to 
be imprisoned in the stronghold ! The place 
was besieged very often. When Charles VII. 
re-took Paris, the English and their allies 
shut themselves up in the Bastille, but capitu- 
lated in 1436 ; and when the Due de Guise 
took it he confined the whole Parliament 
there in 1588. 

That notable subject of controversy and 
mystery of the Court of Paris, " The man in 
the iron mask," was incarcerated here after 
his imprisonment at the He Ste. Marguerite, 
in the Mediterranean. Many writers have 
endeavoured to solve the problem of his 
identity. Some assert that he was the Duke 
of Monmouth, nephew of James II., others 
maintain that he was Count Matthioly j but 
the majority are of the opinion that he was 

o 



i86 



THE KEYS OF THE OLD BASTILLE OF PARIS. 



the " twin-brother of Louis XIV., born two 
hours after the royal infant had received the 
homage and acclamations of the courtiers." 
An heir to the throne of France was hailed 
with the greatest joy. It had been predicted 
by two astrologers several months before 
that France would be torn by dissensions and 
by civil war, caused by the rivalry of two 
claimants to the throne. When the birth of 
the second twin-brother, therefore, was 
announced to Richelieu and to the King, 
the prediction seemed fulfilled. The law of 
France recognises the last-bom twin child as 
the heir. "One of the twin-children had 
already been publicly proclaimed as the 
Dauphin, the heir to the French throne. 
Gloom and dismay seized upon the King's 
mind, which Richelieu sought to dispel by 
arranging that the last-born son could be sent 
away and brought up far from the precincts 
of the Court." He was placed in the hands 
of some faithful person, and when he grew 
up Captain St. Mars took him to the Fort of 
Pignerol. The " iron mask " was fastened 
on his face, and he was condemned to wear 
it day and night, waking or'sleeping, for the 
space of upwards of forty years I It is affirmed 
that his likeness to his mother Anne of 
Austria and to his twin-brother, was so 
manifest that he would at once have been 
recognised. 

The old Marshal Richelieu himself was 
an inmate of the Bastille at one time. 

Louis XI., fiend incarnate, made use of the 
dungeons of the Bastille for some of his most 
horrible deeds of cruelty; and when the 
place was torn down, his oubliettes iron cages 
and " monstrous stone-blocks with padlock 
chains" were unearthed by the workmen, 
and skeletons found walled up were brought 
to light. State secrets and correspondence 
were discovered in the archives and given to 
the winds ; and many a letter reached the 
outside world for the first time. Here is one 
dated at the Bastille, October 7th, 1752 : 

" If for my consolation Monseigneur would 
grant me, for the sake of God and the Most 
Blessed Trinity, that I could have news of 
my dear wife ; were it only her name on a 
card, to show that she was alive, it were the 
greatest consolation I could receive, and I 
should forever bless the greatness of Mon- 
seigneur." 



In one history of the Bastille, the author 
says, in speaking of it when the infamous 
L'Hermit was Governor : 

" Human ingenuity, aided by fiends, never 
invented more terrible places for the torment 
of human beings. . . . He caused the 
victims sent him by the King to be placed 
on a trap-door, through which they fell, strik- 
ing on wheels armed with sharp points and 
cutting edges ; others he stifled by closing up 
all air to their dungeons, or tied stones about 
their necks and made walk into a deep and 
filthy pool he had provided for the purpose. 
. . . There were five ranks of chambers, 
only differing one from the other in its horrors. 
The most dreadful were those known as the 
1 iron cages,' six feet by eight, composed of 
strong wood and lined with iron plates. 
These were invented by Louis XL, who had 
two built at Loches, in which Ludovico, 
Duke of Milan, was confined, and in which 
he ended his days. Louis XII., while Duke 
of Orleans, was also confined in one of these 
iron cages. The second rank of chambers 
for cruelty were in the top of the towers ; in 
these rooms a man could not stand upright, 
and the windows admitting light and air were 
pierced through the ten feet walls, and were 
obstructed by several rows of grates. In 
many cases the outer window-grates were 
covered with cloth and also darkened by 
window-shutters, fixed in such a manner that 
all view was intercepted from the prisoner. 
These in summer were insufferably hot, and 
in winter piercing cold. The dungeons under 
the towers were filled with mud, from which 
exhaled the most offensive odours, and which 
were overrun with toads, newts, rats, and 
spiders." 

It was in these dark and loathsome places 
that the tyrant, Louis XI., imprisoned those 
whom he was desirous of destroying by 
protracted sufferings. Here, in dungeons 
the bottoms of which were covered with sharp 
cones, that their feet might have no resting- 
place nor their bodies any repose, were 
placed the Princes of Armagnac, who were 
taken out twice a week and scourged in the 
presence of the Governor of the Bastille. 
The eldest of the Princes went mad under 
this treatment, and the younger was released 
by the death of Louis. " It was from the 
petition of the Princes, published in 1483, 



THE KEYS OF THE OLD BASTILLE OF PARIS. 



187 



that these dreadful truths were obtained, and 
could not have been believed or imagined 
with a less convincing proof." 

On the 14th July, 1789, a Parisian mob, 
numbering about one hundred thousand, and 
aided by the soldiers of the guard, stormed 
the Bastille. For four hours the conflict 
raged, till at length the garrison, exhausted, 
surrendered. Then followed a scene of 
butchery, many of the defenders being put 
to the sword or hanged ; among whom were 
the Governor and Lieutenant. 

The historian tells us that " De Launay, 
discovered in gray frock with poppy-coloured 
riband, is for killing himself with the sword 
of his cane. He shall to the Hotel-de-ville, 
. . . through roarings and cursings, hustlings, 
clutchings, and at last through strokes ! 
Your escort is hustled aside, felled down. 
Miserable De Launay ! He shall never enter 
the H6tel-de-ville : only his bloody ' hair- 
queue.' The bleeding trunk lies on the steps 
there ; the head is off through the streets ; 
ghastly, aloft on a pike. Rigorous De Launay 
has died ; crying out, ' O friends, kill me 
fast !' Merciful De Losme must die. . . . 
One other officer is massacred ; one other 
Invalide is hanged on the lamp-iron. Provost 
Flesselles, stricken long since with the pale- 
ness of death, must descend from his seat, 
j to be judged at the Palais Royal :' alas, to 
be shot dead, by an unknown hand, at the 
turning of the first street. . . . Along the 
streets of Paris circulate seven Bastille 
prisoners, borne shoulder high ; seven heads 
on pikes ; the Keys of the Bastille and much 
else. . . . O evening sun of July, how, at 
this hour, thy beams fall slant on reapers amid 
peaceful woody fields; on old women 
spinning in cottages ; on ships far out on the 
silent main; on balls at the Orangerie of 
Versailles, where high-rouged Dames of the 
Palace are even now dancing with double- 
jacketed Hussar-officers ; and also on this 
roaring hell-porch of a H6tel-de-ville !" 

That gallant regiment, the Swiss Guard, 
bore the brunt of the Revolution, and was 
finally completely annihilated in 1792. These 
noble soldiers defended the King and the 
royal family in the Palace of the Tuileries, 
against hordes of the maddened furies of 
Paris " of the basest and most degrading 
wretches a great capital hides from the eyes 



of the better inhabitants, but nourishes in 
the darkness till some great convulsion 
exposes the hideous brood to the light of 
day." History records no more striking 
example of loyalty, valour, and self-sacrifice ! 
In the town of Lucerne, in Switzerland, the 
most interesting attraction is the " Lion 
Monument f an immense sculpture carved 
out of the solid rock, 28 feet long and 18 
feet high. It represents a dying lion pierced 
by a spear protecting the shield of the Bour- 
bons ; and commemorates the heroism of 
the illustrious Swiss Guard. 

" A thousand glorious Actions, that might claim 
Triumphant laurels and immortal Fame." 

Nothing remains of the Bastille, the great 
towers and bastions have all disappeared; 
the " ashlar stones " being built into bridges, 
or broken up into paving-stones. In the 
centre of the Place de la Bastille stands the 
Colonne de Juillet, a bronze column, 154 feet 
high, erected in honour of the " heroes " of 
the Revolution of July, 1830. But the 
artisan, passing along the Rue St. Antoine to 
and fro from his work, seldom thinks of the 
grim battlements that once looked down in 
place of this gilded monument a la gloire des 
citoyens. 

La Fayette secured the key of the main 
entrance Porte St. Antoine and sent it to 
General Washington, and it is now to be seen 
at Mount Vernon. 

As the Bastille was an immense building, 
with innumerable cells, corridors and dungeons, 
there must have been a great number of keys 
in use; and very likely there are many in 
existence at the present time, though scattered 
and perhaps unknown. 

The authorities at Paris have already 
collected together twenty-seven of the keys 
of the Bastille, deposited in the " Archives 
Nationales." 

After my letter appeared in the Toronto Mail 
(October 9th,' 1886), I received many com- 
munications from historical and antiquarian 
societies, and from private individuals. 
Amongst the latter were letters from Mrs. E. 
B. Washington, a lady well known in literary 
circles, and a great-grand-niece of General 
Washington. This lady is a member of the 
Mount Vernon Association of the United 
States, representingthe State of West Virginia. 
The tomb and home of Washington are 

o 2 



i88 



OLD STORIED HOUSES. 



owned by this Association, which has for its 
Executive Directors one chosen from each 
State ; and they meet annually to supervise 
and direct the affairs of the Association, and 
see personally that the superintendent and 
employe's at Mount Vernon properly carry 
out their trust. From her acquaintance with 
the key which La Fayette had sent over to 
" his friend and comrade," Mrs. Washington 
expressed a wish to see the keys which I had 
succeeded in obtaining. So I went up to 
London, Ont. where her son is the U.S. 
Consul and took my old treasures with me. 
Mrs. Washington was very much interested 
in them, and said that from the strong likeness 
between my keys and that at Mount Vernon, 
there could be no doubt of their genuineness ; 
time has stamped them alike with the hall- 
mark of age, and the exercise of their employ- 
ment is only too evident in the bent and 
twisted handles. 




HDiD ^torieD ou.se& 



III. Baddesley-Clinton. 

ROM Compton-Wynyates, a walk of 
some ten miles will bring us to a 
railway, by which we can reach the 
ancient moated hall of Baddesley- 
Clinton. Should we go this way we must 
call at the village of Tredington (about five 
miles west of Compton-Wynyates), and its 
hamlet Armscot. Tredington Church is a 
fine old structure of various styles of archi- 
tecture, and we are happy to say it is as yet 
" unrestored," and remarkably picturesque. 
The quaint rood-screen, carved pulpit, and 
pews tumbling and leaning in every direction 
boldly prop one another up, and seem to 
defy restoration. 

The hamlet of Armscot has some very inter- 
esting old stone houses, the Manor House being 
a fine Elizabethan building, with all its charac- 
teristics unimpaired. George Fox held his 
first " precious meetings " in a barn near the 
Manor House, and to this day a meeting of 
the Society of Friends annually takes place 
at the chapel in the village on the first 
Sunday in August. 



In the hall of the Manor House, which 
still retains its ancient fireplace and solid oak 
table and settles so we were informed by 
an old inhabitant was formerly preserved a 
portrait of their founder " Guy Fawkes, the 
first Quaker " ! but this valuable relic has now 
disappeared. In a passage at the top of the 
house is the entrance to a secret chamber, 
which receives light from a small window in 
one of the gables, and in this room George 
Fox is said to have been concealed at the 
time he was persecuted by the County 
Magistrates. 

This old house appears to be very little 
known, and we have been unable to find 
even mention of it in the local histories. 

But we must not linger longer in this 
pretty, quiet corner of Worcestershire, but 
hasten along the old Roman fossway, 
through the villages of Halford and Upper 
Eatington, to a necessary exit the railway 
which, by way of Stratford and Hatton, will 
bring us in a very short time to Kingswood 
Station, only a mile from Baddesley Hall. 

The house lies in a thickly-wooded country, 
on a high table-land, in the very heart of 
England, bounded on the west by the Broad- 
way, Breedon, and Malvern Hills, being locally 
situate some six miles north-west of the 
grand old town of Warwick. Directly we 
leave the station we plunge into delightfully 
shady lanes and woods, and by the time we 
reach the object of our search we have 
almost entirely forgotten the existence of that 
enemy of picturesque scenery the iron 
horse. 

Few houses so thoroughly retain their 
ancient appearance as Baddesley, the ancient 
inheritance of the Ferrers family. It dates 
from the latter part of the fifteenth century, 
and is a singularly well-preserved specimen 
of a moated and fortified manor-house of 
that period. The park in which it stands is 
thickly timbered, and its situation among the 
trees very secluded, lying a considerable 
distance from the high-road. The old house 
forms an enchanting picture, its gray walls 
reflected in the calm waters of the broad 
clear moat by which it is entirely surrounded. 
Formerly the house was surrounded by a 
double moat, but the outer one was filled up 
long ago. Three sides of the building, 
which originally joined a quadrangle, remain. 



OLD STORIED HOUSES. 



189 



A stone bridge across the moat leads to a 
projecting embattled tower, with a wide de- 
pressed archway, showing provision for a 
portcullis, with a large mullioned window 
over it. 

The general appearance of the front 
greatly resembles the well-known old moat- 
house at Ightham, in Kent; and it is, no 
doubt, coeval with it. 

Passing under the archway, and noticing 
the huge door with its primitive fastenings, 
we enter the courtyard, where many curious 
half-timbered gables meet our view. 

On entering the old house, we find the 
interior has escaped the vandalism of modern 
improvement as well as the exterior. Every- 
where are quaint old panelled rooms (not the 
ordinary square panels, but of the elegant 
"linen pattern"), richly-carved chimney-pieces, 
windows retaining their original stained 
heraldic glass, old furniture, tapestry, and 
numerous rare and beautiful paintings by the 
most cultivated of the old masters. 

Passing through an anteroom, the hall is 
entered, containing a handsome and imposing 
Jacobean chimney-piece, executed in white 
free-stone, enclosing in its principal com- 
partment a quartered shield with helm and 
mantling. A deep-recessed window by the 
fireplace looks a most invitingly cosy corner 
for a cold winter's day. 

On the first floor, over the archway, is the 
principal room of the house " the banquet- 
ing-room" with a high-coved ceiling, large 
six-light window, and walls covered with 
antique tapestry. 

Threading our way through numerous 
quaint passages and corridors we reach 
" Lord Charles's room," said to be haunted 
by the figure of a handsome young man, with 
raven-black hair, who, according to tradition, 
shot a girl from jealousy in this room. In 
the dead of night a pistol-shot is sometimes 
heard in this " haunted bedroom," and the 
apparition has been distinctly seen on some 
occasions ! The last time it is said to have 
appeared was when the late Mr. Ferrers' two 
aunts were children, when they both saw the 
shadowy figure of a man issue from one part 
of the room and disappear as mysteriously, 
but giving time for his face to be clearly seen 
and remembered ! 

This is not the only instance of ghostly 



visitors at the old mansion, for a lady in rich 
black brocade is occasionally encountered, 
sometimes in broad daylight, gliding along 
the sombre corridors. The ancient chapel, 
which was set up by Sir Edward Ferrers when 
the little parish church was taken from the 
family at the Reformation, is still preserved 
to its original use, and is beautifully deco- 
rated ; much of the painting |here and else- 
where being the work of the present Mrs. 
Ferrers. 

The dining and drawing rooms are 
panelled in black oak, with carved Jacobean 
fireplaces, antique furniture, and 

Storied windows richly dight, 
Casting a dim religious light ; 

in fact, there is something of antiquarian 
interest to arrest our attention in every nook 
and corner of the ancient edifice. 

Adjoining the chapel, in the most secluded 
part of the house, is a stone well or shaft, where 
a winding staircase formerly led downf to a 
secret passage, built in the thickness of the 
wall, partly under water, and running round 
nearly two sides of the house to a small 
water-gate above the surface of the moat, 
from which one could escape by boat in the 
troublous times when such arrangements 
were necessary. Another sign of the in- 
security prevailing during the penal laws of 
Elizabeth and James is a hiding-hole in the 
roof. This is on the east side of the house, 
adjoining the " banqueting-room," but is 
now inaccessible. It is about six feet square, 
having a narrow bench all round it, and 
though there is no visible staircase leading to 
it now, there are rumours of one running up 
behind the wainscotings, where mysterious 
footsteps have sometimes been heard to 
ascend, possibly those of the aforesaid 
ghostly youth and the "lady in black 
brocade " ! 

In the little church of Baddesley sleep 
twelve generations of the Ferrers, who have 
held the Hall up to the present day from the 
year 15 17, when it came to them by the death 
of Nicholas Brome, whose daughter Constance 
was married to Sir Edward Ferrers. The 
father of this Nicholas was John Brome, to 
whom the Manor descended from the 
Catesbys in the reign of Henry IV. 

Dugdale thus writes concerning him : " I 
find him in Commission for Conservation of 



ioo 



OLD STORIED HOUSES. 



the Peace in this centre, and in 38 Henry VI. 
one of the Commissioners of Array ; how- 
beit, after the beginning of Edward IV.'s 
reign, he was set aside as to any publique 
employment, and at length had the bad fate 
to be slain by John Herthill, steward to 
Richard Nevill, the great Earl of Warwick, 
who, sending for him out of the White 
Friars Church, in London, where he was 
then at Mass, upon some words which 
hapned betwixt them, killed him in the 
Porch, the occasion of their quarrell being 
(in short) this : Herthill, having mortgaged 
the Mannour of Woodlow to this John, 



the before-mentioned John Herthill in Long- 
bridgfield, in his passage towards Barford to 
keep the Earl of Warwick's Court, and there, 
after a short encounter, slew him." 

Henry Ferrers, great - grandson to Sir 
Edward Ferrers, was an eminent antiquary 
and poet. The following curious verse, 
tracing the descent of their old family seat, 
was written by him in the reign of Eliza- 
beth : 

This seat and soyle from Saxon Bade, a man of 

honest fame, 
Who held it i' the Saxon's time, of Baddesley took 

the^name ; 




TJactd^Uv ClmVor^ )A a\\, . 



would have reduced it again for the money 
borrowed ; but Brome, lying upon advantage, 
resolved to keep the land, whereupon, grow- 
ing into height of Words in disputing the 
business, Herthill mortally wounded him. 
Before he departed the world, having time to 
make his will, he used therein this ex- 
pression : That he forgave his son Thomas, 
who smiled when he saw him run through 
by Herthill in the White Friars Church 
porch, in which church he was buried. This 
Nicholas, resenting the death of his father 
very much about three years after, waylayed 



When Edward the Confessor did wear the English 

crown, 
The same was then possessed by* , a man of 

some renown ; 
And England being conquered, in lot it did alyghte, 
To Giffry Wirce, of noble birth, an andegarian knighte; 
A member Hamlet all this while, of Hampton here at 

hand. 
With Hampton's so to Moulbray went as all the 

Wirce's land. 
Now Moulbray lord of all doth part these two, and 

grants this one 
To Bisege, in that name it runs awhile, and then is 

gone 

* Blank in original MS. 



COLONEL ROBERT TLCHBORNE, LORD MAYOR OF LONDON. 191 



To Clynton as his heyre, who leaves it to a younger 

son ; 
And in that time the name of Baddesley Clinton was 

begun. 
From there again by wedding of their heyre, at first 

came 
To Conisby, and after him to Foukes, who weds the 

same. 
From Foukes to Dudley by a sale, and so to Burdet 

past; 
To Mitley next, by Mitley's will it came to Brome at 

last. 
Brome honours much the place, and after some 

descents of Bromes 
To Ferrers, for a daughter's parte of theyr's in match 

it comes. 
In this last name it lasteth still, and so longer shall. 
As God shall please, who is the Lord and King and 

God of all. 

Of the late Marmion Edward Ferrers, who 
died quite recently beloved and lamented by 
all who knew him, head of a family that has 
been noble for nearly a thousand years, 
enough cannot be said in his praise. He 
has truly been described as a perfect, beauti- 
ful type of what the English squire properly 
ought to be, his gentle nobility endearing him 
to all hearts. He was learned in history and 
heraldry, and had a great knowledge of trees 
and forestry. 

There is no flower about the little hall 

That doth not miss him now. There is no sound, 

Of bird's low piping in the woods around, 

That is not now an ever anxious call ; 

He had such gentle, noble pride in all. 

Go where he would, 'twould seem he never found, 

The simplest weed upon his ancient ground, 

But he rejoiced to see it grown so tall. 

He loved the trees, and would as soon have cast 

The little things he prized into his moat, 

As done them wrong. His charity was fast, 

His honour as a rock no force could float. 

When all his woods are growing green o'erhead 

How shall we tell the swallows he is dead ? 

A. Fea. 



Colonel Eofcert Cic&tane, lorn 
e@agor of lontion, 1656=7, 



F the three score and odd gentlemen 
summoned by Oliver Cromwell, in 
^3g4' 1657, to take their seats in his 
House of Lords, or, as the Pro- 
tector called it, "the other House," few, if 
any, of their number could boast of more 
ancient lineage, or blood more blue, than the 



Lord Tichborne. Notwithstanding the high 
posts he filled under the Parliament, and his 
notable services to the two Protectors, he 
has left fewer memoirs behind him than 
many of those ephemeral peers, who, had 
they applied to the College of Arms for 
armorial bearings, might justly have had this 
simple coat, with variations for difference, 
granted to them, Vert, a mushroom proper, 
with the speaking motto : " What were you 
yesterday ?" 

Robert Tichborne, eldest son of Robert Tich- 
borne, of the "Skinners' Company," by Joanna 
Banks, his wife, was born in London about 
16 15. His grandfather was John Tichborne, 
of Cowden, Kent, who had a direct descent 
from that doughty knight Sir Roger Tich- 
borne, of Tichborne, Hants, who flourished 
in the reign of Henry II. Among the 
Harleian MSS. (5800, folio 49) is an 
elaborate pedigree, written in 1658, beginning 
with the above Sir Roger, and ending with 
" the Lord Robert Tichborne." 

The father of the subject of this biography 
had been left guardian of his wife's niece, 
Anne Banks, who was married at an early 
age, on July 5, 163 1, to Edmund Waller, the 
poet. As is well known, Waller's mother 
was sister of John Hampden, the patriot, 
and it is not unnatural to suppose that the 
younger Robert Tichborne became ac- 
quainted, at an impressionable age, with his 
cousin's new uncle, and imbibed some of 
that great reformer's ideas and views on the 
subject of freedom. 

Brought up to his father's business, which 
in those early times was a very lucrative one, 
the Hudson Bay Company not being in 
existence, young Tichborne ranked high 
among the City merchants atthe outbreak of 
the Civil War. It was not, however, until 
after the passing of Cromwell's " Self-Deny- 
ing Ordinance," in April, 1645, when the 
Parliamentary Army was remodelled, that 
Tichborne applied for and obtained a 
captain's commission in that army. His 
name does not figure in any of the Civil War 
army lists still extant, but from a satirical 
tract entitled Good Ale Monopolized, printed 
in 1654, it appears he served in "the army 
of the west," and that he distinguished 
himself is abundantly proved by his speedy 
promotion to a colonelcy. When Fairfax 



192 COLONEL ROBERT TICHBORNE, LORD MAYOR OF LONDON. 



marched upon London and took possession 
of the Tower, August 9, 1647, he, by virtue 
of his appointment as Constable of that im- 
portant fortress, was empowered to nominate 
an officer to the Lieutenancy of the Tower. 
In the presence of his Life Guards, and 
Colonel Pride's Regiment, Fairfax appointed 
Colonel Tichborne to this responsible post. 
This selection appears to have been dis- 
pleasing to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, 
who had petitioned the General in favour of 
Colonel West, the late Lieutenant ; but the 
all-powerful Constable informed these civic 
dignitaries that " he had appointed a gentle- 
man of approved worth and fidelity dwelling 
among them." Destined for still higher 
appointments, Colonel Tichborne did not 
retain his new post for many months ; but 
during his command at the Tower he had 
several notable prisoners under his care. 
One of the most important was Thomas 
Wentworth, Earl of Cleveland, a very zealous 
supporter of the Royal cause, who suffered a 
long imprisonment, but, more fortunate than 
his cousin, the Earl of Strafford, lived to see 
happier days. Tichborne may be said to 
have risen with Cromwell, who seems to 
have held the protege of Fairfax in high 
regard. Indeed, he was one of Cromwell's 
" saints," and Whitelocke records in his 
official journal, under date of December 24, 
1647, that at a council of war "Cromwell, 
Ireton, and Tichborne prayed, and from 
Scripture exhorted to Unity and Obedience to 
commands." 

The active part which Tichborne took in 
his Sovereign's trial is well known. " He 
was," says Noble, in his short notice of 
Tichborne's career, M one of the greatest 
advocates for the destruction of Charles I., 
presenting a petition from the Council of 
London for his trial ; was a Commissioner of 
the High Court of Justice, gave judgment, 
and signed the warrant for execution." It 
was in this red-letter year, 1649, triat Colonel 
Tichborne published two religious works, 
which were widely read. One was called 
A Cluster of Canaan Grapes, dedicated to 
Lord Fairfax, the other, The Rest of Faith ; 
both were of that enthusiastic and mystical 
style which characterise the [religious works 
of that period, of which Sir Harry Vane's 
book, The Retired Mans Meditation, which 



was too deep for even the mighty intellect of 
the great Lord Clarendon, is a good 
example. 

Notwithstanding the press of public busi- 
ness, which now began to weigh heavily on 
Robert Tichborne's shoulders, he found 
time to attend to his City trade, and thereby 
largely increased his fortune. Civic honours 
were heaped upon him. He had not long 
held the " preferment " of Alderman, before 
he was elected, in 1650, Sheriff of the City of 
London. These peaceful duties did not 
lessen the ci-devant Colonel's military ardour, 
for we find him, in this year (1650), raising a 
regiment of " London Volunteers," and in 
1 65 1 the three newly raised regiments, com- 
manded by Harrison, Skippon, and Tich- 
borne, duly armed and equipped from the 
Tower armoury, formed part of the City 
garrison. Among some of Tichborne's mul- 
tifarious appointments at this time, we may 
mention the following : Councillor of State ; 
Commissioner of Militia for the City of 
London ; Commissioner of Trade ; Com- 
missioner of Customs ; Commissioner for 
securing peace in the City of London and in 
the County of Surrey. In October, 1651, 
the Council of State sent St. John, Lambert, 
Deane, Monk, and Tichborne as Com- 
missioners to Scotland. They were sent 
there to treat with the people for establishing 
peace in the country. The Commissioners 
went to Dalkeith, and a committee of the 
Edinburgh citizens visited them, and re- 
quested the restoration of their magistracy. 
This request was acceded to, and a new 
charter granted. It appears from a docu- 
ment in the State Paper Office, that during 
his residence in Scotland, Tichborne's head- 
quarters were at Dalkeith Palace. When the 
furniture and effects in that sumptuous 
building were ordered to be sold, in the 
autumn of 1653, an order was issued by the 
Council of State respiting from sale the con- 
tents of " Colonel Tichborne's room." As a 
proof of Tichborne's influence with the 
" ruling powers," it may be mentioned that 
on his return from Scotland, in the spring of 
1652, he obtained for his brother-in-law, 
George Smith, of Gray's Inn, the post of 
Judge in Scotland, which post Judge Smith 
held until his death on circuit in Inverness- 
shire, September, 1658. 



COLONEL ROBERT TLCHBORNE, LORD MAYOR OF LONDON. 193 



When the Long Parliament was summarily 
"turned out of doors," in 1653, by the 
dictator of the three kingdoms, Colonel 
Alderman Tichborne was one of the members 
of the committee then appointed. He was 
elected one of the members for London of 
that Parliament which gave Cromwell the 
Protectorship. On December 15, 1655, 
Tichborne was knighted by the Protector. 
In the autumn of the following year he was 
elected Lord Mayor of London, and took 
the oaths of office, at Westminster, on 
October 29, 1656. The Lord Mayor's 
" show " on this occasion, which was 
" graced " by the presence of his Highness the 
Protector, excelled in pageantry and quaint 
conceits many shows in the days of royalty, 
both before and since. In the British Museum 
Library is a scarce tract entitled London's 
Triumph, or the Solemn and Magnificent Re- 
ception of that Honourable Gentleman, Robert 
Tichborn, L.ord Maior, after his return from 
taking his Oath at Westminster, October 29, 
1656. The following extract is worth repro- 
ducing : 

" When he was come right against the Old 
Change a Pageant seem'd to meet him. On 
the Pageant stood 2 leopards, bestrid by 
2 Moors, attir'd in the habit of their country; 
at the 4 corners satt 4 Virgins, arraid in cloth 
of silver, with their hair dishevelled, and 
coronets on their heads. This seem'd to be 
the Emblem of a City, pensive and forlorn 
for want of a zealous governor; the Moors 
and leopards, like evil customs, tyrannizing 
over the weak Virginitie of undefended Virtue. 
In the forepart of the Pageant an aged man, 
in black garb, with dolorous face, seem'd to 
bewail the condition of his Native City." 
It is needless to say that at the approach of 
the Lord Mayor the aged mourner cast aside 
his weeds and hailed him, in verses more 
flattering than poetic, as the u zealous gover- 
nor," whose strong right arm the City needed 
to defend her rights. In 1657, the Lord 
Mayor was appointed one of the "General 
Council of Officers ;" and on 9th of December, 
this year, was summoned by writ to take his 
seat in Cromwell's "Other House," on the 
meeting of Parliament in the following 
January. "The Lord Tichborne" obeyed 
his writ of summons, and took his seat in 
Domum Superiorem. We are told by Mr. 



Noble that the Lord Tichborne was so at- 
tached to the Cromwell interest, that "he 
proposed restoring Richard to the sovereign 
power." This, however, was not to be. 
Richard was hoisted out of his insecure seat 
by the giants Lambert and Desborough, and 
" the single Person," as Richard was styled, 
quietly retired from the political arena. The 
Long Parliament, or what remained of it, was 
restored. But Lambert and the "military 
sovereigns" of his faction could not brook 
the curb put on their actions by the " Rump " 
Parliament. On October 23rd, Parliament 
was expelled by Lambert and his officers. 
A committee of twenty-three persons, of 
whom Robert Tichborne was a prominent 
figure, seized the reins of Government, under 
the reassuring designation of a " Committee 
of Safety." Tichborne had now, as one of 
the principal dictators of the three kingdoms, 
reached a giddy height, which few of his 
friends could ever have foreseen. But the 
tide of his fortune suddenly turned, and he 
shared the fate of his ambitious compeer 
General Lambert. 

Monk's " Council of State " sent Robert 
Tichborne and John Ireton who were con- 
sidered dangerous from their firm adherence 
to the " Good Old Cause "to the Tower, 
on 2 1 st April, 1660. After the Restoration, 
the late King's judges, who had been ex- 
cluded from the Act of Indemnity, were 
attainted of high treason, and all their pro- 
perty confiscated. When put on his trial, 
Tichborne acknowledged his activity in the 
King's death, and that he signed the warrant 
for his execution. "But," said he, "had I 
known then what I do now, I would have 
chosen a red-hot oven to have gone into as 
soon as that meeting. I was led into the 
fact for want of years, and I beg that your 
lordships will be instrumental to the King 
and Parliament on my behalf." Mr. Noble 
says this contrition saved his life ; but from 
the following passage in a letter from Stephen 
Charlton to Sir R. Leveson, dated 13th No- 
vember, 1660, it appears that Tichborne 
owed his life to the exertions of the Lieu- 
tenant of the Tower and a London vintner, 
whose lives the ex-Lord Mayor had once 
saved : 

"Yesterday it was expected Martin, Roe, 
Titchborn, and Lilburn would have been 



194 COLONEL ROBERT TLCHBORNE, LORD MAYOR OF LONDON. 



executed, but it seems the Lieutenant of the 
Tower [Sir John Robinson] and the Vintner 
of the Castle, in Cornhill, have procured of 
his Majesty to have the execution deferred 
for some time, for Titchborn's sake, for 
Titchborn absolutely saved the Vintner from 
the gallows, and likewise the Lieutenant of 
the Tower, as they say."* 

Lady Capel and the relatives of those 
royalist martyrs, whose death - warrants 
had been signed by the regicides, were 
importunate petitioners to Charles II. for 
the immediate execution of these regi- 
cides. In Tichborne's case, however, 
they were not successful. His property, 
which consisted of the "Old Court Manor 
House," at Greenwich, the " Hobby Stables" 
of Greenwich Palace, a house in Noble Street, 
London, and a house at Mortlake, Surrey, 
were all confiscated. In March, 1661, a 
grant was made to Sir Henry Littleton, Bart., 
of the moneys and East India stock invested 
in the name of Robert Tichborne. Nor did 
the ex- Lord Mayor's misfortunes end here. 
He was sent from one prison to another. 
The cynicism of fate decreed that he should 
be a prisoner in that fortress of which he 
had once been deputy-governor. Satirical 
lampoons and tracts were published in the 
Metropolis, to do him dishonour, by men 
who better deserved imprisonment than the 
caged lion they pelted with mud. Of these 
" broadsides " one is thus headed : "Brethren 
in Lniquity, being a supposed dialogue be- 
tween Tichborne and Ireton (both ex-Lord 
Mayors) in the Tower of London." Another 
tract, still " broader," is styled : The Pre- 
tended Saint and a prophane Libertine well 
met in Prison ; or, a Dialogue betweeji Robert 
Tichborne and Henry Martin, Chamber Eel- 
lowes in Newgate, printed in January, 1661. 

In 1662, two notable State prisoners were 
sent to remote island prisons. General Lam- 
bert was taken to Guernsey, and Colonel 
Tichborne to Holy Island. The genial cli- 
mate of Guernsey was very beneficial to 
Lambert's health, but the chilly atmosphere 
of the little northern island, coupled with the 
perennial dampness of the prison in which 
he was incarcerated, soon laid Tichborne 
low on a bed of sickness. From this bed he 

* From an original letter in the possession of the 
Duke of Sutherland. 



might never have risen again, had it not been 
for the importunity of 

The best of mothers, friends, and wives, 
who sent petition after petition to the King 
on behalf of the unhappy prisoner. This 
petitioner was Anne Tichborne (daughter of 
William Johnson, of Norwich), the ex-Lord 
Mayor's loving wife. The first petition to be 
found in the State Paper Office is dated 
January, 1663. It is a request from the wife 
that she may send a servant to her husband, 
who is lame and infirm. This prayer was 
granted. The next petition, dated from East 
Sheen, 6th October, 1663, prayed that her 
husband might be removed from Holy Island, 
having been dangerously ill. Months elapsed, 
and the prisoner remained where he was. 
But the wife's importunity triumphed at last, 
and the King issued a warrant for the re- 
moval of Robert Tichborne, State prisoner, 
to Dover Castle. Once more did this brave 
woman petition the Sovereign, and to good 
effect. On 21st May, 1664, a warrant was 
issued to Captain John Strode, Lieutenant of 
Dover Castle, "to permit Anne Tichborne, 
with two children and maidservant, to see 
her husband, Robert Tichborne ; and, if she 
please, to remain shut up with him in prison." 
She did so please, and his last years were 
brightened by her love. 

C. Dalton. 



OErercitmm super IPater jRoster. 

By Prof. W. M. Conway. 



Part I. 




HE Exercitium super Pater Noster is 
one of the most important books 
in relation to the history of print- 
ing and wood-engraving. Not 
only is it a very remarkable specimen of the 
wood-cutter's art in its early days, but we are 
fortunately enabled, as shall hereafter be 
shown, to fix a very close approximation to 
the date at which it was originally issued. 

Only two copies of this Exercitium super 
Pater Noster are at present known to exist ; 
and neither of these is perfect. The first is 
preserved in the Municipal Library at Mons 



EXERC1TIUM SUPER PATER NOSTER. 



195 



in Belgium ; unfortunately, however, it wants 
the last two leaves. The National Library 
at Paris possesses a manuscript on the pages 
of which are pasted a complete set of prints 
from a cut-up copy of the same edition of 
the Exercitium. 

Before proceeding to a discussion of the 
origin and date of the book, we shall do 
well to make a somewhat minute examina- 
tion of the original volume itself. It consists 
of ten leaves printed only on one side, the 
recto of the first leaf, the verso of the second, 
and so on, being blank. Each leaf bears an 
impression from a single block of wood. At 
the top of each print, with the exception of 
the first, is a sentence in Latin taken from 
the Lord's Prayer. This sentence is followed 
by four lines of Latin text stating three 
points specially noteworthy in connection 
with it. At the foot of each page are three 
couplets of Flemish verse, the general 
tendency of which is the same as that of the 
Latin sentences above. The centre and 
main body of the page is occupied by an 
illustrative outline representing such incidents 
or symbolic figures as may be suitable to 
enforce the meaning of the writer of the 
short commentary above. In every one of 
these illustrations the same two figures occur, 
and may readily be identified by their names 
printed on some part of their garments 
the one is Oratio, the Angel of Prayer ; the 
other Prater, the Brother who is author of 
the book. 

1. At the head of the first printed page is 
the title of the book Exercitium super 
Pater Noster. You are then bidden to 
observe that three things are necessary for 
prayer: to wit, Spiritual Liberty, which is 
symbolized (in the woodcut below) by wings ; 
Purity of Heart, symbolized by white robes ; 
and an Undistracted Mind (attencionis 
actualitas), symbolized by the little shield 
(dicticam) which the Angel of Prayer wears on 
his arm. The illustration accordingly shows 
us the Brother, the author of the book, 
seated on a mound of earth thrown up for a 
seat before his convent door. A volume 
lies open on his lap ; his head is upturned and 
his hand raised ; the words he utters are 
written on a scroll before him Domine doce 
me orare. As he speaks the Angel of Prayer 
alights before him, with hands in the attitude 



of explanation, and makes answer to his 
request, saying, Veni docebo te pater noster. 
The convent is situated in a forest by the 
side of a running stream. Bulrushes grow 
by the banks and swans swim in the waters, 
a slight wooden bridge gives access to the 
opposite shore. Thus the Friars have water 
to drink and fish to eat, and, if further they 
want game, are there not stags in the sur- 
rounding forest ? 

2. Pater noster qui es is the first sentence 
that the Angel has to expound. And here 
you are bidden to observe, firstly, that when 
you say " Father," it implies that you are as 
a child in the presence of its father; and 
secondly, that when you say " Our," a hear- 
ing will be granted you on account of Christ 
your brother; and thirdly, that when you 
say " Who art," the goodwill of God is 
attracted towards you because of the dignity 
of that title which is proper to Him from all 
eternity. Accordingly the Angel reveals the 
Most High seated on His throne in a noble 
church ; on His head is a triple crown, and in 
one hand is the orb of universal dominion, 
whilst the other is raised to bless. Christ is 
seen kneeling at His feet and saying, Pater 
sancte pro eis rogo ; and the answer comes, 
Petite et accipietis. 

3. In celis sanctificetur nomen tuum. The 
commentary on this sentence is an excellent 
specimen of mediaeval productions of the 
kind. It runs as follows : Hie nota in celo 
tres sanctorum affeccio?ies. Primo beate marie 
ad nupciarum celebracionem. Secundo angel- 
orum ad iherusalem perfectam consumma- 
cionem, Tercio animarum ad corporum glori- 
ficam unionem, etc. What the exact connec- 
tion between these three points and the text 
may be, is not easy to make plain. The 
illustration shows us the Most High once 
more seated on His throne, with the orb in 
His left hand, and His right hand raised to 
bless. At the foot of the dais, the Virgin 
kneels in an attitude of prayer. On the right 
hand are three angels, one of whom seems to 
have a trowel in his hand, perhaps for the 
building of the new Jerusalem. A soul, 
under the common type of a naked woman, 
stands on the extreme left, cup in hand ; she 
is again introduced standing by the side of 
the throne clothed in her heavenly raiment 
and with a crown of glory in her hand. All 



196 



EXERC1TIUM SUPER PATER NOSTER. 



present are crying, Sanctus, Sanctus, 
Sanctus. The Most High makes answer : 
Adhuc sustinete modicum tempus donee 
impleatur Humerus fratrum vestrorum. 

4. Adveniat regnum tuum to which the 
commentator adds, captivis in purgatorio 
liberatis, and thereupon he takes occasion to 
point out the three pains of the souls there 
confined. The illustration is divided into 
two parts. In the foreground is the hopeless 
Lake of Fire to which Jews, Pagans, and 
wicked Christians are confined. In the 
background is the flaming city, with walls 
and towers, representing Purgatory. Two 
souls are seen within it ; towards one of them 
an angel flies with a basket ; a third soul has 
recently been rescued, and is borne through 
the air towards God, who appears amongst 
clouds above. "Frater" and "Oratio" kneel 
by the bank of the Lake of Fire. 

5. Fiat voluntas tua sicut in celo et in 
terra.* There are, says the commentator, 
three degrees of error amongst men. The 
worst are the Infidels, next to these come 
Wicked Christians, best are the Good 
Christians, who, nevertheless, have imperfect 
wills ; but in heaven the wills of all are per- 
fect and upright, wherefore you are bidden 
to pray in the words of the text. 

In the foreground of the illustration, Jews 
and Pagans are depicted dashing the sacred 
chalice to pieces on the ground. Two 
Christians in the centre merely invert their 
chalices, preferring, as they say, to pass their 
days in pleasure. In the background is a 
single good Christian with his cup. He 
says, Gracia dei sum id quod sum, and an 
angel standing by c warns him that stands to 
'take heed lest he fall." "Frater" and 
" Oratio " kneel as^before, and the Almighty 
appears in the sky. 

6. Panem nostrum cotidianum da nobis 
hodie. The kinds of bread necessary to him 
who would do the will of God are three. 
The first is the Bread of Nature, the second 
the Bread of Grace, the third the Bread of 
Glory. The illustration shows us a table 
spread with the three loaves, where Charity 
sits sceptre in hand and a crown on her 
head. At the same table three men are 

* A bad reproduction of this print was published 
by Sotheby in his Origines, and copied by Holtrop in 
his Monumens typographiques. 



seated. " Good is the bread of nature," says 
the first ; " better is the bread of grace," says 
the second ; " best is the bread of glory," 
says the third, who, it may be observed, is 
a monk. An armed figure representing the 
Fear of God stands in front on the right ; on 
his scroll is written, Time?itibus domini nichil 
deest. The scroll over the head of Charity 
bears the words, Venite filii audite me iimorem 
domini docebo vos. 

7. Et dimitte nobis debit a nostra sicut et 
nos, etc. There are, says the commentator, 
three kinds of sins to wit, sins of commis- 
sion, sins of omission, and sins of remission. 
On the left of the woodcut that follows, 
Christ is seen as the Redeemer standing 
above the altar in a church ; pointing to His 
wounded side He says, Haitrite de fonte 
sanguinis mei. In the foreground is this 
" Fountain of the Blood of Christ," and here 
three men are in the act of filling their cups. 
On the right are three more men kneeling, 
and over each of them is written the name 
of his sin. In the background the figure of 
Charity with her cup occurs twice; in the 
first instance she is standing by the altar of 
Christ, and says : Exemplum dedi vobis ut ita 

facialis ; in the second she is walking along 
followed by Piety with her two little ewers. 
The scroll over the head of Piety bears the 
words, Eadem mensura qua mensi, etc. The 
Angel and Brother kneel as usual in the 
foreground. 

8. Et tie nos inducas in temptacionem. 
There are, says the commentator, three kinds 
of temptations. The first is of the Devil by 
Vanity and Pride; the second is of the 
world by Curiosity and Avarice ; the third is 
of the Flesh by Pleasure and Luxury. Ac- 
cordingly he represents a man named Diso- 
bedience seated at table with Pride, Gluttony, 
and Avarice. The first offers him a crown 
of roses ; the second bids him eat and drink 
" for to-morrow we die ;" the third shows him 
a bag of money, but just at this moment the 
lean figure of Death comes behind him and, 
laying his hand on his shoulder, bids him 
give account of his stewardship. He can 
Oily reply, Irruerunt in me fortes, before his 
soul is snatched from the body and borne off 
by a devil, who exclaims, Non evades manus 
meas. 

9. Sed libera nos a malo, Under this 



EXERCITIUM SUPER PATER NOSTER. 



197 



heading the reader is bidden to consider the 
three evils of lost souls. They are separated 
from God, afflicted by an evil conscience, and 
grievously tormented with pain (exterius 
sensibiliter crucian). As an example of these 
three evils the artist represents the lost soul of 
Disobedience led with chained hands by two 
demons to Satan, where he stands on the 
drawbridge of Hell. The unfortunate man 
is also attended by Evil Conscience in the 
form of an old woman with a serpent in her 
hand (uoluil intelligere ut bene ageret). On 
the right hand of the cut are the souls in 
torment, some floating on the fiery lake ; a 
number of clergy, including a Pope, a Cardi- 
nal, a Bishop, and so forth, plunged into an 
especially hot caldron; lastly, a few under- 
going tortures of various kinds. At the top 
are two devils with a caldron on wheels, in 
which they are transporting their victims ; 
overhead is the word affer four times re- 
peated. 

10. Amen. At once, as a contrast to the 
preceding page, and as fit conclusion to the 
volume, the reader is bidden to consider the 
threefold joys of the blest. They are ever 
in the presence of God ; they possess a good 
conscience, and they rejoice with the saints 
in everlasting glory. The illustration repre- 
sents the obedient man followed by Good 
Conscience with a lily in her hand, and led 
by an angel to where Christ stands at the 
gate of Paradise. The angel says : Hie est 
verus israhelita in quo dolus non est, and 
Christ replies, as He takes the soul by the 
hand : Veni benedicte patris mei et dabo tibi 
coronam glorie. Angels kneel by the gate, 
others stand above it blowing their trumpets, 
others again come flying towards it bearing 
the souls of the blessed in their arms. On 
the right we are allowed to see within the 
walls of the heavenly palace. In one room a 
man is playing an organ ; in another are a 
body of ecclesiastics apparently awaiting 
with eagerness the entry of the soul that is 
just arriving. 

The style of the artist who cut on the 
wood the designs for these ten printed pages, 
possesses a very marked individuality. He 
works, firstly, in almost pure outline ; the 
shaded spaces that he introduces are of quite 
subordinate importance. It is upon his out- 
lines that he depends for intelligibility and 



effect. This insistance upon outlines 
characterizes all the block-books, and indeed 
all the productions of the early wood-cutters 
down to the commencement of the sixteenth 
century. The prints were meant to be 
coloured ; the outlines were only to guide the 
hand of the painter. He was to cover the 
prints with spaces of flat colour, effects of 
light and shade being rudely rendered by the 
rough shade-hatchings here and there intro- 
duced. A carefully coloured copy of a book 
of this kind is by no means wanting in 
charm. Of the Biblia Pauperum, Ars 
Moriendi, and other block-books, many such 
copies have come down to us, and from them 
we may judge what a coloured Exercitium 
would have been like. Wood-engraving did 
not acquire complete power of expression in 
mere black and white till it had received the 
impress of Diirer's genius, and the first 
example of a wholly perfect work of art of the 
kind was that artist's Apocalypse, published by 
him at Nuremberg in 1497. Up to that date 
woodcutting borrowed its laws from engrav- 
ing on copper, and consisted in the carving of 
pure outlines. 

As an example of really good work of this 
kind it would be hard to point out a more 
perfect specimen than this Exercitium. 
Look, for instance, at the first page of the 
volume; the perspective of the buildings is 
of course very feeble, but with that exception 
the design is really excellent, and the artist's 
intention is perfectly evident. The easy 
attitude of the seated Friar, the drapery so 
thoroughly in harmony with the position of 
the limbs, one hand quietly holding the 
book, the other gently raised ; the motion of 
the head, too, and the mild, softly smiling 
and yet really characteristic and portrait-like 
face all these points and as many more may 
at once be noted as by all means deserving of 
high praise. In the drawing of gentle faces 
and restful postures the artist is usually very 
successful. His little women with their pointed 
chins, small mouths, broad foreheads and 
flowing hair are often quite charming the 
robed soul, for instance, on page 3, or Charity 
on page 6. 

Moreover, having to carve his block into 
outlines, the wood-cutter does not as so 
many of his immediate followers used to do 
hurry over them and produce merely some 



198 



EXERCITIUM SUPER PATER NOSTER. 



rude sort of approximation to the lines he 
desires to have on his prints ; but he goes 
patiently to work and cuts his ridges cleanly 
and evenly, without rough or hacked edges 
and without meaningless bulgings and 
thinnings away. His lines maintain a con- 
stant thickness ; furthermore they often 
possess a very subtle curvature. As an 
example of this it will be sufficient to point 
to the outline of the left branch of the tree 
over the Friar's head in the first cut ; notice 
how gracefully and truly it curves away from 
its neighbour and then breaks out into its 
own twigs and leaves a better tree than this 
will not be found in any engraving for a very 
considerable number of years indeed. 

Another good feature of this work is the 
beautiful way in which curling hair is handled. 
In this respect the head of the Angel of 
Prayer is always charming, with the smooth 
glossy covering of its crown, and then the 
strong wave that bends back and breaks into 
a foam of curls about the neck. 

A very marked feature in the execution of 
the cuts is the frequent employment of long 
pointed lines placed closely side by side to 
shade large spaces, especially as a sort of 
relieving shadow to detach the figures from 
the ground. These spaces of shade are 
moreover unpleasantly flat, and constitute the 
greatest faults of the cuts ; they spoil the 
general effect, and add nothing to the mean- 
ing. The first cut contains fewer examples 
of them than those that follow not the only 
feature in which it stands in advance of the 
rest. 

The artist, in the designing of most of his 
figures, shows comparatively little imaginative 
power ; but there is one class of beings for the 
creating of which he has a quite extraordinary 
facility. These are the Devils. The figure 
of Death in the eighth cut is comparatively 
feeble you must go half a century later 
to look for a really tragic or comic Death 
but the Devil above him is devillish enough. 
Turn over, however, to the next page, and 
there you have a remarkable variety male 
and female, clawed and hoofed, always with 
just the appendage at any particular point 
that you would not have expected. Further, 
it is quite plain that if the artist had wished 
he could have gone on drawing devils for 
ever without repeating himself ; his head was 



full of them ; his imagination ran riot in that 
particular direction ; his mind turned thither 
as naturally as Fra Angelico's towards angels. 
This is an exceedingly characteristic feature, 
not of the Fleming only, but of his day ; the 
reader will find it quite worth his while to 
follow out the matter further. 
(To be continued.) 



Life in JLonHon rDinaries, 1612. 




HE old drama contains many 
allusions to life in London ordi- 
naries in the early part of the 
seventeenth century. Thus in 
Massinger's The City Madam we have : 

Didst thou know 
What ravishing lechery it is to enter 
An ordinary, cap-a-pie, trimmed like a gallant, 
The reverence, respect, the crouches, cringes, 
The unusual chime of gold in your crammed 

pockets 
Commands from the attendants and poor porters. 
. . . Then sitting at the table with 
The braveries of the kingdom, you shall hear 
Occurrents from all corners of the world, 
The plots, the counsels, the designs of princes, 
And freely censure them ; the city wits 
Cried up, or decried, as their passions lead them. 
My Lord no sooner shall rise out of his chair, 
The gaming lord, I mean, but you may boldly 
By the privilege of a gamester fill his room, 
For in play you are all fellows ; have your knife 
As soon in the pheasant ; drink your health as freely. 

This description is perhaps the fullest 
afforded by the drama, but references to life 
at the ordinaries are very frequent. To 
ascertain what this life was, we may turn to 
Dekker's well-known O per se O, or a new 
Cryer of Lanthorne and Candlelight, 1612, 
where a chapter is devoted to " How Gentle- 
men are cheated at ordinaries." The author 
describes the devil's footman arriving in 
London, and " no sooner was hee entred 
the citie, but he met with one of his 
maister's daughters called Pride, drest like 
a marchant's wife, who, taking acquain- 
tance of him and understanding for what 
he came, tolde him that the first thing 
hee was to doe hee must put himselfe in 
good cloathes such as were sutable to the 
fashion of the time, for that here men were 



LIFE IN LONDON ORDINARIES, 1612. 



199 



look'd upon onely for their outsides ; he that 
hath not ten-pounds worth of wares in his 
shop would carry twentie markes on his backe : 
that there were a number of sumpter-horses 
in the citie who cared not how coursely 
they fed so they might were (sic) gay trap- 
pings : yea, that some pied fooles to put on 
satin and velvet but foure daies in the yeare 
did often-times undoe themselves, wiues and 
children ever after. . . . Therefore into Burchin 
Lane hee stalkes verie mannerly, Pride 
going along with him and taking the vpper 
hand. No sooner was hee entred into the 
rankes of the Linnen Armorers, than hee was 
most terribly and sharpely set upon, euerie 
prentice boy had a pull at him, hee feared they 
all had been serieants, because they all had 
him by the backe ... no strength could 
shake them off, but that they must shew him 
some suites of apparell, because they saw 
what Gentlewoman was in his company whom 
they all knew. Seeing no remedie into a 
shop he goes, was fitted brauely, and beating 
the price found the lowest to be unreasonable, 
yet paide it and departed. 

" The traueller being thus transported into 
an accomplished gallant, with all acoutre- 
ments belonging (as a fether for his head, 
gilt rapier for his sides, new boote to hide 
his polt foote, for in Bedlam he met with a 
shoemaker, a mad slave that knew the length 
of his last), it rested onely that now he was 
to enter upon company sutable to his cloathes, 
and knowing that your most selected gallants 
are the onely tablemen that are plaid with all 
at ordinaries, into an ordinary did he most 
gentleman like conuay himselfe in state." 

"It seemed that all who came thither had 
clocks in their bellies, for they all struckeinto 
the dyning-roome much at aboute the very 
minute of feeding. Our traveller had all the 
eyes (that came in) throwne upon him (as 
being a stranger), and he as much tooke 
especiall notice of them. In obseruing of 
whom and of the place, he found that an 
ordinary was the onely Rendeuouz for the 
most ingenious, most terse, most trauaild and 
most phantastick gallant : the very Exchange 
for newes out of all countries ; the only 
booke-sellers shop for conference of the best 
editions, that if a woman (to be a Lady) 
would cast away herselfe upon a knight, there 
a man should heare a catalogue of most of 



the richest London widowes ; and last that 
it was a schoole where they were all fellowes of 
one forme, and that a country gentleman was 
of as great comming as the proudest justice 
that sat there on the bench aboue him ; for 
hee that had the graine of the table with his 
bencher payd no more then he that placed 
himselfe beneath the salt. 

" The bolder hauing cleered the table, 
cardes and dice are served up to the boord ; 
they that are full of coyne draw ; they that 
haue little stand by and give ayme ; the shuffle 
and cut on one side, the bones rattle on the 
other; long have they not plaide, but oathes 
fly up and downe the roome like haile-shot ; if 
the poore dumb dice be but a little out of 
the square, the pox and a thousand plagues 
breake their neckes out at window." 

James F. Allan. 



CoucH^C&ateau. 

By F. R. McClintock, B.A., Author of 
"Holidays in Spain." 



ISITORS to the old French town of 
Compiegne rarely leave that plea- 
sant and much-frequented summer 
resort without making the excursion 
to the splendid castle of Pierrefonds, situated 
on the farther side of the forest, at about 
eight miles or so distance. In this they 
doubtless do well, for the castle, restored by 
the late M. Viollet-le-Duc, is unquestionably 
a noble monument, and its position in the 
midst of charming surroundings is exceed- 
ingly striking. Besides, the drive there and 
back through the forest is an additional 
source of delight. 

But these same visitors in too many cases, 
neglect to perform the still more interesting 
pilgrimage to another and even a grander 
specimen of a mediaeval residential fortress, 
which is also easily reached from Compiegne. 
We mean the famous stronghold of Coucy-le- 
Chateau, " the beau-ideal, in extent, arrange- 
ment, and picturesqueness, of a feudal castle, 
and perhaps the finest in France," as our 
guide-book is careful to inform us. 

The claims of Pierrefonds to attention on 
the part of all students of history and archaeo- 




200 



CO UC Y-LE- CHA TEA U. 



logy are unquestionably of a very high order ; 
but we venture to think that those of Coucy- 
le-Chateau rank higher still. For, first, 
unlike Pierrefonds, it has not been restored, 
but has only been repaired, and protected 
from further decay by the French Govern- 
ment under the fostering superintendence of 
M. Viollet-le-Duc. Secondly, it is at least a 
century older than Pierrefonds. Thirdly, 
although not so elaborately planned and con- 
structed as that fortress, it is even more solid, 
massive, and imposing. And lastly, it is 
intimately associated with the powerful family 
of the Sires de Coucy; one member of which 
assumed the title of Sire de Coucy " By the 
grace of God ;" another disputed the ducal 
coronet of Austria with the successors of 
Frederick III. ; while a third, who had 
adopted the proud motto, 

Roi ne suis, 

Ne prince, ne comte aussi, 

Je suis le Sire de Coucy, 

was led by daring ambition to aspire to the 
very throne of France itself. Indeed, it is 
hardly too much to say that no one who has 
not seen Coucy-le-Chateau can form an ade- 
quate idea of the vast power which lay at the 
disposal of the great lords of feudal times. 

Perhaps the pleasantest way of reaching 
Coucy-le-Chateau from Compiegne is to take 
one of the morning trains to Chauny, having 
previously written or telegraphed for a vehicle 
to meet you at the station to convey you to 
your destination.* On the way to Chauny 
you will pass the ancient town of Noyon, 
whose fine twelfth-century church is well 
known, if not from actual inspection, at all 
events by description, to every lover of 
mediaeval architecture. 

Chauny has no attraction for the traveller, 
being nothing but a grimy, dirty, smoky, well- 
to-do, malodorous, manufacturing town, and 
the change experienced as you finally emerge 
out of its murky and unsavoury streets into 
the free and open country, is by no means 
unwelcome. Passing along a well-kept road 
you run through a rich, gently undulating 
district, with some scattered farmhouses at 
intervals here and there. A portion of forest, 
known as the " Foret basse de Coucy," or 

* If preferred, the whole journey can now be per- 
formed by rail, as a line runs between Chauny and 
Laon, having a station at Coucy-le-Chateau. 



" de Saint-Gobain," is traversed ; two or 
three villages are left behind, but, with the 
exception of Folembray, which is prettily 
situated, and can boast of some historical 
associations, they are unimportant. At length, 
on turning the corner of a hill, you see before 
you the immense mass of Coucy-le-Chateau, 
occupying a strong position on the brow of 
an opposite eminence, from which it appears 
to frown sternly down on the peaceful valley 
beneath. 

The name " Coucy " belongs to a neigh- 
bouring village of Coucy-la-Ville, as well as 
to the little town of Coucy-le-Chateau ad- 
joining the castle. This town, which has 
grown, so to speak, out of the rude habita- 
tions of the serfs and lesser vassals which 
formerly grouped themselves together under 
the shadow of the great fortress, forms a 
decidedly picturesque adjunct to it. Lofty 
walls of hewn stone, flanked with strong 
circular towers, extend round the town, and 
access to it is afforded by means of three 
gates. Two of these gates, not being from 
their position exposed to attack, are only pro- 
tected by a single tower ; but the third, the 
Porte de Laon, which is commanded by a 
neighbouring hill, is flanked with two enor- 
mous towers, and is protected by an outwork 
of stone, which is itself defended by ravines 
and fosses. 

Winding up through the little town, which, 
as above hinted, stands on the same height 
as the castle, we soon reach the outer bailey, 
or esplanade, of the fortress, in which formerly 
stood an important series of buildings, in- 
cluding, in all probability, stables and grana- 
ries, as well as an ancient chapel of the 
Romanesque period, the foundations of 
which are still plainly discernible. Of the 
other buildings a few remnants of columns 
and sculptured capitals are all that now re- 
mains. There is little, therefore, to detain us 
here, so we forthwith proceed to cross the 
deep but now waterless moat, at the spot 
where once stood the double swing-bridge, 
with its two formidable portcullises carefully 
defended by guard-rooms above, and to enter 
the castle itself, which here rises before us 
with truly majestic grandeur. 

The origin of this gigantic stronghold is 
lost in the darkness of antiquity ; but it would 
appear that a fortress, whose erection is 



COUCY-LE-CHA TEA U. 



20I 



ascribed to an Archbishop of Rheims, existed 
on this same spot as early as the beginning of 
the tenth century. Of the buildings of this 
epoch no vestige remains, except, perhaps, 
the scanty ruins of the little Romanesque 
chapel in the outer bailey, to which we have 
alluded above. The most ancient parts of 
the buildings we now see are not considered 
to date further back than the early part of 
the thirteenth century. 

It was Enguerrard III., Lord of Coucy, 
the most powerful vassal of the Crown of 
France, who built not only the castle, but 
also surrounded the adjoining town with a 
protecting wall. By marriage, by inheritance, 
by fair means and foul, this great baron ac- 
quired vast possessions, immense wealth, and 
corresponding power and influence. So much 
so that his ambition led him to attempt 
dangerous enterprises against the royal power 
during the minority of Louis IX. The crown 
seemed, indeed, at one time to be almost 
within his grasp, but his ambitious projects 
were foiled by the tact and sagacity of the 
Queen, Blanche of Castile, who succeeded in 
undermining the influence of this all too- 
powerful vassal, and in withdrawing from his 
side the Count of Champagne, who was one 
of his most important allies. It is to this 
stirring epoch that we must attribute the 
greater part of the present buildings, which, 
according to the high authority of M. Viollet- 
le-Duc, must have been erected with extra- 
ordinary rapidity between the years 1225 and 
1230. 

It is no part of our intention to undertake 
a minute description of this mighty ruin. 
Were we to attempt to do so, we should, we 
feel sure, run the risk of becoming involved 
in a bewilderment of technicalities which 
would have little or no meaning for the un- 
initiated. Moreover, it is our earnest desire 
not to be tedious. All we shall therefore 
attempt to do will be to convey some rough 
general idea of the great castle and its appur- 
tenances in their present fallen condition. 

Imagine, then, a large irregular square, 
furnished at each corner with four strong 
towers connected by walls, or " curtains," as 
they are called. Round the courtyard thus 
formed, on the inner side of the walls, were 
arranged buildings serving various purposes, 
such as dwelling apartments, halls of justice 

vol. xv. 



and assembly, as well as offices for servants 
and retainers, granaries, storehouses, and 
kitchens. We also see the remains of another 
chapel of later date and more elaborate 
design than the earlier Romanesque chapel 
in the outer bailey. 

But of all the defences of the castle the 
great circular donjon, or keep, is without 
question the strongest and most remarkable. 
This huge mass of masonry, 187 feet high, 
325 feet in circumference, and with walls 34 
feet in thickness, rises between the eastern 
and western towers, and is defended by a 
fosse and a circular breast-wall, or chemise. 
It was formerly entered by a narrow swing- 
bridge, which, turning on a pivot, closed the 
entrance-door to the donjon as it rose. Over 
the door may still be observed the mutilated 
fragment of a bas-relief representing a knight 
in combat with a lion, which was doubtless 
placed there to commemorate the notable 
victory gained by Enguerrard II. over a savage 
beast of that species, from whose ravages he 
thus succeeded in delivering the surrounding 
country. The people of the neighbourhood, 
who were in this manner delivered from so 
terrible a monster, could hardly restrain their 
joy within due bounds. The peasantry, over- 
flowing with gratitude, assembled in crowds 
to thank their lord and benefactor, and his 
vassals likewise seized the opportunityformally 
to renew the oath of faith and homage which 
they had already pledged to him. Autre 
temps, autres mceurs ! 

The donjon was originally divided into 
three vast vaulted apartments. In the centre 
of the vault of each of these apartments a 
large circular orifice was pierced, through 
which men and ammunition could be rapidly 
raised and lowered from one story to another 
by means of a windlass. When general orders 
were about to be issued in expectation of an 
attack, it was the custom to collect the entire 
garrison of the fortress in the uppermost hall 
of the donjon. Twelve or fifteen hundred 
men could easily be assembled here to await 
the call to arms. A balcony of wood, traces 
of which are still apparent, formerly ran round 
the inside of the hall, and upon it a large 
portion of the garrison took their places. The 
rest ranged themselves on the floor of the 
hall round the chatelain, who addressed them 
from the centre. The scene which this 

p 



CO UC Y-LE- CHA TEA U. 



apartment must have presented on these ex- 
citing occasions could hardly be surpassed 
for grandeur and impressiveness. 

Up to the time of Enguerrard III. the 
ordinary dwelling of a feudal lord was in the 
donjon or keep of his castle. But towards 
the end of the fourteenth century, when the 
rudeness of feudal manners began to give 
place to greater elegance and refinement, the 
keep came to be looked upon as a gloomy 
and uncomfortable abode, and pleasanter and 
more commodious apartments began to be 
constructed for the lord and his family along 
the inner walls of the courtyard. 

It was at about this time (1400) that Louis, 
Duke of Orleans, who had acquired the 
domain from the last of the descendants of 
the Coucys, rebuilt the great hall and the 
dwelling apartments, adding at the same 
time upper stories to the entrance-gate, and 
effecting other alterations in the defences of 
the castle in accordance with the methods of 
fortification then coming into vogue. 

The great hall, or hall of justice above 
referred to, stood on the western side of the 
castle. It was also called the hall of the 
Neuf Preux, or Nine Worthies, because statues 
of those famous personages used formerly to 
stand here in niches. The hall was warmed 
by means of two large fireplaces, and it was 
lighted by a richly-painted window at the 
southern end. 

Close by, on the northern side, was the 
hall of the Neuf Preuses, or Nine Valiant 
Ladies of antiquity, whose sculptured effigies 
once adorned the mantelpiece. An adjoin- 
ing chamber, decorated with sculptures, and 
furnished with a chimneypiece, was con- 
structed in the thickness of the wall, and 
served as a kind of boudoir for the great lady 
of the castle. From the window of the 
room, or "bower," thus contrived, a delightful 
view over the country, in the direction of 
Noyon, could be obtained. Without doubt 
this was the pleasantest spot in the whole 
castle. 

All the last-mentioned buildings were, as 
we have said, erected, or at all events recon- 
structed, towards the end of the fourteenth 
or the beginning of the fifteenth century. 
But still by far the greater portion of the 
castle dates from the time of the celebrated 
Enguerrard III. 



The successors of this great baron soon 
allowed the power wielded by their ancestor 
to slip out of their hands. His son, Raoul II., 
perished in Egypt at the battle of Mansourah. 
Enguerrard V. lived and died in Scotland at 
the Court of the King of that country, who 
was his wife's uncle. Enguerrard VI. dis- 
tinguished himself under Philip of Valois in 
the wars with England, and fell covered with 
wounds at the fatal battle of Crecy, along 
with the King of Bohemia, and the flower 
of French chivalry. The last of the legitimate 
line of the De Coucys was Enguerrard VII., 
son of the last-named baron, whose heroic 
deeds in the ill-starred crusade of Nicopolis 
have been celebrated in the graphic pages of 
Froissart. Although spared by the Turks 
after the battle, the unhappy Enguerrard died 
of sorrow and chagrin in the prison at Boursa 
in 1396. This baron was one of those who 
were sent to England as hostages for the 
liberty of the French King, John II., and his 
graces and accomplishments produced so 
favourable an impression at the English Court 
that King Edward III. bestowed upon him 
his second daughter Isabella in marriage, 
with the barony of Bedford as a dowry, to 
which were afterwards added large possessions 
in the county of Lancaster. 

In 1400 Enguerrard's daughter Marie, 
widow of the Count de Bar, having no chil- 
dren, sold the Lordship of Coucy to the 
Duke of Orleans, who forthwith proceeded to 
carry out those reconstructions, alterations, 
and improvements of which mention has been 
made above. 

During the troubles of the Fronde, the 
castle was taken and dismantled by the order 
of Mazarin, who caused the Sieur Metezeau 
to wreak such destruction upon it as he was 
able. Forty years later, in 1692, an earth- 
quake shook the great tower and rent its 
walls from top to bottom, as may still be seen. 
But in spite of the misdirected efforts of the 
Sieur Metezeau, the destructive effects of 
time, and the earthquake's shock ; notwith- 
standing the fact, too, that since then the 
ruined buildings have from time to time 
served as a convenient quarry for the in- 
habitants of the neighbouring town, enough 
still remains to testify to the power and great- 
ness of the former lords of Coucy, and to 
render a visit to the ruins of the ancient 



L'SS OF HARD WICK. 



203 



stronghold one of the most profitable expedi- 
tions it is possible for a devoted student of 
past times to make. 

The glory of the famous castle has long 
since departed, and it is only in imagination 
that we can people it with gay knights and 
squires, and finely-attired ladies, with hosts 
of retainers, vassals, and men-at-arms. It is 
left to us to recall as best we may the clang 
of armour, and the sounds of merriment and 
minstrelsy which were once heard in its now 
deserted courts and halls, and to picture to 
ourselves the bustle and stir which took place 
on the morning of a hunting or hawking 
expedition, or on the day appointed for some 
martial exercise, such as a joust or a tourna- 
ment ; or still more, when the lord and his 
mail-clad followers devoutly received the 
cross before starting for Palestine to deliver 
Jerusalem and the Holy Sepulchre from the 
hands of the infidel and the bondage of the 
Sultan. 

Alas ! the merry guests no more 
Crowd through the hospitable door ; 
No eyes with mirth and passion shine 
No cheeks grow redder with the wine ; 
No song, no laugh, no jovial din 
Of drinking wassail to the pin ; 
But all is silent, sad, and drear. 



15m of QmtDtoiclt. 



HE history of George, sixth Earl ot 
Shrewsbury, and Elizabeth of 
Hardwick, his wife, is so intimately 
connected with the fate and cruel 
fortune of Mary Queen of Scots that it is im- 
possible to give any record of the one without 
detailing some part of the life of the other. 
All readers of the history of the sixteenth 
century know that the Scottish Queen landed 
in England on the 16th of May, 1568, and 
that she arrived at Bolton Castle in York- 
shire on the 15th July following, having slept 
the two previous nights at Lowther and 
Wharton, en route* But the Queen of Eng- 
land discovered that Mary was in a neigh- 

* Queen Mary landed on the west coast of Cumber- 
land, and after staying at Workington Hall, was 
escorted by Mr. Lowther to Carlisle Castle, from 
thence journeying later on to Bolton. 




bourhood where she had many friends, and 
fearing lest through their agency she might 
effect her escape, determined, on the advice 
of her ministers, in October, 1568, to commit 
her to the charge of the Earl of Shrewsbury. 
The Earl was the possessor of Sheffield 
Castle, Tutbury, and other strongholds in 
various parts of the kingdom, and was one of 
Elizabeth's most loyal and trusty subjects. 
In November the Earl writes to his wife : 
" Ere it were long he should well perceive 
she did so trust him as she did few ;" and on 
the 13th December he writes again: "Now 
it is certain the Scots' Queen comes to Tut- 
bury, to my charge." An Order of Council, 
signed for the Queen of Scots' removal from 
Bolton, and dated 20th of January, 1569, 
took effect on the subsequent 3rd of February, 
on which day Mary arrived at Tutbury, where 
she became for the first time a prisoner of 
State, and as such was delivered into the 
charge of the Earl of Shrewsbury. 

In the following year Queen Mary was 
removed to Wingfield Manor, a fine building 
situated on an elevated ridge. This large 
residence, possessing two courts, was 
built by Ralph, Lord Cromwell, in the 
reign of Henry VI. , and is situated 
in Derbyshire. It was about this period 
that the vigilance of the English Govern- 
ment was excited by the plans of the Duke 
of Norfolk for marriage with the Scottish 
Queen, and by the prospect of many re- 
bellious projects covertly carried on by that 
lady's adherents. The Queen Elizabeth 
writes to the Earl of Derby, directing him to 
raise the whole force of the counties of Lan- 
cashire and Cheshire, and with those of Not- 
tingham and Derby, under the Earl of 
Shrewsbury, to join with Admiral Clynton, 
and to proceed against the Earls of West- 
moreland and Northumberland, who were 
commencing an open act of rebellion.* This 
letter, dated 24th November, 1569, is fol- 
lowed by a recommendation of a young lord 
to the especial protection of Lord Shrews- 
bury, who, receiving it on the 22nd of March, 
1570, transmits to his Sovereign, in the fol- 
lowing May, a certified remain of the armies 
and weapons, also of the sums expended in 
the County of Derby, t 

* Calendar of State Papers. 
f Ibid. 

P 2 



204 



J1F.SS OF HARD WICK. 



The Queen of England, worried, no doubt, 
by the very unsettled condition of the realm, 
becomes ill, and thus writes to her trusted 
Shrewsbury : " My faithful Shrewsbury, Let 
not grief touch your heart for fear of my 
disease, for I assure you, if my credit were 
not greater than my show, there is no be- 
holder would believe that I had been touched 
with such a malady."* Mary was moved 
about from place to place. First at Tutbury, 
then at Coventry, and, upon occasions, at 
Buxton and Chatsworth. The Earl was 
taken ill, and Walter Devereux, Viscount 
Hereford, thereupon despatched to guard 
Mary whilst the Queen's favourite was away. 
The office of Earl Marshal of England having 
become vacant by the attainder of the Duke 
of Norfolk, the Earl was selected and ap- 
pointed on the 2nd of January, 1573, as his 
successor.! A dispensation had previously 
been given him for absence from the feast of 
St. George at Windsor. Later on, the Earl 
writes to Sir Thomas Smith as follows : 
" Thanks for your friendly letter. I have 
been troubled with pain, but will not term it 
the gout. I am well now, and within three 
or four days shall be at Sheffield Castle with 
my charge." Sir Ralph Sadler came to the 
latter fortress when the Earl of Shrewsbury 
was in London engaged in the trial of the 
Duke of Norfolk. Sadler writes that " my 
Lady Shrewsbury is seldom from her." She 
went into her room to tell her of Norfolk's 
sentence of death, and found her weeping, 
having previously heard of this event. Wal- 
syngham writes to Lord Burghley, and tells 
him " the French Ambassador has had an 
interview with the Queen, and has obtained 
permission for his nephew to visit the Queen 
of Scots, and to deal with the Earl of Shrews- 
bury touching the Queen's diet." % Mr. W. 
Parry writes also to Lord Burghley at a time 
long subsequent : " This morning the Scotch 
Ambassador, with very great joy told me 
that the French Ambassador in England had 
sent him of late the greatest hope of Her 

* The suspected malady was the small-pox. 

+ Calendar of Stale Papers. 

X This occurred on the 12th September, 1575. The 
Earl of Shrewsbury had in previous years been 
more than necessarily wary in admitting anyone to 
Mary's presence. In the November of 1573 he re- 
ported to the Council "that one Archclete was no 
fit man." 



Majesty's favour towards the Queen, his 
mistress, that ever she received since her 
coming into England, that she went to 
Buxton,* and that your Lordship, of whom 
he often makes very honourable mention, 
has commandment to write to the Earl of 
Shrewsbury for her reasonable liberty and 
honourable usage. He told me that some 
of Her Majesty's Ambassadors had done him 
wrong, and that for his purgation of all un- 
honest dealing against her person or state, 
he could be content to put himself into her 
hands and mercy. He touches upon Secre- 
tary Walsingham's passionate disposition, and 
spoke of some letters of his that had been 
intercepted." t 

In 1583 Mary was removed to Worksop. 
In 1584 she was at Sheffield and Wingfield, 
and finally parted from the Earl and Countess 
of Shrewsbury on the 2nd of September, 
1584, after being under their guardianship 
for the space of fifteen years. She saw the 
Earl once again at Fotheringay.J 

So much has been necessary to relate 
before proceeding to enter upon the life, 
character, and conduct of Elizabeth, Countess 
of Shrewsbury, better known as Bess of 
Hardwick She was one of the daughters of 
John Hardwick, of Hardwick, in the county 
of Derbyshire, by his wife Elizabeth, daughter 
of Thomas Leake of Hasland, in the same 
county. Her grandmother was a Pinch- 
beck, of Pinchbeck, and her greatgrand- 
mother a Blackwall, of Blackwall. The 
Hardwicks, Leakes, Leeches, and Barleys 
were all neighbours and county families of 
about the same standing in Derbyshire. It 
may be taken for granted that John Hard- 
wick was a gentleman of small estate, as he 
was able to give to each of his daughters 
only forty marks for their wedding portion. || 
He died in the nineteenth year of Henry 
VIII.'s reign. His son James was his heir, 
and he bequeathed his landed estate to his 

* The Queen of Scots was not permitted to go to 
Buxton till all the summer visitors had departed. 

t Calendar of State Papers. Domestic Series, 
Addenda, 1580. 

+ Castelnau de Mauvissiere declared that the Earl 
of Shrewsbury had made 200,000 crowns by the profits 
of his office as Keeper of Mary Queen of Scots. 

Derbyshire Visitations. 

II The armorial bearings of this gentleman were 
Argent a saltier engrailed and on a chief blue three 
roses of the field. 



BESS OF HARD WICK. 



205 



sister Elizabeth. His daughter Bess was 
married four times first, to Robert Barley, 
of Barley, in the county of Derbyshire, but by 
him had no children ; secondly, to Sir William 
Cavendish, of Chatsworth, Privy Councillor 
and Treasurer of the Chamber to Henry VIII., 
by whom she had three sons and three 
daughters. He appears to have treated her 
with confidence and regard. In a letter 
addressed to her in the following quaint 
fashion, he writes : 

To Besse Cavendysh, 

MY WYFF. 

Good Bess haveing forgotten to wryght 
in my letters that you shuld pay Otewell 
Alayne eight pounds for certayne otys that we 
have bought of him ov r and above x" that I 
have paid to hym in hand, I hertely pray you 
for that he is desyrus to recyve the rest at 
London, to pay hym uppon the sight hereof. 
You knowe my store and therefore I have 
appoynted hym to have it at yo r hands. 
And thus faer you well. From Chattes worth 
the xiii th of Aprell. 

W. C. 

From this and other existing documents, 
this gentleman and his wife, though she was 
many years the youngest, seem to have jogged 
on in cordiality together. However that 
may be, she did not long remain a widow, 
for she entered for the third time into the 
marriage state with Sir William St. Loo, 
Captain of the Guard to Queen Elizabeth. 
By this husband she had no issue, but the 
marriage brought her into the notice of the 
Queen, who made her one of her bedchamber 
women. Although St. Loo had children by 
a former wife, Bess of Hardwick contrived 
so to play her cards that he disinherited 
them in her favour. Left a widow for the 
third time she again, and speedily, re-entered 
the regions of matrimony, this her fourth 
husband being George Talbot, Earl of Shrews- 
bury. His noble birth and acknowledged 
position, as a courtier and prime favourite of 
the Queen, were powerful inducements to 
attract one of the most proud and most am- 
bitious women of the age in which she lived. 
Having acquired no inconsiderable wealth 
from her brother, from the Barleys, St. Loos, 
and the acquisitions of Sir William Cavendish, 



all she wanted for further aggrandizement was 
the honour of sharing one of the most un- 
sullied titles in the kingdom, and the happi- 
ness of assisting its bearer in the improvement 
of large landed properties, and the erection 
of magnificent castles, superior to any other 
in her own particular county. After these 
ill-omened nuptials, she carried on a regular 
trade in the sale of the mineral produce of 
the great Derbyshire estates. In fact, her 
practical understanding and covetous disposi- 
tion were for ever employed in making all 
she could out of everything and everybody. 
Ample evidence exists to show how she 
exerted her tyranny over the earl, and how 
she accepted her share in watching over the 
proceedings of her miserable captive the 
Queen of Scots. She was indeed for ever 
intriguing and manoeuvring to the terror of 
her last husband. Upon one occasion she 
managed to offend her Majesty Elizabeth, 
who was so incensed at her presumption that 
she ordered her and the Countess of Lennox 
to be committed to the Tower. Her offence 
was rank to the Queen, whose arbitrary nature 
could never brook the perpetration of any- 
thing like a family arrangement, amongst the 
ladies of her court, done without her know- 
ledge. The Countess of Lennox had a son, 
Charles, who became Earl of Lennox, and 
the Countess of Shrewsbury, a daughter, 
Elizabeth. Between these two a private 
marriage was celebrated in 1574 by the joint 
agency of the lady mothers. In 1575 Lady 
Shrewsbury was released from prison, and in 
this year her husband, writing to know if his 
wife might associate with Queen Mary, hears 
from Lord Leicester, on the 1st of May, as 
follows : 

" And touching one part of your letter sent 
lately to me that the access of my lady, your 
wife, to the Queen there, I find the Queen's 
Majesty well pleased that she may repair at 
all times, and not forbear the company of 
that Queen, having not only very good 
opinion of my lady's wisdom and discretion, 
but thinks how convenient it is for that 
Queen to be accompanied and pass the time 
rather with my lady than meaner persons." 

Thus ended the Queen's displeasure. Of 
her three sons the eldest, Henry of Tutbury, 
died without issue ; William, the second, was 
created Earl of Devonshire in 1618; and 



2o6 



BESS OF HARD WICK. 



Charles became father of William Duke of 
Newcastle. Her eldest daughter became 
wife of Sir Henry Pierrepoint, the second 
Lady Lennox as stated above ; and the third 
married Gilbert Earl of Shrewsbury. The 
same Earl of Leicester, writing to William 
Davison, Ambassador to the Low Countries, 
on April nth, 1578, says: 

" The bearer, Henry Cavendish's son, and 
heir to the Countess of Shrewsbury, and my 
very dear friend, desires to serve in the wars 
in the Low Countries, offers 500 Englishmen 
and more, is young and untrained, but ready 
to serve." On the following day Henry 
Killigrew informs William Davison that 
"Mr. Cavendish, Lady Shrewsbury's son, 
goes over with 500 tall men."* 

As an instance of her incessant schemes 
for the worldly advance of her family, the 
following letter, written evidently at her dicta- 
tion, affords a proof, and also exhibits a 
curious example of match-making in the busy 
times of the sixteenth century : 

"George Earl of Shrewsbury to Lord 
Burghley. 

"I have just heard of Lord Wharton's 
death, and that the Earl of Sussex has the 
wardship of his son. His house and lands 
are near me, and my wife has a daughter of 
his years, whom I mind to prefer in marriage. 
If his Lordship will part with the young 
gentleman, I will give as much as another 
for his marriage. Pray be a means between 
us to obtain this request, which my wife and 
I earnestly desire."! 

Lady Shrewsbury was at Hardwick in 
1580, and wrote to her husband: "Let me 
hear how you, your charge and love doth, 
and commend me I pray you." The charge 
must have become irksome enough to the 
receiver of this epistle. Mary was at that 
time at Sheffield. Five years later the Earl 
of Leicester receives a sad complaint from 
his unhappy friend, because Queen Elizabeth 
made him a pensioner of his wife. 

He writes pitifully "to my perpetual in- 
famy and dishonour, to be ruled and over- 
anne by my wife so bad and wicked a 
woman, yet Her Ma'tie shall see that I obey 
her comandemente though no curse or 

* Calendar of State Papers. 
t Ibid. 



plague in the earthe cold be more grievous 
to me." 

Whether these words were communicated 
to her Majesty or not, they availed nothing, 
the hen-pecked husband had to submit to 
being allowed to have an income of ^500 
per annum out of his own estate, leaving the 
disposal and management of the remainder 
in the hands of the Countess. The Bishop 
of Lichfield tried to reconcile husband and 
wife. He certainly rather inclined to the 
lady's view of affairs, but admitted to a friend 
that some say she is " a sharpe and bitter 
shrewe." Lodge, in his Illustrations of 
British History, sums up my lady as "a 
woman of masculine understanding and con- 
duct, proud, furious, selfish, and feeling."* 
The earl was released from the bondage, 
under which he existed for so long a period 
as gaoler of Queen Mary, on the 18th of 
November, 1590. It is not easy to imagine 
the mental torture under which the Queen of 
Scots must have writhed, when under the 
control and espionage of such a vixen as this 
haughty Derbyshire dame. 

There are several portraits of Bess at 
Hardwick Hall. One, also, in the National 
Portrait Gallery, said to be a copy of a 
picture in the gallery at Hardwick. She is 
represented standing beside a table. The 
figure is a half-length. She is dressed in 
black, with black hood and veil. Round 
the neck, and reaching below the waist, are 
rows of pearls, f Her dark eyes have a crafty 
expression, and her features, though aged, 
seem to possess a certain severity and firm- 
ness in their regard, not inconsistent with 
her acknowledged character. 

Sheffield Castle, like others of the Earl of 
Shrewsbury's domains, is to be seen no more. 
At the close of the Civil Wars it was allowed 
"to fall into decay." No trace now exists of 
it. Sheffield Manor is the property of the 
Dukes of Norfolk ; Worksop Manor was 
burnt down in 1761; Wingfield Manor is 
reduced to a ruin ; Tutbury has gone the 
same way ; and Chatsworth has been entirely 
rebuilt and called the " Palace of the Peak." 

* Does Lodge mean jealous ? 

+ Bess was fond of jewellery, and to win her favour, 
Queen Mary made her presents of jewels. Are the 
pearls in this picture those seen by Bochetel la For- 
rest, the French Ambassador at the English Court, 
which he said were like Muscadel grapes ? 



BESS OF HARD WICK. 



207 



Two memorials remain of Bess of Hard- 
wick ; both of a different type, but both fine 
in their way. The one is Hardwick Hall ; 
the other the monument to the countess in 
the Church of All Saints, Derby. 

Hardwick Hall is an admirable example 
as the residence of an English nobleman at 
the close of the sixteenth century. It was 
built between the years 1590 and 1599, and 
occupied the attention and energies of its 
owner until its completion. The times had 
then passed away when the builder found it 
necessary to compose a mansion in such a 
manner as to combine comfort with security. 
Here, therefore, the crenallating process, as it 
was called in an earlier age, was not required. 
This house stands on an eminence. It has 
a bold front, with six towers ; and is very 
remarkable for its large, long windows. In 
the picture gallery, these attain the height of 
twenty feet. 

Hardwick Hall 
More glass than wall, 

is one of the popular sayings of the county, 
and reminds all visitors of " Lord Bacon's " 
remark, " that you shall have sometimes faire 
houses so full of glass, that one cannot tell 
where to become to be out of the sun." The 
Hall is approached by a quadrangular court, 
and the entrance is obtained through a 
colonnade. On either side of the path are 
flower-borders in the shape of E for one, and 
S for the other. There are the same initials 
in open stone-work on the parapet going 
round the roof with a coronet* On one of 
the pillars of the porch is this quotation, 
inscribed in fine letters : 

Hie locus est quem si verbis audatia detur 
Haud timeam magni dixisse palatia cceli.f 

Over the chimney-piece in the dining-room 
is a coronet, the date 1597, the initials E. S , 
and the words, "The conclusion of alle 
thinges is to fear God and keepe his com- 
mandementes." The gallery contains about 
two hundred portraits, mostly of historical 
personages Queen Elizabeth, Mary Queen 
of Scots, Lady Jane Grey, Lady Arabella 
Stuart, Bess of Hardwick, and many others. 

* A somewhat similar kind of ornamentation exists 
at Castle Ashly, the Marquis of Northampton's seat 
in Northamptonshire, only there it takes the form of 
quotations from Scripture. 

* Ovid's Metamorphoses, Lib. i., 175. 



There is a great amount of tapestry in various 
parts of the house, some rare alabaster 
carvings and furniture, perfectly unique and 
of the greatest decorative interest. In the 
hall opposite the entrance is a marble statue 
by Westmacott of Mary Queen of Scots. 
There is a room called after this queen ; 
over it are the arms of Scotland, the date 
1599, M. R., and the lines, "Marie Stewart 
par le grace de Dieu, Royne de Scosse, 
DouarieVe de France." The bed and hang- 
ings in this chamber are said to have been 
entirely worked by Mary. That this is pos- 
sible and probable may be conceded, as it is 
known that she was a great worker with her 
needle. Mr. White, writing to Sir William 
Cecil in 1568, says, on seeing her in her 
apartments at Tutbury, " All day she wrought 
with her nydill, and the diversity of the 
colours made the work seem less tedious, 
and contynued so long at it till very payne 
made her give it over." As Hardwick Hall 
was not begun to be erected till three years 
after the Queen's execution, it is out of the 
question that she could have inhabited any 
room in it The bed hangings and other 
furniture may have been brought from Tut- 
bury, Sheffield, or Chatsworth. The lively 
letter-writer, Horace Walpole, fell into the 
error of regarding Hardwick as one of Mary's 
places of captivity. There are none of her 
letters not one of those even in the collec- 
tion of Prince Labanoff, which are dated 
from Hardwick. In itself the Hall is in- 
teresting, as it remains nearly in the same 
state in which it was when Bess lived in it 
The ruins of a much older edifice stand very 
near the more modern habitation. They 
were allowed to stay, because, said their 
owner, " as her cradle beside her bed of 
state." She was born and bred in the older 
mansion. She survived her fourth and last 
husband seventeen years.* 

Her monument in the church at Derby is 
a majestic pile, and is in excellent preserva- 
tion. Her effigy is placed whole length on 
a tomb ; the coronet and dress are coloured, 
and gilding is employed ; the features are 
cold and stern. Over against the wall is a 
canopy with two Corinthian columns. Above 

* It was at Hardwick that Lady Arabella Stuart 
was educated under the management of her severe 
grandmother, Countess Bess. 



208 



BESS OF HARD WICK. 



all there is a ball on a column with a stag on 
each side, with a vast number of armorial 
bearings. The arms differ in some respects 
from those to be viewed at Hardwick, and 
have been a puzzle to some students in 
heraldry. The inscription on the inner wall 
is in Latin, and runs thus : 

P. M. 

Elizabetha. 

Johannis Hardwick de Hardwick in agro 
Derb. Armigeri filise fratrique Johanni 
tandem cohaeredi Primo Roberto Barley de 
Barley in dicto Com. Derb. Armig. nuptae 
postea Will Cavendish de Chatsworth equ. 
aur (thesaurario camarae regibus Henrico VI I J 
Edwardo VI ac Marias Reginae quibus etiam 
fuit a secretoribus consiliis) Deinde Will. 
S l Low militi regii satellitii capitaneo. Ac 
ultimo praenobili Georgio comiti Salopiae 
desponsatae. Per quern Will Cavendish 
prolem solumodo habuit filios tres SciP Hen- 
ricum Cavendish de Tutbury in agro Staff, 
armig. (qui Graciam dicti Georgii Comitis 
Salopiae filiam in uxorem duxit sine prole 
legitima defunctum) Will in Baronem Caven- 
dish de Hardwick necnon in Comite Devonian 
per serenissimi nuper Rege Jacobum erectum 
et Carolum Cavendish de Welbeck equ. aur 
patrem honoratissimi Will Cavendish de 
Balneo militis Bar Ogle jure materu et in 
Vice Com Mansfield comitem Marchione 
ac Ducem de Novo Castro Super Tinam et 
comite de Ogle merito creati totidem filias 
sciP Francescam Henrico Pierpont equ. aurato 
Elizabetham Carolo Stuarto Lenoxige comiti 
Et Mariam Gilberto comiti Salopiae enuptas 
haec inclitissima Elizabetha Salopiae comitissa. 
/Edium de Chatsworth, Hardwick et Oldcotes 
magnificentia clarissimarum fabricatrix Vitam 
hanc transitoriam XIII die mensis Februarii 
Anno ab incarnatione D no M.D.CVII ac 
circa annum aetatis suae LXXXVIJ finiat. 
Et gloriosam expectans resurrectionem subtus 
jacet tumulata. 

A mania for building was one of the 
passions of the Countess. Bolsover Castle 
was one of the edifices begun at her charge.* 
It was completed by her younger son, Sir 
Charles Cavendish, and her grandson the 

* An older castle had fallen to ruin in the sixteenth 
century. 



Earl of Newcastle. Here on the 30th of 
July, 1634, Ben Jonson produced a masque 
called " Love's Welcome," the King and 
Queen's entertainment at Bolsover. The 
Countess's last enterprise in the erection of 
palatial edifices was the commencement of a 
mansion at Owlcotes, near Hardwick; but 
this she was not destined to finish. She 
died in 1607, aged 87, and the final record 
of her is to be found dated in that year. It 
is a strange extract from the chronicles of 
the period. " The old Countess of Shrews- 
bury died about Candlemas this year, whose 
funeral was about Holy Thursday. A great 
frost this year. A hot fortnight about James's 
tide. The witches of Bakewell hanged."* 
Few pages of English History contain ac- 
counts of a more remarkable woman than 
this Bess of Hardwick, by which name she is 
recognised rather than by that of the Countess 
of Shrewsbury. It is impossible to consider 
her in any other light than as a lady more 
feared than loved. A perusal of all her cor- 
respondence, and of the history of her times, 
points to the one conclusion. It is a melan- 
choly commentary on all her greatness to 
read, that though abounding in riches, " she 
died without a friend." 

William Brailsford. 



HDID Jrontootks m ^ampsinre. 




|HE earliest mention we have of iron- 
works in Hampshire is in Domes- 
day Book, in which we find under 
Stratfield an entry which states 
that there was a " ferraria " at this place which 
paid 2s. 3d. I think there can be no doubt 
that the word "ferraria" in this instance 
denoted a place where iron was extracted 
from its natural condition, rather than a forge 
where the metal in the crude form was 
fashioned into tools and implements, etc. 
There must have been in Hampshire at that 
time many forges where smiths carried on 
their trade, but the only mention we have of 
iron manufacture of any kind in Domesday is 
this entry of a " ferraria " which was taxed at 
Stratfield, now Strathfieldsaye. 

* Simpson's National Records, Derby 



OLD IRON WORKS IN HAMPSHIRE. 



209 



Masses of ironstone of various sizes are met 
with in Hampshire at the present time in the 
Tertiary formations, but not of course in 
sufficient quantities to supply modern de- 
mands. In the form of septaria, or nodular 
clay masses, it is found to a considerable 
extent in the London Clay and lower Bagshot 
formations of the lower Tertiaries in various 
parts of the county. 

It is also found in the higher Tertiary 
formations, viz., the Bracklesham, Barton, 
Headon and Osborne beds, as a rich iron- 
stone, containing in some instances as much 
as 50 per cent, of iron. 

The materials which form the walls of 
Silchester, as they remain at the present time, 
afford confirmatory evidence of the Domesday 
ferraria at Strathfieldsaye. Silchester is about 
three miles from this place, and its walls 
contain in places a considerable quantity of 
ironstone between and among the layers of 
flint nodular masses of which they are chiefly 
built. The occurrence of such a vast mass 
of large flint nodules as remain in the 
Silchester walls, points to a systematic collec- 
tion of these flints, resulting from the denuda- 
tion of the upper chalk in the neighbourhood. 
In the same way the ironstone may have been 
obtained from the denudation of the Tertiary 
beds in the. same neighbourhood, as it has 
undoubtedly been obtained through the 
action of natural forces on the Tertiary beds 
in the south of the county. 

That iron as well as bacon was one of the 
natural products of Hampshire in the twelfth 
century appears from the order to the Sheriff 
made by Richard I. to supply 800 hogs 
and 10,000 horse-shoes, for the use of the 
army then assembled in part at Southampton 
for the third Crusade. 

On the east of the county, ironworks were 
carried on in Hammer-bottom, near Hasle- 
mere and Bramshot, on the Sussex border, 
from the Middle Ages. down almost to within 
the present century. The ironstone in this 
district was obtained from much the same 
geological formations as in the weald of 
Sussex, of which it forms the western limit. 
Heaps of iron slag still exist in the woods 
adjoining Hammer-bottom. 

The most important Hampshire ironworks 
of recent centuries were those at Sowley, 
near Lymington. Two considerable iron 



mills existed here a century ago, and the iron- 
stone which was smelted there was collected 
along the shores of the Solent. Large masses 
of ironstone may occasionally be seen on the 
beaches north and south of the Solent at the 
present day, but what remains now, or is 
produced by the gradual wearing away of 
these coasts at the present time, must be very 
small in comparison with the accumulations 
of many centuries which formerly existed on 
these fore-shores. The Solent has gradu- 
ally cut through the Tertiary beds which 
occur on both sides of it, and were formerly 
more or less continuous, certainly in its 
western part. Vancouver in his Survey of 
Hampshire, published in 18 10, tells us that 
* on the southern coast of Hants, particularly 
on the coast of Beaulieu Manor, ironstone 
was formerly gathered in some quantity. It 
was generally rolled up by the surf, and it is 
said that to gather this in, people left the 
harvest-fields. It was conveyed to the iron- 
works at Sowley." 

A proverb in the south-west of the county, 
but one which has almost died out, is that 
" there will be rain when Sowley hammer is 
heard." Sowley hammer has not been heard 
for nearly a century, but examples of the iron 
smelted and manufactured there may still be 
seen in the palace at Beaulieu. 

Several old place-names in the New Forest, 
such as Irons Hill near Lyndhurst, and Iron- 
mill Hill near Fawley, a well-known name in 
the seventeenth century, are probably derived 
from the former iron furnaces at these places. 
The charcoal-burners in the forest must in 
former centuries have found a ready sale for 
their commodity. Some charcoal-burners 
still carry on their ancient occupation in 
the forest. At Sloden, also in the New 
Forest, iron slag has been found ; and it 
has been thought that this is probably of 
Roman date, as it occurs not far from the 
sites of Roman potteries. 

Examples of the native ironstone of Hamp- 
shire may be seen in the water-gate of 
Porchester Castle, where courses of it were 
used in the original structure ; in the north 
wall of Ellingham Church, and the east wall 
of Brockenhurst Church. The old church of 
Hordle, now removed, is said to have been 
built of it, as may well have been the case, 
from the very considerable quantity of it 



2IO 



OLD IRON WORKS IN HAMPSHIRE. 



which, even in modern times, has been washed 
up to the beach in Christchurch Bay. The 
square keep of Christchurch Castle, and some 
of the remaining walls of the Priory buildings 
at the same place, show that the native iron- 
stone was largely used for building purposes 
in Norman time. The removal to South 
Wales of the ironstone on the beach at 
Hengistbury Head has gone on to within 
about the last thirty years ; but as this removal 
was found to accelerate the waste of the 
cliff by destroying the natural breakwater on 
the beach, this ironstone is no longer allowed 
to be shipped. 

In his curious book entitled England's 
Improvements by Land and Sea by Andrew 
Yarranton, Gent, published in 1687 a very 
interesting account is given of the ironstone 
accumulations at Christchurch, and of the 
use to which the author recommended they 
should be put. He says : " I found in the 
sea, great quantities of Ironstones lye in a 
ridge. The stones near the shore lay so 
great and thick that they were the occasion 
of the lodging up of the sands near them." 
He also reports, " that the King may have all 
his Iron made, and Guns cast at very cheap 
rates. There is Ironstone in the Sea by the 
Harbour mouth, and the King hath such vast 
quantities of Woods decayed in the New 
Forest, of which at this time Charcoal is 
made and shipped to Cornwall and other 
parts. If two Furnaces be built about Ring- 
wood to cast Guns, and two Forges to make 
Iron, and the Ironstone be brought from the 
Harbour mouth out of the Sea up the river 
to the Furnaces, and the Charcole out of New 
Forest to the works, there being sufficient of 
decayed wood to supply four Ironworks for 
ever ; by these means the King makes the 
best of everything . . . and having Ironstone of 
his own for gathering up, and Wood of his 
own for nothing, he will have very cheap 
Guns and Iron." 

Considerable quantities of ironstone have 
also been obtained from the beach on the 
north of the Solent to the south of Fareham, 
and there is a record of an iron furnace near 
this town at Fontley, and also traces of 
another at Bursledon. The old iron furnace 
at Fontley appears to have been of consider- 
able importance, for one of the earliest tilt 
hammers is said to have been erected here 
in 1775. 



Some fine examples of mediaeval ironwork, 
presumably fabricated from Hampshire iron- 
stone, may be seen in the north aisle of 
Winchester Cathedral, and on the north door 
of the Abbey refectory, now the parish church 
at Beaulieu. 

The ironstone from the waste of the cliffs 
on the north of the Isle of Wight is now 
collected and sent to South Wales, and 
septaria for cement manufacture is still 
dredged from parts of Christchurch Bay and 
from the bed of the Solent. 

T. W. Shore. 



Curiosities in >toeni.$i) Museums. 




\0 enumerate the actual museums or 
repositories in Sweden, besides 
those that bear that name, would 
be an impossible task. Besides 
Upsala Cathedral, whose chapels and sacristy 
are filled with relics and remarkable things, 
every ancient church in the land Veste- 
ras, Husaby, Visingso, Varnhemskloster 
throughout the list, are such repositories ; and 
besides Gripsholm, Skokloster, and Ulriksdal, 
known and far-famed for their collections, 
there are innumerable other castles, palaces, 
and manors Calmar, Vik, Rosersberg, 
Vidtskofle, Eriksberg that are filled with 
rare and wonderful treasures, and the charm 
of a visit to any castle or private country-seat 
is enhanced by the certainty of such an ex- 
ploration. 

But even the public museums of Sweden 
have not yet been explored to any great ex- 
tent by foreigners, and are as yet veiled 
mysteries. How few know of the wonder- 
ful buried city Birca, and the " finds " from 
it preserved in the National Museum, in 
Stockholm ! In the ninth century this was 
one of " the places of great extent and 
opulence, whose grandeur was a favourite 
theme with contemporary writers." This 
was during the younger Iron Age, which, to 
quote Dr. Oscar Montelius, " coincides with 
the especial Viking period when the sons of 
the North visited all the coasts of Europe, 
founding mighty kingdoms in Russia and 
England, in France and Italy; when they, 



CURIOSITIES IN SWEDISH MUSEUM. 



211 



through the settling of Iceland, saved their 
literature; and through the discovery of 
Vinland, attached their name to one of the 
most important events of the world's history." 
The island of Bjorko, on which Birca was 
situated, was celebrated for its commerce, 
and for the first preaching of Christianity in 
Sweden. According to Dr. Montelius, the 
northern half of the island is almost entirely 
covered with dttehogar and other graves, 
triangular, square, and boat-formed stone- 
settings. The number of such graves visible 
above ground goes over 2,000 ; on the east 
side there are about 1,600 more ; and on the 
south 400. The finds are of the richest and 
most varied description shields, bucklers, 
swords, axes, stirrups, gold, silver, and bronze 
ornaments, chess-men, etc., etc., all of which 
are duly classified in the catalogue. But most 
remarkable are the things found in 1879, 
among which are a jet bracelet, the first 
from the North, a little brown silk cushion, 
decorated on both sides with a stag em- 
broidered in silver, another such stag em- 
broidered in gold ; a little silver crucifix, 
with the image in rough filigree-work ; a 
pair of silver buckles in the form of horses 
with armed riders ; glass-beakers ; glass and 
amber chess-menj bronze and silver orna- 
ments and weapons, etc. More than 800 
graves have been examined since 187 1. 
When Odin's mound, at Gamla Upsala, was 
opened, a simple urn of burnt clay was found, 
three inches below a hard layer, at the 
bottom of the barrow, of ashes, coal, and 
burnt bones ; in this urn and the large layer 
of bones were found the things preserved in 
the National Museum, consisting of burnt 
human bones, a lock of hair, melted bronze 
ornaments, glass beads, combs, chess-men, 
and two bits of gold ornaments, with un- 
usually fine filigree-work. 

An incredible number of gold ornaments, 
brakteats, pendants, bracelets, necklaces, 
have been found in all parts of Sweden. 
One of the most magnificent of these, in the 
same museum, the richest one of all, is a 
gold necklace, found in Oland in i860 ; as 
broad as an average lace collar, it is formed 
of hollow reeds, woven together with filigree- 
work, and its weight is between 1,600 and 
1,800 grams, a gram being the twenty-fourth 
part of an ounce. Another splendid gold 



necklace, weighing nearly a pound and a 
half, was found in Karleby parish, near 
Falkoping, the remarkable region of the 
Stone Age graves, the finds from which fill 
the drawers and cases from 79-91 in this 
museum. From the Middle Ages there is 
much to be seen, among other things the 
reliquarium of gilded silver, in the form of 
an arm, for the preservation of the bones of 
the famous St. Birgitta's arm, which one 
could view through the little round opening 
covered with rock-crystal. There is also a 
photo-lithograph copy of the biography of 
her daughter Catherina, printed in Stock- 
holm in 1475, an d the oldest book printed in 
Sweden. Relics worthy of notice are the 
so-called St. Olof's helmet and spurs, which 
were taken by Swedish troops, during 
Eric XIV.'s time, from the cathedral at 
Throndhjem, and which were for a long 
time kept in the Storkyrka in Stockholm. 
Their form and the letters on the spurs show 
that they are much younger than Olof the 
Holy's time. In 18 18, during eel-fishing 
on Motalastrdm, in Ostergotland, a magnificent 
gold brooch was found, nearly as large round 
as a saucer, set with precious stones, and 
which had probably been worn by some high 
dignitary of the Church. This, too, is in the 
museum ; and a piece of embroidery on 
green silk, with the arms and image of the 
folk-king, Holmgeir, who was decapitated in 
1248; this was formerly spread over Holm- 
geir's grave in Skokloster Church, and is 
said to have been done before the latter half 
of the fourteenth century. I must not omit 
to mention the grave-stone, taken from 
Alvastra cloister-church, of St. Birgitta's 
husband. The Latin inscription around the 
edge signifies, "Here lies the noble chevalier, 
Herr Ulf Gudhmarsson, Judge in Nerike, 
formerly married to the sainted (late) 
Birgitta ; he died in the year 1344, the 12th 
of February." There is a prayer-book, 
printed in 1559, in which are the signatures 
of Gustaf Vasa's children, Cecilia, Carl IX., 
and Anna ; a spinet taken from Stegeborg 
Castle, which was built by Gustaf Vasa, and 
where his son Johan III. was born ; 
Carl XII.'s cradle, and a wooden bowl from 
which he drank at Klefvemarken, in Dal, 
since provided with a silver rim, on which is 
read : " Then heroes drank from bowls of oak 



212 



CURIOSITIES IN SWEDISH MUSEUMS. 



and mazer. Noiv the board of the weak is 
paraded with gold and silver." 

The Goteborg Museum has its solid six 
departments : the Art Department, Zoo- 
logical, Mineralogical, Botanical, Historical, 
Ethnographical, and Numismatic, including 
a library of about 20,000 volumes. Among 
the mass of old and curious things are an 
image, in oak, of St. Olof, or Olof the Holy, 
Norway's patron saint, probably a relic from 
the first church erected there, of wood, about 
the year 1250, by the Norwegian king, 
Hakon the Old ; an old canoe, launched in 
prehistoric times]; and a very ancient musical 
instrument, a hamtnarpipa, which was found 
in Dalham parish, and played during the 
singing in the church, then built, in 1200. 
Baron Nordenskiold has contributed to this 
museum a number of archaeological objects, 
knives, arrow-heads, harpoons, skins, etc., 
collected in Greenland in 1870. 

The greatest curiosity in the Upsala 
library, Carolina Eediviva, is the celebrated 
Codex argenteus, or silver-book, which con- 
tains the four gospels, translated into Mceso- 
gothic by Bishop Ulfilas, who died in 388 ; 
while the cathedral is rich in much that 
can delight the antiquary in it, too, are 
Gustaf Vasa's monument, and that of 
Linnaeus. Olof Rudbeck is also buried 
there, the ardent and patriotic Swede who 
devoted thirty years of his life to the attempt 
to prove that Sweden was Plato's sunk 
Atlantis. In the middle of the church is his 
monument, with this inscription : " Olavus 
Rudbeck Pater. Immortalem Atlantica 
Mortalem Hie Sippus Testatur."* Beside 
the altar is the casket of Eric the Holy, in 
which his bones are preserved ; they were 
enshrined in 1257, and removed from Gamla 
Upsala in T273. The Gustavianum, also in 
Upsala, contains a very rare art-cabinet, pre- 
sented by the city of Augsburg to Queen 
Maria Eleonora, the wife of Gustaf Adolf; 
to penetrate its recesses is to discover 
wonderful and exquisitely beautiful relics, 
specimens of art and skill, things to surprise, 
bewilder, and charm one at every turn ; not 
only are the sides, the doors, the inner slides 
of the repository richly inlaid, but every 

* Olof Rudbeck, the father. The Atlantica bears 
witness to his immortality ; this monument to his mor- 
tality. 



block of the precious mineral that thus gems 
the carved ebony surface is the canvas for 
a miniature painting, simply marvellous in 
point of delicacy and concise force. One 
large agate door, or slide, is the lovely 
clouded groundwork for two paintings, one 
on each side of it, representing "The Last 
Judgment " and " The Passage of the Red 
Sea ;" in an infinite number of little drawers 
and cupboards and niches are hidden 
treasures of all descriptions, one of the most 
remarkable being a ring, not larger than a 
broad gold wedding-ring, on which is painted 
" The Entrance into Jerusalem " and " Christ 
bearing the Cross," one subject occupying 
the space inside usually given to an inscrip- 
tion. 

Sweden itself, from the high north, "the 
paradise of Lapland," to the fertile plains of 
Skane, is a single great museum, with sub- 
terranean vaults as yet unexhumed ; while the 
garrets of the proudest castle and manor, or 
the humblest peasant stuga, contain articles 
of antiquarian and historical value that well 
reward the search. From the attics and 
lofts in Dalecarlia, in the Mora district alone, 
Dr. Hazelius collected five cart-loads of 
things that were to him invaluable, for his 
Northern Museum. The Swedes have 
gathered together all that is rare and wonder- 
ful all that will throw light upon their past 
history and antiquity, in obedience to a 
patriotic and aesthetic impulse, bearing but 
little reference to the outside world ; but 
some day the barriers of insularity will be 
broken down, and the whole world will enjoy 
these fine collections, and derive great 
benefit from them. 

Marie A. Brown. 



iSrasses of Canons of Witiom. 

By Rev. J. E Field. 

N churches of the adjoining counties 
of Oxford and Buckingham are to 
be found the only known instances 
of memorial brasses representing 

canons of the Collegiate Church of St. 

George at Windsor in their canonical habit. 

They are three in number ; and they are the 




BRASSES OF CANONS OF WINDSOR. 



213 



more interesting as illustrating three distinct 
periods in the history of that chapel. The 
first is of the closing years of Edward III., 
carrying us back to the time when the 
original chapel of St. Edward the Confessor, 
founded by Henry I., had recently been re- 
placed by Edward of Windsor's new founda- 
tion which he erected for the Knights of the 
Garter shortly after he instituted their order. 
The edifice was rebuilt in its present sump- 
tuous form by Edward IV. a century later ; 
and it is to the close of this period, in the 
reign of Henry VIII., that the second brass 
belongs. The third is of the year of 
Elizabeth's accession, telling how this Col- 
legiate Church had survived the shock of the 
Reformation, when so many kindred institu- 
tions Henry I.'s greater foundation at 
Reading, and the similar Collegiate Church 
of St. Nicolas in the neighbouring royal castle 
of Wallingford had all been swept away. 

The latest of these three brasses, with a 
special interest of its own, is in the chapel of 
Magdalen College in Oxford. It com- 
memorates Arthur Cole, S.T.B., President of 
the College, and Canon of Windsor, who 
died in 1558. Like so many of the brasses 
of that period, this is a palimpsest, being 
engraved on the reverse of portions of some 
older brasses, probably from religious houses 
which had recently been demolished. It 
was refixed in the centre of the choir about 
thirty years ago. It is described by Mr. 
Haines, in his Manual of Monumental 
Brasses, as having on its reverse a priest in 
chasuble, etc., and an inscription to Robert 
Cobbe, citizen and tailor of London, 1506, 
and Margaret his wife, and also part of 
another inscription. 

In the chapel of Eton College is a brass 
of which the inscription is lost, representing 
Roger Lupton, Provost of Eton and Canon 
of Windsor. Mr. Haines gives its date as 
circa 1536. 

The third of these brasses is of much 
earlier date, and was unknown to Mr. 
Haines at the time of the publication of his 
work. It is in the little village church of 
Northstoke, on the Oxfordshire bank of the 
Thames, opposite the Moulsford station of 
the Great Western Railway. The church is 
not unknown to antiquaries, for the extreme 
beauty of the details of its Early English 



chancel, and the interesting frescoes recently 
uncovered on the walls of its nave. The 
brass is a headless half-effig