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' I 



THE 



ANTIQUARY 



A MAGAZINE DEVOTED TO THE STUDY 

OF THE PAST. 



InsirucUd by the Antiquary Hmus^ 
H$ musty heis^he cannot but be wise, 

Troilus and Crbssida, Act ii., sc 3. 



VOL. XXIV. 

JULY— DECEMBER. 



♦ » » • 









London : ELLIOT STOCK, 62, Patbrnostbr Row. 

1891. 



kk'b 



273510 



• • • • • • • 

• •• ; . 

'•• • • • 

• ••••• •* 

■ • • • » • • 






* • 

* 









• • 









• « 






INDEX. 




Abemethy, Round Tower at. Notes oo, 

■ 88. 
Adams (W. D.). '^VM Pott tmd Fiaytr, 

Review of, a|cx 
iCmtUus Fausttts, Tools of, 144. 
Albano, Pavement at, 940. 

LaxUIe, Remains at, 143. 

Alchemy io England, by Robert Steele, 

Ambobe, Ruins at, 940. 

Ametia, inscription at, 8. 

Ammeriutm Aniiqu^^isM^ 7il<, Notice of, 

Catholic Hbtorical Society, 



Note on. 



Review of, t8o. 
moo-Daria, Ru' 
mcimt €mmf$ 
Notice ofj ijs* 



Rmctt TV, by D. G. Brintoo, 



Amoo-Daria, Ruins 00. 230. 

Amdrnt €mmf$ pm ike MtUvtm HilU^ 



Mills of HampUiire, by T. W. 

«^— — Remains around Conway, isa 

— — '^ Wall-paiottngs, 309^ 

Andrews (WiUiamX Old Ckmrck L^re, 

Review of, 183. 
Andropttlos, Stgnor, Gift of, 146. 
AmtifuArimM, Tkg^ Notice of, 115. 
Amti^itH* mmd Cmrietitus ff ike Ex- 

(JUfmer, by H. Hall, F.S.A., Review 

of, »3i. 
Amoame Vallum, Note on, 6. 
Aqoila, Relics at, 8. 
Arcevia, Remains at, igt. 
Arcktemltgia, Note on, 17a. 
Archapolog:icml Surveys, Chancellor Fcr^ 

fussoo's hints 00, 138. 
— — Mnsenm of the Ducal 

Palace of Voiioe, Additions to, 146. 
ArchjBoloflT in Provincial Museums, Notes 

on, Drimdd, la ; Derby. 108 ; Lichfield, 

146 : Cariisle, 196 ; Shcflkkl, ao. 
Archittctmrmi Amtifmitiet ^ tht ItU 0/ 

Wight. Tkt, 38. 
ArexBO, Remains at, 9$. 
ArisMif M tJU Atktmum Cmstitntifm, 

Review of, 133. 
Arthuret, Well at, S46. 
Atk^^ mrm PmrisA Ckmrtk^ A Guide tf. 

by Rev. F. Joordain, M.A., Review of, 

Asbby St. LeccfS, 998. 

Ashlbrd, WelTat, 948. 

Asptria. Well at, xiS. 

AtAelhamptoQ. Note on, 91. 

AtJkemttmim^ The, Notes on, 933. 

Athens, Relics at, 9; Statues found in, 

47, 95 : Railway-works at, 149 ; Recent 

aoqnisitkms 91^ 145. 
Athoitt, John de, 164. 
Atkinson (Rev. J. CX Note on Prefennent 

AmmMirK whibitinn at, aii. 



Baden, Roman Remains at, 45. 

Bailey (Georg^X Notes on Ardueology in 

Derby Museum, 108. 
— ^— — — ^ Ancient Wall-paintings, 

71, 909. 
Baldw^'n-Childe, The Building of a Barge 

and the Making of a Pool, 1583, 95. 
Bailioi ColUgtt Early History ^ by F. de 

Paravicini, Review of, 975. 
Barber (Rev. H., M.D.), Some Queer 

Names, X 10. 
Barcola, Excavations at, 45. 
Barete, Inscription at, 143. 
Bajve, The Buikling of a, and the Making 

of a Pool, 1583, by Mrs. Baldwyn- 

Childe, 95. 
Bamsdale, Well at, 38. 
Barton (A.), RMtk-Bearimg, Review of, 

«34- . 
Barwick, 996. 

Beaver and Otter Traps, Prehistoric, 9. 

Belfast Naturalists' Field Club, Excursions 

of* 35t 81 » 93^ 
Berks^ Archmological and Architectural 

Society, Joum^ of, 199, 970 ; Excursion 

of, 971. 
Beverley Minster, Signet-ring found at, 

189. 
Birmingham and Midland Institute, Ex- 

curuons of, 36, 126, 175 ; Transactions 

of, 969. 
Bits c/CoHterhury Cathedral^ Review of, 

18^. 
Black Friars, Burials at the Priories of, 

98, 76, 117, 965. 
Bogodar, Tumulus at, 143. 
Boueoa, Remains at, 46. 
Bolton and Bowling, The Histories ol, 

114. 
Boltoo-in-Craven, Well at, 97. 
Books Received, 88, 931, 960. 
Borthwick Castle, Chapel of, i6t. 
BosoQ, King, Skeleton of, 940. 
Bowling and Bolton, The Histories of, 

114. 
Boxlev Abbey, by Rev. J. Cave-Browne, 

BI.A«, ao^ 
Bradford Historical and Antiquarian 

Society, Excursions of, 35, 84, 136, 179 ; 

Papers of, saS. 

Wells at, 97. 



Braunstoa, 998. 

Brightlingsea, 997. 

Brighton Museum, Note 00, 93. 

Brindtsi, Latin Inscriptions at, r43. 

Brinton (B. G.)* Tkt Americmn Rmce, 
Review of. 180. 

Briscoe, Well at, 947. 

British Aidueological Association, Meet- 
ing of^ 39 ; Programme of, 79. 

British Caer, A, 00 Cefn Namor^ Tal y 
Fan Mountain, by the late H. H. Lines, 
64. 



Bromfield, Well at, 945. 

Bronie Helmet, Roman, found, 191. 

Brooches, Notes on, 9. 

Bryaxts, Statue of, 47, 9c. 

Burials at the Priones 01 the Black Friars, 

by Rev. C. F. R. Palmer, 98, 76, 117, 

965. 
Burae, Charlotte S., on Comisk Femsts 

and Folklore^ 181. 
Burscougk Priory^ ExueoaHons mi^ 

Notice of, 135. 
Bygeiu Lancaskirt^ Note on, 999. 
- - — Lincolnshire^ 17. 
Byland Abbey, Notes on, 186. 

Caldew. Well at, 948. 

CaUndarc/th* HaUtweUPkiUi^ Cot- 
lection of Skakes/eartom Jkaritiest 
Review of, 134. 

Cambrian Ardueological Assodatioo, Pub- 
lications ofl 969. 

Camelford, Well aL x6v 

Canonist, An Old English, 164. 

Canosa, Bowl found at, 143. 

Capo StUo, Remains at, 191. 

Cardynhan, Well at, 164. 

Carlisle Castle, Note on, 934. 

— Castle Street, Notes 00, 7. 

Cathedral, Note on, 933, 

Museum, Notes on Arcnsfiologv in, 

by Chancellor R. S. Ferguson, F.S.A., 
196. 

Casterton, Well at, 948. 

Ca&tle-au-Dinas, 997. 

Castle Sowerby, Well at, 948. 

Castrocaro, Tombs at, 05. 

Cave-Browne (Rev. /., M.A.X Boxley 
Abbey, 901. 

Ceramicus Necropolis, Notes on, 47. 

Chapel-en-Frith, Notes 00, 936. 

Chapel Farm. Well at, 164. 

Ckess/or Begimurs and the Beginningt 
of Ckess^ by R. B. Swintoo, Review of, 

CHiester ArchsM^ogicalaixl Historic Society, 

Journal of, 33. 
(Hiroaograms, On, by T. Hilton, F.S.A., 

249. 
Ckurck History qf Cornwall, by Rev. W. 

G. Lach-Sryrma, M.A., Review of, 9^7. 
Ci^fus dedicated to Minerva, Destination 

of. 144. 
C^trencester Museum, Roman Remains in, 

168. 
(^laflin, T., Note on Life of, x\x, 
Clee Church, Lincolnshire, Inscripcioo at, 

188. 
Clifton Antiquarian C^ub, Meeting of, 

379. 
Cnosaos, Note on Works at, 95. 
Coin of Theophilns, 939. 
(^le(Rev. E. MA Notes on Archaology 

in Provincial Museums, la. 



282 



INDEX. 



CoUtction* for a HUtory of Staff ordshire^ 

ColleKio Romano, Additions to, 146. 
Cologne, Roman Pavement at, 46; Latin 

Inscriptions at, 145. 
Conference of Archaeological Societies, 

Notes on, i. 
Congress of Arclueological Societies, The, 

Z32. 

Constantinople Museum, Note on, 04* 

Conway, Ancient Remains around : Dw^rgy. 
fylchi, Meini Hirion, Maen y Campiau, 
etc., by the late H. H. Lines, 150. 

Coped Ston:s in Cornwall, by A. G. 
Langdon, 105. 

Cornish Feasts and Folklort^ by M»s M. 
A. Courtney, Review of, x8x. 

Correspondence: Lights of a Mediseval 
Church, The, 39, 88 ; Handjprints and 
Footprints, 30; Rubbings of Inscribed 
Stones, 136 ; St. Weonanl, x^6 ; Painted 
Crosses at Tong Church. 136 ; Rievaulx 
Abbey, 184 : Ancient Wall-paintings, 93a ; 
A Funeral Hymn of the Sixteenth Cen- 
tury, 333 ; Some Queer Names, aia. 

CoMchtr Book 0/ Selby^ The, Review of, 

J 34* 
County Museums, Timss correspondence 

on, Kote on, \xj. 

County Seats of Shropshirt^ Thft Notice 

of. »35- 
Coventry, White Friars' Monastery at, 

187. 
Cowt of Keildar's Pool, 347. 
Cox (Rev. J. C), Seal of the Hundred of 

Langley, 61. 
•^— ^-^— On a Grave • Slab in 

Easington Church, Yorks, xo6. 

Some Notes on the Visit 



of the Royal Archcological Institute to 
Edinburgh, 155. 

Forty Years in a Moor* 



land Parish, 193. 
Cranfield, Well at, 163. 
Cranstock, Well at, 164. 
Crete, Excavations in. Note on, 96 ; Note 

on Sculpture in, 96 ; Researches in, aoi, 



341. 

Crosier for York, Note on, 4. 

Crown of Tames II., Note on, 90. 

Cubert, Well at, 16^. 

Cumberland, Holy Wells in, 3^5. 

and Westmoreland Anti- 

quarian and Archaeological Society, 
Transactions of, 34; Excursions of, 36, 

831 »73' 
Cup and Ring Rocks, Ilkley, Note on, 

188. 
Dale Abbey, Notes on, 185, 339. 



Uaie Abbev, Piotes on, xa 
Dalston. Well at, 3^6. 
Dartfora Parish Church, 



Restoration of. 



307. 



Delphi, Excavations at, 9, 143. 

Delvino, Tomb at, X43. 

Derby Church}rard Cross, Note on, 93. 

Museum, Notes on, 93, 185. 

Notes on Archaeology in, 



X08. 



Royal Visit to, x 



Roman Remains in, 168. 



Derbjrshire, Wells in, 348. 

-^^-— ^— Archasological and Natural 

History Society, Expeditions of, 36, 8x, 

139. 
Devonshire Association for the Promotion 

of Science, Literature, and Art, at 

Tiverton, 131. 
Dogpole, Shrewsbury, Note on Wall at, 

45* 
Donaghmore, Cross at, 187. 

Dragon's Blood, Note on, 5. 

Drimeld Musetun. Notes on ArchaBoI<^ 

Rev. E. Maule Cole, M.A., 



Dudley Hill, Well at, 37. 

Dumfriesshire County Seal, Note on, 6. 

Dunbar, Find of Coins at, 187. 

Dunchurch, 338. 

Durham Chapter House, Note on, 6. 

and Northumberland Archae- 
ological and Architectural Society, Meet- 
ing of, X75. 

Dusseldorf, Roman Tombs at, 46. 

Eawy, Ruins at, 340. 

Edington Church, Restoration of, 338. 

Egypt, Notes on Recent Explorations in, 

by Alfred E. Hudd. F.S.A.— Heracle- 

opolis, x6. 
Eleuthema, Note on Statue discovered at, 

06, 
Eluabethan Grub Street, The, by W. 

Roberts, 67. 



Ellelv. Well at. 163. 
Erytnrae, " 
Eshton, Well at, 37. 



Inscriptions at, 190. 



in, fay Rei 
F.G.S., xa. 



Eskdale, Well at. 346. 

Essex Archaeological Society, Meetings of, 

338. 

Field Club, Excursions of, 337. 

Everiugham, Well at, 37. 

Excavations at Silchester, by W. H. St. 

John Hope, M.A., 3o8. 
Ex Libris Society, Journal of, X39 ; Works 

of, 338. 

Fara San Martino, Roman Cemetery at, 

340. 
Ferguson (Chancellor R. S., F.S.A.), Notes 

on Archaeology in Carlisle Museum, X96. 
Flndden, Notes on, 370. 
Florence, Antiquities at, 8 ; FunereaJ 

Ci/pus at, 95. 
Folkard, Arthur, Letter of, on Some Queer 

Names, 333. 
Folklore Congress, The International, 3x8 ; 

Note on, ^. 
• Society, Meeting of, 34. 

Forgery of Antiquities, Note on. 91. 
Forty Years in a Moorland Parish, by 

Rev. J. C. Cox, LL.D., F.S.A., X93. 
Funeral Hymn of the Sixteenth Century, 

Letter on, 3^3* 

Galloway in Ancient and Modem Times ^ 
by P. H. M'Kerlie, Review of, x8a. 

Gargrave, Well at, 27. 

Gentleman s Magastne Library, English 
To^gra^hv^ Review of, 378. 

Gilcrux, Well at, 347. 

Gilsland, Well at, 347. 

Gladstone, RielU Hon, W, £,, by G. W. 
E. Russell, Review of, 331. 

GloMcestershirt Notes and Queries, Notice 

of, 135- 
Gomme (G. L., F.S. A>) on The Am^ricoH 

Kaee, z8o. 
Cvoodmanham Church, Note on, 43. 
Goodwins of Hart/ordy The, 38. 
Grade, Well at, X63. 
Grainger, Canon, Note on Gift of, to 

Belfast, 199. 
Grasmere Church, Note on. 45. 
Grave-slab in Easington Church, Yorks, 

On a, by Rev. J. C. Cox, LL.D., 

F.S. A., X06. 
Great St. Bernard, Excavations at, X9x. 
Greece, Excavations at, X43. 
Greek City, Ruins of^ X91. 

8reenstreet, Excavations at, 3. 
reystoke. Well at, 348. 
Grimn, F. C. E., Letter of, on Painted 

Crosses at Tong Church, X36. 
" Grimthorped," Note on use of the term, 

X90. 
Grinton, Well at, 3^. 
Guildford, Antii^uities of, 8a. X87. 
Gypsy Lore Society, Journal of, zsS. 



Haddon and Chatsworth, Notice of, X35. 

Hadrian's Wall. Dispute about, 839. 

Hail Weston. Well at, 16a. 

Halbherr, Professor, Pompeii Revisited, 
97 ; Researches in Crete, aoi, 341. 

Halifax Museum, Roman Remains in, 
x68. 

Hall (Hubsrt, F.S.A.). The Antiquities 
and Curiosities 0/ the Exchequor^ Re- 
view of, 33X. 

Halliwll-Pkillip^ CoUection 0/ Shakes- 
pearean Rarities, Calendar of. Review 
of, X34. 

Hall of Lawford Hall, The, 37. 

Ham House, 33^. 

Hampshire, Ancient Mills of. 54. 

Antiquary eusd Naturalist, . 

The, Review of, 86. 

Field Club, Meeting of, 37^. 

Notes and Queries, Review 



of, a8a 



Record Society, 373. 



Hampton Court Palace^ sox. 
Handprints and Footprints, Letter on, 39. 
Hanging in Chains, ^x ; Note on, 93. 
Hardman, Rev. J. W., LL.D., Death of, 

339. 
Haverfield (F., M.A., F.S.A.), Quarterly 

Notes on Roman Britain, 19, aia. 
Roman 

Remains in Local Museums, 168. 
Havering-atte-Bower, Election at, 91. 
Hedon Mace, Note on, 131^. 
Heidelberg, Roman Remains at, 46. 
Hennessy (Rev. G., B.A.X Notes on Early 

Ecclesiastical Registers of London, 3x4. 
Heracleopolis, Recent Explorations in, 

t6. 
Heraldic Exhibition, Edinburgh, Notes on, 

89, X56. 
Hilton (James, F.S.AO on Chronographs, 

349. 
Historical Account of the Hundreds of 

Chittem in Oxforashirt^ 38. 
Manuscripts C^^mmission, Re- 
port of, 41. 
Historic Houses of the United Kingdom, 

Review of, 379. 
Hitchin Museum, Roman Remains in, 

x68. 
Holy Rood Church, Stirling, 159. 
Holywell, Beds, Well at. 163. 
Holy Well-cum-Needingworth, Well at, 

x6a. 
Holy Wells : their Legends and Superstt' 

tion«, by R. C. Hope, F.S. A., F.R.S.L., 

37, 163. 345. 
Hope (R. C., F.S. A., F.R.S.L.X Holy 

Wells, 37, x6a, 345. 
— ;- (W. H. St. John, M.A.), Excava- 
tions at Silchester, ao6. 
Hudd (A. E.), Notes on Recent Explora* 

tions in Egypt, 16. 
Hudderslield Museum, Roman Remains 

in, x68. 
Hunter (H.), Scottish Laws for Lawless 

Beggars, 48. 
Hutcheon. Henry, Note on, 94. 
Hutton, Well at, 348. 
Hygeia, Statue of, found at Rome, 143. 

Instruments of Torture from Nuremberg, 

ass. 
International Folklore Congress, The, 318. 
Inventories of Church Goods made temp. 

Edward VI., A LUt of, by William 

Page, F.S. A., 31, 74, tao. 
Ireby Cup, Note on, 7. 
Irthington. Well at, 345. 
Islandof Serpents, Excavations at, 145. 
Itanoi, Researches in, aot, 341. 

Jackson, Canon, Note on^ t^a. 
Jerusalem, Note on InicnpuoDs from, 47. 



INDEX. 



283 



JounUtin (Rev. P.. M.A.), A Guide to 
Aihbume Parish ChHrch^ Review of, 
378. 

la&tice of the Peace, Note od, 90. 

Kent Archaological Society, Congress of, 

ia8. 
Kiddal Hall, 336. 
Kiricandrews, Well at, 346. 
Kirkdale Church, Note on, 90. 
Kirkhampton. Well at, 240. 
Kirkoswald, Well at, «45. 
Kitford, Skeleton founa at, 187. 

Lach-Szyrma (Rev. W. G., M.A.), CAunA 

Histpt^ of CofHwall, Review of, 277. 
Lake District, Note on Ftnger-poets in, 

334* 
Lancashire and^ Cheshire Antiquarian 

Society, ^ Meetings of, 84, 131, 37X ; 

Transactions of, 335 : at Tabley, 325. 

Lancaster, List of Church Goods, ^i. 

Langdon (A. G.), Coped Stones in Corn- 
wall, 105. 

Lavret, Island of. Remains at, 144. 

Leadman (A. D. H., F.SA.), PntHa 
Et>orac§nsia^ Review of, 85. 

l..eeds. Well-* at. 37. 

Museum, Roman Remains in, 169. 

1.eicester, List of Church Goods, 31. 
Leicestershire Architectural and Arclue- 

ological Society. Transactions of, 370. 
Lrk'land O-)* Tht Peak 0/ Derbyshire^ 

Review of, 279. 
Liber Vits, Durham, Reproduction of, 

85. 

Lichfield Cathedral, Ancient Wall-paint- 
ings in, 7z, 309. 

Museum, Notes on Archaeology 

in, by J. Ward^ 146. 

Lights of a Medieval Church, Letters on, 
^9, 88, 136. 

Lancob, Inventory of Church Groods in, 

74* 
Ltncolnshire, Syrette^ 17. 

Lines (the late H. H.), A British Caer on 
Cefn Namor^ Tai y Fan Mountain, 64. 

Literary Gossip for Archxologists, 36, 85, 
131, 180. 339, 373. 

Llantwit, Remains at, 190. 

Loch Doon, Note on Castle on, 89. 

Lombarda, Oinochoat at, 9. 

London, Inventories of Church Goods made 
tent]^. Edward VI., s3o. 

Notes on Early Ecclesiastical 

Regbters of, 314. 

Loogthonw Parish Cross, Note on, 6. 
Loros, House of, Records in Cellars of, 

Lu Diana, Prehistoric Boat at, 245. 
Lud^an, Well at, 163. 
Luni, Excavations at, 14a. 

Macclesfield Museum, Roman Remains in, 

169. 
Maces, Exhibition of. Note on, 136. 
Maidenhead and Taplow Field Club and 

Thames Valley Antiquarian Society, 

Report of, 35. 
Malton Museum, Roman Remains in, 

Z69. 
Mantem, Relics at, 45. 
Marathon. Excavations at, 95. 
Margara Abbey, Remains at, 190. 
Marsh, F. T., Letter of, on St. Weonard 

136. 
Marston, Bucks, Well at, 163. 
Martres'Toloaanne, Remains at, 47. 
Maxwell (A., F. S.A.Scot.), Old Dundee^ 

Review of, 330. 
Mayachoss an der Ahr, Tombs at, 145. 
Megalopolis. Remains at, 95. 
Melmerby, Well at, 348. 
Mclos, Statue found an, 95. 



Middlesex, Inventories of Church Goods 

made temp. Edward VI., 120. 
Mignano, Remains at, 14^. 
Mills of Hampshire, Anaent, 54. 
M'Kerlie (P. H.), Gallenvay in Amcient 

and Modem Times^ Review of, 183. 
Montegeorgio, Tomb at, 191. 
Monte Te^taccio, Relics at, 8. 
Montgomeryshire Collections, vol. xxv., 

334. 
Mount Bures, 338. 

Edgecumbe, Well at, 164. 

Moutpezat, Chiteau de, Discoveries at, 

241. 
Mowbray. Roger de. Note on, 186. 
Munro (K., M.A., M.D.), on Prehistoric 

Otter ana Beaver Traps, 9. 

Names, Some Queer, no. 

Neilson, Mr. George, Note on, 339; 

Review of Work by, 374. 
Nelson, Note on Box belonging to him, 

14X. 
Newbury District Field Club, Visit to 

Guildford, 83. 
Nichols {J. M., F.S.A.), Hall of Law/ord 

Hall, Review of, 37. 
Nora, Necropolis of; 340. 
Norfolk and Norwich ArchaM>logical 

Society, Ramble of, 36. 

Archaeology^ Index to, 128. 

Northamptonshire Notes and Queries^ 

Notice of, Z35. 
Norton-juxta-Cannock Church, Note on, 5. 
Notes and Queriet for Somerset and 

Dorset, Notice of, 135. 
Notes of the Month, x, 41, 89, 137, 185, 

233. 
(Foreign), 7, 45, 94, 

142, 190, 239. 
on the £^ly Ecclesiasticad Registers 

of London, by Rev. G. Hennessy, B.A., 

214. 
Numana, Tombs at, 191. 

Oderzo. Pavement at, 95. 

Old church Lore^ by William Andrews, 
F.R.H.S., Review of, i8;j. 

Dundee^ by A. Maxwell, F.S.A.Scot., 

Review of, 330. 

• English Canonist, An, by J. Brown- 
hill, 164. 

Valuable or Noteworthy Books in 

Raicliffe College Library ^ Review of. 

Oriental Glass and Terra-cotta, Collection 

of, 340. 
Orientalists, International Congress of. 

Notes on, i^. 
Ornavasso, Coins found at, 144. 
Otter and Beaver Traps, On Prehistoric, 

by Robert Munro, Mm.A., M.D., 9. 
Out in the Forty-five, by John Wright, 33. 
Oxford Archaeological Society, Report of, 

128. 

Pcstum, Tomb at, X43. 

Page (WillUm. F.S.A.), Ust of the In- 
ventories of Church Goods made temp. 
Edward VI., 31, 74, zso. 

Palazxone, Roman Remains at, 46. 

Palmer (Rev. C. F. RA Burials at the 
Priories of the Black Friars, 38, 76, xx7, 
265. 

Letter of, on A 

Funeral Hymn of the Sixteenth Cen- 
tury, 232. 

Paravicini (F. de), Early History 0/ 
Balliol College^ Review of, 275. 

Patterdale, Well at, 248. 

Peacock, Edward, Letter of, on Hand- 
prints and Footprints, 39. 

On Lights 

of a Mediaev^ Church, 88, 136. 



Peak of Derbyshire^ The, by J. Leyland, 

Review of, 370. 
Pearman(Rev. M. T.), Historical Account 

of the Hundreds of Chiltem, Review 

of, 38. 
Penrith Wells, 347. 
Pentina, Pavement at, Z43. 
Penzance Natural History and Antiquarian 

Society, Meetings of, 35, 81, Z78, 337 : 

Report of, Z79. 
Per Lineam Valli, by G. Neilson, Review 

of, 374. 
Pcrtenhidl, Well at, z63. 
Peterborough Cathedral, Note on Floor 

of, Z40. 
— ■ ■ Museum, Roman Remahis 

in, 169. 



- Natural History and Museum 
Society, Meetings of, 83. 

Pettorano, Inscriptions at, 143. 

Plainsong and Medieval Music Society, 
Concert of, 60. 

Pleasantries from the " Blue Box" 38. 

Pompeii Revisited, by Professor Halbberr, 
97 ; Discoveries at, 340. 

Poniard, Roman, 144. 

Pool, The Makine of a, 1583, 35. 

Pottery-kilns at Hartshill, 335. 

Powys-Land Club, Collections of, 334. 

Pozzuoli, Remains at, 143. 

Pralia Eboracensiat by A. D. H. Lead- 
man, F.S.A., Review of, 85. 

Pratola Peligna, Tomb at, 143. 

Proceedings and^ Publications of Archz- 
ological Societies, 33, 79, Z35, X73, 323, 
369. 

Psalterium, Leaves of Luther's, 340. 

Quarterly Notes on Roman Britain, 

No. IV., 3X2. 

Queer Names, Some, ijy Rev. H. Barber, 

M.D., xxo. 
Letter on Some, 333. 

Raicliffe College Library, Old Valuable 
or Noteroorthy Books in. Review of, 

Ravenna. Byzantine Museum at,. 95; 
Sarcophagus at, X9Z. 

Registers, Notes on Early Ecclesiastical, 
of Ix>ndon, 3x4. 

Researches in Crete, by Dr. F. Halbherr, 
30X, 34 X. 

Restoration of Dartford Parish Church, by 
Rev. Canon Scott Robertson, 307. 

Retrospections, Social and A rcharolorical, 
by C. R. Smith, F.S.A., Notice of, 135. 

Reviews and Notices of Books, 37, 85, X33, 
180, 330, 374. 

Rhine, Bronzes firom the, 46. 

Ricobaldo. Manuscript of, 373. 

Rievaulx Abbey, Notes on, 98, X40 ; Letter 
OUj X84 

Rimini, PavemenUat, Z44. 

Robert5(W.),The Elizabethan Grub Street. 
67. 

Roccacasale, Tomb at, Z13. 

Rockingham Castle ana the PVatsons, by 
C. Wise, Review of, 377. 

Roman Britain, Ouarterly Notes on, by 
F. Haverfield, M.A., F.S.A., X9, 313. 

Remains in Local Museums, by 

F. Haverfield, M.A., F.S.A., x68. 

Roads, Notes on, Z39, 335. 

Rome, Cemetery Stone at, 8 ; Relics at, 8 ; 
Ossuary at. 8 ; Wall-paintings at, 8 ; Re- 
mains of Plan of, 47 ; Note on Excava- 
tions at, 95; Remains at, 143, 244; 
Statue of a Vestal found at, 191. 

Rosa, Pietro, Death of. Notes on, 193. 

Royal Archaeological Institute, Display of, 
33 ; Meetings of, 80 : Journal of, zsc. 

;; Some Notes 

on the Visit of, to Edinburgh, by Rev. 
J. C Cox, LL.D., r.S.A., 155. 



284 



INDEX. 



Royal Institution of Cornwall, Excursion 

of, 177; Journal of, 178. 
— — Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, 

Journal of, 33, 173, 369; Meeting of, 

139. 

Visit to Derby, i. 

Rubbings from Ancient Sculptured Stones, 

156. 
— — of Inscribed Stones, Letter on, 

136. 
Ruxh'Biarmgi by A. Barton, Review of, 

RuMcll (G. W. E.), Right Hon, W, E. 
Giadstomtt Review of, s^i. 

Russian Archeological Scnool, Constanti- 
nople, 341. 

— — — — Expedition to Abyssinia, Note 
on, 9. 

Mission to Palestine. Note on, 

94. (Abbey, 184. 

Rye, H. A., Letter of, on Rievaulx 

St. Cuthbert's Church, Dovebridge, Note 
on, 44. 

Cornwall, Well at, 163. 

St. Erith, Cross at, 337. 
St. Helen's, Colchester, Note on, 335. 
St. John's Church, Leeds, Note on, 43. 
St. Lawrence's Church, Ludlow, Note on, 

St. Martin's Church, Colchester, Notes on, 

St. 'Michael's Church, Linlithgow, 158. 

St. Osyth, 337. 

St. Paul's Ecclesiological Society, Meet- 

inss of, 83, 373. 
St. Peter's, Derby, Note on, 140. 
St. Sadvator's College, 159. 
St. Weonard. Letter on, 136. 
St. Werburgn, Derby, Note on, 94. 

Church, Spondon, Note 

Salmona^ Tomb at, 191. 

Salona, barcophagus at, 9. 

Savisnano, Tombs at, 46. 

Scarborough Museum, Roman Remains 
in, 170. 

Scott Robertson, Canon, Restoration of 
Dartford Parish Church, 307. 

Scottish Laws for Lawless Beggars, 48. 

— — — Poetry^ Early^ Review of, 378. 

Seal of the Hundred of Langley, Gloucester- 
shire, by Rev. J. C. Cox, LL.D., F.S.A., 
61. 

Sentinum, Remains at, 191. 

Sheffield Museum, Notes on Archeology 
in, by J. Ward, 354. 

Shore (T. W.X Ancient Mills of Hamp- 
sldre, 54. 



Shome, Sir John, Well of, 163. 

Shro^hshire Archaeological Society, Trans- 
actions of, Z7^, 370. 

Sicily, Excavations at, 143. 

Silchester, Excavations at, 908. 

Sirolo, Remains at, 46 ; Funeral Remains 
at, 95. 

SitwtU Pedigrte, Tke^ 1380—1667, Notice 
or T36. 

Skeleton of King Boson, 340. 

Skellig Michael, Remains at, 190. 

Slack, Samuel, Memorial of, 337. 

Soci^tfe ^ Neuch£teloise de Geographic, 
Bulletin de, 369. 

Society of Antionaries, Meetings of, 33 ; 
Proceedings of, 135. 

of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, Meetings of, 34, 83, 139, 173, 
370. 

— — — ^— ^-^^— of Scotland, Notes 



on, 3. 



of Biblical Archaeology, Meetings 

0*1 35f aTO* 
of Portrait Painters, Exhibition 

of, 43. 

for Preserving Memorials of the 



Dead, Report of. 34. 
Somersetshire Arcnaeological and Natural 

History Society, Proceedings of, 136, 

J 76. 
Southill, Inscribed Stone at, 190. 
Southover, Interments at, 7 ; Anglo-Sauion 

Cemetery at, 189. 
Spear-head, Bronze, Note on, 45. 
Spurs,^ Brass Note on, 7. 
Stanwix Church, Note on, 6. 
Steele (Robert), Alchemy in En^^Iand, 90. 
Story of tfu Imiiatio Ckristt, Th»^ by 

L. A. Wheatley, Review of, 86. 
Surrey Arclueological Society at Ham 

House, 333 ; Collections of, 334. 
Sussex Archaeological Society, Meeting of, 

373. 
Swinton (R. B.), Cheu for Beginners and 

the Beginnings of Chess ^ Review of, 86. 

Tabley Church and Hall, 335. 
Taddington Church, Notes on, 4, 44, 93. 
Terracina, Roman Nymphaeum at, 191. 
Terranova Pausania, Remains at^ 143. ^ 
Thoresby Society, Work of, 83 ; Excursions 

of, 330. 

Tiber, Relics near the, 46, 340 ; Cippi on 

the Baulks of the, 143. 
Todi Excavations, Note on, 7. 

Tombs aU, 05. 

Tong Church, raunted Crosses at, Letter 

on, 136. 
Tontola^ Tomb at, 95. 



Torpenhow, Well at, 346. 
Torre Pignattara, Cell at, 19a 
Torwoodlee, Brooch at, a. 
Trier, Votive Slab at, 144. 
Tunu, Ronum Inscription in, 143. 
Turvey, Well at, x6a. 

Upper Norwood Athenaeum, Excursions 
of, 35. 

Verona, Remains at, 46, 191. 
Vestal, Statue o^ found, 191. 
Vienna, Roman Tombs at, 45. 

Wadebridge, Well at, 164. 

Wakefield, Well at, 38. 

Wall-paintings, Ancient, by George Bauley, 

— — ^^^-^^— — — Letter on^ 333. 

Ward (J.), Notes on Archaeolosy in Lich- 
field Museum, 146 ; in Sheffield Museum, 
354. 

Warrington Museum, Roman Remains in, 
17Z. 

Warwickshire Naturalists' and Archae> 
ologists' Field Club, Excursions of, 338, 
373. 

Waterthwaite Cups, Note on, 7. 

Weaver, F. W., Letter of, on Lights of a 
Mediaeval Church, 39. 

Welsh St. Donat's, Restoration of, 338. 

Westminster Abbey, 60. 

<-—-» Comnussion, Report 

Wheatley (L. A.), The Story ^thi tmitatio 

Chris ti, Rc\'iew ofi 86. 
Whitby Museum, Roman Remains in, 

X7X. 
William Salt Archsological Society. Coi- 

lections for a History qf Staffordshire^ 

WiUoughby, 338. 

Wilne, Well at, 348. 

Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural 

History Society, Meetings of, 36, 136. 
Wise (C), Rockingham Castle and the 

WeUsoHS^ Review of, 377. 
With Poet and Flayer ^ by W. D. Adams, 

Review of, 330. 
Woodhull, V. C., Note on Life of, 141. 
Woolbope Naturalists' Field Club, 373. 
Wright (J')i Out in the Forty-five, 32. 

Yorkshire Archaeological amd Topo* 
graphical Association, Record Series of, 
3j, 8x ; Programme of, 81 ; Excuivion 
of, X30. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



FACE 

prehistoric oin-rr trap, broughshanb - ii 

carvings from lincolnshire - - • 18 

roman sculptures 20 

breeds' irons, 1742 52 

a thames pirate 53 

seal of langley, gloucestershire - - 63 

wall-paintings, lichfield (fig. l) - - 72 

n „ (FIG. 2) - - 73 

GRAVE-SLAB, EASINGTON I07 

OLD COTTAGES IN BOLTON LOW FOLD - * US 

NEWALL HALL, EASINGTON • • - -1X6 

EAST DOORWAY, NEWALL HALL - II7 

CROSSES, ST. FBTER*S, DERBY - • • - I4I 



SACRAMENT HOUSE, ST. SALVATOR*S COLLEGE, 
EDINBURGH 

CHAPEL OF BORTHWICK CASTLE 

RUINED COTTAGE, DANBY DALE 

WALL-PAINTING, LICHFIELD CHAPTER-HOUSE 

RUINS IN CRETE 

HAMPTON COURT PALACE, THE LION GATES 

HAMPTON COURT PALACE, WEST SIDE OF THE 
CLOCK TOWER 



a 



a 



HAMPTON COURT PALACE, "THE PUSH 
SECTION OF ANTONINE's VALLUM - 
SECTION OF HADRIAN'S WALL - 

„ AFTER DR. BRUCB'S HANDBOOK 



fACB 

t6o 

161 

2X0 

243 
262 

263 
264 

274 
275 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



• • • 



,•• 



m h 



• •' 












The Antiquary. 




JULY, 1891. 



I0ote0 of tbe 6|9ontb. 



The Conference of Archaeological Societies 
in union with the Society of Antiquaries for 
1891 will be held on July 23 and 24. The 
arrangements are not quite completed as we 
go to press, but they promise to be both 
attractive and useful It is hoped that 
General Pitt-Rivers will draw the attention 
of the archaeologists to the Ancient Monu- 
ments Preservation Act and to its extension, 
and that Mr. G. E. Fox, F.S.A, will dis- 
course on the excavation of Roman remains. 
In addition to a variety of practical ques- 
tions that will come before the congress, 
the delegates will be specially received in 
one of the archaeological galleries of the 
British Museum. With an attractive pro- 
gramme of this description, the congress 
ought certainly to prove a success. The last 
association that has entered into ** union" 
with the Society of Antiquaries is the Royal 
Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 

4^ 4p 4^ 

The royal visit to Derby on May 21, when 
her Majesty laid the foundation stone of the 
new infirmary, was in every way a memorable 
success, chiefly owing to the liberality and 
other excellent qualities of the mayor. Sir 
Alfred Seale Haslam (the Antiquary begs to 
congratulate him on his knighthood) is an 
archaeologist, and keenly interested in the 
history and antiquities of his county. It was 
therefore suitable, and we welcome it as a 
pleasing innovation, that the address of the 
Corporation to the Queen departed from the 
beaten path of stereotyped declarations of 
VOL. xxiv. 



loyalty, and gave a fairly'cbj^ect historic 
retrospect of previous royal \vj5its pver a 
period of twelve hundred years, wiiich are 
thus enumerated : " Derby was 2l*,pla^ of 
importance in Saxon times, as attested**^ 
the Venerable Bede writing in 666, andTjirlgifir 
visited by King Edwin about the year 6^7^;' 
In 874 King Alfred the Great constituted it V 
the Metropolis of the county, and honoured 
it with his presence. About that time his 
brave daughter Athelfleda was in command 
of the forces and defeated the Danes in 918. 
In Domesday Book Derby is described as a 
Royal Borough of Edward the Confessor, 
and privileged with a Mint. Derby was 
made a corporate town by Henry I., who 
granted a charter about the year 11 00. 
This charter was renewed and enlarged by 
Henry II., and confirmed about 1327 by 
King Edward III. In the year 121 7 King 
John visited Derby, and granted a most 
important charter to the town, conferring 
great powers thereupon. In 1264 King 
Henry III. and his son. Prince Edward, 
visited the town. King Edward II. about 
1322 visited the town with his army. In 
1422 King Henry VI. granted a charter to 
the towa In 1466 King Edward IV. con- 
firmed the charter. In 1483 King Richard III. 
also confirmed the said charter. In the year 
1553 Queen Mary granted the town a charter. 
On January 13, 1585, Mary Queen of Scots 
stayed a night in Derby. In 1624 James I. 
and Prince Charles were also a night in the 
town, and the King confirmed the Old Town 
Charters. In 1635 and 1641 King Charles I. 
visited Derby, and in 1637 that monarch 
granted it a charter, and in or about 1680-82 
King Charles II. granted the town our pre- 
sent and latest charter." 

♦ ♦ 4p 

We say "fairly correct," for this historic 
retrospect of royal visits might have been 
materially enlarged with regard to the visits 
to Derby of the earlier monarchs. It is, too, 
a little misleading to mention that Mary Queen 
of Scots stayed " a night " in Derby as though 
that was her only visit. The captive Queen 
slept at Derby on February 3, 1569, as well 
as on January 13, 1575. Surely it was an 
excess of misplaced loyalty that omitted in 
an historic retrospect the most memoral^le 
visit that royalty ever paid to Derby, when 

B 



• • • 
• • •' 



• • • • 



• • • ' 

•• • 



• • •• 



• •• 

-• — L 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



• • • 



• • 



Prince Charle^-.£fdward ^sojourned there in 
1745. If-^He 'Queen was to be reminded of 
the sa<iand*(liscreditabletale of the imprison- 
niQPt olt'Mary Queen of Scots in the time 
pC Eltiabeth, there could be no offence in 
;^!iAiif)g the visit of the Prince during the 
>«,{iast century. It is not generally known that 
\* all addresses to royalty have first to be sub- 
' ' mitted to the Secretary of State, presumably 
for the Queen's own perusal. As her Majesty's 
Stuart proclivities are well known, we are 
convinced that had the address contained a 
sentence relative to the Retreat of '45, the 
royal pen would not have erased it, and the 
tender feelings of our friends of the order 
of the White Rose would have been spared 
a shock. 

^ ^ ^ 

But if the wording of the address is open 
to slightly adverse historic criticism, there 
can be nothing but commendation for the 
exquisite manner in which the address was 
written, illuminated, and embellished. It 
formed a quarto volume of ten pages of 
vellum, with beautifully-painted miniature 
drawings of All Saints' tower, and the old 
silk mill, Derby ; of the seats at Chatsworth, 
Hardwick, Haddon, Bolsover, and Willersley ; 
and of views at Dovedale, Matlock, and 
Monsal Dale. The work was happily en- 
trusted to our contributor Mr. Geoige Bailey, 
of Derby, whose antiquarian knowledge, 
artistic skill, and long experience as an il- 
luminator of the first rank were brought into 
play to render the execution of the rich 
ornamentation not only comely and tasteful, 
but to combine the arms of the borough, 
the badge of the county, and the mayoral 
insignia with happy effect, and to make the 
fioral embellishments tell the tale of the 
gradual growth of the United Kingdom 
through the use and combination of the re- 
spective symbols of England, Wales, Scot- 
land, and Ireland. The mayor was subse- 
quently instructed by the Queen to pay Mr. 
Bailey the special and probably unprecedented 
compliment of congratulating him in her 

name on the work of art that he had produced. 

^ ^ ^ 

It is an interesting sign of pr^ess in connec- 
tion with the study of archaeology in Scot- 
land, to note that the headquarters of the 
Society of Antiquaries (Scot.) has now been 



removed from the Mound, Princes Street, 
to the New Museum in Queen Street. The 
whole of the collection of national antiquities 
has also been transplanted there, and is now 
in course of arrangement under the direction 
of Dr. J. Anderson. There are three floors 
in the new museum, namely, the ground fioor, 
containing early sculptured stones and 
mediaeval Scotch antiquities ; the first floor, 
which comprises the prehistoric Scotch anti- 
quities of stone and the stone ages, as well 
as Roman remains ; and the second or top 
floor, wherein are disposed the foreign anti- 
quities and anthropological specimens, and 
also the library. It will probably be finished 
in time for the meeting of the Royal Archaeo- 
logical Institute at Edinburgh in the be- 
ginning of August. 

i8p ^ ^ 

The most important addition that the Society 
of Antiquaries (Scot.) has perhaps ever 
acquired has just been added to their collec- 
tion and placed in the New Museum. We 
refer to the beautiful Hunterston brooch, 
with its runic inscription, which is fully de- 
scribed in Professor Stephen's Runic Menu- 
ments, and in Anderson's Scotland in Early 
Christian Times, It was carried about in a 
case by Mrs. Hunterston, of Hunterston, 
near Laigs, Ayrshire, wherever she went, and 
has been sold by her to the society with 
the greatest reluctance. The Hunterston 
and Jara brooches are the two finest extant 
specimens of Christian Celtic metal-work. 

4^ 4p 4^ 

Some members of the Galashiels Ramblers' 
Club have been recently disinterring the 
foundations of a large and important broch, 
or ancient circular dwelling fort, in Selkirk- 
shire. During an expedition in the summer 
of 1890 to the well-known British fort of 
Torwoodlee, at the northern extremity of the 
Catrail, the attention of the members was 
directed to a circular ditch about 16 feet wide, 
the enclosed circle measuring 80 feet. Last 
month excavations were begun, great boulders 
were found a few inches below the grass, and 
now the whole outline of the foundations 
of a massive broch are revealed. The huge 
wall is 17 feet 6 inches in thickness, and it 
encloses an open central area, of which the 
diameter is 40 feet, the largest broch known 
in Scotland, excepting Edin's Hall on Cock- 



NOTES OF THE MONTH, 



bum Law, Berwickshire, of which the wall 
varies from 15 to 20 feet, and the largest 
diameter of both walls and open space is 
9aJ feet The diameter of the Torwoodlee 
one, through the walls and central space, is 
75 feet, some 5 feet more than the largest in 
the north of Scotland, and very much larger 
than the average of the 370 or so whose 
ruins are still to the fore north of the Cale- 
donian Canal — the real brochland. The 
highest portion of the exposed foundations 
of Torwoodlee broch is slightly over 3 feet. 
The highest portion of the entrance preserved 
is scarcely 3 feet in height, but, generally, 
the rest of the outlines may be taken as under 
2 feet in height. Many of the Stones are 
very massive, the first 7 feet of the entrance 
passage, for example, consisting of only four 
stones in two tiers. 

^ ^ ^ 

The highest existing broch, that of Mousa, 

in the Shetlands, is 45 feet in length. The 
wall, from base to summit, contains chambers, 
tier above tier, in which the people lived. 
All brochs were similar in this respect. 
These upper chambers were reached by stone 
stairs, which began in a chamber on the 
grotmd floor and ascended gradually to the 
upper rooms. The lower steps of the stairs 
have been discovered in the Torwoodlee 
example. It has now been estabUshed that 
the British fort of Torwoodlee was the outer 
defence of the largest broch, save one, in 
Scotland. One point of great interest in 
connection with this newly-discovered ancient 
ruin is that the puzzling and mysterious 
Catrail has its northern termination at the 
door of the broch. The presumption is that 
the builders of the broch made the ramparts 
of the fort as exterior defences of the broch, 
and were also the engineers of the Catrail, 
which is generally believed to have gone on 
uninterruptedly to the Peel Fell in North- 
umberland, somewhere about fifty miles or 
so, for some purpose or other that archae- 
ologists have not been able to determine. It 
will be curious if the Catrail be found to 
connect ruined brochs all along its course. 
The Scotsman has given a full account of 
this interesting and valuable discovery, which 
ought to direct renewed attention to these 
ancient circular forts, the remains of many 
of which are still probably only a few inches 



below the sod. There is a good summary 
of the main facts at present known with 
regard to broclis in the edition of Chamber^ 
Encyciopctdia now being issued. 

4? ♦ ♦ 

General Pitt-Rivers has just been engaged in 
completing the excavation of Wans Dyke, 
near Shepherd's Shore, which he commenced 
last year. The particular spot at which he 
is now excavating shows traces of a rectangular 
earthwork in front of the Dyke, which may 
possibly mark the site of an earlier or con- 
temporary settlement. If this turns out to 
be the case, it may throw important light on 
the date of the rampart itself, which, from 
the scanty evidence found in the two cuttings 
already made, seems likely to prove to be a 
Roman or post-Roman work, as one or two 
small fragments of Samian ware were found 
at or near the old surface-level of the ground 
under the rampart. The thoroughness of 
General Pitt-Rivers* work, as is well known, 
leaves nothing to be desired. And in addition 
to taking most careful plans, with records of 
the position of everything found, all the 
more important excavations and sections are 
reproduced by members of his staff in exact 
plaster models to scale, so that practically 
the excavation itself is preserved for future 
study far more completely than could be 
done by plans, drawings, or descriptions 
alone. This plan the General has adopted 
in the very extensive operations which he 
has for some years past been conducting on 
the sites of the Romano-British villages at 
Woodcuts, Woodyates and Rotherley on his 
own property near Rushmore, the models, 
drawings, and very numerous finds from 
which are exhibited to the public in the 
museum he has established at Famham. 

4tf ^ ^ 

Mr. Michell Whitley has had the satisfaction 

of making some interesting discoveries at a 
farmstead known as Greenstreet, about a 
mile north-west from the parish church of 
Eastbourne. Foundations that were oc- 
casionally uncovered when digging for flints, 
as well as traditions, pointed to this place 
being the site of some ancient town or dwell- 
ings. Mr. Whitley has lately had the oppor- 
tunity of making excavations near Green- 
street, with the result that he found scattered 
over the surface a large number of circular 

B 2 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



pits about 1 8 inches in diameter and about 
1 8 inches deep» filled with mould, oyster and 
mussel shells and some burnt com. He also 
uncovered a pit roughly shaped like the 
letter "L," about 15 feet long and 5 feet 
deep from the original surface to the bottom. 
This, was edged around with stones set up- 
right, and which had evidently been brought 
from the Eastbourne beach. At the bottom 
of the pit was a large stone of rather irregular 
shape, which appeared to have been subject 
to the action of intense heat. The contents 
of this pit, which were of a most fragmentary 
character, consisted of portions of Samian 
and Upchurch ware, a fragment of a beauti 
fully-formed patera of a dark -gray tint, a 
spindle whorl of chalk, a large quantity of 
horse -bones, some large iron nails, burnt 
corn, charcoal, oyster-shells, a fused piece of 
copper, and a large cake of lead weighing 
nearly seven pounds. At the north-west end 
of the pit were semicircular hollows, which 
also bore traces of intense heat. Another 
pit, a short distance off, was roughly shaped 
like a grave, and was about 6 feet long, 3 feet 
wide and 4 feet deep. In this pit were found 
a fragment of Roman glass, some Upchurch 
ware, a fragment of iron, fragments of wood, 
some long coffin-nails with large heads, and 
a quantity of horse and ox bones, and oyster, 
mussel and limpet shells. Mr. Michell 
Whitley thinks the pits were either refuse- 
pits attached to a large villa, or more probably 
a spot for interments, the corpse interred in 
the large pit having evidently been burnt on 
the large central stone, and that buried in 
the smaller pit having been enclosed in a 
wooden coffin and not burnt. It is hoped 
that further excavations, which it is expected 
will be made in the autumn, when the corn 
is off the land, will result in the discovery of 
a Roman villa at or near this spot 

4p 4ii' 4p 

We are glad to learn that a project for pre- 
senting the new Archbishop of the northern 
province with a crosier or pastoral staff met 
with such general and widespread support as 
to make the matter an assured success when- 
ever it xazy seem ecclesiastically expedient 
to pursue it. It says not a little for the 
mischief done by popular but erroneous 
handbooks of ecclesiology to find that the 
blunder of confusing a crosier and a cross 



still clings to the minds of several of the 
dignitaries of the Church. We had thought 
that this had all been cleared up in connec- 
tion with the translation of Archbishop 
Bensoa Let it be again briefly stated that 
a pastoral staff and a crosier are equivalent 
terms, and equally appertain to archbishops 
and bishops. An archiepiscopal cross is a 
distinct symbol, and should never be con- 
fused with the crosier. It would be well if 
the committee, responsible for the eventual 
execution of this gift, would remember that 
a crosier ought to be made light enough for 
the .Archbishop himself to carry it ; the cross, 
which ought certainly to form part of the 
same presentation, could be made somewhat 
heavier, since it would always be borne by 
the " cross-bearer.*' 

i" 4? ♦ 

Taddington, a chapelry of the old mother 

church of Bakewell, Derbyshire, ix)ssesscs 
an interesting church dedicated to St. Michael. 
At the time (1876) when that volume of 
Notes on the Churches of Derbyshire was 
written, which deals with the hundred of the 
High Peak, the church of Taddington was 
in the most scandalous condition of dirt, 
neglect, and decay. Since that date the 
state of things has been materially improved, 
))ut much remains to be done. A generous 
and anonymous gift of ;£^i,ooo towards the 
repair of the faoric has brought about a 
proposition for its general restoration. This 
will have to be undertaken with much circum- 
spection, but as it is in the rural deanery of 
Rev. Canon Andrew, of Tideswell, who is 
the most callable and reverent of church 
restorers in the Midlands, and who has 
treated his own princely fabric with con- 
summate skill, we have much hope that no 
mischief will be done. At all events we 
trust that the chancel will not be ruined for 
the sake of a " box of whistles.'' Since our 
last issue there have been some pregnant re- 
marks in an influential Churchpaper (Church 
lYmeSf June 5) on the overorganing of 
village churches. " It is piteous,'' says the 
writer, "to witness the havoc wrought in 
many ancient chancels by the barbarous 
orifices made in their venerable walls for 
organ chambers." A curious, and surely- 
mistaken rumour reaches us that in the case 
of the restoration of Taddington church, the 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



Bishop of Southwell proposes to waive any 
application for a " faculty " for the repair and 
alteration of this building. According to 
advice that we have received (and the advice 
proceeds from a diocesan Chancellor), a 
bishop has no power thus to suspend the 
operation of his own court, which provides 
for a wholesome publicity being given to 
proposed tamperings with historic edifices. 

lAt ^ Af 

With regard to the fine but much mutilated 
church of St. Werburgh, Spondon, Derby- 
shire, to which we referred last month, our 
readers will be gratified to learn that Mr. 
J. Oldrid Scott, F.S.A., has now altered the 
plans by which it was proposed to shift the 
founders' recess from the north side of the 
chancel, and there is some hopes that the 
chancel will be suffered to remain without any 
organ or vestry excrescence on either side. 

, . , i» ♦ ♦ 

It is pleasant to notice the increased sensitive- 
ness of the English mind to the removal of 
monuments, and to the general dangers of 
church "restoration." The local papers 
have recently contained much correspondence 
with regard to the removal of mural tablets 
and monumental stones in the chancel of 
St Martin's, Colchester. We know nothing 
further of the subject than can be gleaned 
from these published letters, but from them 
we gather that there certainly has been un- 
necessary interference and alteration. 

4ip 4^ 4p 

A correspondent, whom we can entirely trust, 
draws our attention to a disgraceful state of 
things with regard to Norton-juxta-Cannock 
church, which was rebuilt a year or two ago. 
Two of the old Fowke monuments were then 
taken from the church and have never been 
replaced They are now lying at Longton 
in the shop of a stonemason of the name of 
Evans. Surely some steps should be taken 
to have these good old marble monuments, 
both of them given in Shaw's Staffordshire^ 
replaced ere they be broken up. We venture 
to commend this subject to the attention of 
the Bishop of Lichfield before he leaves the 
Midlands for the northern province. The 
Archbishop-designate of York, among his 
other excellent qualifications for the primacy, 
possesses the somewhat rare episcopal virtue 
of being a reverent antiquary. May he prove 



more than a match for his irreverent Chan- 
cellor ! 

^ ^ ^ 

The correspondence that went on last month 

in a chemists' trade-journal with regard to 
" dragon's blood " is of much interest to folk- 
lorists as showing the survival in our midst, 
even in towns, of a good deal of belief in 
witchcraft. One correspondent says : " For 
nearly sixty years I have sold dragon's blood, 
mostly to girls, who, jealous, sought to win 
back waning affections by burning it, and 
using certain words of incantation. I know 
a druggist who makes large sales of it in the 
winter time." A Cambridge chemist writes : 
" I have fi-equently asked customers, who are 
generally young girls, for what purpose the 
dragon's blood was required, and found in a 
few cases that it was for staining wood or 
colouring furniture or French polish; but 
generally it was for burning, when it acted 
as a charm to keep their sweethearts' love 
true to them, or when far away to bring them 
home again. One lass told me that her young 
man was a sailor, and as he had been away 
for some time she wanted to see him, so was 
going to sprinkle some dragon's blood on 
red-hot coals, as that would be sure to bring 
him home" Another chemist from North 
Shields writes : " I have had great difiliculty 
in finding out for what it was used. It was 
not for medicine, but for a kind of witch- 
craft. The women bum it upon a bright 
fire while wishing for their affection to be 
returned by someone of the opposite sex; 
also where women have quarrelled with their 
husbands and desire to be friends again ; 
girls who have fallen out with their young 
men and want to win them back again, as 
well as young women wanting sweethearts. 
I am convinced that its largest use is in this 
kind of witchcraft" 

^ lAt ^ 

The Roman Catholics of the United States 
have recently established an "American 
Catholic Historical Society." It is supported 
by archbishops, bishops, and many eccle- 
siastics. The membership is, we believe, 
already large, and the foundation of a good 
historical library is laid. The society has 
already 6,000 volumes on its shelves. In 
many of the Southern States the Gospel was 
first preached by Roman Catholic Mission- 



NOTES OF THE MONTH 



aries. The history of their early struggles 
is but little known. If this young society 
succeeds in recovering the early missionary 
annals of Florida, Louisiana, California and 
New Mexico, it will have done a good work. 

•J" -J" «fr 

Excavations which are being made for the 

reconstruction of the Chapter House of 
Durham Cathedral in memory of the late 
Bishop Lightfoot have brought to light con- 
siderable portions of three crosses of the 
Saxon period, the sculpture on which has 
suffered scarcely any deterioration from the 
lapse of time. Rev. Canon Greenwood 
writes to us that it is expected that the 
missing parts, or at all events other frag- 
ments, may yet be recovered. He will 
shortly describe them fully to the Society 
of Antiquaries. 

^ ^ if 
Lieut-Colonel C. I. Strong contributes an 
interesting article to the parish magazine of 
Longthorpe, near Peterborough. He states, 
on the authority of Mr. J. T. Irvine, that 
the stone shaft of the parish cross in a cottage 
garden at Ix>ngthorpe is distinctly Saxon, and 
from the marks of iron insertions upon it, it 
was doubtless for some time used in connec- 
tion with the parish whipping-post and stocks. 

♦ •!» «!• 

The question of the Dumfriesshire County 
Council seal was brought up lately on a 
strong motion by a councillor denouncing its 
heraldry, its history, and the spelling of its 
legend. The lettering was as follows : 
Sigilium Concilia Vice Comitatus de Dumfries, 
The immediate result of the tabling of the 
motion was the redespatch of the seal to the 
engraver to take the superfluous / out of the 
second word. The motion was, by consent 
of the proposer, delayed till next meeting of 
the Council, so that perhaps by that time the 
genera] purposes committee may have detected 
solecism number two, which no reader of the 
Antiquary versed in legal Latin will have 
much difficulty in detecting. The convener 
of the county. Colonel Walker, referring to 
the unnecessary supply of Vs in the second 
word, said that an error in spelling was a 
scandal to the Council. The remark deserves 
hearty echo, and needs extension to the 
sigillary monstrosity as a whole. It is to be 
hoped that the discussion to take place at the 



next meeting of the Council will awaken the 
needed public interest in the question. It 
cannot fail to condemn the concoction beyond 
hope of recovery. Four or five of the chief 
counties in Scotland have had new arms 
granted and registered by the Lyon King in 
due manner. Several others had alr^idy 
arms of old standing, and did not need 
to register anew. But Dumfries, attaining 
by the wrongheadedness of a sub-committee 
a very bad eminence indeed, stands alone 
in Scotland in defying heraldry, history, spell- 
ing, the Lyon Office, and common sense all 
in one fell swoop. However, the plain speak- 
ing of Colonel Walker augurs well for an 
ultimate reform rather more drastic than the 
partial rectification of the blundering legend. 

^ lAt lAt 

Most of the cuttings in the Antonine vallum, 
made by the Glasgow Archaeological Society, 
are being or have already been closed. The 
curiosity of some visitors who are not anti- 
quaries is apt to manifest itself in modes 
objected to by both archaeologists and pro- 
prietors. Two fine stone cones, for example, 
in the outer wall at Roughcastle, were ruth- 
lessly torn down by vandal hands. It is a 
pity that ignorance has not at least the sense 
to keep its fingers up. New cuttings are to 
be made elsewhere, and probably some of 
the old ones will be reopened for the Archae- 
ological Institute in August. 

^ ^ ^ 

The old font of Stanwix Church has, within 
the last few days, been placed in the museum 
at Carlisle. That church was burnt and 
rebuilt about fifty years ago, when the old 
font was discarded, and lost sight of. It now 
turns out that one of the churchwardens 
carried it off to his garden, and utilized it as 
a flower-pot; there it remained until quite 
recently, when Mr. E. J. Parker spied it and 
instituted inquiries, which resulted in the dis- 
covery of the " oldest inhabitant, '' who recol- 
lected it, and had seen it in all its changes. 
It is a small, plain octagon with the date 
of 141 7 in Arabic figures graven on it. 
Bishop Nicholson in 1702 described it as 
*' base," and it certainly is so : and so low 
that " 'tis troblesome for the minister to stoop 
to it." If the authorities of Stanwix Church 
would guarantee the safe custody of the relic, 
it would probably be restored to them« 



NOTES OF THE MONTH, 



7 



The incumbent of Waterthwaite in West 
Cumberland died recently, and his effects 
were sold by auction; among them were 
three cups — silver plated on copper — of 
secular pattern, and of no particular intrinsic 
value \ but they were the goods of the church, 
and were discarded some twenty years ago in 
favour of a modern set, since which time 
they have lain in a cupboard in the rectory. 
The purchaser, a farmer of the vicinity, defies 
both rural dean and bishop, and declines to 
restore the cups. There is no doubt that 
it is the duty of the churchwardens, as 
custodians of the goods of the church, to take 
legal proceedings for their recovery, in which 
they should succeed, as a sale by auction 
can hardly be market overt for church goods. 
If the opportunity presented itself, they 
should seize the cups. 

ifr «fr ♦ 

The communion-cup belonging to Ireby, in 

Cumberland, was ill^ally given away by the 
churchwardens in 1848. It has recently been 
offered for sale to the Society of Antiquaries, 
whose executive committee called the attention 
of Chancellor Ferguson thereto. Negotia- 
tions are now on foot, which may result in 
its restoration to Ireby, and, pending them, 
discussion had better be dropped. 

4p 4^ 4p 

The Dean and Chapter of Carlisle recently 
pulled down two houses on the west side of 
Castle Street with the avowed intention of 
opening out the view of the glorious east 
window of the cathedral church from Castle 
Street. On the site they have, however, 
erected, under the advice of Sir Arthur Blom- 
field, two enormous stone gate-posts, 10 feet 
high» with pyramidal heads ("skittle-posts,'' 
a waggish antiquary recently called them — 
and " skittle-posts " they are). To a spectator 
approaching from Castle Street, as all strangers 
and most natives do, the northern "skittle- 
post" appears in front of the east window, 
spoiling the view thereof completely by its 
ungainly intrusion. The posts were probably 
designed in the architect's office in London, 
and their local background left out of con- 
sideration. 

. * * * 
A very nandsome pair of brass spurs was 

purchased recently in Carlisle from a stall for 

sale of old metal. They resemble eagles; 



the birds' necks form the necks of the spurs, 
and their beaks hold the rowels. The breast 
and wings embrace the boot heels. They arc 
of bold and effective design, plumage well 
rendered, and the engraving deep cut ; it is 
conjectured that they belonged to the French 
Imperial Guard of the time of Waterloo. 
Does anyone know ? 

i» ♦ ♦ 

The number of interments discovered at 
Southover, Lewes, to which we referred in 
our June "Notes," now amounts to eight. 
The seventh skeleton was exhumed in the 
absence of any member of the Sussex 
Archaeological Society. The only relic 
found wim the bones was a piece of iron 
about 10 inches long, and so corroded as 
to render it impossible to say whether it 
was originally a spear or a long knife. The 
eighth skeleton was found to the south-east of 
the house, lying east and west. The body 
had evidently been interred with the right 
arm lying parallel with it, but the left fore- 
arm was inclined across the breast. Near 
the spot where the hand would have rested 
was found a knife with tang. This, the only 
relic, was much corroded. Thanks to Mr. 
Aubrey Hillman, the knife is placed, with 
the previous finds, in the Lewes Museum. 




iOote0 of tf)e 6|9ontb (JForetgn). 



In Todi, the ancient Tuder in Umbria 
(Regione VI.), excavations have been re- 
sumed in the portion of the necropolis, 
near the contrada called Peschiera^ where 
in 1886 was found the tomb containing a rich 
collection of gold grave-goods, which are now 
exhibited in the Museo Nationale at the Villa 
Giulia outside the Porta del Popolo. Nine 
fresh tombs have been discovered during 
last March, most of which are referred to 
the period between the third and second 
centuries B,a The grave-goods now dis- 
covered consist of gold collars, earrings, 
finger -rings with scarabsei and hractea of 
gold, with the usual ornamental motive of 
sea-waves and dolphins. There were remains 
of a bronze casket, and mirrors with the usual 



8 



NOTES OF THE MONTH (EO/^E/GN). 



winged genii, and thymiateria where doves 

rest upon the dish which a designing fox is 

eyeing jealously, while a squirrel is seen 

climbing on a bough. 

» )i 4( 
In the territory of Amelia the remains of 

an inscription of the Augustan age has been 

discovered, in which mention is made of 

some military titles ; near Penna in Teverina 

an inscribed sepulchral cippus has been found, 

terminating in a cipher, which probably 

represents by initial letters the name of the 

deceased. 

» « « 
In Rome a Christian cemetery stone has 
come to light in the oratory of St. Francis of 
Paula, and ruins of ancient buildings in the 
former garden of the Capuchins. Nine in- 
scriptions of the Augustan boundary on the 
banks of the Tiber have been found in the 
Prati di Castello; marble fragments and 
bricks with makers' marks in the area of the 
Policlinico ; several fresh tombs of the great 
necropolis, with the remains of grave-goods, 
near the Porta Salaria ; and also various in- 
scriptions, with a rare potter's stamp, in 
digging the foundations of the portico of St. 
Paul on the Ostian Road. 

^ ¥k ^ 

Near the spot, where the stones recording 
the secular games were found a short time 
ago, viz., on the left bank of the Tiber, near 
the new bridge of Victor Emmanuel, various 
pieces of a marble slab, presenting a fragment 
of inscription in honour of Agrippa Postumus, 
have come to light — the first record of him 
the soil of Rome has so far yielded. 

¥k # » 
Numerous epigraphical discoveries came to 
light near Aquila, viz., in the territory of the 
ancient Amitemum (Regione IV.) The 
most remarkable of these discoveries consists 
of a most important remnant of inscribed 
stone containing the various measures for 
the construction of an aqueduct, probably 
the aqueduct of Amiternum itself. A fictile 
antefix, representing a winged woman with 
two panthers like that of the two temples of 
Alatri and Luni (of debased style, however, 
probably of the second century b.c.) has been 
found in another Sabine village near Aquila. 

4t 4c 4c 

Near the new quarter of Monte Testaccio, 
which bore the full brunt of the recent 



powder explosion, a headless and armless 
statue has been found, about half the natural 
size, representing a man clothed in the tunic 
called exomis, open at the right side, 
and in the act of stepping forward. Near 
the right leg is the trunk of a tree which 
served as support. Portion of a large 
sarcophagus was also found, of which remains 
the head of a barbed man (front view) of the 
third century, with traces of a mantle cover- 
ing the back of the neck. 

♦ * # 

In lowering the road between the Salarian 
and Pincian gates a smooth travertine ossuary, 
in shape like a mortar vessel, has been dis- 
interred, with round pointed lid ; also a 
Bacchic woman's mask in terracotta of fine 
style. It has the mouth open, and the eyes 
pierced ; the hair, adorned with ivy-berries, 
is held by a broad ribbon and hangs over 
the neck. A Silenus head, of good style, 
has the ears of a wild beast, and is crowned 
with ivy-leaves and berries. A lamp of red 
clay, round, and of excellent make, has on 
the upper surface four stags in full course. 

♦ * * 

Herr Wilpert has discovered and copied, in 
the catacombs of SS. Peter and Marcelltnus, 
near the Lateran Gate, some wall paintings, 
which may be of the middle of the third 
century. Amongst them is a representation 
of the Annunciation, which, if rightly inter- 
preted, is now found for the first time in the 
Roman catacombs. Perhaps, however, this 
is only the woman touching the hem of our 
Lord's garment — a subject almost as rare on 
painted walls, though common on sarcophagi, 
as Herr Wilpert is reported recently in Rome 
to have expounded this subject as found by 
him in two other churches. 

♦ * ♦ 

Amongst the objects placed in the Cathedral 

Museum at Florence, the establishment of 
which was announced by us last month, are 
the elaborately- painted singing- galleries of 
Donatello and Luca della Robbia, the 
famous silver altar of St John, some book 
covers, which are splendid specimens of 
Byzantine art, carved woodwork^ various 
basreliefs, ancient stained glass, silk stuff, 
embroideries, etc. 

sK ♦ # 
In the church of the Holy Trinity at Florence, 
which is being restored, some old frescoes 



NOTES OF THE MONTH {FOREIGN), 



have been discovered under whitewash on 
the walls of the transept The famous 
cloister of San Giovanni Baitista dello 
Scalzo^ where can be seen the chiaroscuri of 
Andrea del Sarto, situated in the Via Cavour, 
not far from the church of San Marco, has 
been opened by order of the Ministry. 

^^ ^^ ^^ 

At Lombarda, in the island of Curzola 
(Dalmatia), where, in the beginning of this 
year, some tombs were discovered covered 
with slabs of stone, without any inscription, 
have now been found two oinochocsy very 
laige and well preserved, decorated with a 
yellow ornament on black ground. 

4c 4e 4c 
At Salona, where various archaeological dis- 
coveries have taken place lately, a fine marble 
sarcophagus came to light early in the spring, 
having its front sculptured in reliefs repre- 
senting two winged genii bearing a round 
disc, upon which are written the names of 
two married persons, Valerius Dinens and 
Atiia Valeria, The cover is in the form 
of a saddle-back roof, with acroteria at the 
angles, upon which are represented genii 
and amorini. Within were found two 
skeletons and many grave-goods, consisting 
of three gold collars adorned with pearls and 
l)eads of vitreous paste, two gold earrings 
having set around them six pearls, a very 
small gold ring set with an opal stone, an 
amber hairpin, and one of ivory, and lastly, 
twenty -five ivory buttons, which seem to 
have been used as tessera lusoria, 

illi i(fi i^ 

The official gazette of the Greek Govern- 
ment has now published the decree, approved 
by the Chamber of Deputies, relative to the 
excavations of the French Government at 
Delphi. It is now left to the School at 
Athens to determine when they shall begin 
to work. 

♦ * * 
Near the gas-works at Athens (close to the 
Keramicos) the splendid statue of a woman 
has been found of Graeco-Roman style, but 
in fine preservation. The Athenian Archaeo- 
logical Society is busy excavating here on 
the road to the Piraeus, and has ab-eady been re- 
warded by finding many tombs and sculptured 
life-size figures, funereal deposits of various 
kinds, and a large hydria placed in a tomb 



underground where a skeleton was found at 
the same time almost entire. 

♦ ♦ * 

The tombs now brought to light can be 

classed in three several strata, of which the 
lowest and most ancient seems to belong to 
the seventh century b.c., while the other two 
above may be of, the fifth and fourth. In 
the lowest layers many vase fragments were 
gathered, especially lecythi^ and four enormous 
amphora as high as a man, but they are all 
broken to pieces ; also some ivory figurini 
\\\ the form of dolls representing naked 
women, two statuettes of lions, etc. In the 
higher layers were taken up an immense 
number of shattered vases of various shapes, 
having both red and black figures, and some 
gold objects. In these excavations the 
German School is also taking part. 

* # * 

The Russian Imperial Archaeological Society 

will send an expedition into Abyssinia during 
the summer, in order to report and make 
investigations on the antiquities of that 
country. 

4c 4c 4t 
The Italian Government is continuing its 
excavations at Falerii, and as we go to press 
news comes of archaeological discoveries at 
Selinunte in Sicily of which we await details. 





2Dn }^ref)t0tonc SDttet and 
iBeatiet Craps. 

By Robert Munro, M.A, M.D. 



|[N my recently-published work on the 
Lake- Dwellings of Europe (pp. 179- 
184) I directed attention to not 
fewer than nine remarkable wooden 
objects found in peat-bogs in various parts 
of Europe, all of which were so similarly and 
ingeniously constructed as to leave no doubt 
that they were intended for some definite 
mechanical purpose. The very extravagance 
of some of the conjectures offered as to what 
this purpose was gave the history of their 
respective discoveries a somewhat amusing 
character, which must not, however, be 
allowed to dwarf their real archaeological 



lO 



ON PREHISTORIC OTTER AND BEA VER TRAPS. 



value. Of these objects the first recorded 
(1859) was found at Coolnaman, county 
Deny, Ireland; three were from as many 
different localities in North Germany (1873- 
1879) ; two were associated with the debris 
of the celebrated pile-dwelling in Laibach 
Moor(investigated 1875-1877); and threewere 
found (1889) while excavating peat in a small 
valley opening into Lake Fimon, near Vicenza, 
also the site of a well-known lake-dwelling. 
A few days after the publication of the above- 
named work I ascertained from the description 
and illustration of an unknown wooden im- 
plement in the Archaologia Cambrensis 
(vol. X., fourth series pp. 4 and 188), to 
which my attention had been directed by 
Mr. Romilly Allen, that it was another example 
of the same class of objects. It appears to 
have been disinterred by a peat-cutter in the 
year 1875 hi the parish of Caio, Cardigan- 
shire, and is, I understand, still preserved 
at St. David's College, Lampeter. This 
addition to the number of these mysterious 
objects, together with the deepening interest 
attached to them on the Continent, induced 
me to read a paper on the subject at the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (January 
12, 1 891), in which I took the opportunity 
of relating the circumstances which led to 
their correlation, and of showing conclusively 
that they all belonged to one specific group, 
notwithstanding some marked difference in 
structure. My principal object, however, 
was to give wider publicity to the facts already 
known, in the hope of eliciting from archaeo- 
logists some further information which might 
help to solve the highly controversial problem 
as to their intended function. Accordingly, 
I got a few copies of my paper printed in 
advance (the Proceedings of the society 
not being published till the close of the 
year), and distributed them among some 
of my archaeological friends throughout 
Europe. In response to this appeal I received 
a communication from the Rev. Canon 
Grainger, D.D., of Broughshane, Ireland, 
in which he expressed a belief that he 
had in his collection an object similar to 
those which I had just described and 
illustrated in my pamphlet From a sketch 
of this new find so opportunely come to 
light, I at once saw that Dr. Grainger's 
opinion was correct, and lost no time in 



accepting his invitation to come and inspect 
it. Dr. Grainger's proverbial hospitality and 
kindness were not new to me, as this was 
the third tune the antiquarian treasures of 
his great collection brought me to that part 
of Ireland, so, on this score, it goes as a 
matter of course that my journey was made 
pleasant. Nor was it less satisfactory from 
an archaeological point of view, as the hitherto 
neglected machine turned out to be in some 
respects the most important that had yet 
come to notice, because it presents some 
novel features which hardly leave any doubt 
that it was a trap — the method and apparatus 
by which it was worked being clearly 
indicated. 

In noticing my pamphlet in a recent issue 
of the Antiquary^ the writer falls into a slight 
error in representing me as an exponent of the 
beaver-trap theory exclusively. My opinion 
all along has been that they were traps which, 
by varying the bait, could be used to catch 
both the otter and beaver. The opinion that 
they were otter-traps ^2& first started in North 
Germany, and this is the view which still 
holds the field in that quarter. The late Dr. 
Deschmann grounded his opinion that the 
two examples found in Laibach Moor were 
beaver - traps on the remarkable fact that 
among the osseous remains from the lake- 
dwellings with which they were associated 
no less than 140 individual beavers were 
represented, whereas not a single bone of 
the otter was found. The beaver has not, 
I believe, been identified among the remains 
of the extinct fauna of Ireland, and con- 
sequently it would be a misnomer to call 
these machines beaver-traps in that countr)'. 
Otters are, however, though sparsely, still 
extant both in Ireland and various parts of 
Great Britain ; but according to some of the 
historical records they must have been 
formerly very much more numerous. It 
was only after becoming conversant with the 
structural details and supposed function of 
those from Germany and Laibach that Dr. 
Meschinelli formulated the theory that the 
Fontega examples might have been used as 
traps for catching wild birds. 

That now brought to light in Ireland was 
procured some five years ago by Dr. Grainger 
from a local pedlar, who stated that he had 
found it at a neighbouring farm. He thought 



ON PREHISTORIC OTTER AND BEAVER TRAPS. 



It was an otter. It., an implement used by 
anglers for lishing. But it has no resemblance 
whatever to this well-known implement It is 
therefore curious to find this name associated 
with an implement which turns out to have 
been a real trap for catching the otter itself. 

Like all others of its kind hitherto known, 
this tr^ is made of oak (see accompanying 
sketch). Its dimensions are as follows : 
Length a feet 7 inches, width in centre 
8 inches, tapering to 4 inches at the ex- 
tremities, and thickness about 3 inches. The 
central aperture measures iij inches long, 
by 4 inches broad. On its upper surface 
there is a rectangular cut at both ends of 
the aperture about an inch in breadth and of 
the same depth as the lateral groove in which 
the posterior edge or hinge of the valve 
rotated. On its under side the aperture was 
slighUy levelled outwards precisely like the 
" antique wooden implement from Coolna- 



strength and elasticity of the bow, and con- 
sequently would cause the valve to close with 
a bang whenever by any means the opening 
force were suddenly removed. 

The general outcome of the whole dis- 
cussion on these curious remains points con- 
clusively to the fact that they were really 
traps, and according to this view the only 
animals which could satisfy all the conditions 
involved are the otter and beaver. Dr. 
Meschinelli, in the course of a recent 
correspondence, asks why I restrict their 
function to such amphibious animals as could 
insert their head from below upwards. He 
suggests that as traps they would be equally 
effectual if an animal — say a wild duck — 
would insert its head from above ; and from 
this point of view he compares them to the 
ordinary spring-traps of the present day. 

Looking at these objects as a whole, we 
see that they can be readily arranged into 



PREHISTOKIC Orm TRAP, BROUGHSHAKB. 



man " (see Fig. i,i\},Lake-Dwellingsof Eurupe). 
The transverse bars which crossed the ter- 
minal hollowsafew inches from the extremities 
of the machine are in Dr. Grainger's example 
still in situ, and underneath one of them 
there was a portion of stick which appeared 
to have moved backwards and forwards, as 
the underside of each bar is worn nearly half 
through. It then became evident that this 
was part of a bow which extended from the 
extreme ends of the terminal hollows and 
lay over the valve, but under the transverse 
bars. Before the valve coutd be opened this 
rod or bow had to be forced upwards and 
backwards in proportion to the extent to 
which the valve was opened. The bending 
of the bow caused its ends to slip nearer 
the centre, and so caused the friction-marks 
on the under side of the transverse rods. 
The pressure thus operating from above 
downwards, would be in proportion to the 



two classes, according as they have one or 
two valves, and it is remarkable that the 
geographical area of the former is confined 
to the British Isles. I do not think, how- 
ever, that the differential character of this 
classification is of much consequence. The 
apparent complexity of the bivalvular 
machines is simply due to a reduplication 
of the structural elements of the univalvular 
ones. Each valve is characterized by a 
series of appurtenances so ingeniously 
arranged as to make it highly probable that 
their combination, whether in the simple or 
compound form, was the product of one 
original or central invention. The technical 
skill displayed in the construction of both 
classes is, however, precisely the same, 
though it may be that the bivalvular was a 
later and more effective instrument — a sort 
of advanced evolutionary stage of the other 
and simpler form. 



12 



NOTES ON ARCHEOLOGY IN PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS. 




Boteia; on Srcbaeolog? m ]^ro< 
ttincial 2^Mmxm. 

By Rev. E. Maui.e Cole, M.A., F.G.S. 

No. III. — Driffield. 

HE museum at Driffield is private 
property; it cannot therefore be 
properly called the Driffield 
Museum, though some day, in the 
not too distant future, it is to be hoped that the 
public spirit of the inhabitants will be suffici- 
ently roused to realize the unique treasure in 
their midst, and to purchase the building and 
its contents for the glory and good of the 
town. 

It consists of two main divisions, geo- 
logical and archaeological ; but, unlike nine- 
tenths of other museums, it is essentially 
local. The tendency of modern science is 
to be specific, and here the idea is carried out 
to perfection. Probably nowhere else has a 
fmer collection of fossils and prehistoric re- 
mains, from a limited arta^ been brought 
together and systematically arranged, than in 
the museum under review. 

The chalk of Yorkshire was at one time 
supposed to be comparatively unfossiliferous, 
its hardness contrasting unfavourably with 
the chalk of the South of England, and 
rendering the extraction of fossil remains a 
difficult matter ; but Mr. J. R. Mortimer, the 
founder of the museum, has succeeded in 
collecting and cataloguing a series of York- 
shire chalk fossils, three-fourths of which, 
according to Sir Charles Strickland, Bart., a 
keen geologist and no mean authority, are 
absolutely unique. 

It is not, however, vWith the geological 
department that we have to deal, but with 
the archaeological ; and here we are brought 
face to face with a collection which can only 
be matched with that in the British Museum ; 
bearing in mind that the British Museum 
gathers from all sources, whereas this is ^!nly 
the product of a limited area. Considering 
its essentially local character, it should be 
preserved intact in the principal town of the 
district, or at all events in the district. Truly, 
Driffield is only on the easternmost verge oif 
the area in question, which extends thence 



to the north-west boundary of the Wolds at 
Aldro; but there is no place to dispute its 
supremacy and accessibility, and it would be 
a serious loss to science, and to the syste- 
matic study of prehistoric remains, if the 
contents of the tumuli were to be dispersed 
and distributed amongst half a dozen 
museums. 

To others than Yorkshiremen in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood, the names of obscure 
places where the flint axes and knives, the 
stone hammers and others implements, were 
found, would be almost unintelligible; but 
here the place-name affixed to the celts, etc., 
gives additional interest and excites even a 
kind of pride that this farm or that village 
has yielded such and such remains. 

The building itself, designed by Mr. 
Mortimer, is admirably adapted for its pur- 
pose, there being no dark comers anywhere. 
It consists of a lofty hall, about 50 feet long 
by 28 feet wide, with a separate working- 
room attached at the end opposite the main 
entrance. Shallow cases, about 9 feet high, 
occupy the walls, and are filled with the 
geological specimens ; above them are five 
lights on each side, forming a sort of clere- 
story ; over the lights is a gallery, with wall- 
cases and projecting cases, 20 inches wide. 
Here is stored the archseological department. 
The main light is derived from the roof, 
which for a large portion consists of glass. 

Attached to one of the beams is an 
enormous physical map of the Wolds, based 
on the six-inch Ordnance Survey, showing at 
a glance the ramifications of the dales, which 
form such an interesting feature in Wold 
scenery — scenery, be it said, unknown to the 
vast majority of outsiders, but having a 
picturesqueness of its own which will well 
repay more than a casual visit In the 
gallery are two maps, on spring rollers, of 
the six-inch Ordnance Survey, which contain 
the area from which Mr. Mortimer has drawn 
together his superb collection. The extent 
of country explored is about 15 miles long 
by 8 miles broad, Fimber, his native place, 
and home till recently, occupying nearly the 
centre. These maps are an important and 
valuable guide to the study of the cases ; 
for on them is marked by a coloured ring, 
the size of a threepenny piece, the exact 
position of every tumulus opened. Each 



NOTES ON ARCHAEOLOGY IN PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS. 



13 



tumulus has its own number, which corre- 
sponds with the number attached to the 
various articles discovered. Moreover, the 
tumuli, as marked on the map, are arranged 
in groups, forming sixteen subdistricts, also 
corresponding with the arrangement in the 
cases; so that not only are the contents of 
each tumulus kept together, but the finds 
from each group. 

This seems an admirable arrangement, far 
better than if the various articles had been 
grouped together under the heads of vases, 
knives, ornaments, bones, etc., apart from 
their localities and surroundings, in which 
case many objects of interest from their 
multiplicity and similarity might have been 
overlooked. With the projecting cases, which 
contain many thousands of flint weapons 
picked up on the surface, it is of course 
different. It would have been impossible, 
with such a vast number, gathered together 
for twenty-five years, to have arranged them 
otherwise than in classes; notwithstanding, 
the principal celts, stone hammers and sling- 
stones have the locality and date written on 
them. 

Commencing with these cases, and making 
a tour of the gallery, we give the following 
results : 

Case A. On card, " Stone Celts, from Neigh- 
bourhood of Driffield, and the Wolds, 
since 1865." Each has name of place, 
where found, written on it, and in most 
cases date. Number of axes, 109. 

Case B. Ditto. Number, 85. 

Case C. Sixty-nine broken specimens, and 
60 re-chipped, 79 large flint sling-stones, 
and pounders. Some of the latter show a 
circular depression in the centre, for 
grasping with forefinger and thumb. 

Case D. Seven perforated hammer-stones, 
43 adzes, 6 large stone hammers, and 32 
burnishers. 

Case E. Various forms of chipped^ flints, 
X32. 

Case F. Punch-like flint tools, 383. 

Case G. Burnishers, 170. Chiefly round 
quartz pebbles of various sizes, but small ; 
one side, sometimes nearly half the pebble, 
rubbed away smooth and flat; bronze 
sword, 2 bronze spear-heads, 27 bronze 
celts, etc., and a child's bronze bracelet. 

Case H. Flint daggers and knives, 300. 



Case I. Flint spear-heads, 300. 

Case K. Flints, miscellaneous, 300. 

Case L. Flint knives and spear-heads, 300. 

Case M. Flint scrapers, 2 cases, some thou- 
sands of all sizes, mostly circular, chipped 
round the edges. 

Case N. Barbed flint arrow-heads, 3 cases, 
over 2,000. 

Case O. Leaf-shaped flint arrow-heads, 5 
cases, some thousands. 

Case P. Flint tools ; use unknown. 

Case Q. Stone celts, 29, and a few speci- 
mens of palaeolithic flints from the South 
for comparison. 

Case R. Flint celts, 200. 

It may be stated that a great number of 
the arrow-heads, knives, spear-heads and 
celts are not made of Yorkshire flint, whiph 
is gray and brittle, but of reddish-brown and 
black flints, which must have been obtained 
from the boulder clay of the coast, and are 
of foreign origin. Many of them are beauti- 
fully chipped, very thin, and sharp-pointed. 

Before coming to the wall-cases, we must 
draw attention to some special cases on the 
left, at the top of the stairs. Above is a 
sample collection of celts, pottery, bone pins, 
pipes, flint spear and arrow-heads, etc., from 
Canada, for comparison with those of the 
British make ; and underneath four examples 
of ancient interment. 

1. Exact reproduction of skeleton of Ancient 
Briton, with every bone in situ^ as found 
in a grave, 3 feet 6 inches long, the head 
and neck bent back, front teeth ground 
flat, knees doubled up, arms crossed. 

2. Similar restoration of Anglo-Saxon inter- 
ment ; neck straight, body more extended 
(grave, 5 feet), but knees somewhat bent, 
arms at full length, upper teeth projecting 
and sharp ; a food-vase. 

3. Cremated interment, British : burnt bones 
deposited in a disc on the ground, with 
remains of food and food- vase. 

All the above are from group 11 in Carton 
Slack, the latter from tumulus 82. 

4. Another example of cremated interment, 
the bones deposited in an urn. 

Referring now to the wall-cases, we find 
the contents arranged under three heads, 
Anglo-Saxon, Roman, British : 



M 



NOTES ON ARCHEOLOGY IN PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS. 



1. The Angh-Saxon cases contain a quantity 
of pebble necklaces, bronze fibulas, some 
for right and left shoulder, carved bone 
combs, iron shield-bosses, iron spear-heads, 
bronze pins, iron scissors, a bronze work- 
box, iron bucket-hoops, iron bits, rings and 
buckles, and five elegant vases. The con- 
tents of each tumulus are on the same or 
adjacent cards, and the group and number 
of the tumulus given. Most, however, of 
the above were obtained from Anglo- 
Saxon cemeteries in the neighbourhood of 
Driffield, which were hit upon accident- 
ally (partly in constructing the railway to 
Malton), and over which no mounds had 
been erected. Out of 303 tumuli explored, 
only 6 yielded Anglo-Saxon remains, and 
these were all from secondary interments. 

2. The Roman cases differ from the others 
in not being, strictly speaking, local. The 
Samian ware came from York and Malton ; 
some 30 to 40 vases of earthenware and 
glass, 6 lamps, 20 or more dishes of bronze 
and earthenware, necklaces, fibulae, brace- 
lets, ornaments, bone pins, etc, came 
from the Roman cemetery at York, where 
the railway-station now stands. But many 
of the coins were found in the district 
before us, as well as Roman pottery at 
Fimber, Blealands Nook, Thixendale, and 
Millington, which, together with animal 
bones and other relics, are here shown. 
There was a Roman or Romano-British 
cemetery at Blealands Nook, partly in 
Wetwang, partly in Fimber, where 18 
graves have already been found, on either 
side of the railway, and probably many 
more exist under the railway itself.^ 

3. British barrows, — We come now to the 
cream of the museum, the British cases, 
which contain all the articles unearthed by 
the Messrs. Mortimer, from 303 British 
barrows, during 25 years* digging. As 
said above, all the relics from each barrow 
are kept together, and the cases are 
marked in groups, corresponding with the 
groups shown on the maps. The follow- 
ing table will give an idea of the great 
number of tumuli which have been ex- 
plored on this small portion of the York- 
shire Wolds : 

• Yorkshire GeoL Soc, Proceedings^ vol. xi., part iii., 
map, p. 458. 



Group. Locality. 

1. High Towthorpe and Raisthorpe ... 

2. Wharram Percy 

3* ituuro ... ••• ti. .-. .•• 

4. Acklam Wold 

5. Hanging Grimston 

6. Painsthorpe Wold 

7. Garrowbv Hill 

8. Calais Wold 

9. Pluckham 

lOi Fimber 

lo}. Life Hill, Sledmere 

11. Garton Slack 

12. Driffield ... ... .., ... 

13. Huggate Wold 

14. Huggate Pasture and Cobdale 
15* Blanch .,. ... ... ... 

Not grouped 



No. or Tumuli 

OfBMSO. 

... ... 20 

. • • ... m\s 

... ... 35 

.■• ... \ M 

... ... 19 

« • • • • • \ o 

■ • • » • • xo 

••• ••• 3 

• • t • • • 7 
« • • • • • 3^ 

• • • • « ft 30 

19 

> . . . * t 20 
... II 



Total 



303 



Examining the groups in detail, we select 
a few articles to which special attention 
should be drawn. 

Group I. Six flint spear-heads from tumulus, 
18, exquisitely chipped; bronze dagger- 
blade (T. 233) ; a pair of jet studs. 

Group 3. Six elegant vases (T. 116), one 
with a handle ; horns of red deer (T. 54) ; 
a flint knife, about 3 inches by i, ground 
as thin as parchment (T. 75), nearly 
rectangular ; only one similar is known to 
be in existence. The latter was discovered 
in 1890 in opening the Duggleby Howe, 
and is in possession of Sir Tatton Sykes, 
Bart A jet link (T. 77). The late Miss 
Sykes, of Sledmere, and the writer were 
present at the opening of this tumulus 
(during a snowstorm), and when the jet 
link was unearthed, Miss Sykes drew atten- 
tion to the fact that it was almost precisely 
similar in pattern to one which she was 
then wearing. History repeats itself. 

Group 4. Fine flint dagger, 7^ inches by 2^ 
(T. 24) ; semi-globular vase on 4 legs — 
very rare. 

Group 5. Jet buttons (T. 23^ ; vases (T. 55 
and T. 9) ; bronze dagger (T. 205). 

Group 6. Jet buttons (T. 99 and T. 118). 

Group 7. Grand collection of vases, one with 
a handle; bronze dagger-blade (T. 32); 
jet necklaces (T. 64). 

Group 8. Two splendid fiint spear-heads, 

(T. 13). 
Group 1 1. The laigest and, in some respects, 
the most important group, consisting of 36 



NOTES ON ARCH^OLOG Y IN PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS, 



IS 



tumuli in a valley bottom, called Garton 
Slack, 3 miles from Driffield ; flint dagger, 
6 J inches by 2 J (T. 37) ; stone hammer, 
in same tumulus; a ciuious bone instru- 
ment found, with cinerary urn, in same 
tumulus; a restored model in wood is 
attached; flint dagger (T. 52); bronze 
dagger-blade (T. 107) ; 28 vases, one with 
a handle ; 3 incense-cups ; large jet 
buttons; jet necklace (T. 75); bone pins 
(T. 112), 

Group 12. Half of a flint spear-head, very 
thin, beautifully chipped (T. 220). 

Group 14. Vase with a handle (T. 264) ; 
red deer antler, showing hole bored for 
use as a hammer. 

Group 15. Vase with a handle, and with a 
square bottom ; a very rare type. 

The vases in the above groups number 
over 180, consisting of cinerary urns, food- 
vases, incense-cups, and drinking-cups, many 
of the latter presenting exquisite shapes. 
Only five have a handle — a rare type. 

Some hundreds of skulls and long bones 
are stored away in boxes and paper, awaiting 
arrangement; but 13 typical skulls are shown 
in the cases. They vary from dolicho- 
cephalic to brachio-cephalic, as extracted 
from the British tumuli; but the Anglo- 
Saxon afe clearly intermediate. In the 
British skulls the teeth are almost always in 
fine preservation, and the front teeth, upper 
and lower, are ground down flat, as might be 
expected from their meeting in the centre; 
but in the Anglo-Saxon skulls the teeth are 
hardly so perfect, and the upper front ones, 
projecting over the lower, as with us, are 
comparatively sharp. 

An immense number of sling-stones and 
chipped flints are stored away in boxes, and 
some 20 querns are shown on the top of the 
cases and elsewhere. 

Before leaving the interior, it may be men- 
tioned that Mr. Mortimer is of opinion that 
some of the tumuli formed houses for the 
living before they became receptacles of the 
dead. An illustration of this he has figured 
on one of the maps in the gallery, a restora- 
tion of one such undoubted example from 
Hanging Grimston. This discovery has been 
considered by competent authorities as sup- 
plying a missing-link of great importance. 



Outside the museum a cist or kistvaen 
has been re-erected, which has a modern 
history. It was disinterred by the late Lord 
Londesborough, about the year 1852, from a 
tumulus at Kelleythorpe, which has since been 
entirely destroyed by the railway from Driffield 
to Market Weighton. The cist contained 
the primary burial, and is composed of slabs 
of calc, grit, and limestones of the passage 
beds, which must have been brought from 
the coralline beds of Filey Brigg. The 
upper slab measures about 7 feet by 4 feet in 
width, and is about \ foot thick. Around 
this primary interment, near the surface, were 
found no less than 3^ secondary Anglo- 
Saxon interments, resembling in this respect 
the tumulus on Painsthorpe Wold (Group 6), 
opened by Canon Greenwell, where some 60 
Anglo-Saxon interments were found on the 
site of a British tumulus. 

We must now draw our notice to a close. 
It is evident from the foregoing notes that 
the museum at Driffield, both in its con- 
tents and in its arrangement, is well worth 
the study of antiquaries, and that it is a re- 
markable instance of what mAy be achieved, 
through zeal and perseverance, by a simply 
self-educated man, when he turns his thoughts 
to such fascinating studies. 

The museum is not open to the public, 
except on special occasions, but Mr. 
Mortimer is willing and anxious to show it to 
anyone who will apply to him for permission 
to visit it. 

APPENDIX 1. 

The following articles, from the fine col- 
lection of Messrs. Mortimer, are figured in 
Ancient Stone Implements of Great Britain^ 
Evans : 

Fig. 87. Acklam Wold ) Polished celts with de- 
„ 88. Fimber ( pressions on the faces. 

,, III. Dalton : Hand-chisel. 
»} 133. Buckthorpe: Perforated axe, hammer-like 

at one end. 
„ 183. Fimber : Rubber. 
„ 221. Yorkshire Wolds : Spoon-shaped scraper. 
,, 257. Fimber : Flint knife. 
,, 268. Fimber : Curved flint knife. 
,, 276. Calais Wold : Lozenge-shaped flint javelin. 

»» 277" f» »f 

„ 278. Calais Wold : Lozenge-shaped flint arrow- 
head. 

„ 279. Calais Wold: Lozenge-shaped flint arrow- 
head. 

„ 304. Fimber : Stemmed flint arrow-head. 



i6 



NOTES ON RECENT EXPLORATIONS IN EGYPT. 



Fig. 338. Fimber: Flint arrow-head with long pro- 
jecting curved barb at one angle of the 
base, and a shorter one, less curved, at 
the other. 

*• 374* Calais Wold : Jet studs. 

,, 378. Fimber : Jet necklacct with over 160 jet 
beads, and a pendant. 

APPENDIX II. 

The following specimens are alluded to in 
the above work, but not figured : 

Page 82. Fimber i Celt ground at the edge only, lon^ 
narrow form, length 4S inches. 
95. Malton : Polished celt, greenstone, length 

5J^ inches. 
, , Fimber : Polished celt, flint, length 4I inches. 

,, 115. Birdsall : Polished celt, quartzite, short form 
with conical butt, ^ inches long, 2j inches 
wide, \\ inches thick. 

,, 117. Thixendale : Polished celt, schist, roughened 
at the butt, 4} inches long, i j inches wide. 

It 305. Fimber: Triangular flint knife, sides curved, 
angles rounded, polished on one face, 
sharp edges. 

„ 315. Yorkshire Wolds : Flint da^er. 

,, 338. ,, „ Leaf-shaj^ flint arrow- 

head with a tang. 



f * 





Botes on Stecent (ZBrplorations 

in €ffppt. 

By Alfred E. Hudd, F.S.A. 
( Cotttimted from p. 219.) 

No. VI. — Heracleopolis. 

NDER tlie auspices of the Egypt 
Exploration Fund, excavations were 
commenced in January last by M. 
Naville and Count Raimo D'Hulst 
on the site of the ancient Egyptian city 
known to the Greeks as Heracleopolis, now 
covered by extensive mounds near the little 
Arab village of Ahnas-el-Medineh. It was 
hoped that much light might be thrown by 
these explorations upon one of the most 
obscure periods of Egyptian history, from the 
reign of Queen Nitocris — " the noblest and 
most beautiful woman of her time, fair in 
colour" — to that of Amenemhat I., the founder 
of the 1 2th dynasty. 

Heracleopolis is supposed to have been 



the capital of the kings of the 9th and 
loth dynasties, but with the exception of the 
names of about twenty of the Pharaohs con- 
tained on the Tablet of Abydos, the history 
of this early period — from about b.c. 3100 to 
2400 — is almost entirely a blank ; " names 
without deeds, empty sounds which are no 
better to us than the inscriptions on the 
tombs of ordinary insignificant men'* (Brugsch, 
History of Egypt, vol. i., chap. viii.). 

Messrs. Naville and D'Hulst commenced 
their work by opening upwards of a hundred 
of the tomb-pits in the ancient necropolis, 
but the result was not very encouraging. It 
was found that these had all been plundered 
in ancient times, and that many of them had 
been again used for interments during the 
Roman period. On the site of the town and 
of the great temple excavations were in pro- 
gress when I left Egypt in March last. I 
was unable to visit the locality, but under- 
stood that no great discoveries had been 
made, and that little had been found except 
some architectural fragments, foundations of 
walls, etc. 

No. VII. — Beni-Ha.san. 

Very good work has been done here 
during the past season by Mr. Percy New- 
berry and Mr. George Eraser, who, under 
the superintendence of Mr. F. LI. Griffith, 
have commenced here the "systematic and 
exhaustive archaeological survey of Egypt" 
recently undertaken by the Committee of the 
Egypt Exploration Fund. 

In December last Mr. George Fraser, a 
civil engineer who is well acquainted with 
the country, and Mr. Newberry, a specially 
trained student, commenced the great work 
in the southern part of the province of 
Minieh. When I reached Beni-Hasan at the 
end of January, the explorers were comfort- 
ably settled in one of the uninscribed rock- 
tombs ("No. 15 "), high above the Nile, and 
were hard at work, having already made con- 
siderable progress. They hope that by the 
close of next year they will " have measured, 
planned, and drawn all the monuments, 
traced, copied, and photographed the inscrip- 
tions, sculptures, and wall-paintings, and 
taken note of all the depredations which 
have recently been committed," not only at 
Beni-Hasan, but also including the tombs at 



NOTES ON RECENT EXPLORATIONS IN EGYPT. 



17 



Berscheh, and the celebrated Speos Artemi- 
dos. Mr. Griffith thinks that the Beni- 
Hasan tombs may be finished this year. Of 
the thirty-nine tombs here, twelve are in- 
scribed, and of these twelve inscribed tombs, 
eight are also painted; there are altogether 
12,000 square feet of painted wall-surface, of 
the whole of which it is intended to make a 
faithful transcript by means of tracing-paper. 
It is intended to reproduce the colours of the 
hieroglyphs, and all important details of the 
paintings, and for this purpose Mr. Blackden, 
an artist, has been assisting in the work. 
Reports will be issued to the subscribers to 
the Survey Fund, which will be illustrated 
with maps, photographs, etc., and will be a 
valuable addition to the literature of modern 
Egyptian research. 

During the preliminary works, while the 
tombs were being cleared of rubbish, some 
very interesting objects came to light — the 
wedged-shaped stone chisels, from 6 to 10 
inches long, with which the tombs were 
excavated. Also two pots were found con- 
taining about 1000 Roman coins of the 
fourth and fifth centuries, including some of 
Arcadius, Marcianus, and Leo. A pit 
excavated in one of the uninscribed tombs 
contained skeletons, beads, and pottery of the 
1 8th or 19th dynasty, and a broken stela of 
the 1 2th dynasty, with the name of a man, 
Nekht, the son of Nekht, who appears to 
have been steward to a prince who was 
interred in the principal tomb. 

For the better protection of the Northern 
tombs at Beni-Hasan iron doors have been 
fixed by the Service de Consen^ation des Anti- 
quiiks. The Southern tombs are reported by 
M. Grebaut not to be worth the protection 
of gates. " Ce sont des grottes sans decora- 
tion, ou rien n'est \ d^truire.*' If this is 
correct much daraage must have been done 
since I visited the tombs in 1890. 

Many Coptic graffiti of early date have 
also been carefully copied, from the various 
Coptic edifices in the neighbourhood. The 
secretary of the Fund (Miss A, B. Edwards, 
Westbury-on-Trym) will be pleased to receive 
new subscriptions towards the cost of the 
survey from readers of the Antiquary and 
others who are interested in Egyptian archae- 
ology. 

Clifton, Mayy 1891. 
VOL. XXIV. 




iBp^gtine lLmcoln0l)tte.' 



HIS is another result of the rare 
industry of Mr. William Andrews 
in producing bright books of an 
historical and archaeological char- 
acter, and successfully administering to a 
growing and healthy taste. In this instance 
Mr. Andrews is but the editor, and only con- 
tributes two of the many sections into which 
the volume is divided ; yet an editor's share 
in a work is not to be measured by his own 
contributions, but rather by the general result 
of the whole, and by his skill in bringing 
contributors together. The book opens with 
a brief sketch of historic Lincolnshire, by Mr. 
John Nicholson, and is followed by the most 
scientific and valuable of all the papers — 
namely, the account, by Mr. T. Tindall 
Wildridge, on the ancient boat at Brigg. 
This old relic was discovered at Brigg in 
1886, when excavations were being made on 
the east bank of the river Ancholme for a 
new gasometer. It is one of the largest and 
most perfect single-tree vessels that have ever 
been found. The oak from which it is 
hollowed must have stood 50 feet clear from 
the outgrowth of the first branches. Its 
dimensions are 48 feet 8 inches in length, 
the width tapering from 5 feet to 4 feet, and 
the height at the stem 3 feet 9 inches. We 
are glad to say that this ancient boat has not 
been removed to any museum, but stands in 
a shed purposely erected for its protection 
near where it was discovered by Mr. Carey- 
Elwes, the lord of the manor. The value to 
archaeologists of this paper of Mr. Wildridge's 
consists in the descriptive and illustrated 
comparison of this Humbrian boat with other 
one-tree examples found in the United King- 
dom. In the British Museum is a one-tree 
boat found near the river Arun, in Sussex^ in 
1833, which is 35 feet 4 inches long. In the 
museum of the Leeds Philosophical Society, 
but carelessly treated, is a small one-tree pre- 
historic boat, 8 feet 2 inches long, found in 
1863 when draining Giggleswick Tarn, 
Craven. Brief record is made of a variety 
of other examples found, between 1720 and 

* By-gone Lincolnshire^ edited by William Andrews, 
F.R.H.S. A. Brown and Sons, Hull, 8va, pp. x., 
247, illustrated. Price 7s. 6d. 

C 



BY-GONE LINCOLNSHIRE. 



1848, near the Medway and the Clyde, and 
in other parts of England and Scotland, as 
well as of some Scandinavian examples. 

Miss Mabel Peacock gives with much spirit 
an abridged prose-rendering of the stirring 
old English lay of Havelok the Dane. 

In the church of St. Oswald, at Crowie, 
forming the lintel of the west door of the 



face is exposed in its entirety. The details 
of the carving of all four sides are, however, 
known, as it was carefully removed for a lime 
from its position in 1869, when rubbings and 
photographs of the whole were taken. From 
these photographs this engraving has been cut 
It is obviously the stem of a pre-Norman 
Christian cross, probably of a personal or 



church, is a remarkable carved stone 
measuring 6 feet 11 inches in length, by 16 
inches high, and 8J inches thick. Having 
been built into the western wall, its inside or 
eastern face is partly hidden, only 4 feet 
7 inches of its length being exposed to view ; 
a corresponding length of the lower surface, 
and the whole of the upper one are also con- 
cealed by other masonry, but the western 



memorial character. The usual interlaced 
patterns are found, as will be seen in the cut, 
on three of the four sides, but the present 
eastern face must be clearly considered the 
obverse, and contains ceitain carved figures 
as well as an inscription. The figures are 
difficult to explain, or to hazard a conjecture; 
whilst the runic inscription below the 
mounted figure is so worn and fragmentary 



QUARTERLY NOTES ON ROMAN BRITAIN 



19 



that it has caused the widest divergence 
among authorities. The most reasonable 
interpretation reads the signs as : " Bestow a 
prayer upon Nun Lin." It is probably of 
eighth- or ninth-century date. We cannot 
congratulate Rev. G. S. Tyack on the account 
he gives of this stone; it is extravagant 
to say that " it is one of the most interest- 
ing antiquities of the county, if not of the 
country, being almost unique in England." 
And surely it is childish in an antiquarian 
book, after all that has recently been done 
for our pre-Norman sculptured stones by 
Rev, Canon Browne, Mr. J. Romilly Allan, 
and others, to write as if the Crowle stone 
might possibly be " a Cushite idolatrous stone 
of pre-Christian date." 

Mr. Peacock has a good and suggestive 
paper on " Pirates in the Humber," and Rev. 
Dr. Lambert discourses with much learning 
and discrimination on " Some Old Lincoln- 
shire Gilds." We have only mentioned about 
a third of the subjects treated of in this 
pleasant volume, but enough has been said 
to show that it will not disappoint either 
the careful antiquary or the more casual 
reader who delights in the study of the past. 
It would be difficult to improve on either 
paper or type, whilst the comely cover adds 
to the attractions of a charming Lincolnshire 
volume. 




Ciuarterlp Botes on Boman 

TBritam. 

By F. Haverfield, M.A., F.S.A. 



No. III. 

N presenting the readers of the Anti- 
quary with the following list of 
Roman remains found during the 
last three months, I may perhaps be 
allowed to begin with an appeal for assistance. 
I cannot help fearing that my list, though fairly 
long, is by no means complete, and that 
these and all similar summaries would be 
longer if archaeologists would more regularly 
communicate discoveries to some central 
person or society. As it is, even important 




discoveries occasionally pass unnoticed. Not 
long ago I heard almost accidentally of a 
Roman inscription found last year, and duly 
placed in a local museum, of which no 
record seems to have reached the outer 
world. I need not say that any communica- 
tion, printed or written, which may be sent 
to me, will be gratefully received, and I take 
this opportunity of thanking Mr. Romilly 
Allen and others who have kindly sent me 
information. 

Hampshire. — The South of England pro- 
vides two or three not uninteresting finds. 
Some remains, including a bit of inscribed 
pottery, from the Isle of Wight, were ex- 
hibited to the Society of Antiquaries on 
April 9, when Mr. G. E. Fox pointed out 
that the ground-plan of the dwelling-house 
from which the objects came resembles that 
of the Italian, not of the usual Romano- 
British type, and the house may therefore be 
of early date, as, indeed, its mosaics suggest. 
At Winchester some foundations have been 
hit upon (see Antiquary ^ vol. xxiii., p. 191). 
From Silchester there is, at the moment, little 
to report, but the work is proceeding steadily. 

Sussex. — At Eastbourne Mr. H. Michell 
Whitley has found some remains about a 
mile north-west of the old (parish) church 
near a barn called Greenstreet. There are 
two shallow pits, the larger 15 feet long and 
5 feet deep, containing fragments of "Samian" 
and other pottery, some nails and other small 
iron objects, a chalk spindlewhorl, a small 
fragment of glass, a bit of millstone, a circular 
cake, perhaps of lead, weighing about five 
pounds, and the bones of some animals, but 
no human bones or ashes, and no coins. In 
the larger pit was a flat stone of some size, 
which had evidently been used constantly 
for fires. By the kindness of Mr. Whitley, I 
was able to visit the find in company with 
the newly -reorganized Eastbourne Natural 
History Society, and I imagine the remains 
to belong to the dwelling of some half-civilized 
Briton in the Roman period. At Portslade, 
between Shoreham and Brighton, some 
burial urns have been found in the bridefield 
near the station, which appear to resemble 
other burial urns previously found at the 
same place, and now partly in Brighton 
Museum, and partly in possession of Mr. 
J. E. Hall. A dwelling-house appears to have 

c 2 



QUARTERLY NOTES ON ROMAN BRITAIN. 



stood a few hundred yards to the north (see 
Antiquary, vol. xxiJi., p. 338, and Arc/ueological 
Review, L 438). 

Kent. — The Roman remains of Canter- 
bury have been increased by the discovery of 
a pavement in Burgate (British Archseological 
Association, April 15), 

Midlands and Eastern Counties. — 
Several small discoveries are reported from 
London — a curious horseshoe, a ck&lelaim, 
and the like, but nothing of very great im- 
portance. On the other hand, Oxfordshire has 
yielded a Romano- British village at Bampton, 
of which a full account lately appeared in 
these columns (vol. xxiii., pp. 155-158). Ap- 
parently, the inhabitants of the village were 
even less civilized than those of Cranborne 
Chase. The pits in some respects appear to 
resemble those found at Eastbourne, and 
mentioned above. Suffolk also provides 
finds. A pottery kibi has to be added to 
those previously found at West Stow Heath 
{AlAenaum, p. 348) ; and a refuse - pit at 
Great Thurlow yielded a good deal of pottery 
and odds and ends, notably a coin of 
Claudius II., a small chalk "idol," said to 
be Vertumnus - Mercury, and some fine 
"Samian" ware (see p. 224)- The recent 
discoveries made at Colchester, mostly 
pottery, etc., were described by Dr, Laver 
to the Essex Archaeological Society on 
March 16 ; the same antiquary has since in- 
formed me of an um with Ol graffito upon it. 

Chester. — The important excavations in 
the North City Wall of Chester have been 
carried on continuously up to the date of 
writing, and have resulted in very notable 
results. Altogether, since the commence- 
ment of the work, some thirty inscriptions — 
all but one sepulchral — and many sepulchral 
and other sculptures and worked stones, have 
been extracted. Of the inscriptions, the most 
remarkable is one of which only the lower 
half has yet been discovered, recording the 
death . . . optionis ad sfiem ordinis, cenfuria 
Ludli [ngenui qui, naufragio periit, i.e., of an 
" optio " (or centurion's adjutant), who was 
expecting to become a centurion, and was 
attached to the century of Lucilius Ingenuus, 
when he was shipwrecked and drowned. 
It is rare that any inscription brings us so 
close to the hopes and fears, to the human 
tragedy, of Roman military life. Where 
the man was drowned we cannot guess, nor 



is it profitable to conjecture his errand on 
board ship — all this we must leave to the 
novelist who may care to base on it some 
romantic tale of Roman Chester. The in- 
scription has also a technical value, throwing 
light upon the meaning of several other in- 
scriptions which mention the spes of an 
"optio." The annexed reproduction of 
sketches by Mr. R. Blair, first printed in the 
"Proceedings of the Newcastle Society of 
Antiquaries," will give some idea of the 
other finds. 




Of the sculptures, most are sepulchral. 
One (No. 14 in the above illusuration) may 
be a rude, and by no means academic, repre- 
sentation of the Perseus and Andromeda 
legend, or of one of the similar mythological 
scenes. For further details I may refer to 
my articles in the Matuhester Guardian of 
May 2 (reprinted in part in several other 
papers), and 'm^& Athtnxumoi May 16, con- 
taining the texts of the inscriptions discovered 
up to ihe end of April. The work has had 



QUARTERLY NOTES ON ROMAN BRITAIN. 



21 



the good fortune to receive subscriptions 
from the University of Oxford, and from the 
Research Fund of the Society of Antiquaries ; 
but, if it is to be carried on as it should be, 
more money is urgently needed. 

Lincoln. — At Lincoln some new facts 
have been brought out relating to the wall 
near the Newport arch (Athenaum^ p. 540), 
and the discovery of some column bases in 
Bailgate has been shown by Mr. Fox to con- 
siderably clear up our knowledge of the 
forum of the Roman city. The columns are 
in an exact line with some found in 1878, 
and appear to form the western colonnade of 
the forum, while some others represent, per- 
haps, the frontage of a temple in a street 
running from the forum to the south gate. 
It is to be hoped that further discoveries 
may enlighten us as to the character of 
Roman Lincoln. The evidence on which 
Professor Hiibner has styled it a colonia is 
extremely slight, but the place, like Wroxeter, 
Silchester, Leicester, and some other sites, 
appears to possess the kind of buildings 
which belong to a largish town. The pro- 
blem to be decided is whether these towns 
had unrecorded municipal constitutjions, or 
were, like Nauportus, Vicus Aquensis, and 
other places familiar to us from Tacitus, in 
niodum municipii exsiructi loci. But before 
we can settle this, it is desirable to discover, 
from inscriptions, or from the character of 
the architecture, the date of the buildings. 

York. — ^The chief discovery made in or 
near York is that of a hoard of thin brass 
coins, several thousand in number, belonging 
to the Constantinian period, and minted 
largely at London and Treves. The hoard 
has passed into the excellent hands of Canon 
Raine, who will, I hope, publish a fuller 
description. 

BiNCHESTER. — A little to the south of 
Hadrian's Wall at Binchester, the ancient 
Vinovia^ an interesting altar has been dis- 
covered by Mr. Newby, and published by 
Dr. Hooppell, first in the Times, I have to 
thank Dr. Hooppell for a photograph, and 
Mr. Blair for a squeeze. The inscription 
records that it was erected by one Pomponius 
Donatus, beneficiary of the consular Regatus, 
to Jupiter and to the Matres Olloiotce sive 
transmarin(B, Olloiotce here clearly denotes 
the same or almost the same as transmarina^ 
and though it has nothing to do with the 



Welsh words alloedd othau^ seems to come 
from two other Keltic words meaning "of 
another land." It is possible, as Dr. 
Hooppell ingeniously suggests, that the same 
name should be read on two other dedica- 
tions to the De(B Matres^ both found at 
Binchester, and now lost. 

Cumberland. — The wall has produced 
very little this quarter, but Chancellor Fer- 
guson sends me word of a potter's mark at 
Stanwix, and a sepulchral slab found on the 
Coneygarth estate, near the fortress of Old 
Carlisle, at Wigton (see p. 235). The slab 
appears to resemble another found in the 
same country (Bruce, Lapidarium^ No. 752). 

Antonine's Wall. — ^The excavations in 
the so called Antonine's Wall still continue, 
and I am obliged to Mr. George Neilson for 
very full accounts. The same energetic 
archaeologist has published a description in 
these columns (vol. xxiii., p. 251), and in the 
AthencBum (pp. 707, 708). It appears that the 
marland "whitish cement-suggesting material," 
on the occurrence of which I based my theory 
of a core (p. 148), is not really capable of bear- 
ing the stress at first laid on it, and the rampart 
must therefore be treated as homogeneous. 
The sections made lately seem to clearly 
demonstrate that the wall is really caspiticiusy 
that is, built of sods and not thrown up from 
the ditch in front of it, and in these sods 
very few stones occur. Between the wall 
and the ditch there appears to have been, as 
in London Wall and elsewhere, a platform 
or vacant space (see also Cohausen, Grenz- 
wally plate xlviii.). The meaning of the 
stone base, with its squared kerbs and 
occasional transverse gutters, does not yet 
seem plain. Mr. Neilson thinks that its 
width of 14 feet represents the whole width 
of the base of the wall, and in this case it is 
clear, as he says, that the wall can hardly 
have been twenty feet high. It is curious 
that twenty years ago Professor Hiibner (c. 
vii., p. 193) thought that estimate too large 
— nisi hoc nunsura nimia putanda est are his 
words. Altogether, the results of the excava- 
tions are of great interest, and reflect great 
credit upon all concerned. It is much to be 
hoped that they will be continued, and that 
an examination may also be made of the 
vallum running south of Hadrian's Wall. 

Literature. — The recent publications of 
our archaeological societies contain several 



22 



Q UARTERL Y NOTES ON ROMAN BRITAIN 



papers of interest. The new volume of 
Archaologia (Hi. 2) comprises papers by 
Mr. G. E. Fox on London Wall (p. 609), 
and by Professor Middleton on Spoonley 
Villa (pp. 651-688), and a report on the 
Silchester excavations (pp. 733-758). The 
Wiltshire Arch, and Nat Hist. Society's 
magazine (vol. xxv., No. 74) contains papers 
by Dr. Wordsworth on Roman Wiltshire (to 
which I have already alluded in these 
columns), and by the Rev. E. H. Goddard 
on a dwelling-house at Hannington Wick. 
This latter does not seem to have been a 
very palatial structure ; the tessera were 
rough — though there was painted plaster, and 
perhaps better rooms were upstairs — but the 
account of it is good and worth printing. 
The new volume of the Chester Archaeo- 
logical and Historic Society (vol. iii., N.S.) 
contains further arguments by Mr. G. W. 
Shrubsole in support of his theory — to which 
I cannot subscribe — that the so-called Roman 
masonry in the walls of Chester is of 
Edwardian date (pp. 71-113), and a note 
by the same author on a centurial stone, 
found in 1888 in Chester, and inscribed 
probably chor. iii. 7, Ter, Ro, (Ephem, vii. 
881). M. Mowat, the French epigraphist, 
contributes a suggestion as to the Aurelius 
Alexander mentioned on one of the tomb- 
stones discovered in 1887 ^PP- 114- 119). 
The suggestion is ingeaious, but, so far as I 
can see, pure conjecture, entirely devoid of 
and incapable of proof. Lastly, Professor 
Hiibner has written an elaborate article (pp. 
120-150) on the principal inscriptions found 
down to the end of 1888. The delay in the 
printing of this article is much to be regretted, 
however unavoidable it may have been. 
The MS. reached Chester in April, 1888, and 
a part of it was read in March, 1890. The 
readings and explanations of the inscriptions 
are practically the same as those given by 
myself in the Ephemeris (vii., p. 287, foil.), 
and the date suggested for the wall out of 
which they came — the age of Severus — is 
also the same as that which I had previously 
proposed. However, there are two or three 
new interpretations of older inscriptions — 
which I hope to discuss elsewhere — and a 
theory which seems to me somewhat hypo- 
thetical, as to the dates of certain individual 
inscriptions. To the present excavations 
there is naturally no allusion. Lastly, I may 



mention Dr. A. HoXd&^s A It-ceiHscfur Sprtuh- 
schatz (Leipzig : Teubner), a dictionary of all 
the Keltic words and names found in Roman 
inscriptions, of which the first part has lately 
appeared. The work will be invaluable to 
all who study the inscriptions of Britain and 
Gaul, and other once Keltic lands. So far 
as I can judge (I cannot profess to criticise 
the philology), the work is excellently done. 
One or two mistakes are inevitable. There 
is an odd blunder under Arvalus\ Unger's 
article on the name " Albion " is omitted, 
and Dr. Holder does not seem to know that 
the curious acrostic quoted under Arepo also 
occurs on a bit of plaster from Cirencester. 



Lancing College, 

June 14, 1 891. 



y.;,i40' 



£)ut in tbe iFottp^fitte. 

By John Wright. 
{Continued from p. 209, vol. xxiii.) 



York 6"* Jan : 1745. 
Dear Sir. You*l find on the other side a 
mighty small collection of news and that too 
of so trifling a nature as scarce to make it 
either worth your while to read or mine to 
send to you : It is however the whole pro- 
duct of the Day, if the Advices of the Her- 
rings the Tophams & the Tubbs are to be 
rely'd upon, I am glad to find by your letter 
to M' Topham that M' Garforth is well and 
begins to think of coming Home again ; I 
assure you that many of your Friends at Phils 
(who by the by is so ill as to make this night 
thought very likely to be is last) are con- 
tinually enquiring after you & wishing for 
your Return. Your Sister has Fm afraid got 
a little cold w^*» has made her rather uneasy 
to Day but I hope tho my Absence from 
York on Thursday, from whence I shall go 
before Post Time on Wednesday may prevent 
my giving you an Ace' of her Recovery by the 
next post, that you will from M' Topham 
hear of [her] on Fryday next M"* Dring 
continues to recover very well & all my little 
ones continue healthful & noisy w^ last is 
always a very favourable symptom. She begs 



OUT IN THE FORTV'FIVi:. 



n 



to join her Comp^ to yourself & M' Garforth 
to those of D' S' Your most obed* Kinsman 
& h^e Serv* 

Jerom Dring 

Newcastle Janv lo**' i745- 
The Rebels have intrenched near Stirling 
and will waite for Hawley having been rein- 
forced from Perth. Some of the Dutch 
Generals reported here yesterday the French 
had declared War against Holland and it 
seems likely for I'm now loading a Dutch 
Ship for [the L]evant w<^*» has orders to go 
North about. The Letters from the North 
last night say. y* Gen[eral Hawle]y arrived at 
Edinburgh and has taken his Quarters at 
holyrood house. Th [e sloo] p is led from 
Scotland for France and its said y' many of 
the Rebels are gone w*'' , . . s hoped . yng 
will meet with her she being well known by 
his ffleet The Comissarys here have got 
Orders to provide for 2500 Hessians w*^*^ are 
to land at this place, some of w*^** are horse. 
The Duke of Bedfords and Lord Granby's 
now raised Regiments are marching to this 
Town. Two troops of S^ George's marched 
from hence to Durham this morning. We 
mount guard w*** 100 of our Town Malitia 
every Day, having not above 300 Military in 
Town y' can do Duty we have 7 hospitals in 
this Town w'** sick men. Another Letter 
from Newcastle the same Date. The Rebels 
are intrenching themselves at St Ninians and 
have not yet crossed th ffirth though its sup- 
posed part of Drumonds Company is come 
over to join them. The fforces at Edenbuigh 
were for marching very soon to drive them 
out of their lurking places. The Edenburgh 
paper says Lord Loudon is in Possession of 
Aberdeen and y* Major Campbell is coming 
w*"" his men to Glascow where some say they 
are already arrived. S* Ninians is about a 
mile and a half South of Stirling. None of 
the Letters to day mention any Thing of the 
Report ab' the Baggage of 3 or 4 Regim^* 
being burnt which gives some Hopes it may 
not be true. York 1 1 Jan : 1745. Dear Sir : 
I hope by the Time this reaches you you'l 
have seen confirmed by the Gazette what is 
but suggested on the other Side I mean the 
acct* of a Declaration of war between t[he 
Estjates & the French— Tis better that they 
shou'd late join with all we] disposed 

Powers to curb that Leviathan of Power 



If either the Folly or Rogueing of their 
Leaders had dec[reed]* this necessary 
measure one year longer it might have per- 
haps been too late to have repented of it the 
next — But if they had done it two years ago 
when Wade w^*^ 1 00000 men might have 
destroyed their Army then might all Hainault, 
Ghent Bruges Ostend &c been in better 
Hands than now they are. Yesterday I saw 
a letter from London w^^ mentions a Report 
there that the French have got possession of 
Zealand, but as I did not see it by Authority 
I must suspend my Belief till tomorrow. 
M"" Topham has just been here & his ace' 
of your Sister this Afternoon corresponds with 
what she sent me of herself in the morning 
that she was better. I am glad to hear of the 
Recovery of M' Garforth & if the Frost con- 
tinues a Day or two longer it will make 
travelling so convenient that I shall hope 
you'l take the Advantage of it & let us see 
you, M" Dring desires her Complem** may 
be accepted by you and M' Garforth together 
w'*» those of D' S' Your most obed' Kinsman 
& h^^« Serv' 

Jerom Dring 

To The Rev»^end M' Dring att the Rev*^ 
M' Wilter's in HuU. 

[York postmark.] 
Newcastle Jan^ the 12'^. 

The Letters from Edinburgh last night 
say y' the Rebels are in the Town of Stirling 
and y* they have got some Peices of heavy 
Cannon cross the ffirth and have intrenched 
themselves and are raising batteries for their 
Security. A ship arrived this morning from 
London with several 18 Pounders and fifty 
Barrells of Powder for our Fort. Col^ Leigh- 
ton w* 300 men by order of Gerf Hawley 
has crossed the ffirth upon a Secret Expedi- 
tion. 

Berwick lo*** Jany 1745. The Rebels who 
lately ffled here precipitately from England 
in N° about 3600 with some of L** Jn^ Drum- 
monds men y* have since joined them, con- 
tinue still in and about Lithgow Falkirk and 
Burrowstoness about six miles from Eden- 
burgh and are now drawing a Strong line ab^ 
a mile in Length to Obstruct the King's 
troops from attacking them ; this is plain 
cowardice for by so doing they will only put 
his Majesty's troops ab^ and then they may 

* ? declared or delayed. 



24 



OUT IN THE FORTY MVE, 



attack them in the Rear. The Ursula and 
Another Ship of War have sailed up the 
Firth to prevent L** Jn® Drumond sending 
his Cannon or any more of his Banditti. 
L"* Loudon is attempting w^*" his 2000 men 
to get down to Aberdeen if L** Lewis Gordon 
does not pr[ove to]o Strong for him and it is 
confidently reported Gen^ Campbell has got 
w*** his West Highla[nder]s to Glasgow. If 
this is confirmed we may soon hope for 
agreeable news, tho some I imagine we shall 
... V ... e an [enga]gem* apprehending 
the Rebels dare not stand but take the 
advantage . . . or towards England by Kelso 
if the Kings troops attempt to go round This 
L . . . them in the Rear. Its certain the 
Rebels have refitted the hazard sloop ready 
to saifl &] have a great deal of Baggage on 
Board so its thought some of their Heads 
will take their [leavje in her some of these 
dark long nights. All is quiet att Edinburgh 
and nothing materiall ab^ the Rebels. Letters 
from Dumfries &c confirm the Report of 
Campbells being got to Glascow with 2500 
Argyleshire men and y* the Rebels have 
behaved shockingley there and in all the 
other Places they have passed through. 
They also make nothing of the Skirmish at 
Inverrary where nothing but a few of the 
Monroes were engaged of which a very few 
were Killed and some taken prisoners. 
Yesterday Alderman Mayer ye under Sheriff's 
Deputy reed, an Acc^ from General Howard, 
y' by ye Duke's directions 150 more of ye 
Highlanders, and 43 oflScers were set out of 
Carlisle as yesterday, under an Escourt of 
L** Mark Ker's Dragoons, ye first to stay at 
York Castle, ye last to go forw"* for London. 
It's said by y' Acc^ y* they will be here on 
Saturday. 

York 13* Jan : 1745-6. 

To The Rev'nd M^ Dring att the Rev** M*^ 

Wilters in Hull 

[York postmark.] 
York 13*'* Jan: 1745. 
Dear Sir. My Expectation to have heard 
of the Nomination of a Sheriff by last 
Frydajr's post prevented my paying my 
Respects to you and M' Garforth at Hull 
tho' I was on Thursday within nine miles of 
you (at North Cave) But I'm satisfyed that 
when you know how nearly in that case I 
was affected in Interest youl the more readily 



excuse my neglect of Duty — ^The same neces- 
sity of being again at Home from the like 
Expectation will oblige my Return again 
from thence (whether I go on Wednesday 
morning) without seeing you ; nor shall I be 
able to write to you by next Post. The 
Conversation of this Town for the two last 
Days has turn'd upon the marriage of young 
Masterman (the Royal Hunter) with Dick 
Dawson's Daughter without the Knowledge 
of Masterman's Father ; who its apprehended 
will be hardly reconciled — ^They set forward 
(I hear) to-morrow morning for Serg* Bootle's 
I^ondon who is to be their mediator. Marsh 
married them at Trinity's Church & young 
Barlow was Father & I hear Miss Dawes was 
of [the pa]rty. 

Yesterday the Under Sheriff's Deputy 
Aid" Mayer Freceivjd an Ace' from Gen' 
Howard that oy the Duke's Directions . . . 
of . . . Highlanders & 4 . . . oflicers were 
to be sent out of [Carlisle] ... of L^ Mark 
Kers Dragoons . . . last to go forwards for 
Ix)ndon. Its said by [y* Acct y* they will be] 
here on Saturday. 

All my Family are well & much yours. I 
beg my service to M' Garforth & am D' S' 
Y' most obed' Kinsman 

Jerom Dring. 
jyour sister desires 
I you'll bring her box of Prunellas. 

[The above two half-sheets are in a very 
bad state and mouldering from damp.] 

The Edenburgh News Paper dated 13^** 
Jan : says that on that Day the Regiments of 
Royal Scotch, Wolfe; Pultney, Cholmond- 
ley, Blakeney and Monroe with the Glascow 
& Paisley Militia & the Raiments of Lego- 
nier & Hamilton's Dragoons march'd towards 
Linlithgow. That the Rebels had erected 
no Batteries of such weight of metal as wou'd 
much hurt Stirling Castle & that Blakney 
kept them out of Reach of his Guns in the 
Day Time. That the Hessians are hourly 
expected having embarked the i'* Ins* at 
Williamstadt for Leith. A Letter from Ber- 
wick adds that the s^ Regimt* are commanded 
by Husk who wou'd have surpris'd the 
Rebels that were xaoo Foot & 100 Horse 
had it not been for one Mack-Gun an Inn 
Keeper of Leith & a Spy of the Rebels, who 
acquainted them with M' Husk's March; 



OUT IN THE FORTY-FIVE. 



25 



upon which they fled w*** great Precipitation 
to Falkirk (where their main Body was) 
leaving their Baggage behind them. The 
Spy is since taken and its said will soon be 
put to death. 

A Letter of the 15* from Berwick says 
that some more Regimt* march'd [towarjds 
Stirling yesterday & more with the Artillery 
& Gen^ . . . were to go that day. The 
Rebels at Linlithgow were [commanded] by 
L*^ Geo: Murray and Elcho, and its said 
they left [m . . .] of their Arms behind them. 
Our 300 men that were said to have cross'd 
the Firth under CoV Leighton are retum'd 
having destroyed three or four of the Rebels 
ships & taken some of their Artillery at 
Allowa. The 43 Officers & 150 private 
Highlanders that are coming hither and were 
expected to Day halted yesterday at Bedale 
where one of the latter died. They are 
described as the dirtiest & most lousy Crew 
that ever were seen & that their Officers are 
not much better, four of w^** were at the 
Request of the rest put amongst the common 
men, their company being become so exceed- 
ingly intolerable to the rest — ^They are now 
at Burrough Bridge and all will be here to- 
morrow. S' Alexander Bannerman who has 
spent much of his Time in Yorkshire and 
married a Trotter is most certainly in the 
Rebellion — ^and made High Sheriff of Aber- 
deen-Shire by is Master [I] take notice of 
this because there has been much [conten- 
tion] about the Fact. 

To The Rev'nd M' Dring att the Rev<* 
M' Wilter's in Hull. {York postmark.] 

York 18* Jan : 1745. 

Dear Sir. I hope from the appearance 
w*^** this Day's Post gives us of Affairs in the 
North, that a very few days will bring us 
the news either of a total Defeat or a general 
Rout ; either of w^** will in all Probability 
put an End to the Rebellion & establish to 
well minded & affected people that Peace & 
Happiness w^^ for many of the last months 
they have wanted — ^With this Blessing I hope 
we shall be able to welcome your Return to 
York, for which many People are soUicitous. 
I expect that tomorrow morning well rid me 
of a tiresome Sollicitude to act in public 
Character during these Times of Trouble, for 
as no man is a greater Friend to our Consti- 
tion than myself I s[hou'd] be sorry not to 



have a proper Opportunity of shewing it, if 
the necessity of the Times shou'd require it, 
w-*^ God forbid. I have spent above an 
Hour this Afternoon with your Sister who is 
taking Physic and is much better spirits than 
when last I saw her — I hope upon your return 
youl find her even better than you left her. 
She begs of me (as did also Miss Nisbett) to 
be properly addressed to you & M' Ga'^forth 
— M"^ Dring [also] desires her Complements 
to be added to those of D' S' Your most 
obliged & obed* Kinsman, 

Jerom Dring. 





Cbe "BuilDing of a iBarge anD 
t5e maittng of a Pool, 1383. 

By Mrs. Baldwyn-Chilob. 



|N the park at Kyre, Worcestershire, 
is a large lake of sixteen acres, 
flanked on its eastern side by a 
bank of oak-wood, called the 
Island Coppice, which contains a small 
heronry. The water is dammed up by an 
embankment made in 1583, which cost 
;^5oo, and of which the following is the 
detailed account, written at the time by Sir 
Edward Pytts, to which is added the expenses 
of "the Building of the Bardge," evidently 
intended to be used as a summer boat-house 
on the artificial lake : 

Expenses about my Mille and PooU ffedd in Kier 

Parke. 

I began the Poole Hedd to raise itt with ;f s. d. 
earth the 26^** of March 1583— and hadd 
this week men laboring thereat after the 
rate of 6^ a man for the day bourding 

himsellf 300 

The next weeke 46 o 

The next weeke 3 12 o 

Paide more to laborers for dayes behinde 

& unpaide IC o 

The next weeke 380 

The next weeke 300 

The next weeke 400 

Paide to Robert Newell for carriadge of 
i2oloadesof earthe to the poole hedd 
in his Cart & one horse after 4^ the 

201oades 2 o 

Ditto, 37loade 12 4 

Paid to Robert Newell by my Uncle 
Thomas for severall Cariadges & severall 
na3rm^ before as apereth by the book of 
nis Accompt viz the 9 of Maye the 2$^ 
of Maye & the 7 of June 36 4 



26 THE BUILDING OF A BARGE AND THE MAKING OF A POOL, 



;f S. d. 

August 8 o 

Decembris, 1584. — Paid to Robert Newell 
20 December 1584 for hedging & re- 
moving the pale upon his grounde after 
5^ a perch of 24 foote for the pale & the 
like perch for the hedge upon a reckon- 
ing eqr save 2^ 23 o 

February, 1584. — Paide more to Robert 
Newell . . . toward removing of the pale 
from Magette*s fforde to the Deere lepe 
in Chaveridge banck upon a reckoning 
10* 10 o 

September, 1586. — Paid to Ro^er Newell 
21^ September 1586 for carriadge 1200 
loades of carriadg to the Poole Hedd 

and so even till then 20 o 

S"» £1 7j. <x/. 

Laborers about the pooIe hedd.— Paid the 
2^ Maie 1584 for j men's wages for one 
daye after 6<^ a daie 18 

Paid in my absence in London by my 
Uncle Thomas Pitt from the 2^ of May 
till the I9<i' of Julie 1584 to laborers 
about my poole hedd 18 610 

To Duglas for digging the sluice deeper 
the y:fi^ of November by my Uncle 
Thomas 20 6 

Paide to Robert Newell for 360 loade of 
earth the 13^** of December I584cariadge 
to the poole hedd 6 O 

To Roger Newell ... by my Uncle & 
brother for 32 daies cariedge 16 o 

August, 1584.— Paid ... 25 score cart 
loodes of earth cariadg to the poolle 
hedd after 4^ the score 8 4 

Sep., 1584. — Paid . . . 100 score lodes of 
earth to the poolle hedd i 14 8 

gma ^22 I2J. ICk/. 

Laborers about the Poole hedd, Octobris, 
1584. — Paid 76 score loades cariadg to 

the poole hedd i 2 8 

Novembris, 1584.— To Robert Newell 78 

score loades i 5 o 

Decembris, 1584. — 41 score 13 8 

Januarij, 1 584.--63 score loades i i o 

Februarij, 1584. — 26 score and 10 loade... 8 10 

March, 1584, 1585.— 62 score i o 8 

S""*. 

Paid by my Uncle & brother Thomas 
PytU Aug*t to Walker & 11 other 

workmen 5 7 3 

Ditto. Sep* 5 17 4 

Ditto. Octobr 5 15 I 

Ditto. Novemb' 2 17 11 

Ditto. Decemb 2 18 i 

Ditto. Jan 3 12 4 

Ditto. Feb. 277 

Ditto. Marc. 12 6 

Aprilis, 1586. — To John Tackson for wind- 
ing & studding the walles w^in ye upper 

romes in y* mill 4 o 

Julii, 1586. — And payd him more for 12 

dayes work 6 o 

Paycfe to Walker & Newell for filling the 
pole house w^>* earth & for filling the vault 38 o 



;£ s. d. 
Augusti, 1586. — Payde to John Walker 
f^ Augs* 1586 19* to eqr then for work- 
ing in the poole hedd 19 o 

... for 19 days . . . and so even till 

then 13 o 

Masons & Bricklayers and Brickmakers Expenses 
about my Mille and pole hedd in Kier parke. 

Marche 4*'', 1583. — I began to lay the r* 
stone and foundacion of my Mille 
Annoqr Regine Elizabeth 26 and kept 
but one Mason at worke to laye stone 
before my owne man the cheifT workman 
Tho: Lem till the . . . of . . . because 
I lacked roome but 4 Masons besides to 
hewe rough & smothe Ashlere I kept 
allso. 

The Masons were paid for hewing 803 
foote of Ashelere after i^ a footc I say 
8 hundredd & three foot 3 13 6 

To Masons for dayes worke after icy' the 
daye 35 6 

V^ to William Poton Mason for X2 daies 
worke after \d^ the daie he finding him- 
self diett 10^ 10 o 

Paid . . . Vaughan mason 26*^ Marche 
1584 for 6 dayes worke & his man for 
so many, after 10^ a day thone & 6<* 
thother bourding themselves and I2^ 
over;9» 9 o 

Bargayned w^ the masons to hewe rough 
/^helere after of the foote & gy ven Jo 
Lane uppon a reckoning before hande 10 o 

Paide to Jo Hill \%^^ Aprill 1584 for 2t 
dayes worke after io<* a daye he finding 
himsellf diett & so eqr 17 6 

Paide to Jo. Lane for 14 dayes 11 8 

Paide to Poton for 9 dayes 7 9 

Paide to Yatton a boye a server of stone 
& morter after ^ a daye for 17 dayes & 
so eqr 7 1 

Paide to W. Poton mason for 7 dayes ... 5 10 

S"'*;f9 7 J. lOt/. 

Masons & Bricklayers. 

Paid to Lem 23** Ffebruarie 1584 for one 
day & hallf work 15 

Ditto, 5 dayes work 4 2 

Julii 3, 1586. — Lem bargained to plaister 
all the brick windowes after 3* a^ for 
ev'v one in the Mille & the great one for 
6> 8^ all w^^ came unto 4^ & thereof 
paid him this 3 Julii 1586 in come for a 
Bushells 8^ and for one hallf more a^ 
and \^ in redie monie so is he payde 
25' and yett rema^eth 15^ 25 o 

Augustij, 1586.— Paide Lem the other iv 
the 7"! of August 1586& so even for this 
Bargainc before of plaistering the win- 
dowes 15 o 

S"»;f 2 5 J. 5^. 

The Makyngg of thr Bargk. 
Junij, 1585 — Bargayned with 2 Ship- 
wrights of London the 4^'' of June, 1585 
for making my Bard^^e after this rate, 
they to diett themseUves & to make itt 
and frame itt for ;f 4 5J. Oi/. and I pro- 



HOLY WELLS: THEIR LEGENDS AND SUPERSTITIONS, 



27 



vide them all stuff— yron — tymber — £ s. d. 
nailes — pilch — tare — & flaxe and to hire 
a joTner at my chardge to build the 
house therein & payd them then the 
\%^ of July 1585 40* paid him more the 

g^ofAuBust 1585455 450 

For the little board & laid out for tarr & 

pitch s... II 6 

To Walker of Tenbury for ten hundredd 
of borde nailes & so many cnfies to rivet 

them 15 o 

For a quarter of tarr 8 

For a pott i 

For 30 pound of pitdie 10 S 

For thromes 4 

For 200 of Roffes & 200 of great nailles.. . 6 8 

Forchalke i 

More for 2 chaynes pitche nailes & other 

things l8 o 

Paid to John Ffarmer2i*» July 1583 for 
hewing pannell after 3^ the dozen 29 
dozen & for punchion after 2^ the dozen 

60 dozen & for 40 railes 16^ 19 o 

To Nashe for making the wainscott house 
in the barge i^ August 1583 lo^ more 

for the same 20 o 

For white leading the Barge 20 o 

S™* totall of the Bardge £ 





l^ol? WiZ\\% : tbeir !Legenli0 ann 
^uper0titton0. 

By R. C. Hope, F.S.A., F.R.S.L. 
[^Coniinued from p. 266, vol. xxiii.) 

YORKSHIRE {continmd), 
ESHTON : ST. Helen's. 
|T was customary for the younger 
folk to assemble and drink the 
water of this well mixed with sugar 
on Sunday evenings. The cere- 
mony appears now to have died out. It was 
in vogue late in the last century. 

LEEDS: ST. Peter's. 

St. Peter's Spring is intensely cold, but 
beneficial to such as are troubled with 
rheumatism, rickets, etc. — Mag, Brit^ 1733. 

LEEDS : EYRBRIGHT WELL. 

The Eyebright Well, near Monk Pits, is, 
or was, celebrated as a cure for sore eyes. 

BRADFORD: SPINK WELL. 

Spink Well is near Bradford ; it was nigh 
this well that the famous wild-boar is said to 
have been killed Being near Cliffe Wood, 



the name may have been derived from 
the song birds there formerly, such as the 
bull spink, the gold spink, etc. — Yorks Folk- 
lore^ p. 196. 

BRADFORD : HOLY WELL. 

This holy well, not far from Manningham 
Lane, probably derived its name from having 
at some time been dedicated to some saint 
The inhabitants of Bradford were wont in 
ancient times to resort on Sundays to these 
wells as a common place of meeting, to drink 
of the waters and partake of their preter- 
natural virtues. — Ibid, 

DUDLEY hill: THE LADY's WELL. 

The Lady's Well, m the " Roughs," on 
the west side of Dudley Hill, within late 
years, was in great repute for its waters. — 
Ibid,y 197. 

EVERINGHAM : ST. EVERILDA's WELL. 

In the garden here, belonging to Lord 
Herries, is a well dedicated in honour of St. 
Everilda. It is square, and was formerly 
resorted to by the villagers, but is now 
closed. 

GARGRAVE: ST. helrn's. 

The water of this well was a certain cure 
for sore and weak eyes. Whitaker states 
that in his time votive offerings, such as 
ribbons and other decorative articles, were 
commonly to be seen tied to the bushes near 
these wells. 

GRINTON : CRACK POT, OR THE FAIRY's HOLE. 

A curious cavern near the mouth of a 
small rivulet, at the bottom of which is a 
deep pool of water, formed by water running 
from the rock ; it is known as " The Fairy's 
Hole" now, but in more ancient times it 
bore the appellation " Crack Pot." 

BOLTON- 1 N-CRA YEN : KING HENRY VI.'s WKLL. 

King Henry VI., while a fugitive at Bolton 
Hall, desiring a bathing-place during the hot 
summer days, and none such being available, 
his host endeavoured to supply the want of 
his august guest. He therefore proceeded 
within the walled-in garden with a hazel divin- 
ing-rod in his hand, which soon indicated 
the presence of water below. Ordering the 
spot to be dug up immediately, water issued 
therefrom in abundance, and the well in the 
form of a bath was thus made for the con- 
venience of the king. It is said to be still 
in existence and known as King Henry VI. 's 



28 



BURIALS AT THE PRIORIES OF THE BLACK FRIARS. 



Well. The king in his gratitude prayed that 
the well might ever flow on, and that the 
family of his host might be never extinct. 

** O, may it flow eternally, 

And while the spring shall bubble, 
May you and yours live peaceably, 

Free from all care and trouble. 
And while it murmurs down yon vale, 

O, may no son or daughter 
Of Pudsay's lineage ever fail 

To drink this crystal water. 
What though with honour and largesse 

You ne'er may be requited, 
Your loyalty and my distress 

Shall ever be united. 
With fair hewn stones let this be walled — 

Stones that will perish never — 
And then the fountain shall be called 

*^King Henry's WeU ' for ever." 

Littledale : Craven Legends, 

WAKEFIELD: ROBIN HOOD's WELL. 

Robin Hood's Well is reputed to be the 
starting-place of a padfoot called in the 
neighbourhood the "Boggard of Longar 
Hede." It haunted a three-lane-end after 
leaving the well. One poor fellow said he 
saw it walk beside him for a quarter of a 
mile up the lane, and that very night his 
aunt died. It was of the size of a calf, with 
horned head, with long shaggy hair, and 
eyes like saucers ; fastened to one of its hind- 
legs was a chain, and usually a cry heard 
following it as of a pack of hounds. 

barnsdale: robin hood's well. 
There is another well named after the 
famous outlaw, near where the Great North 
Road or Watling Street crosses Barnsdale, 
between Doncaster and Ferrybridge. 




iButialiB! at tbe l^riones of ttie 
TBlacft jFriatg- 

By Rev. C. F. R. Palmer. 
{Continued from p, i:6, vol. xxiii.) 

1463. William Water, citizen and fletcher, 
19 Oct In the churchyard, next the 
burial place of his children. Pr, 4 Nov. 

1463-4. Lambert Henry, 4 Nov., 1462, at 
London. In the churchyard, next the 
grave of F. Robert Ely, late Friar of 
the same place. Pr. 23 Mar. 



1464. Edmund Bybbesworth, 15 July. In 
the church. Pr. 2 1 /uL 

1464. Thomas Dobbys, citizen and fish- 
monger, 24 July, 1463. In the conventual 
church, in the Pardon Chapel: 13s. 4d. 
for his burial. Pr. 9 Aug. 

1464. Henry Burton, clerk, 8 May. 
Before the high altar in the choir. Pr. 
. . . 1464. 

1464-5. John Gull, citizen and spurrier, 
20 Jan. In the church, within the aisle, 
before or near the image of St. Peter of 
Meleyn : 20s. for his burial. His executors 
shall place upon a marble stone to be 
laid over his body a piece of copper en- 
graved in remembrance of his name, 
mystery, degree, and the day and year 
of his decease. Pr. 4 Mar. 

1465. Richard Caunton, clerk, Archdeacon 
of Sarum, 13 June. In the church, if he 
dies in London of his present infirmity, 
in an honourable place to be chosen by 
his executors. Pr. 8 lui. 

1467. William Osaunt, alias Brunhani, 
citizen and baker, 4 Aug. In the cloister 
of the church, next the grave of Margaret 
his wife : 6s. 8d. for his burial, and 4d. 
each to four men carrying his body. 
Pr. 18 Aug. 

1468. Thomas Clarence, citizen and cutler, 
23 Oct. In the churchyard. Pr, 15 Noik 

1468. Agnes Clarence, of London, widow, 
4 Nov. In the churchyard, next the 
grave of Thomas Clarence, her husband. 
Pr. 15 Nov. 

1470-1. Robert Poyntz, Esq., 26 Nov., 1470. 
In the convent church in a convenient 
place, if he deceases in London, or else 
where it pleaseth our Lord Jesus. The 
Prior and convent shall come with their 
cross, as the usage is, and convey his body 
to their church, and for this, and the 
placebo, dirge and mass shall have 2od., 
every friar-priest 8d., and every other Friar 
and novice 4d. Pr. 7 Fed. 

1 47 1. John White, yeoman of the house- 
hold of George, Duke of Clarence, 26 May, 
at London. Within the cloister of the 
house and church : 20s. for the burial and 
exequies and mass of requiem solemnly 
by note. Pr. ^Jun. 

1473. Alice Gulle, of London, widow, 
I Dec., 1469. Under the marble stone 



BURIALS AT THE PRIORIES OF THE BLACK FRIARS 



29 



in the body or nave of the church, where 
John Guile her husband rests: 20s. for 
the burial Pr, 10 Nov. 

*477' John Dyconson, citizen and fish- 
monger, 20 May, 1477. In the church, 
at the discretion of his executors. He 
bequeaths £6 13s. 4d. to the Prior and 
convent for his burial, and that they pray 
for his soul. Pr. 13 Aug, 

1479. William Stede, citizen and vintner, 
31 July, 1479. ^^ ^^^ church, before 
the image of our Lady of Pytee, by the 
assignment of the Prior. For his burial 
he bequeaths 20s. in money and forty 
gallons of good red wine to be spent at the 
masses here to the pleasure and laud of 
Almighty God. At his burial and month's 
mind there shall be four new torches and 
four tapers to be held by eight poor men, 
who shall each have 8d. for the labour at 
both times. Pr, 20 Oct, 

1483. Richard Brynkelev, 30 Aug., 1483. 
Within the convent church. Pr, 4 Sept. 

1484. John Nevno, of London, fuller, 
9 Apr. Within the Priory of the house 
of Friar-Preachers, where the Prior wills 
to lay him. For his burial and prayers 
for his soul he bequeaths 53s. 4d for the 
works of the church. Pr. 13 Apr. 

1484. John Teryngham the elder, Esq., 
12 July. To be borne to his parish 
church of St Olave, Silver Str., with 
convenient ringing. Fifteen poor men in 
white and black, and hoods of the same 
(price 40s.) shall hold fifteen torches 
(price jQ$), Then to be buried before 
the image of our Blessed Lady in the 
church of the Friar-Preachers, who are to 
have 40s. for the service and fetching his 
body. Four tapers of 6 lb. each shall 
burn about his herse ; and each of the 
fifteen poor men shall have 4d. for his 
labour and saying our lady's Psalter for 
his soul. Pr. 14 Dec. 

1484-5. John Croke, senior, of London, 
gent., 8 Feb. In the church, next the 
spot where John Croke, late alderman, 
his father, rests. Pr. 14 Feb, 

1485. Thomas Brampton, 28 Sept Before 
the image of our Lady. Pr. 10 Nov. 

1487. Dame Elizabeth Brown, late wife of 
Sir Geoige Brown, knt., 18 May, at 
London. Within the church, with her 



HUSBAND. The Friars are to fetch her 
body from the place where she dies. Pr, 
26 Jun, 

1487-8. Robert Seint Laurence, knt.. 
Lord of Houth, being at Shelton Park, 
16 July, 1487 ; in the presence of Lady 
Wiltesshire and Richard Brynkoll. In the 
church. Pr. 11 Mar. 

1488. Thomas Roger, citizen and vintner, 

25 Feb., 1487-8. In the body of the 

church, on the north side, over against the 

burial-place of Mistress Lytton. Pr. 16 

Jun. 

1488. Martin Jumbard, citizen and brewer, 
20 Feb', 1487-8. Within the Blackfriars', 
at the discretion of his executors. Pr, 
Zjun, 

1488-9. Robert Moreton, of London, 
gent, 15 May, i486. In the convent 
church, in some convenient place at the 
discretion of his executors. Pr, 21 Feb, 

1489. Alice Padvngton, of London, widow, 
late wife of Thomas Padyngton, citizen 
and fishmonger, 28 Mar. In the convent 
church, in such place as her executors 
shall purvey; and they shall spend 10/. on 
her funeral Pr, 2 Apr, 

1490. Sir Gilbert Stapilton (chaplain), 
28 Oct. In the church. Pr, 8 Nov, 

1491. Dame Margaret Croke, widow, 
late wife of John Croke, alderman, 
14 Dec, 1490. In the convent church, 
before the image of St Sithe. For her 
burial-place, and for her husband's and 
her own souls to be prayed for, she be- 
queaths to the same house forty marks in 
money, as a common treasure against a 
need or necessity, and when that need is 
passed to be put up again till the like case 
falls. 

1492-3. Richard Billesdon, 16 Feb. In 
the body of the church, as nigh to the wall 
as may be, without the parclose. If it can 
be easily and conveniently done, a cleanly 
tomb of marble shall be set in the wall 
there, or else a cleanly stone of marble 
a yard square fixed in the wall, or one of 
marble laid in the ground upon his grave 
with a picture of his body and scripture of 
his obit on it Pr, 26 Feb, 

1493. John Hygyns, citizen and shearman, 
10 Apr, In the Friar-Preachers, as nigh 
the burying-place of Alice his wife, as 



30 



BUFIALS AT THE PRIORIES OF THE BLACK FRIARS. 



may be done. He bequeaths 6s. 8d. to 
the Prior and Convent for his burying, and 
for prayers for his soul. Pr, dateless, 

1493. George Bolton, citizen and tailor, 
1 1 Aug. At the Friar-Preachers : 20s. for 
his burial and exequies in a fore-chosen 
spot. Pr, 26 Aug, 

I493-4' Patrick Hegley, of Deveham, 
Ireland, merchant, 23 Dec, 1493, »" 
Londoa In the church afore the image 
of St. Patryke, or nigh thereabout, if he 
deceases in London. Pr, 1 7 Feb. 

1494. Joan Ingaldestiiorpe, 18 June. 
Her stinking and corrupt body to be 
buried in the Chapel of our Lady, set 
within the church, in the same place where 
the body of Sir John Tiptoft, late Earl 
of Worcester, her brother, rests. The 
Friars are to have 20s. at her burial, for 
mass and dirge by note. Pr, 2$ fun. 

1495. Margaret Westbourne, of London, 
widow, 20 Mar., 1495. In the cloister of 
the 1 Viar-Preachers : 6s. 8d. for her bur)'- 
ing. Pr, dateless, 

1496. Joan Rogers, of London, late wife 
of Thomas Rogers, citizen and vintner, 
14 Mar., 1495-6. In the conventual 
church, in or by the place where her 
husband lies. She bequeaths jQ^ sterling 
and her great mazer with the image of St. 
James in the bossel, to the Prior and Con- 
vent, for her burying and to pray for her 
soul. Six Friars of the place shall bear 
her body from her dwelling to burial. Her 
former husband, John Moone. Pr, 19 Apr, 

1496. Henry Assheborne, citizen and court- 
scrivener, 23 Feb., 1494-5. In the nave 
of the church, before the image of St. 
Michael archangel, under a marble stone 
for him and Mary his wife, to be placed 
over him. His funeral exequies shall be 
in an honourable manner, with 12 torches 
and 4 wax-tapers, held about his body, 
according to custom, by 16 poor men, who 
shall beseech God for his soul, and have 
each 1 2d for his stipend on the day of his 
death and his thirtieth day, to wit, i6s. 
among them for both times. Pr, 21 July, 

1496. Edmond Talbotte, Esq., 11 Aug. 
In the church. Pr, 25 Aug, 

1496. John Knyght, of the parish of St. 
Andrew, Holborn, in the suburbs, 8 Sept. 
His mortal body to be buried in the 



Church, or wheresoever it pleaseth God 
that he depart this world. Pr, 28 Oct. 
1496. William Paston, of London, gent., 
7 Sept. In the church, at the north end 
of the high altar, by Lady Anne his wife. A 
convenient reward shall be given for the 
place of burial, and to have a large stone 
upon Lady Anne and himself. Pr.2% Noik 

1496. Mary Assheborne, of I-ondon, widow, 
26 Oct. In the nave of the church, near 
the marble tomb, where the body of her 
late husband Henry lies buried. On the 
day of her death, her exequies and mass 
shall be celebrated in an honourable 
manner, by note ; and twelve torches and 
four wax-tapers around her body shall be 
held by sixteen poor men, each to have 
6d. for his labour ; her burial place being 
near the altar of St. Michael the arch- 
angel. Pr, 17 Dec, 

1497. William March, yeoman, sojourning 
with his son John March, citizen and 
tallow-chandler of I^ndon, 21 May. 
Within the churchyard, at the discretion 
of his soa Pr. . . . 1497. 

1499. William Sayles, citizen and gold- 
smith, 6 Mar., 1498-9. Before the image 
of St. Michael, in the nave of the church. 
He bequeaths 26s. 8d. to the Prior and 
Convent for his burial, and special prayers 
for his soul, etc. 

1499. Sir Oliver Mannyngham, knt, 16 
May. If he dies in London, in the con- 
ventual church of the Black Friars ; if at 
or near Stoke Poges, in the College of 
Eton. Pr, ZJun, 

1499. John Lorymer, citizen and marbler, 
28 May, 1499. I" the body of the church, 
at the discretion of his executrix, Joan his 
wife. Four torches and four wax-tapers 
are to bum about his body at his burial ; 
eight poor men carrying them shall have 
4d. each, the four persons who bear his 
body to be buried, 4d. each ; and the bells 
of the church of St. Martin are to be rung 
solemnly, and 4s. be given for the knell. 

1500. John Paule, of the parish of St. 
Martin within Ludgate, 9 Aug. In the 
churchyard, next the grave of his wife. 

1500. William Westbroke, citizen and 
haberdasher, 7 Oct. In the churchyard. 
Pr, 4 Dec, 

{To he continued.) 



A LIST OF THE INVENTORIES OF CHURCH GOODS. 



3« 



9 Ltot of tlie 3ltttientories of 
CiMircli ^ooOiBi mane temp. 

ID3I 



'.at 



By William Page, F.S.A. 
{C9mlinmtd from p, 271, vol. xxiii.) 

COUNTY OF LANCASTER. 
Blagbome [Blackbttrn ?]. 

Preston. 
3. Illegible. 

1. Ulventon. 

2. Bolton. 

3. Kyrbie Irelethe. 

4. TunstjdL 

5. Giyssnaghe. 

6. Halton. 

7. Unewyke. 

6. Wliitttngton. 

ta Daltoo in Furne^. 

(foynaiche (?). 
Standysshe. 

1. North Meylez. 

2. Lyrerple (chapel). 

3. Kirkeoie (chapel). 

4. Male (chapel). 

5. Weste Derhi (chapel). 
6u Walton. 

7. Ilyton. 
& Sephton. 
9l Halaall. 

la Lcighe. 

11. Melting (chapel). 

12. Childwall (church) Ilnle an«I Garstang 

(chapels). 

13. Wynwnikke Chorch cum Trinttie 

Church. 

14. Alkare. 

15. Wigan Church cum Holland Chapell 

and Billynge. 

16. Crossebie Chapel. 

17. Prescott Church cum Farneworlh 

Churche et Seynt Elyn Chapell. 

18. Orayskirke. 

19. Waryngton. 
aa Aghton. 

UM,, .V) 

f. Eclcston. 

2. Cfoston. 

3. Leyland. 

4. Chorlcy. 

5. BryndeU. L'lJ ' T "^ ' ' 

6. PcnwGftham and< chapel of Longton. 

{/did., A.)* 



COUNTY OF LANCASTER {contitftud). 

1. Preston. 

2. Kyrkham« 

3. St. Michael upon \Vyre. 
4* Bysham. 

1. Myddelton. 

2. Manchester. 

3. Bunre. 

4. Assheton. 
5- Revyngton. 

0. Flixton. 

7. Blackerode. 

8. Rachedale. 

9. Prestwiche. 
la Oldham. 

11. Deyn with Hoghton and Horwyche 

Chapels. 

12. Bolton with Curton and Walmesley 

Chapels. 

13. Sadilworthe. 

14. Radclyf. 

15. Eodes. 

{IHJ,, A) 

Broghton. 
Preston. 
Lancaster. 
Chepon. 
Kyrkham. 
Polton. 
Stalmayn. 
Ribchester. 
Catton. 

Maincestrie with Leyland and Black- 
bum. 
Childwell. 
Wigan. 
{State Papers, Dom., Edw. VI., vol. iii., No. 4.) 

Broken Plate delivered into the Jewel 

House, 7 Edw. VI.— i Mary. 
Farneworth Chapel. 
Prescoate. 
{/J. R, ^., Bdle. 447.) 

COUNTY OF LEICESTER. 

1. Stonton Wyvell. 

2. Eyton. 

3. Frebye Chapel, member of Melton. 

4. Wynerbie. 

5. Oleby Chapel, memlier of Melton. 

6. Waltharo. 

7. Edmerthorpe. 

8. Gawdbe. 

9. Buckmjmster. 
to. Knjmton. 

11. Reddmell. 

12. Stratheme. 

13. Estwell. 

14. Thorpe Arnold. 
13. ScaUorth. 

16. Gaithorpe. 

17. Bottesford. 

18. Saltby. 

19. Kyrbe Beler. 



32 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



COUNTY OF LEICESTER {c^m/inued). 

20. [Name gone.] 

21. Brantyngbe. 

22. Somerbe. 

23. Coston. 

24. Little Dal by. 

25. Burton Lasazars. 

26. Claxton. 

27. Coldoverton. 

28. Saxby. 

29. Abkeytullv HoUwell. 
3a Wymoundham. 

31. Stonsby. 

32. Branston le Vale. 

33. Plungar. 

34. Wythcoke. 

35. Hoose. 

36. Sproxton. 

37. Melton Mowbery. 

38. Sysonby (with Melton). 

39. Nfuston. 

40. Barston in the Wayll. 

41. Herbye. 

42. Croxton Kyryall. 

43. Stapleford. 

(/.</. Ji. /^.f Bdle, 1392, No. 76.) 

Broken plate delivered into the Jewel 

House, 7 Edw. VL— i Mary. 
County of Leicester. 
Town of Leicester. 
(Z</. R, H,, Bdh. 447.) 

( To he continued.) 




l^toceeoings ano l^utiUcations of 
atctiieological %odetie0. 

[ Though the Editor takes the responsibility for the for tn 
in which these notes appear^ they are all specially con- 
tributed to the ** Antiquary^** and are, in the first 
instance t supplied by accredited correspondents if the 
different districts,"] 

At the meeting of the Society of Antiquaries on 
May 28 Mr. W. H. St. John Hope read a paper 
on the ** Municipal Insi^iaof the City of London," 
giving the results of his investigations among the 
civic records as to the history of the maces, swords, 
and other ensigns. Mr. Hope also described in 
detail the mace, the crystal sceptre, the swords of 
state, the Lord Mayor's jewel and collar of SS, and 
also the various maces belonging to the Aldermen of 
the City wards. Through the kind help of Dr. 
Freshficld and the courtesy of the several Aldermen 
a fine series of twenty-eight of the ward maces was 
exhibited, but much disappointment was expressed 
that the Lord Mayor did not think fit to allow the 
City insignia to be also exhibited to the society. Mr. 
E. II. Freshfield followed with a paper on the 
*< Wrought-iron Sword«stands in Churcnes of the 
City of London." These he showed were divisible 
into two main divisions, one leased upon an upright 
pole or rod, the other upon a simple framework. 



Each division was capable of being subdivided into 
typical groups. The sword-stands appear to have 
come into fashion in the reign of Elizabeth, but only 
one or two survived the Great Fire, and most of 
those now existing are of the eighteenth century. In 
illustration of Mr. FreshfieUrs pai)er, by the kindness 
of the incumbents of the several churches, a repre- 
sentative series of typical examples of the iron &tnn<U 
themselves were exni)>ited, together ^ith a most 
interesting set of drawings of all the surviving ex- 
amples, made by the writer of the paper. — The chief 
features of the meeting on June 1 1 were the papers 
on the " Wall Paintings in Friskney Church, Lincoln- 
shire," by Rev. H. J. Cheales, and on the " Wall 
Paintings at Ivychurch Priory, Wilts," by Mr. J. 
E. Nightingale, F.S.A. 

^ ^ ^ 

Throughout June the Royal Arcii-coi.ocical In- 
stitute displayed, at their rooms in Oxford Man- 
sion, a large collection, made by Mr. Alfred Heneagc 
Cocks, of antiquities and modem articles from Norway 
and Lapland, together with a few from Denmark. 
The latter were of the earliest date, and among them 
were capercailzie Y)ones, discovered in remains of 
primitive Danish refuse-heaps (Kjokken-modding), 
which have much ethnological interest, as they arc 
relics of the first inhabitants of the country. The 
capercailzie lives only where pine forests abound, and 
as oaks are known to have preceded the l)eech which 
covered the land in the Roman era, pines must have 
preceded oaks. Among the Norwegian things, which 
comprise old weapons, domestic utensils, etc., of a 
past age, unearthed from barrows at Lilleberre, was 
.in iron grating of gridiron description, sup|X)sed to 
have supported the fire with which salmon-fishers 
lured their game ; and a piece of carved bone with 
rope attachments, whose use was tmguesscd, and of 
which only two other examples arc known. Peculiar 
to Nor^'ay, none having been found in her sister 
country, was a shackle-hke arrangement of iron, the 
pur]X)se of which has yet to be learnt. There were 
also amusing Scriptural subjects and tapestry, workc<l 
on counterpanes, and sledge wraps of the sixteenth 
century. The skates made of ox-bones, from Iceland, 
were like those of the palaeolithic period in Enpland. 
One of the most interesting features of the exhibitiun 
was a good selection of the old '* Prim-.Stad " calendars, 
the oldest dated example being of the year 1546. 
These old almanacs (of which there are similar 
English examples, usually termed Clog Almanacs, nt 
the Ashmolean and Chetham Museums) are of squared 
wood, with notches for every day of the year, with 
curious symbols for the saints days. The vear begins 
with October 14, St. Calixtus' Day, the sign being a 
mit for the comin|| cold ; whilst the summer half- 
year begins on Apnl 14, St. Tiburtius^ Day, with the 
sign of a tree coming into leaf, another reminder of 
the seasons in no way connected with the saint. 

^ ^ ^ 

At the May meeting of the British AKCHiCOLOCiCAL 
Association it was announced that the Marquis of 
Ripon had accepted office as president of the associa- 
tion at the annual congress which will be held at 
York, to begin on August 17 next. Visits will be 
paid to the abbeys Rievaux and Byland, various ancient 
castles, and by invitation of the president to the ruins 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLICATIONS, 



33 



of Fountains Abbey. Mr. Allis sent communications 
with respect to the remarkable Roman remains which 
have recently been found at Lincoln. A paper by 
Mr. A. G. Langdon was then read on the ** Padstow 
Crosses, Cornwall. " These crosses are three in number, 
one being in the churchyard, another at Prideaux 
Place, and a third, a cross-head only, in the garden 
of a cottage occupying the site of the old vicarage. 
The latter is of Elvan stone, and the two first of 
granite. They are curious for having cusps in the 
heads of two of the examples, while other portions 
are covered with early patterns of plait -work. — 
The closing meeting of the session was held on 
June 3, when Mr. Loftus Brock, F.S.A., rendered a 
description of the works now being carried on along 
the western portion of the north wall of Chester, 
where search is being made for sculptured and in- 
scribed stones, at the expense of the fund raised by 
Mr. Haverfield. A large number of important finds 
have been made, and the ancient city wall proves to 
be of the same construction here as at other portions, 
namely, of a facing of carefully • squared stones of 
large size with a core of masonry not so evenly dressed, 
in which the sculptured stones are being found. All 
this portion is of Roman date and erected without 
mortar, the sculptured stones being derived from 
earlier Roman buildings, also unmortared. Mr. 
Macmichael exhibited some curious examples of 
Brown ware, with patterns laid on in slip, of seven- 
teenth-century dale, found at Whilechapel. Mr. 
Wood described some portions of heavy cast lead and 
welded lead pipes, the earliest laid by Myddleton's 
New River Company, which have recently been ex- 
humed at Sadler^s Wells. Mr. Earle Way exhibited 
a further find of Roman pottery from Southwark, the 
most curious objects being the appendages of a lady's 
chatelaine. A paper was then read on the * * Antiquities 
of Crowland " prepared by Mr. Cossham, but read by 
Mr. Rayson in the author s absence. Apart from the 
history of the abbey the author made interesting re- 
ferences to many evidences of population in the 
district in prehistoric times, which have hitherto not 
been recorded. The second paper was by Mr. H. 
Syer Cuming, F.S. A. Scot., m which the various 
forms of Samian ware were noted, and references 
rendered to a great many writers of antiquity, firom 
which the ancient names of the articles were suggested 
for adoption.^ The paper was illustrated by a fine 
series of drawings of the various forms. 

^ ^ ^ 

The first of the quarterly issues of the journal of the 
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Antiquaries 
OF Ireland is an excellent number. In addition to 
an account of the proceedings of the annual meeting 
and excursion in last January, it contains the follow- 
ing articles : On similar Forms of the Christian Cross 
in Egypt and Ireland, by Bishop of Limerick (illus- 
trated) ; on the Earlier Forms of Inscribed Crosses, 
by W. F. Wakeman (illustrated) ; Statistics of Orna- 
mental Glass Beads, by Rev. Leonard Hass^ ; Half- 
Timbered Houses in Dublin and Drc^heda, by 
William Frazer (illustrated) ; The Si^es of Athlone, 
by Richard Langrishe (illustrated) ; Tlie Normans in 
Thomond, by T. Johnson Westropp (illustrated) ; The 
Antiquarian Aspect of the Antrim Raised Beaches, 
by William Gray (illustrated) ; and a Contribution to 
VOL. XXIV. 



Irish Anthropology, by William Frazer. Among the 
miscellanea at the end is a remarkable account of 
witchcraft in ca Tyrone in the nineteenth century, 
which came to light at the Dungarmon Sessions 
held in June, 189a A recently-purchased cow failed 
in her milk and became panuyzed. The owner 
believed the animal had been "blinked," and a witch 
was consulted as to a charm. The modus operandi 
ordered by the witch was as follows : Three locks of 
hair were pulled from the cow's forehead, three from 
the back, three from the tail, and one under the 
nostrils. The names of eight persons in the neighbour- 
hood suspected of " blinking" the cow were each to 
be written three times. A bundle of thatch was to 
be pulled from the roof of the person most suspected. 
The owner of the cow was then to cut a sod and take 
a live coal on a shovel with which to bum under the 
cow's nose the hair, the thatch, and the paper on 
which the names were written. The sod was then 
, to be put to the cow's mouth, and if she licked it she 
' would live. All these operations were eone through, 
the cow licked the sod, but the cow died ! 

^C ^5 ^? 

The William Salt ARCiLeoLOGiCAL Society have 
just brought out another of their remarkable volumes 
(vol. xi.) termed Collections for a History of Stafford- 
shire, Once again we have to remark that the publi- 
cations of this society reflect infinite credit upon the 
painstaking and indefatigable hon. editor. General the 
Hon. George Wrottesley. The present volume con- 
tains 336 closely-printed pages, in addition to a 
thorough index that covers Ivii. pages ; out of this 
total General Wrottesley contributes 292 pages. The 
first section is extracts from the Plea Rolls of Ed- 
ward III. from the first to the fifteenth year of his 
reign, translated from the original rolls in the Public 
Record Office. From these it appears that litigation 
with regard to landed property and various common 
and forest rights was of very frequent occurrence. 
The pleas also include assaults, abductions, and 
various forms of robbery, and contain interesting 
allusions to such subjects as the making of pilgrimages, 
as well as to the customs, arms, apparel, and prices of 
the times. The second section consists of English 
abstracts of the Final Concords or Feet of Fines 
relative to Staffordshire from the beginning of the 
reign of Edward III. to the end of Henry VIII., 
together with the Final Concords of mixed counties 
to which Staffordshire tenants are parties. Both 
these sections are by General Wrottesley. The last 
part consists of a valuable Chartulary of the Austin 
Priory of Trentham, by Rev. F. Parker, compiled 
for the most part from the original deeds in the 
muniment -room of the Duke of Sutherland, at 
Trentham. 

^ <*5 ^ 

The third volume of the new series of the Chester 
ARCHiCOLOGiCAL AND HISTORIC SOCIETY'S Journal 
forms a well-printed, handsome illustrated volume of 
300 pages. In addition to the proceedings of the 
sessions of 1888-89 and 1889-90, and other official 
details, this volume contains the following papers: 
On some MSS. relating to St. Werbuigh's Abbey 
preserved in the British Museum, by W. de Grey 
Birch, F.S. A. ; Notes on the Registers and Church- 

D 



34 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



wardens' Accounts of St. Michael's, Chester, by 
J. P. Earwaker, F.S.A. ; Extracts from the Church- 
wardens' Accounts of St. John's, Chester, by Rev. 
S. Cooper Scott ; the Walls of Chester : are they 
Roman or Edwardian ? by G. W. Shrubsole ; Notes 
of the Tombstone of M. Aurelius Alexander in 
Chester, by M. R. Mowat, of Paris ; the Roman 
Inscriptions of Deva (Chester), by Professor Hiibner, 
of Berlin ; An Unpublished Diary of Rev. P. Walkden, 
1733-34, by Henry Taylor, F.S.A. ; Malpas Town, 
I'ansh, and Church, by Hon. and Rev. W. T. Kenyon ; 
Recent Discoveries at Vale Crucis Abbey, by 
Mr. G. A. Richardson ; On a Sculptured Stone with 
a Runic Inscription, by Rev. G. F. Brown, F.S.A. ; 
and Notes on the Dunchurch Runic Stone, by Rev. 
Father Dallow. 

^^^ ^^^ ^^y 

The second part of the eleventh volume of the Transac- 
tionsoftheUUMBERLAND AND Westmoreland Anti- 
quarian AND Arch-«ological SOCIETY, under the 
able editorship of Chancellor Ferguson, contains 
some 225 pages of gjood local matter, well illustrated. 
The shorter papers include Accounts of the Registers 
of Dalston and Orton, of the Roman Itinera in North 
Westmoreland, of the Appleby Chained Books and 
Charters, of the Parish of Stanwix, of Orton Old 
Hall, of the Roman Camp at Crackenthorpe, of the 
Bears at Dacre, and of an Earthwork at Little Asby. 
The Brough Idol is described and illustrated by Mr. F. 
Haverfield, F.S.A. It is a curious stone figure with 
a Roman inscription. Mr. Haverfield conclusively 
proves it to be a modem forgery. The Rev. J. Wilson 
gives a good illustrated account of the baptismal fonts 
of Gosforth and Whitehaven, but we do not at all agree 
with him that 1662 fonts should be made to give way 
to modem ones, even of marble. It is a aisp;race, 
both on the score of faith and archaeology, to Disting- 
ton to keep an old font wherein the inhabitants for 
two centunes were dedicated to Christ in the crypt 
** amidst the debris of the Easter decorations, the old 

?ulpit, and the barrel organ." Some illustrations of 
lome Life in North Lonsdale in the Seventeenth and 
Eighteenth Centuries, by Mr. John Fell, is of much 
interest. The Huddlestons, of Hutton John, with 
elaborate folding pedigrees, is a careful genealogical 
paper by the late Mr. W. Jackson, F.S.A. 

^ ^ ^ 

The tenth volume of the Record Series of the York- 
shire ArCH^OLOGICAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL 

Association is an admirable volume of about 500 
pages, giving a copy of the Coucher Book of Selby 
Abbey, together with an ancient history of the same. 
It is edited by the Rev. J. F. Fowler, F.S.A., and is 
too important for brief mention here. We hope to 
notice it at a little more length next month under the 
** Reviews." 

^•p ^^S ^^y 

At the monthly meeting of the Society of Anti- 
quaries OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TvNE,heldon May 27, 
the letter contributed to the Tinus on May 22, *' On 
a Newly-Discovered Roman Inscribed Altar at Bin- 
Chester," by the Rev. Dr. Hooppell (of which sketches 
iHtore given in the NeivcastU Weekly Chronicle of 
Mav 30), was read and discussed. — Mr. Cadwallader 
J. Bates read brief notes " On a Bell Inscription at 



Oberursal, near Hamburg," and " On Queen Mar- 
garet of Anjouand the Robbers." — Mr. R. C. Clephan 
read a note on ** The Danish Roval Law of Fricdrich 
HI. of 1665, with Biographical Slcetch of the Ministers 
who framed it, together with a list of Danish words, 
with their Tyncside or English equivalents." — ^The 
council recommended that a meeting be held at Norham 
Castle and Church, Flodden Field, Etal Castle, and 
Ford Castle and Church, extending over two da^s* the 
date to be subsequently fixed ; ana that a meeting Ix' 
held on August Bank Holiday at Brinkburn Priory and 
Longhorsley. They also recommended that four Satur- 
day afternoon meetings be held at .Sedgefield Church, 
Belsav Castle, Newcastle Walls, and Bywell Castle 
and Church. The council further recommended that 
the society memorialize the vicar and churchwardens 
of St. Nicholas's Cathedral to preserve the oldest of 
the post -Reformation bells, which was in danger r»r 
l)eing melted. 

^ «•$ «#( 

At the meeting of the FOLK -LORE SOCIETY on 
May 27, Mr. C. E. Green described the recent May 
games at St. Mary Cray, which were illustrated in the 
Daily Graphic.— Ut. G. W. Wood exhibited four 
original Manx carol - books in MS. belonging to 
Mr. J. C. Fargher, who has rescued from the peasant r>' 
a large numlier of these MSS. and is having them 
translated and printed. — Professor Rhys read a 
valuable paper ''On Manx Folk-lore." One belief 
which seems to be peculiar to the Manx is that 
people who were carried off to fairyland could see, while 
detained there, the proceedings of their kindred on 
earth. Many examples of witchcraft and magic were 
given. The sacrifice of one animal for the herd 
obtained within the recollection of living peoole, and 
there was some indication of a sacrifice on May I of 
a sheep, though Professor Rhys was not satisfied that 
this was clear. May customs and August festivals 
were then enumerated. An important point occurrc«i 
with reference to the Hollandtide customs, which le<i 
Professor Rhys to think that here was preserved a 
relic of the ancient Ar)'an calendar. Mumming 
plays were given on the eve of November i (Holland- 
tide), and the opening words of the play declared ihi?> 
to l)e New Vear's Eve ; land tenure ends at the samt* 
time, and servants also then terminate their engage- 
ments. But some I lollandtide customs and prognosti- 
cations had been transferred to the calendar New 
Year, January i, and Professor Rhys had heard di<v- 
cussions as to the correctness of this transfer ax bitter 
as the old discussions l)etween the Celtic and Roman 
Churches as to the correct date for holding Easter. 
He advocated the mapping of the island according to 
the customs held on November i or January i. In 
Wales all these customs obtained on January i, a fact 
due to Roman influences. 

^ ^ ^ 

Through the courtesy of the secretary, we have 
receiv^ advance copies of the eighth and ninth 
annual report of the Society for Preserving 
Memorials op the Dead, which are about to be 
issued together to the members. In the last of tbe»e 
reports the society alludes to '* the incomprehensible 
indifference of the present representatives of bygone 
families to the representations made to them regaining 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



35 



the n^Iect and stale of decay in which the memorials 
of their ancestors are. It is a sad fact, and certainly 
it does not redound to the credit of those who are now 
enjoying the fruits of their forefathers' lives. It is 
true there are notable instances to the contrary, and 
these should spur on others to follow so good an 
example." Among the recent cases of the society's 
work may be mentioned its remonstrance as to the 
discreditable removal of five brasses during the 1889 
" restoration " of Chipping Norton Church, Oxon, 
which reflects much disgrace on the architect and all 
concerned. The society s representations to the Arch- 
deacon and Rural Dean have not been altogether in 
vain, but, as the report says, ** it is clearly a case — 
one of many — which only legislation can or would 
touch.'' During the past year the society has achieved 
useful work at, inter aHa^ St. Giles-in-the-Fields, 
Lausanne (tomb of John Kemble), Gedney, Rick- 
mansworth, Hartlepool, and Bury St. Edmunds. 
^ ^ «#^ 

The first outdoor meeting of the Penzance Natural 
History and Antiquarian Society for this season 
was held at Marazion. — Assembling at St. Thomas's 
Hall, Marazion, the party was met by Mr. Thomas 
Lean, the last Mayor of the ancient Ixirough, and one 
of the present tnistees under the Charity Commis- 
sioners, into whose hands the disfranchised borough 
has now fallen. Here was shown the ancient charter 
of Queen Elizabeth, in 1595, as a reward to the 
inhabitants for resisting the rebels who burnt the 
town in the reign of Edward VI. The iron maces 
(silver-coated) and the later silver ones, dating from 
1769, were also examined minutely, as were also the 
borough seals, the Mayor\s silver-headed staff of ofHce, 
and the curious apparel of the Sergeant-at-mace. The 
Church of All Saints' was next visited, where the 
visitors were received by the Vicar, the Rev. 
J. F. Lemon, who described the position of the old 
church, which was so disastrously demolished in 1858, 
after having existed in connection with the monastery 
at St. Michael's Mount from remote ages. The late 
church stood below the level of the road, and a still - 
existent painting, representing King David composing 
the tooth Psalm, was fixed to the front of the singing- 
gallery. 

^ ^ ^ 

On June 13 the members of the Bradford His- 
torical AND Antiquarian Society visited How- 
den, where the Vicar, Rev. W. Hutchinson, read an 
interesting paper on the noble old collegiate church, 
of which ne is so excellent a custodian. — The excur- 
sion of Tune 27 is to the Lightcliffe district, Mr. T. T. 
£m[»all, the president, describing Slead Hall ; Mr. J. 
Horsfall Turner, Giles House, Smith House, and 
Granway Hall ; whilst Mr. John Lister is the guide 
to Yew Trees. 

^©o ^^s ^^» 

The seventh annual report of the Maidenhead and 
Taplow Field-Club and Thames Valley Anti- 
quarian Society, though comparatively brief (42 
pages), shows the association that bears so long and 
complex a title is doing really good and interesting 
work. In addition to natural history papers, the 
report includes the account of the July excursion of 
the members to Woodstotk and Blenheim, with well- 



arranged historical and descriptive notes by the hop. 
sec, Mr. James Rutland, and of the August excur- 
sion to various places of interest in Buckinghamshire, 
including Watlmgton, Shirburn, Lewknor, and Bled- 
low, all similarly annotated by the hon. sec. The 
pamphlet concludes with the summary of a lecture 
delivered to the members on '* Early Man in the 
Valley of the Thames," by Mr. John Allen Brown, 

F.R.G.S., of Ealing. 

^^49 ^^o ^A^ 

^^g ^^^ ^^» 

At the meeting of the Society of Biblical 
Arch/EOLOGy, held on June 2, Mr. P. le Page 
Renouf, the president, in the chair, the receipt as 
presents to the library of various French and German 
works was acknowledged, and a paper was read by 
Rev. Dr. Gaster on "The Targums of the Passover 
and Pentecost Letters." 

^ ^ ^ 

We are glad to notice that the last excursion of that 
spirited little society, the Upper Norwood 
Athen^um, was made in their own neighbourhood. 
Mr. J. W. Tones, of West Norwood, conducted the 
members to Barn Elms and Barnes. The old mansion 
of Bam Elms, redolent of memories of Addison, 
Steele, and Hogarth, is now occupied by the Ranelaeh 
Club. A quaintly-interesting fact, brought out by 
Mr. Jones in his paper on the Church of St. Maiv, 
Barnes, is worthy of^ record ; " South of the church, 
and in a recess enclosed by a wooden fence, a few 
roses aie cultivated in pursuance of the will of one 
Edward Rose, a citizen of London, who died 1653. 
A tablet in the wall states that he bequeathed £70 to 
purchase an acre of land, the rent thereof to be 
applied in maintaining the enclosure and replenishing 
the roses ; any proceeds over to be applied to the 
relief of the necessitous poor." 

^ ^ ^ 

The first excursion of the Belfast Naturalists' 
Field - Club for this season was to Armagh. 
The members visited Emania, the palace of the 
Kinc^ of Ulidia (Ulster). The circumvallations 
of Emania surround about twelve acres, and a 
smaller fort (the survivor of two) remains upon the 
centre. At the present time the entrenchment around 
one side is almost perfect, but, alas ! the other side 
has almost disappeared under the influence of an 
enterprising farmer. Seeing that this ro^l residence 
has a written histoiy of six centuries, ending A.D. 300, 
surely it is of sufficient importance to be conserved by 
the Government, and thus prevented from the total 
destruction which will undoubtedly take place in a few 
years unless those in authority step in and preserve 
what the late Sir Samuel Ferguson described as the 
most important historical remains north of the Alps. 
Thirty-five kings, all of the Irian race, reiened within 
the halls of Emania, and of these twenty-lour became 
ardrigh (supreme kin^). After inspecting the ancient 
Catheidral of St. Patnck, the attention of some of the 
members of the club was directed to the scattered 
remains of the ancient cross. At present the base of 
the old town cross and part of the shaft are deposited 
opposite the western door, whilst the remainder of the 
shaft and one of the arms lie in the crypt. The 
citizens of Armagh should at once undertake the re- 
erection of this very valuable and most important 

D 2 



3^^ 



PROCEEDmoS AND PUBLIC A TIONS, 



antiquity, and not be so very far behind other towns, 
which have restored their town crosses when they were 
not nearly so perfect or so beautiful. Armagh will 
surely not be beaten by Dromore in this respect. 
^ ^ -#5 

The archxological section of the Birmingham and 
Midland Institutb made an excursion to Mere 
Hall and Droitwich on June 6. Alighting at Stoke 
Works Station the party proceeded to Dodderhill 
Common, one of the few remaining portions of the 
once extensive forest of Feckenham. Here the 
members lingered some time to admire the magnificent 
forest trees and the distant prospect. Feckenham was 
a royal forest so late as 1629, wnen it was disafforested 
by order of the king. This was a favourite hunting- 
ground for the bishops of Worcester in the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries. From the common the 
visitors ascended the steep hill upon which the parish 
church of Hanbury b situated. The church has been 
much modernized, but retains an interesting thirteenth- 
century arcade, and a few fragments of wall of the 
same aate. The chancel and chapels are quite modern 
— ^the work of the late G. £. Street. The church 
contains a fine scries of monuments to members of 
the Vernon and Bearcroft families. An inscription 
on a slate slab let into the west wall of the south aisle 
was pointed out by an expert as probably the work of 
Baskerville, the Birmingham printer and typefounder. 
Mere Hall stands at the foot of a wooded nill, in the 
midst of the forest country, and surrounded by a well- 
timbered park. In front of the house are very elabo- 
rate wrought-iron gates, brought here from Hanbuiy 
Hall. The hadl, a timber structure, painted black 
and white, is symmetrical in elevation, the most re- 
markable feature being the row of fine small gables 
above a long line of continuous windows in the upper 
story of the central fa9ade. The house contains 
much old oak furniture an- 1 amous china. Later on 
in the day the church of St. Andrew, Droitwich, was 
visited. It is an Early English church, unrestored. 
Beneath the tower a fine series of capitals, tufts of 
carved foliage and heads alternating, was noticed. 
There is also a fragment of an earlier and much finer 
church, destroyed by fire. On the way to the station 
the members ascenaed to Dodderhill Church, above 
the town, and were much interested with the firag- 
ments of late Norman work to be seen in a twelfm 
century "crossing," under what was once a tower. 

^Py ^^y ^^w 

The annual ramble of the members of the Norfolk 
AND Norwich Archaeological Society through 
a stated part of the city of Norwich took place on 
June 3, when there was a large attendance. General 
Bulwer being appointed president for the day. The 
rendezvous was the all but desecrated church of St. 
Edmund's, situate in the ancient way known as Fibrig 




itself, which b of the Perpendicular order and re- 
markable for a fair specimen of medieval roofing. 
Mr. M. Knights contributed a most interesting paper 
on ''Anguish's School," now Messrs. Sextons shoe 
factory, and once popularly known as the ''Blue- 
bottle School " The Whitefriars* Convent in Cowgate 
found an able historian in Dr. Bensly, who described 



in detail the arrangement of the famous Carmelite 
House, which has left its name to Whitefriars Bridge 
and Priory Yard. In Windham's Yard the members 
were regaled with a sight of the Pockthorpe "Snap,'* 
a relic, or perhaps a burlesque, of the festivities in 
connection with the great local guild of St. George. 
Mr. Herbert Green acted as cicerone at St. James's 
Church, and pointed out the remnants of old stained 
glazing, the magnificent font, with its figures of female 
saints, and the remains of the rood loft. Mr. Beecheno 
was enabled to supply a missing link at this juncture 
by describing the beautiful coloured productions of 
the rood screen panels drawn by the late Mr. C J. 
W. Winter, and kindly lent by Mr. J. J. Colraan. 
At St. Paul's Church Mr. Green was again to the fore, 
and Mr. Knights related the history of Norman*s 
Hospital. St. Saviour's Church was afterwards visited, 
and also that of St Giles, where Sir Peter Eadc, 
the historian of the parish, expounded its detaiU to 
the members. A brief notice of the old wall in 
Chapel-field-gardens by the Rev. W. Hudson con- 
cluded the day's proceedings. 

^^o ^^y ^^y 

Wiltshire Arcm^ological and Nati;ral His- 
tory Society. — The annual meetine of this society 
will be held at Wilton on July 29, and the two follow- 
ing days will be devoted to excursions in the neigh- 
bourhood. A special feature in this 'fti^* proceed- 
ings will be a visit, on July 30, to Kushmore, the 
residence of General Pitt -Rivers, whose ooUectionj* 
and records of a life-long work will be open to the 
visitors. The General will explain, by models, the 
results of his excavations at Bokerly Dyke, and, more 
recently, at Wans Dyke, which latter he has proved 
to be post- Roman. The unique thirteenth-century 
house, Itnown as King John's House, will be seen 
and explained. On 3i5t the members will view 
Wilton House, the seat of Lord Pembroke, with its 
famous pictures; afler which they will proceed to 
inspect the churches of Tony Stratford, Bishopstonc, 
Broad Chalk, Fifield, Bavant, and Ebbsbournc 
Wake. 

^©n ^^9 ^^^ 

An expedition of the Derbyshire ARCHi«OLOOiCAL 
AND Natural History Society was made to 
Croxall, Catton, and Walton on June 2a 

A two days' excursion of the Cumberland and 
Westmoreland Antiquarian and ARCHiCOLO- 
GicAL Society was held in the Lake District on 
June 25 and 26. 

A brief account of both these expeditions will be 
given in our next issue. 




Itteratp ^m%v^ At 
9tcBieologf)Bt0. 



The Slavonian Dr. Lucas Jelic has begun to publish 
in the R6mi5ch€ Quartahchrift fur chrisilithe 
AUerthumskunde an illustrated account of the Came- 
t$rium of Salona, and of the sarcophagus there dis- 



LITERARY GOSSIP, 



37 



covered with the representation of the Good 
Shepherd. 

* * * 

The EcoU Frofifoise de Rottu has just published the 
results of the excavations at Vulci, entitled ** Fouilles 
dans la N^ropole de Vulci ex6cut<^es et publi^es aux 
frais de S.E. le Prince Torlonia, par Stephane 
GselL" 

^^ ^^ ^^ 
The KecUe Academia dei Lincei has decided to begin 
immediately the publication of the antiquities of 
Falerii in the museum of the Villa of Papa Giulio, 
and has appointed for the purpose a commission of 
three members, viz., Professor Pigorini, for the part 
that is prehistorical ; Professor Gamurrini, for the 
topographical, and Professor Milani, for the monu- 
mental and artistic portion of the collection. 

* * * 

Professor Comparetti, of Florence, is contributing an 
article to the first of Italian literary periodicals, the 
bi-monthly Roman Nuava AtUohgiay on Aristotle's 
•* Constitution of Athens." The learned author, who 
has travelled much in the extreme North of Europe, 
has just completed an important work on Finnish 
folklore in connection with epic popular songs and 
the poems of Homer. The publication has been 
undert^en by the Royal Academy of the Lincei. 

3^ 4e 4c 
Cav. F. Carta, librarian of the Biblioteca Estense at 
Modena, has discovered a copy of Dante's Divina 
Conimedia, preserved in the Biblioteca Nazionale di 
Milano, Ixsarii^ the family arms of the poet on one 
of its pages. Now, as the original copy of the 
poet is not known, whence much uncertainty as to 
true readings, and a coat of arms painted in a volume 
may well be taken as a sign of ownership, it would 
not be unnatural to conclude that this MS. must have 
been prepared by the copyist for one of the two sons 
of Dante, Peter or James, a fact which gives imme- 
diately great value to the text. 

* * * 

The publications of our local archaeological societies 

extend now, in most cases, to a considerable number 
of volumes ; and it is highly desirable that an Index, 
either General, or of Rerum, Nominum, and Locorum, 
should be issued by such societies to their members. 
Matters of much interest, buried in a series of volumes, 
are otherwise only to be discovered by a long search 
in the Indexes of the several books. This has already 
been done by some societies. Such a *' General 
Index" to the first ten volumes of the Norfolk 
Archaologia^ published by the Norfolk and Norwich 
Society, has been prepared by one of the hon. sees., 
the Rev. C. R. Manning, F.S.A., and will very 
shortly be in the hands of the subscribers. 

* * * 

Mr. M. H. Peacock, M.A., headmaster of the Wake- 
field Grammar School, is writing & history of that 
school from 1591 to 1891, which it is hoped will be 
ready for subscribers before the Tercentenary celebra- 
tion on November 19, 1891. It promises to be 
thoroughly done, and will throw new light on the 
history of Wakefield, especially during the Great 
Rebellion. Mr. W. H. Mihies, Wakefield, is the 
publisher, and the subscription price is los. 6d. 



Mr. John Whitham, chapter clerk of Ripon Cathedral, 
with the assistance of Rev. Thos. Thistle, M.A., has 
transcribed and translated the " Services of St. Wilfrid 
according to the Use of Ripon," from a manuscript 
book presented to the Dean and Chapter of Ripon 
Cathedral by the Marquis of Ripon, IC.G., in 1 874. 
These services are three, and are for commemorating 
the Birth, the Translation and the Deposition of St. 
Wilfrid, and they refer to certain incidents in his life. 
The MS. is of the date 1418 ; it has never been 
published, and no other copy of it is known to be in 
existence. It is proposed to issue the 1xx>k at the 
price of 5s., if a sufficient number of subscribers are 
obtained. 

Hfi Ha i^n 

Chancellor Ferguson, F.S.A., is editing the Boke of 
Recorde of the corporation of KendaL It b the first 
minute book or register of the corporation acts, 
banning on July 8, 1575. It is full of interest with 
regard to the social life and condidon of the people, 
of their peculiar trade arrangements, and of the 
management of the concerns of a town in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries. The edition will be limited 
to 250 copies, issued by Mr. T. Wilson, of Kendal, 
at 12s. 6d. to subscribers only. 




Eettietos anD j^ottces 
of Jl^etD I5oolt0. 

[Publishers are requested to be so good as always to 
mark clearly the prices of books sent for review^ as 
these notices are intended to be a practical aid to 
book-buying readers,^ 

Thb Hall of Lawford Hall. By Francis Morgan 
Nichols, F.S.A. Ellis and Ehey^ 29, New 
Bond Street Crown 4to., pp. xxiv., 56a 
Price £2 2s. (Impression of 128 copies. ) 
This fine volume, which contains the record of an 
Essex house and of its proprietors from the Saxon 
times to the reign of Henry VIII., has grown out of a 
description of the hall of the author's house, and of the 
shields of arms with which it is decorated, which was 
prepared many years ago for the purpose of supplving 
"copy" for a domestic printing-press, and without 
the slightest idea of publication. We are inclined to 
doubt if a single reader of these pages will be other- 
wise than thankful for the considerable extension of 
Mr. Nichols' original plan ; for what was originally 
intended to be a description of the contents and orna- 
ments of a single chamber has developed into a long 
(not " lengthy, if you please, Mr. Nichols) and most 
enjoyable history of the manor and its owners. Law- 
ford Hall is situated in the most eastern part of the 
county of Essex, in the Hundred of Tendnng. The 
house stands on the edge of the hill commanding the 
valley of the Stour, and looking eastward down the 
estuary into Harwich Harbour, and westward towards 
the county about Dedham and Stoke Nayland. The 
older hall was entirely removed about 1580 by Mr. 
Edward Waldegrave, and a half-timber house was 



38 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS. 



erected in its place round three sides of a court bearing 
the date 158^. This Elizabethan house was consider- 
ably altered in 1756, but mthout any part of it being 
pulled down. The series of shields which forms the 
string upon which this history of the manor and its 
owners is hung was placed in the entablature of the 
hall by the present proprietor and author during the 
first year of his ownership. 

The biographies of the successive owners of the 
hall and manor of Lawford touch upon various in- 
teresting points of English history. Thomas Martell, 
lord of Lawford, died in 1424, when the manor was 
purchased by no less a person than Humphrey, Duke 
of Gloucester, then Protector of the realm of England. 
His sudden and suspicious death in 1447 is described 
with much detail, and Mr. Nichols has ' succeeded in 
throwing a certain amount of new light on the 
mysterious surrounding circumstances by making 
use of certain records, hitherto unpublished, of the 
grants made of the duke's property both in anticipa- 
tion of and immediately after his death. The full 
biography of Sir John Say, who was Under-Treasurer 
of England and Speaker of the House of Commons 
in the reigns of Henry VI. and Edward IV. , and to 
whom LAwford was granted by the king for his life 
in 1447, is of much interest and value. He supported 
the restoration of Henry VI. in 1470, but was amongst 
those who were pardoned and restored to office by 
Edward IV. in the following year. In the next 
century the Lawford estates passed into the hands of 
William, Lord Mountjoy, of the family of Blount. 
Lord Mountjoy, during his minority, was twice at 
Paris under the tuition of Erasmus, who returned with 
his pupil to England in 1499 on his first visit to these 
shores. In this and in other particulars, the account 
of Lord Mountjoy in these pages contains much that 
is of interest and novel with regard to the literary 
history of his ace. The biographies that follow, of 
the Marquis of Exeter and his wife (Gertrude Blount), 
bring us into the closest connection with the stirring 
domestic incidents of the reign of Henry VIII., such 
as the divorce of Anne Boleyn, the Holy Maid of 
Kent, the Pilgrimage of Grace, and the trials of Lord 
Exeter and Montague. We heartily hope that Mr. 
Nichols may have the health and leisure necessary to 
bring down this interesting work to the present time. 
The local and county history that are found in these 
pages make it a volume much to be desired by Essex 
collectors ; whilst the hitherto unpublished |>articulars 
relative to the Mountjoys and their Derbyshire estates 
at Barton- Blount are of value to those interested in 
the historic or manorial details of the midland shire. 
We have said enough, we hope, to show that it throws 
real light on the by-paths of our national history. In 
paper, type, margin, and uncut edges, the book is all 
that can be desired, and as only 128 copies were 
printed, including the presentation volumes, it is 
obvious that an early application should be made to 
Messrs. Ellis and Elvey oy those who may desire to 
purchase. 

A ^ ^ 

Historical Account of the Hundreds of Chil- 

TERN IN Oxfordshire. By Rev. M, T. Pear- 

man. John PoUs^ Banbury. 

Though this is only a pamphlet of twenty pages, 

and is a reprint from the Proceedings of the Oxford- 



shire Archaeological Societv, we desire briefly to call 
special attention to it as of value in connection with 
tne origin, growth, and local l^^lation of Hundre<)s, 
and as explanatory of the name or term of Ciltem of 
Chillem. Skelton, from the fact that there wa.s a 
stewardship of the Oxon Chilterns, was led to suppose 
that it was the office of profit under the crown for 
which meml)ers of Parliament vacate their seats. In 
this he has been followed by later writers. But that 
office is the stewardship of the Bucks Chilterns, which 
was first granted for tne purpose in 1750, when John 
Pitt, member for Wareham, accepted the office of 
" Steward and Bailiff of the three Chilteme Hundreds 
of Stoke, Desborough, and Bumham in the county of 
Bucks." 

9 €» 4 
The Architectural Antiquities of the Isle of 

Wight. Collected, drawn, and published by 
Percy G. Stone, 16, Great Marlborough Street, 
W. Part I., folio, pp. ^2. Forty-one plates, 
and numerous text illustrations. 
This work is to be completed in four parts, at a 
price of two guineas net to subscribers. The circular 
issued some months ago, and from which we quoted 
in our March numl^er, sounded attractive, ana from 
other information that reached us, we thought that it 
would be a desirable work ; but if the remaining 
three parts are at all eaual to their forerunner, our 
anticipations will be much surpassed. It is emphati- 
cally a good book, and is remarkably cheap at the 
subscription price. We had jotted down a few points 
for special cnticism both in the letter-press and draw- 
ings, but as there is much pressure on our space we 
reserve any comments until arter the receipt of another 
part. 

^ ^ ^ 
The Goodwins of Hartford, Connecticut, descen- 
dants of William and Ozias Goodwin. Compiled 
for James Junius Goo<lwin. Brawn and Gross, 
Hartford, U.S., and Lippincott, London. 8vo., 
pp. xii., 798. Price not stated. 
This is a valuable and most painstaking genealogical 
work. The greater part of it will have no immeaiate 
concern with Englisn readers, save those perchance 
of the name and mmily ; but the openingessays upon 
the Goodwins of East Anglia, by Kev. Dr. Jessopp, 
and by Mr. Henry F. Waters, are of deeper and 
more widespread interest. William and Ozias Good* 
win were two of the little band of the Braintree 
colonisrs who arrived on tx)ard the Lion at Boston on 
September 16, 1632, and who were the founders of 
the important city of Hartford, Connecticut. The 
volume contains a variety of pedigree tables, and is 
further illustrated with twelve handsome portraits of 
distinguished Goodwins. 

* « * 
Pleasantries from the *< Blue Box." Edited 

by W. H. K. Wright, F.R.H.S. EUiot Stock. 

Post 8vo., pp. xvii., 293. Price not stated* 
This is a selection of papers written in the ** thirties '' 
by members of the ** Blue Friars," a literaiy dob «*r 
Plvmouth. The editor appropriately prefiices this 
collection of humorous oddii and ends by an intro* 
ductory chapter on *' Clubs, Literary and ^Hiimslcal ;" 
it is good reading, and for our own part we prefer it 
to anything else in this pleasant-looking volume. The 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



39 



book onlf y bowever, drtiMiiKk pasang nouoe at our 
hands, as tbe pages contain nothiiig diMinctircly anti- 
qoaziaii. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 
(>«ing to the Index for ToL izui bemgiDCorpanted 

with this bsae, various pcrievs and notices of 
boiks are marctdably held orer. 




i II >.:M I 



THE UGHTS OF A MEDLtVAL CHURCH. 



With 



IDI 



(VoL xriii., pi 247.) 

I diofild like to make a few 
may tend to flliistnte Mr. Peacock's 



First, then, I think that the terms of the beqoests 
to the ^0^6% imply that there were no less than srren 
Images of the Biased Viigin ^^17 at this time (ISJ6) 
in the dmcfa of Homcastle. Wioh the OEoepcion of 
the first, " Oar Lady of Gnce** (of which presently), 
we can tefl where thee Images were sitaatedf— namely : 
in bu Xidiolas* Choir ; at the end of the high altar ; 
SI the fioot ; on the sooth side of tbe chtzrch ; 00 the 
oorth ade of the cfaoFdi ; and in tbe porefa. 

These I mages do not necessarily imply an altar ; 
and certainly at the foot and in the porch there would 
DOC be one ; but they probably represented the Blessed 
Viigin Maiy in difierent aspects. 

An Image of Om- Lady was very frequently to be 
foond in the porches of our parish chinches ; there 
was one in the dmcfa of St. Hary Reddifie at Bristol, 
one in tbe chapel of Dmidiy, and one in the dmrch of 
Walton-in-Gordano.* It was osoal, of course, to bum 
lights before these Images; and I have heqnentJy 
f :Kmd bequests of lights to be burnt before one daring 
'.ne time of divine service on Svndays and holy days.t 

Sometimes a torch was daily to be hgfatcd at tbe 
time of the elevation of the Host. 

** I wit to the chnrch of Hmidmanby ... a tordi 
10 borne daily at the levacion while he wyil endore,'* 
to tbe intent that they diall specially pray for the sool 
of Henry, Eari of Northnmberland. — Test, AiApr., iv. 
203 (see also p. 12S). 

"Onr Laiqr of Grace" would seem to be con- 
trasted with **Oor Lady of Pity'' m the will of 
Nicholas Talbot, nrnde Jnne S» 1501 ;t if he dies 
within sewD miles of Great Berkhampstead, he desires 
to be boried there in the Chapel of Oor Lady " betwyx 
the ymage of oor Lady of Pyte and theymageof oore 
Lady of G'oe ** in the parish dnncfa of the said town. 
Oor Lady of Grace" may be identical with '*oor 
Mild ^^ this latter representation has, as iu- as 

with except in Uie instanrr 
given in the footnote, and is supfluscd to re pre se nt 
the BleTfBfd \ligim Mary wniling on the Babe in her 

See WkOs WiOs^ ppt 17, 76, 179. 



•a 




t See 7b/. EJUr.^ tw. ick, 132. 



X Bmwy tFiilt {CaaoAen 
I ITdZr H^i, pi 105. 




bosom, as contrasted with ** Oor Lady of Pity," where 
she is weeping over her S(» who is dead, with His 
head resting on her lap. 

St. Trm^mn. — I suggest, as a possible ex]danation, 
that this may be St. Ronan (if pronoonoed quickly 
tbe sound is much the same), a bishop and hermit, 
commemorated Jane I, and made nmoos fay Sir 
Walter Scott s Si, Roman' m IVelL 

The sobject of " L^U in Churches " b worthy of 
more study than it has hitherto receiTed from anti- 

2uaries ; much informatian is to be gathered from the 
ve volomes of Tesiamatia Ebaraunna which have 
been issued by the Sortccs Society, bat the absence of 



). P- 85- 



an ** Index Rerum "" makes this a somewhat laborious 
task. 

F. W. Wea^-ek. 

Mihon-Oeredon, Somerset, Ifof 30^ 1891. 

[Three correspondents have su gge st ed that the seren 
li^ts to the Virgin in Homcastle Chorcfa nunr have 
had reference to the " Seven Sorrows of our Lady.** 
^Ed.] 

HANDPRINTS .AND FOOTPRINTS. 
(VoL vviii , pi 209.) 

Miss Stokes* most interesting paper on the prints 
of feet and hands, which have been reputed to be 
miraculous, touches on a very large subject which has 
not received the attention it deserves. The belief in 
these holy footsteps seems to pervade the whole world, 
and to have been accepted l^ persons between whom 
there were the widest divergencies in frith. In some 
instances the outlines c^ feet may be traced, but in 
many cases it requires an active exercise of the imagin- 
ative frcnlty to see tbe form of a human foot in what, 
to the ordinary observer, seems a mere hole of most 
indefinite sfa^Ku Such is the case irith regard to the 
fout-marks of John Wesley, reputed to have been 
mifaculoosly stamped on Ins foher's tombstone, on 
one of the occasions on wfaidi be preached therefrom. 
I have frequently examined these marks, and have a 
careful nibbu^ of them. Miss Stokes alludes to this 
piece of modem snperstitian near the end of her 
paper. It may not be known to her, 9& it certainly 
IS not to many of the readers of the A miiq m a ry^ that 
a caiefiil engraving of these holes appored in an 
extinct magarine called the Sacristy^ in ilhwtratinn 
of a paper, by the Rev. J. T. Fowler, on "John 
Wesley's Footprints. "* 

Mr. Fowler took great pains with the subjecL His 
paper is weU worth attention by all who are interested 
m folklore. Mr. Fowler says that these holes are 
" sections of laminated ferruginous concietioiis.^ In 
this he is, no doubt, correct. 

I have heard persons, who do ix>t know Lincoln- 
shire from kH^ residence therein, speak as if they 
doubted the rrismirr of sndi an absurd example of 
modem supexstitioo. They are, however, quite wrong. 
How it may be at the present momem I am not pre- 
pared to say, bm I know that the truth of this story 
was a popular arode of belief but a few years ago, 
which, had anybody called in question, he would have 
been looked upon as a dangerous sceptic: As a case 

* November. 1871, p. 29a 



40 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



in pointy I may mention that of a person now dead, 
who was for many years a schoolmaster in the Isle of 
Axhokne. He was on most subjects a well-informed 
man ; certainly not more superstitious than his neigh- 
bours. He received the legend without having, as 
far as one could see, any lingering doubt of the matter. 
In reply to some remarks made by my father, calling 
the story in question, he replied that ''with God all 
thines are possible," and went on to give it as his 
opinion that the miracle had been permitted for the 
sake of attesting the Divine approval ol John Wesley's 



mission. 



Diligent search would show that these foot and 
hand marks are much more common than is generally 
supp(»ed. Jacob Grimm says, "On almost all our 
German mountains are to be seen footmarks of gods 
and heroes, indicating places of ancient worship, e^,y 
of Brunhild on the Taunus, of Gibich and Dietrich 
on the Hartz."* It would not be difficult to add 
many other examples to those which Miss Stokes has 
furnished. For example, Miss Louisa Stuart Costello 
tells of a footprint attributed to our Blessed Lord 
which was formerly in the convent of St. Croix,t and 
a similar object is said to have been long venerated in 
Westminster Abbey.^: At Dull in Sbotland the late 
Bishop Forbes records that there is a natural fissure in 
the rock which goes by the name of the footmark of 
St. Eoimn — that is, St. Adamnan.§ A footprint of 
St. Patrick was believed to exist on a stone in the 
Irish island known as St. Patrick's Pureatory.H The 
impression of the feet of our Blessed Lacly are believed 
still to exist at Toledo. IT A neighbouring clergyman, 
an intimate friend, has told me that, during a time 
of religious excitement about forty years ago at 
a public meeting at Bolton - le • Moors, one of the 
speakers, an Anglican clergyman, alluded to a 
miraculous footprint of George Marsh, one of the 
Protestant sufferers in the rei£;n of Mary I. This 
mark is on a stone at Smithilfs, near Bolton. My 
friend says that the speaker seemed to believe that 
this object had been formed supematurally, and adds 
that the speech was reported in the Bolton newspapers 
of the time. 

Holy footmarks are not the onlv ones which have 
been believed in. There is a devirs footmark on the 
ruins of St Pancras's Church at Canterbury, an en- 
graving of which may be seen in the Sacristy** and 
another at Hood Hill in the North Riding of York- 
shire, concerning which the tradition is that the fiend 
appeared in a rock and endeavoured to confute the 
early Christian missionaries. When he failed in this 
he took flight, the rock sticking to his foot until it fell 
where now it lies.tt What seems, to be a devil's hoof- 
mark is let into the churchyard wall of Gudensberg, 

* TaUoHic Mythology, Tr. SuUybrass, vol. iii., 

p. 13^3. 

{Biame and the Pyrenees^ vol. i., p. ill. 
Palmer's Life ofPhUip Howard ^ p. 42. 
S KaUndars of Scottish Saints, p. 266. 
H Lavington, Enthusiasm of Methodists and Papists, 
ed. 1820, p. 392. 
% A Year in Spain, by a Young American, 1831, 

vol. ii.i p. 3^* 
♦• August, 187 1, p. 284. 
tf Sacristy, November, 187 1, p. 291. 



Germany. * The half-mythic hero Roland, of whom we 
know so little in authentic history, but who stands forth 
so grandly in the romance literature of the mediaeval 
time, has lef% behind him the mark of his horse's 
hoof. Miss Costello had seen it. She says : ** An 
enormous plateau of rock seemed to \aj our further pro- 
gress; and beside it we rested beneath a gigantic 
chestnut, which threw its naked arms far across the 
ravine below, and when covered with leaves must 
have been a majestic tree. A hugh stone lay amongst 
others near it, and this was pointed out bv our guide 
as the identical stone thrown by Roland in his aneer 
when his horse's foot slipped over the rock at tne 
ed^e of which he stood. The print made by the hoof 
as It slid along the surface is clearly visible to poetical 
eyes."t 

We can none of us forget how, on the margin of 
Lake Regillus, a horse's iioof was imprinted in the 
volcanic rock, from the beautiful use Macaulay has 
made of the legend in his grand ballad. 

Alban Butler, the learned author of the Lives of the 
Saints, mentions the reputed footprints of our Blessed 
Lord on the rock from which He is believed to have 
ascended into heaven. Butler collected on this sul)- 
iect the testimonies of many of the Fathers as to the 
belief of their own times, and ouotes Casaubon, who 
spoke of it as " a wonder well cleserving credit ";$: 

Edward Peacock. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

* Grimm, vol, iv., 1320, cf. 1396. 
t Biame and the Pyrenees, vol. ii., p. 385. 
X Moveable Feasts, Fasts, and other Annual Oh- 
servances, Ed. 1 852, vol. iL, p. 56. 

NOTR TO Publishers.— Wr shall be particularly 
obliged to publishers if they will alu>ays state the price 
of books sent for review. 

Manuscripts cannot be returned unless stamps art 
enclosed. 

It tuould be well if those proposing to submit MSS, 
tvould first write to the Editor stating the subject attd 
manner of treatment. 

Whilst the Editor %vill be glad to give any assistance he 
can to archaologists on archceological subjects, he desires 
to remind certain correspondents that letters ccntain- 
ing queries can only be inserted in the " A ntiqu ary " 
if of general interest, or on some new subject ; not 
can he undertake to reply privately^ or through the 
" Antiquary," to questions of the ordinary nature 
that sometimes reach him. No attention is paid to 
anonymous communications or would-be contributions. 

Communications for the Editor shm*id be addresud 
*' Antiquary, Barton-U'Street, Malton,** 

Our contributor Mr, F. Haverfield, F,S,A^ Lane 
ing College, Shoreham, will be grateful for information 
at any time fortvarded to him direct of any Ftrman 
finds, and also of reprints or numbers of provincial 
archaological journals containing artieles on su(h 
subjects. 



NOTES OP THE MONTH. 



41 






M^^. 



The Antiquary. 




AUGUST, 1891. 



JSoteiS of ttie ^ontt). 



The final report of the Westminster Abbey 
Commission has been issued, and is ably 
dealt with in another place in these columns 
by an exceptionally able contributor of much 
repute, who has already written in these 
pages on the first report, and who prefers to 
remain anonymous. If there is to be a new 
monumental adjunct to the ancient abbey, 
there can be hardly any doubt that the 
south-east site is far preferable to that of the 
old refectory. The commissioners on this 
subject were equally divided numerically, 
but very unequally in true weight. The Chair- 
man (Mr. Plunket, M.P.), Mr. Jennings, 
M.P., and Mr. Waterhouse were in favour of 
the old refectory site ; whilst Dean Bradley, 
Sir H. Layard, and Sir F. Leighton were for 
the chapel on the south-east. No one can 
pretend that Messrs. Plunket and Jennings' 
opinions on such a subject can for a moment 
be compared in value with those of the two 
just-named baronets ; whilst Mr. Waterhouse 
can scarcely fail to be somewhat biassed by 
the association of particular architects' names 
with particular schemes. For our own part 
we would sooner be guided in this respect by 
Dean Bradley's opinion than by any other 
member^s of the Commission. The general 
tone of the full evidence that he gave (notwith- 
standing occasional lapses in judgment), shows 
that he is worthy of the custody of the noblest 
historic pile on England's soil. But why are 
we to have either of these alternative sites ? 
Personally, we hope (as we have tried to show 
at length in the columns of another magazine) 

VOU XXIV. 



that the legislature will oppose all interference 
with the abbey. Its soil is full of human 
ashes, its walls are overcrowded with monu- 
ments of human heroism and human folly. 
Eight centuries have surrounded it witib 
wondrous religious and historic sentiments, 
all of which would be utterly absent from 
any new lean-to or series of modem chapels. 
So far as care of the dead or of their memory 
is concerned, Westminster Abbey has done 
its work ; let it rest in peace. We shall have 
religious sects and political parties ever 
wrangling by its side, if an ample marble 
Madame Tussaud's is to be attached to any 
part of the venerable fabric 

Three octavo appendix volumes to the 
twelfth report of the Historical Manuscripts 
Commission have been published since our 
last issue. The manuscripts of the Duke of 
Athole and of the Earl of Home cover 233 
pages. The ancient charters of the Duke of 
Athole, at Blair Castle, were printed some 
years ago in the appendix to the sixth report 
of the commissioners. The present report, 
which is the work of Sir William Fraser, of 
Edinburgh, refers to the extensive and im- 
portant Athole correspondence. The first 
section includes the royal letters written to 
the house of Athole by reigning sovereigns, 
beginning with a letter of James III. of Scot- 
land, in 1473, ^"d ending with a brief one in 
French from George I., dated August 10, 
1 7 15. But more interesting than any of the 
royal letters is one from Oliver Cromwell to 
General David Leslie; it is undated, but 
was evidently written shortly before the 
battle of Dunbar. The second section deals 
with the papers relative to the Marquis of 
Athole's lieutenancy in the shires of Argyll 
and Tarbet in 1684-5. The third division 
comprises the miscellaneous correspondence 
from 1579 to 1721. The papers in the 
Athole charter-chest relative to the '45 rising 
are numerous and valuable, but access to 
them has been denied, so that this last 
section merely gives a tantalizingly brief 
inventory of these letters, taken fiom an 
inventory made in 1830, which only suffices 
to whet an appetite that for some "special 
circumstances" cannot be satiated. The 
editor's brief introduction is comprehensive, 
clear, and concise. The larger part of the 

E 



42 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



volume relates to the MSS. of the Earl of 
Home. The documents, letters, and charters 
of these muniments are chiefly of personal 
interest of a local character, and possess very 
little national information. If Sir William's 
masterly introduction had been followed by 
25 instead of 150 pages of excerpts, the 
commissioners would have deserved better 
of the country. 

4? ^ ^ 

The cover of Part IX. of the appendix to the 
twelfth report describes the contents as " The 
Manuscripts of the Duke of Beaufort, K.G., 
the Earl of Donoughmore, and others/* We 
object to this title as savouring of a spirit of 
flunkeyism. The contents of the volume are 
reports on the manuscripts of the Duke of 
Beaufort, J. H. Gurney, W. W. B. Hulton, 
R. W. Ketton, the Earl of Donoughmore, 
G. A. Aitken, P. V. Smith, the Bishop of 
Ely, the Dean and Chapter of Ely, the Dean 
and Chapter of Gloucester, the Corporation 
of Gloucester, the Corporation of Higham 
Ferrers, the Corporation of Newark, South- 
well Minster, the Dean and Chapter of 
Lincoln, the Lincoln District Registry, and 
the Dean and Chapter of Peterborough. 
The reports on the various ecclesiastical 
muniments, as well as on those of some of 
the commoners included in this volume, are 
of much greater value than those of the two 
peers named on the cover. 

♦ 4p 4p 

Part X. comprises, in 460 pages, the first 
volume of the manuscripts and correspond- 
ence of James, first Earl of Charlemont, 1754- 
1783. It is well edited; but we desire to 
enter our emphatic protest against national 
funds being used for the printing of the large 
amount of comparatively modern and trivial 
material found in these pages, whilst so much 
that is old and of real value remains un- 
touched. We hope that next session the 
Historical Manuscripts Commission will be 
called to account for the fickle way in which 
from time to time they execute their trust. 
No wonder that the Athenaum is astounded 
at the printing of such "stuff," as it briefly 
characterizes much of this Charlemont volume 
to be. And we are shortly to look for another 
volume, issued at our expense, bringing the 
precious stuff down to 1810 ! 



At the gallery of the Royal Institute in 

Piccadilly the first exhibition of the Society 

of Portrait Painters is now on view. It is 

somewhat startling to enter three galleries 

consecutively and find nothing but the 

human form divine. The collection is very 

mixed. There are some really fine pictures, 

and many others possessing considerable 

merit ; but one is tempted to ask why the 

remainder have been painted, unless to give 

the painter an order or to gratify the sitter. 

Amongst the most striking pictures is No. 

243, " Miss Grant," a work by Hubert Her- 

komer, which created a sensation at the 

Royal Academy ; No. 202, " Mrs. Luke 

Fildes," by her husband ; and No. 134, 

" Mr. Gladstone," by Sir John Millais, both 

of which are also Academy works. Taking 

the catalogue in order, No. 32, by T. B. 

Kennington, is a young lady of the period 

posed easily on the arm of a chair ; No. 42, 

by A. Hacker, is a clever picture of Mr. 

Alfred East, the landscape-painter, busy at 

his canvas; No. 51, by the Hon. J. Collier, 

is Mr. J. L. Toole, as seen in private life ; 

No. 62, by W. Llewellyn, is a brilliant and 

effective likeness of Mrs. Rivers ; No. 63, the 

portrait of his daughter by Carolus Duran, is 

a charmingly attractive painting, a soft and 

delicate colouring in gray and pink ; No. in 

is a powerful drawing of the late Edwin 

Long, RA., by Paul Renouard; No. xi6, by 

Hubert Vos, should be a good likeness of 

Monsieur de Staal; No. 131, by Mrs. L. 

Jopling, is a pretty picture of EUen Terry, 

but fails to do justice to her expression ; Na 

148 is a well and cleverly painted head of a 

Procureur-G^ndral, by P. de Jong; No. 173, 

by E. Wylie Grier, is worthy of notice ; No. 

187, "Margery," is a bonny child, happily 

treated by A. S. Copes ; and No. 214, by A^ 

Stuart Wortley, is a graceful head of Lady 

Newtown Butler. There are also some good 

sporting portraits by Heywood Hardy. 

Taken as a whole the gallery is certainly 

well worth a visit. We noticed several blank 

spaces on the walls reserved for the works of 

French artists, which were not hung at the 

time of our visit, and these should be an 

additional attraction. 

4iP ♦ ♦ 

An interesting work of repletion has just 

been completed in the church of St John 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



45 



the Evangelist, the oldest church in Leeds, 
by the munificence of Mr. Wurtzburg, one of 
the churchwardens. The fine screen of Re- 
storation date was surmounted, on both its 
northern and southern parts, by a striking 
cresting or canopy enclosing the royal arms 
and the Prince of Wales' feathers. This was 
removed for some reason many years ago, 
and Mr. Wurtzburg subsequently purchased 
as much as he could find of the old work at 
a broker's, with a view to its eventual restora- 
tion, and has now at his own expense replaced 
the cresting in its original position. The 
places of the royal arms, etc, which are now 
set up at the west end of the church, have 
been filled With Christian symbols, designed 
with much skill by Mr. Temple Moore, of 
Hampstead, in full accordance with the 
peculiar architecture of the church. For 
our own part we should have preferred it 
being restored exactly without any change of 
symbols, otherwise the work has our hearty 
commendation. 

4^ 4p 4p 

It is in immediate contemplation to restore 
the venerable church of Goodmanham, East 
Riding, Yorks, which is now disfigured by 
high-box pews, and to repair and strengthen 
the massive tower. The parish of Goodman- 
ham is one of the oldest and most interesting 
in the kingdom. It is mentioned by the 
Venerable Bede, under the name of God- 
mundingham, or "the home of the protection 
of the gods," and he tells us that it was the 
site of a Druidical temple, the high priest of 
which, Coifi by name, was converted to 
Christianity by Paulinus, a.d. 627, at the 
sane time that King Edwin became a 
Christian. He relates the story that Coifi, 
after his baptism, rode full speed to the 
temple at Goodmanham, hurled his spear at 
the idol, and demolished it in the presence 
of the people, who all then embraced Chris- 
tianity. The present church is built, it is 
presumed, on the ruins of the heathen 
temple. It is principally Early Norman, 
though traces of Saxon work still remain in 
the lower part of the walls. The ancient 
font is claimed by Stukeley as the one in 
which Paulinus baptized Coifi. The effort 
now being made to repair this venerable 
edifice in a manner somewhat befitting its 



great historical interest should specially com- 
mend itself to antiquaries. The circular issued 
by the rector refers to the building being " dis- 
figured by whitewash and plaster," but we 
understand that the work will be placed in 
the hands of an architect who will be too 
well educated to think that the stripping ofi" 
of plaster from bare walls is a necessary part 
of restoration. Work of that kind renders a 
building, as a rule, more absolutely unlike its 
original appearance than any other scheme 
that can be designed. We hope on another 
occasion to revert to the subject of the repairs 
of this ancient fabric. 

4p 4p 4p 

The process of restoration of St Lawrence's 
Church, Ludlow, is being continued. It is 
found that the condition of the roof of the 
Lady Chapel is such that repair is almost out 
of the question. We regret this; but the 
report of Sir A. W. Blomfield, which has 
been forwarded to us for reproduction, cer- 
tainly seems to fully justify new work. The 
report says: "The scaffolding under this 
roof having been completed, and a closer 
examination having been made than was 
possible from a ladder or from above, it is 
found that the state of the timber and 
boarding is very much worse than could 
have been anticipated, and from what can be 
seen from the floor from a ladder or by un- 
covering small parts of the roof from above. 
The wall-plates are almost entirely rotted 
away, the main and intermediate rafters and 
purlins, sound in appearance from below, are 
simply hollow cases, the interior completely 
rotten. The carved bosses (two of which 
have already fallen) are rotten, and in danger 
of falling at any moment; whilst at least 
three-quarters of the roof boarding is decayed 
through soaking of wet through ti^e worn-out 
lead Timbers have been added to the roof 
from time to time from above to strengthen 
it, but they now have the opposite effect by 
adding weight to the already overburdened 
original work. No patching or partial repairs 
are any longer possible, and nothing can be 
considered safe or satisfactory but a thorough 
renewal of all decayed and defective parts, 
which practically amounts in this case to a 
new roof. The lead, as I have reported on 
a former occasion, is in an extremely bad 

E a 



44 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



state, to which the extensive decay of the 
roof timbers is in a large measure attribut- 
able." 

^ ^ ^ 

On June 25, at 5 p.m., the remarkably fine 
and interesting church of St Cuthbert, Dove- 
bridge, Derbyshire, was struck by lightning. 
The electric current destroyed the weather- 
cock on the spire, and apparently travelled 
down the conductor till just below the 
summit of the tower, when it passed by an 
iron stay through the embattlement, displacing 
a stone or two and some iron spouting, and 
then through the roof and along a gas-pipe 
in the nave. The gas became ignited, but 
the smoke being observed by Lord Hindlip's 
men, their prompt action in turning off the 
meter, and working with garden-hose and 
buckets extinguished the fire in the nave 
roof before the Uttoxeter fire-engine arrived. 
Happily, very small damage was done, 
though if the fire had not been at once 
observed the result must have been most 
disastrous. The tower of this church is of 
Early English date; it has beautifully de- 
signed double-lancet windows on the north 
and south, with dripstones ornamented with 
the tooth moulding. There are other fea- 
tures both in stone and wood of special 
interest, and we are most thankful for its 
preservation. The rector tells us that most 
stringent inquiries are being made into the 
defects of the conductor. It was originally 
erected in 187 1, and was actually tested by 
a "duly qualified expert" only three years 
ago! We rather wish that he had given 
to us the names of the firm who supplied 
the conductor and of the "expert" who 
tested it ! 

4^ 4p 4p 

Although there was good foundation for the 
rumour, alluded to in our last number, that a 
faculty was to be waived in the case of the 
restoration of Taddington Church, Derby- 
shire, we are glad to learn that better 
counsels have prevailed, and that the applica- 
tion for the faculty has now been made in 
due form to the Chancellor of Southwell. 
Messrs. Naylor and Sale are the architects. 
The most decided alteration of the fabric, 
according to the plans and specification, is 
the removing of the parapets, continuing the 
eaves over the walls, and the replacing of 



the upper part of the spire and making good 
the spire lights. These gentlemen can^ we 
are sure, be trusted to fulfil their reverent 
promise of "reusing every vestige of old 
work " in the fabric itsel£ 

<J|p ^ <J|p 

With regard to the alterations that it is 
proposed to make on the north side of the 
chancel of Taddington Church, we desire to 
call the attention of the architects and of 
those concerned to an interesting communi- 
cation that we have received from that care- 
ful antiquary, Mr. John Ward, of Derby. 
He recently noted traces of a two-story 
anchor-hold or similar structure^ apparently 
resembling those of Rettendon (Essex), 
Crickhowell, and Chipping Norton. Above 
the north door of the chancel, that opens 
into the present vestry, may be traced extern- 
ally the jambs, lintel, and sill of a square 
opening, about three feet by two. It is seen 
above the roof of the present lean-to vestiy. 
There certainly must have been an external 
building at the time the chancel was newly 
built. The way the door opens and the 
opening above prove that it was a two- 
storied structure, probably for some hermit 
priest or chantry priest From the absence 
of indications of a stone adjunct, Mr. Ward 
surmises that it may have been a building of 
timber. Now that the subject has been 
named in these columns, it will, we fed sure, 
be inquired into by those on the spot, and 
that all care will be exercised to avoid obliter- 
ating the interesting traces named by our 
correspondent 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Information reaches us that in the course of 

the restoration of St Martin's Church, Col- 
chester, to which reference was made in our 
last issue, the remains of a " Doom " or Last 
Judgment wall-painting have come to light in 
the usual position at the east end of the nave 
over the chancel arch. From the description 
given by Mr. C Golding, it would seem that 
this is another example of the Doom after 
some common fifteenth-century design, for 
this picture is practically the same wherever 
found in English churches. Our Saviour is 
seated on the throne of judgment, with His 
hands extended and with a crown of glory. 
About the throne is a rainbow of three 
colours, to symbolize the Holy Trinity. To 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



45 



the right is the Blessed Virgin and some of 
the Apostles, imploring pardon for various 
persons, represented rising from their tombs, 
and summoned by two angels with trumpets 
into the presence of Christ St. Peter stands 
with the keys of heaven in his hands, turned 
against Satan. On the left, Satan, with 
various evil spirits of grotesque shapes, and 
confined by chains, receives the wicked, who 
are shown involved in flames encircled by a 
serpent 

4p 4p 4p 

A trusted correspondent, who has just re- 
visited Grasmere, says : '* I was struck by 
the thoroughly new appearance of the church 
tower, and found that the plaster had been 
skinned off and the spaces between the 
stones not only filled up, but with raised 
lines of cement wandering about in sections 
all over the surface. As the tower is con- 
structed in the same manner as the houses of 
the district — namely, with long, narrow, irreg- 
ular stones — ^the result of this treatment of 
the structure is almost comic in its results. 
If it was thought necessary to strip the walls, 
why could not the authorities content them- 
selves with flat pointing ? The tower itself is 
not of much consequence architecturally, but 
sentimentally, like the church, it is brimful 
of interest owing to its connection with 
Wordsworth and the Lake Poets. Now all 
this sentiment has been cast to the winds by 
this senseless and tasteless and perfectly 
objectless destruction of its original appear- 
ance, apart from the waste of money in 
describing all these hideous meandering 
lines.'* 

Ak tmi «B 

Mr. George C. Yates, F.S.A., of Swinton, has 
obtained an interesting specimen of a socketed 
bronze spear-head, with loops at the side of 
the projecting socket. It was recently found 
at a depth of from twenty to thirty feet in the 
workings of the Manchester Ship Canal at 
Irlam, about five miles from Manchester. 
The speat-head is similar to the one figured 
395 in Dr. £vans's book on bronze imple- 
ments. 

cm cm cms 

An interesting archaeological discovery has 
been made on the premises of Messrs. 
Mountford and Co., Dogpole, Shrewsbury. 
The back part of the premises run down to 



the Severn-side, and on the top of the river 
bank, at a considerable elevation above the 
stream, stands a portion of the old wall which 
at one time surrounded the town. On the 
face of this a man was at work, when one of 
the stones fell inward and disappeared. An 
examination of the spot led to the discovery 
of an underground passage at right angles to 
the wall and with an arched roof. The 
passage has been explored a distance of forty 
yards, and the direction it takes is from the 
outskirts towards the centre of the town, with 
a short passage bending to the left. Whether 
the subway is of military or ecclesiastic 
origin is as yet unsettled, but it is evidently 
of some antiquity. It is about 4 feet 6 inches 
high, and 2 feet 6 inches wide, and lined 
with brick. 



-'^ani 



iSotes of tl)e a^ontb (JForetgn). 

Under the direction of Professor Puschi 
some excavations have been carried out at 
Barcola, near the shores of the Adriatic, 
half-way between Trieste and Miramaris, 
which have revealed the walls of enclosure 
of a large ancient Roman building, very 
probably a theatre. The interior, which has 
a diameter of 45 mbtres, is in form perfectly 
round, though the outer wall is polygonal. 
Some tombs were found at the same time, 
containing eight Roman skeletons in good 
preservation. 

♦ 3^ 3|C 

At Vienna sixteen Roman tombs have been 
opened, in which were discovered skeletons, 
twelve coins, a fibula, two urns, and two vases. 

Hfi $^ i(^ 

At Mautem, near Krems, the ancient Colania 
Faviannis^ has been found, in digging founda- 
tions for a new school, an ancient Roman 
sarcophagus covered with a stone slab, and 
containing five large urns full of ashes. This 
once flourishing Roman colony was destroyed 
by the barbarian invaders of the empire. 

* * * 
At Baden, not far from Vienna, in a recently 

discovered grotto, the remains of a Roman 
temple have come to light, with lamps, Roman 
bricks, coins, knives, arrows, fragments of 



46 



NOTES OF THE MONTH (FOREIGN). 



vases, bones of animals, etc. A niche made 

in the rock shows remains of an altar of 

Mithras. Near Ahrweiler seven tombs have 

been found, with many vases, urns, amphorae, 

lamps, etc, all of ancient Roman times. 

H/i idi H/i 

In the bed of the Rhine, between Ingelhei- 
mer and Petersau, have been found several 
bronzes, especially brooches of the so-called 
La 7<^ type, several rings, one being adorned 
with heads of the bull worked in relief, and 
about fifty small bars or rods of bronze, each 
23 centimetres in length, and about 250 
grammes in weight. All these objects have 
been placed in the museum at Mainz. 

i^ idi mi 
Near Heidelberg, while digging some founda- 
tions, what appears to be an ancient Roman 
shop, cellar, or store, has been found, in the 
walls of which were niches for placing objects. 
Inside there was found a broken relief in 
stone, representing the headless figiure of a 

woman hiEiving in her hand a horn of plenty. 

Hfi m i^ 
Near Diisseldorf have been found some 
Roman tombs for burnt bodies. A German 
necropolis, which has been explored in the 
same neighbourhood, has yielded besides 
the burnt bones fragments of terracotta and 
metal, among which are some repres^itatives 
of the La Tine type^ and a coin of Augustus. 
Urns full of burnt bones, and often covered 
with a kind of overlapping earthenware jar- 
lid, were found at different depths. 

# * * 
In making foundations for the grand new 

steps for the cathedral of Cologne, a Roman 
pavement has come to light, with many 
round bricks used for making the pillars of 
hypocausts, and a stone broken in four 
pieces, which is adorned with two columns 
in Corinthian style, surrounded by an archi- 
trave. The stone is i mbtre long and 56 
centimetres wide, and bears the following 
inscription, which is attributable to the year 
164 B.C : 

Pro salute imp(eraton2m) n(ostrorum) 
J(ovi) o(ptimo) m(aximo) 
ceterisque diis et genio loci 
M(arcus) Verecundinius Simplex 
leg(ionis) XXX Ulp(iae) curam agens 
stratorum et peditum singularium 
co(n)s(ularis) v(otum) s(oTvit) 
Tn(erito) l(ubens) l(aetus) 
Macrino et Celso co(n)s(ttlibti8). 



In sinking the foundations for the new bridge 
over the Tiber, many antiquities have been 
dragged out of its bed. The latest consist 
of some fragments of inscriptions fetched up 
by the dredge near the Ponte Garibaldi, and 
a fine statuette of bronze and a bronze 
dolphin, near the Ponte Sisto. A new 
terminal inscription of the age of Trajan 
was also found near the new bridge at the 
Ripetta, in the Prati di Castello. 

4c 3«C # 

In making alterations to confine the course 
of the Adige at Verona, many blocks of 
marble have been found belonging to a 
bridge, and a fragmentary Latin inscription. 
About a thousand metal objects were abo 
taken up, the most conspicuous of which 
was a fine two-headed bronze Hermes, repre- 
senting two female heads, which recalls to 
mind the fine Hermes found in the bed of 
the Tiber, and now in the museum of the 
Baths of Diocletian. To this must be added 
various statuettes of divinities, objects of 
domestic use, many silver imperial coins, 
referable for the most part to the second 
half of the third century. 

^^ ^^ ^^ 

Tombs of the type called Villanova have 
been found on the property which goes by 
the name of Pasano, in Savignano on the 
Panaro (Regione VIII.); and remains of 
ancient Roman buildings reappear in the 
territory of Vignola. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Some Roman constructions belonging to 
private edifices, as also to a temple^ were 
found in the district called Palazzone, near 
Imola. 

3|c ♦ 4c 
In the commune of Sirolo (Regione V.) 

excavations have been conducted by the 
Government in the necropolis of Numana. 
Many tombs for burial of the body were 
found, and a rich collection of vases, bronzes, 
arms and personal ornaments, as also Greek 
vases, but of poor imitatioa 

* * * 

At Bolsena (Regione VII.) fresh researches 

have been made in Contrada Mercatello, 
amongst the ruins of the villa of Laberio 
Gallo, where some splendid bronzes of the 
third century were discovered in 1882. The 
result has been the recovery of several frag- 
ments of Latin inscriptions, and of chiselled 



I 



NOTES OF THE MONTH {FOREIGN). 



47 



bronze and marble. Amongst the bronzes 
especial mention must be made of the broken 
portions of a hydraulic pump belonging to 
imperial times. 

4t 4t # 
In the month of April, thirteen fragments of 

the celebrated marble plan of the ancient 
city of Rome came to light in the area 
behind the church of SS. Cosmas and Damian 
on the Forum ; and in the excavations under- 
taken for the purpose by the Government 
five more pieces were discovered on the same 
site in May. They will be added to the 
bulk of this most important record of antiquity 
now on the walls of the Capitoline Museum. 
In 1888 some 200 pieces were found on the 
banks of the Tiber behind the Palazzo Farnese, 
and on April 21 of this year a large frag- 
ment was picked up in the same place. 

* * * 
In Athens, near the Theseion, has been dis- 
covered the base of a statue of the artist 
Bryaxis. It bears reliefs which are probably 
the work of the pupils or workmen of the 
studio of that master, and a votive inscrip- 
tion in which two persons are named of the 
Attic demos Paianiay who appear to belong to 
the family of the celebrated orator Demos- 
thenes, originally of that demos, 

^r ^^ ^^ 

Signor P. Kawadias, Ephoros General of 
Antiquities, has published a further report 
on the outer Ceramicus Necropolis near the 
Dipylon. In the lowest stratum, which belongs 
to about the seventh century b.c., and which 
was dedicated to burial by inhumation, the 
funereal deposits consist of vases all of the 
well-known Dipylon type, but of various 
forms. Other vases of greater size, but of 
the same character, were found placed over 
the tombs, and served as a kind of funereal 
monument. One particular, of considerable 
importance, because it gives us an idea of 
the relations existing at that time between 
Athens and the East, is the discovery in one 
of these tombs of two figurini of couched 
lions of Egyptian porcelain with hieroglyphic 
inscriptions, and also some strange ivory 
figurini of Asiatic art representing women 
nude. 

4c 3«C 3|C 

The second stratum was confined to burial by 
incremation or incineration. Here the burnt 
bodies or ashes were placed in a hole dug in 



the earth and covered by a small mound. 
The appearance of the graves has the same 
characters as those observed in the tumuli 
of Vurv^ and Velanideza. The epoch of 
this stratum is still, as would appear, anterior 
to the Persian wars. 

* * * 

The third stratum, or the most recent, pro- 
bably belonging to the fourth century b.c., 
contains tombs of various kinds, amongst 
which are also terracotta and marble sarco- 
phagi. Amongst the fragments of vases and 
terracottas is a shell {ostrakon\ upon which 
we read the graffite name Xantippos^ father 
of the celebrated PerikleSy whence it appears 
that it was one of the shells which served to 

vote the ostracism of Xantippus. 

* ♦ ♦ 

In one of the last sittings of the Paris 
Acadhmie des Inscriptions et Belies Lettres^ 
M. Clermont-Ganneau communicated three 
sepulchral inscriptions of the first century 
of the Christian era discovered in the out- 
skirts of Jerusalem, in a tomb excavated 
in the rock outside the gate of Damascus. 
One contains a simple name written in 
Hebrew upon a triangular cover belonging 
to the ossuary of a woman, as is evident 
from the characteristic form of the urn ; the 
others are in Greek, but consist only of 
proper names. 

4c ]|e 4c 
At Martres-Tolosanne (Haute-Garonne) the 
excavations of the French Government have 
brought to light a large quantity of objects 
of some artistic value, and many re^iains of 
ancient buildings which must have belonged 
to a small city of Romah times, of which 
the name is as yet unknown. Amongst 
others it contained a temple of Hercules, of 
which several bas-reliefs remain, representing 
the twelve labours of that god. Various 
sculptures originally from this site exist 
already in the museum of Toulouse. All 
these are of marble from the Pyrenees, and 
are hence the work of local Gallo-Roman 
artists. According to M. Perrot, they are 
divided into three groups : reproductions of 
Greek ideal types, busts of Roman emperors, 
and portraits of a realistic character, but not 
of great artistic correctness of design. 



48 



SCOTTISH LA WS FOR LA WLESS BEGGARS 




IBeggatsf. 

By Henrt Hunter. 

|T would be hard to say when the 
disease of disinclination to work 
first afflicted the human race. Pro- 
bably, if the truth were known, it 
would be found to be coeval with that time 
when Adam delved and Eve span. How- 
ever that may be, it is many centuries since 
idleness became a profession, and its votaries 
a public nuisance. Among all the laws which 
have been passed to regulate the different 
trades and professions none are so interesting 
as those enacted to extinguish the occupation 
of doing nothing. Legislation with this object 
began as early in Scotland as 1424, in the 
reign of James I., when the number of 
beggars in that country was supposed to be 
about 100,000. These were not wholly of 
that mendicant fraternity of lame and blind 
persons with their scrips, wallets, bags, staves, 
dogs, and crutches, around whom Charles 
Lamb has thrown a lasting halo. They were 
rather the barbarous progenitors of the Dick 
Turpin order of three centuries later, with its 
horse and pistol, its gentlemanly deportment, 
and semi-chivalrous courage. It appears that 
Scotland had long been afflicted by ^'com- 
panies of people traversing the country," 
"beggars," 'Mdle men having no means of 
living," " somares," " overlayers," and " mas- 
terful beggars," who oppressed communities 
by levying contributions and free quarters. 
Prior to 1579 eleven Acts were passed with 
the object of putting down these hordes, but 
with little success. Many murders were dis- 
covered among them. Poor tenants were 
terribly oppressed, for sometimes if they did 
not give provisions to as many as forty of 
these pests in one day, vengeance of some 
sort was sure to fall upon them ; and people 
who lived in isolated houses were frequently 
robbed. In seasons of plenty many thousands 
of them met together in the mountains, where 
they feasted and rioted. At country weddings, 
markets, burials, and other like public occa- 
sions they were to be seen, both men and 
women, perpetually drunk, cursing, blasphem- 
ing, and fighting together. A letter from a 



justice of peace of Somersetshire to the Lord 
Chancellor Burleigh, in transmitting to him 
the calendar of the assizes and sessions held 
in that coimty in 1596, exhibits the state of 
England at that period as similar. After 
giving instances of the depredations of these 
lawless people he goes on to say, " And they 
grow the more dangerous in that they find 
they have bred that fear in the justices, and 
other inferior officers, that so no man dares 
call them into question ; and at a late sessions, 
a tall man, a man sturdy and ancient traveller, 
was committed by a justice, and brought to 
the sessions, and had judgment to be whipt ; 
he, present at the bar^ in the face and hearing 
of the whole bench, swore a great oath, that 
if he were whipt, it should be the dearest 
whipping to some that ever was. It strake 
such a fear in him that committed him, ^ 
he prayed he might be deferred until the 
assizes, when he was delivered without any 
whipping or other harm, and the justice glad 
he had so pacified his wrath. By this your 
good lordship may inform yourself of the 
state of the whole realm, which, I fear me, is 
in as ill case, or worse, dian ours." 

In 1579, in the reign of James VI., an 
attempt was made in Scotland to deal in a 
more systematic way with this social problem. 
An Act was passed " For Punishment of 
Strang and Idle Beggars, and Relief of the 
Pure and Impotent." Lament is made that 
the former Acts had not been strictly enforced, 
and that these beggars, "beside the uthers 
inconvenientes quhilks they daylie produce 
in the common-welth, procure the wrath and 
displeasure of God for the wicked and un- 
godlie forme of living used amongs them, 
without marriage, or baptizing of a great 
number of their baimes." Therefore that 
good order might follow, "to the great 
pleasure of Allmichtie God, and common 
Weill of the realme," certain provisions were 
enacted. None were allowed to beg between 
the ages of 14 and 70 years, who were 
accounted " vagaboundes, Strang and idle 
beggars." All such who were found wander- 
ing the country and misordering themselves 
were to be apprehended and lodged in stocks 
or irons in the common prison until the next 
assize, when, if convicted they were to be 
scourged and burnt through the ear with a 
hot iron. An honest and responsible man 



SCOTTISH LA WS FOR LA WLESS BEGGARS. 



49 



might, however, step forward and undertake 
to keep such an offender in his service for a 
year, at the end of which time he was to 
produce him to the head court of the juris- 
diction, or show good proof of his death, 
under a penalty of ^20, to be expended on 
behalf of the poor of the parish. If he fled 
from his master's service he was to be appre- 
hended, and scouiged and burnt through the 
ear, and if he b^an his vagabond trade of 
life again he was to be hanged "like a 
thief." 

That it might be known what manner of 
persons were meant as being vagabonds and 
worthy of the punishment specified, they were 
declared to be all idle persons going about 
the country using " subtil, craftie, and un- 
lauchful playes, as juglarie, fast-and-lous, and 
sic utheris;" the idle people calling them- 
selves Egyptians, or any others professing to 
have knowledge of *^ charming, prophecie, or 
others abused sciences, quhairby they per- 
suade the peopil that they can teU their 
weirds, deathes, and fortunes, and sic uther 
phantastical imaginations;" and all persons 
in good health and able to work, alleging 
themselves to have been "berried or burnt " 
in some far part of the realm, or to have 
been banished for slaughter or other wicked 
deeds; and others having neither land nor 
masters, nor using any lawful merchandise^ 
craft, or occupation, and who could give no 
account how they lawfully got their living; 
and all " minstrelles, sangsters, and tale- 
tellers " not avowed in special service of lords 
of Parliament or head burghs and cities 
as their common minstrels; all common 
labourers, able in body, living idle, and flee- 
ing labour ; all " counterfaitters " of licenses 
to beg; all "vagabound schollers" of the 
Universities of St Andrew's, Glasgow, and 
Aberdeen, not licensed by the rector and 
dean of faculty of the university to ask alms ; 
and all mariners alleging themselves to have 
been shipwrecked who had not sufficient 
testimonials to that efiect 

Any person who was proved to have given 
alms to a vagabond, or strong beggar who 
had not a license to beg, was to pay a fine 
not exceeding;^ 5, which was to be devoted 
to the relief of the poor within the parish. 
Any person hindering a judge or officer in 
the dischaige of his duty was to sufier the 



same penalty the vagabond would have 
sufiered if he had been convicted. Men 
were appointed in every parish to search for 
vagabonds, and take them to prison. 

For the purpose of dealing in a more 
systematic way with the needs of the poor, 
all such persons were, within forty days from 
the passing of the Act, to repair to the parish 
where they were bom, or where they had 
resorted for seven years, and report them- 
selves to the provost or justice. They were 
then to settle there, or incur the penalty of 
being treated as vagabonds. A list of poor 
persons was to be made up in each parish, 
stating where they were bom, whether they 
were married or unmarried, how many children 
they had, and whether their children were 
baptized ; to what form of trade they addressed 
themselves and their children ; if they were 
diseased or whole in body, and how much 
they commonly got a day by b^ging. It 
was also to be ascertained, in respect of those 
who must necessarily be sustained by alms, 
what amount it would take to keep them 
without begging, and the whole inhabitants 
were to be taxed according to the estimation 
of their substance. Officers and collectors 
were to be appointed in eveiy parish and 
town to receive and distribute the same. 
For the better relief of the impotent and aged 
poor, hospitals were to be erected. 

Poor persons, in order to reach their proper 
parish, were granted certificates to beg from 
parish to parish ; but they could not stay two 
nights in one place unless they were storm- 
stayed or sick. All who refused to go to 
their own parish were to be imprisoned, 
scourged, and burnt through the ear, and for 
continued refusal were to be hanged. Any 
poor person supposed to be able to work and 
refusing was to be scouiged and put in the 
stocks, and for a second fault to be treated 
like a vagabond. 

If a bear's " baime " between the age 
of five and fourteen years was liked by a 
subject of the realm of honest estate, he was 
to have the " baime " for service ; in the case 
of a boy, till he was twenty-four, and of a 
girl, till she was eighteen. 

^^ere collection of money could not be 
made, and where the collection of victuals, 
drink, etc, for the relief of the poor was too 
great a task, licenses were to be granted to 



so 



SCOTTISH LA WS FOR LA WLESS BEGGARS. 



poor people to gather such charitable alms 
of the " parochiners " at their own houses ; 
but they were to stay in their own parish and 
not trouble strangers. 

Where prisons were crowded with vaga- 
bonds, and the support of them likely to be 
too much for the towns where they were 
situated, the parishes in which the vagabonds 
were apprehended were to support them. 

Stringent as these regulations were, they 
seem to have been much neglected, and 
vagabondism remained rampant. During 
the next hundred years half a dozen Acts 
were passed with the object of repressing 
begging, and of relieving the poor in a 
systematic way by placing the power of 
administration in the hands of the Kirk 
Session. 

In the reign of William and Mary several 
attempts were made to regulate relief and free 
the nation from vagabonds. On August ii, 
1692, a proclamation of Privy Council was 
issued commanding all ministers, elders, and 
heritors to meet on the second Tuesday of 
September following at the parish kirk, and 
make up a list of all the poor within their 
parish. All poor persons were to make their 
way to their own parish before the date 
mentioned, and there settle. In passing 
through the country they were to keep to the 
highways ; and in order that they might more 
speedily reach their own parish, lieges who 
found them begging were forthwith to convey 
them to the head heritor of the parish, who 
would provide for their immediate wants, and 
then send them in charge of two strong men 
to the head heritor of the next parish. They 
were thus to be passed on from place to place 
till they arrived at the parish to which they 
belonged. If they tried to escape they were 
to be scourged and fed on bread and water 
during the remainder of the journey. If the 
heritor failed to send them on, he was to 
be fined ;if2o Scots; and after the second 
Tuesday of September any person who gave 
alms to a beggar not belonging to the parish 
was to be fined twenty shillings Scots. After 
this date anyone found begging outside his 
own parish was to be imprisoned and fed on 
bread and water for a month ; and if found 
"vaguing" a second time, he was to be 
' marked on the face with an iron. 

In 1693 ^^d 1694 other proclamations 



were issued bewailing that these provisions 
had not been carried into effect — that the 
poor were not properly provided for, and 
vagabonds not restrained — and calling upon 
the authorities to put them in force at once. 

No further legislation of a serious nature, 
on behalf of the poor, seems to have been 
attempted till 1839, when, at the request of 
the Secretary of State, the General Assembly 
of the Church of Scotland appointed a com- 
mittee to inquire into the administration of 
the Acts. The census of 1831 showed the 
population of Scotland to be 2,315,926. The 
committee found that the poor were most 
inadequately relieved. Taking the years 
1835-6-7 the average number of poor on the 
permanent roll was 57,969, the occasional 
poor 20,348, lunatic paupers x,ii2, in all 
79,429, being at the rate of 3*42 per cent, of 
the population. The average rate of relief 
given to the poor on the oermanent roU, 
exclusive of lunatics, was J^i i8s. 6d. per 
pauper annually, constituting a chaige of ixd. 
on each individual of the population per 
annum. The average annual amount from 
collections at the church -doors for the 
support of the poor was ^38,300; other 
voluntary contributions, ;fci8,976; session 
funds, ;;^2o,6o4 ; from assessment, ^(^77,239 ; 
in all ;£i55,xi9* The cost of administra- 
tion was ;6^>oo9. The result of the tnqtiiry 
was that in 1843 & toydX commission was 
appointed to investigate and see what altera- 
tions should be made. The outcome of this 
commission was the Act of 1845, which, 
without any material subsequent amendment, 
still remains in force. 

The railway, the newspaper, and the police 
force have exercised a great influence on tbe 
social conditions of begging, as on most con- 
ditions of life. Yet it may be said that the 
trade dies hard. In all pazts of the country 
not infrequently do we still come across an 
oddity who reminds us of the beggar of the 
olden time ; but every year they are becoming 
fewer, and those who take their place, being 
the outcome of present-day conditions, 
naturally conform to them. Tramps there 
still are in thousands who go begging through 
the country ; but they consist of labourers of 
the lowest class — ^men who work at railways 
and waterworks, and who regard railway fares 
as so much wasted money which might be 



HANGING IN CHAINS. 



SI 



spent more profitably in drink. These, with 
the wives and children, who are continually 
tramping through the country with them, or 
after them, form the chief source of modem 
vagrancy. The discipline of the prison, the 
poorhouse^ and the lunatic asylum is rapidly 
transforming the idle, aimless, restless vaga- 
bond into a memory of a bygone time. The 
need for charity is greater to-day than ever, 
but we dole it out in a more rational and 
systematic manner. 

Secure in the possession of strict and 
honoured laws, of the conveniences of rapid 
transit and quick intelligence, we look back 
with complacent self-satisfaction, not unmixed 
with fascination, to the time when the steam- 
engine was unknown, when the humble 
peasant r^arded his little parish as his 
world, and his only terror was the sturdy 
tramp who preyed upon the helpless hamle^ 
none daring to make him afraid. 





Royal 



Ranging in Chains.* 

|HE ghastly subject of gibbeting or 
hanging in chains formed the un- 
usual subject for a paper by Mr. 
Hartshome at the congress of the 
Archaeological Institute held last 
summer at Gloucester. A brief abstract of 
this paper was given at the time in the 
columns of the Antiquary^ and the subject 
was subsequently foUowed up by two or 
three of our contributors. A good deal of 
interest was excited on the question, with 
the result that a small illustrated volume 
exclusively dealing with gibbeting has been 
produced by Mr. Hartshome. As an apology 
for the issue of a treatise on such a subject 
it is well stated in the preface "that the 
gallovrs and the gibbet are the most ancient 
instmments of capital punishment in the 
world ; as such they have a distinct archaeo- 
logical as well as a legal interest ; and inas- 
much as it appears that the custom of exposing 
human bodies in irons and chains is almost 

* Hanging in Chains* By Albert Hartshome, 
F.S.A T» Fisher (/nwin. Pp. xvi., 12a Eleven 
plates. Price 5s. 



peculiar to this country, doubtless no further 
motive need be adduced for now bringing 
together these scattered English notices." 

The book opens with allusions and instances 
taken from the Scriptures as to gibbeting and 
exposure with the ancient Jews, showing their 
strong desire for burial and their abhorrence 
at being " cast out " j and in the same chapter 
quotations are introduced from the Uiad and 
jiEneid^ from Ovid and Pliny. It is proved 
that gibbeting was in vogue with the Anglo- 
Saxons, and several curious examples are 
given of the punishment in the fourteenth, 
fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries. Punish- 
ments of a like character are subsequently 
described in Germany, Scotland, France and 
Spain. A most singular and thoroughly 
French instance of one way of showing 
respect to a royal entry is given in the fifth 
chapter. It is recorded that when Charles V. 
made entrance into Douai, the citizens erected 
triumphal arches and otherwise adomed 
their town. But at the last moment they 
suddenly recollected the unsightly appear- 
ance of an unhappy wretch who had been 
gibbeted hard by the gate through which the 
monarch was to enter. "Him, therefore, 
they dressed in a clean white shirt to do 
honour to the emperor. It will be noticed 
that they did not take the body away, which 
would have been easier; that woi^d have 
been illegal'' 

It is not a little remarkable that notwith- 
standing the general prevalence in this country 
of gibbeting for so many centuries, that the 
English law, from the first Statute of West- 
minster in 1277 down to the time of its 
abrogation in our own century, took no 
cognisance of the hanging of bodies of 
criminals in chains. Such a treatment of the 
corpse was, says Mr. Hartshome^ *' like the 
rack, rather an engine of state than of law." 
The gibbeting was never mentioned as part 
of the death sentence, but came in later as a 
kind of afterthought of the judge. In the 
case of the conviction of Anthony Lingard 
for murder in 181 5 at Derby assizes, the 
records state that " before the judge left the 
town, he directed that the body of Lingard 
should be hung in chains in the most con- 
venient place near the spot where the murder 
was committed, instead of being dissected 
and anatomized." This gibbeting of Lingard, 



52 



HANGING IN CHAINS. 



not alluded to in this work, was the last instance 
in Derbyshire ; though in the neighbouring 
county of Leicester there was an instance 
as late as 1834, in which year the custom 
was abrogated by statute. The absurdity of 
the belief of our forefathers that this disgust- 
ing custom would act as a deterrent of crime 
was strikingly shown with regard to Lingard's 
gibbet Only four years later a young woman 
was hung at Derby at the early age of sixteen 
for poisoning a school-fellow, the depositions 
showing th^t ''she gave the poison in a sweet 
cake to her companion as they were going to 
fetch some cattle out of a field near to which 
stood the gibbet-post of Anthony Lingard." 

The morality and religious tendencies of 
the past generations of children were sup- 
posed to be materially improved by that 
extraordinary work, Mrs. Sherwood's History 
of the Fairchild Family, We are rather sur- 
prised to find no allusion made by Mr. Harts- 
home to the remarkable illustration of the 
sixth commandment made in that once 
popular book. Mr. Fairchild takes his three 
small children to a distant, gloomy, overgrown 
place called Blackwood " to show them some- 
thing there which I think they will remember 
as long as they live, that they may love each 
other with perfect and heavenly love !" We 
quote from the sixteenth edition, published 
in 1845. A most realistic description is 
given of the horror. Close to the deserted 
house where the murder had been perpetrated 
" stood a gibbet, on which the body of a man 
hung in chains ; the body had not yet fallen 
to pieces, though it had hung there some 
years. It had on a blue coat, a silk hand- 
kerchief round the neck, with shoes and 
stockings, and every other part of the dress 
still entire ; but the face of the corpse was 
so shocking that the children could not look 
upon it. 'Oh, papa! papa! what is that?' 
cried the children. ' That is a gibbet,' said 
Mr. Fairchild, 'and the man who hangs upon 
it is a murderer. When people are found 
guilty of stealing, or murder, they are hanged 
upon a gallows and taken down as soon as 
they are dead ; but in some particular cases, 
when a man has committed murder, he is 
hanged in iron chains upon a gibbet till his 
body falls to pieces, that all who pass by 
may take warning by the example.' Whilst 
Mr. Fairchild was speaking the wind blew 



strong and shook the body upon the gibbet, 
rattling the chains by which it hung. ' Oh, 
let us go, papa!' said the children, pulling 
Mr. Fairchild's coat." But the moral father 
refused to let his frightened children stir, 
though of tender years, and made them sit 
down on the stump of a tree facing the 
sickening spectacle, whilst he detailed to 
them the story of the murder, followed by 
reflections to induce them to " a perfect and 




m 

BRBBDS' IRONS, 1 743. 

heavenly love !" We may, indeed, be thank- 
ful for the sake of England's children that 
wretched object lessons of this kind are 
extinct, as well as the race of Fairchild 
instructors. 

There was a great variety in the style of 
irons in which the bodies of criminals were 
hung. One of the most elaborate suit of 
irons described by Mr. Hartshome is that in 
which John Breeids hung in 1742. As we 
look at the engraving, we can well under- 



HANGING IN CHAINS. 



53 



nand that the " measuring for irons," which 
is said to have strack special horror into the 
minds of the condemned, would be a necessity 
for sacfa a suit as this. John Breeds, butcher 
of Ry^ committed a peculiarly sanguinary 
murder on a oei^ibour with a kriife of his 



chains and frame were rescued by the 
corporation of Rye and placed in the court- 
house of that town, where they still remain. 

The banks of the Thames, opposite Black- 
wall, was the spot chosen m the last century 
for hanging the bodies of condemned pirates. 



■■ CTi^.- ■ m L — =r-^ — '■'^■^■ 




A THAinS PIBATK. 



trade. A gibbet was set up for his corpse This custom was continaed in the earlier 

io a maish at the west aid of the town, now years of the present century. The windows 

called "Gibbet Maish." The body swung of the waterside taverns of Blackwall were 

here for many a long year until all had supplied with spy-glasses, through which the 

dropped away save the upper part of the customers might enjoy the spectacle. The 

skull (shown in the engravingX when the Rev. J. W. Tottenham, of St LeonaidMUi- 



54 



ANCIENT MILLS OF HAMPSHIRK 



Sea, has in his collection two sets of Thames 
pirate chains. Th^y are of simpler construc- 
tion than any other gibbeting irons that are 
extant or are described in this book. The 
mode in which the body was suspended in 
the looped chain and die head held up is 
made clear in the accompanying cut from 
Mr. Hartshome's book. 

In various ways the book before us might 
have been extended by quotations from the 
Elizabethan and subsequent dramatists, and 
by other curious examples of this sickening 
sequel to hanging. The list of gibbeting 
irons and chains still extant might be amended; 
for instance no reference is made to Lingard's 
gibbet-cap, preserved in the museum at Belle 
Viie, Manchester, which was engraved in the 
last volume of the Antiquary from Mr. 
Andrews' Old-Time Punishments; but after 
all our author has probably said enough, and 
said it with much ability and research on 
this painful question. He thus concludes: 
" It has been impossible to treat of such a 
ghastly subject, of which the horrors seem to 
bum themselves into the mind, without a 
certain amount of ghastliness ; indeed, with- 
out the plea of attempting to throw a ray of 
light into some of tiiose dark comers of 
history, we should almost have flinched from 
bringing forward these melancholy topics, 
making sensibility shudder, and which our 
readers may, perchance, find it a pleasure to 
forget And in imagination we already hear 
the cry : 

Vex not his ghost : O, let him (jass 1 he hates him 
That would upon the rack of this tough world 
Stretch him out longer." 




ancient 2^\\\% of ^amp^Iitre. 

By T. W. Shore. 

HAMPSHIRE is a county of chalk- 
streams, one characteristic of which 
is the comparatively small variation 
which occurs in the volume of 
water the larger streams contain, for the 
nature of chalk is such that it holds the water 
for a long time and gives it out gradually, as 
the line of its saturation slowly sinks in dry 




seasons. The main streams are increased in 
volume by lesser streams, which flow from 
the lateral valleys, so that the physical con- 
ditions of the waterflow over the greater 
part of this county must have been very 
favourable for the erection of mills in early 
time. Instead of one great river, by which 
small mills could only have been driven by 
the constmction of artificial channels or leats, 
the early inhabitants of this county found the 
mill-sites marked out by Nature for Aeir use. 
These early water-mills would probably be 
small when compared with those of later 
time, but the natural sites adapted for the 
construction of such mills must have been 
plentiful in this county, in which the chalk- 
streams flow down to the sea, through courses 
of a few score of miles, from elevations 
varying from 200 to 400 feet above its level 

As commonly happens, the streams in parts 
of their courses form marshes and alluvial 
flats ; while in other parts below and above 
these alluviums, and commonly where the 
valleys are contracted, the streams may be 
seen to flow more rapidly, owing to the oc- 
currence of a somewhat harder bed of rock 
near the surface, or other causes whidi have 
produced deposits of gravel. These were 
the sites which Nature marked out as the 
most convenient places for the erection of 
the early mills. Such sites are very commonly 
near the natural fords, where the harder beds 
of the streams and the absence of alluviums 
pointed out safe crossing-places. In the 
earliest settlement of the county, man would 
be led to such sites by the instincts of the 
beasts of the chase ; and the frequent use of 
such fords, where the water would be seen to 
flow quickly, could not fail to suggest to the 
early mill-builders their use as mill-fiites. 
Where Nature marked out such sites for 
grinding com by water - power, she also 
commonly provided those geological condi- 
tions under which the construction of roads 
or causeways to the mills would be a matter 
of no great difficulty. 

The earliest appliances for grinding com 
which have been found in Hampshire, as in 
other parts of the country, are of course the 
remains of the hand-mills or querns. These 
have been found on the sites of Romano- 
British habitations, and they are made usually 
of stony conglomerates of various kinds. 



ANCIENT MILLS OF HAMPSHIRE. 



55 



We have no evidence of the existence of 
water-mills in Hampshire earlier than the 
time of the Saxons, but from the known facts 
concerning Romano-British industries, and 
the occurrence of remains of this period on 
many of the sites of the present villages of 
the county, there can be little doubt that 
water-mills existed in this county before the 
coming of the Saxons. In any case there 
must have been a transitional period, during 
which the earliest water-mills existed con- 
temporaneously with the late use of hand- 
mills. In the summer of this year I came 
upon the remains of a mill-stone of flint 
conglomerate, which had formerly been used 
as a mill-stone at Hunton, on the Micheldever 
stream, a branch of the river Test. This 
stone lay near an old mill, and had apparently 
been obtained from a bed of Hint con- 
glomerate, such as in many places occurs at 
the base of the Reading beds just above the 
chalk ; and the use of this conglomerate as 
an early mill-stone appears to me to mark a 
transitional period in the practice of grinding 
com. This stone was apparently fractured 
by its use in the mill, and then thrown aside 
near the stream as of no further use. It was 
probably under the ground for centuries, and 
has only recendy been dug up from about 
3 feet below the surface. 

The largest mill-dam which I have met 
with in Hampshire is that which exists at 
Timsbury, where a small stream flows into 
the Test ; and a great earthwork, 20 feet high 
and proportionately broad at its base, was 
thrown up as a bank to store the water. At 
certain seasons it is still used to flood the 
meadows, and work the present mill, which 
stands on the ancient site Such a mill must 
have been intermittent in its use, and was 
apparendy worked only in the winter season, 
when the flooding of the meadows could be 
effected without detriment to, and apparently 
to the advantage of, the next crop of grass. 
This mill is probably the same as that 
mentioned in Domesday Book as then exist- 
ing, and being of the annual value of 12s. 6d. 
The manor at that time belonged to the 
Nunna-minster or abbey of St Mary at Win- 
chester, and the volume of water it could 
hold back in comparison with the size of the 
stream was enormous. The earliest mention 
of a mill in Hampshire, which has come under 



my notice, is that which is recorded as exist- 
ing in A.D. 932 near Mansbridge. It occurs 
in an Anglo-Saxon charter concerning the 
possessions of the new minster of Winchester, 
afterwards known as the Abbey of Hyde, and 
is described as "a mill place by north of 
Mansbridge."* 

In some parts of Hampshire, where the 
manors were situated above the sources of 
the streams, water-mills were impossible, and 
in these cases the com must have been 
ground either by carriage to a mill on another 
manor, which may perhaps help us to under- 
stand how a fractional share of a mill could 
be possessed by certain lords at the time of 
the Domesday Survey, or the people of such 
streamless manors must have used windmills 
or horse-mills for grinding. I have only met 
with a few references to ancient windmills or 
horse-mills in this county. A windmill is 
mentioned as having been held by John de 
Valoignes at Cliddesden, a streamless manor 
near Basingstoke, in the 13th Edward IIL,t 
and a horse-mill as belonging to the guild of 
the Holy Ghost at Basingstoke in 1556.]: 

The water-power for working the ancient 
mills situated near the sea was in many 
instances derived mainly from the tides. Of 
these tidal mills there are examples still re- 
maining at Eling, near the head of South- 
ampton Water ; at Fawley, near the mouth of 
the same estuary, and elsewhere. The ar- 
rangement in these cases was such as to allow 
the tidal water to flow into a large reservoir, 
its ebb being retarded so as to flow out 
gradually and drive the mill Several of these 
mills were in operation on the Itchen in the 
Middle Ages in the eastem suburb of South- 
ampton, where a street still retains the name 
of Millbank from a mill of this description. 
One of the most interesting of the tidal mills 
was that which was situated close to the 
eastern wall of Southampton, the town ditches 
on the east and north of the walls forming 
the reservoir for the water which worked this 
mill at its outlet into the sea at the south- 
eastem comer of the fortifications. This 
mill is described in the old records of the 
town as the " communis molendini aquatici 

* Liber Monasterii de Hyda^ p. 127. 
t Inq, /. w., 13 Edm, III, 
X History of Basingstoke^ by Baigent and Millard, 
p. 126. 



56 



ANCIENT MILLS OF HAMPSHIRE, 



subtus altam crucem extra portam domus 
dei,'* and in the yth Henry VI. it was farmed 
out by the mayor, aldermen and burgesses at 
an annual rent of 20s. Near this mill is a 
mediaeval building, which formerly bore above 
it a large cross that survived until the end of 
last century, as appears in old engravings of 
the Domus Dei, or God's House Hospital, 
at that time. 

The king's mill at Portsmouth was driven 
by water collected in a great tidal basin 
situated near the present Gun Wharf, and a 
similar tidal mill existed on the opposite side 
of the harbour at Forton, near Gosport. 
Some of the tidal mills, however, such as 
that at Eling, were partly driven by fresh water 
brought into the large reservoir by a stream ; 
while others, like that at Fawley, were wholly 
dependent on the flow of the tidal water, 
and such were of course most effectively 
worked at spring tides. 

As Hampshire was a county which formerly 
had a very considerable trade in home-made 
woollen cloths, some of the largest of its 
mills were fulling-mills, and were engaged 
in that industry. Winchester was the market 
for this local trade, and " Winchester cloths " 
were well known in the Middle Ages, and 
the name became a trade name for such 
cloths, which were largely sold to the Vene- 
tians and shipped at Southampton. The 
largest fulling-mill in the county in Norman 
times was the great fulling-mill in Coitebury, 
in the eastern part of Winchester, and situated 
within the walls a little north of the east gate. 
Fulling-mills also existed at Alton, Andover, 
Basingstoke, and Alresford, all of which places 
were engaged in the cloth trade. In the Isle 
of Wight a fulling-mill existed at Calboum. 
The occurrence of fuller's earth in Hamp- 
shire is a subject on which mineralogists 
disputed nearly a century ago when the cloth 
trade of the county became practically extinct. 
Dr. Kidd, professor of chemistry at Oxford, 
writing in 1809, said :* "A great proportion 
of the fuller's earth of commerce comes from 
Hampshire ;" while Sowerby, in his elaborate 
work, said : " I cannot find that any fuller's 
earth has been discovered in Hampshire."t 
The Hampshire cloth trade was such a 
vigorous local industry in the Middle Ages, 

* Outlines of Mineralogy i 1S09, voL i., p. 176. 
t British Mineralogy^ 1809, vol. iii., p. 59. 



and the fulling-mills of the county were at 
that time so important, that I felt convinced 
the fuller's earth must have been obtained 
from a local source ; and I have lately shown ^ 
that Dr. Kidd's statement must have been 
correct by obtaining fuller's earth from a 
well at Greyshott, near Headley, near which 
village there is a place known as Fuller's 
Bottom, where it is probable the earth was 
dug in the Middle Ages for use in the 
fulling-mills of Hampshire and the neighbour- 
ing counties. 

Two hundred and ninety^ight mills are 
recorded in Domesday Book as existing on 
the mainland of Hampshire at the time of 
the survey, and thirty-three as then in existence 
in the Isle of Wight Of those on the main- 
land there were thirteen manors which had 
mills of the annual value of 20s. each and 
upwards, while there were eight other manors 
which had two or more mills each, paying 
collectively as much in each case. There 
were nine manors which had single mills 
paying annually between 15s. and 20s. each, 
and ten other manors which had more than 
one mill worth together the same annual 
amount There were nineteen manors which 
had one mill each, paying annually between 
I OS. and 15s. ; and twenty other manors 
which had two or more mills each, worth 
together annually as much in each case. 
There were twenty manors which had one 
mill each, paying annually from 5s. to los. ; 
and twenty-four other manors which had two 
or more mills each, paying collectively the 
same amount There were twenty-one manors 
which had one mill each, paying less than 
5s. annually ; and nine other manors which 
had two or more mills each, paying collectively 
the same. In addition there were seven 
manors which had mills at the time of the 
survey, the annual value of which is not 
stated 

Of these mills six are stated to have been 
" ad aulam," or for the use of the courts, ut,^ 
for the common use of the suitors of the 
manorial courts. These were at Stratfieldsaye, 
Bedhampton, Boarhunt, and Winkton, and 
the possession of such an unusual privilege 
by the inferior tenants of these manors points 
to some very ancient local custom by which 

• Paper on ** The Clays of Hampshire," Hamf*- 
shirt Field Club Proceedings^ part iv., 189a 



ANCIENT MILLS OF HAMPSHIRE. 



S7 



they appear to have been free from the 
obligation to grind at the lord's mill, the mill 
existing for the use of the whole court Such 
tenants would be exempt from the operation 
of the writ known as "Secta molendini,"^ 
which the lord of a manor could obtain 
against his tenants who held of him, to do 
suit at his milL 

The most valuable mill at the time of the 
survey was that in Winchester on the river 
Itchen,held by the Abbess of Wherwell, which 
paid 488. A mill which is perhaps the most 
complete modem corn-mill in Hampshire at 
the present time has lately been built on the 
site of an ancient mill in Winchester, certainly 
not far from the site of the mill held by the 
abbess in 1086. 

Another notable Hampshire mill is that at 
Freefolk, near Whitchurch. A mill at Free- 
folk is stated in Domesday Book to have 
paid 20& annually. The paper-mill on or 
near this ancient mill-site is the well-known 
mill owned by the Portal family, where the 
Bank of England note-paper is still made. 

The mills which are stated in Domesday 
Book to have paid 20s. and upwards were 
situated on the Itchen at Itchen Abbas, 
Wortiiy, and Winchester; on the Test or 
its branches at Freefolk,Whitnal (Whitchurch), 
Longstock, Compton (King's Sombome), 
Dean, and Nursling ; on the Avon at Ring- 
wood and Knapp near Christchurch, and on 
the river Meon at Soberton and Sigeons- 
worth. Consequently we see that the most 
valuable mills at the time of the survey were 
situated on the chief streams of the county, 
and occupied in some instances the same 
sites as the mills existing at the present day. 
All the more valuable mills, indeed, were on 
the larger streams. Of the nine which paid 
from 15s. to 20s. each, five were on the Test 
or its tributaries, one on the Itchen, two on 
the Avon, and one at Brockhampton, near 
Havant, where the shortest river in Hamp- 
shire, a chalk-stream of great volume^ fed by 
the great springs at the south-east of Ports- 
down HOI, flows to the sea. 

A large number of the mills mentioned in 
Domesday Book can be identified with exist- 
ing mills, or with mills lately existing. Most 
of those which paid los. in annual value 
were also on the larger streams, while those 
* Jaeclfi Law DicHmary^ foL, 175a 

VOU XXIV. 



of less value, and particularly those of less 
than 5s. in annual value, were situated in all 
parts of the county where small streams 
exist, and in some places where the bourns 
are dry during part of the year. The sites 
of many of the small mills can be identified 
even now, when most of the buildings them- 
selves, and especially the smaller ones, have 
disappeared. In the Wallop Valley a small 
tributary of the Test flows down the vale 
through Over Wallop, Nether Wallop, and 
Broughton, and is popularly known as the 
" Nine-mile water," a name which may have 
formerly been the "Nine -mill water," from 
having nine mills upon it at one time. At 
the time of the Domesday Survey this stream 
had nine mills upon it, viz., three at Over 
Wallop, collectively worth between 5s. and 
I OS., three at Nether Wallop^ and three at 
Broughton, the three groups in each case 
being within the same limits in value. In 
addition a tenth mill, in Norman time, 
appears to have existed on another manor of 
Wallop, which in 1086 paid less than 5s. in 
rent. 

The old priory mill at Christchurch, which 
is probably on the site of one of those men- 
tioned in 1086, is perhaps the best example 
of the remains of a mediaeval mill at present 
existing in this county, but there are some 
interesting portions of other old mills stiU 
remaining on the mediaeval sites. One of 
these may be seen at Hawkley, where the 
remains of an old mill, now disused, situated 
among picturesque surroundings, are pre- 
served as far as they can be, with an inscribed 
stone placed over the door of the building 
briefly to tell its history as follows : " Hawk- 
ley Mill. Ancient mill of the Bishops of 
Winchester ; taken from them by Sir Adam 
de Gurdon, given back under King Edward 
1280 A.D. Burnt down and rebuilt 1774; 
became a cottage 1880." 

Some remains of another, interesting old 
mill exists at Micheldever. This mill is 
probably on the site of that one which is 
mentioned in Domesday Book as then paying 
3od. in annual rent The stream is small, 
and some of the springs which feed it are 
intermittent. It is situated on the western 
side of the great railway embankment, the 
slopes of wbuch are covered with fir-trees, 
about two and a half miles south of Michel- 



S8 



ANCIENT MILLS OF HAMPSHIRE. 



dever Station. In 1390 this mill, with a 
certain part of a meadow adjoining it, was 
held by Henry Gill "in feoda"* under the 
Abbot of Hyde, paying the abbot 21s. 8d. 
Henry Gill appears to have combined a little 
agriculture with the work of the mill, for he 
also held of the abbot " a croft of arable 
land called Norsbury with the ditches adja- 
cent," and two other pieces of land for which 
he paid los. 4d. About a mile and a half 
west of this mill, on the rising ground to the 
north of the valley, is a clump of fir-trees, 
which marks the site of the British camp 
still known as Norsbury, but which has been 
almost obliterated by the agricultural opera- 
tions of Henry Gill and his successors, and 
perhaps also his predecessors, who were no 
doubt better millers than antiquaries, for they 
appear to have ploughed down the banks, 
and thrown their field-refuse into the ditches, 
so that little now remains of the earthwork 
of their British predecessors in that neigh- 
bourhood. The farming operations of the 
old millers of Micheldever may help us to 
understand the disappearance of many of 
the British camps of Southern England of 
which the names only now remain. 

In the Domesday account of Hampshire 
we read of manors which had only half a 
mill, and of others, such as two manors at 
Totton which had only fractions of a mill, 
such as one-fourth and one-fifth of a mill 
In some of these cases the explanation may 
be that the mill was owned in part by several 
manors ; in others, that the lord had only a 
share of the mill, the other shares belonging 
to the inferior tenants. 

In those instances in which a large manor 
possessed only one mill, we find the stream 
large, so that a large mill able to work con- 
stantly and to grind a great quantity of corn 
probably existed, as in the cases of Ring- 
wood and Nursling. In other instances, in 
which we find large manors which had a 
number of mills, the manors are situated 
higher up the streams, and commonly near 
the water sources, where the fiow of water is 
necessarily more irregular, owing to the springs 
being near the highest parts of the valleys, 
and consequently variable in their fiow. A 
case of this kind occurs in connection with 
the large manor of £ast Meon, which was 

* Co/. Rd. Pai.^ 13 Ruh IL^ p. S2i. 



held in Saxon time of Archbishop Stigand, 
and at the time of the survey by the king, 
when the manor had six mills, all of which 
must have been small, like those which exist 
there at the present day. The king's manor 
of Odiham had eight mills, and the bishop's 
manor of Alresford had nine. 

In the Isle of Wight there were thirty- 
three mills which are mentioned in the 
Domesday record. Of these one only, that 
of Arreton, was of the annual value of 15s., 
and four only, those at Shide, Yaverland, and 
Wroxall, of annual values from xos. to 15s. 

A list of the mills of Hampshire and the 
Isle of Wight, with their classified annual 
values, which are mentioned in Domesday 
Book, is given as an appendix to this paper. 
It should be borne in mind, however, that 
at the time of the survey many instances 
occurred in which several manors, which after- 
wards formed parts of one parish, and had 
different lords, were all entered under the 
same manorial name. In those cases in 
which the lord of a manor held only a part 
of a mill, it is entered as a fractional part in 
the list, but in each case counted as one mill 
in the total number. 

APPENDIX. 

MILLS IN HAMPSHIRE RECORDED IN DOMES- 
DAY BOOK (298). 

Manors which had one mill each of the 
annual value of 20s. and upwards. [13.] 

Compton (King's Nursling. 

Somboum). Ringwood. 

Dean. Sigeonsworth. 

Freefolk. Soberton. 

Itchen Abbas. Witnall. 

Knapp. Worthy. 

Longstock. Winchester. 

(13 mills.) 

Manors which had more than one miU 
which together were of the annual value of 
20S. and upwards. [8.] 

Alresford, 9. Redbridge, 3. 

Anne, 2. Titchfield, 2. 

Chilcombe, 4. Twyford, 4. 

Middleton, 3. Worthy, 4. 

(39 mills.) 



ANCIENT MILLS OF HAMPSHIRE. 



59 



Manors which had one mill each of annual 
values between 15s. and 20s. [9.] 

Abbotston. Chilbolton. 

Bransbury. Holdenhurst. 

Brockhampton. Somboum. 

BuUington. Swampton. 

Charford. 

(9 mills.) 

Manors which had more than one mill 
which together were of annual values between 
15s. and 20S. 



Anne (Little), 2. 
Basing, 3. 
Easton, 2. 
Houghton, 4. 
Itchenstoke, i|. 



Leckford, i}. 
Maplederwell, 2. 
North Stone 

ham, 2. 
Overton, 4. 
Polhampton, 2. 



(25 mills.) 

Manors which had one mill each of annual 
values between los. and 15s. [19.] 



Bashley. 
Bentley. 

Binstead (in Drox- 
ford Hundred). 
Bishopstoke. 
Burgate. 
Clere. 
Crofton. 
Fullerton. 
Hurstboum Priors. 



Ibsley. 

Laverstoke. 

Lockerley. 

Meonstoke. 

Netley. 

Soberton. 

Somboum. 

Sopley. 

Timsbury. 

Wamborough. 



(19 mills.) 

Manors which had more than one mill 
which together were of annual values between 
los. and 15s. [20.] 



Abbots Anne, 3. 
Allington, 2. 
Andover, 6. 
Basingstoke, 3. 
Barton Stacey, 3. 
Botley, 2. 
Bramley, 2. 
Corhampton, 2. 
Dean (in Brough- 

ton), 2. 
East Tytherley, 2. 

(56 mills.) 



Eling, 2. 
Exton, 2. 
Fareham, 2. 
Froyle, 2. 
Funtley, 2. 
Neatham, 8^. 
Stratfieldsaye, 2. 
Wamford, 3. 
Whitchurch, 3. 
Wickham, 2. 



Manors which had one mill each of annual 
values between 5s. and los. [20.] 



Anne. 

Bickton. 

Boyatt 

Brockseve. 

Burgate. 

Chilbolton. 

Christchurch. 

Dogmersfield. 

Easthrop. 

Ellingham. 



Enham. 

Kingsclere. 

Lidshott. 

Mattingley. 

Neutbrige. 

Sherfield English. 

Stanswood. 

Wonston. 

Worldham. 

Yateley. 



(20 mills.) 



Manors which had more than one mill 
which together were of annual values between 
5s. and I OS. [24.] 



Bishop's Sutton, 4. 
Boarhunt, 2. 
Broughton, 3. 
Chenol, 2. 
Droxford, 2. 
East Meon, 6. 
Fareham, 3. 
Fordingbridge, 2. 
Havant, 2. 
Hurstboum, 5. 
Maple Durham, 3. 
Nether Wallop, 3. 
Odiham, 8. 

(75 



Over Wallopi 3. 
Ovington, 2. 
Romsey, 3. 
Sherbome St. John, 3. 
Soberton, 3. 
Somboum, 4. 
Sutton Scotney, 2. 
Totton (^ of a mill 
and^ofamill),2. 
Waltham, 3. 
West Meon, 2. 
Wherwell, 3. 

mills.) 



Manors which had one mill each of an 
annual value of less than 5s. [21.] 



Alton. 

Aplestede. 

Beckley. 

Berchley. 

Boarhunt 




Famborough. 

Hambledon. 

Itchell. 

Lyss. 

Micheldever. 


Bortel. 




Milford. 


Christchurch. 




Rockshore. 


Charford. 
East Meon. 
Empshott. 
Extoa 




Shirley. 

Titgrave. 

Wallop. 




(21 mills.) 


Manors which 


had 


more than one mil 
F a 



6o 



ANCIENT MILLS OF HAMPSHIRE. 



which t9gether were of annual values less 
than 58. [9.] 

Bramshill, 2. Kingsclere, 2. 

Bramshott, 2. Newton Valence, 2. 

Clere, 5. Porchester, 3. 

Eccleswell, 2. Wellow, 2. 

Eversley, 2. 

(22 mills.) 

Manors which had miUs whose annual 
values were not stated. [7.] 

Bedhampton, 2. Meonstoke. 

Boarhunt Stratfield. 

Efford. Winkton, 2. 

Hordle. 

(9 mills.) 

MILLS IN THE ISLE OF WIGHT RECORDED IN 
DOMESDAY BOOK (33). 

Manor which had two mills of an annual 
value together of 20s. 

Wroxall, 2. 

Manors which had one mill each of annual 
values between los. and 15s. 

Arreton. 

Yaverland. 

Shide. 

Manors which had more than one mill 
which together were of annual values between 
los. and 15s. 

Shide, 4. 
Witesfel, 3. 

Manors which had one mill each of annual 
values between 5s. and los. 

Bowcombe. 
Calbourn. 

Manors which had more than one mill 
which together were of annual values between 
58. and los. 

Alvington, 2. 

Calbourn, 2. 

Shide, 2. 

Manors which had one mill each of annual 
values less than 5s. 

Alverston. Shalfleet 

Bowcombe. Shorwell. 

Brook. Shute. 

Gatcombe. Ulwarcombe. 



Manor having more than one mill which 
together were of an annual value less than 

Sandford and Week, 2. 

Manors which had mills the annual values 
of which were not stated. 

Combe. 

Hunchford. 

Meleusford. 





CiQe0tmtn0ter atitiep* 



HE final report of the Royal Com- 
mission, appointed to inquire into 
the present want of space for 
monuments in Westminster Abbey, 
makes, with its appendices, a much thinner 
blue book than was the case with the first 
report. No further evidence has been taken, 
and the appendices are only four, viz. : (i) 
a reprint of a paper read to the Society of 
Antiquaries in 1889 by Mr. Somers Clarke, 
in which the proposal for a chapel south of 
Henry VII. 's chapel on ground not occupied 
by ancient buildings was first made ; (2) a 
few additional notes by Mr. Poole, for many 
years the Abbey mason ; (3) a statement by 
the dean as to the various sums spent in the 
past on the Abbey, and the sources from 
which they were derived ; and (4) a note by 
Mr. J. T. Micklethwaite, proving that the 
site proposed for the new chapel by Mr. 
Clarke, and adopted by Mr. Shaw Lefevre 
and from him by Mr. Pearson, is that of the 
old monks' graveyard, and not outside the 
Abbey precincts, as has more than once been 
stated. 

The report itself is so far satisfactory that 
the commissioners unanimously condemn the 
proposal to clear out the monuments and 
"restore" the church, which Mr. Pearson 
advocated in his evidence. This is good, 
and we wish it may have the effect of stop- 
ping the cutting down and moving of monu- 
ments, which has been going on quietly for 
some years, and has already done much harm, 
which the commission might well have pointed 
out They also agree £at some extension 



WESTMINSTER ABBEY. 



6i 



of the Abbey church ought to be made to 
provide place for future monuments, but as 
to the manner in which this should be done 
they are divided. Mr. Plunket, Mr. Jennings, 
and Mr. Waterhouse advise the building of 
a sort of hall on the site of the old refectory ; 
and the dean, with Sir A. H. Layard and Sir 
Frederick Leighton, wish a new chapel to be 
added to the church as suggested by Mr. 
Somers Clarke. The weight of names is in 
the latter trio, and the more we look into 
the matter the more we are convinced that 
their proposal is the only one which at once 
meets the practical needs of the case and 
avoids the destruction of historical buildings, 
the preservation of which is of more im- 
portance than the finding of room for more 
monuments in the Abbey. 

The traditions which make Westminster 
Abbey without peer amongst the historical 
churches of the world belong to the church, 
and can only be continued in the church. 
An addition to the church will carry them 
on, but they cannot be transferred to a separate 
building. 1 he new chapel must be a chapel 
forming a part of the great church in the 
same sense that Henry VII. 's chapel already 
does, and this a properly designed chapel to 
the south-east and entered from the south 
transept can be. But a building on the site 
of the refectory would be over loo feet away 
from the church, and accessible from it only 
through the open cloister, which would efiec< 
tually break die connection, and with it the 
tradition. 

But there are positive objections to the 
use of the refectory site. It has lately passed 
from the hands of the dean and chapter to 
those of the school authorities, who would 
not be easily persiiaded to give it up, to be 
occupied by a building which would cut ofif 
the light from Ashbumdbam House, and other 
buildings of theirs. Then the site is already 
occupied by architectural remains of great 
value ranging from the eleventh century 
onwards, which would be sacrificed if a new 
building were put there. The advocates of 
" restoration " do indeed assert loudly that it 
would not be so, but there is no arguing with 
men who can not see^the difference between 
an ancient building and a modem copy of 
some of its parts. And, lastly, not to mention 
other objections of weight, the new building. 



as indicated by Mr. Pearson's sketch, would 
be a thin miserable work quite devoid of 
monumental dignity. The sketch has taken 
in some of the commissioners, including an 
architect who should have known better, 
because they have not understood the scale 
of the work. The pillars and walls inserted 
to carry the vault are shown only a few inches 
thick, and would look ridiculous by the side 
of a life-size statue. 





^eal of ttie ^untireti of Hanglep, 
(2^louce0ter0^tre. 

By Rkv. J. Charlbs Cox, LL.D., F.S.A 

the autumn of 1890, Lord Scars- 
dale noticed among the odds and 
ends of a small curiosity shop at 
Bath a quaintly -lettered circular 
seal of a mediaeval type. It attracted his 
attention, as there was no device on the seal, 
but it was engraved in black letter both round 
the verge and in the centre. It is now the 
property of Lord Scarsdale. When the seal 
was first submitted to me the lettering was 
so choked with dirt that a clear impression 
was impossible. After it had been carefully 
cleaned of the dirt, as well as of many 
particles of thick yellow wax that betokened 
its past frequent use, the design came out 
well and boldly. It proved to be the seal 
of the Hundred of Langley, in the county 
of Gloucester. 

At the Parliament held at Canterbury in 
1388, on September 9, a notable statute* 
was passed in order to check the prevalence 
of vagabondage and the disorders and out- 
rages that arose therefrom, which prevailed 
towards the end of the reign of Edward III., 
and which increased when his youthfid 
successor came to the throne. It was alleged 
that many tenants of a servile condition 
quitted their proper service and abode, under 
the pretence of moving to towns or elsewhere, 
and degenerated into robbers without any 
fixed dwelling. 

To check Uie itinerant habits of the lower 
orders in the country districts, it was provided 

* 13th Richard XL, cap. 3. 



62 SEAL OF THE HUNDRED OF L ANGLE Y, GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 



that all persons quitting their service should 
be required to show sufficient cause, and to 
produce a pass sealed with the King's seal 
specially engraved for that purpose. The 
actual words of the statute are: "It is 
ordered and asserted that no servant nor 
labourer, be he man or woman, that depart 
at the ende of his terme out of the hundred, 
rape^ or wapentake where hee is dwelling, to 
serve or dwell els where, or by colour to goe 
from thense in pilgrimage, unles hee brynge 
a letter patentc conteininge the cause of hys 
goyng & the tyme of his tenure yf he oughte 
to retume, under the king's seale, which for 
this intent shall be assigned and delivered 
to the keeping of some good man of the 
hundred, rape, wapentake, cytee, or boroughe 
after the discrecion of the justices of peace 
to be kept, and lawfully to be kept, and law- 
fully to make such letters when it needeth, 
and not in any other maner, by his own othe. 
And that about the same seale shall be 
wrytten the name of the countye and over- 
thwart the sayd seale the name of the hundred, 
rape, or wapentake, citie, or borough. And 
also, if any servaunt or laborer be founde in 
any citee, or borough, or els where comming 
from any place, wandring without such letter 
shall be mayntenaunt taken by the sayd 
mayres, bayliffes, stewardes or constables and 
put in the stockes, and kept till hee hath 
founde surety to return to his service, or to 
serve or labour in the towne from where he 
came, tyll he have such letter to depart for a 
reasonable cause. And it is to be remembered, 
that a servaunte or laboror may freely departe 
oute out of his service at ye end of his 
terme and to serve in an other place so that 
he be in certenty with whom, and shall have 
such a letter as afore, but the meaning of 
this ordinance is not, that any servauntes, 
which ryde or goe in ye business of their 
lordes maysters, shall be comprysed within 
the same ordinance for the tyme of the same 
businesse. And if any beare such letter, 
which may be found forged or false, he shall 
have imprisonment of xl days for the falsitye 
and further till hee have founde surety to^ 
retume or serve to labour as afore is sayd.* 
And that none receive servaunt or laborer 
going out of theyr hundred, rape, or wapen- 
take, citie or borough, without letter testi- 
moniall, nor with letter testimonial! above 



one night, except it be for cause of sickenes 
or other cause reasonable, or which wil and 
may serve and labour ther, by the same 
testimonial! upon a peyn to be limit by the 
justice of the peace. And that as wel 
artificers and people of mystery as servantes 
and apprentices, which be of no greate avoir, 
and of which craft or mysterye, a man hath 
no greate nede in harvest tyme, shall be 
compelled to serve in harvest, to cut, gather 
and bring in the come. Ajid that these 
statutes Bee duelye executed by mayres, 
bayliffes, stewardes, and constables of townes, 
upon peyn lymitte and judged by the sayd 
justices of peace in their sessions. And that 
no man take above a penny for the makinge, 
sealinge, and deliveringe ot suche letter.*' 

It would seem that some deUy occurred 
in carrying out the provisions of this statute. 
At all events, in March, 1391, writs were 
addressed to the sherififs of the different 
counties, which, after reciting the statute, 
proceeded to insist on the carrying out of 
the details with regard to the sealed pass, in 
the following peremptory fashion: "Nos 
volentes statutum predictum executioni dd)ite 
demandari, tibi precipimus, districcius quo 
possumus injuncentes, quod omnibus aliis 
pretermiss et excusacione quacumque cessante, 
quoddam Sigillum nostmm de Auricalco, pro 
quo libet Hundredo, Rapa, et wapentachio 
Comitatus predicti, fieri et fabricari, et circa 
dictum Sigillum nomen ejusdem Comitatus, 
ac extransverso dicti Sigilli nomen hujusmodi 
Hundredi Rape, vel Wapentachii, scribi, et 
Sigillum illud cum sic factum et fabricatum 
fuerit aliasi Justiciarioram nostromm ad paoem 
nostram in Comitatu predicto conscroandum 
assignatomm librari facias, ut ipse hujusmodi 
sigillum aliasi probo nomini de dictis Hun- 
dredo, Rapa, Wapentachio^ Civitate, et Burgo 
liberare valent, custodiendum juxta forman 
Statuti predicti." 

Of the seals that were the result of this 
statute and of the enforcing writs, up to the 
time of the discovery of tibe example now 
described and illustrated, only seven or eight 
instances are known to be in existence : 

X. The seal of Wangford Hundred, Suffolk, 
the matrix of which is in the British Museum. 
This has been engraved and described in 
Suckling's History of Suffolk^ vol ii., p. 177, 
BXi'di\n^tArdueologUaiJournai^yfo\^rxu^^.lu 



SEAL OF THE HUNDRED OP LANGLEY, GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 63 



3. The seal of South Erpingham Hundred, 
Norfolk, the matrix of which is also pre- 
served in the British Museum. This has 
been engraved and described in the Archa- 
ologUal Journal, vol. xi., p. 378. 

3. The seal of Staplowe Hundred, Cam- 
bridgeshire. The matrix of this seal was in 
the private collection of Mr. Whincopp, of 
Wowlbridge, in 1854. It is engraved in the 
same volume and on the same page of the 
Arehaobgical Journal as No. 3, in the 
course of a valuable article on " Examples 
of Mediaeval Seals," by Mr. Albert Way. 
It is also described in the ArchaohgUal 
Journal, vol vii., p. 106. 

4. The seal of Hurstington Hundred, 
Huntingdonshire, though described on the 
seal as of the county of Cambridge, to which 
it is adjacent It has been conjectured that 
this matrix was never used, but was put 
aside when the mistake of the engraver as to 
the county was discovered. This seal is 
engraved in the same place in the Arehaih 
logieai Journal as the two last examples. 
An impression of it is in the British Museum. 
It is not known whether the matrix still exists. 
It is said to have been found in an um at 
Harlaxton, Lincolnshire, and a correspondence 
regarding it may be seen in Nicholl's Biblio- 
t^a Topegraphica, vol iii., p. 7t. The 
name has been incorrectly supposed to be 
Armingford, a Hundred of Cambridgeshire. 

5. The seal of Walshcroft Hundred, 
Lincolnshire, the matrix of which is also in 
the British Museum. It is described and 
engraved by Mr. Franks in the Arthaological 
Journal, vol x., p. la. 

6. The seal of Edmonton Hundred, Middle- 
sex ; an impression of which is among the 
collections of the Society of Antiquaries. 

7. The seal of Flaxwell Hundred, Lincoln- 
shire. The matrix of this seal was found in 
the parish of Fishloft, near Boston. It is 
noticed in the Gentleman's Magati/u, January, 
1855, p. 3. The inscription round this seal 
varies from the other examples ; it reads : 

StCILL . COM . LINCOLN . P". S'viS (that Is, pTO 

servis), thus absolutely settling, if there had 
been otherwise any doubt, the use and origin 
of these statutable seals. 

8. The seals hitherto mentioned are all 
circular, but probably an hexagonal seal of 
Flegg Hundred, Norfolk, pertains to the 



class. The only reason for doubt, with regard 
to its object, is that the design is not in 
confonni^ with the statute The centre is 
occupied by a Greek cross, and round the 
margin is: digillii tri duiittrtOt btdt fligt 
^orf. It is described in Norfolk Archaology, 
vol. i., p. 368. 

There is not a single example of a city or 
borough seal of this passport description 
known to be extant As might be expected, 
none of these statutable seals, which would 
be in such constant and common use, are 
characterized by that elegance of design and 
beauty of detail which made the bigher-dass 



seal -engravers of England so distinguished 
in the fourteenth century. On the contrary, 
the extant examples are all somewhat poorly 
executed. Perhaps the best examples are 
the two that head the list for the Hundreds 
of South Erpingham and Staplowe, each of 
which justify the title in the Act of " King's 
seal" by having a small crown at the beginning 
of the marginal inscription. Several of the 
others are very rudely engraved, the lettering 
in the centre being crowded together in often 
a haphazard and ^together irregular fashion. 
The Gloucestershire example, here en- 
graved, is on the whole, save for the absence 
of the crown, the most artistic and best 



64 



A BRITISH CAER ON CEFN NAMOR. 



finished instance of this class of seals that 
has come down to our day. They are all of 
nearly the same size, the impressions almost 
exactly corresponding to the half-penny of 
our bronze coinage. Details need not be 
given of the measurement, as Mr. Bailey's 
drawings are exactly full size. This is, we 
believe, the only time that the handle or 
whole seal of an example of this kind and 
date has been engraved. The design of the 
handle has no particular merit, save the 
general one of being suited for its purpose ; 
through the holes would doubtless be passed 
thongs or silken strings that secured it to the 
girdle of the person or official of the Hundred 
appointed to use it. It will be noted that 
in the engraving of this seal, as in other 
examples, the order of the statute is observed : 
l^igtUu Oloureiitrte being round the verge, 
and Viunllr' longelep "over thwart," or in 
the centre of the design. The metal of the 
seal, in accordance with the order of the 
sheriffs writ, is auricaicum — ^that is, yellow 
copper or brass. 



mp: 



a I5nti0l) Caer on Cem iSamor, 
Cal s fan fountain.* 

By ths Latb H. H. Links. 



|HIS caer lies in that part of Caer- 
narvonshire where a small chain 
of mountains, commencing near 
Bangor, passes Aber and Bwlch 
yr Ddaufaen, culminating in the peaks 
of Llwyd, Tal y fan and Cefn Namor; the 
ridge then continues to Dinas Dwygyfylchi, 
and terminates in Pen maen Bychan. A 
small tract of country is thus enclosed, 
bounded on one side by the mountains, on 
the other by the sea coast. This district is 
remarkably rich in ancient British and 
Romano - British remains, with the great 

* This article forms one of a series that was 
intended to be published by the late Mr. H. H. 
Lines, of Worcester, under the title *' Holiday Ex- 
cursions amoncst the Stone Monuments of North 
Wales, A.D. 1868-79." Through the courtesy of 
Miss Lines they have been plaoed at our disposal. 
Others of the series will follow from time to time. 




fortress of Penmaenmawr on the coast, from 
which there proceeded various old roads — 
to Conway through the vale of Dwygyfylchi, 
to the Roman station of Comovium on the 
Conway river through the pass of Cefn 
Namor — also to the same place through the 
pass of Ddaufaen, and along the coast to 
Segontium or Caernarvon. We may thus 
readily suppose that the whole of the enclosed 
district would present numerous remains of 
very great interest 

The first impression we receive from the 
caer, which I have ventured to call Caer 
Namor, from the hill Cefn Namor, on 
which it is placed, is the singular state of 
preservation in which we find it still left. 
Certainly its wall of enclosure no longer 
stands as a wall; yet the stones which 
made an effective enclosure apparently are 
there, but in confusion. Its Uiree entrance 
gates are distinctly defined. It has two 
stones of pre-eminence. It exhibits about 
thirty-three stone rings — ^many of them per- 
fect It has a camedd 50 feet long, in 
excellent condition, though it has oeen 
desecrated. Amidst idl the stones I failed 
to detect any one that I felt satisfied had 
been an altar, nor did I perceive any lustra- 
tion stone. Notwithstanding, they may be 
there, and will be found by a more careful 
search. There is also an entire want of 
evidence showing this to have been a plac^ 
of defence. No ditch exists either inside or 
outside of the prostrate wall. It is over- 
looked by high gix>und on three of its sides. 
These conditions appear to me to show con- 
clusively that the caer was a place devoted 
to a social and peaceful state of society. 
One of the first requisites for a setded 
community is a plentiful supply of good 
water; and a rapid rill from tne adjoining 
mountain flows along the entire south wall, 
while a bubbling spring of pure cold water 
rises within the caer. In the old British rock 
fortresses these essentials of life are rarely to 
be found. The old Celtic warriors were 
content to find their water supply outside the 
fortress, at the foot of the mountain or rock 
upon which their stronghold happened to be 
placed. But in this caer, the first considera- 
tion appears to have been the close contiguity 
of fresh water combined with as high a 
locality as could be obtained ; it is, in ftct. 



A BRITISH CAER ON CEFN NAMOR. 



65 



a watershed The caer stands on the neck 
of a spur projecting from Tal y £ui at about 
900 feet devation, and which, at this point, 
is the summit of a pass going westward over 
a broad turbary road to Fenmaenmawr, two 
and a half miles distant Elastwards, the 
pass descends into the vale of the Conway 
through Llangellyniny where there is a fortress 
on a steep rock called Craig y Dinas. That 
communication was maintained with this 
small fort is shown by a hollow road leading 
direct towards it from the central gate 
of the caer. 

The two most striking objects at Caer 
Namor are two detached stones — one 3 feet 
high and conical, standing alone in the 
middle of the caer, and no other stones in 
connection with it, though, doubtless, there 
may have been others originally. The 
central position of this cone would lead to 
the inference that it was an object of worship. 
The other stone is what is called in Wales a 
maen hir; it stands 6 feet 6 inches high, 
and 5 feet by 3 broad. What was the real 
object of this long stone is problematical. 
It is by Cu* the most conspicuous stone in 
the caer, and, instead of standing in a central 
position, is placed in the line with the walL 
It looks very much as if it had been arti- 
ficially squared, its form being regular. It is 
the first object arresting the eye on approach- 
ing from die turbary — and may have been 
so placed for that purpose Proceeding 
along the west side of the caer from the long 
stone there occurs a group of about eight 
oval rings, which, according to some archaeo- 
logists, would be pronounced places of inter- 
ment ; but I could not, in this case, fall in with 
such an idea, as they are on and against a 
steep slope, with one end of the ovals formed 
out of the rocky side of the slope. Adjoin- 
ing these is a most interesting group of rock 
structures, partly formed in the native rock, 
supplemented by stone rings — an instance of 
one of those Celtic modes of utilizing the 
natural forms of rock for special purposes. 
With the exception of one half of Uie outer 
ring, which originally was about 80 feet 
across, the structures are in good preserva- 
tion. On the deficient half of the outer 
ring a bam is built of the missing stones. 
The structures consist of a row of three rings 
connected one with the another in a fanciful 



combination of curves, placed on a line south- 
east and north-west. The south-eastern 
circle consists of two parts ; the upper part, 
an oval of 17 feet long, stands 4 feet above 
the floor of the lower part This lower part 
is a vestibule to the upper part, and retains 
its entrance and walls in a singularly perfect 
state ; m fact, the whole of the two cells are 
worth more examination than I gave to 
them \ a few courses of stones carried up to 
support a roof, and this double apartment 
would be as complete as it was ages ago. 
The two remaining semicircles are also parts 
of one structure. The south-eastern shows 
a rock recess as though for a place of honour 
or a fireplace. The next section shows a 
curved pathway leading up the rocky slope 
behind the circles to other ranges of these 
rock structures lying immediately over tfiem. 
I found neither altar nor rock iMisins in this 
group ; but my impression was that it was a 
place of assembly of some nature — the 
character of which I could not determina I 
did not believe it was for sepulchral purposes ; 
the stone rings being all of semi-diameter 
only — that is about 180 degrees; nor did I 
think they were intended for habitations, as 
the 80 feet stone ring is no part of a real 
fence, but only a ring of demarcation, show- 
ing that the interior was set apart for some 
special rites, and not to be intruded upon by 
the uninitiated. At the same end of the 
caer, and about 20 feet from the latter group, 
is another consisting of a small circle, 12 feet 
in diameter, and two rectangular foundations, 
one being excavated more than 2 feet deep, 
with two or three narrow passages. A 
cromlech-like sheep-pen stands in this group. 
I thought these square structures were dweU- 
ings, with narrow passages of communication, 
or dormitories. 

There is one more interesting feature to 
remark upon — a camedd also in excellent 
preservation, of an oval shape, with ring of 
boundary stones, twenty-six in number, and 
all in place. It measures 50 feet by 30 feet; 
the grave in its centre is a square of 12 feet 
by 10 feet, with a narrow entrance on tiie 
west The camedd and gmve he north and 
south. The grave appeued singularly per- 
fect, except the upper part, which has been 
removed ; and ^hen I saw it the thick long 
grass which filled its area prevented my ex- 



66 



A BRITISH CAER ON CEFN NAMOR. 



amining the floor. Between the grave and 
the north end of the camedd was a hollow 
space about lo feet by 8 feet, but without 
any cist stones to indicate its having been a 
place of interment The carnedd stands 35 
feet from the east end of the caer, com- 
munication between this and the camedd 
being marked by a narrow causeway from an 
entrance gate in the enclosure wall. The 
camedd stands raised up about 4 feet. 

The situation of this camedd on the out- 
side of the walls of the caer is significant. If 
the caer itself had been intended for a 
necropolis, or even if exceptional interments 
had taken place among its numerous ovals 
and circles, is it probable that a camedd of 
such proportions and pretensions would have 
been excluded from the interior of the caer 
and placed outside? It may be, from the 
fact of its being situated at the east end of 
the caer, that the interment occurred at that 
transitional period of paganism when Chris- 
tianity began to exercise its influence over 
the people. However, the camedd and its 
burial cist both stand in the old pagan mode 
north and south. 

Having considered the general character 
and examined the details of Caer Namor, 
the question yet remains as to what the caer 
really was, and the purposes for which the 
enclosure was probably adapted. The idea 
that it was a place of warlike defence is 
obviously not to be entertained, as there is 
no provision for the usual arrangements of a 
defensive character. It is more likely that its 
purpose was connected with the civil polity of 
some ancient tribe, who erected and occupied 
the place before the custom of using mortar 
was introduced, and who still adhered to the 
use of the circle and oval in their smaller con- 
structions, whether for huts or carneddan, 
and who also directed their worship to 
symbolic stones. These practices show a 
connection with the builders of the British 
Dinas strongholds ; they are the same people, 
and are probably the same tribe which the 
Romans found in possession of this part of 
Wales. On looking into the works of 
Ptolemy, we find he mentions, in his progress 
from north to south along the west coast 
of Britain, the river Dee, under the name 
Seteia iEstuarium ; he next comes to Toisobii 
flumenis Ostia, which is considered to be the 



Conway river. He then mentions Can- 
canomm Promontorium, facing Bardsey Is- 
land. Richard of Cirencester also calls the 
Conway river by the two names of Conovius 
and Toisobius, and we find Tacitus mentions 
Cangomm Civitas. These ancient geo- 
graphical names are considered to refer to 
the county of Caemarvon, which occupies the 
peninsula of Lleyn from Bardsey Island to 
the river Conway. The whole of this district 
was in former times the home of a pastoral 
tribe called Cangi, who were celebrated for 
rearing vast her(£ of cattle ; for which pur- 
pose the plains of Lleyn were well adapted 
But it appears that the Cangi — a name which 
was also given to the herdsmen of the oldest 
Celtic tribes — ^were accustomed to change 
their locality for pasturage according to the 
time of year, occupying the plains and hills 
of Lleyn in the summer, and removing their 
herds to Cangomm Civitas in the winter. 
Cangomm Civitas was that peninsula of 
which the great and little Ormes are the 
promontories, and was divided from the lands 
of the Cangi by the river Conway. In the 
middle of this peninsula is the double- 
fortress rock of Diganwy, which was, doubt- 
less, the ancient Dinas of Cangorum Civitas 
many years before Conway Castle was built 
Bronze celts have been found there in con- 
siderable numbers. Cangorum Civitas was 
on the borders of the country of the Ordovi- 
cians ; and I think the sending of the Cangi 
cattle across the river must have been a 
commercial arrangement between the two 
tribes — and possibly an annual Celtic fair was 
held at Diganwy. It is well known that 
great numbers of cattle have annually been 
sent south from Lleyn and Anglesey since 
the time of our earliest records, and no doubt 
it was an old custom for ages previously. 
From these facts I surmise that (^r Namor 
must have belonged to the Cangi tribe; it 
lies in their territory, and on the direct road 
from Lleyn to Diganwy. I do not mean to 
say that the great herds alluded to would be 
housed and sheltered within Caer Namor; 
but their masters might be, after the trouble- 
some toil of getting the cattle over the 
great bog of three miles by two which lies 
between Caer Namor and Penmaenmawr; 
and, in fact, it is this great headland which 
would compel them to take the route across 



A BRITISH CAER ON CEFN NAMOR. 



67 



the bog. Thus Caer Namor would become 
a mocb-fiequented place of refuge welcome 
to the andent herdsmen, idio, after &e day's 
laborious duties were over, would gather 
around the mountain bards when they 



the existence of an example of a British 
walled enclosure destitute of arrangements 
for defence; 



Tb sweet to be with 

Ar h]pd 7 nos, diirii^ the ii%lit~; 
And sweet is the rest of herdsmen 

Doriiig the night I 

The road after leaving the caer passes by 
the church of Llangelynin beneath Craig y 
EHnas, and two miles further on arrives at 
the old fenry of Tal y Cefn across the Con- 
way, firom whence it is three miles or more 
to Diganwy or Cangorum Civitas tA Tacitus. 
The tribe of Cangi, on arriving at Caer 
Namor, would give their herds a rest and fec^d 
on the Cehi llaen Namor — a ridge extend- 
ing for two mfles along the borders of the 
bog, and on the same level with the caer, 
about 1,000 feet high. This ridge has 
always been a place for herding catde; and 
there is now to be seen on its sides four of 
those great groups of catde and sheep-folds 
which are only found among mountains. 
Two of them are so much like the ancient 
covered ways leading to cromlechs that a 
tyro in archaeology might easily be deceived. 
They are covered by great flat slabs of 6 feet 
lon& and dieir age may be as old as that of 
the cromlechs, as ^ as appearances go. 

Thus my conclusions regarding this un- 
named British settlement are borne out by 
its constructive character, by its peculiar 
locality with regard to the territory of the 
Cang], and by an apparent n^^ation of any 
arrangements for a necropolis within its walls. 
Thus it becomes a remarkably interesting 
example of the social habits of a non-military 
section of one of the most ancient tribes 
found in Britain by the Romans. We have 
the^ cognate structures named dinas, or 
military strongholds, in abundance in all 
our mountainous districts; we have also, as 
I believe, abundant evidence of religious 
structures of the same age combined with 
cromlechs ; but of those caers which 
were of a decided civilian and domestic 
type this is the only one I have met with. 
I had no idea of the nature of a caer 
of this character till I stumbled upon Caer 
Namor, and, indeed, did not believe in 




Cbe OElt^alietlian 4^tiiti street 

By W. Robsets. 

[Whilst the following article was being prepared, the 
R^t Hon. W. E. Gladstone, M.P., contribated a 
review of Dr. Smiles's Memoir ^ John Mu rpuj to 
Murra/s AfagasitUy and in the course of his ex- 
ceedingly interesting paper he started the theory 
that Milton's Partmse Lost was the first work for 
which a publisher paid. The theory was criticised 
in a letter to a London "daily'' by the present writer. 
In a characteristically coarteous (prirate) rn>ly, Mr. 
Gladstone wrote : " I have stated negadveqr that I 
had not found or learned any case of payment before 
that made for Paradise Last, It will be matter of 
great interest to learn that yoor researches have en- 
abled you to trace the matter fiuther back towards 
the JMCMtiaMa, and to produce earlier instances. I 
shall give careful attention to the article yon kindly 
promise." When the artide was set up in type, a 
proof of it was sent to the right hon. gentleman, 
but by an unfortunate and regrettable but quite un- 
foreseen drcnmstance it was received on the eve of 
the death of Mr. Gladstone's son, Bir. W. H. 
Gladstone. In spite of this distressii^ event — in 
which men of all shades of opinion deeply sym- 
pathised with the venerable statesman's groit loss — 
Mr. Gladstone found time to read the article, and 
to send the writer a note, in the couise of which he 
says : " Circumstanoes do not allow me to do more 
than say that the enclosure and perhaps other works 
clearly show that in the sixteenth centuiy there 
were authors in the pay of booksellers. Milton, 
however, was no journeyman. He sold a proper^ : 
and I have not yet oMained notice of any earher 
case in which a hterary work was made the subject 
of sale and purchase. Veiy possibly such case or 
cases may come to light"] 

lOTHING in the annals of literature 
is so sad as the unwholesome phase 
of Grub Street But the popular 
notion which associates it only 
with the times of Pope and Johnson may 
well be ranked among the numerous delusions 
which age has rendered gospel It needs, 
however, only a little delving beneath the 
surface to prove that the " institution " was 
in full vigour long before Grub Street had a 
geographical position. It was, in fact, one 
of the direct and immediate results of the 
Great Reformation and of the Invention 
of printing. The savage eneigy with which 
— to adopt an expression of M, Taine — 




68 



THE ELIZABETHAN GRUB STREET. 



''men kicked aside in disgust the worn- 
out monkish frock of the Middle Ages," 
and the vigour with which they attacked 
abuses of all descriptions, were an essential 
outcome of the new births which flashed into 
manhood with a bound. An intense lull is 
often the herald of a great storm ; and the 
literary poverty of the earlier years of the 
sixteenth century offers an unparalleled con- 
trast to the activity of the Elizabethan 
period. 

It was partly this activity, but chiefly, 
perhaps, the stirring times, which attracted 
so large a number of young university men 
towards London, and induced them to attempt 
to support themselves by writing ballads, 
plays, and pamphlets for the stationers. 
Authorship by profession became an es- 
tablished fact, with its attendant misery and 
d^radation. The author's struggles for 
existence were infinitely more desperate than 
those of the costermongers of to-day, and 
the social status of the littirateur was re- 
garded as the lowest and last resort of the 
commonest of mankind. On every hand 
we read of the wails of hungry and miserable 
men — of men, be it observed, who were 
learned and witty and clever. They flitted, 
like moths around a candle, about the book- 
sellers' shops of St Paul's Churchyard, and 
the result in each case was not dissimilar. 
The cry of impecuniosity — ^traditionally the 
poet's privilege ! — which commenced with 
Thomas Churchyard was vigorously kept 
up by Thomas Nash, Robert Greene, 
Thomas Dekker, the anonymous author of 
the Return from Parnassus ^ and nearly every 
other author of the time. It may seem, 
at flrst sight, paradoxical to include the fore- 
going writers in the Grub Street category; 
but they were to a great extent in the employ 
of the booksellers, who were especially care- 
ful that wit and learning should not be 
fattening commodities. The bookseller was 
the "gentleman," and the poet the miserable 
hireling without a conscience, often without 
food, and frequently ¥rithout a bed. 

The " Grubeans," whom Pope so viciously 
and with such characteristic dishonesty 
traduced, during the flrst quarter of the 
eighteenth century, differ in many respects 
from their Elizabethan confrires, John 
Dennis, Colley Cibber, Nicholas Amhurst, 



and many others were by no means men of 
genius ; but as things then went — which is not 
saying much, perhaps — ^they were ''eminent ** 
men. Posterity ha!s placed them in a very 
much lower position than it has their pre- 
cursors. Identical weaknesses were strongly 
developed in each "generation": the same 
condition of chronic impecuniosity, the same 
thirstiness, and the same &ults which secured 
them social ostracism. 

The Return fivm Parnassus (1596-1601), 
which has recently been edited for the Claren- 
don Press by Mr. W. D. Macray, affords some 
noteworthy but painful illustrations of the 
condition of the Elizabethan Grub Street; 
but the works of Nash, Gabriel Harvey, and 
other sharpshooters of the period are also 
full of such material. As we have already 
indicated, the poets were, almost body and 
soul, the property of the booksellers; and 
one of the characters in the above-named 
play is made to exclaim to Danter, the 
printer-publisher: "Furnish me with a new 
suit of clothes, and 111 suit thy shop with a 
new suit of terms," Gabriel Harvey, the 
friend of Spenser, and the ponderous op- 
ponent of the agile Thomas Nash, appears 
to have lived — as did Dryden later on — with 
his bookseller, John Wolfe.'*^ At one period 
he owed Wolfe the sum of £16 for his 
board, lodging, and in all probability clothing ; 
he borrowed "a blue coat" from one of the 
publisher's men to appear respectable on his 
expedition into the country to collect from 
his tenants sufficient money to pay Wolfe. 
But it was only a ruse to get out of the way ; 
some months afterwards Harvey secretly 
returned, taking lodgings at Islington — 
"London being too hot for him"; Wolfe, 
however, got wind of this manoeuvre and 
secured (according to Nash) his erratic 
creditor a lodging in Newgate. 

It would, I fear, not be considered polite 
in these days of refinement to describe an 
opponent's pamphlet as weighing heavier 
than " a cade of herrings and three Holland 
cheeses "; and it would not, perhaps, be in 
the most perfect good taste to allude to one's 
antagonist as "ink squittring (su\ and 
printing against me at Wolfes." Such 
expressions, however, we find in the Pierce 
Penilesse: His Supplication to the Devil 
* Have With You to Saffrm fVatdm{iS96), p. 153. 



THE ELIZABETHAN GRUB STREET. 



69 



(1592), by Nashi who further taunts Harvey 
with the &ct that not a hundred of any of 
the latter's books ever sold, and that, indeed, 
he (Harvey), borrowed the name Pierce 
Fenilesse to "help his bedrid stuff to limp 
out of Paul's Churchyard, that else would have 
lain unieprivably spitted at the chandlers." 
It was essentially a period of hard-hitting, 
which fact will account for Harvey's stigma- 
tizing his opponent as " the devil's orator by 
profession, and his dammes poet by practice,"^ 
and rashly threatening to batter Nash's 
"carrion to dirt, whence thou earnest, and 
squeeze thy biaine to snivel, whereof it was 
curdled; nay, before I leave powdering thee 
I will make thee swear thy father was a rope- 
maker,! and proclaim thyself the basest druc^ 
of the press" {Pierces Supererogation^ iS93i 

That Nash and Harvey were identified 
with two particular booksellers is an un- 
doubted fact "Banter's gentleman" was 
the euphemism bestowed by Harvey upon 
Nash, who retorted that he " is as good at 
aU times as Wolfe's Right WorshipfuU Gab- 
riel." But they were 

True Pauls, bred 
r th' Churchyard, 

to use a phrase of Ben Jonson's,t so that 
there was not much to choose between them, 
and certainly nothing to justify mud-throw- 
ing. 

It is remarkable with what unanimity the 
poets and pamphleteers curse the fate which 
led them into a literary career. They not 
only bitterly denounce the license of the press, 
but^ in quarrelling among themselves, were 
the greatest sinners in violating the implied 
freedom. They taunted each other with the 
criminality of writing for money,and to such an 
extraordinary pitch was the antipathy to being 
considered an author carried, that few persons 
with any self-respect would allow their names 
to appear on a title-page. "To come 
into print is not to seek praise, but to crave 
pardon," was the remarkable contention 
of Henry Chettle;§ and the redoubtable 
Gabriel Harvey exclaims, "Shall I now 

* Introductioo to Four Lttters (1572). 
t This refers to an oft-repeated taunt of Nash, 
Harvey's father being a rope-maker. 
X The Statu of News, f. vl 
§ Kind' atari t Dnam^ 1592. 



become a scribbling creature with fragments 
of shame, that might long sithence have been 
a fresh writer with discourses of applause ?"* 
And Robert Greene, in Repentenu^ laments 
that after he had "proved M.A.," he left 
the University and " went to London, where 
(after I had continued some short time, and 
driven myself out of credit with my friends) 
I became an author of plays and love 
pamphlets." Here is another example from 
Thomas Nash, who exclaims : " Spit may be 
wiped ofl^ and the print of a broken pate, 
or bruise with a cudgell quickly made whole 
and worn out of men's memories, but to be 
a villain in print, or to be imprinted at 
London, the reprobatest villain |^that] ever 
went on two legs, for such is Gabriell 
Scurvies ... is an attainder that will stick 
to thee for ever."t 

The "bantlings" of their brains went forth 
anonymously into the world ; and it is to this 
cause that we owe so much bibliographical 
confusion. The Martin Mar-Prelate and 
other literary squabbles throw incidentally 
some very vivid light upon the seamy side 
of Elizabethan authorslup. It is a painful 
fact that the literary profession was not one 
to which it was an honour to belong in the 
days of Elizabeth ; and the emoluments can 
scarcely be ranked as princely. The patrons, 
too, of literature were not invariably eminent 
men. One of the characters in the Return 
from Parnassus ventures to complain that 
two groats is scarcely sufficient payment for 
a dedication ; but his patron, an apothecary, 
is properly shocked at so much presumption 
on the part of a miserable scribbler : " I tell 
thee Homer had scarce so much bestowed 
upon him in all his lifetime ;*' adding at the 
same time a plain intimation to the effect 
that all young men, especially poets, should 
know that all duty "is far inferior" to the 
patron's " deserts." It is, perhaps, not sur- 
prising that the poet exclaimed (aside, of 
course) : 

And if I live, I'le make a poesie 
ShaU load thy future years with infamy. 

Libels appear to have been better paying 
phases of literary recreation than dedications, 
for Danter, the publisher, is made in the Return 

• Pierces Sufererogatian, 

t Haifi mtk Vm tcSaffivn IVaUen, 



70 



THE ELIZABETHAN GRUB STREET. 



from Parnassus to value one on Cambridge 
at forty shillings and an odd pottle of wine. 
It was a wise and generous thought to pro- 
vide something to wash down the unsavoury 
taste of the abusive epithets. 

^' His father hath put him to his foisting 
and scribbling shifts — ^his only gloria patri 
when all is done," was the delicate witticism 
which Harvey threw at Nash, who retorted : 
" When I do play my prizes in print, 111 be 
paid for my pains that's once ; and not make 
myself a gazing-stock and a public spectacle 
to all the world for nothing, as he does that 
gives money to be seen and have his wit 
looked upon, never printing [a] book yet for 
whose impression he hath not either paid or 
run in debt.'' It is the author of the Return 
from Parnassus who complains, with more 
force than delicacy, that " each long-eared ass 
rides on his trappings, and thinks it suffi- 
cient to give a scholar a majestic nod with 
his rude nodle ;" and again : " my host John 
of the Crown is mounted upon a horse of 
twenty marks, and thinks the earth too base 
to bear the weight of his refined body." 

Ballad-making was by far the most re- 
munerative form of "literary "work in the latter 
part of the sixteenth century. Every person 
who could disfigure paper at all considered 
himself an inspired versifier. Nash makes an 
onslaught on this tribe in PUrce Penilesse^ and 
declares that these " poor Latinless authors " 
are so simple that "they no sooner spy a 
new ballad, and his name to it that compiled 
it, but they put him in for one of the 
leamedest men of our time. I marvel how 
the masterless men, that set up their pills in 
Pauls for services, and such as paste up their 
papers on every post, for arithmetic and 
writing schools, 'scape eternity amongst 
them." Harvey also complains that " it is 
the destiny of our language to be pestered 
with a rabblement of botchers in print;" but 
the eldest son of the halter-maker, as Nash 
playfully calls him, cannot dwell on any sub- 
ject but his opponent for more than a minute 
or two : and so we read, " What a shameful 
shame it is for him, that maketh an idol of 
his own pen, and raiseth up an huge ex- 
pectation of paper-miracles (as if Hermes 
Trism^st were newly risen from the dead, 
and personally mounted upon Banter's press^, 
to emprove himself as rank a bungler in his 



mightiest work of supererogation, as the 
starkest patch-pannel of them all, or the 
grossest drudge in a countiy."* The author 
of the Return from Parnassus siso complains 
of the degeneration of ballad-making : " I 
am in some choler with this ass-headed age, 
when the honourable trade of ballet-making 
IS of such base reckoning ; but so it hath 
been in ancient time^ when Homer first set 
up his rhyming-shop— one of the first that 
ever was of my trade • • . seven countries 
strove about him when he was dead ; and I 
doubt not when I am made tapster of the 
lower countries, and the works of my wit left 
behind me here upon earth, many a town 
will challenge unto itself the credit of my 
birtL" Even more strongly, in the dedicatory 
epistle to Lanthom and Candle (x6o8), does 
Thomas Dekker inveigh against the pamphlet- 
mania. "Two sorts ofmadmen," he exclaims, 
"trouble the stationers' shops in Paul's 
Churchyard ! they that out of a meer and 
idle vain-glory will ever be pamphleting 
(tho' their books being printed are scarce 
worth so much brown paper), and this is a 
very poor and foolish ambition. Of the 
other sort are they that, being ftee of Wifs 
Merchanventurers^ do every new moon (for 
gain only) make five or six voyages to the 
press, and everv term-time (upon booksellers' 
stalls) lay whole litters of blind invention : 
fellows that (if they do but walk in the 
middle isle) spit nothing but ink, and speak 
nothing but poems." In the same strain also 
commences the second book of Bishop Hall's 
Satires (1597) : 

Write th^ that can, though thev that cannot do ! 
But who knows that, but they that do not know. 
Lo I what it is that make goose-wings as scant. 
That the distressed sempster did them want 

Might not (so they were pleas'd that been above) 
Long paper-abstinenoe our death remove ? 
Then many a Lollard would in for£utment 
Bear paper feg^ota o*er the pavement, 
But now men wager who shall blot the most, 
And each man writes. 

It is almost superfluous to state that die 
poorer authors of the Elizabethan period were 
not remarkably particular on the score of 
diet. The chief difficulty appears to have 
been not in selection, but in getting any at 

* Pi^rtit Supirtrogatim^ 18a. 



THE ELIZABETHAN GRUB STREET 



71 



all. " He feeds on sheeps'-trotters, porknells, 
and buttered roots," was a charge levelled 
at Harvey by Nadi; and the banquet of 
pickled herrings, at which Nash was present, 
and which is said to have caused the death 
of Robert Greene, is a well-known incident 
in literary history. Harvey, in a letter* to 
Christopher Bird, of Walden, reports the 
*' famous author [Nash] as lying dajigerously 
sick in a shoemakers' house near Dowgate : not 
of the plague or of small-pox, but of a surfeit 
of pickle herring and ' rennish ' wine." And 
the same writer declares that Greene, 
" amongst a host of great sins would beg a 
penny pot of Malmsey, and borrowed his 
landlord's shirt whilst his own was washing "I 
'^ A quart," sagely observes the author of the 
Return from Parnassus^ ''will indite many 
lively lines," and a great many of the " lively 
lines " of this period have a strong smell of 
the quart pot about them. 

The literary men of the sixteenth, like 
those of the nineteenth, century, had their 
vanities. A mutual friend called upon 
Harvey to see what effect Nash's *' strapado- 
ing and torturing " had upon him. Harvey 
had only just arisen when his visitor arrived, 
and the latter was requested to wait. " Two 
hours] by the clock Harvey stood acting by 
the glass, all his gestures he was to use all 
the day after, and currying and smudging 
and pranking himself unmeasurably ... so 
got up that he looked like an usher of a 
dancing school." Then, as now, long hair 
was a poetical weakness. Greene's "hair 
was somewhat long," observes Chettle in 
Kind-Hearts Dream; and in the dedicatory 
epistle to A New Letter of Notable Contents 
(1593) Harvey, alluding, of course, to Nash, 
speaks of the latter's ''ranging eyes under 
that long hair (which some call ruffianly 
hair)." 

The " hope deferred," which is so certain 
an element in the literary calling, appears to 
have been equally in force three centuries 
aga One of the characters in the Return 
from Parnassus exclaims: "I have burnt 
my books, splitted my pen, rent my papers, 
and cursed the cousening hearts that brought 
me up to no better fortune. I, after many 
years' study having almost brought my brain 
into a consumption, looking still when I 
* Plrefixed to Four Letters^ p. 5. 



should meet with some good * Macenas ' 
that liberally would reward my deserts, I fed — 
fed so long upon hope, till I had almost 
starved." 

Even " after life's fitful fever," when most 
of us hope to " sleep well," the poets and 
pamphleteers will not be altogether at rest, 
if Dekker's prophecy in A Knighfs Conjuring 
be true. In describing Hell — "which is 
hotter at Christmas than 'tis in Spain or 
France (which are considered plaguy hot 
countries") — ^very few poets, it seems, can be 
supposed to live even in the regions of the 
forever damned, inasmuch as the Colonel of 
Conjurers drives them out of his circle 
because he fears theyll write libels against 
him ! Still, it is comforting to be assured 
that "some pitiful fellows, not poets, indeed, 
but ballad-makers, rub out there and write 
infemals." 





choir 



ancient COalM^ainttng0« 

By Gborge Bailby. 

No. I. 

IHE wall-painting, of which a drawing 
is here given (Fig. i^ is painted 
on the back of a piscina in the 
south-east comer of the south 
aisle in Lichfield Cathedral.^ The 
present Lady Chapel and presbytery having 
been completed about 1325, in die conclud- 
ing years of Edward II., we may fairly 
assume, from the style of the architecture 
(late Decorated), that this old picture was 
painted about that time — that is, early in the 
fourteenth century. When we consider the 
varied and troubled history of the cathedral, 
the state of preservation in which this fragile 
piece of work is found to-day is certainly 
remarkable ; it appears to have suffered less 
from the hand of the destroyer than it has 
from the effect of time. The damp having 
got in between the joints of the stonework 
has caused the plaster on which it is painted 
to disintegrate and fall away in powder, and 
here and there the crumbling stone has 
become visible. Some slight repairs have 



12 ANCIENT WALL-PAINTINGS. 

beeo made in sullying fresh mortar or interesting relic of past ages. The back- 
cement to these joints, and we can perceive ground is intended to represent the scene at 
littl^ if any, deterioration since we made the the "ninth hour, when there was darkness 



original painting eighteen years ^o, from over all the earth, and the sun was darkened, 

which OUT illustration ia now taken. and the veil of die temple was rent in the 

We will now endeavour to describe this midst," immediately after the last tutter cry 



ANCIENT WALL-PAINTINGS. 



73 



of the Crucified had gone forth. It is 
this cry that seems to be represented as 
being carried on the scroll into heaven 
by a dove, which is seen flying upwards 
from the cross. The artist has painted 
his sky of a murky blackness, thickly 
sprinkled with stars ; a good deal of this dark 
colour is now gone, but enough is left to show 
what the original effect must have been. It 
will be noticed that the head of the Christ is 
bowed, the eyes closed, and the mouth slightly 
open ; blood is flowing from the wounds in 
hands and side. The flesh-colour is still 
very good in all the figures, and the drawing 
of the central figure exceptionally well done. 
The hair of the two principal figures is of the 
same colour — a faded madder-brown; there 
is an abundance of it The central figure has 
a somewhat long, forked beard Probably 
the rayed appearance below the hair on the 
forehead is intended to represent a crown of 
thorns, though this same appearance is also 
to be seen on the large head on the central 
shaft of the cross (Fig. 2). With respect 
to the colour of the hair of the third figure, 
we think it was very wavy auburn, from what 
few traces of colour remain ; the hair in this 
case has also been thickly curled. Each 
figure has a nimbus ; the principal figure has 
a bright scarlet one^ with a diaper of some 
kind upon it in black lines, probably a cross. 
The Virgin Mary has a rayed one \ and that 
of St John appears to have had a circle of 
red spots next the black outline. In the case 
of the former, the outline is formed by the 
dark backgrotmd only. The loins of the 
central figure are covered by two cloths. 
The one next the skin is a bright scarlet; 
the other is of a dark shade not easy to 
describe, because the hues have lost Uieir 
original tone ; it is now a dirty brownish green. 
It was probably once ornamented in a similar 
way to the dresses of the other two figures. 
These dresses are of the usual classic charac- 
ter — an under tunic, with the great square 
cloth arranged in folds and worn over it The 
tunics are both diapered in a red colour; 
that of St John has been covered with 
crosses pattde, and that of the Virgin has a 
curious reticulated pattern in red; through 
the spaces between the reticulations a darker 
colour is seen. The outside robe of this 
figure has probably been white, with a frieze- 

VOL. XXIV. 



like black ornament running across it in 
horizontal bands ; while that of St John is 
thickly covered with a jewel-like ornament, 
the black outlines of which alone remain. 
There are so few traces of the features that a 
detailed description is impossible. The atti- 
tude of both figures is indicative of intense 
grief ; the Virgin is wringing her hands, and 
St John is smiting his breast From this 
description, as well as from the accompanying 
sketcl^ it will be seen that, although techni- 
cally rude and imperfect, intrinsically it is as 




FIG. 2. 

true a work of art as anything we can do 
now. It has a peculiar dignity quite its own 
that must at once strike the artistic mind. 

We will now turn to our second illustration, 
which represents all that is left of another 
crucifixion scene, painted on the wall on the 
south side of the chancel arch.in Doddington 
church, North Hunts. Very little remains, 
and though we have no means of ascertaining 
the date, it must be, from the style of dress, 
much later than the one at Lichfield — ^most 

o 



74 



ANCIENT WALI^PAINTINGS. 



likely of the fifteenth century. Both the 
figures on each side of the cross have head- 
dresses, and the long robes have on them 
faint traces of a red diaper ; they are repre- 
sented standing on a pedestal, on the front 
of which are traces of a name. This picture 
is singular in having a large head impaled on 
the vertical shaft of the cross. This head is 
really in very good preservation ; the hair is 
black, and it has on it what appears to be a 
twisted roll or turban ; but if the head repre- 
sents a vemicle, this apparent twist may only 
represent the crown of thorns in conventionsd 
fashioa Taken as a work of art, this paint- 
ing does not nearly approach the one at 
Lichfield, although it is highly curious and 
interesting from having this strange addition 
of a separate head, upon which we invite 
conjectures or suggestions. 

The materials in which these old pointings 
were produced are of the most simple kind, 
being little else than what we designate 
colour-washing ; this, however, is the earliest 
kind of painting of which anything is known. 
In numerous instances which have come 
under our notice we have found these paint- 
ings partially cleaned off and another painted 
over them ; this was especially the case where 
large patches of church walLs were covered 
with letterings, such as passages from the 
psalms and other Scriptures, as well as from 
the liturgies ; possibly, also, where large and 
elaborate compositions are concerned, such 
as are seen here and there over the chancel 
arch, generally representing the Day of Judg- 
ment — e,g.^ Ilchester, ^ley, Lutterworth, 
and other places, lliere is a notable ex- 
ception to this rule in the chapter-house at 
Lichfield, which, it is hoped, will be repro- 
duced in another issue of the Antiquary, In 
this painting there is a representation of the 
adoration of the Virgin Mary — ^a subject, so 
far as we know, found nowhere else in Eng- 
land. It is not unlikely that some of these 
large pictures have had a coating of oil or 
some kind of size, which has preserved them 
from the effects of repeated coatings of white- 
wash, so that a great deal still remains ; but 
in other instances the pictures have evidently 
been intentionally defaced. There is not 
space here to go further into this part of the 
subject ; it may be supplemented on another 
occasion. 



a itisit of tl)e 3|nttentotie8 of 
Cbutcb ^000 mane temp. 
^otoacD ID3I- 

By William Page, F.S.A. 
(Contimud/hmp, 32, voL xxiv.) 

CX)UNTY OF LINCOLN. 

I. Coryngame. 
a. Nortbrope. 

3. 

4. 






II- 



Massyngfaam. 

— — oq^ton. 

BnikeghtoD. 

nUgibU. 

Lau^hton. 
9. Lodyngton. 
la Althorpe. 

11. Wrotte. 

12. Mawnton. 

13. Rejnibyc 

14. Scotter. 

15. OwBtone. 
iS. Botteswort 

Hea . 

Spryngthorpe. 

19. Wadyngham, Peter. 
2a HaltoiL 

21. Haxeye. 

22. Skotton. 

23. Scalbye. 

24. KvftoiL 

25. Ftexbroche. 

20. RowUe. 
27. Redboume. 
a8. Conyngham* 
29. Herentow. 
3a Celton. 

31. Pyllame. 

32. Waddyngham, Marye. 

33. Epworth. 

34. BlytoD. 

35. Frotbynham. 

36. Auckborro. 

37. Wyntryngbam(?). 

38. Wynterton. 

39. Burton on the HylL 

40. Roxby. 

41. Gaynsbrug. 

(Ex. Q. R. msc$L Ck. Gdt., M 

1. Hagnaby. 

2. Wynygiby. 

3. Stycneye. 

4. Lfittby. 
C Toniton. 
8. Harby. 

y. Aflganbye. 

8. Overtoyntytpo. 

9. Layintne(?). 
la Hundlel^. 
II. 



A LIST OF THE INVENTORIES OF CHURCH GOODS 



75 



COUNTY OF LINCOLN icmUimad). 

la. Sybteye. 

13. Kcrkby. 

14. Malmtendby. 

15. Stepyng Fanrm. 

16. Bnllyngbroke. 

17. WestekejIL 
IB. Hakim. 
19. EMKclL 



Boston. 



Boston. 
Boston. 



(Ibid., AO 
(Ihid,, A.) 

(vwai. A.) 

{Ihid.,^) 



(Ibid., M 

I. JUigibie. 
Z, Cokeswold. 

3. Utelby. 

4. Wascbccroft Tliorswair. 
c Myddle Rajrien Drackc 

7- Grebye. 

8. Skartha 

9. Waythe. 

la Tome Newton. 

II. Lynwood. 

la. Laoebjr. 

t3> CrozbTC. 

14. Myddell RayMen. 

15* Kyngerby. 

16. Newton oezt Tolte. 

17. Hawerbye. 

18. Bynbrold Gabryell. 

19. Stanton in the lioUe. 
sa Thofsby. 

51. Bainaldby. 

52. Tborganby. 

23. Teylby. 

24. Grancsbye. 

ac Asby com Fenby. 

26. Bryg^y. 

ty. Kebey Nfcbolaa. 

aS. dazby. 

a9u Helyngcs. 

yx WoU Newton. 

31. Owenbr. 

3a. KdscyMaiye. 

33. Bnydky. 

34- Swynup. 

35. Northe Cottys. 



M: 



37. SwaDowe. 

38L Halton. 

39i Thornton in the More 

4a EsteRandalL 

41. RothwelL 

4a. Waltham. 

43. Bvnbroke Maiye. 

44. west RandalL 

45. Bo^sbye. 



COUNTY OF LINCOLN {ccHiintud). 

46. Lytell Cotes. 

47. Homerstone. 

48. North Willingfaam. 
49< GretCoottes. 

50. Falstow. 

51. MarchapeU. 

52. Hatlyife. 

53. Kyrkbye. 

54. Waylsbye. 

55. Caborne. 

56. Normandbe. 

57. Tettnay. 

58. West Reason. 
59^ Clcy. 

6a Great Grymsbe St. James. 

61. Great Grymsbe Sant Mary. 

62. CortUngstow. 

63. Lyndbqr* 

64. Scapylford. 

65. Radforth. 

66. Mounffeld Wodhowse. 

67. Sekton. 

68. Papleweke. 

69. Wynbrogg. 

70. Swabey. 

(^•Sr. Off. Miscil. Bks., Na 507.) 
Harryngton* 
Lauton. 
Gretham. 
Scrafeld. 
Kettisby. 
Hamerringham. 
BrinkeiU. 
Tetforthe. 
Claxbie. 
Salmonbye* 
Fiilletby. 
Sawsthorpe. 
Soathe Onnsby. 
Aswardby. 
Somersby. 
Ozcumbe. 

Bagenderb^ (Endeiby Bag). 
Hagwoithingham. 
Wyncebye. 
Aaebye Pueroc. 
(Z. R. R., BdU. 1392, No. 7&) 
lAusay. 
Merton. 
Hemyngbye. 
Daldarbye. 
Gftwlsbye. 
Langton. 
Roughtone. 
Wo&alL 
Skamlesbye. 
Gawdeby. 
Thornton. 
Waddyngworthe. 
BttcknalL 
Edlyngton. 
Rand^e. 
Styxwold. 
Sturton Magna. 

O a 



76 



BUEIALS AT THE PRIORIES OF THE BLACK FRIARS. 



COUNTY OF LINCOLN {contimied). 

Bawmbre. 

Market Staynton. 

Conysbe. 

Donnyngton. 

Scrylbye. 

Wispyngton. 

Asterby. 

Hors^ngton. 

Minting. 

Kyrkbye upon Bayn. 

Belch worth. 

Stanicot. 

{/btd., Bdle, 1392, No. 79.) 

Copes and vestments of churches in 

parts of Kesteven sold. 
{ikd,^ Bdle, 1392, No, 82.) 
Broken plate delivered into the Jewel 

House, 7 Edw. VL— i Mary. 
County of Lincoln. 
Boston. 

City of Lincoln. 
Parts of Lindsey. 
Parts ol Holland. 
(Ibid,^ BdU. 447, No, I.) 




lBurial0 at tlie IPnodeis of tbe 
TBlacft JFriarg* 

By Rev. C. F. R. Palmer. 
{Continuid Jrom p, 30, vol. xxiv.) 

1 500-1. John White, citizen and vintner, 
28 Dec., 1500. Within the church. /V. 
IS Feb, 

1 501. Philip BuLWVKE, 24 Sept., 1499. In 
the House of the Preachers, before the 
image of the Pity. He bequeaths 13s. 4d. 
for his burial. Pr, 3 Apr. 

1501. Maute (Matilda) Lee, last day of June. 
With her husband, in the Black Friars. 

1 50 1-2. John Bailles (Baylies), citizen and 
fuller, 8 Dec, 1501. Within the church, 
in St Anne's Chapel. Fr, 12 Jan, 

1502. Thomasine Payne, of London, widow, 
2 Mar., 1501-2. Before the image of our 
Lady of Grace, in this conventual church. 
She bequeaths los. to each Order of 
Minors, Whitefriars and Augustinians, to 
pray for her soul, and to be present at her 
burying ; 6d. each to the twelve poor men 
carrying twelve torches at her dirge and 
mass, and 4d. each to the four with tapers. 
Fr, 15 Apr. 



1503. Richard Lytton, one of the dcrks 
of Sir Robert Lytton, knt, in the office 
of the Treasurei^s Remembrancer in the 
Exchequer, i Oct. In the church, beneath 
and nigh to the tomb of Agnes, Sir Robert 
Lytton's late wife. A small marble stone 
shall be set up in the wall, with the figure 
of the Holy Trinity, and his name written 
on it, without any other tomb. His body 
shall be brought to burial with eight 
torches, to burn at mass and diige, and 
four tapers, the twelve men holding them 
to have 4d. each. He gives 20s. for 
breaking the ground and all observances. 
Fr, 20 Oct. 

1504. William Fowller, citizen and dyer, 
28 May, 1503. In the Lady-ChapeL /V. 
17 Apr. 

1504. Daw Mathew, of Tortworth, co. 
Glouc, Esq., 2 Apr. In the body of the 
church, if he deceases in London. He 
leaves 20s. to the place of his burial Fr. 

AM 
1504. William Batvson, citizen and mer- 
chant-tailor, 24 June. In the body of the 
church, before the high Crucifix. He 
bequeaths 20s. for his itystowe^ and 
13s. 4d. for fetching his corpse to the 
church. Fr. iz/ui. 

1504. Katherine Strangways, 21 July. 
In the church, at the discretion of her 
brother, Jaspar Filoll, who has promised 
to perform her last will and her husband 
Henry Strangway's, and to see that their 
tombs are made as it belongs to his degree 
and hers. Fr, 28 Nov. 

1505. John Mone, citizen and vintner, 
3 Feb., 1504-5. As nigh as conveniently 
may be to the place where Thomas 
Rogers, his father-in-law, and his mother 
lie buried : 20s. to the Prior and Convent 
for being buried here, and to pray for his 
soul. Fr. 2 Apr. 

1505. Piers Curteys, Esq., 25 Feb., 
1504-5* If he deceases within London, 
in the Church ] if at his place in Middle- 
sex, in the parish church of Kyngeston, 
Surrey ; if about Leicester, in the Collegiate 
Church of St. Mary the Virgin at Newerk. 
If buried at the Black Friars, he leaves 
20S. to the Prior and Convent for his 
ieystawe^ and to pray for his soul. Fr. 
26 Apr. 



BURIALS AT THE PRIORIES OF THE BLACK FRIARS, 



77 



1505. Robert Lytton, knt, 10 Apr. In 
the chuzx:hy where his executors and the 
Prior appoint; and he bequeaths twenty 
marks for his burial. About his body, 
during the exequies, twenty-four new wax 
torches shall bum, held by twenty-four 
poor men, who shall have each, for his 
labour, a new black gown and hood, and 
1 2d. in ready money. He mentions 
Christofer Lytton, clerk, his brother. Fr. 
26 Jul, 

1505. Robert Castell, 12 July, 1503. If 
convenient, above (" desuper ") the chapel 
erected and founded, in honour of the 
B. V. Mary, by Joan, late Lady de Ingal- 
desthorpe, and sister of John, Eiarl of Wor- 
cester, and the west wall of the church. 
Pr, 24 Nov. 

1505. Sir Christofer Litton, canon of 
St. Stephen's Chapel within Westminster 
Palace, 9 Oct Within the church, near 
his brother's tomb. The Friars shall have 
4/. for fetching his body, breaking the 
ground, and for dirge and mass. There 
shall be twenty torches, and twenty poor 
men to bear them, for the burial and ser- 
vice, and also four wax tapers. Fr, 2 
Dec, 

1506. Margaret Whetehill, late wife of 
Adrian Whetehill, £sq.,^ 27 Mar., 1505. 
In the church, as near her husband as 
convenient Her funeral expenses are to 
be honestwise. Fr, 13 Dec, 

1505-6. Elizabeth Castell, late wife of 
Robert Castell, 14 Dec, 1505. To be 
buried next where Master Rowcliff lies, 
beside the chapel of our Lady. She leaves 
five marks for her burying, dirge, and 
mass. Fr, 6 Mar, 

1506. Thomas Havnowe, of the Isle of 
Wight, Esq., 28 Aug. In the Black Friars, 
in such place as shall be thought most 
necessary by his executors. Fr, 5 Aug, 
(Sept ?> 

1506. Thomas Frowvke, Knt, Chief Jus- 
tice of the Common Bench, 13 Aug., 1505. 
If he dies within ten miles of London, in 
some fitting place in the church ; otherwise 
in the parish-church, where he closes his 

* The will of Adrian Whetehill, Esq., of Calais, 
was proved, May 16, 1503 (R^. of Dean and Canons 
of Canterbury), wherein he desired to be buried in this 
church. 



life. His funeral shall be without pomp 

or great expense. 
1508. Richard Beauchamp, Knt, Lord St 

Amande, 12 June. Within the church, 

where his executors think best. Fr. %Jul, 
1508. William Rodley, gent, 21 Aug. 

Within the Black Friars. Fr. 31 Aug. 

1508. William Medley, one of the king's 
clerks, 2 Sept In the church, as near as 
may be to the children of Gerard Danet, 
Esq., his uncle. Fr, 25 Nov, 

1509. Richard Spenser, gent, 27 Jan., 
1508-9. In the chapel of St John the 
Baptist, which he has lately caused to be 
made within this church, if he dies in 
London, or else where it pleaseth God to 
purvey for him. Fr, 27 Apr. 

1509. Anne Quylter, wife of John Quylter, 
of Est Grenewich, 26 Sept, 1508. In the 
church, if it please God and her husband, 
or elsewhere as her husband provides. Fr, 

1509. William Reynolds. At the Black 
Friars, if he dies in London ; and they are 
to have four marks for his burial. Fr, 22 
Oct, 

1509-10. John Whichecot, of Harpeswell, 
26 Feb. Within the Black Friars. Fr, 
10 Mar, 

15 10. Elizabeth Fyloll, widow, 16 Dec., 
1509. In the church; and the Friars are 
to be rewarded for her burying-place and 
obsequies as her brother Jasper Filoll 
agrees with them. Fr, 8 Mail, 

151a Thomas Brandon, knt, 11 Jan., 
150Q-10. Within the conventual church, 
as near the sepulture of Sir John Wyng- 
FELD, knt, as may be, under a plain stone 
without tomb. His executors shall provide 
24 black gowns for 24 poor men, each to 
bear a tordi on the day of burial. Fr, 1 1 
Maii, 

1510. Dame Agnes Paston, widow of Sir 
John Paston, knt, 31 May. If she dies in 
London, in the church by her husband 
John Harvy ; if in Kent, in the parish 
church of Sondryche. Fr, i^/un, 

1 5 10. Richard Hungerford, Esq., 12 
Sept In the body of the convent church, 
at the discretion of his executors and the 
Prior, without any pomp or pride of the 
world. For his burial and month's mind, 
20 marks or thereabouts shall be spent; 



78 



BURIALS AT THE PRIORIES OF THE BLACK FRIARS. 



and 40X. shall go to the Friars for the burial, 
fetching his body, and specially praying for 
his souL /v. 4 Nov. 

1510. Edward Cheseman, Esq., 10 Aug., 
1 509. In the church, near the place where 
Lady Ingoldesthorp lies, as the Prior and 
he have agreed. Pr, 14 Nov. 

151 1. John Kyrkeby, citizen and merchant- 
tailor, 4 June. In the church, where 
Edith his wife lies buried. He bequeaths 
20s, to each of the four Orders of Friars in 
London, to bring his body. Pr, 2^Jun. 

1511-2. William Edwards, 16 Sept., 1511. 
In the Blackfriars. Pr, 8 Mar, 

1512-3. Robert Clarke, clerk, 4 Mar. In 
the choir. " Item, I will that there be an 
Auter made at the hed of my lorde Wil- 
liam in blake freers, and the auter clothis." 
Pr. dateless. 

15x4. Robert Southwell, knt, 23 Apr., 
15 1 3. His most vile body to be buried, 
in the cloister, under or near the lavatory 
nigh to the picture of the holy Crucifix set 
there, if he passes out of the :vorld within 
forty miles of the city ; but if within the 
same distance from Wooderising, then in 
the parish church there hallowed in honour 
of St Nicholas. He bequeaths 40J. to the 
Prior and Convent for his sepulture, and 
40J. to the church of Wooderising. Pr. i 
Jun. 

1 5 14. Thomas Jakes, 20 Jan., 1512-3. His 
wretched body to be buried, if he dies in 
London, in the church, in some convenient 
place appointed by his good lady and wife, 
or his executors, or else where she minds 
to lie herself; and if he dies in any other 
place, where his wife or friends think rea- 
sonable, so that it be in a hallowed church, 
and before an image of our Blessed Lady, 
or near to it, if it may be. A stone with 
his wife's and his own arms is to be laid 
over him, wheresoever he is buried. Pr. 
iZjul. 

1514-5- William Sydnor, 24 Oct. (no year). 
In the Black Friars. Pr. 26 Feb. 

15 15. William Adye, citizen and goldsmith, 
21 Nov., 1 5 14. Within the church. The 
Prior and Canons of the Friar-preachers 
are to fetch his body to the grave. Pr. 30 
Mar. 

1515. George Asshebv, 13 Mar., 1514-5. 
Either at the Black Friars, or at the Mon- 



astery of Christ Church, at the discretion 
of his executors. Pr. xS Sept. 

1515-6. Dame Euzabeth Frowyk, late wife 
of Sir Thomas Frowyk, knt, and Chief 
Justice of Common Pleas in the time of 
Henry VII. ; afterwards wife of Thomas 
Jakys, Esq., x Dec., X51S. Her wretched 
body to be interred in the body of 
the church, before the image of our 
Lady of Grace, where she has built an 
altar where her husband, Thomas Jakys, 
lies. Her burying is to be without great 
pomp or vain glory, but in a good and 
honest manner : there shall be four great 
tapers of wax and twenty torches of wax, 
held by twenty-four poor men who have 
most need and least help, each to have 4^/. 
for his labour. Pr. 4 Feb. 

X517. Agnes Morton, widow, of the parish 
of St Nicholas OlaiT, in Bredstrete, late 
wife of Robert Morton, of London, gent., 
18 Oct., 15 13. In the church, in the room 
and place where her husband rests. The 
Friars are to have £^ 6s. 8d for her bury- 
ing and Uystowe. Her mother. Dame 
Agnes Forster. Pr. 2X Apr. and 15 Feb.^ 
X517-8. 

15 17. Alice Slendon, of London, widow, 
25 May. In the Blackfriars. Pr. y>Jul. 

15 17-8. Sir Thomas Parre, knt, 7 Nov., 
X517. To be buried, according to his 
degree, without pomp or pride, within the 
Black Friars, if he dies within twenty miles 
of London ; otherwise where his executors 
think most convenient Pr. 21 Jan. 

1517-8. Christofer Crofton, citizen and 
cutler, of the parish of St Martin at Lud- 
gate, 3 Feb. In the churchyard. Pr. x8 
Feb. 

15x8. Jelvnk Lewkenor, of London, cobler, 
X2 May, X517. In the churchyard, as 
nigh the place where his wife lies buried, 
as conveniently maybe. Pr. xx A^. 

XSX8-9. Fuzabeth Denton, 26 Apr., X5x8. 
In the church, before the image of St 
Thomas of Aquine. At her burying, twelve 
poor men shall have each a gown and hood 
to the value of 6s. and 8d. in money, to 
bear twelve torches of the value of 6s. 8d. 
at least Pr. 4 Feb. 

X519. Leonard Midilton, 25 Jan. (no year). 
Before our Lady, in the Blackfiiara. Ft. 
27 Aug. 



BURIALS AT THE PRIORIES OF THE BLACK FRIARS. 



79 



15 19. William Stalworth, citizen and mer- 
chant-tailor, 17 Mar., 15 18-9. In the 
cloister, near the place where his children 
lie. He bequeaths £^ sterling for his 
leyitowe in the walL Pr. 11 Oct, 

1520. Gerard Danet, gent, 30 Apr. His 
most wretched and sinful body to be buried 
without coffer or chest, only wrapped in a 
simple sheet, in the midst of the church, 
under the old stone with the ragged cross, 
next adjoining the small stones of Thomas 
Daket, Ellen Danet, Robert and 
Nicholas Danet, his children ; or else in 
the choir of the parish church of St Faith, 
before the high altar, and beneath the steps ; 
but most specially near his children in the 
Black Friars He bequeaths 40s. to the 
Prior and Convent for the burying, dirge 
and mass-singing, with all other suffrages ; 
6s. 8d. for ringing the bell and breaking 
the ground ; and 2s. to the sexton for his 
labour. Where his wretched body chances 
to rest, shall be provided, for 30s., thirteen 
old tenches and four great tapers to bum 
all the time of the durge and mass, the 
torches be held by thirteen poor men, 
in honour of our Lord Jesus Christ and 
His twelve Apostles, each to have thirteen 
hal^ence, and the tapers, in like manner, 
by four others. Twelve escutcheons of his 
arms are to be set about his corpse, and 
the^ pillars next adjoining his grav^ and 
not past.* Pr. 25 Mcdu 

* The body of Gerud Danet now lies in the parish 
chofch of Tiltey, Essex. It seems evident that when 
the Blackiriazs oif London was destroyed, his remains, 
and probaUy those of his children and his monnmental 
bras, were removed. Mary, his second wife, daughter 
and co-heiren of Sir Edward Belknap, of Warwick- 
shire^ by will dated Nor. 3, 1556, and prored Dec 10^ 
1558, orders her most wretched boay to be buried 
within the parish church, where it pleaseth God to call 
her out of this miserable world ; and to the will is 
attached the iiotX of her late husband — a greyhound's 
head erased, collared and ringed, between the initials 
G. D. Their monumental brass in a flat stone on the 
sooth side of the chancel of Tiltey Church, bean the 
ef^ipes of a man in a suit of plate armour, his wife, 
five sons and six daughters ; in each comer of the 
stone a shield of arms, and around the ledge the 
following inscription in black letter : " Hie jacet 
sepultns, cum conjuge Maria, Gerardus Danet de 
Bronkynsthorp in comitatu Lecestrie, armiger, et 
sereniasimi Regis Henrici Octavi Consiliarius : obiit 
anno a ChiisU) nato millesimo qningentesimo zx. die 
mensia Mail quarto ei anno re^i predicti 
Hewict iSii, qvonrai animab' propidetnr Dens.' 



1520. Roger Wotlev, citizen and linen- 
draper, keeper of the king's gaol of Lud- 
gate, 9 July, ad Redyng. In the chapel 
of St Ann within, and adjoining the church 
of the Friar Preachers*. /V. 21 Dec 

15 20-1. John Pate, of Heneley uppon 
Thamyse, yeoman, 7 Feb. Within the 
church. For fetching his body and burial, 
the Prior and Convent shall have accord- 
ing to the discretion of his executors. 
Pr, 21 Mar, 

15 2 1. Edward Belkappe, knt, 23 Mar., 
1520-1. In the Black Friars, near his 
brother Daniel, if he dies in London ; at 
the Charterhouse, near Coventre, if. he 
dies in Warwickshire. On his burial shall 
be bestowed not over ;;^ioo, the most part 
to be given in alms to poor people. More- 
over, his servants shall have liveiy, which 
he thinks will come to fifty gowns. Pr, 
28 Sept. 

1521. Elizabeth, Lady Scrop, of Upsale 
and Massam, 7 Mar., 15 13-14. In the 
Black Friars, beside her husband, Thomas 
Lord Scrop, if she dies in or near London; 
otherwise^ in the parish-church where she 
dies. Her father, John, Marquis Montague, 
and mother, Lady Isabel, his wife. The 
Friars shall have ^£'5 sterling for dirge and 
mass on the day of her burying. Over her 
grave shall be laid a stone with three 
images, one of her husband, the other of 
herself^ and the third of their daughter 
Alice, with their arms and scripture 
making mention what they were: to the 
value of ;^io. Pr. 9 Dec, 




]ptoceeomg[0 ann IPiAUcattons of 
9rcl)a»ilogical doctetie0« 

[ Thot^h the Editor takes the responsUnlityfnr the form 
in which these notes appear^ they are all specially con- 
tribuied to the ** Antiquary " and are^ in the first 
instance^ supplied by accredited correspondents of the 
different districts,} 

Thk proceedings of the Third Conference of 
AacHiBOLOGiCAL SOCIETIES in union with the 
Society of Antiquaries, held on July 23 and 24, wiU 
be given in detail in our next issue. 

^^^ ^^y ^^y 

The programme of the York Congress of the British 

ARCHiBOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, AugUSt 17 tO AugUSt 

24, as it approaches its definite form, promises to be 



8o 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



well planned and full of interest, although traversing 
a country well known to most archaeologists. On 
August 17 the members will be received at York by 
the Lord Mayor, and visits will be paid to the 
minster, to some of the old churches, and to the walls 
and gates. On August 18 the morning will be devoted 
to the inspection of other ancient buildings of the city, 
and in the afternoon the unrivalled museum of Roman 
antiquities, and the ruins of St. Mary's Abbey and the 
Hospital of St. Leonard, will be studied under the 
guidance of Rev. Canon Raine. On August 19 the 
minster and church of St Mary, Beverley, and the 
much modernized parish church of Hull, together with 
other old buildings of both these towns, will be visited. 
On August 20 Ripon Cathedral and the Hospital of 
St. Mary Magdalen come first on the programme, and 
afterwards the magnificent ruins of Fountains Abbey 
will be inspected under the direction of Mr. Loftus 
Brock, F.S.A., who will call attention to the most 
recent excavations and discoveries carried out by Mr. 
W. H. St. John Hope. On August 21, Helmsley, 
and the abbm of Rievaulx and Byland will be visited, 
when Rev. Dr. Cox, F.S.A, will act as cicerone. 
On August 22 the abbey church of Selby and the 
collegiate church of Howden will be the centres of 
attraction. On August 24 the Norman castle, the 
parish church of St. Mary, and other objects of in- 
terest will be inspected at Scarborough. Among the 
papers from members and firiends that will be read 
and discussed at the evening meetings of the congress 
are the following : *' The Excavations at Silchester, 
in reference to other Roman Sites," by J. W. Grover, 
Esq., F.S.A. ; "The Corporate Insignia of Cheshire," 
by Mr. T. Cann Hughes ; "The Ulphic Oliphant in 
York Minster," by Mr. Jas. H. Macmichael ; "The 
Ancient Brass Monuments of the Archbishops of 
York," by Mr. A. OUver ; and "On Frith Stools," 
by Rev. Dr. Cox, F.S.A. 

^Wy ^^y ^^y 

At the meeting of the Royal ARCHiCOLOGiCAL In- 
stitute on July 2, Mr. Spurrell read a paper on 
some supposed rude-stone implements from the North 
Downs ot West Kent, and exnibited a large collection 
of specimens in illustration of his paper. The stones 
ranged from \ inch to 10 inches in length. They were 
said to be of two kinds, the one fisishioned by chipping 
for a definite purpose, the other being handy stones, 
but used in sudi a manner as to leave marks on them 
different from nature's work. Mr. Spurrell said that 
the flints under consideration, whether implements or 
not, in their general forms were all natural, and that 
not until the numerical method had been used to the 
various specimens could it be ascertained with cer- 
tainty the^ were the result of human influence. — Mr. 
J. Hilton read a oaper on a Dutch golden wedding 
memorial, a flat plate of silver gilt sluiped as a heart 
surmounted by a coronet, in size 8 inches by 6 inches, 
weight 9 ounces. It was engraved with appropriate 
emblems, and bore in the centre an inscnption in 
Dutch saying that it was for an old couple, with sincere 
high esteem of all their children ana grandchildren. 
The inscription was composed as a chronogram makine 
the date 1786. There were no family name and 
armorial bearings, but the shi4>e of the memorial sug- 
gested the name of " Hart" It bore the Amsterdam 
hall-mark. Mr. Hilton thought it to be unique. — 



Professor B. Lewis read a paper on the Roman anti- 
quities of Pola and Aquileia. Many olnects recently 
excavated have been deposited in the local museum 
established by the Austrian Government ; but the 
classical traveller should, if possible, procure an intro- 
duction that would admit him to the private collection 
of Signor Gregorutti, who resides at the Villa Papi- 
riana, in Flumicello, and is well known as the author 
of Le Antiche Lapidi di Aquileja, 

^ ^ ^ 

The Plainsong and Mboi^vval Music Socxbty 
gave a concert at the Marlborough Rooms on July 2, 
of plainsong and fifteenth-century musi& The first part 
consisted of specimens of chord liturgical plainsong, 
which were well and smoothly sung, fully bring- 
ing out their peculiar rhythm. It included the 
Missa Rex SpUndcns, the kyrie of which is said to 
have been heard by St. Dunstan in a vision ; it is 
taken from a MS. written before the saint's death in 
the year 988. A gradual for the feast- of a confessor 
bishop was also sung, which was a good specimen 
of the more elaborate plainsong intended omv to be 
sung by a few selected voices ; it was probably com- 
posed before the end of the sixth century. The music 
of the second part was taken from a Cdtectwrn of 
Songs and Madrigals of Engiish Comfostrs of ths 
Close of the Fifteenth Century, published for the 
society by Mr. Quaritch, at the subscription price of a 
guinea. This work has been issued gratis to members 
for 1890, and at half-price to members elected more 
recently. The eight-paged analytical programme 
issued for the concert was excellentlv done tnroughoat ; 
the introduction that treated of plainsong generally, 
under the initials "C W. P.," standing, we suppose, 
for Dr. Charles W. Pearce, was the best bnef ex- 
planation of its principles that we have ever read. 
There is no necessity for apology in quoting, notwith- 
standing its length, the openmg paragpnaph : "In 
listening to ancient ecclesiastical plainsong, we have 
to carry our thoughts back to a period of musical 
history when harmony (whether vocal or instrumental) 
was unknown. Melody (using the term in its strictest 
technical sense, as implying an agreeable succession of 
single notes, only one being heard at a time) was all 
that constituted music in those davs \ at least as £ar as 
concerned the choral rendering of the various Liturgical 
offices of the Church. A rich store of these unaccom- 
panied melodies, composed for use at all times and 
seasons, existed in the beautifully written books of 
ritual song, of which, happily, so many have been 
preserved. An examination of these treasures, the 
notation of which varies from the most puzzling ar- 
rangement of pneums to the latest development o? the 
four-lined staff, reveals nothing but unaccompanied 
melody indeed ; but melody adorned with every grace 
of tuneful art and natural expression which a loving 
reverence for the holy words thus set to music, and a 
rich, exuberant fancy, itself the outcome of years of 
cloistered study and retirement, could suggesL No 
lark carolling his matins in the summer morning sky, 
no nightingale warbUng his evensong in the leafy 
twilight of the monastery groves, could be more free 
or more tuneful in his plainsong than were the sons 
and daughters of Holy Cnurch in their hours of choral 
worship. The verv arabesques which adorned the 
quaintly-illuminatea initial letters on the music^pages 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



8i 



in the choir were not more fandfiil, nor more eU- 
borate in design, than were the trailing clusters of 
musical notes which were entwined about the Divine 
text of the liturey, enriching it ¥ath a wealth of 
melodic grace and boiuty, and at the same time ex- 
pounding and enforcing its hidden meaning by an ever- 
varying expression of holy joy, prayerful devotion, or 
penitential sadness, all their own. Like the Liturgy 
Itself, however, these melodies were the choral offer- 
ings of the whole Church. They were by no means 
the undisciplined, unauthorized rhai»odies of some 
more than usually-gifted ecclesiastic, who might be 
supposed to find, as a composer, an outlet for the pent- 
up art-feelings and art-longings which the stem rules 
of his order tended to suppress. Ilie Church has 
ever been too loving a mother, and too £dthAil a re- 
cipient of ' every g(wd and perfect gift which cometh 
down firom above,' not to take pro()er advantage of 
the talents committed to her keepm^; in the persons of 
her gifted children ; and so, every mdividual musical 
utterance was formed and guided by one conmion code 
of laws, which were deduced by long and varied ex- 
perience from one grand and comprehensive tonal 
s^tem." It is with pleasure that we again call atten- 
tion to this interesting society ; all information per- 
taininff to it can be obuined of Uie hon. sec., Mr. H. 
6. Bnggs, 14, Westboume Terrace Road, W. 

^ ^ ^ 
The members of that enei]getic society, the Bblfast 
FiRLD Club, held their third outing of the season on 
Julv 4. Through the instrumentEility of the railway 
and breaks the partv reached the little seaside town of 
KiUyleagh, where the first object to claim attention 
was the ruined church, which, surrounded by a grave- 
yard overgrown with grass and weeds in true local 
style, stands among tall trees a short distance from the 
main road. Of the building, which is of considerable 
antiquity, only the eastern gable remains standing. 
Some time having been spent in clearing the east 
window of the mass of d^d ivy that encumbered it 
and obscured the mouldings, several photographs were 
obtained of this relic, and the party tnen proceeded to 
KiUyleagh Castle. The castle itself, an imposing; pile, 
is mostly modern, though the two laige circular 
towers on either side of the entrance are ofearly date. 
Fragments of walls and numerous pieces of carved 
stonework scattered through the gardens attest the 
former extent of the castle. Proceeding through the 
town, a pause was made at the site of the house where 
Sir Hans Sloane was boro, whose extensive natural 
history collections formed the nucleus of the now 
enormous establishment of the British Museum. The 
house was rebuilt some ten years ago, and of the ori- 

S'nal dwelling only the kmtone remains, built into 
le lintel over the present doorway — a block of Ctotle 
Espie limestone, Maring the inscription 1637, G.S., 
M. W. The party next proceeded to the quay, whence 
a light south-westerly breeze bore them out upon the 
calm surface of Strangford Lough, and a course was 
shaped northward towards Dunnynelle Island. The 
island is conspicuous among the myriad islets of 
Strangford Lough for the huge mound that occupies a 
large part of its surface. This rath, which is appa- 
rently partly natural and partly artificial, is of large 
dimensions, but in its present condition rather shape- 
less. Here, according to tradition^ the kings of UU^ 



kept the hostages obtained by their valour and might 
from other nations — a safe prison surely, if some^vhat 
bleak ^d inhospitable. Certain it is that the island 
was inhabited in early times, as shown by the layer of 
blackish earth charged with fragments of bones and 
shells, exposed on the fiure of me steep bank, some 
40 feet above high-water mark, where the sea has 
eaten into the side of the mound. The bones ob- 
tained were too fragmentary to admit of an opinion 
being formed as to whether they were human or not 
Re-embarking, a pleasant sail brought the members 
back to Killyleaeh, whence they drove through 
Shriglev to Lough Leagh, or Clay Lake. Here 
some 01 the party visited the remains of a ciannoge or 
ancient lake-dweUing, in the centre of the lower lake, 
whilst the remainder proceeded I7 road to inspect a 
cashel, or old stone fort, which stands on an emmence 
overlooking the upper lake. The wall of the cashel 
is some 6 feet thick and 6 to 8 feet high, and is dry- 
built of comparatively small stones, but apparently 
only a small portion even of the existing wall is 
ori^nal work ; the circular enclosure, in which the 
thrifty tenant vras cultivating a fine crop of vetches, 
measures about 8 feet in diameter. 

^ ^ ^ 

The Yorkshire Arcilcological and Topogra- 
phical Association is always honourably distin- 
guished among county archaeological societies for the 
clearness and value of the programme that it issues 
with respect to its annual excursion. The excursion 
this year is to Tervaulx Abbey and Middleham Castle 
on Julv 29. The brief but carefid description of 
Jervaulx Abbev is accompanied by an excellent folded 
plan by Mr. W. H. St John Hope, that prince among 
students of monastic arrangements. A plan is also 
given of the fine and exceptionally constructed castle 
of Middleham, that great stronghold of the Nevilles, 
of the Earls of Westmoreland, and of Warwick the 
Kingmaker. The printing and lithographing of the 
plans does credit to the press of Mr. Robert >/^te, 
of Worksop. 

^ ^ ^ 
The eleventh volume of the Record Sbribs op thb 
Yorkshire ARCHiCOLOciCAL and Topographical 
Association is a continuation of the calendar to the 
wills proved in the Prerogative and Exchequer Courts 
of York, covering the years from 15 14 to 1553. This 
volume of 246 pages contains upwards of 14,000 
references, and does ^eat credit to the labours of the 
editor, Mr. F. Colhns. This society is second to 
none in the important work that it is accomplishing 
for genealogists and historians. 

During the last excursion of the Penzance Natural 
History and Antiquarian Society, the members 
visited the old churdi of Gulval, whidi is shortly to 
be " restored." A rumour reaches us of considerable 
structural alterations, which we trust will not be un- 
dertaken unless they are absolutely necessary. The 
church underwent one edition of that usually disastrous 
proofs in 18^8. It possesses some interesting Early 
English details. 

^Po ^^y ^^y 

The Derbyshire ARCHiBOLOOicAL and Natural 
History Society hekl its first expedition for this 



8a 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



seasoD on June 20 to Crozall, Cfttton, and Walton-on- 
Trent At the old hall of Croxall the visitors were 
received by the Vicar of Croxall, the Right Rev. 
Bishop Stflley, who kindly acted as guide. By per- 
mission of the owner, Mr. Levet Princep, the library 
in the old hall was visited, and the room above, once 
occupied by Queen Henrietta Maria. These old 
rooms are most carefully kept up in the old stvle, and 
all the restoration and rebuilding done to the house is 
carried out on the truest lines. From the hall the 
party proceeded to the church and inspected the in- 
terestinf series of monuments and incised slabs which 
have alfbeen illustrated and described by the Rev. R. 
Usher in the earlier volumes of the journal of the 
society. The final object of interest was the ancient 
Saxon hurrk which rises from the river close to the 
church, and must originally have formed a command- 
ing site for fortification. Excavations ought to be 
undertaken on this site. After an hour and a halfs 
stay at Croxall, the partv walked along the ridge 
known as " Dryden's Walk," which commands varied 
and beautiful views of the surrounding country, to 
Catton HalL Here Bishop Staley pomted out the 
site of the demolished chapel of the house, tc^ther 
with a firagment of window tracery, and the old 
Norman font which was discovered m the river-bed. 
The present owner of the Catton estates, Mrs. Anson- 
Horton, joined the visitors in the garden and cour- 
teously invited them into the Hall, where she conducted 
them through the reception rooms, and pointed out a 
most interesting series of pictures by Van Dyck, 
Gainsborough, Titian, Wright of Deroy, and many 
others. It is, we understand, the intention of Mrs. 
Anson-Horton to rebuild the diapel, and to replace in 
it the old font Breaks were waiting at Catton to con- 
vey the party past the old Danish encampment to 
Walton-on-Trent, where a descriptive history of the 
church by the rector, the Rev. J. C. Fisher, luul to be 
much curtailed. However, it is hoped this is only a 
pleasure jpostponed, and that Walton may be included 
m some rature expedition. 

^W^ ^^S ^^y 

A country meeting of the SociBTV op Antiquaries 
OF Nbwcastlb-upon-Tynb was held on July 9 and 
la On the first day the members assembled at Nor- 
ham and visited the Norman church. To this the 
vicar, the Rev. Dr. Waite, acted as guide. The 
tower is modem. In the church are several interest- 
ing fraements of pre-Conquest crosses. They then 
proceeded to Norb^m Castle, which was described by 
Mr. C. T. Bates. Special attention was drawn to the 
sites of the Great Gateway, and of the barbican, 
Sanders Tower, and Clapham Tower, mentioned in 
1 541. In the afternoon tney crossed the river Tweed 
to LAdykirk house and grounds, which were thrown 
open to the party, and thence proceeded to Ladykirk 
parish church, a cruciform bmlding erected in 1500 
oy Tames IV. of Scotland, highly interesting from an 
architectural point of view, as it is in a good state of 

S reservation. The Rev. Wm. Dobie showed the 
ifferent points of interest in the building. On the 
second day Mr. Bolam conducted the party round the 
walls of Berwick. The church, a structure of Crom- 
well's time, was found to be well worthy of a visit. 
The membera then went by tzain fieom Berwick Sta- 
tion to Coldatoeam Statiim, where cwaiBges 



waiting to take the party to BsanxtoD Chnrcht with 
its rude Transitional chancel arch ; the rest of the 
church is ouite modem. Thence on foot to the site 
of the battle of Flodden, under the guidance of Mr. 
Hodgkin, who described the battle. On the top of 
Flodden Hill there b a British camp. The party thai 
drove to Etal Castle, and next visited Ford Castle 
and St Michael's Church. The Rev. H. M. Neville 
pointed out the objects of interest about the castle 
and church. 

^C ^5 ^y 

The work of the Thokxsby Socibty is now BuJdni^ 
considerable progress. The first part of the seoona 
book of the Lee£ Parish Church Registers and ^Jpvt 
of Miscellanea are in Uie printer's hands, and wiA be 
issued to the subscribers for z89a The Kirkstall 
Abbey Coucher Book is being copied firee of charge to 
the society, through the liberality of Messrs. Stan2eld« 
Scott, Wilson, Ford, WurUbuz]^, and Morkill, and 
wiU be issued in two parts, to the members for 1891 
and 1892. The memben for 1891 will also receive c 
part consisting of Miscellanea, and for 1892 the re- 
maining portion of the second book of the Leeds Parish 
Church Registers. On July 11 Mr. Mickletbwaite, 
F.S.A., met the society at Kirkstall Abbi^ and gave 
an address in explanation of the ruins, ft is hoped 
that persons interested in the history and antiauitiea 
of Leeds and district will join the society, ana thus 
show their appreciation in a practical form of the 
eamest endeavour of the connal to place the reoocds 
of Leeds and district in the hands of the memba& 
Communications respecting the society may be ad- 
dressed to either Mr. J. W. Morkil^ KiUiD^)eck 
Lodge, near Leeds, or Mr. G. D. Lamb» 65, Alb&oo 
Street, Leeds, the hon. secretaries. 

^5 ^ff ^ff 
The members of the St. Paul's Ecclbsiolooical 
Socibty visited the churches of Beddington and 
Carshalton on June 27. 

^ ^ ^ 
At the annual meeting of the Pbtk&boroqgh 
Natural Histo&y and Musbum Socibty Dean 
Argles was elected president in room of the late ore* 
sident, who is now Bishop of Worcester. Thesooety 
continues to do good work, and the contents of (he 
museum have been materially increased during the 
past year. The committee reported that they were 
m need of jf 5 to purchase a collection of Worlidge's 
Drawings from Antique Gems, which has beenoSmd 
to the committee. T. WorUdge was a native of 
Peterborough, and bom in 170a A nainting of the 
artist and a number of his pencil stuoiei are now in 
the Museum. 

^ -^ ^5 

The interesting town of Guildford was visited on 
June 23 by the members of theNBWSURY Distbict 
FiBLD Club, under the general guidance of their hon. 
sec., Mr. Walter Money, F.S.A. The party were 
received by the Mayor at the Town Hall, where Mr. 
D. M. Stevens, formerly hon. sec. to the Snirey 
Archaeological Society, addressed them on the building 
and some of its varied contents. He said that par- 
tions of the building in which they were then as* 
sembled were as eany as the reign of Elisabeth, bat 
the date e£ the main puts of tbe stntctnic was 1683, 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



83 



as shown by the 6gares on the clocks i)ToiectiDg in 
front of the huildii^. The pictures which adorned 
the walls included portraits of James I., Charles II. , 
James 11., and William IIL, and Queen Mary, b^ 
Lely ; a half-length of Speaker Onslow, and a portrait 
of Sir R. Onslow, the vice-admiral, receiving the 
Dutch flag after the fight of Camperdown, by John 
Russell, R.A., who was bom at Guildford in 1745, 
the picture bdne presented t^ his &ther, who sevend 
times served the office of^ mayor. The Council 
Chamber contains a curious chimney-piece, sculptured 
out of chalk, and which came from Stoughton House, 
a mansion which belonged to an old Roman Catholic 
family in the adjoining parish of Stoke, whose seat 
was demolished about the same time that the Muni- 
cipal Buildings at Guildford were erected. Mr. 
Stevens spoke of the Corporation plate as being of a 
most interesting character. He exhibited a small 
mace, possessing many points of peculiar interest, its 
history in connection with the town being entirely 
unknown. Comparison with the various maces ex- 
hibited at the Society of Antiquaries three years since, 
resulted in its date bleing determined approximately as 
about the middle of the fifteenth century, say about 
the time of Henry VL or Edward IV., from 1420 to 
147a In point of antiquity it occupied the third 
place among the dvic maces in this country. Mr. 
Stevens also exhibited '' the great mace," measuring 
34I inches in length, being larger therefore than 
the majority of maces used in country towns. It was 
presented to the town by the Right Hon. Henrv 
Howard, afterwards Duke of Norfolk, but then High 
Steward of the Borough. Archbishop Abbot's Hos- 
pital was afterwards described by Mr. S. W. Kersham, 
F.S.A., in a learned paper. The other buildings 
visited were the Free Grammar School, Holy Triniw 
Church, St Mary's Church, with its interesting wall* 
paintings* and the old ruined keep of the CastM. In 
the afternoon the grand old Elizabethan hall, termed 
Loseley House, built by Sir William More between 1562 
and 1568, was visited ; its history was given and its 
contents described by the present owner, Mr. W. 
More-Molyneux. A chastely-made ewer and bason, 
bequeathed to the town by Bishop Parkhuist, and 
several goblets and other vessels, and also the old 
standard measures of Elizabeth's reign, were also 
described. 

The first meeting of the Cumberland and West- 
morland Antiquarian and ARCHiCOLOGicAL 
Society for the, present season was held in the Lake 
District on June 26 and 27. A pdrty of about fif^ 
assembled at noon at Keswick and drove to Shoul- 
thwaite Bridge, whence an arduous climb brought 
most of the par^ to Shoulthwaite Fort, a Briti^ 
settlement, defended by a heavy earthwork in shape 
of a lumtu, A descent was made down the oUier 
end of the fell to Thirlmere Lake, where the works of 
the great dam, now in prc^ess, were explained by 
the engineer, Mr. Hill, after which Dalehead Hall, a 
Queen Ann mansion, once the residence of the 
Leathes of Dalehead, was visited, and a fine staircase 
much admired. The Manchester Corporation are 
now the owners, and kindly provided a most welcome 
tea, over which Mrs. Leecn, wife of the vice-chair- 
man of the Manchester Water Company, presided. 



Carriages were resumed, and Wythbum Church and 
Dunmail raise were visited en route for Grasmere, 
where a stay for the night was made. The members, 
to number of over sixty, dined at the Prince of Wales 
Hotel, and the annual business meeting was after- 
wards held under the chairmanship of the Worshipful 
Chancellor Ferguson, during whose tenure of office as 
president the society has made remarkable progress. 
Indeed, the number of members upon the roll (440) is 
about forty more than at any preceding period, and 
this, although the society has, during the last two 
years, lost a large number of members by death and 
other causes. The death-roll Includes such names as 
those of Mr. W. Jackson, F.S.A., of Fleetham House; 
Mr. Wakefield, of Kendal, long treasurer of the 
society ; Mr. Nelson, of Friars Carse ; and Mr. Clay- 
ton, of Chesters. After the appointment of office- 
bearers for the year, and the transaction of other 
business, a number of papers were read or submitted, 
including one by Rev. K. Bower on local piscinas, of 
which he exhibited some sixty illustrations, two by 
Mr. C W. Dymond, F.S.A., on "Ancient Villages 
at Yanwith and Hugill, in Westmorland ;" one by 
Rev. J. Wilson, on " Horse-radng in Cumberland ;** 
and one by Mr. G. Watson, on ''A Bay-window in 
Penrith Churchyard." Papers by the president and 
by Dr. Tavlor were taken as read. Notning was said 
publicly about Grasmere Church, but many stray re- 
marks were made in private ; the rough cast has becai 
peeled oif the tower, and the joints of the rubble-work 
thus exposed have been well pointed with strong 
ridges 01 mortar, producing a raw tattooed effixit On 
the second day carriages were taken to the camp at 
Ambleside, of which the president gave an account, 
stating his belief that the Komans used Windermere 
as a waterway. Troutbeck Town End was next 
visited, and that fine specimen of Westmorland states- 
men, George Brown of Troutbeck Town Bind — the 
eighth Geoi^e Brown of Troutbeck Town End in 
lineal succession, and, alas, the last ! no male heir, 
but three daughters I — exhibited his charming house 
with its vast stores of old carved oak, and his Suable 
documents relating to Westmorland, on which the 
Historical MSS. Commissioners have reported. A 
short stay was made at the frunous Mortal Man public, 
which, horrible to s^, has been rebuilt and capped 
with a sky-sign, THET MORTAL MAN, in huge gilt 
letters I Troutbeck might have been spared this 
atrocity. The party were then piloted by Mr. George 
Brown through an intricate mesh of narrow roads to 
the fiirmhouse at Troutbeck Park, and then through 
the foldyard for three miles more, over no roads m 
particular, to Bluegill, which was reached not without 
difficulty, one carriage smashing a trace, while the 
leading carriage was nearly upset, but it carried the 
Chancellor 1 Here horses were unyoked and an al 
fresco lunch laid out, after which some of the party 
climbed to the Roman Road on Kentmere, Hign 
Street ; most contented themselves with the climb to 
the High Street, and then returned to Bluegill, but 
half a dozen, including a lady, guided by Mr. M. J. 
Baddeley, traced the street for a considerable dis- 
tance, and descended direct to Troutbeck Park, a very 
creditable piece of mountaineering, the descent being 
by no means easy. Three hours were allowed for 
this, and all the party joined at Troutbeck Park for a 
substantial tea at the frirm. The return was made by 



84 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLIC A TIONS. 



the east side of the valley, post Troutbeck Church to 
Allan Knot, where the programme said " entrench- 
ments." None could be found, but a fine view of 
Windermere, almost equal to the fsEuned one from 
Orrest Head, was obtained. Windermere Station 
was reached about 5 p.m., and the party broke up 
there after two most successful days. The arrange- 
ments reflect the highest credit upon the hon. secre- 
tary, Mr. T. Wilson. 

^ ^ ^ 

On Saturday, June 27, the third excursion of the 
season of the members and friends of the Bradford 
Historical and Antiquarian Society took place 
to certain mansions lying| in the triangle formed by the 
Lancashire and Yorkshire line to Hali£u and the 
short cut to Huddersfield in the Lightcliffe and Brig- 
house districts. Leaving Bradford the company 
alighted at Lightcliffe and made their way to Yew 
Trees, a house of the sixteenth century, which has 
been greatly spoilt by the quarries in the neighbour- 
hood. Mr. Tohn Lister, M. A., of Shibden Hsdl, gave 
a history of tne place and its ovmers. In i647jeremy 
Thorpe, yeoman, of Bradford, sold it to Thomas 
Lister, gentleman, one of his ancestors. Passing 
Sprouthouse, where General Guest, who defended 
Edinburgh Castle, was bom, the visitors next in- 
spected Giles House, called after St Giles, the patron 
saint of Wells, which has been inhabited for over 100 
years by the Carters. Mrs. Carter and her daughters 
very kindly received the historians, and Mr. J. Hors- 
fall Turner in the drawing-room p^ve a sketch of the 
house and its owners. The earhest recorded owners 
were the Schofields, who lived about the time when the 
Bradford Parish Church was built Here afterwards 
lived the Netherwoods, whose initials are in front of 
the house, and then the Macaulays and the Carters. 
The front has three gables, and several transomed 
and mullioned windows. The next house visited was 
Slead Hall, called after "Slaed," which in Saxon 
means a small wooded valley. The antiquaries were 
delighted with the entrance-hall, with its beautiful 
carved oak, the coloured glass windows, and the spa- 
cious rooms with their fine mantelpieces and oak- 
panelled wainscoting and staircases. Mr. T. T. 
Empsall, the president, who was bom in the neigh- 
bourhood, read an elaborate paper giving an admirable 
sketch of the hall and its present and former owners. 
In 1 57 1 James and Richard Waterhouse, of Priestley, 
sold Slead Hall and close for ;^8o to John Beaumont, 
of Halifax, and it is stated in the deed that they 
bought the same from Robert Eland, of Carlinehow, 
Lord of the Manor of Brighouse. Afterwards the 

flace came into the possession of the Hoyles, Gibsons, 
irths, and Macaulays. Mr. Forbes Robertson, who 
married a Macaulay, is the present owner. The 
Gibson initiak and date are in the interior and ex- 
terior of the building. From Slead Hall the party 
walked to Smith House, which has a verv interesting 
history. Here John Wesley, William Gnmshaw, and 
other celebrated Methodists preached. In the three- 
story house adjoining Count Zindendorf and several 
eminent Germans were bom. Mr. J. Horsfall Turner, 
who, like Mr. Emosall, was bom in the district, gave 
a slight sketch of the place. Four centuries ago a 
house on the spot was owned bv the Smyths, vmich 
was afterwards pulled down and the present elegant 



structure erected in its place. In 1742 it belonged to 
Joseph Holmes, and afterwards to Uie Radcliffes and 
Sutherlands. Mr. Charles M. Dawson is the present 
tenant, and Mr. A. S. McLaren lived here previously. 
The historians then walked through the beautiftil 
grounds, gardens, and conservatories of Mr. R Scarf^ 
and visited the charming residence of Crow Nest« dear 
to the hearts of Bradfordians from its association with 
the late Sir Titus Salt, Bart On Saturday, July 18, 
the society visited Harewood House, church and 
castle, under the guidance of Mr. T. T. EmpsalL 
Next Bank Holiday the excursion will be to York, 
when the Rev. Canon Raine will act as acetone and 
show the art treasures of the museums in the gardens 
of St Mary's Abbey. 

^ ^ ^ 
On Saturday, June 20, the members of the Lanca- 
SHiRB AND UHBSHiRB Antiquarian Society visited 
Chester. On arriving in the ancient city they were 
met by the mayor {Alderman Charles Brown), the 
mayoress (Miss Brown), Dr. Stolterfbth, the dty 
surveyor (Mr. I. M. Jones), and Mr. T. J. PoweU 
(the secretary of the Oiester Archaeological Society). 
The visitors then proceeded to the City Walls, west- 
wards of the North Gate, and inspected with interest 
the excavations which are being carried on there in 
pursuit of architectural remains of the Roman occu- 
pation. Afterwards the jputy made a circuit of the 
dty, viewing en route the Water Tower, Derby Palace, 
God's Providence House, the Watergate ciypts, the 
Grosvenor Museum, the latest ecdesiastical restoration 
at St Mary's-on-the-Hill, the river, St John's Church, 
finishing with the Cathedral, the chief features of 
which were pointed out to them by the precentor (the 
Rev. H. Wright). Afterwards the party proceeded 
to the Town Hall, where they were entertained to tea 
by the mayor. After the repast the Chester dty 
surveyor (Mr. I. M. Jones), at the request of the 
mayor, gave a short description of the progress of the 
excavations in the waUs. A vote of thanks to the 
mayor for his hospitality was moved by the Rev. Mr. 
Letts, and seconded by Mr. Letherbrow. Mr. Axon, 
vice-president of the sodety, in supporting, said any- 
thing that tended to eluddate the story of the Roman 
Empire in connection with our country was of the 
highest interest, and the eyes of the great scholars not 
oiSy of Britain but of Europe were turned on the 
work of exploration that was being carried on in 
andent Deva. It would be a disgrace if that work 
was now stopped, and he promised that the appeal 
made by Mr. Jones would be carefully considerea by 
the council of the sodety. The vote was heartily 
accorded, and the mayor, in acknowledging, said the 
Corporation could not legally spend the ratepayers' 
money in carrying on explorations, and therefore they 
had to depend upon outside subscriptions. The 
« finds " that had already been made were considered 
of so great value and importance that the Grosvenor 
Museum authorities were considering the advisability 
of building a special room where they could be safdy 
stored. The proceedings, which were pleasant and 
interesting throughout, then terminated, and shortly 
afterwards the visitors left for Manchester. 




LITER AR Y GOSSIP, 



85 






Mb. Hkn&y Lxttlkbalbs, of Qovelly, Bexley 
Heath, is about to reproduce the Durham Liber Vita 
in £3u:9mile by photolithography. The value of such 
a work wiU lie chiefly in the fajcX that each page will 
display the arrangement of the names bv successive 
scribes from the ninth century, and, wnere a later 
insertion has been entered amongst those of an earlier 
period, the approximate date of such an entry will be 
supplied 1^ the form of its appearance. The size of 
the reprocluction will be 4to., and will consist of 
129 pages in facsimile. A second part, containing 
a short introduction, etc., will be issued separately 
and subsequently. The number of copies will be 
limited, and the price will be one gumea to sub- 
scribers. On pubhcation, the price wm be raised to 
thirty shillings. Part I., consisting of introduction, 
eta, may be liad separately, price one shilling. We 
heg most cordially to recommend this forthcoming 
work to our readers. The name of a scholar like 
'iAx. littlehales b a guarantee of skilful treatment 
Names of subscribers should be forwarded at once to 
Mr. littlehales at the above address. 

# n K 
Mr. Elliot Stock will shortly publish A History of 
the Parishes of Saint Ives^ Lelanty Towednack^ and 
Zennor, in the County of Cornwall^ by John Hobson 
Matthews. The St Ives district is one of the most 
interesting in England, and as Mr. Matthews is con- 
tributing much information that has not hitherto been 
available, the book should prove a welcome one to 
historians and antiquaries. 

« » K 
Mr. William Andrews is at work on a new book, to 
be entitled Lights and Shadows of Old HulL Mr. 
Andrews has collected much out-of-the-way informa- 
tion which has not been previously published. He 
has the lustory of the town at his finsers-ends, having 
written for several standard works ucetches of Hull, 
and tnographied the chief of its notable men and 
women. 

K H « 
Old Chureh'Loret by Mr. l^^lliam Andrews, is now 
completed, and will be issued towards the end of 
August ; and at the same time will appear a second 
edition of his Curiosities of the Church. 

« « « 
Our readers will be glad to learn that Miss Margaret 
Stokes has another oook in the press, entitled Six 
Months in the Apennines^ or a pilgrimage in search of 
vestiges of the Irish saints in Italy. This work is 
intended to illustrate an important chsmter in the 
history of the British Islands — that of the earlv 
missions of the Scotic or Irish Church in the Dark 
Ages. It has not hitherto been recognised that in the 
remote recesses of the Apennines and the Alps there 
still exist material remains and personal relics of 
these Irish missionaries. Yet Miss Stokes' joumev 
has established this fact beyond all doubt The book 
will contain numerous illustrations. Its price is 15s. ; 
to subscribers only los. 



EeotetDS atiD HBoticeiB! 
of jl^eto iBooiui. 

[Publishers are requested to be so good as always to 
marh clearly the prices of boohs sent for review, as 
these notices are intended to be a practiced aid to 
booh-buying readers*^ 

PiLBLiA Eboracbnsia : Battles Fought in Yorkshire, 
treated Historically and Topc^raphically; By 
A. D. H. Leadman, F.S.A Bradbury, Agneiv 
and Co, 8vo., pp. 192. Several plans and 
illustrations. No price stated. 
A volume with a somewhat similar title to this, and 
following much the same lines, was published a few 
years ago, but it is altogether infenor in treatment 
and research to these able pages. The present work 
is in the main a reprint of a series of papers originally 
contributed by Mr. Leadman to various volumes of the 
Yorhshire Archteological and Topographiccd foumal. 
We are glad that their author was induced to bring 
them together under a single cover, for the careful 
attention fnid to topographical detaOs, and the plea- 
sant st^le in which, for me most part, the chapters 
are wntten, make them well worthy of preservation. 
The battles treated of are those of Heathfield, Win- 
weed, Stamford Bridge, the Standard, Myton, Borough- 
bridge, Byland Abb^, the insurrection of Archbishop 
Scrope, Bramham Moor, Wakefield, Towton, and 
Marston Moor, extending over a period of just about 
one thousand years. 

For fulness of topographical detail, the battle of 
Marston Moor is the best of the series ; the poetical 
and religious sentiment that ever cleaves to the battle 
of the Standard inspires Mr. Leadman to write well 
on that oft-described and important engagement ; but 
to our mind the battles of Boroughbndge and of 
Towton are told with the greatest accuracy and at- 
tractiveness. On Palm Sunday, 1461, was fought, 
four miles southward of the ancient little town of 
Tadcaster, the most bloody battle that ever took place 
on English ground. It was the culminating point of 
the struggle between the rival houses of the White 
Rose and the Red. Twentv-eight thousand dead, 
"numbcared hj the heralds," were counted on the 
battle-field, wnilst those who were drowned in the 
swollen little river, or who were killed by the road- 
side, brought the awful total up to 38,00a The 
battle last^ ten hours, from nine in the morning till 
seven at nieht Local tradition sajrs that the da^ of 
arms was distinctly heard at St. Leonard's Chapel at 
Hazlewood whilst the congregation were at mass. 
Though named after Towton, the conflict really took 
place in Saxton parish, and there, too, the story ungers 
that the people were at church when the strife began. 
" The fearfol wounds received by those who fell on 
the field stained the snow with human gore, which 
by-and-by melting, ran through the ditches into the 
little rivulet, colouring it with blood ; and it is asserted 
that, for three miles below its junction with the 
Wharfe, that river was stained likewise." Lord 
Dacre, at this battle, came to his end in a singular 
way. Heated bv the excitement of the fight, he 
unclasped his helmet to drink a cup of wine, where- 
upon a boy hidden in an elder-busn recognised him. 



86 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS 



and saying, " Thou killed my father and I will loll 
thee !" instantly shot him dead with an arrow. His 
body lies buried in the churchyard at Saxton under a 
plain altar-tomb, which, until 1883, was in a state of 
shameful neglect It was then re-erected, and sur- 
rounded with a curbstone bearing an iron rail. En- 
gravings are given of it both before and after restora- 
tion. A tramtion that said Lord Dacre's horse was 
buried with him in consecrated ground turned out to 
be true, for the skull of a horse and other parts of the 
skeleton were found in 1 861 when digging a pave on 
the south side of the tomb. " I cannot conclude this 
storyofTowton Field," says Mr. Lead m an, "without 
an allusion to the little dwarf bushes peculiar to the 
* Field of the White Rose and the Red.* They are 
said to have been plentiful at the commencement of 
this century, but visitors have taken them awa^ in 
such numbers that they have become rare. Such 
vandalism is simply shameful, for the plants are said 
to be unique, and unable to exist in any other soiL 
The little roses are white, with a red spot on the 
centre of each of their petals ; and as they grow old, 
the under sur&ce becomes a dull red colour. 

There is a patch of wild roaet that bloom 00 a battlefield, , 
Where the rival roie of Laocaitcr blushed redder still to yield. 
Fonr hundred yean have o'er them shed .their sunshine and 

their snow, , . 

But, in spite of plough and harrow, every summer there they 

Though rudely up to root them with hand profane yon toil, 
The faithful flowers still duster around the sacred soil ; 
Though tenderly transplanted to the nearest garden gay, 
Nor cost nor care can tempt them to live a single day. 

It b with real regret that we find that the exigencies 
of the space allowed us compel our omitting several 
quotations that we had markcKL As that is the case, 
one or two trifling criticisms of a slightly adverse 
nature shall be also omitted, for we feel that the book 
on the whole is one that ought to give much satisfac- 
tion, whether we consider the interesting nature of its 
contents, or the graphic and at the same time con- 
sdentioiuly careful way in which the details are set 
before us. It is a pleasure to recommend Mr. Lead- 
man's new work wim much cordiality. 

9 % 9t 
Thb Story of thb Imitatio Christi. By Leonard 

A. Wheatley. EUioi Stock. Fcap. 8vo., pp. 

jcyi., 236. Price 4s. 6d. 
Approval of the Imitation of Christ has pro- 
ceedSed from writers and characters the most diverse ; 
from George Eliot and Charles Kinfi;slejr, John Wes- 
ley and Dr. Chalmers, Hallam and Sir James Ste- 
phens, Dr. Samuel Johnson and De Quincey, Matthew 
Arnold and Bishop Harvey Goodwin, Deans Milman 
and Church, General Gordon and Lord Wolseley, Sir 
John Lubbock and Dr. liddon. From France, Ger- 
many, Italy, and Spain comes the same witness, fiur 
too volummous to quote, but like as in the case of 
some of the noblest edifices, obscurity rests on the 
name of the builder, so the authorship ii the Imitatim 
has been assigned to writers as various as Sts. Ber- 
nard, Bonaventura, Francis de Sales, and Thomas 
Aquinas. The zed of monks for their respective 
orders, the ienorance of scribes, the juxUposition 
of other treaUses, and consequent attraction of the 
anonymous work to some author of repute : these 
and ymiigg cAuaei aooount for the variety, but only 



two names have endured the se&rching test of oon* 
troversy — Gerson and St Thomas k Kempis. A 
complete and very thorough guide to the history of 
the Imitation^ its manuscripts, the controversies sur- 
rounding it, with the proo& of its Teutonic origin, the 
external and internal evidence pointing to the &ct 
that its author thought in Dutcn, is now before uss 
and we confidently recommend it to our readers. Mr. 
Wheatley believes that the ori|g;in of the Imitation was 
in the RaMaria^ or books of extracts recommended 
by Gerard Groot to his followers, the Brethren of 
Common Life. The author of the story diwnimfi 
veiv briefly the authorship of the Gerson, said to be 
Abbot of St. Stephen of Vercelli, for whom the Bene- 
dictines put fortn claims, saying that Dom Cajetan 
invented that personage, who is not found in the lists 
of the abbots. The greater Genon, Chancellor 
Charlier de Gerson, whose claim rests probably on 
his having first introduced the Imitation mto Francci 
has full and ample examination of a most minute kind. 
Most convincing for the St Thomas k Kempis author* 
ship is the chapter on the Flemidsms in many MSS., 
the use, for instance, of debon as a translation of the 
Dutch word nonUt ; nabert for hebben ; and the use 
of the word exterius (a stumblinfir-bloek to Gersonists) 
for the Dutch van button^ our piirase '* out and ouf 
This phrase occurs in aoo MSS., though altered fay 
French and Italian scribes ignorantlv to momoritir. 

In a word, all interested in the Imitation will find 
this a most instructive book, and as interesting as 
such topics can be made. 

9 9^ 
Chbss for Bbginnsrs and thb Bbginninos or 

Chbss. (2nd Edition.) By R. B. Swinton. 

T. Fisher Unwin. Pp. viiL, 198. Price4s. fid. 

This work, as stated in the preface, has a double 
object — ^first, " to give a clear summaiy of the elements 
of chess ;" and secondly, " to bring within a small 
compass much of the knowledge that has been gained 
about the liteiary and historical features of this ancient 
pastime." In Part I. Mr. Swinton has dealt in an 
able manner with the practical side of the game, but 
it is the latter half of the book which will prove of 
the greatest interest to antiquaries. The orisin of 
chess is discussed at considerable length, and the 
various theories as to its invention are enumerated in 
a concise form. Perhaps the only matter for regret 
is that finally the reader is left to form his own con- 
clusions, the only assistance given him being the 
information that the Indian theoty is now generally 
accepted, though Mr. Swinton leaves the impression — 
possibly an incorrect one — that he is hardly satisfied 
with it himself. In one passage we learn that he 
"would like to think chess grew out of Eorptian 
draughts," but apparently he cannot find sufficient 
evidence to suppK>rt this theory; while on another 
page, not content with reviewing the actual claims 
made by almost every Asiatic country, he comments 
in quite an aggrieved tone on the fiict that Bannab 
has no advocates, remarking that touching China as 
it does on the north-east and India on ue west, it 
would have been a convenient birthplace for the game 
to spread to both countries. 

Mr. Swinton fieels confident that the game was not 
invented all at once, or came folly armed fiDom the 
brain of any such pcnon as the Indian philoaopber 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS. 



8? 



who according to the legend was rewarded at 
his own request b^ grains of barley in geometrical 
p rogre s sion, beginning at one on the first square until 
they amounted to untold billions on the sixty-fourth. 
Among other distinguished claimants we find tfiat it 
has been ascribed to King Solomon*— « suggestion 
ridiculed by Hyde— and to Palamedes, who is *' said 
to have invented this game for the diversion of the 
Greeks during the si^e of Trojr." *<This Pala- 
medes,*' quaintly observes Mr. Swinton, "is said to 
have invented a number of things, including three 
meals a day.'* There is also a legend that the game 
was invented for the instruction of a certain unpleasant 
Babylonian long named Evil-Merodoch, that he might 
be taught better manners " by the trifling example of 
the ocoierly conduct of men on a chess-board." 

Since, as Mr. Swinton thinks, diess was not in- 
vented all at once, he is led on to a consideration of 
the various games out of which it might have fprown. 
The dasrical theory is the first examined, and is soon 
reiected ; it has had many advocates, and Sophocles, 
Theocritus, Euripides, Homer, Fausanias, Atnenaeus, 
Seneca, Pliny, Ovid, Martial and Terence have all 
been died, whether thqr have mentioned kuM^ or 
itssaret^ or puuioy or latruniuius^ or caUuius. But 
Mr. Swinton argues well from the absence of " even 
a metaphorical use of the nomenclature of chess,** to 
prove tnat the above passages have no bearing on the 
point He thinks it incredible "that ttie epi- 
gnonmatic fimcy of a Martial, who appropriated 
almost every available subject for his favourite style 
of composition, should have missed so fertile a yield 
for the displav of his wit, or that the genius of a 
Viigil, who did not disdain to render the whipping-top 
a ^ssic game, should have fiiiled to draw a simile 
from the nntastic and picturesque figures which meet 
and mancenvre on the chess-board in mimic hostility." 
The ancient Greek game of p$tteia^ which was played 
with five or ten pebbles of a side moving on lines and 
in which one sioe had to block Uie other in, was once 
supposed to represent chess in its earliest form. Mr. 
Swinton thinks that this was developed into the game 
of fox and geese, and that very probably draughts 
grew out of the latin leUrmncuIus. He auotes a 
remark of H. Coleridge's to the effect tnat the 
Romans had no idea of malrmg a toil of pleasure — 
*' setting aside athletic exercises, the games of classical 
antiquity were of the most simple and often of the 
most puerile character.'* 

Having thus disposed of the classical theory, Mr. 
Swinton proceeds to discuss the various Asiatic nmes 
which have been supposed to be the original From 
the fond of information which we hav^ here in a 
condensed form, we are led to conclude — for Mr. 
Swinton declines to give an opinion of his own — ^that 
cAaiurm^f the Indian game, was the real parent of 
chess. The term, we are told, comes from chatur^ 
fov, and mp, a limb or division — fourfold, in allu- 
sion to the tour sorts of forces composite an army ; 
to wit, horseman, footman, elephant, and chariot 
The Persians first modified the word into chatrang^ 
which their conquerors, the Arabs, softened into 
skatroHg; and from one of these forms the later 
Greek tatrikicn was derived. The Chinese game is 
the same as the Indian and Persian. It has been 
snggested that China was the originator of it, and 



that the Indians received it from them; but Mr. 
Swinton mentions a MS. note of Sir F. Madden, 
who savs that the Chinese acknowledge that they 
received the game from the Indians : " The dis- 
tii^uishing mark of the Chinese game is that a river 
divides the middle of the board, about crossing which 
by certain pieces there are restrictions ; and the kings' 
moves are confined." 

As to the antiauity of the game of ehahtrttnga^ a 
somewhat astounding statement of Forbes is quoted : 
" Chaturanga is the most ancient game, not only of 
chess, but of anything approaching the nature of 
chess, of which any account has been handed down 
to us. It claims an antiquity of nearly five thousand 
years ; and, with every allowance for poetic license, 
there is margin enough left to prove that it was 
known or practised in India long before it found its 
way to any other region, not excepting the very 
ancient empire of China— even on the showing of the 
Celestials themselves." Mr. Swinton's criticism is : 
" I must say against this, that the daim for an 
antiquity in India of five thousand years is not made 
out — ^nor an antiquity of two thousand." Forbes 
thinks that chess was suppressed by law about the 
b^linning of the Christian era on account of its con- 
nection with gambling and dice. The game was 
communicated to Persia by ambassadors from India 
who went to the Court (» Kin^ Nourshlrw&n; and, 
thou|;h it became uncommon m South India, the 
Persians and Arabs cultivated it in a very marked 
decree, and had written many works on the subject 
before it ever became known in Europe. We learn 
that the later Greek Empire was the first to learn the 
game in Europe, and then Spain, Italy, and France : 
"The nations of the Nortii, including remote Ice- 
land, with its men of walrus tooth, plaved at it 
before the Norman Conquest ; and Englana learnt it 
from the Northmen and Danes before it came through 
France." Madden thinks the exact period of its 
introduction into England most likely to have been 
the reign of Canute. We are given many instances 
of early mention of the game 1^ English writers ; it 
is sometimes called "the chesse," sometimes "the 
dieasts," and not infrequently "chequers," the last 
term, as Mr. Swinton suggests, possibly including 
draughts. The actual word "chess" was once 
derived by Jones by changes firom exedres^ scaccki^ 
tchecSf from chaturanga; but the accepted derivation 
b from the Persian shah. We have mythical allusions 
to chess in the days of King Arthur, Charlemaene, 
and Sir Tristram ; but these are scarcely more cremble 
than the legends which credit Ireland with its inven- 
tion. 

We are told of a very earl^ story relating to chess 
in Italy, and showins the objection of the Church to 
it, as dways intimately connected with gambling and 
disputes. Chaucer is quoted among ouiers, and the 
list might doubtless be longer if it were necosary. 

Mr. Swinton then remarks on the old chess-pieces 
in existence, the discussion about the rook being par- 
ticularly interesting. The whole of the latter half of 
this work must have involved most thorough and con- 
scientious research, and in eadi case Mr. Swinton 
mentions his authorities ; perhaps those for whom he 
shows the most respect are Forbes, Hyde, and Van 
Der Linde. The last-named wrote a most compre- 



88 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS. 



hensive and exhaustive work in German, of which 
language Mr. Swinton confesses his ignorance; but 
he says that he has run the risk of tiring a friend by 
getting bits of the book translated. We feel con- 
fident that the result of Mr. Swinton's labours will 
confer a boon on chess-players, and cannot frdl to be 
of interest to anti(^uaries. By the wasr, we would 
suggest the substitution of the word " antiquary " in a 
third edition for that popular error "antiquarian" 
which appears on page 97. 

Some people, as Mr. Swinton observes, live for 
chess. He ooes not add whether he is to be included 
in the number ; but if it is so, we are sure he will 
not resent the reproduction of some lines which 
appear as the headung to one of the chapters in this 

book: 

O thoo, whose cynic sneers espresi 
The censure of our favourite chess 1 

Know that its skill is science's self, 
Its play distraction from distress. 

It soothes the anxious lover's care. 
It weans the drunkard from excess ; 

It counsels warriors in their art 
When dancers threat and perils presi ; 

And yields us, when we need them most, 
Companions in our loneliness. 

Arthur H. M. Cox. 

* * * 

Thb Hampshirb Antiquary and Naturalist. 

VoL I. F, A. Edwards^ Southampton. 4ta| 

pp. 162. Price not stated. 
This is a 'double-column newspaper-type volume, 
consisting of Local Notes and Queries, reports of 
meetings of the Hampshire Field Club, and other 
arclueological and natural history matters, reprinted 
from the Hampshir$ Independent from September, 
1889, to January, 1891. It is a very different pub- 
lication to the excellent Byezones from an Oswestxv 
paper, for much that is in these pages is not worth 
preserving in a volume. No douot it will have its 
value for Hampshire readers, but there is very little 
of original matter. The index is exceptionally com- 
plete. 

* * * 

Books Recbivbd. — Reviews or notices are held 
over of Aristotle an the Athenian Constitution (trans- 
lation). Forty Years of a Moorland Parish (second 
edition). The American Race^ Shakespearean Rarities^ 
Coucher Book of Selby^ Galloway Ancient and Modern^ 
Rush-bearing, Branscough Priory, and Roach-Smith*s 
Retrospections, voL iii., as well as of a variety of 
pamphlets and sinall treatises. 



CottCjBVonti0nc0e 



LIGHTS IN A MEDIifiVAL CHURCH. 

Mr. Wbavbr is probably correct in a.ssuming that 
there was not an altar m the porch of Horcastle 
church. Of this, however, we cannot be certain. 
Altars were occasionally, but I think very rarely, set 
up in this, which seems to us one of the most in- 
convenient of places. Here is an example. In 1324 
Alan of Gateshead, priest, was the custodian of the 
altar of our Blessed Lady in the north porch of the 
church of Gateshead.* 

Edward Peacock. 
Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

* Richard Welford, HUtory ^ SewemetU and GmUihemd, 
vol. i*! p. 6i. 

ffiffffff umn it nmmm fi mnmu f HUMM i MH ti M i 

Note to Publishers.^ ^/ shall be particularly 
obliged to publishers if they will always state the price 
of books sent for review. 

Manuscripts cannot be returned unless stamps are 
enclosed. 

It would be well if these proposing to submit MSS. 
mould first write to the Editor stating the subject and 
manner of treatment. 

Whilst the Editor will be glad to give any assistance he 
can to archaologists on archaological subjects, he desires 
to remind certain correspondents that letters contain^ 
ing queries can only be inserted in the " Antiquary ** 
if of general interest, or on some new subject ; nor 
can he undertake to reply privately, or through the 
** Antiquary," to ouestions of the ordinary nature 
that sometimes reach him. No attention is paid to 
anonymous communications or would-be contributioms. 

Communications for the Editor should be addressed 
^* Antiquary, Barton-le-Street, Malton,'* 

Our contributor Mr, F. Jffaverfield, F,S,An Lanc^ 
ing College, Shoreham, will be grateful for information 
at any time forwarded to him direct of any Roman 
finds, and also of reprints or numbers of provincial 
archctological journals containieig articles on suck 
subjects. 

In the September issue will appear the fourth of the 
series of articles on Provincial Museums ; the subject 
will be the Derby Museum, written by Mr, George 
Bailey, The same number will contain another 
article from the pen of Professor Halbkorr, 




NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



89 



K^ 



'mii 






The Antiquary, 




SEPTEMBER, 1891. 



Botes Of t^e ^ontl). 

The Heraldic Exhibition, now being held at 
Edinburgh in the Scottish National Portrait 
Galleries, is proving a deserved success. An 
excellent descriptive catalogue has been com- 
piled by Mr. Francis James Grant, Carrick 
Pursuivant. It is a noble collection of 
heraldic manuscripts, printed books, seals, 
and home and foreign armorials, as well as 
costumes and decorations. Heraldry is 
thus illustrated, both in its historical and 
artistic aspects, in a way that has never 
before been attempted. One of the in- 
teresting parts of the exhibition to the anti- 
quary is the assemblage of Scottish buigh 
seals. It is no slight on the science of 
heraldry to say that the numerous non- 
heraldic seals are not the least interesting. 
The pious early burghers of Scotland fre- 
quently adopted religious devices for their 
matrices, generally some incident in the life 
of the patron saint. Thus the counter-seal 
of Aberdeen contains a representation of the 
miracle of St Nicholas, who, standing within 
the front gate of the walls of a castle and 
beneath a Gothic canopy, is depicted restor- 
ing to life the three murdered children. 
Dumfries bears St. Michael, armed with 
sword and shield, standing upon the van- 
quished dragon. Dunfermline shows St. 
Margaret crowned, holding a sceptre in her 
right hand and standing within a Gothic 
niche, on each side of which is an altar 
candlestick. Forres displays St. Lawrence 
crowned with a nimbus, holding a book in 
his right hand, while with his left he grasps 
the gridiron. Fortrose bears St. Peter and 
St. Boniface, to whom the cathedral church 
of Ross was dedicated St Andrews 

VOL. XXIV. 



naturally represents the crucifixion of the 
saint whose name it bears, but the reverse 
of the seal displays the full-length figure of 
a bishop in pontifical vestments. Tain 
carries St. Duthacus in long garments, hold- 
ing in his dexter hand a staff garnished with 
ivy. Whithorn, which exhibits two matrices, 
shows on the one St Ninian fully vested 
with fetterlocks on each side, while on the 
other the figure of St. Leonard with the 
curious inscription, "S. Quhithoune et 
Vigtoune." The Madonna and Holy Child 
are also borne by several of the burghs, 
among which may be mentioned Cullen, 
which still uses a very ancient matrix, rudely 
executed, but extremely curious, on which is 
depicted the Virgin and Holy Child, seated 
on what is supposed to be a throne, and 
beneath which is the figure of a dog. The 
seal of Wick formerly in use contains a 
curious old view of the town, while the 
present matrix shows a boat in the sea 
wherein are two men rowing, and in the 
stem the Saviour standing. The extent of 
this collection may be judged from the fact 
that the catalogue describes no less than 
1,184 items. We are glad to hear that it is 
proposed to issue a permanent record of this 
exhibition ere it is dispersed, which is to take 
the shape of a large-paper edition of the 
catalogue containing about eighty representa- 
tions (some of them hand-coloured) of the 
principal objects of interest We hope to 
recur to the subject of this valuable exhibi- 
tion next month. 

♦ 4i» ♦ 

Great mischief is being done at the old 
castle on Loch Doon, in Ayrshire, by the 
ashlar work at the base being taken away for 
building purposes, thus involving the upper 
works in the ruin wrought A fine gateway, 
with the slits for the portcullis chains, now 
perfect, is being thus destroyed. The castle 
is an interesting one, eleven-sided, the keep 
forming one side ; it stands on an island in 
the lake, and its base is protected by an 
apron of rough stones, thrown anyhow ; an 
invader would have to use his hands to keep 
his feet The Marquis of Ailsa is the keeper 
or proprietor of this unfortunate castle, and 
his attention should be drawn thereto, for it 
is almost impossible to credit the rumour 
that the owner is already acquainted with 
the progress of this mean vandalism. 

H 



90 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



We were glad to notice that the grievous and 
steady deterioration of the splendid ruins of 
Rievaulx Abbey was commented on with due 
severity at the recent congress of archaeo- 
logical societies as reported in another part 
of this issue. The Rev. J. C Atkinson, in his 
scholarly work on the Chartulary of Rievaulx, 
printed by the Surtees Society in 1889, com- 
ments in several places on the grievous 
decay of the abbey and conventual buildings, 
which he describes as "mouldering away 
year by year for want of a little fostering care 
and protective expenditure." In a paragraph 
written, we believe, in 1887, this famous 
Yorkshire antiquary states that "he has 
reason to conclude, as the result of inquiries 
made on the spot, that at the rate of sixpence 
a head, levied on all the visitors to the abbey, 
a total sum of more than ;^ioo would be 
annually realized ; and from what he has 
seen himself of what lies almost on the 
surface, or only slightly shrouded by the 
sward and lighter debris^ it is almost im- 
possible to estimate what actual and most 
interesting discoveries, as well as preserva- 
tions, might be accomplished with even that 
sum annually set apart for the purpose." 

4" # i* 

Since this paragraph was written, the owner 
of the site of this abbey, the Earl of Fever- 
sham, has for the last three or four seasons 
charged, not the suggested sixpence, but a 
whole shilling levied on every visitor, yet the 
result has not in any way fulfilled Mr. Atkin- 
son's expectations. To our certain know- 
ledge, notwithstanding this accumulation of 
shillings, the buildings have suffered most 
materially during the last three years. We 
doubt if there is another abbey in England 
the remains of which have suffered more 
extensively during the present century than 
is the case with Rievaulx. The deterioration 
has been specially marked since 1850. 

♦ 4i» ♦ 

Another Yorkshire building of unique historic 
interest that was mentioned at the archaeo- 
logical congress is the little church of Kirk- 
dale, constructed, as the inscription in the 
porch certifies, just before the Norman Con- 
quest, out of the remains of an Anglo-Saxon 
monastery. The fine series of ornamental 
crosses used in the building ought to be 
carefully drawn from the masonry and placed 
inside the church to preserve them from 



further deterioration. More particularly 
should this be done with the finely incised 
Anglo-Saxon slab in the west wall, which 
the late Father Haigh fancied he could prove 
to be that of King CEthilwald. Although 
this identification cannot be maintained, the 
stone is one of exceptional richness. Within 
the past twelvemonth it has suffered much at 
the hands of idle boys or wanton tourists. 
Another curiosity, though a modem one^ was 
noticed during a recent visit to this church, 
the nave of which is in a slovenly condition, 
and still contains some high square pews. 
In a pew corner was a well-used cushion of 
unusual shape ; on examination, the cushion 
turned out to be a discarded tea-cosy ! 

4^ 4^ 4ip 

A paragraph to the following effect, entitled, 
"Mining for a Royal Crown," has, with 
certain variations, been recently going the 
round of various English newspapers. It 
has come to us from the United States and 
South Africa, as well as in home journals : 
"His Majesty King James II. of England 
certainly gave a good deal of trouble during 
his lifetime, and is now proving a nuisance 
indirectly in a very extraordinary way 190 
years after his death. AccorcUng to an 
ancient local legend, James, who died at 
Saint Germain-en-Laye, hid away somewhere 
in the neighbourhood of the monastery of 
Triel the royal crown of England, the sceptre, 
and other baubles of a total value of some 
two millions sterling. For more than forty 
years past the owners of the estate on which 
are the ruins of the monastery have sought 
for the regalia by digging long trenches in ail 
directions, always starting from the building 
itself. So assiduously has this work been 
carried out that some of the subterranean 
passages have become a serious danger to 
the neighbouring village. One house has 
fallen in, and several others threaten to 
follow suit. The mayor is taking steps to 
prevent any further delving by the seekers 
after hidden treasure." Can any of our 
readers say what foundation there* is for the 
supposed belief in this vast store of hidden 
regalia? Obviously the story is not alto- 
gether correct. 

4if 4f 4i^ 

Constitutional historians all agree that the 
English office of Justice of the Peace was 
originally an elective one, the holder of it 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



91 



being appointed hereto by the freeholders 
in the county court The election of county 
coroners by the freeholders, which held good 
until the recent legislation as to County 
Councils, was a remnant of this ancient 
system. The great majority of lettered 
Englishmen would, however, suppose that 
no existence of an elected magistrate could be 
found for several generations. Yet this very 
summer, for the first time for fifty-five years, 
the liberty of Havering-atte-Bower has exer- 
cised its ancient privilege of having a con- 
tested election for such an appointment. 
Major Holmes, of Hornchurch, has been 
elected magistrate of the liberty by seventy- 
eight votes to forty-two for Mr. A. W. Harvey, 
auctioneer, of Romford. This ancient liberty 
comprises the parishes of Romford, Horn- 
church, and Havering-atte-Bower, and still 
retains a distinct jurisdiction of its owa 
The liberty, once a royal residence, was 
granted in past times numerous charters, 
securing its peculiar privileges. The latest 
dates from Queen Elizabeth. Havering 
liberty possesses three magistrates (none 
appointed by the crown), a High Steward, 
a Deputy-Steward, a Clerk of the Peace, a 
Coroner, a High Bailiff, and other officials, 
including woodwards, searchers and sealers 
of leather, ale-coners, etc. In 1833 the 
municipal commissioner reported to Parlia- 
ment that '* no useful end was served by the 
existence of the municipal constitution of 
this liberty." Nevertheless, it survived the 
Mtmicipal Reform Act, and will, perhaps, 
survive the notice now given at the Essex 
Quarter Sessions to petition the Privy 
Council for an order to merge the liberty 
in the county. 

♦ 4p 4p 

An estate well known and regarded by anti- 
quaries as a national relic has just been sold. 
Athelhampton was traditionally a chief seat 
of the Saxon kings, especially of King Athel- 
stan. In William the Conqueror's time it 
was held from the heirs of Hildebrand, who 
in turn held from the Bishop of Sarum, and 
he from the king in chief by service of five 
knights' fees. It subsequently came into the 
possession of the Martins, who resided here 
during eight generations, and whose aims 
appear on the numerous stained glass 
windows of the present hall. From the 
Martins it descended to the Brune, Bankes, 



and Long families respectively; and from 
the latter family it was purchased by the 
uncle of the present owner, Mr. G. Wood 
Homer, who has now sold it to Mr. A. C. de 
Lafontaine, with the park and surrounding 
lands. In Hutchins's History of Dorsetshire^ 
1754, is recorded the fact that in the north 
part of the building is a chamber called the 
king's chamber, which, however, is only re- 
markable for having an earthen floor. At 
that time, and until within a few years, was a 
court giving access to the house, at the 
entrance to which was a porter's lodge. 
Fine examples of Tudor work are found 
in the stately oriel windows of the present 
principal front, and characteristic of the 
period is the rough stone flagging of the 
beautifril entrance-hall, and the original oak 
staircase. The property has found an 
appreciative buyer in Mr. de Lafontaine, 
and antiquaries will be glad to learn that 
this rich example of pure Tudor work wiU 
be carefully preserved as one of England's 
ancient homes. 

41^ 4" 4p 

The President of the Society of Antiquaries 
(Dr. Evans), who gave such an interesting and 
almost exhaustive sketch " on the forgery of 
antiquities " at the recent congress of archaeo- 
logical societies, curiously enough omitted all 
reference to . one of the most recent and 
prevalent fi:auds on the unwary : we allude 
to frauds in old oak furniture. The plan is 
to procure a genuine old chest, chair, 
dresser, settle, or other piece of furniture, 
and to carve thereon certain initials, dates, 
or coats of arms that would materially en- 
hance its value in the eyes of collectors, and 
particularly of those connected with par- 
ticular families. Though these wooden lies 
are beginning to be generally detected, the 
trade is evidently brisk from the varied in- 
formation that reaches us from so many 
quarters. If only a man of means and 
family is known to be an oak collector, he 
can hardly fail to become the victim, or at all 
events the attempted victim, of these in- 
genious forgers. We were recently shown a 
genuine Elizabethan chair "picked up" in 
Chester at a very heavy price, the back panel 
of which had been cleverly carved by a 
modern hand with the Howard arms and 
certain initials appropriate to the date. It 
had been piu-chased by a cadet of the house 

H 2 



92 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



of Howard, but to a practised eye the arms 
and initials were obvious recent additions. 
We afterwards learnt that it had been offered 
in vain to the Duke of Norfolk, who had 
learnt wisdom from being already bitten after 
a like fashion. The late Bishop Lightfoot, 
in the last year of his episcopacy, was nearly 
victimized in a similar matter. A genuinely 
old chair was offered to him for ;^2S, which 
purported to bear the arms, date and initials 
of a sixteenth-century predecessor in the see 
of Durham ; but he was saved the ignominy 
of a purchase through the timely intervention 
of the hon. sec. of the local archaeological 
society of the midland town where the would- 
be salesman resided. In one case a long 
firm, in their endeavour to cheat a titled 
collector, actually went to the trouble and 
expense of placing a suitably- carved old 
chest in the attic of an out-of-the-way small 
farm-house, bribing the tenant to assert that 
he had heard his grandfather say it had been 
there many and many a year ! But fortu- 
nately the farmer, under cross-examination, 
grew ashamed of his share of the lies, and 
turned informer. 

^ 4ff ^ 

In another part of this number our corre- 
spondent, Mr. Bailey, discourses of the 
Derby Museum. It is, as he says, chiefly re- 
markable for its almost entire deficiency in 
the matter of antiquities, and this in a county 
which has probably yielded more prehistoric 
relics than any other of like acreage in Great 
Britain. Though by far the greater part of 
these relics have been now scattered in other 
more appreciative districts, or else been 
hopelessly lost, it is by no means too late for 
the county to change its policy with regard 
to the future, and to some extent to retrieve 
the past Now that the town of Derby 
possesses in its Mayor, Sir Alfred Seale 
Haslam, a gentleman of means, as well as of 
cultured and antiquarian tastes, there is an 
excellent opportunity for making a fresh start 
We venture to suggest to the Derbyshire 
Archaeological and Natural History Society 
that it should approach the Mayor and 
suggest the formation of a joint committee, 
composed of members of the Corporation 
and of the council of the society, to discuss 
the question with the view of surmounting 
the difficulties suggested by our corre- 
spondent. 



In one respect Mr. Bailey has dealt far too 
gently with the lapses and exceeding careless- 
ness of the Derby Corporation committees of 
the Museum and Free Library. If the con- 
tents of the old Athenaeum Museum were 
transferred to the new building, how is it 
that so large a portion of its contents have 
disappeared ? Where are they now ? There 
are a variety of interesting exhibits well re> 
collected by Derbyshire folk of middle age 
not now to be seen. Some of these have 
been described and even illustrated in anti- 
quarian works. For instance, several valuable 
Anglo-Saxon cinerary urns discovered when 
digging the foundations for Lord Belper's 
seat at Kingston were deposited in the 
Derby Museum, which have been drawn 
in more than one work on English pottery. 
To these were added like vessels of a later 
find from King's Newton. In 1883 a visitor 
to the museum was so persistent in drawing 
attention to printed statements as to these 
ancient urns, that at last the then curator 
produced out of a hamper a single broken 
specimen, whilst the rest of the contents 
consisted of a jumble of flints, beads, and 
small bronzes which had been carelessly 
thrown together several years before, when 
the old museum was abandoned. Where 
are these now? Are they still on the 
premises? They evidently escaped Mr. 
Bailey's keen eyes and inquiries. 

♦ 4p ♦ 

But we have a more recent and yet {^ver 
complaint to bring against this committee of 
the Derby Corporation, and one of a very 
definite character. When the Royal Archaeo- 
logical Institute made Derby their head- 
quarters in 1885, that great authority, Re>*. 
Canon Browne, of Cambridge, drew spedal 
attention to the remarkable and highly inter- 
esting fragments of a rich Anglo-Saxon 
churchyard cross which formerly stood close 
to the church of St Alkmund, and which 
had been drawn seven years previously by 
Mr. Bailey to illustrate the fourth volume of 
Dr. Cox's Churches of Derbyshire. In the 
course of his paper Canon Browne wrote: 
*' I trust when next I come to Derby I shall 
find that the exceedingly valuable fragments 
from St AlkmuniSy now exposed to the 
weather in front of the Free Library, have 
been carefully put undercover. ... It often 
happens that those who have the custody of 



NOTES OF THE MONTH, 



93 



stones of this character, even when they 
recognise that they are of priceless value 
from their great age, the skill of their design 
and execution, and the fact that no other 
nation of Europe has such memorials, are 
disposed to argue that what has lasted so 
weU for ten or eleven hundred years will 
stand the weather for any number of years 
more. They forget that the fragments have 
been carefully preserved in the soil of North 
Anglian or Mercian churchyards, and in the 
cement of the Norman church wall for all 
these centuries, and that they will perish like 
any other stone in this smoky nineteenth 
century." If, however, Canon Browne was 
now to revisit Derby, he would find some of 
the stones on which he then commented still 
outside the museum, in the narrow smoky 
Wardwick, considerably deteriorated ; whilst 
othe;^^ together with plaster casts taken by 
the late Mr. Stevens in 1845, which were 
drawn in 1879, are now hopelessly lost or 
broken up I 

4p *&* 4^ 

With regard to the report on archaeology 
in the Brighton Museum, which appeared in 
the Antiquary for May, 1891, we have re- 
ceived a communication from Mr. Henry 
WiUett, chiefly relating to his valuable collec- 
tion of English pottery, of which a classified 
catalogue was published in 1879. Mr. Willett 
justly points out that a portion of his ceramic 
collection was lent last year to the Royal 
Guelph Exhibition, that another portion is 
now lent to the Royal Naval Exhibition, and 
that, under such circumstances, some confu- 
sion is unavoidable. Our correspondent, Mr. 
Roach le Schonix, states that he tried in vain to 
obtain a catalogue of the ceramic collection, 
and that it certainly was not on sale at the 
time of his visit, nor was there any intima- 
tion that a portion of the ware was elsewhere. 
Mr. WiUett's suggestion that anyone intend- 
ing to visit local museums on behalf of the 
Antiquary should " first write to the curator 
to xnake an appointment," does not com- 
mend itself to our judgment, as it would 
defeat a principal intention in the compiling 
of such articles, which is to show what the 
particular museum displays and explains for 
any visitor of average intelligence, and not 
what could be privately explained or pro- 
duced for the delectation of a favoured, 



personally-conducted visitor. Though there 
may have been some mistake in judgment on 
the part of Mr. Roach le Schonix, we only 
wish that that gentleman could visit more of 
our provincial collections. Other communi- 
cations have reached us from Brighton, which 
prove that our commissioner's visit has 
already done some good. There can be no 
doubt that much of the archaeology of that 
museum was badly arranged, and in several 
instances ludicrously mislabelled. 

♦ ♦ 4p 

In our last issue an illustrated review of Mr. 
Hartshome's gruesome but fascinating book 
on "Hanging in Chains" appeared. A 
correspondent, who has read the work with 
appreciation of its research, draws attention 
to two remarkable sixteenth-century instances 
of gibbeting. Robert Kett, the leader of the 
Norwich peasantry rebellion against in- 
closures in 1549, was on December 7 fitted 
with chains whilst still alive at the foot of 
.Norwich Castle, and thence drawn up by a 
rope about his neck to a gibbet on the top of 
the castle keep, "and there hanged for a 
continuall memorie of so great villanie untill 
that unhappy & heavy body through putre- 
faction consuming shall fall down at length." 
William Kett, his brother, was at the same 
time gibbeted in a yet more remarkable 
place, for he was hung in chains from the top 
of Wymondham steeple. 

♦ "fr ♦ 

The contemplated restoration of the 

church of Taddington has brought us a com- 
munication from the rector of Brancaster, 
whose immediate ancestors held property in 
the township. He suggests the desirability 
of pressing upon those engaged in the 
matter the propriety of taking the oppor- 
tunity of relaying in its more proper position 
on the pavement the brass of Richard Blak- 
wall, of Blakwall, 1505, his widow Agnes, 
and their eleven children, which is now im- 
properly placed against the wall at the east 
end of the south aisle. He remarks that in 
a church like Taddington there is no fear 
whatever of the brass sustaining injury from 
occupying a position on the pavement, which 
is the only valid reason that can be offered for 
removing such memorials to the walls, where 
they are both inappropriate and unsightly, 
unless originally designed for such a position. 



94 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



In the Antiquary for July, 1890, we gave a 
qualified approval to the scheme for the 
apparently necessary enlargement of the 
church of St. Werburgh, Derby. By that 
scheme, as we then understood it, the seven- 
teenth-century tower, as well as the eighteenth- 
century chancel, would be preserved, and 
this was infinitely preferable to the clean 
sweep originally proposed by the selected 
architect. Sir Ar^ur Blomfield. But now 
that the plans are lodged with the Diocesan 
Registry, our opinion is more than modified. 
It turns out that Sir Arthur has designed a 
brand-new top stage for the tower with very 
elaborate battlements, pinnacles, and other 
wedding-cake enrichments — the present 
tower-window is to be taken out, and the 
buttresses are to be rebuilt on a larger 
scale. We also fear that it is intended to 
re-dress the whole surface of the tower. 
To call this "the preservation of the old 
tower" is a wanton misuse of the Queen's 
English ! We sincerely trust that the good 
sense of the Chancellor and the Bishop of 
Derby will check this reckless self-glorifica- 
tion of a nineteenth-century architect in his 
mischievous efforts to destroy the substantial 
work of his predecessors. There is comfort 
also in the thought that monetary considera- 
tions will probably save the tower, for we 
rejoice to know that it is the last part of 
the work to be undertaken, whilst only 
;^5,iSo out of a total of ;^ 10, 750 requisite 
for the new "body" has as yet been ob- 
tained. 

4p 4p ♦ 

Henry Hutcheon, of King Street, Aberdeen, 
must be metaphorically " hung in chains " 
by the Aniiquaryy as an additional aggrava- 
tion of his original sentence. On July 23, 
to the lasting credit of Sheriff Thoms, of 
Kirkwall, Hutcheon was find £,\ or one 
month's imprisonment for defacing stones 
in the cathedral church of St. Magnus. He 
attacked the building with chisel and 
hammer, and had begun to ornament it 
with his name. This was no mere school- 
boy's trick, or wantonness of an illiterate 
tramp. The deliberation of the shabby, 
senseless act richly merited severe treat- 
ment. Perhaps Mr. Hutcheon feared that 
his name would achieve no fame unless thus 
connected with the venerable walls of St. 



Magnus, but his action has brought the 
name of Hutcheon into far wider notoriety 
than he anticipated. The defence was as 
mean as the deed he committed; it was 
alleged that the walls were already covered 
with names and initials, among them being 
that of Prince Albert. This latter statement 
is not on record in her Majest/s Leaves from 
a fournaly and it must have been another 
Hutcheon who formerly took this disloyal 
liberty. This disfiguring of public monu- 
ments with cut, scratched, painted, or written 
names is a disgraceful act of mobbing 
almost peculiar to the inhabitants of Great 
Britain. It is rampant everywhere. This very 
season several initials have been deeply cut 
on the grave-slab of the first abbot of Byland 
in the chapter-house of that ruin. It should 
be widely known that English as well as 
Scotch law can punish such rascals, and 
antiquaries should not hesitate to bring to 
book anyone who may be caught flagrante 
delicto. 

<|^ ijjp ^ 

The Second International Folklore Con- 
gress will be held in London on October i 
and following days, under the presidency 
of Mr. Andrew Lang. The subscription 
(los. 6d.) entitling to card of membmhip 
should be sent to the hon. sec, Mr. J. J. 
Foster, Offa House, Upper Tooting, S.W. 




1 



BsAz% Of tbe 6)9ontb (JForetsn)* 

Under the direction of Professor Kandrikoff, 
a distinguished archaeologist of St. Petersburg, 
the first of the three Russian missions to be 
sent for the exploration of Palestine will 
start about the middle of August, in order 
to study the Christian and Byzantine monu- 
ments of Syria. 

^^ ^^ ^^ 

Hamdi-bey, Director of the Imperial Museum 
called Tshinili-Kiosk, at Constantinople, has 
begun to publish an illustrated account of 
the monuments it contains. The first part, 
to be issued immediately, will be devoted 
to the sarcophagi discovered at Sidon in 
Phoenicia, one of which is attributed to 
Alexander the Great. 



NOTES OF THE MONTH {FOREIGN), 



95 



In the island of Melos, close to where the 
celebrated Venus of the Louvre Museum 
was discovered many years ago, a colossal 
statue has come to light, of which the lower 
part of the legs is alone wanting. It repre- 
sents a youthful pugilist 

* * * 

At Megalopolis some peasants have unearthed 

various fragments of statues and other ancient 
marbles, the character and value of which 
have not yet been determined. 

4e 4c 4c 
At Athens, in digging the foundations for a 

new house near the ancient church Haghioi 
Theodoroiy an archaic statuette of consider- 
able artistic value, but in a bad state of 
preservation, has been discovered. 

mi in mi 

News from Crete announces that the French 
School has completed its contract with the 
proprietors of the ruins of the large ancient 
building of Cnossos, in order to excavate 
them ; the works are to be completed in two 
years. 

m m m 

In Rome the excavations in search of the 
marble plan have been suspended, in order 
to make first the necessary repairs of the 
wall at the north-west angle of the Basilica 
of Constantme, which threatens to fall over 
into the convent garden of SS. Cosmas and 
Damian. Some bricks with makers' stamps 
are all that has been discovered there 
lately. 

* * * 

At Oderzo, in a Reld where at the end of 

the last century buildings of ancient Opiter- 
gium were discovered, a large polychrome 
mosaic pavement has come to light repre- 
senting hunting-scenes. 

* ♦ ♦ 

In Tontola, a portion of the commune of 

Predappio, near Forli, a tomb has been found 
with black glazed earthenware and various 
objects in bronze. 

m mi m 

In Castrocaro, in the commune of Terra del 
Sole, were found other tombs, with glazed 
vases and bronze statuettes. 

m m m 

In excavating the ancient necropolis Numana, 
in the commune of Sirolo, near Ancona, where 
the work is still being prosecuted, earthenware 
objects of local and foreign character were 
found in the tombs. The latter consist of 



Greek vases with black or red figures, and 
oinochoe on which are figured large female 
heads garlanded with leaves, belonging to 
the last period of ancient art, resembling 
Faliscan ware. Amongst the arms found at 
the same time were two large curved sabres, 
like modern Turkish scimitars, but ploughed 
or hollow down the middle. Similar arms 
were found in the necropolis of Tolentino. 

m m m 

In continuing the excavations in the necro- 
polis of Todi eighteen tombs were opened 
in Contrada Peschiera, but of these only a 
single tomb was found not already rifled. 
It contained a mirror, two gold earrings, a 
vase with red figures on black ground, and 
nails of the wooden coffin in which the 
corpse had been laid. Some iron spears 
have been found in Contrada S. Lucia, near 
the same site. 

m m m 

Near Florence, not far from Mugnone, a 
funereal cippus has been discovered with a 
Latin inscription. 

m m m 

Outside the walls of Arezzo, in an ancient 
well, has been found amongst other objects 
a magnificent bronze vase, attributed to the 
first century of the Empire, a bronze bucket, 
and an iron nail, with many lamps. So;ne 
sacred edifice may have stood near, if we 
may judge from the fictile ornaments that 
remain — antefixes and acroteria. In the 
commune of Marsciano, on the right bank 
of the Tiber, the cover of a sarcophagus has 
been found bearing an Etruscan inscription. 

^n ^h ^h 

At Ravenna the well-known sculptor, Signor 
Pozzi, has established a Byzantine museum 
for the collection of all the remains of that 
period for which the town is famous. 

^^ ^^ ^^ 

The Greek Government has resumed the 
excavations at Marathon, and is clearing 
away the earth all around the tumulus, in 
order to examine more minutely the stratum 
within on which were laid the bones of the 
fallen warriors. The earth will then be filled 
in, and the tumulus will then be restored to 
its former state, and be preserved as a national 
monument 

m m m ^ 

Signor Kawadias has published in the 
Athenian Deliion the detailed description 



I 



96 



NOTES OF THE MONTH (FOREIGN). 



of the base discovered near the Theseion^ 
with the signature of Bryaxis. The inscrip- 
tion occupies four lines of the front of the 
base, and contains the names of the three 
phylarchoi who were victors in the anthip- 
pasta; also a fifth line shorter than the 
others : Bryaxis epoesen (not epoiesen). On 
the other three faces of the hathron are 
figured a bearded horseman with a tripod 
on each. Evidently these are the three 
figures of the victors dedicated at the time 
of the anathema. These figures give us an 
idea of the artistic ability of Bryaxis, con- 
temporary and collaborateur of Scopas. The 
anathema or votive gift which stood on the 
base is lost, but it is supposed to have been 
a tripod, or a column with a tripod on it, or 
else something similar. The Greek press is 
much occupied with the importance and 

interest of this discovery. 

3tc 4c 3»c 
The Italian Government having for the pre- 
sent renounced all intention of resuming its 
excavations in Crete owing to the deficit in 
its yearly budget, M. Joubert, who has 
just been engaged in travelling through all 
the provinces of the island except in the west, 
in order to visit all the ancient city sites, on 
behalf of the French School at Athens, has 
been commissioned by its new director, M. 
Homolle, to undertake excavations at the 
prehistoric remains of the large building of 
unknown character at Cnossos, which Dr. 
Schliemann failed to purchase just before 
his death. These are to be concluded in 
two years, by which time Italy may feel itself 
in a position to authorize another campaign. 

^^ ^^ ^^ 

While attention is now turned to this small 
island of the i^gean, in the hopes of solving 
the uncertainty that still hangs over the 
origin of statuary art in Greece, Dr. Emanuel 
Loewy, Professor of Archaeology in the 
Roman University, comes very opportunely 
with a learned essay, in which he discusses 
all the features of the latest discovered statue 
in Crete. As certain primitive types of 
sculpture found in Greece seemed all derived 
from a common original, and this prototype 
can be traced to Crete, archaeologists are 
now constrained to give it the credit for 
initiative which tradition and mythology 
bestowed on it from the earliest times. To 
Daedalus was attributed the first advance 



made in the sculptor's art, and with him ar€ 
more or less connected that series of artists 
who, sprung from Crete, carried the know- 
ledge .and practice of sculpture into all parts 
of the Hellenic world. The results of 
actual discovery must now be relied on for 
confirmation or disproof of this contention. 
In the upper part of a statue in poros stone^ 
recently discovered at a slight depth on the 
western slope of the acropoUs of Eleuthema 
by some peasants who were tilling the ground, 
and now preserved in the museum of the 
Greek Syllogos at Candia, we have for the 
first time an example of early Cretan statuary 
art. 

# ]^ J|C 

The figure, a little less than natural size, is 
clothed in a closely-fitting chiton girded round 
the waist. Though no traces of colour 
remain, some double lines may be observed 
in the front view of the chiton slightly graven, 
which divide the part above the cincture into 
four bands of varying width, decorated with 
what appear to be cinquefoiled rosettes. A 
similar adornment may be seen on the girdle 
and on the lower part of the left shoulder. 
The head is crowned with a chaplet, and 
small curls lie upon the temples, while the 
mass of hair falls in four thick curls over 
the two shoulders and in eight long curls 
down the back ; the division of the curls 
begins at the top of the skull just below the 
crown. Dr. Chatzidakis, of Candia, thinks 
the figure male; but Dr. Loewy would be 
more disposed to call it female, the slightly 
elevated breast being not unlike that of the 
statue dedicated by Nikandros at Delo& 
Still more striking similarity of style is 
observed between our Cretan statue and one 
recently discovered in the sanctuary of 
Demeter, near Tegea, and published in the 
journal of the French School (XIV., 1890, 
pi. xi., p. 382). This statue of tufo^ a stone 
not found in Arcadia, is most likely from Crete, 
and the work of the same artist. According 
to Pausanias, Cheirisophos of Crete, a suc- 
cessor of the Daedalides, made a gilt statue 
of Apollo for the temple of that god in Tegea, 
and a stone figure representing the sculptor 
himself; while Endoios, a pupil of Daedalus, 
made a statue of Athena Alea for Tegea, 
which was afterwards carried by Augustus 
to Rome. 



POMPEII REVISITED. 



97 




Ipompetf EettliBiteii.* 

Bj Professor Halbmbuu 

the termination of the excavations 
carried out last year at the furthest 
end fARegio'TiXi,^ near the Via delta 
Smoia and the Vicolo dei Teairi^ 
trchieological research at Pompeii has not 
been conducted with the same expedition, 
and fewer labourers have been employed in 
digging. Hence little of interest has during 
the past year come to light. This decline of 
activity in excavating seems, however, to be 
fiiUy explained by the necessity there was for 
att^iding to immediate restoration and re- 
pain in the recently disinterred buildings 
se%i:fal stories high, which I described in my 
article of last summer. The complete ex- 
cavation of the lower stories of these houses 
had obliged the workmen to remove so much 
matenaly to perforate so many walls, and, 
mdeed, to bodily remove so much of the 
upper floors, that no sooner was that quarter 
fintsbcdt than the walls threatened collapse, 
and the work of rebuilding had to be b^n. 
Then whole walls had to be rebuilt, vaults 
reconstructed, and terraces or floors laid 
down again; for it was quite impossible to 
preserve things as they were. Compensation 
for this untoward necessity may be found in 
the fiKrt that, now the work of reconstruction 
b completed, a much better idea can be 
formed by the visitor of the character of the 
loftiest and most complex buildings which 
the ancient city possessed, than was possible 
before. Their plan is entirely strange, novel 
and instructive. The small and elegant 
balmmm^ with the walls adorned with frescoes 
of Nile scenery and the figures of dwarfs, 
described by me in the Antiquary last year, 
is now completely restored to its original 
state, and consists of two chambers vaulted, 
in which the ancient stuccoes have all been 
replaced, the one within containing the bath, 
and the other a vestibule, having a large 
square aperture on one side, and on the 
other a round window, thus giving light to 
l>oth rooms. From the outer room leaves, 
on the left, a corridor or dromos^ with its 

* See the Anii^mary for Jaly, 1890^ toL xxiL, 



ceiling formed of small narrow vaults, built 
one after the other in line. This corridor 
leads to seven small cells ranged in file, and 
but badly lighted by seven openings or double- 
lighted windows, like those of the bath itself 
pierced in the outer wall of the dromos at 
equal intervals opposite each room. To 
what use these cells were applied is not 
known, but perhaps they served either for 
the slaves, or as simple store-rooms. The 
portion of the eighth region, which stands on 
the slope of the ancient stream of lava, and 
as it were between the line of the walls for- 
merly destroyed and the Vicoto dei Teatri^ is 
now completely laid bare ; the officials have 
only now to go on with the works at the Porta 
delta Marina in order to finish this part of 
Pompeii altogether. 

Already last year, whOe these latter works 
were still in progress, a banning was made 
in another quarter, by excavating on the 
Via Nolana^ that is to say, within the circuit of 
Regio V. At the Insula 4, 5 and 2 of this 
region the chief work was concentrated at 
the end of last year and during all the pre- 
sent, and will be continued there for some 
time to come. The quarter to which these 
Insula belong, although not far removed 
from the centre of the ancient city, and quite 
close to where cross the two chief arteries of 
Pompeii, viz., the Cardo or Via Stabiana^ 
and the Deatmanus major or Via delta 
Fortunay or that of Nota^ seems to have been 
neither rich nor splendid. The first dis- 
coveries made last autumn in the house 
No. I. of Insula 4, fronting the Via Nolana^ 
consist of a small hoard of silver and copper 
coins, all injured by oxidization. Amongst 
the first recognised was one of Vespasian ; the 
copper ones are sesterces and asses of imperial 
times. The rest of the household goods that 
came to light consist of objects of bronze, 
amongst which is a horse-bit and a cande- 
labrum, and others of terracotta and of ivory. 
In the month of November occasion was 
taken of the presence of H.RH. the Crown 
Prince of Sweden to open an area behind 
the shop of No. i of the same Insulay and 
there was found a nude statuette in bronze, 
representiiig a bearded Silenus crowned with 
ivy, which must, it would appear, have served 
as a key to some water-tap; also several 
bronze lamps and some coins, amongst which 



98 



POMPEII REVISITED, 



is a sestercium of Vespasian, and an as of 
Tiberius Claudius. 

In the same house another room was 
cleared out a few days later, in the presence 
of her Majesty the Empress of Austria, and 
this yielded several bronzes and terracottas, 
with various other objects, amongst which is 
especially noteworthy a bronze patera with 
cylindrical handle, adorned at the end with a 
lion's head boss, and having a disk in relief 
at the bottom with four concentric orna- 
mental zones. 

From Insula 5 we have the broken statu- 
ette of a woman in marble, and a rustic altar 
formed of a small pilaster, bearing in relief 
two masks. This ara stood in the peristyle 
of a house, having its entrance in Via 
Nolana, Still poorer in products must be 
pronounced Insula 2, where the men are at 
present engaged. It consists of a group 
of houses without shops, entered from a 
narrow lane, which, starting at the Via 
Nolana^ at the angle of the house called del 
Torello^ runs parallel with the Cardo^ and 
then runs towards the walls, where it would 
come out at the Porta del Vesuvio and that 
of Capua, The houses seem altogether 
destitute of mural subject paintings, having 
their walls for the most part painted gray, or 
in simple tints, light-coloured and uniform, 
presenting to view, with rare exceptions, 
common designs in bands or ordinary archi- 
tectural motives, relieved here and there 
by small scenes, all of the animal or 
vegetable world, without any human figures. 
Still, they are not without some importance, 
as most of the buildings even here are of 
more than one story, and generally of two, and 
it were much to be desired that the upper 
stories here were left intact and uninjured, 
so as to require no reconstruction later. 
The house which was being excavated at the 
period of my visit, about the middle of July, 
was one having its entry at the seventh door- 
way to the right of the little street already 
named. Near the door can be seen upon 
the wall outside the remains of an electoral 
inscription dabbed on with a brush, but now 
by lapse of time reduced to a few illegible 
letters. The mass of lapilli and ashes here 
reaches a rather considerable height, and the 
rubbish is being carried off by an incline 
iron railway running down in the direction of 



the open country, towards the gates of Nola 
and of Samo. The lower floors on the street 
side were already partially cleared during a 
former compaign, and attention is now being 
directed to the interior on the level of the 
second floor. Here a fine small chamber 
has just been discovered with vaulted ceiling, 
and with its walls painted with pictures on 
red and white ground, with various omameo- 
tations of an architectural character, and 
some landscapes, besides ordinary designs 
commonly found elsewhere. Near this part 
is a chamber or area, on the walls of which 
a graffito is preserved, which Herr Mau, of 
the German Institute, has deciphered and 
copied with a view to publication. On the 
same floor we enter another small room, 
also with vaulted ceiling, but well-nigh bare 
of all decoration on the walls, which are 
all coloured red or white. The apart- 
ments of the first or ground floor are very 
simple, with walls generally coloured white, 
and divided into rectangular compartments 
by simple coloured lines. In one of the front 
rooms of the house adjoining, and previously 
excavated, the walls, similarly divided 
into square panels, have in the centre of 
each division the representation of an animal 
or of an amorino^ and in the band running over 
the squares between these and the ceiling are 
painted masks for scenic representations, 
figures of women standing, and smaU animzds 
together with arabesques. 

A remarkable construction differing from 
all the surrounding houses is to be seen in a 
piece of walling in a room on the ground- 
floor, which may be attributable to some 
hasty work of restoration made by the in- 
habitants after the earthquake of the year 
63 A.D. It is formed partly of large blocks 
and squares of tufo^ like those with which 
were built the city walls belonging to the 
first period. Very likely they were taken 
therefrom, as it is well known that these walls 
were in part left to go into a ruined states 
and were then afterwards reconstructed in 
opus incertup. The portions thus left in 
ruins may have easily served as a quarry for 
stores for the buildings of the day. 

Amongst the objects recovered on this 
site, besides a bronze seal, with the name in 
relief of Nonnius Tufidius Sucassus^ who was 
very probably the owner of the house now 



ALCHEMY IN ENGLAND. 



99 



disinterred, and besides some objects of 
domestic concern, as small lamps in terra- 
cotta, inkstands, glass bottles, etc., must be 
mentioned a number of amphora bearing in- 
scriptions, two of which are of particular im- 
portance, historically speaking. One of them 
has painted in red letters on the base of the 
neck the names in Latin of the consuls Lucius 
Ann(Eus Seneca^ the philosopher, and of 
Trebellius MaximuSy who filled this office in 
the second half of the year of our Lord 56. 
The same jar bears on its body, traced in ink, 
and in Greek letters and language, the name 
of L. Ceionius CommoduSy who together with 
JD, Novius Friscus is known to have been 
the regular consul in 78 of our era, that is to 
say, in the year before the fatal catastrophe 
which overwhelmed the city of Pompeii. 
Professors Sogliano and De Petra, by com- 
paring the first of these inscriptions with one 
known for some time past, but only imperfectly 
deciphered, on a wax tablet of Pomp)eii, now 
preserved in the National Museum of Naples, 
seem to have succeeded in completing the 
names of the colleague of Seneca, hitherto 
known only in part, which would be thus in 
lull, Marcus Trebellius Calpurnius Maximus. 





SHcIiemp in (Snglanti 

By Robert Stbelr. 



IT was a question often debated, 
during the Middle Ages, whether 
alchemy was lawful or no. In 
England during three centuries its 
practice was forbidden by statute, and we 
owe to that fact the collection of licenses 
to practise alchemy which follows. In it 
are found nearly all the authentic documents 
on the subject of alchemy obtainable in 
England. I believe no such documents can 
be found in any other country, and the light 
they afford on the progress of the science 
of alchemy (if one may use the term) is 
valuable. Each writ specifies the grounds 
on which it was applied for, and lets us see 
the theory on which the alchemist was working. 
The main series of writs extends over a 



period of thirty-three years, during which 
time the theory of alchemy seems to have 
made more advances than in any other 
century of our period. 

It is perhaps remarkable that none of the 
names preserved are otherwise known to us 
as alchemists, and that none of the licenses 
known to have been issued to distinguished 
alchemists (e,g,y Ripley by Edward IV.) 
should be on record. It is probable, how- 
ever, that many of these licenses may be 
preserved in leet books, town chests, etc. 
It need hardly be said that the present writer 
would be glad to receive notice of the where- 
abouts of such documents, which, if even 
already published, would probably be so in 
a form inaccessible to most of those interested 
in the history of chemistry. 

The first legal document on the subject 
of alchemy preserved is the following writ 
of Edward III. It may here be remarked 
that the fact which led to the whole science 
of alchemy was that silver can be prepared 
from most samples of metallic lead. The 
making " the metal of silver " here spoken of 
was probably something of the kind. 

1329. Pat. Ed. III., p. I., m. 21, in Turr. 

Lond. 

*' The king, to his sheriffs and all other bailiffs, 

etc, greeting. 

Know that since we are given to under- 
stand that John le Rous and master William 
de Dalby, by the art of Alkemony, know how 
to make the metal of silver, and have made 
in this way the metal before now, and still 
make it, and that they by this art can be 
of great benefit to us and to our kingdom 
by the making of this metal, if it can be 
truly done ; 

We have appointed our beloved Thomas 
Gary to bring to us under sure and safe 
conduct the aforesaid John and William, 
wherever they may be, within or without the 
liberties, together with the instruments and 
all other things pertaining to the said art ; 

Provided that if they will come to us freely, 
then he shall bring them safely and respect- 
fully ; and if they are not willing, he shall take 
them and bring them to us, wherever we 
may be, in the aforesaid form \ 

And therefore we command you all and 
each, firmly enjoining that you assist the 



lOO 



ALCHEMY IN ENGLAND. 



aforesaid Thomas in doing and fulfilling the 
aforesaid, so far as the said Thomas may 
make known to you on our behalf. 
In testimony, etc. 

Teste Rege apud Eltham, ix. die Maii 
per ipsum Regem." 

I next give the statute thought to render 
alchemy illegal 

1403. 5 Henry IV., Cap. IV. 

" Item, it is ordained and stablished that 
none from henceforth shall use to multiply 
gold or silver, nor use the craft of multiplica- 
tion ; and if any the same do, that he incur 
the pain of Felony in this case." 

Repealed I. W. and M. (England); 4 Q. 

Anne (Ireland). 

We have a notice in the Bodleian of the 
following : 

1418. 

"Indictment against William Moreton, who, 
with a monk in the priory of Hatfield, made 
the Elixir, by virtue of which he had made 
Gold and Silver." 

E. Placitis de termino Trin., 6 Hen. V., 
rot. 18. Essex, anno 141 8. 

I have not seen this indictment, but there 
is a record of a fine of ;;^ioo being levied, 
7 Henry V., which I cannot trace. 

The following license is the first of the 
series. The final provision is not found in 
any other ; it plainly nullified the effect of 
the writ. 

" Of the transubstantiation of metals." 

1444. 22 H. VI., p. 2, m. 9. 
The king, etc., greeting. 

Know that since our beloved John Cobbe 
has shown us by a certain petition that. 

Although he, with certain materials, wishes 
to work by the Art of Philosophy, namely, 
to transfer imperfect metals from their own 
genus, and then to transubstantiate them by 
the said Art into perfect Gold or Silver, 
prepared and hardened, as he says, for all 
the tests and examinations like other Gold 
or Silver, growing in any minerals, 

Nevertheless certain persons, malignant 
and malevolent towards him, assert him to 



be using an unlawful Art, and are thus able 
to hinder and disturb him in the proof of 
the said Art. 

We, considering the aforesaid, and wishing 
to know the results of the said operations, 

Of our special grace concede and give 
License to the aforesaid John, that he may 
exercise and examine the aforesaid Art, with- 
out hindrance of us or of our officers in 
future. 

Always provided that to do so, be not 
thought to be against our Law. 

In cujus, etc. 

Teste *Rege apud Westmonasterium vL die 

Julii. 
By a writ of Privy Seal." 

I omit in the following licenses those 
clauses which are identical in both. Note 
that the " Art " becomes the " Art or Science," 
and that the king has found out the iU^^ality 
of alchemy : 

1446. 24 H. VJ., p. 2, ra. 14. 
" The king, etc., greeting. 

Know that since our beloved and faithful 
Edmund de Trafford, Miks^ and Thomas 
Asheton, MiUs^ have shown us by a certain 
petition that, 

Although they wish to work on certain 
materials by the Art or Science of Philosophy, 
namely, to transfer imperfect metals from 
their own genus, and then to transubstantiate 
them by the aforesaid Art or Science into 
perfect Gold or Silver, prepared and hardened, 
as is said for all tests and examinations like 
other Gold or Silver, growing in any minerals, 

Nevertheless certain, etc. 

We, considering, etc. 

Of our special grace, concede and give 
license to the aforesaid Edmund and Thomas 
and their servants, that they may exercise 
and examine the aforesaid Art or Science, 
without hindrance or of our officers, any 
Statute, Act, Ordinance, or Provision to the 
contrary made, ordained, or provided, not- 
withstanding. 

In cujus, etc. 

Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium vij die 

Aprilis. 

Per Breve de Privato Sigillo, et de Data 
predicta, auctoritate Parliament!." 



ALCHEMY IN ENGLAND. 



.•• 



lOI 



This is as curious as any. The petition 
is given in English, while the writ is in Latin. 
Note the power given of changing his name. 

1449. 27 H. VI. Pell. 

" Please it unto your Highnesse of your 
Grace especialle, to Graunte unto your humble 
and trewe Liegeman, Robert Bolton, of 
London, Gentilman, youre gracious Lettres 
Patentes of Licence to be made unto him 
after th* efect that ensueth, in due forme, 
and he shall ever pray to God for youre 
Noble Astate." 

" The king to all, etc., greeting. 

Know ye, etc. 

Although, etc. 

Nevertheless, etc. 

We, etc. 

Give License to the same Robert, by what- 
ever name he may be known, that he, during 
his life, may be able to exercise, examine, 
and work at the aforesaid Art or Science, 
lawfully and safely, without Hindrance, 
Impediment, Molestation, or Attack of Us 
or of our Heirs, or of other Servants or 
Officers of Us or of our Heirs whatever in 
future, any Statute, Act, Ordinance, or Provi- 
sion to the contrary made, ordained, or pro- 
vided, notwithstanding, 

We give also to each and every Sheriff, 
Mayor, Bailiff, Constable, Officer, and Servant, 
and to our other faithful and subjects firmly 
in command, that they should be diligently 
favourable and helping in everything to the 
aforesaid Robert in the execution of the 
above. 

In cujus, etc. 

Teste rege. 

By the vwa voce order of the King's High- 
ness, in his manor of Sheen, September 15, 
in his 28th year, present . the Lord of 
Chichester, Keeper of the Privy Seal, Edmund 
Hungreford, Knight, etc." 

1452. 30 H. VL, p. 2, m. 27. 

A license in similar terms to the second 
one is made out to "our beloved John 
Mistleden, with three Servants working in 
the subscribed Art "at Westminster, April 30. 

We now come to the first of the three 
commissions issued by Henry to report to him 
on the subject of Alchemy. The commis- 
sioners are required to report as to certain 



writings submitted to theBA',;iaYvl as to the 
benefit the state would deii^e*-if the art 
could be practised. Most pj^ti^bly the 
writings were some of those alch6nii<^l tracts 
which were continually being presfiQted to 
kings and nobles at that period. 



• • 



1456. Ex Rot. Par., 34 H. VI., m. 13:!^ .• . 

" The king to all, etc., greeting. •*.•'*./ 

Since store of money principally generates .• ; 
universal prosperity in any region whatever, 
and it has been pointed out to us that there 
are useful and becoming methods by which 
Coin, both of Gold and of Silver, may easily 
be multiplied in our kingdom of England, 
yet for the greatest usefulness of the whole 
State we make known that we, not willing 
to neglect such utility, but to bring it by 
good means to full effect, confident of the 
fidelity, industry, sagacity, and good diligence 
of our beloved VVilliam Cartelowe and John 
Middleton, Mercers, London; Matthew 
Philip and Humphrey He)rford, Goldsmiths ; 
and Thomas David, Draper; also of Elias 
Horwoud, Warden of our Mint at London, 
together, and each by themselves, as well 
conjoined as separately, by the deliberation 
of our Council have commissioned and 
deputed, and we commission and depute 
them by these presents : to diligently investi- 
gate the truth about those things which shall 
be in the writings shown to them for the 
aforesaid multiplication by good methods 
of Coin, as well of Gold as of Silver, in our 
kingdom, and also of the benefit, or other- 
wise thence to come to the whole of the 
said State, taking, if they need it, counsel 
from others expert in such a matter. To 
whom our aforesaid Commissioners, and to 
each of them together and separately, we 
give command specially, strictly warning 
them by these presents, as regards the afore- 
said things, that they heedfully apply them- 
selves, and watch them with their circum- 
stances; and whatever they have learned 
and observed, with their opinion or opinions 
on the matter, let them all together, or any 
five of them, signify it by a fair statement 
in writing to us or our council at the ban- 
ning of the coming month of July in the 
present 34th year of our reign ; giving com- 
mands as above by these presents to all our 
officers and subjects, and to each of them, 



• •• 



I03 



ALCHEMY IN ENGLAND. 



v.. 



according a§ 'i|%J pertains to them, as far as 
our aforesard*<j|ommissioners, or five or three 
of them,-J:lliit they obey them efficiently, and 
give e^f^t'to their orders in the aforesaid 
matftte' when th^ shall be required. 
. Irr cujus, etc. 
*••, Teste Rege apud West, 17 die Maii." 

/*•/•', 'The next writ contains a remarkable sum- 
.,•:* Tlnary of all that the Middle Ages hoped for 
•/• from Alchemy; perhaps extracted from the 
report of the preceding Commission 

1456. 34 H. VI., m, 7. 
" The king, etc.. Greeting. 

Know ye that in former times wise and 
famous Philosophers in their writings and 
books, under figures and coverings, have left 
on record and taught that from wine, from 
precious stones, from oils, from vegetables, 
from animals, from metals, and the cores 
of minerals, many glorious and notable 
medicines can be made; and chiefty that 
most precious medicine which some Philo- 
sophers have called the Mother and Empress 
of Medicines, others have named it the price- 
less glory, but others have called it the 
Quintessence, others the Philosophers' Stone 
and Elixir of Life; of which potion the 
efficacy is so certain and wonderful, that by 
it all infirmities whatsoever are easily curable, 
human life is prolonged to its natural limit, 
and man wonderfully preserved in health and 
manly strength both of body and mind, in 
vigour of limbs, clearness of memory, and 
perspicacity of talent to the same period; 
All kinds of wounds, too, which may be 
cured are healed without difficulty, and in 
addition it is the best and surest remedy 
against all kinds of poisons; with it, too, 
many other advantages most useful to us 
and to the Commonwealth of our kingdom 
can be wrought, as the transmutation of 
metals into actual Gold and the finest Silver ; 
We after much consideration anent the plea- 
sure and utility which would accrue both to 
us and to our state if so precious a drug 
could by the labours of learned men under 
Divine favour be obtained, and because in 
past times and for several years it has been 
granted to few or none to reach the true 
receipt of these said glorious medicines, not 
only on account of the great difficulties 
attending their composition and surroundings, 



but because the fear of penalties in the investi- 
gation and practice of so great secrets has 
deterred, withdrawn, and abstracted many 
learned men, well taught in natural sciences, 
and much disposed to the practice of those 
medicines from long past to the present, lest 
they should fall under pain of a certain 
statute in the time of King Henry our Grand- 
father, issued and provided against Multi- 
pliers; for which cause it seems fit and 
proper to us to provide, choose, and appoint 
some skilled men sufficiently learned in the 
Natural Sciences, and well disposed towards 
rendering successful the said medicines, who 
fear God, love the Truth, and hate deceptive 
works and false metallic tinctures; for the 
security, indemnity, and quiet of whom we 
shall sufficiently provide out of our Royal 
Authority and Prerogative, lest either while 
they should be engaged in the work and 
operations, or after their labours and dili- 
gence, they should be in any way disturbed, 
disquieted, or injured in their persons or 
their goods, or that any of them should be 
disturbed or disquieted in anything ; 

We, therefore, confident of the Fidelity, 
Circumspection, deep knowledge and gocnd 
will of those excellent men John Fauceby, 
John Kirkeby, and John Rayny, most skilled 
in the Natural Sciences, choose, appoint, 
nominate, and license them all and singular, 
and from our Royal Prerogative, Authority, 
and certain knowledge give and concede 
special Power, Authority, Liberty, Warrant, 
and License by these presents to them for 
inquiring, investigating, opening, following 
out, finishing and completely testing all and 
each of the aforesaid medicines, according 
to their knowledge and discretion, and the 
doctrines and writings of ancient wise men, 
as well as making and bringing about the 
Transmutations of Metals into true Gold and 
Silver, the aforesaid Statute or any other 
Penal Statute so ever in the contrary, or 
against Multiplicators issued or provided, not* 
withstanding ; further, we place and take the 
said John, John, and John, and also any of 
their Servants who may assist each or any 
of them in this work, as regards it, in our 
special Defence, Guardianship^ and Protec- 
tion by these presents, forbidding all and 
each our Judges, Justitiaries, Sheriffs, Mayors, 
Bailififs, Constables, Officers, Servants, and 



ALCHEMY IN ENGLAND, 



103 



trae Lieges or Servants whatever, that they, 
or any of them, under pretext of the said 
statute, or under any other colour whatever, 
while these or any of them are working in 
the composition of the aforesaid medicines, 
or after the end and completion of the work, 
should impose or bring about or permit to 
be brought about, any injury, harm, or dis- 
turbance whatsoever to these or any one of 
them, and if any such thing should happen, 
(may it not be) We command all our Officials 
aiii Lieges, as they fear and love us, that 
without delay such injury should be put 
right, under Pain of falling under our most 
grievous displeasure, and of forfeiting to us 
all those things which may be forfeited, but 
whoever disobeys these our letters shall be 
held a rebel : Above all we say and declare 
that it is of our Royal Intention that these 
our Letters Patents should be sufficient to 
these, all and each of them, and to their 
servitors, that they should be safe, quiet, and 
secure, and be preserved from all vexations 
and inquietudes which could be brought 
against them or any one of them, on any 
occasion of any statute issued or provided 
against multipliers. 
In testimony, etc. 

Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium xxxj. die 

Maii, 

per ipse Rege et de dat. pred. auctoritate 

Parliamenti." 



The following Commission recalls the school 
of alchemy which long existed in Cambridge 
(even up to the time of Henry VIII.), by 
the appointment of two Cambridge masters. 
It seems to have been appointed to examine 
some Alchemists who had proffered a process 
to the King. 

1457. 35 H. VI., m. 6. 

"The King to all . . greeting. 

Know that since it has been pointed out 
to us that there are certain means, lawful 
and honest, and practicable in good Policy, 
by which means within the next few yeam 
aU our creditois of good faith may be con- 
veniently satisfied with their good and lawful 
debts in good money counted down of Gold 



and of Silver with great usefulness of the 
whole State : We, desiring to follow up the 
public usefulness with all our strength, nor 
wishing such a universal benefit to pass away 
untried through silence, and fully confiding 
in the fidelity and industry, clearness and good 
diligence of our beloved Master Thomas 
Hervey, of the order of Augustinian Friars ; 
Master Robert Glaselay, of the order of 
Preaching Friars in Cambridge; Master 
William Atclyffe, Physician of the Queen, 
our dearest bedfellow; and Master Henry 
Sharp, in the College of St. Laurence of 
Pontigny, London ; Thomas Cook, Alder- 
man, London; John Fyld, Fishmonger; 
John Yonghe and Robert Gayton, Grocers ; 
John Sturgeon and John I^mbert, Mercers, 
London ; by the deliberation of our Council 
have committed and deputed them and each 
of them, as much together as separate, and 
we commission and depute them by these 
presents for the purpose of attentively hearing, 
and vigilantly learning, to investigate the 
truth concerning those things which, as to the 
aforesaid and concerning it, shall be either 
proposed to them verbally, or shown in 
writings, with their circumstances, namely, 
whether the thing in itself is practicable, and 
whether from thence rather good or harm 
to our state might be expected, having had 
(if they desire it) in this part, counsel from 
other experts whom they shall select for 
consultation, giving it to the aforesaid Com- 
missioners, and each of them by himself, 
specially in charge by these presents, as far 
as they shall have charge of this Commission, 
and as quickly as they may discharge it with 
due execution, that whatever in the afore- 
said with their circumstances, they or any of 
them together, or other of diem separately 
by themselves, in this matter may arrive at 
and find out, with their opinions, one not 
waiting for another, they shall refer to us 
or to our Council, by a fair declaration in 
writing before the first day of the month of 
May next to come ; and in these things let 
them show such diligence, that they may 
merit commendation for their prompt 
obedience, and that having understood their 
opinions, with mature consideration, we may 
proceed later to effect : We order further, all 
and each our officers and subjects, that they 
obey and take heed to the within-named 



I04 



ALCHEMY IN ENGLAND. 



Commissioners or two of them (if they shall 
be required on this account). 
In testimony of which, etc. 

Teste Rege apud Coventr. ix die Martii. 
per breve de privato sigillo, et de 
dat. pred. auctoritate parliamenti." 

The following license is only granted for 
two years. It expresses as clearly as possible 
what the later alchemists had in view, viz., 
'' to transfer imperfect metals from their own 
genus ^ into a perfect one : 

1460. 39 H. VI., m. 23. 
" The king, etc., etc. 

Know that of our special Grace we have con- 
ceded and given License to William Savage, 
Hugo Hurdleston, and Henry Hyne, with 
their three ser\'ants, that they and each of 
them may be able to prove and exercise the 
Art of Philosophy, and transfer or trans- 
mute imperfect Metals from their own Genus, 
and transubstantiate them into Gold and 
Silver, perfecting them and hardening them 
for all proofs and tests, as any Gold or Silver 
growing in any minerals, without let, impedi- 
ment, or disturbance of us, or of our Officials 
or Ministers, or any other person whatsoever 
in future, in the same manner and form as 
Richard Trevys, Doctor Sacrae Theologiae, 
John Billok, and William Downes lately had 
a similar license of our Concession, as far as 
in our Letters Patents was granted to these 
Richard, John, and William Downes, and 
enrolled in the rolls of our Chancery, is 
more fully contained ; any Statutes, Acts, or 
Ordinances, in the contrary made, issued, or 
ordained, notwithstanding. 

In testimony, etc., to last for two years. 

Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium, iij die 
Septembris. per Breve de Priv. Sig. et 
de data prasdicta." 

The following is the first license of Edward 
IV. preserved. Note the limitation both in 
time and place. 

1468. 8 £. IV., p. 2, m. 14. 

"The king, etc., etc. 

Know ye that we, informed of the causes, 
out of our certain knowledge and sole 
motion, have granted to Richard Carter our 
full license of using, exercising, and practising 



the art or occupation of Alkemy with all 
species of Metals and Minerals as far as it 
shall seem to him well to carry it out, and 
with all other things touching and necessary 
to the said Art or Occupation, for the space 
of two years immediately following from now 
and fully complete, without hindrance of us 
or our Commissioners, Officers, Sheriffs, 
Escheats, and other ministers whatsoever 
during the aforesaid Term ; so that from now 
during the said term it is not allowed to any 
Commissioner, Sheriff, Escheat, or other 
minister whatever of ours to disquiet, disturb, 
or harass the said Richard on occasion of 
any Statute or pretext of any other cause 
touching the said Art or Occupation ; pro- 
vided always that the said Riclmd exercises 
and practises the aforesaid Art or Occupa- 
tion in our Manor of Wodestok* during &e 
aforesaid Term, without any fee for taking 
the Great Seal for our benefit ; any Statute, 
Act, Ordinance, or Restriction, in the contrary 
made, notwithstanding. 
In testimony, etc 

Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium, vij die 

Dec.'^ 

The alchemists seem to have entered on 
a new path. This is almost the first opera- 
tion on actual mercury, the "mercury of 
philosophers" being a sort of metaphysical 
abstraction — the matter of metals after all 
the distinguishing properties were removed. 
A period of four years is granted. 

1476. 16 E. IV., p. I, m. 20. Pat 

" License for Practising the Science of Philo- 
sophy. 
The king, etc. 

Know that we, in consideration of the long 
service which our beloved and fiedthful servant, 
David Beaupe, has spent, and proposes to 
spend, for us, have granted and given License 
to the said David and to John Marchaunt, 
that they and either of them, with their 
necessary and fitting servants during the term 
of four years, may be able to use, exercise, 
and practise, the Faculty and Natural Arti- 
ficial Science of the Philosophy of Generation 
by making Mercury into Gold, and in a similar 

• Woodstock. 



ALCHEMY IN ENGLAND. 



105 



way Mercury into Silver, preparing the said 
Generation for a close examination, without 
let, hindrance, trouble, disturbance, arrest, 
or vexation from us or our Heirs, Justiciaries, 
Escheats, Sheriffs, Mayors, Bailiffs, Con- 
stables, or other our Officers or Lieges what- 
ever ; giving to the same Sheriffs, etc., strictly 
in command that they be in all things favour- 
able, aiding and assisting the said David and 
John, and either of them and their servants 
in the execution of the above during the said 
term of four years; any Statute, Act, or 
Ordinance in the contrary made and ordained, 
notwithstanding. 
In testimony, etc. 

Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium xviij die 

Junii 
per ipse Reg. et de dat pred., etc." 

We come now to the last of our series. 
Note that in both these cases the result of 
the alchemists' work is to be submitted to a 
commission. 

1477. From a leet book of the Corp" of 
Coventry. John Seman, Mayor. 

" Memo' that the vj'*» day of January ye 
yere aforesaid, the foresaid May' resceyved a 
pr'v'e signet by the hande of a servante of 
the Kyngs, the tenour wherof herafter en- 
sueth. 

By the Kyng. 

Trusty and wele beloved, we grete you 
wele, and late you wite that it hath ben 
shewed unto us that our wele-beloved John 
Frensh, our servant, comMnyng and commonly 
abydyng in our cite ther, entendeth be his 
lab' to practise a true and a profitable con- 
clusion in the cunnynge of Transmutacion 
of metaUs, to our profyte and pleasure, and 
for to make a cler shewing of the same 
before certain oure servants and counsellors 
by us therfor appointed, is required a certayn 
tyme to prepar his materials ; we not willing 
therfore our seid servant to be trobled in 
that he shall so werk or prepair for our 
pleasure and profite, woU and charge yewe 
that ye ne suffer hym in eny wyse by any 
persone or persones to be letted, troubled, 
or vexed of his seid labour and practise, to 
th'entent that he at his good liberte may 
shewe unto us, and such as be by us therfor 
appointed, the cler effect of his said conclu- 

VOL. XXIV. 



sion. Yeven under our signet, at our Palays 
of Westminster the xxix day of December. 

To our trusty and well beloved the Mair 
and his brethren of our cite of Coventry and 
to the Recorder of the same, and to every 
of thaim. 

The only other legal record I find is the 
following : 

7 E. VI. Dier. 88. 

Eden, a prisoner in the Tower, confessed 
to Multiplication, having sought after the 
Quintessence and the Philosopher's Stone, at 
the instigation of Whally, another prisoner, 
and was pardoned. 

The Modern School, Bedford. 





Copen ^tone0 in CotntoalL 

By Arthur G. Langdon. 



|HIS particular form of monument, 
variously termed hogbacked, 
saddle-backed, recumbent, and 
coped, is chiefly confined to the 
north and north-west districts of England, 
the numbers at present ascertained being 
thirty in England, ten in Scotland, two in 
Orkney, and one in Wales, but none are 
known to exist in Ireland or the Isle of 
Man. 

In regard to the English stones, the only 
examples found south of the Midland coun- 
ties, besides the three in Cornwall— which 
form the subject of this paper — are one in 
Kent and one in Sussex. Although most of 
the stones have been dealt with, and more or 
less described, those in Cornwall — if we 
except a passing mention of one of them in 
the county histories — seem to have escaped 
notice. Nor was it, in fact, until March 21, 
1 89 1, that they received the attention they 
deserved, when the rhumt of a paper upon 
them, accompanied by illustrations of the 
two perfect stones, appeared in the Builder 
of that date. 

As no report has been published in the 
Antiquary^ a few notes regarding their dis- 
covery and ornament may be welcome in its 
pages, especially for the reason already 

I 



io6 



COPED STONES IN CORNWALL. 



stated, that they are more common in the 
North than in the South. 

The three Cornish examples are all made 
of granite, and will be found in the church- 
yards of Lanivet and St Tudy, both near 
Bodmin, the third being in the churchyard 
of St. Buryaa, situated between Penzance 
and the Land's End. 

The Lanivet stone is the finest, and is in 
an excellent state of preservation. It is 
7 feet 7 inches long, is boat-shaped, has a 
cable-moulded ridge, and hipped ends. On 
the latter are four beasts in a sitting position, 
their backs forming the angles on the hips. 
All the surfaces are richly ornamented, the 
vertical and sloping sides being covered with 
diagonal key-patterns of very unusual char- 
acter, the only similar designs being found 
on a cross at Penally, Wales. On each of 
the square ends on the lower portion of the 
stone is a knot, formed by two double- 
beaded elliptical rings placed cross-wise and 
interlaced. On each of the hipped ends 
above is a triquetra knot. 

The stone at St. Tudy was, up to a com- 
paratively recent date, deeply buried in the 
churchyard. It was accidentally discovered in 
1873 by some workmen, who, while removing 
some of the rubbish after the restoration of 
the church, uncovered the top of the stone. 
It was not, however, thoroughly examined 
until the spring of 1889, when it was raised 
up to the level of the ground. On inspection, 
it proved to be a very fine and well-preserved 
example, 7 feet ij inches long, and of a 
unique shape, wedge-like in form, with 
hipped ends. The ornament on the south 
slope of the top consists of debased foliated 
scroll-work, while on the north slope there is 
a curious panel, composed of a four-cord 
broken plait, combined at one end with a 
square key-pattern. The vertical sides are 
decorated with rude arcading, there being 
five bays on one side and six on the other, 
with an upright stalk between each, termin- 
ated by leaves in the spandrels. On the 
wider end is a triquetra knot, but the other 
end is plain, and the perpendicular surfaces 
below are ornamented with bead-work. 

The third and last, at St. Buryan, is only 
a fragment, 2 feet 7 inches long, which the 
writer found by accident amongst a heap of 
miscellaneous carved stones that had been 
piled against the tower after the restoration 



of the church. This fragment is part of a 
boat-shaped tomb, but is in such a mutilated 
condition that only a small piece of diagonal 
key-pattern ornament — like that on the 
Sancreed crosses — is now distinguishable. 
This concludes the list of all the coped 
stones at present known in Cornwall. 





SDn a ®rat)e'0la{) m (Saistngton 

By Rev. J. Charles Cox, LL.D., F.S.A. 



|HE church of All Saints, Easington, 
near Guisborough, in the arch- 
deaconry of Cleveland, was pulled 
down about the middle of last 
century, and rebuilt after a miserable room- 
like fashion, with not any apparent trace of 
antiquity about it. Through the energy and 
good taste of the present rector, Rev. A. L. 
Lambert, this dully mean and shabby build- 
ing was removed in 1888, and a new church 
of good proportions and dignity erected pn 
the site in the following year by Mr. C. 
Hodgson Fowler, F.S.A. To the delight of 
the rector, his zeal for the house of God 
resulted in the bringing to light, chiefiy 
under the flooring of the eighteenth-century 
church, a perfect museum of sculptured 
stones, brimming over with ecclesiological 
and historical interest, from hog-badced 
grave-stones and Anglo-Saxon crosses to rich 
late Norman and fifteenth-century Gothic. 
In the hands of so careful an antiquary as 
Mr. Hodgson Fowler these remains were 
sure to be worthily treated, but the antiquary 
will be agreeably surprised at the ability and 
ingenuity shown in storing up and retaining 
in the new fabric itself, and yet without any 
possibility of their presence being misunder- 
stood, all these diverse relics of the past 
worship and faith of the Christians of Cleve- 
land, extending over at least seven centuries 
previous to the Reformation. Almost the 
whole of these stones, the Norman predom- 
inating, will be found in a quasi-gallery of 
the west tower, but one is rightly placed on 
the floor of the present chancel at the north- 
east angle. It is to this grave-slab, and to 



OK A GRAVE-SLAB IN EASINGTON CHURCH, YORKSHIRE. 107 

it has not as jret been illustrated or described 
with any detail. 

This singularly beautiful sepulchral stone, 
one of the very best of English examples, 
was found at a little depth under the flooring, 
and probably on the original floor -level. 
The design, as will be seen from the drawing 
which is taken from a photograph, is most 
effective and gracefuL The dimensions of 
the stone are 6 feet 4 inches long, by 23 
inches broad at the head, tapering to 19 
inches at the foot The head of the cross is 
carved in floriated foliage, treated in the con- 
ventional &shion that prevailed throughout 
most of the thineenth century. Had this 
been the whole of the memoriid remaining, 
or had the stem been treated in a manner 
more in hannony with the head, with a few 
bends of foliage and base composed of the 
knot of the same, it might safely have been 
assigned to the first half of the thirteenth 
century. But the peculiarity of this slab 
consists in the combination of the head and 
stem, though both were obviously sculptured 
at the same time. On each side of the long 
stem are seven well-defined large oak-leaves 
treated with easy grace, whilst in two places 
a bold double acorn is introduced growing 
on a short stalk. The natural treatment of 
the oak-leaves and acorns is as characteristic 
of the Decorative Period as the convention- 
ality of the foliaged head of the cross is of 
the Eariy English style. The somewhat 
clumsy calvary base of four steps is the only 
ineffective part of this beautiful stone. It 
would seem as if the able engraver had a 
little miscalculated his measurements, for if 
he had had another 6 inches of length in the 
stone, it would not be difficult to imagine a 
much more striking base. 

'Ihe inscription is in rhyining Norman- 
French in late Lombardic capitals : 



The stone is also decidedly noteworthy in 
having the original lead filling stiU left in 
almost all the letters, a circumstance most 
unusual, if not unique, in English memorials 
of this class. 

On first inspecting this stone, before any- 
this alone, that it is desired to draw attention thing had been learnt of the man commemo- 
on the present occasion, more especially as rated, noticing the curiously complex nature 



io8 ON A GRAVE-SLAB IN EASINGTON CHURCH, YORKSHIRE. 



of the sculpture, the date we assigned to it 
in our note-book was circa 1300. This con- 
jecture was exactly confirmed by the infor- 
mation since kindly given by the Rev. J. C. 
Atkinson (to whose now famous parish of 
Danby Easington adjoins) and by the rector. 
Robert Bucel, or Bushell, is mentioned in 
Kirby's Inquest as holding half a knight's 
fee in Boulby in or about 1 284-9. ^^^^ \aj\A 
became his by grant from Robert de Neville 
in or about the years 1276-9, a copy of the 
charter of conveyance being still extant. As 
to the Bushell family, from which Hutton 
Bushell, near Scarborough, takes its distin- 
guishing name, it is known from the Whitby 
chartulary that Alice de Percy, niece of 
William de Percy, the founder, and of Prior 
Serlo, was twice married, namely, to Hugo 
de Boythorpe, and subsequently to Reginald 
Bucel. The son and heir of this latter mar- 
riage was Alan Bucel, who gave the advow- 
son of Hutton Bushell and other gifts to the 
abbey. He was succeeded by his son Alan, 
and this second Alan Bucel had two sons, 
William the heir, and Robert, whom there 
seems little doubt was Robert Bucel de 
Boulby. His widow paid to the Fifteenth 
levied in 1302; he must have died between 
1296 and that date. Boulby is a hamlet of 
Easington lying a mile to the east of the 
church. Mr. Hodgson Fowler, who contri- 
buted a brief note as to this slab to the 
Society of Antiquaries on May 23, 1889, con- 
sidered that the stone was earlier than the 
date of this Robert Bucel, but for reasons 
already given we are convinced that Mr. 
Atkinson's identification of the person com- 
memorated is the true one. 




jISote0 on arcfia^olog:? m l^ro^ 
tiincial a^useums. 

By George Bailey. 

No. IV. — Derby. 

HIS museum is located in com- 
modious and well-lighted rooms in 
the highly-picturesque pile of build- 
ings in the Wardwick, which were 
presented to the town in 1880 by the late 
Mr. M. T. Bass, M.P., of Rangemoor, for 




use as a free library and museum. The 
collection was started about fifty years ago 
by a society known as the Philosophical 
Society ; this society came to an end about 
fifteen years since, its library and museum 
being handed over to this institution. The 
Corporation, however, have no power to apply 
to its maintenance money from the library 
funds, which will, in some d^ee, account 
for its present unsatisfactory condition ; but 
surely in a county so archaeologically interest- 
ing, both prehistorically and historically, there 
ought to be sufficient public spirit to provide 
a remedy for existing deficiencies. Un- 
fortunately, some of the best private collec- 
tions have been allowed to drift away from 
the county, and have fallen into the posses- 
sion of other museums in adjacent counties, 
and are, of course, now quite lost to Derby- 
shire. The Bateman, Jewitt, Carrington, and 
other collections have all gone ixom. the 
county. It is to be hoped that the atten- 
tion which must necessarily be drawn to the 
subject of Provincial Museums by the happy 
thought of the editor of the Antiquary may 
result in a general setting in order of these 
collections throughout the country. A vast 
amount of valuable material is hidden away, 
sometimes associated with a good deal that 
is valueless, which might well be displaced, 
and so give more room for the fuller display 
and more satisfactory arrangement than at 
this time exists in most of these institutions. 
More accurate and detailed labelling and a 
greater amount of space, together with good 
lighting, cannot be too much insisted upon. 
Moreover, a register should be kept of all 
objects received, for purposes of reference. 

The museum now under notice is very £ar 
from being as representative of the locality as 
it ought to be. There are five cases for the 
display of geological specimens. The first 
is mostly filled with carboniferous fossils and 
specimens of auriferous rock presented by 
the Craddock Gold -Mining Company, but 
in such a state of disorder as to be useless 
for study, and this is the general state of all 
these cases. They are, however, labelled as 
under rearrangement, a condition in which 
they have been for a very long time; the 
process is going on though, and when it is 
consummated Uiere will be very little fault 
to be found with the manner in which it has 
been done, judging from those portions which 



NOTES ON ARCHEOLOGY IN PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS. 



109 



have been relabelled and arranged. To pro- 
ceed to the next case, we find it in the 
temporary occupation of specimens of silks, 
etc., behind which the geological contents are 
hidden. The third case contains fossils from 
the lias, greensand, Wenlock limestone, and 
old red sandstone, good samples for the 
most part, but at present in disorder. It is 
a great relief, on advancing to the fourth case, 
in which are very good gault and chalk 
fossils and a fine collection of Eocene shells, 
to find that these have partially been newly- 
arranged and relabelled in a most satisfactory 
style. Next we come to a case containing a 
selection of cave remains from Cresswell 
Crags, which were explored in 1875 by the 
late Mr. Thomas Heath and the Rev. J. M. 
Mello. Those in the case are not a good 
collection of the objects found, but they are 
all that came here; there are bones and 
teeth of hyenas, cave bear, elephant, and 
woolly rhinoceros, and a mammoth's tooth, 
etc., but of the remains of prehistoric 
man there are only a few poor flints and 
some bits of iron and bronze and several 
objects of deers' horn, apparently whistles, 
but they have no labels to state what they 
are or when they were found, and are conse- 
quently of little use. What became of the 
large number of objects yielded by these 
various caves, fissures, and swallow holes I 
do not know. The objects found ranged 
over an immense period, coming down to 
historic times. The caves had been used by 
cave animals, then bypalaeolithic and neolithic 
man, and, lastly, by Romano-British man, 
all of whom left behind them various articles 
of their manufacture, such as pottery, bronzes, 
and enamels. Of these Cresswell finds Mr. 
J. Ward writes : " I remember examining 
frequently the selection of cave objects in 
the museum at Castleton ; they were im- 
mensely superior both in number and quality, 
a really good educational collection. . . . 
They are, I believe, now in the Bolton 
Museum.'' More recently, interesting dis- 
coveries were made at Rains Cave, near 
Brassington, and described by Mr. Ward, con- 
sisting of pottery and remains of interments, as 
well as of a large number of animal bones. 
Amongst human remains were several skulls, 
the possession of which might have helped to 
determine whether our remote ancestors in 
Derbyshire were dolicho-cephalic or brachy- 



cephalic, or whether we are smaller in the 
jaw than they were, as Mr. Howard Collins 
asserts. True, there are a few Maori skulls, 
both of adults and children, but they are placed 
in the class quadrumana, together with skulls 
of monkeys. They are, of course, correctly 
classed if our remote ancestors were monkeys. 
Except these there is nothing for the student 
of ethnology, the Rains Cave skulls having 
gone elsewhere. 

The next cases are arranged against the 
walls, and contain a large and fine collec- 
tion of minerals, decidedly the finest thing 
in the place both for arrangement and quality. 
They are well labelled and easy to inspect, 
but there is no distinct local collection. The 
Derbyshire minerals are placed with their 
natural order, and being distinguished by a 
coloured label, can be readily found. The 
space at disposal being limited, this is, per- 
haps, under the circumstances, as good an 
arrangement as would be devised. 

Of barrows and grave-mounds, though so 
large a number have been opened in this 
county, there are no examples possessed by 
this museum. The Lomberdale collection 
made by the late Mr. Bateman is now at 
Sheffield ; this is a great loss to Derbyshire 
archaeologists. 

Egyptian antiquities are represented here 
by two of the mummy tribe, a male and 
female, and their coffins; they formerly 
belonged to the late Mr. Joseph Strutt, by 
whom, I believe, they were presented to the 
museum. These poor people would never 
have taken so much care to contravene the 
Divine fiat, " Dust thou art, to dust thou shalt 
return," had they perceived where it would 
land their carefuUy-preserved remains. When 
in their mistaken superstition they thought 
they would escape the indignity of transmigra- 
tion, they never anticipated the possibility of 
transportation to the ends of the earth in a 
barbarously-scientific age, in which nothing 
is sacred. 

A wall-case contains a small collection of 
Roman coins ; they are brass with three or 
four exceptions, which are of silver. They 
range from Ptolemy, rc. 267, to Constantine 
the Great, a,d. 306. It is not known whether 
these coins are local finds. The neighbour- 
ing hamlet of Little -Chester, the ancient 
Derventio, has from time to time yielded great 
numbers of Roman coins and other objects 



no 



NOTES ON ARCHjEOLOGY IN PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS, 



of the Roman occupation, and examples of 
the various beautiful Roman wares may be 
seen in private possession, but many have 
been taken away from the county, so are not 
accessible. This is a misfortune, because 
from the great number of fragments and 
entire objects a splendid collection might 
have been made, which would have added 
much to the value and interest of this insti- 
tution which actually does not contain a 
single example 1 Neither have we an example 
of the fine bronze fibulae, of which such 
numbers have recently been found at Buxton. 
It is a singular fact that a short time ago a 
stone sculpture of a Mercury was found at 
Little-Chester and purchased by Mr. J. Keys, 
who offered it to the museum authorities, 
but after eighteen months* hesitation, not 
being accepted, it came into the hands of 
the Derbyshire Archaeological Society, who 
now retain it. This stone is quite unique. 

There is, however, a short cylindrical pillar 
of gritstone which is part of a Roman mile- 
stone of exceptional interest. It was found 
in June, 1862, in a garden near the Silver- 
lands in higher Buxton, and was purchased 
by Mr. Beresford Wright, formerly of Aldecar 
Hall. Mr. Wright presented it to the Derby- 
shire Archaeological Society in 1885, and the 
society have loaned it to the museum. As 
the beginning of the inscription is on the 
lost portion of the stone, it is not possible 
to say which of the Roman emperors was 
named thereon ; the extant portion of the 
inscription is : 

(tr)ib . POT . cos . I (i) 

IP . p . ANAa0^E 
MP . X 

The letters in brackets are only faintly 
discernible. We have adopted the reading 
of the late Mr. Thompson Watkin,* who thus 
extends it — Tribunituu potestatis Consul it. 
Pater Patriae A Navione^ M.P, xii. This 
stone, then, marked twelve miles from Buxton 
to the station of Navio, which Mr. Watkin, 
with much ingenuity, identified as Brough, 
between Hope and Hathersage. 

With the exception of some cases of electro- 
types of Greek and Roman coins the museum 
contains no other antiquities. In the garden 
outside are several fragments of an interest- 

* Journal of the Derbyshire Archaological Society^ 
vol. vii., p. 79. See also Reliquary ^\o\. Hi., p. 207, 
and Archeeological Joumai^ vol. xxxiii., pp. 49-55. 



ing churchyard cross. They were figured in 
Dr. Cox's Churches of Derbyshire^ having been 
found at St. Alkmund's Church together with 
some others of much interest which are now 
lost. Those which are now outside the museum 
are described in vol. iv., p. 122, of that work 
as having formerly been parts of a cross which, 
when complete, must have stood 1 2 feet above 
the ground. These fragments are covered 
with strange animals with knotted termina- 
tions exactly like those seen in Anglo-Saxon 
MSS. There are also two grotesque gar- 
goyles and a small sculptured stone having 
two figures, a male and female, upon it, and 
also an old gravestone slightly coped and 
coffin-shaped, with a curious cross; tbese^ 
with a few sections of the basalt columns 
from Fingal's Cave, conclude the collection. 

From the above remarks it will have been 
gathered that Derby Museum contains little 
of interest to the archaeologist ; indeed, it is 
principally remarkable for its deficiency in 
this respect. Natural history, both in its 
flora and fauna, fossil and recent, is feirly 
well represented. Probably there is no 
museum in England which is so lacking in 
anything interesting to the antiquary, and 
this in a county rich in antiquities ; but the 
obliging curator, Mr. S. Crowther, informs 
me that the institution is in a receptive con- 
dition, so that it is open to public-spirited 
individuals to supply the deficiency, which, 
for lack of funds, is not possible to the com* 
mittee. 





®ome Ciueer iSame0. 

By Rev. H. Barbbr, M.D. 

ARIOUS writers have treated the 
subject of English Surnames in 
different ways, from Camden and 
Lower downwards. 
Some have produced very amusing articles 
by grouping the most extraordinary names 
they could find together, as the names of 
birds, beasts, flowers, objects in common use^ 
trades, etc. 

A few have made some attempt to give the 
derivations of well-known names according to 
their own classification, ignoring altogether 
the possibility of many being traced to ex- 
tremely ancient sources. 



SOME QUEER NAMES. 



Ill 



Names which betoken association with 
tcnitonal possession, Christian names and 
occupations are not difficult to make out, but 
the oldest names of all are those which 
belong to the Norse or Frisian settlers, unless 
we except such as cannot be explained other- 
wise than as being of Celtic or British origin. 

That many extraordinary and even ridicu- 
lous names have been evolved out of the 
imagination of the Bumbles of a past genera- 
tion, as Charles Dickens shows us in Oliver 
Twist, there can be little doubt, but many of 
those which have been a puzzle and a wonder 
to many for a long time can now be shown 
to possess a real historical signification. As 
a proof of the extraordinary corruptions which 
have occurred in names, it may be as well to 
remind the reader how Sevenoaks became 
Soooks ; St Audrey, Tawdry ; and St Olaves' 
Street, Tooley Street 

It is really interesting to notice the effect 
produced upon names, which appear in Domes- 
day Book for instance, by the wear and tear of 
time during the last eight hundred years. 

These again can be shown to have suffered 
oocisiderable modification at that early date 
from their original Scandinavian or Frisian 
form. 

Thus Semingr becomes Semmens; Sigimar, 
Seymour ; and the old High German form of 
the word, Sictunar, is found in the personal 
ivunes of Sycamore and Sicklemore. In like 
manner Sigmundr is now Simmonds ; Sigurdr 
(a Norse bishop) and its contraction Siggar 
(a northern king), lives in Sigar. Thorgod, 
from Thorgautr, develops into Thorough- 
good and Toogood. Thorketill changes to 
Torkel, Thmtell, Turtle, Tuttell and Toot. 
The Norse Gudlaug, Anglo-Saxon Guthlac, is 

in Goodluck; Asketill, in Ashkettle; 

r, in Grumble ; Alfgeirr, in Alfhard 

axKl Halfyard; Ingvarr, in Ingobert and 
lochboard; Gunnvaldr, in Gumbald and 
GtmbotL 

Again, the names of Winsige, Saxon bishop 
ci Lichfield ; Cynsige^ Archbishop of York, 
and Leofsi, Bishop of Worcester, are per- 
petuated in Winsey, Kinsey and Lovesay, 
Leavesey, or Livesay. 

To string such names together as Honey, 
Rice, Cuny, Bean, Lamb, Veal, Bacon, 
Game, Cloves, Pepper, Pickles, Ginger, Salt, 
Beer, Stout and Perry, may be very funny, 



but the student of etymology sees in them 
the old Norse Uni, Hrisi (or perhaps Welsh 
Ap Rice), Kori, Beini, Lambi, Veili, Bekan, 
Gamel, Clough (from Gljdfr or Klofi, Dutch 
KlooO Papar, Pfk (with the Norman diminu- 
tive, Pfkell), tngvarr, Salt-ey«a, Byr, Stoti, 
all personal names or nicknames, and the 
French Pierre. 

It is astonishing how many names have 
sprung out of those of the Apostles Peter 
and Paul, which became very generally 
adopted after the Christianizing of the Scandi- 
navian nation had been effected. Thus it 
happens that we have Petarr, P^tr, Pittar, 
Peters, Peterson, Patterson, Pate, Pett, Pitt, 
Peet, Peat Also Pdll, Paul, Spaule, Powell, 
Pull, PuUey, Pullein, Pullen, PuUing, Powley, 
PoUyn, Poll, Pole, Poole, Pollock. 

Who would have supposed that Tubby, 
and of course Tubman and Tupman, could 
be derived from the Norse porbjom ; yet so 
it is, and we can trace its development, or 
rather 'down grade,' in the names of the 
Saxon tenants of Domesday Book as Thor- 
bom, Torbem, Turbem, Turbin, Tubem, 
Tubi, Tube. It is, therefore, not a mere 
vulgar nickname Coke, Slack, Coal, Coles, 
have nothing to do with the familiar com- 
bustibles so called, but come from Kokkr, 
Slakki and Kollr, northern names or nick- 
names. Indeed, it is surprising how many of 
the common English names are derived from 
the old Scandinavian patronymics ; some, in 
fact, being very little changed fVom their 
ancient form, especially in the pronunciation, 
although they are often disguised almost 
beyond recognition by the fanciful variation 
of their orthography. 

It is rather odd to find a hairdresser 
rejoicing in the name of Kew, but whether it 
is from the village or the French cue, we can 
only make a guess ; and Suett, a butcher, is 
a remarkable coincidence to say the least of 
it Nevertheless it has a history, for we can 
see the changes wrought in the Norse name 
Sighvatr, as it passes through Domesday 
Book and appears successively as Siuerd, 
Siward, Sirvat, Seward, Suert, Sueting and 
Suet Obadiah Obee is a real name, the 
possessor of which formerly lived in Norfolk, 
and its euphonious alteration is very striking. 
It may have come down to us from Oddbjom, 
and its gradual diminution through Other, 
Odbar and Otba to Obee, or it may be a 



112 



SOME QUEER NAMES. 



corruption of Ubbi and its Frisian equivalent 
Ubbe. 

Pope has not necessarily any connection 
with the Roman Pontiff, but is from the 
Norse Papar, Frisian Poppo and Poppe, 
whence come Poppen, Popkin and Popping. 
Poppe was the name of a Duke of Friesland, 
who was slain in battle by Charles Martel in 
the year 734. 

Reader, Rider, Hunter and Bowler are 
from Hreidarr, Hundi and Bolli (Fris. Bole), 
the family or tribal names of the same are 
Reading, Riding, Hunting and Bowling, the 
suffix indicating the difference. 

Much amusement has arisen out of the 
name of Bugg. It gained considerable 
notoriety especially many years ago, ^when 
the Yorkshire pubhcan, who became so dis- 
satisfied with it, changed it to Norfolk- 
Howard without the least right or reason. 

It is known to history in a variety of 
spellings, as Buci, Bugi, Boci, Bogge, Boge, 
Buggey, Bogg, Boag, Bogue, Beucey, Bucey, 
Boogie, Buggy, Buggie, Bukie, Bouky, Bug- 
gins, Boughey. 

It gave the name to a lordship in Nor- 
mandy of Bugey, as was the custom with the 
Norsemen when they took possession of 
conquered soil and "called the land after 
their own names." Henceforward the owner 
became known as I)e Bugey, and brought the 
aristocratic addition with him to England 
after the conquest It originated, however, 
in the Old Norse personal name of Bui, 
modern Icelandic Bogi, which became modi- 
fied in the Danish Boye, Frisian Boyo, Boye, 
Boy and German Bohr, Boy, Boye, all proper 
names. Bui means a dweller (nah-bui, a 
neighbour), but ultimately became a family 
name. From this we get Bugg, Buggins, 
Bugden, Bowen, Boyce, Boyer, Boys, Bowers, 
Bye, Bee, Bowes, Burr, Booer, Boow. 

The noble name of Howard comes, not 
from the Saxon Hogwarden, as some suppose, 
but has a much older pedigree. It appears 
in the Norse name of Hd-var5r, implying 
rank and authority. In Domesday Book it 
takes the shape of Hauuard, Hereuuard, 
Hauuart and Huard, which last is found in 
Leicestershire to this day. Hence Howard, 
Haward, Harvard, Howorth and Hayward, 
which families may therefore lay claim to a 
longer descent than one derived from the 
occupation of a Saxon servitor. 



It does not follow that adjectives now 
representing mental or physical attributes 
called forth such surnames as the follow- 
ing : Wise and Vice (Weiss), Broad, Brade, 
Braid (Breidr), Stiff (Steve, Stephen), Bold 
(Baldr), Tough (Tofi), Sharp (Skarfhe«in), 
Blunt (BluntJr), Jolly (Jilfr), Fair (Fagr), 
Dear (D^ri), Bonny (Bondi), Frank (Francis), 
Handy (Hundi), Able (Abel), Bright (Bryd), 
Meek (Mikill), Hard (H j6r»), Rough (Rodolf, 
Rdlfr, Ruf!), Cross (Crossr), Stern (Stjom, 
Germ, Stern), Vile (Veili), Just (J6steinn or 
St. Just), True (TriitSr), Strong (Strangi), 
Pretty (Pni«i), Plain (Blseingr), Wild (Wfldar, 
Wilt), Savage (Sauvage), Good (Gu«, Godi), 
Long (Lang), Young (Ungi), Old (Alt), Heavy 
(Evarr, Eve, -^ve), Thin (pyna), Strong 
(Strangr), Manly, Manley (Mina-Ljotr), 
Greedy (Grettir), Crisp (St Crispin). 

The numerous names into which Good 
enters is a large class, as Goodchild, Good- 
man, Goodsir, Goodkuss, Goodfellow, Good- . 
lad, Goodchap, Goodspeed, Goodale,Goodal], 
Goodwin, Goodenough, Goodbody, Good- 
willie, are all compounds of the Norse Gu^, 
G06 or God, such as Gu5-mund, GutS-laugr, 
Gut$-Halli, Gut5-vinnr, Gu5-boddi, Gu«-vil, 
etc., and Gotobed is perhaps a corruption of 
Gotefrid (Gu5-friCr), or Gotbert (GuUbarSr). 

We must not suppose that because a man 
bears a name of occupation or servitude 
it represents that particular trade or calling, 
and indicates his descent from one of the 
class. Thus Butcher is not a slayer of 
animals, but is from the German Bottcher, a 
cooper. Hatter is not necessarily a hat- 
maker, but may be the Atre of Domesday or 
Norse Hottr (Hattar); Lockman is very 
likely the old Logmat$r, or Lagman, who 
proclaimed the law as laid down by the 
Althing or Shiregemot; Capper, the old 
Norse name Kappi, a hero, often used as a 
nickname; Carter, also, is very probably a 
modern version of the old Norse nickname 
Kottr or Kattar, which was in use long before 
carts or cart-roads were known. Tanner 
may be from Tanni, and Ringer from 
Hringr. 

Rawbones looks somewhat ghastly until we 
discover a possibility of it being a modem 
edition of Raut$a-Bjom, and so relieving it of 
an otherwise senseless character. Barebones^ 
too, would be equally ridiculous were it not 
formerly Berbdnn, a cognomen of King 



SOME QUEER NAMES, 



"3 



Magnus sumamed '' barelegged," because he 
assumed the Highland costume. 

Proudfoot wears a different aspect if we 
look upon it as PrdtSi-fdtr, a nickname applied 
to one because of his stately bearing. A.11- 
chin may be Hallkin, or little Halli, and 
AUbones a corruption of Hallbjorn. Crook 
(Krdka), Hoe, Hose, Howes (Haugr), Wheat 
(Hvit), Meal (Mjoll), Oats (Oddr, 6ttar, 
Germ, Otto), Grain (Granni), Bran (Brandr), 
Hay (Fris. Hayo), Train (prain). Stoker 
(Stokkr), Guard (GeirotJr, Fris. Gerhard, 
Gerd), Danger (Dengir), are all capable of 
being rescued from their seeming obscurity. 
Again, such names as Kitchen, Sellars, Garret, 
and Room, come to us from Kikini, Selr, 
Geiro5r and Raumr. 

There is little difficulty about the origin of 
Man, Mann, Manners, Manning, for Mdni 
and Menni are Norse nicknames, the Frisian 
form being Manno, Manne, Manninga. Child 
is the Saxon Cild and Cilt seen in Domesday 
Book. Brothers, Broddr and Broddi, Scotch, 
Brodie. Cousins, perhaps from Kussa, a 
Norse nickname (a cow), hence also Cussing 
and Gushing. Bride from Breidr; Guest 
from Gestr. 

Darling is the diminutive of Dyri. Day, 
Mundy, Maundy, Rain, Breeze, Fogg, Hook, 
Hooker, Root, Ditty, Horn, may be the out- 
come of Dagr, Mundi, Hreinn, Bresi, Foka, 

Hiikr, Hrtltr, Dytta, Orn, all Scandinavian 
names. 

Pine, Pain, Payne, are from Peini ; Bums 
and Barnes from Bjorn and its pet name 
Bami; Money from Munnr; Askew and 
Askwith from Askr and AskoitSr; Whybom 
from Ve-bjom ; Livingstone^ Snellgrove, 
Featherstone are local names, the town or 
fann of Leofing, the entrenched settlement of 
Snjdllr (Snell) and the town of Feoda. 

The Norse word Pfk, which means a 
pointed hill, as in the Peak of Derbyshire and 
Langdale Pike, Scawfell Pike, etc., was also 
a surname, and gives rise to many modern 
names. In Domesday Book it appears as 
Pic, Picot, Pecoc, and so we get Peake, Peek, 
Peck, Pike, Pegg, Fetch, Petchell, Peache, 
Peachey, Peacock, Peckett, Pitcher, Pickett, 
Pickle, Pidgeon, Piggin, Pigg, Pygall, Piggott 

The Germans also have Picha, Pick, 
Piecha, Piechocki, Pickert, Pickel, Pietsch, 
Pik, Pieschka, Pigotta, Piksa. 

There is probably no name that has gone 



through so many changes as the Norse sur- 
name Falki (a falcon). It is traceable in 
Folk, Ffolkes, Faulke, Foulger, Fulcher, Fel- 
kin, Fulcer, Faux, Forkes, Fewkes, Fookes, 
Yokes, Vaux, Fox. 

In the Frisian it presents a similar variety 
as Folerk, Folrik, Folke, Folkerd, Poke, 
Fauke, Fokko, Fokke, Fulko, Fulke; while 
the Germans have Falk, Forche, Fox. In 
Domesday Book it is Fulcher, Fulk, Fulghel, 
Fulchran, Folcuin, Fulco, Fulcui. 

As may be supposed, we obtain many of 
our English names from Frisian, f>., so-called 
Saxon sources, and these are met with more 
especially in the districts west of Watling 
Street, and in the home counties. 

Abbo and its family ending Abben and 
Abena give us Abbey and Abney; Ade — 
Adie and Addison ; Eisse — Ess and Ison ; 
Alle and Allen — Allen, Allinson and Allison ; 
Alt — the same; Athe and Athen — Hatton, 
Hatting ; Baino — Bain and Baynes j Bela 
and B^le— Bell, Bill, Beale, Bale; B^ner 
and Beninga — Benn, Benson, Benning, Ben- 
nison ; Boko — Bock and Buck ; Boele, 
Bolen and Boleke — Bull, Bullein and Bullock; 
Bonno — Bonner and Bonser ; Boys, Boye 
and Boy en — Boyes, Bowes and Bowen ; 
Diko, Dyko and Diken— Dick, Dykes, 
Dickens, Dickson and Dickinson ; Djure — 
Jury, Jary ; Dodo and Doden — Dodd, Dod- 
son, Dodding; Ebbe, Eppo, Eben and 
Eppen — Epps, Epping, Heppingstall ; Edo 
and Eden — Eddowes, Eddy and Eden; 
Egbert and Ebbert — Hibbert; Eiko and 
Eike — Eykin, Aitkin and Hake ; Eke — Exley 
and Eckersley ; Emo and Eme — Hemming, 
Hemingway, Emson; Fokke, Fokko — Fawke, 
Forke, Fox and Foggo; Garrelt — Gerald, 
Jerrold ; Gerd — Guard, Guerth, Garth ; 
Gronfeld, Greenfield ; Haddo — Hadden and 
Hadding ; Hayo — Hay, Hey, High, Hayes ; 
Hiro, Hire, Harringe — Hare, Harry, Har- 
rington, Harston, Herring ; Hein — Hine, 
Haynes, Haines; Hidde and Hidden — 
Iddon ; Hillerd — Hillyard ; Igge — Higgs, 
Higgin, Higson; Iko, Ike — Hicking, Hick- 
ling; Ing — Inge; Jelle — Jelly; Jibbo, 
Jibben — Gibbs, Gibbings, Gibson, Gibbons ; 
Karsten, Karsen, Kassen (from Kristjon) — 
Casson; Klas (Niklis) — Close, Clowes; 
Manne, Manninga — Manners, Manning ; 
M^ne, Menke, Menken — Minniken ; Mfis — 
May, Mays, Mace, Moyse; Okke, Okken — 



114 



SOME QUEER NAMES. 



Hockey, Hocken, Hocking; Sikke — Sykes; 
Tonjes (Antonius) — Tangye, Tingye, Tong, 
Tonks; Ubbe— Hubbard, Hobart; Ude— 
Uttingj Wilke— Wilkes, Wilkins; Wiet— 
Waite; Witerd, Withert, Withers— Withard, 
Withers. 

Many of these can, of course, be traced 
back to Scandinavian sources, but they have 
been given, out of many examples, to show 
how the effect produced upon them in trans- 
mission, approaches a little nearer to our own 
times. 

We have a group of remarkable names in 
Hobbs, Cobbs, Dobbs, Mobbs, Nobbs. 

HoBBS is from the Frisian Abo^ a p. n. 
In Domesday Book it appears as Abb, 
Obbesune, Hobbesune, also Ape, Appe. The 
German form is Aber, Haber, Hahbe, Habe, 
Hobe, Hoben, Hobitz, Hobsa. Among 
English surnames it is seen in Obee, Opie, 
Hope, Hopps, Hopper, Hopkin, Hobkin, 
Hobkirk, Hobgen, Hobbis, also the diminu- 
tives Abbott, Ablet 

Cobbs is the Norse Kobbi, a pet name for 
Jacob. In Domesday Book Cobbe, Cabe, 
Copsi. The Germans have Kobas, Kobe, 
Kober, Kobsch. Hence the English Cobb, 
Cobbett, Copping, Cope, Coble, Copsey. 

DoBBS, from the Norse Dapi^ a nickname. 
German, Daber, Dabin, Dabisch, Dober, 
Dobers, Dobin, Dobsch. Hence Dobbin, 
Dobbie, Dabb, Dobson, Dobel. 

MoBBS, from the British Mabe^ as in 
St Mabe and St. Mabyn, in Cornwall ; or 
it may be from the Norse Mbd-bjartr. In 
Domesday Book Modbert and Motbert, as 
seen in Mobberley, Cheshire, and Mapperley, 
Notts. William Mabbe was Mayor ot 
Leicester, temp. Elizabeth, and the name 
occurs several times in the Lichfield Index 
of Wills, from a.d. 15 21. 

NoBBS, from the Norse Knappt\ a nick- 
name. German, Knabe, Knapp, Knappe, 
Knappick, Knaps, Knobel, Knop, Knopp, 
Knopping. The English McNab, Nabbs, 
Napp, Napper, may be compared. 

Instances of remarkable or odd surnames 
could be multiplied to any extent, but the 
foregoing will suffice, for the present at any- 
rate, and if the writer has succeeded in 
rescuing from the region of the "wholly 
unintelligible '' to which they have been 
hitherto consigned, a few names of interest to 
the genera] reader he will be very much 



gratified and well rewarded for his trouble 
and research. 

Before taking leave, he cannot resist the 
temptation to include two more queer names 
in his already long list, their singularity being 
his excuse — they are, AUfat and Slipper. It 
seems incredible how the mutations could be 
accomplished to reduce the Norse surname 

of Alf-j6tr and its Frisian equivalent Eilert, 
to such a condition as AUfat, yet so it is. 
In Domesday Book it becomes Adelflete, 
Alflet, Alvert, Alfied, and exists still as 
Alflatt in East Anglia. 

Slipper is not so difficult to account for. 
It comes from the Norse nickname Sleppi, 
and we see it also in the German surname 
Schleppe. 

It has been customary to poke fun at those 
who attempt to solve etymological riddles, 
and it is what may be expected where guess- 
work is the main source of supply ; but when 
much study and years of research have con- 
vinced a man that he has still much to learn, 
he hesitates about giving to the public the 
results of his labours while he knows them to 
be incomplete. 

Nevertheless the little he has acquired will, 
he trusts, throw a light on some names hitherto 
considered obscure, and perhaps help to 
correct some erroneous impressions already 
formed. Theodore Hook is said to have 
derived Gerkin from Jeremiah, in order to 
make fun of such a book as Lower's Sur- 
names, He puts it thus: Jeremiah, Jerry, 
Jerrykin, Jerkin, Gerkin. The writer trusts 
that his derivations will not be thought quite 
so far-fetched. 





Cbe ^ijBitoties of 15olton and 
TBotoUng/ 

R. WILLIAM CUDWORTH, weU 

known for his various contribu- 
tions to the local history of Brad- 
ford, and more especiaUy for the 
valuable Life and Correspondence of Abraham 
Sharpy the Yorkshire mathematician and 
astronomer, has conceived the happy idea 

* Histories of Bolton and Bowling {tOHmskips e^ 
Bradford)^ by William Cadworth. Thomas Brear 
and Co., Bradford, 8vo., pp. vi., 363, twenty pUleii 
and sixteen text'cuts. 



THE HISTORIES OF BOLTON AND BOWLING. 



"S 



oT writing a complete history of Bradford on 
the unique plan of working at accounts of 
tbe seporxte townships until the whole 
boron^ is completed. His account of the 
township of Horton was published in 1886, 
and now we have the histories of the two 
townships of Bolton and Bowling in another 
hindsofDC volume. The plan commends 
itself to our judgment, and it is much to be 
hcped that Mr. Cudwonb may be spared to 
t>nf^ it to a happy conclusion. 



sidered highly improbable that the rural 
township of Bolton, part of the parish of 
Calverley, could ever form part of such a 
town as Bradford, but in July, 1873, " 
became incorporated with that borough. In 
the first four chapters the author takes us 
rapidly but pleasantly over such subjects as 
the origin of the name Bolton, its condition 
at the Conquest, the former woods and 
ancient roadways, the manor, muster-roll of 
Henry VIIL, land-tax of 1704, the old poor- 



Tbe preface states that the subjects are 
Ireued in a popular rather than in an 
aithaeological manner, but the archaeology 
thai b introduced is of a careful and reliable 
character, and b generally sufficient for its 
parpoac The Public Record Office would 
andonbledly yield more early manorial in- 
fomudoo than appears tn these pages, but 
detailed research of that description is scarcely 
to be expected or demanded in a work <^ 
thii description. 

Until rtcently, it would have been coo- 



H BOLTON LOW FOLa 

law and constable accounts, the pinfold and 
stocks, eariy coal-mining and can^, common 
enclosure, and religious and educational 
affairs. The fifth chapter gives a topo- 
graphical survey of Bolton, much of which 
still retains a rural aspect. It does not seem 
likely that the pleasant uplands wilt, at all 
events for a long time, be covered with streets 
or contiguous bouses, whilst those parts 
that are the most populous, such as Bolton 
Low Fold or Low Bolton, still retain not a 
little of their rural appearance. Several of tbe 



THE HISTORIES OP BOLTON AND BOWLING 



cottages and buildings give obvious proof of 
tbeir erection in Elizabethan or Stuart days. 

At Low Fold the kindly Quaker family 
of Hustler, so well known in Bradford 
during last century and the first quarter of 
this, were resident for many generations, 
whilst the Right Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P., 
for the first seven years of his Bradford life, 
resided at Rose Cottage in this part of the 
township of Bolton. 

Careful descriptions are given of the Bart- 
lett, Lister, Hodgson, Atkinson, Jowett, 



1780. In dealing with the township of 
Bowling, Mr. Cudworth again adopts the 
plan of centring his information chiefly 
round the principal families ; and this is a 
good idea, for, as he truly says, " it has been 
the abode of families who have left their 
mark in the records of time, and has given 
birth to not a few men who have ranked 
high in the annals of commercial enterprise, 
and to others who have done something to 
leave the world better than [hey found it" 
The Boiling family is traced down from the 



NBWALL HALL. 



Kawson, and other families of more or 
less local distinction, and of their respec- 
tive residences, including the picturesque 
houses of Ivy Hall and Bolton Old Hall, 
both of early seventeenth-century erection. 
Quaint local touches and interesting " bits " 
of family life and family strife redeem this 
part of the book from dulness. 

The history of Bowling occupies nearly 
two-thirds of the volume, It is a very 
different township to that of Bolton, being 
dependent for its prosperity on the extensive 
coal and ironstone measures beneath the soil, 
which began to be definitely worked about 



twelfth century to the Virginia Boilings, who 
were descended from the Indian Princess 
Pocahontas, of romantic fame. A thoroughly 
interesting account is given of the family of 
Tempest, of BraceweU, Broughton-in-Craven, 
Tong, and Bowling, county York, and of 
Coleby, county Lincoln, A pedigree table 
gives a full genealogy from Sir Richard 
Tempest, who was knight of the shire 
for Lancashire in 1401, and for York in 
1403-4, down to the present baronet Sir 
Charles Henry TempesL Another chapter 
gives an account of the Liodley Wood fiimily 
(Viscount Halifax), the detailed pedigree of 



THE HISTORIES OF BOLTON AND BOWLfNG. 



"7 



which begins with an Elizabethan ancestor, 
George Wood of Monk Bretton, 

The chapter that gives an account of 
Boiling Hall, so long the residence of the 
Boilings, the Tempests, and the Lindley 
Woods, is full of interest, and pleasantly 
written. The hall is a fine old building, and 
a wonderful medley of different styles. The 
south iront has a good Elizabethan centre 
Hanked by towera of far earlier date, tn the 
western bay is the " Ghost Chamber," where 
the ghost is said to have appeared which 



struck terror to the heart of the Earl of New- 
castle^ the great Royalist commander, and 
caused him to forego his intention of sacking 
the town of Bradford. The wainscoted 
room, with its beautifully -ornamented plaster 
ceiling, is in much the same condition as it 
was originally designed. The most striking 
feature is the carved oak mantelpiece, which 
teaches to the ceiling ; it contains two por- 
traits painted on panels, supposed to be 
those of Lady Rosamond, the last of the 
Boilings of Boiling, and her husband, Sir 



Richard Tempest. A good sketch is given 

of this chimneypiece. 

Within the township of Bowling are various 
houses or halls of some degree of antiquity 
and interest still remaining, though secondary 
in interest to the manorial hall just described. 
One of the most striking of these is Newall 
Hall in Rooley Lane. It is built on land 
which was formerly a grange of Kirkstall 
Abbey. The Hall is a solid stone structure, 
consisting of two large wings and a central 
building. It is a very good but plain speci- 
men of a domestic mansion of the first half 
of the seventeenth century. It is the style 
of building to which it would be well if our 
modem house architects would give more 
consideration. Over the south entrance- 
porch, surrounded by much carved work, is 
a stone inscribed with the initials R. R. and 
E. R., and the date 1627. These letters 
refer to the original owners, for whom the 
Hall was built, Richard Richardson and his 
wife Elizabeth. There is also a good door- 
way of unusual character on the east front 
effectively ornamented, which is well worth 
illustrating. The HallnowbelongstoSirM.W. 
Wilson, who inherited the Richardson estates. 

There are no pretensions about this 
volume, and it may not possess any par- 
ticular attraction for those outside Bradford 
or unacquainted with the numerous families 
and celebrities connected with its townships ; 
but it well fulfils its object as a painstaking 
local history, is clearly printed and thoroughly 
indexed, and is sure to command a ready 
sale among the numerous literary and anti- 
quarian circles that abound in Bradford and 
the neighbourhood. 



Turials at tde l^riories of tge 
TBIack JFriats. 



By Rbv. C. F, R. Pauier. 
(CvtUinutdfrtrnf. 30, voL %%vi. 



152a, William Ewstace, 7 Nov., 1511- In 
the Black Friars. A trental of Masses shall 
be said on the day of burial ; aos. for break- 
ing the ground for the grave. Pr. tS Sept. 

1522-3. John Benson, 16 Aug., isaa. 
Within the cloister, next to his wifb. 



ii8 



BUBIALS AT THE PRIORIES OF THE BLACK FRIARS. 



The four Orders of Friars shall bring him 
from the parish-church of St. Magnus to 
the house of the Black Friars. At his 
burial shall be eight new torches, and four 
from the Brotherhood of St. Michael in 
St. Martin's, and four with the best cloth 
of the Conception of our Lady kept within 
the Black Friars. And 20s. shall be spent 
in the great Hall of the Black Friars, in 
bread and drink, for such persons as are 
at his burial. Pr. 18 Mar, 

1523. Nicholas Vaus, knt. Lord Harow- 
den, 1 1 May. To be buried, if he dies in 
Northamptonsh., at Haroden ; if in Lon- 
don, in the Black Friars ; if at Guisnes, in 
the church there. About his burial shall 
be bestowed ;^ioo, more or less, to priests 
and clerks and poor people, and in other 
deeds of charity or necessity, without pomp 
or glory. Pr, 3 Jul, 

1524. Thomas Aleyn, citizen and skinner, 

1 Apr., 1523. In the churchyard of the 
Black Friars ; and they shall have 20s. to 
bring his body to the place, and for a 
trental. Pr, 14 Od, 

1525-6. William Harward, gent, 3 Jan. 
In the Black Friars. The two Orders of 
Black and Gray Friars shall be at the 
burial, and have for their labour as his 
executors agree with them. Pr, 7 Feb, 

1526-7. Christofer Mathew, alias Yar- 
browth, alias Cooke, of London, cook, 
13 Jan., 1523-4. Within the church. Pr, 

1527. Thomas Raynton, citizen and marbler, 
6 June. Within the cloister, nigh as may 
be to the grave, where Dr. Morgan, late 
Prior, lies buried, if he fortunes to decease 
within in the city ; otherwise, in such place 
as Almighty God purveyeth for him. Pr, 
24 Jun, 

1527-8. John Harbard, citizen and mercer, 

2 Jan., 1525-6. In the body of the con- 
ventual church, in the midst, by St. Michael; 
and a marble stone, with convenient scrip- 
ture, shall be laid over his grave for a 
memorial for his soul to be prayed for. 
Pr. II Feb. 

1527-8. Amy Wasshington, widow, 2 June, 
1527. Within the Black Friars, where her 
father lies. She gives 4d. to every priest 
that comes to her burial and says Mass. 
Pr, 4 Mar, 



1528. John Clyston, parson of Berwyke in 
Elmette, in the diocese of York, 14 Jan., 
1526-7. In the Black Friers, if he dies in 
London. Pr, 12 /un. 

1528. Nicholas Halswell, priest, 20 June, 
1527. In the conventual church, in the 
place already assigned to him, for which 
he paid 40s. to F. Morgan, late Prior, and 
the Convent Pr, ^ijul, 

1530. John Blysse, doctor of physic, 
10 April; Within the church of the 
Black Friars, where he dwells, with as 
little pomp and cost as is thought con- 
venient. A trental of Masses shall be said 
for him by the Friars at his burying. Pr. 
12 Mail, 

1 53 1. Peter Stone, citizen and tailor (no 
^y)> *S3i' Within the Friar-Preachers', 
near the place where his wives lie. For 
the burial he has given 20s. sterling to the 
Prior that his body shall remain there. 
Pr, 20 Oct. 

1 53 1. Thomas Ferebe, of Fanlinge Craye, 
Kent, gent, 18 Nov. In the church, in a 
place to be determined by the Prior. On 
the day of burial a trental of Masses shall 
be done, and 20s. be given in alms to poor 
people. Pr, 29 Nov, 

1 53 1. Dame Maud Parr, widow, late wife 
of Sir Thomas Parr, knt., 20 May, 1529. 
In the Black Friars' church, where her 
husband lies, if she dies in London, or 
within twenty miles of it ; otherwise where 
her executors think most convenient. About 
her burial 100 marks shall be bestowed, and 
not under nor above, unless her executors 
think fit to give more. Pr. 14 Dec, 

1532. Robert Jones, knt, 22 Apr. If he 
dies in London, or within 22 miles, in 
the church near the door at the coming 
in, fast by the wall where he has made a 
tomb ; if beyond that distance, where God 
shall provide. He bequeaths for the bury- 
ing and month's mind ^20, out of which 
shall be distributed los. at the burial, and 
6s. 8d. at the month's mind. His brother, 
Richard Jones, buried here. Pr.^iMaii 

1532-3. Henry Guldeford, knt, 18 May, 
1532. In the Black Friars, where he has 
already ordained his tomb, if he dies within 
forty miles of the place; or else in the 
parish-church, where God disposeth his 
last life in this world. Pr. 10 Feb, 



BURIALS AT THE PRIORIES OF THE BLACK FRIARS 



119 



1533-4. Thomas Larke, priest, 30 Apr., 
1529. His wretched body to be buried 
in the south aisle, where his gravestone 
now lies. He bequeaths £fi 13s. 4d. for 
solemn dirge, Mass of requiem, his grave, 
and other observances about his burial; 
and has covenanted with Richard Lynde, 
the waxchandler, to provide torches, and 
other necessaries, for ;^3 6s. 8d. Pr, 

1534. Thomas Rvchardson, citizen and 
haberdasher, 11 July. In the cloister of 
the Black Friars. Pr. 12 Aug. 

1534. Robert Savage, citizen and leather- 
seller, 19 Mar., 1533-4. In the conventual 
church of the Black Friars, to whom he 
gives 20s. for his burial. Pr, 21 Aug, 

1535. Nicholas Hurleton, one of the 
clerks of the Green Cloth, 27 Nov., 153 1. 
In the conventual church. Adm, 2%Jun, 

1 536. Richard Walevs, Way lies, or Walleys, 
citizen and Salter, 8 Apr., 1529. In the 
upper cloister of the Black Friars, in the 
east aisle, before the Salutation of our 
Lady, where Joan his first wife lies buried, 
if he deceases within the city; and he 
gives 20s. for his laystowe. If he deceases 
out of the city, he is to be buried where it 
pleaseth God to purvey. Pr, 5 July and 
28 Feb,, 1536-7. 

1537. Robert Gestelyng, serving-man, of 
London, 14 June. At the Black Friars, in 
the cloister. Pr, 6 Jul, 

1537-8. Ralph Pexsall, Esq., 13 July, 
1537- III ^c south side of the church. 
Adm, 18 Feb. 

1538. Lady Jane Gilford, widow, 30 Aug. 
Within the Black Friars. She gives ;^2o 
to the Convent for burial and for prayers 
for the souls of her two husbands. Sir 
Thomas Brandon, Sir Henr^ Gilford, Lord 
Vaux, and others; and ^^lo to be dis- 
tributed at her burial among poor house- 
holders and poor people in London. Pr. 
18 Sept. 

Original Will. Hfnrv Burgh, Esq., i 
Feb., 1528-9. In the church. 

Norwich. 

1442-3. Simon Felbrugge, knt., 21 Sept., 
1442, at Norwic. In the choir of the 
church Pr. 20 Feb, 

1466-7. William Boteler, of Norwic, 



barber, 29 Sept., 1466. In the church. 
Pr. 9 Mar. 

1490. John Tillvs, gent, citizen and alder- 
man, 16 Aug. In the church. 

1499-1500. Thomas Carvnton, gent, 8 Aug., 
1499. In the south aisle, before the image 
of our Blessed Lady. Pr. 24 Feb. 

1503-4- John Smyth, citizen, ra^Tman, 
10 Sept., 1503. In the church. He 
bequeaths 30s. for repairing the house 
and breaking the ground where his body 
is to rest, and 4d to every Friar being a 
priest, and 2d. to every novice who are 
present at his burying, dirge, and mass of 
requiem. Pr. 19 Alar. 

1506-7. John Petirson, citizen and beer- 
brewer, 3 Aug., 1506. Honesdy in the 
church, by Katherine, his late wife. Pr. 

5 Feb. 

T510-11. John Hedge, clerk, parson of 
Bumham Thorp, 13 Oct, 15 10. Before 
our Lady, in the Black Friars. Pr. 
17 Feb. 

York. 

1448. Agnes Stapilton, widow of Brian 
Stapilton, knt., 27 Mar. To be buried 
in the church, next her husband. She 
She bequeaths five marks to the Prior and 
Brethren to pray for her soul and for her 
burial; and orders 33s. 4d. to be dis- 
tributed among the poor on the day of 
her interment. Pr. 1 Apr. 

Bristol. 

1405. John Wytloff, rector of Lodiswell, 

6 Mar., 1404-5. In the church. Pr, 
2 Apr. 

1 41 3. Ralph Lovell (clerk, Canon of 
Sarum), 16 Oct, at BristoU. In the con- 
ventual church. Pr. 22 Nov, 

1493. Thomas Hawlev, of Bristol!, point- 
maker, 17 Sept. Within the church, before 
the altar of St Saviour. He gives ^^5 to 
the Friars for his burial and their suffrages. 
Pr, 18 Oct, 

1502. John Herte, of Bristowe, tanner, 
6 Mar., 1501-2. Within the house and 
church. He bequeaths 20s. for his 
burial, dirge, and mass. Pr. 10 Mali. 

. Lady Berkeley, wife of Sir William 
Berkeley, of Stoke Gifford, co. Glouc., 
and mother of Lady Katharine Berkeley. 
See Dartford, 



X20 



BURIALS AT THE PRIORIES OF THE BLACK FRIARS. 



Shrewsbury. 

1 385-6. Alyne Lestraunge, lady of Knokyne, 
in the manor of Colham, and diocese of 
London, 4 Nov., 1384. In the choir of 
the church, next to her most reverend 
husband, Mons. Roger le Strange. Pr. 
viL kL Feb, 

Exeter. 

1470. John Thomas, of the parish of St. 
Petrocus, 31 May, 1469. In the church. 
Pr, 22 Matt, 

1497. Jane, late wife of Sir John Dynham, 
knt, 26 Jan., 1496-7. At the Black Friars, 
by her husband, where their tomb is made. 
Pr. 3 Nov. 

1518. John Colshili^ citizen and merchant, 
28 Apr. In the conventual church, before 
the image of St George, and next to the 
tomb of Peter Colshill, his brother, if 
he dies within the city, Pr. 20 Oct 

Winchester. 

1405. John Sutton, rector of Tun worth, 
the Monday after Passion Sunday (6 Apr.), 
at Wynton. In the church, if he dies in 
the city ; otherwise, in the nearest church 
wherever the separation of his body and 
soul takes place, as the Ix>rd disposeth. 
Pr, 28 Aug, 

Northampton. 

15 15. Everard Felding, knt, 19 Apr. 
Before the altar of our Blessed Lady, in 
the Black Friars. He bequeaths his best 
horse for his mortuary, and 20s. for his 
sepulture. Pr. 30 Apr, 

Cambridge. 

. Warbulton. Richard Warbulton, 
citizen and ironmonger of London, 4 Mar., 
1447-8, bequeaths 3s. 4d. to the Friar- 
Preachers here, where the body of his 
father lies buried, to pray for the souls of 
both of them. Pr. 1450. 

Gloucester. 

142 1. Thomas More, burgess and mercer, 
17 Apr., leaves his body to be buried in 
the church, and 6s. 8d. for the grave-pit. 
Pr, 6 Oct, 

1503. Richard Hoke, of Gloucester, cutler, 
14 Dec. In the church, before the image 
called le Rode of Petye. He bequeaths 



2S. 6d. to every house of Friar Preachers, 
Minors, and- Carmelites, to be at his 
exequies and mass on his burial-day. 

Beverley. 

1392. John Godard, 25 Apr. In the choir. 
Pr, 13 Mar, 

Stamford. 

1383. John de Guldeford, painter, citizen 
of London, 9 Aug., 1382. In the choir 
here ; but if he dies in London, then in 
the Priory of St. Bartholomew. Pr, 
25 Matt. 

1407-8. John Staumford, Esq., of this town, 
10 Oct., 1407. In the choir, on the south 
side at the entrance, and under the lamp 
hanging there. Pr, 4 Mar, 




a List of tbe 3lnt)entone0 of 
Cburcb (2^00110 mane temp. 
CDtoatti ID J. 

By William Page, F.S.A. 
[Contimud from p, 32, vol. xxiv.) 

COUNTIES OF LONDON AND MIDDLESEX. 

Chantry of John Hatherly. 

{Ex. Q. R. Miscel Ch, Gds,, f*.) 

Barking Chapel. 

Saynt Donstones-in^thc-Eaite. 

St. Michelles in Cornehill. 

St. Bartilmewes in Bredstret called Lit tell 

St. Bartilmewes. 
St. Dunstones*in-the-Weste. 
St. Edmondes in Ix)mbentrete. 

St. Stevens, Colmanstreet. 

{md,,\,) 
St. Michael in Huggin Lane. 

{H^id,, f ) 
St. Helens, Bishopsgate. 

{Ibid„\.) 
Saynte Faithes. 

{Ibiii., f) 
Name not given. 

Ubid,, |.) 
St. Swythyns at London Stone. 

{IM,, f.) 
St. Pancras. 

{Ibid,, t.) 
St. Olyne Upwell in the OM Jueryc. 

(/*/V.. ♦.) 



A UST OF THE INVENTORJES OF CHURCH GOODS, 



121 



COUNTIES OF LONDON AND MIDDLESEX 

Name not given. 

St Peters, CornhOl. 

Saint Botnlphes without Buidiopps Gate. 

St Maiy Abchorch. 

(/^.. A.) 
Maiy Magdalyn in Olde Fyshestrete. 

{/hid., A.) 
St Gabriels. 

St Laurence, Pountsney. 

(/Mt/., A. ) [Broad Street. 
Ljrttle Saynt Barthillmewes in the Ward of 

{/hd., iV.) 
AlhaOowesy Steyninge. 

Uiid,, A.) 
St Alphedge within Crepolgate. 

{JM., A.) 
St Mary Woichnrche. 

(/Wi.A.) 
St ICildred in Pnllebi in the Ward of Chepe. 

(/Wi/.,A.) 
St Mary Buthawe in Wallbrook. 

{M/., A.) 
St Vedast 

St Ohve in Hart Street 

(/Wri.A.) 
St BCargartes in Colman Strete Ward. 

{/hd^ A) 
Seynt BoColphes withoot Aldiychegate. 

{/hid.. A) 
Sainte Martyn Owtwich. 

(VW/., A) 
Seynt Myghells in Bassieshaw Ward. 

{THd., A) 
St Bcnet, Castell Baynard. 

{/hid.. A.) 
St. Anne and Agnes. 

{ISid., A) 
St Peters in West Cheap. 

{JHd„ AJ 
Saynte Katcxyn Crystchorch. 

{7Hd., A) 
St Stephens in Colman Street. 

{ML, A) 
St Matthew in Fridaye Strete. 

(/W., A) 
5>aynt Benedict, Graoechnrche. 

</W.. A) 
St John m Wallbrook. 

(TW/., A) 
St Dnnstane in the West 

ilM,, A) 
Saynte Marteyns within Ladgate. 

(/W., A) 
Osr Ladye at Bowe in Westchepe. 

</*fVi, A) 
St Mildred in Breadstreet 

{/hd. A) 
Seiot Magnujt. 

(TW., A) 
VOU XXIV. 



COUNTIES OF LONDON AND MIDDLESEX 

{eontinued), 

St. Ethelbnrga within Bisshopsgate. 

(/^lai.A.) 
Saint Edmond in Lombordstrete. 

{Uid., A.) 
All Hallose the less in Terns Strette. 

(/«rf.. AO 
[All Hallows, Honey Lane.] 

(y^v/.,A.) 

Saynt Martyn Pomary in the Ward of Cheap. 

(/*«£, A) 
St. Andrew Hubborde within the Ward of 
Byllingagate. 

(/W/.. A) 
St. Gyles without Crepulgate. 

(/&rV/.,A) 
St. Christofer in the Ward of Broad Street. 

{/did., A.) 
St Mary Stanynges. 

(/Si, A) 
Goods of chorches in Westminster. 

{/bid. A.) 
Sejrnt Benytte Fyncke in the Ward of 
Brodestrete. 

{/did. A) 
Alhallowes in Lumbordestrete. 

{/bid. A) 
Saint Nycholas Cold Abbey. 

{/bid.. A.) 
Saynt Mighdls at the Queme. 

{/bid.. A) 
Saynt Stephanes Walbrook. 

{/bid., A.) 
St Battolphes besydes Byllyngsgate. 

{/bid. A.) 
Seynt Margarett Moyses in Friday Street 

{/bid. A.) 
St Martin Orgar besid Candelwikstret. 

{/bid.. A.) 
St. Andrews in the [Wardr]obe. 

{/bid. A.) 
Saint Nicholas Aeon besid Lombardstret. 

{/bid.. A.) 
St John the Evangelystes in Bredstrete 
Warde. 

(/W., A) 
St Margaret Pattens. 

(/W^..A.) 

St. Mary Axe. 

{/bid., A.) 
ASmit noi given. 
St Mary Magdalen in Mylkstret 

{/bid., AO 
Trinity Parish in Queenhith Ward. 

{/bki.. A.) 
St Margaret in New Fishstreet 

{/bid.. A.) 
St Botolph without Aldgate. 

l/bid. A) 
St Denis Back Church. 

{/bid. A.) 
St Pauls Cathedral. 

{/bid.. A.) 
St. Albans within Cnpplcgate. 

{/bid.. A.) 

R 



122 



THE CONGRESS OF ARCHMOLOGICAL SOCIETIES. 




Clie Congte00 of archaeological 

^ocletteiB!. 

I HE third annual Congress of archaeological 
societies in union with the Society of 
Antiquaries was held at Burlington House 
on Thursday, July 23, Dr. Evans, F. R. S. , 
the President of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, in the chair. The following associations were 
represented by one or more delegates, so that, as the 
officers and Council of the Society of Antiquaries were 
also present, there was a considerable gathering of 
representative antiquaries : Royal Archaeological In- 
stitute of Great Britain and Ireland, British Archaeo- 
logical Association, the Roval Society of Antiquaries 
of Ireland, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, 
Huguenot Society of London, Society for Preserving 
Memorials of tne Dead, Berkshire Archseologicsd 
Society, Birmingham and Midland Institute (Archaeo- 
logical Section), Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeo- 
logical Society, Bucks Architectural and Archaeological 
Society, Cambridge Antiquarian Society, Chester 
Archaeological and Historical Society, Royal Institu- 
tion of Cornwall, Cumberland and Westmorland 
Archaeological and Architectural Society, Derbyshire 
Archaeological and Natural History Society, Essex 
Archaeological Society, Hampshire Field Club, Kent 
Archaeological Society, Lancashire and Cheshire 
Antiquarian Society, Leicestershire Architectural and 
Archaeological Society, London and -Middlesex 
Archaeological Society, Norfolk and Norwich Archaeo- 
logical Society, Oxfordshire Archaeological Society, 
Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History 
Society, Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural His- 
tory Society, Surrey Archaeological Society, Sussex 
Archaeological Society, Wiltshire Archaeological and 
Natural History Society, Woolhope Naturalists' Field 
Club (Hereford), and Yorkshire Archaeological and 
Topographical Association. 

The first subject for discussion was the extension of 
the Ancient Monuments Act. General Pitt-Rivers 
remarked that he was appointed to the office of In- 
spector of Ancient Monuments at the time of the 
passing of the Act in 1882, and after seven years' ex- 
])erience of this permissive Act, the aetion of the 
Government became so passive that, as owners were 
no longer encouraged to put more monuments under 
control, he offered to resign his position ; but eventu- 
ally he consented to retain it nominally, though draw- 
ing no salary. He must confess the Act was not 
doing, and had not done, a great deal of good, 
although it had been successful to a certain extent. 
The best of the owners were persuaded to place their 
prehistoric monuments under the operations of the 
Act without much difficulty; but over those who 
wished to destroy or who were culpably careless he 
had no control. Then, again, the full penalty of £^ 
was absurdly inadequate. Whilst recognising the 
great care taken by most landowners, and anxious not 
to unduly interfere with the rights of property, he 
thought the Government should have some power to 
veto destruction. The Chairman (Dr. Evans) spoke 
more especially on the subject of Sir John Lubbock's 
Bill of the present session, whereby he proposes to 
e^ tend the permissive clauses of the Act of 1882 to 



monuments of a later date, and reported that the 
Society of Antiquaries had supported the principle of 
the Bill by a resolution in March, 1891. He alv) 
stated that in 1872, at the suggestion of the then 
First Commissioner of Works, the Society of Anti- 
quaries had with much trouble drawn up an elabo«»te 
list of sepulchral monuments throughout the kingdom 
that were specially worthy of national care, but 
nothing further came of it. General Pitt-Rtvers fully 
agreed that many of our mediaeval monuments and 
remains were quite as worthy (if not more yo) of pre- 
servation as those that were termed prehistoric, and 
said that he wished some veto power on dcstmction 
could be devised to save the medi;evai as well a& the 
early monuments. But he thought that it was only 
very occasionally that vandalism occurred, and that it 
would not be fair to the landowners or satisfactory to 
the taxpayers to attempt to alienate from ppvate 
estates those portions whereon stood so many historic 
ruins. The Rev. C. R. Manning instanced Notfolk 
cases of destruction, and Chancellor Ferguson spoke 
of the disastrous use of Bewcastle as a quany fur 
building stones. Rev. Dr. Cox said he was disposed 
to go further than the Inspector of Ancient Monu- 
ments. A power of veto would often be of no good ; 
the remains might be permanently defaced or removed 
before any authority could be set in motion. If, how- 
ever, a schedule was drawn up of those monuments 
which were not to be touched or destroj^ under 
some very heavy penalty, even without the nation 
acquiring the site, much good misht be done. But 
something ought also to be done with regard to ihtac 
fine remains the owners of which either wilfully or 
ignorantly permitted their steady deterioration, lie 
instanced the extensive and £uned ruins of Rieraailx 
Abbey. During the five years he had lived in thai 
neighbourhood he had been a frequent visitor, and 
although the owner (the Earl of Feversham) now 
charged one shilling entrance, sad deterioration w&s 
noticeable year by year, particularly in the walls of 
the noble fratry. Lord Feversham would doubtless 
never permit active vandalism ; but it was an almost 
equivalent evil, though the motive was difierent, to 
suffer great trees to grow up in the walls, and im- 
mense masses of ivy to overhang, so that cvenr gale of 
wind shook and dislodged the masonry. The oolj 
piece of the original stone groining of the roof now 
remaining would almost certainly perish from thi>. 
cause before another season* If owners, noble or 
otherwise, neglected to maintain such historic monu^ 
inents, the State should step in, take charge, and do 
the necessary work. The Dean of Winchester said 
that he thoroughly supported Dr. Cox, for he had 
smarted much through the neglect and carelessness uf 
those owning historic remains. The right of inspec- 
tion and the right of registration of all such monu- 
ments required much extension. Because anyone 
had accidentally been bom in the possession (^. or 
had afterwards acquired, that which was of ancient 
historic interest, the fact did not in the slightest 
degree justify careless or wanton treatments The 
State was the true owner, and should preserve them 
for the people and for the nation at huge. He men- 
tioned that the new and excellent Bishop of Win- 
Chester, desiring to live closer to his work« was wtshfd 
to dispose of a palace that had been King Alfred*!. 
and that possessed various Anglo-Saxon remains. If 



THE CONGRESS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETIES. 



123 



it was sold it was ^uite possible that a road would be 
driven over the site, and this ancient building de- 
stroyed. The State ought to have the power instantly 
fo step in and check such action. His views might 
be, and were to a great extent, socialistic, but it was 
only by the operation of such views that national 
monuments coidd be preserved for the nation. Mr. 
Gainett, C.B., spoke of instances of gross mistreat- 
ment of monuments during church restorations in 
Wales. Mr. St. John Hope pointed out that one 
reason why so many ancient monuments had not been 
placed under the present Act was that the owners 
could see no appreciable danger or decay in earthwork 
such as Old Sarum, or in rude-stone monuments such 
as Stonchenge ; but if the principle was extended to 
the best of mediaeval stonework, he felt sure that 
owners, who regretted the deterioration that they 
noticed year by year, would be glad to put sucn 
buildings under State control and repair. Mr. Ralph 
Nevill, F.S.A., thought that many of the intelligent 
middle-class were more alive to the value of the re- 
mAXDS under discussion than the landowners. Event- 
ually, after further discussion, and after it had been 
slated that Sir John Lubbock would probably reintro- 
duce a similar measure next session, the two following 
resolutions were unanimously carricKl : 

*' That this Congress, having taken into considera- 
tion the draft of a Bill to extend the Ancient Monu- 
ments Protection Act, 1882, beg to express to Sir 
John Lubbock their approval of the principles therein 
involved. 

" That in the opinion of this Congress it is desir- 
able that the Government should have some powers 
that would enable them to prevent the destruction of 
andent monuments by the owners, whether private or 
corporate." 

The next questi6n was Parish Registers and Records. 
At the last Congress a strong committee was ap- 
pointed to deal with this (question, of which Dr. 
Freshiield, V.-P.S.A., is chairman, and Mr. Ralph 
Nevill is hon. secrets^. Mr. Nevill read the re- 
|x>rt and suggestions, and expressed a hope that they 
would soon be able to issue an alphabet of register 
characters, and also a list of all the re|[isters that had 
lie^n printed, which list the societies in union might 
like to bind up with their respective proceedings. In 
the discussion that followed, Mr. Green, F.S.A., 
»poke in favour of the old suggestion of bringing all 
fftiriah registers to London ; but this was promptly 
opposed by Chancellor Ferguson, who eventually 
earned most of the Congress with him. Ultimately 
1: «*i agreed, " That the report of the Parish Regis- 
ters and Records Committee be received and the com* 
mittee continued, and that a sum of ;f 5 be placed at 
their disposal.'' 

It was also aj^eed that each society in union pay a 
subicription of one guinea towards the expenses of 
the Congress. 

The continuation of the Archaeological Survey of 
England on the tines laid down by Mr. George Payne 
in his map of Kent was brought before the meeting. 
The President announced that the map and index to 
the aichseology of Hertfordshire, which he was pre- 
paring, wouldbe issued doing the next few months. 
Chancellor Ferguson report^ good progress with 
regard to the survey of Cumberland and Westmor- 



land, the index, covering iifty-two pages, being 
already in type. It was also stated that the surveys 
of Berkshire and Surrey were actively progressing. 
This is one good result that has already ensued from 
these congresses. 

The next subject brought before the Congress was 
a classified inaex of archaeological papers. Upon 
this question there was at first considerable divergence 
of opinion, some being in favour of all the societies 
contributing an account of their papers year by year 
to a scientific and archaeological year-book of a par- 
ticular publisher, whilst the majority wished that the 
work should be entrusted to some known antiquary, 
and that the result should be sent annually to the 
different societies. At last, as a compromise, the 
following resolution was adopted by a considerable 
majority : 

" That this meeting is of opinion that it is desirable 
that the index as suggested should be prepared under 
the authority of tr^ Congress, and that the best 
method of carrying this out be referred to the Stand- 
ing Committee." 

The question of a memorial to the Government for 
a grant towards constructing models of ancient monu- 
ments was, at the suggestion of General Pitt-Rivers, 
deferred. 

The Standing Committee for the Societies in Union 
for the current year was next elected. It consists of 
the officers of the Society of Antiquaries, E. P. 
Loftus Brock, F.S.A., the Rev. J. C. Cox, LL.D., 
F.S.A., W. Cunnington, F.G.S., the Rev. P. H. 
Ditchfield, Chancellor Ferguson, F.S.A., G. L. 
Gomme, F.S.A., H. Gosselin, Ralph Nevill, F.S.A., 
George Payne, F.S.A., and Earl Percy, V.-P.S.A, 

After an adjournment, the Congress resumed, when 
the Director of the Society of Antiquaries (Mr. Mil- 
man) took the diair, whilst the President, Dr. 
Evans, delivered an interestii^, humorous, and^ com- 
prehensive address "On the Forgery of Antiquities. " 
He said that jt was mainly founded upon a paper on 
this subject that he read before the Royal InsUtution 
twenty-five years ago, and printed in their Trans- 
actions ; but he pleaded that for that very reason it 
would be sure to be original to his hearers, as that 
was a sure process of consigning it to oblivion I The 
economic law of supply equalling the demand was as 
true of antiquities as of anything else, and it seemed 
always to be the case that, if there was any keen de- 
mand for possession of any particular class of antiques, 
in due course gentlemen were found who were suffi- 
ciently obliging m exercising their talents to ensure all 
being gratified with that which they coveted. It 
should be remembered that there were both counter- 
feits and forgeries. The counterfeit was a reproduc- 
tion of something genuine, whilst the pure forgery was 
the invention of a something that had never existed at 
the time to which it was assigned. Literary forgeries 
had been numerous : there were the false Gospels, 
and the inventions of Chatterton and Ireland ; whilst 
quite within their own time there had been the publi- 
cation of Shakespearian glosses which were certainly 
not above consiaerable suspicion. Forged inscrip- 
tions were very old ways of attempting to deceive 
the unwary. Three centuries ago there was a rage 
for the production of highly imaginative Roman in- 
scriptions, one of the most comical of which was a 

K 2 



124 



THE CONGRESS OF ARCHMOLOGICAL SOCIETIES, 



memorial of Tarquin to his dearest wife Lucretia. 
Roman pottery, genuine enough in itself, has often 
been made the vehicle of inscriptions added to en- 
hance its value, whilst Roman tiles have been punc* 
tured with le^onary marks added centuries after they 
were baked in the kiln. Antique gems have long 
been the subject of most ingenious counterfeits ; but 
some of the really beautiful work in this direction of 
the seventeenth, sixteenth, and even fifteenth centuries 
has apparently been done as a reproduction with 
certain added features, rather than with any intention 
to deceive. Many examples, too, of genuine classic 
work have been added to or altered to suit the times 
— such as the addition of a nimbus to a beautiful 
female antique cameo bust in order to change 
it into a representation of the Blessed Virgin. Very 
few collections of Etruscan and Greek vases can be 
inspected by the practised eye without the detection 
of some fraudulent examples, or of those that have 
been "improved" in modem times. The majolica 
of Palissy has been so successfrilly reproduced of late 
years, that it is difficult to detect sometimes the falsity 
of examples that claim to be the original ware. 
Wonderful ingenuity has been expended on china ; 
plain examples, for instance, of genuine Sevres, in- 
contestably marked, have been scraped, and royal 
colours and special devices have been applied in fresh 
paste and successfully fired. Limoees enamels are 
another fruitful source of fraudulent imitation, whereby 
a rich harvest has been secured from the unwary. 
Some exhibited as genuine at the recent Manchester 
Exhibition were detected. Ancient elass has not 
often been exposed to the forger's art ; but even here 
false incrustations have b^n sometimes skilfully 
applied to give an appearance of extreme age. Coins, 
as might be expecte^d, are one of the most fruitful 
sources of fraud. There are a great variety of ancient 
base coins, both counterfeit and altered. Some of 
the early and contemporary counterfeits occasionallv 
possess almost as much interest as the originals, if 
not more. The gold and silver coins of most of the 
emperors were reproduced plated on iron or on some 
heav3r base metal; and it is curious to note that 
prominent amongst these clever forgers were our 
ancestors the ancient Britons, of whose productions 
the speaker possessed several examples m his own 
collection. Some amusingly ingenious coins bore 
their confutation on the face, save to the most credu- 
lous — ^as, for instance, a head of Priam with a view of 
Troy on the reverse ; and Dr. Evans thought he had 
seen Dido with the reverse occupied by Carthage I 
Sovereigns for whose memorv there was any popular 
sentiment were generally well supplied with coinage. 
Mary, Queen of Scots, was singularly well off in this 
respect ; whilst coins were extant declaring LAdy 
Jane Grey Queen of England, which would, of course, 
be of surpassing interest, provided they were genuine. 
Richard Coeurde Lion was a most popular monarch 
in English estimation, at all events now that centuries 
removed us from his time. Cabinets of coins lacked 
any of this reign ; but an ingenious forger of the name 
of Singleton undertook to supply them, only, unfortu- 
natelv for the success of his scheme, he reproduced 
details of the pennies of William I. and II., which 
were too early for the time of Richard. Here, amid 
much amusement, the President produced a coin that 
he said would have been that of Richard I. if he had 



produced any ; it was one that he himself haxl coo* 
structed by using dies that he had spedally eogrmwd 
on a worn fourpenny piece of William iV* I The 
fact is that Richard had no coins of his own, but om* 
tinued to reproduce those of his father Henry. Cams 
fairly old in themselves have often l>een used as the 
medium of greater reputed age ; thus a crown of 
Elizabeth is extant showing through the lettering an 
only partially obliterated <*Gulielmu8 Tertnts.** 
Becker, at the end of last century, was the clever en- 
graver of a number of counterfeit Greek and Roman 
coins. To give the requisite surface of worn age to 
his reproductions, it was his ingenious method to en- 
close nis specimens in a box containing a number of 
iron filings, and then to take the box out for a drive 
or two on the jolting roads of his day 1 After Becker 
had supplied so large a number of his counterfeits as 
almost to glut the market, he cooUy turned rounil 
and confes^, and turned an honest penny hf pro- 
ducing sets of his dies, so that now there are few nf 
our laree collections that do not possess spodroens of 
Becker's dies. Another style of prevalent deceit is 
the finding of coins in special localities. This is 
peculiarly the case with London, where there b hardly 
ever an excavation for foundations but coins — often uf 
the most absurdly unlikely description, such as Greek 
or Alexandrian, and sometimes of quite a modem 
date — are " found" by clever workmen, sometimes at 
fabulous depths. Some thirty years ago there was a 
large manuractory of " old " lead and pewter aztides, 
said to be found during the construction of the docks 
at Shad well. Reliquaries and impossible heart- 
shaped vessels were turned out, on which a date «a> 
generally stamped of the eleventh or twelfth centniy ; 
but they blundered in giving the year in Arabic 
numerals two or three centuries before such nomeraU 
were in use. These forgeries were sown almost every- 
where, and, notwithstanding their clumsiness (sevcraJ 
examples were produced for the benefit of the Congre&s). 
evidently commanded a good market The I^esidcnt 
said that he had even had these things of ''cock 
metal " sent over to him from the diamond fields of 
South Africa, where it was alleged that they had been 
disinterred at the depth of three feet from the surfaoc 
Mr. Reed some years ago laid a trap for these 
gentlemen. He inquired of some of the workmen in 
London who were in the habit of producing thcM? 
things if it was true that they had found (me with (he 
figure of a bishop upon it. No, they had seen nothing 
of it Then, producing paper and pendl, he drew 
the kind of thing he meant with lettenng below. Ah, 
yes, they believed one of their mates Imd tiimed up 
something a bit like it, and they would Uy to find 
him. Accordingly, in a day or two, a corroded quin- 
reliquary was produced to Mr. Reed with the efiigy 
of a bishop thereon, and, lo I below the figure they 
had put his own lettering of *'Sanctus Fabricatus" ! 
This trade in leaden foiigeries seems now to liave 
dropped out, and fabrications in brass have taken its 
place. An ancient dag|Kr was produced of recent 
manufacture, and several members of the Coof^ros 
testified to having seen or had offered to them Uir 
examples. Carvings in ivory, both of ecdesiasticil 
and classical designs, are not uncommon modern 
forgeries. As an example of the latter dass Dr. 
Evans produced a small long-toothed comb, on the 
handle portion of wluch was a wolf and Romoloa and 



THE CONGRESS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETIES 



"S 



Remus cleverly carved in a sunk medallion. This, 
he said, was a modem forgery from the Rhine district 
The foiled ecclesiastical ivories are produced in the 
sooth of France. Seals have been sometimes forged, 
particnlarly those of a rare kind, such as those en- 
graved on jet The operations of " Flint Jack " and 
other less skilful followers of his trade are well known 
in their imitations of flint and stone implements. 
Perhaps the cleverest work ever accomplished by 
Flint Jack was the working of a fossil alleged to be 
taken out of the chalk. Of late a school of forpers 
have been at work in the neighbourhood of Eppmg, 
producing polished stone hatchets, of which some ex- 
amples were exhibited. They can, however, be de- 
tected without much trouble by the practised eye, 
because they are produced on revolving grindstones, 
whilst the original were patiently polishol and worked 
on flat stones. Flint arrow-heads were a specialty of 
the notorious Flint Jack ; but the President was able 
to produce two such perfect examples of his own 
forging that they were calculated to deceive even the 
most experienced. They had bc«n worked by him as 
experiments ; one of them was the result of pressure 
applied from pieces of stag's horn, and the otner was 
formed by means of stone tools. Palaeolithic weapons 
and implements from the gravel drift have also oeen 
made largely in modem days. They can usually be 
detected ^ the absence of (i) lime incrustations and 
the discoloration thereby produced ; of (2) dendritic 
markings that look like tracings of twigs, but are 
caused by manganese ; or of (3) bright spots where 
they have been brought into contact with other flints. 
At Amiens, however, the workmen who dispose of 
these palaeolithic implements have discoverea an in- 
genious way of proaudng the action of water as a 
solvent on the freshly chipped edges of their counter- 
feits. Their plan is to let these stones lie for months 
in the boilers!^ the side of their stoves before offer- 
ing them for sale. The fevourite reproduction of the 
bronze age is the socketed celt ; but one of the 
simplest ways of detecting the counterfeits is through 
their beinp; made of too heavy metal. At the conclu- 
MOO of this address, which was obviously much appre- 
ciated, a brief discussion took place, Mr. Muman 
noticing some of the forgeries in connection with old 
plate and plate marks. Chancellor Ferguson pointing 
out that sometimes, without any fraudulent intent, old 
inscriptions had been renewed on later plate, and 
Mr. Loftus Brock., F.S.A., expressing a hope that 
illustrations of the more common modem frauds might 
be drcttlated among the different societies. 

The last question was *' Field Names," upon which 
Dr. Cox (the chief originator of these congresses) read 
a brief paper, adding certain extemporary remarks 
and suggestions. The chid' value of me paper lay in 
the information it gave as to the whereabout of the 
old award or enclosure maps as well as the later tithe 
commutation maps, showing where duplicate copies 
ore or ought to be kept in case those that should be in 
the parish chest are missing or stolen. He showed 
how often and how entirely illegally these maps find 
their way to solicitors' offices or to the agents of big 
estates. He recommended that the different county 
societies should take up the highly important and 
most valuable question of field names, marking them 
00 the larger sheets of the Ordnance Survey. At the 
coocfaxsion of Dr. Cox's paper and remarks, he was 



asked by Mr. Seth Smith and others to publish that 
which he had stated, a course which it seems desirable 
should be followed. It was considered that the sub- 
ject should be taken up specially at some future con- 
gress, when more progress had been made with the 
archaeological surv^s. Dr. Cox promised to produce 
next year maps of his own parish and of adjoining 
districts filled up in the way that he thought was de- 
sirable. 

In the evening most of the members of the Congress 
dined together at the Holbom Restaurant — [By per- 
mission from the AthetuBum.^ 




l^toceeDjngis ann IPutiltcatton? of 
9tc|)a^olO0tcal ^octetieis. 

[ TTiough the Editor takes the responsibility for the form 
in which these notes appear^ they art all specially con- 
tributed to the ** Antiquary^** and are, in the first 
instance f supplied by accredited correspondents of the 
different districts. \ 

Wb reserve our account of special features of the 
Edinburgh Congress of the Royal ARCHiCOLOGiCAL 
Institute (August 11 to August 18), and of the York 
Congress of the British ARCHiCOLOGiCAL Associa- 
tion (August 17 to August 24), until the issue of the 
October number. 

^ ^ ^e 

The third number of the thirteenth volume of the 
second series of the Proceedings of the Society of 
Antiquaries eives an account of the sessions of the 
society from November 27, 1890, to April 9, 1891. 
At pp. 198-200 there is an account of the desecration 
of the tomb of Edward IV. at Windsor in 1789, when 
most of the long brown hair was stolen bv the work- 
men. A lock of this hair is in the society s collection 
at Burlington House, and two other locks are traced, 
one being that lately described in the Antiquary vX 
the Brighton Museum. We are able to mention the 
existence of another lock not here named, namely, 
one that is in thepossession of Lord Kenyon at Gred- 
dington Hall. Tnere is a good illustration of a re- 
markable fourteenth-century earthenware candlestick 
found at Revesby, Lincolnshire, described by Mr. 
W. H. St John Hope. A curious little inscribed 
leaden vessel, dug up at Wilsford, Wilts, exhibited on 
January 29 by Mr. Nightingale, F.S.A., is here 
described and illustrated. Mr. Franks believed it to 
be a mediaeval inkpot Another illustration gives a 
frill-size drawing of a silver wait's collar and badge 
pertaining to the City of Bristol ; it is one of four 
exhibited by Mr. W. H. St John Hope. 

-*? ^ ^ 

The last quarterly issue of the Journal of the Royal 

ARCHiCOLOGICAL INSTITUTE (voL xlviiL, No. I90) 

contains an interesting paper on "Some Tombs in 
Crete of the Age of Mycenae," by Rev. J. Hirst. To 
this succeeds a brief paper from Mr. Peacock, F.S.A., 
on "Our Lady of Pity," wherein he enumerates 
various representations of the Blessed Virgin with the 
dead Chnst in her lap. Of the most remarkable 
extant English example a photographic plate b given. 



126 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



This is the alabaster Pieta found under the floor of 
Breadsall Church, Derbyshire, in 1877. It is an ex- 
quisite piece of alabaster sculpture. Mr. Peacock 
refers to the account and sketch given of it in the 
journal of the Archieological Association for 1878, 
but it was first described with a ^ood deal of detail, 
and illustrated by Rev. Dr. Cox, in the third volume 
oi Derbyshire Churches ^ which wasgoing through the 
press at the time of the discovery. Mr. Peacock gives 
a useful list of examples of Pietas that he has met 
with in the course of his readings ; it might be con- 
siderably extended. Thus, in Cox and Hope's 
Chronicles of All Saints ^ Derby ^ " Verges before the 
Mary of Pity " occurs in the churchwarden accounts 
for i486 ; in the church of Stogursey, Somerset, 
there was a painting of Our Lady of Pity (Bishop 
Hobhouse's Churchwarden Accoutits) ; there were 
also Pietas at the cathedral churches of Lichfield and 
York, and they are named in the inventories of several 
English abbeys. The third paper is the first part of 
"Arsenals and Armouries in Southern Germany and 
Austria," by that great authority on all that pertains 
to armour, the Baron de Cosson, F.S. A. Mr. Bunnell 
Lewis, F.S. A., contributes an article on ** The Roman 
Antiquities of Augsburg and Ratisbon ;" Mr. James 
Hilton, F.S. A., gives "Further Remarks on Jade;" 
whilst Mr. Emanuel Green, F.S. A., writes "Notes 
on Bath as a Roman City." Several shorter articles 
and notes of interest complete an unusually good 
number of the Institute JoumaL 

^ ^ ^ 

The July excursion of the archaeological section of 
the Birmingham and Midland Institute was 
made by rail to Ivingswood. Mr. Cossins (hon. sec.) 
was the leader, and explained the features of the 
buildings visited which required special attention. 
On leaving Kingswood Station the party walked across 
the fields to I^pworth. There they saw the pictu- 
resque church, built in the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries, on the site of the earlier Norman building. 
Of this a specimen has survived in a small window, 
which has oeen left above the north arcade of the 
nave, and gives rise to many conjectures as to the 
cause of its being left. Were there archaeologists in 
those days, who desired that their remote successors 
should see something of that which they were " re- 
storing," by a process too familiar to-day, namely, 
pulling it down, and putting something entirely dif- 
ferent in its place ? Tne south wall of the nave is the 
old Norman wall, raised by the addition of thirteenth- 
century windows, its Norman windows having been 
unceremoniously decapitated, and in other places 
traces can be seen of tne earlier building. There are 
signs of several altars, and over the western porch a 
chapel exists presenting curious features. After visit- 
ing the rectory gardens, and admiring the church and 
its battlements, rising picturesquely, tier upon tier, 
with the tower and a spire in the background, in their 
unusual position at the end of the north transept, the 
members walked to Packwood House, the beauties of 
whose half-timbered front are now shrouded by a coat 
of rough-cast, and admired the quaint old garden, 
with its Portugal laurel hedges, and its corkscrew walk 
through a labyrinth of box to the top of the mound 
beyond it Aiter noticing the many sundials which 
ornament the house and outbuildixigs, and the fine 



stables and the Tacobean woodwork of the stalls, the 
members proceeded to the church, where the Rev. P. 
E. Wilson courteously showed the interior, the remains 
of the diapering here and there, and the entry in the 
register of the maniage of Dr. Johnson's UAitj ajui 
mother. Close by, within its moat, is Packwood 
Hall, an interesting example of the domestic archi- 
tecture of our ancestors, its tiny hall, with staircase 
leading to the private rooms, being based on the same 
ideas as the majestic Westminster Hall. 

^ft^ ^Aff ^B^ 

^ro ^^V ^^^ 

The thirty-sixth volume of Proceedings has just been 
issued to members of the Sombrsbtshirb Arciiao 
logical and Natural History Society, and, as 
usual, it is full of more than local interest The forty - 
second annual general meeting of the society was hdti 
at Castle Cary on Wednesday, August 37, 1890, and 
following days, and much interest was shown in the 
recent excavations, by which the site of the ancient 
Castle of Cary was for the first time discovered. 
After the reports of the council and of the Somerset 
Record Society had been read, the president, Mr. 
Henry Hobhouse, M.P., gave an excellent address, 
which will be found in Part I. of the Proceedings, in 
which he warmly advocated a New History cj tki 
County, to be undertaken by the society, by means of 
local and district committees. This project was weU 
supported, and a tentative scheme hsis already been 
issued. Part II. contains some very valuable papers^ 
of which the following is a list: "Camelot, by the 
late Rev. J. A. Bennett, F.S. A. ; "The Barony of 
Beauchamp of Somerset," by John Batten, F.S.iV ; 
"Castle Cfary Churchwardens^ Accounts, i628-99t" by 
the Rev. Preb. Grafton; "Early Sculptured Slonc 
at West Camel Church," by the Rev, Professor 
Browne ; ** Inscribetl Stone on Winsford Hill," by 
J. LI. Warden Page ; " Disttribution ol the Ptalaocaoic 
Strata," by W. A. E. Usshcr ; " Heraldry in the 
Manor House and Church of North Cadbory," Jjy 
A. J. Jewers, F.S. A. ; "The Site of Cary Castle/' 
by R. R C. Gregory; "The Forest-trees of Somer- 
set," by E. Chisholm Batten ; " In Memoriam — Rev. 
J, A. Bennett (late secretary), F. H. Dickinson, 
F.S. A., and Rev. H. M. Scarth.'* The volume b 
exceedingly well illustrated, and is issued to non- 
meml^ers at los. 6d. A meeting of the society was 
held at Crewkeme on August 17, of which an account 
will be given in our next issue. 

^ ^ ^ 

The annual meeting of the Wilts Arcil%ologicai 
AND Natural History Society was held at Wilton 
on July 29, 30, and 31. At the opening meetings 
under the presidency of Lieut -Gen. Pitt •Rivers, F.R»6.. 
F.S. A., the annual report was read, showing that the 
society was in a flourishing condition, having 378 
members at present, as against 369 last yeai» Re- 
ference was made to the great loss the &ociet>* hod 
sustained by the death of Canon Jackson, F.S. A., who 
had been so intimately connected with its fortunes 
from the very first, and a resolution was adopted to 
collect subscriptions at once towards enlarging the 
society's museum at Devizes as a memori^ to \xm> 
memory. A discussion followed on what Wiltshire anti* 
quaries consider the unfortunate \a£\ thai the Society 
of Antiquaries of London has become possessed of a 
large coUectioD of the late canon's papds and ootes of 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



127 



county libtory which they thought would have been 
far more profitably placed in £e Wiltshire Society's 
Libsuy at Devizes. The members then proceeded to 
visit the different objects of interest in the town. The 
Ho^hal of St. John the Baptist, founded in 1 190, for 
a pnoT and certain poor men and women, still retains 
its fifteenth - centui^r chapel and a part of its 
fourteenth-century buildings, and both the poor in- 
mates and the prior who retains his title benefit still 
by the old foundation. The old parish church, now 
an ivy<overed ruin^ shows remains of good Perpen- 
dicular work, whilst the gorgeous new church, con- 
taining exceedingly interesting remains of thirteenth- 
eentufy French glass and Italian cosmati mosaic work 
of the same date, which once formed a shrine in St. 
Maria Maggiore at Rome. A visit to the carpet fac- 
tory of Messrs. Yates and Co., where the famous 
Axminster carpets are still made, as the president 
pointed out, by hand labour, and with precisely the 
same tools as those used in prehistoric days, and a 
reception at the house of the mayor, Mr. Pardoe 
Yates, brought the afternoon to a close. The annual 
dinner followed, with a conversazione in the evening, 
at which General Pitt-Rivers ^ve a most interesting 
account of the results of his £ggings in Wans Dyke 
last year, exhibiting the few o^ects found there — 
some small bits of Samian pottery, a few iron nails, 
and a knife-blade, and the iron cleat of a sandaL No 
coins had been found in the work, so that the date 
could not be exactly fixed, but the whole evidence 
went to prove that the Wans Dyke was either Roman 
or post-Koman, and not pre-Roman as had been 
formerly supposed. The date of Bokerly D^ke had 
been fixed by the number of coins found in it as not 
tarliir than the time of Honorius, and it was probable 
that Wans Dyke may have been thrown up at a period 
not very remote from that of the Southern Dyke. 
General Pitt-Rivers relied a good deal upon the iron 
sandal cleat as proving this, many precisely similar 
cleats having been found in Bokerly Dyke. The 
second paper of the evening was an interesting one 
by the Rev. W. R. Andrews, on the "Geology of 
the Vale of Wardour. On the 30th the party started 
in brakes for a long day's excursion to Bolcerly, Farn- 
ham, and Rushmore. The first stoppage was made 
at Bokerly Dyke, where the president described the 
excavations he had made in the dyke itself and the 
neighbouring settlement. At Famham a considerable 
time was spent in inspecting the deeply-interesting 
museum of agricultural implements and peasant indus- 
tries whidi General Pitt- Rivers has formed here for 
the advantage of the people of the neighbourhood. 
Here are deposited the marvellously accurate models 
to scale of the excavations he has made in the Romano- 
Britudi villages of Rotherley, and wood-cuts in 
Bokerly Dyke, Winklebury, and other places, to- 
gether with the objects discovered in them, and in 
addition a very large collection ^thered from all parts 
of the world, of everything beanng on agriculture and 
peasant life, peasant dresses, jewellery, and orna- 
ments from Brittany, Roumania, and Hungary ; 
pottery, iron, and brass-work, wood-carvings, flint, 
bronze, and iron implements and weapons ; a series 
of traps for catching everything from men to otters, 
and numberless other things all arranged, classified, 
and marked with explanatory labels, in the careful way 
that distinguishes the whole of the General's collec- 



tions.^ This museum, which is probably unique of its 
kind in England, is alone worth a long journey ; but 
time pressed, and the party went on, by the grounds 
of the ** Larmer-tree," to King John's House, at 
Tollard Roval. This, which until the last few years 
was a farmhouse, was apparently of Tudor date, but 
on stripping the walls of piaster it was discovered that 
a great part of it was of thirteenth-century date, re- 
taining several of its original windows. It was then 
carefully restored by General Pitt-Rivers, and thrown 
open to the public as a picture gallery containing 
original examples illustrating the progress of art from 
the mummy portraits of the Fayoum in the second 
century through the Bjrzantines, and Margaritone 
d'Arezzo to the Italian and Flemish masters, and so 
down to modem times. Thence the party drove to 
Rushmore, where they were most hospitably enter- 
tained at lunch by General and Mrs. Pitt- Rivers in a 
room adorned with magnificent portraits hy Gains- 
borough, of the first Lord Rivers and Lady Ligonier. 
After lunch the treasures of the house were inspected. 
Bronze, iron, and gold implements, arms, armour, 
and opaments; Greek, Roman, Celtic, Hungarian, 
etc. ; indeed, a great deal more than the time at their 
disposal allowed the members to see before they had 
to hurry off to catch the train to Wilton. In the 
eveniiijg, in the absence of the president, the Bishop 
of Salisbury took the chair, and two valuable papers 
were read, one on " Wilts Bibliography," by Rev. C. 
W. Holgate, in which he unfolded a proposal to deal 
with this interestiiig subject, and one by Rev. Pardoe 
Yates on the "Wilton Carpet Industry," in which he 
traced the history of the manufacture from the be- 
ginning, at the end of the seventeenth century, to the 
present time. On the 31st a smaller party of mem- 
bers started to visit the churches of the Chaike Valley. 
Combe Bissett, with interesting twelfth - century 
arcades, and good fifteenth-century additions ; Strat- 
ford Tony, with curious thirteenth-century font and 
remarkable Jacobean woodwork, were successively 
visited ; and then the party came to Bishopstone, with 
its very rich and beautiful fourteenth-century chancel 
and transepts. Here they lingered a long while, 
admiring the singularly fine effect of the exterior, spe- 
culating on the meaning of the curious coeval buildmg 
attached to the outside of the south transept, which 
has hitherto defied explanation, and inspecting the 
rich sedilia and other details of the interior, and the 
valuable specimens of wood-carving, chiefly foreign, 
of which there is so much in the pulpit, reading-desk, 
and choir-stalls. Thence they proceeded to Broad 
Chaike, a remarkable building chiefly of late four- 
teenth-century date, with an abnormally wide nave 
and no aisles. Here the vicar gave much interesting 
information on the history of the parish, the features 
of the building itself being pointed out and explained, 
as were those of all the buildings visited throughout 
the excursion, by the society's invaluable architectural 
guide. Rev. C. E. Pouting, F.S.A The afternoon 
was spent in a visit to Wilton House — Lord and Lacly 
Pembroke very kindly receiving the party and showing 
them over the house with its interesting architectural 
features, the entrance-gate and bridge, the old part of 
the east side, the Inigo Jones building on the south 
side, and the exceedingly lovely grounds with the 
Holbein porch outside, and the splendid Vandykes 
indoors, ending with tea in the hall. This brought 



128 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



the visit to Wilton to a close. It was a most enjoy- 
able time, in spite of the weather, the inhabitants of 
that ancient borough having received and entertained 
the visitors with uie greatest possible kindness, the 
mayor, Mr. Pardoe Yates, setting the example by his 
great hospitality. 

^ ^ ^ 

The Rev. C. R. Manning, F.S.A-, hon. sec of the 
Norfolk and Norwich ARCHiBOLOGicAL Society, 
has just issued a general index to the first ten volumes 
of Norfolk Arckaology^ together with an index to the 
illustrations in the same volumes, and a list of the 
excursions of the society and the places visited from 
1846 to 1890. These indexes make a well-printed 
volume of 200 8vo. pages. Mr. Manning has evi- 
dently done his work with much care, and in a com- 
prehensive spirit ; by this conscientious labour he has 
added immensely to the value and use of the society's 
publications. 

^ ^ ^ 

The report for 1890 of the Oxfordshire ARCHiCO- 
LOGICAL Society has recently reached us ; it makes 
a pamphlet of 34 pages. In addition to the rules, list 
of members, and brief report, it contains a short paper 
on the interesting discovery in 1887 of an exchequer 
receipt of 1350 in a chink in one of the north piers of 
Waroington Church. There is also an account of the 
church plate of the Deanery of Witney. As the 
society only numbers seventy-two members, perhaps 
more could not be expected of it ; but surely some 
energetic action should be taken to increase the mem- 
bership, so that such a county as Oxford need not be 
so very far behind the majority of shires in the extent 
of her archseological publications and antiquarian re- 
search. 

^ ^ ^ 

The first number of the third volume of the Journal of 
the Gypsy Lore Society makes a good book, with 
64 royal 8vo. pages. It opens with a sketch and 
portrait of the great Slavonic scholar Franz von 
Miklovish, of Vienna, who died on March 7, 1891. 
He wrote much on gipsy folk-tales and songs, as well 
as on the various Roman! dialects. Dr. Fearon 
Ranking contributes a paper on " The Language of 
the Gypsies in Russia ; rrofessor Anton Herkmann 
discourses on " Hungarian and Wallachian Gypsy 
Rhymes;" Mr. John Sampson rives "Two Shelta 
Stories," the one called the ^* Red Man of the Boyne," 
and the other "Two Tinker Priests;" Mr. David 
MacRitchie writes most pleasantly on his Roman! 
adventures at Belgrade, under the title of " A Glance 
at the Servian Gypsies." Dr. H. von Wlislocki gives 
some interesting statements with regard to "The 
Witches of the Gypsies ;" under the title " Italian 
Zingaresche," Mr. J. Pincherle reproduces some 
popular Italian ballads which deal with the gipsies ; 
and the " Vocabulary of the Slovak-Gypsy Dialect " 
is continued. There are also several curious " bits " 
in the small-print " Notes and Queries " at the end 
of the number. 

^ ^ ^ 

The Kent ARCHiCOLOGiCAL Society's annual con- 
gress was held at West Mailing on July 27 and 28, 
the Earl Stanhope presiding. Notwithstanding heavy 
hunderstorms on the morning of the 27th, a Urge 



number of members and their friends attended. After 
the business meeting, the ruins of Mailing Abbey were 
inspected under the guidance of Mr. Loftus Brocks 
F.S.A., the history Ming illustrated by the Rev. J. 
H. Timins and the Rev. C H. Fielding. The Abbey 
Gatehouse is in good repair, and the old Almot^y 
Chapel (in and adjacent to the Gatehouse), having 
been well restored several years ago, is daily used by 
members of the Mailing Nursing Institute and others 
for Divine service. The western tower of the Abbcv 
Church remains, showing the work of Bishop Gundolf, 
enriched with external arcading of fifty years later 
date. Upon the square Norman base a bexarooal 
tower was added about the time of Richard IL or 
Edward III. The nave and aisle of the Abbey Church 
are quite gone, but the Norman south transept stin 
stands. It has been formed into a separate building, 
like a square tower, by filling up the huge Norman 
arch by which the transept openea into the nave, and 
bv inserting some small late windows. West of« but 
close to, this southern transept, the blockcd-up Nor- 
man arch, through which the nuns entered the church 
from their cloisters, was pointed out by Mr. Brock. 
He led the way into the present kitchen of the resi- 
dence, where Mrs. Akers, mother of the Right Hon« 
Aretas Akers-Douglas, died in July last, and said that 
he believed it occupied the site of the old Chapter 
House. It was restored in the Gothic style of Horace 
Walpole during last century. Mr, Brock then con- 
ducted the company through that part of the house 
which is within the southern alley of the andent 
cloisters. This alley had a large number of small 
Early English arches as its external boundary. The 
arches were trefoiled, and the caps of their slender 
columns were well carved with the stiff foliage of the 
Early English style. About A.D. 1360 Imttresses 
were added, and wherever a buttress was inserted the 
Early English shafts were removed. Therefore Mr. 
Brock, at first sight, assigned the whole cloister to the 
date of its repair. This he corrected later on. The 
ancient Norman keep, called St Leonard's Tower, 
was next inspected under Mr. Brock's guidance. It 
is believed to be the earliest work in England of 
Gundulf, Bishop of Rochester, who subsequently 
erected the White Tower in the Tower of London. 
East Mailing Church was then visited. Mr. Brock 
stated that m it he ascribes to Saxon architects the 
erection of the tower and chancel. The annual 
dinner was served at five o'clock ; the Earl Stai^ope 
(Lord Lieutenant of Kent) presided, and the toasts 
were proposed or responded to by his lordship, Colonel 
Luck, Canon Scott Robertson, Colonel E. Hoghes, 
M.P., Dr. Adam, Mr. Ltcvy (barrister-at-law), Ret*. 
C. H. Fielding, Colonel Hartley, and the hon. 
secretary (George Payne, Esq., F.S. A.). An crening 
meeting for the reading of papers by Mr. FieUling 
and Mr. George Payne was presided over by Earl 
Stanhope, and thanks to the readers of papers were 
carried at the suggestion of Canon Scott Kobertson 
and Colonel Lucic On Tuesday, July 28^ Miss 
Twisden's seat, Bradboume Park, was the first place 
visited. The handsome Queen Anne house, with its 
carved fiimiture and its glorious collection of pictttres, 
was described by the Kev. 1. Frands Twisdcn snd 
his daughter. The nins of Leyboume Castle were 
described in a paper written xfg the Re?« T. H. 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLICATIONS, 



129 



Timtns. In Leybouroe Church the Rev. C. C. Hawley 
described the chief features of the edifice, and ex- 
plained that the non-appearance of the celebrated 
neart-shrine was caused by the erection of the new 
organ. Several members squeezed themselves between 
the wall and the organ to see the shrine. Canon 
Scott Robertson drew attention to the blocked Norman 
windows in the nave*s south wall, and also to an Early 
Ejiglish arch which formerly opened into a southern 
chantry, now destroyed. At TrottescUiTe Church the 
early nature of the masonry in the chancel was noticed 
by Ctoon Scott Robertson, who believes that a Saxon 
church stood here, but that Bishop Gundulf erected 
the existing chanceL Its wide-jointed masonry, and 
the tufa blocks with which all the Norman window- 
arches and jambs are formed, proved the early date of 
the work. Roman tiles, with old mortar on them, 
are seen in the walls. Coldrum megalithic monu- 
ments were described by Mr. George Payne. Less 
known than Kits Coty House, this monument is much 
finer. Offham Church was described by Canon Scott 
Robertson, who pointed out traces of the Norman 
windows and chancel-arch. He said the chancel was 
Early English, and that a south aisle to the nave had 
existed of that style. It was pulled down in the 
fourteenth century, when the south porch was built 
against one of the blocked-up Early English arches. 
Time failed for a visit to Addington Church, which 
had been intended ; but it was stated that the church 
was of Norman origin, and has brasses of the fourteenth 
century. Its fifteenth-century origin is a myth. 

■•? ^ ^ 

The Newcastle Society of Antiquaries held a 
country meeting on August 3, the place chosen for 
inspection being Brinkburn Priory, in the Vale of 
Coquet. The members proceeded in carriages to 
Longborsley, where the old tower, which is supposed 
to Ixc of late fifteenth-century date, and to have been 
used as a peel tower, was inspected. The carriage 
journey was then resumed, and continued to the 
Priory. On arrival, the visitors were met by Mr. 
Cadogan, the owner, and Mr. R. Blair, secretary to 
the society. The various features of interest in the 
grounds were pointed out by Mr. Cadogan. Inside 
the Priory Mr. D. D. Dixon read an able paper 
descriptive of the structure, which he said was by far 
the most interesting relic of the monastic age to be 
found, not only in Coquetdale, but throughout the 
county of Northumberland. After a reference to the 
pious care and true antiquarian spirit in which the 
late respected owner (Mr. C H. Cado|[an) had re- 
stored and preserved the edifice, he said Brinkburn 
Priory was founded early in the twelfth century (during 
the reign of Henry I. ), for the use of Canons Regular 
of St Augustine, by Wm. Bertram, known as William 
the Fair, second Baron of Mitford. In 1503 the then 
prior and his armed retainers formed part of the 
eicort of Margaret, daughter of Henry VII., when 
poasing through Northumberland on her way to Scot- 
laxul, to whose king, James IV. , she was then affianced. 
Again, in November, 15 15, after twelve eventful 
yean, the Priory was the resting-place of the same 
unfortunate Margaret, widow of James IV. and wife 
of Angus, with her infant daughter. This little prin- 
ocssy bom at Harbottle Castle on October 15, 1515, 
became the wife of Lennox, the mother of Damley, 



and the grandmother of our James I. As far as his 
(Mr. Dixon's) researches went, he had only been able 
to find the names of five priors of Brinkburn. At the 
dissolution of the lesser monasteries (those not pos- 
sessing ;f 200 a year) there were ten Canons of Brmk- 
bum, who, with their prior, were ruthlessly expelled 
from their ancient home. Its annual revenue at that 
time (1536) was /68 19s. id., according to Dugdale, 
or £^1 according to Speed. Mr. Dixon then traced 
the Later history of tne Priory, and concluded by 
describing its architectural features. 

<*5 ^ ^ 

The second part of Vol. II. of the Quarterly Journal 
of the Berks Archaeological and Architectural 
Society, edited by Rev. P. H. Ditchfield, M.A., 
gives the important information that the unique col- 
lection of Roman antiquities which have been dis- 
covered during the recent excavations at Silchester 
(and we suppose also that may yet be found during 
the works still in progress) will be deposited at Read- 
ing, on the condition that suitable accommodation is 
found for them. The Corporation of Reading seem 
fully alive to the great value of the gift proposed by 
the Duke of Wellington, at the advice, we believe, of 
the Society of Antiquaries, and hope to provide the 
required space in connection with the present museum. 
In addition to a considerable and good variety of 
notes, queries, replies, reviews, and accounts of ex- 
cursions, this number contains accotmts of Hurley, 
by Rev. F. J. Wethered, and of Berwick Church, by 
Rev. J. E. Field, and also the continuation of the 
history of Swallowfield and its owners, by Lady 
Russell. 

^ ^ ^ 

The Derbyshire ARCHiCOLOoiCAL and Natural 
History Society held an expedition to Codnor 
Castle and Pentrich on August 12. Pentrich Church 
was described by the vicar. Rev. W. J. Ledward. 
The church was given to the abbey of Derby in the 
reign of Henry II., by Ralph Fitx Stephen. After 
luncheon the members drove to Codnor Castle, where 
Rev. Charles Kerry read a paper on the history of the 
building, of which there'are now but few remains. 

<*5 "-^ ^ 

We give a heartv welcome to the two first parts (July 
and August) of the journal of the Ex Libris Society, 
which is published for the socie^ by Messrs. A. and 
C. Black, and edited by Mr. W. H. K. Wright, 
F.R.H.S. The chairman of the council, Mr. Leigh- 
ton, F.S.A., gives a good general paper on "Book- 
plates, Ancient and Modern," with illustrated ex- 
amples. In the second number Mr. Arthur Vicars, 
F.S.A., writes on " Library Interior Book-Plates," 
and Mr. Robert Day, F.S.A., on "Book-Plates en- 
graved by Cork Artists." The printing and engraving 
is all that could be desired. Probably the counal 
know their own business best, but we should have 
thought that a rather larger quarterly issue, instead of 
a monthly number, would have been best for a society 
following up a single branch of bibliography. 
^ ^ ^ 

The general meeting of the Royal Society of 
Antiquaries of Ireland was held at Killamey on 
August II, when the following papers were read: 
" The Island Monasteries of wales and Ireland," by 



I30 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



Rev. Professor Stokes; "Celtic Art in Wales and 
Ireland compared," by J. Romilly Allen; "The Great 
Earl of Desmond," by Rev. Denis Murphy; "The 
Voyages and Adventures of St. Brendon, the Navi- 
gator,^' by Rev. T. Olden; "Ballynoe Stone Circle, 
CO. Down, and a notice of the Neglected Condition 
of the supposed Grave of St. Patrick, at Downpatrick," 
by William Gray ; " Description of an Ancient Celtic 
Shrine, circa A.D. 800, found in Loch Erne during the 
present year," by Thomas Plunkett ; "The Ogam 
Cave of Dunloe, near Killamey," by the Right Rev. 
Dr. Graves; "Notice of an Ancient Wooden Trap, 
probably used for catching Otters," by Rev. Geo. R. 
Buick ; " Two rare Stone Implements, found at 
Lough Gur, co. Limerick," by Rev. J. F. M. Ffrench; 
"Mor, Sister of St. David of Meneria," by Rev. 
Denis O'Donoghue ; and " Methods of Construction 
employed at lulmalkeldar and the Oratory of Gal- 
lerus," by Arthur HilL The society was joined this 
year in the excursions by the Cambrian ARCHiEOLO- 
GICAL Society, who held their annual meeting at 
Killamey on the evening of August 12, when the pre- 
sident, Professor John Rhys, delivered the opening 
address. The following were the excellently-arranged 
series of excursions in connection with the meetings of 
these two societies: August 11 — Excursion in the 
afternoon to Ross Castle (through Lord Kenmare's 
demesne), Innisfallen, and Muckross Abbey. 12 — 
excursion by cars from Killamey to Aghadoe. The 
Ogam Cave of Dunloe was visited by invitation of Dr. 
Stoker, Dunloe Castle. 13— Excursion to Dingle by 
train, calling en route to view the remains of old 
church, Cloghans, etc., at Kilelton ; also the Ogams 
at Ballintaggart, near Dingle. In the afternoon by 
cars from Dingle to Gallerus, Temple Gael, Kilmal- 
kedar, and St. Brendon's Oratory. 14 — Some of the 
members visited the Skellig, or St. Michael's Rock. 
The Rear- Admiral Commanding courteously acceded 
to the application of the council to place one of 
H.M.'s gunboats at the disposal of the society for this 
trip, and the Commissioners of Irish Lights also 
allowed the services of one of their steam-vessels for 
this somewhat dangerous excursion. Those members 
who remained on land proceeded by car to Ardfert, 
and visited the ruins there, and other places of interest 
in the neighbourhood. 15 — ^The members left Tra- 
lee by tram, arriving at Kilmallock at 12.10, where 
the ruins of the Dominican Abbey (now being pre- 
served by the society) were visited, where the tomb of 
the White Knights, and, in the Friary Church, the 
tombs of the I« itz^eralds, Verdons, Blakeneys, and 
Coppingers were mspected. In the afternoon the 
members proceeded by train to Limerick. 17 — Ex- 
cursion down the river Shannon to Scattery Island, 
where the remains of the sixth-century monastery of 
St Senan were visited, the round tower, and the 
ruins of "the Seven Churches." 18— Quin Abbey, 
co.^ Clare, the ruins of a fortified religious house, were 
visited ; also the raths near Newmarket and Bunratty 
Castle. 19 — ^An excursion by special train was made 
to Askeaton — anciently a walled town of the Des- 
monds — containing the remains of a Franciscan abbey 
(1420) ; Adare (the seat of Lord Dunraven) was 
visited on the return journey. Here are the remains 
of an old castle of the Geraldmes ( 1 226). The ancient 
Abbey of "the Trinitarians" now forms part of the 
Roman Catholic Church, and the interesting Augus- 



tinian Abbey is incorporated with the Parish Church* 
There are also remains of a Franciscan abbey, founded 
in 1464. 20— The members left Limerick Ijy tmin at 
9.35, arriving at Goold*s Cross ia5i, where cars were 
in waiting to convey them to the Rock of Cufael. 
They returned by Holycross Abbey, in time to catch 
the evening train from Goold's Cross, Dublin. 

^ ^ ^ 

On July 29 the Yorkshire ARCHiCOLOCXCAi. As- 
sociation, in conjunction with the Bradford 
Historical and Antiquarian Society, had an 
excursion to the ruins of Tervaulx Abbey and Middle- 
ham Castle. Mr. W. H, Sl John Hope, of the 
Court of Antiquaries, acted as cicerone, and admirably 
described the ruins of the abbey, which were illustrated 
by a plan especially prepared for the occasion. The 
final foundation, in 1 1 50, of this Cistercian abbey, was 
due to a colony of monks from Byland. Whitaker 
says about the ruins: "No monastic ruin in the 
kingdom is preserved in the same state ; none have 
been retrieved from a condition so nearly approaching 
utter demolition to one so gratifying and satisfactory 
as that of Jervaulx. Yet there are many houses now 
buried in their own rubbish which, by management 
equally judicious, might, after the elevation liad been 
destroyed for ever, be made to exhibit a perfect ground- 
plan, and disclose the tombs, altars, and other re- 
mains on the original surface." There were twenty- 
three abbots, and the last, Adam Sadtiars, was exe- 
cuted for taking part in the Pilgrimage of Grace. 
Commencin^r in the cloister court, Mr. Hope led 
the antiquanes through the church, the chapter-home, 
and the numerous conventual buildings, pointing out 
each object of interest, and the use for which each 
room was intended. At the conclusion the company 
adjourned to a marquee, where a luncheon was pro- 
vided by Lord Masham, who presided. From Jer- 
vaulx the party drove to Middleham Castle, which 
consists of an outwork fortified with four towers 
enclosing a keep. Whitaker, speaking of Middleham, 
says: "Some interesting scenes of English history 
have taken place in and around the castle. Hence 
the Earl of Salisbury marched through Craven at lie 
head of 4,000 Richmondshire men to the lattle of 
Bloreheath. Here, too, according to Stow, the 
bastard Falconbridgc was behead^ in 1471, on a 
neighbouring plain. Edward IV., having been com- 
mitted to the care of Archbishop Neville at Middle^ 
ham, was indulged with the privilege of hunting, and 
having probably bribed his keepers, escaped on a fie«C 
horse to York and thence to Lancaster, where he re- 
sumed the government Here Edward, son of 
Richard IH., was bom. Near the entrance-gate Mr- 
Hope stood on a mound, and, with the aid of an ca- 
cellent map, pointed out the rooms in the keep and 
outworks. The castle was the great stronghold of 
the Nevilles, and especially of Warwick the King- 
maker. 

^ ^ ^ 

On August 3 the fifth excursion for the season of the 
Bradford Historical and Antiquarian Socibty 
took place to York, when about 140 ladies and gentl«« 
men availed themselves of the opportunity of visiting 
the cathedral city. With the Rev. Canon Raine as 
cicerone, who is one of the most ardent suid paio&- 
taking of antiquaries, a promise was made of n numt 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



131 



nterestin|r and instructive day. The visitors first 
made their way to the Manor House, which was once 
a royal palace and is now used as a blind asylum. 
Here the attention of the visitors was called to the 
Strafford arms, which were mentioned in Wentworth's 
indictment, and to the beautiful fire-places and cor- 
nices. By a private door they were then let into the 
charming grounds of St Mary's Abbey, where the 
windows of the ruined nave show how noble a struc- 

ttre it must once have been. The outline of the 
transepts and choir is all that is leA of that part of the 
cfaurch. The curator showed the members over the 
Roman and general museums, pointing out all objects 
of special interest. At 2.30 the society assembled in 
the south transept of the Cathedral, when Canon 
Raine gave a most admirable outlined history of the 
minster from its foundation in the seventh century to 
the present time. He led the party round the sacred 
structure, pointing out the beauties of the Early 
HngU^h transepts, the Decorated nave, and chapter- 
house, the Perpendicular choir and the Norman crypt. 
A large portion of the company then climbed the 
Clifibrd Tower at the Castle. 

^rp ^^5 ^^» 

The members of the Devonshire Association for 
THE Promotion of Science, Literature and 
Art, paid their second visit to Tiverton on June 27, 
the previous occasion having been in 1866. On the 
afterooon of that day they were welcomed in due form 
by the Mayor and Corporation in the Town Hall, and 
a general meeting was held, under the presidency of 
the Rev. J. Ingle Dredge, when a number of new 
members were elected. In the evening the president, 
?.Ir. R. N. Worth, F.G.S., delivered his address. 
The subject, which was treated very exhaustively, was 
Roman Devon and Cornwall. Five hours on Wednes- 
day were given up to the reading of reports and 
papers, and discussions thereupon ; the reports of the 
rksentific Memoranda C^mittee, of tne Barrow 
Ccimmittee, of the committee on Devonshire pro- 
vinctalisn», of the committee on the climate of Devon, 
and the committee on Devonshire records. Mr. H. 
M- Rankilor read a paper on "The History of 
Blundell's School " ; anajpapers were also contributed 
00 " Matthew SuttcUfie, Dean of Exeter from 1588 to 
1629/' by Mrs. Rose Troup; on "The Font in Dolton 
Qiurch, North Devon," by Mr. Winslow Jones ; on 
*• The Parish of East Budle^h," by Sir John B. Phear, 
M- A., F.G.S. ; on " The Land Family of Woodbeare 
Court, Plymtree,*' by the Rev. A. Mozley ; and on 
•* The Brother and Sister of St. Waillibald,'^ by Canon 
Brownlow. After this, various places of interest in 
the town, including St. Peter's Church, the Castle, 
the Almshouses, and Old BlundelVs were visited. In 
the evening the aimual dinner was held at the Pal- 
merston Hotel. On Thursday, Dr. T. N. Brushford 
read a paper on " The Church of All Saints, East 
Budldgh,*' which he illustrated by drawings of its 
prtndiAl architectural features. Dr. A. B. Prowse 
followed, with a paper entitled " The Ancient Metro* 

B>lu of Dartmoor. " Other contributions were : ' ' Some 
cvonshire Merchants' Marks," by the President; 
'' Recent Discoveries at the Castle, Exeter," by Sir 
J. B. Phear; and "Devon CoUembula and Thy- 
saouia," by Mr. E. Parfitt. Mr. F. T. Elworthy had 



prepared a most interesting paper, part of which he 
read, on " Crying the Neck ; a Devonshire Custom " ; 
and Mr. J. Philhps, of Abbotskerwell, introduced the 
subject of technical education. The remaining papers 
were : " The Progress of Devonshire Bibliography," 
by Mr. W. H. K. Wright ; " The Potteries of North 
Devon," by Mr. H. W. Strong ; " The Ornithology 
of Devonshire," by Mr. W. E. Pidsley (read by Mr. 
Rowe) ; "Notes on some North Devon Rocks," by 
the President; and "The Dialect of Hartland," by 
Mr. R. Pearse Chope, B.A. (communicated by Mr. 

F. T. Elworthy). A posthumous paper by the late 

G. Wareing Ormerod, M.A., F.G.S., on " The Postal 
Service of Devonshire from 1784 to 1890" (communi- 
cated by the Rev. W. Harpley, M.A.) was taken as 
read. On Thursday afternoon a garden-party was 
given at Knightshayes in honour of the visit of the 
association by Lady Heathcote Amory ; and in the 
evening a large number of members accepted Mrs. 
Francis's invitation to a conversazione at Blundell's 
School. On Friday, excursions were arranged to 
Bampton and Dulverton. With these concluded what 
many members have declared one of the most agree- 
able gatherings they have ever attended. 

^ ^ ^ 

Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian 
Society. The members of this society had a 
summer meeting in the Ribble Valley on Atigust 8, 
under the leadership of Mr. George C. Yates,* F.S.A., 
the hon. sec Clitneroe, with its fine old castle-keep 
perched upon a grassy hill in a bold and commanding 
position, was visited, and afterwards Sawley Abbey, 
founded in 1147 by William Baron Percy, grandson 
of the William de Perd who accompanied the Con- 
queror to England, and obtained from him larcre pos- 
sessions in Craven. Mr. Yates said, in describing the 
ruins, that few similar institutions have suffered more 
at the hands of the destroyer than Sawley Abbey, the 
straggling village having been built out of its spoils, 
and the stones having been carried away as frir as 
Gisbum. The mem^rs afterwards visited Mytton 
Church, which is a plain structure of the age of 
Edward III., with a low square tower and a porch on 
the south side. The Sherburne Chapel, built by Sir 
Richard Sherburne in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
contains some interesting family monuments. In the 
chancel are several chained books. In the church- 
yard are an ancient Gothic cross, a stone coffin, and 
several curious tombstones. Whalley Abbey and 
Church were also visited ; the three runic crosses in 
the churchyard, so ably described and figured by 
Dr. Browne in vol. v. of the Society's Transactions, 
were examined with much interest. 




9r^a»)log[i0t0. 



According to permission granted by the Greek 
Government, Dr. Wolters, second secretary of the 
German Institute in Athens, and Dr. Graef, of Berlin, 
are compiling a list of the firagments of vases found 



132 



UTERAR Y GOSSIP. 



upon the Acropolis. The uncertain fragments are 
being put together by them in order to make the most 
likely composition possible. 

« « « 

The topographical reliefs are being executed of 
Eleusis, Phyle^ Megalovouni^ and of the island of 
Salamiruif by Captain Winterber^er and Lieutenant 
Deneke, for early publication m the Karien von 
AttiMa^ edited by Curtius and Kaupert. 

» « « 

The German Institute is publishing a work on the 
Greek sepulchral reliefs of Southern Russia. The 
editor is M. Kieseritzky. 

¥k ^ * 

Professor Robert, of Halle, is preparing for publica- 
tion the third volume of his work, Die Antiken SarkO' 
phag-ReliefSy which will contain representations of 
isolated myths, and will be composed of two or three 
parts containing abundant materials concerning alto* 
gether some 450 monuments. 

* * * 

Herr Richard Bohn has undertaken the editing of 

the architectural designs of the deceased Sergius 
Iwanoff, which will ^ published by the German 
Archaeological Institute according to tne terms of the 
will of the author. The work will be divided into 
three parts : ( i ) Designs of monuments in Greece ; 
(2) designs from Pompeii ; (3) designs from the baths 
of Caracalla, in Rome. 

« « « 
The German Institute will publish shortly, in a spe- 
cial edition, all the ornamentation of the Roman house 
near the Famesina in Rome, of which the stuccoes 
and frescoes have already appeared in plates in the 
Monununti Inediti of the lincei. 

* # « 

In the next fasciculus of the Bulletin de Corre- 
sfondance Hellinique will be published the " Hermes " 
discovered by the French School of Athens atTroezene. 
In the same number will be given a view of Athens 
made in 1674, at the time of the arrival of the French 
ambassador, Mointel, at Athens. The original of this 
picture is in the Museum at Chartres. 

« » « 

Monsieur H^ron de Villefosse communicated at 
one of the last sittings of the AccuUmie des Inscrip- 
tions et Belles Lettres of Paris the discovery of a very 
fine Roman mosaic made at Saint-Romain-en-Gsd 
(Rhone), representing the four seasons of the year in a 
kind of illustrated or figured calendarj analogous to 
those found on mediaeval church-doors in France. 
The four seasons appear under form of four allegorical 
personages, and have around them twenty-eight repre- 
sentations of figures, of which nineteen have been 
preserN'ed. Amongst the small pictures of separate 
subjects are delineated the agricultural operations of 
autumn and of winter. 

» « H 

Monsieur GefTroy, director of the French School at 
Rome, has communicated to the AccuUmie des Inscrip' 
tions et Belles Lettres^ of Paris, that the researches of 
M. Toutain, at Bou Koumel'n, near Tunis, have recently 
brought to light a sanctuaxv of Baal which had been 
Romanized. The Phoenician god is called " Satumus 
Balcarensis Augustus Dominus Deus Magnus." More 
than 500 fragments of steke and of inscriptions have 
come to light, many of which are of very great interest. 



Amongst the latter is a series of oninjured and complete 
texts, with many new consular dates. The results of 
these excavations will be given in a publicaticm of the 
French School at Rome, 

« « II 
Professor Mau, of the German Institute, will pro- 
bably not publish this year his usual annual account 
of the excavations at Pompeii, but will give the two 
years together next year. 

» K 4c 

The Rev. W. F. Greeny, F.S.A., has in the press 
a book of facsimiles of Incised Slabs an the Canttneni 
of Europe, Those who know Mr. Crccny's oofale 
work on the Monumental Brasses of the Contieunt^ 
will look forward with much interest and expectation 
to his new volume. This book of slabs wiA contain 
between about seventy illustrations 1 5 inches by ii 
inches, with descriptive notes of each. We have had 
the advantage of seeing several specimens of the plates, 
and have not the least hesitation in saying that they 
will make a grand volume, which will prove of the 
highest importance to all students of the architecture, 
costumes, and icono^phy of the Middle Ages. The 
price of each copy will be only a guinea to subscribeis ; 
after publication (which will probably lie early in 
October) the price will be raised to £\ ixs. 6d. Mr. 
Creeny's work on Brasses can now only be obtaiDe<1 
^^ £3 3^ Our readers may be absolutely sure of 
being delighted with this volume. Subscribers' names 
should be sent direct to Rev. W. F. Greeny, St. 
Michael-at-Thom, Norwich. 

3^ « H 

An important work will very shortly be pub- 
Ushed by Mr. W. H. Goodyear, M,A., of Yale Uni- 
versity, under the title of The Grammar efthe Lotus, 
It will be a new history of classic ornament, and will 
include observations on the " bronze culture " of pre- 
historic Europe as derived from Egypt It is to be 
issued by Messrs. Sampson Low andMarston in royal 
4to., and will comprise about 300 pages of letterpress, 
67 page plates, and 200 text -cuts. The sufascnption 
price is £3 3s, 

The Rev. W. K. Riland Bedford, who published 
that useful book, The Blazon of Episcopacv^ in 1858, 
is about to reissue the work in an amended and more 
complete form. It will also include the Scottish and 
Irish Episcopacy. The volume will be published in 
demy 8vo. by Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench and Cob, 
at a subscription price of ^ i 4s. 

^^ ^^ ^^ 

A guide to the fine old parish church of St. Oswald, 
Ashbourne, is now in the press from the capable pen 
of the Rev. F. Jourdain, the vicar. As the author is a 
sound ecclesiologist, we can safely anticipate that the 
book will be valued by archaeologists. 

^^ ^^ ^^ 

It b intended (if sufficient encoura^ment Ke 
offered) to publish a copy of the first register of the 
Parish Ohurch of Fillonj^ley, which b^ns in the yeaf 
1538, and covering a period of over one hundred years. 
Mr. W. Henry Robinson, of Walsall, has undertaken 
the responsibility of publishing, if the vicar is able tci 
guarantee to him subscriptions for not less than thirty- 
eight copies. The volume will also contain a short 
account of the parish and church compiled from 
authentic sources. Fifty copies only will be printed. 



J^E VIEWS AND NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS. 



133 



and the price to subscribers, whose names should be 
sent to Rev. A. B. Stevenson, Fillongley Vicarage, 
Coventry, will be one guinea. 

♦ * * 
Mr. William Andrews, secretary of the Hull 
Literary Club, has in the press a new volume under 
the title of Bygone Northamptonshire, The Bishop of 
Peterborough, in a paper in a popular periodical, says 
that Northainptonshire " is one of the most interesting 
of English counties." It may be safely asserted that 
the county is second to none for the importance of its 
history, folk-lore, curious customs, and for being the 
birthplace of many eminent and eccentric sons and 
daughters. In the pages of Bygone Northamptonshire 
will be presented in a readable, but at the same time 
in a scholar4ike style, papers, profusely illustrated, 
bearing on the foregoing subjects. Many leading 
authors have kindly undertaken to contribute to this 
book. It will be similar in style to Bygone Lincoln- 
shire, recently reviewed in our columns. 




iRetitetDiB! anD Botfces! 
of Beta) lBooit0. 

[Publishers are requested to be so good as aiways to 
mark clearly the prices of books sent for review^ as 
these notices care intended to be a practical aid to 
book-buying readers,] 

Arxstotx^ on the Athenian Constitution. 

Translated, with introduction and notes, by F. G. 

Kenyon, M.A. Bell and Sons, 8vo., pp. xllL, 

126. 
Aristotle on the Constitution op Athens. 

Translated by £. Poste, M.A. Macmillan and 

Co, 8vo., pp. X., 1 01. 
It is a proof of the great interest taken in the recent 
remarkable discovery of an Aristotelian text in the 
British Museum, that two independent English trans- 
lations have been issued almost simultaneously from 
the press. The reappearance of this treatise on the 
Constitution of Athens has been not unfairly described 
as " the most striking event in the history of classical 
literature for perhaps the last three centuries." The 
story of its discovery on a papyrus-roll in the British 
Museum has already been often told, but it is well 
and interestingly set forth, together with an account of 
the work itself, in the introduction to Mr. Kenyon's 
edition. Such a work as this description of the Con- 
stitutions of Athens ought to be of interest to others 
besides scholars and specialists, and there are probably 
not a few of even the readers of the Antiquary whose 
Greek may be sufficiently rusty to make them glad of 
an opportunity of perusing the book in the vulgar 
tongue. Both of these translations are by g^>d 
cla^ical scholars, each of the authors being fellows of 
their respective colleges ; but we are glad to find that 
we can recommend Mr. Kenyon's book by preference, 
as it is only right that the better translation should 
come from the gentleman to whom the literary world 
is chiefly indebted for the original. Not only does 
the good introduction and the fieursimile plate of a 
portion of the original make Mr. Kenyon's book the 
more acceptable, but, in our opinion, he is more 



correct in his rendering than Mr. Poste, who indulges 
in too much paraphrase. In one case, however, Mr. 
Poste sticks closer to his text, for he gives a prose 
rendering of the poetical quotations, whilst Mr. 
Kenyon rather happily versifies the translation. Here 
are two passages from the twelfth chapter giving dif- 
ferent renderings of an extract from a poem of Solon's : 
Mr. Poste: 

*' I made the commons strong enough to be safe 
from oppression. Office I neither wrested from them 
nor put into their hands. The powerful and rich I 
also fenced against spoliation. Over both orders I 
threw an ample shield, nor suffered either to trample 
on the other's right." 

Mr. Kenyon : 

" I gave to the mass of the people such rank as befitted 

their need, 
I took not away their honour, and I granted nought 

to their greed ; 
But those who were rich in power, who in wealth 

were glorious and great, 
I bethought me that nought should befiedl them 

unworthy their splendour and state ; 
And I stood with my shield outstretched, and both 

were safe in its sight. 
And I would not that either should triumph when 

the triumph was not with right" 

The following translation of the fiftieth and fifty- 
first chapters gives a fair idea of the interesting 
character of this revelation of the domestic govern- 
ment of this renowned dty four centuries before the 
Christian era : 

"There are ten Commissioners for Repairs of 
Temples, elected by lot, who receive a sum of thirty 
minas from the Receivers-General, and therewith 
carry out the most necessary repairs in the temples. 

''There are also ten City Commissioners (Astynomi), 
of whom five hold office in Piraeus, and five in the 
dty. Their duty is to see that female flute- and harp- 
and lute-players are not hired at more than two 
drachmas, and if more than one person is anxious to 
hire the same girl, they cast lots, and hire her out to 
the person to whom the lot frills. They also provide 
that no collector of sewage shall shoot any of his 
sewage within ten stadia of the walls ; they prevent 
people from blocking up the streets by building, or 
stretching barriers across them, or making drain-pii)es 
in mid-air so as to pour their contents into the street, 
or having doors which open outwards ; and they 
remove the corpses of those who die in the streets, for 
which purpose they have a body of state slaves assigned 
to them. 

"Market Commissioners (Agoran6mi) are elected 
by lot, five by Piraeus, five for the city. The duty 
assigned to them by law is to see that all articles offered 
for sale in the market are pure and unadulterated. 

" Commissioners of Weights and Measures (Metro- 
n5mi) are elected by lot, five for the city and five for 
Piraeus. They see that sellers use fair weights and 
measures. 

*• Formerly there were five com commissioners (Sito- 
phyllU:es), elected by lot, for Piraeus, and five for the 
dty ; but now there are twenty for the dty and fifteen 
for Piraeus. Their duties are, first, to see that the 
unprepared com in the market is offered for sale at 



134 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS. 



reasonable prices, and, secondly, to see that the millers 
sell barley-meal at a price proportionate to that of 
barley, and that the bakers sell tneir loaves at a price 
proportionate to that of wheat, and of such weight as 
the commissioners may appoint ; for the law requires 
them to fix the standard weight. 

'* There are ten Superintendents of the Mart, 
elected by lot, whose duty is to superintend the mart, 
and to compel merchants to bring up into the city 
two-thirds of the com which is brought by sea to the 
Com Mart." 

* * 4» 
A Calendar of the Halliwell-Phillipps Col- 
lection OF Shakespearean Rarities. 2nd 
edition, enlarged. Edited by Ernest E. Baker, 
F.S.A. Longmans, Green, and Co. 8vo., 
pp. xviii., 17a Price los. 6<L 
The first edition of this calendar, which was printed 
only for private circulation, was issued in 1887 by the 
owner ot this wonderful collection of literary rarities, 
Mr. J. O. HalliweU-PhilUpps, F.R.S. On his death, 
two years later, it was found that his will directed 
this collection to be offered to the Corporation of 
Birmingham at £7,000, but that in case the Corpora- 
tion did not accept this ofifer, that the collection was 
to be deposited at the Chancery Lane Safe Deposit 
until it can be sold for ;^io,ooo, or more. To their 
discredit, the municipal representatives of Birming- 
ham declined the offer, and the collection now awaits 
a purchaser at the higher sum. Mr. Baker has done 
well in issuing this new edition of the calendar. It is 
materially improved by the addition of further notes 
descriptive of^the various items. Many of the books 
contain memoranda written by their late owner, point- 
ing out their special Shakespearian interest, and Mr. 
Baker has acted wisely in copying these in ftiU. 

This volume contains Mr. Halliwell-Phillipps* 
interesting preface to the first edition, a full calendar 
of the 805 Items of the collection, and a good index. 
It is almost needless to state that this volume is quite 
indispensable to the Shakespeare collector. As we 
turn over page after pa^e of this calendar, it is indeed 
passing strange that Birmingham should have so far 
blundered as to let the golden opportunity slip from 
its grasp. This inaction of the newest of'^our cities 
will probably bring general discredit on our English 
nation, as it is now exceedingly likely that this collec- 
tion will eventually cross the Atlantic. In addition to 
the early engraved portraits of Shakespeare, a few 
authentic personal relics, and various documentary 
evidences respecting his estates, there are no less than 
twenty-one volumes of engravings and original draw- 
ing illustrative of the houses and places associated 
with the name and fiime of the immortal poet. 

Among the many printed books some are most 
remarkable, and nearly unique. There are two 
editions (1567, 1568) of Lily^s SAarfe Introduction 
of Grammar, one or both of which were used in 
Stratford school when Shakespeare was learning his 
" small Latin and less Greek." A curious proof of 
this is afforded by Shakespeare quoting a line of 
Terence from this grammar and not from the classic 
direct Another classic then used in grammar schools 
is found here, the rare Ovid of 1567, several passages 
from which are quoted in the Tempest, Others of the 
printed books are very rare, and of much value. Such 
are the Pailadis Tamia, 1598, with the first list of 



Shakespeare's plays ; Loifis Labours Lost, 1598, the 
first work with Shakespeare's name ; King Lear, *'a.-i 

Elaid before the Kings Majesty at White Hail up(«i 
. Stephen's Night in Christmas hollidaiej», 1608 : 
Laneham's black-letter account of Kenilworth, Z575 ; 
^^'Cf^QK^s Apology, x6i2; and Nashe's /^bfr^/)miu- 
Usse, 1592. 

* * « 
The Couchbr Book of Selby, Vol. I. Edited b)' 
Rev. T. T. Fowler, F.S.A. Printed for the 
Record Series of the Yorkshire Arekrological and 
Topographical Association. 8vo., pp. xx., 408. 
Five plates. 
We noticed the receipt of this the tenth volume of 
the Yorkshire Record Series two months ago, but its 
importance demands further attention. 

The formal forced surrender of the ereat Benedic- 
tine Abbey of Selby was made by Abbot Roliert 
Selby, cUuis Rogers, on December 6, 1539. The 
Coucher-Book, or Chartulary, remained in the pots- 
session of the last abbot until July 27, 1543, when it 
was delivered up to someone whose name does not 
appear, but who wasprobablv Sir Leonard Beckwith. 
From Sir Leonard Beckwitn the abbey lands and 
evidences, including this book, passed from Roger 
Beckwith to Earl Shrewsbury, and thence to Sir 
Thomas Walmsley. From the Walmsleys the pro- 
perty passed through an heiress to the seventh Lord 
Petre. This MS. was bought by Messrs. Boone, of 
Bond Street, in 1867, from the then Lord Petre. It 
was then ofiered to the British Museum, but refused ; 
and in May, 1868, it was purchased by Mr. Thomas 
Brooke, F.S.A., of Armitage Bridge, to who% 
munificence we are indebted for the present editioii« 
which is issued at his sole charge. The Coucher- 
Book is written on vellum, and occupies 222 leaves, 
13 in. by 9 in. The body of the Ms. is in an early 
fourteenth-century hand, but various later additinni 
have been made. The latest date in the MS. is 1434. 
The Rev. J. T. Fowler has edited the chartulary widi 
characteristic and painstaking ability, and has appeodcii 
a few brief notes by way of explanation or introduc- 
tion. The l^endary Historia of the abbey, but which 
certainly contains very much that is historical, is pre- 
fixed to the chartularv ; whilst an historical introduc- 
tion gives by far the best sutnmary of the erection and 
gradual progress of the fabric of the great abbey that 
has yet been printed. The platinotype illustrations 
are excellently done by Mr. C. £. Hodges, cif 
Hexham, who has won such repute as the illu«txator 
and historian of the ancient church of Hexham. Twd 
of these plates give views of the abbey, whilst three 
plates are devoted to various impressions of different 
abbots' seals. The index is thor---.:;,*! and exhaustir^. 
We have nothing but praise for the way in which Mr. 
Fowler has accomplished his task. 

4^ 4 $ 
Rush-Bearing. By Alfred Barton. Brock and 
Chrystal, Manchester. 410., pp, x., 189. Forty- 
six plates, and ten text illustrations. Price 
I2S. 6d. 
This is a well-printed and thoroughly iUnstialed 
book on the curious question of rushes, and thdr 
various uses by our forefathers. The title is some- 
what of a misnomer, for the book treats of rush-strew- 
ing in houses, of ru^-stre wing in churches, of garlands 
in churches, of morris-dances, of the wakes, and of 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS 



135 



ru'.hU^hts, rushlight-holders, nish-boltomed chairs, 
rv^h-nngs etc, u well as of the custom of the formal 
! « iring ni ru^^^^tca to the church at stated seasons, and 
«»i thv carts in which they were carried. The rush- 
'-Mrtng *»ncc cummon to the whole of our country 
% m' ^trs now lingers only in one or two isolated places, 
ai! ha& lost iu real meaning. Where the custom 
• u nr* remain, as at Saddleworth, which is described in 
Cf ^at detail in thcrae pages, the beer sotting and other 
« \ V'v acci.>mpaniinents make it desirable that the 
>r ^'. tioe should Ite allowed to die out, now that all our 
rhjfrhe« are j>ro()erly paved or floored, both in pews 
ar.l aiUcs. We shoula think that everything pertain- 
I ■< t«> rv^hes is gaihcrc<l together within these covers, 
^ ii h the result of supplying those interested in old cus- 
«i» and eapiring uses with an entertaining volume. 



SHORT NOTICES. 

El «: A V ATI OSS AT BuRscouGH pRiORY. By James 
Brumley. Thomas Brakcll^ Liverpool, 8vo., 
pp. 17. Eleven plates. 
Tim b a reprint from the last volume of the Trans- 
act ^ms ol the Historic Society of Lancashire and 
Cjv>iure. We are sure that many will be glad to 
naw thk well-illustrated and lucid account in a 
•c pAxaie form. 

.\N«*iENT Cahk on the Malvern Hills. By the 

bte H. It Ltne& E, G. Humphreys^ Worcester. 

Pfice6d. 

TKiv is aA interesting historical account and most 

t^oreful survev of the ancient camps on the Malvern 

I!.ll«, by the late Mr. Lines, and edited by his 

\^ ^btcr, at the request of the members of the Mal- 

\rm Field Club. The plans here given of the Mid- 

oimeT HiU and Hcreforoshire Beacon camps are from 

isznreys made liy Lines in i869-7a Readers of the 

Jnfufttary who have the advantage of seeing from 

urjc tu time posthumous papers of Mr. Lines*, through 

fie o*urte»y uf his daughter, will not remiire any 

> «oal in'f.-mmendation of this {pamphlet. It should 

be in the hands of every intelligent vuJtor to Malvern. 

HAi'tM-tN AM> Chatsworth. By Edward Bradbury. 
C t. Wardlty^ Buxton. Pp. 73- Price 6d. 
This is an unusually g(xid guide-book. Mr. Bradbury 
is a wcB-known graphic, and withal accurate, writer 
«ia Dertiyshire and Derbyshire scenery. He has pro- 
liticrJ an uiKonventional and informal, but most 
u^ful, Uttlc book. Authorities are always acknow- 
lc^4*ed. It has our conlial recommendntion. 

The Cocnty Seats of Shropshire. Eddoxvts 
Jommai opces^ Shrewsbury. Part xt., pp. 299- 

Tbue ftCAts dc^mbed amd illustrated in this part are : 
The Isk of Ko^sall. Orleton, LiUeshall Hall, and 
LiUcshall House. There are also two plates of Stoke* 
•ay CastJe and Stokesay Court omitted from a former 
cumber. 

CU>rCESTUt5HIRK NOTBS AND QUERIES, Tol. T., 

parts t and 2. 
Tm% illustrated quarterly magazine, devoted to the 
hi-Kiury and antiquities of the county of Gloucester, 
s.tnce the lanifenteii death of its editor and originator, 
Ker. H. B. Blacker, is now under the able editorship 
of tbe todostrious Mr. W. P. W. Phillimore. These 

puts seem to fully sustain its well-earned repute. 



The American Antiquarian, vol. xiii., No. 3. 
Edited by Rev. Stephen D. Peet, Mendon, Illinois. 
This excellent illustrated magazine (bi-monthly, 
four dollars per annum) continues to be full of interest. 
In addition to a variety of archaeological notes, 
re\'iews, and correspondence, this number contains 
articles on " The Migrations of the Mound- Builders," 
** The Higher Civilization of the Earlier Mound- 
Builders," ** The Indian Messiah and the Ghost- 
Dance," and "The Story of the Moosewood Man." 
Our only quarrel is with its name ; we wish the editor 
would learn to be grammatical, and alter the title to 
The Amcruan Antiquary, 

The Antiquarian, voL i., Na i. Edited and 
published by G. L. Howe, Albany, Oregon. 
Price per year, 50 cents. 
This b a wholly discreditable little issue of 16 pages, 
with blunders ana misspellings on every page, purely 
this will be the last as well as the first number. It is 
difficult to imagine the existence of any readers for 
such a periodical Certainly none could be found in 
England, though the editor kindly states the subscrip- 
tion price for foreign countries in the postal union. 

Retrospections, Social and Arch^cological. 
By Charles Roach Smith, F.S.A. Vol. iii. 
Edited by J. G. Waller, F.S.A George BeU 
and Sons, 8vo., pp. x., 296. Price not stated. 
One hundred and eighty- four pages of this volume 
were printed off, when death removed the well-known 
kindly antiquary, on August 2, 1890, at the age of 
eighty-two. His oldest antiquarian friend, Mr. 
Waller, who speaks touchingly in a brief introduction 
of fifty-three years of unbroken friendship, has appro- 
priately finished the third volume of Mr. Roach Simth*s 
retrospection. These pa^es are for the most part 
pleasant and chattv reading, though they jump with 
startling rapidity from Roman remains and archaeo- 
logical congresses to the modem drama or operatic 
tenors, from French excursions to the walls of Chester, 
or from Shakespeare to Waterloo. The references to 
numerous living and recently -deceased archaeologists 
are interesting and always good-natured. The volume 
will Ijc valued by Mr. Roach-Smith's numerous friends, 
and posM^sses some attractions for other antiquaries. 

Notes and Queries for Somerset and Dorset. 

Edited by Rev. F. W. Weave/ and Rev. C. H. 

Mayo. Sherborne, 
Part xiv. of vol. ii opens with a plate of value and 
interest to heraldic readers. Nine examples of t-.c 
armorial bearings of the Salter family are given in 
colours. They are exceptionally good examples of 
"differencing," or the modifications of the original 
arms of a house. These a)ats are well explained by 
Mr. S. J. A. Salter, F.R.S. The number is in other 
respects a good one. This quarterly magazine is of 
much value to all West-country antiquaries. 

Northamptonshire Notes and Queries. Edite<] 
by Christopher A- Markham, F.S.A Taylor 
and Sons^ Northampton. Part xxix. of voL iv. 
A glove of Mary Queen of 5>cots, given by her to 
Marmaduke Da^ell on the morning of her execution 
forms a frontispiece to this number. The interesting 
glimpses of Old Northampton arc continued. Another 
good note is one on the Fairfax Family of Deepii^ 
Gate, based on a Book of Hours, of 1464 (curiously 
misiuuned), that used to belong to the fiunily. 



136 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



The Sitwbll Pbdigrbb, i 280- 1667. By Sir George 
R. Sitwell, Bart. 
This is a most charminely-printed and beautifully- 
arranged pedigree from the author's press at Scar- 
borough, compiled from the Eckington Court Rolls 
and other original documents. The pedigree is illus- 
trated by facsimiles of various autographs of the family. 
With the pedigree is bound up a catalogue of the 
Sitwell letters at Renishand from 1529 to 1796. We 
are ^eatly indebted to Sir George Sitwell for for- 
warding us copies of these attractive and valuable 
brochures, as there are only twenty. 

We continue to receive and appreciate the current 
numbers of Minerva^ Rassegna fnternazwnale, 
Rome ; Bui/ding- IVorid ; Printing Times and Litho- 
grapher ; Western Antiquary; East Anglian Notes 
ana Queries; Middlesex Notebook ; etc. 



^^ 



CorreiBiponlience. 



RUBBINGS OF INSCRIBED STONES. 

In your April number, N. asks for the best way of 
taking the rubbing of inscribed ornamented stones, 
which desire Mr. T. Romilly Allen kindly answered 
in a later number by giving very detailed directions. 
I was, however, lately taught a much better and 
simpler way by the President of the Archseological 
Society of Oxon. It is this : provide a sheet of 
woolly paper, such as grocers use, damp it thoroughlv 
and lay it on the surface to be copied ; then beat it 
all over Mrith a common hair-brush, with the bristles 
of course downwards. When the process is com- 
pleted, take the paper off and let it dry ; the result 
will leave nothing to be desired. In fact, it is often 
easier to study and decipher than the original, which 
may be in a dark recess ; whereas the copy can be 
brought into the fullest li^ht and turned about so as to 
cast varying shadows, which are of great aid. 

Nbmo. 

[We are glad to insert this receipt for a cheap and 
readv way of taking a cast of an ornamented stone, 
but It certainly is not a " rubbing." Our correspon- 
dent is probably not aware that Mr. J. Romilly Allen 
has had greater experience than anyone else in the rub- 
bing and depicting of early ornamental stones, and we 
do not think his method can be improved upon. — Ed.] 



THE LIGHTS OF A MEDIAEVAL CHURCH. 

(Vol. xxiii. p. 247 ; vol. xxiv. p. 39.) 

Mr. F. W. Weaver, in his very learned and interest- 
ing letter concerning " The Lights of a Mediaeval 
Church," assumes that there could be no altar in a 
church-porch. One instance occurs to me, however, 
of an arrangement of this kind. In Mr. Richard 
Welford's History of Newcastle and Gateshead in the 
Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, we find the 
following under the year 1324 : 

''Alan of Gateshead, priest, custodian of the 
altar of the blessed Manr, in the ncrth porch of 
the church of Gateshead, with the consent and 
assent of all the commonalty of the vill, grants to 



Roger Redesdale of Newcastle all that tenement, 
with appurtenances, in Gateshead, as the same i» 
situate in Akelwelgate " (p. 61). 

Is it possible that by altar in the porch an altar 10 a 
chamber over the porch can be meant ? 

Edward Pbacock. 
Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

ST. WEONARD. 

There is in the county of Hereford a parish called 
St. Weonard, with a church dedicated to the same 
saint. Just outside the churchyard is a barrow of 
considerable size, perhaps 30 feet in height, known a.H 
**St. Weonard's Tump '* (tump being a Herefordshire 
word for a mound). The barrow luis been cut half- 
way through to the ground level, for the purpose, I 
presume, of finding antiquities. Can anv of your 
readers tell me when this was done and by whom ? 
also where I can find any account of the life of Su 
Weonard ? 

F. T. Marsh. 

69, Everton Brow, Liverpool 
^ [It has been supposed that St. Weonard is a cor- 
ruption of SL Leonard. — Ed.] 

PAINTED CROSSES AT TONG CHURCH. 

The parish church of Tong, Salop (fifteenth cen- 
tury), is undergoing restoration. Over the westernmost 
miserere, on the north and south sides of the chancel, 
is a Maltese cross in a circle painted in red on the 
stonework of the wall. These crosses have been 
hidden till now by panelling of oak, apparently the 
same date as the misereres, and the same date as the 
church itself, so that they could not have been intended 
to be seen. I shall be glad of any information as to 
the meaning of these crosses. 

F. C. E. Gripfxji. 

Gorsty Hayes Manor, Tettenhall. 
[In all probability consecration crosses. — £d.] 

mmm iifii nw i m iiii 



fmr 



u ti mnn 



NoTB TO Publishers. — IVe shall be partiiulariy 
obliged to publishers if they will always state the price 
of books sent for review, 

Mcmuscripts cannot be rttumed unless stamps are 

enclosed. 

It would be well if those proposing to sttbmit MSS. 
would first write to the Editor stating the subject and 
manner of treatment. 

Whilst the Editor ttnll be glad to give at^assistattee he 
can to archaologists on arcaaologicat subjects, he d^s:W 
to remind certain correspondent > fy.it letters contam- 
ing queries can only be inserted in the '* AN riQrARV '* 
if of general interest, or on some new subtea ; teer 
can he undertake to reply privately, or tkrpttgk the 
" Antiquary," to questions of the ordinary nature 
that sotnetimes reach him. No attention is paid to 
anonymous communications or would-be eontrtbmtions^ 

Communications for the Editor should be euldressea 
'* Antiquary, Barton-leStreet, Malton," 

Our contributor Mr, F. Haverfield, P,S,A,, Lanc- 
ing College, Shoreham,wiU be grateful for information 
at any time forwarded to him direct of any Roman 
finds, and also of reprints or numbers of provincial 
archaological Journals containing articles an su*h 
subjects. 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



137 




The Antiquary. 




OCTOBER^ 1891. 



iSotesf of tlie ^ontl). 



The important correspondence in the Itmes 
on the subject of County Museums, originated 
by Sir Harry Vemey, and continued by Pro- 
fessor Flower, Mr. G. L. Gomme^ F.S.A., 
and others, ought to be of material use in 
bringiiig about a revolution in the control 
and arrangement of the majority of our 
ptrovitidal museums, which are decidedly 
inferior to those of France and other parts 
of the Continent It is interesting to know 
that this correspondence has been caused by 
the articles on "Arclueology in Provincisd 
Museums %which are now appearing in the 
columns of the Antiquary^ and which it is 
proposed to continue regularly month by 
month. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

The ninth International Congress of Orien- 
talists, which began its London session at 
the hidl of the Inner Temple on Septem- 
ber I, met under somewhat disadvantageous 
circumstances. Both Lord Dufferin, who 
was to have delivered the opening address, 
and the Lord Chancellor, who was to have 
presided at some of the meetings, were 
absent. Although Dr. Taylor, the learned 
Master of St. John's, Cambridge, made a 
good president, and although the Italian 
Ambassador, the Greek Minister, and Dr. 
Lestner took part in*the proceedings, there 
was an air of depression and unreality about 
the congre ss which subsequent meetings did 
not ah^ether dissipate. Although we are 
aiiwred that the representatives of thirty- 

▼OL. XXIV. 



seven distinct nationalities were attending 
the congress, the gentlemen of the daily 
press unkindly let out the fact that at the 
opening of the second session there were 
sixteen gentlemen and fourteen ladies pre- 
sent, and even at half past eight the whole 
congregation — "audience, officials, and 
reporters, all told, numbered thirty-five souls, 
just sufficient for two rows of chairs across 
the hall of the Inner Temple." No doubt 
this is to a great extent to be accounted for, 
as the readers of some of our learned journals 
are aware, by irritating disputes and unfor- 
fortunate misunderstandings as to this 
particular meeting of the congress. On this 
subject we have received several communica- 
tions, into the merits of which we are not 
able to enter. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Notwithstanding, however, these drawbacks, 
the Oriental Congress has been of much 
interest, and has drawn out various learned 
papers and addresses, as well as some that 
were of little or no credit. Mr. Leland, so 
well known as a humourist under the nam de 
plume of Hans Breitmann, appeared in the 
congress as a grave and learned philologist, 
and read a valuable paper on the " Worship 
of the Saligrama Stone and Cognate Cults." 
Among the lighter papers may be mentioned 
one by Mr. Pigott on the " Music of Japan," 
in which he explained the peculiarities of 
the thirteen-stringed koto, which is as much 
the national instrument of Japan as are the 
bagpipes of Scotland. Another interesting 
paper was that by Mr. G. R. Halliburton on 
" Dwarf Races and Dwarf Worship." Sir 
Andrew Clark made a strong appeal for 
further investigation of the Malayan Peninsula, 
which was once the seat of an advanced 
civilization. Perhaps the most interesting 
sitting to Englishmen was the one devoted 
to Afghan Ethnology, of which Dr. H. W. 
Bellew was the chief expounder, and the 
well - travelled and able Hon. G. Cur- 
zon, M.P., the chairman. The excursion to 
Woking, with its inspection of the mosque 
by those who consented to enter in stockinged 
feet, and the enjoyment by all of the noble 
collection that Dr. Leitner has there gathered 
together of Graeco-Buddhtst sculptures, with 
a wealth of varied Oriental subjects, will 



138 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



probably be the most memorable incident of 
the ninth congress. At the invitation of the 
Spanish Government, the tenth congress is to 
be held in Spain. 

4^ "fr "fr 

We beg to congratulate the Archbishop of 
York on the first exercise that he has made 
of the large patronage now in his hands. 
Honorary canonries should be reserved for 
distinguished and hard-working clergy, a rule 
that is often forgotten by episcopal patrons. 
For forty-five years Rev. J. C. Atkinson has 
laboured assiduously with the best of results 
in a very wide and retired moorland parish 
of Cleveland at a miserable stipend; and 
has also for the last twenty-five years gained 
much distinction in the world of letters. In 
1868 he published his "Glossary of the Cleve- 
land Dialect" ; in 1874 a " History of Cleve- 
land"; in 1882 a "Handbook of Ancient 
Whitby"; in 1880-82 he edited the "Whitby 
Chartulary'' (2 vols.); and in 1888 the 
"Rievaulx Chartulaiy" for the Surtees 
Society; in 1886-87, ^^ edited the "Fumess 
Coucher Book " (3 vols.) for the Cheetham 
Society; and in 1891 he won a remarkable 
and well-deserved success with his "Forty 
Years in a Moorland Parish." Under the 
old regime, Rev. Dr. Atkinson (he obtained an 
honorary Durham D.C.L., in 1887), would 
have gone on to the end of his days without 
any diocesan recognition, but the very first 
official act by .^^hbishop Maclagan has 
been to confer a York Canonry on this 
excellent parish priest and able antiquary, 
whom we are pleased to now style Rev. 
Canon Atkinson; and has, by so doing, 
removed a reproach from the See over which 
he presides. 

if 4if 4if 

In our report of the Congress of Archaeo- 
logical Societies, recently held at Burlington 
House, we mentioned that good progress 
was being made by Chancellor Fei^guson 
with the archaeological survey of Cumberland 
and Westmorland, on the model of that of 
Kent by Mr. G. Payne, F.S. A. The Chancellor 
gives us a few hints, which may be useful to 
others who take up the work. It is essential 
that, after every place^named in the index, 
its position on the 6-inch Ordnance survey 



should be given thus: Black Comb, 83 
N.W. ; Blackford, 80 S.W. ; Black Hall, 80 
S.W. If this is not done the places must be 
described at great length, or a searcher 
would waste hours in finding them on the 
Ordnance sheets, and would probably have 
to consult a county directory. Its utility in 
cases where the various places bear the same 
name is obvious — ^thus: Kirkland, 51 S.W. ; 
and Kirkland, 15 N.W., need nothing more. 
But the making such an index is laborious 
work; the constant turning over of 90 or 
100 (in this case over 150) 6-inch sheets is 
hard work. The sheets are only numbered 
at the right-hand upper corner ; the compiler 
will make his work easier by conspicuously 
numbering them before he b^ns on both 
lower comers. He should also rule cross- 
lines dividing the sheets into quarters, N.E., 
N.W., S.E., and S.W. Both these dodges 
will save him time, labour, and temper. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

On June 21, 1888, a fine and typical series 
of no less than 130 maces pertaining to 
English Corporations was exhibited at the 
rooms of the Society of Antiquaries, on the 
occasion of the President's reception. The 
oldest and most interesting of these historic 
civic maces was the example from Hedon, 
Yorks. On account of its age, and other 
remarkable characteristics, the Hedon mace 
was selected for full and handsome illustra- 
tion in the fifty-first volume of the Archao- 
iogiaf where it was also textually described 
by our best authority on civic plate, Mr. 
W. H. St. John Hope. The mace is of 
silver-gilt, and measures 25 inches in length. 
The conical mace-head is of great beauty, 
and rises out of a coronet of strawberry 
leaves. On the flat surface of the head is 
engraved a shield of the royal arms of France 
and England quarterly. The head is now 
surmounted by a singular crown of four 
crocketed arches. The crown is considered 
by Mr. Hope to be of Elizabethan date, but 
the mace itself is of early fifteenth-century 
work, and probably dates from 1413, when 
Henry V. granted an important charter to 
the town. 

4p 4p 4p 

We should have thought that the peculiar 
honour of possessing the oldest nuice in 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



«39 



Engiand would have been keenly appreciated 
hy the educated inhabitants and representa- 
tiire officiab of this ancient little town of 
Holdcmessy which sent its two representa- 
tions to the House of Commons uninterrupt- 
ediy from the days of Edward I., to 1832. 
Hot, alas! for the credit of modem York- 
shire buighetSythe knowledge of the antiquity 
and rare beauty of this noteworthy rebc of 
their former civic importance seems only to 
have awakened the cupidity of its d^enerate 
modem custodians. It will scarcely be 
rrediled that at the last quarterly meeting 
of the Corporation of Hedon, the Mayor 
(Councillor White) presiding, Mr. Soutter 
moved* ^'That the ancient mace belonging 
to the coq>oration be sold for not less than 
jQ^OQ^ and the proceeds be used in ex- 
tinguishing the debt of the borough." Mr. 
(kbson seconded the motion, and the resolu- 
tion was carried by six to two, Messrs. 
Beat, Johnson, Gibson, Soutter, Watson, and 
Carried voting for it, and Messrs. White and 
Marshall against it At the same meeting 
a portrait of the late Dr. Kirk, presented 
by the Bunily, was accepted by the Corpora- 
tion, and ordered to be hung in the Council 
Chamber. But according to the precedent 
set b)r the previous resolution, the family of 
Dr. Kirk have no warrant but that the 
CoiincO will shortly desire to sell this portrait 
in order to further reduce the debt We 
nodoe that the two principal landowners 
of Hedon are those wealthy magnates, 
Mr. W. H. Harrison Broadley, and Mr. 
Christopher Sykes, M.P. If these gentle- 
men and other educated residents are content 
to submit to the sordid dealings of the 
representatives of the town, they will incur 
a considerable share of the disgrace. If 
money most be raised, could not the Council 
Ik content with placing their mace for a 
season in the hands of the local pawn- 
(ifokcr? 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

A singular feature in Roman road-making — 
and one which we think has not been the 
occasion of much remark elsewhere — has 
Litely been observed in a portion of the 
mihtary way passing up Annandale into 
Upper Clydesdale. West of Moflfat, this 
andent road takes to the hills and runs for 



over three miles along the ridge dividing the 
Annan from the Evan water. About three 
and a half miles from Moffat the modern 
Edinburgh Road coalesces with it, and further 
north the old Glasgow Road follows very 
nearly the same line. For the three miles 
first mentioned, however, the roadway has 
not been in use during recent times, and 
there is, therefore, no palimpsest (if we may 
venture on a doubtful metaphor) of modem 
road metal on the antique roughly-laid way, 
which consists of a base of irrq^ular unhewn 
large stones, with a superstratum of small 
"cobbles" and pebbly material. The re- 
markable thing, however, is that at close 
intervals all along on both sides of the track, 
which is grown over with rank grass and 
rushes, there are surface pits of various 
sizes. These are always on the wayside; 
they are not promiscuous over the hill, but 
follow very faithfully the line of the road 
between them ; and they cannot be referred 
to any other purpose than that of having 
served as the quarries from which the Roman 
soldiers got their material when making this 
iUr. It will be of interest to leam further 
details, and to hear of analogous examples 
in other places. 



The Rev. Canon Grainger, of Broughshane, 
the well-known Irish antiquary and collector, 
has just made a most valuable gift to Belfast, 
the city of his birth. He has committed 
to the guardianship of the people of Belfast 
the collections of a life-time, and we feel 
confident that so generous and varied a 
bequest will be much appreciated, carefully 
housed, and well displayed. Many of the 
leading specimens of these Irish antiquities 
have been described by the owner and others 
in the pages of the Ulster Journal of Archao- 
logy^ or in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish 
Academy, or Society of Antiquaries. They 
include the rude altar-stone of Connor, an 
altar vessel of enamel work, a handbell of 
the early Irish church, and a variety of Celtic 
bronze swords and spears. The flint arrow- 
heads are upwards of a thousand in number, 
whilst the stone implements of different 
epochs form a large and most varied array. 
It is with sincere r^ret that we leam of the 
ill-health of this accomplished scholar, but 

L a 



140 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



trust that Canon Grainger may be spared to 
fully understand the gratitude of those who 
he is benefiting, and to superintend the 
arrangement in their new home, not only 
of the antiquities, but also of the zoological, 
botanical, and geological collections which 
were comprised in the Broughshane museum. 

w *^ ,* 

The work of concreting the floor of the choir 
of the cathedral church of Peterborough — 
from the eastern arch of the lantern to 
the commencement of the apse — is now 
finished. Before the concreting could pro- 
ceed it was necessary, in order to guard 
against subsidence, that the vaults should be 
filled up. In the course of these operations 
Queen Catherine's tomb was opened on the 
north side of the choir. It was found to be 
a vault over 8 feet long, by 3 feet 1 1 inches 
wide. In the interior was a stone, on which 
was inscribed the fact that the tomb was 
opened in 1790. The remains of the Queen 
were enclosed in a large leaden shell, from 
which all traces of the wood coffin had long 
ago disappeared. It lay about three feet 
from the surface. The necessary opening of 
the tomb was kept private, save from the 
officials, and we are glad to learn that Canon 
Clayton resisted the proposal to open the 
leaden shell. 

♦ 4p 4> 

When the members of the British Archaeo- 
logical Association visited Rievaulx Abbey 
on August 21, not only the unkempt and 
uncared-for aspect of the ruins was the sub- 
ject of much comment, but the obvious recent 
decay of certain parts, and the jeopardy of 
more from the weight of overhanging ivy 
and the growth of great trees and bushes, 
were universally regretted. Rev. Dr. Cox, 
who described the church and conventual 
buildings, gave full credit to the Earl of 
Feversham for much that he had caused to be 
done in the past, particularly in the removal 
of the ivy from the east end of the choir, and 
of the trees from the summit of its walls, but 
stated that all this work had now for some 
years been suspended, and that recent 
damage was grievous. Mr. Loftus Brock, 
F.S.A., on behalf of the association, under- 
took that the matter should be brought be- 



fore the first meeting of the council, in order 
that a proper communication might be for- 
warded to his lordship. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

With regard to these most noble and now 
most unfortunate ruins, we have received a 
letter from Mr. H. A. Rye, who was at one 
time clerk of the works on the Duncombe 
Park estates, for which we have gladly found 
room in our correspondence columns. Those 
who knew Rievaulx in Mr. Rye's days are 
well aware that his discreet zeal led ium to 
accomplish all that was in his power, and 
at the time of the visit of the Association 
acknowledgment was made of this, which 
does not, however, seem to have reached the 
daily press. The Antiquary desires to ex- 
press regret for the non-recognition of the 
work done and expense incurred by Lord 
Feversham in former days in the notes of 
last month; but the reason why an intelli- 
gent public (we receive many complaints 
from eminent archaeologists) feel specially 
aggrieved about Rievaulx, for the last few years, 
is that one shilling admittance is charged, whilst 
nothing is being done, and the noble build- 
ings slowly but surely perishing. Mr. Rye^ 
in another communication, says that there is 
no reason for any anxiety with regard to the 
groined roof over the north transept chapel, 
for although now covered with ivy and briars, 
it was grouted with cement during certain 
repairs that were done under Sir Gilbert 
Scott. In this opinion we do not in the least 
agree, and believe that if the ivy, briars, and 
trees continue there for another season or 
two, the fall of this only bit of groining that 
is left is an absolute certainty. The cement 
has yet to be discovered that can oifer 
effectual resistance to growing roots when 
once they obtain entrance. Since last 
Easter the ivy has forced its way right 
through this Gilbert Scott cemented roof in 
two places, and a network of other roots are 
steadily at work in the upper interstices. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

In some repairs that are being done to the 
old church of St Peter's, Derby, several 
fragments of earlv grave-stones have baen 
found in the foundations of the buttresses on 
the south side. There are five heads or 



NOT£S OP THE MONTH. 



puts of beads of crosses. The latest and 
most elabonte of these is of a somewhat 
anusual pattern j the shaded ports in the 




dnnrii^ are slightly sunk. We believe it to 
be of eskriy thirteenth centuty date. Another 
bead pnltj nearly resembles the one just 



depicted. The other three fragments are 
very rudely carved, and may possibly per- 
tain, as has been suggested, to the old Saxon 
church that formerly stood on this site. 
We are indebted to Mr. Bailey for these 
sketches. 

* * * 

We have received, with urgent invitation to 
notice, a " Synopsis of the Lives of Victoria 
ClaSin Woodhull (now Mrs. John BIddulph 
Martin) and Tennessee Cladin (now Lady 
Cook), the two first lady bankers and 
reformers of America." The synopsis is 
only the forerunner of a big biography of 
these two ladies, by a Mr. G. S. DarewitL 
It is urged that the Anli^ary is a fitting 
medium for exploiting the forthcoming 
" large work," because the two daughters <^ 
the late Mr. R. C. ClaBin have so remark- 
able and ancient a pedigree. We cannot, 
however, do more than give the following 
amusingly-comprehensive statement from the 
analysis of a genealogical chart, wherein it 
is shown that "Victoria Clailin Woodhull- 
Martin and Tennessee Claflin, who are 
descended on their father's side from the 
Kings of Scotland and England, and on 
their mother's side from the Hummels and 
Moyers of Germany, who also were of Royal 
blood, are related to the famous American 
legislator, Lieut-Colonel Alexander Hamil- 
ton (whose statue adorns the Central Park, 
New York City) ; and they are connected by 
marriage with the family of Washington 
himself." It would be cruel to send us the 
book; the synopsis has taken away our 
breath. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

An old lady in the almshouses at Wantage 
is the possessor of a small circular box of 
brass-gilt, the gilt of which is nearly worn 
away. The box, which has been forwarded 
to us for inspection, is an inch deep and 
2\ inches in diameter. It is effectively 
6nished, and has been lined with a red 
enamel, of which but little remains. On the 
lid is a bust in relief, with the inscription 
round the edge : " Admiral Lord Nelson. 
Bom ag Sep* 1758." At the bottom of the 
box, between two sprays of acnmed oak, is : 
" Conqueror at Aboukir 1 Aug* 1 79S, 



142 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



Copenhagen 2 April 1801, Trafalgar 21 
Oct' 1805, where he gloriously fell." It has 
been suggested that the box may have been 
intended to contain an officer's medals, but 
we regard it rather as a convenient memorial 
of our great naval hero, and of his last 
triumphant engagement. There is no box 
of this description among the Nelson relics 
and memorials at the Royal Naval Exhibi- 
tion. Can any of our correspondents tell 
us of similar examples in local museums or 
private collections ? 



4^ 4p 4p 

A committee was recently formed to take 
into consideration in what way the county 
of Wilts could best commemorate the name 
and works of the late Canon Jackson, of 
Leigh Delamere, the first editor of the 
magazine of the Wilts Archaeological and 
Natural History Society, one of the first two 
honorary secretaries, a most diligent collector 
of material for Wiltshire History, and one 
whose topographical papers — delivered with 
inimitable address at almost every annual 
meeting of the society — will always be re- 
membered with pleasure by those whose 
privilege it has been to hear them. Sugges- 
tions have been made for brass tablets and 
stained-glass windows, as well as for under- 
taking the publication of some of his works, 
but none of them meet with general approval, 
and it was recently decided at the Wilton 
meeting that the best thing that can be done 
is to carry out a plan for a much-needed 
extension of the society's museum and 
library at Devizes. Archaeological collections 
are constantly accumulating there, and many 
interesting objects are not exhibited for want 
of space. Canon Jackson showed his interest 
in the place by frequent contributions to it, 
and he has bequeathed a very valuable 
collection of fossils made by himself before 
he limited the sphere of his researches chiefly 
to topography. A considerable sum will be 
required to carry out this plan, and sub- 
scriptions are asked for from all interested 
in the history of the county, and will be 
received by either of the honorary secretaries, 
Mr. Henry E. Medlicott, Potteme or Devizes, 
Rev. Edward H. Goddard, Clyffe Vicarage, 
Wootton Bassett. 



J0ote0 of tl)e Q^tt) (iForetgn)* 



Between Tozeur and Gafsa, in Tunis, there 
has been discovered a Roman inscription 
dated 97 a.d., when Nerva was emperor. 
Monsieur H^ron de Villefosse, to whom it 
was communicated, has declared its singular 
importance at one of the last sittings of the 
Acadeniie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres. It 
gives us the name of a castle or fortified town, 
castellum Thigensium, placed on an important 
road connecting the regions of the oases and 
the province of proconsular Africa, and 
proves that the region of the Sahara to the 
south of the proconsular province was placed 
under the authority of the legatus imperialis 
of Numidia. Here also occurs the name of 
the consul suffectus^ Quintus Fabius Barbarus, 
which is read in a consular diploma of the 
museum of St. Germain -en -Laye, and we 
observe that this personage had besides the 
prenomen^ nomen^ and cognonun^ the three 
other cognomens — Valerius^ Magnus^ and 
Julianus, He was stationed in Numidia in 
quality of legate of the province, where he 
had as successor Lucius Numadus Gallus, 
the founder of Thamugadi (Tirog&d). 

* * ♦ 

News from Carrara report that some private 
excavations have been made on the site of 
ancient Luni^ with the result that objects 
have been found illustrative of ancient art 
and history. 

* ♦ * 

iFrom Epirus we learn that near Delvino a 
tomb of enormous proportions has been 
found, having within a skeleton of colossal 
size. The sarcophagus is said to be of 
artistic value, but details are still wanting. 

« ♦ ♦ 

We hear from Athens that during the month 
of September will begin the expropriation of 
the houses and fields of the village of Kastri« 
in order to allow the excavations of Delphi 
to proceed. 

* * * 

At Athens the project is entertained of ex- 
tending the second or new railway-line firom 



NOTES OF THE MONTH {FOREIGN). 



M3 



the Piraeus to Athens, as far as the square 
of the constitution near the royal paJace^ 
running parallel to the stream of Ilissus. 
Several buildings of the ancient city were 
near this rivulet, and it is to be hoped that 
the works will reveal much of archaeological 
interest, as was the case in the similar pro- 
longation of the railway from the old Piraeus 
station in Athens. 

* ♦ * 

From Russia we learn that near the village 
of Bogodar, in the district of Jekaterinoslaw, 
they have excavated a tumulus of the Bronze 
Age, within which was foimd the tomb of a 
woman, whose skeleton, perfectly preserved, 
lay in the midst of various kinds of objects, 
which formed the funereal deposit ; as well 
as considerable remains of eatables, probably 
belonging to the funereal banquet, or else 
to the burial offerings. Amongst the grave- 
goods are a cup or vessel for liquids, an ear- 
ring of bronze, many precious stones, amber, 
ornamental beads, and a gold button with 
beautiful open ornamental work. 

* * * 

The director of the excavations in Sicily will 
begin soon to clear out and restore the 
Ep^la of the ancient city. 

H^ H^ ifi 

In Greece the heats of summer have inter- 
rupted almost all excavations, save those of 
Rhamnus, Epidaiurus, and at Eretria. 

3|e ♦ 4c 

Some more cippi on the banks of the Tiber 
have been found, one to record the boundaries 
made by Augustus in the year of Rome 747 ; 
and two of those established the year before 
by the consuls C. Asinius Gallus, C. 
Marcius, and C. Censorinus. The name 
of C. Asinius Gallus in the other titles of 
the series having been defaced, was recut on 
the stone in ancient times. 

* ♦ ♦ 

At Mignano, in Campania, at 3 kilometres 
from the village, remains of ancient buildings 
have been discovered, in which were found 
two large doliu 

i^ :¥ ^ 

At Pozzuoli, near the porta Erculea, pieces 
of a marble slab were unearthed, bearing 



inscriptions in Greek and Latin of the age 
of Domitian, in which, according to Professor 
Halbherr, the date was expressed in ac- 
cordance with the Tyrian and Roman 
calendars. 

* ♦ ♦ 

In Rome, near the porta Salaria, a bit of 
ancient road was brought to light, as also 
two funereal inscriptions in Latin. 

* * ♦ 

In the district of Albano Laziale, called 
ColonnelUy were discovered the walls of an 
ancient building. Ruins of a villa, as it 
would seem, together with some fragments 
of Latin inscriptions, were unearthed in 
Civita Lavinia. 

mi ^ if 

In the territory of Canosa (Regione II.) was 
found a bowl with red figures, having repre- 
sented on it Bacchic scenes. 

* * ♦ 

At Paestum (Regione III), not far from the 
temple of Neptune, a tomb was explored, in 
which were found a fictile lamp, and seven 
ivory hairpins. A bust of Adrian and frag- 
ments of inscriptions were recovered at Palmi, 
near the supposed site of Tauriano. 

H/^ H/i Of. 

Earthenware objects with makers' marks were 
found at the farm of Ctmzado, near Ter- 
ranova Pausania, in the Agro Olbiense. 

* ♦ * 

At Barete, in the territory of Amitemino, a 
funereal Latin inscription was found. Tombs 
of the Roman period were found at Pratola 
Peligna, and at Roccacasale in the Sulmonese \ 
a pavement in mosaic (white and black) on 
the site of ancient Corfinium in Pentina; 
and some Latin inscriptions in the territory 
of Pettorano, in constructing the railway 
from Sulmona to Isemia. 

if i(^ an 

At Brindisi also Latin inscriptions belonging 
to seven tombs came to light in Conoce, or 
Mannarini, when a few years before other 
tombs were examined. 

^^ ^^ ^^ 

Outside the walls of Rome, between Porta 
Salara and Porta Pinciana, there has been found 



144 



NOTES OF THE MONTH {FOREIGN). 



quite recently a fine half-size statue of Hygeia, 
tlie duplicate deity of health with iEsculapius, 
whose daughter she was. Her drapery leaves 
bare the right shoulder and arm, round which 
twines the mystic serpent, lucklessly decapi- 
tated. This statue is of Carrara marble, and 
of moderately good sculpture. The torso is 
headless, and the left hand is also wanting. 
Near the same place has also been discovered 
a large sarcophagus in excellent preservation, 
and still containing the bones of two persons, 
probably of a husband and wife, mixed with 
the earth which, owing to the absence of a 
cover, has filled up the interior. The principal 
front of this sarcophagus is adorned with a 
central circular field or shield, upon which 
are merely blocked out the heads of the 
married pair destined to be finished into 
portraits at the time of death. But the 
symbolic and decorative portions of the front 
are carefully chiselled. Under the shield is 
a pastoral scene. A shepherd is sitting upon 
a basket which he has turned upside down, 
and is milking two goats, while a second 
stands before him playing the pipe. At the 
right corner of the sarcophagus is a bearded 
man with long hair of the Greek type; 
to the left is a female draped figure, also 
Greek, holding up her mantle with her right 
hand. The rest of the front is filled with 
a sculptured wave ornament ; while at one 
end is the figure of a man like a Greek 
philosopher; at the other a woman with 
chiton and heination. The two lesser faces 
show griffins in very low relief. This sarco- 
phagus is of Pentelic marble, and probably 
was sculptured in Greece during the third 
century of our era. 

4c 4c a^ 
In the same plot of ground, 4 mbtres deep, 
a very beautiful ancient Roman poniard 
was also found. The handle is massive 
bronze, of octangular form, ending in a boar's 
head finely chiselled in high relief. The 
blade is two-edged, 24 centimetres long and 
\\ broad. It is assigned to the age of 
the Antonines, and Signer Castellani con- 
siders that it must have been a weapon used 
in the chase — possibly to despatch the wild 
boar. 

4c 4c « 
At Rimini, in laying down water-pipes for 
the new military barracks, under the Via 



Parecchi, some remarkable remains of Roman 
mosaic pavements have been found, and a 
large piece of exquisite design in white and 
black, beneath which was found another 
pavement, simpler and poorer, formed of 
small stones of various colours. The frag- 
ments have been placed in the town museum. 
It is to be hoped that the Italian Govern- 
ment will help the municipality to extract 
the other pavements known to exist under 
the modern houses, and excavate on a large 
scale the buried Roman amphitheatre. 



At Rome many tools belonging to his art 
have been found collected together, which 
were formerly used by an artist by name 
i£milius Faustus, who worked metals au 
repoussL The name of the artist and owner 
of these instruments and utensils is cut in 
letters of a late period of the republic, and 
they are made of very hard bronze, and 
enclosed in a case or box. 



At Omavasso, in the valley of the Ossola, 
an important discovery of Roman republican 
coins has been made. 



The cippus dedicated to Minerva existing on 
the hill of Campoyecchio, near Grottaferrata 
(in the province of Rome), and published in 
the fourteenth volume of the Corpus In- 
scripiionum Latinarum^ has been acquired 
for the collection of local antiquities in the 
abbey of Grottaferrata. 

4c « 4c 

During some excavations made in the island 
of Lavret in the Bay of St. Brieux, in France, 
the walls of an ancient monastery of the 
Merovingian age, together with remnants of 
ruins of an edifice of Roman times, have 
been brought to light. Divers objects of 
the Merovingian epoch were recovered at the 
same time, amongst which were aims of 
offence and some ornaments of bone. 

4c 4c 4c 

At Trier (Trfeves), in Germany, there was 
discovered a short time ago a slab of marble 
with a votive inscription to the Celtic divinity 



NOTES OF THE MONTH {FOREIGN). 



«45 



Icovellauna, erected by a Roman of the name 
of M. Primius Alpicus. 

* * ♦ 

Amongst recent discoveries in Germany 
deserve to be mentioned a series of Latin 
inscriptions come to light in Cologne, which 
belong to a family sepulture, in which are 
found names of both Romans and foreigners. 
Two of the defunct called fiienus and Gatus 
are Gauls of the tribe or people of the 
Viromandui, known to Julius Caesar as dwell- 
ing in Belgium. Another Roman inscrip- 
tion, also sepulchral, but fragmentary and not 
easily intelligible, has likewise come to light 
in the same town, together with others in the 
museum called Walliaf-Richartz. 



Upon a hill near Mayschoss an der Ahr, 
in Germany, have been lately discovered 
some important Roman tombs, part of 
them formed of bricks or stone slabs, and 
part consisting of a simple trench in the 
earth. The corpse was buried according to 
the rite of cremation, and together with the 
ashes were found various objects. In one 
tomb glass vessels artistically made were 
found deposited ; in another a colossal wine- 
cup, around which were collected fifteen 
smaller vessels, cups or phials j as also a 
singular oil-lamp made in the shape of two 
human feet joined together, with underneath 
the name of the maker. 

^^ ^^ ^^ 

Near Lubiana, in Austria, has been dis- 
covered in the turf, at more than 7 yards 
depth, a prehistoric boat formed out of a 
gigaiitic trunk of oak, 8*60 metres long by 
i'6o wide. 

# * * 

From Roumania it is announced that a man 
of science is undertaking excavations in the 
Island of Serpents at the mouth of the 
Danube, for the discovery of a prehistoric 
tomb supposed to be there. 

♦ 4c 3^ 

At Athens the statue of the boxer lately 
discovered in the island of Melos has been 
safely deposited in the National Museum. 
Other recent acquisitions include some 



reliefs, either fragmentary or entire, of which 
one is Roman in the form of a small temple 
with parastades and aetoma^ having in the 
middle two figures of a man and one of a 
woman with an inscription; also a small 
hydria of good Grecian period, found near 
the new railway-station at Athens, bearing 
in relief two figures, viz., a matron seated 
and a girl standing, with an inscription giving 
the name of the principal figure Euklea. 



Amongst other antiquities recently brought 
into the National Museum at Athens, and 
coming either fi-om private sources or from 
the latest excavations at Athens, Vari, 
Thoricos, etc., are several vases and terra- 
cottas of more than ordinary importance. 
One of the vases from the tombs at Vari, 
in the form of a lekythos^ with black figures, 
bears a rare and interesting representation, 
referring, as it would appear, to the myth 
of Minotaur, in which is seen a monster, 
half man and half bull, struggling with a 
hero who has taken him by the horns and 
is brandishing over him a sword. Near the 
figures stands a funereal steU^ and behind 
this is seen Minerva in fiill armour taking 
part in the fray. 



From Thorikos, besides various vases and 
fragments of vases, come some archaic terra- 
cottas, amongst which are eight heads or 
busts, a small figure of a woman, seated on 
a throne, of common type, and a fragment 
of relief, of rare type, of rude archaic make, 
representing an undraped woman. 



The Theseion in Athens is represented by 
two marble heads of natural size recently 
found in the vicinity of that temple, and by 
a marble funereal vase with the representa- 
tion of two men who are shaking hands in 
the act of bidding farewell, near which are 
to be seen their names inscribed, Apollo- 
doros and Pistodoros of the deme in Attica 
called Eroiadia. 

if if an 

Other discoveries made not far from the 
Theseion, during the works for continuing 



146 



NOTES OF THE MONTH {FOREIGN). 



the existing Piraeus railway-line into the centre 
of Athens, are some dedicatory inscriptions 
and several important decrees of proxenia, 
as well as some bearing the date of the 
Archons Heliodoros, Archelaos and Phanar- 
kides, which throw some light on the mutual 
relations between Athens and Crete and 
Athens and Cyprus existing at this period ; 
while they determine the position of the 
Athenian sanctuary of Demos and Charites, 
as it was in this place that the decrees 
were deposited, as appears from the con- 
text. 

* * * 

Signer Stavros Andropulos, one of the Areo- 
pagites, has made a handsome gift to the 
National Museum, consisting of a collection 
of vases, terra cottas, and bronzes already in 
part known and published, and coming from 
various parts of Greece. Amongst others is 
the well-known vase with red figures repre- 
senting the struggle of Heracles with Busiris 
from Thespise and published by Dumont; 
other figured vases from Boeotia and firom 
Locris, and an important relief in terra cotta 
perhaps from Corinth, bearing the represen- 
tation of a Homeric scene taken from the 
" Odyssey," in which is seen, within a build- 
ing of the Ionic order, Ulysses seated with 
Areta and Telemachos. But this ceramic 
object is only a fragment. Amongst the 
bronzes are rings, brooches, a strigil (well 
preserved), and some Greek and Roman 

coins. 

* * ♦ 

The Archaeological Museum of the Ducal 
Palace of Venice has been lately enriched 
by some noteworthy acquisitions from the 
private collection left by the late Signer 
Lorenzo Seguso of that city. They consist 
of a Greek sepulchral cippus, with reliefs and 
inscriptions which once formed part of the 
well-known Museo Nani ; of two plutei of 
the ninth century, ornamented with twisted 
osier twigs and other designs from the vege- 
table or animal kingdom, coming from the 
ancient churches of the Venetian islets ; and 
in fifteen paintings in tempera, on wooden 
boards, the work of the painter Domenico 
Campagnola, and representing figures of 
prophets and saints from the school of the 
' Beata Vergine del Parto," in Padua. 



The collection of prehistoric antiquities of 
the museum of the CoUegio Romano^ called 
Kirkeriano, after having been enriched during 
the past months by the gift of two private 
collections from Upper Italy, has still more re- 
cently been presented, by the learned pabseth- 
nologist Herr Moritz Wosinsky, of Apar, in 
Hungary, with a precious collection of Hun- 
garian primitive antiquities, amongst which is 
a magnificent dsta in bronze, from the famous 
hoard discovered at Kurd The collection 
given by the engineer, Signor J. B. Traverso, 
consists of several hundred stone anns and 
implements from Alba, in the province of 
Cuneo, made during a course of twenty 
years. The museum was hitherto destitute 
of neolithic objects found in Piedmont. 

% 3(c 4c 

In our last number Dr. Halbherr is made to 
say, through a printer's error, at the end of 
his article on Pompeii, that the two inscrip* 
tions of names are on one amphora-*-" the 
same jar," for " the other jar," etc 




Jl9ote0 on atclba^ologp in Pco< 
umctal ^U0eum0. 




No. V, — Lichfield. 

By J. Ward. 

IT is meet that this museum should 
stand next to that of Derby in the 
present series of reports on pro- 
vincial museums, for the connec- 
tions of Lichfield with Derbyshire have been 
many and close. Its cathedral is the fairest 
and perhaps eldest daughter of the Derby- 
shire Repton, now a pleasant rural seat of 
learning, but once the royal city of the Saxon 
kingdom of Mercia, the '* mausoleum,** as 
Ingulphus has it, ''of her kings," the cradle 
of her Christianity, and the see of her 
bishopric. The latter glory of Repton was 
transferred to Lichfield on the consecration 
of the fourth bishop, the saintly Ceadda, and 
for more than a thousand years Derbyshire 



NOTES ON ARCHAEOLOGY IN PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS. 



147 



owned the ecclesiastical supremacy of the 
daughter. Then turning to modern times, 
Lichfield's chief celebrity^ Dr. Johnson, the 
great lexicographer, sprang of Derbyshire 
parentage; while of Derbyshire worthies, two 
— Dr. Erasmus Darwin, "physician, philoso- 
pher, and poet," whose speculations, success- 
fully solved by his grandson, have made the 
name eternally famous, and Anna Seward, 
the gentle poetess — found here a temporary 
residence ; and a third. Chief Justice Wilmot, 
was educated at the Free School, which 
claims amongst its distinguished alumni 
Addison, Ashmole the antiquary, King the 
herald, Garrick, Johnson, and Day, author 
of Sandford and Merton — names that Lich- 
field is, and has reason to be, proud of. 

When commissioned by the editor to report 
upon the present museum, my first impulse was 
to include the architectural gems, the sixteenth* 
century Flemish glass, the encaustic tiles, 
and the crowning glory, the Saxon Gospels, 
attributed to St. Chad, of the glorious 
old cathedral, "moated Lichfield's lofty pile." 
But consult a guide-book or a policeman : 
they concur that the City Museum is one 
thing and the Cathedral church is another — 
two quite dififerent things, and the text of my 
commission confines me to the former. The 
museum is about a six-minutes' walk from the 
City (how these small cathedral towns, and 
those which have only recently been raised to 
the dignity — ^like Birmingham — insist at every 
turn &at they <ire cities!) Railway Station. 
On leaving the train the eye is first attracted 
to the quaint outside chimneys of St John's 
Hospital, a sixteenth-century brick building ; 
then comes an insipid clock-tower, so eccle- 
siastical in appearance that every visitor in- 
stinctively looks for the church ; opposite is 
NHnors' Hall, a fine Jacobean brick structure, 
formerly a school The museum is further 
ahead, but we will make a detour by Bore 
Street, noting, en route^ some old timbered 
houses, the chapel-like Guild Hall and Street's 
expressive spire of St. Mary's, and quaff 
coffee in the house where Dr. Johnson was 
bom, in the Market Place. There is an old- 
world look about this city, thoroughly English 
at every turn — staid, sober, and plodding. 
It savours of Georgian respectability rather 
than of mediaeval antiquity, like Chester. 
This predominance of eighteenth -century 



buildings, and their solidity and goodness, 
seem to indicate that as the halcyon period 
of Lichfield's prosperity. 

Our next is a somewhat retrograde move 
towards the museum, which, like Lichfield 
itself, is small and unobtrusive, yet withal 
pleasing. It is situated in the prettiest part 
of the city, at the head of the Minster Pool, 
over which the three graceftil spires of the 
Cathedral — the " Ladies of the Vale " — keep 
watch and ward, and at the angle of a pleasant 
square of greensward with fountain and 
shady walks, called the Museum Green. 
The interior is less happy : the reading-room, 
which, with the free Library, forms the lower 
story, lacks dignity, and the spiral staircase 
to the museum is awkward. The latter is 
contained in an irregularly-shaped room of 
very moderate proportions, but which for 
convenience may be regarded as divided into 
a large and a small room. These rooms are 
devoid of architectural features, but are well 
and equably lighted from the roof, and there 
are no dark comers. The institution is 
supported out of the rates, and is open 
to all comers. It was founded, and the 
present building erected, in 1859, the late 
Captain Dyott, aided by Rev. Chancellor 
Law (whose portrait in oU occupies the post 
of honour in the museum). Dr. Rowley, and 
Mr. Lomax, being the chief promoters. 

The collection is small, and very miscel- 
laneous in character; it is, I regret to say, of 
little use to the student, whether archaeo- 
logical or otherwise. This is not so much 
due to the small intrinsic worth of the ex- 
hibits, as to lack of arrangement and bad 
labelling — I might almost say, want of labels. 
The glass cases are antiquated, and are not 
adapted for many of the objects shown there- 
in ; and the want of shallow wall cases is at 
once noticed. Lichfield, like Derby, has 
thrown away her opportunities of having a 
really good museum. Without going so far 
back as Ashmole's rare collection now at 
Oxford, there have been within the last century 
three private museums in this city, all of which 
finally came to the hammer. The chief of 
these was that of Mr. Greene, an apothecary 
of last century. To judge from the cata- 
logues, one containing sixty-four and another 
ninety-four pages, it was of some magnitude 
and value. Boswell, in his Life of Johnscn^ 



X48 



NOTES ON ARCHjEOLOGY IN PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS. 



describes it as " a truly wonderful collection 
of antiquities, natural curiosities, and in- 
genious works of art. He had all the articles 
accurately arranged with their names upon 
labels, printed at his own little press; and 
on the staircase leading to it was a board 
with names of contributors in gold letters. 
A printed catalogue of the collection was to 
be had at a bookseller^s. Johnson expressed 
his admiration of the activity and diligence 
and good fortune of Mr. Greene in getting 
together, in his situation, so great a variety of 
things." Mr. Greene died in 1793, and a 
few years later his son sold a part of the 
collection, and the residue was disposed of 
by public sale at the Guild Hall in 182 1, by 
his grandson. 

The first glass case that I examined was 
one containing coins, the first on the right- 
hand side of the large room, near where 
usually sits the custodian reading a news- 
paper : on this occasion his good dame 
was in charge. Numismatics is not one of 
my attainments, but obviously this little col- 
lection is very good. There are numerous 
Roman, French, Italian, Venetian, etc., coins, 
but the more interesting is a goodly array of 
mediaeval and modem English specimens. 
Those of the earlier Henrys and Edwards 
are lumped together without the reigns 
being specified. There are a fine noble 
of Edward HI., some excellent silver of 
Henry VHI. and Edward VI., and gold 
broad -pieces of Elizabeth and James I. 
Charles I. is sparingly represented in both 
gold and silver. There are a gold and 
several good silver coins of the Common- 
wealth, and a plentiful array of id., 2d., and 
4d. pieces of Charles II., and particularly so 
of Queen Anne shillings and silver of lower 
value. George I. is poorly represented, but 
his successor is the reverse, there being of his 
sixpences alone no less than ten. The sub- 
sequent reigns, as might be expected, are 
copiously and well represented. Very stupidly, 
where there are several examples of a sort, 
they are carefully laid so as to show one side 
only; for instance, all the Queen Anne 
shillings and George II. sixpences have their 
obverses only exposed. I remarked this to 
the attendant, suggesting the advisability of 
getting some redundant coins exchanged; 
Uie rather curt reply was, " Indeed, I think 



we shouldn't, for we would not get any better ; 
as long as /am here things shall remain as 
they arel" Besides the above, there is an 
interesting collection of tokens, some local, 
medals of various sorts, and paper money« 

The next case contains an assortment so 
varied as a small Egyptian figure, a lamp 
from Syracuse, "an ancient British cdt" 
(polished stone), "an ancient hammer (iron) 
from a lead-mine," cannon-balls, an oyster- 
shell from the wreck of the Royal George^ a 
fragment of human jaw " said to have b^n 
found in the coffin of Godfrey, Eaii of 
Flanders," flint locks, old keys (two very 
elaborate, apparently of Flemish manufac- 
ture), a gritstone quern, a piece of music 
picked up at Waterloo, etc 

The third case is of some local interest, 
containing objects found during an excava- 
tion in 1859, on the site of the Roman 
station (Etocetum) at Wall, nearly two miles 
south of Lichfield — a site well worth syste- 
matic investigation. These comprise frag- 
ments of pottery — chiefly black — ^glass, tiles^ 
bricks, and plaster, with colouring adhering; 
stones of quern ; and three brass coins — one 
illegible; another, a Constantine; and a 
third, probably a Nera A newspaper letter, 
describing the excavation and its results, 
lies in the case. 

The Johnsonian relics of the fourth case 
are, of course, of peculiar local interest, 
but remain about as scanty as when the 
late Mr. Llewellyn Jewitt described them in 
the Art Journal^ 1872. They consist, as 
then, of two silver shoe-buckles, a snuff-box, 
a cribbage-board, a pair of china salt-cellars 
and saucer, and an embroidered white satin 
pocket-book, which the Doctor gave to Miss 
Dyott in 1760; and in addition (unless Mr. 
Jewitt omitted them), a drinking-cup, and a 
letter to " Mrs. Lucy Porter, in Lichfield,'' 
dated 1759. 

Cases 5, 6, 7 and 8 contain a multifiirious 
assortment, such as Oriental slippers^ fans, 
etc, a Burmese book, an opium-pipe, emu's 
eggs, a seaweed basket, objects from the 
great fire at Cotton's Wharf in i86i. 

In- the end case on this side is another and 
larger collection of Roman remains from Wall, 
presented by Mrs. Bagnall in x888. Con- 
spicuous amongst these are several large 
bricks impressed with ''P. S.," a consider- 



NOTES ON ARCHAEOLOGY IN PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS. 



149 



able number of much-rusted iron objects, 
some large curved ones being vaguely labelled 
*' bath scrapers," and a heap of Samian ware 
potsherds, all apparently plain. A bronze 
saucer-like vessel is termed a pastry-mould. 
In both this and the first-mentioned case of 
Roman objects, are sundry mediaeval en- 
caustic tiles of patterns like some in the 
Cathedral church. On a former visit I called 
the custodian's attention to them : at first he 
would not allow that they were not Roman, 
but when he ''came to'' he promised to 
remove them. They, however, remain where 
they were, classed as Roman. 

The cases on the opposite side of the 
room are of less antiquarian interest, and of 
even more diversified character than the 
above. In the first case are a series of casts 
of seals of Staffordshire religious houses, etc., 
in neighbourly contact with some dilapi- 
dated and unnamed beetles and butterflies. 
The second case rejoices in zoological odds 
and ends : a few skulls, an elephant's tooth, 
some tropical bird's-nests, the skin of a 
penguin, fin of a shark, etc. Next comes a 
pretty collection of unmounted marine shells, 
ail unlabelled; then more odds and ends, 
followed by another case of badly-mounted 
marine shells, some only of which are named — 
in pencil. The remaining cases are devoted 
to more odds and ends : there are a Chinese 
dress of state, the dressing-gown of an ex- 
emperor of China, casts of cameos and seals, 
mementoes of the siege of Paris, samples of 
cotton, a few minerals, and the original vote 
of condolence passed by the city of Lichfield 
on the death of the Princess Charlotte in 
1817. 

The central cases contain a fairly good 
collection of minerals, but they require re- 
arrangement 

On the walls are hung portraits of various 
Lichfield celebrities, conspicuous amongst 
whom are Elias Ashmole, Dr. Johnson, and 
Dr. Erasmus Darwin, of the latter of whom 
the attendant assured me that " he used to 
keep a botanical garden in this city, and if 
his grandson was as fine-looking as he, he 
did not deserve to be." I concluded from 
this that she was of anti-Evolutionist views. 
Also hanging on the walls are a series of 
rubbings of monumental brasses, some not 
labelled at all, others in writing too small to 



be read, unless mounted on steps. Between 
these portraits and rubbings are all sorts of 
objects, hung without any apparent order: 
engravings, pictures, animal and human 
skulls — one of the latter remarkably dolicho- 
cephalic, but unlabelled — etc. 

Amongst the objects of the small room 
are a model of the Parthenon ; a few busts 
and statues, as the Venus de Medicis, an 
Apollo, and Canova's Hebe; some good 
examples of sixteenth-century armour, which 
are annually borrowed for the Whitsuntide 
procession of the Court of Array ; regimental 
colours; and three much-broken British 
sepulchral urns, one with the usual zig-zag 
ornamentation, found at Oakley Farm, near 
Croxall, but no hint is given whether there 
is any published account of the discovery.* 
If it is true that " no English museum would 
consider itself respectable without at least 
one mummy from the Land of the Pharaohs," 
this museum is decidedly lacking in this 
quality, for all that it possesses is the grue- 
some arm of a mummy ! Near it, however, 
are two very interesting relics of the past, 
"branks," or scolds' bridles, one of which 
formed part of Greene's collection : both are 
engraved in Jewitt's Art Journal article. 

From the above it will be readily seen 
that this museum stands in need of a thorough 
overhauling. Not a few of its contents, as 
the dilapidated beetles and butterflies, might 
with advantage be transferred to the rubbish- 
box, and others, duly labelled, be consigned 
to the darkness of some cupboard. The 
statues should be so placed in the museum 
and reading-rooms and the entrance lobby 
as to belong rather to the architectiu-al em- 
bellishments of the structure, than to the 
exhibits, as at present It cannot be too 
much insisted upon that the scientific value 
of a provincial museum is proportionate 
mainly to the extent to which it is represen- 
tative of its district Apply this rule arch- 
seologically to the present museum. As 
Lichfield is in the vicinity of an important 
Roman station, was the native place of Dr. 
Johnson, and is the head of a diocese, are 
we not justified in saying that in regard 
to these its museum should be especially re- 
presentative ? The Wall relics are neither 
extensive nor made the most of; those of 

• See Usher's History of CroxaU (Ed.). 



ISO 



ANCIENT REMAINS AROUND CONWAY. 



Johnson are surprisingly few ; while the 
ecclesiology of the diocese is not represented 
at all How much more interesting would it 
be, if instead of the present selection of rub- 
bings of brasses from anywhere, the walls 
were adorned with those of the diocese only 1 





ancient laemains atounD Con> 
l^irion, ssPaen p Camptau, zxt. 

By THB LATB H. H. LiNBS. 



[HE principal object of my visit to 
Conway in the summer of 1871 
was to ascertain by actual research 
if there remained any vestiges of 
the old Celtic times which could be identified 
with the writings of the later Welsh bards 
and historians. In prosecuting this research 
I was led to the secluded vale of Dwygyfylchi 
and its neighbourhood, between Conway 
mountain and Penmaenmawr. Here I ex- 
pected to find at least some slight evidence 
that certain remains mentioned in a song 
by Prince Hywel, the son of Owen Gwynedd 
in the twelfth century, were yet in existence. 
Many writers have associated certain long 
stones on Meini Hirion, near Penmaenmawr, 
with the " proud - wrought Caer" of Prince 
Hywel. But the circle in question was 
certainly not a temple, there being neither 
altar nor lustration basin. It is one of those 
circles set apart for the purpose of burial by 
some one of the ruling chiefs who in former 
times held sway in the neighbourhood. Near 
this circle there is another enclosure of an 
oval form, 60 feet long, but neither of these 
places appeared to me to bear out the descrip- 
tion of the " proud-wrought Caer," and both 
being well known, I will not enter into any 
description of them. 

Prince Hywel, the reputed author of several 
short Welsh poems, appears to have aspired 
to the honours of bardism, the initiation 
into which consisted of his passing through 
certain ceremonies, characterized by the 



adoption of some remnants of the ancient 
pagan superstitions, in which two mystic 
personages, Ceridwen and Llywy, were sup- 
posed to exercise considerable influence and 
impart inspiration to their votaries. 

We will now examine the poem in question, 
and note whether it bears out what I take 
to be its more correct applicatiotL Prince 
Hywel says : 

I love in the summer season, the prancing 
steed of the smiling chief, in the presence of the 
gallant lord, who rules the foam-covered, nimbly 
moving wave. But another has worn the token oif 
the Apple-spray ; my shield remains white upon my 
shoulder; the wishcd-for achievement have I not 
obtained, though great was my desire. 

This conveys a confession by Hywel that 
he had been "plucked" on a previous oc- 
casion. He then proceeds to apostrophize 
and supplicate the supposed genius of in- 
spiration under the emblem of the new 
moon : 

Ceridwen, lofty and fair — slow and delicate in bcr 
descending course, — her complexion is formed of the 
mild light in the evening hour, — the splendid, grace- 
ful, bright, and gentle lady of the mystic song, — so 
small, so delicate, so feebly descending 1 Even to 
bending a rush she would totter. 

Thus he describes the setting of the young 
May moon, and proceeds : 

Attend thou my worship in the mystical grove ; 
and whilst I adore thee, maintain thine own juris- 
diction. 

I love the Caer of the Illustrious Lady, near the 
pleasant shore ; and to the place where the modest 
lair one loves to behold the Sea-mew, t would ^dly 
go : fair is she as the snow which the cold has poushed 
upon the lofty peak. 

For the severe discipline which I experienced in 
the hall of the mysterious God, I have obtained her 
promise, a treasure of high privilege. 

I shall long for the proud-wrought Caer of the 
Gyfylchi till my exulting person has gained admittance. 
Renowned and enterprising is the man who enters 
there. 

It is the chosen place of Llywy, with her splendid 
endowments. Bright gleaming, she ascends from the 
margin of the sea, and the Lady shines this present 
year in the desert of Arvon in Eiyri 

After reading this highly-poetic and graphic 
effusion, I would point out the improbability 
of the 80 feet stone circle of Meini Hirion 
mentioned by Camden and adopted by 
Davies, being the " proud - wrought Caer** 
of the poem* Its limited size, 80 feet diameter. 



ANCIENT REMAINS AROUND CONWA K 



151 



would give but small space for the required 
ceremonial. Also its distance from Dwygy- 
fylchi of two miles is against the idea. But 
within the village itself, and less than half 
a mile from the church, are found some re- 
noains to which the title of the ** proud- 
wrought Caer" is really applicable, consisting 
in the first place of a nameless fortress stand- 
ing high above the village and guarding the 
oidy pass anciently leading into its secluded 
recesses ; while the sea laves its western shore, 
Penmaen Bycan cuts it off from the outer 
worid on the north, and Penmaenmawr is 
its gigantic barrier on the south. In the 
Ordinance map the fort is simply named 
Ddinas, which signifies an ancient British 
fortified town. From this lofty Ddinas hang- 
it^ over the deep defile of Sychnaut, and 
overlooking the sheltered vale at its base, 
we obtain a wide range of outlook over the 
estuary and bay of Conway, the great Orme, 
and the Isle of Anglesey, with Penmaenmawr 
and the serrated peaks of Arvon closing the 
panorama. 

The Ddinas rises about 900 feet above 
the beach at Dwygyfylchi ; its escarp next the 
bay, and more especially where it over- 
hangs the pass, is so steep as to be considered 
inaccessible on those sides, and here its 
rampart is of no account as a defence work. 
On the east the scarp is about 100 feet on 
a moderate slope, with a single rampart of 
earth and loose stones. On the north the 
rampart b stronger, with a foss on its outside 
of 25 feet in width. There is also on this 
side the basement of the old wall of dry 
stonework, retaining its original facing in 
some places to a height of 3 feet 9 inches, 
showing the courses of the stonework very 
plainly. The space within the ramparts is 
440 feet on the north, 300 feet on the west, 
its entire circumference being 1,200 feet 
Thereare two entrances j one on the north-east 
comer shows arrangements for a permanent 
guaid of some strength. The other entrance 
is on the west, from which is a rugged path 
leading down the steep scarp to the village 
of Dwygyfylchi. In its area the Ddinas 
consists of three successive terrace ranges, 
one above the other ; the lowest, upon which 
the north-east gate opens, is about 100 feet 
long. From this we ascend to a second terrace 
of 300 feet by 20a A third slope terminated 



in a level plateau of about 100 feet across, 
and which is entirely covered over by founda- 
tions of small circular forms, in the centre 
being a ring of stones just above the level 
of the ground of 28 feet in diameter, pro- 
bably marking the site of a building of those 
dimensions. In the centre of this ring the 
Ordinance surveyors have placed their usual 
mark, a pyramidal earn. The water supply 
for the Ddinas was from a pool of about 
100 yards across at the base of the scarp 
outside the north-east gate. 

It was probably upon the terraces of this 
Ddinas that some of the ceremonies, especi- 
ally those of revelry and feasting, were 
enacted as parts of the mythic celebrations 
so much desired by Prince Hywel. Here 
there would be ample space, combined with 
security against the mediaeval iconoclasts, 
and by appropriate decoration and adorn- 
ment the Ddinas might be converted into 
the " proud - wrought Caer." We should 
remember that Hywel, in using this high and 
aspiring designation, had never seen anything 
like the present grand old castles of his 
country — Caernarvon, Conway, Harlech ; they 
were not even the dreams of his age, though 
they were the realities of his successors 115 
years afterwards. But where are they now, 
with all their pride and pomp of the most 
chivalric period of our history? They are 
dismantled, ruined, and crumbling to dust ; 
all - conquering time reduces them to the 
same level with Prince Hywel's "proud- 
wrought Caer," where they may serve to 
" point a moral and adorn a tale." 

This poem of Hywel points with remark- 
able clearness to a certain locality within 
which there was then practised some of the 
ancient British rites in connection, or rather 
combined with the bardic institutions as 
common at the time ; and within that locality, 
not half a mile from the church of the 
Gyfylchi, and protected by the ramparts of 
the Ddinas, we find a strange group of rough 
megalithic remains which were most probably 
the especial portion of the " proud-wrought 
Caer," in which its more mysterious and 
pagan ceremonies were performed. It was 
probably in Prince Hywel's time so ancient 
a structure that its history went too far back 
to be traced. Since that period 700 years 
have been added to its age, and it may safely 



iSa 



ANCIENT REMAINS AROUND CONWAY. 



be regarded as among the most ancient 
monuments in Britain. The marks of its 
pride are no longer to be traced; it has 
assumed so much the look of nature that 
only the prying eyes of those who look after 
such things could discover it. 

The group is a mere remnant of what was 
probably a much more extensive structure. 
The whole now covers a diameter of i8o feet, 
but fortunately it contains just those stones 
intact which serve to show the character of 
the entire group. In the centre, around 
which all else is subordinated, is a mass of 
rock which I cannot say positively is in sitUy 
but that does not in the least affect what 
we find surrounding this immense mass. 
This rock is divided by two fissures into 
three distinct blocks, presenting a vertical 
face in front of 20 feet wide and 1 1 feet high 
in the centre. At the back of two of these 
blocks the earth has been removed, so as 
to form two semicircular hollows, as though 
to give space for some enactments requiring 
seclusion from the unprivileged eyes of the 
uninitiated. 

I believe these great blocks to have been 
among those which come under the inter- 
diction of certain councils held at Nantes in 
658, at Toledo in 681 and 692, also at Rouen 
about the same time, and at Aix-la-Chapelle 
in 780. Likewise in the time of Canute the 
Great there was a statute forbidding the 
barbarous adoration of the sun, the moon, 
fire, fountains, stones, and all kinds of trees. 
These interdictions show that the practice 
of nature - worship must have been most 
prevalent at the end of the eighth century, 
but that any remnant of these idolatrous 
practices should have lingered even in the 
secluded wilds of Wales to so recent a period 
as that of the twelfth century only shows 
with what reluctance they were abandoned. 
They had become blended with the institu- 
tion of bardism, as a means whereby the 
coveted gift of poetic inspiration was obtained. 
There was a fascination in the mystic cere- 
monies beneath the supposed influence of 
the young May moon, which Hywel so beauti- 
fully symbolizes a§ the emblem of Ceridwen 
in her descending courses. 

Which of the ancient Celtic gods or 
deities of Britain these great blocks were 
supposed to be the types we can only con- 



jecture. We find three blocks of rock, but 
since there are only two of them with the 
small curved enclosure behind, these two 
may have personified Ceridwen .and Llywy, 
while the remaining block, which is the 
smallest of the three, most probably marked 
the place occupied by an officiating party, 
especially as it stands within that space 
marked off in front of the group — the 
adytum. 

In immediate connection with the adora- 
tion stones as typical of Ceridwen and Uywy, 
we find at a distance of 25 feet south south- 
east an altar-slab 3 feet thick, 7 feet long, and 
5 feet broad, with a place for the augur to sit or 
stand beside the altar; also a path giving 
access from the altar to the back of the 
largest of the two idol stones, which measures 
II feet high and 9 broad. This arrange- 
ment stands upon a terrace 5 feet wide and 
about 3 feet higher than the stones lying in 
front. Immediately before the two great 
blocks is placed a large pointed stone, 6 feet 
high from its base to its pointed apex, and 
10 feet long. This is also a symbolic stone, 
as in front of it, and upon the edge of the 
terrace, is another stone 5 feet 4 inches high 
and TO feet long, with a small circle of stones 
placed before it. The purpose to which 
these large stones were devoted must remain 
a matter of conjecture. One of them bears 
the look of a stone used for purposes of 
divination, while the other, the pointed one, 
would be symbolic of the sun. 

It may be objected that I am creating an 
imaginary pantheon, but this state of things 
was not at all uncommon in Celtic super- 
stitions ; a plurality of gods was the rule 
which was rarely deviated from. I have met 
with instances which I believe are not gener- 
ally known, especially in Merionethshire and 
Caernarvonshire, where two or more altars 
are found, two cromlechi, two lustration 
stones, and two idol stones, all within one 
group. I believe I can mention three in- 
stances in which I have found such groups 
with the addition of heaped cameddau and 
numerous small stone rings. 

Again, it may be thought by some that 
granting this place to be that mentioned by 
Prince Hywel, the placing of the stones was 
the work of the twelfth century. In reply, 
we have no record or tradition of such places 



ANCIENT REMAINS AROUND CONWAY. 



153 



having been constructed at so recent a period ; 
on the contrary, it was a time when they were 
notoriously destroyed. It is far more pro- 
bable that this nameless structure was, in 
fact, a very ancient pagan sanctuary in the 
twelfth century, and on that account, and 
also from its peculiarly secluded locality, it 
was the appointed place in Arvon for the 
mystic celebrations so much coveted by 
Prince Hywel. 

This interesting group, though only 150 feet 
in diameter, was no doubt at one time of 
greater extent; its largest and most note- 
worthy stones remain as nearly as possible 
in the places to which they were originally 
assigned l*his is proved by the smaller 
stones, and the manner in which they con- 
nect the various portions of the whole 
arrangement. We can detect no displace- 
ment except in the case of some of the outer 
circles, where the smaller boundary stones have 
been trodden out of place by cattle. The 
larger masses, those which I point out as altars, 
still retain the smaller stones with which they 
were at first blocked up into position. Of 
three great symbolic stones, I cannot speak 
as to their being blocked with certainty. 
The spade could only decide that point. 
But whether they were blocked or not does 
not alter the conditions of their mutual rela- 
tions to every portion of this singular group, 
nor the conclusions arrived at Yet I will 
give one more possible objection which may 
be advanced against these conclusions, 
namely, the place may have been an ancient 
burial-place, the circles and larger blocks 
marking places where bodies had been de- 
posited. But we find the general construc- 
tion and arrangements as now left for our 
observation are not those adopted in burial 
circles. These, where cistvaens or stones 
are found, whether oval or circular, are 
characterized by exclusiveness : each circle or 
oval is complete in itself, and frequently 
without apparent entrance. In the group 
under notice every circle, however small, has 
a place of entrance or portal stones; the 
circles also have intercommunication one 
with another, indicating something like pro- 
gression from one station to another, termi- 
nating at the principal altar, the adytum and 
the stones of adoration. 

These old-world structures are those which 

VOU XXIV. 



James Fergusson describes under the designa- 
tion megalithic or rough unhewn stones. It 
is a fruitless task to inquire when these things 
of the past were first placed ; they are as old 
as the human race, and show that in the 
beginning men acknowledged some great 
existence, controlling and influencing their 
own actions, the natural consequence being 
that they would make and set apart a place 
especially consecrated to some of the many 
supposed existences it was proposed to wor- 
ship. It was in far-back ages thought to be 
derogatory to these gods to worship them 
between four walls and beneath a roof, as 
though a god could be confined within a 
roofed building, and boundary stones were 
alone used to enclose places set apart and 
consecrated to their worship. We have 
only to take up the (Edipus Coloneus of 
Sophocles to find that the blind King 
(Edipus had strayed into a place wherein it 
was not pious to set foot He seated him- 
self upon an unpolished stone, which had 
never been defiled by the work of man ; he 
inquires to which of the gods the place is 
dedicated, and is told that " it is not to be 
touched nor dwelt in, for the awful goddesses 
possess it, daughters of earth and darkness.'' 
Here we find an open enclosure, upon one 
of the rough untooled stones of which the 
blind king had seated himself, in the classic 
land of Greece, where also the celebrated 
Court of Judicature^ the Court of the 
Areopagites, was roofless likewise. Indeed, 
were not all the most ancient temples roof- 
less, as also the amphitheatres and places of 
amusement ? 

Among the older Welsh bards we find 
occasional mention of sacred enclosures of 
stones, over which it was considered a sacri- 
legious intrusion to cross. Merddin, late in 
the sixth century, alludes to a sacred enclo- 
sure, which he calls the raised circle, several 
examples of which I have found not only in 
Caernarvonshire, but also in Merionethshire 
and Anglesey. 

To return to Dwygyfylchi, I found the 
upland covered for two miles or more with 
stone circles in various states of preservation, 
or rather of destruction. They are located 
close round the borders of the turbaries, and 
sometimes into them. Dispersed among 
these are to be seen vestiges of cameddau, 

M 



'54 



ANCIENT REMAINS AROUND CONWA K 



of which great numbers were remaining fifty 
years back ; but they have been the quarries 
from which miles of stone boundary walls 
have been erected. I observed one earned 
which had not been entirely destroyed by its 
avaricious owner, though he had carted away 
about one-half of it to build a wall which 
unluckily passes near. This earned still 
covers a circumference of 204 feet, with a 
diameter at the top of 20 feet, and 6 feet 
high ; it has a shallow foss of 5 feet wide, 
with an exterior low mound of 10 feet wide. 
It has been opened to a depth of 6 feet in 
the centre. 

Another remarkable monument illustrative 
of Celtic customs stands at a quarter of a 
mile east of the Meini Herion ; it is a huge 
boulder 6 feet 6 inches high, 7 feet 6 inches 
long, and 5 feet thick, called Maen y Cam- 
piau, or Stone of the Games. It marks the 
spot where the wrestlers, runners, leapers, 
archers, swordsmen, and horsemen contended 
for the prizes of honour in the public games 
of the ancient Britons. I knew this stone 
was in existence somewhere on the mountain 
uplands, but of its exact locale I was ignorant, 
till I suddenly found myself on the angle of 
a wall, in front of a shapeless smooth block. 
Its singular appearance, standing alone on 
the green sward, impressed me that this 
was the Maen y Campiau. However, on 
approaching, I was convinced, for the surface 
was covered and scribbled all over with the 
names of the illustrious snobs who had 
honoured it with a visit. This great stone ' 
is smoothed, and all but polished by the 
lounging backs and shoulders of forgotten 
generations as they thronged to the festival 
of friendly contention. It is without fracture, 
and, thanks to its unwieldy size and shape, 
has escaped the hungry grasp of the wall 
builders. There are slight vestiges of an 
encircling mound on its east side, 15 feet 
wide. 

A question suggests itself. Were any of the 
circles which are so profusely scattered over 
this district, with its turbary and swampy 
sheep-walks, the enclosures of habitations, or 
were they pagan sanctuaries or sepulchral 
enclosures? Mr. Petrie, a great authority 
on these subjects, considers them all of 
sepulchral origin, and at a meeting in 1838 
of the Royal Irish Academy, at Sligo, says : 



*That their investigation will form an im- 
portant accessory to history.' But the Celts 
used the circle for other purposes besides 
interment. They adopted it for everything 
connected with their social existence, and 
we have only to examine the remains of their 
towns and villages to find this the case. 
The extraordinary prevalence of this charac- 
teristic form cannot have been exclusively 
devoted to the dead. The living population 
required structures for their daily exigencies, 
and it surely cannot appear strange that 
they should adopt a similar form for their 
sepulchres, to that in which were conducted 
the ceremonies of their worship, or to that in 
which they constructed their primitive Bods, 
or abodes. The character of stone circlesi, 
simple as the elementary form really is, 
differs considerably. Manv, I believe, were 
for purposes of worship ; but where did the 
multitude live who thronged to the games 
and to the fascinating ceremonies of the 
votaries of Ceridwen and the fire -wor- 
shippers ? On the bare heath, protected by 
morass extending to the Tal y fan mountains, 
are unnumbered remains, chiefly remnants 
of stone circles, measuring from 20 to 25 feet 
across. I cannot imagine these to have been 
of a religious nature, nor even sepulchral, 
seeing that the dead were placed in earned- 
daiL They may have been the demarcations 
of detached abodes of the old race. Again, 
along the steep banks of two streams, the 
Nant Gwrach and the Nant Daeor Llwynog, 
both of which rise at the base of the Tal y 
fan, uniting their waters before they reach 
Dwygyfylchi, we find the old Britons had 
chiefly located themselves. They found 
these banks strewed with great boulders, 
accumulations from the glacial age, which 
they dragged into a certain kind of arrange- 
ment, forming their rude dwdling-places, 
where they made themselves at home, and 
doubtless enjoyed the rippling music of the 
rushing, glittering stream, as it rolled among 
the stones towards Dwygyfylchi, quite as 
much as those heroes of Dublin stout, who 
scatter their broken bottles on its sunny 
banks, and write themselves snobs on Maen 
y Campiau. But here the old tribes lived, 
and with little observation we may tnure out 
the boundaries of their primeval habitations 
in considerable numbers; and it was from 



ANCIENT REMAINS AROUND CONWA K 



I5S 



here that they crowded to the games, to the 
sanctuary of Ceridwen and the mystic Llywy, 
whose name still floats down the stream 
Nant Llywynog, while the spectres of the 
foigotten tribes may yet linger along the 
banks of Nant Gwrach, the Stream of the 
Ghosts, as it meanders among the lonely 
habitations of Old Gyfylchi. 

These two streams, flowing through and 
irrigating this ancient Celtic community, are 
named in the Ordnance Survey respectively 
what I have called them, Nant Gwrach and 
Nant Daear Llwynog. The meaning of Nant 
is brook or stream. Gwrach is found in the 
name of a frightful skeleton spectre (G¥nach 
y ribin), a Welsh bogus of which the natives 
of the present day have a superstitious dread. 
Daear means ground or land, and in the 
appellation Nant Daear Llwynog we appear 
to have the meaning in the Stream of the 
Land of Llywy. I know this is trenching on 
the slippery ice of etymology, but it is sin- 
gular that the modem names of these two 
streams should be significantly applicable to 
the old ruined town through which they flow, 
and assuming that they may have been 
handed down by tradition, they invest the 
place with a romantic interest in the olden 
times, when the Britons were devotees to 
Llywy, and peopled the banks of these 
streams. 

One more remark I have to make on this 
frightful appellation Gwrach : One of the 
mystic characters of Ceridwen was that of 
a hideous old hag or fury, and in the 
initiatory mysteries which were indispensable 
to novitiates, she was named Ceridwen 
Wrach, the Goddess of Death. Is it within 
the bounds of credibility that the names of 
the two streams are purely accidental, and 
unconnected with the legends of the olden 
times ? If so, the coincidence of the names 
with the character of the land through which 
the streams flow is more than surprising. 



'^-nn. 




%fmz jQotes on tfje Oisit of t^z 
laopal archaeological BInistitute 
to (ZHOtntiutgi). 

By Rbv. J. Charles Cox, LL.D., F.S.A. 

,H£ annual meeting of the Institute 
at Edinburgh from August i6 to 
August 1 8 was a decided success, 
and apparently in every way a 
source of gratification to the members and 
their friends. The chronicle of each day's 
doings was well reported by those enterprising 
Scottish dailies — the Scotsman, the Leader, and 
the Glasgow Herald; whilst literary journals, 
such as the Athenaum, have published long 
and critical accounts. Under these circum- 
stances it is merely proposed in these jottings 
to make mention of a few of the leading 
points of the visit, more particularly of those 
which have so far escaped much attention. 

The reception by the distinguished Society 
of Antiquaries of Scotland was all that could 
be desired, whilst the rooms of the new Scot- 
tish National Portrait Gallery Buildings lent 
themselves admirably to all the purposes of 
the meetings, and were particularly well suited 
for the brilliant conversazione, so successfully 
arranged by Dr. Munro, of Lake-dwellings 
fame, on the evening of August 13. The 
addresses of the president of the meeting. Sir 
Herbert Maxwell, M.P., and of the sectional 
presidents. Dr. Evans, F.R.S., Dr. Hodgkin, 
and the Bishop of Carlisle were admitted on 
all sides to be of exceptional ability, the result 
of exceptional thought on deep subjects. 
The Scottish National Museum of Antiqui- 
ties, recently removed to the east wing of the 
National Portrait Buildings, has now sufficient 
well-planned space wherein to display its rare 
and admirably selected wealth of specimens. 
Too much praise cannot be given to Dr. 
Joseph Anderson for the careful and original 
arrangement here so happily carried out, and 
it was an honour to the Institute that the 
formal opening of this museum was reserved 
for the night of the conversazione, when the 
Cameron pipers filled .every cranny with their 
truly national strains. A most noteworthy 
and valuable temporary feature of the recep- 
tion in the Queen Street buildings was a 
collection of 

M 2 



156 



VISIT OF THE ROYAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 



RUBBINGS FROM ANCIENT SCULPTURED 

STONES 

that completely covered the walls of two of 
the largest rooms. These rubbings, from 
various parts of Scotland, and amounting to 
upwards of 400, the largest of which is 
10 feet square, are actually all the work of 
one enterprising lady, Miss Maclagan, of 
Ravenscroft, Stirling. 

The list of places visited ranges from Farr, 
in the north of Sutherland, to Whithorn, in 
the south of Wigtonshire, and from Aber- 
deenshire on the east to some of the remoter 
islands of the Outer Hebrides on the west. 
There are no fewer than fifty-four rubbings 
from the monuments of lona; Rodill, in 
Harris, supplies seven ; the island of Mull, 
ten ; Inchkenneth, five ; Tiree, twelve ; Oron- 
say, four ; and Islay, thirty-five. The ancient 
graveyards of Argyleshire furnished many 
examples — Kilmorie, in Knapdale, furnishing 
sixteen; Kilmichael, Glassary, seventeen; 
Saddell, Kilmartin, Strachin, and Kiels, in 
Morven, about a dozen each; Ardchattan, 
Dalmally, and Innishail, about a dozen and a 
half among them; and half a dozen other 
places from three to six apiece. 

Miss Maclagan's collection shows strikingly, 
as pointed out in an able descriptive article 
in the Scotsman^ '' that there were two great 
divisions or periods in the monumental art of 
Scotland which may be roughly stated as 
reaching from, say, the seventh century to 
the twelfth on the eastern side of Scotland, 
and fi'om the twelfth or thirteenth century to 
the Reformation on the western or Highland 
side. The characteristics of the earlier art, 
though chiefly found on the east, are present 
in the west also, as on St Martin's cross, and 
on fragments of earlier crosses at lona, on 
the Kildalton cross in Islay, and the crosses 
at Ardchattan and Kilkerran, and on some 
isolated fragments scattered through the 
Hebrides. The earlier phase of the art is 
thus demonstrated to have pervaded Scotland, 
and, for that matter, Northumbria as well; 
but the later phase, which is distinguished by 
the dominance of foliage in the scroll-like 
designs, is unknown on the eastern side of 
the country." 

The stones of the earlier group stand erect, 
are of great size, and for the most part shaped 
like headstones ; whilst those of the later style 



are oblong slabs which covered the grave. 
The crosses of the two periods also differ 
much both in form and ornament, the former 
being massive and chiefly of interlaced or 
divergent spiral pattern; the latter more 
slim in shape, and mainly ornamented in the 
foliageous devices. Among the more inte- 
resting of the later examples are: (i) A 
monumental slab in lona erected to the 
memory of four persons, the last of whom 
died in 1500; (2) an elaborate monumental 
slab in the churchyard of Innishail, one of 
the beautiful islands of Loch Awe, in which 
are combined a border of small quatrefoils, 
a sixteenth century inscription in the upper 
panel, a chalice and other ornaments in the 
centre, and a band of interlaced work flanked 
by bold foliageous scrolls in the lower pahel ; 
and (3) the tomb at Rodill, in Harris, which 
was erected by Alaster Crotach to his father, 
William Macleod of Dunvegan, in 1 528. The 
canvas on which this last-named ''rubbing" is 
mounted is 10 feet square, and the number 
of figures in the composition is about thirty. 
" The effigy of the chief," says the writer in 
the Scotsman^ " in plate armour lies under a 
semicircular canopy, the back of which is 
filled with figures, while the fronts of the 
voussoirs of the arch are also decorated with 
a series of sculptures in nine panels, making 
it the most remarkable monument of its kind 
in Scotland, and raising in every mind the 
inquiry, how was it possible in the early part 
of the sixteenth century to erect in that 
remote part of the wild Highlands a work of 
monumental sculpture that would be famous 
in any country of cultured Europe ?" 

These " rubbings " also comprise two inte- 
resting examples of early "hc^-backed" or 
coped tombs, one of them having wattled or 
interlaced work, and the other semicircular 
arcading on the sides. 

THE HERALDIC EXHIBITION, 

in the rooms of the National Portrait Gallery, 
which was brought together in honour of the 
visit of the Royal Archaeological Institute, 
was meritorious in its conception, and admir- 
ably carried out. It is much to be hoped 
that some such an exhibition may ere long 
be arranged in Londoa The only sorrow 
felt by members of the Institute was that the 
exigencies of time prevented so large a 



VISIT OF THE ROYAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 



IS7 



number doing anything like justice to the 
collection ; but not a few of them seemed to 
think that a visit to Edinburgh would have 
been amply repaid if it had only been 
rewarded by an inspection of this thoroughly 
interesting and instructive array of heraldic 
and contingent subjects. Mention must here 
be made of certain items that excited more 
particular attention. 

In the first room was the Royal Standard 
taken at the Battle of Worcester, 1650, and 
retaken by the ancestor of Mr. Hay, of Duns 
Castle (the exhibitor) ; it is made of silk, and 
bears the royal arms heavily embroidered. 
Here, too> was the Cavers Banner or Percy 
Pennon, so termed. It is a banner of thin 
sage-green silk, 12 feet long by 3 feet i inch 
broad, narrowing considerably to the end. 
At the staff end is a saltire with a heart gules 
between its lower extremities, and another 
above on its sinister side, the corresponding 
dexter portion of the flag having been torn 
away ; next a lion passant, armed and langued 
gules ; then a tau cross (that puzzle of the 
herald and antiquary) beneath a mullet ; and 
finally the motto "Jamais Areyre" in old 
English letters. "This," says the catalogue, 
*' was the banner of James II., Earl of Douglas 
and Mar, and was carried by his son, Archi- 
bald Douglas, of Cavers, at the Battle of 
Otterburn, 1388." The committee did not, 
however, make themselves responsible for the 
descriptions furnished by those who kindly 
sent private objects to the exhibition, other- 
wise we conceive this description would 
scarcely have stood. The banner is of great 
interest, but the pedigree is certainly ^ulty 
and assigns a too early date ; one of the best 
informed members of the Institute pronounced 
it not earlier than the last half of the sixteenth 
century. Then again, though it is rather an 
ungracious task to continue these animadver- 
sions, the "Percy Gauntlets," which hang 
near the banner, and which it is said were 
attached to Hotspur's lance, which Douglas 
took from him when he overthrew him in 
single combat before the walls of Newcastle, 
1388, are certainly wrongly dated. They are 
of white satin, and beautifully embroidered 
in silk with the lion of the Percys in pearls 
in the centre; but we conceive that the 
earliest date to which they can be assigned 
is a century later than that of tradition. 



Among the personal royal relics, about 
which there are no anachronisms to justify a 
doubt, and which all bear heraldic embellish- 
ments to justify admission within this collec- 
tion, were an ivory coffer of Cardinal York, 
beautifully carved ; leading strings of James 
VI., worked by Mary Queen of Scots for her 
little son while learning to walk, and wrought 
with the text — 

Angelus suis Deus mandavit de te 
Ut custodiant te in omnibus viis suis ; 

a noble set of tilting armour of Henry, Prince 
of Wales, supposed to be the work of William 
Pickering, master armourer, 1608-09 1 ^^^ ^ 
sporran of sealskin, mounted in silver, worn 
by Prince Charles Edward. 

The armorials were of much interest and 
variety, and many of them had not been pre- 
viously exhibited. The Scotch examples are 
not, however, so beautiful or early as those of 
England and various continental countries. 
The oldest is that of Sir David Lindsay, 
Lyon king, supposed to have been completed 
in the year 1542 ; but there was a consider- 
able number shown of the time of Queen 
Mary and James VI. One of the earliest 
and best of the armorials of this type was 
an example lent from the Advocates' Library. 
The latest of the sovereigns depicted therein 
is Queen Mary. First she appears in company 
with Francis, a youthful figure with the golden 
lilies of France on his azure surcoat ; but on 
the next page the king's place is pathetically 
vacant, Mary stands alone, the sceptre in her 
left hand, the thistle in her right, whilst 
beneath is written the following doggerel : 

Ovr soverane ladv yt nov rings 
At yis hour ye michty Lord he evir 
Hir protectour, and maJc hir manage 
As he thinkis best that ye hir 

Legis may ring (long ?) in peace rest. 

The foreign armorials included some excel- 
lent specimens from Switzerland, France, 
Germany, and Italy. 

Of printed books, this remarkable collec- 
tion included everything of heraldic fame 
ever published in Scotland. The most 
interesting and rarest printed work shown was 
Rendle Holmes' Academy qf Armory^ of 
which less than fifty copies are now extant. 
Among the manuscript works were several 
Books of Hours, A lovely Hours^ known as 
the Murthly Manuscript, now the property of 



158 



VISIT OF THE ROYAL ARCH^OLOGICAL INSTITUTE, 



the Marquess of Bute, is full of beauty and 
interest. It is of the latter part of the 
thirteenth century, i\ inches by s, but has 
been much cut down when it received its 
present binding of oaken boards covered with 
leather. The calendar contains the following 
obits : " vj. Kal. Maij [26 April] ohitus 
domini Johannis Stewart militis, domini de 
Lorn, anno Domini m.ccccxxj.'^and "xij. Kal. 
Jan. [21 December] Obitus domine Isabelle 
domine de Lome, anno Domini millesimo 
cccc*"<>. xxxix." Alexander, the fourth son of 
the above Sir John Stewart ("the Black 
Knight of Lome ") and his wife, the heiress 
of Lome, was ancestor of the Stewarts of 
Grandtully. Within the same boards, but 
having no connection with the Book of Hour s^ 
and of a date approximating 1220, are 
twenty-three full-page miniatures of Scripture 
subjects by two different hands, fourteen by 
one, and nine by the other. The sixteenth 
in order represents the Roman solders watch- 
ing the tomb of our Lord, and is a remark- 
ably early instance of precise heraldry. They 
are four in number, in knightly armour — 
apparently banded — and three of their shields 
bear the following charges, viz. : (i) Gules, two 
chevronels or ; (2) azure, a fess between three 
besants ; (3) gules, a chevron between three 
besants. 

Another item of the exhibition that 
attracted much attention, though the seals 
were mostly too small and worn to be clearly 
deciphered, was the historic Protest by the 
Nobles of Bohemia addressed to the 
Council of Constance in September, 14 15, 
in reference to the burning of John Huss 
and Jerome of Prague, the reformers. This 
document, which is signed by one hundred 
nobles, but bears only ninety-nine seals, was 
bequeathed in 1657 to the University of 
Edinburgh by Dr. William Guild, principal of 
King's College, Aberdeen. 

The collection of seals was noticed in the 
September issue of the Antiquary, There 
were a few examples of panels of painted 
glass, the most interesting of which was lent 
by Mr. Albert Hartshome, F.S.A., the learned 
editor of the Institute Journal. It repre- 
sented a traditional event in the life of 
Sir Alexander Stewart, encircled with a 
genealogical tree of the family. According 
to tradition, Sir Alexander Stewart, in the 



presence of Charles VI. of France, 1380- 
1422, encountered a lion with his sword ; 
the sword breaking, he seized a part of a 
tree and with it slew the animal The king, 
to commemorate the action, gave him, as an 
honourable augmentation to his arms on an 
escutcheon of pretence, aiigent, " a lion gules 
offended by a ragged staff bend-wise." The 
border, which is older than the rest of the 
glass, is dated 1574. 

THE CHURCH OF ST. MICHAEL, LINUTHGOW, 

is a good example of Scotch architecture of 
the fifteenth century. It has a wide nave and 
aisles, with choir and aisles of the same 
width. The choir terminates in a shallow 
and rather poor apse. From each of the 
most eastern bays of the nave projects a small 
transept, and there is a good tower, with 
entrance-porch and fine divided doorway 
beneath it, at the west end. The old church 
suffered severely from fire in 1424, and no part 
of the present building appears to be anterior 
to that event The tower and nave are the 
best part of the building, and are undoubtedly 
of fifteenth-century date; but extant cove- 
nants with masons show that considerable 
works were in progress even as late as 1535, 
to which date we assign the apse. It was a 
litde surprising to some of the English visitors 
to see nothing of the Perpendicular style on 
the north side of the border. Scotland's 
architectural history was, however, almost 
identical with England up to the wars of the 
Edwards, but afterwards Northern Britain 
was thrown into constant contact with France, 
with the result that continental Flamboyant 
and weak survivals of Decorated took the 
place of the later English developments. 
This is much to be noticed at Linlithgow, 
where both west and east ends are thoroughly 
French. The south porch has a debghtlii! 
little oriel window to its parvise. Over the 
south transept is another apartment with fine- 
place, and evidently occupied for a long time^ 
although the only access was up a narrow 
turret-staircase of the porch, and then along 
the narrow lead gutter of the nave root 
Mr. Micklethwaite, F.S.A.» detected an anker- 
hold at the west end of the south aisle of the 
nave. A square opening into the church, 
splayed inward, is now blocked up; it is 
usually explained as a place through which 



VISIT OF THE ROYAL ARCH^OLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 



'59 



doles of bread used to be handed out, 
but that is an obviously wrong interpretation, 
as the outer walls show a line of corbels (not 
coeval with the building) immediately below 
the west window, proving that here stood 
some small after^adjunct to the fiibric. It 
was objected that the fifteenth or beginning 
of the sixteenth century was too late a period 
for the seclusion of an anchorite in any single 
building; but those who raised such an 
objection showed their ignorance of the sub- 
fii, for the early sixteenth-century printed 
copies of the Manuals of the Uses of both 
Sanim and York, as well as the Pontifical of 
Archbishop Bainbridge (Vork, 1508-14) give 
elaborate offices for the blessing of a recluse 
and of the tiny house to which henceforth 
the anchorite (male or female) was to be 
confined. 

THE CmntCH OF THE HOLY ROOD, STIRUNG, 

is another good example of Scottish church 
architecture of the fifteenth century, which 
was viated by members of the Institute on 
the same day as Linlithgow. It is now 
mutilated by being divided up into two 
separate bufldings for two Presbyterian con- 
giegations, one of which £sices west, and the 
other east. The massive cylindrical piers ot 
the nave, though usually assumed to be of 
fifteenth-century date by Scotch architects 
and eoclesiologists, belong we feel sure, to 
the earlier church, which was burnt down in 
1413. A strange peculiarity of this church 
is that a very large number of the stones, 
both outside and inside the nave, are 
punctured with an arrangement of five 
minute circles that form a cross, thus : 



These crosses vary in size, from \\ inches to 
They are too well-finished to be 



accepted as mere ''mason's marks," and 
seem to have been incised after the stones 
were placed in position. Can they have any 
retooioe to the Holy Rood or Holy Cross 
to wfaidi the church is dedicated? A 
curiosity of a roudi later period — at least it 
seemed a curiosity to the English visitors — 
were the entries on the burial fee-board on 

* Ordo fkmolos v«l famalas Dei includcndi ; Ser- 
vitsnm ioclqdendonnn ; Ordoindudendi fiinmlam Dei. 



the outside of the tower of the church of 
Stirling, which was dated February 21, 1888. 
The following is a transcript : 

CHARGES OF THE OLD CHURCHYARD. 

Grave for a Person 12 years of age and up- 
wards in 2- Horse Hearse and Shoulder High 12 o 

Grave for a Person 12 years of age and up- 
wards in i- Horse Hearse 8 o 

Grave for a Person 12 years of age and up- 
wards upon Spokes 6 o 

Grave for a Child above 2 and under 12 years 
of aee in Hearse or Carriage 7 o 

Grave for a Child above 2 and under 12 years 
of age if on Spokes 36 

Grave for a Child under 2 years of age if in 

Hearse or Carriage 5 o 

Grave for a Child under 2 years of age if 
Carried ... ... ... ... ... 2 6 

Note that the sums of 65. and 12s. include a 
Bag for Bones. 

Graves dug beyond 6 feet, per foot i 6 

The remarkable reference to a " Bag for 
Bones" was explained to mean a bag in 
which the sexton placed bones of previous 
interments that were disturbed whilst digging 
the grave ! If this is so, it is surely a strong 
argument for cremation ! 

ST. salvator's college 

is the only part of the wonderfully interesting 
city of Sl Andrew's to which we have space 
to allude. Blackfiriars Chapel, the Town 
Church, with the pathetic monument to mur- 
dered Archbishop Sharp (whom the guide 
with questionable taste abused), St. Mary's 
College and Library, St. Leonard's Chapel, 
the fine ruins of the cathedral church, the re- 
markable tower and chapel of St Rule (un- 
doubtedly late Saxon), Kirkhill, and the 
castle were all visited; but some of the 
chief interest of a charming day's excursion 
centred round the college of St Salvator, 
founded by good Bishop Kennedy about the 
middle of the fifteenth century. The chapel 
of the college had a heavy stone roof; as 
this was pressing out the walls, its removal 
was decided upon in 1773, and the utterly 
barbarous method was adopted of detach- 
ing it, and letting it fall in a mass into 
the interior. A clean sweep was thus made 
of all that was of interest in the fittings, and 
the large and elaborate tomb to Bishop 
Kennedy, recessed to the south of the altar, 
was even more mutilated than it had been at 
the Reformation . But even in its semi-mi ned 



i6o 



VISIT OF THE ROYAL ARCHjEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 



condition the tomb of the founder is of much 
beauty. Immediately east of the tomb, and 
forming almost part of it, is a richly orna- 
mented recess and aumbry in the wall, which 
is of most exceptional interest, as it has been 
a " Sacrament House." The sketch* of this 
aumbry gives a far better idea of its character 
and beautiful design than any mere string of 
words. The arms on the three shields above 
the embattled top of the aumbry are almost 
quite defaced, but enough remains to show 



bearing a pyx or ciborium. It was the 
invariable custom of the Church of England 
before the Reformation to reserve the Blessed 
Sacrament in a pyx, usually of silver or ivory, 
which was suspended by chains or cords over 
this high altar. 

This is fully described in the following 
extract from the /iitu of Durham. 

"Within the said quire, over the High 
Altar, did hang a rich and most sumptuous 
canopie for the Blessed Sacrament to hang 



that one of them bears the arms of Kennedy, 
thus placing it beyond doubt that it was 
of the time of the founder of the college 
and chapel. The hinges for the door of the 
aumbry are quite apparent The supporting 
corbel below is suitably carved with angels 

* For the drawing of this Sacnunent House, u 
well as of the chapel of Borthwick Castle, we are 
much indebted to Mrs. Thompson and Mi&s Deane, 
members of the Inslilute, who kindly put their 
sketches, made during the hasly visits of Uie Institute, 



within it, which had two irons fastened in the 
french peere, very finely gilt, which held the 
canopie over the midst of the said High 
Altar (that the pix did hang in it, that it 
could not move nor stir), whereon did stand 
a Pellican, all of silvec, upon the height of 
the said canopie, verye finely gilded, givioge 
hir bloud to hir younge ones, in token that 
Christ did give his bloud for the sinns of the 
world ; and it was goodly to behoQid, for the 
Blessed Sacrament to hange in, and a mar- 
veillous faire pix that the holy blessed Sacra- 



VISIT OF THE ROYAL ARCH^OLOGICAL WSTITVTE. 



ment did hange in, which was of most pure 
fine gold, most curiously wrought of gold- 
smith worke. And the white cloth that hung 
over the pix was of verye fine lawne, all em- 
broydered and wrought about with gold and 
red silke, and four great and round knopes 
of gold, marvelous and cunningly wrought, 
with great tassells of gold and redde silke 
hanginge at them, and at the four comers of 
the white lawne cloth, and the crooke that 
hung within the cloth that the pix did hang 
on, was of gold, and the cords, that did draw 
it app and down^ was made of fine white 
stiong silke." 

In the fifteenth century the custom b^an 
to prevail in continental (iurches, particularly 
in Portugal, of placing the Blessed Sacrament 
in a sp^ial aumbry near the altar, and this 
use was evidently transferred by Bishop 
Kennedy to Scotland. 

In the museum of the college is the most 
elaborate and beautiful mace in Great Britain, 
which was made in Paris in the year i46r at 
the expense of Bishop Kennedy, and by him 
presented to the college of bis founding. It 
ts of silver-gilt, and three feet, ten inches long; 
Within the h^d of the mace, in a canopy, is 
a figure of the Saviour, standing on a ball 
representing the world. The whole is en- 
riched with a variety of small and exquisitely 
finished emblematic figures. This mace, 
with other treasures, was found concealed in 
the tomb of Bishop Kemiedy towards the 
end of last century, where it had been pro- 
bably concealed for purposes of safety. 

Three silver arrows, which were annually 
shot for by the students of the colleges of 
St Salvator and St. Leonard, attracted much 
attenrion. The wiimer attached to the arrow 
a ^ver medal bearing bis name, arms, motto, 
and date of his success. There are seventy 
medals, the earliest dated r6i8 ; one bearing 
the Lome galley upon it was placed by the 
Marquis of Argyle in r633, and one replaced 
in i6a8 by his great rival, the Marquis of 
Montrose, when sixteen years of ^e. The 
last medal was placed by the Earl of Elgin 
in r75i. 

Several other points of special interest 
during the meetings and expeditions of the 
Institute had been noted for remark, such as 
the shrine of St. Margaret at Dunfermline, 
Antonine's Wall, certain details at Roeslyn, 



and the Norman church of Dalmeny, but the 
exigencies of space only suffice for one other 
reference, namely, to the 

CHAPEL OF EORTHWICK CASTLE. 

This castle has for its chief feature the 
largest Scottish keep of a late date. It is an 
immensely strong structure, b^un by William 
de Borthwick in 1430. The keep is on a 
plan of about 75 feet square, and rises to a 
height of 85 feet, exclusive of the slope of 
the stone-covered roof The walls are the 
same thickness up to the suirmiit, and average 
13 feet 6 inches in width. The great hall of 



the first 6oor is a noble apartment with a 
vaulted stone ceiling 29 feet high. Above 
this, the central block of the keep has been 
divided into two' apartments, one of which is 
termed the chapel. The chapel measures 
33 feet by 19 feet, and is lighted by three 
windows, two to the south and one to the 
east. But we think it is a misnomer to call 
the whole of this room the chapeL The 
altar was obviously placed at the extremity 
of the large recess by the east window, which 
measures about 8 feet wide by 7 feet deep. 
There is an aumbry on the north side of this 
recess, and a piscina niche on the south side. 



i62 HOLY WELLS: THEIR LEGENDS AND SUPERSTITIONS. 



There is also a projecting holy water stoup 
just within the nearest angle of the recess of 
the closely-adjoining south window. There 
are traces of a screen shutting off about 
6 feet in front of this east window recess, 
which would thus include within the screen 
the south window at that end of the apart- 
ment, making a quite sufficiently large chapel 
or castle oratory, for which perhaps the south 
window recess served as a vestry. The 
parish church of Borthwick is close outside 
the curtain wall of the castle. 



^5? 



^olp mz\\% : tiieir iLeffenDS anD 

By R. C. HoPB, F.S.A., F.R.S.L. 
(Continued from p. 28, vol. xxiv.) 

BEDFORDSHIRE. 

HOLYWELL : HOLY WELL. 

|HERE was a holy well or spring, 
unfortunately both history and 
site have been forgotten by the 
villagers, at Holywell. — ^A. C. G. 
Cameron, H.M. Geological Survey. 

HAIL WESTON : HOLY WELLS. 

At Hail Weston, on the borders of the 
counties of Bedfordshire and Huntingdon- 
shire, about two miles north - west of 
St Neots, there are some mineral springs, 
formerly looked on as holy wells. They are 
situated on the alluvium of a small stream, 
but may have their origin in the underlying 
Oxford clay. Michael Drayton describes 
them as "the Holy Wells of Hail Weston." 
—Ibid. 

TURVEY : ST. MARY'S WELL. 

At Turvey, six miles from Bedford, there 

is a mineral well, known as St. Mary's Well. 

—Ibid. 

pbrtbnhall: chadwell. 

"The other day, March 14, 1891, in 
passing through Pertenhall, I noticed the 
Chadwell Spring, at Chadwell End, to be 
a big one. At one time it was proposed 
to have a drain to carry the water to 




Kimbolton, a distance of seven miles* 
Within the last few years much water 
from this spring has been bottled, and 
used for sore eyes. The parish church is 
dedicated to St. Peter, and formerly Perten- 
hall was Saint Peter's Hall, and there were 
seven churches altogether in the parish once 
on a time, as my informant, an old inliabt- 
tant I chanced upon, asserted." — Ibid, 

CRANPIELD : HOLY WELL. 

In Batchelor's Agricultural Survey of Bed- 
fordshirty 181 3, referring to this well, after 
describing mineral springs at Bromham, 
Turvey, and Clapham, it says: "Several 
others, as at Holcot and Cranfield, some- 
times used for sore eyes, being impregnated 
with iron, holy well implying that at one time 
it was held in high estimation." — Ibid, 

HOLY WELL-CUM- NEEDING WORTH. 

There is a spring or well that rises in the 
churchyard on the north bank of the river 
Ouse, which there separates Cambridgeshire 
from Huntingdonshire. This well was at 
one time much frequented by religious 
devotees. The Rev. S. M. Beckwith, a 
former rector of the parish, had the wdl 
arched over. — Ibid. (Kelly's Hunts Directory^ 
1885, P- 205). 

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. 

MARSTON : SIR JOHN SHORNB'S WELL. 

The holy well, which bore Sir John 
Shorne's name, and was supposed to have 
derived its medicinal qualities from his 
prayers and benedictions, is situated about 
150 yards from the church. It is still known 
by the villagers as " Sir John Shorne's Well/' 
but is commonly called "The Town Well." 
It consists of a cistern, 5 feet 4 inches 
square, and 6 feet 9 inches deep. This is 
walled round with stone, and has a flight of 
four stone steps descending into the water. 
The cistern is enclosed by a building, some- 
what larger than the well itself, with walls 
composed of brick and stone, about 
5 feet high, and covered with a roof of board. 
From the size and construction of the build- 
ing, it- was probably occasionally used as a 
bath, but the sick were, doubtless, chiefly 
benefited by drinking the water. It is slightly 
chalybeate, containing a large portion of 
calcareous earth. Formerly its propeities 



HOLY WELLS: THEIR LEGENDS AND SUPERSTITIONS 



163 



must have been very powerful, for its 
supposed miraculous cures attracted such 
numbers of invalids to it, that houses had to 
be built for their accommodation. Browne 
Willis says that "many aged persons then 
living remembered a post in a quinqueniam 
on Oving Hill (about a mile east of the well), 
which had hands pointing to the several roads, 
one of them directing to " Sir John Shorne's 
Well." He likewise says ceremonies were 
practised here on account of this gentle- 
man. But Lipscombe's transcripts from 
Willis are not to be trusted; for instance, he 
says the miracle of Shome " was recorded on 
the wall which enclosed the holy well when 
it was visited by Browne Willis," whereas 
Willis's own words are, " At the south end of 
the town ]& a well, known by the name of 
Sir John Shom's Well (perhaps so named 
from the tonsure), which tradition tells us had 
this inscription on the wall of it : 

•• • Sir John Shoiii, 
GentlcinaD born, 
Conjured the Devil into a Boot' " 

In the marriage register of North Marston 
occurs this entry : " It is said that the 
chancel of this church of North Marston, 
nearly four miles south from Winslow, was 
built with the offerings at the shrine of Sir 
John Schome, a very devout man, who had 
been rector of the parish about the year 
1290, and that this village became very 
populous and flourishing in consequence of 
the great resort of persons to a well of water 
here, which he had blessed, which ever after 
was called ' Holy Well,* but my parishioners 
now call it * Town Well * ; its water is chaly- 
beate. The common people in this neigh- 
bouihood, and more particularly some ancient 
people of this my own parish, still keep up 
the memory of this circumstance by many 
traditionary stories." This entry is signed, 
"William Pinnock, September 12, i860." 
One legend is that Master Shome, in a season 
of drought, was moved by the prayers of his 
congregation to take active measures to 
supply their need He struck his staff upon 
the earth, and immediately there burst forth 
a perennial spring. The water was a specific 
for ague and gout ; it is now obtained by a 
pump. There is still a tradition that a box 
for the receipt of the offerings was affixed to 



the well, but this has not been the case within 
the memory of any person now living. The 
building which enclosed the well when Willis 
visited it has been removed, and a compara- 
tively modem one has taken its place. A 
glass of the water dmnk at night was said to 
cure any cold ere daybreak. For much 
information re Sir John Shome, see Records 
of BuckSy Vols. II. and III., from which the 
above account is taken. Representations of 
Sir John Shome occur on the rood-screens 
of Cawston, c, 1450; Gateby, c, 1480; 
Suffield, c, 1450, in Norfolk, and Sudbury (in 
the possession of Gainsborough Dupont, 
£sq.)j Suffolk, c. 1550. 

CAMBRIDGESHIRE. 

ELLELY : ST. PANDONIA's WELL. 

"At Ellely was sumtyme a nunnery, 
where Pandonia, the Scottish virgin, was 
buried, and there is a well of her name yn 
the south side of quire." — Ldand^ I., p. 96. 

CORNWALL. 

CAMBLFORD : ST. BREWARD'S WELL. 

This well is situated in a valley near a 
farm called "Chapel," close to Camelford. 
It is, or was, visited by sufferers from 
inflamed eyes and other complaints. As 
an offering, the sufferer threw in a pin, or 
small coin, to the saint — Western Antiquary ^ 

37. 

GRADE: ST. RUAMS, OR ST. RUMON. 

The well is about a quarter of a mile from 
Grade Chiurch, mdely built of granite. Its 
water is used for all baptisms in the church. 
St. Rumon is believed to have come as a 
missionary from Ireland in the ninth or 
tenth century, and to have dwelt in a wood 
near Grade Church and the Lizard Point, 
having a cell and chapel, and regardless of 
the wild beasts which then roamed there. 
His name excited such reverence, that his 
remains were removed to Tavistock Abbey. 

LUDGVAN : WELL OF COLURIAN. 

This well is in the parish of Ludgvan. It 
was sacred before the saints. — Polwhele's 
History of Cornwall, 

ST. CUTHBERT: ST. CUTHBERT's WELL. 

In this parish (St. Cuthbert) is that 
famous and well-known spring of water, 
called Holy Well, so named, the inhabitants 



i64 HOLY WELLS: THEIR LEGENDS AND SUPERSTITIONS. 



say, for that the virtues of this water were 
first discovered on All Hallow's Day. The 
same stands in a dark cavern of the sea clid 
rocks, beneath full sea-mark on spring tides. 
The virtues of the waters are, if taken 
inward, a notable vomit, or as a purgent. 
If applied outward, it presently strikes in, or 
dries up, all itch, scurf, dandriff, and such- 
like distempers in men or women. Numbers 
of persons in summer season frequent this 
place and waters from countries far distant. 
It is a petrifying well. — Ibid,,^ 53. 

CARDVNHAN : HOLY WELL. 

Cardynhan, near Bodmin, has near the 
church its sacred well in the comer of a 
walled space about 80 feet by 42 feet *, the 
water runs out into the road. The well is 
walled in and roofed over, and has an oratory 
adjoining it 14 feet by 8 feet. — £. Ashworth. 
" Holy Wells," paper on, p. 145. 

CUBERT: ST. CUTHBERT'S WELL. 

There is a hollow in the rock on the coast 
south of Creek which at high-tide is always 
filled by the salt water, but at low-tide the 
water is always fresh ; it is said to have the 
power of curing diseases. The dropping 
water forms a stalagmite. — Ibid,,^ 147^. 

wadebridgb: st. minver's well. 

There is a spring in St. Minver, near 
Wadebridge, still in some repute for curing 
disorders of the eye. 

Here also is a well, or spring, known as 
Jesus Well, to which children sufifering from 
the whooping cough are brought. — Ibid,y 147. 

CHAPEL FARM : ST. DOMINICK'S WELL. 

This well is situated between Chapel Farm 
and the Tamar.— ^^ft/., 147. 

MOUNT BDGECUMBB : ST. LEONARDOS WELL. 

The chapel of this well is in the grounds 
jf Mount Edgecumbe. It is a ruined cell, 
6 feet by 4^ feet. It had an arched roof, 
with a central rib, part of which remains, 
opposite the doorway is a niche. The water 
now supplies a cattle trough. — Ibid.^ 147. 

CRANSTOCK: ST. AMBROSE'S WELL. 

Gilbert mentions this well at the west of 
Cranstock, near the ruins of a college, buried 
by the blown sand from Grannel Creek. — 
Ibid,y i47«- 




an i)lD (ZEnfflijBl) 

By J. Brownbiu.. 



the reign of Henry III. England 
was twice visited by papal legates 
a laterty who, among other acts of 
jurisdiction, summoned "Pan-An- 
glican " councils and made canons thexein. 
Upon these canons nearly a century later 
an elaborate commentary was written by 
John de Athona, who, to use his own words, 
was "a canon of Lincoln,* an unworthy 
doctor of both laws, an Englishman by 
birth," and who was proud to be the first of 
his race to carry out such a work. 

Something might be said about the legates 
themselves, the Cardinals Otho and Othobon ; 
for who has not heard of the riot at Oxford 
caused by Otho's cook ? and who does not 
know that Othobon was afterwards, for a few 
weeks, pope (Adrian V., in 1276), and that 
" these constitutions of his are therefore the 
more reverentiy to be observed"? (p. 79, 
dementis), t Something also might be said 
about the canons they made ; for instance, 
the first of Otho's shows the financial difii- 
culties in which rectors and abbots some> 
times found themselves through their zeai 
for the new architecture; they "began to 
build and were not able to finish." But all 
this must here be passed by. 

The gloss was written at the beginning of 
Edward III.'s reign, soon after the author's 
former teacher, John Stratford, had become 
Archbishop of Canterbury (p. 129, Quod 
habita possessione). Most of the annota- 
tions are designed to explain the I^ates* 
canons or show their relation to others, or 
to elucidate points closely connected with 
them, e,g,y some opposition to Er^lisb law 
or some modification by custom or later 
canons. Occasionally, however, they seem 
intended to relieve the commentator's fed- 
ings, and not seldom to unfold his stores of 
legal and theological knowledge for the 

* Le Neve mentions a John de Eaton among the 
prebendaries of Lincoln about 133a 

t The references are to the pages and the catdi- 
words of paragraphs of the edition of Athona*s work 
which is bound up at the end of the Oxford reprint of 
Lynd wood's PrcwmiaU (1679). 



AN OLD ENGLISH CANONIST. 



165 



edification of the studious reader. As 
authorities the Canon and Civil Laws — ^for 
these are the Jus Commune — are quoted 
copiously throughout, as well as the opinions 
of celebrated jurists ; it may be remarked in 
passing that the method of citation employed 
is more confusing than the law itself. Oc- 
casionally an anecdote is told, and a verse 
(to aid the memory) is often given. As an 
example, take the following. Othobon (xxiii.) 
is approving a provision concerning the pro- 
perty of intestates " made by the prelates of 
England with the approval of king and 
barons ''; and one of the notes is as follows : 

" A Prctlatis Regni, — Note that a discreet 
and orderly provision in the Parliament of 
the kingdom ought to begin in the first place 
from the prelates, especially about such 
matters as pertain to works of piety ; for 
this was the parliamentary privilege (as 
below). This is supported by De Maj. et 
Obed., Solitae, Cum sL For also the earthly 
sword is of necessity held to be subordinate 
to the heavenly ; as truly observes the gloss 
on Extra, De JudL, Novit (in glo. 2). It is 
evident also in the Extravagant of Boni- 
face VI 11., Unam sanctam. For also bishops 
can be called 'princes' on account of the 
temporalities which they hold, as we read 
and note in Extra, De Jurejur., c. L, § Nos 
igitur, in ver. Principum, in Cle." (p. 122). 

Athona wrote in the midst of the " Baby- 
lonish Captivity," while the popes were in 
exile at Avignon, and more or less de- 
pendent on the friendship of the kings of 
France; so that had there been any latent 
hostility one might have expected it to be 
shown. To Athona, however, the pope is 
"lex animata in terris" (p. 34, Ut unicus); 
he " does the duty not of a mere man, but 
of true God on the earth ; though he cannot 
alter anything against the truth of the fact 
(^^., he cannot make black white), nor alter 
the fundamentals of the Church Militant 
{e.g^ the Ten Commandments)." And after 
noticing that formerly it was taught that 
the pope was not lord over all churches, 
he says, "The contrary is held in modem 
times, viz., that the pope has a lordship over 
churdies in reserving and collating, and over 
their property, as we feel now by his levying 
tenths" (p. 76, Summorum pontificum). 
Besides this natural grumble of a taxpayer, 



he is not at all satisfied with the prava con- 
swiudo of " certain popes " in declaring void 
consummated marriages; but he has no 
objection to their prohibition of marriages 
between Guelph and Ghibelline, or to their 
definition of the degrees of relationship 
within which marriages are forbidden (p. 106, 
Sicut potestati). 

One question he discusses arose out of 
the exile of the popes : Can the pope transfer 
his see from Rome to some other place? 
"This has generally been answered in the 
negative, on account of the Divine command ; 
for the see of blessed Peter was at Antioch 
first, and was afterwards transferred to Rome 
at the lord's bidding. Also Rome is the 
common fatherland. If therefore the authority 
be separated from the name, the fruit will 
be lost. Others, however, hold the contrary 
opinion " (p. 36, Romanorum). 

Having thus given preference to the pope, 
jure dignitatis^ we may pass by Athona's few 
allusions to the emperor, and record what he 
tells us of the world around him. To begin 
with, we are reminded of the claim to 
suzerainty over Scotland, which had long 
been made by the kings of England, some- 
times with success. In the preface to his 
canons (a.d. 1236), Otho says that he is 
" sent to England," and it is thereon asserted 
that " this includes Scotland also "; Othobon 
(a.d. 1268) describes himself as "legate to 
the kingdom of England and to Scotland 
and Ireland," and then we are bidden to 
notice that England alone is called a king- 
dom, " the legate thus hinting that the other 
countries are not properly kingdoms, but 
parts of England." Our author is, neverthe- 
less, candid enough to state that the Scots 
did not take, this view of the case ; " they 
always say that they will receive no legate 
unless distinct mention of Scotland is made 
in his letters of legation " (p. 5, Angliae, and 
p. 79, Scotise). 

Writing soon after the miserable reign of 
Edward II., it is not surprising that the 
author should give us a gloomy picture of 
the times ; though it is of course true that a 
jurist, being concerned with the faults, rather 
than the virtues of mankind, will always have 
a tendency to dismal views. " Honesty of 
manners and strength of valour, which of 
old were nourished in England more than in 



1 66 



AN OLD ENGLISH CANONIST. 



other nations, nowadays, by the dregs of vices 
and by laziness, are quickly departing from 
among us, not without shame and the loss 
of that renown which they had gained for 
us ** (p. 138, Toti populo) ; but the growth 
of the evil shoots of vices is patriotically 
ascribed to "our English fertility." Not 
that laws were wanting ; " I suppose," he 
says, " that there never was a country where 
there was so much law-making and so little 
law-keeping " (p. 36, Facto potius). 

The great evil, the chief vice of which he 
complains, is one supposed to be charac- 
teristic of our own day, " the thirst for gold." 
It possessed all classes, nobles and commons, 
bishops and clergy : 

"In every rank, clergy and soldiers and 
people, charity grows cold through the three 
evils of favour, power, and covetousness. 
For amongst the clergy, the archdeacons 
and officials instead of feeding the flock 
devour it skin and bone; they become 
puffed up by their dignities and do not 
know old friends, but reign like lions, though 
they often die like dogs. Though they pre- 
tend to be ignorant of the extortions practised 
by their servants, yet they fill their purses 
thereby, and Mike master like man'; so 
proving the canon, which says that * Every 
evil comes from the priests.' So too soldiers 
and knights, who ought to defend Church 
and country and home, indulge in these 
vices and oppress all with exactions, dues, 
and services ; and especially do they rejoice 
to oppress the Church and its ministers, 
taking away privileges and levying fines and 
tithes, so that the condition of priests has 
become worse than that of the Israelites 
under Pharaoh. Again, even the simple 
country people are corrupted ; they despise 
agriculture, and indulge in lawsuits, often 
perjuring themselves, and they refuse to pay 
their tithes" (p. 77, Justitiam). 

The following also has quite a modem 
sound ; and it is interesting for the anecdote 
of Bishop Grosseteste : 

"These (the barons) are rich and power- 
ful, who may be called princes, especiaUy as 
* money is the queen of all,* as we see every 
day. For in order* to bring in money, 
princes and earls and barons wed their 
daughters to vile rustics. For, by the for- 
tune of wealth, and by the Divine favour, 



rustics, natives, and serfs become the peers 
of noble and well-born men ; for there is no 
acceptance of persons with God. Yet, no 
doubt it is a good thing to propagate a noble 
stock. But I do not deny that nobility of 
blood may become ignoble through vices ; 
whence Robert Grosseteste, lately Bishop of 
Lincoln, of holy memory, when asked by 
King Henry where he had learnt how lo 
instruct the sons of nobles who were of his 
household, he himself being of humble birth, 
is said to have answered : ' In the house of 
greater kings than those of England — namely, 
of David, Solomon, and the rest, whose mode 
of life I have learned from the Scriptures * ; 
adding these verses : 

** ' D^enerant homines vitiis fiuntque minores, 
Exaltat virtus nobilitate viros. 
Nobilitas vera est animi quae moribus omat ; 
Gratius in terris nil constat moribus aptis."* 

(P. 122, Baronum.) 

The vices of an age infect the clergy as 
they do the laity, but Athona has a special 
reason to give for clerical covetousness: 
" Just as we English and Scotch, who have 
no wine in our own country, desire it more 
than other nations; so do the clergy, who 
are separated from the things of the world, 
desire them more than others" (p. 131, 
Periculosius). For instance, the provincial 
councils were not held regularly as the canons 
required, because this would oblige the bishops 
to spend money instead of getting it One 
of the stories of the day is told, to show us 
what reproach avarice brought upon the 
order : 

" A beggar sat at the door of a church in 
a French city and asked a bishop, who was 
going by, to give him a Paris halfpenny 
{obulus); but the bishop would not hear. 
Then he asked the bishop's blessing, and be 
at once put forth his hand and blessed him. 
Whereon the beggar laughed, saying, *Now 
I know the worth of a bishop's blessing ; had 
it been worth a halfpenny, I had never got 
it ' " (p. 96, Archidiacono). 

The evil was common to all, from the 
bishop down to the priest who got for him- 
self benefice upon benefice without caring 
that the people were left without teachers 
and the poor deprived of their share of the 
Church's goods. 

The monks, if not avaricious, gave scandal 



AN OLD ENGLISH CANONIST. 



167 



in other ways ; by dressing gaudily, by eating 
flesh meat and by laying claim to private 
property. It was rumoured that the Cister- 
cians, who abstained from eating meat in 
public, ate it in private even to satiety 1 Nor 
was perfection in other respects to be looked 
for: 

'* Simplicity, or lack of letters, is not to be 
blamed in a monk, since ' a good monk will 
scarce make a good cleric' But I do not 
know whether this has much weight with 
those endowed Religious, who, when they 
have some who show ability for learning, will 
not send them to study [at the university] at 
the expense of their monastery, though tney 
have plenty of money for fat horses and other 
delights. I do not think that this unwilling- 
ness arises from a zeal for avoiding anything 
which may hinder a life of monastic con- 
templation, but rather from the gall of envy, 
lest these should become wiser and better 
than themselves, and able to correct their 
shortcomings by the Scriptures" (p. 143, 
Post r^ulam). 

Chaiges of incontinence against a clergy 
professedly celibate are parallel to modem 
sarcasms about the tippling propensities of 
teetotalers; hut that there was, unhappily, 
some reason for the charges is evident from 
the manner in which Athona explains away a 
severe canon against concubinary clerics on 
the ground, apparently, that if taken in its 
obvious meaning it would be "far too 
rigorous, considering the frailty of our time " 
(Otho, XV., p. 44, Infra mensem, and 
Detenturi). CUricus^ it must be remem- 
bered, included everyone who had received 
the tonsure, or, perhaps, the minor orders 
also, in order to enable him to hold some 
** benefice" or ecclesiastical office; to such 
marriage was forbidden so long as they held 
the benefice. A relic of mediaeval condi- 
tions is preserved in the name of parish 
** clerk." In this connection it may be re- 
marked that our commentator has a very 
poor opinion of womankind; even nuns 
showed the bad qualities of their sex, and 
refused to be governed by the rules the holy 
Fathers had made for them. 

Everyone must have noticed the care with 
which the clerical tonsure is represented in 
brasses and other mediaeval monuments. It 
was one of the external signs of the good 



cleric. Though the observance of the outward 
decencies of the order and position is not an 
infallible sign of an interior spiritual life in 
accordance, yet the persistent defiance of 
them cannot but be an evil portent. Those 
who brought disgrace on the clergy were not 
always what we should call hypocrites ; they 
were often men who laid aside the clerical 
dress to adopt a semi-military costume, and 
carried arms— so extravagant in their manners 
that in many parts of England they were 
called "apes." One magnate was deservedly 
put to shame by a jester, who said to him : " I 
am the fool of the Lord Abbot of St. Mary's 
at York; whose fool are you?" (p. 88, 
Ridiculosas). No wonder, then, that the 
canonist, in his indignation at these unworthy 
brethren, should exclaim, "Would that they 
were clean shaved, even against their will, to 
their teeth and even their gums !" The ac- 
count given by Fleury of the origin of the 
clerical dress is interesting. The long robe, 
the closely cut hair, and clean-shaven face 
are relics of the old Roman manners. When 
in the decline of the empire, the Northern 
barbarians, heretics or even pagans, came 
down upon Italy, the Catholic clergy, at the 
sight of the longhaired and longbearded 
invaders clad in short tunics, clung the more 
tightly to their accustomed usages in these 
matters, which now became symbols of the 
orthodox faith and the old civilization. 

Other points which crop up in Athona's 
notes might be mentioned as curious, or for 
many reasons worthy of record; e,g,^ his 
etymologies ; or his mention of a " chimney 
(fire-place) in the French fashion "; but one 
must be recorded by way of conclusion, and 
this with a request for information. In his 
peroration he says : " Thus have I finished 
my work in the threefold meaning of these 
figures 9, 2, 9, 5, 4, for the benefit both of 
scholars and practitioners ; and however little 
knowledge there may be in it, yet remember 
how the poor widow was praised who offered 
but two mites ; and however much needs 
correction, yet remember that in the body 
there is always some fault ; and I ought to 
be excused, because I am ready to submit 
to correction." What is the "threefold 
signification " he refers to ? 



1 68 



ROMAN REMAINS IN LOCAL MUSEUMS. 




Eoman Remains in Local 

By F. Haverfibld, M.A., F.S.A. 



I. 

[HE following, somewhat uninviting, 
paragraphs represent the com- 
mencement of an effort to cata- 
logue the Roman remains in our 
local museums. The work is very necessary 
for a proper study of Roman Britain, and 
very little has been done for it in England — 
Scotland being, in this respect, far ahead 
of us Southerners. The objects preserved in 
the local museums are of very mixed value. 
Occasionally, as at Halifax and more lately 
elsewhere, I have come upon inscriptions 
which had been overlooked or at least had 
remained unknown to the outer world. Oc- 
casionally I have found that the museums 
are practically unarranged or devoid of objects 
worth arranging. Once or twice I have 
found myself forbidden (this does not apply 
to any of the museums noticed in this article) 
to sketch or make notes without the curator's 
express leave. This seems to me an extra- 
ordinary and probably illegal prohibition, 
for objects are exhibited in public museums, 
as one would imagine, for the express purpose 
of making them public. 

CIRENCESTER. 

I. Museum of Roman Remains,' Dver Street 

[Built by Earl Bathurst, 1849. J 

An adequate catalogue has been published 
by Professor A, H. Church (ed. vii. 1889, 
Cirencester: G. Harmer). For epigraphic 
notices see further, Eph. Epigr. vii. 833. 

II. Private Collection of Christopher Bowly, 

Siddington House. 

This contains cil. vii. 72 ; Eph, Epigr, vii. 
839, and a good deal of pottery found on 
the spot, including twenty - two inscribed 
pieces of pseudo-Arretine, and two am- 
phorae, 

DERBY. 

Free Library and Museum, the Ward- 
wick. 
This contains no Roman remains except 



a milestone, which I have examined (see 
Eph. Epigr. vii. 1102). The Derby Philo- 
sophical Society appears long ago to have 
possessed a few Roman antiquities, which, 
in alteration of site, etp., have disappeared. 
See further above, p. 108. 

HALIFAX. 

Museum of the Halifax Literary and Phila- 
sophical Society, Harrison Road. 

I. Halifax : coin of Augustus (a.d. 14) found 

in the parish church ; conduit pipes for 
water supply (Wards Hall) ; millstones, 
found five feet below surface at Stocks 
Hall, near Halifax. 

II. Yorkshire and York : tile of leg ix hisp ; 
"spout of mortariom " {pelvis) . , GVI ; 
pseudo - Arretine (no marks), stucco, 
glass, pins, etc., minor pottery; a lead 
coffin ; two inscriptions, probably third 
century {Eph, Epigr, viL). 

Slack (1865) : tiles of COH . iiii . bre {cil. 

vii. . Eph, Epigr, vii.), stucco, concrete, 
Ripon (near) : pottery, bit of pavement 
Wroxeter : unimportant bits of pottery, 

etc. 
IIL Foreign Tile, COH IIII AINDBP from 

the Saalburg (Brambach 1431). 

huddersfxeld. 

The Yorkshire Archaeological and Topo- 
graphical Association has a small library here, 
but there is no museum. An inscription 
{Eph, Epigr. vii.) is in the Greenhead 
Park. The finds at Slack have been scat- 
tered over the North of England. [See 
Halifax, Leeds, Warrington, etc.] 

HITCHIN. 

Private Museum of W. Ransom, Esq., 
Fairfield, Hitchin. 

The objects in this collection come princi- 
pally from London. The chief are : 

I. From London : 

Inscribed Mithraic stone, statuette of a 
Genius, figure of a river god — all marble 
and good work {Eph. Epigr, viL ; Anch, 
Joum,), 

Inscribed tile ppfikLON (ciu vii«). 

Lamps and pottery. The lamps bear 
names strobili, fortis (faint), one 
illegible. The pseudo>Arrettne (Sajntan) 



ROMAN REMAINS IN LOCAL MUSEUMS. 



169 



is especially fine, including some 
"incuse" specimens, ordinary potters' 
names, ^.f., fec . ivvenis (in a circle), 

OFFEICIS, FLORIINIANVSFE, ['i/(A'«^) 

feiidsj Florentianus fi{€it")\ and a few 
scratched on, ^^. p . rvricivs (/*. 

Rm^ruhu). NIMPHI 

There is also a thm brass plate q a v^ 

3 in. long, forged 
II. From elsewhere : 
Inscribed fiagment (prob. Roman) from 

Sandy (ArcK JoumJ), 
Tiles of the Cohors rv. Vindelicorum 

from the Saalburg (Brambach 1431). 

LEEDS. 

Museum of the Leeds Philosophical and 
literary Society, Philosophical Hall. 

[Society founded 1820, museum begun 
1830, enlarged 1862.] 

I. Yorkshirt. 

Aldborough : llles, leg ix hisp (compare 

ciL. vii. 1 22/^J) 'y pelves (2 
inscr.) and other pottery; 
small metal objects (ifibulcty 
etc.); also a pavement re- 
presenting Romulus and 
Remus under the Wolf, 
apparently the same as that 
noticed by C R. Smith, Coll. 
Ant.^ vl 259 {^de Morgan, 
Pavements^ p. 141), and 
figured by H. Ecroyd 
Smith. 

Castkford : Inscription to Dea Brigantia. 

Dowkerbottom (\\luufedale) : Pseudo-Arre- 

tine. 

(liggleswick : Silver ring (double snake 

head in spiral) found Mrith 
Roman coins. 

llkley : Cast of sculpture. 

lingwellgate (Wakefield): Coin moulds 

and funnel (found 1829): 
some of the moulds temp, 
Severi. 

Slack: Tiles coh iiii bre and 

coH « nil BR • - and • • ni 
BRE (ciL. vii. 1 231; Eph, 
Epi^r, vii.), one (unin- 
scribed) from hyp>ocaust 

York Pottery (6 pottere' names, 

pseudo-Arretine ware), un- 
inscribed lamp ; also a sar- 
cophagus (Lendal). 

VOL. XXIV. 



II. Foreign, 

There are several Greek and Roman in- 
scriptions ; the account given by Hicks, 
Hellenic journal, xii. 2, is complete, and 
supersedes John Marshall, Observations on 
Greek Inscriptions (Leeds, 1879). There are 
a few insignificant lamps from Rome and 
Pompeii. 

P.S— The Report of the Society for 1890- 
91 mentions, p. 15, another " Roman Altar," 
presented by the Rev. R Kirby, about which, 
as yet, I have been able to learn no particulars. 
It is not yet on view in the Museum. 

MACCLESFIELD. 

Rooms of the Society for Useful Know- 
ledge. 

These contain no antiquities beyond two 
Assyrian fragments, a head, and a cuneiform 
inscription. 

In the public park there are some " British " 
stones (Finney's Guide\ but there are no 
other antiquities visible in the town, nor 
have the jewellers any Roman coins. 

MALTON. 

Museum and Literary Institute, Yorkers- 
gate. 

The remains here are scanty : 

Ma/ton: sandals, pseudo-Arretine ware, 
etc ; inscribed bronze dish (see below). 

York : small bit of pavement. 

icing's Lynn (Norfolk) : a bit of pseudo- 
Arretine and edge of a peljfis. 

Some flint implements, a bronze celt, and 
javelin -head are wrongly labelled Roman. 
There is also a cabinet of coins. 

There were two private collections in the 
town, one belonging to Mr. Copperthwaite, 
and one to Mr. Edstone which included an 
inscribed bronze dish (Epk. Epigr. iv. 713) 
now in Malton Museum, a bell and twelve 
silver coins found at Binnington Carrs (now 
at York), and other objects. 

The outlines of the Roman camp can 
still be seen to the East of the town, and 
there is abundant evidence of a Roman 
* station." 

The Rev. Dr. Cox, rector of Barton-le- 
Street, five miles from Malton, has various 
fragments of Roman pottery found in that 
parish. 

PETERBOROUGH. 

Museum of the Peterborough Natural 
History Scientific and Archaeological Society, 

N 



I70 



ROMAN REMAINS IN LOCAL MUSEUMS. 



Barnack : 



Minster Close. [Society founded 1873, pre- 
sent museum occupied 1887.] 

I. Local (mostly pottery from the Nene 
Valley). 

Part of undraped male figure 
(if perfect would be 3 feet). 
[Bamack stone was used for 
building by the Romans just 
as it has been ever since.] 
Pottery (cup 7 inches hign). 
Small bronze fig. of Hercules, 
bones, needles, etc. Chester- 
ton : coins {Report xv. 18). 

Deeping Fen: Quern, found 1880. 

Glatton : Gold coin of Valentinian. 

Peterborough : Two glass bottles (market- 
place, 1885); fibula and coins 
of Trajan [? Decius], Con- 
stantine, Diocletian men - 
tioned in Report (below) 



Bourn: 
Castor : 



Stilton 



XV., p. 21 ; xvii., p. 4. 



Sutton : 
Upton : 



Drawings of stone coffin and 
pottery (pseudo - Arretine 
BORiLLi OFFic), See G, M. 
1868, 559, and Proc, Soc, 
Ant. 

" Thumb-vase." 
Glassbead, mentioned in Re- 
port XV. 22. 
Waternewton:Quem,pottery(Castor,pseudo- 

Arretine, etc.), thumb-vase ; 
bronze ring. Report xv. 19. 
Woodcroft, Hilley, Wood near : tile found 
1867 with large urn, presented 1882, pub- 
lished, ^S///. Epigr, iii. p. 142 (and references 
there). The exact lettering is 

LEG • IX HISP 

The letters are rough, and not made with 
a stamp apparently. 

II. General. 

Bath : Fragments of pseudo-Arre- 

tine. 

Banbury : Coin of Constantine, Re- 

port xv. 19. 

Coin of Tetricus, Report 
XV. 19. 

Yarm (Yorks) : Coin of Constantine, Re- 
port xv. 19. 

III. The Society publishes short yearly re- 
ports, of which I have seen xv. xvi. xvii. 
(x887-9). The Roman remains men- 
tioned in them are noted above. 



March: 



Malton : 
York: 



IV. An inscribed stone (Eph. Epigr. viL 
Arch Joum,) is now in the Catlicdral 
Restoration Works Office, where I have 
examined it 

SCARBOROUGH. 

I. Museum of the Scarborough Philo- 
sophical Archaeological Society. 

[Society founded 1827 as Philosophical, 
1848 as Archaeological. Museum opened 
1848, since enlarged] 

I. Local. Scarborough (Cliff Hotels 1864): 

Amphora. 
Knapton : Large urn found with three 
others containing bones and 
ashes (Whellan's North Riding 
(Beverley, 1859), iL 209, and 
note in HinderwelFs copy of 
his History of Scarborough). 

Urn. 

Seamer Moor and Cloughton (both near 
Scarborough) : Two hoards of 
coins now confused (Gallienus 
Victorinus Claudius II. Tetri 
cus, etc., 3rd brass). [I give 
the provenance given me by 
Col. Kendall, who has cata- 
logued the coins, but he warns 
me it is not certain ; the coins 
were found thirty-five to forty 
years ago.] 

Uncertain : Coins of 4th century, Helena 
— ^Valentinian II. 

II. Foreign. Marble tablets firom Rome, 

given by Mr. Smith. 

1.8 X 4 in CAMiLLiAES : 2.6 X 8^ in. ^^"^^^^^ 

^ . HKDISTE 

also some minor objects. 

III. The Society has published " Reports " ; 
those accessible (1828-61) contain only: 

1 83 1, p. 20, copper coins found in a pot 
at Naworth Castle. 

1833, p. 25, thirty coins from Malton, one 
silver British from Filey. [The latter 
is not in Dr. Evans' Ancient British 
Coins and Supplement^ and may be 
an error.] 

1853, p. 14, coin of Constantius (2nd brass) 
found in Ayton East Field, near Scar- 
borough. 

1856, p. 30, pottery with bones, jet armlet, 
bronze chain found in or near Scar- 
borough [probably not Roman]. 



ROMAN REMAINS IN LOCAL MUSEUMS. 



171 



1858. p. 18, W. S. Cortis, M.D., on the 
FOey find (with plate). 

The Museum contains also a copy of 
Hindenrell's Scarborough with the author*s 
MS. additions. These include (i) ci.l. vii. 
163^, 264, 2669 and one unpubiished '* On 
the body of an amphora," found in 1820 at 
Sutton, probably a graffito. 

CANDI \ candt[dus ?] 

and (2) drawings of pavement and "suda- 
tory," found in 1745 at Hovingham. 

3. The only private collection known to 
me now to exist in the town is that of Col. 
Kendall, consisting of a fine set of Roman 
coins. The only local object in it is a forged 
glass seal, apparently eighteenth-century work, 
"found" near York and edited by W. T. 
Walkin as genuine (Arch, Joum. xxxi. (1874), 
p. 356) : see Eph. Epigr, iil p. 149. It is 
inscribed flavivs domit and homo et equs. 

WARRINGTON. 

Free Library and Museum, Bold Street 
[Acquired by the Corporation 1848, present 

building 1857, Dr. Kendrick's collection 

added 1871J 

L Local. 

Wilderspool, near to Warrington, has 
>ielded a great number of Roman remains, 
pointing to a settlement, apparently unwalled 
and possibly destroyed before the third 
century A.D. Most of these are in the 
Warrington Museum, presented by Dr. 
Kendrick, a local antiquary, and have been 
described in a Guidebook to the Collection 
(Warrington : Mackie, 1872), and in W. T. 
Watkin's Roman Cheshire (pp. 260-73). 
They include part of a stone column — almost 
the only fragment of worked stone found — 
pottery, pseudo-Arretine, and other, pelves, 
amphorae, tiles, small metal objects, a leaden 
weight (4} lb., uninscribed), etc., and coins 
(the latest seemingly Commodus). 

II. General — British. 
These are mostly scraps : 
Aldborough : Bit of pavement (279), 

2 nails (295). 
Benwell : Bit of pseudo Arrctine. 

Chester : Tile. 

Qiesterton (Staff.) : Bronze figure (2 in. 

high). 



Hartford : 

Housesteads 

Leicester : 
London : 
Manchester : 



Melandra Castle : 
Northwich : 



Penrith (Old): 
Richborough : 
Silchester : 
Slack : 



Two burial urns found 

1834. 

Pseudo - Arretine, etc. 

(298). 

Bit of pavement. 

Amphora. 

Pseudo - A rret ine frag - 

ments. 

Tile, concrete (291). 

Leaden trough, possibly 

not Roman. {Eph, 

Epigr, vii.). Inscribed 

iiiccc-iii on . the edge 

of bottom. The whole 

35 in. long. 

Pelvis^ fragm. of. 

Pseudo- Arretine bits. 

Tile. 

3 inscribed tiles (27^) 

given by Canon Raines 

— ^all made with stamp. 



COH.P 



COH.1111 



II BR ^ / 



No doubt con . nil BRE, though the third 
tile, which is worn at the end, looks very 
much as if R were the last letter and the 
frame came next to it, not £. 

cf cru vii. 1224, Eph, Epigr. vii. 

Wroxeter : Tiles, bead. 

York : 4 lamps given (1876). 

III. Foreign. 

Lamps, eta, from Rome, Pompeii, Hercu- 
laneum, Carthage, all but one uninscribed: 
some of those from Carthage have the 
Christian monogram. The inscribed one 
from Rome, " Mausoleum of Augustus," has 
the common New Year's inscription — the 
end is slightly worn : 

ANNVM 

NOVMFN 

STVM FELI 

ICEMMI 

HlC 

There are also in the Museum some 
squeezes of published Romano-British in- 
scriptions and a small bronze figure of 
Minerva (260) — 2 in. high — ^probably from 
Chesterton (Staff.). 

WHITBY. 

Museum of the Whitby Literary and 
Philosophical Society, West Pier. [Founded 
1823, enlarged i87a] 

N 2 



172 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBUCA TIONS. 



I. Yorkshire. Aldborough : bits of " Samian " 

ware. 

Malton and Norton: cil. vii. 263 a, b; 
gilt fibula ; tesserae \ three rough British 
urns. [Also millstones found at Dunsley 
between Malton and Whitby, and in 
Brunswick Street, Whitby.J 

Ravenhill (Peak) : ciu vii. 268 inscription 
of Justinianus. 

II. Foreign. Pompeii: marble vase 25 in. 

high, with Arimasps (print published 
by G. Battista Piranesi) ; also some 
pottery. 
Egypt : pottery and glass of no great 
interest 

The museum also contains some small 
bronze figures (given by Mr. Newbum) of 
uncertain provenance, and a few coins. 

{To be continuetL) 




IptoceeomgjB! ano Publications of 
arclia^ological Societies. 

[ Though the Editor takes the respomibilUy for the form 
in which these notes appear^ they are all specially con- 
tributed to the ^* Antiquary" and are, in the first 
instance, supplied by accredited correspondents of the 
different districts. \ 

The second part of the fifty-second volame of the 
ARCHiEOLOG 1 A has been issued. For variety of contents 
and general ability shown by the contributors, as well 
as for the number of pages covered and the freauency 
and merit of the illustrations, this volume will com- 
pare most favourably with any of the tomes issued by 
the Society of Antiquaries. This part is paged firom 
317 to 788, including the index to the whole volume, 
and comprises thirty plates and twenty-three text 
illustrations. The most important section, occupying 
upwards of seventy pages, and thoroughly illustrated, 
is Mr. Arthur Evans's paper ** On a Late Celtic Urn 
Field at Aylesford, Kent ; and on the Gaulish, Ithyro- 
Italic, and Classical Connections of the Forms of 
Pottery and fironze-work there discovered." The 
Rev. Father Morris contributes an account of a 
recently discovered waU- painting in St. Anselm*s 
chapel, in the cathedral church of Canterbury, with a 
coloured plate and ground plan.— Mr. E. A. Wallis 
Budge gives a full account, with extended transcript 
and facsimile of the Hieratic Papyrus of Nesi-Amsu, 
a scribe in the temple of Amen-Ka at Thebes, about 
B.C. 305; this papyrus is at the British Museum, 
where it bears the number xo,l88; it was found at 
Thebes in the year i860, and was purchased by the 
museum in 1855 ; Mr. Budge's valuable paper and 
transcript occupies upwards of 200 pages. — Mr. G. E. 
Fox contributes notes on a recent discovery of part of 
the Roman wall of London, with a plan.— Rev. Dr. 



Cox gives an account of the munificent and interesting 
bene&ctions of Dean Heywood (1457-92) to the cathe- 
dral church of Lichfield. — Professor Middtetoo 
describes, with illustrations and plan, a thirteenth- 
century oak-hall at Tiptoft Manor, Essex, the pro- 
perty of Brasenose College. Professor Middlcton also 
describes, with three plates, an important Roman 
villa at Spoonley Wood, Glouccstcrsnire, and gives 
valuable remarks on Romano-British houses in general, 
with a plate showing four methods of ooostmcting 
hypocaust floors as used in Romano- British villas. — 
Mr. W. H. St. John Hope contributes an exhaustive 
pajier, showing much research, on the remarkable 
sculptured alabaster tablets called St John's Heads, 
pertaining to a late mediaeval cult apparently poculiar 
to England ; of these he has collated twenty-seven 
examples, the most striking of which ore Uiusttaiet]. 
Rev. J. T. Fowler finally settles the Question of the use 
of the terms Crosier and Pastoral £>talf besrond any 
further dispute, by proving up to the hilt that they are 
ec^uivalent terms, and that crosier has nothing to do 
with an archbishop's cross. — Mr. St. John Hope and 
Mr. G. £. Fox give a lull and valuable account of 
last season's excavations at Silchester as conducted by 
the Society of Antic^uaries, illustrated with eight 
plates. In an appendix are illustrated accounts ot a 
Bronze Scabbard of Later Celtic work found at Huns- 
bury Camp, near Northampton, and of the thirteenth- 
century Mace-head of the borough of Ilchester. 

^ ^ ^ 

The second quarterly issue of the current volume of 
the proceedin|;s of the Royal Society of Anti- 
quaries OF Ireland is paced from 41} to 494, and 
is a ^ood, well illustrated, and varied nomlier. 
According to our usual custom we enumerate its con- 
tents. After the record of the proceedings at the 
general meeting held at Dublin in March, 1891, the 
following papers, in addition to miscellanea, are 
printed: Surroundings of the Cathedral ChuKh of 
St. Patrick de Insula, Dublin, by Mr. Thomas Drew, 
with folding map ; Fresh Facts on Prehistoric Pottery* 
by Rev. G. R. Buick, with four plates; Killiger 
Church, CO. Dublin, by Rev. Professor Stokes ; Un 
the Unfinished Crosses and Kells, by D. John Healy, 
with plate and three illustrations ; Description of the 
Stone-roofed Building called Sl Patrick's Chapel, at 
Ardrass, by Lord Walter Fitzgerald, with pbite and 
illustrations ; On some Medids of the Royal Irish 
Volunteers, by Mr. Robert Day, with two illusttations ; 
The Normans in Thomond (concluded), by Mr* T. J. 
Westropp, with map and plate ; Ru^-light Candle- 
sticks, cy Colonel Vigors, with plate \ The ancient 
Ruined Churches of co. Waterford, by Rer. Patrick 
Power ; and Description of a small Bronxe Figure of 
a Bird, found in Dublin, by Mr. W. Flayer. 

^ ^ -•} 

The monthly meeting of the Society of Anti- 
quaries OF Nbwcastle-upoh^Tynb was held om 
August 26, when papers were read On Mediceva] 
Carved Chests, by Mr. C. C. Hodges, and On fhe 
Battle of Flodden, by Dr. Hod^kin. 

On August 31 a county meeting of the society was 
held, when the members visited the fine domain %A 
Callaly Casde, Whittingham, at the invJtatum of 
Major A. H. Browne. The castle is finely satttated 
in a sheltered hollow Just under the heath-clad heights^ 
on which a circular British camp and reaoalnii of %xk 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



173 



andent tower are still to be found. The castle itself 
has been built at various periods, enclosing the old 
Peel tower, the original stronghold, a portion of which 
is still preserved, though it can no longer be seen 
from the exterior. Up till recent times it was the 
possession of the Claverings, famous among Northum- 
brian £unilies, and bore their arms on the principal 
front, with the date 1676. The residence was added 
to in the beginning of the eighteenth century, and the 
most recent siddition of all is the museum erected to 
acoonunodate the splendid collection of antiquities 
which has come into the possession of Major Browne, 
and which we hope to have more particularly described 
in \he ^n/iftiory ere long. The museum is now in a 
condition of tolerable order, and the antiquities can be 
in^)ected with interest and instruction, ranged as they 
are in groups and periods. They comprise amon^t 
te&cs of the ancient and classical periods, a fine series 
of Archaic and later Greek vases— one of the iiillest 
and most valuable, we should say, to be found in any 
existing museum. Marbles and terra cotta, ivory 
and bone instruments, ornaments, and other articles ; 
Greek and Roman sarcophagi ; Egyptian antiquities, 
comprising vessels, ornaments, ana jewellery, oronze 
and metal work; Greek and Roman gla^; and 
gold personal ornaments are here in preat variety. 
The mediaeval department is almost as nch and varied 
as the antique, comprising metal work, camei and 
intagtia, bijouterie, Venetian glass, carvings in ivory 
and wood, enamel pottery, urns, and armour. After 
a thorough examination of the museum, and after 
enjoying Major Browne's hospitality, the members 
listened to an interesting paper on the history of 
Callaly Castle, by Mr. D. D. Dixon, of Rothbury. 

^ ^ ^ 

Thb Cumberi^nd and Westmoreland Anti- 
quarian AND Archaological SOCIETY held their 
second two days' meeting for this year at Carlisle on 
Thursday and Friday, August 20 and 21. The pro- 
ceedings commenced with a meeting in the Fratiy at 
noon on the first day for the purpose of hearing 
papecs read. The president. Chancellor Ferig^uson, 
F.S.A., presided. The Bishop of Barrow exhibited 
a well-preserved figure about eighteen inches high, 
carved m oak, which had been lent by a lady in Fur- 
ness, who was under the impression that it had been 
taken out of Carlisle Cathedral during some altera- 
tions. The Bishop said he had looked over the cathe- 
dral and had been unable to discover any niche that it 
would have fitted or any stall from which it appeared 
to have been taken. The figure was apparently a 
portrait, had a long beard dressed in four tails, and 
bad a string of beads, an anelace and a gypdere pen- 
dant from the girdle. Mr. Hartshome, F.S.A., said 
he was of opimon that it was certainly not the effigy 
of a pilgrim, but was probably that of a civilian about 
the year 140a It corresponded closely with the 
dress of a Franklin, as described by Chaucer in the 
Canierbury Pilgrimage, 

Mr. Swainson Cowper, F.S.A., gave an interesting 
description of the various iron candlesticks or rush- 
Kght sticks which were on view on the table. As 
candle lightinc is now becoming rapidly a thing of the 
past he took the opportunity of describing the develop- 
ment of lighting uy candles in Great Britain. He 
pcttnted out the difierence between the rush-lights 



proper and the rush-candles sold in the shops, and 
showed some of his own manufacture, made by strip- 
ping rushes according to certain directions and then 
dipping them in hot fat, the result being a thin taper, 
similar in appearance to the wax-tapers now sold for 
domestic purposes, one of which, two feet six inches 
in length, would bum for three minutes short of an 
hour. The "sticks" for holding these rush-lights 
were of different varieties, all of which were repre- 
sented in the collection exhibited. The earliest was 
a cleft piece of iron, afterwards improved by having a 
stem of iron-nippers worked by a hin^e, between 
which the rush-light was placed at a particular slope. 
Taking them in their stages of development there 
next came a design in which the taper was kept in its 
place by the weight at the end of a pump-like handle ; 
then a fastener worked by a spring ; next what were 
called Tommy candlesticks, which adapted themselves 
to any size, and accommodated either rush-light or 
dip ; next the tripodal candlestick, after the fashion of 
Roman specimens ; next pendant holders used to hang 
firom the ceiling, and very generally used at sheep sal- 
vings ; finally, there was the spiral-holder which Mr. 
Swainson Cowper had at first suspected of being of 
forei^ make, as similar candlesticks are made at 
Munich in the present day ; but having since discovered 
that some were shown at Uie Scandinavian exhibition, 
he was satisfied that the specimens of spiral candle- 
sticks exhibited were of load origiiL 

The President exhibited a brass lx)x (of Dutch 
make) containing a thumb which he had been told 
was found when part of Carlisle Castle was being 
pulled down sixty years ago. He had purchased it 
from a man in Newcastle who said that his father had 
found the box while working at the castle at the time 
mentioned. The President thought it had probably 
been the thumb of a murderer preserved by a thief as 
a talisman. The box itself is covered with representa- 
tions of the Creation, the Temptation, the Fall, etc. 

The two picture-board dummies which adorn the 
entrance hall of the County Hotel were exhibited by 
the President, who said the usual answer to inquiries 
about these two figures was that they represent^ two 
of the Duke of Cumberland's guards, and that they 
were in some way or other relics of the campaign of 
1745 ; but, describing them at length, he showed that 
they represented Grenadiers of the 2nd or Queen's 
regiment of foot, now the Royal West Surrey 
Regiment. 

Dr. W. Taylor, F.S.A., read a paper upon *' Some 
Old Halls in the Vale of Keswick." The first, Mill- 
beck Hall, near Keswick, between that town and 
Bassenthwaite. It is in the possession of Lord 
Ormathwaite, who took his title from the hall and 
estate in the adjoining village of that name. It has 
long l)een used as a farm-house. The house is not all 
of one age, the earliest portion having doubtless been 
a square tower or pele, to which additions were sub- 
sequently made. Dr. Taylor described the building 
in detail, but remarked that the chief interest about 
the place was the inscription over the doorway " 1592. 
Quorsum. M. W. Vivere : Mori : Mori : Vivere. 
Nicholas Williamson." Hiere was a similar motto at 
Blencow dated 1590, which Williamson had pro- 
bably seen, and, having appreciated the conceit of 
the sentence, he had copied it over his own doorway 
two years afterwards, with the substitution of the 



174 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



verb "vivere" for the substantive "vitae." In 
Williamson's version the translation must be " Whither 
(i.^. , to which way or end), to live to die (supply " or ") 
to die to live (eternally)." 

The other halls were Wythop, Ribton, Huthwaite, 
and Crakeplace, where is the auaint legend over the 
door : ** 1612. Christopher Crakeplace built the same 
when he was servant to Baron AUnam." 

An excursion was made in the afternoon to Rock- 
cliffe for the purpose of visiting the church and cross, 
and se'-.ing the held in Rigg and Re^n, near Hall 
Town, and the Labyrinth on Rockcliffe Moss. The 
weather was so unfavourable when the party arrived at 
Rockcliffe, that all outdoor work had to be abandoned, 
and Mr. T. H. Hodgson's paper on " Rigg and 
Reinn," and the president's " Account of the Laby- 
rinth " were read m the village reading-room. 

The Rev. W. S. Calverley, F.S.A., read a paper on 
the ** Rockcliffe Cross." It has, he said, carvings on 
the sides, and the circular wheel which connects the 
arms of the cross is not entirely perforated between 
the arms, as is the case with the Dearham Cross, but 
the marks where the perforation would be, if carried 
out, are plainly seen. Round the stem of the cross 
there are two bands, on which are sculptured inter- 
laced zoomorphic designs. On the cross at Gosforth 
there appear three intertwined animal figures with 
wolfish heads and serpent-like vertebrate bodies, 
carved vertically on the cross. Similar zoomorphic 
figures appear on the bands of the Rockcliffe Cross. 
It seems therefore that the Gosforth Cross has given 
the idea which has been very distantly followed by 
those who erected the cross at Rockcliffe. On the 
I'enrith Cross, which is a tall one, cylindrical at the 
base, and for some distance up the shaft, then be- 
coming quadrangular, there are bands of interlaced 
work carved round the cross at the junction of the 
square part with the round. It would seem that the 
Gosfortn Cross is the type from which the Penrith 
Cross was made. Botti Penrith and Rockcliffe 
Crosses, which are very unlike each other, show 
signs of following the same type in some respects. 
We know that St. Kentigem passed along this coast, 
leaving marks of his presence at Aspatria and Brom- 
ficld, where there are smaller crosses of the Rock- 
cliffe character, with the same horizontal bands 
which bear interlaced work, which is hardly sufficiently 
visible for us to tell what was the original design 
carved upon it. Very probably St. Kentigem and 
his party crossed over to King Rederech Hael at 
Hoddam, in Dumfriesshire, by the neighbouring ford. 
Though these crosses may not have been erected in 
St. Kentigem's time, there is sufficient testimony to 
make us think that they marked the progress of his 
journey northwards. Mr. Calverley mentioned tnat 
Mr. Parcz was the first to draw his attention to the 
fact that the bands on the Rockcliffe Cross had these 
animal figures upon them. Up till now the only 
illustrations which have ever been given of the cross 
show a quite indistinct face. 

Lynehow, formerly known as Justus Town, was 
next visited, and while the party were refreshed by 
Major and Mrs. Irwin with tea, the president gave an 
account of the celebrated Quaker lawyer and preacher, 
Thomas Story, of Justus Town, the friend of Penn, 
and Recorder of Pennsylvania. 

Subsequently the members dined together at the 



Central Hotel The Chancellor pressded» and 
amongst many others present were the Buthop of 
Carlisle and Miss Goodwin, the Bishop of Bairow 
and Mrs. Ware, Mr. Gully, M.P., etc After 
dinner Mrs. Ware submitted a paper ^sa '*The SeaU 
of the Bishops of Carlisle, and otner seaU belonging 
to that diocese," which is to be published in the 
Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmoreland 
Society, as well as in those of the Royal Archscolocica) 
Institute, before whose members it was read at uta- 
burgh. The president and Mr. Swainaon Cowper 
discoursed on local heraldry, and the president gave 
his usual rhurni of the finds of the year, most or all 
of which have already been noticed in these columns. 
On Friday about fifty members, includinc the 
Bishops of Carlisle and Barrow, Mr. Maclnnes, M.P., 
defiea the weather and 'started on the long drive 
to Bewcastle ; their pluck was rewarded by a charm- 
ing day. The first halt was at Kirkcarobeck, whose 
church was destroyed b^ the Sids in the fourteenth 
century. An archway still remains, which is generally 
said to be the west door, but Mr. Hartshome, F.S.A., 
and others pointed out that it was a modem make up, 
probably ot the last century, from genuine remains of 
the old church. Upon this the Bishop of Carlisle told 
the legend of how ine parishioners believed that some 
day or other the ruined church would oome bock, if 
only a fragment of the old one was kept stinding. This 
has happened, for a new church has just lioen built 
on part of the old site. Askerton dastlc wass next 
reached, and was described by the president. It was 
built[by Tho. Lord Dacre, in the sixteenth century, on 
the decay of Triermain Castle, to guard the passage 
into Scotland by the Maiden Wa^ ; the Land Sergeant 
of the Barony of Gilsland lay in it. It is a quadrangle 
with towers at the south-east and south-west comers, 
between which are dwelling-rooms; the stabUs^ 
occupies the north side ; the hall the west, while a 
blank wall with gate closes the east. On the lead 
roof of one of the towers is cut a record of the '45, 
*< Gea Taylor 9 Novr. The Day the Rebels cnased 
the Border." Bewcastle was reached ^Uxntt one 
o'clock, when Mr. Calverley read a pAper on the 
*' Bewcastle Cross." It is a four-sided otmislc, odgin- 
ally more than 20 feet high. It stands unthin a few 
feet of the church, in the precincts of an extensive 
Roman station. The monument Is one of those 
Runic crosses, raised over the dead, in which England 
was once so rich, but of which only a couple of 
examples now remain. It was, for its time, a fine 
work of art. The Christian civilization of &ieland, 
and ixirticularly of Northern England, had a double 
origin, the one earlier and wider Celtic, the Irish- 
Scottish missions, which so largely evacselixed the 
English kingdoms; the other Latin, the Roman 
missions which aided in the same good work» and 
ultimately absorbed the whole into their system. 
Here both these streams of art meet, harmomced by 
ornamentation of a general northern character. The 
figures and foliage and Roman arabesques all point to 
Italy. The chequer work may be Celtic \ the true- 
love knots and interlacings are both Celtic and Norths 
The letters are old English runes. Mr. Calverley 
^ve a minute description of the cross, which, aocdru- 
mg to Dr. Stephens, is a monument raised to the 
memorv of Alcfrtth, King of Northumbria, in the 
seventh century. Chancellor FerguMm presented a 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



1 75 



report to the society, in which he states that consider- 
able damage has beoi done to the famous obelisk by 
an unibrttmate attempt to make a cast of it by another 
archaeological society. Along with Mr. Calverley 
and other members of the society, he visited the 
obelisk last autumn, and fotmd its appearance hideous 
and pitiable. Its colour had been changed, except in 
patches, firom a quiet and venerable gray to a staring 
raw drab hue ; this time will amend, but at present the 
appearance is offensive in the extreme. The operator 
was a tradesman from another county, and it is only 
lair to say that he had three days of very bad weather. 
He made no attempt to put up a scaffold, but operated 
from a ladder or ladders reared against the obelisk, 
with the result of knocking off a piece about two 
inches in length from the upper comer. In other 
respects serious permanent mischief had been done to 
the stone ; in ract, a master mason, who was sent to 
report, said the stone *' looked as if it had been shot 
at." 

The Roman camp, clearly British originally, was 
neat inspected, under guidance of the chancellor, and 
Dr. Taylor described the mediseval castle, a gloomy 
pile, always a military post, and never aught else, 
whoe lay the Captain of Bewcastle and a small 
garrison, to keep the Maiden Way. The last known 
of these captains was Jack Musgrave, a "most 
pestilent fellow," from whom Lily the astrolc^er got 
same documents, which compromised the Penning- 
tons, by making Jack drunk and picking his pockets. 
The visit to the castle of Bewcastle concluded ,the 
work of the meeting, and carriages were resumed for 
the jooniey home. 

^ ^ ^ 

The fourth meeting of the Durham and Northum- 

BKRIAND ARCHiEOLOGICAL AND ArCHITBCTURAL 

SociVTY for this year was held on August 28, the 
places chosen being Richmond and the adjacent 
villages of Gilling and Kirby Ravensworth. At 
Gillu^, three miles distant from Richmond, a village 
fiunous in history, the chief object of interest is the 
church of St Agatha, which has some traces of Saxon 
architecture. After the diurch had been visited and 
described, a start was made for Kirby Ravensworth. 
Here the extensive remains of the important castle of 
the Lords Fitzhugh called for special attention. A 
drive through the beautiful and extensive scenery 
brought the party to Richmond, where the ancient 
castle was visited. 

^ ^ ^ 

The Archaeological Section of the Birmingham and 
Midland Institute held the last excursion of the 
season on August 29, when some of the places of 
interest in South-east Derbyshire were visited. Mr. 
Oliver Baker acted as leader of the party. Arriving 
at Uttoxeter, the party drove through the town and 
across the valley to Dove Bridge — an ancient structure 
of six quaint arches — which was examined with much 
interesL On the Derbyshire side of the river the 
orig^l pointed ribbed arch remains, but the rest 
appear to have given place to plainer pointed arches 
or the fifteenth century, and semicircular ones of the 
sevoiteenth, the whole makine with its huge pro- 
jecting piers, gray with age and lichens, reflected on 
the broad surface of the Dove, a scene of much beauty, 
apart from its antiquarian interest. On the left, 



crowning a steep bank, is Dovebridge Hall, an im- 
posing mansion of early eighteenth-century character, 
now occupied by Lord Hindlip. At Dovebridge 
church the members were met by the Rev. Canon 
Hamilton, who pointed out the more interesting 
features of the building. The church of St Cuthbert 
is of much interest, having a good tower and chancel 
of Early Enelish dat^ vrith later work of the 
Decorated and Perpendicular periods. There is a 
variety of good woodwork of different dates in the 
restored roofe. Among its monuments are a fine 
incised slab, with a priest in the eucharistic vestments, 
and a very large and well-preserved mural group to a 
member of the Davenport family, erected early m the 
seventeenth century, and having two large kneeling 
effigies, several small ones, and a child reclii^ng in 
its cradle. A beautiful silver chalice dated 1619, a 
fine iron-bound chest, several late brasses, the earliest 
copy of the register, dated 1575, and a mutilated 
thirteenth-century cross in the churchyard, were also 
seen. Shading the latter with its immense branches 
was an aged yew of the ^rth of 22 feet, and measuring 
212 feet just outside the tips of the branches. The party 
next drove to Somersall Herbert, where the timber 
manor-house of the ancient fiunily of Fitsherbert was 
visited. Here, bv the courtesy of Major Fitzherbert, 
who conducted the visitors in person and explained 
the less obvious points of interest, a close and ap- 
preciative inspection of the interior and exterior of 
this delightful house was enjoyed. Somersall Hall 
has all the venerable outward aspect which so many 
ancient building lack. The tall gables, of different 
sizes and elevations, the timber work with its quatre- 
foil enrichments, the variously-tinted plaster, are all 
untouched by the restorer, and guiltless alike of tar 
and whitewash. The rector of Somersall (the Rev. 
Reginald Fitzherbert) explained the features of the 
church, which is in close proximity to the hall. They 
include a fine and unusually perfect churchyard cross, 
a well-carved Norman font (illustrated in Dr. Cox's 
Derbyshire Churches)^ and a fine but mutilated free- 
stone effigy of a priest holding a chalice, probably 
early fifteenth century. From Somersall Herbert 
the drive was continued to Sudbury, where the Yen. 
Archdeacon Freer, Mr. Fawkes, Lord Vernon's 
agent, and Mr. Cox, secretary to the Derbvshire 
Z&chaeological Societv, met the party, and conducted 
them through some beautiful grounds to the church, 
which stands near to Sudbury HalL Though reduced 
in interest by a thorough restoration, there are many 
remains in the ancient church, including a Norman 
door and window, two fine thirteenth-century stone 
effigies to the Montgomerys, and two picturesque 
monuments to the Vemons, of seventeenth-centuiy 
work. Passing through a fine doorway in the garden 
wall, bearing some initials and the date 1026, a 
delightful scene was visible from the terrace on the 
garden front of the hall, an imposing Jacobean palace, 
which commands a magnificent prospect across a 
large lake to the distant forest of Needwood. By the 
kindness of Lord Vernon, the interior of the hall was 
also visited. Passing round to the front entrance, 
which faces a very extensive park, the drawing-room, 
saloon, and other principal rooms, to the grand stair- 
case, were passca through in succession, and the 
gorgeous ceiling decorations and many fine pictures 
were examined. Among them are gems by Rem- 



176 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



brandt, Vandyke, Rubens, and Murillo, and many old 
family portraits — Romneys, Gainsboroughs, Lelys, etc. 
A number of literary treasures were pointed out by the 
Dowager Lady Vernon, among others the richly-illu- 
minated copy of the RomaufU of the Hose, which was 
presented by Francis I. of France to Henry VIII., a 
complete series of the priceless original folios of Shake- 
speare's works, early copies of the Koran, and the 
celebrated Rhyming Chronicle of the Vernon family, 
written in 1615 by John Harestaflf, their faithful 
steward, which has been recently edited by Rev. 
Dr. Cox. 



-^ 



«o$ ^ 



The forty-third annual meeting of the Somersetshire 
Arch/«ological and Natural History Society 
was held at Crewkeme on August 18, 19, and 20. 
At the annual general meeting, with which the pro- 
ceedings began on Tuesday, Right Rev. Bishop Hob- 
house in the chair, it was stated that the society was in a 
flourishing condition both numerically and financially. 
The president. Colonel Hoskins, welcomed the 
society to Crewkeme, stating that they might fairly 
assume that in Saxon times Crewkeme had played a 
significant part in the building up of Wessex. Crew- 
kerne church was visited, and its architectural 
beauties described by Mr. Buckle, the diocesan 
architect. Thence the members proceeded in brakes 
to Haselbury Church, where they were met by the 
vicar. Rev. G. A. Caley, who read a paper on ** St. 
Walfric," a hermit who lived in a small cell adjoining 
the church, and, on his death in 11 54, was buried in 
his own cell by Robert, Bishop of Bath. The small 
aisle or chapel is still called St. Walfric's aisle. 
After a short drive, the church of North Perrott was 
reached, and here Mr. Buckle spoke of its architec- 
ture. He said one of the most curious things about 
the church was the fact that the neighbouring church 
at South Perrott was almost a reproduction of it in 
every way. There was a tradition that those two 
churches and the one at Curry Rivel were built by 
three sisters, who were heiresses. One was certainly 
copied from the other. Both churches had west 
ix)rches, which was a very unusual feature. Even the 
corl)els which carried the roof were the same as at 
South Perrott, and must have been the work of the 
>ame mason. At the evening meeting. Bishop Hob- 
house read a valuable paper on " The Forest Bounds 
of the Somersetshire Forests in 1298"; Professor 
Allen read a paper on a "Proposed Photographic 
Survey of the County"; and Major Sparks an 
essay on " Crewkeme Church. " — On August 19, the 
carriages conveying the members made their first halt 
at Windwhistle Hill, where Dr. Norris pointed out 
the Fosseway, which, he said, was perfectly clear as 
far as Petterlon Bridge. It could also be distinctly 
traced towards Seaton. At Dinnington, about thirty 
years ago, was discovered the remams of a very per- 
fect Roman villa. At Chillington, Roman coffins, 
coins, and other curiosities were found about i86i6 ; 
and near where they were standing was found the 
torque which was in the local museum, and which 
was a very perfect one. Those discoveries proved, 
he thought, beyond doubt the genuineness of the 
theory that that was the old Fosseway. The drive was 
continued through Cricket St. Thomas Park to the 
residence of Viscount Bridport. His lordship met 



the party on entering, and personally coodttctcd them 
through the grounds and gardens and to the church. 
The next halt was made at Ford Abl)ey, which b one of 
the most interesting monastic buildings in the country. 
It was founded in the middle of the twelfth century 
for the Cistercian Order. The church has been 
altogether destroyed, but the domestic buiiding:^ 
and chapter house, now converted into a chapel, arc 
still almost entire, although largely incorporated with 
later work erected since Us conversion into a private 
residence. The Early English and PcrpcncUcular 
work are well worthv of close examination, while the 
entire building affords an admirable example of con- 
ventual arrangement. Here the owner, Kfr. W. H. 
Evans, hospitably entertained the party of over 
one hundrea persons at luncheon, after which, as ic 
was raining, the members adjourned to the magnifi- 
cent Ablx)t's Hall, 55 fc9t by 27 feet, and 28 feet 
high, where Rev. F. W. Weaver read the first por- 
tion of his paper on ** Dr. Thomas Chard, the Last 
Abbot of Ford." As the sun came out, advantage 
was taken of the weather, and the paper was finished 
at the evening meeting. Bishop Chard nas alway^i been 
called a native of Devon ; but Mr. Weaver claimed 
him for Somerset, and showed that be was Vtam at 
Chard and died at Taunton, though much of his life 
was passed in Devon, as he was suffragan to Hugh 
Oldham (1505-1519) and John Veyscy (I5I9-*5S»K 
bishops of Exeter. When Win&ham church was 
reached, it was described by the vicar, Re%'. D. H« 
Spencer. He said the walls were of older date than 
the windows. Originally there must have been a 
screen with a rood-lofl, for there was a tlonrway in 
the tower by which access to the loft might be made. 
The chancel was very much eastward of the nave. A 
special feature was a painting on oak representing the 
crucified Christ in the centre. This painting was, 
when discovered in the restoration of^ the oiurch, 
covered with whitewash. The screen was beautifully 
carved. The porch, he had reason to believe, iras 
not so old as the other building. A curious old black- 
letter copy of the first edition of Fox's Bpok ef 
Martyrs is chained to a pedestal in the chanceL Mr. 
Buckle spoke of the architecture of the church, and 
said the plan of the church was Norman. It ootn- 
sisted of a nave and chancel, with a tower rising 
between. The screen was, to his mind, the most 
remarkable feature of the church ; and the thing tu 
which they ought to pay most attention was the 
painting. That was the rood which stood on the top 
of the rood-screen. He was not aware of any other 
case in which such a thing remained. The present 
painting, he believed, belonged to the period only 
just before the Reformation, some little time after Ihc 
year 150a Mr. Buckle concluded by rcfcrringjto 
some badges which were carved on the screen. The 
next halting-place was Wayford church, a spodroen 
of Early English architecture. The Manor-house, 
the residence of Mr. W. BuUen, next came under 
observation, and Mr. Buckle remarked that the out- 
side was in a very perfect condition for a small man<it- 
house of the Elizabethan period. They might take it 
the house was finished building about 1 602, a dale 
which was found on the mantelpiece in the drawing- 
room. The hall had been diviiletl bjf partitions. 
The lower part of the staircase was of oak, and a 
portion of the old staircase. The drawing-room aoU 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBUCATIONS. 



177 



a Soulier room had magnificent ceilings. Mr. Buckle 
aaii I>r. Norm then proceeded to describe the coat- 
of -anus on the front of the building, which, they said, 
iKUtQgcd to the Daolicney family. At the evening 
meeting Mr. F. T. Elworthy spoke of Ford Abbey 
and the painting seen at Wtnsham church that day. 
He thought the painting was of a date earlier than the 
rt«iii>«cTcen upon which it was placed. He thought 
It probable that painting never was painted for the 
r^aoe whcfc it was altenirards put, and it was likely 
ti> have been something taken out of Ford Abbey. 
Dr. Norm read a {»pcr on "St. White and Sl 
Rrign,*' from whom Su Reign*s Hill, on the road to 
Orard, and White Down, arc named ; and Rev. R. 
Il-4me read a paper on the " Battle of Crewkerne " in 
1 645. On Au^st 20 breaks took the party to Merriott, 
«hm an ancient room at Court Mill, supposed to 
have been a chapel, ivas inspected. Some curious 
carved stones in the wall of Merriott church excited 
diacasaion. Hinton church was described by Mr. 
Buckle. He sUted that almost the whole of the 
lading was of the Perpendicular date. He regarded 
thr tower as beine the work, probably, of the first 
Kmlef t. They had a figure of a knight in armour, 
which WS5 supposed to represent the last Denebaud, 
who lived at Hinton previous to the Pouletts. His 
daughter married Str William Poulett, and his son, 
>ir Amias, was knighted in 1487, and died in 1538. 
Sit Amias had the reputation of having been a great 
(wider, and there was very little doubt it was he who 
citcn^vely added to the church. The tower had the 
iVnlrtt coat of arms upon it. Whitelackington church 
was next visited, and described by Mr. Buckle as 
omtatnii^ very considerable remains of early work. 
\x w«s a cradform building of the thirteenth century. 
In the chancel were two very remarkable squints. 
The impression was that after the squints had been 
first fbnned, the man who occupied the transept and 
wanted to see the high altar made the space larger. 
The church had a hexagonal tower, whicti seem(3 a 
very marked local feature. Colonel Bramble spoke 
vA two helmets in the church, which he said were 
kA the time of Henry VII. Owing to the inclement 
weather the party was delayed a considerable time, 
but at length entered the carriages and drove to 
Barrington, where they inspected the cruciform church, 
with an octagonal tower. Mr. Buckle pointed out 
that such towers were not at all uncommon in the 
neffhhourhood, and mentioned North Currv, South 
rctbetton, and Weston Bampf^lde as examples. He 
om«dcred the tower was bmlt before 1200. The 
Rev. F. W. Weaver suggested that as South Petherton 
wx^ the mother churchof the district, in all proba- 
bility the builders copied the tower. Thence they 
tirocTcdcd to Barrington Court, the residence of Mr. 
ucota, which is considered one of the finest specimens 
• rf ik Atretic Gothic architecture in the West of England. 
The poitT went through the east wing, which is now 
fivivened into a dder cellar, and also through other 
pjfftHMM of the house. The exterior is in an excellent 
state of preservation, and the beautifully-carved finials 
were greatly admired. From Barrington the party drove 
lu Shcpcon Deaudmmp church, the tower of which 
Mr. Buckle considered was similar to those at Crew- 
kerne and Hinton St George. The church has of 
lale) fcars 1>een over- restored, but many of the old 
Icatnres have been preserved. 



The Council of the Somerset Record Society have 
just made an appeal for further support, to enable it 
to meet the additional expense it has to defray in the 
transcript of MSS. which it proposes to print. The 
volume for this year, containing two Custumalia of 
Abbots of Glastonbury of the thirteenth century, has 
taxed its resources severely, and as it has undertaken 
to issue the Bath Abbey Cartulary in Lincoln's Inn 
Library, a work which will appear in two volumes in 
1893 and 1894, the need for further subscriptions is 
greatly felt. At present the subscribers number about 
one hundred and twentv, and some thirty more are 
required in order that the plans for the future in the 
publication of Somerset Records may be adequately 
carried out. The volumes which have appeared, and 
which can be obtained through the Secretary, are : 
Bishop Drokensford's Register, with preface by Bishop 
Hobhouse ; Somerset Chantries, by E. Green, F.S. A. ; 
Kirby's Quest, by the late F. H. Dickinson ; and 
Churchwarden Accounts, by Bishop Hobhouse. 

The following are in preparation : 

(1 89 1) Glaston Custumalia, by C. Elton, Q.C., 
M.P.; (1892) Pedes Finium, by E. Green, F.S.A. ; 
(1893) Bath CartuUries, h^ Rev. W. Hunt, M.A. 

The annual subscription is one guinea. The Secre- 
tary is the Rev. T. S. Holmes, Wookey Vicarace, 
Wells. It is a pleasure to cordially commend this 
society to the support of antiquaries. 

^ ^ ^ 

The Royal Institution of Cornwall held their 
annual excursion in the Padstow district on August 20, 
on an unfortunately wet day. The first visit was 
paid to the church of St. Breock, Wadebridge, where 
Mr. lago called attention to an old thirteenUi-century 
slab, a curious armorial tomb of Vyell, and some 
brasses in memory of the Tredinnick fisimily. The 
next halt was at the quaint little church of St. Petroc 
Minor, which was, alas ! almost entirely rebuilt in 
1858. Attention was particularly directed to what 
is supposed to he the tombstone of the founder of the 
church. Sire Rc^er Leinha It was discovered, 
among other remains, at the time of the restoration, 
and was laid under a low arch, purposely constructed 
for its reception on the north side of the sacrarium. 
It is a flat stone with a simple floriated cross cut upon 
it in low relief, surmounted by a human head. It 
is believed to be of thirteenth-century work. Prideaux 
Place, Padstow, the seat of Mr. Pndeaux Brune, was 
then sought. In the old da>'s it was called Gwarthendra. 
The present building is Elizabethan, and has not 
suffered much alteration. Carew describes it as " the 
new and stately house of Mr. Nicholas Prideaux, 
who thereby taketh a ful and large prospect of the 
toune, haven, and country adjoining ; to all of which 
his wisdom is a stay, his authority a direction." The 
house is believed to occupy the site of an ancient 
monastery, which was destroyed by the Danes, when, 
according to the Saxon Chronicle, they plundered 
and set fire to the town. The company lunched, 
through the hospitality of Mr. Brune, m the old oak- 
paneUed dining - room of the mansion ; and after 
luncheon Dr. Trollope, the Bishop of Nottingham 
read an interesting paper on the antkjuities of the 
neighbourhood. He alluded to a volcanic hill and 
a submarine forest on the other side of the river. He 
suggested that the forest was now subma ri n e by 



178 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



reason of the sinking of the ground, and not because 
of the encroachment of the sea. He mentioned the 
finding of many remains in that neighbourhood which 
he considered pointed unmistakably to that part of 
Cornwall at all events having been occupied by the 
Romans ; and assuming that the Isle of Wight was 
the much-disputed Ictis, he stated that the Romans 
carried their tin there from Cornwall — a statement 
which does not seem very probable, as water carriage 
was so much easier than land carriage. The Bishop 
also alluded to the shifting of the sands on the other 
side of Padstow Harbour, and the discovery of the 
remains of the ancient church of St. Enodoc A 
brief visit was paid to the fine old church of St. Petroc, 
Padstow, where the Bishop of Nottingham read 
another interesting paper. The remains of an old 
cross near the entrance to the churchyard he attributed 
to the Saxon era ; and there was a very beautiful 
cross of a later date. But the present building was 
Perpendicular ; there was no trace of Norman work 
in it. The tower was of fourteenth-century style. 
The kind of flamboyant tracery in some of the 
windows of the north chancel aisle, he thought, did 
not indicate any different period, but was merely the 
fancy of the architect, or of the benefactor for whom 
the aisle (as a chantry chapel) was built. The Bishop 
called attention also to the pulpit, the screen (whicn 
formerly went across the two aisles as well as the 
chancel, where it had recently been restored), and 
to two old l)ench-ends which have lately been 
discovered and made into a seat for the sacrarium. 
These old bench-ends are very finely carved, one of 
them depicting a fox preaching to a congregation of 
geese ! 

^ ^ ««^ 

The second part of the tenth volume of the journal 
of the Royal Institution of Cornwall opens 
with the 1S90 address of the president, Mr. E. Dunkin, 
F.R.S., a past president of the Royal Astronomical 
Society. After the account of the annual meeting, 
report, and balance-sheet, comes a fiill summary of 
the meteorological observations taken at Truro l^ 
the institution during 189a The volume also con- 
tains a note on a *'New Method of representing 
Botanic Structure," by Mr. E. A. Wtinsch ; a paper 
on the " Indian Butterflies in the Truro Museum," 
by Mr. Henry Crowther ; and ** Notes on the Lizard 
Rocks" (illustrated), by Mr. Thomas Clark. But 
the greater part of the pages abound in matter that 
is valuable to the archaeologist or local historian. " A 
Composition between the Vicar of Ghwias and the 
Burgesses of Tewyn, A.D. 1322," is communicated 
by Mr. J. D. Enys. An interesting account of the 
mutiny among the seamen serving on the mail 

{)ackets of the Falmouth station, in 18 10, is given 
)y Mr. Arthur Hamilton Norway ; it is singular to 
recollect the peat influence that Cornwall at that 
time had upon imperial policy with no less than forty- 
four representatives in the House of Commons. An 
instructive paper by Mr. William Sincock gives an 
account of the principal landowners in Cornwall temp. 
King John, by comparing the two scutage rolls of 
that reign. Mr. Henry M. Jeffery describes a Tudor 
mansion at Trefusis, in Mylor, unfortunately taken 
down by Lord Clinton in 1^90 ; a ground -plan of the 
destroyed mansion is given, as well as a plate of a 
good Tudor doorway and mantelpiece. " A remarkable 



subway leads down the ravine south from the man- 
sion, arched and lined with brick, 5 feet high and 
2) feet wide. It has been penetrated for 300 yards, 
and found not to extend to the beach, but it mighf 
have reached it at some time." Is not this subway 
most proY>ably a drain ? The builders of the ftfteenth 
century were great men for sanitary seweis. Mr. 
Henry Crowther, the curator of the institution, 0vcs 
a remarkably good and fully illustrated article on 
"The Pozo Pictorial Inscribed Stone," from Iqoiqaet 
South America, which was a gift to the museum tn 
1886. Mr. Walter H. Tregellas contributes some 
illustrated notes on Truro Grammar School and some 
other old schools of the countv. The Rev. W. logo 
gives a supplemental note to his valuable paper on 
" Some Recent Archaeological Discoveries in Coin- 
wall " which appeared in the 6rst part of this volume ; 
it is accompanie<l by six plates (drawn anastAtically 
and rather woolly in the printing) of prehistoric ami 
Roman remains. Altogetner this is a strong number, 
and well worthy of the Institution. 

^ ^ ^ 

The annual excursion of the Pbnzancb Natural 
History and Antiquarian Socikty look pUoc 
on August 7, when the members had a lon^ day 
in the St. Just district, under the leadership of 
Mr. G. S. Millett, one of the vice-presidents^ and of 
Mr. G. F. Tregellas, the hon. sec. The fiT*t Uury- 
ing point was at Lanyf>n, when Mr. W. S. Beonelt 
read an interesting paper on the fallen cromlech 
known as Lanyon Quoit. lie said that this cromlech 
was accidentally found by a former owner of the pro- 
perty, who, happening to be overtaken by a shower 
of rain in walking through his fields, took ^cltet 
behind a bank of earth and stones, and, remarking 
that the earth was rich, he thought it mieht be useful 
for a compost Accordinely, he sent nis serrants 
soon afler to carry it off, when, having removed near 
a hundred cartloads, they observed the supportets c4 
a cromlech, from which the cover-stone was slipped off 
on the south side, but still leaning against them. 
These supporters include a rectangular space open 
only at the south end, their dimensions being of very 
extraordinary size, viz., that forming the eastern side 
xo} feet long, and that on the west 9 feet, with a small 
one added to complete the length of the other side, 
and the stone shutting up the south end about 5 feet 
wide. The cover-stone is about iji by lO^ feet. It 
was a (question whether the covering stone had ever 
been raised to its proper position, or, if it had been« 
most probably the immense mound of earth above it 
would have kept it in situ. The finder of the monu- 
ment dug under it, and found a broken am with 
many ashes, half a skull, the thigh-bones and roost 
of the other bones of a human body, lying in a 
promiscuous state and in such a disordered manner as 
nilly proved that the grave had been opened before. 
The next halt was made at the so-called ancirnl 
British huts of fiosullon, where Mr. J. B. Cornish 
demolished, as we think, their claim to antiquity, 
reducing their age from an imaginary 2,000 years to a 
more probable 20a Chywoone "Castle" on the 
neighbouring moors was afterwards inspected* and 
then the cromlech of Chywoone, which was described 
by Mr. Bennett as being the most perfect and compact 
specimen of the kistvaen in Cornwall. The imnior 
of the lust was 7 feet high, and the barrow or caim 



PROCEEDINGS AND PUBLICATIONS, 



179 



«u 3a feet in diameter. At Levant a visit was paid 
to the aipper^mine, where a paper on its history was 
read by the purser. Major White, but as the workings 
«taly began in 1 810 they have no concern with anti- 
qiLuics. When the members reached St. Just, a 
trvtfuaprMv good paper was read on the church by 
Rrv. S. Rankcn, the curate. The main parts of the 
(irf.->eol building were erected late in the fourteenth or 
c-^rly part of the fifteenth century. In 1336 Bishop 
(»raiidt90Ci dedicated the high altar and chancel, 
which teem to have taken the place of another 
^tmctnpe that had become ruinous. When Bishop 
(«raAdison's chapel was taken down in 1834 a remnant 
(if the Norman structure was found, in the shape of a 
ci}4tal of one of the pillars. Only one other remnant 
.4 the Norman dsurch has ever been found, a rudely 
cftr>nl sione head, which Ls now built into a e^rden 
«^ clo«e at haniL The Norman church, like the 
pnaent one, ii-as dedicated to St Just, generally 
ux|ifx>9ed to be that Tustus who came over with St. 
Ai^gttstta in 596, and became successively Bishop of 
Kf Chester aiul Archbbhop of Canterbury. Justus 
ilioi in November, 627, and it has been suggested 
th&t this UkX is cormecled with the celebration of the 
nartdk feast, which is kept on the Sunday next to the 
ipa&t of AD Saints. There is reason to believe there 
nju a church before the time of Justus and St. 
Augiutin*& mission, and that its name was Lafrowda, 
»t«U a local name, meaning "the Church of the Holy 
Cnivk** One strong piece of evidence in favour of 
tla% theory was the discovery, in 1834, of a very ancient 
EiiiaiiroeQtal stone (now useil as a credence table) on 
lSc oorth side of the altar. It bears the inscription 
** >itta hie jacet," and on the upper side what is 
Cither a monogram of the first two letters (Greek) of 
our I»rd*s luune or a cross combined with a pastoral 
ita0, denoting that Silus was a bishop. He was 
mably one c7 the Scotch or Irish bbhops sent over 
by Sc Patrick early in the fifth century. 

^ ^ ^ 

The Report and Transactions of the Penzance 
Natural History and Antiquarian Society for 
t ($904^1 cover ninety-five octavo pages. In addition 
t J the report and account of the excursions and meet- 
ings the urooeeilingi include the presidential address 
ill Rev. w. S. Loch-Sxyrma ; an In Memoriam of 
Mr. Juhn Ral£s the botanist, who died on July 14, 
tS90 ; the ** Great Water Beetle," and <* Additions to 
the Gbteoptera of the Land's End District," by Rev. 
J. l«bcll ; " rUnts," by Mr. J. D. Cornish ; " Notes 
on the Domestic Cat and its Ancient Home," by 
Rrr. Dr. Courtenay (not in any way local); **The 
Diptera of West Cornwall," by Mr. C W. Dale ; and 
t»'o cither brief natural history papers. The anti- 
qoariam side of this old-established and excellent 
^^ciety ti a good deal in the background in this year's 

Transactions. 

^ ^ ^ 

The seoood port for the current year of the SiiROp- 

»ilIRB .\RCH.COLOGICAL SOCIETY'S TRANSACTIONS, 

put iwoed, contains papers on the '* Family of 
Fofcster," ^T ^^ Hon. and Rev. Canon Bridgeman ; 
** llanmcr Church and Haoghmond Abbey," by the 
lale Canon Lee ; ** Leaves from the Records of the 
Ciort of Quarter 5>es&ions for Salop," by Sir Offley 
Wakcman, Hart.; *'Thc Borough of Ruyton," by 
k. Lloyd Kenyun ; ** Tensers, an Investigation into 



the Status and Privileges of non-Gildated Tradesmen 
in English Towns," by F. Aidan Hibbcrt ; ** Shrews- 
bury Tax Roll of 13W," by the Rev. C. H. Drink- 
water; thcfirst part of the " Historyof Selattyn,"bythe 
Hon. Mrs. Bulkelcy-Owen ; and several minor papers. 

*5 ^ ^ 

On Aug. 29 the last excursion of the season promoteil 
by the Bradford Antiquarian Society took place 
to Bardsey, near Wetherby. Arriving at Bardsey, the 
party were taken in charge by Mr. F. W. Sheppard, 
the iiarish clerk and village schoolmaster, whose long 
residence in Bardsey and antiquarian tastes rendered 
him a valuable cicerone. Proceeding first to what is 
termed the " Castle Hill," the peculiarity of the site 
was noted. Advantage has in the remote past been 
taken of one of the elevated knolls which abound in 
the locality to raise a fortress of strong character, 
which has all the appearance of a huge earthwork, 
possibly a Saxon burgh. Upon this eminence the 
party were joined by the Rev. E. Braithwaite, M.A., 
Vicar of Bardsey, and were conducted by him to the 
ancient parish church. The sacred edifice is a fine 
specimen of the early Norman period, with traces of 
Saxon work in the lofty tower. The building has 
been altered and added to at various periods, and is a 
structure of much interest The registers are among 
the oldest in England, dating from the year 1538. 
They have been transcribed by Mr. Sheppard, and 
may perhaps be publisheiL Amoi^ the most noted 
entries is the baptismal register of 0)ngreve the poet, 
he having been born at Bardsey Grange in 1669. 
Bardsey Grange was also the alxxle during the 
Commonwealth of the notorious Francis Thorpe, 
Baron of the Exchequer, who was buried in the 
church. After tea Mr. C A. Federer read a brief 
paper on "Bardsey and its Church." Tracing the 
derivation of the name to the Saxon chieftain Berd, he 
alluded to the importance of the place in Saxon times, 
and pointed to the foundations of the enormous earth- 
works on the "Castle Hill" as evidence. These 
remarkable remains, however, were not strong enough 
to resist the terrible onset of the Normans, who swept 
away both fortress and church, and the lands of 
Bardsey became a portion of the Conqueror's wide 
domains. Not long after the Conquest, the lands of 
Bardsey, with those of Collingham and Micklethwaite, 
were settled on the Mowbray family, who in turn 
bestowed them upon the newly-founded Al bey of 
Kirkstall. This grant, however, was coolly revoked 
by Henry II., who seized upon the lands, and it was 
only during the reign of John that the monks of 
Kirkstall had partial restitution made them of the 
Bardsey and Collingham lands, and even then they 
were subject to an annual rental of /'90 per annum, 
which proved to be an impost of an embarrassing 
character. After the dissolution of Kirkstall Abl)ey, 
the barony, manor, and lordship of Banlsey, with 
Collingham and Micklethwaite, were granted by the 
Crown to Sir Henry Carey, since which date they have 
changed hands frequently. 

^ ^ ^ 



Reports from the WarwukskirtNaturaiists attdArfka- 
ohj^ists* Field Club^ the Surrey Arih*rohi^<ai Society^ 
the Belfast Field Cluh^ the Lamashire ofui Cheshire 
Antiquarian Sceiety^ and the Folklore Society received 
too late lor insertion this month. 



iSo 



LITERAR Y GOSSIP. 



Hiterar? <^O)B!0ip fot 



The *E^iiiitpic ipxfituf^oyucri has published a very 
important article by Dr. Tsounds on the latest re- 
searches at Mycense, and on the state of civilization at 
that period. 

» H H 

The French Academy of Inscriptions b about to 
send two professors to Greece in order to make some 
historical and archaeological studies with reference to 
the Persian wars, and to the colonial policy of the 
Athenians. 

a^ » » 

The well-known writer, John Sakkelion, keeper of 
MSS. in the National Greek Library, favourably 
known for his researches on the imperial Byzantine 
Bu/ltr, and on the MSS. of the Island of Patroos, has 
just died, as we regret to hear, in Athens. He has 
left, however, just completed, a catalogue of the MSS. 
in the National Librsury of Athens, which we hope 
will soon be publbhed. 

# # » 
The topo^aphical plan of Locri, undertaken by the 
Italian Ministry of Public Instruction, is now finished. 
The reliefs made have brought out what portion of 
the walls is still visible, and shown how they ran in 
two parallel lines towards the sea, and were seemingly 
designed to join the city with the harbour, just as Uie 
long walls connected Athens with its port. The next 
excavations will probably be directed to the necro- 
polis. 

Professor Ferrini, of the University of Modena, has 
published an edition of the Aristotelian Constitution 
of Athens f comprising Greek text, Italian translation, 
introduction, notes, and an appendix in which he 
maintains against Frederick Cauer that the work must, 
until new arguments can be adduced, be attributed to 
Aristotle. 

^ * * 

Professor Vincenzo De Vit, author of the OnomaS' 
ti£on he is adding to his enlarged edition of Forcel- 
lini's Latin Dictionary^ is engaged writing an his- 
torical work which will be shortly published under the 
title The Roman Province of the Ossola^ or of the 
Alpes Atrectiana, 

« If K 

A desire having been expressed by many architects 
to possess some memorial of their late lamented col- 
league, Mr. John D. Sedding, the Architectural Asso- 
ciation have thought a volume illustrative of his works, 
and showing the many-sided character of his genius, 
would be acceptable not only to them, but to many 
others of his friends. A volume, therefore, is in 
course of preparation, containing thirty (or more) 
plates of typical examples of his work, a short memoir, 
and a portrait. It will be large folio, printed on thick 
toned paper, and suitably bound. Among the plates 
will be ten or twelve reproductions of photo^aphs 
of his executed works (negatives 15X 12), facsimiles 
of his own sketches and designs for embroidery, iron 
and brass work, crosses, staves, frontals, etc There 
will be a list of subscribers included in tfie book, and 



the issue is limited to 250 copies, of whtdi over 170 
are already subscribed for. The price to subiciibers 
is one ^inea ; it will be raised after publication. No 
profit IS to be made firom the work, the whole of the 
subscriptions being spent in producing the volume. 
Subscnption forms may be had of Mr. Edward W. 
Mountford, 17, Buckingham Street, Strand, W.C« 

4c 1^ « 
The Rev. G. Hennessy, of St. Peter's Lodge, 
Wetherill Road, New Southgate, N., is about to 
publish, at a subscription price of two guineas, a U&t 
of the Clergy of London Diocese from the earlicft 
ages. The work will contain the names, different 
preferments, dates of institution and vacating of each 
Denefice or preferment in the present DtoocM uf 
London, of every dignitary, beneficed clei]gyiiiaii, 
chaplain, and priest of a mission district, togethei with 
the dates and references of several thousand of their 
wills. A short account of each church and parish, its 
dedication, consecration, and boundaries, where it 
could be had will also be given, as well as a copy of 
the College and Chantry Certificate which gives the 
property in the possession of every church in the year 
1540, and the number of " houselUng " people there. 
Trie names of those who ministered in the churches 
during the Commonwealth will be given in an appen- 
dix, as some were not in Holy Orders, and oihers 
were not canonically instituted. The list will contain 
over 20,000 names of clergy, and cannot fail to be of 
great value. 




EettietDS ano JOotices 
of BetD iBooitsi. 

[Publishers are requested to be so good as always to 
mark clearly the prices of books sent for review^ as 
these notices are intended to be a practUai aid to 
book'buying readers,] 

The American Race: A Lingubtic Classification 
and Ethnographic Description of the Native Tribes 
of North and South America. By Daniel G. 
Brinton. New York, 1891 : Hodges, Svo. Pp. 
xvi., 392. Price not stated. 
It needed a subject like that treated of in this book, 
and an author like Dr. Brinton, to produce a work 
which, in a sense, is almost of unique value to stndenu 
who are investigating the questions of race oricin.s. 
The American race stands to the other races oT the 
world almost in the nature of a test-subject in ethno- 
logical research. After serious and lone con tr o v er s y 
it now seems settled that the ancestors oxthxs race did 
not migrate from Asia in the north, did not oomefrom 
Polynesia, and were not the surviving relic of a people 
connected with the old world by means of a lost ceo- 
tinent ktiown to mythical fancy as Atlantis. And on 
the positive side Dr. Brinton shows two very important 
facts : first, that the period when the American race 
first appeared on this isolated continent belong to 
geological history rather than to chronologica] ; 
secondly, that the various modem representatms 
spread m tribes over North and South America are all 
descendants of one stock. He therefore speaks of tiie 
American rocr, not of the American rates. 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS 



i8i 



Here, then, we have ethnological conditions of great 
dc&aifenca. A race beginning in prehistoric ages of 
gnlkoown date, untooched by mixture with foreign 
noes until within quite recent times, say the sixteenth 
cennmr of oar eta, developing a culture and a physique 
irat of its own resources and elements — such a race 
&h4juki present a ke^ of great importance to the many 
%cxed questions which have putued students of races 
in Eoropeand Asia. 

Dr. llrinton deems that language, at all events 
under these conditions, affords the best ba^ for 
fi a tt i fimtion , and he proceeds upon the lines hud 
ikiwo by language in his ethnographic description of 
the several groups. At a time wiien in Europe we 
hare had to gradually surrender the idea that language 
t* a lest of race, this phenomenon in connection with 
the American race is very impressive. It suggests a 
wtvU of caatkm to those who, eager for a new depar- 
ture, are inclined to assert that language has nothing 
to do with race. 

Bnt these speakers of one language, in different 
tfagca of development, have also one other character- 
totic which bears upon present questions of ethno- 
graphic adence. Investigators into the origin of the 
Axyma% are busy in their researches into the cianiology 
c4 existing Arvan-speaking people, and because they 
&id that both long'heaifed people (dolicocephalic) 
and bcoad-headed people (bracnycephalic) are included 
m the Aryan race according to the test of language, 
they have started the theoiy that only one of these 
gnaaps are the true Aryans, and that the other must 
hare been conquered and forced to adopt the superior 
language of their conquerors. But with all the 
evidence of the unity of the American race duly mar- 
shalled t(]||sether by Dr. Brinton, there is also evidence 
of great divergence in craniology, and the conclusion 
«eans trrcsistibte, that cianiology does not form a safe 
guide by which aione to test the evidence of race. 

It will be seen, then, that on these two topics, 
languapre and craniology, Dr. Brinton's book supplies 
a mncE-needed body of evidence, which b valuable, 
not merely Cbf its immediate object in connection with 
the American race, but for the light it throws upon 
qucitioas of ethnology in Asia and Europe. 

In studying the culture and civilization of the 
American race, we are struck by the evidence afforded 
uf one tribe or group having developed one particular 
dcnkCDt of culture to a very high degree of excellence, 
while another tribe or group has developed some other 
dement of culture, though it nowhere appears that 
they got beyond the stage of barbarism, if not of 
nvagery. The mound-builders of the North cultivated 
cxtcfMSve 6elds of maize, beans, squashes, and tobacco, 
and dwelt in permanent towns, with well-constructed 
wooden edifices, and yet they were only in "the 
highest culture of the stone age," with a religious 
ritual strikingly similar to some of the agricultural 
pnctices which Mr. Frazer has recently beat investi- 
iputng. In fact, there are many points of contact 
between the culture elements of the American race 
and tbose of other races in various parts of the world. 
ty4at^, as they have been, since the Geologic period, 
they show the same mental evolution at certain given 
suva« and probably due to the same causes. 

Dr. Brinton trequenlly alludes in his book to 
ixcvioos works of his own — works which are highly 
' by sdw>lars on this side of the Atlantic. 



If in the present work he has condescended to suppljr 
a summary of much that he has dealt with in detail 
elsewhere, the thanks of the student are all the more 
due to him, because it is the application of the master's 
hand to a work generally, though wrongfully, con- 
sidered of minor importance. 

Research will, of course, continue to progress in con- 
nection with the American race, but in the meantime 
Dr. Brinton has pulled it up into line, and shown us 
where exactly we are in relation to it Succinctly, 
and with abundant reference to authorities where more 
details are required, he has gone through the vast 
mass of accumulated material, and has produced a 
book worthy of himself and of the science of which it 
treats. 

G. Laurbncb Gommb, F.S.A. 

* * * 

Cornish Fbasts and Folklore. By Miss M. A. 

Courtney. Revised and Reprinted from the 

Folklore Society's Journals, 1886-87. Bean ami 

Son, Penzance, 189a 8vo. Pp. viii., 208. Price 

not stated. 

Everyone who has read Miss Courtney's interesting 

papers in the Folkhrt Journal will welcome their 

appearance in a collected form. They are so easily 

and pleasantly written, so full of facts, and at the 

same time so full of "atmosphere.*' Miss Courtney 

shows us the folk as well as their lore. She sets before 

us the women " breeding " fishing-nets or knitting at 

their cottage^oors ("Cornish women are famous * luiit- 

ters ' "), among whom the prospect of an approaching 

invasion of " red-haired Danes," in fulfilment of a 

prophecy of Merlin's, was seriously discussed in times 

not fiur distant ; she inddentallv gives us anecdotes of 

the smi^lers and wreckers, whose descendants even 

now, on boarding a derelict vessel, drown any live 

animal found in her, under the idea that if any living 

thing be in^her they can claim nothing for salvage ; 

she reports the quaint speeches of her informants, such 

as the punning answer of the old man, who, being 

asked what caused certain mole-hills, replied, " What 

¥>u rich people never have in your houses, wanis,'*^ 
hese little vivid touches, while they add to the 
interest of her narrative, at the same time increase its 
value, for they enable the student to become ac- 
quainted with the modes of thought and manner of 
Ufe of the folk whose lore he is studying, by which 
means he cannot £ul to arrive at a better comprehen- 
sion of the lore itself. 

Cornwall seems to possess an inexhaustible store of 
folklore. One would have thought that if any county 
in England had been thoroughly dealt with by col- 
lectors Cornwall was that one, yet Miss Courtney has 
contrived to assemble a considerable number of items 
hitherto unnoted, and to add details to some already 
well-known. Of course, she quotes from the works 
of other writers, including the standard collections of 
Cornish folklore (in which cases, it may be remarked, 
her principle of selection is not very apparent). But 
she overstates the matter when she says that " a book 
on folklore cannot in this century contain original 
matter, it must be compiled from various sources." 
Undoubtedly the personal experiences of an individual 
collector would not suffice to fill a volume treating of 
the folklore of any given district They must be 
supplemented, as Miss Courtney has supplemented 



l82 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS. 



them, by the information of trustworthy friends and 
correspondents, and, when needful, by extracts from 
printed works ; but this is a very different thing from 
mere scissors-and-paste work, and Miss Courtney does 
herself less than justice by the implied suggestion. 

She arranges her material under the following 
heads : Feasts and Feasten Customs ; Legends of 
Parishes ; Fairies ; Superstitions of Miners, Sailors, 
and Farmers ; Charms ; Games ; and Ballads. She 
is not always perfectly successful in the very difHcult 
task of placing the several items under the most suit- 
able heads (it is a little startling to find the two local 
variants of the custom, called in the North of England 
"riding the stang," noticed one among Legetids of 
Parishes^ the other among Charms) ; but this is, in a 
great measure, neutralized by the addition of a good 
mdex. A table of contents is somewhat inconveniently 
wanting. 

The first section — Feasten Customs, as Miss Court- 
ney, with one of her touches of local colour, calls 
Festival Customs — is specially full and interesting. 
Besides general festivals, every parish observes its own 
** feasten Sunday,*' frequently with special ceremonies. 
One of the most curious of these is the ''snail's 
creep," performed at St. Roche and one or two ad- 
jacent parishes in the beginning of June, when the 
village band marches round a large meadow in ever 
narrowing circles to the middle, and then, turning 
about, retraces its steps, the young people dancing 
after it the whole way in pairs, hand in hand. In 
several Cornish parishes the practice of choosing of a 
" mock mayor," mstanced by Mr. Gomme in support 
of his argument for the complex and prehistoric origin 
of the English village sjrstem, is, or was, observed. 
The celebration of the feast of St. Thomas k Becket is 
opened at Bodmin by an equestrian procession, known 
as "Bodmin Riding." It seems formerly to have 
been a trades procession, such as celebrated Corpus 
Christi Day in many ancient boroughs. A particular 
air, called "The Riding Tune," was always played. 
So also the "Show," or Corpus Christi procession, 
at Shrewsbury, had its own air, "Shrewsbury Quarry," 
named from the site of the subsequent sports ; and the 
Whit Monday " Greenhill Bower" at Lichfield (the 
remnant of the ancient municipal Court of Array), 
had its "Bower Tune." Miss Courtney gives the 
notes of the Helston Furry Day tune, together with a 
clear account of that famous festival, which gains 
rather than loses in interest from being placed in 
juxtaposition with other Cornish May festivals. At 
Padstow, for example, the daybreak joumev into the 
country, the return laden with flowers and greenery, 
the songs in praise of the coming of summer, are all 
to be found ; but the noonday dance of the principal 
inhabitants through the streets and into every nouse in 
the town is replaced by the procession of the Hobby- 
horse, which is taken through the town to a pool, 
known as the Traitor's Pool, where it is supposed to 
drink. The head is dipped into the water, which is 
freely sprinkled over the bystanders. Professor Max 
Muller would probably see in this a reminiscence of some 
myth of the horses of the sun sucking up the waters ; 
Mr. J. G. Frazer would tell us (and, no doubt, truly) 
that It is a remnant of a primitive rain-making charm ; 
but what is the special connection between horses and 
the weather on tne one hand, and between horses and 
Padstow on the other ? 



We should like to enter upon the subject of Corassh 
superstitious belief, but space fiuls us. and we must 
refer readers to Miss Courtney's book itself if they 
would become acquainted with the old Vicar of St. 
Cleer, who haunts his vicarage in the form of a spider, 
and for whose sake no servant there will kill spiders ; 
with the widow who had been "deprived of her 
rights," and who regained them in consequence of 
information received from a company of spirits, tu 
which she was introduced by her nusfjand apjiearing 
in the form of a spotted dog ; with the white lady* 
who mounts l}ehina belated horsemen on Manudon 
Green, and rides with them as far as the nearest 
stream ; and with the mysterious in\'isible ** Bucca," 
for whom fishermen used to leave offering of fi»h on 
the sands, and harvesters at lunch used to throw a 
piece of bread over the left shoulder and to spill a few 
drops of beer on the ground. We will only add here 
that the volume contains none but Cornish folklore, 
no parallels being given, and that it would, among 
other uses, be a suitable book to put into the hands of 
anyone, even an uneducated person, whom it was 
desired to enlist as a folklore collector. 

Charlotte S. Burns. 

* * * 

Galloway in Ancient and Modern Times. By 
P. H. M'Kerlie. William Blackwood and Sons, 
Crown 8vo., pp. x., 324. Price not stated. 

These pages show considerable industry, eitensave 
reading, and a fairly good capacity for the assimilation 
of material ; but they are at the same time poorly 
arranged, composed in a shockingly confused and an- 
grammatical s^le, and heavily weighted with needless 
excursions into subjects which have no real connection 
with the question in hand. It is obvious that Mr. 
M'Kerlie has given much attention to the early and 
present history of Galloway, and it will be convenient 
to many to have a variety of authorities gathered 
together in a single handy volume upon such a subject. 
But the author's treatment of outside questions, wmch 
he persists in dragging in, abounds so in blunders and 
crude statements that it almost destroys the critical 
reader*s faith in him as a chronicler of Galloway 
proi^er. His trust in the apocryphal Dive list of the 
companions of William the Conqueror, which is given 
in full in the appendix, makes the long remarks on 
Norman lineage and the English nobility worthless ; 
whilst his summary of the Episcopalian and Presby- 
terian controversy, and his judgment on " the ancient 
fathers so styled," comprised in two pages, are 
childishly jejune. There certainly is some rod value 
in the author's ethnological deductions, and he 
establishes the fact of a far wider Norse influence than 
has generally been accepted, but the almost hopeless 
conmsion of style makes it difHcult from time to time 
to surmise the meaning of his statements. What, fcir 
instance, is the interpretation of this sentence : '* The 
people in the Lowlands who were not Celtic, when 
temporarily held by those south of the Tweed, were 
more of Scandinavian origin than Saxon." The 
prejudices of the author are obviously loo strong to 
allow him to be a fair historian, that is, "a teller of 
what is known." This comes out even in points in 
which we believe him to have the weight of evidence 
on his side. Mr. M'Kerlie argues with some success 
against the view that Galloway was an indepcndmt 



REVIEWS AND NOTICES OF NEW BOOKS 



»83 



kutgdom \ but, having formed that view, he soppresses 
that which mHiutcs against his oonceptioD. To prove 
that he is nght« oar author has to argue against the 
• kid chronicler, Ailred of Prievaulx, who states that 
OAllnway hail princes of its own within the memory 
I if men tdU living. How does Mr. M'Kerlie meet 
this ? Why, by telling his readers that Ailred, who 
AoorisHcd 1 109-1166, was Abbot of Rievaulx in York- 
shire, and also of Revesby in Lincolnshire, that he 
wrote a genealogy of the English kings, and that 
** located 10 England he personidly could nave known 
nttthixig of Galloway." Here we have the would-be 
hi^nrtan of Galloway on the horns of a dilemma. 
Ljthcr he is profoundly ignorant of all about Ailred 
ax»d his writings (in wmch case he had no business to 
argue About hmi at all), or else, knowing that Ailred 
w«» fcvoQght up in Scotland, and was originally in high 
p^Mbon to the court of King David, and that he 
retnmcd to Kirkcudbright in 1164, he deliberately 
hidci thoe £Kts from his readers* view, in order that 
Ailred may be regarded as a purely l£nglish writer, and 
benoe *' no authority on the subject. " The writer takes 
crrdit to himself, in a brief preface, that he has abjured 
divisiaas into diapcers; but the result b singularly 
wwisame. He refers with apparent pride to his 
table of contents, but it is misleadmg and disappoint* 
tn^ The antiquary will see with mterest the titles, 
Foffts^ Crannogs, Cairns, Rocking-Stones, and Cup 
mad Ring Markings, each in capitals, and in separate 
luics bat his disappcuntment wiU be great on finding 
that these five suoiects occupy less than four pages, 
and that the remarks are so trifling as to be valueless, 
f»o ti fa cn ce being even made to the classic works of 
Dr. Munro on lalce-dwellings. To crown our disap- 
piL«atinent about this book, with which we are more 
disapiiointed the more we study it, there is no index, 
whidi is a peculiarly sore necessity for so desultory a 
ojmpoatioQ. 

• ♦ * 



Ou>ChukchLoeb. By William Andrews, F.R.H.S. 
%%'iUiam Andrew and Ctf., HulL 8vo., pp. 256. 
niiistratcd. Price 6s. 

The rare industry and careful reading of Mr. 
.Vndrews have produced yet another volume, which 
Itfms a fitting sequel to a work of bst year, entitled 
CuHanties tf tk* CkurcK It is chatty, interesting, 
and instructive from cover to cover. The covers m 
thmiielv es are handsome, and the printing and type 
c&cettenthr dear. Mr. Andrews seems to unite the 
rare qualtficationa of a good author and a good 
IMifaiisfaer in his own person. This volume is well 
«Aiied, for it deals with the Right of Sanctuary, the 
KooMnoe of Trial, a Fight between the Mayor of 
Hull and the Archbishop of York, Chapels on Bridges, 
Cliartcr Hams, the Old Englbh Sunday, ^e Easter 
>»epalchre, St. Paul's Cross, Cheapside Cross, the 
ftiddcndcn Maids* Charity, Plagues and Pestilences, a 
Ki&i; curing an Abbot of Indigestion, the Services and 
Cmtums of Royal Oak Day, Marrying in a White 
>hect, Manying under the Gallows, Kissing the 
liride. Hot Ale at Weddings, Marrying Children, the 
I'aMJng Bell, Parish Coffins, the Curfew Bell, Curious 
Symliols of the Saints, and Acrobats on Steeples. 

The c9pening section gives a good summary of the 
right of sanctuary, and details with regard to the 
o3ebntcd instances of Durham and Beverley. Men- 



tion is made of the existence of two sanctuary stone 
chairs, or Frith Stools, one at Beverley and the other 
at Hexham. Mention might also have been made of 
the stone chair that used to stand close to the high 
altar in the cathedral church of York. For violation 
of the sanctuary of St. Peter, York, there was a heavy 
penalty if the fugitive was seized in the close, a double 
penalty if seized in the church, a further increased 
penalty, together with penance, if in the choir, but if 
anyone with devilish audacity {diaMico ausu) dared 
to seize anyone in the stone chair, he was at once 
•• boteless " — that is, without any remedy — and could 
be carried out and executed at once by the servants of 
the minster. These culminating penalties probably 
applied in a like degree to other sanctuaries possessing 
a Frith Stool. 

Chapels on Bridges is a good chapter. The small 
protruding structure on the brid^ of Bradford-on- 
Avon, of which a drawing is given, is of post -Reforma- 
tion date, and was designed for secular purposes, but 
the enlarged buttress and lower courses of the masonry 
undoubtedly at one time pertained to a chapel of a 
different shape. Other bndge-chapeb described are 
those of London Bridge, Ouse Bridge, York, Salford, 
Bedford, Derby, Rotherham, and Wakefield. We 
ought scarcelv to complain of omissions in a volume 
of this size, but among bridge-chapels of which in- 
teresting particulars might have been given is the one 
that used to stand on the great Bridge of Swarkeston, 
in Derbyshire, over the Trent It is rather curious, 
too, that in the section on Charter Horns (would not 
Tenure Horns have been a better title ?) no mention 
is made of the remarkable Tutbury Horn, which still 
conveys extraordinary rights, such as the appointment 
of a coroner, to its holder. 

In the general remarks that precede the account of 
St Paul's cross, the mistake b made of saying that 
the island of lona now only possesses one cross. 
When writing on the manying of children in olden 
times, Mr. Andrews concludes by the reflection that 
"young men and maidens ma^ congratulate them- 
selves on living in these later times, when they may 
not be united m wedlock before they are old enough 
to think and act for themselves." But this is not 
correct, for a minister may now be called upon to 
marry a boy of fourteen to a p;irl of twelve, if the 
parents or guardians and the children consent The 
writer of this notice had much difficulty, in 1S82, in 
persuading mother and child to defer a marriage when 
the girl was under fourteen. To the information about 
the poor being carried to the ^ve in a parish coffin, 
and then merely buried in their shroud, up to a com- 
paratively late date, may be added the statement that 
the custom of bdng buried in shroud only was not 
abandoned in the Targe parish of Bakewell, Derby- 
shire, until 1797, a much later date than any quoted. 
In the room over the porch of the church of Linlith- 
gow, we lately noticed a parish coffin of still more 
recent use. It was made in 1 831, during a terrible 
visitation of cholera, when the deaths were so frequent 
as to forbid the finding time or opportunity for making 
individual coffins. But our critidsms must dose, as 
thev began, with genuine praise. Though containing 
nothing very abstruse or original, the pages are 
eminently pleasant reading, and the material is put 
together with so much care that the most <*yft^ng 
antiquary can find hardly any cause for quarrel. 



1 84 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Bits op Canterbury Cathedral: drawn by 
Walter Tallant Owen. W, T, Comstock, New 
York. 8vo. Twenty-four plates. Price 4s. 6d. 
To these plates there is not a word of letterpress, 
save the brief description of the drawings. But it is 
a highly desirable book for the lover of old archi- 
tectural bits, and more particularly so for those who 
know and value the great church of St. Augustine's 
see. Charming views, such as the north-east view of 
** Bell Harry, or the great central tower, or the 
stairway to the mint, that have been drawn and re- 
produced a score of times, are here given with fresh 
effect and grace, whilst gems of Norman work, such 
as the windows of the treasury, and arcaded decora- 
tion from St. Augustine's Tower, reveal little-known 
details in their wondrous harmonv of design. Per- 
haps the least effective plate is that which gives a 
general view of the churcti from tne south-west. The 
best is beyond doubt one of some Norman arcades in 
the remains of the infirmary cloisters ; it is worthy, 
and thb is the highest praise that can be given, of a 
place in one of Mr. Ruskin's books. We quarrel a 
little with the title. Not only ought Mr. Owen to be 
superior to the popular but nevertheless general mis- 
take of calling the building a cathedral instead of a 
cathedral church, but the drawings do not all pertain 
to the great church or its adjuncts. For instance, 
there is a plate of Mercery Lane, so well known to all 
visitors to Canterbury, and there is another delightful 
bit, unknown, we are sure, even to many a Canterbury 
resident, which is a foreign-looking view of a bridge 
and quaint buildings rising up from the Stour, and 
drawn from the river. The title should be : '^ Bits of 
Canterbury." We presume Mr. Tallant Owen is an 
American, and we thank him and his publisher for 
sending us this pleasant memorial of^ an ancient 
English city across the Atlantic. It can be obtained 
of Mr. Batsford, High Holbom. 






Corcesponnence* 



RIEVAULX ABBEY. 

(P. 90, voL xxiv.) 

Even in the fax north of Scotland the Antiquary is 
looked out for with interest as the months go round, 
but I cannot allow this month to go over without 
raising a small protest against the attack upon Lord 
Feversham in r^ard to Rievaulx Abbey. From the 
comments in "Notes of the Month," it might be 
supposed that Lord Feversham never expended any. 
thing upon this glorious ruin. I know before my day 
there was expended a good sum of money under the 
direction of Sir Gilbert Scott, and during the nearly 
ten years I was under the noble owner, I had the 
pleasure of cementing the top of the choir walls and 
replacing the loose stones in position, and what I 
glory in more than other things, I cut off all the ivy 
that was doing such serious mischief to the church, 
and was proceeding to do the same with the rest of 
the building, when the senseless uproar of the 
'* lovers of the picturesque," etc., caused a stop to 



be put to the work. The last year of my connection 
witn the dear old ruin, I removed all trees from the 
fratry wall-top, and as much of the ivy as I dare from 
the walls, also all the ivy from the walls of the monks* 
reredorter, but was again stopped from removing it 
from the infirmary walls. There is a lar^ee a&h trc<e 
overhanging the east wall of the fratry that, had I 
stayed, I think would have been taken down. On 
my visiting Rievaulx this Easter, I took particular 
notice of the walls, and am only too sorry tti say my 
prediction to the noble owner is coming true, that, 
unless something were done to the wall- tops of the 
other buildings, they would suffer. It is the earliff 
buildings that were built of the ** penny-piece " stones 
that were going so quickly to ruin. I must say that 
my knowledge of Lord Feversham leads me to think 
that if he were approached on the matter, something 
might be done ; out to say hard things which are not 
quite correct will do no good. 

Henry A. Rvb 
(Sometime Clerk of Works om 
Duncombe Park Estate). 
Sutherland Estate Office, Golspie, 
September 3. 

[With regard to Mr. Rye's letter, we beg to refer 
to the " Notes " on the Abbey on page 140 of this 
issue. — Ed.] 

wtiiwffffiff m f mn tfifftfftfi f ifif mn ii min ftifftii 

Note to Publishers. — We shall be pariieularly 
obliged to pttblishers if they will always state the pri^e 
of books sent for review. 

Manuscripts cannot be returned unless stamps art 
enclosed. 

It would be well if those proposing to submit SiSS, 
would first write to the Editor stating the subject and 
manner of treatment, 

Whilst the Editor will be glad to give any assistance he 
can to archaolcgists on archceologicai subjects, he desires 
to remind certain correspondents that letters contain- 
ing queries can only be inserted in the '* Aktiquarv ** 
if of general interest, or on some new suhtect ; not 
can he undertake to reply privately, or through the 
" Antiquary," to Questions of the ordinary nature 
that sometimes reach him. No aitentiim is paid to 
anonymous communications or would-be contributions. 

Communications for the Editor should be addressed 
** Antiquary^ Barton- le-Street, McUton/* 

Our contributor Mr, F, Haverfield, F,S»A,^ Lanc- 
ing College^ Shoreham, ivillbe grateful for ittformatiom 
at any time fonvardcd to him direct of any Htfrnam 
findsy and also of reprints or numbers of provincial 
afchceological journals containing articles on suth 
subjects, 

Mr, Haverfield^s ^*^ Quarterly Notes on Roman 
Britain " are deferred to next month. 

The Provincial Museum treated of in the November 
number will be Carlisle, by Chasuellor Ferguson^ 
P.S,A. 

ft is hoped thcst an illustrated etrticle by Professor 
Halbherr on recent excavations in Crete wilt appear in 
our next issue. 

Erratum. — On p. 122, second column, lirM* 22, 
for " Bewcastle " read ** Bewlcy Castle." 



NOTES OF THE MONTH, 



i8S 




The Antiquary^ 




NOVEMBER, 1891. 



i0ores of tbe a^ontf). 



I ( is plea^nt to learn that the article on the 
l^crby Museum from the pen of our esteemed 
cootjibutor, Mr. Bailey, which appeared, to- 
gtrther with certain editorial notes, in the 
columns of the Antiquary for September, 
has already borne fruit Much correspon- 
dence and comment have been roused on the 
subject in the Derby Mercury^ Derby Adver- 
iuer^ and Derby Gautte, A whisper has 
reached us that at a recent meeting of the 
Museum Committee of the Corporation there 
was a considerable and warm discussion on 
the subject of the antiquarian deficiencies 
and losses of the collection. One of the 
immediate outcomes of the meeting is, we 
are told, that the order has gone forth for the 
immediate arrangement of the palaeonto- 
logical cases. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

In t87&-79, a considerable sum of money 

was laised by the newly formed Derbyshire 
Archcological Society to excavate the site of 
the Premonstratensian house of Dale Abbey. 
The work was carried out under the super- 
intcndence of Mr. W. H. St John Hope 
(the first we think that he undertook), with 
the assistance of Colonel Beamish, R.E., and 
Rev. Dr. Cox. The work was most interest- 
ing with the result that a grass field con- 
taining a single upstanding arch was changed 
into the complete ground-plan of a noble 
medieval abbey church, together with some 
pans of the conventual buildings. Mr. Hope 
thus concluded his second report : ** The site 
of the abbey has now been handed over again 

VOU XXIV. 



to Earl Stanhope, the lord of the manor, who 
intends to preserve it as opened out by the 
society and erect a building to serve as a 
museum of the curiosities discovered. The 
whole area was drained and levelled before 
our tenancy expired, and a little watchfulness 
and care will tend to preserve this interesting 
relic of the past — which tells us such a sad 
tale of sacril^e and robbery — for many 
years to come." 

4* 4ip 4ip 

Soon after this a fairly suitable building for 
preserving the finds of tiles, monumental slabs, 
etc., was built on the site, where the curi- 
osities are still housed. A local custodian was 
apiK>inted, and a chaige of sixpence a head 
levied on all visitors. However much care 
might be taken of the exposed mouldings of 
the bases of the columns and of the jambs of 
doorways, they would be sure to perish some- 
what from the frosts after having absorbed so 
much moisture during their generations of 
burial, but all other decay and disorder could 
have been easily and readily checked. And 
yet what is the result now that some twelve 
years have gone by? It is this — year after 
year the condition of Dale Abbey gets worse 
and worse. A thoroughly capable correspon- 
dent, and we know that he does not in the 
slightest exaggerate, writes: "Poor Dale is 
in a sad, sad state ! Many of the piers are 
now mere crumbling masses of loose stones. 
The chief mischief is caused by the insinu- 
ating roots of brambles and weeds. What 
has been wanted, and what has not been 
given, is a little regular care and trouble. 
There should be a gravelled margin, kept 
free from weeds, between the grass and the 
masonry, and the upper surfaces of the piers 
should be covered with Portland cement 
In a few more years, if nothing be done, the 
visible work of the excavations will be done 
for. And yet more and more visitors go 
there, this last summer above all others.** 
In this case, as at Rievaulx, the public have 
a right to complain, as they pay for admis- 
sion. Surely it is only necessary for the atten- 
tion of Earl Stanhope, who is an F.S. A., to be 
called to this sad and growing desolation, for 
the evil to be speedily remedied. We com- 
mend it emphatically to the attention of his 
lordship, and of the Derbyshire Arch»o- 
logical Society. 

o 



i86 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



Another of the great abbeys of Yorkshire 
requires prompt attention, unless the owner 
and Yorkshire folk are content that its ruins 
should suffer grievous deterioration. About 
five years ago a considerable sum was judici- 
ously spent on cementing and clearing from 
vegetation the noble west front of the church 
of the Cistercian house of Byland. But 
there is a good deal more work of the same 
character that ought to be undertaken with- 
out delay. Parts of the walls of the nave, 
transepts, and choir, are being dragged down 
by the cruel arms of giant ivy, and are 
perishing month by month. During the 
present summer much damage has accrued 
from the general growth of trees and bushes 
on the walls. Within the last few weeks a 
tall thorn-tree has been blown over, that was 
growing erect on the wall of the south-east 
angle of the south transept. There it now 
(October 15) lies, swaying about in every 
wind, w^ith the result that daylight can be 
seen above the keystone of the arch of the 
Norman window. Unless some immediate 
repair is done, the fall of a considerable piece 
of the ruins at this angle during the ensuing 
winter is almost a certainty. Though a good 
deal of attention has been paid to this beauti- 
ful abbey church, through the action of the 
Yorkshire Archaeological Society during recent 
years, wanton destruction and cruel careless- 
ness have played sad havoc with it during 
the present century. An excellent and care- 
ful water-colour of the abbey, painted in 
T 798, shows the whole of the wide east end 
of the church quite perfect up to the slope 
of the gable walls. 

«t ♦ 4p 

In the ruined chapter-house of Byland Abbey, 
surrounded by a wooden rail, is a now raised 
gravestone, on which is incised a well-executed 
pastoral staff, that doubtless originally marked 
the interment of one of the first, if not the 
first abbot of the house. Of late this has 
received the attention of vulgar tourists, who 
have scored their initials. A\'c regret to say 
that this interesting stone has been grossly 
damaged in this way during the month of 
September. Since August this stone has 
received no less than five sets of initials, to 
one of which, '* A. S. W.," the precise date of 
the act of desecration has been added, 
''Sept. 14, 1891." Another low-minded 
vandal has had the effrontery to give us his 



actual name, cut some depth into the stone — 
"H. Stephenson, 1891." We wish wc had 
the power to tattoo these miscreants with 
their own names and initials to an equal 
depth! There is no charge for admissioi% 
and no appointed custodian, at Byland ; but 
might not a notice-board threatening pains 
and penalties be of some avail? At all 
events, we strongly commend this idea for 
lack of a better to Major Stapylton, the 
owner of the site. It is not generally known 
that offenders, such as the hackers of letters 
and initials on the abbot's tomb, come under 
8 and 9 Vict , cap. 44, by which the offence 
is a misdemeanour, and subject to imprison- 
ment for six months. 

4p 4p 4p 

With regard to this abbot's stone, a strange 
tale has been told us by one of the oldest 
residents near the abbey, which is now briefly 
reproduced : " Did you ever hear of anyone 
being buried three times ? Well, that's what 
happened to Roger de Mowbray the founder, 
who ended his days in the abbey. Old 
Mr. Martin Stapylton found him buried in 
the chapter-house in his boots and spurs, and 
would have him moved to his house at 
Myton (some twelve miles away), and buried 
in the churchyard there. So they took up 
his bones and put them in a big basket und^ 
the box-seat of his carriage. The old co«cfa- 
man has told me that though it was fine when 
they started, such a gale arose that he thought 
the carriage would have been blown over. 
But they got him safe there, and buried him 
in the churchyard. Then a few yean ago 
the present Major Stapylton's coachman came 
one evening and told me he had tnmed 
undertaker and brought old Roger's bones 
back. I happened to get a sight, and there 
they were, hustled up in an old soap-bos. 
Next morning they buried him again in the 
chapter-house, and when they came in, I 
asked them if they treated the old man 
decently. ' Yes,' said one ; * we had him in 
a fine mahogany coffin.' But I told them to 
get along, for I knew he was in nowt but an 
old soap-box." We have ascertained that 
the supposed remains of Roger de Mowbray 
were removed by Mr. Stapylton in his carriage 
to Myton in July, 1819; but we have no 
certain information with regard to the return, 
and give the above story for what it is worth. 
Our informant added that the abbot's stone 



NOTES OF THE MONTH, 



187 



hid been taken to Myton at the same time, 
and was then brought back and placed over 
the i^t of the reinterment of the founder. 
If thjs is correct, it is certainly a strange pro- 
ceeding to place a crozier-marked stone above 
a layman. 

4p 4^ ♦ 

A singular find of coins has just taken place 
at Donbor, which is worthy of note, although 
the coins arc but of recent issue. A severe 
storm ex}x>sed a number of silver and copper 
turns at the Bulwarks, Dunbar. The silver 
cvrins, which are chiefly half-crowns, shil- 
lings, and sixpences, belong to the reign of 
Gtror^e III. Among the copper coins arc a 
number of tokens, with the name "John 
Wtlkison, Ironmaster," on them. The coins 
aie supposed to have been originally in the 
foundations of the old United Presbyterian 
Church manse, the excavations from which 
were carted to the Bulwarks some time ago. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

It is with much satisfaction that we note that 

the ancient cross of Donaghmore, after having 
lain prostrate for generations, has been erected. 
This is one of the finest Celtic crosses in 
Ireland, and is held on good authority to be 
the most ancient perfect Christian monument 
now existing in the county of Down. In 
setting up the 'cross nothing has been added 
to it, so that it is now, except for the wear 
of time and weather, just as it was when the 
Celtic Christians, at least 900 years ago, first 
erected it in their burial-ground. The town- 
Lnd in which the church and glebe are is 
rumed Tullynacross — that is, the hill of the 
cross The cross stands 10 feet 6 inches 
high, and consists of three stones — namely, 
three-stepped base, the shaft, and the head, 
the arms of which measure 4 feet across, and 
are united by a collar or wheel The whole 
of the surface was originally covered with 
figures carved in relief and reticulated 
patterns. The sculpture is rude, but very 
good, when it is considered that the 
material is granite, a stone that does not 
lend itself to any fine work. It is not known 
when this early monument was overthrown, 
though local tradition has it that it was done 
in the exciting dmes of William of Orange, 
and that the person who did it lost his 
reason, and eventtially died, continually ex- 
claiming, "Ob, that cross, that cross !*' 



A skeleton has recently been found, about 
7 feet below the surface, on the bank of a 
small stream at Kitford, near Wantage, which, 
from the ornaments found with it, has been 
diversely assigned to British and Roman days. 
From the careful description, however, of these 
ornaments, forwarded to us by Mr. J. Denis 
de Vitr^, we think there can be no doubt 
that the skeleton is that of an Anglo-Saxon 
bdy. A circular fibula, or brooch of bronze, 
with hinge for the pin and catch, was found, 
nearly 2 inches in diameter, and having five 
small circles engraved on the surface. The 
fellow - brooch was also found, apparenily 
exactly similar, but much corroded. A 
fluted glass bead of a dull blue-green colour, 
and three fragments of a small gold finger- 
ring, were also discovered. They are in the 
possession of Lord Wantage. 

4p 4p 4p 

During some excavations recently made on 
the site of the White Friars' monastery, 
Coventry, for the purpose of erecting nei^ 
tramp-wards, a number of human bones were 
found, and the foundation of one of the walls 
of the church laid bare. The discovery was 
made on the site of the White Friars' church- 
yard, which, with the church itself, lay on 
the north side of the monastic enclosure. 
This building was utilized by John Hales 
(who acquired the site at the Reformation) for 
the Free School founded by him ; but owing 
to a disagreement between him and some 
leading citizens, it was ultimately removed 
by him to the suppressed hospital of St. John 
Baptist, where it continued to be conducted 
imtil the erection of the new school on the 
south side of the city. It is hoped that further 
excavations may be made on the old site. 

* ♦ ♦ 

The archaeology and antiquities of Guildford, 

the county town of Surrey, have received 
very careful attention at the hands of Mr. 
George C. Williamson, who, during the past 
fortnight, has delivered in the town two 
important public lectures on the subject. 
The lectures were illustrated by a large col- 
lection of magic-lantern slides, each of which 
had been expressly photographed for the 
lecturer from rare objects in his own collec- 
tion, including unique water-colour drawings 
and papers, and from similar items lent him 
by other collectors. It is the first dme that 

o a 



i88 



NOTES OF THE MONTH. 



anything like a careful and accurate account 
of the old buildings of this interesting town 
has been given in public, and the lectures 
were highly appreciated. Some newly dis- 
covered information as to the religious 
houses of the town was given, and evidence 
as to the history of the Orders of the Domini- 
cans, Crutched Friars and Carmelites, who 
each had houses in Guildford, was shown. 
We understand that in all probability the 
substance of these valuable lectures will be 
printed, and illustrated with reproductions of 
the more noteworthy slides. 

4? 4? 4? 

Strong charges of vandalism were made in 
the Yorkshire Post of September 28 with 
regard to the alleged destruction of the 
" Cup and Ring " rocks at Ilkley. To this 
Mr. Latimer Darlington, as "chairman of 
the museum committee," replied some ten 
days later. He stated that the Local Board 
had caused the larger rock to be carefully 
cut into four pieces preparatory to its removal 
to a safe place. " It has been found necessary,'' 
continues Mr. Darlington, "to cut the rock 
into four pieces, as had it been cut across 
there was great fear of it cracking upwards. 
The rock as a whole block weighs from ten 
to twelve tons, and when it has been care- 
fully removed and put together again, the 
pieces will fit in so closely that the marks 
will scarcely show, and the stones will appear 
exactly like they were before. The committee 
trust it will be seen that the museum com- 
mittee at Ilkley are looking after these ancient 
relics, and hope in a short time to have them 
placed with others in a museum about to be 
formed at Ilkley." This explanation, it is 
true, places the matter in a better light than 
was first represented, but it is not satisfactory. 
Unless the reasons are most paramount for 
removal, such as the obliteration of marks 
through the wear of a footpath, rocks of this 
character should certainly be left undisturbed. 
All museum purposes can be served by care- 
ful casts. 

4» 4(" 4? 

A somewhat singular strife has arisen in 
North Britain, which has brought into promi- 
nence an interesting Pictish relic. The little 
town of Abemethy, in Perthshire, possesses a 
round tower which is considered to be at 
least 900 years old. Scotland possesses only 



one other similar architectural feature, the 
tower at Brechin. Until recently the inhabi- 
tants of Abemethy, the former capital of the 
Picts, believed that the ancient tower was 
town's property, and that the minister had 
only a right to use the bell on a Sunday. A 
zealous young minister being appointed, the 
bell began to sound for service on week-<days. 
The town council, objecting to this zeal, 
strove to stop the daily bell-ringing, but the 
minister and heritors claim both tower and 
bell as ecclesiastical property. The struggle 
is further complicated and rendered triangular 
by the appearance on the scene of Lord 
Howe, who also lays claim to the ownership 
of the tower through some alleged feudal 
prerogative. 

4p 4* 4^ 

To the Antiquary it is of comparatively little 
moment which of the three contending parties 
make good their claim, provided the tower is 
carefully preserved. It is worth while, how- 
ever, for Scotchmen to recollect that Sir 
Walter Scott, who was always most careful 
when he wrote gravely of antiquities, was con- 
vinced that the towers of both Abemethy 
and Brechin were constructed after the intro- 
duction of Christianity, and under the instruc- 
tion of Irish monks, as he argued in the 
Quarterly Rane%v for 1829. On the whole, 
the antiquarian argument is clearly in favour 
of the minister and heritors. Abemethy 
round tower is 74 feet high, and, unlike the 
Irish examples, is built of well-hewn stone. 

^ ^ 4^ 

At Clee Church, Lincolnshire, there is a 
celebrated inscription, recording its consecra- 
tion, by Hugh, Bishop of Lincoln, in 1193. 
It reads thus : — 



HEC ESIA DEDICATA EST IN JIONORK SC 

TNITATIS ET BE MARIE VVP ID MARTIl A 

DNO HUGONE LINCOLNIESI _EPO ANNO AS 

INCARNACIONE DNI MCXCII TEPORS RICAitDI 
REGIS. 

In the singularly complete and beautiful 
church of St. Paul's, Morton, near Gains< 
borough, which was consecrated by the 
Bishop of Lincoln on October 3, 1^1, just 
700 hundred years after the church of dec, 
there is a side-chapel dedicated to St. Hugh 
of Lincoln. The architect, Mr. J. T» Mickle- 
thwaite, F.S. A., has most happily paraphrased 



NOTES OF THE MONTH, 



189 



this inscription in the following lettering, 
ubich is cut on a small dark marble slab 
let into the wall of the chapel : — 

HOC ALTARS DEDICATUM EST IN HONORE 
SAKCn HUGONIS V^ NGN. OCT. A DNO 
KOWARDO SUCCESSORE EJUS LINCOLNIENSI 
r.PO ANNO AB INCARNACIONE DNl M VIII^ XCl 
TEUPORS VICTORJ.C R. 

^ if 4p 

A massi\'e gold signet-ring (weighing 1 1 dwts. 
t6 grs.) has just been found within the pre- 
cincts of Beverley Minster, a little below the 
suffice of the ground. It is of the purest 
gold, and the design, a twisted cable, widens 
mto a flat round signet The signet is en- 
graved with the representation of a unicorn 
under a palm tree. On each side of the 
signet, on the hoop of the ring, is engraved 
a Tau cross. The chanson within the ring 
is of three words; the first has not yet 
been decyphered, the two last are "ma 
vie." This ring is undoubtedly ecclesiastical, 
and has probably pertained to some digni- 
tary of the minster. It resembles pretty 
closely, in some particulars, a fine gold 
stgnct-ring found in Derbyshire in 1884, and 
described and illustrated by Mr. Arthur Cox 
in voL viiL of the Derbyshire Archaolog'.cal 
JtmmaL Experts considered that the Derby- 
shire example was of the time of Edward III., 
liut from the description of the Beverley 
ring, which reaches us just as we go to 
press, we believe it to be of fifteenth-century 

*^ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

The Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Southover, 
Lewes, where in March last several inter- 
ments were discovered, has been already 
noticed in the Antiquary ; but within the 
last few days a number of additional 
skeletons have been found while levelling 
the ground for laying out a lawn. The total 
already reached is twenty-eight, and the bones 
of ictnales, as well as those of males, have 
been unearthed. Buried with the remains 
were a number of weapons, some personal 
ornaments, and other objects. Almost all 
the skeletons lay due east and west, the 
interments being made upon the chalk with 
a shallow covering of mould. In some 
instances the chalk had been slightly scooped 
oot to receive the body ; in one case it had 
been excavated to the depth of a foot, while 
beneath each skull the chalk was slightly 



hollowed. The line of interments (in one 
case the bodies had been buried three 
abreast) extended 130 feet, and all the 
skeletons were found within an area of 
130 feet by 30 feet. A small portion of 
the field only now remains to be excavated. 
The skeletons are those of men and women 
of average stature. One was found minus a 
skull ; one skull showed evident traces of a 
severe cut; in some instances, where the 
superincumbent soil was deepest, the bones 
had almost entirely disappeared. 

♦ 4? <• 

The weapons are of considerable interest, 

especially a sword, which has a bone handle, 
with carved top, and is in a wooden scabbard 
with bronze mounts. Another sword has 
fragments of wood adhering — the remains no 
doubt of a scabbard ; a third sword (the 
longest, 3 feet i inch) is plain, but has a 
tang with iron button at the top. A very 
fine iron umbo of shield, with central stud 
or button, showing traces of tin, and with 
surrounding studs, was found ; also the band 
or strap by which the shield was grasped 
when in use. The list of weapons includes 
two spearheads, one lance-head, two sockets 
— of other spears or lances — eight or nine 
knives or daggers of different shapes and 
sizes, and a socketed arrow-head. There 
were besides fragments of iron articles found 
with the warriors, the precise use of which 
could not be arrived at with certainty. Other 
articles that came to light were a large bronze 
ring with small loop attached, part (halQ of a 
bronze clasp beautifully ornamented, four or 
five circular bronze brooches with character- 
istic ornament, a fragment of what would 
seem to have been a shallow basin-like vessel, 
a small leaden weight with eye, part of a 
bone gouge, a blue glass bead, a small bottle, 
presumably Roman, and a portion of the rim 
of a similar one. As already noticed, the 
whole results of the excavations have very 
generously been presented to the Sussex 
Archaeological Society's Museum at I^wes, 
by Mr. Aubrey Hillman, and the finds are 
about to be arranged in a glass case specially 
made for their receptioa Mr. C. T. Phillips, 
the hon. curator, has the matter in hand. 

4p 4^ 4^ 

It is gratifying to find that ''gallant little 
Wales" is not going to be left behind its 
neighbours in the matter of protecting the 



X90 



NOTES OF THE MONTH, 



ancient remains with which the principality 
is so richly endowed. Two of the largest 
collections of early crosses and inscribed 
stones in Glamorganshire, namely those at 
Llantwit Major, and Margam Abbey, have 
recently been scheduled under the Ancient 
Monuments Act. The crosses at Margam 
were, up to a few months ago, exposed to 
the weather inside the ruined chapter-house 
of the abbey. Miss Talbot has now had 
them all removed and placed within the 
church by her agent, Mr. Edward Knox, who 
deserves great credit for his exertions. Some 
of the Llantwit stones are still in the open 
air, and although scheduled under the Act, 
her majesty's inspector of ancient monu- 
ments does not appear to have done anything 
to ensure their protection. This will not be 
an inducement to other owners to schedule 
their monuments. 

Mr. S. J. Wills, of the Wheal Ruby Board 
Schools at Wendon, has discovered an early 
Christian inscribed stone in Cornwall that 
has hitherto escaped the notice of archaeolo- 
gists. It is at Southill, eight miles south of 
Launceston. A description of the stone, 
with an illustration, appears in the October 
number of the Archaologia Cambrensis, 

^ ^ ^ 
Attention should be directed to the irrepar- 
able damage being done to many ancient 
buildings in Ireland by the Board of Works 
under the guise of restoration. The early 
Celtic monastic settlement on Skellig Michael, 
off the coast of Kerry, is well known to archae- 
ologists as being the most interesting typical 
example now remaining of its kind. The 
oratories and beehive cells are of the Transi- 
tion period, between the pagan and Christian 
styles of architecture, and therefore earlier 
than any other Christian buildings perhaps 
in Europe. It will scarcely be credited that 
the Board of Works has employed a common 
mason to carry out his own views of what 
should be done in the way of restoration, 
and he is now engaged, without any kind of 
superintendence, in tinkering up these price- 
less relics, so that in a few months their value 
for purposes of scientific archaeological re- 
search will be nil. There surely should be 
some way of bringing Sir Thomas Deane to 
book for this piece of vandalism. 



In an interesting article in the Aihenctum^ 
describing the recent happily arranged joint 
meeting of the Royal Society of Antiquaries 
of Ireland, and the Cambrian Archaeological 
Society, at Killarney, we were glad to see that 
our contemporary had adopted a word of our 
coinage. In mentioning the unhappy kind 
of restoration now in progress on Skelltg 
Michael, it is stated that the particular build- 
ing is being " Grimthorped.'' But there is 
no necessity for a capital G or the inverted 
commas; the word "to grimthorpe" bids 
fair to attain as firm a hold as to boycott, 
and has already attained the honour of a 
dictionary explanation. However, to all true 
archaeologists the meaning of the word is so 
obvious that it requires no definition. 




Botes of tbe a^ontb (JToteign). 

At Erythne, in Asia Minor, have been 
unearthed several Greek inscriptions, amongst 
which is a very important one of imperial 
times. It contains a small poem belonging 
to a grotto consecrated to the Nymphse 
Naiades. The Sibyl recounts that she is the 
daughter of a Naiad, and of a ccrUin Thco- 
doros, and that she was born at Erythne, 
and she has lived nine hundred years, during 
which she has traversed the whole earth. 

♦ ♦ * 

Then it makes allusion to the coming of 
some personage who will govern his country 
well and wisely. This is evidently a Roman 
emperor, who is designated a second founder 
of Erythne, and Monsieur Reinach, to whom 
this discovery has been communicated, l)e- 
lieves that we have here allusion to Lucius 
Verus, who visited Asia Minor in 164, 
There was an ancient dispute between Erythrse 
and Marpessos, each claiming to be the birth- 
place of the Sibyl. The object of the in- 
scription is to confirm the rights of Erythrs. 

♦ ♦ >«c 

At Torre Pignattara, near Rome, has been 
discovered a cell scooped out of the tufo 
rock, having its vault plastered with cement 
and adorned with stucchi and mural pictures* 
and also a columbarium^ in which were found 



NOTES OF THE MONTH (FOREIGN). 



191 



about twenty inscriptions. One of these is 
jttfticttlariy interesting, as it makes mention 
of a burial society, coilegium funerariym^ and 
another bean the name of a pantomime of 
the time of the Antonines. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

The excaralions of the necropolis of Numana, 
near Ancona, have only revealed the fact 
that the tombs of the primitive period 
were all destroyed in order to form a Roman 
cemetery* of which the tombs have been 
found. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Near Montegeorgio^ in Piceno, a pre-Roman 

tomb has been found, in which was a skeleton 
with a bronze torque, a collar formed of 
amber and glass beads» and some bronze and 
iron brooches. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

At Salmona, in the Abruzzi, has been found 

the tomb of an infant, consisting of a lime- 
stone urn, carved in the shape of a wooden 
box, with lock in relief. 

♦ ♦ « 

Signor Castelfranco, and Professor von Duhn, 

of Heidelberg University, have finished the 
excavations they b^an in September on the 
Great St. Bernard, amongst the ruins of the 
temple of the Pennine Jove, the campaign 
appearing to have been successful Pro- 
fessors Ferrero and Castelfranco were the 
commissaries of the Italian Government 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

In Southern Italy have been discovered the 

ruins of a Greek city which cannot yet be 
identified ; details are awaited. 

4( ♦ ♦ 
At Rome, near the so<:alled dwelling of the 

Vestals, has been found another pedestal 

of a statue of a Vestal, with a dedicatory 

inscription, mutilated in the beginning, so 

that the tume of the priestess is lost, and 

all that we know is that she deserved the 

monument for having preserved her chastity 

juxtm legem dknnitus datam, 

♦ ♦ « 

From the bed of the Tiber, near Ponte Rotto, 
a Roman bronze helmet in perfect preserva- 
bon has been recovered. The ornamenta- 
tion in relief is quite intact, and it is at- 
tributed to the second century B.a 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

At Kavemia, in the works for building the 
new faioMMo of the Cassa di Risparmio, on 
the site of the former Church of St. George, 



an inscribed sarcophagus has been found of 
great importance, as we read on it for the 
first time the full name of the city, Augusta 
Ravenna, while it helps us to interpret pro- 
perly other local dedications. 

^^ ^^ ^^ 

At Terracina, in digging the foundations of 
the new railway station, have been discovered 
the remains of a Roman Nymphseum, which 
had been, in later times, turned into a buiial- 
place. Remains of several marble statues 
have been picked up ; and a piece of leaden 
piping belonging to the public waterworks, 
as it bears the name Respublica Terradnensis, 
In the village was found a replica of the 
Faun of Praxiteles, and a headless statue, with 
cuirass, larger than life, raised probably to 
some emperor. 

♦ 9^ ♦ 

In the ancient city of Sentinum, near Sasso- 

ferrato, in the Umbrian Marches, two broad 

roads have been discovered with polygonal 

pavement, like the ancient Roman and 

Pompeian roads; as also some fragments 

of Roman inscriptions and statues, as well as 

some mosaic pavements. 

» i«r « 

Near Arcevia, in the Marches, have been 
discovered the remains of a large prehistoric 
village, from which important objects of that 
period are beginning to come to light. 

4e ♦ « 
Dr. Halbherr has just been to Verona to 

inspect the works for regulating the course 
of the river Adige, and finds, amongst other 
things brought to light, fifteen inscriptions 
of Roman classic times, of which one gives 
us the name of an ancient Veronese architect 
hitherto unknown. A stone slab has also 
been found, bearing cavities as measures for 
corn or liquid, like the mensa ponderaria of 
Pompeii, probably belonging to the market- 
place of the ancient city. 

* * * 

Dr. Orsi, director of excavations in Sicily, 

has now published an account of some im- 
portant discoveries, not known before, which 
took place some months ago during the work 
of constructing the new lighthouse of Capo 
Stilo^ in Calabria, which was visited by him 
last spring on behalf of the Italian Ministry 
of Public Instruction. Besides remains of 
an Hellenic wall of large blocks of Syracusan 
limestone^ many archaic objects of terracotta 



192 



NOTES OF THE MONTH (FOREIGN). 



came to light, amongst which is the torso of 
a female figurino, with the calathos or 
basket, on her head This is probably an 
Aphrodite, like those of LocrL A small 
herma^ also with a calathos on its head, was 
found at the same time, and several small 
aray which were used either for lighting the 
sacred fire or for bearing the anathemata^ or 
offerings, which were placed upon them. 
These small altars have the faces decorated 
with archaic figures in relief of animals in 
combat. 

^h ^r ^r 

There were also found fragments of tiles, 
upon one of which is seen the figure of 
Taras, riding on a dolphin (as on the ancient 
coins of the city of Tarentum), and various 
other pieces of terracotta, which altogether 
make a remarkable contribution to the history 
of the ornamentation of the temples of Magna 
Graecia and of Sicily, by means of architec- 
tonic painted terracottas. All these objects 
seem evidently to belong to a small ancient 
temple or sanctuary, which must have existed 
on that point of the coast which corresponds 
exactly with the promontory called by the 
ancients Cocynthus. 

^^ ^^ ^^ 

This temple was probably dedicated to some 
saviour god (Ge^s crco-njp) of the sailors, as 
Poseidon or Taras, which last is also to be 
seen figured upon one of the terracottas; 
or possibly to Apollo Delphinios, Caulon 
being famous for the worship of the Delphian 
god. Moreover, we know that a sanctuary 
existed also on the other promontory of the 
Sinus ScylUticus (modern Squillace), which 
was dedicated to Hera Lacinia« 

4c 4c 3|c 

The situation seems to belong to the circuit 
of the ancient city of Caulonia, in Bruttium, 
north-east of Locri. Remains of other ruins 
in the same district were discovered at a still 
more recent period. These seem to belong 
to a villa of the Graeco-Roman age, which 
in barbarian times served as a cemetery for 
the inhabitants of the place, several tombs 
having been found there, but without funereal 
deposits. 

4t ♦ 4c 
On August 15, quietly passed away, at the 
age of eighty-one, in the Orti Famesiani, on 
the Palatine Hill, a laborious archaeologist. 



whose name was a household word to all 
English visitors to Rome twenty or thirty 
years ago. During the political disturbances 
of 1848-49, Pietro Rosa took refuge in a 
lonely villa near the Basilica of St. Sebastian^ 
on the Appian Road. At this time that 
queen of highways, as it was called by the 
ancients, was hidden beneath a deep mass 
of earth and stones. Rosa, in his retreat, 
began to trace the exact line of the ancient 
road, and to study the remains of the various 
monuments that lined its course. The 
learned essay he published on the subject 
in the Journal of the German Institute had 
for result that the Papal Government under- 
took, in 1850, the complete excavation of the 
road from Csecilia Metelia, to Frattoccbie, 
near the ancient Bovillse. 

4c 4e 4c 
After this success Rosa drew up plans of 
well-nigh the whole of Latiura, beginning 
with archaeological and topographical maps of 
the Roman Campagna, discovering the site 
of the temple of Diana at Nemi, of the battle 
of Allia, etc., when Napoleon III. made him 
Guardian of the Palaces of the Caesars, where 
he commenced his excavations in 1861. 
Living on the spot, and working for a 
generous patron, he soon disinterred the 
palaces of Domitian and of Caligula, a 
portion of the house of Tiberius, the Porta 
Mugonia, the temple of Jupiter Stator« a 
portion of the walls of Roma Quadiata, etc. 

4c 4c 4c 
In 1870 the Orti Farnesiani became the pro- 
perty of the Italian Government, and though 
by profession only a simple architect, Rosa be- 
came a senator in the December of that year, 
and was made superintendent of excavations 
in the province of Rome, and eventually in- 
spector-general of antiquities for the whole 
kingdom. His last years of office were em- 
bittered, like those of Sir Charles Newton, 
by the thought of the parsimony of the 
Government in conducting archaeological re- 
search. Though the Palatine, however, was 
neglected, Rosa was able to do good work 
at Ostia, at the villa of Hadrian^ and in 
Rome, in the Forum, at the Baths of Caracalla, 
and in the Colosseum. 




FORTY YEARS IN A MOORLAND PARIS ff. 



193 




iFottp jieatiB! m a a^oorlann 

Parisl)* 



lORTY-FIVE years ago, when the 
Rev. Canon Atkinson first visited 
the parish of Danby, in Cleveland, 
where he has since continuously 
laboured, and which he has now made so 
celebrated by his pen, the clergy of the 
dales and wolds of Yorkshire were almost a 
different race of men to their successors of 
to-day. After losing his way on the moors 
beyond Whitby, he at last found the house 
of the minister whom he was to succeed- It 
was a long, low, gray building, with nothing 
between it and the roadway, and with cow- 
sheds and other outbuildings protruding at 
one end. A lean-to at the other end was the 
kitchen, which was also the living room ; and 
there were assembled father and mother, son, 
and four daughters, who, together with the 
daytal-man (day-labourer), were just sitting 
down to dinner. The minister was " an old 
man, clad in a rusty black coat, with drab 
breeches and continuations, and with a 
volume of what was supposed to be white 
neckcloth about his throat" 

In due time the newcomer was asked if he 
would like to go and see the church. Here 
is part of the description : — 

"My conductor, the minister, entered 
without removing his hat, walked through 
the sacred building and up to the holy table 
with his hat still on. Although I had seen 
many an uncared-for church and many a 
shabby altar, I thought I had reached the 
farthest extreme now. The altar-table was 
not only rickety and with one leg shorter 
than the other, and, besides that, mean and 
worm-eaten, but it was covered with what it 
would have been a severe and sarcastic libel 
to call a piece of green baize, for it was in 
rags, and of any or almost every colour save 
the original green. And that was not all ! 
It was covered thickly over with stale 
crumbs. It seemed impossible not to crave 

* Forty Years in a Moorlaftd Parish: Remini- 
scences and Researches in Danby, in Cleveland. By 
Rev. J. C. Atkinson, D.C.L. Macmillan and Co. 
Globe 8vo. Pp. xi., 457. lUustrated. Price 8s. 6d. 
Second edition. 



some explanation of this ; and the answer to 
my inquiry was as nearly as possible in the 
following terms: 'Why, it is the Sunday 
School teachers. They must get their meal 
somewhere, and they gets it here.' " 

The brother of the parish priest was parish 
clerk and schoolmaster, and the first time 
Dr. Atkinson had to take a funeral, he came 
rather early, "and there inside the church I 
saw the clerk, sitting in the sunny embrasure 
of the west window, with his hat on, of 
course, and comfortably smoking his pipe." 

It is only those well acquainted with the 
stories of the oldest inhabitants of Yorkshire 
villages, and other remote country-places, 
who realize that it is but a generation that 
separates us from the rural parson of the 
past, and that we have not to go back near 
as far as the days of Fielding or Smollett to 
find the coarse and careless village priest and 
desecrated sanctuary. 

An old man now living, who used to be 
parish clerk of the parish now served by the 
writer of this notice, on being asked by him 

as to Rector L , who died, aged 79, in the 

"thirties," replied: "Ah, Parson L--- — he 
were a good sort, and could drink his sup 
with anyone in parish ; but I didn't hold with 
him when his black galloway kicked over the 
best gravestone in the kirkyard, and he'd do 
nowt to it but chucked the bits over into his 
fold-yard !" 

The chatty but not garrulous reminiscences 
of past days at Danby are not only amusing, 
but full of interest and material for profitable 
thought. 

Folklorists will delight in the wealth of 
material brought together and pleasantly told 
in these pages about past and present beliefs 
in fairies, dwarfs, hobs, witches, and wise 
men; whilst there is equally prolific gossip 
(we use the word in its best and kindliest 
signification) as to dale weddings and burials 
and their accompaniments, holy wells, mell- 
supper, harvest home, and dog whipper. 

The natural history notes are chiefly on 
ornithology; our only quarrel with them is 
that they are too brief. They are well 
worthy of being reckoned — and this is the 
highest praise — with White's Seibome. 

The historical section, dealing with pre- 
historic, ancient, and more recent times, 
abounds in the careful and discriminating 



194 FORTY YEARS IN A MOORLAND PARISH. 

notes and reflections that a residence of limited area of his investigations, Dr. Atldn- 

nearty half a century among these moors and son's observations are all the more precise 

dales has enabled Dr. Atkinson to accumu- and noteworthy. 

late. There is also a rare eloquence in much The extravagant metamorphosis of a large 

of the descriptive account of this widespread number of disused surface mineral pits into 

characteristic parish, as well as much that is " British villages," described in such glowing 

valuable and precise in the geological survey, terms by several learned treatises and guide- 



As regards antiquities, this is certainly a books as to induce many an antiquarian 

book that no antiquary should pass by. pilgrimage to Danby moors, is fearlessly 

The writer's experiences in barrow-digging exposed. There is a good deal of nonsense 

may not have been as great as the late of this kind up and down the country that 

Mr.-Bateman's in Derbyshire, or as extensive wants exposing; for instance, some old 

as Canon Greenwell's in Yorkshire and else- gravel-pits grown over with undergrowth are 

where, but from the very fact of the more still sought out by some enthuuasti near 



FORTY YEARS IN A MOORLAND PARISH. 



195 



Crich HiUt Derbyshire^ because they were 
foolishly dubbed British dwellings in the 
Arcktitohgia at the end of last Century. 

We are glad to notice that due attention 
is given in these pages to antiquities that are 
usually left untouched by authors. The old 
way of building cottages and houses in the 
north of England, in districts where both 
wood and stone abounded, was usually 
after the following iashion. Great " pairs 
of forks," or massive timbers of the proper 
slope, were Axed in the ground, or occasion- 
aOy rested on the surface, as the very begin- 
ning of the work of building, and then the walls 
were built up between them and around them« 
Thexte is a good description of this kind of 
building in the introductory chapter, and the 
second edition contains an illustration of a 
ruined cottage showing the " pair of forks," 
which, through Messrs. Macmillan's courtesy, 
we are able to reproduce This was a style of 
building used in Derbyshire in the erection 
of tithe bams and country cottages as early 
as the fourteenth century, and very possibly 
ai a still earlier date. 

The frontispiece to the book gives a 
drawing of Castleton Dow Bridge, which 
was, alas! needlessly destroyed in 1873. It 
had a graceful semicircular arch, and from 
the style of the parapet and projecting 
corbels above the centre of the arch, we 
think that Dr. Atkinson is right in assigning 
to it as early a date as 1175-85. Another 
charming old bridge, happily still standing, 
of which a good illustration is also given, is 
Danhy Castle Bridge, on which are the arms 
of John, ]x>rd Neville of Raby, and which 
was built circa 1386. From these illustra- 
tions it would appear that each of these 
ancient bridges had borne a cross springing 
from the parapet over the centre of the arch, 
which was the almost invariable pious adjunct 
of a mediteval bridge* 

As might naturally be expected from the 
author of the well-known Cleveland Glossary^ 
issued twenty-three years ago, there are 
abundant and interesting references to the 
Clcvdand folk speech, and to local nomen- 
dature. His contention that the Yorkshire 
dalesman continued to speak what was prac- 
tically Danish for many generations seems to 
us to be abundantly maintained, and com- 
mends itself to other careful students of 



Yorkshire place and field names 'and of 
Northern dialects. In the preface to the 
second edition. Dr. Atkinson defends himself 
from the comments made by not unfriendly 
critics, both privately and publicly, as to 
similar terms and idioms to those instanced 
as belonging to the Cleveland or Dales ver- 
nacular being in use in Lancashire, Cumber- 
land, Shropshire, lowlands of Scotland, West 
Yorkshire, and other parts. This is a circum- 
stance, he truly says, which he has not only 
never lost sight of, but has always prominently 
put forward ; because he regards the Cleve- 
land folk-speech as a survival from the tongue 
of the great Northumbrian kingdom, and yet 
at the same time holds that the remoteness 
and seclusion of most of the Cleveland division 
has in a singular degree favoured its more 
general retention than in other districts. 

The appendices are full of valuable and 
scholarly material ; the sections *' Glances at 
a Moorland Parish from a pre- Domesday 
point of view," and "Attempts to clear up 
the difficulties in the Domesday Entries 
touching Danby," are specially to be com- 
mended. 

It is well, as a rule, to have some decided 
method and plan in compiling a parish 
history, a contention that the writer of this 
notice has specially enforced ; but there are 
exceptions to every rule, and the case of 
Danby in Cleveland, is clearly one of these, 
for the book owes much of its many charms 
to the lack of study in arrangement and to 
the pleasant easy way in which unexpected 
information is conveyed to the reader. But 
let no novice imagine that he is to take this 
work as his model, for it could by no possi- 
bility have been written save by one who had 
spent a lifetime of loving, discriminating 
observation in the district described. 

It is a real pleasure to know of the great 
and deserved success that has attended this 
book, and to learn, as this notice is passing 
through the press, of a third and yet better 
illustrated edition. Its rapid appreciation by 
the public is a good sign of a healthy taste, 
and is a contradiction to the pessimists who 
are for ever assuring us that nothing sells but 
a shilling " shocker.*' 

J. Charles Cox, LL.D., F.S.A. 



196 



NOTES ON ARCHAEOLOGY IN PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS. 




BoteiB! on arc!)a^olog:p in Ipto^ 
tiincial a^useums. 

No. VI.— CARLISLE. 
By Richard S. Ferguson, F.S.A., 

CHANCELLOR OP CARLISLE, AND HONORARY 
CURATOR OF THE MUSEUM. 

PART I. — HISTORICAL. 

EFFERSON'S History of Carlisle, 
published in 1838, says : 

The Carlisle Literarv and Philosophi- 
cal Institution was established in the month of Feb- 
ruary, 1835, and has for its object the cultivation of 
polite literature and scientific research. A spacious 
apartment above the Fish-Market* is neatly fitted up 
and occupied by the society for lectures and meetings. 
It is also used as a museum, in which are deposited 
numerous specimens of the antiquities and natural 
productions of the district. 

The first and, so far as I can find, 
the only annual report of this society is 
now before me. It had only about sixty 
ordinary members, but it had four patrons, 
all members of the House of Lords, and 
sixteen vice-patrons, all men of title, M.P.'s, 
or great landed proprietors ; the president 
was the high sheriff of the county, a name- 
sake and relative of the present writer; 
and the officials and committee were almost, 
without exception, bankers, physicians, or 
surgeons. In its first year twelve papers 
were read before it ; I can make out nothing 
more of its history. It existed for some time, 
during which it formed a library and spent 
a good deal of money on scientific instru- 
ments, and in purchases for its museum. 
But it expired somehow ; its books, with the 
society's bookplate therein, found their way 
to the bookstalls, while its collections and 
the scientific instruments found comfortable 
shelter in the Athenaeum, of which more 
presently. Meanwhile it may amuse to 
extract from the catalogue, contained in the 

* The fish-market was held in the ground floor of 
the Main Guard, a massive building situated in the 
Market Place, and erected in 1645 f'^i" ^^^ materials 
obtained by pulling down the west end of the cathe- 
dral. The Main Guard was itself pulled down some 
forty years ago. 



first annual report, the archaeological items 
acquired in the first year of the existence 
of the newly-founded museum, omitting the 
dates and names of donors, viz. : 

1. Twenty medals and 120 silver, brass, and cop|)er 
Roman and Grecian coins and tokens ; a representa- 
tion of a Roman pavement found in the village of 
Horkston, near the river Humber and Aneholm [fv], 
in the year 1797. 

2. A Roman patera, a lamp (torn Pompeii, a 
Roman altar found at Carlisle, and a portion of a 
monument in memory of the Dacres from Lanercu&t 
Priory. 

3. Fifty-four Roman coins. 

4. Two old swords, and three specimens of rocks. 

5. A stone ball, used when cannons were first intro- 
duced. 

6. A stone battle-axe found near Grinsdale. 
- 7. A Roman sandal. 

8. Two stone weapons found near Scotby. 

9. A Roman altar. 

10. An ancient millstone for the hand, found in 
the grounds at Knells. 

11. Two ancient cuiras$»es and helmets, belonging 
to the De Vaux of Brown rigg, in the parish of Cald- 
beck. 

12. Two pieces of a patera, and two handles of 
amphone. 

Truly a very job lot I For archaeological 
reasons we record one other item. 

An Herbarium^ containing indigenous and exotic 
plants, collected by and for the late Bishop of Carlisle 
(Dr. Goodenough, bishop 1808-27). 

The collection survived the society which 
gave it being, and, when the writer was a 
boy in the forties and the fifties, was housed 
in a building already mentioned, the 
Athenaeum, which was built by a syndicate 
of shareholders, on an ambitious scale for 
the day, as a home for the arts and sciences, 
with lecture and committee rooms. The 
scheme, however, failed, and the building 
somehow or other became the property of 
one of the shareholders, a banker, to whom 
the museum paid, or more correctly did not 
pay, rent. Who was responsible for the 
rent, or whether there was a committee of 
management at all, I cannot tell; I fancy 
there was none, beyond the worthy couple 
who resided in the Athenaeum, kept it clean, 
and admitted the public on the ringing of 
a bell Ultimately, some time in the sixties^ 
for its default in the payment of rent, the 
collection was seized by the sherLS^ and 
advertised for sale. Public opinion was 
aroused, and an indignation meeting held. 



NOTES ON ARCHAEOLOGY IN PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS. 



«97 



with the resall that the collection was pre- 
sented to the Corporation of Carlisle, who 
undertook to find a new home. This they 
did, tn a building which had been a sculp- 
tors gallery and exhibition rooms; to it 
they carted the collection, chucked it in 
anyhow — the minerals into the fireplace — 
locked the door, and left the collection 
severely alone: For years it slumbered un- 
molested and forgotten, until in 1874 the 
demon of unrest inspired the present writer 
with a desire to see the collection. After 
some trouble, and some opposition from the 
officials who had the keys, I and a friend, 
Mr. W. Nanson, F.S.A., obtained admission. 
Wc found the place in a squalid condition, 
coated thick with dust and grime. We 
nrsolved that something should be done to 
resuscitate the institution, and we approached 
the mayor, a man in advance of his time, 
wlio at once, with the best intentions and 
the worst results, proceeded to smother our 
modest scheme by overlaying it with a big 
one for a free library. Of the stormy public 
meeting that was held, of how it insulted 
the bishop and hooted the mayor, of how 
everything collapsed, and of how the museum 
seemed in worse straits than before^ need not 
here be told. However, when things seemed 
at their worst, there came to me sundry 
working-men — genuine working-men — men 
of plQck and spirit, who proposed, if I would 
join them, to form a committee, and run the 
rooseuro on our own account I readily 
agreed, got a friend or two to co-operate, 
and a committee, mainly of working-men, 
was formed Overtures were made to the 
corporation ; its members were conciliated ; 
they were bound to pay the rent, and they 
now agreed to find light and fire, and to 
entrust us with the management A start was 
at once n»ade; evening after evening the 
committee stript off their coats, cleaned, 
painted, and whitewashed the building, and 
cleaned and labelled the contents. In 1876 
the museum was reopened to the public, 
and has ever since been kept open for a 
great part of the year, solely by the exertion 
of the committee of working-men. But we 
have never had any money ; we have no 
curator—cannot afford to pay one; I am 
honorary curator over all, with voluntary 
sub-curators under me. The twopennies 



taken at the' door just enable us to keep the 
place open for eight months in the year, 
paying an old man to attend to keep order ; 
we close in the winter. We have no money 
to buy with ; it is mortifying to the honorary 
curator to miss objects that should be 
secured, and he cannot always be asking for 
subscriptions to buy this local altar, or that 
local celt, or some rare local bird. Luckily, 
many of the objects missed have gone to 
Morton, to a collection that will be ours 
shortly. We have had lucky windfalls; we 
have had great collections, presently to be 
mentioned, given us ; we once got jQy> by 
a concert, and a generous friend once spent 
;^2oo or more over rebuilding our somewhat 
antediluvian cases. But our existence has 
been from hand to mouth, precarious, not 
always able to pay a weekly charwoman. 
But a bright future is now before us; the 
citizens of Carlisle have adopted the Free 
Library and Museum Acts, and in Tullie 
House, the much-enduring collection will find 
a permanent home, and a secured, if small, 
income. The working-men who, from 1874 
to 1 89 1, have carried the museum on their 
backs may well claim that they have done 
much towards educating their fellow-citizens 
to the level of the Free Library and Museum 
Acts, and among the chief supporters in 
1 89 1 of the adoption of those Acts are some 
of the chief opponents of 1874. 

During the existence of the collection it 
has had eras of prosperity, during which 
it accumulated extensively, varied by eras of 
dulness, during which it acquired little or 
nothing. Thus, during the first few years of 
its existence, objects came in rapidly, both 
by gift and purchase, such as a gigantic 
Indian idol, a huge model of a man-of-war, 
several cases of Brazilian butterflies, numbers 
of stuffed birds (mainly local specimens), 
some stuffed crocodiles, a dog or two with 
six legs, and many curiosities of travel, 
moose deer heads, and a birch-bark canoe. 
Then came a dull season, but in 1859 the 
Archaeological Institute visited Carlisle, and 
formed a temporary museum in the Fratry. 
This revived an interest in the Carlisle 
Museum, which received many relics of the 
Roman occupation of Carlisle, discovered in 
the excavations for sewerage works then in 
progress. The reopening in 1876 again 



198 



NOTES ON ARCH^OLOG Y IN PROirjNCIAL MUSEUMS. 



stimulated private liberality, which took the 
form of geological collections of great value, 
with some objects, prehistoric and Roman, 
of archaeological interest. The Tullie House 
scheme has again brought a fresh flow of 
benefactions, foremost being a valuable 
collection of several hundred stuffed birds 
from Mr. Harris, of Cockermouth. In 1876 
Mr. Robert Ferguson, F.S.A., of Morton, 
promised the writer to transfer to the Carlisle 
Museum his valuable collection of Cumber- 
land and Westmorland antiquities, so soon 
as the writer could give his assurance that 
the Carlisle Museum was on a permanent 
footing. That assurance I never felt I could 
give until the recent Tullie House scheme 
enabled me to do so, but now Mr. Ferguson's 
collection will be moved into the museum's 
new quarters in that building. 

Spite of all the vicissitudes it has passed 
through, the collection has lost little; most 
of the items enumerated in the catalogue 
given in the report of 1836 can still be 
identified or accounted for, down to a " young 
adder preserved in spirits," presented in 
October, 1835. Since the revival of the 
museum in 1876, some rotten natural history 
specimens have been advisedly cremated. 
The " fifty-four Roman coins," all of copper, 
have been returned, from a sense of archae- 
ological propriety, to the place whence 
they came, Castlesteads, a well-known station 
on the Great Barrier of the Lower Isthmus, 
and have rejoined the altars, sculptured and 
inscribed stones, gems, silver coins, etc., 
found, and carefully preserved there. Bishop 
Goodcnough's Herbarium has gone to the 
museum at Kew Gardens. This was a vast 
collection made in the last century by the 
bishop long ere he attained that dignity ; it 
contained nothing of local interest, and was 
probably only given to the Carlisle Museum 
by his family because it was cumbrous to 
house and expensive to carry elsewhere. To 
us, in 1876, it was a veritable white elephant ; 
we had neither the knowledge, the time, nor 
the money to put it into order. We con- 
sulted Sir Joseph Hooker, who advised that 
in a provincial museum it was little or no 
use, but that at Kew it would be an archae- 
ological standard of the botanical knowledge 
of the eighteenth century. Accordingly it 
was sent to Kew, and Sir Joseph Hooker 



made up from it and sent to Carlisle' two 
volumes of representative specimens. 

PART II. — DESCRIPTIVE, 

The Carlisle Museum is situated in Finkle 
Street, a very narrow thoroughfare, shortly 
to be widened, which leads from the foot 
of the entrance to the castle to the foot of 
Eden Bridges. The site is almost universally 
condemned as a site for a museum; from 
that opinion the present writer dissents in 
toto^ for the following reasons : Every stranger 
that comes to Carlisle finds his way first to 
the cathedral and then to the castle; once 
there, he can hardly help seeing and finding 
his way to the museum; the experience of 
fifteen years shows that the cheap-trtppers 
readily find their way there. The building 
is old, and barely drop dry ; but it is well 
lighted for a museum, having been built as 
a sculptor's studio and gallery, and its floor 
will bear any weight The premises occupied 
by the museum are on the first floor, while 
the lower floor is occupied by warehouses, 
workshops, and a cottage, a most improper 
arrangement, owing to the risk of fire. At 
times dangerous trades have been carried 
on in these lower premises, but a little 
persuasion availed for their removal 1 he 
entrance is by a flight of stone steps leading 
into a gallery about 60 feet long, running 
north and south, and lighted firom the roof 
At its north end a broad passage, a few feet 
long, leads into a gallery running east and 
west, over 100 feet long, and having a room 
at its east end. This gallery is well lighted 
by a series of windows in its south side. A 
very small committee-room completes the 
establishment. 

The first gallery is devoted to ornithology 
and natural history generally. The centre 
of the room is occupied by table cases 
containing butterflies, beetles, and the like, 
over which we need not linger. Tall, old, 
and badly-closing cases, filled with birds, line 
the western wall; and other smaller cases, 
mere boxes with glass fronts, are fitted up 
and down the room into spare places. Most 
of the birds are ragged and dirty, and may 
well claim to be of archaeological interest, 
having shared all the vicissitudes of the collec- 
tion for more than half a century. There 
are, however, many modern specimetis in 



NOTES ON ARCH/EOLOGY IN PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS. 



199 



fine plumage^ including a magnificent golden 
eagle, and a case of young birds in down. 
The museum possesses in the Harris Collec- 
tion, recendy presented as mentioned before, 
^cvetal hundred specimens in fine condition, 
for which room cannot be found in the build- 
ing; theseare at present housed elsewhere. It 
is intended to amalgamate both collections, 
discard the dufiers, and fill up any gaps that 
may exist On the eastern wall two tall 
cases of better make contain a collection of 
Indian pottery and fabrics and of travellers' 
curioSf among which last figure a bust of 
Ru5kin and a few equally incongruous things. 
'I'wo other tall cases of similar make on the 
same wall, and two on the north wall, contain 
the bulk of the smaller archaeological objects 
belonging to the collection. On the top 
shelf of one case is the wreck of a huge 
lantern, once gorgeously painted and gilt ; 
this was carried before the mayor when his 
worship was late o' nights. The " cuirasses 
and hornets of the De Vaux " keep it com- 
pany, and are no less than the backs and 
breasts and pots of the parish contingent to 
the militia. The lower shelves of the two 
cases on the eastern walls are filled with mill- 
stones of Andemach stone and hand querns, 
all found in Cumberland, though the precise 
k>calit7 b not always known. Of such objects 
the museum has great store stuck here and 
there. Other shelves hold pottery found in 
Carlisle — necks and handles of amphorae, 
firagraents of mortaria, Roman tiles, bits of 
Samian, Salopian, and Durobrivian ware, all 
with potters' marks, or else figures or other 
omamentatioa Some Roman sandals from 
Carlisle Gaol are with the pottery. There 
are also several stone and iron cannon balls ; 
many among them had probably more to 
do with mustard than with saltpetre, being 
probably used in fiirmhouses in mustard 
mills The unique Elizabethan racing bells, 
and three iron maces, the property of the 
Corporation of Carlisle, should be in this 
case, but are now on esdiibition at Kendal. 
Here are also contemporary plumbago moulds 
Ajr forging groats of Henry VII., and a 
painted casket of the fourteenth century, 
belortging to the Corporation of Carlisle. 
There are also one or two bronze implements, 
and one or two much-broken casts of the 
Great Seal, found loose in the corporation 



chest ; here are also the Elizabethan standard 
measures of capacity, the pint and the quart. 
One of the two tall cases on the north wall 
contains a large number of prehistoric imple- 
ments, flint flakes from Toome Bridge, from 
Lame, and from many places in Ireland; 
river-drift implements from St Acheul, near 
Amiens ; stone implements from Pressigny, 
from Madras, and elsewhere; also arrow- 
heads of flint, including three by Flint Jack. 
All these came to the museum with the 
Harkness Collection, as will presently be told ; 
they are arranged in small cases with glass 
tops, and placed inside the wall case, and 
so are not well seen. The same case includes 
some hundred stone implements, but about 
fifty of these are Irish, purchased at a local 
sale for ^3, and half a dozen are Danish ; 
the rest are local In the next case on the 
lower shelves are some British urns, mainly 
found in building the lunatic asylum near 
Carlisle ; others came from Aughertree Fell, 
in Cumberland, and Leacet Hill, in Westmor- 
land. With these are a few local stone 
implements. On the upper shelves are 
several relics of the Roman occupation of 
Carlisle ; the coins and the smaller articles, 
found during the sewerage works in Carlisle, 
were arranged and labelled by the late Mr. 
Roach Smith, and are in small trays. Up 
and down the first gallery are some prints 
of old buildings in Carlisle, and a rubbing 
of Bishop Beirs brass in the cathedral ; also 
the usual mummy case, a poor one. The 
hideous corpse belonging thereto, that of a 
young woman, is buried in a box of sawdust, 
and should be cremated. Over the fireplace 
is a genuine Highland targe and sporran of 
leather, and three so-called claymores ; also 
a huge pair of red deer horns from the mouth 
of the Eden. Slung up to the tops of the 
wall-cases are several stufied saurians, whether 
crocodiles or alligators I know not, nor whence 
they came, nor why in such numbers. One 
or two of the more decayed were some time 
ago chucked into the Eden at midnight, and 
sent to astonish the fishermen of the Solway. 
Two valuable cases, illustrative of local trades, 
find an incongruous home in this gallery. 

The passage between the two galleries is 
devoted to sculptured stones, miunly large 
Roman sculpturc^i and inscribed stones. The 
collection contains about twenty-two, many 



300 



NOTES ON ARCHjEOLOGY IN PROVINCIAL MUSEUMS 



of which are figured in the Lapidavium SepUn- 
trionah ; others have been engraved by Mr. 
Roach Smith. They include the Roman bag- 
piper, immortalized by old Hutton in his 
" Tour along the Wall "; the Vacia monument 
found in Lowther Street, Carlisle; and the 
great Mithraic slab with the lady and fan 
found at Murrell Hill, Carlisle. So soon as 
we move into new quarters, four or five 
Roman altars now at Lazonby Hall will be 
added to the collection. Here is also "The 
Muckle Toun Bell o' Carlile," on which is 
the legend 

►p RADULPHUS : COMES : DE WEST- 
MORLAND : EFECiT : ME : fieri. 

This was Ralph Neville, first Earl of Westmor- 
land, who died 1425. His bell was on duty 
until about five years ago, when it was 
cracked by a fire in the town hall turret. 

At the comer, turning into the second 
gallery, is the most popular exhibit in the 
museum — a life-size cast of Pongo. Every 
child who sees this beast insists on patting 
his rotund stomach, and probably on kissing 
his benign countenance, whereby he is gro- 
tesquely dirty. In our new quarters he will 
be repainted, lodged in a glass case, and, by 
way of striking terror among the infantry, be 
labelled " Anthropomorphoid Ape." 

The second gallery is presided over by a 
life-sized Indian idol, who sits on a lofty 
throne at the west end of the gallery. He 
was brought to England over fifty years ago, 
and has spent that time in the museum. 
Let us hope that his feelings are akin to 
those of the idol in the Nautch Girl: 

*' As I sit on a shelf, 
AH alone by myself, 
What idol so happy as I ?" 

He is labelled "Indian Lawgiver from 
Delhi," for the correctness of which I do 
not vouch. His throne is gay with gilding 
and bits of coloured glass, which group into 
demoniacal heads. Near him is the most 
hopeless part of the museum — bottled snakes 
from India in great numbers, cases of un- 
named minerals and shells, a case or two 
of trade products, not local, and perilously 
akin to advertisements. Close by are some 
plaster casts of early crosses in Cumber- 
land, showing interlaced work. Moving east- 
wards, we find the corporation chest, a huge 



structure of oak, secured by seven locks and 
hasps, and bound by iron ; its lid tasks two 
strong men to raise. The greater part of this 
gallery is entirely devoted to geological collec- 
tions of great value, the Harkness Collection 
of graptolites from the Solway Basin occupy- 
ing over thirty table-cases besides a large 
wall-case ; while the Clifton Ward collection 
of lake minerals takes up considerable wall 
space. Room is still found for table-cases of 
eggs, land-shells, and a collection of conds, 
and some archaeological exhibits, including a 
case containing a cast of the stone with 
Greek inscription found at Brough-on- 
Stainmore, and another with casts of the 
prehistoric implements found in Ehen- 
side Tarn, Cumberland ; the originals are 
in the British Museum ; there are also a 
few fiints from Denmark, from Ireland, 
and from Cissbury ; a huge Roman coffin is 
under the tables. Some large palmated 
antlers of elk are from Ireland, part of the 
Harkness Collection. 

The room at the east end of this gallery 
has been (profanely enough 1) dubbed the 
Ethnological Room, and contains a very 
miscellaneous collection of odds and ends, 
a birch -bark canoe, a Mexican saddle, a 
chair made of bits of wood an inch long, 
some Indian carvings from Bombay, about 
which nothing is known, old Orange Lodge 
flags, etc. The city stocks, pillory, a spinning 
and a reeling wheel, have archaeological 
interest. 

I cannot as curator say that I am proud 
of the arrangement of the collection. But 
we have more stuff than we have room for ; 
our wall -cases are practically fixtures, far 
from dust-tight, and so cumbrous that I 
cannot open them without assistance. Most 
of them date from shortly after the founda- 
tion of the museum, though some half- 
dozen were rebuilt about 1876, and some 
forty table-cases were then got new ; by an 
unfortunate error their tops fasten on with 
eight screws, and a carpenter is required to 
open them. Other cases we have, given at 
various times with various small collections, 
of all sorts, sizes, and shapes, and we can 
only fit them where they will go. Again, the 
collection is far from so free from dust as it 
should be; a man should be constantly 
employed in dusting a collection kept in so 



RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 



20I 



smoky a town as Carlisle, and he should be 
more or less an expert, as otherwise he will 
ni^sort the exhibits and their labels. We 
have never been able to afford more than 
an annual clean, and even then, owing to 
want of an expert, we have not dared to 
meddle with the Harkness graptolites, whose 
cases are better dust-proof than most, nor 
with the Clifton Ward minerals. Some 
objects are dissevered from their labels, but 
most have pref s marks, and we have good 
manuscript catalogues. When we move to 
Tullie House, we hope to leave all the worth- 
less cases behind us, and to get new ones ; 
we shall have expert assistance where neces- 
sary, and a proper cleaning staff. We shall 
also have what we have never had before, 
some place as a working room. 

My readers may think I have bored them 
too much with our history and our difficulties, 
but I have done so of set purpose. The 
fault- finders rarely know the difficulties local 
museums have to contend with, or allow for 
ihcni. 



.ijin 



fileseacdies in Crete. 



By DiL F. Halbhbrr. 



L-ITANOS. 




I MONGST the countries of the ancient 
Greek world to which during late 
years the attention of archaeologists 
and of epigraphists has been 
particularly directed, Crete is one which has 
most rewarded their labours, and at the same 
time given the greatest hopes for the future. 
From the rains of her chief towns, and from 
ninote mountain caves, where amidst the 
n^ged severity of wild forests and bleak 
uUelands some of her most celebrated 
sanctuaries and necropoles have come to 
light (the latter, however, in smaller number, 
as they are scattered over a larger area), and 
important discoveries of various kinds have 
been made, which have furnished us with 
valuable contributions for the history of 
pnmitive civilization, as also of the island 
itaei( while they have at the same time 

VOL. XXIT. 



confirmed in a most remarkable way the old 
classical tradition on the excellence and 
antiquity of its advancement in the arts. 
Since two Englishmen, Pashley and Spratt, 
one in the first half of the present century, 
the other in the latter half, gave in two 
remarkable works, which mutually complete 
each other, a general description of the 
country, thus furnishing authoritative guidance 
for the archaeological traveller in the future, 
several governments of Europe, beginning 
with France, have vied with one another in 
sending thilher missions in order to explore 
the island and excavate for antiquities. For 
clearing out and bringing to light the inscribed 
wall of Aptera, for the discovery of the first 
two fragments of the great archaic inscrip- 
tion of Gortyna, and of many other archaic 
and non-archaic inscriptions of several Cretan 
cities, as well as for the publication of the 
first information of the discovery made a 
few years ago of the vast archaic building 
of Cnossos, we are indebted to several learned 
Frenchmen, amongst whom figure the names 
of the late M. Th^non, Professor HaussouUies, 
and others. 

The German School of Athens may be 
said to have examined the western and central 
part of the island, when in the autumn of 
1884 Professor Fabricius, of the University 
of Freiburg, in Breisgau, came thither on 
their behalf. During his travels and residence 
on the island he took particular notice of 
the lie of the country, with a view of drawing 
up a larger plan of the walls and fortifications 
of the ancient cities of the provinces just 
named ; he further examined and published 
the first discoveries which took place in that 
year connected with the cave of Zeus Idaeus ; 
took part in the discovery of the great inscrip- 
tion of Gortyna, of which he rescued from 
oblivion eight columns ; while he inspected, 
moreover, the building of Cnossos, and 
examined the principal terracottas discovered 
there, which he afterwards explained and 
illustrated. 

But the most lengthened, extensive and 
fruitful of the researches made in Crete arc 
those which were conducted during a space of 
about four years, from the summer of 1884 
down to the end of 1887, by the Italian 
Government, on the motion and with the 
aid of Professor Comparetti, minister of 

p 



202 



RESEARCHES IN CRETE. 



public instruction. These researches ex- 
tended from the province of Rettimo and 
the cities situated round about the frowning 
heights of Mount Ida, as far as the further- 
most eastern part of the island, exploring 
as it were foot by foot the soil of about two- 
thirds of Crete, and carrying out the first 
real systematic excavations. These were 
carried out especially in the city of Gortyna, 
where the longest and most ancient of the 
archaic Greek inscriptions came to light, and 
together with them the remains of some 
remarkable buildings, as the ruins of a theatre, 
and of a very early temple of Pythian 
Apollo. 

The Greek population of Crete did not 
regard with indifference these researches and 
unexpected discoveries, but with a charac- 
teristic intelligence and patriotism, which 
does them the greatest honour, soon began 
to take an active part in the work by establish- 
ing collections and inaugurating researches 
on their own account. For some years past 
there has existed in the city of Candia a 
syllogoSy founded for the express purpose of 
diffusing knowledge and culture by means 
of schools and scienti6c and literary con- 
ferences, and thus tending to the elevation 
and improvement of the Christian popula- 
tion. In 1884 this learned society turned 
its attention to antiquities, to the examina- 
tion of which during the following years, 
under the enlightened zeal and direction of 
Dr. Joseph Chatzidakis, who was. then its 
president, it dedicated almost all its energies. 
Thus was brought about the foundation of 
the first Cretan museum at Candia, while 
at the expense of this society excavations 
were undertaken at the Grotto of Psychro, 
on the mountains of Lassithi ; at the Grotto 
of Eileithyia, near Cnossos ; and most im- 
portant of all, at the grotto of Zeus, on Mount 
Ida. All these different works and their 
scientific results were made public and richly 
illustrated, through the agency of the Italian 
mission, in the publications of the Royal 
Academy of the Roman Lincei, and they 
may be said to have thus rendered the 
greatest service to the science of archaeology. 
During the last three years the disturbed 
political condition of the island has almost 
(Completely interrupted the work of regular 
scientific researches on the part both of 
the inhabitants and of foreigners. Never- 



theless, two new syliogi^ or literary clubs, 
have been established with the especial 
object of securing the collection of aU dis- 
coverable historical records of the country, 
one by the Christians of Rettimo, the other 
by those of Hierapetros, the ancient Hiera- 
pytna ; while, on the other hand, two fresh 
epigraphical expeditions were undertaken 
immediately after the conclusion of the last 
Italian mission, one by the French savani^ 
Monsieur Doublet, and the other by the 
German philologist Dr. J. Bannack, who 
was one of the first to treat of the inscrip- 
tion of Gortyna. Still more recent news 
reports that fresh researches have now been 
begun on behalf of the French School at 
Athens. 

Of the abundant materials brought to 
our knowledge by these different expeditions 
and by all the excavations hitherto executed, 
and particularly those made under the aegis 
of Italy, only the epigraphical portion may 
be said to have hitherto been completely, or 
well-nigh completely, made pubUa The 
discoveries in the realm of art, especially in 
the less remote periods, as well as the topo- 
graphical conclusions arrived at, are for the 
most part still held back ; and this portion, 
with which the public is as yet unacquainted, 
has been considerably increased of late by 
the addition of the materials brought to 
light on different occasions, whether casually 
or during the unauthorized excavations made 
in various places by the country folk for 
purposes of gain. The object of this series 
of articles is to give information concerning 
the portion that still remains inedited, illus- 
trating the same by means of figures drawn 
in outline, also to give a complete and con- 
nected view of all the recent discoveries in 
Crete, making at the same time a review of 
the actual state of archaeology \n the island. 
Account will also be taken of the remains 
of monuments of a period more nearly a|>- 
proaching our own, in as far as they present 
special interest for topography, history or art 
In this sketch I shall begin, as I have done 
in publishing elsewhere the epigraphical dis- 
coveries, with the eastern extremity of the 
island, starting from Itanos and proceeding 
towards the west. 

The site of the city of Itanos had hitherto 
remained unknown. Admiral Spratt, led by 



RESEARCHES IN CRETE, 



203 



the resemblance of the name of the ancient 
city with that of the modern village of 
Sitanos, sought for it amongst the ruins of 
the C}x]opean city belonging to the aboriginal 
people or Eseocretans, which are to be seen 
on the beach of Kato-Zakro, not far from 
that village. Others, on the contrary, have 
thoup.ht that they should be placed on the 
road of Grandcs Bay, where there are the 
remains of another city, now called Pale 
Kastron of Siiix Only in 1884 a large 
number of epigraphical monuments collected 
and copied by me, partly in sitUy partly in 
the monastery of Toplu, whither they had 
been recently carried, have enabled the site 
of the ancient city of Itanos to be definitively 
identified with the ruins of Erimopolis, on 




C*iAt^•^OM 



ION 



^^GLRl^likMIOfl?) 



C.RljC«u 



the eastern shore, at the base of that long 
rugged and deeply-furrowed tongue of land 
which forms the Capo Sidera Admiral 
Spratt, who began collecting himself on that 
spot many of the inscriptions afterwards 
deposited by him in the Fitzwilliam Museum 
of Cambridge, was not lucky enough to find 
a single one bearing the name of the ancient 
dty ; whereas at the present day, without 
reckoning the great inscriptions of Toplu- 
Monastiri, we possess five, viz., an oath made 
by the Itanit, probably in the banning of 
the fourth century ac, very similar to the 
inscription already known, found some years 
ago at Dreros ; a decree of proxtnia of the 
Itanii in &vour of Patroclos, son of Patron, 
genera] of Ptolemeo Philadelphus ; a large 
base containing two inscriptions placed by 



the city of Itanos, one in honour of the 
Emperor Septimius Severus, the other in 
honour of Caracalla, his successor; and, 
lastly, a metrical sepulchral inscription of 
thirty verses belonging to the tomb of a 
certain Exakon of Itanos, who died in his 
native city at the age of twenty-two years. 

The identification of the site of Itanos 
being thus obtained enables us to establish 
also the site of the long- contested Capo 
Sammonium, or Salmone, the first point of 
land seen by the Apostle St Paul in the 
dangerous voyage made by him along the 
eastern and southern coasts of the island, 
when he went from Lystria in an Alexandrine 
ship {andavd) to Italy (Acts xvii. 7). 

The two most explicit passages of ancient 
authors relative to geographical questions 
are those of Ptolemy, who, coming to this 
portion of his description of the coast of 
Crete firom south to north, moves first the 
city of Itanos and then the Sammonion Akron; 
and them of the author of the Atadiasmus, 
who describes the Sammonion as a long 
promontory facing the north. These two 
specific determinations, to say nothing of 
others which we possess, are exactly verified 
in the modem Capo Sidero, whence it is 
placed out of doubt that we must consider 
this as the promontory called Salmone in 
the Acts, and not the more southern Capo 
Plaka, as was held by many up to the present 
time. The topographical map of this part 
of Crete must be therefore modified in ac- 
cordance with the annexed figure, in which 
the locality marked K. Z. (Katro-Zakro) is 
the spot assigned to Itanos by Spratt. 

{To be continued,) 




By Rev. J. Cavk-Browne, M.A. 



HE traveller journeying over the 
range of hills known as the North 
Downs, which lie between Roches- 
ter and Maidstone, cannot fail to 
be struck with the sudden change in the 
general aspect of the country. Passing down 
the slope of Blue-bell Hill, and entering the 

p 2 




204 



BOXLEY ABBEY. 



parish of Boxley, he leaves behind him on 
his right the rude, prehistoric pile of massive 
blocks commonly called Kit's Cotty House, 
and the strange group of unhewn stones 
which crop up, orderless and numberless, in 
the neighbouring field, and on his left the 
barren chalk hillside, when his eye is ar- 
rested by the abrupt transition from the 
scant herbage, and low brushwood, and 
stunted yews, to the rich pasture-land, with 
its array of goodly elms, spread out before 
him. He sees farm-buildings, and a mill 
with its shapely lake, telling of active and 
well - requited husbandry. He traces out 
broken lines of wall, which erst enclosed a 
range of monastic buildings; he sees amid 
modern brickwork the stone piers of the 
old abbey gateway, and a still substantial 
granary, and his mind pictures to itself the 
day when all that spoliation and time have 
now left in ruin constituted the heart of a 
busy Cistercian monastic system, with its 
daily round of prayer, and labour, and alms- 
deeds. 

It is of this old abbey we would give 
some account. But before passing within 
its precincts, we must pause to say a few 
words regarding the little wayside Chapel of 
St. Andrew,* still standing outside the walls, 
and long since converted into a cottage. It 
once had its own chaplain, and was no doubt 
designed for the use of the devout pilgrims 
as, on their way to the shrine of St. Thomas 
of Canterbury, they threaded their way along 
the narrow lane that runs hard by, and is to 
this day known as the Pilgrims' Road. 
In the process of adaptation for domestic 
use, partitions and staircases have done 
much to block up and conceal many details 
of interest within, yet externally enough 
remains to convey a very fair conception of 
its original character. Its western doorway 
is in good preservation, and, better still, the 
two side-doors on the north and south. In 
the western gable over the door, the space 
now hideously filled in with modern brick 

* A legendary connection between this saint and 
the neighbouring Pil^ims' Road may perhaps be 
traced in the story which Hone (Every Day Book, i. 
1539) gives from the " Golden Legend," of a bishop 
who was a devout worshipper of St. Andrew being 
assailed by the devil in the shape of a very beautiful 
woman, and being rescued by the sudden appearance 
of his patron saint in the form of a pilgrim. 



suggests the former presence of the square- 
headed, three-light window of the fourteenth 
century, now built in blank into the south 
wall ; while at the east end are signs no less 
distinct of a large pointed window, the space, 
too, filled in with brick. There is also the 
little priest's door near the east end of the 
south wall, and the framework, now filled in, 
of two squints, or hagioscopes, for the use of 
casual passers-by at the elevation of the 
Host. 

On passing within the gateway-arch, at 
first glance all that was old seems to have 
disappeared ; all seems modem. Yet if the 
reader will accompany us, we may find in 
the history, if not in ruins, much to interest 
the Antiquary. The abbey belonged to the 
Cistercian branch of the Benedictines. It 
was originally founded by Wilb'am d'Yprcs, 
a natural son of Philip, Viscount of Ypres, 
who had accompanied his kinsman, Stephen 
of Blois, on his usurpation of the English 
throne, and had been raised by him to what 
must have been regarded by the Anglo-Saxon 
nobles as the highest rank, the Earldom of 
Kent. Of this William d'Ypres it is said 
that, being anxious to relieve a conscience 
burdened with the remembrance of great 
barbarities perpetrated on the helpless in- 
mates of the Nunnery of Wherwell, near 
Southampton, and of other cruelties of which 
he had been guilty in the cause of his 
usurping kinsman Stephen, he desired to 
make some atonement for his past sins, and 
in that spirit resolved to found an abbey in 
which prayers might be offered daily for his 
soul Selecting Boxley as the site, he brought 
over, in 1146, from Clairvaux, in Burgundy, 
a body of Cistercian monks.^ 

Thus one of the earliest Benedictine 
monasteries in England was that of Christ 
Church, Canterbury, and of the Cistercians 
that at Boxley, While virtually independent 
of each other in their internal administration, 
they had, as will be seen, many connecting 
links of fraternal intercourse, each the while 

* Ipsius (Regis Stephani) assensu fuadatum cftt 
coenobium de Boxeleia per Willelmum d*Ipres, et 
Cantuaricnsi Ecclcsie concessit ct confinnavit Berke* 
seres et feodum Gaufridi de Ros. Gervase {Ks4ls 
ed.), ii., n. 77. When Henry II. succeeded la his 
rip;htful inheritance he banishe<f William d*Vpres, who 
himself assumed a monastic life at the abbey uf 
Laons in Flanders, and die<l there about 1163. 



BOXLEY ABBEY. 



205 



to its own rules and work. The 
Benedictines at Canterbury,* cultivating 
learning, soon produced from among their 
monks two of England's most valued 
chroniclers, Eadmer and Gervase; the Cis- 
tercians at Boxley rather applied themselves 
to the tillage of the soil, and with no little 
success, as the appearance of the neighbour- 
ing lands to this day testifies.t 

Of other acquisitions of land made during 
the fourteenth century, the following may be 
gleaned from the Patent Rolls.} In 1308 
several parcels of land were obtained in 
Boxley itself^ and the abbey extended its 
possessions by the acquisition of some valuable 
bnd in the parish of St Werburgh, Hoo. 

Five years after, a grant of land made by 
the Cistercian abbey of Dunys, in Flanders, 
carried them into the Isle of Sheppey, where 
they not only received considerable acreage 
in the parish of Eastchurch, but also the 
advowson of the church "to hold to their 
own proper use."§ They subsequently added 
largely to their property here by purchase. 
A century later (in 1430)11 an additional 
grant of land was made here by a member 
of the distinguished family of Cheyne (or 
Cheney), who then represented the old 
knightly house of Shurland; and to this 
grant of land was attached the condition 
^ that the Abbot and Convent shall transfer 
the Church of Estchurch, which they hold 
to their own use, and which is nearly in 
ruins, on account of the poorness of the 
ground on which it is built, with the consent 
of Henry (Chicele), Archbishop of Canter- 

* It should be borne in mind that where in these 
pftgn mention is made of the Canterbury Monastery, 
the Benedictine priory of Christ Church connected 
with the cathedra] is meant, and not, unless specially 
named, the more famed St. Augustine's Abbey, which 
was also Benedictine. 

f It may not be generally known that at the present 
day there exists in the Charnwood Forest, near Lutter- 
wortK a Cistercian monastery (almost on the site of 
the (varendon Abbey, which was dissolved by Henry 
VII L) which, true to its character, has turned a naked 
aad sterile soil into a scene of cultivation and fertility. 

t P. R., 2 £. II., p. 2, m. 12. 

\ Archbishop Reynold's Register (Lambeth), f. 112, 
and ako P. R., 7 E. II., p. 2, m. 18. The only 
record in the Lambeth Registers of the abbey exercis- 
ing this right of presentation to Eastchurch occurs in 
that of Aioibishop Rc7no]d*s (f. 250 b), when in 1323 
they orcsented (ial6dus (Geoffrey) de fireusth-hope 
**aid vicariam ooclesie de Estchirdie in Scapeya.** 
P. R., 9 H. VL, p. 2, ro. 4. 



bury, to the ground, now granted to them, 
on which they shall construct anew the Parish 
Church of the said Parish."* 

To the Manor of Boxley itself, originally 
granted in Franc-almoynet by Richard L, 
they added at different times those of Hor- 
pole (now Harple) and Weavering, with 
Tattelmel, Burchelande,t etc Thus with 
increasing rental, and an accession of offer- 
ings, the funds of the abbey admitted of 
their founding a subordinate daughter Priory 
at Robertsbridge in Sussex ; with which, as 
will be seen, a very close connection was 
maintained to the last. 

The Abbot of Boxley would seem to have 
soon attained to a recognised position in the 
monastic polity of the county, even to the 
obtaining more than once a seat in Parlia- 
ment, and to being called on to take part in 
different ecclesiastical controversies. For 
instance, so early as the year 1152, within 
six years of the foundation of the abbey, he 
appears to have had the honour of being 
included in a very solemn "function" con- 
nected with the installation of an abbot of 
St Augustine's. 

It chanced, too, that in 11 70 the Boxley 
abbot being at Canterbury, it devolved on 
him to consign to its first resting-place in the 
cathedral crypt the body of the murdered 
Becket Again, ten years after, in 11 80, he 
was selected, in conjunction with his brother 
abbot of Faversham, to arbitrate in a dis- 
pute between Sir Nathanael de I^veland 
and the monks of St. Bertin at St Omers. 
But perhaps the highest honour recorded as 
having been conferred on the holder of this 
office was that he was deputed, jointly with 
the Prior of Robertsbridge, to go to Oermany 
in order to discover the place of King 
Richard's imprisonment. 

Of the buildings themselves what can be 
said ? So little remains that it is impossible 
to form more than a conjectural opinion as 
to the position of the several parts. There 
would doubtless have been a refectory, with 
its kitchen, buttery, and cellar ; a dormitory 

• P. R., 9 H. VI., p. 2, m. 4. 

t Hume explains this term thus : '* It was a usual 
expedient for men who held of the king or great 
barons by military tenure, to transfer their land to the 
Church and receive it back by * franc-almoigne,* by 
which they were not bound to perform any service." 

* P. R., 9 W» ^''i P* '♦ ^^* 5* 



2o6 



BOXLEY ABBEY, 



for the monks themselves; another for the 
guests or converts, these forming two sides 
of a square, along which would run the 
cloisters, giving to the enclosed yard the 
name of the " cloister garth," or garden ; while 
on the side opposite to the Refectory, and 
connected with it by the Abbot's apartments, 
the entrance-door, and the Chapter-house, 
would rise up the Chapel, the pride of the 
whole range, conspicuous for its lofty roof, 
towering above its neighbour gables, with 
its richly - decorated window, filled with 
"storied panes," telling of some mysterious 
incident in the legendary life of the Virgin 
Mary, to whom, like all Cistercian chapels, 
this was dedicated. 

Of the interior of this Chapel nothing is 
on record beyond what may be incidentally 
gleaned from bequests in Wills of the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries. It is clear 
that men of mark or of wealth did covet for 
their bodies, after life's fitful fever had run its 
course, a resting-place within its walls or pre- 
cincts. In 1385 (Sir) Robert de Bourne (or 
Burne), a member of a goodly family, him- 
self the Rector of Frekenham in Suffolk, 
who seems to have made Boxley his home, 
expressly desired to be buried within the 
Abbey Chapel, and specified the very spot he 
chose — in the north side, between the altars 
of the Apostle and the Martyr; while in 
front of his own tomb he wished that a third 
altar should be erected in honour of the 
three virgins, SS. Katherine, Margaret, and 
Agatha, and the three confessors, SS. Michael, 
Martin, and Dunstan.* In 1489 one John 
Kember, who described himself as living 
within the Abbey-gate, and probably was a 
lay-brother of the monastery, selected his 
burial-place within the Chapel, before the 
image of the Virgin.! While in 15 12 Sir 
Thomas Bourchier, Knight, a nephew of the 
Cardinal Archbishop, desired to be buried 
in the "cemetery of the Abbey," and left a 
sum of money to "edify and make a Chapell 
and an aultar, and to found a Chapleyan to 
pray for his soul and the souls of his uncle " 
and other relatives. J 

* Will of Robert de Bourne, clerk, Somerset House, 
I Rous. 

t Will of John Kember, ibid,, 43 Milles. The 
name long continued in the parish, which was indebted 
to one of the family for a charitable bequest in 161 1. 

X Will of Sir Thomas Bourchier, Knight, ibiti,, 
15 Fetiplace. 



But of all this nothing remains, save here 
and there, buried in the interior of a com- 
paratively modem dwelling-house, the massive 
foundations of some portion of the main 
building ; or, inserted in some side-wall as a 
relic or a curiosity, a fragment of stone 
carving, which erst formed part of a jamb 
or spandrel ; or tracery of a long-since ruth- 
lessly demolished doorway or window. The 
granary or bam alone remains entire, retain- 
ing its original character and use; its spacious- 
ness, so essential a feature of a Cistercian 
house, implying that it was designed to be 
something more than a mere gamer for the 
use of the small staff of an Abbot and eight 
Monks, with a corresponding body of labourers 
to till the land, but rather as a storehouse, 
from which in time of need the wants of the 
neighbouring poor might be supplied. 

The late Mr. Surtees, who resided for 
some years in the abbey, has thus recorded 
his opinions on the subject of the ruins in a 
paper read by him at the meeting of the 
Kent Archaeological Society in i88a : "The 
site of Boxley Abbey, though occupied by 
so many buildings more or less modern, is 
r^narkable from the fact that these appear 
to be set out on the old lines. They are all 
at right angles to one another, and face east 
and west ; and their place, if laid down on 
paper, would show very much of the form 
usually noticed in a Cistercian house of 
moderate size. Thus the dwelling-house 
occupies apparently part of the site of the 
abbot's house. The usual cloister court is 
represented by a green lawn. The place 
where the chapter-house and slype and day- 
room is found is here a raised bank, while 
the high terrace of masonry leading from the 
latter appears to occupy the site of the church. 
An ancient semicircular arch to the east of 
the present house, and a long portion of the 
original walling, would appear to be a part 
of the kitchen and refectory. . . . The bam, 
already referred to, is a 'fine and noble 
specimen,' as Mr. Loftus Brock terms it, of 
a monastic storehouse, still, as an archae- 
ological relic, in good preservation.'** 

Once, at least, was the abbey honoured 
by the presence of Royalty, an event which 
demands special notice, both because a writer 

* A paper read before the Kent Archxological 
Society, August 2, 1882. See Arch. Cant, voL «t., 
xli. 



BOXLEY ABBEY. 



207 



on Kentish history has called it in question,* 
and also because it explains an important 
change in the civic government of London. 
When, in 132 1, £d«*ard II. was marching on 
Leeds Castle to inflict condign punishment 
on the seneschal (a Colepeper) for refusing 
to admit Queen Isabel into her own Castle 
for a night's lodging, on her pilgrimage to 
Canterbury, he halted here, and from hence 
issued a most important Charter to the City 
of London. The charter granted by King 
John had allowed the substitution of the title 
•* Mayor " for the previous one of " Bailiff" 
to its chief oflker \ but the appointment to 
the oflSce, though nominally placed in the 
hands of the citizens, practically lay with the 
Crown, and was held at the king's pleasure, 
being often retained for life, the first mayor, 
Henry Fits -Al win, holding it for about 
twenty-four years. Now, Edward II., moved 
with special gratitude to the city for their 
ready aid in sending him levies in his attack 
on liCeds Castle, conferred on them a Charter, 
giving them the free choice of their Mayor 
from their own body, subject only to the 
king's approval ; and this chartert was dated 
from Boxley, presumably from the abbey, as 
being the only house capable of giving fitting 
reception to the king. 

The connection of Boxley Abbey with its 
daughter priory of Robertsbridge, and that 
of Christ Church, Canterbury, already alluded 
to, would seem to have produced strangely 
opposite results. The chapter recordls 
divu^ the tale that the more rigid discipline 
of the Cistercians here enforced was from 
tin»e to time taken advantage of by the 
Canterbury Benedictines for a twofold pur- 
pose. When, for instance, a monk at Canter- 
bury found the greater laxness of the rule 
there detrimental to the well-being of his 
soul, he would apply to be transferred to 

* Brayley, in his Biouties of Engiand and Wales 
(Kent, p. t2|6), says that Philipott, Hasted, and 
flanis are aJl in error in supposing that Edward II. 
toHied any such charter, and that the only charter the 
king tsEtted to the dty at this time was one exempting 
ihc citizens from aU future levies for carrying on war 
out of the dty, and that that charter was dated from 
AlJennanston. Now, the Aldermanston charter was 
doted on December 12, whereas the one conferring 
the rigiht to elect thdr own mayor was dated from 
Boaley on October 25 preceding {Historical Charters 
tfii€ City^ London, ed. Birch, 1887, p. 51). 

f P. R., 1$ E. II., iiart i., m. 1 1. 



Boxley, or Robertsbridge ; while, on the other 
hand, a troublesome, intractable brother 
would now and again be sent from Canter- 
bury to Boxley, in the hope that the sterner 
discipline might subdue his spirit In the 
one case the Cistercian house would serve 
as a "Retreat"; in the other as a '* Re- 
formatory.*** 

It is from these points of view, and in its 
earlier days, that, both as a religious house 
and as a political influence, Boxley Abbey 
appears at its brightest and best 

{To be continued,) 





C&e laestoration of DattfiitD 

BY RBV. CANON SCOTT ROBERTSON. 

.RTFORD parish church was re- 
opened on September 25, after 
some carefully -executed work of 
needful restoration. The totter- 
ing north-west angle of the north aisle, which 
had been shored up with timber for years, 
has been made secure, and has been par- 
tially rebuilt. During the course of the work, 
an interesting discovery was made, and re- 
tained. In the west wall (about 3 feet 
thick), close to its north end, a low, small 
lancet window (unglazed) was found. Its 
sill is about 4 feet from the floor. Its 
shutter was gone, and its area filled up. It 
has now been fully opened out and glazed. 
Possibly an anchorite's cell may have oc- 
cupied this comer of the north aisle, as did 
a priest's chamber at Chislet Church near 
Canterbury. 

In the south chancel, dedicated to St. 
Mary, in which the Stanpit chantry priest 
officiated for about 500 years, from a.d. 
1338, there is upon the east wall a late 
fnesco representing the story of St George 
and the Dragon. On the floor and in the* 
south ¥rall there are many memorial stones, 
brasses, and tombs. At the restoration of 
the church, under Mr., now Sir, Arthur 
Blomfield, nearly thirty years ago, all these 

• Canterbury Chapter Records^ G. 58, 123, etc. 
Ibid,, N. 179, etc. 



308 



TtlE EXCAVATIONS AT SI LC HESTER. 



were practically hidden by the erection of a 
large organ in the eastern part of this chancel. 
Now, happily, the organ has been moved to 
the west end of the same chancel, and has 
been erected in a smaller space more com- 
pactly. The fresco is thus clearly shown, 
and so are the memorial brasses, slabs, and 
inscriptions. In the east wall of this chancel, 
just below the base of the fresco, a little 
trefoiled niche is now seen. It stood im- 
mediately above the altar of St. Mary during 
the Middle Ages. Two " spyholes " from a 
priest's chamber, which stood behind the 
fresco, have also been uncovered. One of 
them was a small well-moulded hexagon, 
coeval with the east wall of the chancel. 
This, however, had been covered by the 
base of the fresco. Consequently another 
" spyhole " was needed upon a slightly lower 
level. This now appears, not moulded, but 
very similar to an ordinary small put-log 
hole, which probably it was originally. The 
good vicar, the Rev. A. H. Watts, who has 
effected the recent careful works here, hopes 
to get the fresco restored by Heaton, Butler, 
and Bayne, who will likewise (if funds can 
be obtained) restore the priest's chamber 
(over the vestry) behind the fresco. In that 
chamber they have already found, and 
opened out, the small fireplace, with its 
mantel and its simple hearth -coping of 
moulded stone, like a fender. 

The "spyhole" into the high chancel 
from this priest's chamber has always been 
visible. It is a plain " slit " in the wall. 
The north wall of the priest's chamber 
shows an Early English window and part 
of an Early English arch, which were 
blocked up when this chamber and the 
south chancel were built. 



^£^?^^il 



Cbe €rcattation0 at dilcbester. 

By W. H. St. John Hopr, M.A. 



|HE systematic excavation, square by 
square, of the site of the Romano- 
British city at Silchcster, begun 
last year under the auspices of the 
Society of Antiquaries, was resumed in May, 
and despite the bad weather and the pro- 




longed harvest, has been carried on more or 
less continuously during the past five months. 

The work this year has been confined to 
two new squares, or insula^ on the west side of 
the basilica, an area covering about 3^ acres ; 
and to the completion of the large insula 
north of the former, which was begun last 
year. 

Of the two new insula^ the northern has 
been excavated at the sole expense of Dr. 
Edwin Freshfield, Treasurer of the Society of 
Antiquaries, and the southern at the expense 
of the late Mr. Walter Foster, F.S.A, whose 
sad death in July last is greatly regretted by 
his co-workers of the executive committee. 

Both insula contain a large proportion of 
open ground, probably gardens, but along the 
street fronts are the foundations of numerous 
shops and dwelling-houses. In the northern 
insula in particular, is one very interesting 
group of shops. These form part of, or are 
attached to, a small house which had mosaic 
floors, and a winter room warmed by a com- 
posite hypocaust of peculiar construction. 
Of this group a large model to scale is being 
made. Another house in the same insula 
had several mosaic pavements, of which one 
was so perfect as to allow of its removal for 
preservation. Though of simple design and 
coarse workmanship, this pavement is inter- 
esting as showing what effective results can 
be obtained from the commonest red, drath, 
and purple tessera. 

Among the buildings, etc., discovered in 
the southern insula may be mentioned a 
small but perfect house, a curious group of 
chambers or shops along one of the street 
fronts, and a remarkable pavement of hard 
white opus signinum. Hard by the little 
house was found the well that probably served 
it with water. Like one found last year, the 
lower part of this was steined with oak-boards 
dovetailed at the comers. 

From the numerous rubbish-pits scattered 
over both insula, large quantities of pottery and 
other objects have been extracted. Almost 
every kind of Romano-British pottery is repre- 
sented, as well as the foreign pseudo-Arreiine; 
and although most of the vessels are smashed 
to pieces, a very fair number of perfect and 
nearly perfect specimens have been recovered, 
or reconstructed from fragments. Of objects 
in bone, shale, glass and bronze, some good 



THE EXCAVATIONS AT SILCHESTEE. 



ao9 



examples have also been found, including an 
enamelled bronze stand of uncommon type 
and some well-wrought bucket-handles of the 
same metal. Of coins a great number have 
turned up, but mosdy in very indifferent pre- 
servation. One of the latest found bears a 
prominent representation of the Christian 
Chi'Rho monogram. 

The architectural remains met with are not 
numerous, but several bases of columns, and 
part of an inscnption on a slab of Purbeck 
marble, deserve notice. 

Besides artificial objects, the pits and 
trenches have yielded a great many animal 
remains in the form of bones and skulls. 
These, which are now being examined by 
experts, include the almost perfect skeleton 
of a Romano-British dog ! Some fish-bones 
and fruit stones are also among the " finds," 
as well as the skeleton and scales of a pet 
fish, which its owner had carefully buried in 
a pot and covered with a flint stone. 

The unexcavated strip of the large insula 
undertaken last year has been taken in hand 
since harvest, and found to contain some 
interesting foundations. A large oblong 
building, abutting on the great main street, 
probably enclosed a shrine or altar ; and 
l>eside it is a group of small chambers, also 
along the street, which may be shops. Various 
antiquities have also turned up, of which the 
best are a |)erfect bronze figure of a goat, and 
a large piece of a slab of some rare foreign 
marble that had perhaps served as a wall- 
lining. 

Although no sensational discovery has 
been made, the results of the season's work 
axe quite satisfactory, and when the numerous 
pots and pans, odds and ends, plans and 
models, etc, arc exhibited to the Society of 
.'Vntiquaries in December, the executive com- 
mittee will be able to give a good account of 
themselves. Arrangements will also be made, 
if possible, to hold a public exhibition of the 
results of the season's work during the first 
fortnight of the new year. 

By the kindness of the Duke of Wellington, 
all Uie objects, etc., discovered during the 
excavations will be housed in the Reading 
Museum, where the antiquities found last 
year have already been deposited The 
nucleus thus formed will eventually grow into 
a very fine Romano-Bridsh collection. This, 



however, will of course depend on the sup- 
port accorded to the Silchester Excavation 
Fund, and it may not be amiss to mention 
that the treasurer of the fund, Mr. F. G. 
Hilton Price, F.S.A., i, Fleet Street, London, 
E.C., will gladly receive and acknowledge 
subscriptions to the work. 





ancient axialMPamttng0. 

By Gkorgs Bail£y. 

Na II.— THE CHAPTERHOUSE, LICHFIELD. 

{HE wall-painting of which an illus- 
tration accompanies this article 
was exposed to view during restora- 
tions made in 1 858. It occupies the 
central wall space over the entrance of the 
chapter-house, and measures 7 feet from the 
point of the arch to the roof. The picture 
has been purposely mutilated, but enough 
still remains to form a good idea of its ap- 
pearance when complete. The subject is 
the Assu iiption of the Blessed Vii^n Mary. 
The Virgin is represented clothed in a royal 
robe, the edge of which is ornamented with 
gems ; sihe has a double crown on her head 
with a nimbus, from behind which rays of 
light project; the hands are held together 
in a devotional attitude, while the pose is 
dignified and imposing. An orle of angels 
surrounds the figure as it ascends, and 
below, on either side, are green hills whereon 
kneel in adoration several of the secular 
canons of the cathedral church. Various 
surmises have been put forth as to these 
figures, some supposing those to the Virgin's 
left to be Dominican friars, or, at least, 
monks of the great church of Coventry, 
forgetting that the church of Coventry as 
well as Lichfield was in the hands of the 
seculars from the end of the twelfth century. 
A careful study of the garb of these eccle- 
siastics shows that they are all canons ; the 
figures on the sinister side wearing, as Mr. 
St. John Hope points out, grey amesses 
with the cappa nigra over them, whilst the 
single figure that alone remains on the dexter 
has seemingly only a grey amesse over his sur- 



aio ANCIENT WALL-PAINTINGS. 

plice. The face ofthe canon in the foreground chapter-house to be adorned with pictures, 

is of youthful and singularly graceful aspect, together with stained-glass for the windows ; 

Unfortunately the ejaculations, which were but this bit of painting is all that is now left, 

written on scrolls issuing from the adoring save traces of green and red lines on some of 

figures, are too much perished to admit of the stone mouldings. The work has been 

even a conjectural reading. On the right executed with a slight priming on the bare 

there is part of a word with a large capital stone ; very little colour except browns and 

I in red, thus 9 . . . . MeBt, perhaps blacks has heen used, and it might have been 




INTERCEDE, and following it the letters 
jli: . . . . ; all the remainder is illegible. 

An interesting communication was made to 
the Society of Antiquaries by Rev. Dr. Cox 
this year {iSgil,* from which we ascertain 
that this painting was executed for Dean Hay- 
wood in the year 1481, which would be 
about the first year of Richard III. The 
dean paid £,i,(i for the roof and walls of the 
• Benefactions of Dean 1 [eywood, Arch,n)logia, vol. lii. 



called a monochrome had there not been a 
few touches of red and green here and there. 
There are also a few traces of another paint- 
ing having existed previous to this one. 
Probably the medium used in mixing the 
colours was white of egg, though it was not 
uncommon to use oil at the date of the 
execution of this picture. 

We have recently examined an exten- 
sive series of paintings on the walls of 



ANCIENT WALL PAINTINGS. 



911 



the Lttdy Chapel at \Vinchester Cathedral, 
which appear to have been executed in 
1489^ for Prior Silkstede, which are painted 
on the bare stone much like the Lichfield 
one, and the date of which corresponds with 
It. The colotirs used are nearly the same, 
only that this series of paintings, from the 
legendary life of the Virgin, have evidently 
been executed by a Flemish artist of much 
ability; they have finely-written inscriptions 
10 text of very excellent style ; and on one 
of them these words occur, "Prior Silk- 
^tede also caused these polished stones, O 
Mary, to be ornamented at his expense." 
In the late Perpendicular and Tudor period, 
it had become usual to finish off the stone- 
work of the interior walls of churches so 
that it was not necesssary to coat them with 
plaster ; they were either colour-washed, or 
even left bare, except for the elaborate 
decoration sometimes used upon them. In the 
earlier churches, it was always usual to plaster 
the walls; and on this the most ancient 
pictures have been painted. Interior walls 
were not then finished, as came to be the 
fashion in later times, hence the necessity 
for plaster. It is not a little amusing to 
notice the absurd fancy which has lately 
prevailed for removing every vestige of 
plaster, and so exposing the rude construction 
of the walls of rubble work, with an elaborate 
mapping out of these stones by pointing them 
with cement Owing to this fact, many 
wall-paintings have been hopelessly cleaned 
off, in order that this grotesque webbing of 
lines might take their place. 

On the subject of wall-paintings the 
interested reader may consult with advan- 
tage the List of Buildings having Mural 
Decorations^ by Mr. Keyser, published by 
the Science and Art Department in 1883. 
It gives an alphabetical list of all wall-paint- 
ing known in this country up to that date. 
There are^ of course, others discovered since, 
r^>., that at Dodington, figured in our first 
article, p. 73 of this volume. The Assump- 
tion of the Virgin was not a common subject 
for wail-paintings — at all events, in England, 
Mr. Keyser notes eleven examples, viz., at Bris- 
ley, Chalgrove, Chilton Cantelo, Devizes St. 
Mary, Eton,Ewelme, Exeter Cathedral Church, 
Friskney, Jersey St. Brelade, Ruislip, and St. 
David's; the Lichfield example brings the 



total up to twelve. Mr. Keyser also men- 
tions the painted carvings of the Assumption 
at Sandford and Great Witchingham. We 
give now a few hints from the introduction 
to this work which may be of use to guide 
those of our readers who may in the future 
discover traces of such paintings either in 
churches or other old buildings. 

It is recommended that the manipulator 
should use an ivory, bone, or steel spatula 
or palette knife — the more flexible the better. 
It will also be very necessary to use much 
patience and judgment in the work of clean- 
ing off superposed plaster or whitewash, as 
well as a sponge to damp the whitewash be- 
fore using the spatula ; and when all has 
been cleaned that can be by this means, it 
may be necessary and advisable in some 
cases to use strips of linen coated with 
strong warm glue or size, to be ironed on to 
the whitewash and allowed to dry before 
pulling it off together with the attached 
plaster from the face of the picttire. When 
this has been done, there will still remain 
a clouding of lime, which may be destroyed 
by using diluted vin^ar ejected from a spray- 
producer, and afterwards applying water to 
wash off the vinegar and decomposed lime 
by the same spraying implement. A brush 
also will be found necessary to dust the 
powdered lime off the painting as the work 
goes on. When all has been cleaned, then 
the following mixture for fixing may be 
applied, either with a broad flat brush, or, 
as this would in some cases be likely to 
disturb the colours, a spray-producer would 
be more safe to use : — 

Melt two ounces, by weight, of pure white 
wax and pour it into six ounces, by measure, 
of oil of spike lavender ; warm the mixture 
until it is clear, and then add ten ounces, by 
measure, of picture copal varnish and twenty- 
six ounces of freshly distilled turpentine. In 
some cases the following solution may be 
used with greater safety, viz.: a thin size in 
alcohol and water ; this can be used on any 
wall, however soft, while a hard varnish would 
in such a case certainly hasten decay. 

Sometimes underneath a wall-painting there 
is another and earlier one of much more 
interest. If it should be necessary to par- 
tially or wholly destroy the first, a copy 
should be made from it in colour for pre- 



212 



Q VARTERL V NOTES ON ROMAN BRITAIN 



servation. At Raunds Church, Northampton- 
shire, a case of this kind is found, but a 
portion of each of the paintings has been 
preserved— dates, fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries. 





Ctuatterlp JlSotes on IRoman 

TBritain. 

By F. Haverfield, M.A., F.S.A. 



No. IV. 

I HE results of the last three months 
closely resemble the results of the 
months before them. The really 
important excavations at Chester 
and at Silchester have been continued, and 
various discoveries have been elsewhere made 
of second-class but not uninteresting cha- 
racter. The finds at Chester are very far 
the most striking, and are perhaps some of 
the most notable made in Britain for several 
years. 

Hampshire. — Full information as to the 
results obtained at Silchester has been pub- 
lished in the last volume of Archaologia^ in 
an article which is an excellent specimen 
of what such articles should be ; and more 
recent details are made known by Mr. Hope 
in this issue of the Antiquary The most 
noticeable of the individual relics found is 
a bit of an inscription, a few well-cut letters 
(as Mr. G. E. Fox, F.S.A., tells me) at the 
left-hand bottom corner of a moulded slab 
of Purbeck marble. But the importance 
of the excavations, as I have tried to point 
out in the Manchester Guardian (August 13), 
seems to me to lie not so much in the 
individual interest of any object or objects, 
as in the cumulative evidence bearing upon 
the civilization of the town. I am the 
more desirous to say this because I fancy 
that the level of civilization reached by the 
inhabitants of Calleva is not quite so high 
as used to be thought. It no longer seems 
so certain, for instance, that the town was 
thickly built over, and if future results re- 
semble those already gained, we shall have 
to modify our ideas as to the size of the 



populations. This will not, however, modify 
the importance of the results. Silchester 
will be to us a type of a Romano-British 
town ; the ground-plan of its houses will 
throw light on the ground-plan of other 
Romano-British houses, whether in towns 
or in the country, and the appurtenances 
of Callevan comfort will give us some idea 
of the non-military life of Roman Britain. 
The excavations have another value. They 
are admirably conducted, and will serve as 
a pattern for similar undertakings else 
where. 

Another spot in Hampshire has also 
yielded up interesting bits of Roman remains. 
In the course of clearing some ground for 
building at Twyford, near Winchester, there 
were discovered a paved way of red tiles, 
an oven, a room 8 feet square with plastered 
walls and tile flooring, and an outlet for 
water, with other traces of a Roman " vUIa *• 
— all about a quarter of a mile from some 
other Roman remains discovered earlier. It 
is stated in a letter in the Morning Post 
(August 14) that some of the finds were not 
properly cared for. 

LoNDON.-^As usual, many small finds 
have been made in London. The most 
striking appears to be some masonry found 
in July under Messrs. Dimsdale's property, 
and under St. MichaePs Church in CornhilK 
The masonry, 12 feet thick, is said to be 
of good character, but it is not clear to what 
sort of building it belonged. Pottery, glass, 
tiles, and bones were found at the same 
time. 

Midlands. — From Hertfordshire a corre- 
spondent of the Herts Observer (July xi) 
records tiles and pottery (New Forest ware) 
found in the churchyard at Stansted, on 
the line of Stane Street. A pavement is said 
to have been discovered in the same place in 
1887. 

From Gloucestershire Mr. W. Cripps, 
C.B., F.S. A., sends me word of some remains 
unearthed at Cirencester in laying out some 
new streets. They include coins of Tetricus, 
the Constantines, and other emperors down 
to Arcadius, great quantities of all sorts 
of pottery, many small objects in bron7e 
and bone, fibulae, tweezers, bodkins, counters 
and the like, and a few bits of bottle-glass. 
For the ground-plan of the Roman town 



QUARTERLY NOTES ON ROMAN BRITAIN. 



ai3 



little appears to be gained — ^the direction 
of a street with one or two adjacent houses, 
and a short length of sewer. The only 
inscribed objects seem to be some sixty 
potteis* marks, which Mr. Cripps has oblig- 
ingly scot me. 

Chester. — At the date of my last article 
the examination of the north city wall had 
yielded some forty more or less perfect 
inscriptions, and a great deal of sculpture 
and canred stone. At the end of June the 
work was temporarily suspended, to be re- 
bumed again at the beginning of September. 
Meanwhile, a great help to the undertaking 
had been gained in the shape of a grant 
^ j£4^ made by the Craven trustees at 
Cambridge to Mr. £. F. Benson, of King's 
College, for the purpose of examining the 
north wall The work has thus had also 
the advantage of Mr. Benson's personal 
collaboration. The exploration of the wall 
was continued at the point at which work 
had been suspended in July, and, when 
occasion offered, a small part of the east 
wall was also examined. The north wall 
has, as yet, yielded nearly twenty more 
inscriptions, all apparently gravestones of 
somewhat similar character to those found 
before; they relate, that is, to the Roman 
troc^ in Chester, or to their wives and 
fiunilies. One of these, remarkable for its 
admirable preservation, may be quoted here. 
It represents a female figure — that of the 
deceased — iu a niche, with tritons above 
as ornaments. The inscription itself is as 
follows : 

D . M. 
CVRATIA DINT 
SIA VIX AN XXXX 
H . F . C 

that is, 72; M^ memory of Curatio Dinysia^ 
v?ko died at the age of forty ^ ended by her 
heir. The second name of the lady is 
curiously spelt, apparently it stands for 
Dionysia^ and it is remarkable that the y 
\s written in the Greek fashion (Y). Still 
more important are six inscriptions of soldiers 
in the Le^o u. adiutrix pia fidelis^ a legion 
which must be carefully distinguished from 
the Legh iL Augusta^ and which is thought 
to have been in Britain only for a few years, 
about 80 A.O., in the time of Agricola's 



governorship. This is not the place to enter 
into epigraphic details, but there is a good 
deal to be learnt both from the occurrence 
and from the wording cf these inscriptions, 
and they may fairly be styled very im- 
portant. 

The only other finds reported from the 
Chester district are some walls at Mold, on 
the Bailey Hill. I am, however, inclined 
to agree with Mr. Romilly Allen in thinking 
these not to be Roman. 

Lincoln. — In the Greetwell Fields, near 
Lincoln, remains have been found of a 
Roman villa, of which accounts may be found 
in the Lincolnshire Chronicle and the Archi- 
tect (August 14). The chief find is a strip 
of pavement, said to be 140 feet long, and 
13 feet broad, with an intricate pattern in 
blue, white, and red. Another strip is 90 
feet long, and 10 feet broad, and there seem 
to be other strips. It is much to be regretted 
that it has been found impossible to preserve 
these relics intact ; it is stated, however, 
that Mr. Ramsden, manager of the ironstone 
works at the Greetwell Fields, has made 
accurate plans. From the accounts given, 
the building to which the pavements be- 
longed must have been laige and luxurious. 

The North. — From the north there is 
little to report Discoveries along the Wall 
of Hadrian have been few of late, though 
some pottery and coins are mentioned in 
the Proceedings of the Newcastle Society of 
Antiquaries. There is also little to be added 
to the accounts already given in these 
columns of the sections made on the 
Antonine Wall, near Glasgow. They were 
visited by the Archaeological Institute in 
August, but without advancing conclusions. 
The work has, however, set Mr. G. Neilson 
on to an examination of the earthen Valium 
just south of the Wall of Hadrian, the results 
of which he will shortly publish. 

Literature. — Nor is there much more 
to be said about the literature of the subject. 
Mr. R. N. Worth, in an address to the 
Devonshire Association at Tiverton ( Western 
Morning Nen% July 29 ; since reprinted), 
reviewed fully the Roman remains found in 
Devon and Cornwall, arriving at the con- 
clusion that they were very few. I think 
he has somewhat overstated his case. The 
St. Hilary milestone is ccrumly above sus- 



ai4 



THE EARLY ECCLESIASTICAL REGISTERS OF LONDON. 



picion; it is a Roman milestone, or rather 
a roadstone, of an ordinary type, and, though 
some of the letters are very doubtful, the 
general purport is plain. I hope to be able 
to deal with this whole subject at more 
length elsewhere. Besides Mr. Worth's 
paper, I may call attention to the ^ifm 
jSperrai/iKos mentioned in the newly -dis- 
covered fragment of Diocletian's Edict on the 
Prices of Goods, The term "brettanic" may, 
of course, refer to Bruttium ; but if it refers 
to Britain, the notice will be an interesting 
testimony to British trade about 290 a.d. 
An article on the Gaulish names ending 
in rixy contributed by M. d'Arbois de Jubain- 
ville to the Revue Archkologique (xviii. 82, 
foil.), is worthy of archaeologists' attention, 
and the recently issued supplement to the 
third volume of the Corpus contains a cor- 
rection which may interest Northern anti- 
quaries. It has been asserted that in the 
north of Dacia, the Romans built a line of 
fortification much as they did in England, 
and in proof of this an inscription was 
adduced, mentioning a vallum. It now ap 
pears that vallum was a mistake for v, L m, 
p,y a not uncommon formula at the end of 
dedications. The Dacian vallum must there- 
fore, at least for the present, disappear from 
discussions on the Roman frontier system. 

Lancing College, 

October 13, 189 1. 




jQote0 on tbe OEarl]? aBccle0ia0tical 
]Regl0ter!9 of LonDon* 

By Rev. G. Hennessv, B.A. 



O most people old registers and 
their contents are but dry and 
musty subjects to read or open ; 
but from actual experience, their 
perusal becomes one of the most fascinating 
of studies, and their contents excite increasing 
interest. Beginning with the scribe's hand- 
writing in the London episcopal registers of 
1306, and ending with 1890, one is struck 
with the care and brevity of the early records, 
contrasted with the verbosity and vain repeti- 




tions, and indeed, in some cases, the care- 
lessness, of writers of the present day. For 
instance, take the case of a record to an 
institution to a benefice in the year 1306, 
and it will be found that the whole transac- 
tion is recorded in four lines. Here is an 
example : 

Ecc'taStiPe- Thoin* de Wynlon clcus p^senla ad 
tri de Wode- ecc'iam sti Pet' de Wodesir* Londoo, nrc 
streit Lon- dioc' vacante p' Relig vir Adam de Kt<i 
°*'°* Albano ipsius ecc'lie p'ronu' VI Non. 

Martii fuit admissus ut Rector' institut canonice in 
eadem. 

In the present day the whole thing is made 
a business of, and it would take up at least 
one hundred and fifty lines to record the 
same transaction. It would be interesting 
to know how much, or rather how little, was 
paid to the registrar in those early days, as 
he could not make his fortune out of the 
folios^ whereas nowadays there is " notification 
of vacancy," "resignation bond," "commission 
to archdeacon to induct," " bishop's record of 
institution," "certificate of reading one's self 
in," and various other documents by which 
the beneficed ought to be bound hand and 
foot, if the multitude of documents and forms 
could do it. 

One of the next things that strikes the 
reader is the constant exchange made by the 
dignified clergy in the fourteenth century and 
onward. A man is installed in a canonry, 
and his seat is not well warmed, when he 
is off again to a better and more lucrative 
one, or he is installed by deputy to one he 
has never seen nor never intends to occupy, 
and so it happened that pluralism was and 
always has been a misfortune, to use no 
stronger expression, for the Church of 
England. There are several instances of 
priests holding as many as twenty different 
preferments, some of which he had never 
visited. To such a depth did this sink, that 
in 1366 a return was made, at the instance 
of the Pope, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
of all pluralists in his province. 

Here is one specimen out of hundreds of 
similar cases : Magister Thomas Yong, cl, 
LL.B., Official of the Bows, Chancellor of 
London, Cure of the School of Theology 
and Grammar, Lecturer of Theology, Per- 
petual Vicar of Bosharo, Vicar of Ealing, 
Canon of Wells, Canon of the Convent of 
St. Mary Wynton, Prebendary of Alkanyngs, 



THE EARL Y ECCLESIASTICAL REGISTERS OF LONDON. 



215 



Canon of the Free Chapel Royal of Wolver- 
lumptoD, Prebendary of Kywaston, Canon 
of Wymbom Minster, and Prebendary of 
Southwell. 

Passing on to the wills (found in these 
R-gisters), dow^n to the time of Henry VIII., 
there is an almost invariable form of com- 
mending one's soul to God, and the body to 
be buried in bis parish church, sometimes 
gt>-ing details as to the exact spot, and the 
precise mode of dealing with the dead body. 
For instance, in the will (1482) of Sir John 
l'hod<% parish priest of St Mary Magdalen, 
Old Fish Street London, the testator directs 
that his body be buried "in my vestment 
that I was first sacred in tukkyd upon me, 
with a pa)T of Corkyd Shoss upon my fete, 
in a chest naylid, afor the high Auter in the 
Chancel of the sayd Churche, that is to saye, 
in the same place where the confiteore is sayd 
before the Masse. And I will that ther be 
made a vaute in the ground of lyme and 
breke wher as my body shall be buryed, if it 
may be congruely done after the discrecion 
of min executors, and I will that ther be layd 
upon my grave a marbell stone with an Image 
of laton of the figur of a prist revessid, to be 
fixed upon the same stone, and that the 
scriptur of myn obite to be sette at the other 
end of the seid stone . . .'' 

Or take another instance from the will 
(<453) ^ William Huntyngdon, "parsonne 
of the Psarish Churche of St. James Atte 
Garkke within London," who desires his 
body to be buried " in the entre of the quere 
of the seid churche," and gives his " whiU 
vestment perpetually to serve at the high 
Masse of our lady at the high Auter ; and 
on holidays also at morowe masse auter in 
worship of our lady and S. James." 

Sir John Graunte (1517), "prest," desires 
to be buried in St. Michael Bassingshawe, 
" as ny the Thresshold as may be," and also 
bequeaths his vestments, " that is to wite, a 
wkiU^ a grtnt^ and a blahty to the same.** 

Yet another which gives the place of bap- 
tism. John Kendall, •* presbiter '* of Tendon 
diocese, desires (1517) to be buried in the 
Chapel of St. Mary Magdalen, "neare the 
Ciuyld Hall, London," or in any other holy 
place, *'in alio sancto loco," and leaves a 
bequest to the Church of St. Oswald of 
Sturbby, Lincoln diocese, "uhi baptisatus 
fui." 



Sir John Saron, '* prest and parson of St. 
Nicolas Oluff, in Bred Street,*' desires (15 19) 
to be buried in that church " in the quer on 
the left side of Maister Harry Willows some 
tyme parson of the sayd Churche, or before 
Scynt Nicholas with a litell tombe for the 
resurrection of Ester Day," and bequeaths 
twenty shillings to the parish church of Blox- 
ham " wher I was borne." 

I am tempted to give one more extract 
from the will of William Burke, cleric I do 
this because it shows that vestments were 
still in use in the year 1558. This William 
Burke was "one of the Chappleyns of the 
Temple of London," and bequeaths to the 
parish of Poklington in the Ca of York 
" wheare I was borne " " a Challyce of Sylver 
and gylt with a patten to yt, and a Vestment," 
etc., for a "pryeste to celebrate Masse 
with." 

It is to be noted that up to this time the 
parson is almost always named as one of the 
executors or supervisor of each person's will 
dying in his parish, but about 1540 there is 
a complete change, and he is severely omitted. 
Up to this time, too, everyone in his will 
remembered for good, not only his own 
family, but also his servants, his parish 
church, his "ghostly fader," the poor of his 
parish, as also of the parish where he was 
bom, or where he dwelt. Many also had a 
favourite spot where they desired to be 
buried, ^beneath the seat where I usually 
sat," " beneath the high altar," « before the 
image of St. Mary," while later on it changes 
to ** nigh the pulpit," or " beneath the pulpit 
where I used to preach from." 

Passing away from wills, we come back to 
the rasters again, noting that in the present 
day, before a roan can be instituted to a 
benefice or dignity, he must be in priest's 
orders, but in the early days of registers, 
many of the prebendal stalls were filled by 
la)inen, or men in one or other of the minor 
orders, such as acolyte or subdeacon. 

Discipline was maintained and upheld 
strictly until post -Reformation times, when 
some trouble was given by the clergy of 
different persuasions. On July 18, 1578, an 
interdict was placed on the church of St 
Anne, Blackfriars, because the minister there 
did not celebrate the Sacraments according 
to the ritual of the Church of England, in 
not using the surplice. A similar interdict 



2X6 



THE EARLY ECCLESIASTICAL REGISTERS OF LONDON. 



was applied to the Church of the Minories, 
near the Tower, dated August 9, 1578, but 
Robert Hease, the minister there, soon came 
to his senses, for on August 1 1 he promised 
" to observe the Book of Common Prayer." 

The ritual controversy seems to have 
waxed warm in those days, for on April 27, 
1588, Thomas Hayward, Vicar of St. Martin- 
in- the -Fields, appeared before the Vicar- 
General, and desired " to have the vestment 
and albe, and all other thinges by the order 
of the highe Commissioners delivered to the 
Chancellor for to be defaced, and gave to him, 
at whose petition the Chancellor did deface 
them in his presence and in the presence of 
John Goodrole and Mathew Clerk, and gave 
them to the said Thomas, which said vest- 
ment and albe the said Thomas did take with 
him." 

This controversy appears to have been 
waged by both parties in turn, for Henry 
Burton, Rector of St. Matthew, Friday 
Street, London, is charged, on June 3, 
1629, with not bowing his head at the 
text in the funeral sermon preached by 
him, the text being "Come, Lord Jesus," 
etc In the sermon he said " we were grow- 
ing so idolatrous and fallen into such super- 
stition, that it was a wonder that those 
who were zealous in religion did not, like 
Phynieas, draw their swords and run them 
through in the very act of idolatry.*' Accord- 
ingly he is suspended on June 18, and on 
July 14 the suspension is relaxed. Henry 
would appear to have been somewhat of a 
firebrand. 

Then, again, the matter of fees ; registrars' 
fees especially gave some trouble in those 
days, for on June 6, 1626, an order was 
made by the Bishop of London as to the 
fees to be paid for ordaining of deacons and 
priests, " as the clerk of the registrar takes and 
exacts too much." 

Apart from the various registers connected 
with the Bishops of London, there are also 
distinct registers kept by the Dean and 
Chapter of St. Paul's Cathedral. One of 
these, and the most complete, is in the chapter 
library, and is a full record of all the official 
acts of the Dean and Chapter from a.d. 141 i 
to December 31, 1447. It contains presen- 
tations to the different benefices in their gift, 
institutions to the various chantries in St. 



Paul's, dispensations for the various canons 
to absent themselves, sentences of punish- 
ment for wrong-doing in the case of any of 
the officials, or vicars choral, election of 
deans of St. Paul by the whole chapter, as 
well as elections of bishops of London. 

There is another class of register belonging 
to the different churches of London, which 
would be of great historical value, containing, 
as they do, various details connected with 
their own parish. There are a few extracts 
from an old register belonging to St. Martin's, 
Ludgate Hill, from the year 1568 to 1715, 
but there are references to a much earlier 
date, extending back as far as 1269. Much 
light is thrown on the history of the Crom- 
wellian times, for at a vestry held June 29, 
1646, "it was unanimously consented unto 
that the Ordinance of Parliament touching 
the Presbyterian Government should go 
forward and be put in execution.' Beneath 
this some commentator has written : 

Impius Error 
Thus did mad people void of fear aod grace 
Besrege ye churche and stormed ye «aarcd place* 

While in the margin is the following ; 

Who's this that comes from E^pt with a slofy 
Of a new pamphlet called a Directory? 
His cloke is something short, hi& looks demure, 
His heart is rotten and hLs thoughts impure ; 
In this our land this Scottish hell hatch'd brat 
Like Pharaoh*s lean kine will devour ye fat 
Lord, suffer not thy tender vine to bleed, 
CaU home thy shepherds w«*» thy lambs may feed. 

Quare fremuerunt gentes. 

On November 15, 1649, Mr. Nalton was 
chosen by very full and general consent l<» 
be minister, but he did not accept, where- 
upon Mr. Warran, minister of Hcndon, is 
chosen. Above this is written : 

'Twas Jeroboam's practise and his sport 
Priests to elect out of the l>aser sort. 

Then there is another class of documents 
which fill in many blanks in the parochial 
registers, and, indeed, give names of priests 
instituted or presented long before even the 
bishops' registers begin. The Patent Rolls 
are invaluable in this way ; beside the side* 
lights which they throw on the history of the 
Church of England in the various reigns, 
they are invaluable in fixing for us the foun- 
dation of chantries, the transfer of Church 



THE EARL Y ECCLESIASTICAL REGISTERS OF LONDON. 



217 



property, the disposition of ecclesiastical 
patronage, and the goods which were seized 
by the King at the Reformation. 

In addition to all this, from these various 
documents may be collected a complete list 
of the clergy in the diocese of London, some- 
limes even from the Conquest. 

Newcourt seems not to have consulted all 



these authorities, for his list left many parishes 
almost untouched, because of the difficulties 
he met with in pursuing his search. 

To take but one case, that of St, Augustine 
by St. PauPsy London ; here he gives butyfw 
names of rectors, whereas the following has 
been collected from the various documents 
above referred to : 



RECTORS OK ST. AUGUSTINE'S BY ST. PAUL'S, 

Whtft instituted. 



Name, 

Thonuis dc Kendale ' 

Robert Goldsmyth 

John Smyth de Stupton 

Robert Burstcd, B. C. L. 

John Cotes or Gates, alias Lincoln 

John Battail or Batell 

Thomas Leven^eggc, cap. ... 

William Okctx>yn, cap.' 

Thomas Say 

Edmund Close' 

John Strete ... 

Robert Cole* 

William Kynge 

John Ro)'ston 

John King 

John Riddesdale* 

James Rcnncger* 

'Thomas Philips' 

John Vickeis, A.M.' 

Thomas Turner 

Ephraim Udall* 



Here in 1362 ... 
Here in 1399. 



16 Aug., 1417 ... 
28 April, 1420... 
I Oct., 1426 ... 
14 Nov. 1433 ... 
Here in 1472. 
Here in 1507. 
Here in 15 16. 



I • • • • I 



•• ' *534 •• • '•• 

... 1545. 

... 6 Nov., 1551 ... 

• • • \ j^ j* • • • • • • 

• •* ^^/' ••• ■•• 

... 17 Jan., 1572.3 

... 24 July, 1600 ... 

... 20 May, 1634 ... 

... 27 Nov., 1634... 



LONDON. 

How vacated. 
Died 139a 

Died 141 5. 
Died 16 Aug., 141 7. 
Vacated, 142a 
D. 6 Aug., 1426. 

R. 1433- 
D. 1455- 



Died Aug., 1534. 
Herein 1537. 

Here in 1552. 
R. 1571. 
R. 15723. 
D. x6oa 
D. Nov., 1633. 
Vacated Nov., 1634. 
Sequestered 1643. 
Died 24 May, 1647. 



Here come in the ministers under the Commonwealth, whom I have omitted in this list 



Thomas Holbeck, S.T.P.** 

William Sill, A.M 

John Moore, &T.P." 
William Fleetwood, A.M.U 



29 Aug., 1662 ... 
4 Nov., 16S0 ... 
31 Dec, 1687 ... 
26 Nov., 1689... 



D. i68a 
D. 1687. 
Ceded 1689. 
Exchanged 1705. 



* His will, daL Oct 2, 1387 ; prov. 12 June, 139a 
He was probably the same who was Rector of Gt Wakering (Essex), and died 1455. 
One of this name was Rector of St. Geo., Botolph Lane (Lond.), 1^33-35. 
Adom. of his goods to Gilbert Cole 28 Aug., 1534, he having died mtestate. 
He was Preb. of Rochester 1568-71. 

Hb will, dftt. March, 31, 1574 ; prov. the 27 April following. 
T. Philips lus will, dat. 30 March, 1599 ; prov. 25 May, looa 
J. Mckers, his will, dat. o to 11 Nov., 1633 ; prov. 23rd of same month. He was bom in the parish of 

Quist Church, London. 

* He desires to be buried in the chancel of All Hallows Staining, unless his parishioners here claim the 
disposition of his body. 

''He was Preb. of Hoxton in St. Paul's ; V. of Epping ; Master of Emanuel Coll., Camb. ; Fell, of the 
^anc ; Vice-Chancellor of Camb. 

** He was son of Thomas M., of Market Harborough (Leicesters.), where he was bom, and went to Cath. 
Hall, CamK, 28 Tune, 1662 ; B.A. 1665, M.A. 1669, D.D. 1681 ; Fell, of the same ; Chap, to Heneage, Earl 
u\ Nottingham ; became Bp. of Norwich, consecrated at Bow Church, July 5, 1 691, by John Cant; Peter 
H'incJk ; GiUert Sarum ; Edw. IVorc ; Gilbt, Bristol^ and Simon Ely ; translated to Ely 1707, and died at 
Ely House, Holbom, Julv 31, 17 14, aged 68, and was buried on the north side of the Presbytery in Ely Cathe- 
dral His will " Aston, 15^. He was Rector of St Andrew, Holbom. 

'' He was descended fix>m an ancient family of that name of Hesketh (Lanes. ),'and was bom Jan. I, 1655-6, 
in the Tower of London, went to Eton on the Foundation, and was elected thence to a scholarship at King*s 

VOL. XXIV. Q 



2l8 



THE INTERNATIONAL FOLK-LORE CONGRESS, 



Robert Newton, M.A.^ 
Daniel Waterland, S.T.P." 
Edward Cobd6n, A. M. " ... 
John Douglas, D.D.*' 
John Woolcock, M.A* 

Henry Fly, D.D." 

James William Vivian, M.A," 
Richard Harris Barham, M.A. 
Richard Shutte, M.A. 
Philip Parker Gilbert, M.A. 
William Henry Milman, M.A. 



17 April, 1706... 
30 Sept., 1 721... 
7 Aug., 1730 ... 

10 Oct., 1764 ... 
14 Dec, 1787 ... 
27 April, 1797... 

11 Jan., 1821 ... 
7 Oct., 1842 ... 
26 July, 1845 ••• 

18 Feb., 1853 ... 
4 Feb., 1857 ... 



Died Tuly, 1 721. 

Ceded 1730. 

D. March 26, J 764. 

Promoted 1787. 

Died 1797. 

Ceded 1821. 

Resigned 1842. 

Died July, 1845. 

Ced. 1853. 

Ced. 1857. 

The present Rector. 





great 



Cbe 3lntemational iFolfc4ore 

HAT the second international con- 
gress has been a success most of 
our readers already know. Only 
those who were present know how 
a success it really was, and how 
thoroughly justified its promoters were in 
accepting the suggestion of the French con- 
gress of 1889 to hold the second one in 
London. The Folk-lore Society has been 
in existence since 1878, and its founders are 
all dead except one. We remember at the 
time the society was founded that much 
doubt was expressed as to the possibility of 
it succeeding. It has now, after fourteen 
years' work, established its title to be at the 
head of true scientific work, and, if we 
mistake not, the congress will confirm it as 
one of the most popular of modern institu- 
tions. 



It was clear from the first that members 
were going to attend punctually. The opening 
meeting on Thursday, October i, was fixed 
for 2.30; but it was only a little after two 
o'clock that members began to put in an 
appearance and to take up their places in 
the spacious and handsome room of the 
Society of Antiquaries. No doubt the 
popularity of ^he president, Mr. Andrew 
Lang, was the mainspring of this eagerness. 
Mr. and Mrs. Lang appeared quite early on 
the scene, and the presentation of members 
went on too rapidly for the arrangements that 
had been made. Mrs. Gutch (who first 
suggested the formation of the society to the 
late Mr. Thoms), Miss Bume, Mr. Mac- 
Ritchie, Mr. W. G. Black, M. Ploix, M. 
Bleraont, M. Loys Brueyre, Mr. Krohn 
(from Finland), M. Cordier, the Hon. J. 
Abercromby, Mr. Nutt, Mr. Hartland, 
Dr. Hyde Clarke, Mr. Leland (Hans 
Breitman), and Professor Haddon, were 
among the most noticeable of the early 



Coll., Camb., 27 Nov., 1675 » Fell, of the same ; B.A. 1679, M.A. 1683, D.D. 1705 ; Chap, to William III. ; 
Canon of Windsor, 1702-8; prom. Fell, of Eton, 1689; Lecturer at St. Dunstan-in-the-West (LoncL), 1689; 
exchanged this rectory of St. August for that of Wexham (Bucks), 1705 ; Bishop of St. Asaph, consecrated at 
Lambeth Palace, June 6, 1708, by Thomas Cant., fohn Chich.y Will. Oxofi ^n^ John Bangor; translated to 
Ely, 1 714, died at Tottenhaniy where he resided, 4 Aug., 1723, aged 67, and was buried in the North Choir 
Aisle of Ely Cathedral, Aug. 10. 

^ R. Newton was Fell, of Jesus Coll., Camb. ; R. of St. James Garlickhytbe (Lond.) ; R- of Wexhaxn 
(Bucks) ; admon. to his Relict Margaret IV., Aug. 2, 1 721. 

^* He was Mast of Magd. Coll., Camb., 1713-40 ; Vice-Chanc. of Camb., 17x5 ; Chanc. of York, 1722-40 ; 
Canon of Windsor, 1727-40; Archd. of Middlesex, 1730-23, Dec, 1740, died ; Vicar of Twickenham, 1730-40. 

** He was Archd. of Lond., 1742-64 ; R. of Acton (Midd.) ; Preb. of Lincoln, 1721-64 

^' J. Douglas was entered at St. Mary's Hall, Oxon, 1736 ; Exhib. of Baliol, 1738 ; Tutor to Lord Puheney ; 
Vicar of Eaton Constantine, Salop, 1749 ; of High Ercal, Salop, 1750; R. of Kenley, Salop, 1758 ; Canon oi 
Windsor, 1762-76 ; Dean of Windsor, 1788-91 ; Preb. of Consumpta-per-mara in St. Paul's, 1776-88 ; 6i&ho|> of 
Carlisle, consecrated at Whitehall, Nov. 18, 1787, by Wm. Ebor., Bcilby Chester ^ esidjohn Ox^n ; translAted 
to Salisbury, 1 791 -1807, when he died, and was buried in St. George's Chapel, Windsor. 

'7 He was Subdean of St. Paul's. 

'^ He was Minor Canon of St. Paul's. 



THE INTERNATIONAL FOLKLORE CONGRESS. 



219 



aimals. Mr. Lang took his seat in the 
presidential chair, with Mr. Gomme (chair- 
man of the organizing committee) on his 
lefty and Mr. Leiand (vice-chairman of the 
committee) on his right. The president was 
wannly applauded in rising to give his 
addre^ which was a masterpiece of skilful 
argument, and careful in its charming 
avoidance of hurtful comment. 

"I do not myself believe," said Mr. Lang, 
*^that some one centre of ideas and myths, 
India or Central Asia, can be discovered, I do 
not believe that some one gifted people carried 
everywhere the seeds of all knowledge, of 
all institutions, and even the plots of all 
stones. The germs have been everywhere, 
I fancy, and everywhere alike, the speciality 
of Race contributes the final fo