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T H, E 

P R E F . A C E. 

TH E work, of whicb 1 here oflfcf an 
English tranllatioQ to the public, 
was written by the famous Lambert BeS|r 
Profcflbr of Greek in the univcrfity of 
Fancker. He was the fon of James Bos, 
Reftor and Firft Regent of the. fchools 
of Worcum, atid a rchtioa of the learned' 
Vitringa, Profeflor of 6rienWl Languages,' 
Theology, and Sacred 1Fl>ftdry, in the uni- 
vcrfity of Ley derf, w ho 'wrote rtiany books 
jpf divinity, which are muchcfteemcd. 

Lambert Bos flouriftied from the year 
J 670 to the year 171 7* He was the author 
of many learned ^yprks^ of which bts An- 
tiquities of Greece is unqueftionably the 
piqH valuable. It is an agreeable^ though 
A 2 com- 

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compendiQUS, defcription of whatever h ip^ 
ferefting and ioftrudive in the manners 
and cuftoms of the ancient Qreek^i without 
a knowledge of which we cannot pnder- 
ftand their authors. The Reader will find 
in this book a pomprebenfive and well con-? 
qc^tfdfyfteni^whiph.entertain^ tbejouigl^ 
natJOOt e^pcites curioficyi and icnpriois upOii 
|he pund the objects which it prefcnts to 
i|« To every cuftoo^ it joins the Greel^ 
fern^s vt^hich relate to it s and by thus con* 
pcdiai; tbe'woxd with the thing, it brings 
ifs reciprocally^ t^cqqaij)t<{4.wjth the n^iioQ 
\>y thelan|^j^t'and/wit{|if&e language by 
the nation. *Ist ^H!& T^iis not, like maoy. 
works of tl)i9:l|ind<*a;QQifig>ilation without 
choice and -wntfcWt *]a*(fgtaeni ^ bqt the 
refult of great and accurate readipg^ an4 
iupported throqghottt by ancient authority. 

It is tbe.^dyice of.a ctitic to a 4r4(Aatic 
nuthor, to figure to hxn^felf ap audience 
whom he }$; going to addrefs, to watch, ihi 
imagination, their leaft ipotionSj^ to confider 


Digitized by 


fREFACS. «: 

iiowe>my)^fttt«rkis pieMisfikdyto flflfcdT 
tfaem. ItdiooIdUkewifeto (ibe CMC of 
young fchplars to form, not a wgue fttid 
fuperficial, but a juft and complete idea of 
the tmfients, with whom a Man of leueri 
imf be &ia to pafs his life. Let them 
)hd&e llierofelve* acquaintwl with that 
dtitfr, their plains, tfc«*r mountains, and 
(heir mers s let them admire their teteples 
and their other, edifices J let them contem-i 
^late their religious ce«tt»onies ; let them 
bt prefijot at their games, their &ow8, and 
dieirifeafts ; let them remark their flowing 
^»d vcneraWe. garments j but above all, let 
them ftudy anddcvelope their national roan- 
liers and chara«er, which diftinguiO* difi 
lerent countries yet more than cuftom$» 
When we hear an extraordinary perfoil 
talked of; we immediately form to oorfelves 
an idea of his perfon and afpeft, by the ac- 
tivity and ftrcngth of fancy j but before wo 
perufe the records of an interefting and ce- 
Icbrated people, we fliould acquire a know- 

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Icdgfr o£ their leading charaderiftics^ .09 
the fDAre folid pinciples of accgratc io? 

To/acilitatc this knowledge v^gs th« ipr, 
ttotion of Lambert Bos in writing bis An? 
tiquities of Greece ; and the execojtibn of 
bis ^ork is as mafterly as its deiign was, 
ufefah The notes of Frederick l^ifner arc» 
iadeed» an ioftproyement to this work* 
They confirm its contents by quoting thf 
writers that warrant th^m. We muft ob* 
ferve^ in honour to. the Author and the 
Gommentatpr, that the latter hath produced 
authorities for whatever is alTertcdj and, 
confequently, that the former hath never, 
trufted to conjedure. To thi$ tranflatjon ( 
have annexed thofe aifthoritfes with the 
exadteft fidelity^ as they open a large fiel4 
of invedigation to thofe who take pleafurQ 
in the ftudy of antiquity. 


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P K E' F' A C E; tS 

'This work, I flatter niyfclf; will be a«^ 
favourably received in Eiigrand as it Has 
been in Germany, whtrc many editions 
of it have been printed* It will be more^ 
ufeful to young fcbolarsthan Potter's An-*^ 
tiquities of Greece : it is more concife, iuid 
therefore its information is fnore eafily cona- 
mitted to memory : its plan is more fimple 
and clear ; it leads us through a plain and 
dired path to aprofpe£t of antiquity. The 
work of the learned prelate (bould only ba 
perufed by thofe who are well verfed in 
Greek literature. 

But this book may be of ufe to thofe who 
have long pafled the threlhold of learning, 
and have penetrated its recedes. The me- 
mory of polite fcholars, of men of imagina<- 
tion, is moft tenacious of warm and ani-* 
mated ideas ; they are apt to forget thefe 
jejune and local circumftances, which, how* 
ever, explain and iiluftrate fubftantial and 
fttblime knowledge* To fuch let me re* 


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ia P fe: E; if A C Ui 


QQPM^Hd ;thi$Mith9rj wfaonTTill bdc^f^ftt 
fittlf^^orilyi »a»Hid(|}Mf» of apy mAt»n»|^ 
p«ir4M«f ^Qr«k wtiqoiitM «bioh sMgr 
]m?c efcspcd tfaetD ; . aod by oofifiiliiftg biov 
ibc]f will fare thcm^i^es tbe troixble q£> 
Btairiog rccoarfc to a Sofib of formida«^ 
Ue eruditioniF Tbt Belfuo Lfbrorum, tfae^ 
kadeii^ refenroir of learAmg, it be 0iotil<f 
Ahanee to lofe a drop of bis Aaghatcd coW 
k^iori^.I refer to tbe voltitninoua lueobrar-' 
(iotis of Gronovius^ 

itized by Google 



O P 


Of the Religion of the Greeks. 

THIS defcdption of the ancient 
manners^ and inditution^j public^ 
and private^ facred, civil, ibili-» 
tary, ,and domcftic, of Greece in general, 
and of Athens in particular, fhall begin 
Vtrith the facred cufloms. But firft It will 
be proper to give a fhort, topographical 
defcription of Greece. 

A TopQgfaphical Defcription of Greece, 
Attica, and Athens* ^ 

I. Ancient ( i ) European Greece is bound* 

cd on the (2) veeft by Epirus ; on the north 

by Macedonia, and part of the Egcan fea i 

B on 

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4 A N T 1 Q^U I T I E S 

But it is more probable that it owes its 
name to Pallas, whom the Greeks call 
AOfjvfi, though we muft not attribute this de- 
nomination to the fabulous difpute betwixt 
(23) Neptune and Pallas ; but to (24) Am- 
phiftyon's dedication of the city to the pa- 
tronage of Minerva, A6yiv7ig, which is the 
name of that goddefs, and feems to be de- 
rived from the (25) Egyptian tongue. 

IX, The pre-eminent title of A^ was 
likewife given to Athens. Hence we often 
find, not only in the Greek, but alfo in 
the Latin writers, A^v (26) inflead of 


(1) Ancient Greece in Europe extended to the 
li^ein fea^ trro^ atj^atou; and in Alia, beyond 
that fea ^ frtgctv aiyo^ov. Pauf. Eliac. European 
Greece was fubdivided into Greece on this fide 
of the Ionian fea ; and into Greece beyond that 
fea ; tvroq Iw»i«u, and to-ij « l^-yiou. European Greece 
was called Great Greece^ fAtyaXn 'E^a«c. A then. 
xii. 5.. p. 523. Strabo, vi. Plin. iii. 5, and 19. 
Book xxxi. 7, Ovid. Faft. iv. 64. Cic. de Orat. 





ii. 37. The name of Great Greece is taken in 
another fenfe in Ovid, Heroid. xvi. 340. This 
Great Greece is the Citerior Greece. Book vii. 
2,6j the Grecia fubcifiva of Apuleius. Apol. p. 
294. Porph, Vit, Pythag. p: 26. But none has 
better afcertained Old Greece, and more clearly 
marked its limits than Mazochius, Comment, in 
^neas Tabulas Heracleanfcs. Neapol. 1754, p. 
!• Diatrib, !• c, i — ^. 

(2) The learned differ with regard to the limits 
of Ancient Greece : V, palmerius. Grape. Antiq. 
C. I. Dionyf. Perieg. v. 398. Strabo. Lib. VIII. 
Mela. II. 3. 

(3) Tbefignification of theword'EXA«f is fomc- 
times more confined, fometimes more extenfive. 
1** This name was given to a fingle city of Phthi* 
Otis, built by Hellenes, the fon of Deucalion. 
Homer mentions that city, II B. 190. 2"* The 
lame name was given to a part of Theffaly called 
Phthia. 3^ To all Theffaly. 4^ To all Greece j 
except fometimes Peloponnefus, fometimes Ma- 
cedonia, fometimes Epirus, and even Theffaly. 
5** It was given to Greece fituated on this fide 
of the Egean fea, taken in all its extent, and 
without excepting 4ny of the cquntries which 
yrc have juft mentioned; 6^ Finally to all the 
countries inhabited by the Greeks, whether fitu« 
ated in Europe or in Afia. — This is proved by 
Palmer. Graec, Antiq. L 3. 

B 3 (5) This 



« A N T I Q^U I T t fe S 

(5) Thi$ denomination of Tg»ikoi is found 
Marm, Qxon. rt. 10, ii. Ariftot. Mtteof. t. r4. 
Lycophr. v. 532. 891. 1195. 1^38. The fanift 
author calls them, v. 60 5, tf«ix4T«?. If th* 
reader is curious to know why fh6 Romarfs pre- 
ferred the old vf6td, Tgoanoii 16 the latter one, 
*EAA»ivfc, he miy confult Palmer. Grdbc. Antiq. t, 
2. Plin. iv* 7. and Hardouih, ScA. 40. p. 234. 

(6) We know not cxaflly who Graicus wa^. 
Eufebius, Chron. !• de Argiv. Reg. n. 35. thake$ 
him the father of Thcffalus ; and Stephens^ at 
the word Ffatxo;, makes him his fon. It is 
fjqually doubted whether ' the Greekk owe their 
jiamc to that Tf aixof, their king, or whether they 
fook it from another fourcc. Hiller derives the 
word from rf«*dt. Terra. Hefych. T(»ix voM^j yn 
i x»( A?j|{<njT?jf • Accbrdihg, then, to this etyrhb- 
logy, Greeks fignifics Sons of the Earth, j^j^ivnc, 
Terrigenac. Kircher and Hornius derive thi^ 
Word from the name of a patriarch, whbrn St. 
Luke, iii. ^5^ calls Ragau. Cafpar Abel, Hift. 
Monarch, p. 483. ftiakes it come frbrti Tjaia, 
^nus, an old woman. According to his etymo- 
logy, it is a name of i-eprdach which the other 
nations applied t6 the Greeks. He ftrengthens 
this conjefture by the ^ords Graculus, ahd Gra- 
cariy which the Romans ufed to exprefs the le- 
vity of the Greeks, However, the fame Abel 

- prefers to this etymology that which derives the 




word y^«Mxoct ffoi^ the Cc^ic RliOiSy^ to which| 
he fuppofcs, the letter G was prefixed, to foftijn 
the prongociww j »s th? wor;l Rh^ti hjis been 
changed into, ibj»t o{ QrifcAS. |^e fupports jhi? 
CQDJe6luj« by the; t^Air^Qny of Hefychiijs, vyho 
fi^s, UMt the Qre^ks v^re formerly calie^ 


(7) Confuk on At|ica ^n^ it^ linnitf, Str^bg^ 
X. I^. Jnit. Plin. IV, 7. S^rabp is of opi.nipn, 
chat Mcg^ris once vo^^ a part of Attjcp. S^f 
too Paufan. and Reimann. I lias poll Homerun^, 
P* 3-?7- /or the d^rivatipn of Attica, which \vas 
jijccwiff called A^aea^ A^c> Atthjs. This i? 
«plftiwd by $«;pV(ca« ^J the worji i^xTn, and by 
Caspar Abel, I. c. p, 6p5. It is fij'ppofcd, that ^ 
Attign, or Athidff, pook .its jiame frorp Atth^s^ 
the daughter of Cr^niHs, Sjee |igftat|i. acj Piff- 
nyf. Pprieg, p. 322. Strabo, I^. p. 273. Cpq- 
fuk likcwife 00 the (Jiffcrcpp d«nomi«)appp? of 
Attica, Eyftathws ^d piopyf, Pw?& p. 2??. ftC 
fcq. Strab. IX. p. 273. 

(8) Tjhi* jnffriptiop isfpuqd inStr^J)^, I^, Jhis 
.C^QQie gepgr^bor airert$» ,th^t Attic^i was gncient}/ 
calleci loflia. Thrfe ^c. his wgrd? : 'fj Attixa t^ 
-rAi^<MovIw*«;^I^,«fltMrTj?: *► Attic;? w^s .ancient- 
ly jpaJlcd Ipoia and Ias.** T1)C fiin?e 15 affirmed 
\>y Siephens, at the ^vprd '^C^^w*, an<J 4?^ Hefy- 
chips at the word 'JC^w^ l;lcnce Homer calls 
the Athenians, not only Kou^o4 A9i}mtwvj anfi 

B 4 AtljlAO; 

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S A N T 1 QJJ 1 T 1 E S 

i^fiju(oc Ejfx^n^t but likewifc lunt. Ix. N. v. 

(9) The Greeks themfelvcs derive the name 
of Ionia from Ion, the fon of Xuthus. Vid. He- 
rodot. VII. p, 470. Strab. VII. p. 164. XII. ayj. 
This Ion, was^ according to others, the fon of 
Apollo and Creufa. Vid. Apolkxlon I« 7. ^i. 
Paufan. Attic. I. 29. p. 68, 

(10) The Hebrew word, Javan, if we omit 
the points, ihould, perhaps, be pronounced 

(11) Greece is not only called Javan in the 
Scripture, but the modern Jdws call the Greek 
tongue Javanit, Belides, in the name of Eliflia 
we have that of £lis, which was the name of 
the oldeft kingdom of Peloponnefus. V. Jofeph. 
Antiq. I. 7. Bochart. in Pb^cg. III. 3. and Caf^. 
Abel, 1. c. p. 486. 

(12) Confult on the cities, mountains, and 
rivers of Attica, Plin. IV. 7. Strab, IX. Scylait^ 
p. 47. 

(13) Next to Athens, Eleufis, or Eleufin, 
was the mod: famous city. The etymology of 
this word is uncertain. Paufan. Attic, c. 36. and 
Harpocrat. think the name comes from Eleu* 
finius, the fon of Mercury. Others derive It 
from the Greek verb, ixOhf, venire, A* m? r«c 
fikfifAViTtooi fAfuo-fv, on account of the coming of 

(14) The 




(14) The facrificcs of Ceres, called EJeufinlan^ 
of which we (hall fpeak afterwards, in treating 
of the feafts of the Greeks. 

(15) See, on the circuit of Athens, Dion, 
Chryfoft. Or. VL p. 87. Ariftjdes Panathen and 
Wefleling. Ad vetera Rom. Itinera. p« 326. 
and X^noph. Memorab. Socr. III. 6. $ 14. 

(16) Confult, on the beauty of Athens, Pau- 
fan. Ate and Meurfius. The beauty of that 
city produced thefe verfes of Lylippus in Di« 

El jXD. TttiM*Ai rap AOnyft^^ rcXf^of f i, 

£1 f tvocfffruv, airoTff p^nCf xa»6dXioc. 
' Si nunquam Athenas vidifii, Stipes es } 
Si vidifti, nee captus cs, Afinus j 
Si captus abis, Cantherius* 

(17) Pericles, in Thucydides, IL 41. calls A* 
cheos n«i(rfu<nv EAXoto-oV, the Academy of Greece. 
Diod. Sic. XII L 27, call it, Koii'ov vaihvmftQv irii»- 
rw pt^poTrws the School of Mankind. Efchines 
concr. CceGph. p. 293. gives it the title of Koim 
Kftr«9v>^ run EAXfivwy, the common refuge of the 
Greeks. In iEHan. Var. Hift. IV. 6. the Py- 
thian prieftefs calls it, the common afylum of 
Greece, tuv xoivhv £n«v mc Exxo/oc, becaufe there 

' eaules were moft eafily admitted. Vid. Pind. Nem. 
•Od. IV. 29« Ariftoph. Nf(p. 298. Ifocrat. P^negyn 




to A 1^ T 1 Q^U r T I E S 

Jill. Epift. ad S. P. Q. AthcnienferB, Ci- 
cer. pro Flacco^ e. a 6. and dc Orae. L 4. La-* 
crct, Lib# VI. v. i. Stat. Thcb. XII. 500. Ne^ 
pes Attico, c. 3. Mela II. 5, s^- f^- Wl. 5* 
\ 8. MeiM-fii AtlxcMe Atdcae. Muret. V^ Lib« 
IV. I. 

(frS) Propertius, L 6, 13. Id. 2o» i. and 
Rhcmnius Fannius Patecn.dc Pondenbus, v. 17, 
«nd 39i gi^c Athens the tick of Liarredj DoS^^ 
Martial, VI. 64, v. 17. and Cicero dc Orat. IIL 
II. give it that of Tenues^ acuie, or wUty, 

(19) Plia VIL 56. Anonym. ?rif» «ar»rwv9 
c. J. 

(20) Cecrops gave bis name to the city ; Plin« 
vii..56.-»*to the country^ Apoliodor. IIL 13; 
to the tribe ^ Stephens at the word Kfx^ori^. 

(21) Juftin, II. 6. Ifiodor. Orig^XV, i. This 
opinion is combated by Hyginus, Frab. 164* 
>^ho inlifts that Minerva gave the city her natne. 
And by Plutarch, in Thefco, who attribatea dta£ 
honoirr to Thefens. Meur£us inlers, from a 
paAage of Marcian, de Fortuna Athcfiicnf. 
that the city was named Athens in che reign of 
Ereflheiis ; an opinioti which throws light oa 41 
paflTage of Euripides. Hercl Fur. 1166, whcue 
Athens is called E^ f;^9n^(»v mxw. i know not on 
what grounds Potter fays that tt was caUed 
Athens in the reign of EriftiKKiius, Qnfe&JK 
has confounded tlie nameof £re£lhcDS wrtfa that 




OP G R B E d E; * tk 

6f Erifthoftru*^ Fbr iht aihtr names bf Athtn^i; 
ftt Strabo IX. p. iy^. • 

(22) Stjrfre dtrtvt this name from ft l4cbre# 
word, which fignifics to learn. Othcfi, with 
Hiltcr, ffotti a Hebrew wond, fignifyihg /^ 4r- 
Hv'e. And according to this etynloiogy, the iitt* 
port of Athens is. The City cf Strangets, of 
oF the Newly Arrived. Cafp. Abel, Hift. Mo- 
harch. p. 607, makes this denomination come 
ftdrti a Hebrew word, which lignifies roimfl-^ 
Jircng ; and he grounds his cotijeftoties dn fpeci*- 
bUS reafonS, Others derive it frofn Atthi$, 
daughter of Crinaus. Strabo IX. p. 573. Pau- 
tan. Attic. L 1. Laftly, according t6 Plato, 
Mrsim is fynonimous with ©cokofi, Divine Mind. 
Another (Opinion is to be met with in Lacke- 
ttiach, p. 4i, 

(23) The reader may cohfult, 6ft this dffputfe 
betwixt Minerva and Neptune, Apollbddf. HI. 
I3. Ovid. Met. VI. 70. Serv. ad Virg. I.GeOrg. 
13. and others cited by Meurf. deHegnoA- 
tlicn, 1. 10, and Burman. ad Ovid. 1. c. atid dc 
Jove Fulguratore, c. viii. p. 281. 

(24) That Artphiftyon corilecratcd the citjr 
of Athens to Minerva we have no r6om tb 
doubt, by reafon of the following authofititt, 
Juftin tt. 6. Ifidor. Orig. XV. i. On this ae- 
count the poets call it the city of Pallas. II«xxa- 


Digitized by 


12 A N T f Q^U I T I E S 

hi n«Xic. Efchil. Pcrf. 347. Virgineac Cccropis 
Arccs. Val. Flaccus, V. 647. Armigerac Trito-- 
nidis Arces^ Petron. c. 5. Notwithftanding thefe 
authoricieS) we cannot aflert that Athens took its 
name from that of Minerva. The author^ who, 
from Abel, h c. cites ten names of Athens, was 
not, probably, of our author*s opinion. 

(25) Phurnutus, c. 20. fays, re fiv^fjM m? A* 

iwfotg ovrilvfAoXoyvi^f i^» rtip «f;^aia1iil«.— It is diffi- 
cult to afcertain the etymology of the word A« 
thens» on account of its antiquity ; yet he him- 
felf gives fome etymologies. V, Heraclid. 
Allegor. Homer, p. 435. Capellus derives the 
word Athens from a Hebrew word, which fignifics 
Miftrefs. Julian Aurelius, de Cognom. Deo- 
rum Gentil. cites fome etymologies, mod qf 
which are falfe. We meet with a truer one in 
the ingenious book of M. Pluche, entitled, 
L*Hiftoirc du Ciel. He derives the name of A.- 
thens from the Hebrew word Jtona^ which fig- 
xiifies Egyptian thread, or linen. 

(26) Stephens, at the word AxtZ»^(^»9 ^x- 
preiies himfelf in the following terms. — ^Exc^ire 
(Alexandria) xar f^o;^iiv,^voXK, »( aru, km AOhvai, 

x«ft Afoi KM AfMoi Oft AOnvaioi, at xmt ivi P«/Atif Af^i- 
reti wg^* — It was eminently called the city, as 
Athens was called the city, and the Athenians, 
the citizens : and as Rome was likewife called 




OF 6 fe E E C E. ' 13 

the city, Urbs. Hence, as Homer likewifc calls 
Troy fimply the cityi IIo^k, wc find there were 
four ancient cities which were eminently called 
the city 5 viz. Troy, Athens, Alexandria in E- 
gypt, and Rome. But when the word Aru was 
was applied to Athens, it comprehended not the 
Pirseeus. Nep. IX. 4. The reader may confult 
Bourdelot, ad Petroo. on the difference betwixc 
the words, Attici and Athenienfes. 





Of Ibe D » I T J B * of G R F B <: If. 

Jl eeiwcd tbeir religion paxt]}f&on 
tlie (i) Egyptians, parriy from tfee (2) 
Thracians, to whom they were indebted 
for the name of rtligion, ©fiya>6«<«; and 
partly from the colonies of different (3) 
nations which fettled amongfl them. 

IL The firil Greeks^ and many other 
nations^ paid divine worfhip to the fky, to 
the fun, to the moon» to the ftars^ and to 
the (4) earth. And as they faw that con- 
tinual motion was a property of thefe bo- 
dies, they termed them Beouc, from the 
verb (5) ^iu¥, to run: though the word, 
perhaps, may be derived from another (6) 

III. They afterwards adopted into their 
language the names of the (7) Egyptian 
gods. The worftiip of the gods of other 
i^i.iHtivns was edablifhed in procefs of 


Digitized by 


«) F G R E E C E 2$ 

time. I fiidl mention the pcmcipal dci<- 
ties of the Greeks ; to give a detail of the 
names of them dl would be tedious. 

IV. The dalles of their gode corref- 
ponded with the different parts of the crea- 
tion. They had their celeilial, their ter- 
reflrial^ and their infernal deities. Their 
cdeftial deitie's were ftiled, Errov^avmy OXu/a- 
woi, (9) AdmifUTOi ;— Ccleftial, Olympian, 
Immortal. Their deities of the infernal 
Xi^ons^ere termed, X9ovm, Tr^ox&ovioi, (10) 
KaT«;cflowoi, —Subterranean gods. Their 

.go4s of the earth, ETnx^ovioi (11) 'Hf«e^,— 
Terreftrial-Heroes. The firft and moft 
Solemn worfhip was devoted to the celeftial 
gods; the fecondt or inferior wbrfliip, 
to the terreAcial deities ; and the third, 
or loweft, to thofe of the infernal re- 
gions. ' 

V. Of tbefe deities, (la) twelve were 
Ac mcfft honoured ; they were called 
^' The great Oods." — (13) Msyahoi Oioi. 
-l%^^had the SoUsmmg (14.) names. 


Digitized by 


i6 A N T I Q^U I T I E S 

Zevg, Jupiter. 'H^a^ Juno. 

• Ilod-wJwv^ Neptune. Apjg^ Mars, 

AwoXXutVy Apollo. 'JEfjEtijfi', Mercury* 

JlcOiXag, Minerva. A^refjLtg, Diana. 

Ani^nrij^, Ceres. Atp^olftn^, Venus. 

H<p»i^ogy Vulcan. *Es-^«, Vefta. 

VI. The Athenians had the greatcft ve- 
neration for thcfc gods, the figures of 
whonti were painted in the portico of the 

(15) Ceramicus. They had likewifc ereft- 
cd to their honour an altar, which they 
called, •* The altar of the twelve Gods." — 

(16) Bcofji(Sb^ rm iuhycct Q^m. 

, VII. They gave them (17) different epi- 
thets in confequence of the different func- 
tions which they affigned them. They 
who would read the Greek authors, efpe- 
cially the poets, fhould be acquainted with 
thofe epithets. ^ 

VIII. The (18) fky was the department 
of Jupiter. Hence he was deemed the 
God of (19)' Tempefts. The followihg 
titles were given him.— OjiAGfi^, (20) Ts- 

Tj^, (22) BjovTai®-.— Pluvius, Pluviofus, 
' ^ Fulgu- 

Digitized by 


b F G R E E C B. \y 

Fulgurator, iFulgu;-utn EfFcddr, Dcfdcrt- 
for, Tonans.— Other epithets were given 
him relative to the wants of mcn^ for 
Which he was thought to (23) provide. (24) 
»«y»o?, (25)lE^£$^o^, (26) TLroLi^mq^ (27) *i- 
X/00 (28) O^Kiog, (29) IxitrtoCf (30) Ofioy^ 
viog, (31) BvtvtXtug, (32) £)cij^T«u%«ff.— 
Hofpitalisi Foco Prsfidens, Sodalitatis 
PatronuSj Amicitise Prasfes, Juris-jurandi 
Tcftis, Supplicum Prsefcs, Gentilitius, 
Rex, Sccptifer. 

IX. Apollo; frota the benefits for which 
mankind Were indebted to him» and from 
the arts and fciences^ of which the (34) 
intention was attributed to him» was 
called^ (3^) kvof^oiFotiog^ (36) AXe^i««xoc, 
(37) Ayu^ewc, A>ui«TW, (38) Ao|iaf, (39) 
tiuQtogf (40) Uonav^ (41) iEu^U^a;^ (42) Zx»^ 
rii^oXoq, ExM^yog, (43) To^o^o^og. 

X, Neptune had the names of (44) 
M^vxog, (45) AXtfie^c^y, (46) Uovnog, (47) 

XL Mars thoCc of (48) Baflu^oX^/fc®., (49) 


Digitized by 



XII. Mercury was called, (50) fip^&* 
yanH^, (51) Lr^opui®^, (52) E[i7ro\ou&*, 
(53) Efiawi©-, (54) A(?X^, (55) iHyi^<^- 

XIIL Vulcan — (56) Kkurotiju^f^g, {^'p) 
KXUTOiay&*f (58) JJupSoifiu.'titff. 

XIV. Juno was callcdj (59) TsXgi*. 
'XV. Minerva— (60) Ecywn. (60 E^- 

jf£(r<rf%vO', (6;s) HoXvCovX&^f (63) n©Xi;/i*iy- 
,ri^, (64) Aa^p^&^J', , (65) Tf/Toyey««, (66) 
XfjuO'oXoYx^^ (67) rXetvKCtirri^, (68) IloXir/^, 
^69) ne?X*a^, (70) n<>Xwv%iSb, (71) KXv^w- 
;^, (72) EfuJ/TTToX/^, 

XVI. The following epithets were ap- 
plied to Diana^— (73) HiXuSum, (74) Aox^^^w 
{75) ATfWf^a, (76) KvvfiyiTig, (77) ©lypip-ef- 
^, (78) ioxfAi^ciy (79) To|fl(pog©-. 

XVII. Ceres was called, (80) fCouforgd- 

XVIII. Venus,. (81) Ou^aw*, (152) E- 
ra/^, (83) 'H 6^ xifflTotg^ (84) IIcKi^ifj^t^, 
(85) r«>6TuXXi^. 

XIX. Vefta, Vlctr^iM, *« The tutelary 
Goddefs of the country," i. c. of Oreece« 
See Sophocles's Elcftra, 887* 

^ XX. 

Digitized by 


t) F a it E fe C,E. t9 

^X. Befides thefe Divinities, tfaertf 
^crc othersi who were fuppoicd to be of* 
ia later (^6) exiftenee, and of an inferibf 
dafs; Several men tob, illuftrious for 
their ejrploits^ or their virtue, they had 
tankcd.with the (8^) Gods* Thefe they 
termed H&oesi the fdrmet^ Damons^ 

XXI. The D*moil8 were looked upon 
as minifters of the (88) Gods in the go^ 
Vernment of human affairs 3 as interpre-^ 
ters, and mediators for (89) mankind 
^itb the Supremb Being. 

XXII. The Athenians likewife adopted 
jbreign (90) deities^ abd railed (91) altars 
to theou But their Worfhip was not per:^ 
mitted Without a public (92) decree. (It 
could not be introduced by (93) indivi*" 

They even adored unknolm Gods, (94) 
iJgnotos De9s i and erected, altars to them, 
which they called, (95) Bat/km wn^im^i^ Tit 
^ndt^moMs altars. 

Digitized by 


40 a'N TI Q^U I TIE S 


(i) Hcrodot. II. p. I02. 123. Diod. Sic. I: 
p. 25. 62. 86. and others cited by Spencer, dc 
Leg. Hebr. Ritual. IL Diff. I. Seft. 2. p. 650. 
This conjefture is the more probable, becaufe 
Cecrops and Danaus, the founders of Athens 
and Argi, were Egyptians. See, on Cecrops, 
SchoJ. Ariftoph. ad PL 773. Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 
V. lit. Th Gale, ad Apolldd. III. 13. p. 85. 
and on Danaus, Apollod. II. i. 4. Plutarch is 
of a different opinion from Herodotus on this 
fubjeft. L.dc Malignitatc Hcrodoti, p. 857. 

(2) Eurip. Rhef. v. 943. Ariftoph. Ran, 
1064.' Plut. Alexand. p. 66g. Suidas, at the 
word, €>f»i(ncwfi..Greg. Nazian. Orat, III. p. 100. 

(3) The Pelafgians, Herodot. 11. p. 123. 
and the Phenicians, Herodot. v. p, 351. 

4(4) Socrates in Plat. Cratyl. Plutar. de Plac. 
Philofoph. I. 6. 

(5) Plat, and Plutar. 1. c. Phurnutus, Ma- 
crob. Saturn. I. 22. 

(6) It may be derived, I'^from the word 
jZw, which in the ^olic dialed is Aiu^. Phur- 
nut. c. 2v 2* From the word Aioc, Fear. 3* From 
the word Atflnv, to burn. 4* From ©^aaJai, to fee. 
5" From 0fj«i&), to view. 6"* From TiStj/ai, to 
place, 7''l^rom 0», which has the fame fignifi- 

^ cation 

Digitized by 



cation with nouw, to do. Suicer, Thcfaun Ecclef. 
at the word &to^. 

(7) Hcrodot. II. p. 123. 
: (8) The Diafcuri, for inftance,' Caftor and 
Pollux J. thefe deicies were introduced by the 
Pelafgians. Neptune was introduced by. the 
JLtbyans, Herodot. K c. The Greeks added to 
tl^eir deities thpfe of the nations with whom they 
carried on cotnnierce, provided they Were ap^ 
proved by the court of Areopagus. This we 
may conclude from Harpocratcs,- from Suidas, 
and particularly, from Juftin Martyr, Exhort, 
ad Gcntil. p. 20, This cultoni explains what 
we read in the A&s of the Apoftles, xvii. 19. 
This cuftoiii is likewife proved by the Feaft of 
Strange Gods, etogiwuv, of which Cafaubon 
fpeaks, ad Athenaeum, ix. 3, p. 405. Finally, 
that they might not omit- the adoration of any 
deities, they even worlhippcd the unknown 
Gods. Paufan. Eliac. I. 14. Luci^n, Philopatr. 
ACL xvii. 23. ConTulc on the Idolomania of 
the Athenians, Schol. Ariftoph. ad Nub. v. 304, 
who throws confiderable light on the xvii^^ 
chapter of the Afts, vcr. 16. 22, 

(9) They arc likewife called by the poets Our 
foaniaty and Ovfaviuvu* Ariftoph. Schol. ad Nub. 
V. 246r Some authors make a diftinftion be- 
twixt the Gods called Ou^aviw»Kt and thofe call- 
ed 0^v(i^ir««i. They give the fprmcr title to the 
C 3 Qld 

Digitized by 



old Gods qnder S^^urji^ ^ (he latter to th^ 
later ones under Jupiter. V. piodqr« Sipt 
IV. p. 2^^. JElian. V, H. V, M, 

(to) They like wife called thrnq Piri^«oi| 
liiid in thii^ clafs were coo)prebcnde4 t^e Godi. 

(ii) Theyjikewife gave them the epithet! 
of Tvorq^^r^^fo^ Irvytot. Confult) QO thld djvi'^ 
(ion, the Qolden Verfes of Pythagoras, where 
we alfo l^arn to whom of the Gods the principal 
hom^gf: was p^id. See Itkewife Porpbyr. d^ 
Antro ^ympb. p. 933, L 42. ^d the Preface 
0f S4lmaf|ui 9d Tabulam C^betis. The learn* 
cd mak^ ufe of this di^ifion to clear up fome 
p^lTages of Scripture. Eitod. xx. 4. Phil. ij. ; o, 

(la) Confiilt, on this ftuttbcr of thp twelre 
Cods, G. d'Arnaud^ dc Piis n«^fl(9K. Philip 
ranked bimW with theie Gods : piod. Sic, 
scvi. tirbence he h^d the furname Qf the Thir- 
tte^n^h God^ T(iraaf#fy«T«f Bio^. Stob. SerftXf 
147. Demades was for joining to this clafs» A* 
lexander the Great, -^lian. V. H. V. la. It 
appears, however, that thefe twelve were the only 
Gods who were ilykd OXo/iviM. ICuhii. ad M^ 
iian. V. H. V. 19. ITct Bacchus and Hercille3 
had alfo this title, according to the authority of 
piodj Sic. IV. p. 2 a 3. 

(13) I queftion whether the title of iufij^axoi 
^fof W4S given them by ^ny of the Greeks, ex«> 

- GCpt 

Digitized by 


O F G R £ E C H. jj 

eept an unknown poet, from whom we have 
the following verfes : 

Paodecitn funt Dei magni ; Jupiter, Juno^ 
Ceres, Mcrciuius, Yefta, Vulcamis i 
Phoebus, bellicofufque Mars, Pallas, et 
Piana ; funt Dif duodectm magni. 

See Kubn ad Paufan. Mefleo. c i. p. 281. The 
Greeks called them fimply the twelve Gods; 
r^vf JtwAxA 9ff«uc. See Ariftoph, Av« 95, Diod; 
Sic yvi. p. 48a. ApoUod. IIL 13. § !• ^- 
lian; V. H. yiii. ^ i. Paufan* Attif. c, 40. p*^ 
96, Pindar, Ql. Od. x. calls them AiiJini«ay«xTff, 
the twelve kings. The title of Great Gods was 
likewife given to other deities who were not of 
the number of thefe twelve* To Caftor and 
PoUux, for example) PaoC Arcad. c« ai. To 
ProArpine; PauC Arcad, c« ji. See4*Arnaud» 
lie Diit Umffifoiu c. a^. Elfnerum ad Ad. xix* 
£7. Ovid, vi. ^kt, v, 27* calls them bis fex 
C^ftes. Plaqtus alludes to this number of 
twelve GodSj^Epidic. v. i« Sucton. Aug. c. 70, 
C 4 The 



14 A N T I Q^U I T I E S 

The Latin authors alfo oftep mention the Gtcz% 

(14) We meet with thcfp names of the twelve 
Gdds in the Schol. of Apqllon^ of Rhod. L. IK 
p. 158. They arc contained in the two Greek 
diftichs cited aboye, which we find in Feithius^ 
(Antiq. Homer. I. i. $4.) who attributes them 
to an old poet. Ennius has tranflated them in- 
to two Latin hexameters, which are to be 
found in Apul. de Deq Socratis, and Martian. 
Cfpellam. p. 15. 

(15) Paufan. Attic c. 3. The fandc author 
informs u$, chat there was 4 temple at Mqgara^ 
in which were the ftatues of the twelve Gods. 
• (16) Tbucyd. VL 54. 
; (17) The reader (nay confuk, on this multi- 
tude of epithets, (Ti^XytmifAiat) Spanheim. ad Cal- 
lim. H. in Dian. v. 7. p. 119. Ari^ot. de Mun- 
do, c. 7. and Lucian. I'imon. 

(18) Homer II. 0. 192. Callim. H. in Joir. 
Y.59- ^^ ' 

(19) Athenaus XV. 5. Phurnut. c 9. 

(20) Jupiter, 0/46^10?, ufrioc, uflMy iK/iME»o(. In La^ 
tin, pluvius, pluens, bumidus. Sqe Lycophr* v. 
1 60. ApoUon. . Rhod. II. v. 524. The readec 
will find more particulars in Broukhuf. ad Ti- 
l^uU. I. 8. Y. z6' and ij^ Qurmana. de Joy. 
Fulgurat. c. y. p. ^64. 

. (2^0 AfC^oTTiiTfi^ H^fiod, Q, ^jfp. Arf4»v^»qc. 






^rift. de Mundo, c. 7. Kftr«iSariic. Ariftoph, 
fic^. V. 4a. i. e, Jupiter Falgurator. See Bar- 
man, dc Jov. Fulguratore. 

(22) Jupiter Bfo»T«»oi Arift. de Mqndo, c* 7. 
E^ij^iTouTof. Jupiter'conans. Hefiod. e. 41* 

(23) Ariftot, de Mundo, c, 7. PJiurnutus, 
c. 2. Senec. Rat. Quseft. II. 45. 

(24) Hmoct Ariftot. de Mundo, c. 7. Jupi- 
ter hofpitalis, hofpitable Jupiter. Qui juna dac 
hofpitibus. Virg. £neid. I. 735. 

(25) E^if^o^, or, Eiririof, who prefides over 
dotneftic Ibctecy. — S'oci, pra^fes. Herodot L 
p. 18. 

- (26) Eraift^ci Sodalitius, Sodalitii praefes. *o 
Bjtpogoi TUf f» Tir fr«ioi^ KoiM»i«i(y infpc&or cotn.^ , 
munitatis in ibdalitate, as Euftathius explains it. 
pi X. p. 790, 1. f 8. Atben. XIII. 4* 

(27) ^iXiofy Amicitiar Prsefes. Lucian. Timan. 
Ariftopb. de Mundo, c. 7. 

(28^ Ofxiof, Jurisjyrandi Arbiter, Faufan* L 
JEliac. c. 44. pag. 441. Lucian. Timon. ^ 

(2^) IsacTAOf, IxfTfitf-iof, fupplicum propugna* 
tor. Homer. Odyff. N. 212. I have taken a 
part of tbefe notes from a diflertation, entitled, 
Zfuc IxfTucn^c* Lipf. 1738* ^ 

• (30) *OfMy¥^oiJ Gentilitius* This title is given 

to Jupiter— -A»« rn9 t9v ytvw^ Koivmhoiv dfOK n xhn 

A»0(ftnroK> M on fccovint of the common origin 


Digitized by 



^* of Gods an4 lAcn." frfm the rcUtionfhip bf 
whkh Gods gnd men tre cdnqeded, Dioo. 
Chryf. Or^c. L p. 8. Aridoph. Bm-f. v^ 762* 
AriftoCt de Muodo, c. 7. 

(3i)BMiXfvf* Ariftoph. Nub. L ^enopb^ 
A»aiC» yl. |. The reafon why Jupiter is fo called ' 
is to be found in the Scboi, of Artftopb. i c# 
ud 'Hi DipD. Cisryf. Orat. I. la thefama ^nfe. 
Be. is called Atof^ fovereignt Sometimes ho 
is called^ Av«{ ^^i\ivt^ the fovereigii king. 
And fometimest Aya$ AirMr»ir» the^creigo of 
fovcfeijgfls. V, Spanhetm^^d Callimtich. H. ia 
Jov. V. 2* and Zw Tujaw©*. Ariftoph. JJub, 564^ 

(32) XiarwT9X)x»ty the fceptrp-bearen See Be-* 
ger. Thefaur. Braodeoburg. T. I. p^ 804 

(3d) Thofe pretended benefits aee eniimerate4 
^y Diodorqs Siccukis, L v. p. 34 1, 

<34) See SchoL Hotn. Du A« v, €03. 

Mou<r*>c?i, Tp^ixfl, 'I«r^ixi|, M^vrtXTi. 

Quatuor artes attribuuntur ApoUini, 
Mufica, ars fagitcandis medicina^ divinatio, 

(il) Av«r^«ra«K, a^erruncus, malorum de« 
^Ifor. The God who averts evils. Ariftopht 
Tfi^t i5$. This epithet has likewife been ap- 
frtied to other Gods. Hacrfan. Corinth, c. xi. 

($€) AAf^ix«xo( ha> the fame figni6cation« 
Mactob. Saturn. I. i;. 


Digitized by 



(iJ) A?w«tt>^ Ajrtif«TJK» who prefides bVcr 
roack. Ariftopl}. Vcfp. 87a. Horat, IV, Od. VI^ 
V. 28. M^crobf Sft. |. 9. gi?e$ i| rc^nforfliil 

(38) A«(»»?9 obliqtius, finoofils, obliqae, fi?e4 
androrus. Ariftoph. Plot. 8. The Scboliaft 
afligns two TCafons for this cpitbec« A tbir4 
may be foqad in the Scboliaft of Callimtdialt 
in Dian. t. 204, V. Tzetz* ad LjfCophr. v. 
1467. Pbornqt c, gi. Macrob. Sac 1, 17.' * 

' 3^. Pythian and Delphian are, perhaps df 
the fame imporp. por Python and Delphi wrrr 
flames of the iame cicy. Paufan. Phocic. c. 6^ 
See Ariftppb.' Vefp. 865. Pbiirmit. c« 32. Mi^ 
i:rob. Sat, 1. 17. 

(4o}naf«» and lUtiwrJEfchiyh AgAvatmtu 153. 
Ariftoph^Vefp. 496. We .find the reafoci for 
this title in Callimachus. H* in ApoUin. v. 97* 
and in Macrob^ U c He has the iatne epitheci 
in the Latin writers. C\c Vcrr, iv. 57. Qra- 
flus, Cyneg* 426* 

(41) EuAv^o^!— The maftcrly player 6n the 

(42) £««Tii6«Ao^» EioiCoAdify EbcM^oc, ExtfimCiXff'* 
9%f9 who throws his darts far ; i. c. his ray4« 
Horn. JA. A. 370, '474* Pburnut. c. sz» HcvNh 
did. Alleg. Horn. p. 417. Macrob.L 17. 

(43) Tojo^ofv, or Tpgi»f, in Hefychius. The 
bow-^bearer. T^f M|Mi^fv ixji*. Hom. I^. A. v< 
45f TqPc$^ BfA)!, 4^ii^«) are the raja of the (uo. 


Digitized by 


a8 an TI CLU I T I E S 

Thft epithet, therefore, differs not from the 
preceding one. *H To£o(pofof is the fame with 
Diana in Ariftoph. Bwfk^^. 979. 

(44) Axvxoct e»x«a>(rioc, marinus. Ariftoph, 
Lyfift* 4P4. He is likewife ftjrled, UtKaymiou 
Paufan. Achaic. XXL 

(45) *Ax«jKf^wv, tnari iinperaQs» ruling ih^ fea, 
Ariftoph. ai<rf*o^. V. 330, 

. (46) n«moc» marinus. Ariftoph. L. C. 

(47) 'bnriof, Equcftris, Ariftoph. Nub 83, 
He was alfo called, 'Iirirctoc ^ Euripid. Ph^pniif. 
1 70 1. 'linniyfT^f, Lycoph. 767, See, for the 
caufes of this title, Barnes ad Euripid. RheC 
187. Spanheio). ad Ariftoph, Nub. 83. Paufan. 
Achaic. 21. 

/ (48) i.e«E^xceeding warlike. Valde beUicofus, 
Pindar, Pith. Od. II. v. 2.; 
. (49) i. e. Brazen. He^was likewife called 
KaXx«x»Vw^ wearing, a brazen coat of mail. 

(50) Certaminum prasfes, the.prefident of 
combats. Ariftoph. Pluc. 1162^ and Spanheim; 
' (51) Januarqin cuftodias pra:fcftus — The 
guardian of doors. — Ariftoph. Plut. 1162. The 
etymology of the word llr^o^io^, is, Zr^cu^, 
the hinge of a door. Or tr^o^aio^ may be ren* 
dered, verfutus^ aftutus \ artful— rOne of the char 
rafteriftics of Mercury. 

(52) Negotiator. He is alfo ftyled, E|uit9(I6» 
EinraTiif, the God who preSdes over com- 
merce. Ariftoph. Piut., 11 96, Phuro. c. 16. 

Digitized by 


O F G R E E C E- . tp 

(53) Valdc u tills — of great fcrvicc to mor- 
tals. Horn, lA. n. 360. Ariftoph. Ran. 1175. 

(54) Vcrfutus-t-artful. Ariftoph. Plut. 1158. 
Callidus quidquid placuit jocofo condere fur* 
to. Hor. I. Od. 12. 

(55) I( h^^ ^^^ ^^^^ fignification with OitiyH^ 
EpoJioc Dux vias et index. The ^God who 
fiiows travellers their way, and conduds them; 
Ariftoph. Plut. 1 160. 

(56) Inclytus artifex — ^The great artift. Ho- 
mer. lA. A. 571. 

(57) The famous worker. Horn. Ia. ©. 345. 

(58) Theall-fubduer. In Lucian, this epi- 
thet is given to the Thunder; in Homer, to 
Sleep. In Mufcus, v. 200, to Love. In the 
Anthol. 1. vii. ep. 29. to Gold. IV. 8. to Her- 
cules. IV. 472. to Death. 

(59) Who prefidesover marriages. Ariftoph* 
ef<r|Ao(p. 882. She had likewife the epithet r«» 
pnXid^ ; which is of the fame import. V. Span-, 
heim. ad Cailimach. H. in Jov. v. 57. Diod. 
Sic. v. p. 340. 

(60) inventrefs of many arts. ^lian. V. H. 
I. 2. Diod. I. 5* p. 340. fays (he was focall* 

ed, itA TO fv^c«v iroXX» TCiw (piXorij^vAiy f^J^M— — Be* 

caufe to her we owe many inventions which ex* 
crciie the fkiU of the ingenious. 

(61) invemrefs of arts. Orph. H. xxxi. y. 17. 
if 62) Fertile ifi counfel. Hbm. Ia* £• v. 266. 




^o AN t1 clu i t ife§ 

(£3) Full of v^ifdoofi; Homi H. in PalUdsiH. 
y. 2. . 

{^} Signifies wife^ jbi- wariikt. See oh thiiS 
dcMiUe fignificatidni Scherpeteel, ad Horn. iA«- 
B. V; 23. Homer gives this title to other dci* 

(€s) The third-both. Hefiod. Thcogorii 
jr* 924. Sec PhorngCi c. 26. and Schol. Arif- 
topb. ad Ni(p. 985. Le Clerc, td Hefiod. e. 895. 

(f>6) Armed with a golden lance. I^urip. 
in Jov* V. 9. 

(67) Blue eyed. Horii. iXi A. v. 206/ GcU. 
11. 26. 

(68) lofiic, ntfXiiiTfic; Doric^ n^xtari^ Th* 
f^atronefs of the city. PaiiC Arcad. c. 47. 

(69) This epithet is of the fame flgnification^ 
Ariftoph. Nub. V. 682. V. Spanhiim. ad Calli^ 
jgoacb. H. in Pall. v. 5j.. 

• /70) Of the faMe ineaning. 

{j.i) Clayigera. Keys arc an enr>blem of go* 
rerqinent- AriHopb* 6.11534 V. Schwarzii 
Dilf. de Diis Clavigeris. 

(7<) Pfptcarcfs of tQwos. Homer. Hymn. L 
^n Paitad. v* t, and H. II. v. j(« 

i72) Tl)c Goddcfs that prefides over births^ 
^r pro?ipce, with refpefl: to thf m* is the fame 
with Juno's. V, Callim. H. in Jov^ v. 12. 
Upn^. Poen>« SecuK v. 13. Phurnut. c. 134 

... <74) 

Digitized by 


O^GkEfiCfi. jt 

(74) Tiie Goddefs of child-faed Aneroid 
II. 2$. Plut* Sympof. 34 Spaniieim. ad CiiHoi 
p. 148. 

(75) Tfae inhabitant of forefta. The hmt^ 
trefs. Ariftoph. Equ. 657, V. Lennep, ^^ 
Coluth. in apimadv4p« 132* 

(76) This epithet roeana the fame. 

(77) This coo means the fanot* 

(78) Who delights in archery« Hoiaer, H, 
in Apol. ▼« 15. Hefiod« e. 14. 

(79) Armed with a bow4 Ariftoph* e. 979, 
(80} The nurf6 of hoys* Alma. Hciych. 

•OMircfff OfffsTfi^tt fff 9iriivT»ih*<^The nourLftier of all 
nx>rta]s. Orph* in Hycn. 39. y* She ^$f the 
fame as the earth. Hence Ariftoph. B. ^07<» 
und Pauf. Act. 32, give alfo this epithet to the 
earth. There were yet other Divinities who 
were appointed by Jupiter to give fuftenance to 
mortals. V. Le C)erc» ad Hefiod^ 0. v. 450. 

(81) Celeftial Paufan. Phocic. c t^« Khun, 
ad h. h Meurf* ad Lycoph. v. 1 12, 

(8^) Miftrefs« Athen« xiii. 4. 

(83) Goddefs of gardcnS4 Pauian^ Attic. :aix« 

(84) Public, common, popular, ^aisfao. 
Bsot. xvi. and 1. vi, 254 

(85) Goddefs of generation. Ariftoph. N<^. 
▼. 52. Lyfiftr. V4 2, ConCiik, on the/ other e- 
]pithcts.of Venus, Leofiep. ad Colu^. p. 91 « 


Digitized by 


5? A N T I C^U I T I E S 

And on the name, AtPfoAm, Ovid. Met; IV. ^jg; 
Pluche, Hift; du Ciel. c. i; p; i6i. 

(^6) Aai/tAovK iignify intermediate fubftances 
betwixt the divine and human nature. Plut. dc 
Orac. Dcfi pag. 4*5. Jamblich. de My ft. €; v; 
p. 8. iSuch were Pluto^ Pan, the Satyrs. 

(87) The Heroes were called Demigods.^ 
Some of them dwed their birth to Gdds ; others 
were the fons of mere mortals ; and their virtues 
had raijfeid them to the rank of the Gods, whoie 
worfhip and honours they (hared; The defini« 
tion of the word Heroy is to be fouhd in Lu- 
cian, Dialog. Mort. III. p. 267, Edit. GracVk 
Such were, Bacchus, Hercules, Caftorand Pol- 
lux> Efculapius, Achilles, Menclaus, Helen; 
Cleomenes is faid to have been the laft of thefe 

(88) Hefiod. Efj/. v. \i^. 

f89) Plato in Sympof. p. 32 ^ Max. Tyr. 

DilT. 26. 27. 
. (90) The foreign Deities were called Bm 

gmxoi. The Athenians worfhiped Tuch Gods. 

See in Hefychius Qroi gmx*i. The Eleans had 

thefe deities* V. Paufan. Eliac; 15, 

(91) Hieronym. Comment, id Tit I » 

(92) The public wor(hip of new deities was not 
permitted without the approbation of the court 
of the Areopagus, liberates \a Areopagitico, 

Digitized by 


6 {^ G k E fe d fi. 33 

Jj; i88. Edit, fiafl. 1558. Juft. Mart, in n^-. 
^aivcd-ii zs-fo; *£^Af)tra;, p. 2D. Stc Harpocr. at the 

(9i) Iiorthat rcafon the Athenians would not 
allow St. Paul this innovation. A(5tsxvii. 18' 

(94) The^ paflage of Panfanras, Ellac; I c. 14. 
Which is commonly cited, proves nothing-, be- 
caufe he here refers to the uh known Gods of t>- 
lyropia* Vid. Philoftrat. in vit. Apollon. VI. 
3k and Wolf, in Curis Philol. ad Aft. xvii. 23. 

(95) Diog. Laert. i.§ 110. 


Digitized by 


34 A N T I Q^U I T I E « 

Of Sacred Placbs. 

I. A DORATION was paid to thcCe 
JljL Deities in places confecrated to 
their worfhip. Of thofc places, there 
were three kinds. The firft were called 
(i) TefjLivft — Fields fet apart > though this 
word has a more (2) extenfive fignifica- 
tion. The fecond, (3) AXo^, facred groves. 
The third, (4) N«o/, or *Iffa— ^Temples, 
or facred buildings. 

II. The Greeks feem to have taken from 
the Egyptians the cuftom of eredting (5) 

III. They were built cither in the moft 
(6) elevated part of their cities; or vrith- 
out the cities, on (7) mountains ; the gate 
facing the (8) eaft. 

IV. The innermoft and mofl facred re- 
cefs of the temple was called, (9) A^urw, 




O f G R E E C E. 35 

V. There were temples dedicated to the 
worffiip of (lo) one divinity; there were 
others confecrated to that of (ii) many. 
The Deities, who had one common tem^ 
pie, were fiyled (12) J^tn^vaoi, and (13) 

VI. The temples took their names from 
the Deities in honour of whom they were 
ereded. The temple of Diana was called 
(14) A^n/jLitrtop, that of Juno (15) 'Hfeuw, 
that of Neptune, (16) Xlocruieavm^ that of 
Ceres, (17) BiCfM^o^ioy, that of Caftor and 
Pollux, (18) AvuKTOfim. The moft fa- 
mous of thefe temples was that of Diana 
at (19) Ephefus. 

VII. The temples were adorned with 
ftatues, and offerings. 

VIII. The ftatucs were images, or re- 
prefentations of the (20) Gods; and divine 
(21) worfliip was paid them. They were 
called by the general term, (22) AyoKfiurot^ 

IX. The Egyptians tranfmitted to the 
Greeks the cuftom of placing in the tem« 
pies the (23) images of the Gods. 

D 2 X. 

Digitized by 



%. Atnongft the ancient Greeks thefe 
fobAitutes of their divioitie$ (24) were not 
formed by the elegant artift. They were 
(25) (hapelefs ftdnes, pieces of wood, pofts^ 
logs, ^nd (26) rude pillars. 

XL But in time thefe reprefentations 
were more ingenioufly wrought. A (27) 
human form was giyen them, and they 
were called (28) Bjitij. At firft their feet 
(29) touched each other; afterwards they 
were (30) fcparated. They were in dif- 
ferent attitudes: fome were ftandmg; o- 
thcrs lying; and others were (31) feated, 

XII. The matter of thefe ftatues, in the 
early times, were (32) wood, or (33) ftbnc j 
and they were called (34) So»v». 

XIII. Afterwards, when (35) luxury 
had invaded Greece, thefe ftatues were 

. made of iron> of brafs, of ivory, of filver, 
aod of (36) gold. 

. XIV. There were ^mbolical fiatues 
which were fuppofed to partake of the 

(37) divine nature, and which were called 

(38) AtoTTirii. They were kept in the in- 




/O F G R R E C E, 37 

ncrmoft part of the (39) fanftuary, and 
were .concealed from the fight of all but 
the (40) priefts, 

XV. (41) Clothes were put upon feme 
of them ; others were adorned before a 
(42) mirror. 

^ XVI. In imminent dangers they ftrctch- 
ed out their arms to them in a fuppliant 
manner, and (43) embraced them. • 

• XVII. If any filth had come tipon them^ 
or if they bad been touched with impure 
hands, a folemn ablution of thern was 
performed on appointed (44) days. 

■ XVIII. In the time of a fiege, the tute* 
lary Gods of the cities were chained to 
their ftations, left they fhould defert to the 
(45) enemy. 

XIX. Some of the ftatues'were taken 
out of their temples dn feftivals, and (46) 
drawn in prpceffioa through the principal 
parts of the city, on cars called (47) ATnjyai, 
with a folemn pomp, and great demonftra^ 
tions of joy, 

P 3 ' XX, 



3« A N T I QJJ I T I E S 

XX. The (48) temples of the Ood« 
were not only adorned with ftatues^ but 
likewife with offerings. 

XXI. The offerings were prefents which 
they offered, or (49) confecrated to the 
Gods, and which were (50) hung up in 
the temples for (51) ornaments. They 
were termed (52) Avcc6is[AaT». 

XXII. Thefe offerings were either made 
from a mere inftigation of piety, or from 

(53) gratitude; after a deliverance from fomc 

(54) ^viU or after gaining a (55) viftory, 

XXIII. T^ey were, i** Crowns ; 2" veft^ 
ments; 3"* vafes of iron, brafs, filver, and 
gold, of which the principal were the tri-i* 
pods ; 4"^ arms, and the fpoils of enemies. 


(i) This word is derived frorp Tipw, to di- 
vide, to fcparatc, A definition of it is given by 
Paufanias, Eliac. II. c. 6. 

(2) TtfAivn are properly places fct apart from 
profane ufcs, and confecrated to the Gods. The 
fame definition may be ajpplied to the facred 

6 groves 

Digitized by 



groves and the temples. See Pcrizon, ad JE- 
Kan. VI. I. 

(3) See, on the facrcd woods, Spanheim. ad 
Callim. H. in Pian. v. 38. Efchenbach. DilT. 
Acad. in. de gentilitium confccratis lucis, p. 
133. Feith. Antiq. Horn. I. 3. 5 2. jand the 
notes of the new editor, p. 617. 

4. Scilicet, OiKniActraj facred edifices. N«ei 
comes from yoMm, and fignifies habitations of 
the Gods. Thus Homer, H. in Mcrcun v. 
251. calls them d'f»y Ufni fofAvt'^thc facred houies 
of the Gods. 

(5) Herodoc. II. p. 102. 

(6) Homer, ix. X. v. 170. Vitruv. I. 7.— 
Hence, going to the temple was cxprefled by the 
yord^ A>«Cflw>£i», to afcend. -flElian. V. H. III. 37. 

(7) Paufati. Phocic. c. 35?. 57. 39. Arcad. 
^5. 23. Corinth. 36. Lacon. 25. 34. See 
Freytag. Diff. de Sacris Gentium in Montibus. 

(2) Lucian. de Domo^ T. II. p. 454. Clem. 
Alex. Stromal. VII. 

(^) The, reader will find a defcripdon (rf it in 
PoHac. Onomart. 1. 1. 8. JuL Cacf. de B. C. III. 
105. He calls the Adyta, the fanftuary, "The 
fccrct and interior part of the temple, which 
the priefts alone had a right to enter." — Occulta 
ct recondita templi; quo, practer faccrdotes adire 
fas non eft. 

( 10) Of the former kind was, i® The temple 

of Minerva, of which Paufanias fpeaks, Lacon. 

D4 17, 




17. 2. z^ Th$t of the Delphian ^nd Fydu^ 
Apollo, which the fame Paufanias m^Qtiops^ 
/Lttic. J9. 

(1 1 ) Of tbp latter I^ind wa^ the temple of VuU 
pan and Minerva 4t Atbeps. Pauf. Attic, e. XIV. 
Agguftin.xlc Civitat, Pcj, l^Wlll. 12. 2^ Tbc 
paatheon, u e. t# 9ca>vo«» ?w if^i^lwi^ 0iM Itfw^ the 
common templ^of all the Gods. Pauf. Ajtic. c. t, 

(i 2) Strab. vij. p. 22^. Plut. Sympof IV. 4^. 
They were called in Latin^ Contubernales, Ci- 
per. ad Attic. XIII. 28. 

(13) Strab».XI. p. 552. D'^Arnaud, d? Dii5 
n«f«JfOK, who proves that thcfe wordsr— '0/uitpC4>- 

9 x^o^^fJ'^AuC) cvifOi^QVi^ .ojMoyaou(| ^V^^^fX^^' ^^* 

Mpou^ iffwp, were fynpnynious. 

(14) This word, properly, iyas made ufc of tq 
f xprefs the ftatgc of DiAna, See Harpocrat, at 
the word, Afn/tAi?. The temple was called, • w«9 
Tf»fE|J<(r*afAfTi/A*JK-'Thf temple of Ephefijn Diar 
na. And— t'lfjovAfTfjttt^d^— The temple of Piana. 
See Spanheinfi. ad Callim, H. in Dun. v. 35. 

(15) Htrodot. IV. p. 2^9. IX. p. 607. ' 

(16) Paufan. Phocic. c. 28. p. 807. nflroJiof^ 
Paufan. Achaic. c. 27* paig. 596. 

(17) Ariftoph. 0£(rjt*. v. 58J. 

(^8) Lucian, im h\s Tim. pag. 79, calls it A>«. 
xfiovi for Caftor and Pollux were called AyAxic. 
The reafon for this name is to be found in Khun. 
ad Paufan. Phocic. c. 38. Voffius, de Orat. ec 

Digitized by 



ffogTf Idol I, i3t calls all ibm of temples, Avw 
7Pf«. Pliant V. H. XIII. 27. 

(19) Paufan. Mcffcn. c. 31. Intcrpr. ad Aft* 
XiX.^7. Liv. L 45. Plin. XVL 49, Solin, 
4;. PbU, de Bjrzan. de Septem Orbb Miraculis, 
inakes this temple of Diana one of the {even won- 
ders. Sq does the anonymous writer. Ilf^i Anw^r^ 
^. 2* whom we find in the Opufc. dc Gal. p. 85* 

(20) They were termed, EptoirfjLxrA Qffw. PoU 
Jux. L 1.7. 

(2i)Paufan, Basot. c, 39* p. 790. 791. Ladan^r 
tiusexclaims againft this worf^ip of images, IL 2. 

(22) AyothfM^Tctt then, Signified refemblancest 
pi^ures^ Aatups 1 as the difUonaries explain the 

(23) This 19 proved) i**By the teftimony of He- 
i-odotus, who fays, the Egyptians were the firft 
nation that exhibited the Gods in their temples^ 
3^ It is proved by this circumftance, that Ce* 
crops, who was an Egyptian, was the firft that 
brought this cuftom into Attica. 

(24) Clem. Alex, in Protrept. calls thefe ima« 
ges Sv\o¥ pine .»^af/bb0ov—«un wrought wood \ 
afterwards, XamJo^ a plank. Arnobius caUs 
them, Signa inertia. I. p. x). 

(25) Pauian. Achaic. c. 22. p. 579. Dion^ 
Chryf. Or. II. calls them, AirniMvg AiJovc — un- 
fhapen ftohcs. When thofc flones were anointe4 
with oiI| they were called^ fiMruAia. See Efchen- 




4t A N T I Q^U I T I E S 


bach, de Undtionibus Gentilium, p. 389. A 
paffagc of Gcncfis, xxviii. 18, 19, fccms to have 
given rife to this denomination. 

(26) Clem. Alex* Strom. L p. 348. Eufeb. 
Prasp. Evan. I. 9. p. 23. Pauf. VIII. 17. 

(27) Hcrodot L p. 62. Juftin Martyr re- 
proaches the Greeks with this abfurdity; and it 
is proved by a great number of ancient ftatues of 
Gods and Goddefies which remain to this day. 

(28) They were called Bjita, according to the 
grammarians, IlA^a rw p^or« Mixfv«i — from the 
remembrance they bore to a man. Ariftoph. 
Schol. ad Equ. v. 31. Tzctz. ad Lycophr. v. 
948- They are likewife called, AuxiXa — ^Images. 

(29) Diodor. Sic. IV. 276. 

(30) Diodor. Sic. 1. c. Pateph. Jiff* («ir»rw», c 
xxii. We there read that Daedalus was the firft 
that made ftatues, betwixt whofe feet and legs 
there was a vacant fpace — Ai«PcCf)x»Ta( rov Imircia. 

(31) Paufan. Corinth, p. 134. mentions a fta- 
tue of Pan feated, and one of Minerva ftanding. 
AndGronov. ad Melamp. III. i. fpeaksof afta« 
t\ie of Jupiter fitting, and of one of Ocean lying. 
Sec Paufan. Achate. XXI. p. 577. In Eufeb. 
Pracp. Ev. III. 7. p. 98, there is an elegant quo- 
tation from Porphyry, on the diflfercnt attitudes 
of the Gods, ftanding and feated. See Plin. III. 
Ep. 6. Strabo, XIII. p. 413. Carprou*, Excrc. ad 
Epift. ad Hcbr. p. 354. D*Arnaud, de Diis n«- 
(f?f OK, c. xii. p. 75« 





(32) Paufan. Arcadic. XVII. p. 633. PHn. 
XXXIV. 7. 

(33) Paufan. Corinth. 11. p. 114. A^goiimi 
uyaXfAu Aiflou — The ftatue of Venus of ftonc, 

(34) Hefych. Soav*— Ku^ wf t* ix JuAwi» i^^/Ai- 
»«, 11 XiOftw — So thofe ftatues arc properly termed 
which arc carved of wood, or ftone. 

(35) Paufan. Eliac. XII. p. 405. 

(36) Lucian. Jup. Trag.T. 11. p. 152. Ar- 
nob. Adv. Gent. VI. p. 118. Inftanccs of this 
are found in many parts of Paufanias. 

(37) Spanhcim. ad CaUim. H. in Pallad. ad 
Infcript. p. 529. and ad V. 50. p. 586. 

(38) Spanhcim. 1. c. Aft. XIX. 35. The 
itatueofDianaof Ephefus is called, Aioirmf. 

(39) E» tf^ff-oppVoK, n aJuTOK, in the facred, in the 
ioacceflible places. Paufan* Corinth. VII. 127. 
Corinth. II. 1 1 3. 

(40) Paufan. Arcad. 3tLVIL p. 696. 
^ (41) Paufanias, for inftance, Attic. XXIV. 
p. 98. mentions a ftatue of Minerva, ftanding, 
with a robe which reached to its 4ieels. AyaX/JM 
ng AOnirac o^Soy n x*i^»vi vchfti. See Plut» in Al« - 
cib. p. 2IO. Petron. 102* 

(42) Spanhcim. ad Callim. H. in Pallad. V. 
J 1. p. 547. and, V. 31. p. 564. 

(43)Lycophr. V. 1135. Spanhcim. ad Callim. 




44 A N T I CtU I T 1 E S 

(44) Eurip. Ipbig. inTaur. V. 1041. Span- 
heim. ad Callim. p. 527. Callimachus compof* 
ed an ode on the folctnn ablution of Pallas; the 
title of which is, Ek Aevrjot ruf JJaXXato^—^n 
the ablution of Pallas. 

(45) Diodorus Siculus, XVIILp, 520. fpeaks 
of a ftatue of Apollo, bound by the Tyrians with 
chains of gold. Sec Q^Cur. 3. IV. § 32, and the 
notes of . Freinihemius. Spanheim. ad Callim. p. 
573. Anfaldus, de Piis multaruip Gentium Ro- 
mam evocatis. Brixiac* 17431 c. III. p. ;;. 

(46) Spanhcim,.ad Callim^ H« in Cer, v. 121, 
p. 721. 

, (47) The Latins call them Tcn/sf. Sec Fcft» 
3. y. 41. Pauf. Eliac. Prior. IX. p* 396- 

(48) Paufanias, Phpcic. gives a detail of th« 
Darings of the tecpplc of Delphi, c. IX, 

(49) The emperor Juftinian, Inft. § 8. de re- 
rum divif, thus de^nes oflFerings — ^Things 
confecrated to the miniftry of the (jods--^£i( 
qusB ad Dei mtnifteria dedicata funt. 

(50) Homer. Od^ III. 274. They were hung 
upon the pillars^ upon the. walls, qpon tho 
arches. See Kunz. Sacra et profana AyA^ytjUbarvv 
Hiftoria, $ 14. p« 14* To make thefe ofFering$ 
is called ai»ariO»fti, Ariftoph. Plut. 8x$. and, eg- 
^frav. Long* Paftoral. p. 27r 

(51) Hence, Hefychius makes fynonyoiou^ 
(h? words 'ay«Oii/Aa, and xor/Afijbia, offerings and 

4 ornamenCi 



OFGREEce. 4f 

ornament. See Luc xx\. $. Herqdian* I. I4« 
Suiccr. Thcfaur. Ecclcfiaft. T. I. p. 268. 

(52) From the verb, A»aT«Ocir«i, to confccratc* 
They were likewife called — i^«f«, a^u^fAarat^ «- 
vaxtifAtvoL — gifts, facred things, things fet apart. 
Macrobius calls them x^^tpifia, Phalarid. Epift. 
84. Juftin. XXIV. 6. $ 8. calls them, munera^ 
• (53) Pauian. Fhocic. IX. 84 8* Hence they 
took the name of ;^ft^»n)fi«« 

(54) Schol. of Ariftoph. ad Acharn. V. 242. 
CaUim, in Dian. 229. Horat. L Od. 5. v. 13. 

(55) Paufan. c. i. Horn. Ix. X. v. 460. Ia. 
VII. V. 83. 1 Sam. xxi. r.'g. refers alfo to thi^ 

{^6} Lucian. Hcrmot. p#533. Homer. Ia, A. 
V. 39, Lucian dc Sacrif. T. I. 363. Pollux, L 
I. 2^. F^Iin.xvi. 4. 

. (57) Homer. Od. III. 274. II. ^a. 301. Pau- 
fan. £Uac. c. 16. p. 417. Paufan. Phocic. IX* 
Herod. L p. 21. 

(58) Homer. H, in Merc. v. 179. PoUuXi 
I. I. 25. Phocic. Vtll. p. 817. Eliac. Prior. 
c. X. p. 398. Eliac. Poller, c. XIX. p. 498. 

(^9) Paufan. Mcffcn. XXXIf. p. 359. Baeot. 
c. X. p. 730, Lacon. XVIII. p. 254. Attic, c 
X;X. p, 46* Phocic. c- Xlll. p. 830. Horner^ 
H. in Merc. v. 179. 

(60) Homer. II. X. 460. II. Vtl. 83. 
X Sam. xxi. 9. 


Digitized by 


46 A N T I (XJJ I T I B 8 

Of Sacred Persons. 

L ' I ^HE facred perfons were men cn- 
X trufted with the care of the holy 
places of the woods, the temples, and the 
religious ceremonies. The general appeU 
lation of the priefts was,, (i) *Ugiig ; they 
were held in great (2) veneration. 

II. There were different clafles of them 
in the (3) great cities. He who was at 
the head of the whole order, and whofe 
province it was to celebrate the moft ft- 
cred myfteries, was* called (4) A^it^ivg 
[the High Prieft.] The priefts had their 
miniflers, whofe names correfponded with 
their (5) different fundions. 

III. Amongft the Greeks, the women, 
as well as the men, were admitted to ft-- 
cred fundlions. The prieffeflcs were called 
(6) 'l£ffii«i. They were (7) commonly 

virgins 5 



Of^GREECE. 47 

Tirgins; and in Athens they were, only 
daughters of the firft (8) families. 

IV. Thus thepriefteffesof (9) Minerva, 
of (10) Cybele, of (11) Ceres, and of 

(12) Venus, were virgins. Thofe of Ce- 
res were diftinguifhed by the name of 

(13) MeXio-o-ai.— This title was likewile 
given to other (14) priefteflcs. 

V. They were enjoined a perpetual 
(15) chaflity. Hence, in later times they 
were not admitted to the /acred order till 
they were (16) marriageable. 

VI. Women who had had more than 
one hufband, were excluded on that ac-* 
count from fome facerdotal (17) claflcs. 

VIL The pricfteflcs ufed to carry the 
diflindive emblems of the deity to whom 
they were (18) confecrated. 

VIII. At (19) Athens, the priefts and 
prieftefles were drawn by lot from the 
men and virgins of a diftinguifhed (20) 
family, (ai) and of an irreproachable life. 
«rr-Thi$ mianner of appointing them wa9 
«ftlled (22) KAir^ou0-dau. 

Digitized by 


48 A K T f CLU i 1 1 E S 

-I3t. (23) Maimed, or defofmed pcrftfris 
were not admitted. 

X. They were . to keep therhfclves piirc 
jind free from all (24) pollution. 

XL When they performed their func-^ 
tions in the temples^ they wore a (25) linea 
robe and a (26) crown. 

XII. Some prieflhoods were (27) here-* 
ditary j and to certain families the vorlhip 
of the Gods of their country was cxclti- 
fively committed. So amongft the Athe- 
nians, the (28) EupX^iJxi, the (29) Kii^v^ 
te€c, the (30) Eu^aTf/3ai, and the (31) Erc- 
eQourudou, held their offices ; amongft the 
Argians, the (32) AKB^o^iSoa. Thus fome 
priefthoods were family-titles. 

N O T E S to C H A P. IV4 

(i) Plato gives us a defcription of them. Polit. 
They were likcwife ftyled, 'h^ov^yoiy Ora^roi, 
ekitat ; and* by the poets, ©^^Ji^oXol, duTtrj i?, *If* 
foiAvnfJkoyii^ Affixftftf : and in genera}', ¥irn^iTRi.9<ou^ 


Digitized by 



feihiftcrS of God; Sec Saubcrt, de Sacfific. 

(2) On account oif the commuhication t^'hich 
was fuppofcd to fubfirf: betwixt them and tha 
Gods. Plut. Quaeft. Rom, p. 291. Paufan. A- 
chaic, XX; p. 573; XXVII. pag. 595/ Hence 
they chofe from the firf^ families men whofe cha* 
i-adlers became facred^ and perfbns inriolable. 

(3) Ariftbt. VI. Politic; c. 8. 

(4) Jofcph. Ahtiq. Jud, XIV. 6. 

(5) For example 5 'iijoirow*, they who aflifted 
at the facrifices— rllaf «<f»Tw-i— They who collefted 
the facrcd corn. Pollux VI. 7. 35, Tafjuxh tup 
ligMf jtf*Ji^«*r«»»-^Thc qujeftors of the facred 
fund. Arlftot. Polit. VI. 8; N««(puA«XK-^Thc 
keepers of the temple. 

^6) They were alfo called A(nrug»^. They 
were not otaly employed in the worfhip of the 
GoddelTes, but of the Gods likewife ^ of Apollo^ 
Hercules, and Bacchus^ for inftance. Paufan. 
Ba?ot. XXVil. p. 673^ Laeon. XX. a6i. Schol. 
Ariftoph. Plut. v. 9. Paufan. Corinth. XXXIII, 
p. 189. The prieftefles of Bacchus were called, 
i— fi«x;^ai, 0vft^(r, Mi/AaXAovif, Moiiyetiig. The 
prtcfte^ of Bacchus was termed — nu6i«f , n^o^« 

(7) There was 4 law at Athens which ob^ 

Ugcd the prief^cfles to be virgins. Spanheim. 

P H. 

Digitized by 





. X 






f»» ( 


^? AKTiaUltlES 

IX. (2*) Maimed, or deformed pcrfons 
ir:r: not admitted. 

X. Tbcy were to keep themfelyes pure 

Xl.Whcn they pcrfotmcd their fonc- 

tl-ia the temples, they worea(2s)linen 


XII SomcFneni''->o^swre(27]hcre- 

z.,,v- and to certain families the vorlhip 

,f ;: Gods of their country was exdtt- 

t tcmmittei. So amonga the Athc 

b ('<;)Ev/«^X«?«.,the(29)Ki!5''- 

fTb Id their offices; amoogftth. 

Tier •'" 


Digitized by 





• *1 _L 
• - r - 



EI- -^ 


Digitized by 


^o A N T i CLU I T i E S 

H. inApol. V. I lo. p. 1 16. H. in Pallad. v. ^4^ 

p. 566. 

(8) Spanheim, ad Callim. H. in Ccr. v. 43. 

p. 691. 

(9) Paufan, Arcad, c, 47. pag. 695. The 
prieftcfs of Minerva was called by the Cilicians 
— Tvixaurfia. Plut. Qiiseft, Gr. p. 292. 

(10) Paufan. Eliac. Poft. c. XX. p. 502. 

(11) The pricfteffcs of Rhea, or Cy bcle, were 
called Ke^vo^o^oi, Mcandr. Alex. p. 1 44. Span- 
heim. ad Callini. p« ii^. Paufan. Arcad. 
XXXVI. p. '673. 

(12) Paufan. Corinth, c. X, p. 134. 

(13) Spanheim. ad Callim. H. in ApoIK v. 
lxo.p,ii5. etin Cer. V. 43. p. ($92, 

(14) Spanheim. 1. c. 

(15) Marcellin. in. Hermog. p. 65. Spanheim. 
ad Callim. H. in Apoll. v. 1 10. p. ii6, Paufan. 
Baeot/c.XXVII. p. 763. 

. (16) Paufan. Aft. XIX. p. 570. and XXVI. 
p. 592.* Arcad. CXLVII. p. 695. Corinth, c. 
^XXXIII. p. 189. 

(17) Spanheim. ad Callim. H. in Pallad. y. 
34. p. 569. Paufan. Achait. XXV. p. 591. 

(18) The pricftefs of CereS carried in her 
hand a fmall flieaf of corn, crowns, and poppy. 

* Callim. H. in Cer. v. 45. The pricftefs of Mh 
ncrva was clad in the armdOT of the Goddefs. 
Folyasn. VIII. sg, Thas^ the Bacchanals carried 


Digitized by 


6 F G R E E C E; , 51 

iKc tbyrfus 5 the prieite0ed of Vctaus, myrtle i 
thofeof Cybclp, pine-apples. 

(19) Plat, dc Leg. VI. Ariftot. Folic. IV; 15* 

(20) Paufan. Ach. XX* p. 573. XXVII. p, 
^95;PUt. l.c, 

(21) iBfchin. iii Tioiircb. p. 196. Demofth* 
adverf. Aodrot. That they might evince their 
pad cohdudTj they tinderwent a fevere examina- 
tion~^AiieijDiixri9« plat; de Leg. VI. 

(2z) The priefts thus drawn by lot were call- 
fed Kxii(WToi. An appellation diflFerent from th^c 
bj ij^hich they were called^ who were nominated 
by ile&\on^^*Ai(iTor, or by the fuffrages of the 
people-^%\))ii(pir/»ivoi-*From them we muft like* 
Wife diftiiiguifh thofe who fucceeded to the 
prteilhood py birthright — Oi ix j^iv^Uf ; 

(23) They were to be 'OXoxxufoi~and-^A^i- 
XffK. Hefych. at the word, A(ptXngi Athen. VIL 
p. 30a Spanheim^ ad Callim. H; in Pallad^ Vi 
iat. p.Cii. 

(24) ^fchiri. ihTimarch. p. 196. 173* De- 
inofth. adv. AndrOt; Plat, de Leg. 

(25) Spenc. de Leg. Hebr. Ritual, p. 682. 
DiflT. de Vefte Sacerdotum Linea. Broukhuf. ad 
TibuU. I. 3. V. 30. p. 61. 

(26) Herodor. II. c. 36. Athen. I. p. 2i. 
Ariftoph. £qu. v. 222* Tertul. de Corona Mil. 
c. 10. Lucian. in Pfegdom. T. L p. ySa. C. 
PafchaL de Coronis, IV. 13. 

E ^ (27) 

Digitized by 



(ij) Plat, de Leg. VI. Hcrmogenes, in PaN 
titionibus, c. VI. 

(28) Paufan. Attic, c. XXX VIII. p. 92. Nc 
pos, in Alcib. c. 4. 

(29) Paufan. Attic, c. XXXVIII. p. 92* Har- 
pocrat. at the word K»»fuxff. Hcfych. at the 
fame word. Hadr. Junii Animadv. v. 20. p» 

(30) Plutarch, in Thcf. p. 11. 

(31) Harpocrat. at the word — ETtoCovrcJati* 

(32) Callim. H, inLavacn Pallad. v. 33. and 


Digitized by 




Of their Divine Worship, their 
Pr ay er s, &c. 

I. ' I ^HERE were three religious duties 
X which they performed in the fa- 
crcd places ; viz. Prayers, facrifices, and 

II. The objc6t of the prayers, named ia 
Greek, ( i ) Evxpu^ n^o<rtvx»h Ae^re^^, was, 
the obtaining of fome good, or, the (2) a- 
verting of fome evil. 

III. As to the ceremonies ufed in prayer: 
1^— They ralfed the hand to the (3) 

mouth, and then extended it towards the 
deity whom they were (4) wofibipping. 
To ufe this ceremony was termed in Greek, 
(5) n^o^Tcuyarv; and in Latin, (6) Adorare. 

2^ — They turned themfelves (7) round, 
and looked towards the (8) eaft. 

3^ — Towards the (9) Gods and the (ky 

theyftretched both the (10) hands purified. 

E3 4<> 

Digitized by 


^4 A N T I %V I T I E S 

4^r«r-Sometitnes they prayed (| i) (land- 
ing i fometirpes on their (12) kqees« 
They ufcd the latter pofturc chiefly i^ 
great (13) dangers. 

(i) They were alfo called, Evyi^Arc^, IxinAc^ 

^JKiriiAiy mo(r»J)»i, aini/A«ra, Xitoh. 

(^) PlatQ, Al<^ih. quotes two verfes of an old 
(jreek poet^ ii> which thefe (WQ objeds ar^ 

Zfv PAtf'iXfo^ r« f»ff i^Kti yai ivxojAm^ Xdif 

Sovereign Jove, grant ys good things ^ben we 
pray for them, or though we omit to pray for 
(hem: — and avert froin us evils, though we 
ihould, by miftake, requeit them of thee. 

(3) Luciao. de Salt. T. L p. 792. Encom^ 
pemofth. T. I. p. 707. Dc Sacrific. 368. Job 
xxxi. 26. See, on the manner of raifing the 
)iand to the mouth, Morin, Hi^. de rAcadem. 



O F G R E E C E, 55 

des Belles Lett. T. II. n. 14. p. 89. Plin, XXIII, 
2, Matth. Brover de Niedeck, DilT. de populo* 
rum vetcrum ac recentiorum adoracionibus. 

(4) When they fupplicated the heavenly 
Gods^ they lifted up their bands : when they im* 
plored tbqfe of the fea, they ftretched forth 
(h^ir hands towards the fea. Horn. Ia. A. 350. 
And when they addrefled the infernal deities^ 
tfaeyfmote thegj:ouod« H. IX. 4^4. Cic Tufc. 
Qu^eft. 11. 

(5) Euftath. ad ol E. 

(6) Broukhuf. ad T^buU. I. 4. v. zj. and 
Comm. ad Minut. Fel. c. a* 

(7) Plut. Camill. p. 131. ¥. informs us that 
this was likewife a Roman cuftoniy and that it 
was introduced by Numa Pompilius. Nutna, 
p. 6^. E. Plin. XXVIII. 2. fays that the Gauls 
had the fame practice. We find traces of this 
cuftom in Plautus, Curcul. I. i. v. 70, Suet, 
Vitell. c. 2, fays that this cuftom of turning to 
the right to pray, was more ftri(5lly obfcrved by 
the Romans than by the Greeks. Veftiges of 
the fame ufage are likewife found in Ariftopha- 
pes, pag. 957. Trygteus fays to his (lave — 

A^i hf TO xapqZv XaCttVy x«f nrv ^i^y^Sctf 

E 4 Age, 



56 A N T I CLU I T I E 3 

Age, cum Caniftro fume TruUeum 

Et cejcricer circumito Aram ac} Dcxtram flee- 


See Dacicr, ad Horat* III. Od. 26. v. 5. aii4 
Madame Dapier, ad Ariftoph- Nub. p. 3 a 8, 
Apul. Milcf. IT. p. 39. Tqnc oricntem ob- 
vcrfus, ft incrementa folis augufti tacitus 
imprccatus, &€• Pac. Panegyr. fays — Divi- 
nis rebus opcrantes, in eam coeli partem ora. 
convcrtimus a qui lucis exordium eft. — ^Wheq 
we "ftipplicate the Gods, we tu^n our fiices 
to that quarter of the (ky where the fun rifts- 
See Virg. -ffineid. VIII. 68. and Not. Serv. 
Sec too Tertul. Apolog. |6. Buleng. Eclqg. ad 
Arnob. p. 56. 

(8) Eiri Jjgia. Plut. in Camil. 1. c. Athen. 1. c.' 
-— EiTiT* ti^iOL rf£(po/t*im, Turning to the rights 
i. c. to the eaft. Hadr. Jun. Animadv, III. 3. 

p. 142. 

(9) Horn. Od. IL 261. IV. 759. HeGod, 
Efy. 72 A. Clem. Alex. Strom. IV. p. J31. 

(^lo) Ariftot, dc Mundo. c» 6. — Hence to 
praly was expreffcd by thefc words— ^n^a; «»ajd-- 
j^«y. Hom. U. XXIV, 301, 306. III. 3i8* 
feurip. Helen, v. iioi. Lucian. Philopat. T. 
IL p. 780. We muft not hoiyevcr forget the 
di^erent ceremonial wh^ch was ufed in fupplicac* 
ing the ipfiprnal Gods. 





(ii) Offl^i— Ercft.— Philoftnin Apoll. VI. 4, 
pjur. Numa. Marc. XL 25. 

(12) Tbcophr. Charadt. Ethic, c. 17. Homer. 
IK I. 440. Marc. 15-19, 

(13) See Chrift. Gottlieb. Schwafzius in MiCr 
ccllaneis Policioris JLitcrtaurap. Piwrib, I. 


Digitized by 



C H A P. VL 

Of Sacrifices. 

I- QACRlFICES arc termed in Greek, 
k^ (i) OufTieu, and Atafct. And tp fzm 
orifice, is, ^u¥, (2) ir^j^ifiiv, or (3) araj- 
fi^u¥ ^iMTiocy (4) TTonTv. The poets ufe likc^ 
wife the words, ^^^^y, (5 )^iii»» 

IL Buciir with the ancient Greeks fignw 
fied, (6) to burn perfumes ; and ^^, in-^ 
cenfe burned in honour of the (7) Gods. 
From this word is derived the Latin word^ 
(8) thus. For in the remoter ages the 
^lood of animals was not fhed to propitiate 
|he God^i odours and perfumes wer^ only 
vied in (9) facrifice. 

Ill, The firft Athenians* following the 
injundion of Triptolemus, Oi#u; jcot^$ig 
(10) ctyaXXMh^^To regale the Gods with 
fruits*--offered them only the produce of 
^he earth. They deemed it but juft to give 
the Gods the firft fruits of thofe good 


Digitized by 



things which they fo liberally beflawed od 
(ii) mankinds 

|V, Afterwards they offered animals i 
and the word ^vcptof was novy only applied 
to the ( 1 2) ftjeddingof the b][oo(J of vidiins, 
The animals which they facrificed, werc^ 
the (13) ox, the hog, thq flieep, the kid, 
the cock, and the gooie. 

V.Jhe principal vidim, and the largcft, 
was the (14) ox. (15) BdufluriJV was the 
term for facrificing th|f animalt 

VI, Thefe aniqiaU were to be (16) mfr 
TM aod r^Xim, fan a et integra, i. e. ihey 
were qo| to be maimed, laoie, or unheal-t 

VII. (17) Oxen five years old, and whicl^ 
had never borne the yoke, q^^vyn^^ were fa- 
crificed: the flieep were to be (18) tWQ 
years old^ termed by ^he l,atins, (19) Bi- 

VjIL Sometimes they facrificed lAanyi 
animals at once. Thus at Athens thtr^ 
was a facrifice which confided of three a- 
*{)imals of different fpecies; the hog, (he 




60 A NT I CtU I T lES 

he-goaf) and the ram : it was forthat rea^ 
fon called (20) rptrrv^, 

IX. Sometimes a hundred viftims were 
offered at once. This was a folemn fa« 
orifice, and was called, a Hecatomb— 
(21) *E«caT©f*Cij, 

X. The feveral animals which we have 
mentioned were not offered indifcrimi- 
nately to all the Gods. The different 
deities had their proper (22) vidims. (23) 
An "ox five years old was facrificed to Jti* 
piter; (24) a black bull, a hog, and a ram, 
to Neptune I (25) a heifer, and a ewe to 
JMinerva; (26) a black and barren ewe to 
the infernal deities ; (27) a (he-gqat, and 
9 cock to Efculapiqs^ 


(i) Euripid. Medea, v. 964. gifts, prefcntsj 
inXiatin, dona, munera. Broukhuf. ad TibuU. 
IV. I. V. 8. Yet Plato, de Votis, diftinguiflics 

^(g^« from €hKMu 

(2) Hcbr. V. 3, 




(3)* Hcbn vii. 27- xiii. 15. i Pet, iL $. 

(4) Luc n. 28. JEliM. V. H. IX. tS' 

(5) Horn. IX. A. 315. and 444. The word is 
likewife ufedby JElian. T. H. XII. 61. 

(6) Porphyr. niji flnrox»»f> 1. H* § 5* . Ovid. 
l^aft. I. 343. 

(7) Plin. XIIL 16. Homer, o** E. v, 60* 
Hefych. Plin. XIII. i. Perizon* ad iElian. V. 6. 
Callim. H. in Apoll. 3$. 

(8) The Latin etymologifts zrt therefore 
wrong in deriving it from tundere. 

(9) Porphyr. ir«fi airpp^n^ IL p. 127. Ovid. 
Faft. I. V. 337* Paufan. Arcad. c. II. p. 6^* 
Thefc facrifices without bloodfhed . are termed 
am^a U(» — Sacrifices without fire, ^fchyl. A* 
gam. 701. 

. (10) Porphyr. .»ff« ciirox,nu 1. IV. p. 431. 

(11) Idem. II. p. 127. Spanheim. ad Callim;* 
H. in Del. 283. p. 499.Diog. Laert. in Py thag. 
yill. p. 494. 

(12) Porphyr. irif» aw^xfli. 1. II. p. 54. Pot- 
ter, p. 235?. 

(13) Suid. at the word, euo-oy. 

(14) Plin. 8. 45. Virgil .IL Georg. 146. 

(15) Ariftoph. Plut. v. 820. and Schol. ad 
H.L. , 

(16) Plut. dc Orac. Dcf. p- 437. Horn. lA.' 
I. V. 66. Athen. Dinof. XV. c. 5. p. 674. F. 
FoUux, 1. 1. 26. 


Digitized by 


iSi A Nf t I Q^tJ I t 1 fi S 

(17) Horn. IX. K. V, 292. The hogs were lifeif- 
wife to be two years old. Horn; oJ. XIV. v; 

(18) Virg. iEneid. VL 39. aad Not Strt. 

(19) Macrob. Sat, VL 9. GcH. XVt 6. 

(20) SchoL Ariftqph, ad Plut. frao; Suidas 
at this wotd. 

' (21) Hefych. at the ^ord £xoer6/ui6i. Euftath* 
ad lA, A. V. 315. Strab, VIIK p. 25b. Jul Ca- 
fitol. Balbin. II. Homef, o*. r. v. 5. defcribes a 
greater facriHce than eren the Hecatomb. 
(22) Arift. Ethic. IX. 2; r. 10. PHiL H. N. 

Viil. 45. 
(2^) Horn; ixi B. V. 403: 

(24) Horn, oii A. V. 129. 130. 

(25) Horn. O^. AiV. 764. 

(i6)Hom. ofiti. v. g^ii Sencc. Mdip.\ 


(27) Plato. Phaed. See, oh the eock offered 

to Efculapius, Havercamp. ad TertulK Apcrfog. 
46. p. 3S0. Laft. III. 20. § 16. Cselius Rho- 
dig. XVI. 12. 

(28) Potter, on Lycophron, v. 77. gl^et the 
folbwihg reafons why certain fpeeies of animals 
were offered to the Gods in preference to others. 
—I** They often facrificed aninials to their dci-*^ 
ties, which were odious to them, hoping that 
hoftile blood would appeafc theit).—- z"" Tbejr 


Digitized by 


likewife thought they would be propitiated by 
offering them fuch fruits of the earth, or fuch 
animals as were agreeable to them. Thus to 
Ceres they oflfered the firftlings of grain ; thofir 
of the vintage to Bacchus ^ and a dove to Ve- 
nus. The facriBces were either public or pri^^ 
vate. Xenoph. Menoorabi L i. $ 2« 


Digitized by 


$4 A N T I Q^U i T I E ^ 

Of the Ceremonies ufed in S a^ 


I. 'TpHE fdllowing were the facrificial 
A ceremonies. The vidtim was a- 
dorned with (i) wreaths and garlands i 
Xrifjifia(rs. Sometimes its (2) horns were 

IL Thus adotnedy it was iprinkled o- 
Ver with (3) pure water: fome water they 
frequently poured into its (4) ear. 

III. They theft placed upon its (5) head 
a falted cake» called in Greek, (6) Ot/X«/^ 
and (7) OuXo^uTo*. 

IV. They plucked fronii the forehead of 
the vidims, froni betwixt the horns> a 
little hair, which they threw into the fire 
upon the (8) altar. 

V. After thefe preliminary ceremonies^ 
accompanied with (9) prayers, the yiStim 
was facrificed. The minifter of the facri* 




OF G'R E E C E. 65 

fice ftruck it on the head with an (10) 
axe. Its throat was then cut with a knife 
called (11) Mocxcu^9 and (12) Z^ayig. 

VI. But the vidims immolated to the 
celeftial deities were not flain in the 
fame manner with thofe which were offer- 
ed to the infernal Gods. The (13) heads 
of the former were raifed^ and turned back« 
wards 3 (14) thofe of the latter were lower- 
ed to the ground. 

VII. They received the blood of the 
viAims in a vafe, termed (15) X^aymv^ 

VlIL (16) After the vidtim was flain^ 
they flead it> and cut it into many pieces. 

IX, When they had opened it, they ex- 
amined its entrails, which the Greeks call- 
ed (17) X'TTXuyx^a. From this word are 
derived (18) l^TrXotyy^otncoTna, Vifcerum 
Examination and liirXayxj^ocrkoTrog, Haruf- 

X. After having cut the vidim in pieces^ 
they wrapped over with fat its thighs, M^* 
^01, and laid them apart^ 


Digitized by 


6^ A N T I CLU I T I E S 

XI. They then cut raw pieces from $SL 
the members of the vidtim, and laid then 
Dpon the thighs which were to be baraed* 
ThJs Homer calls (lo) 6ipo$$tM. 

XIL The thighs thus prepared were 
(21) powdered with flour^ and (2a) pla- 
eed on a part of the altat which was made 
to receive them. 

Xllt Altar, in Greek, is Boi^. Bat 
to all the deities, without diflindion, they 
did not ereA thefe B«/tior, which were 
high altars. They were only the preroga-* 
tive ef the celedial Gods, the (23) Emoipas- 
viot. To the terreftrial deities, the Emxfio^ 
9i0f;f lower altars were conftriided, named 
(14) £<r%/ie^<Ki. For the infernal Gods they 
only dug a ditch, and poured into it the 
blood of the immolated (25) Tiditn. 

XIV, They burned with (26) dry and 
cloven wood the part of the vidtim deftin<* 
cd to that purpofe. To make th6 flame 
rife higher, ihey poured (27) wine upoto 
it. This, however, was not pradtifed in 




all ikcri^oes* Some wtrc called (28) ^^cu 

XV. They then pot upon a fpit and 
(29) roafted therefl of the vidim, which 
they (30) ate with their friend^ wh^n thp 
(acrigce W3$ over. 

XVL When the banquet was (nded» 
before they returned home, they threw in«-> 
to the facred fire the (31) tongue of the 
▼idim, in honour of (32) Mercury. 


(i) Thence the epithet Znipfj^o^oc Bo?;, the 
crowned heifer. Lycophr. v. J27. Aft. xiv. 
13. Ltician. dc Sacrif. p. ^6%* Ariftoph. Nub. 
255. Ovid. Met. XV. J30. and the authors cit- 
ed by Pafchal. de Coronis, IV. 16. 

(2) Horn. oi. r. 384. Liv. XXV. 12. Brouk- 
huf. adTibulL I. 5. 15. 

(3) Dion. Halic Archseol. VII. p, 478. 

(4) Schol. Apol. Rhod. ad I. v. 42 J. wherehe- 
fays this water was calkd n^ox^TD. 

(5) Serv. ad Virg. iEncid. II. 133. Dion. Ha- 
lie. VII. p. 478. 

F2 (6) 




(6) Paufan. Attic, c. 3CXXVIII. p. 93. Hoin; 

Oi.T. 441. 

(7) Horn. lA. A. V. 449, Oi. r. V, 445. 

(8) Dion. Halic. ArchaeaL VIL p. 479- 
Horn. o^. r. 446. Kuft. ad Ariftoph. Av. v. 
960. p. 193. 

(9) Horn. IX. A. V. 450. Piin. XXVIII. 2. 

(10) Hotn. o^. r. 449. Dion. Haiic. Archseol. 
VII. p. 478. ApoU. Rhod. Argon. 1. 427. 

(ix) Horn. H. in ApoU. 335. Paufan. Mef- 
fen. c. 17. p. 320. 

(12) Euripid. Eledr. 81 1. 

(13) This is, in Homer's language, au tpntf. 
Ix. A. 459. In that of Orpheus, avrnXivm xi^aXhV 
fKAiSffot* Argon. 311. See Schol. Apoil. Rhod. 
1. I. 587. Cuper. Obf. I. iz. remarks that rpot* 
;(iiXi^fiy fignifies, Cervicem furfum fleAere. 

(14) Schol. Min. ad Horn. IX. A. 459. 

(i $) Schol. Min. ad Horn. o^. F. 444. Ho- 
mer in the fame place calls ita/iAyiov. It islikewife 
called 0^«}^fiov, and oi^ayiov. 

(16) Horn. Ix A. 459. oJ. XIV. 427* 

(17) Euripid. Eledr. v. 826. 

(i8) Paufan. Attic, c. XXXIV. p. 84. Eliac. 
Poll. c. II. p. 45;. Barat. c. XXXIX. p. 790. 
See Pcrizon. ad ^lian. II. 31. p. 7. Saubert. 
de Sacrif. c. 20. p. 504. 

(19) Homer. Ix. A. v. 459. 

(^20) Horn. l.c. Of. XIV. 427. O*. r. 455. 


Digitized by 



(2i) Horn, ol XIV. 429. Dion. Halic. Ar- 
chaeol. VII. 478. 

(22) Dion* Halic 1. c. ^ 

(2 j) The Latin word, altaria, is compounded 
of altae and area;. Berkelius, ad Stepb. at the 
word Bw/c*oi. Ammonius V. Ba»/eao(. Serv. ad 
Virg. Eclog. y. y. 66. 

(24) Harpocr.'at the word Eo'X^m. Confuir; 
on the difference of the two words, BufAotj and 
B^x^f^sStaBber, adFeith. Antiq. Homer, p. 19. 
^arpe^ad Eurip. Heracl. v. 128. 

(25) This ditch was c^led BoS^oc, A«xxo(. See 
Horn. Ot. A. 25. and 34. Ovid. Met. Vil. 243. 
Olean ad Philoft. Vit. Apoll. IV. 16. p. 152. 

• (26) 2:x*C*'f* Hom. IX. A. 462. 

. (27) They did: it, not only to heighten the 

flam^ but for a libation. 

(28) That is, fober facrifices, in which, the 
only libations they made were of water, uJ^^ooirov- 
ia. Porphor. de Abftinent. 11. p. 156. Plut, 
de Sanitate tuenda, p. 132. Paufan. Eliac. Prior. 
XV. p, 416.' 

(29) Hom. U. A, V. 465. 

(30) Hom. IX. A, V. 466 O*. r. V. 65. and S. 

V. 430. 

(31) Hom. of. r. 332. and 34. 

(32) Athen. Dipnof. 1. c. XIII. and XIV. p. 


Digitized by 


7D A N T I Q^XJ 1 T I E S 

CHAP. vm. 


L PRESIDES the facri^ccs, tlic Greeks 

JL^ likewife ufed purifications^ Is^ra* 

tmes. Whit the Latihs trailed hfir^re^ 

the Greeks exprtiflM by ihe "Vtliitlfi, t*) 

(2) Ka6ot^f4,ot, and oyviirfMu 

II. Purifications were pradifed» either 
before they entered upon rbligioas dittibs^ 
or after ads by which they thought th«in<^ 
ictves polluted. 

III. They ufed purifications before they 
entered upon a religious duty,— For in- 
ftance, i^ Before they went to the (4) 
temples.^ — 1^ Before the (5) facrifice.--— 
3? Before they were initiated into facred 

(6) myfterics.— 4^ Before their folemh 

(7) vows and prayers. — The purifications 
ufed at thefe times were the mod folemn 



by Google 


IV. Th^ likewife purified tfaemfelves 
after afts by >i^hicfa they thought them- 
ielves polluted. For example— 1 ^ After 
« (5} murder.— 2^ After the (9) venereal 
adb.— 3? After having aiCfled jat 9 (10) 

V. In thefe expiations they ufed— i? 
(If) Water— 2^ (12) Fire— ^^ (13) 

NOJES to CHAP, Vai. 

(x) Ariftopb. Vefp. 118. fjom. Ia. n, 228. 
<2) E«irip.Ele&r. r. 795, 

(3) To thefe terms may be added, KaOo^irfioiy 

IXarfAOi) TfXfloif &C. 

(4) Eiirip. Jon. v. 94. Juftiq. Mart, Apol 
11. p. 94. 

(5) Horn. IK. A. V. 449. Eurip. Elcft, 791. 
Plaut. Aulul. III. 6. 43. 

(6) Clem, Alex. Strom. V. p. 582. VII. 714. 
Schc4. ad Ariftoph. Plut. v. 846. Arrian in E- 
pia. III. 21. Ariftoph. Pac. 373. 

(7) Sophocl. ^dip. Col. 460. Eurip- Alceft. 
157. Horn. IA.n. 239. 

F^ (8) 

Digitized by 



(8) Schol. Sophocl. ad Ajac, Flagellif. v. 666. 
Horn. O/. X. V. 480. JElizn. |II. j. IV, 5. 
Pauf. Corinth, c. 31. p. 185. ApoUqd, IIL 12. 

(9) Athen. XV. p. 68 1. Homer; oi. 0. v* 
362. PauC Arcad. XXV. p. 648. • 

(10) Pollux, VIII. 7. 65- Cafaub. ad Thc- 
oph. Ilf^i hwitcufA. p. 339* Kufter ad Ariftoph. 
EjcxXho-. p. 1025. 

(11) Sometimes they ufed water from a foun- 
tain; Soph. JEd, 460; fometimes fea- water. 
ApoUon. Rhod. IV. 670. Sometimes water 
mixed with fair. Theocrit. Idyll. XXIV. 44. 

(12) Or fulphur, which they threw into the 
fire to makefmoak. Horn. o^. X. v. 481, 493. 
Thcocr. I.e. Ovid. Met, VII, 261. 

(^;i) Lucian. Dial, of the Dead. T. I. p. 263* 
Catapl, p. 427. Ovid. A. A, II. 329. 




O F G R E; E C E. 73 

C H A P. IX. 

Of the Oracle 8 and Divina- 
tions of the Greeks. 

I. 'TT^HE divinations and the oracles 
jL made likewife a part of their re- 
ligion. The anfwers which the Gods 
gave when they were confulted in doubtful 
and difficult cafes, were the oracles. Thofe 
anfwers were termed v%^ijt/mij from the 
verb, (i) xi^»9 to give an oracular*anfwer. 
They were alfo called, (2) Xoy/a, (3) ptF- 
rmJiAaret, (4) SiovpoT^a, &c. The placea 
where thefe oracles were anounced, were 
called, (5) xgK^S*^9 (6) fcctvreia; the divin- 
ers, xpfi-fioXoyoh ; and to confult them, was 
cxprefled^by the word, (8) ;(jf«<rflai. 

IL The oracles had gained fuch credit 
and veneration, that they were confulted 
in all important affairs, on all (9) doubt- 
ful events* Their anfwers were deemed 


Digitized by 


y4 A N T I C^U I T I E $ 

the advice of heaven ; they were received 
with an (lo) implicit faith. In fhott,, if 
a(i I ) form of govemnMnt was^tobe chang- 
ed, if (12) laws were to be made, if (13) 
war was to be declared, or peaee concluded, 
they entered upon none of thefe important 
matters without firft confulting the o* 

III. The venerttion £m the oracles was 
augmented by the gifts and facrifices wfiic^ 
they who oonfulted them were obliged (9 
ofier. Princes and rich men, fortlMitrea* 
fon, could otdy (14) confult thcmi iior 
could they at anytime; but «po« oertaki 

(15) days. 

IV. Were thefe wrfwcrs dilated by 

(16) demons? or were they only the re- 
falt of the art and villatny of the priefls ? 
This is yet a problem wk h the learned. I, 
however, am of opinion that they were tlie 
efFed of dexterity and artifice. 

V. Of the Gods who prefided over orz^ 
cles, and divinations, the moft eminent 
were, (17) Jupiter, and (i3) Apollo* 


Digitized by 



TI. Ali the oracles were not delivered 
in tht ikme manner, in fome places the 
anfwers were given by (19) interpreters. 
Iq others^ the Gods themfelves revealed 
their will* either by (^o) voice, or (21) 
dreams* or ibme dfccifive (22) events. But 
I muft give a particular defcription of fome 
of the tna& famous oracles. 


(i)Ariftoph. Velp. 159. Xenopli.Memorab. 
I. 3. 1, Herodotus cites the tnxA ^rnioos ora- 
cles, I. p. 19. Sec AriftDph. Pint. 51. 

(2) Ariftoph. Equ. 120. 

(3) Ariftbph.Vcfp. 161. 

(4) Horn. IX. A. 85. ^/Mi, Xen. Mem. 1. 1. 
3. Philoftr. p. 802, calls them likewife ^(onsm* 

(5) Hefych. at the words, XS^^S^^* fiMrmv* 
A trcatifc of Hutarch is intitled, Hif 1 rm vOitKn^ 
vvTkn xfipif »«>"— on the the oracles which have 

(6) Plutarch de Pythiac Orac. p. 397. D. » . 

(7) Ariftoph. Av. 961. 


Digitized by 


jS A N T I Q^U I T I E S 

(jS) Horn. o^. E. 492. The people who con- 
fpltcd them were termed-T-efmr^ oir«i| Qja^oi. Pol«- 
lux. I. !• 18. x(iir/«e^pg9ii Paufan. Me(Ien«IX. 
p. 301. 

(9) Xenoph. Aro/K». L i. §. 9* 

(10) Idem. I. I. $ 3. Cic. de Divin. L 19. 

(11) Pion. Chryf. Or. 32. Plfit. AgeGL p. 
597. C. Sparciaq, Pefceo. Nigro, c. XIII. Cic* 
dc Div. I. I. See Fcith. Antiq. Hpm. p. 148. 

(12) Xenoph. de Laced. Rep. Strab. XVL 
p. 524. Cic. de Div. I. 43. 

(13) Herodot. I. 46. Paufan. Baeot. c. XIV. 
p. 738. Meflen. XU. and IX. 

( 1 4) Plut. de Orac. Defec. p. 4 3 7. Herodot* 
L 5ro. Juftin. 24. 6. 

(15) Plut. Quaefl:. Grace p. 292. 

(16) Some of the ancients attributed thefe an- 
fwers to the Gods themfelves. Jambfich. de 
Myfl:. Seft, IIL c. 11. p. 72. Others, to good 
or evil geniufes. See Pluc de Orac. Defeft. p. 
418. Others to exhalations of the earth, and 
fuch phyfical caufes. Cic. de Div. I. c. j;o. 
Flin. II. 93. and othen, to human fouls feparat- 
ed from their bodies. Plut. 1. c. p- 43 1. Some 
of the fathers were of opinion that it was the 
devil himfelf who fpoke. Tertull. de Praefcript. 
adv. Hasret. p. 122. edit. Baf. 1539. Minut. 
Fel. c. 26. Laftant. II. 14. Many moderns 
have written in defence of this opinion; and a- 




OF GREECE. \ 7/ 

mdng them, P. Baltus — Anfwer to the Hidory 
of Oracles, &c. — G. Msebius--De oraculonim 
Ethnicorum origine, propagatione, et durations 
But this opinion has been ftrongly oppofed by 
Ant. Van Dale, DeOraculisEthn. vet. byFonte* 
nelle, and many others, who have folved the an- 
fwers of the oracles into facerdotal fraud. 

(17) All events were imputed to necelBty, 
or deftiny, i. e. to the will of Jupiter. Span- 
heim. ad Callim. H. in Delph. v. 122. p. 41 S. 
Hence Jupiter is ftylcd by Homer, naire/M^«io( — 
The author of all oracular information, ix. e. 
V. 250. Prometheus takes to himfelf the inven- 
tion of oracles, in ^fch. Prom. Vind. v. 

(18) Jupiter was fuppofed to inftrudfc Apol- 
lo* in futurity. JEfch. Frag. pag. 640. Eu- 
menid. v. 19. Spanheim. ad Callim. H. in 
Jov. V. 69. Broukhuf. ad TibulL III. 4. v. 47. 

(19) The Delphic oracles, for inftance, by the 
prieftcfs. Paufan. Phoc. c. IX. 

(20) Paufanias fays it was the earth which at 
firft gave the oracles at Delphi. 1. e. 

(21) The oracle of Amphiaraus anfwered 
by a dream. Paufan. Attic, c. XXXIV. p. 84* 

(22) Paufan. Acbaic. c. XXV. 590. Cic. 
Div. 1. c. 


Digitized by 



Of the Orac].£ qFDodoma* ' 

L '' I *HE (i) Dodonean was the matt 

JL ancient oracle» fo called from 
Dodooa^ a city of Chaonia^ or MolpfliSi a 
mountainous part of {2) Epim$i or, acqor-^ 
ding to ibme geographers^ of (3) The0k^ 

II. It is faid, the Pelafgians built Dodo« 
na, and eftabli(bed its (4) oracle, 

III. There are different conjeAures on 
the etymology of the word Dodoha. Some 
derive it from Dodanim, the ion of Javan^ 
who, they fay, fettled a colony in that part 
of (5) Epirus—Others from the river (6) 
Dodona'— Others from the Dodonean 
dove, or rather from a woman named Do- 
dona, who was brought from Phoenicia in- 
to (7) Greece—And others from different 
(8) origins. 

IV. There was near Dodona a foreft of 


Digitized by 



oaks which was confccratcd to Jopiter, 
and which Aiperftition bad revicred from 
time (9) immemorial. It was report- 
ed that thefe oaks fpake» and Conrey** 
cd the anfwers of the (10) God. It was 
likewifit Reported, that in this foreft there 
^as an oak higher than the reft^ on thd 
top iff which two doves commonly perch* 
ed^ and gave anfwers to thofe who came to 

V. But this is only repeating fables. 
Ctii we believe that trees had formerly the 
faculty of ipeech^ which they have not at 
prefent^ or that doves ever predided (11) 

VI. The truth of all thefe marvels is 
this. In the early times there Were divin« 
crs» Who were called, (13) tin^^ftm^ (14) 
A9r^9fT9iroitu (15) Km/utavmii (16) EX* 
hPh and tikktu, T^fimfot, and^ Tiyiouj^i* 
Thefe diviners when they vrene Confulted^ 
mounted an oak, from the top of which 
tiiiy gave their (17) anfwers. Thence 
came the fable of the prophetic oak. 


Digitized by 


io A N T I QV I T I E S 

VIL Afterwards (i8) old women were 
appointed to this office^ And as in the 
Theflalian tongue thofe female diviners 
were named (19) tliXuoti$g, which word 
likewife fignifies (20) doves» this equi- 
vocal meaning gave rife to the fable of the 

(21) prophetic doves. 

VIIL Two prodigies had contributed to 
render this oracle famous; its - fountain, 
and its caldron.— The fountain was called, 

(22) the facred fountain. If a lighted 
torch was plunged into it, it was extin- 
guiihed, as it would have been in other 
fountains ; but a torch not lighted took 
fire at fome diftance from its water. 

IX. Its caldron was of brafs, and gave a 
continual found, whether occafioned by 
the wind, or fome other (23) caufe. From 
the furprifing property of this caldron 
flowed the proverbial expreflion,*— (24) 
XctXKiiov Actf Joyo^iGv—^DodoneaQ bra(s. 




(>*• GREECE. ti 


(i) Herodot. II. p. 154. 

(2) All Epirus is often included in Chaonia } 
perhaps, becagfe the Chaonians were in old 
times liiafters of Epirus. Strab. VIL p. 224* 
Molofiis was a country of Epirus, in which was 
Dodona. Strab. 1. c. Steph. Byz. at the word 
Zi»Jtm. But Paufan. Attic, c. 17. p. 40. places 
Dodona in Thefprotis *, fo does Euftath. ad Dio- 
nyf. p. m. 229. 

(3) Luc. Holfien. in Not. et Caftig. ad 
Steph. Spanheim. ad Callim. H. in Delum. v« 


(4) Spanheim. ad Callim. H. in Del. v. 284* 
p. 496* Strab. VII. p. 2 25. 

(5) Voffius, de Orig. et Prog. IdoloL I. 7. p*; 


(6) Euftath. ad Dionyf. Perieg. v. 430. 

(7) Spanheim. ad Callim. H. in Del« v« 284. 

P' 497- 

(8) Euftath. 1. C. 

(9) The moderns talk n)uch of the foreft § 
but the ancients only mention the oak — ^A^uf^ 
Homer. O*. XIV. 328. Avtuvt^ (pfiy©*-^Fagua 
Dodonea. Apollon. Rhod. I. 526. and IV« 
523. Herodotus fays, that a pricftefs confecrat- 
cd to Jupiter a beech which grew near Dodona, 

G Ih 




II. p. 12 ;. Lucian, in Amor. p. 896. likewife 
mentions the beech of Dodona Zenodotus alio 
fays that it was a beech which gave the firlt 
oracle at Dodona : Ev A«^»vt} v(oyrov ((>ny^ t^t* 
rfvf r^. Bu£ fome of the Latin poets fpeak of (he 
innumerable oaks of Dodona: Ovid. Amor. III. 
10, ^.. Others of the foreft of Dodpna-^Lucan. 
111.441. Others of the woods of the Molofli 
—Stat. Theb. III. v. 475;. And others of the 
Chaonian foreft. See the author laft cited, Theb« 
VI. 99. 

(10) Horn. o*. XIV. 328. and XIX. 297. 
;^fchylus alludes to this fable, Prometb. v. 817, 
where he has thcfe words— T«f«ff air»rov9 rxz trjo^ 
€r\yo(oMq S^vu^ — The incredible prodigy, the fpeak- 
ing oaks. 

(11; SeeSophocl. Trach. 176. andSchol. ad 

(12) This is nearly the reafoning of Herodo- 
tus, II. p. 126. 

(13) Prophets 

(14) With unwa(hen feet. 

(15) Who lie upon the ground. 

(16) Thcfe names we find in Strabo. VI L p. 
227. Horn. l\. n. ^33. Callim. H. in Del 
284. and 94. p. 401. 

(17) Strab. VU. p. 327. 

(18) Scrabo»l. c. 


Digitized by 


(D F GREECE; «j 

(i9)Pauran. Phocic. XIL p. 828. Voflius, de 
Orig. et Progr. Idolol. I. 7. p. 54. 

(20) JElhn. V. H. I. 1 5f. Herodotus, 11. pi 
125. gives another explanation. 

(2i)Dikinfon, Dclph, Phsfeniz. c. IX. 

(22) Pompon. Mela, IL 3. 1. 71. Plih. IL 
tog. Lucret; VL 

(2;) Callim. H. in Del. p. 2S6. calls it wnyn^ 
T^ Af6i( — The caldron which is never filenc; 
Callim. in Fragm. AfT. Steph. Biz. 1. c. calls it 
fj;^«;^aAxo» — The founding brafs. See, on thtt 
fenfe of this word, Beritl. ad Frag. Callim. 1. <i. 
Steph. Bii8. Fragm; Aoxfeyu — p. 74 j. Edit. Th. 
dc Pinedo. Plin. XXXVI. p. 13. Suidas, at 
the words — Auiuvxtcp x^^^^^^* ^erv. ad Virg, 
JErieid. III. 446. Philoft. Icon. II. p. 830. Ju- 
■venal. VI. 440. Lucan. VI. 427. This proverb 
is in Menander, Fragm. p. 24. edit, of Le Clerc* 
-—In Callim. Fragm. of Bentl. See Steph. Biz* 
1. c. and Suidas, at the word, Autwanop p^aXxnoy. 


Digitized by 


84 ANT I'Q^U 1 T I ESf 

Of the Delphic Oracle. 

I, ' I ^HE Delphic oracle was the moft 
X ( I ) famous of them all. It gave 
its.anfwers at Delphi^ a city of (2) Phocis. 
In that city was the famous temple of (3) 
Pythian Apollo, enriched with treafure» 
and (4) offerings. The place in which 
the oracles were delivered, was called, (5) 
The Pythian ; the pricftcfs who delivered 
them, (6) Pythia; and the games in ho- 
nour of Apollo, (7) The Pythian Games. 

IL Different origins are given to the 
word, Pythian. Etymologifts derive it 
from the ferpent (8) Python, or from the 
verb, (9) 7an)9i(r9ai, to confult, or from (10) 
'ovdecrOui, to rot ; but its true root is mBia, 
which is a name of the city of (1 1) Del- 

III. This oracle was very ancient. It 

flourished about a hundred years before the 

6 (,3.) 

Digitized by 



(12) Trojan war. The Goddcfs Themis 
firft gave the oracles here. But (he re^ 
£gned that privilege to (13) Apollo. 

IV. Some authors have aflerted that a 
fiock of goats gave rife to this oracle. They 
tell us that on mount Parnaflus there was 
a deep cave, the entrance to which was 
narrow; that the goats^ when they ap- 
proached this entrance, began to ikip and 
fcream ; that the goat«herd, while he was 
furprifed at that prodigy^ ibund himfelf 
feized with a kind of fury, a divine en- 
thufiafm, which opened futurity to his 
view i that a tripod was placed at the o« 
pening of the cavern, and a temple built 
(14) there. 

V. To the following particulars, how- 
ler, we may give credit.— -In the fanftua- 
ry of the temple there was a deep cave, 
from which a cold exhalation iiTued that 
mounted high into the ( 1 5) air. 

VI. At the opening of this cave there 
was a tripod, which was called {16) %fii- 
^(i^p and (17) w^ocpijT*x®». 

G 3 ^ V|I. 

Digitized by 


Z6 AN t I CLU I T I E S 

VII. The word tripod, tripus, is not of 
Hebrew etymology, as a learned (18) critic 
. vv^ould have it ; it is derived from the (19) 

VIIL This tripod had a cover, of a cir* 
cular form, with (20) holes* Its Greek 
name was (21) oXfiog. 

JX. On this cover the prieftcls fat, who, 
therefore, had the epithet, (22) EwXp^, 
She intoxicated berfelf with the vapour 
which exhaled from the bottom of th6 
pave; and with difhevelled hair, and a. 
foaming mouth, (he enounced her (23). 

X, The Pythia was, at firft, a young 
girl. In later times fhe was a woman of 
^fty years of (24) age. 

XL The firft, and the moft famous of 
the Pythias was Phcmonoc.*— Oracles were 
firft delivered by her iij (25) hexameter 
yerfes. * 

XIL People were permitted to confiilt 
jhis pracle only in one month of the year j 
and that pioath was termed, Bvaog, or. 



O F G R E E C E. 87 

more properly, Tlva-*^, froto tfhc verb, 
TIvifdcafoiJLUh to confult. 6ut in after-times 
it was confulted once (26) every month, 

XIII. They who confulted the oracle 
y^cK obh'ged (o bring great (27) prefents; 
and this temple wai, therefore, richer than 
any (28) other.— Whence cariie fhe pro- 
.verb, xp^fMTx A^rof®*, the wealth of A- 
polio, implying great (29) wealth. 

Xf V. They who came to confult this * 
orarle, offered facrifices to (30) Apollo. 
The care of thefe facrifices was comniitted 
to five priefts, called 'Ocnoi, i. c. The ho- 
ly, who were the miniflers of the prophc- 
tefles, and ihared with them the religious 
fiinaions. The chief of thefe priefts was 
called (31) 'OcnuTfi^. There were like wife 
conduftors, (32) Hifinyvrcu, and a prieft 
who was called by a name of Apollo, A^- 

• XV. They who came to confult the ora- 
cle walked with (33) crowns on their 

'G4. XVL 

Digitized by 


8$ AN TJ Q^V I T I E S 

XVI. They gave in their qucftions (34) 
written and (35) fealed. 

XVII. The anfwers were delivered ia 
(36) Greek ; comnjonly in (37) hexame- 
ter^ fometimes in (38) iambic verfes. 

XVIII. But in the latter times the ora- 
cle fpoipe in profe, and feldom in (39) 

XIX. The language of thefe oracles was 
generally obfcure and equivocal, (40) 
Xo|Gb. Whence Apollo had the fqrname, 

XX. Thefe oracles were deemed infalli-^ 
blc. Thence came the proverbial exprcf- 
iion, (43) ra ac r^moi^. 

' XXI. We read, however, that the Py- 
thia fometimes took bribes. 

XXII. At length the oracle ceafcd. But 
(45) when, and how, is yet an undeter- 
mined (46) problem. It is faid that it be- 
gan to be (47) filcnt in the reign of Nero. 
It gave anfwers, however, after that tipie; 
and even in the days of (28) Julian the A- 




P F G R E ?: C E. $g, 


(i) Strabo. IX. p. 288. Cic. dcDiv. I. 19. 
Liv. XXVII. 48. Juftin. XXIV. 6. 

(2) Strabo, IX. p. 287. 

(3) Strabo, ibid. 

(4) Horn. lA. I. V. 404. Strab. 1. c. p. 288. 
-3Elian. V. H. VI. 9. Paufan. Phocic. IX. 

(5) Subaudi — oracle. As in Greek, Ariftoph. 
Ecju. 220> has, IluOfxov, fubaudir— jUrafn aov. 

(6) Nepos, I. I. In Greek, nuO*«, fubaudi, 
*l£(ci«, Paufan. Corinth, xxvi. p. 171. She 
is likewife called, (poiC^c, Pollux. Phcebas, Lu- 
can, V. 128. An appellation which Ovid gives 
alfo to Caflandra. Ovid. Trift. II. 400. Ly- 
cbphron. calls her (pok^argka. 

(7) Subaudi — games. As in Greek, nu6io« ; 
fubaudi ayuvtg. Paufan. Corinth. XXXII. p. i86. 
And, TTuSios; fubaudi—-a}^ov»o'/Aarff. Paufan. Phoc. 
:CX3Cyir. p. 893. Ovid. Met. I. 446. 

(8) Macrob. Saturn. I. 17. — Ovid adopts this 
etyoiology. Met. 1. 446. See Hygin. Fab. 

(9) Strab. IX. p. 289.' Schol. Ariftoph. ad 
Plut. V. 39. 

(10) Or from IluOnv, fffiTTiiv, putrefccre. Ma- 
crob. i. c. Suidas, at the word, Iluficj, adopts 
this etymology s and founds it upon the rotting 




^ A N T I Q^U I T I E S 

of ttie ferpcnt Python in that country. See 
Paufan. Phocic. VI. p. 812. CafaXib. adStrab. 
IX. p. 289. 

(11) The city of Delphi i& called Pythorby 
Callim. H. in Del. v. 90. Spanheiitr. 583. He^^ 
Cod likcwife gives it tlie fame nathe, Thcog. 
449. So does Homer, OS. 9. 80. See Sehol. 
Paufan. Phocic. VI. and Dikinfon, Delph. Phea- 
niz. c. I, and 2. whcrd we find orhdr ctymoldgies* 
Sec likcwife, Heinfius rn Ariftarch. t, i. 

(12) Straboi 1. 9. p. 287. to prove the atrtiqtii- 
ty of this otacle, goes as- far back as- to Aga- 
memnon, ^ho, according t6 Hortler; eonfulted 
it, Oi. e. 79. Sed Tzctz. ad Lycojph. 208*'. Bbt 
it exifted in the time of the A^rgoftauts -, as' may 
be proved by Apollon. Rhod. IV. 536. And 
if gjiy credit is to be given to the* fabulous Writ- 
ers, the oracle of Themis, to which fu'cceedcd 
that of Apollo, exifted in the time of Deucalion. 
O^id, Met. 1. 3^7. 

(13) Paufan. Phocic. V, p, ?o8. Muftker, ad 
Ovid. Met. I, SchoL Pindar, viro9. Uuikuv. 

(14) Diodor. S'rc. XVI. c. 26. p, 4^7. Plut, 
de Orac. Defcc. p. 433. Paufan. Phocic. VL 

(15) Juttin. XXIV. 6. Strabo, IX. p. ^88. 
Longin. Ilffi v^oZ^. c. Xllt. 

(16) I. e. Prophetic, Eurip. Jon. 1320. 
(17^ Schol. Pindar, p. 157. SecBarnef. ad 

purip. Jon. 463, 

* ' ('8) 

Digitized by 



(ft 8) Stephen the Monk* iaVar. Sacris^p* 
1 010. 

(19) This is clear from the words of Diodo** 
rus Siculus, XVL 96. 

(zo) Pollux, X. 23. 81. 

(2i> SckoL ad Ariftoph, Plut. v, 9* and 
Spanheim* ad CalKtp. H« Ln Del. ^« p» 389. 

(22) The Pythia was alfo called, EyyaefiiAMiO* 
c— ▼entriloqtt«-«<-froDfi j^ar; n. Of yarpth which has 
the fame fignificatioa with «x/Mf* See Lakeao* 
p. 313. and 504. 

(23) We meet with this deicription in the 
Schol. Ariftoph, ad Plut. v, 39. See Origcn, 
contra Celf. Vil. and Barth. ad Stat, Thebaid, 
I. 697, 

(24) She was even upwards of fifty. See 
Diodor. Sic XVL 26. who gives a reaibn for this 
change of the priefttifs's age. 

(25) Paufan. Phocic. v. p. 809. 

(26) Plut. Qttasfl:. Grsc. p. 292. 

(27) Spanheim. ad Callim. H, in Apoll. It 
is, however, more probable, that the prefents 
were proportioned to the circumftances of the 
votaries* For the poor Chremylus offered little ; 
Ariftoph. in Plut — ^But Crefus made rich pre- 
fents. Herodot. I; p. 2o.--^rabo, IX. p. zdg. 

(28) Cic. dc Div. L Juftin. XXIV. (J. Eurip. 
Ipb. in Taur. 1275. Strabo, 1. c. 

(29) This proverbial exprefllonis taken from 


Digitized by 


^i AN T I CLU I T 1 ES 

Honipn II. I. v. 404. Sec Strabo, IX. p. 287, 
and -Slian. V. H. VI. 9. 

(30) Plut-deOracDcfccp, 437- 

(31) Plut. Quaeft. Grsec. p. 293. 

(32) Their office was, to uke all thofe who 
came to confult the oracle, through the temple, 
and (how them its curiolirics. Plut. de Pyth. 
Orac. pag. 397. 

(33) ^fchyL Xontp. V. 1035. Eumen. v. 40, 
Liv. 23. II. Schol. Ariftoph* ad Plut. 21. 

(34) Ariftoph. Scbol. ad Plut. 39. 

(35) Plut. dc Orac. Dcf. p. 134. 
(3(5) Div. 11. 56. 

(37) Schol. ad Eurip.Oreft. 1094. Ariftoph. 
ad Nub. i44.'Paufan. Phocic. V. p. 809. 

(38) Paufan. Meffen. IX. p. 301. and Schol. 
Ariftoph. ad Nub. 144. 

(39) Plutarch has written a treatife on the 
caufc of this change. 

(40) Cic. dc Div. II. 56. Schol. Ariftoph. 
ad Plut. 8. Potter ad Lycoph. 14. 

(41) Ariftoph. Plut. 8. Equ. 1044. Schol. 
Eurip. ad Oreft. 165. 

(42) Eurip. Eleftr. 399. Cic. de Div. I. 19. 
^fchyl. XotKp. 557. and 901. 

(43) We meet with a like cxpreffion in Tc* 
rence, Andrian, IV. 2. 15.' Cic. ad Brut. E- 
pift. 2. 





(44) Cic, dc Div. II. 57. Paufan. Lacon. IV. 
p. 212. Ncp. Lyfand. c III. 

(45) Ic had fallen into great coiltempc in the 
time of Cicero, Dc Div. IL gy. Strabo in- 
forms us that the oracles were neglefled in his 
time. XVII. p. $$g. — ^Delphis oracula ceflant. 
Juvenal, VI. $55* See Lucan. V. 1 1 2. Plut. 
de Defeft. Orac. p. 411, Eufeb. Praepar. E- 
vang. V. p. 205. Interpret. Juvenal, ad 1. c. 
On the quellion. Whether the oracles were filenC 
after the birth of Chrift ? See Cafaubon, Anti- 
baron. Exercit. I. 12. 

(46) The reafon of its filence was, either that 
men grew lefs credulous, Cic. dc Dlvin. II. 57. 
and Min. Pel. p. 26. — Or that the Romans re- 
ftrained their inquiries to their Sibylline books, 
their h^rufpices, their aufpices, and their aftro- 
logical obfervations ; or that the kings, dreading 
future events, impofed filence upon the oracles. 
Lucan. V. 1,12. See Cic. de Div. II. j;. Plur. 
dc Orac. Def. Many have attributed this filence 
to the progrcfs of Chriftianity. 

(47) Yet Suetonius fays it anfwered Nero. 
InNeron. c. 40. See Themiftius, Orat. XIX. 
They who affcrt that the oracles were then filent, 
vouch the authority of Lucan, v. 1 13. and of 
Juvenal, 1. c. See Xiphilin. p. $2^* 

(48) Theodoret. Hift. Ecclcf. III. 2 r. Fon- 
tenelle. Hift. des Qracles. 




>4 A N T I CLU i T 1 fi ^ 

Of the Oracle of T r o p h o n i u Si 

I. ' I ^HrS famous oracle of Trophohius 
A was in the neighbourhood of Le- 
badia, a city of (i) Bceotia, near to which 
was a woodj and the (2) oracle, on an e^^ 
minence that overlooked the wood. 

II. It takes its name from Trophonius* 
the brother of (3) Agamedes, who lived 
near Leb^dia, in a fubterranean dwellings 
where he pretended to the faculty of pre- 
dicting future events. He died iti that 
cave, and after his death he was deified 
as an (4) oracular God. 

III. This oracle owed its fame to one 
Saon, mentioned by (5) Paufanias. 

IV. It was in a cave; ^ndfrom its 
£tuation took the name of (6) KaraCao^wv* 

V. Peculiar ceremonies of purification 
were to be performed by the perfon who 
came to confult the oracle* He was to of- 

Digitized by 


O F G R E E C E. 9$ 

fer appointed facrifices; he was to anoint 
himfelf with oil, and bathe in a certain 
river. After thcfe preliminaries^ iclotbed 
in a linen robe, and with a honeyed cake 
in bis hands, he defcended into the cave 
by a narrow (7) paflage. 

VI. It was in this cave that futurity was 
difclpfcd to him, by fight, or by (8) hearing. 

VIL He came out of the cave by the 
fame narrow paifage, but walking (9) 

VIII. He came out of it aftoniflicd, 
melancholy, and (10) dejedled. This fi- 
tuation of mind gave* rife to the Greek - 
proverb — ( 11) Ei^ r^o^mm fi^iioLVTBD^rotu 

IX. The priefts placed the perfon who 
had confulted the oracle on an elevated 
feat, called the feat of Mnemofyne i where 
he gave them an account of what he had 
feen and (12) heard. 

X. His companions then conducted him 
to the chapel of good genius , or good for- 
tune^ where by degrees he recovered his 
ufual compofure and (13) cheerfulnefs. 


Digitized by 


^6 A !J T 1 Q^tT I T I E S 


(i) Liv. XXV. 27. Schol. Ariftoph. ad 
Nub. 508. 

(2) Poufan. Baeot. c. XXXIX. p. 791. 

(3) Paufan. Baeot. c. XXXVIL p. 785. 

(4) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Nub. 508. But he 
is here oppofed by the Scholiaft of. Paufanias* 
Reot'. c. XXXVIII. p. 786. 

(5) Basot. c. XL. p. 793. 

(6) Suidas, at the word Trophonius. 

(7) Wc meet with all thefe particulars, and 
more, in Paufan. Bsot. XXXIX. p. 789. See 
Schol. Ariftoph. ad Nub. 508. Lucian. Dialog. 
Mort. p. 267. Philoftrat. Vit. ApoUon. VIII. 

(S) Pauf. Baeot. XXXIX. p: 791. 

(9) Paufan. 1. c. 

(10) Paufan. 1. c. p. 792. and Schol. Ariftoph. 
ad Nub. 508. 

(11) To give the idea of a melancholy pcr- 
fon^ this proverbial expreflion was ufed — He has 
been confulcing the oracle Trophonius. SchoL 
Ariftoph. 1. c. 

(i2) Paufan. 1. c. p. 752. Sec HemfterhuC 
ad Lucian. Dialog, p. 63. 






Of the other Oracles of Greece* 

I. 13ESIDES the three principal oracles, 
•U of Greece which we have dcfcrib- 
ed, that of Amphiaraiis was of confiderable 
note, ranked by Herodotus with the five 
celebrated Grecian oracles which (i) Crce- 
fus confulted. 

IL It was at (2) Oropius in Attica. 
The name of Amphiaraiis was given it^- 
bccaufe Amphiaraiis, 'the fon of (3)iEclea, 
a man fkilled in (4) magic, and the inter* 
pretation of (5) dreams, and who, after 
his death, was worihipped $ts a God, gave * 
(6) oracles there in a temple erefted to 
his (7) divinity, 

HI. They who confulted this ora- 
cle (8) purified themfelves» (9) facrificed, 
(10) faftcd twenty-four hours, (11) ab- 
' flained from wine for two days, and then 
offered a ram to Amphiaraiis, on the fl^n 

H of 

Digitized by 



of which their deftiny was (howed them 
while they were ( 1 2) afleep. 

IV. Near the temple was the fountain 
of AmphiaraiiSy which was deemed facred, 
and the water of which was not allowed 
for common and profane (13) ufcs, 

V. Befidcs this oracle, there was at De- 
losthc oracle of (14) Dclian Apollo; in 
Milefia, that of the (15) Branchidcs; 
with others lefs famous, of which we 
need not take particular (16) notice. 



(i) Herodot. I. p. 19. 

(2) Paufan. Attic, c. 34. p, 83. Kuhnius, ad 
Paufan. I.e. Barth. ad Stat. TheO. 1. 399. 

(3) Horn. O^. o. V. 243. ApoUodor. Ill, 
6. 2. 

(4) Diodor. Sic. IV. 67. Apollodor. 1. c. 

(5) Paufan. Attic. XXXI V. p. 84. Philoftr. 
Icon. 1. 27. p. 802. \ 

(6) Paufan. 1. c. p. 83. 

(7) Paufan. 1. c, p. 84. 
. («) Paufan. Attic. 1. c. 

4 (9) 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

(9) idem, 

(16) Phildftr. Vit. ApoUon. II. 37. p: 90. 


(ti) Paufan. 1. c; 

(13) Paufan. 1. c. 

(14) Spanhcim. ad CalHdii H* in Del; 90* 
p. 384. 

(i^)Herodot. I. p. 19. and 72; Conon. Nar- 
rat. 35. p. 273. Plin, v. 29. Mela^ L 17. 
Jamblich. de Myft. IIL 11. Strab. XIV. p^ 
436. 40. XVII. p. 560. 

(16) See, on the number of oracles, Fabri- 
cius, Biblioth. Grdfec. I. 17. 4. The author has 
dmitted, for inftancc, the oracle of Colophon^ 
or Clarian Apollo, mentioned by Tacitus. Ann. 
II. 54. Plin. II. 103. Jamblich. dc Myft. IIL 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

100 A N T I Q,U I T I E S 

Of the Divinations. 

1. A FTER having given a fummary 
-^J^ account of the oracles^ we (hall 
now proceed to the other divinations ; o( 
which the following were the (i) princi- 

If. The divination by the finging and 
flight of birds, (2) osmi^acfi^ In this pre- 
tended fcience, the right was .looked upon 
as propitious, and the left as (3) unfortu- 
nate. They who profeflfed this kind of 
divination were called, (4) otmonairou 

III. Divination by drcams.*-The pro- 
CeiTors of this divination were called (5) 
(^(OTToXoip and (6) wa^oTKoiro^. 

IV. Divination by facrifices, or by the 
inipedlion of vidlinas — (7) IgfOftavrgia, (8) 
U^tHTKOTT^a, in Latin, (9) cxtifpicium.— 
They who pradtifcd this art were called, 

( I O) li^OOrXOTTOl^ 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E C E. wi 

y. In this kind of divination was in* 
eluded the divination by the fire of facrifi- 
ce5, (ii) Tsv^ofiuvTiiu — by the fmoak, (12) 
xaTrvofMVTsa ; by the wine, (13) oivofjtMvrim. 

VL The divination by lot* ( 14) xXij^o- 
jMyrue^, in which was included the divina- 
tion by charms— (15) ^fx^fMVTHx; and the 
divination by the wand, (16) paGSo[4,aPTvx* 

VII. There were yet other magical di- 
vinations ; as, the divination by the dead^ 
(17) vtTt^ofiMVTUUf— to which we muft refer ' 
the (i8) ffx<fl/»avr6i«— and the (19) ^'^AJ^* 

VIII. The hydromancy, or the divina- 
tion by (20) water. 

IX. The (21) ornithomancy, or the a- 
leftriomancy ; the divination by the cock. 

X. The kofkinomancy, or divination by 
jthe (22) fieve. 

XL There was another fort of divina- 

tion, in which they fancied that (^semons 

(poke from the belly or the bread of men. 

The divines of this kind had the names of 

H 3 (23) 

Digitized. Google 


(23) iyFoc^^ifMvQvi, (24) l^$^yofLUifTi$^, (25) 
^UigvKMTg^ and (26) lavdmeg. 


(i) Divination is termed in Greek, fAOivuxn. 
Sec Jamblich. de Myft. III. i. and Th. Gale, p. 
114. Cic. dc Div. defines divination. See Xc- 
pophon. Airo/Avu/Lt. I. 1. § 3- Fabric. Bibliogr. 
Antiq. c. 12. p. 415. and Jofephus apad Ga- 
leum, ad Jamblich. dc Myft. 

(2) The augurial art. See Suidas, at the 
word, OittwrixYi. and Spanheim. ad Calliml H. in 
PalM. p. 61 jS. Jamblich. de Myft. III. 16. p, 
Sq. Plut. de Solertia Animi, p. 975. Jam- 
blich. thus defines this divination — Tux^^^ 'mi 
3-iifflif n fAtx\o¥r^ Ji' 0fvkiw9 — The art of inquiring 
into futurity by birds. De Myft. III. 15. 

(3) Cic. de Div. II. 39. Spanheim. ad Cal- 
lim. H. in Pallad. 124 Horn. Ia. M. v. 239. 
explains the right and the left in this divinl^- 

(4) They were likewife ftyled ©wirf «7rpj oimir^t. 
Horn. lA. V. 70. ojwvoTToAoi, lA. A, 6g. Paufan. 

Attic. 34. OLyoAdi Siotyv!>>vcci WTuceif ofijtflwk— Skilled 
in diftinguifhing the flights of birds. 

(5) Hom. lA. A. 6^. Paufan. Attic. 34. de- 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E C B. 103 

fines thcm-^Aya6$oj oviifara f5nj/was(rfi«»-*-Skilled 
in interpreting dreams. And, Eliac. c. 23. Evutt- 
WW fJnynT^i — Interpreters of dreams. 

(6) Confulti on the origin of diyinaiion by 
dreams^ Juftin. 36. 2 ^fchyL Promcth. v. 484. 
Jamblich. dc Myft. HI. 2. p. 6p» takes great 
paips to evince the excellence of this art. See, 
on the different kinds of dreams, Ma^irob, Som« 
Scip, I. 3, and on the veracity of dreams, 
^roukhuf. ad Tibutl. III. 4. 7. 

(7} Drodor. Sic. L ^j. calls it facriflcial divi« 
nation. Sec ,ffifchyl. Prometh. v. 492. 

(8) Diodor, Sic. I. 70. ufes the word /fpoo^xo- 

(9) Suet. Nero. g6. Cic, de Div. II. u. Sec 
Mauflac, ad Plutarch de Flum. p. 17, 18. 

(10) Homer calls them 0uo<rHoy;, Ia. XI. 221. 
Dion. Halic. 11. p* p;- 1* 5* Paufan. Attic. 
XXXIV. p. 84. defines them— *Aj^a^oi SixyvtatM 
ffwXmyxfz liftav — ^SlcUled in reading deftiny in the 
entrails of viftims. See Perizon. ad ^lian. V, 
H. II. 31. Euftath. ad Ix. XI. 221. Alex, ab 
Alex. V. 25. Interpr. ad Minuc. Fel. c. 27. 
Cafaub, ad Strab. XVL p. 524. 

(11) ^fcbyl. Prometh. v. 497. and Barnes, 
ad Eurip. Helen. 752. 

(12) Gale ad Jamblich. de Myft. III. 28. 
Ovid. Trift. V, £1. 5. v. 26. Barth. ad Stat. 
Theb. IV. 412, 

H 4 (M) 

Digitized by 


104 A N T I CLU I T I E S 

(13) Euftath. ad oi. p. i47®« ^^^- Rom. 
Lc Clcrc, Genef. XLIV. 5. ' 

(14) It confifted in a throw of the dice, the 
fortuitous combination of which they took for 
the anfwcr of the Gods. Paufan. Achate. XXV, 
p. 590. defcribes it. See Suet. Tib. XIV. Ca- 
lig. LVIl. Cic. de Div. II. 41. Val. Max. I. 3. 
Schwartz. DiiT. de Sortibus Poeticis, § 4, 

(ij;^ Cafaub. ad Spartian. Hadrian, c. 2. 
Schwartz. DiflT. de Sortibus Poeticis. Trotzius ad 
Herm. Hug. de ptimii fcribendi Orlgine, p. 240. 

(16) Jamblich. de Myft. III. 17. and Gald, 
ad h. 1. p. 238. Herm. Hug! de prima fcriben- 
di originc, c. XXVI. p, 238. 

(17) We meet with this word in Cicero. 
Tufc. I. 16. Hefychius terms it likewife, N«xuo'- 
fAKvruct. Gregor. Naz. in Julian. Orat. III. calls 
it '¥vx»yf^i». We have a fpecimen of this kind 
of divination in Homer, o^. A. 24. and that 
book fcems for this reafon to have been* former- 
ly entitled, N«xwa. See -^lian. V. H. XIII. 
14. Broukhuf. ad Tibull. L 2* 45. and 49. 
Stat.Theb. IV. 413. and Barth. ad h. 1. Philoftr. 
«d Apollon. IV, 1 5. There were in Greece par- 
ticular places in which the fouls were evoked, 
and which were called, viKvofAa^rnlx, Herodoh 
V. p. 369. Paufan. Basot.c. XXX. p. 769. or, 

9fMU0/A«VTCtft« Strab. XVI. p. ^24* or l\/\J^OfAMTUa» 

Kuhn. ad Paufan. c. XVII. p. 252. Whence 
6 , comes 



O F G R E E C E. 105 

comes the verb, i]nix,oiytay u^^-To evoke fouls. 
Ariftoph. Av. 1554. The priefts of this fupcr- 
ftition were called, ^yx^yuyoi. 

(18) When the dead appeared in an aerial 
form, like Ibadows. Potter, II. 18. 

(19) We find this word in Cic. de Div. I. 58. 
The places where the manes were evoked, were 
fermed Ffychomantia. Fabricius^ Bibliogr. 
Antiq. p. 427. ^is wrong in underftanding this 
word as applied to the art itfelf. 

(20) 'TJfo/tA«»Tf«a6, mentioned by Plinjr, 
XXXVII. II, and Paufan. Lacon. XXIII. p. 
270. whence is derived Strabo's word, uJ^o^av- 
TiK, L. XVI. p. 524. 

(21) 0(ui is ufed by Ariftophanes for oAix- 
Tfutfv, Vefp. 8 1 1. Zonaras fpeaks of this divina- 
tion, T. III. AnnaL p. 28. See Herm. Hug. 
de prima fcribendi Origine, c. 26. p. 239. 

(22) Theocrit. III. 31. Lucian, T. I. p. 753. 
Pfeildon. ^lian. Hift. Animal. Vlll. 5. 

C23) Plut. de Orac. Def. p. 414. 

(24) Pollux, II. 4. 162. fays that they are fo 
called by Sophocles. 

(25) Ariftoph. Schol. ad Vefp. 1O14. 

(26) Plut. ]. c. See Spanheim. ad Callim. 
H. in Del. v. 90. p. 383. Dickinfon, Delph. 
Phaeniz. c. 9. p. 91- and the authors cited by 
Fabricius, Bibliogr. Antiq. c. 12. p. 420. and 
Fasfius, CEconomia Hippocratis, p. 1 74- 


Digitized by 



Of Presages. 

I. nr^HERE were different kinds of 
JL prelages. Some were taken from 
the perfon himfelf, whofegood or bad for- 
tune jhey were fuppofed to portend ; fome 
from external objcdls ; and others were 
inferred from words. Their general term 
was, (i) (TUftCoXa. 

II. The prcfages taken from the perfon 
to whom they were fuppofed to relate, 
were, 1^ Palpitations, (2) ^-aAfwi, in the 
heart, or the eyes. — 2^ (3) Bo^Co^, a ring- 
ing in the ears.— 3^ (4) TlrecpfjLog, fneez- 

III. Prcfages were likewife taken from 
external objeiSls : an uncommon (5) fplen- 
dour, for inftance, feen any where — an un- 
forcfeen (6) accident— a monftrous (7) birth 
•p-'^n ominous meeting, as meeting a (8) 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E C E. ip; 

weafeli &c.-^wefe fb many prcfages from 
which future events were inferred. 

IV. Prefages were alfo drawn fron» 
words ; as thcv were favourable or the ret* 
vcrfc, good or bad (9) coficlufions were 
made from them. The favourable words 
were termed, (10) girToci, (11) kXi^^ovs^, 
^nd (12) (pmiJiMi. 

V. The words of bad prcfage were call-f 
ed^ (13) Kuicin s'TTTeci, and (14) ^v^^nif^ou. 


(i)Xt{i6fh. AirofMfil4kl. 1. § 3. Afiftoph. Av. 
V. 722* Plut. ^mil. calls the prcfages, nvvct^ 
p. 473.— KxnJwv was of the fame ngniBcation* 
The knowledge of prefages was called &xi!J«v<r»- 
Ku. See Pontan-. adMacrob. Soma. Scip. I. in. 
Barth. •ad Claudian. in Eutrop. I. 125. 

(2) Theocr. Id^. III. 37. and Cafaub. ad h. L 
Plauc. Pfeudal. I. i. 105. and Taubman. ad h. 
1. Suidas, at the words, n^eX/buM* oMntrfA^. We 
arc told of a book written by Melampus« which 
f/a& t:ntitled> Ilcf * TiraAf«»v [AStrrmnf wpg nroXfpaiof 




Pao-iXfft. — The prefages of palpitations^ addrefled 
to king Ptolemy. 

(9) This word, with the fignification given it, 
feems to be taken from the ode of Sappho in 
Longinus, Se6t. 10.— Bo/t^CfiM-iv /atxoai fAoi, which 
Catullu3 renders— Sonitu fuopte tinniunt aures. 
See Aufon. Left. I. 16. Plin. XVIII. 2, calls 
it, Tinnitum aurium. Cclf. VI. 7. p. 8. Son;- 
tum aurium. 

(4) Thcocrit. VII. 96. and Schol. ad h. I. A- 
riftot. Probl. Seft. XXXIII. 5. 7. and II. Se? 
Ouzeiius ad Min. Fel. odav. c 26. p. 268. 

(5) Horn. Oi. T. V. 36. lib. I. 39. 41. 

(6) Paufan. Meffcn. XIII, p. 3 1 ^- P^»t. Ca- 
mill. p. 132. Diod. Sic. XVII. 10. p. 494- 

(7) This is evident from the Romans. Sec 
Julius obfequens dc Prodigiis, c. 96. Plin. 
VII. 16. Pha:dr. III. 3. Broukhuf. ad Tibull. 
II. 5. V. 80. It is likewife evident from the 
Greeks. Plut. Conviv. Sept. Sap. p. 149* 8^^^? 
us almoft the fame anecdote of Thales which 
Phaedrus relates of JEfop, III. 3. 

(8) Thcophraft. Charaft. Ethic, c. 17. and 
Cafaub. ad h. 1. Plaut. Stift. Hi. 2. 7. Terence, 
Phorm. IV. 4: 16. Ariftoph. Concion. v. 787I 
Horace, Od. III. 27- 

(9) Examples of good prcfage are to be met 
with in Herodotus, IX. 90. in Plutarch, Paul. 


Digitized by 



<£miL p. 473* and of bad prefage in Euripides, 
Phacniff. 1500. and Jon. 1189. 

(io> Perhaps the righc word is oo-o-ai. He- 
fych. Ov^atf xAnJWf, x«» (pn/Avis oo-o-fto^ai, xX])Jo»i- 

(11) Paufan. Bacot. c. XI. p. 733. 

(12) Euripid. Jon. 99. Ariftoph. Vefp. 86o. 

(13) Perhaps, xaxm o^a-su^ verba male omina* 
ta, or nominata, in the language of Horace, Od. 

III. 14. V. II. 

(14) They were likewife termed, ^xeiff(piifA»a$. 
Euripid. Jon. v. 1189. and Hecub. v. 182. ^^oi- 
fMA» xax«— -mala prooemia. Suidas calls them 
likewife, JuonAyJovirft, J^M-cm/M. See Cafaubon. 
ad Tbeophr. CharaA. Ethic, c. 19. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


CHAP. xvr. 

. of the F E 9 T I V A L s of the Greeks,; 

I. ' I ^HE Grecian feftivals and games 
A were likewife adls of religion, I 
fhall treat of them concifcly, and I will 
begin with the feftivals. 

II. The feftivals were inftiluted iq ho- 
nour of the Gods; to thank them for 
fonuc important benefit, and to celebrate 
their (i) praifes; or in memory of the 
dead who had done fignal fervices to their 

(2) country. 

IIL In the early times there was but a 
fmall number of feftivals. There were 
but a very few more than thofe which 
were celebrated after the harveft, and the 

(3) vintage. 

IV. But afterwards their number aug- 
mented with that of the Gods j particu- 
larly among the Athenians^ who worship- 
ed more deities than any other people of 

(4) Greece. 


Digitized by 



V. Gaiety^ mlrth^ and pleafure wem 
chara<aeriftics of thcfc (5) feftivals. 

VI. The principal ones (for it would 
be tedious to take notice of them all) were 
—The feafts of Adonis— A^wa— in ho- 
nour of Venus and Adonis. They laftcd (7) 
two days: the firft day was celebrated with 
mourning, and the fecond with (8) joy. 

VII. The Anthefteria, AvOb^^ci, were 
celebrated at Athens, in honour of Bac- 
chust for three days, viz. on the eleventh, 
twelfth, and thirteenth of the month An«» 
theftcrion. The firft day was called wi9ot^ 
yi(t ; the fecond x^^^ f and the third, (9) 

VIII. The Apaturia — ^A^«tou^«, in ho- 
oour of (10) Bacchus. This word is de- 
rived from xTrjKTfi ; becaufe this fcftival 
was inftituted in memory of the art or 
ftratagcm by which Melanthes, king of A- 
thens, conquered Xanthius king of (11) 
BsQtia. Others make the word A^urov^x 
of the lame import with ofioTrccTov^ix • be-^ 





oaufe the fathers afTembled during this fe-^ 
ilival to write the names of the children 
on the table of the (i a) Curii. 

IX. It was celebrated for (13) three 
days, and began on the twenty-fecond of 
the month (14) Pyanepfion. 

X* The firft day was called iopreta, on 
account of the feafls on that day. For 
(i5)^(?f^r®. fignifies a fcaft. 

XI. The fecond day was called otva^^^vci^, 
from the facrifices in honour of Jupiter 
Phratrian^ or the protedtor of the tribes^ 
and of Minerva^ to which deities this day 
was (16) confecrated. 

XII. The third day was called xcv^MTic$ 
from Kov^a, tonfio; becaufe on that day 
the children were £haved before their 
names were infcribed in the public (17) 

XIIL The Brauronia— -BfaufttVia, or the 
feflival of (18) Brauronian Diana, fo call- 
ed from (19) Braurona, a town of Attica. 
• XIV. This feftival was celebrated (ap) 
every fifth year. 




6 F G R fe E <i E. 113 

. XV. It's objed was to confccrate to 
Diana the young girls, clothed in a (21) 
yellow robe. This cereniony was called 
apcTiiHtv, from Of XT^, which was the name 
of a girl confecrated to ^22) Diana. It 
was likewife termed ieKursmy, becaufe the 
girls thus confecrated were abotit (23) ten 
years of age. 

XVL The Daphnephoria*~Aa^i^o^/«4 
were feftivals which the Bsotians celebrat* 
ed every ninth year in honour of Apollo. 
A Branch of olive was carried in procef- 
fion,. adorned with flowers and wreaths of 
laureU with a globe of brafs at the top 
of it^ to which were fixed other fmall 
globes; and, in the middle there was a 
globe lefs than the firft. The brazen 
globe reprefented the fun, the centri- 
cal globe the moon> and the fmall globes^ 
the (24) ftars. 

XVII. The Dionyfian fcafts— Awwo-za, 
were celebrated in honour of (25) Bacchus, 
and with more folemnity at Athens than 
in any other part of (26) Greece. 

XVIIL In this feftival they carried a vafe 
I full 

Digitized by 


h4 A N T I Q^U I T I E S 

fullxDif wiae^ acjorncd wiith vioe-branchcs i 
after the yzCc, a kid* and a bafket of 
figs i and after them^ the (27) Phalloa. 

XIX- They who celebrated this Mival 
were clad with fl^lns of (?$} males^ croij^n-p 
ed with (29) ivy, aod (30) vine^ and cm> 
ricd (31) thyrfufes, (32) flutes, and (33) 
cymbals : fome condudted (34) Sileouf, Pan« 
andtheSatyrsi others mounted Qn{35]fa6^9 
ilrayed over hills and through (36) deferts^ 
leaping, and (3^) crying w^tb a drcadfinl 
howl, (38) Ei/« <ra0o^, Evoi Bax^, m Sfl^c* 

XX. There were two kinds of Diony^ 
fiaj (39) the great feftivaj, which wat 
likewife cdUed (40) A^DvurMs lUtT ,afv, be«^ 
caufe it was celebrated in the (41) city, in 
the (42) fpring, with (43) public games. 

XXI. The (44) Icfs poanpous fcftival 
was called (45) J^^tmtrm icmr my^cug, bc- 
caufe it was celebrated in the country. 
(46) It feU in autumn. 

XXH. The fjcafts o£ B\tti&% EJ^vtr^ym^ 
were the (47) moft folemn of sdL They 
were celebrated by the (48) Athenians and 
the other (49) Greeks (50) once in five 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

d F O IjL B £ e ]^ iij 

fi^fB, Ci^cra Mn$ il^fim (51} Mu^e^^ 
and loitifi^ T^k^y ve iilUwiie termed (52) 

XXIIi. tbty too were divided into the 
(53) Greats aad the Litile. (54) The 
Great Were in honour of Ceres j the Little 
ia bodotfr of I^roferpipc. 

XXIV. (55) The liule feftiral was pre^ 
juratory tlo the great one. 

XKV. Jhtj Who were admitted to the 
Uttle Eleufinia were celled (56) Mv^ctii 
and tbejr who ^ere admitted to the greats 
(57) ^'^oih'cu. 

XXVL He who initiated to the myfte-* 
ries had the title of (j|8) Hierophantes. 

XXVJL The initiation had its^peculiar 

(59) ceremonies. 

XXVIII. The Hierophantes had three 
colleagues; a (60) torch-bearer, ^^ovypvi 
a heralds (61) K^^uimb^ and a minifter, (62) 
toy lori BaofM. > 

XXIX. Some of the magiftrates likewiie 
aflifted at thefe ceremonies; one of the 
archonst named (63) BaMriXfu^j and four 

I 2 deputies. 



1x6 A ll T 1 Qji I T 1 E S 

depatieSt ETn/ukiiTeu, who were to takef 
care that (64) order (hoold be obierved. 

XXX. The drefs in which one had been 
ioitiatedt was deemed facred ; when it was 
worn out^ it was confecrated to Ceres and 
(65) Proferpine. 

XXXI. ThefeaftsofEleufislaftednintf 
days, from the fifteenth to the twenty- 
third of the month (66) Bo^romionw 
During that time it was not lawful to (67) 
ieize criminals, or to commence any fuit. 
He who difobeyed thefe prohibitions was 
fined a (68) thoufand drachmas. 

XXXII. The ladies were not permitted 
to ride in a chariot at the Eleufinian fefti- 
vals. They who were difobedient to this 
regulation, payed a fine of (69) fix thoufand 

XXXIII. The Thefmdphoria, or the 
feafts of (70) Geres the legiflatrefs, were 
celebrated in many (71) cities of Greece j 
but with more folemnity at (72) Athens 
than in any other place. 

XXXIV. Thefe facrificcs were celebrated 



by Google 

O F G R E E q E. 117 

by free women, 9nd (73) ipatrons of the 
firft quality, clothed in a (74) white robe. 
Some days before they entered upon thefe 
ceremonies^ they were obliged to live in 
extreme (75) continence. That they might 
be the lefs tempted to violate this law, they 
r put (76) agnus caftus into their bed. They 
were exprefsly forbidden to eat (77) pomer 

XXXV. On the eleventh day of the 
month (78) Pyanepfion, women walked in 
proceilion towards Eleufis, carrying on 
their heads the books in which the laws 
were (79) written j a ceremony from which 
that day was called (8o)AyoJiO^. 

XXXVI. On the fourteenth day the fo« 
lemnity began, which laded to the (81) 

XXXVII. The fixteenth day was called 
(82)Ni7^i^a: for on that day they faded, 
(83) lying upon the ground, to exprefs their 
C84} humiliation. 

XXXVIII. The Ofchophoria, or feftival 
9f 85) branches was fo called, becaufe in 

I 3 that 




that feftival tbey carried branchesi to which 

bunches of grapes vftt^huti^^ n»med (86 

XXXIXf The Panatbcnea were tnftituted 
by Erif^bdn itl honour of Minerva, and 
were ^i firft cailcdi (S^) Athenea: ba| 
Thefeus who reftored and in^proved thenoi 
gave them the name of (§8) Panatheqc^* 

XL. They were divided info the Utile 
|ind the great; the littk were celebrated 
pvery year; the (89) great ev«ry ftvc year^ 

XLI. In the little panathenea there wera 
three cpntefts^ at which ten men prefided, 
phofeq from the ten tribes i^-horfe-racing, 
wreftlingi and (90) mufic. The borfe 
faces were by nighty with A (9O flambeau 
}n the band. 

XLIL The prize of the vidtor was a (92) 
vafe filled with oil| and a wreath froip the 
pHye-trec8 which grew in the Academy^ 
which were ia^red |o Mii^erya, and caUed^ 
i9l) Motion. 

XLIII. Thefe were the fame conteds 
\n the great Panatbenea, bat with tDOre 
ig/^) pomp. (05) The Pepluni Minervae 

Digitized by 



*ras carried in proceffion, on which were 
feprefented in embroidery^ the giants, the 
heroes^ and (96) men famous for their 
coorage. At this feftival they like wife fung 
(97) verfes from Homer. 


' (i) The Thefmophoria and fcafts of Eleufis 
^ere inflicuted in honour of Ceres, to thank her 
for the laws which fhe had given the Greeks, 
and for having intruded them in agriculture. 
Diod. Sic. V. 68. p. 336. Cic. de Leg. If. 14, 
Macroh. Saturn. lit. ja. Plat, de Legib. JI. 
Athcn. VIII. p. 363. Scraho, IX. 642. 

(2) Such were thefeafts in honour of Thcfcus, 
Ono-ua, and thofe in honour of Hercules, 'H^a- 
kXucu Ariftoph. Ran. 664. 

(3) Homer calls them aaxvo-i*. Ix. I. v. 550. 
Eullathius remarks, that by fome rhetoricians 
they are termed, Suj^xopriif**. See Theocrit. 
Idyll. VII. Ariftot. ad Nicom. VIIL n. 

(4) This has been proved, c. II. § 3. For 
that reafon, Xenophon obferves, this people had 
more feftivals than any of the other Greeks. 
De Reb. Athenienf. 

I 4 (5) 

Digitized by 


ho A N T I CLU I T J e 5 

(5) Spanheim. ad Ariftoph. Ran. 392. Macrob. 
Saturn. I. x 16. Paufan. Meflen. c. 27. p. 94^! 
Flut. Quxft. Rom. p. 289. Hence thefe ex* 
prelfionS) otpiaXf^n vavnyv^i^^ lo^m r]/c«c — ^Thc 
pomp of the eye, the feaft of the fight ;— -which 
are likewife ufed by ^llan. III. i. and XIII. i. 

(6) Mufaeus de Hero et Leandr. v. 49. A- 
riftoph. Schol. Pac. 419. 

(y) Plut. Nicia, p. 532. Macrob. Sat. I. 21. 

(8) Lucian, de Dea Syria, p. 688. St. Cyril- 
lus, St. Jerom, and other fathers, are of opinion 
that Ezechiel alludes to this feaft, VIIL 14. 
See Deylingii Diff. de Fletu fuper Thammuz. * 
^nd Bannier, Hift. du Cuke d* Adonis. Mem., de 
I'Acad. des Bell. Lett. T. IV. p. 136. 

(9) Ariftoph. Schol. ad Acharnan. 960. Plut. 
Sympof, III. Athen. X. 10. p. 437. Perizon. 
ad-ffilian. V.H. 11. 41. 

(10) See Proclus, Tim. Comment. I. But it 
appears that this feftival was inftituted in honouif 
of many Gods, i ^ Of Jupiter. Schol. Ariftopli. 
Acharn. 146. 2^ Of Minerva, ibid. 3** Of 
Bacchus, Ariftoph. ibid. 4* Of Vulcan; Har- 
pocr. at the word Aa/tAWf; y® Of Diana; fee 
Hefych. at the word, KouffwtK. 6" Of Ceres ; 
Herodot. Vit. Homeri. 

(u) Conon. Narrat. 39. p. 282. Suidas, at 
the words aavdiof, MfXa^Oio;, and Air«Tou^ia. Po- 
lyani. Scrateg. I.'i9. 


Digitized by 



(12) Schol Ariftoph. Acbarnan. 146, We 
^d another remarkable reafon in Potter, p. 392* 

(13) Suidas, at the word, Airotrou^ia, and SchoL 
Ariftoph.}. c. 

(14) Theophraft. Charaft. c. 4, Hifi aloXw- 
Xw. ^ Vid. Petit, ad Leg. Attic. * 

(15) SchoL Ariftoph. Achernan. 146. Xc- 
noph* Hifl:. Grace. 1. 1. Herodot.' Vit. Homeri. 

(16) Schol. Ariftoph. Pac. 890. The wordt 
AyappWiff is derived from «fappuciv, which is of 
the fame fignification with o-tpa^ui^, to immolate, 
accordmg to the explanation of Hefychius i or, 
from Mfm ipufivy to turn upwiards ; for, as we have 
Already obferved, in the facrifices made to the 
teleftial Gods, the hesld of the vidim was fo 
pulled backwards that its eyes might look to- 
wards heaven. Horn. Ix« A. 459. and Schol. ad 
h. 1. Hence the Scholiaft of Ariftophanes ufes 
indifferently the word, ^yotp'pWKy and avaOuo-ic * 

(17) Hefych. Koupi»T»f, Ariftoph. Schol. A- 
charn. 146. and the authors cited by Valef. ad 
Harpocrat. p. 123. 

(18) Hefych. at the word, B^au^wHff. 

(19) Paufan. Attic, c. 23. p. SS- 
(io) Pollux. VIII. 9. 31. 

f 2 1 ) Ariftoph. Ly fiftr. V. 644. 
(22) Harpocrat. at the word, ^(^xrcvo'aii^ and 
Ariftoph. 1. Ct 


Digitized by 


122 AN TI Q^U I T 1 E S 

(23) Mcfych. at the word, Atxatrrvn* 1 Jtnd 
^id. at the wQrf, AfitT^ffk 

(24) Procl. Chrtftomathia. Paufan. Bator. 
c. X. p. 730* Euftath. dc Ifmcn. Amor. 1. S. 
and 9. dcfcribcs a like fcftivil m honour of Apol- 
lo and Daphne. 

(25) Hefych. at the word, AioWtnt*, Which is 
derived from Dionyfus, Bacchus. Thefe fcaflfs 
arc Hk^wife called Orgia, and B«iex««, ^ords 
fyf feafts of Bacchus in general. 

{26) This it is ea<y to prove. 1 ^ For the 

AtheniMs reckoned their year from «he firft day 
of thtft feafts. Sec Soid. ixim^idt. 2^ for the 
principal Archon fuf eriAtendcd the Dionyfi^n 
fcafts. Ponux,Vnl, j^ Foffr !he ptieft of Bac- 
chus had the moft honourable fe;^ 2tt the puWic 
IhowJ. Schol Ariftoph. Rafn'- V. 2f^. 

(27) Phitarch gives u^ adetailf df ^11 thtefc par- 
ticufars, Pe Cti¥>i*t. Divrf, j^. 52 ^ D. 

(2») SchoK Eufipifet. «l Phafctriff. v, 789, 
Bacch, V. <if. 8$J- «"<! ^^5- A^-i^oph. Raw. 
124^. Lucian, Bacchus •, et de nori temerc cred, 

cal. 417. 

(29) Eurip. Ba^ch. V, %t. \o6\ 

(30) Philoftr. Iconf. \. i%.p.7^t.znd\. 19. 
P-/93- Ovid. Met, VI. 587. Brotikhuf. arf Ti- 
bul. III. 6. V. I. Horn. H. m Dionyf. v. 35. Ovid, 
Met, III. 666. Barth. ad Stat. Theb, H. p. 294- 

( 5 1 ) Eurip. Bacch. v, 80. 

Digitized by 


© F O R E E C E* 123 

(jt) Catull. Cartn. 61. v. 261. Virg. ^neid. 
XI. 737. Ovid, Met.Ili. 533. IV, 391. Eurip. 
3acch. 127. 160. 

C33) Eurip. Bacch. 59. 124.. 156. 513. Liv. 
XXXIX. 8. 

(34) Diod. Sic. IV. }. 4. 5. p, zii. Ulpian* ad 
Midianaou p, 194. Plutarc* An(or>ic. Pctau ad 
Syncf. p, a;. 

(35) According to the cuSoofi ^of Silen«i$i 
perizon, ad ^lian. III. 18. 

(36) Eurip. Bacch. v. 222. 

(37) Idem. V. 62. 76. 115. 

(38) Idem. V, 141. and v. 576. where Bacchus 
himfelf cries to the Bacchantes*-- 1« Buk^ou }-u 
^nd V. 582. where the chorus cries to Bacchus*— 
I«, I»j l^wnvrotj ^t^'TOTM* See Ariftoph, ^cr^«(pf« 
icx>3. 2ttkd Schol. ad 999. K«f ffo«y^ ivo*, Kottnyc£o9% 
ad Av. V. 874, 

(39) Ulpian. ad Demofth. Orat. contra Sept. 
Palmer. Exercit; p. 505. and 617. 

(40) lEifchin. coatra Cte^piv. p. 284. e£t. 
paf. 1672. 

(41) Schol. Ariftoph» Achafflk ▼. 503. 

(42) Idem. 1. c. 

(43) Theie games were cekbrated, becaufe at 
that time people came from all the iQands, and 
the other parts of Greece, with the tribute to A-^ 
(bens, Hence the town was filled with a crowd 
of Grangers, to whom plays and other amufe- 

' tuents were prcfented in honour of Bacchus. 


Digitized by 


,24 A N T I CLU I T I E S 

Palmer. Exercit. p. 6i8. See Procem. Cotnoed. 
Ariftoph! in Av. and Serv. Petit. Mifcell. L lo. 
Perizon. ad £lian. IL 13. n. i6. 

(44) Palmer. Exercit. p. 505. Cafaub. ad A- 
then. IV. 15. p. 445- 

(45) Thebphraft. Ilf^i aj/^oixiocf. 

(46) Palmer, 1. c. lays they were likewife call- 
ed Aii»«»«. They were celebrated yearly in win- 
ter. Ariftoph. Schol. ad Av. 201. 377. Sca- 
liger de Emend. Temp. I. p. 29. edit. L. B. aq. 

(47) Ariftot. Rhetor. IL 24. Zofim. IV. 3. 
, (48) Philoftr. ApoUon. IV. 6. S. Aug.dc 

Civ. Dei, Vll. 20. 

(49) Paufan. Phocic. c. 31. p. 876. By the 
Celxans, forinftance; Paufan. Corinth, c. 14. 
p. 142. The Ph^neates ; Paufan. Arcad. c. 14. 
and others. 

(50) Some are of opinion that this feftival 
was celebrated every year, and not every five 
years. Ant. Van Dale, Diff. VIIL ad Mar- 
mora, c. 2. 

(51) Cic. deLegi II. 14. 

(52) Socrat. Paneg. 6. 

(53) Schol. Ariftoph. Plut. v. 1014. and 

(54) Idem. Plut. v. 846. 

(55) Ariftoph. Schol. ad Plut. y. 846. Clem. 
Alex. Strom. V. p. 429. Polysen, v. 17. 




b F GREECE; ii^ 

($6) Suidas, at the word fTOTmc. Cafaub. A* 
then. VI. 1$. As the little feftival of EleuGs 
was preparatory to the great one, fo Euripides 
thinks deep preparatory to deaths— and calls it, 
rd fuxfct TV ^amu fA\)m(i% — ^The little myfteries 
of death. 

(57) item. E^o^ei. Suidas, h c. 

(58) Hcfych, 'lifo(p«vTuf. Suid. Diog. Laert. 
Vli. 186. Philoftr. Apollon. IV. 18. fays, that 
the hierophantes admits to the participation of 
(acred things-^-Tsra^fp^nv ra Ufa % reveals the myf- 
tery of Elcufi o' ri> » EXfufl-»»« a»p»g«i. Tacitus; 
Hift. iv. 83. calls the Hierophaintes, Antiftcs 
Ceremoniaruof) Eleufiniarum. He had likewife 
the title of Mjjiagogus. Whatever more deferves 
to be known concerning the Hierophantes, the 
reader will find in Meurfius* Eleufin. c. 13. 

(59) ^choL Ariftoph. Plut. 846. and 1014. 
Arrian^EpiAet. III. 21. The initiation, for in- 
ftahce, was performed by night; Ariftoph. 
SchoL Ran. 346. It was performed in a chapel 
which Ariftophanes calls,' Mvrelvxov ^ojeaow Nub; 
V. 302. Thofe Who were to be initiated, wore a' 
wreath of myrtle on theif head. Schol. Ariftoph.' 
Ran. V. 333* More particulars ^re to b^ met 
with in Meurf. Eleufin. c. 9. 

(60} Him who carried the torches in the feafts 
ofEleufis. Atbtod^s mentions him,' h rS.p/ 

. i2i: 



tz6 ANT I CLU I Vl^6 

i2i. Plutarch. Alcib< p. io2. E» aod Ariftidi 
p, 321. D. 

(61) Plutarch. Alcrb* I. c^ He was l^ikewjfe 
called *I{;oic»fv^ Suid: and Spco. Itioer. p, II^ 
pag4 216. Mcurf. L c. We find in Grutec# 
p, 27. N. 4. the following infcription— HicrocCf 
ryx, D. S. I. M. u c. Deae Sanfiac ifxdis Matds 1 
or, Doi Solis Invidti Mithrae. 

(62) The Hieropbantes reprcfented thc&Acr 
of cbe God$ ^ the D^ducus» the fun ; ihe Ce« 
ryx, Mercury ; 2ind the i tn ^3«^, the msifMU 
Eufcb. Praepar. Evaqg. HI. ia*f. U7.I 

^6j) Hcfychius defines B#jriAw, an .^cbpn 
who prefidcd at the Athenian nayrfteries. Pol- 
lux, Vlll. 8. 3. 

(64) Pollux, ibid. See Harpocrat. Suid« and 
Alciat. Parerg. II. 29. 

(6y) Schol Ariftopfc. Plut. 846. 843- DfRipft* 
ad Antiq, Rom. p. 328. 

(66) Polyaen. HI. c. XL N. a. ^^Rcftitufv 
Mcurf. See» on the month Bocdrom^iony 
Theophr, Cbarac. pap. wifi Ato^t^^. Vlut. 
Demetrr. fol 900. Meurfius gives us the oamea 
of thefc nine days, fileiifiii. 22. 30. 

(6/) Demofth. in Midiana* p. 409^ C 

(68) Andocid. vipivum^m^* p. 2)8. 

(69) Plut. Tom. U- X- Orat. Vir. Lycqrg.p- 
842. A. See Petit, ad jL«g. Attic, p. 35. -iE- 


Digitized by 


O ^ G R E E C B. 127 

. (^o) PhUrnUt* dc Nat. Dcor. XXVIII. p. 2 12. 
Hygin. Fab. 47. 274. 277* For Ceres wai 
tboughc to have been the firft who gave laws to 
tnan^iod. Died. Sic. I. 14. p. 13. and v. 68. 
p. 336. Hence Virg/^n. IV. 58. gives to Ce- 
res the epithet, Legifera. , 

(71) At Lacedcemon, for inftance ; Hcfych. 
Tgiiif*«p^* — at Tbebcs, in Bseotia — Plut. Pelo- 
pid. p. 280. — ^at Miletus in Ionia, Parthen. E^ 
rot. VIII. p. 358.— at Mcgara, Paufan. Attic* 

C 42. p. 102. 

(72) SchoL Theocrit. ad Idyll. IV. 25. 

(73) Ifasus, Orat. vi^^ ry K(H(((>)»^ xXng^y p. 
51 1. Theocrit. Schol. Idyll. IV. v. 25. 

(74) Ovid. Met. X. 431. Faft. IV. 619. 

(75) ^Icoa- Akx. Strom. IV. p. 381. Edit. L, 
Bat. 1616. Ovid. Met. X. 431. 

(76) The Agnus Caftus, or Salix Amerina, 
or Conyza, Cnyza, is (aid to be a plant which 
deadens annorous defire. See Hardouin ad 
Plin. XXIV. 9. ^lian. Hift. An. IX. 26. Thco- 
crit. Schol. Idyll IV. 25. 

(77) Glem. Alex. Protrept. p. 10. A. 

(78) Hefych. at the word, A^oio^. 

(79) Schol. Theocrit. Idyll, v. 25. 
(80; Afcenfus. Hefych. L c. 

(81) So we£nd in Ariftophanes. Thcfm. t« 
86. See Plut. Vit. Demofth. p. 8fo* B.^ A* 
then. 1. II. c X VL p. 307. F, 

4 (82) 



ii8 A N T I dV I T 1 E § 

(82) Athcn. VII. i6, p. 307, 

(83) Plot, de IGd. ct Ofirid. p. 378. D. , ' 
, (84) Phurnutus alfigns different rieafons for 

this, Faft. dc Nat, Deon CXX VIII. p. 2 10. 

(85) Plut. Thefeus» p. io. where we likewife 
find that this feaft was infticuted by 'Ithefcus. 

(86) Athcn. XI. c. XIII. p. 49$. F. He fays' 
!t was a vine- branch loaded with grapes. . 

(87) Harpocrat. nataOfivaia. Paufah. Arcad. 
c. II. p. 600. ApoUod. III. 14. § 7. They 
were the Quinquatrus, or Quinquatria; of the 

(88) Paufan. 1. c. Plut ThcC p. 1 1. A. Schol. 
Ariftoph.Nub. 38 J. 

(89) Harpocr. and Suidas, at the word, vAPot^ 
Ouvtfia. Thucyd. VI. 56. likewife mentions the . 
great wavahmiot. See Periz. ad ^ian. XL 8. 

(^o) Pollux Onomaft. VIII. 9. 93. p. 912. 

(91) In this cohteft he was the viftor who 
could carry a lighted flambeau to a phce pitch- 
ed upon, without its being extingui(hedi Pau- 
fan. Attici c. XXX. p.' y6. Interpr. ad Sat. 
Pcrf. VI. V. 61. Lucrct. II. v. 71. Varr. de 
R. R. III. 16. This conteft is called, A«/biir«r» 
Xa/bivftJoc ctyu)f» Hefych. AafAnotifii^ofAia* SchoL 
Ariftoph. Ran. v. 131. We have an elegant 
defcription of this conteft in A. ad Herenn. IV. 
t: 46. This kind of conteft was likewife prac- 
tifed in a feaft of Vulcan, tennedH^aisiaM} and 

6 ID 



5 F Q R E E C E. ii^ 

In that feadt it was a Lampadophoria on foot 
khd horfirback. See, on the ceremony of th(t 
Lampadodromiai and on the Lampadarchi, 
tvho prcfidcd over it, Ant. Van. Dale, DifT. 
Vl; ad Marmora, p 504. It appears, that in 
the Eleufinian feafts there was likewife an- 
other kind of emulation ; and that they ftrovc 
who fhould light the largeft flambeau. See 
Tbeophraft. CharaA. Ethic, c. IV. vi^i aioXto" 
yjetit et ad h;l. Cafaub. p. 145. Chrift. Burn- 
ings collefts from .this paflage of Theophraftus, . 
that, on the fifth day of the celebration of the 
rayfteries, they ran with flambeaux^ and that he 
who could carry the largeft, got the reputation 
of a robiy^ and courageous man. But this is a 
ftraincd interpretation. Theophraftus neither 
fpeaks of the fifth day of the myfteries, nor of 
running, nor of the reputation of a robuft and 
courageous man. 

(gz) K«f ajiA(^ iAai«. — Schol. Ariftoph. Nub. v. 
looi. and JJf t« txpun zrAufn; — a pitcher full of oi V 
Schol Pindar. Nem. Od. X. v. 65. See Periz. 
adiElian. 111.38. 

(93) Suidas, at the word, TsravsLhyxiAt^ takes 
notice only of the wreath. Lucian fays, they gave 
the v!<5lori not a crown, but oil, of thofe /tAOf !«#• 
Dc Ciymn. p. 273. Schol. Soph. Md, Col. y^ 
689. and St hoi. Ariftoph. ad Nub, lOOi. 

K (94) 




(94) Demoft. de Coron&, mentions the wreft- 
ling, and Xenophon, Sympof. the borfe-races. 

(95) Plato, Euthyphron. Plaitf. Mercat. I. r. 
67. Virg. Cir. v. 29. 

(96) Eurip. Hccub. v, 468. 'Schol. Ariftoph. 
Equ. V. 563. Virg. Cir. v. 29. Hence canac 
the proverb, »}^i^r^vtwXu — ^worthy of the pep- 
lum } to exprefs a brave man.— The peplum was 
a white robe without fleeves, on which were 
embroidered in gold the exploits of Minerva, 
Jupiter, the heroes, &c. 

(97) -flElian. V. H. VIIL i. Lycurg, Ad^. 
Leocrat. p. 181. 


Digitized by 


b ^ 6 R E E C E; ijf 

CHAP. XVli; 

(3f the Grecian Games artd CoMBATSi 

i. 'TT^HE games bf the Greeks were 
X teraaed ( i ) uyms^. Their cxer-J 
cifes w.crei running, (2) S^ofiiQj; the difcus^ 
6t(nc^ } leaping, uXfjbot^ boxing, w-yyjiciyj 
wreftlingi (3) iraXij. Thcfe five combat* 
were expreflcd by the general name, (4) 
vbvtaQXop, quinqdertiumi :l^ut fdixie ant]#* 
quarians put the contefl of the javelin, H'^ 
Komov, in the plice of (5) boxing* 

II. The combat of running was pcfforffl- 
ed in a fpace of groundi.callcd (6) ftadluiri* 
The iladium was a hundred and twenty- 
five paces. It is likewife called (8) auX©*. 

III. There were (9) four kinds of races 
*— The (10) fa&oy, the (11) Stctvii®^, the 
(12) ^Xm®», the (13) oirXiTiffii^ whence are 
derived the names which were given to the 
rQnQers«-*-( 1 4) ^utrio^^^ofAoi^ itw^^^^ofi^i, SoXt'^ 
^oi^fjLOf, and 07r?iiTeif0fA$i. 

k 2 IV, 



134 AN T I CLU I T I E S 

IV. The gotho^^oiioi^ were they who ran 
once over the (15) ground; the SiavXo^^fioi^ 
they who ran (r6) twice over it; — the ^0- 
Xixo^^ofiot, they who ran over it fix or fcvcft, 
(17) times— the l-rrXiToi^ofAoi^ they who ran 
over it in (18) armour. 

V. The (Vadium had two boundaries— 
the firft, where the courfc began; the fc* 
cond, where it terminated. 

VI. The firft was termed, in Latin, (19) 
Carceres; in Greek, (20) oupBcr^g, (2l)i3aA* 
Ctg, (22) y^ctfiiiri. 

VII. The fecond was termed in Latin, 
(23)Meta5 in Greek, (24) TfX®L., (25) re^- 
fiXi (26) y(ttf4.[j(>ii, and ecz^x 7^^f^f^^% ^nd 

(27) (TfO-TT©^. 

VIII. Many combatants ran at once (28) 
on the (ladium. 

IX. To endeavour to come up with one's 
rival, was expreflcd in Greek by the word, 
(29) hcoKuvi to come up with him, by (30) 

X. He who firft reached the goal receiv- 
ed a prize, which in Greek was named^ 

Digitized by 


O F G R E E C E. 133 

cL^XoVf and (31) (3^x&Biov. It was adjudged 
and decreed by the preHdents of the games, 
who were called (32) fS^xCevrou. 

XL Thofe prizes were crowns of little 
value; of (33) olive, of (34) pine, of the 
(35) apple tree, or of {^6) parfley. 

XII. To be one of the laft in the race, 
and confequently, to go without the prize, 
was exprefled in Greek, by the words,— 
v^b^bTv, (37) v^E^BitrSuiy (38) KotTuXi^Trea-Qoci. 


(i) Nicoph. Schol. ad Syn. dc Infomn, p, 
428* Lut, Par. J 6? 3. calls them oXu/x?riax«c «(- 

(2) We find in Paufanias, J'^o/tftf ctyw. La- 
con. XIII. p. 239. Eliac, I. c. i. p. 376. It is 
like wife called, zgroJwyfi?i. Anchpl. I. j. Epir 
gram. ult. 

(3) Virgil fpcaks of thefe games, ^n. Ill, v. 
281* Exercent pacrias, oleo labente, palaeftras, 
nuclati focii. Thefe are the five exercifes de- 
fcribed by the Schol. ad Anthol. IL i. Epigr. y. 
The interpreter of Synef. enumerates, wvy/xijy, 
vocXwff i(OfjkQv^ axovTtov, x»i iuTKQif. He omits leap- 

K 3 ipgf. 

Digitized by 


m A N t I e^u I T I E s 

ing, <^V*' Wautus fpeaks of fome of thcfe ex- 
lercifes, Bacch. L I. 33. 0f more, Moftell. I. 
2. 73. Sec 9rod^^ni ad Anthol. I. j. Epi- 
gram* pit. ^nd'Interpr. Fcft. in Pcntathlum. 

(4) Lucian terms them in general yvfAvacfAzr 
rttf ^u/Ava^»«, yvfAyxs'iAotTcov ocyxvt^* De Cymn* 
pag. 2^2. Ariftoph. ayuvt; ^u/x|i^xoi. Plut. 1164* 
Quintilian, II. 21. Arces, aut cxcrciutioncs Pa? 
Isftricae. Idem. 11. 8. 7. S^cra Certamina. 
Plut. dc Mufica, 114D. p. n£VT«9xo». Fcftus^ 
Quinqqertium. ThcSchol. Apftoph. Av. count? 
pight ctya^fo'^otr^* , ...' 

(5) Simonid, Anthbl. I. i. Epigr. ult. in the 
place of boxing, puts the conteft of fhe j^vclii], 

- (6) Hence Paqf^nias, Mcflen. IV. p. 2g8. 
calls this combat, ayuvia-iAa foJio\)\ and fays of 
pne who had conquered in running — mxa r«JM» 
^f»/uutfy-r*he conquered in running the ftadiuni.. 
Attic. XLiy. p, |0|6. The runners wtjre called 
fOffioifofAPi^ according to the fame author, £Uac. 
11. 20. p. 563. Auth. ad Herenn. calls thi$ 
(Cpmbat, Olympiacum curfum. 

(7) Plin. II. 23. Ccnfo'rinus, it is true, thinks 
the plymplt ftadium fhorter than the Italic, and 
longer than the Pythic, He makes the Italic 
jladium fix hundred and twenty-five feet, or 4 
hundred and twenty-five geometrical paces, 
^hich are the fame length. Other authors^ 





however, are of opinion, that tbefe three ftadia 
are equal. 

(8) Every redilineal Bgure, like the ftadium, 
we term, otvXov. Athen. v. 3. p. 18^. r 

(9) We find all thefe names in the Schoh A* 
riftoph. Av. 293* 

• (10) Thecourfc, of 125 paces. 

(|i) This fame courfe twice run over; in 
making to the goal, and in returning from it. ' 

(12) A fpace of feven ftadia. Schol. Ariftoph. 
Av. Suidas thinks differently. He cites the au- 
thority of Lucian. Demoft. £ncom« p. 685. 
Spanhcim* Callim. p. 553. ^ ;- 

(13) Ariftoph. Schol. Av^ 293. Qui arma- 
tus currit, ac certat. 

(14) Pollux. III. 30. 146* 

(i;) Ariftoph. Schol. ad A v. 293. fays^ o^ yag 

f^^0ifO[M$ iivkoZv croiouvTAi rov Jj^opoi^— For the ratJio« 

ifofMi run a double race. — Here is certainly an 
error in orthography — ^We muft read «irXouv in- 
ftead of itvXovvf or Ji»uXo)jfo/bi«» inftead of raJio^j^p* 

(16) Schol. Ariftoph. Ibid. 

(17) They who ran over it feven times, ac- 
cording to the Scholiaft of Ariftophanes. Six 
times, fay the Authors of ObC Mifcell. vol. IV. 
p. 3, and tiiey are fupported by the authority, of 
Plato, of ^fchines, and the Anthologia. 

(18) Schol. Ariftoph. 1. c. 

K 4 (J9) 



,5^ A N Tl Q^UI TIES 

(19) Auth. ad Hcren. IV. 3, Varr, dc R. R, 
J. 3. Cic. dc Sencft. 

(20) Pollux. III. 30. 147. 

(21) Schol. Ariftoph, Equ. v. 11 56. Vcfp. 


(22) Schol. Ariftoph. Acharn. 482. It is 
likewife called, apirn^x. Schol. Ariftoph. Vcfp. 
546.— rrand — uVwAnj/f. Pollux. 1. c. AnthoL I. x. 
Lucian. Denon temere Cred. Cal. p. 413. 

(23) Varro de R. R. I. 3. Cicero calls it alfo. 
Calx, Tufcul. Quseft. I. 8, 

(24) Pollux, III. 30. 147. 

(25) Ibid. 

(26) Pindar Pyth. Od. 9. v. 208. Eurip. An- 
tig. V. 29. Eleftr. 955. Jon* i JJ4. calls it likcr 
wife raO/AiVf Hence the metaphor ufed by Ho-^ 
racc-r-Mors ultima linea rerum. Ep. I. 16. v. 
79. It is termed, )c«/!at»j, by Euripides. Elcft^ 

(27)' Paul, ad Philip. III. 14. Ramircs, dc 
Prado Pentecon, c. 50. 

(28) This is evident from AnthoL II. Epig. 5. 
of Nicearchus. Thofe who ran together were 

called, <njv»ymtfOtij avri^aAoi, &C* 

(29) 2 Cor. iv. 9. Sec Lamb. Bof. ad Rom, 
ix. 30. Hefych. at this word. 

(30) I Cor. ix. 24. Lamb. Bof. 1. c. Phil. iii. 
}2, To this Lucian alludes, Hcrmotim. 564, 


Digitized by 



(31) Schol. ?ind, Olymp. Od. I. Sec In- 
tcrprct. ad i Cor. ix. 24. 

(32) Pollux. III. 30, 145. Thcodorct, ad 
Coloff. ii. i8. Thpy were lilfcwifc termed— «- 

j^wvo9«Ta»^aJ/«vwv J*»9frat— ^arXoTfra*. Pollux, IIL 

3P. 140. Aix^itrnu Anthol. I. ^. Ep. BucJ. ad 
Pandeft p. 84. tdit. Afcanf. Sec the authors 
cited by Pafchal, dc Coron. VI. ii. The La- 
tins ftylcd them— Magiftros ludorum gymnico- 
rum — Magillros ccrtamini praspoGcos. Suet. 
Ncr. 12. He alfq ufes the Greek word, Brabeu* 
tcs, Ner. 53. 

(33) Ex xoTiVH. Paufan. Eliac. Prion VIL p. 
392. Ariftoph. Plut. 586. Coron, 
Vi. 18 p. 359. Plin. 15. 4, 

(34) Lucian. de Gymn. p. 272. Plin. XV. 

(35) The vjclor was crowned \yith branches 
of the apple-tree, loaded with their fruit. Pal- 
mer. Exercit. ad Audi. Gr. p. 549, 

C36) Pindar. Olymp. 13. v. 45. Lucian. do 
Gymnaft. p. 272. Plin. XIX. 8. Juvenal, VIIL 
226. ' We muft obferve, thatthefe crowns were 
not only the reward of the runners, but likewife 
pf the other combat^n^s. 


Digitized by 


138 A N T I CLU I T IE S 


Of the Discus. 

I. ' I ^HE difcus was a fort of (i) roand 

X quoit, (2) three or four inches • 
thick, (3) heavy, ©f ftonc, brafs, copper, 
or (4) iron; it was called (5) a-ox^*. 

II. The word dift, comes from the verb 
iicnuiu, for Sucifv, (6) jacerc > for thcfe (7) 
quoits were lanched into the air. 

III. The difk was lanched from a (8) 
thong, which was put through a hole made 
in the (9) middle of it. He who lanched it, 
held one of his hands near his breafl, the o- 
ther balancing the diik a while, which was 
thrown with a (lo) circular motion. 

IV. To throw the difk, is, in Greek,— 
(11) Aitncotg yvfiv»^t(r6ai^^(^l2) s^i^uv wb^4 
Ji<nc«^— (13) ^i<nc6ui4if, (14) Ji(nt»< |<«"t«k*— ^ 
(15) &(nt|fff /3(kXXc4V— - (t6) JjcTJcoCoXarir — 
wheqce connes the word, ^/crKpCoX^, the 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E C Jg. 131 ^ 

Aaiiie which was jgtyen to the comba^ 

V. The (17) vidor was he who threw 
fik diik: fartheft. 

VI. The Lacedemonians are faid to have 
lieen the inventors of this^ (18) healthful 
(19) cxercife. 


(i)*^St4t, Thcb. VI. 648. calls it, Lubrjc^ 
Maflac Pondera, and v. 656. Orbem. Sec 
Pvid. Met. X. 184. 

(2) We are informed by thofe who have feeii 
marble* ftatues of men throwing the (lilk, that ic 
is of this thickneis. 

(3) Hence the expreflion of Scatius— Jacular 
bile Dextfas Pondus, I. c. v. 658. and— 7Molem 
praegravidam^ v. 700. See the defcripcion of 
the di(k ; Lucian. Gymn. p. 289. 

(4) Euftath. ot. e. y. i86. p. 301. Edib BaC 

(5) Horn. IX. "¥. V. 82jf. 

(6) The author of this remark is Euftathiui| 
^ Ik. B. y. 28 1, p. 26a Euftatb, ad of. A. p* 

4 39h 



I40 A N T 1 Q^U I T I E S 

^f • line 20» Euripides ufcs the word t^Kuf for 
(SflAP^fiv, or xaro&CtfXXsiv. Bacch. V. 600. 

(7) Ovid. Met. X. 178. Stat. Theb. VI. 
681. Herat. Sat. II. 2. v. 13. 

(8) This thong was called, by the Latins, A- 
mcntum. Euftaih. oi, 0. v. 186. calls it k«a«- 


(9) This we may infer from the wqrds of Eu- 
ftathius, 1. c. 

(10) This is inferred by Hier. Mercurial, dc 
Arte Gymnaf. U. 12. p. 123. from the verfe of 
Propertius* III. 12. 10. Miflile nunc difci pon- 
dus in orbe rotat. The manner of throwing the 
difjc is well dcfcribed in fhiloft. Icon. I. 24. p. 


(11) Lucian. Dial. p. 209. 

(12) IE\m. V;H. I. 24- Philoftrat. Icon. I. 

p. 799- 

(13) Philoftrat. Ep. 44. et Icon. XIV. p. 886, 

Homer ufcs the word oVxirn. O^. 0. v. i.88. 

(14^ Lucian has this expreflion, akocppVrf iv rot 
9wxov cK TO Mu^ Deor. Dialog, p. 209. Airxor 
ft^at. Hefych. at the word, i$(nitwron. Homcp 
iifcs the word, pWrny. Ix. y. v, 842. 
• (1 j) Qu. Smyrnaeas, IV. 437, 445. 

(16) Plin- XXXIV. 8. Quint. H. 13. 10. 
Pollux. III. 30. 151* 

(17) Lucian. Gymnaf. p. 289. Horn. Ia. if. 

V. 841, 

Digitized by 


O ^ G R E E C E. 141 

V. 84T. O*. 0. V, 192. Stat. Thcb, VI. 713. 
Q^Smyrn. IV. 445. 

(18) Lucian pr^ifes this cxercife, which, he 
fays, flrengthens the mufclcs and the nerves. 
Gymnaf. p. 298. 

(19) Hence Martial calls the di(k» Difcos 
Spartianlis, XIV. 164. Paufanias gives the iti» 
vcntion of it to Perfeus, Corinth. XVh p. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Of Le A P I N G. 

1. / RAPING, in Greek, dXfM^ from the 
verbt obsXtit^oUf was fometimes per- 
formed with the (i) hands empty \ fome-' 
tunes with weights of lead^ which wercf 
'termed^ (2) akn/i^^i. They carried theftf 
weights either in their hands, or on their 
heads and (3) (boulders. 

IL The place froa\ which they jumped 
was called (4) ^ar^^ limen< 

IIL The bound which they were to 
reach in jumping was called (5) t&KOLiM.ium% 
whence arofe the proverbial expreflion, wii* 
iup V7ti^ Tu i^xccfifjtsva^^to leap beyond the 
bounds-^which charaderized an (6) extra^^ 
vagant man* 

IV. The meafure, or the rule to be ob* 
ferved in leaping was termed (7) Kctvuw. 






(i) Ariftot. de Animal. IncciRi. c. 3. and 
Problem. Scft. 5. N. 8. 

(2) Ariftot. 1. c. Mart. XIV. 49. The bal^eres 
are mafles of lead or ftone, which they hold in 
their hands, and which they throw into the air 
to augment the elafticity of the body in leaping. 
Lucian. Gymn. p. 289. calls them j^xvitiVKf x»* 
^xnOfic — i« e. mafles of lead of a fize whkh fills 
the hands. See Juvenal, VI. 421. Senec. E^ 
pift. XV.LVIII. 

(3) See Mercurial. II. 12. 

(4) Pollux, III. 30. 151. 

( 5} Pollux, III. 30. 1 5 1 . It was likewife call- 
ed ^ftjbi5*», a ditch ; from the verb oxairTw, fo- 

(6) Lucian. Gall, ufes this expreflion, p. 1^4. 

(7) Pollux, III. 30. 151.— -TO lAitfOP T¥ wAjj!*#t- 

T®' x«v«ir« — ^The xftvw is the meafure of leaping. 




14* A N T i Q^U I T i E ^' 
C fe[ A P. XX. 

Of Bo X I N G. 

t DOXING is, in Greek, -srvyf^ri. thrf 
combatant in thiscontcft was called 
(r) wvKTfiqi or (2) wvyfiotx^i whence were 
formed the words, (3) irujcreug/v, isrvicrxkt^^ 
i^y.-i-The root of all tbcfe words is, wv^, 
pugno, vel pugnis, 

II. For the combatants at firft ufed only 
their (4) fiftsj afterwards they ufed thcf 
(5) ceftus^ 

III. The ceftus wa$ a ihohg of the hide 
of an ox (6) newly killed, with a mafs of 
(7) lead, (8) brafs, or (9) iron at the end 
of it J it was tied round ihe'(io) arm* Its 
Greek name is i/^a^, or Ifietqfiou^^ becaule 
it was of the hide of an ox. 

IV. The great art in this combat wafi ttf 
elude ihe blows of your adverfary^ by (11) 
(looping dextroufly, and to avoid (Iriking 
yourfelf with your own (12) ceftus. 


Digitized by 


6 F G R R E C £. t45 

V. Yhe great aim of the cambatants 
Was, to ftrike and maiil the faces of their 
( 1 3) advcrfaries. Thefe blows given on the 
face were called (14) UTFujTrw. 

VI. .He who yielded -the vi(Story to his 
antagonift, acknowledged his defeat by let- 
ting his wearied arms (15) fajl, or by (16) 
finking to the ground. 


(i) Pollux, III. 30. i5fo. The Latins ufed 
the wordi pyc^a. Phaedr. IV. 24. 5. But ac* 
cording to the remarkof Gudius on this paffage^ 
die word px^ta fignifies the combatant conquer- 
ed, or crowned. Euftathius is very particular 
on the etymology of this word^ ad Ia. "¥. p. 
1444. 1. 2. 

(2) Horn, oJ. 0. V. 246. and Euftath. ad Ia. 
y. p. 1444. 

(3) Euft. ad lA. H^. V. 6 Si p. 1444- 

(4) Mercurial. III. 9. who diftinguifhes the 
combat of the ccftus from that of boxing j but I 
think he is miftaken. 

(5) The combatants are armed with the ceftus 
L as 



i4^ A N T 1 (l^V IT it§ 

ssfoon as they engage, in Homer. Ix. r. r. 684^ 
Apolton. Rhod. II. 50. Virgil, ^neid. v. 40a. 
Val. Flacc. IV- 250. Stat, Thcb/ VI. -720. 

(6) Apollon. II. ^2. Val. Flacc. IV. 250. call 
the ceftus — cfudis durata volumina tauris^ We 
find a dcfcripcton of this combat in MercuriaL 
II. 9. and in Zornius,' Biblioth. Antiq. Exerc. 
p. 904.. 
' (7) Virg. jEneid. V. 404. Stat.Thcb. VI. 72^. 

(8) Thcocrir. XXII. 3. and 80. Val. Fiacc. 
IV. 253- 

(f) Hom.U. y. v.e84. Apollon.Rhod. II. ^2. 

(10) Theocrit. K c. and v. 80. He calls them 

(11) Virg. -Sineid. V. 437. Q^Smyfnseus^ 
IV. 348. Theocrit. XXII. v. 120. Stat. Theb. 
VI. 767. Pctau ad Themi]l. Orat. IV. p. 548. 

(12) Lambert. Bof. Exerc. ad i Cor. ix. 27. 
and the authors he cites. 

(1 j) Theocrit. XXII. p. no. Amhol. 11. r-^ 
Ep. I. More particulars are to be found in 
Lambert Bos, 1. c. 

(14) Ariftoph. Vefp. v. 1377. ^"^ Schol. Pac. 
540. The learned commentators, ad rCor^ix^ 
27. cfpecially Lambert Bos. 

(15) Philo de Sacrific. Abel et Cain, p. 103. 
Edit. Colon. AUobrog. 161 3. Thcocri^XXlI. 


{i6) Mercurial. II. 9. 


Digitized by 


b t G ll E E C £• 14/ 



1. 'TT^ H E cxercifc of wrcftlingi in 
X Grecki vuX% was performed in 
thexyftus ; i. e. under a (i) covered porti- 
tdy where two (2) naked wreillere, anoint- 
ed with (3) oilj and rubbed over with (4) 
duft, their arms (5) intertwined, endeavour- 
ed to bring each other to the ground; 

IL It was the (6) oldeft of all the cxtt^ 

III. The origin of this word is (7) un- 
certain. But it is mod probably derived 
from trccXKitP, to move ; for the wreftler is 
in continual motion. 

IV. Id early times the combatant availed 
himfelf merely of his fizc and ftrcngth. It 
is faid that Thefeus was the firft who im- 
proved this exercifc into an (8) art, 

V. (9) eXiCg^y, {to) xarsxiiv, (ll) xccru^ 

L 2 CoXXsiK, 



148 A N T I Q^U I T I E S 

GccXXeiv, (12) pri^oci, were words applied to 

VL He who brought his antagonift thrice 
to the ground, was the the complete (13) 
vidlor. Hence to conquer at this exercife 
was cxprefled by r^tct^ociy and aTrorpiu^ati 
and to be vanquilhed, by (14) a7rorfia;;^i|- 

VII. The conquered combatant publicly 
acknowledged his defeat with his voicer, 
and by holding up his (15) finger. 

VIII. There were two kinds of wrcft* 
ling; one in which the combatants wreft- 
led on their feet, and credt ; and which was 
termed, (16) o^GoTraXri: another, in which 
they contended, rolling on the ground. 
This was called, (17) avaicXsvo'rraXTj, voluta* 

IX. The pancratium comprifcd boxing 
and (i8) wreftling. 




O F G R E E C E. 149 


(i) Hcfych. and Suid. .at the wprd, Huroi, 
Vitruv. V, 11. and Not. ad Sueton. Auguft. 45, 

(2) Virg. ^ncid. HI. 281. Stat. Theb. VI. 
832. Ovid. Met, IX. 32. Lucian. de Gymn. 
p. 270. It was for this reafon that Auguftus 
prohibited women from being prcfent at this 
combat. Sec Zeibich. Athleca. najaJofof, p. 

(3) Spanheim. adCalUm. p. 560. Ovid. He- 
roid. XIX. II. Theocrit. Idyll. II. v. 51. Diog. 
Laert. Anacharf, Lucian. de Gymn. p. 270. 
This oil was called ceroma, x*>f wjua. See J uve- 
nal, VI. 246. in. 68. Martial. XI. 48. Piu- 
tarch feems to call the place where they wreftled 
by this name, in his treatife, An Seni gcrenda 
fit Rcfp. But in Sympof. II. Probl. 4. p. 658. he 
means the oil. See Martial, VII. 31. Plin. XV. 
4. XXVIII. 9. 

(4) Ovid. Met. IX. 5 j. Stat. Theb. VI. 846. 
Lucian. de Gymn. p. 270. Hcrnce, a.y.QnTi viKuy 
—To conquer with eafe. Herodian. VIII. 6.^ 
Cell. V. 6. Martial, VII. 66. Epiftet. Enchir. 
c. 35. This dufl: was taken from a coniftenum, 
i. e. a place where it was kept. See Plutarch. 
Sympof. n. Probl. 4. p. 638. C. Vitruv. V. 

L 3 (5) 

Digitized by 



(5) Lucian. de Gymn. p. 270. Ovid. Met- 
IX. 57- Stat. Theb. -VI. 85J. Horn. Ia. *. 
7,1. Plutarch. Sympof. II. Probl. 4. p- 638. F. 

(6) Plutarch. 1. c 

(7) Plutarch! Sympof. II. Probl. 4. p. 638. 

(8) Paufan. Attip. c XXXIX. p. 94. 

(9) ^ Cor. iv. 8. Ariftot. Rhpt. I. 5. § 36. 

(10) Arrftot. i. c. To that St. Paul feetns tq 
allude, Romvii.6. The p<r« fx«« of Ariftoph. 
alludes to the fame. Nub, 1043. Lucian, dc 
Gymnaf. ufes the words awtx"** *"*^ «»TiX«/«fixr 

»i(r9«i. p. 289. 

(n) Horn. IX. T- 727- ^t Saiyrnaeus, IV. 
530. aCor.iv. 9. See Spanhcitp. Julian O- 

rat. p. 262. . . - 

(12) Sec a paffage of St. Cbryfoft. cited by 

Spanheim. 1. c. a'od Hcfych. 

(13) Spanheim. Julian. Qrat. I. p. 2^1. Ca- 
faub. ad Tbeocrit. Schol. ad JEfchyl. Eumenid. 

^* ul) Suidas, Hefych. Pollux, JEfchyl. Aga- 
mcm. V. 179. Whence the viftor was likewifc 
ftylcd^ Te.«Kn,e. Mchyl. Agamcm. ^8o. 

(fj) Graiv. Praef. ad VI. Tom. Antiq. Lipf. 
Saturn. II. 21. Hence the proverbial expref- 
fion— «.?• *«KT«x.»— raife your fioger:-importing 
—own your defeat. # 

(16) It « likewifc termed— »{*«« o»xii. See 

Mercurial. II. 8. 

. (17) 

Digitized by 



(1 7) Martial, XIV. 199. 

(18) Ariftot. Rhet. I. 5. § 36. Nicoph. Schol. 

in Synef. p. 426* Uayx^XTin o-uvOrrpy IK vuffjun^ xai 

v«xii^. — The pancratium is, boxing and wreft- 
)ing. — Plutarch. Sympof. I|. qu. 4. p. 638. af- 
fcrts the fame. Lucian de Gymn. p. 272. ex- 
prcffcs himfclf clearly on this particular — to f$ 

w»Hi¥ aXXTiXy; of^ofainv wotyxfanoi^m Xtyofji^tv — To 

annoy each other ere£t is the pancratian exercife, 
It appears by this pa0agc of Lucian, that the 
pancratium was, ereft wreftling and boxing. 
However, it is very probable that the two kind$ 
of wreftling were included in the pancratium ; 
though Potter is of a different opinion. This 
fubjeft is particularly difcuHcd by Zeibichius, 
Athleta, vff^a^ogo^, p. 2%. and 155. The words 
vAyMfATiApif and vivrtttxof, have not then the 
fame fignification, though they are confounded 
by many critics, and among the reft, by Cafau- 
bon, and Polyb. pag. 907. where vayxfariuFng is 
tranflated by the Latin word, quinquertio. Se^ 
Cell. XIIL 27. Seealfo, Plutarch, Quxft. Ror 
(pan. II. i}. and Quintil. Inftit. Orat. II. p. 9^ 

1.4 CJ3AP, 

Digitized by 


152 A N T I Q^U I T I E S 


Of the four folemn Games of Greece, 

I. ' I ^HERE were four folemn games 
' JL in Greece, copfecrated by reli- 
gion, and on that account called'(i) ocyonyB^ 
U^oi. They were, the Olympic, the Py- 
thian, the Ifthmian, and the Nemean 
games, which only differed from each other 
by the places in which they were (a) cele-* 
bra ted. 

IL The Olympic games were celebrated 
in honour of (3) Olympian Jupiter, at O-p 
lympia, a city of (4) Elis, from which they 
took their name. 

III. Their origin is attributed to (5) 
Hercules, one of the (6) Idaei Daftyli. 

IV. They returned every (7) five years, 
and lafted (8) five days, 

V. Thefe games were omitted a (hort 
time aft?r their firft inftitution, but were 


Digitized by 



afterwards renewed by (9) Iphitus; and 
from the time when he reftorcd them, the 
Greeks counted the 6rft (10) Olympiad. 

VL The people of (1 1)' Pifa, or (12) E^ 
lis, had the care of ihefc games ; but coqi- 
monly the (13) Eleans. 

VII. There were public officers appoint- 
ed to condudt the games, and tofcize thofc 
who fhould difturb the celebration of them. 
They were called ccXutui by the Eleans, a- 
mong whom they exercifed the fame func- 
tion with thatof the'pa£J»;)COi, lidors, in the 
other ftates ( 1 4) of Greece. The chief of 
tbcfe Alutaewas called (15) aXirrccox'^jg. 

VIII. In the more ancient times, women 
were not permitted to fee thefe (16) games. 
But afterwards there were even female 
combatants ; and hiftory ^mentions fome 
women who gained the (17) prize. 

IX. He who chofe to be a competitor at 
thefe games, and gave in his (18) name, 
was to prepare himfelf (19) ten months 
beforehand. Nine months were employed 

Digitized by 


154 A N T I Q^U 1 T I ES 
in thccaficr cxercifcs;, but darmg the tenth 
month h« inured hiipfelf to labour an4 
fatigoe, and pradifcd (20) regular cohit 
bats, 1 

X. People branded with any infamy, or 
their friends, or relations, were not allowed 
to combat at ihefe (21) games. 

XL The matches at \hefe pombats wcrp 
determined by lots in the following man-? 
ner. A certain number of balls were put 
into a filver vafc, termed (2:?) Ka^^ic. on 
each of which a letter of the alphabet was 
written. They who drew the fame letter 
were to be antagonift$ to each other* tf 
the nnmber of combatants was pnequal, he 
who drew the odii ball w^s to contend, the 
laft, with the concjueror; and he yns^ for 
that reafon, ftyled (23) BcpiS^. 

XII. Befides the games we ha^e mention-- 
cd, boxing]» running, &c.-T-therc were o- 
thers — (24) horfc-racing, and (25) chariot-i 
racing; (26) l^Trirav KBXfiTmf (27) awifwyfi 
(28) iMX'Trfig^ (29) avvu^^i(^, ^c. 

4 xiu. 

Digitized by 



3CIII. There were likewife tnental a# 

* vrell as corporeal contefts at thefe games. 

The prize of (30) elocjuence^ of (sO P^* 

try, and the other fine (32) arts was difr 


XIV. The prize of the vidSlor jh each of 
thefe contibats ^as a wreath of wild olive, 
termed in Greek, (33) xortvO^. 

Xy* A prize of fmall value was chofen 
^hat the combatants niight be only animat- 
jed with courage and glory, and not ftimu^ 
lated with the fordid hope of (34) gaih. 

XVL In fad, the glory of the conqder- 
ors was ipeftimable and (35) innnortal. 
Statues were ercftcd to them at Olympia, 
in the *^ood confccrated to (36) Jupitelr. 
They were likewife conduced in triumph 
to their country, on a (37) car drawn by ' 
four horfes. ^ 

XVIL Thefe fc^mn games not only 

drew together (38) all Greece, but likewife 

^ foreign nations, who reforted to them in 


Digitized by 


156 A N T I Q^U I T I E S 

crowds, from the extremities of Egypt, 
from Libya, Sicily, and other (39) coi:\n- 


/ (i) Sec Epigramma Archive in Anthol. I. j. 
Pollux, III. 30. 1 53. is very clear on this fubjed. 
Pindar. Nem. Od. 2. v. 5. They are alfo called 
iif« aii\%. Pindar. Olymp. Od. 8. v. 84. and 
Od. 13. V. 20. Hence they who gained the 
viftory in thefe combats were ftylcd Hieronica. 
Suet. Nerv. c. 24. and 25. Thefe fame combats 
are likewife called ^tpoLyirai ay^^i^' Lycurg. 
Adv. Leocrat. p. 138. Xenoph. Memorab. HI. 
7. p. 129. 

(2) See Schol. Grasc. Brodsus, ad Anthol. 1, 
I. c. I. Epigram, i. Thorp. Magift, (Prolog, 
ad Pind.) de Vita Pindari. 

(3) Pindar, Olymp. Od. 2. v. 22. Od. 3. v. 
30. Stephens, at the word, oxu/A7ria. Lucian. 
Icarpmen. p. 205. 

(4) Strabo, VIII. p. 244. Xenoph. Hift. 

(5) Plut. Thef. p. II. E. Pind. Nem. Od. 
XI. V. 34. Stat. Thcb. VI. 5. 

(6) Strabo, VIII. p. 245. Aliis audtorem 
horum ludorum facientibus Herculem, unum ex 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E C E- ly; 

Idaeis Daftylis. Diod. Sic. V. 64. p. 333. Pau- 
fan. Eliac. VI. p. 391. Confulc, on ihcfo Idasi 
Dadyli, Strabo. 1. X. p. 926. Pollux, II. 4. 
Scgm. 156. Diod. Sic. V. 64. p. 333. 

(7) Tzetz. Chiliad. Hift. I. 21. Suid.Oxgji*- 

(8) From the eleventh to the fifteenth of the 
month ExarofACocmv. See Schmid. ad Find. Pro* 
leg. in Olymp. p. 8. A. 

(9) Plut. Lycurg. p. 39. Paufan. Eliac. Prior. 

IV. p. 383. and c. Vlll. p. 394. Solin. Polyb. 
c. 2. ' , 

(10) Paufan. Eliac. Prior, c. VIII. p. 394. So- 
lin. 1. c. 

(11) Strabo, VIIL p. 245. 1. 25. 

(12) Strabo, I.e. 1. 8. 

(13) Strabo, 1. c. 1. 27. Periz. ad -Lilian. 

V. H. X. I. 

(14) Etymol. M. at the word AXurajp^nc. 

(15) Etymol. 1. c, Pafch. dc Coron. VI. ir. 
p. 732- See Cujac. Obf. IL 1 3. 

(16) Paufan. Eliac. Prior. XXIV. p. 441. 
Schol. Pindar. Prooem. Olymp, 7. ^lian. V. H. 
X. I. and the authors cited by his commentators 
at that paflage. 

(17) Paufan. Lacon. VIII. p. 222. 

(18) The names of the candidates were regif- 
tered by the Hellanodici. Thefe Hellanodici 
were the judges of the combats. Ol n^neu e» 

Digitized by 


t58 A If TIQ^U it IE S 

iuJtnfiti^ $ii ty< a^eus. Hdycb. See ZetbicR 
Athleta, wafoA^^ c. V. $ ;. Periz; JEliM. 
V. H. IX. 31. M X. i. Pafchal. dcCoron. Vj. 

JO- P- 367- . ^ 

(19) F4uf^9. EHac. Prior, c. XXIV. p, 44^. 

Zeibich. Athlcta-, «r«f«Jog®', VII. § i. p. 162. • 

(20) Epiacc/c. XXXV. ct ad h. I. WoWi 
Caiaub. and tbe authors cited by Pafchal. de 
Coron. VI. 6. p. 354. 

(21) Xenoph. dc BLep. LacedaauL Philoftr. 
Apolbn. V. 0.43, p. 227. 

(22) This vafc may be termed in Latin^ ornaL 
(33) Liician. Herxnot; p. 535. vki the wogrd, 

i(pitfmiV4 Ariftoph. Ran. V. 804. has the word^ 
i((>tif^j wbicbi by hi$ interpreter is traAflated, 
tertiariud^. See Spanheim. Callim.' pag. 419^. 
Spanheim. ad Ariftoph. Rah. d. 1. 

(24) 'imroifOfAix^ or eiyup litiroffOfJn»ti PaufaD. 

V. c. 8. p. 393.*-wbere ic is faid chat this 
conteft was introduced by lolafis. 

(25) Pauf. Eliac Prior, c. VUL pj 394. whtrH 
We find that Pagondas tbe Thebad gained the' 
prize at hoffe- racing. 

(26) Pluti Alex. Mag. pi 666. A. 'Imnt m^ 
Xnuu were borfes managed by a fiogle boribmait. 
Paufan. Eliac^ Prior, c. VIIL p. 394. GelKX. 

P-25- ^ 

(27) Pauf; Eliac. Prior; c. IX. p. 395. A^vv 
Was a fort of car drawn by two mule^. Hence 




O t G ft E E d E; i^f 

Homer, Qt. Z. y. ji. calh this car «pi&^d^ ifAt^^ 
^fi«v — curruoi inulinum.*~And the conteft itfelf 
is llyled by Pollux, otyunhtr^ ftvuMroir. VIL jOk 
186. See Kubn. and Hemftcrhuf. ad h. 1. 

(28) Pauf. Eliac. Prior. IX. p. 395, Pollux, 
Vll. 33. Segmt 186. informs us, that the conteft 
Ivith fiddled horfes was termed nxxm* 

(zg) Pauf. Eliac. Prior, c. VUL p. 395. We 
are told by the Schol. Nub. v. 15/ 
that a car drawn'by fdut horfes was called Zuv^^k^ 

(go) Ifocrates fpoke his paoflgyric at the 0« 
lympic games, which was a work of ten years^ 
Philoftr. Vic. Sopbift. L 17. p. sojf. Georgias 
the Leontine gave likewife a fine fpecimen of his 
eloquence at the fame games. Paufan« Eliac. 
Poft. XVH. p, 495. , For thefe games the So- 
phifts compofed thofe difcouffes which were 
called Eirttii^tti^ Specimina — They wtre likewife 
intitled-*^OIympic difcourfcs-^Oxu/ATAicof aoj^i-^ 
See CrcfoUius, III. 6. 

(31) iElian. V. H. IL 8. ftys< that in the 
ninety-firft Olympiad, Xenocles difputed tragi* 
cal merit with Euripides, and conquered him« 
Philoftr. in Apollod. IV. p. 163. fays that hero 
defeated his antagonifts in the fame kind of con- 
teft : but ApoUonius, ibid. v. ";. fcems to deny 
that the palm of tragedy was ever contended 
for at the Olympic games. 

(3a) The prize of hiftory was likewife difputr 


Digitized by 


i6o A N r I Q^li 1 T I E S 

cd. Thucydidcs. when a boy, heard Herodotus 
read his hiftory at the Olympic games. Suidas^ 
at the v^ork, Qwyjittn^* 

(j3) Anchol. 1. I. c. i. Epigr. i. Ariftoph* 
Plut. V. 586- where the difputc on this point is 
mentioned— Some infilled that the Olympic 
crown was of wild olive j others, that it was 
iXxix nttxxiftp»wj of the beautiful or cultivated 
oHve^ See Hemfterhuf. and the authors he 

(34) Lucian. de Gymn. p, 273. This reafon 
is there given by Solon, in his defence of the 
Gymnafium of the Greeks againft the objedtions 
of Anacharfis. 

(^5) Cic* Tufc. Qiiaeft. I, 46. IL 17. Orar. 
pro Flacco, c* 13. fays, that the Olympic vifto- 
rics were more glorious than the Roman tri- 
umphs. Lucian de Gymnaf. p. 273, makes 
Solon fay, that the conqueror is equal to the 
Gods— lo-^Siow See Ncpos, in Prsefat.' Horat. 
Od. I. I. V. 6. Pindar. Olymp. Od. I. Stroph. 
A. V. 16. 17. 

(36) Confult, on thefe ftatues erefted to the 
conquerors, Lucian, pro Imaginibus, p. 20. and 
on Jupiter's wood, called aXu^ Schmid. ad 
Pindar. Olymp. Od. X. Stroph. r. v. 5. p. 271. 
Paufan. Eliac. Prior. X. p. 397. 

(37) Vitruv. in Praefat. 1. IX. de Architeft. 
The conquerors had likcwife a great many pri- 



O F G R E£ C £• i5i 

Vllegiis, a detail of which is given us by PafchaU 
de Coron. VI. 6. 7.. and 8. Yet Agefilaus, in 
Plutarch. Apb^hth. Lacon; p. 2ii. thinks the 
abjc£t of thefe combats was rather gain than 

(38) Lucian. de Gymri. p. 274. Diod. Sic« 
IV. c. 55. p. 256. Hencti was given to thefe 
games the name vrwfriyvfti. 

(39) ^^^ i^ evident i for we find Egyptians 
and inhabitants of Greece and Sicily among the 
Olympic conquerors, of whom Laur. Rhodo- 
mann. has added a lift .to the Chronology of 
Diod. Sic. See Schmid. Prolegom. ad Pindar. 
Thus Hiero^ king of Syracufe in Sicily waa 
conqueror in the feventy-third Olympiad, as we 
fee in Pindar, Oiymp. See Paufan. Eliac. Prior, 
Vltl. p. 394. Ilence Pindar ityles dlympia; 
va^oiv^ Xj^fot. Olymp. Od. VL Epod, r* v« 
14^ See Palmer. Exercit. in AuGt. Grttc. p, 
J53. et ad Liician. Hermotim^ p. J^o* 


Digitized by 




Of ike Pythian Games. 

I. ' I ^HE Pythian games were celebrat- 
X ed in honour of (i) Pythiaa A- 
polloi a« (a) Delphi, a city which was 
Kkewile called (3) Iluffw, fVotn which name 
thefe games bad their appellation. 

IL In early timea thefe games were cele« 
Wated every (4) nine years 1 aad that pe« 
riod was called^ ayiotrrifi^i becaufe they re« 
turned at the ninth year^ after the complete 
revolution of eight years. . 

IIL They were afterwards celebrated 
every five years; and that period was called 
(5) wtvTMTij^g. With this change thefe 
games were renewed by the (6) Amphic- 
tyons, after they had been omitted for foma 

IV. The fame Amphiftyons added the 
contcft of the (7) flute to that of the lyre, 
which had been appointed in ancient times. 


Digitized by 


6 F G R K E C E. t6i 

V. Iti the cootcrt of the flute they played 
the (8) Pythian wjs;^^?, in memory of Apol- 
lo's vi<aory over the ferpent (9) Python. 
This mode had five parts, (10) ttvan^wte^ 

(ns^iyfi^. According to fome antiquarians 
it had (iK, 77fi/^^, i^jLfcC®^, ^xitrvXQ^i K^nxl^, 
jiflT^o)^, ■( 1 1 ) av^tyfix. 

yi. Sometimes they danced to the found 
of the lyre^ and the dance was divided into 
five parts, termed, (12) wcifoft, xaTax6A«v<r- 

VII. The combats at the Pythian were 
the Yame with thofe at the (13) Olympic 
gamesi Ilorfe-races and chariot^races made 
a (14) part of the former as well as of the 
feter. At the Pythian games there were 
likewife prizes for (15) intelledual merit. 

VIII. Thefc games were celebrated on 
the fixth day of the month called BvciQ^ by 
the Delphians„ and (16) Btt^X$uv by the 
Athenians; part of which month fell in A- 
pril, and part of it in May. 

M2 IX^ 

Digitized by 


i64 A NTIC^U ITI g S 

IX, The prize at thcfc games, we afre 
told, when mufical excellence was only dif- 
puted, was of (17) filver or gold. But when 
the Gymnaiian combats were added, a 
(i8) crown of laurel was made the prize, a 
branch of (19) palm, of (20) beech, (21) 
or fome fruits. 


(i) They were inftitutcd by Apollo himfelf, 
according to Ovid, Met. 1. 445. — or, by Diome- 
des, in honour of Apollo, as Paufanias aflerts. 
Corinth, c. XXXII. p. 186. Clem, Akx. Exhort.r 
ad Grasc. calls thefe games xrunyvfut ^iu^. p. 
21. C- 

(2) Plutarch, rtift 0uj^tf. p. 604. C. In De- 
metr. p. 908. They were alfo celebrated at A- 
thens and other places. See Spanheim. Callim* 
p- 318. 

(5) Paufan. Phocic. c. VI. p. 812. Callim* 
Hymn, in Apollin. v. 100. See Schmid. Pro- 
legom. in Pindar. Pyth. and Pindar himfelf, O- 
lyxnp. Od. XlL Epod. v. 8. The prizes were 
contended for in a plain of the Chrifsean or 
Cirrhsean field, near the city of Delphi. Pind. 





Pyth. Od.yi. Antiftr. A. v. 8. 9. and Od,X. 
Epod. A. V. 3. 4. Set 3panheim. Callim. H, 
Ml Del. V. 178. p. 437. 

(4) Plutarch. Quaea-. Grarc. p. 293. B. C 
Schmid. in Prolcgom, ad Find. Pyth. p. 4, 

(5) Schmid, in Prolcg. ad Pind. Pyth, p, 4* 

(6) Paufan. Eliac. Poft. XIV. Strabo, IX. p. 
290. and 2^88. The Amphidyons conftituted 
the general allembly of Greece, Cic. de Invent. 
II. 23. That aflfembly decided on public af- 
fairs of great importance. Tacit. Ann. IV. 14. 
Livy ftyles it, Conventus Pyliacus, XXXIIL 
V. Strabo gives a particular account of it, 
IX. p. 289. See Harpocrat. at the word. Vat) 
Dale, Diff. VI. Schmid. in Proleg. ad Pindar. 
Pyth. and Paufan. Phocic. VIII. p. 815. 

(7) Strabo, IX. p. 290. Paufan. PhociCt 
VII. p. 813. Plutarch. Sympof. V. Probl. 2, 
p. 674. Schmid. Proleg. ad Pind. Pyth. p. 7. 

(8) i. c. Modum Pythicum. 

(9) Strabo, IX. p. 290. Pollux, IV. 10. 84; 

(10) Thefe arc the parts of the Pythian nomc, 
enunierated and explained by Strabo, IX. p. 
290. only he has the word, ^ftyytu inftead of 
^fiyf^. In all thefe parts they celebrated the 
victory gained by Apollo over the ferpent Py- 

(11) This enumeration of the parts of the Py, 
thian pome are to be found in the T^oGfo-K iiu^ 

M 3 ht^ 



i46 A N T I CLU I T I E S 

0JWV, prefixed to the Pf th. of Piridtr. Pollux^s 
are very different frooi thefe two divifions^ 
Franf . LoulGw. Parerg. II. c, XL (hows that 
Otrid alludes to this divifion of the Pythian 
nome. Met. I. 4^8. 

(i2) Pollux, IV. ID. 84. treats thefe five part^ 
as divifions of the mode relating only to the 
flute ^ he makes no meation of the dance to the 
lyre. Scaliger. Poetic. L 23. is the only author 
who (peaks of this dance. Pollux, it is true, 
mentions a dance to the found of the flute \ but 
the five parts enumerated by our author ieem 
rather to relate to the fong than the dance. 

(13) Paufan. Phocic. c. VJI. p. 814. Scbol. 
Find. Proleg. ad Pyth. 

(14) Paufan. L c. Schol. Pind. 1. c. 

(i 5) Plutar. Sympof. V. Probl. 2. p. 674. 
Plin« VIL 37* fays, that ApoUodorus diftinguiflir 
ed himfelf at thefe games, by his flcill in gram- 
mar, and that he received great bqnours fron^ 
tha AmphiAyons. 

(16) Schmid. Proleg. ad Pyth. p. 12. See 
Plutarch. Sympof. VIII. i. p^Jij. ^nd Quaefl:. 
Graec. p. 292. 

(17) This is not indifputably evinced. Schmid, 
Proleg. ad Pyth. aflferts ir, but does no( prove it. 
Pafchal. de Coron. VI. 25. p. 431. grounds hi^ 
affirmation on two pafiages of Pindar, in which 
thefe crowns are calkd^ fulgidae. Od; jl. Siroph. 


Digitized by 


OP GREECfi. |«7 

A. V. 10. and Od. III. Stroph. A. r. 8. but tbofe 
paflages arc not decilive. Paufan. Phocic. VIL 
p» 8x4« fays* that in the kttef PTfhian games, 
prizes of any value were aboliflied, and that, 
instead of them, the conquerors were rewarded 
with wreaths. And afterwards he fpealcs of ^ 
brazen tripod which Echembrotes won at the 
games oi the Amphiftf ons. 

(i8) Paufam 1. c. VII. 815* iElian. V. H, 
HI. I- 

(19) Plut. Sympof. VIII. Probl. 4. p. yi^. 
See Palmer, ad Lucian. GymnaC p. 272. and 
Exercit. p. 549. 

(20) Ovid« Met. I. 4494 Periz. ad JElian. 
V.H. lU. I. 

(21) Lucian* de Gymn. p. 279. And Palmert 






Of the N E M e; A N . G A M E s, 

J. fTpHIS appellation is taken from (i) 
X Nemea^ a city and facred wood 
of (2) Argia, fituatcd between Cleonae and 

II. Tbefc games were trifteric^l^ i. e. 
they were c€lebrated every (4) three years, 
on the twelfth day df the month called (5) 
UccvsfjL^ by the Corinthians^ and (6) Boe-« 
dromion by the Athenians. 

III. Atthefc games (7) funeral honour? 
were paid to the memory of (8) Opheltes, 
named likewife (9) Archemorus, to whom 

. they were at firft confccrated. But Her- 
cules afterwards Confecrated them to (iq) 
Nemcan Jupiter. 

IV. There were likewife at thcfe games 
contefts of every kind, Gymnical, and (11) 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E C E. i6g 

Vv The prcfidcDts of thefc games were 
tchofcn from Corinth, Argi, aQd( 1 2)Cleonie. 

VL The prize was at firft a wreath of 
(13) olive, aftfsrwards (14) one of parfjcy. 


(i) Paufan. Corinth, XV. p, 144. andSchoI, 
ad Pind. Nem. io Prolog, 
(2) Strabo, Vltl, p. 260. 
(3)Id,l. c.andPlin. VL6. 

(4) Schmidt in Proleg. ad Ncm, p. 4. f . 

(5) Schol. Pindar, quaril Hypoth. Nem. 

(6) That the month llMtfM^ was the fame 
with the Boedromion of the Athenians is proved 
by a letter of Philip, Demofth. dc Coron, But 
^ the month Boedromion anfwers to our month 
pf Auguft, (Van Dale, DilT VllL Antiq. p. 
595.) and as Paufanias, Corinth. XV. p. 144. 
lays, that the Ncmcan feftival was celebrated in 
winter, a difficulty arifes of which I ihould wilh 
to fee the folution. 

(7) Hence they were called »ym iwn»(piQ». 
3cbol. Pind. Proleg. 

(8) ApoUod. 111. 6. § 4. p. 175^ -Sllian is 
not of this opinion. V. H.IV. 5« See Periz. Not, 
|o h. 1. 


Digitized by 


l^o ANTiaU I TIES 

(9) Sec ScIiqL ad Find. Argum. Nemeof. 

( 10) That thefe games were confecrated to 
Nemean Jupiter is proved from Findilr. Nem* 
Od. IIL Stropb. A. v. 4. and Schol. ad h. 1. Buc 
the Scholiaft ad Nem. Hypoth. 5. adds, that 
Hercules, after he had flain the Nemean lion, 
made many changes in thefe games, and confc* 
crated them to Jupiter. 

(11) Faufan. Eliac. Poft.XVI. p. 491. Co- 
rinth. XV. p. i44» Schol. Nem. Find. Hypoth, 
2. Fmd. Od, 5. Nem. Stroph. A. v. 9. 

(12) Schol, Pindar, in Hypoth. 3. ad Nem. 

(13) Schol Find. I. c. 

(14) Faufan. Arcad. c. 48. p. 69j. Lucian. 
Gymn. 272. Flin. XIX. 18. Schol. ad Find. 
Ifthm. Od» II. Epod. A. v. 7. Fafchal, dc Coi. 
ron. VI. 26. p. 435. inquires into the caufes why 
the conquerors at the Nemeaq games wer« 
crowned with parfley. 




OP GfeEECE. i>i 

Of the IsTiTMiAN Games. 

L ' I ^He Iflhmian games were celebraN 
X ed in the Ifthmus of Corinth, 
(from which they took their name), at the 
temple of Idhmian Neptune, furrounded 
with a thick fofeft of (i) pine. 

IL They were at firfl inftituted in bo* 
DOur of Palemon or of (2) Melicerca : but 
the celebration of them was omitted for 
(pme time. They were renewed, improv- 
ed, and dedicated to Neptune by (3) The- 

III. The Eleans were the only people 
pf Greece who were admitted to thefe (4) 
games. - 

IV. Thefe games were triflerical, i. e. 
they were celebrated every (5) three years; 
though fojme authors fay, every (6) five, 
pr every Jour years.. 


Digitized by 



V. The combats at thefc games were 
of every kind, as at the other (7) facrcd 

VI. The prize was at firft a crown of 
(3) pine, afterwards of dry' (9) parfley; 
and at length the crown of pine was (10) 

VII. The prefidents of thefc games were 
at firft Corinthians » afterwards, inhabi- 
tants of (1 1) Sicyon. 

VIIL Thcfe games were held in great 
^12) veneration oq account of the (13) 
religion by which they were canfccrat- 
ed, and on s^ccQunt of their (14) anti- 


(1; Strabo, VIIL p. 262. Paufan, Corinth, L 
ILp. III. 

(2) Paufan. Attic, c. XLIV. p. 108. SchoU 
Ariftoph, Vcfp. p. 1404. Ovid. Met. }V. p. 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E C Bl. 173 

(3) Plutar, Thcf. p; 1 1. Schol. Afiftoph. ad 
Equ. V. 606. 

r (4) Paufan Eliac. It III. p. 458. and XLVL 
p 491. He gives the reafoh for this exclufion 
of the other ftates. Eliac.'I. IL p. 378. 

(5) Find. Nem. Od. VL Epod. B. v. 6. and 
Schol. ad h. 1. 

(6) Plin. IV. 5. Solln. c. 13. Aufon. Idyll. 
%%. Pafchal, dcCoron. VI. 27. infers from Xc- 
nophon, Hift. Grace. IV. p. m. 410. that thcfc 
games were celebrated every year. 

(7) This is proved by a paffagc of Diogenes 
in Dion. Chryfoftom. — De Ifthm. Orat. 9.— 
Ego multos vici prasclaros antagoniftos, non 
cujufoiodi funt ifta mancipia qus hie (in ludis 
Ifthmicis) quidem lufta, difco, curfu vincunt; 
fed longe acriores, paupertatem, &c. 

(8) Paufan. Arcad. c. XLVIII. p. 669. Lu- 
cian. de Gymnaf. p. 272. Plin. XV. 10. 

(9) Pindar, Olymp. Od. XIII. Antiftroph^B. 
V. I. Hence he gives parfley the epithet, Co- 
rinthia. Nem. Od. iV. Antiftr. A. v. 13. Sec, 
de Apio Sicco. — Schol. ad Pind. Ifthm. Od. 2, 
Epod. A. V. 7. Laur. Beger. in Examine du« 
bior. quorund. p. 9. Diodor. Sic. XVI. 80. p. 
470. Schmid. Comment, ad Pind. Olymp. p. 


(10) Plot. Sympof. V. Probl. 3. p. 6^6. 

(11) Paufan. Corinth, c. 2. p. 114. 


Digitized by 


174 A N 1 1 Q^U I T 1 £ S 

(12) They were continued even after the dc<i 
trudioo of Corinth, Paufaa. Corinth, c. IL p^ 

' (13) They wefe confecrated to Neptune, as 
we have already obfeived« 

(14) TheScholiail of Pindar aflerts that the 
Ifthmian were much more recent than the Py- 
thian gameSa But Schmid evidently proves the 
contrary. Prol^. in Ifthm. p. 4. 


Digitized by 


O ^ G R £ £ C £. 175 

Of Time. 

I. A Sj in the defcription of the fcftU 

JLJL vals^ and facred games of the 
Greeks, we have often had occafion to dif- 
tingui£b months and days, it will be proper^ 
before we treat of their civil government, 
to explain their manner of dividing time. 

IL It was divided into years, months, 
ftnd (i) days. 

til. The Athenians began their ancient 
year after the (2) winter folftice, and their 
year, as it was afterwards fettled, with the 
firft new moon after the (3) fummcr fol- 

IV. Their year had twelve months, con- 
fiding of thirty and twenty*nine days al- 
ternately; the months of thirty days al-» 
was (4) preceding thofe of twenty-nine. 
The former were termed ttXti^u^, and Je- 


Digitized by 


i^< . A N T I CLtJ I T'l £ S 

icu(p^tm. The latter^ KotXot, and (5) €Poi<p'» 

V. Tbcfe are their names J 

1. The month of Hecaiamiaion, of thirty 
days^ began with the new moon after the 
(6) fummer-folftice, andc6rre(pottded with 
the latter half of our month of June» and 
the former half of our month of jaly. It 
took its dame^ Hecatoftibaionj from the (7) 
hecatombs which were then facrificed. 

2. The month Mefageifnion, of twcrtty-* 
nine days^ fo called from metageitnia, fa-^ 
crifices which were ^ then offered to (8). 

3. The month Boedromiori^ of thirty 
diySy owes its name to the feAivaU (9) 

4. The month (10) Maimaderion* 

5. (11) Pyanepfion. 

6. ■ .. ■■■ (12) Anthefterion* 

7. ■ (13) Pofcideon. 

8. ■ (14) Gemelion. 

9. *— — (15) Elaphcbolion^ 




10. The month (16) Munychlon^ 

II- -:; (17) Targhelign. * 

12, — — (18) Scirophorion. 

VI. The month was divided into three 
(19) decades; the firft of which was called 
the decade of the (20) beginning 5 the fe- 
Cond the decade of the middle; and the 
third, the (21) decade of the end. 

VII. The firft day of the firft decade 
was termed (22) v^ofivpftx^ the fccond, Jeu- 
Ti^a Igotfityii, the third, r^i-m ls'af4,£vif. 

VIII. The firft day of the fccond decade 
was called, (23) ir^arfi fisaSvT^, or (24) 
w^ioTfi im iiTca, the fecond ievre^oc lAicivT^p 

Or> ^eVTB^^ STTl ^BKX, &C. 

IX. The firft day of the third decade was 
called, (25) 79^uTfj STT* c/jcaJi ; the fecond, 

(25) SiVn^ STT £IK0^1, &C. 

X. They likewifc counted their days by 
inverfion— (26) (pQivovr^ itxury^ — <p?/voi/r@^ 
moLfri — and fo of the reft, to the laft, to 
which Solon gave the appellation of (27) 
iKif jca/wa— The old, and the new> becaufe 
one part of that day belonged to the old, 

N and 

Digitized by 


178 A NT I Q^U I t lEi 

and the o^ber to tbe nev^, moon. But after 
the time of Demetrius Poliorcetes^ the laft 
day of the month was termed^ from his 
name» (28) Ai^iifir^iotq. 


(i) See Diog, Lacrt. I. in Vit. Cleob, Scd. 
91. iEnigm. Cieobul. 

(2) See Scalig. Canon. Ifagog. III. p. 224. 
and Fabric. Monolog. p. jfo. 

(3) So we are informed by Plato, dc Leg. Vl. 
See Scalig. Canon. Ifagog. IIL p. 224. Salmad 
Excrcit. Plin* p. 3i5» 

(4) See Theod. Gaza, m^i fintw; chapceri 

wffii 'E^fAUVfiac ru9 f*fivwv> p. m. II J. 

(5) Slee Gaza, 1. c. chapter— no}; a^iS/Affriov rctt 
TV fiiiv&* upcfAf, p. m. i;6. Gyraldus de Anois 
et Menfibus. p. 58;^. Cenibrln. de Dienatalii 

(6) See Salmaf. Exerc. Plin. p* 3 15* Scalig. 
de Emend. Temp. I. p. 28. 

(7) Harpocrat. at the word, Exoiro/biCAftM. 

(8) Harpocrat. at the word, Mfrar»m«9. Plu* 
tarch. de Exilio, p. 601. B. 

(9) Harpocrat. at the word, SoiiJ|fof*«. Flu-, 
tjjrcbf Thef, p. n.Ff 


Digitized by 


O F G U E E C E. 175 

f la) See Harpoqrac at this word. He de- 
rives it from Jupiter MaimaAes, i. e. impetu* 
gWjh»^\sk t^h month is commlonly rainy and 
koifteroi^. Harpocration mokes it the fiftl^ 
month of the year, and Gaza the fourth. 

(11) Harpocrat. at the word^ lL;afvf4fi*nr. 

(12) Havpocratioo makes it the eighth month, 
and gives, at this word^ its ecymologgr. Our 
author follows Gaza ; but Petau, and others, 
ate^f Harpocracion*'s opinion. 

(13) According to "Gaza, it is the feve.nth : 
bttt ^[iarpocration inakes it the fixth, with whdm 
Petau and Scaliger agree. 

(14) Soxalled from Gamelia, facrifices in ho^ 
nour of Juno, who prefides over marriage. See- 
Hefych. at this word. 

(1$) From the Elaphebolia, a fcftival cele- 
brated in this month. See Gyrald. de Menfi- 
bus, p. 575. 

(16) From the Mynychia, facriHces in honour 
of Diana. See Harpocrat. at this word. 

(17) See Harpocrat. at'this word. Periz. ad 
JElian. II. 25. 

(18) See Harpocrat. at the word, Zxi^ov. 

(19) See Pollux, I. 7. 63. Theod. Gaza, 
vffi jiAwwv, p. 134. Periz. ad iElian. V. H. 25. 
Kufl;. ad Ariftoph. Nub. v. 11 29. 

• (20) Mfiv^ iV«nAiy» — »V«o^«i> here, fignifies, 
exoriri. Homer ufes it in this fenfe, O^. S. v. 162. 

N 2 • (21) 

Digitized by 


iJo A N T I Q^U 1 TIES 

(2i)4»6«9ovtO*— See the authoni already cited, 
L c. 

(22) The Schol. Ariftoph. ad Nub. r. 11^2; 
makes wfxmiacy fynonimous with I m mi vm.-— but 
he is wrong. See Spanheim. ad h. 1. 

(25) Pollux,!. 7.63. 

(24) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Nub. v. 1129. 

(25) Pollux, 1. 7. 63. 

(26) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Nub. v. 1129. 

(27) Plutarch, in Solon, p. 92. Diog. Laert* 
I. 57. 

(2^) Plutarch. Demetn p« 894. B. Schol. A* 
riftoph. ad Nub. v. 1 1 29. 


Digitized by 


P F GREECE. 18^ 



CHAP. 1, 
Of the Regal Authority* 

!• ly^^^^ °^ ^^ Cilrecian ftatcs were 
"»■'•■- at firft governed by (i) kings, 
who were chofen by the (2) people, to de- 
cide private (3) quarrels, and to exercife a 
power which was limited by (4) laws* 
They toonmanded the (5) armies in time of 
war, and preiided over the (6) worihip of 
the Gods, &c. &c. 

II. This royalty was (7) hereditary* 

III. Yet the Ton did not always fupceed 
the father. If the vices of the heir to the 

N 3 crowa 

Digitized by 


l8a ANTI (^UITXE« 

crown bad rendered him (8) odious to the 
people^ or if the oracle had commanded 
them to choofe aaoth«r (9) king, he was 
deprived of the right of fucceflion. 

IV. The veneration^ however^ yth^A 
they had for their kings differed little from 
divine (10) homage; for they imagined 
that they held their fovereignty by the (i i) 
appointment of Jupiter. 

V. The chief enfign of aMyefty was the 
fceptre— (12) c-khtt^ov, termed alfo, (13) 
^QS^f and by the poets^ (14) io^v. In an- 
cient times it was only the (15) branch of 
a tree» fometimes adorned with (16} ftuda 
of gold. The top of the fceptre was or- 
namented with fome figure,, commonly 
with that of an eagle, the emblem of Jupi- 
ter's dominion, to whom that (17) bird 
was confecrated. 

NOTES to CHAP. I. . 

(i) Ariftoph. Polit, L 2. DionyC Halic. Ar- 
chsol. p. 3g6. L 46. Paufan. Ba^yt. I. p. 712. 


Digitized by 



(a) Ariftot. Polit. III. 14. Thuqyd. L 9. fays 
that Atreus afccndcd the throne of Mycense, by- 
the choice of the people — B»Ao/Af9«y rw Muxif 

(3) Hence Homer ftyles kings, Aixor^oXiff—^ 
Judices. 11. V. 238. and in another place. Of- 
fnrcrroX¥f — In juftitia occupatos. See Spanhcim: 
ad Callim. v. 3. and Dionyf, Halicarn.— Ar- 
chaeol, V. p. 337. Hefiod. 0. 85. and Lc Clcrc, 
ad h. L 

(4) Thucyd. I. 13. fays, that the power of 
kings wa&circumfcribed by fixed and invariabld 
laws — as he is explained by Lamb. Bof. Obf» 
Crit. c. III# See Dion. Halicarn. Archaeol. V. 
p. 337. . Spanheim. ad Julian .Orat. I. p. iij, 
Periz. ad iElian. V. H. II. 20. 

(5) Ariftot. Polit. III. 1 4. 

(6} Ariftot. 1. c. Hence, after the abplitiort 
of royalty, there remained in many ftates of 
Greece, kings of the facrifices. 

(7) Thucyd. 1. 1, c. 13. calls it B««X£ia» W- 
Tfixu»— i. e. according to the interpretation of 

the Scholiaft— -«70 rwv VFart^w voifoiXafAigtvofi^tnVf 
xcern ikoioix^/t^ yii^ — ^^Succeeded to, on the death 
of the fathers, according to the order of birth. 
See Ariftoph. Polit. III. 14. 

(8) We have inftances of this cxclufion ia 
the fons of Tcmcnas, . who were not allowed to 
fuccced their fathtr on account of the parricide 

N 4 with 

Digitized by 


i84 A N T I Q^U I T I E S 

with which they were polluted. See ApoUod* 
II. 8. § 5. p- 145* 

(9) Euftath. ad O^. r, v. 215. p. 122. 

(10) Homer calls them, Aj^iOioi — AioyatT^ — 
All ^»Xf I— AioTf i(pirjf— and even— ©101. See Horn. 
lA. K. 33. Hefiod. e. 80. 

(11) Horn. IX. A. 279. B. 205. L 98. Callim. 
H. in Jov. y. 79. and Spanheim. ad h. 1. 

(12) Euftath. ad IX. A. y. 15. p. 19. L 15. 
Hence kings are often ftyled, Zxhttv^^^ ^ in 
Homer, lA. A. 279. 

(13) In the Etymolog. the word, Sceptrum, 
is huerpreted by jSoo-iXixnv fMov. 

(14) Paufan. Bseot. c. XL. p. 795. Eurip. 
Hecub. y. 9. Hippol. 975. Juftin. XLIII. 3. 

^15) Horn. IX. A. 235. Virg. iEneid. XII. 


(16) Horn. IX. A. 246. 

(17) Ariftoph. Ay. y. 510. and SchoL ad 
h. I. 

(18} Schol. Ariftoph* ad Ay. y. 13 ;4« 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


CHAP. ir. 
Ojfthe Athenian Stats under 

its K IN 6 8. 

I. rrnHE form of government at Athens 

X was often changed. That ftate 

experienced the (i) different tffcGts of 

royalty, tyranny, arifl:ocracy> and demo- 


If. In its remoteft period it was go- 
verned by kings, the firft of whom was 
(2) Cecrops the Egyptian. It is indeed 
aflerted, that Ogyges was the mod ancient 
king of (3) Attica $ but the (4) time of 
Cecrops 'is the higheft date of Athenian 
faiftory and chronology. 

III. After him there was a fucceifion of 
(5) fixteen kings at Athens: Ereftheus, 
the Sixth, was (6) very famous. Thefeus, 
the Tenth, enlarged and adorned the city -, 
and was^ 6n that account, hcnourcd with 


Digitized by 


tie A N T I Q^U I T I E S 

the title of the fccond founder of Athens. 
He incorporated with their fellow-citizens 
the Athenians, who were before diiperfed 
in (7) towns and villag|e8. 

IV. He divided the people into three 
clafles-— the nobles-— the labourers— -and 
the (8) artizans. 

y. Thefeus, in this diviiion of the A- 
thenians, feems to have followed the plan 
of the republic of Egypt; where the peo- 
ple were like wife divided into (0) three 

VI. The feventeenth and laft king of the 
Athenians was (10) Codrus, the fbn of 
(11) Melanthus, who, in his war with the 
Dorians, deliberately forfeited his life for 
the (12) fafety of the ftatc. 


(1) See -Elian. V. H. V. c. 13. Strabo, IX. 
p. 874. 

(a) See the Oxford Marbles, p. 2. Apollod. 
ni. 13. p. 221* flylcs Cecropsi Amt^xficf^p hot ^ 
8 Th. 

Digitized by 


Th. Gale^ ad h. L p. 85. plOYcs that lie mm m 
£g|Fptiao« See Euieb. Chpoqlc. p. 16. . 

(j) The authors of moft credit ^bA tnakc O* 
gyges kiag of Attica^ Hre, Eafebius^ Ghrom p. 
24. Cedmuu, aad Paui Orofiba, wtofe ^afiages 
relating to that point areckAi by $cflligcr> ad 
Eufeb. p. 20. But Paufan. BsBot. c. V. p. </ 19. 
Varro,x]e R.R. IIL t. andtotbers, affert tb|it he 
was king of Thebes, and not of Attica. The 
poets only apply the epithet Ogyjgius to what 
irlatts to Tbebet,. or m any thing extitfl[i6(y.aB* 
dent. See Barth. ad Stat. Theb. V. v. 518^ p. 
251. Burman. Met. Ovid. IIL 713. and Span* 
heim. ad Callim. p. 8. 

(4) Eufebius and the Oxford Marbles begin 
with hini.— Hence, Socrates, fpeaking of the re- 
moteft anceftorsof the Athenians, goes no higher 
than the time of Cecrops. Xenoph. Memorab. 

III. S^i9' 

(5) We find their names on the Oxford Mar- 
bles ; but more completely, in Eufebius Chron. 

(6) He was* famous chiefly for two things. 
1* For his having entertained Ceres. See Ste- 
phens, at the word, Epf;^9i«. — 2** Becaufe the art 
of agriculture was invented in his rei^. There 
were yet other caufesof his celebrity, of which 
we find a detail in Diod. Sic. I. 49. p. 25. and 
in Periz. ad ^lian- V. H. V. 1 3. See Juftin. 
II. 6. Cic. pro Scxt. c. XXI. Celf. Erneft. 


Digitized by 


i»8 A N T I Q^U I T I E 5 

ad XcDoph. Airtfw. HI. 5. $ 10. 

(7) Thucyd. II. i J. Diod. Sic. IV. p. 464-; 
Strabo, IX. p. 475. Plut. TheC p. i. and !•» 
Cic. de Leg. II. 2. Valer. Max. V. 3. 

(8) See Plutarch. Thef. p. 1 1 . C. D. 

(9) Diod. Sic. 1. 28. p. 2$. 
(io)Vell.Paterc. I. 2." Juftin.II. i. 

(1 1 ) Paufan. Attic, c XIX. p. 45. Coooa; 
Narrat 39. 

(12) Eufeb. Chron. p: 93. Pauian. Acbaic; 
25. p. 588. Juftin. II. 6. Val Max. V. 6» i. 
&itern. Polysn. I. 18. p. 35. 


Digitized by 


P F G R E E C E. m 


Of the Athenian State under 
the Arc ho n s. 

!• /^ODRUS was the laftof the (i) A- 
V^ thenian kings. After his deaths 
the ftate was governed by (2) perpetual 
archons inftead of kings. 

II. They had not an abfolute, nor a regal 
power: they were, (3) u^iuSww^— fubjeded 
to the laws. 

III. As there was very little difference 
between the firft kings and the perpetual 
archons (for they were magiftrates for life) 
they were fometimes flyled fiuTiXa^, and 
their office was termed«~(4) I3cun\iveiy. 

IV. There were thirteen of thefe (5) 
perpetual archons. The firfl was Medon, 
the ion of Codrus, from whom the family 
of the (6) Mcdontidae defcendcd. The 
laft was Akm^boh, the fon of (7) ^fchy- 




tfA A NT 1 Q^U IT 1 E S 

lus. This form of government hfted (8) 
three hundred and fifteen years. 

V. After the death of Alcmx^n the digni- 
ty of Archon cc^fed to be perpetual ; and 
was limited to the term of (9) ten years. 

VI. There were feven of thefe latter ar- 
cboQS* The &rA w»s (io)iCharQp0; tho 
laA w;as (rj)£ryxi^ 

VII. Eryxits iftavuig bMQ b««i(h€dfr«M 
public (12} difconteirty the form of gevfTA- 
tktnt wid agtiq changed, ^md Auio arch^ns 
were entr4^.ed witib the ado»i»ifiHiatk>n af 
public affairs, whofe office was.iiot petpe-- 
llial> nor €f tea years, ^ (13) aonvial. 
Tbey were elected by the vetw of ilie e-l 
ti^^ns 1 but they eouM not be cbofen wklw 
out three qu^lifkattoos, antiquity of fami- 
ly^ wealth, and (1.4) reputation* 

yUl. Among theie arcbons (here were 
^ftin^ions of naoie and fan€|iQ». Tbn 
firft of then was ealled archon, as chief 
and prefident of the ( 1 5) body. In diged- 
ing their years in theii: calendar, they dif^ 




O F G R E E C E. 4$i 

tingui(he4 them by his ( 1 6) name. The 
fccond archon was called (StMnXsvgi the third, 
woXificc^x!^ i the remainhig fix were ftyled 

(17) OiiTlMQiTCU. 

IX. The office of the archon was, 1^ 
To fuperintend fbmc facrifices— thofe of 
the (18) Bacchanals, for inftance, &.-— 2^ 
To take cognizance of law-fuits betwixt 
{19) relations— 3^ To protcdt orphans, and 
to appoint their (20) guardians. 

X. The office of the king was— i^ To 
iofpeft fbme religious ceremonies; as the 
(21) feafts of Eleufis, &c.— 2^ To decide 
in ibme religious caufes ; as in accufationt 
of impiety, and in the applications of 
candidates for the (22) pricllhood. 

XL Thefundionof thePolemarchwas, 
1^ The infpeaion of fome facrifices ; thofe 
of (23) Diana and of Mars, for inftance.— 
2^ The management of war : from thii 
part of his office he tcok his (24) title- 
s' The jurifdiftion over ftrangersj Mthat 




192 AN T i C^U I T I E S 

over the citizens was vefted ia the (25) ar* 
chon. - 

XII. The office of the Thcfmothctae 
was, I** To enforce the execution of juftice, 
and the maintenance of the laws: from 
this part of their fundion they took their 
(26) title. — 2^ To examine and determine 
ibmecaufes; thofe of calumny, venality of 
magiftrates, adultery, infults, &c. They 
laid the more weighty caufes before (27) 
fuperior tribunals, 

XIII. Each of thefe Novemvirs had a fe- 
paratc (28) jurifdidion : but they could 
only convoke the people when (29) all the 
nine were affcmbled. 

XIV. The three firft, viz. the archon» 
the. king, and the polemarch, had, each of 
them, two aflcflbrs, ftyled in Greek, (30) 
iFu^S^ot; fo that each of the three tribunals 
bad three judges. 

XV. Thefe nine archons were, In 'early 
times, elected by the fuffrages of the pep* 
pie I and the form of government was then 




. 0»F GREECE. tp^ 

irlAocrftticaU "for tbey were chofeo from 
^SK)Qg the citizei^s who were moft difUa- 
^flied by. their (ji) birth and their meriti 

XVI. Theie NqvcmvirB, before they 
Entered upon their office, underwent a fe« 
%ere examination in the feiiaiei on theiif 
birth, their agei thek- fortune, and their 
(3'2) condud. They likewife took a fo- 
lemn oath td obferve the lavs, «nd to re-^^ 
-fefc (33) t)rercnts* 

XVII. As tfifcfe archoni, in ptocefsof" 
time, were more led by capilce^ and jpreja* 
dice, in their, dec^eee^ than by the written 
laws, fcditions. vofe^ animofities^ and jpoli- 
4icttl tvils of every (34) kind* To put an 
end to this confufion, Draco, a wife and 
virtuous roan, was authorifed by the people 
to make a code of laws, fifty-three years af-^ 
ter the eftablifhment of the nine archons. 

XVIIL Thefe laws of Draco were rei 
tnarkable for their (37) feverity< They 
Were called (38 ^Wfioi. ^ 

XIX. The people being diijguded with 
O theft 


3d by Google 

19^ A K 1 1 Q^U 1 T I ft S 

thefe lawst and many public (39) diifeo-^ 
iions arifing m confequence of their rigoor^ 
(40) Solon was requefted to redrefi the 
grievances of the ftate. 


( i) Veil. Paterc- 1. 2. Juftin. II. 6. 

(2) Eufeb, Chron. p. 33. ftyles them, a(x^ 
rcti ii» Piv — archons for life. The firft of thefe 
archons was Medon, and from his name the 
reft were called, Medontides. YelL Paterc. L 
2. 4* 

(3)Paufan. Mtflen, V. p. 292. 

(4) Perizon. ad -flElian. V. H. V. i j* 

(5; Euiebius gives us their names. Chron. 


(6) Paufan. c. V. p. 292. 

(7) Eufeb. Chron. p. 39. Veil. Paterc. I. g. 

(8) Scalig. Canon, ffagog. IL 2. p. 160. 

(9) Afx®*''"* JfjcotfTiflH^— ^Thefe are the words of 
Dion. Halic. Archa^I. 1. p. 69. See Eufeb. 
Chron. I. p. 39. Veil. Paterc. I. 8. 

(10) Eufeb. 1. c. X«(o\]/, Z7^arr0< ^fX^ ^ixoinvc 
Veil. Paterc. 1. c. 

(i i) Eufeb. 1. c. Veil. Paterc. L c. 
(ii) It is not clear whether this change of go- 


Digitized by 


1^ G R E E t JE. 


Yernmcnc took place in confequcnce of the ba* 
niflitnent of Eryxias, on account of fome public 
ciifcontcnt; or immediately on his death.— 
Meurf. de Archont. Athen. VIIL p. 21. 

(13) £naiuiriav «(xiiv — fays Paufan, Eliac. Poft. 
cXIX. p. 500. and Meflen. c. XV. p. 315. 
The fame Paufanias ftyles thefe magiftrates^ 
K«T mavrw a^ovric. See Veil. Paterc. 1. 8. Eu« 
feb. L Ciiron. p. 39. 

(14) Eufeb. Chron. p. m. 155. E| Ew»rfiim', 
Yet Scaliger thinks they were not always chofen 
from among the nobles, in Animadv« p. 74.— 
In which opinion he is contradifUd by Periz. ad 
^rian.V. H. V. i,. 

(15) Phil. Off I ACfMjbi, p. 351. B. Edit* 
Francf. an. 1591. « . 

(16) Hence he is furnamed, Etruw^^^ or/ 

and in Latin, anni fignator* Seldcn. ad Mar-^ 
mora Arundel 

(17) Pollux, 1. c. We (ind in Sigon. thereat 
fons why the ninearchons were diftinguiflied bj 
thefe titles.-^Dc I^ep. Athen. I. i;. p. 481. 
Sec ^lian. V. H. V. 13* who feems to think 
there were ten archons. See likewife Perizon. 
ad h. 1. and Baumgarted. Hiftor. Univerf. ex 
Anglic, in Germanicum Converf. T. V. p. 149. 

(i8) Pollux, VIIL 9. 89. 

O a (,9^ 

* Digitized 


i^i A N T 1 g^ljf I T i It g 

(19) The law fuits betwixt man and mSci 
for inftanee, Plutarch. Alcibiad. p. i^^.C. 

(20) Demofth. in Macartat. p. 660. A. and 
Pollux, 1. c. 

(21) PoHox, Vill. 9. 9*0. Harpocrat. Etr^ 

(22) PoUux, VIII. 9. p. 9a 

(23) PoHux, 1. c. p. gi. 

(24) Pollux, 1. c. fays, it^^as likewift; ps^rt pf 
his office to order funeral games to t)C celebrat- 
od in honour of the citizens whcr fell it) battle. 
See Meurf. LeA. Attic. IL 144 

(25) Schol. Ariftopb. ad Vefp. v. 1037. 

> (ft6) Harpocrat. at the word, df(r/*o9iTai. Schpj, 
Ariftoph. ad EjcxAimt. V. 290. 

(27) Pollux, VIII. 9. Scgm. 87. and 88. 
• (28) See Sigon. de Rep. A then. IV. z. p. 


(29) AH the power which the kings ha<Jat 

jirft pofiefled, and afterwards the archon^, was 
fo divided ampng the Nqvemv^rs, that ^11 af- 
fairs of ftatc were at their dilpofal. 

(30) Pollux, VIII. 9. 92. Harpocrat. at thp 
word, Uofti^^. Sigon. de ^lep. Athen. IV. }• 


(31) Eufcb. Chrpn. p. 155. Mit^t^c (Waw 

Af^QVTit cviautf-i^foi Tt^i^av i^ Euii*«tj»^«»— After 

the kings, annual archons ^ere chofen frqm a- 
mong the nobles. — Plutarch. Solon, p. 85. D. 


Digitized by 


6^ GRfiECE^ ppy 

€sLyi tliat Sbron was cliofcn archon by the peo- 
ple. But afterwards,- the archons were nominated 
by lotj the lots were beans. Sec Mcurf. d'c 
Archontib. c. IX. p. 30. and particularly^ Peri^r, 
ad ^lian. V. H. VIII. ip. 

(32) Pollux, VIII. 9. ^5. and 86. This exa- 
mination is termed, avwtfmg. Sec Kuhn. an^ 
$igotL de Rep. Atb?n. IV. 3. ,p. g^p 

(33)tollux, l.c, 

(34) i queftion whether any author has affert- 
cd that the laws of Draco took their rife from 
thefe caules« Our author feems only to have 
imagined them. However, they are not impro- 
bable ones, efpccially if we confidcjr the fcverity 
of Draco's laws, and that fuch caufes have given 
jrife tp moft legiflations. Sec Tacit. Anjial. III. 
26. Sigon. de Rep. Athen. I. 5. p. 480. 

(35) It is not furprifing that authors differ in 
.this point. Suidas, at the word, Aj axw, afferts, 
that he publifhed his laws in the grft year of the 
thirty-ninth Olympiad. And if wc fuppofe, 
with Eufcbius, that the archons were inftituted 
in the twenty-fourth Olympiad, fifty-fevcn years 
.elapfcd from the cftabli(hment.of the archons JQ 
the publication of Draco's laws. 

(36) Cell. Nort. Attic XI. i8. 

(37) Ariftot. Poljt. II. 10. Two witty ex- 
preffions are recorded on the fcverity of thefe 
jlawsj one, of Herodicus, in Ariftot. Rhct. IL 

O 3 23. 

Digitized by 


198 A N T I QJJ I T I E S 

23. § 100. Another of Demades, Plutarph^ 
Solon, p. 87. E. To thefe we may add the wic<r 
tj remark of Draco hintifelf on his laws. Ibid. 

(38 j The caufe of this appelUtion was the title 
of the laws, which was as follows. — i^ir/MOf «^»- 

vQip — The eternal code for the inhabitants of 
Attica, and for it governours. See Porphyr, 
tri^i avoxn^^^^iy* p* 1 79« Meurf. Solon. XIII. 
and Hid. Univerf. ex Angl. in Gerqi. Con- 
verf. T. V. S 265. p. 155. 

(^9) Plutarch. Solon, p. 84. A. Thucyd. I. 
126. Schol. ad Ariftoph. Equ. 44^. Plot. So^ 
Ion, p. 84. F. and Meurf. PififtK c. III. p. 1 1, 
(40) Plut. Solon, p. 85. C 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E C E- 135 


Of the Athenian Government 
UQder Solon. ' 

!• OOLON being chofen archon, and 
O (i) veiled with the legiflativc 
power^ abrogated, on account of their too 
great feverity, all the laws of Draco, ex* 
cept the laws againft (2) murder; this 
change took place in the (3) forty-fixth O- 

II. Thus the form of government was 
once more new-modelled. The power of 
the nine archons was confiderably (4) cir- 
cumfcribed ;. and the loweft of the people 
were permitted to hear (5) public caufes : 

in ihort Solon is deemed the &t& inftitutor 


of (6) democracy. 

III. He began his political reformation 
by publiihing a Seifadlhsa-— (7) tutrax^H^^ 
that is, a (8) remiflion of debts. 

IV. To facilitate likewife the payment 

O 4 of 



<(» ANTfaUITtES 

of debts, he made the mina pafs for a (9) 
handred drachms, which before was only 
worth fcventy-five* 

v. He let the people remain divided as 
formerly into four tribes, fubdivided, each 
of them, into three curiae, each of whichp 
comprised thirty families. He Ukewife let 
t)ie divifion of the whole city into (10)^9- 
^itf^, remain. 

VI. But he introduced a new diyifion of 
the people. For he divided them by the 
cenfus, !• e. according to their rank and 
fortune, into four ciailes«-s*2^ Thofe who 
had land that yielded fifty meaflires.-— ncy^ 
rofiie^io/i^fiJlifii^,-— 2^ The Knights, ^Itftth^i 
-^3^ The Zeogitae, ^Isuy/ra^,— 4^ TJie 
Slaves, (11) Q^Tac. 

VII. The flaves, who were the refufe of 
the people^ and who were more numerous 
than the three other elates, were adnfiitted 
to trials and public alTemblies as the (12) 
reft of the people* 

VIIL He formed a fenate of four bun* 


Digitized by 


O F G R E fi G E. aof 

firQ4 perfons, to whom all affairs of (13) 
ftate were nfcrred* 

IX. (14) New feotton were notQinated 
by lot every year ; and from thcfc fcnators, 
Prytane$9 who prefided over the (15) fenate 
by turns* 


(f ) Plutarch. Solon, p. 85. D. 

(2) Plutarch. Ibid. p. 87. D. £• JElian. V. 
]H. Vlll. 10. 

(3) Cyrill. in JuKan. 1. 1, p. 12. D* In the 
third year of that Olympiad, according to Diog. 
Laert. L 62. — or in the fecond, according to 

(4) Sigon. de Rep. Athen. I. 5. p. 482. 

(5) Plutarch. Solon, p. 88. A. 

(6) Sigon. 1. c. Ariftot. Polit. 11. 12. It ap- 
pears, however, from the paffage (^Fluum:h, a- 
bovc cited, that Solon rather ftrengthcned than 
inftituted democracy. It is likewife proved — 
k* By Solon's being appointed by the people to 
make them laws. — 2_° By the verfes which are 
faid to be Solon's, and which are to be found in . 
Flutarch. Solon, p. Z8. B. 


Digitized by 


,o? A N T I qjj I T I E S 

(7) Plutarch. Salon, p, 86. D. 

(8) Plutarch interprets the word, XuvAxtnm 
«— ;^i«y Airoxemiy^— a reiniffion of debts. Some 
learned men, however, think the word means, 
not a total remiflion of debts, bqt a redufbion of 
ufury, and an augmentation pf the value of mo- 
Yiey. Plutarch. Solon, p. 86. D. See alfo oa 
this fubjed, the anonymous author, vt^ » A^irwvt 
Opufc. Mythol. Th. Gale, p. 96. — ^But what 
Plutarch relates (1. c.) of the fraud of Solon^s 
friends, and of the lots which Solon himfelf 
fuftained, proves this feifachthaea was a total re- 
miflion of debts, 

(9) Plutarch. Solon, p. 86. D. Pluurchfays, 
that Solon at once remitted the debts, and aug- 
mented the meafures of conamodities, and the 
value of money. 

( 10) We find references to this divifion before 
and after the time of Solon. Pollux, VIII. 9. 
Scgm. 109. enumerates thcfc four tribes. And 
Segm. III. he adds — Each tribe was divided into 
three parts; and eachof thefe parts was called* 
*— TAiTTu(, fOvof, (p^ar^ift*— -and each curia com- 
prifed thirty families— -ixofv i§ i^m ytyn T^ioxoirat 
— On the diviHon into hfAot^ fee Paufan. Attic. 
XXXI. p. 76. Strabo, IX. p. 274.. Euftath. 
lA. B. v. 363. p. 181. Sigon. de Rep. A then. 11. 

(11) Plutarch. Solon, p. 87. F. Ariftot. Po- 




P F G R E E C E« iid| 

\itAh xo« Pollux, VIIL la Segtn. 129. where 
fill thefe names 9rc explained, 

(12) Plutarch. Ic. Mcurf. Solon, c XIV. 

(13) Plutarch. Solon, p. 88. D. 

(14) Thucydw VIII. 66. calls the lenate^ puXn 
mwpTH xua/t(iv : and, Andocides, Orat. I. de Myft. 
p. 220. 11 fijtX'fif o« trnrraucoo'fei, Xaj^ovric r» xva|*40«*— 
The bean determined who (hould compofe the 
fenate of five hundred. See Sigon. de Repub. 
Athen. IL g. 

( 15) Sigon. I c. p. 492« 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC ; 


CHAP, y. 

Of the Athe2»ian Stat* Onder 
Pi SI STRATUS aUd bjt Sons^ 

I. /' |"1piE rcpiiblic havlilg contlhued ia 
Jl this form' for (i) about eight j 
years, Pififtratva «»f«rpdd the {t)i glovitfar 
ment of the ftatc. Splon died (3Jf the year 

II. Piiiftratu$ annihilated the (4) pqwtj: 
of the people. 

III. He loft and regained the tyranny 
twice in the fpace of (5) fix teen years. 

IV. After the death of Pififtratus, his 
fons Hippias and Hipparchus iucceeded tq 
his (6) unliaiited power. Hipparchus was 
killed by (7) Harmodius apd A"ftogiton. 
And Hippias was bani(hed by the people. 
Thus ended the (8) tyranny. 


(1) This, is uncertain. If we fuppofc with 
Scaligerj ad Eufeb. p.' 8l. that Solon was cho- 


Digitized by 


OF <; R E E ^ IB. '%Oii 

len arcbon in the third year of the forty-fixth O- 
lympiad~or, v^^ the Oxford Matbles, and Plu* 
tarch, that Comias wa^ archon when Pififtratus 
madehicnfififlyfaofof AtbejE)S) or, tbatComiM 
was archon in the firft year of the^ fifty-fifth O- 
lympiad — Any one of thefe fuppoficions being 
aclqaittiedi we Qx^\ find that the form which So* 
lop gave the republic of Athen$ lafted longer 
than eighty years. See Perizon. ^iian. V, FL 

Mi. 21. 

(2) Piocafch. 1. c. JEAxm. V. H. VIIL i5. 
Vi^ the wtjiprs (;\tti4 by[M%w^xm* So\6d. c. zy. 

(3) The learned differ with regard to the 
time that Solon furvived his rcpublip. Sec 
Metirf. Soiori, c. 30. 

(4) Herodot. I. p. 24. 25.' PIntarch. Sol^n, 
p. 94. £. Pdyesnus, L di. S i* His tyranny 
nf^gpptlcj jf we m^y believe Pbacdrus, I. 2.. 
See Mcqrf. PKiftrat. VI. p, 35, 

(5) Ariftot."Pplit, V. 12.— We find in Hc^, 
rodot. I. p. 25^ Poliajn. I. 21. Valer. Max. 1/ 
2. Extern, ft. and in Herodot. L p. a 6. — how 
Iw wa$ Iwii^icd and roiiallcd thefirftandfc- 
qpnd time. 

(6) Tbucyd. I. ^o. and VI. 54. Sec Peri-f 
zon, ad -^Kan. VII L ?. 

(7) Herodot. V. p. J51, Thucyd. VL'57. 

(8) Htfodoc V. p. 3^. Thucyd. VI. 5^. 

6 GHAP. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

166 Atf tiCLUIt i^d 


Of the Athenian State ufldci' 

I. 'TpHE Pififtratidas hafviftg bWa ba- 
X n idled eighty-fix years after the 
eftablifhment of the laws of Solon^ the 
form of govemodent was. again changed by 
Cliflhenes, who began his projedt fay gain-' 
ing the people^ that he fnight oppofe them 
to the ( I ) nobility, of whom Kagres^ tbo 
fi)B of TifameneSt was the favourite. 

IL He divided the people into ten tribes, 
(a divifion which continued ever after) and ^ 
gave the democracy yet more ftrength than 
it had obtained from (a) Solon. 

III. He increafed the number of fenators 
to five hundred. Before they were but 
four hundred. (3) Fifty fenators were now 
taken by lot from each of the ten tribes, to 
which he had given (4) new names. 

IV. At the head of the fenate were fifty 
Prytanes, inftead of the (5) forty who had 


Digitized by 


6 F G R fe E C E:, ad7 

prefided over it formerly. And it was 
from their title that the time during which 
each tribe prefided was termed, (6) Ilfu- 


V. The fenate had nine prcfidcnts befide 
thcPrytan^s : they were called, (7) n^ejgw. 

VL The office of the Prytanes was, to 
appoint jdays for the meeting of the fenate; 
and the afiemblies, to convoke, and to difr 
mifs them ; and to make a report of pub* 
Hc affairs to the (8) fenate. 

VII. The chief of the Prytanes was call- 
ed (9) Eflr/5-«7ijc*— His authority in the fe- 
nate was abfolute; but it lailed only for a 
(10) day. 

VIIL If any of the (enators was guilty of 
a crime, the fenate prohibited him the ex-' 
ercife of his office, and espelled him from 
their body. His fentencc was written up- 
on leaves : hence the execution of it was 
termed— ( 11) Ex^uXXo^^^i. 

IX. Pericles turned this form of govern- 
ment into (12) anarchy and confufion. 


Digifized by 




(i) Hcrodot, V. p. 355. 

(2) Hcrodot. 1. c. Ariftot. Politi III. 2. I^c- 
tlzon. ad iElian. V. H. ^IIL 24. 

(3) Sigon. dc Rep. Athcn. II. 3. p. 491. Pol- 
lux, VIIL 5. Segnfia 19. and 155. fpeaks of 
ibc fenatc of five iiundred— ^AfXfi^ ruf rosf inna* 

(4) Pollux, VIII, 9. 109. Herodot. !• c. and 
Kuhn. Not. ad PoUuc. n. 31. 

(5) Harpocrat. at the word, Tl^vrani^. 

(6) Pollux, 1. c.Segm. 115. andHarp0tnu« 
at the word II^vravii«f. 

(7) Potten Archaeolog* Graec. Lib. I.e. 17. 

(8) Pollux, 1. c. Segm. 95. Demofth. con(- 
traTimocrat. Sigon. de Rep. Athcn. IL4. Pc- 
rizon. ad ^lian. IX. 39. 

(9) Pollux,^ 1. c SegOL 916. Suid. at the 

tJIrOrd, Efrirarn^i 

(lb) Euftath. Oi. P. p. 641. 1. 47. 

(1 1) See Harpocrat. at the word, Ek(pvXX§(po(n' 
;rai. ValeC in Not. p. 56. Meurf. Left. AttiC; 
III. 19. ' ' 

(t2) Ariftot. Polit. 11. 12. Plutarch. Pcricl. 
P- 155. IJ7. 161. 169* Ariftoph.Achurn.Vrf 


Digitized by 



6 F b k E iE C E. icj 


Of the State of the Republic of 
Athens under the Government 
of the Fo0R Hundred, and under 
the Thirty Tyrants. 

L T3ERICLES dying in the (i) eighty- 
XT eighth Olympiad — Alcibiades, af- 
ter hisdeath, being banifhed from the (2) 
city— Nicias being killed, and his army 
cut to pieces, in (3) Sicily — rthe govern- 
ment was entrufted to four hundred of the 
(4) principal citizens. 

n. But thofe new magiftrates having 
proved (5) tyrants, they were depofed in 
four months, and were fucceeded by 0ve 
thoufand citizens, to whom the adminiftra- 
tion of public affairs was (6) committed. 

in. At length, in the nintey-third O- 

lympiad, Lyfander made himfelf maflier of 

Athens, and eilablifhcd (7) thirty tyrants 

P thcrct 

Digitized by 


aio A N T I Q^U I T I E S 

there who w^re grievoas oppreOfjrs of the 
ftatc J but three years after, they were ba« 
niflicd by (8) Thrafybulus. 

IV. After the expulfion of thefe thirty 
tyrants, they created, without any interreg- 
num, in the fecond year of the ninety* 
fourth Olympiad, ten niagiftrates, who 
were charged with the (9) public adminif- 
tration. They were eminently ftyled, (10) 
Oi jfxa;— and each of them was called 

(11) Aixociv^^* 

V. Thefe magiftratcs having likewifc 
abufed their power, were baniflied in their 
turn $ and the government became again 

(12) democraticah 


(1) If the Peloponnefian war was begun itr 
the eighty-feventh Olympiad, as Eufebius af- 
ferts, in Canon. Chron.— -if it was begun even 
at the commencement of that Olympiad, which 
is Dod weirs opinion — AnnaL Thucyd. pag. 
di.-^and if, according to the tcftimony of 
Thucydides, Pericles flouriOied two years and a 





half after the beginning of that war ; it evident- 
ly follows that Pericles died in the fame eighty- 
feventh Olympiad. 

(2) Or having gone voluntarily into exile— « 
which he once did, according to Thucydides, 
Vt. 6r. twice, according to Corn. Nep. Alcib. 
c. VII. and Plut. Alcib. p. 211. 

(3) Thucyd. VIL 86. This happened in the 
fourth year of the ninety-firft Olympiad. 

(4) Thucyd. VIII. 63. 67. 70. 

(5) Thucyd. VIII. 70.' Sencc. de Tranquill. 
c 2 

(6) Thucyd. VIIL 97. 

(7) Plutarch. Lyfapd. p. 441. E. Diod. 
Sic. XIV. c. I. 7. 33. andXenoph. Hift. Grace. 
U. p. 359. 

(8) Corn. Nep. Thrafyb. c. I. Xenoph. 1, c. 

P- 370- 

(9) Xenoph. Hift. Grasc. II. p. 471. Diod. 

Sic. XIV. 34. 

(10) Xenoph. 1. c. 

(11^ Harpocr. at the words, Aixa, and Ac* 

(12) Diod. Sic. XIV. 34. Xenoph. Hift, 
Grsec. Il.^towards the end. 




*i4 ANT! Q^U tr IE S 


Of the §TATE of the Republic 
of At SEW 61 from the Time of 
Alexander the Great to that 

of S YLLA. 

I. 'TT^HIS popular government fobfiftcd 
X at Athens till the death of Alex^ 
{ ander the Great. The city was then taken 
by Antipater ; and ao oligarchy was efta- 
bliflied, compofed of nine thoufand of the 
richeft citizens, 

IL Antipater dying at the expiratbo of 
four years, (3) Caffander made himielf 
mafter of the city, and gave the Athenians 
for their governour (4) Demetrius (5) Pha- 
lereuSy a (6) learned man, who, notwith- 
ftanding the important (7). fervices he did 
them, and for which he was rewarded with 
(8) diftinguiflied honours, was afterwards 
baniflied by them for not having (hown 
himfelf very favourable to (9) liberty. 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E C E. a*^ 

III. But Pemetrius Poliorcetes reilbred 
to the city its aiicient KBcrty, and'to'H^e 
people their (lo) power. In* memory of 
ithe benefits he conferred upon them^ tfiey. 
paid .divine honours to hinx as well as to- 
(d) Antigohus. 

IV. The Athenians inaintali>cd thi*- 
ftate of indtpendfcnce almoft to the time of 
(12) Sylla, fome momentary (13) check*- 
eaccepted, which their liberty fuffered. 

NOTES to CHAP; yill. 

(i) Diod. Sic. XVIII. p. ,8. 

(2) Idem. Ibid. This form of government 

.was called nAvrox^aric. 

(3) Diod. Sic XVIII. p. 74. Paufan. Attic. 

xxy. p. 60. 

(4) Eir»/*iXflT»i». Diod. Sic. I. c. Tvfemn. 
Paufan. 1. c. 

(5) Diod. Sic. and Paufan. 1. c. 

(6) Paufan. 1. c. Laert. V. 80. 

(7) Diod. Sic. I. c. Strabo, IX. p. 274. 
ExcerptaPcircfc.p. $2- Laert. V. 75. 

(8) The people decreed him three hundred 
ftatues. Strabo, IX. p. 274 — Three hundred 

P i and 

Digitized by 


214 A N T I Q^U I T I E S 

and fixty, according toDiog. LaerL in Dcmetr. 
yi. p. 75. Plin. XXXIV. p. 6. 
. (9) Nepos, in Phocion, c. 3. Different rca- 
fons are given for his banilhment, hy Strabo, 
1. c. Lacrt. v. 76. Cic. dc Fin. v. 19. But 
our author is fupported by Paufanias. Attic. 
XXV. p. 60. Phaedr. V. Fab. I. Pcrizon. ad 
-ffiUjui.V. H.III. 17. 

(10) Diod. Sic. XX. 46. p. 781. 

(11) Idem. Ibid. 47. p. 782. Paufan. Attic 
XXV. p. 60. Plutarch, in Dcmetr. p. 892. 

(12) Paufan. Attic, c. XX. p. 47. Appian. 
de Bell. Mithridat. p. 322. 332. Plutarch, in 
Sylla, p. 460, 

(13) The hoftilities^ for inftance, of Philip 
of Macedon. Liv. XXXL p. 24. ^6. and 30. 





C H A P. IX. 

Of the Athenian State urjder the 
the R M A N s. 

I. ' I ^HE Athenians having been the al- 
X lies of Mtthridates in the war 
which that prince undertook againft the 
(i) Romans, Sylla> to be avenged of them, 
befieged their city, took it by dorm, ra- 
vaged it without mercy, and reduced it to 
a deplorable (2) condition. 

IL But Athens, after the death of Sylla, 
rofe again as it were from its aflies, by the 
gisnerofity of the Romans, who reftored to 
it its (3) liberty. 

IIL Adrian, among others, granted fa- 
vours of all kinds to the Athenians ; gave 
them equitable laws, and honourable pri-^ 
vileges ; not to mention the many orna- 
ments with which be embellifhed their 
(4) city. 

P4 IV. 

Digitized by 


ai6 A N T I Q^U I T 1 E S 

IV. The Athenians likewife receive4 
many favours from his fucceflbrs— -from (5) 
Marcus Antoninus Pius, and (6) Marcus 
Antoninus the Philofopber. 

V. They were alfo protected by Vale-r 
rian, who permitted them to repair their 
(7) walls. 

VL But in t^e timaof^thci emiperorGal- 
lian, the Gptbs took apd. (8j f^illagsd their 

yil^ At laft, in the yearof Chri(l, 1455, 
the Turks foefFeftually fpoi) 
cient grandeur, t^.^t. it is nQt QOff ^ city» 
but a little town, of which they are flail 
mailers. Its modern nv^p/is. Sttines. 


(i) Plutarch in Sylla, p. 458. E. Appiaa, 
de Bell. Mithridat. p. 322. I^aufan. Attic, c. 

(2) Plutarch. Appiani^ Paufaiu 1. c. Flor* 
III. 5. Vcllci. II. 23. Strabo, IX. v. 274. 
^ct, if we give credit to the two laft authors, 


Digitized by 


^f>% * »» r uv 


.m:S^'. r^A:*"*' A >*3li 


OF p REEPJE, oi^^ 

Sylla treated the Athenians rather with clemeq- 
fy than rigour. 

(3) This faA we fifld in Sjtfaboi, IX. p. 274. 
See McurC dc Fort^ Athen. who proves by ma- 
ny authorities^ that the Athenians enjoyed, t^eir 
liberty to the time of Vefparian. 

(4) Paufan. Attic, c. XX. p. 48. c. XVIII. 
p, 42* MqurC de Fortun. Athen. X* p, 104% 
Xip|iirm. in Adfi^ SBartjgji.ip,Adv^ XlU^.and 
X^. Caffio^on (Chi'Oi?; ^P Adrian. 

(^) See an ancient infcription. Oper. Gruter. 
p. 177. 

(6) Xiphilin. M. Anton. Pfailoropb.p. 371. 

(7) Zofim. B. L c. 39. Zqnar. X]L 73. p* 

(8) Zopar. X^l. a6, p, 655.-T-iays, the Scy-f^ 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Of the Athenian Assemblies, 

I, '' I .^HlE aflcmbly, in Latio^ concio, 
X and in Greek, ^KKkuflnxj was a 
meeting of (i) all the people, with whom, 
when convoked according (2) to law, the 
general adminiftration of affairs was lodg- 
ed, by a. (3) regulation of Solon. 

II. The aflembly was empowered to take 
cbgni:2ance of the a£ts of the (4) fenate, to. 
make (5) laws, to appoint (6) magiftrates, 
to declare (7) war, &c. 

IIL The place where the people aflem- 
bled was either the public (8) fquare, or 
the ww^f a fquare near the (9) citadel ^ or 
the (10) theatre. 

IV. Thefe affemblies were either ordina^ 
ryf and called BKKXrjcioti^ or (11) bki^Xiio-icu 
xv^iui ; or extraordinary 9 and called koltbk^ 
xXiiinxt, and (12) (TvyKXfiToi eKKXvi<nat» 


Digitized by 



V. The ordinary aflemblies were held 

(13) thrice in a month, on appointed days, 
which (as the law direftcd) were fixed by 
the Pritanfes, with the approbation of the 

(14) fenatc. 

VI. The extraordinary aflemblies were 
convoked by the (15) Prytanes, pn events 
of great (16) importance, and with the 
confent of the (17) fenate. They were 
ibmetimes fummoned by the Zr^ctrf^ot, 
yihcn matters of (18) war were to be de- 

VII. As there were many citizens who 
went to this afiembly againft their will, and 
were very dilatory in attending it, on ac- 
count of the difagreeable affairs which were 
fondetimes to be debated, there were public 
officers to compel them to go to it, who 
extended a cord dyed with red, in the place 
where the aiT^mbly was held ; and thofe 
who were marked with that colour paid a 
(19) fine. 

yill. The prefidents of the affembly 




420 A N T J CIV 1 T J IBS 

were the AScSbrs, jihc Epiftates^ and fhf 
(20) Prytan^s. 

IX. Before jtbe ^flembly entered upoq^ 
}>ufiners they facrificed a young hog> ts aa 
atonement for the (21) people. 

X. A public crier then ^ddrefled td ffae 
God$ the (22) prayers of the peopk^ ^Mtd 
enjoined (23) filence« 

XL The Prytanes and the AiTeflbr^ diea. 
laid before the aflembly jthe fubjiod pn 
yihich they were to deliberate: aod i£zi!^ 
decree had before been paiTed on that fob«. 
jef£l> the crier,, after thq: decree was.retfd. 
gaare notice, that th^ who chofe to ipeak 
might offer their (24) fentiments. 

XIL They only had the right of ipeak*- 
ing in the aiTembly who were aboiie((^5) 
fifty years of age. They who were braodr 
ed with infamy, and they who led an imr 
moral life were lik&wife (26) excludcid 
from that privilege. 

XIII. The people gave their fuffi-agea 

Digitized by 


F' G R £ E C E. ^li 

hy ftrctching forth the hand, by (27) x^'-* 


XIV. The decree of the fcnatc, thus ra- 
tified by the people, was called ^striM, and 
took the force of a (landing law. But be- 
fore It had this public approbation, it waa 
ternaed v^oQuXbviax, and had only the vali* 
dity of a law for (28). one year. 

XV. On the ^n^ariiarcc were written the 
names of the orator, or fenator, who had 
given his opinion, and the name of the 
tribe to which the (29) Prytanis belonged* 


(l) Ammonius-— ExxXfi0*ia9 tXiyof ol Ain^am rm 
.€91^09 rm %gtxa mt voXur^-The Aihenians call the 
general aiTembly of the inhabitants of their city, 

. (2) It was legally convoked, when it was 
convoked by a magiftrate who had a right ta 
call it, in a convenient place and time. See 
Sigon. de Rep. Athen. II. 4. p. 496. 

(3) Demofthen. Orat. contra Neasram, p. 

529. fays, the people of Athens are maftcrs of 

<i whatever 

Digitized by 


i«; A N T I Q^U I T I E S 

whatever is in the city^ and may difpofe of it at 
they pleafe. Yet it is to be doubted whether 
Solon enlarged the rights of the aflemUy mart 
than Cliilh&nes, Ariftides, and Pericles ; 6t ra« 
ther it is not ac all doubtful.^ See Ariftot dt 
, Rep. Athcn. 11. c. li. and III. c; 2. 

(4) Pollux, VIII. 9. Segm. 95. Potter dc 
Leg. Attic. Lib. III. Tit. I. Petit, p. 216. 

(5) Demofth. in Timocrat. p. 464. ^igon. dc 
Rep. Athen. 11. 4. p. 501. Petit, p. 9). 

(6) Pollux, Vllf. 10. Segrti. 133. .ffifchin. 
contra CteQphont. p. 278* Sigon. L c. p. 531. 

(7) Thucyd. L c. 139. c. 145. Sigon. I. q. 
IL 4. p. 502. On the other rights which the af- 
fcmbly of the people had, confult, likcwife, Si- 
gonius de Rep. Athen. II. 4. p. 501. 

(8) Harpocrat. at the word, liavififA^ A(p(9^ 

(9) Thucyd. VIIL 97. SchoL Ariftoph. ad 
£qu. V. 42. 

(10) Thucyd. VIIL 93. Pollux, VIII. lo. 
Segm. 133. 

(11) Harpocrat. at the word, KvfM fiuXiiri»» 
Pollux, VIII. 19. Segm. 95. Schol. Ariftoph* 
ad Acharn, v. 19. Petit, p. ig6. 

(12) Pollux, VIII. 9, Segm. 116. Schol. A- 
riftoph. ad Acharn. v« 19. Petit, p. 294. 

(13) SoTays Ulpian, in Timocrat. p. 227. et 
in Orat. de falfa Legatione, p. lOo. But in the 


pigitized by 



Attic Calendar of Petit, it appears, Legi Attic* 
p. 197. that the common aflembly was held four 
times every Prytaneum, that is, in the fpaceof 
thirty-five days ; which agrees with what we arc 
told by Ariftotle. See Harpocrat. at the word^ 

Kv(M fXXXHtf'Idi. 

(14) Harpocrat. L c. 

(15;) Demofth. de Corona, and the authors 
cited by Sigon. dc Rep. A then. II. 4. Petit, p. 

(r6) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Acharn. v. 19. 

(17) For the Prytanes are, according to Har- 

pocration, 0/ AoiiuirrK »Tr»yr» ret wro id; |3«^iic tat- 

TojMiva — Thofe who carry into^execution the or- 
ders of the fenate. 

(18) Demofth. de Coron. p. 323. Petit, p. 

(19) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Achanu v. ^2^ Pol- 
lux, VIII. c. 9. Segm. X04. Sigon. 1. c. p. 498. 

(20) Pollux, VIII. c. 9. Segm. 95. and 96. 
Harpocrat. at the word, n^of^j^oi. Sigon. L c. p. 


(21) Schbl. Ariftoph. ad Acharn. v.^ ^4. Pol- 
lux, VIII. ^. Segm. 104. Harpocrat. at the 
word, Kft6«^iov. 

(22) Demofth. contra TinK>crat. p. 464* Pe- 
tit, p. 206. 

(23) Ariftoph. Thefm. v. 302. an^Sichpl. 
(34) PoUuxiVIl). C.9. Segm. 95. |iarp«» 




t24 A N T i Q^U i T i E S 

crat. at thb word, Ufoifgot, Stgon. dc ilcp. A^ 
then. II. 4^1 p. 49^,— Md the paflilgci of D6- 
mmlhencs and ^fcbines, cited by Pctiti p. 206". 

(25) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Plut. v. 330. Petit,; 
ad Leg« Attic* p. 209. 

. (26)iErchin. inXimarchum, p. 174. S^gon.^ 
de Rep. Athen. II. 4. p. 500. Pietit, h c. p. 
205. Kitfan. ad PoUuc^ VIIL ^. Segm. 164. 
I p. 61. 

(27) Valef. ad Harpocrat. p. ys* Sigorf. I. 
ۥ p, 501. 

(28; Ulpian. ad Orat. contra Ariftocrtt. p. 
21^^ Petit. I. p. 121. Sigon. I. c. p. yor. 

(29) See the authorities cired by Sigoh; dc - 
Rep. Athcn. II. 4. p. 501. and Dembllh. de6o- 
roo. p. 346.. "^ 


CHAP. xr. 

Of the principal Tribunals of Athens* 

L /' I^HE Areopagus was an (i) Aihc- 
X nian court of juftice^ called in 
Greek; (2) AfciO^ Tlo^y^ — the Hill of 

IL This tribunal took its name from 
Mars^ becaufe it is faid that Mars was the 
firft who appeared there to (3) plead his 

III. The tribunal before which Mars 
had pleaded was at the top of the hill. 

IV. Oppofite to the tribunal were two 
flones> one named Meu^eioc^y another yC^sw^. 
On the one fat the accufed perfon^ on the 
other the (5) accufen 

V. On two pillars that flood by the tri- 
bunal were engraved the laws which didtat« 
ed to the Areopagites their (6) decifions. 

VI. The fenate which aflcmblcd here 
was calledj frotii the name of the place. 

^i6 AKTIQtllTlES 
(7) Afijoffoy®.; and the fcnators were call- 
ed, (8) A^etoveeytTeu*. 

VII. In the early times, any citizen 
might be admitted a membcf of this tribu- 
nal, ptt)vidcdhe wasjuft, virtuous, and (9) 


VIII. But afterwards, by a regulation of 
Solon, one could not be receked by the 
Areopagus who had not been (10) archon. 

IX. It was the ntwft grave, the moft fe- 
vere, and the jufteft tribunal of (11) all 


X. All great crimes were within the cog- 
nizance of the (li) Areopagus j foch as— 
(13) robberies. (14) malicious plots, (15) 
wilful wounds, (16) poifonings, (17) fet- 
ting fire to places, and (18) homicides. 
Its jurifdidlion extended even to matters of 
religion. Whoever Ihowed a contempt of 
the Gods, or introduced new deities, and 
new religious ceremonies, was fevcrely po- 
nifhed by this (19) tribunal. . 

XI. (20) Death was the punilhment for 


Digitized by 


O t* G R E E C E. 22f 

tfegpreatercrkactti and for ib« I^fs, ^Ane, 
which went to the pobKc (ai) trcafury. 

XII. The iMettogjT of tbcfe judges were 
bdd at fifft only oa the three kft days of 
{22) e?ery month 5 but afterwards they 
were more frequent, and aJnaioft (23) 

Xlir* When the magiftratcs were af- 
fbtttbted^ axrier ordered the people to re« 
move to fomc diftance, and enjoined them 
(2^4) filence. 

XIV. Then he of the archons who had 
the title of Icings took his pJace among the 
(25) judges. 

. XV. But firft of all folemn (a6) Sacrifices 
were offered. 

JtVI. The accttfef, and the accufed, 
took each an oath at the foot of the ahar^ 
laying their hand on the fleih of the immo- 
lated (27) vidim. 

XVII. Then the accufed perfon mounts 

ing the ftone named a^atinoe^, and the ac- 

cufer the ftone named (28) v&^tu^, they 

Q^ ^ pleaded. 

Digitized by 


B28 ANTiaUlTlES 

pleaded, the one after the (29) other, ei- 
ther In perfon, or by their (30) patrons. 

XVIII. At firft every one (31) pleaded 
his own caufe 1 but afterwards ten citizens 
were drawn by lot to be the patrons of this 
(32) tribunal. 

XIX. Neither the infinuating openings 
of caufesy nor the other refources of elo- 
quence were allowed thefe(33) orators. 

: XX.Thejudges, after having heard the two 
parties, gave their opinions (34) privately. 

XXL To efFed this privacy, black and 
\3!)) white flints were madcufeof; and 
that the judges might di(lingui(h them in 
the dark, holes were made in the black, 
but not in the white : with the white they 
acquitted, with the bl&ck they (36) con- 

. XXIL Thefe flints were put into urns, 
of which there were (37) two. ' 

XXIII. The one was of brafs, and was 
termed the urn of mercy, iXiif ; the other 
was of wood, and was termed the urn of 


Digitized by 



dlcatb, ^etvxrov. The White flints were put 
into the fofmer, and the black into the 
(31) latter. 

XXIV. If the number of the white wasr 
greater, a (hort line was drawn in a wax • 
tablet with the nail i and a long one if the 
(39) black were more numerous. 

XXV. If the number of flints was equal 
in the two urns, the crier threw a fupernu*^ 
mcrary one into the urn of mercy, which 
was termed the flint of (40) Minerva. 

XXVL The criminal, immediately after 
his condemnation, was loaded with chains^ 
and led forth to (41) punifhment. 

XXVII. But before fentcnce was paflTed, 
the accufed perfon was not in chains, and 
had it in his power, if he defpaired of his 
caufe, to avoid punifliment by going into. 
(42) exile. If he went into exile, his goods 
were (43) confifcaicd. 

' XXVIII. This was the oldcft tribunal of 
(44) Greece, The learned arc not agreed 
on the time when it was edablifhed; fbmo^ 

0.3 % 

Digitized by 



fitiy it was infliiiiMd by Solooa bat thty 
ar^e iQiOaken : the court of Areopagty ck-* 
ifled before Solon; he only * eqilarg<eid its 
(48) audK>rity. 

XXIX. But Perlclec gvc^y 6imm(kcd 
its {49) power 1 ihoi^h he cli4 tnot ^nifai- 
late the tribunal : it cxiiled loog afier bis 
(50) iis^€. 


(i) So It is called by St, }erom, Epift, ad 
Tit. c. 1. SoUn, c 13. terms rt, Locncn Judicti, 
and Juvenal, Stft. IX. v. k{»^. calls k. Curiam 

(2) So it is called in A&s xvii. 19. and in Ch 
ther places. Xenophon, A9r«/«vf)/c*, V. § zo. and 
other authors call it, mv t¥ A^hw vmya ^}t\riv^^Tht 
council in Mars's hifK-«43en|o(l:h. Ariftocrat^ fi 
437. calls it, ro fv Api4u'«r»}Mii Aiucrii^io^-^^ThCfPi-t 
bunal in Mars's hill. 

(3) Paufan. Attic, c XXVIII. p. 6&. MeurC 
in Arcopag. c. I. p. g. 

(4) Holften. ad Sceph. Byzan. at the ^otds^ 




O ? <5 & E E C E- 231 

i^) Pap^n, Atiic. x:. XXVIIL p. 68. H*dr. 
Jun. Animadv. I. 3. p. 6. 

(6) JLyfuis, dc .Cacdc Eratofthcn. p. 7. ct in 
Andocid. p* 48. 

- iy) Wc more frequently mat with, Afu®. 
«r«y^^ in two words, .or, i a A^m v»yu ^H\n^ 
Wi ^ <^ A^nu fr«B^ |a«Xi!. 

(S) Uici^, 4eCym:naf. p. 281. 

(p) Th^^t tjbeiie^ap an Areops^gqs before Sop 
)on» we j^e QoaiviBGcd ^r the Oxford Marbles^ 
1)^ $. 6. z6. iBut fipn> w4at dais of citizens the 
Aroopagkcis were iCjakien before $h^ ilme of So- 
lon, we are not certainly inform/et^. Meurf. A'- 
reopag. c. III. is^^ipftof the fatne opinion with 
our author; i>yt he/gppvw itiiM .with any au- 
thority. See Pcrbipn. mi iElian. V. «» v. ^y., 
and Sigon. dc Riep. Anhw. II. 5, p. 507. 

^«o) !PiBUr<:h. in JS^n. p- 88. I>c Pollyx, 
.V4I!I- 10. S^w. idS. andMeurf. 1. c. 

(11) Lyfias in Andocid. p. 48. Xenoph. A> 
TropujCA. lU. 5. §,20. Scncc. de Tranqui]!; c. 3* 
fiaixfen. Mcflfcji. V. p. apo. GelL XIJ. 7. Cic. ad 
Attic. I. 14. Suidas, at tht^wor4j Aftowatyi-ni^. . 

(12) Maacun. Pi?okg- ad Dioayf. Aaopag. 

(13) Cic. de DJwinat. i. a^. 

(14) Harpocrat. and Suidas, at the word, B«- 

(15) Pollux, VIII. ID. Segm. 117. Lucian. 
^itnflfi. p. 245. J 

a 4 (16) 


j by Google 

232 A N T I Q^tJ I T I E S 

(i6) Pollux, 1. c. iElian. V, H. V. 18. Gcll. 
XII. p. 7. 

(17) Pollux, 1. c. Gytnnaf. p* 


( 1 8) «lian. V. H. V. 15. PoUux, 1. c. He 
fych. at the word, ^ft)c«ni(ft«. 

(19) Detnofth. in Ncasr. B. 528. C. Hence 
Judin. Martyr, Orat. L ad Gr. p. 24. fays, that 
Plato durft not publiAi his opinions of the deity 
for fear pf ibe Hemhckj (poCu r« xmniv — that is, 
for fear of the Areopagus. This likewife throws 
great light on a paflage of the Afts of the A* 
poftles, xvii. 19 

(20) -ffilian.V. H.V. p. 18. 

(21) Pollux, Vlil. 9. Segm. 99. 
(%z) Pollux, VI It. lo. Segm. 117. 

(23) Lucian« Bis accufato, p. 221. 

(24) ^fchyl. Eumenid. v. 561. and Schol. 

(25) Pollux, VIII. 9. Segm. 90. Antiphon. 
Orat XVI, p. 157. 

(26) Demofth. in Ariftocrat. p. 438. B. 

(27) Pemofthen. 1. c. Antiphon. Orat. de 
Caede Herod, p. 94. 

(28) Paulan. Attic, c. XXVIII. p. 68. 

(29) Lucian. de Gymnaf. p. 281. 
(90) Lucian. 1. c. 

(31) Sext. Empir. AdverC Mathem. II, p. 


(3a) Lucian. I. c. and Bis Accufat. p. 223** 


Digitized by 



Harpocrat. at the word, Xtmyoptt. Schol. A- 
rifloph. ad Vefp. v. 689. 

(33) Pollux, VIIL 10. Scgm. n;. Luciao. 
dc Gymnaf. p. 281. To this prohibition Quia* 
tilian alludes, VL i. § 7. and II. 17. Sec The- 
mift. Orat. 16. Apul. Milef. X. p. 2 14* 

(34) Dcmofth, in Ariftogit. p. 493. C, Ma- 
crob. Saturn. Vll. 1. Juvenal. IX. 102. Thence 
the proverbial expreflion-~K«i Aftow^ytrn vtwm* 
AoTtf (^, or r«y«»«Tff ®*— More filent even than aa 

(35) Ulpian in Timocr. p. 239. A. Ovid, 
Met. XV. 41. Plutarch, in Alcibiad. p. 202. D. 

(36) Pollux, Vlll. 10. Segm. 123; But 
Meurfius, in Areopag. c. VIII. p. s9^ does not 
think that pafl^ge refers to the Areopagus. Sec 
Lucian in Bis Accufat. p. 237. Ariftoph. SchoL 
ad Vefp. V. 981, 

(3y) Ariftoph, Vefp. v. 981. and 685, and 
750. and SchoL 

(38) Ariftoph, SchoL ad Vefp. v. 981. and 
9S5, where thofe urns are termed a/*(po(fK, and 
KoJimoi. See Flor. Chrift. ad h. I. 
. (39) Schol. Ariftoph. Vefp. v. 106. 

(40) Ariftid, Orat. in Minervam. Julian. 
Orat. III. p. 114. D. To this Philoftr. alludes, 
in Vit. Sophift. 11. 3. p. 568. See Lucian, in 
Revivifcent, p. 401. and Lambin, ad Cic. Orat. 
pro Milon. c. 3. 


Digitized by 


8J4 AVTtCtl3lTlES 

<4a) This ^ofbiibtrdljr was cuftomanr. Bet 
Lycurgus. Orat. Adv. i^crax. p. 134^ Ak 
iMtt 4C always the cuftotn^ This is ac loaft dat4>c- 
fo]. It is c^ideet froai tlK oratbn pf DemGfthc^ 
nes agaioll Canon, p« 730. that cmmnals ivore 
likewife kMtaceA tD!hMUfaun>enc by tht Apcopa^ 
gus. I (ball oat Dake pandcular nodoeaf tbr ob- 
^^ions to this aflenioD of onr author, iSKUch 
afe M be found in Menrfim, Arccqttg. c. IF. 
aodsn JElian. ¥• H. ¥*• i^.x 

(42) Demofth. in Ariftocrat. p. 438* & £tat« 
lux, VIU« lo. Segsn. 117. 

•(43) PoUtiac, VfiL 9. SegflD. 99. 

^44) Demoftbenes, Srat. la Ariftoorat. p. 
4;(8« C. aoknowJcdges the jodquity of diiaixir 
Jtonal by doubting whether be fhoukl nfer ita 
Ol^gi{l to the beroe^ or ^ xbe iSoda tbcm£ekBes. 

(45) Meurfius in Areopag. c HL p. iju 
ittvtaedh< in Solon, p. 88. D. E. 

(46) Pluttirch. 1. c. Cic. dc Offic I. 22/ 
{47J Ar»ftot. PoMl IL io. OatAml Marbles, 

A- 5, ^< and 26. 

(48) Perhaps by prohtbiting thofe from a Icat 
in the Arpopagtf s who had not been vefted with 
the dignity of archoa. Plutardi. in Sqlon, p. 
88. It is ocrtaij^, however, by a paflage of 
PoUuXi Vlll. 10. Segm. i^$. that SQk>n. gave 
jche jUrcopagitM » xank iupertor even 10 that of 


Digitized by 



theEphetsc^ if we are to read in chat paflage^ 
VfoxArarno'f^ and not Vfo^xottofj^t. 

(49) Plutarch, in Ftrid. p. 155. E. and P, 
157. A. Arillotle» Polic. 11. 10. Diod. Sic. 
Lib. XI. c, 77. p^ S9* W^ ^^c ^^ ^^ P^-* 
rides was afllfted by Ephialtes in lowering the 
authority, 0/ the Areopagus. 

(50) Cicero mentions it — ad Faoi. XIII. i. 
Luke, Aft. xvii. 19. Befides, under the em- 
perors Gratian and Theodolios, RuHus Feftus 
is ftyled proconfiil of Greece, and Areopagice--^ 
Infcript. Grut. n. 7. p. 464. whidi pkiniy coiir 
tradifts the opinion of Meurlius, that the Ako* 
pagus was abolifhed in the reign of Vefpafian^ 
Meurf. Areopag. c. IIL p. 16. ReineFius re« 
marks, with regard to the mfcription which we 
have dted, liiat it is proAiablexhat this FeRtia 
it he whom Valens fenc to govern ACa 10 ijvuu 
lity of proconful— -Zozim. IV, andihat Anunia- 
nus Marcellinus calls him Feftus Tridentinus. 
Lib. XXIX. p. 167, He afterwards thints ic 
more probable that Rufus Feftus Avienus is the 
porfon meant in the iafcription, and that he is 
perhaps ^he fame whom Ammianus aientions. 
The pafTage of Ammianus is. Lib. XXIX. p. 
563. and Valois makes the fame conjeAures 
with Rclncfius, on f dftus Tridentinus, The 
ptffiagc of Zofimus is ^. IT. e. 1 5. 

t CHAP. 

Digitized by 



C M A ?• XII. 
Of the Jurisdiction of the Ephetjb. 

I. ' I ^HIS was another very fevere tri- 
X bunal^ which was likewife call- 
cdf ( 1 ) T0 SiKogiifiw iTTi nec)iXotSi69. 

II. It is faid to have been inftituted by 
(2) Demopboon. 

IIL In the early times it was not re« 
quired that he fhould be a native of Attica 
who was to fit at this tribunal j the Ar- 
gians were likewife admitted to that (3) 

IV. But Draco afterwards excluded the 
Argians^ and only admitted the (4) Athe- 

V. Thcfe judges^ who were fifty-one 
in (5) number, and at leaft fifty years of 
(6) age, took cognizance of involuntary 
murders,— ^vf^i auctfo'i^y (povuv* 

VL The only alteration which Solon 




. O F G R EEC £• 237 

made in this tribunal, was, that he took 
from it the cognizance of fome important 
caufes, which he transferred to the Areo- 
pagus, to increafe the (7) authority of that 

VII. The judges were called E^irai, from 
tbe verb, i(piivui'-^to appeal; becaufe ap«* 
peals were made from inferiour tribunals to 
(8) this. 

VIII. Thefe judges were the mofl: rc- 
fpedable perfons of the ten tribes, from 
each of which five citizens were cbofen of 
an irreproachable life, to whom one drawn 
by (9) lot was added. 


(i) Demofth. contra Ariftocrat. p.438..C. 
Harpocrat. at the word E^itom. Hefych* at the 

words £iri IlaAAa^i^d. 

(2) Paufan. Attic, c. XXVIII. p. 69. Har- 
pocrat. at the word.s lS.m Tlaxxafiu. But Pollux, 
VIII. 10. Scgm. 125;. gives the origin of it to 
Draco. Thcfc authors, fo oppofice in appearance, 


Digitized by 



are reconciled by CL Jo. Tob. KvebfMs, Diff 
de Ephecis AthenknfiuoL 

(3) Harpocrac. at the words, ETinUAA«^i». 

(4) Pollux. Vin. 10. Segm. 124. it 5. Sigon. 
deRep. Atherr. HL j. p* 519. 

(5) Pollux, 1. c. Demofth. Orat. Adv. Ms^ 
cart, p* 666^ A. 

(6).Suid. at the word, Et^trcu. 
. (y) Dempfth. Orat. Adv. Macart. p. 666* and 
Adv. Ariftocrat. p. 443. C Pollux, I. c. Sigon. 
de Rep. Athen. III. 3. p. 519. Plutarch. Solon. 

p. 8». 
(8) Pollux, L c. Krcbfius> DilT. cit. 
(g) All thcfe particulars are taken from the 
SchoL Aril!oph. ad Plut. v. 277. and by that 
authority Sigooiuj is fupported— De Rep. A* 
then. III. 3. p. 519. Theopiniott of Sigonius 
our author follows here. But as the objeflions 
of the author of thcdtffcrtatioft already eked arc 
weighty, it is better to own one's * ignorance 
than obftinately to rely upon aflertions which are 
contradidled by reafoix 






Of (be HfiLTASTIC JirftI9J>lCTr€IBI«. 

I. ' I ^HIS was a very famous trihuoal at 
JL Atheo$« It was called (i) 'HXmi^ 

#f (2) *HA<«SfftKOir. 

IL It was fb tcrdiedy bccau£e it waa ck- 
pofedy in open air^ to the rajs of the (^) 

III. To y^^^^ at this tribiuiaU was, £q£ 
the fame reaioD^ in Greeks (4) *iDiix^M ; 
and the name of the judges wasi (5) 

IV. The number of the judges was not 
always the (6) fame; it was greater^, or 
fmaller» as the caufes were more or leis (7) 

y. (8) Lots determined who tbofc 
judges ihoiald be; and before they entered 
upon their office, they took a moil facred 
(9) oath in a moil folemn manner. 


Digitized by 



VI. As to the manner of bringing ft 
caufc before this court, I here give the fub- 
ftance of if .—He who wanted to lodge aa 
action agaioft any one, afked leave of the 
(lo) Thefmotbetaj fo to do; after having 
obtained it, he fummoncd the other party 
by a kind of bailiff, called xXtrnip, (i i) ap- 
paritor.— This was called in Greek, (12) 
irfe<ntaXt7ir6eu^-Hc then prefented his fuit 
to the niagiftrates in (13) writing. 

VIL When the judges were met, the 
magiftratcs went to the court, with the 
fuits, or petitions of the plaintiffs, and 
authorifed the judges to try the fcveral 
caufes — which in Greek was termed, (14) 
ttretytiv Sucae itg to Jijrasijf wk- litcs inducere 
in forum— whence this other expreffion 
was derived — ^txti 6«tf'«7«y<jtt®'— lis impor- 
tata — 4. c. (15) introdufta in forum. 

VIII. When the caufc was brought be- 
fore the judges, the accufed perfon had 
four ways to elude judgment, or to have it 
deferred— viz. i** [i6) wu^ety^cipf^z^ (17) 

Digitized by 


'OB C R E irX.E/ a4t 

IX. If xbeicctifid pcrfdh liifed ndile df 
thefe i«rour^e6, ire and - the k^cufer^were 
cMiged to take, each of th^enr, aa oatb. 
The dccufer'is o^h wis tefiiitd, '•t^^oVftt^kt 
— iand'thatof the^lccuftd, (ko) avrioijioa-iii. 

X. Befides, each of thcth was obliged to 
depofit a certtdn ftimof money, Which Was 
^rmed, Fi^^a'o**, or Pairaft^s, or, Para- 
-dlUbdlfe,6r (^!)^p6beK». • . 

Xf . AftUt thtfc prelinbinarfes, the-plaiiii* 
tiff and the (aa) defenaani or his- (fej) pa- 
tron, Deere petiriicted to fpe^. The time 
which w!u aHowed each of kherb to l^ead 
wsDs meafar^d b^ a (24) wtter-docki. ■ ■ 

XII. As ofdch wateV wiis allowed for 
-dse one &$ for the (2*5) '^llhep. And to 
prevent A-4dd, th* ^ourihg<Sf'<hc *«rkter irf- 
to the water-clock, was entrufted to a faith- 
ful perfon, who was termed, (26) EipuJlw^. 

XIII. Hence came the iprovcrb^ — (27) 

R xrv. 

Digitized by 


a4« A N T I Q^U I T I E S 

XIV. The judges, after having heard 
each party, gave their judgments by little 
^ints, and pafled (28) fentence. 

XV. When the accufed perfon loft his 
caafe, he was condemned to a fine, or to 
fome other punifhment If the pnni(hment 

' was death, he was put into the hands of 
eleven (29) executioners^ who were called 
—The Eleven— (30) ohvinta. 

XVL V^hen he was only condemned to 
pay a fine, he was] delivered to other o& 
ficers, named (31) v^uxro^ng, exadores. 

XVII. When he was not able to pay the 
fine, he was thrown into (32) priibn. 

XVIIL His fon too was proclaimted in- 
famous, and was thrown into the fame pri- 
fon, if his father (33) died there. 

XIX. The. pay of the Heliaftas for every 
caufe they tried, was three (34) oboli. 


(i) Paufan. Attic, c. XXVIII. p. 69. Holflen 
ttdStcph.p. I28, 


Digitized by 



(2) Subaudiy ^mar^p^ Tribunal. 

(3) SchoL Ariftoph. ad Nub. v. 860. See 
XTlptao in Timocrat. p. 227. C. 

(4) Ariftoph. Lyfiftrat. v, 381. 

(5) Ariftoph. Equ. r, 255. Harpocrat. at 

(6) Pollux VIII. n. Scgtn. 123. 

(7) Ulpi^Rs in Timocr. p. 226. B. Petit, ad 
Leg. Attic, p. 309. 

(8) Petit, p. 309. He grounds his affcrtion 
on a paflage of Demofth. adv. Ariftogit. p. 
494. A. 

(9) T^^^ ^^^ ^^ cermted ^(k^ ixixfuvf and is 
to be found in t)emofth. adv. Tim. p. 481. 

(10) Petit, Leg. Attic, p. 314. It appears 
that this permiflion was not granted till after an 
examination termed avax^ io-k—- on which confult 
Suidaa at this word, and Ulpian. Midian. p. 
iy6. A. 

(11) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Vefp. v. 1 89. Har- 
pocrat. at the word. Kahtij^k. Salmaf. ad Jus 
Attic, p. 858. 

(13) Ariftoph. Nub. v. 1280. and, Schol in 
b. 1. Demofthenes ufes likewife the word K«- 
AircrOfti. Ariftocrat. p. 437. B. 

(13) Ulpian. in Midian. p. i72.B.Demofth. 

Orat. de Cherfon. p. 38. B. calls this accufation, 

or brief, wpomw ; and Suidas lays it waa likewife 

R 2 termed. 

Digitized by 


^M4 AN Ti Q^U I T I E S 

termed, vf^Kkntrn y^nfAjAxmw 5 i. €. calMftU> or U- 

bellus, cui aftio infcripta erat. 

(14) Sigon. ,dc Rcpub. Athca. 111. 4. p% 523^ 
and the authors whom he cites. Harpocrat. at 
the words, 'Hyrpovi* J»x«rnf w. Lyfias contra Al- 
cibiad. and Orat. Kara N*ko|;*(*x** D^«*ofth. adv. 
Lacrit. p. 598. B. 

(15) Demoflh. in Zcnothcmid. p. Sjy.C In 
Lacritum, p. 598. A. Lyfias in Panc}eoneia< 

(16) Ux^xy^xpfi — was an oppofition iAfifting 
on one of the following particiilars— cither that 
the aflfair had been judged before— or chat it 
had not been brought before the judges by the 
niagiftrates, — or that there was no law rdaciog. 
to the point in queftion. See Suidas at this 
word. Ulpian in Midian. p. 170. C. Pollux, 
VIII. 6. Segm. 57. 

(17) "TTra^fAwna was an oath taken to obtaici a 
delay. It pleaded, fickncfs, the death of afridid, 
or fome other misfortune. See Ulpian in Mi- 
dian. p. 170. C Harpocrat. at this word, and 
the authors cited by Valefius. See likewifc Pal- 
mer and Kufter ad Ariftoph. Ecclef. v. 10 18. 

Ci8) Avr(7'pflt(pvi — was a recrimination by whidi 
the defendant accufcd th« plaintiff. Pollux» 
VIII. 6. Segm. 58. and the notes in Harpocra- 

(19) Avu^n^i; — was, when the accu&d pcrfoa 
having not been in court, and confcquently hav- 





iJlg.iiot.hnrd the haUiflf (ummon him to appear 
there, ttfus efcaped judgment, and in the fpace. 
of tw«> months, brought an aAion in his turn a- 
gainft his accufer. See Sigoo. de Rep. Atben. 
IlL 4. p. 524. PoUu3(, VUl. 6* Segm. 61. 
Yfclf. in Midian« p. 36 1 . C. 

(20) Polluic, VIII. 6. Segm. $5^ explains 
thefe two words. See Ulpian. in Orat. de falsa 
Legat. p. 100, A. Schol. Ariftoph. ad Vefp. v. 

(21) All tbcfc terms arc explained by Pollux, 
VIII. c. 6. Segm. 38. 39. See Sigon. 1. c. p. 
^tg^ Harpocrat. at thefe words, llfvtoafua, — 

Il»f ocfai^^i — IlatpaxaTatSoXfj— Efl-«CiA«« — and Kuf- 

ter and Ariftoph. Nub. v. 1134. and v. 1182. 

(22) Herald, ad Jus Att. and Rom. VI. 10, 


(23) Suidas, at the word, Xwnfof^. -ffifchin. 

contra Ctefiphont. p, 302. C. 

(^4) Ariftoph, Schol. ad Acharn. v. 6g^. 
jEfchin.. contra Ctefiph. p. 302. C. Demofth. in 
Nicoftrat. p. 723. B. Lucian often alludes to 
this cuftom. For inftance, in Revivifc. g^s* 


(25) It is probable, fromapaflageofDemof- 
thenes, that thfs was not always cuftbmary. In 
Maccrtat. p. 659. 

{26) Pollux, VIIL 9. Segm. 113. Kufter, 
ad Suid. at the word, AMfAtfMiTgnfAgni^ 

R 3 (2?) 



24$ A N T I QJJ I T I E S 

(2)) i. c. To plead by the water-clock— -11^ 
v^ctff A}^«vi^f«4fti — zs Detnofthenes exprtfles it.— 
In M acarcat. p. 659. A. Cic. de Orat. III. $ 34. 
Ad Clepfydram clamare. From this cuftom o- 
ther proverbial expreflions are derived, aquam 
perdercy axxu^ o^aXumM u^f— -and perhaps this 
— aqua hasret. 

(28) Xenoph. Sympof. p. m. 704. Sigon. p. 
527. Pollux, Vlll. 5. Segm. 16. 

(29) Lytias narot rm <riroirwXMf. 

(30) The SchoK Ariftoph. ad Vefp. v. 1 103, 
calls them, Nof*o^uX4ucK, 9wfA9(puXeouu A^orric* 

See the Commentaries on Pollux, VIIL 9. SegQi. 


(31) Demofth. in Theocrim. p. 510. A. la 
Ariftogit. p. 494. B. They are alfo mentioned 
in the Gofpel of St. Luke, xii. 58. 

(32) Nepos, Miltiad. c. VII. 

(33) Nepos, in Cimone, c« I. Demofthenes 
exclaims againft this cuftom. Epift. III. p. 114. 

(34) Their pay was only one obolus, accor- 
ding to Ariftophanes — ^Nub. 861. — Two, ac- 
cording to the Schol. ad Ran. v. 140. and three^ 
according to Pollux, VllL 9. Segm. 113. and 
5. Scgmi 10, 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

O F G R E E C E* 047 


Of Judgments and Accusations. 

!• f I ^HE judgments were public or pri- 
JL vate. 

II. The public judgments were termed 
( I ) KocTiryo^tat, and the private, (2) iizeu. 

III. There werediffprent kinds of public 

i^ The judgment named y^ct^, which 
took cognizance of various (3) public crimes^ 
fuch as murder, premeditated wounds, fet- 
ting fire to houfes or other pofleiSons, 
poifonings, ambufhes, facrilege» impiety, 
debauchery, adultery, caluniny, celibacy, 
and other crimes, relative to military dis- 
cipline, fuch as, negleding to be enrolled, 
defertion, quitting one's (4) poft, &c. 

2^ The judgment called (5) ^aa-t^ was 
the detedion and information given of con- 
c^ealed crimes. 

R4 5^ 

Digitized by 


24a: A N T I. (3t U' I T I H S 

3^- The judgment termed nviu^tg, wa8 
the procefs againft thofe who, without hav- 
ing paid their quota to the public treafury^ 
offered themfelves canditates to bear offices, 
and to judge the citizens. Every one was 
permitted to (6) inform againft them. 

4^ The judgment named c^TFuyeayfj^ was 
the profecution of .thieves and robbers j a- 
gainft ^pm any one might inform in theit 
abfence, or bring them to juftice when they 
were caught (7) in flagranti deliSlo. 

5^ The judgment termed Btpfiyija-f^, was 
the difcovery of a (8) criminal who con- 
cealed himfelf. 

6^ The judgment named uyS^^oXfi^tav was 
the procefs againft thofe who refufed to dc- 
Kver up a criminal concealed in thpir (9) 

7^ The judgment termed 6/trayy«X<a^ was 
the animadverting on thofe wJiQcoriimitted 
crimes againft which there was no pofitive 

8^ There were alfo many kinds of pri- 
vate judgments adapted to the different 


Digitized by 


O F: G R E EX E. ^j^gi 

priicale'Crimc&*-*to/abu(e» blo^s, bad treat-- 
mcntofanyfcind; (ii) madncfs, falfc wit- 
ncfs, and other crimes of this nature^ rd^t- 
ii^ to depofitS; to coauncfce^ to thelettiiig. 

of houfcs, to (12) patroQage> &c. 

>^ ■■■'■» ■ ' _. ' . . "^ 


(i) They were likewife termed, ^ix«i hiMTioLi^ 
or, itxai t^fAofftfi fubaudi, MiKoe-fAivou. Detnoftb. 
in Timccrat. p. 469^ B. The public judgments 
were the judgments eftablilhed for the maintc- ' 
nance of the public laws ; and the public laws 
were laws ena&ed againft publip crimes. See 
&tlniaf« de Mode Ufurai:. 

(2} Aixai iiioth or iJKi)rix«e«-*-Private caufes— * 
Qemoftb. Ibid, and Salmaf. 1. c. 

(3) Harpocrat. at the wprd, r^ot^. Salmaf. 
dft Modo Ufarar. p. 108^ Herald, ad Jus At- 
tic, p. 195. 

(4) Thefc are almofl: all the crimes enumerated 
by Sigon. de Rep. Athen. Ill i. p. 509. Con- 
fult likewife Pollux, VIIL 6. Segm. 40. 

(5) This word is derived from, (pjxmip^ to 
(how. Sec Sigon. 1. c. Pollux, VIII. 6. Scjgm. ' 


(6) See Demofth. in Timocrat. pag. 464, C. 
6 Ulpian. 




Ulpian. pag. 239. B. SchoL Ariftoph. id Vefp^ 
V. 1 10 J. Salmaf. de Modo Ufurar. p. 779. and 
Andocid* De Myft. p. 18$. 

^7) Sigon. 1. c. p. 511* Ulpian. in Timocrat. 
p* 239. B. Lyfias, in Agorat. p, 126. Salmaf. 
dcModo Ufurar. p. 773. 

(8) Sigon. 1. c. p. 511. Salmaf. 1. c. p. 777. 
Pollux. VIII. 6. Segm. 50. 

(9) Pollux, I c. Harpocrac. at this word. Sal- 
maf. Lc. p. 212* 

(10) Sigon. 1. c. p. 495. Harpocration, at 
thb word. Pollux, VIII. 6. Segm. 51. Sat-' 
roaf. l.c. p. 589. Herald. Obf. ad Jus Attic» 

p. 220. 

(11) In Greek, v»(a»oia. But Sigon. 1. c. 
fubftitutes, vA^emai — drunkennefi. And his 
reading feems to be fupported by a paflage of 
Pollux, VIII. 9* Segm. 89. But perhaps our 
author confulted fome manufcripts of Pollux, 
which had the word, iar«(anoia. This fenfe, in 
faA, is confirmed, by a paflage of Cicero, de 
Seneft. c. VII. — De Sophocle a filiis in judicium 
yocato, quod videretur defipere. See Xenoph. 
Memorab. I. 2. § 49. and Ariftoph. Nub. v. 


(i2) Thefe are all the private crimes enu- 
^merated by Sigonius; and his jcnumeration dif* 
fers very little from Pollux, VIII. 6. Segm. 31* 


Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

OF G R E £ C E. - tyi 

C H A P. XV. 

Of the Punishments ufed by the 

I. '"nr^HE principal, and moft ufual pu« 
X nifhments, (i) were, 

1* Arifua, public (2) infamy. 

2* AffXcio^ fervitade«-to which a (3) free- 
man was reduced. 

3* Sji^^TAp— marks which were im-* 
preued with a red-hot iron on the forehead, 
dr hands of ilaves who had fled from their 
mafters, or committed any other great 
(4) crime. 

4'' ZrifX^— -this puniihment was— -engrav- 
ing the offence of a criminal in large cha- 
raders on a (5) pillar. 

jo AfOY^O^^— chains-^they were of many 
kinds. I. Kvfuv; this was a wooden con- 
finement, which bent down the neck of 
the (6) criminal; — it is likewife termed, 
(7) xXoi©-, and »Xy®#.— 2. Xoml — this was ] 


Digitized by 


^ ANT BQtU^tT 1E:S 

*— :v70oden (8) fetters. It was likewiife 
nameds (9) ^uXoin— -In Attica^ (10) xaKof, 
(11) voSoKUK^p and— (12) TToJo^faCif.— 3. 
Ibw^c ^ it was a tab)^ on which' ( 13) ii^al«^ 
fadors were tisd d^wn*-^^. Tfa;i;©— a 
wheel, to which the fugitive flaves, or 
thofe who were guilty of theft were tied, 
and beaten with (14) rods. 

6° 0i7ir— *xilc — the- baniChment* of a ci- 
tizen from his country, without hope of 
(15) return.— Yet he might be recalled by 
the fame magiftratc who exiled him;* The 
goods of exiled perfons were confifcated 
and fold by auction. Their place of exile 
was not fixed in the (16) fentence pafl&d 
upon them. 

7* Oftracifm was a peculiar kind of exile, 
by which a citizen, whofe (17) power had 
grown formidable, was baniflied from his 
country for ten years. The fufFfages were 
given upon (hells, in Greek, termed o^^cacx, 
whence the word (18) oftracifm was form- 
ed. Tiie oflracifm was not valid without 




OF GR.EECE;. if§ 

fix thoufand of thofe (19) (hells. This 
kind of osibt and exile in the .general and 
more extenlive fenfe^ were alike in one par- 
ticular !;^*--in each of ;the puniflimeats. • 
man was (20) bani(hed from his ocHintryft 
Btit in other circtimftiinces tliey diiHsred'— 
i"" The goods of the oftraciftfd were wfeithet 
confifcatedj nor fold by aul^ion^ as ihofe of 
the (21) exikd.-^— 2^ The oftracifed were 
obliged to refide in a ptrtiailar plaoe; tnat 
die (22) cjciicd were not. When aOa^Qlfvi 
was eftablifiied is not certainly kno^n i 
fome fay it was inftitutcd by (23) Hippias, 
and olheif 9^ by (24) Clifthenes. Hyberbo- 
In^r an abandoned mtn» wts the laft oa 
whom the fentence of (25) oftraeifin w^s 
paiTedf a fentence too mild for his guilt. 
The SyracBfans adopted this puni(hment 
from the Athenians j but indead of, (hells, 
they ufed leai^es; whence comes the ^nord, 
(26) viTa}iurfi&*. 


Digitized by 


454 A N T I (^U I T I E S 

N O T E S to C H A P. XV, 

(i) All thefe punifliments are included b/ 
PoUux in the general word, rifAYi/*ar«> fervitttde 

- (2) This punilhment is often mentioned in 
the laws of the Athenians. See Diog. Laert. L 
55* In comparing which paflage with iEfchin. 
in Timarch. p. 174. C. it appears that thofe 
who had been once difgraced with public infa* 
my^ loft the right of haranguing the people, of 
ftanding candidates for public honours, and all 
the other privileges of a citizen. See Sigon. p. 
516. and particularly Krebf, in Commentat. de 
Stelitis Athenienf. p. 6. 

(3) This was the punifhment of all thofe who 
were fold by law. Se^ Argument. Orat4 De- 
mofth. contra Eubulid.p. 535. C Plutarch, in 
Solone, p. 91. A. 

(4) See Lipf. Eledb. II. 15. Hermann. Hugo, 
de prima Scrib. Orig. c. 19, cum Obfcrv. Trot^ 
zii, p. 189. and Pollux, III. 8. Segm. 79. 

(7} Demofth. Philipp. III. p. 49. A. Pollux, 
VIIL 7. Segm. 73. The reader will find this 
fubjedt thoroughly treated by Krebfius, DiC 
de Stelitis Athenienf. 

(6) Ariftoph. Plut. v. 458. and Schol. It 
was fo named becaufe it confined the head. In 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E C E; 35I 

Latin^ it was ternled iu^us^ if we Aedit Saltea- ] 
fius— De Modo Ufur. p. 814. or rather Suidas, 

(7) Suidas, at the word, Ktf(pm. 

(8) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Plut. v. 276. Sal< 
maf. ad Achil. Tat. p. 648. 

(9) Ariitoph. Equ. 393. calls .it (uXm Ttr^/u^ 
MV9 the perforated wood — ^Lyiiftn 681. and 
Equ. XO46.— ^uXoviTfrriovfi}^*—- the wood with 
five holes. 

(10) Hefychius * calls it )ucAi<^. 

(11} We find veloMKKD— Taylor, in Orat. I. 
Lyfis adverf. Theomneft. p. 81 • where Lyfi- 
as himfclf explains thefe words of the law of So- 
lon — fvrir iro9oxaKKi9 Mt^iM — by the following-* 
ft T» 0vx« Mtcicn. See Demofth. in Timocrat. 
p. 475. B. and Wolf, ad Aft. XVI. 24- 

(12) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Equ. v. 366. In 
Latin, mrvus. Gell. XX. i. « 

(13) Ariftoph. Theftnoph. v. 938. and 947. 

(14) Schd. Ariftoph. Plut. v. 876. terms it 
Ukewife, (uXoiri^. 

(15) Suidas, at the word, ^(«m»^/«0>« 

<i6) SchoL Ariftoph. ad Equ. v. 851. and ad 
Vcfp. V. 941. 

(17) Ariftot. Polit. III. 13. 

(18) Diodor. Sic. XI. c. $y. p. 41. Plutarch. 
in Ariftid. p. 32 2. E. In Pericl. p. 137. B. In 
Alcib.p. 197. A. 

Digitized by 



; <t^) ^chol. Ariftoph. ad Equ/v. 851. PIIh 
Itrch. L c, aod -Pollux, VIIL 5. Segtn, to. 

(20) Schol.. Ariftoph. ad Ve%. v. $41. 

(21) Schol. Arifto{>h. 1. c. 

(22) iSoidas, at the word^ or^iaodir/ti^) and 
5choL Ariftoph. 1. c. 

<23) Hertdkli db Reb. Public. In MeurH 
l>a. Attic, r. 48. 

(24) iElian. XIII. 24. Other authtfrs attri- 
bute it to others. The reader will find their 
iiiStrent dpinibnd in Meurfius, I., c. It is pro- 
Ixibk that it W9 inftituted by Clifthenes. Fdt 
Diodorus Siculus fays^ that oftraciTfn was eftab- 
lilhed after the ekpulfiqn q{ the Pififtratidas; 
Htrpocratioih, that Hipparchus^ a relation of 
Pififtratusy w^s the firft who was banifhed bjr 
oftracifm-^nd We are told by Ariftotle, 1. c. 
that Clifthenes llrengthened the democracy. 

(25) Schol Ariftoph. ad Equ. v. 851. Plu- 
tarchv in Ariftid. p. ^22. D. In. Nki^ p. $30. 

(26) Died; Sic. XI. c. 87. p. 6$. Hefych. at 
'the wbrdy iriraXMr/*^. 

Digitized by 






Of the Capital Punishments* 

I. rr^HE capital punishments iamong 
A the .Greeks in general^ as well as 
among the Athenians, were — i^ (i)H^^ 
•—the fword — 2^ (2) Ai6oCoX$oc — lapida- 
tion .7—3* (3 ) Karajc^jLAVio-jtt©^— precipi ta- * 
tion froai the top of a rock.-— 4^ (4) Kara- 
^©^Ti<rjt*©L.— -drowning in the fca.— 5*" (r) 
*af/tA«Jcoy— poifoil* — 6^ (6) Bcc^uO^ou — 
throwing the criminal into a deep pit.—* 
7^ (7) TujiA7rayi<rjt4®— -beating him to death 
with fticks. — 8^ (8) B^o;;^®*— hanging.—. 
9^ (9) Iluf— burning. 



(2) JElian. V. H. v. 19. Cic. de Offic. III. 
II. See Mcurf. ad Lycoph. v. 331. Mauifec. 
ad Plut. Gcogr. Miner. T. 11 p, xi. 

Digitized by 



(3) Eurip. Troad. v. 720. Paufan, Phoc« 
c. II. p. 102. -flElian. V. H. XI. 5, Hcncl. O- 
tium Uratiflavienfe, c. X. 

(4) Schol. Ariftoph, ad Equ. v. 1 360. Potter, 
ad Lycoph. v, 239. Wolf, Cur, Philol. ad 
Matth, XVIII. 6. 

(5) ^lian. V. H. I. 16. Plato, in Phaed. 
\6) Ariftoph. Plut. v. 431, and SchoL Har- 

pocr. at this word ; and Valef. p, 30, MauC ad 
Plut, dc Flumin- p, 17. 

(7) Schol. Ariftoph. v. 47^. This punifh- 
ment is minutely difcufled by Gataker, in Ad- 
verfar. Mifc. c. XLVL p. 907. Sec Wolf, Cun 
Philol. ad Hebr. XL 35. 

(8) Pollux, VIII. 7.S. 71. makes |3fpx**» ^^ 
rope, one of the inftruments ufed by the execu- 




O F G R E E C E. 25% 


C H A P. 1. 

Of the L AKD-S£RVICB» 

I. TN the Grecian armies there were— !• 
A Infantry— 2** Thofe who fought on 
cars— •3' (i) Cavalry. 

IL There were three kinds of infantry. 
1* 'OTrAirai, the heavy-armed foldiers. a' 
YAoi, the ]ight-armed foldiers. 3"" nsXr^*- 
^cu, thofe who carried the buckler called 
viXra, ; though they are fometimes com- 
prehended in the ^iXot, and by that term 
(2) diflinguifhed from the oTPXixca. 

III. The cuftom of fighting on a car 

feems to have been more ancient among the 

S 2 Greeks 




Greeks than that of fighting on (3) hottt^ 

IV. Moft of thek cars or chariots of war 
were dcawn by (4) two horfes. 
• V. In each car there were (wo warriors; 
whence comes the Greek name of a car, (5) 
£(p^O<«i— One was, imx!&^—'he who held the 
reins, the charioteer. The other— v^a«- 
jS^Tifc^— he who directed the (6) charioteer 
whither he fhbuld drive* The paraebatcs, 
when be came to a clofe fight, defcended 
from the (7) car. 

VI. The Thcflalians were the moft fa- 
mous horfemen of all (8) Greece. Wc 
are told that the Lapithae Were the firft who 
thought of mounting a horfe. Men on 
horfeback, before people were accuftodied 
to the fight, were deemed (9) prodigies, 
and gave rife to the fables of (ib) Centaurs, 
and Hippocentaurs. 

VII. Among the Athenians no perfbn 
was admitted into the cavalry,' without 
having previoufly obtained the confent of 




O P Q R E E C £« 2^1 

•the Hippaschus, the Phykrchos^ afid of the 
^i 1 ) fi^nale of five kundre<L 

VIIL Two qualifications .were piincipal- 
^ required of one yirho went into the cavaV- 
ty, viz. (12) fortune and ftrength. 

IX. His horie was to be well broken, 
hold, metttefome, tradable, and obedient 
to his mafter.— If he bad not thefe quali- 
ficationsrhe was (13) rejected. 

X. Trial was made of him to the ibuqd 
of a bell««-(i4) xtai^v^i hence is derived 
the verb, (15) »«J!ww^fiiv— to try. 

XL Horfes worn with long fervice were 
fttffered to enjoy their eafe; they made a 
mark on their jaw, called in Greek, (16) 
wyf^^ and (17) T^vtriTT'Triov; whence comes 
the proverbial expreflion— -(18) iTnQoKKBm 

XIL Thehorfemen had titles relative to 
their different arms— as, fo^aro^o^ot, v.ovtq^ 

XIII. The horfes of the Cataphradi 
S 3 were 

Digitized by 


t6t A N T I Q^V I T I E $ 

were covered with difFereat arms and crna- 
ments — fuch as— -v^^jEter^iirifa^ ^m^ioL^voL^ 

(20) wafoacinff44iM, (21) ^fd^ftarcCy (22) foe- 

XIV. The Athenians were obliged by 
law to (23) enrol themfelves for war when 
their names were written in a lift, called 

(24) Lexiarchica, i. e. when they were 

(25) eighteen years of age. 

XV, The names of the foldiers who 
were enrolled were infcribed in the public 

.(26) rcgiftcrs. To enter their names thus, 
was termed in Greek, (27) rf^roXcytTr, (28) 
Kfx^rxUyM^ Kuruy^aq>iw^ and — xe$TecyM^, 
or, KotToXoyov (29) wofSi(r9»i^ 

XVI« As foon as the young foldier was 
enrolled, he took, a military (30) oath. 
The ftatc furnilhed him with his (31) 
buckler, and his pike. 

XVII. The new levies made their firft 
expedition round the territories of Attica, 
which they were to defend againft all in- 


Digitized by 


cnrfiohs: thence they were called (32) 

XVIII. The military age lafted forty- 
two years, viz. from eighteen to (33) fixty. 

XIX. Old men, and citizens on the de- 
cline of life, and of a weak conftitution j 

(34) coUedors of the public revenue, and 

(35) infamous perfons, were excluded from 
military fervice. 

XX. Neither were the flavcs allowed to 
fprve ia war, except in every imminent 
and great (36) dangers. 

XXI. No citizen of Athens could refufc 
<o (37) fervej for unlefs a man bore arms 
for the Aatc, he loft the right of giving his 
fuffrage, and the pther privileges of a (38) 


XXII. To prevent defcrtions, marks, 
termed (39) s-zy^ara, were imprinted on 
the hands of the foldiers. 

XXIII. In the ancient times, every fol-" 
idier fcrvcd at his own (40) cxpencc. 

3CXIV. The Carians were the firftof the 
S 4 _ Greeks 

Digitized by 


t64 A N T I (XV I T t E S 

Greeks who ferved for pay ; a circCimftdnce 
which drew on them the charaAer of i 
mercenary, and fordid people ; and wlsich 
gave birth to thefe proverbial words— (43) 

Xa^iKOlp and iCOL^lfJLOl^Gl. 

' XXIV. But afterwards all the Greeks 
made war a trade ; and fought for moiiey, 
not only in defence of their country, but 
likewife in (43) foreign armies. 

XXV. Pericles was the firft who intro- 
duced among the Athenians the cuflom of 

fcrving for (44) pay, 

XXVI. The pay was not always the 

fame. The foot at firft had (45) two oboK 
a-dayj afterwards, (46) four. Hence we 
have the following proverbial expreflions-^ 
(47) TiT^CoX^* i8<®— and! (48) T€Tf«6oX#- 


(i) ^lian. Taftic. c. 2. terms them thus iii 
Greek— i* T« vi^ixov ; 2" To «r' o;^»i/aat(w? 5 3' T# 

Digitized by 


OF O Jt B E C £. i6i 

(2) MliM. Tadic. c. 2. p. 14. Arrian. Tac- 
tic, p. 10. Suidas, at the word, iirXnai. Set 
Pollux on the Peica, L to. 8egm. 1 34. Livy, 
XXXI. 36. calh the Peltaftae, Cetrati. 

(3) Homer's heroes are always mounted upon 
chariots, and never upoh horfes. For inftance, 
IX. fi. &c. Thus the opinion of Lucretius, B* 
V. V. 1296. is void of probability. See Palae- 
phat. c. I. Hermann. Hug. de Milit. Equ. I. 6. 


(4) Homer, Ia. E. v. 195. Ibid. T. 400* 
Virg. ^ncid. VII. 280. Yet fometimes they 
were drawn by three. Homer. Ia. n. v. 4-71. 

(5) The word li(Pf&» is- of the fame import 
with Ji^of^. Euftath. Ia. JP. p. 1154. 1« 39* 

(6) Euftath. I. c. andlA. X. p. 1380. 1. 13. 

(7) Homer. Ia. P. v. 480. Hermann. Hug. 
1. c. pag. 42. 

(8) Xenoph. de AgefiK p. J22. Polyb. IV% 
p. 278. Paufan. Phocic. I. p. 799. Juftin. VII. 
6. Hermann. Hug. de Milit. Equcftr. I. 2. p. 

(9) Virg. Georg. III. 155. But what we arc 
ignorant of is the name of him who firft taught 
men to ride on horfebacrk. See Brunner. ad Pa< 
Iseph. I. p. 89. 

(10) Pateph. nifi ftirifwv, c. I. -ffilian. V. H. 
IX. i& 




f66 A NT I CtU I T lES 

(ii) Xenoph. Hipparc p. 753. Petit, ad 
Leg. Attic, p. 550; 

(12) Xenoph. 1. c. Petit, I. c. p. 552. 

(13) Xenoph. L c. Mettiorab. III. 3. § 4. Pe- 
tit, Lc. p. 551. 

(14) Schol. Ariftoph, ad Ran. v. 78. Suid 

at the word, xiaitavi^et^. 

(15) Ariftoph. ad Ran. v. 735. Hcfych. at 
the word» iwimwu. We find another etymology 
of this word in Ulpian. Orat. de Falf. Legat. p. 
X05. B, 

(16) Hefych. at the words iWo» r^xi^* 

(17) Hefych. at the word, r^uo-iirvuv. Kufterus, 
' ad Suid. 

(i8)£u(lath. adoJ.A. p. 197. 1.44. and the 
notes varior. ad Poll. 7. 33. Segm. 186. 

(19) All thefe words are explained by ^lian. 
in TaA. II. p. 14. See Hefych. at the word^ 
ttlAxxJ^h and Pollux, I. lO. Segm. 132. 

(20) Frontalia — Aurium, et Maxillarum teg- 
mina — Pcdoralia — Laterum tegumenta — Fe- 
niorum munimenta— Ocrea;. Pollux, I. lo. 
Segm. 140. where, inftead of vr»f<ari»j wefread, 
v»fkmi»^ tegumenta oculorum. See Achill. 
Tat. I. p. 49. Gell. v. 5. Apul. in Milef. X. 
p. 224« and De Deo Socrat. 

(21) Strata £()uorum. Xenoph. Cyrop^. 
VIII. p. 190. By the fame author they are term- 
ed iTop^oy— wff I Imri^fig. 





. {2a)Equoram9equituinqueornatnenta. Pol- 
lux, X. 12. Segm. 54. That in the word tpm- 
hm^ot were included ornaments of tht riders, 
Livy leaves us no rootn to doubt. IX. c. 46. 
See Hermann. Hug. L c. II. g. 

(fiZ) See Ulpian. In Olinth. III. p. 29. 6; 

(24) See Lycurg. adv. Leocrat. p. 146. Pol- 
lux, Vin. 9. Segmi. 1 05. 

(25) Ulpian, L c. fays, eigbteini and Pollux, 
1. c. fays, twenty. But thefe authors may be ear 
lily reconciled. 

(26) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Equtt. v. 1336. 
Thofe public regifters were termed, x«r«xo}^. 
—•Whence Xenophon, Memorab. III. 4. S «• 
has this- expreflion-— fx xarotX^yH rfotrfuo/Ao^*— - 
one who was appointed to military fervice from 
the catalogue. * 

(27) Plutarch, in Mario, p. 4J0. A. 

(28) Ariftoph. in Equit. v, 1064. 
(29} Polyb. deMilit. Rom. c. I. § 2. 

(30) We have the form of the oath in Ly- 
curgus, adv. Leocrat. p. 146. and in Pollux, 
yill. 9. Segm. 105. 

(31) Harpocrat. at the word mfiv^iX^. 

(32) Pollux, VIII. 209. Segm. 105. Har- 
pocrat. at the word, wt^m^x^. Ariftophanes 
alludes to this name. Av. v. 1177. 

(33)1 cannot be of our author's opinion. For 
the law in Ulpian, ad Olynth. III. p. 29. B. en- 




joins foUkrs to ferte to the age of forty. And 
Macrobius kerns to have that kw m vicw» ia 
Soma Scip. L 6. p« 29. as LtpQos remarks^ de 
>lilit. Rom. L Dial, 2« The additioaal namcsi 
of X9i0i«f , or lUwttv* as they are caUed, make a 
diflkulty , on whk:h names, the reader may con- 
fult Harpocrat. at the word, lvttM^^ and Sui- 
das at the fame word, and other authors. It 
appears that this difficulty has brought L^m^ert 
Bos into an error, and Slgon. de Rep. Athen. 
IV. 5. p. 554. But it is completely folved in 
Petit, ad Leg. Attic, and though it were not 
iblved, we Ihould abide by the clear and poGdve 
terms of the law. 

(34) Demofth. in Neaer. p. 521* A. . 

(g5) Lyiias— *Kftr« AxmC$cA Af(arii«(» p* 142. 
Meurf. in Themid. Attic. I. 10. p. 26. 

(36) Ariiloph. Ran. v. 33. and Schol. and 
Spanheim. Suidas, at the word Mf^f «• Paufan. 
Achaic. c. XV. p. g^$. Petit, Leg. Attic, p. 

547- , 

(37) Ulpian. Falf. Legat. p. 117. B. 
See Petit, p. 153. 

(38) Sfcbines contra Ctefiphon. p. 299. B. 
Pent, p. s^6. Suidas, at the word, mt^wfjtMXf^* 

(39) '^his obfervation is fitter for an abridg- 
ment of Roman antiquities than for a little trea^ 
tife on Greek cuftoms. For there were no mili- 
tary ili^maca but uader the Cacfars. The reader 


Digitized by 



may confult on this cullom, Lipf. de Milit« Ro- 
man. 1. 9. Herm. Hug. de Scrib. Orig, c. XJX^ 
p. If 6. and the authors cited by Wolf. In Ou- 
ris Phil ad Gal. VI. ly. It is true, Aetius A- 
miden^ a Greek phyfician, has the folkMripg 

words-— £Ti}«fMT4t %a>Sci roL iith 'mt v^#9tv¥, 41 uK>^ 
Tiv^ f^'f^c TV iFtafMbr^ ttrhy^OL(pfknok •/« TM»f]^iiMM 

fk%yta¥ cv Tftic ;(f^i^*-*StiginatB afC'iiuiHcs intprint'* 
cd on the face, or any other part of tbe boc^; 
as they were imprinted on the hands of foldiers; 
— By this paflage we fee what ftigmata were,' 
and that they were made upon the hands. But 
as this phyfician lived in the time of Juftinian, 
when the Romans were mafters of the world, 
his teftimony is not fufficient to prove that this 
cuftom was in ufe among the Greeks. ^ 

(4c) This is proved by the information of 
Ulpian, who tells us, pag. 50. A. that Pericles 
was the firft who procured pay for the foldiers. 

(41) Suidas. Cic. pro Place, c. XXVII. Stra- 
bo, XIV. p. 456. Mich. Apoftol. VIII. 34. and 
XV. 59.. Meurf. ad Lycophr. v. 13S4. 

(42) Hcfych. at thcfe words. We find a like 
proverb in Horn. Ia. I. v. 378. Hcmftcrh. ad 
Ariftoph. Plut. p. 6. 

(43) This cuftom is often mentioned by A- 
riftophancs. Ex. Gr. Av, v. 1367. Sec Po- 
lypi. III. 9. § 35. and 51. JElian, V.H* HI. 

6 27. 

Digitized by 


2J6 A N T I CLU I T I E S 

27. Plutarch, Agcfil. p. 616. C D, Xenoph, 
AgefiK 124. 

(44) Ulpian. td Orat. de Syntax, pag« 50. A. 
Meurf. ad Lycophr. v. 1384. 

(4$) Dcmofth. Philipp. I. p. 17. C 

(46) Meuril Le6t Attic. II. 8. Petit, a^ 
Leg. Attic, p. 554. 

(47) Euftath. adoJ« A. p. 39. 1, 42, 

(48) Pollux, IX. 6. Segm. 64. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Of the Armour and W i A f o n s, 

I. f I ^HEIR arms may be divided into 
X three kinds, i^ The arms to 
cover the body. 2^ Their common wea- 
pons of war. 3"* The arms which they 
ufed in (i) fieges. 

II. The arms to cover the body were, 
i"" (2) Ili^iza^BXsM, galea, the helmet; 
termed alfo — (3) K^av^, (4) Ko^v^, (5) Kv- 
ycif. 2** (6) eo^flt|, lorica, the cuirafs. 3* (7) 
Za^^, or ^(avfi, cingulum, the baldrick. 4"" 
(8) KviifiiSsg, ocresB, the boots. 5'' (9)Ao"7rif, 
clypeus or^ (10) Gv^bQ^, fcutum, the fhield« 

III. The helmet was fometimesof brafs; 
but comiyonly of the hide of certain ani- 
mals ; whence the following words are de- 
rived— (i i) XBovrnf^^lz) rau^c^t— (13) flw- 

y£ii;— (14) aXWTTBKB^—'XWBTl, &C. 

IV. The helmet had a thong, named 
oxp^g, which was tied round the (15) neck. 


Digitized by 


t7« ANT I QJ5 I T I E S 

V. Thc4iclmct was mounted with a 
crcft, termed (i6) *aX©^, and (17) Aop^. 

VL The cuirafs was a piece of armour 
to guard the bread. It was made either 
of (18) linen, or of (19) brafs, or of lea- 
ther and (20) brafs. 

VII. The brazen cuirafs was a ftraight 
plate, and was called, (21) e«faj ra^i©-— 
or, (22) Stakt^. 

VIII. The cuicjifs of leather and brafs 
was made in the following manner. They 
put to the cuirafs chains of rings, and then 
it was called, *AXua-^^£tiT®'.— Sometimes the 
rings refembled fcales; the cuirafs was 
then termed, (24) AeTrtSotT^, and (25) ^0* 

IX. Zo;^, or ^eav7i9 a girdle which (26) 
went round the armour. Hence the word, 
(27) ^«yyu(rfl«/— accingcre fe ad praelium. 

X. KwypJg;^— the greaves, ocrcae, or ti- 
bialia— were of (28) braft, iron, or fome 
other (29) metal. They were clalped 
round tbc lower (30) part of the leg. 


Digitized by 



XI. Ar9fitf> the buckler, clypetat; v^Z9 of 
wobd^ of fuihesi, or Wigs, 6r of hide ; and 
when it wa« made of dfljr of theft fubftmccs, 
it was generatty covered withbrafe. 

XII. The pairls of the buckler were,— • 
^'^ (35) ^v'^B^ or (36) iTu^, w^fitok, xwjc- 
X©» — words which fignify the (37) circum- 
JGerence or orbit of the bocklcr. 2* Of*- 
^aXO*, umbp, a prominent part in the (3?) 
middle of the buckler, j*" TiXecfuw^-^ 
ftraf> in the inner fide of th« buckler, by 
which it was hung on the (jp) fboakler. 
4* TLo^^ a ring by which the buckler was 
held. In lat^r times, a handle, (41) o^jwcy, 
was ittbftifoted for the ring. 

XIII. On' their bucklers were often re- 
prtffcnted birds and quadrupeds, lions, for 
inftance, and eagles i and even their Gods, 
the fun, the (42) moon, &c. 

XrV. Moft of the ancient bucklers were 
largb enough to cover the whole (43) body. 
Hedce come the epithets— (44) a»f(0fAfpcB4^ 
«— *and (45) woS^ijcis^. 

T XV. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

274 A NT 1 CLU I T IES 

XV. The figure of the bucklers called 
M-mhs was i;ound — whence they hive the 
following epithets— oo-flriJe; suxujcXoi— clypei 
rotundi-— voMTTflrra KroM-^undique squales. 

XVL The form of the buckler termed 
^upfO-^ was (48) oblong. 

XVII. The ofFenfive arms were, i^ Ey- 
j^, and iopj-^tht pike, and the lance.—* 
a** H/^Oi— the fword.— 3* A^^»n$ and wtXe- 
,ev;_fecuris, et bipennis. 4'' T^^ov, the 
bow.— 5"* AKovTiov, the javelin^— 6* Z^tv^ov^^ 
the (49> fling. 

XVIII. The pike and the lance were of 
wood, and commonly of a(h, whence comes 
the word, (50) fieXn/f. The point, ouxi^fiB 
and in Latin, cufpis, was of (51) brafe; (b 
was the other (52) end, which they ufed to 
ilick into the ground. 

XIX. There were two kinds of pikes I 
one ufed in dofe fight, which was called 
(53) o^BKTii, porredla — another with which 
they fought at a diftance, which was called, 
waxm, vibrata, miffilis. 



i'zed by Google 


. XX. In ancient times the fword hung in 
« kindof fa(h, which came frooi the right 
(^S) fhoulder, to the left fide. The fcab- 
Wd was termed, (56) leoXcO'. 

XXI. The fecaris and the bipennis were 
Jfometimes ufed in (57) battle. 

XXII. The bow was commonly of 

(58) wood* the firing, in Greek, ww^, 
was of jiorfe hair; whence came the word 

(59) Wmuu. In ancient times it was of 

(60) leather. The extremities of the bow, 
to which the firing was tied, were called 

(61) ito^uvii; and were commonly gilt^ 

XXIII. Th^ arrows, in Greek, (2) /3«Xa, 
(63) oij-oj, (64) wi, were of a light Wood. 
They were pointed with (66; iron, and 
foroctimcs (67) poifoned . They were fea- 
thered, to make their flight more (68) ra- 

XXIV. The javelin— flBcwTiw. There 

were many kinds of this weapon— C^9) 

vV<r®., ('7o)«»y«'tif,.(7») y^^' Some 

were lanched witlji a thong, termed in 

T 3 Greek, 



27^ A M T I CLU I T 1 E S 

Greek, ayzvXfi, in Lattn^ (72) amentam. 
The javelins of this fort were called, (73) 

XXV. The flingt o-^i^Aw^, was of aa 
oval (74) (hape, and gradually terminated 
on each fide, with two (75) thongs.— It 
was commonly made of woollen (76) 
cloth ; with it were thrown (77) armws, 
(78) ftones, and pieces of (79) lead. 

XXVI. Hitherto we have examined tbo 
arms which were ufed in battles. Let os 
now take a view of the machines which 
were ufed in fieges. In ancient times the 
Greeks called them (80) fjLayycufoc •, they 
were afterwards termed, (81) [aiix»^^* 

XXVII. The oldeft machines were the 
(82) KXiiAXK£C9 !• c. the (83) fcaling ladders. 

XXVIII. The ram, xji®*, was of wood; 
it was a hundred, or a hundred and twenty 
feet (84) long. It was overlaid with plates 
oFiron; and the end of it, which in Greek 
was called (85) zs^akfi. or (86) iftSoXii, re- 
fembled the head of a ram ; whence this 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E C E. ttjj 

fflftchioe was named, (87) h^O^. It was 
i&ade ufe of to batter (8&) walls. 

XXIX. 'EXiTtokig was a machine of an 
enonnotts fize 1 it contained other ma- 
chlnes^ from which ftones» and other (89) 
arjtns were laikhed. The inventtDH df this 
machine is given to (90) PenMtriiis Polior- 

XXX. The tortoiie, ;£^v% was a ma- 
chine which covered the foldiers from the 
weapons of the /enemy, as the tortoife is 
defended by its (91) (hell. 

XXXL X^afioc, agger, was a machine raif- 
cd higher than the walls of the befieged, 
the fidas of which w^f ^ of (93) ilone* 

XXXII. nu^0«, were moveable towers 
of wood, built upon the agger, which they 
brought forward with (94) wheels. Their 
tops were covered. wHb (95) hide, 

XXXIII. Vi^peu were ofier hurdles to 
guard the hfeads of the (96) foldiers. 

XXXIV. The catapults, zara'treXreu^ were 

nntchines from vvhich (97) arrows were 

T 3 . lanched 




lanchcd. They were like wife called (98) 
^vCeXeT^p and (99) ^iko^airug. Though 
the arrows thcmfclves which were 0)ot 
from the catapults^ were fometimes called 
(100) %Mr(t*nt\rai. 

XXXV. (loi) hi^Aokoi^ (i<^2) ver^d&i- 
i^oi^ (103) viTfoCoXtKOt 0fya9», Of, (104) ob^- 
TfificCf and (105) fAuyyecvaca ofyava, v^tvc 
machines to (hoot ftones. 


(i) See, on the different kinds of arms, Pol- 
lux, I. 10. Segm. 1 33. He gives to arms, of- 
fenfive and defenfive, the general appellation, 
iwxa : and the arms ufed in fieges he calls f*ii- 

(2) Pollux, I. 10. Segm. 135. 

(3) Pollux, 1. c. 

(4) Thcocrir. IdyU.XVl. v. 8r. 

(5) Horn. lA. K. V. 257. and 3^5^ 

(6) Horn, IX. r. V. 332. We have a defcrip- 
tion of the cuirafs in Paufan. Phocic. c. 26. p. 


(7) Horn- lA. A. V. 132. lA. A. V. 234. It is 




O F G R E E C :^. 279 

likewtfe termed /bbireni See Euftath. ad Ix. A. 

▼• 345- 

(8) Horn. lA. r. V* 330, and v, 369. 

(9) Horn. IX. E. V. 453, &c. 

(10) Poly»n. VIIL 7, 2. The afpis differed 
from the thureos in form : the afpis was round, 
and the thureos was oblong. So the clypeus 
differed from the fcutum of the Latins. See 
Turneb. adverf. XI. 27. Pcriz. ad -ffilian. V. H. 
HI. 24. Euftath. ad OJ. p. 331, 1. 43. This 
fubjed is treated minutely and accurately by 
Blafius Caryophilus, de Vctcrum Clypcis. Lugd. 
Bat. 17 SI. 

(11) i. e. of lion's fkin. 

(12) i. c. of bull's hide. 

(13) i. e. of goat's Ikin. 

(14) i. e. of fox's (kin. Hom. Ia. r. v. 336. 
Euftath. p. 319. 1.3 A« 

(15; Hom. IX. r. V. 372. Euftath. ad h. 1. p. 

323. U 14- 

(16) Hom. IX. r. V. 362. Yet in that place 
Ao<p^ feems to fignify fomething elfe. Sec Eu- 
ftath. p. 321. 1. 49. a<id p. 457- '• 37- See Hc- 
fych. at this^ word, and Lipf. dc Milit. Rom. 

(i7)laom-.Tx. r.Y. 337. andT.V. 383. 

(18) Hom. IX. B. 529. or Catal. Nav. v. 36. 
and V. 337. Paufan. Eliac. poft c. XIX. p. 
499. Attic, c. XXI. p. 50. 

T 4 (19) 

Digitized by 


fi8o AN T I C^U I T IE S 

(19) Horn. l\. V. t. 37t. and 397. Ia. A« 
V. 371. Paufan. Photic, t. 26. p. 863. 

(20) More will be faid of k bye and iaye, 

(21) Apdlon. Rhod. Argonaot. III. v. mt^. 

P- ^55^ 

(22) Hcfych, f»h^x*^^9 f»r^ ^oj«{. See 
Salmaf. ad TertuUian* de Pall. p. 105* and $0. 
Euftath. ad Ix.A. p. 345. 1- 21. 

(23) SchoL ApolloD. Rhod. ad Lib. III. ▼. 
1225. p. 234. Virgil. £neid. HI. v. 467- fpeaks 
of fuch a ^w^otj^ — Lorica conferta Hamts. Pau* 
fanias feems likewife to fpeak of fuch a thorax. 
Boeot. c. XXVI. p. 761. Yet inftead of the 
common reading, (pwXiAtff, I think we (hould 
read ^oAiJ&v. . Homer. Ix. E. v. 113. feems to 
call It fftiTTov. See Euftath, p. 400. 1. 17. Con- 
fult likewife the commentaries on Hefychias, at 

the word aXv<ritur^. 

(24) Lorica Squamata. Herodot. IX. p. 593* 
A. ^neid. IX. 707. 

(25) Thorax Squamatus. Pollux, I. 10. 
Segm. 134. 

(26) Horn. Ix; A. v. 134. and Euftath. adh. 
1. p. 945. 1. 21. Pollux, II. 4. Segm. 166. 

(27) Horn. IX. A. V. 13. Paufan. Bocot. c, 
XVII. p. 743. 

(28) Alcaeus in Athenacus. XIV. c V. p. 627. 

6 (25^) 



O F G R E E C E. aSr 

{79) Hffiod. Scyt. ' V. It 2. Horn. I\. 2. v. 

(30) Hotn. lA. r. V. 330. 

(31) PKn. IV. 40, Servius derives the word 
clypeus from the Greek x«xuirTf«, becaufe it co- 
hered or guarded the body. Ad £neid. II. 382. 
But Pliny, XXXV. 3. derives it from yxutpuu 
fculpere, becaufe the fhields were generally a- 
domed with' figures. See Blafius Caryophilus, 
de veterum Clypeis, Lugd. Batav. 1751. 

(32) Virg. -ffincid. VII. v. 362. Hefych, at 
the word, ir«iai, fays, iTai«f, »t offwittty falignar, 
clypei ; becaufe in ancient times lhield$ were of 

(33) Hom;Ix. E. v. 452. M. v. 425. 

(34) Horn. Ix. H. V. 223. 

(35) Horn. IX. 2. V. 479. 

(36) Pollux, I. 10. Segm. 133. Euftath. ad 
IX» E. p. 556. 1. 22. 

(37) Euftath. ad ix. Z. p. 483. 1. 12. 

(38) Pollux, 1. c. Hence Homer's expreflton 

*-— 'A«vif, o/bUpoXoco-o-a. IX. Z. p. i iS. 

(39) Horn. IX. D. V. 480. .and n. 802. Eu- 
ftath. ad Ix. B. p. 184. 1. 28. 

(40) Euftath. 1. c.L. 32. Schol. Ariftopb. ad 
Equic. V. 845. 

(41) O;(»voy, from f;t«, teneo. Euftath. 1. c. 
and Schol. Ariftoph. 1. c. Pollux, I. 10. Segm. 


. Digitized by 


zBz A,N T I CLU I T I E S 

(42) Pliny, XXXV. 3. gives the fame ac- 
count of the Trojan bucklers in general. Thus^ 
likewife, on the fhield of Achilles, the fkj^ the 
the moon, and the ftars, earth, fea, lions, &c. 
were reprefented. Horn. Ia. 2. v. 478. And 
thus the buckler of Hercules was adorned with 
different pi&ures. Hefiod. Scut. v. 139.' Ma- 
ny inftances of bucklers of this kind we meet 
with in Paufan. Meflen. XVI. p. 319. Phocic. 
XXVL p. 863. See SchoK Ariftoph. ad Ran. 
V. 960. 

(43) Tyrt. Carm. III. v. 23. Virg. ^neid. IL 
V. 227. 

(44) i. e. as high as the human ftature. This 
epithet is given them in the Schol. Minorib. ad 
Horn. Du B. V. 389. 

(45) Horn. u. o. V. 6^6. Ix. B. v. 389* Eu- 
flath. ad Ix. B. p. i84«.l. 36. 

(46) Hom. IX. E. V. 453. 

(47) Hom. Ix. M. V. 294. 

(48) See Lipf. de Milit. Rom. III. 2» and the 
authors cited above. 

(49 j Part of this enumeration wc find in Pol- 
lux, I. 10. Segm. I *6. 

(50) Horn. IX. T. v. 390. n. v. 143. Euftath. 
ad IX; B; p. 213. 1. 34. Plin. XVL 13. 

(Si) Horn. Ix, Z. V. 320. Euftach. ad h.. 1. 
p. 505. 1. 24. 

(52) Hom. IX, K. V. 153. Pollux^ I. 10. 





Segm. 136. Euftath. ad Ix. N. p. 915. L 34. 
Hieron. Magius, Mifcell. IIL 2. p. 126. 

(53) Horn. Ix, B. V. 543. or CataL Nav, v. 
50. ' 

(54) Strab- X. p. 309. Euftath. ad Horn. 1. 
c. p- 2 13. 1. 37- 

(55) Heik>d. Scut, v. 22 !• Horn. ix. B* v. 

, ($6) Horn. IX. r. V. 271. 

(57) In Horn. IX.' N. v. 612. Pifander attacks 
Agamemnon with an axe, A^iyjr. Thefe two 
kinds of arms are. mentioned in Iliad, O. v. 71 c* 

(58) Sometimes it was of horn. Horn. Ix. 
A. V. 105. Lycophn v.. 563. 

(59) Hefych. at the word, 'lirirn»v. Set 
Meurf. adJLycophr. 1. c 

(60) Horn. Ix. A.v. 122. 

(61) Idem. ibid. v. lii. 

(62) Horn. IX. A. V. 51. 

(63) Hefiod. Scut. V. 130. Horn. Ix. E. v. 171. 

(64) Horn. Ix. A. V. 116. and Heron. Ctefib, 
at the word, BfXo^oiDxoiCy p* j. 

(65) For this rcafon arrows are termed in La- 
tin, virga^ and in Greek, f»iioi. Lipf. de Milit. 
Rom. Poliorcct. IV. 6. 

(66) Homer calls the whole arrow d-tJiv^ov. ix« 
A. 123. 

(67) Horn, O^. A. V. 261. Virg. ^neid. iX. 

V- 773- 


Digitized by 


284 A N t I Q, U 1 T I E S 

(68) Horn. ix. A. ▼• ii6. E. 171. 

(69) Polyb. de Milic. Rom. U. $ 5: 

(70) Horn. O^. A* V. 626. 

(71) Euftath. ad Horn, h c. p. 190. 1. 56. 

(72) Scbol. ad Eurip. Orcft. v. i^yy. and 
Euftath. ad Ix. B. p. 260. 1. 27. 

(73) Euftath. 1. c. 1. 32. afferts chat the jave- 
lin itfelf was called ayKvXt^. 

(74) Dionyf. Pcricg, v, 5. 

(75) Stewcch. ad Vegct. 1. 1^. 

(76) Horn. lA. N. V- S99. aiKl 716. SecEn- 
ftach. p. 925. 1. 53. where he likewiie tells us, 
that it was fometinjes made of cord. 

(77) Vegct. B. HI. c. 23. 

(77) Lipf. de Milic. Roia. v. zOf PoUux, X. 
31. Segm. 146. 

(79) Pollux, 1. c. calls them, fAoXuCJWacy balls 
of lead. The Latins in this fenfe ufe the words 
— -plumbum, Ovid. Met. II. 727. and, plum* 
beam glandem, Lucret. VI. 177. 

(80) Hefychu at^ the words, IdckyymMa^ 1^?- 

(81) Lipf. Poliorcct. I. 3. 

(82) Capaneus is faid to have been the inven- 
tor of the fcaling-ladder. Veget. IV. 21. Diod. 
Sic. IV* 67. p. 268. According to fome inter- 
preters, the xfovtrai of Homer are fcaling*ladder8» 
l;^ M, 443. We have a long difcuflion of this 
point of criticifm in Euftath. 1. c. p. 862. 1. 40* 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E C E- 28$ 

(83) Veget. IV. 21. On the materials, work- 
manlhip, and different forms of thefe fcaling- 
ladders, confult Stewech. ad V^et. IV. 2. p.* 
2^1. and Lipf» Poliorcec. h 6. 

(84) Appian fpeaks of a battering ram eighty^ 
feet long. De Belle Partb, p. 272* See Lipf« 
Poliorc III. i» 

(85) Jofcph. dc Bell. Jud. Ill- 9. 

(86) Suidas, at the word E/aCoAh. 

(87) Jofeph. L c gives almoft the fame de-* 
fcription of it. See Suidas, at the words, xfi^» 

and vf orepn* 

(88) Virg. -ffineid. XII. 706. Vitruv, X. 19. 

(89) Diod. Sic. XX. 49. p. 785. &c. 92. p. 
8.17. Ammian. MarcelLXXlIL p. 414. Yitruv* 
X. 22. 

(90) Plutarch f^ems to give him the inven- 
tion of it. Dcmct. p. 897. D. and 898. A. But 
he employed Epihiachus, an Athenian archiced^ 
to conftru£t it. Vitruv. 1. c. 

(91) We have adcfcription of this machine 
in Livy, XXXIV. 39. XLIV. 9. Athen. dc 
Mach. Bell. Turneb. in adverf. XXUI. 33. Vi- 
truv. X. 19. Confult, on the diflferent kinds of 
this machine, Lipf. Poliorcet. 1 . 5. on its form, 
Lipf. 1. c. Stewech. ad Veget. IV. 14. p. 244. 
and Vitruv. 

(92) It was a machine of earth and other ma- 
terials, which they brought near the befieged 

city : 

Digitized by 


iS6 AU t 1 Q^U 1 T I E S 

city : ic v^s conftruded that the ibldiefe mij^bC 
fight from an eminence. 

(93) Lipf. Poliorcet: IL 3. 

(94) Diod. Sic. XIV. 52. p. 276. Henee, 
Athenacus calls them (popmf W)fy^. Turneb. in 
adv^rf. XXIII. 31. Vitruv. X. 1 9 -^Turres am- 
buletorias — ^Appian. IV. Civil, pag. loii.— ' 
Hugyvi tirrvyfAintf — Turrcs plicatiles — Becaufc 
tbefe towers were made to be taken eafily afun* 
der, and to be carried with the othe^ baggage. 
Vitruv. X. 19. 

(95) The better to refill the arrows of the ۥ 
nemy. Veget. IV. 17. 

(96) Feftus, at the word Gerrse. They like- 
wife ferved to fill the ditches. But for this ufe 
they were more roughly wrought than for that 
above-mentioned. See Lipf. Poliorcet. I. 7, 

(97) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Acharn. v. lyy. 
where, inftead of vfAm, I think we (hould read» 
%»r»wtXm ; though Suidas makes the two words 

(98) Diod. Sic. XX. 84. p* 8io. and 85- 
p. 8ii. 

(9^) Id. XX. 86. p. 813. I Maccab. vi. 2o» 
(100) Appian. de Bellis Punic, p. 35. 
(loi) SubsLudi^^fjinx^MM. Diod. Sic. XX* 92. 
p. 818. 

C102) Idem, XX. 86. p. $12. 
(103; They were likcwifc termed mtfoioXct: 





to they are balled by Jofephus, De Bell. Judaic 
III. p. 845. and by Suidas. See him at the 

(104) See Suidas at the word. 

(105) Mention is often made of all thefe tn^ 
chines in Leon. Emper. Taft. c. XV. § 27f SOf 
53. See Lipf. Poliorcet. 1IL'3« 




a»8 A N T I CLU I T I E S 

Of the Military Officbr&» 

L TN the early ages^ when kings were 
X the abfoliito fovereign9 of ftatcs^ thejr 
headed their armies in time of war, and 
were the (i) generals of thofe armies ; or 
they (2) chofe a Polemarchus -, the (3) A- 
thenians did the fame« 

11. But afterwards, when the fopreme 
power was exercifed by the people, each 
tribe chofe a praetor, whofe title was, £r^- 
Tiyy®*. There were ten of them, one of 
each tribe. They^all had the fame power; 
and when they were fent out together on 
an expedition of importance, they com- 
manded alternately, each of them for a 
day. An eleventh Strategus was at length 
added to the ten, who was diflinguiflied by 
the title of Polemarchus — This officer, 
when in a council of war the fufiVages were 
equally divided, determined, by his (5) 
voice, the affair which had been debated. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


III. Bcfidcs the Stratcgi, there were ten 
(6) tuii»fx^h who were fccond in rank 
from the (7) Stratcgi. 

IV: Thcfc Taxiarchi (8) marfliallcd the 
army before a battle, fixed on the place oif 
its encampment, and the (9) route of its 
march. They like wife ftruck out of the 
military lift thofc foldiers who had been 
guihy of a great (40) mifdemeanor. 

V. The Zr^otTfryoi, and the Tu^io^oi 
were the principal ofiiccrs of the (11) in- 
fantry : the *l7Firo^x^h and the ^Xmgx^s, 
were at the head of the (12) cavalry. 

V. There were (13) two Hipparchi, and 
(14) ten Phylarchi. The former com- 
manded (15) all the cavalry; the latter 
commanded (16) the cavalry of each tribe; 
they were, therefore, fubjcifl to the Hip- 
parchi, as the Ta^ta^x^i were to the (17) 

VJ. There were yet other fubaltern of-* 
ficers, named— (18) XiX/a^%d^ ^EKxrovtoif* 
%w, nivTfiKovrccDxoiy Aox^yot, ^iKOt^ocpx^h 
ntvraia^X^i, Ov^ctyotn 


Digitized by 


ipo A N T 1 CLtJ 1 1 1 E S 


(i) Ariftot, Polit. III. c. 14. 

(2) Paufan. Corinth, c. XIV. p. 142. Attic 
c. XXXL Sigon. de Rep. Athen. 1. 4. p. 477* 
and Potter, III. tell us, authorifed, as they think, 
by Paufania^, that the king, Eredheus, confer- 
red this dignity on Ion. But the fame Paufanias 
informs us, that he was chofen Polemarchus by 
the Athenians. Corintl). 1. c. See Meurf. Left. 
Attic. VI. 21. 

(3) This we have Ihown in the preceding 

(4) CorneL Nepos, in Milciad. c. 4. calls 
them, " the ten praetors.'* See Demofth. Phi- 
lipp. L p. 17. B. Harpocrat. and Suid. at the 
word, 2Tf«Tryoi. Periz. ad ^lian. V. H. IIL 17. 
p. 12. and ad V. i 3. n. 5, Erncft. ad Xenoph, 
Memorab. I. i. § iS. 

(5) This we are exprefsly told by Herod. VI. 
p. 422. See Periz. ad ^lian. V. H. V. 13. Si- 
gon. de Rep. Athen. IV. 5. p. 556. 

(6) Demofth. Philipp. I. p. 17. B. et in Boeo- 
tum, p. 638. A. See -flEfchin. de Falf. Legat. 
p. 270. A. 

(7) Xenoph. Memorab. III. i. 

(8) See Lyf. Orar. pro Mantith. p. 149. A- 
riftoph. Av. v. 452. 

(9; Sigon. de Rep. Athen. IV. 5. p. 557. 

Digitized by 



(10) Lyf. Kara Ap^xiStaJW Af^xrux^j p. 142. 

( 1) Dcmofth. de CorcJn. p. 339. Xenoph. 
Memorab. III. 3. § i. 

(12) Lyf. pro Mantith. p. 146. Harpocrat. 

at the word, (puAaj;^. 

(13) Harpocrat, at the word, ^itrwoL^^t^. 

(14) I^ollux, VIIL 9. Segro. 87. and 94. 
(^15) Xepoph. at the word, 'lirvoigxj^xuy p. 

(16) Harpocrat. at the word, (pnXA^x®'' 

(17) Xenoph. 1. c. and Harpocrat. h c. and 
Said: at the fame word. 

(18) Sec, on all thefe words, Pollux, I. iq. 
Scgm. 12 8. jungermann. p; 74. Ariftoph. 
Schol. ad Acharn. V. 107^. Pcriz. ad ^lian. 
V. H; 11. 14. n. 5. Arriin. Tadt. p. i8. and 284 

tr 7 CFtAP. 

Digitized by 




Of the different Parts of the AjtMY. 

I. ' I ^HE whole army was called Xrjia- 

JL Tim. 

II. The van, frons — (i) Mtra^ovp (2) 

IIL The flanks^ or the wings, Were 
termed, (3) Kejarte. 

IV. They called the rear, (4) Ou^a, or,. 

V. The Tlifi^ag confided of (6) five fol- 

VI. The Ao^ of twenty-four, twenty- 
five, andfometimes of (7) twenty-fix. 

VII. The Ta|<c, or *Ei6«royT«f%i«, was 
a body of a hundred, or a hundred and 
twenty men. 

VIIL OoXay^ was the nanw which they 
gave to the army when it was (9) ranged in 
order of battle. Mfpc^ q>uX»yy&^ was the 
length of the arm^, its (xo) extenfion from 


Digitized by 


F G R E E C E. 293 

the one wing to the other : Bo^dO* was its 
depths or its (i i) extent from van to rear. 

IX. E/iCoAoy— <:uneus» was the army 
formed into the (hape pf the letter A* The 
men were drawn up in this manner the 
more eafily to pierce the files of the (12) 

X, Ket\i[jt£o\ov, forfcXy refembled the let* 
tcr V. The army was formed into this fi- 
gure to receive the attack of the (13) Cu- 

XL nxtvdiov, laterculus. .Under this de- 
nomination the men were drawn up in 
form of a (14) brick. 

XII. Uv^yO^p turris, was an army in form 
of a (15) fquare. 

XIII. nxcuctov, was an army marfhalled 
into an oblong ( 1 6) figure. 

XIV. The wheelings of the foldiers were 
termed^ (17) KXKreig-^KXiarig tm So^v, wheel- 
ing to the right — (18) E^r* a(r7r<J«— to the 

XV. MtTcc&oX^, was an evolatiop by 

U 3 . which 

Digitized by 



which the rear moved to (he ^kce of the 
van^ and the van to that of the (it)) rear. 
The two^ parts of this evolotion.Wcrre diftin- 
goiOied by two exprefiions— Mit^afloXij t»' 
jf^v— The wheeling to the right, ind 
marching from the van to the rear.— Msta- 
CpXfl BTT ^^»g — The wheeling to the left, 
and marching from the rear to (he (20) 


(i) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Av. 352. 
(z) Pollux, I. 10. Segm. 126. 
(5) Thucyd. V. 71. Poll. I. jo. Segm. xi6. 
(4). Blanchard. ad Arrian. Taft. p. 25. Xc- 
poph. Hellenic. IV. p. 404. 

(5) Phavorin. at the word, 2Tf«T^. 

(6) Perhaps we (hould write, wfjUTrTac, or 
«rfirT«^ Pollux, I. lo. Segm. 127. and Jungcr- 
^ann. ad h. I. 

(7) -ffilian. Tacl. c. IV. Arrian. p. 18. SchoK 
Arift. ad Acharnan. v. 1073. 

(8) Arrian. p. 28. and Blanchard, ad h. \. 
JElian. c. IX. Pcriz. ad ^lian. V. H. 11. 44. 

. ^ (9) 

Digitized by 


OF Q R £ E C E. ^9s 

(9) Pollux, I. 10. Segm. 127- /Elian, c. IX. 
Arrian. p. 23. Euftath. ad Homer, ix. a. v. 

254- P- 357- *• ^4- 

(10) jElian. Taft. c. VIL Gronov. ad Liv. 

XXII. 45. 

(11) ^lian. 1. c. and Arrian. p. 23. 

(12) Agathias, II. 44. and Suidas, at the 
vord, EiaQoKqv. ^lian. Tact. XLVII. Arrian. 
Taft. 44. The inventor of this figure was Phi- 
lip, king of Macedonia^ ipiian. c. XXXIX. 

(13) Suidas, at this word. Arrian. p. 69. M- 
Jian, c. XKXV. 

(14) Arrian. p. 69. iElian. c. XLI. 

(;5) Euftath. lA. A. p. 357. 1. 19. Horn. Ia. 
M. Euftath. ad h. 1. p. 847. 1. 20. 

(16) Arrian. pag, €9. JElhn. c. XLVIII. 
and ad h. 1. Arcer. p. 168. Lucian. Dial. Meretn 
p. 549. 

(17) Arrian. pag. 54. iElian. c. XIX.XXIII. 
Polyb.'X. p. 595. A. 

(j8) Arrian, and iElian, h c. and Suid. at 
the word xAi<n;. 

(19) Arrian, p. 55. ^lian. c. XXIV. 

(2q) Sujdas, at the word, MsraQoXr,. And 
Arccr. ad -Slian. c. XXIV. p. 143. 




tgS A N T I CLU I T I E S 


Of the Signals and Standards. 

II ' I ^HE fignals, Iu/tCoX«, were cither 
X announced by the voice, or (i) 
perceptible to the eye, 

IL The vocal (ignal was termed, Swftyea, 
and in Latin, Teflera. It was a kind of a 
martial fhout which the general gave to the 
inferior officers, and which was fpread by 
them through the whole (2) army. 

UL The vifible fignal was called, n^^ 
cfuvd^fue: it was a fign made with the head, 
a clapping of the hands, a pointing of the 
(3) P^^^ *^ ^^.^ ground,. &c- 

IV. The ftandards were termed in Greek, 
j:iiljuict, and in Latin, Signa, and Vexilla. 
When they were raifed, it was a (ignal to 
begin the battle : and lowering them was 
a fignal to (4) leave it off. 

V. The 7:fj[jLBiov was likewife a coat of 
arms waving at the top of a (5) pike. 


Digitized by 


OF GRE ECE, 792 

yi. The ancient Greeks, alfo, for a fig- 
nal, made ufc of fire, or flaming torches, 
which were thrown from the two (6) ar- 
mies. The men who threw them were 
called, {y)Tlv^o^oi. 

VIL For this purpofc they afterwards 
ufed {hells, (8) Kox>^ooi, but generally, 
trumpets, (9) I^uXmyytg. 
. VIII. Some ftates of Greece ufed other 
inftruments; as, the Sujiy^, Syrinx, the 
(10) AuX©-, Tibia. 

IX. The fliout of the'foldiers at the firft 
onfet was termed, (u) AXaXay^®.. 


(i) Ta itot Tuf (pwvuc /An»uo|iAfy«, quae voce funt 
exprefTa — and 2:d/a«« •far* — Signa vifibilia-^ 
This is Elian's diftinftion, c. XXXIV. Sec 
Arrian, p. 64. 

(2) Cafaub. in iEneam, c. XXIV. Lipf. dc 
Milic. IV- 12. Thucyd.IV. 112. Th. Magiftcr 
— SuvOii/A«, iiri(p«viif*« i¥ /wa;faK-^The Synthctna 
was a fignal given in battle, by fhouting. Po« 
liacn. I. ii« 


Digitized by 


f5i8 ANT IQ^UI TI;E9 

(3) Onofandcr, Stratcg, c. XXVI; ami Rl- 
gait. Not. JEneas, Tad. c. XXV. and ad h, h 
Cafaubon. p. 71. 

(4) Thucyd. L. L 49. and 6^. Schol. ad 
Thucjd. L 49. Suidas, at the word, In/wsu^ 

(5) Polyb.Hift. IL p. ijx. Pply^n. L 
48. § 2. Perhaps this kind of ft^ndard was of>- 
ly ufcd by the Roma;is. Sep the paflagc of 
Plutarch cited by Gronovius, ad Li v. XXll. 

, 45- 

(6) SchoL Euripid. ad Phacnifll v, 1386. 

Meurf. ad Lycophr. v,. 1298. 

(7) Tzetz. ad Lycophr. From tjiis cu^on) 
came the following exprcffion in the Schol. Eu- 
rip. 1. c' — OuJf zin;f(pof ©* t<ruh — Neque ignifer fq- 
perftcs fuit — To denote a total deftruftion. 

(8) Pfeudodidym. ad Ia. 1. v. 219. Barncf. 
ad Euripid. Iphig. in Taur. v. 303. Mcurf. ad 
Lycophr. v. 250. Theocrit. Diofc. or Idyll, 
XXII. V. 75. 

(9) Ariftot. de Mundo, c. VJ. Eurip. RHef. 


(10). Thucyd. V. 70. Athcn, Pipnof. XIV. 6. 
p. 672. D. Plutarch, de Mufic. B, 1140. B» 

(11) Polyaen. I. 2. Pollux,!. 10. S.egpi. 163, 
Lipf. de Milit. Rom. IV. n. Homer ufes the 
word^ AA^ffjTov. IX. £• V. 496. See Suidas, at 
the word EAiAiu. 

7 CHAP. 




C H A P. VI. 

Of Military Booty. 

!• ' I ^HE captures made in war were 

' JL cither perfons, or things. 

II. The perfons were Called, (i) At^QM-^ 
Xearoh and (2) Ao^vaheoTOi : they were made 
ilaves^ unlefs they cobid ranfbm themfelves. 

III. The things .were — i** Clothes, whichj 
when ftripped from the ilead, were term- 
ed, SjcuXa ; — from the living, (4) A«(pu^.— ^ 
2^ (5) The arms — 3^ (6) The ftandards, 

ly. All the booty was carried to the 

(7) general, who took to himfelf what he 

(8) liked. He then chofe rewards from it 
for thofe who had fignalized themfelves in 
the day of (9) a<ftion. The reft he divided 
equally among the (10) foldicrs. 

V. But before any feparation, or divifion 
of the booty, a part of it was confecratcd to 


Digitized by 


joo A N T I CLU I T I E S 

the Gods: this part they called — (ii) A- 

VI. They likewife crcftcd trophies, 
Tropaeai— (12) T^otfcuo^. 


(r) Xenoph. in Agefil. p. 517. 

(2) Pollux, VIL 33. Segm. 156. 

(3) Paufan. VIII. 47. p, 695. IX- 15. p. 74a 
Horn. lA. Z. V. 427. 

, (4) Suidas, at the words, Aa^u^^, and Iitux«« 
But thefe twp words pafs for fynonymous with' 
Euftathius-.— ad ix. A, v. loy. Homer terms 
military plunder, E^aja. ix. Z. v. 68. Sec Eu- 
ftathius on this word, ad Ix. A. pag. 60. L. 34. 

(5) Horn. IX. K. V. 458. 

(6) In general,' whatever was found with the 
enemy. Xenoph. Cyrop. III. p. 66. 1. 43. 

(7) Thus Achilles fays that he took all the 
fpoils to Agamemnon, Ix, L v. 331. 

(8) Hom. Ix. A.v. 703. • 

(9) Hom. IX. I. V. 334. 

(10) Hom. IX.. A. V. 703. 

(i i) Euitath. ad OdyfH p. 692. 1. 26. and 
Suidas, at the word, AK^oima — froni which is 
derived the verb, ajxfo0*y*a^ff8«i— to choofe the 




of G R I?. E C E. 30I 

bcft of any thing. Eurip. Hcrcuh Furiof, v. 
476. See Hebn vii. 4. and the authors cited 
by Wolf. adh. 1. 

(x2) SchoL Ariftoph. ad Plut. v. 45^. Potter 
enters into the particulars of this cuftotn, ad 
Lycophr. v. 1328. and Barnef. ad Euripid. He« 
racl. V. 937* The ancient cuftom of Greece 
was to ereft trophies on the borders of the van- 
quiihed country, as temporary monuments of 
vi&ory, not to perpetuate the memory of it to 
pofterity. They who firft erefted trophies of 
brafs, or done, caufed public difcontents, and 
were even accufed at the tribunal of the Am- 
phidyons. Wefleling, ad Diod. Sjc. XIII. 24; 
who cites Plutarch, Qu. Rom. p* 275. D. Cic. 
de Invent. II. 23. and Spanheim. ad Julian, Cas^ 
bx. p. 139. Praefat. p. io3« 





Of MiLiTAEY Rewaads And 


1. ' I VHE rewards conferred on thofe 
X who had fought valiantly^ were 
termed^ (i)A^ifEiac« 

II. Soldiers w^re preferred to the rank 
of officers, and fubaltern officers to (2) fu- 
perior ranks. 

IIL Gallant adtions were praifed in poe^ 
try, and (3) funeral orations* 

IV. Another kind of recompcricc was 
crowns, on which were infcribed the hamcS 
of thofe who had merited them by their 
(4) valour. 

V. They likewife ereffed, in honour of 
the Gods^ pillars and ftatues, on which 
their (5) viftories were; infcribed. 

VI. (6) IIcivoTrXtet was fometimes the re- 
ward of thofe who had diftinguifhsd them- 
felves iti battle* 


Digitized by 


O ]^ G k E EC £. 36i 

Vil. The honourable title, Cecropides, 
^as given to foldiers of confpkuous valowi 
and their arms were depo&ted in the the 
(17) citadel. 

VJlL They who had been maiftied ixi 
battle were maintained at Athens at th^ 
(8) public expedce* 

IX, The children likewife qf ihofe brarc! 
citizens who had fallen in (9) battle were 
maintained at the public expeitte. When 
they were grown tip, they were prefented 
with the (10) Panoplia^ and honoured with 
diftinguifhed feats at the public gatnes^ 
(11) Tlgoi^^tatn 

- X. We muft now fpeak of the military 
puniftimcnts. — Dcfcrtcrs were punifhcd 
with death, • 

XL The A^^otTBVTos, thofe who had re- 
fufcd to ferve, &nd the AsiTroraKTcsy thofe 
who had quitted their ranks, were punifh- 
ed in the following manner. They were 
obliged to (it t^Hrce days in the forum in a 


Digitized by 


30+ A N T I Q^U IT IE S 

female drefs. This punifhment was pre- 
fcribed by a law of ( 1 3) Charondas* 

XIL They were excluded from the tem- 
ples and (14) aflemblies. 

XIII. There were yet (15) feverer mili- 
tary punishments inflicted in Greece, efpe- 
cially at (16) Lacedsemon. 


(i) JElian. V. H. v. 19. They were like- 
wife termed, Eira^Xot^ viXYirft^ioB, urmmei. 

(2) Xenoph. Hipparch. p. 775. L. 19. Hence 
Nicomachidcs in Xenoph. Memorab. III. 4. § i. 
complains that he had not been a general, though 
he had grown old in the fervice ; though he had 
not only been a Aox^o^ySv, but a Ta^io^^y(Zitj and 
though he was covered with wounds. Strategy 

(3) Thucydid. II. 34. We have an inftance 
of this in Demofthenes, who compofed a funeral 
oration in honour of the citizens who died in the 
battle of Cheronsea, p. 152. See Lucian, de 

(a) Demofth. adverfus Androtion, p. 428. 
A. PafchaU de Coron. VII. 5. p. 466. 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E C Et 30 j 

(5) Plut. Citn. p. i|82, E. and 483* A. 

(6) Thus Alcibiades, having merited, in the 
judgment of Socrates, the prise of valour, at 
Fotidsea, received a crown, and the namryaa. 
Pluurcht Alcjb, p 495« A. The iXoMffirXift was 
the armour and arms complete which were uled 
by thi: heavy armed foldicrs. Horn. IA# r« 
330. Virg. ^neid. VIII. 620. 

(7) Demofth. Or. Foncb. p. 156. B. 

(8) Thk was a wife and generous iaftitution 
of Pififtcatus. Plutarch. Solon, p. 96. C. See 
McurC Tbemid. Attic^ 1 10. p. 27. 

(9) Diog. Laert. Solon. L 55. Le(bonaux, 

at the word, n^erfEirrixaf, p. 211* 

(10) Ariftid. in Panath. quoted by Meurf. 
Themid. in Attic. L lo. p. a 8. Petit ad Leg. 
Attic, p. 560. 

(11^ Lefbonaux. 1. c. 

(U) Ulpiaii. ad Timocrat. p. 237. C. 

(13) Died. Sic. XII. 16. p. 81. 

(14) ^(chin. in Ctefiph. p. 299. B. . De- 
m(4tb. Timocrat. p. 475. A. B. LyQas, Koita 

Tiiat. p. 130. and 141. 

(15^ In fome ftates the punifhment of thofe 
who had quitted their ftandards, or their ranks, 
wa$ capital. Diod. Sic. XIL 16. p Si. 

(16) Plutarch, in Agefil. p. 613. E. Hero* 
dot. VII. p. 474. E. Plutarch. Lacon. Inftit. 
p. 259. B. and Apophthegm. Lacon. p. 240. 


by Google 

3c6 A NT 1 Q^U I T lES 

Of the Se a*Servic£.. 

I. ^TTMIEIR (hips had different terms 
X and different names; 

II. Their merchantmen were called^ ( i ) 
'OXxuiif, and (2) ^iTfryoi i they were of 
a (3) round form. Their (hips of war had 
the epithet^ (4) Masx^oi. 

III.. They had (5) three, four, (6) five 
banks of oars, &c. 

IV. The lower part of a {hip, its bafe, 
or keel, was termed in Latin, carina, and 
In Greek, (7) Tfoiri;, and (8) Zntpi. 

V. The boards above the keel were 
termed in Greek, (9) HofjaTg, and (10) Eyr 
MiXm, and the pieces of wood to which 
they were nailed were called (11) tm^nccsf, 

VI. To thefe boards the fides of t^e vef- 
fel, IlXfv^ ^nd (la) Taxph were joined. 

VII. The lower parts of the vcffel, the 


Digitized by 


O F:0 R E E C £• 307 

parts under water^ were called T^^iX^; and 
thoie abote water (13) E^aXci. 
' VIII. The middle of the fliip was 
termed (14) Mio-MOiJuf 

IX* The deck^ (15) Karasr^^; and 
the hold, (16) nufijtwf. 

X. The fore-part of the (hip, (17) q^« 
fa, and Mirc^frw : the binder part, ( 1 8) n^v« 
fiofu, and Ouf». 

XL Ew69Tiii^ were two pieces of wood 
jutting out from the two iides of the (19) 

XII. X^ino^, was the figure of a goofc^ 
with which the prow was (20) adorned. 

XIIL (21) Kopmiiic, and (22) Axfo^oXstt, 
ornaments of the extremities of the (ides of 
the vc(rel. 

XIV* A^x«^«— the ornaments of the 

(23) ftcrn. 

XV. lIx^Mryifioih^zn en(ign fixed to the 

(24) prow. 

XVL (2S) EJ«Xi«— (26) XiXfMTx^Th^ 

banks of the rowers. The higbe^l banks 

X 2 were 

Digitized by 


^ol A NT I Q^UIT I ES 

wtrcmm«d(a7)e|pMoi| t;hofe to the middle 
{2S)Zijya*, 8iidtheloiveft(29)QiKXap^. 

XVIL The terma, andxxpreflioiis nla- 
tivp to oars and rowers^ tn^ E^iT^f » ^utn^^ 
M oaiw-.-(3o) Tnig zmn^i i«a«CidbM-T-(3i) 
KuTnis o(p6aXfiOi, Of (32) T^f*aT»— (33) 
r^Mv^;, (34) Tj^TOiripif^ (35) Vfrnwiricur^ 
(36) MT^f^*^*~(37) «fW(niR*-?(38) i^fijifir*-^ 
(39) ^^aw^*''— (40) o-)c«a'«i— (41) ^uM^vioic 
JXwiii^— (42) ^fofc»— (43) fcir<«ifflKom;i--« 
(44) r^<nv. 

XVIII. The maft was termed 'I^. To 
fet tjbc mtft* vta^ (45) Of&^s^m^ Its 
parts were (46) KcB^;i5?ra^y, (47 T^;^XAfr 
{48) Hn^MK 

XIX. (49) M€(r«^j^Y was the hole in the 
middle of the (hip in which the maft wm 
fixed* 'Isro^^xf- — the place in which all 
all the naval (50) inflruments were kept. 
K^if(4uc, the (5i)ygrds« 

XX. The genera] names of fails were» 

(SS) Af^«. The namea of fome particu^ 


Digitized by 


OF QREB^CE; $of 

kr fails were» (56) ^Xi^y> (57) E^<^0^>^ 
(58) Axariov, o^rMfumf^ 1;rliich was the maiti 
fai]% The following are expreffions applied 
to (ails» (60) £rcMsivodovi7V— (61) ZufcXXid^ 
ifi«>— (62) AtrXtSy lf40E* 

XXL The ihipt had different kiads of 
ropes for difierent ufes. Tho- the word 
*O^X« 18 a general term for all the (63) 
rigging, it frequently fignifies the (64) 
ropes only. The words (65) Xx^vw, and 
(66) Kxi^Mt likewise mean the ropes. 

XXIL The particular and diilinguifliing 
names of the ropes wcrc^— (67) TiSfoi^^ 
(68) *Ti^i^i (6g) llfQrom, (70) Emropct*-^ 
(71) Mio-ovfixi — (72) Iloikc— (73) Tpnri> f "» 
Bfiotf and (74) Ex^ofoi, (j^) npv[4.tni(rLa, (76) 
n«fl^/j*ar«-^77) Z«pujit«T«— '(78) Py/t«r«— • 

XXIIL The rudder— (80) niy^oXw; the 
parts of which were — (81) 0/a| — (82) ^^c^^ 
—(83) nT£pvy«>i>— -(84) Au^iy-— (85)K«/i«|, 
—In their greatcft (hips there were two 
(86) rudders. 

X 3 XXIV. 

Digitized by 



XXIV. The PUol— KuC6(>MjTW5 hia fta- 
tioQ was at the (87) ftern. 

XXV. The beak of the (hip— (88) E^- 

XXVI. The anchor— (89) Ayjtwf«— (90) 
Eov^— (91) Apeunreiv, (9a) Ajpiiv ayvofBOH— 
(53) BecXkuv uyKVfoof Upecv. C..94* 

XXVII. 'l^fficb^^s) A^«XKr/x«— The 
fand with which they hallaflcd the (hip. 
Id Latin-— Saburra. 

XXVUL BoXis^Tht lead with which 
tthey (96) founded. 

XXIX. To the old navigation belonged 
likewife the terms— (97) Koyroi— (98} Am- 
CaSfO'^^gg) arrXiOv. 


(i) Thucyd, VI. 30, 
(a) Plutarch, in Pomp. p. 624. B. 
(3> Thocyd. IL 97. and Schol. 
(4; Schol. Thucyd. L c. 
(5) Pollux. L 9. Scgm. 119. TheTriremis 
ill qftf n menciontd in Lylias, A^o^o}^. ^Lmfoimm;^ 


Digitized by 


O F G RE E C E. jn 

{€) Diod. Sic. .XIX. 6;2. p. 704.— where he 
relates that in the fleet of Antigoous there were 
ihips of three, four, five— nine, ten banks of 
oars. See Athen. V. 8. p. 20;. E. 

(7/ Horn. oi. hL V. 42 1, and 43B. Schol. 
min. ad h. 1. 

(8) Horn. lA. A. V. 482. and Schol. min. 
ad h. L 

(9) Hefych. at this word, and Brodxus, Mif* 
cell. I. 10. 

(^10) Theophraft, Hift. Plant. IV. 3. 

(11) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Equit. v. nSz. 
Paul Leopard. Emendat. XIII. 8. 

(12) Pollux, I. 9. Segm, 88. Athen. V. 11. 
p. 204. F. 

fij) Lucian, Jup. Trog. p. 155. ufes thefc 
words in this fenfe. 

(14) Pollux, I. 19. Segm. 92. thinks this 
^ word fignifies the cavity of the (hip; and Segm* 
87. he makes ^vyx the middle of the (hip. 

(15} Jiingerm. ad Poll. I. 9. Segm. 92. 
Atheo. V. 8. p. 204. B. 

(itf) Hefych. and Suid. ^t this word. Lucian, 
in vot. p. 493. 

(17) Schol. Thucyd^ ad II. 90. Suid. at 
this word. 

(i8) Lucian, in vot. p. 493. Athen. V. p* 

X 4 (19) 

Digitized by 


3J1 A N T I CLU I T 1 E S 

(19) Athci>* V, p. 1104. A. Thoesfd VIL 
$2. See noM ad iPottuc. 11. 4. Bcgm. t j. 

(20) Liician^ Jup. Trog. p. 155. vot. p» 499^ 
The Scholiaft of Lucian^ p« 14* ttUft ds why 
this was the ornameift of the prow. 

(21) Hefych. at this word £uftafh« I\» A« 
p. 55. I 18. 

(22) Athcn. V. p. 303. F. Euftath. adHocfi* 
IX. o. p. 1049. 1. 17. 

(23) Hem. I\, O. V. 7x7. Euftath. p. 1049, 
1. 12. Athcn. V. p. 203. F. They were called 
afhfiria by the Latk«. 

(24) Luc. Ad. KXviif. n. arid the authors 
Cited by Wolf, on that Pafl^ge. Burmoii. ad 
Petron. c. 105. Hcinf. ad Sil. XIV. 543* 
Stanl. ad^fchyl. Septem. Theb. v. 214. p. 742. 

.(2;) Herodot. I. p. lo. B. de Arioa. 
(26) Athcn. V. 12. p. 208. C. and E, 
(27).Polluxf I. 9. Segm. 87. 

(28) Pollux, I. c. 

(29) Schol. Afiflroph. ad Acbam. ir. i6f. 

(30) To take the oar. Lttcian. Dial. Mort^ 
p. 308* Pollux. 1. 9. Segn>. ^i. Scheffcr. dc 
Milit. Naut. II. 5. p. 137. 

(31) The eyes of the oars. Sec Ariftoph. 
Schol ad Acharn. v. 97. We are there m^ 
formed that there were boles through whkh 
|he oars weic put, to row. ScheE 1. c. f^ 49^ • 


Digitized by 


OF GRE15CE. 31J 

ii^) !• 6* Holes. They tr^ likewife called 
TfurnjMr* in Ariftophftiies^ Pac. v^.1133* and the 
SchoL od h. L s 

(33) A thong, or cord, with which they tied 
the oar to keep it from flipping. Horn. o^. A. 
V. 792. Eufhith. p. 198* 1. 52. 

(34) This is the fame thing. Ariilophanes 
ufes the word, r^^iro^ Ariftoph. in Acharn. 
V. 548. 

(35) i- ^* '^o ^c ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ thong. 
Lucian in Catapl. p. 42a. Ariftoph. in Acharn. 
V. 552. and Kuft. ad h. 1. . 

(36) Tins was a piece of hide with which the 
holes were lined through which they put the 
oars, that by their aftion they might not be too 
much worn. Schefier. de Milit. naut. II. 5. p. 
140. Schol. Ariftoph, ad Ran. v. 367. 

(37) Ramer. Pollux, 1. 9. Segm. 98. 

^38} Suidas, at the word, ifninvt has this ex- 
preflion-— Eircv^»2w^0a« ra^ xMcuq — Incumbere 

(39) Subaudi smvuv— To ply the oar. ^lian* 
V-H. II.9. 

(40) Inhibere remum* Pindar. Pyth. o^. X. 
ppod. r. V. 3. 

(41) To pull two oars. Lucian cited by 
gchcffer, p. 67. See Schol. Thucyd. IV. 67. 

(42) To help a rower. Schol. Ariftoph. ad 
/Iv^ V. 852. 




(43) To row in vain; a proverbial exprelBon,' 
imparting, Co labour in vain. 

(44) Palmula remi— -The broaH part of the 
oar. PoUuic, L 9. Segm. 90. 

(4;) Lucian. in CatapK p. 442. 

(46) The top of the maft. Athen. V. if. 
p. 208. E. 

(47) The middle of the maft; round which 
part the fails were hung. Macrob. Saturn, v. 2z. 
from Afclepiad. 

(48) The loweft part of the maft. ScEoL 
ApolL Argonaut. I. y. 563* Macrob. 1. c. 

(49) Apoll. Rhod. Argonaut. I. v. 563. 
Schol. Hom. ad Of. B. v. 424. Rutzerfius var. 
Lea. VI. 6. 

(50) Horn, IX. A. V. 434. But Euftatb. ad 
h. 1. takes this word in another fenfe. 

(51) Athenseus, V. 11. p. 208. D. Seethe 
Schol. Apoll. Rhod. ad Argonaut. L v. 566. 

(52) In Latin, lintea, Pollux, I. 9. Segm. 10 j» 

(53) Hefych. at, the word, £iri^ojtA09. £u- 
ftath. ad oi. n. v. 146. p. 828. 1. 12. 

(54) Euftath. ad O^. N. p. 523. 1. 1 1. Kuhnl 
ad PoUuc. I. 9. Segm. 91. Hefych. at the 
word, Aai(poc. 

(55) Hefych. at the word, Aai^oc* 

(;6) Hefych. at the word, AoXwvk. Pollux* 
1. 9. Segm. 91. 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E C E. 315 

(57) Hcfych. at this word. Pollux, I c. 

(58) Hcfych. at the word, Awna. Pollux, 
h c. 

(59 ) Luc. A&. xxvii. 40. 

(60) Velum contraherc. Homer has the ex- 
prcffion— DTfXAiiir iV»«. Oi. U. v. 353. 

(61) Contrahere velum. Ariftoph. Ran. lojo* 

(62) Expanderc velum. We find in Lucian, 
IIiTftv ifi». Dial. Mort. p. 281. Hom. oi. E. 
V. 269. 

{63) Hom, o*. Z. V. 268. 

(64) Homer ufes the word, Tiirjt*«Ta. L a 
Euftath. ad h. 1. p. 263. 1. 37. Pollux, L 9* 
Scgm. 93. 

(65) Pollux, 1. c. 

(66) The words, KaXmt; and Ka^oi, areJifce* 
wifeufed. Horn. o^. E. v. 260. Euftath. p. 

922. 1« IE. Pollux, 1. C. 

(67) Scheffer. p. 351. SchoL Apoll. Rhod. 
Argonaut. L v. g66. 

(68) Hom. Oi. E. V. 260. Euftath. p. 222. 
J. 10. 

(69) Hom. Ix# A. V. 434. Euftath ad h. L 
P« 9^* 1* 40* 

(70) Schol. ApolL Rhod*- ad Argonaut. I. 
p. 5^6. 

(71) See Suid. at this word. Homer, o*. M. 
r, 423. 


Digitized by 


^3i6 A N T I Q^U I T I E S 

(72) Hotn. o^. B. V. 26^ TorDeb. AdrdrC 
XX. 4. ^ 

(73) Ariftoph. Equit. v. 438. 

(74) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Equit. ▼« 43S, 

(75) Hefych. ad Suid. at this word. PoUiiZt 
L 9. Scgtn. 93; 

(76) Horn. O*. K. V. 96t and 127. V. Paul 
X^opard. Emendat. L 18. 

(77) Schol. Ariftoplu ad Equic, v» 279. 
Athen. V. 9. p. 204. A. 

(78) Polyb. I. p. 27. C. Schcflfcr. dc Milit. 
Nant. II. 5. p. X50. 

(79) Suid. at this word. Interpret, ad Mat* 
tbacum. XIX. 24. 

(80) JElhn. y. H. IX. 40. Graev. ad He- 
fiod. Egy. V. 45# 

(81) ClaVu s quo regitur gubemaculudu Ifi- 
dor. cited by GrdKV. ad Flefiod. 1. c. 

(82) Percica gubernaculi, a$ Schefier. hicer- 
prets it, de Milit. Naut. II. 5. p. 149. Medi- 
um gubernaculi — according to PoUox, I. g. 
Segm. 89. 

(83) Extremum guberDaculi<— Pollux, L c. 
and Hefych. at the word Tln^vy^. 

(84) Reliquum gubernacuK. Pollux, 1. c. 
Scheffcr. 1. c. Schcffer. I c. following Vetruvi- 
us, X. 8. tranflates it, anfa gubernaculi. Helio*: 
flor. ufes this word« ^thiop. V, p. 248* 

. (8J) 

Digitized by 


OF GR E EC £• 317 

(85) Contus quo gubernaculum circuoiagi* 
tur. Lucian. in votis. p. 494. 
• (86) Luc. Ad. xxTiu 40.^ JEMm. IX. 4a 
and the authoi^s eited by Scheficr, p. 146. The 
fame author informa us chat in fome fli^ thero 
were three, and in foooe four rudders* 

(87) Athen. V. X i. p. 209. A. ^lian. V, H- 
IX. 40. Cic. de SenedL VI. Lucian*. DiaL 
Mort. p. 278. Pollux, h 9. Segm. g8. 

(88) Hence their fhips have had the epithec 
— X^^'i^C®^**?-*^"* *rca roftra habent. Eu- 
rip. Iphig. in Aulid. v. 1^20. and Ariftophanes 
has the expreffion, KvcntfiSokot rgtftgm — ^Trireines 
roftris csruleis munirs^-^Equit. v. 551. 

(89) Coniblr, on the inventor of the anchor^ 
PHn. VIL y6. Strabo, VII. p. 209. Paufan* 
Attic. IV. p. 12. 

(90) Horn. &i. A. V. 436. Euftath. ad h. 1. 
p. 98. !• 46* 

(91) Extrahere anchoram. Lucian. DiaL 
Mort. p. 281. Pollux, 1. 9. Segm. 104. 

(92) Solvere, or tollere anchoram. Plutarch. 
Apophthegm, p. 204. See Luke. Aft. xxvii. 

(93) Jaccre facram anchoram — a proverbial 
expreffion, fignifying, to make the laft cfibrr. 
Lucian. Fugitiv. p. gg^. Lucian likewife men* 
tions this facred anchor, Jov. Trog. p. 156. 

6 Pollux, 




Pollux^ L 9. Segm. 93. See Heinlt and Dra^ 
kenborch« ad Sil. VIL 23. 

(94) Kuhn. ad Poll. I. 9. Segin« 94. EuftatbJ 
nd Horn. ix/B. v. 154. p. 147.. 1. 19. Ariftoph^ 
Av. 1429* See Meurf. ad Lycophr. v. 618. 

(95) Schefier de Milit. Nauc. IL 5. p. 1^2. 

(96) Ic was a mafsof lead faftened co a long 
cord» with which they founded. Hence is de- 
rived the verb BoXi^«iif» which we read in Ads 
xxvii. 2S. Herodot. in Enterp. pag. 102* C. 
calls it KftTAirf i(iTD^i9}». LuciL Satyr* incert* n. 
XI. p. 198. Catapiratem. 

(97) They were long oars, or poles, the ufe 
of which was, to turn the veflel, and accelerate 
its courle, when it was in danger of running on 
a rock» or a fand-bank. They ufed them like- 
wife for founding. Scheffl de Milit. naut. IL 
6. pag. 152. Pollux, L 9* Segcn. 94. Horn. 
O^. A. V,. 487. 

(98) A kind of bridge for going on boards, or 
afliore. Lucian calls it «9ro|3a0(«, and ava/BaOf «, 
Dial. Mort. p. '281. Diodorus Siculus terms ic 
— E^i(3at(av, XII. 62* p« 113. B. 

(99) A kind of fink at the bottom of the hold^ 
i()to which all the filch of the velTcl was thrown, 
was likewife termed, avrXix i in Latin, fentina. 
Ariftoph. Equit. v. 443. and Pac. v. 17. AnXtat 
was likewife a pump to throw oflf that filch. Eu- 
ftath. ad Off. M. V. 41 1, p. 498. \. i.—* Homer, in 
that place ufes the word, arrx^. 




J^f the Sailors and Sea-Forces. 

!• ' I ^ RE men employed in (hips were 
X called, ( l ) TV^^fcafiecTa, (2) Aurt« 
fiTcu ; the rowers, (3) KorTrqAterasi ; they who 
fathigheft, Bfuvtrcui they in the middle, 
2.uyiraif the loweft, (4) eaXocfureu. They 
who fate on the benches near the prow, 
were called, UfOKomot ; and they who were 
near the flern, (5) E^n'occ^oi. 

IL Npsvr^, nautas ; they were not em« 
ployed in rowing ; but they had their par^ 
ticular (6) bufinefs diftributed amongft 
th6m. Some had the care of the fails, 
(y) AffAo^i^cw-Kithcvs went aloft— (8) 2;goi- 
wCarcu. And others had different charges 
allotted them, (9) MM-ovavrou. 


Digitized by 


Sao A N T 1 C^U I T I E S 

(i) Diodor. Sic. XIII. 2. p* 134. D, Polyb. 
I. p. 30. B. 

(2) Thucyd. L 10* and ad h. 1. See Stephens 
and Hodroo. 

(3) Hefych at this word. Efir§u is more ufed. 

(4) SchoL Ariftoph. ad Acharn. v. i6i. and 
Suid. at the word O^ ayim^. Schol. Ariftoph. ad 
Ran. V. I io6. and ad h. 1. Kufter. 

(5) Pollux, I. 9* ufes thefe two words. Oor 
author follows the opinion of ScheflSsr^ II. 3. 
p. io8« But fbme criticks, inftead oiwfonuwo^^ 
read Trgoimonro^j interpreting botli thefe words, a 
rower i and in this fenfe ir^^oiMnrof is ufed by 
Lucian, in Catapl. p. 436. 

(6) Cicero dc Seneft. VI. 

(7) Schtffer dc Milit. Naut. II. 3. p. io8. 

(8) Lucian. in votis» p. 493. SchcfF. L c. 

(9) Lin. 4. § I. F. de naut. caup. Stab. 


Digitized by 



G H A P. 3t. 

Of the Naval OpFiCERSi 

h O OME comthailded the Tailors, aod 
v3 and feme the foldicrs. The titles 
of the former werc-^(i) Apxitvpifu^rfic-^ 
(2) Ku/3fif)yi>nc— (3) nj«p«w^— -(4) KgAgupy;— •. 
(5) TpifpauX^c— (6) Nfl«i^i;X«i6€c— (7) AiOTro/ 
(8) Toij^idif^w— (9) E(r%apiuf— *(lo) Ao* 

IL They who commanded the foldifers 
were —* ( 1 1 ) liToXu^x^g-^ ( 1 2) Huvdcpxog-'^ 
(13) ETng-oXgy^— .(i4)Tp«iifw»px^^ — &c. 

NOTES to C H A P/X. 

(1) Diod. Sic. XX, 51. p. 786. D. This Was 
the admirah 
. (2) Arrian. dc Expedite Alex. VL 2. 

(3) Xcnoph. CEconom. VIIL § 14. He wa3 
the under-pilot. 

(4) The infpeaor of the rowers- See Ovid^ 
Met. Uh 6j 8. Arrian. dc Expedit. Alex. Vl. 3. 

Y and 


ed by Google 

?2i. AN TI aV I TIES 

and Suidasy at the word, Kixtupic Scbeffcr, IIl^ 
I. p* 179. and IV. 7. p. 304. Gronov. Obfcrv. 

IV. 26. Heinf; and Drakcnborch. ad Sil. 6« 

(5) The players on the flute on board the 
triremes. See Kuhn. ad Poll. I. 9. Segm. ^6. 
Dcrhofth. de Coron. 

(6) The infpe&ors and guards of the (hips. 
Euftath. ad I\. B. p. 154, 1. tf. ScheflTer, IV. 7. 
p. 308. 

(7} Signifies the fame as NoiutpuXoxK. 

(8) They who took care of the fides of the 
fhip. Pollux, L Segm. 95. Claudian. Conf. 
Manlii Theod. v. 47. 

(9) They who had the care of the fire. Pol- 
lux, I. 9- Segm, 95. Scheficr thinks they were 
pricfts — Other antiquarians make them cooks. 

(10) The fccrctary. Euftath. ad Horn. ot. d. 

V. 163. pag. 299. 1. 29. Homer. 1. c. calls him 
4o^ou jutvii/*6v— and ygotfAfAotnv^j Schol. Ariftoph. 
ad Nub. V. 623. SchefFcr, p. 310. 

(11) Zroxafx^c — The commander of the 
troops. Hcfych. 2T«xaf;tv. 

(12) Navarchus — The principal land-oflicer 
on board a fliip. Xenoph. Hift. Grsec. II. p. 
354. 1. 13. and V. p. 426. 1. 17. 

(13) The ofiicer next to the navarchus. 

(14) The chief military ofiicer on board a 

triremis. Hefych. at this word. The A then i- 

6 ansi 



O F G R E E C E. 32} 

ans likewife gave this tide to thofe who fitted 
out (hips of war at their own expence. Ulpian. 
ad Orat. in Lephinem. p. tiS. B* Schol. Ari« 
ftoph. ad Equ. v. 908. See Pollux, I. 9. Segm, 

Yz part: 





Of the PRIVATE LIFE of the GREEKSf. 

Of Marriage. 

I. TN the different ftates of Greece mar- 
Jl ridge was (i) honoured, and autho- 

rifcd by (2) law. He who was averfc from 

marriage, brought (3) difcredit upon him- 

felf» and in fome communities was even 

(4) puni(hed. 

IL But in the times of barbarifm, before 

the inflitution of laws, the conjun£tion of 

the fexes was (5) promifcuous. 

III. Cecrops was the firft who fubje<2ed 

the Athenians to matrimonial obligations, 
''andenjoined that disich of them fhould (6) 

inviolably poflefs his own wife. 

IV. But 

itized by Google 


. O F G R E E C E. 325? 

. IV. But the matrimonial laws were af- 
terwards improved, and the Athenians were 
no longer permitted to intermarry with 
(7, 8) ftrahgcrs. 

V. An age at which to marr^ was fixed 
for the one fcx and for the (9) other. 

VI. (10) Polygamy was prohibited, ex- 
cejpt in particular and urgent (11) cafes. 

VII. A fon and daughter of the famp 
mother were prohibited from marrying ; 
but this prohibition did not extend to a 
fon and daughter of the fame (12) father. 

VIII. Marriages were not contraifled 
without the confent of the (13) parents. 

iX. To give a young woman in mar- 
riage, is in Greek, (14) eyyuav, (i5)Ji£y- 
yuw, (16) Kctreyyvo^v, (17) ii^ovctt — (18) aj- 
fiopBfvi and in Latin, Dare, defpondere, 

X. The betrothed man gave to the be- 
trothed wonjan as a pledge of his honour 
and love, a prefcnt named (20) u^pec, (.21) 
oj^^aCwi^— (22) bSvov. 

Y3 XI. The 




XI. The affianced woman on her part 
gave a ^dowry, termed (23) npo^^» and 
(24) 4>fpi|, which was returned to her in 
cafe of a (25) divorce. 

XIL But Solon ftruck off dowries. By 
his regulation the woman was only to bring 
three fuits of cloaths« and fome furniture 
of little (2j6) value.— -But he enjoined the 
neareft relations of orphans to give them 
fortunes, if they did not (27) marry them. 


(i) T»iMs Ti/Aw« — Paul. Epift. ad Heb. riii. 4, 
It i3 very cafy to prove that the Qrecks ho- 
noured marriage. They acknowledged the nc- 
ceflity of it, and it's facrednefs. Plutarch, in 
Amator. p. 7 p. Ariftot. O£conom. III. and 
VII. They had cftablilhcd punifhmcnts for 
bachelors, as we fhall foon fee : and that they 
had deities that prefided over marriage is well 
known. Plutarch, in Amoi^— Qu. 2. Suidas at 
the word, nxna. Thucyd. II. 15. and SchoL' 

(2) The law, for inftance, prohibited the A- 
fhcnians from marrying women of another ftate i 




O F G R E E C E. gif 

jt forbade relations to a certain 4?gree to niarry, 
At>d there were other regu)acipns relating to 
piarri^ge, of which we fhall prcfently treat. 
Hence the exprefiion, a lawful wife — yyyn n vo/m# 
ynfStStfAtffn »yf(i* ^lian. V. H* X. 2« 
. X3) See Suacid. XJfXVI. 28. 

(4) See, on the punjihonents enaAed by the 
Athenians for bachelors, Dinarch. CQntr. De- 
snoflh. p«4i. and on thofe i^flided on them by 
the Lacedaemoniai>s-T-Piutarch. in Lac. Apoph* 
tbeg.p. 227. E. i^thcn. XIII. i. p. g^g. D. 
Pq11«x,III.4. Segm*48. 

(5) Athcn. Xill. I. p. 555. D. Lucrct. V. 
960. Horace^ Sat. I. $. v. 109. 

(6) Athcn. Xlll. I. Schol. AriftopLad.I^IiU. 
y. 773. Some authors affcrt that for this reafon 
the epithet Atpync was given to Cecrops. 

(7) Denipfth. in Near. p. 519* C 

(8) Demofth. 1. .c. ^nd 524. C. 

(9) For the Ls^ceds^monians, fee Xenopb. de 
Laccdaem. Rep. p. 534. 1. 44. and for the Athe- 
nians, .fee Cenforin, de Die Natal, c. XIV. Ari- 
ftot. Polit. VII. 16. Hefiod. Egy. v. 6.95. 

(10) Cecrops had prohibited it by a Jaw. , 
Athcn. XIU. I. p. 555. D. Hccodot V. p. 
334. fays that Anaxandrides had two wives, in 
which he dire<5tly violated the cuftom of the 

X4 (ii)Yiz. 

Digitized by 


328 A N T I Q^U I T I E S 

(ii) Viz. when the citizens were few, A« 
then. XIII. I. p. 556. A.— -or when theftatewas 
exhaufted of men. Diog, Laert; II. 26. and 
Suid. at the word, AuvaitigtTv. Some authors 
tell us tha( even Socrates took two wives to fet 
an example of recruiting the ftate. The example 
of Euripides is another proof that polygamy 
was, in foo^e cafes, allowed. Gell. XV. 20. 

(12) Corn. Nepof. in Praefat. and Cimon. c. i, 
Schol. Ariftoph. ad Nub. v. 1375. 

(13) Hom. IX. T. V. 291. O*. Z. 286. Mufieus, 
y. 179. Ovid. Met. IV. 5o. See, on marriages 
contraded without the confent of parents, Pria 
ad Apul. Milef. VI. p. ;o^ and Grotius ad 
Matth. xxviii. 30* 

(14) Deipofth. in Neser. p. 528. Mlizn. V. 

(15) Pollux, III. c. 4. Segm. 34. 

(16) Euripid. Oreft. v. 1675. 

(17) Hom. IX. T. y. 291. Dcmofth. inNexr, 
p. 528. A. 

(18) Eurip. Eleftr. 24. See 2 Cor. xi. 2. 

(19) Terence, Andr, 1. 1. 74. Plaut. Aulul. 
II. 2, 28. 

(20) Arrha, and Arrhabo, are two Hebrew 
words, which, however, were ufed by the La- 
fins and the Greeks. SceGell. XVII. 2. Gcncf. 
Ifxxviii, 17. Prov. xyii. 19. | Sam.xvii. 18. 

7 (^OMct 



O F C R E E C E. 2^f 

(21) Mcnand, Fragm. ex Inccrt. Com. N, 
«53' P* 274- If3BUS Orat. VJI. dc Cir. Heredic« 
p. 513. Plaut. Mil.GlorioC IV. i. 11. 2 Con 
V. J. Ephef, i. 14. 

<2 2) Horn. Vi. n. V. 190. 0*, 2. V. 159. The 
word MvntTfof was likewifc ufed in this fenfe. See 
Heyfcb. at this word, and Periz. ad ^lian. 
IV. I. 

(23) Ifeuf. Orat, 11. dc Hcred, Pyrrh. p. 374, 

(24) Hcyfch. at the words, «f^ini, and EJp». 

(25) Dcmofth. in Ncasr. p. 524. C. 

(26) Plutarch, in Solon, p. 89. D« See Nfeurf* 
Them. Attic. I. 14. p. 38. 

{28) Diod. Sic. XII. 18. p. 83. a Meur£' 
I c. 13. 35. 




^30 A N T I QJJ I T I E S 

C H A P. II. 

The MarriaqeXeremonies. 

J. ' 1 \HE bridegroom copdijidted hie 
X bride to his houfe in pomp. This 
was termed, (i) Ayw, or (2) Aywdai yu- 
vouTcai JuSaudi, (3) E<f otKiuv. 

II. They were generally conveyed in a 
(4) car: their friends who accompanied 

*4thetta were c'allqd, (5) nos^u^oi-^^nd— 
(6) Tlot^oxot. 

III. Players on the flute and lyre, and 
others carrying (7) flambeaux walked be* 
fore them. 

IV* The fongs which were fung in this 
proceflion were called, {S)*A^[JLUTetov fisXoc. 

V. When they arrived at the bride- 
groom's houfe, the marriage began, and 
was accompanied with (9) dances. 

VI. There was a folemn feaft which was 
lifccwife termed (10) Vaiiog. 




/OF GREECE. 331 

VII. But before the nuptial repaft, fa- 
crifices were olFerecl, called (11) TI^oTtXuec 
— and^~(i2) n^yxfjLBia^^whcn they were 
over, they fat down to tabic. . 

Vin/ None were admitted to tfeis fcaft, 
who had not bathed, and changed their 

IX. ITie cloaths of ihe bridegroom and 
hride vvere of different (14) colours, 

X. 'Hiey ifrere likcwife crowned wit;h 
wreaths of aromatic herbs and ( 1 5) flowers. 

XI. The bridegroom's houfc was orna- 
mented for the (16) occafion. 

XII. A pcftle was tied to the (17) door; 
and a fieve was carried by a (18) girl. The 
bride carried an earthen vafe full of barley, 
which was called in Greek^( 19) ^^vy^r^ov. 

XIII. At Athens, during the nuptial 
fcaft, a boy entered, carrying acorns, and a 
baiket with loaves in it, who fung— (20) 
TLt^yjyw kujcov^ Bvpov a[4,etvov^l quitted what 
was bad ; I found what was better. 


Digitized by 



XIV. After the feaft the new-married 
couple were conduced to the nuptial cham- 
her» termed in Greeks {21) ^fM, (22) 
Kovfiiiop J«/xa— (23) ^fiMTsov — (24) Baket^ 
p©^— (25) n«rac— in which was the mar- 
riage-bed— (26) Aix^g j6oup/Jioy— (27) Nu^- 
ipihov, (28) rufjuKov. 

XV. The bridegroom and bride, after 
they had entered the nuptial chamber, were 
obliged, by an injunflion of Solon, to eat 
a (29) quince betwixt them. 

XVI. They might be feparated when 
they were even in the nuptial chamber; 
for inftance, if a raven croaked on the top 
of the (30) houfe. 

XVII. It was cuftomary for the bride, 
before (he went to bed, to wa{h, at leaft 
her fedt, with warm (31) water. 

XVIII. The bridegroom then untied, 
%nd took oiF her (32) girdle. 




6 ^ G k Tt E C fi. 3 j^ 


(k) A word rarely ufed in this fenfc. Sec 
Kuften de Verbis Mediis. Homer ufes the word» 
AifctyM^ to which he adds, AofAoiiit. Oi^T. v. 272. 

(2) Horn. Oi» Z. V. 159. fays — oixovf ayic^ai. 
But we find in ^lian, without the addition of 
OixovJiy aytvixi yctfAnrt^. V. H. XIII. 13. and 
Aj^fo-Oai. }^uy««x«— XIII. lO.. 

(3) Hefiod. Efy, y*69$. 

(4) Hcfiod. Suet. Here. v. 273. Suidas, at 
the words, Zivyot j/Diioyixov. 

(5) In Latin— Pronubus — 'o (rw«T«y«v t« wfA^ 
<pi» rnv vuj(A(pi}» — Qui cum fpoofo fponfam abducit. 
Euftath. ad Ia. Z. p. 516. 1. 48. 

(6) Pollux, III. 3. Segm. 40. Suidas, 1. c. 

(7) Horn. lA. 1. V. 491. Hefiod. Suet. v. 275. 
Terence, Adclph. V. 7. 9. Muf. v. 275. 

(S) Suid.and Hefych. Euftath. Ia. X. p. 1330* 
1. 5. 

(9) Horn. IA. r. V. 499. Oi. A, V. 18. and ^. 
145. Hefiod. Suet. 274. PoUux, III. 3. Segm: 


(10) Hom. Oi.A. V. 3. IA. T. V. 299. Pol- 
lux, III. 3* Segm. 44* Interpr. ad Matth. xxii. 

(11) Eurip. Iphig. in Aul. v. 718. Hefych. 
at this word. Vafes ad Harpocrat. p. 164. 

(12) Poliux, III. 3. Segm. 38. 

;i^) Horn; 



334 A N T 1 Q^U 1 T I E S 

(13) Horn. o*. y. 131. Z. 17. Ariftoph. Ar. 
1692. Interpr. ad Macth. xxii. 11. 

(14) Pluc. v. $p. and Schol. ad 
h. I See Kufter. ad h. L 

(1$) This wreath is called Sri^ac yctt^^m. 
Bion. Idyll. L Epitaph. Aden. v. 88. See 
Schol. Ariftoph. ad Av. v. 160. Eurip. Iphig« 
in Aul. 905. Pafchal. de Coron. IL 16. ly. 
' (16) Hierocles, Fragm. n$(i j^pw. p. 908. 
Stob. Serm. j86. deLaudeNupt. p. 636. h 33. 
Seneca. Thebaid. v. 507. 

(17) Pollux, IIL 3. Segm. 37. 

( 18) Pollux J. c. 

(19) Pollux, L 12. Segm. 246. ad Pau£ At- 
tic. I. p* 5* 

(20) Hefych. and Suid. at the words, E^uj^ov 

(21) Theocrit. IdyU. XXVII. 36. 

(22) Horn. Ot. T. V. 580, See Suidas and 

(23) Pollux, IIL 3. Segm. 43. ^ 

(24) Theocrit. IdyU. XXVIL 36. PoUux, 
1. c. Segm. 37. 

(25) Hefych. «t this word. Euftath. Ix. r. 
pag. 297. 1. 43< Mufieus. v. 280, ufes the 
word, n«rov. 

(2^) Ariftoph Pac. v. 844. 

(27) Nufi^fi* tvyn-^In Pind. Nem. Od. V. 
Antiftr. B. v. 10. Kai»« pvjbUpiM, Lucianw Heio^ 
dot. p. 574. 

Digitized by 


•O F G R E E G E. 335 

(28) Pollux, III. 3. Segw. 43. Mcurf. 
Left. Attic. II. 9. p. 72. 

(29) Plutarch, in Solon, p. 89. C. Conjug. 
Praeccpt. p. 138. D. 

(30) I know not any author by whom this 
ai&rtion is confirmed.— The reafon why the 
croaking of the raven difTolved the marriage 
muft have been — either — becaufe, that bird was 
odious to Minerva the proteftrefs of the city, as 
we are told by mythology — Antigon. Hift Mi- 
rabl XII. Ovid. Met. II. 551. Hygin. Fab* 
166. or becaufc the raven was one of the ia- 
fernal birds.. Plin. X. 1 2. or becaufc the raven 
is an enemy to other birds. Sen. ad Eclog. IX. 
15. Broukhuf. ad TibulL II. 2. 21.. or — be- 

. caufe the cry of a folitary raven is a prefage of 
widowhood. Hieroglyph. VIII. and Nota; adh. 
1. Hadrian. Jun. Animadv. I. i. .Gaulmin. ad 
Euftath. de Amorib. Ifmeniae et Ifmenef, p. 29. 
Lc Clerc ad JHlefiod. E^y. v. 746. -ffilian. H. 
A. HI. 9. 

(31) Ariftoph. Pac. v. 843. and the authors 
cited by Lambert. Bof ad Eph. V. 26, 

(32) In Greek — Auo-«i ^«miv, or (Air^xy wagin 
yir\9. In Latin — Solvere zonam, revincire 20- 
nam, flomer. H. in Vencr. 155. Theocrir. 
Idyl. XXVII. 54. Ovid. Hcfiod. il. 115. 
Spanheim. ad Callim. H. in Jov. v. 21. and J. 
Schrader ad Mufse. v. 272. p. 341. 

' ■ CHAP. 

Digitized tiy 


35S aK TI (^UIT I E S 

Of Divorces. 

I. TTT was a great difhonour to both the 
X married parties to (i) quit each 

11. If the hufband difmiflcd the wife,. 

the proper terms were — (2) ATroTnfimiv^ 

(3) A^o^ojtcTriy— (4) ExCaXAE/v. 

IIL The huftwind was, in this cafe, ob- 

liged by the law, to rcftore the wife her 

(5) fortune. 

IV. If the wife quitted the hu&and, the 
feparation was expreflcd by the words— 
—(6) A^oX6*4'*C^~(7) AvoXvTrsiv. 

V. There were canfcs for which the law 
permitted the wife to leave her hufband ; 
but (he was, beforehand, to advertife the 
archon of her intention, and prefent him a 
petition containing an enumeration of her 
(8) grievances. 


Digitized by 


OF G k E RCR 3|t 

NOTES to CHAP. til. 

CO x^ To the Wivc5L to fcparaa from their 
hufbands. Eurip. Med. v. 336.—^^ To the 
liufbands to put away ihcir. wives, — Athcn. 
XIII. i.p. 555. who relates that at Lacedac- 
TOon Lyfkndcri*as condemned to pay. a heavy. 
fine for having divorced his wife that he might 
marry a finer woman. 

(2) Demofth. inNcstf.p* 4124. C 

(3) Pollux, Itr. 3. ^cgm. 46. 

(4) D$mdfth. in N<3sr. I c. ,Galat IV. go. 
we have alfo — ExfMjUTnv tm^ J^aixa. If^us dft 
Hercd* Pyrth. pag* 3«8* A^mou ynMim. PIu- 
tarch. in Cic. p. 875. A. i Cor. vii. 1 1. AiroAura* 
ywcuxm, — Matth. xix. 7. 8. 

(5)-Dcroofth. in Naear. p. $24. G. 

(6) Plutarch. In Alcibiad. p. i^^. C. Pol- 
lux, III. 3. Segm. 47. 

(7) Ifeus de Hcred. Pyrrh. p. ggtf* 

(8) Plutarch. In Alcibiad. p. tg$. C. An^ 
docid.'Orat. IV. contra Alcib. p. 297. Plu* 
tarch. L c. ftyles this petition, r^a^ara m-^ah- 
Xf«*f* We find the legal caufcs of a diyor/cejia 
Tollux, III. 3. Segm. 47, and in Plut. ia Ad^itu 
1. c 


Digitized by 


33«- ANn-C^UITIES 
- "^ CHAP. IV. 

' . Of A B e t T E R Y, 

L; A DULTERY is, in Greek, termed, 
- ^^M^ ^i) Mo/%fr«. It was a crime com- 
mon among^ the (2) Greeks ; yet it was 
ftrongly guarded ja^gainfl: by their legifla- 
tion, 'and: rapreffdcl by fiats and puni(k« 
nicfltsir ' 

' II. Tfife pbnffhments inflifted on adul- 
terers were not the i^me in. all the ftatesof 
(3) Greece. ... 

III.,'3t was perniittid by a law of Solon 
to put an adulterer to death, if he was^ 
caught^ In flagranti delifto — In 'the (4) 
faa. .' . . ^ 

lY. It was infamous for a man tD live' 
with his wife after flae was taken in (5) 

V. At Athens a rich adulterer might 
commute the ordinary punifliment of his 

• ' ' crime 

Digitized by 


OF Gkfi fiC ^. 33^ 

crime with a fum of money termed; (7) 

VI. But a crucli and mortifying punifh- 
ment awaited poor people furprized in aduU 
ttrjr; it ^as called^^ (8) Pae^aw^kya-f^, and 
(9) TI»^etT$XfjLO^. 

K O t E S to C H A P. IV. 

(i) See Paufan. Bcfct. XXXVI. p. 784. 

(2) This is evinced by the examples of Thy- 
eftes, jSgifthus, Paris, Phoenix, Stc. See Senec. 
Thyefti 680. Horn. o^. A. v; 32. I\. f. v. 
39» and L v. 451. But adultery was unknown 
at Sparta. Plut. Lac. Apophthegm, p. 2. 8 1 
and in Lycurg. p. 49. C. . 

(3) On the puniflimcnt of adulccry among the 
Cretans, confult-ffilian. V. Hi 'XJLl. i2.-»-Among 
the Locrians, idem. XIIL 24. Among the 
Thcfpians, idem. XI. 6. 

(4) Lyfias, .wrtg Tou £^aro0-fifvov< (povo\t. pag. y. 

Taylor, in Proleg. ad hanc Orac. Plutarch, in 
Solon, p. 90. F. Mctirf. Them. Attic. 1. 4. 
p. 9. 

(5) Demofth. in Naear. p. 52^. C. Mcur- 
lius proves that it was lawful for a hufband, to 
treat his wife, if (he had been guilty of adultery, 

Z 2 in 

jitized by Google 



ui die icTO^fk BVaiMicr— to deprive hct of hei^ 
fortune, to fell her^ to kill her. Them. Auic« 
I. 5^ p. S2. 

(6) Lyf. L c« f • 6r Scbol. Arifloptr. PIut« 
▼. 168. 

(7) Horn, el* A. V. 3>9,s. andEiift^tl^ 3k} k« k 
p. 313. 1. 2. 

(8}SchoL Ariftoph. ad Plot. r. 16S. and 
Ariltoph. Nut^. 1079. Suid. at the word 'P«* 

(9) Schol. Ariftoph, 1. c. Voffius aU CatulK 
p. 4^ ' 




OF GniEECE. \ M 

C H A P. V. 
Of the B I R T H «od E d o .cat i. o n 

of C a 1,1. I>K BIT. ' 

I, "|~[*OBL<hc "birth of a foift the doori 
Ml of the hool^ Were ctowned with 
olive; fpr the/birth^ a daughter, Mfkh 
{i) wool. \ 

II. The (i) new-borti cfaOd was wafted 
in waitn water. Tfat irafe cbn&crated tt> 
that life was called (3) Afiutftt, 

III. Th^ likewife anointed it With oil. 
which was kept in an earthen veflelname^, 
(4) 3jnrXp0"-from whicb woxd ii derk«d 
the verb, [S) jgrrTusreu, 

17. Wine was afed hy the Spartanc >n'> 
ftead of water for this (6) abhtion. 

v.- When it was thus wa(hed it was 
-drtfied: the trhild'a deaths were citdle^, 
(7) -5E»«pytar*. 

VI. It was then laid in a (8) bafket, or 

in a (9) flueld if it's father was a wan i- 

y 3 .our. 

Digitized by 



our. The latter cuftom prevailed moft itx 
the military ( i o) Sparta. 

VIL The chiI4ren whom their parents 
' did not chufc to bring up, were expofed^-j 
This was termed, (i i) Ekts9€vxi. 

yill. lo the bafket in which the.child 
was expofed they fometimes put a collar, 
or a ring, or a (13) ftone— Thefe were 
'Called, nfip'J«faia, and, (14) rvtafifrfjiMrx. 

IX. Among the Thebans fhe expofitioQ 
pf children was prohibited by (15) law. 

X. At Laced^emon, deformed children 
wer^ t^irown into a place termed (16^ A« 

XI. At Athens, the names of the. chil- 
dren which were brought up, were infcrib- 
j^d, as fooB as tijey weje born, ii» thej^ub^ 
lie (17) fcgiftcrs. _ j . 

XII. When the infjmt ws five days old, 
(18) they ran with it in their arms rounfl 
the fire, and the relations of it's mother 
fent her prefents, which were tproed,(i9) 

Digitized by 



XIIL The child w?s oamed ten days 
after it's (20) birth. A, (21) fax:rificc was 
offered on the occafion, whicli was fol- 
lo^wed by a (22) feaft. Thefc ceremonies 
were exprelTed by, (23) AiKutip/ %biv, (24) 

XIV. The fortieth day wai a day of 
foIemBijty for the ^26) mother^ , . . . 

XV, Jt was a very efTential duty with 
the Greeks to bring up . their children i(i 
tl;ieir own (27) houfes, and to have them 
nurfcd by their (28) mothers; the mater- 
nal office wom^n of the highcft (29) iii- 
ftindtion did not decline. 

Xyi. Wc rc^d, however^, that in^^omc 
irafes purfes y/crc taken into the (30) houfev 

6wi — (34) J^^wiirs>^9^y were the Dfipics 
given to mirfes. 3o(aetime5 th^ were 
called, (3 5) T^o(poi. But there was ibmft 
(36) diiiepdnce between the T^Ti^^randthe 
I^pA^. .TofucUe is, in Gftefc^ (37)'®«* 
fw^itilir^^ (>;; ) -t -• ..": • ; ' - \ ->j p-:,.-'*^ 
;. .r.K.i;> JZ 4 XVIIL 

Digitized by 


144 A N T I CLU I T I E S 

XVIIL In the ftVect, the nurfc h«Ld « 
fpunge foal^cd in honey, which (he pat to 
the mouth of her child when it (3b) cried. 
• XIX. To comppfc it to flccp Ihc fung-*-? 
Ai»Xas« (iawa}iec»i and thefe fongs were 
tcrmed^^(39) Bawi6aX^ef^^F— ancI-^(4o) Nwu- 

* XX. When thefe foothing methods fail- 
ed« the nurfe bad recourfe to tKe (41) Man^ 
4ucum9 {\z)Terricnlamntum^ to frighteQ 
It into quiet, The figure withr which the 
child was terrified, was, {\i)VllfffjLo\x)$iiiK^. 
—To terrify it with that figure, was, (44) 

XXi. To prevent the rieea infepardblo 
from idleoeft, great care was ta^en to taci* 
cuftom boya «rid gtrlah6timea^taf> indnfti-y, 
^^Hie tender years ^f the hoys were en^ 
ployed in learning the ele^ients of tfrts «q4 

XXIL The ifirls w«re iclofely cobfiited 
in the: (46) facidfe. l>tttle was alkmvrid 
them to (47) eat, and their (48) waift %« 


Digitized by 


O* GREEC 6/ ^5 

ftraltened ta make it more elegaou They 
were cbieHy employed in workiog (49) 
wool-; an :^mp\oymtnt .^icb» of ciki^ wu 
not defpifed by ladiet of tbe firil (^50) q«a-» 

XXIII. We rea-a likeV^iTe Ihat young 
ladies of the higheil, birth were taught 
mufic and (51 ) literature. 

XXIV. If the fathers of boys were rich, 
or perfons of fiftinAion^ l^ey ^bad private 
inafteris for them, (52) tUuiayityo$p or (5^) 
|laj0r^ij3M.-<— tofortn them to the fine art^. 

XXV. Tbe education of the Greeks (the 
(54) Lacedsemonians excepted) confided of 
three principb) parts— viz. Letters, the 
Gymnaftic Exercifes, and {^s) ^^^^ 
Some authors add (56) Painting* 

XXVI. We have already inquired into 
tbe Gymnaftie Exttcifes in the firft part. 
On the Oames of the Greeks. We iliuft 
|iow give a cohciie account of the three 
fdiec braacbks ttf CKcian education. 


Digitized by 



N O T E S to C H A P. V. 

(i) Hefych. at the words» Drftpayov ot^f^ a»; 
and Meurf. Le£b. Attic. I. lo. Pafchal, de Co- 

ron. V, 15. p. 334- 

(2) Callim. H. in Jov. 17. and Interpr^ 
Kfeurf. ad I^ycoph. ▼. 332. 

(3) In Latin, Labrgm, Ifijd. ^ifpal. Orig^ 
XX. 6. AouT^oy has a more eztenfive ligniGcar 
tbn, Yet it is ufed in diis fenfe by Euripides^ 
Jon.. 14^3. 

(4.) Bartholin, de Puerp. Vet. p. 6$* 

(5) AwQXowrx^ai — Spanh. ad Callim. H. in 
Jov. 17. 2. M«r« fXaiev Xowoto^ow — Hcfych. and 
Sttid. at the word. Schol. Min. ad Horn, o/, 
2. V. 80. Euftath. ad h. 1. p. 248. L 24. 

(6) Plutarch, in Lycurg. p. 49. E. 

(7) Horn. H. in NJcrcur. v. 268. Plutarch, 
in Lycurg. p. 49. E. Herodian. I. 5. Callim* 
H. in Jov. V. 33. and Intcrpr. adh. L 

(8) Callim. H. in Jov, r. 48. and Interpr. 
Lennep. ad Coloth. p. 67. 

(9) Thcocr. Idyll. XXIV. V, 4, 

(10) Nonnus in Dionyf. XLI. 168. 

(11) Euripid. Phasniff. v. 25. Ariftoph. in 
Nub. v. 531. Ariftoph. Ran. v. 1221. 

(12) lerence. Eunuchs IV. 6. 15* Eufifu 
Ion. 19, 32. i337» 




• (13) Ariftot. Poetic, c. XVI. Eurip. Ion; 
y« 143 !• calls thetn, Asfonx. 

(i4) Paufan. A«ic. c. XXVJI, p, 66. He 
)iodor. -ffithipp. IV. p. 178. 

(15) JEW^n. V. H. c. H 7. I 

(16) Plptarch. in Lypurg, p. 49. D, Ariftot,, 
^PoUcVII. i6, 

(17) Ifaeus, Orat. VI. de Apollod. Hcrcd, p. 
-486. Suidas, and Harpocrat. at the words5 

Kom^ y^UfAfMTupv^ But were the children isegi- 
ftercd immediately after their birth, or at the 
9ge of one year, two, three years, &c. This 
uncertainty is not removed by Potter, Archa- 
qL I. 9. p. 45. But the fcholiafl: of Lucian a£* 
fcrts that they were regiftcred immediately after 
$hey were born, T. IL p. ii. 

(18) Hefych. at the words, A^opa^iov v[^(.*^ 
^nd Mcurf. Graec. Fcr. I. 20. 

(19) Hefych., at the word Af^ii^ofux. ^nd 
Suidas. iEfchyl. in . Eumenid. v. 7. and StanI, 
ad h. 1. 

lf2o) Eurip. in Fragm. JEgei. v. 14. and Bar- 
ncf. ad Eurip. Eledlr. v. 126. — Seven days ac- 
cording to others. See Harpograt. at the word, 

. {? 1 ) Euripide?, El/cdr. v. 1 1 a6. ^ 

(22) Arifloph. Av. y^.4^\. and Schol. 

(23) Ariftbph. Av. v. 923. 




3^ AN t iQ^tr I r I* s 

(24) Another expreflion wa$— ^emm lEtunvT 
Demofth. adv. Boeoc. p, 6^8. C. 

(25) SaMas, tt the itords, Aocam* fr«ar*i. 

(26) Cenforio. De Die Nat. XI. p. 50. Set 
Baithol. de Puerp. Vet. p. 139* 

(27) Kotn.lx. ILt. 191. O^ 2^ V. 20|« 
Plaut. Bacchid. IIL ^.18. 

(28) Eurrpid. Ion. v. i g^a 

"(29) Hecuba, in Homer. Iv X. v. 83. Pe- 
nelope. oA. A. V. 447. See Feidi. Antiq. 

Hoou n. 18. 

(3D) Euryidea, ts, in Homer, the nurib^ef 
VfyBts. ol ^. v,v 4S2. Nanlkaa is likewife 
xnehtioned, oi. W. v. 1 2. See GdL Noft« Ai^ 
We. XII. 1. 

(31) Homer. oJ* T^ v. 4^2. 

(32) Atiflx>ph. EqiHt. v. 713. and SchoL 
(53) Horn. IX. Z. V. 389. Eviftath. p. 51 f. 

1. to. 34. Snidas, at the word, Tiimat. JBut 
fCoftei^ reading is diSerent. 

(^5) Plutarch, de Puer. Educ^ c. V. ulksibtb 
words together, tnim^ and T^ct. 

(36) See Enteth. id ix. Z. p. 513. \. 14. 

(Vt) LyTias, Orat. I. pro Ctrde EratOs, p. j. 
iElian. V. H. XIII. i. 

(38) Hefyeh. «t the words, Kn^tf ^«r«« CalKm; R in Jor. ▼. 49. 




QK G RE;£^C Ei 3451 

($9) Scalig. lx&. Aufon. II. ii. p. li^ 
Hefych. at the word BamMiZv. Athcn. XIV* 3^ 
p. 6ia- F. 

(40) Hefych. at the word, N«nfiov. Cafauboiu 
ad Thcophr* Chivaft, Eth. c. VIIL p. 2^3.1. 

(4j) Plauc Rud. IL 6. $1. Ecftus, at the 
word, Mahducus. . 

(42) Terricolanicnt^^ and Terriculap are hi 
Latin fynonymous words, and lignify figures 
with which they frightened childrei>^ 

(43) Ariftoph. Thcfmoph. v. 424* There is 
likewife, in the fame fenfe, the word, Mo^oXvxiu 
Strabo^ I. p. 13. 1* 92* and ad h^ 1. Cafaub. p. 
%z. an4 by abbreviation^ MoffAn. AriAoph^ 
Adiara, v. 5S2. Lucian in Philopfeud. p. 328. 
We have an entertaining account of the manner 
in which the Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans 
frightened their children, in Ittagcrus.— In Prp- 
graniirate de Manducis. 

(44) Hefych. at this word* Ariftoph, Ar. 

▼• 1245- 

(45) This we fee by the law of Solon. PltJ- 
tarcb in Solon, p. 90. C,. D. anAby the Attic 
laws. Lib. i. tit. 4. There were publicfc 
fchools for children of each fex. Perizon. ad 
JElian, V. H. III. 21: Sec, on the neceffily of 
cducacion, Socrates in Xenophon. Mcmorab. 
IV. 1. 1. and, againft an eBcminate educatioil-^ 

4 Theam^ 


by Google 

ls<> ANT IQLU li* fES 

TKcan'. in I^rag- Pythslg/ in Optfc. MythbL 
Th. Gall. p. 740. 

(46)Corncl. Nepos, in Prafat. Homer lodger 
tic women in the highcft ftory of the boufcs. 
0**Qiv. 516. and IX. B. V. 514. Phocyl. v. 
198. EuVipides, Iphig.^iii Aoltd: V. 738. Ph«- 
nifr. 88. 

(47) Terence. Eunucli. ll. 3. 23. Xenophon 
de Rep. Laced^m. p. 537. 1. 20. 

(48) Terihce. Ibid, v. 22. 

(49) EuftAtb. ad IX* A, p. 23. 1. 43/Xenoiih. 
I. c. p. 534. 1. 27. 

(^6) Penelope, for iriftanCc — Horn. o#. P. r. 
97. Ovid. HcroTd. I. v: 77. and the wife of 
Lcontius, one df the Theban generals. Xe-> 
noph. Hellert. V. p. 443, L 27. 

( ji),Thc Spartan girls ftudicd mufick. Plu-' 
tarch. lii Lycurg. p. ^-j. F. and 48. A. Co^ 
' rinna the Theban excelled in poetry. Paufa- 
Aias, ficcot. c. XXIl. p. 753. -ffilian; V. H. 
XIII. 25. and Perizon. Arpafia gave SocratcS 
leflbns in eloquence — A then. V. i 9. p. 2 19^ C. 

(52) Thus, Phefiix was tutor to Acbilles; 
Plutarch, de Pucr. Educat. c. VH^ Horn. U. 
A. y. 8ji. Thus, Atlas is faid to have beeit 
praecepcor to Ilcrdules. Aufon. Idyll. iV. v* 
^u Thcocrit. Idyll. XXIV. v. 103. See Feith. 
Anticj. Homer. II. 18. §3- p. 251* Confult, 

% 01 




on the difference between At^xoXe^ and n»%foi* 
ywyou Wower.- Polymath. IV. § 19. 

(53) Ariftoph. Nub. ^6^. The bufinefs of 
the UauioTg^^on .was only to cxercife the bodies 
of their fcholars. ^fchin, Timarch. p. 172-4 
A. See Cafaub. Thcophn^Charaa. VlII. tlift 
AftAi«;. Perizon. ad ^ian. V. H. 11. t. and 
p. ^82. Zeiblch. Athleta. nagui§^ati p- 165. 
. (54) Ariftot. Polit. c. VlII. 4. '^li^n. V^, 
H. XII. 50. and Perizop.. 

(55) Terehce. Eunuch. III. 2. 23. 

(56) Ariftot. c. VIII. 3. Plutarch, dc Mufic^ 
p. 1 140. B. PerizoiH ad\£Uan. V. H. 7. 45. 


Digitized by 


3^ A N' T 1 Q;U 1 T FE r 

Of L B r T E R S. 

I. "I^Y letters, T^iiimtm, we are to iin« 
JL^ deridan^, rfP^<fMn'oei;» wbidi to. it's, 
early ftatc comprehended only ( t ) read»^ 
andwriting* Thk feieace was aft^rwardl^ 
^reitly extended* aod'toQ^ in (2) hiftory^ 
jpioetry, &c. 

fiadied philorophy* There were Gymna- 
fia, and publick (chools for the (4) pur- 
pofe. The priocipal fchools at Athens^ 
\Rferc, the (5) Academy, the (6) Lyceum» 
and the (7) Kuwro^yif. There were 
fchools founded at other (8) places* 


(t) Arid. Polit. c. VIII. 3. Topic, c. VI. 3. 
Sexc. Empir. adv. Gramm. I. 2. 

(2) Grammar is taken in this extent by Ci- 
-ccro, dc Orat, I 42. Seneca, Ep, LXXXVIII. 




O F G ft E E € E. 351 

QpintiL I. 14* Stxt. Empir. adv. Grammar. 
I. 1. See Mauflac, Diffcrt. Crit. at the end of 
Harpocrat. p. 321^. Burmann. ad Valef. de 
Crit. I. 1.^244. 

(3) Terence* Andr. I. x. v. 30. Sec Leg. 
Al%. Lib. I. Tit* 4* 

(4^ The Gymnafia were properly intended 
for bocjily cxcrcifcs. Sec, on the public fcbools 
of thd ancients^ Pcrizbn. ad^^lian. V. H. HI. 
ai^ / 

(5) ^lian. V. H. IV, 9. Mciuigr a|d.L&erc» 
^W-?rP.i4f:^ t 

(6) -ffillian. V. H. IX. 20. and ^9. Menag. 
ad'Laert. V. i. pig. 186. Giccro' mentions the 
itciidemy, and the lyccum;- Dc DJvin. I. 13, 
SeoAAid;<^aBfiLL 17. 

(7) This wte the fchfiolof 4f^(iftbeAC$, acr 
cordingr to Hefych. Milef. ^nd.Diog. Laerc. 
VL 13. and of Ariftp theCbian. Diog. Laert. 
VIL I (J I. ?auf. Attic* c; XIX. p: 44". 

(i) For inftaoee that at Coritith- called,- K^a* 
lyi^v Luciano Di^L Mo(t. p» 26% LMit* VL 
77* There was a GymnaGum in the ^fle qf 
Rhodes. Cic.Tufc. Qui*. IL 61. Saet Ti- 

A 4 CHAPt 

Digitized by 


354 A N T I Q^U 1 T I E S 

Of M u s I c K, 

I. ^ I ^ HE wordi Mowtictt, Mafic, is dc- 
X rived, according to fome authors, 
from the oine ( i ) Mufcs $ and according to 
others, from the Hebrew word, (2) Mo/ar, 
which fignifies art, fcience. ' 

IL The Greeks give the mventioa of 
piufic^ to (3) Pythagoras } but they are 
(4) miftaken. The icrtptures leave us 00 
room to doubt that (5) Jubai was the in** 
ventor of the flute and the harp. 

III. There were ieven mufical notes 
which were coofecrated to the feven pla«- 
nets. * v^r^mrn, to the Moon: a'^nop* 
wwwtIj, to Jupiter: 3* A^xfu^p ^ Mercury: 
4<» Mttni, to':the Sun : ^^Uu^afua-^t to Mats : 
6^ TfiTif, to Venus: 7'' NifT», to (6) Saturn. 

IV. The tone, or mode, whether gr^vc 
or acute, in which the muficians fung, or 
playedj was termed in Creek (7) No/to^. 

V. there 

Digitized by 



v. There were four modes j the Phry- 
gian, the Lydian, the Doric, and the (8) 
Ionic. Some authors add a £fth, viz. the 
(9) ^olic. Thefe are the charaders of the 
five modes-^The Phrygian mode was reli- 
gious,— ^tbc Lydian, plaintive, — the Dorip, 
laartial— the Ionic, gay and flowery— the 
(lo)^olic, iimplc. The mode with which 
the foldieca was animated, was likewife 
termed> (11) Opfl/«f, 

VI. Ift later times the term N«pf wa» 
applied to the words which were fung ia 

thefe (12) «no<J"- 

VII. Their mufic was vocal, or (13) in- 


VIII. Mufical inftrumcnts are divided 
into wind-inftruments, %9n«uf «, or ftring- 
ed inftrogieBts, (14) 2vr«T«. 

IX. The three principal of the ancient 
inftruments were, ih© lyre, the flute, and 
the (15) pipe. 


Digitized by 




( I ; IHdor, Hifpal. Orig. 11. c. XIV. 

(2) Voflius dc Idolol. 1. 13. wc haTootfttpr 
etymologies tn Fburnut. De Na€ur« Deer, a 
XIV. Lc Clcrc, ad Hefiod. Theog. v- 52. dc- 
rives it from the Hebrew Motja^ Inventriz. 
^(^) Ifiodorus fays the Greeks were of this 
opinion— Hiipal. prig. IL j;« we find in ^am* 
blichus how this- pbtlofopher invented ukufic^ 
De Vita Pythag. c. XXVI. See Nicpm. A^. 
rithmet. p. 171- Macrob. In Sojoii. Scip; IL i. 
Holften. ad Porphyn p, 7. 

(4) It is not probable that the Greeks thought 
Pythagoras the author of mufic. The;? kneir 
that men who lived before Pythagoras, if they 
did not invent the art, applied tbeoifeWe^ to iu 
i^Amphion, for inftance, Lkiss, and others 
mentioned by. Plutarcj}. Dc Mufic. p. 1x31. F. 
and p» 1 1 }2. A, B. The Greeks then muff have 
only meant that Pythagoras .improvtfd mufic # 
and, perhipsi reduced it to a fyifasnu. See Vof^ 
flus de Scient* MatboD. c* XX. $. ^. on the fhte 
of mufic at the time of the Trojan war«. Sec 
Feith. Antiq. Homer. IV. 4. * 

{5) Genef. iv. »!• 

(6) Nicomach. Harmon, cited by MeibomitM . 
Antiq. Mufic^ Aufton p. 33* See Ariftot* 


Digitized by 



ProW. {€&. 19, PhiUnd. td Vitruv. V. 4. p. 
2x4. aad VofliU5» deScienc. Mathem. c XX. 

6 3-P- 85- 

(7) Thucyd. V. 70. Ariftoph. Equ, 9. Ari- 

Aodp inquires why it was fo termed, Probl. 
XIX. n. 28* and Plutarch, de Mufic. p. 11 33. 
'B. according to Ariftot)c> N«/i«oi xot^oui^ai ol {Aovir^' 
xoi rf9vot xft6' «v( Tiif»( iiofAtu See Suid. at the 

(8) This is Luciao's enumeration^ Harmon, 
pag. 585. Sec Ariftot. Polity IV.. 3. Athen, 
XIV. 5. p. 624. Ariftoxen. p. gy. Euclid, p. 
19. Bacchius, p. 12. on the inventors of thefe 
modes. See Plin. VII. 56. 

(9) Bourdelot ad Lucian. 1. d 

(10) We find thefe charaftcrs of the five 
modes in Apuleius, Florid, p. 342. and Lucian^ 
1. c. Sec Ariftot. PoUt. VIII. 5. 7. Obfcrvac. 
Mircell. VII. p. 309. 

(ii)Hom. IX. A. V. iQ, Euftath. p. y^8. L 
7. SceSchol* Ariftoph. ad Acharn. v. j6. He* 
rodot. de Arion, p. 10. B, and GelL XVI. 19. 
Suid. at the word, Q^hxa-iMotrut. Thefe modes 
are termed by Pliny, Phthongi, II. 22. andMo** 
dqli,VIL 56. 

(12) Schol. Ariftoph, ad Equit. v. 9. Span- 
faeioi. ad Callim. H. in Del. v. 304. p. 5:09. 

Aa3 (13) Hence 

Digitized by 


358 A N T I Q^U 1 T I E S 

(13) Hence the following definition of mufic, 

yctnxou — Ars contemplativa ec pra&ica perfedi 
cant<is et organic!. Ariftid. QuiotiK I. p. 6. 
Sec Ariftot. Polit. VIII. 5. To fing, without 
being accompanied by an inftrumenc, was, in 
Latin^ Afs4 voce canere. They likewife called 
the flutes which were played upon without the, 
voice, Aflas tibias. See Dacier, ad Feft« at the 
word Aflfa. Pliny informs us who was the firft 
man that played on the lyre without finging to 
it, and who it was that firft accompanied that 
inftrument with the voice, VII. 56. 

(14) Pollux, IV. 8. Segm. 58. Ariftid. 
Quintili^n alfo (pag. loi.) diftinguithes the 
OfyotfOi ifAintvrttj and«-<^«aT«rffivojbinft ; thp latter of 
which he likewife calls— Of>'a9a Ji* hv^» «(|ftor- 
f*f»«, p. 107 ; and Niu^oJcTM, p. lie 

(15) Ariftotle counts morcj Polit. Vftl. i. 
So does Pollux, IV. 9. Segm. 59. But accord- 
ing to Plutarch thefe are the three principal iiH 
firuments. Pe Mu0c. p. 1136, 


Digitized by 


' OF GREECE. 3^1 


Of the C I T H A R A.; 

j^ / I ^HE cithara was the moft famous 

JL of the ftringed inftruments. The 

Greeks called it, (i) VJa^, and (2) 4>o^ 

II. To it they fung the (5) exploits of 
heroes, and (4) love. 

III. The ftriogs were, at firft, of (5) li- 
nen-thread j afterwards of (6) catgut. 

IV. The firings were at firft three i 
whence it waa termed, (7) Tf '%of lo? : but 
it was afterwards improved, aild had feven 
firings J it then had the, cpithct8-.-(8) *Eir- 
T«5Copi<»j— (9) *EirT«^o>7»s;— (lO) *E«t*- 

V. The firings were touched either with 
a (ii) bow, or with the (12) fingers. To 
touch the cithara was exprefled in Greek 
by (13) Kj6etft^M, (14) Kfowu* irXjpfrTpw-^ 

Aa4 (15) 



^p A N iT I QJJ I T I E S 

(15) A*«»6iv— (16) AaxTuX^tc xpou6<»— and 

(17) YoXXttv. 


(i) Apollo was thought to have beeir the In- 
vemor of this inftrumeht^ /Bion« Idyll. III. /• 
Hence that God is reprefented in antiques with 
« cicbara in his hand. See Feriz. ad iElian. V. 
H. III. 32. And hence he has the title, ^o^/bux- 
Tuc. Ariftoph. Ran. v. 2^4. We may add» 
that in ancient time), kings and berets learned 
to play upon the cithara : Hercules, and Alex* 
andcr, for inftance. ^lian. V. H. HI. 3a. 

(2) KiOa^a, and ^offAiy^ were words for the 
fame inftrument. Euftath. adlx.A. p. 1222. 
1 38. He fupports his aflertion by a paflage of 
Homer, Ia. Z. v, 56^.^ Feithius, iti Antiq, 
Homer thinks the cithara and the lyre the fame 
inftrument. And, amongft other authorities* he 
has apaflage of Ariftophanes to firengthen his 
conjcfture. Nub. 1 358. But he is oppofed by 
Ptriz. ad iElian. IIL 52. The difference trf th« 
two inftruments is difierently explained. Some 
critics tell us that the lyre bad always a hollow 
to make it found ; inftead of which, there were 


Digitized by 


OF G R E ECE. gfij 

.two bars for .the ftrings of die cithara, wJiich 
Went acroTsy tbeone on^he upper, and the other 
en the lower part of xhe inflniment. Thef 
add, that at its two fides it had no handles. 
Thefe are the principal difUn£):bns between the 
lyre and the cithara. But the reader will find . 
more io'Blanchtn — Difiertat* De tribus Generi-^ 
bus Muficas veterum Organicse, c. IL $ lo. p, 
:29vRoni. 1742. 

(;) Achilles, for inftance. Horn, Ix. i. v. 
i86. Virgil, ^neid. i. 744. Hence the title 
of, Mvirn^ J|tA»<inN-«which Aiiftophanes gives the 
cithara. Thefmoph. v. x-^o* 

(4) Demodocus, for inftance. Horn. 0^. 9. 
V. 266, Anacn Od, L 

(5) Eoftath. ^ Homer. Ia. O. v. 570. pag. 

1222. 1. 52* 

(6) Homer. O^. *. v. 408. 

(7) Stephens, at the word A(n«, fays, the cU 
tKara with three firings was invented at Afia, a 
city of Lydia. Hence it is called Aona^ by A- 
riftoph. Tbcfmoph. v. 126. See Plutarch, dc 
Mufic. p. 1137. A. 

(S) Plutarch, de Mufic. p. 1144. F. Macrob. 
Saturn. I. 19. Horn. H. in Mcrcur. v. 51. 
(9) Eurip. 
(|o) Pind. Ncm^ Od. V. Str. B. v. lo. 

(I I) Pin- 



S6t A N T I C^U I T I E S 

. ( 1 1 ) Pindaf . Ncm. Od. V. Str. B.v.ii. H<vi 
mcr. H. in Mercun v. 419^ ^Han. V. H. III. 
32. where Perizonius defcribes the figure of the 

(12) Achen. IV. pag. 183. D. and XIV. 9. 
p. 637. D. Virg. .£neid. VL 645. 

(13) Plutarch. Apophtb. Lacon. p. 233. 'F« 
Ariftot, PoUt. I. 4. 

(14) Anthol. IV. 16. p. 4. 

(15) Pind, Ncm. Od. V. Stroph. B.v. it. 

(16) Pfalm Ixxxi. v. 3^ 

(17) Athen. IV. 25. p. 183. D. Sec SchoL 
Ariftoph. ad A v. 2(8. 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E C Er s6| 

C H A P. IX. 
Qf the F L u T E and the Pipe, 

I. /TT^ HE .flute, in Oreck, AwAo^, was a 
X ( I ) famous inflrument which they 
vfed on their (2) feftivals, and at their fa« 
crifices; at their (3) games, and (4) enter- 
tainments ; at their (5) funerals, and other 
cccalions of mourning. 

IL (6) Jubal was the inventor of the 
flute. According to the tradition of the 
Greeks, it was invented .by Hyagnis, a (7) 
Phrygian. He lived in the time of Jofua. 

In. The flutes were generally made of 
the bone of ilags, or (8) mules ; whence 
they were termed (9) NeC^tioi cevXo$. The 
(10) Thebans, it is faid, were the firfl who 
made flutes of that ft)bftance^ They were 
likewife made of the bone of — ( 1 1 ) aflcs^ 
of, (12) elephants; ibmetimes they were 
©f (13) reed, or (14) box* 

IV. The 




IV, The pipe, in Greek called, I^v^ty^^ 
differed greatly, in founds from, the flute. 
—•The tone of the former was meagre, 
andiAarp; ^xrheooeitthadrthcephhct^ (is) 
Ai^TTToXBcc: that of the latter was gravcji 
full, and mellow ; therefore, it was term- 
ed, (16) Bu^\)G,foiiog. 

V. Mufic had a very Arong influence 
T>ri the Greeks; on their {\j) bodies as 
well as their minds. We are told that it 
cured fome of their (j 8). maladies. 

VL Mufic was a capital part of the 
Grecian (19) education* 


( i) Mioerya was the inveotrefs of the ftraight, 
;and Pan vras the inventor of. the oblique flute. 
Bion. Idyll. III. 7. The invention of them is 
^fcribed to others by other authors. See Span- 
heim. ad Gallim. H. in Dian. v. 245. The mod 
famous players on the flute were Timotheos, 
Ifmenias, Marfyas,.aQd Olympus. X«ucian. adv. 
Indoftutn. p. 381, 

(2) Se« 

. Digitized by 


OF GltE^ECB:- Jg| 

(2) ^ Spairti«im. adpCaHi^. he/ Silkk'ac 
the word AuMw, OvreL Faft. Vi^ 559. T:\xA 
is accounted for bf Plipf^ XiXVlIla. i 

(3) Arifl6pb« F*G..y.-53i^> lotcfpr.TereniC 
in Didafc Andris* Ifa^l/Eptft; Ilwir^. 9^ , 
Athcik.XfV.2. p. tf'^Tifr. : 

(4) At ebeimarriogo^feaflfy for inftancer Te^ 
rent, Adclph. V, 7. v. 6. Sec Bfaulbhu» ail 
Tibull. Hi i.T. S6: AibcmXV. f.p^ 66§; £• 

(5) iEliaii. V, H. XIL 43, Pcrlzorw ad lu L 

A. 7* Plutarch, de Mulic. p. 1^36; CL apd dbe 
authors cited by Wolf, ad Matth. ix. 23. 

(6) Gencf. iv. 21. 

(7) Oxford Marbles— Epoch. XIX. Plut. de 
Mulic. p. XJ35. £• Athen* XIV. 5. p. 624* 

B. AnthoKLc. 11. 

(ft) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Acharn. v. 865. 

(9) Antipat. AnthoLIV. 28. Epigr. 13. 

(10) Athen. IV, p. 182. E. Pollux, IV. lo. 
Scgm. 74. 

(11) Plutarch, in Comiv. p. 1 50. E. 

(12) Athen. IV. p. 182. E. Propert. IV. 6. 
y. 8. 

(13) Athen. 1. c. D. 

(14) Pollux, IV. 10. Segm. 74. 

(15) Callim. H. in Dian. v. 2'43. SpanA^iifi. 
ad h. 1. p. 293. Ovid. Met. I. 7081^ Lenaep; 
ad Coluth. p. 72* Obf. Mife. II. p. 94. 

. .(i6)Ariftopb. Nub. 312. Eufip. Helen. 13^7. 
8 (17) A- 

' Digitized 

by Google 

-tGS AN T I a^ I T I E S 

(17) Athen. .XIV. ;, 6, p. €i6. Idem, p; 
625. JF. Plutarch. Conjug. Praccepc. p. 143. 
C. and de Muflc. p. 1140. B. M\\m. V, H. 
XIV. 23. Manjr other authors aflert the iame. 
See AriftoL PoUt. Till. 5. . 

(1 8) Jamblich. In yiti Pythag. c. XV. p. 50. 
c. XXV. p. ^2. Athen* XIV. s* p, 624. A. 

( 19) ^lian. V. H; VII. 15. Peri^ ad h. ). 
Plutarch. De Mufic. p. 1140. B. Athen. 
XIV.p. €26. B. 

Digitized by 



OF G R E E C £• 367 


Of P A I N T I N G* 

1. TQAINTING was fomctimcs a part 
J^ of (1) Grecian education. Thid 
art was termed rgoc(pircff, from the verb rpot- 
^M, which, amoDgft its other meanings, 
fignifics, to paint, (2) pingcre. Painting 
was likewife called — (3) Zcay^u<picc. 
« IL The art was fo imperfcdt in its ori- 
rigin, that the iirfl painters were obliged 
to write at the bottom of their pidlures the 
names of the objects which they had at<- 
tempted to (4) reprefent. 

III. (5) One colour was only ufed at „ 
'fxtd; at length they ufed (6) five ; and af- 
terwards, (7) many. 

IV. The Greeks, it is probable, learqed 
this art of the (8) Egyptians* . 

y. The inflroments and materials u(ed 

in painting were— r(^) Om$»Ca^ and KoXu&i^ 

•-iThe e^Cel^^Jtivaxif and n<f«ici«-*-Tlhe 

* caavas 

Digitized by 



canvas— ( 1 1) Arpcv^oi—Aittle boxes in which 
the painters kept their colours — K^^c— 
X^«f*«Ta— <t«ppM6a— Ayflif— The wax-*-— the 
unprepared col6afs,-^thc prepared colours 
•7-(i2) the flowers — V^cc^^ aod Twofpe^ 
^i;— (13) the ftyle,— and the pencil. 

VI. The outlines (or the fketcb) were 
called, TTTOTUTrmcic — iCTroypos^ Eitia — and^ 
(14) Zxiay^oupid. The finifhed pidure was 
termed— ( 15) ^tiU)P. 

VIL Painting was» from its origin, 
clafTed with the (f 6) liberal arts ^ znd grew 
fo much into efteem, became at 
length an efleatial accompliAineot of « 
polite ( 1 7) gentleman^ 


(1) Ariftot.PoL Vlir. 3. 

(2) This is proved by Xenophon*s definition 
of painting. Memorab. III. 10. S !• See Eii* 
fl^. ad. IX. r. p. 315^ 1. 39. 

' (g)JPltttardu Pe Audiend. Poet. p. 17. F. 

(4) Ariftot. 

Digitized by 


6FGR££:Cfi^ 3^9 

(4) Arittot. Topic, VI. «. JElian* V, H. VIIL 
l^. and X. io. 

(5) Pliny— c, XXXV. 3. terms painting irt 
that, rude dace Monochromaton-^which Quin-» 
lilian tranflates-^C6lor fimplex. XII. to. $ ^.. 

(6) Pbiloftrat. ApoUon. IL %2; p. ygi Cici 
Brut. c. XVIII. n. 70. 

(7) Ifidof. Hifpal — Orig. XVI. 17. enume- 
rates them to ten. 

(8^ Pliny, XXXV. 3.— ^Of the firft painters* 
4^thenag. AiroXoy^ P* ^23. 
<9) Pollux, VII. 28. S. 129. 

(10) Pollux. Ibid. S. ia8. 

(11) Cicero ad Attic. L 14. 

(12) Polluxi Vll. 28. Segm* lit. 

(13) Pollux, I Ci 

(14) Pollux, VII. i8. Scgrti. 127. ind 128* 

(15) Pollux^ ibid. Segm* 127* JElian. V4 
H. XIV. 3-. and 47. 

(16) Galen in Exhortat. ad Artes^ cited by 
Voffius, de Artibus Popularibus, c. V. § i * p* 
6t. See Barth. ad Erhard. ad Petron. c. 2. 

(17) Pliny, L* XXXV- lo. 

Btt PHAP, 

Digitized by 


370 A N T I CLU I T I E S 

Of the Food of the Ancient Greeks. 

I. ' I ^ H E principal and moft ncceflary 

JL food» with the ancient Greeks, 

es with us» was bread, which was named,. 

( 1 ) A^Tog. . Hence this word comprehends 

(2) meat and drink. By Homer and 6ther 
.authors, bread is likewife metonymically 
termed, (4) Siro^ 

IL Bread was generally carried in a 
wicker-bafket, called, (5) ILoofuv, zecpovp. 

III. Their loaves were baked either un*- 
der the afhes, and then they were termed^ 
(6) ZTTo^tTou afro*— (7) Eyx^u^/oi— -or in an 
oyeni Kp£oivea ;^^^2ind then they were called^ 
(8) K^iCocviTau 

IV. The Greeks had another kind of 
bread, named Ma^a, which was made with 
a coarfcr flour, with fait and water; to 
W'hich ingredients fbme added (9) oil. 

V. Barley- 

Digitized by 



V. Barley-meal was alfb much ufcd by 
them ;— ^in Greek it was AX^/roy— In Latin 
— (10) Polenta. 

VI. The B^iov was a compofition of rice, 
cheefc, eggs^ and boney. It was wrapped 
in fig-leaves — whence it took its (11) 

VII. The MvTTUTov was made with 
checfe, garlick, and eggs, (12) beaten and 
mixed together. 

VIII. The poor people made their bread 
hollow, in form of a plate; and into the 
hollow they poured a fauce. This fort of 
bread was called, (13) M/g-uXX^, whence 
comes the verb (14) M/^T^XXcwrflai. The 
poor Athenians lived likewife on garJick 
and (15) onions. 

IX. The Greeks had many forts of cakes 
—(16) nupapu^— (17) Diytra/Aouff— (18) A- 
pXo^— (19) iTf/fli— (20) MfiXiTTOura— (21) 
Otvovrjctj &c. 

X. Hitherto we have fpoken of bread, 
and the other aliments which the earth 

B b 2 fupplied. 



3^2 . A N T I Q.U I T r E S 

fupplied. But let not the reader therefore 
conclude that the Greeks difliked animal 
food. — They ate flefli commonly {zzy 
roafled, feldom boiled; efpecially id the 

(23) heroical times of Greece. 

XL At Lacedsmon the young people 
ate animal-food. A black foup, termed 

(24) MiX«^ ^vfio^ — fupportcd the men and 
the old people. 

XII. The poor ate likewife (25) graf- 
hoppers, and the (26) extremities of leaves. 

XIII. The (27) Greeks were likewife 
great lovers of fi(h ; a food^ which, how-* 
ever, we do not find on the tables of Ho* 
mer's (28) heroes. 

XIV. They were fond of eels drefled 
with beet-root — ^This di(h they called-— 
(29) Ey%6Xi*^ ivr€TVTXu»ZfUveci. 

XV. They liked falt-fifh, of which the 
joll, and the belly were their (30) favourite 

XVI. They likewife ate fweet-meats, 
fruits, almonds, nuts, figs, peaches, &c. in 

7 Greek 


by Google 

O F G R E E C E. 37J 

Greek-— (31) T^wjcto— (32) Tfayiyf^axa— 
(33) E'ffi(ro^7ricr[jLxr»^-^{ 34) Ilf j^puriK. They 
made the (3^5) deiSert. 

XVII. Salt, 'a\u^, was ufcd in almoft 
(36) every kind of food, 

NOTES to C H A P. XI. 

(i) Euripides, cited by Athcnseus, ' I V. 15. 
p. 158. E. tells us that this food is ncceflary. 
On the inventor of bread, fee Paufan* Arcad. 
IV. p. 604. and Athen. IIL 26. pag. 109. A. 

(2) Matth. XV. 2. • 

(3) Hotn. lA. E. V. 341. 0. V. 507. 

(4) Hefiod. Eyj. V. 146. 604. 

(5) Horn* 0^. A. V. 147. Theocrit. Hercu- 
lifc. Idyll. XXIV. 135. Virg. JEneid. 1. 705. 

(6) Athen. III. 27. p. iii. E. 

(7) Athen. III. 2 J. p. no. A. and B. Suidas» 
and Hefychius at this word. The Septuag. 
I Reg. xix. 6. Genef. xviii. 6. &c. 

(8) Athen. III. 26. p. 109. F. and p.! no. 
C. He calls this kind of bread likewife 'iTrvnn^^ 
p. 109. C. Sec Lucian. Lcxi[ih. p. 823. Lc 
Clerc ad Genef. xviii. 6. 

(9) Hcfych. at the word M«^a. Schol. Ari- 
ftoph. ad Pac. v. i. Athen. XIV. p. 663. A. 

^ B b 3 ^ (io>Sec 

Digitized by 



(10) Sec Euftath. ad lA. A. p. 815. 1. i- and 
Suidas, at the word, Aa^it*. Polenta, torrc- 
fafti hordci farina ; vcl pcrfufum aqua hordcum. 
primo ficcatum, dcindc friftum, dcindc molis 
fradurn. — Plin. VIIL 7- The portico at Athens 
where this meal was fold, is called by Hefych. 
Ax(pirmfox — and — 2To««x^»Tor«Xi^, by Ariftoph. 
Ecclefiaz. 682. 

(11) SchoL Ariftoph. ad Equit. v. iioo. ct 
ad Ran. V. 134. gives a different defcription of 
thi? food. 

(i^) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Acharn. v. 173. It 
had many more ingredients, according to the 
Schol. ad Equit. 768. See Scaliger in Moret. 

P- ^57^ 

(13) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Plut. v. 627. Some 

write it MiruXn. See Spanh. ad h. 1. arid Hem* 

(14) Ariftoph. 1. c. and Equit. 824. 

(15) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Plut. v. 819. and ad 
Equit, V. 597. 

(16) Ariftoph. Equit. y. 277. and Schol. 

(17) Ariftoph. Thefm.v. J77. 

(18) Ariftoph. Pac. v. 11 94. 

(19) Ariftoph. Acharn. v. 1091. 

( 20) Ariftoph. Nub. 507. Lucian. Lexiphan. 
p. 826. Pollux, VI. II. Scgm. 76. 

' (21) Ariftoph. Plut. v. 11 22. 

6 (22) Athen, 



OF G R E E C t. 373^: 

(22) Athen. I. lo. p. 12. B. 

(23) Servius, ad ^neid. L 710. aflcrts that 
tilt ufe of boiled meat was unknown in the he- 
roic times. But Athed. L 19. p, 25. £• differs 
from him ; and he is fupported by the autho- 
rity of Homer. 

(24) Plutarch. Inftitut. Lacon. p. 236. F. 
Pollux, VI. 9. Segm. 57. Cic* Tufc. V. 34. 

(25) Ariftoph. Acharn. v. H15. Bochhart. 
Hicrozoic. P. II. L. IV. c. 7. Lambert Bof. 
In Match, c. iii. 4. Wolf, in Curis Philol. ad 
Matth . h. ]. 

• (26) iElian. V. H. XIII. 26. Ovid. Faft. IV. 

^27) Ariftoph. ad Ran. v. 1 lOo, Athen. VIII. 

14. p. 358. E. 

(28) Plato de Rep. III. T. II. Opp. p. 404. 
B. Fifli, however, was eaten in the. heroic 
times. Athen. I. 8. p. 13. A. Plutarch. Sym- 
pof. VIII. Qwarft. 8. p. 73- C 

(^9) Ariftoph. Acharn. v. 894. and Pac. v. 
1014. Athen. VII. 13. p. 300. B. 

(30) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Acharn. v. 966. 
Athen. III. 33, p. 119. F. Ariftoph. Equit. 
V. 1244. Cafaub. ad Theophr. Charaft. ^th. 
c. VI. p. 209. 

(31) ^lian. V. H. I. 31. 

(32) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Plut. v. 190. 

B b 4 (33) A. 

itized by Google 



. (^) Athen. XIV. lo. p. 640. A^ 

(34) Athen« XIV. 12. p. 642. A. 

(35) ^^ Greek — Atungtn rfain^au Athm^ 
XIV. 10. p. 639. B. II. 13. p. 53. C. 

. (36) Hotm IX. L v^ 2i4« Platarcb^ $y*ipo(t 

VI. pag;685. A* 



by Google 

P F G R E E C E, 37t 

Of the Lix^UD&8 of the GKEB1C8, 

•J. (i) XT TATER was' the only ber^r- 
▼ ^ age of the Greeks in the 
early times. 

II. Afterwards they (?) mu(ed their W4- 
ter with wine. 

III. Wiiie became the drink, not only 
of the men, but likcwiie of the women and 
^3) girls. This was contrary to the prac«i> 
tice of the (4) Romans. 

IV. They kept their wine ia earthen 
veffel8-^(5) ?l«if«j»o^ffJi— ^or in bottles, (6) 


V. Old wine was moft {7) liked, 

VI. The moft lamoua wines were—* 

ituou (8) 'PXj'— and^— (9)Ma8p««Tifff. 

V)!. It was cuftomary to mix wine with 
Vfttcrj ia Greek, (lo) YLtfotrwrBat. — 


Digitized by 



whence came the word, (ii) K^rm, 
They ufed to (12) crown the K^rij^. 

VIIL But fuch were at letogth the luxa- 
rjoas refinements among the Greeks,* that 
they mixed their wine with (13) perfumes. 

IX. They poured their wine from the 
crateres into cups, of which there were 
many (14) forts. 

X. It appears that the very andent 
Greeks drank from horns of (15) oxen. ' 

XI. Afterwards they ufcd cups of (16) 
earth, of (17) wood, of (18) glafs, of (19) 
brafs, of (20) gold, and of (21) filirer. 
Thefc are their principal names — ^loXij— 
TIoTfj^tov — KuX/| — A£7ra; — KvttsXXov — Aji^t^ 

r«5^p— -Ka;flfio>'-— Ag/vo^ and Aciyia^^— ©iw/*-- 
Xcio^— (22) BoLujcaXfov, &c. Some of thefe 
cups took their names from their form 5 
and others from the matter of which they 
were made. 

XII. The drunkard, with the (23) 
Greeks, was infamous^ Yet there were 




O F G R E E C E, 37^ 

privileged days^ on which they drank from 
large cups, and (24) freely. 


(i) Horn. IX. B. V. 825. Catal. Nav. v. 332, 
Find. Olymp, Od. VI. Str. E. v. 2. Athen.IL 
4. p. 41. A, 

(2) Horn. l\. I. V. 702. T. V. 161. 

(3) Horn. oJ: z. v. 77. 

. (4) JElian. V. H. II. 38. Henel. Otiurp U- 
ratiflavienfc, XXVI. p. 208. 

(5) Horn. Ix« I. V. 465 Euftach. ad Ia. E. y. 
387. p. 425. 1. 16. Pollux, Vll. 33, Scgm. 161. 

(6) Horn. IK. r. v. 247. oJ. Z. v. 78. and of. 
?• V. 343. he mentions calks. 

(7) Horn. Oi. B. V. 340, r. V. 391. Pind. 
Olymp. Od. IX. Antiftr. B, r. 15, 16. Athen« 
1. 19. p. 26. A. 

(8) See, op all thcfe wines, ^lian. V. H. 
XI L 31. and the notes pf Periz. Lennep. ad Co* 
luth. p. 10. 

(9) Horn, Oi, I. y. 194. Athcn. I. 20. p. 26. 
A. Pliny, XIV. 4. 

(10) Horn, O^. A. V, no. 

(11) Athcn- V.4. pag. 192. F. Eiiftath. ad 
}1. B. p. 177. 1.47- 

(12) Horn 

Digitized by 


38o ANT IQ^U I T I E S 

(li) Horn. ih. A. V.470. O^, A. y. 149. Virg. 
JEticid. I. V. 724. Acben. I. ii. p. i^. p^ 
(ij)-ffi;iian. XII. 31. 

(14) Horn. O^t I. V. 9. 

(15) Athen. XL c. 7. p. 476. A. Eultath. 
ad IX. N. p. 883. 1. 6. 

(16) Atben. XL c. 3. p. 464. A. 

(17) Athcn. XL c, 6» p. 470. F^ and p. 477, 


(18) Ariftoph. Acharn. v. 73. 

(19) Pollux, X. c, 26. Scgm. 122. 

(20) Athen. XL c. 3. p; 46J. £• 

(21) Athen. ibid. pag. 465. D, 

(22) All thcfc forts of cups arc dcfcribed by 
Athendtus — L. XL from page 467. to page 50}. 
Sec Pollux, VL 1(5. Segm. 95, 

(23) Athcn. X. c. 6 p. 427. By a law of 
Pittacus, he who cotnonitted a crime when he 
was drunk, was more feverely punifhed than be 
who committed the fame crime fobcr. Ariftoc. 
Rhetor. II. 25. See Diog. Lacrt. L 57. Attic 
Law«, deConviv. L. VIIL Tit. XL Phiwrch. 
tdv. Stoicos, p. 1067. D. 

(24) Hom. IX. I. V. 2oa. Cic. In Verr. L. r. 
Aft. 2. c. XXVL Alexis cited by Athehr X. 
8. p. 431. C, 





O F G R E E C E- |9.{ 


Of M E A L*T I M £ s, and the di^erent 
Kinds of F £ A s T s. 

I. ' ■ ^HE Greeks njadc three meals a- 
X day-~the times were» Morning, 
Noon, and Evening. The Morning<*meal 
was called, ( i ) A^igovf ccK^ancfiog'^'-or Ax^ot* 
rt(r[4.oc9 . and (2) AiotvTigio'ii.og : that at Noon, 
(3) Afii^oy— >and that in the Evening— «i 

(4) Ao^TTOV* 

II. The terms were afterwards changed, 
Brcakfaft was called Ajig-oy— Dinner— Aof- 
TTOPy and Supper, (5) Aenrvov, 

III. Dinner was a (hort and plain meal. 
•— * Supper was longer and more (6) ele- 

IV. The Greeks had three folenMi fcaftt 
»— Epavoff> ra/*off— (7) EtXaTrivri. 

V. Epuvog, was a club— a meeting at 
which every one bore an equal Aiare of the 
{8) cxpcnce. 


Digitized by 


5«i A N t I CLU I T I E S 

VI. r«/^«c— a (9) Marriage-Fcaft. 

VII. EiXetrnvfi, was a magnificent enter- 
tainment on fomc other important (10) oc-* 


(i) Athen. I. 9. p. ii. C. Horn. O*. n. v. 2. 
Periz. ad ^lian. IX. 19. 

(2) Athen. 1. c. 

(3) Achen. 1. c. Horn. ix. B. v. 381. and 

(4) Horn. o^. B. V. 20. 

. (5) Athen. 1. c. Euftath. ad Oi. B. p. 76. I. 
44. and ad O^. n. p. 589. 1. 42. 

(6) Plut. Sympof. VIII. Qu. 6. p. 726. C. 

(7) Horn. OJ. A. V. 414, in one line mentions 
thcfc three feafts. 

(8) Schol. ad Oi. A. v. 226. Plautus, Car- 
cul. IV. I. 13. Athen. VIII. 16. p. 362. E. 

(9) Pollux, III. 3. Segm. 44. The word is 
taken in this fenfe in Matth. xxii. 2. 

' (10) Schol. Horn, ad O^. A. 226. Athen.* 
VIII. 16. p. 36a. Euftath. ad Horn. OS. A. 
p. 50. 1. 12. 




OF GREECE. 383, 


Of the Ceremonies, and other Parti- 
culars relative to Entertainments. 

L ' I "^HE Greeks, in the ancient times,' 
JL were (j) fcated at table. After- 
wards, in the progrefs of luxury, they lay 
on (2) couches. 

II. The couches, termed, (3) KA/mi, 
among the rich, had (4) ivory feet; co- 

•vers, called (5) rrpwuara, and cufliions— 
(6) n^oaici^aXettcc. 

III. The tables, T^uTre^cu, in the early 
times were (7) fquare. 

IV. There were commonly three per- 
fons on each couch. The iirft was at the 
bolder of the couch. The fccond leaned 
backwards on the belly of the firft, a 
cufliion being put between them. (8) The 
third reclined on the fecond in the fame 

^ V. The 

Digitized by 


384 A N T 1 Q^U I T 1 E 8 

V. The place at the head of the coach^ 
]• e. the firft place^ was the moft honour-'^ 
able ooe among the (9) Greeks. 

VI. The number of guefts varied in the 
different ages of Greece. At firft^ the/ 
were Only (10) three, or five* Afterwarda 
they increafcd to (x i) nine> and even more. 

VII. When the guefts were placed, an 
equal portion was- diftributed to each of 
them* Hence the feafi was called, (12) 
AAic» and he who carved and diilributed 
the meat-^(i3) Aeur^og, and (14) Aamfii^^ 
Yet this equality of diftribution was not 
always obfcrved at (15) entertainments* ' 

Vlli. (16) Drink was likcwife^ in ge- 
neral, equally diftributed as well as meat. 

IX. The wine was fcrved by youths who 
ftood waiting, and were called— .(17) Kov^tn^ 
(18) Kijpwcf^— (19) AiocKovot-^{2o) Omxoo$9 • 
•—and by the inhabitants of the coafts of 

. the Hcllefpont— •( 21) ETrsy^^yrat. 

X. In the heroic times thofe youths 
were not flavcs, but (22; of good families j 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E C £• • 385 

fbmetltnes of the moft ooble^ and (23; di- 

XL Three rounds were drank at table 
in honour of the Gods. The firft was 
drank in honour of Jupiter; the fecond in 
honour of the heroes, or demi-gods ; and 
the third in honour of Jupiter Servator. 
This hd round was likewife called (24) 

XII. At' the end of th.e banquett when 
the table was removed* they drank to the 
{2^) Good Genius, by which appellation 
they meant Bacchus, the (26) inventor of 

XIII. To the plcafures of the table they 
added (27) (inging, and dancing. 

XIV. — ^When the convivial enjoyments 
were over, each perfon went home*— to re- 
tire from the entertainment, was expreffed 
in Greek by,— rOTO-fla' ex ^uTrvoy, avotXvuv 
€x ( 2 8 ) Iiv[i7ro(nov. 






• (i) Horn. Ix. K. V. 578: n. V, 315. Athem 
I. 10. p. II. F, 

(2) Athen. 1. 14* p« i7* F. and 18. B. Cafaub, 
ad Annal. Baron. XYL tz. p. 432. Lipf. Led:* 
Antiq. HI. p. 94- 

(3) Poll. VI. I. Segm. 9. ^lian. V. H. 
XII. 51. \ 

(4) Athen. II. 9. pag. 48. B. iBlian. V. H. 

vin. 7- 

(5) Athcn. 1. c. 

(6) Idem ex Phrynico, II. 8. p. 47. F. 

(7) Or, oblong ; not round, according to£u<^ 
ftathius, ad Ot. A. v. 138. p. 34. 1. 33. 

(8) As the manner of reclining thus at table 
was common to the Greeks, the Hebrews, and 
;he Romans, the reader may confult Mercurial's 
Prints, de Arte Gymn. I. ir. and the commen- 
tators on John xiii. 23. — Thofe on Horace, Sat^ 
I. 4. v^ 86.-^and on Virgil, ^neid. I. 702. It 
was counted mean to have more than three, or 
four guefts on one couch. Cic. in Pifon. 27. 
Alftorph. de Led. p. I09, ii6. and the authors 
quoted by Zornius. Biblioth. Antiq. Exeget. 

P- 536- 

(9) Plutarch. Sympof. I. 3. p. 619. B. AU 
ftorpb. Lc. p. 117. 

6 (10) A- 

Digitized by 


DF GR'EE.CE. ^f' 

(to) AthetHl.4. p. 4.^; 

(ii)'Athen. XV. 3. p.. 671. A* Biit whe- 
ther the number of giiefts was evenfixed, is td 
be qUeftioned^ We have the foUowing convi- 
vial rule ii^ Vsfrro-^The number of guefts (hould 
not be ;lef9 than thit of the Graces, nor greateir 
than that of the Mufek 

(12) A then, I. 10. p. 12. C. 

(it3) Horn. cW. A. v. 14^. A. v# 55^4 

(14) This word fignifies foitetimes in Homer^ 
a guefl. But o^. A« v« 62 1. it means the maftef 
of the feaft. See Eaftach. ad h. L p. 190. 1. 264 
and Euftath. ad O^. X* V. 12. p^ ^71. 1. 6. Plo- 
tarch. Sympof. II. lO. p, 644. gives the name 
Aatr^oi to the carvers, ^nd to the matter of the 

(j J) This Athcnjcus proves by paflages from 
Homer — he cites the diAindion payed to Dio* 
medei tO whom greater fliares were given than 
to the other guefts, 

(i6j Athcn* V. 4, 192. F. 

(17) Horn, Oi. A, v. 149. 

(18) Hom.OJ. A. v. 142. 

(19) J04 ii. 5. Elfner^ ad Luc. zvii* 8« 

(20) Homi lA. B. V* 1284 

(21) Athcn. X* 7. p. 425. C 

(22) Athcn. V. 4. p. 197. B; C. 

(2 3) The fon of Menelaus^ for inftance, is a 
cup-bearer in Homer; 0<^. O. v. 141. 

C c a (25) Schol. 


by Google 


(24) Schol. Pindar, ad Ifthm. Od. VL Pol- 
lux, VI. 16. Segm. 100. A then. XV. 5. p. 
675. B. IL t* p- 36. C. Suidas, at the words 
K^arnf, and AyoAo^t t»t(MH^; 

(25) Schol. Ariftoph. ad EquiL v. 85. iElian. 
V. H. I. 20. Athen. XV. 13, 14. p. 6^2. F. 
and 693. Kufter ad Suid. at the word Aj^Oou 

(26) Athen. XV, 5. p. 675. B. See J. Jcn- 
fius, in Epift. ad J. G. Grsvium $ and the lei^ 
fon5ofLucian,p. 399. 

(27) Horn. 01. A. V. 152. Athen. I. la. p. 
14, A. See, on the convivial fongs, named 
ScoUa^ Schol. Ariftoph. Ran. v. 1377. and Vefp* 

V. iai7- 

(28) MWan. V. H. IV. 23. Lamb. Bos, ad 
Philipp. I. 23. Athenasus fays,-— Tov «n;|uiiroriou 
awom^M. V. 4* p. 192. and a little after, — ^AmXu- 
irtdCA, ^and Airo r»v JciTMdf omiXviiv. T. 13. p. 1 6. 
B. See Pollux, VI. 20. Segm. 112. 

- CHAP. 

Digitized by 




Of the Dress of the Greeks; of their 
manner of covering and adorning the 


L ' I "^HE ancient Greeks, like the (i) 

A Egyptians, went with their (2) 

heads bare. But we read, that in the later 

times they wore a kind of hats, called in 

Greek, (3) IhXoi, (4) n<Aia, or (5) IltXi^icc. 

IL But the women always had their 

heads covered. The ornimcnts which 

. they wore on their heads are exprefTed by 

the following terms — (6) KaXwrpa, (7) 

' Afjbinj^f (8) KpfiSiiivov, (9) Kiicpv<pu?\,os, (10) 

Mifp»9 (11.) OTficrOoa-^tfiovfi. 

III. Some of the Athenians wore in 
their hair graflioppers of gold, (i2)Ter- 
riyeci, emblems that they were Autoch^ 
thones^ i. e. defccndants from the firft in- 
habitants of (13) Attica. 

Cc3 ly. Wo- 

Digitized by 


394 A N T I Q^U I T I p S 

IV. Women of rank and magnificence 
raifed their head*-drefs wit)i fillets, termed 
(14) Zn^etpii ^i^niXii. 

V. They wore pendants at their earS| 
called, {isYEpfMra, (16) Evurm, (l7)EX|- 

VI. They likewife wore necklaces, in 
Greek (i8)'Oe/Ao/. 


(i) Hcrodot. III. pag. 187. A. 
(2} Lucian de GymnaC p. 278. 
(3)Hcfiod.' E(y. T. 546. PoHax, VII. 33. 
iSegtn. 171. Graevius ad Hefiod. E^^^. v. 54 2« 

(4) AthcQ. XV. 13. p. 692. C 

(5) Ariftoph. Acharn. v. 438. 

(6) Horn. O^. £. V. 232. and, ad b. 1. Eq- 
ftath. p. 217. 1. 38. fays it was the fame with 

(7) A fillet which went round the women'9 
hair. Horn. Ia. X. v. 468. Grsvius ad He- 
fiod. Theagon. 916. v. 118. Lennep. ad Co- 
}uth. p. 6. 

(8) A 

Digitized by 


. O F G R E E C E. 391 

(8) A fort of veil which came down upon the 
ihoulders. Euftath. ad ix. Z. p. 964, 1, 39. 
Horn. IX. X. Y. 470. Leooep. adColuth. p. 6. 

(9) A net which inclofed the women's hair, 
Ariftopb. Thefai6ph« v. 14^ Eaftatb. ad ix. 
X. p. 1386. K 32. 

(10) Fillets with which the women of bar- 
barous countries bound their hair. Ariftoph. 
Thefm. v. 264. Euftath. adix. n. 1089. 1. i|. 
and OS. K. pag. 398. 1. 8. Grae\r. ad Hefibd. 
Theog. p. 916. 

^ (II) A particiflar kind of net with which the 
^omen's heads were adorned. Euftath. in Dio- 
nyf, Periez. 7. See, likewife, Pollux, V. 16. 
Segm. 96. 

(12) Thucyd. I. 6. and Waff, ad h^ 1. Len- 
nep. ad Coluth. p. 55. 

(13) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Nub. v. 980. Sca« 
liger in Virg. Cir. p. ^s* Pcrizon. ad -ffilian. 
V. H.IV. 22. 

(i4)^lian. V. H. I. 18.. Hadr. Jun. dc 
Coma, c. VII. p* 849. 

(15) Horn. IX. S. V. 182- and OJ. £. 6. v. 
2g6. See Euftath. ad Ix. p. 964. L 26. 

(l6)iElian.y. H. 1. 18. 

(17) Horn. IX. 2. V. 401. H. in Ven. 87. Eu- 
ftath. a4 OJ. A. p. 24. 1. 49. 

(18) Horn. IX. r. V. 401. Euftath. ad II. I. 
p. 1204. 1. 18. Ariftoph. Lyfiftr. v. 409. 

C c 4 CHAP. 

Digitized by 


l^i AN T I dU 1 T I E S 


Qf the Grecian Cloaths. 

I. f I ^HE general word, Drefs, was ex- 
X preffed in Greek by, {i)E(r6ifCy 
(2) Eo-flijjxa, (3).E(rdiffij — ^The poetical word 
was (4) Eii4M. The under-habit both of 
men and women, was (5) Xirav, (6) X/rw 
o^hgaSiog — Tunica redta— *a floating robe. 
The verb (7) EyJufo-fla* refers to the under- 

IL Rich and expenfive women wore 
buckles along thofe parts of the tunic 
which reached from the (houlders to the 
hands, inftead of having them iewed. 
Thofe buckles [(8) n^ypoyflw— (9) U\)fnpu\ 
were of filver, or (10) gold. 

III. There was likewife another robe^ 
called, (11) 'Eyxuxkov ^^toivmv. 

IV. 'ifAUTiov, or (12) 0af(v, in Latin, 
Pallium> was the exterior robe of the men 





among the (13) Greeks, as the toga was 
among the Romans. The verbs relating 
to this garment are (14) ne^tQoc\\i(r6di, 
(15) AyaCoXXcerflai. We likewife frequently 
meet with*— »(i6) AvuQocXXBtrdoti Ifjuomov it 
a^i^s^^ and Etti St^ix;^ from the two verbs 
come the fubftantives--^(i7) Av»CoX»iov, 
and (iS)nt^i^oXouop. 

V. XXftira was a thick external robe, 
(19) worn in cold weather— in Latin, (20) 
Lsna ; it was (21) (ingle, and (22) double. 

VI. (23) ^ecivoXfjg, and 4>a/Xwiy^— in La- 
tin, Pa^nula, a robe almoft round, (24) 
without fleeves, wora uppermoft to keep 
off (25) inclemencies of weather* 

VIL Aiy«f, Xijo"«fieiH— a garment worn 
by both fexes. 

VIIL (27) Etpcs-fiff. Laccma— akind of 
great coat of (28) goat-fkin, which was 
likewife called: — (29) Mocvhac$ and Brif^m. 

IX. Tfi6«y, or T^t€miov, the cloak of (30) 
philofophers and poor people, of a (31) 
Jjght (luff } of this (luff in the early times 


Digitized by 


594 A N T I QJO I T I E S 

the (32) robet of the \i lawyers wer« 

X. £^A;p(-— a {hoft cloak which the 
women wore over their (33) (hculdcrs, 

XI. (34) EbirX^^^^an exterioarrobe wora 
by women — (35) Tm^^qv — ihdr girdle, 

XII. StoX^;— a long robe which came 
down to the (36) heels. 

XIII. K«r«iraxfl— la flave's habit, border- 
ed at the bottom. with (37) fficeplfkin. 

XIV. E^«p;»— was another habit of 
Haves 3 it had but one (38) flecve, and 
ferved them for tunic and (39) cloak* 
This drefs, however^ the citizens likewife 
fometimes (40) wore. 

XV. (4i)BaiTib (42) Ai^fc^— ^habitof 
fkin, which the (43) (hepherds wore. 

XVI. Eyx^|[^pe— a cloak of (44) (hep- 
herds, (45) girls, and (46) flaves. 

XVII. XXatjicu^-— a military habit, worn 
under the tunic, the (47) cuirais, &c. 

XVIII. (48) XXttpig—'SL fine robc—K|9(U6«- 
ro^y and KfoxAir^oj/— -crocota, and crocotula 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E C E« • 395 

•^(49) * fafFron-coloured robe— -(50) Su/tt- 
fAtr^tar"^^ robe wbich came down to the 
heels— (51) Bsp4g'^ov, or, ©gp/$-p/piH— a fum^ 

XIX* Sr^e^^ajH— .a fort of handkerchief 
which women threw round their (52) 

XX. (53) YfXAioy-^a bracelet — It was 
likewife 90 ornament for the hands — only 
worn by women. 




(2) -SHan. V- H. i: 2. 

(3) Pollux, X.;i2. Segm. 5fi, 

(4) Hefiod. §^uc. V. 1 79. Horn. o*. B. v. 3. 

(5) Horn. iX. B. V. 262. OJ'.T. V. 232. Athen. 
XIII. 6. p. 590. Herodot. I. p. 4. D. Ovidf 
^roor. III. 14, 2 1. 

(6) Ari(toph. Lyfiftr. 45. and Not. ad Pol- 
luc, VII. 13. Segm. 48. 

(7) TElian. V. H. 1. 16. 

(8) Hom.OeT. T.v. 256. 

(9) Horn. I\. Z. V. 401. 






(lo)^lian. V. H. I. i8. 
4 (ii) We know not whether it was an upper 
or an under robe. In Ariftoph. Thefmoph. v. 
260. Euripides puts on the K^oxwroy; and, verfe 
268* the £}^xuxXo». But Paufania5, cited by Eu- 
ftathius, Ix S. p. 964. 1, c. thinks the Enkuclon 
an ^nder-habit. See Perizon. ad ^lian. V. H. 
' VII. 9. Pollux, VIL 13. Segm. 53. and 56. 
• (12) Horn. IX. B. V. 43, Euftath. ad Oh B. 
* p. 83. 1. 36. Secj Bifctus, and Ariftoph. Thef- 
moph. V. 897. Lennep. ad Coluth. p. 1^5. 
/(13) Horn. IX. B. V. 43. 

(14) Horn. ibid. ^lian. V. H. 1. 16. 

(15) Suidas, at the word AvaCaxXfi. Ariftoph. 
Vcfp..v. 1147. Periz. ad^lian. VII. 8. 

(16) Athen. I. 18. pag. 21. B. Ca/aub. in 
Athen.I. 18. p. 33. 

. (i7)Lucian has like wife the word, AvaCoXn. 
Hcrmot. pag. 5x7. Sec Perizon. ad -ffilian. 
VII. 9. 

(|8) Suidas, at this word. nAfiCoXn, and lie- 
f i6xvif4«, have the fame fignification. See Schol. 
Theocrit. Idyll. XL 19. Herodian, IV. 7. § 5. 
We likewife meet with ^^r^yw^ — ^Xcnoph. Me- 
morab. I. 2. % 5. 

/ (19) Suidas, at this word. Horn. Ix. IT. v. 
224. and oh H. v. 529. and v. 487. Meurf. ad 
Lycophr. v. 635. 


Digitized by 




(20) Plutarch, in Numa. p. 64. C < 
^ (21) Horn. lA. n. V. 230, 
/ (2a) Horn. IX. K. y. 134. oi. T. v. 226. Pol- 
lux, VII. 15. Segm. 47. 

X23) Suidas, at the word ^amktii. Paul, 2Titn. 
iv. 13. and Interpr. 

(24) Bartholin, dc Pacnula, c. IV, p. 27. 
y (25) As the Latin word paenula is derived 
from the Greek ^ocivoXn^, and as the two words 
lignify the fame habit, the reader may confulc 
the Latin antiquaries on this Gree.k garment. 
Sec Horace. I. Epift, XI. v. 18. Juven. Sat. 
V. V. 79. Quintil. IV. 3. § 64. Bartholin. 1. c. 
c. VI. p, 49. 

/ (26) Pollux, VII. 13. Segm. 48. Ariftoph. 
Av. V. 716. and v. 916. he has AmJ«f»oy. 
/ (27) Pollux, VII. 13. Segm. 61. 

(a8) Suidas, at the word E^r^K. 

(29) Artcmid. 11. 3. and Suidas, I. c. inftead 
of Buppioy we find, Bn^/Iov. 

(30) Lucian. Vit. Auft. p. 375. Bif. Accuf. 
p. 216. and 233. Athen. iV. 28. p. 161. t. 
Plutarch, de Forr. Alex. p. 330. C. Yet it was 
not the drcfs of all the philofophers. Lacrt. 
VIIL 19. .^lian. III. 19. It was the drefs of 
the poor. See Ariftoph. Plut. 714, 84.3* &c. 

(31) Sehol. Ariftoph. ad Plut. 714. Lucian. 
Dial. Mort. p. 263. 

(32) Schol. 




^ (32) Schol. Ariftoph, ad Vefp. 31. TElizn. 
V. H. V, 5, VII. ij** wc find that Epaminon- 
daSy and Agefilaus worethis cloaks 
< (33) Athcn- XIII- 9- p. 608. B. Pellux, VII. 
Segm. 49. Pcriz- ad -ffilian. IX, 34* 

/C34) Horn. IX. Z. V. 289. Euftath. ad lA. B. ^ 
p. 128/1. 48. Wfc may conclude that it was an 
extcriotir robe from a paflagc of Homer. Ix. Zi 
V. 442. and from other paflages, where women 
have the epithet, *ExJe«(riirfirXo»— The men like- 
wife wore a robe refembling this. Euftath. ad 
Ix. E. p. 459. 1. 40- See, on the p^lus of the 
Goddeflcs — Spaniieim. in H. in Pallad. 70. 
pag. 599. and on the peplus of Minerva — Sca<^ 
Kg. in Cirin. p. 48. 

/ (35) Horn. Of. Z; v. 38. Euftath. ad 01. p* 
445.1.13. - 

,i (36) This is the ftola of the Latins. The 
Greek word has a more extenfive fignificatibn. 
See Perizon. ad ^lian. III. 24. 
f (37) Ariftoph. EGclcfiaz. v. 719. and Schol. 
ad h. 1. Lyfiftr. V. 1153* 
'♦(38) Ariftoph* Schol. ad Vefp. 442. Suidas, 
at this word. 

/(J9) Hefych. at this word. 

^(40) -ffilian. V. H. IX. 34. and Pcrizon. ad 
J^ 1. * Xenoph. Memorab. II. 7. § 5* 





(41) Theocric^ Uyll. IIL 25. and Schol. ad h. 
1. Idyll. V. 15. and Schol Hcrych. at this 

(42) Ariftoph. Nub. 72. Thcophr. Charaft. 

(43) P«rizoti. ad Mlhti. IX. 3. 

(44) Longurs FaAoraL p. ^. 

(45) The Fragment of Varro's Book-^De 
Libens Educandis, p. 160. 

(46) Pollux, IV. 1 8. Scgm. 119. Wolf, in 
Cur. Philol. ad i Peer. v. 5. 

^(47) -flSlian. V. H. XIV. 10. Antiphanes 
m Pollux, X. id. Segm. 62. and the Notes of 
Kuhn. But the ufe of this habit was not con- 
fined to the foldiers — It was worn by young 
men and women, as we are informed by 
Pollux in many places. See Ovid. Met. V. 

/ (48) Menander. Fragm. p. 1 36. Hcfych. at 
this word. 

/ (49) A woman's garment. Ariftoph. EcclcH 
V. 874. A drefs of Bacchus: Ariftoph. Ran^ 
V. 46. and even of Hercules pining at the feet 
of Omphale. Lucian quomodo fcrib. fit Hift, 
p. (J09. 

y (50)] Pollux, Vir. 13. Segm. 54. See He-» 
fych. at this word. 
^ (ji) Genef. xxiv..65. and xxxviii. 19. 


^ Digitized 


40O A N T I Q^U I T I E S 

^ ^ ($2) Sc€ the old epigram in Spanheim# ad 
C^llim. 135. Ariftopb. Thefmoph. 146. A-* 
nacreon. Od. 20. CatulL LXV. 6$. Martial. 
XIV, 138. 

(53) Paufanias. ,£liac. Prior. 20. p. 429* 
JElian. V. H. IJ. 14. Suidas, at the word Xa- 
1U09. Bartholia. de Armillis Veterucn, § u 
and 2. 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E C E. i+or 


Of the diflferfint kinds of Shoes worn 
by the Gr E B Ks. 

I. rip HE flioes of the Greeks were 
X called in general— (i) 'TflroJiy/**" 
T«, Calccapienta folcs. They were tied 
under the foles of the feet with thongs, or 
cords, termed in Gt«ek, (2) *lfteuiTt(. To 
put on fliocs, was expreffed by the verb» 
(3) 'TiroJsJi'— . to take them off, by the 
verbs— (4) Avuv, and 'TiroXunv. 

II. Shoes were called by the poets, (5) 

III. AM^a6^ — fhocs worn both by men 
and (6) women. 

IV. (7) SwJ«X«, (8) S«»M<«— were in 
ancient times the (hoes of (9) heroines, and 
of rich and gay (10) women. 

V. BXceuTcu — Shoes worn only in the 


D d VLKow-^ 

Digitized by 


'Jfit A N T I CLU I T I E S 

VI. Koviirohg — (i i) Shoes rcfcmblbg thp 
former, (12) low 'and flight, 

VIL (13) nepiCofi^ej^ — Shoes of women 
of a genteel clafs, and of ladies of (14) 

VIII. (15) KgijTri^eff — a fort of (hoes 
termed in Latin, (16) Crepida: Some au- 
thors think thefc were the (17) (hoes of 
military people. They were likewife call- 
ed (18) ApmSeg. 

IX. (19) AfguXai, a largc> and very eaf^ 

X. (20) ns^^r/jcoM— Shoes worn by wo- 
men. Thofe of the courtezans were (21) 

XL (22) AuKmtKUs, and (23) AfiuxXeuJeg, 
Lacedamonian (hoes— they were (24) red. 

XII. KafSariw/— a coarfc fort of (hoes, 
worn by (25) peafants. 

XIII. TLiiQ>otrou — Shoes worn by (26) co- 
medians — Socks. 

XIV. K(?6c?py<?i— Shoes worn by (27) tra-- . 


Digitized by 



gcdians— ^Bufkinsr. They were likcwife 
called (28) E/jt^CaSeg. 


(1) Ariftot. Polit. I. 6. Cell. XIIL 2U 
Balduin. Calcin. Antiq. c. XI* 

(2) Marc. i. 7. Lud i\u 16. and Intcrpr. 
ad h. 1. Perizon. ad JElhn. IX. 11. 

(3) Marc. vi. 9. ^lian. V. H. L 18. A- 
riftopb. Ecclcf, V. 269. 

(4) Ariftoph. Thefmoph. 1 194, Lyfiftr. 949. 

(5) Horn. lA. B. V. 44. o^, S. V. 23. 

(6) Pollux, VH. 10. S. 90. 

(7) Horn, in H. in Merc, 1. v. 79. 

(8) Lucian. Dial. Merct. p. 554. 

(9) Omphale in Lucian wears thefe fhoes. 
Dial. Deor. p. 208. 

(10) ^lian. V. H. 1. 18. and ad h. 1. Peri- 
zofl. Judith. X. 4. 

rii) Ariftoph. Equit. v. 885. -ffilian. V. H. 
VI. II. and Perizon. 

(12) Clem. Alexandr. Psdagog. II. n, p. 

(13) Ariftoph. Ecclef. v. 843. Kiihn. ad 
PoUuc. VII. 22. Scgm. 86. 

Dd2 (i4)Ari. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

404 A N T I CLU I T I E S 

(14) Ariftoph. Lyfiftr. v. 45, 48, Pollux; 
VIL 2^. Segm. 92. fays thefe (hoes were worn 
by female fervants. See the vcrfes of Ccphifi-P 
dorus quoted by Pollux, VIL 22. Segm. 87. 

(15) ^lian. V. H. IX. 3. Herodian, IV, 8^ 
(i6)GeU. XIILaK 

(17) Val. Max, IX. i, 4. extern^ 
(i8)Pollux, VII. 22. S. 85, 

(19) Eurip. Orcft. v, 140. and Here. Fur^ 
V. 1304 Pollux, VII. 22. JSegm. 86. is of 4 
different opinion, whiph Boa follows. We find 
another conjecture in the Schol. of Eurip. ad 
Oreft. 1. c. See VoiT. ad CatuU. p. 327. and 

(20) Ariftoph. Nub. v. 151. and Schol. 

(21) This remark of Bos is grounded on 21 
paffage of Pollux, VII. 22. Segm. 92. But 
fome criticks explain that paffage differently 
from our author. Thefe (hdes, they think, 
were worn by women of low ftation, but not 
by courtezans. See Briff. de Regno Perf. IL 


(22) Ariftoph. Vefp. v. 1153. V^ Schol. 

(23) Hefych. at thefe words. 
. (24) Pollux, VII. 22. S. 88. 

(25) Xenoph. Exped. IV. p. 259. 1. 30. Vofll 
id CaculL p. 327. See Hefych. and Schol. Lu- 
ciajt^. ad Philopfcud. p. 35. 

(26) Pollux, VII. 22. S. 91. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC ^ 

O F CJ R E E C E/ ^' 405 

(27) TcrtUll. de Spcftac. XIIL This word 
Is latinized by the Rqaian writer^, Cofburnus. 
Virg. Ed. yill/ 10. Propcrt. iL 25, 41, 
Quintil. X. !• § 68* 

(i8) Shoes for men, according to theScho- 
liaft of Ariftoph. ad EccleC ^471 See Span^ 
heim^ ad Arift. Plut. v. ^59. 

pa^ . <;HA]Pi 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

4o6 .A NT I CLtfI:T IfiS 

C H A P. icvin. 

• .. m ^ ^ m ~ ■ 

Of FaNERALs J of jh?. Cpremonies p^r- 
. . formed to dyfaij PERSONS. 

I. /Tp HEY cut off a lock of the dying 
J. perfon's hair» which they confe- 
crated to the infernal Gods— By this a(^ 
they devoted him to (i) death. 

IL They put up prayers to (2) Mer- • 
cury, who, in their theology, was the con- 
dudor of fouls to the lower (3) regions, 
Thefc prayers were termed — (4) E£*Tiyj*o* 

III. The relations of the dying man 
flood round his bed ^ took their laft(5) 
farewell of him, (6) embraced him, (7) 
heard his laft words, and inhaled his de- 
parting (8) breath. 

IV. When he expired, they beat the 

air with violence, to prevent the evil genii 

from taking his foul to hell, and to drive 

^them (9) away* 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E C K 407 

V. Tp die was, literally, evijtrKBiv, and 
A'^odyiil<ncstv^^h\it to avoid the. gloomy ideas 
which thefe words conveyed, they ufcd 
gentler terms*— (10) ATre^x^a-Occi — (i 1) Oi- 
;^£a-Sai— (12) EvSnv — (13) Koi/Aa(r5«i— ( 1 4> 
BfCio^xeva*— (15) UuSsiv ri, &c.— Difcederc 
— abire— dormire— fopiri — vixiflc — pati 
quiddam, &c. 


(i) Eurip. Alccft. v* 75. Virgil. iEncid. IV. 
€98. Horace, I. 28, 20. Mart. 111. 45. See 
Rusus,- ad Virg. 1. c. and Dacier, ad Horat. !• 
c. Cantcrus, in Nov. Led. IV. 20. 

(2) Valer. Max. II. 6. extern. 8. 

(3) Horn. o<r. n. V. !• Virgil. iEfteid. IV; 
242. Horace, L Od. io« v. 17. and Od. %^^ 
V. 18. 

(4) Etymol. Auftor. 

(5) Euripid. Heraftid. v. 600. 
- (6) Euripid. Alccft id. v. 409, 

(7) Homer. Ix. XI. v. 743. 
. (8) This laft cuftom, Cicero informs us, was 
j^radtifcd by the Sicilians-, Verr. v. 45. Thus 
D d 4 did 

Digitized by 


4o8 A N T I Q^U I T I E S 

did Virgil's Anna, the fitter of Dido. iEneid« 

IV. V. 68;. SeeConfolat, ad Liviatn Auguft. 

V, 97« and 15 8* 

(9) We find traces of this fuperflition in the 
Scbol. of Theocr. ad Idyll. IL r. 36* See Mac- 
rob. Saturn, v. 19. Virgil. £neid, VI. 540. 
Dacier, Horat. I. 24, 25. 

(10) Heliodor. iEthiop. VIII. pag. 400. L 24. 
iElian. V. FL II. 25. See Elfner. ad Matth; 
c. xxvi. 24. 

(11) Euftatb. ad ix. A. p. 90. 1. 2. Eurip. 
Alceft. V. 316. Horn. o*. S. v. 144. Laert. 
III. 83. Horace, o*. I. 24- v. 5. Virgil. X. 
745. and XII. 309. 

(12) ^fcbyl. Eumenidi v. 708. 

(13) Callimach. Epigr. X. 2. Matth. xxviu 
52. iCor. XV. i8* 

(14) Pluurch. in Cicer. p. Syi. D. 

(15) Horn. lA. «• V. 274. and o^. A. v. 820. 
Herod. V. 7. § I. 


Digitized by 



OF dREECE. 405* 


Of Ceremonies uied to the D e a 9 
before the F u n e r a jl« 

LAS foon as a perfon had expiredt 

jTjl they clofed his (i) eyes. This 

zd: was expreffcd in Greeks by (2) Suy- 

xXeicii/— (3)Kafia/f£;y— (4) XwizpfiOTrU¥ cip* 

II. They likewifc fliut his (5) mouth. 

III. They covered his face with a (6) 

IV. They flrctchcd him out, and cpm* 
pofed his limbs, which was,— (7) O^ $oiJr- 
6ai, (8) EKTsma-SAu 

V. They then waffied the corpfe in (9) 
warm water, and (10) perfumed it. 

VI. They next wrapped its winding- . 
^ fheet round it, and put on it a fine robe^ 

which was commonly (11) w4iite. 

VIL It was alfo crowned with (12) gar- 

VUI. The 

Digitized by 



VIII. The corpfewas tb,cn placed in the 
entry of the (13) houfe [to place it there, 
was, ( 1 4.) UpoTiOscrOcn] with its feet towards 
the (15) door. 

IX. They put into the mouth of the 
dead perfon a (16) piece of money, with 
which he was to pay (17) Charon for his 
paffage over the Styx : it was an (18) Obo- 
lus; And its proper name in Greek was 
(19) ^safuKuj. 

X. Befides, they put into the mouth of 
a dead man, a cake, of which honey was 
the principal ingredient, to pacify the 
growling (20) Cerberus, 

XL All thefe ceremonies preceding fe- 
pulture Were cxpreflcd by (21) Suyxop^c/v 
—and (22) XvyKOfjLi^ni, 

XII. While the corpfe was in the houfe, 
a vcffcl with water, named (23) A^^ocvtov, 
was fct before the door, in which thofe 
wafhed thenjfelves who were polluted by 
the -touch of the (24) dead body. 


Digitized by 



N O T E S to C H A P. XIX. 

(i) Kirchmann.' de Fun. Rom. I. 6. 

(2) Eurip. Hccub. v. 43d. 

(3) Horn. lA. A- r. 453. Ol A. V. 425. 0*1 
X2. V. 295. 1 

(4) Euripid. Phasniff. v. 1400. 

(5) Horn. O^. A. V. 42 J. 

(6) Euripides. Hippolyt. v. 1458. Hccub. 
T. 432. Horn. o^. n. V. 292. 

(7) Euripides. Hippolyt. v. 786. Cafaub. 
ad Theocrit. Idyll. I. 139. Left. Thcocrit. c. I. 
p. ?4i. 

(8) Euripid. 1. c. v^ 789. 

(9) Horn. O^. ft. V. 44. Euripid. Pha^nifll 
V. 1239. and 1661. A6lor. IX. 37, -ffilian. Y. 
H.IV. I. 

(10) Horn. IX. I. V. 350. Martial. III. 12. . 

(11) Horn. IX. Z. V. 352. Oi. B. V. 57. Eu- 
rip. Alccft. V. 156. Plutarch, in Arato. p. 
1051. E. 

(12) Euripides. Phaeniff. v. 1626. Schoh 
Ariftoph. EcclcG V. 533. Anthol. II. p. 173. 

(13) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Lyfiftr. v. 6iT» 
Pollux gives us the reafon why the corpfe was 
placed there — VIII. 7. Segfti, 65. See Suidas^ 
at the word n^ouxf ire. 

(14) De- 



411 A N T I CLU IT I E S 

(14) Demofth. Macart. p.. 666. C. LySas 
coDCn Eratofth. p. 92. Lucian dcLudu. p* 
302. Eurip. Hecub. v. 613. 

(15) Hom« IX. T. v. 212. and Euftath. ad h. 
1. p. 1246. L 3. See Scaliger^ad Feft, in. Con* 

(16) Schol. Ariiloph. ad Ran. v. 140. 

(17) Lucian. de Lu£tu, p. 302* Eu( 
O^. p. 728. 1. 33* Callinaacb. Fragm. p. 247^ 
and p. 361. n. iio. 

(18) Lucian. Dial. Mort. p. 3089 264. Ca- 
tapl. p. 422. Lucian, and others, fpeak onlf 
of one Obolus ; Ariftoph. Ran. v. 140. fpeaks 
of two; but rather from a comic liberty, thai! 
from a ftrict adherence to fa6t» in the opinion 
of Hemfterhus. Ad Lucian. Dialog, p. 17. See 
Juvenal, III. 26y. 

(19) This name was given it by Ibme bar- 
barous nation ; not by the Greeks. EtymoL 
at the word ^Mctxn;. Pollux, IX. 6. Segm. 82* 
Suidas, and Hefych. at this word. Strabo^ VIIL 

P- 257- 

(20) Schol. Ariftoph. ad Lyfift.. v* 601. Vir* 

gil. iEneid. VI. 420. ' 

(21) Schol. iEfchyl. Thcb. v. 1032. 

(22) Id. ibid. JGfchylus terms this whole 
ceremonial, Extpo^a — theScholiaftof^fchylus 
*^KiilfV|»«. Herodian^ — Kfi^ii^, I. ;f, 8, i. 

7 (i3)PoU 

Digitized by 


O F G Ik E E C E. 413 

(«3) Pollux, VIII. 7, Scgm. 66. Hcfych. 
at this word. Cafaub. ad Chara£t. Theoph. 
JCVI. p. 339. 

(i4) Ariftoph. Ecclef. v. loij. calls this vcf- 
fel lik^wife, Or^xoN Euripid. Alceft. v. 99. 
IIii^«iov x'f*'^^ '^* (pOiTuv vttXotK— a ciftern to 
wa(h one's hands in, before the door of the de- 
ceafed* Hefychius likewife termed it Ui^aioy ; 
an appellation, .which, as Kufter thinks, hm 
grounds on the above*cited paflage of EyrU 
pides. Kufter ad Ariftoph. 1. c. 





414 A NT I CLU I T I E S 

C H A P* XX, 

Of the Funeral JProcession. 

I. ' I ^O carry the corpfc out of the 
X houfe was^ in Greek, (i) Ex- 
^€^s/iN— (2) Exjcofti^civ^— whence are derived 
the fubftantives— (3) Ex^ofa-r-(4) ExxofjuSii. 
IL The body was carried out at Athens 
before the riiing of the fun, by virtue of 
an (5) exprefs law. 

III. (6) The body was carried out by 
day, and not by night, by the other 
Greeks, who, notwithftanding, ufed (7) 
funeral torches. 

IV. They buried at (8) break of day, 
only youths who died in the flower of their 

y. It appears that in early times they 
had contrived nothing to lay dead bodies 
upon when they were to be carried forth 
to fepulturc. But in later ages, they were 
laid on biers, and carried by men called 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E C E; 415 

( I o) Vcfpillones. The body of a warriour 
was laid upon a (11) ihield,. particularly 
among the ( 1 2 ) Lacedaemonians. 

VL In the funeral proceflion were the 
relations of thedeceafcd; and other per- 
fons^ men^ and women^ who were invited 
to this (14) ceremony. But in fome coun« 
tries> none but the relations of the dead 
could attend his (15) funeral. And even 
at Athens^ by a law of Solon, women un- 
. dcr fixty years of age were only permitted 
to attend the funerals of their very near 
(16) relations. 


(i) Demofth. Macart. 666. C. 
(a) -flSlian. V. H. c. VIII. 4. 

(3) Thucyd. II. 34. 

(4) Lucil. Anthol. II. 32. Epigr. 4. p. ijf6. 

(5) A law of Solon, according to Demof- 
thenes, Macart. p. 666. C. But according to 
Cicero, it was a law of Demetrius Phalereus; 
Cic. de Leg. II. 26. 

I (6)Eu. 



4i6 A N T I QJJ I T I E S 

(6) Euripidcff, in Troad. v. 446. 

(7) To light the funeral-pile. Kirchmann* 
deFun. Rom. 11. 3. 

(8) Heracli<^. Pont, in Allegor. p. 492. Achil- 
les, in Horn. OJ. XI. v. 72. Patroqlus, Ix. fr. 
V. 226. and others mentioned, by Gale ad Hera- 
clid. 1. c. See Muret. Var. Left. XIII. 2. Vofi: 
ad Mclam. III. 7. p. 575. 

(9) Euftath. ad lA. *. v. 136. p. 1402. 1. 26. 

(10) Euripides, Alceft. v. 607. 

(11) Virgil. j£neid. X. 506. 

(12) Plutarch. Apophth. Lacasner. p. 241. F. 

(13) Thucyd. II. 34. Sophocles — Ajax Ma- 
ilig. Vi 1 189. Ariftotle. Ethic. IX. ii. 

(14) Eurip. Alceft. v. 629.. 

(15) Cicero de Leg. IL 26. 

(16) Demofth. Macart. p. 666. C. 




O F G R EE-C E. 417 


Of their Grief and Mourning. 

I. /^N th? death of a friend, they fc- 
V^ eluded themfelves from gaiety, 
from (i) entertainments, from games and 
(2) public folemnities, from the enjoyment 
of wine and mufic. They fat in folitary 
and (3) gloomy places. 

II. They ftripped themfelves of all (4) 
external ornaments, and put on (5) mourn* 
ing : their mourning was a (6) coarfe, (7) 
black fluff. 

Ill; They tore their hair, and (haved 
their (8) heads. 

IV. In extreme grief, they even rolled 
themfelves in the duft, and (9) mire. 

V. They fprinkled (10) aflies uponlheir 

VI. When they appeared in public, they 
had a veil thrown over their (11) heads. 

E e VII. They 

Digitized by 


4i8 A N T I Q^'U 1 T. 1 E S 

VII. They fmotc, their brcafts with their 
(12) hands, and the)r tore their (13) faces. 

VIII. They, cried with a lamentable (14) 
tone, £j E. 

IX. As the Romans in funerals had their 
{i5)PraJlc^, the Greeks had their (16) 
^loi^X^i ^^fjmv, who walked at the head of 
the proceffion, and by the melancholy 
ftrains they fung, deeply affcded the (17) 

X. Thefc ftrains were called, (i8)OXo. 
^u^jiAtfi— ( 1 9) lotXifMi — (20) Kmi — AiAiv^/. 

XL Thefc vocal mourners fung thrice— » 
I* During the proccffion — 2*" Round the 
pile— '3° Round the fai) grave. 

XII. Flutes were likcwlfe played upon at 
funerals^ to heighten the (22) folcmnity. 


(i) Lucian. de Lufli^. p. 307. 

(2) Euripides, Alceflid. v. 341, 

(3) Horn. o^. A. V. 10 1. Plutarch blames 
this grief as immoderate. Confol. ad Uxor. p. 
610. A. 


Digitized by 



(4) Lycophr. Caflandr. v« S62.' Ovid. Mcr. 
(J) Tncrdnoc. Hcaun II. 3, 47. 

(6) Some critics give this fenfe to the paC* 
£ige of Terence to which I bavejuft referred. 

(7) Euripides. Helen, v. 10^4. Alccftid.- v. 
215. and 427. See 1?ctiz6iii ad iEiian. XII. i. 
n* 32. 

(8) Horn. O** A. v. 197. ri. r. 45. Herodo- 
tus, II. p. iiy. E. Xenoph. Helen. I. p. 330, 
1.9. -ffiUan. V. H. Vn. 8. 

(9) Lucian. de Ludtft, p. 303. Horn. Ix. 
iLv. 640. 

(10) Lucian, 1. c. Horn. Ia. 2. v. 23. Ovid. 
Met. VIII. r. gzg. 

<i i) Amhol. V. ' Epigr. 35. Euripides, Sup- 
pUc« IlL Oi^ft* V. 294. Lacnb. Bos, ad Marc. 
xiv. 72. 

(i2)Luciftti. deLu£l(^, p. 303. Ovid. He- 
roid«XV. 113. 

. (13) Lucian. 1. c. ^oiirioirfiv 7r«p€'ac — To make 
one's cheeks bleed. See Not. ad Petron. c. CXI. 
All this external grief was prohibited by a law 
of Solon. Cic. deLcg. II. 25, 

(i4)7Efchyl. Theb. 323. The Scholiaft of 

Ariftophanes, ad A v. v. 217. fays the word 

Elegy comes from £ Xtym. Ai, at, was another 

doleful exclamation. See the notes to Ovid. 

£ e 2 Met. 

Digitized by 


4ZO A N T I Q^U I T I E S 

Met. X. 2i!f. Perhaps, the dipthong Ai, had 
the fame found with the letter £* — This feems 
to be proved by Rutgerfius^in Var. hc6L jU. 
5. p. 2o6« 

(15) Feftus, at the word Pr^c^. Pkutus^ 
Trucul. IL6» 14* . 

. (16) Hom. lA. n. V. 721. Euftath. ad h. 1. 
p, I5I3, 1. 36. 

. (i';)Luciande LuftO, p. 306. 

(18) Athen. XIV. 3- p. 619. B. 

(19) Eurip. Suppl. ▼. 281. Tread, v. 600. 
Hefych. at this word. 

(20) Athen. 1. c. Euftath. ad Ix. p. 1223. 
1. 8. and Schpl. Apollon. Rhod. IV. p. 994. 

(21) They fung the epitaphs, and funeral 
verfes— E^ixD^fiov— or 0^ii»of tirutfituw. See Sea* 
lig. Poetic. L 50, 117. and IIL i2i. p. 385. 
Elfner. ad Joann. IX. 3 1. 

. (22) Lucian. de Lu£b0, p. 305. Euripid. 
Troad. v. 126. Schol. Ariftoph. ad Av. 217. 
Suid. at the word, EXiyo^^ Not. ad Mat. ix. 23. 
^nd the authors cited by Spencer* de L^. 
Hebr. Kit. p. 113;;. and by Zornius* Biblioth. 
Antiq. Exeg. p. 581. 


Digitized by 




Qf their Manner of Burying and 
Burning their Dead. 

I. T N the early times they buried their 
X (1) dead. This was their coftom 
in the days of (2) Cecrops, 

11. The body was laid horizontally in the 
coffin, with the head to the Weft, that it 
might look to the rifing fun. Such was 
the cuftoni of the Athenians, and the other 
Greeks^ except the Megarenfes, who laid 
their dead bodies in the (3) oppofite pofi* 

IIL The cuitom of burning dead bodies 
introduced by (4) Hercules, after his^ 
time fpfead over all (5) Greece. 

IV. The pile of wood on which the 
corpfe was placed, was termed, (6) IIu^^. 

V. They likewife threw on the pile (7) 
different animals, (8) odours and perfumes. 

Ee3 VI. They 

Digitized by 



VI. They threw on it alfo the cloatbs 
of the (9) dead, and his arms, if he was a 

VII. At the funerals of generals, the fbl- 
dicrs, and all who were prefcnt, (11) 
marched thrice round the funeral-pjle, (12) 
from right to left, to honour of the dc« 

VIII. Whilft the pile burned, the friends 
of the 4ead made libations of (13) wine» 
fianding, and invoked his (14) Manes. 

IX. When the pile was confumed, they 
extinguiHied the fire by pouring (15) wine 
upon it. 

X. Then the reUiions of the deceafcd 
colledled his a(hes, and his (16) bones. 

XL They wa{hed the bones with wine, 
and put them into (17) oiL 

XIL They were then, with the z(hc$, 
locked in an (18) urn.^^*The urns for that 
purpofe were called in Greeks (19) K«a^«« 
(20) Kf(k)(r(r0i—{zi) Artfmjcif— -(22) OfO^- 
%Ai — They were of (23) wood, of (24) 
ftone, of (25) filver, and-^of (26) gold. 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E C £• 42J 


(i) Cicero, de Leg. II. 22. — On the Sicyo- 
Aian manner of intermefit, fee Paufanias-^Co- 
rinth. VIL p. 126. — on the Perfian manner-^ 
Lucian, de LuftA, p. 306. on the Roman — PHny, 
VIL 54, on the origin of the cuftom of burying 
the Jctd, fee ia. A., p. 32. L 35. 

(2) Cic. de Leg, il. 25/ 

(3) JElian. V. H. VIL 19. and V/14. Plut. 
Sobn. p. 83. £. 

(4) ScbdL Min. ad l\. A. v. 52^. Euft^ch. ad 
IX. A. p. 32. r. 35, 

(5) Yet this cuftom was not indifpenfablc, and 
was not always obferved, as we find by Paufa- 
niasj Corinth, vij. p, 125. Sec Plato. Phacd. 

• (6) Horn. lA- A V. 52. n. v, 78^. Y. r. 14^. 

(7) Horn. oi. a. V. 65. i\. "¥. V. ij6^. 

(8) Horn. OJ. fl. V. 67. Fun. 
Rom. IIL 4, 5. 

(9) Lucian. in Nigrin. p. 38. Euripides. 
Rhef. V. 960. 

(jo> Horn. IA. Z. V. 418. O^. A. V. 74. . 
(i 1) Horn. lA. Y. V. 13. ol ft. V. ^8. ApoIL 
Rhod. V. 1059. 
(12) Statius. Theb. VI. 2'r5. 

E e 4 (13) Hoai, 



424 A N T I Q,U I T I E S 

( 1 3) Horn. IX. y. V. 220. Lucian. dc ItuAd, 
p. 305. . 

(14) Horn. 1. c. mCchjl Chaphor. ▼. 86. 
and V. 128. 

. (15) Horn. IX. «. V. 791. r. r. 250. Tug. 
iEneid. VI. 227. 

(16) Horn* IX. ♦. V. 237. ft. ▼, 791. pind. 
Pyih. Od. Anriftr. r. v. 7. This was OetJ^tym, b 
Gloff. Vet. and Onx*}^. Diod. Sic IV. 3^ 
p. 243. In Latin, offilegium. See Kirehnuum. 
De Fun. HI. 6. 
(1*7) Horn. 01. ft. V. 73. Tibull. III. «, 19. 

(18) Hora. IX. *. V. 243. a. v. 795. oJL ft.' 
V. 74. 

(19) Hcrodot. III. 15. S i6. IV. 1, §5, 7. 

(20) Mofchus. Idyll. IV. 34. 

(2 Horn. IX. ft. V. 79 J. o*. ft. V. 74.S A^- 

(22)Lycophr. Caffandr. v, 3^7. o»J^,r«. 
See Kirchmann. III. 8. 
(23) Of cedar. 
(»4) Xiphil. Sever. 

(25) Ammian. Marcell. XlX. 

(26) Hora. IX. Y. V. 243. Mofchus, Idyll, 
IV. 3^ 


Digitized by 


O F G R E £ C E. 4*S 


Of Tom 16 and Monuments* 

L ' I ^HE Greeks ufcd to inter their 
X dead without their (i) cities^ 
commonly by the (2) fides of their ^igb* 
ways, that they might not be polluted by 
touching a (3) corpfe, nor incommoded by 
its (4) fmcIL 

II. We read, however, that they fome* 
times buried their dead in an elevated part 
of a city. But this was an honorary diftinc* 
tion, payed to thofe who had been of im«> 
portant fervice to their (5) country « 

III. Lycurgus permitted the Lacedasmo-- 
nians to bury their dead in the city, and 
even round their (6) temples. 

IV. They prayed that the earth might 
lie light on their friends^ and ilJuftrious 
(7) men— -and that on their enemies, and 
the wicked, it might be (8) heavy and 

I V.In 

Digitized by 


436 AN 1^1 aUI TIES 

V. lo the early ages their tombs were 
coipmonly caverns; their name was» (9) 

VL But in after times th<y built, with 
much labour, and expence, monamepts of 
flonc — ^chiefly in honour of (10) great men. 

VII. Their ordinary tombs were of earth, 
and were called, (11) XeofjuaTx. 

VIII. Their tombs of ftone were polifh- 
cd, whence ihey took the following names 
— •(i2)H«s-o* t«^o<— -and Tu/«6oi.. 

IX. Their tombs were likewife adorned 
with pillars of ftone, termed (13) Zr^Aw— 
on thofc pillars they engraved (14) infcrip^ 
tions. ' 

X. They were alfo frequently adorned 
with (15) images. 

XL As the objcft of fuch monuments 
was the prefcrvation of the memory of the 
deceafcd, the tombs were often called— 
(; 6) MiffjtitM — ( 17) Mvfifzarcc — ( 1 8) Iiypara. 

XII. Befides thefc fepulchres, which 
contained corpfes, afties, bones of the 




. O F G R E E C E. 4^1 

dead, they fomctimes ereded (19) hono- 
xary monuments, in which there were nei- 
ther bodies, nor bones, nor (20) a{hes, and 
l^rhich were therefore called, (a i) Kiyorofi- 
^m, and (22) Kijniptx. 

Xlll. Ofthefc tombs, fomc were built 
in honour of illuftrious men interred in 
other (23) places — and fome, in honour of 
thofe who had been deprived of fepulture, 
and whofe tnahes, they imagined, could 
not reft, unlcfs they raifcd to them fuch an 
empty (24) tomb. They invoked the 
dead thrice aloud, inviting them to (25) 
enter thefe monuments. 


(i) Cic. adDiv. IV. 12. § 9. Liv. XXI. 24* 
See Kirchmann. II« 2o«-^who (ays, on Plato's 
authority, that in the very early ages, they kept 
the dead in their houfes ; a cuftom which was 
abolUhed, and fubnQed not in the time of Plato. 

(2) Eurip. Alceft. v. 835. Rhef. v. 881. 
Menandr. Fragm. ex Incert. Comced* n. 258. p. 
276. Theocrir, Idyll. VII. lo, Paufan. Attic. 

II. p. 6. 

(3) Eurip. 

Digitized by 



(3) Eurip. Iphigen. iiiTaur. t. 380. Luciao. 
de Dc&Syr. p. 682. Kirchmann. II. 21. 

(4) This reafon is given by Ifidorus^ Orig. 
XIV, c. II. 

(5) Thus the tomb of Themiftocles was in 
the Forum of the Magnefians. Plutarch. Tbe- 
mift. p. 128. C. Thus the Spartans interred 
Brafidas, from the honour they bore his mc- 
mory, in their city. The fame honour wasrpayed 
to the remains of Ephron. — ^Xenoph. Hellen. 

yil* P- A95' ^- i\ 

(6) Plutarch. Lycurg. p. 56* B. 

(7) Euripides, Alceftid. v, 462. 

(8) Callimach, Epign XXVIII. p. 203. 
Kirchmann. HI. p. 390. 

(9) Horn. IX. n. V. 797. and Schol. Etymoi. 
at the word,Hfi«. Kirchmann. III. 1 ;. 

(10) Petron. Matron. Ephcf. c.CXI. Cicero, 
ad Div. IV. 1 2. Marc. xv. 46. Mat. xxviL 60. 
and Saumaife^ ad Solin. p. 851. 

(11) Euripides, Hecub. v* 221. Hence, x««» 
^iu(^^.^aggerere« Tumulum. Horn. Ix. XI. v« 
801. and xc^»fu<r6dift. SeeAnthoUIII. 14. Epigr. 
14. Paufan. VIII. 16. p. 632. 

(12) Euripides, Alceftid. v. 836. Helen, v, 


(15) Horn. IX. A. V. 371. P. V. 434. Pmd. 
Nem Oi.X. Epod. A. v. i, 2. calls a pillar of 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E C E. 429 

this kind*-Aya^f4' mJ^ gffo» inr^v-— Scatuam 
Pluconiam, politutn Saxpin. 

(14) Thcophr. Charaft. c. XIV. Diog.Lacrc 
I. 48. Callim.Epigr. XVI. p. 196. By a law of 
Lycurgus, the names only of thoft who bad done 
fome fignal fervice to their country were per- 
mitted to be engraven. Plutarch. Lycurg. p. 56. 
B. Tbefe infcriptions were termed, Eiriffa(pcu. 
Artemid. V. 75. and in Latin, Tuuli, Ovid. 
Hcroid.XlV. 128. 

(15) Thus, on the tomb of Ifocrates» there 
was the figure of a ram and a fyren lying upon 
it. Plutarch. In Decern Oratorib. n. 4. p. S^B^ 
on the tomb of Diogenes was a dog of Parian 
marble. Diog. Laert. VL 78. on that of Archi- 
medes, a fphere^ and a cylinder. Cicer. Tufc. 
Quaeft. V. 23. See, in Pollux, VJII. 7. S. 66. 
—the figures with which the tombs of girls were 

(i6)Lucian. Philopleud. p. 349. Marc, xv.46. 

(17) Theophr. Charaft. c. XiV- Paufan. 
Corinth. XX. p. 156. 

(18) Callim. Epigram. XV'III. 4. p. 197. A* 
' riftoph. Ecclef. v. 1 100. Thefmoph. v. 893. 

(19) Callim. I. c. Honorarius Tumulus. 
Sucton. In Claud, c. I. Tumulus inanis, Virg. 
^neid. III. 304. VI. 505. 

(20) A tomb of this kind Pallas orders Tcle- 
machus toraife — 0^. A. v. 291. Such a ton^b 


Digitized by 


430 A N T I QJJ I T I E S 

Mendaus ereAed in Egypt after he received the 
news of the death of his brother Agamemnon. 
O^. A.v. 584. See Euripides, in Helen, v. 1255. 

(21) Suidas, at this word, firom which is de- 
rived the verb EnpoToi^Tv Enrip Hellen. v. ig6t. 
Lamprid. In Alexandr. v. 63. 

(22) Lycophr. Caflandn v. 370. ind Meur- 
fius, ad h. loc* 

(2 3) The comb of Euripides was one of thefc. 
Paufan, Attic. 11. p. 6. 

(24) Some of thefe tombs are mentioned by 
Thucyd. II, 34. and by Xenoph, de Exped. VI. 
p. 297. 1. 54. In this cuftom was included the 
imaginary fepulture of thofc who had been 
drowned. Kuhn. ad Pauf. Phocic. c. XXIX. 
p. 869. Sec Interpr. ad Horat. L Od. 28, Fc- 
ftus, at the word Pra&cidania. Intcrprctcs Pc* 

(25) Hom. O^. I. V. 64. andEuflath. ad h. 1. 
p. 235. 1. 4, Pindar. Pyth. 0<^. IV. Epod.Z.v.p. 
andSchoLad h. K Virg. iEneid.VI. 506. Thii 
evocation of the manes was termed — i'up^ayM^m. 
Euilath. 1. c. and this Pfycbagogta differs little 
from the magical Pfycagogia, of which we have 
taken notice in the chapter on Divination. 






Of other Honours payed to the Dead- 

I. TTT^UNERAL orations in praifc of 
Jl the dead were pronounced before 
their (i) tombs, particularly if they had 
rendered themfelves famous by adions be- 
neficial to their (2) country, if they had 
died fighting valiantly in (3) battle. 

II. (4) Funeral games were inftituted in 
honour of them. 

III. After the obfcquies there was a 
feaft in the houfe of the ncareft relation of 
the (5) dcceafcd. This feaft was called — 
(6) n^pihi'Trvoy^^ (7) ^tK^ohnfvoTf — and. (8) 

IV. The fragments which fell from the 
table in this feaft, were confecrated to the 
(9) manes, and carried to the tomb for its 

V. In the early times filence was en- 
joined . at thefe feafts ; but in the later 
ages, the guefts were permitted to convcrfe 


Digitized by 


434 A N T I CLU I T 1 E S 

on the good qualities of the (ii) dead— 
Hence arofe a proverbial phrafc, by which 
a bad (12) charadcr was ftrongly implied 
— -OvK i'TreuviSBfuig ovS^ tv 7rf^iJf9ryft» — You 
would not be praHed even at a funeral en- 

VI. Lamps were likewife fometimes 
burned) in honour of the dead, in fubter- 
ranean (13) caverns. 

VIL It was alio cudomary to drew tbefe 
tombs with herbs, and flowers, with (ic) 
amaranths, (16) rofcs, (17) myrtle, but 
moft profufcly with (18) parfley; whence 
came the proverbial expreflion-— A6r<rdai o^s- 
Xiwu— Apii aegere — To fignify that a man's 
difcafc was (19) delperate. 

VIII. Sacrifices were offered, and liba- 
tions made in (20) cavities dug in the earth. 

IX. The facrifices which they offered to 
the dead, were, (21) black (heep, and (22) 
black and barren heifers, from the fore^ 
head of which tJfiey cut the longeft hairs; 
-7-The verb to exprefs the cutting of thefc 


Digitized by 


O F G R E E e a • 4i$. 

liairs, was*— (23)Ai^»jjeiflrtf«i— ithe hairs 

Were tcriijed-^(i4) A9r«^%«^« 

> X. The libatibils were of (25} bloody 

(t6) waters (27) wine, and (28) mWki but 

ihe principal one was (29) honey^ which 

Ihey noade a fymbol of (30) death. . Thus; 

they thought^ they appeafcd the (31) 

Manes* : 

3tl. The water ufed for thefe libations 

was cMed ^^ {22) Xdovm Xdvrpov i or, in 

one word— (33) Aovr^ov. Its term at A- 

thens was> (34) ATrovtfifiu^ 

Xii. On the tbmb of H child the water 
was a (35) child ; on that of a 

yirgin> by a (3d) virgin ; ahd on that of a 

married man» by a woman^ who was calle4 

~(37) Ey%"W'«v 

XilL Thefe facrificts In honour of thd 

manes were offered on thb (38) ninth and 

(39) thirtieth day lifter the internient; 

They were repeated in moft of the ftatcs 

bf Greece in the month (40) Anthcfte- 


Ff XiV.Sttch 



434 A N T I Q^U I T I fi S 

« XIV. Such vwt the hpOQirrs which the 
Greeks payed lojb<)^ d^ad^ and ^hicb, id 
their langaage wertftermed—- (41) 'O^j*— 
{42) Ai«A#«~-(43) N#p^fUyfl>-^by the Lt^ 
tins— (44) Jujfa. 

XV. Yet fomc men they deetecd im-^ 
worthy of fepulture. It was not granted 
by thfl^ Athenians to (45) traitors, and (46) 
facrilegioQs perfons^ 


(i) Lucian. de Luftii, p. 307. SeePkiCarch. 
In Poplicol p. I02. Dion. Halicarn. Arch^bL 
V. p. 291. L 5. 

(2) Dionyfius Halic. 1. c. 1. 30. compares the 
funeral eulogiums of the Romans with thofe 
of the Athenians, and thinks the former more 
judicious in beftowing their encomiums than 
the latter, — For the Athenians praifcd only thole 
who had fignalized theni^fclves in war; but the 
Romans celebrated men of merit in every car 

(3) Plato, Menexem. Thucyd. II. 34. Mar- 
tial virtue is tbefubjeft of the ETira^iof> the fu- 



0|? G RE E C E. ; 435 

Afcnd dratkMfi, wluth is tt>e feoond of the ora- 
tions of Lyfias^ p* ik. ahc} of the Ao^r^ i^nra^io; 
pf Demofthenes, p. 1.^2. 

(4) Paufan. Arcad.IY. p^ 605^ kj^ Azanes, 
an ArcacKaiH was the Qrft who was honoured 
with tbefe games. Thfk& games are celobraied 
fn Homer, Ix. '"¥. v. 274^ 680. OJl ft. v. 85. Iq 
- Thucyd. VIIL and io Phicarch } Timokon, p. 
285. B. fifc. 

(y) It was the ncfflrft relation of the de- 
ceafed who gave tht feaft, though not in his 
Aoufe I but in that of akiQther of his friends. 
SceDemofth.dc Coron. p. 335. C. and in Ho- 
mer. IX. ^. V. 28. the funeral entertainment of 
jPatroclus is' given in tht teti^ of his friend 

{iS) Demofth. deCoron. p. 353. B. Lucian. 
fk Lu<a. p. 307. 

(7) Stqb. Serm. 55. p. ^2j. and Aricemid. 
f . S. exprefs it in two woi^ds — fftK^dyt Af/irvor. 

(8) Horn. IX- 1. O*. r. V. 309. Hefiod. E^y. 
735. Graev. Left. Hefiod. c. XV. p. y6. 

(9) Athcn. X. 7. p. 427. E. Pythagoras 
ieems to allude to this cutlom in Piog. Laerr. 
VIII. 34. So does Tibullus, I. 6. v. 17. ac- 
cording <Q Muretus, and other$. See BrQuI^- 

Ff2 (10) Te. 

Digitized by 


43^ A N T I Q^U I T I E S 

(10) Terence, EuiiucTi. IIL 2. 38. CatuUf 
Carm. 60. Interpn ad Plaut. Pfeudol. I. 3^ 
127. Feftus, at the word Culiiuu 

(11) Cicero de Leg« II. 2$. 

(12) Suidas at the phrafe, Ot« twmmtanf. 

(13) See Petron. c. CXL This was Ukevtfo 
an Egyptian cuftom. Herodot. IL p. 157. D.— r 
and a Roman one. Modeftin. 1. 44. F. Dc 
Manum. Teftam. 

(14) iSophocles. EleSr. v. 696. 

(15) Philol^rat. Heroic chap; XIX. p. 741. 

(16) Anacreon. Od. LIII. 2^. Ariftapnec. L 
£{$. 36, p. 162. 

(17) Euripides. Eledx. v. 323* 

(18) folyan. Stratag. Y. 12. ^ i. Suiclas, mt 
phe words— -SiAivov ntpetit^* 

(19) Plutarch. Timp^eon. p. ^48. D. Suidas, 
at the phrafes— -'ZiXiveu hTrai ^ yoo^A^v^— ^and f^v fcxn^ 

(90) Hoip. Q^. A. V. %6. calls tbefe libation^ 
Xofti. Euripidies, Iphig. in Taur. v. 160. 
Eiedr. V. 509. To make thefe ligations, is, 
Tu^CfUffon x®»(-*-*in Sophoclcs-vE|e6tr. v. 408. 
Sec the vcrfes of Clcidcmcs cited by Atben. IX, 
18. p. 4iio. a. 

(ji) Euripides. Elcdr. v. 513. $encc4. 
pidipod. V. 555. A. 

(22) On the black heifers. See Virg. ^ncid. 


Digitized by 


OF G. R E E C TL i^^jr 

,^*.p^7* VL 243. pnthe barren heifers. — Hopi^ 
p^. K. y. 52}. 

(aglHom, 01 jr. y.A4S^ B. 424. .Th» verb 
^Ifo fignifies, to make the firft libations ac any 
i&u:rifiices. See Euripides, Eleftr.v. 811. Sa- 
jcrigce^ to the infernal deities were begun in thi 
/ame manner. Virgil, ^n^id* VI. 2^5- . 

(24) Eurip. Oreft. v. 96* and Schoh ad h. L . 

(25) Eurip. Iphigeii. i^ Taur. v. 163. 

(26) Sophocles, Ele£tr. v. 436. . K;ircha)ann» 
j^c Fun. IV. 2. p^ 56/$. 

(2;) Luciao, rfe Lu6W, p. 305. Virg. M: 

(a.8) Eurip. Qrcft. v. 115. 
. (29) Eurip. Iphig. ^n Taur, y. i$5» ^33. 

(30) Porphyn De Antro Nymphar^ p. 235^ 

(31) Euripides — Iphig. in Taur. v. 166. M^ 
fchyl. Chasph. y. 13. 

(32) Hefych. at the words x9ovi« Kpvrgm* Sui- 
das, aj: the fame wordjk 

(33) Sophocles, Elcftr. y, 436. 

(34) Athen. IX. 18. p. 409. F. Euftath. ad 
pf.,A. p. 33.1.46. .ffifchyl. Chcphon y. 127. 
fubftituces X/piCos; for Aovt^a* See ad h. . |. 
5/tanl. p. 818. 

(35) Demofthenes^adv. Lepcbgren^. p4g< 673. 
^. Harpocrat. at the word A^ur^ii^o^. >, 

{36) Hence, probably, the tombs of virgins 


Digitized by 



#ml adoraed mA rtpitfentatibus t^f Ttr^ioy 
holding ewers in their hands. Pelhiic, VIlI. p 
Stgau 66. Kkcfmiiitili, de fan. IV, 2. p, 

(37) ^^<^f M«gn« at the word ST^vypirfMiK 
SuidaS) ^t the fiicne word * 6choL Ariftdph.4i 
Vefp. V. S8S9 where we have the word t^wftm 
laRead of E/fX'ttigKftM 

(3S) H<^ce they took the epithet, 9mr«/ 
lf»is, Orat. VII. deCironis Haeredit. p. $22. 
In Latin, JJovemdi^lia. See Taubtnann. Pfotic 
Aulniar. IL 4f 45^ Thei^ were likewifeNo- 
vemdialia of another kind ; expiatipns which 
laded nine day; after the appearance of prodi- 
gies i riicfe N<)venrK)iaHa are fonietinies men- 
4l0iled by Livy, I. 31. XIX. 14. 

(39) Harpocrat. at the word T^iojcftc* Polr 
lux, L y; Segm. 66. 

(40) Cafaub. Athen« III. 19. p. i^o. 

(41) Plutarch. In Num. p. 67. E. 

(42) Ariftot. de Virttit. where fpcaking of 
funeral rites, he calls them^ Aoe^ioo'uim v^^ <r«u^ 

(43) Demofth. Macart. p. 677. B. Ifseus, O- 
faf. I. De Cleonymi Hsercdit. p. 364.. 

(44) Cicero, de Leg. II. 22. Heir. Magius. . 
In Var. Left. II. 119. p. m. 

(45) Didd. Sic. XVIII. 67, p. 64*. A. So- 

a phocles. 

Digitized by 


DFGRfi£C£t 43f 

^hocles^ Antiq. ▼• 204. Thuqrd. I. 138* 
ScheK and Kuhn. ad JElian. V. H. IV. 7. 

(46) Xenophon. Hift. Gnec. L p. 351. L 39* 
Kleurf. Them* Attic. 11. 2. Paufiinias, Lacon* 

C. X«p. 2}0. 

F 1 nr 1 & 

Digitized by 





Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC