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A survey of Iberian Formiddae 

(Hymenoptera) 



C. A. COLUNGWOOD and I. H. H. YARROW. 



This paper presents results from the examination of many thousands 
of specimens from a number of collections. Chief of these include 
material obtained by Collingwood (C) from the Central Pyrenees in 
1957 and on a journey across Spain to the Sierra Nevada in 1966, by 
Yarrow (Y) from a series of sixteen collecting trips to Spain, Portu- 
gal and Andorra between 1952 and the present time and by Professor 
H. Franz (F) of the Institut fur Bodenforschung, Vienna, who made 
available his immense material of ants collected during several visits 
to the Peninsula. We are grateful also to a number of other collectors 
including H. W. Adams (A), S. C. S. Brown (B), C. Caspar (G), N. 
Jessop (J), E. Owen Jones (OJ), R. W. A. Leach (L), H. C. F. New- 
ton (N), R. Price (P), and Prof. Peris Torres (PT) of Madrid Univer- 
sity for the loan of interesting specimens collected by J. Alvarez (M), 
to the Authorities of the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseum, Stockholm, for 
lending a miscellaneous collection made largely by O. Lundblad and 
S. Erlandsson (S), to the Authorities of the Helsingfors University 
Museum for the loan of a specimen of Formica diismeti Emery collected 
in Algeciras in 192'6 by Harald and Hakon Lindberg and finally to L. 
Weatherill for making available a very interesting collection from 
Portugal. For future reference, each record listed has the initial letter 
of the collector or Institution given after it in brackets as indicated 
above. New provincial records are indicately by an asterisk. 

In this work, the Formica ruja group species have been dealt with 
rather fully by Yarrow on account of their increasing importance in 
the biological control of forest pests. Other species have been exami- 
ned and annotated by Collingwood. Ceballos (1956) provided a com- 
prehensive catalogue of all Hymenoptera species recorded from Spain 
and from the Balearic Islands, -deliberately avoiding all nomenclatorial 



54 C. A. COLUNGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 

controversies and leaving specialist workers to sort out much of the 
synonymies for themselves, a highly recommendable procedure consi- 
dering the huge field covered. At the same time, Schmitz (1955) 
published a useful list of ants recorded from Portugal with critical 
comments on some of the species, and Bernard (1956) reviewed and 
brought up to date those recorded from the Balearic Islands. We have 
been guided by these lists as far as possible and have been greatly helped 
by opinions and specimens from Dr. H. Kutter of Switzerland and 
Dr. C. Baroni-Urbani of Florence. None the less we are well aware 
that only occasionally does traditional ant nomenclature conform with 
the precepts of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature but 
we do not consider a work of the present kind the place to explore the 
intricacies of such matters. Accordingly, morphologically distinct en- 
tities are here treated as species and their names credited with original 
date and authorship even when these may be palpably infrasubspecific 
in origin. 

The authors hope that users of this paper will appreciate that it is 
intended to be complementary to the Formicidae section of the Ceba- 
llos catalogue, not to replace it and that species recorded in that work 
but not confirmed by the very extensive recent collecting may here 
receive no mention but that this does not necessarily indicate that they 
dispute the correctness of these earlier inclusions. Several genera 
(Typhlopone, Monica, Oxyopomyrmex, Phacota, Dolichoderus, Lio- 
metopum, Acantholepis), each listeid by Ceballos with a single species, 
fall into this category as do a number of species belonging to genera 
otherwise represented in the material studied. And noone who has 
worked the fringes of the vast unexplored, almost unexplorable, sie- 
rras, serras and mountain ranges of the Iberian Peninsula could deny 
the probability of large additions to the recorded ant fauna in the 
future. 

THE SPECIES 
PONERINAE 

1. Euponera (Trachymesopus) ochracea (Mayr). 
Mallorca*: Coll de Soller (F). 

'. Ponera coarctata (Latr.). 

Barcelona*: Vallirana (F). Castellon*: Begis, Benicarlo (F). Cor- 
doba*: Sierra de Cordoba (F). Gerona: Costa Brava (F). Huesca : 



A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIDAE 55 

Alcubierre (F). Ibiza * (F). Logrono * : Monasterio de Valvanera en 
Anguiano (F). Madrid: Aranjuez (F). Mallorca: Palma (F). Menor- 
ca*: Mahon (F). Murcia * : Sierra de Carrascoy (F). Orense * : Los 
Peares (F). Oviedo*: Bezanes (F), Covadonga (F). Pontevdera*: 
Bayona, Islas Cies del Sur (F). Santander*: Beranga, Jesus del Mon- 
te, Potes (F). Tarragona*: Vendrell (F). Teruel*: Rio Alfambra (F). 
Toledo*: Ouintanar de la Orden (F). 

Portugal. No locality (S). 

All but Madrid and Mallorca are new provincial records. The 
Franz collections included 24 locations for this species which is evi- 
dently widely distributed. 

3. Ponera eduardi Forel. 

Barcelona: San Feliu (F). Cadiz *: Algeciras (F). Gerona: La Jun- 
quera (F). Granada*: Sierra Nevada (F). Ibiza*: San Miguel (F). 
Madrid (F). Murcia*: Murcia (F). Pontevedra*: Mondariz, Ponte- 

') 

Dr. H. Kutter states (pers. comm.) that this species is quite com- 
mon in South France. 

4. Anochetus ghiliani (Spin.). 
Cadiz: Algeciras (F). 

This is the only province from which this species has so far been 
recorded in Spain. 

5. Stigmatomma denticulatum Rog. 

Malaga*: Malaga (F). 

This has also been recorded from the adjacent province of Cadiz. 

6. Sysphincta europea Forel. 
Pontevedra * : Mondariz (F). 

This has previously been taken in Sevilla. The last three species 
are all rare and little known in South Europe. 



MYRMICINAE 

7. Myrmica rubra (L-). 

Avila*: Sierra de Gredos (F). Barcelona: Barcelona (F). Hues- 
ca: Torla (F). Lerida: Seo de Urgel (F). Logrono*: Anguiano (F). 



C. A. COLUNGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 



Lugo*: Lozara (F). Oviedo: Covadonga (F). Santander*: La Fuen- 
te, Pontones (F). 

This species is as one would expect more or less confined to the 
northern provinces but there is an old record for Madrid. 



8. Myrmica ruginodis Nyl. 

Gerona: Cadaques (F). Huesca: Canfranc (C), Ordesa (F). La 
Corufia *: Santiago (F). Leon *: Sierra de la Cabrera (F). Logrono *: 
Monasterio de Valvanera en Anguiano (F). Lugo*: Guitiriz, Lozara, 
Sierra de Ancares (F). Madrid*: Sierra de Guadarrama. Orense*: 
Sierra de Gerez, Verin (F). Oviedo*: Bezanes. Rio Narcea (F). Pon- 
tevedra*: Pontevedra (F). Santander*: Espinama, Pontones, Saja, 
Villafufre (F). Teruel*: Sierra de Albarracin (F). Andorra (Y). 

9. Myrmica sulcinodis Nyl. 
Huesca *: Puerto de Portalet (F). 

This species is abundant in the high Pyrenees. 

10. Myrmica aloba Forel. 

Avila*: Sierra de Credos (F). Caceres*: Perales del Puerto (F). 
Gerona: Cassa de la Selva (F). Granada*: Rio Monachil (F), Sierra 
Nevada (C, F). Ibiza: No locality (F). Jaen * : Sierra de Cazorla (F). 
La Corufia*: Santiago (F). Lugo*: Sierra de Ancares (F). Madrid: 
El Escorial, Sierra de Guadarrama (F). Murcia * : Sierra de Carras- 
coy (F). Pontevedra * : Cabo Silleiro, La Guardia, Monte del Testei- 
ro (F). Segovia*: Riofrio (Y). Teruel*: Sierra de Albarracin (F). 

Portugal: Beira Alta, Serra da Estrela, Serra do Gerez (F). 

This was described by Forel (1909) as a variety of M. scabrinodis 
with no lobar extension at the bend of the scape. In the large material 
chiefly collected by Franz, this species has been identified according 
to the following characteristics. The antennal scape is simply but 
sharply bent near the base as in M. sulcinodis but is somewhat thicker 
and shorter. Some examples have an indistinct swelling at the bend 
but this is never angled as in M. scabrinodis. The frontal area is 
distinctly striate and the frontal ridges are more widely spaced and 
less sinuate than in M. scabrinodis. Other features including the 
thoracic outline and petiole nodes are very similar to that species. It 
is, however, quite a distinct species on the head characters alone and 
the male, according to Santschi (1931) and other authors, has the an- 



A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIDAE 5/ 

tenal scape equal in length to the following four or five segments as in 
M. sabuleti. Some series are more easily confused with M. sulcinodis 
than with M. scabrinodis but can be distinguished by the divergent 
sharply pointed epinotal spines, the shorter more square petiole outline 
seen from above and the more divergent frontal laminae (index 82-86 
compared with M. sulcinodis 88-94). 

M. aloba is the only Myrmica recorded from N. Africa (Bernard, 
1958) and there are examples in the Franz collection from Ost Rif, 
Spanish Morocco and the High Atlas. These differ in no way from 
other examples taken in Spain and a queen and worker from Ibiza. 
Bernard (1956) following Menozzi (1926) only lists M. rolandi Bon- 
droit from the Balearic Islands. This form was originally described 
from the Pyrenees and has been recorded from a wide area in Spain, 
It has probably been confused with M. scabrinodis on the one hand 
and with M. aloba Forel on the other. 

11. Myrmica rugulosa Nyl. 

This was taken in the French Pyrenees above Urdos (C). Ceballos 
gives records for Sevilla, Ciudad Real and Corufia but there are no 
examples of this species in the extensive series of Myrmica from Spain 
under review. 



12. Myrmica specioides Bondroit, 1918. 

(Syn. Myrmica puerilis Staecke, 1942.) 

Cuenca*: Canete (Y). Gerona*: Col de Cannes (F). Teruel * : 
Sierra de Albarracin, Sierra de Cucalon (F). 

Franz also collected two workers at Col de Pou in the Pyrenees 
Orientales, France. These are interesting extension! 
of this little known species (Collingwood, 1962). According to ma- 
terial in the Bondroit collection in Bruessels labelled M. specioides and 
examples in the British Museum from Calais and Paris, M. puerilis is 
identical and the name must therefore fall as a synonym. 

13. Myrmica scabrinodis Nyl. 

Barcelona: Vallirana (F). Cuenca*: Reillo (Y). Gerona: Cassa de 
la Selva (F). Huesca*: Canfranc, Jaca (C), Torla (F). La Corufia: 
Santiago (F). Leon*: Molinaferreira (F). Logrono * : Monasterio de 
Valvanera en Anguiano (F). Lugo*: Sierra de Ancares (F). Ma- 
drid * : Sierra de Guadarrama (Y). Malaga * : Malaga (F). Orense * : 



58 C. A. COLLINGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 

Campo de Becerros (F). Oviedo*: Puerto El Palo, Puerto de Pajares 
(F). Pontevedra * : Bayona, Islas Cies del Sur, Isla de Ons, La Guar- 
dia (F). Santander * : Puerto de la Braguia, Santona (F). 

The series from Molinaferreira are unusually large and dark. The 
sculpture is strongly anastomosed and the meso-spinotal furrow very 
deep. 

14. Myrmica sabuleti Mein. 

Barcelona: Vallirana (F). Castellon*: Begis (F). Gerona * : Olot 
(F). Granada * : Pinos Genii (C). Guipuzcoa : Tolosa (F). Huesca * : 
Canfranc, Jaca (C), Ordesa (Y), Puerto de Portalet (F), Torla (Y). 
La Corufia * : La Corufia (F). Lerida * : Seo de Urgel (F). Nava- 
rra * : Roncesvalles (F). Oviedo * : Bezanes, Puerto de Pajares (F). 
Palencia * : Las Arenas (Y). Pontevedra * : Bayona, Mondariz (F). 
Santander*: Beranga, Villaescusa (F). Segovia*: La Granja (Y). Za- 
ragoza * : Zuera (F). 

Outside the immediate vicinity of the Pyrenees, the female castes 
are characterized by a rather narrow lobar extension of the scape, the 
few males present are typical. This species is evidently common at 



15. Myrmica schencki Em. 

Huesca * : Canfranc (C). Leon * : Molinaferreira (F). 

This ant has not hitherto been recorded from Spain where it must 
evidently be rather uncommon. Franz had one worker among a short 
series of large dark M. scdbrinodis from Molinaferreira as already 
described. The colony at Canfranc was found under a stone. Both 
sets of specimens are quite typical. 

16. Myrmica lobicornis Nyl. 

Leon*: Sierra de la Cabrera, Sierra de Son (F). Logrono * : Mo- 
nasterio de Valvanera en Anguiano, Sierra Cebollera (F). Madrid : 
Sierra de Guadarrama (F), (C). Oviedo*: Teverga (F). Santander*: 
Espinama (F). Teruel * : Sierra de Albarracin (F). Zaragoza * : Sie- 
rra del Moncayo (F). 

The Spanish form outside the Pyrenees is remarkable for the mi- 
nute development of the tooth on the antennal scape. This is almost 
obsolete in some specimens such as the series from the Sierra de Gua- 
darrama and so contrasts 'with examples from Scandinavia, where de- 



A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIDAE W 

velopment of the scape progress if relatively enormous, that it is diffi- 
cult to regard the extreme as belonging to one species. Kutter (1961) 
placed M. lobicornis from Switzerland into three morphologically dis- 
tinguishable groups of workers but found the males to be constant. 
This is probably the most variable of the European Myrmica species 
but paradoxically one of the easiest to determine. 



17. Stenamma westwoodii West. 

?arcelona (F). Cadiz * : Algeciras, Gra 
doba*: Cordoba (F). Logrofio * : Monasterio de Valv: 
no (F). Madrid*: Aranjuez (F). Malaga*: Malaga (F). Ponteve- 
dra*: Morana (F). Santander * : Beranga, Jesus del Monte, La Fuen- 
te, Monte de Candino en Castro-Urdiales, Villaescusa, Villafufre (F). 
All except Barcelona are new records. This cryptic species is not 
easy to find but the intensive sampling methods of Franz have revealed 
a remarkable number of new records. 



18. Stenamma sardoum Emery. 
Tarragona * : Sierra de Montsant (F). 

A single specimen in the Franz collection is ascribed to this species ; 
the petiole node has a flattened rounded dorsal area instead of the peak- 
like profile of S. westwoodii. The specimen is also larger than typi- 
cal examples of S. westwoodii with a broader head. 

19. Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma) subterranea (Latr.). 

Barcelona: Vallirana (F). Huesca * : Jaca (C). Mallorca*: Coll 
de Soller (F). Menorca*: Mahon (F). Santander*: Potes (F). Tarra- 
gona * : Sierra de Montsant (F). 

These including the Balearic Islands are all new provincial records. 
The Jaca colony was found under a large stone as is typical for this sub- 
terranean species. 

'JO. Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma) subterraneoides Hmery. 
Castellon*: Begis (F). 

21. Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma) dulcinea Santschi. 

Huelva*: Ayamonte (F). Jaen*: Cazorla (F). Madrid*: El Par- 
do (F). Malaga *: Malaga (F). Murcia*: Sierra de Espufia (F). 

A. dulcinea is evidently a good species. It differs from A. pallida 



C. A. COLUNGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 



and A. leveillei Emery by the presence of distinct but small epinotal 
teeth and from A. subterraneoldes by its pale colour and shorter funi- 
cular segments. Ceballos lists A. pallida from Spain and also leveillei 
and dulcinea as varieties of A. pallida. These probably all refer to the 
same species i. e. dulcinea. Emery (1908) gave conflicting descrip- 
tions of A. leveillei as a consequence of which it may have been wrongly 
recorded from Spain. Schmitz includes A. leveillei in his list of Por- 
tuguese ants. 

22. Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma) strioloides Forel. 

Alicante*: Alcoy (Y). Ciudad Real*: Santa Cruz de Mudela (F). 

This more or less reddish species has the general form of A. gib- 
bosa but is without suberect hairs on scapes and tibiae. It has pre- 
viously been recorded only from Seville in Spain. 

23. Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma) gibbosa (Latr.). 

Gerona: Gerona (F). Granada: Pinos-Genil (C). Huelva * : Aya- 
monte (F). Huesca * : Canfranc, Jaca (C), Torla (F). Madrid: Aran- 
juez (F). Torrelodones (C), Villalba (F). Orense * : Los Peares 
(F). Ovieclo * : Los Ferreros (F). Pontevedra * : Bayona, Isla Cies 
del Norte, Isla Cies del Sur, La Guardia, Sierra de Grova (F). Se- 
villa: Carmona, Sierra Morena (F). Tarragona*: Sierra de Mont- 
sant (F). Zaragoza * : Embalse de Yesa, Sierra de Alcubierre (F). 

Portugal. Beira Alta * : Mangalde (Y). Tras os Montes : Aligo (W). 

This is a common South European species. The colour varies 
among individuals in the same colony from dark testaceous to black. 
Ceballos lists the variety "levior" Forel based on pale coloured indi- 
viduals but this is a taxonomically useless distinction. One colony at 
Jaca was attacked by Myrmica sabuleti workers sharing the same stone. 

24. Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma) striativentris Forel. 
Sevilla: Carmona (F). 

This appears to be a good species, although originally described 
by Forel as a variety of A. gibbosa from Sevilla and so listed by Ce- 
ballos. The mesonotum is less humped than in A. gibbosa and the 
first gaster segment is distinctly striated and not smooth. The only 
previous record for this species was also from Sevilla where Forel 
originally discovered it. 



A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIUAE 01 

25. Aphaenogaster testaceopilosa (Lucas). 

Alicante: Alicante (C). Avila * : Sierra de Credos (Y). Badajoz: 
Badajoz (N). Cadiz: Vejer de la Frontera (Y). Ciudad Real: Fernan 
Caballero (M). Cordoba: Sierra de Cordoba (F). Huelva*: Ayamon- 
te (F). Jaen: Menjibar (C). Madrid: Alcala de Henares (M), Aran- 
juez (F), Meco (M), Sierra de Guadarrama (Y), Vaciamadrid (F). 
Malaga: Ronda (Y). La Coruna: Santiago (J). Sevilla: Sierra More- 
na (F). Tarragona: Tarragona (G). Valencia: Jaraco (G). Zaragoza: 



Portugal. Algarve: Faro; Portimao (Y). Alto Alemtejo: Redon- 
do (Y). Baixo Alemtejo: Ferreiro (F), Palma (L). Estremadura: I 
caco, Lisboa (W). Tras Os Montes : Alijo (W). 

The European form of A. testaceopilosa Lucas is usually referred 
to senilis Mayr which Bernard (1958) treats as a distinct species. A. 
senilis is said to differ from A. testaceopilosa in the higher steeper 
petiole node and less sculptured head, but it has not been possible to 
distinguish the two from the present collections. The few males avai- 
lable correspond to the description of A. senilis as given by Santschi 
(1933) but available descriptions of authentic A. testaceopilosa are too 
imprecise for certain distinction. Both names are listed by Ceballos 
for Spain and both occur in literature on the North African fauna e. g. 
Cagniant (1962). 

26. Aphaenogaster gemella (Roger). 

There are a few examples in the Franz collection from Menorca. 
Goetsch (1942) refers to A. testaceopilosa carrying leaves into its nests 
at Blanes in Gerona province. However, according to Bernard (1958) 
only A. gemella of this group of species is vegetarian. No doubt 
Goetsch's record refers to this species 'which has not hitherto been re- 
corded in Spain, apart from the Balearic Islands where it is not un- 



27. Aphaenogaster iberica Emery. 

Cadiz * : Guadiaro (L). Ciudad Real : Santa Cruz de Mudela (F). 
Cuenca*: Reillo (Y). Granada*: Baza (C). Huesca * : Huesca (Y). 

_, : Mengibar (C), Sierra de Cazorla (F). Madrid: Aranjue , 

Escorial, Sierra de Guadarrama, Villalba (F). Malaga: Malaga (F). 
Murcia : Alhama de Murcia (P), Sierra de Carrascoy, Sierra de Espu- 
fia (F). Segovia * : La Granja, Pradena, Revenga, '. 



C. A. COLLINGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 



Portugal. Algarve: Monchique (Y). Baixo Alemtejo: Setubal (L). 
Estremadura: Arrabida, Bugaco (W). 

This species has a wide distribution in Spain and Portugal but has 
not yet been recorded outside these countries. It has close affinities 
with the Italian A. spinosa from which it principally differs in the 
more elongate head. Together with A. campana, praedo, semipolita 
and spipnosa the female castes are at once distinguished from the A. 
testaceo-pilosa group by the four segmented instead of the distinctly 
five segmented antennal club. Yet Emery (1908) described A. iberica 
as a variety of A. senilis from 'which it clearly differs in a number of 
important characters. 

28. Aphaenogaster angusta Santschi. 

Alicante*: Alicante (C). Murcia*: Alhama de Murcia (P). 

This is similar to A. iberica but with the petiole less peaked, the 
body more diffusely sculptured and the epinotal spines straighter and 
shorter. 

29. Messor barbarus (L.). 

Alicante*: Alicante (C). Barcelona: San Feliu (B), Sitges (Y). Ca- 
diz: Algeciras (F, Y), Jerez (Y). Cuenca*: Motilla del Palancar (Y). 
Gerona : Cassa de la Selva (F). Granada : Baza (C). Huelva : Ayamon- 
te (Y). Madrid: Aranjuez (C), El Escorial (F), Meco; Montarco 
(M), Torrelodones, Vaciamadrid (F). Malaga: Fuengirola (S), Nerja, 
Ronda (Y), Torremolinos (M). Mallorca: Felanitx (F). Murcia: Alha- 
ma de Murcia (P), Jumilla (F), Lorca (Y). Oviedo*: Puente los Fie- 
rros (F). Sevilla: near Sevilla (F), Los Palacios (Y). Tarragona: Sie- 
rra de Montsant (F). Toledo * : Quintanar de la Orden (F). Valen- 
cia *: Valencia (M). Zaragoza: Jaulin; Rio Riquel (F). 

Portugal. Algarve : Monchique (Y) ; Baixo Alentejo : Ferreiro 
(F), Palma (L). Estremadura: Lisboa (W). 

The Mallorca record supports an earlier one of Saunders (1901) of 
which there are examples in the Oxford University Museum. Ber- 
nard (1956) remarks on the apparent absence of this species from the 
Balearics. 



30. Messor capitatus (Latr.). 

Almeria*: Chercos (F). Burgos*: Hontoria del Pinar (F). Ca- 
diz*: Guadiaro (S). Cuenca*: Buenache (M), Motilla del Palancar, 



A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIDAE DO 

Reillo (Y). Huesca*: Jaca (C, Y). Madrid: Vaciamadrid, Villalba (F). 
Mallorca : Palma (F). Orense * : Barco de Valdeorras (F). Santander * : 
Espinama, Potes, Valle de Valdeon (F). Segovia*: La Granja (Y). 
Valencia*: Serra (F). Zaragoza: Sierra de Alcubierre (F). 

Portugal. Tras Os Monies: Aligo (W). 

This species is abundant in inLnd areas whereas M. barbarus 
tends to be more frequent near the coast. M. capitatus is similar to 
M. barbarus but may be easily distinguished by the uniformly black 
head and bluntly angled epinotum. M. capitatus var. grandiceps Stitz 
recorded from Cordoba would appear to be a trivial variation from 
the description given by Stitz (1916). 

31. Messor bouvieri Bondroit. 

Almeria * : Sierra de Almagro (F). Barcelona: San Feliu (B). Ca- 
diz * : Vejer de la Frontera (Y). Granada * : Baza (C), Sierra Nevada 
(Y). Huesca*: Ordesa (Y). Ibiza: Sierra Grossa (F). La Coruiia: 
Corrubedo (F). Madrid: Aranjuez (C), Valdemoro, Villalba (F). Ma- 
laga: Fuengirola (L), Ronda (Y). Menorca : Mahon, Pico Toro (F). 
Murcia : Jumilla, Sierra de Espufia (F). Pontevedra*: Islas Cies del 
Norte, Isla Cies del Sur, Isla de Ons, Ria de Vigo (F). Valencia: Va- 
lencia (M). Zaragoza*: Zaragoza (F). 

Portugal. Alto Alemtejo: Redondo (Y). Estremadura: Arrabida, 
Lisboa (W). Minho: Ancora (Y). 

This widely distributed species is characterised by its small general 
size, long anteriorly curved subcephalic hairs and near absence of 
standing hairs on the first gaster segment. Bernard (1958) uses the 
name M. sancta but bouvieri Bondroit seems to be the correct name for 
the European form which is uniformly shining black by contrast with 
M. sancta from N. Africa which is more or less reddish. Schmitz 
(1955) refers to this form as M. sanctus bouvieri in this list for Por- 
tugal. Wheeler (1936) used the name M. instabilis for the Balearic 
records, no doubt following Bondroit who referred to it as M. insta- 
bilis var. bouvieri. M. instabilis, however, as C. Baroni Urbani has 
kindly pointed out, is an Indian species with different characteristics. 

32. Messor hispanica Santsch. 
Mallorca * : Palma (B). 

This closely resembles M. bouvieri in its small size and abundant 



04 C. A. COLLINGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 

long gula hairs but is distinguished by numerous erect hairs on the 
dorsum of the gaster. 

33. Messor maroccana Emery. 

Portugal. Estremadura * : Vila de Miraflores (J). 

This is an interesting extension of the range of this North African 
species distinguished from the similarly bicoloured M. meridionalis 
Andre by its smaller size and very shining head. 

34. Messor lobicornis Forel. 

Pontevedra*: Bayona, Cabo Silleiro, Isla Cies del Sur (F). 

Portugal. Tras Os Montes * : Aligo (W). 

These are first records for Spain and Portugal of this North Afri- 
can species. The worker is small and dark with strongly developed 
subcephallic hairs as in M. bouvieri from which it is distinguished by 
its very short antennal segments and pronounced epinotal spines. 

35. Messor structor (Latr.). 

Gerona: Junquera (S). Granada *: Casa de Capo (M), Granada (C), 
Sierra Nevada (F). Ibiza: Ibiza (F). Madrid: Alcala de Henares, Aran- 
juez, Barajas (M). Mallorca * : Felanitx (F). Menorca: Pico Toro 
(F). Murcia * : Jumilla (F). Segovia*: La Granja (Y). Valencia: Be- 
tera (P T), Serra (F). Zaragoza: Zaragoza (C). 

Portugal. Estremadura: Lisboa (W). 

Bernard (1954), (1956), distinguishes M. rufitarsis Fab. from M. 
structor by the more square head in the large worker and the develop- 
ment of additional short thick hairs on the frons. He further diffe- 
rentiates them geographically, M. rufitarsis being the more eastern 
species and M. structor confined to areas west of the Rhone ; he inclu- 
des both in the species list for the Balearics (Bernard, 1956). 



36. Goniomma tunetica Forel. 
Portugal. Baixo Alemteio 



Setubal (L). Estremadura * : Lis- 



This is a first record for Portugal of this little known species. 
According to C. Baroni Urbani, to whom an example was referred, 
it corresponds with tunetica Forel var. nitidifrons Santschi from North 
Africa. 



A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIDAE 



37. Goniomma blanci (Andre). 

Madrid * : El Escorial, Sierra de Guadarrama (F). 

These two single separate workers appear to be typical examples 
of G. blanci. This is a first record for Spain of this species hitherto 
only known from South France. The eyes are more closely set to the 
mandibles than in G. hispanicum. 

38. Pheidole pallidula (Nyl.). 

Barcelona: Barcelona (Y). Caceres: Perales del Puerto (F). Cadiz: 
Algeciras (F). Castellon*: J erica (G), Sierra de Vallibona, Vinaroz 
(F). Cordoba : Sierra de Cordoba (F). Gerona : Cadaques (F), Lloret de 
Mar (L,). Huesca: Jaca (C), Torla (F). Ibiza: (F). Madrid: Aranjuez, 
El Escorial, Torrelodones (F). Mallorca: Felanitx (F). Menorca: Ma- 
hon (F). Murcia: Alhama de Murcia (P), Jumilla (F). Pontevedra*: 
Bayona, Islas Cies del Sur, Isla de Ons, La Guardia, Pontevedra, Ria 
de Vigo (F). Santander * : Potes (F). Tarragona*: Tarragona (G), 
Vendrell (F). Teruel*: Rio Alfambra, Sierra de Cucalon (F). Zarago- 
za: Sierra de Alcubierre, Zaragoza (F). 

Portugal. Baixa Alemtejo: Ferreiro do Alemtejo (F). Estremadu- 
ra: Bucaco (W). Minho: Braga (W). 

This very abundant South European species is probably to be found 
in every province of Spain. Thorictus grandicollis Germ, a myrme- 
cophilous beetle was found in several nests in the Pyrenees Orientales. 

39. Crematogaster (Acrocoelia) scutellaris (Ol.). 

Cadiz: Grazalema (F), Guadiaro (L). Castellon*: Sierra de Valli- 
bona (F). Cordoba: Sierra de Cordoba (F). Gerona: Cadaques (F). 
Granada: Pinos-Genil (C). Huesca*: Boltaria (Y). Madrid: El Es- 
corial (F). Malaga: Malaga (F). Mallorca: Coll de Soller, Felanitx 
(F). Menorca: Mahon, Tirantnou (F). Pontevedra*: Pontevedra (F). 
Santander*: Potes (F). Segovia*: Revenga (Y). Zaragoza: Sierra de 
Alcubierre (F). 

Portugal. Baixo Alemtejo: Ferreira do Alemtejo (F). 

40. Crematogaster (Acrocoelia) auberti Emery. 

Almeria * : Almeria (M). Burgos * : Segovia road (Y). Cadiz : Al- 
geciras (L, F). Castellon: Jerica (G). Ciudad Real: Santa Cruz de Mu- 
dela (F). Gerona: Gerona (F). Granada: Pinos-Genil (C). Huesca ' 



Eos, XLIV, 1968. 



66 C. A. COLUNGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 

Anso (Y). Leon: Sierra de Son (F). Madrid: Vaciamadrid (F). Ma- 
laga: Fuengirola (L), Ronda (C). Murcia*: Jumilla, Sierra de Espu- 
na (F). Pontevedra*: Bayona, Ria de Vigo (F). Toledo*: Quintanar 
de la Orden (F). Zaragoza: Embalse de Yesa, Lecifiena, Rio de 
Riquel (F). 

Portugal. Estremadura : Arrabida, Bugaco (W), Minho * : Serra 
do Gerez (Y). 

There are several named varieties of this species including a dar- 
ker more sculptured form, iberica Forel. Probably the series of wor- 
kers from Sierra de Son, Leon, corresponds to this but apart from lar- 
ger size and deeper colour including dark scapes, no definite structu- 
ral differences are detectable between these and the rest including some 
from Port La Nouvelle fringing the Pyrenees Orientales. 

41 . Crematogaster (Acrocoelia) laestrygon Emery. 
Mallorca: Palma (F). 

The Balearic race has been referred by some authors to submaura 
Lomnicki. 

42. Crematogaster (Orthocreme) sordidula (Nyl.). 

Cordoba: Sierra de Cordoba (F). Ciudad Real: Santa Cruz de Mu- 
dela (F). Gerona: Gerona (F). Granada*: Sierra Nevada (F). Ibiza * : 
Sierra Grossa (F). Jaen: Sierra de Cazorla (F). Madrid: Aranjuez 
(F). Malaga*: Malaga (F). Murcia*: Lorca (L). Sierra de Espufia 
(F). Pontevedra*: Isla de Ons, Pontevedra (F). Tarragona: Sierra 
de Montsant (F). 

This abundant but unobtrusive little South European species has 
not hitherto been recorded from the Balearics. 

43. Monomorium (Xeromyrmex) salomonis (L.). 

Cadiz: Guadiano (L). Mallorca: Palma (B). Menorca : Mahon (F). 

44. Monomorium (Xeromyrmex) subopaca (F. Smith). 
Alicante*: Alicante (C). Ibiza: Ibiza (F). Malaga: Estepona, Fuen- 

^irola (L). 

Both the above species occur in several provinces in South Spain. 
M. subopaca from Ibiza confirms an old record of a single worker 
from the Balearics taken by Eidmann (Bernard, 1956) in Mallorca. 



A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIDAE 6/ 

45. Solenopsis fugax (L,atr.). 
Huesca * : Canfranc (C), Torla (F). 

46. Solenopsis monticola Bernard. 

Castellon*: Benicarlo (F). Gerona*: Cadaques (F). Huesca*: 
Castiello de Jaca (C), Torla (Y). Lerida * : Begos (F). Tarragona : ' 
Vendrell (F). 

47. Solenopsis nicaeensis Bernard. 
Huesca * : Jaca (C). 

48. Solenopsis latro Forel. 

Granada*: Sierra Nevada (F). Madrid*: Aranjuez (F). Murcia*: 
Murcia (F). Orense*: Los Peares (F). Pontevedra * : Beluso, Cabo 
Silleiro, Isla Cies del Norte (F). 



49. Soleuopsis fairchildi Wheeler. 

Castellon*: Sierra de Vallibona (F). Cordoba*: Sierra de Cordo- 
ba (F). Mallorca: Coll de Soller, Palma (F). Menorca: Mahon, Pico 
Toro (F). 

50. Solenopsis lusitanica Emery. 
Madrid * : Vaciamadrid (F). 

Portugal. Estremadura : Bucaco (W), Castelo de Vide, Fatima (F). 

51. Solenopsis orbula Emery. 

Castellon : Sierra de Vallibona (F). Huelva : Ayamonte (F). Madrid : 
Sierra de Guadarrama, Torrelodones (F). Tarragona * : Sierra de Mont- 
sant (F). 

The identification of the Solenopsis species above is necessarily ten- 
tative pending a proper revision of this difficult group. Bernard 
(1946) made some attempt to clarify the situation with respect to the 
French species and I have been guided as far as possible by his des- 
criptions and keys. 

S. monticola replaces S. jugax in the Southern mountains according 
to Bernard. It is chiefly distinguished from S. jugax by the more 
pronounced meso-epinotal furrow. Specimens compare with examples 
from Brianc,on, the Alpes-Maritimes and Latour de Carol in the Py- 
renees Orientales (C). S. nicaeensis is distinguished by the more pro- 



68 C. A. COLUNGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 

nounced clypeal teeth as well as distinct meso-epinotal furrow. These 
species differ from the others named in the relative abundance of long 
body hairs. S. latro is distinguished by its small size, very distinct 
meso-epinotal furrow, short very blunt clypeal teeth and more rectan- 
gular head. S. jairchildi, described by Wheeler (1936) as a race of 
S. latro from Mallorca, has pronounced curved clypeal teeth and the 
specimens so named above seem to correspond well in other features 
with his description. It has the same long head as S. orbula but a 
more distinct meso-epinotal groove. S. lusitanica is a small short- 
headed species. Males in the Portuguese series collected by Weathe- 
rill are much smaller than those of 6". jugax, have a more rounded head 
and differ in sculptural details from that species. Other specimens 
taken by Franz near Banyuls and in the Mont Canigou Valley in the 
Pyrenees Orientales, are referable to S. rugosa Emery and S. banyulen- 
sis Bernard respectively. 

52. Myrmecina graminicola (Latr.). 

Barcelona*: Vallirana (F). Cadiz*: Algeciras (F). Castellon*: 
Vallibona (F). Cordoba*: Sierra de Cordoba (F). Gerona*: Cadaques 
(F). Guipiizcoa*: Tolosa (F). La Corufia*: Noya, Outes, Punta de 
la Estaca de Bares, San Saturnine (F). Lerida * : Begos (F). Madrid * : 
Madrid (F). Mallorca * : Coll de Seller, Felanitx (F). Menorca * : Mahon 
(F). Orense * : Los Peares (F). Oviedo * : Bezanes (F). Pontevedra * : 
Bayona, Isla Cies del Norte, Isla de Ons, Montes del Testeiro (F). San- 
tander * : Beranga, Espinama, Jesus del Monte, La Fuente, Marron, 
Monte Candina en Castro Urdiales, Pontones, Villafufre, Villaescusa 
(F). Sevilla * : Sierra Morena (F). Tarragona * : Sierra de Montsant (F). 

Portugal. Estremadura * : Fatima (F). 

This long list of locality records from the Franz collection is re- 
markable in that it provides the first record for Spain and the Balea- 
rics. M. graminicola was also taken in several places in the Pyrenees 
Orientales. 



53. Temnothorax recedens (Nyl.). 

Barcelona: San Feliu (B). Cadiz: Algeciras (F). Castellon*: Be- 
nicarlo, Sierra de Vallibona (F). Cordoba * : Sierra de Cordoba (F). 
Granada: Baza (C). Huesca*: Canfranc (C). Ibiza: Sierra Grossa 
(F). Madrid*: Torrelodones (F). Malaga: Estepona (F). Mallorca: 



A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIDAE 6', 

Felanitx, Palma (F). Menorca: Pico de Toro (F). Zaragoza: Sierra de 
Alcubierre (F). 

This appears to be common on the Balearic Islands where Bernard 
(1956) pointed out that it 'was the only recorded Leptothoracine ant 
despite the abundance of a number of Leptothorax species on the sur- 
rounding mainlands. 

54. Leptothorax acervorum (Fab.). 

Leon*: San Felix de las Lavanderas, Sierra de Son (F). Lugo*: 
Sierra de Ancares (F). Santander*: Picos de Europa (F). Teruel: 
Sierra de Albarracin (F). 

55. Leptothorax muscorum (Nyl.). 

This has not been recorded from Spain. In France it is restricted 
to the north and higher mountain areas, and 'was found in 1957 above 
Urdos in the Basses Pyrenees (C). 

56. Leptothorax boeticus Emery. 

Madrid: Aranjuez (F). Zaragoza*: Sierra de Alcubierre (F). 
This is a large, deeply sculptured species 'with a massive globular 
petiole node. It belongs to the L. rottenbergi species group. 

57. Leptothorax angustuhis (Nyl.). 

Mallorca: Coll de Seller (F). Zaragoza*: Jaulin (F). 
The Mallorca record is of particular interest as it confirms a very 
old record (Roger, 1863) that was ignored by Bernard (1956). 

58. Leptothorax corticalis (Schenck). 
Tarragona *: Sierra de Montsant (F). 
Portugal. Beira AM*: Serra da Estrela (F). 

The only representatives in the Franz collection 'were three queens ; 
these have extremely short spinotal spines and pale antennal clubs 
with the body rather dark. 

59. Leptothorax nylanderi (Foerst.). 

Barcelona: Montserrat (F). Gerona*: Olot (F). Huesca*: Cas- 
tiello de Jaca (C). La Corufia*: Outes, Santiago (F). Logrono*: Mo- 
nasterio de Valvanera en Anguiano (F). Lugo*: Sierra de Ancares 
(F). Madrid*: Sierra de Guadarrama (F). Navarra*: Orbaiceta (F). 



70 C. A. COLUNGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 

Pontevedra * : Isla Cies del Sur, Mondariz, Morana (F). Santander*: 
Jestis del Monte, Potes, Villafufre, Villaverde de Pontones (F). 

Portugal. Serra do Gerez (F). 

This bark inhabiting species appears to be abundant in the north 
west provinces. The only previous record for Spain is from Bar- 
celona. 

60. Leptothorax lichtensteini Bondroit. 

Gerona*: Gerona. Ibiza*: San Miguel (F). Leon: Molinaferrei- 
ra (F). Madrid*: El Escorial, Sierra de Guadarrama (F). Orense*: 
Casayo en Carballeda, L,os Peares, Sobradelo (F). Pontevedra*: Pon- 
tevedra (F). Tarragona*: Sierra de Montsant (F). Teruel: Sierra de 
Albarracin, Sierra de Cucalon (F). Zaragoza*: Botorrita, Rio Huer- 
va (F). 

This south European species is very similar to L. nylanderi. The 
head is less sculptured and the alitrunk less massive with a more well- 
defined meso-epinotal suture, sharper epinotal spines and narrower 
petiole node, compared with L. nylanderi. There are corresponding 
differences in the male and queen. Bernard (1956) regards L. lich- 
tensteini and L. parvula Sch. as different species, but L. parvula is 
probably in part a synonym of L. lichtensteini and in part of L. nylan- 
deri of which it was described as a smaller paler variety. L. lichtensteini 
is abundant in the Alpes-Maritimes where it was wrongly diagnosed 
as L,. nylanderi (Collingwood, 1956). Unlike L. nylanderi it lives 
in rock crevices. It is interesting to note the occurrence of L. lichten- 
steini in the Balearics as well as the previously recorded L. angustulus. 

61. Leptothorax cervantesi Santschi. 

Madrid*: El Pardo, Rascafria (F). Pontevedra*: Pontevedra (F). 

This is a rather dark bicoloured species with angled petiole node 
and no meso-epinotal impression. It appears to be rather close to L. 
exilis Em. and L. niqer For. 



62. Leptothorax exilis Emery. 

Malaga*: Malaga (F). Zaragoza*: Sierra de Alcubierre (F). 

63. Leptothorax niger Forel. 

Pontevedra*: Playa de la Lanzada (F). Zaragoza: Zuera (F). 



A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIDAE 71 

64. Leptothorax taberum (Fab.). 

Almeria *: Sierra Cabrera (F). Granada: Sierra Nevada (C). Hues- 
ca*: Jaca (C). Monte Perdido, Ordesa, Puerto de Portalet en Salient 
de Gallego (F). Lugo*: Sierra de Ancares (F). Madrid: Puerto de 
Navacerrada (C), Sierra de Guadarrama (F). Santander * : Espinama, 
Potes (F). Zaragoza * : Sierra de Moncayo (F). 

This would be called variously L. tuberum or L. nigriceps or even 
perhaps L. melanocephalum Em. according to the amount of dark co- 
lour on head and gaster. Structurally, however, the series examined 
in this collection are comparable with the consistently pale L. tuberum 
of England. The pale form grades insensibly into what might be called 
L. nigriceps in South Scandinavia. Bernard (1956) and van Boven 
(1959) attempt to distinguish between the two and Bernard questions 
the name tuberum since the type specimen has been lost and the origi- 
nal description did not provide sufficient information. 

65. Leptothorax nigrita Emery. 

Gerona*: Olot (F). Huesca*: Castiello de Jaca (C). 

This superficially resembles L. niger in being uniformly dark reddish 
brown to black but has the petiole node more massive and the epinotal 
spines distinctly longer. This species also occurred at La Tour de 
Carol in the Pyrenees Orientales (C) which may be a first record for 
France. 

66. Leptothorax unifasciatus (Latreille). 

Huesca*: Canfranc (C). Leon: Molinaferreira (F). Madrid: Ras- 
cafria (C). Orense*: Pena Trevinca (F). Pontevedra*: Montes del 
Testeiro, Morafia (F). 

Portugal. Alto Alemtejo: Castelo de Vide, Serra do Gerez (F). 

These vary in colour. In one series for example the antennal club 
varies from quite pale to dark brown and the brown band across the 
is quite indistinct in some of the paler specimens. Sadil (1939) 
distinguished a similarly variable coloured form on characters in the 
queen as the variety obenbergeri Sadil in Czechoslovakia. 



67. Leptotliorax interruptus (Schenck). 
Lugo*: Sierra de Ancares (F). 
Hitherto this has only been recorded for Spain from the Sierra 



,2 C. A. COLUNGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 

Nevada (Cagniant, 1961) but has probably previously been overlooked 
since it is one of the more widely distributed European species. 

68. Leptothorax luteus Forel. 

Avila*: Puerto de Menga (F). Jaen*: Sierra de Cazorla (F). Ma- 
drid: Torrelodones (C). Murcia*: Sierra de Espufia (F). Ponteve- 
dra*: Pontevedra (F). Santander*: Potes (F). 

69. Leptothorax rabaudi Bondroit. 

Cadiz: Sierra del Pinar (F). Castellon*: Sierra de Vallibona (F). 
Cordoba*: Sierra de Cordoba. Tarragona*: Sierra de Montsant (F). 

70. Leptothorax berlandi Bondroit. 

Gerona * : Cadaques (F). Huesca*: Canfranc (C). Leon*: Sierra 
de la Cabrera, Sierra de Son (F). Madrid*: Rascafria (C). Oviedo*: 
Mt. Reres (F). Pontevedra*: Morana (F). Teruel*: Sierra de Al- 
barracin (F). Zamora*: Lago de Sanabria (F). 

71. Leptothorax tristis Bondroit. 
Granada: Sierra Nevada (F). 

72. Leptothorax massiliensis Bondroit. 

Malaga*: Malaga (F). Zaragoza*: Sierra de Alcubierre (F). 

73. Leptothorax racovitzae Bondroit. 

Cadiz*: Tarifa (F). Granada*: Sierra Nevada (C). Huesca*: 
Canfranc (C). 

Portugal. Estremadura *: Bu>c,aco (W). 

The six species listed above all have pale antennal clubs and unin- 
terrupted dorsal thoracic profile. They are difficult to distinguish 
and may well have alternative names in the literature. L. rabaudi is 
distinct through its right angled petiole crest when viewed in profile. 
L. berlandi is a montane species of rather similar appearance but 'with 
the petiole more upright and sharply domed and a more sculptured 
head. Bernard (1956) considered this to be a synonym of L. rabaudi 
but the specimens so named are clearly distinct. L. racovitzae is dis- 
tinguished by its longer, curved epinotal spines. L. tristis is slightly 
darker in body colour and has long straight epinotal spines. L. massi- 
liensis is a smaller species and has the head much more smoothly sculp- 



A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIDAE 

tured and shining compared with the other species. L,. luteus is dis- 
tinctly clear yellow in colour with relatively longer appendages and 
alitrunk. 

74. Anergates atratulus (Schenck). 
Madrid * : Sierra de Guadarrama (C). 

One physogastric queen was discovered in the middle of a nest of 
Tetramorium caespitum above Navacerrada. This is the only record 
for Spain and it is rare in France. 

75. Epimyrma vandeli Santschi. 
Huesca *: Canfranc (C). 

One queen and three workers of this rare parasite were taken in 
a nest of the host species Temnothorax recedens in moss on a wooded 
rocky slope. This species has hitherto only been recorded from Mo- 
rocco, and from Toulouse and St. Raphael in South France. 

76. Formicoxenus nitidulus (Nyl.). 
Madrid *: Puerto de Navacerrada (C). 

This was taken with Formica dusmeti as host, a first record for 
Spain as well as a new host record. It is evidently rare in Spain 
since Yarrow failed to find it in more than 400 nests of the Formica 
rufa group investigated. Bernard (pers. commun.) considers it to be 
rare in France but it was also found with Formica lugubris at Font- 
Romeu (C) and at Canigou (C, F) in the Pyrenees Orientales. 

77. Strongylognathus testaceus (Schenck). 
Huesca *: Jaca (C). 

This species occurred with its host, Tetramorium caespitum L. un- 
der a stone. Bernard (1946) records it from Bareges in the Pyrenees 
Centrales and it was also found both at Font-Romeu in the Pyrenees 
Orientales and above Urdos in the Pyrenees Basses (C). 

78. Tetramorium hispanicum Emery. 

Cadiz*: Algeciras (F). Castellon*: Montes de Vallibona (F). Cor- 
doba: Sierra de Cordoba (F). Guadalajara: Cutamilla (M). Lugo*: Be- 
cerrea (F). Madrid: Navacerrada (M), Sierra de Guadarrama (F), To- 
rrelodones (C), Vaciamadrid (F). Zaragoza*: Sierra de Alcubierre (F). 

Portugal. Estremadura * : Buc,aco, Lisboa (W). 



.4 C. A. COLLINGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 

This distinctive species is characterised by the coarsely sculptured 
wide, angled petiole node. It is reminiscent of T. jerox Ruzsky from 
south east Europe but the petiole node is thicker and not indented 
above as in that species. The queen, about 6 mm long, is small com- 
pared with T. cacspitum but the workers are on average slightly larger 
than in that species. 

This species also occurs in the Pyrenees Orientales (C, F). Whee- 
ler (1936) recorded this ant as T. ruginodis from the Balearics but 
Bernard (1956) makes no mention of it from there. The name T. ru- 
ginodis Stitz (1916) has been more commonly used for this species and 
other names likely to prove synonyms are T. caespitum var. fortis Eme- 
ry, 1908, T. caespitum var. pyrenaicum Roszler (1936) from the Py- 
renees and T. silvestrianum Emery from Barcelona. The descriptions 
of all these are the same and confusion has arisen in that some specimens 
have the first gaster segment faintly striated. 

79. Tetramormm caespitum (L.). 

Cuenca*: Huete (M). Granada*: Sierra Nevada (C). Huesca: 
Canfranc, Jaca (C), Monte Perdido (F), Torla (Y). La Coruiia : Mal- 
^.ergantiles, Punta de la Estaca de Bares, Santiago (F). Leon *: 
Molinaferreira, Puerto de Pajares (F). Lugo: Valle de Lozara (F). 
Malaga*: Malaga (F). Mallorca: Palma (B). Navarra*: Roncesva- 
lles (F). Oviedo*: Bezanes, Pefia Santa (F). Pontevedra*: Bayona, 
Isla Cies del Sur, Monte del Testeiro (F). Teruel: Sierra de Albarra- 
cin (F). Zamora*: Lago de Sanabria (F). Zaragoza * : Sierra de Al- 
cubierre, Sierra de Moncayo, Zaragoza (F). 

Portugal. Baixo Alemtejo: Palma (L). Beira Alta: Serra da Es- 
la (Y), Serra de las Penhas Dorhadas (F). Estremadura: Bu^aco 
(W). Tras os Montes : Aligo (W). 

80. Tetramorium meridionale Emery. 

Ibiza (F). Mallorca*: Coll de Seller (F). Sevilla: Los Palacios (F). 

There is also a large series of unusually pale yellowish workers in 
the Franz collection from Menorca * (Mahon), which may be another 
species. The characteristic lateral striae on the occiput are very distinct 
however. 



81. Tetramorinm semilaevis Andre. 

Alicante*: Alicante (C). Caceres*: Perales del Puerto (F). Ca- 



A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIDAE /J 

diz*: Tarifa (F). Ciudad Real: Almuradiel (C). Granada*: Sierra 
Nevada (F). Huelva * : Ayamonte (F). Huesca*: Jaca, Torla (Y). 

_, '; Sierra de Cazorla (F). Madrid: Aranjuez (C), Sierra de Gua- 

darrama (F). Malaga*: Estepona (F). Mallorca: Felanitx (F). Mur- 
cia *: Sierra de Carrascoes. Pontevedra: Bayona, Pontevedra (F). San- 
tander * : Monte de Candina en Castro Urdiales, Villaverde de Ponto- 
nes (F). Segovia*: La Granja, Revenga (Y). Soria*: Herreros (Y). 
Portugal. Alemtejo Baixo: Ferreiro (F). Estremadura: Buc,a- 
co (W). 

82. Cardiocondyla batesi Forel. 
Murcia * : Albania de Murcia (P). 

83. Cardiocondyla elegans Emery. 

Castellon * : Jerica (G). Lerida * : Seo de Urgel (F). 

Both species are unocommon. There are previous records from 
Sevilla province and C. batesi has also been recorded from Ciudad 
Real. 

DACELINAE 

84. Strumigenys baudueri (Emery). 
Madrid*: Madrid (F). Malaga*: Malaga (F). 

This little Dacetine ant is rare in the South Mediterranean. The 
only previous record for Spain is from L,a Corufia. 



DOLICHODERINAE 



85. Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr). 

Barcelona: San Feliti (B). Madrid*: Alarcon (M), Aranjuez (F). 
Mallorca: Palma (B). Murcia*: Murcia (M). Oviedo*: Bezanes (F). 
Pontevedra*: Bayona (F). Santander*: Saja, Santander (F). Soria*: 
Soria (OJ). Tarragona*: Ebro (C). Valencia*: Saler (G). 

Portugal. Douro : Oporto (W). Estremadura : Arrabia, Cintra (W). 

This South American species is still steadly encroaching on the Me- 
diterranean coast; it is disconcerting to record it from as far inland 
as Madrid and Soria. 



,6 C. A. COLUNGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 

86. Bothriomyrmex meridionalis (Roger). 
La Coruna * : Corme (F). 

87. Bothriomyrmex laticeps Emery. 
Huesca * : Jaca (C). 

The Huesca series of workers resemble some from Cahors in South 
France (C). The specimens are small with a denned frontal triangle 
and distinctly emarginate, short head. They appear to be referable to 
laticeps Emery first described as a race of B. corsicus Santschi from 
material collected in the Pyrenees. 



88. Tapinoma erraticum (Latr.). 

Cadiz: Tarifa (F). Granada*: Baza (C), Sierra Nevada (F). Hues- 
ca*: Canfranc, Jaca (C), Torla (Y). La Coruna*: Corme, Santia- 
go (F), Madrid: Torrelodones (C). Oviedo*: Puente los Fierros (F). 
Pontevedra*: Bayona, Isla Cies del Sur, Pontevedra (F). Santander 
La Fuente, Potes, Saja, Santona (F). Segovia: La Granja (Y). Tarra- 
gona: Sierra de Montsant (F), Tarragona (G). Teruel*: Sierra de 
Albarracin (F). Zaragoza: Zuera (F). 

Portugal. Tras os Montes: Aligo (W). 

89. Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nyl.). 

Barcelona: San Feliu (F). Burgos *: Segovia road (Y). Tarifa (Y). 
Cuenca: Buenache (M), Cafiete (Y). Gerona: Cassa de la Selva (F). 
Granada: Granada (M), Sierra Nevada (F). Huelva*: Gibraleon (Y). 
Huesca*: Boltana (Y), Jaca (C), Zuera (F). Ibiza: Sierra Grossa (F). 
Lugo * : Val de Lozara (F). Madrid : Aranjuez (C), Casa de Campo 
(M), El Escorial, El Pardo, Sierra de Guadarrama (F), Torrelodones 
(C), Vallecas (M). Malaga*: Fuengirola (L), Ronda (Y). Menorca : 
Mahon (F). Murcia * : Cieza (F), Puerto Lumbreras (Y). Orense * : 
Los Peares (F). Santander*: Puerto del Escudo (F). Segovia*: Pra- 
dena (Y). Sevilla: Carmona, Los Palacios (F). 

Portugal. Baixo Alemtejo: Beja (Y). Estremadura: Monchique 
(Y). Tras Os Montes : Aligo (W). 

This is the more abundant of the two species especially in the south. 
The larger workers are easy to distinguish but some nests contain only 
small workers. These may be separated from T. erraticum by the 
deeper clypeal notch and more angled epinotum. In Segovia province, 



A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIDAE / 

Yarrow found T. nigerrimum frequently nesting at the foot of old 
fence posts. 

Franz took a few workers from Sierra de Espufia in Murcia which 
have the clypeus and antennal scape clear yellowish brown instead of 
dark brown or more usually, uniform dark with the rest of the body 
as in T. nigerrimum which they otherwise resemble. Santschi also 
recorded a subspecies ibericum which is only distinguished in the male 
by darker genitalia. 

90. Tapinoma simrothi Krausse. 

Cadiz: Guadiaro (S). Pontevedra*: Isla Cies del Sur (F). Tarra- 
gona * : Ebro (C). 

Franz also took some workers in the Rhone delta in Southern Fran- 
ce. Bernard (1958) suggests that this may be an invasive oriental spe- 
cies. Numerous examples from Afghanistan named as this species 
(Collingwood, 1961) differ from the Mediterranean species and appear 
to be the same as the "subspecies", karawaievi. Em. The two popu- 
lations are undoubtedly specifically distinct. 



FORMICINAE 

91. Plagiolepis pygmaea (Latr.). 

Barcelona*: San Feliu (B), Vallirana (F). Cadiz: Algeciras (F). 
Castellon * : Montes de Vallibona (F). Gerona : Cadaques (F). Huelva * : 
Gibraleon (Y). Huesca * : Jaca (C), Torla (Y). Jaen * : Sierra de Ca- 
zorla (F). Lugo*: Villalba (F). Madrid: Aranjuez, El Escorial, To- 
rrelodones, Vaciamadrid (F). Malaga: Malaga (F). Mallorca: Finca 
Lavermea, Palma (F). Menorca * : Mahon, Pico de Toro (F). Murcia * : 
Alhama de Murcia (P), Sierra de Espufia (F). Orense*: Sierra de 
Gerez (F). Pontevedra*: Bayona, Pontevedra (F). Santander*: La 
Fuente (F). Segovia*: Marugan (Y). Tarragona*: Falset, Sierra de 
Montsant (F). Valencia : Jativa (F). Zaragoza : Sierra de Alcubierre (F). 

Portugal. Estremadura : Bucaco (W). 

92. Plagiolepis barbara Santschi. 

Alicante: Alicante (C). Ciudad Real*: Santa Cruz de los Cafia- 
mos (F). Cordoba*: Sierra de Cordoba (F). Granada*: Sierra Neva- 
da (F). Madrid*: Aranjuez, El Escorial, Sierra de Guadarrama, To- 



C. A. COLUNGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 



rrelodones (F). Mallorca*: Palma (B). Murcia*: Sierra de Carras- 
coy (F). Oviedo: Segredal en Siero (F). Sevilla*: Carmona, Sevilla 
(F). Zaragoza *: Jaulin (F). 

The ants of this genus are very abundant and it is probable that 
more than one species has been included under P. pygmaea. P. bar- 
bara distinguished by its longer antennal segments, probably has a 
smaller range restricted to South West Europe and North Africa. It 
is interesting that both species occur in Mallorca. 

93. Lasius niger (L.). 

Almeria*: Chirivel (F). Cadiz: Algeciras (F). Castellon*: Mo- 
rella, Vinaroz (F). Cuenca: Canete (Y). Gerona: Cadaques (F), Gero- 
na (C), Olot (F). Granada: Baza (C), Sierra Nevada (F). Guipiizcoa: 
Irun (F). Huesca: Jaca (C), Torla (Y). Ibiza: San Miguel, Sierra 
Grossa (F). Jaen*: Mengibar (C), Sierra de Cazorla (F). La Coru- 
na: Outes, San Saturnino (F). Leon*: Piedrafita, Sierra de la Ca- 
brera (F). Lerida: Seo de Urgel (F). Lugo*: Guitiriz, Sierra de An- 
cares (F). Madrid: Aranjuez (C), Madrid (F). Malaga: Fuengirola 
(L). Mallorca: Coll de Seller, Palma (F). Menorca: Mahon, Tirant- 
nou (F). Murcia: Sierra de Espuna (F). Navarra: Pamplona (Y). 
Orense*: Los Peares (F). Pontevedra: Bayona, Isla Cies del Norte, 
Isla Cies del Sur. Isla de Ons, Mondariz, Montes del Testeiro, Mora- 
fia, Playa de La Lanzada, Pontevedra (F). Santander*: Laredo, Pon- 
tones (F). Segovia: La Granja (F). Tarragona: Sierra de Montsant 
(F). Teruel*: Sierra de Cucalon (F). Vizcaya: Ondarroa (Y). Za- 
ragoza: Jaulin (P). 

Andorra (Y). 

Portugal. Algarve: Monchique (Y). Beira Alta: Sierra da Es- 
trela (F). Estremadura: Buqaco (W). 

94. Lasius emarginatus (Ol.). 

Gerona: Olot (F). Huesca: Castiello de Jaca (C). La Corufia * : 
Santiago (F). Madrid*: El Escorial (M). Santander: Beranga * (F). 

There are many records in Ceballos' list for L. emarginatus yet 
Wilson (1955) did not include Spain in its geographical range for 
lack of reliable records. According to the present collection, the spe- 
cies is remarkably uncommon in Spain compared with parts of France. 
It is interesting also that many of the Spanish series of L. niger include 
bicoloured workers that are difficult to distinguish from emarginatus 



A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIDAE 

without careful examination and Yarrow (1967) records similarly co- 
loured workers in the Azores. In South Europe L. emarginatus often 
occurs in the neighbourhood of streams or in damp shade and it is 
probably less tolerant of aridity than L. niger. Indeed, to judge by the 
present survey, L. niger is probably the commonest ant in Spain, al- 
though in normal collecting one tends to overlook it in favour of more 
exotic species. 

95. Lasius alienus (Foerster). 

Cadiz*: Algeciras (F). Castellon*: Vallibona, Vinaroz (F). Gui- 
piizcoa: I run (F). Huesca: Canfranc (C) ; Puerto del Portalet (F). 
Leon * : Sierra de la Cabrera (F). Madrid : El Pardo, Torrelodones, Val- 
demoro (F). Malaga: Estepona (F). Murcia * : Murcia (F). Oviedo*: 
Picos de Europa (F). Pontevedra * : Isla Cies del Sur (F). Santan- 
der*: Mogro (F). Tarragona*: Sierra de Montsant (F). Teruel*: 
Sierra de Albarracin (F). 

Portugal. Baixo Alemtejo: Ferreiro do Alemtejo (F). Estrema- 
dura: Fatima (F). 

This also is much less abundant in Spain than L. niger. It was 
common on mountain pasture above Canfranc and similar places in 
the French Pyrenees. Bernard (1956) refers to a large reddish race 
in Mallorca but there are no such examples in the present collections. 

96. Lasius brunneus (Latreille). 

Huesca*: Castiello de Jaca (C). La Coruna*: Cerneda, Tambre 
(F). Leon *: Sierra de la Cabrera (F). Logrono *: Monasterio de Val- 
vanera en Anguiano (Y). Lugo*: Sierra de Ancares (F). Navarra * : 
Alsasua, Orbaiceta (F). Orense * : Verin (F). Oviedo*: Bosque's de 
Muniellos (F). Santander * : Espinama, Villafufre (F). Teruel*: Ca- 
marillas (F). 

This is well distributed in North and Central Spain. Its habitat is 
normally restricted to trees, as at Castiello de Jaca for example where 
I found it colonising poplar trees. 



97. Lasius (Dendrolasius) fuliginosus (Latreille). 

Burgos*: Puerto de Carrales (F). Huesca*: Castiello de Jaca 
(C). Madrid: Sierra de Guadarrama (F). 



U C. A. COLUNGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 

98. Lasius (Chthonolasius) umbratus (Nyl.). 

Huesca: Canfranc (C), Los Aranones, Jaca, Torla (Y). Lugo*: 
Valle de Lozara (F). Oviedo *: Cabo Vidio, Oviedo (F). Santander *: 
Alto de los Tornos (F). Soria*: Sierra Cebollera (F). 

99. Lasius (Chthonolasius) rabaudi Bondroit. 

Huesca *: Castiello de Jaca, Jaca (C, Y). Madrid *: Sierra de Gua- 
darrama (F). Pontevedra *: Isla de Ons (F). 

100. Lasius (Chthonolasius) mixtus (Nyl.). 

Lugo*: Guitiriz, Sierra de Ancares (F). Madrid*: Sierra de Gua- 
darrama (F). Santander: Jesus del Monte, Monte de Candina en Cas- 
tro Urdkles (F). Zaragoza*: Sierra de Alcubierre (F). 

101. Lasius (Chthonolasius) affinis (Schenck). 

Huesca * : Castiello de Jaca (C), Torla (Y). Pontevedra * : Monda- 
riz, Pontevedra (F). 

Wilson (1955) synonymised both L. mixtus and L. affinis as tri- 
vial variants of L. umbratus However, evidence has now accumulated 
to show that both should be regarded as independent species (Colling- 
wood, 1963). L,. affinis is characterised by its large average size, high 
indented petiole scale, flattened scape, long body hairs and absence of 
standing tibia or scape hairs. It is similar to L. bicornis in the worker 
caste but easy to distinguish by the more angular emargination of the 
scale and the more abundant and evenly distributed huirs on the gaster 
as Schenck (1852) indicated in his original description. The species 
typically nests in rotten wood and a fine series of alate queens, males 
and workers was obtained in such a situation in Huesca province by 
Yarrow. The Franz series consists of a few workers. This is a first 
record for Spain. The other species in this subgenus including the 
rare L. carnicolicus have all been recorded from North Spain but do 
not appear to be at all common. 



102. Lasius (Cautolasius) flavus (Fab.). 

Avila*: Puerto de Menga (F). Caceres*: Perales del Puerto (F). 
Granada*: Monachil (F), Sierra Nevada (C). Guipuzcoa: Irun (F). 
Huesca*: Canfranc, Jaca (C). La Corufia: Malpica, Santiago (F). 
Leon * : Puerto del Palo, Sierra de la Cabrera (F). Logrofio * : Mo- 
nasterio de Valvanera en Anguiano (F). Lugo*: Sierra de Ancares, 



A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIDAE 81 

Valle de Lozara (F). Madrid*: Barajas (M), Navacerrada, Sierra de 
Guadarrama (C), (Y), Torrelodones (F). Malaga*: Malaga (F). Ovie- 
do: Aviles, Oviedo, Rio Narcea (F). Pontevedra *: Islas Cies del Norte, 
Isla Cies del Sur, Lamosa, Montes del Testeiro (F). Santander*: Be- 
ranga, La Fuente, Mogro, Puerto del Escudo, Saja (F). Segovia * : 
Marugan (Y). Teruel*: Sierra de Albarracin (F). Zaragoza: Boto- 
rrita, Sierra de Alcubierre (F). 

Portugal. Beira Alta: Penhas Dorhadas (F). Minho: Serra do 



103. Camponotus herculeanus (L.). 
Huesea : Ordesa (F). 

This species in uncommon in the Pyrennees as compared with the 
Alps. It was also taken on Mt. Canigou in the Pyrenees Orientales 
(C, F). 

104. Camponotus ligniperdus (Latr.). 

Gerona: Cassa de la Selva (F). Huesca: Bujaruelo (F), Canfranc 
(C), Ordesa, Torla (Y). Navarra*: Burguete (F). 

Andorra (Y). 

This is common in suitable localities throughout the Pyrenees. 
Ceballos also gives an old record for Madrid province. 

105. Camponotus vagus (Scop). 

Albacete : Alborea (F). Castellon * : Jerica (G). Huesca * : Jaca 
(Y). Pontevedra * : Ria de Vigo (F). 

Portugal. Minho * : Serra de Gerez (Y). 

106. Camponotus fallax (Nyl.). 

Huesca*: Jaca (Y). Madrid: Puerto de Navacerrada (C). 

Individual workers were taken on trees in Huesca province. Ce- 
ballos records this as C. caryae Fitch from Gerona and Madrid. A 
specimen from Portugal was also identified in the Stockholm Museum, 
taken by O. Lundblad but without exact locality. 

107. Camponotus (Myrmosericus) cruentatus (Latreille). 

Avila * : Sierra de Gredos (Y). Barcelona : San Feliu (B). Caceres * : 
Perales del Puerto (F). Cadiz: Vejer de la Frontera (Y). Cuenca * : 
Alarcon (M), Las Torcas en la Ciudad Encantada, Motilla (Y). Gero- 

Eos, XLIV, 1968. 6 



82 C. A. COLUNGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 

na * : Cassa de la Selva, Collsuspina (F) ; La Junquera (Y). Huesca * : 
Arguis, Torla (Y). Madrid: El Pardo (F), Sierra de Guadarrama (Y), 
Torrelodones (F). Malaga: Ronda (Y). Pontevedra*: Bayona, La 
Guardia, Ria de Vigo (F). Santander*: Potes (F). Segovia: Marugan 
(Y). Tarragona: Montblanch (F). Teruel*: Albarracin (Y). Zamo- 
ra * : Zamora (Y). 

Portugal. Estremadura : Buc,aco (W). 

108. Camponotus (Myrmosericus) micans (Nyl.). 

Huelva: Gibraleon (Y). Madrid: El Pardo (F), Montarco (M). Ma- 
laga: Ronda (Y). Sevilla: Los Palacios (Y). 

Portugal. Alto Alemtejo: Elvas (Y). Baixo Alemtejo: Beja (Y). 
Palma: Setubal (L). 

This is widely distributed in South Spain. It is evidently listed 
by Ceballos as C. rufoglaucus Jerdon. 

109. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) aethiops (Latreille). 
Barcelona: San Feliu (B). Gerona: Collsuspina, Gerona (F). Hues- 
ca*: Jaca (C), Torla (Y). La Corufia: Corrubedo (F). Logrono: Mo- 
nasterio de Valvanera en Anguiano (F). Lugo * : Sierra de Ancares 
(F). Madrid: El Escorial (G), Sierra de Guadarrama (F). Murcia * : 
Puerto Lumbreras (Y). Navarra*: Roncal (Y). Oviedo*: Puente de 
los Fierros (F). Pontevedra*: Isla Cies del Norte, Isla Cies del Sur, 
Isla de Ons, Pontevedra, Ria de Vigo (F). Santander *: Santoiia (F). 
Soria*: Cabrejas del Pinar (Y). Tarragona*: Sierra de Montsant 
(F). Teruel *: Aliaga (F). Zaragoza: Embalse de Yesa (F). 

110. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) marginata (Latr.). 
Madrid * : El Escorial (M). 

111. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) pilicornis (Roger). 

Barcelona: San Feliu (B). Leon*: Sierra de la Cabrera (F). Ma- 
drid: Sierra de Guadarrama (F) (A) (C). Pontevedra*: La Guardia 
(F). Segovia*: Marugan (Y). Tarragona: Sierra de Montsant (F). 
Zaragoza : Sierra de Alcubierre (F). 

Portugal. Douro: Villa Nova de Gaia (W). Estremadura: Buc.a- 
co (W). 

This species was also recorded by Roger (1863) from the Balearic 
Islands but this old record was not listed by Bernard (1956). 



A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIDAE2 83 

112. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) massiliensis Forel. 

Gerona: Cassa de la Selva (F). Murcia: Sierra de Espufia (F). 

113. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) sylvaticus (Ol.). 

Albacete * : Alpera (F). Alicante * : Altea (F), Benidorm (Y). Al- 
meria: Sierra Alhamilla (F). Barcelona: Montesquiu (Y). Gerona: Ca- 
daques (F). Granada*: Sierra Nevada (Y). Huesca*: Ordesa (F). 
Murcia: Sierra de Carrascoy, Sierra de Espufia (F). Pontevedra*: 
Bayona, La Guardia, Ria de Vigo, Sierra de Porino (F). Sevilla: Se- 
villa (Y). Valencia: Jaraco, Saler (G). Zaragoza*: Lecinena, Sierra 
de Alcubierre, Zuera (F). 

Portugal. Alto Alemtejo: Elvora (Y). Estremadura: Arrabi- 
da (W). 



114. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) catalana Emery. 
Portugal. Alto Alemtejo*: Arrabirfa (W). 

This species resembles C. sylvaticus but has the microsculpture den- 
ser rendering the body matt. The hind tibial bristles are also stouter ; 
although described by Emery as a variety of C. sylvaticus, it appears 
to be a good species. This form is listed by Ceballos from several pro- 
vinces in S. Spain and is recorded by Schmitz from Portugal. 

115. Camponotus (Tanaemyrmex) barbaricus Emery. 

Cadiz : Guadiaro (S). Malaga * : Fuengirola (S). 

The form of C. barbaricus occurring in Spain is referred to the va- 
riety baetica Emery said to be smaller and more slender than the typi- 
cal species from North Africa but no structural differences are sugges- 
ted that would support a taxonomic distinction. 

The species in this subgenus in Europe are all ground dwellers. 
Despite their robust form they are fugitive and non-aggressive, disap- 
pearing below ground quickly when a nest is disturbed. 

116. Camponotus foreli Emery. 

Cadiz: Guadiaro (S). Madrid: Vaciamadrid (F). Malaga: Marbe- 
lla (F). Zaragoza * : Jualin (F). 

This species is widely distributed in Spain and also occurs locally 
in France. It combines characteristics of both the subgenera Tanaemyr- 



84 C. A. COLUNGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 

mex and Myrmentoma having a deep meso-epinotal furrow but smoothly 
rounded epinotum and projecting clypeus. 

117. Camponotus (Myrmentoma) sicheli Mayr. 
Almeria * : Adra (F). Mallorca : Palma (B). 

The example taken by Brown at Palma is clear red as in the colour 
form described as rufa Karawiev. The other specimens are conside- 
rably darker. 

118. Camponotus (Myrmentoma) lateralis (Ol.). 

Cadiz*: Algeciras (F). Cordoba*: Sierra de Cordoba (F). Grana- 
da*: Pinos Genii (C). Huesca*: Castiello de Jaca (C). Ibiza: Ibiza 
(F). Leon*: Carmenes. Madrid: Sierra de Guadarrama (F). Mallorca: 
Felanitx (F). Menorca: Tirantnou, Mahon (F). Pontevedra * : Rio 
Umia (F). Sevilla: Sierra Morena (F). Tarragona: Sierra de Mont- 
sant (F). 

Portugal. Alto Alemtejo: Castelo de Vide (F). Minho: Serra do 
Gerez (Y). 

1 19. Camponotus (Myrmentoma) figaro Emery. 
Portugal. Estremadura * : Buc,aco (W). 

This has the worker pronotum more or less testaceous or reddish. 
It resembles C. ddmaticus Nyl. of south east Europe but has hairs on 
the antennal scape as in C. lateralis which are absent in C. dalmaticus. 

120. Camponotus (Myrmentoma) merula Losana. 

Alicante: Jijona (G). Cadiz: Guadiaro (S). Cuenca: Cafiete (Y). 
Gerona*: Cadaques, Cassa de la Selva, Olot (F). Granada: Pinos Ge- 
nii (C). Huesca*: Arguis, Biescas, Torla (Y). Leon*: Carmenes (Y). 
Mallorca*: Palma (F). Murcia: Sierra de Espuna (F). Pontevedra*: 
Isla Cies del Sur, Isla de Ons (F). Santander*: Santofia (F). Zara- 
goza * : Embalse de Yesa (F), La Almunia (G). 

Portugal. Estremadura*: Bu^aco (W). Minho*: Ameria (Y). 

This is a first record for the Balearic Islands and for Portugal. 
Ceballos appears to have listed this species as C. piceo-foveolata but we 
have followed Bernard (1958) in using the name C. m\erula for the black 
shining species with angled epinotum. 



A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIDAE OO 

121. Camponotus (Colobopsis) truncatus (Spin.). 

Gerona: Lloret del Mar (G). Huesca * : Anso (Y). Malaga: Ron- 
da (Y). Valencia*: Betera (PT). Zaragoza*: Aula Dei (PT). 

This rather unobtrusive tree inhabitant does not appear in Ceba- 
llos' list and has probably been overlooked. 

122. Cataglyphis albicans (Roger). 

Alicante*: Alicante (C). Gerona*: Lloret de Mar (L). Granada*: 
Puebla de Don Fadrique (Y). Huesca*: Jaca (Y). Valencia*: Va- 
lencia (Y). 

123. Cataglyphis iberica Emery. 

Cuenca * : Las Torcas en la Ciudad Encantada, Reillo (Y). Madrid : 
Aranjuez (C), El Escorial (F), Torrelodones (C). Pontevedra * : Pla- 
ya de la Lanzada (F). Segovia*: La Granja (Y). Zaragoza*: Aula 
Dei (PT). 

Portugal. Estremadura : Lisboa (W). Minho: Braga (W), Serra 
do Gerez (Y). Tras os Montes: Aligo (W). 

124. Cataglyphis rosenhauri Emery. 
Madrid * : Aranjuez (F), Meco (M). 

125. Cataglyphis viaticoides (Andre). 

Granada*: Granada (M). Jaen*: Menjibar (C). Malaga: Ron- 
da (Y). 

Santschi (1929) provided a good working key in this revision of 
Cataglyphis. The distinguishing characters are rather slight but appear 
to be consistent as far as the present examples are concerned and the 
above are treated as good species although they have usually been listed 
as subspecies or varieties of C. albicans. 



126. Cataglyphis (Monocambus) viaticus (Fab.). 

Badajoz: Merida (G). Cadiz: Guadiaro (L). Cordoba (A). Grana- 
da: Baza (L), Huetor-Santillan (G), Monachil (F), Pinos Genii (C). 
Jaen: Menjibar (C). Sevilla: Carmona (F). 

The examples from Carmona, Cadiz and Menjibar are clear bright 
red and correspond to the variety "velox" Santschi. 



0. A. COLLINGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 



127. Cataglypliis (Monacambus) hispanica Ford. 

Caceres: Perales del Puerto (F). Ciudad Real: Almuradiel (G) (C). 
Jaen: Menjibar (C), Jaen (A). 

Portugal. Beira Alta: Mangalde (Y), Serra da Estrela (F). Tras 
os Montes : Aligo (W). 

This large species is akin to C. viaticus but quite distinct by the 
thicker petiole node, gula hairs and more profuse body hairs. The 
dark variety "nigroides" Santschi is the commoner form but probably 
a normal colour variation since both the reddish form (G) and the dark 
form (C) occurred at Almuradiel. 

128. Cataglypliis (Monocambus) cursor (Fonscolombe). 

Ciudad Real: Almuradiel (G). Gerona*: Cassa de la Selva (F), 
L,a Junquera (S). Murcia*: Alhama de Murcia (P). Santander: Puer- 
to del Escudo (F). 

This ant was also taken in several places in the Pyrenees Orientales. 
Like the other Cataglyphis species, this is a typical ground-nester, 
usually found by the side of sandy tracks or in bare soil. One colony, 
however, was found under a stone at Villefranche de Conflent. 

129. Proformica depilis Santschi. 
Murcia * : Murcia (OJ). 

130. Proformica nasuta (Nyl.). 

Huesca*: Jaca (C) (Y). Santander*: Puerto del Escudo (F). 



131. Proformica sp. 

Granada : Rio Guarnon (F). Sierra Nevada-Albergue de la Uni- 
versidad (F) (C). 

These series of workers differ from the known European forms 
P. nasuta, P. depilis and jerreri Bond, in that the scapes and tibias 
have abundant scattered long standing hairs ; the head is finely but 
distinctly longitudinally striate and the clypeus has the front border 
slightly emarginate. The body hairs are more profuse and the all- 
trunk more sculptured than in P. nasuta. A full description will be 
given elsewhere. P. depilis is characterised by its shining integument 
and absence of dorsal hairs in the alitrunk. 



A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIDAE 8'. 

132. Proformica ferreri Bondroit. 

Jaen: Menjibar (C). Madrid: Aranjuez (C). 

133. Formica subrufa Roger. 

Alicante*: Benidorm (Y). Almeria*: Gergal (M). Avila * : Sierra 
de Credos (Y). Cadiz*: Guadiaro (S). Cuenca*: Motilla (Y). Gero- 
na : Lloret de Mar (S) (C). Malaga * : Ronda (Y). Teruel * : Aliaga (F). 

Portugal. Estremadura: Arrabida (W). 

134. Formica cinerea Mayr. 

Huesca : Canfranc (Y), Castiello de Jaca (C), Jaca, Los Aranones 
(Y). Guipuzcoa*: Inin (F). 

Bernard (1952) suggested that the Central Pyrenean form of F. 
cinera was a distinct species and has described it (Bernard, in press) 
under the name of P. torrentium Bernard. Dr. H. 'Kutter has kindly 
sent me an extract from the description. The worker is said to be less 
size-variable than in alpine F. tinerea, the queen has the mesonotum 
proportionately broader and the male has slight but distinct differences 
in the shape and colour of the genitalia. Among queens examined from 
Denmark, Sweden and Switzerland, the mesonotum is slightly broader 
than long and probably this character has little taxonomic value. For- 
mica fusca and F. lemuni queens vary considerably in body width espe- 
cially in polygynous nests. F. cinerea is normally polygynous but may 
also occur in monogynous single colonies (Collingwood, 1961). Ber- 
nard's species must stand or fall on the constancy of the male charac- 
ters. Those from Huesca are certainly F. cinerea according to his 
distinction and similar to Scandinavian specimens. The workers, the 
only caste represented from Spain, appear indistinguishable from series 
taken in Scandinavia and Labouheyre in the French Landes. The 
Castiello workers were taken from a typical many-cratered nest in 1 ire 
soil at the base of popular trees. 

135. Formica decipiens Bondroit. 

Huesca: Sarvise, Torla (Y). Lerida*: Seo de Urgel (F). Teruel*: 
Aliaga (F). 

This also occurred abundantly in France in the lower valleys of the 
Pyrenees Orientales and specimens were obtained from Vernet les Bains, 
Amelie les Bains, Villefranche de Conflent and Latour de Carol (C). 
Yarrow also took the species at Laruns in the Basses Pyrenees. Staer- 



85 C. A. COLWNGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 

eke in Schmitz (1955) notes its occurence at Banyuls where the only 
recorded male was captured (but unfortunately not described). Its 
known distribution is very localised as apart from the places given 
above, it has only been recorded from Ciudad Real and Barcelo- 
na provinces in Spain. It is probable that F. decipiens has also been 
listed under such names as fusco-rufibarbis, cinereo-rufibarbis etc. 
It is rather like F. lemani in general appearance with the same colour 
and disposition of bristles on the thorax in 'both worker and queen but 
may be immediately distinguished by the silky pubescence which is 
specially thick on the gaster. The queens are more robust in form than 
those of F. lemani and four out of seven taken from one nest had from 
one to four irregularly disposed long gula hairs, thus linking the spe- 
cies to F. cin'erea. This ant was found nesting in banks, walls and 
under stones. Colonies were populous and aggressive. Workers were 
seen freely attacking neighbouring F. rufibarbis and at Latour de 
Carol were surrounding and destroying a Formica cordieri queen. 

136. Formica lemani Bondroit. 

Gerona: Cadaques. Granada*: Sierra Nevada (C). Huesca*: Can- 
franc (C), Ordesa, Puerto del Portalet en Salient de Gallego (F). Na- 
varra *: Puerto Ibaneta, Roncesvalles (F). Oviedo *: Pefia Santa, Puer- 
to de Pajares (F). Santander *: Coriscao (F). 

This species is common throughout the Pyrenees above 1500 m. 
in France. The only previous records for Spain are from Tarragona 
and Gerona provinces. 

137. Formica fusca L. 

Avila * : Sierra de Credos (F). Huesca : Canfranc, Ordesa (C. Y. 
F.). Lugo*: Sierra de Ancares, Valle de Lozara (F). Madrid: Fuen- 
fria (F), Puerto de Navacerrada (C), Sierra de Guadarrama (F). Ovie- 
do: Puerto el Palo (F). Pontevedra*: Isla de Ons, Mondariz, Ponte- 
vedra (F). Segovia: La Granja (Y). Zaragoza: Embalse de Yesa (F). 

Portugal. Minho: Serra do Gerez (Y). 

138. Formica pyrenaea Bondroit. 

Huesca: Los Aranones (Y). Leon*: Molinaferreira (F). Madrid: 
El Escorial (F). Oviedo * : Nueva (F). 

Portugal. Beira Alta : Serra da Estrale (F). 

This is closely similar to F. cunicularia but uniformly black with 



A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIDAE OV 

only the thoracic sutures and base of the mandibles more or less brow- 
nish and the petiole scale less tapered in profile. In appearance it is 
like a finely pubescent F. fusca and is the least well defined of this 
species group. 

139. Formica cunicularia Latreille. 

Barcelona: Arenys del Mar (G), Montesquiu (Y). Ciudad Real*: 
Almuradiel (G). Cuenca * : Cafiete (Y). Gerona : Cassa de la Selva 
(F). Granada: Baza, Sierra Nevada (C). Huesca: Castiello de Jaca 
(C), Canfranc (Y), Jaca (C), Los Aranones (Y). Madrid: Aranjuez 
(F), El Escorial (G), Sierra de Guadarrama (F). Murcia*: Murcia 
(A). Orense: Los Peares (F). Oviedo: Puerto el Palo (F). Palencia*: 
Arefios (Y). Pontevedra: Isla de Ons, Playa de la Lanzada (F). San- 
tander*: La Fuente, Potes (F). Teruel: Sierra de Albarracin (F). 
Zaragoza: Epila (Y). 

Portugal. Beira Alta: Serra da Estrela (Y). Tras os Montes (W). 



140. Formica gerardi Bondroit. 

' : Sierra de Gredos (F). Gerona*: Cassa de la Selva (F). 
Granada: Sierra Nevada (F). Orense*: Barco de Valdeorras (F), So- 
bradelo (F). Santander*: Santona (F). Zaragoza*: Sierra de Alcu- 
bierre (F). 

Portugal. Estremadura: Bucjaco (W). 

This species is described by Bondroit (1919) as brown-black, very 
matt with short grey pubescence; anterior of head, sutures, antennae 
and legs lighter and with sparse hairs on head, gaster and pronotum. 
It is in effect like a dark F. rufibarbis. The dorsal thoracic hairs in 
these examples are less concentrated on the pronotum than in F. rufi- 
barbis, more scattered over the whole thorax, finer and fewer in number. 
The main structural difference between the two species is in the shape 
of the epinotum which is relatively lower and less massive in F. gerardi, 
having the ratio of length of dorsal surface to height as 8: 10 instead 
of about 7: 10. Bondroit (1918) further described another form from 
Portugal as F. tombeuri but his own description reads almost the same 
as for F. gerardi and it is difficult to see how he differentiated them. 
Schmitz (1953) lists F. gerardi but not F. tombeuri from Portugal 
and neither is given by Ceballos for Spain. The Franz collection 
includes a series of workers from Banyuls, the type locality. 



C. A. COLLINGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 



141. Formica rufibarbis Fab. 

Huesca : Castiello de Jaca, Canfranc, Jaca, Monte Perdido (C. F. Y). 
La Coruna*: Cayon (F). Leon*: Armada, Vegamian (M). Lerida*: 
Lerida (Y). Lugo*: Valle de Lozara (F). Madrid: Aranjuez, El Es- 
corial (F). Navarra: Puerto Ibafieta (F). Oviedo: Puerto de Pa j ares 
(F). Santander*: Puerto de la Braquia (F). Teruel: Sierra de Alba- 
rracin (F). Zaragoza: Zaragoza (F). 



Portugal. Minho: Serra do Gerez (Y). Tras os Montes: Cha- 
ves (Y). 

142. Formica gagates L. 

Barcelona : Vallirana (F). Castellon * : Begis (F). Huesca * : Jaca (C). 

This species appears to be more or less confined to the Pyrenean 
foothills in Spain. It was found in several places in the Pyrenees 
Basses but does not seem to occur in the Pyrenees Orientales. 

143. Formica sanguinea Latr. 

Granada * : Sierra Nevada (Y). Huesca * : Canfranc (C). Leon * : 
Lillo (M), Puerto de Pajares (Y). Lerida*: Lerida (Y). Logrono: 
Lumbreras (Y). Lugo*: Villalba (Y). Madrid*: Cercedilla, Navace- 
rrada (M). Oviedo*: Cabo Vidio (F), Puerto de Tarna (Y). Teruel: 
Sierra de Albarracin (F). 

Portugal. Beira Alta: Serra da Estrela, Torre (Y). Minho: Serra 
do Gerez (Y). 

Examples of this species from Spain and the Pyrenees Orientales 
are characterised by the vivid yellowish red colour of the head and 
thorax. Forel (1909) described such examples as the variety "jlavo- 
rubra" but they are not otherwise different from series from other 
parts of Europe. 



144. Formica exsecta Nyl. 

Huesca*: Canfranc (Y). Leon*: Bofiar, Puerto de la Magdalena 
(Y). Logrono: Lumbreras, Puerto de Piqueras (Y). Lugo*: Sierra 
de Ancares (F). Madrid *: Sierra de Guadarrama (F) (C). Santander *: 
La Fuente (Y). Zaragoza*: Sierra de Moncayo (F). 

This species is also recorded from Teruel. Bondroit (1918) des- 
cribed series taken in the Pyrenees as a distinct species F. dalcqui. 



A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIDAE VI 

However, Kutter (1957) examined his types and concluded that they 
were not separable from F. exsecta. The Spanish examples and also 
series taken above Urdos in the Pyrenees Basses are not structu- 
rally different from examples from England but the Scandinavian po- 
pulations appear to become progressively more hairy to the north, pro- 
bably exhibiting a south-west north-east clinal trend. Some Spanish 
F. exsecta fround by Yarrow were nesting among pine others in more 
open places ; those taken above Urdos 'were found nesting in a grassy 
roadside bank opposite a dense beech wood. 

145. Formica rufa L. 

Burgos*: Puerto de Carrales (F). Huesca * : Bujaruelo (F), Jaca- 
Ordesa road (Y), Parque National de Ordesa (F, Y), Salient de Ga- 
llego (P T), Torla (Y), Valle de Oza (P T). Leon * : Piedrafita (Y), 
Sierra de Son (F). Lerida*: Las Bordas, South end of Viella tunnel, 
Valle de Aran (Y). Logrono : Monasterio de Valvanera en Anguiano 
(F). Lugo*: Sierra de Ancares (F). Madrid: Sierra de Guadarrama 
(Y), Valle de la Fuenfria (F). Navarra*: Orbaiceta (F). Oviedo*: 
Monte Montera (F), Pola de Siero, Puerto de Leitariegos (Y). Palen- 
cia*: Puerto de Piedras Luengas (Y). Santander: Fnterrias, Espi- 
nama, Picos de Europa (Y). Segovia: La Granja de San Ildefonso, 
road from La Granja to Puerto de Navacerrada (Y), Sierra de Gua- 
darrama (F). Soria*: Covaleda, Herreros, Navaleno (Y). Zaragoza*: 
Sierra de MoncayO' (F). 

Portugal. Minho * : Above Caldas beneath larch trees, Serra do 
Gerez (Y). 

Formica rufa is essentially a woodland species and unlike P. ni- 
gricans and F. cordieri it is never found far from trees. Its distribu- 
tion is therefore somewhat in the hands of man, and forest clearance 
quickly exterminates it. Reafforestation does not guarantee its return, 
or not for very many years and one might guess that its distribution in 
Spain was once much wider than it is today. Biologically there are two 
kinds of F. rufa, or so it seems, though they cannot be separated on 
structural characteristics. One kind occupies a single nest, often for 
very many years, has one or only a few queens and does not produce 
daughter nests, at any rate not within its own foraging area. The 
second kind behaves quite differently and has many, not infrequently 
hundreds of queens in its nests ; daughter nests are produced apparently 
with the greatest of ease and are tolerated even within a few feet of each 



C. A. COLLINGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 

other. In Spain most rufa colonies consists of several or many nests and 
belong to the second kind mentioned above but occasionally one does 
find isolated nests which perhaps belong to the other kind or may be 
the beginning or the end of a group of nests. In spring and early 
summer one can discover with very little disturbance if a nest contains 
many laying females but to satisfy oneself that a nest contains a single 
female, or only a few females is a very different matter and the excava- 
tion required may do considerable damage. Another species which 
produces many daughter nests is P. polyctena Foerst, but this has been 
found in Spain only in one area in Lerida Province (Ceballos & Ron- 
chetti, 1966) though it is recorded in France from the central Pyrenees 
(Kneitz and Emmert, 1962) and from the eastern Pyrenees (Ovazza, 
1950). Many individuals of Spanish F. rufa show extensive red 
markings on the head, ranging from a patch enclosing the ocelli to an 
almost entirely red frons and vertex. The thorax also is often en- 
tirely red without any trace of the usual dusky blotch but this condi- 
tion is not uncommon in other parts of Europe (Yarrow, 1955). The 
species is rather easily recognised by the absence of long fringing hairs 
round the back of the head and by the almost hairless outer edge of 
the hind tibiae. On the French side of the Pyrenees, F. rufa and the 
species F. nigricans and F. cordieri extend, in suitable situations from 
the Atlantic to the Mediterranean. 

146, 147. Formica nigricans Emery and F. cordieri Bondroit. 

No satisfactory method has yet been discovered for separating the 
workers of these two species, if indeed they are distinct species, and 
since most records are based on workers one can do no more than list 
the distribution of the two together. However, a number of queens 
have been examined and as these are very easily distinguished it is pos- 
sible to give a second distribution list. This indicates that the two spe- 
cies are equally spread over the northern half of Spain. 
1. Distribution based on workers : 

Avila*: Barco (Y). Barcelona: Montesquiu (Y). Burgos*: Hon- 
toria de Pinar, Mambrillas de Lara, Puerto del Escudo, Soncillo, Villo- 
robe, 10 km. south of Burgos (Y). Gerona: San Juan de las Abadesas 
(Y). Huesca: Anso, Biescas (Y), Canfranc (C, Y), Castiello de Jaca 
(C), Jaca (C, Y), Ordesa, Salient (Y), Puerto de Arguis (P T), Torla, 
Yesero (Y). La Corufia: Carballo (Y). Leon*: Carmenes, Bofiar (Y), 
Molinaferreira (F), Portilla de la Reina, Puerto de la Magdalena, 



A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIDAK. 



Puerto de San Glorip, Puerto de Somiedo (Y), Sierra del Teleno (F). 
Lerida: South end of Viella tunnel (Y). Logrofio: Lumbreras, Monas- 
terio de Valvanera en Aguiano, Puerto de Piqueras, road to Monaste- 
rio de Valvaiiera, Sierra Cebollera (Y), Sierra de la Demanda (F, Y). 
Lugo * : Baamonde, Corgo, Guitiriz, Mondonedo, Ribadeo, West of 
Guitiriz (Y). Madrid: Cercedilla (P T), El Escorial (F), Sierra de 
Guadarrama (Y). Navarra * : Burgui, Roncal (Y). Oviedo*: Aviles, 
Cadavedo, Covadonga, Navia, Pola de Siero (Y). Palencia*: Puerto de 
Piedras Luengas (Y). Pontevedra * : near Pontevedra (Y). Santander : 
Enterrias, Espinama, La Fuente (Y), Pefia Vieja (F), Picos de Euro- 
pa (Y). Segovia*: La Granja de San Ildefonso (P T, Y), road from 
La Granja to Puerto de Navacerrada (Y). Soria * : Abejar, Cidones, 
Herreros, Navaleno, Pineda de Almazan (Y). Teruel : between Teruel 
and Caspe, Gea de Albarracin, Sierra Alta (Y). Vizcaya*: Munguia, 
Ondarroa (Y). Zaragoza * : Rio Riquel, Sierra de Moncayo (F). 
Andorra : Canillo (Y). 

?. Distribution based on females: 



F. nigricans. 

Burgos*: Puerto del Escudo (Y). Huesca: Jaca (C, Y). Leon : . 
Lillo (M), Puerto de Pajares (Y). Lugo*: Baamonde (Y). Madrid: 
Cercedilla (M). Orense * : Alto de Rodicio (Y). Oviedo*: Pola de 
Siero (Y). 

F. cordieri. 

Huesca: Castiello de Jaca (C), Jaca (C, F), Sierra de Moncayo (F). 
Oviedo * : Pola de Siero (Y). Segovia * : La Granja (BM). Zaragoza * : 
Sierra de Moncayo (F). 

Formerly known as F. pratensis or rufa var. pratensis these species 
favour much more open country than does F. rufa and may be found 
in fields, road-side banks, bare cliff edges and similar treeless places 
though they may be found in scrub woodland also. At La Granja 
the nests may be found in open places in the forest. In the nests the 
queens are few in number, a fact which considerably complicates spe- 
cies recognition. The workers are very much darker and much more 
hairy than other Spanish rwfa-group ants and have a fringe of long hairs 
around the back of the head. It is possible that workers of cordieri are 



94 C. A. COLWNGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 

darker and even more hairly than those of nigricans (Betrem, I960, 
Gosswald et al., 1961) and the queens of cordieri are at once recognized 
by having very long outstanding hairs (not bristles) here and there on 
the antennal scapes, thorax, legs and scale. In open country the nests 
are often thatched with much finer material than is used by the wood- 
land and forest nesting species. 

Kutter (1964) has suggested and Betrem (1965) has formally pro- 
posed that the old name pratensis Retzius be restored for the species 
nigricans as used in this paper and that nigricans Emery should be the 
correct name for cordieri Bondroit. 



148. Formica lugubris Zetterstedt. 

Gerona: Collada de Tosas, c. 1800 m. (Y). 

Andorra. Serrat, c. 2000 m. (Y). 

This is a boreo-alpine species which with F. aquilonia Yarrow re- 
places F. rufa in the higher levels of most European mountain ranges. 
It is known from several localities on the French side of the Pyrenees 
(Urdos in the Basses Pyrenees (C), several places in the Cautarets- 
Gavarnie region of the Hautes Pyrenees (Kneitz and Emmert, 1962) 
Font-Romeu and Hospitalet (C) and Canigou (F) in the Pyrenees 
Orientales. Ceballos & Ronchetti (1966) record it from Lerida and Ge- 
rona Provinces. One might expect to find it high up in the Parque 
Nacional de Ordesa but in several visits there I have failed to discover 
it. F. aquilonia is not known from the Pyrenees. The workers of 
lugubris are hairy like nigricans and cordieri and have the thorax dar- 
kened but brownish, not jet black like those species and the dark 
patch grades into the red instead of being abruptly differentiated. The 
queens have both thorax and gaster very shining and the back of the 
head and scale have abundant long hairs. Without a microscope lu- 
gubris is not very easily distinguished from nigricans and cordieri. 
The nests have many queens and daughter nests are toleranted in close 
proximity, factors which make this species an excellent erradicator 
of forest pests. 

149. Formica dusmeti Emery. 

Leon*: Molinaferreira, Sierra del Teleno (F). LiOgrofio * : Sierra 
Cebollera (Y). Madrid: Puerto de Navacerrada (C, Y), Sierra de 
Guadarrama (Y). Orense*: near Orense (F). Segovia: above P. de 
Navacerrada, road from La Granja to Puerto de Navacerrada (Y), 



A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIDAE 



Sierra de Guadarrama, Valle de Fuenfria (F). Soria * : Casarejos, Pi- 
neda de Almazan (Y). Teruel * : Geo de Albarracin, Tramacastilla (Y). 
Zaragoza * : Sierra de Alcubierre (F). 

Portugal. Beira Literal: Juguerias (Santschi, 1932 a), Soure. Dou- 
ro Literal : Leca (BM), Santo Tirso (Schmitz, 1950). Minho * : Oporto 
(OJ). Ribatejo: Santarem (Santschi, 1932 a). 

F. dusmeti is the Iberian counterpart of the Eurasian F. truncorum 
and it is rather a matter of opinion whether one considers it a subspe- 
cies of the latter or a full species in its own right. It is found only 
south of the Pyrenees and records from Norway (Forel, 1911, Wheeler, 
1913) and from Russia (Lomnicki, 1925) are based on misidentifica- 
tions. The nearest truncorum records are from the Alps. F. dusmeti 
is very much less hairy than truncorum, indeed, the antennal scapes, 
the eyes and the legs are almost bare whereas in truncorum these parts 
are very noticeably hairy. There are conspicuous differences in the 
punctation too, especially in the queens. Furthermore, dusmeti nests 
contain very many laying queens thus contrasting, strongly 'with trun- 
corum nests which usually have few. F. dusmeti is easily distingui- 
shable from all other Iberian wood-ants by the shape of the clypeus 
(though this can be seen only under a microscope), by the almost enti- 
rely red head and thorax of the worker and by the brownish-red head, 
thorax, and base of the abdomen of the queen. Only the very smallest 
workers are at all darkened on head and thorax. The males are dis- 
tinct from other rw/a-group ants by their yellow legs and genitalia. 
Nesting sites are very variable and they may be in tree stumps, beneath 
rocks, large stones or among heather or dwarf juniper bushes. The 
dome of twigs may be wfa-like, more or less covering the underground 
nest or may be at the side or a rock or stump or it may be built up among 
the stems and lower branches of shrubby plants. It is interesting that 
dusmeti was until now the only one of this group of ants recorded 
from Portugal and that it has never yet been found in the Pyrenees. 
Records of this species from the Costa Brava region (Goetsch, 1942) 
are open to considerable doubt because although this author collected 
in many parts of Spain he never metioned "pratensis" from anywhere 
and one cannot but suspect that some at least of his dusmeti records 
must refer to this common species. Some older records of both dus- 
meti and pratensis noted in Ceballos (1956) from the southern half of 
Spain (Ciudad Real, Granada, Malaga, Cadiz) have not been confirmed 
by the fairly extensive explorations made in recent years by Dr. Franz 



yo C. A. COLUNGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 

and myself. The supposed record from Cordoba attributed to Emery 
in Ceballos (1956) seems to be without foundation. 

150. Polyergus rufescens (Latreille). 

Santander*: Espinama, Potes (F). Soria * : Covaleda (Y). 

This slave making species is evidently very local in Spain where the 
only previous record is from Oviedo province. Bernard (1946) refers 
to it 'without data in the Pyrenees Centrales, and Ovazza (1950) records 
it from the Pyrenees Orientales where it was also found at Vernet les 
Bains (C). Here a queen was present in the midst of a large populous 
colony of Formica gerardi under a flat stone. 



SUMMARY. 

The taxonomy, habits and ranges of 150 species of Formicidae ta- 
ken in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearics are discussed. Over 600 
new provincial records are given. These include 6 first records for 
Andorra, 11 for Portugal, 19 for Spain and 8 for the Balearics. The 
Formica rufa group species are given special treatment mecause of the 
growing importance of these ants in the control of forest pest. A list 
of first records for these countries is given below. 

ANDORRA. 

Myrmica ruginodis Nyl. 
Lasius niger (L.). 
Camponotus ligniperdus (L,atr.). 
Formica rufibarbis Fab. 
Formica nigricans Em. and/or 

F. cordieri Bondr. 
Formica luaubris Zett. 



PORTUGAL. 

Ponera coarctata (Latr.). 
Messor lobicornis Forel. 
Messor ntaroccana Emery. 
Goniomma tunetica Forel. 
Leptothorax corticalis (Schenck). 
Leptothorax racovitsae Bond. 



A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIDAE 

Tetramorium> hispanica Em. 
Camponotus jallax (Nyl.). 
Camponotus figaro Emery. 
Formica sanguined Latr. 
Pormica rufa L. 



SPAIN. 



Myrnnca specialties Bondroit. 



Aphaenogaster subterraneoides Em 
Messor lobicornis Forel. 
Goniomma bland (Andre). 
Solenopsis monticola Bernard. 
Solenopsis nicaeensis Bernard. 
Myrmecina graminicola Latr. 
Leptothorax rabaudi Bondroit. 
Leptothorax tristis Forel. 
Leptothorax berlandi Bondroit. 
Leptothorax massiliensis Bondroit. 
Epimyrma vandeli Sants. 
Anergates atratulus (Schenck). 
Strongylognathus testaceus 



Formicoxenus nitidulus Nyl. 
Lasius affinis (Schenck). 
Projormica sp. 
Pormica gerardi Bondroit. 



BALEARICS. 

Euponera ochracea (Mayr.). 
Aphaenogaster subterranea (Latr.). 
Crematogaster sordidula (Nyl.). 
Leptothorax lichtensteini Bond. 
Messor hispanica Em. 
Myrmecina graminicola (Latr.). 
Plagiolepis barbara Sants. 
Camponotus merula Losana. 



Eos, XLIV, 1968 



C. A. COLWNGWOOD AND I. H. H. YARROW 



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A SURVEY OF IBERIAN FORMICIDAE 



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