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1 HE Author of the Work, of which this and the- 
two succeeding Volumes contain a translation, 
long maintained the most distinguished rank among 
the learned men of the most learned nation in 
Europe, He was chiefly known during his life, as 
the eloquent historian of his native country, the 
Cantons of Switzerland. His Universal History, 
which seems to have been his favourite object, 
and the pursuit to which he devoted his hours of 
leisure from public business during a great portion 
of his life, was published subsequently to the 
Author's death, by his brother, who survived him^ 

If the Translator were to attempt to estimates 
the merits of the Author, whose works he is about 
to lay before his countiymen in their own idiom,, 
he might probably incur a suspicion of partiality^ 
He therefore abstains from expressing any opinio^ 
of his own respecting the literary character of 
Midler, or the value of his productions. But as 
the reputation of this writer is not ad yet generally 
known in England, the Translator thinks himself 
permitted to cite the following remarks from ^ 
work of the late Madame de Stael, which will serve 

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to express the sentiment generally entertained 
respecting this Author, by those who were best 
acquainted with his attainment. 

" Miiller, the most learned of historians/' says 
this celebrated writer, " is truly poetical in his 
manner of describing both men and transactions. 
In order justly to appreciate the merits of the his- 
torian of Switzerland, we rnust distinguish in his 
work, the man of profound learning and the able 
writer. Ho possessed a mass of erudition altoge- 
ther unparalleled : his acquirements of this kind 
actually inspired awe in those who witnessed their 
^splay. It is difficult to conceive how the head 
0f one man could contain a whole world of oc- 
oirrences* and dates. The six thousand years of 
authentic history were perfectly arranged iti hh 
slemory; and his studies had been so accurate, 
that his impressions remained as vivid as if he had 
bMti a living- witness of the events* Switzerland 
diids iit)t contain a village or » noble family, whose 
hintoty was not perfectly familiar to him. 0« one 
6(Sdiisi6tt he was requestedi in order td dccid* a 
Wftgfer, to repeat the pedigree of the sova^eigh 
etftiftts of Btigey : he performed the task itatciQ* 
(Hatelyi but was not quite certain whether one in^ 
fiVidual of tfce series had beeu a reg(Mt or^a 
ievereign in httf dwn tight; and he serionsfty re- 
proached himsfelf for this defect of memory, r ^ 
\ ** M6ll6r, vfho may be considered ast^classi^ 
td hi*oTrian of Gkirmany, conifearidy read both 
(he Greek atfd Latin authors in titeir or^imWan- 
guiBtges : lie ciiltivtated Mt^ature and th« ftoe art* 

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«B srtOHtement to history. His unbounded erudi* 
tioih fftr from diminishing his natural vivBoity, yfim 
rather the ground from which his imagination took 
its flight ; and the striking accuracy of his pictures 
wa^ the result of the scrupulous fidelity with which 
they were drawn/* 

The following work was published in the Ger-4 
man language at Tubingen, in the year 1811. Ta 
this edition are prefixed a long Preface by tho 
Editw^ another by the Author, dated ViemM^ 
1797 ; and a Fragment of a later Preface, which^ 
as the Editor informs us in a note, was written m 
the year X8Q6 ; at which time the Author was 
occupied in preparing his work for the press. The 
Author's Preface, which was written many yean 
before its publication, was evidently adapted to 
the worl$:» was in an earlier.' and ntofe 
incomplete state of preparation. 

These materials are. in so detached and undi* 
gested a form, that the Translator haa QOt deemed 
it. expedient to present the whole of them to hia 
English readers. He has selected the following 
passages from the Author's original Pre&c^, which 
contain an account of his design in undertaking to 
compile this work^ and of the first stages of hi» 
progress in the e:xecution of his plan^ 

, << . TThis book was written some years before those; 
great political ej^plosions, which to some persons 
ajj^ifear to promiset and to others threaten,/ a new 
f^^ of things. The original object of the Audunr 
inJ^iys undertaking, was to lay before his piq^ 
(ciotisistiog of a number of young men £rom various 

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selves to his audience; which confiisted for the most 
part of learoed and accomplished men : and when 
he afterwards found opportunities of reading some 
portions of his book in the presence of persons of 
di&rent classes,, (among whom were men of extnu 
ordinary talents, holding important offices, and 
some of the most distinguished French and Qet\* 
qaan a.uthors,) he had the good fortune to obtain 
their approbation. But while his work was con-* 
tinually receiving improvement in consequence of 
his increasing knowledge of the world, and while 
he was ittdustriou3ly employed in collecting ma^ 
terials from eight or nine hundred important sources 
of original information, his time and attention were 
so occupied, as to prevent him from connectii^ 
and arranging his manuscripts for the completion 
of Ins book* He was therefore obliged to postpone . 
this undertaking, which he considers as the fa- 
vourite occupation and one of the principal objects 
of his life, to that earnestly wished for period^ 
when he shall be able to withdraw from. public 
business, and to devote the remainder of his days 
to his literary pursuits and . the society of his 

The Author afterwards proceeds to mention, in 
a manner somewhat prolix,. the motives which in* 
duced him to hasten the accomplishment of his 
task, and the reduction ol* his work intathe form 
it had attained in 1797* 

During the years which intervened between this 
period and the last correction of the work, a. short 
time before the Author's death, in onkrto its 

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publtc^tioil^ he was not idle or inattentive to the 
farther {>roseeutiofi of his favourite design. The 
Editor has given us the following account of his 
0€capatiot}s and his progress during this interval : 
** It was the intention of J. Von Miiller, after 
having completed the history of his native country, 
to^ publiiA the Survey of Universal History which 
is ccmtained in these three volumes, and to follow 
it with another book under the title of Historical 
Library, comprising the proofs drawn from original 
sources, which serve as the foundation of the pre- 
sent work, together with a number of critical 
investigations relating to a variety of historical 
questions. His labours in these undertakings oc« 
cupied a space of thirty years; and he extended 
his researches to the works of many ancient authors 
who are not strictly to be called historians, such 
as poets, theologians and philosophers, in order 
to obtain < a competent idea of the political, do* 
mestic and literary character of the different 
nations axul ages of the world.' 

" The foundation of his * Universal History^ 
consists of historical extracts from the writings of 
One thoiisand seven hundred and thirty-three au* 
thors of ancient and modern times, begun about 
the year 1772, and continued to the tenth day 
before the amthor's death. These are entitled, 
Bwcim Humanarum libri triginta; for in these 
papers the history of the world is distributed into 
thirty books, and the extracts arranged in an equal 
number of divisions."^ These materials are all 
written in the German* language, but with such ab* 

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breviations^ that it requires a competent knowledge 
of history, and of the original works, to be able 
to read them accurately and readily. 

In the following passage of the Author's preface, 
he has given his reasons for not continuing his 
work down to a more recent period, and for suffer* 
ing it to retain those political impressions, which 
seem to have been produced by an anticipation of 
the French Revolution, or of some approaching 
convulsion in the frame of European society. 

" The Author has resolved, not to continue this 
history ; because he is desirous of observing a pro- 
found silence with regard to the transactions of 
those years during which he has himself been en- 
gaged in public affairis. The great pohtical expe- 
riments of the Emperor Joseph the Second, and 
of the confederate princes of the German empire, 
are so related to his personal situation, that he 
cannot, without imprudence, express a candid and 
impartial opinion respecting their nature and ef- 
fects : and to speak of them in any other manner 
would be a profanation of his character as an his- 
torian and a man. The cause of truth and of good 
order, wherever he meets with it, will always be 
his own ; of which he intends to display satisfac- 
tory proofs in the execution of the following 

There are some peculiar traits in the manner and 
execution of this work, which will probably strike 
the reader as singular and as requiring explana- 
tion. They have arisen in part from the mode in 
which the book was composed, the founckdon of 




It having consisted of a large collection of extracts 
from the works of original writers; and in part 
from the conception which the Author appears to 
have entertained of the duty and office of an his- 
torian. Through the whole course of his work he 
hias designedly maintained a kind of philosophical 
elevation above all those modes of thinking and 
feeling which are peculiar to certain ages, nations, 
and sects. He has endeavoured to survey human 
afiairs with the same impartiality or indifierence 
with which a being, descended from another 
sphere, might be supposed to contemplate the di- 
versified habits and opinions of men. In some pas- 
sages indeed, as in the history of the Moham- 
medan nations, where it was necessary to enter 
into the feelings of the people in order to under- 
stand the true nature of transactions, the Author 
has expressed himself in the language of the sect, 
and seems to have surveyed their actions through 
the medium of their own sentiments y but this he 
has done indifferently and without partiality. This 
habit, which may be traced through Jthe whole 
of his book, accounts for the reserved and ab- 
stracted manner in which the Author treats of the 
history of the different systems of religion. He 
seems to have considered the particular proofs or 
refutation of each as subjects belongihg to the 
theologian rather than to the writer of history. 
Hence he avoids all discussion of their respective 
claims to a miraculous or supernatural origin ; all 
inquii:yinto the truth or falsehood of particular 
doetriaes. He confines himself to an external sur- 

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vey o£ the rise and progress of each system of 
tenets; he traces the public proceedings of its 
votaries, and the influence exercised by it on 
the condition of nations. In fact, the active oo- 
cupations of the Author's life seem to have given 
a peCuUar stamp to his habits of thinking and writ- 
ing. Accordingly he surveys the origin and growth 
of the Christian religion with the eyes of a poli-^ 
tician, and describes it rather as a phasnomenon in- 
fluential on the condition of human society in this 
world, than in relation to the more important and 
eternal interests of mankind. What his own par- 
ticular sentiments were he has not fully declared : 
yet he has said enough to manifest that he was not 
an unbeliever in revelation. 

Whatever opinion may be formed respecting the 
motives of the Author in assuming so reserved and 
sometimes apparently undecided a tone on these 
subjects, it will not be denied that the way in which 
he has contemplated the history of religion, without 
entering into its peculiar proofs, may yet, when 
pursued by an equitable and candid historian, a 
title which will not be refused to IMlliller, redound 
to the advantage of Christianity. That doctrine 
which is shown to be alone compatible with a 
high degree of virtue and social happiness on earth, 
has at least a very strong presumption in favour 
of its truth and divine origin. 

In order to form a just estimate of the execution 
and general merits of this work, it is necessary to 
bear in mind the object which the Author bad 
mainly in view in its composition. This was not 

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the bare chronicling of events, or tracing the de- 
tails of each particular story in the annals of man- 
kind : it was rather to take a survey of the course 
or tide of human affiiirs — to observe the ebbings 
and flowings of national prosperity, of social cul- 
ture, of public liberty and happiness — ^ t6 furnish 
us with distinct but rapid glances at those great 
influential causes, which have contributed to stamp 
on every age its pecuhar character — to mark down 
those prominent points in the chart of time which 
have directed the winding stream of history. Ac- 
cordingly, particular facts, and even the order and 
connection of events, are only regarded as of se- 
condary importance. At the same time, circum- 
stantial Accuracy is maintained in the narrative, as 
hr as this is compatible: with the more profound 
system of the writer :^^|#d the work is widely dis- 
tinguished from that species of meagre abstraction, 
which has been termed the philosophy of history. 

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Sbctiom I. — ITie World - • - - i 

SicT.n.-^ Europe - - - - - 4 — Politicfd Constitutions - - • 8 




Sect. I. — Of the Primitive Condition of Mankind - 1 5 

Sect. II. — Of the Primitive Abode of Bfankind - is 

Sbct. in. — Of the Antiquity of the Human Spectes « 20 

Sect. IV. — Beginning of ICstory. —Persia - - 21 

Sect. V. — Assyria - - - - - 22 

Sect. VL — Of the Syrian Coast and Phoenice - - 23 

Sect. VII. — Colchis and Scythia - - - 28 

SBCT.Vm. — Arabians; Jews; Phoenician Colonies - 29 

Sect. IX. — Egypt - v - . - - 50 

Sect. X.-^Aua]Vfinor - - - - 31 

Sect. XI. — Greece - - » ' ' 52 

Sect. XII.— Crete - - - - - 37 

Sect.XHL— The Trojan War - - • - 55 

Sect. XIV. — Italy - - - ^ - - 40 




Sect. L— Introduction - - « - - 44 

Sect. II.— Babylon - - - - - i*. 

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Sect. III. — jEgypt - . - - . - 45 

Sect. IV.— Lacedflcmon - - - - - 46 

Sect, v. — Athens. - - - - - 56 

Sect. VI. — The other Republics in Greece and Lesser Asia 67 

Sect. VII. — Colonies in Italy and Sicily - - - 71 

Sect. VIII. — Rome - .... 72 

Sect. IX. — Carthage '. - - « - 80 

Sect. X. — Conclusion - - - - 84 



Sect. I* -^ Outline of Greek and Roman history 

Sect. II; — Herodotus 

Sect. III. — Thucydides -. - - 

Sect. rv. — Xenophon - - 

Sect, v.— The Theatre . - . 

Sect. VI. — Orat^ors - • , - 

Sect. VII. — Philosophers 

Sect. VIII. — Poets . - ^ - 


book: IV. 


Sect. I. — Pisistratus . . - - . 98 

SBCT.n. — Persia - - - - - 99 

Sect, in.— The Persian War - - - lOO 

SscT.rV. — Supremacy of Athens - - - 104 

Sect. V. — Pericles • - - - 106 

Sect. VI. — The Peloponnedan War - - I07 

Sect. Vn.— The Sicilian War - - ^^ 108 

Sect. Vin.— ^ Destruction of the Athenian Sovereignty - ill 

SlscT. IX. — The S|overeigntyof Lacedeemon . - 115 

Sect. X* — Dedine 6f die Spartan Sovereignty - - 115 

Sect. XI. — Ruin of the Independence of Greece - 117. 

Sect. Xn. — The Macedonian Monarchy - - 120 

Sect. Xni. — Alexander of Macedon - - - 121 

Sect. XIV. — Reflections ~ . - - - ib. 
Sect. XV. — The Kingdom of Macedonia and the Fate of Greece 12J 

SfccT. XVIi — TheSeleuddae - - - - 126 

Sect. XVII. — The Ptolemies - - - - 128 

Sect. XVni.— Conclusion - - - 129 

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CpNTENTSk xvii 
BOOK V. , 



Sjsct. I. — Introduction -- ' - - * - 131 

Sect. n. -^ Polylnus - - - . 132 

Sfi€T. in. — Plautus; Terentius; Cato ... {5; 

Sect. IV.— Sallust - - - . 13;^ 

Sect, v. — Cicero; Cawar; Varro * - - 134 

Sect. VI.*-Nepo8; Catullus; Lucretius; Dionysius of Halicar- . 

nassus; Diodonn of Sicilj - • - 195 

Sect. VII. — Titus livius, andVelleius Paterculus - 136 

Sect. Vm. — Strabo; Mela; Pausanias; Ptolemaeus - 139 

Sect. IX. -^Viqpl; Horace; Ovid - - - i^. 

Sect. X<. -r- Tacitus ; the Elder Pliny - • - 1 40 

Sect. XL— Plutarch; Suetonius - - • I4l 

SscT.Xn. — Later Historians - - - .142 

Sect. Xm. — Various Writers of particular Histories - 1 45 

SkcT. XIV. — Authors who have bonrowed from others - .144 

Sect. XV.— Collections - - - - 145 

Sect. XVI. — Set^ other auidliary Resources * - ' 14^6 


the republic of ROMS. 

Sect. I. — Reign of the Kings - - • - 151 

Sect. 11." — Government of the Consuls - - - 1^^ 

Sect. III. — Tribunes of the People and Dictators - * 155 
Sect. rV. — Wars with the Gauls/ Latium, Samnium, and the 

Nations of the Apennines - - - - 155 
SECT.V.^^TheW^ofPjnrhu* - . - 1S9 
Sect. VI. — The internal Constitution of Rome • - -160 
S«cT. VII, — Genipral View of the Constitution o£ Rome - 1 6a 
Sect, ym.— The Military Affairs of the Romans - -165 
Sect. IX, — Authors who have written particularly on the Mili- 
tary Afbirs of the Romans ... - • I7t 
Sbct. X. — The Manners of the Romans - - - 17^ 
Sect. XI. — The First Punic War, Cisalpine Gaul, Dalm^tia « 1 34 
Sect. XEL — The Second Punic War - - - I88 
Sect. Xni. — The Macedonian and Syrian Wars - * 193 
Sect. XIV. — Tbe Fate of Hannibal and Scipio - .194 
Sect. XV..— Conquest of Macedotiia - - • - 19^5 
Sect. XVL — The Third Punic War * - - - 196 
Sect. XVIL — The Ach®an War - - - 200 
Sect. :^VHL — The Wars in Spain - - - 201 
vol; I. a 

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xviii CONTENTS. 


SicT^XIX. — TheGraccW - • - - 202 

Sect.XX. — ThcCimbric VTar - - ? - 204 

Sect. XXI. — Mithridates - - - 207 

Sect. XXII. — State of Affairs in the City ; War in Italy - ib. 

Sect. XXIIL — Marius and Sylla • - - 210 

.Sect.XXIV. — TheAgeofPompey -> - - 2U 

Sect. XXV. — Csesar, Pompey, and Crassui ; Cato and Cicero 220 

Sect. XXVI. — the War of Caesar in Gaul - - 224 

Sect.XXVIL— Caesar's Civil War - -^ 231 

Sect. XXVin.— Caesar's last War, and his Death - - 236 

Sect. XXIX. •— The Civil War of Brutus and CassiuS - 240 
S&CT. XXX. — Of the Union of Power in the Hands of a sb^le 

Ruler - -* . - . 244 



Sect. I. — Augustus - - - - 247 

Sect, n.— Tiberius - - . . 251 

Sect. m. — Caius; Claudius; Nero - - - 253 

Sect. rV. — The Flavii - - - - - 257 

iSect. V. — The prosperous Times of the Empire - 9SB 

Segt. VI. — Alternation of calamitous Tunes with Periods of 

greater Tranquillity, from A. D. 180 to 235 - - 964 

Sect. Vn. — Tumultuous Period from A. D. 25S to 284 ^ - 267 

BOOK vra. 


Sect. I. — State of Africa - - - . - 272 
Sect. II. — Syria ..--., 274 
Sect. in. — Asia AGnor - - - - • 270 
Sect. IV. — General Survey of the Southern and Eastern Coun- 
tries - - - - - . - 278 
Sect. V. — Europe - - - - - 280 
Sect. VI. — Of the Barbarous Countries in the North - 288 
Sect. VII. — Ancient Germany - «■ - - 290 
Sect. VIII. — Of the earliest Wars between the Germans and 

the Imperial Armies - - - - 305 

Sect.IX. — The Goths - - - - 306 

Sect. X. -^ Alterations in the Cqpstitution of the Roman £9iph% 91 1 

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CONTENTS. ' xix 



SccT. I. — Intrbduction - - - - 318 

JSect. II. -^Religious Systems of the East ^ - - 819 

Sect, m, — Decline of the Religion of Greece and Rome - 385 

Sect. IV. — Moses - - - - - 329 

Sect.V. — History of the Jews - - - - 338 

Sect. VI,— Jesus Christ - - - - 349 

Sect. VII. — Of the Foundation, and first Comiptioni, of the 

Christian Religion . . . • 351 

Sect. Vm. — The Church - • - - 3«0 

Sect. IX. — Conclusion - - . - 365 




Sect. I. — Constantine the Great ... 369 

Sect. DL — Constantius and his Brothers - • - 371 

Sect, ni.— Julian - . . . - 375 

Sect.IV.- Jovian; Valentinian; Valens - . • 379 

Sect, v.— Decline of the Empire - -' - 381 

Sect. VI.— The Huns - - - - - 383 

Sect. Vn.— The Goths in the Roman Empire - S99 

Sect. Vlfi. — Theodo8ius the Firsthand his Sons - «- 395 

Sect. IX. -^ The Age of Valentinian the Third - - 4oa 

Sect. X. — Destruction ofthe Western Empire . - 408 

Sect. XL— Conelusion » . . . . - 412 

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J/sow^il the eiurlie^t epoch to which the Mosaic records 
ref^r, and the promulgatioii of theHebrej?.law, which cpm- 
prises the nuMt ancient history that has jeached our timest 
and is confirmed by accounts that may be r^rded as nearly 
qO]^t4ei<ipol^ry» a space of 41 14 years intervened,, and ftom 
the. latter era to the French Revolution, another of 3409. 
. This latter interval may be divided in the following man^ 
ner : : — One thousand years passed from the time of Moses 
to that of Nebuchadnezzar: a similar peiriod begins ^^ij^h 
thatxsonqueror, and, comprehending' the history of the Bor 
bylonian, Persian, Macedonian, and ]^oman monarchies, 
jfcerminates with the sole reign of. the great Theodostus^ the 
last sovereign of the entire Roman empire.; immeidiately 
after whose time the ancient throq|s of the Caesi^rs shool^ 
jnnder the reiterated attacks of the Barbarians, and fell, 
after havmg stood five himdred years. The third thousand 
years comprise the period of the stru^le between mo- 
narchy and the ancient spirit of northern freedom, and 
^between spiritual and temporal power, and end at, the 
time when the Swiss delivered the king of France from 
the last opponents of his internal sway by their atchieve- 
ments in the Burgundian war. From that time forwards, 
durii^ 300 years, wars were chieSy carried 'on between 
jctompeA hieadsii until the American Revolution occasioned 
the seeds of a political change to be developed, which ha4 
lo^ been secretiy cherished in tlie bosom of the European 

For nine hundred years after the first victory by which 
Alarich had shaken the ancient empire, citizens were first 

VOL. I. B 

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admitted into the states-general of France^ which, like 
most other stata% had baen eonipoifd ewbsively of the 
nobles, either under the audiority or the king or in copr 
junction with him. Six years, afterwards, three individuals 
in a fidd of the Alpine mountains laid the foundation of 
the constitution of Swilsseopiflpdi which fi^r a long time was 
the only considerable democracy. Seventy times seven 
years elapsed, and when this period was folfilled, the ^d* 
zetm of Ftance oveilhrew the king aiid the nofatHiQr^ add 
six years Iftter the Swiss confederacy rteched tfifi hoar c{ 
its dilfsohition or of its renovation. 

W6 have drawn th6 outline of the history of die hnmaa 
race from the origin of authentic record to tb^ trei&ty of 
Paris, which concluded the American war, and this ontiine 
we design to fill up i(s leispre and opportunity permit^ and 
to comprise the whole work in twenty-finir boodcs. S^ 
verid considerations have induced us thus to tncb the 
Causes which have influenced the destinies of mankind^ 
and which have given rise to Ae present state of famimii 
a&irs; in th^ first phice, a desire to turn the nrinds of 
men from a belief in a capricious and malignant fiitaUty, 
to th^ u8€|ful contemplation of those influences which proi- 
ceed from themselves,. an4 which they have it in their 
power to modify: Secondly, to lead them from iheVmii 
expectation of occurtreuces, which either will iiever happen, 
or will in a greater or less de^ee disappoint the hopei 
which are, entertained of theu* effects, to fed the tieoesmty 
of fundamentaf reffe^rinations of other kinds: Thirffly, if 
great communities should be found destitute of the power 
or will to effect such changes^ we aire desirous to lay bdbre 
smaller spates, such as that of Switzerlsoid, or before s&igfe 
families, which are the origin aiid end of dl iBOcid imftitu^ 
tions, a few principles which may serve^ to direct tfa^ way 
amid the gloom of the political storm : Fourthly, we tnmld 
prevent the occurrences which ore at this iftne feUoM/jng 
each other as in a tumalt, from leading omr yoiiili to siip^ 

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l^oie duit flneMM depends merdy^ on* the bcddness of thoid 
%ha htpm ffoami pcmemutd Midiotilrf, And a» the phy^ 
sical pow«r of whidb they hsra Awdiractio% rsdier dian on 
the foUy and weakness of those who have forgotten their 
own rights. And lastly, if it be permitted to an authcNr to 
speak of himsdi^ since the idfecCing spectisicle of Europe 
sinking to destraction, fe&defs it impoMible for htm to 
.hold hia peae^ a^ mm im situation^ is^ suchJthat it vroM 
be eidier dangeioas or qmIms far him to raise hia Yoiee$ 
he n&ohmif 4s wetake oonsokilioii' in imparting our sorrows 
to* a ftitfafbl fricD^ to hold coirnene witb the good and 
geeaft of hia own and of futuve ages concoming affidrs 
wUch irillhotM to eoeldte the sj^paAy of men as loAg 
aa thmritlBr oontiBocB to cdst; 

^rThe five which is^ oetisflming the poHtical febrios of 
l&ropAdiaa tpnoBgiiaAn the n^leetedf state of their hit€fmal 
eonstit«tkms4 Not only the Tiuble piUam of the boiMfag^ 
hitire^beai imt by the paaver of the flames^ but even the 
«UflBtfenndatieiishaMfidai.m. nan. AXb Ae powers of 
defence have been a» imiSbetiai as w«lto agaiuat llli 
GreoafirfiiB; orbythwunNrrioeable natuv^or tfat per^* 
marise nmainer of thmr appKcatioa, hflre vatfaer gi?en to«the 
iMfojing chmoat new fissi^ or hwre ofMaid to it » move 
eortcnsiyr aettie otf adiom Thoa the nobfot and^ most 
mi^ghty strueliittes» wUdi dorfaig » dionsaod ytsm%ovaM;9l 
lotipar period^ had defied the stwaoursnd eardiq«Mricea and 
Ae laasling hand of tioM^ and sesnsed fomMit to endure 
for ever, haveemmblad away; and tfaMe edificss whidi yet 
nemain are Wood wkk the ekmeMs^ of c^mbustfon, and 
IhsaaCip fi» eipiode aT tiw irac bmith of the wind in one 

'jgflSiBaa r^f^™PgrBtl{Hlx 

' We design in the first place to consider constitutions in 
tjiemsebres; to examine then into the state of their fouadai* 
Iknai to ittipihne aften^aadawhat^rwompom may be eqiected 
to be derived firom a general combination in aid of powera 
individttaUy weakenei^ and to comprise the whole results in 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

4 iNTRomnmoir* 

cerHun gcnertd GODdoaioRSy n^iiok may mg^te our just 
r^grets/jBodrgmsalaiaiy iNi»iming«» or aflhid .{Hroqolac^ of 
brJ^ter BC^ifs i& tbe future tiQieii . 



The cootinents which are Juiluibitod by the faumQn race 
ivStre raised in the coarse of minttmbered agea by certain 
movemeiits df the primeval wi^t^rs, asd by the itifluence bf 
fereign Mrorlds, the kwa of whidi are scarcely ioMgiiM^k^ 
from the fertilizing boscmi of the ancient Qcean« * Where 
th^ primitiye rode on which every thing restsi had those 
elevations which we name mminlaaHiSy high levels weiie 

' formed around their sides, and living natore was there ediH 
bled to incjresise and devek4>e itsdf. This hi^ipened in 
Europe llEiter than on the hills of Ada, and last of dl in 

. America. ¥.o1r: Around Ural, Altd, and>Bo|^dO| a vi^ iract 
<^ elevated Umd reaches northward and s(mth ward to. the 
sea:' our A^. onVthe oontittry.hpedc off tea aboiiptiy on 
lUeir jM>ilthem. descent ii^ that hcUoivi ynUtb is^partIy:fiUed 
bgr the walenkof the Medttenteean; and on their nor&ern 
dd)e<naiure had a long struggle to maihtdn, while the ba- 
siRs.of Ugh :moiiDtakKlakes, * broken from time ^> time by 
VMriouS'Convnkions,4>oured their impetiiOns torrents ovinr 
the docliyities,' and frei}uently changed the lowlands as fir 
as rthe ocean intd mk insecure: morass* Apoordiiigly the 
noblest plants and ^nimds, 'and man dieir lord,' ittti«es';df 
the h^aldiTul heights and'of |he j)eantiftil vaUeys of those 
mouptailns jb. the midst of Asn, csfme^ driven by later 
exigeocijes,' as fordgnars Ihto Eur^e. Many advcntei^ics 
followed their flocks, some the ch^e^ others were impelled 

*'That all our continents and islands Svere .formerly covered by the . 
ocean, dl natupalists are ready to acknowledge ; bat it hss pa^ed them 
very much to assign an adequate cable for tbe ralMei|bsnt ekivatiiNi of 
the land above the- surface of *the waters. I fear, howeyer» that the 
anthor'^ speculation will not ]>e allowed to stuid on a firmer foundadoa 
€l^ tbe rev^s of some other geologists.' T, . » 

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IHtROBtrcnOK. 5 

bf tfie desire df independeneei while thiough tlie lore of 
tranquil enjoyment the more patient East mibmiteed heiraeiir 
at an eirly'periodto tb^ don^nion ofafew. •> 

Tlie Alpine ranges whose hoary tops adorn our Switztp* 
land and the ne'ighbouring Savoy; which sends forth the 
Rhine to the ocean, and the Danube to the Black S^ 
k oontinued on one side by the Cevennea and Pyrenees^ on 
the Mount FbamiB and the Carpathian chain^ and 
stands like a boundary wall between tbe«nortik and south. 
On the Appenines, whidi we may call its right arm, Italy ha6 
been formed; the left, running from Jura through the Ar- 
dennes, gave support to thcf interior country, and protected 
its recent vegetation from the iilairsions of the northern sea. 
The Europeto mountain-chain* sends forth many bnmches^; 
the waters have formed secondary ranges at ifi feet. Se- 
parate groups without number attest in some places the ri»- 
gular agencies of nature, and in others betray partknlar 
opertifions of the elements. 

It would be fruitltes to follow with eager ooviosity the 
stages of ever^progressiine nature. While the hoUowa of 
ancient lakes laid dry *, and the bed of the retiring ocean, 

f Usmf of tbe most fertOe vallejrB aadfilainfl in die world appear to 
be the bottomflf of andeot lakes laid dry^. an exit having been opened by 
some convulsion of nature, or perhaps, in some insitances, by more' gra- 
dual operations,- for the waters that were previously indosed 'by im- 
penetrable barriers. The whole of Thessaly was said» as Herodotas 
ifrfbrms lis, to have been for many ages a lake,- tillOssa and Olympus 
were separated by some sudden catastrophe, and the Peneua foiind its 
way through the newly-formed vale of Tempe. (See Dr. Ho11and*8 
Travels^ and Beloe's Notes to Herodotus. Polymnia» xa9.>— V^ry n^oy 
extensive districts in Burope appear to have been the theatres ofumilar 
revolutions, and most of the great rivers were formerly mere successions 
of lakes^ like the river St Lawrence in North America. (See the Notes 
to I^fessor Playfair's admirable Illustrations of the Huttonian Theorj^.) 
M. Volney informs us, that the level spaces between the. Alteybany 
mountains and other parallel chains appear to have been inland lakes, 
until tbe rivers which descend from these heists formed for themselves 
exits. In ascending the couiseof the PotOwmac the traveller. finds, after 
passing eachri4ge by the section loaned by tbe tiv^^ anew plain higher 

B 3 

Digitized by 


S wmowcmm. 

nsGf^ gradvally fomed into afaodfc ^mtt fitUd far tbe dvoU^ 
^ of many separate aond Mcficttdieiit nstun^ ike actmtjr 
(^ the human race chiefly displayed ittelf on the two seaa 
mh&A to idle South and NortJi ekher ori^^aHy extended or 
h«ve since opened tfaepuel^vn a way fid* into lihe interior : 
iheae inlets aifctded to the fieople of Eniope n medinm of 
uteroouree, and aikUfbrenterptiaewfaichimra wanting to 
ttbe extensijre is^gimis of Asia and idBrica. It is evident that 
Jrom hcudi these causes liie European xxintinent vm bettor 
* Ad^ted fior ifae hahitatiiwi office and Aterprifling m^ioncu 
AU strengdu isphystcal or aaocal. Thebtto^ipiniedtke 
iadvantaf e in the aonth, the £Dmier(ti>wa>ds die norldi ; \Mt 
.the whole eMk ia the inheritanoe of nnn; And cnstom in- 
ured e!ven die aoatfaem people to ail dimates and seaaooBy 
.nAile cultose hts been aUe to open the genius of liie nop- 
4fcern baifaerian to the diseomry of art& 

€!oi|XKre«l strength is die endowment of natnse; the 
cultivation of the mind is called ferdi by ideas^ and tra$- 
laons handed down} the production of those long-Jbigotte^ 
ages whkh ha^ elapsed sinee the Author of our existence 
.faneathed into our inert mass the bi^tb of life. 

Traditional knowledge, the germ of all humanity, wisdom, 
nnd learning, procosda from the mountains of the primitive 
world. In the north, on account of the hard struggle 
which man had to sustain 4igainst the sterility of nature, 
nothing was peeserved by writing ; much perished in obli- 
vion, or remained undeveloped. In the southern regions, 
knowledge was preserved and disseminated at an early p<&- 
riod by the artof writing, f» that the Chinea^ Indians^ Per-^ 
duis, Bd[>ylonians, Pheenicians, Hebrews, ^Egyptians, 
Greeks, and Etruscans, brought with them into their re- 
X apedvve countries the inheritance o( oertain princ^es, 
whidi hiive been embeiOished or defonned in various ways, 

thaa Ihe pmoeeditig «iie. Many of Hiese valleyB contain ind^endent 
coalfonnatiQisi. (flee Velm^'^AoeouDt of Nenh America.) T. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

yfimwfi^r tenqpil ^mfiiffav^tiimt or hmmmt tmyt or po- 
litic d«|igm or a li& passed on fertile plains whiph afforded 
.im ^^y Hgryiiltyr^ or^iliiig pastures, or amid the tiir 
uittlts of war, or ^pipQg popular assembU^; led t^eirphilor 
^b^n» into yi^ipo^ .1^4>it8 of UiQught, and gave them a 
predilfietion ^ different r/epreawtations. Meanwhile the 
^^ of the ^iprth, who found i^ nature the harshniws oFa 
fljjt$|umith^4 ohtainixt in his jE^nests and mor^Mses onl j. wh^ 
yiii»j0o^ nyce^wry to support eystence^ 

For the rciitr. if? l9U8t Ipo)^ both for the northern W!^ 
^iltbern tbeatKe ^ itctiv^ and refined civili^pn tinder 
t^t tempjgrajte zop/^ beypnfl t;he limits of which excessive 
c^ or .heat ^tfbjji^gi^ (he enie^ of our i]^ture. Under 
t))e i^ur of the one or ijie vehemence of the othca*^ eultmre 
cannot.weU be in^pdtV^^ pr it wjdl hfurdljr be roaintajned 
m aptive inftuence. JSIost o^ the European countries are 
hsippily situated, ^sspejcially ^here the vidni^ of the sea im- 
l^ipYfs t}ie te^lpera$ure of the air, j^ccordijag^ ^e £uro- 
PfSi()P% who recei^ all the arts ^om othenb b^ve carried 
them to gnrater jierfetetionf i^efly because the North of 
ikuiqpe has mapy adva)ili|ges over the North of Asia. 
H^nce w^ may oQiiy^tore, that this portion of the^lobe is 
d^SfilAed to^puMt^t^^e re^US'pf aU the l^^rs of huoianityj^ 
and to rule aver $he otbver r^gipii^orij^ther to pmeiw ihiut 

Those nec^ssiti^ !^hich the indolence of man aeel^s the 
readiest means of sati^Q^Migj^bi^ phi^y ^ p^ssip^ whosie 
variety and insatiable nature distinguish the human being - 
from the brute animals, Jiave^ven occasion to wars^ ever 
imjuft, except on the side of defence, which are like terrible 
but salubrious tempests ; they have taken tlietr'origin £or 
tbe/BOstfAift jlp:M«!{^XpM]w;s vib^y haverov^ ,the powers 
of tthe ]hv««fip ini$^ wj^dti were ^luo^^iig i^ effeminaqf^ 
and have M to the est^j^hment of new systems of society^ 
Tliey are the fyiu^l tefbdjii/ers of that eternal truth, that 
rw^aMpce^ miamh ;4i theci^s of Urth or of fortu^cy 

B 4 

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dte vain, while md», .in proftd or laxtnioiis ddth,'' forgets 
to maintain the dignity of his nature* (XviKzed nations 
then become the spoil of wfld barbiorians, when they relax- 
the Exertions of inind, to which wherever it is manifested all^ 
things are subservient. On those who display the greatest- 
moral and intellectual' vigour, Victory b^tows her laurels/ 
It was through diese means that the 'world became subject- 
to one city, from -the haU of Fingal to the ruins of Balyyion ;' 
it was thus that Islanusm, in the course of 80 years, beealtie' 
the faith and law of nations from the Gianges to the Ebro ; 
it was thus that an insular people^ with one mighty arm' 
oppresdng the Indus, and with mother threatening Peru, 
have erected, on the most instable element, an empire* that* 
can only be destroyed by themselves. These are not the 
endowments of the south or north, of the land, or of the 
sea: together with genius and courage, they are acquired 
and lost. He who is victorious has himself to fear, and he 
who is unfortunate has none other to reproach. It is by 
this principle that Europe, a region of small extent, is 
enabled to hold in her hand the destiny of the world. ' 

Hence arises the inference that those habits of society 
and that mode of government are best adapted to the ac- 
quiring and preserving the xqost desirable objects of human 
life^ by which the moral powers are developed and main- 
tained in the highest possible degree. In this point of 
view we propose to contemplate the forms of government 
which have hitherto existed in Europe. 



All parts of the universe hold a mutual reUtion to ieadi 
oth^r; and in the whQleanpire of .finite^ ni^re^ ndthing 
exists for itself alone. The universe stands in such a relai- 
tion to its first caus^ that it could not subost a moment by 
itsel£ It bdongs to us to study the jmitaalidaitiaiis of 


Digitized by 


beings, wbkb are not our wcfflcB^ bat ike pfO&ii^kMis of 
Nature; and the resalt of this stady constitutea oar kt»* 
The kno^lede^ of thk informs us, how we may he ab}e to 
tui*n every thiqg which exists to.our advantage. Innothmg 
hideed'is man more distinguidied firomithe bmtesi than in 
the faculty €€ aoqniring this knowledge; he possettes'ho' 
other daim to the dominion of the world, but by hissope^ 
rior intellect atone he holds it in subjection. . Moreover, as 
man akme is e^owed with the power of elevating hiuiielf 
to comraunion with the Authcnr of aU things, he standaj wiA 
reject to, all subordinate bdngs, in the situaticm of those^ 
(if we may venture to use the expression) who in monaithi* 
cal governments have the excfaisiye privilege of entering 
into thepresenoe of the sovereign. ' 

The Law ^Nature ik the result* of our relations to die 
visible world, and especially to all beings endowed with 
' feeKng* The generality of men have compreh^ded in* 
deed under tbh tarm, (fimcying that they are under ne 
oblations of duty, except towitfds their equals^) onfy idM; 
which, after abstifacthig.aU personal and local «oimectfons^ . 
every. num owes to his feHow-tapeatures; but tins part of the 
natural law does not embrace its whde ea^Uaaty although k 
is obviously the most interesting to us. 

Since all. meii possess not the faculties and industi^ 
needfid for sifting to the bottom these first prhidples» and 
since it cannot be expected, from the vicdence of human 
pasaons, that among the various pointsr <)d^e^ in whidi 
each albir may be contemplated, men will always adopt the 
most generally beneficial result, as the rule of their conducti 
positive regulation^ were r^uired, in order to support the 
natural lanv with a sofficient p^wer, and firom time to time 
with-efiective measures, against the encroachmoits of ignois 
ance and self-interest. An endless variety of circumstances 
so<m diversified these regulations, and greatly piuk^lied 
Chemj by giving rise to an infinite divansity of relations. 
Mereover viokift changes took place, which qiiiokly gave to 

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simply j«M«9 md from i^ ^piriiand des^[ti of lis first io- 
«^t«itipfi«^ ibk WAS a to)m:e of more complex reUlk)^ 
wUwsb wqnirirf ow pnescripts. 

TiiM9. iiMSCCAsing number of these obtoioed, acpording U> 
ikfi ip)^«6ls with wU^h ii^y y/i&c^ eonversaiit,. ihe diesi^staT 
tm pf civil, .pdli(ic9lt ;piiWc» and iecdesiiiatiatl W; IW 
woiilisst jBffiiars wi»re regulated by posHwe laws, ainoe hu- 
iiifta pwioii9 estQpd to ^, and require in every cpnjuoi^^ 
ta^ a ^xfiierjpt imd di9tiii)i3t JmiM^oxi^ Y^t tbe jwiiMioa^ 
^l^jnid^tiide of (»:diiiances^are ottpable o[ beipg r^dijuoed 
to. a few gepaml principles; it is only n^s^iswry ty> |)oifit 
out <tbe imrticolftf' appUf^<»i% in i^rder tp conliite the 
sophistry of those who will not embrace the ,u|uveraal: 
fcbeme. ^ 

. .In some ioat^iees the laws ];ia ve M^r bfien propose, px 
nt least ff«i£fied,:iii pc^ular assemblies; in otbersi the nadoi^ 
lias jBi^Mnitted ulently iQ the xpmqiands whkb one or more 
ialiyidual^ wlio by yktue cff pmer baye rait^ ibsattgAvm 
X0 hfi ndecsior ]oird% Siavie issued imd^ the fsbmraQter of 
f^msentatmsp ior. protectors of ^ p«<q9le« (One manor 
« bpdy.Qf men have .also admmistf»^ tbe:-ei^eci«ti?e power*^ 
The variations thus produced, ^oonatitusfce gr^ dii^erabies in 
thefwnsofgov^niment. ; ^ 

M^nm^ is 4ibat govjeiHim^nt ift W)hieh a sio^e ^erami 
xul^ Jbttt i$( -aulyisct t^ Kmitatiws by Aie laws, ..over which 
^ jMddtte f»0wer prf^de% wd. watches £^ iheir «pitoeirv- 
^Mio9i. llie ^aiuthoidty .-qf Jthe j^ter p^ flow ilXPi ith^ 
iipJmdpnr of a.l^^g sucoes^n of d%f4fied ance^tor^ !«^ 
&Qm. jtjifir d(e^tiftatipp.t0;tbe defep^.of ,th^r <9w«yj jcr 
#«[m ^thfiir .quaWfioaSipaB ;as pps8e§spr« of land,; th^ jane 
i^bnaed aecof din^ (the s^^ tb^ patri^an ovder^ ^r ;^ 
|)aid;il^0nt. luiojrlh^^iostan^^fe §Hgeripr kapwl^eip diy^fte 
^fuidib'ttmrnafiaks 'tffjifpxi^x^i^^^ 
Gank to the Drmds» a^d fpr ^a loqg jij^iod W the: tribe .^f 
Xevi aWoog :t}» Hebr#»iF6. ; {k^im$ wlwib :taw*is ^fto 

Digitized by 


W, bat the Aiiii^iy vM cf ^ne mitn^ is a oorruplSdn or 
disorganizaticm of mofiaidijr. 

Jriaocra^ U ibe gorernment of ancient families, and oT 
ikoie wlio axe fikoaen by tfaiw intd the senate. This 
assenbly eitber consists, as at Yenic^ of the whokbody to 
whom tbcir i^iH^i^t gives a share in the gcyremment, or 
k is a sdeetnumber diosm out of th^n, as at Bern. One 
braDch df tUs fom of adoMBis^aition is TUmocrapyf or iSmt 
constxlutiaP» in whidi the laws define a certain property, 
Ibeppsieysois of which, alone, ave'Ciq9iA>leofb<^£ngoiBoes. 
This t^rstfluv «Bd aiwtocracy in general, degenerate into 
Oligture^ that if, into a farm <^f govemment in whidi ^e 
diief power, by dl^hlws, or by descent, or accident, is con- 
ifiiied to a very smdU number of men. DemocrMy denotes, 
aecorifingtothe old sigmfication-of the word, Ibat system of 
gov^prtmient, in which aU the ddaens, assembled,, partake 
«i the siipr^me power* When aU the hmdholders, thoi:^ 
mot citiaens^ join with the latter in the exercise of their 
high priitieges, Oddocrapy prevails. This name is also 
given to that condition of the democratic form, in wMch, 
in coMeqn^Ace of bad laws or of violent oommo(loti% the 
power which properly belonged to the pe(^le, has been 
wram^figrre d to the popnlace. 

The best form of government is that which, avoi£ng ^ 
above-mentioned excesses, combines the decisive vigour of 
monatrdhy with the mature wisdom of a senate, and with 
flie aniibaCuig impression >of democracy. But it is rarely 
diat drcmnstanoes allow, rarely diat the sagacity of a law- 
giver has conferred <m his na^on this good fertnne; and 
vrhen it has happened to be obtained, violaice and intrigue 
have eeIdo;m conceded to it a long •duration in a state of 
purity. Sparta, Rem^ and sc^e later rcjKibllcs, but pftr* 
Hculaily England, have sou^ move <x less to attain this 
ideal standard of perfection, but governments of the 
^ple form ftave lAways been more numei^ous and more 

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12 . kNTRODUCTlOff. , 

At tbe same time, it very seldom happeds, that .we fiud a 
form of government wholly unmixed. Religion and pre^ 
vailing opinions impose salutary xiestraintis^ upon despotism: 
in monarchies, it is not easy for the ruler, without one of 
these resources, to govern the nobles according to his 
wishes. An aristocracy is generally indulgent to the 
^people.: it sometimes allows them a participation in the 
most important conclusions, as at Lucem ; or in the election 
to certain high oflSces of state, as at Freyburg: in like 
manner democratic governments are^ for the most part, held 
in check by the influence of a perpetual council, which pre- 
pares affiurs for the deliberation of the popular assembly. - 

By far the most common form of government is the 
oligarcbicaL How cap the sovereign exercise his power, let 
him 1^ as anxious ^ he may to govern for himselt^ without 
confiding on many occasions in the information and pn>7 
ppsals of his ministers? A few party-leaders govern the 
senate and the popular assembly. The nblest, the most 
eloquent, or the richest, will every where take the lead.. 

The essential diflference between the forms of govern- 
ment consists in the various pursuits to trtiich a man must 
direct his .endeavours in order to become powerful in each. 
Another important considentdon relates to the greater ov 
more limited sphere in which the ruler can exert his arbi- 
trary will. 

With respect to the former circumstance^ there . are 
scarcely any governments in which the ambition o^men is 
directed altogether as it ought to be; under a wise prince^ 
those obtain power who deserve it ; ' under a sovereign of an 
oj^osite character, those are successful who possess the 
greatest skill in. the arts of a court Family influence' 
decides for the most part in aristocracies. With the mul- 
titude, doquence and corruption often obtain the victory 
over real merit 

The natural deure of self»preservation does not prevent 
the abuse of power ; human passions, full of resources, pro^ 

Digitized by 



videfori^lcontingttiQies: kings have surrounded thonsdves 
with standing firmie8» ag^nst whose accurate tactics, when 
no conjunctttfe of drcuinstaiices roiises whole nations to , 
the contest) qothlng can previuL . The party-leaders'know 
how to put their private wishes into the mouths of ibe 
people, and thus to avoid all responsibility; moreover 
the depraved crowd who receive bribes, and do any thing 
tot the permission of licentiousness, would sufficiendy pro-' 
tect them. An aristocracy is extremely vigilant over the 
first and scarcely discernible movements: it leaves eveiy 
thing else to its fate^ and is willing to impede even the 
prosperity of a multitude, which is formidable to it. 

With all this, it appears wonderful, that the forms of 
human jspciety could be maintained, in the midst of suci^ 
various corruptions. But the greater number of men sure 
neither firmly bent on good lior on evil. There are few who 
pui^ue only one of the two, . and that ope with all their 
might ; and these moreover must be favoured by. circum 1 
stmces in order to .carry^ their endeavours into efiect. 
Certain attempts are only practicable in particular times, 
and this forms the distinguishing character of ages, the 
regulation of which d^ends on a higher power. 

It is fortunate that even imperfect* modes of .gove^ruaient 
have always a certain tendency tooider; their founders 
have surrounded them with a multitude of forms, vrUch 
always serve as ^ a barrier against great ' calamit]e% and 
whiah impart to the coarse of affairs a certain: r^larity 
for which the multitude, acquire a sort of veneration. The 
more forms there <are, the fewer ^ commotions happen. So 
gr;^ is their authority, that the conquerors of Rome and 
of China have been obliged t6 adopt the laws of the con- 
quered coimiries. 

. Herein consist a^O; the advantages of the oriental an^ 

, other ancient lawgivers: tibey considered as muph Itfae 

^aturje of; men^ as the •circumstances of their particular 

subjects; our laws, for the moist. {Wt, only concern thten 

Digitized by 

Google ^ 

14 ^ mTSODBicmoNr* 

8dv«» with puUic flffinn.' Hit skiplkhy ct mmnersf 
tMi|)eniBte^ iud«Btr]r9 moatmfiy^ thMe (iriUlaary tlrtMi^ 
wki«b amoi^ m each individkifll >i]Mist «^^a to him- 
self beoim^ mamg thd ancitttB vuttUr df piMCr^ptfte 

la ittst, it id tmly thraagk the foflattice of maittiertt that 
9oeiety can^ be maintained: . the laHe mdy fbrm llieiD, bwr 
men mn^ jpve asBittmiee to the Iii#» bf tteir ewii endea^ 
Tdurs. Every thing will go wdt when men shatt declaim 
less oa their share in the supreme power, and each indi- 
ndual flhaH seeis to acquire so ntuch the mote authority 
oyer himse^ Let every one aim at attaining a correct 
estimate of Aings ; for by this means his desires will be very 
much moderated. Let alterations in ihe forms eS govern- 
ment be left to the operation of time^ which- gives to every 
people the constitution of which it is susceptible at each 
parficular period a*d a diflbrent one when it becomes nia- 
tmreribr the change. 

I propose ID the fidlowing discourses to describe the 
origin, growth, and alteration of many forms of govern- 
mebtf and the &te of nations. Nothing wiH contribute 
more to afibrd that true estimate, which is so In^ly ne^ 
eenavy^ of the pseseat emditieii of the European states, 
tiiati u correct view of their establishment and original 
spiirit. We shall come at length to a multitude of treaties, 
whidv daring the last centuiy and a half, have been con** 
dnded by tiiCL most sagaebua statesmen, and agam atinK 
hilated by* the greatest generds : we shall moreover witnes 
the consequences^ whidi have arisen to the prince and 
people^ and the dangenyua situation into which all states 
are thus brought Examples for imitation and warning, 
great weaknesses and urgent necessities, coi^uncturea which 
cidl for temperance^ and 8Kb as require a dfligent investi- 
gation, will often ooenr to us, and will suffer ns^ for A^ 
fisture, to be led into fewer iUttsions by a specious exterior 
and finety sounding wconik. 

Digitized by 







X WO very opposite opinions prevail with respect to the 
primitive condition of the human race. Some traditions 
begin with a golden age of innocence and happiiUNM ; others 
with a state of original barbarism and wild Asorder.* 

* The former of these rqirMentadoiis prevails throi]^h tke fragments 
of remote antiquity preserved among various nadons, and through all 
the rdi^ous tractions of the ancient world. It is found not only in the 
Scriptures or in^ired wridngs of the Jews and ChristJaiis» but in the 
books esteemed sacred Igr various oriental nations, as the Chinese, In- 
dians, Persians, Babylonians, and Egyptians. In the Skukii^ and other 
fragments of Chinese hi^ory, and in the Ramayan of th^ Indian Val- 
mic, pictures are dratrn of the happiness and virtue of the fifit men, 
which resemble the fiation of the golden i^ so edebvated in the my>> 
thok^ of Greece and Rome. Plato says that his countrymen derived - 
all thdr knowledge of divine things from the ancients, v^o, as he . 
tdfirms, " were Mdser and lived nearer to the gods than we.'* The Egyp- 
tians b^gan their history with dynasties of gods and heroes, who were said 
to have assumed humaif ionn {dt^ftmMtita^s rtysmycw) and to bwre dwelt 
among men, and to liave communicated aU arts and sdeaces to the 
Egyptian priests. The golden i^e of the Hindoos, and their numerous 
avatars of the gods, are fictions of a similMr eharacter, as we^ as their 
two royal dynaikias descended from the sua and moon, with ^diich we , 
find a remarkdifte cpiacidenee in the traditiona of Pteru. 

Such is the common sentiasent of antiquity, nf^fl e (ar diAvettt rq>re- 
^ntadons are given by many pfaOesopliera and poets. In thewfitingsof 

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Thus aceordiiig to one repreientslioii oar speeies has con- 
tinufdly beconle more debased in every sooceeding age; 
according to the other it has.gradaaliy attained perfisction 

* m ■ ■ " ■ ■ ■ ■ 

those who describe the ** mtdum et iurpe pecut^* the following passage of 
Lucretius is the most characteristic and poetical : — 

' ** Volgivago vitam tractabant more ferarum, 
Nee robustus erat curd moderator aratri . 
Qttisquam, nee scibat ferro molkier arva; 
N^ nova defodere in terram virgulta nee altis 
Arboribus veteres decidere falcibu' ramos. 
Quod sol, quod imbres dederant, quod terra crearat 
l^nte wA^ satit id plaeabat pectora domim : 
Glandiferas inter curabant corpora ipiercus 
Plenimque, et qus nunc hiberno tempore cernis 
Arbuta puniceo fieri matura colore, 
Plurima tum tellus etiam majora ferebat ; 
Multaque prseterea nomtas turn florida mundi 
Pa6Ki!tid^^t<A7, miseris mortalibus ampla. 
At sedare sitim fluvii fontesque vocabant ; 
^ Ut nunc montibus e magnis decursus aquai 
^Claricitat la^ aitientia saecla feranun* 
Denique noctiyagi sylvestria templa tenebant 
Nympharum ******* 

Necdum res igni scibant tractare, nee uti 
Pellibus, et spoliis corpus vestire ferarum ; 
' Sed nemora et cavos montes, syl^asque polebant 
Et fnitices inter condebant squalida membra, 
Verbera yentonun yitare imbi^dsque coacti. 
Nee commune bonum poterant spectare, nee uUis 
Moribus inter se scibant, nee legibus uti. 
Quod ciuque obtulerat prsedae fortuna ferebat 
Sponte sua sibi quisque yalere et yiyere doctus.'* 

Lue&£T. Ub. r-. - 
^ Wild as the l^easts their wandering liyes they led. * 
No swain robust had turned with guiding hand 
The crooked plough; no iron delyed the land; 
None then to set the |;ender sapling knew. 
Or from tali trees the withered branches hew ; ^ 

What earth spontaneous gaye, and sun and shower 
Matored, sufficed them for the pasring hour. 
Midst oaks, whose nestling mast bestrewed-the ground. 
Nourished diey lay, their feasts with acorns crown'd* 
Then wintry aiimtes, that allure the right. 
With bhuhing hoe of ripen'd scarlet bright, 

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vmnwmAL HivioBn 17 

\}j roaay new moqdnmmtM* If we believe the farmer, imui 
liT^ in iumortel jfouth until a Tein. euiioriftjr incited hni 
lo fallow the deeettAil i^knemente of pesiion against the 
voice of his inward feeliDgs of moral daty, to sacrifice hie 
hai^ness to the serpent-wiles of uisinuatii^ pleasure, or to 
i^ropriate to htmsdf that fire with which the benevolent 
Father of gods and mm. designed to animate and enlighten 
him HI every ease of need. Odiers on the oootrary rriate, 
that man was formed by the slow labours of Nature out of 
the mud of the earth, and produced at kngth m hisprssent 
dMpe^ but attained not until after many generations to that 
vigour and beauty in which he excels all other animals. 

Efuth pour'd more plenteous and of ampler size. 
For the New World, in fresh varieties, 
BloMom'd with ^nial fruits abundant then 
To sate the wfuts of miserable men. 
^ Rivers and fountains, viith their gurgling sounds 
Call'd them to slake iheir thirst in crowds around. 
As now upon the mountain torrent's brink ^ 
% the shrill row allnfed the besfls impsB^Dg dridk. 
With nightly wandtfing step thejr sought the c^ 
Where in her haunt the fabled wood-nymph dwells; 
«^ « * • • « 
Nor fire to them its uses had wrasl'd. 
Nor did the skins of beasts a vesture yield. 
With uncouth limbs they crouch'd in mountain, cave. 
Or groves and woodland glens a shelter gave. 
And close hi thidkeu till the stonn were past 
They shunn'd the peidng shower and beedog blast. 
No common weal the human tribe allied 
Bound by no laws, by no fix'd morals tied. 
Each snatch'd the booty which has Ibrtune brought. 
And wise in instinct, each his welfare sought. 

Elton's Specimens of the Classic Poets, voL if. 
Sds Aisditt^s Braparatio Evapgdka, LeetaDtias» Haet*s Ikilion- 
vmAhi, SbnMSofd^t Coimeciio% Leland^ Townsend, &c Plato in 
ndldx^ p. 17.; in Cratylo^ p. 426.; in lib. iii. de Republica, p.414. ; in 
Thafleb ; in PoHtic% ^74. 

8ee ate for ihe opposite rfl|fir)BBeiitatldftS| Platareh de Ftodtis Philo- 
sophofam,lib.i« PliDyjm56. Diodor.i. Vitruvius, lib. ii. Juvenal, 
Sat.6. &cte. 

TOJU I. c 

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There is truth in both these representations; the first of 
men .were innocent and virtuous; but those were frail and 
corrupt who first submitted themselves to the restraints and 
ordinances of society. 

' It is indeed a striking fact, that the most ancient people, 
in all otbei^ matters wholly uncultivated, had faithful repre- 
sentations and correct ideas of the Deity, of the wcHrld, of a 
fttture state, and even of the motions of the heavenly bodies ; 
while the arts which relate to the conveniences of life are of 
&r more recent date. ■ In mattelrs of the highest import the 
eldest of mankind were wise; in the af&irs of human life 
they were -children* A remembrance of these primitive 
ideas was preserved afterwards among most nations, but 
darkened, deformed^^and misunderstood: even astronomical 
computations were carried on mechanically, without know- 
ledge of the principles. 

Would it not appear that our soul, thait particle of the 
Divine Spirit that dwells within us, had derived from the 
immediate instruction of a h%her nature, and preserved for * 
a time, certain indispensable faculties and ideas, to which it 
tsould not have attained alone? On the other hand, all that 
appertained to the use of material objects was left for the 
exercise of human ingenuity. * Those pure ideas of the 
patriarchs became afterwards obscured among most of the 
races of men by the lapse of time, and through the toilsome 
labour of cultivadng a desert earth : hence necessity stimu- 
lated them to the discovery of various arts. 



There seems to be ho beitter way ®f enquiring where was 
the cradle of tlie human race, than to seek where bread 
com, that universal food of those who have ever possessed 
it, was indigenous, and where the domestic animals which 

* *' Ut varias usus meditando extuaderet artes.'' 

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from times of yore have dwelt with men, had their native 
seat. We ar^ at liberty to suppose that those who first 
wandered forth brought with them their wonted sustenance 
andthese companions of their domestic life. Theophrastus 
obswryed that barley grows wild in the high lands behind the 
Caspian Sea. A pupil of Linnaeus found grain growing 
wild in Bashkiria. On the mountains of Kashmire, in 
Tibet, and in the north of China, it certainly grows many 
years without^ sowing or tillage. On the same mountains 
our household aniihals ttin wild. Great rivers burst forth 
from their sides: the Hoangho or Yellow River leads to 
China ^- the Ganges and the Indus to India. * 

* Adelung has adopted this opinion respecting the original seat of 
the human species, and has mentioned a variety .of considerations in 
support of it. He observes, that the central plain of Asia, being t}^e 
highest region in the globe, must have been the first to emerge from the 
universal ocean, and therefore first became capable of affording a ha^ 
bitable dwelling to terrestrial animals and to the human spedet; hence, 
as the subsiding waters gradually gave up the lower regions to be the 
abode o£ life, they may have descended, and spread themselves progres- 
sively over their new acquisitions. The desert of Kobi, which is the 
summit of the central steppe, is the most elevatctd ridge la the globe. 
From its vicinity the great rivers of Asia take their rise and flow towards 
the four cardinal points. The Selinga, the Ob, the Irtish, the Lena, j 
and the Jenisey, send their waters to the Frozen Ocean; the Jaik I 
flows towards the settbg sun; the Amur and Hoangho, and the. Indus, / 
Ganges, and Burampooter, towards the east and sduth. On the de- 
clivities of these high lands are the plains of Tibet, lower than the 
frozen region of Kobi, where many fertile tracts are well fitted to be- 
come the early seat of animated nature. Here are found not only the 
vine, the olive, rice, the legumina and other plants, on which man has 
in all ages depended, in a great measure, for his sustenance; but all 
those animals run wild upon these mountains, which he has tamed and 
led with him over the whole earth, as the ox, the horse, the ass, the 
sheep, the goat, the camel, the hog, the dog, the cat, and even the 
gentle rein-deer, who accompanies him even to the icy polar tracts. 
In Kashmire plants, animals, and men exist in the greatest physical 

A number of arguments are suggested in favour of this opinion. 
Bailly has referred the origin of the arts and sciences, of astronomy and 
of the old lunar zodiac, and the discovery of the planets, to the most 
northerly tract of Asia, His attachment to Buffon*s hypothesis of the 

c 2 ■ " , ' ^ 

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' Who is able to compute how often the sun his revolted 

in his course, since on some hi^py feld of Kashmire^ or on 

a healthful mountain of Tibet, God insjured into the fir^ 

man of earth.the q)ark of the Ditine Spirit? At present the 

reckonings of time aijsong all nations reach up nearly to 9 

^.j/fA like period. The great numbers of the Chinese, Indians^ 

>^' /?^ ^^ I^gyptians are astronomical, not historical ; not unlike 

}^'^t ^uiTon's Periods of Nature, of which he chooses to assume 

,Ji^^^ MT one of 80,000 years before the earth could have assumed 

1 /fti^A^^ the state in whk^ ^ 

The oldest book of the Chincseannals does not con-> 

mence its historical recbid from an earlier time Aan that of 

.y^^r^ our Trepan war. The Greeks, Homer and I^od, are 

^\ ddfl^ than its author. Neitfiar do the ladianlr csorry Up 

t jA*^ their historical age more than 5600 years. According to 

J' ^* *| 4^ the sdriptural chronology, in that way of reckoning it which 

^'^^, appearsio me the most probably ahncttt three Aottsaad 

V ^ ^ years may be udded to tins eomputaticm.' We xsuKjy in:^y 

' -t ^"^^ opinion, assume 7506 years from the origin of mankind, 

f ;ui«^^jisiti8biowutousl^m€«is of theBiblfib to the presenc 


i^^^n day.* (1784.) )t. 

central fire and the gradual refiigeration of &e earth has drim luin^ 
«ideed» to the banks of the firozen ocean ; bat his atgmn^nts apply more 
jnati^ralty \p the centre of Ana. (See BaiH/s Letters to Voltaire.) ' 

Liastly, in our Scriptinres the second origin of mankind is referred to ^ 
mountainous r^on eastward of SMnar, and the andent books of the 
ISndoos fix the cradle of our race in the same quarter. ITie Hmdoo 
paradise is on Mount-Mem, lAich is on the confines of Kashmire and 
llbct. T. 

• S8S2 years to the ii^ba^ (Septuag. and Jul. Afiican.); 1074 te 
the birth of Terah's eldest son (uol); ©0 to Abraliam (UAer); 75 t? 
hb departure for Canaan ; 215 to Jacob's dq;)arture f6r Egypt ; 430 to 

Moses (MSdiSelis); 592 to die buflding of the temple (Josephus); 

from that time we Mow the common ehronoiegy* . ^ 

UKlTBttftAL SlfflOltT. 21 



From the oldest times we possess only (ragments, which 
consist partly of poems misunderstood, and partly of unccfr- 
tain successions of kings. We propose to confine ourselves 
to those nations who have exercised the greatest influence 
upon ihe &tes of Europe. Within this limit Persia xnity 
well hold the first place; a region of high culture firom the 
earliest age^ where traces of the pure religion of Zerdusht, 
which he brought among the nations firom Mount Albordi, 
may stiU be recognized. The people who inhabit the 
southern side of the great ridge of hills have ever displayed 
greater inventive powers and greater constancy in preserv- 
ing their institutions than the tribes who dwell to the north- 
ward : the former of these endowments they owe to thje ease 
and leisure afforded them by a more propitious climate^ and 
by ibeir practice of temperance ; the latter to their settled 
habitSy, not ^eiag prompted by a restless spirit to a migratory -^ 

The remains of the ancient Persian capital Estakbar*, as 
well as those of the Egyptian Laksorf, and the ruins on the 
hither peninsula of India, bear the expression of majestic 
grajideur, and of a noble desire to hand down to futurity 
eternal memorials of certaia great truths or remarkable 
events. l!lLese elevated. feelings cannot be the effect of cli- 
mate; o^rwise diqr could not Mk stHl to exhibit a like 
influaice in the same countries, where instead of andent 
simplicity and graqdeiir, a fondness for singularity and false 
refinement is now displayed. Was man being nearer to his 
origin cmsciouB of sUgher rank in nature? IKd hethhikless 
on the enjoyments of sense^ imd more on that which endures 
for- ever ? In rdality, the palaces of Dshemshid and Osyman- 
dyas ne as. widdy dxstimguished fi'om that c^ VeraaUles as 
Moses and Homer from tho witsof the n^ of Louis XIV. ■ 

* PempoHs^ , f Thebei. 
c 5 

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We come next to the exuberant fields which the Tigris 
and Euphrates water, especially towards the end of their 
course, and of which Hippocrates has left us an excellent 
description. " All th e productions of As ia," says he, " are 
more beautiful andlar ger than those of th e region we in- 
habit ; theclimateand the manners of men are more gentle ; 
the people are benevolent and generous : many impetuous 
rivers, flowing between banks shaded with noble trees, roll 
their waves through extei;|isive plains ; no country, except 
perhaps Egypt, is more fertile in men and animals, nor are 
the natives any where of greater stature or of finer persons ; 
they love pleasure and yet are not the less brave. They 
have certain national traits of countenance, in which they 
resemble each other more than the people of Europe, whose 
countries and seasons are exposed to more frequent and 
greater vicissitudes." 

It appears that no long period of time had elapsed after 
that great inundation of which almost all nations have some 
knowledge, when the countries above described became the 
seat of colonists, and that certain tribes of these settlers 
acquired in the course of a few centuries an eminent de- 
gree of opulence and power. . We are also informed that 
some nations * descending from the mountains in a very dis- 

* The Chasdim or Chaldaeans. Michaelis consid^ed the Chaldseans- 
as a foreign race in Assyria, and was inclined to derive them from the 
Chalybes of the Greek geographers, who are called Chaldi by the By- 
zantine Stephanos. His chief reason for this opinion was founded on 
the names of Cbaldsean and Babylonian kings preserved in the Scdpture, 
\i^ and by Ptolemy and Syncellus, which differ from the Assyrian names,. 

■ ' and bear an apparent resemblance to those of some northern nations. 

See the supfdement to his work on the Hebrew Laws, sect. 1367. Ade- 
lung, however, seems to have proved that all these names are resolvable 
into the Hebrew or its cognate dialects. This author considers the 
CUasiiUm or Chaldaeans as; aimountaineer people from the North of Mft^ 
sopotamia, but belonging to the Assyrian, or, as he caUs it, the Semitic 
race. Mithridates,'Er8terTheil.p.317.&c. T. 

7^^-^-^ Jy^A^ i.'U^^ /^/^i-lHk^ U,^ uy /2l^" '^^^ 4-i/-C*>4^- 'U^^ 


tant age conquered diese beautiful plains^ when tibey acquired 
civilization, and .under monarchs of whom we hare little 
knowledge. enjoyed tlieir prosperity during many centuries.^ 
We neither know how far their power extended, nor how 
many dynasties ruled over them; but we easily conceive^ 
that the adaptation of the government to the manners of 
the people, the tranquil character of the latter, and the 
custom of continually changing the rulers in the provinces, 
may have given this empire a long duration. Monarchy 
hasofitself this advantage, that its simple tenour and its 
resemblance to the domestic relations between the father of 
tfae^ family and tl^e children and servants, give it stability, 
while the frequent removal of the rulers renders it tolerable^ 
even, to those who delight in, change.. 



Syria, between Lebanon and Mount Taurus, the-. 
Euphrates and the Meditercanean, but chiefly the sea-coast 
as far as it was inhabited by the Phoenicians, obtained a 
powerful influence over all nations. With respect to many 
discoveries we are uncertain whether they belonged to this 
people, or the Egyptians : it is .clear that the Phoenicians 
coinmunicated to us all the sciences of inner Asia. 

The primitive sources of these sciences will probably re- 
main always unknown to us. Thoth or Thoyth, to whom it 
is common to refer them, is not the name of a man, but sig- 
nifies a monument. This mistake gave rise to the fable of 
the pillars of Seth, one of the first men, which in this sen^ 
may be not without historical foundation. But all the i«-.^ 
scriptions on such pillars. On account of the nature of the^ 
oldest written characters or the style of expressioiif werei ^^^'^^ V 


Hence the numerous symbols of the Greek mythology, a ^^ 

/a ^.^.^Vwwj, Digitized by GoOgk 


24 UUfVUSiS* )llfn»T4 

syitem af sabred jftblef» alike willed in its fimt | 
iMtd in th« HDmortel works of thepoel% h9t which, m die 
l;ixywledge oif foreign idioiBS dedined and the hkldoi sente 
was forgottoift became bjr degrees uimiteUigtble. Plalo and 
2SeDO# who^ 600 years after Homer, first midertook to inter- 
pret ib^aEi, and all the school of these philosophersi' who. 
hi^ve duqplayed ihore ingenuity than learning in this panniit^. 
may well be thought to have guessed the meaning of but ji 
small par t« Moreover the mythology had become mixed Witk 
the history of countries, and the gods of varions nations were 
exchanged fi^r eadi other when they only bore some mutual 
resemblance^ The Orioital Hercules may have been the 
Son; the Hercules of Greece was represented as a warrior 
roaming in quest of adventures; in Gaul he was seen in the 
form of a foreign merchant Later writers have pursued 
this work of interpretation in a manner wholly devoid of 
taste: with them Phaethon is an astrikiomer,' who died be- 
fore the completion of his book *; Bellerophon followed the 
same profession, but suffered from addicting himself too 
closely to his studies; the jud^ent of Paris was the de* 
clamation of a rhetorician of that name in prdse of the 
three goddesses ; the expression of a Trojan funereal hymn 
on the premature death of Ganymede the king's son, " the 
gods found him so lovely that they were envious of the 
Earth,^ and the &ble related concerning Tiresias aiid Ce- 
neus, that they were sometimes men and sometimes women^ 
were supposed t6 relate to the introduction of the most im- 
moral passions. 

The best resources that we have from the Greeks for 
comprehending ih some measure the sense of the mytholo- 
gical doctrine which was set forth in their mysteries, are 
the Orphic hymns, which may be partly the work of Qno- 
macrltus, partly of the Pythagorean Cercops. The style of 
diese poems is very sublime. Orpheus, whose name is not 

* Aoon, wif ft *«WTM>* 

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uvmsmsiL miwaNxm 25 

ikmtHf MBhLeA to tisem abce tiiqr omteki Us ddotnn^ \ 
had/iiflUtd £g^ and tbe Phttoicitti oolonM in B«otit# \ 
Scmie obscure knowledge of Moses seems also discoverable 
in these productions. It cannot be denied that the learned 
men of Alexandria may have made various alterations and | 
•ddtdotein th^coun»of*thethirdjC0Btuiy;stiUiftisil^ I 
tbnit diat tbe mysteries contributed rery much to theformii^ { 
and softening of manners,*and especially imparted serenity j 
t» life aa wall as to death by the omsoUng hcq[Ms of ioMMMr- I 
tality. They may wdl hc^ theprcferene^ not in their ea-^ ] 
sential character, but in the manner of representation, over 
ikose frr more r^tcent ideas which havo surronodbd tha 
bed of death with naadbss ierronu * 

* After all that has been said on ihe nature and design of the mys* 
teries which were celebrated over the greater part of the ancient world^ 
the learned are not even now wholly agreed in their opinions on thb 
subject. The obscene rites which formed a part of thes^ ceremonies, 
and the excesses to which th^ are said to have ghren occasion^ are fre« 
qoently spoken of with reprobation by the Fathers of tfaeChnrch, who 
constantly r^ard the mysteries with horror and detestation. On ibe 
other handy they are fipA.en of widi high encomtttflas by the Pagan phl- 
losophersy espedaUy by those of the later Platonic school, as Porphyry, 
JunbHchnSy Produs, and Apuksns, who profess to exjdain tbe intentton 
of these sacred solemnities, and to interpret the strange and unpromia- 
ing symbols which were (exhibited in them in a mysdcal sense ftroufb 
Mt to jnety and virtue. Ht is probabletimt tibe trotitlies b e tw ee n these 
opponie representatiotts. It would appear that the intention with whieh - 
the notaries were first instituted was the promotion of sodal order and 
pisty, such as heathoi piety was; but that <hey had in the course of 
i become greatly comyted, and that the secrat and n ae iar aal 
I were held at tMr cdebrataen gave oecasion to many 

Meorshis has v«y (Mfigaatly oAected the passages ef the 
imlb&t9 hk whidi the mysteries are treated o^ or ^asnaM 
biititwasWafbartoawho first attesBpted, witha^dcgnesf snectss, 
to systematize these scattered facts, and to dednoa ftoB than aof far 
msnous conclusion; and it must be allowed that» aldioii|^ this wiiler 
oMries losw of hb specnlatioat to an aadaa asSeet, aad assuaies » 
lease defwatio^ tone in his assertMnsthaa his authoriiies.wars^ yet 
Aat his, view of the antyect seems tabs esscatially fiOWfeatt Mi^Oihbon 
attadud the JBishop wilh sesne waiBid^ «mI iecDM to have tnccesded ki 
showinfl tbit WMuiton*i account ef the siadi book of ihaiBlHiftas 

Digitized by 



This life was eonsidered in the mysteries as a 'stale of 
^preparation for a'laiting and progressive happines9» or. if 

^thout foundation ; but he has not invalidated the conclusions which 
relate to the purport of the mysteries. 

Amidst' tlie obscurity which prevails on the subject of the mys-i 
teries^ I think we may consider the following facts as tolerably well, 

First, The mysteries were of two kinds. The more public exhibitions 
were Intended to produce an eflbct on the minds of^ the people favour- 
al^e to dvil order, and tending to inspire veneration for the laws. It. 
seems that this was one of the means adopted by the primitive legisla- 
tors of mankind for reclaiming barbarians, and forming the inhabitants 
of the difierent countries whither the mysteries were conveyed to the- 
practice of the sodal duties. They are rq)resented as celebratmg the 
adoption of agriculture and the invention of the arts of life. Diodorus, 
(p. 200. edition of St^hanus) informs us, that the Sicilian feasts of 
Ceres, which lasted ten days, represented the ancient manner of living, 
before men had le^ed the use and culture of bread-corn. From Varro,^ 
Claudi&n, and Amobius it appears that the Eleusinian rites represented 
the life of Ceres and her wanderings in quest of her daughter Proser- 
pine, and her legislation of Sicily and Africa, where she taught the in- 
habitants agriculture and reclaimed them from bari>arism. A passage, 
of Cicero's oration a^punst Verres is veiy fully to this piurpose :— '< Te- 
que, Ceres etLibera quarum ^acra, sicutopiniones hominum et religionesr 
ferunt, longe maximis et occultissimis csi:emonii& continentur, d qwhut 
initia wUb atque victtu, legwany mortm^ wuuisttetudims, humeaatatis exemr 
jfda hommibiu et, cmUUibus daia ac ditpertiUt esse tUcuntur; quarum 
sacra populus Romanus a Orseds ascita et accepta tanta religione pub- 
lice et privadm tuetur, non ut ab aliis hue ailata, sed ut cieteris hinc 
tradita esse videantur, &c" '* Vos etiam atque etiam, implore et ap- ^ 
pello, sanptissimse deie, quae illos Ennenses lacus lucosque colitis, cunctse-^ 
que Siciliae, qun mihi defendenda tradita est, pnesidetis; a.quibus,. 
inventis fragibus, et in orbem terrarum distributis, omnes gentes ac 
. natiqnes vestri religione numinis continentur." The learned Com- 
laeatator Tamebus observes, that the mysteries were c^ed ^' initia,'' 
because they were celebrated in commemoration of the ^ beginnings" 
of civilized life, when Ceres taught agriculture and invented laws to 
restrain men hitherto barbarians. 

Secondly, The injunctions to morality were sanctioned by the doc- 
trine of future rewards and punishments. A remarkable passage from 
Cicero is strongly in proof of this position:—'^ Nam mihi cum multa 
ezinda divinaque videntur Athenie peperisse, turn nihil melius illis mys- 
term, qinbiu ex.'agresti immanique rita ezculti ad humanitatem et- 
mitigati sumus: Initiaque ut appellantur,'ita re ver& prindpia vita^-: 

\ . Digitized by VjOOQIC 


tliat was needful) for a still longer purificatbn."^ It is true 
that this doctrine remained hidden from the common peo- 
ple ; they were not prepare to receive it without abuse f ; 
perhaps it was also on this account that Moses among the 

cognoviimiSy neque solum cum Istitia vivendi rationem accq;>imus^ ^ed 
etiam'cum spe meliore moriendi." (De Leg. c. 14.) The initiated and 
those who should lead a virtuous life were promised an abode in the 
99)001 fMOMo^vffy or islands of the blessed, abounding with fragrant groves^ 
watered by cool and limpid streams, where di^ should gather apibrosial 
fruits from the trees of life, and enjoy a happy immortality, while the 
profane or uninitiated wallowed in a black pool of mud. In the Frogs 
of Aristophanes are many finely.poecioal descriptions of .these imagined, 
scenes. How the fiction of U^e metempsychosis was connected with 
these doctrines does not appear very clearly; but it seems to have 
formed a prominent featm*e in the mystical solemnities, especially in the 
East. It may be questioned indeed whether any ancient people held 
the existence of a future state without some mixture of these fictions, 
and the close connection of the doctrine of the immortality of the soul 
with the metempsychosis, and the absurd .and idolatrous practices to 
which this dogma was found to lead all the Eastern people who adopted 
It, may have been one reason, as our author hints, why Moses withdrew 
the knowledge of a future state from the vulgar, who were prone to 
abuse it, and perhaps reserved it for an isoteric doctrine. 

Thirdly, Concerning the nature of the avop^a, or inviolable mys* 
teries, which were only divulged to a few favoured individuals, it is not 
easy to arrive at a satisfactory conduaon. Thus &r, however, we may 
consider as tolerably clear, that although there is no sufficient evi« 
dence for Warburton's opinion that the object was to expose the false- 
hood of the vulgar polytheism, and to declare the unity of God, yet 
some secret doctrines were taught concerning the natureof the gods, 
which it was held as the most unpardonable ofience to divulge. Hence 
we may infer that they were of such a kind that the publication of 
them was considered as dangerous to the popular beHef in the nqrtho- 
logy. From the writings of Varro, of which fragments are preserved by 
St. Augustine, from num^ous observations of Clemens, of Pjroclus, fifom 
some mystical passages of Euripides and of VirgO, and from the fint 
book of the. Saturnalia of Macrobius, it would appear that the ex-' 
planations of the mythology, which were delivered in th^ mysteries, 
were chiefly physical, and that the most celebrated of the andait 
theosophists were not veiy remote in their dogmas firom the notions 
of Spinoza. T. 

♦ Plato, Cratylus, and De Rcpublica, 3. t Wcm. in Rrotagorl 

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28 uvnrfiRSAL uhtobt. 

Hebrews has scarcely pointed oiit m the. obscure diatance 
some indicaitioiia of the same peoipect. * 



To the northward of the Asiatic plains, theTalHes of the 
tnaceessible Caucasus affiirded an abode to various tribes of 
firee an4 barbaroos people. The inhnbitants of Colchia 
alone, invited to the cultivation of commerce by Ae vidnity 
erf* two seas which were formerly joined towards the north, 
attamed by meant of it to a degree of epuknce whkh ren- 
dered them celebrated. Their territory of small extent lay 
on the eastern shore of the Euxine sea : the greater jNut a( 
it was marshy, and the atmoqdiere humid ; they had fre- 
quent and heavy rains; a great numbw of channek inter- 
sected their pldns, on the banks of which the dwellings of the 
people were placed, raisied for the most pert upon stakes. 
Tl!he natives of the coantry wcare corpulent, and somewhat 
above the middle stature; their language was hardof utter- 
ap^ and ungracefiiL They were tlie Hollanders of those 
andent times. Their chief river the Fhasis, like the Rbiues 
lost itsdif in interminable sands, t 

* Aecordii^ to Fhilo Judiiui» Ckmeni^ EumUiu, and oth^rs^ the 
pnesta of tbe- Hebrew bad an isoteric philosophy ; in "which they drew 
fioirtii torn the l^pei and tyiobelicai xqiretentations of the Mosaic rites, 
aed Aoin vwioiif parts of the sacred books, certain doctrines which 
were pocpesely eonoealcd &om the multitude. Is it probable that this 
Hiode o£ interpretation subsisted among the enfightened few in all ^ges 
of the Hebrew nation? As it was handed down by on^ traditioDy and 
WW liaUe to abuser the Bssancs carried it in the time of Joscphus to 
a culpable excess. 

it is allowed on all hands that the Mosaic ceremonies were typtcd; 
tfaa9t the outward kxm alluded to an inward sense; that the philcnopby 
of this people was both exoteric and isoteric. The only question is, 
whether the isoteric sense was known to the priests. T* . 

t Hippocrates de sitUi aere, tt lods. 

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mrivBBSAL mffrawz, 29 

and the loresto c^ Oermany ae fiur lis th(§ frazen sea, ww a T 

ivfldemew tlffoiigh wludi fliiny pastoral and hunti^ 
laeeisaBAjr roamed* Herodotiifiywfaoccxlieetedantheisbar- ^ 
den all the aocoBiits wJiidi he.coiild cbUmn from ^en^anta I \ 
and tKSftUecsy has deaeribed thcae tribes mi their mannera <S "^ 
with wpniilarfiil eocuracy. We shall make fnfther mention k 
of than in die ooan» of this general outline^ at the period 
^ai tlirjr lieoome important to nnivetsal hiatory. 


Or the great Arabian people^ situated on die confines of I 4 "s^ 
Itoer arid Outer Asia, and in the country of^i^nkincense ^J 1 
and spices, whp during so many centuries receired gold *^ T 
from fare%n mttions, but never submitted unirersally to a ^ J ^ 
foreign yoke, we Aafl have the most proper occasion td ^^ t\ 
treat at that epocb tdien ibey broke out at once from theii* 
boundaries and became lords of ihe finest portions of the 

A Bimilar remark appfies to the Jews. Long as it were 
idnit up in a country of small extent, long despised by the 
moie powerful and cidtirated nations, they obtained at once 
after ibe faBof Jernsalem, by the Chrisdan religion \^hich 
arose among them, a more general, a more dorable influ- 
ence over the human race, dian tihie ancient Romans had 
acquhred by their tihree hundred and twenty triumphs. The 
natural place for rdating dieir history will occur-on a frttur^ >- f 
occasion. ' 1 . ] 

It remains at present to speak of die Phoenician^ by far f ^^ t\ 
the moat important nation in these primitive times, who 
y wcare the inventor of glass> of purple^ ^corngge, and of the 
characters which aftenii^ffda were adopted in Europe. Setr^ 
dug out from a narrow ooast on the Syrian Sea, tbey visited 
aU theshores of the Mediterranean ; they peopled and culti- ^ 
vated th^ isle of I1iaao%mid]a«Byodiers in the vicinity of ^ 


Greeoey aa mmLl as Boeotia^ the north of Africa and the 
coast df Spain. While tfaejr embarked on one side at EUth 
im the Red Sea, to sail round Africa ; they passed ori the 
other throogk dbe 'Spanish strait, son^ tin in the mines 
.of Britain, and amber where the PraSSiAn Radaune pours 
jtaelf into the Baltic ; and as a second Tyre was founded bjr 
them in the Persian Gulf, so Kulm in Prustoa was perhaps 
also their settlement* They ev^i introdhiced among' the 
ancients the notionof islands, and a continent beyond the 

(Atlantic Ocean. The greatest things are effected by the 
smallest nations, who are stimulated by necessity to exertion. 
Much to be lamented is the slender st^te of our know- 
ledge concerning their domestic history- and enteiprises. 
. The latter they were in the habit of conceaUng under the 
roost impenetrable secrecy. Certain discoveries were pur- 
posely consigned to oblivion, because the magistrates 
drelided the too numerous migrations and endless divisions 
of the Phoenician people. Tyre, the mother country, fell 
also at too early a period, and the writers belonging to the 
nation were lost together with its power and liberty. Of 
th^ old Sanchoniathon^ a few and as it seems ill inter- 
preted fragments remain, and we have a still more meagre 
abstract of the later voyages of Hanno. 

The boundaries of Asia towards Africa lose themselves 
in' the sandy desert between Gaza and Pelusium. Many 
travellers have here found their death, where the treacherous 
sands often form the appearance of a bridge over the 
Sirbonitic gulf. 



The land on which we now enter. Delta, the paradise of 
Egypt, is not so old as the world, but has been gradually 
deposited by the waters of the Nile. From the point of 

• Uphagen, Parergfu 

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ihe Delta,, a long. valley ascends, along the, couneqf the , 
rirer beyond Mcsnphh, to tbe spot where L aksw cUeplays its />tA^4^ 
astonidiing ruins. Aniotber valley extends thence . to the 
rodcs over whieh the stream falls in deafening cataracts^ 
To the westward lie deserts of sand; to die eastward 
fsountauiis whose &c^ are washed by the Arabian. Oul^ 
dangerous «' to navigators* The Delt% and these valleys 
comprise Egypt. . ' ' 

^ It b remarkable as one of the most miivers$ll^ fruitM \ 
countries of the earth, and as the abode of a very ancient \ 
people. It equally attracts our notice by the loiig unaltered 
durationof its laws, its customs, and arts. The system of its 
laws was well constituted, and in the strictest ration to 
the nature of the country and the people. Hence, the 
native government long maintained its authority, . as in 
after times, every foreign dominion and institution was frail 
and^ transient. ■ The- former was enaUed to. resist the\ 
transttory conquests' of the Ethiopians, a nation whose i 
manners were by no means foreign to those of its native \ 

In fact, the theocracy, or the sovereignty of ^the priest- 
hopd was also very powerful in Ethiopia. But we know so 
little of the distant parts of Africa, that even recent 
travellers have often only copied from the old and respect-r 
able Agatharchides. No man has penetrated far into the 
. <x>untry, and yet this does not seaou impracticable for those 
who dwell upon the borders. 



f ' The greal^ninsula of Lesser Asia contains very ;foeautiful 
> districts, as well as places strongly fortified, by nature. 
'Many rivers,, some of them of considerable widths water 
luxuriant and enchanting plains; formerly a fiery mountain 
.here and there threw out fllames, and after these becaipe 

Digitized by 


82 uximaAL jmion'* 

cBttiagnUiMl ei^uakeft shook die hnd: but mu the 
men hs^ deposited more soQ about their estuaries mi 
the water haa bean kept at a distance from the ancieBt 
oraften^ the eardiqeakea aho haife more rarely happaned. 

In Lester Aaia, at the £Bet cl Ida* lay Troy^ firom the 
diieftaiasof whidi so many of the royal dynaarien in Eorepe 
hftTe chosan to trace their origin. The tribea indeed 
which peopled Pannonia, Oaul, Italy, and perhiq[>s Greece^ 
may te sn p postd to have effected their paasage in remote 
times bom these oNUis into the neigbourii^ continent of 

Troy itself is an important plaoe in the monoriak of the 
human race. The chieftains who &^ght for wd i^^ainst 
it» have been already during three thonsand yean the 
olgecu of admiration and pity among all dvilted natiomk 
B^ their mignaniiniQr^ by their heroism^ their power* their 
friendships, they merited the immortaliQr whidi Homer hm» 
given thmn. Through them Ask^and Europe came into 
the first donUe 0elat|on% and the Grecian tribes were first 
collected to a common enterprise. This remark leads na 
to enter 1^)00 the primitiye state of Greecew 



▲mcsbmt tradition^ as well as pbysiad obserwition% poi^t 
out the former existence of the land of Lectoniaf wluoh 
would seem to have occupied a part of the space now filled 
by the Grecian «sea« An earthquake probably broke down 
its foundationsi and the whole was finally submerged under 
the waves. Perhaps this event hi^ppened when the sea* 
wiiah ma fiannerly extended over the &ythimi plains 
Ibseed its way through die Bo^horus and precipitin Jtatff 
mto dse basm of the Meditemmean."* Tb^ numeiMs 

* It W88 the opinion of Pallas that the Buxin^ and Caspian seas, sft 
well as the lake Aral, and sercrai others, are the renndiis &f an exten* 

Digitized by 


t/mr£Ii$AL HISTORY. iS 

Isldndd of the Archipelago appear to be the remains ot 
Lectonia. This tract of land probably facijitateli the 
p^£^age of the first colonists out of Asia into our quarter 
of the wiorld. 

For a long time the soH of Greece remaitied cold and 
marshy: an extensive sea covered Thessaly, before the 
Peneus broke for itself a channel through the rocks- of 

TKe oldest naihe in the Grecian history is that of InachuSf 
\trho is said to have founded Argos. His existence has beeii 
doubted, but on insufficient grounds. Ogyges succeeds to 

£lye se8> which covered a great part of the north of Amu (See.PaUas. 
Rei'se durch Siberieo,5 B.) This conjecture of Pallas, which was drawn , 
from his observations ih Siberia, has been confirmed by Klaproth^s Sui^ 
vey of the Country to the N<»%faward of the Caucasus. Lastly, M. de 

' Choiseul GoufiB;^ ^dds, that a grea^ part of Moldavia, Valkchia, and 
Bessarabia, bears evident traces of having formed part of the same iea« 

It has often been conjectured that the opening of the Bosphorus was 
the occasion of the draining; of this ocean in< the midst of Burope and 
Asa. The memory of this disruption of the two contments was pre* 
served in the traditioiis of Greece. Strabo (Ub. L p.49*}» ?W (Hist. 
Nat. lib. ii. c. 90.), and Diodorus (lib. v. c. 47.), have collected the aiv- 
c!ent memorials which existed of so striking a catastrophe. The truth 
of the story has, however, been placed on more secure grounds by phy- 
sical observations on the districts in the vicinity of the Bosphorus.' See 
Dr. Clarke's Travels, and particularly a M^moire by M. de ChcHseul 
Gouffier in the Mems. de Institut. Royal de France, 18x5, in which the 
author has collected much curious information on this subject. 

~ It appears that the catastrophe was produced by the operation of 
tolcanoes, the fires of which were still burning in the era of the Argo- 
nautic voyage, and enter into the poetical descriptions of ApoUonlus and 
Valerius Flaccus. In the former poem, Theds is made to say — 

0»ii rs 0^ eroMovb ^ta TrXevyKtUi ^grcp^ttryra; 

Argon, iv. 786. 
** Their vessel through the wandering Isles I bore. 
Where dialed with fire tremendous tempests roar; 
Where pointed rocks the savage shore defend. 
And thundering waves the mortal barriers rend.** 

Preston's Translation, T. 
VOL. I. i> 

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hiniy wbo lived about the time when the Iftke Copais poured 
it9 fertili^ff waters over the wide ^plains pf Boeo^ia. All 
these events happened In such remote peripdp that the tra- 
ditions of the primitive world were distinguisjied by the 
term of Ogygian. ^ 

A somewhat brighter day already appears with the dawn- 
ng of Attic civilization, Cecrops, an Egyptian, built a 
town upon the site, wb^re afterwards the citadel of Athens 
rose in magnificence. He introduced morals and judicial 
regulations, and the country became' an asylupfi for the in- 
nocent and persecuted. Festivals, compacts, and laws thence 
extended their beneficial influence. . . 

A hundred and thirty years after him^ the Phoeni^an 
Cadmus brought the use of letters into Boeotia; and at 
Thebes, in the same country, he erected a citadel. The 
greatest lyric poet, and the most accomplished general of 
the Gredks, were Boeotians; nevertheless this people was 
accused of stupidity. Perhaps they knew not how to va- 
lue these great men. Their discoveries were brought to 
perfection by others, and more usefiilly applied. Ic is more- 
over remarkable, that Cadmus, the &ther of learning who 
taught us to hand down our thoughts to futurity, cfime into 
Greece just at the time when the arms of Joshua, the leader 
of the Jews, drove the Phoenician tribes toward the sea, 
and compelled them to seek refuge in distapt colonies. This 
act of a despised people, scarcely known to the Grecian 
historians, was the occasional cause of all the intellectual 
anid moral excellence which has arisen through the in^uence 
of literature. 

The Phoenicians al^o brought with them the use of wine, 
and the oracle of Delphi seems to have been their work. 
This temple, after the establishment of which the soothsay- 
ing oaks of Dodona fell into oblivion, became a central 
point of union for the different Grecian tribes. 

The latter were distinguished by the name of Hellenes, 
firom Hellen, son of Deucalion, a Thessalian chie^ whom 

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an inimdation compelled to take refiige on Mount Parnas- 
»ii8« situated above Delphi. HelleH united a number of 
tribes. He was the father of Dorus, the grandfather of Ion, j 
the brother of Amphictyon. ' ^ 

This last^, a chief of Locris, established at Thei^mo- 
PjUb, in a pass on the confines of Thessdy and Greece, a . 
periodical assembly of deputies, bearing delegated powers 
fiom eleven or twelve small tribes, each of whom had two 
votes. How these were, to be disposed of was determined 
on a particular day appointed for the public convention of 
each state. The object was to ameliorate manners and to . 
promote religion; it was therdbre ordained that* the power 
of all the confederates should be directed against him who 
fihould destroy any town comprehended in the league, or 
even in war should plunder a temple or cut off or poison 
fountains. The general assembly endeavoured to settle all 
disputes which happened among the Grecian tribes: the 
particular one^ those which occurred in individual states. 
The Amphictyons brought their wives and children with 
them when they assembled. The festival of the tutelar god 
was held, and contests were carried on in the public games. 

So long as the tribes were small, and all the states nearly 
equal in pow«r, it was possible for this constitution to sub- 
sist ; but its weight and utility were lost when Phthiotis and 
Mount OEta influenced the decisions with as many votes 
as the Dorians and lonians ; when at the meeting of the 
Dorian people, the sordid Cytinium had an equal sway 
with the migfaty Laced»mon. Accordingly the form only 
of Ae Amphictyonic council remained : in great affairs 
they bad scarcely as much kifluence as the diet at Ratisbon. 

Before the Trojan war some common enterprises, without 
plan, Ivere attempted by the restless boldness of particular 
chieftains; but these were not national undertakings. Thus 
Jason performed the Ai^onautic voyage in quest of the gold 

♦ See Scymnus Chius, in Hudson's Gepgrapli. Vet. 
D 2 

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of Colchis; a wonderftil expedition, ifwc consider t!ie in-» 
&nt state of navigation: tKus all the chiefs of the PelopoH'^ 
^esud became partakers in tlie &mily feud of Thebes. The 
former of these enterprises was excited by the desire of 
booty; those who emi>arked in the latter were moved by 
the relationship of a chief of Argos to one of the Tbeban 

The peninsula of Peloponnesus, the inhabitants of which 
bad little to fear from external dangers, was jcniinently 
adapted for such exploits. Moreover Pelops, and after 
him Perseus, had gained and imparted to their city of 
Argos, subh a preponderating influence^ that the peninsuUi 
acquired a sort of metropolis*. 

Athefns interfered less in sudi restless movements. AN 
tlca was accordingly better cultivated, and the high court 
of die Areopagus became a venerable exampIe.^ Many 
cities long after acknowleged that agriculture originated 
from Attica, by apnual offerings of the first frhita of their 
^land. * The Athenians were chiefly proud of having first 
introduced popular government among the Greeks. Their 
kings ruled as founders of plantations, with the infldence 
which the merit of the original settlement and the number 
of colonists in their suite unparted; but Theseus joined all 
the twelve Attic boroughs to the chief city, and united their 
senates into one body. Of the townsmen of all of them 
be formed one assembly, to which he intrusted the elee^ 
tion of the king : he retained for himself scarcely any pri- 
. vjlege, except that of presiding at the celebration of sacri- 
fices and in the council, and the command in time of war. f 
Henceforth Athens was distinguished by the preservation of 
a great part of its native customs, while other states were 
exposed to many alterations from external contingencies*- 

* Isocrat Panegyr. . * 

f Mann. ArundeL Thuejd^ Orat. Demostli. 

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SECTION xir.' 


In these ancient times Minos, king of Crete, exercised 
his preponderating power on tbe sea; be drove out the 
barbarous Carians from tbe Cyclades, and exterminated 
piracy, ^hich among the Greeks had been openly pro- 
fessed ; he kept the people of the doasts in awe of bim, and 
at the same time forced them to pay him tribute. Crete 
was very advantageously situated to become mistress of this 
sea; but at length a confederacy arose which put a period 
to her dominion. 

Minos^ wished to render the Cretans mild and gentle in 

their mapners: in order to attain this object, he allowed 

free indulgence to licentious excesses, even of the most ila* 

gitious kind, hoping that the refinements of gallantry would 

^ jnitigate the native ferocity of his subjects, * 

The Cretans, as individuals, possessed eminent skill iu mi- 
litary affairs, while the laws which they adopted prevented 
the state from undertaking any great enterprise abroad, f 
Jjistead of a king, to whose decision every thing was ulti- 
mately referred, they elected ten cosmes or regulators to 
govern in peace and in war. These were chosen from an- 
cient families for a limited time; and when the period, of 
their office was completed, they remained members of the 
senate. The judges were all men of advanced age; young 
men were never allowed to propose any alterations in the laws^ 
and it was especially forbidden to make such proposals in 
any other place than in the senate, and even there it was only 
permitted to be done secretly. For the rest the whole produce 
of the country, which was generally fertile, was divided into 
twelve portions ; all was in common, and the citizens ate toge- 
ther in public companies ; one portion was destined for the 
sacrifices, and another for the hospitable entertainment of 

* Piato, leg. «. Strabo. t= Aristotle, P©fit. a. Plato, leg. i, 

'Pigitized by Google 


Strangers. The lands were cultivated by slaves, and the 
use of arms was reserved for freemen. Fruits, cattle, mo« 
ney, and all other things were under the direction of the 
senate. They were less anxious that the population should 
become numerous, than that every man should be sufficiently 
provided for; and were less desirous of superfluity than of an 
easy and careless life. The chace, gymnastic exercises, and 
wandering in quest of adventures, occupied the life of the 
private citizen. Fighting, and even theft, when executed 
with great adroitness, were regarded as lawful means of 
acquiring address and manual dexterity. 

This constitution had a long duration ; for the assembly 
of the people had simply the privilege of confirming or re- 
jecting the propositions of the senate and the cosmes, with- 
out the slightest modification. It happened indeed sometimes 
that they deposed the cosmes, and refused to elect others ; 
disputes occurred concerning the duration and limits of their 
authority and thkt of the senate; but these contests pro- 
duced only factious commotions; the laws were on the 
whole maintained ; and the island, protected by the sea, 
preserved its fireedom as long as the other Grecian states. 



The Trojan power had formed itself in the borders 
of Mdimt Ida * ; in the course of three hundred years many 
neighbouring Asiatic nations, and lastly even in Europe, 
. the coast of Thrace, and an extensive country reaching to 
the confines of Thessaly,.had become subject to the king of 
Troy, either by voluntary submission or by force of arms. 
This monarch was therefore considered as the richest and 
greatest potentate of western Asia.f Against him the 
princes of the Grecian tribes associated themselves in the 

> * TTFu^tMrn f R^atocumAsisi^ 

, Digitized by CjOOQIC 


cause of Meiielaus king of Lacedsemon, whose consort had 
been carried away by the son of the Trojan monarch. The 
throne of l^roy was oyerturne^ after a ten-years war; at 
the same time the long absence of the chiefs occasioned 
many innovations in Greece which Were very pernicious to 
the reigning dynasties. The Greeks themselves became 
unaccustomed to good order and to the enjojrment of a 
peaceful life ; and hence many dijsturbances arose, in conse- 
quence of which, in the course of the succeeding centuries, 
not only the reigning families were deprived of their power^ -^ 
but monarchy itself was in many instances abolished, and 
aristocracies or d^emocracies introduced. 

The Iliad and Odyssey were probably sung by Homer 
about a century and a half after the destruction of the town, 
of Troy« They are as old as David's Psalm& Originally, 
the Iliad would appear not to have been a single connepted 
poem, but to have attained at a lat^r period its present com- 
plete state. A hundred years after Homer, Lycurgus the 
lawgiver of Lacedaemoa brouglit these poems i^to Greece,, 
and two centuries and a half later Pisistratus is supposed to 
have given them their perfect form. His son Hipparchus 
introduced the custom of reciting rhapsodies at thePana^ 
thenaia, or festival of the tutelar goddess. A more complete 
edition of the Homeric poems, from which our modem ones- 
are taken, was prepared by Aristotle for Alexander the 
Great, which the latters used to keep under h^s pillow in a> 
golden case. Also Aratus the astronomer, Aristarchus of 
Samos, and Aristophanes librarian at Alexandria, bestowed 
their labour on these immortal songs. 

They are, recording to my opinion, the noblest of all 
poems. The orator, the historian, the poet, and the private, 
citizen obtain from them eqttal instruction. A fine moral 
sentiment breathes through the whole. We behold at one 
time the ruinous consequences of violence and anarchy; at^ 
another the power of moderation and reason. Obedience 
and freedom, heroism and miKtary disdpline are recom- . 

B 4 

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mended. Men appear as they are; all is in action; nothing 
is idle or in stagnation. iWe are carried away from our- 
selves) and insttucted without being conscious of it. Hence 
it was that Homer became the pattern of Thucydides, the 
favourite author of the greatest and noblest men, and one of 
the bc^t teachers of the wisdom of human life. 



The population of Italy probably had its beginning about 
the end of this period. The primitive inhabitants descend- 
ing from the north^lwelt in the Apennines, and in the* plains, 
formerly abounding in morasses, which stretch between 
these mountains and the Alps. The sea-coasts were peopled 
ftom the Peloponnesus. CEnotrus, descended from a branch 
of the royal family of Argos which was settled in Arcadia, 
is Considered as the leader of the first aborigenes of La- 
tium. * The primitive people of the neighbouripg parts of 
Italy were named Siculi. The Greeks above-mentioned, with 
the assistance of their countrymen the Pelasgi, achieved such 
conquests, that they soon became the chief inhabitants even 
of the Adriatic coast. .The Pelasgi, driven by Deucalion out 
of Thessaly, had long wandered about, until chance conducted 
.them to the mouth of the Po. Thence the most valiant of. 
their youth passed over the mountains, and discovered die 
Aboi:igines; the rest, desirous of repose, founded not far 
from the place where Ravenna now stands, the town of 
Spina, which by means of commerce and naval power be- 
came mistress of the Adriatic, and whose costly gifts shone 
in the Delphic temple, many centuries after this people had 
suffered destniction from the barbarians. 

The Siculi driven out by the Pelasgi and Aborigenes, 
after they had left Italy, united themselves with the Sicani, 
a Spanish race, at the foot of ^tna, in the beautiful island 
^ which from them received the name of Sicily. 

* DioDjs. Halicarnass. lib. i. 

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. At tlus period the whole popolatioii of Italy was perhaps 
scarcely equal to that which at present exists in the kingdom 
of Naples: but the habits of pastoral and hunting pe(^le 
require an ample space; agriculture was not much knowDy 
and men were fond of a roving and adventurous life. Hence 
arose famines and civil disturbances, in consequence of 
which the rulers of the land resolved to send out colonies* 
For this purpose either every tenth man was chosen by lot, 
or as many men were appointed as had been bom in the 
country during the course of one year. Sometimes those 
who were destined for emigration were selected by the ma- 
gistrate; at others they offered themselves voluntarily. 
Arms were given them, and implements for the most neces- 
sary occupations. Afterwards a sacrifice was prepared, and 
the departing company was recommended to the protection 
of some god. They embarked, sought for land, and founded 
upon ^me remote shore a town which only remained con- 
nected with the mother-country by the worship of common 
deities, and by the sentiment of ancient friendship. They 
often afforded each other mutual aid against foreign con- 
querors, or the oppressive tyranny of some usurping 

There is accordingly more than one great distinction 
between the ancient colonies and ours. * The former were 
founded by nations with the intent that their citizens might 
be enabled to live more commodiously : those of modern 
times have been for the most part mercantile enterprises, 
the object of which is the acquisition of wealth. Accord- 
ingly the ancient colonists raised such productions as were 
necessary to human subsistence; the moderns such as are * 
most advantageous for commerce. When among us the 
state has taken any part in such afiairs, the increase of its 
power and revenues has been the chief end in view. It 
was quite otherwise with the ancients, whose most valuable 

# Snjitb, Wealth of Nations, b. v. 

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property consisted in territorial possessions, and not in gold,, 
and who, on account of the fhiitfulness of their soil and the 
simplicity of their lives, found their wants easily satisfied. 

When great and populous towns covered all the coasts^ 
and room for colonizing was less easily found, skill in the- 
laborious arts must necessarily have been improved * : many 
pei'sons became partakers in the labour before carried on 
V by one ; their operations were performed better and with 
greater dispatch, and inventions were multiplied. Already 
in Homer's time a greater luS^ury displays itself, although 
still near to the unformed tast^ of nature; he mentions 
Qrchomenos, Tyre, Sidon, and the Egyptian Thebes, as 
towns whose riches, politieness, and commerce were the 
wonder of the world. 

For the rert, the wahdiering Pelasgi soon lost all in- 
dependence even in Italy. No regular government among 
them ever attained the period of maturity, but they mixed 
themselves with other nations. 

In Italy the Hetruscans and the Arcadians acquired the 
most lasting distinction ; the former made tbeinselves masters 
of most of the Pelasgic towns; their remarkable skill in the 
affiiirs of religicm, and their knowledge of nature, gave them ' 
the same influence in Italy which the greatness of their ma- 
ritime power and their bold enterprises obtained throligli the , 
whole Mediterranean sea. Their true nan;ie appears to 
have been <^ RhastT' from Resan, one of the ancestors or 
th^ir race; it would appear that they were called Tyrrheni^ 
from the Greek name for their dwellings *, consisting of 
many stories — Tuscans, from the Greek term for sabri- 
ficef , in which as in all kinds of augury they were, the most ' 
experienced masters. Originally they appear to have been 
a race rdated to the northern nations. They governed 
Italy from the Alps to the Tiber ; and after the (jrauls had 
taken from theni the wide valley of the Po, and the ieet of 

^ Lilx>r iiigenium miseris dedit . Manili. 

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the Alps, the confederation of their twelve cities still main- 
tained itself, and supported for centuries its splendid do- 
minion on the sea. 

The seat of the Ai'cadian colbni^ was Mount Palatium 
on the Tiber; Evander, who had become dangerous to 
the powerful of his country by his opulence and wisdom, 
left Arcadia to settle in this district. He brought among 
the barbarians, laws and civilizatipn,^ and industry and com- 
merce soon began to display themselves. Hercules, a 
stranger, persuaded the Italiails and some Gallic and Spanish 
nations to establish a commercial road, for the security of 
which they entered into mutual bonds. 

The commencement of the Italian history is a piece of 
mythology misunderstood. The kingdom of Janus rehire- 
sents the ancient dominion of Chaos, and its transition into 
the organize creation; the age of Saturn is an obscure 
r^oaembrance of the ancient world, a delineation of the 
character of remote antiquity and of the simplicity of the 
primitive times. 

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( ^i ) 





1 HE histcMry of the six centuries which elapsed from the 
destruction of Troy to the time of Solon is less fertile in 
fables, but not accurately known. Poets lived during 
this period, but they took for the most part the passions for 
their themes. There were also historians who acquired 
fame, but the eloquence and surpassing merits of their 
successors, caused their works to fall into speedy oblivion. 



Three hundred years after the Trojan war : the ancient 
kingdom of the Assyrians fell through efieminacy andf 
negligence. Many petty states arose out of its ruins, two 
of which raised themselves to a high degree of power: 
the kings of Media subdued the mountain land of Persia, 
and established relations of amity with the hordes that 
wandered on the eastern side of the Caspian Sea; they 
conquered also a portion of the empire which had centered 
in Nineveh : at the same time the king of Babel or Babylon 
flourished with still greater magnificence and power. 

In this very ancient seat of learning and science, Na- 
bopolassar, after a long period of anarchy and division, 
erected a most powerful monarchy, whose sceptre Ne- 
buchadne:^zar, his son, extended from the mountains of 
Caucasus, where he defeated the Iberians, to the sandy 


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-deserta tf Libya. He burnt Jerusalem, defeated Ammon, 
Moab, and Edom, conquered Tyre the richest commercial 
city of the Phoenicians, laid waste Egypt, and formed for 
his empire a new boundary, either by leaving its borders 
desolate ot in some instances by peopling them with tribes 
drawn from distant countries. He adorned the dty of bis 
residence with the noblest works of architecture. 

Of this city even the ruins are scarcdy discove^ble. 
It is still more difficult to trace the vestiges o^ Nineveh 
which lay at the distance of a three days* joiimey from it 
Time has contributed less to this eflfect than the inarshy i /:i<^^>v 
mature of the soil, in which the ruins have sunk, in som^ 
places, to a considerable depth. The mode of building wai 
besides not well calculated for durability. * 



After the Trojan war, Egypt acquired greater opulence 
than it had before attained. The dynasties into Avhich it 
was divided became united ; the whole country submitted to 
one king; and the latter was subject to the laws, over which 
the priests presided as a restraining power. One circum* 
stance was calculated to disturb this constitution; viz. the 
separation made by Sesostris between the military and 
agricultural classes. If a succession ,of able princes had 
followed, they might have rendered themselves superior, to 
the laws, but the only consequence which ensued was, that 
the rustic became unwarlike, and that the independence of 
Egypt often hung upon the fate of a single battle. 

We talk of the oppressive spirit, we declaim on the 
vanity, of the founders of the vast pyramids* Let us not 
pass so hasty a censure on ancient Egypt Her monu- 
ments have something mysterious which betrays ideas 
worthy of our admiration. Each side of the base of the 

♦ Vossii Obs^rvat. Loud. 1685. 

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46 UMIVfiSAt l|ll9TORr. 

greatttl pyramid 500 times mukipliaj givies 879O75 toises^ 
which ciomplete n gopgrapbical degr^* The cube of the 
nSomet^r 20Q,PQO times multiplied gives ei^actly the same 
result. * 

Toirands the end of the period we are now treat- 
i^g ofy the political weakness which had taken its rise 
from the causes above maitioned began to di^lay itself. 
Egypt, iu order to resist the increasing power of the 
Assyrian monarchy required the aid of the Ethiopians, and 
^an Ethiopian ascended the throne of Pharaoh. But even' 
by gnoh means the state with difficulty held out against the 
riffii^ empire of Asia. Egypt was in general unwarig^e : 
the graat fruitfubess of the land, the fondness of the people 
for all kinds of pleasure, even the inclluation to a life of 
repose which they habitually acquired during the annual 
overflowings of the Nile, rendered the nation effeminate. 
The authority of the priesthood may have contributed to 
this eflPect. 

When the decline of tli^ Egyptian power became mani- 
fest, the people sought for the cause in the personal character 
of their kings; and twelve chiefs were chosen in their stead, 
B.C. 618. ^^'^^ weakened the kingdom by factions, until one 
B.C. 669. of the number re-established the monarchy. But 
Psanmietichus the new sovereign placed his chief reliance on 
a body of foreign troops. Egypt, hitherto shut up in 
itself arid ** hostile to strangers,** was thus opened to com- 
mercial intercourse, and its laws and customs suffered by 
the change. 



Eighty years after Agamemnon at the head of the Gre- 
cian forces had overturned Troy, his descendants the Atridae 
Idst the power which belonged to them in the Peloponnesus. 

* Panctoo. Metrolpgia. Paris, 1780. 

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ThjK posterity of the warriar He^rcules led ihp Do^ans ipto 
liiait country. Tisamenus, the grandson of A^pempon and 
son of Orestes, was defeased and slain; the chief fd(;i©^ ijrere 
partitioned ; and Acl^aia alone was left to the Atridae^ wher^ 
aft^ several centuries, democracy gaine^ the aspcndancy. 
Accordingly Tem^^nu^ obtained for bis sbar« of the con- 
gest the beautiful plains of Argos; tb^ billi^ of Me^sqiia 
fell to Gresphon; Euyysthjpnes and Procles, tbe twiq aom^of 
Aristodemus became king§ of Lacedfi^jQpp, with th^ st%f|il^ 
tion that both of them during th^ir Uvqs, bsx^ a|^ tiieir 
de^th twQ of their descendants, should hold the crown 
joiptly. It was unknown which of thi^m was first born. 
The Delphic gody whcip intarrog^^, replied << tJiat ibe 
eld^t should receive the supreme honours," but gave; no bint 
to which this claim belonged, in order to procure fpr bpth 
jbbe highest dignity without contention. The famiUes 
of thf Heraclidse f|lsp joined in a le^u^ of mut^al de^ 
fence, and engaged to rule according to the laws. Argoj^ 
and Messene never attained secure tranquillity ; J^^aceda^mon 
was long the ^ort of factiop, but acquir^ ^t last a cop^Uur 
tion whjcb will ever be in the highest d^grqe remarkably a^ 
displaying the victory of one pripciple of the unders^andiflg 
oyer tl^e strpng^t natural passions*. 

\i^(^,d,^mon or S^fjrta ^as ^ very large town <p tl|e 
river Eiirota^, sl^ the foot pf Taygetua, lyberie the rills i^hich 
ta|c^ their xh^ from the Arcadian mountains, the bigl^^t 
of th^ Peloponnesus, lose thenisplves towards the se$. The 
^ot by wbic^ niost public pfiic^s w^e ^t first distributed 
(hreiv^ them not ali^Ays into th^ li^ands w^ich w^re ippst fit 
tp rejstr^iji ^yithin the bounds of good order the passions of 
powerful men; but 150 years afier the entrance of tbo ife^ 
r^lid^?, Lycurgu^, ti|tpr of l^ng Lpobotu^ gave laws to 
the Lacejiapponi^ns ci\lculated to found, on tibe r<;uiia pf aU 
the oliier wi.shes and feeliijgs pf men, and with tbe app^^* 
ance of rude and barbarous n^anners, ap het^ ^arfu^t^r 
in which the pride of being Lacedaemonians wasLthe only 

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sentiment It is possible that he obtained this idea froifff 
Lyctos in Crete^ where be had family connections, as Minoi^ 
himsdf received instruction firom the Egyptians. It is als6 
probable that a secret association, that powerful instrument 
of revolution, facilitated the change which he wished 16 
eflfect in p,ublic opinion. In order to effect the intro-> 
duction of his meditated scheme, he made use, as Muios 
had done before, of Apollo and the other gods; a practice 
which the Ephori afterwards adopted. 

All the heroes, lawgivers, and the most illustrious sages of 
Greece were supported by the Delphian god ; the under- 
standing which they maintained with his priestess, like that- 
c^the Roman Senate with the College of Priests and Augurs, 
gave them the preponderance in the decision of the most 
important affairs; and we must injustice to the oracles ob- 
serve^ that the maintenance of freedom and good order, and 
the soitening of manners, were the chief objects of theif 

Although in the government of Lacedaemon the chief 
authority was in the hands of the two kings, the five ephori, 
and the senate of twenty-eight; though the popular assembly 
had no other privilege than the power of electing the sen- 
ators, who held their places for life; though the more opu- 
lent citizens only were admitted into the popular assembly, 
yet the constitution of Lacedaemon was often called by the 
ancients a popular government, and even the most power- 
ful of democracies.* They considered democracy as con- 
sisting not so much in the forms as in the spirit of the 
administration, and felt that an assembly of the people is 
incapable of governing. The object of their wishes was a 
popular equality of manners.f 

The joint sway of the two kings was the corner-stone of 
tlie constitution, because each prevented his colleague from 
erecting tyrannical dominion, and it was the interest of 
both that the ephori shodd not oppress the senate or the 

♦ Isocratea. Areopag, f Aristot. Politic. 4. 

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sentton degrade the people. 0n the other hand» the au- 
thority of the ephori was also usefiil to them; for which' 
reason il! is probable that King Theopompus introduced it. 
This venerated body, in unfortunate turns of affairs,^ took 
from the senate a share of the responsibility. Religioa 
was the protection of the monarchy. .The royal house^ de^ 
scended through Hercules from the supreme God of (Mym*** 
pus, could most worthily perform the highest ofiferings for 
the fortune of Lacedsemon : as the progeny of the henv 
as the descendants of the conqueror, the kings most natu- 
rally became generals in war, and exercised in that ofiSce 
unlimited power. 

Their revenues depended on these two relations. The 
kings had their share of the sacrifices which were regularly 
offered in corn, flesh, and wine, on the first and seventh 
day of each mpnth. That a victim might never b^ wanting 
to them in cases of sudden need, they received always a pig 
from every sow which littered. At the public meals a 
double share was allotted to them. They had a large fish- 
pond near their house and a considerable possession in 
land, the inheritance of conquest. The two public messen- 
gers who were sent to Delphi were nominated by them, 
resided In their houses, and in common with them superin- 
tended the archives of. the oracular responses. As marriage 
in wdl-ordered communities is respected as a sacred bond, 
the betrothing of orphan daughters depended on the kings. 
It was only under their superintendance that any young 
person could be adopted as a chUd into another fapily* and 
dierefore take a share in the service of strange £iousehoId 
gods. Every where, in the senate and at the public shows, 
they had the first rank; every man except the ephori rose 
fi^m his seat when one of the kings appeared. In war the 
army knew no other command; the influence of the ephori 
bad an end as soon als the forces were assembled. 

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-'Each cF$he six divisions "% of which the army eoaaxlei^ 
was led by one polemarch or military commander, and waa* 
divided into four battalions f under so many lochagi or 
captains. Each battalion, consisting at first of one hundred 
men, was, divided into two companies of fifty, and finally 
each of the last into subdivisions of twenty-five. This 
army, mider the first of the kings, contained two thousand 
cidzens; and when it afterwards became much more nume- 
sons, similar divisiocis were retained with increase of 
strength. The numbers contained under the above-men-^ 
tioned distributions depended on the secret decision of the 
king and his own council. In order to conceal the num* 
bers they often arranged more or fewer men in a sinylar 
army under each divisioh. 

In general die simple arrangement and good command 
of their army speedily gave to the Lacedaemonians the ad* 
vantages which are insured by superior tactics. They also 
were the first who availed th^nselves of martial mu&i(^ as 
wcU for regulating the march, as to make the will of the 
leaders intelligible without words to practised ears. % The 
learning of these melodies, which, that they might remain 
unintelligible to the enemy, had muck variety, was one diief 
occupation of their schools. The Lacedaemonians also first 
adopted' military uniform, and they made choice of red in 
ca*der that the enemy might not perceive whether he had 
inflicted any wounds. They were wont to wear their hair long 
as a sign of freedom, a privilege which was not aUowcd ta 
mechanics, as it was not permitted to slaves to bear arms. At 
the opening and during the continuance of war, the military, 
officers always accompanied the army and practised it in 
?the morning in marching, in manipulations, and evolutions: 
they ate with the warriors, exercised them in their songs iSf£ 

f '^ Procedere ad modum tibiamque^ nee adhibere ullam sine ana*^ 
paestis pedibus. hortationem. Cicsno, Tusculan. 2. 

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liaise ta the gods aoA heroes, snd dept like die private sol-' 
diers on their arms. On the confines of their country they ' 
sacrfficed to Jupiter, and to P^las, the goddess of the art 
ofvan they took fire with them from this altar, and repeated* 
tbeir offering before evoy battle. Hiey were very earefiil 
to preserre the splendour of their arms and implements. At 
the conolosion of a war the king gave an account of his 
conduct in the administraticm of it. If he fell for his eoun* 
try his memory was honoured with that of other immor* 
tatized heroes : the whole nation put on mourning when tbe^ 
king died, and a cessationfrom business of every kind was 
observed during ten days. 

But in times of peace tlie college of the ephori and the 
sisnate had greater power. Each king had only a single 
voice at the consultations. The ephori were so powerful 
in the administration of the commonweal^ that they could 
depose^ imprison, and even put to death the kings and aff 
other magistrates who overstepped the just limits of their 
authority : all ofiinioes which had escaped the other eour^ 
of judicature were punished by them, and each of them had 
to this end a class of civil causes under his particular inspect 
doii ; but they could not put any individual to death without 
the concurrence of the senate. Jn this particular and in the 
mode of their election this council bore much resemblance 
to the Athenian Areopagus. It appears that the first meii 
of the sienate^ in order that they might in case of need fill the* 
office of vic^erents, were named " Peers of the kings/* * 
These, together with the ephori and kings, composed the 
privy council, which decided on secret and important afiairs;, 
either with or without the addition of a select number of 
citizens. In the mode in which these powers tuaintaineti 
thepisclves in equilibrium, the Lacedaemonians found the* 
stability of their constitution, while Argos and Messenri 

E 2 ' ■ 

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\8iDly sought to obtain the same security in the ^ctky of 

In order to form citizens of great fortitude^ and whose' 
whole facttltSes should be absorbed in the love of their coon- 
tfrjf the laws applied thems^Tes in the first place to mothers 
»d the infants yet nourished at their breasts. The wives 
did pot give up their whole attention to household affiurs;. 
which were confided to the care of the slaves. The young, 
wom^ followed the exercises of men in order to strengtheo. 
their own bodies^ and to infuse miinly feelings into their * 
ohildren together with their milk. The men did not dare. 

. to visit their wives openly ; because pleasures obtained by 
steals are the more valued. Marriages were not concluded 
until the body had acquired its full vigour, but young men- 
who w^e not married had a right to demand permission to^ 
cohabit with any woman who was very prolific; and if the 
wife was young and her husband old, the latter was not al- 
lowed to refuse the request The Psedonomi presided over 
the whole business of education, and took care that all the 
^hildrenr sliould be annually clothed. The latter however 
W^t barefooted, and were especially inured to support in* 
dement seasons as well as hunger and thirst. They were 
allowed to steal, and were praised when they practised thefl: 
with dexterity ; but ^en fi'om waift of ^vigilance or address 
they suffered thtoiselves to be caught, the Psedonomi or- 
dered them to undergo a punishment, so much the more 
severe as it was intended at the same time to teach them to 
endure pain. To cry out was considered as the last disgrace. 
The boys were divided into troops f commanded by their 
equals but they looked upon all their elders as their supe- 
riors; so that, although they were encouraged to fight in 

^ the' streets, yet during the heat of the conflict they were 
obliged to separate at the command of the meanest citizen ;. 

* Thucyd. Xenoph. Isocrat. Pa^athen. Aristot. Polit. iu. 

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lor ob^ence was held as the greatest of civil virtues. M<»- 
desty* was esteemed in the second place. A boy never spoke ' 
£rst at the public meals, and when interrogated be replied 
briefly, tt was disgraceful for him to turn his eyes to and 
fro in the. streets, but he was ordered to look straight befoi^ 
him, and keep his hands wrapped in his mantle* From the 
youths of adult stature the ephori chose three faippagretes 
or captains of horse, each of whom selected a hundred com- 
panions, but he was obliged to give a reason for his choice; 
great emulation accordingly was excited, and a iloble rival- 
ship for the reputation of good conduct. These three hun- 
dred were often used by the sec£ret council for the execution 
of their commands, particularly against the Helots, who 
wfere the old inhabitants of marshy countries on the sea- 
coast, whom the Lacedaemimians had reduced to slavery, and 
treated with great cruelty. 

All the citizens dined in public, arranged according to 
tribes; the old and young ate together, to the end that the 
sober gravity of age might be enlivened by the vivacity of 
youth ; and that the young men might form their minds bjr 
the wise conversaticm of their seniors* Possesirions were 
for the most part in common, especially slaves, horses^ and 
dogs, the latter of which Laconia produced of remarkably 
good quality. * The chase was a favourite spoit ; and i^ 
general whatever produces health and animation was re^ 
garded as the path to the highest Virtue. He who had fled 
from his enemy never dared to show himself afterwards in 
public places, but was obliged to stand up in the presence 
of young persons. Oil and unguents were forbidden him; 
he was subjected to corporal punishment, and his life was 
harder to endure than many deaths. > 

All arts of gain were forbidden to the citizens, since it 
was held imseemly that a freeman should depend for the 
means of his life upon the will of another. The use of 

* Julius Pollux. Onomastic. Bufibn, 
3E 3 

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%i\ver and gold was ab^hed; the iron eoin waa so large 
and heavy diat the value ci a few hundred dollars fiUed a 
wa^OD* The territory was at first divided into -thirty 
thousand states, of which each a&sen at first possessed oni^. 
Accomplishments were not positively forbidden, but only 
the most useful, such as military tactics, the knowledge of 
languages, and history, were held in esteem. There were 
no authors in Sparta, and for all memorials of the virtues 
of this republic w« are indebted to the > Athenians. The 
Lacedssmonians directed their attention to strength of body, 
liealthfulness, and fortitude: they likewise exhibited for a 
long time a remaricable prudadce and moderation in the 
conduct of affiurs, and many, who could neither read nor 
write^ by the soundness of their understanding baffled the 
acuteness of the most celebrated philosophers. 

The faults of this constitution were the following. Too 
great advantages wore conceded to women, particularly as 
^tiutes devolved by inheritance upcm them, tod Were aho 
suffered to fall to their lot by gift or l^acy. Hence it 
happened that although no man. could alienate the land 
which belonged to him, yet these sole riches of the Spartans 
came at last into the hands of a few families connected 
together by marriage. So many of the men died in war, 
that two-fifths of the land fell into the possession of women. 
Moreover, since the impulses of nature will always maintain 
their right, and since Lycurgus had elevated his people 
above the level of humanity,, it could not fail to happen that 
there were many hypocrites. In reality, the less a man 
dared to enjoy openly, so much the more careful were 
corrupt citizens to conceal what they had contrived to ac- 
quire by unlawful means." The ephori themselves, who 
were ofien poor, suflered this crime to fall to their charge, 
and also forgave many failings of the senate^ in order that 
the latter might be induced' to examine their conduct leas 
scrupulously. Those who could not contribute to the 
public meals were excluded from them and from all share 

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in pvSaiie aflbir% by a law which probably was not enacted 
by Lycurguff* it further happened that the laws not beinjg 
written were in corrupt times interpreted by factions ae- 
cording to their arbitrary will. The introduction of the 
office of navaiteh or admiral, which gave great power aiad 
•opulence, occasioned envy. The, number of the citizens 
being consumed by wars, and seldom or never recruited by 
new additions *, was exhausted to that degree, that instead 
of one thousand five hundred horseman and thirty thousand 
foot it consisted at length of one thousand men only, and 
the thirty thousand portions of land were in the possessioiji 
of only seven hundred persons. 

^ It is true that this corruption did not begin to display 
itself until after the lapse of five centuries and a half, such 
force did the heroic character retain which Lycurgus im*> 
pressed upon his people. What an ascendancy must that 
lawgiver have possessed who knew how to persuade the 
opulent of his country to an equal division of their lands 
and to the abolitimi of money; who changed a whole re^ 
public into a single family, and gave to a corrupt populace 
a love for their coimtry capable of producing such wonder- 
ful effects ; who infused into a multitude a degree of valour 
which never yielded even on the calamitous day of Leuctra, 
and such mutual forbearance^ that no civil war broke out 
among them during seven hundred years, even after the 
decline of manners; who formed ^an army which never en- 
quired how strong the enemy was, but only where he was 
to be found ; youth full of obedience and respect for their 
elders, and at the same time firmly resolved to conquer or 
die for the liberty of Sparta ; old men who after the field 
of Leucti-a with only one hundred young soldiers arrested 
the victorious enemy in his impetuous career; women who 
never repined when their sons fell for their country, but 

* It would appear, however, from Pollux, ,that new adcUtions were 
occasionally made. 

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: bitterly wept when they were not aihvnied to fiorviYe their 
leader and fellow-soldiers; and, lastly, a. nation elpquent in 
«hort proverbs and often in silence, in whom two thousand 
five hundred years have not wholly extinguished the genius 
, of liberty I For after the republic, after Lacedaemon itself 
had perished, neither the Roman power nor the.,tuibulent 
and degrading sway of the Byzantine monarchy, nor the 
arms of the Ottoman Turks^ have been able whoUy to 
subdue the citizens of Lycurgus. The bravest among them, 
as the son of Agesilaus long a^ counselled them, left their 
.falling country and fled with their wives and children to the 
mountains. * After they had lost all, they still saved themr 
selves, and often they descend from the heighb^ of Taygetus 
to reap the fields which their more timid countrymen have 
sown for the oppressor. They still dwell in fi*eedom on 
the mountains of Mai'na imder two chiefs fearless of the 
Janizaries. Some of them have fled to Corsica, some to 
the North American Florida. The Maiuottes themselves 
are strpng, warlike men, and rival their forefathers of 



It is impossible, after taking leave of Lacedaemon to 
speak with interest of Argos, a greater city than Sparta ; or 
of the riches of Corinth,, which disappeared all at once; or 
of the barren antiquity of Sicyon ; or of the turbulent Me#- 
sene; <»r of the monotonous lives of the Arcadian shepherds. 
Athens alone is capable of fixing our attention. 

In the first book we saw Theseus coHect the fishermen, 
shepherds, and rustics from the twelve hamlets of Attica 
into one city at the foot of the Cecropian citadel, which 
was situated at about a league from the sea-coast. Few of 
the old towns were built very near the shores, which were ^ 

* Isocrat. ArcbidamuB. 
■ lot 

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uften alamied by the incursioni^ of pirates. A century and 

a half from the time of Theseus, Codrus king of the Athe- 

-nians ctkred himself in war as a sacrifice for his country. 

After this deed the people left to the kings only 

■"• ^» 1074. _ •3 t* •!•• • 

the supenntendence of certain rehgious rites and 
of the higher courts of judicature,* The principal seat in the 
senate and in the popular assembly, and the command of the 
army, were confided to Medon son of the late king, under 
the title of Archon: This office was at first for life, but four 
centuries afterwards the Athenians limited the reign of the 
archon to ten years, and at last nine arcKons were elected 
instead of one, and continued in office only one year. 

Instead of ^written laws custom and precedent decided 
every thing in Athens; the Areopagus with three other 
courts took cognizance of criminal suits, while the Heliaia, a 
numerous courtof judicature assembled by lot, presided over 
civil causes. The districts f of the city, the kindreds J, and 
the tribes ||, had over their members the right of protection 
and superintendance ; every pitizen was obliged to enrol him- 
self first in his tribe and afterwards in his district. The 
« general assembly of all the Athenian people exercised the 
supreme power. 

The duty of legislating was confided to the archon 
' Draco, a man renowned for his virtues, who produced 
a written code of criminal laws, which was severe, the man* 
Hers of the people being as yet fei«ocious. Not only Ihurder 
was punished with death and confiscation, or perpetual ba- 
nishment, but d^redation and even pettv theft forfeited the 
life of the ofiender, for Draco wished that such crimes might 
never become connected with any enjoyment or gain. This 
wapt of propoi:tion between punishments and crimes rendered 
the fulfilling of these laws impossible, and hence room was 
sfibrded for arbitrary judgment. If the laws of Draco had 

* Lycuigus ia Lepcrat. Antiphon. 

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58 vmimuAL HisroRt. 

boen observed, they would have rei^ered the diaracter of 
the people still more barbarous. 

The six i^rior ardions or the Theainothette were ap- 
pointed for interpreting and |>erfecting the laws, and /or 
superint^diiig their exercise * ; but the necessity of a bet* 
ter code became more and more evident. 

This was produced after thirty years by Solon of Salami% 
a m^n who possessed gteat knowledge of human nature. 
The mind of Solon bad been formed- by long travels ; his 
disposition was gentle and mild ; he loved his fellow-citizens 
imd wished to console them for the evils of life; he beheld 
their frailties with pity and condescension. Solon was 6ne 
0f the seven sages, whose wisdom consisted in pbservation& 
on the conduct of life, and who have transmitted scarce]/ 
> any thing to our times. iSoletn was a poet, and the author of 
sxi ideally perfect constitution which was feigned to have 
existed in the lost r^ion of Atlantis. Proverbial sentence^ 
were the chief work of the seven sages. They handed down 
two of these in the temple of Delphi as the sum of all human 
wisdom; these were^ " Know thyself" .and *^ Do nothing 
to excess." Their philosc^y was of amiable character^ 
and its object was to alleviate the misery of life. To this 
end they instracted their disciples to look for the sources of 
liappiness in themselves ; they taught that what allures the 
people is vain : that man must revere God even in solitude 
«nd in the heart, f The greater number of them were states- 
men, as Chilon, ephor of Lacedsmon, Biss, one of the most 
respectable chiefs of Ionia, Pittacus, sesymnete or president 
of Lesbos, Periander, prince of Corindi, who was mild in 
his sway till necessity forced him to be severe in self-de- 
ience, and who even afterwards acted the part of sfi upright 
mjintiet in the disputes of his neighbours, and died weary qf 
the burden of governmcint Solon, perceiving that a tity 

* Demosth^c. Leptin. Pollux Onomast. 

t Homines existimare op«rtere omnia quae cernimtur t>tonun esse 
plena; fofeenimcaistiores. CTCEKo^Jeg«iL 


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vriiidi already contain^ a numcroas populatioii in a small 
and not very fruitfiil coimtrj could not subsist without th^ 
aid of industry and cotamerce^ directed his attentbn in e^ta<* 
blishing the laws to this object, and gave them such a eha^ 
racter that artificers and merchants might find inducements 
to settle at Athens. He wished accoMingly that each pri- 
Tate individaal should have greater advantages than else* 
where, and that be should have more alluring rights than in 
other constitutions ; hence the dignity of human nature even 
in slaves was no where so much reverenced as in Athens* 
Instead of wishing like Lycuigus to raise his citizens aboi^ 
die feelings of nature, he gave them laws to which their 
affections might be attached, wisiiing to form men, if not 

Yet Solon conceded not to all the citizens the same ri^ts, 
but allotted to eadi class those which were most advanta^ 
geous to it. He left the popular assembly no other power 
in domestic a£birs than to elect magistrates and to inspect 
the account which each of them was obliged to give of his 
administration. He moderated the terror of the oligarchi* 
cal Areopagus, and increased the power of the aristocratic 
senate of five hundred. He established under good regula* 
tions the too demodratic Heliaia. He divided the dtisEens 
according to their property into fourdasses: the magifr( 
trates could only be chosen firom the three first, of which 
the members could never want leisure for the necessary a!* 
tention to af&drs. It was not lawfiil to elect any man who 
was in debt to the state : the son of a citizen who died in** 
solvent could neither enter the popular assembly, nor 
speak before the judges, nor fill any office till he had dia^ 
charged his father's debts. Any man who had beaten iiis 
parents, or had not supported them in their old age, provided 
that they had caused him to learn any trade^ for diis waa 
required ; spendthrifts, or those who had suffered prostitu* 
tim, or had absented themselves firom y^sr^ or thrown away 
iheir anus, were all placed in the same predicament Only 

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married men and those possessed of estates could beeoiM 
generaU or popular orators. Under these regnlaticms the 
choice of an appointed number of senators and magbtrates 
was left to the districts and tribes, but they were limited to 
those who possessed certain qualifications. If several mea 
thus endowed had been proposed, the lot decided the choice* 
All offices appeared to be bestowed by the multitude^ bat 
the laws more powerful than their will did not allow them^ 
at least ib this point, any influence that might be detrimehtal 
to the state. Every man. was interested in the laws, and all 
the citizens held themselves bound for their preservation ; 
they could not fiiil to be attached to them, since it was or-* 
dained by one of the first, that any man who sought to abo« 
lish the democracy should forfeit protection and be deprived 
pf all his property, a tenth part of which was dedicated to 
the gods. If a tyranny should arise, the assassin of the tyrant 
was rewarded with the half of his estate, and the republic 
was bound to support and honour his posterity for ever* 
Thus it 'was part of the oath of the Heliastae to make the 
laws and ordinances of the people and senate the only meat 
sure of their judgment, and never to acquiesce in tyranny, 
oligarchy, or in a new abolition of debt (for they had been 
obliged in the beginning to suffer this measure to take 
place once), to resist any division of property destructive of 
private rights, or the lengthening of the appointed period 
of any office, or the reflection of any magistrate who had 
fiuled to give an account of his administration, . In sudden 
.emergencies the senate had power to make decrees, but they 
were i;iot valid more than a year. New laws must be pro- 
posed in the first place to the magistrates ; if they were ap« 
proved by .them, they were hung up publicly near the sta- 
tues of the tutelar god of each tribe ; lastly, the public 
scribe read them to the popular assembly on certain days 
appoiijited for the purpose* The ThesmothetsB alone, who 
were more than thirty years old and were bound .by the 
oath; of , the magistrates, had a right to invent laws. No 

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Ae^ law could be introduced until the old one had been 
solemnly abolished ; and before this could happen, the latter 
mfist be publicly defended by five citizens nominated for 
that purpose. 

Every thing being subjected to scrutiny: election and the 
lot could not introduce any man to an important trust, or to 
any office which lasted more than thirty days, without his 
passing under an examination before the magistrates. . No 
individual, even a priest, could dispose of his person and 
estate, until he had given a satisfactory account of his cdn- 
duct before the Areopagus and the senate. The Tbesmo- 
tbetce were obliged once a year to examine the code of laws,: 
id order to discover if any thing contradictory or any double 
law on the same subject had introduced itself, or if any^ . 
thing obsolete was therein contained. 

The legislative power belonged only to the citizens; no 
foreigner dared, under pain of death, to appear in the po- 
pular assembly: it was equally forbidden to any person- 
wha had been condemned for cowardice, a brutality of 

In order to be made a citizen six thousand votes were 
required, and even if a greater number had approved the 
candidate, he was obliged to undergo an examination 
before the magistrates. The new citizen himself could 
never attain, during his whole life, to the priesthood or 

T^e ostracism is well known, by which a number of votes 
being obtained against a powerful citizen, he could be ba- 
nilshed from the city for ten years without any crime being 
alleged against him,, or permission given him to plead his 
cause.' The same custom prevailed at Argos. This prac- 
tice, which was introduced against men who were more« 
powerful than the laws,, was often a destructive tool in the 
hflCnds of factious demagogues, and good citizens often im- 
pj^ecated (his institution on the enemies of Athens. The 
spirit of ;fa^ion which; was ,fa;^Uired. by it, and the arts of 

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6i2 ' vmvEnsAh HifiTonv; 

iotrigue which were necessary even to teuly' gretit men forr 
flieir protection, were th^ main causes of the fidl of the re^* 
public. 'The only thing that can be said for the oftraoism' 
iSy that on account of the facility with which great citizens' 
became oppressors of the people, this honourable oppression, 
to which innocent persons were liable for a time, appeaired a. 
less evil than the danger which the whole state might inonr 
from a private individual. In cases of collision the interests 
of the smaller number must yield to that of the country. 
' So long as the manners of the nation remained uocormpt^ 
Ae Jbad consequences of democracy were less observable ; 
and we most allow that the laws did much towards the fom^ 
ing of public morals. No state was more strennpus in reli- 
gious worship, and public proceedings were for the most part 
rendered solemn by the celebration of pious observances* 
The kings and the Eumolpidae took care that nothing in- 
decent or disorderly should offend the gods. Persons iii 
amthority watched over education; even the hours of bodily 
exercise wete long superintended ; chaste manners were . 
required for the fulfilling of various religious rites, and even 
for civil affairs. Although it is impossible wholly to prevent 
excesses, yet wise men have thought it proper to forbid 
them, because whatever must be done in secret will be more 
seldom perpetrated, and not by all. In general it was the 
fhndamental maxim of the lawgiver that man ought to exert* 
his utmost power in order to obtain dominion over his 
passions^ and to raise himself above the instincts which he 
has in common with the brutes. The Athenians perceived 
that the observance of temperance has much influence in 
preserving and perfecting morals. The [Punishment of 
adultery depended almost entirely on the injured husband; 
only it was not in his power wholly to for^ve. Women oon^ 
victed of this crime were excluded from the worship of thei 
gods: when an' adulteress made her appearance in the 
temple, her ornaments were stri[^ed off; she was driven out 
with stripes, and the man who had introduced her wat^ 

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puhidied wkh death. It is related of Hippomen^ a dlizen 
of thB royal houses that having detected a man in improper 
fiuniliarity with his unmarried daughter, he crushed him to 
pieces under the wheels of a chariot in which he. sat witii 
the young woman, whom he afterwards caused to be walled 
^> alive with a horse. Marriage indeed was accompanied 
among the ancients with so much religious solemnity that 
the violation of its laws seemed to involve contempt of the 
gods. Drunkenness was a crime in Lacedsemon, but in 
Athens it was only forbidden to a slave to drink in a public 
tavern. ^ 

livery age had its overseers and respective duties under 
Ale supmntendance of the Areopagus. All young people 
did not receive the same education, but every one that whidi 
was adapted to the circumstances of his fortune. Children 
in general learnt reading and writing, arithn^etic and the 
songs in praise of the gods, the heroes, and their ancestors. 
Afterwards the poor were occupied with agriculture and 
commerce; the rich chiefly with military exercises, and 
especially that cavalry exercise which became so celebrated 
in this state. Many hours ^ere occupied with the chace, 
the gymnastic exercises, and afterwards with philosophy. 

The poorer citizens became tenants to the rich ; the httei" 
sought the &vour of the people by fair contracts ; this they 
acquired by a display of magnificence which aifprded em- 
ployment to numerous artisans. They were obliged to en- 
deavour to please the meanest individual, who gave his,vote 
for conferring the highest dignities. The command of the 
armies especially was given ^y simple elections, and her& 
Idle open vote prevailed. This custom was better than that 
of the Swiss federation, in which much more regard is paid t6 
Ae canton from which each general is chosen, than to thd 
qualifications which he ought to possess. 

Sobn's laws gave to each class of the citizens the rights 
tliat were most adapted to thdr condition. Those possessed 
pf Ihe most ample fortune, who werexhiefly interested in 

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the mamtenaiice of order, -were eligible to die senate of fire 
hundred, and the mo6t noble to the Areopagus. This court 
had a, • kind of superintendance over the public manners.^ 
The rites o( religion, arms,, and the revenues, were under 
the administration of the senate, which also proposed to the 
people wars, peace, treaties, and all affairs that related to 
theallie»; it managed all business belonging to the city 
and country, as well as the courts of justice, and had the 
high concerns of the state under its controuL The popular 
assembly contained at different times from twentyvihousand 
to thirty thousand citizens. In order that no man might be 
injured in his person, a law was established which extended 
to the conduct enjoined towards slaves. It was forbidden 
to strike them ; they wore no livery, and they were not 
obliged to give place when they met a free man. No city 
possessed so many well-ordered schools, baths, or dining* 
halls for the districts or fraternities. 

Yet the Attic government was not so lasting as the Lace- 
daemonian; those who were always under the necessity of 
pleasing the many, flattered their passions too much, and 
thereby introduced a corruption of manners. The greatest 
talents were required in order to withstand the inclinations 
of the multitude in so great a city. How much more was 
this the case, when Athens became mistress of the sea! 
when a great number of mariners without morals, necessitous 
and greedy, came into the popular assembly ! Hencefor- 
ward the people paid little respect to virtue or honour, but 
were solely intent on exercismg to the utmost their demo- . 
cratic power. Honest men were soon unwilling to acknow- 
ledge a country thus governed as their own. *^ In an 
aristocracy," says Xenophon, <^ extravagance and injustice 
have less prevalence; a multitude is m poverty more d^ . 
praved, in prosperity of insupportable insolence, and altogen 
ther intent upon selfish gain and licentiousness. Where it 
governs, who can oblige it to render an acoount? Few 
great Athenians have died a natjural death in Hmx native 

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comUijr. Nodty domjbeered more yiokatly, or took more 
fearfiil Tengeance tor the least resistance to its swfty $ many 
of its public judgments were atrodous and unstable; and 
treachery often lyrked behind the scene* For these reittOnB«is could not maintain the dominion of Greece dnring 
ei^ty years, and shortly fell so low, that the remembrance 
of former dignity gave place to the basest adulaticm. 
. This celebrated city was built upon an uneven found*^ 
ation p its streets were irr^ular and very narrow, and few 
private houses were remarkably splendid. On the other 
hand, all ages have beheld with ddight its public buQdings, 
and have admired the wonderful effects which the creative 
power of genids can display in metal and stone. 

The Athenians possessed a greater share of acuteness, 
and the Lacedsmonians greater strength. Orators of the 
most splendid talen^ rivalled each other in ruling the Athe* 
nian people^ among whom every individual aimed at dis* 
playing his genius in political affitirs; the pursuit of the 
Lacedasmonians was to govern the instincts of nature and 
to maiiitain their freedom and their constitution. The 
Athenian possessed a thousand qualifications ; the Lacedae* 
momMd cared for nothing but liberty. They maintained 
this during a long period: the Athenians, when they had 
lost every thmg else, preserved theur wit, and taste, and 
philosDi^y, and hence thi^ maintained a sort of splendour 
VBtil the total extinction of the ancient - world. Thdr 
minds abounded with a profusion of ideas: the citizens 
of Lycurgus had a few deeply engraven principles of which * 
they: were so much the more tenacious, while their rivals 
>w«re subject to. incessant change. 

The great Pericles praised his fellow-citizens of Athens, 
ignr. having lost nothing of their warlike spirit, through the 
ddtivation' of the sciences; yet the latter had not then 
attained any , great advancement among people who 
twnbled supen^tiously at an eclipse of the ^n; and' in 
ysiawc the AthemoiU were not equal to th^ lbot'*soldiers of ' 

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the iMedmsaotisain. His oommenckitkm dFthe Athfidltttis, 
d^at in timeei of war thqr no lopger amused tbemtehes 
with the flowers of onitoiyy was intended as an admonition. 
Thoo^ Perides flattered them on die gtonnd diat «adi 
jBi^jianic knew sonieditng of the affiiirs of the state, yet it 
is not to be forgotten that this half knowledge operated 
greatly to the ruin of the rqiublic; each individual fimcied 
that he understood every thing as well as the most tSslin- 
goished statesm^m. Athens never flourished more than 
when the thundering eloquence iuid the irreproachable 
virtue of a Perides held the multitude in controul. 

The Attic republic was more sfdendid than any others in 
Greece; in essential excellences the £^iartan may daim 
some pre-eminence. Happy the states happy the man who 
unites the fine qualities of the Athenians with the magna- 
nimity of the good citizens of Sparta I Loftiness of unnd, 
heroism, the manly freed<»n and apea character of the 
Spartan, is justly the first object $ but after you have learnt 
to have as few wants as possible, neglect not to become 
capable of many great and noble actions. Republics may 
• hence learn to be modatite in fireedom; and when it is 
their fiite to exist no longer, still to preserve their honomv 
able name. 

The governments of the andents were in closer rdatioa 
to the times, to the countries and the people under thdr 
ni^gy than ours. The RicMnan law, foreign to our manners, 
has introduced among us many disadvantages. Althoi^ 
the ancients spoke less than we of the love of mankind in 
general, although diey held slaves and foreigners in much 
less r^rd, yet the spirit of patriotism prevailed more 
lunong them. In those little states, or more properly towns, 
men were nearer to the first fiunily relations, and therefore 
no man ever thoiight of introducing foreign mannera. 
Accordingly all public afiaurs, charaetevSf ^eustoms, «nd 
books were in the character of the titte% and of each 
nation, till Alegumder and Borne e0ected « tfexpral inlcp* 


Digitized by 


t7|iiTSfl6AI. HlflTOET. 0f 

nRStiir«# It wtts theft alio lor die first time that writan 
lo6t the mcieot sittidioity and pdpnlarity ef their style. 



ArrEft the Heraclidae had secured their possessions in 
tdie Peloponnesus, and the . government of Athens became 
settled under archcHis, the political system of Greece ac- 
quired stability. Men of adventurous spirit, when their 
country no longer afforded a, field for revolutionary enter- 
prizes, employed themselves in founding coldnies. 

Argoe received laws from the Heraclide Phidon, 
who gave to aQ citizens able to maintain a horse, 
a share in the supreme power. He also encouraged 
industry: he appears to have given to weights and measures 
values which became generally established, and caused 
money to be coined in the island of iEgina. 

Philolaus, an illustrious Corinthian, was the law- 
* giver ofthe Boeotian Thebes. The principle of his 
system was to begin with the education of youth, and he 
sought to maintain equality of wealth by imposing difficulties 
on the alienation of hereditary property. This commonwealth 
was administered by wi^ men, who by their moderation 
obtained for it a state of undisturbed security during two 
hundred and fifty years. 

Corinth itself was governed by its aristocracy until 
Cypselus, father of the wise Periander, became a demagogue, 
and thereby acquired the sovereignty. At first he ruled 
without a guard, and was oppressive only to the great; but 
soon, for the maintenance of his power, he was induced to 
have recourse to military support and taxation. He' now 
vowed to bestow on the Delphic god a tenth part of the 
wealth of Corinth; it was therefore necessary that each 
cifizen should give a faithfiil account of his possessions; 


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€8r» vmrmMAL hiitobt. ^ 

socordiog to which Cypselus settled the imposts Corinth : 
was akeftdy at this iiine a ridi commercial city* The firat • 
example of a sea-fight was given by the Corinthians in « 
war against the Corcyreans. 

The tax upon merchandize was a chief branch of the 
revenue. Already the exuberance of wealth and the lawa^ 
which left property too much at the arbitrary disposal* of 
individuals, gave occasion to extravagant luxury, which^ 
the frugal Cypselus wished to reduce within limits: for^ 
this purpose he erected a commission to observe that no 
man in his expenditure -exceeded his income. 

During this period the Heraclides of Argos, in^a 
* valleyofPceonia, founded the kingdom of the Ma- 
cedonians, who within four centuries subdued the barbarous 
nations in their vicinity, and amidst these wars, prepared 
themselves for the conquest of the world. 

The renewal of the games celebrated at a temple 
of the Olympian Jupiter, on the river Alpheus in 
Elis, was at that time a more important event for Greece, as 
.by it the growing republics obtained a point of union, 
where the Greeks acquired a national feeling. The Usxae 
and advantages which strength, agility, and genius gave to 
the conquerors, roused the exertions of talent ; the na^on 
paid them honours, and their native city gave ^ach of them 
his maintenance &r life. In these assemblies the name of 
philosophers was heard for the first time; and here the 
golden statue in the Delphic temple was decreed to the 
orator Gorgias, and an impulse was given to the display of 
arts and magnificence, ^ut the champions celebrated by. 
pindar wei'e neither the liberators nor the warriors of 
Greece; for exercises, followed too vehemently, quickly 
exhausted the strength, and it happened only twice or thrice 
that he who had been conqueror in his youth was able to 
obtain the same honour in his manhood ; yet the national 
respect for such talents gave to all freemen a fondness for 
those exercises, the moderate use of which nuuntained the 
10* ^ '> 

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yrgmr of body and mind. SlAxes were not aUbwed to 
engage in tliese contests. 

^ The Asiadc coasts and the adjacent islands bad suffered 
much in the Trojan war. In the course of the following 
century^ whik Greece was in a state of agitation, many 
cities were foimded in Lesbos and on the coast.: Already 
Onmse and Smyrna flourished, when the god of Delphi and 
the oouncil of the Amplnctyons omfided to Neleus, a son 
of the last Athenian king, the colonization of Ionian 
' Thirteen colonies wfere founded within a short 
* space of time, in this luxuriant' and romantic 
country ; they drove out the Carian shepherds who fed their 
flocks in the meadows of Maeander, and the swans of the 
Cayster delighted in the gardens whicn began to bloom 
over its banks. The verdant hills^ the gentle climate of 
Ionia, watered by numerous rivers, and the coast aboundiri)g 
in secure havens, attracted and called forth a numeroas 
pqpfilation. The people, crowded in their splendid cities, 
soon found. themselves under the necessity of sending out 
colcmies* Who is not acquiunted with Ephesas, Teios, 
Cokphon, Phpcsea, Priene, fiamos^ Chios, MiletOs^ cities 
abounding in genius, luxury, and every polite refinement ? ' 
They had a mutual bond of connection at the temple of 
the god who had conducted them over the waters of the 
u£gean sea;, the fane of-Neptune on the promontory. of 
Mycale was. the Panionium or place of assembly for their 
de^mties and chirf citizens. Hither no stranger was ad-* 
mittedif and eveo the more ancient Smyrna first obtained 
ihe privilf^e, after nine hundred years,, through the powerful 
influence of a king of Pergamus. The bonds of iratemity 
were more lasting than the independence of these cities, 
although they were peopled from more than otie region, and 
spoke the Greek language in all its four dialects. 

Two other federal republics, of a similar description, 
formed themselves in the neighbourhood of Ionia. Twelve . 
cities arose in the more fruitful though less beautiful (Eoha, 

F 3 

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to which belcuiged Cismm and onginally Smyrna;: there 
were six CEk)lian cities in Lesbos, and one in the iaie of 
Tenedos; others flourished on Mount Ida, ud a little 
Venice grew on the. duster called the hundred iskiids. 
The Dorian confederacy to the southward of Ionia can-r 
•isted of six towns: one was Cnidos; another adorned the 
kh of Cos; bat Halicamassus was the diief city. Thi» 
town was exduifed from the league on the fottowing occa^ 
aicn : — ^The duonpions who contended iiti the social games at 
the Triopicum had rowed tripods to the national god, 
when one of the rictors who came from Halicamassus re- 
losed to pay to Apollo the price of hia victory, and hi» 
fellow-citizens supported him in his im{»ety. 

These thirty or tbirty-oiie dties in thdr three confeder- 
ationa adorned the coasts of Lesser Asia from the Sigdan 
prosttoatory to the spot where all the Greeks admired the 
celestial Venus cf Cnidos. Th^ established colonies in 
the present Tauris» on all the shore of Pontus, on the 
Bdrysthenes, and the Tyras.* Sestos and Abydos (the 
Dardanelles) are works of the CEoUansf and the flourish* 
iog cities of Heradea, Sinope^ Amastris, were founded ^ 
by the lonians* Byzance^ which lay in the most 
important site lor commerce and dominion, waa 
peopled from G>rinth and Megara; this was in after agea 
the seocMid Rome, mistress of the world almost as many 
ye^ as Rome herself. Through the whole of the Black 
sea and the Meeotic mardi, a thriying commerce was carried 
on; and there are even traces which indicate that it es^tended 
from nation to nation &r into the north towards the Baltic 

* Periplus Ponti Eiudn. et ]yJbotid< Palud. in Hudson^ Geographr 
Vet- ScYMNus Chius. 
t Uphagen* Parerga Kfist^ 

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Another enterprise of which Theocles from Athens made 
a beginning, and which was supported by the Dorians and 
lonians from the islands and the continent, gave origin to 
most of the Sicilian towns. The Corinthian. Archias 
founded Syracuse; the Samians and Naxians, Messene-f 
The latter passed over the strait, and built Rhegium. The 
delightful climate and the'fruitftd soil of Sicily gave in a 
short time to the colonies in that iilaqd an eartept imd 
opulence which the cities of lower Italy or Magna Qiecil 
alone could rival 

In the latter country an Argive citizeoy a^nat the lawf 
of bis native city, which condemned tp death whoever pr^ 
moted emigration, founded Croton, a powerfol 
republic, and the sucpessful rival of the na^ 
bouring and voluptuous Sybarls, founded by the Trcszeniani 
and other Achaeans ; the gardens of Piestrum were plaii^d hj 
the effeminate hands of the Sybarites; a pppula^on appkou^ng 

B.G 719 ^^^°^hi^df^^<'^^^u^^ttl^K<^ve^tbi»pityth# 
ambition of becoming, instead of Olympifi, the 
seat of the games celebrated in common by the Greeks- 

The Lacedaemonians followed the example of ttie otl^ 

Q Grecian tribes, and establi^ed the colony of T»T 

J9t C 645. - /» 1 • i_ 

rentum, the government and manners ot wbicn 
soon declined greatly from the good order and manly cbar^Ch 
ter of the mother-country. It would appear indeed that its 
foiinders» the Parthenid, had even in Sparta endeavoured tp 
pervert the institutions of Lycurgus. 

The traditiop,. thi^t the Samnites ^md Sabines were 
branches of the Ifaoonian stem, appf^rs tQ h^ve h^ ^9 
firmer Ibundation than a certain rfiseniblanefi ia ch^i^^ir 

f Marm. Arundel. Scyukub* 
F 4 

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7i [ , utttYBUAi. fiuiitnnri 

The Ckudians and (Eolians founded the Italian Camtf 
and lipara, where the old god of the wmda-beld the ooii«» 
tending stonns ipprisoned in the jaws of a mountain which 
ofien vomited forth flames. , Neapolis recjeived its sleivler 
beginning from the Marsians, who descended from the 
mountains to settle on the more sheltered coast. 



Unobserved by the states of Greecci a republic was gra** 
dually formed in Italy, whose people, great in ivisdom and 
courage finally displayed more than all other nations whaC 
firmness of character and military £scipline can effect. 
We are here to speak of Rome, whose arms or laws have 
domineered over the greater portion of our civiliz^ world; 
and in whose history every statesman, soldier, and citizeii 
find exhibited the most impressive examples,' whether £>r 
imitation or for warning: a state in which iiature exerted 
herself to show how fiir the powers of man are able to pre- 
vail over the most mi&vomrable circumstances. The etemal 
liome yet stands ! The majesty of her ruins inspires a sen- 
timent oi awe ; the statues of her heroes still elevate the 
soul; we wonder at the. indestructible monuments of her 
genius and taste, by which the dominion of the human mipd 
was as Sblt extended as her empire by the force of arms. 
Pliny rightly named her the mistress of the world and th^ 
metropolis of the habitable earth, destined by the gods to 
tmite the scattered races of men, to civilize and to govern 

Rome appears to have been founded bx the seven hundred 
and fifty-third year before the Christian era, in the second 
or thurd of the uxteenth Olympiad. The elder Cato and 
Varro^ the most learned Romans, agree within a few years 
in this computatioii. Far more ancient was the settlement 

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m tbePahtme mountain, and tbe eultivalian of the neigfa^ 
bonring district by Arcadiahs aod other Greeks as well as 
by Ti^an colonists. The thirteen .hamlets also around the 
movntain of Latiuin, of which the town of Alba Longa was 
the chief, were more andent than Rome. The fear <^ pi- 
racy which infested the roads and coasts, a profession at 
that time honourable, induced the first Romans to erect 
their city on hills which were accessible to the sea, by going 
up the Tiber, but lay at the distance of one hundred and 
tw&ty stadia from the shore. From the Colline hill Ro- 
mulus drew his wall over the Viminal to the Esquiline; ^e 
made, a ditch, fcmned the wall of the earth thrown out of 
it, and secured it with bnlwarics of stone. By d^ees the 
seven lulls were included, from which it was henceforward 
easy to observe and to frustrate hostile movements. A 
morass at that time divided the Palatine and Capitoline 
moe Its, and a forest separated the latter from the western 
Aventine, over against which was the Coelian hill ; the two 
latter are of similar form, and five or six times as long. as 
they are broad^ The city had four districts^ but the Tus- 
can hamlet was presently added by the Tyrrhenians, and e 
Sabine settleiQent was made on the Capitoline hill. Tlie 
original inhabitants were of several nations; and they te- 
mained divided ; the constitution of Rome gave to the most 
different people who ivere included within the city a similar 
genius; whatever excellenee*each tribe brought with it in 
military affairs, in religion, or in politicaVforms, was imparted 
to the commonwealth, and all acquired in return the feeKng 
of Roman citizens. 

The ddest chiefe of the Romatis promoted this flowmg in 
of strangers, and by their conquests and the firiendly ree^ 
tion which they gave to the vanqmsbed, and to foreigners 
in general, soon acquired for their siaie such a pre^^eminetiice 
In powe^, that men of all nations were glad to lose thefa^ 
former distinctions in order to become Romans. Urns 
many thousand ItaKans flocked to Rome, induced by po- 

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74 VNIVS|U|AI< |i|8T0iBT« 

Tcarty oHa tomng dispoudon^ by tbe <)e«tni€tiaii of tbiebr 
liatlve citiesi or frequently by tbe fiiar of pnottbDi^t for 
«ome daring crime. 

The constitution bore traces of Grecian manBeni, but 
such as both Greeks an4 Itelians may have derived from a 
common source. CsBcilius Quadri^arius sought perhaps too 
eagerly to represent Latium as a Gi'ecian states intending to 
confer honour upon it by that name. Bionysins the Hati-* 
camassian likewise exited much ingenuity to show that the 
Romans were Greeks» wishing to have it understood thai 
tbe dominion of the world was in the hands of bis country-i- 
mep. It is true also that Demetrius Poliorcetes in Ua 
writings mentioned the Romans as Greeks, but his opinion 
would be more decisiye eoncmEung tbe power of a battering 
ram than a poiut of antiquity. Rome had already bec^Moe 
great and powerftd when it was first known to Greece^ 
Before Hieronymus of Cordia, the friend of £umenfiSi its 
name is not menticmed in any writing of undoubted autho^ 
rity. The fate of the Romans was similar to that of the 
l^rrhenians, whose origin tbe old authors deduced from 
Asi% while the name of their lound^ was unknown even to 
trfi^tipn % and every thiii^ in their histoiry leads ua back 
to a remote and obscure antiquity. 

The first magistrates of the Roman commonwealth were 
called Kings, but the govemnoent in reality depended <m 
tbe laws. The senate elected the kings, and the pecQile 
confirmed tbeir chincie, till Seryiup. Tullius xuled by means 
of the people without the senate and Tarquin seized the 
government in his own hands to the exdusicm of the pe^je» 
At the period of its foi^ndntion, Rome CQuti^ined three 
thousand freemen capable of bearing arms, of whom tbtee 
hipdied served on horsebacks they w^e divided into three 
bodies or tribes and a tribune commanded each; these 
faudiea were cdled selection% or> in Latint l^i^iis. lEa^h 

! 'b^JHWA oviy Prioce or Mai^ Cic^ae, l^ivip. iif ' 

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tribe was separated into curiae or companies of one hun« 
dred^ and each of the latter into decuriad or tens. No roaa 
was admitted into the army who did not possess two acres 
orjugera of land. The territory was divided into small 
portions, and a part was set aside for the service of tiae 
altar, while there were common lands lor the free use of the 
po<K« As femilies multiplied, a third part or two*thirds of 
the territories of conquered towns were allotted to those 
citiamis who were not yet possessed of estates. 

The pf'essing want of mcMre extensive boundaries or of a 
more fruitful soil, while arts and commerce, which at Rome 
never attained a. high perfection, were as yet in their infanqii^ 
soon involved this city, .which from its beginiung contained 
a great population, in dangerous wars. Colonies wete 
founded in the ccmcjuered countries, and on the other hand 
the chief persons of the conquered states became Roman 
citiaens. Indissoluble and at the same time agreeable 
bonds were thus established; the cultivation of land ii^ 
creased, and the odonies served the purpose of garrisons. 
During some hundred years the Romans were warriors and 
husbandmen ; and so long as they continued in these habits» 
and spent the greater part of their lives in the countiy, 
the purity and siraplicity of thmr manners were preserved* 

Romulus lived to see his three thousand three handred 
men already increased to forty-six thousand who served oa 
boU and a thousand cavalry. He found it impossibly 
9^bes! by his own authority or by that of a senate eonv*. 
posed trf* the heads of fomilies, to restrain the multimd^ 
€f impetuous youtb» wd he called the gods to his assistanoe^ 
No odior people ever worshipped the gods more veli^ouslji 
tac with greater qonstaocy tha^ the Romans. Hurea om^ 
times after scepticism had begw to flourish at Athemb 
Cio^ro for the first time at R&me made the nature of tb& 
gods tibe sutyeot bf philosophical diseussion. Soepti^iimi 
was introduc^ by the Epicnreana about the time of ^yUa# 
The rdigioa of the dd R0maiQs was grave and ^m^ 

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7^ Cl¥l?£BSilL HlSTOHT* 

thdr discourses did not turn as those of the Oredcs on . 
Jt^piter^s amours and the immoralities of the gods. • Bac- 
chanalians were for a long time prohibited^ and moBt of this 
festivals had relation to rural affidrs, while they were dis- 
tinguished by purity of manners, temperance, and rustic 
mirth. The people were cheered in the case of signal jnis- 
fortunes by solemn feasts, and they were never permitted to 
doubt of the favour of the gods to the eternal city. On 
the other hand religious sentiment pervaded even the habits 
of private life; for the legislators wished that each indi*- 
vidual should feel himself in the presence and in the hands 
of the governors of nature and of fiite. Nightly ceremonies 
attended by both sexes, and mystic associations, were for- 
bidden by the^ws. Sixty men possessed of prop^ty and 
renowned for the integrity of their liv^ were chosen from 
the first families to constitute the priesthood which Romuios 
ordained. It was required that they should all be upwards 
of fifty years of age, and they were chosen by the assembled ^ 
people divided into their curiae, over each of which a tutelar 
god presided. Numa multiplied th^ rites and ceremonies 
of religion, and introduced augurs or soothsayers. 
^ Henceforth Rome possessed eight dasses of men con- 
secrated to the purposes of religion. The first of these 
were the curiones or priests appn^riated to the gods of the 
curiae; the Jlamines served the higher deities; the tings 
were obliged to perform certain sacrifices^ or at least their 
presence at such ceremonies was required; the atigurs or 
interpreters of omens soon bc^came celebrated, and six noUe 
youths wiere always instructed in their art by Tyrrhenian 
masters: the principles of their science contained immmer* 
able teceptions, which were convenient to the designs of 
the ruling magistracy; the augurs could diasolve elective 
assemblies, annul decrees and laws, or give and take antay 
the power of speaking in public; when the consulate waa 
established, they could oUige the consuls (o lay down their 
dignity, and th^ ^till retained their respect and ^influence 

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i^er Rome bad become sovereign of the world : foiir and 
afterwards abc vestal viigins, chosen by the pontifis out of 
noble fandliesy watched OTf^r the perpetual fire, the inaccessi-* 
Ue tutelar diTinity of Rome^ and m the house of a citizen 
of the first dignity, performed sacrifices to the << Bona 
Dea»'' whose name was concealed in; mystery: the earth 
represented bdr.ti^ple^ and the Testal flame was a type of 
the genial warmth which enlivens nature.* During thirty 
years the vestids were obliged to maintain an inviolably 
virginity. The salian priests were at first patricians, and, 
always l^ee citizens; they danced in arms to the honour 
of Ithe god&like the Cretan curetes;' a practice which the 
prieita and monastics of many cistern nations have coii- 
IJaued fixMn the oldest times to the present day. Men 
have fancied themsdves approaching to the perception of 
micneated light, when by deep and devout contemplntiohs 
or. by whirling motions of the body they have deprived 
themaelves of all consciousness of sensation. The JeciakSf 
wiio bid the superintendance of the laWs of war, and of 
toeaties.and alliances, were the ofi^ring of illustrious 
iGamilies. The pontiffs presided over the whole religious 
constittttiooL: their establishment would seem to reach up to 
diose remote iame^ when^ before Hereules, or before civilized 
sthmgers UBtaed the barbarians of Latinm, twenty-four or 
thirty men were annually thrown from a bridge into the 
Tiber, an usage which was preserved in the custom of 
thirowuDig as maiiy human figures formed of willow twigs* 
Was it the practice of the ancients on a certain day, as it 
is yet with the Siberian hordes, to offer up the burdensome 
and useless life of aged mcai to the rivei'-gods ? or did they 
believ^ like the northern nations, that the efiiision of human 
^lood id reqpiisite in order to reconcile the gods to sinfol mor- 
tals? Was it the memorial of an act which the Trojans had 
vowed or practised in revenge against the Greeks, or which 

* " Ncc tu aliud'Vcjstam qusqo yvmik ixUaI£rgi t^lajumam." Orio. 

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Erander perpetrattd against the Acffm mab cf hi» 
£ganUy?* He pontifis were the most dignified college; 
they witt« accotttitaUe neither to the senate nor to the 
people^ and they filled the vacant places in. their body by 

The most ancient solemnities were originally die festnre 
meetings of a pastoral people; afterwards^ when the pnests 
arranged the affairs of agricaltare, they fixed the time 
nvhen the sowing, the harvest, vintage^ and odier rustic busi* 
IMBS should be solemnized and entered upon. Each district 
had particular festivals with reference to its sitmUicm and 
mode of cokare. Every year the chief men commended 
Ae most industrious and intelligent farmers, and publidy 
named the most indolent. The offerings to the gods were 
simple and innocent. At other festivals iamilies came toge* 
tber and mutually forgot their animos^es. On the Pala* 
tine hill there was a db^l of die goddess who reconciled 
husbands and wives. The people cekbratcd the day of 
iAnna Berenna mth merriment under die open sky^ or 
under tents in die meadows on the banks of Hb^. Thus 
were barbarians broaght by music to .refinement throu^ 
the i0pei»tion of noble and gcsitle seMiments; thus rel%ion 
supported tiie con^tuttmi, imparted aolemmty to the habits 
eS^Sti a|id afforded to the dying die hope of ^^sidless 

The foivate life ^ the R0ma>n citizen was «a eamot^sqiy 
of h& publfe life. Hence tfxe great and never «en»inA^i^ 
mrthority of parents ; because good order in peace and sudc^is 
^ war depend on the habit of perfect obedience. Among 
barbarous nations the pat^ntal andiority did not readi be- 
yond childhood; amcmg the Oreeks it termmated wben the 
eon W4a married ot. enrolled in his tribe^ and es^ended mily 
to the power of disinheriting; while am<mg the yRomssiB 
die fether could inflict capital puniishment upon a son Io»g 

• The %ves were caUedArgei. 

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after he biMl attsiiied manhood, and even while he was in- 
TeMed ^tfi pdbBc Jlgnities. TUs law was severe, but A^ 
times redderedit liinocent, and the tone of mating mili* 
glrfced ks exercise. Tlie husband and wife Eved in a com^ 
muoity of possesstons, and when the i&ther died the mother 
mberited a child's portion, or the whole when there were 
lio children^ or when her fauiAmnd was intestate; because 
the mother of the finnily is as much concerned, and ought , 
to feel as lively tta interest, as the husband in promoting its 
welfare. Handicrafts and trades of gain fell at Rome to 
the lot of slaves and strangers; that the citizens of the 
rising republic might neither be rendered effeminate by a 
sedentary life at home, nor unworthily dependent on each 
other. The poorer and meaner citizens were indeed de- 
ptodetat as clients on powerful patrons, and the laws held 
this relation so sacred, that a patron and his elicit never 
appeared as wteiesses against each other under pain of dealh^ 
iKNr was one allow^ to plead against or to at as jwig^ over 
the cfthor. The patron conducted the a£5iirs ei his tXetii 
as his own, contributed to the portioning of Us dai^ters^ 
to tile defrayment of his public expenses, and when h& 
dient ffSi into the hand of an enemy provided for hi^ 

Such was the constitution of ancient Rome. At tfae head 
of it were kings, or when they were absent in military expe^ 
dltions, prefects whom the kings appointed, and n 8enltfe» 
wiiich at the beginning consisted of a hundred patnciann 
elected by the tribes and curiae. Tfae governing power* 
were so equally bahtnoed that the senate oould neither make 
wars and enact laws, nor distribute high officies without thfe 
consent of tlie people^ nor the latter effect any thing withottt 
summoning assemblies regulated by prescript, while the 
kfaig had neitfier authority as military chirf to declare war 
by his own decree;^ nor as supreme judge to condemn an in« 
dividual to death by arbitrary seQt^e. 

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80 0NIV£RSAL HiSTomr. 

- The Roman kings must haye possessed c x traanBitary 
tdentSy otherwise how could they have been able to found tc 
state which without territory, without a fleet,' in the midst 
of formidable foes and treacherous friends, not only main- 
tained its often struggling independence, but acquired in a 
few centuries the sovereignty of all Italy? Rome knew not 
as yet the names of the nations which were doomed after- 
wards to fall prostrate before her arms, but her con- 
stancy and perseverance are coeval with the origin of her 



During the same interval Carthage was founded iit 
Africa by the Phcenicians, who had formed settlements on 
this coast from the earliest times. Even in the present day 
we recognize in the names of the Falasthin, ofChiis, and 
of other tribes who wander around the mountains of Atlas,^^ 
the posterity of the Philistines, and of the races that were 
^driven but ofCanehn by Joshua the successor of Moses; 
The coasts of Africa attracted settlers by their extraordinary 

From the southern extremity of the vast peninsula of 
Africa a ridge of very high mountains appears to take a 
northerly direction, and to send off immense branches to 
the'east and wiest The western range is called Atlas' or 
Daran ; the eastern is known by tbe name of the Mountains 
of the Moon, in which are situated the sources of the iNiley 
At &e foot of these mountains are interminable deserts of 
sand* The central region is perhiaps now biu^nt by the 
perpetual influence of the solar fire; but after the lapse of 
some thousand years, if the habitable world should last so 
long, and should gradually grow colder, as Bufibn conjeo 
tures, it may become the seat of living nature*. The coasts 
have ever abounded in ccto. Wild beasts were driven by 

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the ancient hunters out of the inland tracts. * There were 
formerly in iNumidia from five to ten times as many lions as 
at present^ and we may hence conclude that the population 
of the country has increased. 

On a rock in the back ground of a bay, Carthage rose to 
view; Byrsa was the name of the higher part of the city, 
and the lower streets on the narrow tongue of land» which 
formed the double haven» had the name of Megara; the 
tract adjoining the great haven was called Kotton, and an 
island lay opposite to the projecting point, which was also 
inhabited. The two chief magistrates of Carthage were 
called 5ig^^s or judges; their authority was annual, and 
they were elected from the oldest and most opulent&milies, 
who had accordingly leisure to bestow their attention on 
affiurs of state.. In general riches, and whatever leads to 
the acquisition of them, were held in the highest estimation 
among the Carthaginians, who had both the good and bad 
qualities that are connected with mercantile habits. Under 
the ^offetes five officers had the direction of the most im- 
portant a&irs, who may be compared to the Savi of Venice; 
they elected each other, and those who had preceded them 
in their office, and who hacl appointed them to it, were the 
Gonsessors or assistants of the five; they received no pay, in 
order that none except the rich might seek this dignity.* 
They nominated the senate^ which consisted of one hundred 
members. This body and the five, when they agreed una- 
lumously, were omnipotent in the state; but if they differed 
in opinion, the matter was brought before the people, who 
could give their preference to either opinion, or modify a 
conclusion adopted by the others. When the public morals 
became corrupted by wealth, the state suffered at the same 
time the evils of oligarchy and of ochlocracy. Every thing 
was venal; the party leaders thought only of themselves, 
and the commonwealth was neglected. 

Before this peripd the Caitiiaginians had become, by their 
superior intelligence, masters of three hundred neighbouring 

VOL.1. ' G 

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cities. They undertook many dbtint enterprises, by meons 
of which the multitude of the pocnrest citiaseiift was lessened, 
and their pernicious influence on the state counteracted. 

The celebrated mines of Old Spain were worked by the 
Carthaginians, and with the gold procured from these they 
hired Spanish, Ligurito, and Italian soldiers. Hence the 
people soon became unwarlike, and consequently suspicious 
of their subjects, and Cardiage opfH^essed the African cities, 
80 that in time of war they were always e4ger to receive 
the enemy. The island q( Sardinia, which the Carthagi- 
nians h&d subdued, was entirely laid waste, and it was for- 
bidden under pain of death to restore its cultivatkHi» They 
were afraid of its acquiring a prosperoits stat^ because it 
bad resources for preserving its independaice. This an- 
ciently peopled and flourishing island, into which Bias of 
Friene wished to trani^lant the whole federal r^wblic of 
Ionia| became so barbarised that it nerer again was able to 
emerge from obscurity. The descendants of the Grecian 
colonists fled into the mountains, livedin freedom, and became, 
barbarous. Sardinia has ever since continued in this state. 

The Cardiaginians forbad the scarcely-discovered pas- 
sage to the Canary islands; they seemed to bar lest their 
people mi^ discover a better country than Carthage; and 
gladly would they have shut the world against it, in order 
to subject it more completely to their arbitrary di^HMal. 
Yet the thirst of gain induced (bem not to give up their ma- 
ritime expeditions. Tliieyj however, kept their diseoyeries 
secret in order to be secure agraist competitors, and it is 
hence impossible to ascertain the extent c^ their yjoyages. 
They held Sicily, Malta, Golo, theBidearic isles^ Sardinia, 
Corsica, and Spain under their sway ; tixey frequented the 
west of Africa, as far as the Cape de Verd, and traversed 
the European seas to the British Isles. We are not sufii- 
ciently acquainted with the date of the abstract from Han- 
no's apparently very ancient voyage. Scylax, who is 
said to have been an admiral of the Persian king Darius, 

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mentions colonies which the former . bad no knowledge of, 
and f<HUld t^e Negro hordes more QiySi;ied; tmt it is also 
HBeertan to what period \m voyage bebog^ As little 
b it knjown how fiir Himilco proceeded towatds the north.- 

The andent navigatoi^s oompWaed that a number of 
shallows inftsled thes^ir^^iooibof the ooeao, wd there ma» 
pr^iabiy mm^ geographical foundntion for this remiu^cw 
We know that Plato, on the authority of ancient traditians» 
wl4ch he obtained &om Ahe piaests.of Sais in Egypt, makes 
meni^ott of a coiultiy sit nat^ed beyxHid die PiUars of Herv 
Gules, wUch dnriii^ a tempeiitiiomi. night sunk into the 
deqp. The saoie author notices also a country b^ond the 
Adasrfic ocean^ a^td a numbisr of islands which lie jnear its 
eO£^t, and die tradition of agreat continrat fully as large 
as the old w<»rld was AOt uitoown to Aristode. It is re-* 
markabk that later navigate^ haY<& pbsenred many shallows 
nearly connected together, in a line stretdung Irom Spain 
.through the Azores towards Newfoundland. It is possible 
that, after the submersion of the tract of land which served 
for the connection of Hie two continents, navigation might 
become excessively difficult until the overflowed countries 
gradually sunk to a greater depth ; and thus at the same 
time gave oocasion to die retiring of tto waters from 
the« European coasts. ^ It woidd be too bold to draw an 
inforenee for the monument appafimdy Pans?, whtoli was 

• Jt is certSHi that the MMiterx^uieaii Lad fonoerly amuch l^gher 
level than it now has, and ijiat its waters covered a great portion of 
the present coasts. The province of Valencia, and some other parts of 
the Spanish peniqgola, were then nnder the sea^ which washed the 
feet of the mountaias of Castile. Perhaps die gradual retiring of the 
waters has g^ven \ivrth to Lower VgypU The ancients assert it to have 
been gsdned by deposits of soil tirom the Nile, but great dif&culties a^' 
tend this hypothesis, and the dispute on this subject admits of a more 

TbeBalMfi is well known to have exceeded its modern limits In.a still 
greater d^ee than the Mediterranean. % 

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found some years ago in the foredts behind Boston. It is 
possible that soi^Tyrians or Carthaginians, ttirown by 
storms tipon unknown coasts, uncertain if ever the same 
tracts might be agioin discovered, choise to leave this mo- 
nument of their adventures. Of their further expeditions 
there is no triace, nor do we know whether these adven- 
turers returned, or what attraction the marshy feet of 
the American mountains held out to the aivarice of the 

In the mid&t of many commercial esterprises the Cartha- 
giniand never lost their barbarism, it is needless to men- 
tion the unutterable cruelties perpetrated at EKmera, Se- 
lihus, Agrigentum, or the executions of their generals, who 
were crucified for fighting unsuccessfully, or even for dis- 
playing too mtu^ valour. How could a rdigion, which in 
times of public alarm placed three hundred noble youths in 
the blazing arms of Moloch, soften the ferocity of its 
wretched devotees? 



Wis have tihils traced the outlines of the chief republics 
that were founded during the interval above defined. The 
wanderings of the northern, natipns are unknown, and me- 
morials were scarcely preserved in Asia of the movements 
of those Scytbifl^n hordes, who inundated the plains of 
Lydia, Media, and perhaps all that quarter of the world 
as far as Galilee. Taunak was the name of the first leader 
of those tribes, who have so often poured themselves down 
from the mountains of Gog and Magog, or Great Tartary, 
over the civilized world. 

We confine our attention to the Greeks and Romans ; 
our customs, iaws, and arts came from Italy, whither they 
were introduced by the Greeks. These are the instruments 

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by which the smallest division of the globe influences the 
fate of all nations ; these the powers iihicfa have displayed 
human nature in all its dignity, and the contemplation of 
which is most interesting to the citizen of the world, be- 
cause that nation which possesses in the most eminent 
degree the qualities to which Europe is indebted for her 
preponderance, must become the first among European 
states. Let us fdlow the course of this light; we shall 
finally see a spark of it enliven the gloomy North ; in the 
sixteenth and seventeenth century we shall behold a blaze 
go forth into the darkest r^ions of the earth, which by 
d^rees awakens the most inert, but, together with the pre» 
judices of barbarous antiquity, threatens to consiime the 
venerable remains of ancient virtue. 

G 3 

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( 8G ) . 




X HE Atheniaiis even during the life of Solon had Men 
under the tjur^iny of Pisistratus; they were liberated from 
it after two generations in the same year in which Brutus 
banished the kings from Rome and established the consu- 
late. The revolution in Attica occasioned a war with Per- 
sia, during which the Athenians, who were the victorious 
party, became the most powerful of the Grecian republics 
by sea and land^ The strength of the Grecian states was 
afterwards exhausted by intestine wiirs, and they were the 
more easily overpowered by Philip king of Macedon. His son 
Al^cander, having thus obtained extensive power, conquered 
the empire of the Persians. In all these affairs the Romans 
took no part, but separately increased their own strength to, 
that degree, that in the sequel they were able completely to 
> vanquish the Macedonians, the conquerors of Greece. This 
success gave the Romans an extent of power and a degree 
of opulence which the purity of their primitive manners 
could not withstand : with their virtue they lost their free- 
dom, and fell under the dominion of a single despot , 

From the Persian war to the battle of Chaeronea, where 
the liberty of Greece expired, a hundred and forfy-two years 
elapsed; during which 'period Athens possessed the chief 
power seventy-five years, Lacedasmon thirty-four years . 
during eight years Epaminondas, the victorious hero of 
Leuctra, held by his merit an ascendancy over the Greeki^ 
and for thexemalning twenty-five years, all was in anarchy 
and confusion. The dominion of Philip and Alexander 
cpntiiiued not inore than fifteen years, and the states that 

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were fomcwd out of its ruins had tiidr complete lerminatioa 
two bmidred and ninety-three years i^r Alexander's 

Borne vemained two hundred and forty^four years under 
its kings, and two hundred and forty-four years were spent 
in fdt)duing the Italian nations. During this latter period 
RcHne and Carthage struggled sis:ty-four years for the su* 
perionty, until the battle of Zama decided the contest; 
sixty-eight years passed in the conquest of the states capable 
of resistance untO, after the extinction of Casthage, Achaea, 
and Numantia, the Romans. fell into sanguinary broils 
amongst themselves; ninety-two years, elapsed from Tibe- 
rius Gracchus, who gave the pretext for these disturbances, 
to the battle of Philippi and the death of Cassius and Bru- 
tusy the last Romans who were worthy of the name. Se- 
venty years after this event Tiberius Caesar gave a free rein 
to tyranny, no man any longer daring to raise his voice 
against die most hideous atrocities. Such is a brief outline 
of the order of events. 

These five hundred and thirty-dght years, during which 
liberty sometimes flourished and sometimes declined, are so 
ridi in events that it is impossible to touch upon all die 
subjects of interest in * the space of a brief survey. I cannot 
therefore refrain from briefly enumerating those sources, the 
study of which must supply this delect, and wherein are 
contained treasures of political and moral wisdom, which 
, the nges hitherto elapsed have not known how to estimate. 



Greece had Instoriana soon after Solon's time, but we 
possess only fisgrnents of die works of Hellanicus and He- 
catseus. In the thirty-third yearitfi;er the victory over the 
Persians, Herodotus of HsUcamassus read his histoid of th^ 

a 4 

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wan carried on between £ur<^ and Asia, before tbe pea* 
pie assembled at Athens at the festival of the tutelar god-* 
dess. His work was composed in a style and spirit which 
seemed eccellently fitted to commmikate correct ideas of 
the situations and laws of nations, and to excite a pasnon 
ibr great and extensive enterprises. The author, who was 
only thirty^ight years old, had travselkd to the borders of 
Ethiopia and Babylonia; in the Ionian colonies on the 
Euxine he had obtained information concerning S^thia. 
In proportion as the latter country has been penetrated, 
and the character of the Oriental people has been studied, 
the reputation of this historian has increased. Wits and 
satirists have with too much levity rejected many relations 
as fabulous, which are only contrary to our manners and to 
the nature of our climate. When Herodotus speaks of 
Grecian affiurs, he displays much profound learning en- 
livened by an ardent love of his country. We cannot 
easily prove that the latter has ever induced him to assert 
what was contrary to the truth, but he may be suspected to 
have dissimulated any circumstance by which his eloquence 
or his patriotism would have lost somewhat of its splendour, 
for he read his work to the people and he wished to please 
them. But it requires more acquaintance with mankind, 
more knowledge of countries and of nature, to sift the truth 
in these ancient stories, than to pass a hasty sentence of 
condemnation upon them. 

Those who are capable of discerning the beautiful and 
excellent in style will admire in Herodotu» the greatest 
master of the historic art. He follows the connection of 
events, instead of recording which would have been a &r 
more easy task, what occurred from year to year. In the 
delineation of manners he has left a great example to later 
historians; the benignity of his own mind infuses itself into 
that of his reader, and it is impossible to describe the melody 
of his lopic periods. He surpasses the rival of his tame 
in a more noble ^nd interesting simplicity, and in a singu- 

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Google • 


larly weHiflMgined plan, as natural as it Is finciiiatiiig 
by variety. 



Whii^ Herodotus was reciting his history, he observecl 
a young man beside him who betrayed marks of strong 
emotion; he was struck with the intelligent aspect of his 
countenance, and counselled his &ther to give him the 
education of a philosopher. Thucydides was the name of 
this youth; and Olorus that of the father. Thuqrdidea 
m recordiog the period of the Athenian sway, firom the last 
battle^ against the Persians to the twenty-second year of the 
Pek>ponnesian war, has displayed such profound tibooghty 
such knowledge of men and of states, and at the same time 
so powerful, so majestic an eloquence^ that as an historian 
he is ever preferred to all others, or placed on a level^witk 
the most illustrious; and as an orator he rivals the fiuoe of 
the great Demosthenes^ As the riches of nature had fiiUen 

.to. the lot of his predecessor, so every doaer study of. 
Thucydides opens to our view a greater perfection pf art. 
Herodotus is more fascinating, but the manner of Thucy- 
dides is * more noble and exalted. In this he is distinguished 

,from Tacitus, tbatin the reflei^ons of the Rolnan we re-^ 
cognize the strong sense of a Stoic philosopher, whSe we 
admire in the Grecian wrlt^ the enlarged understanding 
of an Athenian statesman. Thucydides neither attained 

. during his life nor desired to attain . the fame of a pofsdar 
historian; he wished rather to be studied thoroughly than 
to become of a sudden generally applauded, and wrote more 
for, the few than for the many. Therefore he merely 
hints at what others would have explained; he ]s.<^m 
harsh and obscure^ but the trouble^ of penetrating his sent^* 
ments is well repaid. Occasionally we shall do welt to 
remember that he was related to the exiled fiunify, the 

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90 mnVBBSAL ai8TOBT#' 

PiaJstfitMg; that he bad probably no particular attach* 
maDt to popular goyemment, and had personally reaaon to 
ONaqdain of the Athenian people. He had besides a oertaui 
propensity to contemplate dihigs on the most unfavourable 
sideyandyety alas I he appears seldom to err in consequence. 
In him we chiefly admire the statesman, in Herodotus we 
esteam the enlightened and benevolflDt man. 



XfeHOPHON, the amiable friend of Socrates, continued the 
Gredan history from the period where the nairative of 
Thugrdides^ terminates. In a short outline he has pre* 
served to fiUure times, the course of events from the sea- 
fight near the Arginusae to the battle of Mantinea. We 
have also from him a biographical memoir of the Spartan 
kiBg.Agesilau8» and an analjnsis of the Lacedsemoman and 
A^kcnian CMstihitiibns. The interesting account of the 
retreat of the ten thousand Greeks, who assisted the yooi^^er 
Cyrus against his brother Axtaxerzes, accomplished under 
the generalship of XenqphoOf is commonly held to be his 
own work. 

Ifissiyleis not less lively and still lacure sia^ than that 
of Herodotus. The only ornament of both is the refined 
moral &eling which pdrvades their writings. Xenophon 
affiMs an ezoeUent modd of perq^icnity in narration 
His piety and his love of justice so win the hearts of hu 
that they for^ve him when he puts his philosi^y 
ti^into the mouths of barbarous chieftains, whose thoughts 
never so perspicuoudy arranged. His work was 
M^deted in advanced age, and some parts of it may 
iliiMMre want the hst polish ; the dhapter on the Leuctrian 
battle ^k not. entirely satisfiM^tory, The good recq>tion 
which^ he -foond at Lacedadmon, when .the turbulent de- 
mocrats of Athens had driven him into eule, gave him a 


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particriaff attacbment to the former comm<mwtiilth,^iiUeh 
philo^pfaers were generally inclined to regard with estoem. 
Hd rdattod tmiinllmgly the Tictoi^ of the Beeotian ^pmm^ 
nondas over his belov'ed LacedaemoBa in accountuig for ftis 
feeling we mnst call to onr remembrance that in the bittle 
of M tttitinea Gryllu» liie son of Xenophon gvre ]^pami- 
iionda:s his mortal wound. Xenophon Is a great land nn* 
equalled example in his art; few are capalde of peroerang 
f he whole merit of his admirable nmplidtfr. 

Between Xenophon and Polybius an 'ititerad of more 
than two hundred years ^elapsed, in the eoune of ii4iidi 
sbme historians lived who are worthy of regard, but not 
comparable to the three above-mentioned, and vriiese 
work^ are not preserved. In the bosom of the Restless 
Athenian iiqmblic, iunong a people ungrateful to time 
tfai^ illustrious men, the. art of history had< attained a 
kigber elevation than it hdd among ibthr suceessors, who 
were rewarded by Alexander and the Ptolemies^ and^ppo* 
Tided with an escellent libraiy. Hie former were ennobled 
by the sentiment of freedom; and «mpedim^bt% wh«i they 
tfo not from their imture depress, rather exalt the powers 
xif die miiid. They were not anxious concerning the |m^ 
ment of patfcms,^^ ndr eager ifor- immediate px^se; Aey 
iKMlght to ftxnb'fiir d^emseLves the public taste, 4md hence 
thc^ still remain in possession of its applause. 



Tflfi drai)Eiatic poets abo famish somrces of hutorical in- 
forination concemiilg Greece. JEsdhylus and Aristfl{iliattes 
itoake its acquaiiited with the modes of fhiiAiHg and the 
tnanneisft whidh prevailed at the two moat remariuril^ 
epoiehs of A*diens. , Hie Ibrmer portraya the heroic tfattes 
Vith unconmum felidfy of desolation. EoripicK^ mtber. 
eloquent than learned in history, js less accnimta in this 

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tespeet He was a more philosophical nmter. than Sa^ 
phojdes, but did not display, as that poet has done, the 
knowledge and talents of a statesman. He has not painted 
the eharacter of his own i^ in so strik&ig and peculiar 
colanrs, and has written rather for all ages. 

There, scarcely exists a theatrical poem more worthy of 
attention for its historical value than the drama of " The 
Fersians,'' which .^Bsehylus exhibited with great effect soon 
after the battle of Salainis; the style of this composidoD 
is solemn and miyestic, as is the manner of .S^ 
generaL • He knew nofliing of the interior of Persia,: but 
describes the rites of polytheism as prevailihg there, though 
no anciait religion was more adverse to idolatry. Like 
other Greeks he mentions the government of Persia in such 
terms that we perceive how foreign a limited monarchy was 
to the ideas of his oountiymen. In &ct the Asiatic mo- 
narchies were only known as unlimited, since the middle 
power, where any such existed^ did not exhibit itself in the 
external rdations of each (Country. 

It is impossible to make a more noble use of the most 
beatttifid language of mankind, than So{^odes has done, or 
tounite dignity with grace in a more masterly style. Euri- ^ 
pides possessed a richer fund of ideas, greater art and 
eloquence^ and more philosophical genius; but Sophocles 
was the greatest writer and dramatic poet. 

It is astonishing to observe in what terms ^schylus^ 
Euripides, and particularly Aristophanes, speak of the chief 
deities of Greece, and how they treat the most powerful 
and popular statesmen. No man would dare in these days 
thus to sport with the most insignificant saint in the 
calendar, nor could any of the meanest citizens be so held 
forth to ridicule. These equalizing liberties have the ap- 
pearance of an innocent pastime ; but the veneration of the 
• gods, -and the good order of the st^te, wete lessened by 
them. -^ Nothing which influences the character of men is 
indifferent in a free constitution, and public amusements 

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paiticolarly require the care and ov^nglit of the mi^ 



The schokstic exercises which are ascribed to Goif^ 
the first who held a schoc^ of rhetoric^ and which bear tfe 
names of Antisthenes and Alcidamus^ are of no yalne. On 
the other hand, Andphon, if he had not enjoyed the good 
fi>rtune of being the instmotor of ThncTdides, would yet be 
important as the author of a number of valuable tfeatiaes aa 
the.dvil law of Athens. Still more attention is dsimed hjr 
Andoeides, especially when' drawing the character of his 
opponent, Alcibiades, who combined the most qplradid 
qualities with many which were worthy of strong r^rob^ 
tion; Isaeus teaches us the hereditary law of Attica. r 

Lysias, Isocrates, and Demosthenes rise to a fiur hi^er 
levd. The former possesses a charm peculiar to himself 
He is rich in information concerning those times in which 
the filling dominion of Athens imderwent its greatest con- 
flicts, and his works contain a striking satire on such demo- 
cracies. With the pleasing qualities of Lysias, Isocisates 
combined a more comprehensive mind* ^nd he gives us 
more instruction concerning, the general state of affiurs in 
Greece Ihortly before the ruin of its indqpendence. H|s 
magnanimity and patriotism are tempered with gentleness 
and benevolence. 

With a bolder pencil the author €£ the Philippics has 
portrayed the crimes and follies of his age. We may say 
of I)emosthenes, not that his chief merit consisted, like that 
of Lysias, in a peculiar &scuiati(Hi, or, like that of Isocrates, 
in a loftiness of mind which inspires awe, but that he com- 
bined these and all other great and splendid qualities of the 
ofator in the most exalted degree. It is his character to be 
always what he ought to be ; in the great variety of drcum- 

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ftenees treated by him, be is never hdow expectatioii^ nefet 
mean^ never overstraii^ed* As a patriot Isocrates was not lees 
admirable thai^ his rivaL We recognize in his onUimis the 
Sentiments of the man who, haviog ahnost attained his hun- 
dredth year, slew himself when the tidings were brought to 
Athens of the defeat of the Greeks at Chaeronea. As a 
aMiBsman we may prefinr Isbcratfls^ smce^ knowing the in- 
4Mirafai6 iml of his conntry, he endtturoiircd to-atoid the 
*oointest of cormpt and derided jEepobUes against the fiwoes 
of Mactdonta^ and aooght to diriect the attention of the kuig^ 
'towards the ^onqoest of Bsrsia; but in die orations at JDe- 
moslfaenes we contemplate the interesting struggle of a dti*' 
zen w^ooDtended for c^riringUberty sgalnst an ilnwordqr 
age* Conrnpt «s the repiriblie.was^ yet itr end aflects us, 
IdM-tiie death of an old and infini^ fiiendi How instnic- 
tivis to dl cttizeBs is this example^ sinoe the erils whidi 
ruined Athens menaee enrery state ! 

it would lead us too far out of oat way to characterize 
Demadss^ DterdluSy and Lycnrgus; but iBschines appears 
a ril^ notitftworthy of Demosthenes^. The oration against 
Iteisrdtosi who wasaocnsedofthemostflagitions vi6es»is 
vakiaUe for the history of manners. 

GoMewBimg-^e letters of Pfaalaris' and other statesmen 
andpUloeopkers, it sofficea to- observe, that in themselves 
lliey are agreeably written, but almost aU qnuious (nt of 
Tsry doidMfiit authenticity. 



Ths meanly, wvitipgs q£ ,<ihe Wfie- xnen and,wom^, who 
followed Ihe prinqipl^ipf Fy:lliag9W».^bibnt this venerable 
school of moscab in apoiiit pf view whifh , is gratifying to 
the.hea&t^ hut theris are jh;^phi]QflK;ipliwsiW^ aj:e 

dneagp iotcireatiiig. to .t|ie.hi$tpi9a|i.. 

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Plalo coatakis not only many tndts dT monnen and 
muok fmlitieal information ; he not only describes the mode 
of life and the characters of the learned men who flourished 
in the best days of lito^ature, bttt he throws the most im- 
portant light on >the history of the human mind, by diq[ilay^ 
ing ho# far the ideas and representations <^ a fiitare state ' 
of existeooe had advMKed towards purity and perfisettpni 
among the ancients. No philosopher has proceeded further 
in this path. Plato himself felt, that in order to render 
ns certain, it is needful that a God should remove the ob- 
stacles. In him we find the source of m^ny repres^tations 
and customa which have parsed into Chriatianity. Pbilo^ 
the Jew, learned firom him the allegprical maniier of iUus- 
tratioa; and the Fathers of4he Church, more: remarkable 
for imagination than for the i^mmimd of correct language^ 
and rather endowed with warm feelings than with sound 
judgment, celebrate the godlike, poetical, subli^ie Plato, 
who communicates a fbndiiess ibr the symbolical fityje and 
Sf»c mysterious r^resentatipns. 

As intellect differ^ firom wit; as a matiure cdd)y reascm- 
\xk% man firom a fiery youth, ^ Ari^tle is distinguished 
from Plato*. What we possess of hi^ ixeatise on politics 
ooniaanii ^cciUfnt instructions for our. age;, much .know- 
ledge is preserve isi some, writings which with %xi^^ impro- 
priety ataiyl m &e ooUection of his works: but AristQtle is 
prineqpally remarkable as die philosqiher whoae doctijtte, 
oft^i misupderstoodf pi^vailod during many centuries in 
the AralHan and Christian schools. The sources of many 
errors sanctioned by his name are not to be found in his 
wcHrks, but in the commentaries written by men who did 
not thcmselvea understand him. We cannot find in all 
antiquity a philosopher of more comprehensive mind and 
profound reflection, a man of clearer and more ccNrrect 
judgment, or a more accurate writer; and very few are to be 
met witii in the history of the world who tan be cons&letedius 
superi^m. fOs ethics are* excellent in thtfr fcind^ Ittaiyr 

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observations in his history of animalsy which heretofore 
were scarcely held as probable, have been established by 
more recent discoveries. 

TbeophrastDS in his history of plants has a greater degree 
of perspicuity and attractive grace than his instructor Ari- 
stotle. He is valuable for the information he affbrds con- 
cerning the products of the Chreek and Asiatic soils. 



Although the works imputed to Orpheus are the produc- 
ticm of a much later age than his» yet the antique simplicity 
which pi^vails in the Argonautic poem loses but little of its 
fii^nation ; and this work is valuable for determining the 
notions which prevailed concerning the North about the 
time of the Persian war. 

The beautiful odes of Anacrcon are older than this 
work: from them we learn how much refinement luxurious 
pleasures had already attained in the age of Pisistratus. He 
does as imuch honour to the Greeks as Homer ; for even 
barbarians have a sentiment of the magnificent which they 
express with peculiar force, but Anacreon's elegant simpli- 
city bekmgs to a people whose sentiments had aKewiy ex- 
panded themselves in the softest refinement 

The maxims of Theognis give an example of the most 
ancient form of handing down lessons of wisdom when 
bodes were yet rare^ and they contribute to our acquaint- 
ance with human nature as it existed in those days. 

The fragments of Sappho, of Alcasus, and of Tyrtaeus, 
give us the highest idea of the perfection of Grecian taste. 
As man is distinguished from the brutes by the power of 
speech, how exalted is the nation who possessed a more 
perfect language than all others! Pindar contains good - 
materials for mythology and history, but our chief admira- 
tion is exdted by the lofiy elevation of his soul, which wit|i 
aj^ce only given to him penetrates the most secret rela- 

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tions of things, and with thoughts pregnant with strong 
sense overwhelms his astonished reader. 

A work ascribed to Demetrius of Phalera directs our at- 
tention with much taste to the beauties of s^le of the poets 
and chief writers in prose. Even the works on music col- 
lected by Meibomius, and Nicander^s poem on poisons, oon- 
tiiin traits of history. How many more are fotind in .the* 
writii^ of the father of medicine, so rich In information 
concerning private life and the influence of climates, and 
lastly, in the geographical works colleicted by Hudson ! In 
no department of knowl^ have the sources been exhausted. 
Not one has fulfilled all its capabilities, or ever will fulfil 
them* Truth itself is iii God^ To seek it is the allotment 
of man. 

VOL. I. M 

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{ 98 ) 





Solon was advuiced in years when Pisistmtas, one of 
his relations, who was said to be descended from the hodse 
of Nestor, gained the ascendancy over a party in Athens^ 
which had long been hostile to his family. Under the 
pretext that he foond it necessary to make some extra- 
ordinary provision for his safety, he obtained a guard for 
his person, with the aid of which he made himself master 
of the Acropolis, the strongest district of the city. Thence- 
forward nothing was done in Athens without his permission. 
Pisistratus had the advantage of more extensive knowledge 
than the Greeks of that period in general possessed, com- 
bined with irresistible eloquence and conciliating manners. 
He used the power thus unjustly acquired with the greatest 
mildness, observing the laws of Solon; and Athens, under 
fais sway, acquired allies and reputation abroad. 

Qualities equally splendid adorned his scm Hipparchus, 
but a disgraceful passion occasioned him to commit an out- 
rage against Harmodius and Aristogiton, in consequence 
of which he was assassinated by them in the tumult attend- 
ing the celebration of a great festival. His brother Hip- 
pias, informed of this event, strengthened his own power 
with greater vigilan/^ doubled his body-guard, and became 
rigorous in his administration. The Athenians discon- 
tented with his tyrannicid suspicion, called in the aid of the 

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Lacedaemoiiiftns; and Cleomenes kii^ of Sparta drove Out 
the nsiirper Hippias, who sought refiige in the court of 



This tnonaichy of the Per^ans h^d acquired, not loi^ 
before. this era, aq unexampled extent of power in the coun»- 
tries of western Asia. Cyruf, descended from an ancient 
fan^ily of P^r^an princes, had united several empires under 
his sway* Babylon, weakened by diBturbanoes in the royal 
house, ipU doripg jthe silence of the night, as Daniel and 
Xe^pphon agree in relating, into the power of the Persians 
and Medes ; the last Jang who had prcgected the restoratjcN^. 
of Keb^idni^MSBBr^s tlpcque^ having becooie a captire at 
Larissa*, after hif allies and vassal jLings, fis far as th^ 
HeUespwt, had been subdued by many victcNries. Cyru^ 
governed his conquests with wisd9m wd moderation* 

Cyrus is the prince whom the prc^hets of Israel cele- 
brate. In order to lessen the too great population of the 
newly conquered city, he sent back the Jews from Babyloa 
into their native country^ It is prc^ble that the Persian^ 
who only adored one God in primitive simplicity, without 
forms modelled by human hands, felt ho enmity against the 
£dth of the Isiraehtes. 

Cyrils appears to bave Ibught unsuoceasftdly agiuioat tb^ 
iiordes who waxidered over the region to the i^. £. of the 
Caspian sea. He story <^ his fidling in battle againoit 
4]ie b«4)arians was perhaps introduced by mistat^ into th^ 
life of dtis nkmiirch, and belonged originally to the hi^ry 
4of some other Cyrus. It is more prdaable that he died in 
M advanced age by a death >JDore woethy of him. 

He incurred a ixnsune difficult to escape in a life ^ 
full of active ifigqploks, by neglaeting to conduct on proper 
principled the education of his successor Cambyses. This 

♦ Is Larissa Resain ? 
» 2 


too irmVEKSAL • mSTOKY-t 

firkiee was torrupted' by Battery; he had the thirst of conX 
quest and the love of power; but reason andliimiaBity had 
no influence over his passions. He conquered Egypt, yet 
the Egyptians persevered for mapy centuries contrary to 
his will in their ancient customs, which were adapted to 
the nature of their country. 

" Cambysefe ha^hg terminated a short reign by a violent 
death, the sovereignty afler an interval of tumult, and one 
or more rapid chs^nges in the gbverhikient,' feH into the 
hands of Darius Hysta^pes, a; prince whose wisdom and 
greatness were long revered in the memory of the eastern 
tiations. Ast long ate Dtirius reiiti^tned fairtiself within the 
natural boundarieftr of his empire,- he reigned with un- 
disturbed prosperity, but he sotight without success- td 
subdue the ScytUans, whose vicinity occasioned him un- 
easiness, aiid who were protected by their lofify mountain 
^ains. Yet the conquest of Thrace rewarded his armsr, 
iEmd Macedonia paid homage to the throne of Persia. Il 
was in the cotfrt* of this' mcmarchr that Hippiastobk ^efiige.. 

gECTl&S im 


Aboxtt the same period some leaders of the Ionian sbtev 
'itUem{>ted to become inde^dent of the Persian Satrap of 
LycKa. Cyras had sirii)dued these countries, but the Greeks 
often unsuccessful in {^reserving their beloved fireedomi^wece 
always eager to recover it, and th^y were for the most part 
itiore fortunate in this endeavour, which chiefly depended 
^n valour, than iii the maintenance of diek* liberty wMck 
demanded rather sound understanding dian brilliant taieni% 
*and required- men of far more sedate character than the 
restless adventurers of Greece. In this instance the loniaA 
'i&ities were. supported by Athens, whose. colonic^ they! w^^ 
with that love for the cause of liberty which anixnated both 

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psrtifes. ' The king in consequence gave a niore willing leac' 
to Hippiai. ' 

At length Darius sent his generals Dates and 
' ' Artaphernes with the first of ^hose prodigious 
armies, with ^which the East has often from that time over*' 
whelmed -the west Qf Asia and the European countries* 
In these enterprises eveiy district sent its contingent of men 
and the sustenance needful for them, and the expeditions worf 
of short duration. The Athenians under Miltiades, without 
any other succour than one thousand Platseans, exhibited in 
the plains of Marathon, to the astonished Satrap, the resoiirc«|5 
which he^ic valour and military skill afford to a free people 
:for protecting all that they hold most dear against perpetual 
' daveiy. The hosts of the great kiiig were driven before the 
jirmed townsmen of Athens^ and took refuge in theit ship^. 
Itis impossible ^isay how many thousands were engaged, 
-bat what is most important to remark, is, the power ^of man 
i.4>ver the gifts of fortune, the exemjdification of which eons^ 
Cutes the chief interest in the history of all such exploits. 

TheGreeks omitted to follow up their victoiy, but Xerxes, 

the son and successor of Darius, in order to avenge the ig* 

nominy of the Persian arms, drew together a host of com- 

< batants in such numbers as were scarcely ever since 

assembled mitil the time of the Crusades, or of 

B. C. 480. ^ . xr, i* «, , * . . . 

Gengis Khan, or of Tamerlane. At this tiiae 

V llieniistocles lived in Athens, who when yet a youth had 

pa^^ed sleepless nights from envy of the larophies of I^fara- 

Ahon. He was a man of great genius, unciommon presence 

. of mind, and as eminent for finding resources in times of 

' fiuddea emergency as for sagacity in foreseeing contingendes; 

alike capable of turning to advantage the plans of others, 

and of setting forth his own in the most persuasive term6; 

in short, one of the greatest men who ever governed a state. 

. By his advice the Adienians had built ships, for Themistodes 

rightly judged that the great king would not forget his de* 

« iea^t at Marathon. He knew the advaAtages to be obtaiiiis4 

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by fipptoatehing distent coasts bj moans of powifful fieetSgi 
and every where conciliating friendship or inspiring tetfot> 
The naval power of Athens was his Mtfp^ litid consolation. ' 
Argo8» terrified by Xerxes, had conefanded a treaty of neu-^ 
trality ; doabts were ent^teinied conci^rning the Tbebans, 
iHid that party soon prevailing among them who keld fbr 
certain the vict^ of the tno^ powerfol, Thebes dedared 
ioT the Persians; the Pelopdnnesians were ooiftented with 
the defence of their own borders^ and the Lacedsemonia&s 
albne with some of their dependants ^d occupied and I)^eid 
possession of the pass of TbermopylsB which was the key 
6f Greece. - During the general constematidn) the god erf 
Delphi returned this ansVer to the Athenian peopled 
<^ All is lost; I b^dd tbe flaming temple; the gods of 
Athens tremble.^ Pallas in vain sapjdioates her father: 
behind yom* wooden w^Us the Sire of godsL and men wall 
protect you.'' Tbengiistodes^ who wi&out doubt had Con- 
trived the answer, persuiaded the people th^t it alluded tx> 
the ships. In these the citizens of iaH ages, wb6 w^^ able 
to bear arms, immediately «mbta*ed, while thfe woinen and 
children took nefiige in the Peloponnesian tdwn& The 
Persfaas er6ssed ^e Hellespont, made a slbw and laboriouf^ 
progress through the obedi<»nt provinces of Thra6e and 
Macedonia, and thi'oi^ Thessaly, which offered no resist- 
ance, towards the pass of ThermopyHe. 

Leonidas the Iiaceds^otonian kiiig arrested, lor a time> 
the pr^ress of die Persians, and at length sent away adl 
who were not Spartans, in order that each might defend his 
native tolrn^ and be ready !^ other dangers of his comitiy. 
^or himself he considered lihat a longer resistance of tbe 
eaiemy, in^le Greece prepared herself folr the conflict, and 
the example of an heroic sacrifice, would be tfie greatest, 
s^nrice be could bestow upon the land of his iatbers; he 
disdained the fe^ years of life which yet rtoiainisd to him, 
and resolved to giitn immortality in the monkery of all (great 
men, who should by sifoilar nefiesbittes be remin^Bd cf his 
*6 . 

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fete. When he leamt that the Persians had discovered a 
foot path by means of which thpy liad ascended the height 
above him, he performed sacrifice, /adorned with his royal 
vestments, to the gods of Lacedsemon, supped with his four 
Jbondred warriora clpthied in their best attire^ and cashed 
upon the hosts jof the Persiaiis. Four times he pursued the 
dying enemy f but waa at lengdi overpowered by numbers. 
Leonidas fell with his four hundred companiiMis, and merits 
the inscription that was placed upon hiatomb* <^ Stranger) 
go and rdate at Lacedaemon, diat we all fell h^e in 
obedi^ice to the laws of our country." * 

Afterwards Themistocl^ proved on the waves 
'of Salamis what a small number of well*conl-- 
manded ships can effect agamst a vast and iU-govemed*^ 
4|mianmt. The Persian Beet met with a similar &te ta 
that which two thousand years later befel the invincible ar* 
mada of Philip : a poet and an historian were only wanting: 
to England equal to ^scbylos and Herodotus who cele- 
brated the fight of Salamis. 

The great king disgusted with the pursuits of ambition 
hast^ed to Susa, and . abandoned himself to voluptuous 
ideasures. His kinsman Mirdoi&iSy the chief mover of the- 
waf, iost, in his i^treat upon Platasa on the banks of Asopus, 
his life and a decisive battle, ia which Pansanias, tutor of 
one of the Spartan kings^ directed'the confliql;, and displayed 
great valour and eminent skill in the art of war. 

The Greeks followed the enemy to the Asiatic co^tSy 
gained a victory at Mycale mider Cimon,^ and liberated the 
Ionian states and the islands of the Grecian sea« 

* This inscription was placed on the tomb raised over the Spartans 
after' the decisive victory of the Greeks at Plataea. The following are 
the words of it, as given by Herodotus : 


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104 t7MlV£RSAL HISTORyl. 



Liberty seems to nations who enjoy it so great a blessing^ 
and they are so jealous of its .possession, tibat they generally 
refuse a share of it to states less powerful dian themselves^ 
and to their own dependants. The Greeks of the European 
.contkient impoisedon Ionia and the islands, a yoke which 
was more invkiious and not less oppressive thaii that of the 
Persians. The conqueror of Plataea irave 

B. C. 47 7 10 1. 

the example of ambition, and if his projects 
had not been discovered he would have overtumecl the con- 
stitution of Lacedffimon* This danger rendered the Lace- 
daemonians, who had neither fleet npr revenues in moneys 
anxious for the maint^iance of their laws ; and they preferred 
founding these securely on the basis of poverty and rustic 
simplicity jto the acquisition of a new sovereignty. over 
Greece. At this conjuncture the Athenians, Jess inoderate 
in their desires, who possessed a considerable fleet, obl^ed 
; the chief command bv^r all the Grecian states whidbi.had 
any thing to apprehend from Persia. They formed a con- 
federacy of republics with a common treasury, and held 
stated assepiblies to consult on the general afikirs, and to fix 
.the contingent of ships which each city was bound to fur^ 
nish. But the Athenians r,eceived the money that w^ 
apportioned, and provided for the equipment of the fleet. 
Thus they alone became powerfiil by ie&, and rendared.tbe 
confederates tributary. Wars were excited in ccHlsequence 
of thi^ usurpation, but the power had already passed into the 
lianas of the Athenians, The J^eloponnesus in the meaii 
time adhered to Lacedeenion. 

^ The Athenian yoke pressed hard upon t)ie islands, for 
when the people stood in need of money, tjb0 orators found 
pretences for condemning the weak allies or rich citi;?ens 
to heavy finesy and the latter tpbk their redress on the 


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uniteeSal history, 105 

"islanders. The Athenian admiral sailed annually round the 
Archipelago, like the Capndan Pasha in the present day, to 
receive the tributes and survey the genial posture of 
affairs ; and only the shadow and name of liberty remained. 
Hie innocent manners of the rustic people of earlier 
-times were lost in the licentious turbulence of an assembly 
consisting of artisans and sailors. The restless jealousy of 
a people who disdained to revere their illustrious men, and 
the arts of demagogues who feared the preponderance of noble 
tjnallties, spared neither the lives nor fortunes of the heroes to 
whoQi Greece was indebted for her liberty and glory. It was 
only allowed in times of evident emergency to display great 
• and' splendid talents. Miltiadeis died in prison, because the 
people^ who in the field of Marathon owed to him their ex- 
istence, had unjustly loaded him with a hetevy fine which he 
was unable to pay ; and it was of no avail to Aristides to be 
distinguished by the title of the Just, or to Cimon that he 
was as g|entle and . benevolent as he was great Themis- 
tocles, when the country which he had saved drove him into 
'exile, was indebted to the scm of Xerxes for the tranquillity 
of bis last days. Herodotus the historian had found it 
necessary to seek an asvlnm in Italy with the colony that 
was sent to Thurium ; and Cleon's jealousy against men of 
virtue and talent drove Thucydides into banishment. The 
gentle Xenophon had been exiled before the malice of ca- 
lumniators destroyed. in prison his instructor Socrates, 
whom the Delphian god had pronounced to be the wisest 
of the Greeks. The ingratitude of Athens survived after 
her sovereignty had fallen. Conon rebuilt the walls of the 
city, and his son Timotheus terminated a long, meritorious 
life in extreme want ; Iphicrates and Chabrias would have 
found no better &te if they had not for the most part with- 
drawn themselves fix>m the eyes of the people. ^When, 
after the fall of its dominion, Athens lost its independence, 
it appeared only to preserve fi'eedom in its internal govern- 
jnent in order to condemn to death Phocion, the type of 

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ancient vlrtaei in the eighty-fourth year of bisriif^ ; ai|d ia 
force the ^rise Demetrius of Phalera, in wlie^e honour three 
hundred columnB have been erecte4) to se^ security jn the 
Egyptian court. We will not follow the display c^thi^ chap 
racter through all ages. The last deed of the Athasians «rhich 
is known, before they entirely fell under the Turkish powers 
was an act of ingratitude towards a meritorious citi2en) the 
dbtherof the historian ChalooQondylas. 

The moderate democracy of AAmt^wfis ri&ied by the 
project of domineering over Greece, ^^^lich .could not be at- 
tempted without a multitude of markers, and gcii99ter ex- 
penditure than the <N*dinary rev^ues «fibrdeii. The means 
to which the Athenians h^d recourse in order to attract^ a 
multitude of people were an equaility without bounds^ joined 
to recessive licentiousness and spleadfai luxury. 



^ ^ As lone as Pericles lived be knew how to 

restrain the increase of anarchy by 4he prin- 
ciples of ^ a great magistrate who rules over>the multitude 
for their own good. Sprung from one of the meet noble 
families, formed by the most exalted phik>aophy, possessing 
an irresistible eloquence rather by the inflate power of his 
genius than by study or imitation, he held durmg forty 
years the diief honours cf the state^ and govemM the 
popular assembly with such commanding dignity, that his 
life deserves to be the study of all those who devote {them- 
selves to the public duties of a commonwealth. He was 
reproached for making use of corruption: it was to be 
lamented that. he had to do with people and with a consti- 
tution in which the public good rendered such measures 
necessary; but it is certain that d»e demiDcmciy during his 
time wa9 less oppz>esi»ve towmnds the coufederiMiy than: it 
afterwards becan^. Under him Athens attained to the 

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&Kiv£»ftAL liisTORir. 107 


highest d^ee of oipulence and power ; QAder Um it mspired 
respect radier than terror; he sought rather to gain the 
affections c^ the Greeks than to subject them to a yoke. 
The main foundation of his overbeacing aseendeocy was the 
sererity of his maxamnf his personal virtue^ and the dignity 
with which he addressed the pec^le* He never flattered or 
suffered himself to bid govetn^ by Jhe people^ but inspired 
them with confidence in misfdrtunes, and rebuked didr in-^ 
solence in prospekity. This great mani who possessed the 
BHist refitted taste of bis sige, gave to the arts and seienoes 
by liis protection and favour a d^^ree of splendour whidi 
they hlEid never before attained, and have since his time seU 

dom imitated, 




-. It is true that the Pdoponnesian war, 

which Pericles towards the end of his life 
advised, waa mitions to Athene But the jealousy between 
tilts d^ ioild Lsfsedaemdn had gime so far that a war was 
miatoidable* If Perides had counselled the Athenians to 
Subimt) they would have lost their ascendancy, and perhaps 
ihwtimMence m themselves, and y«t would not have been 
suffered to remain in peace« It can only have been in irony 
liiat he Ivas aebused of wishing to occupy the minds of the 
At}^nian6,.that they might not have leisure to observe how 
lavishly he had expended the pid>lic money in erecting the 
t^itople df Pallas, the glory of Grecian architecture. Yet 
Pericles may have found some great enterprise necessary tor 
maintaining internal peace, because while they continued, jin 
action the people were obliged to leave the conduct of affiurs^ 
in the hands of the most able men. 

TI)e greatest calamity of Athens was the great pla^e, 
whieh broke out in the second year of the twenty*seven 

. years' war and destroyed Pericles. No man appeared after 

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bim.who possessted his excellences in aH respects, and wa# 
capable of inheriting his authority. Men of splendid 
qualities, and particularly eldqnent orators, sought to build 
upon, popular fevour, what he had drawn fbrth from the 
resources of his mind. The jpopular asseoMy was now to 
be flattered into acquiescence, for there was no longer a 
band capable of guiding their decisions and, imposing 
respect. - The people believed that they held the soverdgnty 
while they were in reality a sport to the passions- of in- ' 
triguii^g demagogues. , One of these was Alcibiades, a pupil 
of Pericles, who was distinguished not only among his own 
countrymen, but in all the nations among whom he suc- 
cessively resided. He possessed the most insinuating 
eloquence, which made its way to the hearts > of men with 
greater facility as it was aided by extraordinary personal 
beauty,, by the graces of his gei^ius^ the.magni^cence of his 
manners, and the vast resources of his mind. At the same 
^ time Alcibiades was an able general, an accomplished states- 
man, and fitted even in the smallest affiurs to attract love and 
admiration. His most distinguishing quali^ was a peculiar 
£sicility of speedily condliating all nations and individuals^ 
by completely penetrating into their habits dt mind and 
modes of adjng. As a citizen he was dangeroii8» once he 
had more adroitness than perseverance and allowed every 
indulgence to his passions. 

The Peloponnesian war which Pericles advised the 
Athenians to protract, because he foresaw that the moderate 
resources of the Lacedeemonians would exhaust themsdves, 
was interrupted by a cessation of hostilities, during which 
Alcibiades incited die pepple to undertake an expedition 
into Sicily. 



A SURPRISING number of great, magnificdit, 
' and opulent cities iftdomed the island of IScily* 

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Neaf ly all of them were governed by democracies, and 
Qome, particularly Syracttsey the most powerfiil^ often fell 
under the tyraimy of ambitious, individuals. Such persons^ 
having by: splendid exploits or by depressing the ancient 
ferailies and the r^ular magistrates, brought the people 
over to their side, and having acquired popularity, con-* 
trived under some pretext to obtain a guard : thence- 
forward they found the means of appropriating to their 
own purposes a great portion of the envied wealth of the 
principal citizens, and before their designs were anticipated 
became tyrants; or according to the old sense of the term, 
the masters of the city, and particularly of the dtadeL 
. Thus Gelo, during a time of great commotion^ 

had acquired the tyranny of Syracuse. H© liber- 
ated the city frtfm the yoke of Carthage, and governed with 
paternal mildness; but virtues are dangerous in the founder 
of an unjust dominion, because they aflbrd his successor 
resources for governing by contrary maxims. Syracuse 
became again free; the tyranny acquired no consistency, 
but the people knew not bow to use with moderation their 
; ^ newly attained liberty. In domestic affairs they 

acquiesced in the law?, butjn matters of the 
greatest moment they had no principles of action. Instead 
of securing the happiness of Sicily, Syracuse excited fac- 
tious discontents, and gave occasion to foreign interference : 
at length deputies from the smaller towns invited the 
Athenians to theii: aid. 

The majority of people in Athens had no idea of Sicily, 
but listened' to the account giv^n them by Alcibiades who 
jvas well Informed. The latter, eager, for fame, and full 
of the feeling of his innate powers, thought the resources of 
tlie republic'sufficient for conducting this war. It seemed 
to him that such a conquest must naturally give his nation 
the preponderance over its enemies in the Peloponnesus, 
and over the barbarians not only of Persia but of Africa, 
If the Attic government had been better administered, ^ 

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power comparable to that of Rome or Cartbage might'liav^ 

been founded* But scarcely had Alcibiades set sail wi^ 

Nicias and Lamachus, at the head of the finest fleet wkidi 

had hitherto appeared on the Mgesxi sea, when a com-' 

bination was formed against him at Athens by all those 

who were jealous of his feme, and who feared him for the 

cause of liberty, or for themsekes, and by many who 

had to complain of his youthful fic^itiousness and impru-* 

dence. He was publicly accused of sacrilege. Even the 

Athenians, who in their comic theatre laughed at all their 

godiS, recalled on this accusation their best general fr^m 

the greatest enterprise that any Grecian people had eTer 

undertaken. Alcibiades took refuge in Lacedaemon ; Nicias 

was a man of sound understanding and good morals and 

the richest of the Athenians, but be bad not the great 

capacity and energetic spirit which were necessary in order 

to reduce under his pow«r a city like Syracuse, the re* 

sources of which seemed to increase with its dangers; 

Lamachus died, and Demosthenes his successor was accus* 

tqmed only to petty warfare. A better formed plan was 

required, audi forces were deficient, although Athens had 

sent by degrees to £icily fcnrty thousand men. The event 

wte, 4ihat all perished or were taken prisoners, and the 

Atlienians^ defeated every where, lost at once, in a single 

cataistFophe, their armies and their fleets. ' This 
B.C.410. . 

calamity, important in- the history of ike art of 

war, has been ably described by Thucydides in its most 
melancholy circumstances. 

When the tidings of this misfortune arrived in the port 
of Athelis, the people for a long time gave no credit to it. 
When it was at length confirmed by eye-witnesses, the rage 
4l ^e multitude turned itself upon the orators, the priests, 
and the oracles, by which they had been misled. The 
whole of their cavalry was destroyed ; they had no heavy- 
armed infantry, no ships on tlie stocks, no money in 'tbeii» 
treasury; the^liad to look forward to'the rebeHion of flieir 

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subjecit, to the dtieition of their itUies, to the appearance 
of tke toiakny before the city and in the haven, and to anti- 
cipate the tttmiEMit peril evmi, for their independence* The 
Athenians, great ih mirfortune, came to the resoluticm of 
re$isdng; and coitiSded all anthority in the state, to a coun- 
cil ccmmxiihgf^ tfie most experienced men. 



The Lacedflemonians led by Alcibiades invaded Attica 
tmd seized upon Jdecelia^ whence they molested the whole 
territdty; the defection of the allies became no longer 
doubtful, but Athtos, powerful in herself^ nihen necessity 
armed all h^r citizens, held out till the seventh year. 

At length internal Actions impaired the strength of the 
state; popular orators excited the jealoosyof the multitude; 
suspicions and assassinations impeded and disgraced the 
government Alcibiades, wlio had now been recalled, and 
had rendered essential services to his country, was a second 
time striven Into bamsbm^it With sevwal .able generals, 
while otiiers were put to death. After this act of folly, 
the unc^ilfiifaiess and impr^Mience of the commander of the 
Atfaeman fleet stationed in the river Aegos^ who 
WELs in vain admonished by Alcibiades, afforded 
a ti<^i*y to Lysander, the Lacedaemonian general, by which 
the last resonrce of Adiens, her flee<^ was a second time 

Th^n the enemy af^ear^, in the PirsBus: the people 
made a courageous resistance ; and it was only the extr^obi^ 
of famine that forced Athens to demand peace of Lace- 
dd&nion. The Lacedsemonians held a council of all the 
confederates, who, under their conduct, had destroyed thd 
power of Attica. On this occasion the Boeotians and Co* 
rltitbiai^is insisted that the dty should ?be burnt, and all the 
ped{desold into slavery. The Lacediemotnians, at ihe glo* 

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rious termiiiatioii of the Cwen<y*8ev«n year^ war. wl^iCik , ^ 
tb^ bad carried on against Athens, reaolyed that tb^y v 
never would sdFer a city to be destroyed by the faand^ ot\ 
Gfredks, which had acted so noble a. part in the defence pf. 
their cmnmon country against tfaehoaU of Per»a. They . 
took care that Athens should nerer have it in her power tQ, 
display pre-eminence among the Grecian states in oppositioi^ 
to themselves. Of that naval power which had domineered, 
over the .dSgean sea, not more than twelve ships were left to 
the Athenians, and the long walls between the haven and 
the city were broken down. In the sevcaity-fifth year after 
the battle of Salamis the sovereignty of Athens receiv^ thi&> 
calamitous termination. But the int^mediate times had 
done much towards awakening the g^us of the Attic . 
people, and the love of the sciences and fine arts, which 
had ^rung up among them, afforded them the foundation 
of lastmg fame. In no city were the festivals and theatrical 
entertainments so magnificent mid various; their manners 
were the most polished, and the eo^o^ments of life among ' 
tibiem the most multiplied and the most refined. Ck>mmerce 
flourished in Athene and strangers, eager for knowledge^ 
flodced thither in crowds. This dty was the Par» of the 
andiint world, if we takd Paris in its best times ; a corrects 
taste was diffused among all classes of th^ people, reisulting 
from the intercourse of illustrious statesmen and philoso- 
phers, arid the high refinement which the Grrecian language 
had attained. The public walks of Athens, the-grovesof 
the Lyceum, and of the Academe, were the seat of a more 
secure and more glorious empire than the fate of arms e&n 
b^ow or take away. 

' Liteitature had attained the greatest splendour since the 
time of Socrates, who first kne^ and acknowledged that man 
has no insight in^ the nature of things, and that the sum^ 
of all wisdom is the knowledge of oursdves. Thenceforth 
the highest value was placed on the forming of manners and 
on the refiAcment of the human character, and the supreme 
3* ■ 

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I or flOYorign good was pursued by philosopherg 
ia Tiurious patli% which, however, are oiily different in name. 
In the gardens of Epicurus it was sought in a tranqfuil 
and pleasant life; in the hall of'Zeno, happiness was said 
~to consist in the omifiGiousnesB of virtue, which is in reality 
dtt highest d^ree of tranquillity; while Diogenes placed 
h in restraining our desires and wants. We would here 
simply remark, that the victory at JEgos destroyed only the 
dominion and not the greatness of Athens; fortune and 
arms have not all thii^ und^ their sway ; and an enli j^t- 
«Ded nation, iHhioh does not forget itself, secures a dignilj 
which is independent of the vicissitudes of events* 



^ ^ After the humBiadon of Athens, the 

B.C. 404— 370. ^ , , ,.r , 

Spartans resolved to restore liberty to the 
Grecian states on the coast of Asia. Lysander and the olhev 
generab forwarded this und<^taking,in which there was mucb 
tiogain» and which afforded them a long respite from the so* 
vere pressure of their domestic laws^ Too late theking of 
Persia perceived tl^ he had erred in not maintaining • 
balance of power between Athens^ and Laoedflsmon.. The 
Greeks were now so much the more dangerous^ as many 
yomug m^i had grown up during the long Peloponnesian 
war, who were only acquainted with arms, and who were 
the first soldiers properly so cdled, as they followed war&ra 
for hire. Ten thousand of these mercenaries shodc the 
^brone of the second Artaxerxes, and after his brother, in 
iidioseservice they fought, had fallen in battle, formed the 
bold attempt of forcing thair way back to their country^ 
Ihroi^ the midst of Asia, and at the distance of ^ 34,650. 

* 34,550 rtadia. 
VOL. I. I ' 

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114 umnmaAi* HisTOBT* 

furloiigs. And though they were in the greater wtHat €iti 

proymoDSif pursued by the best gmerals of the kha^ dmiu^ 

roads often scarcely passable^ and treated as enemies by a 

multitude of Asiatic naiionfiy they completed their 

' enterprise under the conduct of Xenqphon. . 

Socai after this expedition Agesilaus^ a true Labeda^ 
wuomash obedient to the laws of his country, and terribk 

^ . to its enemies, carried <ihe war with great success 
* into the interior proTinceSk 

He shewed Ae Greeks how easily a throne, powerful in 
appearance, bnt whose fomidations were undermined, might 
be overthrown. Artaxerxes protected himself by great sums 
of gold ; by means of which he excited internal commotions 
in Greece, and obliged the Spartans to recal Agesilaus. 
In this war the Laconian fleet was defeated on the sea of 
Cnidos by the Athenian Conon, who served in the cause of 

^^ The same Conon rebuilt the lonff walls of 

B.C. 392. 

. ' ' ' Athens. Thrasybulus had destroyed the oli^ 
garchy of the thirty tyrants, introduced by Lacedeemon,; 
and declaring a gieneral amnesty, had restored the demor 
cratical goverhipfcnt^ which for. some time was conducted 
with moderatbn. After this revolution Athens i^peared 
too strong to suffer herself to be insulted, but not powerful 
enough to renew her schemes of ambition. 

. While affairs^ere in this siiuation the king mediated the 
peace which bore the name ' of its chief negociator Antal* 
cidas, and which, by authorizing a foreign interference 
with its internal relations, was dishonourable to the liberty 
of Greece. 

- Correction daily attained a more pernicious prevaleiice.^ 
When demagogues had overturned the authority of dvil 
magistrates, the respect of age'and paternal authority were 
lost: the growing licentiousness found the laws intolembl^ 
and their power and stability were continually invaded : the 
impatience of restraint, and the impetuosity of the- passions, 


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broagfat religioai into contempt ; the most sacred oaths no 
longer availed to hold le^ty and perfidy in check, and in 
the ruin of morals the Constitution of Sparta was over- 
whelmed. The great men of Lacedsemohy far from their 
e|diori, bearing foreign commands by sea and land, or in 
the office of harmostas or governors of confederate cities, 
became acqpiainted with luxary and riches, and fonnd the 
life of Lycurgus no longer to be endared. 



During this general corruption of manners 'Epaminon- 
das arose at Thebes in Bceotia, who, though inaccessible to 
the bribes and promises of the Persians, rendered them a 
greater service than those who had accepted their splendid 
bfifers : by him the power of Lacedasmon was overthrown, 
and his own country Boeotia was invented with the predo* 
minant authority in Greece, which it was able to maintain 
only during the life of Epaminondas. 
• Thebes lay in a fruit^ plain at the foot of Mount Cithse- , 
ron; Boeotia was a federar republic, in which eleven 
Boeotarchs,! chosen by all the districts, had the chief ma- 
Aagemmit of affairs, but were not allowed to perform any 
public ai't without the consent of the four chief cities. 
Thebes was the greatest of these, and excited the jealousy 
of ail the rest. 

In the confidence of peace a Lacediemonian 
' general by a bold stratagem had gtfined posses- 
sion of theTheban citadeL This attempt was declared un- 
just at Sparta ;^and had it not been for the friendship which 
the son of Agesilaus bore for his son, the author of the 
crime mu«t have forfeited his Hfe. 

^t it was agreed to ke^ a garrison in the fortress, and 
ihe most resolute of the citizens were exiled ftcm Thebes. 
The latter kd by Pelopkbe had the good fortune by a well- 


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il4 omvMSAi* anmuen 

4fviiQd mi mpUly eacecated enteipriie to ^delim tkeir 
comitiy Av»m ArdulM, who entertittned »o iut[xcion of such 
« {»roj0«t; find ftom that time the Bcaoliani k>u^ to de^ 
ftap^ the abuied power of the LaoedffintonianB. 

. They would not have attained thh object l^ the 
*" numeri<»d ibrce of their armies; butEpaminondas 
at the bi^le of Leoctra a^aUed himself for the first time of 
the oblique order> thi^ master-piece of military tactics the 
secret of which consists in keepiiig a portion of the army in 
reserve until the enemy's forces shall stand in a situation, in. 
which it may become possible to fall upon them in flank, and 
thus to destroy their presence of mind and the consistency 
oj^ their linesu Thus superiority of numbers no longer avails, 
4Qd the eoemy loses the advantage of acting decisively with 
his best troops. . Jf the general ^ouid foresee this blow, he 
would hQld hi|U9^ in readiness, or anticipate it; and it 
therefore becomes necessary that all &e arrangem^ts for it 
should be made secretly, which can only be effected by eK- 
traordinary skill io m^tary evolutions. This stratagem 
accordingly is only practicable to the general who commands 
the b^st troops, but to him it gives & decisive superiority. 
The-great Utehan commander availed himself of it in the 
victorious fidds of Leuctraand Mantinsea; and by the same 
«ieans Philip wd Alexander with inferior forces coDquered 
Greece and Asia ; it decided in fiivour of Cttsar the battle of 
Pharsalia, ipd to it Frederick the Great was indebted for 
the laurel of Hohenfriedberg, and for many other ^orkms 

At L^uctra fell the flower, of the XacedsemcMiian youth, 
the half of the citiaois of Sparta; add the sovereignty of 
Gi^ce, the prize of the Peloponnesian war, was irreeoverr 
ably lost. The Boeotians, who bdbre had scaroefy vraitured 
to come within sight of the Lacedssmonians, followed th^te 
victpry i^to the vtreets of Sparta. 

In tihis eoctreme neoeadiy of Lacidsnnoii the 
Athenians were not wu^ndftd pf the noUe ton- 

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wnmmmLL munomn 117 

dtt^ of thtir Bodrnt eomnj^ aad dwy ftrnied thMuellm k 
hepBi^ipoTt. fiat • second nctbry at MantiaaB^tstoUiibMi^ 
th« fiune of Spioiinondasy and oompleled tfe ruin of tlit 
Sparttn power. The Tbcban genmd finished hi* career 
by anhttroic death. 
. _ On that aooonnl ibis day waa calamitous even 

B. C 362. 

'to those vhoni it crowned with Tietory. The 
Betotianst as if they had been beaten, remained motionlcis 
with astonishment on the field, and the enemy, as if panned 
by the nsigbty shade of ttie faUen heroi bctodithemsehres to 
a precipitate flight 

No general ever before arranged the order of battle on 
prkaeiples so scicalifie, or carried the art of war tb tndk 
perfection. lE^paminondaiwaamoreGnreraneUeandvirlaoni 
ctdzant magnammona to^yards hie ungratefal coantry, m^ 
dest and mild in diaracter, warm in firiendabip, a lover eC 
phileaopfay, and a most aooompKshed man* 



Tgg death of Epaminondflw Iraa an irreparable misforttoe 

for the Greeks, for there remained not in any of the states Sk 

ciliaen capable of imting the difid^ repnblies by the |Mre» 

eminetiee erf* hh saeral poweriL With Spamiii' 

' nendastbeinfticffilce of Bttbtiawaa extinguished^ 

Agesilaiis the last hero of S^parta died soon after hlm» and 

scarosfy bad Xencpbon completed bie puiegyric oir tile 


career. The maritime power of ▲ Aena had 

suiAl forfgr yearn bdfare into insignificance; and die best 

Grecian armiea had softred in the last battles ap irreooY»N 


The miAitede of those persene kicreBsed, who^ bom 
as it weee in thefi^ and fimned onfy to arms, wan-* 
dandaboQl iia quwt of adfemures, and being strangers to 

I 3 

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118 cnfivsitsAi. HrevoKY« 

seeml order and tlie^ arts of peioe^ sbnghc only for cent- 
manders who would furnish them a r^dar stipend, and 
giTe them a share of plunder. In e«rly timies the citizens 
iboglrt fiir the rights or the usurpations of- their country ; 
the armies of the great king were contingents of mflitia 
ftom each province, but at this period the ccmdition of the 
world was dianged by a soldiery whose regular trade was 
wtrfiure. This was anticipated by Jason of Pherae^ a Thes- 
salian chief, who engag^ a. conod^able number of merce* 
naries in bis service, and formed the project of possessing 
himself, by tlieir aid, of the wealth of Asia ; but a premature 

death prevented its completi<Hi. 

i Philip son of. Amyntas having after many disturbances 
in Macedonia ascended his paternal throne, adopted this 
plan of waging war, and pursued it to a still greater extent. 
But the cause which chie% contributed to give a new con*- 
dition to all the countries between the Adriatic sea and the 
furthest Indies, was the military education which Philip 
had received under the precepts of Epaminondas, while he 
raided, during the calamities of his house, as a hostage at 
Thebes. Witl^ the knowledge which the ingenuous spirit 
of the royal youth eagerly, imbibed firom this great man, 
he comlnned what the latter wanted, namely, the power of 
a monarch and the boldness of an enterprising c^iqueror 
to whom all means are indifferent which conduct him 
to the scope of his desire. Philip had, besides, pleasing 
manners and apparent gentleness, by whieh he engaged the 
alfecticms of the soldiers and deceived the people; he was 
addicted to conviviality and to pleasures of all kinds, and 
was therefore the less dreaded. 

. In Athens lived the orator Demosthenes, whom nature 
seems to have bestowed upon the Gredks, in <» foretel 
all the calamities with which their neglect of the common 
good, and corruption ofthm principles and manners could 
not.£iil to overwhelm them.. They .heard liim as the 
Trojans heaxd the soothsayings of Cassandira*^ While 

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Philip was forming his phalange, improviDg his revenue 
iiicrea»ng his armies, . gaining dependants^ sowing dis- 
sensions, preparii^ fetters for aU Greece, the Athebfans 
seftised to believe that there was any thing^ to fear. Many 
celebrated his equity, the gentleness of his manners;, they 
dreaded the esertions and the sacrifices which would be 
Fequired for a serious opposition. The generals, from tfie 
fear of responsibility, were unwilling to undertake enter* 
prises; they sought to prolong wars that they might 
length^' the period of their command, and acquire the 
greater gains; they contented themselves with the mere 
appearance of action, and wh^i they had done enough to 
save themseh'es from open ignominy,, spared their troops, 
which were too expensive and difficult to replace; they 
watdied with partieular care over their own- lives, having 
no belief in a future state or regard for posthumous fame* 
Thus aU the military enterprises of the Greeks at this 
period w^e conducted without vigour, as they were under- 
takoi without any connected plan. Philip on the contriary 
infused into his army one common sentiment, which spraifg 
from his own bs'east, and incited them to the project which 
was the main spring of all his actions* 
. Afkw Philip had exercised his arms, in subduing the 
barbarous people in the vicinity of his own country; aflteii 
he had conquered Thrace as far as the Bosphorus and the 
Hdlespont, gained possession of Thessaly, divided, - de- 
ceived, and subdued Phopis, acquired, to the astonidrnient 
of all Greece, a seat in the Amphictyonic council, as avenger 
of the Delpliic god, and filled every place from Byzantiim^ 
to the Peloponnesus with the terror of his arms, and at the 
same time with the reputation of his mildness and geh^ 
rooity, his good faith and patriotism; Athais at lengA 
took arms in the cause of expiring freedom. To. thii' 
resolve the Boeotians gave occasion, who afler many yettrs! 
had become at length aware that the king bore them mi 
good int^ortions. 


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120 vmvzBBkL aieroi^Yf 

The decisive batde was foimlit in the fi^ or 

B C 557r 

' Chasronea. The Atheoianft and thdr aUiea^ {Murti* 
cularly the Theban bod; called the Troop of Loyera, fought 
in a manner wortliy of the last contest in defence ol ancien| 
liberty. They were defeated. , The Theban band, fyat 
hundred in number, inseparable in dea(h» &U togetheie^ 
loaded with glorious, wounds^ and theiibarty of Oreeee«»* 
pired with them. 



Pauuip WHS anxious, by some great exploit in harmony 
with the national feeling, to keep his army employee^ and 
prevent the Greeks from reflecting on their calamity. He 
resolTed to avenge the gods, formerly insulted by Xei^e^ 
and to inflict punishments on the successors of his throne 
for the contumelies be had ojfered to the Greeks. • In the» 
midst of these preparations, the king was assassinated by a 
young man in revenge for an injury inflicted on him. 

His son Alexander was twenty years of age, 
when by the destruction of Thebes which ha^ 
rebelled, he deprived the Greeks c£\he hope <^ re-establish- 
ing their independence. He then marched fit>m Pella, and 
overran Asia as &r as the Ganges* 

Since the spirit of conquest had been extinguished in the 
Persian kings, the salutary institutions of that country had^ 
been n^ected. The house of the first Darius had beetf 
extirpated by a revengeful eunuch. Darius Codomannus 
was by no means a base or unworthy prince^ but was 
defective in that military skill which was necessary in 
order to contend with the Macedonians. Asia was indif-* 
iierent concerning the name of her master^ and after a thirtf 
botfle, and the death of the king, Persia feU jMro^trate be** 
fore the conqueror. 

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, It is not improbable that Alexander wished to 
B.C.530. . „ , J . . , . 

unite ail the conquered nations by the mixture of 

zaces and colonies into one Grecian empire, to raise them to 
the same degree of civilization^ and, by the common rites of 
religion and the connections of commerce, to accustom Euro- 
peans ^nd Asiatics to look upon each other as fellow-subjects. 
A scheme to this intent was found among his papers, and as 
the first project of an enterprise the almost insuperable 
difficulties of which had not yet been brought to light by 
the experiment, it may wdil have appeared practicable to 
thi^ ambitious youth. Perhaps bis object was a great re- 
pi^blican confederacy under one chief magistrate. As a 
pupil of the generalizing Aristptle, Alexander had more 
than all otlier conquerors the inclination and the ability for 
prescribing laws to the world. 

But scarcely had the hero finished the labour of his dis* 
tant conquests, and enjoyed the repose of a few days at 
BfibylaKi, when he perished by poison, or by intemperancei 
having scarcely coiii|>leted his thirty-second year. His ' 
children beiiig yet infents, his chief generals provided each 
for himsdf, and only thought of conciliating the greedy 
soldiery. His family fell a sacrifice to the ambition of his 
servants, who for themselves obtained no other boon than a 
li£^ ^f peorpetual alarms and a violent death. 



BuRiNG this and the succeeding age military talents 
alone^displayed themselves. Iliey enabled the commoii 
soli^ers by valour and profusion to gain the soverri^ 
power in vadcms countries^ and force the pec^le to pay for 

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their own suligugation. The character of men and of na-' 
ttons became diflferent firom that of former ages, and history- 
assumes a gloomy iffid uopleasing aspect; men appear no 
longer on the stage, and we only hear of troops, who an^ 
victorious in proportion as they become mere maqhines. 

Tlie Greek democracies had no regular organiziition ; 
the people no principle, which might enable them to rise 
again after a temporary depression. This nation was too rich . 
in ideas to proceed by system ; passions and factious con- , 
tests guided its movements. Most of the Swiss constitu^ 
tions are equally unsystematical, but the people are tranquil 
and sedate ; while among the Greeks dvery individual chose 
to be a ruler, and no man was willing to obey. Party- 
spirit confounded all moral feeling ; and criminal audacity 
was lopked upon as the courage of those who dare every 
thing for their comrades in arms; peijury and falsehood 
were regarded as mere sport of words; and cities formerly 
celebrated for virtue^ in the prevalence of licence and dis- 
order surpassed even the crimes of tyrants. The citizens 
of the middle class were the most unfortunate; they at- 
tracted envy and hatred, while the bold and flagitious alone 
prospered: the characters df men lost their distinctions, 
and the Lacedsemonilms became greedy of gold. 

In Persia, under kings who confided in the massive 
strength of their empire, those exercises by which Cyrus 
had given superiority to his army, had been neglected, during 
. the repose of a long peace, and the names alone remained. 
Wheii the chief officers had once seated themselves at the 
banquetting table^ it was their custom not to rise from it 
until night. , During their expeditions in the king's service^ 
they still took repose only once in the day; but their jour- 
neys were very short;* and though the young men were 
educated as formerly in the courts to learn the forms^of 
business, their chief attention was directed to the sums^ erf* 
gold which werenecessary for corrupting the judges. The 
people were oppressed with new impositionsy while the 

, Digitized V Google 


court was disorderly and expensive, the fevonrites insatiable^ 
and the satraps shamefully avaricious. In the distribution 
df. public trusts, less attention v^as paid to the duties to be 
performed than the wants of the favoured applicant; and 
the menials, codes, and panders of the great filled all the 
iitferior offices. The chief strength of the army consisted 
in^ Greek) mercenaries, without whose aid the great king 
would not have been able to maintain until the time of 
Alexander the dominion of indignant Asia. The com^ 
manders. of such troops seated themselves, after the death 
of the Macedonian conqueror, on the throne of Darius 
and the old monarchs, and very soon glided insensibly yqX(S 
the manners of the people whom they had subdued. New 
victories were thus gradually prepared for a nation who 
rasemUed thek Eurc^ean ancestors. 



Fob a few years a shadow of power remained to the 
house of Alexander, in Macedonia. The vicegerent Anti« 
pater and his son Cassander held the government, and ef- 
fected whatever their passions excited them to attempt* 
Greece was held in subjection by policy, the armies being 
occupied elsewhere, and the republics bore the character, 
not of subjects, but of weak allies of a powerful neighbour. 
Athens suffered the most numerous commotions ; many il- 
lustrious citizens fell or were exiled, before the ^tate sunk 
into political insignificance, and rendered itself contemptible 
by excessive adulation towards the great. Lacedaemon, ex- 
hausted by its exertions, maintained the institutions of Ly- 
curgus; it still had good generals in the number of its 
king^ and patriots among its people; but the corrupt party 
gained the ascendancy by number, and Lacedasmon, whpse 
citizaos had fomierly been its walls, was fortified like other 

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t4>wiis; i|siiisUtutkm&vere lost, and usurpers gmuedtha* 

About the sfuue time twdve, cities io Acfaai%tW 

' northerndistrictofthePelopoimesuayfor the most 

part little towns aud othdrwiae of no coosiderationy united 

themselves in one confederacy, which became respectable by 

its equity and moderation. Peace and independence were 

the objects of this alliance ; the states held an annual assem^ 

Uy at iEgium, elected a prsetor, treasurer, and secretary, 

and passed general decrees with respect to wtfs and tresttiesir 

They lent each other reciprocal aid against die enterprises 

of ambition, and received into their feague the Arcadian 

M^alopolis and the great cities of Sicyon and Corintb,^ 

which had expelled their tyrants and were desirous of enjoy* 

ing security and freedom without injuring their neigliboin«^ 

From Megalopolis, the dty in which Epaminondas had 

collected the scattered Arcadians, sprang the last Grecian 

haro who was worthy to appear by the side of Themistocles, 

and the conqueror of Leuctra ; this was Philopoemen, the 

Acliaian general. It is true that he abolished the forms of 

LycurgUB at Lacedaemouy but this he did because the people^ 

no longer restrained by those institutions within the bounds 

of temperance, was rendered by them more restless and im> 

piatieut of controL 

In the same year in which the Achaian conjEederacy took 

its rise, Seleucus, who had outlived all the other generals of 

Alexander, and had reunited the whole emfure of that con*- 

queror in Europe and Asia, was killed by Ptolemy Kerau* 

nus, an exiled Egyptian prince to whom he had affiaded an. 


In the kingdom of Macedonia, Cassander, the murderer of 

,tfae family of Alexander, was succeeded by twelve kin^ 

within the space of sixteen years ; as if the throne was &ted 

to pay the retribution due to the guilt of blood. 

* Demetrius, celebrated for the invention of excel* 

lent military engines, and for the ^eg/s of Rhodes, drove oo^ 


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' B.C. 284. ^he house <rf Cassander. He was expelled in 
B. C. 2»s, turn by Pyrrhus king of Epinis, and the latter 
by the hoary Lysimachus, a soldier of Alexander, who had 
established himself in Thrace ; Seleucus, still more aged, 
conquered Lysimachus, and his assassin the 
treacherous Ptolemy succeeded him. 
In the mean tima a tribe of Gauls proceeded from the 
feet of the Pyrensean mountains in quest of territory, and 
passed over into Asia. They were allured by the riches of 
Maeodonia, and invaded that country. Ptolemy was slain 
ift: fighting against them ; and in the course of one year 
three kings ascended and lost the tottering throne. The 
Gaiils penetrated through Macedonia, Thessaly, the pass 
of Thermopylae, where no Leonidas was now found to 
withstand them, and readied Parnassus, at whose feet Del- 
phi is situlted. Here the Greeks availed themselves of the 
heightB; a tempest, as if sent by the gods, frightened the 
enemyv and the Gauls betook themselves to a shameful 
flight; they advanced no more in that direction, but passed 
over inio Asia« 

All Alexander's captains were now dead, and the nations 
were exhausted by a war of four and forty years for the sue- 
. _ cession to his throne. Afterwards king Antigo- 

nus Gonatas, son of Demetrius the besieger of 
cities, an able and humane general, raised Macedonia out 
of its ruins ; he affi>rded a generous protection to the Greeks 
during a reign of forty years, and left behind him two sons, 
who, inheriting his goodness and his courage in emergen- 
cies, maintained possession of the throne. 

The Macedonian kingdom extended from the Propontic 
sea,^uid from the wild mountains of Thrace, on the coast, 
to the confines of Greece; in the mountainous inland 
country^ it reached along the boundaries of many barbarpus 
tril^ never wholly subdued, as far as JEtolia. The 
ijStolians inhabited the hilly diMricts and mountains which 
lie to the northward of Rhium, or the western gulf of 

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Corinth; they were a wild unponquered people, united in 
a federal republic, a horde of warriors, who sought fortune 
and fame in exploits; careless of faith, religion, and the 
Jaws of nations. 



After the death of Alexander, Perdiccas, to whom 
be had in some manner intrusted the administration, 
governed Asia in the name of his family. As soon as 
the' restless ambition of this chief was discovered he lost 
his life; and Antigonus, one of Alexander's generals, 
acquired the chief authority in Asia. The ingenuous 
Eumenes, a man of extraordinary genius and courage, 
fought in vain for the children of the hero. • The* un- 
governable licentiousness and insatiable avidity of the 
Argyraspidae, a body of soldiers whom Alexander had 
distinguished, could not endure the love of order and the 
disinterested zeal for justice which governed the conduct of 
Eumenes, and they betrayed him to his enemy. 

After the murder of Eumenes, Antigonus no 
longer doubted of being able to govern Asia with- 
out opposition. When he was nearly eighty years old, the 
rivals of his power whom he had treated with injustice com^ 
bined against him, and defeated, on the river 

J5, 1^, 300. " • 

Issus, this great and ungrateful general, who 
thirty-two years before had assisted in conquering Darius on 
the same spot, but had been the first to forget his allegiance 
to the family of his king. He was the father of Demetrius, 
from whom the last Macedonian kings were descended. 

Seleucus afterwards reigned peaceably in Asia, and 
Ptolemy over Egypt, Cyprus, and other Grecian islands. 
Both of them transmitted the sceptre to their descendants. 

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Seleucus, the founder of many cities, a mse monarchy 
fell ad above m^iticHied by assasmnation. The shades of 
the mother, the brethren, the wife, and ihe children of 
Alexander, seemed to pursue with vengeance these kings, 
who owed their thrones to their treachery towards his 
house* Such is the course of human affairs, and how much 
more awful would be the lesson offered to our view, if we 
could penetrate into the souls of tyrants. 

-After the murder of Seleucus, when Macedonia became 
again the reward of guilt, Philetserus, who commanded at 
Pergamus, formed for himself a kingdom on the coasts of 
Ionia and ^olia; Antiochus, the son of Seleucus, inherited 
the remainder of his father's empire. 

The vigour of this monarchy afterwards decayed in its 
extreme parts, and India, Bactria, and Persia were dis- 
joined. A light cavalry, distinguished for its fleetness in 
the desert, and remarkably useful in the extensive plains of 
flat and open provinces, founded, under Ardshak, the 
empire of the Parthians. This people retained 
their power during five hundred years^ their 
mode of warfare being best adapted to the protection of 
%he only boundaries on which they had to repel any 
dangerous assaults. In the military government of the 
Parthians, there were frequent vicissitudes in the succession 
of the kings, as generally happens where the favour of 
soldiery disposes of the throne, but no variation took place 
in the form of government, the latter being adapted to tne 
genius and manners of the Parthian people. 

Lesser Asia would have been lost to the Seleucidas at 
an earlier period, if some Cretans had not betrayed for 
gold the -es^cellent general Achaeiis, to whom this country 
had confided its protection. Antiochus the Third, a&gf 
inflicting a heavy vengeance on this unfortunate chief, from 
whom he had before received great benefits, had not the 
good fortune to close his life in the possessioa of bis guilty 
ccxnquests. They were torn firom him in his old age by the 

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uran of the Romans, wfao gave Asia Minor as far as Mount 

Tanms to ikimenes^ whom di? Syrian monsreh kad de* 

spised. Antiochus, who in his earlier yean 

stemed to merit the surname of The Great, 

became in his old a^e unlike himself^ and 

B C 185 

having outlived his &m^ Ml in Elymam by a 
miserable death. 

The government of the Seleucidse in Syria, so often the 
prise of bh>ody wars and the blackest treachery, was thence- 
forth dependent on Rome ; eighteen kings reigned in the 
course of an hundred years: Antioch, the metropolis^ 
fiMinded by the first Seleucuis, being the capital of a £»tile 
province, and becoming the emporium of Upper Asia, coa« 
tinned to be one of the most opulent cities in the world, 
snd the seat of luxury and pleasure* 



Of all the conquests of Alexander Egypt enjoyed the 
earliest and most lasting prosperity. As soon aa Ptokmy^ 
the son of Li^us, had gained possession of this country^ it 
reristed the attempts of otho's by the advantages of its aar* 
tural situation. Ptolemy had a moderation, in his dispo^ 
sition which restrained him from meddling with afitura ia 
which he was* obliged to venture too much; he soon ac* 
quired the r^utation of gentleness and equity, by which 
be gained the favour of the people and the confidence of 
other kii^ For the rest the Ptolemies governed ac- 
cording to the advice of a senate formed of the chiefa 
of the Macedonian army, by whose aid they had con^ 
quered Egypt 

Thifi country became in the reign of Ptolemy 

' '^^^' Philadelphus the d^f seat of the sciencea of 
Greece^ of the fine arts, and of i^lendid opulence. The 
gvandenr displayed by this priaoe in architecture becsBoe 

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pro^arbjal. He and hk son £v«rgetes were pfttterns gI 
wkeaad virtuous monarchs; but the latter Ptolen^'did 
not oonfimn themselves to such models. 

The celebrated fertility, tfie dellgfatfiil climate of Egypt, 
tlie opukuoe increased by. extensive commerce, of which- 
Alexandria was the chief support, gave the people a devotion 
to pleasure, and all the resources for its enjoyment ' In their, 
manners every diing was carried to excess. The royal 
ftmily became deteriorated in every successive generation. 
We might be tempted to seek the reas(m of this defect in 
ike fiict that the Ptolemies commonly intermarried with 
their kmdred. Is it necessary in the human' as in the in« 
ferior ^ species, to cross and renovate the breed,, in . order . tb 
maintain the vigour and ennoble the race? Eunuchs and, 
&vourites governed in Alexandria, whose successions, with 
their cabals, their cruelties and crimes, constitute the his- 
tory of Egypt. 

At first the fear of the Seleucidse restrained corruption ; 
but when the great name of Rome became the protection 
of the Pt(^emies, they gave themselves up carelessly to the^ 
gratiieaticnii of their passions. Their court became, ihe 
theatre of th/e most abandoned life and of tfaelnbst flagitious 
exeesses. ■' '• 



The fruit of Alexander's victories remained in Egypt in 
the hands of the Ptolemies; in Syria, in those of the Se- 
leucidas; in Macedonia, in the house of Antigonus; and 
in general in the possession of the persecutors of the con- 
queror's family. Yet the people seem to have gained by 
the dissolution of the Persian monarchy. The resorts of 
commercial industry were multiplied by the establishment 
of new capital cities; Grecian culture penetrated the mass 
of Oriental uniformity, and hereditary kings were found 

VOL. I. K 

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ISO imifSBa4I« H|tT08T« 

iiiar»:fidT«iti^0em8 to Ae pro?iiioei thw tbe satfftp^ itho 
w^lre oAoi cbangecU aadso mudi the more avftricioii8,«^^e 
most dreadful curse of uniTersal empire* A comparison ol 
the Macedonian kings with the Syrian and Eg^tian esta- 
blishes the nuainii founded on experiences that it is a 
aiisfortune for men to have all things in dieir power. The 
patience of the Asiatics, and the weakness of the Egyptians^ 
reodered that exerdon unnecessary which Antigonus Oe- 
natas and his hoiuie were obliged to put fordi in order to 
.snppcM their authority in Greece. Hiis throne was adorned 
daring the longest period by princes rf great qualities* It 
Uif ^Maus^ its last possessors were ignorant, till it was too 
late^ of tluir eaitemal. relatioBs, and by ruinous passioM 
gave Mcasi<m to dieir misfortunes; 

t From tins period Rome gained the sovereignty of die 
emliand worlds and nmintaincd it until the morala ef tiie 
Rcmums became as corrupt as those of the subdued nil* 
tiens : after whidh time tibe sceptre of the Romans was rent 
from them by the hands of northern baiiMuriana and hy die 
frroeious hordes of die Arabian Desert« Power ever de^ 
pends upon moral strength; from dios6 who oease lo 
desBTte it, it dqMirtB to more able or wtuoua rilaimi»t^ 
and eveiy great empire fiiUs through its own fiuilts. 

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; I i«i ) 





y\mtn M&iBknA&ttht Great pn^mined the plliloM»pli«i^ 
l9teg^ii«s tognuit him amy fiirottt that might gite him pl^^ 
4i^te^ iriid Diogenes requaited Qodiing laftote thim th«t the 
kitig iroald go from between him imd the ran^ diat p^itice 
tiaid to his coottiers, who ^^re anxious to know hi^r opihion 
of lUift dugiilar man« << Were I not Alexander, I would 
&lti be Diogenes." Men of aspking minds are e^er to 
mike all things yield to them^ or they disspise every tbihg 
ii^leh Ae peo{de regi^tnl with ad^d^raikm. It 19 not cither* 
wise with states, which hav^etwo paths to ftme; dtey may 
seeure ind^ndence, like Athens and LacedsenKm, by po^ 
VMy, by superior viitue and intdlect; or^ like Reme^ by 
¥ast schemes of conquest «nd dominion. 

The sources of (he history of Roihe are fbt the most part 
lost, till the time when it was about to pasS under die dd^ 
rainicm of a single despot: the annals of the pohti£& Wei;e 
burnt, and only a few ancient memorials were cited by aU'*- 
thors whose works are extant. The writfngs of the oldest 
historians, from Diodes to SaUust, have perished, with the 
exception of a few fragments, and they appear neither to have 
been composed with cHtical accuracy nor by men sufficiently 
enlightened. The memory ^ tnany .events was preserved 
by means oi orations pronounced at the deaths of illustrious 
titheMf and by their statues whidi adMied the halls of the 
ffe$t hotts^; but the pride of ancestry oiten corrupted 
these sottfees with &tion« 

K 2 

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PoLYBius, of Megalopolis in Arcadia, is the 
' oldest Author of Roman historjr .idK>se works yet 
survive. During his long r^idence at Rome as ambassador 
of the Achaean league, he gained the friendship of the great 
Scipio. Concerning the constitution of the state, he is the 
more instructive as he does not, like a native, assume much 
as ahready known j but writes like one who had been obliged 
to study for himself. He viewed: the ^ Alps, Spain,. and 
Africa with the eyes of a traveller, and acquired that local 
knowledge without which it is difficult to render historical 
description perspicuous. Polybius • displays an upright 
judgment without prejudice in favour of this- or that consti- 
tution, and estimates each accqrding.lo its merits. He does 
not gaze with astonishment at the pro^rity which fortune 
appears to have given to the conqueror, .but while he seeks 
and unfolds the causes of the &te of Carthage^, he foretells 
whenandhow the same calamities may happen to itsop-^ 
^ pressors. , We find not in him the art. of Herodotus, the 
'power of Tliucydides, the expressive brevity crf'XenophoQ. 
He is a statejsman^ occupied with his subject, who, without 
thinking of the approbation of the learned, writes chiefiy 
for statesmen. His characteristic excellence js soundi»ess^ 
of understepding. 



„ ^ Of the Roman authors of the some ac^e, 

B.C.182— 145. , ^ . , ^, ,^ ^ 

ttie theatrical poets, Plautus and Terence, 
have alone descended to our times ; they furnish no descr^ 
tion .of Roman manners; for they only transferred into 
their own language the productions of the Gredan slage^ 

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u»iTSRftia.v aiffro/Rv;- 133 

"^ Alt the iafoatnation, therefore^ that we obtain frotn them 
& an idea of the style of Romiai taste during theic age. 
The boldy manly traits, and poweriul description of Plautus^ 
the Attie polish, the inimitable simplicity and delicate 
ladings of Terence, are suited respectively to the senate 
of warriors, and ttie popular assembly of rustics, as they 
existed in thie time of Scipie, and to that later- period" when 
the philosophy and effeminacy of subjugated Greece: b^an 
to talfiie its haughty conquerors. 

From this remote epoeh, a work is preserved 
on^ agriculture, whidi is ascribed to the elder 
Gato ; and is very instructive concerning the domartic and' 
lliboriouB life of the conquerors of Carthage and Macedonia. 
All the fragments of authors of that tim^ bear the stamp, 
ef unpolished str^gth... 



The grave and austere exterior of the Romans lasted 
longer than the virtues of which- it was the effect and out- 
ward form; it prevailed in the house and in the public 
harangues of the voluptuous Augustus; and Nero's atro- 
ddes excited fewer murmurs than his neglect of public 
decorum. This majestic manner, the fruit of that loftiness 
of mind which characterized* the early times, and of the 
dignity which belongs to the management of public afiairs, 
this venerable' style of antiquity, contributes to give to the 
works of Sallust that' imposing expression which is suited 
to the history of the misfortunes and blackest crimes of 
men. The prevailing vices held the author under their 
yoke, and his habits were in direct violation of those 
ma^dms of self-devotion and disinterestedness which he 
1^- eloquently recommended; but no Roman citizen allowed 
himself the least appearance of levity in an historical work^ 
which concerned the commonwealth. " 

K 3 

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134 msvnsAL Hifxoit* 

The two fragments of the liifU»j of SUbut findy p^iuv 
tray the dedme of liberty wd morafak 



Thx outline furnished by Sallust is fiSed' up by X&9 
epistles and harangues of Cicero, the prince of Roman <Nrft-^ 
tors. We are delighted with the love of virtue and wisdom 
which prevails' through' his writings, and obtain from then^ 
fniich information concerning the secret causes of the re- 
volutions of his time ; by him we are taught less to lamcaajb 
'the ruin of a constitution which pardoned Verres, wbicb 
f espeeted Ciodiusi and became the Uind instrunient of am-» 
bition. We perceive in the argumentative works of Cic^ro^ 
how far philosophers had advanced, just before the found-- 
fttion of Christianity, m their views respecting tbe chief 
mterests of mankind* 

Cicero has transmitted information concerning the pre- 
eeding century, its manners, and Iaw% without which we 
should not be competent to form a worthy estimi^ of the 

^ most interesting age of the greatest of republics. 
- In the same point of view^the remaining works of bis 

^ firiiend Varro cm agriculture and language are valuabl^^ 
They display to us the life which virtuous men led during 

^ thetimesof public corruption, and th^ admirer of antifyity 
finds in them treasures of t^nowledse. 

The Commentaries of Ccesar are a model of majestic 
simplicity in historical narration. As he writes of hU QW^ 
actions, it is necessary to use the accounts of others for 
critical illustration. In every word, ip every omis^oB, 
there is a ilesjgn. WHh infinity art, C^asar sets one fyict 
in a strong li^ht, and throws a shade over, another | 
instead of finding a p^ittern of impnirtial bistpry, we become 
aG<]uainted with the man; in ev^y epitl^et, in every tvnx 
of expression, he displ»y« biiii«e)f» }m qipra gmi\^s m4 

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mrmnsjCL mwwm. 1S5 


KBPos; CATWLvn; uscrxtivs; diontsius ov halicaa* 


Although Confelius Nepo^ was the biographer of aa 
iDustrious Roman, who was the constant friend of Cicero^ 
yet as the greater number of the lives which he has written 
are those 'of Greeks, he might be more properly reckoned 
among the historians of that nation. 

The wisdom of Pomponius Atticus consisted in avoiding ' 
to take any personal share in the affairs of state daring 
turbulent times, and in leading a life of philanthropy and 
domestic retirement. We are delighted with the pleasing 
s^Ie of Nepos, but there is in his writings more of 
philosophy and refinement than of the ancient Roman 

The poet Catullus was the countryman and firiend of 
Nepos. His odes show how far it was permitted, in re- 
publican Rom^ to pourtray scenes of licentiousness; m. 
&ct, the utmost latitude was allowed, and Cicero openly 
brings tumilar traits before the people. Catullus was the 
Roman Grecourt*^ yet bolder, and in simplicity and el^ 
gance superior to the French poet ; even though he had 
left nothing but the ode on the sparrow of his mistress. 

While Catullus amused the dissolute youth with volup-- 
tuous representations, and contributed to render their 
▼ices less ferocious^ Lucretius excited among the reflecting 
Romans dangerous doubts concerning the nature of things. 
The contemplations which he opened to their minds were 
contrary to those principles on which the laws and virtue 
^of Rome were founded; and pron^oted the overthrow of 
morals already corrupted by luxury. We admire in Lu- 
cretius the majesty of ancient poetry, and the more alluring 
graces of the rising philosophy of Epicurus. 

* Grecourt was a celebrated French poet, and writer of epigrs^i^s. o£ 
the age of Louis XIV. T. 

K 4 

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136 UMlVXHSAIi HlffrORY. 

Dionysius of Halicaniassus has been supposed, without 
sufficient proo^ to have been a freedman of the famQy oF 
. Cicero* His Roman history, written with eloquence and 
learning, is too beautiful and too animated to be true; 
fragments of poetry and traditions do not afford such ■ pic- 
tures, and it is evident that the author must have filled up 
many chasms. . The outlines of the constitution are traced 
by Dionysius with fidelity and eloquence, and we only con^- 
plain that he is too great an orator. These faults in his 
manner arc not of the first order, but the failings of ex- 
cellent authors require to be pointed out, while those of 
inferior writers are easily detected. No critic' has better 
performed that duty than Dionysius himself, in his bookie 
on the historians and orators of the Greeks, which are in- 
dispensable to all who wish to perceive accurately the 
beauties of those authors, and to form their taste on the 
, best rules. 

We here willingly make mention of the learned Sicilian 
Diodorus, who delivers much rare and excellent inform- 
ation on the fables of the primitive world, on the history of 
his country,, and on the wars of the successors of Alexander; 
but the portion of his work in which he treated of the 
Roman history has become the spoil of time.. 



From the times of the republic, no tx>nnected work on 
the history of Rome is extant older than the age of Titua 
Livius, except the embellished narrative of Dionysius, which 
is not half perfect, and the celebrated productions on. par- 
ticular subjects which we have already noticed. Although 
liivy gave his work the graces of eloquence, for^ he in- 
tended it to be. read, yet he carefuUy made use of all the 
sources of correct knowledge which were accessible to him. 
The prodigies which he relates do not impeach the soundr 

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iymvEiwAL msTORv. 137 

iMB8 of his judgment, for he, reported what the ancient 
world bdieved, and what he might well leave to the cre^ 
dence of the Roman people. He supports our interest 
through the most barren times, by making an admirable 
use of meagre chronicles and traditions, and by adding ex- 
cellent reflections interwoven in beautiful harangues. The 
genius of the republic was not yet extinct, and Rome was 
charmed with his work. The chief part of his history 
describes the events of the fifty-two years which elapsed 
lirom the beginning of the second Carthaginian war to the 
conquest. of Macedonia, in which he availed himself of the 
works of Polybius, now for ,the most part lost. What 
reader caii finish without grief, the forty-five books which 
alone have survived out of the one hundred and forty-one 
which Titus Livius wrote ! and how poignant is our regret 
m remembering, that the last manuscript of the remainder 
Vas destroyed as waste paper, in France, scarcely a century 
and a half a^. * 

In following the connection of events from the poiut of 
lime when Livy deserts us to the Augustan age, we shall 
always find it better to make use of the brief abstract which 
the spirited narrative of Velleius Paterculus afibrds, than 
of the meagre summaries of the lost books of Livy. In this 
part of the work of Velleius, the patriotic feeling of a 
Roman citizen displays itself^'while a philosophical estima- 
tion of men renders his delineation of characters highly 
valuable. When he enters upon later times, Velleius falls 
into the tone of adulation even towards tyrants. In treat- 
ing of the form of the constitution, he displays quite a 
different temper, so that his excessive flattery has the ap-* 
pearance of jest It would seem that the emperor Tiberius, 
-whom, together with his &vourite, Velleius so extravagantly 
pxaisedy understood his dattery Jii this sense; for he caused 

* Lettres de Colomies. The stoiy liowever of the rockeumaker, w^ 
made rockets of the lost decades of Livy, is rather problematical. T. 

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138 UNJVXB8AX, HI8?0KY. be put to death; but T9>eriiis kfTffiYe none bi«fc 
himself for oonfidiog in S^ja^ust 



Foa obtaining an acquaintance with the state of the R^ 
man empire under Augustus, the work of the learned and^ 
intelligent geographer Strabo is of the highest importmoe^ 
and can never sufficiently be studied. It contains all that 
is essential tor illustrating the antiquity of each coontf]^ 
The author describes the chief provinces as he had seen 
them^'and his account unfolds, in various instances, 4ie 
causes of that decay which soon showed itself and of maiiy 
great events of the succeeding times. 

The short description of the earth by Pomponius M^ 
appeared at a later period. What Mela says of the nature 
of countries, and the manners of various nations, is often; 
new and of sound judgment. 

The journey of Pausanias through Greece, be«ides other 
important historical information, gives an idea of the rich 
treasures at that time extant in the works of ancient art|. 
which excites our keenest regret. 

The enumeration of countries, nations, and towns by the 
Alexandrian Ptolemy is a dry catalogue; but so instructive 
by its accuracy t]^at a critical edition of it i» among the ob» 
jects of our most anxious wishes. 



It is impossible to speak of the sotirces of our aequaintanoe 
with Bome with reference to die time of her highest power^ 
without mentioning the three men who chiefly contributed 
to earn fer the Augustan age, a glory second only to thai 
of the age of Pericles, 

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yniTuaa. Bmeon. 139 

From, thct iimeot the amoroat Tbeoeritus to iJiaI cf Solo* 
iiiQn GeiQ^i OP poftoral poet has Ufied who is so worthy to 
be ooiBpared with those great dasters as Virgil. The 
gMius of Virgil would have borne him fiu: aboye the fiune 
even of his iUustrioiis rivalsy if the most elegant and aocoiar 
pliahed imitation could have attained the fiiithfiil and lii^y 
^qpression of such original and if it were possible fi>r a 
poet who dwelt in the plains of Mantua» and in the im'* 
penal palace» to form a conception of the amenities of the 
pastoral Ufe^ as they display themsdves on Mount lEtaM, 
and in Switzerland. The poem of Vii^ on agriculture 
1% in language and sublimity) the finest production of the 
JjBKtin muse. The highest encomium we can bestow upon 
Homer> is to say^ that he called forth the emulaticm of the 
batd who has sung the e^>loits of i£neas» and that the latter 
has only excelled his great example, when the philosc^hy of 
a refined age gave him an advantage. 

For the privilege of being the best painter of manners^ 
Horace has to thank his system c^ ethical philosophy. Ha 
partook sufficiently of human passions to conceive the feelings 
which belonged to them; yet had too much temperance to 
become for a long time theic slave. He possessed a degree 
of candour and equity, which rendered him indulgent to» 
irards human firailties. 

Ajfter Horace had fought with the last Rooum citizens 
£w the repuUic, but found the revdiution unavoidable, he 
adhered to the master who possessed the greatest talents^ 
and made use of his favour in a manner useful to the state 
and to himself. While he praised Octaviaous Augustus^ 
he showed him the path to &me^ and at the same time 
taught a lesson which is worthy of being recommended tq 
the subjects of a monarchy. What could be more wise than 
to adhere to him, who with a sufficient power combined 
true ability and the most humane designs? The world 
would not gain, any things if all virtuous men died like 
Cato, or oonq>ired like Brutus. 

Ovid has displayed great leammg in his Metataorphosas 

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and Calendaiy Tenes, without the aid of wUch it is im-: 
possible to obtain a correct idea of the religion of the 
ancients: the former is the most instructive book on my* 
thology, but the Fasti are even necessary for the correct 
estunation of Christian rites; for many customs have been 
borrowed from the pagan ritual, and interpreted in a more 
refined manner* Often indeed the old as well as die nev 
sense has been forgotten or changed^ and the whcde has 
become an unintelligible symbol, in which the worshipi of 
God has degenerated into a wretched pantomime; 

Ovid's Art of Love is a poem not peculiar to his age ; ' we 
discover by it that these matters were at Rome as they are 
with us. Ovid possessed the elegance and the beautiful 
language of his time, but he had an enervating weakness 
of style. His favourite sentiments bring him into aidless 

The decline of good taste became afterwards perceptible. 
The human mind is eager even to exceed perfection, and thus 
alienates itself from the happy mean when once attained^ 



The history of the government of Tiberius, is the great 
work by which Tacitus has acquired the fame of penetrating 
more deeply into the soul of a tyrant, than any other histo^ 
rian. In the following books, we shall trace the corrupUon 
of the ancient character, while a few illustrious souls in the 
midst of the general abasement yet opposed their virtue to 
the omnipotence of Nero. Tacitus has incurred the sus« 
picioh of having exaggerated the crimes and depravity 
of &llen princes; but what he relates is according to the 
nature of the human heart, especially under a certain climate^ 
and other times may afford too ample a confirmation. . It 
has been objected to him as to Guicciardini^ that he painta 
mankind in black colours; but history is. conversant' with 
men,' who^ passions' are fervid enough to occasion re- 

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markable commotions. Extremes are seized by the annalist, 
of which the private 'citizen scarcely forms a conception^ 
and which are only so far of service in the estimation of 
national character, as they either oppress or elevate a nation 
by the influence of example. 

The universal history of the elder Pfiny, the abstract of 
two thousand books for the most part lost, is a Roman 
Eucyclopaedia. Besides natural history, it contains a de? 
scription of the manners of all the ages of Rome, delineated 
with the talent of a great writer, and. with the feeling of 
a virtuous man, « Many liave recognized in him the Haller 
of antiquity ; he resembled that philosopher in the variety 
of his knowlege, in his laborious habits, and in his indus- 
try in. compiling. The prodigies which he relates, in order 
to. set forth their absurdity, have been laid to his charge 
as if really believed by him. Concerning the arts. Falconet 
appears not always to have understood his meaning, and it 
is worth while to compare what Mengs, who was a greater 
master of the subject, has written on the painting of the 



If is superfluous to say much of Plutarch,^ for ages have 
decreed his praise. Whoever has a feeling for the moral ^ 
greatness of the heroes of antiquity, needs only to read 
Plutarch, in order to be delighted with him, and to ex- 
perience the same sentiment which he has expressed: — ' 
<< while," said he, "I had daily before my eyes in setting forth 
their jhistory, tfie exploits of so many illustrious men, I 
have myself become a better man.'* He has said nothing 
concerning those who accorded, entirely with the character 
of the times in whidi they lived. 

'After Plutarch and his heroes, it is diflicult to speak of 
Suetonius and the Csesars; yet his book is worthy of ob- 

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servstkm, ahfao^h vr% m^ dmibt wb#lii«r h^ always 
Mowed aecarate Mthorities flxid My und^ritood ih^ 



DlOK CASSitTS the Nicflean, woA an e<pemnc!ed, indui^ 
truNtt, aiid honest itatatnuiti.. Theprinciliali^^fsoiii^whiek 
we deriveihmi him, is an aecoant of the dotidoct' of oflUn 
imder Augtestut, wUch we hare not in so perSsct » Ibnn 
from any other.hisUMiaii ; in this are contained the speeches 
of MeGsenas and Agrippa» together with those of the^ enfk-* 
perbr himself) in whiefa Augnstus, now the father of his couii* 
try, appears to have become wcNihy of Virgil and Honai^e. 

Hefodian is filithiklj consistent, and interesting without 
art; a comparison of the times described by him with thut 
period which fcdlowed the d^th of Nero, and is recorded 
by TacitHs, leads us to obserre the gradual elfe6t of m<!M 
narchici4 power ob the senate and armies and the mBtmit^ 
of the long reigns of four virtuous princes. ^ 

The five or six historians from Hadrian to Cams must 
boused inthedefid^y of better authors; they are not 
eircumstantial oiough to afibrd us a perspicubus knowJege 
of characters and afiairs, and to fix with certainty our esti- 
mation of them. In general thef say little, and thai Ih a 
few words» The ancients express much in a small compass^ 
and are yet suffieiently ampk. The ait of the hisftmafiL as 
Uitle consisU in the extent c£ composition as the ol§ei« of 
the reader is obtained by hastening through a nurnb^ of 
i^gns in a few hours. l%ill is manifested by the correct 
delineation of every thing that is serviceable to the know- 
lege cf men and of nations* 

Jn much later times Ammianus deserves an honouraUe 
meation as a warrior of excellent understanding and int^^ 
grity s and oh this very account an tinfatcmraMe judge of 
the sycophant court of CbnMaatius. Ori die cth^ hand, 

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bets ifortbjr to render the justtoe refused 1^ many to the 
last of the Ciesarsy who deserved to be a suGcesscnr of the 



Some have not unsaccessfully cultivated a more ccmfined 
fidd) or difiilsed by their writings'a less direct light. 

Philo^ the JeW) in his account of his embassy to CSains Cali- 
gttlay makes us fed what an evil it is for a nation^ in matters 
which oHicem its very existence, to d^iend on the wanton- 
Mss or cainrieious frolics of a seiisdess or base ootiftler* 

His countryman Flavius Josephus, ui his work on the 
Jewish war, which was terminated by Titus, describes an . 
interesting struggle of military skill against the inventive 
resources and the desperate fiiry of a people driven to the 
last extremities; he sets before us the completion of the 
most ancient national history in the worl^, and the fulfil- 
Bitot of the warnings of Christ* 

PeUronitts displays die manners of the court of Neio> die 
conversation and habits of the voluptuaries of antiqtii^. 
Wliy may not this boi^ be in reality the work of its repuM 
andior? The laboured style of a Seneca may weU have 
a dilEB^rent diaracter fi*om the discourses of a youth on 
gesihts -BXkd taste in the pursuit of pleasure. Petronius 
initiates the reader into the secrets of a dass of men who 
aeldom appear on the great theatre so naturally and so opmly 

Juvenal is the seve^ censor of these immoralities. He 
does not, like Horace^ play round our hearts; he fills tts 
vfiAk awe, with horror, with humiliation. What a scene 
does he set before lis ! How inventive^ ho# bold do we 
fltid tiie human heart in punuing its evil destiny, its utttor 
debiMmetit! If iha^e be some tratis painted in too strtmg 
cotoursy yet the pattern was iA real lile^ and what tieasoa 

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Google ^ 


can any man have for doubt who is acqnainted widi our 
great cities ? 

Willingly tbe reader consoles himself under Trajan's 
friendly sceptre in the good and amiable society to whom 
he is ^introduced in the letters of the Younger Pliny, who 
is often too witty, but always pleasing and instructive. 
Much is forgiven to Trajan and his age ; even their deser- 
tion from the rules of good taste* 

The beautiful oration in praise of the best of the Emperors 
reminds us of the base panegyrics on those who were less 
worthy. . The adulations of Nazarius, of Mamertinus, of ^ 
Eumeniusy are composed in so false a teste that they find 
not many readers, but the few sire repaid by the knowl^e 
of historical facts for their otherwise thankless labour. 



Th£ age of Curtius, whq described rhetorically the 
actions of Alexander, is unknown. We might be inclined 
to plaice him in the time of the Emperor Alexander Severus, 
and his style does not contradict the conjecture. Airian, a 
rival worthy of Xenophon, has surpassed Curtius, in hb 

^portrait of. the hero; and the works of Arrian, an4 what 
besides remains fit>m Appian on the Spanish, African^* 
Pontic, and Civil Wars, form a very instructive and well-, 
written collection^ 

The sublime poem of Lucan on the war of Caesar and' 
Pompey, is obscure in comparison with the simplicity with 

-which this, history could have been written by contempor- 
aries, but reconciles us by passages iull of ancient majesty^ 
and on the whole is wonderful as the production of an un- 
fortunate young man, who perished in his twenty-eighth 
year. He has been accused of taking an undue part against 
Caesar ; but Caesar himself would, have forgiven him if h^ 



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• ' . ■ 

bad seen iiim under the aecessity of refipecting^hvt ttUtfaority 
in the hands of Nero. 

. The poem of Silius on the war of Haiinibai is in every 
respect within the limits of mediocrity. 



We now come to colloctors, a very valuable class of.wri*: 
ters when they are accurate, in which number many unfor- 
tunate original authors might have enlisted themselves with 
greater reputation and advantdge. Valerius Maximus repoits 
witli ability memorable actions and orations, but his refec-' 
tions upon'^them are intolerable. Frontinus and Polysenus 
instruct, us, though often not so accurately as they ought, 
concerning the stratagems of war. ^lian relates xaway 
amusing tales ; it were much to be wished that he' had as- 
sisted our researches by adducing his authorities, particularly 
as he appears himself to have possessed no great shar^ of 
sagacity. The learned nightly studies of Aulus Gellius, and 
the more important festive dialogues of AtheneeuSy are far 
greater treasures. The extracts of the work ascribed to 
Julius Africanus under the title of K«toi have alsO a pecutiar 
value. We therein observe that the descendants of those 
Romans, who warned their enemy Pyrrhus against the 
oUtors that were preparing to poison him, had at length 
made the preparation of poison an article in their art of war. 
The method of poisoning fountains and grain, and infecting 
the air, is treated just in the same manner as the drawing 
out of an army in battle array^ and the manceuvres of the 
field- . 

The lexicon of Pollux is an excellent cornucopias, which 
contains rare materials on the Attic municipal laws, on the 
theatre, on music, on the domestic regulations, and all the 
customs of the Greeks. Hesychius is full of learning, but 
not so &ee from later additions. 

VOL. I. L 

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At thii pArkkl the pdraoit of tdperfidal aoi mm]j ac- 
' quired knowledge of many subjects occupied the pUos, as 
it hat done among the moderns, of more profound studies. 
The literature of thfs age acquired also another resemblanoa 
with that of recent times. The great works of celebrated 
authors were cbndpnsed into beauties and extracts, in con- 
sequence of which the principal works were neglected and 
. lost This ungracious service our good Justin performed 
hi the profound historical work of Trogus Pompiens. 

Florns reduced the Roman history into a similar extract; 
. he has the style and manner of the French academicians of 
the age of Lewis the Fifteenth* Montesquieu quotes from 
Urn many passages as specimens of good taste, but tiiat 
these passages are in the true style of history was not what 
Montesquieu intended to convey* The wreath of the an-r 
dent historians was not a garhind of so many hues; the 
knr^l of Apollo satisfied them. A similar absira^, pre^ 
pared by Aurelius Victor, is simple and in genenA ordi« 
nary; that of Eutropius is more carefully composed and 
more learned. It became a chirf book of instruction fiir 
the middle ages, and was continued in the ninth centnry itt 
the ihstfmce of Adelbergen, a prince of Benevento^ who 
was a lover of knowledge. 



After perusing all these historians we cannot attain a 
ptofound knowledge of the ancient Ron^ans without st^dj'm^ 
their books of law; on the oth^ hand, the whde compass 
of studies hitherto pointed out throws interest and light 
upon the Roman jurisprudence. 6ravlna» Heinecdns, and 
Montesquieu have opened the way to its investigation ; but 
there remain in the corpus juris many as yet hidden treasures 
Of the history of the ancient empire and of the hmsiao 
mind. The want of arrangement in these works» the defect} 

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uNivtoiWAi, JtWTOnx* 147' 

of editiQni^ the b»4 U^ of tb^ com{)jil^r% lire 190 nm^y 
Cerbortwes wbi(;h raidier the entrance difficult; but nothing 
is iayincible to Herciileaa labour. 

F^w forensic 'orations are ei^tant, and those are for tb* 
most part from uncertain authors. Ne^U to Cicero's bookii 
on orators and on their art, we must distinguish Quintilian's 
more ample institutions, and the reitiarkable treatise on the 
causes of the decline of eloquence added to the works of 
Tacitus* The study of these bopks throws much light on 
the spirit of law in various oonstitutigns. In the old consul ' 
wertoignise the statesman; in Quintilian the lawyer by 
profession* Althoi^h the *^ declamations" are for the most 
part, only school-exercises, yet the perusid of Ari^tides and 
Themiflitius is not unr^aid in historical information. 

Those who have written 09 difff^ent arts deserve our 
notice. In good times they are fqr our eawnpLe, and fiur 
our warning in the period of decline. Jt might be addedf 
that in th^ last point of view the declamatory writers are 
serviceable^ but we have no need of ^eekipg so far in anti- 
quity &r similar warnings. 

The ^t of arts, agriculturei has been treated by Co- 
luiuella u^ a manner less pleasing than that of Varro^ but 
more circumstantial. Th^ alterations that were introduced 
in^he i^UQceeding agq», th^ origin of many rules which atilL 
prevail among our rustics, and of many superstitious no* 
tions, may be learnt in the works of PaUadius. 

The state of the art of medicine in the early times of 
the empire ia set befgre^us, as in a pleasing manner, in th0' 
Ijea^ed and sensible work of Celsus ; and here Galen, the 
founder of the Methodic doctrine, i§ so much the less to be 
forgotten, as, without his work on th^ parts of the body. 
^j)A some other treatises, we should be unable properly to 
Q^timate the knowledge whi^h was at that time possessed ui 
this science. 

Vitruvi^s teacbes the art whi^h h ipoy^Jasiportant^ pext 
U^. tbs^ Qf nouriahu^ our ^9di# ^ni ft^t^ing them in 

L 2 

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14i imit£R8AL HISTORY. 

lieakfay naxaAyt aix:hitecture. In the course of his work 
he not only imparts valuable information on many parti- 
culars of the manner of life, but shows in how noble and 
animated a strain the ancients contemplated every subject. 
His conception of architecture is sublime and philosophical 
beyond expectation. 

' Vegetius sets forth the great and peculiar art of Rome. 
His excellent wofrk deserves to be edited anew by some 
careful observer of the revolutions in the military affairs of 
the Romans. Vegetius does not alwa}rs distinguish the prac- 
tice of difierent periods ; be notices, however, all the most 
ihiportant of those regulations, which became continually 
more complex and erudite from Pyrrhus and the simple 
rules of the old conquerors until the later inventions 
were, introduced, the performance of Which was more dif- 
ficult than their effect was decisive; and which were 
more strikiiig on the parade than . eflfectual in the field 
for maintaining the boundaries of the empire. Onosander 
composed an abstract- of the rules most useful to the ge- 
neral; he does not enter into what must come every day 
before, the notice of the soldier. On the question, whether 
the old military art was superior or inferior- to that of 
the present day, it is to be observed, that the number of 
men poissessed of inventive genius was greater among the 
ancients ; but that the art has probably now become more 
systematic and fiirther advanced. Not to proceed is to go 
back. The great Cond6 rightly believed, that if Caesar 
should return to this world, he would defeat all our gene- 
rals. The mechanism of our armies may itself be more 
perfect than that of the legions, but in reality the instru- 
ments are less altered than the men. 
. For the historical information they convey, the philo- 
sophers are also important. The character which th^ im- 
press on literature has an influence upon the ailairs of the 
state^ and these iire not without their effect on the manner 
of representing phflosophieal ideas. In the greatest cor- 

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Tuption of hianh«rs the severe doctrines of the Stoics ob-. 
tained the warmest votaries, for great minds adhered the. 
more rigidly to the sober maxims of virtue. Not only the 
'most opposite extremes existed together in Rome^ but often 
jn the. same person ; many had the books and statues of the 
sages in their haUs, while the manners of their secret li|i» 
:w<ere those which Petnonius has described. Even Seneca 
gives rules, which were contradicted, not indeed by his sen- 
timents, but by his actions, siuce he could never persuade 
himself to abandon the court; and his death was the nk>|t 
decorous scene of his life. Much may be learnt from him 
in natural history, and concerning manners ai>d lit^ature. 
Epictetus was not so learned, but the power of his wisdom 
shone forth in his innocent life. Who does not admire the 
fervid love of virtue which displays itself in Marcus Au- 
relius? At a later time, and even during the same period, 
there arose from the school of Plato a sect which intro- 
duced into philosophy the mysteries of the Egyptian my- 
thology, and the Oriental doctrines of the influence of gods 
and daemons. 

The works of the fathers of the church may be used 
with no small advantage to history. A spirit of sanctity, 
of fine moral feeUng, and a holy reverence for the Author 
of their religion, pervades the writings of these men ; but 
many of them pass under false names, and this renders the 
use of them in history very difficult. In other instances a 
mixture of anile tales corrupts their venerable simplicity, 
and now and then the good Fathers allow themselves a 
pious fraud. The bad style of most of them, their mis- 
conceptions, and the weakness of some, redound to the 
honour of Christianity. It is manifest that these persons 
did not invent so pure, so sublime a doctrine; it was not 
they who gained the victory over the religion of Greece 
and Rome. 

Much information on ancient history is contained in 
writings which, long after thfc fell of the old empire, were 

L 3 

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compfled ftbia books then in codBtence* Ilhistrioui penons 
(>f the highest rank, as the emperor Constantine Porphy- 
irogeonetes, Photius, patriarch of Constantinople, the esi- 
preBS Eudocia, and scholars who would less happily have 
toptoyed their labour in composing works of their own, 
Us Suidas, the Byzantine Stephanus, and the verse-maker 
Tzetzes, have afforded us the satisfaction of yet admiring 
such fragments of lost antiquity. 

* Other resources of history, which are very instructive^ 
by the certainty and exactness of the information derived 
frotxi them on subjects which would not otherwise bate 
come to our knowledge, are found in the collections of in- 
scriptions, of monuments of the fine arts^ and of coins, 
^hich have been made* by Muratori, Winkelmann, afad 

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f 151 ) 





U NDEK the government of kings, whatever was their num- 
ber and the period of their reign, concerning which some 
doubts have been raised, Rome was founded, peopled, ampli- 
fied, and attained to a respectable, though not yet formid- 
able degree of power. In the contest of th<e 
Horatii we discover an example of the old north- 
em manners, or rather of the primitive customs of men, which 
were long preserved in the North. The event occasioned 
Alba Longa to ^submit to the sovereignty of Rome. Even 
now the rustics that dwell around its ruins are proud of be- 
longing to that town which was the mother of the imperial 

This event was important to the growing state, inasmuch 
as Rome, in consequence of it, succeeded Alba Longa in 
the command of the Latin confederacy, and thus became 
the metropolis of a numerous and valiant population. 

The towns of Latium were small, and therefore easily 
retained in subjection. They were places of resort for 
transacting business, and of refuge in the exigencies- of 
war. The Latins, as well as the Romans, resided in the 

A TT r. «.-. ^^ ^^ succeeding times, Tarquin wems 

first to have obtamed the command of the 

more powerful confederacy of the Hetruscan or Tuscan 

Qation, which, however^ was a personal trust confided to 

him, and not a right transferred to the Roman stat^* On 

L 4 ' 

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152 VlSlVtmSAL HIStpllY. 

the contrary, we learn from this circumstance, that Rome^ 
was not yet powerftil enough to occasion th? Tuscans any 
^prehension lest the authority thus intrusted to its king^ 
might, against their willj beccMiie hereditary. 



When Tarquin the Second, by his tyran-' 
nical government, had acquired the hatred of 
his people, Brutus contrived to expel him, together with 
his family, and to erect a consulate instead of the kingly 
office. The supreme power, as heretofore, belonged to the 
senate and people ; but, instead of a regent for life, two 
consuls were chosen annually from the first families, as pre- 
sidents of' the republic and chief directors of affairs. 

During the two hundred years which followed that event, 
wars gainst many warlike nations of Italy were carried 
-dw by the slender resources of Rome with the most strie- 
nuous exertions, and finally ivith decisive success. Rome 
was in perpetual action ; every consul was eager to distin- 
guish his year ; each war became the stimulus and example 
of the following, and roused the spirit of conquest in the 
Roman people, while their .knowledge of men increased 
with accumulated experience. To these times belong the' 
military crbwns and triumphs, the former of which were 
attainable by the meanest warrior. * 

Rome, after the expulsion of the kings, was bereft of 
ahnost all her territory; the Tarquins retained their con- 

* AmoijBg the Athenians the reward extended farther; £ar those who* 
were slain for their country were honoured at the public expence with 
magnificent tombs ; were eulogized by the orators; their children were 
educated at the charge of the city, and introduced before the vvbole 
people, clothed in splendid arms^as the sons of braye and deserving men. 
In Catholic Switzerland it has been the custom, even to the present day> 
to read anntlally at the altar the names of the citizens and natives who 
fen in the cau^ of liberty in the ancient battles, and to say masses io 
celebration of their memory. ^ 

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VmVSItfiAX HI8TOKY. 155 

quests; and tbeir ally Porsenna prince of Clasitiin, after 
Brutus had fallen in battle^ compelled the Romans to con^ 
elude a peace^ by which they, engaged for the future, never 
to use iron except for ploughs. They ^eem now to have 
ajiqplied themselves to the arts of ^eace, for they concluded 
in the same year a treaty of commerce with Caithage. 
Scarcely did^ Latium : continue to adaiowledge the sove- 
re^tyofRome. ^ 

Petty -disputes concerning boundaries occasioned wars 
with country-towns, oyer which triumphs were finally gained; 
and the names and situations of which are scarcely to be 
discovered. For this same Rome, after a few centuries, 
all Italy, and- at length all the regions which extend from 
Britain to Persia, were too narrow. Hence let no man 
who is endowed with perseverance despair on account of 
the lowness of his birth; let no state,' however small its 
beginning, despond of rising above its mean original ! The 
dominion of the world was not a scheme planned before- 
hand; it resulted from the judicious employment of con- 

While the Sabines, Latium, the Hemici, the JEqca, and 
the Volsci gave exercise to military talents, and kindled 
among the citizens of Romulus the thirst for victory, the 
internal constitution of the state was the source of perpetuid 
strife. : The more violently the passions of the people were 
inflamed against each other, the more necessary did it ap- 
pear to the senate to give to its vehemence a glorious 
direction agaipst the enemies of the republic. 



The kings had been expelled by men of old and noble 
families, but the people were conscious that the latter only 
maintained the ascendant by means of the plebeians. The 
patricians, unaccustomed to submit, neglected to confirm 

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154 vmrBmAL HiaTASY^ 

their power by gMtbness and modieratioti ; and wben 

necesttty induced them to yield afty prinlege to tbe molti- 

titude, has of geseronty than of weakness waa dttcovered 

in the concession. They incurred odium, on account of 

the cruel manner^ though consistent with established customt 

in which they treated their debtors. It was indeed difficult 

tor the senate to be mild without appearing to be weak* 

while on the one hand every concession excited some new 

demand) and on the other diminii^ed the power by which 

the higher orders might hope to restrain the people. 

. , _ The introductioh of tribunes of the people 

A. U.C. 265. ..... .• 1. 1 . 1 t^ r xr^ 

was a wise mstitution, by which the aristocracy 

was hekl within bounds, and the fury c^ the populace was 

regulated. Among ten tribunes, it seldom happened 

that all were so unanimous in any unjust enterprise^ 

that no individual could be influenced either by reason 

or authority, by hope or fear, to desist from the injurious 


Rome had to thank this body of constitutional leaders 

of the populace,' for the circumstance that, through an 

almo9t perpetual agitation, and amidst &equtet commotions 

whieb called forth the most turbulent pa8sioD% no bloody 

fray .to^ place in this city of warriors during six hundred 

and twenty-two years. 

Shortly before the tribunate^ we find menticm 
A.IT.C.358. ^ , ^ ,. ,™ . -« 

of -the nT9t dictator. Tnis officer was generally 

A'mSitary commander, appointed in public exigences wden 
quick and decisive n^aasures were neces^ry, m^ unciivided 
and absolute power over all classes of citizens. The func- 
tions of the other magistrates were suspended during the 
reign of the dictator. His authority continued only as 
long as the danger of the state required it, and never ex- 
ceeded Ihe period of six montlis. 

'Rome was, on this account, worthy of her many cen- 
turies of liberty and sdll more lasting -empire; that scarcely 
any either commonweatdi comfbinsd, with equal constancy, 

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90 much docility in listening to propoeals which infiinged 
on her favourite customs, and in amalgamating the better 
institutions of foreign .states with her domestic arts and 

The tribunate and dictatorship remauied long wi&oiU 
injurious effect No dictator, iduring four hundred yeKrt» 
though ever so victorious and popular, sought to extend 
his authority beyond the appointed time, or to avoid giving 
an account of his administration : yet under this name in 
the sequel the republic was destroyed. Thus we perceive 
that forms are in themselves neither good nor bad, but are 
rendered such by men; they are only distingnished in op* 
posing for a shorter or longer time the progress of cor* 

Among the wars waged during the first 
century of Roman hberty, the contest against 
the Tuscan city of Veii, is remarkable, since it gave the 
Romans the superiority in Etruria or Tuscany; and siooe 
during its course winter*campaigns were held for the .first 
time,, and pay delivered to the combatamts. '^ The recooi* 
fieiise that was due to the soldiers for the neglect of i^« 
culture had been heretofore paid ou)t of booty, or the 
ransom of towns, but it appears that at this period a 
military fond was created, 



1^ interference of the Romans in Tuscan affairs, gftfe 
bcdasion to a most formidable trial of their valour .and 

The Oauls, who inhabited Lombardy, and the temtdries 
of Venice and Bologna, earned on war against dw city of 

* Can the testimony of Dionystus^ on this point, be reconciled with 

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Clusiumi For tKe latter, the Romftiis interested them$dre» 
so warmly, that one of then*' commissioners, sent to mediate 
a peace, - finned himself in its cause. The Gauls, incensed 
against the Romans, because they refused to deliver up the 
anri>assador, marched against the cityl The want of fore- 
tight in the Roman general, who was ignorant of their 
mode of warfare, gave them on the rivulet^of AlUa a vie-' 
tory, in which the flower of the Roman youth fell. The 
excessive distnay which this event occasioned among the 
vast multitude of the Roman populace, brought the senate 
to the precipitate resolution of giving up the defence of th^ 
city, altlioiigh the enemy knew little or nothing of the art 
of besieging, and although. Rome had recaved from her 
kings, bulwarks of such strength, that a portion of them is 

. ' believed to remain firm to .the present day. 

The people dispersed themselves ovei* the 
country; the most valiant of them defended the csLpitoI; 
and the city was burnt. The Gauls, when it was neither 
posisible nor advantageous to them to stay longer, retired, 
and left behind them the terror of their name. PoJybius 
says, that eighty-nine years elapsed before the Romans 
again ventured to fight against them. 

The consequence of this calamity was a revolt of thi^ 
Latin states, which Rome during the season of prosperity 
had treated imperiously. The legions appeared to havelosi; 
their ancient confidence when the. Consul P. Decius Mus, 
invoking the gods of bis country, to whom he had devoted 
himself as a sacrifice, rushed through the cdnquerirfg rai^ks 
of the enemy, and fell fighting with desperate fiiry, biit 
opened to his re>animated countrjnmen the path to victi^ry. 
When skill is of no avail, it is only by heroism that a lost 
battle can be restored. 

The republic was indebted to.this waifriotibr the reriinfon 
of Latium under her sway. She proceeded further, and car- 
ried her victorious arms to the shores of the Adriatic; she 
afforded protection to Campania, the finest and one of the 


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most fertile regions of Europe, fuU of gr&t and' opulent 
cities, built on the shores of beautifiil bays which formed 
iexceOent harbours* The whole country of Campania was 
linder the most flourishing cultivation. Cumae, indeed,, was 
no longer in her splendour, for when the crafty Aristodemus 
encouraged efieminate manners in order to rule the more 
easily, the friends of liberty s6ught security in barbamm; 
but Neapolis arose in the vicinity, and Capua in the interior : 
the former enjoyed a moderate prosperity ; and the latter, a 
city of great extent, which might be compared with Rome 
or Carthage, was the capital of Campania, and soon be- 
came the scene of luxury and pleasure, and of political 

For the possession of this country the Romans waged 
long wars against the Samnites, a nation of mountaineers 
on the shores of the Adriatic, who were in all ages barba- 
rians, and at that time excellently trained in defensive war- 
fare. This contest of fifty years was a school of tactics for 
the Romans. It was carried on by the Samnites with the 
greatest valour and with peculiar skill. In the narrow de- 
file of Caudium, a Roman army was surrounded and 
forced to submit to the most d^rading surrender. On that 
occasion the Samnites ought either by an honourable peace 
to have deserved the friendship of Rome, and such was the 
wirii of Herennius the venerable father of their general, or 
to have massacred the army and instantly marched to de- 
stroy the city; they contented themselves however with in- 
flicting an injury that never could be forgiven. Few men 
^ know how to act entirely as circumstances require at every 
conjuncture. The senate delivered up to the enemy, the 
consuls who had subjected themselves to such- treatment; 
they disavowed tha treaty, appointed a dictator, and took 
a bloody revenge. This dictator, Papirius Cursor, defeated 
the Samnites in decisive battles. «The Roman people were 
ever most formidable after calamities: the first impression 
of terror yielded to a high feeling of their own powers^ 

Digitized by 


158 UNiV£jR$A{i mSTOBY. 

Thtie cfrente bring us down to tbe time of Alexander tk^ 
Great -believed that if he had invaded Italj» the ccoir 
qucror of Sanmium would have been opposed to him. It 
may be doubted whether tbe Bomam had, in that age, at-^ 
tained sufficient skill in the art of war, to enable them to 
jrc&nt the Grecian phalanx. Livy appears not to be suffi- 
ciently accurate in Ids acccmnt of the wars of this periodf 
and, from the want of more correct information, to have 
drawn into his narrative the institutions of later times. 

At length all the tribes of the Apennine mountains 
undertook what they would have attempted more wisely^ 
when Samnium was yet able to give weight to their ^tar- 
prise ; they entered into , a great confederacy against the 
Romans. They had no common commander of the whole 
alliance, and when the consul Fabius had taken some passes 
which were considered as impenetrable, the general coi>- 
sterhation gave him an easy victory over his dispirited 
enemies;; in consequence of which the war terminated in 
the dismemberment of the league. 



Au Tuscany, the Apennines, Latium, Campania, Samr 
nium, and other countries belonged to Rome when that rer 
public engaged in a cofitest against the military discipline 
of the Greeks. The Grecian colonies in louver Italy, 
through the excdlence of their soil and their adyai^cement 
in arts and civilization, had attained in a short time to a 
veiy flourishing state. Some of them long followed the 
precepts of Pythagoras, and evinced their beneficial influ- . 
ence* A magnificent temple of Juno on the cape of Laci- 
nium was their common point of union. Afterwards they 
became more democratical and disorderly, and destroyed 
esiioh oth^;: while some fell under the grievous usurpation 
of powerful citizens, or of the tyrants of Syracuse. Taren- 

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mtrrmmBAX. ristokv. 159 

tftn^ ike idbt of great cbfflmerc^ of indiistry; of opidence 
«nd itll the consequences which are usiuilly ponn^cted with 
it, loi^maintahied hs independence. The Tarentines were 
disgraced hj effeminacy and pride; d>e latter rendernNl 
them imdient, and the former incapable of adding ^Seet to 
their arrogant pretensions. The hiQs abounding 4a ridi 
padtnresy into whidi the Apennines expand themsdlTes 
towai^s the strait, were inhabited by Bruttian and Lncar 
nian shepherds, a val^nt rac^ but less important in war- 
fare dian dan^roas by their predatory enterprises. Jn 
the pastoraji life, every little society exists for itself, and it is 
seldom that many small tribes combine to form a consider*. 
able nation. 

The Tarentines had the insolence to afiront the majesty 
of Rom^ and were obliged to solicit the^ sdd of Pyrrhua 
king of the opposite contiirent of Epirus. Pyrrhus was a 
warrior after the manner of the Ckmdottieri of later tiibes, 
who hired out themselves and their troops for pay ; he en«- 
terttfned the lofty idea of conquering the V/est, as Alexan- 
der bad subdued Asia. He understood profoundly the art 
of war, and has written books, which were much esteemed^ 
on that subject; he was a magnanimous and enlightened 
prince, but possessed no knowlege of the barbarians against 
whom he now engaged. He had conquered 
Macedonia^ and as quickly lost the fruit of his 
triumphs. He now allied himself to the Tarentines, and was * 
delighted with the idea, aft»r subduing Rome, of conquering 
Oaul, Spain, Africa, and of becoming master of Carthage. 
Pyrrhus defeated the Romans, who we^ 

A.U.C. 484. ••■.,«. ^* 

not yet acquamted with hm more artfiil me- 
thod of fighting and with his elephants; but finding in them 
a courage which he had not anticipated, he thought it 
expedient to seek their friendship. ' 

^The senate^ convinced that a lasting alliance must have 
for its foundation mutual respect and some sort of eqi^ity, 
declared to the victorious king, that they would not give 

Digitized by 


160 . UNlV£RSAL.UiaTORT. 

ear to his proposal till he should have abandoned Italjr. 
Gineasy his ambassador, who had judged of the senate ao 
cording to the manner, of the Greeks, discoyered how inac- 
cessible the Fabricii or the Curii were to motives of private 
interest Nothing was neglected in order to restore the re- 
putation of the Roman arms ; they considered every foreign 
method of warfiure as a problem which it was proposed to 
them to solve. 

Pyrrhus was completely arrested in his progress ; perse- 
verance was not one of his qualities, and he gave up the idea 
of conquering Italy, and proceeded to Sjrracuse, being the 
son-in-law of the deceased tyrant Agatbocles, where he 
behaved with equal valour and inconstancy. He passed 
thence into the Peloponnesus; and, in an' adventure in 
which he had entered the city of Ai'gos, was killed by a 

. Meanwhile the Romans gained possession of Apulia and 
Calabria, together with the country of the Salentines, and 
by the joint influence of their clemency and their valour, 
all Italy, from the borders of Cisalpine Gaul to the Sicilian 
straits, became subject to their sway. 



These ancient times, while Rome wiEis still perpetually 
engaged in dangerous contests, and was yet full of life .uid 
vigour, were the best days of the republic. The constitu- 
tion became more popular, but the forum was filled, not by 
' a crowd of mechanics or mariners, but by warriors, . whom 
the senate felt the necessity of treating with forbearance, 
but with firmness, while they sought to. gain the tribunes by 
kind treatment • They deprecated the idea of corrupting 
the morals of the people in order to maintain the forms of 
the constitution. 

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"Rome underwent one of h^ grektest perils wlieii Tereb- 
tillus carried his proposal for compiling a code of civil Iaw$; 
tor until this time precedent and natural equity bad ; be^n 
the foundation of gavernment. Hie senate, who. saw in this 
measure the limitation of their power, and an occasion for 
great disturbances, deferred it till the ninth year ; but the 
time came when they were obliged to submit. The Athe- 
nians who flourished under Pericles were then petitioned 
for a copy bf the laws of Solon. 

• Such was the model on which the Twelve Tables were 
composed, the simple beginning of that manifdld and per- 
fect system of legislation, which during the next thott8ah4' 
years was established by tfae'p^ple, and afterwards by the 
eifiperors; which was compiled during an age of geijieral 
ruin, and after long oblivion restored in the twelfth century 
, to an equally extensive sway ; and which, though it yieldsr 
justly to national laws, vrill ever be revered as a noble 
nionument, and a work deserving of the most attentive 
study. . > 

TTie decemviri, the authors of the Twelve Tables, had the 
boldness to attempt an unjust prolongation of their extraor-^ 
ditiary power, and the imprudence to abuse it with d^rad* 
ing levity. They imagined' that licoitiousness would be 
more pleasing to the young patricians, and an oligarchy^ 
hateftil to the people, more agreeable to the old senators^ 
than the constitution established by usage and crowned 
^witb fame, and that there would be found nei^er enough 
of virtue and ability in the senate, nor. of valour in the 
people, to effect the overthrow of their unjust tyranny* The 
decemviri fell in consequence of ah injury which Appius 
inflicted on Virginia, but the Twelve Tables survived; for 
ihf peofde distinguished the baseniess of the authors fron^ 
^ merit of the work. ' : , 

By.degrees the aristocracy lost its prq)onderancy as the 
Bhbeiahs; attained an equal degree of opulence with the 
Piitejdans» and as their families intermarried^ .\Vher^ 

vot. I. . M 

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m«mars are the 8ame> there must be an equality of r^hts. 
Though the noUli^ settned to be injured by .this change,' 
yet the whole people was elevated to nobler sentimebts; 
the Plebeiam were chosm into the consulate^ and Hebeiaa 
oonsids defisnded Rome against the Cimbri and Cattline. 



The two coosub held the highest place in the Roman 
r^Miblic* All othar magistrates and cheers, exx^t the 
tribunes alone, were subgect to them. They introduced the 
embaMadors of foreign nations to the senate; they presided 
in that body, and es:eouted its decrees : it was their duty 
also to harangue the popular assembly, ^d declare on 
which side the majority of votes bad fallw; they levied 
and assembled the troops; they exacted the cootmgents 
from the allies of Rome ; they appointed the tribunes of the 
legions, and military discipline was so completely under 
their administration, that they had fiill power to punish idl 
offenoar during the campaign and in the field of battle. 

Th^ weie empowered tp mske ev&ty expenditure whioh 
seemed necessary, and they gave their commands to tbb 
quflMtoig for this purpose. 

- The censors elected the senate^ according to a law which' 
]:«quired a sufficient property to secure indq>«[idence. Jt 
was not necessary to be an hereditary cidzeo, and Ap|Hiis 
Claudius^ the first of his family, obtained in a few years the 
highest dignities. 

The number of the senators amounted to six hundred* 
7%ey managed the finances, examined public aocounta^ 
assigned expenditures, including the great sums which the 
censors every five years allotted to the public buildiags 
and in^rovements for the ornament and use of the city. 
The senate preaided- over the mmBgtmealt of public Inisi- 
nest, of the relatione of Home wiA Itaty, and wilh toe^ga 


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itmgs 9idd n^dolis, to whose ^ilibassadorB they gave f»idirao», 
jind ni^ith whom they had the power of tdedaring war or 
c<Hielocling peaces aUianoes, or leagues of defso^i th<y 
forced the tdgheflft court of judicature in eajses of treaaoti, 
conspiracies^ murder^ aiid the adminifit^iog of poisoiu 

The inooarchy survived in the consulate, particularly 
during war, when more exact obedience, and speedy exch 
cntion required unity of power. The acistocracy residad 
in the senate or the assembly of rich citizens who bad the 
most to lose* . They had poweri which enabled them to 
moderate the military ardour of the coiisub and thmr thint 
of conquest 

Yet all the affairs of chief importance went brouj^ 
before the popular assembly, which bestowed the bifj^eet 
dignities in the state; so that» in order to obtain an oc- 
4^ion of displaying other virtue)^ the young cidaen was 
in the &tst place obliged, by pleasing manners and modesty^ 
tp acquire the love, and, by a grave depoklmMfc tod :gQOd 
ifiiorak^ to obtain the respect of the pfopla The greatest 
«(ien could' not neglect this care ; on the daya of elacation 
ieven Augustus used to flatter the people^ who never lost 
their importaiuce until afier^ihe G>mitifl3 were abojybhi^^ 
The fiaag^trates, after their election, were far from buring 
k in their power to recompense themselves fay hanghtjlMBS 
^ their fcrmer condesc^nmon ; ike aothorities conftrted 
lasted only fiv 8 yei^r; «nd complaints and condemnation 
Ibr the abuse d[ pow«r, before the assembly from whan it^ 
;«ras derived, were to be feared. Life and death defMsded 
oil die decree of this tribunal ; and no ELoman citiae» waa 
.^regularly condemned to death except fay it fib losg aa 
4t«ing^ tiribe had sc^ gi^^ its vote^ it was allowed to A^ 
iaccnsed to prevent punidnnent, by a 6^t from the oi^ 
llu>i^ his exSe extemded no further than the ne^boior* 
Hig Tiber or Ase pleasant abode of Keapotis. By thia 
method precipitate judgments might he reealled, and the 
4pc0fdewibo.hqi^b9pen infinenced by the tribunes^ oftm. re- 
eved back hi aBi«i&pik^;tfaofie who had fled for a timt 

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tfhnn their fiiry* The most glorious days of Metellm, nni 
Cff Cicero^ wore those when they retumed from banishments 
This iome assembly, which gave executive power, and were 
(the judges of its exercise^ held the le^Iative aiiitborit^; 
but laws were brought before them, according to a decree 
'of the senate and by the motion of the tribunes. They 
-gave decisive force to declarations of war, or to the treaties 
v^hich were concluded by the seoate. 

• . The Roman people^ powerful as they were, and possess^ 
<ing the means of doing the greatest mischief, and of 
"arresting the : whole business of the state, never abused 
their authority during four hundred years. They never 
Tefased support to their country; they were always noble, 
magnanimous, proud, full of reverence towards virtue and 
the laws, and in all great exigencies, in war, in the forum, 
<nr in.lhe field of Mars, worthy of themselves; until the 
riches of Asia, and the excessive corruption of tbp great, 
deformed their character. 

From all this it appears how the powers of the state were 
balanbed. A coiudl, who attempted to govern without the 
:^enate, would have found himself destitute of the means of 
^'paying^ supporting, or clothing his soldiers; and the re- 
:])ublic fell, when private citizms became rich enough to 
^maintain an army. The senate only was permanent; and 
lalone had the power of conferring on the consul, when he 
marched against the enemy, the supreme command of the 
:forces. * In every constitution a permanent body is useftil 
ibr maintaihing the principles of government. The triumph, ^ 
the reward of victory, depended on the recognition of the 
<jienate^ who defrayed the necessary cost. A consul wh» 
'4i^efed solely to the senate, and n^leeted the people, wa»' 
liiadened by tlie latter from enjoying the triumph^ and «U 
^erie' obliged finally to give an aecoont tp the peopled 
iwilhout which ratification aft the compacts entered into 
V^re null and void. 

* What power bad the senate of infringing upon genera} 
iibetty ? The ^td of a tribune piA w end to Jta delibera- 

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lions, the lives of its members depended oir the people^ and / 
their influence and dignity, which were far dearer to them 
than their lives, depended on laws which the people could 
alter. On the other hand thiey had two methods of inti- 
midating demagogues: the judicial office was in their 
hands, and for a long time the laws were incomplete an4 
indefinite, and left much to arbitrary decision ; secondly^ 
those persons were obliged to have respect to the sen^te^ 
who topk contracts for effecting public works, for form* 
ing caitals, aqueducts, dams, havens, bridges, roads; for 
working mines, and fo^;, other similar undertakings. Com- 
panies joined by subscription were accustomed to engage 
in these affairs, for which they were obliged to give se- 
curity, and to borrow money from rich men. The senate 
iidjudged every thing which had relation to such matters, and 
it was thus easy for an individual to make or ruin his fortune. 

The commoner was obliged to respect the consul. Did 
he not entirely depend upon him in war ? and what was to 
be gained by refusing obedience ? A dictator would h^ve 
been appointed, an authority equally terrible to the enemies 
4>f the senate and of Rome. 

Thus their constitution afforded the Romans, in times of 
need, all the energy of a whole. people, and all th^ rapidity 
of action which belongs to a concentrated power, while both 
were moderated by the wisdom of the senate; in times of 
p^ace, while the wheels of government were in collision, 
occasions of internal commptions frequently occurred, but 
the balance of power prevented great excesses. Accord- 
ingly there were disquiets but no disorders, and the per* 
|>etual movement only testified the life of the whole body. , 



Iv, the history of every people, our chief observation should 
be directed to those points in which they are most distin^ 

M 3 ' ' 

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guish^« We learn maritime affitirs horn the Iki^Iisfav 
mechanical arts from the Dutcb/the fine arts at I^lor^n6el, 
the moderate enjoyment of liberty in Switzerland, aAd the 
art of war from Rome. 

The first Roman army was a tegi&n or selection 6rotn ih^ 
citizens who were able to bear arms. He troops which 
were called legions varied between the numbers of 4200 
and 12,800 men. Two legions were raised by 6lich consul, 
before whom the whole people was assembled ; in the 6rst 
place the military tribunes i^ere named, arid no' cltizte 
could avoid taking his part in the service^ if he had not 
before his forty-sixth year made sixteen campaigns on foot 
or ten on horsebdck ; in times of exigency the foot*soldiets 
were bound to twenty campaigns. Before a Koman^ had 
performed at least ten, he was hot allowed to be a can<)ii(3ate 
for any public office. The poor had no part iti the se^o^ 
bemuse it was not expedient to intrust th^ fate of the 
country to perstms who had nothing t6 lose ; an estate of a 
certaiti value was also required in order to be eidroUed by 
the censors among the Roman knights, vfho cotiistitnted in 
the beginning the cavalry of the ^public While the levy 
Was carried oh In the Capitol at Rome, it was conducted in 
'the like mai>ner in Latium and other countries of the allies^ 
according to the mandate of the consul. 

A Roman army seldom contained more than 40,000 men ; 
the supplies and military discipline were, therefore, easily 
maintained, while the armed crowds of the oriental nations 
wasted their own strength. Rome, indeed, in important 
wars maintained several armies, to the end that the iniin of 
the republic might not be incurred by one error or mis^ 
fortune. Yet the force of her armies in all parts of the 
empire during the most flourishing times of the Caesars 
never surpassed the number of 40Q,000 men. 

The infantry from the beginning formed the main strength 
of the army ; for the first wars wesre carried otl hi bter^^ 
sected and hilly tracts, where cavalry were less servtdeaUe. 

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The war on the African plains was indeed very difficult to 
the Romans, and the light cavalry of the Parthians^ was 
liever conquered by them. They found, besides, that hcurses 
were more easily terrified and thrown into disorder by ele* 
pbants, camels, and the manifold warnshouts of thar^various 
enemies, than infantry, which were well trained to brave all 
dangers. In&ntry was more readily brought to a certain 
<Jegree of perfection tjban cavalry. 

The Romans did not consider it necessary that the 
solder should be pf great stature; lai^ bodies cannot 
easily support so much fatigue as those of smaller bulk* 
The barbarians disdained the small stature of the Roman 

The love for their country, and the great interests that 
were at stakes gave to the armies of th^ Romans an impulse 
veiy different from the motive of the Carthaginiai^ and 
Asiatic soldiery, who fought only for pay. 

The le^ou consisted of two kinds of soldiery ; the light 
armed troops went before, and the main body followed^ 
The latter, as far as the situation allowed, were drawn out 
in three lines, called the Hastarii, Prindpes, and Triariif 
which wi^re so placed that each rank might receive the 
others into its intervals; an order of battle which may be 
compared to the divisions of a chess-board. Each rank, 
waa divided into ISO manipuliy of which two forn^ acen<- 
liiry and three a cohort The division by centuries Vas the 
most apci^t; the arrangement by cohorts was introduced 
by Mariu% when he wished to give greater strength to his 
onset and defence. Each manipulus in the two first ranks 
ctmsisted of 120 men; and in the third of half as m^y. 
The cohcMt was thirty strong in front and ten deep; alter- 
ations ^pould not fail to be introduced in the course of so 
many wars, and during the dominion of the emperors; 
but the distii^i^ing principle of the legionary order, 

Brevitatem corporam nostrorum. Cjesab. 
M 4 ' 

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that facility in iidopting any arrangement suited to ckauo^ 
UanctoSi was evef preserved. 

The vacant spaces in the second rank were wide enou^ 
to'reeeive the troops of the first; those of the first to coii^ 
tain the troops of the second ; and the intervals of the third 
Hfld second were in like proportion to the manipuli of eadi^ 
The battle began with the movement of the advanced ifoopB 
or of the slingers and bowmen; the latter had wooden arrows^ 
three feet long, armed with iron points, and the former 
balls of lead or stone. After these troops had dispersed 
thetnselves on the flanks of the army, the Hastarii threii^ 
their spears oi^ pikes, which were seven feet long, and had 
crooked points; these stuck in the shields of the enemy 
and impeded his movements. . While he Was thus engaged, 
and his lines exposed,- the Hastarii drew thdr swords, of 
which they often wore two on the right side^ while tber 
' shield hung on their left arm. The spears^ which were a 
Sabine weapon^ and had the name of dniris in the country 
where they, were invented, gave to the Romans, whoi^e dis-^ 
tingnishing arms they were, the af^ellatton of QmrUes. 
The' fate of battles was, however, generally decided by the 
sword. The second rank was armed like the first, mid thcr 
Triarii bore a pike longer and lighter than the spear. The 
cavalry, who were dispersed on the flanks, unless wbere^ aff 
in the Parthian war, they formed a separate troop, bore 
lances and large sabres. The covering arms of the foot 
soldier were a hehnet reaching down to the shoulder, from 
which hung a plume, a cuirass down to the knee, and » 
light and easily movable shield, which aflbrded pi-otectton' 
against arrows. The cavalier also had a helmet; he wore 
a longer shield, a rough coat of mdl, and small boots, and 
the iskin of a beast was thrown over his horse. The ligbt^ 
troops had, besides the helmet, a very light shield. 
' Tlie foremost rank, strong in itself and in the confidence 
of such support, was fiill of ambition to obtain the victory 
by its own valour; the second rank was zealoas^ in case of 

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jfteedy to give aid to those in whom Rome had first confided* 
If the tight came to the third, then were combined |:>atriot* 
iam and the thirst of military fame, the fear of punishment 
and reproach, revenge and hatred, the remembrance of for* 
mer dangers, and the prospect of fiiture glory. Thus the 
eneiny, already exhausted by a double ccmtest, beheld the 
Bomans. ready for a third encounter, stronger, more impe^ 
tttOttSy and more formidable. They had hazarded enough 
for victory, and not so much as to expose them to the risk 
of a complete defeat The legion had a front sufficiendj 
eodanded to render it difficult to outflank it, and sufficient 
depth to give power to its onset and to render its ranks hard 
to penetrate. Palladio therefi>re judged rightly of the 
Bomans when he said, that << the legion could fight every 
ivhere and at all times, while the Macedonian phalanx 
oould only find one time and place where it could exist ' 
with advantage.'' 

Sixteen thousand three hundred and eighty-four heavyr 
aJfmed foot soldiers, drawn out in sixteen ranks, forming a 
front, of .1024 men, with.8192 of light infantry, and 4096 of 
cavalry, constituted the complete phalanx of the .Macedoni* 
^ms« In the place of fhe Roman spear these troops bore pikes 
twenty*four feet long, with which they were so arranged, that 
the weapons of the sixth rank reached out three feet be- . 
y^ad the men of the first row. The infantry of th^ phalanx 
mgf^ divided into sixjty-four xenagies of 256 each, the caval- 
ry into, epilarchies of 128 ; the whole body was rendered . 
manageable by the radical number consisting of sixteen, 
wbioh is susceptible of an easy augmentation or diminutioii. 
On the other hand the pikes oould ndither be used nor 
could so wide a firont be drawn out except on an extensive 
plaip* It was more difficult in its movements because it 
stood closer and had fewer intervals than the legion* The 
phalanx indeed in a country which was suited to it was more 
icresistible and impenetrable; but the l^on assumed with 
facility various diapoaitions. Under some great commanders 
the ptbalanx has been, drawn put on the plw of the l^gion», 

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170 mnnmsAX/ msfOBXi 

and Marias caused the legion to approsdinate4o tho aaMtlg^ 
ment of the phalanx; the weapons eonstitnted, and erer 
remained the chief distinction, and the spear had a mtti^at 
advantage over the pike. The light troops called PdtaMae^ 
which Iphicrates borrowed from die Thracians and inlro^ 
dnced into the Grecian army, had more resemblanee to tlie 
Roman legion; the Peltastse served the Grecian kings Ibr, 
their body guard. The Ptolemies, had besides, a cavalry 
like that of our ancestors, so covered with a coat of mail 
from head to foot that their eyes alone were visible. This 
costume was preserved in Arabia, and appears in the m3{-<- 
tary history of the Mohammedans. 

The Roman station was a square, surrounded With i 
ditdi ten feet deep, and with a wall provided with a breast- 
work. The wall was built of stones. Strong branches of 
trees fixed into the earth, the sharp points of which, hard- 
ened by fire, projected obliquely and crossed each other, 
secured the breastwork. Bastions rose out of it higher than 
the rest of the rampart, and of a horse^oe form, whence 
the flanks of the enemy, who was advancing to storm, and 
his soldiery who were hidden under pent-houses, tnigUt be 
isissailed with projectile weapons. In ihe drcmnvailatikm every 
post was strong in itself^ so that it was capable of defence 
after the loss of the others. In the interior the whcie 
encampment had the Ibrm and disposition of an army 
jstanding in battle array. ' It was fortified, if it w»« oidj 
erected for a single night; since notliing is found to entalil 
misfortune on great occasions so surely as the neglect of #KMie 
wWch occur every day. The young warriors were exer* 
cised'not only &i the useof arms and in evotuticms, butbi all 
that renders tlie body stlrong and iqgile. Itius they aecus* 
tomed themselves to all seasons and climates, and while even 
those of Italy destroyed multitudes of the barbarifiEns, the 
Italtans. governed the world becafose nc^hiog was to them 
insupportable. The Roman soidiere were taught to swim 
through rivers, to keep up witfi horses in running, to jump 
down from 'dieir bonea and to spring iip again w^oot 

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owiTmAx. anromr* 171 

$Mpfmg. They soii^t to bring the army ta that ihgreft 
of {^erfeetiooy that no sort of warfare should appear necr to 
it, and no miigmcy shoaM find it without resources^ 
Thensby thay attained that alacrity, that aptitude in ex«iw 
tioQSy by which the true enjoyment of life is best promoted* 
To thdr perseverance in the perpetual study of that pecu* 
liar art of Rome^ to their ocmviction that it is never to be 
thoroughly learnt, to their mutuftl emulation were they in^ 
debtdd ftv tbekr unrivaUM exo^Iknce* May every man 
follow this tf^ample in the conduct of his lifi^ and in the 
watfiure Against himself I 

Se^:«oy Was ao rigidly observed^ that the soldier was often 
ignorant agaiiist what enemy he was to be led, and the spies 
vn^efen ileorived bydiei^peanmce of feigned enterprises. 
Th6 general on the march assumed the appearance of that 
cadtdente whidi ho wished to infiise into his army, yet 
otMttOil in tto itistance to watah over every thing with dis- 
trust He rather preferred chose movements which seemed 
moM improbable^ iliat the enemy might not be prepared, 
and the mbm. difficult enterprises, because they awaken aU 
the'dcMnnantpowerB^of action^ The mari^ ptooeeded in 
columns ; on approaching dlie enemy, die order * of battle 
WAS assumed, pr imch a diipositiott, that four columns in an 
i^idcweeounlaryttygte pemvt the baggage into the midst^f 
On the retrefeit two 1<^ squares wore formed wkli bodies ol 
reserve before and behmd, by means of whieh^ in caae of 
pressing noe4 they drew thentselt^s out orosswise$, in onder 
to emAd the weakness ^ an^es. The baggage of the aonny 
was net gtoat; ev^ one tunrvied pixnrender ; and the 3aai^ 
dnnes w^^ prepared on the qpot* The marobes weve 
diflttult, beciuise ev«ry thing waa hostile, and eveA Ae 
rustics were so mwSk the less U> be trusted, «s the wuri of 
iMion against nation •esx^te a more general interest. Yet 
loosl di^SeultieB were laot mudi dreaded, because they wesse 

* Triplid acie« 4* Qusdraeoiij;iaine, t 1° orbem. 

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foreseen, and correct military: discipline left it not in ibm 
powei* of the peasantry to commit much injury.. Discipline 
was, besides, necessary for the maintenance of good morals 
and subordination, for the loss of which no conquest can 
make amends; The country-people^ moreover, whose feel<«^ 
ings are open to silch impressions, perceived this regularity 
of coi.duct, and became fieivourable to the Romans, by 
which cause the procuring of supplies was facilitated. To 
subdued nations chiefs were given, who bad to thank Rome 
for every thing, and could not subsist without fidelity* 
They left to the people sufiicient opulence to bind them to 
dieir duty with golden chains, knowing that the despair of 
those who have lost all is fertile m resources. 

Macchiavelli remarked, with justice, that the Romans 
were fond of short and severe wars. * The battles were 
bloody, but even the wars between Rome and Carthage 
wiere decided in little more than sixty years, while in later 
times the struggle of two great European powers lasted 
2S0 years, from the battle of Nanc^, without being finally . 
• concluded. But the modem states have longer maintained 
their security, from the nature of their constitutions and the 
equaSiy of seveml great monarchies. 

The Roman armies were greedy of batde, yet the conflict 
was seldom risked without a good computation of proba- 
bilities, and a due regard to the voice of the legions. An 
influence was obtained over the latter through the means of 
inquiries into the will of the gods, by searching the entrails 
of victims, by the flight of birds, by the vivacity of the sacred 
fowls, and othei^ signs ; but the sacerdotal dignity was con- 
nected with the political and military, so that the direction 
remained in proper hands. These customs were gra^dually 
laid aside on the decline of the old religion. 

When in countries where the genius of m^n is mo§t fertile 
in invention) nations altogether military labour during tbeif 

* Corte € grpBsc. ■,...' -^.^ " 

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^^ole cai^eer in bringing to perfection the artpf war, that 
itjulwark of their ireedom, that instrument of their gloryi 
and combine every species of craft with the highest degree of 
valour, what treasures of military observations may- be anti- 
cipated in their writings ( In this respect they are alike de^ 
serving the attention of the warrior and of him who inquired 
into the progress and ^wers of the human mmd. Although 
the modern weapons have been much changed; yet the 
chief maxims are preserved, especially those which have 
reference to the unchanging condition of human nature. 

The Romans exerted themselves to acquire accurate . 
icnowledge of the character of the nadons against whom 
they had to measure their power and skill. They were 
contented %to await the furious aiid overwhelming onset' of 
the Ghiuls ; they acted when the enemy began to be exhausted 
-and weary, and with so much the greater energy as they 
^urere aware how quickly the spirit of that people was broken 
■by misfortunes. 

When they made choice of a field of battle they took care 
to give their own army such a position that the sun might 
not dazzle them, but that the splendor of their polished 
arms might shine with terrific effect in the eyes of the 
iL enemy. * Short Speeches delivered by the generals excited 
\he couf €Lge of the soldier, upon which at that time tb^ event 
phiefly^epended. The orders of battle have been variously 
//dearnbed in the books above quoted^ and by ^Itan and th6 
/^inpcror Leo. the Sixth. Yet we find in Leo this error^ 
^. ,^. ;^at the wedge-shaped order is represented as ending at its 
^ apex in a single man. How wodd^ it be possible to pene- 
trate the rauks with so weak a point? The wedge f was 
m column wiiich was discharged suddenly firom thejines, 
and rushed with all the force of a^ well-supported mass 
iigainst the weakest quarter pf the enemy. Against the 
wedge die Romans opposed thelbroeps! the ranks opened 

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with the gr6ate8t rapidky to veceive the w'edgi^ and the 
troops then marched in qn both sides, fell vkpon it. ob the 
flanks, and committed the greatest skogbter on the colama 
which was thus inclosed, and could not make a retrograde, 
movement on account of the depth of the lines. As little 
were they afraid of tbehalf moon; they feqped a flight 
that the centre might be tempted to advance in order to 
have a share of the victory; this was not done without some 
confiisioQ of iU lines; and instantly thqr nidied to the dose 
encpunier* In the advance, when light troops wore wwaAig, 
ibey formed with their sbieUs the testndo <x figare of the 
tortcuse, which pritected the beads and fronts of the first 
ranks against mwsile weafiooai 

From the first trinmidi of It4Miiuhi% to the sejemnity 
which was eetebvated on the destruction of Jerusalead, this 
4ioble spectacle was three hundred and twen^ times the re- 
ward of Roman generals* The 4^ees in the army vferc 
very numerous. From the last centurion of the lent mani- 
pulus of the first line to the primipibtus there were sixty 
stq>s« The choice of the geneffals did not depend on the 
number of years of service; oft» the leader who had tri- 
ui9id>ed served under bb successor^ and this fiither under 
the command of his son; mdolenoe and wimt of ability W0fe 
the only obstacles to promotion. 

The military tribunes watched over the p^im jtf die 
4Mrmy9 the cfferqaes of the troc^ the suj^lies of ppcmMH, 
and the hoi^tals. Their office was at first the lOTracd ^f 
long servioes; and it afterwards aerved asa«ehool for yoang 
aSi^en. Each .S(ddier had the immber of his legion, cohort, 
md decury engraved on his hdmet. Every man fongbt 
among bis own Qountryraen, i^ose opinicm asust ever rt- 
fMin for himself and family either the best reward or the 
nftost inevitable and severe pmushment. The dd miUliiiy 
histcary is xkh in those prodigies of fraenddnp vdiicfa Ae 
associated enjoyment of the best days of life^ and the re- 
memlMnmee of common dangers in war, natnrmily inftphres. 

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With respect to bootj^ Onosander has wdl said thftt his 
share of it belongs to> the soldkr, on the* same priBcif^ 
which ia the chace allots to the hound the blood and en«- 
trails of the beast. Another portion was set aside for 
the pay of the troops and the sick. The remainder flowed 
into the treiisury in the temple of Saturn, in order that one 
v^r might provide a fund fbr the next, and that each vto- 
tory might be made the inatrument of another. For some 
centuries th^ warriors acquired no riches for th^nsdiws; 
Paulus .^niilius, when he had deposited in the treasury a 
smn greater than fortyi^five millions of livres, left no mat^ 
riage>portion for hit dau^ter, nor £»: hisiwidow the vahw 
of her dowry* The conquered land was shared out as a 
jreoompana^ to the soldiery ; and from the rise^ of the milix- 
lary colony of Iwea, or Epoiedia, in the sixteenth consulate 
cf. G. Marius, no settlemaits were made on any other plan. 
The soldi^ who had saved the life of a dtiaen, who had 
killed Im enemy, or maintained his post as long as the coi»- 
test continued, obtained as his reward the civic crown. It 
was intended that each man should 0cert himself as randi " 
for his comrade as for the highest officer, and therefore the 
same crown was the only reward for saving the life of the 
general. This badge was worn during life, and when a 
{debeian Altered the theatre with k on his head, th^ s«- 
natcHTs arose irom their seats, and the parents g£ the Jbi^ 
•tunate man obtained an exemption from all taxea. He who 
had, saved the whole army or the camp, obtained, by tihe 
'decreeof the senate and people, the crown of grass. When ' 
the yonnger Decius, the consul who fdl horoieally in the 
war o( the Samnites, obtained this honour, he oflfered to the 
gods a hundred oocen. L. Siccius Dentatos gained it aAar 
he had foi^ht against the enemy the 120th time. The 
tife, of this heroic warrior, his speedi to the pec^le, and 
the shamefpl manner m which he was brought to his - 
death by the gvsat, have been ^described by DkmyaiBs in 
a mannff worthy of the theme. 

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176 DJiiVBftSAL Hirroaip; 

The Ism of war was ^severe, but the g^erlil wbb mild, - in 
order that the fotmer might create dread, and that the \^€ 
•and confidence fvhich the ktter inspired might be uniBixed. 
If any man had deserted Iris post, or thrown away his arms, 
or fought witboDt orders, or clauned as his owp exploits 
the praKse^worthy actions of another, he was piiUidy tried ; 
and i£ he was found goiHy,' the commander touched hiili 
'With Mr staff, whereupon he had permission to fly, but his 
4»inrades were ordered to put him to death. When a 
iwiiole troop was found guilty of cowardice^ it was sniv 
i*ounded by the armyi every tenth man was punished with 
death, and the rest being marked with the branding iroia^ 
were consigned to perpetual disgrace. In the old tim^ 
•example, and the name of Rome, had greater power than 
the laws poss^sised in the later periods of corruption. 
Never did the Roman army appear greater than when their 
fortune deserted them» for then they sacrificed every thing 
to honour. In those days, such an act was not called the 
effect of prejudice. It appeared honourable to human , 
nature to uphold a little republic in a contest against 
greater power, to render it by its principles invincible, 
flourishing by valour, great by illustrious achievements, to 
:evince constancy under calamity, vigilance in prosperitjr^ 
iilid ever to hold the grand object steadily in view. Thus 
-was the enervating influence of a southern, climate, oveiv 
come ; thus lived the ancients, exalted in the simplicity of 
their character, in. constant energy equal to themselves, ' iidl 
<»f the thought of transmitting their short existence to. the 
honourable memory of future generations, by imperishable 
exploits and monuments. The lot of humanity has long 
^Bga attained them, but not until they had done every thing 
in order to leave Rome victorious and free ^ not uiitil 'they 
had braved the enemy in the instant of death, and in the 
• last moment enjoyed by anticipation the wonder and love 
k of all ages and nations. How enviable was their lot^' if» as 
they hoped, the souls of great men perish not in the dust { 
lo* ' ' ' 

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l%e most eminent c^ the old writers on the military 
affiurs of the Romans have been enumerated above. The 
tms in which they lived are not difficult to distingmsh. 

Tlie elder Scipio followed the old style of warfare, which ^ 
his genius applied to more recent exigencies* As no' 
general fought with so many and such' valiant nations as 
Qesar, the most various forms appear in his hiistory; fa* 
has not so much a peculiar manner in his military dispoii* 
tions, as the possessjion in himself of all die secrets of the 
art; the perpetual exercise of his goiius in the greatest; 
affiiirs at^d most extensive schemes, devated him above |d} 
particulars, ' ' . ' 



The great examples which we have been contemplating 
were illustrated by Nicolao MacchiavelU, at the revival of 
letters, and set before his contemporaries, in a work whith 
^is^lsiys much reflection and abounds with ' eloquence ; few 
modern authors have written so clearly, and in so simple^ 
and dignified a style. He excited the attention of skilfiil 
generals in France and Italy ; some alterations were adc^ed. 
hi the armies, but they were neither complete nor con-^ 
4ucted on sound principles. ' t 

The writings of Maurice Prinze of Orange and of the 
Duke de Rohan, prove equally the great ability of the. 
authors, and the imperfect state of the military art, as it 
existed in their times. '* 

The captains who were formed under Gustavus Adolr 
phus understood better the' manner of that great com- 
mander,' than the works of ^antiquity, by the study of which 
they might have made a further progress. . . 

The first great wotk written with this view was the pro* 
voy-. h N 

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178 uvi^puA^ MyeBQW* 

dttction of tbQ Fnmch C)Mi;valiifiK ^e Folard % who cmn- 
bifi^ a g]«;vniig imaginatiao with fiae 9C9]i8itiQn& of 
knowle^; he beliefed m the woii^er;; of fais cotunuisy as 
devoutly as VI tluei miriidlca <^ Jansenism; but his bo^s 
contain very sound obsorvatjpne* 

PiVsegurfwas GJU^ but biia wodcs afqpeimd ktfir ; h^ 
ifKas « writ^ of coolei^ t^peraaaant, and^ ihete&xe vuvn 
HKSfivte oF his, ground; but wajpkted a fimdaineptal acqitfunt* 
ante i(dtb the ancients. 

I%6 Maarsb<4 Sm^ stwdp^d diUgen% T^sisbim and 
Yegatius (in EVeiicb}^ and Onosandeir'a book was Ina b^re- 
viary; he formed his opinion of the ancients. with ^at 
correct judgment which was his peculiar talent; he often 
arrived at the same principles which are found among the 
Romans, and in many respects deserves to be compared to 
the .Roman warriors^ 

The military enquiries of Charles Quischard, whonti 
Frederick called Quintus Icillus, are superior in leanibgto 
eSi earlier productionst and are neeessajry for iiaproving the 
ttonslatkins from the aaolents. There is on the other haoA 
a varie^^ of suggestioiia in hta wor]i% whidbk wouU nolhave 
remained without answers if thiA laborious Q(>bl)G»naix hoA 
enjoyed ^ longer Hfei 

The letters of the Chevalier Algarotti^ m reS^eme: to 
diese a]):9eets; are wiritten in the best taite; bis oipmom 
were for the most part those of the monarch $f whose 
friendly conversation he enjoyed. 

^ The Qhevalier de Folard was the author of several works on t^t 
art of war, the most celebrated of which was his ''Commentaries -on 
PoljMui," in six vohunes 4tow Thecfaief peeaUadty m faiBj»etiiodc»b- 
sisted in the system of columns, which he developed. in.lM3 writlngi^ l|^ 
was connected wifji, those who supported the pretended miracles of the 
Abbe Paris. T. ^ 

• + The Marquis de Puysegup, Marshal of IVtoce, was^tbe atiihoifcof a 
celebrated wosk on the '< MUHaiy. Art/^ which waf^svUi^hsd .adeichis^ 
death. T. 
. t Viz. Frederick the Great 


by Google 

^.; ■- . . . . .^ ■ SBOTION X. • ^ 


Though so many natioftr^lidxdrd the rise afitd dtott^itioA 
ef tUnxt^ sxiti tontemplated faer greatness- vfiSa, e&vy and 
-mmdeTf yet was Rome neir^ the object tsf imitatfM. Kidi* 
thiti^, inAdedt, in tire course of bmHan aflbrrs, is to b^ o1> 
tailed by sinfgle and' separate efforts; ^Very pfaeiio^enbri 
Iras it^ p«riotf fixki by a thonstod connoted circutnstaktees^ 
^tai Roman tactics, withoat Roman mailners, tovM jt&^ 
htLve maintahi^d^ so fong the freedosn, or extended so 
^idfely the domtnionr of the i?tate. 

The city of Rome, after it wite rebuilt, (for the^ 6aiils 
burnt tile' gr&at^r part of it,) was- gradually improved; yet 
it ahrays contain^' many houses of wood and many 6f 
brieksF; thfe- streets were irregular, for the most part nattrdw, 
.and the houses very high. The law, that none of those iti 
the pfrin^ipai^ stifeiets shouM estceed seventy feet in height^ 
imcp iritrddftd^in the time of Augustus, who establisAiea 
x^egttlMaons' for' security i^inst fires. The oldest work 
iSnAt has bben n^n^ined from the time of the kingi^ to 
thie present day, dre the astonishing Glbaece, which pre- 
sertid the cleanline»s of the city ;^ cleanliness' mdeed was a 
pcdnt f^ l^figiott wdoMigBt the nations of antiquity. The 
ai]ueducts remain frdm tiie tim^^ o£ the consuls; the town 
had' within it^ xm\h only iStie fountain of Jutuma. The 
mbdt^n Rome h built on the rite of the ancient field of 
llai^ a i^ot nd' lesa venerable than the Olympic Stadium^ 
latere tifee Romans practised the gymnastic e^tefcises^ 
idtS^ a^ among ike Greeks, contributed not ar little tx> 
thrir military fame. 
: Jk Ilie b^i^ing 6f the consulate, the city was n^rly as 
^«i|hdbtii( as- it ia now. It afterwards extended itself so 
widely, that the nd^bouring towns became suburbs to it. 
Although IfUpan^S' expression^ that it was capable of con- 

N 2 

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tulning the whole haman race* is doubtless the bold ex- 
aggeration of a poet, it is yet certain that the extent of the 
city was wonderfully great Pliny says, in reproach, that, 
the kitchens in the palaces of the great occupied as much 
ground as formed in earlier titnes the estate of a. citizen* 
The manners of antiquity were only to be traced in books, 
imd in the lives; of a few senators. 

The old Romans were warlike husbandmen, equally €x>- 
cupied in time of peace in making conquests over the 
nature of the soil, which was originally sterile, and ia 
subduing their enemies during war. Every individual cul- 
tivated his two acres, which was as much land as a yoke of 
oxen could plough in two days. The Lentuli, the Pisones, 
the Fabii, obtained from the lentils, the pulse, the beans 
which they were noted for cultivating with skill, those sui;- 
naines which were aft^wards joined to titles derived from, 
the nations they had conquered. They wore clotlies pre- ^ 
par^'by their wives and daughters from, the fleeces wd 
skins of their herds;, the robes made by Queen Tana-^ 
quil for the first Tarquin were preserved in the; time of 
Ihe Caesars, and the imperial Augu^us. wore vestments • 
which were woven by the hands of livia. The ancient^ 
may rather be said to have possessed property than 
riQhesf ; oxen held the place of money. Pieces of gold^ 
^representing the value of the oxen which were engraven on 
themtf were coined by order of King Servius; but silyer 
money was not invented till two centuries afl;er the consulate 
was;established. Territorial domains constituted the riches 
of the state, and were let out for a rent, which increased ^e 
pubUck stock. Within three centuries and a half enough 
Jand had been brought by^^ consular labour into, cultivation, 
and enough conquered in addition, to distribute seven acres 
to each citizen. Afterwards, when the neighbouring states . 
were depopulated by wars, and many of ttiiar inhabitanti 

• " Gencrii humani coeat si tnrba ca^acenu" t. 

t Locupjetes. t Hence nwncdPccunia. . 

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X7^IT£R8AL HiSTORir* 181 

bkd resorted to Rome, the landholders so greatly inc^eaaed 
their possessions, that on^ the proposat^ of Licinios Stolb^ 
five hondred acres' were allowe^^ tb one citizen. . As coii-' 
quests were multiplied, moderation was lost sight of. Hence 
the lairs of the Gracchi, the pretext of faction, attempts 
whidi entailed ruin on the republic. At length Italy, which 
if frugally cultivated, would have required no foreign aid, 
became a mere pleasure-gardea for the enjoyment of the 
great, and depended for sustenance on the harvests of 
JEtna, of Sardinia, and the hanks of the Nile. The kings^ 
of the earth had no bread to eat, and it was not till the 
time of Augustus that they learnt to estkbUsfa magazines*^ 
' tn the bosom of rural life the greatest generals, the most , 
valiant warriors, and the best citizens were formed; the 
thirty-one tribes of rustics were so much more esteemed, 
t6at it was almost considered ignominious to belong to the 
four city tribes. It was thus that Cunus was bred, who 
disdained the offers of the king of Epirus, while ctowned 
with laurels he put his hand again tp the plough, to cul« 
tivate his four acres of land on the Vatican hills. With the 
4same spirit fie declared in the forum that he must be a bad 
Roman for whom ten acres were not an ample possession. 
Thus lived Attilius Regulus, who terrified the proud Car- 
nage with the arms of his country, and who possessed ne' 
other property than one of the most barren pieces of ground 
hi the Roman territory. The censors knew Uot/how to 
give the best senator a nobler testimony than that he was 
also a frugal husbandman and a good father of his family. 

iTie conquests of Rome thus contributed to the culture 
of western Europe; the agriculturists^ who overcame the 
great Antiochus, the proud Rrilip, and Mithridates, 
brought many kinds of pulse and many -fruit-trees into 
Italy; accordingly apples, cherries, and many other dfruits, 
were in* a few generations projpagated as far as^ Britain. 
From' Rome the oHve^tree was bi^ught into l^ain and, 
Gaul. &\ the north the Romans planted the first^dsof 

N 3 

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pulse. flovcK vene thw iAeli^ and their }ioii«ea hud-^o 
c^er ormimdits !&i6i ^kwer^pols pUca) in tbe wiodi^iff^ 
l^^ne ih the tnte of the Somnite war was yet pour^ Ify 
drops on. the altars; and no man blamed Mecianua Sot 
patting his wife to death because she had drwak wine 
without bis knowledge. But so generously did Italy ii^epay 
the care of the husbandman, that more than eighty sort? of 
country wine became celebrated. The generate And 
senators followed in their country-seats oqcup^tion^ which 
w^e suited to their genius; as the Achsean Phiipfwmeo in 
evsry walk proposed to his young friends problems Ofi 
military positi<^s» ftnd eiLercised their quickness of discern- 
ment^ so Marius was seen to lay out his Misenian estfite 
after the manner of an encampment. Military discipline^ 
poUtieal wisdom, popularity, and teipperance^ found their 
sphere of action in dolniestic affairs* In general the an^ienta 
were frugal of time^ and they were tbna enable to aocom- 
pliA what according (o ou|r foa^pfrf requires more tbaa 
one life . 

b'this point of nti^ It Height be maintained, that they 
were longer lived. Life i$ the conmous feeling, the 
enjoyment of our feculties, whicl^'the ex0rcise of them 
idone can give. Howeii>er, the number of healthy old men 
in Italy was uncommonly great ; in a sn^aU tract gf country- 
in the reign of Vespasian, fifty-feur persops were epumO" 
rated who had attained their hundredth year, fopty who 
were betweien the hundred and tenth imd hundref} and 
fortieth,, and two individuals who had lived above a om* 
tury and a half. It is well known diat persons wec^ ap- 
pointed to read aloud at the table and at the bath, in ocder 
that even that portion of time which was devoted ta il^ 
body might not be altogether lost for the n|und« ^ere 
were no common societies of both sexes; the gaio^.wew 
barbarous but magnificat, and by ]9sean$ of them 4^1 
classes,' old men a^d both fi«e% "wens rfvidctfd fnaSiar 
with blood,* wilh deall^ and liie mm tmifi^i iOMfti; 

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Ibley bdieM tib^ irt tMT than matched it AmtesI MA the 
^gr tr ft ngth lof the laxxt hrodiom beasts^ as in Ae^ame^ in 
whidb Pompey set loose at once 600 lions into the aren^ 
<»nd in those in Which Augustus brought to view 420 
^antbers. Th6 Romans w^re less- afraid df that' brutality 
which is in itoielf revohiiig, than of enervating sofbests ^ich 
ai^fiears attractive and half meritorious, while it deprives the 
imidd of all eneigy and vigour. 

Every kind of trade was allowed to the Cardiaginiant; 
•in Rome it was only permitted to slaves; that corruption, so 
fhshtonalde in Greece, was held most disgraeellil at Rome 
till an unbounded dpttlence imparted a degree of boldness 
that brocdced no restraint. 

At the ftinerals the bodies of the chief citizens wei^ 
brought into the forum, dressed in their robes of state, and 
pkeed before the rostrum ; a son or near relative of the 
^eeeased pronounced an oration on the common loss whidi 
iiad been sustained ;- the orator beheld in long rows upoti 
their curuie seats the images of his forefathers clothed in 
their Consular, pretorian^ ortriunophal robes. What genii^ 
rous citizen would have refused to die for a people in whose 
remembrance he was to live for ever? - • 

The fear of the gods maintained itself more than 600 
years; Polybius justly remarked, that ^* wise men dp not 
stand in need of sup^stiticm, but that cities are inhabited 
by a populace/' , He confesses that when a man lent a sum 
t£ geM to a Greek, the ten*fold subscription of bis nami^ 
as many seab, and twice as many witnesses, were often 
fcund' insufficient to prevent him from attempting to de- 
fraud; while at Rome in the management of the greatest 
. sums, malversations were at that time unheard of, and 
fymi was there as uncoftimon as integrity and confidence ^ 
^slMwhere; *< but Athens,^ continues he, << was from the 
begiiining like a noble ship without a rudder; and Car*- 
^kKgt is WKfk what Rome wiH hereafter, become ; for Rome 
Itcnelf "Wili be mined bv riches; the people wilL then be 

. - •N4-. . 

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txMil^tod. with, sothioi^ v^. wSl faU~^ undor ' the yobd .«f 
d^Dagogves. who will pretend to bestow. every thing opwi 

Thus far on the military disoipltne^ on the hiborioi;i6 liA^ 
on the digoity and greatness of the Romans, of whoDoi k 
is as difficnlt to restrain onr eulogiums as to find matter 
. &r commendation in the history of other nations. Here- 
after we shall contemplate the empire of the Arabs ; but the 
.latter was founded on an unequal contest of religious en- 
thusiasm against nations degraded by superstition, disunited 
and oppressed by tyralnts ; we shall see Attfla domiBeer £nmii 
the Caspian lake to the plains of Chalons^ and the Mongols 
from the sea of* Japan to the Silesian forests; but the fcMrm^ 
■hone and yanished like a meteor of the air, and the latter 
were soon reduced within narrow limits. The Romaoa, 
, after the war of Pyrrhus, over-ran all the countries which 
extend from Loch-Lomond, the Elbe, the Carpathian 
chain, and the borders of Russia, to the country of frank- 
incense an4»myrrh, and the regions where the life of nature 
is extinguished in wast^ of sand ; yet at the end of 549 
y^ffs they had not lost a single province. 

SfeCtlON XL 


The great cities of Sicily for the most part exhausted by 
iSictions, had been obliged to su£fer the halfof that islaodto 
fall under the sway of Carthage, and the remainder \w 
threatened by her arms. Six years after the Si-» 
' cilian war of Athens, Syracuse had fallen 'Under 
the usurpation of Dionysius, one of the most able party lead- 
ers. This man, the son of a citizen of the hig^t estimation^ 
was eminently skilled in all the arts of which tyrants avi&il 
themselves in order to found their usurpation on specioiis 
pretences and pstentatious merits. His£uiltwasaniaordioate 
love of power, in consequence of which Diongrsius clouded 
his own virtues and precipitut^ the best citizens mto isd^ 

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imi?assAL umromr. 169 

after a very long administratikm be left 
«Oi« «on of the Buoie ^tmme a eoverdgftty^tected by «n 
army of erne hundred thousand foot soldiers,' ten tboiMand 
^avafay, and a fleet of five himdred ships. 

The younger Dionysias did nbt inherk die 

Strong understanding* and talients of his firther; 

lab rival Dion, and afterwards Timoleon die Corindiian, 

took advantage of his weakness to destroy a sovereignty 

hated by the people ; but passions and bad monds qaiddy 

ddbaaed the noble work of newly acquired freedom, and 

jl^tboeles made himself master of Syrjacuse* 

- Thk man, whose juvenile years had been stained by great 

excesses, displayed, as chief of fi^acuse, eminent talents as 

well for Bsaitary command as for the government of the 

IMihitude. He was the terror of the domestic enemy of his 

power and of the Carthaginians* When the latter had 

dirfte^ and believed him abnost theur capdve, he suddenly 

carried the tarror of his arras before the walls of Ca r t h age, 

pointing out the wi^ to the future enterprises of the 

Romans. > After a long and illustrious reign, of whidi his 

uncommon talents rendered him worthy, Agathodes died in 

extreme old age^ afier the'loss of his beloved son, and amidst 

the visible ruin of his power, in a state so lamientahle and 

^ destitute, that in spite of his tyranny his misery 

excites compassion. 

• The Syracusans alike incapable of enjoying Hberty and 

of «ttbmitting to be deprived of it, called in the king of 

£pinis» . After Pyrrbus abandoned Sicily, all the political 

relations of its people became so confounded, that the 

SyraoOsans allied themselves with their own most formidable 

enemiei^ the* Carthaginians, in oppressing the Mamertines 

* ' ^ >.' ' vho maint&ined themselves 1^ Mesnna. The 

' latl» had the Romans for diar allies, and hence 

the orighi'of the first Punic war. 

-Rrase with all the power of Itely w^ed this war against 
tiie»gr#ate^pDn»aeroialr city ^ the worUi» which held under 

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ISff manmaikL mmrowx* 

i^'9W0y 4h^ WariikB popakdon of Sptith ^ 'fttmtiMtiL 
emtity ef Aftiea, the 6ttAtM fkgim of Si<%, wd m^i^ 
odior Hilaiidi Mid ooasto. Tbe Tirtne of Cttitiii^ wis 
already on the dedine; bnt she had yet Hatniiefti^ Htt^ 
wbaif Hasdnthaly and sufficient power to support the enter- 
prise of these great generals* 

As the Eomans had never carried on a maritiiae wat, they 
now soi^ht to make the best use of the meAodof fighlil^ 
in whidi tibey bad become so ittfist!rioo& They jEbUght Aoan 
fhe dedu cf their ships, and kid hdLd of the vessels 0f tb<e 
enemy by mcians of grappKng irons, boarded them, and 
Csrminated the bi^tle in dose conflict. - The Carthi^ians 
wiesre brooght by the inventive genius ei Rome into aii em- 
barnttsmeiit similar to that of the regularly tratned'%lMr» 
when assailed by the wiruly boldness and address of im 
tttkught adversary* The Carthagtniiai ships were better as 
triniiDi^ veaiels llian as ships of war ; titey were defeated by 
Decffins. Thc| defenceless colonies of Carthage were oofi« 
qoered, and Bcgokis appeared at ^ the gates of the capitri* 
There Xanthippnsa Ijwedmmonian, who had ^tend ktto 
Ae service of tbe republic, assisted the Africans, and &e 
vdiant consul was overcome by his soperioi^ taetlft^ 
Wherever die Carthaginians fought by themselves ibsy 
were heaiben, and Hamilcar Barcaswas alone able to resist; 
but a dedsive defeat in the seas of the ^gatian isles re- 
duced Ae oommonwealth to the necessity of maUng peace; 

B c 240 ^■^'"'8^ ^®* obliged to resign SSdly,^ a»4*^ 
Romans soon took possessicm of Corsica and 

In the history of the irst Pimic war we obsepre ^ the 
Roman generais moire courage than science^ and thii Mil-' 
firtns theopbuon that thenr military si^ had soatoely began 
to displkjr itself in the wars i^ainift Pyrrhus and the Sam- 
nites. Carthage, whose xiAi^e pow^ depended ett mer»^. 
cenary troops, had to contend with aniiaporlMti^eMfen 
which broke out among tfa^ after the ^ondusioii of the 

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BWiiffi Aod Maatcsif9 weca the tabiitft and iafliifiiice of Ha« 
loUcar suffident to «aT« tb« rapul^ &tm dartiwtioi^ 
Hamilear was a general who pofifieaaed great pcawvenaice 
and sagacity, and was the warm friend of his countify. 

After this war the Romans conquered Cisalpine CcauL 
This country lay between the Alps and the Apennine 
iDpnptow; it extended to the mouths of the Pc^ and 
wmpked to a considerable distance on ^otb^r sid^ofij^ 
.liwi^Vp The Apennini» elevates itself as an axm of theAlps 
frpm the trapt wh^e the Alps themselves begin, and t4k«s 
m (sonrae ^ast^ard froQi the miouth^ of the Y aro ^ thei Mo- 
d^cpe ; lin^Dce it pmm towards th^ sonth and divides 
Italy intp. two pfirts, fonni^g a^ ridge which m^y be 4x«9« 
pmsd npt with tb0 Alps bnt with the J^ra their northern 
jurcB^ and which containa many traces of ancpent fire which 
ihejJura does not eicbibit* Th^ v^lcy of Ci sal pi ne Q^ 
was very marsby, and productive a^ &r as its iohabitanta 
knew \ww to avail lliemselve^ of its natural fertiUty. Tt^e 
0m)s inhabited mmy ^im of th^ Et^os^ana. The li- 
gurians were their neighbomrs on ^^ mountains where 
Monaeo, OnegUa, Geno% and JMLodes^ now i^Umd. These 
wvre.a nortjiern nation important by th^kK»l8itualp% of 
no^proal power, but so active and cunning that it waa dif" 
ficsilt to be secure agwiat them. A9(4ber anomt ppopi^ 
the Veneti, at the mopth.of the fpt seem tp have puMd 
down from the forests of Qexmwjf th^ ancJwt abode of 
the Wenda. 

BoMie waged many w4rs with th^ (huk^ and lignrianfiy 
and against the. former they were more snccesffuL The 
latter often seemed to be ipbdaed, bgt Qopgding.in4iem* 
sd««a and their mountains renewed the contest. iPast^nge 
andnkawwary warfiure were their profession; and their 
monntaina abound in the moat i fw p ce^b le fatnaniea, 

Tht Bomana aiMu^ also tha onaats of Iiiimnua and 
XWbnatipb axtanding from iim tanaiiatiw ot the A^ in 

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IttriB tbwardi Efrfnis. The mountains vMth were diffifxA 
to pc^nrt;^ iwiiftned independent 



'^Soeflf nftervaids the most feimidable general whom Roine 
evervaw opposed to her, disputed the rewards bf her fyFe 
centuries of victdry. In the army whieh Ha^ilcar ocmi^' 
manded 4n- Spain for the defence of the mines and the sniP 
jttgBtkm of the wild inhaUtants, hr from the mean &ction& 
iHttdi destroyed, the Tigour of his country^ he finrlDfed his 
son^Ibmiibal in military discipline,' in Afe knowlddg^ of 

' men, in the choice of adyantag^utf poSition8|[ 

' and in die bitter hatred of Rome, to the per*: 
pelaal^eneoian^ement of whidi passion he boimd him at anr 
earty age by a scdemn oaA. After tlie death of Himnlcar 
and his successor Kbsdmbal, the army proeliABMd t^is 
young warrior, who had then reached his twenty-sixth year,' 
' to be^th^ generaL Soon lifterwards he made 
'*' 'an attadc on the Si^ntines who were allies of the 
Romans. The Somte^ instead of intimidating Carthage by 
a sudden rupture^- undertook the method of mediatioD. 
The SiEiguntinei^ after along and vain resistance, set fire 
to Aeir city, and-assembliiig themselves, died by thek own 
hantds^ fiannibaV more and more inflamed/ prevailed that 
war should be declared^ and as the Romans on ^ last oo 
caskm had carried their arms to the Wadh of his paternal 
tityy he now resblv^ ' in turn to attack them in Italy. 
He went over the Pyrenees, traversed Gaul to the con- 
fluence of the Saohe with the Rhone, proceeded through 
tire coMtry of the Allobroges to the Alps, passed by. a 
scarcely ^brodden padi over the lofty Viso» and suddenly 
apifeared in <die plains of Turin. • The Romans had not yet 
learnt ho%r to fijp^t in such a country,' tn.subduipg whacK 

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i\f0jj^ j(}ipe,^i^|red.8]Q&f^^ TbiQr wailed 

£Kr the eneiny on ^he lower and tisiiiil roaid towards the s^a 
and the Apennines, where it was possjbte to resist his pro^ 
gress* Haiwbars 'greatest art was the choice of advanta- 
geous situations, which he had learnt from hb chUdhoqd 
among the deserts and' mountains of Castile. 

He defeated the Romans from the baulks /Of 
the Tipino to Apulia in four battles, which wpuld 
have been rutnoifs to an; other republic. What coatributed 
to this qalamity was that Rome since the first Punic oxiteilf. 
scarcely, employed with wars of less importance, had givm. 
herself up entirely to her internal affidrs. Popular &v0ttr, 
bestowed offices which required merit to plebrians, who 0fh. 
posed ^emselyes to the senate, but who had not abilitjr to 
resist HannibaL Fabius alone saw through the secret of. 
the progress of the Carthaginians ; he was eminent in th*: 
same, axt; and being a man of great understanding, of; 
advanced age^ and of remiurkable temper, and moderatj^on, 
he was able to restrain the impetuosity of others* The.. 
Romans Irnd^ been defeated by their own fimlt; for, in the. 
army of the enemy, the wisdom of Hannibal was, the only 
cupcuipstance that was truly formidable. , After the slaughter 
of Cannes, a calamity like that which t^e Athenians sufifar^d 
in Sicily, or like the battle of Leuctra,. or the great defeat of, 
the .host of Darius by Alesumder, the councils of Fabius 
were followed, who was satisfied wjth kecpii^g bis enany 
employed. From that time Hannibal loitered thirteen 
years in Italy without perforining any of those explojtft 
whif;h the first terror of his, arms had announced.. I^ortupe 
scarcely crowned bis efibrts in determining for.a time ia 
his favour the allies of Rome. He wa» frequently unsqo- 
nr cestui. . Syracus^ which ajfter dieath terminated 

*, * .'.the long re^n of the wise ki^ Hiero, had op- 
posed itself to Rome, was taken by Marcellus at the epid of 
an^Botprable sicgp.' Hannibal was often .obliged to rem^n 

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1^' ' VtftftSUML fftHTPOKt* 

tbige, lie msbtmned biiiMelf m Italy for Ibe tac^ pm, A 
the expense of the invaded eoudti^. 

For 8 long tone the Romans eontetitaeA thenufieltes tdOi' 
rerfjrthrg his attftcfcs^ at length a ^onth edne&ted stttni: 
dangers rescued them and decided the fkte of dre cesntest. 
$&^ tta a irarrior is worthy of holding the next place to 
dtsstir; as a man Ati6c a dthsn he stands bdore" him. ISs 
miBitaTy skfll and the parity of his life g^Sned Mm ttg strange 
ttluM on the veneration: of men as thiit con^aerof held Sac 
their ail^rtionff by the g^itleness of his manners.. Tfa^arm^' 
i«eelved his orders as oracles ; Aey well knew tbAt Sd{^ 
imdiintook nothing without the axihricer of the gods; Afler 
he had saved the life of Iris father in the iSrsf battfe ngtthEfst^ 
the CardiagmiaiiSy and (he latter had fallen togedter with' 
JSs brother in fighting against Ae AfHcsit host itf Sj^tthr> 
Sdipfo iicSolVcd to avenge the sfamles of these wan^Ata MSt 
the enuse of hfr eomtry. His spfiaidi J virtui^ hiduoed 
the old senators to hy'asid^ their jealousies^ and {>emiit 
this^ yotrtir to asstmie ihe command in the gi^atest war inc 
wl^ich Ronve was ever' engaged ; the sameqiiaiities^ gavehltti* 
a vietMy ov^ die corrnption which had crept into the tamyt 
H^OOChwomeft were banished by him from- d^e camp; hb 
own sd&commandi his good fortune in die mwt^S&trit 
eMei^rises, inspired the aimy wh;h sudh conAd^tSe in him, 
titot before him no' enemy was looked upon as mvindMcr. 
Aecordingfy, while the genius of Archimedes laboured in 
vttftf to protedt by inventions the dty of Syracuse against the 
Romania while Gracthus^ again conquer^ the ishmd of 
0BErdInTa, and HkintbaPs last resoun^^ the reinfbrouneittir 
brought by his brother Bhsdrabal were destroyed by Ti^ 
beriufir M^ro, Sdpio drove the enemy out <tf all his pos- 
setfdont in Sjpain/ passed over die^sttml^ send af^^earedia 

Rklnibal, wilii his dedfadng amy, still temunoi'itt Rily 
when Carthage summoned him to her own defoioe; lor 

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Mamm9ssif the imsl^pQwerfiil chieftw) $^t)iq qou^trji^ bud, 
^9CQme the aUji of Sopw. In tbe fev^nteeaAi ytiu: .firoBEi, 
his passage over the Alps, HannibiU left, l4ily» vithoiit 
havuig gained, after so many victories, one place from the 
Romans, whence it w^s possible to give them further mo- 
lestation. Soon afterwards the two generals in the plains 
of Zama fought a battle, which was to decide the contest of 
tbd two ]:ep«]bUcs. ; Scipio opposed thei flow^ of his tafoops 
tot^ymkex fwrt of the enemy, that early sncceas m^t in^ 
spirit Ub army, and give him an opporUmity of falling Qt^ 
tfiefla^k of die best soldtevs of Hannibal^ white in th« iaeaii> 
tivie^a^^pavt of tbe troops who pursued thefiigtCiveftiiU|^$ 
ref^VQ iO: ti»e to aUaek the rear of those who yet itood their 
gOQiQild. Oq a sinil^r phm Hbambiil designed by memu 
of hJU el^haata t^ break through the Rennan lines, awl 
then to bring his army to action at onee on ail sides. ScipiM 
pnnetvated into this intwtioo, a»d of^sed a light ■niiash 
iubntiiy to, the elephants. The elephants broke loose im* 
peliipufilgi, and the jBomaR light troo^ made etrndntionatoi 
ijghl aotl left wkh the greatest xafodifyi their viotenl) 
ooutsse Dot heiiif; cbedied by the guides, these anminhi 
rusbfldfttricMisly&iwardit and ran without oenuBittHig any 
iajoffy iSkwof^ tfie iotiflrvab whidi the BonaB soidieiy 
opened for thesfei 

Tim tenops! inanediatefy closed again, whetti they hai^ 

pwsed^. and their general w>w developed Us piaa with thait 

pteseniee of mind £h* which he was zemaikaUe- 

* In the SdOdi year from the builifing of Boftiey 

Publkit Comeliue Seipio, in a deoiave battfliai conqpMred 

GavdMig^ theonly republie capable of oontefidiag willi effiect 

agpinat the increasiiig greatness of Rome» 

. Nothing was left for the Carthagimmfis but^o sue fot 

peac^; dieir oity and ils pmper territoiy remained to them 

wfdi siidi security a» a disanned republic can hope in the 

Bi^^uAood of aiwther whicfa seldoift foirgot fermer 

dsing«n; they wa» obliged to )gpiye 14^ theiir ships at)d 

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alMtaiii from filture wars ; all Numidia was given to their 
enemy MaMiiiisa, who watched them with suspicion and 
iofittlted them with impunity. 



Next to Hannibal^ I^hilip king of Macedonia, a de- 
seendant of Antigonus Gonatas, was the most important 
enemy of Rome, as long as he had the aid of the Illyrians, 
or was able to alarm Italy with the maritime power of 
Gimoe. He committed the error of leaving Carthage,' 
with which he was in alliance, without support, while 
ke employed himself unprofitably with lesser contests* 
ill Greece. The Greeks, in other respects learned^ were 
too poor in their knowledge of foreign afiairs to fore-' 
see consequences; th^ were too proud oS their ancient ^ 
victories to attach any importance to what was going on' 
among strai^rs. At the same time, Philip had rten**. 
dered himself contemptible and odious by his' licentious- : 
nes9 and tyranny, and had forfeited confidence by foiling » 
in his engagements. He weakened himself by cbccitingt 
among the jdStoIians and Athenians apprehensions for their, 
independence, instead of uniting all Greece in one common/ 
cause. Philip was ca^Ue of great exertion : cunning and 
vigilance were not wanting. to him; and as a genei^l her 
knew how to turn to good account the natural advantages 
of his country; btit when the Romans came to the aid of 
Grecian liberty (for such was their profession) it appeared: 
at Cynoscephalfie that Philip knew not how to render his' 
phalanx sufficiently manageable in. an intersect^ country, ; 
and he was accordingly defeated. 

As the Romans had granted independence to 

* ' the city of Cferthage, so tl^ proclaimed 4tlie. 
freedom of Greece, knowing that from dNe Qremstn tdwte. 
neitlier unjon nor any jj^ermaneilt e&ertioiia.weve to b^uppren. 

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he^ided. They became lords of the world witliout suffering 
it ,to appear, and without seeming to , conquer. If the 
Romans had. adhered to this principle they might have 
remained poor and powerful, free and irresistible at the 
summit of human affairs. 

As Macedonia had been conquered because the king, 
instead of waging war in alliance with Hannibal, had de- 
ferred it until the Romans were able to fall upon him with 
all their power, so Asia was still more easily subdued be- 
cause it had taken no p^ct in the fate of Macedonia. 

Thoas was the leader of the iEtolians,' that people whosl^ - 
restless spirit had distracted Greece, and who, by their cdn- 
nection with Rome, entailed the most imminent peril on all 
their neighbours. Tfaoas thought himself not sufficiently re- 
paid for the'seiTices he had afforded the Romans, and sought 
to excite the jealousy of Antiochus, the descendant of Se-* ' 
leucus, against the common enemy of all mona,rchs. 

From the ruins of old Troy to the Caucasus and 'the 
furthest confines of Meldia, the whole of Syria, Phcenice, 
Palestine, and lesser Asia, belonged to Antiochus the 
Great. Scarcely did heieei that the Parthiahs were no 
longer under his sway; the most beautifal, the most popu- 
lous and flourishing provinces of the earth obeyed him. 
The first part of his reign had shone with glory, and he . 
was by far the most powerful mpnarch of Asia. His acti- 
vity only had diminished with increasing age, Antioch was 
, one of the most voluptuous cities in the world ; and there * 
the great Antiochus slumbered under the laurels of 'his 
earlier years. At thfs time Hannibal fled to his court. A fac- 
tion which had laboured with keen animosity in opposition 
to -his father's house had succeeded, with the aid of the Ro- - 
mans, in forcing this warrior to leave' Carthage when h.e was 
attempting' by the removal of many abuses to restore to the 
repiri>lic.her internal strength* He supported Thoas, and 
they jointly, succeeded in engaging Ai^ia in a contest against 
the power of Rome. 

VOL. I. o' 

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Alexandef^d Argyraspids had long suTTived only in name ; 
pomp prevailed in the' place of true greatness^; 'insnbordui- 
ation, efieminacy, and the arts of a court, had their seat at 
Andoch ; and after war was declared, the councils of Han- 
nibal were not listened to with respect to the manner of 
conducting it. Crbwned with garlands, surrounded with 
eunuchs, by the sound of the flute and lyre, the great 
Antiochus went forth out of Asia on his elephant covered 
with splendid trappings at the head of 400,000 men. Im 
silken and purple tents, before richly covered tables, and in 
the arms of voluptuousness, he expected to triumph over 
those whom Hannibal and Philip had not been able to 
withstand. Accordingly, Acilius Glabrio and Lucius Scipio 
brother of the great Scipio easily forced him, after he had 
been expelled from Greece by the battle "of 
Thenhopyloe, and had suffered at Magnesia a de- 
cisive defeat, to purchase peace at the price of Lesser Asia 
as far as Mount Taurus, and by surrendering half his ships. 
Yet the Romans preferred bestowing kingdoms, to the 
possession of them, and they were contented to be simply 
conquerors. After having bumbled in Galatia the heredi- 
, tiny ferocity of those Gauls who a century before had 
terrified Macedonia, they gave a great part of Lesser Asia 
to their ally the King of Pergamus. 



Generous as the senate was towards the humbled con- 
federacies of hostile states, it was equally watchftil of all the. 
movements of Hannibal, who wandered over the world 
seeking to stir up enemies against the name of Rome. He 
was at the court of Prusias, the base, avaricious, timid kbig 
of Bithynia when his surrender was' demanded by the 
Romans. He then took poison, which he had for many 
years concealed, that he might never suffer a fate unworthy 

*8 ' / 

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.pf Hannibal. Such T^^stbe. reward which he received 
from Fortune fpr liaying. biioken through the Alps, for 
having gained the field? of Ticinus, of Trebiae, of the 
, Thrasjmene lake, i^nd of Cannae ; but in the hour of death 
he was consoled by foreseeing the calamities of Rome 
hastened by a short career of conquest, and by reflecting 
.that his own nam^ would be handed dowti to eternal me^^^ 
morjy among those jjlustrious captains wlio should fight 
^valiantly, with the forces of a debased and falling state^ ^ 
against an enemy flushed with victory and in the full energy 
of youth. 

About the same time his victorious inival gave way to the 
malignity of faction. Scipio abandoned Rome which he 
had saved ; lived at hi^ country-house near Linternum in 
that personal dignity which envy could not take away from 
him ; he died there ; and a belief remained among the in- 
habitants of th^ plac^ that afler the gods whom he reviered 
had taken his great soul into their own society, a serpeEKt 
lay. concealed among the myrtle^ in whose shade hft had 
reposed, and guarded the approach to his sacred ashes* 



The Romans forgave the ^tolians; they conquered the 
islands in the Adriatic Sea, and reduced the rebellious Istria 
to a more complete subjection^ In the mean time^ Philip 
had sacrificed the worthiest of his sons to the insidious 
calumnies of Perseus, in consequence of whose 
base artifices he died of grief in forlorn old age. 
Tlfte same Perseus, in order to gain the afiections of the 
l^acedonians, after, pursuing, for a long time a system of 
iQ^asures^ which, were not devoid of policy, excited a war 
ags^nst bis hereditary enemies, in which he flattered him- 
sQli^ , n^t i^ji^Uiput sojne^appearance of success until the 
ftomans began to enter seriously into the conflict, to 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 



restore the ancient celebrity of the Macedonian arms. But 
Paulus ^milius, the generial of the republic, overcame the 
apparently invincible obstacles which forests and mountams 
opposed to his progress. A sudden panic seized the king, 
who abandoned his kingdom in the critical moment; he 
knew not how to die, but delivered himself a captive." Ma- 
cedonia was declared a free country under the 
' * ' protection of Rome, and in the 155th year after 
the death of Alexander the Great, the last successor of his 
throne was led to Rome, following the triumph of the con- 
queror, where he died in most abject degradation. The 
riches of Epirus rewarded the Roman army for the rigid 
discipline they had been obliged to observe in Macedonia. 



About this time factions which broke out in Carthage 
prepared the destruction of that republic. Forty exiled 
senators implored the aid of king Massinissa to effect their 
restoration. This chief was ninety-six years old, father of 
forty- four sons, king of many wandering tribes of warlike 
people, the author of rich and extensive culture amid 
deserts which seemed destined to perpetual sterility, the 
able and constant ally of Rome. The Carthaginians re- 
jected his interference, the ruling faction fearing for them- 
selves. When the affair- was referred to the Romans, the 
senate decreed according to the wishes of Massinissa, and 
the (Carthaginians would* not submit, for their demagogues 
had every thing to fear, and had resolved to bury themselves 
under the ruins of the republic. 

At this time, M. Porcius Cato, an old man, swayed the 
decision of the senate. Born at Tusculum in the vicinity of 
Rome, he was bred up in the country, till at the age of 
seventeen he entered the military service. As military 
tribune, quaestor, aedile, praetor of Sardinia, twice consul. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 


and proconsul in Spain, he « had maintained so upright a 
character that he was able to baffle forty*four accusatk)ns 
brought against him by envious persons before the people. 
In the censorate or investigation of public and private 
morals, he was chiefly celebrated for his firmness ; he wbls 
by &r the most learned man in the law and history of his 
country, one of the most eloquent orators of his age, and 
an excellent private citizen. With the severity of an- 
cient virtue, Cato combined as many accomplishments ' as '■' 
were suitable to the dignity of a Roman Senator. But 
although he had in many other matters a penArating and 
upright judgment, he was in one particular like other old 
men with whom the earliest impressions of youth remain 
the most vivid through life. Catb after the lapse of seventy 
years contemplated in Hannibal, that warrior who threat- 
ened Rome with his arms; whenever he spoke in the senate, 
though concerning far different matters, he always intro- 
duced this sentence : " It is my judgment that Carthage 
must be destroyed." 

Widely diflferent was the opinion of the Scipios. He 
who at that time imparted new splendour to this great 
name was a son of Paulus ^milius, whom a ?on of' the 
conqueror of Zama had adopted in his old age. He joined 
to the spotless virtue .of his own father the amiable cha- 
racter of the elder Scipio, and to {he heroic spirit that 
shone forth in both of them a more extended knowledge 
and greater refinement than could. be attained in earlier 
times. Scipio Nasica possessed great weight in the senate 
through his wisdom and rectitude. 

The Scipios opposed themselves to the proposal of de- 
stroying the only. city, which, by the remembrance of former 
dangers, might restrain the Romans from yielding to the 
sway of their passions. . It was to be foreseen that the 
energy of Rome w;ould decline when ho object existed 
that could excite her apprehension. The sentiment of 

o 3 

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justice and humanity might also plead in favour of the. as- 
happy Carthaginians. Tlie younger Scipio had a nxible 
character; his life might seem to justify the common report 
<^ that he had never said or done any thing that was not 
. deserving of praise." He was the intimate friend of Lse- 
lius; he admired Polybius, who resided at his house; arid 
we are partly indebted to him for those ^master-pieces df 
comedy by which Terence rivalled the fame of the Attic 
theatil?.' Scipia was the friend of the author and assisted ' 
him in his composition. . - :,■ ^^ ■ 

In* the senate, as it oftein happens in such bodies, the 
honest manner of Cato, whom every ottie understood, and 
who coincided with the various ' passions of his hearers^^'^' 
produced a greater imfN-ession than what Scipio Nasica, oir ' 
the younger Scipio, said with more profound reflection; 
imd it was resolved to proceed to the last extremities. ' ' '' 

Accordingly, the surrender of all the ships which the 
Carthaginians had built contrary to the stipulations of the 
last treaty, was demanded under the pretext that their ar-> 
mament violated the peace existing betweoi the two' 
countries. They gave them up, and the ships were burnt 
before their eyes. Hereupon they were commanded in ai 
body to leave their paternal city, and build a new town in 
the interior of Africa, far from the sea-coast When the 
l^sembly of the people heard this order, they w&e struck ' 
with the utmost despair ; every man voted for war, and the' ' 
senate swore to perish with Carthage. One of the* Sureties * 
gave his opinion that they ought to yield to destiny, and " 
lie i^as stoned to death in the midst of the assembly. All' '^ 
the wood that could be collected was now brought to/' 
the docks for the building of a new fleet; they spared 
neither the houses of the lower town, nor any wooden im-' 
plement: all the gold and silver, all the metal belonging 
to the great, the ornaments of the tombs of the magi- 
litrittes and warriors, and the sacred veissels, the treasures - 

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of the temple^ the ploughs, reaping ho^s, and all dte ^ 
to<ds of handicraft that could be dispensed with, w^e melted 
down and made into arms, . The women cut off their hair 
to weave ropes and cordage for the ships ; every person 
without dbtinction of rank, age, or sex, expended all his 
substance for the great apd venerable Carthage. Wondeih 
fully did the Carthaginians resist even in the third year. 
TiRQ walls wer^ stormed^, and a third i^ill held out. When 
the haven was lost they dug another, md suddenly^a new 
fleet made: its appearance and obtained a victory; the le- 
gions were more than onc^ defeated. King Massinissa in 
the mqan time died, and Scipio divided his kingdom be* 
tween his son^i, Micipsa, Gulusiaa, and Manastabal. 

Scipio alone found resources against the inventions' of 
de^air. At RcM^ie he had filled the office of sedile or 
inspector of architecture, and was chosen consul before he 
had attained the age appointed by law. He came tb Africa, 
and in the third year of this lamentable war he penetrated 
by a i^ighty stratagem into the last haven. Even after this 
irreparable loss the citizens would not surrender, but fought - 
r *^ ^y^ ^^^ ®^ nights on the shore, and in the 
upper streets for the now iinfortified city. At 
length & party declared for the Romans, and at the same 
instapt the town was, set on fire by the hands, as it appears, 
of its own citizen!^ that the seat of the ancient republic and 
of so lasting an empire might not become a subject town 
under the dominion of Rome. Hasdrubal a chief citizen 
went:Over to the enemy ; his wife saw him, and embracing 
her children, exdaimed, << Live Hasdrubal, if thou canst 
dare. to survive Carthage I" and she threw herself with her 
two infiajots among the. flames of her bumipg palace. Many 
persons killed. themselves^ on the graves of their forefathers, 
the monuments of the heroei^, and in the citadel among 
the temples of the gods* Seventeen days the flames de- 
voured this city, the habitation^ of 700,000 people^ which 

o 4 

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had flourished and ^domineered a thousand years, and at 
length reduced it to a heap of smouldering fuins. * '- . • 




After the conquest pf Macedonia the Greeks perceived 
how much more formidable to their independence the Ro- 
man republic was than the king whom they had laboured to 
dethrone. /The Romans, after quelling an attempt made by 
Andriscus for the restoration of the Macedonian kingdom, 
soon sought to acquire secure possession of all the strong 
places in Greece, and they demanded of the Achaean con- 
federacy all the fortresses which the king had formerly. pos- 
sessed in ' the Peloponnesus. The embassy by which this 
proposal was sent was treated with insult by the populace 
of Corinth, and this aggression seemed to afford sufficient 
pretence for declaring war. 

Achaia fought in vain with the heroic spirit of ancient 
Greece ; every thing yielded to the two powerful and well . 
commanded legions. Critolaus the chief of the confederacy 
' could only avoid a shameful submission by voluntary death* 
Yet his. successor Diaeus dared, like another Leonidas, to 
defend with 614 valiant men, the Corinthian isthmus, All 
things were carried away by the stream of fortune. Diaeus 
retired into his country, assembled his family, distributed 
poison to his wife and children, took his share of it himself, 
and perished together with them. Lucius Mummius con- 
quered Corinth, adorned with the innumerable splendid 
works which the luxury and arts of the finest ages of Greece 
had produced. In the 955th year after the building of this 
city, in the same year as Cartilage, Corinth was plundered 
and burnt, all the adult males were massacred, and the 

* It is a late conjecture that the city of Tomboctoo, discoviered in our 
time in the midst of Africa, may have been founded by Carthaginians, 
who escaped from the conflagration of their city. 

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'women and childr'en sold into slavery ; many excellent pro- 
ductions of the fine arts were destroyed. The Boeotian 
Thebes, and Chalcis, the great capital of Euboea, the mother 
of so many colonies, were also committed to the flames. 
The glorious days of ancient Greece terminated, and 
were destined never again to re-appear in their former 
splendour. ' * .. 



After Carthage, and Corinth had fallen, the Lusitanian 
Spaniard Viriatus,^ great, warrior, gave occupation to the 
arms of Rome, during eight years, and in the same country 
a fortress, which was defended by only 4000 men, 'detained 
several Rojnan generals, fourteen years before its walls. 
Numantia forced the legions to submit to the same ignomi- 
nious capitulation to which they had bden reduced in the 
war of the, Samnites. Viriatus was only:, subdued by 
treachery. Even Scipio was unable to make himsdf master 
of Numantia ; but when hunger had reduced its inhabitants 
to despair, and Scipio avoided to give them' battle, they set 
fire to the place, and destroyed themselves in 
. ' ' the flames. A few individuals, in an indescrib- 
able state' of misery, followed the triumphal car of the con- 
queror. ' ; ; • 

In many districts the Spaniards maintained their freedom 
during another century; they formed few confederacies in 
war, and therefore every tribe was in the end subdued ; but 
this happened, only in succession, and each nation in its 
turn renewed the labour, of. the conquerors; each tribe 
fought for its independence and its territory, against op- 
pressors whom their own.'.corruption. rendered every day 
more tyrannical. The inventive genius of the Spaniards 
displayed abler commanders than we find among more 
celebrated nations, who are not by nature so prone to 

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202 VimtnSAL HISTORY* 



While the Romans with so much labour obtained pos- 
sesiiion of barbarous Spain, Asia Minor fell easily into their 
power. The last Attalus king of Pergamus, dying without 
heirs, gave by will to Rome his, own kingdom and the 
dominion which had been conferred upon one of his pre* 
decessors by the generosity of the senate. Aristonicus in 
vaiB opposed iiimself to the transfer; but no enemy of 
Rome codd have bestowed upon her a more destructive 
gift; for from that time forwards the ancient probity of tbie 
republic contended in vain with the luxuiy and 

B.C. 151* . . n A » 

riches ot Asia. 
It was immediately proposed by Tiberius Gracchus, 
nephew •of Scipio by fait sista*, the tribune of the people^ to 
divide the treasure of Attains, and to provide a new law 
whicfa «ught prevent any citizen from possessing more than 
a cettam estate iii land. The &ther of the tribune was a 
man ef jMrimitive tirtue, and Tiberius himself pbs^ssed all 
those qualities whicih would have rendered him a powerful 
Citizeiiy without transg^essihg the laws; the regulation pro- 
posed by him was popidar, and equally jil^t, iii the esti^ 
matton of the multitude, who applauded it. The old limft- 
ationa with respect to the possession of land had become by 
long ciistom obsolete and the new law pressed heavily on 
a class' of die citizens^ ihconsiderable by their hiimter, and 
taught the poor that it was in their power to obtain every 
thing, and the rich that nothing but force could protect 
them from aggression. The treasures of Attalus were no 
superfluous addition to the public fund, which in former 
tildes had been maintained by contributions, aiid from the 
triumph of Paulus iEmilius had drawn no revenues* Tlie 
charge of maintaining a great empire Was. thus defrayed^ 
lyithout expressing the provinces. 

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For the fir$t tiitie) a question of poUtioal rights was •decided v 

at Rome hy^ forc^« Tibenua Gracchus gave occasion to. this > 

disjiurbance^ by expelling from the tribunate one of his 

colleagues who was more moderately inclined thanhimsel^r 

He then proposed a law to confer on all the . ItaUans the ^ 

rights, of Roman citizens. The senate was justly afraid 

of being reduced by such a multitude to submit to the'^' 

most degrading concessions* Accordingly Scipio Nasica^ 

a man revered for the most exaJlj;ed virtues, compelled by . 

the^imperiousne^sslty.of afiairi^ toodi: his post on the steps u 

which W to the Capitol^, and 9Uinmoned to his assistaaceall .. 

those who chose to defied .their coimtry. The.j^iuite^and .^ 

all the great citizens, jx>getbQr wjtjb most of the Romaa 

knights^ and a considerable part of the peofd^ -vepairing'to <^ 

his aid, that tumult^ arose in whiclx Tiberius, lost his Me. 

His brother Cajus, moi:e eloquenlSf andipos* . 
B.C. 122. : ^ , ... . « 1 , a 

' sessed of greater abiuties» aft^.^tbe^lapse often ^ 

years,- attempted a 4mil^ enterpfise*. Hefiroposed^tlial^: 

^^ a^prding to the pldLicinian law^ no Roman citaacii 

should possess more than 500 acres of land $. .that all C!)i-* 

salpine Gaul should be included in Italy, : and. should putf^^i 

take of the same privil^gcjs ; that oorQ shoukl be iMxld,t& the iv> 

people at an extr^eily low paries; that €00 .kn]ghtftahoaki<^ -y 

be enrolled in the sena(;i^ and. that the jjodicittl office shcoM i * 

be taken from, that bo4y and. tmnsferred. to the^equestrian- <* 

order," . The whole balance qt power which Jcipt ihfi ooa^j- 

stitutjion together was thus broken^ and»wheQ.>]aboiir otased <»'- 

to be necessary, the morals of the peGfde:COuldini>tlafl>M' » < 

become corrupted* ^ A man who possessed so much intd- 

ligence as this tribune, could by these measures pursue no 

other' than his personal interests and passions. 

He seemed to have insured success by the manner in 

w]4cli he had connived tQ iiiterest.the .ki^gbts^. the peojde^ , 

and all Italy m.the cause. ^.The oonsul Dpimiu^ who was 

the persop4 enemy qf th<e tribune^ .set iLipcicewiipon^bis '•- 

head ; Latium» the kijiightsy jud/lbe idtieaw aifitect with ; 

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Rome, .declared for the old constitution, which could not 
be overturned without the greatest convulsions. Caius, in 
despair, caused himself to be slain by one of his domestics ; 
200 men were killed in a tumult on the Aventine hill 
within the city; and when quiet was restored, the accom- 
plices were summoned to- answer for their conduct, a!nd 
3000 men were put to death. 

' ^om that time the good old customs and regulations gra- 
dually fell into disuse. The people would no longer obey; 
all things were obtained by gold : no crime, no disorder in 
war seoned disgraceful, if profit was connected with it. 
Agriculture and the useful arts fell into decay under the 
oppression of the prefects. Those who were poof* and 
without patrons had more to fear from the courts of justice 
than opulent criminals, and assassinations and deaths' by 
poison became common. The noble Scipio, the hero of- 
the .third Punic war, was murdered by ^ome of his rela- 
tions, who feared lest he should be raised to the dictatorship, 
and. should avenge his country, which he. preferred to all 
other, connections. His enemy Metellus sent his children 
to thefuneral of Scipio, with these true words : " Go, be- 
hold him; you will never again seesuch a Roman." The' 
power of iniquity was so formidable, that the senate did not 
venture, to institute anyjnquiry concerning his death; but 
from; that time it became customary with the -citizens to 
wear .'daggers under their robes. Rome, the mistress of 
the world, intoxicated with the blood of nations, became 
delirious in.her excesses. 

* ' . SECTION XX. 

.THE CIMBRIC WAR. . [ i_, , 

,A ]^w, years after *the death- of*- Caius Grac- 
chus,. hoi-<Jes bf^badbanans appe?ar'ed*dn the bor- 
ders of Italy, under; the name of Ciinbri, whose origin is not 
very ,well known, but. who probably were of Gallo-Belgic 

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race. . At this time the only declared enemy of Rome was 
Jugurtha,. an African prince, whose inconsiderable power 
was soon subdued when he had once become an object p( 
serious attention. Most of the Alpine passes, and all the 
most accessible of them, were in the- possession ' of the 
Romans ; a Roman province extended through Gaul to the 
farthest foot of the Pyrenees; and the AUobroges in Saa- 
phin6 and Savoy, and the Arverni in Auvergne, had sub- 
mitted to the yoke. In the midst of this external prosperity, 
the north, for the. first time, poured [forth her unknown 

, swarms. The Cimbri, the Teutones, the, Ambrpnes,.and 
the Tigurini, the latter of whom were the chieC people of 
Helvetia, after laying waste the banks of the Danube* and 
all Gaul, overcame the consul Carbo, and soon .after, 
Silanus and Scaurus; they defeated Cassius, on the. lake of 
Geneva, with disgrace and dreadful slaughter ; and Gaepio 
and Manlius with still greater loss. Italy tr^mUed before 
Teutobochus and Boioric, as it . had ^ formerly* trembled 
.before Hannibal. . The Cimbri were ^ of gigantic statur^ 
and their harsh barbarous voices inspired terror ; their host 
advanced in close and firm array; it appeared impenetrable, 
and was found Xo be irresistible. 

In this calamitous emergency no candidate .appeared for 
the' consulship, and, the .senate was obliged to ofier it to 
Caius Marius, the conqueror of Jugurtha, a rustic of Ar- 
pinum, who wasjiated by the nobles, and who had more of 
the severity than of the dignity of the old consuls. Marius, 
however, was as rigid in discipline as any of his predecessors, 
and as eminent in the art of war. He would have been a 

■ great man, if he had known how to restrain himself as 
' strenuously as he coerced his troops. 

Marius marched to attack the ^Teutones who were enter- 
ing Italy from the Gallic province, and sent Catulus .his 
colleague against the Cimbri, who were rushing down like 
to;:rents firom the, Rhastian Alps. Before Marius engaged 
with his foe, he accustomed his troops to the ferocious ^a^pect 

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206 OKlVEftSAL HI«tOKY. 

of the baHhariafts, >and' restored the'di^l^liiieof his ^rmy^ 
which grras to the tidier a feeBng of confidence In htmdelf. 
.He r^dened the enemy inore negligent by delay, a^d 
' by the Mone tfieeois inflfoned %is own army to extreme im^ 
.patience. At length he made the attack^ and n^ar A^qud^ 
Stxdsdi now A ix in Provence, he exterminated 8ie T^eu- 
tonlc host. 

After Miarius liad completed fhis tfrork, he pas^ioto tlie 
.plains of Verona, where Catnlus fonnd himself unable fo • 
tridwtand th^ terrific hordes whbm the shoW-ctiad moiihuans 
'm4 iuqpetuous torrents of the Alpis had not afr^ted in their 
eonl^se. Marius himself fell into greftt dailger of being ciit 
m£Fand oot<^anked by his far more powerffal enefiby, wlio 
Jtod caused one troop to fly in order that the Romans 'iii the 
ipunuit nHght faH into confusion. HefcieW, howfever, how 
fto Mifiise into his army new cburage f<yr a diecisive attack, 
whsch turned oat the more fortmiatdy as tlie enemy lield'a 
{position, in which the beams of the sun, breaking fortti ttbin 
jdottds, shptte with dai&s:Kng i^IeAdonr on his iliee. Bbth 
ttmies fought with eitces^T^ iUry ; aiid ^heii the battl<& Wa^ 
Aeaimtdy lost by the barbarians, thtey nliAd^ a despietate 
I'esistance around the wagons which contained their wives 
and diildren. lliis day #as the last of the Cimbric war. 
Those who were not killed or sold as slaves made thd)r 
escape mto the valleys of the Alps^. in order t6 lurk there - 
in concealment, or thence to join their brethren whom they 
Imil^A behind them in the north. 

The i^ov^ment which the enterprise of the Cimbri had 
oxeitiGd in the north terminatefd not here. From the Rhine 
aad Hrivetia to the Black Sea^ violent fiucmatidns are long 
to be observed. The Roman b^rfers \#ere alsb molested 
bjf&die Sebrdkei, Bastarnse, and <ytVe]^ b^rbafbtlb' races. 

l!lies& wan^ilenngs are s^id to have Been thi^don^denc^ 
oftmoiMktiDite and famines^ but it is lim ktlbwh in what 
agp weioi^t' to pktie' the* phaenbift^na 6t liiitiife; Tlie 
r8oiembMM»«: o^ ^' e^t^ iMMi'McRg bamroiis 

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nations^ but traditions often connect them with histprical 
facts which have happened many centuries Is^ter. 


MITHRIDATES. ' ' ■ ' " ^ 

Soon after this event the Pontic^ng Mithridates, ^Uftl 
in miUtary talents to the greatest generals of antiquity, .^ 
veloped a plan ii) which he reckoned much on the assista|M^ 
of the northern nations. This chieftain formed the de^^g^ 
of uniting all the hordes which were dispersed between the 
Don and the Alps in one great confederacy, to give a cer-^ 
tain eifect to their valour by military discipline^ and |p 
overrun Italy at their head. As far as Mithiridates was . 
known, the admiration of his great genius extended itsfif^ 
Mis troops were accustomed to endute want, and all thfe 
inclemencies of the seasons* 

' Having acquired a strong party in Asia Minor^ 

' ' * he began his warfare in earnest by laurdering 
about 80,000 Romans who dwelt in the cities of that coun* 
try, against whom the conspired rebellion broke out everyii 
where at the same time. Greece fell into his pow^r, and 
Rome had once more to contend, during five-and-twasity 
years, for the empire of the world. 



In Rome itself the arts of deniagogaes. prevailed, ami 
Marius by such means deprived Metellus of the command 
in the war against Jugurtha^ when it was almost brought 
to a completion, and caused it to be conferred upon himdelf* 
Accordingly he formed the strictest bonds of friendship 
with the tribune of thp people Saturninus, who bad as- 
sassinated a competitor on the day of election. MeteUu% 
respectable fpr all the qualities ^ of a great citiss^en and ge« 

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\ ■ > ' . . ' ' ! . • 

' heral, narrowly escaped being murdered by him : he for- 
gave the attempt, that he might not disturb the public 
tranquillity, and abandoned Rome. His noble conduct 
remained not without the impression which it was calculated 
to produce, and the people brought him back in .triumph. 

In this posture of affairs the patricians sought their safety 
in; the consulate of Memmius, who, on the day of election, 
was murdered by a tribune of the people. In the common 
terror Marius embraced the just caused because it .now 
appeared the most popular. A contest took place . in the 
forum ; the tribune was forced to surrender himself; he was 
-dragged forth by Roman knights and plebeians, and beaten 
to death by clubs and stones. 

• The situation of the provinces was not more tranquil. 
The Roman knigbts, formerly a military order, had become 
judges since the time of Caius Gracchus: 3900 of them, 
classed in four decuries^ exercised this authority. There 
was now no refuge for the oppressed provinces, of which 
the knights held the imposts by public contracts, and aug- 
mented with insatiable avarice ; honour, life, and property 
depended on the judgment of those who themselves, as 
■exactors, had given cause for the most vehement com- 

At the same time a private enmity between Caepio and 
Drusus occasioned a breach between the senate and the 
knights, in which tbe'latter took so warm a part in favour 
of Caepio, that Drusus meditated, by this opportunity, to 
deprive them of the authority which they had so unfitly 
accfuired. Drusus was of noble family, and his distin- 
guished talents were exalted by a rare purity of manners 
and clearness of intellect. In order to gain over the people 
in favour of the old constitution which he designed to re- 
store, it was necessary for him to show^ himself friendly to 
their interest*; ; he therefore proposed a law for the estab- 
lishment of some colonies and for a division of lands. The 
senate, in whose cause he intended to embark, understood 

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not his ihtenfcionB) mod opfiosed his designs «with ail tlieir 
influence. Wheq the heroic Drusds saw those oa whom 
he intended again to, bestow the judicial power united 
against hitn, with that party whom he designed to deprive 
of their abussed privileges, he was struck with despair. He 
sought in this emergency to interest all Italy in his &TC»ir, 
by promiaiog to the whol^ nation the rights of Roman ci« 
tizens. Hereupon he proposed a law for the division of 
lands, another respecting the price of com, and a third by 
which the judicial power was shared between the senatorial 
and equestrian ranks. As he was returning to his house, 
accompanied by an innumerable multitude, he was struck 
with a dagger by an unknown person, who wasi never called 
to account for his crime. As he expif ed, Dnisiis exclaiiiied» 
<^ I foresee that a citizen will not soon appear with inten^ 
ttons so pure as mine/' 

' All Italy resorted to Rome to demand the r^ht of ci^ 
tizenship, and all were repulsed. The people of Ascalum 
put to death the praetor Servilius, with all the Romans'who 
happened to be in their city. All the Picentine coiinteyi 
the Sabine valleys, the Tuscan cities^ Umbria> the whole 
Adriatic coast, Samnium^ Campania, and Calabria, took 
up arms again^ that city which was chiefly indebted tp them 
for h«r empire ; for in all her wars they had contributed a 
double contingent. Corfiijium was dticlAred the capital, 
and the consuls were besieged in Albalonga. Never was a 
war so furious, sq bloody, so treacherously, conducted. 
The Romans haying gained the victory in the territory, of 
Picennm, the Italian general assembled his officers, ate 
with them, and afterwards kilkd himself in thar presence. 
Four thousand men assembled on the top of a mountain,' 
and preferred to perish by cold rather than surrender them- 
selves. The army of an ex-consul,< offended by his arro- 
gttQce, slew him, and rushed, in order to atone for his 
death, with such fury against the enemy, that eighteen 
thousand were killed in one: day. Many who had held 

VOL. I. p 

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high offices, or roilit^ commands^ were scourged and- be^ 
h^edy .and ^nearly three hundred thousand men fell in 
.various conflicts* 

' Rome was in this state when information was received 
that eighty thousand citizens bad been massacred in Asia 
Minor.; that the Pontic king was in Thrace. It Vas knows 
soon after .that he was in Athens ; and that be was exciting 
movements among all the people of the North. 



Lucius Cornelius Sylla, sprung from an ancient but little^ 
distinguished fiimily, jiad obtained rq>utation in the Ja* 
gurthine and Cimbric wars ; he had lately gained a victory 
over the Italians, and lay with his army before Nola in 
Campania, which was one of their cities. This general 
was appointed tb conduct the war against Mithridates. But 
the insatiable ambition of Marius, now seventy years old^ 
mcited him to attempt, by. means of Sulpicius, the tribune 
of the people, who was otherwise an excellent man, but c»i 
this occasion suffered hjmself to be misled, to obtain a de^ 
cree for reversing the nomination of Sylla, and appoiotuig 
himself to the command. A son-in-law of Sylla Jost his life 
on this occasion. - - 

On receiving this intelligence, Sylla broke up his camp 
before Nola, and now, for the first time, the army of a d-* 
, tizen marched towards Rome in hostile array. In cold 
blood he provided torches for the burning of the city. At 
the head of 26,000 men, to whom his will was the only- 
law, he entered by the Colline and Esquiline gates, and 
marched through the streets leading to the capitol. In vain 
the ^nate, in vain the knights were summoned by his rival ; 
it was with difficulty that Marius himself was saved by th^ as* 
sistance of a slave. Hereupon Sylla demanded that the old 
consul, hi9 son, and ten of his dependants, should be de« 


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claimed enemies of their txjuntry; and to this end he sur- 
roupded the deliberating senate with armed troops. In that 
assembly Sccevola, the inflexible champion of justice, turned 
towards the imperious Sylla, and said, ^^ Never shall the 
instruments of tyranny induce old Mucins^ Scaevola, who 
has only a few drops of blood yet left, to declare him an 
enemy of the Romans, 'who has protected Rome and all 
Italy from the Cimbri." Terror influenced the votes of the 
rest of the senate, A price was set upon the head of the 
tribune Sulpicius, and one of his slaves killed him, ob* 
tainedthe reward, and was instantly thrown from the Tar- 
peian rock as a traitor to his master. Xbe conqueror of 
the Cimbri sought a lurking place in the morasses of Min- 
turnas, but the mud and reeds were not sufiicient to conceal ^ 
him. ' He wais confined in a dungeon at Mintumse, and an 
iirmed slave was ordered to dispatch him. When the latter, 
who was a Cimbrian captive, entered, the old general ex- 
claimed, with that Voice before which the legions and the 
barbarians had trembled, " Who art thou, who art not 
afraid to raise thy hand against Caius Marius?" The sword 
fell out of the hand of the Cimbrian f^aud Marius escaped 
to Africa, whence, for the first time, her had returned to 
Rome in triumph. 

After Sylla had entered upon the Mithridatic war, Rome 
was thrown into convulsions by the Consul Lucius Corne- 
lias Cinna. Octavius, his colleague, drove him out ; but 
Cinna collected an army, and threatened the senate. About 
the same time eight new tribes had been enrolled, com- 
posed of the citizens of such towns as had deserted the 
Italian league, and thereby obtained the fJfeedom of Rome. 
Cinna promised thea to divide them among the older tribes,' 
ill such a manner that the ancient families might possess no^ 
distinction over the new citizens. By means of this strata- 
gem he fbund himself at the head of 'an immense army. 

^In order to render his legions jnore formidable by mfli- 
tary discipline, and the terror of a great name, Cinna re- 

p 2 

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called Marius. Gompassiony indiguatioii, licpe» and fear, 
armed Italy in favour of the hoary general^ wbo^ by nattu^ 
oniel, and from hisyoudi an enemy to the amtocracy, and 
now animated by revenge, put forth all the powers of bfe 
warlike genius, for which he had been celebrated for hak 
a century, and to which alone he was indebted for two tri^ 
umphs and six consulates* A battle was fought near Koine 
against the elder Pompey, who at length, though too late^ 
had declared himself against the party of Cinna. Seven- 
teen thousand men fell by the sword and pestilence. A sol- 
dier in Pompey's af my distinguished, among those whom he 
had slain, the body of his brother; he erected his funeral 
pile, placed the corpse upon it, celled down the vengeance 
of the gods upon Pompey, execrated the war, the factions^ 
and the fate of Rome, and slew himsdf upon the flaming 
pyre. Soon afterwards Pompey wa^ struck dead by light- 

Marius, who since he set foot in Italy had marked ever^ 
step with blood, entered the city with Qnna, Carbo, and 
iSertorius. The consul Octavius still defended the Vatican 
hill with a few troops, on whom the senate placed their 
last reliance. His head was doon carried through the city 
on the point of a spear. Then Marius gave the order for 
murdering all the great senators. Most of them sulBsred 
their doom in their own houses ; many were betrayed by 
their clients ; many dragged to the forum, where a heap 
of bodies was accumulated. The high-priest of Jupiter 
was ilain upon the altar of his god ; Catulus, the wise and 
virtuous consul, who had shared with Marius the fame of 
ihe Cimbrian victory, was forced to strangle himself. The 
head of Antonius, the greatest orator of the age, was 
brought to Marius while he was at slipper ; he gasped it 
with exultation, and embraced the assassin yet reeking in 
blood. TTiis was his last moment of joy; Ma- 
rius died soon afterwards. Many thousand 
slaves, whom he had armed against the citizens^ axxd ^o were 

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diaeoflifeeiited for vreM of their pay, vvere eoUected by Cimm 
at tlw forum, «s if to teeeivei^ir stipend, «nd there jmr» 
rounded and put to death. . - ^ ^ 

' SyVLk leemed to forget every ^ other object in ord^ to 
avvoge Rome on the king of Pontus* . He conquered 
Athens after a mge, in which th€ citizen^ under. the pres^ 
•are 4yf hunger, had not ev^ abl»tained from human flesh c 
Wfot^gsve the Athenians for the sake of their ancestors. 
In the decisive conflict, which took place in Boeotia, the 
valoar and skill of die generab of Mitfaridates, forced the 
Romans to give way ; at tluit instant Sylla threw himself 
among the eneniy^ and cried out to his army, ^^ ScMiers I 
nrfacn you are asked where you havte left your leader, anssver, 
id tbe field of battle !" This rebuke roused them to a seii80 
of their duty, and gave thera the vietpry. Never were ail the 
iesanro» of war displayed by greats commanders in a kmg« 
codthiued eontost : Sylla had not only to Q^t against the 
povmts 0f inventioi}, which aeemed in Mithridiubea ine:&- 
haustible; but the chiefs of the Marian faction, at the sain^ 
tiine^ exdted eommotions throi^gboiit Asia: at length he 
mcceeded in forcing Fimbria, thieir leader, to destroy him* 
aelf, «ad in reducing the king to conclude a treaty, by mrhieh 
Cappadeoia, Bidkynia, mid all Lesser Asia, wfaidi countries 
Mtibridatee already considered as his own, together with Iei 
part df hjs fleet, and a great sum in gold, were surrendemd 
to the Romans* 

fi^lhi Slow returned to Italy with as much compoiBure as 
if he cflSDe in profound peace, to demand a triumph, the 
fruit of his victories. From Apulia, where he landed, be 
inoDchad np the county in die best order, and pneserving 
the statktest disciplisK. The coaaalar men wlio had fled 
frott the city, met hiiB) imd Sylla isceoied to wish for no^ 
thing teke than to reinstate th« senate in its constitn- 
tiotial rights. Oimia, who had conducted the measures v£ 
the opposite party with a ooamge worthy of a bettor cans6| 
iraa^ldkd;in « 4«md^ among the'soidiery* %liii^ on do^ 

p 3 

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scending from the bill whidi^lies abeve Capii% 
▼ktory.over the consul Norbanus; and the army whidi Lucies 
Scipio conducted against him deserted to him. The young . 
Cnmus Pompey brought to his aid from.Picenusi) the nu- 
merous clients of his father. In the mean time an officer 
•f Sylla's p»rty gained possession of the island of. Sardinia, 
and the Marian praetor of Africa, an arrogant and avaricioas 
man, was burnt in a military tumult, together with. his 
house. / 

Under these circumstances, the praetor Damasippus, by 
the ccmimand of the young Marius, summoned the senate 
at Rome) and made proposals for a treaty of peace. . All 
the respectable citizens yet living in Rome ; all who preferred 
. peace, at any rate, to a bloody revenge, assembled th^ii'- 
selves in the Hostiline senate-house. This instant was 
chosen by the Marian faction for. filling up the measure oi 
their iniquities, and they massacred the whole assen^ly* 
ficaevola, the supreme pontiff, fell before the sacred fire of 

A few days afterwards, Sylla, at the gates of Rome, 
gained a victory. over Pontius Telesimis, a Samnite of the 
Marian party. The day of his entry was a signiol for the 
death of all the adherents of the &ction of Marius ; of all 
those who had borne envy or open enmity against SyUa 
himself, or any of his friends or soldiers.. In order to set 
bounds to vengeance, tables of proscription were pubhsbed, 
in which the massacre, at first of eighty, and afterwards 
of five hundred, distinguished men, was decreed,, thek^ 
whole property bestowed on those who put them to death, 
and their children excluded for life firbm holding any ckdl 
afnployment. When asiassination became a profitable pro- 
fession, riches, in many instances, stood in place of crimes. 
£ight thousand men, who had surrendered to the conquer- 
ors, were massacred together; the cries of rage, and the 
•hiieks of the unfortunate were so loud, that the senate a»- 
aemUed, in the neighbouring curia^ . were unable to.^Ddceaii 

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in their consQltadonfl. Sylla coolly observed, << There are 
some mretofaes who are undergoing the chastisement of their 
erimes f' the younger Catulus replied, << We day armed 
men^ in war, and the unarmed in peace I with whom then 
sbait we in future live ?'' 

• The consul Miarius, who was ' 2S years of age, made a 
king resistance at Preeneste, worthy of the military fame of 
bis &tber. Meanwhile Sylla commanded his brother, the 
praetor, to be dragged to the tomb of the elder Catulus ; 
here his tongue, his ears, and his eyes- were torn out, and 
one limb i^er another was beatea to pieces by clubs ; and 
M. Pletorius was put to death 1)ecause he had fainted at the 
vpectacle. When the head- of the prsetor was thrown over 
the widls of PraenestCj the young consul and his friend, the 
Mm of Telesinus, slew each other. When the city sur- 
rendered aU the people were massacred. . . . 

Meanwhile the consul Cneius Carbo fell, together with a 
great number of his partisans in Sicily, by the arms of 
young Pompey, • In Rhodes, the consul Norbanus,- who 
had fled thither for refuge, was forced to destroy himself. 
The prsBtor Ofella, one of the most zealous partisans of Sylla, 
the conqueror of Prasneste, having presumed te demand 
the consulate without the .permission of his chief, was as- 
siusslnated in the forum : and when the people «eemed* to be 
enraged at the act, Sylla appeared> and declared; <^ I have 
ordered it."- Husbandis, against whom their own wives'had 
shut their doors because they were proscribed, were seen 
killing themselves before their houses; sons murdered their 
fiithers. ' Many persons concealed themselves in tombs and 
in secluded valleys. 

Thirty-three men who had been- consuls, seven praetors, 
sixteen aediles, two hundred senators, one hundred and 
fi% diousand Roman citizens, fell a sacrifice to the wars 
curried on between Marius and Sylla. Sylla aflerwardsr re^- 
vivedthedictature, whith had not' existed ibr on^ hundred 
Aod^twaaty years; he took the scurnatfe of-^'the Fdrfur 

P 4r 

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216 vmrmuAi^ HmroBV* 

nate ;" he iisttibatod among die solditra of hU forty^seren 

kj^Mit liie piopcrty ef ibe prescribed: aod. murdered; he 

^Ix^iflhed thf right whidi the tribonefli o£ the f>eo[)Ie exetH 

cbed of proposing laws; be filled 'up 4he dimini^ed iium-» 

bers of the senate out of the equestrian rank ; he incai'eaaed 

ibe colleges of pontifisand augurs, in order to reward his 

troops; and gave- to- the pe<^Ie» in refiembrance cf hid 

victory, the celebrated Circensian games^ in the a^ifmetd 

of which thay afterwards forgftt their lost frpedoni.' 

'After perpetrating acts pti which few.tyrantfi would havtf 

tentured in order to bequeath a throne to a long posterity^ 

Sylla laid down the dictature, retired into private. lifei jaitiA 

•mployed hims^ in writing bis history: he passed the.icev 

mmnder of his days in the midst of all intellectual .and 

personal; enjoy 9ients$ and died in the infirmity of age, oa 

the second day after ccHupleting the.twenty-jse^ond 
B. C. 77. , , ^ - . 

bode of bis memoirs. : 



Thx: effects of these convulsions wer^ perojeptible in the 
provinoesfor inan;y years.. Sertoriua^ a Marian dik^ cap^ 
ri^ oft in Spain an eighteen yisi^'.wajr, which h^eeme re* 
markdble for the knowledge of human nature, and&e skiU 
in chocking militairy positions, displayed by the genettti* 
Sertorius had known how to aigage even the harbariana 
so strongly on his Bide^ that Calagui^i was not taken by the 
^nemy till its inhabitants had ocmsumed their wives and 
children. Just as he was about to make common cause 
with Mithridates against* his country, he waabetmyed by 
Perperna, whoi^ he had spared wh^n h« put to death jail 
other suspected persons. This mmei cost the pcsrpeirator 
of it his life. . . : . 

LucuUus was i|^t iiUo Asia ikgailiM; Mtthridatec .TUa 
< >eral was a Roram ditizeii» ^Hio had formed luHunlf im 

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imumwBAL.nMnoKV* 217 

the Btodies and arts of peac€^ and who hadiiv^ for many 
yean fleclwled fiom all Aste in military id^rs; ke studied 
ilkB principles of war, in the course <^his joumey to Asia, in 
books and conviersation ; and his actions provje, that witb a 
- liead accustomed to reflection, even this ^method will succeed. 
In Italy the consuls were defeated by tro<»ps of gtadn 
tiDDrs, who had' run away from their owners; and Li<»liius 
ClraAMis, who conquered their leaders, Crixus and S^at^ 
tanesy gained a victory, ignominious on account of its ob* 
|eet6, bat important (or the public tranquillity. 
" The «A% glory of Pompey was the object of oniversai 
Itedtmration ; while young Caesar yet siroTe, irilhout b0i«|; 
^tfble to raise himself into the ^here of his an^lion. Cat0 
%K>w began to be known by the mai^ of that hatred Ibr tjF** 
Mtitft which he displayed while yet a youth. - 

YiotoriGft in Gaul, lUyrium, Spain, and the bequest dT 
Mcomedes, king of Bithynia, enlarged the empire; Rome^ 
linking in voluptuousness, forgot the atrocities wiiich she 
had witnessed, and prepared for her d^radation. Already 
the laws were silenced by the inordinate influence of the 
powerful men; the growmg disbelief of religion destroyed 
^ose boundless hopes in wbiclji the more elevated 6enti«- 
motiaait of antiquity found strength against the low iaipuifief^ 
of vulgar passions ; honouits, dignities, frienddiipe were 
-venal; imd corrupt citizens juslafled every crimawiiieh w»s 
•called for by the ever increasing necessities of an insatiaUfe 

About this time Pompey sought the favour of the people 
by reinstating the tribumite m the 1^^ of whii^ it had 
4»em ^prived t^lS^Ua ; thus labewing for those who sdKer<» 
tratdsaulfered tliemselii«s tb be seduced to his dastrmtuAK 
His destiny had decreed that, as hereafter in his fall, no ncm 
in his devation, all forms and limitalioas should be bvokeft 
through. He bad Irimiiplled before he had bo^ne a»f 
{mblic ofiSde; bad gained the eonbulate without passbig^ 
iKsefacdiDglo die usual^routkic^ tkrougkjtfie qiise6tiN»bi)i| ttd 

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an extraordinary power was now decreed 'to him over tbk 
MediterraDean Sea' and all its coasts, for the extiipadon of 
a horde of pirates. Yet was Pompey so greedy of. dtstioe- 
tion, that be snatched to himself the laorek of oth^s with 
insatiable vanity. He had assumed the reputation of pot* 
ting «id to the Sertonian war, of which all the essmtial 

- measures had been conducted by his predecessor ; and he 
now exerted himself to deprive Metellus of the fame arising 
from the conquest of Crete* 

His ambition further displayed itself in the share he took 
in the Mithridatic war« The great king of Pontus. main- 
tained his cAuse wiA his ^barbarian troops, as long as it was 
possible, against the legions skilfully commanded by Lur 
cuUus. When no resource but his own genius, remained to 
him against the power and military talents of the Romans, 
Mithridates was forced at length to give way. At this con- 
juncture Pompey deprived Lucullus of the honour of termi- 
nating a war, which the latter had perhaps prolonged 
through avarice. 

Mithridates fell in a manner worthy of his name.. ..After 
he had brought into array against Rome the kingdom in* 
herited from a long line of ancestors, the Cimmerian Bosr 
phorus, the warUke swarms of Thrace, all .that remaiaefl 
of Grecian valour, Colchis and the mountain . tribes of 
Iberia. and Albania; all Caucasus and the dwellers on, the 
Casfnan Sea, and on the mountains of Taurus, .both.Ar* 
menias, 'Mesopotamia, and Syria ; after he had held all. his 
hordes 'together in often renewed yars during, twenty-five 
years, and with the same resour^^ had .withstood, the forr 

« tune of Sylla,.the zealous efforts of many consuls, evc^^i 
the wine tactics of LucuUus, and, as long as it was possible^ 
the rapidity of Pompey 's arms ; be fell at last by nQ.fault.of 
bis own, by no neglect or. intermission of. long continued 
vigilance: the treachery of his own son finally^ruipedhiiSt 
and the Romans obtained^ no. other trophy from .him. than 
his corpse. On the ruins. of. the independence of . Asia* 

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Mithridates slew himself, and it was only thus that Rome 
could obtain peace. 

Through the remainder o£ his career, Pompey had only 

to take possession of conquests; from the Scythian plains to 

the walls of Jerusalem, he collected fruits from the labours 

of others. Tigranes, king of Armenia, during the violent 

cenmiotions which agitated the kingdom of the Seleucidse, 

had seated himself on their throne ; Pompey gave 

Syria, Cilicia, and Phdbnicia to Rome, and left 

Armeoia to Tigranes; he would have done more wisely if 

he bad granted to the latter the luxurious Antioch. Syria 

could not have become formidable, and Rome stood in need 

of Armenia as a bulwark for Lesser Asia against the Par- 

thiaus. Jerusalem^ weakened by the internal strife, of the 

' Maccabee princes, became an easy conquest. The 

law of Moses remained to the Jews, but more and 

more the sceptre departed from Judah. 

While the Parthian Phraates began to tremble at .the 
progress of the legions, Rome herself was inddbited for hes 
existence to the vigilance of one good citizen. Catiline, of 
tbe noble house of the Sergii, living in the closest intimacy, 
with all the young men who were corrupted by. pleasure 
«nd ruined by extravagance, adorned by all the splendid 
qualities which can be combined with want of good prin-. 
ciples, «:itered into a conspiracy against the subsisting con- 
stitution. Rome, fell into that, peril which menaces. evel'y 
state wh^e there exists no well regulated power to restrain, 
the audacity of men whofaave nothing to lose and are destitute 
of conscience. Sallust, the severe censurer of vices which, 
he himself was unable to conquer, relates in his admirable 
work how Cicero the consul discovered the plot; how .he 
directed against it the thunders of his eloquence, and fhis- 
'trated its purpose; and how Cataline, with arms in hi« 
himds, fell with a courage worthy of a better cause. 

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220 vntvttfAL Hiiroav* 



' A MONO lliose who incurred the sat^kion of secretly 
$ivouring the enterpriser of Catiline, the most povrerfid 
dtieen waft Caius Julius Caesar. 1^ cmatanual bodily exeiw 
dises, Cassar had so strengthened his constitution, which in 
dbildhood was very weak, that it was capable c^ bearing all 
seasons and climates. In every andertaking by which be 
aought to raise himself to ibe rank of the first in Rome^ and 
in the worid, fin*tune fevc^red him ; because, alih^u^ h^ 
indulged in every excess, he still retained acoainMmd over 
himself. Without speaking of his perseverance and coii* 
Stancy, or the power and loftiness of his cc^nprehciiisiye 
genii)% we cannot avoid noticing that peciAiar tigour and 
vivacity, that promptitude quicker than lightning, which 
dmract^ised him. We afe now cdntetki|>lating that inan 
who, within the short ^ace of fourteen years, subdued Omol^ 
diidcly inhabited by warlike nations-; twice conqu^ed Spsdn; 
tiered Crermany and Britain; mardied through Italy Bt the 
head of a Tictorious army ; de8tex»yed the power of Pompey 
^ Great; reduced Egypt to obedtenee ; . saw and defeated 
I%iai|iaces the aonof Mithridates; overpowered in Africa 
the gteat name of Cato and ^ BXifxs of Juba; foc^ht fifty 
b^tdes in which 1,192,000 m^ fell; was the gmatest orator 
in tlie world next to Cicero; set a pattern to All faialoiiiJn» 
which -has nev^ hem excelled ; wrote leameiHy on tfae 
sciences of grammar and augury; aild falling by a premm* 
tut« death, left memorials of his great plans for the extension 
of the emfiire and* the legkktton of the w^rld. So true is k 
IJUit it is not time that is wanting to men, but lhe resdbtion 
lo tusn it to the best advantage! Caesar had not that 
affected elevation of character by which men of cooiep teosK 
perament pretend to be elevated above passions which they 
do not feel; he knew their influence and indulged them^ 

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but beeame not. their slave. In war, no obstacles opposed 
themselves to him which he was not able to subdue; no 
stratagems whieb he knew not how to frustrate by some 
unexpect^ turn. His maxims of war&re were simpk and 
decisive; he harangued his soldiers before battle <m the 
grounds of their expectation of success. Cicero has giveil 
his orations this general testimony/ " that they wore like 
streams flowing from a pure and silvery fountain; that 
when Caesar chose to adorn them, he drew pictures which 
could not be improved ; that the character of his expressions 
of his voice, of his action, was noble, and the most remote 
from the arts of a forensic pleader." In like manner^ in his 
history he displays every object with the most appropriatl^ 
expressions ; his reflections, of which he is sparing, are in 
his own elevated style; »nd here and there are scatter^, 
traits of an innocent irony. He wrote his works with 
rapidity, and as QuinCtilian rightly judges, <^ in the same 
spirit with which he fought." He called his soldiers " his 
comrades;" he praised publicly the most valiant; in dai^ 
gers he reminded them of the good fortune which they had 
already enjoyed with him, of his love for them, of what he 
expected from them, of the exploits they had so often dis- 
played in his presence, of the care and foresight with which' 
he had. now insured the event. They were in fact i^ de^ 
voted to him, that in^ any important conjuncture his lieiii- 
tenant could say nothing more .impressive ^to ' them than^ 
*« Soldiers, imagine that Caesar beholds you." In the be- 
ginning of his career he had particularly gained the affection 
of the tenth legion; and when a great army of Germajis 
under Ariovistus had excited some dism»y, he uttered that 
memorable harangue, in whidi, after observing how un^ 
worthy of diem it was to entertain any anxiety concerning 
the character and skill of their enemy, care^ whiA only 
belonged to him, he finally declared ^ that if all .the rest 
abandoned him, he alones, at the head of his tenth legion^ 
in which he confided, would engage the enemy," The 

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kgicni thanked him for having so rightly judged of thdr 
dispoeitioni, and lEkisured him that they should ever be 
devoted to his commands; the officers of the other legions 
could not sufilciently express their grief that Caesar had 
found it possible for a moment to doubt of them ; and the 
emulation thus excited enabled him to conquer the enemy. 
On another occasi<xi, when he found his army intimidated^ 
he availed himself of his ovm self-confidence : ^< It is true/' 
said he, ** that Juba advances against us, that he has ten 
legions, three hundred elephants, thirty thousand horse- 
men, a hundred thousand light-armed troops; but the first 
of you who gives himself any anxiety on that account, shall 
be abandon^ in a wretched boat to l)e the sport of the 
waves of the sea." He quelled a sedition among his soldiers 
by a single word^ calling them, instead of fellow warriors, 
<< Quirites" citizens. This warrior, who sacrificed all things 
to his scliemes, as soon a$ he had conquered was the mildest 
and most affable of men : it is indifferent whether he became 
jso from the disposition of his nature, or because he had 
good sense enough to perceive that this conduct was the 
most prudent. 

It appears, indeed^ that he could suffer no man to be 
superior to himself, but might have permitted Pompey to 
be equal to him ; whereas, Pompey, on his part, was re- 
salvied to stand entirely alone. On the other hand, Pompey 
did not attempt, as Caesar did, to retain always the same 
power which had once been committed to him ; and if we 
miust .suppose that in victory he would have been severe like 
Sylla, so it would also have been consistent with his manner, 
to retire again into private life. That Pompey understood ' 
the art of war, he proved remarkably in all the latter period 
of his life; but he possessed not Caesar's creative genius,' his 
vigour, that animation which diffused itself among his 
troops, and which caused whole cohorts willingly to seek 
death rather than suffer any of Caesar's friends to fall into 
the hands of the enemy. He spoke with the confidence of 

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UKIVERIAL «8T0R1[. 223 

m pow^ful party leader, with as popular a manner as he 
thought beoHning to htm, and with a gravity worthy of the 
Roman majesly which never forsoolk hira. 

Crassns, who associated himself to these great men, en- 
joyed influence both as a man of sound judgment in afiairs, 
and more particularly on account of the great riches he 
possessed, in a city where every thing was venal. When, 
jEtfter the war against Mithridates, Pbmpey, not without 
reason, became the object of envy, and acquired enemies, 
who endeavoured to hinder the ratification of the measures 
established by him; he found himself under< the necessity 
-of seeking aid in the influence which Cstear had acquired 
•by his talents and Crassus by his gold. Ciesar, on his 
part, did not yet feel that he possessed that influaice which 
•he hoped to obtain when, by the assistance of Pompey, he 
should have gained the consulate and an important com- 
mand. Crassus was unable to effect any thing without the 
aid of his coadjutors, and could do every thing With their 

While these men combined and agreed to make common 
cause in all public affairs, Cato remained for the defence 
<^ the laws. Nq man was ever more simUar to the ideal 
pattern of virtue than Cato, who seemed to act uprightly ' 
because it was not in his nature to do otherwise. Not-. 
withstanding all the trouble which his ingenious enemies 
gave themselves in order to degrade- him, yet his name con- 
tinued to be synonimous with that of virtue itself. Cato 
had one fault which no other man had, that he could not 
in any degree accommodate himself to the prevailing cor- 
ruption of the. times, and preferred to fail in effecting some 
good end, rather than not act, in every instance, in strict 
obedience toithe severest rules of justice. With more com- 
pliance he would have been more useful to his country, but 
a Cato would have been wanting to the history of men. 

If the father of the Latin 'muses, of whom Caesar, once 
his enemy, so truly judged, that *^ his laurel was so much 

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224 mfvmKBAh ^masofov^ 

iftpi^ hcMEiouitible tllan the laurdL of victory, in as meb fts 
it seems more lioble to have extcgidkd the domitticm of die- 
human mind than the iMimclarits of a pmntiMe emfimp 
iSdcefOy aft«r HbenEtiog Rome from GetiUiie,. bad lived 
like the wise Atticus m philoaophkal retirenaenty numy 
weak traits of his splendid mind would hate esei^ied omr 
view. He kk not ibat political influence mws not -waiBftiag 
to him^ ia order thart bis name might shine through, futuire 
age% amd he flattered himself in vaia that virtue aiad genius 
could insure faim this influence* Amid the feoiriiil stoiiae 
ot the imperial rep«b)ie, amidst anns, tofnults, iisd orimea^ 
Marcos TuUius found bimselif aloiie with his gmlua, bis 
great soul inclined to aBr good senttmeiiti^ and a very nsos- 
derate knowledge of human nature; aec^-dingly he adheised 
now to one p^rty, thai to the other, but did not long oal>* 
live the republic. According to the jadgmei|t of Augiifltaa» 
who betrayed. him, he was ^^^a great man, and one who 
wid!)ed well to Rome V* 



' jSooN after this union of parties, and after the flnasifeianda 
in Italy had been divided between 20,000 poor dtiaeasy 
Caesar obtained the pkrovince of Gaul Ibr the period of &re 
years, which was afterwards ^stended to ten; he departed 
from Rome^ r^icing in haVing at length an opportunity 
of engaging in war. 

The humbled Arverni made no atlen^ to raise tbeoif- 
pelves from their state of d^radation; the Sequani, who 
had founded their authority in Giml on auxiliaries fi^om 
Germany, ^ere grievously oppressed by their new «Ule9; 
the Haedrei, in Burgundy, were andent but not powenlEiA 
friends of Rorne^ who did not venture to expect her aid ia 
wars which they had undertaken of their own aDcofid t Jthe 
atrongest nation of Gaul, next to them, were the Rhemii^ 

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<Hr the peopit of RhMinid^ for the pov«ar of the Sumnoaes, 
oPSoissoii^ Ind din^peared with tlieir fanner prmcet; the 
Bellovaoi, in BHiiivais» w«re m ^Aliant people; but the 
B#lgic race enjoyed the most dittinguidieci repatetiom in 
artnS) aad had preserved their ancient maDners with more 
poritj than the oth^ Gauls. A ootony of fielgiaas had 
passed oiver into Britain, and maj ^t be reoogmsed. in the 
principaU^ of Wales. On the coasts of tlie ocean, the 
Venetif around Vannes, possessed the diief maritime power. 
The most intincibie of the Oaflic. tribes inhabited the 
t^vders of the Pyrenees and the morasses of the Low 
GbUivtries. The people of the latter, in iheir manners, re^ 
sembled the Germans; a naliqn who, entirely unacquainted 
with iear, and {M'actising only wRt&re, exercised a despotic 
avrthority over the GauIs, who w»e more civilized, and 
had more to lose. On the other side the Germans were 
held in check by the Hetvetii, a people who inhabited the 
lev^l parts of Switzerland.^- These Helvetii; a&nrded Caesar 
an opportunity of that war which he so much desired- 
Still full of the remembrance of the explovts of 

"R C 57 

the Cimbri, the Hdvetii imagined it to be an 
easy enterprise to conquer for themsdves more convenient / 
quarters in a fraitfal country. In this expectation they 
formed an alliance with some neighbouring German. tribe% 
burnt their dwdhngs, and set out with the resolution of 
crossing the Jura. Stieh a movem^U as this, which flight 
excite other German and Gallic tribes to imitate the ex- 
ample, could not appear to the RcMnans a metier of indit 
ferenee for the tranquillit}^ of their borders. Accordingly 
Caesar marched with reinfercen>^iits to Geneva, and. f^ 
loi^ the Helvetii, who bad penetrated through the 
scarcely aecessiUe pass of the Juvar He willingly received 
tlie comj^ints of- the Haedui and Allobroges, and made 
use of this pretext to irttaek the Tigurini, who in the Cim^ 
brie war had defieated the Romans^ ^nd nete stUl com>- 
▼oau^i.-- fi 

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miindtd: by the same ^neral Ditieo. Bjr this exploit h^ 
appeared to ayenge the former disgrace ef the Rcmoimt 
ahns. Soon afterwards a delsisive balde took plaoe^ in 
wh^ military ddll gained- a oomplete triumph over n»de 
undiseiplined yaloar. Gssar pursued the army, now un- 
able to make resislance, and cdmpdled it to surrendei. 
The Helvedi becam^e allies of Bome» and the chief ptets of 
the Jura was secured by a colony where the village of NUm 
now stands, near the lake of Geneva. 

In consequence of this first victory, the authority of 
CsBSar became so great, that he was appealed to f<»; relief by 
, jthe oppressed nations of OauV while on the Other hand con- 
federacies were formed among the tribes for maintaining tbeic 
independence against him and Rome. Gaul was divided 
among many &ctionsy so that not only no states but 
scarcdya single family was without internal dissensioaa* 
In the republics eVery man interfered in political affisdrsy 
and frsquent popular assemblies a£Porded multiplied oc« 
casions for thefte ef ils. AU things were done with passion ; 
and, sifter consultation and decision, the conclusion formed 
was fnequenBy altered. Scarcely could th« priests or 
li>ruids by their influence, which appears to have had a 
sidiitary efifect, restrain the people froih the wildest en^ 
cesses ; by. means of this ancient hierarchy, a degree of civi- 
Iszation, as fiur as civilization could be united with the piiac^ 
tice of human sacrifices, was preserved among these nations* 
At tlie same time powei^ individuals in Gaul had con^ 
trived to acquire a personal authority over their own and 
the neighbouring istates. The common people held a very 
degraded rank in society, firom which the transition was 
easy to personal i3avery, whldi happened at a late period. 
. Csesar observed these fiiults in the civil constitution of 
Gaul, and knew how to avail himself of them for the snb- 
•jugatioh of the country. In order to increase his iufluence 
he pa^icd in person over the Rhin^ the boundary o£^ the 
bravest of the barbarous nations, and over the arm of 4he 

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jsttSf wJto Britaifil, a comxtiy which wm considered as an** 
cpther wprld, 9m ibfi confines of a region only known to .fable 
jMid ^on^nce. In this island, indeed, the (ancient manners 
ware preserved with greater purity; the genuine doctrine 
of the Druids concerning the nature of things, the. gods, 
and the souls of men, had here its seat; and the Britons 
displayed in war not only the greatest valour, but seyeral 
f^range customs peculiar .to themselves. . 

Cae^ttr's main object, however, was the conquest of Gaul, 
whidv he looked upon justly as a boundary of the empire 
againat the northern motions, and a sort of advanced post 
by meiBBs of w^ich Rome might obtain timely information 
conceding all their movements. ,The greater .number of 
tribes united against him, the more easy it wa^ to defeat 
.many in the same day, whom he must otherwise. have pur- 
sued into various countries. 

£yery account of his victories increased the admiration of 
his name at Rome ; his daily habits of life secured the af- 
feetions of his soldiers ; he possessed such a combination of 
the greatest and finest, qualities, that his army became de- 
voted to htm alone. He excelled all the other heroes of his 
class ; Alexander had not such obataicles to overcome^ and 
jCfaarles the, G^eat was prevented, by the barbarism pfhis 
ag^ from becoming so enlightened. 
^^ About the same time Crassus fell in an unnecessary war 
in which he h^d engaged against the Farthians, without 
piDSsessing sufficient knowledge of the country which he 
invaded. . 

. t The nobles adhered more and more to the 

' ' ' party of Fompey, whose.manners and sentiments 
were congenial to their own. Cae§ar and Fompey had sold 
.Cicero^ who, on the successes of his consulate, founded the an. ind^endent influence, to Clodius, a tribune 
of . {the people^ faUof violent passions, aiid venal to eyery 
purpose. Cicero was exiled, , and Cato was removed from 
JKome under another pretext. He was appointed to con* 

S 2 

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qu^rtbe kiDgdoM bf Ofpnii fb^th^ Rontftn j^pl« : Plv^ 
l6dlii&a8 Apbn^ who bftd possessed hitD9dr«f it b^ d eMiti&Mi> 
enterprise, was reduced, by Ae inju&tice rf Rotnc^ to die 
necessity of destroying himielf j while Cato only ohtytS 
tti^ Ikws/ Afterwards the trinmvlrs assented to th^ reeal erf* 
Cicero, who was accordingly obliged to subihit in fiitnr^io 
their influence. Soon afterwards, Milo and Hypeastis styngbt 
the consulate by arms, in consequence of whieh it wtA 
given to Pompey Without a colleague. This was done 
during hid ab^etice and by means of the senate. The tnan- 
ners of. the Romans became more and more corrupt r the. 
votes of the judged, who were, according to the late dis* 
tributfon of the praetor Cotta, partly knights and pirftf 
senators, were bought by the prostitution of the daughters 
of patrician families, or were forced into compliMce hf 
arms. The arm of Milo alone was able to deliver RotAe 
from Clodius; and only Cato ventured to justify this act. 

During these teil years Caesar never vfehed Rome; he 
subdued barbaroi^ nations scarcely known by name; he 
carried the Roman eagles to shores hitherto cut off fitrm 
the world, and into the midst of the Hercynian foteiMa«. 
Poinpey, sunianled the Great, forgot that thi» title is moup^ 
difficult to maintain than to acquire. He became mittsed 
to war, and the continukl presence of his tiereT'tdtAescteai-' 
ing greatness was burdensotne and odioud to the people. 
The nobles alone sought in hita a protector for the at-£stO» 
cracy against Caesar. Julia, Cfleisar^s daughter, the bdoired 
wife of Pompey, died just at the time when the senate ffidd^ 
him sole consul, and when the govemtnent of Spain was 
decreed to him. He obtained permission, because it was 
for tJie good of tfhe commonwealth, to asstiwe, l^tftfea&s of 
hiis lieutenants, the couuntod of the legions thw w^reiHa- 
tioned there. He thuft became possessed of an anttjF tmsik^ 
tnanded by leaders who were devot:ed to hfe ibttst^st^ 
without isxposifig his reputation to any ine# proiefft, tod 
without being utider th* necessity of lesfving thfe «efct 6f SIN 

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jpnme poirer and of the intrigues of flC9to« When h^ £))l 
4d(» aU Italy jofufe vows to tbe gods for his reeoverj* 

CftmBTi after having completed the conqiiest of the Tr4^is-» 
mlpin^ was received in triumph in all the cities of the an- 
cient province and of Ciialpuie Gaul: trophies of victory 
adcMntied the Btreets^ the walls, the doors; ail age% both 
aex^a, and all ranks of nuen) went in crowds to behold the 
grent and generous Caesar, to carry offerings to his t\\^ 
fealar gods» and to receive his soldiers with the rites of hos- 
pitality ; for all tumults were now composed) from the tqp^ 
of the Pennine Alps to the morasses of the Uatayiim coa^t : 
the reads were rendered safe to the merchant, and tb^ 
boundaries of Italy were secured* 

Caasar, for all these exploits, only demanded that, in his 

abaeaoe, and even befiajre his triumph, he should be chofefi 

a; aecond time consul, far more extraordinary things h4fl 

been done for thirty years in fiivour of Pompey. But Pamr 

pejf little as he doubted of always continuing to be fir«t, 

yci l^cgan to fear that his own p^*^nal spleodonr would V^ 

in aome measure obscured. . He accordingly demanded i^f 

CiPBor two legions which he had formerly lent him, aod 

soon after it was decreed that the latt^ should disband his 

anay, and seek the consulate according to the r^^lar forms 

like a private citizen. ^ The consul Maroellus, full of .&mUy- 

inride,. was strongly opposed to Cesar's popular sentimig^t^ ; 

Lmtulus, the other consul, was obliged to obey the orders 

of bis ereditors; Scipio, Pompey*ft present fiitber-in-Ja^, 

bed the dread of some judicial inquiries hanging over hii99 

which were most likely to be suppressed by a political cqr- 

V!ubion; Cato, true to his system, bad condemned the 

vfc^tipo of &rms, even in the (lase of Pompey, and it 

seemed to him far more dangerous to allow it in favour pf 

a dtiacen who was at the head .of a victorious army ; Ci^ro 

riyrted hiiaself ia vain to mainUin peace on any terms^ 

AnoBg the tcibunes of the people^ the yoang CuriQ wits 
dietiajpiishad for bis great talents: it was not faowev^ dif* 

Q3 . 

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ficult to gain hitn, wfiose extravagance was in proportion 
to his boundless lioentiousness ; and life became subservie«t 
to ihe cause of Caesar. In the same party was his cbUeagub, 
Malleus Antonius^ like Curio in all things, except that 
Antony was the best warrior, while Curio possessed the 
greatest eloquence. All the other citizens in Rome who 
held offices and dignities, were in favour of Pompev; he 
hiinself maintained that he was sure of the general aversion 
of the soldiery towards Caesar, and he reckoned upon ten 
legions as his own force. In this confidence, and without 
waiting for Caesar's declaration, the senate decreed, as was 
customary in the greatest dangers, << that it belonged to the 
consuls, praetors, tribunes, and pro*consuls, to take aU 
precautions to ward off perils and mischief from the com- 
monwealth ; that a levy of soldiers should be held in Italy; 
that Cneius ]Pompey should be assisted by the public trea- 
'siiry, and commanders appointed in all the provinces who 
were favourable to his cause.'' Caesar issued a declaration, 
that ^^ he would disband his army, except one legion, and 
would seek the consulate at Rome according to the usual 
-forms." It appears that the senate was not contented with 
this, because his presence was feared. 

The most violent passions were awakened and made 
their sport of the republic. All eyes in Rome^ in Italy, 
' in the empire, citizens and soldiers, were directed unceas- 
ingly toWards the movements of Caesar, and the long and 
daily sittings of the senate; old friendships were broken, 
enmities were appeased by party spirit, or both were sud- 
denly forgotten. 

In this decisive moment for himself and for the world, 
Caesar concealed within his breast the movements of his 
miiid. Five cohorts only were with him; the remainder of 
the army was scattered in numberless towns. Not ftr from 
Ariminum, now Rimini, there was a rivulet called the Ru- 
bicon, the modem name of which is Luso. It was the 
boundary of Italy, properly so called, w^iich no general 

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oottld pass unpermitted l>y ^tbe senate^ witbout ibeiog de- 
clared aa enemy of bis coantry. , On the bat^k of tbis 
streann Caesar -considered^ jii the silence of the night, wfae* 
ther he should lead his army against bis. country, and 
against the metrc^olis of the world. His soldiers found 
kim^t the break of day on the .brink of the river, riding up 
and down in profound meditation; they anxiously obserred 
hi^ countenance, which betrayed strong. emotion ; it was an 
ij^Bipprtant day for the whole human race. At length Caesar 
suddenly exclaimed, ^f the die is cast;" and setting spurs 
to his horse passed ov^r the stream, follpwed by his soldiers. 



. All the cities on the Adrialjic coasts opened their gate% 
the garrisons deserted, and the officers fled. Rome^ re* 
membering tjbe . massacres of Marjus and Sylla, trembled in 
the expectation of new tables of. proscription. On the io<- 
fbrmation of Caesar's approach, Pompey, together with 
tbe.'COXk^uls, the senate Cato, Fiso, and .Cicero, tookilight 
j#idi the utmost rapidity, and stopped ^ot .until they arrived 
at Capua. L..Domitius alone^ expecting to, receive succours, 
bekl. out at Coi^finium. Poipp^ when he was now to risk in 
the contest the fame Of so many triumphs, and power so 
long possessed, ^ieemed unequal to himself*. Thegarn|oa 
of Corfimum at laigth deserted^ Domi^usandall his offi- 
cers, were brought into the canqp, and set at liberty by 
Caesar^ withcxut his demanding even the sums whi^h ^had 
)>een .ezp^ded in fighting agidnst him, or exacting, any 
premise ; he. only complained that in this conjuncture they 
bud not abawn those, sentiments to:^!rards him which hia 
firiendship foir them had deserved. 

. When the garrisons of the tow^s and reinforcements 
firom. Gaul, augmented his army every 4c^y, he wrote the 
fiDllpwing letter.jto two of his firii^nds : <» . Caesar greeU Op« 

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pttts and Balbvs. Before I teddved ymir tAtoOBitk)ii« X 
kid ftM'med the resolation of cbserang the greatest demeney 
towards all : by this method, I wuhed^ if possible^ to coiv»^ 
ifmtfc the hearts ^of my enetmes, and to render my vUstotj 
lasting. My atrodouspTedecessoi-s idiall not be* the esuox^ 
(rfes. of my coiiiducti but I mean to practise a new method 
of war&re) by winAing my adYersaries by benefits atid kind-r 
ness. These thoughts employ me day and night, and I 
am anxioos to know also y6ur opinions.'' He used to say, 
that <^ the remembrance e( an act of emeky would be m 
sorry companion for his last days.'* 

Caasar continually renewed his offers of peace; but when 
he arrived at Brundosiam» Pompey escaped out of Italy. 
Oesar then resolved, in the first place, to attack the chief 
strong hold of his adversary, viz. his legions in Spain, un«> 
der Ae ^ilfhl command of Afirania«i and Petreius; appre- 
hending that this army, while he was pursuing ai mere 
•hadow, might pass into Italy, and make the bosom of his 
vtnatAry tbb theatre of wat. 

' He aasemUed at Rome the senate and people, and ex-* 
pliiiied to them how he had been compefied by his mi^msi^ 
to these proceednigs. MassSia, or Manseilles, iv^ovM niSC 
veeeite his army, and he found himself nnder ^e necesiitf 
tftffeyiiig seige to it. Thii^ dty had been for many years the 
ally of the republic; the Massilians believed that they 
iMght tt> adhere to the party of <iie senate, and neMmlity 
aeemed impossible. They held out against Cmat's gene^ 
xbIs ii^th the pertinaeity which they inherited flom thei» 
Phcecsean ancestors. At tength Mass^ia yielded to fh^ 
dMiay which gave to Cflssar die empire of ^ >wm*ld. 
This city remained afterwards a flonrishing seat^f the airts, 
lis it had 'already been the source Whence the €ivfiisBati6a 
of Gaul, in earlier times, was in part derived. 

The campaign In Spain was one of the ttost arduous, 
because the natural dilliciritie^ of the country w^re' cenft-* 
bined agamtt^ invader, with the arts of «kiiM genetalW 

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Cansar fimnd ha» amiy between mahj rapid streanuiy whidl 
m certain seflKmi are gready swelled, almost inaecetaible to 
fxro¥iu€Hi8» .rrinfnrcifflfienta, and , forage, while the enemy 
held a far more advantageous poet Here Caesar surpassed 
lijxaael^ and inffMied iato his army a fortttnde similar to his 
cmih so that the soldiers waded throogh the riTers wherfe 
the water reached up to their nedks, and by sudden marches 
frttatrated all the attempts of the enemy. It happened at 
length that Afraniua and Petrdios, whose wivea had been al- 
neady ccnagratulated at Rome^ thought themselves fortunate 
to aecure tiieir lives, by surrendering their whole army, 
without fighting a battle. Csesar immediately returned 
through Oaul and Italy to lUm^e, declared himself dio> 
tator, appetred as quickly as hghtning at Brundusium, and 
OH' the opposite coast of Dyrrachium, now DuraxsOi. 

** Ocior et csli fldinmis et tigride foeta : 

** Dum se deesse Deis et non sibi Numina credit." 

While the last portion of his army was passing ovei^ i\kfi 
. Adriatic Caesar, confiding in his ibrtune^ went aibne across 
the eea» in a Udle Unry^boa^ in a tempestuous night, in 
49s4er to hasten the embarkalioA Ob the opposite shore* In 
t)ie jmeaa time'Pompqr had syunmoned to bis aid all the 
£ttit, whitfh he had fiMrmerly traversed in triunqph, and 
which was devoted tf» his cause : on bi^ mdfi wiis Greece, 
A£rioa» and the voierat^ name of the ^Komaa senate; he 
himaelf took courage, and displayed his military talents* 
His intention was to protract the war, in order to form 14s 
ajrmy, and to exhaust and weary fais: enemy. Unsuccess- 
ful skirmishes and want of provisions seemed to weaken 
Cadger's lirmy. But many senators, unacquainted with mi- 
htaiye&m^ censured Pompey S^ avoiding to £ght, as if 
with a view of leogdieniag his period of ccmunand;- and it 
ymM not possiUe ipr him^ as for Csesar, to foUqw fireely his 
own counsels : a shade was already cast upon his i^putAtion 
bgr Ihi9 abandoHmoit of Italyi and in biscamp, politics wer^ 

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234 UHITEBSAL JiiSToair. 

too 'mudi ducussed ; while CfMar^sanay^ ccmfidiiig in h|&i 
alobe,! executed his commands widiopt disputes 

Pompey at length abandoBed the position in which Cesar 
conld never have forced him to a battle: and instead of follow- 
ing the advice of those whpexpectedgreat effects in bis favoiir 
from the name of the republic, and passing hadk into Italy ; 
he marched into the plains of Thessaly, - and gave battle 
near the town of Pfaarsalus* 

CsBsar's army advanced with firm steps, while Poinpey 
made no movement, in the intend perhaps, of falling on 
the enemy with unexhausted strength. The troops of 
Caesar, already animated by . exertion, guessing at the de- 
rign of their adversary, suddenly made a halt, and afte^ a 
short respite, threw their darts and spears, and drawing 
their swords, rushed furiously on the astonished Pompeions. 
Many sons of senators, bred up in the effeminate liie of ci- 
tizens, and fitter for affairs of gallantry than of war, were 
struck with a panic when they saw themselves principally 
'engaged, and {ierceivied the^merdless we4>on8 of their «s- 
sidlants chiefly directed against their &ces: they presently 
iook flight. A part of the Pompeiaii cavalry fancied them- 
selves, victorious wheii they saw a portion of the &xenkyB 
troops flyli^re them; in their pursuit they came unex- 
pectedly, as Gesar anticipated, upon a £>urth rank, drawn 
up in close order, behind the three ranks of whidi the ar^ 
mies were nsuidly composed. It consisted of Germans, and 
was only six cohorts strong, but it, produced the efSsct of 
every unexpected pheenomenon. The enemy's cavalry^ 
without measuring their strength with it, suddenly fled, 
and niiade ho halt until they reached the he^hts, which, at 
some distance on the opposite side, commanded the field of 
battle. MHiile the Germans pursued than for isome'tiine^ 
a wing of Caesar's army fell upon the flank of Pompey's 
lines, now exposed by the flight of the cavalry^ vbich had 
covered it At the same time his three ranks f(Mrined them- 
selves doaely in one body, in order to bter down irresistibly 

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with a triple onset on the enemy's front When the fourth 
rank turned from the pursuit of the fugitives, it fell on the 
enemy in the rear. Pompey took flight, and the fortune of 
the day wasdecided* Caesar, mindful of his constant max- 
ims, rode through his lines, and said, <^ Spare them, war- 
riors ! they ate citizens !'' When the camp was taken, the 
baggageof Pompey was brought to him, containing all tfaelet- 
ters of the nobles who were his enemies, and of his pretcaided 
friends. Without opening them he threw the whde into 
the fire. On the following day the remains of the army 
surrendered. Cato alone, taking new courage, because k 
.was now manifestly no longer the cause of Pompey but of 
the laws that he was defending, fled past Corcyra, to the 
African coast, in order to renew die war. 

Pompey retreated through Thessaly to the sea. Misfor- 
tune could not destroy in him the feeling of his own dig- 
nity. In Lesbos he found his wife^ and he sought and 
found consolation in the principles of philosophy, the study 
of which he had never intermitted. Uncertain whether to 
trust the wrecks of his fbnune and his hopes to the Par- 
thitos, to the African Juba, or to the king of Egypt, he 
resolved at length upon the latter expedient, because the 
young Ptolemy was bound to him by ties of obligation. 
.The fetherof Ptolem}', when expelled from hiskii^om, 
had owed his restoration to Pompey. He undertook and 
completed this voyage with admirable constancy, greater ia 
calamity than when thicty-four years before, in early youths 
he marched in triumph to the Capitol ; or when,, at a later 
period, Asia had trembled before his name. On his arrival 
Bear Pehislum, he was beheaded by order of a servant of 
Ptolemy, who was afraid to act honourably towards him. 
The body of the greatest of the Roman citizens, for Cassar 
was no longer one, was burnt meanly »id privately by 
a poor soldier, who pitied his fate. When Csesar saw 
his head, he wept. It was wanting to the sjdendour 
<i his triumph, that he should have been able to save his 
illustrious adversary. 

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2$& UiH7MSM. aisToitr. 



CatO) Juba, Sctpio, Labienu^ and the 90111 of Fompey^. 
roas(3d AiHca, Sicily, and Spain; flome tn the cause of 
Rome, others to revenge their friend and fiithcr. Cmar, 
detained in Egypt by a contrary wind, as he pretended, 
but in reidity by the duurms of Cleopatra, fell into gssat 
danger of being killed in a tumult, 4>cca8ioned by his ati- 
tacfament to that Princess, Scarcely would he have avoided 
the &te of hia great rival, if be had not thrown himself into 
the sea and escaped by swimming to a ship. In a battle 
which took place soon after, the .Egyptians fought without 
decisive success^ but not without reputation, and Ptolemaeus 
Dionysius was drowned in the sea. Caesar bestowed the 
kingdom of her fiitbers on the beautiful Cleopatra,. who 
bore him two sons. 

It 18 however probable that Cffisar bad other motives ior . 
delaying to prosecute the war against the partisans of 
Pompey, who were collecting to oppose him, otherwise he . 
would doubtless have followed them after his departure firomi 
Alfixaqdria : but he marched first into Lesser Asia and d^ 
feated the Pontic king Phamaces, who could not h«ve been 
a formidable enemy. He wished to give his enemies liflie 
to collect their £aroes, in order that one battb mi^t deode 
the contest. 

Cato^ with the same courage which be had diipli^ed ki 
the senate, and aften^ards evinced m death, had itfectad^p 
extremely difficult march through the deserts of A/cica» kt 
which he seemed to have isispired his soidiera with his own 

He gave up the cbi^f command to S&^ and Ji«y 
fought a valiant but uu&rtunate haMle at Thapsus tagf iiiat 
Ciflbsar. The ^rjit of the party was uow<brokeny«fl4 Cata 
gare his assistance to his fiifflids for their saft.fflnaHmkatioii 

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imrrWBLMAL niBftow. 237 

at Utica. After hfe hud done all that was pomUefor them 
and for Rome^ he filled his mind with the sentiment of the 
dignity of human nature, which elevates itself abore time 
and diance, and ** becomes^ when it will, diyinc,'' Oo 
copied with this thought, he gave up Home to the conqueror, 
and by a voluntary death emancipated himself from all the 
powdr which the visible world possesses over'thoee who htiow 
n&t themsdves. 

The question has been asked, " What would Cato not' 
h«va been able to effect if he had possessed a son^igth of 
mmd which would have enabled him to wait for the death 
of Csesar ?'' But Cato was too dififerent from other' men to 
know how to govern them. His intrepidity was sufficiently 
gMat, and hn last act cannot be seductive; fin*, in order to 
die 90^ a death it would be necessary to have Hived like 

Afterwards Juba uid Petreius supped together and imme* 
dintdy killed themselves. Scipio escaped to a ship : having 
jneaefaed'it and finding himself discovered, he said, ^' Scipjtf> 
is here and is well," and saying these words he slew him* 
wM Sdpio was not otherwise a great man, but every 
Roman had a sentiment which finally elevated him above all 
earthly destinies. 

The other leaders of Pompey's |5arty betook themsdves 

to £^pain. Near Manda a battle was fiiugfat between Csesar 

and the iobs of Fbmpey, in which the former was in die 

utmost dai^er of being finaD^r deserted by hb good fertune. 

He was dbeady kmenttng the evil destiny which had 

auflbvad him to live to that day, when a new efibrt gave 

him the victory and cost &e eldest of Pompi^a sont 

his life. Towards the termioatidn of this dreadfid tragedy, 

both parties seemed to summon the utmost fortitude. The 

baaegers ibuglit as fixmi a rampart of heaped-up bodies 

agniMBt die dcfiteders of the waUs. A atorm in the' strait 

dM suit fkevcnt a sea^ht betwe^i the tw6 fleets, which 

happened t^ meet 

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238 mffivsRSAL HissMnr^ 

Crsar, Iiowever^ triumphed o^er Gsul^ th< Bhijde, Bri- 
tsiuy Egjrpty' Poatus, Mauritania, and Spain. He was 
appointed dictator for life; hid person declared inviolaUey 
and the title of ^< Father of his country" bestowed upojn him. 
It was when the &te of an enemy depended upon him that 
Qsesar chiefly followed the impulse of his feehhgs. When 
he bad ^condemned to death Legarius, against whiMcn he was 
particularly enraged, Cicerp, whom he had forgiven, pxo^ 
nouQced an oration in his defence ; Caesar heard miwillingJy 
the beginning of the speech, and sought to divert his at* 
tention from it by reading a letter which be held in his 
hand, but when Cicero cune to the termination of. his 
harangue and addressed the dictator in these words: ^^ CM" 
all thy virtues, O Cassar, mercy is the most ' admirable. 
Mortals become then like the Gods when they fovgive; 
when they diffuse happiness around them. In tfay exaked 
fortune nothmg is more noble than the occaeions it affords 
thee of exercising mercy and benevolence; nothing in thy 
||ature more magnanimous than the disposition which it 
displays to such actions:" — Cassar partook of the emotioa 
which was excited by the orator, and granted pardon to 
the accused. In like manner he forgave the absent consul 
Marcellns in order to gratify the senate. . 

Since it waa expedient that the legions should be em- 
ployei^, Csesar resolved to avenge the death of Crisifsus 
against the Parthians, or to complete the conquest of the 
nations on the shores of the Euxine. As supreme Pontiff 
he ordered an inquiry to be made into the chronological 
system, and a more accurate calendar to be prepared ; and he 
formed a plan for a generatl code of laws. When we refleat 
<m what he had accomplished and sketched out in the q>a€e 
of a few months, and on all the crimes which he might have 
committed, not without specious excuses, and wfaiohfae sui^ 
fered bimsdf not to perpetrate ; when we also tadke into the 
account that he appeared at the same tim^ to desire the 
consolidation of his authority: we are Authorised in infer* 

Digitized by 



ling, that he would have sou^t to retain a po^er to dearly 
purchased, and which could not be laid down with safety ; 
but that he would so have rukd that both the empire would 
have obtained a regular constitution, and his successor^ 
would have found in hi» reign an example for their conduct. 
Csesar probably hoped to be allowed to complete his 
Work, and that the Romans would forgive him his usurp- 
ation, as he had forg^vea hb enemies; Eocoept in battle 
scarcdy anyman had suffered by his means; tranquillity 
and happiness had followed the civil war; Caesar himself 
was surrounded by men who had to thank him for their 
lives or for signal benefits : but the old republican spirit 
yet survived} and tribunes of the people dared to make eom^- 
pkints against the dictator; the most dangerous, however, 
were those who kept silence. 

Marcus Brutus had imbibed the principles of Cato, which 
he combined with gentler manners : he bdiev«d it kwfiil to 
proceed to any extremities for the liberty of Rome, yet that 
more evil shcAild not be done than was absolutety necessary; 
:and judging from ancient examples he concluded that a single 
«ct might suffice for the restoration of the Republic. -We 
. are not permitted^ according to him, to consider the dis^ 
tempers of our country as incurable, or to fail in attempting 
every thing for the revival df ancient virtue. He did not 
wish to reign, and he had no private animosities to fff^tify- 
'but Brutus was a Roman, and thought he ought to adcnow- 
ledge no other sovereign than the law. His friend Cassius 
was discontented at not being made consul; his virtue was 
:not so formidable as his contempt of life. Whoever fears 
motVleath is always to be feared. The remembranoe.of the 
•prinoiples in which every individual had been educated ; the 
•eloquence with which hutorians had celebrated Harmodius 
4uid Aristogiton, and other similar personages; a spirit of 
patriotism, noble but not sufficiently enlightened with re- 
•iqpect'to the state of Rome ; together with some private mo- 
tives; gave origin to a close association betwe«i men who m 

Digitized by 


S40 |ltriT£B5AX< HISTOBT* 

their principle and tnran^rs had olbari'viie no r^semblanc^w 
CflBflar waa* stetbbed by tbmn ia tha 4^ate-ho«se, and fall 
pierced by twenty^tbree wounds* 



The destruction of the ancient constitutioa of a free 
country produces such an impreasion, that th» act of Brutua 
in all ages has been justified by many, and excused bjr 
othm. If we consider the characters of most of the rulera 
itito whose hands Cassar's unbounded power descended; if 
we put unto Jjie scale the total loss of the anctmit Roman 
wtuesy thejniin of the empire^ the l<»ig night of biurba- 
rism which ensued, and the irrecoverable loss of the fMrta 
Mnd «ci«ces ; we feel assured that if Caraar's illustrious shade 
cpttld behold these consequences, it would lament ^ ocon*- 
sion of thenu If we advert to the sequel of hia assaadin* 
fition* to die crimes of the three new tyrants, the blood that 
fwas shed at Fhilippi, the impossibility of maintgining a re- 
public, without morals, or of preserving m(»raU in so gi^eat 
a repttbUc; if we weigh all these circmnstanees well, we 
shldl perceive diat it was not Julius CmaXf but the unjvsit 
spirit pf Conquest which prevailed at R<»ne, that was the 
.dfcuse-jof her calamities. When we r^eet bow difficult it . 
is to have M tUngs within our gra^ without an oceaiional 
.abuse <Jf power;, when we recognise by an inward self- 
exaosfibalton, bow uncertain it is whether we ourselves in 
the Uie case should act with greater moderation ; we are 
JAdiiied to forgive Rome her conquests^ and Csssar hi» 
utairpatkHi ; we lament the weakness of reascm in her eon- 
test mih tlie passions, and we receive an admomtion in oat 
own breasts to use greater dilig^oce in moderating our ovm 

.Aftnr/Caasar's death Marcus Antonius, one of his best 
:.^ffi<$ers> a man of tdents and energy, but given up to dis* 


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isolute pleasures attempted to turn the confusion of public 
affairs as much as possible to his own advantage. The* 
young Octavius, whom Caesar his great uncle had ap* 
pointed his heir, was treated by Antony without much con« 
sideration as a youth of unripe age, till it became manifest 
bow capable Octavius was of assuming all the virtues and 
perpetrating the crimes necessary for^icquiring and, main- 
taining power. Lepidus, a rich man of noble family, but 
in p^sonal qualities far their inferior, associated himself in 
the sequel to Octavius and Antony, w 

Immediately after Csesar's death, Cicero hoped to pre- 
serve peace by ratifying all his acts, and by dismissing 
the conspirators into the provinces allotted to them, and 
by a general amnesty. .To the pretensions of Antony, the 
young Gsesar Octavius, to whom manyof the soldiers of the 
late dictator adhared, was opposed with the most flattering 
diatiocttoii, as the man on whom Rome rested her chief 

The first war broke out by an attempt of Antony to 
drive Decimus Brutus, one of the conspirators, out of his 
province of Cisalpine GauL Antony held him besieged in' 
Mntina or Modena. The young Cassar gave, by adopting 
the Will of hk late uncle, the first proof of courage. <^ If 
Caesar/- said he to bis mother and.step^fath^,* who urged 
hiip to refuse^ ^Sif Caesar judged me worthy of.his name^ 
how sbaU I bring myself to declare that I am ufoworthy of 
it I" 'He bad on this conjuncture the, prudence to agree 
with the senate as long as he. could confide in it m6re 
securely than in Antony. He felt no reluctance in* 
uniting bis army, at first inconsiderable^ with that which 
the coasttls Hirtius and Pai^a led to die relief of Moden% 
and in assisting to relieve th^ murderer of his-uiicle. 
ABtony was forced to take flight ; Cicero dRgain armed 
himself with that eloquence with which, twenty years before^ 
he bad saved Rome fix>m Catiline. 

VOL.!. JL. ^ - . - ^ . . ? 

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Ootevins Cma? wss flalter^ but not tdorned with the 
QOttiolate ao pocm as ha wiahedi Tb« cKtreme {MK>iDptitu4e 
esffly obtervod m bun to adoft any mensucetf vhick led U> 
the datirod object md to werifice all things without f a- 
Ittcteoccr to ht$ end^ which wa» the atCatoflBent of power* 
soon cswted apprehension* It wft» beliaved by many that 
die oonsiils who.had falUa hefone Modena had beaa killed 
not wi^ioitt Ub aecret contrivaace^ Yet it wa^ not suppoaed 
to be a <£fficttll matter to g^ fid of tbia youths whejo, 
Antony should once have £dlen. 

. The latter fled from Modena» into Transatpiaa GauU 
where L*epidii6 and Plancus comnuaidcd ariaie% a^ it waa 
aappoaedy for the senate. He bad the gpod forUiae to^^ 
1^ firiende among the army ef Lepidus, and he ventuied^ 
kaiowmg tbe weahnesa of this general^ inta hi« eamp* 
Inetead of potting him to death as the mo^l daageroua 
enemy of the RepobliOs I#epidu» waa i^ined over by biooi.. 
Hancus who always served the strongest party followed diia * 
eswnpler The jealousy between tbe aerate and ye^ng 
OsffiW Jnereaeeds under these eireumsljaiiees be i^eirod 
the foHoMFtng prepQ«^ from Antony ; ^^ Is Camas d^eju&t- 
mined always to wi^ war for thoeo who hate him» mi^ fef 
tdke musdeeera of hb &tber» against the old friend e£ the 
tatlery who wciuld aiwnge his death? In tbia caw AvUmy^ 
seea himadf compelled to emfavaee the patty of Bmtut and 
Cainin against hrni. Oct&Yius may reflect whether a ceoi- 
hination for cariyiag en Casear'a work woidd not be ntore 
ecmgruoua to ciccumsiailoes, tp their mulual kHcxea^ and 

. The n^omation thua entered iato waa eemptsted in m 
imeeting whi<b the yom^ Cman^ Antimy^ and Leiridna, 
bdd on a little i^sd, fiNmied by the Gherondia and iMymo^ 
iel fiiit horn Soieg^. Here they reserved to mai«taii^ and 
agreed npon a division of the ^ipreme powers and arw 
ranged tables of proscriptiou for tibe destxmctiipn of Iheit 
comnion enemies; 300 senators, 2000 knights, aad^mrany 


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GthtT r^detftble citteeris, irerie mvolved in this calamHj. 
A« Atitottjr gave tip to the animositi^ df the other* hk 
Unde Lticiiid Oojsar, aird Lepidus his own bi'oth^ Paulds, 
Octat^art also betrayed Cicero who had assisted him d^inst 
Antoiiy, whom hid uncle and father bad loved atid dis* 
tin^utshc^d, who had not taken the smallest ^h&tt in the 
Conspiracy, atld could hot be formidable witbocit itopport. 
CScaro w^d murdered by Poptllius Lsentfs, whpue life atid 
honour he had saVed by a defensiTe oration. |ii ihe 64€k 
year of his life, weary of the corrupt age in which he lited, 
Tullius died with uneitpected constancy^ and left behind him 
p. betted name than those who sacrificed him ; and Octavian 
to his latest years, after he had long been called Xugustus, 
felt with grief, that he bad stained his laurels by this act. 
Tfa^ horrori of the age of Mariud and Sylln re^ 
vived. Antony also caused the heads df mur- 
dered abators to be brought to falni during his meab; atid 
Fulvia stuck through with needles the tongue with whidi 
Cicero had faithfully depicted the character of her husband. 
Private hatred ^nd interest were the secret motives of many 
Cold-blooded murders perpetrated under political pretests: 
tli€f Rottian character was lost. 

He Triumvirs now t^tidertook the pursuit of Cassius, 
who had made himself master of S^ria, and of Brutus, who 
governed Maceddlria. They possessed together a force of . 
seventeen legioui^; they ruled their provincei^ equitably, and 
were formidable only to Dotabella, C. Antonius, P. Va?? 
(hihni, and other bad citizens. 

The war undertaken agahist tliem was termin- 
ated at Philtppi in Macedonia. iPrutua feiighf 
With the resolution of a man who is sinre of not surviving a 
defeat^ he took the camp of Octavius, and the victory 
iras oit hid side. Before Cassius received information of thi^ 
good fortune, he was^deccired by the shoi-tness of bis sight! ; 
and belieting every thing to be lost, he hastened to destroy 
Jjfferself, 4fter a fe^ <Jays Brutus suffered a lo^s; he M%. 

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that his enemies gained the ascendancy, and despaired of 
Rome and the cause of virtue ; be resolved to terminate the 
war» which he waged against his inclination, and slew 
himself. The son of Cato also fell, together with the young 
Lucnllus, educated by Cato, and his faithful firiend Volum* 
nius, a son of Hortehsius, who was worthy of bis father ; 
with Varus in the insignia of his office, Drusus Livius, the 
fiither of Livia; and many others who could not resolve to 
o^tHve Brutus and Cassius, and the liberty of Rome. 



Sextus Pompeius, the son of the great Pompey, was still 
in arms, and carried on for many years a maritiime war 
against Caesar Octavianus, in which the latter experienced 
great difficulties. Still greater commotions were occasioned 
by the private passions of the' Triumvirs; Fulvia the widow 
of Clodius and wife of Antony excited a war by means of 
her sister's husband, whom she engaged in a contest against 
Octavian. Lepidus often vacillated, until Octavian succeeded 
in seducing his army from him and excluding him Grom the 
chief power. The citizens were sacrificed by all parties : 
the brother of Antony was forgiven ; while the city of Per- 
usia, which had declared itself for him, was burnt. How 
;many families were deprived of their property, before 
estates had been distributed: to the forty-seven legions of 
Octavian, before the continually renewed demands -of 
military expenditure were satisfied ! 

In the mean time Pacorus, son of king Orpdes, fell 
victoriously upon Lesser Asia : Ventidius forced the Par- 
thian back into his territories ; but the Triumvir Antony^ 
who designed to avenge Rome, thought himself fortunate in 
escaping from a country, with the natural peculiarities of 
which he was unacquainted, after losing a fourth part of his 

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imiVERSAL RifiTORir. 245 

eiriny and nearly all his baggage. Thenceforth he devoted 
himself endrdy to Queen Cleopatra ; the fortitude of the 
warrior was lost in all kinds of licentiousness, in an 
efifeminate life, and in the most capricious undertakings. 
His pride remained; and he offended his more prudent col- 
league by divorcing Qctavia, the sister of the latter. 

Oclaviaims Caesar was not less prone than Antony to 
sensual pleasures : but the^ greater exertion which was re- 
quired to govern Rome than Alexandria ; to control the > 
scarcely subdued republic than to domineer over the slaves 
of the Pharaohs and Ptolemies, inspired him early with a 
vigilant prudence. Policy indeed was in general his talent 
rather than war:; his fate had thrown him into the former 
&om his 19th year. On that account he was the more 
ready to fouad his authority on the wjU of the senate and 
people, and to observe during his life the form of laying 
down his command every tenth year, as an extraordinary 
trust granted to him for a certain time, and of suffering 
himself to be entreated to resume it. Thus he deceived 
the Romans during fifty years with the phantom of their 

When Antony was preparing for arms, Octavianus found 
means to give the war which he undertook as if unwillingly, 
the appearance of a contest waged by him against a plan 
for subjecting Rome to an Egyptian woman, and burying 
all the forms of freedom under the establishment of kingly 
power. Marcus Agrippa, a man of great intellect and in- 
de&dgable energy, was the friend of Octavian, incapable by 
his want of power of usurping for himself and sheltered by' 
his known integrity from the suspicion of such a design- 
This . able general, who had already conquered Sexttis 
Pompeius, was the soul of the war on Caesar's side. He led 
into Greece eight legions and five cohorts, and about 250 
gEdleys. Antony's ships were larger, but Agrippa's were 
more man^igeable. . He made himself master of many ports, 
and was thus enabled to cut off Antony's supplies apd rein« 

It 3 ' 

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246 VmnMi^ Ut»70W4 

foffcanmitM. fbe latte^ con^ueltcl himstlf vitk tki w^ 
Insness of an expdrienced general who Iwd nbausted hit 
strength in the hoBom of yoluptuousoess ; his Mrmj, cQSVr 
iBeDded by Soaius and Fublieola^ manifested a good dispo^ 
•ition; but the Queen in the^a-fight off the promoutoiy 
of Actium flet the example of seeking safety in flight; and 
Antpnyy as soon as he waa informed of iU followed ben 
'nius abandonedy his soldiers for the most part fiurrendaredi 
and were forgiven by OctaVian, who afterwards proceeded 
to Egypt, and without difficulty conquered the romiEiinder of 
the fiMTces of his enemy. On a r^ort of the death of the 
Queen, Antony killed himself. She survived^ and still had 
relianee in the power of her charms ) but she found the 
heart of her conqueror sealed against her* Qeopatra then 
disdained life ; the daughter of the Ptolemies^ she whom 
Cflsaar had loved and Antony adored, in order to avoid 
gracing the triumphal car of the victor, destroyed herself hy 
the bite of an asp, or by means of a poisoned needle. 

In the 293d year from the death of Alexander 
' ' ' the Great, the kingdopi of Egypt became a Ro« 
man province. In the same year, the 479th from t)id 
establishment of the Roman Consulate in the 724th year 
from the building of the city, Cassar Octavii(nus» now Au'^ 
gustus the revered, the inviolable, became sole ruler qf the 
Roman world. He possessed all the power whi<^ had 
hitherto been esEorcised by the Ck>nsuls, whose office stiU 
continued, and by the tribunes of the people ; with the 
vqirsme administration of the Roman arms, and the g9^ 
Vernment of the provinces most important in military afibira. 
The legions obtained their rewards, the Roman people 
bread and public shows, and the empire peace. He fonqa 
ef the constitution remained, but obedience becanae the first 
of virtues. Under the gentle reign of Octavien, which 
lasted 44 years, from this time the republic was forgotten; 
leveii old men remembered only its eorroptioii% ils wal 
^ars, and its prosoriptionsv 

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( 247 ) 


A. C. 29, TO A. D. «84* 



XT is only in a great number of teomparatively small states 
ll>at maay illustrious men afq[>ear. A mighty empii^ re^ 
poses its confidence in th6 str^gth of its mass and tKe mul- 
titude of its resources; the dangers that threaten it appear 
for a Imig time only imaginary ; and merit, by its own e»- 
celleiiee, is seldom debated to a conspicuous 'place. * As 
soon as ignoble means lead wi& equal tertainty to fortune 
and sf^fidour, the minds of men become ehervated, and 
the gigantic body is soon without a souL Such was the 
£ite c^ Rome. When the empire seemed to have no longear 
any thing to appr^end, and the spoit of factions had 
oesised, the race of great men became e)clinctJ MoiK of the 
Csesars^ of whom very, few were wbrthy of thehr high rank, 
were a^d of splendid talents, whidb gare to private men 
an independent greatness. For as there was no law whicb 
defined fbe succession to the throne; a nrcble descent, or 
mhes; fiime acquired in discharging public offices, or the 
wise and mi^nanimous refusal of such^gnities; eloquence 
and slMifeg virtues; were objects of jealousy and apprehen- 
sion with the Csesars and their houses. A man who ap- 
peared bold enough to conceive the lofb^ idea of raising 
hunsdtf io the supreme power, as well as he whom the puWBc 
Voice named &e best and most worthy, was almost sure of 


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attracting suspicious observation, and in gmeral of soffeiv 
ing a violent death. The great and good emperors were 
neither the offipring of the sovereigns who preceded them, 
nor the descendants of the old Roman conquerors; bnt 
commonly warriors elected, who had raised themselves by 
military talents from a private station, and often from the 
meanest rank. Those who acquired the throne by suc- 
cession, were corrupted by early indulgences; and for the 
most part slaves of their appetites, or parasites of the 

After the arms of Octavian, under the conduct of Agrippa, 
had destroyed the last participator in the sovereignty, and 
there now existed neither at Rome nor in the whole empire 
any powerful chief at the head of a considerable party of 
' troops, the victorious chief sought anxiously to conceal from 
the eyes of the people and the army the secret that his 
authority only depended upon arms, and to hold out the 
i^nanimous wish of the free senate and people of Rome as 
its true foundation. He justly feared nothing so much fac 
himself and for the commonwealth, as to fell under the do- 
minion of the soldiery : and he surrounded himself with' the 
forms of the republic, as affording an honourable sanction 
to his power. Under the name of Augustus, which he now 
assumed, he seems to have affected to rule with pfitarntd 
authority, and to claim from tl^e world that veneration 
which is due to the paternal character. . . 

In his administration Augustus followed the counsels of 
the Roman knight Cilnius Maecenas, who possessed great 
activity in discovering and suppressing dangerous enter- 
prises, and appeared at the same time so indolent,, so much 
given up to tranquil enjoyment, and of so careless a cha- 
racter, that none believed him to be endowed with so muck 
vigilance and circumspection. Maecenas taught Augustus 
to become popular and humane; he surrounded him with 
the most enlightened men of his age, and inspired hiti^ with 
a noble passion for great and honourable pursuits, Augustua 

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• i 


«rkhed to be in reality the father and benefactor of Rome, 
though he was still more anxious to appear in ^at cha- 
racter ; and he forebore every thing which might hav6 ren- 
dered his extraordinary power odious, with as much care as 
a prince of common mind would have taken to render his 
power conspicuous. ' 

Thus the senate punished, according to the laws,* Egna- 
tios and Murssna, who had had the audacity to set on foot 
a conspiracy against Augustus, while he appeared to take . 
no notice of the affair, and forbade even his confidants (for 
he knew the happiness of having friends) to call him master : 
he was only a chief elected by freemen to watch for ten 
yeiUrs over the public safety. In this view he was well 
pleased when the people sometimes passed by those whomr 
he recommended to dignities and offices. He was well sa- 
tined that Pollio and other powerful men should speak in 
the senate with apparent freedom; and conceived no dis- 
pleasure against Titus Livius for appearing in his history 
favourable to the party of Pompey. 

There was nothing in the regulation of his household by 
which he was rismarkably distinguished from the rich se* 
ni^ors. He not only loved good society, but was anxious 
to give perpetual exercise to his talents : he accustomed 
himself every day to read, and to make some comments on 
the subjects of his study. The manners of the old republic 
prevailed in his outward demeanour, and his table was mo- 
derate. It is true that he had powerful appetites, from the 
gratification of which even policy could not restrain him ; 
but this was known to few, and he sought by all means to 
avoid publicity in such matters. He exerted his whole au- 
thority in restraining the efiects of his own example; and 
be spcke in the senate against corruption of manners as a 
eensor or a father of his people. Few men have known so 
well as Augustus the human heart: he' appeared not so 
much to' regard any excess, as eff^^ninacy of character and 
die habit of being occupied with trifles^ nor so much to 

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dread tliat the Romani should hare Ttces^ as that tHc^ 
should become inc^sble of Tirtuea. 

While diiu gOTerning, as it seemed, against bis own wiU^ 
acGoiding to die laws uid only for the oommm good; 
he dkbiiided tweatj legions, and restored thirty thoMsund 
slaves who during the war had been levied into the ser- 
vice, to their fiirmer masters. He treated the array with 
a dignified gentleness; he no longer named tlie soIdkinB 
^ kis comrades" but '< Wirricris^ and he kept them nnder. 
discipline, and allowed them no privilege that diould raise 
them much above other men* He suffered the wars agun^ 
the barbarous hordes in Spain, in the Alps, in Dabnatia, 
Germany, Pannonia, Africa, and the East ; to be carried 
on with no more exertion than seemed neeessary, in order 
to maintain on the borders the terroi* of the Roman tnrmf^ 
and the military spirit of the legions. The empire received 
under him few augmentations of any importance; tlie Par- 
thiana, the Indians, the Arabs of Yemen, and some Oer*^ 
man nation? paid homage to him by embassies ; but he three 
icdies closed the temple of Janus^ because all the world was 
in peace. Ha avoided all great movements^ and compared 
ail emptor wlio sought wars << to a fisherman who throirs 
golden nets;'' and he remarked, that the laurels of victory 
^' are beautiful, but useless.'' He introdpeed by degrees 
the maxim not to extend the empire; and sought to rendn' 
its mighty name less odious and terrible, and wished to a& 
CM tranquillify to die natioiis. 

It is true that the new govenuitenC, while it maintained 
the ferms of the commonweidth, never acquired the genu- 
ine maximfl of monarchy; and when the mannefs and the 
i^it of the republic were whoDy extinct, no other pm»- 
ciples were substituted for diem, but thewiok fiikiie fefl 
upon its own ruins, without order or syst^n. Bat this 
want required to be supplied according to circumstaDees, 
not under Augustus, but by some iUostrious Ic^i^aior 
among his suooeason; ^nd such uk <me never appelured.^ 

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$o ipuch tbe mare needful were the good fortune of Romey 
the harmony of individual parts, and the remains of re^ 
publican virtue; in order to maintain for centuries this pro^ 
d^ioos extent of power under $uch essential defects, 

Augustus adorned tbe city; and be ejcerted himself to prp*- 
mote its population^ and to induce the great to reside foit 
the moat part in Rome under his eyes. , Publip magnifir 
cenqe was suitable to his policy ; sin(^ it gave a feeliiig an4 
an appearance of general happiness, wjbich increased th#. 
love Aj;kd veneration of the supreme magistrate. 

Three things were wanting to the happiness^ of Augustus i 
in the first place, he was not able to erase from the memory 
of history the acts of his youth and. the tables qf proscrip* 
tion; secondly, avaricious and negligent .generals had ^f* 
fered the Germaiji Arminius to gain a great victory over the 
legions; and lastly, the gods refused him the good fortm»$ 
of leaving Rome under a successor worthy of hii$ esteem^ 
Vet the apparent impulse of circumstances lessened th# 
guilt of the first; the victory of Arn^nius remained, on ac^ 
tiount of the great inferiority of his power, without lasting ot 
immediate consequences; and it has been said th^t Augustus 
might expect the more favour from posterity to^ard^ hia own 
memory, as there was less of virtue in his successor* In thr 
seventyH^ixth yeat of a life, on the whole very prosperous and 
even beneficent, Augustus finished, )ike a skilful pe|for;xieri 
bis welUacted part on the theatre of the world* 



Tiberius, the stepson of Augustus^ whoa) jfch«yt pnnpi 
had adopted, carefully secured the choice of 4^ ae^idi^rs^ 
and suffered hunself to be entreated by the senate to fcc^pt 
the chief honours, whidi ^r many ye^r^ W had i»Qttgbt by 
every means. Dlnri^g his reign a 9fw.^yit«m of gev^rn^ 
ment gradually bi^gan to diiiphiy itf«lf. 

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252 UNl^Ett&AL HISTORY. 

' Tiberius was a chief of no mean acquirements in mili- 
tary tactics, and, iii the arts of dissimulation, a rival of his 
predecessor; but as he had lived till his fifty-fifth year in 
the midst of intrigues and evasions, his mind had become 
incapable of any elevated or noble sentiment. Under the 
long sway of his father, servility and flattery had at length 
made such a progress, that Tiberius had never learnt to 
estimate men ; he only knew them on the contemptible or 
dangerous side. He had all the faults of Augustus, and 
none of his virtues. He was distinguished firom suco^ing 
tyrants by being at first cruel according to system, and by 
degrees giving a looser rein to the impulses of a soul 
darkened by anxious timidity, and of an unfeeling heart ; 
while his successors allowed themselves, from the first, what- 
ever delirious rage or base envy suggested to them — what- 
ever their own passions or insinuated suspicions counselled. 

The vigilance of Augustus was at length fatiguing to Ti- 
berius; but he wanted courage to abolish the forms which 
recalled the memory of ancient times and institutions ; and 
he preferred to destroy, under vsurious pretences, all who 
either by their personal qualities in the senate, or by .^e- 
ponderating influence elsewhere, appeared able or desirous 
to attain to public honours. 

Tiberius felt himself under restraint until he had seen 
the end of the noble Germanicus, the chief object of his 
anxious vigilance, who perished not without suspicion of 
poison; but he afterwards loosened the rein more and 
qiore to his atrocious passions. He had formed 
himself a cabinet or secret council of twenty chief 
senators ; of these eighteen were put to death by his com- 
mand, and the nineteenth destroyed himself. 
■ From this time the Roman history puts on a gloomy . 
aspect; the great names of antiquity were exterminated, or 
we observe them with far keener regret disgraced by their 
posterity. Now we hear the mandated of the hoary tyrant, 
in^ired by a black policy, issue fit>m the inaccessible pa- 


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Jaced of Capreae, the abodes of semual vice; now in the 
capitol we behold the turbulent fory of senseless youth on 
the pinnacle of the world. All the laws of reason and of 
the former ages were obscured and trodden down by the 
new code of treason; the provinces were exhausted by the 
cupidity of governors, and laid waste by the incursions of 
barbarians. - • ^ 

Tiberius humiliated the Roman people by abolishing the 
Comitiae; to preserve discipline was less the ol^eet of his 
eare tihan to prevent any general from becoming formidable 
to him; yet he neither changed the military commanders . 
nor the governors of provinces so often as might be sup- 
posed, for it was difficult to him to resolve on the choice of 
new servants, and he was apprehensive of having discon- 
tented subjects; and cautious age was less the object of his. 
suspicion than adventurous youth. 



Augustus had seen the republic and the great Caesar ; 

under Augustus, Tiberius had been in some measure formed. 

Caius Caesar Caligula was acquainted only with 

tyranny; he-^knew that every thing was within 

his power, and committed the most violeAt excesses,, as if 

to tr^ how much mankind would endure. 

When Chaerea had freed the world from Ca- 
' ' ' ' ligula, the senate imagined themselves able to 
abolish the memory of the Caesars, and re-organize the re- 
public of Rome : but in the course of twice twenty-finir 
hours, the assembly learnt that the praetorian guard had 
given away the sovereignty. The object of their choice 
was Claudius CaesjEtr, a victim of sloth and the most con- 
temptible passions, tod the pattern of those princes who. are 
given up to the gratification of their own desires. He be- 
came, by his abject indolence the mere tool of his women s 

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254 VklT£BSAL BIdT01t7« 

nfid AMt». He did hot ke^p two eatftlogues of tbe^ seti^-i 
tors and knightft who were destined to de^, Ms Giillgtila 
h^ dbiie; the box of pofeon which that fyntm (Mteelited 
for the destrnction of worthy rftiatens, was ordered bjr Clat)^ 
ditzs to be thrown into the sea; yet, daring thd thirteen 
years of hfs reign, thirty-five senators and th»ee hundred 
kmghts fell by violent deaths. 

' After this ignominious reign, the abfeet ner^ 

vility of which excited a stronger feeltog dian any 
of the more violent atrocities which had preceded ; the five 
first years of Nero's government afibrded a tesi^tt to the 
world, of which the cruelty of the nine following reti4^f^ 
It more sensible. 

Nero was not destitute of talents, or devoid of a f^ng 
for virtue; but a too early abandonment to voloptuousnesss 
the hypocrisy of his mother and his instractor, and the so- 
phistry of his flatterers, who knew how to give a false colour 
to every action, seem to have rendered him at length wholly 
indifferent even to appearances. The old patricians had 
little influence; they were feared, hated, and exterminated ; 
the plebeians, whof« senseless spirit of faction liid trfsed 
the first Caesar [above the laws, were ndw no ttiore; tbe 
generals; to whom or to whose fathers the emperon owed 
thehr sovereignty, were kept at a distanee fi'om jealous «u&^ 
pkloii. Slaves, whose wit or personal re^omraendatiotta 
had gained their freedom, became the miersr of the court 
and empire^ the protectors and terror 6f the provmces* All 
the pnmims of the monarch cost sacrificeir; and where he 
bad no passions to be gratified, the more shamddsrff^dM 
the ii^nence of those wretches display itself by whom hn 
wffl was governed. The ptirsuit of honours, to wliicii km^. 
bttfon or poverty had prompted, wair exthigtrisherf togethc^v 
wiA the spirit of conquest; and that trcwfidence in them^ 
selves which discipline gives to armies, was Jost wfKen ttfe 
exercise of arms was neglected. The soldiery w^re kisolen^ 
because they olone were flattered annd« tfre ^neriJ serr 

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vilfty; afid the more th^ became eware o£ tfaeir infla^ce^ 
4ie mpre inseQtttd md Mteriag wat the tibmne,. 

Nero l^fore tbe ihis^^ffeami year oS Im age lisdfisiur^ 
dared hi» iDotIier» his brother^ his giisurdki>v his totovy 
iDiuiy fl(9nators and ci|i«ietie; he had butnt the greater part 
of the cilf out of inefew«itoiii>ei»; had act at defiance^ 
more puUicIy than way other man bad yet done^ all hiw% 
even thos^ of natiure) he bad sacrificed te his tMrtt of 
bloody not only Fopps^ the instnmwiii cxf his passionsy 
but virtue herself represented in tbe person of ThKasea; ' 
and be finally ea^sapedy by yoluntary death, the vengeaiic» 
of the impatient world. Hie fifonee of civil wair 
were now rekindled with new vioileiice» 
Already tbe rebellion of Yindes: bad been fuelled by 
Vii|^Ius Ruftis, a man of primiliye virtue ; but Serviiaa 
Gk^ba^ an old warrior, of good family and nuin^peaeiwd^ 
reputation, was scarry dected Cssaar, when Nero's 
party pu^bim to death, and raised SaWips Otba, theccnoN 
paQion of the tyrant's pleasures, to tbe pnrple. In Otha 
yohiptnonsness h«id npl extingiiii^ed aU noUe and hetoic: 
feelings* When hethad ksivnt thi^ the army in Gehnanj 
had caU^ YiteUtiM £co« the bamjaettny tahfe 
to the thresie^ and that fi^itune bad fiiTomtedhia 
generals in the bsttle oC Bedriaomn» Otbodemreyedhspi^. 
ari£ in ^rder to spate the blood of hssceiuntryiaffQ. Tka»f' 
vpmi the l^inns which ky befinre Jernsalem reaeived lor 
eterate the most worthy to Ate faii^iestd^i^; wai^f^&i^ 
pasiaa m» approachmg Borne when YitdttiiB paid finr. # 
ab^t career of pleasitre fay a tioleBt deadly 

Flafitts Yfyawiawmi waa sMmmoned ftom the J!ewii)]kw«^ 
to tbe- gavesmnent of the: worid; bin eon Titaa was ^.to 
fulfil the consdl ef ProvideiK^ with respectto JbnuMtoSt 
The tyranny of the Roman praetor, dreadful cvnl djMeii» 
^ions, and a stiff-necked adherence to an errone6us interpre- 
tation of the old prophets, which flattered their vanity, cost 
the Jewish people the lives of thirteen hundred thousand 

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persons, the existence of their noble mtitcfpoiiSf 
and their place of national union, the temple 
of Jehovah. Scarcely was the extermination of the whole 
people of Helvetia prevented by the pleading of a pathetic 
orator. Civiles excited Gaul to insurrection, the Germans 
crossed the Rhine, Syria was threatened by the Parthians, 
while at Rome the capitol was consumed amid the tenw» 
of a taribulent sedition. Every street and hall of justice 
was polluted by bloodshed, by the violence of the soldiery 
and the cries of the populace. Under Nero t&efii^tchristiansr 
had lately suffered on the flaming pile, for their contempt 
of the public rites which still prevailed* 

We are unable to say whether the patience of men or the 
wantonness of guilt, in the period lliat preceded the reigns 
of the Flavii is the . most astonishing. While legions 
pined in captivil^ among the Parthians, and Britain re^ 
volted, the rich citizens of Rome trembled before Nero^ 
who sought in confiscations and slaughters the sources of 
revenue, whence his lavish expenditure was supplied. Ai^ 
ter the parents of noble families, in the time of Messaiiha, 
had feared to forbid the prostitution of thar dai^tersf 
after Agrippinahad sought in vain by her personal charms 
to enslave her son, afterwards her murderer; the Roman' 
senate^ scarcdy a hundred years firom ike death of CatOy 
was assembled to witness a contract of marriage between 
the empetor and two alav^. This Nero, who had projected 
to destroy the whole saudie by poison, found fiiencb after 
his death ; it was fashionable to profoss to imitate himv and 
monuments were raised to hia memory. Man, debased and 
corrupt, is gUd to find celebrated examples to 4still the so- 
cnret alarms of his own consd^ce; end crimes lose' thmr 
appearance of guilt when they become the fashion of the 

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THE FLAtll. 

Unp£R Vespasian Rome obtained a respite of nine yean 
from these convulsions. The most enterprising of the fac* 
tious cbieb had fallen in the wars, and the more fi>rtun|U* 
of them hailed the enjoyment of repose. Although the 
emperor had to thank the army for bis throne^ he pennitted 
himself to be formally invested, by a decree of the senate, 
with << the privileges of assembling that body as often as 
might be necessary ; of bringing before them five pfoposir 
tion& in each session; of confirmii^ or annulling their re- 
solutioDft; of prompting those whom they consider^ as 
most worthy, to civil and military dignities and offices; of 
freely, adopting whatever measures might be serviceable to 
the commonwealth, to general and private happiness, and 
to good order in divine imd human affairs ; of being elevated, 
as Augustus, Tiberius, and Ckudius had been, above the 
lai^s ; 9f making war, peace, and leagues of alliance, and 
othen^ise exercising all power,^ as Augustus, Tiberiu% and 
.Cl^dius had done, iii such a manner that no decr^ of the 
s^mte, no order of the people, could be empowered to im- 
f^e the rights entrusted to him by this edict, or to int^* 
fere with the exercise of the same/' 

Eome wa» restored to rest, and as socm as military di^ 
cipKae was re-established, theParthiaQS submitted to a peoXy 
of peace; a regular administration of the finaoees becam^^ 
tf> every wealthy ciUsen a guarantee of his security ; and 
under this reign, and that of Titus which followed, the 
tceasury was the resource of the unfortunate. IW ig- 
iiominioiis profession of informer lost its profit ; vigilance 
detected, and mild treatment put to shame the peijia^r. 
Vespasian and Titus liv^ as confidential friends with the 
hest and wisest men, and in times of peace the senate en- 
sured stability and respect to the imperiid authority. YeqfifH 

VOL.1. 8 

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!?58 tTMIVimSAL" KISTOttY. 

sian was just ; Titus was the delight oifmankindy 
and one of the most virtuous of the human race. 
It is true that /his brother Domitian had not 
courage to be honest; he was jealous of the 
illustrious senators, and caused several of them to be put 
to death ; he witnessed with pleasure, if he did not acce- 
lerate, the death of Agricola, his best general, the real 
conqueror of Britain. Yet though he had all the incli- 
nations of Nero, Domitian ventured not so far; he was opt 
without merits, and was desirous of fame in military .ex- 
ploits, which he wished to be thought to direct; and he 
sought to immortalize himself by adding ornaments to the 
city* He was cruel only through timidity; he was almpst 
contipually surrounded with eunuchs, and pretended to be 
invulnerable^ in the vain conceit of passing for a god. 



In the mean time there arose in the Roman world, in the 
place of the old republican virtue^ a lofty elevation of cha- 
racter founded on the maxims of the Stoics, to desire nothing 
passionately, and^ to fear nothing in the career of virtue. 
'M^n of superior minds found consolation in their inward 
greatness for the loss of political power, and were happy 
even iamidst calamities. The most noble of the senators 
were Stoics ; this doctrine imparted to them dignity without 
rendering them objects of alarm, and the rulers of the world 
were willing to allow that philosophy employs the minds of 
illustrious men with a dignity more worthy of them than 
worldly greatness. 

^ ^ After Domitian had been assassinated, his sac- 


cessor Nerva, a venerable old man, coh&ded the 
cares of government, which were tod heavy for himself t» 
'^ Trajan. 

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I ... 

During more than two hundred years^ the 
senate was accustOTned to hail erery new .emperor 
with the exclamation, <^ Reign fortunately, as Augustas ; vir- 
tuously, as Trajan." He was the greatest of the Caesars 
dince the time of the dictator, and the best of them all» 
since he had no civil war, no injustice to reproach himself * 
wHb. The greatest and most estimable qualities were in 
him so balimced that no place was given for excess ih any of 
Aem; and we may doubt whether his excellent under- 
itandkig and heroic spirit deserve more veneration, or his 

-goodness and the amiable complexion of his whole character 
excite more affectionate esteem. Kever was a monarch, so 

' eifteppridng, so great in his designs, so persevering in the 
€(^pletion of them, apd at the same time so little aiixiotts 
for external splendour ; so gracious to all the citizens, and 
oh such terms of equality with his friends. Trajan extended 
the bounds of the empire, which had been maintained with ' 
difficulty since, the time of Augustus, beyond the fruitful 
plains and mountains of Dacia, which included Moldavia 
and Transylvania ; on Caucasus, he subdued the hordes who 
disturbed Asia; the emirs of the Arabian desert acknow- 
ledged his c<mimands ; and at length Crassus was revenged, 
and the plans of Caesar were accomplished. He conquered 
the Parthian residence of Ctesiphon ; he sent ships to India; 
and his age alone prevented him from renewing the exploits 
of Alexander. This illustrious conqueror, as he walked • 
through the streets of Rome, permitted every citizen to 
accost him iK^th freedom. Am6ng his friends he indulged 
in wine, but we are only informed of this excess in con- 
sequence of the injunction which he gave never to perform 
the orders he might issue at such times. In the like man- 
ner, when he delivered his sword to the captain of bis 
guard, he said, ** For me, if I govern well; against me, if 
I .wt>uld become, a tyrant" During his reign, which lasted 
nineteen years, only one senator was capitally punfehed,^ 
and he had been found worthy of deaih by his colleagues*. 

8 2 

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Many exactkns in the prcyviUces were mitigated or remitted 
hy faim ; he widied to pliacehis treasure in the hearts of hb 
people, who were devoted to him. In the ehmoe <rf^ im 
.tmnisterB and friendfi he gave the preference to sen of the 
ipreoteet industry and most simple manners* The legal 
ejFstem of Rome was brought to. perfection under Tm 
guidance, and he ornamented the city and the ^Sipire with 
magtuficent buildtngs, and founded act ejitensive'libniry. 
All the nations^ whose wounds he healed, 2^ 
vered him as a vicer^g^il of the benefioent 
gods, and their tears were his most eloquent panegyric* 
From Cilicia, where he died, in the town of Sdeucaa, his 
hody was conveyed to Rome; it was received by the aeaafe^ 
and people, carried in pomp into the city, and depoiiled in 
'the forum named after him, under that pillu*, 1^ ieet in 
lieight, on whitih his exploits are inscribed. That pillar 
yet defies the impotence of tim% as the name of Trijan 
nses above the oUivion and indi£^ence m which his^ry 
iias.involved the multitude of kit^s; > 

This grei^est and best successor of Caesar bad been edu- 
cated in the camp ; for military virtues survived iill ititheiis. 
When we compare him with Augustus, the good qualitias 
of the latter appear the efieet of prudence and wise design, 
while those of Trajan flowed from the impulses of his natural 

The emp&lfor Hadrian, of whom it is not oertain whether 
lie was ki reality adopted by Trajan,^ was, widiout being 
JDqual to htm, worthy ctf succeeding him« He had' a gemns 
capable of embracing the most extensive inews and Aemost 
minute details of affiurs and of literature. He gave tiie 
anpire ramparts against the barbarians of Caledonia and of 
G^tmmy ; he. appeased the Farthians by ike resitomtion of 
'l$pnquered lands, and established in thai; q^aiter the natnrnl 
faoufidaHes;' he suppressed with reputation the dangonoos 
rtobeUion of ithe Jews under Barkochab | he passed. on' bot 
through aU the disti^ictii of his extensiye empi^e^ ahd^kdade 

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piortiaikr. enquiry into die affiurs of every province; h^ 
FCgidatdd ilie court wisk an ord^r and propriety that be^ 
came a pattern, to his successors on the throne. We there* 
fbrefilrgive him ibr fanejdng that he knew more than Pha* 
vfirinua on nuittecs of prc^nind learning, and for suffering 
the decline of good taste to become visible in his woilderfal 
edifices. He was in every respect more given up to his 
passioas thaa Trajan, even in the vices with whidi they 
were both contaminated. Hadrian did not resist his anger 
and impatience so successfully as his predepessor ; he caused 
sooae senators to be put to death without sufficient reason* 
In aM other things he was great and noble; yet. the bsm 
aoEUtey After bia death, hesititted in . approving his wimir 

. After the death ^f his beloved ^Uiiis Verusi 

* he adopted the gentle Antoninus, who does not 

appear to have equalled him in fervour, of genius, but who 

olrtained renown by his simple and beneficent virtues* 

Tbe latter was revered as a venerable and indulgent fi^her^ 

93Dd w» chosen With confidmoe by ndi|^ibouring 

the arbiter of their disputes; aftier a tranquil and Uamdess 

Migft^rf* twenty-three years, he performed hi& most meri* 

torious act in bequeathing the empire of .Rome 

' to an aocompUshed phiiosi^er, Marcus Aure» 

lias Antoninus. . «. 

All these «mperors seemed to possess the throne as being 

tbe best and wisest of the citizens; an indefatigable dili-- 

gence, a salutary care of the duties of government, was the 

only thing that distinguished them; there was nothing re- 

nuffkaUe in their private mjoyments, except that th^ had 

k in their power to cKffiise more happiness around them* 

They ittxe. more easy of access than paliAcialQs oftentimes 

have been in repnbliican suites* Hadfiaii ev^n allowed 

fttaikiar jdkes to his friends, as he possessed wit enough for 

ready and excdlent refdies, and lihe law against^ treason fell 

ntp ddiviofi. ^ i)uruig>atime.of acwisUjt^ steoies.were thrown 

s S 

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at the good Antotiinus as he passed through the famm; ke 
stood still) explained the occasion of the evil and the mw- 
sures of relief which he had adopted. Never did so grait a 
portion of the human race enjoy a longer period of pro- 
q)erity than under the reigns of these princes, which consoled 
them for the loss of the republic. 

The only exception that can be made against them kdmt 
they neglected to provide for posterity by introdudn^ a 
stable and well-r^ulated constitution. 

Marcas Auretius, who in the closet investigated the prin- 
ciples of morals, in the field of war defeated the O^rmana, 
who, for the first time since the days of Marios, had com*' 
btned in a formidable consjlf racy, had passed their bona- 
daries, and were approaching Italy; and he showed the 
Parthians that a long peace had not enervated the legions. 
With these exceptions, the military strength of Rome, 
which had flourished in times of greater necessity aiid 
amidst commotions, seems to have decayed under i these 
good sovereigns. The defect was not remarked so long as 
the empire under such rulers had little need of great com- 
manders; but it was afterwards found destitute. Wem^t 
be t^npted to believe that the stoical silence of the paasioss 
leaves, indeed, to reason h^ due supremacy; but that in 
order to form a character stronjg, and at the same time 
sufficiently flexible under the variety of conditions presented 
by human li£^ more of genius is required than fidls to the 
lot'of contemplatiye mindly It was a work almost beyond 
the power of man to give the Roman mind an entirely new 
stamp, and to impart to all the natiims of the Romsui 
world that unity of character so necessary for the main- 
tenance of tile common good. Accordingly, the bari>arians» 
in the sequel, found on one i»de a neglect of morals, and on 
4he other an enervated and impotent virtue. 

The Stoics would have done better if they had eaAuh 
voured to direct the passions rallier than to abolifili tbrnuu 
Stagnation is death, and it was because the cokasal onpire 

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^ Rome bad no loogec a soul that it began; to suffer disao-. 
liition.. While the stoic morality delivered precepts which- 
ape top. elevated for. the greater part of mankind,. it gave 
rise on the one side to much hjrpocrisy, and.oi^ the other 
Ofiuaed many persons to doubt altogether the possibilky of 
A virtue which required so mudi purity. These philosophers 
fp^e^too^oldly metaphysical; they diffused rather a serene 
I^ht,..tlum a fire which bums up and destroys the germ 
of guilt. . 

. While the public good seemed ever to become .more and 
more the care dT a single individual; while these good em- 
perors moved the whole mass by the simple impulse of their 
jninds, ; military discipline declined. This decay was not 
<onq>iciious. under Marcus Aurelius, whom the armies rer 
yeredf but it displayed itself after his reign to the commcm 
riifffhrtune. Trajan had employed the soldiery, because 
tbeir idleness appeared eminently dangerous for him and 
lor the atate, and because his enlightened judgment did not 
&i] to perceive^ through, the glare of outward splendour,, tbe 
. inevitable Weakness of universal empire; hejfelt how necesr 
sary it was ever to maintain among the neighbouring nations 
a new impression of terror before the arms of the l^ions. 
Hadrian, who bore the same relation to him which Au- 
gustus held to Julius, affected to hold nothing as justifiable 
in which he could not rival his predecessor. ^ H^^prdbably 
^ possessed more inclination for ^ the details of tactics than 
ability. ibr great plans of warfare. At, the jsatne. time. the 
^boundaries were seomred — a task like that which Alexander have -attempted in Caucasus as far as Derbent; 
Tnjan had drawn a long ft»rtification, of which traces are 
yet dkcoverable, from Petenfraradyn to the Don. Hadrian 
.e^eeteda wall with maoy.towers along the boundaries of 
Germany ; . Antpnisms, . between . Britain .and Caledcqaia. 
iiSnih .works .were effectivjSL in affiwding^ prQtection againsit 
atidden aoddientsj but the living v^IJ, the legiqQs, .depend^ 
'■'.. t^-' s 4.. '. ' . . - : , 

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2«4 mtv^MAu mnonr. 

too mudi on mA liafimce, and it seemed impottible ihA 
the barbtfiaiis could adll be fimnidiiUe. 

Tbe writen of.dioie lim^ nakmger rise to;lhe ttentiaa oi 
die ancieftt^ and die fl%fat of the stokal pliilo^ 
eppeer »e nqtnral* We iwoiarii e* diffeiwee like that whidi 
diidqgiriihes the fruits which ea exceUent toil brings focth 
ia (he liili bioom of th^ beauty end vigour,, fioom thoee 
which are forced hj artificiai means* We do not fiiil' to 
percdve the impression of the good and sensible Phrtardv^ 
who was very worthy of having a Trajfm for his pupil; but 
Ae great eoul whidi lives in his vmtings is thst of tke 
helloes he describes, and of the andent time from wUcb ho 
^hew his materiab and resourees. The finest original (Writar 
ef this period is LuciaOy who lau§^ at human felly 
wherever he fbimd it^- in- temples, in sehool^ among the 
kiiit#d or the greet. N<fMof theencieiitshadthefiumlly 
which he possessedof ^igeenung in all things the ridiculou 
end the ineoii^;moo% and of represeotiiig k with such&soL- 
fl^g simplieily that we ere unwilling to read any thing 
lliat may be ad«iiitied by way of defenoew 



As long m the soul of Marcus Aurelius Antoiiinus, tii^ 
fhikMOpher, ever equal to itself and competent to provide 
fet sdl cotttiogencies, lived amcmg mortde^ without seeming 
to partake in their weaknesses or crimes, it was juffident 
Sdx die empire, and it was not remarked how much de- 

A D isa' {'^^^ °P^^ ^} alone. When Mi&xus Anreli«i|^ 
aa the ^tiosm believed, ascended to the ^eds^ 
an^Jiis eon Conmutdue succeeded Urn c» the throne^ an 
univ«wl ^1^«l«utioQ VMS quiddy expoieneed. Virtuqds 
men fiere. dreeded becau^ Ck>mmodus waa whoKy molSGe 
them ; he p^it to death Salvxus Jolianus, the greatest of the 


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Rooiafl lawy«r% whom hk fii^uras kotioured^; He lived in 
the most al^ect depraTitPfr; his inoluiatiptift W€re. those of a 
diooghtten youth irfao. aeekai bk gliory ia mode figkts. 
Comtnodm hud nothing to fear from the pra^|oriiBiis; he 
allowed t^m every licence; diey were his proteotion against 
die rest ef mankind; but when lie became the tyrant of 
_ his own household, iiis domestics put him te 

^•^•''«^- death. 

The praefect of the city, Helens Perdnas^ was raised td 
the throne by the perpetrators of this act, who wished to 
justify themselves to the world; He was an upright man^ 
and was murdered in a ^ort time by the soldiery, who 
were afraid of the ancient virtue «id dkcipiine. 

When virtue could no longer maintain itsdf by its o^ 
Ihflu^ice, the memoiy of that discovery whid^ the army 
had made after Nero's death, of iheir own power over Aa 
throne, revived* The praetorian guard dsSivared the sceptre 
of the world to him who co^M give the greateit price ; the 
purchaser was Didius, a rich senator, nephew of the above^ 
mentioned Salvius Julianus^ a vain old man, who was per- 
suaded to this act by his wife and by flatterersf and who 
obtained by his fi>ily a speedy.death. 

The legions disdaining to recme a laasti^ 

' from the praetorian guard, raised Pescasknius 

Niger in Asia, Codius Albinus in Britain, and Severus 

ht Pannonia or Hungary, to the purple. Sevecus had skill 

^enough to prevent his rivals from cpmbining agam^!hkr^ 

and accordingly conquered them bo^in tufn. 

He was an able wanior ; he possessed sciefice, 

experience, and an activity which was not subddfd by 
-the torturefr which he suffered from a dist^lk^er in bis 
H^t. He was not a Trajan, but was an uaeftA ^cdief in the 
'evil times in which he lived, to mit^te land' iretaid die 

progress of pubHe ruin. He wanted courage . or power, to 
*i«4iice the soldiery again to subordiiiation,'but'soi|^tto 

acquire their favour, and to retain ihe empire fSfxtlm nm^ 

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Qtie^of the lalte, BiwuaQys Oaracalla, ibeed* 
Inmfieif by wwmwwttiont from the jwit rale of 
the gentle Oeta, and fro«k the troublesome^ TepnMchee of 
those wbowonM-not juttii^ fratricide. He afterwaida cBnied 
^ _ on «mr on the Rbioe and on the.EupluratQs; he 
was peKpatiuiBy.m action; m pleaaures, m etH 
terprisesy in the imUnGtion of AleKandb* the Great, he 
sought to forget hhnsflC Caracalla was fierce and valiant; 
he inspired awe; the citiiens trembled aX his thirst of blood, 
and the enemy at his impetuosity. The army loved him 
because he esteemed only the soldier. 

Itfacrinu8» . captain of the guard,, whom be 
' had treated ungraciously, murdered Caracalla. 
But Macrinus had none of those qualities which secure to 
i^n individual the oommand over nations. He was put td 
death in the name of a youth, who. was said to be the child 
'*^. _ of Caracalla, and his son, the amiable Diadu-^ 

A.D.218. . , 1 . . . c rii 

mnianus, scarcely a^teen years of age, fdl 
togetlftr with his fiuher. 

' Heliogabalurwas the name of the youth who ascended the 
throne, and- of whom nothing more characteristic can be 
said, than that before his eighteenth year he had exhausted 
a)l the rei^uroesof pleasure,' and that, . ignorant as he was 
of every other pursuit, the violent death which he suffered , 
^ ^ came not too early for him; So little did he 

A.D.222. _ ^ , - J 

consult appearances, so devoid was he of goo^ 
qmdities to claim indulgence for his fiiults, that the praetorian 
guard in him abhorred even their own vices. 

His kinsman, the young Alexander Sevarus, by a spot- 
less life, merited a sceptre, which he spared himself no ex*- 
ertion to wield without reproach. He was amiable^ indus- 
trious, and loved the society of wisem^a. Whatever hud- 
able principle had been delivered to mankmd or to princes 
by die sages of all nations, from. Orpheus to the founder 
of the Christian name, whom he revered as a sreat teiiiehcar 
of morality, wastheohgect of his unremitting study. WJiiJe 

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he lived fit a man without reproach, as a monarch he fooght 
eonrageowly- against the independent hordes of Germany, 
and gainst the^ house of the Sassanidfie, who had subverted 
the F&rdiian. dynasty in Persia, and renewed the anti- 
quated claims to the sovereignty of Western Asia. 'But die , 
most necessary of his good qualities was ruinous to him ; 
. ^ _ he attempted to restore discipline in the army, 
and was consequently vmurdered by his own sol-, 
diers, in the vicinity of M entz. 



Maxjminij^, a Goth of gigantic stature, &med for his 
bodily stren^^, his gluttony and courage, a man of the 
rf]^hest manners, who knew not how to govern himself or 
to control any movement of passion, who hated Rome,^ 
tfae^ senate, and. all forms of government and civilized 
spciely, was elected emperor, by the soldiers. -.v^He was 
unable to disguise hi| nature, and in a short time Gordian, 
#; i^eqtectable senator, of noble &mily, great riches, and 
l^eoevolent character, together with his son, a youth full of 
vigour an^ g^QSf was set up ia opposition to him. 
_ Scarcely had the senate ventured to acknowledge 
them when the younger Gordian fell in battle^ 
andhis&ther shortened,. by voluntary deadi, his childless 
old age* .Maximinus approached Rome, and the extre- 
mity of danger inspired the senate with courage. They 
laominated Balbinus and Pupienus, the former to direct in- 
ternal ^airs, the other to defend the state. No battle 
however ensued, for the acts of cruelty which Maximinf 
mxr^ge^ against his opponent, allowed himself to perpe- 
trate provoked the army to murder him, together with hii^ 
son; jet the soldiers could not prevail so far over themselves 
fis to aclmowledge the emperors whom th^ seni^ had named* 
, ^ New wars were to be dreaded, when the third 
Gordian, a hopeful youth, united all parties. 

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36*8 UllJtnsitSAL KieMftY* 

Tbb young empcroer had a bMrt femied for virtua ; he wa» 
fighling cburageoasfy againsl the Peraasns, wbcn PbUip^ an 
' ^ Aiab^ the traitorons teplMii of hk goard^ pul 
' lum to death in tha Biidft of a seditioiit tamidl^^ 
excited by.lnittsdf. Gsatilaide erected a monament to the 
meritorious labdure of his risng age» and in the 
' ' ' one thousandth year from the bnilding of Rome, 
an Arab seaiied himself upon the throne <^ the Caesars. 
Philip was soon punished for the crime committed against 
the excellent Crordian ; and his successor De* 

A.D.849. . « • r u • . 1. 

cms gave no small promise of bding to the 
Romans a second Trajan. But an attempt to faring back 
'the manners of old times did not succeed ; he was ^ni^le 
to change the ttoq>er of his age* Deetus^ a prince-lidl of 
^ hotiesty^ a man of great minci, feO^ -after il^Jittiig 
victoriously, 4n the war of his countrj^ ugainsa 
the invading Oodis. ^ 

Little else can be said of Gallus, Vokiriaails^ Hos^Ih 
anus, and i^BmiHanilB, but that in two years they found 
titdr way to the throfl^ and to a spetif death. 

. Valerianus would have left behind him abetter 

memory if he had never been made emperor^i 

As a censor he was considered a man of Tirtnous condaei 

and good parts; butwhen he became ruler it was manttsst 

that a grave deportment had concealed incapacity, and even 

flltiggislmess. - He was defeated by Shapur, king ef 'Fersia^ 

and bore the contumelies which thcf barbariaa inflicted upM 

- him, not knowing, though an ^liiperor, how to 

' imitate the example of Galo. 

His ton GalUenus enjoyed die dominion, which, if it hid 

not fallen- to him, he nevar wouM have sought, and whodh 

an effen^hiate voluptuary onfy valued &r the sake- cfmijoy^ 

ttiedt. There arose in Britain, Spain, Gaul, Rfaitiia, - II^^ 

lyrium, Asia^ ' Africa, and. even in Italy, a number of 

usurping chiefs^ some dF whom wc^ persons dT- merits 

others mere warriors. Hie hordes that were penetrating 

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into Amf Gfaeoe^ Italy^ aad Sicily^ required every wher^ 
the presence of an ^mperor. CbUttnusy content as lotig as 
Italy, which was enough fi>r him, remained nndiitorbed, en- 
trustad theen^ire to its fitter till Auveolns, in Milan, roused 
inin by fear oat. of hia yoluptuous repose* Before he eonld 
take that ciQr he waa assassinated^ and his love 
songs alcme survived him. At the point of death 
he lecemmeDded the most wrorthy citizen as his successor. * 
The latter was Claudius, who delivered Italy from the 
Godis, in a battle that may be 'compared with that of 
Mariiis. V . 

After his death, whidh soon ensued, AufeU- 
'. • ' anu% 9 man educated in military life, obtained 
liie tbrone, wfaid^ stood in need of his vigour alid activity. 
Httta^aBd eoeampments were thelate^ as they hful beett 
liie earlieat, itsyluins of merit. The senators were unhappily 
esempted from military service. Aurdian reduce4 ^U things 
to ordor and tranquillity; he repeUed the barbarians, and 
penetrated into the forests of Germany. Aftep he bad €<hi«> 
fuered all the usurping chiefe, the good fortune whilfththe 
Palmyrene Zenohia deserved to have secured unchatig^bly, 
yielded Co Aurdian. He performed three things, which a 
ooBqu^ror alone. could have dared to attempt: hevwaa. ihe 
firsts monarch *who abaadoned a province of the empire ; for 
he -gave up D^cia, on the northern .side of ^e I^and^e^ 
prefeningy aa it would se«n, the natural boundaries; -se* 
condlyv he surrounded Rome with a wall, for he reflated 
am the vieissfttudes of fortune in war, and held it not to be 
^tperflttoua to provide for Ihe security of the s^t of em- 
pX^f what the Dictator Julkis had not dared, what in Ca- 
ligaja had oflended every one^ as an open mark that the 
shade of the republic, yet hovering over Rome^ ' was^about 
tQ.vanirti for ever, Aurelian performed.; he sonrounded 
hisbead >with the^ regal diadem. Bot henevisr losta foettle ^ 
hi(:tJmted &e eooqi^cd with cfasnency, and hf dtaMved 

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the fcvcMir of the people and «rmy* He hated the 
and was the obgeetof their /ear. 

. As a fire» which expires for want of noarishmentf throm 
out a little flame befiore it is finally extingnished, so it hap^ 
penedy. that after the nmrder of Anrdyuui, an emperor was 
once more choaen by the senate with the con- 
' sent of the army. Taeitus, an old senator of 
the house of the historian^ reigned meritorionsly ibr a few 

. After his death, his brother Florianus, unlike 
him in character, possessing neither the respect 
of the army nor the voice of the senate, the soldiers r^i^ 
to the throne Probus, a skilful general, who again com- 
plimented the senate by asking their aj^roval. ' He deli- 
vered Gaol and Pannonia from the barbarians. With the 
virtues of Aurelian, Prohus combined modesty and gentle^ 
. _ ness. This excellent chief seems to have been 

A.D* 282. 

' too much attached to regular discipline to please 

the soldiery, for he was murdered, and speedily lamented. 

It appears that his successor. Cams, n^lected to show 

respect to the senate ; he was a good general, and only too 

indulg^it a father : his son Carinus, to whom he confided 

the government of the West, omducted "himself in every 

respect as he was prompted by the love of pleasure, in 

which he exceeded all . bounds. Numerian,* his elder son, 

had a better and more cultivated mind, yet their career waa 

very short; the fitther fell, struck by lightning, (if this 

' account was not feigned in order to conceal assassination). 

. ^ Numerian fell a sacrifice to an ambitious youth, 

A,D.284. ^ '^. , 

who, by a speedy death, paid the forfeit of his 
, crime. Carinus was Jdlled by the husband of a woman 
wbcHU he had debauched. 

Hie- succeeding emperor, Diocletian, changed the form 
of government; henceforward its genius, the character 
of Us magistrates, the ^t of empire, the Religion of the 


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(State becjinie different. As we are now arrited at the 
transition of the ancient world into the middle ages, ain 
aooount of the condition of the foi^ner will here find an 
appropriate place. 

• \ 

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{ 272 ) 





0«r the boundaries of the Roman empire^ towards the in- 
terior of Africa, several nomadic tribes roamed through the 
wilderness and maintained their independence. The war- 
riors of the commonwealth had held the task of extirpating, 
or of reducing them to settled habitations, and of preserving 
a dominion over them, to be unworthy of the armc of 
^ Rome. The Biemmyes, of whose existence the world had 
\ hitherto scarcely any correct knowledge, now became dan- 
gerous neighbours to Egypt; and in order to keejg them at 
a distance it was found expedient to yield possession of th^ 
desert to a Nubian horde. The latter accordingly entered 
\, into a league with the Romans. These nomadic tribes 
seem to have risen to numbers and power in consefutece 
of the fall of several old Carthaginian towns. 
..; Caius Caligula had reduced both the Mauritanias to the 
condition of provinces, after destroying Ptolemy, whose 
fiither, Juba, the chieftain of the country, was a celebrated 
author. Suetonius Paulinus passed over the mountainis of 
Atlas, but the barbarians in that country which we caU 
Marocco, were never conquered. He fruitJbl fields of 
Mauritania and Numidia afforded such exuberant harvestit 
of corn, that they eclipsed the fame of Sicily* In some 

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ilkiuitiaiis.tlie ground multiplied the seed two hwdred and 
fiMty times. 

The Romans^ who had never been a commercial people, 
had none of that narrow policy which sought to monopo* 
lize in one town the united products of a whole r^ion. A 
number of flourishing cities decorated the coasts of Africa* 
Saleh, Bugie, Melille^ and Tangier, refer their origiu to 
this remote era. 

Carthage, restored by Augustus, was an extensive and 
regul^ly built city; it became opulent, was the abode of 
pleasure^ and the central point of commerqial intercourse* 
Here the Africans were etitertained, as the Europeans were' 
at Rome^ with public games. 

Mauritania contained more numerous towns, but tliose of 
Numidia w6re the most extensive and populous. The slave- 
trade was even then in activity, and the cities displayed the 
effects of industry. This country was capable.of becoming 
formidable, for its produce was exuberant, and its inha- 
bitantsy like other natives of hot climates, were content 
with a sparing sustenance; but no common chief, no prin- 
ciple of confederation, united the divided power of the. 
Africans; the. manners of the Romans obtained, pre valence 
on the coast, and the rude simplicity of barbarians gave 
w«y^ as usual, to the allurements of cultivation. 

The path of commefcial intercourse descended from 
Catabadimos into Egypt, a country equally rich in the ne- 
cessaries. of life and in its most refined luxuries, and which 
furnished to Rome as" great a revenue as all Gaul. Oil wes 
the only product that was wanting to it, and this was af- 
forded by the neighbouring provinces of Africa. ^ Alexr 
andria,. the capital of Egypt, and one of the chief cities cf 
the empire^ was the depositary of an extennve commerce ; 
the countless multitudes who dwdt within its walls (for the 
ia^gninary resentment of Caracalla had but ^ short-lived 
effiMt) were often excited to turbulent commotions; but 
their desultory, movements were little to be feared, for the 
Alexandrians were the slaves of effeminate luxury. 

^ vdi*. I. ' ' T 

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2f4 UNIVERSAL HisTon; 

Of the mysteriow sciences o£ ancient Egypt, the arts of 
the juggler and the vronders of the magical impostor alone 
survived, by means of which crafty per&nners aocomalate^ 
wealth at the pubh'c cost. Magical arts, since the time of 
Ker(S had become a favourite employment, and often aU 
lured the debauched inhabitants of Rome to seek inter- 
course with higher and invisible beings. We perceive in 
the works of Pliny how zealously Nero laboured in such 
pursuits ; and Jamblichos displays to our view the magni- 
ficent machinery of the magicians of those days. The in- 
clination which prevails among the Oriental people for a 
tranquil and contemplative life, had multiplied, at an early 
period, the abodes of eremites in the Egyptian deserts, and 
cloisters arose before there were Christians to inhabit them. 
These became the first schools of the mystical philosophy, 
whi<A was, in reality, only a refined system of magic 



SVRU was very populous, opulent, and full of great cities • 
Gaza, at^ the entrance of Egypt, and its havens, M^ana 
stnd Ascalon, were greatly celebrated, ^lia, on the site of 
the old Jerusalem, the approach of which was forbidden 
to the Jews, rose again by d^ees to a respectable extent, 
and the memory of its gardens of balsam supported the 
feme of Jericho. The trade in Tyrian puiple was carried 
on in a flourishing manner from the port of Lydda* All 
the arts which depended on acuteness and dexterity 
flourished in Syria; the theatrical actors, the performers 
for the orchestra, and the rope-dancer» of Gaza, Ascalon, 
Caesarea, Tyre, Berytus, and Heliopolis, excelled all others 
in the world ; in many of the cities there were excellent 
manufiictories of linen ; Ascalon and Ga^ enjoyed a jhto- 
fitaUe export of wine, and the most beautiful damsd^ of * 
the East were s^n in the temple of V^ius at Heliopolis* 

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UiriV£ltSAL H](3TOBT.> ^ ij^ 

TKe sciences also were cultivated, and at B^rytua there was 
Bi much-frequented school of jurisprudence. The pomp 
and opulence of Tyre and Sidon still recalled their former 
cielebrity, and Antioch was advancing to be one of the most 
splendid cities in the world; Laodicea, the nursery of ex- 
cellent horsemen, rivalled the fame of Antioch ; -and next 
to it Assamea and Eklessa held the most distinguished place. 

In the mtidst of a valley, open to the southward, at the 
distance of a day's journey from the Euphrates, and among 
gj'oves of palm trees, watered by limpid streams, Solomon, 
the king of Judah, Ibad built Tadmor, in the wilderness:' ' 
it was called by the Greeks Palmyra, and became^ by its. 
isituation, almost independent, though its principal citi2ens 
acknowledged the sovereignty of Rome. Odenathus, and 
his Consort Zenobia, made Palmyra the capital of a king- 
dom: they reigned over Syria and Mesopotamia, and ren- 
dered themselves formidable to the Persian monarch, while 
Pirmus, their ally, had acquired possession of Egypt. The 
sciences and the fine arts made Palmyra their favourite' 
abode. The Emperor Aurelian conquered the princess 
Zenobia, btit displayed his clemency towards the people of 
Palmyra. The latter, unaccustomed to submission, made 
a premature attempt against the weak garrison wliich he 
had perhaps left among them as a test of their fidelity ; 
and. the consequences of this revolt involved the ruin of 
their magnificent town. Its huge wall^ yet stand in ruins, 
and the situation of the place still renders it important. 

Already the Saracens, or inhabitants of the Arabian 
desert, fought aifiong'the allies, or as adversaries of the le- 
-gions. Mesopotamia was enriched by the caravans of In- 
dian and Arabian commerce, which traversed the wilderness 
fix>m the bottom of the Persian gulf. Brass and iron 
were the only articles of which the exportation was for- 
bidden. Towards the borders of Persia, Nisibis was the 
most important of the frontier towns. 

T 2 

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5rf^' usrnrERaAL Hiarronr*"' 



AX.BSADY9 in the aga of Augustus* maay ancient chtes of 
Lesser Asia bad been destroyed by wars and other taJa^ 
inities. In Cilioia) the citiasens of Tarsus were celebrafed 
for their genius; the countrymen of the apostle Paul were 
devoted to metaphydcs; they were distiiiguisbed in ibe 
dialectic art, and for the rhapsodies of improvisaiori^ and 
there were many who wandered Uirough the euipire and 
established schools. In the neighbouring PompeiopQli^i t1\e 
descendants of the confederate pirates now dwelt as peaces 
able inhabitantsi The fruitful Pamphylia sent tfae.prpdu^ 
of its fields down the tiver Melas. The valiant Is»iri main- 
tained in the mountains their barbarous freedom, and aanie» 
times descended to ravage the vineyiirds of CUicia, and the 
olive gardens of Pamphylia. Lycia was a nursery of ffiOd 
seamen; Cyprus and Rhodes, from the days of their an^* 
eieot prosperity, still retained their excellent sdil; of #bich 
-no tyrant had been able to rob them ; and their volupUaoos 
pleasures,* the indulgence in which rend^ed thetn insaMiM^ 
to all higher enjoyments. > Cnidus and Halicarnassa».'StUi 
displayed in their splendid ruins what they had onceheen* 

The cities of Ionia and iEolia were distinguished by ^ 
wo^rks of ancient art and l^* their great population, and 
they ^ere ehriched by the commerce of the inland counUy; 
nothing was wantmg to their glory but the strength ai^ 
valour that were needful in order to resist the incursions of 
those barbarians who in the third century destroyed the re- 
nowned temple of Diana, and sacked m^iy towns whi^h 
never more raised themselves fit>m dieir ashes. Hiaasa wns 
an extensive city, regularly imd beautifully built; noble 
relics yet existed of the ancient q>lendor of Cyzicns, and 
Nicomedia, the residence of DiooletiaQ, hisd risen to the 
rank of the most celebrated laities. Cjios received the pm- 

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dtiee'of all Pfarygift. Alexandria, foimded by the hero of . 
..Macedon, not far from the site of ancient Troy, flonridied 
in great opulence in the midst of fertile plains and in. the 
vicinity of the woody Ida. Its situation on the shore of the 
Hellespont rendered it in every respect a rival of Byzan- 
tiuni ; for those tt^ho travelled from the east were by tfai» 
passage'spared the storms of the Bosphorus ; aiid the nei^- 
bouring sea was adorned with islands which were fitt^ to 
ecmtain the gardens of a seraglio. Sardos» Ancyra, Cteaacefl^ 
Sinope, Amisus, were greai and opulent capitals of flourish- 
ing provinces. The r^ion of Phrygian arid as its name 
importfli^ produced no green tree, but was fertile in vine- 
yards. Paphlagonia, Cappadocia, and. Pontus wore. famed 
fer lexcellent soldiers ; Galatia furnished warriors and bread-* 
Gorn, aiid Cappadocia horses ; both of them produced 
Moment, while Armenia was filmed £)r bowmen. The great* 
n^s and magnificence of so many towns, so thickly sown> 
nffbrds a splendid idea of the power and opulence which 
Ijgsser Alia is capable of attaining. . 
: The passage of the Euxine required ships built for the 
purpose, and an accurate knowledge .of the many shallows 
and bidden rocks: this sea was always tempestuous, .^oflen 
' ccnered with fogs, and fumifthed with few secure anchorages. 
Already it was difficult to land at the inhospitable Sakuy- 
dessus, so extensively.hadthe;DanttbefiUed its seven mouths 
with^sand ; already it was impossible for a krge ship to run 
kito Sinope; ^nd as Polybios. had foretold^, the navigation 
of the whole of this sea became every day mpre arduous*. 
Hie Tauric peninsnk opened the safest havens, and in 
tfaedodc-yards of Pabticapseum the Tesseb best fitted fot 
voyages (»i the vEuxtne. were constructed of timber which 
floated ^own the Don and Dnieper. At Cimmeri% the 
Palqs Mttotis affi>rded a serviceable harbour. -Commerce 
was carried on with the productions of S^ythia; and the 
nercliantssafied far up the Dni^er, whose banks, as well 
asrthosaof theTyras, tJieHypaiiia, and the Danube, subject 

T 3 

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^8 iri^tvsitdAL Hi8T0inr# 

to freiqueiit inuDdaiions, were covered with rich meadows 
or lusmriant woods. 



SiTCH were the provinces of the empire towards the south 
and east. The people who occupied these r^idm> had be^ 
come little changed in consequence of the Roman sway; while 
the Romans, who dwelt among them, by the powerful in* 
fluence of the $oil and climate were assimilated in chliracter 
to the native inhabitants. The human figure possessed m 
these countries an extraordinary degree of beautjy, with a 
peculiar dignity and eloquent expression of co^ntenanc«^ 
and with a vivacity of feeling which was not so much diifr* 
played in gestures as in energy of action aiid in constaiicy 
and perseverance in exertions. Nature here develqpes Ae 
growth of the body to its fullness of vigour and beauty, and 
even in the brute creation exhibits greater powers of life other climates. 

In AfHca, man, like the lion which wanders through the 
same burning desart, as if hardened by the solar beams^ 
possesses ah uncommon degree of activity and muscular 
'strength. The sublime beauty and the elevated sentiment 
of the Oriental people was here more rarely to be found ; 
y^t the nomadic tribes approximated to this character, and 
on the other hai^d the commercial spirit and political circum« 
stances of the cities on the coast seem to have imparted to 
the people who dwelt in them that eflfeminate'depravity ited 
dissimulation for which they were remarked. 

The Persians. Were the most formidable enemiefe; of tte~ 
eastern provinces. Artasher, called by the Greeks Arta- 
%etx.esi sprung, as he pretended, from the house of the <M 
Caianiioi monarchs, and a son of one of those princes who, 
under the dominion <(f the Parthians, had always liiuntiunei 

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vniveksal.h^tom; 279 

m •FflniA'lMn the name of a Persian kingdomj possessed cou- 
rage and talents which enabled him to overthrow the.govem* 
ment of the Parthians and to restore the empire to the native 
people* Me also re-established t}ie ancient faith of Zerduaht 
or Zoroaster, whichi like that of tiie Indiansi Chinese, and 
Hebrewsi >elhibits a figurative representation of the origin; 
of things, of the most ancient revolutions of the world, and 
of' the homan race; and in addition to this, sets forth the 
gttneral principles of morality with a particular reference tQ 
Persia ; it ordains the veneration of light as the onLy ima^n- 
able emblem of God, and as the instrumait of .the life of 
.nature; and in the contest of good and evil, discovers the 
secret of happiness in the, victory oyer our senses; it con- 
fides to the priesthood the guidance of the actions and 
opinions of the multitude, and speaks in such terrn^ of the 
«Dd of all fiHrms of sensual being, as may teach men to 
raise ibek dioughts above the visible creation to the cej^tial 
' diroae. of Qrmuahd. 

• Arfiaxentes and his son Shapor carried on vigorous waiw 
against the Roman empire in western Asia. The last sten> 
of the Psf thian dynasty held out for some centuries in Arr 
iBcnia under the protection of Rome. Often from these 
mohatains the plains of Assyria and Babylonia were over^* 
run, and as often Syria felt the. oppressive arms of the 
Fersians; but Galerius, who had been declared Csesar hy 
Diodetian, obliged King Naraes to conclude a peaoe^ which 
lasted forty years, and secured to the tlonians the.poss^on 
of Osrhoene and of Nisibis, 

In general the Persians had it in their power to inflict 
evils on western Asia, but it was not so easy for them to 
establish their diuninion over it: extensive wastes and 
^ jnpuntamous tracts formed a bulwark around it, and deserts 
of smatter extent,, but destitute of water, divided the pro* 
A inces of their own kingdom. To retain the latter in 
aafcgection required the greater vigilance, b» the nature 
ci the c^mtiy &voured the revolts of the j^ovincial 

T 4 

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fS80 ifmvmuML mnovf^ 

governor^ who imme&tdy reoanrtd pMtectiiMi fims. ffae 
Romans. Towards the sea, Persia had nodmig to fcnr^ 
doDg the whole coast, which was inhabited by wiuideriii||^ 
tribes of barbarians, there is not one secave haTen front the 
golf of Ormnz to .the confines of India ; above tida m 
district of pasture land is succeeded by plains bearing abon^ 
dant hanrests of com : another tract of moontainoui oonDti^* 
lies beyond, the passes thi^|^ which are easily defended. 
Hie Persian king commonly maintained treaties of alfianea 
with the Indian princes of the Punjab, whidi waa the waiw 
like coimtry of the ancient Porus. 



From the Black Sea to the Adrittic, a chain of mom** 
tains extends under various names, line most oonsidesaUe 
part of which has the appellation of Mount HsBdiusr m ita 
«Ktreme brabcheB it ahiaost touches the Alp% which by the 
dudn of the Cevennes i^proach the easton confines of the 
Pyrenees. Southern Europe, including the countries which 
Ue to the southward.of this great ridge, viz. Thrace, Mace* 
dcmhs Greece, lUyrium, Italy, and Spain, canstittttfid the 
chief extent of the Roman entire : the northarn division of 
it coinprised Gaul, bounded by the Rhine, some districts of 
Germany, Rhoetia, Noricum, Pannonia, the hither Dacia, 
and Britnin, cut off from the world. On the former o£these 
regions indulgent nature had bestowed her finest gifb ; tibe 
second, especially the last-named provinces, were the bul- 
wark of the empire; land the stroigth of the lq;ions con- 
sisted chieiy in the levies whiiA were drawn firom tiiem. 

Thrace was thickly peopled by warlike tribes, but not 
so ivdir cultivated; agriculture has since increased m this 
country, iacHitated, as it appean^ by the destructiim of a 
part of the northern forests. At Uie siame time Henidea 
Perinthus became the chief town of Thrace^ for after the 

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imivsRgAL HiMtmr* 9St 

teir^M Y€tagmthee^^^^ on the peo|>le of 

Bysantittia ftirthetr heroic fidritty to Peseeiuiius Vligeri 
l^s city had rineia but slowly to opulence. In some districts 
tbe Oetn lited among the Tbracians^ a valiant people^ ele« 
vated to herasm by the belief in an immottal life; ivhpi 
if diey cNTigkiaUy belonged to the race of the Qothfs seem 
to have had no Joager any connection wtth dmt people. ^ 

The Macedonians oontinued ever to be exoellelit soldiers, 
mud they still used the long spears of their ancestors; iron 
and lead were dug from their mines, and their motmtains 
were covered with numerous flocks; the greatness of Thes- 
aalonica raised it above all the other cities of Macedonia^ 
and it acknowledge^ few rivals in the worlds From several 
other ports there was an, exportation of cheese and salted 
flesh,' which the Bardans and other pastoral people brought 
down from dieir mountains. 

During the same ages, Athens wa» the chief seat cS 
floienee aifd philosc^y : she had derived liew embellish^ 
mentis from the ridi and learned Hetodes Atticus, and the 
, pwdigioua work of 'Pericles, the temple^of Minerva, was 
oompteted by the order of Hadrian* In the middle of the 
third century* this caty was plundered by the Goths, yet the 
mastet^pieces of andient architecture remained, which it re- 
quired to6 great labour to destroy. The statues and pie*- 
tares of the best mtisters had been conveyed by ^erb to 
Italy. The culture of the sciences and a predilection for 
the religion of Homer were retained by the Athenians as 
htte as the ^th century .r 

•Under the government of the' Romans, Thebes, Athens, 

* The Getsd were c^ruinly of the fiaane race with the Thvaciim tribes. 
This appears from numerous passages in the Greek writers, but ej^)eoialIy 
f^om the assertion of Herodotus. Menander mentions the Getae as a 
Xbnfcian people. 

.^.All the Gredi and R/oman whjers eofisideirfd tber.€kidif and Geis&as 
the same people, but some modern geographers have maint«ned thfX, 
Ae Goths were of Scandinavian c»igin, particularly D/Anyille and 
Cltiver . ' ^ T. 


by Google 

38^ Vismsm^ msTQwe4 

H^arm and a part of iEtolia* were iacliuicd undw. tbe 
name of the Achaaan republic; but of maoy ckjies coily 
f uins now es^Uted. Except Sicily, Greece- h^d vaSered 
greatet looses than any other country since the. extmiaioQ cf 
ihe Roman power. 

D^dnuiUa rose from a state of barbarism, and was enriched, 
by an eKtensite traffic in cattle, timber, and iron ;. consider-^ 
able towns fburisbed on the coast, and the palace and gar- 
dens of Diocletian, in the vicinity of the present Spalatro^ 
soQTL r^ndepe^ SakHia one of the roost beanta&l places m 
the worldi its ruins still .attest its ancirat magnificence, and 
prove that the princii^ of taste were not yet lost in tliQ 
general anarchy. v 

To cdebrate the praise of Italy after Virgil imd Hiny^ 
would be a vain atteni^t. Nature seemed to have destined 
this country to become the seat d[ universal empire: if». 
coasts, which open an easy communicatkm widi all parts of 
the world, give it great advantages for upholding its domw 
Aien, while the sea and the Alps are the bulwark of its 
security. Hie enterprises of policy mid of commerce were 
£ioilitated by the havens ct Ostia, Ravoma, and Misenum. 
A grateful variety in the climate and temperature, the con^ 
aequence of diversity in local . situation, fityoured the pro- 
dnction and' growth of all the plants and animals which 
contribute to the support and pleasure of life; the* Ipng 
ridge of-the Apennine gave to every district the advantages 
both of hilly and level countries, and the rivens &cilitat«d 
exportation, which was shortened by the nartxiw form of the 
hokd. Situated nearly in the midst .of the dviliz^ world, 
Italy was enabled to watch over all the nations who inha- 
bited it, '^ and to anticipate the dangers v^iich arose from 
sudden movements. Several towns contended for the honour 
of the imperial Yesidoice: palaces, worthy of the monafcfa, 
existed arMili^ and Rav^ma as well as at Rome; and 
Aquileia, by its opulence, attracted the barbarians, and by 
iUstrength served as a bulwark against their inroads. In the 

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emmrse of & loi^ peace^the Ligumns had descended from 
tbeir wild momitains and had cultivated the coasts which ex^ 
tOiA<J toward the west -and east from the city of Genoa. The 
emperorst rivalled each other in ennobUng Ancon% Arlmi- 
Buni, and other towns on the shores of the Adriatic. On the 
lower coast of Italy, Gan)paniii» since Vesuvius had become a 
burning mountain, seemed to be more fertile than before: < 
the exuberant soil of Capua, Kola, and Neapolis, afforded 
iome consolation for the loss of the cities that lay buried 
under ashes and lava, and the islands were ornamented with 
palaces and pleasure^houses. In Sicily, excellent wines* 
iroc, wool, and cattle, were the chief articles of export* 
ation ; the beauty of the animals which that island produced* 
cauiKd die games at Syracuse and Catania to become equally 
cdebrated with those of Rome* Since Egypt and Africa 
mpplied enough corn and of better quality, the fields of 
l^dly had been converted into pasturage, the produce of 
which ndust have been more certain, more diversified, and 
in the neighbourhood of Rome more profitable. Corsica 
. waa celebr.ated for honey and oysters. Sardinia contained 
flourishing towns, though the interior of the country waa 
not civilized. 

Spain fumbhed the empire with brave warriors, with 
brass, iron, . gol^, silver, and horses ; in the less fertSe 
parts of the country, fiax and spartum * were cultivated. ' 
Many profound philosophers and poets of bold and lofty 
genins were. natives of Spain : the mechanical arts jQofirished* • 
without degrading the high spirit of the nation. After the 
fidl of Carthage the commerce of Cadiz declined, and the 
ancient rites of the temple of Hercules were now the chief 
glory of the place; the navigation of the ocean was seldom 
atten^ted. On the eastern coast, and towards the moun* . 
tains, Barcino or Barcelona, and Caesar Augusta, .now 
Zaragoza, arose to opulence; and notwithstanding its many 

« A kiad of broom used for making cables, &c. 

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284 lff^V£R6AL ' HrSTOtlV; 

Calamities, Tarraco, formerly th6f capital df a large pto-^ 
' "C^nce, contended with these cities lor pre-difiinence* 

Alt these countries surrounded the Mediterranean aeiiy 
the navigation of* which was best known ; for it was seldom^ 
that men ventured far into the immeasurable oe^n» Froncv 
Aradns to the Baleares a multitude of very popttlous islioids 
were snbject to the imperial sway; among which wereF 
Cyprus, with its nine- kingdoms, and Rhodes, foarvoKtYy 
great in naval power, which, together with EubcBa^ warn, 
the key of the Grecian sea and continent ; the Cycbdes, 
the seat of the power of Minos, over which Athens had 
ejected 'her sovereignty; Sicily, the oliyect of strUe betwe^k 
tyrants and powerful nations ; the Liburnian isles, mukito** 
dinous, and celebrated for able seamen ; and the Baleare% 
theslingers of which had fought in the Outhaginitfn armies* 
against the legions. In the ocean, Bdtain belonged to • 
Rome! the Orcades were visfited: the extreme Thole was 
known to fame, and prcgects were formed .for accj^inng pes* 
session of Ireland, the country of the Sobti, an island ne« 
cessary for those who -would maintain their dominion over 
Britain. The climate and soil of Ireland were su{qpo8ed to 
be excellent, but the inhabitants were represented a^ the 
most inhuman barbarians in the world; for Ossian was not 
intelligible to Roman ears. A few ventured further, and 
sailed to Thule, (or Iceland ?)^r the appearances of nature 
were here frightful ;• a dread of the secret places of the god» 
arrestied the progress of the^rembling navigator ; he hAuAA^ 
ytixh. amazement, such gulfs as the. Maelstrom^ anto whidi 
it was believed that the ocean sunk at the ebbing of the 
tide, in order to rush forth at the succeeding flood ; or, per- 
haps, as the earth was supposed -tobe an immense animal^ 
#hen the monger again ^breathed ! Yet thdse who searched 
into the nature of'things sought, e\i«n ^t that time, the-ob-v 
scure cause of die ebbing ismd flowing of the tide in the. in?- 
flnence of the moon. Britain, for the rest, was chiefly 
pasture land; there was a pearl-fishery on the coaUt; Lonr 

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«km was the centte of the fUtle comiDerce that existtd^ and 
York aflbrded no mean residence to many emperors who 
liad occasion to halt on this frontier. Civilized manners 
caused the barbarous freedom of the Britims to sink into 
oblivion; Agricola had pronounced this to be the only 
means of subduing them. Even at that era fleets cruized in 
the channel, or were stationed off the Isle of Wight; and' 
more than once the fate of Britain depended on pitysperons 
or adverse gales. 

The greater part of Gaul was well cultivated, yet oiough 

woods remained to supply timber for building houses and 

for. ships. The southern provinces enjoyed the niost ferr 

tHe soil and the most pleasant clima^ The atroeiotts 

saorifiGes of the Druids, who held that sheddilig the 

iAooA of men. was the only means of reconciling the god^ 

to \ the hunan raoe,^ had long been abolished, but th^ 

order of priesthood still survived. For the rest, the arts 

of peace too much predominated ; Marseilles . and Autup 

iiad excellent, schools of learnings and the Gauls, as Mekt 

mentions, possessed their own style of eloquence. Na^- 

Ixmnewasthe chief city of the. southern provinces: how 

iiaDrishing would it have become if the nature of the tenir 

pestuous sea had allowed a 'few more secure havens on the 

jfioast ! Farther in the interior was Lugdunum, or Lyon% 

where all the military roads of Gaul joined, and where the 

•whole country celebrated a solemn festival at the temple of 

jA^ugustttS. All the borders of the Rhine were included in 

Jfelgic Gaul, until Helvetia andSequania were divided from 

it under the name of the great province, of the Saone» and 

tbe oountfy now called Alsace, extending towards Ments, 

was comprehended in the district of Germania Prima. The 

fjioffthern part of. Belgic Gaul s^nis to have sujferedimone 

i»verely than the other provinces,, because its people^ Qh 

^account of the love of freedom whiob animated them^ were 

mere dangerous to Rome. There were wooden :dti^ 

scarcely worthy of that name, situated in the midst of 

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2W ^tmin^msAi. unrfmr. 

marshes, such as Paris and Tongres, which were nev^ 
yfiakedJoT the sake of their attrdcticm^ but Tstwm wa8\a 
rich and spleodid town. At the era of the first muvemencu 
, nnumg the northern nations, the chief departments of Ganl 
were die province of Narbonne, containing tw)3 subdi'^ 
visions ; Aquitania with an equal number ; the Lyonese wHfa 
£Nir, and Gallia Belgica with two. . s 

The modem Switzerland, with its dependencies, beloi^gied 
to the greater province of the Saone^ to the first Germanjr^ 
and to the Lyonese departments,, whidli derived their namcss 
from Yietme; from die Pennine and the Graise, or Hearer 
Alps* Four cbirftownS) Aventieum, ^or Avenche^ Novio* 
dunam, or Nion, Augusta of the Rstoi^, now Aoualae 
Dear Basil, and Besontio, ^or 'Besan^on, were their onuir* 
^ments and defence; the old Aventicum was a beeiid&l and 
extensiye city, and the seat of luxury of evory kind ; the 
odusr towns served as bulwarks against the incursions of 
Siariiarians. Vindonissa or Windiscby Rauricum, where 
BiEKil is now situated, Ebrodunum, or Iverdun, and Air^ 
-gentuaria, may be mentioned as great military stalronsL 
^ut Windisch, by being the seat of a strong garrison, ymk 
"Conv^ed into a flourishing city; Iverdun was the red^ ' 
^ence of a particular governor, the prefect of the marii- 
^nerk * ; and ilte duke, or commander of the Greata* Saonc^ 
had his seat at Olino, now Ho)^e,'a town near BasfL Hie 
>neighbouriflg territory, which was that of the Rauraci, bcp- 
ioiiged to the Germania Prima. Valais was comprised'iui 
the Pennine Alps, until Rhaetia, divided from Illjoriuaiy 
was placed, together with the republic of the Valais, uncier . 
the government of a duke or procurator, and made « par- 
ticular frontier province of Italy. Geneva belonged to the 
province of Vieime. Already the banks of the Leman lake 
began to be known under the name pPSabaudia, or Savoy. 

Near the locus Venetusj or lak<of Constance^ Gaul bop- 
d^ed on Illyrium, so long as Rhietia was reckoned a paiit of 

♦ Praefectus barcariorum. 

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the latter countty. But the H-fasetian people extmieA ftcm 
4htt Danube to Verona, and froin the sources of the Rhine to 
the district of die Garni.* Veldivena, or WQtcta, in the Tyro!, 
was their capital town, but Como and Bregenz rose to an eqoaV 
degree of eminence. On the river Lech, Rhs^tia jcined* Viir- 
delicia, which is now Vendenland apon the LecJi, and the 
latter bordered upon Noricum. The barbarous f Noricum 
had learnt obedience : it was a land of pasturage, and its iron 
mines have been worked from remote times ; but the local 
situatioaof this country gave it a particular importance ^ 
the warlike people of the Gahretawald, the enterpriung 
- gubjecti^ of Maroboduus |, the Quadi, Gepidi, and the Carpi 
in the Carpathian mountains, always required cautious ob- 
servation. From the place where Vindobona formed the 
petty beginning of Vienna, the noble country of Pannonia 
drew its boundary through a part of Austria ajad Hiungarjr, 
to Illyrium, whose capital, Sirmium, . was often an imperial 
residence. The whole province of Illyrium, which, after 
the separation of Rhaetia, extended from Karst over D^- 
matia to the borders of Maesia, not only a desirable 
-possession on account of its productions, but was important 
. as containing a valiant peiople, from whom sprung the 
latest of the Roman heroes, Claudius Aurelian, and 
Probus, who saved the empire from the Goths. Maesia 
and the hither Dacia, now Bulgaria and Valadiia, w«re 
beautiful districts, and bad become more, populous since 
the well-affected inhabitants of Transylvania had left that 
country and the falling palaces of Sarmizegethusen, and 
had crossed the Danube, when the Romans abandoned 
. its northern shore. 

A mor^ noble dominion never existed than that of Rome. 
Situated in the midst of the most temperate regions of the 
earth, under the mildest sky, comprising the most fertile 
CQuAtries and the most enterprising and civilized natiohs^ 

^ Viz. Carniola and Cariolhia. 

f Upper Bavaria and a.pwt of Lower.aad Iimer Austria* 

X The Macri. 

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how great and splendid was the dominion of Rome in ^Iie 
days of Tngan I As Uub empire had been ^ected^ and 
th^ snpreme anthoriCy over the destinieac^'so many niK 
tions had been intrui^ to one frail mortal at so great 
a cost, its fall and evils which its overthrow entailed were a 
severe misfortune to humanity. 



The primitive manners of the human race were pre- 
served nearest to their original , simplicity in the forests of 
the Grermans and Slavonians, nations who were destined, 
in the course of a few centuries, to impress a new character 
on half the world. In the countries which they conquered, 
they adopted in part the customs of the people whom they 
subdued, and on this mixture were founded the manners 
and governments of our forefathers. The system of legis- 
lation was better regulated among the Romans; but our 
ancestors were free and accustomed to victory, and among 
them good morals held the place of laws: we have de- 
rived from them the best of our institutions ; the worst have 
been copied.from the example of degenerate Rome. As 
the tribes who migrated from Germany did not lay aside 
their former manners in the same degree or at one time, s^ 
it has happened that some of them, as the Swiss and the 
English, have retained longer in their political constitu- 
tions the germ of original freedom, while others, from the 
same inheritance, have remained eminent in military vir- 
tues, and have never been entirely subdued by foreign 
nations. * ' 

Liberty, and all the qualities which are connected with it, 
may have their existence in every region : thus the Greeks 
and Romans were as valiant and independant as the Teu- 
tonic people; but it must be allowed, at the same time, that 
the concurring inflnence of moral causes was necessary in 


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• ovderito devdope the principles of freedom in ike former 
niitionai and the cenation of these causes has robbed them oS 
th^ ancient glcn^: the northern tribes only followed the 
impidse of their native genius, and have th^efore the mor^ 
easily brought down .'to our later times striking and imp* ^ 
portant remains of the manners and customs of their fore«- 
fiohers. Climate is not the ^le foundation pf such moral 
phsenomena, though it is one of the fundamental causes* 
When we consider that restless spirit which distinguished 
the men of the north, we are tonpted to wonder that so 
much remains of their ancient customs ; but their restless 
temper seems chiefly to have referred to corporeal activity: 
they often changed their country, but seldom their, habits 
and ideasy On the other hand, when they had once surren<- 
dered these^ they fell, into a state of perpetual vicissitude, 
since no foreign customs were found to be so congenial to 
Aeir nature as those which they had abandoned. ' 

' In some chapters of his history of the Gallic war, Caesar 
has sketched the earliest picture of ancient Oermany ; it is 
short and rich in information, according to the oisual man** 
ner of the author, which renders him the most simple and 
instructive of all historians. Next to him/ Strabo must 
be mentioned, whose great work is the fruit of much en^^. 
lightened reading, and of extensive personal observation $ 
but the description of the north is very much corrupted in 
the manuscripts of his geography, and it never formed one. 
of the best portions of his work. « Mela in his learned, outline 
of the globe has adopted some notices concerning the Ger- 
man people, which are set forth with his peculiar brevity* 

. The elder Pliny has comprised in four books his description 
of the earth ; in these the profound learning and accurate in- 
formation, which we admire in his writings, are conspicuous; 
his remarks on the northern nations are. so much the more • 
valuable, as he had composed a particular work on the wars/ 
of the Germans. That work is lost, but Tacitus, who was the 
friend of the author's family, had probably availed himself pf 
VOL. i.^ u 

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i9d ONlVEBSAI^'HiSTaRir. 

itooontents. Thfinooifipdrafaled^nisitibnir^iehTBoititsb^ 
\eft tis on the Oertnans, ba^ been regarded by some ^b iv'paf 
litical rbmsDce^ intended by the author to excite tbe diaaui 
ef his cbuntrymen, by the reflecttoiis it casts on liie Gor< 
niption of their domestic manners | but the customs whidt 

' are still to-be found among the Alpine mountains, and wliicb 
are brought to light in the ancient chronicles, as weU as 
those ^bich have been discovered among the wiid hordes b| 
Korth America, establish tho veracity of tho historian ; 
while from the last*mentioned source we obtain a Vnotrkdgpa 
of whatever is connected with that particular stage of soctMyi 
ill which the' Germait people stood. Tacitus gives the |to^ 
mans some keen rebukes, ^s also does Pliify, who alwjsj^d 
undervalues men in order to elevate nature alono, and oftcsy 
as if ^ inspired, interrupts the course of his extracts, to 
raise his voice sudd^ily, like that of a thaadering orator, 
and to display, by a few «triking oudines, what man is e** 
pable of becoming, and how he n^lects the dignity of liis 
nature. The work of Tacitus is ^hort : be abridged evnf. 
iikitkgf s^ys Montesquieu, because his eye penetrated idl 
things. Montesquieu has profited by his assistance sit 
distinguishing the traces and influence of the Teutonic man?^ 
ners on all the modern governments* It was impossihk I9 
enter first on such a field without gmng sometimes astn^ ; 

' but he has opened untroddexi paths, on which those maijr 
easily advance further, who wpuld scarcely haye ducoFercud^ 
them for them^elves. 



Gi:rm:any formed a part of the country of the CSelhe,^ 
which origipally comprised the whole west of Europe^ a9 
fer as the straits of Gibraltar, but by degrees, ss naCtona 
We;:e more discriminated, came to comprehend only Gaul/ 
and at length oilly that part of Gaul which is included be-^ 
tween the Garortne and the Marne. 'Hie limits of Gier-J 



ihany extdniied from the souVbds df the DiinT;A»i to the 
ttttno^t florih enjbracihg the isles of. Scaiiditiaviv and from 
the Rhine to the forests and plains of iSarnlatia, and the 
Carpathian mountains. According to some ge^igraphers it 
coim prised tW whole <56untry westward of the Don. 

The nature of the country gave rise to' great diversity iir 
the character of particular tribes. The dist>ricts on the' 
Rlitne were the best cultivated ; trac^ of growing refihen 
mefit here displayed themselves $ Strasburg, Speier, Worms, 
bat particularly Mentz and Cologne, (for the leftbanfcof 
the Rhine formed, a part' of Germany before the time of 
Cttsar,) w^re already flourishing in ccmimerce and maiiu&c« 
tbtes. Pitrther in the interior, the Hercynian forest,r 
which was estimated at the extent of a sixty days' jou'x^ey^ 
and of which thc^ forest of the Rhihe, and the Black Forest^ 
this Odeiiwald, Westerwald, Spe^art, the fore^s of Bch 
heinift, TbuHngra, the Harta, and many others, are tbi 
remains^ took its rise from tRq glaciers of Adula, inwh'oise 
bosom aa*e the. fountains of the Rhine, ami terminalted at 
Rugen, in order to re-appear on tlie farther ^hore of the 
Baltid, And occupy the whole of Finland. The northern 
«oast consisted of mar&hes, subject to frequent inundations; 
where the natives fixed their dwellings upon spots which 
afibrded'the app^aranc^ of security^ The country i^ ge* , 
neral, especially between the sea-coast, and the Hercyniak , 
forest, 4:bii«ist!^ of immenifc heaths, which were capable, 
here and Jtfaere, of cultivation^ 'bnt. ware for' the most part 
only fit for pasturage and for the chace. Beyond the sea, 
Sweden and Norway were chicly forests and naorasses, from 
whibk w^ must only ieitcept'the southern provinces of the 

Among the Giffrman tribes, the moist' distinguished were 
the Suevt, at Sti^abians #ho were' afterwai<d« l6st m the 
name of Aflimanni, the Saxons, the Boii, Bajoari, or.Bava*- 
rians, and the Franks, who were not a distfn<5t i'ace, iMt a 
military federation. The general appellatiftft of the Ger- 
^ - V, 2 

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nifln people yet exists; Taist or God was the filtherof 
Mahnus, or mankind, and the Teutonic people, from th^ 
creative hand of God, had lived ever a pure and unadul- 
terated race. 

The Suevi were a migratory people^ of simple manners, 
as nomadic nations always are; they were valiant becaose 
they had nothing to lose, except 4hat life which they wane 
destined to receiver in the everlasting halls of Woden. The 
AUemanni were Gauls, who disdained to acknowledge a 
conquered land for their country. About the time when 
the Maroomanni passed beyond the Bohemian forests, they 
established themselves in Upper Germany, whare they fed 
their flocks on fertile and extensive plains, and gave Uf' 
the Romans, as the price of peace, a tribute of the tenth 
part of their produce: those who would not consent to 
these terms continued their march to die banks. of the 
Mayne. The similarity of manners rendered their, union 
with the Sueid so complete, that the whole nation ^ was 
henceforth called indifferently, sometimes by the name of' 
Suevi, at others by that of AUemanni. ^ 

The confederacy of the Franks offers itself to our nofke 
at a somewhat later period. This alliance was formed for 
the defence of liberty,' in the remote hamlets of Weslphnlia 
and Lower Hessia, between the Dymel and the fields of4he 

We.find the Sitxons on the northern coast, as &r;as the 
peninsula of Jutland: they devoted themselves to a sea- 
faring Ufe, and, according to the ancient custom, to piracy. 
Afterwards they went up the Weser and the Elb^ sad 
l^lanted themselves in abodes which had been deserted Jby 
the former possessors for adventurous schemes of conquest. 

The Bajoari, an ancient tribe,' who had been formidable 
enemies to the Roman republic in Italy, had their cUtf 
settlement in Bohemia, until they were driven by Slavonian 
invaders to Noricum and Rhaetia. 

The north-eastern region from the Tjiuringian forest, to 


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tjbe Oder: and; Vistula, and to.the Baltic sea, was ^^ chiefly** 
i^liabitod by. roving hordes, who, as far as we can trace" 

^ tbeir origin, were, of Slavonian race; further to. tlie east-. 
ward dwelt tribes of Finns, whom, the obscurity of their 
toifBSta sheltered from the Roman ydce, as it conceals them- 
' from our investigation. 

The political institutions of these nations were,, for Ae- 
imofltpart,^ arranged, on the following principles :- AU au- 
tjiorily. originated in the assembly of all. the free-men, who 
^ected to offices, .and held all men under responsibility for 
th^ conduct. They were accustomed to meet at the nqgpF. 
^Xkd full moon, for\this planet was the first calendar. They 
^^aembled in. arms ; foe arms. were the mark of freedom ; and 
they preferred to: incur, the danger of abuse rather than that 
^y maa i^hould i^pear withotit this honourable badge. 
Xhtt. priests presided over the assembly; for Giod was the 
aatji? sovereign whom they all revered in common. Silence^ 
Ifjas: proclaimed, and the chief,, or £rst man, declared on 
what account they were summoned. The elders, to whom^ 
^a^y years had given experience^ the nobles,, or those 
mho knew by inheritaneet from their forefathers how. to 
mpoage, the affidrs of the district,, and what rights to up- 
liold,. and how advantages were to be. obtamed over the 
lieigbbomrilig trflbes,^ uttered a shorty simple, and impressive 
qpeech, with real or assumed frankness of manner^ T^racM 
(rf* these ancient customs may yet be found in our prov^bs, 
wbidioccasioi^BUy were adopted into, the first laws: diey 
were distinguished by a stzxmg sense, and a combination of 
certain tones and words, which assist the memory, and 
which the refined ear of the modems, of^ too fastidious,, 
^r^ects as isavouring of bad taste. The clashing of arms 
was, the signal of applause, and hissing and murmuring de- 

^ daxed the disapprobation of ihe assembly. The I%h 
crmes of treaso% cowardice^ and all other degrading mis- 
demeanor^, here underwent judgment It was for this i c i 
#pn^ib«tia later iime% when l^ngs caoofe to represent .the 


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294i inrsvsjBSAL msnsoxT.: 

0pvere%aty of the whole natioii, and bad af med theiB«feIi^ 
with full authority, capital punishmenta were e%^lixuwAy r^^ 
ferred io. them : bailiffs exercised this power Us fbfi;ir dl^M* 
ties> but always in public ; until after the rise of cities^ thtf 
(QDuncUfi being intrusted with the same fuiicticn, under va- 
rious pretences rendered the exercise of it secret ^Hbe 
ancient Germans thought it right, by the spectacle gf a pub- 
lic execution, to render gi*eat crimen the ekjeet of general 
^oiaroiv and to punish mean and depraifi^d actioDis^ by 
drowning the delinquent in their marshes. In illifetrfttias^ 
tj^ p^ial regulations of uitiquity, we must ofteri have re« 
OMir^e to figurative alloaions. Cowardice was paiiished^ 
with deaths in order that the ftigitive might be overtak«i 
by that evil which he was most anxious ta shun, and Qiij^ 
find is more'dreadfol on accomit of the public i^an^fsy 
eaojoined with it tlian in the field of battle* The caqfunofii 
taieinbly .decided also concerning compkint^ tiiat ^ift^re 
taarotight before them ^gain^t the awards of the ju^ittat 

L A. singly chief seldom presided over several tl^ib^\ abd 
Df vnr^ over the whole nation. The cbie^ wtth.about a bMH 
^ed'Cioaipahioas or counts, or elders, (grauen, org^$tm^} 
fKtesrdal over the maintenafiee of justice in each diist^lct i 
•ad» h^let had ks judicial court* A leader waa elec^oil. 
in time of vrar, and waa naturally intrusfted with'ivAlteiy 
poiwer^ , It came to pas& aft^rwands^ that wfacu Ui<^- Oetw. 
ipans: entered upon: their conquests, they were nHs^MOily 
ttnder the military command o^' their leader ^ apd i^curder 
to: preserve their acquisitions they found then>s^lves- obliged 
|to leave the authority in his hands f thus their aacmif 
libovty, .and the form of govern mei^t, which 'regttlaff|^ 
raieeirted with the return of peace^ fell by d^gvees^'ioior 
Cfb&Tioit. It was equally natural, that as conq^t^tM^d 
acbieTved by several tribes in . alliaacey they sfamild idlae^ 
Wwle%e one su^renie leader, and tbatth&aeiV'OeiMllta^ 
tion ahcHild no lotigfpr n^ a$ that ^MA had-j^fdle^^ 

Digitized by 


thU faamlete ^ Odtmany, M Ihe y^tidHs ^ ^ili^ eiii 
nfaighbeisi^ hot should bfe foutided- oii tbe eii?geiicle6 of 
;4»i\ ivirieh requiTed a concentrates! pdwer, capable of ^t^; 
oMive measures and rapid and leflfecUve execution : it "^rftsr 
tbm tbat: t&e dembcracred of tAe Teutonic pec^ple, batidcf^ 
downbjr tbeir^fore&thers, underwent a gradual traiisttioli^ 
itila>the:gDv^nments of modern Europe. ' - ''-"-^ 

As the diief, so the general br dukfe had thfe choice? 
of his ccmipanions left to bis discr<^ion ; btit bis success aoA 
leputatjon depended on the wiadoiii of bis selection. FoP 
before the passions of men, ihflam^ by the riches and* plea^ 
sfires> of the soutli^ li&d rend^ned k multitude of laws A^ 
^tmxtjy ami before the jc^osition* of varibus parties ' had 
feced Dfceurate limits to the powers of each rank in 'the 
Stat)?, eminent .wisdom atid able counseUors gave greateif 
aothority to the loaders of the people tb«i» ibe -kings &tm 
able to maintain in most monarchical governments* Stf^k 
a kader #&? the soul of the natiovi : he became ian aTlnter 
. betifreeii ndghbouring tribes : his reflations wer^ imhal^df . 
and. his dedsions became* rules of actioni. That n^bfe 
bbrtji gave even thai a e6&side¥able advantage tpwards tfilf 
BUmme&t of power^ d^etided upon the cfrcu^iHstane^^ 
timtbdbre the art of writing wdls known, lamily -^sayib^ 
eeUstituted the only speoieier of kairnkig, and tbot yfh€i% 
pifoperty; existed^ the poseessicm of. khd/ whitb-was^ithQ 
ontjr knid' of werith, .prectifed d6|!>cndenfs: aiM ^t^mM^ 
ioBiJientee* ■ -'- '' .«..'>:;0 ..:.••: 

T^s rri^on of tiie' an<^t Germans i# not w^tii^^^i^ 
atobd, becsiiis^ ibetr loytbology is d^cribed >by^fblf)^^^ 
y/rkk^k it is generally agre^ed^ ibc^ Ghddl' v^as #df sbjpp^ 
by aUtbe ttiribes, in the most striking- powa*s ;.df- hatiti^ 
^r in his Most beneficial ag€nc}es5 in the sun, -Ihe mo^i 
iw fi#e, afed in the «artb. Thfe G^!*mari§, ^fthoiit thfeSkrfi' 
i«riid» of hwoge*, which ttey :wan'ted*su(flB<?rent art* ikr ^iSb^ 
iAcfjp0& Os^ in the venerable darlcrt^s- of airicieift^^^ 
tb6 ghoiU of depaned hl&ro^, w%6 iMS desd^Mf ^ihfiLet^^f' 

^u 4 ' 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

29^ UMHrrataAL HI810RY. 

gratitud^e of ihm aatioo. Once emry jear^ in the comiftrjr 
of, l;he SemiiQDes, dqpiitks from the ^tribes spproadbed ividtv 
tbeir hands b^ond, as daYes of the power which presided- 
9yer the awful places . the inaooessible fomt of the Sun ; tot 
^un they sacrificed a man, holding the bdief that hnnuur 
oFiQies cap only be expiated by human blood, and tfa^ re* 
tired without tumipg their becks on the sacred spot. In m> 
finrest^in Rugen stood the car of the rural goddess: .at 
* i^jteirvals, as the priests related, she came . down &om her 
blessed.abodes, and, drove her chariot, on which occasions 
a general peace, was proclaimed, and all public and prifate 
enmities ha4 an end. It is uncertain whether in Irmenside,. 
(fit. the piUars of Herman,) near Pallerborn,. the $axx»s< 
^dpred the god of war, or the ghost of the great Arminiusi 
who^ .in the twenty-fifth year of his ag^ had terrified Ai^ 
gustus Caesar, and afterwards withstood the arms of the re« 
nowned Germanicus. 

/ Young men were presented with a sword by their kins*' 
men, or by the diiel^ in the midst of the popular assembly^ 
^s soon as the young German was .armed, he passed fiiom 
under the paternal authority into the national jurisdiction i 
bis person, his honour, and his property belonged l^enoefortk 
to his country. Frequent feuds exercised their yigilanee 
9nd ^urage; these were dcitermined in the assembly of ^e 
p99fie,. in which the youth who associated himself in the 
Wterprise was praised as a lover of arms and of renown ; 
from such an undertaking it was impossible to retract with- 
out iiwurring die utmost infiuny. . When no occasion. was 
£^und at hpme for such contests, men sought them m other 
tfibei^ in order that, thqr might return covered with glory, 
and bjBaring the skull of some fidlen warrior, which was at 
terwards o^amented, and used for drinking beer or mnsl^ 
on days of meny carousaL . A the festive board, .car 
a j;ift^ of arms, were the only pay' which, a Oerman received 
#>r his merfts ; . but the strongest.incentive was theapxiety to 
be always in action, and never to become enervated by re^* 

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pomk TfaJsiaai&rtimebefUl theC^ the nation cf^^ 

Arorinitts^ and it wag dreaded with good reesonf fer a de« 
hmre peace *, as Tacitus has wdl said, is ta be deprecated' 
by those who dwdil in the midst of nations incapaUe of 
vestEBining their desires, and possessed of the meainsof eb* 
tainiitg their gratification : with them justice and modar« 
ati(m are mere words which bdlong to the most pdwerfiiL 

By these' customs the Germans were formed for conquest* 
Tl^ warriors flocked after the banners of the enterprising, 
youths who had acquired distinction. Clovis, whenr he 
fimnded the kingdom of France, had scarcely attained his 
twentieth year. Instead of rewarding his comrades with 
feasts and arms, he distributed estates among them : e^ery 
num secured to his fellows the peipetual enjoyment of their 
lots or allodial shares, and the whole number collectively 
guaranteed the permanence of the commonwealth which' 
was thus constituted. < 

,. The chief strength of the German armies consistedin their 
in&ntry. In Westphalia the cavalry of the Teuchteri was 
distinguished, among whom the bravest cavalier inherited 
the greatest portion, particularly the horses and stable. 
For in&ntry no tribe was more celebrated than the Hessians 
or Gitti, who dwelt in the district of Catzen-ellenbogen^ 
stad were better trained than all others to military iSact^ 
jdine^ and to the manceuvres of r^ular warfaine. The Hes* 
sians w^e not only very tall, poweriul, and undaunted- 
warriors, who intimidated thdr foes by their fierce and ter- 
rific aspect, but they also possessed secure milituy positionsy 
and were under a mc»re strict obedience to thnr leaders 
than any other troc^s. ^< All the Germans know how to 
fight," says Tacitus, ^< but the Catti al<me are acquainted 
wiili the manner of conducting war.'' The shieUs of the 
commanders were distinguished by brilliant ccdours, the 

* Idqae jucundius quam tutius fiiit i quia inter iopoteBtet et.yalidos 
falso quiescas ; ubi manu Bffkijr; modestia et prohitas nomina lapisri- 
oris sunt. Xac. de M. G, c, 36. ^ 

Digitized by Google 

^99 VmVMm&MS, HI8T0BY. 

4rigiA of cottlii qf «rs»u Thefihl^ ^ras the only d^feDnhw; 
weapon ;' for it wa^ thought stifficieni that tHe arm fehmlA 
be seeuredy "which is abk Jto succour every, part. A ftfvr.iif! 
the cl^iefe bore also a cuirass and heki. Among the Hes^ 
sians .the yoang men wore iron rings as a badge of acrt^ 
¥ank until the slaugliter of an ^nemy had proved tbeaii tec 
be deserving of their freedom^ They wir« accastoraed tec 
kave the beard nnsbaven until warlike exploita bad praied 
dneir manhood: the Lombards and some otlier tribes «ii{- 
fered it always to grow, as the Athenians did in the laihecf 
Miltiadesi and the Romans before the age of 'Sbipio» 
Among the weapons of assault the most fomiidabk'wHS^it 
dart which terminated like a bodkin * in a sharp pointy iml 
was equally raiscbievons when used for thrusling &r: S9t 
throwing from a distance : they also carried lances. Tha 
best qusiUty of their horses was swiftness. Before the batlfo 
ia war- song was chanted by the bards, ^h^ were the singers 
and phlfosdphers of tlie Germans: the leader was mspired 
with hope or. feur according as the tone of the war-song was 
high or tow. Sometimes, in order to render the soiind 
moce horrible, th^y held their hollow shi^kls before tbeftf 
jBQBBtfa^ With a simiiar design we are informed that the 
Am, by which nanie the Tartars distinguish the VotiadoSy 
axaee of Finns* iirCasany bear black shields and armMliy 
which excite the. terror of their enemies, particuiariy la 
faig^tiby eBcaunterft. Before the battle a aingie corabal was 
eteh.ibu^t by. compromise. 

t . Aancrng the. Hessiabsy there was a company of yown^ mte 
wbo imposed an oMigation on themsdives' to be alwi^ the 
fiareHBostm bat^les^ for which service they were maialamed 
liyltha: public C08L The ordet of battle ww genetmliy in a 
wedge-shaped, column ^ by which they sought to praseifr a^ont to theveaemy, and to penetrate his^ ranku> Xhs 
troops were drawn up according to clans or families, and 

♦Tacitcts say* they-were calle* « framesB.'* Pfriem isthc Germart 
word for a bodkin. T, ' ' 

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mhm it waspos«ibl6» tbe wives and ebiUbeiii'of Ibfttomltetoiitsr 
w^re ^cctiators of the battle (rorli mmis SQCii»*e plmcBi the) 
^ftolbtrs exulted in binding the glof ious wounds whicb tk^ir 
mm imd recetyed, and the warriofs ibuiid their, aweetoit 
recompense in the animated praises of their wives. Horn 
could -they Ml to exert th^Hiselves to ibe utino«t| <whm ali= 
that they held most dear was saved' or lost by the -j^iie 6£> 
the <)onfte9t i 

'Tbe <^ie& had similar motives to exeition» iaasnmdh ak 
aU their power in the tribe depended on their eGOidvict' in.' 
tlia field ; the remembrance of their e^toits in waif jwaii Act 
j^incipal foundation of tJieir. authority during peace* 'SveA 
ihie eonquerer of Varus Mtnsei^ the .defen4ler of Geittian) 
Ubisrty against the cou«piraty of ^Mar6boduua» : th^ pene^ 
trating, thi; h0roi€5 the popular, and iAsiBuating Armimm^ 
wkca he atteospted to usurp a gifnUerdi^ree of power tfaanr 
diat which properly bebnged tobim in.ttnie of peace^ Jiril 
likeCsnar, to whom be dcaerved to be compared* in li|» 
«wn GOuiM;ry, and by the hands of his comrades^ and. Ui 
§Kaie only survived in tbe i$ongs of the watlike ohiefa* : A 
was'so moch the more difficult to ofataiB liniitary yenOaria 
affiong the Germans in any high de^ee, as this sole viitne 
of Barbarians was so universal : it is tbe sole mtoe, sinceaV 
th^ other gioed. qualities are iiatucal to tbem^ and feqidsGf 
bo saeriAee ; yet, iitird as it was lo gani^ tfaereiMmii of Anik 
nine has su^ved a tbooaand less iUastrious aaunes; Witia 
wliat ammntibn must those troops baive been ins^vedy- 
mkme leader was obliged tod&oinguidh JinnBelf asthebfanFiei 
among tfaeni) wbile hts^ comrades exerted tlleir ^utBMMt 
power to obtain tbc Ugliest natine^ :and:wiuie e»ck dM 
fettght not bnJy for tte victtHj of the day, bst iur: tbo only 
Miiialdere^i^rd before the inttoduetionof a^ttdtii^ feftdnr 
|»t«M0(Q]iie|ieeiA,mfiiiiiry fame above the («iteivi»fbei)r.^;rtMiiy , 
lii'additioa tO'thesaiinoti^efi^ itt.^aa disgratefoi to hmm ^tm 
ebi^iB imre^^mged^ aiid when pvodigies oftvlowi^eM 
e^ed by ttfa ft^iafi <yf^ftiatidiU|>, vAMvwo so tttdly aoid 

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pm&t&l whefe Ae' wtkctipM of the hesit have nbt^beetr 
Sttipated by the caases which operate in civffized society i 
~ These noillieni peq>Ie were distingaished by tall stature^ 
Uiie'eyesy red hair and beards; they were indefatigable iiif 
war, but indolent in sedentary labours; Ihey endured 
hunger more patiently than thirst, and cold then the heat 
of the meridian sun; They disdained towns as the leibge: 
of a timorousi and the hiding places of a thievish. pqpdaoe^ 
Aey burnt them in the countries which they oonqueredy or 
sttflfered them to fall into decay, and centuries ek^ised- 
befiffe they surrounded their villages with walls: Tbm . 
hutii» dispersed like thos^ of the' Alpme people^ were placed 
on the banks of rivulets, or near fountains, or in woodsr 
CMT in the midst of their fields; every {arm constituted a 
dirtiiict, centre, round which the herds of the ownec 
wandered, or where^ among agricultural tribes, 'the womeir 
and daves tilled the land. The Germans used very little 
ideidiing, for the habit of enduring cold served than ui ite 
sliead I the hides of beasts, the spoils of the chace, hnng £nxm 
die shoulders of the warriors, and the women wore woollen 
coats, ornamented with feathers, or with patdies of skins 
whidi they sdected fer their splendid and various tints^ 
The use of clolhes, which, fitting accurately the different 
paite of 'die body, coverod the whole of it, was introduced 
TBaauisy'Bge»B&et the times we are treating of, and was locked 
upon, even th«i^ as a signal OHrruption of manners.- The 
arms, evien of the vromen, were generally naked, and it was 
hing b^re the coquette learnt to conceal her siddoifg looks 
under the shelter of a bonn^. Both seoces^ went ifith thefai 
Iweasts escposedj and many walked bardbot . 

They rose late fi*<»n their pall^s of sthtw"^ finr the mot 
wereacctMtomed to sit carousing tiU the deptih of night, and 
e6er washing themselves they/ ate ^ their pc»:ridg^ wfakb 
Iras made of roasted c<Mm, put <m their aims^ radastentUedt 
in their public temrU. Tbm fi)od chiefly oonwstrii <tf 
fleshy bttlt^, cheese^ and&iuts: b^, iuidth^ inu3tof &iutf|r 

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Gontinued,to be the beverage of tbe^Suevi, whai the 
borderers. of the Rhine became fond. of the juice of.tiie 
grape. 'At their meals, marriages were pr(q)Osed>. enmities 
reconciled,, and enterprises agreed upon, and when, they 
had discujssed these matters with open hearts, on the follow-^ 
ing day they tocdc them into final consideration* These 
S{Hrited and courageous men displayed in the company of 
strangers, and persons of high rank, that bashftdness which 
arises fi^m the appreheniuon of being deficient in scnne 
particular, or of not appearing altogether, in a respectable 
manner. For the restj they had that openness of hearty 
which excludes all dissimulation, and frequently even tem» 
perance of character* Hoiq>it8lity was with them not . a 
virtue, but a distinction for which the inhabitants of the 
viUage contended nmong therasdives; a gift was commonly 
presented to the guest on' his departure firom their rdof. 
The manners of more civilized nations. have in. other 
respects thdir advantages; but the Germans were indivi«- 
doaOy better and more valiant,, and possessed mose robnat^ 
and finer persons. 

T)ie young men were not allowed, before their twentiedi^^ 
year, to pay their addresses to the rui^ {^ris; and then 
tiiey sought out the most . robust, and Aose of freshest 
ccMBiplexion* A. horse, an ox, a dmrt, a sw<»d and sliieU, 
were the presents which the youth gave to the. futUBne 
housewife^ who united herself to him for all die toils and 
pleasures of life, and who was to entertain their eommon 
tibildren with similar objected Divorces w^re not tfaol^ht 
ef, and violation of the marrii^ compact was rarely 
heard o^ and was punished severely as showing die greatest 
depravity; although it was allowed to the women, after the 
death of the first husband, to.marry a second^ die grefttmr 
number continued through life to cherish the memory^ 
t^t . first a£^tion. The great < men wero. aocaistomed .to 
marry more than . one wife, . since>.niore ^tiban^one diui, .or 
. .sever^. distinguished families, >were desirous of. becoming 

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Goniiectcd with t£em. Hie affisetion of tliif wife, Ifaiferr con^ 
sbnt fidelity, WAS. the c%ief source of ha^^pniesB, anid tb« 
mast natural feeling; the wom^ took: the care of tiiie 
wlkiie faoQsebold; tbeir Inres were meritorioiis, 'and tbej^ 
wwe not withoiit inflvence on the ]^iitical condisct of the 
men; the old VelMa, to whom the gods opened tile 
'lacretB erf futority, was reverently e<msnhed by the nati^ti^ 
31ie Gterniam liad no domestic servants, for their wiire$ and 
ehiUran supplied that olRoe^ but tliey- had slaviBs who tilled 
tliislr fielda and took care of their flocke, and were rewarded 
Ifilh a part of the phxitide, ' The slares were well treated^ 
Imd VisB their mastenB, ate with them, were' clothed lib^ 
tlieni) md dept near tire herds on beds of straw; but di^ 
lih of the master was not forfeited by the muftter of his 
dave^ because a freeioian was considered of- far greater 
MMioB to the nation than a bondsman, and beeaiKl^ 
the acti brought with it its own punishment. The slaves 
moa panilf men- who kad made over the rs^t orf tMir 
{icaion».to ancitfaer finf the sake of sostenaiiee, and partij^ 
captives taken in war. 

' In feet dieare exiateii lords before there were any do- 
nisind. . Amo^gtiieSlueviof Caasati, the existenee of the 
laitiHr was in^MMsibls^ because thifr pastoral nati^Mir had nb 
idea^bf boreditary possessions, and'in' the annual divimiitif 
heoA the same fesid norer fell to. the ^ot of one owner during 
two sileoeflsive years. . As little was it allowed thc^t tlwe hms 
winds. wezn'dn'ried about sbonid become htduses capable of 
{itvtoeting tiie efieminale inmates against inolemtet weaither» 
Aloney : and . ooaunerce were unknown. TheSueTi wene 
itntiom far peace and ILbetty, and ooneevningt all etket 
things: they were iudifferefit. Strabo, Mela, and TariilB^ 
hftm described these manners^ and thet e are still vesl^ea 
trf them among ihemountaina of tho Alpa. They had no 
iFiuejFardSi nor ^ny word to aignify vintage; ior Herbst^ the 
Gepaan iena fer autumn^ means simply th(^ cottectiiig of 
fruits; Imt.dieL wine of Gavl was sp gmbiiiil to diem, that 

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DomHiui'ibwd it liecesstry to prohibit tkd eultiifre of tb^ 
vioi^ on the frontiers of th^t country, ia order to remove a 
temptation to warlike aggressions. Thej cared not foi^ m^ 
nufiictures, bat were desirous of .enjc^ng^ in indolent ease, 
the gifts of niatsre. They. were lesii anitfoas that their po^ 
palatioh should be numermis, than tbAt ea6h indi^idttal 
s]|Oiild be contebt, and should obtain what be wanted willi 
little labour. When the |>eople became too abutidaiit, they 
sottght occasion, for wars. Those men who were so inde^ 
fatigable ia the field, gave themselves up,- when peaee was.. 
coBckided, to tranquil indolence; the morrow passed witft 
them like the yesterday, and the present like -the former 
year i birth, marriage, and death were the only remarksible 
epochs of their existence. 

• -/I^heir cattle were small but strong, and their cows gave 
abundance of milk. Those tribes who* dwelt upon the 
atnber coast werie at first astonished that the foreign, nier^ 
ehant set a value on that production of nature. Wh«i 
eoiamerce took its rise among them, they preferred silver 
to gold, because the pieces were more numerousj and be- 
cause they could always change them. Old coinage was 
most esteemed by them, and they placed po confidence ift 
new money. So the king of Taproban^ wb^i the coiiii^ 
oif dif^rent emperors of the early period was sbowii to hiiis; 
from the equality of > the weight, formed so exalted an-d^ 
TBdovk of the good faith and justice of the Mtion^ that he sent 
si^ embassy to Rome. Arms, horses, and gold chains, for 
ifiimily memorials, were the\ gifts which they most joyfulfy 
received* Racing, wrestling, and throwing stones- were 
their favourite sports; and they were so exeessively devotfed 
to^ Ae die, that after a man had lost his flocks! in the game^ 
he often- staked his own person, and by an unjuo^r £gA. be^^ 
came a slave. . . . ^ 

The bodies of the common people were buried; and those 
of distinguished persons were burnt at particular places : to- 
gether with the warrior were interred his arms and his war- 

Digitized by 


3<M mttwasix. Hi83x>ftY: 

bone. HiOoAa were thrown over their graves ; the ptkiic 
lamentation &r them was short, but they were nev&r for* 
gotten by their friends. 

We have more laws than the old Germans^ who stood 
not in need of complex and numerous regulations. Qn^ 
might prefer to be a Greek or Roman; to belcfng to iia- 
Isons who had so manifold, such noble and refined enjoy- 
ment|(; but to what calamities did not these advantages 
reduce those who possessed them? It was a splendid dis- 
tinction to be a Dictator — a Ceesar ; but it was no mean 
privil^e which Arminius enjoyed, to be the avenger, and 
aftenvards^to become the tutelar god of his country. In 
the simple and iiidq>endent life of the Germans,! the rq>u- 
tation of extensive knowledge gttve no great lustre to the 
name ; but fiune is but for a few, and happiness is the pur- 
suit of all; when the latter is wanting, the former' cannot 
supply its place ; and when a man enjoys his existence, be 
forgets to seek renown. It was a misfortune for our fathers 
to find in their conquests many nations who were in every 
way depraved : among them they acquired more artificial, 
but not better habits. That ancient liberty, those manners 
so celebrated by Tacitus, those ever- victorious arms, and 
afterwards that long and gloomy night of oppression, of sii- 
p^rstiticm, and of crimes, show abundantly how dangerous 
for a free people is a revolution in their manners and insti- 
tutions. The lofty virtues of the ancients are not for every 
man : few have the genius necessary to effect alterations in 
the laws of their country, and very few are in circumstances 
which afford them an opportunity; but it is in the power of 
every man, at every time, to attain to the virtues which 
distinguished our forefathers while they dwelt in the German 
forests, the principal of which was the habit of restraining, 
their desires and wants. 

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■ ' . f 

Already^ in Trajan's, time^ the Roman statefmen ap^,, 
prehended somp calaouty on the.aidfe of the north, and. 
they esteemed the enipire happy in the want of t^qion^ 
among the German nations, and in the circuifistan^e thai 
the introduction of manufactures, of wine^ and of wants, 
hitherto unknown from the Roman provinces, was effecting 
a change in the manners of the more remote tribe^ white 
the niigration of the Marcomanni and Sicambri. had dioHr 
nished the strength of the barbarians on their qearest fron- 
tier. When the AUeraanni were no longer able to defend 
their independence/against Hadrian, they penetrated fur- 
ther into th^ depths of the German forests* 

The first attempt at a powerful invaaon hap- 
pened in the reign of Marcus Aurelius, 2J5 
years after the celebrated migration of the Cimbri. The 
Allemanni threw themselves upon the territory of the ^[Ihaeti ; 
to the westward, the province of the Saone was income 
motion; and Marcomir, in the east» made an impression . 
on Pannonia and Noricum. Marcus Aureliud appeaj^ed all 
these disturbances : the circumstances of his wars are un« 
kaown to us, but the enemy was deterred, by them for ^ 
long time from attempting similar invasions. 

The Allemanni were afterwards defeated on^ 
* the banks of the Maine by Bassianus Caraca]}a: 
the wives of the slaughtered warriors, to whom life ap- 
peared' contemptible without glory and freedom,' ^ew them- 
selves and tjieir children. 

^ While the Emperor Alexander vfas occupied 

' ; ' with the Persians on the Euphrates, the AUe- 

manqi took, arms to revenge thar. defeat. The Roman 

^monnrch led his armies from the Eiqpl^rates to the Maine, 


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and speedily gnmted pardon to the Qermang, who sued 
for peaoe. Maaumioiis pursued them into Ae Hessian 
marshes ; but the next generation, rising with fresh spiriti 
broke through the fortifications, and invaded at the suoe 
time the province of the Saone, the Germania prima, 
and Uie territory of the Rhseti: a prodigioiis swarm^ led 
by their chieftain Crochns, penetrated throng the Tyrol 
into Italy, and seem to have spread* themselves as fiur te 
^ _ Ravenna. At the same period the cekhraled 

A ^ QRQ 

ooniederacy of the Franks first made its up* 
pearance on the theatre of Europe^ they passed the 
Rhine into the Netherlandjs, traversed Gaul, every where 
pltindanng and laying waste the conntry, carossed the Pjr- 
reniees, and sacked the Spanish ciqiital Tana- 
gcma. ' Shortly before this time the Goths had 
passed through the Grecian provinces in Europe and Amu 



• <^ In the fiirtheet north,*' says Jornandes, on the audio- 
rity of anci^t. si^as and traditioiiary poems, << a number 
of hoistSe tribes dwelt in the country of Seanzia," or Sean* 
dinavia : <' this region^ extends itself to the boundary of the 
habitable globe, where^ in the winter, a gloomy night 
eovers the earth with darkness during forty days, and in the 
summer the sun remains above the horizon for an e^al 
time* Tlie Suethones ^ dwdl nearest to us, who, wit& 
swift horses, chaee the few wild animals that inhabit their 
wood^ and transmit their valuable skins, through a hoflb- 
dlped different nations, to us ui Italy/' Animals whieh are 
now only found in Siberia were probably at that time wild 
in Sweden, as the urns and the rein-deer were at the feet 
of the Alps. <* In this same part of the world dwdls the 
gmtle race of Finns ; and in the alining comitKy the 

♦ Probably the Swedes. 

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iTint£»t4L mroitT. 807 

Dmg^ n nM&an ol *hx»g6 itstme. FiroihlhisregioB," 
fhiiieg Jorfiandes, «< eame tbe GoABt^Mf eailMaiccsd m 
^ttffieiclift number to fill three sbifMi, and Imded efin the Ak* 
ttmugaok tCQBtf (the «hore of Pomeraiiitf emd-Medtlmbar j^) 
t«fhere tb^ defeated tbe wandering kovdes of Vudafab 
After if9 geiierilion% duruig whfcb they had hocome vety 
i m tnenwig, Filmier led their host, with all the hecdi bdnngi* 
iog to iAkemi out ctf the northern regions into 4ie eoontriei 
whieh are oontigaoc» to llie Ikixine mn^** Widi a miikitf 
traditioB Panlndy tbe don of Warnefri^ duokiellor of the 
last kmg dT tbe Lombards, conunences tbe Iristoty of hie 
people: << Ihor (Igor) u»d Asio wece the leaden of tibe 
first emigration, whidi set out in three dimione^ Ambn 
and Assi weite tbe €hie£» ei the Vandais, and tbeir country 
im» called SlEoningen: the $>rmer exacted « tribatefit^n 
the wanderers, as a rent for tbe meadows on which ibejp 
ted their itocks. Afterwards Skoningen was found to be 
no longer capable of affording them sustenance^ and a nml« 
titude of people disputing their passage, tbe ch^mpion^ on 
whose success the enemy bad pledged their cause, was 
Idlled in a dngle combat by a slare; hereupon die slaves of 
tbe army were made free*" In like manner Panfais rebrtes 
limr journey lbro«^ a number of unknown countries, 
until th^ arrived at the borders of Poland and Hangaryt 
it was here that bis nation, the Lombards, SoKd their aeth 
tkment. It has been diown, ia another plaee, how. the 
traditionary songs of lite old Swiss, at SklMytz,. UntOF'* 
widden in Hashland, and Oberkendergebnege, agree widi iht 
eJMre$ «o that one saga makes up the dd&eiendes in.^ tfae 
tiliiers, and all of them hwe the same leading traits. It 
appears probable that, in very andent times, before Ite 
existence of Rome, perhiqps anteriov to> the age oC sil his- 
tory, the Gottne race dwelt in the northern regions, whence^ 
aoeerding to l^illy's conjecture, many other natime al» 
^n%Miiled. Theee they #andeped to andfito: perhapis dm 
one 4)eca8ion, thiT* iS^Uowed the god Wodex)) or a chief who 

X 2 

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how bis oame, fiir inlojtho dcpdui of the nortJuNm wil^^- 
M89 ; and tttotbeir Umei» finding it impoMible, or having no 
incUnalion to fertilise ihose sterile regions, were coiidiu^ted 
bjr other kadersJnto the southem colmtj^ies. Accordingly 
we find tteBi|)Iaced by Pomponius Mela on> the Prussian 
ahoies. After the battle 'i^;ain8t tl^e Vandal^ they were. 
aepoiMid froin the Lombards; whfle the foraier lemaioed 
ID PfttMia, ^ hear of the latter in the northern part of, the 
terrkdry <>f Bfnnswick. The Goths afterwards spread 
themselyes akoig] the plains and steppes of the Ukrahi^^ 
and further on towards the Don^ while the Xiombards held * 
ikeir course more to the westwaird* In their original seats 
in Scandinavia, the names and other vestiges of the tribes 
remain ; and the inclination for foreign enterprises and ad- 
venturous wanderings was kept alive: hy constantly existiiig 
cftuses, and may be traced down to the twelfth century. It 
is scarcely possible, in this instance^ to take advantage; of 
the only means by which light can be throvm on obscure 
siibjccts of this nature^ viz. the comparison of dialects; be- 
cause^ from the remote age of which we are;treating9 ..very 
Uttle has reached our times in a tolerably perfect state; /.and 
because die higher we go in antiquity^ the greater resem- 
blance do we discover between langniiges. How many 
JLatin rodts has Ihre. discovered in the idiom of Ulfila ? 
Very littteivouH remain to the Greeks j^ere we to restore 
to the north and east all that it has derived from these 
souiti&: Sd:Jbezer.fii2ds no greater difference between the 
oki Slavonic of the Russian annals and the old Germani 
Aaxk between our High Dutdi and theXow Dutch : a mul- 
titude of German roots esdst in the.Perdc, possibly^tro- 
, Attced by means of the Parthians. .From all this it .would 
follow, that it might be possible to decypher the primitive 
language of the north by the siid of the numoxius.dialecta 
whidiiare derived from it, but that the peculiar porUoii 
which €fach tribe . jmherited is too . imperifectly .knowa to 
enable us lo ascertain, on sufficient ^grounds, the depress 

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tnirnrsftSAz. nt^roKYi 30$ 

«f their aflhiity in sndi mnote times: conmieroc^ r^ligioii; 
k»cal circumstances, migrations, wars, and sdtonoes have 
{produced great modifications in all of them. 

It may therefore easily be conceived that the Goths, who 
i^ the third century dwelt on the north' of the Black Sea 
ixAd ibrther on in the provinces of Russia, which the Lettish 
people still call Gothland, may at one time have had their 
seats in the more remote north, without our being able to 
determine with which of the northern races they had the 
nearest aflSnity." ' 

The chiefs of the Goths were of the venerable and illus- 
trious family of the Baltes, a name which' imports gleam* 
ing with Ught, bold, or enterprising. Power was hereditary 
among diem ; land, slaves, and other possessions devolving 
iii the same manner. Yet the nation had, as in the first ages 
of other European monarchies, a firee choice among the 
princes of this house* The chief was also the supreme 
director in afiairs of religion, who ofiered up to the heroes, 
his ancestors, suitable sacrifices, in order that through them 
he might be animatM with the same noble virtues by wllidi 
th<ey hadgaihied iitomortality. The Goths, like the Chinese, 
considered the patriarch of the' royal house as • a Idtid of 
m^iator appointed to offer up their praters to the Stt|yr<»ie 
Deity,/ who could only then refuse to hear them when his 
descendants ceased to display thbte virtues which Wfere 
cfearer to him than his own progeny. The same chii^tain, 
who was both general and high^priest, performed tibe 
dilties of a supreme judge. Yet although a- single indi^ 
viduali;' &e representative bf God among the people, united 
so many dignities in hiiB own person, still the Goths were 
free; his whole powdr depended oh their arms; he was every 
thing through them, and without the consent of the Gothic 
nation he eould neither make laws nor carry on war. Hiis 
constitution became disorganized when^ ailer their con- 
quests, a part of the nation laid aside the use of arms jxi 
order to 'ap{^ themselves to the arts 6( peace. From that 

X 8 

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910 mttfwsAX. mu/fOKt* 

time ike king bad only the nobilitjr to fe»r, md if tbey 
•greed with him im power wm f^Aolute; vrhum tbe nobSily 
became degraded, the supreme anthoritj remaiiMsd idosost 
wjtkoai any bounda* ^ 

Of Ue Gothic '' Wohlbebngen," for ao tbey OAmed their 
laws, we potaeas tbe fewer traces, as the art of wrkng'^ the 
JBtventkMi of the sooth, wsa to them nokiiowiL 
. , Il;is imcertam whether ki Woden they worshipped the 
iftirit of a hero who had cond«ieted bis people fiir firom the 
Romati arms into the northern desarts. The God of the 
GatSB, the Oradivu$ Pinter^ G^icis gtd prasidet arvis^. was 
pvc^phiated by^mmaa victims to bestow victory on bis people, 
Md probably t|)e Oetse were originally of tbe same stock 
wkh the Gk^ths. The latter, when they went to baUle, 
chanted songs of praise in honour e( Wid%an, JFridigem^ 
Gthesbamer, and other ancient heroes. Sudi song^ were 
piinaly historical, for k was tliought arrogani; to adpcn 

About tbe time oi the Emperor Dedos, this nation esSr* 
^ked commotions in the vicinity oS the Bhick Sea,. 13iey 
passed over and burnt Cyzicus, Chaksedon, and Sphesne. 
CreiifBiiig : the Dumbe they traversed Greece, pl«u)de9ed 
Alhemi» imd made tbe ishmds of the jS^ean Sm trenn 
Ut« li appears that the possession, of tbe Tanric peoiffsubit 
' orCSrim Tartaryv gave the Goths this prepondemnoe; it is 
the hqir of t36^ ndgfabonring seas and coat^ts^ and jteirfiirf 
taM^s, well acquainted with the navigation of the Ea^e^ 
9^ enabled to iaaake hostile attacks with greater advanlffge 
^n tfiey can be assailed in their own quitters from with^ 
G^ The excell^t Emperor Becius fell by the arras of the 
Go^ 0^ perished in a morass, upon which Galinfi coOf- 
duded a treaty of peace so ignominious that he was on that 
account judged to be unworthy of the throne, fieme <MBdy 
survived by tbe im«icsi^ di«|»<^Kirtion ef h^ lOlfiQaal 
strei^th. QajidiiA end Auifeliap Eeven^ed tba glof^ of 
tbe empiie; 4b^ dn>ve the MewDwi oiltnf Italy and 

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beyond the oftoimtains io die riTer Lech» and obliged ihe 
<3lollif to cosdade a secure treatjs^ accordmg t^ which the 
fitftfaer Dacia was given up to tbem^ and their moit YaHoat 
youth were taken into the military service of the Romails. 
It waa hoped that their wavlike genius might thus be duffir 
caently employed, but they became more foErmidahb hf 
leamijig the tactics of disciplined armies, and thus rendetad 
thamselv^ the masters of niany northern hordes. <^ Often,'' 
says the historian, ^ the Vandals wsre vanquished by their 
arms ; die Marcottianni became tributsry to them } the 
Quadi served in their ranka^ and they overcame the Ocqpidt.? 
It appears that in the middle of the fonrtk century Pdand 
and tibe western provinoei of European Russia, as &r as the 
Esthonian and Livonian ooasts,- acknowledged more or 
less the laws o£ this powerful nationk With the Heruli, 
vribo then possessed the territory of Brandenburg, the Goths 
earned on more frequent wars ; the amues of the fovmei^ 
coii^istiag chiefly of li^t troops, were adapted to petty 
WBMkxe, and able to ddrmish in a has^ flight; the Gothic 
4Hdsr of battle waa firm and. close; their assfailt wda U^ 
aiendoas, their resistance always powetfol^ and their aims 
finally victorious. 

The Goths were distiaigsished l^ a certain aoinidnesa of - 
understanding and humanly <rf dispcaitioii which i«ndffed 
their simple manoera more susceptible of tme^csfiljaMion 
than those of the wiki and ftvopioaB natjoos who chieAf 
subsisted by th # Hwip frt . 



ScARCBLT was the death of Aurdion kaoisni^ whsik the 
Attemamii, probaUy in cenjunctioii with other tribes^ m/i 
strmigthMied espedally by the assistance of the Ereaks^ 
avierspiieadwitti myriads of barbariaaa this Umilmf^<3daif^ 

X 4 

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and exAbted from all who approached him the token of 
adoration. FormerIy^ the emperors had worn a simple 
robe of purple^ without gold or precious stonesi and were 
usually accosted like other aviators; the alteration of 
costume was made with solemnity, and by both the .sove* 
irei^s on the same day. Rome^ the mistress of the world, 
ceased to be the seat of govemm^it, and was visited only 
once in twenty years by Diocletian ; who made Nicome^a 
his chief residence, while Maximianus held his court at 

It seemed probable that the division of powier would fih- 
eilitate its maintenance, and that the ambition of the great 
might henceforward be held in subjection : an abode in the 
neighbourhood of the Goths and AUemanni seemed more 
conducive (o the conservation of military virtues dian the 
eerrupt life of the metropolis^ in fact, the Goths were t»- 
strained fromfiirther aggressions,' and the AUemanni were 
defeated at Langres and near Windiscb, in Helvetia. Biii^ 
tatii was reduced fo obedience, and Fsnda was forced to 
eensent to a peace fitvourable to Rome; but it required no 
graat^nowledge of human nature to foresee that two or four 
soveragos would not be for ever unaninums; and Aatthetwp 
Csesars would not always wait with padenoe for the vaoitioii 
of &e highest dignity. Hie provmces, exhansled by de««stfr- 
tieoi or bad government, saw already, during the lifo «f 
D fac k t i a ti , civil or rather internal wars break out, hoAm* 
rians isviled into the empire by pretenders to the thvent^ 
ill crder to asdst them agahist their rivals, and nsfiv mai 
more detested modes of crime succeed in the plaee of 
flmm^ atroeities. 

Yet Biodetian enjoyed with his colleague^ to the twen* 
tietii year of his reign, diat repose which die exhausted 
s/M» of faetion^ and the military talents of the two CaHMOS 
affiirded faim$ until at lengA he hiid down his aathotity, 
induced fay the premeiture fiulure of his foedties, ores 
some^ with kss prpb^lnlity, suppose^ by the sapiitiQiice of 


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the Ciesar Galerius. Maximian foUowed his exampk ua* 
wiiUingly^ and only by the compulsion of circumstances* 
Constantine was hereupon advanced by hi# father Cpnstan* 
tins, and Severus by Galeriils, to the rank of Caesars* 

Constantius shortly afterwards terminated liis benevolent 
reign and illustrious life. Galerius socHi incurred the hMred 
of the Romans, by attempting to burden them with an im«- 
post; and Maximian availed himself of this discontent in 
order to reduce Italy under the sway of his son Maxentiii% ^ 
in consequence of which Severus was entirely stripped of 
his power. Maxentius undertook the government under the 
direction of his father. In the mean time the young C<m- ' 
stantme gained the hearts of the British and Gallic legions, 
and forced both Galerius apd M&ximian to acknow- 
ledge him as a colleague in the imperial digtti^. Maxi^ 
miaa not content with governing under the name of Us 
son, caused a proposal to be made to Diocletian^ to resnisie 
the sovere^ power ; the latter showed the messengers irho 
hofe the commission to him, the beantiful gardens dmt 
JSalonsy in which he enjoyed and was resolved still to eegof 
the pl0asures of a spi^did and tranqcul retirement. At 
this time Maxentius became intolerable to the RomaDsi 
his guard was his only proteelaon ; he abandoned himaelf 
lo #Ko?8siv0 dejbaiudierys and waa the terror, of all the qm*- 
lent 'CalizeDB. The noUes ^kd from the city in conoiwd^ 
^ik amidst the ge^ral eonfusioii even agrieultiise was 
ne i ^ ected^ and the old Maximian was obliged to takere* 
|«^e nndex' the protedion of Constantme^^vlio bad nMnrtiei 
bis. daughter, from the violence of the yooth&d tftmit 
Bat his own character was not less depraved than tfaitof his 
son, and he soon formed projects against his son^in«law^ 
who Itad affEirded him aa asylum; iii eonuqpsaot oS which 
Cwslantine^ to avoid beooming his victkn, put an ^nd to his 
vestleBs osreer^^bot aUowed Umso ehooae the manner «f his 
death. Constantine marcfaed sqg(n afterwards, invked by 

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the great men of Rome^ against MfiKentias, and dereatoif 
him near the metropolis; in a battle which cost* tiie ktter 
his life. The whole empire in the west thus fell into die 
hands of Constantine. 

In the east Galerius was dead : Maximinus Daza, his 
nephew, immoderate in wine and sensual pleasures, but at 
the same time eager for knowledge, liad fallen by a speedy 
death. Constantine now formed an alliance with LiciniuSf 
a soldier, who, for his merits in warfare, had been ho- 
noured with the friendship of Galerius, and raised at length 
to the dignity of CsBsar. They divided the empire between 
them, ludd named their sons, Crispus and Licinianus, their 
successors, with the. same title which they had enjoyed. 
About this time the old Diocletian died, as it is reported, by 
his own* hand, indignant because the new emperors bad 
«3cpresl»ed themselves ungraciously towards him, on account 
0f his absence from, the marriage-feast of Licinius. 
: At this conjuncture the emperors put an end to the per- 
secution of the Christians, which had been commenced ten 
years before by Diocletian and his colleague. Constantine 
fiMind it a wise measure to amciliate the millions in his emr> 
pire^ who were the intrepid worshippers of Jesus. After 
'msxry years, towards the close of bis life, he caused him- 
«rif to be baptized. It seems probable that he was induced 
to delay this rite so long from a i^lucCaUce to abandon cer- 
tain fiH^bidden ceremonies, for whidi the severity of the 
dnirch rendered it very difficult for those who had received 
baptinn 'to ' obtain absolution ; but he acknowledged his 
conversion to Christianity, and published two edicts, one of 
vi^ich granted to Christians the use of the temples of the 
gods, in places, where convenient cfaurchcA were wanting; 
md the other gave them the pr^nrence in elections to all 
offices.'of dignity, both civil and mititary. In the coarse 
of about seventy yeurs from that tim^ the Christian firith 
h^ become the prevaiHng religioii of die iempke»^ 

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The thix>ne of the Caesars has fallen : Greeks and Ro- 
mans are no more; but Christianity exerts its influence on 
our age and on all future times. It is here that some ac*^ 
coij^nt of the old religions of the world, and of the origin 
of the Christian faith, and of the church, will find its na<* 
turftl place. 

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( 318 ) 




Whence came that intellectual spirit that dwdls in man, 
and whither does it depart; that spirit which measures 
the distances of the heavenly spheres ; which resolves the 
apparently simple elements of nature; which embracev the 
knowledge of all past time; governs the opimons and des- 
tinies of nations; and exercises a powerful influence on re- 
mote futurity I Man has stolen the lightning from the 
heavens; he has gained a dominion over the sea; he has 
measured the paths of comets, and traversed the lofty re- 
gions of the air ; and yet who is he ? Whence is his origin, 
and what is the end of his being? To these enquiries our 
senses make no reply. Abstract and metaphysical argu- 
ments, Mrithout end, have been devised, repeated, and com- 
pitred; some more complete, others less perfect, and yet no 
result appears to be more certain than that all is yet in- 
volved in doubt. 

What has befallen those illustrious men, whose genius, 
in the bri^test days of literature, soared on so sublime a 
track, that the wise and good of every age have followed 
their flight with delight ^nd rapturous sympathy ? Have 
they, whose soul yet breathes in their immortal works, be- 
come k>ng ago the spoil of corruption ? Has no other des- 
tiny awaited the virtuous Cato^ the benevolent Titus, and 
the excdlent Antonine^ than that which was allotted to the 

* The author has in this section briefly glanced at the heathen aTgu« 
ments for tiie immortality of the wul. T. 

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abominable Nero and the bloody Maximin? )EIave the 
four hundred Lacedaemonians of Leonidas, have Brutus 
and Cassius, and all who have yielded their lives and dfs* 
piaed death for the general good, sunk into the gulf of 
eternal night? Wh^reis the key that shall unlock the mys- 
teries of this wonderful enigma ? 

. Great and good men have passed before us on the theatre 
of the world ; yet we can imagine virtue far more pure and 
perfect than they have displayed; the most learned of men 
despise' their knowledge, so &r do they find it to be below 
the ideal standard ; there is a feeling implanted in u^ of the 
vast and infinite, which the human faculties cannot satisfy ; 
and powers of self-controul are posnble^ before which 
the most rebellious passions must yield; yet at the end of 
the career of truth and virtue, shall we believe that the last 
scene will be a final relinquishment of these great thotights^ 
an etomal seclusion in the silent grave ? 

The popular belief of the Hebrews, the Greeks, the 
Gaid% the Germans, the doctrine of the Egyptian priests, 
of Zoroaster and Confucius, hold out better prospects ; but 
the godlike Plato only wished tor the confirmatioa of these 
visions ; Cicero doubted, and Pliny was inclined to reject 
them. Tliey hold out a hope which elevates ns aboive the 
whole visible universe ; throws under our feet all tKat we 
behold ; and opens an immeasurable prospect of advancement 
towards infinite perfection : but doubts, which we cannot 
diqid, huk within the sanctuary of our reason* May the 
historian be enabled to discover something to dissipate them t 



At what time and places and by the operation of whiat 
eanscs, aran cnme into existeBoe^ was not at the fint period 
of that eadstehce a mere abstract specnhitibn ; his very he* 
ing necessarily involves certain definite conditions ; whan 
he rose out of non-entity he must have brought with him 

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'those Acuities by means of which himself and his race 
have continued to subnst. Shall we conclude that the first 

~ caiiBe which called the human soul into being, . endowjed it 
with a store of ideas as a foundation for its exercise and 
future improvement ? It may be allowed that this primitive 
tradition, obscured and deformed by antiqui^,'long re- 
mained a mere popular opinion; but when philosophers 
had caught the spark, and kindled with it. a light which 
odightened the world, then the original sentiment miain- 
tained its prerogative, and mankind, in harmony with them- 
selves, recognized the innate principle of their nature re- 
vived and invigorated/ Nations, which hav.e beei^ left 
wholly to themselves, have remained for ever wrapt in the 
cmdle of childhood, and it is only the communication of 
traditionary knowledge that excites them to improvement. 
By this channel we have become possessed of truths which 
cannot be measured by our reason. ' Let us endeavour to 
pursue the track which thus opens itself to our view. 

Shall we begin with the mythdogy of the Shu-king*, 
with its doctrine of nature, its sacred Three, with the ce^ 
lest&l wisdom of Yaof and Sha-un, with the great deeds 

* The Shu-^ng is the second of the sacred books of the Chinese^ 
"which are collectively termed the U-kijig; and it is the most important^ 
since the first book called the Y-king, contains nothing but a series of 
symbolical characters, which are for the most part unintellig^bie. The 
Shu-king consists of fragments of the ancient Mstory and mythology of 
CUna. It is comprised in six parts. The two first contain the memo- 
zable events of the earliest period of Chinese history, and particularly 
ths wise discourses and institutions of Yao, ShaF-un, and his successor, the 
great Yu, the founder of the first dynasty of Chinese emperors. These 
three monarchs are regarded as the great lawgivers of the nation. The 
third part of the Shu-king contains the history of China under the second 
dynasty ; and the remainder is occupied with the annals^ if such the;)' 
can be called, of the third dynasty. T, 

f Yao^was the first great legislator of China. He reigned a huodrad 
yeatf^ and his successor, Shanui, nearly as long. From Yao the Chi- 
nese pretend to have records regulated by their historical cycle of dxty 
years. T. 

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of the Hiia,*, the Shang,.and the Tsheu; with' (Siiiia, 
whote legends reach up to the first ages of the earth, then 
drying from the. waters of the ocean f; whose historical 
book is three centuries older than Herodotus, and which at 
this day presents a picture of that primitive antiquity, the 
venerable customs of which China has. never sacrificed to 
fore^n manners? I^all we show how Tshang-ti |: distri- 
buted power and happiness, according to the virtue and 
wisdom of men; how. the great Yu,. how Tshing-tang and 
Va-vang^ since the. dissolution of. their corporeal forms, 

* The Hia, the Shang, and the Tsheu, were the three first dynasties 
of Chinese emperors. 

f . Hie first emperors of China are smd, in the traditions of that coun- 
try, to have exercised thdr skill in drvning the land, and, drawing off 
the waters of the sea which had before covered the plains of this vast 
empire. In this relation, and in the story of the rainbow, which encir- 
cled the mother of Fohi, and in his distribution of animals into clean 
and unclean, some persons have supposed that they have. traced the 
scriptural history of the deluge. T. 

j: Tshang-ti is the supreme [object of adoration among th^. Chinese 
wtio profess the andent religion of the empire. ' Some writers, who 
iiave supposed the religion of .the. Chinese to be a kind of sabaism, or 
worship of material nature, have represented the Tshang-ti as de- ' 
noting the visible heaven, to which they suppose supplications to have 
been addressed. Whether the ancient Chinese had any distinct idea 
of an inviilble and spiritual creator, it might be dif&cult to dedde. 
The Shu-king, at least, always speaks of Tshang-ti as an intelligent 
being, and as a moral governor of the universe. T. 
. § These are the three great saints, or mediators of 'the Chinese, who 
have obtained asort of half-deification, and are represented as ever Kneel- 
ing before the throne o£ Tshang-ti, and deprecating the evils which menace 
their posterity. They obtained their exalted rank by the sanctity and 
^wisdom of their lives, and by the services they rendered China. Yu has 
been mentioned above. He was the founder of the first dynasty. 
Tshing-tang, the founder of the second, is said to have devoted himself 
as a sacrifice, to atone for the sins of his people. The representation of 
this performance is remarkable. At a time when China had sufiered 
greatly from long continued droughts, Tshing-tang ascended his chariot, 
drawn by milk-white horses, and w^t in procesuon ^th all Ms court, 
to the top of a high mountain, where, putting on the skin of a lamb, 
with his feet and head bare, he was slain as an ^expiatory offering. Va- 
Tang was a great philosopher and legislator, and the founder of the third 
dynasty. T. 

VOL. I. y 

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ever look up from, that medium towards ivhich tLe ener- 
gies of their aoiib were directed, adoring the cornidl of the 
Mo9t Wghf mi aiq>pUcating for their China, endeaTidiir, 
without ceasing) to conciliate in her behalf the favour of 
tieaveu. The manner and doctrine of the Shucking are 
indeed remarkable; its author has nought to reach the 
hearta of men by . waya which the sages of other regions 
have scarcely attempted^ 

But the Shucking) and the Veda, and the Zendavesta, 

venerable as the traditions are which they contain, and 

which we have not yet sufficiently explored or applied to our 

own advantage, are still only particular objects in the history 

of the Chinese, Indian, and Persian nations, to which, in 

their genius and precepts they stand in so close a relation, 

that they seem for that very reason incapable of furnishing 

religious doctrines for the people of remote countries. Hie 

. aBegories and moral dc^mas, revered on the Hoangho, the 

Ganges, and the Kura, are suited to those tranquil spirits, 

whp stiU thi^k and feel as did their forefathers in the 

days of Alexander. Secluded within the enchanted regions 

which gave them birth, they exhaust all the powers of their 

souls in the enjoyment of devout ccmtemplation. 

Insulated as China is by the vast wilderness of Gobi on 
one side, and on the other by scarcely accessible shores ; 
cut off from all participation in our learning, and a happy 
security from our arms, so she has hitherto been, secluded 
from the representations which Europe possesses of our 
. common nature. A true light is now, for the first time, 
about to be diffused from Calcutta, over the strange mets^ 
morphoses, warferes, and figures of the Indian mythology. 
The code which contains the religion of Persia, was so 
closely coaneected with a definite form, and even with a po- 
Utical irpstem, that after the subversion of the latt«-, it was 
not found sufficiently applicable to the government of the 
country which had produced it, to maintain its influence 
over the barbarous conquerors of the East., 

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Men of great IclEirning httte proved that the mythology 
of Hbni»r and H^iidd cofisisis erf* a mixture of physteal 
' trtotfas and hi^orical traditions; it is diffi^alt to distinguish 
the i9ne from the other in particular instanceis. A sublii^e 
fic^ise shines through aU the ddeorations^ all the superstt^ 
tioos^ and the pfiestoraft of this myiholc^ ; but human 
nature dispkys itself at the same tiiue in those prejudices 
whi<& represent God as partaking of the infirmities of man ; 
aild the whole religion of die Greeks and Romans^ though 
ambeUt^hed by thi9 most celebrated {loets^ ancl applied in 
the most ad vantstgeotis manner by statesmen, was only ca^ . 
pable of holding its place during the infancy of the wotld^ 
ftdd Under the gOTemm^lts whidi then exi^ttd. The primi^ 
tite traditions are here found more distorted than in the 
sacred books of the Orientals and the unwritten saga» of 
the Norths btoutse they fumidied occupation for greater 
pdwers of inTeiition and for itiolre active minds. 

The ancients always distinguish the father of gods and 
tMUi at whose imd Olympus shook and all the lords of 
heairen tt^itibled on their thrones, from that unknown 
power which imjloses an universal law on Jupiter himself^ 
Md from IJke number of silbordinate beings who seek partly 
to iiarlfil the counsel of the sovereign, partly to resist or to 
influence his will. * The latter idea is suited to the infancy 

* Jupiter ^nd Fate are inyoked as separate and independent bdngs 
by Epictetus. «^ "Ayov ^t) fAB « Ziw, xaX <n} H Tltte^uuifn «ffo* voff viaTp 
ufA 5*fl&rET«y/ut€wj/* " Lead me. Oh Jupiter, andTiivUi, Fate, whither- 
BOevfer I am destined by ybti to go/* 

iStehylus reptesmts th^ power of Fat^, oit Necesdit)^, a« t&pffkfr ts^ 
- thett%htof Jove:-*- 

Who then is ruler of JJecesftity? 
The triple Fates and unfbrg^ttiftg Juries. 
Must Jove then yield to thfetf ^trp'effdt poW^f ? ' 
In no way shall he 'scap^ his destined fete. 

Potter's Mtchylut. 

Y 2 

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of the human mind : for since no finite being has faculties 
sufficiently comprehensive to conceive in every case hovr the 
principle of the universal system acts in all its parts, and 
how the whole can be governed by a single thought, men 
imagined it impossible'for Ood to rule his empire withoiit 
ministers and inferior agents, just as in a great monarchy 
the mind of the priiice is incapable of extending to parti- 
cular a&irs. Instead of reflecting that all forms and modes 
of being are mere words, and that only One essentially 
exists; and that although the universe consists of an in* 
numerable multitude of parts, it is yet in relation to infinite 
power more minute than the least of its comp<Hient particlet 
is in comparison' with the whole, they absurdly refused to 
admit the universal providence of God. But in the s^ht 
of God, nothing is great; nothing hide; nothing difBcok : 
with one act of his will, at a time known to himself, he 
called forth ^om his mind that idea wluch we caU the 
world, or the system of Nature. 

The opinion that a number of vassals of the court of 
Olympus were necessary, that every one might serve in his 
proper capacity (for thus the fictions of allegory were mis- 
inteipreted), difiused an irksome uncerttunty over the life 
of the devotee. Full of dread of the irresistible unseen 
power, ,and at the same time destitute of confidence, the 
wretched mortal turned himself to every side ; and sought 
by every new and absurd invention, to excite in favour of 
his prayers the attention of the gods. 

During the prevalence of these childish errors the most 

In other places we find Fate described as the result of laws dictated by 
the artMtrary will of Jupiter; as in the celebrated hynm of Cleantfaes. 

The crowd of inferior gods are continually represented as ministers of 
the supreme Jupiter, and as scarcely less dependent on him than mortal 
men. See the 4th chapter of Dr. Cudworth's Intellectaal System, 
where that learned writer has collected a large number of passages from 
the ancient authors, with the design of proving that the religion of 
Greece and Rome was fundamentally monotheistic. T. ♦ 

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vmrMMAL w&pom{. 325 

exalted patiioti«n displayed itself, together with a-degree of 
rcffineraent which has never been surpassed, and yevy seldoia 
equalled, in later times: great mental powers are not so 
much formed by maxims of reason as developed by contem- 
plation and by sympathetic feelings, which in those ages 
had on many accounts a greater influence oyer mankind. 
The strength of character decreased as the minds of men 
became more enlightened. 

The Delphic god, who had relied to Themistocles and 
JLjtxtrgas in bad verses, but according to the standard of 
tbdr-pwn knowledge, uttered in the time of Alexander bid 
responses in plain prose^ and. towards the decline of Gre- 
cian liberty became wholly silent. In fact, be was seldom 
interrogated; for what means of information did he possess- 
vfben affairs ceased to be directed by public magistrates and 
popular' conventions ? How could Apollo pry into the 
secrets of cabinets? Silence was imposed upon him by 

The old religion now became more and more the objecl 
of philosophic doubt |tnd of pro&ne jesting; and it was 
soon foutid incapable of exciting, even among the ignorant, 
either, confidence or terror with its former power and dig- 
nity. In fact, by the alteration of languages, of times and 
manners, the ancient symbols had become obscured, and 
the forms and functi9ns of religion changed. The philo- 
sophers had not derived sufficient instruction from antiquity 
and firom the east, to comprehend the spirit of the mytho- 
logy. Ignorance is ever disdainful; the keen-sighted Aca- 
denies, the intelligent Stoics, the witty and profane disciples 
oS Epicurus, beheld only folly in the popular superstition^ 
ai^ discovered nothing but fabulous tales in the theogony 
of Hesiod. A growth of intellect, unknown in China and 
India, brought the religion of Greece into perils which 
Confodus had no reason tp dread. 

It happened, moreover, that while the maxims of rdigion - 
had inculcated a republican simplici^, and even a virtuous. 

Y a 

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3}6 V*i¥M8Ai4 nftswer. ( 

purily of maiuier9» Ibose ntbo hail «iprTiv«Ki tib« UhHt}» «f 
tfieir country^ and knew noibiog b^ler en^er th^ reip^.^ 
the CeauY tbm tb^ €!iyf)i7infl^ ^f :tiKQir uQ«f?taiA tve^mr^ 
aodn^g to the tfik^ <9f ilif fig% dftdftin^ mfsty 9fmim of 
couiroal. Thus the Moence of worldly .ptmoJE». f^ 
cf^rftted in this rmpei^ with tb»t of piivikiiepbjf^. 
, The inquiriest ^f mi»^ phUpaioph^i^ ^ilrih^t^ tQ tb.« 
same effect. Scanty as their knowWdge W4k% ibey spmSAy 
eonchided, from the real or fiMieied di^c^very of the oa«ses 
of sooie phfiB»omepa which had been deemed siip^ntiliaHls 
that aU effsds depend on the agency of acci^lAHy imh 
anrring oircttB»»tanoe»« They did not proceed &rth^ 9sA 
ascend akmg the chain of a thousand causea to tkaA fir al 
link which is fastened to the throne of Jupiter; n few ayllo* 
giims afforded a triumph to wit and levi^ oifer ecnrfeefe 
aentimtfits, and even over sound reason. They 'proudly 
maintained that eveiy thing has known or luifenpwqfi ^tim^ 
but that the universal system of causes' has no efficient: ox 
antecedent; they rather delighted in the dArkneta which is 
«pre£id pv^ the origin of ipian and of the ii«ir)dy tiian in 
the dis^very of new vlew% which hold foxlb midlives to 
virtue. Thus Cioera gav« as the result of pbikscfJa^^ that, 
esLcepling the future hepes of man and the e^ist-ence of.that 
Almighty power whb^ governs him^ ^very thing is nnceffr 
tain ; and that even thes^ sul^ects themsehies are soarpely 
f amoved from doubt 

Under the e^i^perors, all the gods vanished be£dce thai 
piKwer whc^ dirine was in the palace of theCaea^is. £v^ 
thing now yielded to private ii\lerest ; ci^iine piro^r^ and 
vm» effen adorned with the imperial piuple; Tiberiu^^ itnd 
C!lai|diiia weve seen among the gads: the gods ibeaisefareft 
weco inexorable to the pyieiyees of their eternal Beme; 
Augustois had seated himself, on an immoiveble throae ; 
Brutus had been abandoned, and Ps^us Thraaea had &Ui^ 
a sacrifice lo. Nero; All these thij^ filled the minds of 
virtuous men with ii)vcihmtary indignation^, and wkh vei^ 

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excttnAftble doabts. Men of conof^rdieimve miiids getiendiflscd 
^TCligions: wiUi PliHyi the atiiv«r»e is GcnI; fiwety dkiitg 
from eternity is God, and aU llongs are penTaded by him ; 
it is vmn to inquire into his tiature; he fills all things, oar 
senses, our souls, our spirits. 

In vain the Stoical s^iators aiid philosophets conleiidffd 
for the gods of ancient Rome, and for the majesty of reli«- 
pxm^ against the corruption of the times; In vain they 
sought to erect the new edifice of manners on philosophic 
maadms, as if to build a palace upon a foundation of mosaic 
work; their wise maxims yielded one after another to the 
violence of the passions. So much energy was re^^ite in 
orda* to govern the practice of life by mere abstract prai- 
ciples, thi^t th^r adherents at length consisted only of a 
ftm sedate persons, who gradually Icat themselves in olfafir 

• The Epicoreans, holding the belief that the follies of mei^ 
are indtfierent to the gods, adopted the prinaple of passing, 
aa agreeably as possible through the short career of iiifv 
without giving themselves any fruitless trouble far promoting. 
the honour of beings who take no concern in humaaaftdrs^ 
In order to render their enjoyments more various and ^ 
lightful, they cultivated the perception of the beautiful |a 
every kind, and formed their minds to every mode cf plea- 
sure. In the pursuit of refined and benevokik pleasave^ 
they sought to observe that temperance which setves to 
prolong every enjoyment. These sentiments were adopted 
by all who were more inclined to reconcile themselves to. 
the times in which they lived than to strive against then. 

Thus, to the Stoics^ aU hiunan thmgs were indififevent^ 
while they feared nothing and deored nothbg passmbattefy; 
and the Epicureans, while they despised them, contemplated 
the cares of life with pity, and participated in them as little 
as possible. Among the former, there were more hypo- 
crites ; among the latter, too many who forgot the pleasures 
which are worthy of men of refined sentiments in the imi> 

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328 lWlV£lt8AL'HfftT0RV; 

pi]l«6s wluch are common to us with tbe bpites. Tlie streftgllf 
«f the human cVaracter siitbred on both sides, and the 
omninon good was pursued by neither party with sufficient 
zeal, while' the ^sublime doctrine was adapted only to a few 
vigorous minds, and the Epicurean was often more ener- 
▼aUd by indulgence than tbe principles of his phil<»dplijr 

The people, alienated from th^r ancient gods, too rauclai 
according to nature for the lofty virtues, of the Stoics, and 
not sufficiently refined for Epicurus, were destitute €)f con- 
solation, and looked around tor a foreign creed« Tbe 
Egyptians brought their Serapis, and the priests of lais 
s|Mread themselves through the whole empire. Tbe gigantic 
fictions, the prodigies of their ancient mysteries and of their 
country, the strange absurdities of their mythology, excited 
the wonder of the Roman populace, both rich and poor* 
Their fictions were believed; and it was i^reed that nobody 
abouU attempt to comprehend them* In the most irrdi-^ 
fpxms cities, credidity is at its highest pitch. It has been-^^ 
smrked, that the depraved Romans were tbe most zealous 
cultivators of the mysterious arts : they felt the void which 
pleasures pursued to disgust leave in the human soul, and 
they longed for the delights of another world. 

In this state of the human mind, when tbe world was 
destitute of gods, it came to pass that a few obscure, un- 
educated, undignified individuals, from the most despised 
peqf>le in the whole Roman emj^ire, laid the foundations of 
a'reiigion before which all the former opinions and pre^ 
judices of men, and the laws of all nations, were doomed to 
yield. We must trace the causes and progress of this event 
from the most vemote antiquity. 

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' Ui^lVERSAL HIStORT^ 329 



The land of Canaan, or Palestine, is -situated between 
the 31st and 34th degrees of north latitude; it extends from 
the Phoenician coast to the great Arabian desert, and from' 
Lebancni to the black- mountains which occupy the rocky 
Arabia, and of which Sinai is the centre ; hence a chain of 
hills is continued northwards to join the arms of Lebanoir. 
The river Jordan flows through' the countiy, and after- 
forming the beautiful lake of Genesaretb, loses itself in the* 
dreary expaiAse of the Dead Sea, which seems to occupy 
the crater of an old volcano^ or the cavity (^ deep fountains' 
of bitumen. Canaan is sufficiently fertile to support an un-^ 
commonly numerous population; and Polybius thought 
Galilee adequate to the sustenance of considerable armies.^ 
Magnificent cities ornamented the coasts ; gardens of balsam' 
and palm-groves decorated the plains of Jericho ; exuberant 
harvests crowned the extensive champaign of Cidraslon ; 
noble pastures covered the hills of Bashan and the meada 
of Sharon ; and the vine flourished on Carmel and on- the 
mountains of Jttdah. 

It happened about twelve hundred years after that cele- 
brated deluge, which is the first epoch of all history, (for fifonr 
the ages that preceded this event, nothing has survived' but 
fragments and poetical traditions), that an Emir^ as he 
w6uld now be termed, named Abraham, renowned for his 
wealth, his wisdom, and probity, took his departure frmn 
his native country, at the time when the Assyrian mo- 
narchy began to extend its power, and led fak flocks into 
the laud of Canaan, which was at that time but little in- 
habited. l*he worship of the one true God, free from su-, 
perstition, and the peculiar dignity of his own character, 
rendered Abraham so renowned, that the_ memory of bid 
name is to this day held in the highest veneration, not only by 

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aBO yillV£B£AL aiSTORY« 

the Jews, whose patriarch he was, hot by the most ancient 
tribes of the wilderness, who are Ukewise hh posterity, 
and among other Oriental nations. He merited this re- 
nown, for he abandoned his ^native land to escape the pol- 
lll^n of foreign rites and cu^oms. 

His descendant Joa^pb obtioned by bis wisdom and in* 
triligencG the confidence of an Egyptian monarch^r aad the 
borde of the AbrahamicUe migrated to Egypt. This was a 
happy event ft»r then^ for they were already too numerous 
to remwi separate in Canaan, witboot haidog yet become 
sufficiently powerivil to repel the Phoenicians^ who were 
descending from Edom to thp coasts. In Egypt it was 
more easy for them to maintain their primitive^manners, as 
they dwdt in the remote tracts of Mount Casins, and fed 
their flocks amid the deserts. 

As no calamity ioteTrupted the regular progress of in- 
crease^ their fiimiites, in which number we must include 
their sertants^ of whom Abraham had already several hun- 
dreds, multiplied e:{EceediogIy in the course of four hundred 
and thirty years. A new royal house, elevated to the 
ilgyptian throne, beheld with disquiet the growing power 
of a horde esitirely devoted to the foro^^r dynasty, which 
seemed, by strange customs, to disturb the uniformity of 
the na|k)nal mana^s, and held in their possession the dis- 
tricts bordering on Asia, which were the keys of JEgypt. 
The new prince resolved vf^on the attempt to d^p^se 
lbem» to chenge thdr habits of life, and to mix them with 
the people of hm couAlry. They were dragged from their 
9uel pasturei, and ^eed te^ undertake laborious works. 

During this tine of oppression Moses^ waa bocn among 
Ae batddtkes, fh( so the poaterity of Abraham were called. 
His late) (Ibr like Cyrus and Romulus, be waa exposed^) 
bvoui^ him under the proteetion of a dauighter of the 
IBigfpiim king: this princes^ commanded the child to be 
ediiQtt«d in att the lewnitig of Eg}^. Ancient authors 
«iform u% thaA th^ young Isridite fought valiantly in the 

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Egyptian 9rmn agmns^ th^ Eth^pianii of MeroeTbut 

Moseg bw8^daapi$^ this r^puUtioD* la the royal qpmt 

he TOfivev forgot tbe free^pni and MmpUQity of hi» for^fiitbevt 

wbile they UA ft hs^ppy wd virtwiifi Ufe, devoted Ui lh« 

piir^ and spuntu^Ji worship <^ the only true God. H#p^ 

pepijig to s^ one pf hi^ oatim ill-treotad, aa wiis ett«tQpary> 

^ am Egyptijap, he felt the injustice, and tlew the op- 

pr^sor. After thU «^t he tooik flight, end followed? foe 

xQHoy year% on Moui>t Sinai) the occupation of a berdin 

lfk^fi9 in the iiervic^ pf an Arftbiw prince, 

. Thia wanderer, who had taken r^ivge in the wildernesg^ 

who fed the fipck^ of a feoreigner, hi$ l£|ws, hi^ history, ^^ 

his name aire liiof^, uft^r four thousand year^ the olyecte of 

vem^r^tioa fu^Oog 4U the nations from the Tagus to J^in- 

'do^tan, and from the froi^en aeas of Scandinavia to the 

90untry of myrrh and. frankincense. 3y the help of God 

aJi<»>e^ frow whom eoi»e aU wis^m a^d c<Miragc^ he ierce4 

the Egyptian king to rekai^e Israel. from his dominion, s^t^ 

' to suS^ thWL to depart put of Egypt: he Jed that prin^e^ 

who believed him to have mistaken bis way, and who foU 

lowed him imprudently, into, the dangerous tract which 

t}Order« on the ijamost Arabian gulf, and which, according 

to AgatbarQhide^ bpre long af^rwards the name given a» 

a memorial of this, catamityn There Pharaoh ]?e<;eived th4 

l*ecompe^kae of his ra3hn^8s and tyrannical conduct* ^t 

Mq»^ exQelUd all other illustrious men who have ir^istor^ 

iiodepend^i^e to their cpuntry^ in this reqpeo^ that he 

^o^ hi3 people to the idea and n^^ntiment of fireedom^ 

wd secii^c^ the ixiainti^^nee of il hy such lam aa no oAkqv 

Hfi^ioo b4«po$«ee^^ 

With thia view he im^ a, long hoJit ii^ a eoupitrji «fhwe 
l^mii spight be entirely ixe« from, il^ eontagi^W i«f 
fiiienc^ of fqre^u lOAnnersf* A mody deiseiri, neaHy two 
todr^ lm§!^96t hk «2f*ent, ^iMretc^es frpm the b«irde»i..Qf 
{;gypt ^(Mnai^d^^ the m<9uth of tb» Eupbi^tet. Where llie 
tT»rQ arma of th^ Af^t^m fff^i ^e«d Oi^miATf^ h^toilie 

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land,' a lofty mountidn rises, which abounds in green paa-- 
tures and pleasant valleys; every where else the whole life 
of nature seems extinguished in wastes of sand. Far hence, - 
towards Canaan, there is not found a shrub, nor any vestige 
of soil; nothing is seen but the heaven and burning sand, 
strewn with vast fragments which have been thrown down 
by ' earthquakes from the rocky mountains, and which 
testify the former operations of subterraneous fire. The 
highest summit is a granitic rock on Mount Sinai, above 
twenty-two feet wide and twelve feet long. These heights 
and pastures breathe the balmy perfume of fragrant vegeta- 
tion.; secret recesses conceal fountains of cool water, and' 
even ice and snow, while in the plains the burning sand re- 
sembles a fluctuating sea of fire. In this frightfiil atmo- 
sphere every object is magnified, every thing becomes pro- 
digious and wopderful ; a bird aj^ars as large as a camel ; 
the storms heap up the sand into hills, and transport these' 
hills fix>m place to place. Wherever in spots which nature 
fiivours, fountains spring forth, the noble palm rises U> 
view, excellent pastures are found, and woods in which the 
sidutiferous resin distils firom some plants, while others are 
covert with manna. Such is the vicinity of Mount Horeb, 
which is the half of Sinai, and is separated from the latter 
by a deep valley. On one of these hiUs the most anciait 
tribes o( the desert paid their adorations every fifth year to 
an unknown god : every scene of terror inspires the senti- 
ment of devotion, and nature here displays the acts of 
Omnipotence. A hill extends on both sides of Faran, 
where for a league in extent the rocks are engraven with 
huge characters, to the height of about fourteen feet^ whicih 
no man has yet been able to decipher: are these the letters 
of the first Phoenicians, older than Tyrus and her mother 
Sidon; or the most ancient memorials of the traditions 
handed down by the patriarchs ? or have the Garyndes apd 
the men of Mara here recorded their resorts to the five 
years' festival, as the seventy-two princes of China cm the 
marbles of Tai-chan ? ' 

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Into this land of prodigies Moses led the Israelites ; from 
the heights where prayers were offered up of old to God, 
(unidst thunders which^ resounded with unwonted, terrors 
through the hollow clefts and among the rocky tops. of 
i9inai, Israel received her law; but the spirit of this law 
was Itself the greatest prodigy* 

TUxe few principle's by which the primitive world was ek- 
Tated to the knowledge of the Supreme Ruler, had become 
deformed by numberless superstitious notions and practices; 
the happiness of life had been destroyed, and the tranquil- 
lity, of its last moments embittered. It was not that there 
yras a necessity for a revelation of new truths, which rare 
dispensations mankind had not enjoyed for a long course of 
time^ but for a removal of the follies and errors which had 
crept in,^ and for the purification of those testimonies which 
were engraven on our nature, and are as ancient as our 
race; there was no need of the foundation of a^ew religion, 
but of the restoration of the oldest in the world, and of the 
settlement of the same by institutions which were suited 
to the condition of human nature in the age and circum- 
stances of Israel, and which might ^gradually, prepare the 
people for a more pure and exalted- doctripe. * By the 

* This idea, that ce^ain feetinga or principles of religion are im* 
pressed by Providence upon the heart of man, sd as to form ev^- 
where a part of his mord constitution, and that these universal ^enti- 
ments or ideas, according as they have been developed and represented 
in various manners, and With dificitent degrees of purity, in different 
countries and ages, have been the foundation of all reli^on^ both 
true and false, (though none are, in this way of contemplating the sub- 
ject, absolutely and entirely false,) seems to be a favourite speculation 
with our author. In a beautiful passage of the Antigone of Sophocles, 
we find the idea which forms the basb of this opinion expiessed in 
striking and remarkable words, 

^ ravretf KouhU o^o t( iwu '^fri» 

Nor frail, and subject to mortality, 

D$!ct to transgress the unwritten law dime, , 

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334 UinT£B84L HtfrtORY. 

agency of that power whidi contains in itself the caiiseil of 
cftents and guides their course, the ibt«fathers of the He* 
brews, in their simple pastoral lifife, Secluded from all inter-> 
course with stranger^ had preserved the primitive doctrities 
down to the age when population Was every where extafid^i- 
ing itself, so that Moses was enabled to adopt them as Acf^ 
kttowledged truths: in like manner .it afterwatdi^ cftttie to 
pass, through the wtddom of that legislator, aided by Ate 
same governing Providence, and through the |)efinaneltf 
character which he impressed upon his nation, that a people, 
otherwise illiterate and ignorant, *has« brought down that 
treasure of the pute' patriarchal £uth, protected by a «i^ 
guard of biDly rites, for the ilfaiminati<ni and improvement of 
the most distant times. 

Moses did not conceal truths under the myi^tety of o&t^' 
tain numbers, of magic squares, and syiMbOlieal lines: h^ 
perhaps reflected that the connection and interpretation oF 
such expressions would be too difficult, too arUti^i sttii 
that such a style would be too dry atid abstract for Ml tm^ 
imal people. As little was he inclined to the use Of Biero- 
glyphics^ Men too quickiyiose sight of the feettte t^der 
the veil which is thrown over it, and forget, the objeet of 
their adoraticm in the outward foitki« He ordained a grsat 
allegorical system of observances, eofisi^ng wb<dly ia ad«- 
tions; so that while the simple moral law only cotitaineict 
Ihe rcaaovated £dth of the patriarchs^ with the addition of 
wartiings and examples, the ritual k^ the people lOMmm 
itigly employed in ceremonies, striking to the senses, and 
sulGicient to satisfy the most restless activity. That he 
ckared up the bidden sense of various ritesy and d«rivttd 

Finn and immutable, and n6t like the^e 
Of yesterday. It was ere time began. 
Nor can- we gtiess from what myst^rioas source 
It first derived it^ being. 

Sopioctes, Antigone,^ V. 46Q. 

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them by tradition from antiquity, is an opinion which is 
mipportecl: by many vestiges ; yet he might have foreseen, 
that intelligent men would not have lost the true sense 
without such aid. 

The name of God, Jah or Jehovah, the self Existent, 
indicated the chatacter which his worship and which Israel 
itself was to assume. In Egypt Mose^ had become ac- 
quainted with the danger of sensible representations, and 
he allowed no visible forms. In the movable temple which 
he erected in the wilderness, the deepest reverence was ex- 
cited by a mystery into which no man penetrated; enough 
of splendour was exhibited to make an impression on the 
senses; the Holy of Holies, which was- inaccessible except 
to one who was the highest of the priesthood, and who 
erttered it once annually, after many purifications and of- 
ferings, bore in all things the appearance of awful mystery ; 
the law was there contained in a costly atk ; over the ark 
singular forms exhibited the agencies by which God dis- 
plays himself, but God himself was not represented ; never 
was his name pronounced but in adoration. Thus there 
existed enough to impress the senses, and Enough to elevate 
the mind beyond the bounds of visible things. This wor- 
ship Moses confided to a particular race, who were allowed 
to have no oth^r possessiong dian wbc^ Were get s^art kft 
thmn under this relatioti, and were obliged to be dispersed 
through every district, in order that they might be induced 
to watch every where over the reiligioa of God. Moses 
laixed his own sons among thtf officiating priests, that no 
private interest might prqudice the great work he had per- 
formed, and he committed the high priesthood to the house 
of bis brother Aaron. 

Having inrtructed Israel to worship none other than the 
eternal self-existent God of their fathers, to have him al^ 
ways in their minds, ai^d as a self^exislent natioii to maflfiH- 
tain among the Gentiles the valuable possession of ancient 
manners, now renovated, purified, and developed, Moses 

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336 UNIVERSAL fiflfiTOHY. 


gave no commandment to his people concerning the mutaU^ 
forms of political government. . In two particulars he dis- 
played extraordinary greatness of mind: first, he rendered 
the most essential doctrines independent of less important 
matters, which admitted indifferently of divers forn;is ; and 
secondly, he did not reckon upon the eternal duration of 
his religious iustitutions, but predicted to his people that a 
prophet, or an interpreter of celestial truth, would, come, 
like to himself, whom Israel should in ail things obey. As 
one of those illustrious meh, whose power [of seeing into 
futurity is admirably explained by Cicero, he surveyed, 
with prophetic eyes, the land of Canaan, and beheld 
the completion of those times when the . bulwarks which 
he had erected to defend the truth against the storms of 
superstition and the inroads of fraud, should become no 
longer availing, and when another should arise who might 
imbibe the spirit of his institutions, and reduce them i(nto 
a form more &vourable to the happiness of mankind. * 

He left to the people theiull enjoyment of fi-eedom, with 
a system of kindred societies, founded on the possession of 
land, which, under the influence of natural and moral cir- 

* The author seems here to refer to a passage in Cicero's first book 
on Dimatbn, in which he says, '* Honim sunt auguria non divim im- 
petusy- sed rationis humanae, nam .et natura. futiira pnesentiunt, ut 
aquaram fluxiones et deflagrationem futuram aliquando caeli atque ter- 
ranmi : alii autem in republica exercitati^ ut de Atheniend Solone i|c- 
cepimus orientem tyrannidem multo ante prospidunt ; quos prudentes 
possumus dioere, id est, providentes/ divinos nullo modo possumus non 

plus quam MilesiumThalem/' &c. *' £t quidem idem 

fectionem solis quiae Astyage regnante facta est praedixisse fertur. Multa 
medici, multa gubematores, agricolae etiam multa praesentiunt," &c. 

While the author allows that the fulfilment of the prophecies which 
refer to the advent of the Messiah was a supernatural event, and that 
the whole course of human afiairs was influenced by Providence with a 
view to this pre-ordained completion, it is singular that he appears to^ 
be so anxious to represent the predictions themselves as efibrts of niere 
human; foresight. The hypothesis, which the author prefers; is bur- 
. dened with greater difficidties than, either of those w,hich he avoids. 
He explamt himself more fully in the course of the jToUowing Section. 

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aimistances^ gradually formed itself into a federal, common- 
wealth* Festivals, which returned three times every year, 
and which assembled the people in the common celebratioti 
of their deliverance from bondage, of the establishment of th^ 
law, and in the social enjoyment of rustic felicity, formed 
the bond of unity. 

For the conservation of these Ordinances Moses wrote 
no system of theology, the dead characters and ambigiums 
sense of which might afford, in the course a£ time, a theme 
of contention for priests : the few truths which it is given to 
man to know concerning those subjects, which are beyond 
the compass of our faculties, lived in the traditions of the 
patriarchs, which he purified, and they were more safely con^ 
fided to the feelings of men than to a written text. He had 
accordingly no occasion to discourse even on the immortality 
of the soul, (of which belief sufficient traces are found in 
his writings,) either in the course of history, which pursues 
men, no further than the grave, or in that of laws, which 
are founded on the relations of the visible world. For the 
composition of these^works he collected traditions and po- 
etical allegories, concerning the origin of good and evil^ 
concerning that deluge celebrated over the world, and the 
affinities of nations; to these he added the history of Abra- 
ham and his house, and the history of his own time* 
Every trait of the first book has its relation to circum- 
stances and objects which belong to it alone; when the au^ 
thor makes mention of the head of his own race^ the spirit 
of truth manifests itself ; hiis whole style is striking and 
characteristic, and its minute peculiarities stamp it with the 
seal of authenticity. It was indeed the custom of remote 
antiquity to omit the relation of particular circumstances, 
and represent great events in a more elevated, and striking . 
manner, as proceeding from the act and will of the firi^ 
cause; in order that the sense directed towards a practi- 
cal effect, while it moved the soul with a stronger feeling 
of solemnity, being unburdenied with minute distinctions^ 

VOL. I. z 

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BU|^i simply impireM the sentiiaeDt of dependence cm the 
lUiiYenal rukr^ and. of resignation under his.goTernm^t) 
whieh speaks to us in the Toice of nature* Seven hundred 
and fifty years before the Tcbu-king of the Chinese, one 
tiboasand years before the oldest historian of the Greeks, 
these books were written by Moses in the deserts of Arabia. 
Strabo has praised his law; Longinus admired the subii^ 
mtty of his genius; its peculiar majesty has produced an 
efifect on all die nations who have become acquainted with 
it. Thirty^four hundred years have elapsed ^ce Moses, 
in the one hundred and twentieth year of, his ag^ as- 
cended to the top of a mountain, and having by a last 
command, preveiited his remains finom becoming the object 
of superstitipus veneratipn, dq>arted to his fathers. The 
•east still worships his memory ; the west and north yet hold 
it in sacred revwence. 



After the Hebrew people, under the conduct of their 
leader Joshua, had in a few years obtained secure possession 
»4>f the greater part of Palestine, the course of the ten 
^.succeeding centuries showed, by a striking example how 
cffiBlcult it is for men to adhere, with constancy, to simpli- 
city and truth. Israel perpetually vacillated between the 
law of Moses and the customs of strangers. During the 
first five hundred years, they seven tiroes abandoned tibe 
former &r the latter, and were as often punished for their 
infid^^. IJbe neighbouruig nations perceived rightly, in 
the Mosaic ordinances, the foundation. of a power vAddi 
threatenSd them with the utmost danger ; yet the Hebrews 
had not sufficient wisdom and io^tude to adhere to the Mth 
of the patriarchs, in preftarmee to moi^ fascinitfing systems, 
and to petmer^ln Ae' manners of their forefidiers, when 
attraipced by sensual pleajHires, which were forbidden to 

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Israel^ but wbicU, ambng other nations, feniied a. part of 
the service of the go(b« When the ' consequences of these 
* defections were experienced, illustrious diampions arose^ 
who delivered Israel from bondage; but their ei^loits fro* 
duced a transient effect, which perished with those who 
achieved them. The nation, sieekitig the cause of their 
misfortunes, not in themselves, but in the imperfection of 
their government, resolved at length to choose for them- 
selves kings. 

The second of their monarchs, David, full <if energy 
in the pursuit both of good and evil, was magnanimous 
enough to acknowledge his errors, and combining vrith ex<*- 
alted virtues and great talents, a fine genius for poetical 
composition, and a soul endowed with noble sentimenti% 
lie gained an illustrious name in the catalogue of heroes 
snd sages.' David possessed all the country from the Eu- 
phrates, and from the mountains which contain the sources 
of that river, to the confines of Egypt : he concluded an 
alliance with the Phoenicians, obtained a share of their com- 
merce, and rendered Jerusalem a splendid capital. We 
mentioned before that Palmyra was bailt by his son So- 

The Mosaic institutions obtained by means of David 
and Solomon, not only a completion which their fou&der 
was unable to give them, because he died before his people 
had gained possession of the promised land, but also a more 
expressive moral interp);etation. The exalted soul of Davtd 
iforesaw a hiappier age, when a more lastmg and glorious 
throne should be raised on the foundations of Israel; 
the feith of the people looked for^their champion from his 
own house, for it was seen that every thing prospered in 
his hands; that God was with him. 

His own age and that of his son comprise the finest pe- 
riod of Hebrew literature, of which only a few fragments, 
since the time of Moses, had survived the calamities of the 
nation: these are full of sublimity, and of valuably infor« 

z 2 

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tnation for the history of manners. The Psalms of DariJ^ 
with the hymns which are added to them, are the finest 
flowers of Hebrew poetry ; they appear to have been the 
expressions of the heart, under the influence of vehement . 
eviotion or 'lo% inspiration, and to be devoted to strong 
feelings, rather than to the pleasing or brilliant sallies o( 
poetical fancy-; they are designed, not for the amusement of 
the idle, but for the necessities of the soul which is suffering 
under the pressure of affliction. More tranquil, more la-*; 
boured,' and displaying more deep reflection, are the Pro- 
verbs of Solomom the love-songs which were Written by him, 
or in celebration of him, are more passionate and pleasing; 
and the orations or discourses * on the lAortness and va- 
nity of human enjo}rments, which, if not composed in bis 
age^ are inscribed with his name, are still more. bold, more 
profound and striking, even than the doubts of Asaph, f 

The kingdom of the Hebrews was soon after divided, 
and its greatness^ declined. The kings of the northern 
tribes, whose only endeavour was to maintain the dominion 
ihey had acquired, undermined their throne by numerous 
transgressions of 4;he law: the house (^ David, which 
reigned in Jerusalem, was at one time weakened through 
the imitation of the sins of their forefathers, and at another 
rewarded by th^ feeling of new strength, for returmi^g to 
the principles of- the Mosaic constitution* 

During the ages which had hitherto elapsed, before the 
xise of the great Asiatic monarchies, the neighbouring na- 
tions had sddom interfered with the aflairs of Israel in such 
manner as to produce any material efiect. A king of Egypt 
had inflicted a transient calamity ; but when the powerful 
hosts of Nineveh made their appearance, the totteringr 
throne of Samaria was unable to maintam its ind^ndence^;^ 

^ Eccle^tes. 

f Asaph was a celebrated muacian of the tribe of Levi» in the time 
of David. «- See Psalms 50. 75. 85^ which are said to be lufr coiDposft- 
tions, T. ' 

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knd'whenit became impatient of subjection, it was over- 
thrown^ The dangers which threatened their country 
roused the genius of the wise and great, and a third age of 
Hebrew literature appeared in songs and orations. Many 
excellent prophets, in bold denunciations, full of wrath and 
anguish,, but never abandoning all hope, lamented, threat-^ 
ened, and chastized the crimes and.follies of the falling mo- 
narchy of Samaria. But it was Isaiah, in Jerusalem,, who 
took the loftiest flight, and surveyed all the evils that were 
springing up in the surrounding states, in the corruptioa .of 
their manners and their laws, and which afforded, cause 
for alarm to them and. to. their pisople, to his own and to 
fill future times... v , 

As he lived 'at that epoch-^when the spirit of conquest 
began to rage more-extetasively and with greater violence, 
his work is a precursor of all the complaints which, have been 
uttered to the present day against this evil and its devastr 
ations, and a general prophecy of the calamities that have n 
befallen the world ins consequence of such disorders. One 
single assurance supporti& him amid present afflictions, viz. 
the conviction that the germ of true religion and pure mo- 
rality, which for thousands of years had been preserved in 
Israel, would obtain at length a champion who,. although 
through suffering, should find the way to victory. Little as 
k became a Romdn to dpubt of the fortunes of the eternal 
Rome, far less could a descendant of those Hebrews who had 
«ften experienced such wonderful deliverances, who had been 
saved by Moses, by Othniel, Ehud, Barak, Gideon, Jeph- 
thah, Samson,. Samuel, Saul, aiid David; far Isss could 
one who knew well tl)e dignity of his law, and the unfailing 
power of his God, doubt concerning that hope, that certain, 
assurance for th6 Hebrew nation and the Royal houses 
which so often had been conceived in lofty inspiration, anc} 
amidst increasing perils had only been the more eagerly 
^embraced and the more explicitly declared. 
^ '^ ' . Z 3 

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Jeremiah) in the increasing ruin of the state, attained 
not to the lofty elevation of the royal Isaiah, which has 
seldom been equalled by others, even in single passages. He 
saw what the other feared ; his voice is that of lamentation 
and admonition ; abandoning the thought of freedom, he 
provided, only for a temporary existence. But the goverBK 
ment^ blinded by prejudice or corruption, embraced with 
falsely estimated strength the dangerous part of making 
Jerusalem a bulwark for the declining greatness of Egypt 
against the rising power of Babylon. Consequently the 
remains of Israel, Jerusalem herself, the temple of God, the 
house of David, the whole commonwealth of Judah, asJe^ 
remiah had forewarned, fell a prey to the flames, and to the 
arms of the Babylonian king. 

Israel, appointed still to maintain her ancient laws, was 
led away cpptive from the coast of the Mediterranean sea 
into the mountains of Media, into provinces which had 
lately been depopulated in consequence of the fall of the 
Assyrian empire, and to Babylon, where the great king 
chose to environ his throne with innumerable hosts. Israel 
was transplanted among nations to whom the traditions of 
the primitive world, the foundation of her religion, were not 
unknown, but by whom they had been cultivated in a dif- 
ferent manner, an^ variously corrupted or developed. Be- 
fore, those wise men died, who had brought with them from 
their country the spirit of the Mosaic laws, the monarchy 
of western Asia fell into the hands of the Persians, who had 
so different an interest in the population of Babylonia, that 
Cyrus willingly permitted the Jews to return to their native 
land. With respect to religious ideas, the pastoral people 
of Persia were much nearer to the simplicity of the ancients 
than the more refined Babylonians. The impression which 
both nations produced upon the Jews is conspicuous in the 
style of the fourth period of Hebrew literature. Both the 
language and composition assumed a Chaldean character. 
The representation of Ezekiel's vision abounds with 

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. mflTEHBAL HISTORY. , 343 

combinations of wonder; a manner of which we have some, 
though more raire^ examples in earlier times, of Egyptian 
origin ; and Daniel speaks more definitely than Moses con* 
ceming angels, from sources which we cannot trace. 

The most important consequence of these events was, 
that the Jews brought back with them into their country a 
more entire dependence on their law. Perhaps this change 
was promoted by the circumstance, that in many ancient 
traditions preserved at Babylon, the foundation and sense 
of. the relations of Moses were traced, and the folly of 
former misconceptions perceived, while the pure sublimity 
of the Persian faith overpowered the enemies of one which 
had &i higher claims. 

Slowly, amid the impediments which envy, the fickk- 
pess of royal &vour, and the despondency of its votaries 
occasioned, the new Temple^ and with, it the new consti- 
tution of Judaism, rose to its complete form. Two-thirds 
of the lands were in the possession of hostile neighbours. 
The former energy of the nation, which had eJQTected so 
many extraordinary things, but which already in the time 
of the kings only survived among prophets and psalmists, 
perished under a foreign domination. The Hehrew lite- 
rature lost its peculiar character, so that the old writers 
were rather adnured than understood. Hence it came to 
pass that many things whidi belonged to the powers of the 
human mind were ascribed to supernatural influences, and 
that many events, related in the majestic style of antiquity 
and of the East, were considered as interruptions of the 
course ci nature. We have endeavoured, as far as ' our 
brief survey enabled us, to show how one p^t was 
derived from another, and the whole from powers of which 
we partake, because this representation appeared' to us the 
true one and the most usefiil; fi>r it is thus that pur con- 
temporaries and descendants, to whom the same fitculties are 
given, may perceive, that if they will feel it to be so, God 
is with them as he was with the illustrious men of old We 

z 4 

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axe oondacted to. the great first cause as well by tiie natitEal 
interpretation as by that which is usually adopted. He wh€^ 
understands the allegories of the East, as literally as the 
works of Eurc^eansy will, by this distortion of their sense in- 
jure their intention and rob them of their dignity : we are 
not sufficiently instructed concerning the secrets of the hu- 
man soul, and particularly of the spiritual world, to explain 
every thing, or to reject what we cannot understand** 
The body of Hebrew literature, as it is contained in the 
collection which we name the Old Testament^ abounds ia 

* In the attempt vfhich the author makes to resolve the miraculous 
events recorded in the Hebrew Scriptures into occurrences, singular and 
striking indeed, but taking place according tothe natural conneetioB of 
causes and effects, there is an evident inconsistency with the concessions 
which he is willing to make in favour of revelation. He allows indeed 
so much, that it would have cost him but little to have been perfectly 
orthodox (in the relation at least of historical facts), except that he must ' 
have foregone an opportunity of displa}ing some ingenuity in. setting an . 
old subject in a new point of view. He concedes and insists on the ex^ 
istence of a revelation in the first ages of the world. He allows that the 
order of Nature, or, to speak in more philosophical terms, the counsels^ 
oC the Almighty, included not only those successions of events which are 
ordinary and are therefore termed natural, but also those rare conjunc- 
tions which are called accordingly supernatural or miraculous. He 
admits that the Hebrew Scriptures contain the history of a people' 
destined by Providence to preserve and transmit to posterity the true 
religion or the revealed declaration of his will, and shows that the course . 
of human events was so controlled and guided by a peculiar ordination, 
as to promote this end by concurring circumstances through a long suc- 
cession of ages. The events which completed this chain o^ singular dis- 
pensations are allowed by the author to have been altogether out of 
the usual course. It seems, therefore, strange to find him so anidousto 
represent the circumstances which led to this miraculous consummation 
as natural occurreuces described under a veil of allegory ; to regard the 
prophecies which point in every age at the predestined conclusion as so 
many efforts of human intellect ; or to call in the aid of some mysterious 
and unheard-of powers of the spiritual world, rather than coincide with 
an explanation which demands no other cause than what has been al- 
ready conceded to exist. In order to preclude evei^ attempt of this kipd» 
we need only remark, that the sacred writers themselves refer to mirades 
as the evidences that they were invested with supernatural powers. 
Either these persons therefore were impostors, or the facts they recorded 
wer6 out of tiie usual course of nature, or in other words miraculous. 


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tnanifold learning,, and afibrds us the iho^t important in- 
struction, by displaying how the faith of the primitive world, 
concerning one God and the relations in which we stand 
to him, and ah invisible world, to which we shall in a 
future period rise again, was maintained among the Jews,^ 
sometimes in one, sometimes in another mode, until it 
became renewed and confirmed by revolutions among all 

The decline of Hebrew literature was an event favourable 
to this predestined end. As the people became more ac- 
quainted with the philosophical decorations which the Ori- 
ental nations and the Greeks had handed down, it was to 
be expected that the peculiar character of the Mosaic doc- 
trine would rather be distorted than represexited with^ 
faithful accuracy; and the more the learned became sepa- 
rated from the people, the more they derived their know* 
ledge from books, in the same degree the ancient style of 
their philosophy, which consisted entirely in living and tan- 
gible representation, declined. The latter was alone fitted 
to produce that wonderful efiect which was far greater thaii 
iany more decorated literature has ever displayed in such 
different ages and nations. 

After the fall of the Persian empire the Jews remained 
for a considerable time undisturbed; the, singular aspect of 
their country and of their manners excited the attention of 
learned foreigners; the spirit of traffic, to which the greiat 
population of their little territory had necessarily given 
birth among them, induced the Syrian and iBgyptian kings 
to establish Jewish colonies in their principal toi/his, in 
order to rouse the commercial activity of the inhabitants. 
Annual offerings and tributes proportioned to the increase 

Notwithstanding these inconnstendes, our author must be consideFed 
as an historian whose intentions and representations are, on the whole, 
favourable to the cause of revelation, and if we ccHnpare him with the 
most distinguished of our own writers in the same department of liter-* 
Ature, we shall view his deviations with greater indulgence. T. 

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of opulence and the concourse of multitudes cdnsbting of 
deputies and pilgrims, who assembly from all countries at 
the great festival at Jerusalem, raised the temple and the 
city to a greater degree of splendour than th^y had attained 
since the age of David and Solomon. 

This progressive increase was promoted, though with an 
0{qposite intention, by Antiochus Epiphanes, the king of 
Syria, and son of that Antiochus who fought unsuccessfully 
against the Romans. He was an enterprising clue^ and 
aimed at restoring the powet of his enfeebled throne, by 
giving unity to all parts of his dominion. The diversity of 
manners which distinguished the Jewish race from other 
nations, seemed to weaken his au Aority, inasmuch as. the 
eombination of all the Jews who were scattered through dif* 
ferent kingdoms might, under various contingeQcies, pro^ 
ihrce eflEbcts detrimental to his interests. The king was 
strengthened in this opinion by diservmg the spirit of in* 
dependence which animated the Jewish nation, and which 
was every where displayed in proportion to the maintenance 
cf their ancient laws. Antiochus, afta: the manner of de* 
spots, gave tyrannical orders for the introduction of Grecian 
manners, and was astonished at meeting with resistance. 

Judas, descended from that same tribe from which the 
ancient lawgivers of Israel had sprung^ maintained the 
freedom of his peo{de, and established an independent power^ 
which was afterwards favoured by the Romans. All natiods 
beheld with wonder the unsocial nature of Judaism with 
respect to customs imd religious rites, which elsewhere were 
considered as . indifierent While the Maccabees of the 
iMKue of Judas maintained with valour and wjfdom the 
supreme authority in rel^ous and political affhirs, first as 
high-priests and chieftains, and afterwards as kings, the 
independait and peculiar character of the Jews became 
more and more established, so that Israel^ even to the 
present day, though scattered among all nations^ has never 
become mingled with them. 


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imiV£|ISAL HISTORY. 347 

Philosophical sects, like those of Greece, sprang up 
among the Jews, as fiir as was consistent with their law* 
The austere Pharisees were teachers of the people ; . they not 
only interpreted the law, but in every letter, in the nuniber 
of words, in the different modes of readings they sought a 
double or manifold sense. The allegorical interpretation may 
be not without foundation, but they seized not. its peculiar 
spirit ; and after striking into the wrong path, they were led 
by their extravagance into the greatest absurdity. The 
cause of this error lay in the temper of the times ; the more 
prone the people were to complain of many things as bur* 
densome, and to hold many as indifierent, and the nearer 
they approkched to the epoch foreseen by Moses, when 
another prophet like himself should introduce a new form 
of rites, or display the essentials of faith, without any further 
veil for the universal good of mankind, so much the more 
eagerly the Pharisees endeavqitired to strive against their 
age. They expected every thing from pushing to ike 
utmc^t extremity, what could no longer be maintained, and 
they sought so to subdue the mind under a yoke of multi** 
plied superstitions, that it should not be able to rise firon^ 
under its load. In this attempt some acted from error, 
but the greater number from interested motives; many 
principles of the Pharisees have dome down to our times in 
their great doctrinal book the Talmud, in which the gross 
absurdities of the later rabbins are mingled, with the sublime 
ideas, and often important explmiations, of the learned 
Hind. We seem to stand among the ruins of a pdace^ 
in whidi the old architecture is so de&ced by incongmous 
ornaments, and thehuge columns so hidden under c^itals 
of hideous design, that we are obliged to dig in order to 
bring forth to view the andadt woricmanship. This sect 
accustomed the Jews to a fidse taste for subdlties, for 
minute frivolities, under which the true sense of the law 
vanished from thdr view* 

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The Sadducees adhered so strict to the letter, that air 
explanatiod suited to human nature seemed to them, a 
Uamable violation of its authority. They wete indulgent 
towards strangers, to whom- the law had not been given,, 
and on the whole more just and humane than their rivals. 

Immured in cloisters aft^ the manner of thet^ythagoreans,. 
the Essenes, careless of fame and of worldly influence, led a« 
chaste, contemplative, and benevolent life. 

The splendour of the supreme power inflamed the ambi«- 
tion of Aristobulus, whose brother Hyrcanus ought tohaVe. 
held it according to the right of the first born. Hence 
arose internal dissensions, the first effect of which was the 
loss of independence. Jerusalem was conquered by Pompey.. 
When the civil wars broke out between him and Cassar, the 
latter gave countenance to Aristobulus, who had beda 
dethroned by Pompey ; and after the death of that prince 
and his son, patronized Antipater, an Idumsean, to whom 
the weak Hyrcanus had confided the administration of 
idbirs. After the assassination of Caesar, and Antipater, a. 
youth named Andgonus sought, by the aid of the Paiv 
thians, to re-establish the throne which his ancestors, the 
Maccabees, had founded. The Romans, who would scarcely. 
endure an independent state on the confines of Asia and 
Afirica} and least - of all a dynasty who had to thank the 
Parthiansfor their existence, placed Herodes, the son of 
Antipater, upon the throne of Judea, regardless whether he 
was a foreigner or native. The latter was an enterprising 
and crafty chief, who made Antony in the first place, and 
ai^enirard Augustus, his god, wliile he considered the re- 
ligion of the people as the means of attracting riches to his 
ci^HtaL Herod in vain sought to introduce the manners 
of the conquering Romans, . and the culture 6[ the Gi-edcs, 
which were scarcely compatible with the rites of Moses; 
the national prejudices impeded hb success with so much 
the more efiect, as, according to the opinion of thelearnody 
those circumstances concurred which, in their interpreta*^ 


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tba of the ancient prophecies^ pointed ont the speedy ap- 
pearance of a deliverer, 



Such was the condition of the human mind, such the 
declining state of all the old religions, when in the 750th 
year from the foundation of Rome,. Jesus was bom at 
Bethlehem, the paternal city of king David. His.mother 
was a daughter of the ancient royal house of Israel, which 
had long ago sunk into obscurity. She had been betrothed 
to A' carpenter of Nazareth in Galilee. 

We read in the ancient history of the Jews, that one of 
the most zealous champions of the law, when after, a 
struggle of many years against increasing idolatry he had 
taken flight into the wilderness of Sina, demanded of God 
a signal of his presence; the earth trembled, but God was 
not in the fearful earthquake; a tempest arose, but the 
blast of the storm diarked not the approach of God ; at 
length the prophet heard the low murmur of the wind, and 
in the still sound,of the breeze the voice of God came : — 
So he came in Jesus Christ. 

While the Jews expected a warrior who should liberate 
Israel from the yoke of the Csesars, who should raise the 
throne of David above that of Augustus and the Partfaians, 
and establish an everlsisting sceptre in the hands of his 
people, Jesus of Nazareth, supposed to be a native of 
Galilee, a country which even among the Jews was held in 
no respect for wisdom and learning, travelled through 
Judaea, and resorted to' the temple at Jerusalem, teaching 
and performing wprks of benevolence ; he paid respect te 
' the authority of the emperor, and the rites of the temple^ 
but set the dignity of his own doctrine above the wisdom 
-which Moses, and which. Solomon possessed; while he 
claimed obedience and fidth, as God^ Ue called the meanest 

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fiBfaehnen and publicans, whm they believed in him^ Utf 

The doctrine of Jesus was none other than thatwfaich 
was impressed by the Creator on the most ancient of the 
human race^ ^* that He tSf and governs all things, in saxh 
wise^ that no man, even by deifth, escapes fitmi the recom- 
pense of bU deeds.^' He announced ako the impoiMaiit 
principle, that ^< those sacerdotal rites, which had long been 
permitted in indulgence to the rude infancy of nations^ and 
to the imitation of antiquitjr, but whose insa£Sciency DmA 
aiid IsiUah had already fdt, were now to cease^ and that 
man should henceforth seek to acquire the favour of God 
by that gentleness and benevolence which^ He taught mjA 
practised." ^ Accordusgly, Jesus not only made no altemtion 
in the political 4ifiairs of the state, but he even introduced 
no order of priesthood, nor any putward form of re%ioas 
worship. He connected the remembrance of himself with 
the enjoyment of the indispensable necessaries of life. Tfiose 
primitive truths alone^ which, »nce man possesses by his 
organization no means of fathoming them, as he scratmnses 
the ideas of sensible things, must certainly have beeii 
otherwise implanted by God in his creature, were hy him 
renewed, and restored to that purity in which it is neces- 
sary that they diould from time to time be reinstated, and 
A^hich at intervals they have received from Providence, bu t 
never in so perfect and excellent a manner, or combined 
with principles so universally beneficial to the human race, 
as through the mediation of Jesus Christ. 

AAer he had openly testified, in the most impressive 
manner, dbtat no other completion of the hopes of Israel was 
to be expected, but this blessing which was destined for 
all mankind, through the medium of their traditions and 
system of worship, Jesus knew what he had to sufier 
from the disappointed vanity, and the selfishness and 
ambition of the priests, and foresaw with coinpassion 
the misfortunes whkh their prejudices would bring tipon 


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tbeir nf^ion. But as Providence by tK^ duration of events 
had combined in bim the most striking ^traits of the 
ancient prophecies, by which the Jews might know the 
Saviour of Israel, Jesus had no other purpose than the 
completion of his destination. Hereupon he was calum- 
niously accused by his nation before Pilate the Roman 
governor, and sacrificed by him to the factious ^irit of the 
Jews. With" greater than human fortitude, he sufibred 
death; he rose again to li£^ confirmed his words, apd left a 
world which was unworthy of his presence* 
, The work, of the author of mercy and love was com- 
pleted ; the root which he had planted, namely, the re- 
novated doctrine of the patriarchs, in the course of a few 
centuries spread its shoots beyond the boundaries of the 
Roman empire, and, together with the veneration pf his 
4iame, subsists, in the most essential points even among?the 
disciples of Mahommed ; expiatory sacrifices, polytheissiy 
and the belief in annihilation, have vanished fix)m the 
gneater portion of the human race ; the more clearly the 
true nature of his doctrine is displayed to our view, when 
purified from the corruptions of calamitous times, themcsre 
de^ly does its spirit penetrate into the foundations of 
.society; many who have supposed themselves to be his 
adversaries, have laboured in the accomplishment of his 
plan ; and after Christianity, like its founder, had long sf^ 
fered abuse by priestcraft^ every developement of our senti- 
ment for moral goodness, and every successive advancement 
in philosophy, gives us new feelings, and opens to us more 
exalted views of its true principles and inestimable worth. 



After the death of Herod the Great, three of his sons, 
AS far hiferior to him in mental endowments as in powo?, 

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reigned for » dmeig^rer different portions of Palestine; ibe 
eldest of them, named Archelaus, being sait into escik^ a 
Roman praefect governed Judaea, the finest division of the 
. monarchy. In a succeeding period Herod Agrippa, the 
nephew c^ the founder of the family, who was more skilled 
than his relatives in the arts of a courtier, by the dubious 
fiivour of the emperor Caius Caesar, was enabled once more 
to unite the whole country under his sway. After the pre- 
mature death of Agrippa, all Palestine, with some trifling 
exceptions, fell under the Roman government; and in conn 
sequence of the extortion of the praetects, and the-violient 
pr^udices of the Jews, against which forewamings had been 
given in vain by Christ, furious wars were excited, in which 
the whole state and religious constitution of Judaea, were 
destroyed, amidst the. most firightfnl calamities. All these 
events deserve our attention, as coo^tuting a most remark- 
, able conclusion of the history of a people whose destination, 
under the form in which they had hitherto existed, was now 
complete, and who firom this time have incessantly wandered 
. over the whole earth, as a living monument of the mo^ 
wonderful diq>ai8ations. ^ ' . 

As the seed which is sown in the. earth is for a time 
still concealed, arid slowly developes itself and buds forth, 
and at length. opens and ripens into a nutritious fruit ; so it 
was with the doctrine of Jesus Christ, concerning the early 
history of which we possess .but scanty information. 
Matthew composed a history of his life in the popular 
language of Judasa; Mark has left a more concise account 
of it; Luke has given to his narrative a somewhat mqxe 
historical form ; and John has transmitted his testimony in a 
more philosophical spirit, and with more intimate knowlege : 
the third of these writers has also described the establish- 
ment of the first community of Christians : the actions of 
the other disciples of Jesus have not been preserved by any 
authentic testimony. A few of their own epistles af e' extant, 
which prove that the object that all of them had in view 

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was lEtn amdioration in the principles and actions of men ; 
but John whoia Christ loved seems to have most perfectly 
conceived the i^irit of the Gospel* As fiuc; as we can judge 
from Uie scanty information we posse^s^rPaul^ a Jew oi 
Cilicia, excelled all his brethren in activity. His zeal and 
th^i whole energy of his soul shin^; forth in his writingis^ 
whi^h consist partly of replies to objections' o^ to questions 
rdating^^ to. the government of Christian, societies, partly of 
qiistles inrwhidifhe confirms, or wariis the converted, or 
op^iis his heart .fi;41 of love and charity to his Christian 
friends.- ^ ' . , : , 

. . Our iiiforniati<$n.Jpoiiceniii]^ the two or three ibUowing 
generations extends .to a- few pageer only, which rather affisot 
us-bytbar sioiplicitj^-and tenderness, than instruct us con- 
asTfomg &ct$* .Oniy anxious to imitate Jesus in wcMrks of 
Ipye ^d'duty} t^e Christians, among whom there wer^tiot 
fna&y learned men, never thought of making an ostentatjipus 
disj^lagr of the innocence. of their lives; and, instend of 
mcJdqg many curious inquiries into- the .nature of Christ, 
th^ were chiefly anxious to know wbat,it was necessary for 
them to do in order to be sure of obtain^qg-in another worid 
that happiness which on earth was never i^iore difficult to gain 
than in the times of which, we are now treating. Fraternal 
equality was the character of their social constitution.' >As 
long^at diis was{>reserved, a diversity of action and opinion^ 
in unimportant matters, according to local xircumstances^ 
was.allowed«- Those who had been conyerted from- Judaism 
were permitted to retain their hereditary veneration of the 
Mosaic rites, and the Greek and Roman Christians seemed 
to be no otherwise distinguished from other men than as a 
particular philosophical sect. Had it not been for the com- 
motions excited by the Jews, had not Nero accused the 
contenrnersf of the gods as the authc»*s of the conflagration 
of Rome, had not so many groundless fears been excited by 
ibe enemies of the Christians, and by certain misinterpret- 
/^tions of prophecies, the tender plant might have grown 

VOL.1. A A 

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354 CKITBRSift ftfdTOJlT. 

longier under the shelter of obsctirityV and m^t hftve 
budded forth before it yrsA imalled \}y storins. 
' The nbttse of doctrmes half understood was a n!iore dan- 
gerous evil than Nero'i rage or the edicts of Domitkui. 
^[Mb misfortune of Christendom ^)pears to hare originated 
in the farthest east, in a country which has terj .rar^ 
oerdsed s^ influo^oe dn the fates of otir western wtrldL 

Nearly all the kingdoms compi^hended in Si-yu, viz. 
die r^ons wtiich are situated between CJnna and the 
borders of die Oeispian Sea, were in the first c^tury of the 
Christian era oonquared by the Chinese arms. It appfS^ 
tbM by ^me ooAseqtNihce of the^e tonvuli&iilis, d«e IGMska- 
nmns, disdples of Bdd(fila» wh6 probably lived abdut Urn 
time of the Ml ctf the IsraeihiA kitigdcMi of the ten tn\Mt 
departed from their ifertner ^eM^ the I6^cienft Aria, and 
took re^ge In the mountains 6f C^hiAf!re and tlbet, and 
dmiBo^g into Infertile {dains of In^ reached Ceyltin^ 
tod trainn^ the sea to 6iam, Whence they ext^ided llicAr 
progress to China and Japan. The chief doctrine of th^ 
SanuuMsan Bonites was, that Buddha, worthy of receif&g 
Udonttthni M ne^t in dignity to tSod, had come staoiig men 
In order to publish' the doctrine df the trainrtnigratiOn of 
souku They obtained With efiSe an ascendancy over A^ 
simple ibrcbrs ofreUgfdn, and the wretched systems of phi- 
losophy which prev^ed in Tibet and in part of China; 
on the other hand, they underwient severe cast^galion fyr 
hkYittg ptesmned to contend i^ith the Indian casfe trf 
BrsIuwiiswhowferepowerfUnhpoUticalh^ YfMk 

tixese events occasnMied the tttih6st danger to the old t^ 
^6hs of eastern Asia, it'ckme'to pass by means with whidi 
we isre Unacquainted, probably In consequence xrf'tbe w^u^s 
atwhidiWe have abdve tinted, that the allegorieai of the 
Chinese book Y-King* were introduced to Ae knowIe%e of 

^ the mptene^ id ttt^Y-Ekg had 
pute to the sages of China for.eenturies before the time of Coa4ii-t4||^ - 
who endeavoured to inteqpret them. Tbey are supposed hjr some to 

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uvrrssfM. HisrpomT. 355 

ChelearMd men of Babybn and afterwank propagated with 
gmrt^r zeal in inestem Aflia, where the Christian religion 
was then receiriog its lirBt derelopement. 

/The idea of tm uaknown first cause witbont 'vnfl or ii^ 
telligence^ a nene tastnuneot of eternal fiitafity, and the 
all^oiy of a double linage of fiiur forms and dgjbt sgnnboii» 
which, arising from the infinite void or nothing, by means 
of aeccet oonbhialMMiB fmidiieed Ae nnmber <d man, and 
from the fivse ekosents deirclaped as many principal yirtaes, 

contaia a i^stem of Banlkittstie ftahfojpky i{oii$ealed laite aa obKHfe 
symbolical rq>re8eatatioa. The first prindple, or Great One> die lource of 
all existeoice, .h termed Too, Reason or Intefiect, and T^atM, the uni- 
vaasl point wfaenoe ail tkii^ ace ieawed, and into wbidi sftl difdactiont 
<Mr ^ttriflties of bang nre nldboDa^ XtitiaidthatftoiDTap 

was produced One^ from One Twp> from Two Three, aad firom Thrae 
ail things that exist. The 'first prindpte is figured by a single line; by 
i«o<yficfldo0 of it are represent^ two qpposite naWss, wbidi asa 
geniBtttUd -itom the fomiar.; ike Ima^ or expfMioa of the pmfcet, 
masculine^ or active natarey which is termed Vmig^ Qonsists of a coatiniiad 
or utftjrdketi Hnej that of the imperfect^ feminine, or pasdve nature, 
callod 1%, If a bfokea or divided tine. AcoordiBg to De GuigBes the 
odg^al aense of tha Yang b I4i^t or ^Motion, and that 'oi the ^a Pa^ k- 
aess or Rest; audit is conjectured that this aU^gsny had soaoe aacianc 
connection with the two principles of. the Persian philosophy. From 
various cond^ikations of the Yang and Yn idl ihings are generated ac- 
cordUag to a certain invariable nacfaaaiam • or blind fittaiity inherent In 
the nature of the primidiw Tao. The four Fomn^, or .Ae gusster and 
lesser Yang, and the greater and lesser Yn, ace the next gcade, and are 
represented by doublii^ the Images, and combining two broken and two 
uabrokaa lines for the former, aad by placing a broken Une under or 
i^twve an unbroken line for the latter. The e%fat S^mioU or JEoao, jbn 
the triple combination of Yang and Yn r^reaent asmanjor^iiial or 
simple powers. ' By the dxth combination,, produced by doubBqg the 
triple ones, moral ideas are expressed. The five unave^ numbers, ac- 
ccHrding to Con^fu^^se, ifrom pne %o aine, vrqprasent iliMavenly o1|jeets» and 
the five even numbers, up to t^n, earthly objects. The whale scheme 
resolves itself into a merephi^ upon nuoabers, or, accordiag to the phi- 
losophicfd expresnon, all aj^wrent individuality is only variety in di^gtee 

Jn referring the origin of 4he Gnostic philosqplif (o4ia YoKiiK, jOur 
author has at least taken a pdsition firom which he cannot be earily dis- 
lodged, since it is even doubted whether Con-fu-tsa himself cpmpr^ 
bended the enigmas of that book. T. *; 

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were the foundation of the secret doctrine of the Ghio^cs.' 
Tbe origin of these allegories has been ascribed to the first- 
Chinese lawgiver Fo-hi, and their illustration by Ven-vang 
and Tsheu-king is thought to be as ancient as Homer. 
Confucius held them in so high an estimation that fot the' 
sake only of investigatiog them he placed a value oa his 
life. ' 

The Gnostics were a sect divided into various schools; 
they had 'their origin in those burning regions of the earthy : 
whenr'fiRimrs emasculate' themselves, where the soul sunk 
in contemplation loses itself in splendid dreams, the inco-' 
berenoe of which makes them appear like sacred mysteries. . 
The Chaldaeans, divideddnto a number of celebrated schools' 
of learned men, seem to have received the doctrine of the* 
Gnostics with approbation, and even found a preparation 
for it in their own doctrines. " There are traces, indeed, - 
which indicate that a communication was maintained be- 
tween, the most distant Asiatic nations about the period of 
the foundation of the Babylonian empire by N&bonassar. . 

The Gnostics held the existence of an unfathomable* 
Abyss * or primitive Night, from which, according to some, 
Time^ or, according to others, Wisdom, (in this instance 
there is a fundamental diffisrence, for the former opinion 
allows of no int^IHgent principle,) produced Revolutions or 
-Sons f , of which each had a peculiar character. J After a 
space of time had closed, of i which no other compiAtation 
could be given but' the greater or lesser number of fevolu-- 
tions assumed by different sects, the confluence of elements, 
or the rushing together of the chaotic parts, developed 
Intellect or Mind $, which, beilig unable to find its like,* 
exerted its power upon Chaos. From its operations the 
Demiurge || or Creator of the world had his origin. The 
latter, in order to obtain beings to pay him adoration, im-: 
prisoned spalls (^ the pure asther in earthly bodies, and thus 

* Bv9o(. f Aivftf* X l4i(uyia* § Nov;. ' |) ^tfiwufiyof^ 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

produced mankiiid. la order to destroy his .work, Wis-^ 
dom, the first of beings, called into existence Jesus, who^ 
had only the outward form or shadow of a body, and under- 
went death only in appearance from a conspiracy of the 
priests' of the Demiurge. To liberate the soul from the 
chains of the body was accordingly the fundamental prin- 
eiple of the moral doctrine of the Gnostics. . 
- In the 2E(ms or revdiutions of the Gnostics may also be 
recognized the four ages of the Indian Veda, in the fourth' 
of which we live, and which ha^ 395,000 years to continue 
until the final consummation of all things. In feet, these 
iEons only differ from B^ffon's epochs of nature in the 
same manner in which we may. suppose the st^le and ch»-» 
racter of the ancient Oriental pec^le to. differ from that of 
an European poet of the eighteenth century. 
* It is incredible how extensively the Gnostic mystery 
spread- in the course of a few years in Asia and the South df 
Europe. There is a considerable work still extant which is 
conceived in the spirit of the Gnostic philosophy, and whiii^h . 
has been erroneously attributed to Clemens, a disciple of the 
apostle Peter; it is, however, a book of high antiquity. 
Even the apostles found it necessary to contend against 
GSnosticism, and Irenaeus, chiefly in opposition to it, com- 
posed a work, in which the good intention of the author is 
more conspicuous than his abUity. This- heresy could not 
fail to scandalize the new converts to Christianity who came 
over firom the Synagogue^ and who still continued to revere 
Moses according to his merits; these persons unwillingly 
abandoned the falling Jerusalem, and at Pella, whither they 
had fled for refuge, lived 60 years under circumcised 
bisb<^s, there being no article of Christianity which en- 
joined the abolition of their national rites. Onthe other 
hand, Simon, who passed under the name of the Magician, 
would seem to have been a Gnostic: he possessed a myste- 
rious embtem, which was only diown to bis most confideni^ 

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SS9 * V1II«SM*I« XWfOllYv 

ImI disdpki^ and wbidi wm pnilidbty a qrtirfwficnl i^psf* 

The mona docUnoe of ihft Giiootic8> ihe fiiua soo|ie cyT 
winch waft to libflfate the soul firam Ibe body, admitted two 
ofipoiite afiplicatiaDft aeeordmg to the ditpotitioii of tjbe 
tflifibefs and atndentai That auieide was reeowiB K Wfe d na 
the shortest way to the e»d |M|KisQdy was, pnbapst a ea-^ 
lumiuoua misreiireseiitadoil of some adversary: it i% how- 
evert highly probable thai this aet was not reckoned among 
crimes* On the other hand, it cannot be ds^uted that 
some of the schools of this philosophy faeid aU sensual eih* 
joynMits to be indfiffiHrenl. This tenet was deduced by 
many from that view of human ni^re which considers the 
gratifying of onr passions as sometimes involuntary, often' 
mnocenty and as only becoming sjuifiil throngfa cireumstances 
and the relaticms of society ; but soppoM^i it to be over* 
looked in the sight of God in indulgence to human fiaUty i 
it wonld seem that Carpocrates added to this lioentions 
doctrine, the principle^ that excess in debaucheiy is a mom 
certain, speedy, and, at the same time^ a more ^reeable 
method of destroying the burdensome body than the pelfa 
of setf*mortificatioo. In the history of many mystical sects 
we find traces df that maxim, that when the beai^ is pur^ 
actions of this description are of little or no importanosw 

Yet the more severe method of destroying, the lasU of the 
fledi by mutilatioa obtsaned a greater number of votaries.. 
In one point cf view the Gnostic princqiks were dangerous 
from the abase to which they wcare exposed, and the nus- 
feprcMCitation whidi thcgr so easily admitted; in aooth^, 
ihsgr fafcame powerM by the assistance whidi they re^eiv^d 
from hufiMB^ade, so that the real purily of good men vim 
bm^ght mto alUanoe wiA the frdse sanctity of hypoopitaa* 
AnMre pKtfcssioBs commonly find the most pnfalJc.sipfNii^ 
batioi^ beeanse vani^ is the passion wUkh ge^veins botli 
^emESiWjmdsttbsisti»throaghe«si7sti^0fhniiMii^3^ . 

Betwem such dangeroas extremes the first Chiistiaa 

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woidHieBt pfurticidaxly Aoie orar which 8t Jobn presided 
mtil the lOOlh yofur of bia 119^ held « lAiddle path, and 
mniotained that pure rimj^dky of morab and doctrines 
Gotioerauig whidi Trajaa only required the infimniition of 
Hiny^n order to put a stop to the porseeiition began by 
erdir of Domitiaii. Mvea in the second centinry they were 
cUefly known by ihat peneferanoe in works of charity which 
L,aeian trteats with ridicole^ and by their remote sqparittion 
from the character and manners of a corrupt age. The few 
writings which remain from this period are iiiU of the sen- 
timents of hdy confidence and inwud peace. The Chris* 
tians were in general iU»jii|fi>rmed, credulous of things which 
mig^t aflbrd salutary motives and examples, and bad 
n^ritera; bol then* moral feelings wfre of the noMtest kind» 
and, supported by th« hopes of fatnrity, lEU^uired the most 
sublime elevation. 

The death of John, the beloved disciple of Jesds, exem- 
plifies the genuine spirit of primitive Christianity : after a 
life as much revered by the Heathens for its purity and 
goodness, as by the Church for the doctrine which he 
taught, he beheld the approach of death, and for the last 
time caused himself to be carried into the congr^;ation of 
hisbrethr^; he boked upon ^le^ a^d» holding up his 
hands, sud, — <<< Childr^n^ ^ ^ Lord bitb loved us^ so, 
I beseech you, always to Iqve one moth^" Hbving tliu& 
said, he laid his head down and epipired* 

Yet for some time these societies, w^^ent adopting the 
Qnostic sobtilties, rapained equally r^meCe Sppm the super- 
stition of Polytheism, and frcgn the burdepisomeyoke of the 
oldlgw; they took no share in publie di|pii^^ ifkkh were 
postly entered up9n with the be(^|theni^e»oiiidf they were 
nniriUiog to b^cpmecoldiers; fev Isherf^t they Uvedqmetlyt. 
fff^re the best fidiersof frn^lies, ^ mostfiuth^ husband^^ 
qpe^ of gende inapnevipy of Sjpai:ta& titmpemiieiB and fra» 
gf^Myt ai|4 inspired t9fFfuc#their Christian sode^ wldt the 
affi^MiiQsi of fikMBep iMtiiots* The Mne van faeoame up^ 

A A 4 

.Digitized by CjOOQIC 

860 XJ»t9ESmAL HlffRmV* 

daunted and herokal, .»wlMto>tlie disfKiitatiousi- arts of-die 
pbiloaophefSy or tlK iaiperioQ& oomintnds of t^atit^ or 
the iBoit crael tortarea^: would have indncisd them to abjure 
the love and adoration of their Lord. These times are the 
heroic age. of Christei^oin, daring which the religiim of 
Jesus was ^iread from the Ganges to the Atlantfeobean* 
.' The decline of the aacient reKgions and ancient inorais,* 
and the eagerness whicb psevailod to receive every new and 
more sublime discovefy, favoured this rapid propagation 
jof the Christian iaith. A circumstance which also ^con- 
tributed, to its. progress was, that the fiindamental tenets of 
Christianity were only another appellation for those uni- 
versal principlesi which rouse into life the dormant fetiings 
of our nature,, and bridg to completion the rude' and im- 
perfect Ideas of unenlightened men, while, at the same 
time^ there were many things in them which admitted aa 
interpretation, not adverse to the wishes and opinions of 
the age* 



The first Christian societies, independent of esLch other, 
maiiitained a fraternal intercourse by means of epistles, and 
when circumstances rendered it necessary, by recfprocat 
alms. Among others, th^; mother-church of Jerusalem, 
which, in the first effusion of Christian charity, had intro- 
duced a community of possesions, stood in need of such 
aid. The. adoption of this measure, together with' the 
comequoaces of persecutions, \)f femine, and ctf the wAnt 
of necessary prudence^ detailed poverty on the Christian 
wnAety of Jerusalem. Perhaps this efibct was promoted 
by an cqpinion connected with the old Jewish pr^ndicei^ 
that the destruction cf the whole fiibric of the eutfa was 
speedily to fellow the ruin of that metropolis. While tlfis 
opinion xcsEideredmen indiflferent to all tempoi^ concerns^ 

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-it roused lit tbetn-a more animated 2eaL ' 'When «xpe^ 
rience hkA convinced tfaem of thdr mistake, Christianiiy 
was' too firmly established to snffer^ any evil conseqnenced 
from the discovery of an ^roneoils interpretation, in no 
wise important, and against which the apostles themselves 
had ooeasiohally given warning. 

It soon happened in the natural course of thhngis, that 
overseers or bishops were required to regulate congrega- 
ticms, to direct the interchange of epistles, and administer 
the gifts of charity: the elders or presbyters naturally became 
the counsellors df the bishops; and attendants or deacons 
executed their commissions. After the departure or death 
of a bishop, the elders proposed him or them, who seemed 
fittest to succeed, and the assembly determined the choice : 
in cdnsequence of the fraternal association that was fertiied 
among the churches, when the elected person entered on his 
office^ the neighbouring bishops were invited to ofier up the 
prayers and perform the service of the day. 
' But in a short time the bishop came also to be regarded 
as the scfocessor of the Mosaic high-priest, the presbyters 
took the . place of the inferior priests, and the deacons as* 
sumed the rank of the Levites. These comparisons were at, 
first' mere. verbal allusions; but the vanity of individuals^ 
which was flattered by them^ and at length private in- 
•terest,' spread oter them a degree of sanctity, and gave 
them a powerful impression. ' Hence arose at abuse which 
was unheard of among the Greeksand Romans, and which 
•had not. the smallest. foundation in the precepts of Christ. 
A'partiinilar claims of ministers was fixrmed under the name 
of the -clerus, or- the clergy; to whom, 'in the coarse of 
jfime^ the congregations were brought into' a state cf^pu- 
-pillage which finally -passed into an absolute' domiiiation; 
«ndobtmned an Authority and influence totally oppodte to 
4lie fraternal character of .the ^primitive Ohristidn societies 
' -From a comparison With the highhpriestof the Jews^ the 

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S63 IttllTXMAL Bifwmtr. 

Ushoiw gradoaUy a«piMl to be coB^nP^ ^^ 
whc^ as the aole and eternal high-pnoit of t^e Giiri$ti«i 
world» waa supposed to have af^okited vice-^gareiiis in lui 
place. lu tbis xdatioii they usuirped a domiaioii over tbe 
copadenqes of nieD, wbiofa was incompatiUe with' the mm* 
plicity and freedpm of the ptimitive tiaMs; and amoe 
he who prides over the moat eaaeiitial and w«f^ con- 
ceni% ha$ an autbori^ io much the mcure iodisputaUe over 
theifiss important* so the spiritual power, in the course of 
a few centuries, elevated itself above the twiporal, the ob- 
jects of which are perishable and stand m the same rela- 
tion to heavenly things, which the earth holds tp the 
heaven, matter to spirit, and b^y to S019L We dearly 
trace the vestiges of this domineering temper, in a work of 
the ficMirth centmy, which is termed the Apostojieal Coosti* 

j^lready the q[HSCopal dignity, like the imperiak throve, 
had been the recompense of ftctious intrigue. Under the 
name of church discipline, the Hie and actions of Chris- 
tians had been sul^ected to a censorship, which in the ^r^ 
l^pes bad for its pretext,' to tahe c|ir)^ that the efHAgreg^don 
might neither become contemptible by any scandalous 
affi^r, nor the ol:gect of pu^ic odium or suspicbo, and 
which afterwards mainly contriboted to the elevation of tshe 
sacerdotal power. The prescripts pf ancieiit Jisw«^v#r8 
h^ always some real or ajpparent foundatsoo, in oature <»r 
Ux circumstances; but in these times gnrced apfdiqrtima of 
fiior^^re^ u)Eiconnected eod m^pnepu«ily int^r^^, ean^e to 
1^ eftabl^sbed ^& pracqHs of p^aimomit and indiqfiiitahle an- 
ij^ority^ whereby the fia^i of manJdiid, i|i a few |p^ 
iipjie^ SRhicb, by a directing Prpvidc^ce had beenimewt^ 
fisoui time to time, became extended into an tirfinite molti* 
|9>de of pb^nrvai^ces i)p4 s||trtil|ti(^riu^ayoke wi^ 
whif^ Wt f<mwnc|i<«9 wi^ the pi^i^ii^ ^igpaMtmt» xf 
. ^f mtv^ md tiie decfty of literatw^ M^zib«tod Mt 1^ 

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little towaids the debaaeineot pf die ipinA wd tj^e iqUot 
^ictkuiof barharoin* 

Tbua was the work of Jesua corrupted bjr b}«^ But «» 
xu) psriiculiir event is witboot its appoiatmenti in .reUtioif 
to the wbolcji' so. it came to pass^ witbout tbe intrntioa of 
its fettsdersy, that tbe bierarcbjr itsdf cxMqp^rated fi^r a tin^ 
in proiQotiiig (be general good* 

When tbe uncivilized ws^rriors of the north broke in 

pieces tbe falling monarchy of Rome, Eurcqpe would have 

become what the Asiatic coontrios now are^ under tbe 

yc^ of the Turks, if its conquerors had not foaqd within 

the limits of the empire, an establishment, as yet in t}^ 

full vigour of iucreasing power, which imposed respect by 

its sacred diaractrr» which could not indeed humanize the 

rude minds of savi^es by the benevolence and refined 

gentleness of its doctrines, but which by the dreadful bann 

of the church, by the terrors of heltfire^ of the devil and 

bis angels, knew how to keep in cjieck the unruly pas4on# 

of our ferodous ancestors* Having thus become more do* 

cile, they were rendered at length capable of receiving that 

purer ligbjt^ of whi<^ the church had preserved the spark 

from the times of antiquity ; at firirt only citable of re* 

ceiving tbe forms of religion, they became, by degrees, 

susceptible of religion itsdf ; and by means of thi^ long 

trainiq^^ appointed for them by Providence, have finally 

obtained an equal rank with the ancients, in moral and iar 

tellectual i^^atness, and in many respects have riseu &r 

above tbem* It was a most hi^y cbrcnmstance that events 

have ibllowed this course in ^urope^ the inhabitfints pf 

which exercise so powerful an influence on the rei^t q[ ^ 

world* If other r^ig^ms, whose richer endowpienta rmAir 

them ind^MBodent of the n<Hrtbf had enquired iAe«meeKr 

clttsive i^ture^ we mii^t bevie hgm left fyr ever ki tbe 

darkness iof barharisnou But vuttk ia Anhr the iBstrument fif 

an invisible handf . 

The associatkxi of tbe cbniviies girre MCWsiM lP;aMeift' 

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bBes of the riilers, whidi at first were summoned in parti- 
cular provinces. For tailing together-afld regulating these 
assembli^) presidents were required, to whom also appli- 
cation might be made^ during the intervals, for the ap- 
|k>intment of extraordinary- nieetings. For this office the 
bishops of the capital city, which was the centre of afFaiTs 
in each province, seemed best fitted ; and such was the 
oriirin of metropolitans or archbishops. 

When the empire, especially after the time of Diocletian, 
fell into several great divisions, it was necessary that the 
bishops of each should hold meetings from time to time to 
lK>nsult on affairs of common interest, and by means of 
communication with other great departments of the Roman 
world, should add weight to their deliberations. The 
church, which was erected oh the ruins 6f Jerusalem; 
claimed a high reverence from the first; but the poverty anrf 
oppression which it underwent lefi it not so much influence 
as fell to the lot of the great Antiochensian, the Alexandrine, 
and particularly the Roman church, which not only owed 
its original foundation to Peter, the first of the apostles, 
and his confidential disciple Mark, but by early connec- 
tions with illustrious and powerful families, acquired a de- 
gree of influence even in the imperial court. These four 
churches were ' considered as the principal families or 
branched of Christendom, and their rulers as heads of tribes 
or patriarchs. 

' ^ -When the imperial residence was removed fi*om Rome 
to Constantinople, a jealousy arose between the bishdps of 
the old and new capital; between the most powerfid pa- 
triarch of the oriental empire, and the supreme bishop of 
tte west.- But the eastern church had four,' the western only 
oive'pa^iaroh-; the brandies of the former were sooii lop- 
ped * off- by tihe conquests of the' Mohammedans, while the 
latter, by' means of inddatigable missions, extended 'itself 
far over the boundaries of the empire; the Roman pontiff 
stood alone, while- the Byzantine was- held iii humility by 

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tke presence 'of the emporor^ ainl hte. digoity ofiieD com- 
ptomiied inthe, revolutioiis of a fickle court It wa» so . 
much the more easy for the Pope crf^ Rome to animate his 
flock with one soul^ and to give it the power, of a well^dis- 
dplined army. The origin of this prept^ndeniqce, and of 
the present superiority of Europe^ was concealed in. events 
of .which no mancpuld foiresee the developiement. •■ * ^ [{ 
The btstoiy of the first ages of the Roman pontificate is 
as little -known as that of the oldest times of the indent 
i^public ThexQllecttons of Anastasius are filled with exr 
am^Gsof afflicted and intrepid virtue. We behold- a mult 
titiide^of popes: giving their blood for the fidth. of Jesus, 
aaddisteilmttng their earthly goods.and the treasures of the 
diuich to the destitute^ adding continually new 
the. worship of God, and maintaining the. dign^y < of > their 
office : by the serious and venerdble. gravity ^ of' their.' de- ' 
meanour. Scaiiody are their nances known .to us!; die naom-f 
bers'of their congregations, and thexevenues <tf theckmcch 
over which they presided, are wholly, concealed in obUrion. 
Learned b]sh<qis^ria other congregatioiis, often obtained 
great personal influence, but the .in]9>ecial^ city elevated the 
dignity of her ecclesiastical rul^s . in those ;days, as she 
afterwards raised them to a second sovereignty oyer -the : 
world. i 


Vain contentions afterwards sprung up in the church 
concerning the relation of Jesus to the eternal Father^ 
against which be himself had warned his disciples. Hence 
a system of belief vt^s formed, which consisted of a string 
of tenets and authoritative dogmas, the foundation of which 
was laid in error. . 

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SM imtntMAL Httfdtty* 

Ancdier wastb of ccRrapdom is teUppn eid^ in the 
Mfr PlMonic pbilo^iidiy wfakdi fltmriiAiecl at Akaoidfn. 
jPlotinu^ jBrnbUehus, and Porpbyry fek the imilmess pf 
the myduAogy wkidi th«)r iabodrcid io^mpfott; Aey «e- 
tenfin^ly turned it ititd allegory, and xsnacealed aane Aings 
Udder a ekMk df mynM-y, 'wliila tbey 8^ others in conipft^ 
risen with the sortptntal writhigi^ wbieh were ecpufiy ilea^ 
titnte of a phBoiophicid consdractioii: tb«8 ihey hidiioed 
tten, who were endowed wkh movt geHioB than aduiiil 
kuvng in die languages and diaracter of antiipdiy, to 
gm up tbelilenil sense of the aaelad wntings^ and to sedc» 
u aribitrary eoigectnres, ibr a hidden tneansng^ The^pEft* 
loaophers aita hrid the Gbostic priacipie of aqiaraling the 
sonlfrDin the impure aftctions of tlie body* IIimi beoamey 
ha dbe hands of tfaeinshops, who wwe determhied uottm be 
left bdiitid in aiqr ^qpedoos dootriK^ the fi^itfid sooiree ^ 
■aBnypi^bibitioiis<€oalfeaBrytonalare^ and tending taikwar 
agloamanrerkunanlife. AMong odier afasard |^rfK)tiocs, 
it gave rise ^ die seelasien of useless and iwddent moaas^ 
tkM. IheAlezandrifiapfayos^^dienittled^llieiri^^ 
addchwas^toaa|)pe«rniyihek^; tbeiriwpiteseHladoittwn^ 
too a^ifteisl, and thdr language betwfed a secret wcak- 
Mis9 the fMf^ Tieqaire teachers who assume a ddeism^uid 
authoritative tcme. 

When the Christian church had extended itsdf over the 
whole empire^ and beyond its boundaries, and wdl oi^- 
nized under its bishop 8rchbisbop% and patriarchs, had 
stood, with unshaken f(»titttdc^^ under the ten years^ perse- 
cution of Diocletian; when its votaries had disjdayed to the 
world a far greater sseal for the earning of martyrdom than 
for the preservation of their lives; when the eyes of man* 
kind were fixed upon virtues exalted to heroism, and even 
Weakness elevated to the dignity of virtue ; when all -the 
abuses and irregularities whidi had crept in gave way all at 
once to the most wonderful demonstrations'of strength, and 

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Google . 

from tb^askMoftfa^ mnitg^ » in andeiit ikus^ from tlie 
bl0od df the llBgioifSy the vn^rtixM of ib^ fiiMi topntt^ v^ a 
hundr^ fold, all nations became at length oohtinced, that 
the churches of Christendom were ixiqpired by motives of 
invincible strength y- that thajr W6i« anniMed by clear and 
certain prospects of an infinite and glorious futurity. 

These things attracted the attention of Constantine, 
whose &tber) induced by wise and gende principles^ had 
put an end to persecution in his portion of the empire. If 
C!onstantine was not always guided by correct views, he was 
at least inclined to great and novel undertakings. It seemed 
to him advantageous to his interests to declare himself on 
the side of the oppressed churclk It was, besides, a part 
of his design, in the place of the antiquated, corrupt, and 
declimng religion, to introduce one which was held in the 
highest veneration by the people. A measure of this nature 
was' necessary, in order to give a new soul to the whole 
system of political society, the machinery of which had now 
become worn out and unserviceable. 

We have so far traced the history of the various repre- 
sentations and revolutions by which thos$ principles have 
been set forth and renewed which are engraven t>n our na- 
ture, and which have been preserved by tradition, though 
often darkened by a temporary obscurity ; principles.which 
elevate the unlettered person who believes them above the 
wise and great who reject their authority; which raise man 
above the limits of time, and esLalt the human soul to the 
highest imaginable hopes of advancement in wisdom and 
excellence. He who is incredulous sees in these things the 
history of a delusion which has been aijid yet is more fertile 
in virtue^ consolation, and happiness, than the most deeply 
reflected systems of scepticism. Those who hold the testi- 
mony thereof enjoy, in surveying the history of the human 
race, the same advantage which they experience in resolving 
the perplexities of human life; a fidth pure and gentle 


d by Google 


I^tdi them^ m the' pillar of fir^ guided the host <^' Moees, 
;nat dazdinglfeciny but animating their footst^ throi^h 
^he dark and i^oomy paths of this world of mortality. 

Per yarios casus, 'per tot discrimina rerum — 
^Sedes ttbi fate qttietas 

(MeadunU , 

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( 369 ) 





JLiciNius perisbed shortly after the teriiiinati6n..of a second 

wlar, which he had undertaken against Constantine, and 

^ _ the whole empire airain fell under the 

sway oi a single rulen A few years 

afterwards, Constantine undertook to remove the imperial 

residence . from Rome to Byzantium; and the latter city 

_ exchanged its ancient name for that of its new 

A.D.330. ^ , 


Constantine has been reproached for leaving . Italy ^ by 
this removal of the seat of government, exposed to the 
attacks of the barbarous assailants from the north ; yet the 
most &tal calamities of the Roman world came chiefly from 
the eastern and north-eastern side; and if resistance had 
been possible, the seat of imperial governmegtit could not 
have been more favourably chosen. The emperor was fully 
convinced of the necessity of giving a new organization to - 
the state; and, on the ruins of the former constitution, of 
erecting an empire endowed with fresh vigour and animated 
by a new principle of life: but the energy that was neces- 
sary for such an undertaking had been dissipated in the cor* 
ruption of the four preceding centuries; and while most of 
the princes who followed Constantine on the throne were 
fiir inferior to him in creative genius, Julian, vrho alone 
emulated his talents, pursued wholly different principles of 

Constantine was fortunate in all his undertakings, and 
merited success by the active and enterprising charactei* of 


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his mind. He defeated the Goths, and instead of giving 
them motives which might perpetually incite them to for- 
midable projects of revenge, he granted them a trealy of 
peace which left among them a strong and lasting remon- 
brance of his name and generosi^ ' He adhered as strictly 
to military discipline as the temper of the times allowed. 
He established laws, some of which were perhaps super-* 
fiuous or merited the reproach of excessive severity; yet the 
scope and tendency of all was to restore the private virtues 
of the ancient Romans. He piKivi^ed anxiously for the wel- 
fare of the peasantry^ who wore sure, of atwjajs :finding his 
ear open to their petitions. Nature bad given him a sound 
understanding and a r^ard for social order; and thoi:^ he 
was iiot possessed of es^tensive knpwl^ge, yet he respected 
and patronized men of learning, and laboured s^vHomlj 
by comments ^nd extracts frpm the best authprs to culti- 
vate his own mind, and form principles for tib^ regulation 
of his conduct , He despised forensic arts; and endea- 
voured, though without success, to plaoe the sjubtilties of 
theology beyond the reach of further dispute by aml^ori- 
tative decisions. For the rcst^ be maintained dejcorpus 
and digjnified inanners in his court, and pernntt^ ,to bis 
eunuchs and other courtiers neither the exercise of power 
nor indulgence in scandalous abiji^es. He seems, tg k^^e 
been capable of the sentiment of friendship; Uit wl^e^§ be 
discovered ambitious views he was inexorable, not le^ frpiii 
feelings of jealousy th^n becaus^ he J^new by experienqe ^e 
disastrous consequences of seditious prqj^ts. It w^s be- 
lieved that he might, without incurring: further d^sM^er, 
have spared the life of Liciniusf the unhjippj^ fete,. pf! bis 
nephew Commodus was lamented; an4 it was still more 
diflScult to pardon the violent passions which le^ tp the 
sacrifice of his son, the excellent Crispus. The Empress 
Fausta had indeed borne an afiection towards her husband^ 
which induced her to betray to him the d«dgns of her 
father, the old Maximian ; yet, afterwards, like the wife of 


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'TIm0u9^9 dhe ^ppei^ro to have conceived an iinlawfiil paia- 
81611 ibr, her slep-ioa.Crispus; and when the latter refused 
jier addre9aesf die accused him to Constantine, who gave 
tl>o credolotts an ear to her calumnies: after the death of 
'lllis noble youth) he is ^d to have discovered the black 
stratagem, and to have abandoned Fausta to the just punish- 
ment of her atrocities, H^ vas deservedly reproached fop 
giving ^ the captive princes of .the Franks and AUeznanni^ 
4» victuns to wUd beasts' in the theatric games; but after 
JUs eonversicm to Christianity, he put an end to those bar- 
barous codiibition^. 

On the whale, it is mamfest that the gemus of Constan- 
tine, fertile, if not in happy, at least in specious ideas, gave 
a new direction to the course of hu^ian aJBTairs. He main- 
iaioed peace by the reputation of his arnis ; and. his n^me, 
^temaliely too much exalted and unjusdy 4egraded by pre- 
judiced historians^ deserves an honourable' mentipii among 
t|ie indnarcbs of the Roman world. 



• . CoNSTANTiNE, during his life, had • di- 

vided the empire between his three sons, 
retaining to himself the supreme sovereignty; Constantinethe 
Second obtained Britain and Gaul ; Constans, It^y, Illy- 
rium, and Africa; and Constantius, the eastern countries. 
'His nephews, Dalmatius and Himnibalianus, w^re decla^ 
CaBsars; and the former was intrusted with the government 
of Thrafce, Macedonia, and Greece; the latter, with that of 

It again became evident how difficult it is to separate. the 
]possession of unlimited power from tRe ambition of obtain- 
ing the sole command. The Caesars were put to death by 

f Gibson discredits this anecdote, induced, as it should seem, by the 
desire of imprinting a deeper stain on the memory of the first Christian 
^mperoTi T* 

BB 2 

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S72 imiT£BSAL HtBTOSr. 

^eir soldiers, apparently not widioot the approbation of 
the emperors. Constantine attempted to possess himself of 
Italy and expel his brother Constans; but at 
Aquileia he lost a battle whith put a period to 
his life. Ten years afterwards, Magnentius con^ii^ed the 
"death pf the Emperor Constans ; a prince who in bis jouth 
Imd been held in high esteem, birt who had abandoned bun- 
self to the most fla^tions lusts. In a wood at the foot of the 
Pyrenees, where he often spent whole days with the com- 
panions of his debaucheries, Constans was seized and put to 
death. Illyrium would neither acknowledge the 
sunrivingbrother nor the assassin as its sovereign ; 
'Vetranio, an old and experienced officer, was raised by the 
l^ons in that country to the dignity of the purple. 

Constantius intrusted to his kinsman Gatlas, to whom 
he gave the rank of Csssar, the prosecution of the unfortu- 
,.nate wiur in which he was engaged against the Persian king, 
Siapor, and marched into the west. Vetranio gladly ap- 
cepted the offer of a large annual stipend, and laid down 
the p^irple.. Italy declared in fkvour of Constantius be^ 
fore the fortune of the war had decided itself; and Rome 
su£fered, in consequence, the furious vengeance of Magnen- 
tius. After many indedsive and bloody contests, Con- 
stantius gained a complete victory not &r from Essek in 
Hungary: whereupon the rival emperor, having rescued 
his mother and one of his brethren from t|he horrors of 
captiviiy by putting them to death, terminated his own life 
by suicide; and his example was followed by his brother 
Becentitts. The vdiole empire again admowledged ope 
lord : even the Caesar Gallus, who had suffisred himself to 

^ ^ be excited to some acts of violence^ was punished 
A.O.a54. . 

with death by order of the emperor. 

Julian, the brother of Gallus, now began to obtain a 
part in the conduct of affidrs. Educated under the oppres- 
sive restraint which the jealous suspicion of his relatives 
imposed, he had found a noble consolation, and food &r 

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his powerittl mindj in the writiiigB of the ancients, with 
whom he became better acquainted than with the character 
of his owti age. As the worthless tx>iirt of Constantius 
horded no illustrious example to excite his emulation, he 
formed his mind after the patterns of Alexander, Cesssff^ 
Trigan, and Marcus Antoninus. Constantius was the 
slave of his wife and his eunuchs, and the sport of sjfco- 
phants; he w;as most active in the subtleties of theolc^ical 
dispute, and full of distrust towards Julian. . The lattei^ 
holding his imperial kinsman in the lowest contempt, em- 
braced every maxim tliat was opposed to the principles of 
Constantius; and, among other instances, fopmed a* strong 
attachment to the religion which the eloquence of Gredc 
and Roman authors had painted in such attractive colours t 
he apostatized from Christianity, and only disguised his- 
s^timents in order that no imprudent act might shidrten: ». 
life which he had destined for the completion of the most 
splendid schemes. « 

II happened^ at this conjuncture that the AUemanniy 
whom Constantius during his war against Magnentins had 
himsdf excited to commotion, were now giving rise to the 
janosi calamitous disturbances in Gaul; and the Emperor 
saw himself under the necessity of sending Julian thither 
with the title and authority of Caesar. Constantius- enter- 
tained no great respect for the talents of his kinsman; he 
considered him as a man learned in books, who was not 
likely to display any remarkable talent in th^ conduct of 
affairs, or skill in wan When Julian lewnt that the Franks 
and Allemanni had united their troopa in a common causey 
he occupied Cologne and Brumat in Alsac^ as two chief 
positions from which he might hold the Allemanni in ched^ 
and reduce the Franks to sue fi>r peace. Having granted 
their request, he intreated the imperial generaI,Barbutio^ who 
was conducting twenty«five thousand men to his assistance, 
through Helvetia and across the Rhine at Basili to. eaqpedite 
his mar<4i« On the other sid^ the AUemafim contrived to 

BB 3 

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iJ4 U>ri V1R8AL BlfitORYv 

cot him otffrem tJiis reiftforcement^ md to iLvbid a battle 
until the troops of Julian were r^dtfced to thirteoi tfaousuid 
men. Chnodomar, the barbtftriau general^ led an army 
three times more numerous than the Roman ; his troojp» 
were full of courage, and not unskilled in the art of iTar;- 
A battle was fought not far from Sti^asburg on the Ahine. 
The Caesar animated his whole army by his example aad 
eloquence; and vict<»ry rewarded bis valour. After this 
success, the natal praeftct refused him the use of the ships^ 
which he demanded in order to pursue the enany who bad 
taken refuge in an island of the Rhine. But his soldiers 
iBideftook to swim over with the help of their shields, and 
Chnodomar himself widi two hundred of his most nobte 
warriors, were made captives. Julian afterwards traversed 
the whole country of the AUemanni : the tribes who h^ 
disturbed the peace of the Rheetian province were subdued 
under his auq»iees, and the perfidious Franks under his 
personal command; and the boundaries of the empire, and 
ttie terror <^the Roman nam^ restored. Jnlian now libe- 
rated Gaul fiem oppressive imposts; and the bffirbar/an% 
who had so often sold peace at so great a price, were them- 
selves obliged to ime for it, and to submit to the haindest , 
tenns« Hie (^sar listened personally to the complaints of 
his sttbjeets, and was so equitable towards his servants that 
he passed sentence upon none without a fair scmduy; for, 
^< who could be secure of a blameless character if accusations 
i^ere siiffident to condemn ?" The gra^ly and temperance 
c^his manners obtained for his youth the veneratloifwbich 
is claimed by age. During the conduct of Ihe most im- 
portant affidts he never intermitted the coltiviilion of his 

The machinations of an invidibtis Court were preparing' 
his ruin, wh«i the army saluted him by the title of Au- 
gustus. When Ootistantius received this ii^xrmadoh^ his 
life Wks terminated, ih Gilida, by the effect of vexation 
and anxiety; He was a prince df moderate talents, and 

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pdsscfssed dl tbe good and bad qualities winch are combiQed 
wikh weakness of character. 




. _ Soon after Julian had ascoided . the 

A.D.561— 563. , , . ,. 1 J 1 , , . 

throne, he pnbucly declared his c^MMtacy 
lo the <dd region of die Greeks and Romans, as it was 
fflustrsled in die writings d the later Platonic fdiilosophers, 
adfdidothed with the mysteries of the theisrgic art. Thiit 
sj^itenl^ which for centnries had beoi associated with the 
<nlMrti9 of tbe state^ seemed to him Ukely to maintasi the 
ii^faesl; reference, as k was also connected withthe poce- 
sisrvatfoli of taste by the writii^ of the greatest md finest 

It is a fact, that many fisthers of. the ohnrch at this 
time held in undue disrespect tbe writings oS the ancient^ 
which contained many passages that were hijghty faTomaUe 
to their purpose^ and of which great advitntage had been 
made by the elder Christian authors. ApolUnaris of Lao- 
diesea undertook to introduce into the schools his own worki, 
which bore some imperfect resendfcdance to our Cbreato- 
matfaiefi^ in the plactf of the compoadonsof antiquity: 
hss ideu wa% like that of Qregarj of NasdanEUfi, diat it was 
more importflait io avoid att impure thoughts, (as if tbe 
classical aiidiors were the chief source of mental impurity !) 
than to correct inelegaacies of expression. Tbe idiom of 
these tknes ooukl not b^ otherwise than conrupted, thi^efugk 
tbe trmslations of the Scriptures^ whiek were made^ on the 
one band, with greater hteral accuracy than oomreot feeling ; 
lUidv on die other, in a popidat s^fie^ that they might be 
suited to th^ comprehensieu of the lowest classes; audit 
Was not without .reaA>n diat the fethets of the cfaorch 
dreaded a comparison with the ancient authors. The same 
anxiety revived in -the sixteenth century f when Sebasdad 

B B 4 

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CastftUio and other writen, harving aoqi^red as great AiM 
as it is possible to attain in Latin composition, attempted to 
supply the place of the classical authors; as if elegance of 
language were the chief resource which is to be found in 
the writings of the ancients for the cultivation of the human 

Jttltttn immediacy exerted himself with the utmost 
activity to introduce into the worship of the god% and 
among his followers, the sftlntairy practices and inslitatioiis 
of the Christians: with a similar view, Maximinus I>aia 
liad befinre attempted to apprc^riate to the old religion the 
most striking and specious recommendations of Christiattty. 

He adispted, moreover, the prineipte of universal (oltt^ 
ation, in order to lull into indifference the enthusiasm 
which had displayed itself in &vour. of a persecuted &idi* 
He gave no commands for shutting up the churches^ but 
Ordered the temples to be opened. AH the bishops who 
had beoi dqposed from the exercise of thdr {unctions in 
consequence of the theological controversies were fay hfan 
irecalled,' in order that the harmonious sentiment of the 
Christian church might become weakened by fiidions. 
During the last forty years, Athanasius the patriaidi) and 
Arias, a priest of Alexandria, with their respective fol- 
lowers, had exhibited to the world the most scandalous 
example of the spirit of persecution. Ambitiooy envy^. and 
a restless disposition to enquire into subjects which cannot 
be iUustrfited by definite expositions, seem to have been 
the motives which inspired these agitators: the question, 
whether Jesus is similar in essence * to God, or eiUirely of 
the same nature f, had convulsed, particularly in the re^^ 
of Constantius, all the Christian congregations in the . 
empire: and as no dogma has a secure hold on the mind» 
when mien once dqpart from the province of reason and 
from that of simple and [Hractical fiutfa ; none of the general 

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coundls of the church, the first of which were assembled by 
CoDBtantine at Nicsea, were able to invent an illustration 
which might restore unanimity or impose assent by its 
internal evidence. Both these parties were obliged by Julian 
py observe peace and quietness. 

He expressed, in all instances, favour or dislike^ in pro- 
portion to the d^ee of sympathy which every man seemed 
to feel towards his own views. He restored the priests of 
the temples to their offices, and spared no pains in order to 
form among them virtuous and venerable characters. Ho 
ijBtroduced Readers *, who were appointed to preach, after 
the manner of the Christians, in the Pagan temples. He 
estftblohed laws among the votaries of the gods, in imitation 
of the rigpld censures which the church pronounced against 
scffiKlalous offisnoes; but his regulations were more lenient 
and indulgent towards human frailties. He set apart con- 
siderable sums for the use of the poor, remarking that the 
institution of alms had contributed to the more rapid 
spreading of Christiaiiity. He recalled the remembrance 
of the splendid and illustrious times of the old Romans, 
and of the noble representations which were given by the 
ancients of the gods. He was endowed by nature with a 
lively wit, and with a particular talent for turning into ridi- 
cule the grave demeanour and pretended virtues of hypo- 
crites. Julian laboured day and night to increase his 
knowledge, to reduce his principles to a'definite form, and 
to invent well-arranged discourses for the recommendation 
of them. Temperance presided in the imperial palace : the 
numerous cooks and the powerful eunuchs of his predecessors 
w^e excluded from its walls. 

: The Persian king, Sapor, probably not ignorant of the 
secret discontents which prevailed among the Christian 
population of the empire, continued to disturb the repose 
of (he eastern frontiers; and Julian marched to Mesopotamia 

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in order to maintaiii the credit' of'thd Roknad ktmL He 
kid waste Assyria, arid thredtened CtesifAidn; the taphal of 
the Persians. On this mdrch he suffered hi'miMif to b^ 
induced, by a pretendeddeserter who andettodk td be Mi 
guide, to follow a path which his conductor' ttsgarei hkH 
would be more expeditious than the usual tnudc, and he 
was brought by it into the midst of a desert. White bis 
army n^as suffe^ng great difficulties from the iiatnre of tb& 
country, it was assailed on all sides by the li^t eovaby 6f 
the ^emy. The traitor wds put to death by tiw sddierBt 
and esteemed himself happy in having protected Us country 
from the greatest cfllamities by a stratageni wiiich oidy coit 
his oi^n life. The emperor resolred wpon a batdej bat 
while he was preparing khr it, arid harangnrng kis'andy to 
gire them courage for the contest, be was martaUfy wddndei 
by an arrow which ciWe from aft tmsteit hanA. Some 
ascribed the deed to a soldiei- weary of a Ukig and difietilt 
]6aarch and of the rfgout of miCtaty dlscij^Une; wv^ral 
fathers of the chilrdi^ to a supernatural 'pM€t ; while other 
authors impute it to an enemy of the ^ods. When JaUiitoi 
ftit himself to be on the point of death, he admoimhed 
bis chief cgmmariders to exert themsdyes vftlkmtfy, ancl 

Julian had more genius, Constantaae a much more correct 
and enlightened uilderstffiiding ; the letter sought to er^rel 
on the charsCcter and disposition of Ins times tbe barn of 
new virtues and original plans, while Juban attempted to 
build upon foundations Which the lapse of ages had already 
undermined. Instead of labouring to carry forward the 
plan of Constantine, arid to gite it that imprcited form 
which it so much required', he waged war against tbe age in 
which he lived, and exerted himself tA \mn to prep vipm 
edifice that was every where falling into ruins. His inten^ 
tions were sincere^ and he was unconscious of tbe mflnerioe 
which the hatred he bore towards Constantius, and tbe re^ 
sentment he felt for the wSetings of his youtb, could 

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VS^tbiy fan to produce upon his mind. His &le caUs for 
our compiKHsion ; for after baviDg abandoned the hopes' 
of Christianity, he was always tormented by snperstitiafis 
terrors: in his expedition against Persia, be ordered a 
woman's entrails to be examined, in order to gain an insight 
into futurity. In another point of view he deserires our 
commiseration ; he who had undertaken an unequal contest 
against the voice of the whole worlds felt in his last hour 
that the work of his life perished with him. ' 


JOVIAN ; valentinian; valens. 

Sa^ OR made so good use of the distance which separated 
the army from' their magazines, that he obliged Jovian, 
whom the lee^ions had declared Emperor in 
the place ot Julian, to purchase a peace by 
abandoning to the enemy Nisibis, the most important gar** 
rison of the eastern frontier. The ijew emperor was a Pan* 
honian, an able sovereign, and a man of exalted character ; 
though addicted .to pleasure, he was not unlearned, and so 
sincerely devoted to the Christian religion, that he had ex- 
posed himself for its sake to the displeasure of Julian; He 
died befox^e his arrival at Constantinople. 

Two other Pannonians were elected by the army to suc- 
ceed him; Valentinian was the person chosen, 
' "" * but he immediately nominated his brother Valens 
as hid colleague, and confided to him (he government of the 
eastern provinces. Valentinian was a man of courage, who 
had made military aiB^rs his principal study, and was the 
iiiventor of certain Weapons. He secured the bailks of the 
Rhine by fortresses, and carried on war successfully agaiiist 
die Saxons, the AUemanni, and thtt Sarmfttic tribes. He 
was only deficient in temperance; and if he had known better 
how to govern himself he would have found his army 
more obedient to his commands. Valens was not deficient 

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in understanding} but to0 often became Violent through the 
influence of his passions, and exerdsed the most dread- 
fill atrocity towards the rivals of his power : he took a part 
in the controversies of the bishops^ and treated those who 
were not inclined to the Arian doctrine with extreme 

The court of Constantinople now resembled the resi- 
dences of Oriental monarchs* Empresses and eunuchs soon 
became powerful, and ruling ministers rendered the sove- 
reign inaccessible. Cruelties were as often perpetrated 
as under the ancient tyrants: they were not as formerly the 
excesses of the fiery souls of rude and impetuous warriors; 
but the effects of suspicious weakness which apprehends 
danger on every side, and becomes the more intolerable by 
its contemptible meanness. Hortar, a leader of the Alle- 
manni, was burnt slowly from the soles of his feet upwards 
by order of Valentinian ; Withicab, another chief, who had 
surrendered himself to the good faith taxd honour of thai 
prince, was put to death during a banquet : Procopiiis, who 
had been declared emperor, was, by order of Valens, bound 
to the branches of trees which were bent downwards, and 
which, in rebounding into their natural position, tore him in 
pieces. The old laws against treason were revived; and under 
this pretence persons were employed to lie in wait to observe 
the conduct of all men possessed of great property. Many 
fell sacrifices to the ill-placed confidence of friendship. 
Justus, who presided over the administration of justice in 
the Picentine, was put to death because he had dreamt that 
he was clothed with the purple. Valens surpassed eyen 
this example ; a soothsayer having foretold that the emperor 
should be succeeded by a man whose name began with 
Theodf he caused many distinguished persons to be de- 
stroyed because they were named Theodorus, Theodotus, 
4>r Theodosius. 

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^The military virtues which were already extinct in Rome 
declined also among the legions. The treasures of the world 
were allotted to the pay of the barbarians who constituted the 
strength of the armies, and who became generals, and rose 
to consular dignities. The coats of mail were now laid 
aside, and it seemed as if the object in view was ^o enable 
the troops to fly more expeditiously. The infantry fell into 
disuse ; but it was rather the love of ease and the motive of 
personal convenience that gave the preference to the cavalry. 
The garrisons that were placed in the frontier towns dege- 
nerated into a militia, who applied themselves to civil arts 
and trades. The fortresses of Valentinian were unable to 
withstand the progress of the enemy, who left them behind 
and advanced into the heart of the empire. 

The hired barbarians often refused to fight against their 
countrymen, and as often they betrayed the Romans iiito 
their power. As their pay was the only motive of their . 
service, they preferred robbery to battle ; and as soon as they 
chose to fight, the general was obliged to engage, though 
it were contrary to t^e maxims of warfare. It was thus 
that Constantius was defeated by Sapor, and thus a secret ^ 
march of Valentinian was revealed to the enemy by the 
amoke of plundered villages, which he could hot prevent his 
soldiers from committing to the flames. 

" Yet the ferocity of the Saxons,*' says Salvianusjpf Mar- 
seilles, " the robberies of the Alani, the rage of the ine- 
briated AUemanni, the unfeeling cruelties of the Gepidi, the 
abominable licentiousness of the Huns, the perfidy of the 
Franks, with whom oaths are mere forms of speech ; all 
these enormities are nothing compared with what we have 
to suffer from the Romans who hold the true fiuth : when \ 
our unjust judges dare not openlv to punish innocencei 

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382 vmrzmAJ, .HiSTORT. 

,they have the aft of so perplexing the most simple afiairs, of 
so drawing them out, 'tbat it is useleigs to think of the aids 
of justice; the emperors when they with to reward a fa- 
vourite, grant him a branch of the public revenues, and he 
immediately becomes the pest even of our meanest villages. 
We have advanced so far in crimes, that he who wiJJ not 
become wicked, cannot live in security." * 

This corruption and relaxation of all morals was the true 
cause of the well merited fall of the empire. " In a^hort 
time," as St. Jerome and Isidore of Seville des9ribe, ** in-^ 
•numerable swarms of Quadi, Vandals, Sarmatae, Alani, 
Sa^ions^ Gepidi, Heruli, Allemanni, and Burgundians 
broke loose on all sides and passed over the Rhine;, then ' 
the inhabitants of Mentz, flying into the churches, were 
hewn down at the feet of th# altars ; then after a valiant 
reristance Worms fell a sacrifice to their rage ; Spires, 
Strasburg, Rheims, Arras, Amiens, Tournay, the cities of ^ 
the Netherlands and of the Lyonese, .the province of 
Narbonne, Novem-populonia, and Septemania, became an 
interminable scene of ruins : when no sword destroyed, 
hunger ensured a more protracted death; when all Spain 
was plundered, and laid waste by fire, mothers nourished 
the last hours of th^ir exhausted life with the flesh of their 
own children; when sword, and pestilence, and hunger, 
gave a moment of repose, wild beasts came without fear to 
feed upon dead bodies in the defenceless towns." 

After the old Romans had conquered the fairest portions 
of the earth, genius and all other excellence found Htxeir 
only consolation in the imperial city; after the manners of 
the citizens had become corrupted and debased, military 
virtues alone survived jn the field of battle and in the 
caipp ; when the discipline and valour of the legions had 
declined, every thing was lost. While the hordes of 

^ * In hoc scelus res devoluta est, ut, nisi qois malus fiient, salvus 
esse not! possit.*' 

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German I^^ImHwI. f^a^ij^^ and oi»$iimiMted the»e 
frigl^tful cal^^i^: la ,lhe weet^ evmita bappiened in tht 
remotest east, which by a wonderful catenation of causes 
and oEE^Uh .(^^.mffi%k U$ th^Mm disiAt^isition of the 
eDg\pire. 4^,^}9.. mi QJF&^^ faod faUen under the yoke cf 
the J^oaiaii% . who^ vei;y wm^ wan unkncMim but a abort 
time before tQ th9.pii9pple iitf those countries; as thesplendi4 
^ijipf^titii^M of t;h» Grecian poets and philosophers had 
vanished b^ft t^e ffice of.a few i9diieraK» of Judiea ; so it 
came tP p^^.ji^^ a.iii(ii^,parried on vx Cbixta» of which up 
^rppe^nMd «jv^ti:h«iirdi had akeady in the age of the 
prst Cs^^s gii^^Dk jrise to cajajniti^? by lihe consequehoes of 
which the wesbsm fiuipiF^ of Rome was docHned to fall. 



On the mpi:^tfiins apd lofty pltdn% which divide Siberia 
franpL India ^n4 ^MiP^ ^^^ Pf^ na^tions have wmd^riaid 
from the earliest itipaf s. Siberia itself is inhabited by art 
least four-andntwwt); rac^ distingjiHshed from each other 
niore or loss in ^rigip^ language, and manners, who in die 
last age were sub4i^ ^ ^P^ ^ ^bey were discovered by 
the Russian^ ^ |t w^ JEeu: otherwise with thojse. pastoral 
tribes, who wi^pt fixed h|^bitatiQps> and ignorant of tlw 
Ufse of mpn^yt ro^. with their herds over the wastes of 
Ural and of A\Ui* . 

One Qf t^ese,na|:ifi4^i^ \he, Tprks» hj^vc; sntgi^^ated We^m 
A^a fu;i4 a p^t pf £lurope. We.shaU observe ano&er, the 
Kalmuck or Mpoggles^ concjiu^piiig India; the thiird^ the 
Mandschuy ^ peojde fuU of courage and subtilty^ ingenu* 
ous, and susceptible of the best culture^ reigpa in China* 
The ]SIandachu are connected by affinity with the Tuu^ 
gusiansy a nation^ who roam about so luiceasingly in the 
plaki of Boghdo^ that it is difficult to find them settled 
during two successive nights in the same pbice. The diase 

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affiffds them toitaiaiice ) tbey feUow the chase in the widte 
regtoD8» which extend frcun the borden cxf CSbina to- tlie 
rirer Jenisqr* 

OnthesefieLd% where the Ruauanf^Bnd Taagasians tc^ 
ther hunt the Sable; wlieie the Daurians callonty that place 
their ooimtry, ^^ther no -opprettor may be able to follow 
them ; iHiere the Natkis and Gilanlds haVe no odier means i 
of -supporting life than what they obtain by fishing; where 
llie Tungiue-Sabatscbidi) drawn by huge do^ in swiftly 
lading sledges, fly over the, mountain plains, wliich are 
buried in deep snow; th^e dwelt the Hiongu, who in the 
age of Hannibal shook the flourishing Cfhinese dynasty of 
Han, and who appear to be the same nation of Huns^ 
which in the time of the lE^mperor Valens occasioned a 
movement among the nations, and before whom^ in the fifth 
century, the banks of the Volga ai^d the kingdom of the 
Franks at the same time trembled. 

Their history is contained in unprinted Chinese annals^ 
which are preserved at Petersbuif; and at Paris; that of the 
Huns is givefi by Ammianus, in the relation of the embassy 
of Prisctts, and by the historians Jomandes and Pro^ 
copiuis. We find many ruins of towns where tiie Hiongu 
dwelt ; in the midst of their wastes rocks offer themselves 
to our view regularly disposed round a middle poin^ and 
marked with inscriptions. To these monuments^ unintel- 
Tiffble indeed to us, the Chinese annab refer; the old 
Romans believed these r^ons covered by an unnavigable, 
ocean ; missionaries and later conquerors h^ve opened them 
to our knowledge. We derive some information firom the, 
first Christian teachers of the Nestorian sect who wandered 
tliither, through the medium of abstracts firom Synui 
manuscripts. It is even now observable. that the Kafanncs 
are indebted to these persons for their knowledge of the 
art of writing ; their alphabet is the Syrian Estrangelo with 
inverted characters. The western monks and Marco Polo 
the Venetian who penetrated into the same comitries, agree 


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with the^ Chinese in their accounts oi these . mountain 
hordes of central Asia^ which appears the more remarkable, 
when we consider. the ignorance of most of them, and the 
neglig^ice of their editors, without excepting Bergeron. 
Abolgasi's Tartarian history is rather distorted than trans- 
la^. The most learned investigator of the history of 
these nations, that has hitherto appeared, was Deguignes ; 
this author in his narrative is often diffuse and brief on 
important points ; he even appears to contradict himself^ 
and is so much the more worthy of credit, for if he had 
translated less scrupulously, he might have glossed over 
these faults; and it is fortunate for history that he had less 
ima^nation than learning and accuracy. We propose to 
survey the history of the Hiongnu chiefly according to his 

We have not sufficient traces of their language to esta- 
blish on more than probable grounds the opinion that they 
ware a race of Kalmucs. In referring to the resemblance 
of figure, we may remark that the Kalmucs have in general 
scarcdy any beard; their eyes are small and sunk very 
deeply in their heads ; they have flattened and very broad 
noses, broad shoulders and squat bodies ; most of them are 
puny in stature, but possess great muscular strength wjithout 
having strongly marked features. A similar description is 
given by the ancients of the Huns; they were of short 
stature; their eyes were like the eyes of moles and could , 
searcdiy be. discerned, their countenances were full of scars; 
(it is customary among good families of the Kalmucs to 
aiark the cheeks with incisions;) the Huns were .besides 
broad-shouldered, had thidc necks, were very swarthy, and 
seemed properly to have no features, but to be moving masses 
of flesh. * Like the Kalmucs they loved to dwell in the 
plains of Basraetala abounding in rich pastures, where the 

« ♦ Non facies, sed oflSi." 

VOL. I. C C 

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floily the water, jind ihe herbage, are impreghated ViriWh 
saline particles. 

WiA the same good fortune which gave to the Kalmtic^ 
die throne of Delhi, and the high priesthood of T%^ 
besides the dominion of the Crimea lately subverted by the 
Russians, the Hiongnu flourished in a more remote an- 
tiquity. Their history begins with Teru^man, who about 
Ae time of Hannibal was a powerful chieftain on the hsaik^ 
of the Amur and Onon ; and from the eastern ocean t6 
Tibet; , was sovereign of 8i»*and-twenty natioQis. 1^ 
Siberian tribes honoured hint with tributary gifts in peltty 
and wool. Others, fl3ring from his yoke, precipitated them- 
selves on the kingdom of Bactria, and overturned a thrtttie^ 
founded by the successors of Alexander* 

The Hiongnu lived, hke the Scythians described by He* 
rodotus. They drove to and fro throng t&e wilderness 
the waggons which bore their tents, in qu^t of tlie 
necessary sustenance for their herdi^. The latter affoi€ed 
them the support of life; the hides became their elothibg, 
ftod served them for banners ih time of war. iPrdm die' 
Chinese they leanit the use of silk. The fcJlowing is Ihe 
lamentation of the Chinei^e princess, wife of the EGongnu 
chief of Usiun : « A tent is my melancholy Imitation ; a 
palisado the wail of my new city ; raw fle^ is. my ibod, and 
my daintiest drink is curdled milk.** The title of tlie dHef 
Was Tanshu, Son of God, or Tscbe^li-koto-tanfihu, <« ^on of 
heaven and earth ; lord by the power of the sun and moon** 
There was on this subject a religious cdlitrbversy ; for dik 
Clifinese maintained that the prince could only be caUed 
^ Image of the Son of God." Pope Clement IL hoW€ftrer 
has proved that the Chinese prince alto might be named 
*« Son of Heaven," but not « Son of God.** OriginaBy 
the office of the Hiongnu chief was a burden %hich one 
brother willingly threv upon another, and against which 
tender mothers sought to preserve their sons not yet arrived 
at man's estate. In the first month the nobles used to 


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virmiisAL sxtTORV. 'S87 

asseniUe ropnd llie Tamha ; in ths fifth month tbay sacrv* 
fiid with bint to. the Heaven^ the Earthy the Spirits^ the 
Skmdm of tfaohr fiN^fathers; the third assembly was a r»- 
view df the army; each tribe gave an account of its popim 
lalion and the number of its herds. The Tandiu had twi» 
greit ofBciera under him: one was governor of tbe East; 
Ibe inferior of the two had audiority over the wea^em 
people^ Four<-and-twenty chieftains, each commander of 
- ten dionsand men^ formed his council $ as afterwards in 
Moldavia iind odier countries conqueml by these barbae 
riaaa* AU the Hiongno were ft«6emen : their captives bo> 
came dates* They worshipped God^ according to die 
tfioiettft custom of Siberia, in the sun ; every morning wheia 
he aiose in the east, the.Tanshu prostrated himself be&re 
him ; he per^rmed the same ceremony in the evening when 
the moon Appeared. When the mother of a oertaia Tan<^ 
aha ky sick, the soothsayers answered, << the wager of the 
ghoats of our forefathers causes this affliction, because we 
hai^ neglected to offer up to them a caj^ive taken in war." 
Soon after this oflfering had been performed, snow fell 
of aqsematural depth and long duration; a pesdlenca 
spread itself, of which the/Tanshu died, and it was thei»- 
npoa perceived that human sacrifices were not agreeable to 
the gods. The Hiongnu made this obsetration only tea 
years, later than the period when the Romans abolished the 
cuetom of oibrtng human yictims. Honours ccmtkiutd to 
be paid to the Tonshus after their decease by their wives 
and slaves; at the full of the moon, games were celebrate 
around their graves^ towns were erected in the vicinity of 
tfaem« (The same custom still prevails in China; and in 
Uke manner Constantine the Great, and even the kings of 
France to Lewis the XIV., w^e honoured fo|ty days i^r 
their deathJ) As the shefd^erd nations, who on their plains 
remark various phienomeiia of nature, aire in general ad- 
dicted to superstitious observfttions, the pastoral region of 
the Hiongmis wste called by the Chinese *< the mountain-. 

c c 2 

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of ghosts" df^pparitiDiis. In iNnar tbe Hiongnn^.likethe 
Germans, like the Arabs and the Mongoles, were krre- 
«istible so long as they preserved tbetr ancient manners, . 
which gave tliem advantages such as the armies of more 
•dviltsed nations scarcely obtained from their. superior skill 
in tactics. Every fifth man was armed ; (it was the custom 
«t the. same time «m<»ig tbe Helvetians to arm every iourth 
man,) their finest troops were cavalry (as were those of the 
.Partbians and the Poles), their wars being carried ondiiefly 
•on plains; under tbe four-and-twenty generals were 240 
captsiiis of a tfabusand, 2400 centurions, and a proportion- . 
•able mimber of those who had only ten men under tbem ; (in 
ibe same manner, at a later period, Genkis Khan appointed 
jiis' army in a similar country.) As in fighting diey direw 
Jtbeir weapons from a distance, and often during theij! f|ighr, 
•and as the contest depended chiefly on.swiftness, they bore 
sib defensive>arms: but they had manu&ctories of arrows 
ia the mountains of Altai. They dressed tbek cbildrte in 
warlike attire ; the latter riding on huge dogs, shot a kind 
of-antiinal which Has been compared, without sufficient like- 
ness, to tbe mouse, and' the ilesh x)£ whicb was esteemed a 
delicious morsel ; when they became older, they hunted 
the fox. Hie Tansbu, like tbe Qitnese emperor,^ often 
proclaimed a national bunt. The ccdiecting of an army 
estimated at 100,000 men, was once effected secretly un- 
der this pretence. To this day t)ie Tungusians still hold 
8uch.hunt8» A youth became of full age from the .time in 
which he had first skin an enemy. The law of war was as 
severe, as among the Chinese* The old men, the women, 
and children, were wont to seek safety in forests lying to, 
the ''north ward; and the same refuge served the defeated 
army as a rallying point. As the Hiongnii, like the Greeks, 
believed that the severed soul wandered around tbe body. 
until t))e latter received interment* he who buried the corpse. 
of hh fallen comrade became . bis heir. Jt is moreover 
isolated, that the tanshu Hubaosie drank out of the skull 

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of an eoecayt who had been killed a century and a half 

The nlatns of die Hiongnu lie so high, that a traveller 
who goes dience to the Chinese wall, and to Pekin, con- 
stantly descends. The wall was erected by the Chinese ge- 
'4ieral Mum-tien, a valiant and learned man, for protection 
agmnst the *^ wild people of the mountain." He raised 
this work, within five years, through a tract iff- country 
ten thousand lis in length. One It is 1750 feet. Its foun- 
dation is of granite; the wall itself consists of flints and 
.bricks ; the height varies according to the situation, but 
is in genial two fathoms and a half, and the breadth two 
' Athoms. At certain intervals there are fortified towns in the 
wall, soihe of which contain ten thousand inhabitants; and 
ia^ the land of Schen-si tliere are four*and-forty cities, de- 
fended by walls and fosses of water; but these arebf fiir 
more recent date. For a long time there were many petty 
Idngs in China, who defendied, in arduous wars against the 
^reat luonarch of Pekin, their usurped dominion or their 
4)riginal independence. These were finally subdued^ iand 
new a more exalted title is ^ven to the; single victorious 

- About thiisr period the Hiongnu exhibited a proof that 
.a state has never more reason for fear than when it believes 
itself secure. They forced the Chinese to purchase their 
friendship by apnual gifts. They maintained treaties with 
the. same fidelity which, in the Hajatalah, or Euthaltte 
Huns, a tribe of the same people, excited the admiration 
of the. Grecian emperors in later ages. As the Chinese 
always sought to weaken them, they also availed them- 
selves of more than one opportunity of invading die bor- 
ders of China, and breaking through the wall by the three 
^ays which lead through die desert of Gobi, and through 
tfaefi*uitful vfdieys into which the latter open themselves.' 
^ They were at length weakened by internal dissensions. 
It thus came to pass^ that though the stronger part;^ in* 

cc 3 

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590 mivxifiAL msTOKv* 

war^.ttey w«re nibdaed by the pdicy of Se powerfUL CSiiaA. 
The Tanshn Wo-yen-ki-u-ti wished to restore the au&o- 
rity of his pi'edec^sors, which had decayed from die time 
wlisn ^e highest honours became hereditary ; by this pro- 
ceeding he excited the discontent of many, great and an- 
xient families, so that they left their country, and moved 
eastward to the i>eniasula of C!orea* Disputes aboat the 
racoetttioli arose also in the house of the Tanshu, and Ha-> 
hanaie was induced to call in the aid of the Chinese in 
defence of his right. This dhgraceiiil act inflamed many 
valiant men, lovers of their country, with the desire of re^ 
veag^ and they departed into the countries towards the 
litest. All these movements excited a tumult, of whidi the 
Chinese availed themselves to mediate a treaty, wbich^ un- 
der the pretence of restoring peace to all, established fifteen 
Tanshus instead of one. . It was intended to render the ad- 
imoistration more easy by these mean^ and it became more 
perplexed. After a long civil war, the kingdom cf the 
Hiongnu was separated into two parts. One division of die 
notion passed under Punon into the forests of Upper St-* 
faeria^ those who follow^ the Tanshu Peh mixed diem* 
selves with the Chinese; the noblest of them were enlisted 
ambii^ the body-guards, and soon rose to distinction. The 
wild freedom which Punoii's adherents maitttained, oeca^ 
sioned perpetual disquiet to China; but these tribes agtia 
itoakened themselves by their own fault, and the notlh* 
eastern Hiongnu became divided. There happened, in addi- 
tion, a drought excessively destructive to the cattle, and 
swarms of venomous insects prevailed, which occasioned a 

Accordingly, at the time when in Rome Domitian r^gned 
sole emperor in his second year, thirty*eight thousand &* 
thers of families determined to go over to the Chinese, witk 
forty thousand horses, and one hundred thousand oxen aad 
sheep ; four years afterwards, fifty-eight other tribes fiottowed 
t^eir example. The long duration of misfortunes broka 

Digitized by 


tbe spirit of the pation. After this , the Chiuese obtalfifed 
ikkt great yictory, of which the historian Panku caused a 
nnanorial to be inscribed on the rocks of Yen^yen. At tbe 
tim^ lyben Domitian reigned at Rome, in his I3th yemr* 
the decisive battle took place between the Tanshu YutHshu^ ^ 
kj^ and the Chinese general Te-u*hi-en, in which jtb^ 
former was defeated, taken prisoner, and beheaded. Th^. 
«il submitted themselves to the conqueror, to whom th/P 
land of their fore&thers was dearer than liberty ; th^e w^ip 
preferred losing all to passing into a state of vassalage, ri^d 
ti>eir tents from the Onon and Sellnga, passed with all their 
herds into the deserts of Dsongar, on the ^e of Turfaii> 
«nd onwards to Mamaralnahar and the Caspian sea* 
,Where they fpupd fine pastures, and a favourable country 
fi)r the chace, they halted fpr a time. For the qpaoe of 
nearly 200 years the Chinese have information concerning 
their wanderings, until they lost theiQselves entirely among 
the obscure nations of the west.. On the other hand, as^ 
the European geographers mention only a small tribe of 
^ons on the CaspFan sea, towards the latter period of the - 
,Boinan empire, so we contmually find these barbariaQs. 
jljkaking a more conspionpus figure in succeeding times. 
: Lastly, the Romans relate^ that about the time of the 
emperor Valens, from snowy mountains as high as the 
lieavfos, there descended at <mce a swarm of unknown 
tribes, the warlike Huns, the Avires, or Avares, and the^ 
£;p[unuyur; appellations whidi point to Siberia^ where there 
are yet> countries with simHar names :: they were beg6tten 
by devils, and brought forth by sorceresses in the forests . 
of the north* They were distinguished by uncommon 
str^igth, by swiftness of foot, and by a^keen eye; they 
were excellent archers, continually %hti|)g on horsieback 
and fiying. Some huntsmen, as the Rpspana inform us^. 
m pursuing a hind, had discpvered a fi:)rd M tbe Meeotic- 
-im>raii9ft< and thus opened Europe to these barbarians*. 
..„.. • : , - • :.cic 4 • ..■',- •-. ■* • • ^. 

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It is said that they immedi&lely offered up the fifrt Emo* 
pean captives to the ghosts of theb ancient dbiefs. Ueay 
manrick, king of the Goths, was sovereign of the country; 
ttnd all the nations, from the Black Sea to the Baldc, re- 
iFcred bb name. He .survived not to see the calamity of his 
people* Ammi and Sar, two Roxolan, perhaps Russian 
jondis, whose sister he had condemned to death, because 
she had occasioned the desertion of her husband, killed the 
great Hermanrick, in the 110th year of his age." The 
Gothic nation had two great divisions; the Baltes were 
chie& of the western Goths; the eastern Goths obeyed 
the house of Amalu. The Hans seldom waged a regular 
war with the western Goths ; but they were so much the 
mqre successful in carrying off th^r wives and. chiklrea 
into captivity. 



While the Gothic nation was in this state of confusi^aii 
and dismay, their princes Safrach, Aleth, and FritfigttD^ 
sent deputies to the emperor Valens, who promised, en 
the condition of being allowed to pass over and occupy land 
on the southern side of the Danube that their people, pro^ 
teeted by that river, should at all times maintain ibis boun- 
dary of the empire. The emperor accepted their proposal, 
and caused them to be instructed in the Christian region 
by Ulfila, according to the taiets of the Arians. They 
were not pursued by the Huns, who continued, for more 
thaU 50 yeairs, to follow the chace, tad occupy themselves 
with remote wars in the forests and mountain plains of 
Southern Russia, of Poland, and Hungary, before they 
came into any relation with the Romans. 

The Goths, who departed reluctantly from thdr pas- 
tures in the interminable plains of Mddavia and the 
Ukraine, Vound diemsdives* and their flocks too much cou- 

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fined among the people of the Roiimn provmces^ atid'they 
li^[ged supply their necessities by barter. 
/The emperor aecordtngly granted leave to Lupickius and 
Mftximusy prae&cts of the neighbouring districts, to trade 
mlk them, with an exclusive privilege. The latter made 
so shameful an advantage of this licence, that for a loaf of 
bread and ten pounds of unwholesome flesh, which was 
often dx^s flesh, the Goths were obliged to surrender to 
them a slave. The flocks of the latter were for the most' 
part ex^hausted y the number of their bondsmen was very 
jnuch reduced, and many, were compelled, by the cravings 
of hunger^' to sell their children for bread. 

While the nation groaned under these calamities, Fri- 
digam, . their .prince, was invited to an the 
Roman governor. He was a valiant youth, full of the 
heroic spirit of the ancient Baltes. He went, accompanied 
by many young warriors, his friends and companioni in 
arms. . While he was feasting, the cries of his party sainted 
his ears, whom the Romans had suddenly attacked, and 
were putting to death, with the hope of making their 
leader an easy prey, and of thus breaking the spirit of the 
Goths. Eridigern, with rage in his looks, i:ose from table, 
and rushed out of the apartment with his sword in his hand.; 
.he iKSCued his companions, and escaped with. them out of 
^ .the Roman territory. He afterwards represented, to the 
Goths, that the Romans, who were r^rdless of treachery 
and the basest crimes, had conspired their destruction, and 
that war was the only mtons of preventing the evils that 
threatened them*, The Goths immediately spread blood 
and devastation over all the countries which lay on their 
way through Mysia to Constantinople. Valentinian in the 
west is said to have refused succour to his brother, because 
Valens entertained the opinions of Arius, and rejected 
those of the Nicene council concerning the person of Christ ; 
and the same pretence availed Terentius, the governor of 
Armenia : accordingly, the imperial general, Trajan, was 

Digitized by 


S94 vmtvzMSAJU uunomr^ 

«asUy defeated. This ttiisfertiuie spread dismay among the 
multitude: " Shall we erer be Tictonaua," said they, <^ un*- 
der aa emperor who has the Son <^ God i^ainst him 7* In 
the meantime the Goths approached, and the flames of 
burning villages were seen from the walb of Constaslinople. 
At length the emperor Vakns. marched with an army 
against them, whidi they resolved to cneounter iBthephuns 
of Adrianople. The Gothic infiuitry soon overpowened the 
cavalry of their enemy, and the Romans were compelled: 
to betake themselves to a precipitate flight Their loss wa»v 
great; the emperor was wounded and fled, his horse fd]$: 
and he was scarcely able to conceal himself in apeasantfa- 
hut; the bfu^barians, who pursued^ without gues&^lg that a. 
Roman monarch was concealed under the tbatdi, set five t» 
the straw, as they were accustomed to dou and. 

A T\ 378, 'if ' 

hi this manner Valens terminated his life. 
When the Goths appeared before Constantinopk!, the 
(empress Domnina excited the people to renstance. 'Die 
dty was newly built, and secure in eveiy respee^. and re- 
gular sieges were not within the power o£barlMirous assail-, 
ants. In the meantime Gratian, who with his- brother Va--. 
lentinian, then four years old, had succeeded theiv father- 
in the west, had declared Theodosius bis colleague in the - 
sovereignty. Theodosius was a laniard of an old fiunily,, 
allied to the house of the illustrious and excellent Trajan;, 
his father, a very respectable warrior, had fortned him by 
his own example ; and that jealousy atone^ which, under the 
suspicious government of the former emperors, ^HXeadk&i 
the display of ishining talents and virtues, had hitherto^iNPe-^ 
vented the youth from rising to distinction. 

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tmmimja. uwtcmt. 895 



GRA:PiAy HOW <»nfided to Tbeodosius tbe eastern empire, 

which W8» the theatre of the GotMc war. The 

'. latter found Fridigem m Greece^ while Aleth 

an^Sftfraoh were employed in plunderiDg Pannonia. He 

now endeavoured to weaken the Goths, by fomenting jear 

leiliies among thein,t at the same time that he s^rmlgtbened 

his «wn authority by vigorous measures, and pr^mred the 

, sMfflts of overthrowing the enemy. After the d«atti of 

Fridigem^ he invited his successor, Athanaric, to a con^ 

foreoce, in which a treaty was agreed upoOj and a QO»si» 

d«^Ie subsidy in corn and cattle was pr<miised to the 

Golbk On this occasion Theodosius renewed the appoii^ 

4iieht of an auxiliary body of troops, consisting of forty 

thousand men, levied from that nation, which bad first been 

ijMiluted by Conslantine. 

When Athanaric, educated among herds and in tb^ 
camp» first beheld in Constantinople the splendour of |i 
o^urt; the imperial palaces, the wardships which filted the 
hawD, and the imposing aspect of a regular army; be ex- 
claimed, in astonishment, <^ Truly he must be a god who 
nelgilS here ; all his people have but one. soul ; all things 
hang tc^ether in his kingdom,!'* Theodosius had restored 
as much as possible the appearance of military disciplihe. 
The Gothic prince died in this capital; and so deeply had 
Theodosius impressed these barbarians with the admiration 
of his wisdom and justice, that they now declared that as 
long as he lived they would lacknowledge no other chief. 
About the same time the Persians demanded a renewal of 
tbe« treaty of peace. ' 

' Qratian, who was a meritorious prince, but incurred the 
hailed of the Roman army, because he pkeed greater cpn- 
fidence in the foreign auxiliaries, had conducted a^iuccess- 

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396 UHIVBRSAL i|I0i«Mty« 

fill war in the west, against the Vandals or BurgiiQdiaB% 
who were often confouoded with each other. The liceR- 
tiousness of his soldiers embittered his good fortone; and 
although he was endowed with an enlightened nund, and 
witfi mildness and generosity of character, these good qua- 
lities were not sufficient to prevent a seditious movemeiit in 
the army, which elevated Maximus to tlfe throne. Gratian 

was put to death by a secret strataeem, at.tfae 

instigation of the latter. 
Maximus, to whose lot Gaul and 43ritain had iaUen, m 
consequence of this revolution, drove the young Yaknti- 
*nian out of- Italy, and- stationed strong garrisons to defend 
thepasses of the AIp^ while he remained in person at the 
•head of a powerful army, on the road which eiUers the 
country above Aqiiileia* He had not perseverance to ad- 
here firmly to these prudent measures^ and Theodosios 

soon availed himself of the errors which he c/omr- 

mitted, and which finally cost him bis life. . 
From that time the empire remained in tranquil obedi- 
ence to the two empercMTs, until the secretary Eugenius, 
fmd the count Arbogastes, murdered the young Valentinian, 
whose good qualities were scarcely beginning to AiSveUfpe 
themadves. The assassins were conquered by Tbeodoiiiis 
at the foot of the Alps, though not without 4ifficul<y, and, 

^ _ a» it is said, a wonderful concurr^ce of the 

AD.S92. - V ' 


« Theodosius afterwards reigned alone, with moderation 

and ability, and displayed a great knowledge of mankind, 

and the peculiar character of his age, together with a wise 

indulgence to its ruling prejudices; but, unfortunately for 

A T> ^^^ empire, his reign terminated in tbe^ course 

of a few months. 

His weak and indolent sons, Arcadius and Honorius^ 
who retained the title of sovereignty, the former at Con- 
stantinople and the latter in Italy, confided their power lo 
ministevs, and were not possessed of sufficient disc^mnent 


Digitized by 


tmtTEMSAt HlStORY. 897 

to rmke a good' choice. l%e mini^rs of ^ governihent 
sotight, in order to render tfaemsdves the more necessary, 
to multiply the dangers of the empire. ' 

The Goths were> defrauded of the subsidies which had 
been assigned to them by Theodosius; and nlen of sound 
understanding among them soon discovered how dt£Perefft 
his administration had been from that of his successors; 
they acoofdingly chose Alarlch, of the race of the Bakes, 
for their prince. Rufinus, the minister of Arcadius, was 
informed of this i»roceeding,' and thought he deserved th^ 
giMitude of his master, by counselling the Ooths to turn 
dieir-anns against the; western emperor^ to whose aid he 
promised, to send no succours. Stihcho^ the minii^er 4>f 
/'die' Italian monarch, was rejoiced .at the prospect of the 
war, in the course of which he contrived to surround Ra- 
degast, a Gothic cl^ief in the mountains near Fiesole, and 
to cut him off. • The Roman general took no^precaution to 
guard the frontiers of Italy against the incursions of 

. In the last year of the reign of ArCadins, and 

: in the . diirteenth of Honorius^ while Stilicho 
*and Aurelian were adorned with the ccmsular robes, the 
'Visigoths, under Atarich, the Baltic prince^ brcds:eup&om 
their settlem^its in Mysia and the Hither Dada, passed the 
lilyrian frontier, and came^ without resistance^to Istria, and 
to the pass which leads into Italy : they crossed the last arm 
of .the Alpine range, traversed the Venedan^territory, and 
passing the Po, Arrived within three miles of Ravenna^ 
which waa then the iinperial residence^ for Honorius was at 
enmity with the senate and people c^. Rome. Thence . 
Alarich caused the following message'to be conveyed to the 
emperor: ^.^ That the Goths had arrived in those districts, 
with their wives, their children, and their cattle, and b^- 
ged him to grant them, a country to dwell in: -that if it 
pleased die. emperor a day jBight be^pcantedin.whidh the 
' Goths and Romans shouhl measure their prowess againat 

Digitized by 


S9t pjKXTSMAi . mincmt' 

each other iii the open field.'* Hasmviwi. :retiiraed wisweii^ 
tbethe allowed the Goths to take pq^aesaion of lo^ taxi^ 
tory that might please them, in Gaul or S^aia^ Has pm- 
mission was of no great value; (wt Gaul was erety wtore 
laid waste at that time by the Frank% and the AUamaoo^ 
pfteceded of accompanied by the Vandal% bad already 
passed the Pyrenean mountttns« The minister held it to 
be the wisest policy to destroy the barbarians^ by eng^^g 
them in mutual wars; but they understood better their 
interest, and united themselves is projeola of ecmimon 
plunder and partition: they expet-i^usedno resistance, £>r 
all good generals were suspected .1^ the fecdble monandi, 
or disdained his in^rious sway. Alarich however aoceptal 
the offer of Honorins^ and without permitting his peo- 
ple to commit the smallest act of violence^ rietired to the 
iklps, which separate Italy from Frai^e* He took with him 
no booty, nordid any of the Italian people snflSsr by Us 
arms. In the monntaina of Piednumt the Gothic host ce- 
lebrated the festival of Easter, wh^i, in the midst of the 
aokmrni^y they observed, with astonishmenl^ the approach 
of Sams, the personal foe of Alarich, at the head of a 
consklerableaimy. They were suddenly ottacked; hnta£« 
ter«u£feri]ig some loss, sated their vengeance andindigaa* 
don ia theslaugfiier of th^ ioaidiotta euemies. 

The Goths now turned their arms towanja Italy, and 
aSkec laying waste Liguria, the JEaiilian and Flaminian 
provinces, Tuscany and the Pidratint, approached the walls 
of fiome^ determined to revenge their injuries, anddriv^ 
Henorius from the throne. In the 1 IMth year from the 
building of the city, on the twenty-third of Ao* 
gust, Rome was taken by Alarich, the Visigoth. 
He entered the imperial palaiie^ plundered it, and the 
houses of Uie great ; butso £ir modc»*atedhi& wmtb, thathe 
«dfered no blood to be shed, and preserarfHi the city from 
#ani«s.< He imodbumed a private ciitiaen, pamed Altaltt% 
esaperor, and causod km to pagr liamags to imxisdf. Ala^ 

Digitized by 


tmlVfiteAL HiSTORY* ^99 

rtdh proceteded to the south watd^ made an easy conquest of 
Campania, and traversed Calabria to the vicinity of the 
Straits. It is said that he meditated the reduction of Si-* 
cily and Africa, where Gildo had rebelled against the im- 
perial sovereignty; but while he was engaged in such 
undertakings, death overtook him, at Cosenza, in the 
thirty-fourth year of his age. The whole nation of the 
Visigoths mourned Uis loss with sincere lamentations : they 
turned aside the course of the river which flows through the 
place, buried their chief with the memorials of his victory, 
and then gave to the stream its wonted channel, that Ro- 
man cupidity might not envy and disturb the great Alarich 
in the grave, where he rested from his deeds of glory. 

The Goths elected in the place of Alarich* his kinsman 
Adolphus, the most illustrious of their nobles, who returned 
with his army to the Tiber. Thence the conquerors carried 
away the most costly ornaments of the public edifices, 
having destroyed many splendid monuments of the pride 
of ancient Rome, and defaced the finest productions of the 
arts. The .emperor was obliged to give his sister in mar- 
riage to Adolphus, who, after having chastized Italy, 
•directod his maix;h to Gaul. Gauls, Barbarians, and 
Romans, yielded to this formidable host. The Visjjgoths 
occupied the whcJe country between the Rhone and the 
Loire and the feet of thie Pyrenees ; they took possession of 
the mountainis, and passing over them forced the Vandals 
in i^ain to content themsdveis with the country on the 
B^setis, and the Allemanni to seek refuge in Gallicia, and 
the hilly regions of Portugal : thus the Visigoths fouiided 
the kingdom of Spain. The policy of Stilicho or the fac- 
tions which caballed against his counsels, the weakness of 
the emperor* and the decline of military tadics, deprived 
Rome of the province which the Scipios had added to her 
dominion, llie Spaniards had not fbrgotten their andeht 
valour, but they cared little to defend the sovereignty of 

Digitized by 



the effeminate Romans against barbariansy .whose mannen 
were in many respects congenial to their own. . ^ 
^ About the same time the Scoti passed over from Ireland 
into Caledonia, where a part of their nation, had.dweit from 
remote times, and grievously oppressed Britain ,* Warmnnd 
or Pharamond at the head of the Franks made a sectlemeat 
in the Netherlands ; and Gundichar or Ountherus, prince of 
theBurgundians, took possession of the country on the Upper 
Rhine, and held his court at Worms. By degrees, the 
Heruli and.Rugians came down through Silesia and Mo- 
ravia into Noricum, or Austria, while the Lombards seized 
Pannbnia, now Hungary, and apart of Lower Austria, and 
the Ostrogoths gained possession of many towns in Thrace. 
Maximus and Jovinus rebelled in the heart of the empire, 
and Heraclianus, jp^rsefeet of Africa, detained the supplies of 
com which were destined for Rome. In this calamitous 
time Honorius left the throne to his nephew Yalentiniaa 
the third, a boy of five years of age. 



.' Scarcely had the aid of Theodoi^ius, the 

AD. 484— 455. - , . . 

eastern emperor, secured the minor m the ^ 
possession of his tottering throne, when Africa was lost by 
an. act of treachery. Galla Placidia, the mother of the 
emperor, administered the government with prudence and 
reputation; but Boniface, the count of Africa, was unjustly 
accused of treacherous designs. Aetius was an experienced 
warrior, but in pursuing the objects of his ambition, care- 
less of right and wrong, who had lately attempted by the 
aid of the Huns to seat an usurper on the ihf one. Aettns 
wrote to Boniface in the following terms : ^^ that evil-minded 
persons, envious of his merit, had basely accused him to the 
princess, who had the weakness of a woman ; that his fiiends 
in vain employed their dioquence in defending his cbar 

Digrtized by 


UfyiXTESsAL ^HISTORY. ' 401'' 

racter «n<l' condiict, that his recall and death were filially 
resolved upon and that Actios, bound by the ties of ancient* 
fnendship, had not failed to give him warning." ' He after- 
wai'ds went to the mother of the emperor, and informed fcer 
thatj " his inquiries had discovered a great calamity which 
threatened to befall Africa; that Boniface was dangerous to* 
tbe empire; for, if he revolted, the supplies of provisions- 
would be withheld from the city ; that this misfortune was 
likely to happen; and that the only way to prevent the 
danger was to recall the general beforehis plans were brought 
to maturity." Placidia followed this counsel, and. Boniface 
hereby '^assured that the information sent by Aetius was 
correct, disobeyed the summons. The imperial court was. 
accordingly persuaded that Aetius had not -accused the 
govcfrnor of Africa unjustly, and it was- resolved to pro- 
secute him by arms. Boniface in his extremity applied to- 
Grens^erich and Gonthakar, sons of Modogisel, prince of the - 
yai\dals in Andalusia, anil promised, on condition of re- , 
ceiving-'succdurfrom them, to yield into their possession the 
fertile country on the coast of Africa. Genserich was young, 
enterprising, but insensible to every motive that was not ' 
favourable to his designs ; he was a great master of dissimu- 
lati(ni,:an^ more temperate than' is usual -with barbarians.' 
He immediately sailed across the straits. His march was not 

. like that of Alarich ; terror pr^cecled his footsteps ; ' 
A.D.427;, , ., , , , . . , ., , 

- he laid waste the whole country with nre and 

sword. The fatal error was now discovered which had- occa- ' 

sioned these calamities; Boniface took arms for the protection 

of the.<:ountry ; he received reinforcements from the emperor * 

of the east, but Genserich, whose brother had fallen in the* 

meantime^ defeated Boniface and Aspar the general of ♦ 

Tbeodoskis, and finally reduced Carthage, the inetropolis of 

Afirica. He suffered all the nobles to be put to death, th© 

' ^ city to be plundered, and men and women to be' 

' put to the torture^ in order' to iforce them to the* 

dapcdveiy of hidden treasures. The same tyrant land his son. 

VOL, h DO 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

402 ' VmVBRSAK. wcnoRY. 

Hmmeridh pr Henry renewed the persecution t»f tke Ghrifr* 
tians who professed the Nkene faith ; many were buiait; 
many had their tongues torn out» while others sufe«d a 
loqg and painful martyrdom. Oenserich became more and 
ioore suspicious, with his increasing years ; bis son had 
matried a prinoeasof the Visigoths, whom her fathep*in-]aw 
accused in his imi^nation of a design to poison him, that 
she might become Queen of the Vandals ; he acconlingly 
ordered h^ earn and nose to be cut 06^ and sent her bade 
* into her country. Apprehensive that the Visigoths would 
take vengeance for this outrage, and dreading moreover 
that the Romans might unite their arms against the Vandal 
powei^ Genserich dispatched messengers into Hungary to 
Attila king of the Huns. 

In the country betwe^i the Daimbe and the Theiss^ in a 
l^eat village sm^rounded by palisadoes, in the midst of a 
q^iou^court, stood a woodai building, ^vironedby many 
aarenues ; this was the dwelling of Attila, or Etsel, king of 
die Huns. Attila was of small sti^ure; he had a laige 
^ head^ unproportioned to his body, and small and deep 
seated eyes, which be turned around him with looks of 
fisr^cious pride; his manners and gesture bespoke the im- 
perious ruler, and his most favourite appellation was 
Godegis^ << the scourge of God, for the castigation of the 
world/' Yet when he had forgiven an enemj, Attila 
thought no more of hi&past offences, uid whoever suboiitted 
to hii authority was sure of being treated with gentleness. 
Jh was inclined tab«evolence, and mirth aboundedallds 
tatde; but Attila alone never laid aside the dignified gravity 
of his demeanour. All the tribes of Huns, tmd the con- 
quered natiims winch were dkpersed from the Volga to 
Hungary^ rever^oed his commands; he wsas supreme 
soverdgn of the Gef>idi, the IiQtabards> the Avares^ die 
, Ostrqgoths, and many other trSbe^, in soutbem G^nDumy ; 
and. the: imperial Theodosimr paid him tcHbute. He 
marched at the head of 700,000 men; hir wt^ecta ware 

Digitized by 


rmrVBRSAL history. 403 

all hunters, or warlike nomades; each nation was com- 
manded by its own prince, but Attila was- at the head of all ; 
all tibe chiefs trembled in his presence; the army had but 
one soul, and the hod of their supreme ruler decided every 
movement. Such was the chieftain whom Genserieh invited 
to invade the west, in order to employ those whose union 
he most dreaded. 

Attila, who knew the nature of the western countries, 
resolved on the undertaking, and endeavoured to ensure the 
event by stratagem ; with this design, he wrote to Toulouse, 
the capital of Theodoric> king of the Visigoths, begging 
that prince to ^' call to mind, how often the Romans had 
shown treacheiy towards his nation; that had the Visigoths 
been a less valiant people, they would long ago have been 
extirpated ; since the Romans considered themselves, from 
ancient times, the lawful rulers of the world, and never 
would suffer it to obtain peace, and tranquillity until their 
empire was overturned; that this might be best effected by 
a friendly understanding among its enemies, combined in a 
compact, for dismembering and sharing its provinces,'* At 
the same time, he wrote to the Roman emperor to inform 
him, that ^^ the Huns from remote times had ever been 
good friends and faithful allies of the Romans ; that it could 
not be discovered that they had ever waged war against 
each other ; that himself was inspired with similar sentiments, 
and having now leisure^ was disposied to give the emperor a 
great j^roof of his friendship, if the latter would unite his 
arms with those of the Huns, in order to drive the Visigoths 
out of Gaul and Spain, and restore in those countries the 
ancient boundaries of the empire.'' 

The imperial court discovered the craft of Attila, and tlie 
^nperor wrote to all the barbarian chieftains in the west, 
inviting themi to unite theur forces with the Romans against 
the common ganger which menaced theiA. .He addressed 
the Visigoth in these terms : ^^ Be vigilant, brave chief of 
the Visigoths ; the king of the Hons is resely^ to subject 

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all things to his sway; every crime.whicb is, in his poi^rer 
he will perpetrate ; in order to satiate the burning thirst o£ 
his ambition he allows himself every excess ; justice is his 
sport ;• he is the enemy of the human, cace ; resist him^ 
iioble chief of the Visigoths ; the finest-, province of the 
empire has been given to you ; £ght for us and for •yourself.'? 
Theodoric the Visigoth, thus replied : " Never hasa just war 
Q|)peared too hard for a kii^. of the Visigoths ; never has 
he known . terror, when glorious exploits were to be 
achieved ; all the great men of my kingdom have but on^ 
mind with me, and the whole peqple of the Visigoths 
joyfully grasp their ever victorious, arms. Valentinian 
also roused, the Burgundians : by a treaty which Aetius had 
concluded with them in his earlier years, Rome had aban^ 
doned to .them. all that country. called Upper and Lower 
Burgundy to the present day, together with the district 
which .has since received the name of Dauphlny, the whole« 
of Savoy, and the western side of Swisserland ; they were 
bound in return to assist the Romans in their wars. The 
emperor also summoned king Sangipan, leader of the Alam^ 
who governed the country on the Loire; he sent mes- 
sengers to the allied towns of Armorica, to the common- 
wealth of Paris, to the Ripuarian Franks, ^ho dwdt 
between the Rhine and Maese, an4 . to their brethren who 
under the Salic name obeyed the commands of Mervey * ; 
he warned the Saxons, beyond the Rhine, of tbe.dangex:s 
which iQenaced all the west ; Thuringia was already ^in part 
tributiM^y to Attila. All rushed to arms, the Burgundian^ 
Sangipan, the Alani, Mervey, the Franks, Armorica, the 
Parisians, and the Saxons who inhabited Westphalia^ 
raised the warlike standard with one accord. 

Attila,^ who had already caused his brother .Blet to be 
murdered^ that the latter might not excite disturbancds at 
home during his absence in his campaigns^ broke up frosi; 

....■■.' , ■ , .'i 

*0r Merovius. i 

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t^e banks of the Theiss, traversed Austria and- Stiriai* 
passed the Rhabtian frontiers to Allimaiima, crossed the* 
Rhine af Basil, and routed the king of the Burgundians,- 
i^ho waited for him at the passes ; he passed over the ridge* 
of the Wasgauerberg, overcame every obstacle, and ap- 
peared on the Mame, in the plains of Croisette, near 

In the extensive plains through which the Marne takes 
its course, a hill rises of moderate elevation : here it was 
that the armies of the western nations encountered the- 
forces of the Huns. Aetius led the left wing, Thebdoric 
the right ; in the midst stood King Sangipan, on whom less 
reliance was placed. On the other sidethehordes of Huns 
seemed immeasurable ; Harderich king of the Gepidi led* 
one wing; Theudmir, Dietrich, Valaniir, chiefs of the Oi- 
trogoths, commanded the other. A multitude of lesser 
kings waited, like the lowest vassal, on the nod of Attila, 
and ans^ously received his orders ; he alone, the king of 
kings, thought for all. When the battle was about to coin- 
xhence, he sent for his lleutenantsj and said, " No common . 
incentive to valour does it become me to suggest, or ybu to 
heiar; behave like men; assault the enemy, break into his 
ranks, and level every thing before you ; they are farming 
iheir troops in array ; it is the signal for you to attack them ; 
rush updn the Alani and the Visigoths, for in them consists the 
chief strength of the enemy. If your destined hour is come 
you must perish, although you should betake yourselves to a 
shameful flight. Fix your eyes upon me. I rush forwards,' 
and he who does not follow me instantly dies !" Both armies 
made an effort to possess themselves of the hill, and a fu- 
rious contest arose, in which Theodoric, while he was ex- 
horting the Visigoths to exert themselves to the utmost, fell 
by a mortal wound : the carnage on both sides was prodi- 
giotis. At the approach of night Attila found himself un-^ 
der the necessity of retreating, and not knowing whether 
he should - be pursued, he ordered the saddles of msu^y 

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thousands of horses to be heaped up, iu order that, if H 
were neediiil, he might set fire to them, and perish in the 
flames. At the same time, in order to terrify the enemy, 
he commanded the Huns to make a most frightful nmse^ 
through the night with their arms, and with horns, trum- 
pets, and clamorous songs. The Visigoths bumedf with 
impatience to rush upon them and aveqge their king; but 
the crafty Aetius thought it more prudent to sufler the Huns 
to reUre, that it might still be possible to make use of them 
against his present* allies. He seems also to have been 
afraid of obscuring the glory of the victory he had achieved 
by a defeat, and was probably glad to protract the war^ 
that he might prolong the term of his command* He 
therefore counselled Thorismund, the son of Theodoric, to 
march homewards, lest some usurper should seat himself 
upon his father's throne. Attila returned into his country, 
the maintenance of so vast an army being impossible for a 
longer time. 

Soon afterwards, eager to revenge this defeat, or in con- 
sequence of the secret invitation of a sister of the emperor, 
who wished to become his que^, Attila set out to invade 
Italy. In vain did Aquileia oppose to him the resistance 
which had so often arrested the progress of barbarous in- 
vaders; the city was levelled to the ground, all its male in- 
habitants who were able to bear arms were put to the 
sword, and the women and children sold into slayery. The 
Huns afterwards plundered and defaced, without entirdy 
destroying, the ancient and flourishing cities of C!oncord]% 
Montefelice, Vicenza, yei:ona, Bergamo, Brescia, Milan, 
and Pavia. Attila descended to Ravenna, and entered it 
through an opening in its walls, which the people them- 
selves had been obliged to make, in order to* show their 
submission to his will. Here he was met. by Leo, the Bo- 
man pontiff, the eloquent and venerable teacher of the 
Christian church ; the great men \>f Rome accompanied 
the priest, and brought presents to conciliate ^the ferocious 

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u^iTERSAL History. 407 

Hon. A tradition prevailed that the chief of the ajigstles 
held Rome uader his especial protection ; Alarich had ex^ 
periaiced the truth of this rumour, who, after treating that 
city with indignity, suffered a speedy death. The wrath 
of Attila was assuaged, and he retired from Italy loaded 
with ike plunder of a hundred unfortunate cities.v 

He afterwards threatened the pastern empire, and con- 
tinued to inspire terror in the west, which was so mucli the 
more appalling as the power of the Visigoths was weakened 
by internal dissensions. 3ut at length, having espoused the 
beautiful Hildichunde, in addition to a multitude of wives^, 
he perished in the night of his marriage ; intoxicated, as it 
19 generally related, and slain in a drunken &ay ; accord* 
ing to Agnellus, he fell a sacrifice to female crafL He wais^ 
interred after the manner of the ancient Tanshu, and the 
Huns gashed their faces with wounds, and cut off their 
hair, in honour of their king* His body was exhibited 
under a silken pavilion, in the midst of a wide plain, and 
the horsemen of the barbarians rode round it, and cele- 
brated his exploits in funereal hymns ; the whole nation of 
die Huns chaunted songs of praise to his memory, and 
exalted the good fortune of the great Attila, who, afler 
immortal victories, and while his people were at the summit 
of human glory, had finished his career without pain, and 
in the arms of pleasure, emd had ascended to take his place 
among the spirits of the ancient heroes. His son Ellak 
then entertained the people at a sumptuous banquet. In 
the night the body of Attila was placed in a golden coffin^ 
and the latter enclosed, in one of silver ; for Rome and Con-^ 
stantinople had given him silver and gold ; the whole was^ 
then shut up in a chest of iron, becaqse he had ruled all 
nations with an iron sceptre^ The trappings of his horse^ 
his arms, and costly insignia, were buried with him, and. 
$31 the men who laboured at his grave were put to deaths* 
diat no mortal might disclose where the warrior of the 
Huns reposed. 

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When the lerror of his name tiQ longer kiept the sid^^ 
Rations* in union, they separated, and many of them refilled 
the^ accustomed tribute. His first-born, Ellak, Attil^'js 
&vourite son, a valiant chief, fell in a great battle against 
the rebels. The Huns were more able to lay waste- thq 
earth than to establish a permanent constitution founded 
on the principles of government ; and their mighty power 
.vanbhcd with Attila. 



Scarcely had the empire rested from this calamity^ 
when Aetius was falsely accused before the emperor, as* he 
jhad before calumniated Boniface, and Valentinian was per- 
. suaded to destroy the general^ on whom alone 

his safety depended. The guard, whoise pr^ 
feet Aetius had been, and who loved and revered- him» 
were excessively enraged at this proceeding; and Valen- 
tinian, who had before rendered himself coxitemptibleby. 
his sensuality and superstition, was now hated for, his in- 
gratitude. It happened accordingly, that as he v€pitU]$d 
to expose himself among tlie soldiery a short time after- 
wards, attended by a single eunuch, he was slain by. an 
unobserved hand. 

. Maximus, the assassin, whose wife the emperor had vior 
lated, and who, in order to obtain a more secure revenge, 
had incited him to destroy Aetius, was now elevated ^tp^ 
the throne; and persuaded Eudocia, the widow of th(B der 
ceased monarchy to receive him as her husband. Once 
intoxicated by wine^ Maximus happened to disclose the 
secret of his participation in the murder of Valentinian,. who 
had been the beloved consort of her youth. She concealed 
her indignation, and wrote secretly to the king of the 
Vandals to in treat his aid. « The emperor," said £udod% 

who yielded to Gensericb, during so many yean^the 


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quiet possession' of Africa,- might claim as a debt . of grati'^ 
tude that he i^ould turn his arms to take vengeance on the 
base assassin^ and release from- captivity, the widow df 
Valentinian." When the tidings of the speedy arrival of 
Genserioh were spread abroad in Rome, all the principal 
citizens and senators took flight into the Sabine and Tuscu-« 
kn mountains. The barbarian ei^tered the city, plundered^ 
and laid it waste according: to his manner, and was> with- 
difficulty induced by the iiitreaties of Eudocia to spare it 
from the flames. Maximus had already fallen a. victim to 
the rage of the populace. Fourteen days the Vandals re- 
mained Jn. the imperial city; the flower of the Romaa 
youth, all the artificers and mechanics, together with the; 
empress and her two daughters, were carried away to, 
Africa. These rapacious. robbers .overwhelmed Campania; 
the: fertile and luxuriant coasts, adorned by Scipio, Lucullus, 
Cicero, and Pliny, with gardens and splendid villas, were 
laid waste with fire and sword; Capua, to whose pleasures 
even. Hannibal had. yielded, was burnt to the > ground, by: 
these more barbarous Carthaginians; and Nola, the^beloved: 
retreat of Augustus Caesar, was destroyed. .Here Paulinus,, 
the.bishop of the town, came to oflTer for. the ransom of the, 
captives all the treasures of the church and the private- 
wealth of himself and his friends ; witnessing the despair of 
a widow, whose only son had be^n dragged away ia^chainsy^ 
ha offered to substitute himself and redeem the youth from 
slavery. All.whp were in the age of. vigorous manhood 
and fdlnot by the sword, were taken captive and carried 
to Carthage.. \ ^^ • 

After this calamity the virtuous Avitus, in , 

Gaul, d man of ancient family and of enlightened 

mind for the times in which he lived, was with, difficulty 

persuaded to accept. the imperial crown. He soon Uid 

* ^ it. down, and the Romans elevated, to the 

throne, Majonan, a brave wamor, weU C4ur 
cttlated to defend Italy against its perils. The Alani 

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threatened it with an invasion^ and the new emperor im-« 

mediately ma^rched to enoountaf them, .but was mardered 

. ^ by hiB owa people. He was succeeded by 

A.D.461. « 


The Akni, a wild mountain horde from the chain of 
Caacasus, who had accompanied the Goths and Huns 
when they inundated Europe, and who found themselyea 
hardly pressed by the Franks and Visigoths in the lerri* 
tories whidi they had for some time occupied upon the 
Loire, now traversed the Alps and appeared before Ber- 
gamo. ' Here Eichimer, the imperial general, had the good 
fertune or the talents which enabled him to defeat them ; 
and he took advantage of the gk>ry thus acquired in order 
to revolt from his sovereign and riiise his &ther-in-law 
Anthemius to the imperial throne. 

While the victorious g^^ral endeavoured to 
' govern under the name of his relative^ and- An-> 
tfaemiiB resisted the attempt, faction threw all things into 
confuHon; the Franks in Gaul, and the AUemanni in the 
second Germany, made, in the mean time, irresistible en-- 
croaehments. At length Richimer, not &r fi^m Bome^ 
gave battle to the emperor, and, flushed with victory, 
plnndured the city and slew Anthemius; &mine and pesti<* 
fence were th^ consequences of this devastation. The coin 
qneror survived three months* 

Olybrius, husband of a daughter of Valentinian, and 

&voured l^ Leo, emperor of the East, governed Rome 

seven months. After his death, the Romaaa 

raised Glycerins, a ndbleman of the oclort, to 

. Yk the highest honour; but the Byzantine monarchy 

m order to mamtam his mnuence, gave ms mece 

to Julius Nepos, and undertook to seat him on the western 

throne. Glycerius preferred peace, and entered into the 

ecdesiastical order, in which he obtained the bishopric of 


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The barbarians threatened Italy more and more on %he 

northern frontier, and Orestes was sent with an army to 

secure the passes of t\^e Alps. The general tock advantage 

of the power intrusted to him in order to throw oflF his 

allegiance and raise his own son, the young 

Romulus Homyllu% to the throne. 

The Ostrogoths made incursions to the very gates of 
Rome; Spain and Gaul were already k)st; and Hengist^ 
with his Anglo-Saxons, secured to hin^self the possession of 
Britain. About the same time, Odoacher, prince of the 
Heruli, set out from the banks of the Danube and marehed 
from Austria into Italy. Pomerania was the native seat of 
the Heruli, whence they gradually moved southward, to- 
gether with the Rugians, Ihe Skirri, and the Turtziingians, 
who clothed themselves with hides, and arrived in Pan-< 
nonia, in the neighbourhood of Vienna ; whence they now 
advanced through Noricum into Italy. Many of their 
countrymen served in the imperial guard. In Pavia, thejr 
bedded Orestes, the father of the emperor ; and having 
taken the town, cut o£P his head. Terror preceded their 
march, and all the cities immediately surrendered to then. 
The tender age^of the young ediperor, who laid aside the 
diadem, the purple, and his arms, and came as a suppliant 
to the camp of Odoacher, excited pity in- the barbarian. 
Romulus was sent to Campania, and obtained an asylum 
in the anciient castle of Lucullus% In the 1229th year from 
the building of Rome, in the 51 5th from the battle of 
Philippi, in which the freedom of the repuUic perished 
with Marcus Brutus, in the 476th year of the Christian 
computation, the empire of Rome terminated in the person 
of Romulus Mbmyllus, and fell by the arms of' a barbarous 
horde from Rugen and Pomeruia. 

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4l'i?* tTNlVERSAL' HfttORYi 



We have traced, with a lively interest, the laborioutf 
be^nnings and rising efforts of Rome; we bdield with 
admiration the victories of her age of freedom ; her corrup- 
tion excited our abhorrenoet and the end of her career is 
contemplated with regret 

' From this period the chief power in the west was waged 
by the arms of the northern hordes. During the course o£ 
some centuries^ one nation after another came forth: from, 
the night of obscurity in which their history and their 
existence had lain concealed. They had, with the exception 
of the papacy, no point of union, but lived wild and^free^ 
until.after a thousand years of war and treachery, the proud, 
descendants of the old warriors began to respect the autho- 
rity of laws; but under such circumstahces, that universal 
power never agaia fell to the lot of a single chief. Great 
critical changes in the commoowealth of nations, founded 
in Europe on the general principles of popular rights, 
religion^and humanity, have gradually developed the poli- 
tical circumstances of the present century, the theatre of 
which is more extensive^ and the interests more compUciaAed, 
than those of any former time ; in which it was only required- 
that the Czar should infuse animation into^ his immense 
ominre, in order to establish a balance of power between the 
other potentates, and in which Great Britain has erected 
an unheard of dominion on the waves of the ocean. In this 
4|ge, war, politics, religion, medals, and sciences, have under- 
gone the most important revolutions: and, in a country 
whose existence was amknown three centuries ago, a new 
theatre of free governments has been opened ; whence a 
wonderful ei^citement has pervaded almost the whole^human 

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race^t giving as reason to expect future eras' of a charlftcter 
far. diflferent from the past, 

So. much the greater necessity is there to examine the found* ' 
ations on which all our constUuticHis and authorities w^ve 
originally formed ;• wherein was the secret of their strength' 
and the germ of their decay. But £he task of the historian 
is wearisome and gloomy from the period of the destruction 
of Roman liberty : for as soon as the supreme power became 
the hereditary possession of a single despot, the first causes 
of all events were concealed in the obscurity of cabinets; 
and where favour was the only road to fortune, annalists 
have sacrificed the public to personal interest: it is only 
in the history of a few nations and governments that we 
can trace the plan and connection of events* We have in- 
deed an object of admiration in the vast colossus of the 
hierarchy, erected by two hundred popes under the &vour 
of circumstances, before the feet of which all Europe trem- 
bled and /whose head was concealed in the heavens from 
the scrutiny of irreverent eyes ; we observe with interest the 
constancy and vigilance with which Venice preserved, for so 
many ages, her independence and a constitution that could 
scarcely be found tolerable to the majority of her people ; 
we contemplate with delight the heroism and the long wars 
of the ancient Swiss ; the pertinacity with which the Hoi-' 
landers maintained their country against the sea, and their 
rights against Philip the Second; and the events by which^ 
in the bed of anarchy and fanaticism, a constitution has 
been developed in England, perhaps too artificial to be 
long preserved in purity ; — ^but can we remark without indig- 
nation how the horrors of the inquisition enslave nations of 
noble character ; how others are the sport of the caprices 
of their neighbours; or witness elsewhere,, without execra- 
tion, the omnipotence of chains and fetters, of the rod and 
the knoot ? In the end we may observe that what mflitary 
discipline was to the RoDUms,. what fam^cal zeal was to 

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the Arabs; such, in the modem commonwealth of Eurc^^e, 
18 the balance of power among different states : -this is what 
we have to consider : it depends upon situation^ laws, re- 
venues, arms and principles of government ; and upon na- 
tional character, among those nations who possess it 


JPnoted by A. Strahan^ 
Pirintert-Stteet, London. 

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