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> 3 dQ 







Univerfal Hiftory, 


Earlieft Account of Tims. 

Moo. Hut. Vol. I?. 


MOD E.R-.N ...PAR T 

• •• • •• •• . •»• • • • • 

• • • • 

UniverfM Miftoiy, 


Earlieft Account of Time. 

Compiled from 

Original Writers. 

By the Authors of the Antient Pa rt. 


Printed for S. Rich ardson.T. Osborne, C. Hitch, 
A. Millar, John Ritington, S. Crowdek,. 
P. Dat e y and B. Law, T. Longm a m, and C. Wars. 


> • • • • 
» ••• ••• 

•• • • •» ••• . 




RE A D E R, 

Relating to this Fourth Volume. 

WE have feen, in the courfe of the pre- 
ceding volume, a feries of eleven Abaf- 
Jine khalifs from AI Kayem> the a6th 
of that dynafty -f-, to the total extinction of the 
khalifat, gradually {tripped of all their fecular au- . 
ifeority and power, and reduced to a mere religi- 
tosand ecclefiaftical fway, by a fucceffion of oel- 
'vkian monarchs, the defendants of the famed 
TogrolBegb *, who, under the bare title of Emir 
AlOmrd, which that unfortunate khalif beftowed 
ipon him, governed all civil and military affairs 
wth an abfolute and defpotic power, affuming the 
Bjrai title of foltan only over their Seljuk fubjefe, 
ad their other conquefts : fo that, in order tofet 
brth the furprifing decline, as well as the once 
njazing extent and power, of the khalifat, we 
lave been under the neceffity of anticipating, in a 
[eat meafure, the Seljukian hiftory, which was 
efigned for this volume j without which that of 
te khalifs mull have appeared maimed and un- 
tried to any curious reader. 

t Vol. iii. p* %oj t & fcq. • Ibid, p. 241, ** 


vi Adveftifement to the Reader. 

-S&N<3 now-tfi^efcrecome fe ^v« a particular. 
account of that celebrated dynafty, the fame rea- 
fo^s wiM of equine t^lfge ps tOTCcupi^Utr, (ho' in 
th* mbft fhCciftft toanher thefubjea^will admit of, , 
the fame monarchs reigns, conqueiis, and tranf-.i 
aftions, in order t£ tfcrtderthfeir hiftory, which] 
makes no lefs a figure in the Oriental one, asj 
full, cteyr, and. combat, as^/fhe footer, viich\ 
we Jiatf*giveH %£ the^kkalifat, ^fpeciaUy as botk 
of them have been fo ftrangely mutilated an<L 
<|%uked by.'th? Greet writers i but of ^bi* w^ 
fhall fay the lefs here, having prefixed at T 
threflioLd of the Seljukian hiftory an account 
them, as well as of thofe others, whether Tuf/ 
or lArab) of whom we have made ufe in thd 
courfe of it *. And that, joined to what we haw 
faid a1x>Ve, will, we hope, fufficiently account to 
our readers, not only for every fuch unavoidabj 
repetition, but likewife for every contraft and \t 
iConfiftency they may have occafion to remar 
between thofe writers. It being, indeed, nes 
to impoffible it fhould happen otherwife, confi- 
Bering the vaft difference of their religions 
interefts : one fet of them zealous Mobammedai 
die other Heathen ; the former full of gall 
tfefentment againft thofe monarchs who had 
prived their khalifs of all their fecular power, 
raifed their own to that envied height upon 
yuins of theirs. The other no lefs jealous of 
glory of their own natural princes, reprefentin 
their every aftion, motive, and fuccefsful ftep I 
agrandilement, in the moft advantageous liglj 
and glbffing over every thing that caft the led 
tarnifh upon it. 

* &jc hereafter* p* 76, & feq* 

I Aikertifement to the Reader. vii 

To give one inftance for all of the different 
rcprcfentations of thofe writers; When the haugh- 
ty khalifa/ Kayem [after having been reftored to 
his dignity, and reconducted to his capital, and 
to his very palace, with the greateft marks of 
honour and refpedt by the generous Togrul 
Btgb] f was obferved to hefitate fo long whether 
|e (bould condefcend to grant him his daughter 
io marriage ; it was natural for the Mo/Jem hxftori- 
ttstoreprefent his behaviour as a mark of his ftre- 
poous and laudable zeal for the Mohammedan re- 
Ifcion, whilft the Seljuks looked upon it a» a piece 
of ill-timed pride and black ingratitude to fo 
■oble a prince and benefactor. We have en- 
roared to account for thefc and other mate- 
variations as often as the nature of the fub- 
would permit it ; the reft we have chofen to 
to our reader's judgment ; only defiling 
toinfert with his pen the few following 
* # >ns. 


I197. £01*31. Jnfitad of taking, r*a/ haying exa&ed (aa 

otth). And ibid. 32. In/lead qfto, read from. 

^109. 31. In/lead of his own, read his vazir'a (piety). 

-119. — — 30. After altho', read that dignity had been 

enjoyed by the (Khalifs). 

no. x 1 • For depart from, read retire to. 

159. 17. For Gypfies, read plaiftcrers, or workers in 

fine aad mortar. 

f Set vol. iiL p. 246, & fcq. 

Modern Hiftory: 

being a . 



Univerfal Hiftory. 

B O O K X 

General Hiftory of the Turks, and the 
empires founded by them in Tartary 
and the Lower Alia. 

C H A P. I. 

The origin, country, and different tribes or 
branches, of the TurJcifli nation ; with an 
account of their affairs till the dejiruBion $ 
their empire in Tartary. 

The origin of the Turks. 

A LTHOUGH the origin of the Turks hath been Origin of 
A\ already treated of elfewhere *, yet feveral matters /ivTurkn 
*> ^ relating thereto were left unhandled, becaufe they 
feemed more proper for this place, where we are to fpeak 
particularly of that warlike nation ; whofe empire, fliifting 
gradually from eaft to weft, under different dynafties, hath 
continued for above 2,000 years, and {till fubfifts under the 
Otbman family, with no (mail luftre. 

TURK is a name known in all languages ; and the Arabs 
hare out of it farmed the plural Atrik t that is, Turks K 

• Vol. v. u. 344. note E. xx. p. i & fcq. * P'Hbrbi- 

lot. Bibl. oricnulc, p. 897. Art* Turk. 

Mod. Hist. Vol. IV. B There 

2 ' General Hiftfy of thl Turks. • , B. I 

The>e arc three traditions or accounts concerning the origin 
of thefe people ; one given by themfclves, the other by the P*r- 
JianrtxA Arabs , and the third by the Cbvncfe$. The reader has 
already, in the places before referred to, been made acquainted 
with that related by the Turki/b hiftorians ; which is, that 
they derive themfelves from one Turk, whom they affirm to 
be the fan of Tafis, or Jafet : we (hall, in this place, lay be- 
fore him the tradition of the Perftahs, Arabs, and Chbn*fes t 
According as delivered by their hiftorians, accompanied with remarks ; 
to the wherein we (hall examine their refpe&ive authority, and ftiew 
Turks, which tradition deferves moft credit, purfuant te a rule which 
we have always obferved throughout this work : for it is the 
duty of an iwftorian to examine the memoirs he makes ufe 
of, arid give his opinion of their fidelity ; not out of often- 
tation, to (hew his (kill in critical learning, but purely for the 
fake of truth, and 'to diftinguifh the fptirious from the genuine. 
There are authors, who, by their filence on this important 
head, rniflead their readers for (ear of difgufting them ; aotf 
facrifice their own credit, to feve that of fables. 
According According to thtPerfian hiflorians, the Turks are defcend- 
to the Per- e d from Tur, third fon olFrayhdun (A), the feventh king of Per- 
iians. j\ a . or> according to others, fixth king of the firft race of 
Jcmgs-eaHed Pijhddd, contemporary with Abraham *. Frayh- 
* dun having divided his dominions among his three fons, May 

Jbarek, or the Eqftern Countries (B), fell to the (hare of Tur % 
who went and built the city Tfirdn, in Turkejldn, not far 
eaft from the. Cafpian fea. Tur having joined his fecond bro- 
ther Salm (who had MogarJb, or the Weft Countries J, againft 
his eldefl brol-her Ireje (C), and (lain him by treachery, Manu- 
cher (D), Ireje's fon, (lew him ; whereby, upon Fray kauri's death, 

* Anc, hift. Vol. v. p. 328. 341, & feq. 

(A) By fome written Aphridun ter peculiar to it. To prevent 
GrAfiidim, Pbridun and Fridun y confufion therefore, we never 
Pberidun and Feridun j but we ufe s £. before e or i inftead of j 9 
never ufe pb for / in oriental which is the proper letter, 
words. N (D) It mav be, written alio 

(B) Thefe are to be under- Manujcr or Manujeher, not Ma- 
1 flood more properly of the coun- nuger y for the reafon afiigned in 

tries to the North' of* the river note C ; much \ckManugjer',hj 
JiJbuKorAmu, containing all that joining g andy, co make a dou- 
part of Afia which goes at pre- We character ; which is not only 
lent by the name of Tartdry. unneceflary , btlt highly impro- 

(C) Some write /flgr,4>QtJin<» -per 9 as it may miflead one tb 
properly ; for, in oriental names, read Manttg-jer. 

the fame eharatter ought not. to Obferve alfo that we always 
be ufed for two different founds, ufe eh as in c%arm % never as Jtb 
wtafo one of them has a charac- in cbro?richr r : . , . . 1 

7 which 

Cu. Their Qri$*i 5 

which happened foon after, Turdn or Turkefitan fell under his 
dominion . 

In the fiftieth year dfManucber or Manujer** reign, Afra- Exffohsof 
fab, ion of Pafbangh, king of Turkefil&n, rebels in that coun- Afrafiab. 
try, under pretence of revenging TurH death, from whotfi he 
vas defcended ; beats Manucher, and obliges him to appoint the 
lifer Jib&n or Amu the boundary betwixt Perfia and TurkeJlAn. 
Nauder (E) facceeding his father Manucher, Afrafiab invades 
him with 400,000 men, and never gave over, till he had taken 
tod put him to death ; fubduing all Perfia, which, with Tur* 
btjdn, became fubjeft to his father Pafbangh d , 

But the cruelties of Afrafiab foon obliged the Perfidns, to He eo*- 
throw 06 the Turkifb yoke ; and he quitted Perfia, after ht otters Pet* * 
had been poflefled of it twelve years (F). Yet, in the reign df wu 
K&yhAdd, the eleventh king of Perfia, Afrafiab invades that 
kingdom again, but is beaten by Roft&m, the famous Perfina 
dampion ; who, in the reign of Kaykaws,.the twelfth king, co- 
temporary with Solomon, routed him4 fecond time, purfued him 
is far as Tur An, the capital of Turkefidn, and plundered it of 
vaft treafures. Kaykhofraw, the thirteenth king of Perfidy ferjt 
as army of 30,000 men to invade Turkefidn, but they were 
defeated ; and their general, Gudarz, being befieged by the 
Turks in the mountain of Damawand, in the province of Ma* 
zander fat had been loft, MRoftdm had not come to his relief. 
The fame of that fiege brought two kings, neighbour! 
of the Turks, to their affiftance ; the one called Hhakhon or 
Kb&kban, the feme as Khaan, a title of the Mogol kings ; and 
the other Sbangol; the former of whom was flain. Gudarz 
afterwards beat four armies of the Turks, took an hundred 
thonfand of them prifoners, and, fome time after, Afrafiab 
himfelf was taken and flain e . 

This is the acccount of the original of the Turks, given 
by Msrfond (G), a famous Perfian hiftorian, which differs 


'Mixkond. ap. Texeira, hift. Perfia, p. 33. D' Herbelot. 
Bibl. oricntale, p. 895. Art. lour. See anc. hilt. vol. v. p. 328, 
Heq. a Mirkond. ubi fupr. p. 40. Ant. hift, ubi fup. p. 

349. e Mirkond. ubi fupr. p. 45 & feq. 52,56 & feqq* 

(E) Written by fome Nader. (G) Mtrkbond, or Mirkbar 
This is a confequence of not in- 'vend, as the Per fans pronounce 
faring the vowel points ; and of it, is an abbreviation of the true 
taking the Arabic Wanu or double name of this author ; which ia 
», fometimes for a vowel. Mohammed Ebn Amir Kbowdnd 

(F) He is reckoned the 9th Sbdby or Kb am and Shdb. He 
fcagof Perfia, of the Pijhddd wrote a general hiftory of the 
tat, and third from fraydun or world, in Perfian, from the cre- 
ttri&t* tion to the year 875 of the HeJ* 

B 2 number 

General Hiftery of the Turks. B. !. 

'greatly from that penned by FaMaIlaA(H),wiherPerfian,vrho 
_ yn^thehiftoryof theM^Zrand7V^ 

GhaZ&n Khdn, one of Jenghtz Khan's fucceflbrs in Perfia. . 

It is eaficr to account how the Perfian hiftorians'came to 
differ fo much, than to reconcile them : for thofe who wrote 
before the Turks obtained the dominion in their country, 
framed their hiftory to aggrandize their own nation, and 
depreciate the Turks, whom they hated, for the injuries re- 
ceived from them ; whereas thofe who wrote under the 
Tar&/i monarchies, through fear or flattery, conformed them- 
felves to the traditions of their mafters ; or, not thinking it 
for their honour to adopt the old Perfian account, framed an* 
other, more agreeable to their humour ; from whence natu- 
rally arofe the contradi&ions we meet with. 

Nor is the Perfian ftory perhaps more true than that of 
the Turks ; at kaft it is, on many accounts, liable to excep- 
tion; particularly as to the chronology of thofe firft kings} 
and the length of their reigns. 

It is bbfervable, that the account above given of Afrafiab, 
makes his life of an incredible length. The hiftorian, being 
aware of this, remarks, on the occafion, that he waged war with 
fo many princes, that he muft have lived three or four hundred 
years. Hence fome authors make Afrafiab or Farfiab (I) (which 
Signifies conqueror of Perfia ) ,a title common to thofe kings of 
Turkefidn, who obtained fo many vi&ories over the Per/tans 

r«by and of Chrift.1471,' con- extracts of the reigns of kings, 

filling of feven thick volumes in furniihed by D'Herbelot, in hit 

folio, cofle&ed from a great oriental di&ionary, fufficiently 

number of hiftories, general and particular and accurate. How* 

particular^!).' ever, for want of better, we 

There is. a Perfian abridge- have made ufe of them, and 

men* of the whole work of the tranflation of Texeira by 

Mirkbowd^ by his fon Gayyatb Stephens, which is alfo very in- 

Addln, firnamed Khond Amir-, corredlly printed, 

whom D'Herbelot confounds (H) Called alfo Kbojab Ra- 

With his father (2). He alfo Jbid; from whom chiefly Abulg- 

^wrdte'a hiftory of the Mogols bdzs Kbdn, cited* lower down^ 

*nd Tdrtars, Jenghiz Kban *pd extracted his hiftory. An ac* 

his children, which was pub- count is given of Falildlab, and 

lifted about the year 1 508 (3). his collection, in fed. Hi. 

Ttxeira,* Portuguese travel- (I) Called alfo Arjasb : he 
ler and geographer, publiflied kept his court at a city in Tur- 
in abftrad* or Mtrkomts hiftory ; hjtan, called Heft Khan, or Heft 
,f>ut it is 'too, concife, and, in Kboven. See D'Herbefot. Art. 
many places, cbnfufed, as well Heft Khan. 
asdefc&ive. N^r are the larger 

(I) WHerl*!. p. (582. JH. Mirctnd, & p. 709. Art. Raomdbat at W«. De t'4 
Croix Wfl. of Gongbh, Can. p. 430. -446.- e%) $ et Herb. >. 994. Art. 

Khudtmir, ( j) Dt la Croix, ubi fupr, p. 42 a. 


C. i. ' • fh&r. Origin. '5 

lo antkrit times: acid, for the fame reafon, others compare 
his reign to a very dark night which covered Perfia. 

However that be, all the Turkijb families, which have made 
tootle in the world, claim to be descended from this great 
conqueror. Sclj&k, founder of the Selj&k monarchy, would 
have it believed, that he was the thirty-fourth of his defend- 
ants, in a right male line ; and the Qthman monarchs, who 
pretend to be related to the Seijikks by the family of Qgtkt 
Kbdfi, aflume in their titles that of Afrafiab, as well to de- 
note their nobility as valour ; efpecially as they have, in lat- 
ter times, obtained great victories over the Per/tans f. 

AFRAS1AB mult have been eight or nine generations R*»*rh 
hter than Og&z Khdn, who, according to thcTurkifb hiftorians, «* Afra- 
was cotemporary with Kay~uinarraz f iirft Perfian king ef filb# 
the Pifhddd race ; and conquered Perfia during the minority 
of his fucceflbr Hvfbeng, at what time the great lords were 
at variance among themfelves S. But as none of the early 
Perfian hiftorians make mention of thefe great conquefts, ; * . • 
feme of the latter are apt to think that they might have been . . 

effefted in the interval between the death of Kay-umarraz, 
and the reign of Hufheng, a fpace of two hundred years ; 
during which time, we are told, the hiftorians have not taken 
notice of any tranfa&ions h . 

However this may be, according to the extraft we have from 
Mtrkbond, .a modern author, -he mentions no fuch interreg- 
num : he only fays, that when Kay-umarraz died, his grand- 
Ion Hufbenz was a minor ; and that, as foon as he came of 
age, he atoended the throne '. Now, though we fhouid 
confider the throne to be vacant during his minority, yet wc 
cannot rationally fuppofe that it lafted two hundred years. 

One would iipagine that Abulghaz Khan, .who .undertook Kkantf 
profefledly to write a genealogical hiftory of the Turks, could Turkef- ' 
not have avoided {peaking of the Khans of Turkman, and***** 
particularly of Afrafiab: To far from that, he 'treats of no 
deTcents from Og&z, but thofe relating to the Moguls and 
Tartars ; and never fo much as mentions Afrafiab, except 
once, on occaiion of Ilek, Khan of Baldfag&n, % who, he telk 
us, was descended from Afrafiab Kh&n k / without faying any 
thing more of this hero, or his race. », 

Bu t tcf return to the origip of the Turks* If th$ authors, Turkifh] 
who have come to our hands, had given us the genealogy/ f*^- j 
of Sslj&k, it might have been of ufe in fettling this' point. &*** 

f D'Hirb. p. 895. Art. TourajB. 4 p, 66. Art. Afrafiab. & p. 
800. Art. Selgiouk. * ^BiacHAzi Khan hift. Turks. &c^ / 

p. 19.. D'Herb. p. 683, Art. Ogou* Khan. * D'HWb. 

tfhi fnpr. « Mirkond. ap. Texeir. p. 1.3. - k Seel , 

Air lchazj Khan, hift Turks, &c. p. 44. 

B 3 * However, 

6 -General Hijiory of the Turks. B.L 

ffewerar, if we may judge by that of 0*m<wi or Otkmdn y 
founder of the Otkma* empire, their pretences to antiquity 
(eem rery fnfpieious : for, in three lifts of that prince's an- 
ceftors, two given by Leonclavius, one in his hi/lory of the 
Sottns I, the other in his Mujfulman hiftory m , and the third 
by Prince Cantemir, in his hiftory of the growth and decay ef 
the Othman empire ", all taken from the Turkijb hiftorians 
themfelves (K) ; though, in all of them, I lay, we meet with 
the name of Og&z> yet none of them mates mention of either 
Afrafiah or Turk (L) ; Bulkhas (M) being put inftoad of the 
latter, in one of them, which alone runs fo high as Japhet. 
The lift found in the htflory of the Soltans, which was tranf- 
lated from the Twkijb, ends at Lekrek, who is but the; fifth 
-\ in the other given in the htflory of the Mujfubnans. And 
though both genealogies are faid to afcend from fon to fa- 
ther, yetOthman's anceftors by one are fifty-feven, and by 
• the other only feventeen, to Lekrek. 
tieryjufti*. PriHce Cantemif% lift wants three anceftors, found in the 
f# w. former, with which it beft agrees, and ends at Takva, called . 
in the other Diptakoy (N) ; only adding, that "he was of the 
houfe of Jafet. But although this author reprefents his lift 
as the beft and moft correft of any which are to be found 
in the Turkijb hiftorians, yet he obferves, that his author, 
Saadi Efendi, does not venture to warrant it as certain. In 
{hort, the whole hiftory of the origin and defcent of th$ 
Turks carries the marks of fittion : for, although we fhould 
admit that there might have been fuch perfons as Afro/tab % 
Oguz y and Turk, among the anceftors of the Turks, yet ifris 
flaanifeft, that both the times and a&ions afcribed to thofe 
heroes muft be falfc (O), as well as the tradition of Turk be? 
Jfig the fon (P) pf Jafet ; fince he is not to be foundln the 
■'*/'■' genealogy 

1 ?. i. * P. 90. 8 Pref. p. 14. 

1 (K) We (hall infert them here- . mtr s lift, is named UlijtKb&ny 

after, in the Othman hiftory. from whom OguK Khan was the 

(L) This omiffion may ppf- third in defcent. 
fibly be owing to the averfion (O) See what is remarked 

whicl} the Otbmans have to be with regard to the Turkijb chro- 

called T«"b, as will be obferved nology, in the pi eface to Abulg- 

when w« CQmc*o giv* thejr hi- hazi Khans hiftory, p. 7. AliQ 

ftory. t)ie new collection of voyages 

(M) Unlefs Bulkhas, or Abu I and travels, 4 to. vol. iv. p. 41 3. 

JCbdi, may flapd for the father and Univ. Hid. vol- xx. p. 44. 

bf the Kabs or XZaa, who are " (P) His right of primpgeni* 

the wandering Turks or T%r\* tare is alfo difputed* for Tome. 

*Sns. ' hiftorians give it toG&xW f whom 

(N) Son of Bulkhas* and fa- pthers make the feco'nd fon. 

iher gf Lejtrtk, iyhp, ia Cants- Jlowcver, the oriental Turks 

- - " '* - maintaiDJ, 

I guabtm c*.thal;,Mtriarch, given by Mofis, which both thp 
SriftHjx and TUbhammedans follow. * . u . v 

The troth may poffiblybe, that the Soltlos of other the. 
&SM*or Offtf forniiies, firft7Wj0fovereigns mPerfm.who 
were Bbhmndf**, having had, by tradition, one r«r* for 
their common aaceftor, or feigning him to be fuch, then- hi-™ 
ftorians, to honour them, by carrying his origin as high as they/ . 
could,' made him the fon of Jafett whofepoftemy, accord- 
ing to Mohammedans, as well as Jevn and Chrtfiians peopled 
the north parts of Jjifi. The Othmdn Turks, who fucceeded < 
thzScS&ks, bought they could not do better than clann or 

! acknowkge the fame original ; and the fucceflors oijenghiz 
Khan in Perfia, the two Bukharias and Karazm, being Ttfo- 
hmmsdans, confented to be branches of Turks, that they 
miffhthavc the foa of. fo great a patriarch as 7f rt at the 

• head of their anceftors. ' It muft farther be confidered, that 
thev who were the firft hiftoriographers to this laft race, be- 
httPerfiant, make their hiftory tally with that 
of former writers of their nation, who made all the inhabit-. 

: ants of Tartary', from one end to the other, to be fprung 

[ from the fame common flock. But it is hardly to be prefumed 
that the Meeds," and other tribes of the eaft, who continued 

< ia their old religion, acknowleged themfelves to be defcended 
from Turk, though they were poflibly a branch of the Turkifb 

j nation;, thorny" they always hated for their inroads, and 
had lately /conquered. ' • 

According to thsChinefi hiftorians, the Runs and Turks Origin of 
are the feme peopk ; who, .a* different times, went under tb, Turks 

! thofcdiffbrent names. They give them the appellations ; of/™ .«£ 

! Hione-n& and 7»«lX «*** and Turh " the toft li t!. 

■ is that which they had before the Chriflian atra ; the fecond, */•"«»• 
that whici a remnant of thofe Huns, re-eftablifhed in Tartary, 
aflumed afterwards ; sfnd fay, that they dwelt .• in theneigh- 

i bonrhood of the great defart,. extending from the country 
of Karea itt the eaft, to that of the Getes, in the weft ; which • . 

I oart at Tartary was their . habitation from. a}l antiquity P • .. 

That Mawton, fon of the laft Cblnefe monarch, of the firft 
family, or the Hya.xTAt, was {he firft Tanju, or emperor of 

• Ven-hven:tum-kaw, Kam-mo, Ye-tum ch! van fan tunv . 
pew fwi fH, as cited by Quigues fur torigm Jes Huns fcf dts . # 
Yufks. ' P Ven-hyen-tam 3»au, Kam-mo. 

maintain, .that Turk wat the count the founaer of their na, 

ddeft, whom they call Jafet tion (4). 

Oglan, d»fonof7«/r/,'aadac- » 

(4) Su D'BcrMit. At. Tiri. f ,89$. ' ; : " ' 

B4 " '" thefe 

i General Hifiory of t& forks. B.fc 

thcfe Huns; and the fame with the famous Ogiz Kh&n, foi 
renowned anions the prefent 7i<rAj and Tartars, and ac- 
knowleged for the founder* of their empire : that, in 'the 
reign of one of his fucceflbrs, they came to be divided under 
two diftintt Tanjus ; one branch was called the northern, the 
other the fouthern -Huns ; but the Perfian hiftorians diftin- 
guifhed them by the names of Tartars and sMogols t that 
the northern Huns, being deftroyed by the Chintfes, removed 
weftward ; and parted, at leaft part of them, into Europe, 
That the fouthern Huns, after this, became beft known ty 
the name of Turks ; about .which time they were fubducd 
by the Jut/en, eaftern Tartfrs ; and at length, being greatly 
reduced, they retired into the mountain of Erzanahn, where 
they forged iron for their conquerors : that they after- 
wards overthrew them in their turn, and eftabliflied a new 
empire under th* name of Turks, as will be more fully re* 
lilted lower down 9. 

• In this account we difcover two very material fatts, hi- 
therto unknown to the hiftorUns of Europe, and perhaps to 
thofe of the weft of AJiai namely, firft, the original of the 
Huns, about v#uch Jfomandds, apd other writers, have related 
fuch ridiculous fables' : fecon&ly, that the Huns and Turks 
are the fame people, under different names \ which latter 
feems not to have been given them till about the year jqo, 
as noted before ; at what time they became known by it in 

l See fe&, iv. * Sec anc , hift. vol. six, p. 304, & fcq, 

SECT, n, 

4 general defcription of Great Tartary, with an ae« 
count of the Turkifli tribes or nations inhabiting i$ % 
according to the Arab authors* 

Great , TJEFQJIE we treat of the fevend benches of the 7Ur*- 
Tartary. JP> ijb nation inhzbx&xig^GreatTartary, it will be neceflary 

previoufly to infertibme general account of that vafV region ; 

tfiat the reader may be better able to form a notion in what 

part of it the feveral tribes formerly were, .or at prefent are, 

towmh TAR TART, of rzxherTatary, in its greateftextpnt, is fituate 
and ex* between fifty-feven and one hundred and fixty degrees of Ion* 
tent, gitucta (A) ;*and between the thirty-feventh and fifty-fifth de* 

(A) Reckoning from the weft ris, and feveoteen degrees thirty* • 
end of the ifle of fern, fuppofed five minutes Weft of Londvi, " 
to b? twenty degrees w<?ft of Pa* 

C. i. Dtferipth* of Great Tfarttry: $ 

grees of latitude : being bounded on the north by Siberia, or 
that part of North Afia which belongs to Rujfia ; on the * 
well, by the rivers Don (B), tjie Welga, and Kama, which fepa- 
rac it from Ruffia ; on the fouth, by the Euxine and Caftiah 
fas, Karazm, the two Bukharias, China, and Atom / and 
oo the eaft, by the oriental or Tartarian ocean. From this 
account it appears, that Tartary, or Great Tartar?, as we 
tafl it, is a vaft region, fituate ahnoft in the middle of Afia, 
sod extending the whole length of it, in that part from weft 
to eaft, the (pact of one hundred and four degrees in longi- 
tude, or four thoufand one hundred and forty-five geographical 
miles : but its breadth is not proportionable ; being not tbove 
tune hundred and fitfty miles where broadeft, and, where nar- 
rowed,' three hundred and thirty. 

This vaft region is divided into two great parts ; the onejy^j^ 
called the Weftern, the other the Eaftern Tartary .-which 
hft is fcarce one-fourth part fo large as the' former ; begin- 
ning at about the one hundred and thirty-ninth degree of lon- 
gitude, and ending at the ode hundred and fixty-fiirft. Hence ' 
ft contains only twenty-two degrees of longitude, or is but 
nine hundred geographical miles from weft to eift, though 
eight hundred fend eighty broad, from fouth to north. But 
with this part of Tartary we have nothing to do at prefente 
for although fome oriental authors wtfuld derive all the inha- 
bitants of Tartary in general from the lame ftock, making 
the people of Katay, under which denomination they feem to 
oomprile all the inhabi&nts of Eaftern Tartary (of whom 
they had fcaree-any knowlege af all), to be descended from 
Turk, the fon of Jafef\ yet/Mfi^he genealogy of thofe tribes 
given by Abtflgh&z't KMn, and doubtlefs in that of Fadlal* 
kb (C), from' whom chiefly he extracted his hiftory, we meet 
with none but what are to be found in Weftern Tartary t for 
which reafon we flxall confine our description, in this place, 
to that part only. . 

Ik this vaft region of Weftern Tartary, (containing in Weftern 
extent one hundred and thirty-nine degrees of longitude Tartary. 
out of one hundred and fixty-one), although the lands be- 
longing - to every nation or tribe are marked out, and 
wtU k*owh to the inhabitants ; yet as there are few or no 

(B) The limits might be car- (C) We cannot be pofitive 

rial weftward, beyond the Dni* at to this point, becanfe De la 

ifar or Jfrrijlbeaet.i but, thefe Creix, in his hiftory of Gingbi* 

Ewere rather conquered of Khan, taken chiefly from FaMal- 

aees, than originally inha- lab, has mentioned only the Mo- ■ 

h«ed by Turkifi or Tartar gol tribes. . 



pti&f Jfcwas, or village*, to direft ftraagers, their faural 
jpfuaiions^r pofleffions are beft dtfUnguiibsd and afcertaipeci 
t^r tjie natural marks or boundaries, fucb as mountains, ri* 
vers, lakes, and. the like, with wfcich Wejiern % Tartary abounds*. 
Ityt it will be fufficient for our prefent purpofc to mention 
qobf the moft remarkable of them* 
' Chief . T#e principal mountains, or rather chains of mountain^ 

w*emtatm,fqnnd in this part of Gnat Tartary, may be divided intq 
t^rge clafles c firft, thofe. which run along the northern bor- 
ders pf it; and though perhaps not always contiguous,^ of 
the fame denomination, go under the general name of Vlug 
T4gW ,I>0g 9 that is, th4 great mountain :- fecondly, tholo 
which.. mjtke the foutljern bounds, and are called Ki^ 
chuk Tag, or the lefler mountain : the third great chain & 
called mount Alt ay, lying nearly in the puddle, between the?* 
Cafpian fea and Eafiern Tartary, and extending between. the 
other twes in about the one hundred and tenth .degree c£ iwt 

endie- . The chief delarts or plains are, firft,. thole of: Kipjak or. 

farts. Kafcckak in the weft, extending many days journey, oa th* 
oorth and north-eaft of the Cafjpian fea. Thefe are geneijsJ- 
ly fertile lands. Secondly, thofe ftretching eaftward from, 
Kipj&k to mount Altay. Thirdly, tfcat called t\it great Koki. 
or fandy defart, by th$ M$gols, zn&Sharmo by the Chinefes^ 
It is divided by ridges of hills into three or four parts, and 
extends eaftward from mount Alt+y to Eaftern Tartary. 

Rivers. The principal tivcftof We/lernTartary,bcCvte$ the DnUf>er r 

Tbt Ja'ik. Q<m, and Wo\ga y ar< ^&,Jajk or Talk agd T^** both defcendi 
ipg from the Ulug Tag, and falling into the Cafpian fea, on 

fbc Ili» tt& north fide* The river Ili or Kbonghis, which rifes,oot of 
the Kichuk Tig, on the borders of Little Bukharia, about the 
ope hundred and fourth degree of longitude, and runs north* 
weft into the lake Palkafi .(D) : on this river the Khan of 

tfhelrtiih. the Eluths or Kalmyks ufually refides. The river Irtt/b,Irtis p 
^ov\Er<his, which rifes in mount Aitay, and runs weftward, 
inclining to the north, between two branches of it, into th$» 
lafce Say/an (£) ; 'firpra. whence Wiring again, it paflcs north** 

Tb* Obi. w ^ft> through part of Siberia, ' and fails into the Obi, which 
h$3 its fource out . of the feme mountains, about one degree 
to the north of that of the Irtijb : and feven or eight degree* 

<D> It is about forty mites Honbotu Nbr, ninety mites long 

l*ng, and thirty broad, in*lati- from weft *oeaft, and forty 

tnde forty-eriht degrees, longi- broad ; in latitude fortfAfetfea 

tarfe ninety-feven, reckoning degrees' thirty minutes, fongi*- 

from the ifle of Ferro. • . tudc one hundred and four de— 

.(E) Sajatt or Jfan, called alfo grees, •• < 

C.i. , DtfitiptiMifGrtitTimrr- « 

10 the north-eaft .rifts tl» Kem 9 or Jemfea> 'which runs Kcnu 
weflwardfar the fpsce of feren or eight degrees, and then, 
tuming northward, eaters Siberia. \ 

Tab nest river of note is the river SeBnga, which riles SetfegtV 
cot of the lake KofogtL or HvtuJttCt {¥), not far from die 
four ce of the fenifea takes* {weep fouthward round by the 
oft, and fells northward Into the lake Baykdl, in Siberia, 
about thirty leagues north-weft of the city SeHngbinficy, 
which (hinds upon it. into the Sehnga runs the Orion, Orkon 
coming from the feAth-weft ; and into' the Orkon the foAi, am/Tula.^ 
ztfing eaftward in Mount. Kentey ; two rivere very famous 
in the hiftory of Jefngbiz c Khdh. Out of the fame xaaaor 
tain(G), and not far from the fource of th^?«4z, rife two other 
rivers, ftill more famous than the former ; firft, the Qhcn, Qadii 4* 
called alio by the Mogpls, SaghaHan Uia, or the dragon river, Sagha* «•? 
and by the Ruffians Am&r ; whkh running north-eaftwatfd, !*•»• 
and then taking a large fweep by the fbuth, rolls along" the 
bounds of Eqftern Tartary, and falls into the Eaftem ocean, 
in about the 53d degree of latitude, and 159th of longitude, ''; 

On its bank ftand two cities; Nerchinjkoy, ovNipdfnv^'% ' 'j 
frontier of the Ruffians, almoft due north of Pe-km* in 
China ; and Saghalian Uta, poflefled by the Cbinefes. 

The fecond river is the Kerlon, or Kerulon ; which run* Kerlon *r 
sing north-eaftward, falls into the lake Kulon, or Da/ay (H), Argun, 
and, paffing out again, under the name of Ergona, or Argun, 
joins the Saghalian Via, about one hundred and feventy miles 
beyond Nerchinjkoy. To thefe let us add the river Knlka, Kalka. 
from whence, tho' finall, the Kclka-Moguls, or Mongols, take 
their name. It rifes in the mountains, feparating the Eqftern 
from the Wefiern Tartary \ and, running weftward, falls tnt* 
the lake Pttir, and then into that of Kulon, before fpoken of. 

Having mentioned the principal lakes of JVeftern Tartary, takes. 
in oar account -of the rivers, we fhall take notice only of two 
more; firft, the Kdmijb, about four hundred and eighty-four 
miles long, and near as many broad (I): The fecond, If. 
fid\ a lake of fmall extent (K), but renowned among the 
inhabitants in the weft of Tartary, for being the place where 
Turk, their great anceftor, fixed his residence, or royal 

As to the political State of Weftern Tartary, we fhall only Mogol 
fry in general, that it is intirely poflefled by the Mogol tribes, nations. 

(F) Or Kbutuktu, 70 miles fouth-weft to nprth-eaft, and 
long from fouth to north, and 27 broad, In lat. 48* 30 long, 
IS broad. In lat. 52°. long. 1 1 8. 135. 

(G) It lies in about iz6de- (I) In lat. 50 . long. $f 
mesoflpng. and 48 oflat. ^o' 

\H) Sixty jpjlcsjong froin (K) Lat.46». loi)g. 94 30'. 


Elat&t or 

General H&cry of the Turks. 



$r Mon* 


to the 

under feveraj Khdns, whofe dominions are named after the 
people, or their prince who rules over them # . The firft and 
chid* of thefe Mogol nations are the Eluths, nicknamed Kal~ 
m&ks by the Mohammedan Tartars. Thefe are divided under 
two Khdns. The firft are called Ayuki Eluths, from their 
Khdn Ayuki, who has the weftern partx)f Tartary, bounded 
by the river Ja'ik, containing moft of that country which was 
formerly called Kipjdk, or Kapckdk, and extending about 10 
degrees eaftward from the river Ja'ik, in the 7 2d degree of 
longitude. The fecond are called DJbngari or Kontaijbi 
Eluths, from trie title of their prince, filled Kontaijb, whofe 
•dominion extends from 72 degrees of longitude as far as the 
end of mount Alt ay t in about the io2d degree. 

The fecond nation or branch of theMogols are the Kdlka, 
Khalkha, or Hdlba Mogols : their country extends from mount 
Altay eaftward to the fource of the river Kdlka, whence they 
derive their name, in the borders of Eaftern Tartary, and 
139th degree of longitude. > The third branch are the Mo- 
gols or Mongols, properly fo called ; whofe territories lie to 
the fouth of that of the Kalkas, between them and the gnat 
.wall of China ; to which empire both nations are fubjed. 

Besides thefe Khdns (who with their fubje&s are idolaters, 
of the religion of Tibet, or the Dalay Lama) there are two 
others in Great Tartary, who poflefs that part of it called 
Turkeftdn, fituate to the north of Great Bukharia and Ka* , 
razm, between thofe countries and the dominions of the 
Eluths ; , of which we (hall fpeak more particularly in a fubfe* 
quent fe&ion, and now return to our fubjeft, for explaining 
which, this fhort difcription of Tartary, with the help of 
jnaps, may fuffice. 

It is generally agreed by the oriental hiftorians,. that the 
inhabitants of Great Tartary are originally Turks, or fo 
many branches of the fame nation : but thofe who wrote of 
Turkijh affairs, and even the Turks themfelves wljo inhabited 
Perfia before the time of Jenghiz Khdn, feem to have had 
.but a (lender knowlege of the feveral tribes of people into 
which their nation was faid to be divided. The Arab author 
pf the book mifcalled The geography of the Nubian, who. 
wrote about the middle of the twelfth century, fays, the 
Turks were branched into many different kinds pf people; as 
the Tobbat (L), Taghazgbaz (M), Kharkirs, Kaymaks, Kha* 

* See anc. hift vol. xx. p. 1, & feq. 

(L) Thefe were probably a co- 
fony from Tibet or Tobbot, as the 
JgunoxFigun feem to have been. 

(M) Mifcalled Begbarghart\ 
hi the Latin tranflation. j 


C.i. % iTurkifli Tribes: *j 

zalfcs (N), ffofarens, Mahometans, Torkhojb, OSko/b, KhefL 
jWx(O), Khalaj{P) t Olghars, and Afefarr ( QJw 

This geographer affords us little more concerning thofe 
different people than their names* ; but defcribes the coun- 
tries inhabited by fome of them : from whence we (hall ex* 
toft fo much as may be proper to lay before our readers. 

The country of Tobbat (Tibet ), with part of India, bor* Tobbot. 
den on the \teft on Mdwdra'lnahr (or Great BukhariaJ, 
sod on the eaft on Sin (or China). The chief cities are 
TMat zndShih, Wakhan, Sakita, Berwan, Ug, Majag, Ra- 
majag, and Danekhu. The country of Wakhan and Sakita 
bordfer on' thofe of Wakhajb and Jil, in MaivaraHnahr* Wok* 
Am abounds with rich mines of the, fineft gold and (ilver. .. 
In it is a lake called Berwan, forty leagues in length, and 
twenty-four in breadth. 

The land of the Taghazghaz, whp are governed b by a Taghas- 
Kbakm, is bounded on the eaft by Kharkir, on the fouth by ghac. - 
Sm, ahd on the north by the people of Kaymak. It contains 
four dties ; Kakhan or Tantabeet Mafd, Jormok, and Ba» 
khfan. Kakhan, the capital, has twelve iron gates, and U 
Gated on a great river, that runs eaftward : 'tis two months 
journey from Berfajan the higher, in the country of FarghA* 
Md[R), and twelve fouth-eaft from Bakhwan. In themoun- . 
tains near this laft city are found the mufk goats. There is 
among the Taghazghaz Turks a nation who adore the fire c . 
. The inhabitants of Khdrkir border on the fea of Sin, and KharBr. 
poflefs four populous cities, all lying within the compafs 
rf four days journey. The country is large and fertile, 
sbounding with water. Some of its rivers defcend from the 
country of Sin ; the greateft of them, called Menhar, is very 
rapid ; running between rocks, and driving mills for grind* 
kg rice and wheat. On its banks grow aloes trees and 
c^twn duke. In its ftream is found a fifli called Jbatrun; 
Which, being eaten, affefts the feminal veflels. It is faid, 
that k has not many bones ; that the flefti is divided into 
taints, and does not imell like other fifh. The city where the 
king refides is moft ftrongly fortified, with walls, ditches,. 
aod Goanterfcraps, and is three ftages from the fea ; where 

1 Geogr. Nabienfis, p. 145. b P. 144. Tis faid to extend 
to the flask Oriental ocean. c Geogr. Nab. p. 141— 145. 

(N) Or rather perhaps Khaz* (P) The Kalatz. 
dj t hereafter mentioned. ( QJ The Bdgarians, QtJTpU 

(O) -Thefe moft be the Kaf- 'garians. " . • 

Br, written. alfo Kofiaks, and (R) Which belongs to Atf* 
tsfj&k i alio Kaftbik, and Kip* <wara % ln*hr. 

, * » * ■ ' 

* 2 there 

j 4 General Hijitfy *f the Turks. B. % 

that is a large peninfula, called that of the Hyacinth, from 
the precious ftones of the fame name, which are found there 
ia abundance*. 
Kaymak. - Thb knd of the people of Kaymak has, on the fouth, 
Taghazghaz, on thefouth-weft Khazalf, where it jeans with 
Tobfot, on the weft Khalakh, and on the eaft the fea of dark- 
nefe; wherein are iflands, to which the merchants pals oft 
horfeback, and lie every night on trees* The king of Kay* 
mak is equal to the greateft monarchs for power and gran- ' 
dure ; the inhabitants are very numerous, and worfhip the 
fire. It contains fixteen cities; the. principal whereof are 
4fiwr$ Buragh, Sif t an t Mannon, Moft&nah, Khakan(§); the 
regal feat, Benjar, Dholan, and ffanawes j to thefe may be 
added Koran Hiya. 
Xmr The great river Ghammas, rifing in the mountains of 

Gham- Benjar, runs eaftward to the city Aftur $ on its fouth bank, 
nan- fut ftages diftant, through the defart; thence to Si/tan, on 
the north fide, twelve ftages ; it- proceeds forwards to the 
regal city KhaUm, which ftands on the fouth fide : then it 
tarns northwards to Mofianah, on its weft bank, four ftages 
diftant. From this city it advances eaftward till it falls into 
the fea, one ftage diftant. Along all the coaft of Kaymak is 
found gold, when the fea rages ; and the country produces 
plenty of muflc ; but not fo good as that of Tobbti, which 
is the beft of all 6 . 

From Karon Hiya, the firft city of Kaymak, to Khakah, 
or the royal city, are twenty-four ftages, from weft to eafh 
From Khakdn to Buragh four ftages, fouth-weftward ; and 
eighteen ftages, through the defart of the Turks of Kba* 
lakh, to Taran (T). From Taran to Benjar are thirty-fix 
ftages : thus, to Kafra forty-five miles ; to Damorrtah, crofting 
a mountain in the way, four ftages*; to Khaykbam caftte 
twenty ftages, eaftward ; and to Benjar four ftages. 
Xhazalja. The country of Khazalja has feveral cities in it; among 
which are Berfajan the higher, Nawaketh, Rudhan, TaUui, 
and Berfajan the lower. From Atas (in Farghana) to Ber* 
fajan the higher are fix ftages, through the country of the 
Turks : to Naivahth, in the entrance of Khazalja, almoft 
ten ftages. From Atrakana to Karanttia, the firft city of 
Kaymak, ten ftages, through the defarts. From Tar&n w 
Berfajan the lower, confiding of towns and fields, thirty* 
nine miles, from Berfajan the lower to the. higher thus} 

* Ibid. p. 145 & feq. e Geogr. Nub. p. 213 & fcq. 

" "($} Khakan, with this author, every country of the Turks. 
is the name of the chief city of * (T) Perhaps rather Tarttk. 


<J.t Tfcrkifli SWfcA *$ 

ftti, to Jyss Caftle fix miles ; to Kukfawb twelve miles ; tb 
Kuhn Gkayatown fifteen miles; to Btrak town fifteen miles: 
it fends on a mountain, from whence the river Barak de- 
fends, and, running weftward, through the territories of 
Jykn, falls into the river Aljbah (the Sibun or Sir): to Afi- 
ra fifteen miles ; to fthui' Burekt town twenty-four miles"; 
to Jerk town twelve miles ; to the city of Khakan twelve 
flutes ; to Kebab thirty-fix miles ; to Berfajan the higher near 
ten ftages, with the Karavxm f . 

• The Arabian geographer fays little or nothing of the other The Odk- 
turtijb nations, and their countries, except the Odbkes smdko*. 
Okbarkns ; of whom almoft every thing he relates may be 
finpefted of fable. We (hall, however, give the reader a 
(site of what he has colle&ed on the occaiion. The country 
of the Odhfos has on the weft the land of Al Aazaz ; on 
the eaft nations, and their generations. In the fouth part 
is the lake Tahama, 250 miles in compafs, whofe water 
b exceeding green, but fweet. Four ftages eaft of the lake 
is the mountain Jorda, or Bald; which is fo flippery that . 
to get to the city at top they were forced to dig into the 
bowels of the hill, and to afcend by the help of ladders. 
The north fide of the country is covered by the great moun- 
tain Taraan, extending for eighteen ftages from weft or eaft. 
Tjiis tribe of Turks are reported to have broad faces* 
great heads, thick of hair, and flaming eyes. They have a 
peculiar language, and worihip the fire. However, fome of 
them are pretended to be Mo/Urns or believers *• 

Eight days journey from the caftle of Jordah aforefaid is Mountain 
the mountain of Kokaiya, which is inaccefiibly fteep, and al- Kokaiya* 
ways covered with fnow and thick clouds. It extends thence 
to the north of BoJgar, and furrounds the country of Yajuj 
and Majuj, which is • full of cities, cultivated lands, and ex- 
ceeding populous k . 

As thefe are die famous nations of Cog and Magog, after Gog anJt 
whom fo much enquiry has been made in Europe, to little purpofe Magog. 
hitherto, it may not be amifs to give the reader fome account 
ef them, and their country, from the Arabian authors, who 
lend to be acquainted with both f . As a convincing proof; 
this, they inform us, that the people of Tajuj are of a 
fiie ; but thofe of Majttj not above three fpans high : 
they are covered with a fort of thick down, and have 
round hanging ears ! . 
BtJT let us hear the report of an eye-witnefs, reputable 
|by his office, Salam the interpreter ; who was fent by np 

f Geogr. Nob. p. 21 1.* * Ibid. p. 247 & feq. » Ibid. 
1 248. 276. -f See anc, hid. vol. xx. p. 2 j. ' * Geogr. 

Mb. p. 249. 


16 General Hiftcry of the Turks. B.t 

lcf$ a perfonage than Mohammed Amtn Billab, fixth Khalifah 

of the Abbas family (U), in order to difcover the mountain of 

Kokaiya y with the bank of Tajtg and Majig, of which fuch 

ftrange things had come to his ears. 

Salam'/ SALAM, who had with him fifty men, and provifionsfbr 

joumey a whole year, leaving Sarra Manray (X), where the Khali- 

tbitber. fobs then refided, took his way by Taflis (Y), having had 

letters from his matter to the king of Armenia, who gave 

him others to the king of Al Sarir (Z). This king fent thee? 

to him of Lan (A), and he palled them on to the lord FiU 

Shah, who gave them five guides. Having, in twenty-feven 

days, reached the bounds of the regions oiBefejert (B), they 

came to a black long (linking land, in which they travelled 

ten days, ufing perfumes, to keep -off the noxious (mells. 

They travelled a month farther, through a de&rt country, 

* where they faw the ruins of many cities, deftroyed by the 

people pf Yajtij and Majuj. In fix days more they arrived at 

the caftles near the mountain Kokaiya ; in the opening of 

which appears the bank. Thofe in the caftles fpoke Per/ion 

and Arabich. There is alfo a dtj there, whofe king is called 

Khakan Odhkos ; and the inhabitants, who are Mojlems, have 

temples and academies. 

tmrfrifing From that city they went to fee the bank, two ftages 

bmk. diftant. Cere they found a mountain, with a ditch cut in it 

one hundred and fifty cubits wide, and within the chanel &a 

iron gate, fifty cubits high, fupported-by great buttrefles, with 

an iron bulwark, crowned with iron turrets, reaching to the 

top of the mountain, which is as high as one can weU fee. 

The reader, by the hejghth of the gate, may judge of the 

(U) He began his reign in the coorfe of this journey is if 

the year 193 of the Hejrab, of manrfeftly northward, 'tit ua- 

Cbrjft 808 ; and enjoyed the accountable how Bayer (houtf 

Khalifat five years. fuppofe Lan to be Labiian ia 

(X) A city on theeaft fide of Gbilan; and Befejerd, Be/a or 

- - the Tigris, 64 miles or ftages to Phafa (the old Pafagarda), t» 

the north of Baghdad; now in the foutt-eaft of Perfefolis ; as 

ruins. if the country of Yajuj and Ma^ 

(Y) Taflis, or Teflis, is at pre- jvj, in Tartary, lay to the fouth- 

lent the capital of Georgia. eaft of Sarra Manray, inftead 

(Z) Or of Sbtmvam, a pro- of thenorth-eaft ; or that to gal 

ymceofPerfia, on the Cajpian to Befa, inftead of going direct 

fea. ]y fouth-eaAward, the way wn 

(A) Or Allan. firft to travel twice as far norrl 

(B) Rather perhaps Bejkhnt, to Taflis, and then torn back 
or Bajkir, a people of Kifjdk, again fouth-eaftward, to read 

bordering on the Ruffian domi- that city, 
rtions. lHowever that be, as 


Ci. TurkHh Trfos. ftp 

fa of the valves, lintels, and threshold of the gate, with 
that of the bolts, lock, and key, which are defcribed. What 
b mod curious of all, the governor of the caftles before- 
mentioned takes horfe every Friday, with ten others, and, 
coming to the gate, ftrikef the bolt three times with a ham- 
mer, weighing five pounds, and then liflening, hears a mur* 
maring noife within; from whence they conclude, that the 
T*jijj and Majq are confined within bounds. Salam was 
told, that they often appeared on the turrets of the bulwark; 
and that a high wind had once blown three of them over ; 
who, being meafured, were found to be each but three fpans 
high (C); Salam returned by the cities Lokman, Aaraban, Ber* 
fifan, and Taraz, to Samarkand, after having fpent twenty- 
tight months in the journey. 

The Olghars poflefs inacceffible mountains, on which are^O!- 
garifoned cables ; where the kings fortify themfelves, and ghars. 
lay up their proviltons. The chief of thefe, and capital of 
Qlgbaria, is named Hiyam. At the fouth foot of the htU, oar 
which it ftands, runs the large river Rudba (D), eaftward f 
and feven days journey down the ftream is another city, called 
Ja/an. There are in this country feveral other cities. 

Northward of the city Hiyam is the great mountain Mfntain 
Moregar, which is covered with fnow, and divides Olgharia Moregar, 
from Besjert (E), In a river, defcending from »r fouthward, 
is found much gold, and Lapis Lazuli*, and in the woods, 
along its banks, are caught the Alnebr, monftrous beads, 
which are "carried into all parts of Armenia and Greece y 
whofe (kin is very beautiful, and furs furpafs all others in 
goodnefs : but the yellow fox-fkins, being fcarce, are reierved 
for the ufe of the kings of thofe regions. 

On the fide of the above-mentioned river ftands a high 
mountain, out of which gufh a thoufand fprings, jhat floW 
into the river Margha. On the top of it ftand Nuja and 
Badegha, one day's journey afnnder ; and on its'fkirts Daran- 
da and Darku, three ftages diftant from each other ; and the 
faft, whidi lies moft eaftward, ten from Jajan. The lake 
of Karazm is fix ftages diftant to the fouth \ 

k Geogr.Nub. p. 245. 

(C) There are found among (DT This Teems to be derived 

the orientals many.fuch tradi- from Rudh, the Perfian word 

tions as thefe, of a long (land- for a river. 
"gt grounded on the like tefti- (E) Perhaps rather Bejhhert 

mony ; which are as firmly be- or Bajkbert ; that is, the coun« 

lieved by the unthinking multi- try of the Bajkirs* 
tade as 10 many articles of faith. 

Mod. Hist. Vol. IV. C Be- 





G*)wr<i/ Hijtory of tBi'Tutlu. 



A trior 




Beyond the mountain Moregar, fouthwafd, dwells a na- 
tion of wandering Gaz Turks, called Khandket, who deftroyed 
the land of Samarik, or #W<zA 7i/ri,r, which is divided front 
that of Khanaket by the fame mountain* To Samarik be* 
longs the city Lokbmdn, feated on the mountain Sunia, out 
of which rifes the river Lokhman, on whole weft fide ftands 
Danbaha, a beautiful city ; from whence boats go up the 
ftream, as far as a great lake, and thence to the city Jermdn K 

With regard to the country of Bolgar, it is only obferved, 
that there is in it a city called Babun, built on the top of a 
hill 9 and ftrongly fortified : that, to the north, lies the moun- 
tain Kokaiya ; beyond which are found no dwellings, nor any 
living creature, by reafoivof the intenfe cold : and, laftly, that 
the land is waftied ** by the Atel (F). This river con'fifts of 
two branches, the eaftern flowing out of Kharkir, between 
Kaymak and Olgar, runs weftward, till ft comes to Bolgar: 
there it divides into two arms (G), one of which turns to the 
eaft, and paffing through the countries of Rus (H), Bolgar, 
and Bertas, at length falls into the fea of Khozar (I) : the 
other flows weftward, to the fea of Nites (K). 

The city of Atel (L), twenty ftages from the borders of 
Bertas, is the capital of Khozar, and divided into two parts 
by the river, very populous, and three miles long. v The king 
of Khozar refides in the eaft part ; the merchants and com- 
monalty in the other. The Khozars are Chriftiatu, Moham- 
medans, and Pagans : but there is no contention among them 
about religion •. 

To this account of the Arab geographer we may add, fronv 
Others, "that the Khozars were descended from Kfazdr, the 
youngeft brother of Turk; that their king was ftiled Khakan i 
that they made a great figure in the feventh century ; and that 
the capital of the country was called Balanjar : befides which, 
two other cities are mentioned, viz. Siyakowefh and Saray °. 

From this account of the Turktfb nations, and the coun- 
tries they inhabit, the reader may perceive how little Tartary 
was known to the Arabs ; as well as what a knack they have 
at invention. They have mentioned rivers, lakes, and moun- 
tains, which, in all probability, never were in being ; nor 

1 Geogr. Nub* p. 266. ■ Ibid. p. 276. ■ Ibid, 

p. 243, & fefl. » D'Herb. p. 1003. Art. Khozar. 

(F) Atel or Edeh the Wolga. 

(G) The author bete mud 
BizktxkeDonOTTaaw,* branch 
of the fTolga. 

(HJ Qi%fia. 


(I) That is, the Cajjnan fea. 
(K) Or the Euxitte. 
(L) This feems to be the pre* 
fern AfirMan. 


C.i. TbrfcUlb Trihei. 19 

ate their names, to be found in later writers : they have 
placed large and rich cities, where pever any-thing but defarts 
exifted; and, in many particulars, had recourfe to fiftion. 
In fhort, if we except the names of nations, which might 
have been formerly in ufe, and of a few places which are ftill 
known, the whole feems to be romance. Neither ire we fure> 
from what our author has written, that all the nations whom 
he mentions were branches of the Turks ■: in all probability' 
they were only fo In the opinion of the Arabs ; it being 
cuftomary to call the different people, under one power or 
dominion, by the fame name ; or to give the name of the 
people who are neareft, to all the reft who are beyond them, 
either for want of knowing better, or to avoid prolixity in 
{peaking of them* 


An octownl of the Turkifli trihes or nations* *s delU 
vtrcd by tht Turkilh and Tartarian bijlotians. 

THE oriental authors who wrote in and after the time of Turkifli 
-■■ the Seljuk Solidns reigning In the weft of Afia, feem xobift 9 ****** 
have been a great deal better acquainted with the Turkijb na* 
tions than the Arabs, although fome of them extend their 
branches much too far ; including, under that denomination, 
not only the Mogols> Tartars, and Igurs or Vigurs, but alfo 
the inhabitants of Kitay or Katay *, which contained the 
northern provinces of China, and great part of Tartary, to 
the north and north-weft of it. Others, as Mirkhond onAaecording 
Arabfbah (A), more diftinftly inform us, that the pofterity/* Mirk- 
of Turk was divided into four great tribes, named Erlat,^ 011 ^* 
Jalayr, Kawjin, and Berks or Perlas \ which were again 
fubdivided by Oguz Khan into twertty-four others, of which 
the principal are the Mdgols, the Turks properly fo called, 
Ae Igurs, the Kangbelis (B), the Kipchaks, the Katelaks (C),' 

* D'Herbelot. Bib!, orient, p. 897. Art. Turk. 
k A&AB6BAH. hifl. Trim. 1. i. J 4. D'Hbrb. p. 898. Art, 
Turk. p. 685. Art. Ogour Khan. 

(A) ArabS bob, zTurkiJkKi- has been publilhed in French, 

ftorian, who wrote the life of tranflated by VatUr. 
TiMur-bck> or Tamerlan, in ele- (B) Oi Kan k lis. 
gant Arabic ; . but gives that (C) Or Kaxlaks ; but Kartih 

prince a very bad character; va Abu Ighazi Khan. The reader, 

probably on account of the vie- in peruling this account of the 

tories obtained by him over the Turkifi? tribes, may confult vol. 

Tmris, and the ravages he made xx. p. 23, & feq. 

in their country. This hiitory 

C % and 


to General Hiftory of the Turks. B. I. 

and the Tamgaj (D). Thefe twenty-four tribes were likewife 
divided into the right and left wing, called by the Mogols 
Jivangar and Berangar, which, by their fundamental laws, 
were never to mix or marry one with the other c. 
Abulgha- . This fcrap which D'Herbelot has given us from the ori- 
*i KhanV ental hiftorians, was all to be met with on the fubjeft, till 
hiftory, fa hiftory of Abttlgh&zi Khdn of Karazm (E) appeared of 
late, one of whofe chief defigns was to treat particularly of 
the tribes of the Turkijh nation, and mark the defcent of 
, each. As this book is one of the chief funds which afford 

^olUad materXa ^ s * or ^ hiftory of the Turks and Tartars, it will be 
proper to inform the reader on what authority it is ground- 
ed. . Gbazdn or.. Kazan Khan, fixth fucceflbr of Halaku, 
grandfon of Jenghfz Khdn, who fubdued Perfia, being der 
firous to prefervfe the memory of the Mogol tribes, as well as 
the great exploits of his anceftors, fent one Puldd, or Fuldd, 
a ittbleman (killed in the Mogol language, into Tartary, in 
order to colleft materials for that purpofe. At his return the 
Khdn put his memoirs into the hands of his grand Wazir or 
Vifier Fadlallahy that he might compofe a regular hiftory 
from them ; and ordered Puldd to affift him in the work, 

c D'Hers. ubi fupr. 

(D) Tamgaj, or Thamgaj, or ceflbrs in the feveral part* of 

* Tamgaz, is by all the oriental au- Tartary ; and the ninth treats of 

thors reckoned a tribe of Turks, the Khans of Kbarazm, to the 

which he takes to be the Gdz, death of the author, who was fo- 

defcended from Gd z, tenth fon vereign of that country, which 

of Jefet ; and from them came lies on the eaft fide of the Caf- 

the Turkmans. But Abulfeda pian fea. The Khan dying ia 

fays, the country 1 of Tamgaj is 1663, before the hiftory was 

that of Katay. See D^Herbelot, quite finished, his fon and fuc- 

Bibl. orient. Art. Gaz, Tarn ceffor, Anujba Mehemet Khan, 

gage % and Thamgage. completed it .two years after. 

. (?) It is written in the Mo- Befides the hiftory of Khojak 

gol or Turkijh language, and ua- Rapid, as he calls Fadlallah, 

der the tide of Sbajari Turii, and eighteen others which *Ke 

that is, a genealogical hiftory of does not name, he made ufe of 

theTurks. it is divided into nine particular memoirs relating to 

parts : the two firft treat of feveral Mogol tribes (1). 

the Khins and tribes defcend- Abulghdzi KJ)dn\ hiftory, 

ed from Turk, the fon of Jafet, which was procured by Strab- 

to the time of Jenghiz Khdn : lenberg, while prifoner in Sibe- 

the third relates the life and ac- ria, has been tran dated into 

tionsof that conqueror: the five Ruffian, German, French, and 

next thofe of his fons and fne- Englijb. 

(1) See Ahu!gh*x{ Kbani bifiory, f . 30, and 68. Alfn flieQ.wy. & frav. 
4f». W. iv. p. 437. 


C t. 'Turkifh Tribe* 21 

which confifts of three folio volumes (F), and was finiftect 
is the year of the Hejrah 702, and of Chrift 1302. It was 
from this hiftory chiefly that Abtflghazi Khin extra&ed his, 
excepting as to that part which relates to the Uzbeks of Great 
Bukharia and Karazm. 

-According to this author, the feveral different nations orTurkift 
tribes of people, called Aymaks, may be diftinguifhed into ^ibes. 
two forts ; thofe defcended from the Mogols or Mongols, and 
thofe not defcended from them. Whence many of thefe lat- 
ter are derived, does not appear- from Abu'lghazi Khan's hi- 
ftory d ; but they mull be either Mogols or Tartars, who had 
loft the memory of their origin ; or elfe tribes fprung from, 
the Khans preceding Alanza ; for all the Aymaks, it fecms, 
are derived from the Khans. 

With refpeft to the tribes not defcended from the Mo- 
gols, the original of fome has been already mentioned c ; as 
the Kankli, Kijyaks, Karliks, Kalach, and Vigurs : of thefe 
five, which derive their name from Oguz Khan, the laft only, 
we are told, fprung from Mogul Khan. 

1. The KankH dwelt, for fome time, jointly with they^Kan- 
Twrkmans, in the fandy defarts : but when thefe laft began kli. 

to live in towns, the former went to inhabit about the ri- 
vers Ijfikul and Talajb (G), where they have remained for. a 
long time. Jenghiz Khan put to the fword ten thoufand- of 
them, whom he found there ; the reft, to the number of fifty 
or fixty thoufand, had before become fubje&s to Solt&n Mo- 
hammed Karazm Shah, whofe mother was of this tribe. 

2. The Kifyaks (H) have always inhabited the banks of 72* Kip- 
the Don, Wolga, and Jaik. jaks. 

3. The Karliks have conftantly dwelt in the mountains ofTZtKar* 
the Mogols country, living on the produce ©f their lands, liks. 
This tribe elected their Khan, and might have amounted to 
twenty thoufand families in the time of Jenghfz.Khan. This 
conqueror having fent an envoy to perfuade them to fubmit, 
Arjidn, their Khan, carried him a pretty daughter, bcfides 

d See p. 31. e See vol. xx. p. 23, 8c feq, 

(F) The firft volume is in the (H) Called alfo Kafjah and 

French king's library, and was Kafchaks. Thefe are fuppofed 

tranflatcd by De la Croix the fon, to be the fame with the Kofizis, 

but not publifhed. who inhabit the fame pans : 

4G) The French tranflator and both may be the remains of 

fay* they are now called Teiiz the Kboxan or Khazari, wh© 

and lit : but he feems to have had an empire to the north of 

keen miftaken, at leaft with re- the Ca/pian fea, in the' time.tlf 

gard to the laft. the Greek emperor Jujfiman. 

9 C 3 very 

%x Central Hijtory of the Txxks. B*V 

very magnificent prefents. The receiver, in return, gavq 
him a relation in marriage : but, when he was gone, (aid, 
the name ArJldnSirak (I) Tuited him better than that of Arjldn 
Khan. The Moguls ufe the term Sirak^ fignifying a poor^ 
fpirited man, when they fpeak of the Tajiks (K), who are* 
a very fimple people f . 
Tht Kal- 4. KAL-ACH fignifies hungry, for the reafon already men-* 
Aph. $oned g. There are, at prefent, feveral numerous branches 
of this tribe, not only in the country of Mawara'hiahr, or 
Great Bukharia % but alfo the Perfian provinces of Khorafan. 
and Irak K 
The Ta, 5. The Takrins. Bugay Zinanz, Khan of this tribe, be* 
krws^/ Ing invited by Jenghiz Khan to fubmit, he fent, among other 
r \C^ prefents, a daughter, who appeared fo beautiful in the eyes 
^* atUgaday, or OSlay Khan y that, after his father's death, he 
married her, and loved her above all his other wives. 
The Kerg- 6. The tribe of the Kerghis, which was but thin at firft* 
bia. increafed confiderably in time, by the acceflion of Moguls, and 

other families who joined them, for fake of the agreeable 
country which they inhabited. Urus Inal, their prince, unable 
to refift Jtnghiz Khan 9 who fuinmoned him, by two ambaf- 
fadors, to fabmit, fent that great monarch magnificent pre* 
(ents, and, among the reft, a bird called Shungar (L). The 
fkar, or lkran Muran y now called Jenifea, glides along the 
borders of the KergUs (M), and falls into the Azokh Jeng- 
hiz, or bitter fea. Near its mouth, our author tells us, 
there is a great town, called Alakbzin, which fignifies pied (N) ; 
which name it took, becaufe the inhabitants thereof, and the 

c Atu'LCHAZi KhaiTs hiitory of the Turks, $p. p. 14. 31, &c 
feq. t See before, vol. xx % p. 31. h Abu'lgkazi 

Khan,&c. p. 18. 

(I) This maft fignify 4 the (M) At prefect, by %i7£wt 

freaking lion x map, they are placed near the 

(K) Tajiks are the trading borders of Ru/fia, and tfcelW 

people or inhabitants of con- Tag. 

qucrcd countries : the Tartars (N) Strahlenberg mentions. 

ofKaraxm give thePerfians that the ruins of a town called Alak 

Hick-name in contempt or aver- Sin of Chin, which fignifies the 

(on, being their enemies, and chequered tribe ; but places it 

pi a different fed in religion. without the great wall of Chi' 

(L) Or Sbo&kar \ a bird of na (a), 
prey, found in. the plains of 

• (*) &* *" *#• gW* *&• *f #« «*■** *** < a ft P ar " *f &**& *** 4fi*% 


Civ Tnrkifli Tri bes. *j. 

dependent towns, have none but pied hories (O) : thefeliorfet 

at very nil ; a colt of a year old being as large as a horfe of 

three any- where die. There are likewife rich Giver mines in 

its neighbourhood. The ftory goes further,; that the favourite 

widow of TauU Khan, (cm of Jenghiz Khan, to whofe fhare 

the Kergbis fell, fent three officers, with a thouiand men, 

op the titer, by water, to di&over this country. After a 

long flay, they returned, with only three hundred of their 

company; the Deft being loft, as they pretended, by the bad* 

nets of the air. Thefe gentlemen confirmed, as truth, all 

which had been reported of the place; and even declared, that 

they had loaded their veflels with fdver, but were obliged to 

throw it all over-board, for want of hands to get it up againft 


7^ The tribe of Ur-mantats, fo called, from their living f^ Ur. 
in places moft remote, and full of fbrefts, are neighbours tomankats, 
the Kergbis, . on the Ikdr Muran, and fubmitted, at the fame 
tine, to Jenghiz Khan. There is another tribe who bear the 
fame name, and follow the fame courfe of life, but they are 
Mogols K 

8. The tribe of Tatars, or Tattars, (by the weftern nations The Ta- 
of Europe called Tartar*)* one of the moft ancient and famous tars, 
of the Turki/b nation, oeing defended from Tatar Khan (P), 
confifted formerly of above feventy thoufand families, and 
had only one Khan, who was very potent : but coming af- 
terwards to be divided into feveral branches, its power, by 
degrees, declined. The principal i>ranch fettled in the coun- 
try of Biurnaver, near the borders of Kitay, to which it 
was brought in fubjeftioa : but, in fome time revolting, the 
emperor of Kitay forced them, by arms, to return to their 
duty: and this' happened often to be the cafe with them. 
Another branch went and inhabited the river Ikdr, or Ikrdrt 
Muran ± above-mentioned. Caubil informs us, from the 
Ctnnefe annals, that, in the time of Jenghiz Khan, they were 
fettled along the rivers Kerulon, and Onon or Amur ; and were 

' Abu'lchazi Khan, p. 36, 39. * Ibid. Hiftory of the 

Turks, Sec. p. 36, & feq. and 39. 

(O) The Ruffians have a tra- fiory of JengbiK Khan, fays, the 

dition like this, of a pied peo- Tartars are the fame called $u 

pie, fomewhere in Siberia, cal- Moguls, or the Moguls of the *wa~ 

fed by them Fefiraya Orja, or fers ; and that mey took the 

the pied tribe. See hiftory of name Tatar from a river of that 

faTuris, &c. p. 648. name, in the country ofSu Mo- 

(P) See anc. hi(L bookxx. gul. Yet, in another place, h$ 

ff Z6 f Ds la Croix, in his hi- derives it from Tatar Khan* J 

C 4 tributary] 


i4 General ttijttry $f tU r Turks. B.L 

tributary tw the emperor of the Kin, who feigned in Kkay K 
From this tribe all the reft, and the country they inhabited* 
look their name, among the nations' of the fouthern^aand 
(A Europe **. 
TbeVi- $>. The Virats (QJ. This tribe inhabit the banks of the 
rats, and Sekir Mutin, or eight rivers, which fail into the Ikar, or 
branches. Jkran Muran, that is, the Jenifea, on the'eaft fide (R). Af- 
ter maintaining the war a confiderable while againft Jenghtz 
Khan, their Khan Tokta-begbi, with his two fons, Inalzi 
and Tauranzi, were obliged to fnbmit. Several tribes have 
fprung from them. i. The JTorga-uts, fo called, becaufe 
they dwelt beyond the country of Salika, which lies beyond 
that of the Moguls : but, at prefent, they are under Ayuki 
Khan, and make the whole or part of the fecond branch of 
the Eluths or Aluths, called Eluths- Ayuki, or Terga-uti n . 
S. The Kuris. 3. The Ufil&s. 4. The Tumati, who dwell 
In the country of Barku-ckin-tugum (S) : their Khan, Tattda 
Sukar Khan, was obliged to fubmit to Jenghtz Khan. 5. 
The Boygazins. 6. The Himsuzins. Thefe two la# tribes 
dwell near the Kerghis, and are very peaceable. . 7. The 
Telanguts. 8. The Ofdf-uts. 9. The Kufutmahs. Thefe 
' three laft have been always famous for their (kill in phyfic 
and magic, as Well as hunting and flfhing; which carried 
them to dwell near forefts and rivers <\ 

STRAHLENBERG relates, that theKahnuk nation, properly 
called Ehtths, call themfelves Avirat, and Virat , or Dorbon Virat^ 
that is, the four Avirat tribes, which ire Torga^oth, Ko/hi* 
vtb, Kayoht, Dfongar and Dorb»oth, which two laft make but 
one tribe. He likewife obferves, that the terminations otb, 
ath, arid ant h (or at arid ot P, as others write them), in 
thofe and the like words, are the fame : that the Mongolt 
call the above-mentioned four tribes not only Avir^dt, bat 

tSouciET. obf. math. &c. p. 186. Gaubii. hill, de Jenghtz 

. Khin, p. 3. ■ Abu'lghazi Khan, p. 38. B See new 

collect, trav. p, 401. a ; and Souciet's obf. math. p. 148, 160, 

&feq. ° Abu'lchazi Khan, p. 40. * Abu'l^hazi 

Khan writes «>,as Torga-iits, 

vQJ Perhaps the Bur/its or ran, Zagan Muran, ±nd Kbaja 

Brats, ftill inhabiting therea- Muran. Murdn ftgnifies a ri- 

fcouts. vcr. 

' {R) Abu Igbdxi Khan fiytd), (S) Perhaps the plain of Bar- 

, ■ ^ r ifhe Moguls call them Kek Mu- gu, mentioned by Marco Fob, 

ynn, On Muran, Kara UJfun, Se- was in this country. 

Htifan, Ifiran Muran, Abar. Mu- 

{3) Gentfil. bifi. p. 41, 


C.ti Turkifli SHfe* j£ 

4fe fif-W*, aad <AnMM (T) : and that thde if* defoe^d* 
aacs of the fame people, whom the later Greek writers call 
Auari % and Atari i but Jornandes, more nearly >Jvin^: 
of both which words D'fierbtlofs Jvairat* is a kind of com* 
pound o. But as oar author makes the 4vari or Var y and 
Irani or Kbum> the fame with the Igurs or Un-igurs, howHim. 
can they be Kalmyks or Eluths, who are a very different peo- 
ple from the *%«rj ? We have already {hewn how very 
ascertain it is to trace the origin of people by the names 
found in hiftorians of foreign countries: and, to {peak the 
truth, Mr. Stra&lmksrg, though very happy in many of hi$ 
ceofeftures, yet was fo Wgoited to this method, that he takes 
the finalkft refemblance in the same as a certain proof of 
bis point; and often {trains matters beyond meaiure, cq 
make things anfwer his purpoie, 

10. The Naymans is a very antient tribe, and very72*Nay* 
rich (U) : they dwelt in the country of the Moguls, called uian* 
K&rakum, or black fond (W) ; but did not ufe agriculture. 
Thar Khan, in the time of Jtugktz Khan, was called Toy-, 
yon, who, with his Ion KucUuk, was (lain by that conqueror* 
GaubU informs us, that the Naymans were contiguous to the 
Moguls, near the city of Holm, or Kara-hyran % to the north 
of the great fandy defart. At prefent they are fettled near 
the Bird Murart, to the north-caft of Pfkin w. 

ii. The Kara-its (X), that is, /worthy, {6 called fromr&Kai* 
the fwarthy complexion of feven brothers, from whom they its. 
fpnug. KorzakurKhfa, furnamed Bufiruk, fon of Margus* 
&-Kbdn y was the father of TayreJ Khan, to whom the em- 

* Menande* c. 7. r Dc reb. Get. p. 597. 

' Bibl. orient, p. 14&. Q Steahl. hid. gcogr. defer, pref. 

p. 6, & feq. w See SauciiT, as before, p. 1 85 i alfo the 

map of Tartary fubjed to China. 

(T) Hence perhaps the name their capital JJfedon is called by 

*£ Rlmtits qv Jhaks. the moderns SMir (4), Be- 

(U) For this reaibo, along Edes, Sukkir is now known to 

with the name, Strablenberg fqpJ be $u-ebe*w in China* at a great 

pole* the Napnam or Noymans, dhtance from the country of the 

are the ASmc/, afterwards called Naymans. 

ri 9 of Pliny : but it is fur- ( W) A name given to barren 

prifing that Dt ha Croix, without fandy defarts. 

any apparent grooncls, fiiould (X) Written Ktrit, and Jfo7 # 

affian, that theft Naymans are by %urofcatu. 
Jfe #£*» Syt&tans, and that 

ft} ***** ?«¥** m**tr$, 6, 7 f . . 

f eror 

a3. General Hifcory of tfoTmte. B.E 

Hs joined the conqueror alio, when he vent to attack JWfe- 
Bammed Karazm Shah. 
Aniltarn- In regard many of the Vigirs were flailed in the Turkijb 
**& language, and expert in writing, Jenghtz Khan made ufe of 

them in all his expeditions, as fecretartes to the chancery : 
in which quality alfo his defceodants, who reigned in M&- 
wara'lnbar and Perjia, employed them for a long time *. 
On this occafion it may be obferved, that the Vigurs or Oy- 
gurs were the only people inhabiting Great Tartary, who had 
the ufe of chara&ers, which were the fame with thofe now 
found iaTihet, where they are called charafters oiTangut c„ 
The Ur- The Ur-mankats. They lead much the fame courfe of 
mankats. life with their namefakes before-mentioned ; and are defend- 
ed from Oguz Khan 2 which is all that is faid of them d . 

It has been already remarked, that the defendants of 
Kay an took the £urname of Kay at i and thofe of Nagos that 
of Durlagan, or NagoJUr : whence, in a fhort time, they 
came to iofe their true names. The bribes mentioned as 
fprung from them, are thirty-eight in number ; thirty derive 
their pedigree from Kay an, and five froin Nagos. 
Njrkha*r The tribes defcended from Kayan are the following. 
^ iron \. From the three fons of Alanhu (I) fprung a numerous 
*** J tribe, in the Mogul language furnamed Nirkha; that is, a 
J j>ure family ; in memory that the founders of it were begot- 
' ten without any commerce with man, as hath been before 
related : elfewhere it is faid they took the furaame of Ni- 
. ran e . r 

The Kun- • 2# ,xhe Kunkurats, ox KankraU (K). Thefe are fprung 
karats. f rom Kunhurat, a f oa f Zurluk Mergan 9 who descend- 
ed from Kayan (L). . They dwelt "along the .river Kaiaf- 


b Abu't,chazi Khan, p. 13, & feq« 31, & feq. & 46. 
« Gaubil in Souciet. obf. math. p. 146. d Abu'lghazi 

Kka.n, p. 38. e Ibid. p. 46, and 58. 

(I) The hiftory of Alanku, circumftances, that this Zurluh 

and her three fons, has beeri al- Mergan lived many ages befbr* 

ready related, anc hift. vol. dlanku, and poffibiy, during the I 

xx. p. 37. alfo an account given time the Moguls remained ftmul 

of their defendants to Jenghix^ op in the mountain of lr£anaid C% 

Khan : moft of whom are men* fince the tribe of Kurlas deri/e 

tioncd hereafter , on occafion of themfelves from him, and !&*•-. 

die Mf>gul tribes being derived tizcna Khan, of the Moguls, at 

from them. Some write Alan- the time of their famous faliy 

iawA. from thence, was a defendant 

(K) Kon\oraU2X^Kongorats. oiKurlat. Mention is made of 

(£,} It appears, from feveral Zurluh McKgans two brothers, 


C r. Turkifli lfo'to. 4$ 

fii (M), in the time of Jenghfz Khan ,• to whom their 
Khan Turk-iB, who was his relation, went over f . 

3. The Burkuts ; and, 4. The Kurla-utt. Thefe two 7^ Bur- 
tribes formerly inhabited 'along with the Kunkurats, who are kut *« 
related to them: 

5. The Ankarab; anfl, 6", The Ataknuis ; are defcendedTA* An- 
fiom the two foils of Kabay Shira, brother of Zurktk .flf*r-karah, 
gan. Ulun, called alfo Ulun Iga, and Ulun Kufin, the mo- 
ther of Jengbh Kb&n, was of the latter tribe. 

7- The Kara-nuts. Thefe are fprung from Karanut , The Kara- 
eldeft fon of Bujyuday, third brother of Zwr/a* Mergan 8. nuts. 

8. The Kurlas, one of the moft eminent tribes among T^rKur^ 
the Moguls, are fprung from Kurlas, fon of Meyfir4R, fon las* 
of Konaklot, fon of Bujyuday, youngeft brother of Zurluk 
Mergan. Bertizena, Khinof the Moguls,, when they fallied 
out of the mountain Irgana Kon, was a-defcendant of Kur* I 
las. This tribe is divided into many branches, who have ' 
the furnarne of Niron. i . The Kataguns, defcended from 
Bokum Katagum, the eldeft of Alanhfs three fons. 2.- The 
Zabuts, from Bcftln Zalzi, fecand fon of Alanhu. 3. The 
Bayzuts, from Bajffikar and Hurmalankum, fons of Kaydu 
Khan. 4. The Zipzuts, from Zapzin, Baydu Khan's third 
fen. 5. The Irighents, from Zapzin alfok. 6. TkeZenas, 
furnamed Nagos, bat different from the Nago/ler: they 
fprung froxh. Kauduzena and Olekinzena, fons of Hurmalan* 
km. 7. The Butakins, from But akin, eldeft fon of Tumana 
Khan, grandfon of Kaydu Kh&n. 8. The Urutbs, from 
(/hitf, fecond fon of Tumana fChan K p. The Mankats, 
from Mankat, Twnana'% third fon : thefe are nick-named 
ifara Kalpaks by the Ruffians, and po/Iefs at prefent the weft- 
era half of Turkeftan, with the city of that name. But #y- 
ritiow's map makes the Jfcri Kalpaks and Mangats diftinft 
tribes. 10. iBadurghins, from Samkarttm, thjrd fon of 7a- 
mana JH&oa. 11. The Budats, from Bat kilt i, Tumana's fourth 
fim k . 12. The 2?wr/*f or Berks (N), from Zedemzi-burlas % 

1 f Abu'lchazi Khan, p. 48, 52, & 75. * Ibid. p. 48* '. 

L C2, & feq. * Ibid. p. 48, 55. l Ibid. p. 59. 

IJ Ibid. p. 59, 567, 575. 

■Utff Shira and Bufyuday, hit of his ear, without touching the 

not of his father : he was fuch jewel at which it hung. 

an excellent archer, that, being . (M) Now Orkhon, according 

to light on horfeback with Ka- to BentinRs notes on dbulgbaxi 

bq Shira, and feeing him thro* Khan. 

fear bend down on one fide for (N) Written Perlas by the 

fhelter, in pitv, would not kill Verfians and Turks. 
kin, btttftruck the pendent out 

\7 fon 

30 r General Hift9ry oftbt Turks; ft. i; 

fon of Kazuli, Tumana't fixth fon. Of this tribe was the 
great Timur-beigh, or Tamerlan. 13. The Kay urns, from. 
Udur-bayan, feventh fon of Tumana Khan, 14. The Vilotf* 
from Balzar, Tumana'* eighth fon, called Oglan, or the lame 9 
becaufe he halted. 1 5. The Bajjuts, or Tefjuts, from Olzin* 
gan, ninth fon of Tumana K 16. The Kayats are defcended 
from the fix fons of Kabul Khan; in whom, being ftrong men, 
and great warriors, was revived the name of Kay at, which 
had been in a manner unknown for above three thoufand 
^ years. 17. The Borzugan Kayats fprung from the five- fons 
of Tejfughi Bahadur Khan, of whom Temujin, afterwards 
Jenghiz Khan, was the ddeft. They wore all of a fair coax* 
plexion, inclining to yellow, with a red circle between die 
black and white of their eyes ; which kind of eyes the Mo* 
guls call Borzugan, from whence their defcendants had that 
name 10 . 
TbeTiz\- p. The Ilzigans. This tribe is defcended from Iizigar^ 
gans. brother of Kurlas, fon of Meyjir-K, before-mentioned. 
WrDur- IO , The Durtnans, that is, four, in the Moguls language 
***** (O), derive their origin from the four eldeft tons of Bizin 
Kay an Khan ; who, refenting the election of Kipzi Mergan 
Khan, though it was made purfuant to the will of their fa- 
ther, left the country : but their defcendants, in procefs c£ 
time, came and dwelt in the dominions of Kipzi Mergan* 
From thefe are defcended two tribes. 1 . The Bartons, from 
one of that name. 2. The Sukut, from the fon of a Dur- 
man, by a fhe-flave : this flave coming before her time, through 
the abufe received from his wife, went and hid the infant 
among fhrubs, called, in their language, Yulgun ; but, by the 
Moguls, Sukut (P) : the father finding it here next morning, 
from thence gave it the name of Sukut n . 

The tribes of the Nagojler, or Durlagans, defcended frpm 
Nagos, are five. 
The Ba- 1 . The Bayuts are divided into feveral branches, the moft 
yuts. confiderable of which are the Sadaghin Bayuts, and the Ma* 
krim Bayuts, fo named from the rivers Sadaghin and Ma- 
krim, on the banks whereof they inhabit ; being neighbours 
to the Virats. 

\ Abu'lchazi K#av, p. 60. m Ibid. p. 61. * Ibid* 

p. 49, & feq. 

(O) Bat, in the language of (P) Hence it looks as if the 
the Eluths or Kalmuks, Dirb is Durmans had a language of their. 
four, according to StrahUnbcrg* own, different from the Mogul. 
table of diale&s. 

a. The 

2. The Jahyrt (QJ are a very ardent tribe : they were 
fixraerly fcattered over a great extent of country, and had 
many princes ; till, the Kit ay arts having declared war againffc 
them, they were obliged to tome clofer together, in order 
to be in a capacity to affifl one another. Their families 
were fo numerous, that they fpread over feventy different 
provinces (R), which they called in their language Kuront 
and the greater part of them dwelt in a quarter of the Mo* 
pds called Unum. But the emperor of Kitty having de* 
feated, and carried away, a great number of them (S), the 
reft Bed, and were reduced to five on roots. 

This happened in the reign of Dutumin Khan (T), father y^ r $ m 
of Kaydu Khan ; who going to be married in another CQun~j? re f u 
try, left his fecond brother, Mtttuhm, to take care of the 
houfe, and his feven other brothers. Thefe repairing one 
day to a very level fpot of ground, near their habitation, 
where they tried to perform their exercifes arid tournaments, 
they found the Jalayrs digging for roots, which rendered 
the place unfit for their diversions. They immediately inform- 
ed Mutuhm hereof, who haftened thither with a ftrong force, 
and put the Jalayrs to flight : but the latter returning to the 
charge, after great lofs, at length overcame Mutuhm, killed 
him, and his feven brethren : not content with this, they, 
ruined their habitations, and put to the fword as many of 
their fubje&s as fell into their hands. 

KATD U Khan, being informed of this- misfortune, return- ffo Kay- 
ed home forthwith, and fent to demand of the Jalayrs theduja- * 
reafonwhy they had killed his brothers. The Jalayrs y ter-layr*,. 
rified at the meflage, fent five of 'the chief perfons concerned, 
with their wives and children, to the Khan, to be difpofed 
of as he thought fit : but he was content to keep them as 
his flaves ; which proved of good account to him : for they 
took the furname of their mailer, ferving him an4 his pofle-v 
riry faithfully, to the fourth generation % infomuch that fome 
of his defcendants had ten, twelve, and even twenty, families 
of diem, for their portion. In the reign of Jenghiz Khan 
the other Jalayrs took the name of their captive brethren °. 

° Abu'lohazi Khan, p. 53, & feq. 

(QJ Or Chalayn ; in the at prefent, the Chalayrs inhabit: 
tnnfladons Salaghirs, doubdefs Karchin (or Kara-chin) fignifies 
by a wrong reading. the black trite. 
' (R) Or diftria*. (T) Grandfather of Jenghix 
(S) Perhaps into Karchin, to Khan, in the feventh genera- 
te north of Pt-chrli j whsrs, tioa. 


£3 General ttiftoty rf tie Turk*. ' B.I. 

Besides the Mogul tribes before-mentioned, there are nine 
Others : but it is uncertain whether they are fprung from 
Kayxm or Nayos. 
The Mar- *• T«e Markatt. Toktu-beghi Khtm> of this tribe, wa* 
Juts. always at variance with Jinghtz Khin. One time, in the ab- 
fenee of that hero, he carried away his wives and fubjefts, 
With all that fell into his hands. Another time, lying in am* 
bulh far Jenghiz Khan, he made him prifoner while he was 
taking a walk ; and it coft his fubjefts a large fum of money 
to ranfom him* 
WrUm- 2. The Umma*uts, formerly called Vrtna-uts. From them 
ma-uts. are derived four tribes, i. The Kunakhmars, fprong from 
a perfbft of that name. Menglik, fumamed Izka, or the dr- 
itmtt, for his piety and virtue, was of this tribe, and married 
the Widow Ulun-iga (U),- mother of Ternujm, or Jenghiz Khan, 
who was then but thirteen yeare of age. Some years after 
Vang Khdn (W), of the Kara-its, fent a letter to him, pro- 
pofing to kill Temujin, and divide his poffeffions between 
them. This was to be done at the time of a vifit Vang Khan 
was to make to Menglik. Soon after he gave Tenwjin an in- 
flation, under pretence of treating about a marriage between 
his daughter and the other's eldeft fon. Temujin, who fre- 
quently vifited him, as having been an intimate of his father's, 
immediately fet forward, with only two domefticks : but 
meeting on the road with his father-in-law, who informed hin 
T A A °^ Vang Khan's treachery, he returned, and fo efcaped the 
JEMrw»cA»£ nrea 2 Tfce f ec6n ^ branch of the Utitma-uts is the drlats; 
. fprung from Arlat, feeond fon of Menglik Izka, by his firft 
wife. 3. The Kalklts, from Kalkit, third fon of Menglik ; 
to named becaufe he could not fpeak plain. From the KaU 
kits are derived, 4. The Kijbliks, from one Kijhlik< This' 
man, who, with his brother Baydu, kept the horfes of a 
great lord belonging to Vang Khan's court, going to his ma- 
iler's with a feveral-days gathering of mares milk, overheard 
Ktm bid his wife get ready his arms/ for that the Khan intend-' 
ed to invade Temujin unawares ; and being fprung from the* 
Moguls, as foon as they had delivered in the milk, they went 
and discovered the plot ; for which fervice Jenghiz Khan 
made them and their defcendants, for nine generations, Tar- 
kan(X\; which frees them from all forts of tax^s. 

' (U) Otherwife called XJlun- writers. In the tranflation^r** 

kusdn. Khan. 

(W) Or Wang Khan, the fa- (X) OrTerkan, as written by 

ftous Uwg Khdn of the European D* la Croix. 

3. The 

C r. turkilh Tribes. gg 

3. The Vjfbms: 4. The Suldus : and 5. The OUUns. The Vi- 
Of whom nothing more is mentioned, than that they arc (hum, 
branches of the Moguls P. 

This is the account of the tribes or branches of the Turk- 
ifb nation, given by Abiilgbazi Khan. ; which, though the moil 
exteniive of any which has yet come to our hands, is, after all, 
Tory fuperficial : nor indeed could it well be otherwife, fince 
it does not appear, that any of the inhabitants of Tartary had 
written records, or even made ufe of letters, except the IgArs 
or Vigirr, before the time of Jenghiz Khan : and their # oral 
traditions muft needs, from the nature of the thing itfelf, 
have been very imperfeft, as well as liable to much uncer- 
tainty, and even corruption. 

However that be, Abu'lgh&zi Khan, and the authors Difagree- 
whom he made ufe of, differ much from thofe quoted by matt tf 
D'Herbeloty and apparendy go upon a different plan (Y). Yotautboru 
he fpeaks neither of Turk's pofterity being divided into four 
tribes, nor of any fubdivifion into four others by Ogtz, con- 
formable to Mirkond, and the earlier Per/tan hiftorians. In 
all probability we fliould difcover a ftUl greater (filagree- 
ment, had D'HerMot but given us the names of all the 
Turki/b tribes from that author, or his fon Kond Amtr, who 
tvrote a particular hlftory of the Mojgol tribes, Jenghiz Khan 
and his lucceflbrs \ 

What in Abu'lghtei Khan feems moft Angular is, that hetf tribe 
mentions no particular tribe properly Called Turks, as the called < 
Ptrfian hiftorians have done. Whether he omitted them, Turks, 
in confequence of nothing being faid about them in the au- 
thors he made his extracts from (Z) ; or as intending to treat 
chiefly of the Moguls, which feems indeed to have been his 
main defign; or laftly, becaufe there is at prefent no tribefww** 
in all Tartary ejtffting under the name of Turks 9 that people Tartary. 
having long flnce patted into other countries, or been de- 
firoyedby wars; we cannot determine. But let whatever 

> Abv'lohazi Khan, p. 47, * feq. and p. 73. * See * 

before, p. 4, note G. 

(Y) Their hiftory undoubted- ftory of JenghixKhan, publi&ed 

If was calculated to do honour by De la Cr$ix, which, though 

to the Mpgols i as that given by extracted chiefly from Fedlallab, \ 

the authors before- mentioned the principal author made ufe 

was to do honour to theSel- ofhy Abu IgbixiKbAn* mentions 

jmh. fcarce any tribes beftdes thofe 

(Z) We can form no judg- which are Mogoh. 
ment on this point from the hi- 

Mo».Hist.Voi..1V. p will 

3 4 General Hijhry of tfd Turks: -B& 

will have been the reafon, it is certain; that there wk formerly 
•a particular tribe or nation among the inhabitants cizTprtary 
named Turks ; for they are mentioned both by :the Roman 
and Cbinefe, as well as the Arab and Perjian hiftoriate al- 
ready cited. This will appear more evident ftill from their 
hiftory, delivered in the following feftion. . _- .„- 


The affairs of the Turks with the nations bordering 
on Tartary, and among tbemfehes* from their fitft 
appear ancc, till the time of Jenghiz Khan: ...:.. 

Particular TT may well be queftioned, whether all the different iriBes 
tribe of . ■*• of people inhabiting Tartary are branches of Turks \ bqt 
it feems probable that there was a particular nation among 
the antient Scythians who went, by that name ; fince'tfe 
.Turd, perhaps better written Turki, are mentioned by Porn* 
ponius Mela the geographer », and Pliny b ; who place than 
among the nations dwelling in the neighbourhood of the ri- 
ver Tanais, and the Palus Martis* 
oriental How the Turks fbould be known To early to the Romans f 
Turks an( " not *P ^ e Greeks* who lay much nearer to them, may 
feem a little ft range; for they are not mentioned by Pioh- 
my (A), nor any writer of that nation, who has come to our 
hands* before the middle of the fixth century. Then* in- 
deed, they (peak of tkem for the firft time ; but, far from 
placing them in the weft of Afia , they give them a fitruation 
in the fartheft eaft :. yet it muft. be contefled, that the name 
of oriental Turks, by which they call them, fhould feem to 
be conferred on them, with a view to diftinguifti them from 
other Turks, known to them in the weft. However "this be, 
it is furprtzing that Khalkokondilas, who, in his hiftory of 
the fall of the Greek empire, treats of the name and- -origin 
of the Turks, fliould fay nothing of thefe eaftern Turfa, men- 
tioned by preceding hiftorians : but' indeed he feems. to be 
quite a ftranger to the Seljuks, or any kind of Turks, though 
living near the northern borders of the empire (B), bfefore the 
time of the Oguzians or OtMndns. 

• De fitu orbis, 1. . cap. ult. b Hift. nat. 1. VL c. 7. 

(A) For the Tufci caiTt be (B) In Hungary, . in and be- 
faid to be the Turks, without fore the time of Conftantine &9t : 
draining matters beyond rea- pbyrogenitus. '"-" ^. • 

fon. - .■ • •• 


C. I. Tbik ffajp ////Jf^tzKhaa: £g 

The Bizan f i/i^Juftorians tclTus, * that thefe mortal Turks. Their fiti- 
were <Jie (acne formerly called Sak*(C): thk£°f^^foeU«ri>"» 
beyond the Sogdians (D) ; # and were divided' iritfc eight 
tribes (E) : that they had OTwtly.increafed : in power wifhin 
a few years,, fo as to border on the Roman eihpfre: that 
their king, yarned Difajmles, tent ambafladors* in the fourth 
year of Juftin the younger'(F) ; and that they brought with . 
them iron, to fell, tp make it believed, that there .were mines in 
their country: 'that ' Difabules encamped near the mountairf according 
Ek tak : that this name fignifies the mountain of got& ; and *1 ^ e 
was given to it on account of the abundance of fruits and^ rce * 
catde which were on it : that it flood in the moft eaftern part 
of his dominions :'. that to the fouth of it was a place Called. 
Tolas, and four hundred the wdft a : plain/ catted 
Ikar\ - •" . :. -• ' •- . 

Whether*. this Talas was the fame mentioned by'lhter 
travellers' 1 , or the plain of Ikar had any relation to the river # - .— 
Jkaror Ikran*, now called Jcnifed, we (hall not pretend to . - it 
(ay : but 'tis certain this account agrees very well with what 
is related by a curious miflionary, from the Chinefe hiftory, &*d Chi- 
which begins to fpeak of the Turks, whom they call Tu-quc, ne *f W m 
in the year '545 ; at which timfe they were ah iu/ , onfiderable'* ri ' ww * 
people,* who- dwelt to the north-weft of Turf an (G); in Little 
Bviharia ; and, not long before, their employment was to 
Work iron, near a mountain called Kin (H) (that is, goLt)': 
but, in a few years, they grew very powerful ; fubduing .the 
whole country between the Ca/pian fea and the river Lyau, 

• Menander,. cap. 6. to the 14th. Simocatta, 1. vii. c. 
8. ap. new cofleft. of voy. and trav.- Vol. iv. p. 537. '••- di Rv- 
Btuquis, in new colKdl. voy. andtrav. vol. iv. p. 556. e See 
Abu'lchazi Khan s hift. p. 39. ,. 

(C)l According to this ac- (P) By the Sogdians are to be 
count, the name of Turks was underftood the inhabitants of 
but newly ipung up. What the country about Samarkand, 
was their -orm^r name muft be caifed Sogd; or, in a larger 
wry uncertain. .TJhe anticnt fenfe, all Mawaralnabr, or 
hhtoria as were not always geo- Great Bukharia. 
graphers, and guefod in this ,<\ (E) By the Kagansor Khans 
cafe as the .modems, do, who . letter -to.the emperfor Mauritius, 
are oftcner in the wrong than in < their nnniber was<t>idy ieves. 

; A© right. Befidea,- fcow fhould ^ (F) Which wa* in. 569.^ 
ika Greeks know mubii of peo- • fG> Named perhaprfrom the 

• pte who lived atiucfe adjftande, -Turks 

i tmd with whom adfc inmcouiie '..(H) Or Tu -kirn. • JCik.aX Chi* 
Aad. been- beokenv off for fame tu/t fignifies gold : poflibly that 
ages? k m t.*'. .; . „ . . called Ixganakon b)c the T-urW 

1 . D 2 ia 

j| General Hiftory of the Turks : B. L 

in (he province of Lyau-tong. They were divided into 
Tu-que of the north, and Tu-que of the weft ; and had great 
wars either among thcmfelves, or with the Chinefe, to whom 
they were very formidable f . Whether they made any con- 
quefts in China itfelf, does not as yet appear ; but we are 
told, that the founders of tfte dynafties of the latter Tang 
and Han in that empire were of thefe Tu-que * ; the former 
commencing in the year 923, the latter in 947, of the Chrif- 
tian sera. , 

Besides the great conformity between the Raman and 

Chinefe hiftory, relating to the rife of the Turki/b power, it 

is worth obferving, that they both confirm a very remarkahle 

circumftance in the hiftory of the Mogols, and almoft prove 

them to be die fame people with the Turks ; namely, their 

Set up working in iron, near a mountain called Kin. This moun- 

,fW " tain is probably the fame with that of. Irganakon, Erkana, 

^niarthi °* Arkenekom (I), fituated in the extreme north parts of the 

Mogols country ; where, we ^re told, a foundery was erected 

by the chiefs of the Kayat (K) tribes, thence called the At* 

kenekom fmiths h (L). And hence the fable related by jfhtl 

ghizi, Khan of the Mogols, making a way through thai' 

mountain, 9y melting the iron mines ', doubtlefs had its rife. ' 

mountain Whether the mountain Kin, which in Chinefe figni&s 

Kin. gold, be the fame with that called Ek tak, or Ak tak (M), I 

will not pretend to fay, the fituation of this laft not being 

fufficiently fixed by the Byzantine writers : neither does the 

name figmfy the fame as Kin ; for although thofe hiflorians 

explain it gold, yet in reality Altin tik or ft^'fignifies die 

mountain of gold, in the Mogol or Turki/b language; Ek tak 

r Gaubil. hxft. Jenghiz Khan, p. 2. New collection of tra- 
vels, 410. vol. iv. p. 433. « Gaubil. p. 11. in the notes,' 

k Di la Croix, hift. Jeng. p. 6. l See ancient hiftory,? 

vol. xx p. 

(I) D'Htrbtkt writes Erie- wire in his time unaemtaimtd 

Mtkun. with. Jbu'lghaxiKhdn, in Ml 

(K) Kayat fignifot* aftmtb. hiftory, p. 28. pretends tike Sum 

(L) Dt la Cr§i* (from whom, was appointed in memory m 

In his life of JengbixKba** p. 6. their famoas fally oat of Irg+ 

we have this circumftance), tells 9ak*n~ 
us of an annual feaft obferved (Wt) Perhaps Artag 3 to 

by thtMvgoh, in memory of this eaft of whith the Megols &% 

foundery ; or rather, perhaps* batwten it and the mourn 

of their having fodnd oat th£ JUrtmg. %t£>Jbulgb&xx JQ> 

way of working iron, which, hiftory, p. 10 ; and G*/ius 

Spirits informs os,,M* Turk* Hon* arc, N*+ t p. 946. 

Ci? Tbeir affairs tilt Jer^htzKiAn: ^ 

or Ak-tak, the -white mountain, perhaps it went by both, 
names, and the Greeks brought home only the latter. 

In effeft, if we may be able to judge, from the imperfeft 
account that is left us, of the roads which the ambailadors 
took to and from the Turki/b camp or court, the mountain 
Rktai, in cafe it be the fame with that of Kin, muft be ra- 
ttier to the weft than eaft of it. 

That oar reader may the better judge of this, we JhaII 
by before him what little we find concerning thofe roads. 

With regard to the route taken by Zemark, the GrRRw&inM 
anhaflador from the Romans to the Turks, we are only 
told,, that he was font back with Maniak f prince of the Scg* 
dms ; and that, being arrived in his country, he. travelled from 
thence to mount Ek tak, and returned to ConftantinopU thro* 
the country of the Kliatorians, and town of KoaRtes. The 
ambailadors fent to Toxander, fon of Dif abides, took a dif- 
ferent courfe : they failed from CortfiantinopU to Sinope, on 
the north coaft of AJia Minor, and thence eroded over the 
Euxine fea to Kherfona, in the Kherfonejus : they proceeded 
through the country of the Opturians, and other fandy terri- 
tories, and the fouth frontiers of Taurica .- then, palling over 
marihy places, full of reeds, they came to the country of Ak *°* *o*ki 
Aga (N) ; fo named from a lady, who formerly commanded C9mUt 3 m 
the Scythians, and received that power from Anongeus, prince 
cf the Utragurians. Laftly, they arrived at the places where 
the trophies of Toxander were fet up k . 

This is all we meet with relating to the roads into the 
country of the Turks, taken by the Roman ambailadors : nor 
k there any thing (aid of that road which the ambailadors of 
Djfahdes took in their way to Conjtantirwple; further than 
that, after travelling. over a vail extent of country, and 
mountains covered with (how, they entered (0) into the Caf- 
fian ftraits. 

Our author Is fomewhat more particular in his account Kliat am* 
tf the road taken by the ambailadors of the Kliats. After a bafaders, 
inarch they arrived at a marihy .traft of land, of great 
1 : here one of the ambailadors taking the ihorteft but 

k Menard, c. 13. 19. 

; (N) Ak Aga fignifies, Afc <whitt dia and Partbia by Ptolemy, and 

a day's journey from Rages by 

)) One would have ima- Arrian ; which Rages or Ravau, 

\ that they pafled fouth- in all probability, is the fame 

between the Euxine and with Ray or Rey> once the capi- 

v feas ; but the Cafaian tal of Perfian lrak % about eighty 

are placed between Mr- miles fouth -eaft of Kaswfn. 

D 3 moft 


'XSemra! Wfttfiy of the ttlrfe i 







}o tie 


mbft defert road,' the other advanced along the 1 morafs for 
twelve davs together ; tKenj'cWtinuiri^his journey owerhiife, 
at length came" to the titkr K Ifik (P) ; and nefct l to the'rvter 
Dark (<£j. ' Prom thehce, ttavdling alon? another lake, they 
arrived' at Anila (&),' an'd'the toxtntry of the' Hkngars.* Pro- 
ceeding- through a dry 1 defart country, alongf-feveral great 
lftkes, they c^me to a ijiorafs, into which the river Kofon dif- 
charges 'itfelf.' Then they entered the country of/the '/SAns ; 
but were afraid of the Horomqfhs ; and, being' advifed not to 
go into the territories of the Mindimrins (becaufe the P'er- 
Jians lay in 'ambufh, , in Sivania, to iAtercept them), they 
turned off to the right, and, 'ftriking through thtbarina (S), 
or two gates, a pafs, arrived in Af>Jilia(T) : thence they proceed- 
ed to Reiaurion (U), and the Euxine fea ; -afterward, eroding 
the Phafts (X), they cajoae to 'Trabizond, and fo to Con/Ian- 
tinople 1 . } " • ' 

We are beholden to Menander for thefe. notices; which, 
though fhort, deferve to be preferred, as being almoft the 
only account we find of travels into Tart dry for many cen- 
turies together. 

But to return to the affairs of the oriental Turks. Dtp- 
abides having, at the requeft of the Sogdians (Y), whom, 
with the Nephtalites (Z), he had newly conquered, fent 
two embaffies to the Perjians, to folicit a trade for filk;, 
the Perjians were not content with rejecting the alliance of 
the Turks, on account of their inconftancy and breach of 
faith, as they alleged ; but, to give them an averfion to the 
country, poifoned their ambafladors : from whence began the* 
enmity between thofe two nations. * It was on this occafion 
that Difabtdes fent ambaflaidors to the emperor Juftin, as be- 
fore-mentioned ; who concluding a treaty of peace, the Turks 
became the friends 2nd allies of the Romans ; with whom 
they never had any dealings before. Much abotit the fame 
. time the Kliats (A) alfo, who' were fubjeft to Difabules, and 

1 Menand. c. 6. 

(P) This may be the Tern. 

(QJ Which feems to be the 
Jaii, or Ta'ik. , 

(R) Doubdefs the Wolga\ 
called alfo Atil % or Edel; or elfe 
fome town upon it. 

(S) Ddrajn fignifies, in Jra- 
tic, the two gates. 

(T) Apfilia, fomewhere in 

(U) Retaurion, a town, or ca- 
ftle, belonging to the Romans. . 

(X) Nowffl/, or Rion^ 

(Y) The Sogdians were the 
people about Samarkand, whid 
Hands in a valley called Sogf. 

(Z) Called, byProeopius*Fp& 
ta/ites, of whom hereafter . 

(A) Perhaps the fame wid 
OhcKalatz. ' 


fcfolbirtd*m^ar^ the borders of * the Roman empire, fent am- 
bafladorsib Jxftim -Thecouiffiy of the Turks was then <ft- 
▼tye4 llEb foargovenunsats,' alt-tinder the command of Dija- 
kdesV feveraL nations, and,, among the reft, the Avares (B) 
and Hutig&rs (C), were, fbbjeft to them : but 20,000 of the 
former had revolted, and .patted into, Europe m . 
• TUB imbaffadors engaged Juftin to make war upon the Per- Tbe Per- 
juror, offering to ravage Ttfa&x at the fame time : and, at the fians /«- 
tod of his fourth year (O), the emperor fent Zetwrk on an *yaded. 
erabafly to Difabules : who, profefling much fri$ndftiip, feaft* 
ed the ambaffadors under a tent, fpread with -carpets, of fe- 
vcral colours, but plain manufacture ; where they eat and * 
drank all day. At this entertainment there was no wine; 
for no grapes were found in their country; but they had 
other liquor, which was fweet and agreeable. Next day they 
were treated in another tent, whofe furniture was rich and 
elegant. ' 

Sook after, Difabules, fetting forward on his march againft 
the Per/Uns, took Zemark' with him, and fome of his retinue ; 
bat left the reft in the country of ih$.Kliatorians\E). He 
alfo gare the ambaflador a concubine of his,, who was one of 
thofe called Cerkbifes » (F)'. 

In the fecohd year of the emperor Tiberius (G), Valentine Roman 
was Xeat on an embafly to Difabules, in company with 600 tmbajfies. 
Turks, who came to Conftantinople, with feveral ambafladors : 
but Difabules dying foon after Valentine's arrival, he was the » 

next day admitted to audience by his fon Tcxander; who 
charged the Romans with artifice, and breach of .faith, for con- 
federating with the Varkanites, or Avares, who were in re- 
•bejlion againft him. After tjus, he gave the ambaflador to 
underftand, that he had fubdued the Alains and Utrigorians ; 
and that Ananceas (H) was then actually encamped before 
Bofpborus (I), with an army of Turks. In fhort, the Greek 
hiftorian complains, .that he treated the ambaflador very ill °. 

mP * Menand. c. 6, 7, 15- n Ibid. c. x. .13. ° Ibid. c. 19. 

(B) Evagrius fays, the Abari (F) Doubtlefs either Chirhaf- 

wcre driven out of their coun- Ram, or Wegkis. 
try by the Turks. (G) That is, in 580. 

(CJ. Perhaps Un-igurs. (FI) Perhaps the fame with 

(D) The fourth of his reign, Axang*us. 

An. Chr. 569 ; and fecond of (J t A city of the Romans, in 
the fifty years truCe with Kbof- the Taunca Kherfonrfus of the 
far/, I prefiime. * : ". old \ P antic ophw f ; and, if Itill 

(E) Or K'iats, before-meh- "exffting in- rhe Krim, is either 
tioncd. -' '" Ten! Ma, ot Kerch. 

K D 4 Tins 

4D General Hijt^ry cfthi TuA$: At 

C „qutfts This account we have from Menandtr. The art* flew* 
</*/** we bear of the Turks is from Smokatta\ w%6 informs ns# 
Turks, that the Kagan (K) of his time (whom he juries ndtfr fo fa* 
mous among the oriental 7i*£r, lent am ambaflador to the- 
emperor Mauritius, in the beginning of the fummer (L), with 
a letter, fpeaking in high terms of hss victories : the fopcr* 
fcription ran thus ; The Kagan, tie great lord of f even na~ 
tions, and mafter of /even climates of the world, to the long 
tf the Romans. v In effedt, continues Shnokatta, this Kagan 
had conquered the Ahtetians, or Nephtatites, and feized their 
dominions : after which, being elated with his fuccefe, he 
joined Stembijkador, and fubdued theJvares. Next he 
marched againft the Ogprites (M), and conquered them (N)» % 
killing 300,000, and put to death their king Kolk. 
Their civil This viftory was followed by a aval war among the Turks, 
wars. One of his relations, named Turon, having revolted, he was 
pbliged to implore the aid of Sparzugun, Khunaxolus % and 
Tuldik ; with which he defeated the tyrant, in the plain of 
Ikar. After he had thus fettled his affairs, he fent the above- 
mentioned embafly to the emperor Mauritius, to acquaint 
him with his good fuccefs. The Kagan, farther to keep 
things in a fettled pofture, made alliance with the inhabitants . 
of Taugafta (O), whole prince was called Tayjan '. 

These are all the tranfalHons which the Romans had with 
the Turks, till the time of the Selj&ks. Let us now turn our 
eyes towards the Higher JJia, and fee what they were doing 
The ling , We have already given an account of the origin of the 
c/Tcrua, Turks, from an extraft lately made from the annals of China, 
and published by Mr. Guigucs, under the title of The origin 

» SlMOKATf a, L vii. c. 7, 8. 

(K) Khan, Kaan % or Kohan, Hvnni , when ce thofe people have , 

as the pre fent Mongols wdE/ut fa taken the fame names. Simv- 

pronounceit. katta, book Vii. ch. 7. 

(L) In the year 600. (N) Simokatta feems to co«. 

(M) Thefc Ogarites, or Ogors, found the conquefls o&Difahuln 

feem to be the Oygurs, or Vigkrs, with thofe of the Khan of his 

oft mentioned before: they were own time. 
„ become powerful by their nam- (O) A famous city of the 

bers, and dexterity at their wea« Turks > near Scgrfana, according 

pons : they inhabited the banks to Califim, c. 30. Sogdiana x \% 

of the river Til, called by the the fame, at prefcnt, with the 

Turks the black river (Kara-fit, province of Samarkand, in Great 

or Kara-mure*). The ancient Skiharfa, or perhaps with Great 

princes who commanded them, Bukharia itfelf. 

were called Far, and Khuni, or 


C n fbtbr afairs tUl Jtfi&iz KMto. 4 t 

j the Huns and Turks; who, from thence, qppar to have 
been the lame people, under different names. We fhall in 
this place give die fubftance of that memoire at large, as it 
may help *o fupply and explain ntany imperfeft and obfcure 
paf&ges in the hiftory which follows of thofe people, taken 
tnan the oriental hiftorians* 

The Huns were a considerable nation of Great Tartary ; name j a ^ 
and had the dominion there more than 200 years before the Turks, 
Christian sera. They inhabited formerly * in the neighbour- 
hood of the great defart, extending from the country of Ko* 
rw, on the eaft, to that of the Getes (P), on the weft* 
The CMnefe hiftorian* give them two different names, Hyong- 
nv and 7a At a* ; that is, Huns and Turks. The firft is that 
which they had before the time of Chrift : the fecond, that 
which a remnant of thefe Huns, re-eftablUhed in Tartary, 
aflhmed afterwards. 

These Huns or Turks T dwelt in tents, placed in carts, Way of 
and removed from place to place, for the conveniency of living. * 
pafture to feed their cattle ; which fupplied them with both 
food and cloathing. They defpifed old people, and only fet 
a value on the young, as more proper for war, which was 
their fole occupation. Their riches confifted in fheep and 
cattle ; but, chiefly in the number of flaves, taken in war. 
The flnzlls of their enemies fepned for cups to drink out of in 
their principal ceremonies. Once every year they aflembled at 
Jhe imperial camp, and facrificed to their anceftors, heaven, 
the earth, and fpirits. Every morning the emperor adored 
die rifing fun, and in the evening the moon. The left hand 
was the poft of honour with thele people, as ;t is at prefent ' 

with the Turks : and in all their encampments the emperofs 
tent was placed fronting the north. At his death, they put 
into the coffin with Jiis body his richeft habits ; and conveyed 
Mm to his fepulchre, attended by all thofe of his family, and 
his officers. For the fpace of one month, they attended on him 
in the fame manner as when he was alive : and the men of 
valour engaged in tilting, like our knights formerly, in their . 

* Ven hyen turn kaa ; Kam-mo, or Kang-mu. Ye tut* chi van 
ha tarn pow fwi (ha. r Ye turn chi. Ven hyen turn kaa. 

[(P) Or Jetab, as the orien- by the Chimfe Sbamo, and by 
tab write it ; the defart which the Mongols, who inhabit it, Ka- 
Mr. Guigues calls the defart of ti; a word which fignifies a de- 
Cbina, is that vaft defart to the fait J., 
north of the Cbine/i wall, called 


4 + General Hifiory of the turiu : B.I. 

der to tranfmit to pofterity the memory of this vi&ory, he 
caufed an infcription to be\cut on * mountain in Turke/idn, 
indicating the time when it happened (Y). . 

The Perjian hiftorians r afcribe this defeat of the Buns to 
Tur, the fon of Feridun : but it is eafy to fee, lays our au- 
thor, that they were led^into this error by the ixmilitude of 
the names Tew and Tur (Z) : withal, bong, fond of their 
antient heroes, they laid hold of this occafion to advance their 
i fame. 

Of the Huns, thus vanquished *, fome remained in Tar* 
tary, and mingled with the tribes who had been brought from 
the fartheft parts of the eaft, to re-people this country. But 
the major part of them continued to advance towards the weft, 
through the regions to the north of Samarkand, till they 
reached the Cajpian (ea, and parts about Afirakan. Here, 
where the Chinefe hiftorians lofe fight of them, ours begin to 
have them in view; and, conducting them into Europe, over the 
Paius Maoris, after pointing out their various migrations, feat 
them ill Pannonia, as hath been already mentioned. 

, The fouthern Huns, who * remained in their antient 
country, preferved their power, till fuch time as a tribe of 
the oriental Tartars, named Juijen, intirely fubdued them, 
and brought almoft the whole extent of Tartary under their 
dominion. The title borne by their kings was thaj of Kban, 
or Khakan, which was fubftituted in the place of Tanju. 
The Huns, thus driven out, went and eftabliihed feveral prin- 
cipalities in the northern China ; which were deftroyed one 
after the other. One of them, whofe princes defcended from 
the emperor of the Huns, was defeated by Tay»vu-ti, em- 
peror of the northern China, Upon this misfortune, the 
whole family, together with the Huns, retired into a.moun- 
fuhdued fy tain of Tartary, named Erkena-Kom. Thefc people, at that 
tbt J mjfD 'time mod known by the name of Turks, were employed, ac- 
cording to the Chinefe, as well as Mohammedan hiftorians b , in 
forging iron works, for the fervice of the Khans of the Jm* 
jcn Tartars ; and continued in this manner to fupport them- 

7 Mirkohd. D'Herbelot. * Ven hyen turn kau. 
Kanvmo. * Huhanihu. Katn-mo. Chinfha. U-tay. (hu\ 

* Kara mo. Swi (hu. Beidawi. Mirkond. Tara-fhu. 

f bey ad- 




(Y) [Mr. Gulgucs would have 
done well to mention when this 
was, or in what year of Hyau 
Ho-ti % emperor of thtHan, this 
defeat happened]. 

(Z) [In the French, Teou and 

Tour. This conjecture feems too . 
forced. Befides, the Perjian hi- 
fterians refer the reigns of Tur 
and Feridun, or Frnydbun, to the 
ages long before the Chrtftia*. 


C. i. Tbtir affairs till Jenghfe Kh&n. 45 

ftjres for a certain number of years ; that is, till the Juijentame 
to be attacked by the nations inhabiting to the weft of them. 

TU-MWEN (A) Khin, at that time chief of the Irkena* 
Km Turks, marched out of the mountain, at the head of 
thofe people, and defeated the enemy. Tu-mwen, making aW# Jul* 
merit of this fervice which he had done the Kh&k&n or em- jen by the 
peror of the Juijen, imagined he wa4 intitled to demand his Turks* 
daughter in marriage. The Khdkdn, far from being of the 
lame opinion, reje&ed the propofkl with difdain ; faying, thatx 
it did not become a jl&ve to ajpire to fuch an alliance wit A bis 
fovereign*. Twmwen, incenfed at fo contemptuous a repulfe, 
immediately revolted againft his prince ; and, having (lain the 
Jtdjen envoy, entered into a confederacy vMiVen*ti, emperor 
of the northern China. Next year he marched againft the Juijen, 
defeated them, and flew their KhAn ; after which he affumed 
that title, and caufed himfelf to be called Tu-mwen Ilkhan. 

In this manner was eftablilhed a powerful dominion in Tar- 
tary, at that time called the empire of the Turks. To pre- 
ferve the memory of the origin of this family, they ufed to 
affemble every year, and, with much ceremony, beat a piece Empire of 
of hot iron upon an anvil : a cuftom which continued to '£* Turks* 
the time of JengMz Khdn *, who defcended from this Tu- 
mwen Khan ; and 'tis from hence that fome of our hiftoriahs 
have represented this prince as the fon of a blackfinith. 

The Juijen, thus driven out of their country by the . 
Turks % in all probability pafled into Europe ; where, b&ng 
known by the name pf the falfe Avares, or Abares, they 
mixed with (he Huns of the north, who had been fettled Hanga- 
there a long time before : and thefe two people uniting toge-rians 
ther formed the nation of the Hungarians ; that is to fay,w£/w*. 
Hun-Ikorians :. which laft name is that which the Juijen went 
by in "Great Tartary. . 

This is the true original of the fecond Huns, or Turks, in 
Turkefidn, according to the Chinefe hiftorians. But, not con* 
teat with a beginning which had not fomething extraordinary 
in it, they affirm f , that a nation of Tartars, being at war, Fable of 
was fo intirely defeated by their enemies, that only one childftfr'Zena^ 
efcaped the daughter, whofe arms and legs, however, they cut 

c Kam-mo. 4 La Croix hid. de Jeoghiz Khin, * Kam- 
too Nicephorus Cat. . f Ven byen turn (hau. 

(A) [By the Mohammedan hi- outof Irganakonjinier Bertizena 
tonans written Tumana Khdn. KJ:dn, nineteen generations be* 

Abu /ghazi Khdn makes him the fore ; and, by hii reckoning, 
fifth anccftor ofjtntbiz Khan ; .above 2 00 years. See anc. hift. 
and J»ots the fally of tkc Msgols vol. ii.p. 35 — 49]. 


46 General Hijiory of the Turks: B. h 

^ *■ » 

off, and then threw him into a lake : that a fhc- wolf r torched 
with die misfortunes of the boy, drew him.out of the dan- 
ger he was in, and provided for his fupport : that the child, 
out of gratitude, married ,this wolf; and, returning with her 
into the mountains to the north-weft of the Jgurs country, flie 
.;' there brdiight forth twelve children; whole descendants took 

* , the name of Jjfena. 

bow ex- \ The account which is given (by the weftern hiftorians), of 
flained. Tu-miven Ilkhdn s , will explain the above fable, . This prince, 
named Tiimana by the Pcrftan hiftorians, was the fon of Bif- 
Jikcr, fon of Kaydu, defcended from Buzeqjir, fon of queen 
Jldnkawa. This queen of the Mogols or Turks , then inhfr- 
biting the mountains of Tartary, and before the re-eftablifh- 
ment of their empire, being left a widow, with two children, 
according to the account both of .Mohammedan and Cbinefe 
writers, took the government of her fmall ftate, during the 
minority of her fons, and conftantly refufed to marry again, 
ftowever, her firm attachment to viduity did not hinder her 
from, being the mother of three other children, one of whom 
w;;*3 named Biizenjir. The grandfon of Buzenjir, called 
Dutumin, had nine children, eight of whom perifhed on a 
certain occafion h : and .our" author is perfuaded, that the 
above-mentioned fable had an eye to this maftacre. 
Tribe of The ninth fon of DuUimin, who efcaped, was Kaydu, the 
the Zenas father of BiJ/lkar, and another called' Hurmalankum, whofe 
er wolves, children bore the name of wolves ;.on which the fable is ap- 
parently founded : but then this hiftory does npt refpett the 
Turks in general, but only the particular hond of them called 
Zends (B), or Ajfenas, as the Chinefe pronounce it, defcend- 
ed from Hurmalaykum. 
trftern TG-MWEN Ilkbari, after he had fubdued the Juijen, 
end attacked and defeated fevcral other people of Tartary. His 

li'eftcrn f ons> imitating their father's example, * formed an empire, 
Turks, w hi c h extended from the Cafpian fea to Korea. But as-ib 
vaft a region could ' not long remain under the dominion of 
. - . one .prince, thefe Turks divided into two branches } , the 
eaftern and the weftern, who had each their particular Khan. 
Whey-ke, Th.e empire of the latter extended as far as the Sihun *, , 
t Turks, " and more than once became formidable to the kings of Per* 
fta, - particularly Hormuzd, or Hormifdas, -fon of Kofru Arwjb- \ 

% Hift. gen. des Tartarus: " Mirkond hid. de Jenghiz Khan. ; 
Hift. des Monguls. Ywen (hu. Kanvmo. -.- * See before,! 
T p. 38. m ^Kamfhu. Kam-mo. Anc. hift vol. xx. k Ferdufi. 

(B> Ztntr, in. Turkijb, fignifies a*u.olf) as hath been obferved 
• before; • 

, . j ' .-..•, friwfe. 

Jfrpte*.: But* iaprocei$ of time* this empire'of xjie-yjjcftem 
Jjugr -w^ .deftroyed by. oih«G v7i4rfo. ,of ._, ^he. hpcd, named 
9ftqfi£e> wJbpiound^^ominipa.i^ d^/amfc. country^ 
and £om th^fe JVhey-k'fTurk^,. w the, opinion.. 9^ thor, 
. wcxe. defceaded jhe .four; famous Seljuk(Lyn$A\e$ of. Ir<m% & from 
Perfia at large, Kcrmar\ y Rum, or . ^4* ??p?C>r??^ Syria, wham the 
•jeigainftriq.^/^^ and Dffnafcus r . \ ^ - T • ' Seljuks. 

As /"oj jthe oriental -T^rta, who inhabitedfai the, father end 

,. . , . i-quar^ 

by the Nyu-ckc Tartars m , who tyre the ^ifewi A^t/ci fC) pf 
, the M*hammedci\ writers^ and called by. tis 4 at Rrefapt fllan- 
\ thews. This nation having ruined, the empire of the- khitia, . r . 
Ibme.of the latter pailed into Per/ia, and thexe eftablifliod *l /^^Tjr: 
< dyoafty. known to the Mohammedan authors by .the 'name of *,« * - 

Kara Kbat,ayans. ... -u;. . • 

.. .The Turks, after the deftrucYion of their empire, as above 
related, formed themfelves into fmall principalities ; and every Broken /*- 
Jwd had #V particular Khan., The Kera^ts^ ox Kara-its,, to tribes. 
Lone of thefe Turkijb tribes D , were, in the twelfth .century 
.goverDgdvby a prince named %uli Khan, otherwifc;, called Onk 
JCban.?, whom the Arab writers ftile K^ng jobn, and European 
gtmvellers Prefter John. 

THK-poffierity of Tu-nvwen Ilkhan dwindle^ infenfibly, ancl i 

was on the -point of being extinguimed,, or at Ieaft of never 
making any confiderable figure aga}n in Tartary, when the - \ • ' ' 
famous ' Jenghiz Khan appeared ?. 

Tjirs is the original of. the Turks, according to the Chlnefe 
.hiftoriaas ;. but compared, in certain periods, with the zQrSomere- 
| .founts given by the weftern Jfiati'c writers. In this compa- maris 0* 
mm, however, Mr. Quigues does not fuffieiently diirjnguiih 
^.yhat is tajcen from the authors of each kind, either in th£ 
"text, or by the references: neither docs he affign dates to ajl 
tire principal fafts. When he fays Dibakkdwi Khan is the em- 
feror Tn, and 'that Mau ton Tanjou is Ogttz .Kfan, it does not 
appear whether thofe are the words of the Chinrfe annals; ot t ^/ orf S ' 
only conjectures of his own. Suppoftng them to be the Chi-& or,: & ex ~ 
mefe account, there wiH be found a great difagreement be- trac " 

. * Sum-flm. Kam^mo. Venhyantumfhau. . C1 Abu*lfaraj. 
•Beidawi. n ,Ywen Qxvl \ ° Abu'lfap.^j. p Guigu-es 
-erig. des Huns-iSc Turks. 

• . (Q [And the Kin Tartars of ncfe, appellative for gout, as hath 

file Chiwefe hiftorians : Altun be- .bi^n iurculy ^jnaiUri ]. 

ing the Turkijb, and Kin the Cb*i- • ' * ^ 

4 S General Hiftory of /^Tufks : Kl 

tweeait and the Tartar relation : for 0#te Khan tHU be the 
nineteenth in defoent'from DMakiwi, or 7tf, according to the 
former, and but the fifth according to the latter. By dig 
latter alfo Tu-mwen is only the fifth anceftor of Jenghtz Khtn : 
but the Cbinefe annals fet him at the head of the Irganahm 
{ally, inftead ofBertizena, nineteen generations before. If Mr. 
Guiguis had been more copious and diftinft in his extraft, H 
would have fupplied many defefts, and cleared up many ob- 
fcuritieS in the hiftory of the Turks t which, for want there- 
of, we meet with in die Mohammedan hiftorians, from whom 
we are now going to give an account of their affairs, till the' 
SeljUks founded their empire in Iran. 

MIRKOND, the Perfian hiftorian, informs us, that, 
when Kefre Aniijbirmin, the famous Khofroes (D) of the Greek 
hiftorians, came to the throne, which was about the year 
Subdutt 531, he was poflefled of Mawara'hahr (E),-to which he 
the Ab- added* other countries ; and, among the reft, that of Abtela \ 
tela. the country of Abtela, which fignifies, in Perfian, water 

of gold, takes its name from a people fo called ; who, fome 
time before, had conquered it. The Greeks, corrupting the 
word, called them Nephtalites (F), Eutalites, and, more near- 
ly, Ephtalites. They were denominated, by the Arabs, Hey* 
atelah. According to Procopius, the Ephtalites were thofe 
called the white Huns : they feem to have been matters, far 
a time, of all Maivara*lnahr, or Great Bvkharia ; to which 
m Abul/eda gives the name of Hayatelah r . Dr. Hyde obferves, 
Their Jo- t j iat ff e yfo e i e /, was the tide of the king of Katl&n •, a pro- 
numow. y\ nce j n tne eaftern part of Mawara'lnahr : and Eutychius in- 
forms us, that Gq/bnawaz, king of Abtelah, who railed Firuz 
to the throne of Perfia, about the year 465, was king of 
Balkh % and part of Khorafan ; which (hews, that the domi- 
nion of the Abtela had once been ve ry extenfive (G) ; though 
we may fuppofe their power to have been much reduced, at 
the time when Arwjhirwdn conquered them. 

* Mirkond. ap. Tcixeiram, p. 163. . r Abvlf. defer. 
Chowarazm, p. 29. * Hyde in Peritfol. itin. mund.p. 156. 

* Kutych. annal. vol. ii. p. in. 

(D) Son ofKabades. TheP*r- (G* D % Herbeht fays they \ 

fiam write Khofranu and Kobad. the antient LidoScjtb*, and in- 

(£) Which name anfwers to habited the countries of Ka*da> 

Tranfoxana. bar 9 Tibet, and Barantola* a part 

( F) Hence fome European au- of Tibet ; from whence he iup- 

thors have fuppofed thofe coun- pofes the name to be derived, 

tries to have been peopled by Bibl. orient, art. Hiatbela and 

Jews, particularly of tne tribe Noujbtrwdn, p. 421,680. 

of Naphthali. 


L 1. TBetr afraHrs till Jenghiz Khta ; 49 

But while this prince w?.s bufy in extending his domi* 
bioos, they were invaded by Khakan Ghini, king of Tatar or 
Tartary, with a mighty army, who took from him Samar^ 
kand, Bokhara, and feverai other cities in Mawara* Inahr, 
which he afterwards was forced to quit upon the fuccefles of 
his grandfon Hormoz *. 

D'HERBELOT reports, from Mirkond, that Anujhirwart 
having repulfed the Hiyatelah beyond the mountain Paraj>a+ 
fni/us (H), in his twelfth year, marched againft the Khakan 
of the oriental Turks, who then reigned in the Tranfoxane 
provinces, and obliged him to fue for peace, as alfo to yield 
him one of his daughters in marriage w . Eutychius relates 
this tranfa&ion with fome variation : he tells us, that the . 
Perfian monarch, refolving to revenge on the Hiyatelah the 
injory done his grandfather Firuz, firft makes an alliance 
with the great Khakan of the Turks, and acquaints him with 
his defign ; that then marching againft the enemy, he over- 
threw them, and killed their king ; ,by this means the coun- 
try of Balkk, and the adjacent parts or Khorafan, were deli* 
vered up to him :• after which he encamped in Fafgdna (I)* 
and married the Khafan's daughter *. 

The reader, from what has been faid, may fee thatA^tf- 
kan is a general name given by the Perfian hiftorians to the 
princes of the Turks, called alfo emperors of Tartary, of whom 
we find mention from the time of Bahranv-jaur, fon of Tazde* 
jerd I. king of Perfia, who began his reign about the year 
of Chrift 417 y , as a people different, at lead with regard to 
their original country, from the anticnt Turks, or inhabitants 
of Turkejian, fituate to the north of Perfia, with whom the 

MirkOnd. ap. Texelr. p. 163, w D'Hermlot. bibl # 

orient p. 680. art. Noufhirwan. * Eutych. annal. vol. 

it p. 188. r Ibid. p. 83. 

(H) This can't be the name than in giving the antient names 

given by Mirkond-, nor can we for the modern ; or thofe of their 

determine what mountains D' own fancy, inftead of the name* 

Herbelot intends thereby* We found in the writers they copy 

prefame he means thofe divide* from : what is ilill worfe, they 

!ng either the country of 2WM, Commonly omit inferring, by 1 

or Kborafdn, from India. Au- way of note, the names uied in 

thors, often endeavouring to ex- the original ; which often puts 

plain, become moie obfeure ; it Out of the power of others to 

and, out of an affectation of correct their mi flakes, 
(hewing their (kill in geography, (\) A province of Marwa- 

betray their want of it.. There ralnahr, or Great Bukharia, be- 

is no point in which they yond the, river Sihun or ' Sir, 

have committed more errors, Herb. Hormoz. 457. 

fcoD.HisT.ypl.IV. E Perfians* 

6 o Gmral Hijtory $f she Tories. B. I 

Perjians, according to their hiftory, had wars (K), in the 
earlieft tiroes of their monarchy. The former are called ori- 
ental Turks, by way of diftin<ftkra ; and the gentile name of 
Chin is added to the title of Khakdn, in all probability to 
denote their coming from the eaftern parts of Tartary to- 
wards China : although it muft be obierved, that Chin is a 
general name, fometimes ufed by the orientals, to compre- 
hend both thofe regions r . 
Stand tM" HORMOZ (L), facceeded his father Anufbirwan, about 
wafian. fa vcar j86, and was not bng after invaded by the Creek 
emperor (M) ; of which Shabajhah, his couiin-german, fon 
of the Khakdn, whofe daughter Nufbtnvan had married, take- 
ing the advantage, partes the Jihun, or Ami, with 300,000 
men (N), and fubdues Khorafdn. . Perfia being in this diltrefs, 
Bahrdrn Cbubin, the bcaveft man of his time, was fent for to 
oppofe the enemy (O) ; who taking with him but 12,000 
experienced foldiers, made a great (laughter of them, flew 
their king, and took his fon prifoner, befides an immenfe 
booty : but afterwards being defeated in his attempts agaipft 
Khofraw Parvfz, the fon and fucceflbr of Hormcz, he fled in- 
to Turkijidn, where, he fared the Khakdn Chini \ 
fbijwer- From that time the Turks feem to have remained quiet, 
run Pcrfia. till the year 654, being the nineteenth of the reign of Taz- 
dejerd, laft king of Perfia ; at which time vaft multitudes 
of them (P) from Turin, or Turkeftdn, pa/Ted the river Sihun, 
or Sir, and laid wade the countries to the fouth of it. At 
the fame juncture the Arabs invaded his dominions on the 
other fide ; and he dying nejet year, the whole," by degrees, 
fell a prey to the latter. At length, in 716, the Arabs drove 
the Turks out of Karazm and Mawara'/nahr. 

However, from that time they fwarmed all over the do- 
minions of the Khalifah, and, by degrees, got the pofle/fion 
of them : for being a handfome people, and famous for their 

z SeeTEXEiRA*shift. p. 105. » Mirkond. ap. Texcir. p'.^ 
18.6. Eutych. annal. vol. ii. p. 200. 

(K) Thefe were the Jutjen, hiftorians, Hormixdas invaded 

whofe princes had the titfe of firlt, in 587. See ant. hift. vol. 

JKban, or Khakdn. See p. 44. xvii. p. 8. 

( L) He is alfo called HormoxJ, (N ) Texeira has 400,0004 
whence the Greek Hormixdas ; (O) Texeira ftill calls them 

alfo Tajedar, or the crown-car* Tartars. 

ncr ; becaufe he wore the Taje (P) This is the firft time 

t>n all occafions. Mirkond calls them Turks, ac- 

(M) This was Mauritius, cording to Texeira* abftracl. 

whom, according to the Greek 


C t. Their affairs till Jenghfc Khto; $t - 

courage, the Khalifahs, and, after their example, feverll of . 
the princes, who, in time, threw off their yoke, caufed great 
numbers of yonng Turkifb flftves to be bought, and educated 
in their courts. - Out of thefe they formed troops of militia, 
who often rebelled, and depofed the Khalifah himfelf. la 
efleft, at length their commanders became maftefs* not only 
of the Khalifat, and perfibns of the Khalifahs b , Whofe guards 
they were ; but alfo of great dominions, which they erected 
in Khoraf&n, KaraZm, Egypt, and India itfelf % as hath been 
already fet 'forth at large. 

Bur to return to the affairs of the Turks at home. In 
the year 894 Ifmael al Sammani> who, throwing off his fub~ , 

jeftion to the Khalifah, fet up for king of Mawara'lnah? 
and Kborafdn^ marched into Turkeftan; and, defeating the 
Khan, took him prifoner, with 20,006 men, befides a vaft 
treafore. Some time before his death, which happened in 
909, he made another expedition thither, fubduing feveral . 
provinces d . 

The Turks feem to have kept within their bounds till tixt Invited by 
reign of Nub Ebi Manfur y fixth king of the race of the Sam- rebels. 
nuari>, who afcended the throne in the year of the Htjrab . 
365 (QJ, and of Chrifl 97 j. This prince, being poflefled of He J rah 
all Mawar&'ln&kr and Khorafan, gave the government of two * $' 
considerable diftrifts to two brothers, Abuali and Fd'ekb< 
Thefe, at length, quarrelling together, the latter nrft, and 
then the former, rebelled, and invited Kara Khdn (R) of Tur- 
kefian to invade the dominions of Nub (S)> The Khan Joins 
them ; and, routing the army of N&h, takes Samarkand and 
Bokhara* while Nth made hafte to mufter another. Kara 
Kkon y felling tick, was advifed by his phyficians to return 
to Turkeftan 5 which he attempted to do, but died by the 

Howhtor, the rebel brothers Dill held out, and raifed 
great forces ; being affifted by the neighbouring princes : at 
what time Sabektekin, a famous general of Nuh\ having re* 

* See D'HERBKLOt. p. 898, & feq> Art. Tot*. c See 

before, voL ii. and iiiv * MUkond. ap> Texeir. p. 197, 2o6> 
*J7* *39- ; , ' * 

(QJ D\Hirbe!ot, by miftake, f k) So VHerbelot. Tixeir* 

puts this event twenty years calls him Boira Khan* 
lower : and tho' Texeira does (S) Thefe troubles, accord - 

not date all his fads, yet he ing to D'Herbe/ot, began about 

feems more correal in his njjm- the year 371 rf • the r /4grrafr, of 

besa. Cbrifitfi, 

£ a turned' 

5*' General Hlfiery of the Turk*. .B.L 

turned with laulrds from India, the king, by his afliftince> 
marched againft, and, after a doubtful battle, routed them e . 

After this battle, Nuh, at the requeft of Subektekin, made 
his fon Mahmud general of his forces, and went to Bokhara \ 
Sabcktekin to Gaznm (T), a territory in Khorafan, and Mah- 
mud to Nifbabur ; whence Abuali and Faekh, who had retired 
thither, fled; but, raifing forces, they drove. out Mahmud: 
however, the latter, rallying his troops, and tocbg joined by 
his father Sabektektn, routed the brothers in their turn. 
Abuali, upon this, fubmittcd to Nuhy but Faekh retired to 
nek Khan, who fucceeded Bokra Khan in Turkefian, and was 
perfuaded by him to make war on Nuh. 
IlekKhan NUH, being informed of what was in 'agitation, ordered 
with- Sabektektn to attend him, and Mahmud, with his troops, be- 
dr&ws. twecn Keflj and NefAf, near Samarkand.; but an accommo- 
dation being agreed on, whereby Faekh was to have the go- 
vernment of Samarkand, an intire end was put to thefe trou- 
bles in 995 ; and Nuh died in peace two years after, having 
reigned twenty-two years, leaving his fon AbiClkares Manfur, 
a youth, to fucceed him at Bokhara, in the dominion of Ma* 
ivara'luahr and Khorafdn. ... 

JRe enters On t ^e death of Nuh, Hek Khan invades AbuHbares ; and, 
Mawa- being joined by Faekh, governor of Samarkand, attacks* Bo- 
ra'lnahr. khara : from whence AbuUhares flies, but foon after returns 
again, on affiirances of fidelity given by Faekh, whom he 
" makes his general, and Baktazun governor of Khorafan f , 
'MAHMUD Gazni (U), fon of Sabektekin, whofe go-. 
verment Khorafm, was complaining of this injury, AbuUtmret 
gives him Balkh, Termed and Herat in Keu thereof : -but Mah- 
mud, not being content with the exchange, marches to Nifba- 
Mr; from whence the king fled ; yet, fearing to be deemed a 
rebel, turns off, without feeing that city. Baktuzun marches 
to the king's relief; and, meeting him on his return, un- 
q. , . der fome pretence confpires with Faekh, and puts out 
It'horaf^ri'i 8 eyes, after he had reigned one year and fcven months. 
n 'They enthrone Abdalm&lck, the eighth king; i>ut Mahmud 
marching againft the traitors, " they fled different ways ; Fa'Skh 
carrying the new king to Bokhara. Thus Mahmiid became 
foflefled of all Khorafdn. The traitors, gathering forces, 

« Mirkond. ap. Teveiram, p. 255, tt feq. D^Hirbelot. 
p. 679. Art. Noah ben Manfour. * Mirk o Kb. obi fup. 

p. 259, &Teq. 

: -(T) Of which the city Gax- (U) Or <***»«•/, fo called 

tyh or Gazna, is the capital. from the city Gaxnah, where hi* 

• • ~ : - : father refided* 

t march 

C. i. Tbttr affaln Ml Jcnghlz Khao. 53 

narch agaihfrhkn ; bat FaUth dying; the expedition came to ."- 
nothing. " i - "* ' 

'Mean time ttek Khan, taking advantage of thefe troubles, Takes 
advance to Bokhara, uncter pretence of afiifting Abdalm&lck. Bokhara. 
The young'king, giving credit tp his words, fent the beft com- 
maiidefs heliad to return him thanks, whom the Khan fe-. 
cured. AbdahnJUek, in a fright, hid himfelf, with an intent 
to efcape; but H*k Khan having taken the city, and ftrift 
fearth beiftg made, Abdalmdiik was found, and fent to ty 1 „ . 
hand (X), where he died in confinement. This happened in We J rab 
the year 999. /^* 

Hfs Aibje&s proclaimed king a younger brother of his; but Jf' 2 *' th \ 
he enjoyed not- the dignity long. Uek Khan, being thus pcf-™*' 
fefled of Bokhara, feizes the blind king Abu'lhdres Man- 
far, his two brothers, and two uncles, with others of the - • 
royal family, who were all confiried apart, and attended by '*•" 
his women fteves. She who attended Abu Ibrahim Montcfer, 
taking a liking to him, procured his efcape by means of her veil. 
Being at liberty, he went to Karazm, where crouds xofort- 
ing to him, he fent a numerous army to Bokhara, which de- Defeated 
feated IUk Khan's forces, and took their peneral prifoner. twice, . 
Marching foward, he routed another of his . armies, com- , , * 
manded-by Takin Khan, governor, of Samarkand. 

MOMTESER, after this, returned to Bokhara ; but lick 
K&mfoon marching againft him, he fled ; and pafling thejfihun, . 
came to Nifbabdr, in the year 1000 : about the beginning of Hc J ra h 
the next yeat, by the affiftance of the Turkm&ns; he marched $***- • 
into Mavuira'lrtahr, where lick Khan met him with a great 2?r Map- 
army ; but as they Jay encamped near each other, the Turk- tcfer. , 
mku one -night, by fnrprize, fell upon the Khan's camp,' 
and killing many men, put the reft to flight : after which 
they -returned -to their hords, with the better part of the 
plunder* Mttottfirr, finding himfelf deferted by the Turkmans, 
eroded the Jihttn, which was then frozen, upon the ice. Mean 
time \hc Turkmans, repenting that they had lpft him any part 
of the booty, returned to take it away ; but coming to the 
river by day, found it thawed, and were thus baulked, as 
not being able to purfue him. Mmtefer, after this, got^'^' 
feme victories mKhorafan \ but finding he could not ftay in^'** 
that province, repafled the JMn, with his followers : and 
though he loft moft of his men, in a conflict with the Skena, 
or governor of Bokhira, yet, with the reft, he aflaulted that 
city by night, and took it. Upon this Uek Khan haftened 
thither ; but being met in the territory of Samarkand by Man* 

(X) D'HerbiUt writes Dixgbcnd. 

E 3 ttfir, 

Si < General Hijtoty *f the Turks. B.L 

Hejrab ufer, was there overthrown ; with whofe plunder the viftor's 
39+- army was enriched. This was in 1003. 

II, EK Khan j after this defeat, having reemked his force*, 
'parched again towards Montefer, and found him, when thofe 
who had aflifted him were gone. What *waa worfe, one of 
his generals going over to the enemy, with 4000 men, he, 
defpairing of fuccefs, fled. Finding no poflibility of crofllng 
the Jihun y he came to Bokhara, with very far follower* ; and 
though the governor promifed to affift him, yet- knowing that 
he was purlued by Ilek KIxin'% general, to whom moft of his 
men had gone over in difguft, he left the city ; and getting 
% • into Khorafan, hid himfelf in '•a poor houfe ; which bring 
Hejrah forced in the night by one who was in fearch.of him, he was 

395* there killed, in 1004 *. 

Mahmud y^ IS ^ ^ f ate f t h e dynafty of the Samfnini fa- 

JiUMdt tbe gjjiy - m p^fa wWch properly cn( jed in Nub Ebn Manfur, 

in whofe reign fprung up the Cdzni monarchy, under Mah- 

tnjidG&zni before-mentioned ; the foundation of which was 

kid by his father Sabektckin. This Sabektektn was a Turk 

by nation, and originally (lave to Alptektn, another Tutk, who 

Gazni ^ S 8 enm * to ^ih Ebn Manfur ; on whofe death Sabck- 

wunarebs. *'^ n f uc cceded in that poft ; and, by his conqnefts in India, 

' and authority with the foldiery, became equal in power to the 

Jung himfelf. D'Herbelot tells us, that he defeated Kara Khan 

of Turkeftan in feveral battles (though Texeira fpeaks of but 

one, which he had with Ilek Khan J ; and that, at his return 

Hejrah from the expedition, he died at BMh, in the year 997 •; 

387. which U the fame year in which Nuh Ebn Manfur died. 

Howeyeti that be, his fon Mahmud, who. fucceeded to 

his father's power and authority, being dUgufted, as hath 

been before-mentioned, at his government of Khorafm being 

given to another, \>y Abu'lhares, fucceffor of ISflAhEbnJWan- 

fur 9 fubdued the whole province to himlelf; and: having in- 

• tirely pacified the troubles which reigned there, as hath been 

Hejrah before fet forth, in the year 998, went from Giznah to 

389. Bdlkb, where the KhaHfah Kdder fent him a rich veft, by way 

of inveftiture in his new dominions : 4nd thus the monarchy 

pafled from the Jlfamni&ni to. the Guzni b . 

h'vaiedby Soon after, Mahmud concluded a perpetual peace with Ilek 

JJekKhin Khan; s^nd, to make it the firmer, took one of his daugh- 

tfejralj ters in marriage. In 1003 the governor of Sifldn 9 or Seje- 

393 • jlan. f having revolted, he has recourfe fqr affiftspice to Ilek Khan \ 

. * Mirkond. uhi fupr. p. 267, »70,.& feq. m h D'Hirbel. 
p. 679, 732, 533. Art. Nouh ben Manfour, Sebektekin, and 



C 1. Their of airs till Jenghlz Kh&ti. 

who, in 1005, taking advantage of MahnSd bong engaged 



in the war of India, fends two generals to invade KhoraJSn ; 
but Mabmid returning on the news, they foon were obliged 
to retreat. lick Khan, upon this, applies for fuccour to Ka* 
der Khan, of Ketau Kotan (Y) ; who, joining him with 50,000 
horfe, gathered in Ketau Kotan, Turkeftan, and Mawara'U 
nahr, tbey parted the Ji/nin. 

MA H MUD, on this news, haftens to BUkh, with a vo-Who is 
Me army of Turks (Z), CavnU, and other people, to meet *wr- 
the enemy. They came to a battle ; and Mahm&ts forces *brvwu. 
giving ground, he, almoft in defpair, rufhed into the thickeft 
of the enemy, and cuttihg his way through them, came up to 
lick Kh&a ; whom his elephant, unhorfmg him, tofled up in the 
air. His men, at this, refuming their courage, put the ene- 
my to flight. This battle happened in 1006 (A), and proved 
one of the moll bloody which was fought in that age '. 

ILE K Khan, after this lofs, retired into Mawara'htahr; 

1 Texxeira, p. 278. D'Herbel. p. 554. 

(Y) *Tis hard to fay what 
country this is : inTexeira there 
is added, dOubtlcfs by himfelf, 
ivbicb nue call Katay. *'f is true, 
the empire of Kit ay or Ka- 
tay might have extended, at 
this lime, under the Kit an, as 
far westward as Kajbgar\ and 
this Kadcr Khan been the go- 
vernor, or one fet up there for 
himfelf: or the country here 
mentioned might have been j&- 
tan or Ho to*, a noted city and 
province to the fouth call of 
K&Jhgar ; which formerly had 
kings of its own, but then feems 
to have been under the Kit an 
hereafter mentioned. 

(Z) Thefe Turks were either 
fucii as be and his father, who 
were Turks, always command- 
red; or elfe Seijuk Turks, who, 
many years before, had fettled 
in Mawaralnabr. But neither 
PHerbeUt nor Texeira are ex- 
plicit enough on this point. 

(A) Three other authors, 
made ufe of by D % Herbelot, place 

this event in Hejrah 410, or 101 Q 
of Cbrifi, and vary much from 
the account of Mir fond. Thefe 
authors call llek Khin king of the 
oriental Turks, and all the coun- 
try beyond the 7*£«*. They add, 
that, dying in his own country, 
in 403 (toxz), he was fucceed* 
ed by his fon JKader Khin ; who, 
being joined by Arjlan Kbdn, 
king of Turke/la*n,they pafled the 
Jibun, and advanced to B&ikb ; 
but that, being met by Mai- 
mud, mounted on a white ele- 
phant, they were driven back to 
that river, wherein moft of them 
pcriflied. The Sol tan, c roiling 
the Jibun, quite ruined the ene- 
mies country, and then returned 
in 410, 1019, above-mentioned 
(i). According to this account, 
there were two great monarchies 
of the Turks exifting in Tartary 
at the fame time, llek Khan, 
who, in the other account, is 
called king ofTurkefian, is here 
made king of the oriental Turks, 
and /Coder Khan to be his fon. 


(1) D'HtrU. f. 554, & fa- An. Matmuut. 
E 4 



Rife of the 
Seljuk dy 



Central Hiftcry of the Turks? 




hroken in 

where underftanding that his brother Tog&n (B) Khan , who 
had been- with hirft in that fight, had fent to make his apo- 
logy to Mahmud, he marched againft him ; but Mahmdd in- 
terpofing, they were reconciled k . 

During thefe invafions by Bek Khan, great numbers of 
Turks took the opportunity of palling out of Turkeft&n into 
Mawaralnahr. Among the reft was Seljiik, who, with his 
family and followers, fettled about Samarkand and Bokhira % 
where, by degrees, they acquired large pofleflions :' at length, 
in 1034, being the fifth year of the reign of Soltan (C) 
Maffud, fon and fucceflbr of Mahmiid Gazni, the grandfons 
of Seljiik, Mohammed and Daivd (D), called afterwards Togrul- 
beg and Jaffar-beg) pafling the Jih&n or And, and fat down 
about Ncfti and Abiwerd, or Baward, in Khorafdn, where 
they began fome commotions : but, on the return of Majfud, 
who was then in India, they fat (till, and fent an envoy to 
him, offering to become his fubjefts. Majfud rejected their 
mefTage with contempt : yet, contrary to the advice of his 
council, fet out again for his Indian conquefts, before the 
affairs of the Turks were fettled. They, in his abfence, be- 
gan to make their inroads through Khorafdn, with fo much 
fuccefs, that, in two years, they conquered almolt all that 
province, with l Per/tan Irak (E) ; founding, in 1037, the 
fecond great monarchy of the Turks, in the fouth of Ajia : 
which, in time, fpread over all Perfia, and the countries 
weftward, as far as the Archipelago : whereof we (hall give 
the reader "an account in the next chapter. 
' Having brought down the foreign hiflory of the Turks, 
from their firft appearance out of Tartary, to this period, we 
ought now to return to their domeftic affairs, and fee what 
they were doing in Tartary among themfelves, or with their 
kindred nations, during that interval. But here we are at 
a greater lofs than before : for the memory of tranfactions, 
which arc not committed to writing, can never poffibly be 
lifting ; and oral records are foon defaced. In (hort, we 
fcarce know £nj thing of their domeftic affairs during that 
long interval. We can only collect, in general, from certain 
cjreumftances, that their dominion, which once extended over 

k Texetra, p. 281. ^'Hirbelot. p.* 800, & feq. 

Art. Selgiouk. Texeira, p. 292, & feq. 

(B) Or Dogan Khan. 

(C) His father Mahn.ul was 
the firft who took the tide of 

(D) 2>*W, or Baud, is the 
fame with David. 

(E) That is, the Perfan Irfr* 
There is another call'd xk$ Ara- 
bian Irak* 

C. i . tbdt affairs Itil Jcngiuz.Kimn. &y 

ail Tartary, in pfocefsof time became divided among fetefal 
Khans ; and their .power being thus broken, gave other na* 
dons an opportunity of depriving them of the greater part of • . - 
what they formerly poflefled. • r • - 

We learn from the Chinefe hiftdry, that, at. the beginning That of the 
of the tenth centnry, the Kitan or Lyati, who founded the**^"* 
empire of Kitay or Katay (which comprized the northern ^ ltan * 
provinces of China, with the adjoining part of Tartary> thence 
called Kara Kitay), fubdued aU the conntrie* sweftward from- 
Korea, as far as Kdjhgar m . And th&P^rfian authors inform 
us, that; in the year 1017, 300,000 Tartars and yf\logols\ Hejnah I' 
comprized under the name* of Turks, in*bingirDm_the borders 4-° 8, 
of China, ravaged the country from the oriental ocean, as far 
as Bala/agun, then the capital of what is more properly cal- 
led Turkeftan : but that Togan, or Dog an Khan, who*, at that 
time reigned there (F), not only presented their progrefs 
any farther weftward, but, obliging them to retreat, purfued , 

them for three months together, and JuUedmore than 200,000 ~ * 

These, which .are here called Tartars xnd Mogols, werera/fo/ ka- 
doubtlefs no other than the Kitan, or tbofefrom Ketan Ab-rakitay- 
tan before-mentioned ?\ who, under. Kader Khan, or his fuc»ans. 
ceflbr, aimed to have extended their dominions* which al- 
ready reached from Kitay to KSJbgar, as far. weftward as the 
Gafpian fea. Not but a great part of their army 'might have 
confifted of Mogols and Tartars ; thefe people probably, at 
. that time, having beep fubjed to the Kitan, as we know 
they were not long after. 

The Kkdn having, in 1 1 24, been difpoflefled by the Kin,Thtlrfa- 
another nation (G) of eaftern Tartary retired weftward, and *£**»'• . 
founded the empire of the weftward Lyaii 7 near Kq/bgarP. 
The hiftorians of the weft of Afia call thefe Lya& or Kit an; 4 
who, after this event, became better known to them, Karaki- 
tayans ; and fay they fetded in the parts about /mil (H)," 
mixing themfelves with the -Turks 9 ; who, at that time, 
were divided into many nations, uuder different chiefs. The 

m Gaubil. hid. de Gentch. p. 11. n D'Herbel. p. 899. 
Art. Turk. * See before, p. 55; p Gaubil. ibid.- 

p. 127. 9 Mjrkonp. ap. Horn. arc. Noae, p. 287, & feq. 

Abtj'lghazi Khan's hift. pi 44. « 

(F) He was brother to Ilek led Mancbews, now reigning in 
Khan, as hath been before- men- China. 

tioned, and probably fucceeded (H) Called alfo Jmi/zr\d An* 
him. mil, to the weft of Almalik, in 

(G) The fame with thofe cal- Utile Bukbdria. 


£g, Gourd Hiftory of the Turks. B.T. 

Kit&n found feme tribes about Turfan, and others on the 

borders of Great Bukh&ria, \yhom they defeated. 

The Turk- These fcem to have been independent tribes, which own- 

sih empire td no fubjeftion to the Khan of Turkefton ; who, though 

pofleifed of but a part of the dominions of his anceftors, ftiH 

preferved a (hew of grandeur. But, in a ftiort time after, 

his power began greatly to decline ; infomuch that Ilek Khan, 

who reigned at Balafdgun, about the middle of the twelfth 

. century, to defend himfelf againft the Kankli, Karliks, and 

tea/a in Kipjdks t refigned his dominions to the king of the wcftern 

Tartary. gitfa, or Karakatayam r , before-mentioned s : and thus Tur* 

keflan, which for fo many ages had been poflefled by Khans 

of its own, fell under the dominion of a foreign prince : for 

although fame oriental hiftorians pretend to derive even the 

Kitayans fjom Turk, the fuppofed fon of • Jafet ; yet their 

language and manners, as well as remote fituation, ihew them 

to be people of a different origin. 

The whole As foon as this prince was fetded in his new dominions, 

fojfejfedly according to AbtZlghtod Khan, he aflumed the title of Kavar 

Khan* that is, great lord. But Mirkond writes K&r Khan (I), 

and fays it was the tide of the kings of Karakitay S adding, 

' that after he had vanquished the Kankli, he purfued his good 

' fortune, and conquered, in the year 1141 (K), the cities of 

KA/bgar, Khoten, Bijhba%g % and Turkefton „• and thus all Tar- 

tary f between mount Jit ay and the Caftian fea, became again 

united under one fovereign, who was the greateft prince who 

had reigned in northern Afia for many ages, before the time*. 

of Jenghtz Khan. 

tie Kara- In all probability all the Turkijb tribes, and even thofe 

kiuyaas. fettled about Turfdn, bad fubmitted to Kur Khan ; fince we 

find the Vigurs or Igurs, their neighbours to the eaft, were 

under his protection; and fo continued till the year X2L2, 

when flaying his tax-gatherer, they went over to Jenghiz 


* See an account of them before, p. 57. • Abu'lgha* 

zi Khan, p. 44. Mirkokd. ap. Horn. arc. Noac, p. 288. 
« Mirkond. ap. Horn. arc. Ne^, p. 287. tt A&v'lcha- 

zi Khan, p. 87. Gaubil. hid. Jeng. p. 13. 

(I) Which, in Horn/us, is faid khan* he fays it fignifics the/on* 

to fignify king of kings. Altho* in-law and kin/man of kings 

this teems to be inferted as the and princes. See D'Herb. p. 

explanation of Mirkond* we (hall 878. Art. Timeur. 

not give it as his ; fince, in his (K) Abulghaxi Khan places 

account of Timur, or Tamerlane, thefe events in the year 1 1 77, 

who a/Turned the title of Kur- p. 44. " n 


To check this graraingjttwer, Sanjar, fixth Soltan of the 
Sdjuk Turks, befare«mentioned, being at Samarkand about 
the year 1145, w prevailed on to attack K&rkhin (L) 9 
kiog of Karakatay \ but he was defeated, and all his Harem 
(oryomen) taken v . 

In U72yTaka/h (defended from Sahektekln*, tbcTtirkf/b 
founder of the Gtem monarchy), third Soltan of Karazm (a 
new dominion, 'which fpruag up in the time of the Seljuks), 
applying to the king of Karakitay for aid againft, his brother 
Sottm Sbih, he fent Keramara, his fon-in4aw, with a powv , 
erful army, which recovered the crown for him r . 

The Karaxfn Shahs were tributary <M) to the Kvrkhans ; 
but, on the death c£TakaJh y ocTtkuJb, his fon, Mohammed 
refilled to pay the tribute; and raifirig great forces, in the 
year 1200, firft reduced Bokhara, and the other cities of Ma* 
waralnahr (which ted become independent under princes of 
their own) ; then, Birching into the dominions of Karakatay 
Kurkh&n, overthrew his army, commanded by Tbtniku Taraz, 
a faaous commander > After this, he took Orrar, at that time 
the capital of all Turkeft&n, and returned home. Some years 
after, the Karakitayant, emeting Mawafd' faahr, laid fiege to 
Umarhant :■ but hearing, at the fame 1 time, both of the ap- 
proach of Mohammed, and the revolt of Kuchhk the Nay- 
m&n> againft KirkSan his father-in-law, they raifed the fiege, 
and returned to TurKeftan \, , . 

This account of the Karakiiayans reigning in Turkeftan t HiJ}<mmu 
we have made up the beft we could, from the few imperfe&d^iw. i. 
memoirs we meet with ■extracted from Mirkond ; according 
to which, there were two KArkhans who reigned in Turkeftan, 
before the invafion of Jenghh Khan ; the firft called Curjajb, 
to whom, by the courfeof the hiftory, Hek KhSn muft have 
reiigned his dominion ; the other Kuyang, to whom Kuchluk 
retired. But Jbtflgh&zi Khan makes only one Khan of the Abu*l- 
two, and differs in the date of his reign, and other circum-ghazi 
fiances. He tells us, that the Khan of Jurjvt (N) having Khan's 
conquered Karakitay, its prince, called Nvfi Tayghir Hi, wasom**/* 

* D'Herbelot, p. 736. Art. Sangiar. * Ibid. Art. Mo* 

foamed Khouarazm Shah. r J bid. p. 826. Art. Soltan Shah, 
* Ibid. p. 609. Art. Mohammed Khoaaraxm Shah. p. 610. Horn* 
arc. Noct, p. 268. 

(L) Named Gurjajb. (N) Perhaps King hya, in the 

(M) IXHerbdot mentions no- povince of Sben-fi in China, then 

thing of this tribute in the life the capital of an empire called 

ether of Takajb or his fon Mp- Hya. 



ft G^erUWftoryoftbe^}^^ %.Y. 

s obliged, in thfc year i i 77, to retire r «n8rig the Ktrgbti; and 
thence to a town of Kitay (O), called-TmiY? tnat, ttv6 years 
after, IUk Kh&n, ft defcendant of Aftlfmlt -Kbtn 9 r wWm&d 

. mt Baiafagun (P), bdflg oppofed by \ki rieighbbtirs the tan* 
klis y who had fpoiled all his cultivated lands, -far {SH&'ifi hit 
affiffaince, refigned'the fovereignty of that city to thh l Karaki- 
tayan prince (Q_) r wHo immediately attained the name of Ka* 
var Khan (R), or thef great lord; after which he eonqnered 
the towns of Andijon,' 7*q/bkan* 9 and y Tttrkeftan,HT$& : made 
Samarkand tributary. After he was returned home, *he fent 
jfris, one of h« generals, With' * numerous army, toward* 
Urghenj (S) ; who obliged PigkiJb'{T) f Khan of that city, to, 
^ntyhis mailer a tribute of 2o,obo gold dinars. - Hbwever, 
Soltin Mohammed, hiS'fucceflbr, refefing to do ivhat *his fe- 
ther had done, prepared for wart 3$nt : thoiigh he -bad ga» 
tbered all the forces, of his dottrfnfons,- ^fcich- extended- as fer 
zs.RAm (U),.yet he was defeated by Kavar'KMk, knd obliged 

. (0)*adierofj&rvr<b>^,and year ujy-j which « tdPmake 
filbjeft to Kitay. . , 1 . »; ; ;;. ; , him . begin his reign in JtirkcJUm 
< -(P It* ciwj E*gl\flx tra&fl*fi<m ..eigfet years before b'n fttedccef- 
JaJafagu*; }i wa&.t^e $a.pital far ; tq : whom, ac{Q{$tig«a 

ql.furAeftar, about 11,40 lailes .Mirlonits apcountv Ut^^hdn re- 
to the north-eaft of TWa/,. on. . figued in 1 141 ; -whereas Jdtulk 
the river Sir. ' ' gha^i Khan places that c venting 

(Q^i It is hard to fay which of 1 1 ij. We frequently meet'wjtii \ 
'. the two accounts is, m the main) * fiich iireconcncable drfagfee- j 
the moft exaft ; but both arfr" mentsin theextiattsma^'froinf 
erroneous, as well as defetliv*; the oriental hiftoriahs': Whethti*i 
\r certain particulars. . Abu In theonginak are molt eoafflteaff \ 
gba%i Khan teems to make we J^aew-nc* ; but poflibiy thri I 
$*ufi. taygbir lit the founder difficulties might be cleared up* i 
?f the dynafty of the weftera from the hi (lory of the weilero 
Karakitayam j whereas there Lyau'ox Kit an, which, we arc; 
were feveral kings of that race told, is given at large in theC&'y 
.(1), which began in 1124, as. nefk annais (3). j 

hath been related above. On (R) : A miftake, perhaps, in* 
the other hand, Mirktmd gives the reading; for Kurkhan : for 
Kuyang y his fecond Kurkhan, a the fame letters may admit of 
xeign of eighty-one years, if we both readings. 
j»zy depend on the extract (2). (S> Or Orhtni, the capita^ 
$9: that, on a fuppofitum that it . . ofKarastm* \ 

ended in 1 214, by the conqueft (T) A miftake, perhaps, £on 
of Kuchluk, whom that author Tekefo* or Takajb. l 

9*kes Kuyang\ facceftbr, the (U) Or Anatolia. 
beginning of it will fall in the 

* (1) Gauhil. bill. Jeng. p. »}. ^f J2> (%) Ihtt^ arc^Nfi^^ zSlJ 

(iJ Gauhil^ v&ifupra. ' - 

V to 

C.i ttei/^ir*iiUJen$JizKh*n. €i 

toftyfot ftdter. to tljc Kanklis, till, he could find means to 
obtain-a peace \ 

In the year 1209, Kuchluk, the fon of Tiyjum (X) AfttfftKaraki- 
of the Naymans > having been defeated by Jenghlz Kbdn, and tayanm- 
his father flain, fled for {belter to Karakitay Kurkbdn, who/"*> 
recarcd him honourably, and gave him his daughter in mar* 
rage b : which favours, not long after, he repaid -with kh 
gratitude. Upon his revolt, he fent ambaffadors to conclude 
* peace with Soltan Mohammed, whom he left at liberty to 
cake Kajbgar and Khotan, in cafe he could conquer them be* 
fare him. Kuchluk attacked his father-in4aw firft, and pre* 
vaited for a while, but was at length defeated. Soltan Mo- „ , . 
bammed, on his fide, entered K&rkh&n*% dominions, and would a ^ 
hare made great progrefs, but for the revolt of one of his * 
generals with part of his troops. This accident, which hap* 
pened in the midft ota battle, put the Soltan in no finall 
dinger; fo that at length he was forced, in the habit of a 
Tartar, to cut his way through the enemy to join his army. 
After whkh he founded a Eetreat ; and, by flow marches, re* 
tamed to Karaxm c . 

As for Kuchluk f he ftill continued his rebellion, and at length Quite 
^ipfived* his father-in-law of more than half of his domini- tw- 
ins. But his ingratitude did not remain long unpunUhed \tbrmm* 
fcr, in 12 16, JenghizKhan fent one of his mod experienced 
(CDerak.agaittfl him; and, although he advanced with an 
amy, foperior to the Mogols, yet he was overthrown ; and* 
hing with fome troops, was at lafl overtaken near Badag* 
fm in Great Bukharia, and put to death d . After this the 
dbgol forces over-ran Turkefian, flaughtering all who oppofed 
ton. And thus an end was put to the very name, as well 
11 dominion, of the Turks in Tartary. 


ttaraffer of the Turks before the time of Jenghfz 
' Khan ; and whether they were the defendants of 

the antient Scythians, or the prefent inhabitants of 

Tartary are defcended from them. 

A FT E R what has been faid of the early Turks and their Cuftmm 
P" affairs, it might be proper to give fome account of the*/ tba 
Banners and cuftoms of thofe people : but our memoirs are 

\ » See Abu'lchazi Khan, p, 44, & feq. b Ibid. p. 8;, 

U. « D*Herbei,ot. p. 610. Art. Mohammed Khouarazin 

ftik d Abv>ghazi Kha^ p. 94. 

(X) Others mteTayokKM** 


6% General Hfflary of the Turks. \ J.l> 

very defe&ive in fach particulars, Th* By tontine hifttirta&i 
already cited, take notice of very few things concerning them, 
and that only occasionally : as, that the Roman ambafladbrs 
found their king, Difabules, under a tent, attended by a 
coach (or waggon) with two wheels * : that it was their 
mncient cuftom to (have the beard in token of grief ; and that Taxan* 
Turks, j^ required this ceremony of the Roman ambafladors upon 
the death of his father b : that, during the funeral, he or* 
dered four Huns to be brought out of prlfon, and (lain upon 
the tomb, with the hories of the deceafed prince c : that they 
pay public figns of refpeft to the fire and water, afld chstot 
, hymns in honour of the earth : that, however, they adore ooiy 

one God, creator of* the viiible world, and facrifice to him 
hbrfes, bulls, and fheep : laftly, ' that their priefts can fofle- 
tel future events d. 
purity Br the report of jRubruquius the monk, and others, who 

Tana- travelled into Tartary in the thirteenth century, as well as 
nan. of the orientals, who wrote the hiftory of Jenghtz 'Khan, it 
appears that the fame cuftoms were common to the Mogdsj 
and other inhabitants of Zartary, in the time of that con- 
Badcb** The Greek hiftorians, from whence we took thefe notice*, 
ra&er by f a y nothing as to the character of the Turks : but that defect 
may be eafily fupplied from the Arab and Perftan authors, 
with whom the word Turk partes ufually for a highwayman 
or robber. Hafez, a Perfxan poet, who lived in the fifteenth 
century, fpeaking of fome evil, fays, that it takes from air 
hearts all patience and repofe, with as much violence as the 
N Turks or beggars do the vicluals from a well-furnijbed table* 

What is more furprifing, we meet with a diftich in the Turfc 
ijh language to this purpofe: although a Turk or Tartatf 
Jhould excel in all the fciences, yet the barbarian would Jiill bi 

Arabs and roote( * * n *' x nature * ** ma y ^ ^^ * n * c h& or y o£ th* 

Perfians. KhaMfchs, of the family of Abbas, to what a degree the blood 

of the Turks was thought unworthy to be mixed with theirs; 

when it was propofed to give a princefs of that houfe in mat* 

riage to Togrul Beg, firft Soltan of the SeljM race. 

But that thefe things were, in great meafure at leaft, ow- 
ing to prejudice, appears from a proverb which the PerfioM 
have, importing, that no perfon need ever fcruple to kill 4 
Turk, even though he was a Dotlor of the Mohammedan Arufj 
The Arabs and Perfians bore a hatred to the Turks, for the 
injuries received from them, for (everal ages together, not 

*Menahd*r. c. 13. See alfp before, p. 44. b Ibid. CJ 

19. c id. ibid. d Sim^aTta, L vji, c. 8« 

a onl] 

C.i. Their affairs till JengMz Jthfyi; $3 

poij i>7 their frequent invafions from Tartary, but alio by JPby bated 
the difturbances they railed in their dominions. To explain by them* 
this, it muft be obferved, that Al MbtaJJem, eighth Khailfah 
of the Abbas race, Shehdb addin, Saltan t>f the race of Gaur, 
AlMttek al Saleh, Solum of the family of Ayyob in Egypt, 
aad feveral other princes of Afia, caufed a great number of 
yonng Turkijb flaves, the handfomeft who could be procured, 
to be bought, and educated in their courts (A) ; thefe being 
formed' into troops of militia, as hath been already mention- 
ed ', not only often rebelled, and depofed the Khalifah, but, 
involving the country in cruel war, committed unheard of 
outrages on the inhabitants g. * 

This is the true foundation of the great animofity which Tete/eem* 
the Arabs and Perfians bore the Turks ; who, it muft beic-edfer 
bowleged, always were a moft turbulent and infolent race 
of mortals, as they ftill are, where they had power ; though 
hamuli enough where they had none. However, they were 
not altogether fo defpicable and brutifh as their enemies re- 
i prefent them. The good air and mien of thofe young flaves their baud* 
\ abope-mentioned pleafed the eyes of the Perfians ; infomuch^***^* 
that the poet Hafez himfelf, who had paifed fo fevere a re- 
flexion on them, would have the word Turk to fignify a hand- 
Jmt man : and was charmed with one of them to fuch a 
Agree, that, in his Divan, he cries out, If I could but gain 
the good-will of this Turk of the city o/'Shiraz, I would give, 
&r the fmallejl of his favours, the cities of Samarkand and 
Bokhara b. 

Authors divide the Turks into two kinds, with refpe&OWgiW^. 
to their way of living, fome dwelling in towns and fixed tinted 
habitations, others in the fields, and leading a wandering 
tfc, like the Bedtvtn Arabs : thefe are called, by the Turks, 
fucbgunji Atraky and Konar Kocher ; which implies a roving 
" of life, and without fixed dwellings *. From thefe the 
\rhnans, and even the founder of the Othman family (B), 
led. In efFeft, the Turks originally, like all the other 
inhabiting Tartary > lived in the fields/ under tents, a twana r irm 
without any houfes, but fuch as were carried on carts. i n gUf t% 
' appears plainly enough from the manner in which the 

7 See before, p. ci. % D*H,erb¥L. p. 898, &feq. Art. » 

'ark. * Id. ibid. * D' p. 898, Art. Turk. 

imwiR. hift. Othm. pref. p. 12. 

(A) Much in the fame man- as well as Seljuks, have been 
nsthejanisutries, at prefent ftigmatized with the name of 
Bug the Turks. Turkm&nt, by the Arabs and 

(B) And hence the Otbmans, Pirfians. « 


64 General' Hift&ty of the Turks; B.t 

Roman ambafladors found their king Difabules encamped, iit 
• the fixth century, with tents and carts, juft as the ftfogols, 
Elutbs or Kalmyks, and Turkmans, encamp at prefent. And 
we prefume it will be very difficult to prove, 'that ever th£ 
Turks lived in towns, or fixed habitations, till fuch time as 
they had conquered them (C) from their neighbours in the 

Thus we have, from the imperfeft memoirs which are in 

our pofleffion, given the beft account we could of the origin 

of the Turks, of the tribes into which their nation is divided 

by the oriental authors, and of their affairs from the fixth 

century, when they became confiderable, till the time of 

Jenghtz Khan. But, before we quit the fubjeft, it will be 

D r^nd • neccu ^ r y to examine *&to three particulars ; i. Whether the 

ants of "tb ^ ur ^ s are defcended from the antient Scythians, mentioned 

antient ^7 ^ e Greek and Roman authors. 2. Whether all the inha- 

Scythi- bitants of Tartary are either originally Turks, or fprung 

ana. . from one and the fame root. 3, Whether Turkeftdn always 

had the fame fituation and extent that it has at prefent. 

First, Whether the Turks, or, if you will, all the pre- 
fent inhabitants of Tartary, are defcended from the antient 
Scythians. If, by Scythians, is to be underftood not thofc 
properly fo called, but all the different nations mentioned by 
Herodotus, Pliny, Ptolomy, and other authors, which, under 
that cojnmon name, inhabited that vaft region : it may, with- 
out hefitation, be anfwered, that the prefent inhabitants are 
the defendants of the antient; or rather of fuch of them as 
remained in Tartary, over and above thofe which might have 
been deftroyed, or migrated into other regions : for not only 
there is a great conformity in the perfons, manners, arid cu- 
ftoms of both, but no other nation or nations can be affign- 
ed, from whence the prefent pofleflbrs of Tartary could pro- 
. ceed. To the fouth of them live people, fuch as the Psr- 
Jians, Indians, Tibetians, and Chinefe, who always dwelt in 
cities, or fixed habitations j and, confequently, could nevef 
be tempted to change their country and way of living for 
thofe of the Scythians, unlefs compelled by force (D), of 
which we meet with no inflances in hiftory. 
But from Indeed, if we defcend to particular nations or tribes, and 


(C) Thus the Mankdts and Little Bukbaria axi&Tibetj where 

Kaffats never dwelt in cities, till the Khan, at certain times, re- 

theyfettledin-7«>vfy?<i»:yet ftill fides. 

in fummer encamp in fields. So (D) • As the Vigurs, who feeufc 
t\\e ElutbsoxKaJmuks never lived to be Tibetians, might bare- 
in towns, till they conquered been. • • 


! C.f. , Tbtir affairs till Jehghfe KhafiJ $$ 

tract to know whether the Turks are fprung from thg j*/<i$r- 

gets, the Ndymins from the ^<&n Scythians, or would 

tnce the migrations of the &zA*, Huns, Sarmatians, or other 

farms from that immenfe and prolifick hive, the attempt 

will prove a fruitlefs labour. This will plainly appear, if it 

be only confidered, l . that moil of the names of the Scythian < 

aatkus, which we find in the authors above-mentioned, did 

lot properly 'belong to them, but were given them )>y the 

Creeks. Even the general name of' Scythians was unknown 

to the Scythians f who, we are told by Herodotus, called them-* 

fcbes Skofot. Again ; thofe names which cannot be affirmed 

tohave been corrupted, or impofed by the Creeks, were fuch, 

perhaps, as were given to them by other nations (E). Thus % 

the people, whom they called Scythians, were named by the 

Perfians Saga or Salut, as we learn from Mela and Pliny % 

yet the Greeks confidered the Saka as a particular nation of 

tribe of Scythians. Hence the Creeks confounded the feveral 

nations together, gave one nation the name of another, and 

often the fame nation feveral different names, as hath been 

already hinted. 

2. Another reafon which makes it very difficult, if not 
almoft impoffible, to difcover what nations or tribes the an- 
dent names found in authors belong to* or to trace the fe- 
deral removals of thofe tribes, is ; that it fecms to have been 
always cuftomary with the inhabitants of Tartary, as it is at 
prefent, to change their names on various occafions, as on 
removing their flotation, dividing into different branches, 
being brought in fubje&ion by other tribes, or in compliment 
to the reigning prince,' if much beloved by them, or which 
feme inftanceS have been already produced k , and mere will 
be given, when we come to the hiftory of the Tartars. • • 

As to the fecond queftion, whether all the inhabitants <& Inhabit- 
Tartary are either originally Turks ^ or fprtmg from one and**/, ^ 
the lame root, our opinion is in the negative : for there is no Tartary j 
probability that people, fo extremely different in their makew* all 
and features, as moft of the Mohammedan Tartars, and theTurks* 
Eliths or Kabn&ki are* fhould proceed from the fame ftock, 

* See before, p* *), 8c feq* 

(E) Tlus is commonly done Elutbs, Kalmih : and {heffe, in 

at {Rtfent from various motives, the returh, same the others, 

ThtTwris call the Poles Lib, Ha/akPuruk. So the y/r^ call 

nxm a king or general Of the the Per/urns* Jjem, that Is, bar- 

t4es. The Useiek Tartars, by burtons: as the Greeks formerly 

way of- nick-name, call the did all foreign nations. 

Mod. Hist. Vol. IV* F any 

66 General Hiftory of the Turks: B.I. 

any more than frefh and fait -water rtiould proceed from the 
fame fountain. It is true, all the inhabitants of Wefitrn Tar- 
tary (for thofe of the Eafiern are out of the cafe), fpeak the 
fame language, or at leaft diale&s of it : but might' not this 
happen through conftant Xntercourfe, or one power prevail- 
ing over the reft, as that of the Turks did in the fixth cen- 
tury, and that of the Mogols in the twelfth ? the conquered 
people generally fpeak the language 'of the conquerors, as "well 
as their own, which, by degrees, becomes extinft, as that of 
the Kopts almoft already is in Egypt, where the Arabic pre- 
vails ; the Celtic in Gaul, where the French takes place ; and 
in England the Britijb, which has been fuperfeded by the 
• Englifh. 
/bough all However, it muft be allowed, that the identity or affi- 
jpeak nity of languages would go for almoft a certain proof of the 
the fame identity of nations, as to origin, did they agree in the other 
language, circumftances before-mentioned ; and might alfo be admitted 
as a tolerably fnre rule in tracing the migrations of people : 
becaufe the migrating nation cannot receive their language 
from people of a different language among whom they live ; 
and therefore muft be a-kin to the unmigrating nation, whofe 
language happens to be the fame with theirs. Thus the 
language which the Othm&n Turks fpeak, though mixed with 
Per/Ian, Arabic, and even Greek words, tlemonftrates that 
they came from Tartary, or are defcended from fome of the 
inhabitants of that region, known by the name of Turks ; al- 
though it may not be eafy to afcertain the particular tribe or 
' tribes from which they draw their original. 

We come now to the third queftion, whether Turkeftan 
always had the fame fituation and extent which it has at 
prefent. ' To this we anfwer likewife in the negative ; and 
make no fern pie to affirm, that it hath often changed its fitu- 
ation as well as bounds ; which we fhall endeavour to de- 
monftrate in the next feftion. 


Of the original country inhabited by the Turks, with 
a defer iption of the prefent Turkeftan. 

Names of *TT appears, from the account already given, .both by the 
Turkcf- X Roman and Chinefe hiftorians, that the country poflefled by 
tan * * the Turks, at their firft becoming known in the world, was 
about the middle of all Tartary, towards mount Altay, which 
divides that great region, as^it were, into two parts: and 
that, in a few years, they, from -a very 'inconfiderahte begins 
ning, extended their dominion from the river Lyau in the 

C. I. Ihtir original country^. 67 

oil, as far weftward as Ob&fiqffian fea. Thus almoft rj\e 
whole of Great Tartary (A), becoming fubjeft to the Turks, 
might have taken the name of Turkeftan, or country of the 
Turks } at leaft the oriental writers give that name to all the 
.countries lying north of the river Sihun or Sir, the Jaxartes 
d the indents. 

The name of Turin they extend ftill farther, making it and*Yt+ 
to include all the countries to the north of the Jihun or ran. 
Amu y that is Tartary and Maward'lnahr, now called Great x 

Bukh&ria a ; and thus they feem to make their own hero Tur 
pmends for the lofs fufbdned by the Tartarian hero Turk* 
who has ingrofled all the inhabitants of Tartary as his de- 
fendants. But the fault lay in the framers of the antient 
Perfian hiftory, who, by leaving the final k out of Tur'i 
came, gave their rivals th? Turks an opportunity, by the ad- 
dition of that letter, to form one more fuitable to the perfon 
Who was to represent their great anceftor. 

It may be prefumed, if the name of Turkeftan ever pre- Extend 
vailed over all Tartary f that it continued in ufe fo long only enter Tar* 
as the dominion of the Turks was intire : but that when tar X : . 
their pow'er was broken, and they became divided under 
many fbvereigns, Turkeftan alfo became divided into fo many 
different parts, dnd loft the name, which feemed to havg 
fettled in the weftern part of Tartary, to the north of Per* 
fa and Great Bukhdria ; where probably the defendants of 
their firli Khan, Difabules \ fixed their feat. ' From thefe 
quarters it was, that they made continual war upon the Per- - 
fians and Jrdhs, for feveral ages together; and here they 
maintained their dominion longeft, and with greateft luftre. 

This, &t leaft, we know from hiftory ; that, foon after Ceafts in 
die time of Toxander, in the feventh century, the Turks fell the tad*. 
at war among themfelves, which probably ended in a par- 
tition of the dominions*; and, in the feventh, eighth, and 
ninth centuries, we find the country of the Turks actually 
divided among feveral Kakhans, or kings, fonte of whom had 
Very large territories, called tyy different names, or thofe of 
the tribes under their fubjeftion, as hath been already fet 
forth c in- a foregoing fection. However, it muft be ob- 
fcrved, that all thofe territories extending over almoft the 
yhole of Wejletn Tattary^ are reprefented as parts of the 

* D'HJlrbel. p. 899. Art. Turk. b Sde before, p. 37, 

Jfcfeq. * See alfo p. 43 & 46. • See before, p. 56, & feq. 

(A) .All bat what is, by us, called E a/tern Tartary, to the eaft 
ftf Z^o* Sng. * 

F a Betid 

6% General Hiftory ef the Turks : B. I. 

Belad Al Atrak, which is the Arabic word anfweriag to tht 
Perfian Turkeftan, that is, the country of the Turks. 
Settles in It may be prefumed, that the nations who were not im- 
tbe <weft. mediately fubjeft to the fucceflbrs of Difabules, were, in 
time, conquered or brought in fubje&ion by fome other na- 
tion or nations, more to the eaft or fouth : and thus the 
name of Turkeftan came to ceafe, or be difufed, in all but the 
weftern parts of that empire, where the Turks ftill preferred 
their power : on which account it always retained the name 
of Turkeftan with the Perjians. 
Revives However, from time to time, .the Turks in this weftern 
in the eaft. region, at different times, feem to have recovered or extend- 
ed their dominion eaftward, as they found opportunity, from 
their own ihcreafe of ftrength,^r the weaknefs of their 
neighbours, whom they had to deal with. Thus, in the 
time of Ebn Said al Magrehi, the geographer d , K&jbgar, in 
Little Bukhdria, was the capital of Turkeftan : as it teems to 
have been alfo in 996, under Ilek Khan, At leaft Turkeftan 
muft, at that time, have been divided into two diftinft do- 
minions, the weftern and the eaftern : of which laft, accord- 
ing to fome authors % Ilek Khan was the fovereign lord, while 
Arflan Khan reigned over the former, 
Extends Eastern Turkeftan, if we may fo call it, that is, tte 
over countries eaft of Kafbgar, foon after fell into the hands of 
Tartary. the Karakitayans ; and from thence had the name of Kara- 
kitay given to it by the Perjian hiftorians. But at length, 
about the middle of the twelfth century, both the eaftern 
and weftern Turkeftan were united again under one prince, 
in confequence of the furrender made by Ilek Khan of Bala* 
fagun to Karakitay Kurkh&n, or Kavar Khan f : nor did the 
weftern Turkeftan, upon that revolution, take the name of 
Karakitay, but ftill retained its own, at leaft with the Per- 
Again con- But things did not long continue in this ftate : for, at 
tratfed. the beginning of the thirteenth century, Kuchluk the Naym&n, 
rebelling againft his father-in-law Kurkh&n, wrefted from hhn 
the eaftern Turkeftan ; and thus once more caufed a divifion 
of the empire. Some fay both parts were united again in the 
perfon of Kuchluk himfelf, who fucceeded Kurkh&n. Be that 
as it -mil, in a very few years after, Jenghlz Khan the great; 
having over-run the whole weftern Tartary with his Mogols, 
all Turkeftan became a province of his immenfe empire. Sincp 

4 ABu'LFEDAtabL Chowarafmiae, &c. in edit. Hudfon, p. 53. 
• Sec before, p. 5 a. f See before, p. 58. 


C. i. Defcription of Turkeftan; 69 

which time we have heard Ao more of eaftern Turkeftan, or 
oriental Turks. 

However, the part of Tartary to the north of PerJiaRemmnsim 
and Great Bukbdria, Aill retained the name of Turkeftan •• the weft. 
and, in the partition which Jenghiz Khan made of his em- 
pire among his four fons, fell to the (hare of Jagatay (B), 
who was die fecond. But, in procefs of time, thefe new 
monarchies' being fplit into lefler ftates by inteftine factions, 
and the defcendants of one brother invading thofe of ano- 
ther, Turkeftan fell into the hands of the Uzbeks ', and, at laft, 
into thofe of the Kaff&ts and Mankdts ; who were formerly 
the fubjefts of Juji, eldeft fon of Jengbiz Khan, and at pre- 
fent is poflefled by them : the Kaff&ts having the eaftern 
part, and the Mankdts (better known in Europe by the nick- 
name of Kara Kdlpaks), the weftern part, under their refpec- 
tive Khans ; who, with their fybjetts, are Mohammedans. 

From what has been faid on this fubjeft, it appears that Why ft 
Turkeftdn had not always the fame fituation and extent ; bxxtfubjea 
varying both, from time to time, is found fometimes in one 
part of Tartary, fometimes in another ; juft as the Turks f 
who, like the other tribes, lived for the moft part in the 
fields, were able to ftand their ground, or obliged to give way 
to fuperior force. Thus countries, which have neither cities, 
nor any fixed habitations, may J>e fiud to be of an itinerant t0 '***&* 
nature, and follow their inhabitants wherever they removed 
However* tht Turks, who inhabited to the north of either Great 
BMdria or Perfia, had generally towns along the Sir in 
their poffeflion, as the Mankdts and Kaffdts have at prefent : 
and as it wasfrom the fame quarter thfX thofe countries were, 
from time to time, invaded by them, it always retained, 
among the Per/tans, the name of Turkeftdn : with the de- 
fcription of which we fhall dofe this introduction to the hi- 
ftory of the Turks. 

The prefent Turkeftdn is fituate betweed 42 and jo or 51 Prefent 
dfegrees of latitude, and between 73 and 90 degrees of lon«? Turkef- 
gitude; reckoning from Ferro, one of the Canary ifles. lt l ***'J* tc < 
is bounded on the north by the Ardi Tdg, or mountains of 
eagles, which are no better than hills in thofe quarters ; on 
theeaft, by the dominions of the grand Khan of theEluths 
vKoknvks} oq the fouth, by the river Sir, which feparates 
it from Kdrazm and Great Bukhdria (C) ; and on the weft by 

(B) See jyHerhelot. Art. Khdn. See AbVlgb&tti KbarCi 

Otwgbiz Khan, and Qiagathay. hiftory oftheT«nb,p. 207. ^63*- 

;. Bat perhaps part of it was in (C) But Mr. Strahlenbcr£% 

&e lot of Juji, and given by map extends it much to die 

&*jtu to his brother Sheybani fouth of the Sir. 

F 3 the 

75 Dtftripticn of Turkeftyn, B. % 

the Cafpian fea, and* river Tern. It may be about 660 miles 

in length from weft to eaft, and 540 in breadth from foutb 

%p north. 

tfatural The country confifb generally of vaft extended plains, 

J****' which are very fruitful ; and has but a few moun^ins, 

excepting thofe before-mentioned. It is watered by fome 

rivers $ nich as the Tarjtz, or Talftfb, which fells into die 

§ir ; the Tutugay, which falls into the Talafb ; the Karafk\ 

and others of lefs note. They all defcend from the north, 

, fbd fall, for the moft part, into the Sir ; bat authors differ 

as to the particular places where they enter that river *, 

Here likewife one meets with feveral lakes. Among the reft, 

one called Kam\Jb Nor, that is, the lake «f reeds, is 40 or 

50 miles long, and 30 broad. That of IJfikol, where Turk, 

the fon of Jafety is faid to have fettled, is very near the 

eaftern border of Turkeftan, if not within it. 

Principal When Turkeftan was in its flourifhing ftatfe, under its own 

(jtfo. fovereigns, and even till the irruption of Jenghiz Khan, it 

abounded with ftrong and populous cities. However, thefe, 

pr moft of them, probably, were not built by the Turks, who 

lived moftiy in the fields, but by the old inhabitants of die 

. country, or the Arabs, from whom they tobk them. Thefe 

we're fitu'ate chiefly on the rivers in the fouthern parts ; efp£» 

dally on the great river Sir ; which was its natural common 

boundary on the fide of MawaraTnahr, or Great BukbJbia. 

The chief of thefe were Jeng/nkant, Jmd, Taffi, Sabr&n, Sa- 

gandk y Uzkeniy Otrar, Tarfa, Esfijab^ OJhanikat, Tonkat x 

BattfdgHn, Benkat, T&fbhint, ShakroMya, &c. 

Royal Four of the above-mentioned cities were, at different pe- 

jeats. v jiods^ the capitals of Turkeftan ; namely, Yenghikant y or ATa- 

riyat dl fidtdah, in the time of al Berjendx the geographer. 

Balajfigfa, or Kamb&lik, enjoyed that honour from 1017 to 

1177, and Otrar was the metropolis in 1 200 ; whence Saltan 

Mohammed Kurdzm Shtih took it from Karakitay K&rkhan, 

king pf Tutkeftan. 

Mant pf the abpve-mentioned cities ftill exift, ndtwith* 

. {landing thedeftruftioh made of them by the Mdgds, node* 

fenghtz Khan : but we are better acquainted with the ftateof 

thenuat that time, than at prefent ; being furnifhed with very 

few modern accounts relating to this part of Jfta* 

* See the kfiaps of De i/IstE, Strahlenbbrg, D'ahville, 
and the author of the new colled. voy< and trav. vol. iv. p. 



C L Dtfeription if Turkcftan. ;j 

TENGHIkant (E), orAlKariyat aljadidah, as the Arabs Ycngi 
called it, both names Signifying the new city or fortrefs, was kant. 
iituate, according to the Arab geographers, near the river 
alSbi/b(¥), which fells into the lake of Kara/in. This we 
lake to be the Aral Nor, or lake of Eagles, in that country. 
It was ten days journey [of the KdrawJbui] from Karafm, • 
:twenty from Farab (or Otr&r), and twenty-five from Bok- - 
jtira \ fund or Jand wa6 a little city, not far from thence. Jund, or 
It is near the month of the Sihun, and has produced feveraj J an d. 
famous men. Mirkond relates, that it was from this and 
j fbme other cities thereabout that the Scythian ambafladors 
! vent to meet Alexander, and reproached him for his ambi- 
tion and rapine. On the approach of the Mogols under Tu/ii 9 
(on of Jenghiz Khan, in 1219, Soltdn Mohammed Karazm 
Sbab, to vrhori it was then fubjeft, (eat 5000 men to gari- 
foo it. However, Kutluk Khan, the governor, fled : but the 
inhabitants, depending on the ftrength of the walls, and its 
towers* which was very great, they flood on their defence, 
sod might have held oat a long fiege, if it had not been 
farprifed by ftratagem, without bloodshed. On this account 
their lives were fpared ; but they loft all their effefts '. 

TASSI, Sabran, and Sagan&k or Sign&k, are often men- Yafli, Sa- 
tioned in Shams odditis life of Ttmur Bek. The laft was a bran, Sa- 
huge and Arong city at the time of Jenghiz Khan's invafion. garak. 
Soltdn Mohammed fent 20,000 men to defend it. It was the 
firft place the Mogols befieged ; who, in, their approach, fent 
an envoy to fummon the inhabitants ti? furrender, with a 
promifc of good treatment ; but they, inftead of liftening to 
his propofel, tore him in pieces; which fo exafperated Tvfhi 
Khan, who commanded at the fiege, that he never ccafed af- 
feulting the place till he had taken it ; and then, to revenge 
the murder, caufed 10,000 of them to be put to the fword. 
The terror of this execution made Uzkend, or Urkend, fur* 
render k . 

OTRAR, called by the Arabs Far Ah, was, according toOtr&r, or 
Abujfcda, fituate on the river Al Sh&fh (G), in the neighbour- Farab. 

h Abu*lfeda defer. Chowar. p. 56. * Abu'lf. obi 

fupr. 57. De la Croix hift. Jenghiz Khan, p. 172, 177, &feq. ' 
k Abu'lchazi Khan, p. 113. De la Croix, p. 174. 

(E) This word hant, which near its mouth, in the lake pf 
fivnifies town or city, is written Knrazm. Some maps, which 
alto hunt and kent\ and fome- make that river fall into the 
times ends with a d y as the pro- Cafpian fea, place it between 
nunciation- varies from time to that fea and the lake. 

time, or in different places. (G) The fame with tYitSihun, 

(F) Sibil/?, or Sir, probably or Sir. 

F 4 . hood 

ft Defcription of Turkeftin. B.L 

hood of Balafdgun 1 1 but Sharif addin removes it two pa- 
raf&ngs, or Perjian leagues, from the north bank bf the £t* . 
hurt or Sir. We underftand, from the fame author, that a 
league to the eaft of it is the river Arj % with a bridge ova- 
it ; likewife, that it is fix Karawan ftages from Ta/bhtnt, and 
fcventy-iix parafangs from Samarkand m . De la Croix {daces 
Otrar in the moil wcftern extremity of Turkeftin ; and bounds 
Its territories on the eaft with that of Al SMh or Ta/hkant. 
It was a city of great trade between the Turks and Moham- 
medans when 4jxe Mogols invaded the dominions of Saban 
Its famous As this was a place of great importance, the Saltan left 
jiep. do ,009 men with Gayer Khan, the governor* to defend it^ 
vhp, on the march of Oktay and Jagatay, two of Jenghiz 
Khdn's fons, with 200,000 men, to attack it, fliut himfelf 
up in the town, and vigoroufly fecured it for five months : 
but, as the place could not hold out much longer, one of 
his generals advifed him to Capitulate in time. The governor, 
being confcious that he had been the fole occafion of the war, 
j-ejefted the propofal. Hereupon the general retired, in the 
night, with his 10,000 men, into the camp of the Mogols \ 
who, detefting his treachery, flew them all, and entered the 
pity by the gate which they had marched out of. 
Cover* GAYER Khdn, finding the town taken, retired with 
pors 2Q,oqo men into the caftle ; which, being too little for fi> 
i r 0?f7? great a number, he endeavoured to free himfelf by continual 
fellies. This extremely incommoded the enemy for foma 
time : but the princes, redoubling their efforts, took it at 
Jaft, fword in hand, and cut all the garifon to pieces. Tfce 
governor, perceiving all was loft, retired into his apartment, 
with two men ; who being at length killed, and arrows fail- 
ing, Gayer defended himfelf for fome time with great ftones, 
which his wife fupplied him with. At laft he was taken, and 
"{hut up in a dole prifon, loaded with chains, where he was 
foon after put to death by Jenghiz Kkdn's orders . 
Timftr D*HERBELOT fays Otrar was taken by Sdtdn Mobam- 
fathers, tned at fuch time as it was the capital of Turkejlan ; and that 
this a&ion drew on his back the Mogols, who retook it in 
1219 p ; but he miftakes the caufe of the war. De la Croix 
fays, the caftle was rafed ; but that the city walls were re- 
built q . Tvn&rBek or Tamerlan died in this city, on his way 

1 Abu'lp. ubi fupr. p. 64. m Sharif Addon's life of 

Timor Befc, j>. 382, 390, 39c, 397. « Hift. Jengh. p. 

'45> l 5%- ° Hift. Jengh. ubi fupr. AbuYghazi Khan, 

p. in,, & feq. p D*Herb. bity. orient, art. Otrar, p. 697. 

i Hift. Jengk p. 17Q, * faj. - 

2 towards 

G.J. Dtfcription of Turkeften. 7j 

towards KHay or Qimi ; which he intended to conquer ; but 
at prefent it is a place of no great note. 

TARAZ (H) was a dty where the Turks and Mohammedans Tariz. 
met to trade* It produced many learned men. It was near 
lo Erfjab as*! Jekel, and. four parafangs from Sbalj. Thefe 
two latter were cities of the Turks \ Taraz ftands on the 
river Arj y about 70 miles to the north-eaft of Otrar. 

ESFIJAB was reckoned a large city; though not fo bigEsfijab. 
by two parts in three as BtniM. It bad a caftle formerly ; 
but it was not (landing in the time of Abulfeda. Both die 
.city and fuburbs were inclofed : the former with a double 
vail; the latter with a Angle wall, three parafangs in com- 
pais. The inhabitants were accommodated with delightful 
gardens in the adjacent plain, which is well watered : and 
from them to the neareft mountains is a fpace of three para- 
Jangs *. Esfijab ftands upon the north bank of the Sir, or 
near it. 

BALASAGUN (I) ; according to Abulfeda , was adtyBalafa- 
beyond the river Sihun, in the borders of the Turk's dotni-gfru 
Dions. In one place he makes it to be near Kajhgar ; and 
war Far&b, or Otrar, in smother e ; which is a fort of con- • • 
tradt&ioQ ; thofe two places lying at a great diftance afunder. 
By the pofitkm given it in his tables (K) it was about feventy- 
fee leagues north-eaftward of the latter. AbtHghazi Kim 
obferves, that it was called by the Mogols Kbatnbdlig, or good 
toon. It was the capital of Turkejian for a long time; but 
atprefent (bents not to be in being". 

BENKAT is a great place of trade, belonging to Al BcMx. 
Stifb, or Ta/hkunt t being a league in length. The fortrefs 
is without the city ; but the lame wall ferves both. Its di- 
flrift or liberties are inclofed with a wall, as are its gardens 
and out-buildings. It is well fupplied with running waters *. 

AL SMASH was formerly a magnificent city, fubjc£t to Al Shift, 
Samarkand, near the Sibun ; from whence the water flowed w Tafli- 
to every honfe. It is four ftages from Kbqena\ and five from ^ unl ' 
Fargina or Anduiand*. It is at prefent called Tafbkunf 1 ; 

* Abulf. ubifupr. p. 69, 71. • Abulfeda defer. Cho- 
war. p. 68. ' A bulk, ubi fupr. p. 64, 74. u Abu'lch. 
sift. Turks, p. 44, 471. x Abulf. ubi fupr. p. 66. 

1 Abulf. ubi fupr. p. 33, 65, 66, 72. * Hift. TimQr Bek, 
f 4 o6. 

(H) Perhaps the fame called (I) Tis fometimes written 
farm in the Geo jr. Nubienfis : Yaldfdgwt, as in Abulghd%i 
tie nun and %t being tften writ- Kbdm\ hiftory . 
ten nearly alike. (£) Lat. 47 degrees. 


y^ Ijeftriptiim *f Twjfcfl&i. B.l 

bat mttch reduced from its former fpkador, having been aftm 

deftroyed and rebuilt; yet is the winter refidente of -the 

- • Khan of the Kaffifs) who poflfefles the eaft part pf Turkefiin \ 

t Ynjbi took this place from Sottan Nhhaittmed in t2i£; tat 

tiet without much ef&fion of blood b f and afterward put a 

great number of the inhabitants to the fwordV - - . 

Pcna- F ? NA RUNT (L) was a ftrong <fcy, on the eaftern task 

kunt, of the Sir, in the time of Jenghiz Khan. That prince fent 

l»wShah- 50,000 men again!) it,- under two generals : and though Sol- 

rakhiya. tin Mohammed had detached thither i 0,000 men, yet it vm 

taken, after a fiege of three days. AJl-thfe garifon were (>ut to 

the fword, and the inhabitants carried into flaveryd. It was 

fe ruined on this occafion, that there remained no vefttgta 

rf it t31 JJ92, when Tim&r Beg ordered it to be rebuilt, 

and ipeopled : and, as that conqueror gave k to his fon Mirza 

'iSMSrtM, *it was* from him called Shohrokhiya (M). So ift 

are informed by the author of Timbres Kfe e . At prefect it is a 

imferaHe place, of about 200 cabirts, -dependent on TAfb- 

-fatift ; from whence it lies about fateen leagues to thecaft f , 

-or Tather perhaps to thefoiith. 

Tunkat, ' TUNKAT, orTonkdt, is a city and mart of the ptoTMte 

§r Ton- of SAk. Before the time of Jenghiz Khan it was incloftfl 

- kit. "with a wall, in which -were many gates. It ftood on a^iter; 

from whence water flowed into the town, and through Us 

territories. It had a caftle for its defence, and was adorned 

with the palace of a prince. While it was m the hands of the 

Arabs and Perjiansxt had a wall, extending from the tnftiaV 

tain Sh&b&leg to the end of the valley of Al Sh&Jh, bu3t to 

hinder the irruptions of the Turks. This city was the nw* 

fcry of many learned men *, and called Bar al ilm ; that is, 

the fxilAce of the feientes ; on account of the academy of art! 1 

and fciences, which was formed there. It was a place lb 

fitted for pleafure, that it became a faying, that God never 

* Abii'lo. p. 569. h De la Croi* hift. Jengh.p. ijy. 

; c Abo'lc. p. Uf. d Db la Croix hift. Jengh. p. if*. 

Abu'lg. hift. Turks, p. 114. * Hift. Timur Bek, p. 37$, 

- £ Abu'lg. p. 569. ? * Abvlf. ufeji fnpr. p. 67, ya. 

(L) ByMffgMzi&amwAt- rifle, in bis Uft map of Pafc 

ten Famakant, and by He la makes ;t .tl)e:faroe with $b*t» 

Croix, hift. Jengh. p. 1 72, Fe r rukbiya, Strahlenbcrg,. i* Jft 

naket. map of Tartar? , gives the this* 

*(M) De la Croix, in his hift. to on£ place. Arahjh&b, ia hit 

of Ji-n^bi^Khdn, p. 172, cob- hiftory of Timur, l.-i. $ lit 

founds Fenaket, as he writes the {peaks of Sbabroibta as qui*** 

naine, with Tonidt ; and as De new city. 


t i tkfriftion of TurkelRfa. 75 

Mtatntre ikTicious dwcfting than Toakat\ fcnghiz Khdh 
tifitd a gefieral diet fiefre in the year 1224 ; which was fo nu- 
nertms, that its plain, though feven leagues in length, was 
fans able to contain the number of people who were afleiH- 
bled on that occaiion ! . 

To the dties before defcribed Ms neceflary to add that of Gty 
7urkefian> which we omitted to mention among the towns of Turk- 
thifl country ; hecatife we find no antient place of that name c ^ n - 
lb the ortefltd anthers ; though poffibly it then exifted undet 
fahe pther denomination, being mentioned often by Abtil- 
; giizi Khan, in theearlieft tidies of his hiftory; It fbmds on 
a river that comes from the north-eaft, and falls, into the Sir 
a little below the town (N) : though built of brick, is yet a 
very pitiful place, and remarkable for nothing but ah agree* 
able fituadon : however, in this condition It enjoys the h> 
floor of being the capital of Tttrkeft&n, and is the refidencfc 
of the Khan of the MayMts, who poflefles the weftern part 
of this country k . 

1 De le Croix hift. Jengh. p. 182, 8c teq. * Ibid. p. 

; 156. k Abu'lch. p. 56$. 

(N) The maps of t>e FIJlc and StrabUnberg place it about tj 
1 pales difbuit/ 



The hiftory of the Seljiikians of Iran, or Perfia> 
At large 1 and of Kerman. 

S E C T. I. 
Tbi authority on which the Scljftk hiftory is grounded. 

BESIDES the empires which the Turks eftabllfhed inSeljukim 
Tartary, their native country, they founded four g&xdynefties. 
monarchies in the fouth of AJia. The three firft were 
"poflefled by the princes of the fame family, called Seljuk, 
lad Turks, of the feme tribe or tribes. The fourth, by 
kbces of the family of Othman, or Ozman (A), with their 're- 
V&ve followers. Of thefe we propofe to give the hiftory 
Ifcftrder; and are fnffidently funrifhed with materials for fet- 
Ihg the Othmtn affairs in a very good light. We could with, 
£r the reader's fake, that we were*but half as well provided 

(A) Otbman is the Jral pro- JUm, which is moitly followed 
JPfciationi Ozman, the Per- by \bz Turks. 

j6 Gtneral Hiftory of the Seljftks, fi. I. 

to treat of the Seljuk dynafties. The misfortune is, that, al* 
though many Perfian and Arab authors have penned their 
hiftory at large, but few copies in the original language have 
as yefappeared in this part of Europe; and none of them been 
tranflated into any European tongue. 
Oriental 'Tis true fhat two or three oriental historians have been 
biftorians. rendered into Latin, which fpeak of the Seljuk affairs ; as 
Abtil-faraj (B), Ebn Amid, called Al Makin (C), and the Let* 
tarikb{D) of Amir Tahia ; but although thefe furniih us with 


(B) Theworkof GregoryAbul- 
faraj, near the Euphrates, is in- 
titled, a compendious hiftory of 
dynafties, or lucceflions. It is 
written by way of annals, and 
takes in the tranfa&ions df the 
moil remarkable kingdoms, 
from the beginning; of the world 
to the end of the thirteenth cen- 
tury. He is remarkable for 
giving a good account of the 
Mogol affairs under Jenghiz 
Khan, and his fuccefibrs, to 
that time. He likewife has in- 
ferted many remarkable parti- 
culars relating to the Seljuk dy- 
nafties ; efpecially that of Rum, 
or Natalia, which he had an 
opportunity of knowing, as 
having been a phyfician ofMa- 
latia, a city of that country 
near the Euphrates. His hi- 
ftory, in Arabic, with a Latin 
nanflation, was publifhed by 
Dr. Edward Pocock, that great 
mafter in the oriental learning, 
as well as languages. 
- (C) George, the fon of Abul- 
yafer al Amid, compiled a hi- 
story out of feveral authors, 
particularly Abu Jaffar Al Ta- 
imri, and Kemal oddin Armuni. 
The firft a very copious au- 
thor ( i'). It begins at the crea- 
tion, and reaches down to' the 
year of Chrift 1 1 27. The lat- 


ter part, ftiled Tarikb AlMofa 
lemin, or the hiftory of the Mof 
letns, was publifhed by Erpe 
nius (but from a very faultj 
copy), both in folio and o&avq 
in 1625. The former has join 
ed with it a Latin tranflation 
which is alfo publifhed feparate 
ly in quarto, under the title 
Hiftoria Saracenica. He 
for his learning called Al SbeyM 
al Kdis al Makin ; that is, th 
prime do 51 or y folidly learned 
flence his translator ftiles 
Al Makin : but all others qui 
him by the name of Ebn Ami 
or the fon of Amid, who w; 
fecretary for 45 years to 
council of war under the Sol 
of Egyft, of the family of Jyul 
or Job 1 and, on his father 5 
death, fucceded him 
employment (2). 

(D) The Lebtarikb, or 1 
Al Tawarik, is written in P, 
fan by the Amir Tahia Ebn A 
eTollatifof Kax*vin, in the ye 
1 541 (3). This is a very bri 
hiftory of the Mohammedan mo 
narchies and thofe preceding 
Mohammed. It was tranflated 
into Latin by M. Golmin, a 
Frenchman ; but part of the CO** 
j>y, at the beginning and cad* 
is loft 1 the remainder was pub- 
lifhed by Mr. De Tbewexot, m. 


(1) See the author's p-eamhU. (i\ Vil, Wft. Saracen, fag. uh* Bydb 

it reiig. vtt t Per/or, FridetitXi life of Mahomet. }. t86. (3) He}* 94?. 


C 2. And its authority. jy 

{he origin of thofe monarchies, and a fucceffion of their 

idogs, with many fafts, and their dates, not to be met with 

inourweftern writers; yet they are all too general to give 

fbch a light into the hiftory of them, as might be fufficient 

to frosty the curious. The two firft authors likewife, being 

digefted in the form of annals, the Seljuk hiftory is given 

nixed with that of other ftates, and not in one continued 

fries, as it is in the Lebtarfkh : but then this latter, 1 beiides 

its great concifenefs, treats only of the firft Seljuk monarchy, 

ud AlMakin of no more than the fix firft princes of that line. 

These defefts indeed are fomewhat fupplied by D'Her* 

belot; who has made an extraft of the hiftory of the refpec- 

o>e kings of each dynafty from Mtrkond, often mentioned 

| before, and other Perfian hiftqrians. But Texeira, who has 

I given an abftralt of Mtrkond, fo far as relates to the hiftory 

| of Perjia, lays very little of the Seljuks, except Ttgril Bek, 

or of their affairs, and that very imperfe&ly, as well as in 

conhilion. Perhaps he grew tired towards the end of his 

work, or was afraid of welling it too much; for we pre- 

'fcme his author Mtrkond has handled matters in a more ex- 

aft and particular manner. 

; As for the Creek or Byzantine hiftorians (both thofe who The wef- 
i wrote by way of annals, or fuch as penned the lives of parti- em <wr£- 
;cnlar emperors), they give fuch imperfect, confufed, and er- ten 
frooeoas accounts of all tranfa&ions which happened without 
fte bounds of the Roman empire, that fcarce any thing true, 
of moment, is to be expefted from them. This may ap- 
from the hiftories of the Arabs, the Khalifahs, and other 
rfian monarchies, as well as that of the Seljuks ; compiled 
of them by Curio, Lonicerus, Bizarus, Leunclavius, and 
authors. Thefe our Knowles made ufe of in his volu- 

work; which, confequendy, muft be like the origi- verj de- 

a confufed imperfeft mafs, fall of chafms and intrica-yfeArvr;' 

nor to be depended on, either as to the fa&s, dates of 

i, or even names of places and perfons : in which they 

fo much, that it would be utterly impoffible for any 

to reconcile them (£), or make any good ufe of their 

materials, . 

peoDection of voyages and one of the copies, which were 

Nds. It is obfervabie, that made ufe of by thofe two gen* 

bemads given from the Leb* tie men, neither of whom can 

MV by Mr. WHtrbelot, who be fuppofed capable of ex* 

fa makes ufe of it, fome- pounding their author fo ill. 

Ms differ widely, and even (£) The reader may find a 

ttndi& the text of Golmin : remarkable inftance of this ia 

R the fault muft needs be in the learned and judicious Lam- 

f davits, 

y8 General Hiftory df the Seljtiks, ftt 

jnatefials, without the affiftance of the oriental authors 19 
direft his fteps. 

Our readers will eafily perceive this, by only (lightly com: 
paring the account, which we fhali give him, of the Sdjfy 
dynafties, with that furnifhed by any of the above-memiopgj. 
authors : fQr although Leunclavius ha>th gone far beyond thg 
reft, with regard to the hiftory of the Otbman Turks, as be? 
ing taken in part from the Turkifb hiftorians ; yet what little 
he hath coUe&ed in relation to the Scljuks is almoft wholly 
drawn from European authors, having had no oriental Writerf 
to help 'him out. 
jttofufe. However, it is not to be thought, by what has bee* 
faid, that the Byzantine and otlier weftern hiftorians are of 
no ufe in writing the hiftory of the Turks : on the contra]* 
as the latter Greek emperors had wars with the Seljtiks tt 
Well as the Otbmpns, fo thofe wars, related fometimes, £ 
detail, fometimes very fuperfkially, make a part of thejt 
hiftory ; and hence it is that we fometimes meet with traofc 
a&ions not to be found in the oriental authors. Whi<5h fhewsy 
that to write the hiftory of a nation with any completenefi* 
it is abfolutely neceflary to confult the hiftories of thofe na- 
tions with whom it hath had hoftilities* or other concerns, 
Turkifli ' Besides, although in relating the affairs of the Turks, f0 
biflorians. ought in reafon to give preference to Turkifb authors, a* 
every nation muft be needs be beft acquainted with thek 
own tranfaftions, yet we are not to expeft abfolute pa* 
fe&ion and exaftnefs from them : for they fometimes didfif 
in the account they give of the origin of th^ir monarchies, d 
well as in the actions and reigns of their princes, with refpefl 
to their beginning and length : but this is no more than wn 
happens to the hiftorians of all other nations ; for often thl 
rife of the ftates being attended with various changes, befog 
they come to be fettled, and their founders obfcure or incari 
liderable^perfons, it is therefore difficult fometimes to fix tig 
Remarks origin of either. Befides, the memory of many traflfa&ioqj 
§n them, and events is loft or obfcured in the confufion introduce 
in countries by wars and revolutions; efpeeially, if they I 

tlcwius, who, examining into the Armenian (1), of the fift 

the original of the Seljiks, as kings of that race, in favour^ 

delivered by feveral authors, all the falfe account given .by O 

difagreeing among themfelves ; ' drentu, and other Greek wd 

was fo preplexed in his judg- ters (2), as we fhall haVe ocflj 

went, as to reject the true lift fion to ihew hereafter. • 
given by Ayton, or Hay ton, the 

hfi. Muful Turk. I. u f. 71. tdit. W.tcbtl. 15Q1. . 

0. i» till ttxy entmd Ptrfe; 7$ 

*f any long continuance. However, as fome hiftorlans art 
4vre exaft as well as particular tHan others, and it being 
misfortune, as yet, to have only extracts from the orien* 
and thofe not from any hiftorian who has written ex- 
[y on the fubjeft, it is therefore presumed, that the reader, . 
:-ever he meets with any fuch imperfections in the fol- 
hiftory, will rather impute them to thefe lafl than to 
^ firft-mentioned caufes. 
"This we judge to be doing no more than what is yaS&cs^^xtrmBi 
to the authors from whence the extracts before us axzfromtkeM: 

in order to prevent our reader's taking Up any hafty 

dices againft the oriental writers in general, from the 

:s which he may difcover in the few fcanty materials 

of which we are obliged to £ompofe the hiftory of the / 

" , for want of more copious memoirs. And indeed 

is the more reafon for this apology in their favour, 

the extracts, in queftion differ in certain particulars,, 

among the reft, in thofe relating to the origin of the Scl- 

, and the eftablifhment of their monarchies. ' 

SECT, n, 

origin of the Seljfikians, and their entrance into 

LJUK, or Saljuk, the founder of the SeljUk dynafty of Scljuk hit 
Iran, or Perfia at large, according to the Lebtarikh % defccnt t 
ived his origin from Afrafiah, often before mentioned », 
was the thirty-fourth defcendant from that prince, in a 
male line. 

But Mirkondy in his account of the genealogy of Jcnghiz 
"r, fays, that Seljuk was oi^Mogol race, and defcended 

Bojiin Salji, fon of Jlank&wa b . 

Mr. GuigueSy in his memoir concerning the origin of the 

u and Turks, extracted from the Chinefe hiftorians, feems 

►think, that the Seljuks were derived from a ftock different 

both the former. He relates, that the children of 

fen llkhen, or Tumeria Khan ; who, defcended from Bu- 

jir, the fon of Jlankdwa, imitating the example of their 

", formed an empire, which extended from the Caffrian 

to Korea : that this empire, being too large to continue 

[long intire, at length became divided into two ; the eafterti 

^tnd the upeftern; -each of which bad its own Khan : that 

; :* Seep. 3, & feq. b See before. D'Herbelqt, p.* 


! • • - the- 

$6 General Hi/lory cf the Seljftks, B. L 

the empire of the weftern Turks, which extended as far as , 
the river Sih&n, or Sir, was often formidable to the lungs of 
Perjia j particularly Hormozd 9 fon df JE^a JnufHrwan, with 
whom they had confiderable wars : that, in procefe of time, 
other Turks, of the hbrd of Whey-ke, deftroyed the empire 
of the weftern Turks, and founded a new empire of their 
own : and 'tis from thefe Whey-ke, that, in the opinion of Mir. 
• Cuigues, the four Seljuk dynamics, which reigned in the 
fouthern JJia, were defcended. 

According to this hypothefis, the Seljuk tribe could nor 
be defcended from either Afrajiab Khan, or Jlankawa. But 
as this is only a conjecture of Mr. Cuigues, and he has pro- 
duced no arguments to fupport it, we (hall leave it, and re* 
, turn to the account given by Mtrkond. This author informs 
us more particularly as to the family of Seljuk, that he wa» 
the fon of Dekak, chief officer of Bigu, prince of thofe Turkifb 
tribes which inhabited the plain of Khoz&r (A), or KificMk, 
to the north of the Ca/pian fea. Dekak was fo renowned, among 
, thofe of his nation, for his extraordinary wifdom and valour, 
that they gave him the furname of Tazialig, which fignifies 
ajlrong bow, and hard to manage. After his death, the Jong 
took care to educate Seljuk, who was very young ; and, not* 
doubting but the fon of fuch a father would make a v4S% 
brave man, furnamed him Bajfajbi; that is; Chief, or Ca±- 
tain. As he advanced in years, . the Soltan heaped favours on j 
him : but, forgetting his duty to fo good a prince, he one 
day prefumed to enter the fecret apartment of the palace, and 
would needs fee his women and children. 
and fur- BIGU, being informed of this infolence, was refolved to 
tune. punifti him feverely for it. But Seljuk, getting fome know* 
lege of his defign, thought it beft to avoid his anger, by: 
efcaping in time. Accordingly, having gathered all his friends \ 
and people, who were attached to his family, he retired, witf 
his effetts ; and (croffing the Sihun, or Sir), drew toward* 3 
Samarkand (B). Belli Khan, governor of that city (G), 
reliihing fuch neighbours, refolved to oblige them to 
at a diftance : but Seljuk, having augmented his forces, got«j 
the better of him in feveral engagements. In one efpectsllf \ 

(A) On this occafion D'Her- 375, and of Chrifl 985, *Q»j 
htlot obferves, that thefe Kip- cording to the Ltbtari&i whidlfr/ 
chdk Turks are Khorarians, fays, the motive of their expf- a 
jvhom the Greek and Latin hi- dition was to feck paftnre. ~ 
ftorians, who fpeak of the wars (C) Tis not faid for whom g* 
of the emperor Heraclius and but at this time Mawarttinkmr 
Kbofroes, call Ararians. teems to have been under tte 

(B) This wzs in the Hcjrah Kbftn of Turhfiin. . . 

be obtained a tonfidetable advantage, by means of ail am- 
brigade; which was fo weU conduced, that he acquired a 
great reputation throughout the country. This fuccefs laid 
wfi* foundation of nis greatnefs, and emboldened him tb 
pefent himfcif before Bokhara ; where he was very \veU r$- 

JOflivpK t 

MIkKOND mentions nothing of the death of Selj&il**m 
v Wuch we learn from two other aifthors, Ebn Amid and - £fci Tnrktf- 
f hobnob *(I>) ; who differ foniQwhat in their* account of him • 
hothirom that hiftorian, and from one another. Ebn Amid rc- 
kes, ^hat Dahnk, Seftuk's ftiher* being aXviic as well asitout 
Jtaaii, was always the king of the Turks, and cat- 
tied tf ith him in Ids wars : that he Was the &cA of his fami- 
ly who embraced Mtbamrhidifin : that his fori Sdjtik, being 
Jjf age, wh&n he (Bed, the king made him general of all Ha 
'Andes: but that) afterwards, apprehending danger from hit 
xrafty dHpofition, he refolved to kill hiiri { which coming to the 
knqwkge of Sd&uk y he fled to Harm Sahab Odda-wia, king 
tiGhdbia,, anddefired aid of him, to go and conquer th* 
JDonntry.trf the iqfidel Turks : that Harm furhifhed him with 
Jjrainatyis army/ to execute his defign ; but that, in a battle , 

.%ih.diofc mfideb, Setfuk was flaih, when he Was 107 years. 
**± ' ' 

According to Ebn Shohitab, Seljuk's father wa$ named Stttfo 
bokfr, <xr' Dobnak, which, in Turkijb, fignifies a hammer • about ^ 
dut at prefent is pronounced Tohmk. Seljuk Was chief of BoW»r** 
tme of thp pfiqeipal families of Turkejldn ; and, as he was 
always followed by a great number t>f relations, and others, 
■wko were m his* inteffcft, the king grew jealous of the great 
Whopty which he had acquired, and obliged him to depart 
& dominions. 

, " StLJUK upbn this retired into the countries of the 
M&finmtdanSy where he embraced their religion. His firft 
^tjjement was, at a place called Joud, "which depended on the 
$fj of Bokjxtra, in Mawara'Inahr. From Whence he con- 
$flpally made incuxfions upon the infidel part of the Turks j 

* D'Hkrbelot Bibl. orient, p. 600, art. Selgiuki* 
f:pi*,AM*D Hift.^Saracen. p. 351. 

.(!>) The furname qf Mubi- the author of feveral works j 

miiin &*,l <walid Mohammed, among the red, of a very exalt 

Jbjvas. a gttsit jdoftor, of the htftory from the creation to the 

jfr&sf.Hajofah, and high (jhan- year 806; that is, of. (Thrift 

\\mtotf. the Arabian Irak. iHe 1403. D'litrltlot, pag. 79a* V > 

<#d in the year of. the Btjrah Art. Schhr.ab. ' ' V 

W3; of Chrift 1478. fie Ts 

Mod. Hist. Vol* IV. G whom 

*fc Genital Hifiory of the Setyiks, . B. I. 

- whom he harrafled during the whole courfe of hb life : in 
the length whereof. Ebn Shonah agrees with Ebn Amid \ but 
mentions nothing about his death. 

His fins. ' The Perfian hiftorians unanimoufly agtee, that Sc/jtik (E) 

• had four fons ; but (Jiffer a. little as to their. names; which, 
according to the Lebtarikh, were Mika'el, Ifrael, Mujfa, and 
Turns : but Mirkond calls the laft Bigu, and not Tunas. Ebn 
Shohnab gives him only three foas ; whom he names Aifr 
Arjlan, Mika'el, and Mujfa (F). While Ebn Amid feeins to 

- allow him only one ; that is, Mika'el ; from whom the 
founders of the Seljuk monarchy are unanimoufly acknow- 
leged to have been defended e . The fons of Seljuk became 

• very powerful in friends, and rich in lands as well as flocks *, 
, especially Mika'el; than whom, great numbers of Turks ac- 

• knowleged no other fuperior : and, when Soltan Mahmud 
. Ebn Sabektekin palled the JibAn, with forces, to the aiEftance 

of Warar Khan (G), king of Mawara'lnabr, Mika'el went to 
. falute that prince; who, admiring his courage, and the great 
fubmiflion which his family paid him, intreated .him to re* 
main about his perfon, and, at his return, to accept of the 
government of Kboraf&n, in order to defend it againft the 
invafion of enemies. On Mikaeps declining the Saltan's 
offer, Mahmud, enraged, fent him in chains to prifon, and, 
returning to Khorajan, (Ml kept him in durance. However, 
the foldiers and family of Mika'el followed the Soltan, and 
fettled in the plain of Khorafm. This is Altabari's account 

* D'Herbblot, ubi fupr. p. 801. f Lebtarikh. 

(£) It is Seljuk, who is to mius had a fon, called MwM*- 

: be underftood by Haythons Sa- let ; and that MtterTs brother 

dock (i), and not Tangrolipix, had two fons, KutluMufes (Kb- 

Or Togrol Bek 9 as Leunclavius tul Mijh), . and Abimelekb \ of 

writes (2) ; for Haytbon makes whom more hereafter. 
Sadok the father of Dogrifa (G) Other "hiftorians, as hath •■ 

(which ftands for Dogri Shah, been before fet forth, (peak of ; 

or Dogri/ Shah) ; who ib evident • Mahmud as undertaking this ear- ■ 

]y Togrol Beg. pedition on his own account 

(F) Cedrenus makes Mikeil againft Kara Khan of Turkeftam* ; 

the father of Tdnjrrolipix (as he or of Karakitay. If fo. War*? \ 

writes Togrol Bekj; Habramius- Khan muft be a miftake for 

Alim, AfpamSallarius (fo he Kara Khan; and bringing aid 

calls Alp ArJIan) ; and a third to him, a miftranflation far 

fon, whom he does not name, bringing forces againit him ; 

He adds, that this laft left a which is not unlikely to be the 

fon, called Afan (or Uaffan), cafe, confidering how faulty * 

•furnaroed the Deaf: that Habra- copy Erpenius made ufe of. 

(1) Baitb. de Tarrant, cap, xv. p. 377. edit. Gryn. 101. u\ ff M * 

Mu(uk Turk. i. i. p. 71. edit. Wubtl, 1^1. J W "**" 

C. i. tttt they feuled* in Perfla. « ;$j 

cf the manner in which the Seljukians firft entered Pigfo *. 
Bat other authors reprefent the occafion very differently. 

M1RKOND relates, that fflikael deceafed very young 5 
and Ehn Shthnah fays exprefly^ that he died in Mawara'lnabr\ 
in the war ifrhich he waged with the infidels ; and that, for 
this reafon, he is dignified in the genealogy of the SeljMaru 
with the title of Shedid, or Shad/d; that is, martyr. Ac- 
cording to the Lebtarikh, and M*rkond, Mika'el left two fons, Heirs of 
Mohammed and Dawd, who were afterwards called TogrolScfybk* 
Beg and Jaffar Beg (H) : but Ebn Shohnah adds to thefe a 
third, whom he places before the other two, as if the eldeft, 
called Tebegu ; but poflibly this is Begu, whom he has omitted 
among the fons of Seljuk, and reckoned to Mikael. How- 
ever that be, We are told by Mirkond, that Seljuk took great 
care to educate his two grandfons ; and, by his will, left them 
fole heirs to all his effefts and growing ftate; The young 
princes, having arrived at the age fit to bear arms, were ^ 
mailers of fo much addrefs and conduct, as well as valour, 
that in a fhort fpace they greatly enlarged their fmall .territo- 
ries, by the defeat of feveral princes of Mawar&lnahr ; who 
became their vaflals. The news' of thefe victories coming to ' 
the ears of jyiahmud (firft Soltin of the Gaznah family, who 
reigned in Khorafan), he fent to defire them to fend fome 
trofty perfon to him, in order to treat about an affair of im- 

ISRAEL, the uncle of the young princes, offered to re-IfraeT/ 
pair to the Soltan ; who received him with great civility and"**"*- 
honour :. but ope day, being defirous to know what number oi ture * 
troops he was able to furnifh him with, in cafe of need; 
lfrdel replied, that if the Soltan would fhoQt one of the two 
arrows, which he held in his hand, into their camp, 40,000 
horfe would immediately fet out, for his fervice : that if he 
fliot the other into the Ordu of Bilkhan (I), he might corn- 
Hand 50,000 ; and the Soltan aiking, how many could be 
had, if there was very preffing occafion, Ifrael told him, that 
if he would fend his bow into Turkeftan, 200,000 Turks would 
Mfee forth to his affiftance. This difcourfe fo alarmed Mahmud, 
that, to prevent danger, he feized Ifrael, and fecured him in a 
ttffle; where he died. Thiscaftle is named Kale?ijar(K) f end death* 

1 the author of the Nighiariftdn ; who fays, he was confined 
re feven years. The fame writer fpeaks of the Seljukians with 

t Ebn Amid, p. 332. 

(H) Jbulfaraj calls him (I) The author of the Night- 
, jagri Beg. Thefe rather were ariflan calls this place Biljan. • 
, their firft names. (K) A caftle in Kborajan. • 

G 2 great 

r 4 Gteral Bjttty of ti»$il]bk$; tl 

£reat iSmtefnpt ; and fays, they were defcended from the a*, 
ticnt "fttrfon&ns. As a proof of this, he alleges the reproaches 
?wfrich Majjud, third Saltan of the Gazni rice, and AfUm. 
4ted, Saltan of the Karaz7trians, made them, on account rf 
tfefe brfenefs of their original h . However, the Setjtiks kxftal 
Vpon that imputation as a great dishonour to them, aod 
treated .it "with the utmoft contempt. 
?2»Sfcl- ftisroRiAMs differ about the time when the Seljukiatt 
jfikiaw ififft pafled the JiMn, to enter into Perfta. Some fay, it was 
ki-the retgn of Mahmud, the firft Soltan of the Gazni race, 
and by his permiffion ; others, in that of his fan M&ffud. Of 
the firil fehtiment are JbM-faraj, the Lebtarikh, and A 

THfc Lcbtartkh relates, that, on their having ctemandel 
leave to crofs the river, Arftdn Jazeb, "governor of the city 
Tus (L), in Khorafafty was of Opinion, that their requeftAcraW 
fe>t be granted, left thefe four families of the childftttf df 
£*//&, which were already pretty numerous, fliould ctartr 
others 'to them ; but that Mahmud, who confided too much 
in 'his own power, rejected the governor's counfel 5 and, hot 
ohly granted their demand, but dlfo permitted tfoem to ietdf 
Jn rhe neighbourhood of Ndffa and Bawerd (M); Vtois ©0* 
terty : irtcreefed fo much in a (hart time, v by tte continual poft 
ftge of Tufks, ^ho joined them (as the governor Jmscb hrf 
forefeen), that the inhabitants of Khorafdn began to*. be fe( 
'fair of them, and refolved to get rid of thofe new gtaefajj 
Vhom they looked on as datagerous neighbours (N). J 

h Mirkond ap. JDUejb. p. 800. Art. Selgiuki. ! 

< fL) It is alfo Called Mafibad, fettts them quite otherwift) 

or, The flace of the Martyr d 9 There vie are told, that Tcgrd 

ffdm the tomb of hum Riza, Btk and JefarBck, had fom* 

who was murdered there; and thing To royal in their afpec^ 

is a great place of pilgrimage. that the people of Khoraflk 

(M) The firft is called alfo were extremely fond of them] 

Miyjcrd, and the latter Nefa, and had recourfe to (hem, M 

<Jr LittU Damaftus, about 1 20 decide their differences : thj 

miles from the river Jibuti or this was the caufe of MabmtJk 

Jhnu, and from each other, hatred to them : that the Sim 

*They '-are often mentioned in juks having beaten an rarrIM 

Abulgbazi Khan's hiitory of the fent againft them, Mab/rued-prm 

%*rts, by the names of Iburdu pared to be ^revenged ; b|it c|J 

and Nafaj; and, when he wrote, troubles in India calling hid 

belonged to the kingdom 'of thuher, he left the conduct o 

Karaxm^ . the war to AJbi, governor O 

(N) This Account h taken Kbora/dn ; who was adio 4q 

from D'Hcrbctofs extract, p. fenced. i 

Soo ; but Grtmin* copy repre- 

c.t; mfyjHtUbifrtf* H 

SBN AMW Hffpees, in the makv with tfia UktarikLf*/' the 
ftteJt$o$> that Malmid before he <Jkd repented much of J lh & n - 
kaviqg fuffered the Seijukians to .remain in his domioiops ^ 
faring (hey might feiw them after his death K 

ABWl-FARAJ goes further. AU1 on this head. Jfe 
writes, that in the year 42Q, while T^ro/ Ay, with his hro- A D. 
tfcr* ttevxl and ifcfga, were ftill in Ma i mara % lnQhr % the Gaz 102^. 
Turks (0), under ^ryftw (P) f fqa of Sf (jui, ravaged Khorqfin : : 
that, however, r^ Qddawh Mahmud drove them opt of 
that province : but that the enemy, carrying vith them about 
2000 tents, went to Isfahan. Tcgrol Beg f with his brothers 
Dwdznd Biga, the fans of Mikdel ( QJ, were then iri ifcfa*. 
XM&lmhr. Sqm$ of the C4z> after being expelled Khora* 
jk, ftaped their way into the fcrpvince of Adtrhijfa, wfyer* 
they took the city of Maraga, burnt the temple, and n*ade 
t great (Btughter of the people ; among whom ^vere many 
ImAs (R). After this fome went to Ray, others to Han\4- 
tin and Maufel, which they alfo tqojt k . 

Some hiftprians have .written, that Soltan tyahmud gave Under Sol> 
itSdjukians liberty to crofs the Jihual »Q order to, feize the'*" Mat 

" riches whkh they had amaffed, by the plunder of tfic/^d. 
Wriucs in Mawara'lnabr. 

But, in opposition to all this, ■ Mir fcn4 affirms, that the 
Ujik Turks t who had already made a gre*t aoife in Pefja, 
p&A the Jihm % or Amu y not in the reign pf Mabtnyd; bVit 
if bis fon Majfuij in the year 434> ui*4£F *h* eppduft of A, IX. 
Togrol Beg and Jaffar 2fcg-; who, fettling themfclves abopt lo 3'« 
Ike cities before-mentioned, foon after begpn tq make, uiqir«» 
ftv iftto the neighbouring provinces \ 

* « *■ 


tranfafliohssn Perfia, and founding of their J&yfc 
monarchy there* 

)UT the rime that the &#«* JTfcrJk entered /Vryk; th$S'*tf *f 
* provinces of JChcrafSn, Saileftan, Gazncth, Perjian IrvK ? cvii ** 
Jorjaziy and part of India, were under Irlajfud^ 

M Amid, p. 333. k AbxjVfajiaj Jiift. dypaJL. p,"z2Z* 
JEHB, p. 562, & 80 f, art. Selgiuk and Maffoud. 

!|f0} The Gaz Turks are pro- ( QJ Spn of Sfljut, fan, of 
ty lurkmtms. They gave 21?i^. 

tumtoGaxarid. <R), Of t^ie f/^ Ba^h 

?) This m.uft he the rfty ttibe. Aaptb^f cojpy ijias ^f 
e 'lQf Eba S boh nab. Harayyab* 

G 3 third 

16 General Hi/lory of the Seljtiks, B.I. 4 

third Soltan of the Gazni race. The reft of Perfia (A) was 
in the hands of Ab&lganjar, by others called Kalrjar, one 
of the princes of the family of Buy ah, or Bowyah ; who had 
reigned in Pars (or Proper Perfia), and Kerman, both the 
Perfian and Arabian Irdks, Mazanderdn, and Jorjan, Diyar- 
bekr (or part of Mefopotamia), and in Baghdad : to the ju- 
rifdiftion of which city, the dominions of the Khalfah, once 
fo very extenfive, were now almoft wholly confined. 
mt this As to the provinces of Mawardtnahr and Khorafan, it is 

junQure, fomewhat dubious what power they belonged to. From fome 
circumftances in the hiftory of the Gazni Soltans, they fhould 
be in the pofleffion of Majfud, third Soltan of that race * : by 
other circumftances, Maward'lnahr, or at leaft a good portion 
of it, feems* to have been in fubjeftion partly to the Khan of. 
Turkefidn, and partly to feveral princes of its own k . Ebn 
Armd, as hath been related, makes it fubjett to its own mo- 
narch. Poffibly all thofe different princes might have had a 
(hare in it'; and the confufion which the country muft have 
been in, from fo many contending powers, doubdefs favoured 
greatly the quiet entrance of the Seljiiks into that province: 
but it is not probable they had conquered the Whole before 
they entered Perfia, as Mirkond, in his genealogy of Jenghiz 
Khan, aflerts ; not only becaufe he elfewhere brings proof to 
the contrary, as hath been fhewn, but becaufe fuch a fuppo- 
fition is quite inconfiftent with the fubmiflion which the 
fame author tells us they offered to MaJJud, on their arrival in 
Raifefim According tQ this hiftorian, as foon as they had fat 
common down about Neffa and Bawerd, they fent an exprefs to that 
/; h'- ; h Soltan (who afcended the throne in 421,) to demand a place 
Hejrah ^ f ett i ement . offering to fwear obedience and fidelity to "| 
A**D k™' B ut Maffud receivfed the ambaiTadqr very ill ; and, J 
' " among other difobliging things, laid, that he never heard of \ 
the Seljuk/am/7v, although he was him/elf a Turk by defcent, ' 
and therefore ought to be id ell acquainted with all the illuftrious 
houfes of that nation. When the Seljukians were informed 1 
with what contempt the Soltan had treated both their am* 
baflador and family, they prepared iqv war c ; and, according 
to Mirkond, as related by Texeira, whilft Majfid was fub* 

duing the provinces of Jorjan and Tabreftm, in the year , 

« ' 

• Texeir. hift. Per. p. 292. b See before, p. 5&£feq. j 

* D'Hbkb.- p. 801, art. Sdgiujc. j 

{A) AsPdrs, or Proper Perjta, bijan, with Arabian Irak, of 
ftr*i*i Khvze/lan, and 4mr- which Baghdad was the capital, 


C.ti till they fettled in Perfuu .-■> 87, 

426, made fame commotions in Khorajan ; but {at flill upon 
his return (B). 

Although their affairs were not fettled, yet the Soltia Defeat 
would go into India, .againft the advice of his generals. InSoitan 
his abfence they made incurfions throughout the country, Mafi&d: 
from Khorajan to Par j (or Proper PerJiaJ, with fo much fuc- 
cds that they obliged Alia oddawlat Ebn Kakuya and Abu) 3- 
lah to quit their governments of Rey and IJpahan, which the 
&$?«fcr feized, with other parts of Perjia. This was about 
428 : by which time Majfud returned from his Indian expe- 
! ditbn to Gaznah ; and, two years after, fet out again for Hcjrah 
Jorjan. In his way, being informed, that Nur Takkin, go- 428. 
wnor of Balkh, opprefled them, he moved towards him, A. D. 
though "in a hard froft; but, when advanced about half I0 3^* 
way, turned back againft Da-wd Seljuk, who was marching 
with coniiderable forces to affift Nur Takkin ; and, though 
this latter fell on his rear, and took molt of his baggage, yet 
he held on his way till he met David; by whom being over- 
thrown, he fled to Gaznah ; where he put to death many of 
[the Turks who ferved under him (C) ; becaufe they had mif- 
tehwed in the tattle d . 

\ TEXEIRA feems to have omitted the mod remarkable Take 
jdrcumftance, relating to the eftablifhment of the Scljtik mo-Tu(h and 
JBarchy. Ebn Amid, is more particular. This author writes, MifcaMr* 1 

£lMaJfud, furnamed Abufayd (foon after Mahm&ds death),' 
t an army againft the Seljuk Turks ; who were defeated, 
ifid fome of them taken prifoners. Not long after this, Mikaef 
tab Seljuk dying (D), his foldiers put themfelyes under the' 
pMnmand of his fon Mohammed AbutMib, furnamed Togritf 
$eg\ who, attacking Majfud's army, routed it, and purmed 
thai to Tus : which he befieged, and took. This is the firft 
kky which fell into the hands of the Seljukians ,;, who aflem- 
Jbi there, and fortified it. After this they fubdued Ni/bd-, 

Meanwhile Majfud fled into India, where he (laid ^Conquer 
hag time : fo that Khorajan being deferted by him, the *S^Khora- 
1 fan. 

! * Texiir. p. 292, 8c feq. D'Herb. p. 562, art. Mofibud. 

i (B) In tixeEngliJh ofTexeira, (D) From what has been faid 
1*7 are always written Satin- before about MikaeTs death, it 
W* t or Salinouij, infteadof Sal* fhould feem that he is named 
k or rather Saljvkians ; and' here (and perhaps in the former 
J$karBek y inftead otJaftarBek. place) by Ebn Amid, or the an- 
! (C) Great part of his forces, thors he copied from, inftead 
m almoft all his chief officers, of IJraeL 
■ere TwrJu. 

G 4 jtks 

it General mjt&ry of tliWfiY^ B.t: 

Hejrah jiii mkik 4fe of tfc* Opp'Of ttmlty, aw* «A^Q<9W if. jtijfc 

439- fM. upon advice of this t returned from India ; but t&f 

A-l>. Sel)uklans x advancing to meet him, fftit fcfita t6 ffi(ht (6): 

io 5 8 < yponwM^h tft Khaltfah jttyM B&trtrtitdl re&romtafiS 

to them' the defence of thifc country of tfcfe Mtfiahi (t). 

MaJIM, incenfed h^reat, matched 4 agajtfft thfem * bn£ tfley 

made hiiri. turn Kfe back a feeoftd time. And tifcf$ thdf dn-. 

plre was eftablifhed in the year of the Itejrdh 436, of ChM 

1639 c . 

jfrrtv .,£*# ^^ /.*> Wis to mkntlon either whSn JtyBJMr 

founded was taken, or that Togrul Bek afefendeo! the thfofte there ; 

both which happened by the general coftfent of fiiftorfe&ti f , 

ih the year 429, fronTwhente they date the beginning of hS 

reign., _and the Sefjuk monarchy. 

, AccbkriiNq to Mfrkond (G), as delivered by I?lt&bi&t , j 

as foon as Togrpl Beg was ackndwteged for king .in Hit StJ; 

A. D. rif MJBaMr, in the year 429, he fen,t his brcrttter #gfar | 

%0 S7' Bek to fubdue the city and county of Herfi, or #m\ In tKS 

fame province of Khorafan : which fconqnert beim* foon pcr- 

- formed, hfe placed one of his ufcclS there, tq govern ft, til, 

the mean time he marched himfeff to Meru (H), and, having' 

fhtir ,, he made it his royal feat. AlFt£r this he jJut Khara- 

rtyoljiat.fjn under new regulations; ind, by that means, fupprefled 

the. (jifprders which had reigned thfcte for a long Qihe. 

^HE fame year, which was 429, fcoltin MaJflU Guznk 
^mbled ail, his forces t6 drive the Seljikidns otft aF hfo 
4pminiohs: but the two brothers, having alfo coifedte^ 1 
their troops, after an exceeding blbodjr battle galnted fo com? 
pletfc a v*6l6ry f that MaJJud found lie had tta farther bofine^ 
\Si'Kh6raJan. ' • -.•■■ -* 

• fein AMib, p. 332, & feq. f A*'.trL-fr4&Al bift. djr* 

Ifltft. p. 225. L^btarikh, p. 42', and in D'Hsib. p. too* 

.(fc) According to Abul-far*} in his. place: and the rather* 

M<0ud, marching, from' .Grata fince Konddmir t being only ail 

to dalkby drove' the Seljuks out abridgment of Mir fond, caJuioC 

of Khorafd^ the year after they be fuppofed to differ from h»m. * 
had taken A r j^££«#«(i). (fy There are two cities of 

w IF) That is, believers, qr this name in Khvrafim ; 

Mohammedans , . 130 miles nortfi : eaft of iUrrft^ 

. (G) P7/*r<Mtf llldeedquqtes the othpr 140 noYth of it" fcr 

Kontbmr - u bat as h$ confounds wards the river Jibuti [or JftmJL 

the two author tog^er, as hath This I a ft, called Meru or hf*r& 

b^Q obf^rved before (2), we Shabjdtt, Is the place mentipoc^ 

make no fcraple to put Mirfond in the text. 

(1) Abt?l-f*r< p. $26. (^ p^. 4 , 8^, o. • 

i Having 

mitPC rotated WMat the orient** Hftpria** dafoer GfrEmmnus 
ctmfrg tfafe fe w mhti oft of, the Scfjwt n^ohafeby, fet us. £**«*««, 
what die £swrik have faid opoa the , fame fobjeft. Two 
of «b*fri, Gedrtm) and ti'tttphtrui Brjenftus are mare parti* 
iteUr tfeftt thefeft* anl fpteJc nearly aiiket In the yea* iojo^ 

1 ^jfirt*f^(i)(foH<tf^ . 

0*, the lftoihl/lnidns> and Oritdhs), *aa engaged 0J1 en% ' 
JWfc #itK the Indian** add on the other with the B<d>ylvruatts 9 
hi feftt art etnbaffy to the pHnce of 7ttr£> (L), for 300* 
Jixffitf tefe. The Jfcnl^ charmed With the ptWents toade on 
ffetft otcafibrf, readily difpatcbed the mm, under the 6dndnft 
rf Tdgrdfyi* Mnhdltt (M), foh of JMafetft Aud the Hither* 
Is be flattered himfeif, that, at their retturm ^hen tti* &n*4 
ttie* of the Saracens were defeated, they xriigtit eafdy fetid 
1 *htt*bcaittes *hich guarded the bridge over the fltdxht (N)> 
ind aped a pttffige for hte Turks into /V*^i4* which he pro-» 
pott to torkjueh ♦ 

i With thefe fbttqtatt MukhwAet inarched againft Piff*fi*Of their 
rhti (O), pHnfcfe of the Btibyiotoijb Araks\ and eafil? touted original* 
Ijiffl ; the Artibs ftdt beittg abfe to withftarid the force of the 
i Ttoiijb bows. Thfe efcpeditldn being Shifted, the Tarfo dfi* 
fired leave to return home ; and that the guard of the fttt x 
bridge might be committed td thehi t but Mukhumct infilled 
on their following him into jfaft* ; and, oil their refufaiv 
jhi-eatened td cdmpd them (P). The Turks, thfroqgh far* 
!*Wldifew fato the defatt df KaWotoitie? ( O) ; frokn wftenct 
they made ihcttrfions on the Sara&ia and Pw^frthr. .Mere- 
lupoh MuMmtoti ferit againft them an army of lo,ooo &en* 
■ander ten of his bell commanders ; who pitched their camp 
at the entrance of the defart. Tagrolipix, being ihfornted of 
£his, made two great marches, and, coming upon them in the 
night, defeated them : on which occafidh he got abundance 
of arms, horfes, and riches : then, iffuing out of the defitrt, 

(I) This muft be Mabmud, him Pi/ares. This is Bafajiri, 

t|fe firft ( Sohaa of the Gaznt prince oilrakArdbi, or BulelK 

rftee.' ' (mifnamed by Kno*wks and o>- 

(K) Sambrkel fome copies. thtnKajrf of £<?£/£»), whom not 

(£) M^atoing Turkman. Mabtimd Ga%nu but TogrolBek, 

(M) tiiafbofus Bryen makes had to do with, and that not 

Mk&nGet a dfftitiA perfbn from till the. 1 7th year of his reign. 

Tosgrtlipixj or TogrblBck. (P) There was fame dilpute: 

(N) This is ifoc the Araxes, of this kind between them af.d 

ymAtns,'mArTntwa,ts&\%h\{- Majfudy fon and focceflbr of s 

tartans hitherto have imagined; tilabmZd. 

bat the Jibuti or Anm. { QL ) . Or Karaboqith, as Ni* 

4O) NicipbYrus Brycu calif cepfonuBrjen. 



by the 




me them. 

At-SefjtiriV Irari. \ B.t/ 

and encamping in die open country; his army, by the accef- 
fion of difafie&ed people, Haves,, robbers, and the like, i&r 
creafed at length to 50,000 men. 

MUKHUMET, imputing the late difgrace to the mif- 
conduft of his generals, ordered them to be deprive^ of 
their fight; and threatened to expofe, in womens cloathsf 
the foldiers who fled (R). After this; raifing ah army 
of Saracens y Perjians, Kaviri, and Arabs, $0,000 ftrong, 
and having with him 100 elephants, bearing towers, he 
marched to Afpakhan (S) ; where Tagrolipix; haftened to 
meet him. The conflift, for a time, was bloody and doubt- 
ful ; but, while Mukhvmet rode about to animate his troops, 
he fell from his horfe, and broke his neck (T). Whereupon 
his army, fubmitting to Tagrolipix, proclaimed him king of 
Perfia. The new monarch immediately fent to open the paf- 
fage over the! Jraxis\ and, giving free permiffion to all 
Turks to enter Perfia, vaft numbers laid hold of the oppor- 
tunity; and thus became lords of the country, giving the' 
title of Soltin, which fignifies emperor, or king of kings (U),; 
to Tagrolipix ; who divided the provinces, and, bellowing, 
all offices in the magiftracy and government among his Turks y 
reduced the natives to a very miserable condition. , 

The reader, from the foregoing fpecimen, may fee- what 
little accuracy he is to expeft from the Byzantine hiftorians, 
with regard to the affairs of other nations ; and what little 
they* have further written concerning the transitions of this* 
Soltin, and one or two of his fucceflbrs, excepting fuch a* 
the Romans themfelves had a (hare in, i6 no lefs confuted and r 
erroneous. Let us now refume the hiftory of the Seljuh* 
from the eaftern writers. 

flf Iran. 


The reign of Togrol Bek. 

THE defendants of SeljAk are, in Arabic, called Seljuki-, 

■*• yttn, or Sclajekah, and, in Perfian, Seljukiyan ; which. 

is made Englifb by the addition only of an s, at the end of 

it. The Angular of both is Seljuki ; which, with the particle 

(R) Something of this nature 
is related oiMajfud, who put to 
death feveral of his Turkijh offi- 
cers and foldiers, for not doing 
their duty again It the Seljuks. 

■ (S) lfphahdn, or Sfaban, ca- 
pital of Pcrfa. 

a (T) Mahmud neither fought- 
battle with Togrol Bek, nor- 

died a violent death. 

(U) It is equivalent only to- 

the title of king j and was firft 

siftumed by MabmuJGazni. See. 

thac article in IXHerbclou 


C£ Firjt SQltfa, Togrol Bek. 91 

M, or the, before it, fignifies any perfon of the family or 

The oriental authors divide, the Selj&kians into three dy- 
naftks or races of princes, reigning in the (both of Afia, and 
which were contemporary, not fucceflive ; namely, thofe of 
bitty or Perfia at large ; thofe of Kerman, a province of 
Perfia; and thofe of Mm % or Afia minor ; of which we pro- 
pofe to treat in order, And, firft, of the StijAkians of Iran. 

The author of the Nigbiariftan gives to the dynafty qiltfdur*- 
Ir&n fourteen princes ; fixes its commencement at the year of'"** 
ibeHejrah 429, of Chrift 1037; and terminates its duration, 
which he makes 161 years, . in the year 593, of Chrift 1 196* 
This is conformable to Mirkond (B), and the Lebtarikh * . 
only the latter puts the^nd of this dynafty in 590 : But Katifr, 
or Kyatib Zadeh, furnamed Haji Khcifah, in his work, inti- 
tuled, Taiwtm alTavarik, fays, that this fucceffion confifted 
! of fifteen Sokans-; who began to reign in 53a, and ended in 
590 \ giving them an exiftence of no more than 1 58 years \ 
I Ebn Amid again places the .commencement of the Seljik mo* . 
j withy in 430 of the Hejrah ; and, in a matter of fome 
I uncertainty, 'tis hard to fay which computation is moft ex- 
| aft : however, as we are obliged to make ufe of one, we 
; choofc to be regulated by that of Mirkond, and the Night* 
\ mftan. ' 

TOGROL Bek, or Beg, firft Soltan of this dynafty, is the 1 . Seltan, 
j perfon whom Cedrenus, and the other Byzantine writers, call Togrol 
I TagroHpix, or Tangrolipix, by & corruption of the name, no Bek. 
\ Ids extraordinary than common with the Greeks, who have, 
in all ages, fo disfigured moft of the words which they bor- 1 

rowed from other languages, that 'tis fcarce poffible to tell - 
what to make of them. . His Mohammedan name was Abu 
\ Taleh Mohammed ; and his furname, or tide, given him by 
J the Khallfah, Rokn Oddtn (C) ; the pillar of the faith and 
1 religion b . 

Although ' 

» D'Herb. p. 800, art. Selgiftk.' * D'Hbrb. p. 1027, 

I art.ThogrulBeg. 

I (A) We fometimea, after our (B) D'Herbelot has Korrdamir; 

! aathors, ufe the word Al &/- but we have already obferved, 

jab*, but render it the Seljukian, p. 4. note O. that he confounds 

-- — the Siljuk-y but in the the father and fon together. We 

phiral fay, the Seljuks, and 8el- always make the change found 
jttaas, indifferently, as oar Ian- in the text, 
fcuage admits of either. The (C) This laft word may be 
word may be alfo written ei- written Adiin, compounded of 
*er Seljuk or SaljuL at, the, and din, faith, or reli- 

pen : 



A. D. 





A. IX 


. Al t Hoo»gh the Sdfuks had gptsim p&flMSaai; of ahnoft all 
Khorafan, yet Mqffud, a brave prince, refolded to do hisrnt* 
noft yy recover it, Accofdiftgty, ia the year 431, keying 
railed a oonfiderabfa *tav> ha marobed agaiaft ftgrel Bak % 
and put him to flight ; fetuing a good number of Ms mot 
*od taking others prifoaera, with their arms. Neat yen 
Togrol Btk returned to N\fbabnr \ from whence Majfid fled 
to Gatna : and> alter -this, the Sdj&kians became mafteis 
©f all Khoraf&n \ on which occaikm an incredible multitude 
pf people were (lain. Thus writes if** Amid c . 

But the Ubtarikh relates, that he returned thither after 
fighting a battle with the Sdjuks, in the plain of Zondcht\ 
near Msrtf, wherein he was defeated. Tts added, that 
thefe fucceflea were flowed by the patent of inveiHture (D) 
font to the wo brothers, Togrd Bek and Jofor Bsk, by the 
Khalifah Kaytm U *ttd by the reduclsoo of the provinces of 
Jofjfa arid Tabr^ftin 9 n the year 433 % which Tegrol BA 
undertook, and then jnade hknfclf matter of all the Perfiam 
Irsk f 1 for, in 454) EhraMm Nedl Al SdjM (E), took ; 
H&rtkidtn. He was followed by Togrot Bck > who fuhdued | 
Rey (F). Then* dividing the provinces between them, Jaf* \ 
far B*g had for his ihare Kborafin, and 7«£n?/ ^ the Pert \ 
Jut* trdkt with the other provinces which he fubduad ; fix* j 
ing his feat at (G) Hamadin *. . | 

MA&SUD, after his retreat to Gatsna % feeras to here 
ftufed frelh forces ; the command of which he gave to hie ibej 
Maeiu^ whom he fcnt towards /M/W, to defend that frontier h * 
Theft carrying his blind brother Mobammtd with him, h# 
marched again into the iwfiw ; where he continued till the 
Winter following* and made great progrefs : but being 
obliged to advance towards the city of Bjlkb, to defend him* 
fetf againft the Stfyubims, who every day iucreaied in power A 
Iks be was about to pafs the river Sunt, which is the Indus x 
Tujtf EbnPuftekkin^ one of his generals^, depofed, an[<i after^ 


; « P. 33;. *i Lebtarikh, p. 4a- ■• Azvl*. p. 2*6. 

1 ITHkrb. p. 1027. * Lebtarikh. B'Haaa. £. loaj* 

h D'Herb. p. 562, art, Maudud. 

art. Sdgiuk 

gimi ; the A being liquidated in- 
fo the j/. 

' -(J>J Or patent of Soit&n, a* 

^E) Tbat is, xhfi SrJjMa*. 

\f) As' it was ftfcdticd by 

hrm in the time ofMaJ/ud, 20&, 
he mtrft have loft it again fce-* 
fore he could take it die fecoqA 
time. ^ 

( G ) 'faoljrily ,in KSjJmUfs copft 


I A: Firfi B&B*, Togvol B*k; $$ 

wiri Jtrarderad him in «he fame year 433 (l)) ; Ivben h* 
lad reigned thirteen years with great magnificence, and the 
iweof all the learned nfen of hw age, of whpm he was very 
fed. • 

M/t£&VD kk fen, who >was then at ftt/M, fucceeded Karazm 
ton in the kingdoms of M*vxxr&ln*br, Khordf&n, and h^fubdiud. 
£i, foikr ae had b«#n, <*mquei>ed : %«t the &$£* fwfr, 
the Awdrfa ttafettcwoaeB, refuting to ftdcnmvkge him, 

be feat aa'iri^^apM* t4»era*ln435, which being met byHej. 435V 
WJtJlfa, fon *f Jtffar&itk, With a confidence force, *\vas A. D. 
tratluttwn. On the Gfher fide, great numbers of Turk* J <H3- 
hmUagotft iff Tkrkift&n into the territories of Gaumafer and 
: &ndakSr, to phmderyweFe rooted byMaeSfid's garHbns l . &j 
this one the power of the Stljtikians was fo'well eftatilifliedj 
In itat large protfidte* that, after the Sdltaa's death, they 
farad it no difficult matter to join to their other coaquefts 
the province of Balkh, with all the country of Karaqm *. 

E»fe feme year a. detachment of 1 650 GAz (I) horie,- tmdef Turbmfat 
lonr^TOiamaniers, Kukias, Abu AH Elm Dahhait^ Haft tfrad, invafiu** 
and AH Ittanftr, made an irruption into the country of 
AmiiQQ, and Mkyafarktn (L), then pofleffed by prince 
; Mtiitfr %bn Marwart. From thence they went to Najtbin, 
I *kere ttey cot down the trees : and having flayed. for fome 
! foe, proceeded -XO'Mufol, whofe lord, Kttrwfo Ebn Moktadir; 
; bought his peace of them with money. But after deftroy- 
fc^-tfee other citks of J2fyr*r***rand Afjazfrah (M), they're- 
jfeiUiodco Hft&l, and took it, billing, en (laving, and phm- 
ifalagthe inhabitants. When they had been here for fomc 
[fae> «lhe AiMhs aflembled'on all fides % and befieging them, 
: at kngth drove them out of the eky. They afterwards de* 
faed them in -fevei&l battles, and killed -many : the reft fled 

J > T*»ira, p. 194, & fcq. k JD'HtitB. ubi fiipr. 

(H) Tcxeira has 431 /0r acq? they were rfiifeducd hy thetfitf.. 
•f G&n/f, but faultily. . JUimt s, under |*4u*n t be 2wnfi/ 

(I) by Gdz Turks are^praper- and 7~u»;&*4«j united and Jtfvgd* 

lyto be under ftood Turkmans, as their natural princes, 
tfhefe, with the 9W/, fwarmed (K) Tfce .fcune with i?tf«r- 

h Perfia, having been employ- beMK t 

tfUs fdldiers, nOt only by the (L) A^city, two days jo&tney 

&t»Soltans, who were them- to the north of Diyarbekr city : ' 

Abes .originally Twrij^butrby i*. i&iteAnmntMariyrvpip/if.' 
wthe ; pwncesof the-A^^ fa- (M) "that is, Mf/cfutajwa,- 

•By, who reigwed 1v1.Tebrtft.4n, or gather, tlje^ct fovth *>f ' tfce 

trfan Irak, Pars, or proper province joilB^aKbdw. 
fifa, and at Baghdad, befor© 

7 to 

94 '?*' Seljfiks 0/ IrJrL ,B/T. 

to Mayqferktri ; and making what plunder they could, re- 
tired into Aderbijan k . 
Affairs of The fame year 435, Jalil Addawlat, king of Baghdad, 
Perfia. dying without children, after feventeien years reign, hk 
nephew Abu Kalanjar (N), fon of SoltAn Adddwtdt; hies 
ceeded him in the poft of Amir at ovurah, that is, gene? 
raliflimo of the troops of the Khalifat : and finding Togrd \ 
Bek grow powerful in Perfia, made an alliance with him ia 
A. D. 439, by marrying his fon to the Soltan's niece, the daughter \ 
1047. of Dawd at Saljuki : but the following year died, having 1 
reigned four ; and was fucceeded by the fecond of his (am | 
fons, Khofraw Fer&z, who happened to be at Shirdt, and 
Hej. 441. there affumed the name of Malek Rakim. Maed&dOazni re- ! 
A. D. f i v i n g to recover Khorafan, if poffible, out of the hands of 
»°49- th e Seljuks, began his march againft them with a powerful ; 
army ; but d\ ing by the way of the cholick, his great prepa* 
rations came to nothing '. • ! 

Ifpahan In the year 442, Togrd Bek, marching to Ifpabdn, took k 
taken. by force; and, four years after (446), entering Adherbijam 
Hej. 442. w jth his troops, reduced it under his obedience m . 
A: D - MALEK Rabim, king of Baghdad, fucceeded his father 
°5°" Abu'lGanjar (or Kalanjar) in 440, 1^48, as hath been fai4* 
but being attacked by Abu Manfur Fulad Sotun, Us eldeft 
brother, and deferted by his Turkijb troops, he retired ttt 
Ahwdz (in Khuzejidn), and thence to Wafet (on the Dijlat or 
Tigris) ,; where the war was continued, .with various fuccefs, 
Hej. 447. till 447 : when being informed that Togrol Bek, at riie infti- 
A. D. gation of Abu Manfur, had poflefled himfelf of Sbirdz, and 
lo 55* moft of Pars, he raifed all the forces he could, and recovered 
it : then returned to Wafet. 
Other pla- ABU Manfur having, by the. defeat and death of his 
eesfubmit. brother Abufayd, fecured himfelf in the throne of Pars (O), 
died in a cattle, where he was imprifoned by tVazfr ^Fazet 
Hajfan, or Huya, who affumed the title of king. Malek Ma- 
verd, a Seljuk commander, who was then in the province of 
Kerman, being informed of this, marched againft Fazel Httya^ 
and he fled to another calld Olb Arflan (P), whofe lands he 

* * Ebn Amid. p. 333. * D'Herb. p. 240, art. Caim Beam- 
rillah. Texeir. p. 296. 258. Abulf. p. 226. m Abulf. 
p. 226. 

(N) InTexeira^bu'lganjar; (P) This doubdefs was OA 
in Abtflfaraj.Kalijar. , or Alp Arflan, Togrol BeVs ne- 

(O) Or proper Per/a, called phew and fucceflbr. 
Fdrs by the Arabs, of which Sin* 
rax is the capital. 


C. 2. Firjt &Ud», Togrol Bek. 9$ 

.farmed ; and growing very rich by that means, revolted from 

.him : but foon after was taken, with a fon of his called Ne- 

,ihi alMolky and imprifoned in the fortrefs of Strahar, where 

,,d*ydied. This was .in the year 448. 

^ ABU ali Kay Kbcfraiv, who had fucceeded his father Abu'l 

'Canjar, voluntarily, fubmitted to Olb Ar/lan, who gave h!m 

Tjfdanjun and Aktak (Q.J to live on, treating him with much 

[iJwwur (R). \ . : . 

: ; About this time Dawd the Seljuk, Called. alfo JafarBei, 

Jbother of Togrol Bek, who commanded in /Chora/an, made war 

.apgn FerokzM Ebn Maffud, eighth Soltan of the Gazni. race 

J(S); but the Soltan defeated him; and then marching into 

\jtkrafdn, overthrew the king of Turkeftan's (T) general, who 

i came to meet him. At'laft Olb Arjldn, advancing againft him, 

joooted his forces. Ferokzad, having reigned fix years, dieo, 

.aod left the prown of Khorafan and Mawara'lnahr (U) to his 

bother Ibrahim Ebn MaJfud,vtho concluded a peace with the 

lurks, and then marched into India, to make farther con- 


j" The diffractions which had long ; fubfifted at BaghdM,^iWa\ , 

jjooafioned by the Turkt/b militia, ftill continued to tfffli&rdM, 

\ that city ; when great feuds arofe between Ra'is al Ruffa, 

NlTazir or Vizier to the JChalifah Kayim Beamrillah, ana a 

tfwrk called Rujl&n Abu'l Harith Mutafftr, furnamed Bafafi- 

ii (W). This Bafaf.ri was originally a flave to Baboo* ddaiy- 

n Tex. p. 298, & feq. 

;< iQ^). Two cities in the^ro- too much hafte in that author 

; vincc of Pan, to the north- weft, making his extra&s from jlfj>- 

tASbirdz. kond. 

[' (ft) This prince lived forty • (U) Tho* he feems to have 

; Tears after his brother, dying had very little (hare of either 

I m 487 ; and in him ended the province,' excepting the country 

j family of Buyab in Pan. Tex. of Gatcnab, and the parts eaft- 

lj.301. ward of it. 

. (S) He fucceeded his brother ( W ) So named from the city 

! Aial Rajhid, Or Abdal Rabim, Bafa, or Pa/a, in Pars, Or pro* 

! who was murdered in 445, or ycTPerJiajtheahtientPafiigardai 

; ,0 53> by Togrol or Tokxel Bek, and not from Bajkfir, as AbuU 

'one of his favourites. faraj writes, p. 226. of which 

(T) In Texeira he is called name we meet with no city; 

genera! of Salinquab, king of In the Lebtarikb of Qobntn he 

i*rke/ldn, by whom moil be : on- is called prince of the Dila* 

; derftood Togrol Bek, and 0# ^r- «//« ; probably a miftakefer 

fjfefeicl to be his fon; which an Amir of. commander of the 

! ^accuracies may be owing to Dilamite troops ; meaning thofe 


$6 Tie Sdjtiks tf Mri? ft-l 

%fc'0fl& of JSpft agd Baghdad; but, by debtee*, r6fc to be 

fe/c^ the principal commanders of flfalek Rahhn, then ktoj 
Baghdad. Being pbliged* on account of this quarrel, *fc 
"he pil t himself under the protection of Al M* 
„,.„.,, „ . ,..,^f a h of JG^/f ; Who fuppIyJng him tvith troops, 
Jthefe ^ec^ine very powerful In Jrdk drabi, and at length got 
Khali/ah* 'pofleffion of the country, "which riexavaged as far as ^ie 4m J 
j^ial-city ; ^fo that he grew a , terror both to the y/rafo vA 
*J*WMVSj> JH? was alr/eady prayed fpr in the pulpits of thai 
' ^9 v u£ e : a .n4 as ** Kadtraji hatf been deprived of afla* 

$pr$y,by the Buyqh or fi&ip princes, in whofe hands lie 
$ffi> : fQ> PY tfp$ .rebellion cf Bafafiri, nothing remained to 
#^4f,'whofuc^^ but the naked, title if 

Togrol N.^i/thprs ^lacethefc events in the year 447 ; but they 

Bek /*- ^m^ft). have had a, beginning fome y^ars, earlier (X). Ho** 

S'-'" JpS^ i^ at .fe e » #lt ) 8 cartain that the >Khalifah, befog informal 

jt T^ ^ a f a f ir% <k% ne # the fame year to' feize on theimperfll 

l( L*l^ 9$$^ <\ vr ^ te *° Togrol Bek> who was then in tfye diftiift^ 

"V* fffl&^PW!^ hirii ,to,come to his afljftance. 

\fy$JSJjFl\Vzs at WafetiX) y whence -feme of his fofa 
Uifb .dating, came to Baghd&$\ and, having plunderajj 
J(Uf'pJt $s .palace. ' ' 

fpGROL BEK arrived at that capital in the tngnth 
Rflmadbdriy bringing with him eighteen elephants ; at wl 
time Bafajirij Who was at Rahaba, on the Euphrates, wn 
to Moftanfirbillah, lord of Egypt (1), h a d prayers put upii 
his name, and furnifhed him ^ith money*. 

* Tex. p. 299. D'Herb. p. 140, art. CaimcBtmr. J5bi| 
Amid. p. 336. ' Abulp. p. 2*6. 

&lheoBuy*bJk\Qg3 of fagkttd* (X) JhuJ-faraj remarks* p*i 

called Qi/amitis; *s bjs^ng pri- aajS. : that Bafafiri. took ^tat! 

vuurily ;fn>#i \Oibm% >Dqi*m* or Ambon a city 6( 2r#f*j>jitJP 

JSUyiu&r.qr jB*iimon+vi city in Et^ira^s/iti the year of tfce.S0J-j 

the province of GbeyJrtn t ,orKJ?i- rah 441, or of C£rr^ 1649.21 

fa, intPtxfia ( l ) . . £eWes, there Jwhence , >ve prcfunje, that the] 

w*3 z.£qyah race pf r kiivgf in 7a- jorigin, of tbeie troubles may fc 

$aufld**Q& (forjdn t ^}\^ Djaie- dated at Jeail ,fo high. 
p*kh, Jlt$l(VtQ#b^ Qr . Deyhmites. tY) A city on the Tigris. JS* 

QJearita&ys> fchatZV**» is acity before,' p. 94. 
o£iheqwovwBiae tt.Jit/ht.An Ghfc fa) .He,,w^s the JttialiM < 

inr r '.tisja©t in hi^^^afGbi/an f lEgyft, \ whofe ^power , e"f ^pAj 

iafettedp . 588. but ; wq.findthe (fvpr j^vat Country, ^jtni^tiau 

n^tu)taini>ry«wjpa^eeailiidc c.oaftoif^rZwry. 


G ft. Phrfi Sdltdn, Togrol Bek* 97 

As foon as Togrol Bek arrived at Baghdad, he feized iWofci 
£zA»B y forwhbm prayers were no longer faid (A). Thus end- 
6d the dominion of the Buyians, , which had continued 127 
years ; and that of the Seljuks began in the fame city, where 
Togrol Bek took up his lodging, in the imperial caftle. Next 
year the KhalMah married Kadtja, the filler of Togrol Bek, Hej. 448 
who gave her a portion of 100,000 crowns in gold : and To- ^. D. 
grot Bek, having flayed between three and four months at. l0 &. 
Baghdad, marched froifi thence towards Mufil, carrying with , 
him battering rams, and other engines of war (B). He went 
.aUb and befieged Takrit, at what time the cities of Kuf a 9 
Wafet, and Aynottamri, falling off from their allegiance, 
caufed prayers to be made in the name of Mojianfir Billah, 
Khalifah of Egypt. 

In 449 the Khalifah Kayim Beamrillab honoured Togrol Bek Buyian 
Vith tije imperial vefl, and crowned him king of Baghdad, dynafiy 
.Be likewife adorned him with the collar and bracelets, a$-fuffr*Jed* 
pointed him ruler over his court, and money to be coined in 
iiis name p . 

Thus the Soltajrat of Baghdad, of port of Amir al ome* 
rah of the. Khalifahs, palled from the houfe of the Buyahs to 
■that of the Seljuks q : and thus his power was thoroughly efta- 
.bltfhed : nor was there any perfon left, in both the Irdks and 
Khar a/an, who gave him the leaft oppofition. 
Thb year following Togrol Bet marched to Mufol, and from Revolt of 

1 thence to Nafihin, with a defign to fubdue thdfe places. There Ibrahim. 

' Went with him his brother Ibrahim, whom Bafafiri, by his **«!• 45°* 
emuTaries, ftirred.up to revolt; giving him hopes of obtain- , 3 
iqg the kingdom, and promifing aififtance. Ibrahim, upon . I0 S°* 

* this, taking an oath of fidelity to the foldiers, departs with 
a great army to Rey, and rebelled r . 
K0NDAM1R, or Mrkond, as reported by D'Herbelot^ 

.teprefents this affair two very different ways. In one place 

lie fays that Ibrahim, furnamed Nidi, Togrol Bek's brother, feized 
the chy of Hamadan ; and while the Soltan was on his march 

*Ebn Amis. p. 336, & fcq. * * D'Herb. p. 1027, art. 

Tbogrul. r Ebjj Amid, p. 337, & feq. 


(A) Togrol Bek, or Beg, was which we find was taken the 
(frayed for in the pulpits inftead fame year by Bafafiri : but that, 
;-rf him. Abulfaraj, p. 226. onTogroJBeFs approach, he aban- 

(B) Our author does not tell doned it. Mirkond, ap. D'Her- 
wwhat his defign was; but pro- helot, p. 24O, art. Cairn B 'earn- 
bablyitwasto befiege that city, ril/ah. 

Mod. Hist. Vol. IV. H to 

^8 TlfcrSeljfiks of Iran: BX 

to drive him thence, Bafafiri, taking the opportunity, made 
himfelf mailer of Baghdad E . 
Togrol In another place the fame author relates, that Ibrahim, the 
Bck'j bro. Soltan's maternal uncle; revolted, and unexpectedly advanced 
tber* . ggainft him from the Arabian Irak, where he was governor, ; 
with an army, as far as Hamadan (C), in Perfxan Irak, where | 
Togrol Beg then refided c . . • j 

The Pcrjian hiftorian alfo dates this tranfaftion, if it be j 
the fame with the former, three jears later in this place than i 
in the other (D). Whether this difference be owing to the j 
difagreement among authors, from whom Kondamir copied, 
or to the negligence of D'Herbeht, in extra&ing from him-; 
or whether they be two diftintt events, differing with re- 
fpeft to perfons, time, and a&ion, we muft leave the reader 
to judge, on reading a fubfequent note, relating to Ibrahim % 
Bafafirw BASAS IR I entered Baghdad on the 8th of Dhu'lhajjak, 
eruelty. with the name of the Egyptian Khalifah (E) inferibed on he 
ftandards ; and on the 13th prayers were put up in the ca- 
thedral church in his name. Then ordering a bridge to be 
laid acrofs the Tigris, he pafled over to the "eaftern fide of 
the city, called Rufafah {F), where the fame ceremony was 
performed. After this, feizing Ebn Mojlem, the Khalifah V 
Wazir or Vizier, he ordered him to be drefled in a woolles 
gown, with a high red bonnet, and a leathern collar about 
his neck ; and, in this manner, to be led through the ftreett 
of Baghdad, tied upon a camel, with a man laihing him atf 
the way behind : then being fowed up in a frefti bull's hidej 
with the horns placed over his head, lie was hung up ofl 
hook§, and beaten till he died. 
The Kha- As for the Khalifah, he went to the camp, where a tent 
lifah im~ was fet up for him on the eaft fide of the city. Mean time 
prifined,' the mob pillaged the imperial palace of things to an ia* 
menfe value. On Friday, the 4th of Dhu*lhajjah, there wtt 
neither fermon nor prayers in the temple of the Khatf&hj 
while, in all other churches, the harangue was made in the 

• Kondamir ap. D'Herb. p, 240, art. Cairn. * JbiA 

p. 1027, art. Thogrulbck. . 

(C) The Amatba of the Jews, (E) Vi%. Prince Mabefi Aht 
znd E&barana of the Greets; er- tamim, Moftanfir BiHab, Amif 
roneoufiy thought to be Tauris Almumenin. 

by mod authors. (F) Becaufe the-ftreets were 

(D) That is, in the year oF paved with ftones. GoL not: 
^ the Hejrab 454, and of Cbrifi inAIfragan, J>+ 122. 



C.i. FbjtSoU&ni TogrolBek. 59 

nine <A Mtftanfir Billab, lord of Egypt. Thus the Jbweign* - 
tyof theKhaKfah was fupprefled for that day. 

Ajftsr this, A*yf»i Beamrillab was conveyed to H adit ha 
(G) ; and being put in fetters, was left in cuftody with the 
- governor of the towu. 

The year following Bafyfiri fending for the great chad* tit). 4$t; 
cellor Abu Abdallah Ebn DamiyAn, with the preachers and A. D. 
princes of the family of Hajbem, required, from them fecurity, 1059. 
and an oath of fidelity to Mofianftf Billah, lord of Egypt. 

The fame year, 451, TogrolBek marched againft his bnv 
thesAraMm, defeated, and having taken him prifoner, had Ibrahim 
him ftrangled with a bow-ftring (H). He likewife put to deflated t 
death a groat number of Turkmans f , who had joined with 

Hating thus ie-eftablifhed his power, he marched to Bag fn 
dfefagainft Bafafiri, and font the Khalifah his compliments, with 
5000 crowns in gold, and 6,000 fuits of cloaths for his wife. 
As he drew nestr the city, on the nth of Dhu'lkAdab, Mah* 
rat, lord of Haditha, came to meet him* bringing Kaybn 
Stamrtfah (I) with him* 

(G) There are two Ha Jit hat, 
tae on the Euphrates ; the other 
Icre mentioned (lands on the 
caft fide of the Dijldt or Tigris, 
near the great Zdb, fourteen 
farafangs, or Ferfian leagues, 
Of four tnglijh miles each, be- 
hm Mufol; from whence it has 
tie name of Haditha al hhfal. 
It was, for a time, the feat of 
tkeKhalifahs. Abu Ifeda, in his 
defcriptkm ef Irak al Arab. 

(H) Kondamir differs from 
. iifnfelf, as in the beginning, 
' fe in die event of this affair (t ). 
hi one place he fays, Togrol 
feadenp matters with his 'bro- 
ther Ibrahim Nial, and then re- 
tarned to Baghdad, from whence 
tafafiri was fled (2). In the 
sther place he tells us, that he 
-m* afifled fo feafonsthly by his 
Uphew Alp Arftdn, with the 
faces of Khorafin, that his nn- 
■ telbrabim was ea£ly vanquifti- 

(l) See befire, f. 79. (i) D'HerMot. p. 141, art, Cairn Beamrillab. 

t\)Um,p, 1027, *rr, Tbogtutfrg* (4; Idem ibid. 

ed ; and being taken, Was put 
to death (3). The hiftoriait 
adds, that, after this iignal vic- 
tory (as he calls it), logrolBek 
fent Alp Arfdn back to Khora* 
fan, and made himfelf a, fecond. 
journey to Baghdad ; at what 
time he delivered the Khalifah 
from the perfecution of Bafaft- 
ri, and replaced him on th* 
throne a fecond time (4). Thia 
{hews that the hiflory, in both 
places before -mentioned, relates 
to the fame perfon and tranf ac- 
tion, tho 1 differently told, and 
differently dated. 

(1) According to Mirkond, as 
foon as TogrolBek entered Bagb* 
dad, he went to the prifon, and 
fet the Khalifah at liberty, 
Mirkond. ubi fupr. But this 
feems to be a miftake ; for he 
was then at Haditha y in cu» 



ioo The Seljuks of Iran. B. I. 

WBagh. As foon as he arrived at Baghdad, his foldiers fell to pi* 
dad pil- laging it (K), efpecially that part called Karkha ;. and having 
/aged. collected a great quantity of tents, chariots, and other move- 
ables, fent them ill to the Khalifah, with his Wazlr AUd r 
mdlek Al Kanderi, and AJlad Abubekr. Then a tent btiog 
fet up, the Khalifah entered it ; and, after two day* reft, 
on the 25th of the fame month, went into Baghdad, from 
whence he had been abfent a whole year, 'accompanied byTo- 
grolBek, who held the bridle of his. mule till he hadpaffed 
through the ftone gate u . 
TheKha- MIRKOtfD relates, that he conduced the Khalifah to 
Hf*b re- the imperial palace on foot, fometimes holding the ftirrup, 
jlored. fometimes the bridle, of his mule ; and that, to gratify this 
refpett of Togrol, he gave him the title of Rokn oddin, in thefe 
words ; Erheb ya Rokn oddtn : mount on horfeback, you tok 
are the moft firm pillar, or fupport, of the religion. After 
this, the Soltan told the Khalifah, that if Malek alRahhn had 
no hand in the late tumult, he might fafely come to him. 
Malek, trufting to Togrol Bek's promife, waited on him ; but 
being feized and imprifoned, in him ended the dynafty of 
of the Buyahs, which had continued 127 years ^. 
Bafafiri Some time before this, Bafafirivrts gone to Wafet ; and Jiaving 
fain, gathered a large quantity of corn, fent it on board fome barks : 
but when he heard what had happened at Baghdad, he ad- 
vanced to Nomaniya (L). The Soltan fent againft him parti 
of his army, under the command of Hemarmakin, and other! 
generals ; following himfelf, with the reft of his forces, in 
the end of DhulkMah (M). Bafafiri being killed in the bat*! 
tie, his head was brought to Togrol Bek, who ordered it to be ' 
carried on a pike through the ftreets of Baghdad. Then 
proceeding to Wafet, he fet matters to rights there, and re- 
Hej. 452. turned to Baghdad in the year 452 ; where the Khalifah made 
A- 1>. him rich prefents, and received him with great honour. Af; 
1060. ter th ; S) he went t0 y^j/ ( N ) f living his Wazu; Abdohnalek 

■ Ebn Amid, p. 338, & feq. w D'Herb. p. 240, Sc fcq» 
art. Cairn Bemr. 

(K) Mirkand fays, this was (L) A city between Wafet isk\ 

done by the Soltan' 3 order, be- Baghdad. D'Herbelot. p. 674^ ] 

caafe the people rofe againft the (M) The laft month but out 

Turks; who grew very infolent, of the Mohammedan year, 

foon after they had entered the (N) So the Arabick : the Per* j 

city. Mir fond, ubi fupr. p. fan word is Kubtf an; that is,; 

549. the mountain country, the fame 1 

with Perftan Irak, at leaft a part. 


C 27 Ftrfi SoUdn y Togrol Bck. 101 

cl Kanderi as his lieutenant ; and having fettled that conn* 
try in peace, returned to Baghdad the feme year *. 

The abovp-mentioned battle was fought between Wafet His effeQs 
and Kufah, according to the Lebtartkk * .• but Mirkond relate*/"*^, 
that Bafafiri having been purfued by TogrulBek as far as the 
Jaft of thofe two cities, and being accompanied with no great 
force, fome of his foldiers found an opportunity to kill him, 
and carried his head to the Soltan *. They likewife feized 
all the effetts which he, and Nuro y ddcrwlat Dobays (O), who ac- 
companied Bafafiri in his retreat, were carrying off: but Do- 
bays made his efcape ; and fubmitting xoTogrol Bek next year, 
' was honourably received by him a . 

Having related matters thus far from the hiftorians of the W*Greck 
caft, it is time to look weftward, and fee what is to be met account. 
with farther, concerning the SeJjukian Tprks, in the Greek au- 
thors ; whofe want^f that exaftnefs found in the orientals, in * 
marking the dates of a&ions, makes it difficult to range them 
1 in* chronological order, or deliver them from the confufion 
to which they feem placed. We are told by Cedrenus, and 
Nkephorus Bryennius, that, after Tagrolipix found himfelf 
fecure in the throne of Perfia, he began to make war on the 
neighbouring princes ; and marching againft Pijpifirius be- • 
jore-mentioned, after defeating him in feveral battles, flew 
Aim, and brought the country of the Babylonians (P) in fub- 

He then fent his nephew Kutlu Mofes (Q^) againft Karme- Kutlu 
jet (R), king of the Arabians : but being overthrown, heMofes 

*Ebn Amid. p. 340. rP;42. * D'Herb.'p. 240, 

art Caim Bemr. * Abu'lfaraj. p. 226. 

(0) He was an Arab prince, (P) That is, Arabian Irak. 
bf the tribe of AfJ&d, and lord (QJ Called alfo Kutbi Mu^ 

tfHtilab, a city on the E up bra- fes by the Greeks; a corruption 

Us i fuppofed, with good rea- of Kutlu Mijh, or Kotolmjb. 
fen, to be built in or near (R) One would be apt to take 

the place where Babykn flood, this for Karmath, prince of the 

b 425, A. D. 1633, Bafafiri fe&aries from him called Kara • 

lurched from Baghdad to ajfcft meth, or Karametha ; or elfe foi 

brother AbuKawam Thabet,. fome prince of that fedt, which 

owas at war with him Do- began at Kutha, in Irak Arabia 

Jsjr lived eighty years, and if we had not known that it was 

«»|ojrcd his principality fifty- fupprefled in the tenth century* 

fero. He died" in 474, and See JXHepb. art. Carmatlu 
was famous for his virtue, and 

(1) J&Wfaraj, p, i%s» *37» & *5*» 

H 3 took 

toa . *tbe Seljdks pf Irio, -PI 

took iheiter in Media (S j, and ftapped sit fyuu, or Baaftrai 
kan. From thence he fent to Stephen, the Roman governor, 
to deiire a paflage (T) ; and being denied* routed his troops, 
and took him prifoner. Then marching to Brifcium, on the 
bonders of Per/ia, fold him there for a flave. When he re- 
turned to Tagrotifiix, after excufinj* his ill fuccefs againft the 
Arabs, he- advifed him to invade Media, which he iaid was 
. inhabited by women (U) : but that prince, highly offended 
at his defeat, would not hearken to him; but railing new 
• forces, went againft the Arabs in perfon, and was l&ewif* 
put to the worft. 
flies from At his return he marched againft Kutlu Mujes, who, fear* 
'fagroU- j a g the Soltan's difpleafure, had fled with his followers; mi 
P&i taking refuge in Pafar, a city of the Khcrafmi^HS (W), re* 
vol ted from him ; while he, with parr of his army, beiiege^ 
Pafar, which, being ftrong, held out long. He fent anothfll 
part, confifting of 20,000 men, under the command of AJfa 
(X), furnamed the deaf, his brother's {on, to fubdrje Media.\ 
where he committed dreadful ravages ; but being, in thf 
end, drawn into an ambufti by the Roman generals, he w^ 
cut off, with his whole army. 
who bums TAGR0L1PIX, no way difcauraged at this misfoTf 
Artze. tune, fent a new army into -ftfa&vncar 100,000 ftrong, coo» 
manded by Abraham Alim (Y), his half-brother ; who liif 
wafte the country without oppofition, the Romans (hutda# 
themfelves. up in their ftrong holds ; and then laid fiege to 
Artza (Z), a place, on account of its great trade, efteemtf 
. the moft wealthy in thofe parts ; but not being ablp to ma* 
fter it, they reduced it to afhes. Of the inhabitants, 1 50,003 
and upwards are laid tq have peri&ed, either by the fwcwtL 
or in the flames. 

• (S) It (hould rather be ^r- the year when this affair happetJ 

0e*ia, t© which Baafprakan or ed does not diftinftly appear. J 

Vafpurakan belongs. The pro- (U) Alluding to the weakpdfc 

vince lies betwixt the lake of and effeminacy of the Roma**.\ 

Wan and the river Arras, Other (W)' Thefe are the iphahtes! 

circumftahces fliew, it ought to ants of Karattm, to die north si 

J>e Armenia, or Perfarmcnia, Perfia, and. too far put pfdlf 

which might have been joined way. ' ' n 
to Media, or Adh,rbijdn, which . (X) Perhaps Ueffm* 

the Turks conquered in 1050, (Y) This mull be lirati^ 

fis before related. Nia/. 

(T). Thefe Turks are faid to (Z.) Artze or Arze, near f J* 

Jiave been firft" known to the tyhfiopelis m Armenia, the jw% 

Creeks in the time of the empe'- fent Arzen aj Rum> or Jnfr 

ror Corjlantine Monomacbus, who 
began his reign in 104$; but 


Q. i; Ftrfi Soltan, Togrol Bck. ioj 

ABRAHAM, after^this, hearing that the Romans y under Roman 
the command of Liparites f governor of Iberia, had taken ti\zgt*tral 
field, he marched againft them. The two armies engaging'**'*- 
with great fury, the viftory continued long doubtful, but 
at length inclined to the Romans. ; although their general was 
taken prifoner, which hindered them to purfue the flying 

Hereupon' the emperor difpatched embafladors, with 
rich prefents, and a large fum, to redeem Liparites, and 
jcoaclude an alliance with Tagrolipix, who generoufly re- 
timed them, with the money, to Liparites, and fet him at 
liberty without ranfom ; only requiring/him, at his departure, 
IP ©ore to bear arms againft the Turks. 

Not long after, the Soltan fcnt a Sharif (A), a perfon d&Thecmftrt 
gptat authority, with the charafter of ambaflador, to Conjl an- invaded. 
impU\ wfco, Wing arrogantly exhorted the emperor to fub- 
ML to hia mailer, and acknowlege himfelf his tributary, was, 
%y Mmomachus, difmifled with fcorn, and driven out of the * 

TAG RO LIP IX, offended at the reception of Us em- 
halTador, while the emperor w&s engaged in a war with the 
taizinaca (B), a Scythian nation, entered Iberia ; and hav- 
mg kud the country wafte, as far as Koyma, returned from 
tb&ce into Media, and laid fiege to Mantzikhicrt (C), a place 
lefcfided by a numerous garifon, and fortified with a triple 
•rail, and deep ditches. However; as it was fituated in a 
ftlain and open country, he hoped to be mafter of it in a 
put time : but, after he had continued before it thirty days, 
was obliged to retire, pretending fome urgent affairs had cal- 
led him home. 

Not long after, difeord arifing between the SoMn and Abraham 
Abraham Alim, or Halim, whom he fought to deftroy, Abra Alim 
\m fled (D) to his nephew Knilu Mufes, and joined in the$w*» 
"Ion. The Soltan, meeting them not far from Pafar (E), 
:ed them in battle; and Abraham being taken, was put 

(A) A Seripb, in Cedrenus: The fame author, in another 
fignifies ruble, aiftl de- place, calls \\. ^atzikicr. Ce» 
being of Mohammed** drenus names it Mat&okiergba. 

i. (D) This was in the year 

(B) The iavafion of the Pat- 1058, which falls in the reign 
tm was in (or about) the of Coriftantine Ducas. 
r i'Of©. (E) This mnft be Hamadan, 

(C) Maniztkhierta, according or near it; and the aftibn in 
Wm-ofaiatarK in B+af$rakan\ 1059, as related before out of 
jqore properly Vajpurakai* the oriental biftorians r 

H4 to 

t04 The Seljuks of Iran. B.L 

to death. Kutlu Mufes, with his coufin Malek, fon of Abra- 
ham, followed by 6o<5o men, fled to the borders of the Ro* 
man. empire ; from whence he fent for prote&ion to the em- 
peror Monomachus, a little before his death, which happen- 
ed in 1054 (F). But while he waited for an anfwer, he 
marched into Perfarmenia, as far as the city Karfe (G), "which 
he took, though not the caftle. But hearing that Tagrolipix 
• was advancing towards him, he fled to the Arabs ', who were 
the Solrin's enemies. 
Iberia The Soltan turning into Iberia, laid it wafte, fparing nd- 

ravaged, ther fex nor age. But upon the approach of Michael Acok* 
thus, who was fent againft him at the head of a confiderabk 
army, he retired to Tauris (H), leaving 30,000 men betted 
him under Samukh, to infeft the frontiers of the empire; 
which they did with great fuccefs, the borders being left' 
. unguarded, through the avarice of Monomachus, who about 
this time died. The Turks prepared to invade the empire 
on his death, but were prevented by the care of Theodora 
his fucceflbr. iBut being encouraged by ttiQ remiflhefs of Cm* 
Jiantine Ducas, who afcended the throne in 1059 (ij, they 
extended their conqucfts on all fides b . 
JaffarBek Thus far the Byzantine hiftorians. Let us now return: 
#[#/• to the oriental authors. According to them, in 453, Jaffa** 

|iej. 45 3» Beg, Togrofs brother, died in, Khoraf&n, and left for his fee- 
A * ~ m ceffbr his fon Alp Arjldn (K), who was afterward heir alfo t# 
'* '• his uncle, who died without children 6 . 


hid. Mufulip. p. 7$. alfo univ. bill. vol. xvii. p, lai, &c. 
* D'H?rb> p. 1027. Lebtar. p. 42, * 

(F) Others fay in 1057 ; f° me (H) This circumftance (hew| 
i in 1049 ; fa uncertain is the lat* that he was then mafter ofM- 

ter Greek chronology. But if herbijdn, ox Media, which haf-i 

Kutlu Mufes fent to this emperor ing been fubdued in the year ol 

after the death*) f Ibrahim, either the Hejrab 446, or of Cbri/ 

Monomacbus mufti have been 1054, as before related, doafc 

alive in 1059, or the oriental left the invafion of the Rtou* 

authors date that event too ear* Media, or rather Perfarnm* % 

ly. 'Tis probable the 'Qreeki and the fic^e of Mamtziiprti 

have confounded things of dif- was about that time, 

ferent times together, in this (I) Others fay 1057, 

jnftance, as they fcem to have (K) Written alfo Olb Jr/fa 

done in many others. According to the Lebtmnkb, p* 

(G) Perhaps the fame now 42. he Succeeded by the ap- 
palled Kars, between the cities pointmenf of his uncje Ttp4 
4i**r$m and Brriwh £t A 


C *. Ftrfi Soltan, Togrol Bek. 105 

Thb fimc year Togrol Bek demanded the daughter of Kayitn TogroH* 
BeamriUab in marriage : but the'Khalifah giving him a d^m^rriage, 
nial, it occafioned many meflages and threatenings, on the 
part of Soltan ; who next year, 1062, forbad the Khalifah's 
officers to meddle with the publick. money (L). Hereupon 
taey advifed him to let the Soltan have the princefs ; which 
Be at length confented to, though fore againft his will (M). 
Oa this compliance, Togrol Bek, being greatly rejoiced* revoked 
the -order he had given for feizing the Khalifah's treafures, and 
lent him very rich prefents. 

In 455 the Khalifah's daughter was conducted to the Sol- and death. 
tan, whxKreceived her with great demonftrations of joy, andHej. 455. 
beftowed gifts on all thofc who accompanied her: but fix A.D. 
months after, in the fame year, Togrol Bek died at Ray, or Rey , 1 1 6 3* 
the capital of Irak d (N). 

The author of the Nighiarijl&n is fomewhat more parti- 
cular than Ebn Amid, with regard to the marriage of the Kha- 
lifah's daughter j whom he calls Setdah (O). He tells us, that 
when Amtd al Molk Konderi y TogroTs Wazir or Vizier, had, 
by his addrefs, obtained the princefs for his mafter, he con- 
ducted her to Tauris, where the Soltii} then was : that it 
was in this city where the marriage was concluded; and the 
contract figned : but that the nuptials and confummation of 
the marriage were to be performed at Rey, then the capital Orc*/fo»«/ 
of Perjian Irdk, and royal feat of Togrol: that this prince//, 
repaired thither, to prepare things with proper magnificence ; 
but that the feafon being exceffive hot, he left the city, to 
lake the air of Rudbar, a moft delicious place, where he had 
* very beautiful palace ; and that here, in a few days, he 

• was carried off by a bloody flux e : fo that, as Khondamir 

d Ebn Amid, p. 340, & feq. e D'Hbrb. p. 1028, art. 

Thogrul Bek. 

• (L) His Wazir counfelled daughter in return, though* an 
Km, by degrees, to retrench honour too great for a Turk to 
Ac Khalifah's revenues ; which expect ( 1 ). 

obliged him to confent, accord- (N) Called alfo Al Jabdl by 

1 ing to the Nigbiarijian, ap. /)' the Arabs ; and by the Per/tans, 

Berb. p. 1028. Kitkeftan; both fignifying the 

(M) According to Kondamir^ piountain country. 
in D'Herbe/ot, Kaylm was fo (O) Seidab is the feminine fcf 

lighly obliged to Togrol Bek, for Seid, or Seyd, and the common 

rteftabliflring him the fecond term for the wife or daughter of 

time, that he judged he could a, $e\d or lord. 
' not do left than give him his 

[}) VBtrb, j. 10*7, *f t ftfgriM. 


to* the SdjAtcs *f IAn. at 

obforves, when his wife arrived at Mty, fh& fraud him dead; 
» and fo returned as ihe came f . 

Authors generally agree, that this great prince died at 
Rejr f in the year of the Hejrak 455 (P), and at the age of 
fcventy : but thcJUbtarikh makes his reign twenty-fix yearsg, 
which is one more than Ebn Amid gives to it k . 
His cha- TOGROL BEK was a good-natured, wife, and politick 
reSer. prince; exceedingly feared and courted by the provincal 
lords, who often wrote to him '« According to the Lebu* 
rikh, he was the beft of princes : he faid the prayers, with 
his whole family, five times a day ; and fafted every week on 
the fifth and fecond days. Whenever he was difpofed to 
erett a palace, he firft built a temple k . As he had oo chil- 
dren, he was fucceeded by his nephew Alp Arjldn. 


The Reign of Alp Arflan. 

THIS prince was the fon of Dalvd, or JaffarBeg (A), Ton 
of Michael, fon of Seljik ; and, by fucceeding his ua- 
Soltdn, c j e Tegrol 2ek, thus united in his perfon the two kingdoms 
fl A ? Af " oiKhoraJan (B) and Ir&k, with their dependencies : fo that, 
* .* in the year of the Hejrah 455, when he began his reign, he 
A t> ** was ^ e monarc ^ °f a ^ ^ e countries tying between the ri- 
106*. vers J&&* (C) or Ami, and the Dijldt or Tigris ; that is, of 
all Irdn or Perfia, in its greateft extent ; ■ in the conqtreft <rf 
which he had a confiderable fhare. 

TOGROL BEK\t(t him in full power at Bagbd&d, whert 
the Khalifah Kayim lived in dependence on the Selj&kians, tiH 
the fecond /ear dtMalck Sbdh, when he died \ 

The name which this Soltan took, after he had embraced 
fSs names, Mohammedifm, was Mohammed, or Abit Shejah Mohammed** 

f D'HERtf. p. 1027. • LlBTAHIKH, p. 4a. * EsR 

Ami*, p. 341. J Ibid. p. 342. w Lcbtak. p. 42. 

• Kond. ap. D'Herb. p. 241. 

(P.) The Lebtarikh of Go/mix D'Hirh. p. 101, art. Alf Af 

feas 453, and that of TXHerbelot Jldn. 

454; the 1 8th of Ramadha/t* (B) According to JKamknkir, 

which is the firfl month of the he governed there as Togrofs 

Mohammedan year. lieutenant-general, for t?n years 

(A) Jbulfaraj calls him before he amended the throne. 

J>anud (or I)a<vi<l) Jagrihg. D'Herb. p. 104, art, Aipjrfld*} 

D'Herbelot fpeaks of authors (C) The anqgAt Qxtts, «&f tkt 

who make Dnivd and Jaffar Greeks. 
two different foiw of Michael^ 


C.l Secsai Soltdn, Alp Arflan. tey 

jar he was before called ifrael) and that of Alf ArJUn Jp), 
winch figmiks in Turki/b, the courageous Ksn 9 is a faniflme. 
Tke Khalifah KayimBeamritlak, on account of Ms own power 
aad merit, as well as that of his predeceffor, gave him the 
tide of Azzaddtn, or Adbadoddin (E), which fignifies, the 
freteSer of the religion. 

At the beginning of hie reign he put to death Kandari t and Wet- 
fermmed Amid al MM (?), Waiir to TogrolBck, for abufes »>'• 
committed by him in his office, during his uncle's life ; and 
laifed to that employment NadhAm al Melk (G), who was the 
greateft man of his time, and adminiftered the affiurs' of the 
kingdom, in the reign of this prince and his fucceflbr, with 
die greateft integrity and approbation, V 

According to the Vaffaiya (H), at the beginning of his Kotol- t 
fe$n, Alj> ArJUn made war upon KotolnAJh, fon of Ifrael, hisniiflirv- 
jCOtt&n-german, who rebelled againft him in the province of ^ J « 
Damegan (I). But this revolt was foon quafhed, by an un- 
expected accident : for Ketohntjb advancing at the head of 
his troops, which were very fine ones, to give the Soltin #//,</ fo 
battle, his horfe of a fudden fell under him, and, throwing a r a // m 
Us rider, broke his neck ; upon which his army fubmitted, 
jad were pardoned c . 

* Kond. qbi fupr. p. 102, art. Alp Arflan. Lbbtae. p. 42. 
«D'He». p. 102. 

p) AJp % which is alfo pro- 
fptraced Utp and OIup, Alb and 
Q0, fignifies, in the language of 
fte&urkmaus t a brave and valiant 
tmmandtr.^ Hence it is often 
found in the names of engine nt 
fwh or Turkmans, as Alp Tei- 
ft, Kay Aif. The Greeks call 
lib prince jf/frajaJem, and Af~ 
ftauaHarius; but generally J5r- 
£» ; poffiWy corrupting the 
Twiijb word Ak Han, or Ak 
Dpi, wjiich fignifies the white 
}ag\ a name given yoflibly for 
a reafon mentioned in a future 
tate. Dr. Hyde obftrves, that 
Jfr Arjfdn anfwers to the Per- 
film Ardfifir. ReHg. vet, Per/. 
p. 197. 

(E) £ba Amid has MUod* 
fc {F) At Nifa, Nefi, or 'JTifa 

in Kherafin % according to the 

(G) The Per/tone fay Naxdm 
al Molh ; pronouncing the Ara- 
bic dh (ivhich has the force of 
thtEngliJb. tb t in the words this % 
them, &c.) like « ; alfo Nrzdnt. 

(H) Written by Nezdm al 
Mali, the famous Waair (or Vi- 
zier) of Alp Arjldny mentioned 
before in the text ; in which ho 
gives princes precepts and ex- 
amples for governing well. D* 
Herb slot. p. 655. 

(I) Or Damawdn: it is the 
capital of the province of Kumes 
(the Kamifene of Ptolomy) , which 
from thence may take the name 
of Damegan. It lies between 
Tebrefdn and* the north -caf^ 
part of Perfian. Irak, called Ki- K 


io8 . The Seljfiks of Iran; - B.L 

This was the end of Kotlomljh> or Kotolmtjh, according 
to the oriental writers ; but the Grqek hiftorians reprefent the 
iffue of his rebellion quite otherwife : they tell us, that this 
prince, whom they call Kutlu Mofes, or Mufes> having re- 
belled in the time of Tangrolipix, was defeated by him,* and 
fled into Arabia d , where he remained till Axan (or Alp At* 
Jldn)y came to the crown : that then, returning.from thence, 
at the head of confiderable forces, and advancing to Re (K), he 
laid claim to the.fovereignty : but that, while the two armies 
were on the point of engaging, the Khalif of Babylon of a 
fudden appeared, and, interpofmg his authority, which he 
Hill retained in fpirituals, brought rhem to this agreement, 
that the Soltan fhould hold Perfia, and that Kutlu Mufes, and 
his children, who were five in. number, ftiould pofiefs all the 
r . countries which they ftiould take from the Roman empire; 
*c€tKt anc * t ' iat ^ e & ou ld a flift t ^ iem W ^^ * ro( >P s for that purpofe; 
fal/h. ^^ a ^ ter t ^ s ' ** f a ther,and his five fons entered the Ro- 
* man empire with their forces ; and that Kutlu Mofes actually 
commanded a body of Turks, which came to the afliftance 
of Botaniates, when he ufarped the empire' : whereas, ac- 
cording to the oriental hiftorians, who could hardly* be nrif« 
. taken in a tranfa&ion that concerned one of their own princes, 
and happened among themfelves, Kotolmt/b muft have been 
dead eight or ten years before. 

This fhews with what caution the Greek writers ought 
to be read, who were ignorant both of the name and per- 
fbn of the prince, who had putted his conquefts within a 
few days march of Conjtantinopie itfelf ; and had, even by 
their own account, been for fome time perfonaUy prefent i* 
their emperor's army, But to return to the eaftern hifto- 
Rebellion The war with Kotolmijb was no fooner finished, than Ka* 
^f Arflan, ra Arjldn raifed new difturbances in Pars and Kerm&n % The 
Soltan, to fupprefs this rebel, employed Fadhloviek, one of 
his moil valiant commanders, who defeated him, and was 
rewarded for his fervlce with the government of Pars. 
*** ?*f But this ambitious governor, as foon as he faw theSol- 

Fadhlo- t £ n on hj 9 marc h to Khorafdn, refolved to make himfelf ab- 
¥ie * 1, folute mafter of his province. In order to effeft this, he for-, 
tified a caftle/ iituated ia a yery advantageous place, where 

* See before, p. 104. * Sk$ Ceqrenu$, an4univ. hift. 

vol. xvii. p. 134.. 

(K) By Re is here probably Irak ; and not Ere, or Eres, in th$ 
to be ytiderftood the city Rey or province of Sbimvdn, as Leun- 
Rty, then capital of Perfian tfavius fuppofes, 


C.2. Second SoUdn y Alp Arflan* 109 

he Ant himfelf up, accompanied with very good troops, and 
1 raft deal of money, which he had amafled by a thoufand . 
extortions in his government. Nezam al Molk received or*" 
-dors from his prince, to attack this caftle, and bring him the 
traitor alive or dead..' All who had a knowlege of the place 
ad vifed againft a fiege, becaufe they deemed it impregnable ; 
bat the Wazir, refoiving to gratify his mailer, invefted the 
caftle with his forces,, and went himfelf round it to take a 

During this tour, he. did not obferve fo much as one Fvtrefi 
nan of the beiieged upon the ramparts; which indicating reduced if 
the greateft confidence of their feeurity, he was fo chagrin'd, 
that, but for fhame, he would inftantly have raifed the fiege. 
However, he refolved to do his utmoft; and had already 
gotten together provisions and (lores for a whole year's 
blockade: when one. morning, at break of day, he was fur- 
prized to hear them beat the chamade, and that the governor 
defired to capitulate. 

The joy which this news gave him, made him grant them an odd 
honourable conditions; the chief of which were, that the event. 
governor fhould remain in the place, doing homage to the 
Saltan, and paying him a certain tribute annually, befides 
the ufual prefents. When matters were fettled, the Wazir, 
'.who was in pain to know whatcould have obliged Fadhlovieh 
to make fuch a fudden furrender, was informed by one of the 
befiegfed, that it was owing to the fprings and cifterns, which 
were very numerous in the .place, drying up all at once. 
This the Mohammedan author attributes as a miracle, wrought 
•by providence, in regard to. the juftice of the Soltan's caufe, 
♦aid his own piety; 

. Am attempt having been made to difpoflefs the Soltan oiDe/art 9/ 
the province of Kerman, he marched thither with his army; Nubaa- 
aud, being obliged to pafs through the great defart of 7V£-dijan. 
fauBjan, which feparates that province from Khorafan, and 
is deftitute of all things neceflary to fupport an army, his" 
troops,, who had with great relu&ance, perceiv- 
ing their provifions to fail daily, began to murmur; and were 
•on the point of revolting, when they came to an old ruined 
caftle, which feemed to be the retreat of owls and wild 
heafts : but, in viewing it, they found corn enough to top- 
ply the whole army. Yet .this plenty of viftuals being of 
nonfe without drink, God, to. complete the miracle (as our 
aothor will have it), fent fo heavy ? rain, that every body had 
* waterehough to ferve his occafions f . 

f Va$9aia> ap. D'Herb. p. 103, art. Alp Arflan. 


i to , Tbt St$flks «f trita B,i 

Karazm In 457, the Soken marched agahtft KUxan, %hd tad w- 

*v&Zr. voltcd ia the country of JCb$wdrmzm (or Kurm&n) ; tad 

^ a ' n ^ b^nS ranted his army, cbnfifting of 30,000 men, very fc* of 

* whom efcaped the daughter, he gave the government of thfc 

I0 ° 4 ' .jtfovinco to Maick Shah, hi* eldeft fon. In his retm fart 

this expedition through Khorafan, he paid a vifit to the fr 

pulchre of ^A' JWs* (L), the eighth Imam, who waa butfat 

#t Tbds (ttatee called Mafhbad)> where there is comimattj 

a great refort of people, who go thither out of devotfefe 

jjMJf AftSr fee had performed this pilgrimage; to took the 

•f /£# road of Rwhkcm, where he encamped with his army ia a ttdt 

fates. agreeable place* From hence he difpatched couriers throojjk 

all the provinces of his empire, to ftimmoa the goirerMt 

and great lords to a general affembly a£ the effaces. Being 

all met together, he declared his fon Maltk SUhbst his ft* 

ceflbr, and only heir to his dominions. This done, he<*» 

-dercd his fon to fit on a throne of gold, prepared for thft 

purpofe, and made all the officers of the empire lake *' 

oath of fidelity to him (M). 

Immediately after this, he acquainted all the dtfel 
and generals of his armies, that he defigned to attempt dfc< 
cooqueft of Tur kaftan,' the country whence he drew his 0* 
giaalj and where, as he pretended, his anceftors fon&tfty 
reigned (N). But this expedition was not undertaken A] 
feveral years after g . 

Let us now turn ourfclves weftward, and fee what Ac 

Turks were- doing on that fide. 

T&fTurk* Upon the death oi Conjlantine Dueas, which happened W 

invade t the year 1065, the Turks, underftanding that the Reman zm 

pire was governed by a woman, broke with great violeafc 

into Mesopotamia, Ciluia, mdCapfiadoaa, destroying aQ with! 

fire and {word. The enaprefs was no way in a condrtiofl tfrj 

Oppofe them, the greater part of the army having been dftj 

banded m her hufband's life-time; and the troops 'wbn 

/A* Rom- vfC[t flm ^ f oot be^Qg nndi&iplined, and altogether anAj 

an empire. ^ £j nrT j cew Eudodoy therefore, to fecuttatonee thoel&fifc 

eltoro. ap. D'Hbrb. aft Alp Arflfe. 


(L) So thePtrfiMs ; the^fc to be done juft hefott & 

pronounce Mitfr** founding the death. . 
Jk like the Englijb tb, in tins, (N) Meaning, we prefunqj 

' than, EsV. as has been obferved Jfrafiab, and his fncccftrtj 

a fe* notes before. from whom the Seljuis derivfl 

this their pedigree, as has been b$* 

CM) Ebn Amid relates 

fore related, p. 79. 


Ci. Stctni Sdtln, Alp Afflam %ti 

bom foreign, and herfetf from domeftic, enemies, married 
imutus Diogenes, who was thereupon proclaingued emperor. 
As he was a man of great a&ivity, and experience in war, 
f he no {boner faw himfelf veiled with the fovereigp power, 
; linn taking upon him the command of the army, he palled 
I over into Afia \ where, on his arrival, he was informed, that 
I the Turks y having furprized and plundered the city of iVVf- 
tejare&y were retiring with a rich booty. The emperor -fol- 
lowing them, at the head of a chofen body of light-armed 
troops, came up with them the third day, killed a gre^t 
amber of them, and recovered the fpoil. He then purfued 
Ins march to Haleb (0), which he retook, together with Hie- 
rajulit, where he built a ftrong cattle fc . 

The oriental hiftorians place this Syrian expedition in the Romanus 
year of the Hey rah 462, which anfwers to that of Chrifi defeats 
1069. They relate, that he befieged the laft city, which **>"*• 
they call Matnbej (P), for fixteen days, but do not fay that 
Ik took it ; only that afterwards the Meflems, or believers (fo 
the Mohammedans call themfelves), advancing with an army, 
he defeated them : but proviiions failing in his camp, by 
.which means great numbers of hts foldiers perifhed, he reh 
turned to Cmftantinopk. 

Ik Us way back he defeated a numerous body of Turks, 
who attempted to cut off his retreat ; after which the Turks 
tbndooed feveral cities on his approach. 

In 463 AJp Arjlfai marched to AkhlM (QJ, with 40,000 Are elmm. 
borfe, to aaeet the Romans, who had a vaft army * but theyA&w **- 
|*w defeated, and their general, who was a nobleman, btJ*?*^' 
fag taken, the Solrin ordered his nofe to be cut off '. a' r> 

This, by the circumftances of the hiftory, muft have been " " 
fhilarctus, who had been left to guard the banks of the 7 °" 

k Ceprenvs; Univ. hiil. vol. xvri. p. 1 50. ' E»n Amiu* 

34}, & feq. 

"'(0) Aleppo, the antient Ber~ 43. Scbultens index teogr.' ad 

fce«, according to Cedrenus and vit. Saledini, art. Manbesjum. 

Wkers. (QJ Called alfo KeUdt, and 

(P) The ancient Bambyce t KaUdt ; a city on the north fide 

[tailed afterwards Hierapolis. of the lake of Wan, three days 

% the prefcnt copies of PUny journey to the north of Bed/is, 

F» feid to be named Magog by or Bit/is. It was formerly a 

m Syrians, inftead of Mabog; very famous place, the feat of' 

Mich is a corruption of Man* many princes, and capital of 

fittoManbe, and that of Bum- Armenia. Cedrenus and Nice*- 

t, or rather Pambe* the Perfean- pbor us Bryenni us write Ki f eat* Jt 

tord for cotton. See Hyde, in was then in the hand* of the 

*t, adPcritfol. itm. rnujtd. p. Turks. 


112 The Seljuks of Mn- EL 

Euphrates (R). T*he Byzantine hiftorians farther relatt, 
j that the Turks, after this vi&ory, advanced into Cilicia, and, 
ifurprized Ikonium, the principal city of that province : bat 
that hearing of the emperor's approach, they, after plunder- ' 
ing it, retired in hafte. . However, the Armenians falling 
Upon them in the plains of Tar/us, put them to flight, ana 
flripped them of every thing. 
Tbetmpe- In the fpring following, the emperor marched anew into 
ror Dio- Afia, at the head of a considerable army, which he had raifed 
tF&* and difciplined during the winter. But, contrary to the ad- 
vice of Nicephorus Bryennius, who, commanding trie left wing 
of his army, with others, would have had him wait for the 
Turks in Cappadocia 9 he marched to Mazekerta (S) ; and, di- 
viding his army into two parts, fent one of them to Kkd 
(T), a fmall town belonging to the Turks : between whofl^ 
and the Romans feveral fkirmQhes happened, in one of which, j 
BaJilaciuSy one of the emperor's chief officers, was killed'; t i 
juft reward for his wrong advice and falfe intelligence. At 
length Romanus, refolving to come to a general engagement 
marched forwards with his army, in three bodies, of whicfc 
he commanded the centre k . But as an account has beett 
already given of the battle from the Greek hiftorians l , wt 
fhall here confine ourfelves to what the oriental authors have 
related on that occafion. 
Attacks the Ebn Amid informs us in general, that the Soltan having 
Turks. me t the Roman emperor on the 26th of the month DMSkMfy 
463, in a place called Zahra, gave him battle on a Fridafc 
and defeated his forces ; of which an incredible number weft! 
killed, and the emperor hirnfelf taken m . But the beft afr 
count we have as yet from the oriental authors, of this re- 
markable battle, is that given by Ab&lfaraj. In the vear. 
above-mentioned (fays this author), Romanus (U) Diogba^ 
the Roman emperor, marched with an army of 100,000 met 
XoMalhzkerd^S), in the territory of Khalat. The SoltaaJ 
who was then at Khunaj, in the province of Adherbijdn, heal* 

* Niceph. Bryen. in Conft. c. v. § 5. 1 Univ. hifh vol 

xvii. p. 131, &feq. m Ebn Amid. p. 343. 

(R) The lebtarikh obferves, (T) Kelldt, or Akldt. 

that Alp Arjldn was the firft (U) This author writes X$*i 

^urkijb Soltan who pafled this manus. Kondamir, and the other 

river : but it does not appear orientals, Or manus. 

when be did it, by either the (X) This feems to bzMesd* 

eaftern or weftern authors. kerta, near Kleat, mentioned bff 

(S) The fame with Maldz- Nic Bryen. in the hift. of X* 

jtrd* * manuty cap. 5. 

2 «* 

C.l. Seccnd SoUdftj Alp Arflan. 115 

: in; of thi^ made hafte to meet him, though able to draw 
! together no more than 15,000 horfe (Y). When the armies 
tore in fight, he fent to the emperor to defire peace ; but 
[ Sus anfirer was, that he would make none with .him, unlefs 
r fee furiendered up the city Ray (Z), or Rey. The Soltan, 
\ proroked at this, on Friday afternoon |Jut up prayers to God, 
[ .with tears in his eyes, before his army, who wept themfelves 
to fa their monarch weep. 

Before he engaged, he gave thofe leave to return whoW*$«/- 
had a mind. Then calling away his bow and arrows, he tans bra* 
took his fword, and an iron fceptre, grafping his horfe's* w j7» 
ta3 in his hand, as all his foldiers did after him. He drefled 
I himfelf in white (A) ; and flrewing on perfumes, Jf I am 
\Jkan *(B), laid he, this will ferve me for a -winding Jheet. 
\ After a bloody batde the Greeks, were put to flight, zndThe emu* 
J a multitude of them killed : their emperor was taken prifoner,'w taint* 
J by a (Save named ShM (C) ; and being difcovered by the 
I ambai&dor, Shadi, lighting off his horfe, paid him reve- 
[jence, and then brought him to Alp Ar/l&n. The Soltan, 
I fatting him three times with his hand, {aid, Did not I /end 
to you with propofals of peace > and you would not hearken to 

(Y) According to Kondamtr 
he had no more than 1 2,000, 
and the Greeks 300,000. Bat 
[we prefer the account of Ebn 
Ami, which gives room to be- 
lieve, that he had near 40,000 : 
Ikcanfe, from the relation given 
frf the battle by Nicepborus Bry- 
«ttf'cr, who commanded the left 
iring of the Roman army, the 
furls feem to have been as nu- 
merous as the Romans* who, be- 
fc* the battle, were divided in- 
t&two parts ; and one of them 
J fait to befiege Kleat or Kalat. 
UtNicepb. Bryen. hift. otCotifi. 
1 pvcaiy & Romanus Diogenes , cap . 

I IZ) In Per/tan Irak, and then 
\ At capital of his dominions. 

J A) Perhaps from hence cal- 
Jk Han* or the white prince, 
i^DCording to the Greek hiflori - 
J OS, who write Jxan. 
; (B) Yet Bryennius fpeaks as 
I if the Sol tan did not expofe him- 

Mod. Hist. Vol.IV, 

felf to danger in the battle ; but, 
leaving the whole conduct of it 
to Tarang, an eunuch, one of 
his generals, gave his orders at 
a diftance. 

(C) According to Mirlond 
and Kondamtr, the emperor was 
taken by Javaber, one of the 
Soltin's generals, who was fent 
k to purfue the Romans. On this 
occaiion hiftorians relate, that 
the Soltan, reviewing his troops 
before the battle, had & mind 
to* difmifs one of his foldiers, 
becaufe he feemed to be very ill 
made : but an officer prevented 
it, by telling his majefty he was 
very brave ; and that poffibly 
that very man, whom he de- 
fpifed fo much, might take the 
Greek emperor prifoner. As the 
officer foretold, fo it happened j 
and the horfexnan, inftead of 
being caftiiered, was advanced 
to the higheft pofts in the army. 

I me? 

me F The aapesor rcplkd, £0 pot reproach we, and A wkti 

you tfinkjti : then afked (he Soltaq, fffl** vmfdyou has* 

done tome, if I bank falle^ lHi <* your- bands. 2 IJbould have 

infliBtifome ivfomus kind of punifbmeut on yw, aufwcpd 

the emperor*. And what, &id the Saltan, do you think J 

fiall da to you? Sitber put ma to death* reply'd Romamu^ 

carry me through your domituous for afpeQacle fa every b* 

dy, or elfe ('what is beyond my hopes.} fpare me t QJifaymait 

The Sol- of a ranfinn, and appoint me your deputy. Tet. this, tqfcistk 

ton's gem- way 9 fail tke Soltao, that I intend \o deal by you. Aocqrf- 

rofity. ingly he fet him at liberty, on, condition of paying a miliioa 

of crowns in gold (D), and cti fa i ffing all the Mohajnmdanjn- 

fcners in his empire. 

When mattery were thus concluded, the Saltan mack 
the emperor fit ia the throne with him : then had a tent 
fet up for him, fending him 10,000 pieces of gold, for his 
fubfifteace. He likewtie fet free many Roman lords, predat- 
ing them, as well as the emperor,, with vefts, by way of ho- 
poor. At parting, he feat aa army to efcort him to a placs 
of fefety, aad accompanied bm on his way the fpace of a 

Emperor's When Romanus arrived at the caftle of Dawkiya (E), and 
bard fate, was tiold- (hat Michael had afcenjied the throne, he put om 
religious habit, and difpatebpd a courier to let the new em- 
peror know what kind of peace he had made with the Spj- 
tan. Then collecting aoo,ooo crowns in gold, he fent then to 
the Soltan (F), folemnly protefting, that it was not in his 
power to do more. Ebn Amid adds, that, in his way bad 
to Conjtantinople, the king of Armenia ordered him to be 
feized, and, having put out his eyes (G), fent advice thereof 

(I» $bnAm*dhy$i 1,500,000, (F) Alfo a precious ftonc, 

befcfes an annual tribute of worth 90,000 gold crowns, afr 

j6o,oob, which the Lebtarikh* cording to Ebn Amid. This « 

fwells to ten millions. Konda- poflibly no other than the ricfc, 

nt'ir relates, that the emperor pearl called the Orphan^ which 

was obliged, by the treaty, to was found in the emperor's tent, 

give his daughter in marriage after he was taken, 

to the Soltan's fon; and that (G) The way of putting oot 

the condition wa* pun&ually the eyes, or blinding, with the 

performed. Greets and Afiatics ; was not bj 

(E) Niceph Brymmus calls it pulling or cutting out the eyes, 

Dokia: it was in Armenia minor ; as fome have imagined, bat by 

probably towards the borders of drawing, or holding a red hot 
Gltiia. • iron before them. This method 

i% (till in ufe in Afa. 

C 2. StcdUtet*** Alp Arflarh 195. 

IV the Sbltam •. But this is contrary to the-acobuht of tHc 
Creek?, Which halted* already given in another place o. 

Am* this great viftsry, A$Arft&n y according to ttt&nf**j9tf 
htharikk) marched iiH6 GurjejHn> or Georgia ; Which having Georgia, 
canqnered, he deprive* the great lords ot their liberty, and 
chfcgedthenr to Wear iron -rings in* their ears, as a mark of 
Iter ibriery (H) : to avoid which ignominy, many of them 
tnroed Mobamriedatts* However, the country was not fo 
thoroughly fbbdned* but that there remained a great number 
rf ftrong hoMs in the mountains, which > required much time 
to reduce ; and as the SoMn was called away by other af* 
fairs, he left his fen Makk Shah to continue the War. 

The moft famous ficge undertaken by this prince, who; /Www 
to fidiflv the conqueft which his father began, had the fovt-fiege. 
refflb of mount Caaca/ks to firbdue, was that of a placd 
called, in die Perfian, Miriam Nifbm> that is, tlx place, or 
imeMhtg* cf Mary; os account of a monaftery and church 
dedicated to the Virgin Mary, fituated in the middle of tf 
kte. Makk Sh&h chofc for the attack the beft of his troops, 
whoa* he put into boats, with ladders and grappling irons 
far fading, the walls r but juft when they were going to make 
tnea/feult, there arofc fo furfioufia ftorm on the l^ke, and Dr *" a fiJ 
tbefky was darkened to fueh a degree, that nothing couldA™ *** 
be done. This ftorm tfas followed by fo violent an earth- '*'*£ 
qnake, tbar both the befiegers and the befieged, theTitrfr and** e * 
ttotff^mfer, expe&cJd to be (wallowed up together/ How* 
e*er, the latter foffered mofr by it ; for pait of. their walla 
falling" into the lake, when the dements were fettled again, 
the Turks,, without any difficulty, forced the place, and ruin- 
ed the monaftery, which was reforted*to moft of any mGeor* 
gk, on account of devotion P. 

The affairs which called the Saltan away from Gevrgia f Tl* Sitta* 
as k before remarked, were his preparations for the conqueA/'"*' 
of Turkman : hefetout, at length, With that view, in the 
year 465 (I), at the head of 200,000 men, towards Maiva-Hty 46$. 
tfhukkr* When he came to the Jihun, or Atn4, he laid a A.D. 
bridge owe* thfc* river, for the paflage of hfc army, which I0 7 2 * 

■ Abu'lt. p. 2*7, St feq. °*Univ. hift. vol. xvii. p. 133. 

* Vissaia, ap. D'Herb. p. 103. Art. Alp Arfl&n. 

(H) According to the Lehia* (I) Ebn Amid fays he (et out 

rifb, inHead of the iron ring frbm Baghdad in the month of 

wfcieh was the mnrk* of flavery Safar, of the year 464. H iit 

before, he ordered them to wear Saracen, p. 344. 

a torfe-fiux in their cars. 

la v feeing 

1,6 37*Scljuks*/Iran. B.L 

being fo numerous, took up twenty days. Here flaying tt> 
Berzem take in certain caftles, he firft attacked that of Berzem, or 
caftle. Barzam (§), in which Tufef Kothual, an intrepid Karazmian, 
commanded (L), This governor defended the .place vigo- 
rously for feveral days ; but being at laft taken by force, the 
Soltan ordered him to be brought into his prefence, and 
gave him very injurious language, for daring to hold oat 
lb long againft fuch an army as his. Tufef, who rather ex- 
pe&ed that the Soltan would have praifed his valour, being 
provoked at fuch outrageous treatment, anfwered with a 
great deal of warmth, and at laft loft all refpett. Wlier* 
upon Alp Arflan ordered his hands and feet to be bound to 
four pofts, that he might be put to a cruel death. 
Is fain, TUSEF, upon hearing his fentence pronounced, took oqt 
a knife, which he had in one of his boots ; and threatening 
the Soltan, faid, wicked man, is this the treatment winch 
* P er f>fl of my merit deferves P and advancing at the feme 
time to ftrike at the king, the guards would have fallen no- 
on] him : but that prince, who had not his equal eijherfor 
ftrength, or /hooting with the bow, hindered them from flop- 
ping him ; and let fly aq arrow (M) at Tufef, which miffed 
by the go- him. Tufef, hereupon, full of fury, ran at the Soltan with 
verm, all his force, and mortally, wounded him (N) ; after which 
he defended himfelf a long time againft that prince's guards, 
wounding feveral of them, till one of the pages (O) of the 
Soltan *s chamber felled him with a club '. Another author 
relates, that, as Tufef fprang forward, the Soltan rofc, in or*, 
der to defcend from the throne ; but that, his foot flipping, 
he fell on his face : that then Tufef, leaping upon him, kept 
him down with his knee, and (tabbed him in the flank : that 
the Soltan rifing, went into another tent j and one" of the 
pages knocked die murderer on the head' r . 
Hxsrefltc- ALP Arjlan lived for fome hours after this misfortune: 
tiontb**- when, finding himfelf near his end, he faid to thofc about 


* Ebn ^mid. P- 344- Abu'lfar. p. 228. Kond. ap. D* 

Herb. p. 103, art. Alp Arflan. ' Abu'lfaraj. hift. dy-, 
sail. p. 228. 

(K) In thcZebtartih, Barza. (O) The Lebtarikh fays he 

(L) Ebn Amid fays, he hid would have efcaped, if Ganuab 

rebelled againft the Soltan. the page had not knocked him 

(M) Both Ebn Amid and the on the head with a ftone. AbuU . 

Lebtarikh fay he fhot three ar- faraj fays it was done with a 

rows at hhn. hammer. 

(N) In the fide, according to 
Ebn Amid* 

7 him, 

C. 2.' Second Soltdn, Alp Arften. 117 

him, / new call to mind two pieces of advice which formerly 
were given tome by a wife^ ofd man, my mafler : thefrjl was, 
Never to defpife any perfbn: thefecond, Never to have too 
great an opinion of one's felf : neverthelefs I have offended 
againfi, theft two important rules thefe.two loft days of my 
life : for yefterday beholding from an eminence the great num- 
ber of my troops 9 Iitnagined that there was not any -power 
pn earth able to refifl me; nor any man who dared to attack 
me (P) : and to-day, forbidding my guards to Jlop that man 
who was making at me with the knife in his hand, I believed 
I had both flrength and JIM enough to defend my felf But I 
now perceive that no force nor addrefs can with/land dejliny *. 

This prince reigned nine years (O) fix months and twelve &'* <*g*% 
days, and lived forty-four years and three months"; for he 
was born in 421, and died in 465 (R). He was buried at 
Maru (S), one of the four cities of Khorafdn, with this epi- 
taph : Allyou t who have, beheld the grandeur of Alp Af(\£n 
raifed to the very heavens, come to Maru, and you wiU fee 
him buried under the dujl. 

He was very brave and Dberal; juft, patient, witty, znd*"d cba*. 
iinccre; conftant in prayer, and giving alms : he greatly fear-™*"'* 
ed God, and was a ftrenuous advocate for Mohammedifm 1 . 
His ihape and mien fo very engaging (T), that h^ gained the 
refpeft and affection of all who approached him. He had 
very long whifkers, and wore commonly a very high turban, 
made in form of a crown. His power was fo very great in 
Afia, that there have been fcen at the foot of his throne, no 
fewer than 12,000 princes, or fons of princes, paying their 
court to him «. 

' Kohd. ap. D'Herb. ubi fupra. 
"Kond. obi fupr. p. 104. 

* Ebn Amid. p. 34^ 

(P) Ebn Amid, who reports 
this paflkge with fome final! va- 
riation, makes him alfo fay; 
that he never undertook any- 
thing, excepting this time,.whh- 
oot imploring the divine aflift- 

(0) The Lsbtarikb, by fome 
jpiiUke,has two years. 

(R) Ebn Amid fays, it was 

about the tenth of Rabiya prior ; 
the Lebtarikb, about the end of 
that month. 

(S) Some write Mar*wa :. 'tit 
,Maru Sbabjdn, mentioned in a 
former note. 

(T)\TheLebtariib r p.+z. fajrs, 
that his afpedl and huge fize 
ftruck people with fear. 






The Reign *f M*Jek Sh& 

a^Soltln. Ji/fALEK Shah fucceeded his father Alp Arjtdn x accords] 

Malck ■*'■* ing to his appointment before related, although he , 

Sh$h. oot his eldeft fon. He was induced to declare him bis fuoj 

ceflbr by the counfel of his Wazir Nezam al MM. Th 

name and furnames of this Soltan at length are Moez-addtril 

Abu* If et ah Makk Shdh. Inftead of Moez-addfn, fome put 7^1 

Ul-odd\n % or JaUl-oddawlat • ; others, JaUloddin b . I 

ALP Arftdn was no foonex dead, than he was acknow-^ 

leged lawful heir and fucceflbr of his father* at th$ head 

Names and the armies, whigh he bad commanded (A). The Khaiifi 

fibs. aUb fcnt bim his confirmation of the title and power of SotJ 

tin ; adding thereto even the quality of Amir al Momenin^ 

'that is, a#nmafiderofthefaithful y which, till then, theEt 

Kfahs had referved to themfelves, without conferring it < 

$ny Mohammedan prince whatever. 

He was likewire proclaimed throughout his dominions 1 
the name of JalAt-oddawlat waoddin, that is, the glory 
the Jtate and religion , It was on account of this tide JalS 
that the reformation of the Per/tan calendar, which was mad£l 
in his reign, was called Tarfkh Jalali, that is, the JaWean,\ 
kalendar c , of which an account will be given hereafter. 
His uncles As foon as Marubil, Ion of Dawd, or Jaffar Bek, heard 
rebel. of Alp Arjldn\ death, he fet out from Ray, in order to oh 
tain the crown : but Malek Shah meeting him on the fourthJ 
day of Shahdn (8), near Hamad An, his forces were defeated*! 
and himfelf taken prifoner d . Kaderd, a fon of Jaffar Bek 
aftb, another of his uncles, raifed ftill a more dangerous re? 
bellion againft him. Re was governor of the province of 
IfervMn (C), and advanced with a considerable focpe even aa 
far as Ku*j, or Gurj. The Soltan font the troops of Kbtra- 
fin f which had always been victorious in hi$ father's ragn 4 

* 6o Ebw Amid. hift. Srrrap. p. 345. k As the author 

of the Lebtarik«. * Kond.. Mirk. Nigh*arist. ap. D 1 

Herb. p. 542, art.. Makk Schai. < Ebh Amiu. p. 345. 

fA) As foon as he afcended that this aftton feems, to have 

the throne, he wen,t to. Manna, 
or Maru, and there buried his 
father. BbnAmid. hill. Saracen., 

P. 345- 

* (B) The eighth month, Sq 

happened the fame year. 

(C) He was properly Soltan 
of Kerman ; being the founder 
of the Seljdk dynaity reigning iii 
that country: by fojpe Karderd. 

C. b; Third Sdtdn, Malek Shah. 119 

to <$pofeJhim. The two armies, after harraffing each other 
jhr three days and nights, came to a general engagement ; 
which proved ore of the moft bloody that ever happened in 
Perfia. At length the vi<ftery fell to Malek Sk&h ; and Afa-Kaderd 
idira\ being taken prifoner, was fent under a flrong'guard to'**** t r * m 
a eaftle in Khorafan. On this fignal fuccefs, which eftabliftxed^^* 
die new Saltan's authority, the troops grew fo infolent, that 
jheir principal commanders infilled on having their pay dou- 
bled* threatening otherwife to fet Kaderdon the throne. 
. MALEK Sh&b t perceiving that the name of a competitor His ispoi* 
yns fufSrieat to give occafion to his troops to revolt, hadA*^ 
Jfaderd poifened the fame night, in prifon. Ne&t morning, 
-when the officers of the army came to know the Soltan's ari- 
fwer, the Wazlr* who probably had a hand in what was 
done, told them j that he had not been able as yet to prefeiit 
their petition to the Soltan, becaufe he found him over- 
whelmed >rith grief the night before, on the unexpected 
death of his uncle, who, driven to defpair, had taken poifon, 
jrfcjch he carried in one of his rings, 'this anfwer flopped > 
the mouths of the officers and the whole army all at once : 
lor they talked no more of the augmentation of pay, when 
! they found the perfon was dead who only could have favoured . 
thrir mutiny c . 

In 468, Aksis, the Karaxmian (D), one of Matek Shah's AksU/ui- 
; generals, marched \oDamafius 5 and, befieging it, conftrajiied^ s y r, * a * 
the inhabitants, by famine, to capitulate. He likewife reduced H ^ § 4 68 » 
noft part of Syria (E), and caufcd the oration to be made, in * Jv 
the name of Al MoktMi, khalifah of Bagdad (F) : although ,0?S# 
•forward* that honour reverted to the Khalifans of Egypt f . 
Nat year he marched into Egypt ; which fo {lighted Al A. D. 
MojlanJir.BiUa, the Khalifah, that he refolved to fly,- But 1076. 

e Kowd. &c. ubi fupr. f Aaulf. p. 237, 

(D) RhwAnU calls him IJan hiflory afterwards, which puts 

ibnuoed Aftis. that country in other hands. 

(£) According to Kendamiri Betides, we are told by the 

: mUkSbab feftt his Cftttfinfr- fame author, that Malek Sba% 

lefman t fon of Kofrimfi, the year gave JJia miner to Soltymdn ; and 

mie, With an army to fub- Sod, from other quarters, that 

bxd\ Syria \ which he did, hi the latter did not. enter Syria 

**ort time, as far at Antiocb, till the year 477 of the Hejrah. 

&* a confidence city (1). . (F) He fucceeded Al Kayim f 

\ Batthi^b rendered improbable,. Bimrillah, who died the year 

m only by this expedition of \jic£otq ; after a reign of forty- 

4tw % or Jisis, but alfo by tho four years and half. 

(*) jyBsrkk f« $4*1 art - M*M Sbab. 

I 4 the 

•126 The Scljuks of IrAn. 4 B.t 

the citizens of ^/ Kaherd (or Kayro) and Sawddn a d v au c m 

againft him, defeated his troops, though much fuperior £ 

number. In his way back to Damaftus, he put great number* 

to the fsvord at Ramla (G) and Jerufalem. 

Tatafli MALEK Shah, fufpefting that ytfkr/j" had been Oain in hk 

y&»/ /£/- Egyptian expedition, wrote to his brother Taj oddawlat 7#» 

ther. tajb (H), in 470, to go and conquer Syria. When T&jm? 

A. D. r j vec i at Diydrbekr, he found ^/Aj//, lord of bama/hu, vm 

lo 77- alive : who, hearing that the other was advancing agahl 

him, offered to pay an annual tribute. Malek Shah, accept* 

* ing thereof, wrote to his brother to depart from Manhej (Pf, 

Me did fo, and went from thence to Halep, then poflefled fy 

Sabak aJ Amin Ebn Mahmud Ebn Nafr Ebn Marias : but," not 

being able to take the place, returned by Harran (K) to ZM- 

yarbehr ; which put MoJUm Ebn Korais, lord of Nafihin and 

Senjdr, upon his guard g . . ] 

Mawa- In 471, Malek Shah undertook the conqueft of the countijj 

ri'lnahr beyond the river Jihun or Amu ; whofe Khan, called Soleymki 

conquered, he took prifoner, after defeating his army ; and fent him guard 

*tej. 471 £d to Ifpdh&n, then the capital of his dominions. In this wn; 

-A- P- Nezfan al Molk (L) gave the watermen, who had ferried die 

,0 7 8, Soltan's forces over the Jih&n, for their trouble, an aflignmem 

inftead of money, on the revenues of the city of Antiokh. Thl 

men having made their complaint to Malek Shah, he aflced the 

Wafcir, why he had appointed a fund at fuch a diftance fci 

paying off thofe poor people ? " It is not, replied that mi*! 

fter, to delay the payment, but to make pofterity admire H 

the largenefs and extent of the dominions which you poffefii 

When they fhall hear of money received at Antiokh for pay* 

ment of Sailors belonging to the Cajpian fea, and of water* 

s Eb 4 n Amid, p. 349. 

(G) The ^ntient Ruma in we make no doubt but Tatajb, 

%anadn. Tetejfr, or *totoJb (for it maybe 

(H) In the copies of Erpeni- read thofe three w^ys), isdw 

us and Fatter it is Ni/us, in- true word. 
Head of Tatajh ; occasioned, (I) Named Hicrapolis aad 

doubtlefs, by the wrong point- . Bambyce by the Greeks. 
Ing of the letters ; a thing (K) The antient Haran zs& 

very common with the Arab Karne in Mefopetame. 
i copifts. The three letters, of (L) Naxdm, or No%dm t at 

which the name confifts, are the Perfians f but Nedham, No* 

pointed three different ways in dbdm, or Noddm, as the AnA$ 

Abulfaraj(i). But, as thcGreek pronounce it. It fignifies, *ru- 

writers call this prince Tut us r ment efibeftate. 

(t ) *\ 366 Of 376. 

;€.?. third Mito, Malek SHh: • ui 

ijoea who plied on the Jihun." This fancy pleafed Jlfc/f* 

^WA exceedingly ; especially, when he ftw t&t the Wazjr - 

vpaid off the notes immediately. . . * 

That fame year the Soltan married Turkdn or TarkAfi MUefe 

\Kbatun, daughter of Tamgaj Khan (M), Ton of Bagra Kfrans Shih'i 

,who, in 479, brought him a fon, called SanjaV (N), fxQ8Lii m * fr * a f** 

•little city of that name in Khorafdn, where he was born b ; 

? On the return of Ibrahim Ebn Maffid (ninth Soltan qf 
\Xb*;Gaxnah rate) from- India, where he had made confide* . - * 

•table cooqae&s, MaUk Shah made great preparations to in,- .;. 

.Fade him (0) : but was prevailed on by hi? ambailadocs to , 
i-defkl, and make an alliance, by marrying his daughter tp i 

JH^ft/, Ibrahim's fon; who Succeeded him (P) in 481 \ . 
In 472, the army of Mefr, or Egypt, coining to befiegr A4f» 1 
f.Dama/ius, AfsU fent for help to To/ oddavtlat ; on whofeA**. 

.approach the Egyptians retired. Hereupon ^if/, coming to Hej. 47 »♦ 

vifit him, was feized, and flain, by his order. Then, takiiy; A - **. 
,lhe city, he became mafter of all hi* riches and effefts. . lo 79- , 
, After this, the iuhabitaots, who had fled into ?erfta % to avoid ' 

the tyranny of Jfsis, retorted, to enjoy the prpteftipn of the 

The fame year, Sbarf oddawlat Ebn Ma/Um Ebn KcrkU t Affair* <f? 

•lord of Mufol, having obtained leave of IHakk ShSh 9 to fub- Halcp, , 
4 due HaJep 9 on condition, of paying him 300,000 gold crowns 
i- annually, marched againft that city ; and, after beiieging it 

for fome time, it was, with the caftle, delivered up tp him; 
I faying to Sabak ai Arr&n 20,000 crowns every year* 

* Kohd. &c. ap. D'Hcrb. p. 542. } Texeira, hift, . 

fcrC p. 302. D'Herb. p. 480, art. Ibrahim Ben Maflbud. 

(M) Ebn Amid, p. 3C6. calls as he makes him reign forty* 

lum Tera&h, king of the Turfs, two years, thofe joined to 445, 

fir defendant of Afrafiab. when Abial Rapid was flain # 

(N) It ought to beMabjnud; amount to but 487 of the Hej- 

wkom (he wanted to be her huf- rab % or of Cbrift 1 094. 

feud's fueceffpr. For Sanjdr ( QJ Moftafa Haji KbatifiA 

wa by pno$her venter, as will makes a fourth dynafty of SeU 

appear hereafter. jukians, which began this year 

•>(0) As neither of onr an- in Ha J fp, and other places of 

4ors mention the date of this Syr/*, founded by Tatajb above* 

.JfttiadiQO, we choofe to refer mentioned. It lailed about forty 

i to this time, when we find years, ending in the year 511, 

Malei Zbdb marching north- on the death of Soltan Mobam- 

fv&. jned. D"Htrb. p. Soi, art, 

(P) WKerbtht, p. 480. puts Seljukian. 

fcU d&th in 492, or 1098 : but 


Shayzi**&&k the oaftle of Siay&r (R) from the 4to«*, wth a* 

Hej. 473. great army ; and it continued in die jxrffeffio* of hi fimihh 

*•£>• tfflkwag taken by MdkmtldM Md Nuroddhi EbjtZika{S)i 

***>• after ad earthquake,, which had deftrdyed the place. 

bddavtlat, Who was an excellent prince, and eminent poet, 1 
dyihg in 475, his fen, Ab4!l<MSthaf al Nafr, farnamed 
4xU*vtda> fncceeded him, at Stoyz&r* 
MthlBo* ' " **t47f> Md** ■&*** <■« Ws geaferai fo/tekdr (T) to A 
#/• Ta- tf&, as his fiefctetattt there) at which time his Waztr*« 
kaih. Was in that city* The &me year, his brother Takafb (U) **• 
Hej. 477.tbelled againft him 5 aiid, having taken Mar-wa, gaite 
A ^« armyleavfcto plunder it for three days, whik he aod 
***** $8te&tes by with the *dmen> and drank wine in the 
'' temple*" in the month of Ramadh&n (W). Malek 
«Aarchlt% againft him, he retired into the caftle of Brtj*f y 
Which being taken, he was idiprifoned elfewher e. 
Soleyman Ttra feme year, £A*i/ odd*d>lat Bin Kornys, lord of Jfc» j 
Shift fc£ arid M$ft£ marched to attack Antwkb, then in poflef-j 
)fcwr. Son of Siltym&b Ebn Kotoknijb (X) ; who put his forces t»i 
flight, and he died of his wounds. Soltfa Taj «&fettdsfr| 
jfcj. 4 7 |. hearing of his death, marched towards HaUp the ne*t year. 
A. D. accompanied by Qrtok, the Turkm&n, whb had fabdoedh 
1085. ffohvin ( YY and H&bcla* Both thefe agreeing to invade S+>\ 
hym&n, prince of AntiM, they fought feveral battles witfe* 
him, under die walls of ffak} ; in the laft of which J*AjM. 
mhn was flam, and hfc forces rooted/ % this meant H*+t 
Up XL) fell intp the hands of Taj oddawlat, who became* 
mafter of all Syria *. 

The Greek hiftorians fey, that the Great Sdtfa, betog 
informed of the fuccefs of Tutus (A) (as they call Taj «/- 
dawlatjy and feafifig he fliould grcto tew powerful, to 
firengthen himfelf, fent to propfcfe ah alliance df marriage 

k ETbn AmId, p. 350, & feq, 

' (R) This place, which is fitu- the fame name" : Taj ddda&bi 

ated on the river Ajfi, or Oftn- being called Nifut alfo. 
/yx, is the fame called by die wri- ( W) Which is did* £*»*. 
ters of the holy war Cafaria. (X) Both fhe MSS. of &£*- 

(S) Rather Zengbi. tins and Fatter \atfe PtoU*$. 

(T) In Patter s copy Ahfia- (Y] Hal-man is a eity in tM . 

I*/ 4 , or Extakar> as he writes k . northern bo*de*r of Arabian Iraii 

(U) It is jVir/jtt iti the copies near that of Per fan Iriii. 
tAErtetiim aid f**#Vr; doubt- (Z) It fhould feem rath** 

lefs, by a mi flake in writing or Anfiokb y or both cities, 
pointing the letters. For he (A) Rather Taq/&> aettediflg 

eei*Id ftot have two brothers of to AifJfaraj. 


£.4. rbirJScttd*, Mdek Sh&h; l«3 

tomes a ion of to and a daughter of Ac afcperar jlfe*» 
pJ: Ae faccefe <rf winch ihatl be related, ia the triftory 
Ifftbe^ttr of A0»r» 4»r ^Ai miikt. 

; 61483, *e 3*tb**iyah (»), that is, Bathsnmns, rrt Bn-Rtfeoffy 
wmpt, began to fubdne *aftks la P«^wi ZrJ* and Dilm.affaffins. 
fflrfirflthey took was ia this k£ province, and catted JfadMr.Hej. 483. 
fr4*M^*ojfc*«^, afa^loA^^ A.D. 

fevered to /fa$w £*« JtyM, for 120© crowns, by the #*■ lo 9°* 
■nor, who aimed Batartifl. This Haffkn was a native of 
Ijfarwt, and had been ftcretaiy to Mdolre^ak, at Harem. 
^kfeeraraeds going to Egypt, he met with a Batamjt, who 
|nqgtit ham over to their perfuafion ; and, by confent of tile 
•topic, made him grand matter, And head of the feft. He 
kd many followers j and, growing considerable, MalekBhfh 
pot him a threatening neflage, requiring his obedience. . 

The ambafiador being brought before him, he fent fot Their in- 
f company of .his people, and commanded one of them, *trefidi&j> 
fjong man, to kill himfeif j which he did, without Jiefita* 
lion. He ordered another to throw himfelf headlong froni 

t top of tbecaftie; which he performed that infant, and 
ce Us neck. After this, he told the envoy, that he had 
«o other aniwer to fend the Soltan, than that he had 70,000 
pea at his command, who obeyed him in the manner which 
he had ten. The 8oltan was furprized when thefe things 
lime reported to him $ and, having other affairs on hte hands, 

tthe Batanifts alone. They afterwards took feveral other 
fcs; and, among the reft, that ofJlMtk (C) ; which Was 
their Aroogeft hold, and royal feat *. 

These bravoes quickly grew famous for their daring mur* 
Was : one of which was perpetrated foon after, on the pen 
fen ci Ntzfim alMolk y Wazir to Mdkk Sh&h, one of the 
anateft perfonages among the Mthammedans, who had been 
lepded a little while before. 

The. occaiion of thisWa2ir's diigrace is fomewhat dlf- D/£r</<* 
foody related by authors; though all agree, that it vn&of tbe 

1 Amu Com*. Aj.?x. c. 8. * Ebm. Awip, p. 353. 

pyniefc arc the followers of to deftroy. They are known 

lLfat$at*h who founded Che in our hiftories chiefly by the 

ftltfy palled Tbg ifmaelians name of afiaJfias. For a farther 

/ faba, in the year and place account of them, and their fe- 

jaeptiooe^ m th* text. The veral dynaftiet, fee l?Herbtlot % 

Bmhmdams were abfolotely dp- art, Batbania, Ifmbdiaus, and 

Kfod to the fervice of their fi^e* £«£*£. . 

jrface; by whofe order they (C).Or 4/ Afeurf ; whi<fr 

other flew themfelves, or any feaifef 4Mtk% 

f^a whom they fed a wad 



104- 72' Sdjtiks of Iran. B. 1 

owing to fome imprudent or unguarded exprdSons of his, ifc 
anfwer to the Soittn's mcflage to him, concerning the infoJea* 
behaviour of one or more ci his fons j of whom we are 
.> he had twelve. /(ondamir writes, that it .was brought 
by the Sol tana; who, incenfed againft him, for oppofing 
defign of gating her youngeft fon (D) declared Malek Si' 
fucceflbr, accufed him of abfolutely difpofing of all 
in the government, and dividing them among his fons. 
Nezam The Soltan, offended that. he fliould aft in fuch man 
ftlMolk. without confulting him, fbnt to tell him, that if he did 
alter his conduct, he would oblige him to rejign the cap 
ink-Jiand; which were the marks of his dignity and pow« 
Nezdm, nettled £t this menace, anfwered, that the cap wi 
he wore, andthepqft he poffeffed, werefo united to the crown a* 
throne by the eternal decree .of providence, that tbofe fm 
things could notfubfift -without each other.. This anfwer, the/ 
bold, will admit of a good meaning a but it was altered \ 
the meflenger, who was in the Soltana's intereft, in fuch 
manner, that Malek Shdh, exafperated to the laft degree, <j 
prived the Wazir of his employment that inftant, and gave 
Co Taj al Molk Kami, chief of the Soltana's counsellors • 
ft commiffion to examine into the mifmanagements of his 
tteeaufi According to Ahmed Ebn Mohammed, author of 
if it. NighiariftAn, the»caufe of the Wazir's .difgrace was his 
Mowiad al Molk, who had been made fecretary of flan 
turning out Adib, the firft clerk in the office, an exceUetf 
writer, though put in by the Soltan's order; and anfweriq 
when Makk Shah fent tp have him reftored, that he 
Jworn never to employ that man ; and believed the Solt&n 
not have him be guilty of perjury* The Soltan replied, 
anger, if Mowiad hasfworn not to employ Adib, / have 
no fuch oath ; much lefs have Ifworn to continue Mowiad 
his employment : and at. the fame time ordered Adib to be 
made fecretary in his room. Mowiad after that, having 
commenced a violent profecution againft one of Malek Sh$i 
chief officers, that prince fent the Wazir word, that he coS 
no longer bear the tnfolence of his fins ; and that, unlefi Oj 
jfop was put to it, he Jhould be obliged to take the govern* 
ment of the Jlate out of his hands. It was o& this occafioi 

* Kond. jip. DUerb. p. 543, art. Malek Schah. 

(D) Kondamir calls him San- fet up, 'On the death of her Iiut 
jar ; but it mud be a tnrflake band, 
for Mabmud, whom the Soltana 


C. i. Third Soltan, Malefc Shah.* • i t% 

facN*zam Al Molk made the anfwer before related, which 
jiraght on his fudden remove . >> 

L ABU'L-FARAJ writes, that the Waxir's difgrace was 
jfcecocfequence of a very infolent anfwer (E) which he fent 
pe Scltan ; who refented the ill treatment given by his 
wndfon {fon of the governor of MarwaJ- to one of his 
Hnripal flaves P. 

Whatever the caufe was, Nez&tn alMolk, after his re- #,/,<-/&£ 
love, followed the court, which juft at that time fet out finated. 
w BaghdAd; and, being gotten as far as Ndhaivdnd, a boy 
' the Batinifi feft, approaching him under pretence of beg-" 
or othefwife, (tabbed him with a knife, by the pro- 
irement of Taj Ebn Molk Kami (F), who fucceeded him in 
Wazlrfhip ; of which wound he died foon after, x in the 
485 ; agid 93 years (G). His corps was carried back A. D. 
Ift&h&n, where it was buried with pomp. togz. 

MIRKOND writes, that Nezam al Molk (H), when hot Hit cha- 
pel ve years old, knew all the Kortn ; and, when very young, ra£er. 
jquired fo great a knowlege of the civil law, according to 
principles of Shafey (I), that he gained the admiration of 
Cry body. As he was very learned, he no fooner got into 
NJtarity than he took men of letters under his patronage ; 
raiding honfes and colleges for them in the cities of Bagh- 
H Bafrabj ' Herat, and Ifp&h&n. But the moft grand mo 
jment left by him is the famous college of Saghddd, called, 
er him, Medraffat annezamiyat ; which hath produced 
lie of the moft learned men of their time. 

As an inftance to what a high pitch of dignity, authority, Honours 
i efteem, Nezam al Molk was rifen, the fame author relates ;^ M '<* him 
it when Malck Shah went to Baghdad, to be crowned 
t the Khalifah Al R&dhi, to render the ceremony more fo- 
he fummoned all the doftors of die law, and other' 
Mrned men, within the Mohammedan dominions, to be pre* 
at it. Being ailembled, he ordered them to go on foot 

,»D*Hbrb. p. 654, art. Nazham AlMolk. • p AbuYf. 
. 237. 

(E) To the purpofe of that after he had ferved the Soitins 
■cady recited, but more bold, thirty years. 

(F) According to the Leb- { H) Nezam al Molk, a) the • 
Urikb, it was done by the com- Perfians, and Naxam al Molk, 
feud of Hajfan Sab ah, who as the Arabs pronounce it, fig. 
•as prince of the affafTma, as nifies the ornament of the fi ate. 
lath been obferved in a former (I) One of the dodors, or 
rate. heads of the principal (e&s 

[G} Abulfaraj fays, p. 77, among the Mohammedans. 


from h& pdtae m the weftern part of the dtf f to- pay tW 

^ /£* compliments in a body to the Khaiifah, whole imperial pala 

jiAafifab. was kt the eafterft part* y* *&#«, being informed, thitth 

Warned troop waft coming to faiute him, with Nexam dAk 

At thafr. head, font his officers to meet theab ; and ocderd 

that the Warir alooe (hould advance on hofrfe-fcsck. Whq 

they appeared before the Khalifah, he commanded a ftat to<| 

placed for the Wazir, and made him fit down} white aft df 

ether doftors flood, on his right and left : but what ftillaoi 

. farprtzod them w*sj that he honoured JNfezdb with aveft(IJ 

and- conferred on him the title of horned* jtxft> and durtm 

of the (hminions of Radhi, Khalifah of the Moflemr: faj 

tffl then, thofe fpirirual monarchs never gave any tide 4 

dignity, which belonged to themfelves, to any of the* wl 

nlfters. i 

Hss h&*> The liberality whkh this great man excrcifcd, fafttyij 

rality* banted his other rare qualities : for, in the firft prom 

which MMek Shdh made through his dominions, he diflq 

feuted among the poor, oat of his awn coders, no Iris id 

380,000 crowns*. I 

His origin. As to the original of Nodham or Nezam ai Motk > wbok 

mme was Hoffttn> 'tis Grid, he was- the ion of apeafanr, i 

T&ft> (or Mq/hbid), who learned the Avobtir, and was f 

tary to Bojje*, lord of 8Mb : but that prince ufiiig him i 

he fled to Jbgri Beg-(L) Bawd at Mawa ; who made I 

preceptor to his fon Olb Ar/Ukn. His way was, when 

great men, either in church or ftate, came to vifit him, 

rife, and then fit down again ; but, a certain poor man 1 

learning- coming one day,, he rofe to meet him, and phcL 

Wiwm his feat. Being afterwards afked,. why he made tial 

difference ? he anfwered, that the great folks , of both &ri| 

when they come, praife him -far excellencies: which did notm 

long to h'tm\ and this feeds his vanity and pride ; -whereas tm 

other perfon puts* him* in ntmdr of his faults^ and whaPnm M 

did amifs; which made him humble, and refletl on many f&\ 

ings-ht was fubjetl to. His hard fate was lamented* by mtif 

of the poets of that time. ! 

Malek After the aflaflination of Nezhn al Molk, Malek SUk 

jShAhV proceeded to Baghdad; where being arrived, he^weatahont*, 

death. jng, on t fje third of Shawal) and; eating fome of the flefc" 

of the game, returned fick. A vein being opened, but Ikdt 

blqod came, out ; whkh increafed his iUnefs to a bnrnbf • 

* Mirk. ap. D'Herb. p. 543, & feq. art; Malek ShAh, 

(K) Called Kaftan. (L}Or, as othets, f*f# Btg. 


£» <. third S*ltd* y Malek SWJu M j 

<favi (b tfat he died about the middle of the feme month 7 . 
We than eighteen dayf after Nezhfi al Molt, opprefled 
ji vqtations ' . He lived thirty- feven years and five months 3 
yjdcb b? reigned twenty, and fome months over *. 
r ^B Greek hiftorians relate, that this Saltan, whom yet Greeks, 
r do not name, was aflailinated. They tell us, that Tututcnmtfidfe* 
74 odd^iuJ^t Tatafl), his brother, having flam Atrtr 
mfa (4s above related), and h*s fon-in-law, refolved to 
w the Scjtau alfo, before he fhould flrengthen himfelf by 
aHumoe with the Roman emperor : that, for this purpole, 
t hired twelve Kaftans, being certain afTaflins, fo called by 
; Per/tans * ^bo, going to the palace, found that prince 
liquor, and* pretending they had fomething to fay to him 
his brother, as foon as the guards were withdrawn^ 
d him with their poniards : that they were ail put to 
deaths ; which, on fuch occafions, this kind of people 
in u, 'Tis eafy to fee, that the. murder of the Wazlr is 
applied to the Soltan. Poflibly there was fucji a rumour 
fixfl; and that prince's death happening fo near the time of 
j miniJter's, might favour the miftake. 

However that be* Hamdallah Mfjt&fi has committed 1 Blunder of 
iter blunder than this, ge tells a formal ftory here, thatMefttifc 
Saltan, in his fecond progrefs round his dominions, fall- 
into an ambufcade of Greeks, was carried to the emperor^ 
had advanced to the borders with a powerful army : 
not being* known to thofe who took him, NezAm at, * 
r, on notice thereof, immediately feigned an. embaily ta 
emperor -, who, at his departure, made him a prefent of 
prHbners* as he expe&ed 1 that, afterwards, the twa % 
ies coming to a battle, the emperor was taken prifoner ;, 
prefcotlyrreftored to hie liberty, without, ranfom ; laftly^ 
t dying foon after,. Malek ShAh fubdped. part of his do- 
! ms, and gave the government thereof to his coufittjoley- 
fon of Kololmijh *. * Tis plain, that the emperor here* 
ted was Romanus Diogenes : for we read of no other 


Creek emperor who was taken by the Seljf&k Sokans ; and, 
toviieqnently, the author; has confounded Malek Sh&k with 
lift predeceffor Alp Arjl&n. 

Soltan Malek Sh&b, as to his perfbn, was very hand- Malek 
fgjtt, both ia fhape and features, befidea being exceeding Shah'/ 

ia his behaviour V To give his dm qjjaw&er ; hg^baraBerZ 

f Abu'la p. 23$* &fe<£ . * D'Herb. p. 544, ubLfdp.. 
Im» Amid, p. 354* u Ann. Comiibhi in Alec. 1. *k 

IK w ilKMO. MlSTVU. TaHI** GttVaiMUI. ftp* 

Herb. p. 543. * D'Hjub* p. 444* 

3 J far 

tit * £fc*Seljuks &f Ifktu ft.t 

was an excellent prince, wife, liberal, couragedus ; had fin 
* parts ; was remarkable for his fincerity and piety. He re- 
duced the taxes, and put a flop to other vexations ; repaired 
bridges, high roads, and canals ; erefted the templeof Bagh 
ddd, called the Masjed of the Soltdn ; alfo the Hani/eon col- 
lege (M), near the chapel of the prelate AM Hanifah, in tbd 
quarter of the city called Refdfa, and endowed it nobly. He 
likewise built markets and towns* He made great conquefts; 
reducing under his power all the country from the borders 
Of Turkejten to the Holy Land, and Tamman (N). He made ; 
the roads fecure, and every thing plenty in alt places. He 
was a terror to bad men, and a fupport to the innocent, the 
widow, and the poor ; who had always juftice done them m 
his courts y . 
Travels This Soltan took great delight in travelling ; and 'tis n> 
*nd pit- ported, that he made the tour of his dominions, though ft 
,gr image, very extenfive, as hath been related, no fewer than tea 
times *. HanidoUlah MeJUjfi % before cited, relates, that Mold 
Hej. 481.*^ made the pilgrimage to Mekka in 481 (O), with an i 
A. D. credible expence : for, befides aboliftiing the ufual tribe 
MC88. which the pilgrims paid, he laid out' very great fums in build*! 
ing towns in the defart ; where he ordered a great nu 
wells and citterns to be made, and water to be con? w 
to them from all fides. He likewife commanded plenty < 
provifions to be carried, for fubfiflence of the pilgrims ; 
distributed immenfe fums among the poor, with an unparaP] 
leled liberality a. 
Tend of ^ut -M^* Sbdh's greateft paffion was for hunting. 
hunting. l^P* 47> 000 horfes for his ordinary guard, and the chace ( 
in which he fpent a good deal of time. 'Tis faid, that i 
every beaft which he killed himfelf, he gave a piece of j 
to the poor : and it happened fometimes that he flew a j 

y Ebn Amid, p. 354. 
• D'Herb. p. 542. 

* Kond. ap. D'Herb. p. 54 

(M) Kondamr fays, he or- 
dered colleges, hofpitals, and 
, houfes of pleafure, to be built 
in feveral parts of his domi- 
nions. D'Heri. p. 544. 

(N) Tamman is the country we 
Call Arabia faelix. KcndanUr 
fays, his dominions extended 
from AntidJtb to Urtend (or Uz- 
kend), a city of Turkiftdn. D y 
Beri. p. 542. 

(O) According to the 
tarikhy he performed the 
grimage in Hejrah 479. 

(P) According to the 
tarikby he kept a {lauding arm] 
of 48,000 horfe always on foot) 
who had lands allotted the 
for their maintenance, thacthq 
might not fee burthenfomc 
the people. 

1 njanj. 

C.l Third $okdn> Malek, Shih* 1*9 

piny. Id fhort, /l£i&Jt Shdh is acknowleged to have been 
0e greateft prince among the Sefftkians ; whether we confix 
lltr his conqucfts, the extent of his dominions, or his mag- 
rifioence, liberality, and other virtues. 

Hw ambition feems to have be6n very moderate : for htprrtinctt 
0pokd of great part of his dominions, in his life-time, among ^r <ven. 
J fis relations and domefties. He gave to his coufm Soleymdn> away 
im of Kotobnifb, the country of itfm, or What he had taken 
from the Greek emperor, extending from the 'Euphrates a 
great vay into Afia minor ; of which part AzzerttH was then 
the capital. He eftabliihed, or reftored, Soltan Shdh, fon ofyMalek 
IhuvikkKaderd, before-mentioned, in Kerman, or the /Vr- Shah. 
Jm Caramania ; of which he was the fecond Sef/ik Soltan. 
He gave part of Syria to his brother Tebs ( QJ ; Karazm 
j to Tifbtekkin ; the country of Halep, or AUppo, to Ahfankori 
4hat of Mufol to ChagMrmiJb (R) ; and Mardin to Katmtar. 
' Some of the above-mentioned ftates became reunited in 
fee to the dominions of the family of Molek Shdh, and 
fibers remained in the families of thofe to whom he gave 

! We rouft not conclude this reign, without giving fome ac- Jalilean 
[loom of the TawarikalJaWi, or the Jalalean kalendar, already kalendar, 
*" ooned; which is a correction of the Perftan kalendar, 
made by order of Molek Shdh, and afterwards by Soltan 
f-ddUfn Mankberni, fon of Mohammed Karazrh Shdh. 
The Malekean epocha begins, according to fome, on Sun* 
to the fifth day cfShebdn, or the eighth month, in the year 
MtiteHejrah 464 (anfwering to that of Cbtift tof\) (S)j 
monfing to others, on Friday the tenth of Ramadhin (ot 
[fciainth month) in 471 (or of Chriji 1078) (T). So that 
is a difference of 1097 days. The caufe of this dif* 
t was unknown to our author Ulugh Beg. According 
the fecond, and moft received, opinion, the year which id 
begins on that day in which, at noon, the fun enters Aries f 
«nd the months are reckoned from the paflage of the fan account 
throng! the feveral figns : however, they confift of no mxttfit* 
Mtta thirty days each ; but five are added to the laft month, 
tad a day intercalated every four years. But when the in- 

b IVHEfcB. p. 544. 

JQJ This is, doobtlefs, a (R) Or Jtfahnfi. 

Make in the copy for Tatajh, (S) Beginning Wcautfaay, it 

kf mifplacing the diacritical of September ■* 

puts. Tata/b, or Tutus, vs.the . (T) Beginning Saturday, July 

Grub write, is the fame with rj. 

Mod.Hiit, VollV. K tercalatio* 

l 3 o &>i Seljtiks of Mn. B. 

. tercalation comes to be made fix or feyen times, the leap- 
is put off to the fifth year. The JalMean year confifts o| 
365 days, 5 hours, 49. 15'. o"\ 48 "; and is truly tropi 1 
cal, mod exattly correfponding with the motion of the fun 
for the fixth, and fometimes the feventh, leap-year * 
transferred to the fifth year, the equinoxes and folftices be 
come conftantly fixed to the fame days of the month, Thi 
form of the year was contrived that the Ncwr&z, or new 
year's-day, might always fall on the fame day c . 

c Ultjc. Beich. epoch celebr. p. 38. Bbveudci infill 
chronol. p. 45: 


¥be reign of Barkiarok. 

4/A Saltan J\/fdLEK Shah left four fons, Barkiarok, Mohammed, San 
Barkia- ** ^ j&r, and Mahmdd; which laft he appointed for his fuc 
rok ceflbr, though but five years (A) and ten months old. This 

done by the management of his wife Turk&n Khatin, and th 

Wazlr TajoHMolk-, who, concealing the Soltan's death 

carried his corps out of Baghddd; and, by diftributin 

money, got the army to take the oath to her fon. TheKha 

lifah alfo ordered his name to be publiflied in the pulpits 

and, fending him the enfigns of inveftiture, he was cloatho 

with the Soltan's Kaftan, or veft, the crown put on 1 

head, and the fword girt to his fide. On this occafion it 

obferved, that never prince fo young behaved with bette 

grace ; and that, after the Kalifah's Wazlr, who performo 

the ceremony, had made him his mailer's compliments, * 

returned thanks for the favours received in a very handfom 

manner. As foon as the ceremony was over, the Saltan 

went to Nahrawan and encamped \ 

proclaimed ' While Mahmud was crowned at Baghdad, Abu 9 1 Modbaf 

*t Ifpa- for Kdjfem, called Barkiarok, was acknowleged for legal foe 

tin* ceflbr at Ifpah&n, where he then was : with whom maa] 

joined, as being the eldeft fon of Malek Shah, and becaufi 

he was thought more capable of governing the ftate than 

child and a woman. 

Hereupon Turkan Khatin % who was a woman of _ 
fpirit as Well as understanding, marched. thither; from Nahn 
vj&n, with fuch diligence that (he furprized him in that city, 
which fhe took : but fome domeftics of the late Nez&m 

» Abu'lf. p. 239. Ebn Amid, p. 355. &feq. 

(A( Abulfaraj fays but four years old, 

2-; •?:•/, MA 

,C 2, Fourth Soltin % Barkiarok. 13 1 

^M found means for him to efcape out of his mother-in- Taken \ but 
law's hands, and retire to Shiraz ; where refided Takafhe/capes. 
TMn, who had been niade Atabek, that is, lieutenant- 
^ general of P&rs, or Proper Perjia, by Malek Shih K 
I That grateful prince not only gave him prote&ion, but Proclaim* 
jflondu&ed him to Ray 9 one of tlie capitals of Irdk; where he^/a/Ray. 
ffadhhnacknowlegedthe rightful fucCeflbr* At the fame time 
^fae Soltana caufed her fdn Mahm&d to be crowned at Ifpdhin $ 
ftbe other Capital, and fent troops to purfue Barkiarok : but 
y of them going over to his fide, he defeated the reft, 
ong the prifoners taken on this occafion was Tdjol Molk 
mi; who, being brought to the Soltan, the friends of 
predeceilbr flew him. He was a Perfian, endowed with 
y virtues, and excellencies of every kind: but' all his 
qualities were defaced by the murder of Nadham e . 
After this Barkiarok marched to Ifpdhdn, and befieged Mahmfid 
brother, with an army of 20,000 men. Turk&n KhatunS'Jig**- 
the people ready to revolt from her, came to an ac- 
ation : by which Mahmud and fhe. were left in pof-" 
m of Ifp&htbn, and its dependencies, on condition he di- 
" with Barkiarok the treafure of his father, which was in 
The Soltin, having received for his fhare 500,000 dinars f£ s tra» 
gold, raifed the fiege, and turned his arm's towards ffa- then r*. 
where one of his uncles, named Ifmael> commanded; W. 
allured by the Soltana, with hopes of marriage, had 
le war upon his nephew. The two armies, which were 

equal, met, in 486, near that city; where, after anHej. 486. 
tte battle, Ifmael was defeated ; and, being taken by A. D. 
enemy, (lain by them. The fame year Takajh Sh&h 9 fon • 1093. 
tf Jrflin Shih y another of Barkiarok* s uncles, declared war 
gaioft him ; and, having a much greater force, obliged him to 
aire towards Ifp&h&n, where he was very kindly received by 
brother Soltan MahmM, whofe mother was then dead. 
But thofe of Mabm&£$ party, judging the opportunity of Seized i 
ncing his affairs ought not to be flipped, feized his bro-*"* e f ca t ett 
; and, 'tis faid, orders were aftually given to deprive* 
of fight, when Mahmud, being taken with the fmaJl 
died in a few days. Hereupon Barkiarok was fet at 
ty, and foluted emperor, by the very people who juft 
before would have ruined him. Being by this .unexpected 
itctident feated a fecond time on the throne, he chofe for hisMowiad 
Wazir, or prime minifter, • Mowiad aJ Moik (fon of Nezdmmad' W** 
I , . ', . - zir. 

k Kond. ap. D'Herb. p. 185, art. Barkiarok. * Kond. 

ikifupr. p. 188, Abu'lf. p. 239. & feq. '. •'■- 

K % at 


at Bagh- 

A. D. 


X* btl un- 
cles Jlain. 


Hej. 490. 

* A.D. 



J-fe Selj&ks 4/ Iran. HI. 

xti Molk), mentioned in the former reign : but, in a littk 
time, through fome diitruft, the Soltan turned him out, and 
put his brother Takr al Mdk in his place 4 . 

In 487 Turk&n KhatAn died (B), and Barkiarok marchiqg 
to Bagbddd, had his name mentioned in the pulpits, and th* 
title of Rakno'Mn given to him by the Khallfah e : he alfo 
. aflumed that of Amir at Monuntn, which no prince befa 
Malek Sh&b had been honoured with. Having fettled his a 
fairs, he applied himfelf intirely to war. His firft expediti 
Was againft Tak&fb his coufin-german, who fome time 1 
had driven him to the extremes above-mentioned ; and, 
ter feverai battles fought between them, Takafb was at 1 
(lain (C). After this he marched into Kborafdn, where \ 
JUn Sb&h, father of Tak&fk> who commanded there, had i 
. Aderable troops : but he was delivered from his enemy 1 
another of his fons (D), who committed that parricide, i 
order to fdze his father's government : yet was difapp 
ed ; for Barkiarok, being thus become mailer of it, gavcj 
to his brother SanjAr, and returned to Ir&k f . 

BARKIAROK had ftill another uncle to vanquifh 
fore he cduld be at reft ; and that was Taj oddawlat Tat^ 
fovereign or king of Damajhu, and moil part of Syria\ 
This afpiring prince, as Toon as he heard of his brothec 
Malek Shah's death, ordered the Kotbah to be made in ."* 
name ; and fent to Moktadi, to defire that the lame 
be done at Baghdad; but the Khallfah refuiing, he ; 
to Rahaba (or RabbaL on the Euphrates, and took it. 
upon Kafrnar oddawlat (or Ak SankarJ (E), (whom 

<* Kond. ubi fup. p. 1 85, 188. • Ebn Amid, p. 3 

Abu'lf. p. 240. f Kond. ap. D*Herb. p. 185 & 544, 

Barkiarok k Malek Schih. 

(B) Ebn Am\i makes her die 
before Mabmud: faying, that, 
on her death, the army deferted 
from him to Barkiarok ; and 
Chat, on his approach, he q\xk- 

(C) Abu If or aj, p. 240, fays, 
he was fmothered under water, 
and one of his fons (lain at the 
fame time. He alfo makes him 
Che uncle of Barkiarok. If fo, 
he muft be the fame T*kdjfo 9 
who, according to Ebn Amid, 
rebelled againlf his brother Ma- 
le* Slab ten years before, as 

hath been related. If not, Ajl 
bulfaraj muft have afcribed 19 
the fon both the name aa« 
death which ^belonged to tUJ 
father. 1 

(D) According to Abulfarau 
Soltan Arfldn Argun (as he cafljjl 
him) was (lain \y one of hft 
domeftics, in 490, to free mm* 
kind from his irtjuftice. ' 

(E) This muft bte the fame 
with Ik Sankar, or Ak Sawiar, 
hereafter^mentioned, to whom 
Malek Shah gave the city. 


G*; Fourth SoUdn y Barkiarok. 153 

Skih had made governor of Halep, after lie had taken it from A. D. 
tk brother Taj oddawlat J y fubmitted to this latter 1 . But, 1093. 
«M#6, going over to Barkiarok* s fide, Taj oddawlat fought 
[j&eral battles with him ; who at length was (lain. 
P\ Bt this means Tatajb becoming lord of Halep, he pre- vanquijh- 
d to march into Irdk. Accordingly, in 488, Barkiarok met «t *»/ 
near Ray ; where a bloody battle was fought, in which hi&A**- 
"mis uncle was (kin. Taj oddawlat, before the engage* ™jJ- 4M. 
had fent Tw/^ fan of 0rfa*, the 7urirro4it, before-men- A# D * 
, to get him proclaimed Soltan at Bagbddd; but Tufif, I09S? 
j of his matter's death, fled back to Hakp \ The 
hiftorians petition the death of Tatajb, or Tutus, as 
call him. They fay, that Pufan, who had been fent by 
Soltan againft Apd Kafem (or Abu I Kajfem) at Nice) as 
as he heard of his mailer's death, marched toward* 
*afibi, againft Tutus, and wasflain in battle : That, after 
Tutus expefted to be acknowleged Soltan; but, being 
by Barkiarok, the late Sol tan's fon, was routed, and 
'. According to this account Puttn ftiould be Kafinar 
vlat Ak Sanker, or Ik Sanker. 
~$ARKIAROK, whofe reign was a feries of rebellions, Another 
00 fooner freed from one, but another arofe. Mowiad,rtbcllion^ { 
the time of his being turned out of the WazirQiip, did 
atmpft to revenge his dHgrace, by fomenting new trou- * 

He began by fpiriting-up Anzdr, who was formerly 
to Malek Shah, and had a great influence in the pro- 
of Irdk. He enabled him to fet a confiderable arm/ 
foot ; and Anzdr might have given the Soltan much trou- 
, if he had not been taken off by an affaffin, in- the chy 
Sawa ; where he was already advanced to give his fove- 
battle, Mawtad, after this, applied himfelf to Moham- Mohan* 
brother of Barkiarok (who had given him but a finall"?** rtm 
of his father's dominions, in the province of Adherbijan)> 
never ceafed urging him till he had taken up arms againft 
brother k . Mohammed (furnamed Gayatho'ddtnJ and San- 
jtr were Malek Sbdh's children, by the fame venter. Mo* 
homed, after his father's death* followed the intereft of hist 
fctther Mahmid\ and, after the battle, whieh the latter 
tt, obtained, from Barkiarok, Hamkha (F), and its depend^ 
ends* for his fupport : to which place he retired '» 


* Ebb Amid, p. 356. * Ebn Am>d, p. 360. Abu'lf. 

f. 241. * Ann. Comnen. in Alex. 1. 6. c. 11. k Koni>. 
tp. D'Hcrb. p. 186, art Barkiarok. *Ebn Amid„ p. 364. 

(F) We know no fuch place. According to Kendamr; Mr 

K 1 banmef 

134 tfAf.Seljuks of Idn. . r B.X 

Barkia- Thi£ prince fet forward in 492 to difpute the fovereigntj 

rokjlUs. Vith his brother ; and, although he had only a finall armj 

H*}' 49 2 at firft, yet it foon became formidable, by the great credit 

.3 and influence which Mowiad had in that province. At thib 

9 time the lords of the court, being incenfed againft Majorat 

al Molk Kiatni, fuperintendant of the finances, by whbfe fen*; 

''• gal management they found their fakries curtailed, attacfccj 

his houfe, and obliged him to fly for refuge to the Soltaft. 

The Soltan refilling to deliver him up to them, they toc£ 

the palace by aflault ; and, cutting Kiami in pieces, woofcl 

have treated Barkiarok in the fame manner, if he had not 

efcaped by a back-door ; abandoning Irik to his brother. 

JJpftedhy MOHAMMED, thus jjoffeffed of a great dominie* 

Ayyajs, without ftriking a ftroke (G), made Mowiad al Molk \6k 

Wazir"; and fent an ambaflador to Bagbddd, to get hi» 

name mentioned in the Kotbab, or oration, made in the po$i 

Hej. 493. pi te on Fridays : but, in 493, Barkiarok, repairing thither, 

A. D. had it fupprefled. Then, aflembling a great army, marched 

1099* to meet Mohammed : who, at Mahdan 9 defeated him ; BarB* 

' arok efcaping with only fifty horfe n . Hereupon, quitting Ray' t 

he fled to Khdzeft&n ; where Ayyaz, formerly (lave to MM 

SMh, ruled with almoft an abfolute fway ° : by whofe affift- 

ance the Soltan found himfelf foonat the head of a power* 

ful army; with which, in 494, he defeated Mohammdti 

forces in feveral engagements. 

defeats bis In 495 they had another battle : but, as Barkiarok hta 

brothers. 50,000 troops, and Mohammed only 1 5,000, the latter v*, 

H c i- 495*i>ut to flight. Hereupon, taking his way to Khorajfai, ta 

A- D. feck aid of king Senjar, he flopped at Jorj&n. Here Senpt 

I ' I01 • coming to him with his forces, they went to Dameg&n ; what 

the army laid wafle the country to fuch a degree, that the 

Inhabitants, for want of dogs and dead animals, eat ouejm* 

other p . After this, marching againft Barkiarok, they wflr* 

put to flight ; and their mother being made captive, was ex* 

changed for the prifoners taken before by Senjar. 

H^v Ar\$. Next year Soltan Barkiarokbefiegcd Mohammed in Ifp&hJbi; 

A* D t but was Obliged foon to depart, for want of forage and pro* 


m Kond, ubi fupr. p. 186, & feq. n Ebh Amid, p. 364* 

• Kond. ubifupr. * Apu'L*. p. 243. 

bammed refided commonly at (G) Ehn Amid fays, Barki* 
Ganjeb, a city of Arran* part rok fent forces againft him ; but 
of Adberbijan, near the river that they went over to him, in- 
Kur, and the borders of Geor- Head of righting. 

? ifioQS, 

jC.f. Fourth Soltan > Barkiarok. 135 

|)*Ifims. Mohammed hereupon raifed troops, and met his . 
but, being defeated, was obliged to fly into Ar- 

It is obfervable, that the Kotba was interchangeably made 

i Baghdad, in the names of thofe two Soltans, as often as 

f had the advantage one of the other. Of fo great im- 

was that ceremony thought to be by the Mobatn- 

\ princes, fo long as the race of the Khalifahs fubfifted ; 

at this time, they were no more than Shadows of 

at they had been formerly. 

Our readers, doubtlefs, will be curious to know what bt-Tketrai- 
ct Mowtad, the author of thefe troubles. We fliall'*f Mo«< 
fore inform them. In one of the battles above-men-™* 1 

in which Barkiarok had the advantage, he happened 
be taken prifoner : but, inftead of being punifhed, as he < 

he, by his addrefs, fo gained the principal lords of 
1 court, that the good-natured Soltan, . at their interceffion, * 
donei him, and afterwards made him his prime Wazlr. „^ A • s 
rarer, he did not long enjoy that poll : for one day Wa&r. 
rkiarok, retiring to reft, overheard one of the gentlemen 
his bed-chamber, who thought him afleep, faying to an- 
Theft Seljukian princes are of a nature very different 
that of moft other princes. They neither know how to 
them/elves feared, nor to revenge the injuries done to ' 
: for inftance, added he, this Mowtad, who has been the 
ife of Jo many evils, is promoted by the Soltan to the em* 
fit of Wazir, as a reward for all trcajbm. 
V BARK1AR0K, touched to the quick with thefe reflec-p^ t9 
t on his oonduft, not long after, lent for the Wazir, and death. 
', Mm to (it down. Then, without faying any thing 
with one ftroke of the fcymitar, which he held in 
\ hand, he cut Off his head, with fo much dexterity, that 
^itmained on his (houlders till the body fell. This done, 
\ faid to his courtiers, See now if the princes of my houfe 
io not know how to make themfelves feared, and take venge- 
tnee on their enemies. 

While this tragedy was afting at court, the armies of theTbe empire 
Soltan and his brother often fkirmifhed, without coming to divided. 
t general engagement. At length, in 498 (H), a treaty wasHej. 498. 
concluded ; whereby Mohammed remained mafter of the pro- A. D. 
linces of Shim, or Syria ; Diydrbekr al Jazireh, or Mefopo- 1 104. 

* Ebn Amid, p. 364, & feq, 

j fays, in 497. 
lits Adberbijdn, 
Jrmema, and Georgia, among 

(H) Abu If or aj fays, in 497. the countries yielded to Mo- 
He likewife omits Adberbijdn, hammed. 

K 4 UmU 1 


famia; Mufti, Adherhijan, Armenia* and Geerpa. The 
reft of the empire; viz. Pars, Irik, JCermdn % Kboraffa^ 
Mawara'lnahr, and part of Bindowftdn, were to be pofieflfi| . 
by Barkiarak \ It was alfo agreed, that Barkiarek fhould not ♦ 
go to meet Mohammed with drums, nor be named in the pnl^ 
pits along with him in the countries which were ceded J 
him s . 

The civil wars, which for (o many years together had \ 
flitted the Seljikian dominions, being thus at length " 
«» to an end, by a partition of the empire between the f 

let us now turn our ejes towards Syria, and fee wh*t 
doing there, and in the neighbouring countries, during \ 
Jfaxrs of As foon as the news of the death of Taj oddawkt, 
Syria. °f Syria (who was flain in the battle againft Barkiarok, 
hath been before related), came to the ears of his fon 
wan, at Dama/kus, he repaired immediately to HaJep, 
took pofleffion of it, with the title of Taktfl MM ({#). Hif ^ 
* brother Dekdk Shems al Molk (I) following him from Di* i 
yarhekr, with part of his own and his father's army, thee* 

Suht*8H A*"* wit ^ ^ m - ' Soon *&*** receivin g letters from ^/dUM 
,4, 0/ Hadtm, Taj oddawlat's lieutenant of the caftle of Da*>\ 

He). 488, *w/^, he flipped away, without Redwdn'% knowlege; and*) 
A. D. though body purfued, got thither, and took pofleffion of tiftx 
' 1094. city. Dekdk made Sdbtekkin his lieutenant,-* to govern lytc 
ftate ; but foon after fet in his place Atabek (K) Tegtekktfa 
who had been governor before both of it and Miyaferfat 
under Taj oddawiat, and preceptor to Dekdk himfelf. He ' 
was taken prifoner at the batde wherein that prince loft his 
life; and, efcaping back, was received with great honour* 
and promoted by his quondam pupil, as hath been related } - 1 
which Sd&tekkin (L) refented fo highly, that JDaWiput him to j 
death, ■ -i 

Sons of In 489, Dekdk marching with his troops towards the fet 
Tataih, coaft, his brother ReaSvdn^ who longed to recover Damafiuu* 
tfej. 489. haftened with 4 gre*t army, to furprize it in his abfence* 

l QQS< » £ond. ubifupr. p. 187. * Asv'Lr. p. $43. 

({i> That is, the glory of the had the government and dt - 

kingdom. region of the Seljukiam princes* 

(I) The fun of the kingdom, They grew fo powerful at lift 

(K) In the copies ro*de ufe as to found four races, or dj- - 

v -\ ;©f by Erfenius and D'HerbeJot, nafties, in Ir£k, Adberbij£* k ' 

; vK. •'' Ahaifk: Atabek fignifies, in Pars, Q\ Proper Perfa, and Is* 

V;"* Turiift, father of the prince. A rcfian. 

ti^e given tp fcyeral lords^ whq (W B ?fon\ewrittt»^A*«t 

a * Fourth ;SoUS*, Barkwrok. 13 f 

The dozens fhntaqg the gates againft him, he befieged the 
{{ue; but tlek&k .returning, he was obliged to retire. Up- 
[tt'tfalihe wrote to Mq/ia AB, Khatffah of Egypt, promifing 
have his name published in the pulpits of Halep, provided 
iwWaM him to take Damajkus ; which Mafia Alt agree- 
lo, the Kotkah was accordingly made in his name : but 
Jog to fend him troops, he foon loft that honour again K 
l£TRIA was thus fcarce reduced under the power of the 7^ am* 
va Turks, who took it from the Arabs, when fhe £oupdf*de. 
invaded by an army of Franks (L) or European*, ga- 
from the fartheft weft. This was the famous crpfadet 
Imr of the crofs, more commonly called the holy war; 
tiq almoft all the Chriftian princes, influenced by a mad 
for devotion, excited in them by tjie artifices of tho 
(more with a view to carry on his own ambitious de* 
(M), than to ferve the interefts of religion, which was 
pretence), entered into a league of confederacy .to refcue 
fepuk&re of Chrift at Jtrujalem from the Mohammedans f 
[ drive them out of the Holy Land. 

in nrofecution of this extravagant undertaking, which may Pranks * 
be termed a religious frenzy, or piece of knight-errantry, take An* 
army of Franks, with king Baldwin at the head of them, tiokh. . 
~ Syria in the year 491, and fitting down before An- Hej. 491: 
took that city. We (hall fay nothing of this fiege A. D. 
the Chriftian writers, an account thereof having been l0 97* 
y given elfewhere " ; but fhall, for the moft part, con- 
ourfelves to what we find related in the oriental Mftori- 
«* concerning this war. 

As foon as Kaw&m oddavjalat Kodbuka (N), who was mBkchi 
Mfffatamia, heard that Antiokb was taken by the Chriftians, "P thert^ 
is railed forces, and, coming into Syria, laid fiege to it, 
iritb a defign to recover it. There were then in the city 
$re Chriftian princes ; namely, Bardawil, or Baldwin, San- 
fti, Gmafri, Kwnes the prince of Roha (O), and B&ymund 
prince of Antiokb (P). Thefe falling in want of provifions, 

1 Ebm Amid. p. 360, k feq. * Univ. hift. vol. xvii. p. 149. 

(L) Rather Fraxji; fo the 
Ojieatak call the Italians, and 
Aott the Europeans in general. 

(II) Pmrcboj has fct forth 
Aofedefigns, in his cdUeftion of 
tmls, vol. ii. p. 124$. 

(N) The weftern hiftorians of 
fccrafade call him Qorbanas M 

(O) The Count of Roha was 
taken after by Jagartmjh, and 
releafed by Al Jdweli Sakawa. 
AbiTJf. p. 248. 

(P) Thefe are Baldwin, the 
count of St. Giles, Godfrey of 
Bui J* n, the count Q(EdeJ/a, and 


fettt to^Kodbuka, offering to furrendcr ifoA'&rwn, on condt* 
ttori.that he would fuffer them to depart 1 : but he refaferit 
fiiying, they Jhould efeapeno otherwife than fy making their* 

Raife the way with the /word. While they were in this diftrefe, 4 

$itg*. ' mbnk of theirs tells them, that the ftaff of St. Peter, ftrengtfr 1 
ened ynSk iron* at the end (QJ, was'burled in the church W 
the priefts ; and that, if they fotind ft; 'tKey (honld overconrf 
their enemies ih battle'; if not, they fhould attperiflu After 
three days fefting and praying, they dug and foujid the ffafl< 
Enscpuraged by this good omen of viftory, they beg^n for 
march ' out of the city, five or fix at a time. Kbdbuk£s of- 
ficers advifed, that their foldiers' might ftand at the gates, aiiff 
kill' all .who came forth ; but he faid it was better to kt 
them all come' out firft, and then to put' them to thefwortf 
Wheh they were all come out to the laft'man, they format 
a great" army,' which J>ut the Moflems to v flight. The HI 
\nrte>fled was SohrUtn Ebn Ortek. Many thousands of therf 
were idlled : and the Franks feizing their <tamp, got prcm* } ; 
fions, riches, horfes, and arms *. v 

?*i/Jeru- Their affairs bdng thus reftored, they went and took. 

fakm. Moarrvlnoman, flaying its lords. Thence they proceeded to! 

Hej. 4$z.Ramla, or Rama, and took it. In 492, perceiving the wcak- 
A. D. nefs of the Egyptian Turks, they went and befieged Beytd 
1098. Makdes f that is, Jerufalem ; where Sokmdn and figazi, font 
of Qrtok the Turkman, with their uncle Sting, were (hut up 
But the Franks playing above fourfcore engines againft tte 
place, it was furrendered upon terms ; Sokmdn and his fib 
lowers having leave to depart : but the Egyptians put in his 
room ofte Eftekaro'ddawlat. Wherefore the Franks having 
erefted two towers againft the city, they took it on the norm 
fide (R), and put the people to the fword. They continued 
to kill the Moflems in the country round for feveral weeks 
together : they affembled all the Jews into their temple, and 
burned them in it (S) : they killed more than 70,000 Mof- 

* Abu'lf. p. 242. 

(QJ The weftern hiftorians fay (R) De la Croix afcribes. the 

it was the lance which pierced lofs of Jerufalem* and other 

the fide of Cbrijl. But Fulcher places, to the diforders whicl 

Carnotenjis, who was in the ex- happened on the death of JI&- 

pedition, reprefents it as a cheat, lek Shah. Hid. Genghis Kbek, 

He fays, many, with the bifhop p. 1 30. 

of Podium, fnfpe&ed it; and (S) The hiftorians of the well 

that the man who found 4 it, in fay 10,000 Saracens were flaia 

pafling through the fire to prove in it. 
his integrity, was fo burnt, that 

lie died in twelve days after. lems 

G*. Fourth Sahdn> Barl&tok. I39 

fas (T), and took an immenfe treafure ;. among the reft; 

ttaore dull 140 filver lamps, weighing each 3600 drachms (U) \ . 
4 fbrnape weighing forty pound*' (X)»; and attire twdnty 
► lamps of gold r. ' j - ' *"" 

.In 494 the Franks took Hayfa (Y) by aflkrlt, and Arfif Farther 

•ty compofition ; making themfelves mafters of moft afcthfc/fcw^S* ♦ 
Maritime places. Next year they befieged Tripoli, whofe \ot& **4f • 494^ 
.Jakro'hnaleky fon of Amar 9 fending to Shamfi ddawlat De± &' *** 
"'li, prince of Dama/ius, and Huffeyn Henaho'ddawlat, lord 1 10 °* 
!f«f /fenu, they fent him troops, but were, routed by the 
pranks. Thefe victories of an enemy in the heart of Syrian 
jfdid not hinder its princes from purfuing their private views 1 , 
;gUr revenge. Huffeyn, who had hitherto been of Fakrtfbnolk 
vXeawan's party, quitted it in 496, to go over to DekM ; 
(Whereupon Redwan got three Batanifis to aflafiinate him in 
**he great Masjed, or temple. . i» ** ' * 

When this news was brought to Atahek Tegtekktn, ftttTurkifli *• 

named Fahiro'ddtn, zndDekdk, they marched to Hems, which; broils. 

with the caftle, was furrendered to them. •. This happened 

jnft at the time when the Franks arrived tfdRuftAn (Z), with 

a defign to attack Hems : but on advice that-firifal* was there\ 
"'Aey returned. The year following, Sams *t Molk DeW*He]. 407. 

.dfed. Some fay that his motheaywho wa£ married jDo the Aid • ^ * 
Jd Tegtekktn, fent him a fervant maid, wfeo-ppMbned him-, "°*! 
.by pricking a grape with an invenomed needle* which he 
.{ducked and eat. However that be, after hist death Tegtek- 

ttn made hlmfelf mailer of the kingdom of Damafius, and 

its dependencies. 

In 497 the Franks took Akka (A). Baldwin, who had Take Ak- 

made himfelf mailer of JerufaUm, came there with his troops, ka, or 

r Abu'lf, p. 243. Ebn Amid. p. 363. 

(T)Ahulfaraj fays, that nam- (X) Or fixty marks. 
bcr was flain vaAlAkfa, or the (Y) Called, Cayphas, by the 

farther Chapel only. The ac- crnfade writers. Jt ftands at 

mat given by the crufade hi- ,the mouth of the bay ofAkka % 

Mans themfelves who were or Ptolemais, oh the fouth fide, 
pfdent, is (hocking to human (Z) A town on the river Afss\ 

jttore : the Qhriftian foldiers or Orontes, between Hems and 

thir&ed after Mohammedan blood, Ha ma. 

aadfeemed to delight in murder (A) Called by the crufaders 

#nd cruelty. Akra ; the ancient Ptolemais. 

(U) That is, thirty-feven 
nwjes and an half. 


I4P Vbi Seljtiks <jf Iran. & I. 

governor for the Khaiifah of Kaherab, abandoning it, fled fiift 

to Damajkuj, and thence to Egypt *. 
Barkiarok i T ^ time now to. return to Per/ia, whither the courfe of 
*'• our hiftory calls us, to conclude the reign of Barkiarok. 

That prince, after the agreement made with his brother Mo- 

Hq.~4Q%. hammed, in 498, ad before-mentioned, advanced towards 

. A. D. BaghdAd, to vifit his great benefaftor Ayy&z, who had a fo- 

1 1 04. Vereign authority in that city. But being affli&ed both with 

* confumption and the piles together, he died by the way at 
ypdhan, in the thirty-fifth year of his age (B)/ and thirteenth 
pf his reign ; appointing for his ftfcceflbr his fon Matsk ShSb % 
then but four years and eight months (C) old. He had hint 
doathed with a Kaftan, or veft, and appointed Amyr Ayykt 
his Atahek, at governor, in the prefence of his great officers, 
who all promifed to obey his commands \ 

Jfpohts a The firft thing which was done in favour of the infant 
fwjfr* prince, was to get the Kotba made at Baghdad in his name; 
. to which was added the furname of Jalai-o'ddawlat, that is, 
the ornament of the Jtate. 

1 About the time that Barkiarok was on his way towards 

Baghddd, Soltan Mohammed marched from Adherbijdn t to 

•j. take Mufdirom JagamAjh. The people of the country, oa 

/L. v/'ti& approach, nife in their prince's defence, and killed the 

iiocf Soltan a great many men : but when the liege had laded 

• three months, Jagarmfjb, hearing of BarkiaroVs death, fent 
to offer obedience to Mohammed, who received him with cm* 
braces \ 



The Reigns ^Mohammed and Sanjar. 

A F T E R this, the Soltan, who already poflefled one part 
** of the Seljukian empire, prepared to wreft the other 

Monam- j )art f rQm j^g nep h ew MaUk Shih, and unite it to his own. 

***' According to Ebn AnAd, he, on the news of iris bro- 
ther's death, repaired without delay to Baghdad ; where Af* 
yadh, or AyyAz, had gathered 25,000 horfe to oppofe him : 
but that an accommodation taking place, Mohammed entered 
(hat city, and took poffeffion of the Soltanat : the Khaiifah 

x Ebn Amid. p. 364, & feq. a Kokd. ubi fupr. p. 187. 

Abu'lf. p. 244. Een Amid. p. 366. b Abu'lf. p. 244. 

(B) He was bat twenty-five (C) Eh Amid has fbnrteefl 
years old, according to Konda- years. 
mr in D'Herbtlot. 

Ct« # Fifth Stltfa Mohammed. . 141 

MefiMher Billah prefentfng him with the A#V*k, and deli- 
vering into his hands the command of the palace. Yet when 
lib affairs were fettled, he feized Jyyddb, and put him to ' 

The author or authors made ufe of by D'Herbelot, gives a OppofesUs 
very different account of this affair ; viz. that Ayy&z and Se- mipUw. 
ddaas, the tutors of the young prince, having aflembled pow- 
erful forces to oppofe Soltan Mohammed, the two armies met 
m 501 : but that, while they faced each other, expecting the Hej. 50 u 
figmd far battle, there appeared in the Iky a cloud, in form A. D. 
of a dragon, which caft down fo much fire upon the troops "07. 
of Malek Shah, that the foldiers, terrified with fo ftrange an 
i event, threw down their arms, and begged quarter of Mo* 
hammed; who, by this meaif?, became matter of the perfons 
both of his nephew and his two generals, whom he fent pri- 
k foners to the caftle of Lehed. 

I After tins unexpected vi&ory, without a blow, he march- Obtains 
; ed to Baghdad, where he obtained the tide of Gay M % or the empire. 

htlogay&th'oddin (A) ; and in his patents was dignified with 
\ that of Amir al Momerdn, or commander of the faithful ) by 
( which, in efieft, the temporal power of the Khallfah ovet 
\ the Moflems was conferred on him. 

The fame year the Soltan marched againft Sayfo'ddin &A+ 
. delta (B), prince of Bella, who was (lain, and his forces rout* 
j ed, after he had enjoyed his ftate twenty-two years, and 
i lived fifty-fix. 

I MOHAMtylED having finiflied this fmall expedition, re- A falfi 
J turned to Baghdad. During his flay there, he was informed, frofhte 
I that one Abmed, furnamed Atthqfb, a pretended prophet, r '*" x * 
\ Jad not only gained over a great number of followers by his 
\ impoftures, but alfo feized the fortrefs of Dizghodeh, after 
corrupting the minds of the garrifon with his impious te- 
nets. This important place had been built by Malek Sbdh, 
near Ifpahan, to awe the inhabitants, who were very fubjett 
to revolt. On this advice the Soltan hafted thither, and 
formed the blockade of the caftle, which was fo ftrong, both 
by fituation and art, that there was no reducing it but by 
The place not having been furniftied with provisions, At-C*rrvptt 

thafb foou found himfelf obliged to fend a man to inform *beWa- 


1 Ebn Amid. p. 367. 

(A) That is, the propagator of (B) Son of Dams (Dobays), 
ike religion : he is called alfo fon of Alt, fon of Yezid al 
Gay&tboddin Atiybejab Mobam- Jfadi. 


X4? .1 »* Seljftks of Ir4n. B. I. 

Sadd aJ Moli, fumamed A-wji, the Soltan's Wazir, whom he 
* had alfo infefted with his opinions, that he could not hold 
out above two or three days longer. The Wazir anfwered, 
that he only defired him to ftand his ground eight or ten ' 
days more, for that, -within fuch time, he would find means 
to rid him of that dog, meaning the Soltan. 
. This prince, who was of a very fanguine complexion, 
and ufually fell into great diforders occafioned by excefs of 
, blood, was accuftomed to lofe fome every month. Auji 
hereupon went to the- furgeon, who, for the reward of a 
thoufand chekinfi, and a purple veft, promifed to make ufe 
of a poifoned lancet the firfl time he bled the Soltan. 
Histrea- . The plot happening to come to the knojvlege of one of 
fon deu8- the grooms of die prince's chamber, he difcovered it to hisj ' 
ed. \nit, and (he to her gallant, who communicated it to the 

Soltan himfelf. As foon as he was apprized of it, he pre- 
tended he wanted to be let blood ; and accordingly the fur-i 
geon was fent for ; who, having bound np the Soltan's arm," 
took out the fatal inftrument : but while he was going to 
perform the operation, Mohammed caft fo terrible a look it 3 
him, that the wretched phlebotoraift, being feized all over- 
with a trembling, which made the lancet drop out of his 
hand, fell at his fovereign's feet ; and confeffing his wicked 
defign, declared who was the authbr of it. The Wazlr 
was immediately feized, and punched as he deferved: the 
furgeon was only fentcnced to be bled with the fame inftru*i 
ment which he had prepared to bleed the Soltan. 
The rebel The rebels finding that their treafon was difcovered, and* 
f unified, being no longer able to refill, furrendered at difcretion. At* 
thajb their chief was conducted to Jfp&hdn, tied neck and 
heels upon a camel : there, after the prophet had been ex- 
pofed for fome days as a laughing-flock to the people, he was ' 
put to a cruel death : after which his body was burned, with 
a great number of his difciples, who had joined in the re- 
volt. It is reported, that this impoftor, who was well verfed 
in aftrplogy and geomancy, finding himfelf hard prefled bf 
the befiegers, wrote to the Soltan; that he had found by Us } 
horofcope 9 that, in a few days, he Jbould be furrounded toiti ' 
a great number of Jlars in the midft of Ifpahan, even in tit 
prefence of the Soltdn : and when he was led through the 
city, accompanied with great crouds of fpeftators, to the 
place of execution, being afked concerning the accomplilhment 
of his prediction, he anTwered, that nothing could be a clearer 
Verification than the condition he then was in ; but that he fount 
the great number ofJl*rs 9 which he hoped tofee 7 were not to 


C.i. Fifth Soltdn^ Mohammed. *4I 

fern, as be had believed, to do him honour, but to cover him 
vntk Jbame and confujion. 

Soltan Mohammed having fettled his dominions in peace, Conqutfts 
marched into Hindowftdn, and made confiderable conquefts'** Andia. 
jhere. The author of the Tarikh Gbuzideh relates, that this 
{since, who was very zealous for religion, having found,, ip 
coe of the temples which he had demolished, an image of 
Hone, weighing 400 kintals, he ordered it to be removed, 
as an objeft ot idolatry. The Indians offered its weight in 
.precious ftones, and other things for its ranfom ; but M$haw 
Wfl/reje&irig their propofal, laid to his officers, I would not 
hvc it reported hereafter that Azar (C) was a maker ofima- 
ges f and Mohammed was a merchant of them.. At the fame 
lime he ordered that great heap of flone to be tranfported to 
Jfitidn ; where, after having been ftiewn as a trophy of his 
lifiary, it was condemned to ferve for the threshold of the 
great gate belonging to the (lately college which he erefted 
Acre, and which contained his fepulchre b . 

Authors having furnifhed ,us with no farther tranfac- JaweliV 
fions of this Soltan's reign, in the eaft part of his empire, \txfucctfs. 
Ds look weftward, and fee what is doing on that fide. 

In 500, the year after Jagarmlfb, prince of Mufol, hadHej. cob; 
febmitted to Mohammed, as hath been before related, AIJa- A. D. 
vh& Sakawwa, lord of Roha, or Orfd, marched agairift him 1106. 
with 1000 men ; and rufhing into the middle of his troops, ' 
(hoogh double the number, put them to flight; none re- 
gaining behind but Jagarmifb himfelf, who, not able to 
Sde for a paralitical diforder, was carried in a litter. The 
lews of his being taken coming to the citizens, they gave the 
Mmmand to his fon Zenghi. Afterwards Al Jhweli, befieging 
Kufd t had Jagarmifb fhewed to the people daily on a mule, 
Bflering to fet him at liberty, in cafe they would furrender 
tiedty to him. On their non-compliance he imprifoned him 
n a place under-ground, where one morning they found him 

Hereupon his fubjefts wrote to Kile) Arjlan, fon of So-Solt&n 
hman, fon if Kotolmtjh, prince of Konlya (D) and Akf&ra, of- Arflan 
fcing to deftver the city to him ; on whofe approach Al J A- drowned. 
jiwfl broke up the fiege. Kilej Arjlan, after honouring Zenghi 
and his attendants /with Kaft&ns, ordered the name of Sol- 

b D'Herb. p. 605, & feq. art Mohammed ben Malek Shlh. * 

! (C) So they call Tenth, the Put-tirajb, that is, the cutter or 

[■«r of Abraham. The Per- carver of images. 

fm give him the furname of (D) Ik mum, in Afia miner* 


144 ?*£* Selj6ks of Iria- Ml 

tan Mohammed to be fuj*prefled in tfre pulpits, and hi* owt 

mentioned inftead of it. This* done, he marched againft M t 

JAweli, who was at Roha (E), but was defeated at the 

KhaMr$ into which the Soltan entering, defended 

with his bow againft the enemy; but his horfe < 

him out of his depth, he was drowned. His body api 

ing fome days after, he was buried at Shemfania. Al Jot*? 

H«. C02. ''» on ^ f ucce fe> wcnt back, and took Mufol. But, 1i 

A.D. 5° 2 > MaiiMd, fon of Alt&n Tak&Jb'^F), wkh the army o| 

1 1 08. Soltan Mohammed, recovered it, and took pofleffion c . 

Franks The fame year the Franks took Tripoli by capitulat* 

uk* Tri- after a fiege of feven years continuance ; the inhabitants 

P°ti» ing been deftroyed by famine and the fword. It was a 

city, full of Mohammedans and learned men d . 

Next year Tangri al Franji (Tankred) lord of 

took Tar/us and Adena, in the borders of Syria, and Hefn 

Akrad (G) furrendered to him e . Others fay, the forts 

Akad and Minattar were reduced : but that Mejiafa 

Akkad bought their peace, by agreeing to pay tribute ; 

and Bery- foon revolted. The Franks likewife fubdued Bey rut, or A* 

to*. ,rytus, after a long /lege; the ambafladors of the Egyptian 

Khalifah making a vigorous defence. The fame year die| 

r Korqja, prince of Hems, and was fucceeded by his fon Sm 

Jam fferohdn * • 

Sidon In 504 the Franks took Sayda, or Sidon, and RartEi^ 

taken. -with all the coaft of Syria. At the beginning of the ye* 

H 2"f? 4 ' s ° 6 ' Amir MaUd ^ Iord of Mu f ol > encamped near Ri~ 
whofe corn-fields were devoured by his army. From tb 
41 lo * he removed to Sard} (H), where they did the fame : not < 
thinking of the Franks, tHl J&Jltn (I), lord of Tel BAfber 
came on him fuddenly, while the horfes were difperfed 
the pafturfes, of which he took many, and killed a 
number of his men. 

Next year, the Mojlems uniting their forces, invaded 
acquisitions of Jthe Franks, who were defeated near Tiberias* 

* Abu'lf. p. 244, & fecj. d Ebn Amid. p. 367. 

• Abu'lf* p. 245. f Ebn Amid. p. 367. 

(E) Or Or/a, formerly £- journey eaftward of Sir, tm 
deja. Harrdtt, and Roha, OtOrf** 

(F) Alias Takin, or Tatkln. (I) Jotfeline. 

(G) That U, the caftle of the (K) A very ftrong caffle, w* 
Kurds. days journey to .the north or; 

(H) A final! town, a day's Halep, or Aleppo. 


C. 2. Fifth Soltdn, Mohamrfled. 145 

[. AFTfitt the battle, Ma'ud&d, who was one of. the allied Franks 
r* princes (L), gave leave to his troops to return and retrdhdefeated. 
Lthemfelves till the fpring following; and went himfelf to^ e i-S°7' 
W&emzjkus, to fpend the feafon with Tegtakkin, lord of that A ' **- 
jtity : but one day as he was going into the Masjed, a Bata* lll S* 
tf/t approaching him, under pretence of begging alms, ftab- 
Jed him four times with a knife, of which wounds he died 
j^he fame day, and the aflaffin was put to death 8. 
u The fame year died Fabro'ddawlat Redivdn, fon of Tafod* 
dawlat Tatajb, prince of Halep, and was fucce^ded by his 
£m Tajo'ddawlat, furnamed Abras : who being flain the year 
SbUowing, the city and caftle of Halep fell into the hands of 
fdM, page to Tajorrus, fon of Jatdla, who afterwards re- 
figned them to Soltdn Shah, fon of ReduJ&n.- 
In J09. Dhahero'ddtn Atabek Tegtakkin, prince of Damaf- Affairs of 

went to BaghJ&d, and offered his fervice to Moftadir^y*)** 
illah, and Gayatho'ddtn Mohammed, who received him with Hej. 509. 

t honour. Next year he returned ; and LuM, prince of ^. D. 
Jalep, was killed near Balis (M), ingoing to the caftle of I!I 5" 
v Jeffar. Thereupon Abu Mealv Ebn Malki, fecretary of war, 
Jncceeded in the command of the fortrefs of Halep ; which, 
:*the year following, fell into the hands of Amir Bulgari Ebn 
' 4rtk 9 who held it five years h . 

The year 511 was fatal to Soltdn Gayatbo'ddin Mohammed, Death of 
who died in the laft month of it, after he had lived thirty-fix Moham- 
Fyears, and reigned thirteen (N). " When he perceived death me ^ 
[tpproaching, he fent for his (on MahmM Abu' I Kaffem, but H *3 , 5 ,, « 
rteen years old, whom he had declared his fuccefTor, kif- 
him, and wept : then ordered him to go and fit in the ' " 

throne : but the young prince declined it, faying, it was an 
Unlucky day. The Soltan anfwered, You fay true ; but it is 
to your father, not to you, 'who gain, an empire. Then 
^mounting the throne, he was there adorned with the crown 
bracelets 1 . 

* Abu'lf. p. 246. * Ebn Amid. p. 36S. * D'Hbub. 

ubi fupr. p. 607. Ebn Amid. p. 368. Aku'df. p. 246. 

(L) Ebn Amid fays, he was (M) A town on the Euphra* 

f fent againft the Franks by Soltdn tes f between Hahp and Rakka. 

' Udmnmed, in 504 ; and that he (N) According to the Lebta- 

Was killed by the Batamfls, near rikh he was born in 474, reigned 

Dtmajkus, in 505. But we 1 3 years, lived 24, and died in 

cboofe to follow Abiilfaraj as 501. But thefe two laft num- 

■ to die dates. bers mult be miftakes, for 37 

and 511. f 

Mod. Hist. Vo^. IV, L Soltan 

i 4 6 flfcSelJflksd/Irari; B.I. 

His eha- Sol TAN Mohammed was eminent for gravity, juftice, and 
ta&cr. clemency; was ftrong, and could talk well*. He left in the 
treafury eleven millions of gold, befides as much in furni- 
ture, and other effefts. Hiftorians do not tell us what me- 
thods he made ufe of to fill his coffers : but by the follow- 
ing ftory, related in the Nighiarifidn, it may be judged, that 
that they were not more equitable than thofe which other 
princes have employed for the fame purpofe. 
The Wa- DHIA al Molk, fon of the famous Nezam al Molk, aflaf- 
jfcrr is finated in the reign of Malek Sh&h, apprehending himfelf 
caught injured by fome ill officers of Alao *ddawlat, prince of Harm* 
dan, who aflumed the title of Said or Seid (O), which word, 
fignifying lord, is appropriated to the race of Mohammed y to 
be revenged on him, told the Soltan, that if he would per- 
mit him to call Alao'ddawlat to an account, he would engage 
to bring 500,000 crowns of gold into the treafuryj The 
Soltan granted his requeft. But as the Said, who had ma- 
ny friends at court, was quickly informed of what was do- 
ing againft him, he made fuch hafte, that he was at IJpk* 
hcin btfore the Wazir knew any- thing of the matter : and 

. » . finding means to throw himfelf at the Soltan's feet, repre- 
t n bis o*ivn r 1 w • • /? • 1 u • . • • • / # • * 

r aare lenced, the tnjujlice he would commit in giving up a prince cf 

the houfe of his prophet into the hands of an infidel and here* 
tic, as was the Wazir. He added, that, if the defire of ft 
much money was what had induced him to confent to his «i- 
nijlers injurious propofal, he would pay down 800,000 crowns, 
which were 300,000 more than the malicious Wazir had offer* 
ed, provided his majefly would deliver Dhia al Molk into his 
hands ; with leave to oblige him to render as exatl and ri* 
gdrous an account as hejhould require of him, 
Inflanci f This propofal being accepted of (P), the Said returned, 
fnnnefiy along with a perfon who was commiffioned to receive the 
money. Being arrived at Hamad&n, the officer, who expec- 
ted that the prince would lodge him in his palace, and do 
him many other honours, was given to underftand, that he 
mud repair to the public Karawanfaray , or inn, and live at 
his own expence, till the fnm could be raifed ; and that 
then notice fhould be given him to come and take it away. 
The officer, offended at this treatment, began with com- 
plaints ; and finding them of no avail, proceeded to menaces. 

Abu'lf. p. 246. Lebtarikh. p. 43. Ebn Amid. p. $6$. 

) Or Seyd: the Spaniards from frequei 
ice have made their Cid. Muley 

(F) This fort of tiaffick was rokko4 

(O)Or Seyd: the Spaniards from frequently praclifcd by the late 
thence have made their Cid. Muley I/mail, emperor of A/#- 


C. 2: &xti Stltdn, Sanjif; 147 

But the S&id, afluming an air of authority, told him, Jf you and noble 
do not be eafy, I will order you to be hanged up inftantlyi be-Jpirit. 
fore the boufe where you lodge ; after which I have only to 
add 100,000 crownf more to the fum which I have promifed 
the Solt&n ; for with that money he might buy a thoufand 
fives, the Wbrfl of whom would be better than you. The of- 
ficer, who was in fact one of theSoltan's flaves, hearing the 
£aid talk in that manner, thought it beft to bear all patient* 
ly, and waited at the inn forty days ; in which time Alao'd- 
davdai raifed the fum in queftion* without either borrowing 
taoney on intereft, or felling any of his effects. 

On th$ cafll being paid into the royal treafury, the WsafaUnpamU 
was delivered into the hands of the Said, to do with himl'lltdge* 
juft as he fhould think fit : but that prince fet, on this oc- wr ^<7* 
eafion, an example of virtue, the moft eminent and rare to • 
• be found among men ; for, inftead of taking vengeance on 
$k enemy, or even of making him pay the fum which he 
hU been obliged to give the Sol'tan, he treated him with fo 
much honour and generality (QJ, xhatDhia alMolk became 
tis beft fiiend *. 

After the ddath 6f Mohammed wis kqoftn, Sanjdr (Jl), Sixth Sol* 
Ioq of Malek ShAh, who had governed the great province of t*n, San* 
Khorafkn for twenty years, under the two preceding reigns j**- 
ef his brothers, raifed a puiflant army ; and marched (S) in- 
to the province of Per/tan Irdk, where his nepheto Mahmud 
Mu'lkaffem, furnamed Mogaydtho'ddsn, had taken the title 
«f Soltan : but the latter being defeated, after a bloody bat- 
ik fought between them, he retired to the caftle of Saveh> 
a place of great ftreflgth and importance. 

MJItMUD, finding' his affairs intirely ruined, was obliged DiviJet 
to foe for peace to his uncle, and tent to him his Wazir Ke- the empirt> 
matiddin y//i, a very eloquent perfon, who, by his - addrefs* 
brought about in accommodation. Hereupon Makm&d went 
to vifit Sanjar ; and w^s fo well received, that he. obtained 
Of Urn the inveftiture of the province of lr$k (T), with .the 


* NiohiAMsT. afc. D'Herb.'p. 606, & feq. 

(QJ This is agreeable to a gan in the year of the Hejrah, 

precept of the Koran, Do good to 5 1 3, of Chrift 1 1 1 9. 

mm tvbo does you harm. (T) In Another place of Di 

(R) Pronounced alfo Sanjer, Herbelot, p. 537, art. Mahmud\ 

tad Say&r. it is faid that he was. made 6 an* 

(S) According to Mvlfaraj, jars governor, and ljeutetotnt* 

*od die Lcbtarikb) this war be general, in both ihclrdh $ and 

La P l8 S* 

1 48 r ni Seljftks •/ Irafl. - B. I. 

following conditions : that the name of Sanjar (hould always 
be mentioned in the public prayers before that of Mahmud^ 
that this latter (hould not have the fourth veil, or curtain (U), 
in his apartments ; that the trumpet ftiould not found whoa 
he went in or out of his palace ; and ladly* that he fhould re- 
tain the officers whom his uncle had eftabliihed in his pro- 
nnith bh MA H MUD, according to Kondamir, was obliged to re- 
uepbew. ceive thefe conditions with thanks, and refolved to fpend his 
time in hunting, without meddling with any affairs. How- 
ever that may be, this feems, from the courfe of the hlftory, 
to have been an aftual partition of empire, which took place 
foon after, if not from the time, when the agreement was 
made ; by virtue whereof Mahmtid and his defendants were 
to enjoy the (hare allotted to him, with the tide of Soltan, 
in as abfolute a manner as Sanjar enjoyed his. Accordingly , 
we find that MahmMvns fucceeded in his dominions by four 
or five princes, who claimed under him, during the reign of < 
Sanjar * in Khorafan : nor does it appear that he gave any op- 
pofition to their fucceffion ; or that they applied to him for 
his confent. At the fame time it muft be confefled, that the 
hiftories and extrafts which have come to us relating to thefe 
Soltans, are very defe&ive ; and, to add to the misfortune; 
that of Ebn Amid, which was one of our chief funds, defcends 
no lower than the reign of Soltan Mohammed, Sanjar 9 s prc~ 
Death qf This Soltan is called n Moazo'ddin Abu'lbaretb, and M*> 
Kothb- azd*ddtn Borhan (X). The firft thing remarkable that we 
o'ddin. mc et with in his reign is the death of Kothbo'ddin, founder of 
a new monarchy, in the year 52 1 . Mis father Buftekkin was 
Have to Balkatekkin, or Malkatekktn r who was one of Ma- 
Uk Sbak's principal (laves, and poflefled the employment of 
Te/btdar, that is, great buder, or cup-bearer ; on whofe 
death the Soltan gave it to Buftekkin : and, becaufe the revenues 
of Karazm, a country on th£ eaft fide of the Cafpian fea, were 
annexed to that office, he eafily obtained the government of 

• Kond. ap. D'Herb. p. 755»&feq. art. Sangiar. » De 

He^b. art. Seljukian. * Lebtar. p. 43. ' 

p. 1 85, art. Barkiarok, the title (U) Hung before the door of 

of lieutenant-general 'is given him a room for (late. 
as the iigniftcation of Atabek. (X) This is the fame men- 

The Lebtarikh fays, that Sanjar tiorted by R. Benjamin, the lying 

reftored to him Irak, as far as 7fw 9 in his travels, who calls 

the borders of the Roman empire him Senigar Sbdb, (onofSbab 

and Syria. ( 1 ), that is, Malek Sbdb. 
(x) Btnj % TudeL edit. Qnft, remp. p. 87. 


C. 2. Sixth Soltdn y Sanjar. 149 

that province. His fon Kothbo'ddtn fucceeded him in all hisHej. 521. 
places. As he was a man of fpirit and valour, his credit A. D. 
grew fo much during the reigns of Barkiarok and Sanjar 9 I12 7- 
that he obtained the title of Karazm Shah, that is, king dfirft Ka- 
Kharazm, which defcended to all his pofterity, in that great razm 
monarchy of which he was the founder, and which proved at Shah, 
length the ruin of the Seljukian dynafty of Iran, to which 
they owed their rife. However Kothbo'ddin, though very 
powerful, never departed from his obedience to the Solt&ns ; 
and,, for thirty years, he did his duty of cup-bearer at court 
every fecond year, being relieved every other year by his foq 
Atsiz °. 

In the year 524, Sanjar pafled the Jih&n, .into MawarffU Revolters 
nahr, to reduce Ahmed ebn Soleymdn, governor of Samarkand 'Jubdued. 
who refufed to pay the ufual tribute. Being obliged to fur- Hc J- 5H* 
render after a vigprous fiege, the Soltan fpared his life, only ^* ^- 
depriving him of the government, which he gave to one of 1 1 2 '* 
his Oaves : but Ahmed, finding means to get into Sanjar'% 
favour, was in a litde time reftored. After this Bahram 
Sh&h,, Soltan of the Gazni family, whofe kingdom extended 
firom the province of Gazna, to the eaft of Khorafdn, a great 
way into Hindowft&n, had a mind alfo to fliake off the yoke 

■* of the Selj&kians. Hereupon, in 530, the Soltan entered htsHej. $}• 
dominions with a large army : but Bahr&m, not being able A. D* 

; to refift fo great a force, fent ambafladors to pay the tribute, 1135. 

I and do homage for his crown, by which iheans he diverted 

j the ftorm p . 

j Upon the death of Kothboddin before-mentioned, his foq At* Atsiz KiV 

[. jfe, called alfo Takajb, fucceeded, both in his employments and razm 

' the title of Karazm Shah, though no more, in reality, than go* Shah 
vernor of that province, like his father. He grew in great cre- 
dit with Sanjar by his fervices, efpecially in coming up feafona* 
bly to refcue him out of the hands of an ambufcade, laid for him 
by Ahmed, governor of Samarkand, before-mentioned. But 
"afterwards growing out of favour at court, he got leave to 
retire to his government, where the people were inclined to 
revolt. The Soltan, at his departure, faying to thofe about 
him, I fee the back of a man, whofe face it is likely I neutr 
JbaU fee again. They advifed to have him arretted : but 
Sanjar would not confent ; alleging, that he JhouU violate 
the acknowledgements due both to him and his father for their 
fervices, if hejbould do any thing to, of end him on a barefuf 

• D*Hsrb. p. 1 76, act. Cothbeddln. f Kond. ap. D'tferbw 
?• 7$6, an. Sangiar. 


15a The SeljAks of \An. B. I. 

rdcUwitb . ATSIZ verified the Soltan's prognostic ; for he no foon- 
fuccefe. er arrived in Karatm, than he put himfelf at the head 
of the rebels: fo that Sanjar was obliged to reduce by 
force an enemy, whom he had fuffered to efcape, by having 
-more regard to the maxims of amity than thofe of policy. 
However, the expedition did not give him much trouble ; 
Hej. 53 3 . for advancing in 533, with fuperior forces, he put the rebel* 
A* D. to flight : and II Kilij, fon or Atsiz, being taken, was put 
,! 3 8, to death. The troubles in Karazm being thus efreftually 
fuppreffed, Sanjar gave the government of it to his nephew 
Soleym&n Shah. * But as he left him only a few forces, he wa9' 
fqon obliged to quit it to Atstz ; who advancing with a con- 
fiderable army, re-entered Karazm. And this year is reckon- 
ed for the commencement of the dyna*ft/of the Karazm Shahs \ 
or fovereigns in a proper fenfe q . 
'Another Two years after, Samarkand rebelled again^ in oppofhjon tq 
rebellion the governor ; who, being airlifted with the palfey, was not 
no/bed. ^fe to a( c^ y^g Soltin marched againft them ; and, after 
A L^ a ^ ie 8 e °^ months, the city furrendered : but Sanjar fpa- 
j*" " red the inhabitants, according to his ufual clemency; and: 
• ' difplacing the feeble father, gave the government of the place 
to his fon. 
Tartarian During the Saltan's flay at Samarkand, he was folicited 
by fome lords of his court to bend his arms againft Gurjajb % 
king afKaratatay (Y) ; alleging the glory that would arife from 
the conqueft of a country deemed in a manner inacceffible. 
Sanjar, prevailed on by their inftances, marched on that 
fide (Z) ; but Gurjajb advancing with his forces, cut in pieces 
30,000 of the Soltan's troops, and feized his camp, where 
was all his equipage/ and Haram, or women ; among whom 
was Tarkh&n Khatyn, his principal queen. Sanjar, in this 
diftrefs, picked out 300 of his braveft men, and made his* 
way through the middle of his enemies, in order to reach 
Ttrmed (A), where he arrived with only twelve or fifteen fol- 
lowers. . The reft of his fcattered troops repairing thither by 
tkjj 1 "^ he pafled with them into Khoraf&n, quite afhamed 

« Kond. Lebtar. &Nighiar. ap. D'Herb. p. 1.46, art. Atsiz. 

. (Y) See an account of this (Z) The Ltbtarikb places tkis 

country before, p. $j. 65, & feq. expedition in the year 536, of* 

p % Herbeiit t or his author Konda- Cbri/t 1 141, and fays, the con- 

mt 9 fays, it is catted bUckKatay, fequence of his defeat was the 

hecaufe of the thickn'efs of its Jpfs of Ma<waralnabr. 

forefts, ariddeepnefs of its'val- (A) A city on the Jih%m t to 


lies, which render it dark and the north of BdJkb. 


C.i: Sixth Soltan* Sanjar. \ 5 i 

of his expedition ; which convinced his people that he was 
not invincible, as before they thought him to be r . 
ATSIZ continuing more and more to . encroach on the Atsiz'/ 
L tin's authority, he found himfelf obliged, a fecond time,""""/' 
take the field againft him ; and, in 538, having reduced,***"^ 
al pafles and ftrong places in the way, came and befieged 
in his capital city. Atsiz finding himfelf reduced to the £' &** 
extremity, fent very rich prefents to Sanjar, intreating 
Ion, which was granted by the generous Soltan : who, on ll ^ 
taking a new oat^ of fidelity, left him in pofTeffion of his 
'ernment. But all this clemency had no effeft on the am-» 
rious mind of Atsiz \ Sanjar receiving advice, from feveral 
Lrts, that he was railing forces, and paid no regard to his 
ders, fent Adibfaber, one of his great lords, to inform him* 
"of the cpnduft of Atsiz ; who, on his arrival in Karaztn, 
guards over him, and fent aflaffins to Marti to kill the the Sol- 
an. But AM coming to the knowlege hereof, gave no-'*"V && 
to Sanjar; fo that the bravoes were difcovered, and put 
death. Atsiz concluding that the intelligence came from 
t lord, had him thrown headlong frogi the top of his 

into the Jib&n, or AmA. 
In 542, the Soltan undertook once more to punifh xheSubmits a? 
tjsafen of Atsiz ; and invefted Hazar Ajb, the ftrongeft placed/*. 
mXarazm, where Atsiz (hut himfelf up; and, after making Hej. ^42. 
a vigorous defence, had the good luck to efcape; the city ^. D, 
having been taken at length by ftorm. Sanjar followed him l **?• 
tt> the city of Karazm, which he might foon have taken; but^ 
whether weary of the fatigues attending the camp, or through 
Us averfion to (hed blood, he liftened to proposals of peace, 
negotiated by a Darwijb, or religious man ; by whofe ma- 
nagement Atsiz was obliged only to repair to the fide of the 
JMn 9 oppofite to the Soltan's camp, and there proftrating 
himfelf, kifs the earth. Atsiz came to the place appointed ; 
but, without- alighting off his horfe, only Itooped forward, 
and bowed his head to falute the Soltan ; who, for all this- 
arrogance, fent him the pardon he had promifed : after which 
all hoftilities ceafecj between them, till the time of the death 
of Atsiz* which happened in 551, the year before that of 
the Soltan*. . 

One of the moA remarkable events in this Saltan's reign, GaunW* 
h the fignal viftory which, in 554, he obtained over Hujfeyn tributary. 
Jthanf&z, Soltan of the dynafty or Gaur, a country lying be- Hej. 544. 
tween that of Gazna and Khorajdn. Hujfeyn having entered A. J). 

r Kokq. obifupr, p. 756, art. Sangiar, « Ibid. p. 146, 

Iffcq. arc. Atolz. 

L 4 this 

1 149. 

1 5 2 fb* Selj^ks of Irin. B. I. 

this laft province with a great army, in order to conquer it, 
Sanjar marched his troops, and, defeating them, took both 
him and AH Chtteri, his general, prifoners. As Alt was born 
in the dominions of Sanjar •, and had formerly been loaded 
with favours by him, that prince put him to death for his 
ingratitude ; but foon after fent home Huffeyn to govern 
Gaur under his authority. 
Tbt Saltan In 548 the Soltan was'led, againft: his inclination, to cha- 
taken by ftife the Turkmans, who refufed to pay the ufual tribute of 
the Turk-ftieep(B) ; when his army was defeated, and himfelf taken pri- 
mans. f one r by that rabble, to the great diflionour of the houfe of 
Seljttk ; which was fo much reverenced by all the Turki/b sta- 
tion (C). Thefe Turkmans , not knowing what to do with the 
perfon of fo great a prince, placed him in the day-time on a 
throne, and (hut him up at night in an iron cage. He fpent 
w . four years in this confinement ; till the Soltana Tarkhan Kha* . 

A I)* 1 fa«, who governed ifi his abfence, happening to die in 551, 
, , -5" he refolved to deliver himfelf out of the hands of the Turk- 
Efcapes by To bring this about, he employed Amir Ettas, one of his 
jlratagem. confidents, who carrying on a correfpondence with Amir 
Ahmed Kwnaj, governor of Termed, got him to provide boats 
ready in the river, againft the Soltan pafled by in hunting. 
This ftratagem fucceeded to Sanjar** wifhes ; and the go- 
vernor, after entertaining him magnificently at his caftle, 
gathered what troops he could, who conducted him to Ma- 
r#, then the capital of Khoraf&n, where ,he ufually refided. 
But the Soltan found that city, and all the country through 
which he pafled, in fo bad a condition, on account of the . 
incurfions which the Turkmans had made during his abfence, 

(B) The cauf-of this war is (C) This event, in the arti- 
rcprefenrcd fomewhat different- cle of AtsivL, is placed in the be- 
ly in the Lebtarikb : according ginning of Sanjar* reign ; but 
to this author, the Cd%, or Turk- on whofe authority does not ap- 
mdns, crofling the JiLun towards pear : for though D'Herbeiot 
the end ofSanjar's reign, fuffcr- quotes Kondamir, it is along with 
ed great mifery : yet the king other authors, at the end of the 
refolved to march againft them, whole article, and not at the 
The Gaz, begged peace in the particular fafts or paragraphs, 
moil fuppliant manner ; each as he does in other articles, 
family ort, ring a piece of ft] ver, It is there faid that Ataz go- 
with which the Sohan was con- verned the ftate, in conj one- 
tent: but the grandees obftruft- tion with Mahmud* Sanjar % ne- 
ing ihe treaty, the Gdz were at- phew, during the Soltan** cap- 

Cftckc4i ti vit y- 

C. 2. Sixth SoU&n, Sanjar. 153 

*hat he fell into a deep melancholy, and afterwards into a He}. 552, 
diftemper <D) of which he died in the year 552 \ A- D* 

According to the* Lebtartkb, this Soltan lived feventy* J 1 * 7 ',. 
i two years, and reigned fixty-two, in which muft be under- Hu death. 
i tlood to be included the twenty years, which, the fame au- 
| Aor lays, he reigned in Khorafdn, before the death of Mo- 
ihammed his predeceflbr. 

He extended his empire from Katay and Kotan (%), to th&Exttnfive 
cod of 5yrii2 and Egypt, and from the fea of Khozdr, or the <&«**"»/. 
Ca/pian, to Yamman, or Arabia fcelix. 

He fought nineteen battles, of which he gained feventeen : 
was mnch feared by all 5 famous for liberality and clemency 
■*> his fubjefts. He was diligent in matters of government, His cba- 
bat hated kingly pride ; wearing a coat made of lkins tt . Yet roOtr*. 
the Karazm Shdb's ferving the office of cup-bearer to him, is 
produced as an argument of the magnificence with which he 

All the oriental hiftorians praife this prince for his va- Greatly 
kwr and jufHce, magnanimity and goodnefs. As a proof of beloved. 
[this, they write, that he was fo well beloved by his fubjefts, 
that they continued to publifh his name in the temples for 
a whole year after his death, as if he had been ftill alive, and 
. on the throne. They gave him alfo the furname of Ejhander 
.Tbaniy that is, Alexander the fecond : and his name of San* 
iar has pafled for that of Alexander among his pofterity \ 

It is remarked that this Soltan eftabliflied SaddEbn Zen- Atabek 
fbi (E), ^who had been his governor, lieutenant-general dtdynafties. 
all his dominions, under the tide of Atabek ; which tide fig- 
•ifying, father of the prince (F), and given to the tutors or 
governors of the SeljMtian princes, became afterwards a tide 
of dignity. 

1 Kond. ubi fopr. p. ^56, 8c feq. art Sangiar. ■ Lebta- 

rikh, p. 43« x Kond. ubi fupr. p. 757, art. Sangiar. 

(D) According to the Night- Mo/baker, firft Atabek of Pars, 

arifiam (1) zndA&'lfaraj, it was or proper Perfia, in 543, both 

, tbecholic, attended with a loofe- being eftabiiihed during Sanjar* 

aefe and vomiting. reign. He feems to have been 

(X) This is draining things the firft ; but D'Herbelot is very 

loo far; for, inftead of con- confufed on this head. Seethe 

rring, he was defeated by articles Atabek, Saad ben Me- 

Karakitajans, as before re- xaffer, and Salgar Shah. 

lated. (F) Dr. Pocock renders it, ad- 

(B) This mnfl have been Omad* miniftrator regni. Abu'lfaraj. 

ii&n Zenghi, the Ml Atabek of hift. dynaft, p. 250. So does 

Wi, in 521, or ModhafferJdSm D'Herbelot in fome places. 
(1) VlUrb.f. 757. MMf. p, »$g, 


1 54 f&e Seljuks of ten. - B. L 

Afc» ^ After Sanjar's death, MahmAd, his fitter's foo, by Jfe*! 

f^f Se ^ hammed Khan, defcended from Bagra Kk&n, fuccceded k 

Juki, Khoraf&n. But at the end of five years, one of his lords (G] 

revolted from him, and, after feveral battles, fdzed his 

minions, and deprived him of fight. The Soltan of Kmta 

whofe dynafty rofe during the reign of Sanjar, taking 

vantage of thefe divifions in Khorajan, made himfelf 

of one part of that great province, while the other remained 

in pofleffion of the rebels (H). So that the Selj&kian Soha**^ 

who ftill reigned in both the h&ks, no longer had any footJ 

ing in Khoraf&n y . 

txtfa&in We ffluft now turn back to thefe Soltans; the firft of 

Khora- whom, Mogayatho'dMn Mahmud Ebn Mohammed, though be-l 

&**• ginning his reign at the fame time with his uncle SaxjarM 

and dying twenty-feven years before him (I), is yet rcckoBejl 

his fucceflor : MahmM, Sanjar's fitter's fon, befroe-menttaaedjl 

not being put in the lift of Soltans. 

fbe Reigns of Mahmud, Togrol, and MafflM. • 

Seventh TT hath been obferved before, in the reign of Sanjar, tto* 

So/tan, «** Mahmud, fon of his brother Mohammed, furhamed M& 

Mahmftd. gayatho'ddtn Jbu'IkaJfem, by the agreement made between 

, them in 513 (A), was left in pofleffion of the Perfutn and 

Arabian IrAks, with the countries weftward, whereef, tM* 

according to Kondamtr he was only Sanjar's governor ao# 

lieutenant-general, yet he feems to hUve afted independent!^ 

- of him : nor does it appear that his uncle exercifcd any povart 

within his dominions. It is true, none of the authors be^ 

fore us give any account of this Soltan's tran&ftions, afterv 

y Mirkond ap. D'Herh. p. 537, art Mahmftd Khan. 

(G) The Lehtarikh, which governor under Sanjar \ but that, 

calls hitn M^edabia, fay*, that on the Sokan's death, he waft 

he had been one of Saajar* proclaimed by the peop'e to* 

flaves. hie fine qualities ; yet in the 

(H) The Lehtankh fays, the femq pag;e (article Mtfhammei 

Soltans 0/ GA»rhad alfo a pare. lKhan)\ makes Mahtmd the fat 

(I) Here we ra nil take notice of 'this Utter, to fooceed him, 

ef a great miftake in Kondamr, twenty -fix years after. 
or his extr aL&ovD'Htrbe/at, who, (A) Yet the beginamg of his 

in the article of Mahmud, Con of neigfi h reckoned from ttie death 

Noham»ud y p. 5 37. fays, he re- ef his father. 
(ivied fourteen years in IrJk % as 


g. a; Seventh Sdtto, MahmAd. 155 

U* agreement with Sanjar. D % Herbchfs extrafts from Ken- Defta of 
0Mt3r, and other oriental authors, end there ■. Texeir* was **/£««♦ 
fochhafte to finifh his abftraft of Mtrkond, that he would 
allow himfelf to look into the hiftory of the Seljdkian. 
©r even to know their names. The Lebtarlkh only 
that Mahm&d married two of Sanjar's daughters, ancj 
jht two battles with his brother Mafftid, whom he de- 
ted both times. In fhort, the particulars colle&ed by 
iAfjfoflf, relate almoft folely to the affairs of Mefopotamia 
but Syria; which, in effe&, are all the materials we have 
towards the hiftory of this Soltan's reign. 

|F- That author informs us, agreeable to the account given DiaAff- 
|)F the weftern hiftorians, that, in the year 512, as Baldwin, Baldwin, 
of Jerufakm, was fwimming in tht Nile at Baffrays, in **jj* $%** 
lJ a wound, which he formerly had received, opened ; ^ 

ipon returning to Jerufalem> he there died, after hav- 
recommended th$ care of his kingdom to At Games (B), 

In 514 the Gorj, or Korj, who are the fame with the Kh-Tbe Gorj, 
tors,- the Kafjaks, and other nations, invading the Moha,m- or ^ho- 
mdan countries, Al Amtr Jlgdzi, lord of Mardtn, Dobays; fbn 2 **** 
fadeka, lord of Hettah, and king Togrpl (C), to whom bc- 
)Mged Jrrdn and Naklyawdn, advanced to meet them a* A jx 
ftr as Tefiis, with 30,000 men. The armies being drawn up , f ' ^ 
I* battle, there came forth 200 Kafjdks> who, as the Mojlems: 
|bought, intended to furrender themfelves : inftead of that, 

attacked their front To vigoroufly with arrows,, as put/*«zW;/£« 
1 into disorder ; which thofe in the rear taking for a Scljuks. 

jhf, fled with fuch precipitation, that they ftumbled over 
another. The Gorj purfuing for twelve Perfian leagues, 

r moft of them, and took 4000 prifoners : but king To* 
|ro/, flgazi, and Dobays, efcaped. The Gorj returning, be- 
jieged Teftts ; and, after harraffing the inhabitants, ^ook that 
icky next year by florm. 

In 51 5 Soleyman, fon of Ugazi t being juft turned of twen- J fairs cf 
1j, rebelled againft his father ; but the latter coming upon Syria, 
Urn unexpectedly, feized thofe who had fet him on, and pu- 
flhed them. Among the reft he ordered one Nafr, a com* 
fttder brought up. by his father Ortok, to have his eyes 
jfeked out, and tongue cut off. He condemned another, 

•Bibl. orient, art. Sangiar 8c Mahmoud, fils de Mohammed. 

• (B) For tomes > {6 tbey call Jagartnifc and fet free byju- , 

Account of Roha, or B4t//*h wf//, before-mentioned. j 

Mp had been taken prifocer by (C) A brother of Mahmud. t ] 

whoqi — * 

1 56 72* Sdjuks of Iran. B. I; 

whom he had made governor of Halep, firft to be deprivdi 
of fight, and then to have his hands and feet chopped oft 
which occafioned his death. 

SOLEYMAN was brought before him drunk; but he 
was restrained from killing him by natural affection. AftxC 
this he fled to Damafius ; and Ilgdzi made Soleyman, fon of 
his brother Abdo'ljabbar, governor of Halep,, and named hdl 
Badroddawlat ; after which he returned to Mardin s 
WMefo- The fame year the Soltan (D) gave Mayaferkin to the Am* 
potamia. Ilg&zi ebn Ortok ; and the cities of Mufol, Me/opotamia, antf 

Senjar, to the Am:r Kofaym oddawlat Ok/enkar al Borfaki. 
Hej.516. NEXt year Ilgdzi died at Mayaferkin ; on which his ibtt 
. A. D. Hafamoddin Tamartafb feized the caftle of Mardin, 'and hij 

1122. fon Soleyman Mayaferkin ; Badro'daawlat Soleyman continue 
A. D. ing at Halep. But, in 517, BaLk, fon of Bohr am ebnM 

1123. ifoA, finding his coufin Soleyman not able to defend hiscon&J 
try, came and clofely befieged Halep, whicli was at laft fi» 

A.D. rendered to him. Next year he took Manbej, but was 
/ 1 1 24. by an arrow (£) in attacking the caftle. Hereupon his 
difperfed ; and Qkfenkar alBorf&ki took Halep, as the Fn 
did Sir , or Tyre, 

Okfenkar Towards the end of the year 520, Okfenkar f lord of M\ 

effaf- fol, was afTaflinated in the royal temple of that city by 1 

Jinated. Batanifts, and his fon Ezzo'ddtn Majjud took pofleffion wiu., 

A. D. out oppofition. The hiftorian wonders how Ezzo'ddin (houU 

11269 be informed of his father's death by the lord oiAntiokb (F)J 

before a courier brought him the news : But Ab&lfaraj obi 

Terves, that it was fooner known to the Franks ; by the caif 

they took to learn the ftate affairs among the Mojlems \ ' 

Ataibeks Tjje year 521 is remarkable for being the fir ft of the dj* 

hafty of the Atabeks of Irak, founded by Omado'ddin Zengm 

• (G), fon of Okfankar, or Akjankar, who was eftablifhed U 

Hej. 521 

*• D. ^g government of the city of Baghdad, by Soltan MabmUd 
ll2 7* His brother EzzoMn Mafjbd dying the fame year, Qmadoi% 

* Abu'lf. p. 248, 8c fcq. i 

(D) A queftion may here a- (F) Baldwin, king of Jen* 
rife, whether Soltan San} or, or fahm, was at this time in pot 
Soltan Mahmud, is to be under- fefllon oSAntiokb, though he it- 
food ? . ftorcd it to Boamondthe younger 

(E) Fulcher Carnotenf. fays, the fame year. 

Balajt was flain in battle againft (G) He is, by the hilton* 

?'ofceline ; that 3000 man were ans of the crufade, called &»- 

ain, and his head fent to if** w which is a corruption of 

tioik* Zentbu 

C. i. Seventh Sclt&n, Mahmfid. 15^ 

dm became pbflefied of Mujbl, and its dependencies. Next 
,year he took Halep, with its caftle ; and the year following 
the city of Hamah c . N 

. In 524 Al Amir Beahk&millah Abuali, lord of Egypt (H), Egyptia* 
«as aflaffinated by the Bat&n\fts, as he returned from taking Khalifah 
; a walk: The fame year there, were feen at Baghdad fcor- <*Jfef- 
fkm with wings, and a double fling. finated. 

|. The next year proved fatal to Soltdn Mahm&d, who died The Sol* 
jAHamaMn, in Sha-wal, or the tenth month, having lived tan diet. 
about twenty-feven years (I), and reigned thirteen <*. 
He was a handfome perfonage, and very generous ; bnt #w cha» 
\ love of women, and hunting, by degrees, impaired his ra&er. 

It is reported, that his hunting-equipage was foHej. 525; 
at, that he kept 400 greyhounds and blood-hounds, A. 6. 
1 of which wore a collar fet with jewels,* and a covering tl $9* 
' with gold and pearls. He laid out fo much in this 
> that he often wanted money to pay his troops, and 
other occafions e . Yet he did not fleece his fubje&s to 
uit his coffers : he likewife reftrained his favourites from 
r them any injury. He was merciful, good-natured, and 
nt. He forbore to punifh thofewho fpoke ill of him. 
prince ever fludied the art of reigning more. ' He was 
" " in grammar, poetry, and chronology (K) ; was very 
quent, and wrote a fine hand f . 

: Abu'lf. p. 250. 

D'Herb. p. 141, art. Atabek, 
}Abu'lf. p.25f. e Kond. ap. D'Herb. p. 537, & 756, 

♦ Mahmod & Sanjar. Lebtar. p. 43. f Lebtar. p. 43. 

(H) He was the tenth Kha- 
°fEgJp*f of the family of 
tab. They are called lords 

Erfpt, by the hiflorians who 
within the dominions of 

princes fubject to the Kha- 

fah of Baghdad, becaufe they 
stoowleged no other Khali- 

(I) Oar authors differ here : 
lEtrbelotj who quotes Konda- 
fK fays, he either governed 
frtigned alone twenty-feven 
*»*: the Lebtankh, that he 

Pit twenty-five years, yet 
s birth in 487, which 
his life to thirty- eight 

years : perhaps itfhould be 497, 
and that will bring it to twenty- 
eight. The numbers in this au- 
thor are very incorrect ; and 
D'Hevbelot feems to make ufe 
of them fometimes, without 
quoting' him ; and even to Aib- 
ftitute them for thofe of Kon- 
damir. In this uncertainty we 
muft make Abu If ar a} our guide, 
fince Ebn Amidfote failed us. 

(K) We were unwilling to 
ftlly. .fo good, a character, by 
inferting in the text, that he 
made a collection of the inter- 
prorations of dreams. 


Eighth MAtiMUD krft for his fuceeffor his brother TJgrf 

Saltan, furnamed Rokno'Mn (L) : but his brother Maffbd dtfputi 

Togrol. the crown with him ; and fcveral battles were fought betwd 

them, in the fpace of three or font years, which he reigno 

According to Kondamir 9 he was the teeond Soltan of a bnun 

of the Seljukians who reigned in Ptrjian and Arabian Irft 

which confirms our remark, that the agreement made h 

tween Sarydr and Mabmud contained a divifion of the Si 

jukian empire of IrAM, or Ptrfia at large. However, it dc 

not appear that oriental hiftorians confider them as two 

jporate monarchies, but as one and the feme ; making Mm 

mddy the predeceflor of Tegrd, the fuceefler of Sajqm 

though both died fame years before him, as hath been alrai 

obferved f . 

Bis reign This Soltan, according to Abilforaj, before he came 

Jbwt* the throne, poffeffed the province of drrin and Natehjav 

(M). But the authors before us give no account of i 

tranfa&ionS of his reign, excepting Abtfffaraj ; wfaofe n 

moirs, as in the preceding reign, are confined to Mefoptfm 

fcnd Syria. 

Hej. *t6> Tills annalift informs us, that, in the year 526, Sok 

A. D. Senjarwrotz (N) to OmModdin Ztnghi (Atobtk of Ir4k Ardk 

1 ! 3 l • and Dcbays Ebn Sadehah (lord of Htttah), commanding th* 

rbiAtabtito marc h into Irak, againft the KhattfahXl Mqftarjbtd. A 

2 hl cordingly they went, and encamped in a place called Mm 

riyah, which belongs to Dojayl (O). Thi Khaiifab Al Mi 

Jtarfbid y pafling over to the weft fide (of the Tigris), pitch 

his tents in Al Abhafiya. The armies met in Hadra al ii 

ramakeh (P) ; when Ztnghi attacking the right wing of d 


f Kokd; p k 1030, art. Thdgrul, fit. de Mohammed. 

(L) According to the Lebia- that of Tigr*/, then the Solos 

rM, his name is Rokno y ddin oflrdkmutl have been dej 

Abii I Motafer Togrol Bek. We ent on him; and his Tuo 

Arc the more exad in giving the Majjud, as *ell as his pre 

feveral names, becaufe fome au- for Mahmud, mail have 

thors mention only one* fome every thing they did by his 

another ; u hich frequently con- ders or confent. 
founds readers. (O^ in another copy 

(M) Commonly called Nakh- It is the country along the 

jwwdn, Natbcbwwan, and Nakb- gris, for fome. fpafce, to 

" • Jt<vd» 9 in Armenia. ' north of Baghdad. 

(N) if the name of Sanjar (?) The villa of the fimw 

be not put here fy miHake for otBarSmakcb. We mention « 


C.f» ^ Eighth S*&«*> Togrol. iW*A& Malftd.' 159 

where was %amdl oddawlat Akbal, put them to 
at the fame time the Khalifah, fupported by Nafr at attacks the 
(the eunuch), who commanded his left wing, fell on Khali/ah* 
right wing of Om&doddin and Dobays ; and, after a (harp 
iQnfiift, put them to flight ; killing and taking many of their 
Jbn g » The fame year the Atabek at Shahid recovered Mo* 
Wrab At Nomdn, in Syria, from the Franks h . 
i Ne-xt year the Khalifah fent a pretty fliarp meflage to 
'—£*/, by Sheykh Bahattddin Abu'l Fotuh ; who, relying on 
Khalifah 's power, and his own character as legate, added 
feral reproaches, of his own. Hereupon Zenghi, arreting 
treated him *very ill. At Moftarfbed, incenfed hereat, 
:ed from Baghdad with 30,000 men ; and, approaching 
Jbl, Zenghi marched oyt of the city with part of his 
sees, leaving the reft under the command of his deputy 
hsirJddin, whom the Khalifah befieged ; and, while he <to ^*- - - 
efled the place clofely without, a gang of gypfies within-^' Ma - 
eed to betray it to him : but being difcovered, and exc- 
ited, he retired, after three months leaguer to little pur- 
ofe; and, next year, a peace was concluded between him 
»d the Atabek ». 

Soltan Togrol died at JIamadAn, in the lirfl: month of Togrol 
e year 529 ; lived twenty-five years, and reigned three, dies. 
5 was juft and valiant, good-natured and liberal. He un-** e J- 5*9- 
Erftood the art of governing, and did nothing unbecoming A ' **• 
prince k . "34- 

MASSUD{?), furnamed Gayatho'ddin Abu'ffetah, was Ninth Sol* 
Baghdad when his brother Togrol died : and while his'f^Maf- 
iends fent a courier to haften him up to Hamaddn, then^» 

capital of the Seljuhians of IrAk, the court party dif- 
Btched another to Daiud, fon of Togrol, with the fame 
but the uncle happening to get the ftart of the nephew, 
iaffud was unanimously faluted Soltan by the grandees, and 
*W no more thought of 1 . 

He was fcarce feated on the throne, before he found him- attach the 
If obliged to make war on Al Mojlarfbed, twenty-ninth Khalifah, 

*Abu*i-f« p. 251. b Ebn Amid. p. 363. ! Abu'lf. 

251. k KoND.ubi fupr. p. 103d. Lebtar. p. 44. 

&ONt>. ubi fupr. p. 563, art. Maflbud. 

cities and the faiall, ac- laft a being die Ayn, which is a 

ig to on* original propo- guttural, but melted down into 

that the geography of thefe the u, fo as fcarce to be heard 

tries may be known to our in the pronunciation ; or ic may 

lets, be faid to ferve only to give the 

IP) Ma£&d, or Majfaudi the u a guttural found. 


ifo The Seljuks of Iran. B. 1 

Khalifah of Baghdad, of the family of Al Abba's. It feons, 
that, in the reiga of Togrol, Dobays Ebn Sadekah, vho vni 
governor-general of Irak Arabi for the Khalifah, plotted 
with that Soltan to furprizc him in Baghdad. But Togrd 
felling ill of ft burning fever, hindered the execution .- A 
Mqftarjbed's army alfo got the better. This war laftcd tfll 
MaffM came to the crown ; when the Khalifah, at the k»» 
fiance of fome court lords, had his name fupprefied In thej 
public prayers, and even deprived him of the title of Sot 
tdn. ] 

mobois AfASSUD, being informed of this injury, fet out W 

defeated, ftantly from Ray, where he refided, at' the head of a power] 
ful army, for the Arabian IrBk ; from whence the Khali&l 
advanced, accompanied by a great number of his grandee* 
The two armies came to a battle in the feventh month of tfa 
year 529 ; when the Khalifah's left wing deferring to thl 
Soltan, he was furrounded and taken, while his right wing 
after a flight oppofition, fled. After this defeat, BagbA 
opened its gates to Maflid, without oppofition. The Sdf 
tan having had another war in his head, carried Mq/iar/ba 
with him into the province of Adherbijan. Being arrived 1 
Mar&gha, the Khalifah was confined in a tent, at a diftana 
from the army, near the gate of that city : where meflengefl 
parted between him and the Soltan, relating to peace. Al 
length it was agreed, that Al Mqfiar/bed, befides payiM 
yearly 400,000 crowns in gold, fhould remain in Bagbdm 
and not raife any other troops befides his ordinary guards. 
mniaffaf- After this agreement that prelate was fuffered to ride ofl 
Jmated. horfeback with the covering of a faddle (QJ carried befall 
him, in token of honour. In fhort, he was ready to retail 
to Baghdad, when news being brought that an ambaffiuta 
was arrived from Soltan Sanjar, the people followed Maflk 
to meet him, and among the reft fome of thofe who had tk 
care of the Khalifah. ^ Twenty-four Batanifts took this op- 
portunity to get into his tent, and murder him, by siring 
him above twenty wounds ; then cutting off his note aal 
ears, left him naked, where he remained till the citizens of] 
Marhgha buried him. Many believe, with good rtafon, fajs] 
Kondamtr, that MaJJud was at the bottom of this murder*j 
and talked of an agreement with him, on the terms above- 
mentioned, only to cover his defign. 
Dobays Not long after this, as Dobays ebn Sadekah was {looping, 
fain.. with his fingers on the ground, before his tent, near thedt? 1 
of Khuntj, a young Armenian, employed by the Soltan, ctfi 

» (QJ The harnefs of a horfc. 

3 of 

d. Ninth Soltan, Mafl&d. j6i 

•off his head : For Ma^SW was jealous of his power, and had 
only made ufe of him as an inftrument to oppofe Al Mo- 

The year following, the kings and lords of the provinces Thepro- 
^flanMing at Baghdad, threw off their bbedience to SolUn™"*"- 
^MMd. On this Dawd (or David), fon of Soltan MahmM™ 1 '; 
-^marched from Adherhijan, followed by Omddo'ddtn Zen~ nt fc tf°- 
stfh; from Mu/ol to BagUM, where he was prayed for in n ' " 
*fce pulpits (S). The Soltan on this news haftens to that • 
<ity, and befieges it : but finding, after fifty days leaguer, 
jtflthat he could do nothing againft it, refolved to return to 
r&amadtnS He was attually on the road, when Tarentdy, 
(Word of Wafet, arriving with a great number of Barks, he 
Returned to the fiege. At the fame time, the princes who 
Mid aflembled at Bagkdhd falling out among theinfelves, 
king Dawd returned home, ahd the reft difperfed. The 
khalifah Al Rafted, with a few followers, paffed over to 
^enghi, who was on the weft fide (of the river), and re* 
Btiied with him to Mufol. 

* He*e0*on Sdtan MaffM, entering Baghdad, fixed his Ma «&d 
l£at there : then, aflembling the judges, witneifes, and ^ ok ^ ter l d ^ 
Pinned in the laws, he laid before them the oath which ^/ Ba g naaa * 
.Hifbed had made to him, in his own Jiand-writing : /, in 
Vtafiljbatt affemble forces, march out, or jut to the /word 
tony of Soltin MafsudV adherents, depofe my f elf from the em- 
ffire. Accordingly he was, by their fentence, depofed ; and his Depofesthe 
[name fupprefled every-where in the pulpits, before he hadKhalifah. 
taigncd twelve months. Then the Soltan called another 
tfouncil, *ho, after declaring Al Rdjbed , unworthy of the 
fflfcaEfat, elefted' Al Moktqfi Beamrillah, fon of Al Mqftadher t 
'(br Al Mqftadhaher), who was his friend. The depofed 
Khalifah, leaving Mufol, in 531, went to Hamadht, where Hej. 531 i 
ting Dawd then Was ; and from thence toIfpahAn, where he A %• 
^^ 1 1 36. 

\ "Kokd. &EbnShohnah, ap.DUerb. p. 634, art.Moftar- 
Jfched. Abit'lf. p. 25a. 

(R) Kmdamir, in D'Herbelot, occafioned by the Soltan fend- 

tails him the fon of Mohammed, ing to demand of Al Raflnd the 

for all this difagpjement, he is fum which his father had pro* 

dovbtlefs the Dawd who is faid mifed to pay yearly. D'Herbi 

befcre to have been a fon of TV- p. 7 1 o, art. Rafched. 
jw/, and whom a court party (S) And, according to Kon- 

would have advanced, in oppo- damir, had the tide of Soltin 

£tkm to Majjld. According to given him by the Khalttah, 
the fame author, this war was 

Mod. Hist. Vol.IV. M was, 

1 6* fbcSe\$U*flt*ti. B.L 

was (lain by fome of his domeftics (T), at nodn, nrhJJe he 

took a nap, after his recovery from a fit of fiektffs ; hekg 

forty years of age. He was buried at Sbdbrefian, TOtto* 


A good mi- MA&SUD, underftaading that the governor of Part (<r 

ni/ltr Proper Perjia), made (brae difficulty to acknowtage Moktqji 

the new Khatifah, he fent his brother Se§4k SbAb, wkh tfe 

y/f afeA Karafankar, to bring him to his duty. But the jfe* , 

bck had no fooner made one day'? march, than he feat d* 

Soltan word, he would proceed no farther, unleft he fent hi* 

Pir Mohammed Khtzeri, his prime Wazir, whofe. death i$ 

. mAde a fa- fought. This Wazir managed ftate affairs very well; Itf 

crifece. difgufted the courtiers fcy too firm and haughty a carriage 

MajJM cotild not confent at firft to fo unmfonaUe a i* 

mand ; but, as Karafankar had all his forces at Ms devp&W; 

he was obliged at laft to fend him the Wazir's.feead. 

The Atabek being fatisfied, returned to his duty J but tift 

not long enjoy the fruit of his revenge ; for he died a fetf 

days after he had gotten rid of his enemy. The. StaM&n ## 

his command to fldightz, with the almoft ahfcfote goterot 

ment of Atiherbijdn (of which he was the firft A&bek(V}^ 

and that of Kurdeftan. He likewife gave him ux nfcrriagehfe 

fifter-in-law, who had been promifed formerly to Saltan ft* 

grol y his brother and predeceflbr. Soon after this, Abtih 

governor of the city Ray, with fome other confpirators, rot, 

in favour of Soleyman Sh&h, brother of Maffud, and fet httj 

on the throne. But this plot was foon quaihed : after whisfc 

the Soltan remained in peaceable pofleffion till his death . • 

TbeAtabei As this is all we find in our authors relating to the Wr 

.Zenghi malnder of his reign, we flsll fupply the defeft with thfi 

anions of the Atabeks of hrkk, who refided at Mufti, or Men 

fid, and are called lords of that city, and of Syria. 

Hej. cj2. . In the year 532, the Atabek Om&djd&n Zenghi made 1 

A. I>. progrefs into Syria ; and, on his arrival at Hamdb, fent to 

11 37- Sbebabo'Mn, lord oE'DamaJhu, defiring that he might many* 

bauWd in k* s motner Zamorrod Kbat&n, daughter of Al Jafiwli ; thf". 

marriage, fame lady who built the college out of Domqfius, near the/ 

river Baroda. By this means Herns, and its caftle, camejaltf 

his pofleffion. His motive to the marriage was, that as At 

affairs of Damajius feemed to be under her dire&ion, he was 

n Abu'lf. p. 253. °Kond. ap. D'Herb. p. 563, art 


(T) Kondamlr, in Z>W#rk£/ t (U) This dynafty comment . 
fays, he was flain by the Bata* in 555, and ended in 6*3. 


7 .ia 

C a. Ninth Soltfn, MfcflSd. 163 

' to fcopg thereby to gain the country : but, when he found 
*>fciifi If dflappointed in his expectations, he went away, and 
l*ft her behind. 

Next year, he took Baalbik (X) (in Syria) ; and, the year takes fe* . 
♦Bowng, Shahrazur, with its territory. In 539, he refcued w«///«. 
rgbl* (orE&JhJ out of the hands of the />aob (Y).; and£'-. 
pM liege to the ftrong caftle of £*r (Z) : but when he had K 'i • 539* 
fttar taken it, an exprefs arriving, with an account that Na- ' * 
P^tfdtdfl, his deputy in Mvfot, was ilain, he departed. How- **• 
•> the Fratrti, Searing his return, fent for Nqmod&n (A), 
of Mirdtn, add delivered it up to him. Next year, 
j he was befieging the caftle of Jabar (B), certain flaves^MW *J 
hfin(C), in the night, and fled to the caftle. The htJ*™" 
' on this, rejoicing, called out to let the army know 
commander was flain ; accordingly, entering his tent, 
found him breathing his laft. He was more than fixty 
old when he died ; behaved with great gravity both 
his army and his fubje&s ; and was perfectly (killed 
die art of governing. The city of Mufol (D), before he. 
it, was, for the moft part, destroyed ; and the adjacent 
itry, which now abounds with fruits and ordoriferous - 
was the moft barren in the world. 
MURO 'D D IN (E) MahmM, who was in the camp when Naro'd- 
ifef* faher was (lain, drawing the ring off his finger, went ftrait d * n Mah- 
tp Halep ; and, taking pofleflion of it, remained there; while m ^d. 
Ms brother Sayfo'd&n Gazi, battening from Sbahraz&r, which jj e ; .. ; 
bkI been aftigned him, entered Mufol ; and thus became lord a. D. 
-* that city, with Al Jazireh (or Mefopotarma). He died 114^. 
re, after he had reigned three years, and was fucceeded 
his brother KotWdMn MaUdud. His elder brother, NA- Settles i* 
fdt&n Mahm&d, who poflefled Halep and Ham&b, in Syria, Syria, 
tg into Al Jazireh, took Senjdr, without any oppofi- 

I (X) And gave the command who, in 532, took the caftle of 

m * to NajmSdtin Jymb, or Job, Al Hetakh horn, the laft of the 

father of the famous $a/a hoddin, Mtrwdn family . 
gSaladiti, who recovered Syria (B) William of Tyre calls it 

Son the Cbriftians. Abu If. p. Calogenbar : it ftands on the £*- 

a6}» & feq. pbrates, between Bir and Rak» 

(f) William of Tyre fays, it kah. 
WW by mining ; and that Jcf- (C) William of Tyr4 fays, he 

ee&ne foon recovered, bat could was drunk when he was (lain. . 
ftOthold it. (D) Maufel, or Moful, as 'tis 

(Z) Or Al Bir, on the Ete- varibufly Written. 
jbratet. Lat. obferved, 37 10'. (E) He is called Ncrandin* 

(A) He was fucceflbr to Ha* and Nvroldiv, by rh* hiftoriane 

ftmtd£ji Tamartdfi elm llgazi, of the crufade. 

M Z tion, 

i$& Vbe Scjjflks tf Iriii. 9 B. I 


S3* rafgw 0/ Malck Shih J7- Mohammed Soleymin 
Shan, Arflan, and Togrol, in whom the djnafy 


Ttntb TUIAltE K Sh&b II. furnapned MqgayahodMn (A) was, *• 
Saltan, "**■* cording to • Kondamir, the fon of Mohammed, fon rf 
Malck Makk Shdh I. But Abtflfaraj and the Lebtarlkh * fay, thu. 
Shah II, fa was ^ f on of Mahmud, fon of Mohammed, and, confc 
qucntly, great grandfon of the firft 7Jfa/*A SWA, He fnc- 
ceeded his uncle MajjUd : but bis reign was of no long coo- 
tin uance, as having been wholly unworthy of the crown j 
for he minded nothing but indulging his appetite (B), and* 
left affairs intirely tp his minifters, 
htUfoftj Notwithstanding his incapacity, he grew jealous of 
the authority of Kbajbek, furnamed Belingheri, who had been 
in great efteem with Majfud, and palled for one of the raoft 
valiant men of his time. Malek Sb&h wanted to have him ar- 
retted : but as the whole court thought fuch a proceeding 
pnjuft, Haffan Kandar % who was one of khafbek % S'\x& friendy 
^Kafcek tre f ivcd to prevent the blow; *nd, und^r pretence of jpnog 
the Sojtan a grand entertainment, kept him three days in a 
continual debauch, in the midft of which he feized his per* 
fon, and fhut him up in the caftle of Hamaddn. After whfck 
they fent for his brother Mohammed, who was then in Kb* 
zeftan, and fet him in his place. Some time after, MM 
Sh&b, finding means to efcape out of prifon, fled to the pro- 
vince from whence his brother had been called to the throne;: 
• where he remained till the death of Mohammed, in the ea4 
of the year 554 t when, haftening to Ifp&b&n, he rc-afceod- 
ed the throne ; but enjoyed it only a few days, dying in the \ 
. beginning of the year 555, at the age of thirty-two b . Ao^ 
cording tp the Lebtarikh t he reigjied the firft time four 
months, and the fecond no more than nine days. 
KbaHfab It is proper to take notipe here, that as the Khalifch 
Jkakts off Moktqfi owed his elevation to the credit and authority of 
Maffud, he had no ftiare in the government of his ftate 
during the life of that Solan ; but, after his death, he re- 
fumed the authority, and quite excluded that of the S& 

• Abu'lf. p. 247. Tcbtar. p. 44. * Kovd. apud £'Herb. 
P- 544» art. Malek Shah, fil. de Mohammed. 

(A) The JffcariM fubiQins (-) Diverfipns and mafic: 
JWlfctab, ' Wlartkbi 


C: il Eleventh Solid*, Mohammed II. 167 

jildans ; for lie would not allow Malek Sh&b to hive * any 
power or command in the folt&nat of Baghddd; but remained , ~ .. A . 
fide matter in his dominions, which comprehended Babybnijb* f c J 
. 1W* (C), and Arabia : in (hort, it was under this Khalifah^' t% 
that the power of the Seijfkians, who had been mailers of 
atf the forces and pofleffions of the Khalifahs, began to de- 
cline, and, by degrees, became extinft c . On this occafion 
AbAlfaraj tib&rves, that At Moktafi was the firft who reigned 
{& Irik Arabi without a Sol tan, and governed his armies, 
1 as well as fubjefts, according to his own will (D), fince the 
time that the Mamtuks, or flaves (E), firft ufurped power 
ewer die Khalifahs, under At Mofianfir d (F). 

As Khajbek^ who Mtas the chief inftrument of the advance* £/*tw*/£ 
jncat of Mohammed^ fumamed Gayatho'd&n* would needs Sohdn, 
f have the intire government of the (late at his own difpofal ; Moham- 
! and as that lord's credit, as well as riches, rendered him mcd *h 
\ powerful, Mohammed (acm perceived that he could never reign 
■with authority, fo long as fuch a perfon was alive. For this 
I rtafon he refolved to get rid of him, according to die advice 
I of one of hisminifters; who, alluding to the youth of the 
|. priace, and age of Khajbek, told him, that no new branches 
flat from tht foot ef the vine, tilt the old ones were cut away. 

Upon hit death (G) the Soltan became poflefled of all the*/*)* 
wealth 'Which he had amafled, during the rime that he had Kh f* bck - 
the management of the treafury. It is remarked, as a thing 
extraordinary, that he. had in his wardrobe an infinite num- 
ber of vetf precious moveables (H), among which were 1 3,000 
1 (arlet and purple vefts. 

However, the death of Khajbek had like to have been 
.'.tftt ruin of Mohammed : for that great lord had made pow- 4 

•fal friends atcourt, who were rtfolved to revenge it. With 

9 D'HtK*. p. 592, art. Moktafi. * Abu'lf. p. 258. 

(C)'Called alfo Arabian lrdk, Khajbek as feizing Malek Shah 

containing tbeantient Kbaldea. without provocation, and fend- 

(D) He reigned twenty -four in% for Mohammed only with de- 
y«»s; dying in Hejrah 555. fign to deftroy him: but that 

(E) Meaning the Turks. Mohammed, feeing into his vil- 
(P) It fhould be Al Montaf- lainy, flew both him and his 

J*,irho was the eleventh Kha- armour-bearer two days after, 

Jfth of the Abbas family ; un- as they came into his pretence* 

der whom the Turkijb militia and call out their heads to be- 

began to ufurp authority over eaten by dogs. Abu If. p. 247, 
faKhaiifahs. . (H) The TarUb Khoxideh 

(G) Ah? If or aj reprefents gives a lift of them all. 

M 4 that 


16$ The SeJjftks of Iran. B.L I 

that intent the Atabek lldightz (I), and Akfankor, lord of i 
Mar4gha y having revolted, depofed Mohammed, and proclaim- i 
FUetfor ed his uncle Soleymdn Shah, fon of Mohammed I. The young 
/r*r- unexperienced Sol tan was fo frighted at this news, that not i 
knowing whether to fight or accommodate matters, he fled to j 
Jfpihdn, while Soleymdn Shah took peaceable poffeffion of his i 
capital HamadAn, . I 

Soleym&n The new prince might have preferred the crown with as ] 
Sha^i ad much eafe as he obtained it, if he had not been intirely de* i 
n/anced. ftitute of counfel, *uid very unhappy in his conduft. Among J 
other indifcrete attions, he took the employment of the great \ 
chamberlain from Mohammed Karazm Shah (K), and gave it i 
to Alp Argin : he likewise turned out his Wazlr Fakro'daU 
Kq/hi, and put Abtflnejib in his place, Thefe two great <£•< 
fleers, to revenge their difgrace, plotted to reftore Mohan- i 
med: but as that could not be done without depofing Soiey- 
tndn Shdh, and the militia feemed to be attached to. him, 
they contrived a ftratagem, which fucceeded to a wonder. 
Flies in his ^MOHAMMED Karazm Shah tells his fitter, who was I 
turn. the Soltan's wife, as a great fecret, that there was a plot oa 
foot to bring back his nephew, and that her hufband's per<l 
fon was to be feized that very night. The too credulous 
and fearful Saltan, without flaying to enquire the leaft into 
the matter, immediately mounted horfe, with a £ew of his 
intimates ; and took the road to Mazanaerdni a province oa J 
the Cafpian fea. 

Next day every body was ftrangely furprized to hear of ; 
the Soltan's flight. The foldiers immediately mutinied, and 
Moham- running to the palace, plundered it. Mohammed no fooner 
med rt- received advice of his uncle's flight, which was fo like his*' 
turns. own, than he made hafte to Hamaddn> and re-afcended the 
vacant throne. 

SO LEY MAN Shah, perjceiving too late that he had boa 
duped, refolved to attempt the recovery of his dominions, 
by the affiftance of his friends. The Khalifah Moktafi, and 
the Atabek lldightz, jrfned their troops to thofe which he 
Be/eats his gathered in Mazanderdn : but being met by his nephew <* 
uncle. the banks of the river ^4rras, or Araxes, was overthrown, | 
and obliged to rehire to Mufol. Mohammed, after this vic- 
tory, was inclined to have attached the Khalifah, who gave 
protection to his uncle : but confidering that he had another 

enemy, his brother Majek SMh, to fear, he was obliged to 

# • i % . 

(I) Who became afterwards thor, mud be miftaken here? 
• firfl Atabek of Adberbtjdn. for it cannot pt Mphamnud, but 

.IK) D'Bvrbeknm his au- Atsix* 

. i.i •• - -■*, "■- • 

• /. Tr-r r ' . »** 

C. 2. Twelfth Scltin, Soleyman SMh. 16 f< 

malp op matters with Moktafi, who gave him his own daugh- 
ter in marriage. 

This princefs, named Kerman Khattbi, fct forward with zHis death. 
fplendid equipage, and the Soltan went to meet her ; but an . 
hoffic fever which attended him put an end to his life, on . 
the road to Hamadan, in the year 554 (L), after a feven 
years reign, aged no more than thirty-two. 

This Soltan. has always parted for a mod accomplished Uiscba* 
prince, who pofleiTed all the virtues military and civil. &»>£"> 
was a great patron of men of learning, piety and merit : in 
which, fay the hiftorians, he was the very reverie of his bro- 
ther Maiek Shah. 

• It is faid that this prince quitted life with much reluc- > 
lance ; that, before he expired, he ordered his troops, his 
toort, and all his treafures, to pafs before him, as it were 
in review ; and that, after he had considered all thefe things, 
lie faid, How is it poffible that a power as great as. mine it 
mot able to lejfcn the weight of my diforder one Jingle grain f 
wr to prolong my life but for a moment ? • 

He left his dominions to his brother Maiek Shah, who {x>x- and fucctf* 
wed him only a few days, as hath been laid before. He./"**. 
was fucoeeded by his uncle Soleymdn Shah, the other compe- 
titor of Mohammed c . 

SOLEYMAN Sh&b, furnamed Moazo'ddin Kaffem (M) 9 T<welflh 
was the fon of Soltan Mohammed, fon of Maiek Shah I. Soltan, 
This prince being at Mu/ol when his two predeeeflhrs died, l®^ 1 ™ 1 
the great lords, after fome debate among themfelves, fent for 5Mh > 
him, and placed him on the throne. But as he gave himfelf 
op intirely to voluptuoufnefs, and the company of women, 
without minding the affairs of the kingdom, they feized and 
imprifoned him, at the end of fix months ; advancing, in his 
room, his nephew Arflan, in the year 555. Setting afide**«i- 5S5* 
hb bad conduit, for which he was depofed, he did not want P' 
bant good qualities : he was very familiar with thofe about * * ** 
him ; and excelled as to his behaviour, perfon, and eloquence, /, fan 
He died in the fecond month of the year 556, at the age cfdefofed* 
forty-five f . This is all the accounr we have of Soleymdn's 
Mhort reign, and taken from the Lebtarikh ; for D'Herbelot 
lays nothing of it. As for Abfflfaraj, he does not mention 

* Kohd. Tarikh Benak iti, Tarikh Kkozedah, apud De 
Herb. p. 608, & feq. art. Mohammed^fil. de Mohammed. 
'Lebtarikh, p. 45. 

(L) In Dhfflbajjah (which is (Mj The Lebtarikh calls him 
tklaft month), according to the Soltan Moaxodiin Ahulbaretb 
IMtarikb. SoUjmdnSbdb. 


17* &* Sdjiflcs of Iran.* EI. 

the Softfaft of Per/tan frdk, after the death of Mohammed ft. 

when the Khalifah threw off the SeljM yoke, and refumed 

the dominion in Irdk Arabi. 

Thirteenth - ARSLAN was the fon of Tbgrot, 'fdn of MohammeJ, fat 

Soltan, of Mtfe* AMft I. and furnamed AMI Modhaffer Zeyrwddht, \ 

Aiflin, aecording to Kondamlr ; but the Lebtartkh ftiles him Roknod^ 

dawlat. He is commonly called by hiftorians Malek Arflku 

He was proclaimed Sok*n in Hamadan, by the influence of 

the Atabek Mgbiz (N) ? bu t from the beginning of his rrigft* 

Ktmar, governor of IjftaMn, and Enbancj, or //urn/, g o ve rnor 

^^ - of Jfay, revolted agatnft him ; letting up for Soltan one rf 

•J22&.* ^ coufins ' n* 111 ^ Mohammed Selj&k Shah ; with whom, af '" 

the head of a great army, they advanced to Hamadtn. Arflen 

went to meet them as fan as Kazvin, where he got the vic»« 

tory ; for the new Soltan was killed in the battle, and W 

two fupporters fled to Ray, and from thence to MazandtrJn. * 

ARSLAN had no fooner put an end to this war, bat id 

found himfelf engaged in another ; for the prince of the Ak* 

khdz, fituated between Georgia and Cherkaffia, who was f 

ChrifKan, entering AdbcrbijAn, ravaged that province as far 

Defiats as Kazvin. The Soltan, turning his victorious arms on thaf 

the Ab- fide, defeated him near the ftrong caftle of Kak, which he 

khaz. had taken and fortified ; but, being afterwards forced by the 

Selj&k troops, was demolifhed. 

Towards the end of the year 559, SoltJtn Arfl&n mad* 
a progrefs'to IJj>&Mn : the Atabek Zenghi Salgari, who com* 
manded in that city, went out' to meet him, and took the? 1 
oatti of allegiance. The Soltan confirmed him in his govern- 
ment, of which he extended the bounds as far as the province 
of Pars, or Pars. 
Enbancj Enhanej (O), who ftHl flood out in Mazanderan, in 56? 
fubmiti. made alliance with the Karazm Shah, by whom being aiDffaf 
Hcj. c6i~Mrith a great body of troops, he entered Perjian Irak, and" 
-*• D- ravaged the country about Abher and Kazvin : but ArJUti % ' 
,l6 S* accompanied with the Atabek ILSghiz, coming on him bf 
furprize, obliged him to fly to his old retreat. Two years- 
after, the fame rebel, invading the country about Ray, it* 
feated Mohammed, the fon of lldtghiz, who was lent againfr 
• him. Hereupon lldtghiz himfdf marched ; and, bang comer 
to that city, made feveral propofitions to Enbanej, who there* 
upon agreed to go with him, and make bis fubmiflkra to 

(N) Firft Atabek of A&erbi- tin Arpm began his, vie of the 
j$*l where he began to reign Utjtabw. 
the Gune year in which the SoU (O) Or Inartj. 


€.£ TourUMh Solid* Togrel II. x j t 

theSolfcaa: but the- night before chit ceremony wjp to$*He is 
performed, Enbanej was killed io his lodgings. The Soka%/fer'** 
on this news, gave the government of Ray to the ion of lt&~ 
gbaz, who foon after married the only da ug h t e r c£-Enba- . 
^f ; the fruit of which was Kuthk (P), furnamed Enbanej, 
, In 568 the mother of the Soltan, a princefe of great Vxx~The$oIt£* 
\ jQRt djed in the houfe of lldighlz ; and this great man £oU<B&. 
jawed her not long after. The Soltan himfelf, afflidted at 
two fuch great lodes, fell £ck of * laagutthiqg illnefs, Hej. 571. 
jjhich yet held him till the year S 71* when he died ; after A - "• 
ic had lived about forty <hree years, and reigned about fit s X 7S* 

*en(QJ. . ' 

, He was a prince not only valiant and generous, but stfoHhcba- 
jfttSent, and good-natured to fuch a degree, that he wouhl^^rv 
pot fuffer any-body to be fpoken ill of in his pretence g ; nor 
'ever treated any of his docneftics with feverity or cpntempc • ' 
jhaag eminent for nyxkfty and clemency. He never denied 
pay-thing to a man of good addrefs and parts. He was very v , 
lice iirhia diet and apparel ; for he bad very rich veils, of 
avery kind and colour, wrought with gold, fuch as no king 
before him ever wore* His conversation was familiar, ana 
! pfeftly finccre \ l 

TOGROL, fon of Soltan Arjlan, called alfo Rohno'ddm Fourteenth 
Kajfem (R), was the laft Soltan of the Seljuk dynafty of Iran % j*l*«"* 
m rather Per/ion Irak, which ended in him. He fucceeded, Togrol 
,|0d governed his dominions happily enough, under the di- 
Jeftkm of his maternal uncle the valiant Mohammed (&), fon 

At the beginning of his reign Badanjar attacked the pro- 
fince of Adherbijdn ; and Mohammed, fon of Soltan Togrol eba 
' that of P erf tan Irak : but Mohammed ebn lldigbiz, 

s Koitd. ap. D'Herb. p. 129, art. Arflan ben Thogrul, 
*Lebtar. p. 45. 

(P) He is .called Kiligb, in (R) He is named, in the Let* 

pHerbeUt, p. 836. wh<>, p. 277, fariib, Sol tin Mogajathoddin 

fit Cot inn, gives him the fur- Togrol. 

ftmcof FakrSddin. (S) Abfflfaraj calJs him the 

WL) According to the Nig- Pahiavan Mohammed ebn Ildegar* 

htmfian, fifteen years eight and fays he was lord of Al Je- 

awntks and fifteen days. The Ml, or Kuhejldn, part ofPerfian 

Idtanhh of Golnun has but de- 7r«i ; of Jb^, lfpdhdn,Adherhij*n* 

?co years ; yet places the be- zxidArrdn, which laft is part of 

pining and end of hh reign 4s . Armenia. Jlbu If. p. zj 2, & feq. 

mil* text. 


tjz The Seljftks if Iran.* B.L 

•with hW brother Kizil Arjl&ti (T),» marching againft them 
at the head <?f a great army, foon obliged them to foe for 
peace, x 

qrandcon- mZ In the tenth year of his reign diere was one of thofe great 
junaion. conjunclions of the feven planets, which very rarely happen* 
Hej. 581; it appeared in the third degree of libra ; which, according 
A. D. ^ t £ e j-ujgg f judicial aftrology, is a very Airy fign. All the 
11 5 m aftrologers of that time, and among \hc reft Anv&ri, fav 
named Jfaktm, or the philofofher, foretold, from this pharao- \ 
menon* that fuch violent winds wonld blow the foremen-, 
tioned year, and fuch dreadful hurricanes arife, that moft </ 
,the houfes in the country would be blowa down, and the'* 
mountains themfelves fhaken. Thefe predictions had fndr 
, an effect on many people, that they provided places under*" 
ground, to retreat from fuch horrible calamities. ■ 

Vanity of Notwitstanding all this, to the utter confufion of. 
qftrtkg. the aftrologers, there did not blow, during the whole tin* 
afligned by them, any wind to hinder the farmers frog' 
threftiing and winnowing their corn* 1 . Yet the Lebtarikbi 
as if to iave the credit of thefe pretenders to foreknowleg^ : 
would pcrfuade us, againft the teftimony of other hiftorian^ 1 
that they from thence prognofticated the great devaftations- 
which attended the irruption of the Moguls under JengUi^ 
Kh&n, into the countries of Tifrdn and Irak k , twenty-nine or 
thirty years after : for although he began his conquefh it 1 
the eaft of Tartary about that time, viz. in 599, yet he; 
did not move weftward, to fubdue provinces, till the year 
614, or that following. Why then might not the ph&no* 1 
menon in queftion have related rather to the fall of the Sd+ 
j6k monarchy of Irak ? Was it too fmall an event for fy 
great a congrefs of the heavenly bodies ? Or could the aftro»] 
logers fee the more diftant evil, but not that near at hand? 
The lords In the fame year 581, the AttbtkMobammtd, (on of JZI» 
son/fire ; ghiz, dying, a breach began between the -Soltan and KitST 
Arjlan Atabek (U), brother of the deceafed ; for this ambi»* 
tious lord, taking upon him to difpofe of all things without; 
Togror* orders, gave great umbrage, both to that prince^ 
and his whole court. The Atabek, perceiving the Soltan to,, 
be difpleafed with him, to prevent the confequence, marchci 1 

1 D'Hbrb. p. 1028, art. Thogrul ben Arflan. * Lcbtar. 

p. 45. 

(T) Ox KzeUrJlan, that is, (U) Third Atabek of AB*r* 
the red lion. ■ He is called elfe- bijdn, 1 

where Kilij or KeUj Jrfdn^ and * 

&kd Ki%il Arfidtu 


C.2. Fourteenth Soltan, Togrol II. 173 

;cf a fudden with a great army towards Hamddto, . from 
)gba£tTogrol 9 having no forces to oppofe him, retired.. Ai- 
zil Arflan entered the city without^ refinance; and, after he 
'bad continued there for fome time, content with having given 
jhis-infult to the Soltan, withdrew home to Adkerbij&n. 
\\ A*ter his return, Togrol re-entered hi9 capital; but taRfiixe the 
ufabek did not let him remain long in quiet : for drawing &/?«* ; 
Kraal difconteiued lords of Ir&k to his party, he perfuaded 
tjjiem to fend proper perfons to let the Soltan know that they : 

'"were ready to come and afk his pardon/ if he would .have 
'{he goodnefs to grant it them*. Togrol z well pleafed with 
koejr fubmiffion, appointed a day- to receive it f when he was 
Jto play at mall in the great fquare of the city. The lords 
j$/d not fail to appear there before . him ; but, inftead of aflc- 
Jug pardon, feized his fc perfon, and 4mprifoned him in the 
^fcong caftle named XaUt alNaju, or the cqftle of refuge. 
' As foon as thisJcheme was executed, Kizil Arflan left Ad- divide bis 
yon, apd caipe to Hamadan, with defign to tei Sanjar 9 demnions. 
of the late Soleyman Shah, on the throne. But, on re- 
ceiving advice from Baghdad that the Khalifah ihould fay, the 
Jfabek bad a good pretence to become- Soltan himfelf, he re- 
hired to afliune that .tide, and ordered money to be coined 
^his own name. This proceeding, changed the face of af r 
j&s: for Fakriddm K&tluk (X), his nephew, and feveral 
ddtor great lords, who thought themfclves his. equals,' enter* 
|ng into a cdnfpiracy, flew him, and divided Togrol's domir 
f&ons among them. . 

', At this juncture the Soltan efcaped from his confinement. He reco- 
the intrigues -of Hojfamo'ddin, general of his troops ; w* them 
g whom there were many attached to his intereft. As 
as he was at liberty, he raifed an army; and defeating 
rebels, punifhed them as they deferved. 
Yet did not this put an end to their treafons ; for, in 588,Kutl(ik 
%b % widow of the Atabek Mohammed, fon of IldightzS'bels : 
lived in the Jfaram, among the Sol tan's, women, was A - **• 
iled on by her fon Kutluk Enbanej to poifon the. Soltan, 1 l 9 2 ' 
that prince having notice thereof, prevented the blow, by 
' g her take the dofe which, {he had prepared for him* 
this, he ordered Kutluk to be feiei; and would have 
trcd his own life, if he had riot reftored him to his li- 
y; which was the caufe of all the evils that afterwards 

, "• [X) Surnamcd Eubanej, be- Atabek of Adherlijan 9 twenty 
fte mentioned. He was £fth years after. 

• la 

pined by tu flwrtj this ungrateful wretch was no fdriher refeafetf 
Taltafh:cmt of prifori, than hefcftt to perfuttfe 7khz^, fflthfcmg 
of Karazm, to conquer Perfian JtMi Takafb came; and, 
joining his forces, went and took the caffie of ThttBrA (TJrt 
but, after remaining for feme time about Rtty, retired an iHtf 
Soltys approach, leaving Ta/ir; to take care of his ftew eofh-* 
quefts (Z). But next year 7*grof recovered aB, and ~ " 
Tafaj, "whom be t6ok prifoner. 
loth d$- In 590 Afr&ul, a&ing in concert wj* TiAqft 
feated. -with a powerful army into Perfian /Wtt; but bring 
Hej. S9°-by 75*™/, was obliged to fly into Katazt* to his afSftancfe 
A. D. The-ftdAn, after this, thinking he was delivered from dl 
ll 93- his enemies, abandoned hirhfelfto women* and wine, wj& 
/ boumflefsexdefs. And though he was told, ih^t Takt/b^ti 

raifmg a formidable army to invade his dominions, yet to 
toxtcated with his {needs and delights, he continued to ft 
bauehes, and neghrflcd affairs to fnch a degree, that tfre 
grandees of the court wrote themfdves to Takajb, to nutt 
hafte, affuring him that he might eaflly furprize Togrotin A 
midft of his revels. '■ 

Togrol * 'Tetkafb, followingtheir advice, made fuch expedition, dtt 
/«»• he arrived at the gates of Ray, while the Sohan was ftffl bu- 
ried in Kquor. However, he put himfelf at the head of Ui 
troops, and marched towards the enemy, repeating certtii 
verfe* out of the Sh&h Nameh (A), fpoken by feme warrkij 
fcoaftinycf what he would do : but raffing his mace, as if to* 
; was going to ftrike, in conformity to the words he had 
flounced, he difcharged fuch a blow on one of the fore 
of Ms horfe, that the beaft* fell under him, and he was thi 
hhnfetf by the fall. Ktthk, feeing him on the ground, i) 
mediately ran, and, with one blow of his fcymhar, put 
end to his life, and the power of the Sefj&ks in Ir&k l 
Malice 9J TAKASH, not content with thedownfal of this prince^ 
Takalh, whofe dominions he joined to his own, fent his head to tfo 1 
Khalifeh at BagbdAd, and had his body faftened to a gil" u ~ 
at Ray *. It is furprizing, that neither of thefe two 

• * D'Hehb. obi fupr. p. 1029, & feq. * Lebtar. p!4f 

Di La Gfeoix hift. de Genghis, p. 131. j 

(Y) Talrat,<x Tabor at, near containing the 'hiftoiy of d* 

Hay. antient kings of Perfi*. Itawp 

(Z) This affair, is fomewbat Ms of 60,000 diftichs; whi«M 

differently related elfewhere. ' the author,- Fordufi, was thirtH 

8ee &Heri.-j>. 834, in.TacaJb. years in compofing, at the cmm 

(A) That is, the royal book : mand of Mabm'd Gaxni, oftcftj 

it is a famous Perfian poem, mentioned before. * 

£-«. Fourteenth Stlti*, Tggp>l II. i 75 

circumftances, which are related by. the Ltfcari kh^ are 

by JXHerbelot, in eiiher'the article oiTogralbtfi 

*, or 7tfki/&, wherein the death of that prince is fpokep 

and yet, if we miftake not, he takes notice of then* iji 

other place : on which occaiion he obferves, that {epae 

Ptrfian hiftorians afcribe the ruin of the Karaxmian revenged 

not many years after, by Jenghiz Kk&n, tinder Sot fion after* 

'Mohammed, fon and fucceflbr of Takttfh, as a judgment 

that family, for their ingratitude to the Se{jdkians, to 

they owed all their fortune. 
xording to Kondamir, Solrin Togrol reigned eighteen 
ten months and a half n . The LebtarUthhM twenty- 
years, by miftake for nineteen ; as appears by collating 
^year of his death with that of his predeceflbr, marked by 
lame author. What children he left (B) does not apt* 

prince had a great many noble qualities ; for he vmCharaBcr 
; only remarkable for his courage, which made them comre/*Tho- 

him to Rqftam and Isfandiar (C), but alfo for his witgrul; 
i knowlege. He excelled fo much in poetry, that fome 
him to Anvari and Dhahir °. He often difputed 
[the learned ; had a majeftic mien ; and was very hand- 
He furpafled all the Seljukians in goodnefs and juftice, 
as in managing his arms both on foot and on horfe- 

HE ScljukiAns of Irak were, for the general, a race of Of the 
accompliihed princes, eminent for their good-nature, So/tans 
liberality, juitice, and other virtues, both civil *&&** g***ra!. 
They owed their ruin chiefly to their too great 
y, and indulgence to their favourites; particularly in 
governors with fo much dignity and power, as the 
razm Shahs and Atabefcs, by whom their own was at length 

js we have completed the hiftory of theiirft and prin- Defers *f 
I Seljukian dynafty, compiled aimoft wholly from the ori* Greek 
1 hiftorians : on which occaflon it may be proper to ob- 
that, of the fourteen Soltans whereof this monarch; 

1 D'HtitB. ait. Selgiukioun. 
yd. * Lebtar. p. 45. 

(B) We only find an account 
4f fM fen, who, on the irrup- 
tion of the Mogoh into Karaxm, 
ktae year 1220, was put to 
detth, with eleven other chil- 
&«• of fovereign princes, by 

Ibid. p. 1028, art.Tho* 

the bloody Turkan Kbatun, wi- 
dow of Takafi, who had fo on-* 
worthily treated his father. De 
la Croix fcift.< Gengh p. 242. 

(C) Two Perftan heroes of 


; i7$ " Tbe SeljAks <?/ Into. . El 

confifts, none but the two firft are s mentioned (under theoop 
rupt names of Tangrolipix and Axdn) by any of the Byzqi 
l tine hiftorians, excepting Anna Comftena, who fpeaks of A 
two next, Mtf.W flttiA and Barkiarok, but names only tfc 
latter ; after which they pafs to the Seljttkian princes, wh 

* fettled in Afta minor \ feeming to confound the two dynaftifl 
together. ~ J 

mud other ATT ON, or Hayion, the Armenian, whofe memoirs,! 

hiftorians /conjun&ion with thofe of the Greeks, the other European ' 
ftorians have hitherto made ufe of, does much the fame 
He" gives fome account of the four firft Soltans ; after 
he fays, the Turks cut to pieces the brother of Barkiarok, 
attempted to afcend the throne ; and then falling out 
themfelves about the choice- of a fucceflbr, the Georgian, 
Greater Armenians invaded, t and drove them out of, P* 
That hereupon they removed, with their families* into 
kingdom oxTurky [meaning Jkoniuni] ; and thus in 
the power of the Soltan, fo that he became the moft 

• of all the Soltans *. 
to what This falfe information, or defefl: in' the before-mentii 
caufes authors, is doubtlefs owing to the grants made by 

Sh&h I. of the countries weft of Perjian Irak ; which 
becoming in a manner independent, under their own 
the Greeks heard no more of the great Soltan, as they 
him, of Perfia, or of his commanding in Afia minor ; 
therefore concluded the empire of the. eaftern SeljAks 
an end. It moft likewife be confidered, that, by this 
tion of the provinces, the intercourfe with Perfia was 
interrupted ; which might be one reafon why Hayton, i 
living in the very midft between thofe two 'monarchies of 
Turks, appears to be fo utterly ignorant of the affairs 
Perfia, from the time of Barkiarok, to that of . Jntgi 
to hi To this caufe may be added his want of reading, 

mfcrihtd. being of a different language, as well as religion, from 
Turks ; which might have hindered him- from con 
with his neighbours, or confulting their hiftories. It is 
Abu'lfaraj, as having, had the advantage of the Arabic, 
more erudition than his countryman Hay ton, carries d< 
the Irak dynafty through a iWeflion of eight Soltans 
but after Irak Arabi comes to be fevered from the Seljuk do*] 
minions, by the Khalifah Moktafi, on the death of 

* Haith. de Tart cap. xv. p. 378, & feq. ap. Grynxi, 

orb dm. 

vC$> &§ SelJAks c/Kermki. ' ifj 

I pa? II. in the year 554; as if that dHbcmbermfent tad cat 
"«fftll carrefpondence Math i***^*, he fpeaks no more of the 
*jboa*ding Soltys of the Selj&k race. 

;, C H A P. III. 

, The Stltans of the ftcond branchy or dynajly, of 
F the Seljukians, called that of Kerman. 

*EKMAN, the country from whence this race of Sol- £ermiii 
tins takes its denomination, is a province of Iran, or monarchy* 
Perfia at large, the lame with ancient Karamaniai 
k'has on the weft Pdrs, or proper Perfia ; on the north Se- 
ftki, or Siftdn ; on the eaft Mekrdn, arid on the fouth the 
of Harmuz or Orm&s. The principal city is called 
tor, or Sirjan, fituate near the borders of Pars. Be- 
which, we meet with feveral others, as Tubefan, Gab* 
Barsir, at Berdasir, Maftih, or Mafrih, Bemnasir, or 
sin, Bam, Giroft, or Sirefi, ijc. To which may be 
the ports of Jaftes, Mina, and Gomrttn, or Bandet 
; with the iflands of Harmuz and Kejhom, which lie 
fthe fomhern part of it, at prefent called Mogqfdn. 
This dynafty takes the name of Kerman, becaufe it was fa extent 
~inded in that province : but the power of its princes was 
confined within the bounds of that fingle country f for " 
y enlarged their dominions not only by the acquifition of 
firs, on the weft, but of the countries eaftward, as far as 
r river Send, or Indus a ; comprizing, as it fhould feem, the 
vince of Mekran, or Makran, with part of Sajejtdn, and 
iefian, and pofEbly fo much of India as lay between thofe 
ivinces and the Indus. 
All the oriental hiftorians agree, that this dynafty com- „„</ j^^ 
meed in the year 433 of the Hefrah, and ended in 583, tion. 
bfifting 1 50 years, under eleven Soltans, viz. 1 . Kaderd. 
Saltan ShAh. 3. Turan Shah. 4. IrAn Shah. 5. Arjl&n 
4h. 6. Mohammed. 7. Togrol Shdh. 8. Arjlan ShahU. 
: Babar&m Shah. 1 o. Turin Shah II. 1 1 . Mohammed Shah. 
F^rtiom, from the fcantinefs of the extrafts given by D'Her- 
fcf, who is our only afliftant as to the hiftory of this 
fooch of the Seljukians, it appears that the orientals them- 
fcbes have fpoken very little. 

Kaderd, or Katfherd, the firft, and founder of this race offirfl SoU 
Soltans, who, from him, are, by way of diftinftion, called tan, Ka- 
» Kowo.ap. D'Herb. p. 801, art. Selgiukian Kermin. 

Mop. Hist, Vox- IV. N Kaderdkns, 

• Ml 

178 We Seljtiks of Kerm&w B 

Kaderdians, was the fon of Dawd, or /<gfir ifeA, £bta of M< 
A. D. **#, fon of Selj&L In the year 433, his uncle Togral Bet, 
1041. founder of the dynafty of Iran, made him governor of the 
province of Kermdn, the Perfian Karamania of the Greeks, 
where he became fo powerful, that he aflumed the authority 
of a fovereign prince, And added to his new dominion the 
' province of F&rs, or Pars (A), adjoining to it on the weft* 
A.D. g that, in the year 455, he had formed a coniiderable ftet^ 
1063. ^j t h w hich he might have been fatisfied; but the defire of 
pOflefling more, which generally increafes with many acqni- 
Hii amhi- fitiqns, having pufhed him on to attack the dominions of his 
tion fatal, nephew Malek Shdh I. third Soltan of the Scljuks of Iran, 
A.D. he was defeated at Gurj, in the year 465 ; and, being take^ 
1072. prifoner, was confined in a caflle in Khorafdn ; where, not long, 
after, he was poifoned, by order of Malek Shdh b , as hatfc 
been already related c . This prince reigned- thirty-two yeary, 
and left for his fucceflbr a fon named Saltan Shah. ' [ 

Scan J Malek Shdh, on the death of his uncle Kaderd, reflored hit* 

Soltan, dominions to his coufin-german Soltdn Shdh, fon of Kaderd^ 
Soitan who reigned there under his authority. But he enjoyed the£ 
Shah. throne no more than two years, according to Kondai7i:r 9 who. 
A. D. places his death in 467 ; although the Tarikh Khozideh gives* 
1074. him a reign of twelve years, which ends in 477 d . 
third TURAN Shdh ebn Kaderd fucceeded his brother Soltam* 

Soltdn, Shah, under the authority likewife of Malek Shdh. Hexeign^i 
Turan e d with the reputation of a very juft and wife prince, apply-! 
Shan. j n g himfelf folely to repair the ruins made in his dominion*. 
A.D. by the former wars. He died in the year 489, after he had'. 
lc yS' reigned thirteen years ; and left for his fucceflbr his fon, 
Fourth : IRAN Shdh, who had not the good qualities of his fa- 
Soltdn, ther : befides, his cruelty was fo great, that his fubjefts, &£ 
Iran Shah, longer able to endure it, in general confpired againft and flew' 
A. D. him, in the year 494, and fifth of his reign. He was. fuc- 
1 100. ceeded by Arfldn Shdh, fon of Kermdn Shdh ebn Kaderd e . 
Fifth Sol- ARSLAN Shdh, during the life of his uncle' Iran Sbah> 
tan, Ar- kept himfelf concealed in a fhoemaker's (hop, for fear of 
flan Shah, falling into his hands : but as foon as he heard of his death, 
he made himfelf known, and was proclaimed Soltan the fame 
year, by the unanimous confent of the grandees of the king- 
dom. So that the Seljukians of Pars, his relations, who had 

b Kond. ap. D'Herb. p. 225, &feq. * P. 119. 

* D'Herb. p. 826, art. Solthan Schah. *Ibid. p. 498, art. 

Iran Shah. 

(A) The Arafo write Fan, the ferftem Part* 
7 gfrea 

<*. $ Tit Selj&ks */ Kerm&n; i 7 § 

{pro much traeaiinefs to his predeceffors, durft not attack 
him. By this means he reigned in peace for forty-two years, 
and left the crdwn to his fon Mohammed f . 

Ifakammedy furnamed Mogdyatho <£##*, fucceeded his father $**tb SoU 
Jrfldn Shah, in the year 536 ; and, the better to fecure him-'*** Mo- 
tif in the throne,* put out the eyes of all his brothers. All Jammed. 
;tfaat Kondamir relates of hhn is, that he was much addicted £ S3^ % ' 
to judicial aftrology, and was very fond of building. He f * 
irigned ^fourteen years, and died in the 551ft year of the ad! 
Erjraht. feobe call this prince Turin Shah \ , /-£* 

TOGROL Shah, furnamed Mohio'ddin (B), fucceeded his wi* 
hither Mohammed, and died after reigning twelve years. Hadoltan, 
|fcft three fons, Arjltoi Shdb, Bohardm Sbdh, and Tar an Skuh, Togrol ' 
|iAo made war on each other for twenty years together, withShih. 
Mtematc advantages; fo that he Who gained a viftory was*H* 1^3*" 
w±nowlcged for Soltan, till fuch time as he was driven out P" 
[if one of his two brothers ». Thefe fucceeded one anotherj l 7* 
te fet forth in the lift of Soltdns, ^t the beginning of this, 
adapter : but tUe duration of their reigns is fo uncertain, that 
[authors have marked only that of Turin Sh&b, to ^hich they 
fright yfears. 

He was fucceeded by hi$ nephew Mohammed Shah, foh oi£l*ventb 
i Us brother Bahardm, or Hehcrhn ,Shdh, who was the eleventh ^h*** 
■and hft Soltan of this fecond branch of Seljuklans • for Mdlek M ^ h *£? 
kJHwr, a defcendaht of A!i, fon-in-lawof the prophet AiV modSh * h * 
wmmed, having conquered Kerman in the yeir 583, this dy-Hej. 58 j« 
|l*fty, according fo Kondamir, and thtTarikh Khor.ideh, be- A. D. 
jbune extinft. But the reigns of the. four laft Soltans are Il8 7». 
confounded one with the other,, that the Tankh al Taiva- 
reckons no mote than nine princes in this Ktrm&n fuc- 
fttffion \ 

* Konij. ap. D'Herb. p. 130, art. Arflin Sch£h t fil. Ac Ker- 
fin Schah*. • « Ibid. p. '609, art. Mohammed, fils d A/din 

[fchab. h D'Herb. p. 800. ' Kond. ubi fupr. pi 

)0;o, art. Thogral Schah. k Ibid. p. 54b, & 800, art. Ma- 

[kk Dinar, & Selgiukian Kerman. 

I . " 

I (B) That is, the rgflvrfr of religion* 

K 4 CHAP. 

i8q 21*Seljuk*</RAm, B.h 


Hijhry of the third dynafty of the. Seljukians, 
called that of Rum. 


Weir domhtms, conqueft, efrablijbment, and fuc- 

toetwmi- t I \ HIS dynafty of the Selj&kians takes its name of Rim 

nation tf I* from. their having; reigned in the country o£ Rioi^ 

Rujpi. . •» * that is, of the Romans v or rather of the. Greekt^ 

. whbfe emperors, being the, fucceflbrs of the Roman emperor^ 

' preferved the title of emperors of; the Romans, although thgj 

ted changed the feat of their empire from Rorpe to Conflati^ 

t\no$>U\ and consequently were more properly or tmm^fajf^ 

fovereigns of the Creeks ; who befides y at this time, of the-Wfe; 

nations were only fubjeft to them ; Italy, and the weAaqu 

provinces) having been, torn off. from their dominions many' 

ages before* • • 

Extent of. It. is not to be prefumed, from, the deoaminataoa . whklk 

dqtmm*., this dynafty or race of Sol tans bears, that they were lords on 

all the then Roman empire, or country of the Romans. No* ,: 

that, was a glory referved, for the Othmin or. Ozmdn Turhq 

who rofe out pf the ruins, of thefe SeljAkians-; and fuoceedc$} 

them firft in their dominions, which were confined for the ge^v 

neral to Afia minor, or rather a part of it, during. the reigp^ 

of all the Soltans of the Seljdk race, excepting two or thieQy 

of them, who extended their conquefts beyond its bounds* 

to the eaft and fouth, which yet continued as part of the J 

Rumean monarchy, but little longer than their refpe&hfct 


Arabs, The Arabs, who were the great reigning power before* 

their de* the Turks, had wrefted from the Reman emperors all thdfr* 

rf«r . dominions in Africa and Afia, excepting Afia minor ; the eaft- 

era parts of which, towards the Euphrates, had been in their 

hands for the fpace of more than 1 50 years : but, for fome 

time before the appearance of the SeljAkians, the emperor* 

had recovered from them moft of the cities they were po£» 

felled of within that province, befides fome part of the Greater 

Armenia ; which, however, they foon loft again ; being taken 

from them by thofe new invaders. 


£V € Tbdr c €onq«efi snd Settlement. fffi 

ASIA Minor, Called more commonly by" the latter Gfeeks Afia mi- 
jfi*fe& (A), that is, the raft, isa large peaiAfuia in the weft-nof. 
§ an part of Afia. It is bounded on the north by the Euxine &*****• 
fea tn&Propontis, -on the weft by the Archipelago, on the 
fcath by the .flfofe crranean fea and Syria, on the eaft by 
the country of the Lazi or JEvrft, and the river Euphrates. 
It is fituatecL between the 36th and 43d degrees of lati- 
tude, and between the 44th and 56th degrees of longitude, 
reckoning from Ferro ; being in length, from weft to eaft, 
about 640 miles, and in breadth, from fouth to north, 360 

At the time when the SelfM Turks firft invaded Afia mi- Province 
tor, it was divided much in the fame manner as iki former 
fines, into twelve large provinces : all thefe, excepting four, 
Ire maritime ; and, beginning with the moft eaftern, lie found 
.fie peninfula in the following order : Pontus, Paphlagonia^ 
, and Bithynia, along the Euxiru fea : Myfia, in which^is Edits ; 
jbma and Caria are waftied by the Archipelago : Lycia (con- 
*imBg MyliaJ, Pifidia (including PatriphiliaJ, and Cilicia, 
ty the Mediterranean. The four inland provinces are Lydia, ' 
Phrygia (containing Lytaortia and Ifauria) ; Cappadocia (in- 
dttdiag Armenia minor and Cataonia) ; ix&Galatia : the three 
fcftrun eaftward, in the fame parallel, from Ionia to the ri- 
fer Euphrates ; and the fourth lies to the north of Phrygia 
tifed pert of Cappadocia. 

From the account which has been given, the reader may their fitw* 
firm an idea of the manner in which the provinces are fitu-'flfwr, 
tted, in refpeft of one another : but, to make it ftill more 
tifcar, it may be proper to obferve, that Cappadocia, which 
fittends from Phrygia, eaftward, to the Euphrates, lies be> 
Uteen Pontus on the north, and CiHcia, with part of Syria, 
4b the fouth ; Calatia has on the north Paphlagonia and Hi- 
tfynia ; Phrygia, which is the middle province of all, and 
iftofe north-weft corner is covered by a (kirt of Bythinia, 19 
founded on the weft by Myfia, Lydia, and Caria ; and on the 
fifth by Lycia, Pifidia, and part of Cilicia. 

Of thefe provinces, Pontus, Phrygia, and Cappadocia, zxtandme^ 
\fttj large ; Paphlagonia, Bithynia, Myfia, Pifidia, Cilicia, and«'*k 
f. ftrirfia, of a middle foe ; Lydia, Caria, and Lycia, ftill lefs ; 
| JK hnia leaft of all. It is not neceflary to give a defcrip- 
I Ahrf thefe provinces, according to the ftate they then were 
[ h; for that will appear fufficiently from the hiftory of the 
I fiAftns, wherein we ftiall have frequent occafion to (peak of 
\ fie principal cities and places iu eaqh % 

(A) AnA corruptly, by the Turb awl others, Natolia. 

N$ Thers 

18^ neStf}ii\p+ofR&ml frl 

Seljuldan There is fcarce any piece of hiftory among Europeans in 
kift or J \ greater confufion than this of the Scljukian Saltans of Rum\ 
or any which defer ves more to be fet in a dear light, -09 
Recount of the great conne&ion which there is between the 
affairs of thofe Soltans, and thofe of the latter Roman or Greek 
emperors, as well as the Othman Turks, their fucceflbrs, rein- 
ing at prefent. This is owing to the imperfe&ion of the Greet 
account of their affairs, full of chafms and errors ; from 
whence alone Leunclavius, KtvmUs, ^nd all other wetter* 
liters hitherto, have compiled thqr hiftories of this dynafry. . 
fts bad It may be prefumed, that the defe&s of the Greek author? 

fiate, might be fupplied, and their errors . oorrefted, from the ori- 
ental, efpeciaily thofe of Rum, or the countries fubjeft to 
this thirdl branch of the Seljukians, if any of them yet remain. 
But the misfortune is, that very few particular hiftories of 
the eaftern monarchies have as yet come to our hands; am(. 
fewer ftill of the general ones been tranflated. 
Want of % With relpeft to thefe latter, no traoflation has been pub- 
b'lfh liftied which treats of the Solmis of this dynafty, excepting- 
that of the compendium of Abulfaraj, who fpeaks only or 
the firft eleven, and mentions no more than the names of 1 
fome of them. For this author, digdfying his materials by. 
way of annals, gjves no complete or connected account of any* 
of them. However, fo much as we find in him has been of great 
ufe to us, in compiling our hiftory of this third branch of 
the Seljukims ; nor could we poffibly have cleared up the, 
chief difficulties, and fettled fome of the molt important fa#s/ : 
without his aififtance. 
frimtri' As to the extracts from the oriental authors which D*Her- 
fmtel au-' M t furnifhed, they are very inconfiderable ; for though i» 
*fa r f* the artie'es, under the names of the refpe&ive Soltans, h^ 
cites Kondamir, ebn Skonab, and other Perjian hiftorians, and" 
has given a table of thofe princes, from one or more of them ; 
yet the account he gives of the firft Soltan is copied alxnoftt 
wholly from Ahilfaraj : as if the other authors had inferted* 
nothing relating to them, but their names ; which, in fnc^« : 
cafe, he ought to have acquainted his readers with, in order 
to account tor fo ftra ^e an imperfeftiqn, spd prevent thek 
imputing it to his own ne^lefh 
Greek The Byzantine hiftorians afford no fmall fund of mate* 

WW rials : but then they relate aimoft intirely to fuch princes as 
they hai wars or other tranfaftions with; and extend very* * 
little beyond thofe affairs, i n vhich thenifelves were concern* 
ed : fo that you nekher flu,d in them a regular feries of th$ 
Soltans, nor often the true names, if the names at all, even 

C. <T Tieir Conquefi and Settlement. 183 

of thofc with whom they had to do. . In fhort, they have their dt. 
related matters very iiriperfecUy, often erroneoufly, and m/*3s. 
great confufion, both in point of hiftory and chronology ; 
nor have the orientals been free from the fame faults, which 
W fhail point oat as we go along. However, as fcanty as 
our memoirs are on every fide, yet the authors pften fupply 
the defects of one another : and if, from the oriental writers, 
! we have received a more complete fucceflion of the Soltans, 
and better account of their tranfa&ions of the eaft, yet we 
flionld be at almoft an entire lofs for their conquefts in the 
Weft, but for the Greek hiftorians. 

It has been already remarked fronl thofe writers, in theKotol* 
reign of Togrol Bek, firft Soltan of the Seljukian dynafty of nxi ^ '*■ 
Iran, that the Turks penetrated very early into the Roman™^* 
empire. They tell us, that Tagrolipix (B), fo they call 7i- 
\ffol Bek f having (lain Pi/ares, or Bafa/iri, and fubdued the' 
i Babylonians, that is, the people of IrAk Arabi, named alfo 
Babeliy font his nephew Kutlu Mofes (C) againft the Ara* 
\Hans ; but, being defeated, he fled intoitaw, or Baafprakan, 
faPerfarmenia, and, forcing his paflage through the country, 
returned into Perfia ; where, for fear of the Solt-n, who was 
• enraged at his bad fuccefs, he retired to the city of Pafar, 
tad rebelled againft him, while he was in an expedition againft 
the Arabs. 

TAG RQLIP IX paving finiflied that war, marched againft /&*Romaa 
Kutlu Mufes ; and while he held him befieged in Pafar, fent «»/"*. 
part of his army, under the command of AJfan, or Hajfan y fur- 
uamed the deaf, another of his nephews, to fubdue Perfar- ♦ 
menia ; but he mifcarrying in that defign, the Soltin dif- 
Jttehed his half-brother Abraham Alitn, or Halim, with a 
.great force,, on the fame expedition, which fucceeded better 
Aan the former : for Abraham burned Artze, or Arzerum, 
ftpd took the Roman general prifoner. Tagrolipix generoufly 
gnre the general his liberty ; and, fome time after, fent aij 
ambaflador to fummon the emperor Monomakhus to become 
iis tributary* The emperor, for this infult, treating theatpr 
Tfcflador ill, the Soltan invaded Iberia, at a time when the 
Mmans were at war with the Patzlnaka Scytlftdiis, which hap? 
pened in the year of Chriji 1050, 

1 Not long after, difcord arifing between the Soltan zn&Rebtk 
Abraham Alim, the latter fled to Kutlu Mufes, and joined in againft 
\ the rebellion : but the Soltan defeated them both near Pafar 1 °gr°l 
[ bpfore-meationed ; and Abraham being taken prifoner, was ^ek. 

\B) Or Tangrolipixy as fome. write : Bryennius, more correttly * 
1 IC) Or fCtttlu Mufti* as &me Kutlumct, for Kutl*m/Jh. 

N4 pup 

1 84 MSfeijftlut/IGta. EL 

put to death. Kutbi Mufes, -with Ms coufin Makk, fcooi 

Abraham, followed by 6000 men, fled to the borders of 

Roman empire, from whence he fent for protection to 

nomakhus, * little before his death, which happened in 105. 

but inftead of waiting for an anfwer, he marched into P< 

menia, and took Kdrfe, now Kirs ; when hearing that 

grolipix was advancing towards him, he fled to the An 

who were the Soltln's enemies. 

Cmqutfts Here KutluMufes remained during the life ofTagrvfyix 

and death, but as foon as Axon, fo the Greeks call Alp Arflan (D), " 

• afcended the throne, he returned from Arabia with 

rabl? forces ; and advancing to Re (£), laid claim to the : 

vereignty.* But while the two armies were on the point 

engaging, the Khalifah Qf Babylon (F) of a fudden a[ 

and, interpofing his authority, which he ftili retained in 

rituals, brought the contending parties to this agreement 

that the Soltan ftiould hold Perfia\ and that KutluMufes, 

his children, who were five in number, though not parti 

larly named, fliould poflefs all the countries which they 

able to take from the Roman emperor; and that Axon ' 

aflift them with troops for that purpofe. 

according The Soltan having, in performance of this agreement,' 

to the furni(hed Kutlu Mufes with forces, that prince, add his fhtf 

Greeks. ( onSf invaded the Roman empire ; and, in the reign of Jfr 

chael Ducas and his fucceflbr, made himfelf maftex of aHPtrfi 

artnenia, Lycaonia, Cappadocia, and Bithynia 

According to Cedrenus and Zonaras, who have been foti 
- lowed by all the weftern hiftorians, Kutlu Mufes lived at ka$ 
fixteen ye^rs after that battle ; for they fay that he aftuaHf 
commanded a body of troops which came to. the affiflancq 
of Botaniates, when he ufurped the empire * in the 

fbeirer- This account, given by the Creeks, of the conquefc 
torprwed, made in Afia minor by the Seljuhtan 7iirks, under the com* 

% Cbdren. Zonar. & univ. hift. vol. xvii. p. 134, & feq. 

(P> Jtftowlet boldly denies account of the four firft Soltfss 

Axan and Jfpafalcm, or Ap Ar~ to be falfe. 
Jlan, to be the fame (|) ; which (E) That it Rey, or Ray, tko 

is more than Le*nda<uius y whofc northern capital of Perfian Irak. 
plagiary he is, would venture to (F) Thus the Greek writers 

do i though relying too much confound Babylon, which was 

on the authority qfCedrenus, he on the Euphrates, v/ithBagbdH 

looked on Hayton the Armenians which is on the Tigris* 

(1) jpHwktU tip. •ftbt < Turks, i f 9. edit. Jtica*b 


.4* their :QtmU9jt*0d$4ttlmnt. *g 5 

of KwtiuMtrfes f it muft be confeflfed, contains -feveral 

; which having remarked elfewhere b , we (hall notre- 

here. It will be fuffideot for our f urpofe to take no- 

in thb place, that thofe wrkers were miiinfonned as 

thfr event of that battle; which, according to the oriental 

was fought in the year of the Hejrah 455, and He). 455. 
fatal to Kvth Mufes, who was lulled by a fall from A. D. 
horie, as he was going to engage Alp Arjldn, againft whom io ^ 2 - 
rebelled, in the province of Damagdn c , mPerfia. 
Now this bong fuppofed to be feft (and the authority of f mm g**i 
:oriaas ought to be allowed, when ipeaking of an affair **^ 0r '<f« 

concerned themfelves, and happened in their own 
mtry), all which the before-mentioned Greek authors re* 
concerning the anions of Kutlu Mufes after that; battle, 
be faMe: and this feems, in good meafure, confirmed 
Nkepborus Bryennius, a more correft hiftorian than the 
, who relates, that the emperor Michael fent an amha£» 
jfeo Soleyman, ion of Kutuhnes (G), in the year 1074, 
_ his affiftance againft Bot*niates d i which implies that 
father was then dead. And this may explain what he 
afterwards ; that, in 1078, the lame ufurperyfea? to ae- 
Juccawrs of Mafur (H) and Soleymdn, yS«i <?f Kutulmes, 
of Nice °, that is, late grince of Nice. 
The Angle remark touching the death of Kotctmtfb is zHEnquirf 
L! - u has been yet tranfmitted to us from the eaftern writers into 

ig that prince (I), corruptly called Kutlu Mufes by 
Greeks ; excepting another, which feems to be taken from 
made by a late author, who informs us, that he efta- 
himfdf in Afia minor, about the year of the Hejrah 
(of Chrifi 1050) f ; which is not at all improbable; 
according to Cedrenus, the Greeks became acquainted 
ith the Turks about the year 1040 ; and ten years was time 
fident for making coniiderable conqueils in that country. ' 

However that be, the Greek hiftory feems to clafh again '£*/*«* 
ith the oriental in this article : for if Kotohntjh had fettled w ^ 
fm&tf in Afia minor fo early as the year' of Chrifi 1050, 

* See before, p. 108. • See before, p. 107. * Ni- 

Hfs. Bkyen. in Mich. Ducam, c 15. * Id. in Botaniac 

1. f De la Croix hift. Genghis Can. p. 127. 

(G) Which it nearer the-true 
toe Ksttlmi/b, than Kutlu Mu- 

(H) A miftake, we prefume, 
[fr )kfit, ox rather Mafud, 

(I) D'Herbelot has given ui 
no article under his name, in 
his bibliotheque orientalt; and 
Abulfaraj only mentions him 
and hi& ion 

ion SoJtyme*. 


lt6 tfk Seljftks of Rum; 

how can it be imagined that he fliould repair two or 
years after to the borders of the Roman empire, firing 
protection, as the Greeks relate the cafe? for thi* fuj 
him either to have been driven out of his new pofleffions 
that country, almoft as foon as he acquired' them, 
we hear nothing of from either quarter ; or elfe that he 
not as yet made any conquefts there, which is contrary to < 
authority of the eaftern hiftorians. 
Kotol- It would be in vain to pretend to folve the above 

wStibfit* ties, till we are fufficiently furntfhed with memoirs from 
*W eaftern writers, relating to Kotohnifb. In the mean time it i 

be obferved, in behalf of the account given by De la Croii 
which we only fuppofe to have been taken from fome one 
author or authors, that there is an error in the Greek reiatu 
which feems to leflen its authority. For the application ma 
by that Se'jukian prince to Monomachus> is faid to have b* 
Biade after the battle againft Togrol Bek f wherein Ibrahin 
his coufm, and partner in the rebellion, was taken 
ftrangled. Now this could not poflihly be the cafe ; 
that battle, by the testimony of the oriental writers, 
fought in the year 1059, which was five years after that 1 
perbr s death : and if the Byzantine hiftorians have miftak 
in one circumftance, they might in another ; efpecially wfa 
it relates to an event which happened at fo great a 
from the capital of the empire. 
firAfii On a preemption therefore that Kotobmfb had eftabliil 

junor, himfelf in Afia minor about the year 1050, he will have 
kind of dominion in that country for the fpace of thirte 
years. However, it is not this prince, but his fon Soleymk 
who was the firft of the Seljukian Sol tans of Rum : nor < 
it appear that Soleyman., who did not begin his reign till 
years after his father's death, - derived any tide to thofe 
ritories from him. 

But before we enter upon the hiftory of that prince and I 
defcencknts, it will be proper to fettle the number of them^ 
with the beginnings and lengths of their* refpe&ive reigns \ 
about which there is no {mall difagreement, as well betwe 
the oriental authors and the Grecian^ as among the oriental] 
authors themfeives. 
8oItsns In order to do this the more effe&ually, and to the fatif^J 

'4f Ruin, faction of our readers, we lhall infert two tables, or lifts, \ 
of the Soltdns of the Rum dynafty : the firft according to the* ! 
Per/tan authors, as communicated by D'fferbebt, with our'j 
remarks thereon ; the fecond as rectified by the afliftance o^- 
other orient;*! authors, compared with the Greeks. 

' Soltans, 

$. 4! Their Conquefi and Settlement 



Reign began 




##, ^.Z>. 


i*. SoUymin r . * - » 

480 1087 


If. Dawd, or JK/jy Jr/Idn. * 

500 1106 


Y .frMajJtd ..... 



^. #i# ^>y7J« II. - 




.•f. Rokno'ddin Soleyman • 
*L Jzza'Mn Kilij Jrflan 

Ly. Gayatho ddin Kay. Kbofraw »• 

588 119s 


600 * 1203 " 


601 1204 


-J. Azzodlin Kayka-ws * 

6fl>9 1212 


$. Ala* ddin Kayhobad . 

610 1213 


p. Gayatho ddin Kay Kbofraw II. 

634 1236 




0. Aiy Khofraw - 

664 1265 


3. GayatMddiri Maffad * 

682 1283 


4. Kaykobdd . ? 

687 1288 

P3 • 

Slain ? - r r 

700 1 300 


[■• This table U taken from D'Ifer&eht, who, In his article *whc*c* 
. the Sdjmhian dynafty, has given a lift of the SoMns, with taint. 
1 length of their reigns ; and we h&ve added the years in 
1 they afceaded the throne, from the particular articles 
I in his bibliotbequey under their refpeftive names. 
\ figures within hooks, refulting from the other numbers; ' 
ire been inferted by us, to fill up the vacancies ; that oirf 
' rs may better judge of its real imperfections. 
Those which occur upon the- face of the table are two Its impet* 

material ones, Firft, the fum of the years which all the fe3w* 
aces reigned amounts only to 189, being 31 ftiort of the 
a of tfcp dynafty (reckoning from its commencement 
» 480, tp m conclufion. in 700), which makes ' 220 years. 
1 fecond apparent defeft h in the interval between the fe- 
J and fifth Soltan : for, as that interval appears to be 88 
rs, and the yw* of the reigns of the three Soltans with-^ f ort * % 
\ that period make but 47, which fall 43 ftiort ; either thofe 
muft have been confiderably longer than they are re- 
fented by the table, or elfe there muft be an omiiTion be- 
Daviji and RoknodMn of one or two princes, whofe 

8* as are neceflary to fill up the vacancy. Befides thefe great 
sfts, you find that the number of years reigned do not 
alwsys taHy with the years when the reign began : thus Rqkh* 
I <?J&n> the fifth Splt&n, 1$ made tp' reign 24 years ; yet the 
*£fian& betwixt the beginning of his reign and that of his 
fboceflbr f$ b,u 22 years. By the fame rule Gayatl>oddtn % 
faj feventh, ought to ^v$,8 yeajp to h$ feign iaftead of 6 K 


i9B ' 'Sfc'Saljttn of^bm. 

while Alajd&n, the 'ninth, has 2 m^e. given Eim than 
to his (hare. 
Difagree- In effeft, D'Herbdot aeknowleges there is a gre*t <3 
***/ ence between Kondamir, whom he feems to follow, and 
imongtbe author of the MghiariJlAn f as -to the length of tie 

though he only mentions two instances, which regard die 
cond and fourth Soltans ; -the NigbiarjftAn allowing the 
but four years to his reign, and giving 20 to the " 
which widens the gap, taken notice of above, between 
fecpnd and fifth Sotetn, by four years. 

With regard to thischafm, as it is evident, from * 
has been faid, that there is fome defect in the numbers, 
D'Herbeht gives us room to believe there may be a Soil 
wanting to complete the lift : for this author farther infoc 
us, that Kondamir and the Nigbiariftfa differ alfo in the 
fucceffion, and number, of die Soltans. 
oriental As to the number (which is the -article of the three 
bi/torians prefent moft to our purpofe), he fays, that the Nigbiar^ 
makes thefe Soltans the 14th and 15th, whom Konim 
reckons the 13th and 14th *, as in the table. Hence ft* 
pears, that, according to tne firft author, there were fiftt 
Soltans in the dynafty ofX£m y or jSfia miner. 

D'HERBELOT, indeed, has not told us either the 
of the additional Sokan, nor his rank in the fucceffion ; tat 
with regard to the latter, where is his reign more likely if 
come in, than in the interval or chafm before-mentioned 
Nay, that author feems to point out the very place; 
though in the table he reckons Mafftid the third Soltin, 
the article of Majjud, he makes him the fourth (K). 
fairly Now this being fuppofed, we have found out a Soltio 

0at$d. fupply the place of the third;" which, by his fetting " ,J 
a defcent lower, becomes vacant. And there is die more 
to believe that there ought to be more Soltans than 
within the interval in queftion ; becaufo, ^ccordiflg to 

a DUsrb. ubi fop* \ 

(K) Accordingly, JlaodSn, Me, is only the fcrenth in W 

who in the table is the ninth, in article under his name. Bot|| 

the article of CaikoUd is faid muft he obferrod, &&%&&* 

to be the tenth. It is true, he is btht not only made ttfe of •**' 

not uniform in this refped ; for thors who difagreed qn thisUkj 

Gayatboddtn, the feventh in the je&, bat alfo that \ji\MW+\ 

table, is made the fifth or fixth tbeyue is very incorre^ ; ke art 

in the article : in like manner living either to fit the work fa 

Keytaws, th* eighth in the U- the j> rets* or xp feje it printed. 

iB 9 

Their Gonqucft and SettUmm. 

fcgnnftififinj that interval is larger by twelve years than what 

petaregpiog table makes it. 

As to the difagreement which D*Herbeht fays there is 

the oriental hiftorians, with refpect to the names of 

Saltans of R4m f he has furfcilhed us with no inftance 

but wcihall mention fome hereafter, particularly ia 

ihiftory of Azzo'ddtn, oar twelfth Soltan; and perhaps 

authors pot his- name m the fucceffion inAead of Rokn- 

i% as we ourfelvee haye done. 

thefe remarks on the foregoing table, the reader ftesReafin* 
; grounds for the alterations which are made in that which/or tb* 
; the particular proofs in fupport of which will be 
sd, as- we go along, ill the hiftory of the Soltans. It 
r,be fufecieut to intimate here, that, as the chafm before* 
has been fuppljed from certain occasional remarks 
fjos by the Byzantine hiftorians and Abfflfaraj ; fo, in fet« 
;tte chronology, we have been chiefly obliged to the lait 
*r> who has inferted in his, annals the deaths of three or 
the- Soltans : which ferve as ( fo many fixed points to 
;» in-pur enquiries, and juftify our diifenting from the: 
ity of other oriental writers* 


SoUymdn, - 

^— Death - - * 

-Dawd, or Kilij ArfUn 

Say/an - 


Kilij ArJl&nVL. - 
:Gayatho*dd?n Kay Khofraw 

Rokno'ddin Soleym&n 

KtfArJMnllL - 

Kay Khqfraw reftored - 

Azzoddm Kaykawt 

Alaoddm Kaykobad 
i Gayathtfdam Kdy Khqfraw II, 

Azztfddm - - - 
» Kay Khofraw 
Interregnum - 

Gayatbo'Mn Mafffd - 
; Kaykobad - 

Slain - - - 

Reign h 


Yeats Second 

Hej. . 



' 4<*7 1 



- 478 1 



. 496 1 



500 1 

1 106 






- 588 1 





600 1 



601 i 



- 608 i 



• 616 1 



<*34 1 



» 64a 1 



• 664 : 

126 j 


- <»3 1 


• 687 1 


. *3 

700 1 



igo ¥be Seljuks 0/„R6rri. 

Vtfeffs of The dates of the rfeigns; which are inferted only I 
Greek ing to the years of Chr\ft> are computed the beft we cob 
mutton horn the little light given by the Byzantine hiftorians, 
feldom mark the time of a&ions ; which is an almoft in 
cufable fault, as 1 it gives great perplefcity to a compiler, 
makes it very difficult to conrieft the hiftory of the Cr 
with that of other nations. 

- It has been already obferved, thaf no compiete feries < 
Soltans, or continued account of their tranfa&ions, mu 
kfs the dates of diem, is to be gathered from thofe writ 
LeunclavitiSy milled by Cedrehus and Zonaras, makes 
dynafties of Solt&ns : one at Nice, which lafted only du 
fermdous the reigns of kuthi Mufes and his fon Soleym&n Sh&h, as i 
u bijtory. call him : the other, at koniwn, which commences 
Alaoddxn i whom he makes to be the fon of one Ka% Kq 
but of a different family from that of Kuthi Mifes, m 
newly come out of Perfia, from whence he was expelled 1 
the tartars h . And th6* the defeft of the Soltans, ~ 
Soleymdn and Alao'ddtn, may be Supplied in fome 
from other Greek hiftorians, who had tetter Opportunities < 
being acquainted with affairs than the two above-mentic 
yet, with regard to the Soltans who fuccecded Alao t ddxn y j 
\ meet with fcarce any thing befides their diftorted names, 
cording to the corrupt cuftom of the Grecians. What lie 
there is of hiftory is very erroneous, and delivered in 
confufion. - 

SECf. ft 

Reign of Soltan- Soleyman; 

firft &'- 1I7H ATE VER conqnefts Kotolmijh made in Lejfer J 
tan Soley- ** or whatever pover and authority he exercifed tl 
man during his life ; yet. the Pcrjian hiftorians, who make his 

Soleyman the founder of this Seljiikian dynafty, are fo 
from deriving any right of pofftflion to him from his fatfo 
that they fpeak as if the Turks had no dominions in j 
minor for him to reign over, till they Were Conquered by 
uncle. Hamdallah alMeft&fi, author of the-7*rJt Kbozl 
founds the fays, that Malek SbM 9 third Soltan of the Seljtikians of /rJ*i 
Monarchy, (of Perfia at large}, on advice that the Greek emperor (A) 
was dead, fent Soleym&n, fon of Kotobnijb, to make war oil j 

* LeuncL. hid. Mufulm. Turc. p. 78, & feq, 
(A) This inuft be the emperor Diogenes, who died in 1071. 


. 4» Firft StUart* Sofeymam 151 

: Gfttis.iti Jfia minor ; and that this prince, having made 

[ there, fettled hitnfelf entirely in the year 480- * Kon- Hej. 480*- 
more particularly informs us, that Malek Sh&h gave to A. D. 
coufin SoleymAn the. country of Rum, or what he had 1087. 
1 from the Greek emperor, extending from the Euphrates 
at way into Jfia minor, of which part Jrzerum was the 

It is not faid when this conqueft or grant was made j but Conqueft of 
ay be prefumed to have been done three or four years Kum j 
his acceiBon to throne, when he began to carry his arms 
irard of that river : and we meet with a paflage, taken 
the fame hiftorian, which helps to countenance this 

namely, that in the year 467, Malek Shah fent his Hej. 467.' 
l Scleymdn into Syria, with an army fufficient to reduce A D. 
province; and that, in a Ihort time, *ie fubdued the I0 74- 
" i country as far as Antiokh % It is true, Syria is the 
atry faid in this paflage to be conquered, and not Afia 
but that might have happened. through a miftake in. 
or his translator D'Herbelot, both of whom are. 
fubjeft to fuch failings : and there is the more reafon : 
eve fo j becaufe, firft, we find Soleym&n in that very 
467, or oiChrift 1074, adhially at the head of the Set- 
\ forces about Nice, when Botaniates the Roman emperor 
: to him for fuccours (*). Secondly, It appears from two^heu 
' oriental authors, of equal credit with Kondamir, and, *»*<&• 
-opinion, more accuracy, that the' conqueft of Syria 
\ not undertaken till the year following, viz. 468, when Hej. 468. 
sis, or Atkfis,yi2& fent by the fame Soltan to conquer that A. D. 
ovince ; and accordingly did conquer it, and fettled there d . 1075. 
r do the fame authors fpeak of Soleymdns entering Syria to 
ke any conqueft, till about the year 477, when he took Jn- 
i> from the Romans or Greeks ; which was the only city he 
poflefled in Syria, and which he did not long hold, as 
I be related hereafter. 

From hence we think it highly probable, that the begin- Firft yea* 
of Soleym&n's reign ought to be placed much earlier^ 
1 the year 480 of the Hejrah ; altho' D'Hcrbdot affirms 
t all the oriential hiftorians unanimoufly agree to fix it to 
year, excepting one, who puts it three years higher c . 

if** D'Herbel. p. 822. art. Soli man ben Coutoulmifch. 
okd. ap. D'Herb. p. 542, art. Malek. Schah. c Kond. 

ifupra. (*) See lower down. d Vid. Ebn Amid. 

f3$o. AbulV p. 237. alfo before, p. 119. c D'Herb. 

*Soi. art. Selgiukian. 


i£g lfrSdjftks of RArrt. &| 

But whether the firft be the true commencement of the < 

nafty or not, we may venture to affirm, that the iatttri 

be erroneous, becauter we have proof that Sofymtn' 

478, which was two years' before : and, indeed, frofflp { 

difagreement which &Herbekt confefles there- is amosgJi 

hit reigK. oriental authors, concerning the number a&d'retgos of f 

food. Soltans, as well as from hjs giving little or no account, ( 

thetn, of the aftions of either So/eymin or feveral of his! 

ceflbrs, it appears, that the hiftorians he made ufe of (\ 

feem to be chiefly, if not foldy the Perfian, excepting , 

faraj), had, in their hands, very few memoirs relating 1 

Seljukian princes of Mm, atleaft the firft of them; 

might have happened thro' the diftance of place and < 

of affairs during thofe times. 

Settled by However that be, on a funpofition that SbleymAn] 

grant, his reign in the year 467, it will be a- farther conf~ 

that he derived nothing in fuceeffion from his father, 

that cafe, died nine years before (and twenty-two, 

to the account which puts the commencement of the dy 

in 480) ; whence it may be prefumed, that whatever 

tbries Kotolmijb might have been poflefled of in Afi&\ 

not fuc- at his death, whether by ufurpation, or grant from 

€effi6n. bek, they fell into the hands of his nephew Alp 

againft whom he had rebelled ; nor did his {on* Sokymfa 

joy any part of them during the life of that Soltan, 

cording to the oriental hiftorians, who affirm, that 

countries which he* poflefled wfcre conqnereiTrom thfe R* 

and given to him by Malek Sh&h, who fucceeded Alp 

in the year of the He/rah 4 64, and of Cbrift 1072. 

Early pro- The Greek writers are not acquainted with this grai 

frefs the Soltan who made it: but the bed of them agree 

well with the account of this conqueft, and the comm 

ment of the reign of Soleym&n, as delivered by the orii 

authors whom we follow : for they tell us, that, foon 

the death of the emperor Romanus Diogenes, the 

broke into the territories of the empire. Michael D\ 

A, D. ^is fucceflbr, being .alarmed at this irruption, fent aj 

1072. them Jfaac Comnenus ; who, after gaining a few advant 
was defeated, and taken prifoner on the frontiers of 

Hej. 466. docia, not far. from Cafarea. His brother Alexis, on his 
A. D. turn, having pafled the river Sangarius, was attacked b 

1073. party of Turks, who had already made incuriions thro* 
thynia as far as Nice. 

if the Another army was foon difpatched againft them m 

Turks, the command of John Ducas, the emperor's uncle, and 

but, while he ftrove to reduce Urfel, who had revolted, 

*""* * tn&k tke opportunity to purfue their cbnqu%fts." tfc 
"was afterwards taken by Utfet; and both of them 
tXrtuk (C) (who then commanded thf Turkifb forces) at 
,near the abovc-ftientioned river* About the fame time 
rtatoy c*m« from Petfia under Tutak, who ravaged the *• 

about Am&fia. To him Hr^/, after being difmifled 
M*vA, applied for aififbnce* but Tufai betrayed him, for 
of money, to Alexis Cofnnenus, who had been ' apv 
1 general m AJia. la his return, Altxis was attacked 
• ffcraUes in B'tthynm by a party of Turks, but efcaped 
rfais courage and addrefs. About the feme time Ifaac Com* . 
us, newly made governor of AntiM b 'was flain in an en^ 
it with ap*rty of Turks, tohkh had made an irrapi 
i into Syria f . : 

>*After tins, Several peribns afpirmg. to the empire, MickaefSoleymisi 
' an ambaflador to SoleyrhAh, fon of Kutuhnes (or Kotd* a Jfift* 
I), defiring his aififtance againft Nkeptoms Botanmtts; n 
al of the armies of the eaft, who had revolted ; and *7 
j joined by Kbryfojhdes, a Turkijh commander, who id *°?4' 
jragn of Diogenes had taken part with the Romans, had 
from Pbrygia into Bitbynia, with a defign to get 
tM?*. Sokymkn, being gained by the emperor, fdzedNicepho- 
tfae paflages, and watched the motions of Bctaniates t™ s Bota- 
> having but three hundred followers, took the by-roads, niatcs * 
travelled by night to avoid the Turks, and reach that 
before they knew of his march : but they, getting in* 
nee of it, fent a party of horfe to harrafs his men* 
however, he repulfed ; but, fearing to be furronnded, 
: Kkryfojkules, who for a fmall fain, of money prevailed _ .. \ 
them to withdraw, and leave the way to Nice open* 
her came near to that city, to his great furprize hft 
\ a numerous army drawn up in order before the fub- 
uthofti he took to be* enemies j bxa y to his greater fbr- 
he found they had proclaimed him emperor *. 
It appears from this paflage,' that SofeytnAn was in AJta 
in the year 1074, which we ftippofe to be the. firft of 
t rrign ; and the abrupt manner, in which Nieepfarus, Bry» 
> here fpeaks of him for the firft time, gives room to 
that he had been in the country. foWome coniider- 
tlmfc btefore, which farther (upports our hypothefisi 
I ^Wit follows, from the feme author, feems to confirm it-ftill 

L r Niceph. Brim, in Mich. Due am, caf>. 1—8. * Idem 

flta. cap. i 5 . 

\ • • {€) luTvrkifi, OrtoL 

t' Mod. Hist, Vc4. IV. O moti* 

194 ffbt Scljtikt cf Riim. B.1 

Phrygia more. Botamates, being in pofleffion of the empire, nifia 

emd Gala- forces to oppofe Nkcphorus Bryennius, who afpired to tfc 

tia . throne ; and having demanded fuccour of Ma/ur(D) and S$ 

leym&n, fons of Kut hones, prince of Nice in Bithymoy the 

A* D. fent him 2000 men, and promifed more. Bat after he ' 

,0 7*« by the conduft of Alexis Cemneniis, who* fncceeded i 

quaflied the rebellions of Bryennius and Bafilacws, he 

likewife that of Nicephorus MeiiJJenus to fupprefs. This I 

during the two former rebellions vcl Europe, fetting np k 

emperor, had gotten together fome TurHJb troops ixl J} 

minor, with which he overran the country ; putting all d 

given hj towns whkh he took into the hands of the 'Turks. By 

Melifle- means, in a little time, they became mailers of all Pkryg 

mis. and Calatia : in fhort, he reduced Nice in Bithynia, 

Aruck terror through the empire*. And thus, probably, 

famous city came to be poffeflcd by Soleym&n (E), who afte 

wards made it the feat of his new empire. 

BOTANIATES, greatly alarmed at thefe foccefle 

fent an army againft the enemy under the command < 

John, an eunuch, who went and encamped near Fort BaJ 

leum, about forty ftadia from Nice; and marching along 

. lake (F) came to Fort St. George, and took it. It was the 

debated if they fliould befiege that city, or go to Doryleum (( 

and fight the Soltan (H). The former being refolved 01 

th6y fat down before it ; but hearing of the Soltan's approac 

to relieve the place, the eunuch retired for fear, while ' 

Turks purfued and harrafled them extremely K 

•fnrkifti We are informed by the princefs Anna Comnena {I), 

fojjejfions. when Botaniates obtained the empire, the Turks were 

of the countries between the Euxine fea and the Hellefton 
bdtween the Egean fea and fea of Syria, and bet w een tl 

.- ■* Nic. Ba yin* Nic. Botau. 4 Idem ib. cap. 1—4, & 51 

. (D) Rdther Mafitt ; as the This would have helped 
Creeks write Masud, or Majfud. clear up fome doubtful point 

(B) This muft have hap- But fuch perplexing omil 

pened between the years 1074 frequently occur in the Bjxm 

and 10781 perhaps in 1076. tine Jiiftorians, who too oftt 

-. (F) Doubtlefs the lake of attend more to the perfe&KXH 

Nice. their ftile than their hiftor 

. \G) The regal. feat of Soley- However, from what follow 

'wan teems, from this circum- the Soltan here meant muft ' 

(lance, to have l?een at Dory Soleymdn. 
leum. (1) She was daughter of d 

(H) The author fliould have emperor Alexis (who fucceed 

told us who the Soltan was, Botamates^ and wrote his lifci 
whether Sohymdn or Katolnijb. 
: : .. z 7 gul 

£.£ Ffrfi^oUan^ Soleyrrisfo. 195 

giilrs *hkh are along the coafts of PamphiUa and <3//ri* . As 
£5 bid gained the empire by help of the Turks, fo he 
iSeA their aid to overcome Nicephorus Bryennhis, who afyired 
to the throne k . But thofe adventurers, who were ready to 
•Jrin with any party to ferve their own turns, afterwards af- 
Jtfled his competitors Mdejfenus and Alexis to (dethrone him* 
jtt length he refigned the crown to Alexis, in 1081. Dur- 
pig thefe difputes, the Turks made ufe of their opportunity, 
[took Cyztcum, and ravaged the country of Anatolia '. 
j.* At the time when Alexis afcended the throne, as above- Nice tit, 
Mentioned, Soleym&n,*vtho commanded in Anatolia, had fixed royal fear. 
lb feat at -Aft* m Bithyma 7 and daily made inroads with his * 
murks as fkr as the Bofphorus, then called Damalis (K); but A '**- 
mkxis, by ordering armed barks to fcour the coaft, obliged to8,# * 
Mbm foon to abandon it. Purfuing his advantage by land, 
Be -retook Bofphorus, Thynia, and Bithynia ; whereupon the 
[Saltan fucd for £eace ; which was granted the Turks, on con- 
that they kept 6n the banks of the river Draco, without 
fwer paffing the borders of Bithynia *V 

But while Alexis was engaged in war with Robert and 
|i* fori BoemonS in Ulyrium, Apelkaffem (L), governor of ^ 
tSte in the abfehce of Soleymdn, ravaged the eaft, with the 
totfftof Ptopontis, andthefea. 

The occafipn of Soleyman's leaving Nice was this : one Soleymfai 
r etus, an' Armenian, wher for his courage and condu&'f*" An- 
been made grand domeftrc by Diogenes, was fo touched 410 ' 6 * 1 * . 
at his maH^r's hard fete, that he refolved to be revenged ; 

*, in order thereto; feiied Antiokh; but not being able to 
in quiet- for the continual inroads of the Turks, he em- 
Ifraced Mohamme&fin. He had a fon, who, becaufe he could 
tot divert him from his deiign, rode in eight days to Nice, 
Jftd perfuaded Amir Soleymdn (M) to come and take Antiokh. 
Zieymbi, leaving Apelkaffem to govern in his abfence, fet 
Jpward, and rn twelve nights, which he chofe to march io 
% prevent difcovery, arrived at- that city, and took it by af- 
W; at the lame rime that Karajtice reduced- Sinope, where . 
.ktoastold there were great riches* 1 . 

1 : The precife time of this event is hot to be collected from.anJisflaiit* 
Ike Greek hifloriaxr; altho y Nve*know it muft have happened 

* AnUi Comnena in Alex; l~i^c. 5. ••'' Ibid. 1. 2. 

C a. 5, & *.. J. ■ ffi Ibid. 1, 3. c. 7. . * Ibid. I. 6. c. 7. 

(K) Or S&utari. * Sokan, which is equivalent to 

(L) Perhaps a corruption of King; fomctimes Amir* which 

JUlXaJjem* \ fignifics only a fimple com* 

(M) Sometimes he is called mander or general of troops. 

O z between 

U$ . fbi Scljftks cf hm; ».ia 

fretweea the years 1081 and 1084 : for we are informed by 

£4n zfo«</, an oriental hiftorian, that Ant iokb was in tig 

fcands of StUymfa* {on of KotolmiJb r in the year of d* 

J3ej. 477. #«/r<iA 477. This is mentioned by that author, 00 occafa* 

A. D. of the death of Sborfo'ddawlot cbn forays, 'lord df ifajjk 

S084. ^d yi/a/o/, who advancing with troops to take Jntiokh from 

Soltymatiy was jfouted in battle and flain°. We are ohlijfce£ 

to the tame hirarian far the exa& tupe of SoIeymM's deadk 

which happened in tfae year following, for Saltan 7o;^ ( 

dawlat (lord of Ddmsjbus), hearing of tiharfo'dbnolafi 

Hcj. 478. qaiifortuac, marched with his forces, accompanied by Qrtik 

A « £• Turkman, to attack Soleymdn prince of Atdiokh^ who 

* (ought feveral battles with them under the walls of £fatyt 

iukattk. jq the laft of which, he was Qain r and his forces rajtfedP. fc 

This event is confirmed by the Greek hiftoaait Amf^ 

Conmena, tho* {he differs fomewhat in the jp&aqer of bfc 

, death. She feys, that 7i*/tt£ (fo the Greeks cajl ttttq/k, &i» 

named Tajoddawlat) 7 brother of the great Sokan ^M), wk| 

poflefled Mefopotamia, with the cities of Jtrufidem^ Itaktk 

fnd B4gl>ddd{0), J>aviog a great defire to he m*Jft$r of ^h* 

t^4 f advanced with his forces againft SoleymAa; who bant 

and fiu4iog he could not rally his ttQQpv Fepctql 

himlelf: but the officers of the other party conijqg.tQ tot 
him, that bis uncle Tutuft feat for him, W ieiriog 10 trai 
hipielf in his hands, to ayoid being fonflrainertj drew Jiq 
iword and ran himfelf through. Hereupon his foidiers, whfl 
bad efcaped from the battle, joined the army-o£ 7kiU$% 
ffece you have the death of S$leymAn cfrcnpifeqtfally *fi) 
tefted by two cotemporary hiftorians, one ^si^yUtic w . «j 
Time 9/ his SQLEYMAN, dying in the year above?mention^d % 
duub Ebn Amid, will have eleven years to his reign. But d% 
time of his death* as well as that which we have afTumedlof 
the commencement of his reign, is contradicted by other hi*} 
torians both eaftarn and weffern. B*Herbeht allures ps y tblft 
Kondamlr, and almoft all the oriental hiftorians (at kal| 
whom he had confulted), agree to place the death of this 
Soltan in the year 500 of the Hejrab, or 1 106 of Cbriji\ , 
. which b twenty-one or twenty-two years later ; and give 

him a reign of twenty years, in coofequence of fixing the be* 

* Ebn Amid. hift. Saracen, p. 35a. * Ibid- p. 355^ i 

* Ak». Commen. in Alex. 1. 6. c 7. r D'Hpa*. p. (tea* 

art. Solimin ben Coutolmifch & p. 801. art. Selgiukian. 

fN) He was the brother of (O)vA miftafce perhaps for | 
l/laiek Skab* third Soltan of Damojkus. 



ganiafrti it'iir 480. This is a wide difference, 4nd th* 
more irreconcilable^ as Kondamtr begins his reign two years 
tfbr his death, as related by £*« ^b»V; and if we follovrw/^ 
the computation of HamdJlah al Meftifiy who puts ther'/*-"'i 
emmencsment in 477 of the Hejrah f that date will indeed- A.D. 
abode with the years of SoUymdrfs life, but will afford* i°*V 
tt* only about one year of reign, if we fix his death ac** 
cording to Ebn Amid; tho' it extends the lame' to twenty 
dree by the fyftem of the other oriental writers. - la 
Hart,, Cedremu, Zonaras, and other weftern historians, con* 
firm the fupputation of Kondamr y &c. agabft Ebn Amd % 
fcy fpeaking of SoleymAn (P) as making conquefb, and fight* 
lag battles, many years after the year 108$ *. The Jrm* 
Mem Chranicon, in particular, recites the words of a letter 
imt by Sokyman in the year 1098 to the Saltan oi Kherafdn* 
,H> defire Juccours againji the Franks, who had taken from Mm* 
Kk add Romania 5 meaning the country of Mum, or AfiA 

But nocwithifcmdri^ the majority isagainft us in this point,^'' *>/*^ 
Jtt we have very good reafon to fafpeft their authority in/«& 
prour of Ebn Amid xad Anna Gmnena, if it be only confidered 
4at the hiftorians whom LPRerbekt confulted, feem tr> have- 
ham racy little acquainted with the affairs of the Sefukians 
<f Mm, for the reafons before offered ; and that all which' 
he has produced from them, relating to the death in queftkm, 
M a naked date, without any concurrent tircumftaiices xatofixii* 
fitpport it ; whereas Ebn Amid, and Anna Comnma, not only, 
idate the manner of Soieymdn's death, but that event is con- 
mfted with foreign tranfa&lons ; which is the ftrbngeff 
«oof that the date of it, given by the former of them, muft 
fcexac"h As to the other Greek hjftorians, after what hat' 
Ik& fiu4, it is enough to fey, that they could not have fo ' 
gpod sm opportunity of being rightly informed about; fadr* 
as.a prktcei* of the imperial family. 



QOIEYMAN, according to Kondamtr, and the&ther Per- Vfurfathn 
**j*n Kftorians confuted by D'fferbekt, left for f\itct(fbrbfgo'ver* 
Htfclimd far Da.vid) farn*med KStjArJIM (Q^), who »«. 

* See univ. hiftf. vol. xvii. p. 149, & feq. 
*» (QJThatirt 

tht lion* 

j tended 

# - P) They, fall hw SoUman (QJ That i* t)ie finrd ^ 

Wjfc ■ . tht lion* " v ** 

1^3 The Seljuks of RAm.' %X 

fcended the throne in the ^ear 500, immediatdyiafi«r h» fa- 
ther's deceafe £ . But it appears, from the hifiory.of Asm 
Cwnnena, that the fudden and violent death of Soleym&n wa$ 
attended with an interregnum, or ufurpation of the gover- 
nors in the dominions of Rihn; and that KUizmfihm. (a* 
. /the Greeks corruptly name KUij (R) Arjl&n), was in Pctjl* 
till about the year 1093, when he returned to Nice; wh& 
will make a vacancy in the throne of nine years, 
i As -there has been* nothing tranfinitted to us from the eafl* 
relating to the affairs of the Selj&kuuv in R&m, from the death 
of Soleymdn to the death of this warlike Soltan, excepting his 
laft expedition, in which he died, our fole recourfe muft be ta 
the Creek hiftorians, particularly the princefs before-meo* 
tioned ; who has given a pretty full account of the proceed* 
ings of the Turks againft ths Roman empire during th*t pc*. 
Apolkaf- -When the news of Amir Soleytnlns death reached the 
fern fiizesezrs of his governors in AJia minor, they divided his term 
£ty*4 tories among themfelves. Apelkaffem by this means became 
• lord of Nice, famous for the palace of the Soltins. He had. 
before given Cappadocia to his brother Pulkas ; but, beinft. 
naturally active, he thought it unbecoming the dignity j 
Soltan to fit idle, and made incuriions into Bithyrda as far aa 
the Propontis. The emperor, finding he could not to, 
brought to a treaty, fent a powerful army, under the com* 
9 Jnand of Taticius, to befiege Nice, which encamped at %> 
place twelve ftades diftant. j 

The night following a peafant brought advice, that Pr*\ 
fUt, fent by a new Soltan called Barkiarok, approached at tha* 
head of 50,000 men. Taticius, not able to cope with fach. 
a force, retired towards Nikomedia. Apelkaffem purfued and, 
attacked him at Prenejle ; but the French, who were in thu 
army, headed by Taticius, couching their lances with their-" 
ufual alertnefs, fell on them lite lightning, and, defeating 
them, gave Taticius leifure to retire. 
ftfits the APELKASSEM, with a defign to conquer theiflanch^ 
emperor, built flups, intending to, take the <fcy ' pf Qcio (S), feated c*> 
the fea fide s but the emperor fent and burnt them in the. 1 
harbour. At the fame time Taticius fell on the Turks *xAty% M 
kas, called alfo CypariJJium ; ?qd after ikirmUhing with them 1 
. |or fifteen days, at length routed thcm v The emperor on. i 

_* See D'Herb. ubi fupra. , 

(R) This word may be pro* (S) Or Ciurn, in the bay of | 
fcoonced Kilfc or fitlj* JEf//, Qt Mot^iarmifcriteA ifettanta,* , 
Kief. port of Nice • 

:. ■ . - 1, this 


this wrote an obliging letter to Apelkajfem, deflring Mm to 
defift from his fruitless attempts, and invited him to come tot 
CpiftanUnople. That prince, underftanding that Profit* had 
taken many lefler towns, and intended to beiiege Nice, ac- 
cepted of the invitation, and was received with extraordinary 

The politic pnperor took the opportunity, while Apel- Who *• 
iafem was at Conftantintple, to build a fort by the fea fide to w *fi #*• 
•ftcure Nikomedia, the capital of Bithynia (T) ; making the 
Turks, who would have oppofed that defign, believe that he 
; had their Soltah's order for it, whom all the while he amufed 
With diverlions. When the fortrefs was finished, he loaded 
kirn with prefents, gave him the title of Moft Auguft, con- 
cluded a peace with him, and fent him home by tea. The 
1 light of that fabrick in his paflage gave him much difplea- 
fcxe ; bat he thought it better to diflemble his refentment ' 
than complain. 

PRO SUM foon after befieged Nice ; and, having attacked Nice bt- 
it vigoroufly for three months, Apelkajfem fent fbr fuccour tofieged.- 
1 the emperor, who fent him the flower of his troops, but 
with orders to aft for his intereft ; both parties being in effeft 
his enemies. The Raman troops, having taken the city of 
St. George, were admitted into Nice, and difplaid their ftan- 
dards : hereupon Profuk, believing the emperor had entered! 
: the city, raifed the fiege, and retired u . 

; It will be proper to obferve in this place, that as foon as Alexis, by 
(jfce great Soltan (U) (who reigned in Kboraff&n), was in- artifice, 
'formed of the fuccefs of Tutus againft Soleymdn{zs has been 
related in the life of that prince), he was alarmed ; and fear- 
ing he might grow' too powerful, fent a Chaufti (X) to the-* 
emperor Alexis, to propofe an alliance with him by way of 
carriage ; offering, on that occafion; to withdraw the Turks 
Icttled negr the fea-coafts ; to abandon a certain number of 
fcall towns, and furnifh him with troops, in cafe of need. 
f The emperor, defirous to recover the places without the> 
Inarriage, prevailed on the chauih to turn chriftian: after 
fwfaich, as he had a written order from the Soltan, for the 
Tnrii/b garrifons to quit all the maritime places as foon is rowers 
Ae marriage was agreed on, he went to Sinope, and (hewing w*»y «- 
tfce order to Karat ik the governor, obliged him to depart*'-' 

* Ann. Comnbn. in Alex. 1. 6. c. 7.— 10. 

(T) It became fo after Nice the- father and predeceflbr .of 
Was taken by the Turk*. Barkinrek. 

ill J This was Makk Sbab, (X) Chans, or Chaujb, is a* 

\ meJTengtiy>i ftate. 
4 without 

^oo s ' lit Sdjftks tf Rftrt. £.£ 

without taking any thing away ( Y), .and left k Ut ths huadji 

of Dalajjwc* for the emperor. Having by the like artifiot 

gotten, the 7«rAf out of other towns, and pnt in Roman gVt 

rifons, he returned to Conjl<mtimple y where he was baptiza4f - 

and received the title of duke of Ankhiakis, with other fliinj; 

rewards *. ;i 

Nice fe- The Soltan was extremely vexed when he came id bca* f 

Jftgtda- how the chau(h had ferved hira. Notwithftandtng this, faty 

gain; feat a letter to the emperor, alluring him, that, provided fcftj 

gave his daughter in marriage to his fon, he would affift bist^ 

with troops to prevent Apelkaffem's incurfions, and take Am* 

tiokh (Z) from him : At the lame time he feat Pufan wid* 

forces againft Apelkaflrm, The emperor wrote an anfwer* 

which, without granting his demand, flattered his hopes, an4 

fent it away. Meaa time Pufan attacked Nice feveral times ; 

but be^ng repulfed by means of the emperor's fuccours, dre** 

Jtiliwei off to Lopadion (A), on the river Lampe. As foon as he 

f A ton * S 006 * Jpcfajtfc™* loading fourteen mules with gold, fet out 

timt : Ptrfia to obtain the Rohan's confirmattafTin the go 

but the Soltan, who was then at Spate (B), refufing to i 
him, ordered him to go back to Pufan % faying, he 
confirm whatever the other agreed to. After a long and 
lefs felicitation he fet out to return, but was not gotten 
before he was met by 200 men, who, by the Soltan's 
Itrangled him. The ambaflador, who carried the ei 
letter, proceeded on his journey.; but hearing, before he 
to Khqraffhi f that the Soltan himfelf was aflaflinated (C), 
returned to Conftantinople. 
jLtforedto Ajfter Apelkaffem had fet oujt for Khoraff&n t as 
related, Putyas, his brother, took pofleffion qf Nice; 

* Akn. Com*. 1. 6. c. 8. 

(Y) The Gtech fay, Karatik 
was p^.flefled by the devil, for 
having plundered the church 
of the thrice pure Mother of 
God wheo he took the city. 

(Z) This mutt be Antiokh in 
Syria; whence it appears, not 
only that Antiokh did not fall 
into the hands of Tufus (or 7a- 
tajb), on the defeat of So/eymdn; 
bu: alfo that Apelkojfem (or Abu I 
fCafiem) was in pofiefiion of the 
greater part of his dominions. 

(A) Now called Lob at t Of 

(B) Doubtlcfs Ifpdb&t. 

(C) This was MaUtSbebM 
appears from the conrfe of \\*& 
as well as the miftaken accowf 
of his death, given in this ptatt 
by our hiftoriajg, as we bam 
elfewhere obferved (1); althoVJ 
by Tome overfight, in ranging h& 
materials, thele fafts may fecia 
to belong to the r«ign olBattt ■ 
arokby his fon and fucccflor. .*' 

<i) fc# Ufkft, {. 127. 


C£ SetmtfSdkdn, Kffij Alfl£n, *o* 

theempcrof, by krge offers, tempted him to ddivtr np: "bot 
heftifl put htm off, under pretence of expecting the return 
tf h* brother. While this matter was in agitation, the two 
ibof qf Am&r SoleymAn, cfcaping on the death of the mur- 
dered Soltan, by whom they were detained in prifon, arrive^ 
uNk*\ where they were received by tbofe who had mob the fort $ 
power with the people, and acknowleged by PuJka*, who de*SoJby-, 
lrared up the city into their hands. From this revolution or m * n - 
itftoration (which, according to the courfe of the Greek his- 
tory, happened about the year 1093), we date the cxwmmcc-' 
aeat of the reign of KiHj Jrjlan L « 


J Reign of Soittn Kilij Arflan I. 

i , 

'MICE having thus, after an ufurpation erf" fereral years, fo^s^ 
* * been reftored to the heirs of Soleymajt ; KiRj* or Kit} tan Kih) r - 

• ArRtn the eldeft, whom the Greeks call Khliziqftlan, or Arflan I. 

i KMziaftlan, aflumed the reins of government. His firft care 
was to repeople the city, by calling home the wives and chil- A. D. 
drcn of the old inhabitants, as he defigned to honour it with ,0 94* 

I the ordinary refidence of the Soltans. Then. difplacingPu/* 

> to, he made Mahomet (A) governor ; after which he marched 
towards Melicene. What was the occafion of his departure, 
what part of his dominions he went to, or what he did for . 
fane time after, we are indrely ftrangers to; the Greek 
writers, to whom we are obliged for all this Sokan's hiftory, 
excepting the laft tranfadtion of his reign, treating no farther 
of the Turki/b affairs than as they concerned themfelves : for 
this reafon the reader will not be furprized if he meets fire* 
quendy with chafins in the hiftory, and fometimes the mat- 
ters abruptly introduced. . 

The emperor Alexis, having been informed that ElkAn 9 ZWkn 
prince of the Satrapas (B), had taken Apoloniade and Cyzicum, taken pHJ 
maritime cities, and ravaged the fea coaft ; fent Eupherbenejener* 
who befieged Apoloniade, and reduced the exopolis, or out- 
town. The Turks defended the citadel vigoroufly till fuccourg 
amved ; 00 which the Romaic general withdrew, and put his. 
men on board the fhips : But Elk&n having feized the mouth 
of the rivgr and the bridge, they were forced to re-land, and 

(A) Perhaps the name of the (B) Or Turki/h governors; 
Sohin*s brother, whicl* is not perhaps a, BeglerUg. 
aydfy mention^- 

feftf 7fe ScJjuks of Rftm. & I» 

rooft of. them cut off in battle. After this, Opus, 
fent againft him, took Cyzicum and Poemanenon by aflairttg 
their befieging Apobniade, forced Elkdn to furrender ; who^ 
being fent to the emperor, was very kindly received, 
turned christian \ 
H/> ^/ While Ahxis w* ingaged in war with the A 
Tzakas. <tw»j (C), he received advice that the fon of Apelkajfem, : 
vernor of Nice (called Satrap* by the old, and Amira^ by 
modern Perfians (D), was inclined to befiege Nikomedia, 
the fame time Tzakas, a 7i/rA, reforving to fet np a naval 
employed a native of Smyrna for that purpofe; who ha 1 
buUt him feveral veflels, and forty barks, he went and 
Clazomene and Pbocea Without much refiflunce ; then 
a threatening meflage to Jlopius, governor of Mitylene, he 
but Tzakas, finding the inhabitants of Metymne % a city of 
ifle feated very high, prepared to receive him, he pafled oa 
the ifland of Kbit, which he took by force, 
1& defeats The emperor, on thig news, fent a fleet againft hiisj 
which was defeated : then he fent another under Confti 
Delaffenus, his relation ; who, defirous to retake Khio 
Tzakas was abfent, made a breach in the wall, which obi 
the Turks to implore mercy : but while the general 
taking poflefRoo, to prevent the foldiers from patting 
to the fword, the befieged repaired the breach in the 
Tzakas arrived from Smyrna at the fame juncture on the 
fide- of the ifle, and marched at the head of 8ooo» men, 
lowed along the coaft by his fleet ; then, going on board, 
encountered the Greek flrips in the night: his own 
joined together by chains, fo that they could not be ~ 
Opus, who commanded the Grecian fleet, fiirprized at 
new fort of difpofition, durft not advance. 
*VRo- TZAKAS followed hun flawly, and at length land* 
mans : began the attack. The French, on their approach, 

brifkly againft them with their lances : but the Turks, ha 
difcharged arrows at their horfes, obliged them to retire 
difordcr to the camp, and thence openly to the {hips. 
Romans y difmayed by this defeat, fled Ukewife, and 
themfclves along the walls of the town. This emboldened 
Turks to go and feize fome veffek : but the failors, cntiing 
f ables, vent and anchored with the reft at (bme difhnce ' 
the fliorc. Mean time Delajfenns retired to Boliffus, a town! 

c . . * Ann. Comnsn. 1.6. c. u & ia* 

(C) A Scythian nation, who ' (D) Rather AmSr* wlenoo 

utbabsted ^oehha and IhiianAa. comes our amirai, and admiral. - 


C. £ Second Solid*; Kiftj Arft&iK ao$ 

titrated on a cape of the ifle; and Tzakas, knowing Tusva* 
lour, feat to propofe an accommodation. 

Next, day they met; and Tzakas demanded; that v/haxPrtptfi* 
the emperor Botaniates had given him fhouldbe delivered into/"***; 
his hands, and a marriage take place between his Ion and a 
daughter of the emperor ; in which cafe he promifed to re-» 
(lore all the iflands he had conquered. It feems this Turk 
had been taken prifoner when yoong in Afia, and prefented 
toBataniaUSyVfho honoured him with the title of Molt Noble, 
and with rich prcfenp ; on which he took sm oath of fidelity 
to him, but thought himfelf not bound by it to AUxls. Dc» 
hjjhnus referred him for an anfwer to John, the emperor'* 
brither-in^law, who was expefted with forces in a few day$ : 
trat Tzakas, not caring to wait his coming, returned in the 
right with his fleet to Smyrna, in order to raife nfcw farces 
for the conqueft of the ifland. After which Delaffenus took 
Bolifits, and the city Of Khm itfelf b . 

Mean time Tzakas, while the emperor was at war vnihjfugme** 
the Scythians, increafed his fleet with an extraordinary xnxm-bisjUeU 
kes at fliips, gathered from ieveral ports, wherewith he re- 
fohed to plunder all the ifles which rcfufed to fubmit, and 
ravage all the weftern coafts. He -endeavoured to excite the 
Scythians to fubdue the Kherfonefas, and to oblige the fuc* 
Coars to return which came from the eaft ; making great of- 
fers to draw the Turks to efpoufe his caufe c . After this he 
aflumed the name of king at Smyrna, which he made his re- 
gal feat ; and fitted out a fleet to ravage the ifles, and pene- 
trate as far as the very capital of the empire. 

At the beginning of fpring (£) the emperor fent an army Surrender* 
and a fleet to Mitylene ; the former under the conduft of John Mityleae^r 
Dukas, and the latter of Conftantine Delaffenus. The place 
vas commanded by Galabatzes, brother of Tzakas, who came 
alio in perfon to defend it. Dukas battered the place for 
three months, and often fought the enemy from morning till 
right without any advantage ; but at laft Tzakas thought fit 
tofurrender the city, on condition that he might have liberty ' 
to return to Smyrna. This was granted him : but as he en» 
deavoured to carry off the inhabitants of Mitylene, contrary to 
the treaty, Delaffenus attacked him by fea, and took feveral 
barks; Tzakas himfelf with difficulty efcaping in one of the 

* Ann. £om*eii. 1. 7. c. 5 k 6. * Ibid. 1. S. c. 2. 

(E) You find mentiofo often feafons of the y$ar, but not of 
» the Gruk fejftorians of the the year itfelf. 


*o% % the SeljAks of kfim: A 

finalkftveflek. After this Dukas retook &xmw, and'thc 
ifles which that Turk had fcized. 

PNsJIain TZAKAS, at foon as he returned to Smyrns, 

barks to be built, and galleys of two and three txreof 
befides other light veflels, with a defign to fend than < 
corfairs. Hereupon the emperor ' difpatched Deiaffenus 
i puif&nt fleet, and at the fame, time wrote to for up the 
fan (F) againft his fon-in-law, whom he reprefented as alp 
to the empire of the Turks. The Soitih immediately fee 
ward with his forces, and was at Auub, which Tzakds 
feefieged, altnoft as foon as Delaffenus. Tzakas hairing, 
tiips with him (for his fleet was not yet equipped), and ' 
ing himfelf unable to oppofe both the emperor and the 
tan, refolved to go meet the latter, not imagining bow i 

ly the &/• ^ w* incenled againft him. The Soltan received him 

*ur. x great (hew of friendfhip, and kept him to dine with 

but as foon as he found him overcome, with liquor, drew 
w fword, and killed him with a ftroke on his fide 4 . 

C*r* m tf The emperor was fcarcely delivered firom this enemy, 

& c *s fbeehe found himfelf obliged to march againft the ~ 
Who continued to make incurfions into* his territories 
while the Turks took that opportunity to ravage B& 
When the war therefore was oVer, he applied himfelf to 
cure the country inclofed by the fea between the liver 
rhu and a place called Celt, which vfes expofed to their 

Hficure quent incurfions. Having found a deep canal, which. 

Bithynia. been formerly dug by the emperor Anajhafius to dram 
inarfh of Baanom, he ordered it to be deanfed and ext< 
but confidering that in time it might tjecome fordable, 
- built on the fide of it an exceeding ftrong citadel, i 

called the Iron Cafile, which ferrtd for the defence of 

Cruf*dtrt\ * Thb emperor had fcarce refted from this fatigue; 

tbeircrw Beier the hermit, author of the crdade, or holy war, 

tlties rived at ConJlantinopU at the head of 80,000 men; de* 

the recovery of Jerufidm from the Turks. The emperor 

<m6 vifed him to wait till G&ffrey of Bulbim, and the oth*r prta 

to ^' arrived: but Peter, confident of his own faccefe, pried 

fea, and encamped near a finall city called Helempdis.. 

btoce ten thoafipid Normans x who were among them, 

an incurfion as far as Nice, committing the moft horribk; 

cruellies:; but die garrifonof that cily falljIiQgcatfupoeii^ 

they were obliged to retreat, After this they took Xcrigot&\ 
• • * * 

* Akk. Comnen. 1. a c. 1 5: ;, 
' (F) KtfjArJtaa, (on of Stlrfman. 

& * $t$on4'S*kdn y Kilij A|fliiu to§ 

but £Zbus (G), being feat with fomc troops by the Saltan, re- 
covered that place. - . . . > 

That general, knowing the Franks to be very covetous,/*/?/? #f 
contrived the way how to ruin them* He firft laid his zm-nijbtd; 
bufcade-, and then commiflioned two artful peribns to give 
oat in Ptter's army, that the Normans had taken Nice, an4 
fazed ;mimmei^ booty* On this report they ran without 
any order toward that city ; and falling intq the ambuicad^ 
phich had been laid for them near Dragon, were cut i3 
pieces. The number jflain on both fides was to gi&t, .that 
their bodies being laid together made a mountain. Piter re-, 
tired with a iraali number of his men to HeUnopolis, where, 
the 5T«rfr befieged, and would have taken him, had not the 
emperor Cent fome troops to relieve the place e . : 
. Soon after the reft of the weftcrn princes arriving, alWAgr tolr > 
eroded the ftrait ta Civitpt^ except Boemond, who marched Nice; 
through Bithynia towards Nice, which the confederates in- ,* 

vetted. The Sottas feat fome troops to annoy the diriftians ; A# P m 
tot they wese defeated, as was the next day the Soltan him*, 10 9 7# 
fctf ; who, (being the multitude of enemies he had to deal 
y£tb, gave leave to the inhabitants of Nice to att juft as they 
thought beft for themferves. ^bt emperor ^/«ri>, who was 
; eaCajnped at MtjhmpeU, near the town of PeUkans (for ha 
did not care to join the Franks, whom he looked upon as 9 
: tycacherous faithlefs people), finding that the Soltan fupplied 
: ferity with both men and provjlions by means of the lake (H)j 
I be adviied them to attack it on that fide : and having pro* 
; vided proper veflels for the purpofe,,the lake not behqjdeep, 
[ fitted -them with men un^er the command of Bitumitu, and 
I fctorff from the fideogpofite to the ifle of Kbio. 
r The turkijb commanders were fo alarmed at this MXWk- defeat At 
se&ed fight, and the Franks making a general aflauk ^t thtSohd»: • 
time tune, that, on Bitumites promifing a general pardon, 
Vith honour* to the Sokan's fifter and his wife (faid to be 
|he daughter of Tzakas), they delivered the city up to him fr 
Who fent of? the garrifon, by way of the lake, to the em* 
Kror. l 

. Preiehtly after the army ftt forward for Anttokh m 
Syria ; with whom the emperor fent a body of troops com- t 
sanded by Taticius. Being arrived in two days at a place 

. • Ahh^Cqmnsn. 1. 10. c» 4—7. 

(G) Probably the fame £/- Nice and the gulf of Mtudatiia, 
hm mentioned before. , (of old the Cianic) ; into which) 

(H) Which lies between it empties by a river t 


to* • "7& SeljAks of ftfttti; 1 

called Leuka, they thought fit to feparate, and let Bomondt 

A. D» before, as he ddQred. The Ti/rlx difcovering him in tt 

1097. plain of Dory taunt, fell upon him vigorotilly, and IdUe 

. forty of his bell men ; whereupon, being alfo himfelf y 

geroufly wounded, he retreated to the army. As they 

vanced in companies, they met, near a place called Etratk, d 

Soltan Tanijman (I) and Haffan, who <alone was at the bait 

80,000 men. The battle was very obftinate, when Boemm 

perceiving the Turks- fought with more Vigour than theirej 

mies, fell with the right wing like a lion on the Soltan Si 

aftldn{K), or Kilij ArJlAn, and put them to flight. Sot 

after they met the Turks near AuguJhpoRs, and defeated tbd 

a fecund time. After which theyfuffered them to 

their march to Antiokh, without daring to appear. 

Tbeempt- The emperor thought this a good opportunity to 

T9r nee- Other 1 places from the Turks. Tzakas had feized Smym 

**rs Hangripermes was in pofleflibn of Ephefus : Other robbfl 

, . Were mafters of different places : Khto, Rhodes, and fcid 

other iflands were in their hands, from whence ' they fcoofl 

afl the idjacent feas. To prevent thefe depredations, he fM 

dut a large fleet, under the command of John Dukas 9 vho 

ried with him the daughter of Tzakas, to convince the 

A. IX ^tes t bat the city was taken. Being come to Avido, he gi 

1097. the command of the fleet to Kafpaces, in order to 

Smyrna, Smyrna by fea, white he befieged it by land. The inhl 

tints, terrified, immediately furrendered upon terms, and. 

paces was made governor, but did not long enjoy his p 

for having ordered a Turk before him, who had ftolen a 

of money ; the fellow, thinking they were carrying him to 

cution, in defpair 'drew his fwbrd,*and ftabbed the govern 

in the belly, mixing Mmfelf at the faitfe time with die 

Thefoldiers and feamen were fo enraged at this murder, 

they put 1 0,000 inhabitants to the fword. 

Ephefus, From Smyrna Dukas marched to Ephefus, where, aftcf 

W bloody battle which lafted near the whole day, he defta 

TangripermeiZxA Marates- The remainder of the Turk 

forces fled up the Maander to Polybotum... Dukas purft 

them ; and in the way took Sardes and Philadelphia by 

fault : Laodicea fubmitted to him. Then, patting by Ka 

(I) The Greet hiftorians give crufade make Soleymaa theS 

the name of loltan often with- tan of Ntct at this rime; * 

out diftinttion to all generals or we have already (hewn, I 

great con: zanders, as well as to from the Greek and oriental 

the brothers of the Sol can. thors, that he was dead fol 

(K) 1 lie Latin writers of the years before. 


C. 4* Second SoUdn, Kilij Arilan; iof 

he forced Lampe* He found at Polybotum a great multitude 
of Turks, but defeated them intirely, carrying off much 
plunder and many prifoners. 

Mean time the .emperor Alexis prepared to fuccour thtttther 
Franks, who were befieged by the Turks in Antiokh ; and being p/aces* 
arrived at Fiiomeihn, cut* in pieces a great number of their 
troops, and recovered feveral places outof -their hands. -But A. D. 
bearing that Ifmaei (L), fon of the Saltan &Korag&n, was lo ^ 
advancing at the head of a vaft army ; he thought it moft 
prudent to return with his prifoners and plunder, after he 
bad given .notice ta the inhabitants in "and -about Polybotum 
to provide for their fafety. Jfmael, advancing, laid fiege to the 
fort of Paipert, which the famous Theoddrus Gaurus had takea 
bat a little while before, with, a defign to obferve i the pa£ 
iageaf the Turkic and make mcurfions upon, them*! • 

About that time there arrived! at Gmjlototinople on army^^ ^r 
of Normans, 100,000 foot and 50,000* horfe, commanded by Normans 
the two brothers of Flanders. . The emperor would have had 
them taken the fame road which the other Franks had fel* 
loved; but their defign was not, it feems, to join the con- * 

federates of the crufide, but to mirch into theeaft, and con- * 
qoer KhoraJJM kfidf. Having pafled the firaits of Civitot, 
they want and took Ancyra. After, they had crofted the Halys> 
tbey came to a little dty belonging to the Romans ; where the 
priefts coming oat to meet them, with the crofs and gofpd 
in their hands, they were fo barbarous as to put them all to 
the fword. The Turks,, who are very ikilful warriors, took 
i care 10 carry off all the provifions in the country thro' which 
; they pafled; and being near Amafia, after defeating, hemmed 
ibem in fo clofcly that they had no opportunity to pafture 
their henries* 

The Normans in defpair rufhed upon their enemy * htiLjten fy the 
tix Turks, inftead of engaging them at a diftance with the Turks. 
; bow or lance, came to clofc fight with their fwords, and 
fittde a dreadful (laughter. Upon this, they aflced the count 
of St. Giles and Tzitas, whom the emperor, had fait with 
diem for their affiftance, if there was not fome country be- 
longing to the empire near at hand, which they might fly to ; 
and being informed that there was, immediately abandoned 
their camp and baggage, flying to the maritime parts of Ar- 
menia and Pour oca. The horfe for hafte leaving the infantry 
behind, they were all ilain by the Turks, excepting a few t 
whom they referved as it were to fhew in Khorajf&n. The 

(L) Barliarok was then Saltan ; but we meet with no fon of 
bis who bad that name. 



9fe Sdjftks 0/Rftm. 


1 1 06. 

<*MlUt sod Tzitas returned, with the horfe which efcaped, 
(kqflantinopU % from whence the emperor fent the cow* 
fea to Tripoly in £y/7a, where Jie propofed to continw 
fiege, but died foon -after he landed, leaving his poffeffiooi 
his nephew William *. 

In the fourteenth indi&idn, Gregory \ governor of 
Zand, who had revolted two years before, intended to 
himfelf up in the oaftle of Kolonia, whkh was redcooed 
pregnable, and to implore the .protefiion of Tamfman 
Turk before-mentioned ; but being .purfued by J*hn 
ihe emperor's nephew, and his couiin, was taken, and fetkf 
Conjlantinople z . 

1 We muft now quit the Greek hiftorian, to dofe this 

with an account of the laft a&ion and death of JQIij 

which the Greek* were ftrangers t6 ; and altho' it is the 

* natter relating to this Soltan which has been 

< to us from the oriental authors*, yet it ferves to give 

greater idea of his power than all the tranfaftions already 


Saltan ... The inhabitants of Mufol (Miwfel y oc MofitI) baring 

takes Mu-tafaged by Al Jaweli (M), who had taken their prince 

fol; garmfJb.pvXomt, fent to offer JGBj Arflan y lord of ~ 

pr Itonium (N) and Akfdra, the pafleffion of their c 

cafe he would come to their relief. Hereupon Kity 

flattening with his forces, took pafleffion of MufiA, Ji 

retiring on his approach. . He pitched- his tamp, in a 

Galled Al Mogreka, where Zenji, Ion of Jagarmijh, 

friends, repairing to him, be hoootwed them all with 

4>r vefts. Then fitting in a throne, he ordered the t 

. Soltin Mohammed (O) to be fupprefled in the pnlpits, 

his own mentioned in place of it. 

This done, he marched againft Al Jawb, who 

/1 dnvjg* 

Rtba ; but being met by him at the rhrer KhcMr (P), 
J>ut to flight. Kilij Ar/ldn plunged into the river, with an^ 
tent to crofs it ; but, while he defended himfelf with hb I 
againft the enemy, his horfe carrying him out of his - 

* ANW. COMNlN. 1. II. C. I~- 7. 

a Ibid. Lit-* c.j. 

(M) Jaweli, or Jetwwati, 
lord of Roba, or Orfa> in Nefo- 
potamia. See before, p. 143, 
& feq. 

" (N) Hence it appears, that 
after the lofs of Nice, he trans- 
ferred the royal feat to Konijah ; 
fo the orientals call lkonlam, 

and the latter Greeks Kogn\ 


(O) Son of Malek Steb, 
fifth Soltan of Irak; or Pe 

(P) It rifes in Me) 
from a fountain called 
Apt, and falls into the £q 
tes near Kerkijt*. 

€. 4 Wird toitd*> SayfinZ io§ 

fe was dfowfied. Some days after* his body was found float- 
i^ on the water, and buried at AlSham/ania (P). This event 
[It placed, by our author, in the year 500 of the Hqrah\ 
Which anfwers to that of Chrifi 1 1064 

■ It h remarkable that D*Herb*ht, undefr the name of this/ty*£/ <f 
jolrin, has given only an abftraft of the foregoing triinfac-**^w'» 
1 from AbPlfataj 1 ; which feems to fhefw, that there is no- 
g to be found in Kondamir, and the other authors whdm he 
ide ufe of, concerning that prince. But in fupplyiog their 
~ : from the Syrian annalift, he has alfo adopted his thro- 
»vgy, which contradicts theirs: for Abfflfaraj makes thereigil * , . 
' Kitij ArJIan to end in the fame year that they will have itTr*^, 1 * 
— sncc ; and we prefer his authority to theirs, for the fame / 't nna i 
which induced us to give the preference to Ekn Amta\ 
regard to the year of the death of his father Soleyntdn. 
According to their reckoning KUijAfflan reigned eighteen 
hours ; according to ours, fourteen : but the Nighiarijidn gives 
fcm only four years to his reign. The fame authors alfo 
[flake his fon Maffud to have been his immediate fucceflbr 5 
Mercas we have taken the liberty, on what we judge to btf 
ptfkient authority! to put in one between them* 

* S£Cf. IV. 

the Reign <?/Soltan $zf&til 

HERE is no mention of a Soltin with the name tffhirJSoh 
Sayfan, among the oriental hiitorlans ; but we have **»> Say- 
ady (hewn, from their inaccuracy, and other imperfeftions^ 11 * 
ith regard to this dynafty, that there are fufficient grounds 
belkve* that there were more princes in the fuceeflion than 
of whom they give us the names. It Is conferfed alfo* 
it fome of them reckon fifteen Soltios j and if fo, the 
>nological chafm* which has been remarked between the 
of Kilij Arjl&n I. and Roknfddin Soleyrrlan, leaves room 
introducing one here. Although Abtflfaraj agrees with 
rjmdamir in naming the firft ten Soltans, yet* as he does not*^"*'' 
tell their numbeF or rank in the fuceeflion* and but barely**^ h 
: mentions fome, and that only occafionally ; fo he may poffi- 
Wy have omitted the name of one or more, efpetially in this 
Interval we are fpeaking of; which appears, from his dates of 
•Jh&s, to be very wide, at the fame time that they help to fill 

i * Abu'lfaraj, hift. dynafl. p. 245. * See D'Hsrb. p* 

; Jo©4, art Kilig Arflan ben Soliman. 

(P) Or Al Sbamdmjah. 

!■ Mod. Hist, Vol. IV. P tp 

gio SRKrScljfiks^f RAiu. B.L 

up the chafm, by giving a much greater length of reign to 
the princes he mentions, than the other oriental anthers ham. 
artigned th&n. In this he agrees with thofe Grnk hiftorita* 
whom we have chofen to follow in onr account of the Sob* 
t£ns. In fhort, as the eaftem hiftorians afford us fcarceany'' 
memoirs relating to the firft Soltans of this dynafty, it is-fart 
jnft that we fhould be governed by the authority of the Jta 
jttuif/ftf Writers, to whtiOLWt are almoft wholly beholden im 
onr materials. 
Ae Greek It is true, we find KtiizUftlan, or KiHj ArflJkn, (poken 
witttsy by ^«^ Comnena, as Soltfn of Jftgro, or Itanium, till 
Very laft a&ion of this reign : but then the fudden tranfii 
in the account of that adion, from Khlizi&JUan to & 
as SoltAn of Kogni, ftiews that the hiftorian was all the 
fpeaking of one and the fame perfon ; for there could not 
two Soltans of Kogni at the fame time : nor do we find i 
farther mention of Khliziaftlan. It cannot be thought that 
<who* nve this latter is meant Kilij Arfl&n, the former Soitln, 
fillew. j^g to ^ Greek cuftom of prolonging the reigns of prir 
becaufe he is fakl to be in the vigour of his youth ; 
as the fame quality is afcribed to Say/an, it is a farther _ 
that thofe two names are given to the fame perfon. Her 
ver that was, Say/an muft have been the fon of the fan 
Soltan, fince he is called the brother of Mafitt, or M&JJU 
who was the fon of Kilij ArJULn y according to the unanimoasj 
confent of the oriental hiftorians. 

Having premifed thefe few remarks, which are 
both to juftify the innovation we have introduced, and 
viate what at firft fight appears to be a very great difficulty, 
not a fort of contradiction, we (hall proceed to the hiftory, 
Greeks, The coaft of AJia having, by the late wars, been rail 
their bar- from Smyrna to Attalia, and thofe once populous and flat 
'*a ,f A Clt * es ' >ecwnc heaps of rubbifti, the emperor fent Filakales 
At ~ m reftorc them. That nobleman firft rebuilt Endromit, or. 
lIo6 J mit'mm (which had been fo totally deftroyed by Tzakas, 

there remained no figns of it habitations), and peopled it wit 
the peafants and ftrangers (A). After this, being informed' 
that the Turks were gathering near Lampis, he tent thithor-i 
fome troops, who cut part of them in pieces, and took a I 
great number prifoners, ufing their viftory fo cruelly, that 
they boiled children to death. The Turks who remained 
put on mourning clothes, and went over the country, to ex* \ 
cite their companions to vengeance. 

(A) The date of a&ions in hook, denotes being fet at a i 
the margin, when placed in a venture, or by guefs, 

7 At 

&4Z third Solid** Sayflu: tit 

At th* fimie time Fibkaks reduced Pbilddttphi* Without/**/ Phi- 
lay trouble : but foon after Haffan, one of the prime com- ladelphii, 
Jasadefe, who governed almoft abfolutely in Cappadocta, hear* 
tog of the barbarities eftertifed by the Romans, came at the 
had df 24,000 men, and befieged the place. FibkaUs, who 
Was a man of frratagem, not having fortes td take the field, 
forbad the inhabitants either to open the gates, appear oil 
the wills, or mike the tafcft noifa Bajfan, having been be- 
fore the town three days, And feen no perfon appear, too* 
eluded that the befieged had neither forces nor courage enough 
to make failles : hereupon he divided his army ; fending 
10,000 men to KelUana, another party toward Smyrna, and 
a third towards CRafd and Pergamus, With orders to ravage 
die country ; and followed with another party himfeif. A4 
fan is tthkaks few the Turks parted into bodies, he fent 
troops td ittack them one by one : they accordingly came up 
fcrth, and defeated, the two firft detachments* killing a great 
number of the men ; but could not overtake either of the 
ethers, Who were gotten too far before. 

Souk time after, Amir Sdyfan marched from the eaft, witri Sayfah 
a defign to ravage Philadelphia, and . the maritime cities. The makek 
emperor, on this advke, fent a ffflall body of troops up the/'*"' 
rwer Skamander td Endromit ind Thrakefion, to wait his or- ^"J?i 
ders. Gduras commanded at that time at Philadelphia^ with l io8 'J 
a ftrong garrifon, irid Monafiras at Pergamus. The army 
feat by the Sol tan of Khor a/an advanced in tWo bodies ; 6ne 
of than eroded mount Sina, tod the other marched into 
AJU minor. Gauras went Out td meet thefe tetter; and 
coming up with diem at Ktlbidna, routed them. When the 
Saltan (B), who hid fent them, heard of this defeat, he dif- 
pttched ambifTadort to the emperor \ who, after he had put 
fcvcral queftion* to tfifcm concerning their matter (G); eon- 
daded a neate with them. 

fife had not been long at reft* before he ^as alarmed Vith Turks 
a new irruption of 50,000 Turks, come from Anatolia, and new imp-. 
even from Khorafon. The emperor, dn this neWS, pafled the^"»- * 
ftrtit from Confi&nthtople to Damalis (f) ; and though In A - D - 
*!* go»t> gdt into a chariot, which he drove himfelh In II0 9\i 
three days he arrived zxAigyla, where he embarked for CivU 

(B) In the dde of the chap- (C) Yet the hiftorian gives no 

far he is called Soltan Say fan % account of this Soltan, not evert 

Wt he was not Soltin of Kho- his name. 

k/2*: and juft before he is (f ) The Boffhorus was called 

called only an dmir t or com* Damalis from thence. It is the 

**aicr. fame with EJkuaar, or Skutari. . 

i> % m 

H2 fhe Selj&ks of Rflr»; B. I 1 ! 

tot (D)< As foon as he landed, be was informed that the com* 
manders of the enemy had divided their forces into feparatebo* 
dies ; one was to fcour the country about Nice ; zndMomBk* 
to ravage the fea-coaft : other parties had done the likeaboqt 
Prufa, Apolloniade and Lopadion ; and had taken Cyzicus^ft 
fault; the governor making no refiftance. The two praxis 
pal Saltans, Kontogma and Amir Mahomet, were gone to ftp* 
ntanene, by the country of the Lencians, with infinite to* 
men and children (E), whofe lives they had faved : and Afei 
nolikus, having crofled Barene (which like the Skamander, tfa| 
Augibcometes, the Ampelle, and many other rivers, defeat 
from the mountain IbilesJ, was turned towards Paretm, iah 
ing palled by Avido, Endromit t and Cliara, with a great non* 
ber of flaves, bujt without fhedding blood/ 
Attached Hereupon Alexis ordered, Kamitzes, governor of ASqq 
tyKamyt-to follow the Turks, with 500 men, to watch their motioq 
zes. but to avoid fighting. The governor came up with all th 

Soltans (F), and, forgetting bis orders, attacked them brii 
ly. The enemy having heard of the emperor s march, an 
concluding that he was fallen upon them with all his force} 
betook themfelves to flight : but being made fenfible of the 
miftake by a prifoner they took, rallied their forces ; an 
having met with Kamytzes, who flayed to divide the fpo£ 
inftead of getting into Pcemanene, attacked him at break < 
day : his foldiers all fled, excepting the Scythians, ths French 
and a few Romans, who fought valiantly : but moft of tha 
His being at length flain, and his horfe killed, he fet his bac 

bravery* againft an oak, and laid about him inceflantly with his pfe 
niard, killing or wounding all who came within his reacjj 
The Turks, furprized at fo much valour, and being defiron 
to preferve him, Amir Mohammed alighted off his horfe, aq 
putting afide thofe who fought with him, faid, Give me yen 
hand, and prefer life to death. Kamitzes, unable to refi 
fuch a multitude, gave his hand to Mohammed, who order 
ed him to be tied on horfeback, that he might not efcape.' 
Defeated The emperor miftrufting the road which the Turks 
4y Alexis, taken, took another. He pafTed by Nice ; then crofled 

(D) Or Ciuito and Cyuito, the the cruelties committed 
fort of Nice, with a caftie, by the Greeks. 
which commanded that city, of- (F) As if there were many | 
ten mentioned by the crufade Soltans at this time in Jfiam*\ 
writers ; but they do not mark nor. But we have already < 
its fituation ; perhaps near Khi- ferved that the Greeks made 
*/, Kius, or Kio, now Jemlik, on diftin&ion between Soltdn 
the gulf of Moudania, or Mori- Amir, king and commander 3 
tania. they often mifcal ormiilake 

(E) Thefe were reprizals, for for the other. 

7 lap* 

C. £ third Saltan^ Say fan.' aiy 

tdgna and BaJiHcus, two very narrow pafles of the mountain 
Olympus. After this he inarched to Aletines, and thence to 
-AcrecuSy with defign to get before the enemy. There being 
firformed that they were incamped in a valley full of reeds; 
%here they thought themfelves in no danger from him, he 
i ml upoo them with his forces, killed a great number, and 
1 t&ok a great number prifoners. The reft thought to efcape, 
* f lying concealed among the thick reeds : nor could the 
Idiers come at them for that reafon, and the marihinefs of 
\ place : but Alexis having ordered the reeds at one end to be 
d, ihcTurks flew, from the flames into the hands of the R<h 
is, who killed one part of them, and carried off the other. 
AMIR Mohammed, having been joined by the Turkm Arts, \A. m?r Mo# 
id fome other people of AJia minor, appeared at the fame hammed 
lant to give the emperor battle ; and though Alexis open-*"*^'^ 
a way for himfelf, by defeating thofe he purfued, yet 
" immed came up with the rear, commanded by Ampelas 
Tzipureles, who running full fpeed againft the Turks, 
hammed, who well knew how to make ufe of an advan- 
finding them at a diftance from their foldiers, (hot not 
them but their horfes ; which bringing them down, they 
fiirrounded and (lain. For all this, his troops were put 
^offight by thofe left to guard the baggage and the horfes j 
which confufion Kamitzes made his efcape *. 
Not long after this, Soltan Soleyman ordered his troops of l Sneers of 
Xborajan and Halep to over-run end plunder all AJia minor. tbeTvuks, 
""" e emperor, to prevent him, intended to carry the war to 

gates of Kogni, or Koniyah, where Khliziqftlan (G) com- A. D. 
tided : but while forces were raifing, he was feized vio- Ill 4-J| 
idy with the gout y which hindered his defign. Mean time 
Uziq/llan ravaged the country feven times over. The 
rks, who judged the emperor's dlforder to be only a pre- 
, to cover his want of courage, made game of him over 
cups, and afted comedies, wherein they reprefented 
exis lying in his bed, fiirrounded with phyficians, who */*»/£# 
:times confiilted, and fometimes' went about to give him*»#<™r« 
; after which they fet up a horfe-laugh. The emperor 
length, landing at Civitot, came to Fort St. George, near- 

• Auk. Comn. in Alex. Lxhr. citS* 

(G) By Kbli%iaftl$n is to be or general ; while Sofeyma»,yrhci 

[ftpderttood Say/an, or the fon of was only a commander, is call- 

\fyijjrjlan, the former Soltan. ed Soltan. Qrd\dSoleymatt 9 cM- 

fjk is obfervable here, that he edtlie irtn of old So/ey man >by the- 

!*ho was actually Soltan is (tiled crufade writere ? reign at the fame 

jtolj. a commander, governor, time in the weft, about Nice? 

' " P 3 * c 

HI fhe Seljftks */ Rftm. B. I 

>fht lake of Nice; then proceeding three dayt march, he c* 
pamped near the bridge of Lopadion, on the rivulet of Karj* 
ceum. The Turks, who had ravaged the plain which is * 
the foot of the Leucknnian mountains and Koleucia^ on tbf 
news of his approach, retired with their plunder. The cat 
peror followed them to Pomatum, and then feat fome ligfc 
troops tftsr them i thefip overtaking them at i^/fcx, killed 9% { 
qy, and recovered part of the fpoil. 
f bey re- ALRXlS returning, went tp take the ftir at the pa&rf 
ffw Maligna, on the tqp of mount Otyn$us], whither tb$ emprdt 
pame to him from the prince s\/le (f ) : there being informal" 
that the Turks wf re at hand, he marched toward* Nice ; h* 
the enemy, without waiting for him, fled. However, beta 
pvertaken by two of his genentf s, who froqj the top of the Gmj 
minion mountains obferv^d their motions, they were defeated*. • 
The emperor being arrived at F$rt St. George, palled ^ 
to the town of Sagydeum, and thence to Heknopolis, wfco^ 
the emprefs waited for a wind to return to Conftantinefk 
Prefendy news being brought of another irruption of tki 
their in- Turk^, Alexis marched to Lopadion, and thence to Khm% 
evrfio*** vhere being informed that the enemy were at Nice , he ifc 
tir$d to Mifiura : but underftanding afterwards that tfaj 
were only flying parties, who appeared about that city m 
Doryleum to obferve his motions, and not thinking hhnflf 
yet fufficiently ftrong to follow them to Kagni, he turned ttt» 
ivard$ Nicamedia. The enemy judging, by this motion, tbg 
Jac had no defign to attack them, took their former poA^' 
pnd renewed their incurfions ; which was what the paxjem 
had in view : however, it gave occafion to his enemies at cotil 
to reproach him with doing nothing, after rajfag fp coofidftt 
fable an army. 

Whbn the fpring was part, Alexis judged it time to pt|; 
Jdamur of\k\% firft defign in execution, and march to Kogni ; from Ai* 
mtj$*S 9 b* pa/Ted' tp Gdiia, and the bridge of Pithicus ; then hani| 
in three days advanced to Armenocaftra and heucas, he »i 
rived in the vaft plain of Doryleum, where he reviewed luf j 
*rmy, and fpntrivpd a new mpthpd of drawing up his fbrcfl| 
}n batt}g. v He fpund th*t dig Turks did not fight like otbd 
people, joining their bucklers and bodies dofe together ; but 
divided their troops into * main body and two wings, like 
three" different armies : ' that when one was attacked, the 
Others ran to its afliftance with extreme ardor : that they did 
not'makt'ufe of lances, like the French, but endeavoured to, 
}pclof$ their enemies, j*nd fcfll $£m V)& wows : that thdf 

(f) Near Cbakedn^ in the Propenriu or fea of Manmrs 

C* Third Soltdn, Say fin. hig 

«fwi way of fighting was at a diftance ; and, whether purfu* 
tog ok purfued, they made ufe only of the bow, which they 
Aew with fuch force, that, even though they (hot when %* 
Iqg, they never failed to pierce cither the man who followed 
4buB, or his harfc. 

i For this reafon the emperor ordered his army to be draws Alexis V 
wp fa fuch a manner, that his foldiers fhould oppofe their n*w Hf- 
to the fide from whence the Turks (hot; and that «>£**< 
fhould (hoot on that fide which the Turks kid open 
them in (booting. Having arrived at Santabarls in this 
difpofition, he divided his forces, in order to execute ffe» * 

different defigns. He fent Kamytzes, with one party, to 
/ and Kcdreum, where Ptdkbcas was governor ; and 
>tos with another, to attack Amerixm (H). When JKs- 
snpfzu arrived at Kedreum, Pulkbeas and his fbidiers were 
Med ; then marching to Pofybotum, he flew the garrifon, and 
nieoli the fpoil, Stypeotes had the like fuccefs at Pocnumea*. 
I /. The emperor, bong ready to fet out from Cedreum to Po- Has rt* 

eand Kogni, was informed that Soltan Sdeymta had fetccur/t 
> all the forage through Afia minor; and that another 
of Turks was coining to oppofe him : he confulted God, 
fikaow whether he (hould march towards KognL, or give 
L tank ttt the Turks r who were coming from Filomilion. Hav- 
writtcn thefc two quefiJons on two pieces of paper, he 
them in the evening on die altar, and fpent the night in tt&uixak 

la the morning the bUhop entered, and taking up" *- 
firft paper which came to hand (I), unfolded it, and read 
aloud, whereby he was determined to go to FiiomiUm. 
Sfcan time B arias, having pafled the bridge of Zotnpi, defeats 
W a large body of Turks in the plain of Onwrisn ;* 
ither pillaged his camp. Being prefied hard afterwards by 
third party, the emperor came up timely to refcuo him, 

; having pafled Mefimafts, near the lake of forty martyrs > - \ 
at Filomilion, which he took by force. .From hence 
detached divers parties to ravage the towns and villages 
it Kogni \ which they did, bringing away vaft multitudes % 
Turks, and a prodigious quantity of plunder .• they wee* 
by infinite crouds of pedants, who came to take re- 
foge in the emperor's dominions. 

[ The emperor returning by the fame road , he went, in or- Turks at- 
4r of battle, for a long time met with no Turks, frithpngh'*^^*"* 
Mjnolykui kept on one fide of him with fom* troops. But 

JH) The fame, we conceive, (hop in eameft, or was it a con- 

fith Amurium, or Jmorium. trivance to reconcile the army 

(I) Were the emperor and hi - to his meafares \ 

P 4 • being 

%l6 The Scljftks fl/.Rftm: B.E 

being pome to the plain between Pofybote and the above-men* j 
tioned lafce, the enemy appeared. Monolykus (K), who was 
a man in years, and of great experience, began the attack, 
and continued it all the day, withqut making any imprcffiad 
on the Roman ranks* Next day Soltan Kbliziaftlan arrived j 
and though: he was no lefs furprized at the new difpofitkm 
of the Roman army than Monolykus, yet being in the heat of 
youth, he reproached that old man with fear, for not giving 
them battle. At the fame inftant the Soltan attacked tht 
rear, and fent two bodies to fall on the van, and one of tht 
Mtins The Turks fought bravely. Andronicus Porfkyrogenetuss 
narrow the emperor's fon, who commanded the left wing, was kiK 
ifcafe. led. Nycephorus Bryennius (L), who was at the head of tht 
right, fearing the van would be defeated, ran to its af&ftanoes J 
* upon which the Turks, with Soltan Khliziaftlan, turned their 
backs, and re-afcended the hills. As thofe who efcaped flat 
different ways, the Soltan, with his cup-bearer, got into a 
chapel, upon a mount planted with cyprefs, where they wertf 
followed by three Scythians and a Greek, who took the cup* 
bearer ; but Kbliziaftlan, not being known to them, had th» 
good fortune to efcape. The night being come, the Turks 
aflembled on the tops of hills, lighted 4 great number of 
fires, and barked like dogs (M). 
frofofis a Next day the baggage, women, and children, being pit* 
treaty, ced in the middle, the army marched towards Amprus; 
but on the way, the Soltan, having aflembled all his forces 
inclofed and attacked them courageoufly : however, he could 
not break their ranks, which flood as firm as a wall of ada- 
mant. Being vexed and afhamed that he was not able ti' 
get any advantage againft the emperor, he held a council in 
the night ; and at break of day fent to treat of peace. 
teats con- ALEXIS, who was then in the plain between Augujh* 
dnded* potis and Aoronium, caufed his army to halt, in the order they 
then were, and went to the place of interview, with his 1* 
Jations and chief officers, guarded by fome foldiers. Tie 
Soltan came prefently after, accompanied by all his officers; 
with Monolykus at their head ; who, as foon as they came ia 
light, alighted «id faluted the emperor. The Soltan would 

(K) Hp is here called the life, from whence this account j 

great $olt£n, by which muft b$ pf the Turks is taken. ; j 

understood commander only. (M ) The author often throw* 

(L) Hufband to Anna Comne- reflections of this kind on the 

jm, the emperor's daughter, an Turks* 
fWthor who wrote hex father's 


P/fi Third Stltfn* Sayfe* ' *if 

have done the fame, but Alexis hindered him : however, 
when he was near, he alighted,, and kiffed the foot of that 
prince, who prefented him his hand, and ordered a horfe to 
be brought for him. Then taking off his mantle, he put it 
on the Soltan. After this, entering on the fubjeft of peace,' 
Jkm agreed that he ftiould remain in poflfeffion of all the 
territories which the Turks were matters of before the reign 
«f Diogenes, and the battle in which he was taken prifoner. 
Ifcxt day the Saltan and his officers figned the treaty ; after 
which the emperor made them rich prefents. 

While this affair was tranfa&ing, Alexis having diico-iMafl&d 
ijcred that Majut had confpired to aflaffinate Soltan Say- CM fP ir ** 
Jan (N), his brother, he advifed him to ftay with him till 
_jbe plot was blown over : but trufting in his own power, ha ^ jy m 
• jefolvcd to return; nor would fo much as accept of a guard , 116.*]/ 
[jpefcort him to Kogni; although he had a dream the night 
■■pefore which might have made him Ids rafh. He thought 
ift great fwarm of flies furrounded him while at dinner, and 
fcatched the bread out of his hand ; and that, when he went 
\to drive them away, they changed into lions. Next morn- 
i|0g he aiked a Roman foldier the meaning of his dream ; who 
told him, that the infults of the flies and lions feemed to 
denote a confpiracy of enemies. For all this, the Soltan 
1 would believe nothing, but continued his journey with more 
Ohftinacy than before. 

However, he fent his fpies abroad, who indeed met vAdxogainjl his 
Mafut at the head of : but having efpoufed his m^brotberi 
fcreft, they went back, and told Say/an that they had feen 
nobody on the road ; fo that the Soltan, proceeding forward 
Jrithout any miftruft, fell into the fnare. As foon as he came 
jft fight, Gaziy fon of the commander Haffan Katuk, whom * 
'iayfan had put to death, fet fpurs to his horfe, and give 
lum a ftroke with his lance ; which Say/an fnatching out of 
lis hands, faid, with an air of contempt, I did not know that 
yomen carried arms. Pulkheas, who was in his train, and 
field a correfpondence with his brother Mafut, pretending 
great zeal for his fervice, advifed him to retire to Tyganion, 
(0) a finall city near Filomilion, where he was very kindly re- 

• " ^ • * . ceived 

(K) Heje is a fodden tranfi- that, at firft fight, he feems to 

ttoa from KhUxiaftlan to Say- be a different Solt&n. 

J**\ whom, for the reafons al- (O) Where was his army I 

teady al ? eged, we take to be the where was Monotykus, the great 

I feme perton. Although he is Soltan as he is called), and the. 

Introduced in. foch a manner, other Soltans, who were with 


lift The Seljfiks of RfimJ B. 

ceived by the inhabitants, -who knew he had made 

(P) with the emperor, under whofe obedience they were.^ 

m;bc h fy- MASUT came prefeotly after, and mvefted the place ; <m 

irmjid, the walls of which Say fan appeared, and reproached his foth 
jefts with their perfidioufneis ; threatening them with tM 
• coming of the Romans, and a punifhmeat fuitable to tf w 

Grime. Thefe menaces were fupport^d by the vigorous 
liftance mad$ by the befieged. It was then that P\ ~ 
difcovered his treachery : for, coming down from the 
as if with defign to encourage the inhabitants to defend 
place, he allured them, that there was a powerful army 
the road to aflift the befiegcrs ; and that they had no 
way to prevent being plundered, than to furrender at difcw 
tion. The citizens, following his counfel, delivered Sayfim 
to his enemies ; who having had no inftrutnent with th 
fit for putting out his eyes, made ufe of a candfeftick (O 
which the emperor had giVen him, to deprive him of 1 
fight. When he was brought to Kogni, he declared to 
fofter-father that he could fee. The fofter-father told 
to his wife, who kept the fecret fo well, that it became J 
Jic in a few days : fo that coming to the ears of Mqfik, 
put him hi fuch a rage, that he forthwith ordered Rlgttk 

mnifiran* one of his commanders, to go and ftrangie his unhappy bf 

fkfc iherK ■ 

Although this account of Say/an is but lamely 
duped, and, for want of fome identical marks, he may 1 
to be a different perfon from Khlizia/tlan, yet, from tne 
cumftances of the whole, we prefume, they appear 
enough to be the fame Soltan, under two different rxameq 
or rather that, through inadvertence in compiling from ti 
different memoirs, the name of Kbliziaftlari has been put, 
fome places, for that of S&yfan. 

This event happened about the year of Chrifi n \6 (1 
which gives a reign qf ten years tp this Soltan. 


* Ann. CpMW. in Ale*. !. xy, c. 1-0-7. 

kirn the day before ? did they (Q^ ) By making it red 

all defert him in this time of and holding it before his eyes, 

danger? or did he put more (R) This date we gather ha 

confidence in Pulkbeas than any the death of the emperor Jim 

of them r For we are teld by his daoghl 

(P) This is a farther argu- and hiftorian, Awna Comma* (I 

jnent that Say/an is the fame that, a year aad a half after I 

with Kktixia/} Jan. return from *hc *bo?«-md 



fourth SoltS* MaflM. 


S E C T V. 

fbi Reign of Soltan Mafl&d. 

ALTHOUGH JyHerbebt, in his table of Soirins, taken JWtf 
from Ktmdamtr r places Maffudzs the third Solrin, yttSoIteh; 
fa the article under his name, or rather another prince of the MaflM, 
! vme name *, he fays he was the fourth. This is conform- 
i|Ue to the author of the Nighiar\ft&n % who makes the num- 
ber of the Soltins to be fifteen, contrary to the general opl- 
rpon of the Perjian hiftorians : thefe hiftorians connect the 
beginning of Maffud's reign, as the third Soltin, with the 
of rb&Hejrah 500, or of Chrift 1106: but in cafe he 
the fourth, it muft fall lower of courfe : and on a Ajp- 
tkm that he fucceeded his brother Say/an, after putting begins bit 
to death, according to the teftimony of Anna Cemnena, reign t Ht}. 
reign will commence in the year of Chrift 1116. 613. 

D'HBRBELOTiw imparted nothing more from the 
tal authors (if they afford any-thing more) than the 
drcumAance inferted above, which ferves only to con* 
the fyftem he has adopted, and fupport ours. Nor 
|tt AWtfara] mentioned more than two fafts relating to this 
but the Byzantine hiftorians, as hitherto, have fup- 
us pretty well on their fide, with materials for a hiftory 
bis reign. 

The emperor John Comnenus % who fucceeded Akxb, find- Emfmrar 
I that the Turks (A), inftead of keeping their treaties made tat*/ So* 
ith his father, facked feveral cities of Phrygia, about the 20 P oIis i 
dcr, marched agalnft, and defeated them ; after which A. D. 
took Lao&cta, and inclofed it with walls ; then returned Il *°* 
GmftanfinopU ; but foon after departed, in order to reco* 
Sozopolis, in the fame country. As the city was defend- 
by a ftrong garrifon, and furrounded with precipices, he 
" fome troops to hover at a diftance, and Ihoot at' the 
tants. This drawing them into the plain, as the em- 

* I?Hxai. p. 563, yt. Maflbud, fij. de Mohammad, at the 

fined expedition againft th$ 

Tanb of £g*s, he was ieized 

"^ a grievous diftemper, 

;bt on by a wrong treat* 

of the gout, which held 

fix months, . at thf end 

rhereof hedied. 

(A) Our author Nicetas calls 
them Ptrjians here, and gene- 
rally eliewhere ; either be- 
caufe the Turks came originally 
into (he empire from Perfia, or 
imagining that they ftill came 
from thcKC. 


&2V 5fife Seljftfcs of RAmC B.I 

peror expefred, and while they purfoed the Romans who 
fled, they were cut off by an ambufcade ; by which ftrata- 
gem the city fell into his hands. He reduced likewife a fart 
called the Spar-hawk, and feveral other lefler places, which 
the enemy had miftered b . • 
gjfi Kaf- Some time after this he marched into Paphlagonia, not 
taaaona; took Ka/tamona : but, upon his return, to Conftantinople, To? 
'&• D« nifman, a. Turk of Armenia , mentioned in the former reign 
x%ZZm who commanded in Cappadocia, recovered it, and put the 
garrifon to the fword. On this advice the emperor fct 
A. I>. forward the fecond time : and when he came before the citjr f 
1124.] was informed that Tanijman was dead, and that Mokamme^ 
who was at variance with Mafut f governor of Kogni (B), war 
in pofTeflion of it. Hereupon he made an alliance with M4? 
Jut, and having received a reinforcement from him, marchfii 
againft Mohammed: but the latter, by his perfuafions, pro* 
vailed on the Soltan to withdraw his troops \ fo that the oaj 
peror ^gs obliged to make ufe of . his own forces. Witk 
**/Gan- thefe he retook Kaftamona, and then befieged Gangra, # 
gra, ver y p 0Wer f u i city of Pontus, which had been fubdued net 

long before by the enemy. Having battered the walls for 
fome time in vain with his engines, he removed them to % 
little eminence, which commanded the place t and, by beatiiw 
down the houfes about their ears, obliged the inhabitants •$ 
furrender : then leaving 2000 men in garrifon, returned wi% 
many prifoners to his capital. ] 

Invades He had not been long at home, before he marched againft 
Armenia, [^ orl9 y lti g tf Leffer Armenia (C), who had taken feveral pW 
ccs, and befieged Seleucia. The emperor gained the pafs in* 
H30.] to that country without oppofition; and not content wit^. 
reducing Adana and Tarfus, refolved to conquer the wholft 
kingdom. He took, either by force or capitulation, a greafr 
many forts ; and, among the reft, Boka 9 ftrongly fituated 0% 
a fteep rock. Then he proceeded to Anazarba, a verY po- 
pulous city, {landing on a fteep rock, and inclofed with ftrong. 
walls. After battering the firft wall, and entering by the? 
breaches, much blood was fpilt in fqreing the fecond wall \ 
the principal Armenians, who had fled there for refuge, makt 
ing a very brave defence : but the place was taken $t laft, 

* Nicetas m John Comnen. c. 3. 

(B) Here Majut, or Mtjiut, part of Cilicia, joining upon 
who was Soltan, is called only Syria, with fome part, perhaps, 
governor of ihe place. of Caff adori*. 

(C) |t contained die eaftern 

. . Apter 

C.* Fourth Soltdn, MafiBd* tit 

- After this he marched into Syria, where fie took Pifa, ami Syria; 

oo the Euphrates, Serep, Kaferdd, and #?rax ; but was obBged 

to wife the liege of Sezer (D), and fo returned to Antiokh. ll $**l 

From thence he marched back, in order of battle ; and, in 

the way, fent part of his army to ravage the country about 

Kogni, in reprifal for invading his territories during his ab~ 

ieace c . 

Sou e little time after, the emperor eroded over into Ajia, Defeats 
todifperfe the Turks ', who laid wafte the country adjoining '£' Turks 
ID the river Sangarius. This done, he marched into Arme- * n 
ma, to put a ftop to their incurfions in that province, and ,,^-S 
i curb the infolence of Conftantine G auras y who had feized on 
Trebizond, and erefted a kind of tyranny. Mohammed, be- 
i fee-mentioned, at that time commanded at Cafarea~\ and, 
[-Siring reduced Iberia, with part of Mefopotamia, was grown 
fiery rich. He boafted of being defcended from Arfaces, and 
[ the modern family of the Tanifmans, who were the greateft in fevered 
: enemies the Romans had in the eaft in that age. The tm^t- battles. 
tor fuffered great inconveniencies in the enemies country, from 
[tile fevere cold, and want of proviftons, which destroyed moft 
fof the horfes in his army. Of this the Turks took tome ad* 
Itaatage; but being at length repulfed, the emperor returned A. D. 
to Neocefarta (E), where he had feveral fkinniflies with them, * 1 3$- 
tat did not recover that city j which was owing, in great 
jpeafure, to John£vmnenus, his brother Ifaac'% fon: who re- 
lating that his uncle fhould order him to give one of his 
horfes to an Italian, who had loft his own, went over to the 
iurks, and changing his religion, married, as it was faid, the 
daughter oiMafut, a,t Kogni. 

The feme year he marched into Phrygia, XoAttalia, z&eevvert 
4mous city (F), in order to reprefs the incurfions of the-/"** 
Turks, who had, amongft the reft, feized the Pahs Pugiifta-f^^ 
tax. This is a lake of vaft extent, with many ifles in it ; 
|*hofe inhabitants, by trading with the enemy, had become 
& much their friends, that they joined in oppofing the em- 

Eor. But by means of veflels, and engines, with which he 
tered the ides, he reduced them at laic, though not with- 
[ oot the lofs of fome barks and men <*. 

c Nicetas in John Comnen. c. 5 & 6. 4 Id. ibid. c. 9 

& ID. 

"(D) Rather Shayzar; called (E) Called Nikfari, by the 

by rooft of the crufade hiflo- Turks. 

liaos Co/area. (F) On the coall of Pampbi- 



*29 fbd Stijfiks cf Rfon; fcfc 

Mafftd tfrflLE thefe things Were doing in the*eft, It may M 
takes Ma- prefumed that MaffM was extending his dominions in tM 
latiyah* ^ : but we ire informed of none of his exploits on thai 
fide, but one, by AM'Ifurty, who tells us, that, id the j**jh 
Hej. 537. of the /fiprui 537, Mtbamtntd, fen of Danifbmand, lord el 1 
A. D. Malatiyab, and of the borders, dying, king Mt^Stf, lord Of 
"4 2 * Koniya and Akfara^ took poflcflionof his territories S • M< 
fcwffw ' Now let ns return to the aflairs of the Greeks : JebnCm? 
Manuel items dying in 1143, his fon Manuel fuccteddd him. Gfl#" 
k A. D. of his flrft cares was to march againft the Turks, who rtU 
- 1143. taged Thract y and attempted to take the fort of Pitherana 
Having put them to flight, he eroded Lydia, and freed t 
citks of Pbrygia, near the Meander, from their fears. Ni 
Filomelion he engaged the enemy, and was wounded in 
heel by a foldier whom he had pierced with his lance ; 
he expofed himfelf to danger even more than his father, 
thence he puflted on drreftly for Kogni, at which time 
Jut was gone to encamp at Taxara, formerly called C 
inve/fsKo- (G). Bang fet down before the city, the wife of Jebn 
*iyah. nenutf before-mentioned, fpoke very notably from the 
A. D. in behalf of her father Mafut. The emperor retired/ 
,| 44- going round the town ; and was forced to fight fitveral 
ties on the road, to open a way back for hte army. 
ttis evil In the year 1 146, Cenrade, emperor of Germany, and 
dating Chrifiian princes who had taken the crofe, came to Co _ 
tinvpki in the way (by land) to Syria, intending to 
through Leffer Afia. The Greeks were in fuch hafte to 
rid of them, that the whole marine was employed to 
them over. The emperor Manuel took feme care about 
fubfiAence : but, at the fame time, ordered fnares to be 
for them in the difficult paflages ; by which means 2 
t+taants number of them periftied. The inhabitants of cities ir± 
the cru» march, inftead of receiving and fupplying them frcdy 
fader** provifions, from the top of the walls drew up their moasjf 
in baflcets, and then let down as much bread for it as they 
thought fit themfelves : there were even feme, who fpoileJ 
the flour, and mixed it with lime. But our author is m* 
fure that all this was done by the emperor's order, as wdP 
given out ; although it was certain that he had ordered brff 
filver to be coined, wherewith to pay them for the goods they 
fold. In a word, there is no mifchief which Manuel dial 
not contrive, or caufe to be contrived, againft .them; ttoil 

e Aeu'l*. hill, dynafl. p. 255. 
|G) To the nonh-caft of Ikonium, or Kd/fde 


C 4* Ftttrtb Selttn % Mafl&d % ±f 

their pofterity might, by the misfortune of their anceftor$, be 
deterred from ever letting foot oh Raman ground. 
. The Germans and AwtcA had not inarched far into Jfia, TZrTurkt 
kfjare they were met by the Turkijb army, commanded by Jlsugbur. 
que Bmplani who, excited by the letters of Ma/uiel, and a.jx 
IgQanated by his example, fought and defeated them. They i\jfl\ 
afterwards appeared at the Meander, to oppofe their paflage : 
lot Conrade lpurring his horfe into the river, his army fc4- 
Ipved; and getting over,, fell on the Turks with fuch fury,. 
ifeat fcarce any efcaped. The flaughter might be judged by 
the vaft mountains of bones in that place, which our author 
Kicetas had himfelf beheld with afloniihment. The fame 
Ififtorian tells us, that, after this famous victory, the Germans 
pet with no enemy to oppofe them, during the remainder of 
-march. But we are informed by the weftern writers, 
{braid know belt, that the difappearance of the enemy 
i ealy till the Franks came to Ikeniunt, the capital of the 
rkjfb dominions in hejjer Afia. This city they clofely in- Koniyah 
e& : tat it was fo ftrongly fprtified both by nature and heJUged* 
*s well as bravely defended by the Turks t that though 
ted Iain a long time before the place, they made no 
jt& ia taking it* At length provisions failing in their 
bap, fuch a mortality enfued among the ibldiers, that the 

eror Conrade was glad to raife the fiege, and return home/ Conrad* 
j caufe <st this mortality, and overthrow of the whole ex* return* 
itkm, is generally afcribed, by the faid writers, to the*** 1 ' 4 
tks m**ii£ lkne with the meal whkh they brought to. 
by the connivance of their emperor ; whom they charge 
": with betraying the defigns of the Chrijlians to Saltan 
ix Mahntft, as fome name him f . 
Thefc are all the tranfaftions mentioned by the Greek** 
the reign of Mafut : to which we have only one more - 
, fromf JM'ffaraj, namely, that, in the year of the 
rah 546, Juflin (H), having taken Nuroddin's armour- A. D< 
«r prifooer, fent him to Majfud, who vtzs Nuro'ddtn's fa- u$ l * 
^-in-law, with a threatening anfwer ** This faft is of little 
l y but as it ferves to fetdc the length of this Soltan's 
1 ; -which is thus brought down with certainty to this 
and, from circumftances produced hereafter from the 
tine hiftorians, it is probable that he lived two or three 
(•in longer. But fuppofing that he died at the end of the Death of 
Jttr 1152, this will bring the end of his reign fifteen years Maflfcd, 

f Nicbtas in Manuel, 1. 3. c. 2, 5 & 6* f Abu'lp. 

(H) That is, J$fee!fa, count of Edefa. 


%*4 He Seljfiks of Rtim: B.IS 

lo^er in the century than a calculation made from the year* 
of his reigning affigned by the Perfian hiftorians ; and giver, 
it a length of thirty-feven years, which is double, within one 
year, to what they have given it : but on a fuppofition that 
he, and not Say/an, immediately fucceeded his hither, he wi| 
then have a reign of forty-feven years. This goes a great wajK 
to fill up the chronological chafm which thofe hiftorians havtf 
left in the fucceffion of thefe Soltans ; and, by the ftill longed 
reign of his fon and fuccfcflbfr, we fhall be able to acoooi 
plilh it. 

Tbe reifft of Soltdn Kilij Arflsin it 

fifth $*/- yr is agreed, both by the Greek and oriental hiftorians, 

*t in Ki t! Kil V Ar fl* n IL fucceeded his fethcr Ma P d in *« sdt ^ 
Arflan 11. ^ R ^ m . ^ ut t y s circumftance i 9 all the account which u 

have received from Ac Perfian authors, relating to this prinoq 

except the length of his reign ; which they have made fhortf 

by three-fourths than it ought to be. This confirms the fe 

fpicion, that they have no memoirs relating to the firft Sd 

jukian Soltans of Rum. In efieft, D'fferbetot, as before, hi 

given nothing under the article of Kilij ArJlJbi II. but wfai 

he takes from Abfflfaraj * ; and that is no more than a (bat 

account of the troubles which befel him, on dividing his do 

minions among his fons, a few years before his death, 

which is to be found in the Byzantine hiftorians : fo that 

readers may be faid to be indebted to them for every thin 

concerning this Soltan, excepting only the time of his dead 

which is fixed by Abu'lfaraj, 

attacked by MASUT, or Majfiid, emperor of the Turksi at 

Jagupa- death divided his dominions and provinces among his fons 

" n * He gave to Khliziaftlan, or Kilij Ar/l&n, his capital Kogi 

with the places depending on it : to his fon-in-law Jagupafk 

(A) the cities of Amajia and Ancyra, with Cappadocia, thl 

6 1 fr 1 "^ c ° untr y : and to Dadun the cities of Cafarea and Si 

1 ■*' bajie. The three brothers did not long live in unity: ft 

the Soltans of Kogni and Cappadocia, envying each other's 

feflions, carried their complaints before the emperor Mwm 

who fecretly widened the breach between them ; though 

openly agreed to affiil Jagupafan, through the averiion whid 

* See D'Herb.'p. 1004, aft. Kilig Arflan ben MafToud. 
( A) Perhaps TakubHatfan. 

C £ Fifth Soltdn, Kilij Arflan II. 225 

he had to the Soltan, a prince of a dark and gloomy difpofi- 
tion, who ftudied the death of all his kindred, and often made 
iacurfions on the Roman territories. 

JAGtJPASAN, elated with this reinforcement, attacked 
tie Soltan, who fought feveral battles, with pretty equal fuc- 
cds; but viftory at length' declaring for the former, he laid 
«fown his arms, and continued for fome time in rcpofc. 

The Soltan, after this, went to meet the emperor on his Retires /# 
return to Conflantinople, from his expedition to the weft (B), and Manuel, 
was received with joy ; as he imagined his prefence would 
ferve to fettle his affairs in the eaft. A triumph was ordered 
on that occafion ; but the people were fo affrighted with an 
earthquake, which threw down the beft houfes in the city, and 
darkened the air with vapours, that this pageantry was but little 
• minded. During the long ftay which the Soltan made atCbn- 
\Jtantinople, he often diverted himfelf with public (hews. One ^Turkifli 
jfd&y a Turk> who at firft patted for a conjurer, but turned Icarus. 
i OBt to be a fool, got on the tower of the Hippodrome (C), 
i pretending to fly acrofs it. He was drefTed In a white gown, 
[*ry long and wide; the fides of which being ftuck with 
|<«ier twigs, were to ferve for wings. He flood a long 
\ lime ftretching out his arms to, gather the wind. The people 
impatient called out to him often to fly. The emperor would 
| Jbave duTuaded him from that vain and dangerous attempt ; 
tarhile the Soltan was divided between hope and fear. At laft, 
^When he thought he had brought matters to bear, he launched 
" like a bird ; but his wings deceiving him, he was carried 
headlong by the weight of his body, and broke his 
to the great diverfion of the Chriftian fpe&ators. 
. The emperor, who had made Kbliziqftlan confiderable MannelV 
[ prefents, carried him one day into his cabinet ; and hzsmgprefents. 
"tewn him a great deal of gold and filver coin, wrought plate, 
ilendid habits, and rich filks, fent there for the purpofe ; 
[•iked him, which of thofe parcels he would have ? The Soltan 
lid, he Jhould receive with refpeEl that which was agreeable 
his majefty to give. Manuel then demanded, if, with the 
} jmoney which he faw, he Jhould ,ht able to humble his enemies ? 
whliziajllan anfwered ; that he\x)ould have done it long ago 9 
hJtR cafe he had been matter of but part of that wealth. Then, 
; fiid the emperor, / will give you the whole, that you may judge 

^ Jb) This, we fuppofe, was for our author Nicetas marks , 
Ks expedition againft Sicily; neither the time nor place. 
Which* we judge might have (C) Called ky the Turks At* 
btcn in the year 1 1 5 3, or 1 1 5 4 ; tntydan, which' fignifies the fame 


Mod. Hist, Vox.. IV. Q^ what 


The Sal- 
tans dif- 
bonefiy ; 

<Tbe Selj'&ks o/R6m. 


bis great 


the em* 

iv hat a monarch pojfejfes, *who can make fuch magnificent 

The Sol tan, charmed with fuch great liberality, pronufcd 
to reftore to Manuel the city of Sebqfte, with its dependen- 
cies. The emperor accepted the offer with joy, and promifed 
to make him farther prefents, provided he performed his pro* 
mife ; and, , to ftrike the iron while jt was hot, fent Conftan- 
tine G auras with the money and troops. But Kbliziaftkn 
was no fooner arrived at Kogni, than he ruined Sebafte, took 
Co/area, drove Dad&n out of his territories, and went in pur- 
fuit of Jagupafan, who died while he was raifmg forces to 
oppofe his enemy. Dadun having feized Ama/ia, was the oc- 
casion of the death of Jagupafan's widow, who had called 
him thither ; for the inhabitants riling, flew her, and drove 
out Dad&n, whofe power (he intended by her intrigues to> 

But they found therafelves too weak to refill Khliziafl* 
lajiy who reduced their city to his obedience, as he had done 
Kappadocia a little before ; although he was quite a cripple, 
and fo.lame of his hands ancl feet, that he could not go, bat 
as he was carried in a chair. Yet being full of fpirit, thif 
did not hinder him to violate the peace, and take fevex?L 
places from the Romans : finding alfo the opportunity favour*! 
able, he went and fubdued the city of Melitene y which he, ( 
intirely deftroyed, and'forced out the Amir, although he vra 
one of the fame religion. He made ufe of perfidy to deceive hif " 
own brother, and expel him, like the reft, who Red for re- 
fuge to the^ emperor. 

At the fame time oneSoleymdn, a fubtlefair-fpoken perfin^ 
came to excufe the Soltan's conduft, laying the blame of thq 
infringements made in the treaty, on the Turks. His apology, 
was accompanied with exceflive praifes on Manuel, and a 
prefent of fome fine horfes from his mailer. i 

The emperor ordered the ambaflador to reproach the Sot; 
tan, in his name, with his breach of faith and inconftancy ? 
but Khliziq/llan, far from pgyipg any regard- to his remon- 
ftrances, though he called Jihn father, went to Laodicea\s 
which, at that time, was not walled, and carried off a gretf 
number of prifoners, as well as cattle ; killing alfo manyl 
people, and, among the reft, the bifhop b . The Turks com- 
mitted other ravages; but Manuel put a ftop to -them : and 
repaired R'liatc, Pergamus, and Endromit, which had bee* 
ruined by them . he likewife built feveral forts to fecure tte 
^ frontiers c. 

b Nicet, in Manuel, 1. Hi. c. 5 8c 6, 



C 4: Pifl* SoU&Th Kilij ArlHn II. $27 

The care which the emperor took to repair the fbrrifica-^aw 
tions cfDeryfeum, gave occafion for a rupture. The Soltan, r*//Kry 4 
pretending ndfc to know the defign of his coming, fent to A. D. 
fatreathim to retire; and the Turks, not liking to be xlriven ll 7S* 
oat ef a fruitful territory, fo convenient for feeding their 
Axis, made frequent inroads, burning villages, and ravage 
lag the country. However, Manuel went on with the work 5 
and when the fortifications of that place were finiihed, he 
ftt forward thofe of Subitum. This made the Soltan accufe 
him with breach of treaties : while the emperor, in his turn, 
upbraided the Soltan with ingratitude. 

Both parties being irritated, the emperor made great pre- Manuel 
Jaraoons, and crofled into Afut. * He marched through Pbry*fets for- 
gia, and, paffing by Laodicea, 'came to Kone h formerly Kolofr'uwd* 
fas, a very rich city (D), where otir author Nicetas was born c 
from thence -he marched to Lempis, and fo to Celenej where 
the river Marfias has its fource. Proceeding. forward* he ar- 
\ lifed at Kxme, and next at Myriocephale. He advanced with 
I great precaution, always intrenching his army uAth care, and 
; toer expofing hinrfelf to danger 5 though the multitude of 
i Warlike engines rendered his march very flow arid incommo* 
iBons. The enemy appeared fometimes, and fkirmilhed with 
the Romans :- but, what was worfe, they deftroyed the fo- 
liage, and fpoifcd the water of rivers and fountains, ( which 
j$ave them the flux. 

[' The Sohan, having received a reinforcement from Mefo-Tbe Soka* 
^otama anielfewhere, fent-an embafly to demand peace of begs peace* 
[the emperor, on his own terms : which all the perfons of ex- A. D. 
^erience advifed him to accept; reprefenting that the Cavalry '1*76. 
^rf the Turks (E) was very good ; that they had feized the in* 
jkcefliblc parts of the country ; and that a. contagious diftem* 
feer already prevailed in the Roman army. But Manuel, fuf* 
[bring hhnfelf to be led by his relations, who had never been 
a camp before, fent back the ambaflador, without pfomi- 
any-thing. The Soltan having applied for peace a fe- 
ld time, and received" no other anfwer than that the empe* 
would fatisfy his demands when he came to Kogni ; he 
[ffepared an ambufcade, in the pafs of Sybriza, through which 
Ike Romans were' to march after they left Myriocephale* 

(D) There was the church of calls them Perfiam : which fliew* 
'■fit. Michael; admired for its he means the fame people ; and 
Jtrgenefs, and the beauty of its that he ufes the form or name, 
'Hchitedure. only becaufe they came origi- 

(E) A few lines before he nally fiom Perfia. 






Dangerous It is a long valley, bounded on one fide with high mcxra- 
j*Jage. tains, and on the other by deep precipices. The emperor, 
inftead of going before with light armed troops, to open th* 
way, divided his army into fix bodies, and marched behind 
the baggage, at the head of the fifth, which confifted of die 
flower of his troops. The two firft corps parted the rooft 
dangerous places without any lofe ; becaufe they covered than* 
felves with their bucklers, and valiantly fought the enemy, 
who attacked them from the top of the rocks. For wanttf 
thefe precautions, the right wing, which made the third bo- 
dy, was broken and cut in pieces, with Baldwin, the emp* \ 
rorV brother-in-law, who commanded them. The Turks, \ 
elated with this fuccefs, ihut up the paffage intirely ; fo that 
- the Jlomans could neither advance nor retreat : in a moment 
both men and horfes werp pierced with infinite arrows, which 
covered the ground with dead bodies, and made.the chands 
run with blood. 

The enemy made great efforts to defeat the troops which 
'were about the emperor, who tried feveral times to repnUc 
them, and open a paffage : but not being able to compafc 
his defign,.he threw himfelf almoft alone into the middle of 
them, and happily efcaped, after he had received fevenl 
wounds : about thirty arrows were flicking in his buckler, 
jand his clique was half beaten off. Mean time the foldierj 
fell thick in the battle ; and thofe who efcaped this fatal pais 
perl(hed in the valley. The whole defile confifted of feral 
vallies, one within another, the entrance of which was prettt 
wide, and the way out very narrow. A violent wind hap- 
pening to raife clouds of dudt, both parties fought for fame 
time in the dark, killing indifferently their friends or foes. 
However, a much greater number of the Romans were Qm 
than of the Turks, and chiefly the emperor's relations. , 
When the ftorm was over, men were feen buried op to 
the waift among dead bodies, extending their arms, and im- 
ploring help with lamentable cries j without being able to ob- 
tain any, from men who were in too much danger them- 
felves to think of aflifting others. 

The emperor was alone, without his armour-bearer or 
guards, refting himfeif under a wild pear-tree : there was 
only one horfenian who offered to ferve him, and tried to re- 
fit his head-piece. At the fame time a Turk feized the bridle 
of his horfe, but he ftruck htm down with a piece which re- 
mained of his lance. Prefently after, others running up to take 
him, he drove them off with the lance of the horfeman who 
attended hira ; killing one of them, and his aftiftant cut off 1 
the head of another with his fword. Having been joined at 


The empe- 
ror s di- 

C. 4. Fifth Bottdn, Kilij Arflin II. 2*9 

length by ten Romans, he furmounted, with incredible h-EJcafei 
tigue, the difficulties of the paiTages : then croffing the rirnuitkd ; fi* 
ver, and marching over dead bodies, he met with a troop off u ty* 
Us foldiers, who came up as foon as they faw him. He be- 
held in the way John Cantacuzenus, who had married his 
niece, fighting very valiantly ; but at length killed and ftrip- 
ped, while he looked in vain to fee if any body would come 
to his affiftance. Thole who had (lain him, having perceived 
the emperor, who could not be hidden, made a fort pf ring, 
doling their ranks, to furround him. They jvere mounte4 
on barbs, nicely trained ; which, among other ornaments, 
had long collars of hair, with little bells. Manuel, encou« 
raging his men, repulfed the enemy vigoronfly ; and ftill ad- 
vancing, fometimes fighting his way, at length joined the firil 

Before became up with them, he aflced for fome water Jnhfilty* 
out of a river which ran by ; and finding that it was tsdntedfildier. 
with the blood of the fiain, threw it away, faying, How un* 
happy am I to drink Chriftian blood? An infolent foJdier re- 
torted, It is not to-day only that you have drank Chriftian 
blood: you have, for a long time, drank it tofuch excefs, that 
you have been drunk with it ; ftnee you load your fubj eels with 
the mqft violent and inhuman exactions. The emperor, at 
• the lame time, obferving the Turks carrying off the bags of 
J . money defigned for paying his army, he exhorted thofe about 
f him to go and recover them. But the fame foldkr, continu- 
\ ing his infolences, (aid, He ought to have given us that mo- 
\ **y> '**$**& of commanding us now to go and retake it, at 
^ the peril of our lives. If he be that man of courage as he 
1 boafts himjelf let him go and wreft it from the Turks. Mar 
muel bore thefe infults with a profound patience. 

CONTOS.TEPHANUS, and fome others, arrived in theThi emfa 
: evening, without having received a wound. They pafTed the ror re r 
night in the greateft anxiety, leaning their heads on their/*/w to 
kaods, and reckoned themfelves no better than dead men,./??* 
ijonfidering the dangers which furrounded them. What ter- 
rified them moft was, to hear the Turks running round their 
camp, and calling aloud to thofe of their country to hafte out 
of it, for that next morning they would put all to the fword. 
The emperor hereupon conceived the defign of flying pri- 
vately, and leave his people to be flaughtered ; nor was he 
afhamed to own it : , thofe who were about him were filled 
with indignation at it, and Contqftephanus moft of all. 

A soldier unknown, who was without the tent, and 
heard what he faid, raifing his voice,, cried out, What a de+ 
Uftable thought has entered into the mind of the emperor? 

%A The* 

$3d ^* Seljflks */ Mtth B.L 

With-bdd Then addreffing his fpdech to him, Is it not yw+ fekl he. 

by re- 


who have brought us to perijb here, under rocks, which bruife 
us, and mountains which overwhelm us P what have we to do 
in this valley of groans and tears, in this defcent to bell, in 
the midft of precifices and fits ? We have had no difference 
with thefe Barbarians, who have inclofed us within this chain 
of mountains : it is you who have led us to the Jlaughter, to 
jacrifice us as viclims. This boldnefs of fp^ech. touched the 
emperor, and m?de him refblve to fubmit to the neceffity of 
the occafion. 

The Soltan While* no hope feemed to be left for the Romans, the 

offers Soltan, by perfuafion of the principal men of his court, whoi 
in time of peace received penfions and prefentts from the em- 
peror, propofed to offer him terms of peace. However, the 
Turks, who knew nothing of their matter's intentions, pre* 

» pared at day-break to attack the camp, courfing round it 

with horrible cries. Twice the Romans made a felly to re- 
pulfe them, and both times returned without gaining any ad- 
vantage. Mean wh'rle the Soltan fent G auras, who, having 
ordered h oft ili ties to ceafe, and faluted the emperor after the 
Turkijh faftiion, prefented him with a fword, and a horfe 
which had a filver bit, and was very well trained ; making 
nfe of the moil gentle and agreeable words to comfort him; 
Obferving that Manuel had on a black veft over his cuirafs, 
he faid, That colour is not proper in thrte of war, and prefaget 
no good luck. The emperor received this freedom laughing, 
and gave him the veft, which was adorned with gold and 
purple. Afterwards he concluded and (igned the peace, by 
which he was obliged to demolish the forts of DoryleumixA 

The emperor defigned to avoid returning by the place rf 
battle ; but the guides brought him direftly through it, that 
he might behold at leifure the deplorable fpe&acle. In (hart, 
the vallies and forefts were covered, and every hollow filled, 
with dead bodies. The heads were all fcalped, and the privy 
parts cut off; which, it is faid, was done by the Turks, that 
the Chriftians might not be diftinguifhed from the cirCum- 
^ifed, as well as to (hew that the viftory was theirs d . 
When the Romans had parted the fti;alts of the mountains, 

the peace; they were attacked again by the Turks, who purfued them 
in parties, and killed the fick and wounded, who were no* 
in a condition to help themfelves, notwithftanding all the 
care that could be taken to prevent it. It is feid, the Soltan, 
repenting that he had let the prey flip out of his hands, had 

terms of 

returns | 


* N*S*T« in Man. \. vi. c. <— — 4. 


C* fifth SoUdn, Kilij Ajflan II. 231 

given his foldiers leave to commit thofe hoftilities, which con* 
dnaed till they got to Kane. He flayed a while at Philadel- 
phia to refrefh himfelf ; and, in parting forward, demolifhed 
the fortifications of Sahleum, but left thofe oi poryleum (land- 
ing ; and when the Soltan complained of it, anfwered, that 
he paid little regard to a treaty which was extorted from 
fan by force. Hereupon the Soltan fent Atapakus (F) at the 
head of 20,000 chofen men, with orders to lay wafte the 
Roman provinces, and bring him home fea-water, fand, and 
an oar. That commander ruined all the cities near the river lofis man} 
Meander ; had Tralles and Antiokh delivered to him by oom^ities. 
pofition ; took Luma, Pentakhira, with fome other cafUes, by 
force, and ravaged all the fea-coaft. 

The emperor, on this advice, immediately difpatched JWn^'Turfcs 
Vataces, his nephew, Conjlantine Ducas, and Michael Afpa- defeated % 
cms, all able men, with forces to reprefs the enemy. Vata? • 

ces led his troops direftly to HieRum and Limnokhira, fmall 
cities, which had formerly a bridge on the Meander ; and 
hearing that the Turks were retiring with their plunder, made 
the greater part of his army lie in ambufh, and ported the 
reft beyond the river. The Turks having been attacked in 
a place where they were much expofed, Atapakus charged 
the Romans at the head of his braveft foldiers, to give the 
others time to crofs the river. He gave eminent proofs, for 
awhile, of his courage and conduct : but when he faw that 
there was another army of the enemy beyond the Meander, 
which flew all thofe who appeared before them, his ardor 
abated, and he fought a place where he might pafs the 
ftream with lefs danger. Finding none fordable, he placed him-r 
felf in his buckler, as in a boat, making ufe of his fword for a 
rodder ; and holding the bridle of his horfe, who fwam behind, 
gained the other fide of the river. As foon as he had landed, 
he told his name aloud, in order to draw the Turks about him : 
but an Allan, who ferved in the Roman army, coming up, Hew their £*»*• 
him: upon which his troops being routed, moft of them ™AA'»- 
were drowned in the Meander. This exploit, more than 
any other, retrieved the affairs of the Romans, and humbled 
the pride of the Turks. Afpietus perifhed unhappily in this 
rencounter ; for a Turk, not being able to hurt him, his ar- 
mour being proof, made a ftroke at the head of his horfe, 
which, capering,* threw him intq the river % 

e NicBT.inMan. 1, vi. c. 6. 

(F) Some peribn, we pre- theSeljuis of Rum copied thofe 
feme, who had the title of Ata- of Iran in moft things. 
Mi expreffed in Atapaku*; for 

0^4 The 

232 TU Seljdks of Rftm. B. I. 

Shameful The emperor being defirous to attack the Turks of P*> 
/^ ef * nefa and Lacere, reduced the firft ;' then font Katidus, governor 
or Laodicea, to difcover the condition of the others: but 
he threatening them with the emperor's arrival, they fled 
immediately ; which fo enraged Manuel, that he ordered 
Katidus to have his nofe cut off. Soon after, he gave troop-, 
to Andronicus Angelas, and Manuel Cant acuzenus, to attack- 
Roman the Turks of Karace, which is between Lampis and Graofgaku* 
general. Andronicus, having only taken fome fheep and peafants, flejj 
full fpeed at the bare report of the Turks bang at hao$ 
without fo much as enquiring how many they were \ and not 
content with efcaping to Kone, fpurred his horfe on to Lao&i 
cea. The foldiers, aftonifhed at the abfence of their general 
abandoned the prifoners and the baggage, and would hx& 
difperfed, but for Cantacuzenus. The emperor would harc 
punifhed this gallant behaviour qf Andronicus, by making hill 
walk through the city in women's cloathv but for therek^ 
tionlhip that was between them. 
Bravery As the Romans retired, a Turk, from a rifing ground, fldf 
ff others, a great number with arrows. Several fliot at him again, tart 
he had the dexterity to avoid their /hafts ; till Manuel Xcrus, 
alighting, went up to him, and cleft his head with hisfwori£ 
although he demanded quarter after killing fo many others 
A Deacon, who was a man of courage, and related to Nk 
cetas, having had the charge of fome plunder at Karace, <fi 
not leave it behind like the reft, for fear of the danger. Son 
admired his refolution, in marching flowly in the middle c 
his enemies ; and others mocked him for his avarice, in fet» 
ting a greater value on the booty than his life : for his partj 
he defpifed their railleries, and reproached them with cow* 
dice, in flying when they were not purfued. 
Claudio- The Turks foon after befieged Klaudiopolis ; on the newi 
polis r#- of which the emperor ran to its relief, with incredible diOf 
sieved. gence, without any equipage befides his arms. He croffed 
Bithynia by the light of torches : he parted the nights with- 
out fleep : and, when fatigue and watching obliged him to 
take a little reft, he lay upon nothing but ftraw. At tho 
news of his approach the Turks betook themfelves to flight, 
and the citizens were filled with joy, being no lcoger able to 
have held out f . *' 

Great fuc* KHL IZ IAS TLAN, who greatly feared the emperor Mai 
'ifi yyel, no fooner heard of tys death (G), than he weqt airf 

* Nicet. in Man. 1. viii. e. 8. 

(G) The emperor died in Sep- which anfwers tp ti^e year rf 
tevibir, in the fifteenth indiftion, Cbrifi 1 1 8z. 


C 4; Fifth Soltdn, Kffij Arflan Ii; 83 j 

took Sozopolis ; befieged, for a long time, the celebrated city A. D. 
p£ j4ttaka\ and ravaged Kotyalium ; • and, more than this, &<• 1 182. 
Ihfteral provinces voluntarily fubmitted him' g . This prince, n * 
who enjoyed a vigorous health, though upwards of feventy , g ?i 
fyears of age, took the like advantage of the death olAndro- l _/ 
Libras, and proclamation of Ifaac Angelus ; upon the news rf^/T?5 
P*rtifch, he fent ^nf r Somes y with feme horfe, to make an u> ^ W^ 
waprion into Thrace, from whence he returned with many 
wrifoners and much plunder : for the nations of the eaft let 
the Romans remain no longer in repofe than they made them 
fercfents, or paid them an annual tribute, which was the way 
m making them quiet, ufed by the emperors of that age ; 
who, in this refpeft, fays Nicetas, were weaker than women, 
W10 handle nothing but the fpindle and diftaff\ 

This 3oltan, wlip, in his latter days, became very. pow--D««*r 

Bfful, divided his dominions among his fons, of whom he^'"*^"** 

" many ' : but we meet with the names of only five, Maf- 

Kothbo'ddhi, Roknoddin Soleymdn, Gayathoddin Kay 

^tbofraw, and Moazoddin Kayfar Shah (H). After this di- 

ibution, his children treated him with much ingratitude, and 

contempt : Kothboddtn (I) went fo far, as to feize and 

him. Afterwards marching to befiege Kayfariyab 

that is, Co/area, in Cappadocia), which he wanted to take 

"one of his brothers, to whofe (hare it fell ; the old 

tab&n, whom he carried along with him, found means at 

ttgth to make his efcape into that city. But meeting there 

iith a bad reception, he applied himfelf firft to one fon, and 

fan to another, who all proved alike, excepting Gayatho'ddln 

fsy Khofraw. This prince not only received him with aftec* 

Son, but went with him to befiege Koniyab ; and having taken 

placed him once more in the throne k . The diftribution 

Bade by Kilij Jrjlfai of his dominions among his fons, we 

edge, from the courfe of the Greek hiftory, to have been in 

* Nicbt. in Alex. Comn. c. 1 5. * Ibid, in Ifaac Angel. 

. i. c. 4. ! Ibid, in Alex. Comn. 1. iii. c. 5. * Abu'l* 

fii a j, hift. dynaft. p. 276. 

. (H) Nicetas mentions only the (I) This prince, by what fol- 

W four, whom, according to lows, was in pofleflion of Koni- 

ike Greek way of corrupting yah (called by the Greeks Kognt, 

femes, he call$ Mafut, Kopatin, or Konni), and consequently was 

fafatff*, and Kai Kofroes ; leav- to have been his father's fuccef- 

iog out the additional names of for in the kingdom, or the fo~ 

tynan2xi&Gajatbo , d£n 9 vi\iom vereign on whom the reft de- 

ixGn/h write Sdiman zndja- pended. 



5'3* *B* Scljikks of Rflm.'. B.1 

tke year 1 1 87, or that following ; and his reftanratkm to 

happened in 1 190 or 91 • 

TfoGer- During this prince's abdication, and ill treatment by 

man */p- children! the emperor Frederic Barbarojfa (K), who had 

feror the crofs, arrived in Thrace, in his way to Syria ; and 

ing made peace with Ifaac Angelus, repaired with his Get 

A. D. to Kallipolis y where, finding fhips ready, they eroded over i 

If 9°' Anatolia* When they came to Philadelphia, the inhabit 

who behaved well enough at firft, attacked them in the 

at their departure : but finding they had to deal with ftatal 

of brafs, and invincible people, they betook themfelves t 

fhameful flight. The citizens of Laodicca, in Phrygia, 

the contrary, received thefe ftrangers with fo much good 

ture, that the emperor prayed for their profperity on 

knees. * When they came to the roads leading to the 

they met with the Turks, who incommoded them all 

could, by fldrmifhing ; although they had promi&d them [ 

{age, as well as the Romans. But they paid dear for d 


Jeftafs the FREDER IC gave battle near the fort of FilameRon to 

Turks. f ons f th e Soltan of Kogni, who had been driven from 

dominions, and reduced to a miferable condition ; and ha 

ing defeated them, took the fort and burned it. Coming 

a iecond engagement with them at Cinglacion, he gained 

iignal vi&ory : for as they waited for him at the partes 

they had feized, the emperor incamped in a plain ; and 1 

ing divided his army in the night, he ordered one half to 

main in the camp, and the other to feign a flight as fooa 

day appeared. The Turks believing that they fled for fa 

quitted the partes, and coming down into the plain, eat< 

the camp, where they expefted to meet with a rich bootj 

but the pretended run-aways returning, and thofe who 

Great in the camp appearing, they, between them both, furrooa 

/aughter. e d the Turks , and made a horrible (laughter of them. 

As the emperor was on his way to Kogni, the Soltan, wk 
had taken refuge in Taxara, or Kohnia> fent to excufe wh 
had happened, for that he knew nothing of the conduit i 
his fons, one of whom, named Kopatin (L), hacl driven hi 
out of his dominions. The Turks had barricaded themfehfl 
in the gardens which were about Kogni ; and as they can* 

(K) Nicetas never calls him Kohadts y as Ltuncla<vius judg 

emperor, but king; yet fpeaks h\i\.' Mufulm. p. £6. Some ! 

of him as a great, wife, and ftorians fay, this KothbtA 

good prince was taken by Frederic in 0flCf| 

(L) That is Kotbbiddin, not thefe bathes, 


C. £ Fifth S/Mm, KiBj Afflan II. £35 

Bgjit weapons, and fhot well, thought they could eafily de- 
fend themfelves againft troops heavily armed. But they were 
alio deceived this time by their hopes : for the Germans ob- 
serving that they took the advantage of ihooting from beftlni 
the hedges and ditches, the horfemen carried the foot-foldiers 
behind them, and fetting them down when they were neat 
tfce enemy, fupported them in every place where they were 
jiUe to go. Thus all the Tutks perifbed, excepting a few 
yho efcaped, A Mohammedan, who turned Chrijlian, fwore 
that it coft him 200 pieces of filver to bury thofe who re- 
gained dead upon his field ; by which the number of the flain 
my be judged of. 

Although the Germans were mafters of Kogni, theyTaiesKo* 
Would not go into the city; but were content to lodge in theniya. 
faburbs, and there take the provisions which they wanted. 
The Turks, apprehending that the emperor intended to con- 
fer their country, and fettle there, endeavoured to gain his 
i&ftion by falfe offers of fervice : but after he had received 
feme of their children in hoftage, . with guides, he left their 
famtiers, and pufhed into Armenia, where he was received 
with great honours. In a few days he proceeded to Antiokh, 
pi foon after was unfortunately drowned in paffing & ri- 
ver'. . 

Ohe Alexis, who pretended to be the fon of the emperor-^ Greek 
Manuel, difguifed his impofture with fo much art, that htpretender 
imitated the true Alexis, even to the fairnefs of his hair, and his fpeech. He made his firft appearance in the A. D, 
jities along the Meander : then going to Armak, difcovered n 9 u 
limfelf to a Roman, with whom he lodged ; telling him, that 
jus father had ordered him to be thrown into "the fea, but 
that he was faved by the compaffion of the officers who were 
jfbarged with that cruel mandate. He and his landlord going 
|d Kogni, he prefented himfelf before the old Soltan, who had 
^ot then been driven from the throne by his fon Kopatin (M), 
pad had even the boldnefs to reproach him with ingratitude 
|nd hard-bcartednefs, not to be touched with die difgrace of 
tte fon of an emperor, who had been his friend. Kbliziaft^ 
in, overcome by his impudence, and deceived by fome marks 
tf refemblance which appeared in his face, made him pre* 
feats, and gave him hopes. 

1 Nicet. in Ifaac Angel. 1. ii. c. 7 & 8. 

(M) Either this muft have not appear that the Greeks knew 
happened after the reftoration any thing of his reftoration to 
of Kilij Arjlan, or the marginal the throne, 
datemuft be wrong. It does 


*3$ ¥ht Scljuks of Rfitn." B. 

chums the One day, boafting of his birth in the prefence of the $ 

eafire ? pian ambaffador, the Soltan afked the latter if he was fare ~ 

thk pretender was Manuel's foa ? The ambaflador anfwefo 

i that it was certain that the foa of Manuel had been drvm 

ed (N) ; and that it was in vain for the party prefent to 

vent a ftory which would meet with no credit. The fi 

Alexis was fo provoked at this anfwer, that he would h 

flown in the ambaflador's face, if the latter had not cooled 

ixwrage by affe&ing alfo to be in a great paffion; and if 

Soltan had not rebuked him fomewhat fharply. All the 

fiftance he obtained from this prince was only letters al 

M&jur, permitting him to lift foldiers : by which he 

to his party Ahmiras, Arfan> and other commanders, 

Homed to rapine. In a fhort time he gathered Sooo 

with which, by force or compofition, he reduced many 

upon the Meander* 

fm'v ty a- Several generals, and lafHy Alexis, the emperor's t 

friefl. ther, were feat againft him : but they could do no 'good, 

fear of being betrayed by their foldiers; who (hewed a 

inclination to ferve this pretender than their lawful empetf 

Nor was the infection confined to the people only ? the _ 

ctpal perfons at court were pleafed with this illufion. 

while the power of this impoftor increafed every day, 

he feemed to be in a fair way of compafling his defigo, 

was fuddenly taken off by an unexpected means : for ' 

ing returned from Armak to P if e, and drank more than xA 

he was flain by a prieft, with 1 his own fword. When 

head was brought to the Sebaftocrator ( Alexis J 9 he 

back the long hair with his horfe-whip, 'and faid, thaf 

was not without reafon that fo many had been difpofed 

follow him ». 

n*$ofratt KILIJ Arjl&n died in his capital, in the year y88, 

£es . cording to Ab&lfaraj : which gives him a reign of forty ja 

Hej. 588. by our reckoning, from the death of his father Maffvd; 1 

A. D. t h » KondarrAr allows him but ten years. The author of I 

1192. JVighiari/lan, indeed, doubles that number; but both; 

wide of the truth. From the beforermentiar*ed account 

his age, he muft hive been feventy-fix at his death. 

Bis cha- . This prince was grandfon to the firft of that name ; 1 

racier. diftinguifhed himfelf, not only by the wars which he I 

ried on againft his neighbours the Greeks, but alfo by 

■NicET.inlfaac Angel. 1. iii. c. 1. I 

(N) He was firft strangled by in to be an affociate with4J 
order of the tyrant Andronicus* yqung prince in the empire* | 
W&Q. by b^ ^rcs, thrall himfelf . I 


p.4i Sixth Soit&n* GayathoMdfe: 

pqfdom, joftice, and (kill in governing his people. He left 

pfon Gayatho'ddtn Kay Kho/raw for hi9 fuceeflbr 11 . 

Ik confequence of this new nomination, Koniyah, as being 

x regal feat of the Soltans fince the lofe of Nice, fell to the 

re of Kay Kkofraw, as it had done to Kothbo'ddin, by thtf 

{ diftribution : and it is, doubdefs, to this fecond appoint* 

nt of Kilij ArJUn f that the partition, mentioned at the be* 

; of the next reign, ought to be referred. 



r reigns of Gayatho'ddin Kay KhQfraw, Rokno'ddin 
; Soleyman, Kilij Aril an III. and $f Kay Khofcaw 
a fee and time. 

AYATHO'DDIN Kay Khofrav3 i according to our hj* Sixth &/- 
pothefis, was the fixth (A) Soltan of this Seljukian dy+fdn, Gajr- 
On the death of Kilij Arjlan y his dominions flood thu*a tn0 *<*<i* tt 
among his -fens (B) : Maffkd had for his (hare Amafia^ K* v f 
tb, Darylaum, and feveral other fine cities of Ptotus .; Kh °Uaw. 
bbo'ddin poflefled Melitenz, Cafarea, and Kelonia, called. 
ftxara; Rokno'ddtn was mailer of '. Amynt us , Dokwa, and 
maritime dries % and to Kay Khofraw belonged Konfya* 
Pamphylia, and all the country as far as Kotti* 

ALEXIS Komnenus, who fucceeded lfaac in the em- Another 
: (C), hod fcarce been three months on the throne, befareprettnder. 
ft arrived of another pretender, a Cilician, who had taken A. D. 
name of Alexis ; and was well received by the Soltan of ll 9$] 
[Acyra(D), with a defign to embarrafs the emperor, and 
l)lige Mm to buy rris.friencUhip. Oenapolitus the eunuch, 
i was fent againft him, being able to do nothing, he went 
felf, thinking to make an alliance with the Turks: but 

a Abu'lf. p. 276. * Nicet. in Alex. Comnen. 1. 3. c. 5, 

(A) DTHerheUt, in his table, 
[following Kondamir* makes him* 
Ac fifth ; hut, in the article of 
j&is prince, fays he was the fifth 
or fixth ; for that hiftorians dif- 
fer on this head. 

(B) Our author Nicetas fays, 
that Kilij Arjlan made this di- 
ftribution among his fons in his 
old-age: or, poflibly, it was 

done by agreement among them* 
felves, as he declares after- 
wards. Such as thefe are but 
fmall inaccuracies with the By- 
xantine hiftorians. 

(C) In the year 1195. 

.(D) According to the above 
diftribution, this mull have been 



238 fBe Seljftks of Rfim. ' Bw 

they refuted to conclude a peace with hirri, tnfefs he 
them down 500 pounds of coined filver, and 300 every 
befides 400 iiik veils. Alexis, having deftroyed feme f 
returned to ConftantincpU, after two months employed 
this expedition, leaving the pretender to increafe in j 
and doubtlefs he would have done a great deal of 
if his throat had not been cut in the fort of Zangre. 
Greek*///'- Ho w ever, the Sok3n of Ancjra carried on the war, \ 
belieged Diadibris with all his forces. At four months 
troops arrived under three young chiefs-, Theodore Ura 
Andronicus Katakaloh, and Theodore Kafanus : but the 71 
laying an ambufcadr, fell on them at day-break, put them 1 
fight, killed "a grcab number, and among the prisoners 
two of the general*; whom they dragged with their 
tied behind their backs, to fhew to the befieged. The i 
bitants, difcouraged at the fight, and being in great want 
provisions, delivered up the city, on condition of having \ 
liberty to retire with their families and effects ; becaofe 
viftbr would not permit them to ftay in the town paying 1 
bate. Soon after, when the war had lafted a year anc 
half, the emperor made, peace with the Soltan ; and was 1 
afhamed to agree to. the terms, which he had refufed 
the place was befieged b . 

THEODORE Mangafes, after his cevolt at PI 
and peace made with the emperor ; to avoid the attempts 
Bafilius Vataces, governor of Thrace, fled to Kay Khef 
Soltan of Kogni (E), and intreated him to fupply him 
troops to make war upon the Romans. The Soltan, in 
of granting his reqneft, only permitted him to aflemble 
Turks who lived by plunder. Haviikg gathered a multiti 

b Nicet. in Alex. Comnen. 1. 1. c. 4 & 9. 



(E) This event is placed in 
the reign of the emperor Ifaac 
Ajtgelus, at the year 1 1 88. The 
date docs not agree with what 
is faid a little lower down, that 
Kay KhofratM had but ttenuly fuc 
iteded bis father ; for he did not 
fucceed till ' after his father's 
death in 1 1 92. He did not foc- 
ceed on his abdication, in con- 
fequence of the divifion Kilij 
Arjlan made of his dominions ; 
for Kotbbo'ddtn was, by virtue 
thereof, in pofieflkm of Komjab, 

or Kogni, the royal feat 5 
did he fucceed on his father' 
re lloration, for Kilij A»^ 
reigned himfelf : unlets we fb] 
pole that he was reftored befc 
the year 1188, and that 
Khofraw was his alloc i ate, 
governed as if he was Sol tin j 
for which we have no author*^ 
ty. To make the hiftory there- 
fore confident with itfelf, we 
place (his tranfaftion here, fnp- 
pofing it to have happened 
about the year 1 196 or 1 197. 

C 4. Sixth Soltan, Gay atho'ddtn* 23$ 

rf thefe, he invaded the empire, doing incredible damages m 
fhrygia (efpecially abodt Laodicea and Kane), and in Karia ; 
after which he retired with abundance of prisoners and cattle* 
The emperor, fearing that Mangafes might by his advice cor- 
rupt that young prince, who had but newly fucceeded his* 
Either Kilij Arfldn, fent ambafladors, who by prefents prevailed- 
on him to deliver up that refugee, on condition that he/j deliver* 
fliould not receive any corporal puniihment. This action died up. 
4e Soltan fo difpleafed his brothers, who had divided with him 
Aeir father's dominions, that they would have made war upon 
Bm, if he had not appeafed them, by alleging : that he had 
lot betrayed him, but only fent him back for the good of 
ibe ftate ; that he was a banifhed man whom he had fettled 
jjgain in his own country, to the end that he might no longer - 
prfecute others, or be perfecuted himfelf c . 

* Towards the end of the third year of his reign, Alexis The Sol~ 
|toke the treaty which had. been made. with Kay Khofr,oei,tdns M~ 
|aJran of Ikonium, upon a very frivolous occafion. .This ^5 
Wnce ftopped two horfes, which had been fent the emperor A ' ?* 
» the Soltan of Alexandria ; and one of them having broken, ! l ^ -» 
t kg in running, he fent to apologize for both thofe acci- 
nts, and promifed to make fatisfa&ion. Alexis, inftead of 
Sang pacified with this civil excufe, flew into a rage, and 
kreatened much : but at laft took revenge upon himfelf, by 
idering the merchants from Kogni, Romans as well as Turks, 
bbefdzed, together, with their effefts, which werefquan- 
pred away. On advice of this, the Soltan immediately fell 
boq the cities near the Meander, took Karla and Tantalus* 
nth feveral others ; and had become mailer of Antiokh in 
fhrygia, but tor a merry accident. 

The fame night in which he intended to fnrprize that, 
one of the principal inhabitants happening to celebrate 
nuptials of his daughter, the guefts made a great noife, 

is ufual on fuch occafions : Kay Khofroes, as he approached 
walls, hearing this confufion of voices, and the Word, 
irhich the foldiers, who had been informed of his comings 
ftve to one another, he retired to Lampis. 

!■ There he viewed his prifoners? and inquiring into their his great 
jtoics, countries, and after what manner they were taken, humanity 
itfked if any of his foldiers had hidden the married wo- 
olen and maidens, with a defign to abufe them. Then he.or- 
jdered the effetts to be reftored which had been taken from 
ftwn; and finding that their number amounted to 5000, he 
fcffiged them according to their familes, and. at parting, took 

• Nicet. in Ifaac Angel. I. 2. c. 3. 

* cire 

i4d fr&Seijftks of Rfim; B.B 

care that they (hould be fupplied with provisions daring 4a, 
march. For fear alfo that they (hould be injured by the coty 
weather, he took an ax himfelf to cleave a tree which w« 
fallen. The foldiers running to fee him work* he ordere 
them to do the fame, faying : they might go out of the c 
when they pleafed to cut wood ; but that the Roman prifc 
durft not do it, for fear of being fufpe&ed of a defiga 

to the When he arrived at Fibrrielion, he afligfted them honfa 

tbrifiiam ; to lodge in, and lands to maintain them, diihibuting them 
and other grain. He promifed moreover to fend them 
without ranfora, when he (hould conclude a peace with tb 
emperor ; and thaj, in cafe he refufed to conclude one, \ 
(hojild remain five years in his dominions without paying 
tax; that afterwards they (hould pay but a very- light < 
which (hould never be increafed, as were often thofe eft* 
blifhed in the empire. Having thus regulated matters, he 
turned to Kogni. Such favourable treatment made the o 
tives forget their country, and drew into the Soltan's ten! 
tones abundance of people who had not been taken in war* 
J LEX IS fent againft Ac Turks Andronicus Dukas, wh 
being very young, contented himfelf with attacking the troof 
of Amir in the night, and prefendy retiring d , 
attached Some time after this, war broke out among the (bos 
by Rok- Kilij AfJIan, on the following occafion. Kothbfddtn (F) bd 
ao'ddin ; dead, a difpute arofe between RoknSddin (G) and Mafi 
who (hould fucceed to his dominions (which, as hath bq 
obferved before, confided of Melitene^ drfaria, and KoknU 1 
But as Roknoddin had more fpirit than his brother, and 
derftood military affairs better, he gained the advantage ; 
conftrained him to demand his friendfhip for one part of M 
country, leaving him the other part as before. After thi 
having conceived an inveterate hatred againft his brother Kk 
Khofraiv, becaufe his mother was a chriftian, and burning wit 
defire to poflefs Kogni, fent to require him to delirer it aj 
In cafe he had a mind to exempt the reft of his dominion 
from the hazard of a war. 
retires to KAY Khofraw upon this, having made peace with Alexii 
Alexis, repaired to his court (drefled in a robe adorned with got 
point), juft as his father had done before to that of the em 
peror Manuel, during the difputes which he had with hi 

d Nicet. in Alex. Comnen. 1. c. j. 

(F) By the Greeks named Ko- haps by miftake for RxJbeaM 

fatin, or Kobatin. So hlajfut, inftcad of Mafiui. \ 

(Gj In Kicetas Rukratin,ipeT- j 

7 brothot 

i:C»4- Seventh Saltan, Rokno'ddin. 241 

I. brothers after the death of their father Majfud: But whereas 
\. Manuel affifted Kilij Ar/lun with forces beyond his hopes, 
fKay Kbofraw received nothing from Alexis but common ci- 
|~yilities. He was fcarce returned to Kogni, when he was pur- 
tijbedbjRokno'ddin, and forced to fly into Armenia (H); where 
pie was lindly received by Leon (I), although formerly he had 
l^been at war with him. That prince however lent him no af- 
rfiftance againft his brother, with whom he faid he Was allied, 
i>ecaufc he forefaw that the war would be Very bloody, 
ifiereupon Kay Khofrdiv returned again to the emperor, in 
hopes of being reftored by his means. But this fecond hope 

rng as vain as the firft, he continued at Conftantinople (K) 
a private condition, and much below his birth e . This 
devolution happened, according to the computation of the 
Greek, in the year 1 198, or rather later. 

ROKNO'DDIN Soleyrnan having driven his brother Seventh 
J&ay Khofraw out of his (hare in the empire, in the fame^** t 
(inanner as he had expelled his other brothers out of theirs, 5^°°'^ 
the whole became again united under one prince. . , "a**" 

Not long after, the emperor fent Conftantine Frankopolis, ^ j^J 
With fix gallies, into the Euxine fea, under pretence of get- x l( & 
king up the wreck of a fhip which had been call away near 
^Kerajonte (L), in returning from the river Fa/is ; but in re- 
jality to rob the merchants who landed their goods at Amin- 
Frankopolis following exaftly the orders which he had 
ed, fpared no veflel whatever ; plundering thofe which Emperor 
lied commodities to Conftantinople, as well as thofe which turn * t* m 

returned with the price of fuch' as they had fold r *^» 
ere. They flew fome of the merchants, and threw them 
to the fea : the reft they ftripped to a fhameful degree, 
hefe prefented themfelves before the emperor's palace, and 
entered the great church with tapers in their hands, to de- 
mand juftice : But their effetts having been already fold, and 
Jhe money confifcatcd, they could obtain no redrefs. 

The merchants of Konlyab had recourfe to Rtknc'dJ/n ; 
\rho, by his amba/Tadors, demanded back what had been 
taken from them, and at the fame time propofed a treaty of 

e NicEt. 1. 3. c. 5. 

(H) The letter Armenia, Others fay, he died there. See 

1 \\) Others name him Zebtcn, Kttonvies, vol. 1. p. 39. 

I t TarJk. See Knotvlis, vol. 1; (L) Or Kerafus (from whence 

, p. 39. edit. Ricaut, came Chcrrys), a city and port 

1 (&)~By what appears after- of Fontus in the Euxtne fea, 

' TOds, he recovered his throne, about fixty miles fouth-weil of 

Trapezviy QrTraptxond? * 

k Mon. Hist. Vol* IV* R ■ peace. 

t\% The Seljftks of Rtim. B.L 

peace. The emperor laid all the blame on FrankopoEs : how* 
ever, the articles of peace at length taking place, Rokao'ddf* 
had fifty mina of filver, to fatisfy him and his fubjefts, be- 
f*d an of- fides the promife of a yearly tribute. Some days after, Alexa 
Jajfin. was (hamefully convifted of an' attempt agaiaft the SoltanV 
life ; having fent a very polite letter to that prince by a 
KaJJian (M), whom he had bribed to aflaffinate him : But 
the bravo being arretted, the plot was difcovered, and die 
peace broken almoft as foon as made ; which rupture oco 1 
fioned the ruin of many cities of Anatolia. 
Reman At the fame time Michael, the natural fon of John the & 
barbarir baftocrator, a froward and piffionate young man, having bee* 
ties. f cn t to colleft the taxes due from the province of Mylajfa (N)y 

revolted : but, being defeated, fled to Rokno'd&n, who re- 
ceived him very civilly, and gave him troops ; with which \k 
plundered the cities about the Meander, and committed mote 
horrible cruelties than the Turks would have been capable c£ 

The Com* ' lj muft be confefled, that nothing ever contributed fi> 
neni r*«- much to the defolation of the provinces, or the ruin of the 
f Urf /- empire, as the ambition of the Comneni ; who were of no 
ufe to their country fo long as they ftaid in it, and became 
very pernicious to it when they were out of it f . To this ob* 
(ervation of Nicetas we may add, that the Romans generally 
brought on themfelvcs the evils which befell them ; either by 
their breach of faith, or violences' committed againft the bar* 
dering nations :' yet, when the injured made reprifals, they 
loudly exclaimed ; as if they had a right to be cruel with im- 
punity, or thought thofe aftions virtuous in themfelves, whkk 
they deemed moft execrable in others. 
RoknoM- We are not much better fupplied with materials from the 
din\r«r- oriental hiftorians, relative to this Soltan, than thofe pie* 
pUtu. ceciiQg him : what little we have from that quarter is given , 
by Abfflfaraj. This author informs us, that Rokno*dd$n So* , 
ley man took Kontyah from his brother Gayatho % ddin Kaj\ 
A. D. Kho/raw * ; and that in 597, in the month of Ramaddn (0),i 
I zoo." he forced the city of Malatiyab out of the hands of his 
brother Moezo'ddin Kay far Shdh, after a few days leaguer. 1 
Then marching to Arzen al rim (or Arzer&mJ, which be- 
longed to the fen of king Mohammed ebn Salik ; that lord, 1 

f Nicet. in Alex. Comnen. 1. 3. c. 7. * Abu'if. p. 176. 

(M) So the Greeks call the (N) A city of Km 
Batanifts, or IJmaeHans, whom (O) The ninth month of the 
the other nations of Europe name Mohammedan year. 


C. 4. Eighth Soltin, Kilij Arflan III. 243 

depending on Rokno'ddtn's promife, went to him, in order to 

Heat of peace : but the Soltan imprisoned him, and then took 

the city. He was the laft of his family, which, for a long 

lime, had reigned there h . Soltan RoknodMn, lord of R4m,*nd death. 

died in the year 600, in the month of Dhulkaada (P), leaving A. D. 

Us fou Kilij Arflan, a minor, to fuccecd him 1 . l *?h 

&HER9EL0T affords us nothing from the Per/tan 
vriters concerning this prince, only that he had great dif- 
potes with his brother Kay Khqfraw ; but that at length 
peace was concluded between them : that, having reigned in 
Jukt twenty-four years, he died in 602 of the Hejrah, and 
if Chrift 1205 ; and was fucceeded by his fon Kilij ArJUn, 
foamed Azzo'd&n, an infant k . But, befides that we hear 
btthing elfewhere of peace between the two brothers (for 
fay Kbofra-w retired to the Greek emperor, and lived in Eu» 
rift, while Roknoddln lived), ther*is an error both in xh&Errmof 
length of his reign and year of his death. For, reckoning **th*r4* 
bom the end of the reign of Kilij ArfldnH t which is fixed 
WfAbVlfaraj in the year 588 of the Hejrah, to 602, when, 
Krcrding to D'Herbebfs account, Soleym&n died, it wifi 
fa him no more than fourteen years to his reign out of the 
maty-four : but as that event is alfo fixed by AbUlfaraj to 
fee year 600, there muft be a deduction of two years out of the 
torteen. This is fuppofing that Soleytnan immediately fuc- 
kteded his father Kilij Arflan : but it appears jErom the Greek 
pftorians, that Kay Khofraw mgacd between; perhaps as long 
p, or longer than, Rokno'ddtn reigned himfelf . To the above 
Niftakes, or inadvertencies, we may add another, which is, 
feat, in the article of Soleymdn, LPHerbebt fays that he was 
fche fifth Soltan ; whereas, in his table of Soltans, he gives 
Ihim the 6th place. 

b ! KILIJ Arflan III, furnamed Azzo'ddtn, -was advanced Eighth 
the throne immediately after the death of his father Rok- Soltan 9 
^ Mn Soleymin, towards the end of the year 600. But as Kilij A*- 
as his uncle Gayathoddln Kay Khofraw heard that his**** ***• 

was dead, he left the caftTe where he rcfided near 

tantinople ; and, making what hafte he could to Kontyab, 

' the child, and took pofleifion of the city : after which 

Gripped him of the reft of his dominions. This revolu- 

happened in Rajeb (QJj 601 K D'Herbeht has copied 

I fc Abu'lf. fl. 280 « Ibid. p. 282. * D'Herb, 

f. 822. art. Solunan ben Kilig' Arflan. l Abu'ut. p. 282, 

(P) The eleventh month. (QJ Rajeb is the fcventh 

Mobammtdan month. 

I R z v the 

*44 22' Seljtiks of k6m. . B.t 

the article ofKilij Ar/Idn III. from Ab&lfaraj, without adding 
any thing to it from other oriental hiftorians. Some Criuk 
writers, fay, that this Soltan, whom they call Tathatim 
(which is a corruption of his furname GayatMddin) (t), ob 
the taking of Conftantinople by the Latins, fled along with the 
fuitkfy de- emperor Alexis Angelus, otherwife called Comnenus\ and that 
throned-, * few days after, being fecretly informed of the death of Us 
brother Azatines (fo they mifcall Jlokno'ddtn), he departed it 
difguife, and, .repairing to his own people, was proclaim^ 
Solt»n m . 
MM J GAYATHO'DDINKay Kho/raw afcended the throne j 

Gay a- Koniyah for the fecond time in 60 1, the fame year in vhk 
thoMdin the Latins took ConftantinopU from the Greeks. Abu'jfen 
K a y informs us, that, after this, he became very powerful, at 
^5° j" re *6 nec * ^n^ 1 8 reat dignity n . This is all we learn from & 
,*^- ^ oriental authors touching the fecond reign of this prifloq 
1204.' aiK * ^ e ^y zantine hiftorians have not (aid much coocernia 
it. According to a fault very common with them, they i 
not direftly mention the reftoration of Kay Khqfiraw ; an 
only give an imperfeft hint, where they fhould fpeak out. 
State of . After the fhameful flight of the emperor Alexis (wh 
the em pire. changed his name of Angelas to that of Comnenus), and d 
election of Baldwin by the Latins; thefe latter, in lefs th 
one year's time, reduced all which the Romans pofleiTed bat 
in Europe and in Afia, excepting the cities of Nice and Pi 
.The Greek commanders, and other leading men, fwayed 
the fpirit of pride, malice, and corruption, inftead of 
* ing in defence of their country, divided into fadions, 
formed parties for creating new emperors. The weftern 
of the empire feemed to be quite cut off from the 
which fent it no manner of affiftance : but, being infeft 
with the fame contagion, produced a multitude of coot* 
manders, who ruined the country, and formed a monfter wid 
three heads. 
Maurozo- MANUEL Maurozomus, fupported by Kay Khcfn 
mus a- to whom, iince the taking (R) of Koniyah, he had pi 
Jpires to his daughter in marriage, made all his efforts to ufurp 
empire 1 fovereign power, and joined the Turks to ravage the coi 
about the Meander. Theodorus Lafiaris, illuftrious both 
his birth and alliance with the emperor, having defeated hiovj 

01 Georc. Acrop. Niceph. Gregor. L 1. n Abu'lf* 

ubi fupra, 

(R) That is from his nephew beginning, and adding an / at 
Kily Arjldn> as before related, the end. Jathatincs h the Get* 
tti By omitting the Ga at the man orthography. 




C. 4." Gayatho'ddin rtftorti. ' 445 

put on the purple buikins; and had himielf proclaimed empe- 
ror thro* the cities of the Eaft (S). On the other fide, David, 
Gumunus, having gathered troops at Heraclea, a city of 
Pmtus, and in Paphlagonia; having alfo fubdued the Ibe* 
nans, who inhabited along the Fafis, reduced feme towns 
tnd cities, and made himfelf the forerunner of his brother 
Jlexis, whom he had a define of advancing to the throne 1 
pat this Alexis, inftead of haftening to take pofleffion, loitered 
Kbout Trebizond. Mean time David having fent a young 
pan, named Synademus, with troops to Nikomedia, Theodore defeated by 
'Saris advanced at the head of his army to give him battle ; Lajkaris. 
taking a crofs-road, inftead of the great one, fell upon 
unawares, and difperfed his forces. He defeated fhortly- 
Manuel Maurozomus ; cut in pieces part of the Turks 
prhom he commanded; and took the moil considerable of 
Rfcofe who were in the van °. 

f In fhort, Lydia, Philomolpis, Prufa, Nice, Smyrna, Ephe- Empire 9/ 
jfr, and feme other cities of the eaft, were fubjeft to Theo- N* ce - 
fare Lajkaris ; who built long (hips, and fubdued feveral &. D. 
ids. However, in making peace with JCay Khofraty, he i2 *5 t 
ivc up to Manuel Maurozomus, his fadier-in-law, part of 
country which he poflefled ; comprizing the city of Kon* 
Kobffus), Laodicea, and all inclofed within the windings 
the Meander to its fall into the fea. 

DA V ID and Alexis, the fons of Manuel, and grapdfon&£m//V; $f. 
the tyrant Andronicus, had eftabiiihed their dominion inTrebi- 
Ferent parts: David in Paphlagonia, and a t Heraklia* m* ^* 
*ontus; Alexis at Eneum, Sinope, and Trebizond f Aldobran— 
an Italian, learned in the Roman laws, commanded at 
y alia ; and the ifland of Rhodes was under a particular 
(T). Thefe numerous commanders, inftead of a&ing 
concert,* to preferve the cities which they held, or recpn-r 
er thofe which they had loft, gave themfelves up to a fu-- 
rioos paflion of lording it ; and having taken up arms one, 
the other, yielded their enemies an opportunity of- 
farther advantages. 
Kay Khofraw at this junfture laid fiege, to the city of At- Attala 
imagining that it was not in a condition of defending befieged. 
felf: but Aldobrandini having procured 20Q foot from, 
ftyprus; the unexpected appearance of them, at the beginning 

• Nicet. in Baldwin, c, 5 & 8. 

I (S) Or Jnato/ia; Co the Afi- the fame manner among many 

\*&c part of the empire was petty fovereigns. SceAVr//. in 

! "lied. Baldwin, c. 10, 

(T) Greece was divided in " . 

K 3" ' ' mi 

246 the Seljftks of Rftm. B. I. 

of the aflault, made the Soldn retire, after he had been fix* 
teen days before the place p . 

" As we find nothing farther in Nicetas concerning Goya- 
thtfddtn Kay Khofraw, we muft, to finUh his reign, have re- 
course to the fucceeding hiftorians : who, being Ids accurate 
in their account of matters, have greatly embarrafled the 
hiftory of the Soltans ; and led thofe, who have hitherto 
written of them, into very grofs miftakes, which we (hall ok 
deavour to clear up. 
Alexis re- ALEXIS Angelus, the late emperor, hearing that Tbe> 
tires ft- dore Lafiaris, his fon-in-law, reigned at Nice; being afliflel 
eretfy by his coufin Mikhael Comnenus, who was prince of Epirut, 
A. D. crofled over from thence into Afia, and went fecretly tj, 
1206. Gayatho'ddin{\J), Soltanof Koniyah, his old friend and aBy,- 
then lying at Attalia, which he had not long before re- 
duced (X), and begged his aid for the recovery of his domi- 
nions, efpeciafly that part of them poflefled by Lafiaris^ 
The Soltan had been very Serviceable to Lafiaris (Y) at f 
time when he was reduced to great ftraits, by lending hia 
"' forces, with which he defeated his enemies, and had alfe 
to the concluded a peace with him : but being urged by gratitude tft! 
Soltan i his quondam benefa&or, as well as intereft, (Alexis making 
him great promifes), he threatened Lafiaris by his embafla* 
dors with the utmoft extremities of war, unlefs he immedi* 
ately refigned his territories to his father-in-law. Theodoras 1 
was much troubled at this unexpected meflage, as feariig 
both the Soltan's power, and the people's inclination to their 
did emperor : but, having founded the minds of his new fub* 
jefts, and finding them ready to fupport him, he took heart. 
<wfa at- Before the return of the ambafladors, Gayathoddln, at- 
taehs An- tended by Alexis, marched with 20,000 Turks and befitgej 
tiokhj Anfiokh on the Meander : which Lafiaris no fooner under* 
flood, than he hafted with 2000 men, the mod he was abb 
to raife on fo fhort a warning, to the relief of that city, which 
was a ftrong frontier ; and being the key of his dominions oq 
that fide, he knew, if taken, would open a way into the 
nim .a s fa heart of them. Lafiaris, drawing near to Antiokh, fent the 
Greeks j ambaflador before, who could fcarce perfuade the SoltSn, by 
oaths, that the emperor was approaching with fo finall a 

p Nxcet. in Baldwin, c. n, 

(U) The Greeks write Ja- on account of A/txt't, whofc 
tbatines. daughter, Anna Jugujia, Lafiarrg 

(X) This muft have been in had married ; which lady the 
a fecond attempt. Soltin ufed to call fitter. 

(Y) This feems to have been 


C. 4: Gayatho'ddfa reftored. 247 

force. However, he drew up his army in the beft manner* 
the narrownefs of the place would allow of; which he had 
icarce done, than 800 Italians of the Roman army began the 
attack, and, breaking through the Turkijb ranks, put them into 
the greateft diforder. As the Greeks had not courage enough 
Id follow them clofely, they were feparated from the reft of 
the forces : fo that, on their return, they were furrounded, 
: and all to a man cue to pieces, tho' not without making an 
©credible daughter of the enemy. 

( The Greeks, disheartened at fo great a lofe, were on xh$figZ>tJ*wstb 
tpoint of flying, when the Soltan, now almoft in pofleffion of Laikaris; 
[the vi&ory, defcrying the emperor, and trailing to his own A - D. 
>great ftrength, rode up to him ; and at thefirft blow, given I2I0# 
pfnth his mace on the head, ftruck him off his horfe. But 
:La/iaris 9 though forely ftunned, nimbly recovering bimfelf, 
[drew his fword; and, while the Soltan turned about, 
: ordering his attendants, with an air of contempt, to take 
torn away, he dtiabled the hinder legs of his mare, which 
1 thereupon rearing up threw her rider, who, before he could 
[life, had his head ftruck off (Z) : which, being (hewn upon W ^7*. 
|*ne point of a fpear, ftruck fuch a terror into the Turkijb 
[limy, that they immecUately betook themfelves to a diforderly 
"slight, leaving the Greeks mafters of their camp and baggage. 
Jkxisy the author of this war, was taken prifoner, and car- 
gfed to Nice, where he was confined to a monaftery, in 
Which he ended his days fome years after* This gave the 
-tomans an opportunity of breathing : for, from that time, 
the Moflemans made a peace with them, which they kept in- 

The Greek hiftorians, who relate this tranfa&ion, isaktMiJiakes 
Jathatines, or Gayatbo'ddtn, a different perfon from Kay of the 
thofraw ; not knowing that Gayatbo'ddtn (which name per- 
jbps he moft commonly went by after his reftoration, or did 
i)t aflume till then) was his furname. They fay that he 
%as the fon of Soltan Aladin, brother of Kay Khofra-w, con- 
fidently Kay Kho/raw's nephew : that Aladin, not long fur-. 
living his laid brother, left his dominions to this Jfathatines, 
•fid his other ion called Azatines (or Azzo'ddth), who was 

< Geoeo. Acro?. Niceph. Grcgor. 1. 1; Univerf. Hift. 
vol.17, p. 173. 

i (Z) The hiftorians fay it was done, or who did it. This 

Vttdone fo fnddenly, that nei- looks as if they would have it 

tker thofe prefent, nor the em- pafs for fomething miraculous, 
pcror himfelf, knew how it 

R 4 the 

248 *be Seljfcks of Rftrh; &V 

the elder : that. Jathatines , % being afterwards expelled bj^ 
Azatines, fled to Alexis Angelus : and that, Azatlnes dyhtf 
foon after, he returned to Ikonium, and recovered his king* 
Greek dom. The A/adin here faid to be the brother of Kay KmfL 
hifioriam, raw, feems to be the fame with his fon the great Alaamd 
who did not begin his reign till the year 1219: and Azatim 
is put inftead of the Rukratin of Nicetas, by whom GayatA 
o'ddtn Kay Khofraw had been driven out. How fiich great 
jniftakes came to be adopted by thofe writers is hard to ac- 
count i but whatever errors there may be in the names 
genealogy, the circumftances of the ftory and juncture 
time (hews, that Jathatines is no other than Kay Khofraw 
According to the chronology of the Greeks, Jathatines 
flain in the year of Chrift 12 10. Abu'lfaraj does not 
concerning tion his death ; and D' Her Mot only fays, from the oriental 
this Sol- authors,/ that,' having feized and imprifoned his nephew Kft 
tan. Arftan, he reigned in the dominions which he had ufurped(A 

the fpaae of fix years, till 609 of the Hejrah, and 12 12 
Chrift r . As there is here a difference of two years, 'we haw 
fixed his death at the middle year 1 2 1 1 , (which gives fain 
•feven years to his fecond reign, and thirteen to both) ; bdnj 
fenfible, there may happen a miftake of a year on one fide or 
the other. 

We find the names of two fons, whom he left behind 
him, Azze'ddin Kaykaivs and Alao'ddin Kaykobdd, who fee* 
ceeded eachpthcr. 

r D'Herb. art. Gaiatheddin hen Kilig Arflan. 

(A) D'Herhelot confounds his or feems to have been a 
firft and fecond reign together, to the former. 


The reigns of Soltdn Kaykaws and AlaoMdfn Kajt 

VinthSol- r\Y this Soltan Kaykaws; furnamed Azzo'ddin, or £z»Vfc 
an, Kay-V-^ din, we find very little mentioned. Ab&ljfaraj onlyteif 



kaws. U5j that he died in die year of the Hejrah 616; leavings 
A. D. children,* but who were minors ; by which means his brothcc 
121 9- Alao'dcBn KaykobM became his fucceffor \ D'Hetbeht add* 
nothing more from his authors, than that he died of a con- 
fumption of the lungs : only he differs much from Abfflfarq 
as to the time of his death ; for, he fays, it happened is 
the year 609, after he had reigned no more than one year b ^ 


* Abu'lf. hift. dynaft. p. 289* * D'Herb. p. 537- 

art. Caikaus Ezzoddin. 

C.4^ fentb S$hin 9 Aho'dd&n, 44j 

•whereas the other, putting his death feven years later, allows 

hiffl eight to his reign. There is the lefs reafon to depend 

+n DTterMdt, as he places the death of his father Kay 

Xiofraw in the fame year, 609 ; in which cafe Kaykaws could 

lK>t have fat in the throne fo long as a year, perhaps not a 

bwonth. Befides, he begins the reign of his fucceflbr Kay- 

^fobMy agreeable to AbUifaraj (whom indeed he, for the moft 

ijpirt, copies), in tKfe year 616. 

f- AZZO'DDIN Kaykaws having died, without leaving Tenth $•#* 

toy fons old enough to take the government upon them, the tan, Kay- 

iy went to the caftle of MenJbAr, which (lands on thek°bad. 

krates, near Malatiyak, where his brother Kaykob#d 9 H ^j* 616. 

lamed Alactddtn, was imprifoned; and, bringing him A - D * 

h, proclaimed him king c . 12l 9* 

j - After the deftruftion of the Karazmian empire by 
Mengbiz Kb&ri, and his Mogols, Soltan Jalalo'ddtn, furnamed 
Wiankberniy eldeft fon and fucceflbr of Mobammed, for fome- 
ihne made head againft therti, with furprifing bravery : but, 
teing at length obliged to give way to numbers, he retired D e r eatM 
leftward into Armenia ; where, intending to reduce it under Jalalo'd- 
iis power, he, in the beginning of the year 627, fat down din; - 
before Khet&t (or Aklat, capital of that country), wherein A. D, 
jwere two brothers of AI Malek al A/brdf(A). Having clofe- 1 "9* 
if befieged the city all winter, and battered it with twenty 
|iams, on the .fide towards the fea (B), the inhabitants, who 
Iwere reduced to eat dog's flefh, delivered it up to him, with 

! On this news Al Malek al Ajhraf and Alad*ddtn KaykobAJ 
inarching with their forces, met near Aboloftayn (C), and 
thence proceeded to Akjhahr, where the Karazmian met 
ithem with 40,000 men ; and coming to a battle, which 
[kfted near two days, was at length put to flight, with .great fyfafi* ** 
jiaughter of his men. Thofe who fled efcaped to the moun-* w arn 9* 
j tuns of Trapezond y where 1500 loft their lives. Jalalo'ddin 
jcfcaped alone to KhartabeYt (D), and thence to Kboway t (or 
)&y). After this, he fent one of Malek al Ajhraf % brothers 
In chains to the Khalifah at Bagdad*, and put one of his 
■Haves AzztfdMn Ibek to death : but hearing of the approach 
tf the Mogols againft him, under the command of Jurmag&n 

5 Abu'if. hift. dynafty, p. 289. 

: (A) Lord of Roba or Orfa, (C) Or Ablafia. 

$aren, and Khelat or Khalat. ( D) Alfo Haretbaret : by feme 

■ (B) Or the lake of Van, to travellers called Karfuru 
\ fre north of which it fUada, at 



250 The Sdjflks */ RAm. B. L 

Nowain, he fent ambaiTadors from Tabriz (or TavrisJ, in- 
viting both Ajbr&f and Alao'ddln to aid him with their 
forces to repel the florm ; which, if it pafled him, he bid, 
would fall on them. But they paid no regard to his feh 
treaties d . 
Emhaffy to In 630, Soltan Alactddin fent ambaiTadors to Okiay Kaa, 
Oktay. offering obedience to him. Oktay, commending his prudence, 
A. D. told him, that if their mailer would come to his court, hi 
1232* would receive him with honour, and give him one of the dii 
employments there, without taking away his revenues. Whkk 
haughty anfwer the ambaiTadors wondered at. 

The fame year Alao'ddin breaking with Al Malek al A/h* 
rAf, took from him KbeUt and Sarmfairay (E). Two yeas 
after he likewife forced Roha from him ; in which, for thiefc 
JRefiortd days, the Rums flew both CbriJHans and Mohammedans. Tk 
the Sel- remainder they firipped of all; not fparing the churches* 
3*1" Hereupon Harr&n furrendered to him. After this he toon 
Rakkah and Bin But, as foon as his forces were withdraw*, 
Al Malek al Kamel (lord of Egypt) came and befieged Robs% 
which he took at the end of four months, and fent all the 
Rums whom he found there into Egypt, in chains, upon 
camels. D'Herbeht fays, that, being prefled on one fide bf 
the Mogohy and on the other by the princes of the houfeot 
Ayub (F), he was obliged to withdraw his troops out of their 
dominions, in order to preferve his own. 
fitmt and This prince returned home, loaded with plunder and glory; 
£mfire. having extended his name and conquefts very far eafrward*. 
In fliort, he reftored the great reputation of the Seljuhiast % 
which the children of Kilij Arjlan had fomewhat unpaired by 
their divifions; enlarged the empire to its former limits j and 
re-eftabliftied order in the ftate. 
Eh death, In 634, Soltan Alao'ddin Kaykob&d died fuddenly : for 
A. D. at a feaA which he made for his chief lords and officets, juft 
1236. as he was boafting of the extent of his dominions, he felt a 
diforder in his bowels ; and, being taken at the fame time . 
with a flirtc, difcharged fuch a quantity of bloody excre» 
meats, that, he died two days after, jiaviag reigned eighteen 
years f . 

D'HERBELOT has given the hiftcry of this prince 
wholly from Abtflfaraj, only adding one or two particulars 


d Abu'lp. hid. dynafty, p. 306, & feq. • D'Herb. j 

p. 239. & feq. art. Caikobad. f Ibid. p. 311, & feq. ! 

(E), Or Surmatay. Germans); from whom S*Uh 

(F) Or jyub', that is, Job oddin was defended, 
(as we write the word after the 


C* Tenth Soltdn, Alao'ddfn. - 251 

from fondamSr ; who, in thofe points, differs from him* 
That author fays, Alao'ddin was poifoncd by order of his fon 
Kay Kbofrow, whom he had declared his heir. He likewife 
begins his reign in 610, and puts his death in 636, which 
makes its duration twenty -fix years ; whereas Ebn Shohnab 
Agrees cxaftly with Abflfaraj *. 

This prince was prudent, temperate, and ftrong. He *«/<&*• 
1 tepta very ftrifct eye over his nobles and dependants. Htragtr. 
%as endued with great firmnefs of mind, magnanimity, and 
profound gravity: nor could any fovereign govern better. 
As all the world fubmitted to him, fays our author, he was 
mffly ftiled (G), king of the world b . He muft therefore have 
ieeo not a little mortified by the mefTage, above-mentioned, 
lent him by Oktay Kb&n. 

- This is the famous Aladin I. known to the European 
inters; who acquired moft reputation of all the Soltans of 
lis race, and pafled for one of the greateft princes of his time. 
Be generally gained (bine advantage in all the wars wherein 
|e was engaged : but was obliged at laft to acknowlege the 
MogoU for his matters 1 . 

I . It was under this Soltan that both Ortogrol and OthmAn, Rife of 
[tf Qzm&n his fbn, founder of the prefent Othman race and Othman. 
[aspire, ferved, with their followers, and laid the foundation 
m their future greatnefs *. 


fih reigns of SoUdn Gayatho'ddln Kay Khofraw, 
and Azzo'ddin* 

; j4LAO*DDIN being dead, the princes took the oath of-. , 
+ 1 fidelity to his fen Gayathoddtn Kay Kbofraw % who^^** 
[jrefently after feized Gayer Kh&n, prince of the Karazmians. ^ a „ * 
[The reft of them fled, with their chiefs, by Malatlyah t Y&*{mt 9 
IXakhtm, and Kbartabert; where they did great mifchief :Hej. 634. 
Acn, waffing the country of Somayfat (H), they pafled on to A. D. 
\Smoayda. But Al Malek al Naffer, lard of Halep, afligning 1236. 
iover to them Roha, Harrdn, and other places beyond the 
[Euphrates, they defifted from farther ravages. 
! • In 637, the Mogoh advanced, with a defign to invade the - D 

« See D'Herb. p. 139, art. Caikobad. h Abv'lf. p. ,2 39* 

290 & 312. *' D'Herb. p. 83, -art. Alaeddin hen Cai- 

kkofrau. * Ibid. p. 240, art. Caicobad. 

(G) He afTamed the tide of (H) Or Sowyfat, the fame 
Bbdb Jebdn ; which fignifics with Samofat, on the Euphrates, 
bng of the world, to the north of Al BTr. 


*5* tie Seljfiks ef Rfim; B. I 

Rivmean territories; but, on GayatMddin's fending forces 
into Armenia, they thought fit to forbear. 
jf Twk- Next year a Turkm&n prophet, called Baba*, appeared at 
»**i pro- Amafia, who drew after him multitudes of people, by tho 
&** ftrange tricks which he performed, in order to deceive then. 

He fent one If-hak (or Ifaak), a difciple, in a doctor's gown, 
through the other parts of the country of Rum, to draw-in 
the Turkmans ; whofucceeded fowell, that, at Somayfat, be 
lad gathered no fewer than 6000 horfe, befides foot, chiefly 
of thofe people. Thus ftreagthened, they began to props* 
gate their impofture by force, making war upon aH who 
would not fay, there is no God but god Baba (A), the apefik 
ef God* So- that they flew a great number of the inhabitants, 
of Mojlems and Chriftians, of Hefnobnanfur, Kakhtin, Gar* 
gar, and Somayfat, who refufed to follow them : they like- 
wife put to Sight all the troops which oppofed them in their 
way to Amafia. 
ikes much Hereupon Gayattktddin fent an army againft them, m 
wfcBief. -which was a body of Franks, who were Sn his pay. But th& 
Mojlems giving way, through fear, the Franks fet themfctatt 
in the front of the battle; and, making a vigorous attack, 
put the rebels to flight, and killed every man of them. The- 
two doctors, Baba and If-bdk, were taken alive, and pot a* 
death. • • . sJ 

Moguls In 639, Jormagun Nowayn (B), advancing into Armenia, 
tmke Ar- as far as Arzen Alr&n, took it by force, killed Senan, its fob* 
*ero»; bafha, with a great number of the inhabitants ; and, carry*r 
A n ^ "^2 away their children captives, fpread defolatior* where-* 
'" ever he came. Hereupon, next year,' Solum GayathtdJln 
* * marched towards the Mogols, with a great multitude of men, 
and military (tores* fuch as had not been known before*. 
Befides his own troops, he was afliited by Greeks, Franks % 
Georgians, Armenians, and Arabs. The two armies met in 
'a place called Kufadag, belonging to Arzenjan ; but, on the. 
firft attack, all the auxiliary forces turned their backs and- 
fled. The Soltan, aftonifhed at this event, fled likewife tQ 
Gxfarea ; whence carrying his wives and children to Ankur&y 
(or Ancyra), he there fortified himfclf. 
Siwasy&r- The Mogols, no lefs furprized at the flight of the enemy, 
render:, kept themfelves ftill all that day, not daring to purfiie, fu- 

(A) This is the Mohammedan thors Nowtan, Novia*, and Ne- 
confeffion of faith; only the <vian. *Tis a military title, fig- 
name Baba is inferted inftead of nifying the fame as Amir, or 
yUrammfd. «o»mander. 

(B) Wtitten alfo by our au- 


■C 4 : Eleventh Soltan, GayathoMdin II. *$$ 

fpe&ing it was only an artifice to draw them into ambufcades: 
fcecaufe they could perceive no reafon that fuch a numerous 
army had to fly. But, as foon as they came to know the 
truth of the majter, they penetrated into the country of Rum 9 
tad (at down before Siwas ; which having furrendered to 

• them, they fpared the lives of the inhabitants; but took 
away all their effects, burnt all the warlike engines they 

► found there, and demolished the city walls. From hence 
proceeding to Kayfariyah {or Cafarea), the citizens oppoled 

■•Ihem for a few days : but at length the Mogols, taking the 

I flace by force, put the principal inhabitants to the iword, 

[torturing them, to difcover their riches. 

j After this they returned, carrying the women and chil- Araeigsbi 
iben along with them, without entering any farther into thcfortdL 

kSoltaa's dominions. This news coming to Malatijah, where 
irar aathor Abu If or aj and his father then were, Rafbldd 'ddin* 
its prince, and many of the inhabitants, fled, for fear of the 
Mogols t who in their paiTage flew fcveral of them, near the 

'Jown of Bajuza, ten Pcrfian leagues difiant; but without 
fcoming nearer the city, held on their way to Arzenjan* 
yhich they took by aflault, and ferved in the lame manner as 
they had done Kayfariyab. The Soltan, Ending himfelf wSdtanpiyi 
«o condition to oppofe the enemy, feat ambafladors to defire **£*'*• 

, peace ; which was granted him, on condition that he fhould 

manually pay a large tribute, in money, horfes, veils, and other 
things of value *. 
' Im 642, Gayatbo'ddin lent a great army to befiege Tar/Us :His death 

i but, as they were on the point of taking it, news arrived of 

4& death ; upon which they retired from before the city, in 

'autumn, when there fell very heavy rains. 

This prince was given to wine, and {peaking idly. Heandcb*- 

, led a life very unbecoming his dignity, indulging himfelf in rafter. 

'pernicious defuses. He married the daughter of the king of Hej. 642* 

" tfie Georgians \ whom he loved to fuch a degree, that he had A. D. 
her image ftamped upon his coin. The reverfe of fome was I£ 44* 
a lion, with the fun over its head. The aftrologers told 
Km, that in cafe he had the figures engraved, which repre- 
fcated his horofcope, he (hould fucceed in all his defigns. 
He left three fons, Azzo'ddin, Rckno'ddtn, and Alao*ddin. His chil- 

L The two firft by Rumean women ; the laft by a Georgian, dreu. 

t He declared the eldeft for his fuccefibr, appointing for his 

! tutor and Atabek JahWddin KorUiy % a perfon of great inte- 

I grity and rigid chaftity b . 

* * Abv'ip. p. 312, Sc feq. fc Abu'lf. hift, dvnafljr, 


\ The 

254 The SeljflksV Rftm. B.t 

The article of : Gay atho'ddtn, given by D'Herbekt*, feems 
to be taken intirely from AbuTfaraj, whom he quotes twice; 
yet, at the end, puts the name of Kondamtr, as if the whole 
was extrafted from that author. 
Greeks The Byzantine hiftorians mentibn this Soltdn, whoa 
their er- they call' Jathatines : but fay, he was the fon of Azatines t \ 
ran. who fucceeded his uncle Jathatines. For all this fake geae>* 
alogy, which is common with the Greek writers, 'tis e?idat£* 
from their own account, that he is the Soltan in queftka; 
not only as they make him contemporary with John Dviw'} 
furnamed Vatazes, fecond emperor of Nice, who began Hi 
reign in the year 1222 ; but they give him juft fuch a dab 
rafter as we find in Abitfdraj ; viz. that of a flothful 
prince, who delighted in drunken and debauched company! 
What goes {till farther to decide the point, they fay, his fa- 
ther excelled, in military affairs, all his predecefTors : whkK 
character can be applicable only to Alao'ddin. 
Tatar /a- With regard to the tranfaftions of his reign, thofe li 
mafion, ftorians inform us : that the Tarikhari (C), a nation of Tartars} 
having invaded his dominions, and defeated his army, h$ 
fent to Vatazes, defiling a/fiftance, as well by his advice ti 
forces. In this, he faid, both of them would find their ad-' 
> vantage ; fnice, in cafe the enemy fubdued the Mojlenum^ 
they would next invade the Romans. Fatazes, judging thk 
to be a right meafure, entered into a league with the Sottas, 
and had an interview with him ttTripolis, on the Meander % 
which river Gayathao y ddin (D) palled over a bridge,, made in' 
hafte, with rafts or floats of timber joined together. The wo 
princes not only gave their hands to each other, but to alt 
their followers of diftin&ion. After this they agreed, in the 
mccording ftrongeft terms, to join their forces againft the enemy : bat' 
it them, the Tankhari, for a while, fufpended the war againft the; 
Soltan, that they might go and attack the Khalifah of Bm 

Twelfth . AZZO'DDIN (E) having fucceeded by his father's ap. 
&/**», pointment, the great officers and nobles took the oath of 
Azzo d- fyd^ and he was prayed for in the pulpits. 

€ D'Herb. p. 356. art. GaiathcddinCaikhofrau. * Gtoao, I 

Acrop. ; Niceph. Gregor. 


(C) Called by Ay ton, or Hay- It was to A%%oMn t hitfucccf* ! 
thon, the Armenian* Tangori. for. 

(D) Some authorb pretend (E) Axxoiiin is only the for* 
this was the Soltan to whom name of this Soltan, whofe nam© 
MikaelPaletlogui fled ; whereas feems to have been Jfryiowr. 

7 Next 


G'4- twelfth Soltan, AxzoMdin. '255 

Next year ambafladors came from the Great Khan Old ay 9 Hej. 645. 
requiring the Soltan to come and pay him homage : but he A. D. 
excufed himfelf ; alleging, that as both the Greek and Arme- I2 *$", 
man kings were his enemies, they would feize his dominions-^^^ 
in his abfence. Mean time he obliged the ambafladors with * 

gifts ; and, at length, fent his brother Rokno'ddtn (F), under the 
care of Bahao'ddin, the interpreter, whom he made his Atabek 
(or tutor). He alfo appointed for his own Wazir Shamfo'ddin, 
a learned native of Isf&h&n ; whofe credit was fo great, that 
he married the Soltan 's mother : which, however, the gran- 
dees were much offended at. This year the Great Khan 
died; and, the next, a Kuriltay, or grand aflembly, was 
called : at which, befides the Mogol princes, there were pre- 
fcnt many foreign potentates ; and, among the reft, Soltan 
Rokno'ddin, from the country of Rum. In this grand council 
Kayuk, eldeft Ion of the late emperor, was choien to fucceed 
him. • 

In 645, Kayik, the Great Khan, fent lieutenants into k-depofidfy 
vend parts of his empire ; appointing fljtktay No-wayn for #*• 
the countries of. Rtm, Mvfol, Syria, and Gorj (G). Atthe H ^«^l5- 
feme time he granted the government of R&m to Soltan . A.D. 
Rokno'ddin, and ordered Soltin Azzo'ddln to be removed. l2 V7 m 
Next year Rokno'ddin, and the interpreter Bahao'ddin, arriving, , - 
with 2000 Mogol horfe, to put this decree in execution, SoJ- 
tan Azzo'ddin was advifed by his Wazir Shamfiddtn to op- 
pole it, and withdraw to fome caftle near the fea. When 
Kortay heard this, he feized the Wazir, and fent him to Baha- 
c'idin ; who immediately difpatched fome of the Mogol chiefs 
to Konlyah,' to make him difcover where his treafures were ; 
which, .having done, they put him to death. After this the 
interpreter and Kortay meeting, agreed to divide the domi- 
nions between the two brothers. Azzo'ddin was to have 
Koniyah, Akfera, Ankara (or AneyraJ, Anatolia (H), and 
the reft of the weftera provinces : Rokrioddtn, Kayfarlyah % 
\Siwds 9 Maldtlyah, Arzengan, Arzen al Rthn, and the pro- 
vinces to the eaft. They likewife appointed Alao'ddin, the 
youngeft, a proper portion for his maintenance ; and had 
money coined in all their names, with this infeription, the 
peat kings Azz. Rokn. and Ala*. 

* Abu'lf. h{d. dynaSty, p. 319, & feq. 

(F) His proper name, ac- (G) Or Korj - 9 that is, Getr- 

1 cording to others, was Soley- gio. 

*£*, Rah^Mn being his fur- (H) In another copy, AntohU 

mine. yal, or AntMxa, in Afia minor. 

&$6 The Seljtiks of tLutru tt 

Sent fir In 652, there came feveral ambafTadors, one after the other, 

Sain, to Soltan Azzo'ddin, lord of Rum ; requiring him to go aal 
cj. 652. p a y homage to Munkaka Kaan (I). He accordingly fet oaU; 
A. D. Yy Ut hearing, at Siwds, that the Omera (K) were inclined to 
I2 54* place Roknoddin in his throne, he returned in hafte to AM* 
yah, and fent Alao'ddin in his room, with letters, fettii^ 
forth ; that he had, fent his brother, Who was no lets tiog 
than himfelf; but that he could not come, becaufehisAfe 
bek Kottay was dead, and his enemies to the weft (L) *qa 
at war with him : however, that.when he was delivered fha 
the fears of them, he would wait on ,the Khan himfelf. Ak 
tiddin accordingly fet out ; but died on the way, before If 
reached the Orda (M). 
'Attempt AZZO'DD IN, conceiving that he fhould never be bi 
mgainft while his brother Roknoddin lived, refolved to put him I 
Xokno'd- deathl This defign taking wind, the Omera contrived H 
4in. efcape. They drefled him in the clothes of a cook's boy 

and putting a bowl, with meat in it, on his head, feat hjfl 
out of the palace and caftle (N), along with certain boys vfa 
carried victuals to a neighbouring houfe : then, fetting ha 
on horfeback, they conducted him to Kayfariyah ; where 
great number of Omeras repairing to him, they got togethc 
an army, . and marched towards Koniyah againft Azztfi&% 
but the Soltan, marching out with what troops he had aboi 
him, put them to flight; and Rokno'ddln, being taken prifooQ 
was caft, fettered, into the caftle of Dawalu. 
Qfpofesthe The year following, Bayeju Noivayn, being obliged ton 
Tatars ; move from the plain of Mugan (O), where he ufed to todW 
Hej. 653. ; n order to give place to HulaM (P), fent a raeflenger to Soldi 
-A D. Azzo'ddin, requiring fome place to winter in with his troop! 
12 55* but the Soltan, inftead of complying, pretended that he ha 

(I) Called alfo Mongo and himfelf. And he feems to la* 

. Mangu Khan. He was the r elided at Ikonium ; although li 

fourth; and fucceded Kayuk, in had one half of the empire. 

648 of the Hejrab, of Chrift (O) Or Mokdn, a fpariflj 

1 250. plain in the north part o\ Aibtt 

(K) Omera is the plural of bijdn* towards the mouth d 

Amr t and fignifies the princes, the river Kur, and the G$M 

chiefs, great commanders, or fca. 

generals. A title denoting both (P) Who afterwards reigMl 

great lords and officers. in Per/la, by grant from hi 

(L) By thefe muft be meant brother Kublay Khan, in tk 

the Greeks. year 656 of the Hyrab, 

(M) The court or place Chrift 12 58 5 founding a dyn: 

where the Khan was encamped, of Mogols, or farters, as 

(N) By this it appears, that are commonly called* 
Roknoddin was but a youth 


C. 4. fweiftb SoUd» > Azzo*ddfn> with Rokno'ddln. 257 
dderted from his prince; and, colle&ing forces, -gave him 
1 battle at Khano'lSoltAn, between Koniyah and Akfera. How* 
ever, Azzo'dMn happening to be defeated ( Q^ ), Bayeju took 
' bis brother out of prifon, and put him in poileffion of alt 
the Rfanean dominions V 

• It was, doubdefs, in the above-mentioned battle that 
[Mkhael Pakobgus was prefent, as we are told by the Greek 
JiHfarians ; whom we muft now follow for a while* Thefe/x over* 
4uftorians inform us, that, in the year 1255, Pdeologus (K^tkrowmt 
%ho had been imprifoned, on fufpickm of fome dangerous 
defigns, efcaped, and fled to the Turks. It happened, that, 
•Vhile he was at the Soltan's court, the Tatars (S), after 
having ravaged the greateft part of his dominions, came and 
iefieged the city of Axara (T). Hereupon the Turks march* 
^cd out againft them, giving to PaUologus the. command of die 
Wrecks forces. The Tatars, being repulfed at the . firft onfet 
by PaUologus, or, as others fay, difinayed at the fight of fuch 
Numerous forces, were upon the point of flying, when one of 
>the Turkifb generals went over to them, with the troops under 
Iris command ; which changed the fortune of the field. The 
Tatars, encouraged, returned to the charge, and, -defeating 
p Ae Turks in. their turn, made a great (laughter with their 
arrows, purfuing them a confiderable way. Paleobgus, upon • 
^Ks, joined the Peklarpek (U) with his troops ; and they two 
fctired, for feveral days together, with the enemy at their, 
heels, till they got to Kaftamona (X), near which that officer 

! • The Tatars now over-ran the country, and the Turkifb fin fd tht 
forces being difperfed, the Sol tan flies to the emperor; who emperor. 
feceiyed him kindly; but could fpare him, only. 400. men, 
■tnder the command of Ifaac Ducas, furnamed Murtzuflut ( Y ) i 
f The Soltan, in requital, gave him the city of Laodicea : 

[Which, however, foon returned to the Turks ; becaufe the > 


i ' r Abu'lf. hift. dynafty, p. 329, & feq. 

F ' ' * «• 

I ( <XJ This, doubtlefs, is the (S) They are called by fome t 

roattle which Hay ton fays was ihe Tan ihari Tatars. 
kgained by the Tatars, under (T) M/era, not Akfaray ; or 1 

* Bay do, over the Soltan (whom the ivbite palace. 
|hc does not name) of Turky ( I ) ; (U) Or Peghrbeg \ that ft, 

Iso that author calls the domi- lord of lords, the governors of 

prions of the Seljikians of Rum. great provinces. 
\ (R) He had married the cm- (X) Caftamona. 
►.peror's niece; was conftable, (Y) Becaufe his family had 

tand commanded the French thick eye-brows, and joined to* 

troops. I Pact. c. 7. gether. 

(1) Hayt de Tatsns. cap. 23, 34, 

Mod. Hist. Vol. IV. S Xemara 

S5< #he GeljGks of lUfem; * B. t 

Momatis <jouid not defend it. After all, the Sokifl «ot be* 
/ log able to oppofe the Tatars, he obtained peace, by be- 
coming tributary. Mean time the emperor wrote to PaU*» 
legusj iaviting him to retuip home ; his reconciliation hav- 
ing been made by means of the bifliop of Kogm (or Kmd- 
yah J : and, foon after his return the emperor died, ia 125* *. 
Htghas *** die foregoing account, from the Greek hiAoriaiis, m 
•ftl* find no mention of the difpute between Azzo'ddin aad Ms 
; . % brother Rokntfddin ; which was, ia a great neafcut, the 
caufe of this Tatar war : but P-akhamre, in one place of 1ft 
hiftbry, occasionally introduces k. He there letts us in g» 
iierai, .that Soltan Azatines (fo he calls Azzoddm.) hadgrdt 
cootefts with his brother Rukratin (that is Rcknoddin), afar 
the death of .their father Jathatines (or Gayathfddtn) : tte 
' Rukratin, having taken arms, and obtained conilderableforw 
Creek ^ rom ^ Tatars, became ftrong enough to opprefe his bio* 
bijiorians. &*x : t * iat ^z&tines upon this retired to the court of the 
emperor Theodoras Lajkaris ; who received him civilly 5 bat 
iet him know, that he could not Shelter him In his dominion^ 
for fear of drawing on himfelf the refentment of the Ta- 
tars (Z) : that Azatines accordingly withdrew ; yet receivei, 
fiich confiderable fuocours from Lajiaris, that he over* 
came his brother, and recovered the throne *. From thfc 
paifege, and feveral others, occurring in Pakhamhre, and the 
reft of the Byzantine hiftorians, which are brought in ab- 
ruptly, aad out of place, . there appears reafon to belief 
that the Creeks had particular hhtories or memoirs of At 
Soltans ; of which they have only given us pieces occafionaflf 
in the reigns of their emperors, as they related to their o*4 
^flairs, and that, for the general, without either the proper 
elucidations or connections. But to return to our fubjeft. 
Azz'od- As Abfflfaraj does not mention what became of Azzo'd&n, 
din */p£/?s after, he was removed from the throne by Bayej4> the Megt 
general ; neither does he tell us how he recovered ix again ; 
but, proceeding as if no fuch revolution had happened, in- 
Hej. 655. forms us, that, in 655, this 'Soltan fent an ambaflkdor to 
A. D. Hulaktti to teffify his fubmiffion, arid intreat him to drwe 
1257, Bayejd Nowayn out of his kingdom. HulM, in anfwer, or- 
dered that he ihould divide the Rumean territories with to 
brother. Hereupon Azzao'ddtn returned to Koniyah, and 

* Pakhamir, L i. c. 9. Niceph. Grbooras, and others* 
* Pakh. 1. xiii. c. 22. 

(Z) Yet, on his coming to the crown, he renewed the aatieof 
league with the Soltan, 

- n 

t. 4. Twelfth Svttin, AzfcoMdfo, tzkb RoknoMdfn; $59 

RoMddin went with BayejH to the camp. Azzo y dd*n> being 
ftffl afraid of this Mogol, fent into the parts about Mat&tlydb 
fcnd Khdrtabert, to raife an army of Kurds, Turkmans, and 
Arabs. The officer fent him tWo commanders of the Kurds* - 
Ahmed ebn Belas and Mohammed ebn ol Sheykh Adi; to whoift 
tte Soitan affigned the faid cities. 

• EBN Sheykh A&, being met on the Way to Khariabert by tie Mo- 
Jfngtirk Nowayn-y was flain, with his followers : and the peo- gols 19 
we of Malattyahy having taken an oath to Itokne'ddin, re*?«*« 
Irafed to receive Ebn Bei&s ; who thereupon treating them 
ft, they killed 300 of his men. With the reft he fled by 
I tihudiya (A)' towards yfm«/ (B) ; Where he Was (kin by the 
; fcnd of Mayaferkin. Azzo'ddtn appointed in his room on* 
JrfSf Bahddr ; who,' being a bold man, the citizens, thro' fear* 
t&riftted him. And h€ did them great fervice : for he cleared 
the county of the Al Jtzl y a tribe of Turkmans, who ufed 
In thdr inturfions to kill the inhabitants, and carry off theitf 
dnldrem Theie he defeated, and took their commander Ju+ 
(abeg pnioner. 

Mean while Bayeju Now&yn, advancing with his forces, 
ftMiged all die caftles, Which had been delivered up, to fub- 
!v£t to Rokno'ddin. Then going to the city of Ahohfiayn (C), 
ht flew about 6000 of the inhabitants, and made captives of 
ft* Women and children. 

\ ' On his approach to Mahttyah, Alt BahMr fled' to Kakh- Makti* 
jlaft; and the cirixens, going to meet him with prefents, fub- y*M*'* 
idtted to Rokno'ddln ; who fet over them one of his (laves, wAf ' 
Jamed Fakrtfddtn Ayyaz. But as fbon as BayejH had gotten 
leyond the borders of Rurfi, in his way to Ir&k, Alt Bahidr 
'terorned ; and, being denied admittance, befieged the city* 
At length, provifions growing very fcarce, fome of the com- 
IQPQ people opened a gatfe, by Which AH entered with his 
Iforkmdns. Braving thus recovered the pofleffion of MalatU 
gdh, he $ait Soitan Rokno'ddtn's governor into prifon, and • 
•Jot a few of the leading men, who oppofed him, to death. 
' At the feme time the famine was fo great in the diftrift of Dreadful 
Ihis city, that cats, dogs, and leather, were eaten, for want of 'famine 
fcod. A friend of the author's faw in a certain village a'^** 
company of women in a houfe cutting pieces of flefti out of a 
eorpfe which lay before them, and broiling them to eat! ' 
Iikewife another 4 , who baked her dead child ; imagining, 


(A) The antient C/W/V/oV/V , (8) The anticnt Amida, now 
touhc Euphrates , below Mala- Diyarbekr. 
*^rf. . (QOiMtftaym ia the Geogr. 

Nubienjit, Abiafta* 

S a that 

j5o *bt Scljfcks of RftmJ B. i 

that his flcfli would agree better with her than that of vermin. 

In fhort, Ali Bah&dr, though he fubdued the town, could not 

withftand the calamity ; but retired to Soltan Azzo'ddin. 

Empire In 657, HMdM fent for Azzo'ddin, Soltan of the Rwm, 

divided, and his brother Rokno'ddin ; who obeying his fumroons, he 

He). 657. went out to meet them, exprefling great fatisfa&ion at their 

* D- coming. Then he appointed Azzo'ddm to reign over the 

12 59' country from Kayfariyah to the borders of Greater Armew*; 

. and Rokno'ddm to command from Akfera to the fea-coal 

bounding the territories of the Franks. After this he begat 

his march for Syria ; and, when he drew near the Euphrates, 

the two brothers, taking their leave, returned with joy to 

their own dominions '. 

We find no farther account in Abtilfaraj of thefe two 
Soltans (who reigned together, or interchangeably) ; although 
that author is more particular in relating their tranla&ioBi 
than thofe of any of the former : but the defeat is, in fomr 
meafure, fupplied by the Creek hiftorians, who happen to be- 
gin, as it were, juft where he leaves off. 
jAxze'd- Although we left the two Soltans going home in good 
din retires harmony ; yet, according to the Greek hiftorians, they did 
A - D. not long continue fo. They tell you, that, after the dead 
12 59- of Theodorus Lajkaris, Mikhael Palcohgus, being made tht 
aflbciate in the empire with his fon John, after ftrengtheniqg 
* the frontier - places with garrifons, fent an embafiy to At 
Turks, to notify his advancement ; and that, not long after, 
fetting out with the young emperor on a new progrefs, he 
received, at Nymphaum, an embafly, with prefents, from tht 
Soltan ; whofe affairs were ia a very bad condition : fori 
being threatened with an invafion from the Tatars, (or M* 
gols), every perfon, inflead of faving theftate, thought only of 
faving his family, and the governors every-where revolted. . 
to Mi- PALEOLOG US, upon intimation of this, gave theSoltk 

khael Pa- an invitation to come and refide "at his court, promising to 
leologus, let him return when his affairs were fettled. The caufeef 
the Sol tan's fear was, the news which he received of the arrival 
of Malek (D), with a formidable army. This Malek had fled, 
it feems, to the emperor before; and Azzo*dJ.n.vras afraid he 
might efcape, and.crofs the defign he had of re-eflablifhiqg 
his affairs k . In another place the fame author informs us* 
that the reafon of Azzoddirts applying to the emperor wa% 

1 Abu'lf. p. 332, & feq. k Pakh. 1. ii. c. 7, 10, 24, 

(D). Who this Malek was; we about him. Perhaps he was ch4 
are quite at a lofs to know, Soltan's brother, mentioned & 
the author having faid no more little lower down. 


C.4* Twelfth Soltan, RoknoMdin alone. %6t 

bccaufe Rukratin had gathered new force? 1 (E). However that 
be, the Soltan accepted of the offer ; and, relying on the friend- 
ihip of Paleologus, retired, with his wife, children, his mother 
(who was a Chriftian), and his fitter, to Conjlantinople ». 

Some authors tell us, that, after the former defeat l of the Greek 
jfzatin, the Tatars, inftead of penetrating farther into hh"»perer. 
I dominions, went and conquered Syria : but that, returning 
text year, they crofled the river a fecond time, marched into 
; Kappadocia, and took Ikonium ; from whence Azatin fled, 
j..trith his brother Malek, and his family, to the emperor 
•ffikhael Paleologus ; who, not long before, had retired for 
| ftelter to his court \ Nicephorus Gregoras relates, that 
Azatin, taking occaflon from the invafion of the Tatars, 
ftook off the Perfian (he means the TurktfbJ yoke, and fob- 
bed feveral provinces belonging to the eaftern emperors : 
kut that he was obliged at length, with his fon Mobko, to 
i retire to Mikhael Paleohgus, after having been routed by the 
[Tatars, in the' year 1261 °. Here we find feveral Mileks,Hc}. 66 1. 
Who poffiHy might all have been the fame perfon, confider- A. D. 
jbg the inaccuracy of the Greek authors; and that Malek , i*5x. 
[farply is no other than a title, figriifiying king, which was 
|lgwen to the princes of the Seljtik blood. t 

£', But to return to Jzzo'ddin. Paleohgus received him His illrt. 
[frith great fhew of friendfhip, -and promifed in time to furmihreptien 
[Km with troops, to recover his kingdom. Mean while he 
Woffered the Soltan to live intirely at liberty, to fit in his 
rprtfence, to have his guards, and wear the purple buikins. 
fh July 1261, Conftaniinople being recovered out of th« 
[lands of the Latins^ he returned thither from Alice, with his 
follegue John. Next year he fent ambafladors to Khalau (at 
M£ku), prince of the Tatars, in Perfia, and another to the 
(Wtan of Ethiopia (rather Egypt). As for Azatin, he was ztat Con- 
fanjlantinople ; where, ftrolling about to view the ftreets andftantin*. 
[public places, which were aJmoft quite unpeopled, he led aj?k : 
[ibauchedlife, with his followers, expefting the performance 
jtf the emperor's promife 1 but all Mikhaels fair outfide wag 
(only diifimulation : for, beihg very intent on making an.alli- 
jfnce with the Tatars, he fent the Soltan** wife and children 
-to Nice, under pretence of greater fecurity ; at the fame time 

1 Pakh. 1. xiii. c. 22. * Ibid. 1. ti. i. 24. * August* 
Xtriio. 9 Njceph. Gregor. 1. iv. c. 1. 

; [£) Sure Rukratin and Malek cy in ftile than hiftory, or order 
jfanotbe the fame perfon : for of time in ranging his fads : is 
»o author fpeaks of RoknodAin* very verbofc, yet deficient in 
fyng for thelter to the emperor, mattet. 
tdbmirt aims more at accura- . 

S3. he. 

#6% tie ScljAks of Riml % I; 

he a&uaHy promifed Mary (F), his natural daughter, to 
KhalaUy who yet died before (he arrived at his court t Afta? 
this he concluded an alliance with Apagan (G). 
pahs bis The Soltan, after a tedious flay at Cqnftantinotie, having 
tfcape difcovered th^t the emperor was treating with his enemies, 
A. D. wrote to an uncle of his, who dwelt towards the Euxine fe^ 
1366. on the north fide ; in treating him to work his deliverance, bj 
exciting Corifiataine, king of Bulgaria, and Nqgas t Khan d? 
the Tatars (H), againft Paleologus : in which cafe, he laid, I14 
would endeavour to deliver that prince into their hands. Th$ 
Soltan's uncle having agreed to this propofal, Azatines, part 
fiiant to leave obtained, repaired to the emperor, who wa$ 
then in th$ weft, under pretence of feeing that part of Bis 
dominions. In their return back, within a day's march of 
mount Hemus % Pa!eohgus y to his great aftonifhment, under* J 
: ftood that the Bulgarians and Tatars had pa/Ted the (traits* 

I ipoiling and killing where-ever they came. The emperor^ 

who had not forces to oppofe them, left the Soltan, with hi* 
baggage, in the night, and, getting to the fea'-fidc, palled in 
a bark to his capital. Azatines, with thofe who had care of- 
the baggage, retired to the fort of Aini (I), Prefently the 
hyafira- enemy came, and, befieging the place, it was at length, 
fagtm* agreed, that the Soltan, and hb attendants, ftiould be delir 
vered to them ; on condition that they withdrew, and fof-. 
fcred the v reft to retire, with the baggage, to the portj 
which. they did: and the next day came fuccours by fea; 
with whom they returned to Cytftantinopk. The emperor,, 
enraged at their conduct, punched the chief of them ; and^ 
imprifoning the wife, mother, daughter, and lifter, of the 
Soltan, with their children, co/ififc#ed *U their effects^. 
The Creek hiftorians fay, that Azatines never returned 
into his ovyn dominions ; hut died, fopn after his. efcape, ia 
the country to. the north of the Cafpian fea. 
ffi/iorifsuL Historians, both eafern syid weftern, difagree lb mud} 
$/<*grce with regard to fhis Soltan, that an author, for want of far- 
ther helps, mull he at a great nonplus how to recondk 
them. The Creeks and AWjflfaraj agree to. make Azzo'dttn 
Soltsin of Koniya ; and, from all eircumftances of the hiflory, 
he muft hare been fo, at kail for a term of* years. Bat 

P Paxh. 1. ii, c. 24. 1. iii. c 3,25. 1. xm. c. 22. 

(F) Hence fhe is called af- Cation fea, and the D**ml*J 
tewardt queen of the Mvguls % He afterwards married Euf&ro- 
$opghiiot married to HuldiL fynt, the emperor's wiiuraj, 

(G) Mag/a*, o* Ahaka Kban K daughter. 

$xn and fudceflbr. of Hulaku* (I) Ajnwm, or Oenum, 

(H) Ta the north of thf ; ' 

Q.$ Twelfth Seltitu, RolmoNidlnr«&ji£ a6j 

lyHerheht, after the /Vr/k/z hiftoriens, makte J^ydUft* Ao 

Soltan: poflibly, becaufe he was fiipported ,oy the fttogols, 
and continued to reign after Azzo'ddin was expelled : yet he 
mites from them only two traflia&foite of his. reign, Ho* 
ififorms us, that Rckno'ddht SoIeymJn, having fent his hto- in federal 
tber Alaoddin KaykobM to the court of the Great Khan of refadi, 
the Mogoh, to tranfa& the affairs of the Seljtkians, that 
prince gained the favour of the Khan by his addrefr; and 
returned with fuch ample powers, that Sokyman, rinding- 
himfelf almoft wholly deprived of his authority by Kay* 
jpbdd, bribed one of his domeftics to poifon him: that' 
jfiaka Khan, being informed of this ill office which SdrymM* 
had done his brother, ordered him to be ferved in the feme 
manner (*), in the year 664, after he had reigned twenty years. Hej. 664. 
He left for hia fucceflbr hi* fon Kay Kbofrdw, *ho had hi* A. D 
confirmation from the fame Khan-*. ! z6 5« 

It is evident-, from the teftimeny of Abtftfaraj, a fub>e<ft ^/^ r§~ ? 
of the Sc$utian empire, backed by that of the Greekytitecs\%ard ti 
that Azzo'ddin immediately focceeded Jiis father GayatMd- 
in. It appears aifo, that footi after Roknd'ddin's being fee up 
by the Mogois y and the monarchy divided between them, 
they both reigned at the lame time for feveral years, each 
in his refpeftive territories : that, at leftgth, Atizo'ddin, .be- 
ing expelled^ by the Mogoh or Tatars* Roknd y d£n reigned 
alone (f) over the whole. It feems therefore but juft, that '£$£*»* 
Azzo\tdm ihould be reckoned among the Soltans, as well as^**':-.., 
1 Rohufddin ; and the rather, as we find him named firft on 
i 4e coin mentioned by Abfflfaraj. But whether we divide" 
fte reigns of the two brothers, ending that of Ap&o'ddin with" 
his laft abdication, or make but one reign' of both, it muff 
De obferved, that Kondamir (or whatever author D'Herbelot - 
took thefe few particulars from, for he recites no one), dif- *• 
Agrees with Abulfaraj in two or three very eflential points : ;• 
I. According to him, there were no more than two brothers, Infianca 
! Rokno'dctin and A/ao'ddin ; whereas AHtfaraj affirms, there tbcrtrfi 
i ^ere three ; of whom Azze*ddtn Was the eldeft. 2. He fays; 
that AUo'ddm Was fent to the Khan by Rokno'ddin. Ahull- \ 
firdj fays, Azzo'ddin fent both him and Rokno'ddin,, on that . . .. 
embaffy. 3. He affirms, that Alaq'ddiri returned into Rutty .V 

* D'Herb. p. 822, art. Soliman ben Caikhofrou. 

(•) Abu If e da fays, that May- SaUboddfa, per Babadin. edit, * 

tfddin al Bernvdna, the Tatar Scbyltenf. p. 59. 
tfneral, hereafter -mentioned; (f) Abulfrda, in the fame 

; wing offended with Rokno'ddhl, place* fays; they reigned t°g*- * 

fl«W him. Excerpta adfin. *vii* <herfdr a' time, and then Ifobr- * 

% <?ddh alone. 

S 4 **4 

264 ' *h 'SdjMa of R6{p; B.L 

and was there pdifoned by Rokrufddm. Abffifaraj affirms, on 
the contrary, that Aiaoddln died on the road into Tatary. 

With regard to thfe ^&o*<£4n, which-ever death he died, he - 
may have been one of the Alao'dtBns mentioned \h the Tiurki/h 
hiftor y , under whom the father of Othm&n ferved ; for he was i 
• King or Soltan in. the {hart of the Seljfkian dominions, whkk'4 
was given him, as appears by the above-mentioned coin. 
Anatolia In the reigns of thefe two Soltans, the Roman empire/' 
vuir*run trtjich, ever finee the death of Gayatho'ddln Kay Kboframj 
kj (lain by Theodorus Lajharis, in 1 2 10, feems to have been frotf 

from the depredations of the Turks , began to be invaded \sf 
them with greater fury than ever it had been before : not w 
much from inclination, which governed theiribrmer invaikfflSj 
as neceflity, which obliged them to it in their own defence.' 
For as the dHTentions between the two brothers gave encott^ 
' ragement to the governors towards the borders of the Sefyuld- 
thefugi- an dominions to fet up for themfelves ; fo, on the inva/ion d 
q?"V the Mogols, the Turks, to avoid them, retired weftward, in 
* ur * s ' great multitudes, under different commanders : who, the ber- 
rer to fecure themfelves againft thofe formidable enemies, 
gain new pofleffions in the place of thofe they had abandon* 3 
ed, fell, with all their force at once, on every fide of the R+> 
man territories in Afia, which then were in a moil defence* 
lefs ftate; and, in the compafs of a few years, fubdued the 
whole, as will be (hewn more at large in the next reign. 

Thirteenth KAT Kbo/ravj III. fon of Rokno"ddin Saleym&n y being but 

Saltan, gn infant when he afcended the throne in 664, Ahaka Khfai % 

KayKhof-^rho married his mother, appointed Pervaneh Ka/bi(%) for his 

raw III. j utor ( or Atabek). This Soltan reigned eighteen years ; at 

<he end of which, in 682, he was killed, by order of Ahmed 

Khhn (K), who fucceeded Abaia Khan ; and MaJJud, fon of 

jXaykaws, was afterwards appointed his fucceflor by Arght 

KhAn, who fucceeded Ahmed \ 

This is all which D'Herbeht furnilhes from the oriental 
authors, relating to this prince, whom he reckons the twelfth 
Soltan ; nor does Abfflfaraj mention any of the Soltans after 
/fzzo'ddfn, uncle to Kay Khofra-w. However, we meet with 
I paflage in him, which we (hall cite, as it relates to Pervaneb % 
fee Soltan's tutor, and the affairs of his kingdom. 

v D'Hta*. p. 339 U i?7» art. Caikhofiru troifiejne, & Argooa 

fj) Pervaneh is thefofter/Vr- Jed his father, 
Jiax pronunciation of£er<wanah, his ftead . 
who, Abufftda fays, having kil- {K) Surnamed 



C.4* Thirteenth Soltdn, Kay Khofraw III. 165 

That author informs us, that, in the year 675, Bendok-Seltan if .' 
<ilr, Soldta of Egypt, excited by fome fugitives, refolved toEgypt 
itvade the territories of R(km\ which king Letht, fon of the^« 675. 
long of Armenia (HatemJ, being informed of, fent notice A, J?' 
tc the Mogol commanders who were in that country. But lz 7** 
this advice being reprefented to them as falfe, by Benvdnah 
(L), who wifhed well to Bendokdar, and hated the Armenian 
king, they paid no regard to it. So that the Egyptians came«>«W« 
upon them at a time when they were fo overcome with liquor R UB * ; 
that they could not mount their horfes : and as, by their 
Ta/a (M), or laws, they are obliged not to fly till they have 
faced the enemy, they gave them battle ; in which all the . 
great Mogol officers were flaio, befidcs moft of their men, . 
and 2000 out of 3000 Gorj (N), who were with them. The 
Egyptians likewife loft a vgft number on their fide. BerwA* 
nab, on this news, fled to a caftle for fecurky. BtndokdAr, 
after his viftory, encamped in a place called Kaykobia\ near 
Kayfariyahy where he remained fifteen days, without doing the 
leafi hurt, or taking any thing without paying for it. Nor did 
he enter that city more than once j faying, that he came not to 
I" lay wafte the country, but to deliver its lord from flavery. • 

As foon as Abdka Kh&n (O) was informed of this misfbr- r#//Va on 
; tune, he gathered forces, and marched into the country of tb§ 
the Rims : but Bendokddr, knowing himfelf unable to with- 
, fbnd him, had retired into Syria before he arrived. Ber- 
; vj&na b went to meet the Khan, who received him without 
i any (hew of refentment, and took him with him in his re- 
turn to the Tdk (P) ; under pretence of confulting yrhat num- 

| (L) Berwanab is the Arab name, given to, or afiumed by, 

I pronunciation ; Ptrvamb (or Hulaku, whofe defendants are 

Parvana, as Hayton theArme- thence called Ilkbanians. He 

; man. writes) is the Perfian* . feems to have afiumed it in imi- 

( The fame Hayton fays, he was / tationof Tumsna Ilkhan (2), who 

I commander of the Tatars in firft introduced it ; and to (hew 

I Tnrky (1), fo he calls the SeU he wadefcended from that hero. 

juiian dominions in ARa miner; This title differs from that ofl/ak 

I but he moft be understood of a or lick Khan, aiTumed by Turkijb. 

civil, not a military, officer. princes; who poflefled the coun- 

(M) Or Yaffa, laws military try of Mat; warned onthefouth 

and civil, made by Jengbix by the river Sibun or Sir, and 

Khan, bnt faid to have been whofe^capital was Tonkdt y or, as 

I framed firft by Oncz Kbdn, and others fay, Nobakbt. D'Herb. 

; Qgly revived by the other. bibL orient, p. 488, art. llak. 
i (N) Or K*rj i called by us (P) Al Tfy is the place of en. 

Qfirgianst inftead ofGarjoM. camping, or where he en- 

(0) U Khan is a title, or fur- camped. 

(1) Bayt, it Tttant, <*/>. 34. (2} Su hfi>* 9 p. 45, 


AnrV^tbAr of forces would be fui&cient to guard the oaratrr 
/**«*. j&fefc againii the Egyptians. Being arrived ia die ctrip, 
Khan made a magnificent feaft, wherein be took care to 
beruo&n&k tvith- mare's milk (<$_)„ for he drank no win* 
length, the latter going>out to draw water, Ab&ka gave the 
t6- fame in waiting, who followed, and cot him i» pieces 
Tins was the end of a traitor : nor d&Berukkdarkmg ' 
him ; for he died at Hems (in Syria), in his return to 
Some fay of a wound received by an arrow, m the enga o 
with the Mogolt * f others by potion^ infofed by^oneof Us 
jneftks in the mare's milk, which he caited for (S) todriak 
MtJermBU Having nothing farther to fay from the.eaft, kt-us 
Jots of leftward, and view die miserable condition of the Cn 
unable to refill the power- of the Turks* who, like an 
d&io&v fudd'edly overwhelmed them. As we have 
mentioned the defencelefs ftate of the empire at this 
it. will be proper to fet forth by vfhat means it came 
reduced to fuch a weak condition. To do this the more 
feftually, it may be neceflary to take the matter z little 
er. Although, on the acceffion of Theodoras Lafiaris to 
throng, the empire of Nice was confined to the narrow t 
of only three cities, Nice, Pmfa, and Philadelphia ; yet 
tf ere managed with fuch prudence, that the' flate wa$ 
againft all its enemies. The better to oppofe the Franks^ 
bad taken' Coitftantinople, and were mafters of the fe*, 
mini/ters made peace with the Turks % paying them 
large film, and then turned all their forces againft the 
*M?reeks nicr - After they had done with them, they applied 
i» Afia; to fortify the mountains, in fpite of all the endeavours 
Tutks to hinder them. They buih forts, comntittmg 
care of them to the natives of the country ; and thus ' 
the empire on that .fide. ^ . - 

As the people who inhabited thofe mountains were mdifli 
ble to change fides, and did not care to run any rifle by 
filling the enemy •, the emperors attached them to their i 
reft, by exempting them froih certain taxes, and befiowk 

* Abu^f. p. 

(QJ The chief liquor ufed 
by the people of Tatcrty ; it is 
called Kumis, and is ftrong and 

(R) Hayton f*ys, he was cut 
in two by the middle, accord- 
ing" to the cufloift of the Tatars ; 
and that the Khan ordered hir 

35 g,&feq. 

taals which were fared at his 
ble j and that he and all his 
ficers eat of it Ibid. This is < 
of Hayton** romances. 

(S) He was fourth Sohb i 
the BitbtiyanMnmliksyWho *ti 
flaves from Tatary. He «i 
called affo Bthars afSahti, 6 
Bttftuai'ty iu^viftojrics. . 

( £ thirteenth Stltdfy Kay Khofraw III; t6f 

Gderable bounties on the principal perfans among then* 
by that means, became very rich- Their zeal -tor their 
Gtry increafed with their wealth : fo that they made it 
' bufinefs to furprize the enemy in the night, carrying oJF 
plunder ; and chofe rather to prevent their coming, 
i wait for them,. The care which was taken of the fort- 
; had this happy cffecT: \ and that thofe who guarded them 
not be tempted to defert them, there were troops ia 
[neighbourhood, ready to (upport them *. 
It thefe go%d regulations, the affairs of (he Greeks were/* <whaf 
ady advanced in the eaft, that when Mikhael Paleologus owing* 
from Nice to CqnJiantinople % upon its being taken < 

ifhe Latins in. 1260, JJia minor, Paphlagonia (T), Si- A. D; 
the Greater and Capatian Phrygian, with Ifaria, were 1*60, 
r the obedience of the Romans (U), and paid them tribute u , 
jt after Mikhael had removed the feat of his empire, and 
the inhabitants, efyedMly thofe who had been in coin- 
were returned, the people who poflefled the iaoun? 
were exceedingly weakened ; and, no longer receiving 
tfuccours* were themfelves obliged to fuftain the weight ot 
ffrar. To make the matter ftill worfe, the affairs of the 
(m Europe) falling afterwards into a bad ftate, Miz 
f Paleologus , by the advice of Kadenus., governor of Con<t 
pie, ftripped thofe people, who were rich, of their ef- 
and, allowing each forty crowns penfion, ordered the 
|t of the revenues arifing from thelands r and which amount- 
► coniiderable fums, to be brought to the treasury : which, 
treatment diminiflied their ftrength, and took away their 

['he emperor, in all likelihood, was die more eafity in- Turks 
~ to do this, as he apprehended no danger from the (idt/orced 
Turks; whom he kept at peace by continual treaties, wflwarA} 
I who were too much employed by the Tatars to give him 
J difturbance. But that which feemed to promife moft fe- 
St) 7 , proved moft pernicious to his intereft : for (hortly af- 
by an unfprefeen event, the Turks crouding weftward, to 
M the army of the enemy, and being too many for the , 
Hntry, tq make themfelves room, began to invade the Roman 
or, to fpeak in the words of our author, the moft 

*Pakh. Li. c. 2, j. 

* Duka$, e. z. 

[) Bulgaria is added bejie. Intra, Pantpbflia, Amenim, tff* 

"1 The Turks, who a little knofo*t y Pjrfidia t Lyci<r, an<f other 

1 had taken Ukamda* were provinces. CnUfariv ii added*- 

1 maftere of KaHadocia^ G«- perhaps by miftake. 



<¥he SdjAks of RAm. 

valiant among the Turks, finding, after being vanquifhed^ 
the Tatars, that they had no other recourfe but their 
retired into the mountains, and committed robberies, 
this view, they aflembled in great numbers, and attac 
Ramans ; who, being weak, were obliged to yield to i 
Seize the They would have fuf&red themfelves to be quite < 
mountains, out of the country, if the penfions which they ftill 

had not with-held them. The defire of preferving that] 
which was left them made them defend the places, 
fire the aid of Roman troops, when they were hard 
but then they never expofed themfelves to make ~ 
fight in the open field ; and as foon as thofe (alaries ' 
trenched, fome of the foldiers went ovet to the enemy,] 
the reft jretired whither they thought fit. 

The Turks, having thus become mailers of thofe 
made incurfions through the cowttry, plundering it 
fore; and extremely incommoded rae Roman forces, wh 
continually harrafled between them in the eaft, and the J 
* in the weft *. 

As the emperor had not forces enough to divide the 
thought it of moft importance to preferve that parti 
dominion which lay in Europe, he employed them , 
againft the laft enemy, who threatened Ccnftantinopk 
By this means the eaft came to be negle&ed ; and, " 
ftitute of troops, as well as garrifons, was expofe 
ravages of the Turks : fo that about the time that 1 
zoidln made his efcape from Ainum, the affairs of tl 
try were in dreadful confufion ; efpecially about the \ 
ander, where the Tu/ks had feized many towns and i 
ries : but John the Dejpot, repairing thither in time, 
chief of them, and fecured Tralles, Karyfter, and 
vanced places. He likewife prevented the lofs of 
donians, thofe expert archers, who were in danger 
fubducd, for want of the forces which had been 
to the defence of the weft. The Turks, intimidate 
vigour with which the Defpot proceeded, fent to i 
> their prifoners, and demand a peace, which was _ 
epprejfedly But while the emperor by his arms faved towns on 
taxa ; he loft whole nations and provinces on the other, hy 1 
tions : for he laid fuch heavy taxes on the Maria 
cellarians, and Paphlagonians, either to pay his fore 
or keep thefe people in fubjedion, cauflng them, i 
time, to be raifed with fo much rigour ; that he qr : 
the country, and obliged the inhabitants to delh 

The coun- 
try de~ 
feucelcfi : 

A. D. 


* Pakh.LL c. 5,6, 




thirteenth Soltdn, Kay Khofraw III. 

and pat themfelves under the dominion of .the 
hopes of better ufage *. 
aflairs of the Franks likewife requiring the prefence 
\ Defpot in Europe, the country about the Meander, at 
the reft of the eaft, became expofed afrefh to the 
ations of the Turks. The mountain, defended by the 
" Abala, Kaafta, and Mazedon : the once famous pra- 
» of Karia alfo lay open to their incurfions. Trakhium % isover-% 
Sfrabihn, and the lands lying oppofite to the ifland 
es 9 which, but a little while before, had been reduced 
; power of the Romans, were become the retreat of 
ay, from whence they made their inroads. The pco- 
abiting the northern eoafts of Ajia minor (not to men-, 
' i within land), the Mariandines, Molinians, and the 2 **? 

Enetes, were ruined to a deplorable degree: the * 
i of Kromitus, Amajiris, and Tios, which are near the 
nothing left of their ancient fplendor; and muft 
deftroyed, but for the advantage of their fituation, 
~ : it eafy to relieve them. In fhort, Anatolia was 
-run by the enemy, that the Sangarius ferved as the 
and there was no poffibility of getting to Herakle* 
This bad (late of the eaft was owing to the trea- 
the men in command ; who, that they might have 
opportunity to enrich thcmfelves, made the empe- 
the lodes which happened in thofe parts were 
Sderable, that it was not worth his while to crofs the 
them : which falfe report, as Mikhael faid him* 
'what contributed moft of all to its ruin z . 
8ver, no fteps were taken, for feveral years after, Tralles 
flop to the progrefs made by the Turks, till ^|\.rrf*iS. 
ling on the ruin of Karia, Antiokb, and the 
ring country ; and on the neceffity there was of (end- 
ure to Kayftro, Priene, Milefus, and Magedon, (ent 
his fon, and aflbciate in the empire, with a con- 
Tarmy, accompanied by a great many perfons of di- 
In his march along the Meander, he beheld the 
• Tralles (X), formerly a famous city ; and, being 
■ with the beauty of its fituation, refolved to rebuild 
^ve it the name either of Andronicopolis or PaleoUgo* 
the mafons were at work, they found an oracle 
:e of marble, declaring ; that, in time to come, a 

A. D. 

. Liii. c. 21, 22,28. 

* Ibid. 1. iv. c. 27. 

^Tralles muft have yet the author has not taken no* 
ruined by the Turks ; tice of (0 remarkable an event. 


-prWfc fcemM raifc this city out of its ruins, and hvM 
with greater magnificence than ever. 
Afajfe ANDR0N1CUS, applying the to rumfelf, in 
*W*. «f the long life vphich was promifed to ks reftorer, und< 
to rebuild it, and fet about the bufinefs with great < 
fiefs.' But this oracle was no other than an fHufion, 
proved die death of ain infinite number of people, 
the walls were finiftted along the Meander ; no fetrtt 
3 5,000 came to inhabit the place. However, they were 
*rerm hi their howfes, when they found themfelve* of a 
den befieqed by an army of forks, commanded by Mantd 
furaatned Satyace ; which, in their language, fays our tyti 
figmfies a feong man. As the foil afforded no fating?, 
there wore neither fountains, cifterns, nbr wells, in the ^ 
Libadarius, the graftd Cartulary, who commanded there, 
Hot What to do. The inhabitants would have been a 
though reduced to eat vermin, and even dead bodies, 
they have only found drink with fuch bad food* Many 
for thirft (Y) ; and others, to avoid that death, went to" 
relief from the cnemyi Who drove them hack, or 

ibi city Those within relying ori the oracle, And the hopes 
!fr5 9 faearor, the forks refoived to make a laft effort ; and, 
Jtroye . p roac ) 1 | n g t ^ c ^11, under cover of their bucklers, 
k. When they had fixed the morings, they once more 
moned the befieged to furrender ; and, on their ferula!, 
fire to the wood : a breach being thus made, they took 
city by ftorm, and put all the inhabitants to the fword. 
fore this, tjwy took Nfffa ; which, in like manner, fell 
their hands, for want of forces to relieve it. What is 
ftrange, the young emperor was at Nyrnf>heum all the 
they were performing thofe two exploits : after which they 
vaged and plundered Anatolia without controul. 
Bithynia The forks, encouraged by thefe fuccefles, crofled the 
saMivafte.ver Sangurius, and laid wafte the country to the Weft of 
-A. D. On this news, the emperor Mikhael, raifing all the forces 
1*81. • couldj in h#fte fet forward to flop their inroads. "When" 
beheid the dreadful defolation which they had made, he 
ftruck with the deepeft anguifli. On this occailon he 
the patriarch of Alexandria^ that the attempt of certain 
fons to ftir up his fubjefts againft him, by condemning 
conduct, had obliged him to negleft the care of the provil 

(Y) Could not the Miander fays ran through the city ? TOJj 
have fupplied them with drink ? ii. part a. p. 67* 
or the dream which Dr. Pocock 

t.^ Fouftimtb $fik£*> MaflMII. \y4 

*es» in order to look -to bis own (afety : and that the go- 
vernors, to whom -he bad in*ruft$d thofe diftaut pa,rts or his 
dominions, bad coaceajed from him the diftrefc they were in, 
«feh4r beCaufe they had been gained over by prefents, or tb^o* 
few of being punUhed for their neglett. 

They found fo great a quantity of fruit under the tj*e$,7%*/tar* 
rfwtit ferved to iiiWifr we half of the army. The Tvrkstiers 
ijttkpd a* &ft a* the emperor advanced : who wanting jfo^ nqpcfa pg 
ftoottiary cofffenjenctes for purfoiag tfren? in the hilly coun-"'* 
j toes, whither they bad retreated ; he was content to fccur? 
|hc frontiers, by repairing the old forts, aod building new 
[ties i* thofe places wbere the 9*ngariw was moft narrow and 
'frrdabk. He likewUe gave orders to fortify the river, for a 
umm ipace, with trees ; whole branches were io thick, and 
[|kU iaterjaiixftd, that a &a]*e qwld not make his way tfc«o # 

■ MAS&UQ, {ixmimcAG4?dtf><> y d&fl, was the fo$ g£ A$r Fourteenth 
9JdJ&xKiylmvs 9 fax ol Gayatho Mtn Key Jffvfr*w f t?v^ qfSo/ta*, 
At preceding Sobaas. This print* had but Utd* imtb^rkyMaA^ 
left bun in the dorataioos which Us predeefflors had con- 

Sered \skjfia minor, and the grtaUr Armenia : for, in ef* 
1, thofe ooimtrics were intirely fubje<$ to /*yA» A*%6f, 
jran whoa be received the inveftiture of fern b . Q'Jftri** 
fe, who gives this fhprt account of him, at die end of ag 
mikk. relative to a different prince* wguigns the time n«* 
tber when he began nor ended bis reign : but in the table or 
lift of the Soltans of RAv c , bis death is put in 687. It muftHej. 69/; 
be ebferved, that there was an teftftrcgoui* of one jap, at A. 1>. 
baft «f loose months, from the death of K# Kbo/r+w, to the laf Ik 
death of Aimed \ and it does not appear when ^rgtf* KhM 
inveficd Mggud : but foppofing it to fcaye been in his firft 
year, or 683, tbea Majjmd mm have reigned but four or fivf 
years at moft. ' 

. This b all the information which has yet come to ouzHisJfory 
hands, from the oriental hiftoriaas, cpneerning this prince \i^trfeff\ 
as for the Greek writers/ their memoirs are fo confuted and 
isaperfeft, that we can deliver nothing with certainty from 
them. We find no more relating to Rukratin, or Rokvutdfint 
than what has been already taken notice of, altho' he muft 
Have reigned feseral years after his brother's expulfion ; nor 
any mention of Kay Khofraw, who reigned after him for the 
fpace of-eigh'teen years. They tell you, indeed, that the foq 

•Pakh.1. vi. c. 20, 21. *o. b D*HERB. p. 562, art. Maf~ 
ibud, fiL de Mobsunmed, ful> fin. * Ibid. p. 800. 

7 of 


Tie Sfeljtifcs of Rfltn. 


the king- 

c£ Azetines, or Azzo'ddtn, who retired to Conjtdntiruple, 
whom they call Malek, did, a long tinic after his i 
from thence with his father, recover his dominions, 
cannot pofitively fay that this Malek is the Maflud of the 
ental authors, although there are circumftances in his 
which favour that opinion. 

The hiftorian who gives the beft account of this mattef 9 j 
Pakhamir. We have already related, from the fame author, 
Malek, whom he likewife calls Malek Mafur (Z), fled, along 
his father Azatines, from the caftle of Aine into the coi 
beyond the Eitxine fea. There they wandered together, 
fome years : till after the death of Azatines (A), he 
the fea intd AJia minor ; and, arriving at Thymenum, 
the favour of Argtoi, Khan of the Tatars. B£ this 
he became mafter of the county, as his proper inherii 
and reduced to his obedience the principal Tufkijb 
manders. But Amur (B), father of Ali f having gathered 
confiderable army of Tatars, fell upon Malek, and rcdi 
him to fuch an extremity, that he refolved to go with 
wife and children, and fubmit himfelf to the emperor, 
repaired firft to Heraklea of Pontus, and then to Conflanti 
pie *. The ftory thus far is related fomewhat differendy 
the fame author, in another place. He there fays, that 
iek 9 a long time after his father's death, croffing the 
flopped at Kqfiamona ; where, having gained the good 
of the Tatars, he made an attempt to recover hS fat 
kingdom : but having been defeated by Amur (C), he 
to Heraklea, jusA thence to Conjiantinople e . 

The emperor Andronicus, who fuccseded Mikhael, 
it agmin. tnen at Nympheum, Malek left his wife at ConftantinopU, 
eroded over into Afia. But when he was near Enaromit(t 
he began to fufpeft the emperor's friendfhip ; and obfeni 
that his condu&or.had too watchful an eye over him, co 
plained openly of it, and quitted him ; declaring, that if i 
body offered to flop him, he would repulfe him vigoroul 
He retired to the Turks ; and having, in a fhort time, aaj ' 
a more illuftrious reputation, and more confiderable font 
than he had before, Amur became fo much afraid of 
that he came with his feven fons, and humbly fubmitted 


, Recovers 

* Pakh. 1.x. 

c. 25. 

(Z) A miflake, probably, for 
Idajut, or MaJJud* 

(A) Elfewhere it is faid, a 
long time after his father's death; 
which mull have been the cafe. 


c Ibid. 1. xiii. c. 22. 

(B) Called by others Km 
and Omer, 

(C) Who was fettled tkert 

(BJ Or Adrormtium. 


£. V Fourteenth Sottdn, Mafl&cL a 73 

Aim. Bat while he lay proftrate at Malek's feet* to implore 
clemency, that prince reproached him with his former 
hery ; and having taken a glafs of wine, as if to drink, stays 
ided his hands : on which fignal thofe in waiting drcwomer* 
{words, and flew Amur> with his fons. , 

HoweVer, one efcaped, named Alt, who refolved to pe* 
Hfe, rather than not revenge the death of his father and bro- 
ers* With this view he gathered a confiderable number of 
irks ; 2nd longing the country after the manner of robbers, 
was Malik's Si ( torttine at length to fall in his way : for 
;his horfe ran full fpeed, he fell, and threw his rider, VhoLJtai* if 
the fame inftant was run through by his enemy* Ah. 

ALI was fo puffed up with this fuccefs, that* gathering 
line troops, he began to ravage the Roman territories; into 
iich the river Sangarius, by an unforeseen accident (E), 
ere him admittance. At. the head of this account we are 
Id, that Alt, and Naftratius, his brother, had been a long 
he with the Romans as hoftages: and that, having gained 
t afieftiqns of iheTurks, who dwelt about Kdflamona, they 
ttimitted divers a&s of hoftility againft the people who in- 
ibited towards the Euxtne (csl, and the river Sangarius, 
ithout daring to advance farther; but that his ihfolence 
tttafed, after he had dain MaUkMafur (F) (rather Mafut), 
t fon of Soltin Azatines f . 

There is nothing in this acc6unk of the Greeks inconfifl- 
it with that of the orientals. Oa the contrary, it feems con* 

f Pakh. 1. x. c. 254 

(E) The accident Which gave ing themielves expofed, by this 
tf a pafiage Over the Sangarius , alteration, to -the inroads of the 
B this. In the month of iW*rr£, enemy, withdrew. . A month 
jkriVer, deferring its fortifiqa- after, the river took its ufual 
to*, made by the emperor M- chanel ; as if it had left it only 
VtlPaiiQhgtu, refumed its an- to difperfe the gstrrifons, and 
At bed» where the emperor favour the incurfions of the 
if man had built a bridge; enemy (i). 
d although the river Mtlan^ (F) Some render it, After Mz* 
ok its place, yet it had not lecMzfar had JdsntSe fin o/So/^ 
fufneient to fill its cha- tan Azatines : bat that is to fay, 
Afterwards the Sangarius, after the fon of Azatines had /lain 
g greatly fwelled with the the fon of Azatines, which is ab* 
!, changed its courfe a fe- fdrd. Betides, .4//; in flaying Ma- 
fond rijhe> carrying with it fnch Uk, flew the fon of Azatines ; and 
Ivaft quantity of gravel, mud; from thence it was that he grew 
N earth, that it might be crof- fo elated or infolent, as to ra- 
ted on foot. Thofe who garri- vage the. Reman territories. 
hoed die faid fortifications, fee- 

(1) Pakhsmir, I. xiii. c. 12. 

Mod. Hist. Yol. IV. T firmed 



finned by two circumftances : one is the name of Mafiw % 
which is doubtlefs a miftake for Mafut, as the £re£j write 
MaJJM ; the other, that he was advanced by the favour of 
Arg&n Kbdn, as k appears Majfud was. 

We mud not forget to mention that MaUk, a oonfidcnbk 
time after bis retreat from Endromit, feat for his wife, who> 
by the emperor's content, went to him : but his daughter 
remained in hoftage (G), as well as Conftantim Malik (H)> 
another fon of Azatines, who had been baptized, and liwd 
after the manner of the Greeks g . It is not mentioned it 
what time he fent for the Soltana : but k muft have been Ik* 
fore he obtained, the kingdom, in regard the emperor fttiibad 
died the year before that event; namely, in the year ia8j, 
s MASSUD was fucceeded by his nephew KaykcbM. 

Sol tan,. 


J 288. 

KATKOBAD, the laft Soltan of Rim, was the fon <f 
Taramorz, fon of Kay haws ; and fucceeded his uncle Mafit, 
under the authority of Gazdn Kh&n, who confirmed or in- 
verted him in the dominions of his anccftors, in the yw 
687 (I) : but having revolted againft that prince fome yem 
after, the Mogols took from him all Ms dominions : then f«fe» 
ing his perfon, put him* to death ; and, at the fame time, 
end to this laft branch and dynafty of the Sefjvkians K 

This happened, according to the table ' of the Se^Hit* 
princes given by D'HerbeJot, in the year 700 of the Hejni, 
or of Chrijl 1300. The Greek hiftorians make no menuW 
of this Soltan, with whom they had no affairs r the Turk, 
whom they were at that time engaged in war with, having 
been the Seljik commanders ; who* taking advantage of d* 
diftra&ions caufed by the Mogol invafion, threw off their de- 
pendence on the Soltan, and fet uo for themfehnes. 
Philantro- ' * N order to reprefs their progR 9 in the Reman territories* 
penus re- the emperor Andronicus made Alexis, furnamed Pbilantr^ 
tclt: pus (who was his cup-bearer, and fecond fon of Tarkoniates t 
the protoveftiary), governor of Afia minor and Lydia. P& 
lantropenus, having then under his command the troops of 
Kandia, and at length all the armies of the eaft, difpkyed 
fo much valour, and gained fo many victories, that, duri&f 
his government, which continued a Jong tfme, he reftored 

s Paku. 1. xiii. c. «. h D'Hehb. p. 240, art. Caikobad. 

(G) She was given in mar- 
rtage to IJbak Malek, as the 
reader will find hereafter. 

(H) Other authors mention 
but one fon. Grcgorai calls him 
Alsdek Shdb i who is more likely 

to be thu Conftantim than hbf 

(I) D'Herkeht, in another 
place, p. 363, art. GazanKhaj* 
puts it in 70a, .which is two 
years after the end of his reign, 
and of the Sefvkii* dynafty. 

C. +: fifteenth Solta* fUykpbad- ^.5 

the affirirs of the empire in the eaft ; and at the fame tim^ 
for his great liberality and addrefs, gained the affe&ion both 
of the Romans and their enemies. In all his expeditions he 
tcqjjired much wealth, yet gave molt away in prefents and 
awards. Of this we {hall give an inftance. Near Mela* 
4m there was * fort, called 4 the Fort of the tvjo little bills 
(which oar author thinks was tKeancient Didymion of the Mi* 
Iffms)) where the principal wife of Salampaces before*men- 
ttoned, who was lately deceaied, had retired with ineftima- 
ble treafure?. As it was not poffible to tdke the place by 
fera, Philantrepewfy making u(e of art to gain his ends, 
1 thought to deceive that lady oy fecret promifes of marriage. 
After (he had reje&ed his propofal, perceiving that there 
*er$ pofts driven into a little lake which walhed t£e walls of 
I Ac fort, he ordered plank? to be fattened to them, with 
topes, and built towers on th?m ; at the fame time covering 
tjie reft of the lake with veffels filled with foldiers, and en- 
fpnes proper for taking cities, he quickly became matter of 
j.the pfcee, and all the riches, which he diftributed among his 
ifcllowers. Thefe perfuaded him to revolt: but Libadarius, j e f ea f g ju 
governor t>f Neokqfirum, Lydia, and Sardes; marching againft Libada- 
fcim at Nympbeum, he was betrayed by the Kandiots : who, rius. 
ieizing him at the head of his army, delivered him into the 
lands of that commander, who immediately ordered his eyes ^' ^?* 
>,*> be put out. His forces, which were very numerous, con- I2 9^ 
fifting of Turks as well as Romans, fled ; while Libadarius,. 
; with his fmall forces, made a great (laughter of them. 

The Turks, fome time after, to revenge the fhame of this Greek af* 
defeat, aflembling in great numbers, laid wafte the whole/an miid^ 
country, from the Euxine fea to that of Rhodes. To put a 
Jbp to thefe diforders, the emperor fent over John Tarko- 
[mates with money and troops, although he was an obftinate 
jjfoettor of th,e fchifm which the/i prevailed in the church. 
fThis he did, upon a perfuafion that a duTenter from the efta- 
[Hilhed religion might love his country ; and that to defeat 
I the enemies of a (late, depended more on the military lkill, 
l^ttn orthodoxy of its generals. In effefi, Tarkoniates, by s 

fjkis conduit, proved the emperor's fentiments to be juft. He 
' trough t the fbldiery to> a proper regulation, by preferring 
poor men of merit to rich cowards ; and obliging thofe to do 
4uty, who, prefuming on their wealth, defpiied the orders of 
their commanders. By this means, in a fhort time, he raifed 
% numerous army, and equipped a powerful fleet, with which 
le had fuch good fuccefs, both by land and fea, that he fooh 
Jtftored the affairs of the eaft. But they were ruined .again, Relapfi 
by the negligence and bad conduct of thofe who fucceeded anew* 
T % him: 

%j6 Hijlory of the Moguls and Tartars, K Vl. 

him : for the money, appointed for payment of the foldiers, 
being mifapplied, the troops dwindled away by degrees, and 
hid the country open anew to the incurfions of the enemy \ 
Rt/e of ' Among the commanders who headed different armies of 
Othman* Turks, and invaded the empire in different parts at the fame 
time, Otfmtdn was* orie ; who, from a fmaH beginning, in a ' 
few, years laid the foundation of a mighty emprre, tfhfch 
fofe out of the ruins of the SeljiKan. With regard to this 
latter it may be obferved, that the empire of the Seljiks edded I 
properly with Cayatho'ddtn Kay Kbofraw, the eleventh Soltan, 
who, after his defeat and lofles, in Hejrah 641, became thdr 
tributary. This is noted by AH y \feda \ who marks Hejrah 551 
(A, Z>, r 1 56), for the firft year of Kilij Ar/Ian II, which give* 
him a re'rgn of only thirty-feven years, inftead of forty, as nt 
have affigned him in our table of Softans : that remark not 1 
having occurred time enough to correft the miftake (K). 

h Pakh. 1. ix. c. 9, 10, 14,25. ' Abu'lf. excerpt, ad 

fin. vitx Saladin. edit. Schultens. p. 57% 

(K) It may be proper farther Mm Soltan Sbdb : that this latter, 

V * to relate from Abulfeda, that Ki- after taking Koniyab from Maitk 

Jij Arjldn had ten ions: that to Sbdb, went to Akfira: that that 

Kothbeddin MaUk Sbdb he gave died his father ; and MaUkSbik 

r Siivdj 1 and Cajaria, to Nurod- foon after. 


The Hiflory of the Moguls and Tartars from tbt 
time of Jenghiz Khan, 

CHAP. I. . 

A Defcription of Wcftcrn Tartary, as dfoidei 
* at prefent among the three Branches of Mnngfy 
or Moguls. 

Divifion Y~^ RE AT Tatary 9 or Tartary, as has been already ob« 
*/Tatary.\J r ferved*, is divided into eaft and weft. The eaftenl 
Tatary is poflefled by feveral nations; who, beinj 
fubjeft to the Manchews, at* prefent mafters of China, go b 
that general name. The weftern Tatary , which is confider 
ably more extenfive than the other, is in like manner occn< 
£ied by a great number of nations or tribes of people, whfl 
are called Manght or Mungals, by themfelves, and moguls 
Tatars indifferently by other nations. 

* See before, p. 9. 



fci; t Sine* JenfchfcKhfo.* • 2?77* 

These MungU or Mpguls, after various revolutions, &it Proper 
rpf& remarkable of which will be related in the following MimgU 
hiftory, became latterly divided into three great bodies, under cow ^> 
Afferent fovereigns. One retained the name of- the MungU ^^ r * jJ 
fimply; the fecond took that q( Kalkas; and the third af- 
{umed the name pf Aluths, or Eluths : and among thefe three 
flungl powers is all the weftern Tartary divided. So that, 
at prefent, wefte/n Tartary <may be faid to fall under a tri- 
partite diviCon : however, it muft be obferved, that as the 
country of the two firft of thefe three Mpgul branches, as 
yell as that part properly called eaftern Tartary, are fubjeflt 
to China; therefore feme authors, particularly the jefuits/ 
vho have given us of late the hiftory and defcription of that 
empire, divide Great Tartary in general into nearly two equal 
parts, by aligning mount Alt ay for the weftern limit of 
e^flern Tartary. Perhaps it would be better to divide weftern * 

Tartary jntofwo parts : that is, to make mount Alt ay the 
partition between them, and afcribe the eaftern part, com- 
prizing the countries of the Mongols and Kalkas, to the do- 
JDinion of China. But in this cafe every hiftorian may do as 
lie thinks beft. 

S E C T. I. 
Country of the Mungfe properly fo called. 

THE country of the MungU 9 or Mungals, called by the Country of 
European geographers Mongolia (A), is bounded on theMungls, 
eaft by eaftern Tartary ; on the foutfi, by the Chinefe wall/; \ 

on the weft and north-weft, by the Kobi, or great defart, and 
Country of the Kalkas, from which it is divided by the Karu > 
or limits fixed by the late emperor of China Kang-hi ; and on 
tjie north by the Kalkas, and part of eaftern Tartary. This. 
6 a very large region, of no lefs extent than the Tatary juft! 
mentioned. It is fituated between tlTe 1.24th and 143d de- 
grees of eaftern longitude, and between the 38 th and 47 th 
degrees of latitude : fo that it is in length, from the borders , « 

of eaftern Tatary in the eaft, to the parts over-againft Ning-. 
bya, in China, to the weft, about 300 leagues; and about • 

iaoo in breadth from north to fouth, although not every-where 
fo broad, as may appear by the map$ V 

* Du Halde dcfcript. China & Tartary, vol. ii. p. 249, 261. 
Engl. fol. edit. 

(A) It mould rather be called guis 9 or MungU ; and fo we find 

Mmliftan, or Munglijlan ; that part 'of Tatary named by thcr 

is, iq the MungU or Turkijh Ian- oriental hiiiorians. 
guage, the country of the flfo- 

; ; T 3 'The 


ijt Hiftory */</& Msgfafe *fcf Til-tars, B.B. 

Proper The part of Tatary Within this dMfion, has bdak the 

Mungls fcene of the greateft actions performed both by the caftera 
country. an d weftern tatars. Here the great empire bt Jenghiz JKAr, 
^-** i v—-' and his fucceflbrs, had its rife and feat : here the empire rf 
famous for Kifay and K ara M tay We re founded; abd here the t>refch* 
u&tonfn empire of the eaftera Tatars, or Manchrws (now In Jwf- 
feflion. of China) had its beginning. Here, for federal ago, 
bloody wars fubfifted, and many battles were fought, urhfck 
decided the fate of thefe monarchies. Here all the riches of 
the fouthern Afia, at feveral times, were carried and difi* 
pated. Laftly, in thefe defarts, for a time, arts and fdemts 
were cultivated, and many populous cities flourished : bat, 
at prcfent, they are all deftroyed b ; nor do any figns rf 
wealth remain, which may ferve to witnefs the once opukflt 
condition of the country. 
Mountains These territories of the Mungls are full of- mortmains, rf* ' 
andri<vm* pecially in the fouth parts adjoining to China ; and are inter- 
fperfed with rivers. Among thefe may be reckoned the Whang' 
ho) which, pa&ngout of China, furrouYids the country of 
Qrt&s, and then enters the empire again in the province of 
Sbenji : the SbantA, which enters Pe-che-li towards the fa; 
and the Sira Muran, which, rlfing to the north of the Sbantu\ 
runs eaft, and then, turning fouth, pafles through Lyau-tong 
by the name of Lyau. There are feveral lakes in this country, 
but none remarkable for their magnitude, 
tHvifion The countries of the Mungls are divided into feveral terrf- 
i*to ftand- tories, or diftrifts, according to the tribes which poflefs them, 
wrd*. But fince they have put themfelves under the protection of the 
emperor of China, they have been diyided into forty-nine & 
, {bids called Shaffahs, that is banners* or flandards, under 
fo many princes or chiefs. The fituation of thefe territoria 
may be confidered as they refpeft the four gates in the great 
wall of China ; viz. Hi-fong-kew, Ku-pe-kew, Cbang-kya* 
kew (thefe three in the province of Pe-che-li)* and Sba-heah 
hw, in Shan-Ji* ' . I 

firft % Passing north from the gate Hi-fong-kev> (B) you fixm I 
courfe* arrive in the countries of Karchin, Tunut, Ohan, Nayman, 

and Korchin* 
Karchm. K ARCH IN, which begins at the faid gate (C), is divided 
into two diftridb, called flandards ; the moft remarkable placo 

b Colieft. Trav. 4to. vol. iv. p. 367. 

(B^ Latitude 40 deg. 19 min. of London, and 114 eaft of 
jofecoflds; longitpde i° tV Paris. 

3©" weft of Pe-ting; which is (C) Karchin figttifies fhe UnA 
1 34 eaft of F<rro f 1 1 1° 35' eaft tribe* 


C. u &*a Jcnghfe KWa. . Z y^ 

| here is Cha&ah»Suberha*-HotunfJ>). It is by far the \*R Proper - 
\ belonging to the Mungls ; for, as the prefect princes of it are Mungls 
originally Cbitufie, they have drawn thither teveral of their country. 
i countrymen, who have built towjas, and improved the lands. x -""V*^ 
\ Here are likewife mines, feme of excellent tin; with large ' 

■ forefts of fine timber : by which the great anoeftor of the prefent 
: family got irameafe riches, KarchU is 42 great French leagues 
from north to foath, but much larger from eaft to weft : and 
here are theemperor of China?* fine houfes of pleafune, near 
which the late kang-hi frequently hunted, and ufually fpent 
• his fiusmer ; especially at Je-fot about forty leagues from 

KORCH1N (E) is cfivided into ten ftandards, including Korchin* 
Ae countries of Turbcds and Ch*Ly % or Cbalayr (F). The 
principal refidence of die Korchin Tatars is along the river 
$ueyler(G) y and their pofleffions extend to the Sira Mi- 
ren (H) ; bat they have neither fprings for drink, nor wood 
for fuel, which they fupply by wells,, and dung of cattle. 
The principal point of Turbeaa is Haytaban Pira (I) : the 
Chatty Tatars dwell by the Nonni Ula{K). So that Kerchin, 
from north to fouth, contains almoft four degrees, extending 
fix leagues to the north of Jiaytahan ; but it does not ex- 
ceed three degrees four minutes from eaft to weft. 

The country of Nayman (L) contains but one banner, or Naymaju 
ftandard, and begins from the fouth fide of Sira Muren ; its 
principal north point being Topin-taL d (M). 

c Dv Halde, ibid. p. 249, & feq. d Ibid, 249, 264 

(D) H*un*,in the Manchew (H) Lat. 43* 37' long. 6" 

language, fignifies city ; and Su- y> 4 eafl. 

her ban, a pyramid of feveral (I) Lat. 47 I j' long. 6° 50' 

ftories. Lat. 41° 33' long. t° eaft. Pira fignifies a fmall river, 

45' 20" eaft of Pe-king. as Mmretty or Muran, a great 

{E) That* is the red tribe. one. 

(F) It is written ztfoja/ayr, (K) Ula is the Manchenv 
and Jelayr. word for great rivers. Lat. 46° 

(G) Lat. 46* 17' long. 4 30' long. 7 45' eaft. 

22' eaft of Pe-ting. Note that (L) This country begins on 

the latitudes were obfepred by the Sira Muren> in lat. 43 37' 

the jefuit miflionaries, who, in by obfervation, long. 5 eaft of 

1709, 10, and 1 1 , by the empe- Pe-king. The ancient country 

ror of China's command, fur- of the Naymans was from the 

veyed and made a map of Chi- river Se/inga to the Jeni/la, Qby 9 

ntf* Tatary : the longitudes are and lttijb. 

the refult of their geometrical (M) Lat. 41 15' long, 4* 

«perationi. 4$' eaft of Pe-king. 

T 4 OH AN 

OH AN is chiefly inhabited along die river Narhni Pit*, 

where fomc rivulets, as the Shaka (N) kol fajl into it. Oo 

this fide the latitude of 41 degrees 15 minutes, are fcen the 

^^""^ruins of a city called Orpam, or Kvrban -Suber ban- Hotun (01 

V*"' on the little river NichUut^ or Nucbaka, which falls into d* 

7k/in ifo. Naytnan and 0&m, though far lefe, are j* 

much better than Korcbin, being iaterfperfed with (hrubbj 

hills, which furnifli wood for fuel, and abound with game, 

efpecially quails, Thefe three countries, with TurMa, art 

fandy, and extremely cold. 

Yujnet. * TV MET is divided between two banneret princes, \ 

inhabited chiefly beyond the river Subarban, where occur 

ruins of Modun Hotun (PJ. This country extends fouthww 

to the great wall of China ; eaftward to the palifade indott 

Lyau-tong (QJj ; and northward to Hatha*, or Hara Paycbsq 

Second 2. If you go from the gate Ku-pe-kew (R), you enter ajn 

tourfe. the territories formerly part of Korcbin and Onbidt, but noa 

converted to a foreft, where the emperor hunts, and has few 

ral fine fummer-hoqfes. Farther north are the counmes d 

Onhiot, Kecbikten % Parin, Sbartt, UcbA Mucbin, Arvkorcim, 

and Abubanar. 

Onhiot. ONHIOT is divided into two ftandards of two prince% 

on the river Tnkin (S). 
Faria. 'PAR IN, divided alfo into two ftandards, has its princi- 

pal habitation (T) on the Hara Muren, which falls into the 
Sira Muren. This territory is larger than Onhiot* bnt % 
other refpefts like it, the foil being but indifferent. Tie 
princes of thefe countries are allied to the imperial family of 
Qhina, and are regulos of the firft and fecond order •. 
Kcchik- KECHIKTEN, or Kefikten, is divided into two fland- 
ten. ards, and has its principal habitation (U) on 4 final! riwy 

which runs nprth-eaft .into the Sira Muren. 
tJcHu UCHU Mucbin, pr Utfi'.Mufm (X), has tyQ ftandanb 

Micbin. along the Hulakar, pr Hulgar Pira ; its prince i§ * prime re** 
gulo T „ 

• Du Halde, p. 249, & feq. • 

(N) Lat. 4t° 15' long. 4? (R) Called by the *#/<w 

*aft. Kapki, lat. 40° 42' 15" long. 

(O) tat. 41 2p' long. 3 well of /V-i/»j , o° 39' 4"- 

30' eaft. (S). Lat t 42 30' long, t* 

(P) Lat. 41° %V long. 3 eaft. 

40' eaft. (T) Lat. 43 36' long. *• 

[QJ Tumtt, Oban, Haxman, 14' eaft. 

and Turbedjt, or Turmeda, follow (U) Lat. 43 long, i* io* 

each other from weft to eaft, eaft; 

with a fweep northwards, and (X) Lat. 44 45^ long. i° 

Jie to tip north of Ua*-tQng. xo' eaft, 

1 : - J * * — SHARON 

ft si Site* Jcnghfz KblnJ v ^8< 

SB A ROT, divided into two ftandards likewlfe, is .in- JVq&rr . 
: habited chiefly towards the confluence of the Laban Pira (Y) MnngU 
j»d #r* .Mar**. «wfty. , 

ARUK0RCH1N has but one banner, which refides on y —%-y 
jhe river Arukondukn (Z)v 

ABUHANAR has two ftandards,. and is beft inhabited Abulia- * 
about the Tool Nor (A), or lake of 7**/. nar. 

. Within this fecond dmfion, going almoft due north from Amy- $£* 
Xu-pe-kcw, one meets with fome towns, and the ruins of fe**'"'* ' ', 
reral confiderable cities, as lion Hotun, Poro Hotun, Kurtu 
iPaiba/Jun, and Cbau Nsyman Sum* Hotun (B), all upon the 

£cr Sbangtu, or Sbantu. The laft of thde places feems tQ Shahg- ty* 
ve been the city of Sbantu, called by the £%m^ Kay-pingt 
[fir, whofe ruins Ger billon few in 1691 f , It was built by r 

JfoMiy A^Wn, the fifth iWiun^/ emperor (and grandfon of • i 

V^Wz Afth), who removed the imperial feat thither, in 
rcrder to be, nearer his new conquefts; and ferved as the fun- 
fper feat of his fucceflbrs in China, who in winter refided at 
\Khan-balik, or Pe-king. It belongs to the country of for* 
tb'm ; but the other miffioners, who fiirveyed and made the ' 

map of Tatary, take no notice of it, any more than the reft, 
erf the antient cities mentioned by Marco Polo, and other early 
travellers, excepting Kerakoram ; which yet they were intirely 
\ it a lofs about, as will be feen prefentlv. « 

1 . 3. When you pafs out of the gate Chang-kya-kew (C), you ?&><{ . 
water on a country which was conquered by the emperor ""sP* 
[Kang-hi, and is his property. Thefe lands, and all the reft 
j along the Chinefe wall as far as Hi-fong-kew f are occupied by 
fanners belonging to his majefty, the princes, and feveral 
Xatar lords. Here are 7^i/^/7fl/orjalfo of different countries, 
r janged under three ftandards, and commanded by officers ap- 
pointed by the emperor, therefore not reckoned among thq 
$wty-nin$ Mwgl banners. 

Farther to the north of Chang-kya-krw are the countries 
of the Mungl princes of ifhacfit, SonHot % Sabahay, and 

f Du Halde, vol. ii. p. 335. 

IY) Lat. 43 30' long. 4 (B) Lat. 42 25' by obferv*. 
io'eaft. tion, long. o° u / weft of P&~ 

(Z) Lat. 45 30' long. o° Bng. 
2Veaft. (C) Lat. 40 51' 15" lona, 

(A) Lat. 43 *& long. o° wfftof PtUni X * 32' 4*''. 


t$i Hiftory 4f iht Mogul* ^Tartars," B. ft 

Proper WRACHIT is divided into twtf ftandards near Ac river 

Muagfs (3ttttr*(D), or CMrin Pita. 

comntry. ; SONHIOT has two ftandards, and the principal habit* 

% m "" V ^tton is near a lake (E). 

Abahay. . ABAHAY is divided into two ftandards, which encamp 
atteat feme Jakes or 'ineers, Ac fotrthermof! whereof is dSd* 

TVi ft . * TltlNCRUZ eonkms but one banner or ftaadard nan 

chits. * the Orgun ASn (G), -or mountain Or gun. ; 

Fourth 4* 'From the gate <rf 3ha-M*kew (H} you enter on the cm- 

€9*rfe. plot's lands, tn this country Hihu Hqtun, or KMkhtH* 
tun(i), is moft remarkable. Here inhabit the chkfs of two 
Tatar banners, caSed 1Mb Tutnet, who are appointed by the ! 

Khukhft Amjperer. ffMi jffohm is the capital of ill the country of, 

Hotun. the proper Mungh, where theempetor^ governor, and the 
kfttufktu, or Mgh-prieft of thofip people, rcfide. 

Beyond the territory of Hit A Hotun lie the countries of 
<he Mungl princes of KalkarTargar, Maumingan, Urat, aol 

Kalka- KALKA-TARGAK(K) is watered by the little riw 

Targar, Aypaha Miren, and contains but one banner. 
MAUMIfifGAN(L) has but one banner. 

Urat. URAT (or Ffotf) is divided into throe ftandards, and if 

moftly inhabited along the river (M) Km&olcn *, or ^uemhkn; 

Ortus. TitE Mungh called Ortos, or Qrtfy (N), are bounded on the : 

fonth by the great wall; which, tn that part; and indeed* 
throughout Shtn-fi, is only of earth, and fifteen foot high. 
On the three other fides they are hemmed in by the mang-bo\\ 
or yellow river : which paffing out of China, near the fine ; 
city of Ninghya* makes a great fyeep, and enters the empire- 
again near Pawtt-chew. Thefe Mungh are governed by &■■ 
vera! petty princes under fix ftandards, and pride themfehres 
in the number and largenefs of their tents, as well as multi- 

s Du Halde, voL it. p. 264. 

(D) Lat. 44 6' long, o* 45' 

(E) Lat..42° 20' 7" by ob- 
fcrvadon, long. 1 z8 ; wed of 

(?) Lat. 44 long. i° 31' 

(G) Lat, 41 41' long. 4 
ao 7 weft. 

(H) In SbaH-fi, lat. 4o p 27' 
]a*t< weft of F eking 4 1 %'. 

(I) Lat. 40° 49 7 long. 4* 

(K) Lat. 41° 44' long. 5° 

(L) Lat. 41° 15' long. 6 f 

(M) Lat. 49° 55' byobfer- 
vatioa, long. 6° «o'. 

(N) The chief point of thi» 
country is in lat. 39° 30* long. 

7° 3*'. 


&?; $m* Jcnghb Kbit* iff 

t& <rf tteaf fiofitt. Th«y had beyond the gr*t wilf, o&Ktlk* 
teW1**g~h* y a dtf talfed r*», wfetefcfitott»by tfcerttarioMmgls 
ideteft pretty fctfge ; though at ptdbftt they have no &m coun "J* 
tfWkitog, nor tak* any dtiight that way \ i*-v-*i 

ALtftotma th« fewtttd tribw or branches rf xb*M*xgb Limits 
Ml a wring life, yet they htfrd tfufr lefpeafot limit* Bant fettled, 
fj ciiftom, beyond *hfch they mart tt»t pafe fefcttte; ftrthb 
IMteittd an aft Gf hflftUity among them, 


Tie country of the KiMca Mungls. 

OF all the Mungl nations depending Off ^ftfoa, the TttikCtuntry «/ 
numerous and famous are the Katkds, who take tfceir'** K*k 
name from the river Kalka, 'written alfo Khalkha, and k* s * 
RtStt. Theypo^above20oleajjuesofthecountryfrtmieaft 
bireft>and the banks of the fineft rivers in this part of Tat dry; 
flhey dwell beyond the Mungls northward, and have the Ahttht, 
ItElufbs, on the wefft. Their country, according to Gerbilbn the 
Mbit, extends from mount Ahay * in the weft, to the province 
If Mr in the eaft ; and from the 5 1 ft degree of latitude (A) ttj 
fae fauthern extremity of the great KM, or defart, which is 
ktkoned to belong therti : for they encamp there during 
pt winter, when they ftand lefs in need of water; which is 
tardy to be met with m their territories, and generally bad. 

The defart above-mentioned, called Kobi, or Gobi, by the Gnat 
Hbngb, and Sha-mo, by the Chtnefe, bends about China ; andKobi, or 
k larger and more frightful towards the weft (B). GerbUlon defart. 
|ftfled it in four different parts. From its eaftern extremity 
to Ac mountains north of the great wall, it is about one 
biiidred leagues, not including the country beyond the Ke Hon % 
trtrich, though thinly inhabited, efpecially the weftern part, 
ibounds with water and pafturage. The KM is much larger 
from north to fouth, and above 100 leagues over. In fome 
farts it is quite bare* without trees, grafs, or water, except- 
ing certain ponds and marfhes made by the rains, with here 
tod there a well of water, far from being good. 

b Du H*u>e, p. 2 j 3, 265. » See before, p. 10, & feq, 


(A) It is (aid, p. 26$ of Du (B) This is the great defart 
£«/<&'* Hiftory of China, vol. 2. of which Mare* Psl* has gives 
dtttthey extend from eaft to weft us fuch frightful ideas j 'aui of 
» degrees, «nd bet 5 deg. and which,till lately, our geographer* 
half from north to footfi, had but very im^erfca aoefon* 


Hijtory t>f the Mogulj d«rf*Tartars, & ffi 

- -Tfes A*/i*r arc the defendants of .the Mwgfc; wfa 
•bone the year 1 368, were expelled fih'90 to/fy«£-ii,(bund« 
of die Ming .family (which the Manehey>s (uceeeded); aad,igi 
1 treating northward beyond the great defcrt, fettled chi% 
-along the dyers Seling*, Orhhon, Tula, and AVr/on: what, 
*ft*r being long accuftomed to the delicacies of China, tfa| 
fefuriKd^ to the roving and fordid life of their anceftors \ < 
T£*Kalka The Kalka Pir % a is not much frequented by the Kdfa 
K*a. although they take their name from thence. It flows (C)fro^ 
a famous mountain called Suelki, or SiuUd, 84 leagues frt* 
Par in tt> the north-north-eaft; and 64 from Tfufikar, tbl 
capital of fcaftern Tafary, to the wc(t. After pafling throu^l 
a lake called PwVr, it changes its name to Urfon % andnn 
* * due north intp a forger called Kylon Nor, 

fh Kef- The Kerlon, Tula, Twit qnd Selinga, though lefs htm 
loa. . for their prigin among thefe people, arp yet of more acoom 
for their clear and wholefome waters, abounding with trod 
and other good fi(h ; as w$J as fpr th$ fruitful, large,, ftp 
bopulous plains they glide through, The K^rlqn, or Kent 
hn, running from weft to eaft, falls al£> into the (D) laki 
Kubn Nor ; which difcharges jtfelf into the SagbaBan Ok I 
jhe river Ergona, or Argun* trie boundary of the Mzncht 
empire pn that fide. The Kerhn, which is about i&ty fa 
broad, and not deep, waihes the richeft paftures in all fa 

fife Tula. The river Tula, or Tola (E), runs from eaft to weft, 
in moft places is larger, deeper, an<J more rapid, than 
Kerbn ; has finer meadows, and more woods : the mount 
alfo on the north fide are covered with large fir. This rivej 
having joined itielf to the Organ, Orkbon, or Ufkon, wl 
comes from the fouth-weft, runs towards the north; ; 
after being increafed with feverai others, as the Selingha PJmji 
at length falls into the greateft lake in all Tafary, called Bap, 
kal, or Paykal, in that part of Siberia belonging to th$ 

b Du Haldb China, vol. ii. p. 259. 

•"'(C) The moft fouth part is (E) The Tola, or Tula, called 

in lat. 47 28' 48" obierved, formerly Koll-*n-naer. As foci 

long. 3 ; the moft north part as the karawans from Siheris 

hi lat. 48 5' long. i° 48' eaft pafs this river, they enter tht 

of Pe-king. territories depending on CbiS 

. <D) Month of the Kerhn, Btntink, afud AbulgbaxJ Kbh 

bt. obfcrved 48 50' 24" long, bifl. Turks, &c. p. 515, & fcq % 

f> p 45 ; eaft of Pt-king. Head of The fource of this river is about 

it in about lat. 4? long. 7 lat. 48 io' long. 8° ^ wet 
l& weft. 
. . The 

tJ.a; Sime Jcnghfi Kfiinr iSg 

The Tvn Pira, whofe waters refemble thofe of the KefhUi ? Kalka 
makes its way through fertile plains, and, after a pretty long Mungls 
courfe, lofes itfelf in the ground near a little lake, without*****?' 
appearing any more c . ^ ~\. 'ml 

The river Selmgha has feveral fource* ; due chief of7Z#S*> 
which, called Werjb Selingha, iflues from a lake, named bylinga, 
the Mungls KofogolfF). Its courfe is nearly in a line from 
fouth to north through very fertile plains ; and, after receiv- 
ing many other rivers, falls into the lake Baikal. Its waters 
are good, but do not afford plenty of fifli : both its banks, 
from its fprings till within one day of Selinghinfloy (a city of 
the Ruffians built on its fouth fide), are in the hands of the 
Mungls ; but the neighbouring country, from that city to the 
lake, belongs to the Ruffians. 

The Orkhon above-mentioned, formerly called Kalaffki f T&e OA- 
runs (G) north-north-weft into the Selingha; and on, its Hon* 
banks the Khan of the Kalka Mungls, and their khutuktu, ' 
(or high-prieft) ufually make their abode. 

The river Jit ay, at prefent called Siba, has its fpring to- Altay, or 
Wards the frontiers of the Kalrndks, or Ehtths, in the moun-Siba. 
tains called Uftun-lug-tugra, to the fouth of the fprings of 
the river Jenifea ; and, running from thence eaft-north-eaft, 1 

lofes itfdf to the north of the jfoh', or defart, and fouth- 
fouth-eaft of the fprings of the Orkhon. A petty Khan of * 
the Mitngls ufually refides about the Siba. 

The TJan, or Jan Miren, has its fource in the mountains jan M&- 
Which crofs the Kobi~ y and, running fouth-fouth-eaft, falls intoren. 
the Whang-ho, on the frontiers of Tibet. Two petty Khins 
dwell on its banks. 

The river Argun (6r Ergona) rifes in the country of the£"£* Ar- 
Mungls (H), from a lake caSed Argun Dalay, or Kulon Nor. gun- 
Its courfe is nearly eaft-north-eaft ; and, having run about 
100 leagues, falls into the great river Amur*, as the Ruffians 
cdl the Saghalian Via. i 

The prince? of the Kalka Mungls ufually inhabit the 
fcmk* of the rivers already described, with thofe of Hafa, 

" e Du Halde, vol. ii. p. 250, & feq. * Bsntinjc ap. . 

Abulghazi Khan. hift. Turk. &c. pi £f J, & feq. 

P {F) Or Kofikol, called alfo is in lat. about 49° 40' long. 

Kutuktu-nor. Kol, or Gfol, and 1 5 20'. 

Nor, Agnify a lake, in tbfe Mungl (G) Source about lat. 47V 

or Turki/b languages, which are long. 1 $° weft, 
ioefeft the lame. Its fource (H> About lat. 49 long, i*" 

r ; 30 ; eaft t 

" : 4 or 

Hiftory offfa Mogul*:* *rf Tartars, B. It 
ior Kara Pi>a, IUn Pira (I), 'which falls into tkOrifo, 
Karaujir, Ir* Pir*,jPatarik Pira* and the 7igur# Pirn (K), 
towards the fcwoeof the lrtijb y 4nd city of i/ami, or Khy 
l mil, in, LiVffe Bukharia c . 
j&/ w ^ Twke were fofi^lyfeveral cities in this part of TcHrj 
cities. pofl^fled by the Kaphas. The mUfioners who forveyed Chufc 
Tatary, by order of : thp emperor Kang-ii, met with & 
rofrs of a large jfquare city, two leagues in circuit, uaiwj 
Para Ho* P*y» Hafcn (L)> jjm* is the Tiger's City, from the aj J 
fun* tjia* : animal, "wjaich was; thought a good amen. Not far bm 
theoce is a place called Jfcr* tf^w, with a faall lake aodbr 
fprfng) m a fertife plain abounding with deer, mules, &t. & 
wildo There may be other roonuroeocs in thefe- quarter) 4 
the early times of the Mungls under JengMz Khdn y and J$ 
four immediate fuocejflbrs : but there do not appear to be ptf 
foQtfteps of Karakoram, the capital of the whole empfcf. 
during that time ;. at leaf* thofe jnriffioners were wholly at i 
lofs about it, fuppofing it tote Kara Uffm above-mcjitioiiej 
although the (Ituation no ways agrees with that which atrial 
have given of Karakoram. 
Karako- However, Gauiil, a jeftut who fettled at Pe-hmg fan* 
nun city, time after his brethren return from Tatary, by confultingtkj 
Chinefc hiftorians and aftronomers, found out the fituarioo n 
that city, whkh they call Ho-Un{lA). It was in being befat 
the time of JengMz Khdn, having been the refidence of tfc 
Khan of the Kara-its, the famous Van Khan, orl/ng Kbh: 
but when Jengbtz Khan took it from that prince it to | 
very inconsiderable place. The conqueror much improved \ 
and his fon'OAftzy Khan rebuilt and made it a famous dty r V 
with this account the Cbinefe hiftory agrees 8 . So that wbtt 
Abtflfarajy who fays it is fame with OrdubMik, affirms tb< 
it was built by Oktay\ it is to be understood of the impror* 
ments of that prince, who made of it a new city, and built* 
magnificent palace there, in the year 1225 K Yet Rutrufit f 

• Du Halde ubi fupr. vol. ii. p. 265. f Ds la Cmi* 

hift. Gengh. Can. p. 27, 362. * Ap. SoTcuT-obfcrr. 

mathemat. Sec. p. 186. b Hift. dynaft. p. 310, 320. 

1 Soucibt ibid. p. 192. Abulghari Khan hift. Turk, fc 
P-3S+>S l 3- 

<I) Refidence of the khft- (L) W 48V 4*" **«■*■ 

tuktu of the Kalkas on this 49' 3c/f. ' 
river ; lat. obferved 49 26' 47'' (M) Latitude obferved byd* 

long. io° 59'. Tatars 44° 1 i f long. 10° n'ty 

(K) Lat. obferved 42 53' computation* Spucitt. obfem 

long, 22 23' 20", mathem. teV. p, 185. 

Qo, Xkce Jenghte Kb3q* . 2*7 

the miaorite friar, who was at Karakoram iff H53# (ays ItKalk* - 
had then only a mud wail ; and that' the place itfelf, and tbeM*ngls , 
£han's palace, cooagpased wkh the European, were but- boot fM *«*57- , 
buildings ; however, he, allows it to hav/e been very populous/ Km r m \r mm i 
sod tp contain a great jnany palaces, temples, <bc k . 

KARAKORAM. Road K> the north of the great Kofc nt*» 
or £uidy deiart, and near the lake Kurahan Ulen(U), m^ted rw *«£ 
ky the jefuits in their., map of Tifcvy,, 'although they looted 
for k at Para Hatun, ,420 miles diilant to the north-eaft. It 
was the imperial feat of the Khans, till Sublay removed it tp 
pang»tu already jrieottooed ; which continued to be the place 
* thsir fummer refjdenoe as long as the 'Mungls were in:pp£- 
"on of China : but affpr their e^ujfion, about the year 
36ft, it is probable Katakoram became again the feat of the 

although, according to lie, Ja Croix f they refide<J , 

fince the time of O&iay {Jenghiz Khan's immediate fuo - 
) at Uhtg Tart (O), a city not far. diftant l 9 if it be, not 

ft fene place. Here .AIM Tunur, the thirteenth from Kub- 
, ^bended the throne in 1405 ; and we find it fubfifling v 

the dine of Aday 9 the fifteenth fucceflbr : but after thajt 
are told no more is heard of Vlug Turt in the oriental 
5* Yet neither the time nor occafion of the deftruc* 
k of that city, or of Karakoram, is mentioned by any hifb> 
^ 1 yet known to u$. , 
I TAT ART, according to Regis the jefuit, abounds vi\\k$tortof 
m forts of game, even of the kinds common in Europe; Z6gam. 
lares, phealants, deer, and the like : the yellow goats are 
Wdom feen in the plains, except in large-herds. They are of 
|fce ftapc and fize pf common goats, only their hair is yellow, 
Jnd not fo imooth : they are likewife, extremely fleet, which * 
feftkes it difficult to cat^h them. The wild mules go in final] #^ 
(wis, but are not like the tame ones, nor can be brought to**^'*' 
jprry burthens. Their flefli is of an agreeable tafte ; and, in the 
$pak>n of the Tatars, as nourishing and wholefome as the 
*ild boar's (P). This laft animal frequents the woods zxAWildhmr* 
■ plains 

. * Purch. pilgrim, vol. iii. p. 39. ' Hill. Genghis Can, 

f386. » Ibid. p. 401. 

(N) That city, by the lati- the Kobi from north-weft to 

fide, as well as this lake, flood fouth-eaft. 

nthcr in the midft.of the Kobi 9 (O) Vlug Turt fignifies the 

4tt the river Onghin (which runs great city, 

fctttheaft into the faid lake), and (P) Gerbif/ox t in his fecond 

kbout 50 ibilcs Tiorth-eaft of a joarney into Tatary, faw a young 

(ham of mountain j which croft wild »uk, of a kind which pro* 

\ p agate*. 

Hijlory of tBe Moguls and Tartml B.$ 

plains teydiid the river Tula, and' is traced by the earth k 
turns up to coihe at the roots on which it feeds. 

The Wild hoMe, and dromedary, which is a native of tha 

N r j* e & on > dre ^ e * e tame. *Thefe. are found chiefly in the 

^ r ^Vf weftern parts of great tatary, although fometimes they art 

ritn, • toet ^^ m * e territories of the Kalkas, bordering on JO* 

Mil in LittU Bukharia. The wild hoifes go in large droves; 

and when they meet with tame ones, fuifound and Force dm 

away : they are (o very fleet, that the fwifteft hunters canti* 

dom reach them with theii 1 arrows. 

TbeHd*t** The Hautehan is an animal which rdfetables an elk : the 

b*n. miflioners law fome, which; when killed. Were bigger tbi 

the largeft ox. They are found dnly In particular diftrifb 

about mount Suelki, in boggy grounds, Where they deligta 

to refort; and are very eafily killed, their great weight p* 

venting their flight* 

Tht chili- The chulon, or chelifon, is about the fee of a wolf, asl 

/on. Teemed to Regis a fort of lynx. It has long, foft, and thkk 

hair, of a greyifh colour ; and their furs are valued at tk 

courts both of China a&d RuJ/ia, which laft abounds vita 


TATARX is infefted with tigets ahd leopatds. The tigea 
found eaftwafds are furprfeingly large and nimble. Tbdt 
n w flcins are commonly of a fallow red, (taped with black lib[ 
£bme are white, with black and grey lifts. The fkins of d* 
leopards are whitifh, f potted with fed arid black. Althou£ 
.they have the head and eyes of tigers, they are not fo tag} 
and have a different cry. 
D ttr v The deer, which multiply exceedingly in the defarts lol 
hunting* forefts, differ in colour, bignefs, and flikpe of their fcon* 
according to the different quarters of this vaft region; an| 
fome are like the deer of. Europe. One way of hunting the* 
termed the ftag-call, is thus : the huntfmen, carrying iboc 
ftags-heads, counterfeit the cry of the hind, Which brings the 
w largeft flags towards the place from whence they hear tM 

try : they then flop, and look abotft ; till, perceiving the flap 
heads, they tear up the ground with their horns, and im- 
mediately run forward, but are fhot by fame Who Be in 4a* 
bufh. The emperor Kang-bi took great delight in this <B 
Horfes. c Yerfion. The intrepidity of Tatarian horfes in encountering] 
tigers is furprizing; and yet it is owing wholly to ufe: for | 

pagates. This was a female, hoofs and feet uncloven, 12w 

fial large ears, a long head, thofc of other mules. Colled, 

{lender body, and long legs ; voyag. & traY* quart, vol. iVn 

its hair was alh- colour, a#d its p. 636, 

C 2.' Since Jenghiz Khan." '289 

they are as fearful of them at firft as other horfes. The Kalka 
Mungls are very expert in taming and breaking, as well as Mongls 
Wching them running, with the flip-knot of a cord. They <w»try. 
tonderftand their diftempers, but ufe fuch remedies ai would '— ~v~*J 
no more agree with the horfes of Europe, than their foods. 
They are of a middle fize, yet forae are large as well as 
; finall; but the Tatars wifely prefer ftrength and hardinefs to 
ether hrge&efs Or beauty. 

The Kalkas are not rich in fable (kins, but have plenty of The taeU 
fquirrelS) foxes, and a creature as fntfell as an ermine, called/*. 
• *ttel-pe; of whofe fkins at Pe-kihg they make mantles to keep 
lent cold. Thefe animals are a kind of land rats, and dig in 
vthe earth a range of as many litde holes as there are males in 
^Vhc company ; one of whom always keeps watch above, but 
^ flies under-ground at any body's approach. When the hunters 
\ difcover their neft, they furround it ; and, opening the earth 
*4n two or three places, throw in flaming draw to frighten 
tikem out : thus they tak$ great numbers, which makes their 
(ion cheap. 

*' The rivers in the country of the M ungls do not afford Tbtjijbi 
: *hy great variety or plenty of fiih, like thofe of eaftern 7a- 
^jUry. The fiurgeon, which they fometimes find in the Tula, 
■tomes from the lake BaykaJ; and the Urfon, falling into the 
*.9aghalian Ula, or Amur, receives from thence the fifti which 
■ tl found in the eaftern rivers. In the fame river you meet 
llrith an amphibious animal called Turbegha, refembling an 
letter ; but the flefti is tender, and almoft as delicious as that 
of the roe-buck n . 

•• As to uncommon birds, there are bred vaft quantities of Sbonkat 
t)la extraordinary beauty in the plains of grand Tatary, That&W. 
iihentioned by Abtflghazi Kh&n ° feems to be a kind of heron, 
jjj^hich is found in the country of the Mungls towards the 
jtrontlers of China. It is all over white, except the beak, 
firings, and tail (Q^ ) ; which are of a very fine red. The flefh 
ffe very delicious, and taftes fomewhat like that of the wood- 
vicn. However, a« the bird which that author fpeaks of is 
i tery rare, Bent ink thinks it may be the ftork, which is very 
t fcarce all over Rujfia, Siberia, and great Tatary : yet fome are 
[fcund in the Mungls country near China, which are for the 

[ » Dtr Halde's China, &c. vol. ii. p. 255.. ° Hift, 

Turks, &c. p. 37, 8c 86. p Ibid. p. 500, & feq. 

I \ (QJ Abulgbaxi. Khan fays, and p. 86, that the head, feet, 
! in his hiftory, p. 37, that the bill, and eyes are red. 
fat, eyes, and bill are red; 

Mo».Hxst.Vol.IV. U general 

2go Hiftory of tie Moguls and Tartars, * B.IL 

Elftth general all over white '. -As Abu'lghazi Khan fcys, this bird * 
Mungls called ftxungar in the Turkijb language (and fcratzihet by the 
country. Ruffians) , it is doubtleis the fame with the fhonkar, which was 
'presented *> Jenghm Kbdn by the ambafladors of KfrUk. 
On this occafion we are told, that the ihonttar is a bird of 
prey, prefented to kings, adorned with precious ftones, as* 
mark of homage ; and that the Rvffians, as well as Krm 7i- 
tars, ate obliged, by their laft treaties with the Othman Turk, 
to fend one every year to Conftantinofclc, adorned with a <w- 
taia number of diamonds q . 



• Tbi Countries belonging to the Eluths, or Elu&j 

Mungls. "" j 

TH E countries belonging to the Ahths, or Ehiths, nick* j 
named Kalm&ks, are to be confidered, as that nation 
is at prefent divided into three branches, viz. 
D/ongari or Jongari, the Kqfboti> and the Torgautu 
Erath Jon- 1. The Eluths Jongari, wh* are the moft confide 
garyV branch of the three, poflefs the larger hatf.of what Eu 
ans call the weftern Tatary : extending from the Cafpiani 
amf river Ja'A 9 in 72 degrees of lortgitude, from Ferro, 
mount Altay, in 1 10 degrees ; and from the 40th to the j:d 
degree of latitude. Whence it may be computed about 193 
miles in length, from weft to eaft ; and in length, at 
from fouth to north, 650 miles. It is bounded on the nortkj 
by Rvffta and Siberia, from which it is feparated by a cha 
df mountains ; on the eaft by mount Alt ay ; on the fouth I 
the countries of Karazm and the two Bukbdrias (A) ; 
which alfo it is feparated partly by another chain of mo 
tains, and fome rivers, particularly the Sir ; and on the wA\ 
by the river Ja'ik and the Caffrian fea : or rather by Turkcftfa^ 
which lies between. • j 

There are, in the country of the Eluths or Kdmiks+i 
three confiderable chains of mountains* viz. the Tubra Tu- 
bujluky the Ujkunluk Tugra, and the Altay. The firft, whidtj 
• makes its northern frontier, and is called alfo Ulvgtig, or the 
great mountain, begins at the eaftern bank of the Irti/b, tfr 

p Hift. Turks, p. 500, & feq. * De la Croix hift. Timor 
Bee, vol. i. p. 350. 

(A) Little Bukharia % though yet under the doaniaion ef thr 
Out «f the bounds of Tatary, is Khau of the Eluths. 



C$; Since Jehghiz Khan.' 

(he north of the lake Say/an, through which that river pafles, 
and runs due eaft, as far as the Selinga, which it coafts north- 
ward, to the lake Baykal: then turning eaftj it proceeds to 
At Amur, or Saghalian Ula, about Nerchinfloy ; and follows ' 
the courfe of that river, on the north fide, to the eafteriv- 

The fecond branch, called Ujkunluk Tugra, bears alfo theUflcunluk 
name of Kichik-t&g, or the little mountain : it commences in Tugra* 
the confines of Turkejl&n and Great Bukh&ria, to the fouth of 
the river Sir ; and running nearly eaft, makes the bounds be- 
tween Great Bukh&ria sfad the country of the Eluths. It con- 
tinues its courfe on the fame line, till, arriving to the fouth of 
the fprings of the Jenifea, it ftrikes off to the fouth-eaft ; and 
falls in with the frontiers of China; as far as the province of 
Lyau-tong. There making an elbow to the riorth-eaft, it fe- 
parates that province, and Korea, from the country of the 
Mungls ; and ends at laft on the fliore of the fea of Japan, 
about the 4 2d degree of latitude. 

The mountain Alt ay (by fome called Kdtay, and in Ab#U Mount 
gbazi Ki&n's hiftory Kut) is a branch of the Ujkunluk Tugra, Altav$ 
taking its rife to the weft of the fpring of the Jenifea. It , 
runs almoft in a ftrait line from fouth to north ; constantly 
jnarching along the weftern bank of that great river, at a 
diftance of one or two days journey, ,till it joins the Tugra 
Tuhjluk, in about 50 degrees of latitude. 

For all this region of the Eluths is bounded by mountains, Rivers; 
yet it is watered by very few rivers which defcend from them. 
The moft confiderable known to us are the Tekis, and Hi (B), Tie Tekij 
the Cbui, and Tolas. According to the Jefuits map, the 7V- andVi^ 
Ms rifes in the mountain bounding Little Bukhdria on the 
north (C) ; and having run about 70 miles north-eaft, falls, 
by feveral mouths, into the Hi, which has its fource in the 
feme hills, and runs north-weft about 1 50 miles : .then, fhap- 
ing its courfe north 1 50 miles farther, falls into the lake Pal* 
kati (D), in about 48 degrees, of latitude. On this river the 
Khan of the Elut Arenas his chief refidence or camp, which is 
tailed Harkas, or, as others fpell it, Urga. 

The Chui and Tolas, according to the fame map, defcend Chui ant 
from the above-mentioned mountain ; and running north-weft Talas% 

(B) Bentink makes them the (C) Which feems to be the 
$&*/ and Jallajb, mentioned Ujkunluk Tugra. 
VLAbuhbani Khan's hift. of the (D) In Strabknbergs map 
Turks, &c. p. 33. But the mif- named Cbui. 
fioncrs map makes the Tallajh 
defcend from the other two* 

U % about 

b$2 tliftory of the Moguls and Tartars, R II. 

Eiuth aftotit i$o leagues each, fall into different lakes, the Cbui in- 
Mungls toKalkol, and the Talas iuto Sikirlik Nor *. 
country. Besides the rivers already defcribed, we meet with none 

^^v^^of any great note, except the Irtijb ; nor does more than a 
part of it run through this country. 

TZrlitiih. This river, which is the moft confiderable in the north 
of Afia, hath its rife (E) from two lakes, thirty miles afnn- 
der ; in about 45 degrees 1 5 minutes of latitude, and 1 13 of 
longitude, on the weft fide of mount Altay, and to the north 
of the province of Kbamil, or Hami, in Little Bukbaria, in- 
clining to the eaft. The riyers formed by them run weft* 
ward. The northern ftreara is called Khar Irtijb ; the fouthem 
Khor Irtijb : and, about 30 miles diftance from their fources 
uniting, form the river called Irtijb, Irtis, or Ercbis, as tht 
Ehtths pronounce it. This river, having run weft about 50 
leagues, makes the lake Sayjan (+), that is, of tbe nobility ; 40 
miles long, and 20 broad, Paffing out of the lake it turn 
northward, as far as Ujlamen, the firft Ruffian fort and fa* 
tlement on this river> in the borders* of the Elutbs country 01 
that fide. The reft of the Irtijb belongs to Siberia ; where^ 
after paffing by the capital Toboljkoy % it joins the Obi, a little 
above Samara. 

Tie Obi. STRAHLENBERG places the fources of the Obi, or 
Ubi (F), alfo in the country of the Elutbs. It is fortned like 
the Irtijb, by the confluence of two rivers, the Khatun and 
- Ba, from which laft it derives its name.- The Ba, or Bi, taker 
its beginning in a lake, to which that author gives the- nam* 
jAltun Nor, Altun Kurke, Altin, and TeUJkoy ; perhaps the 
fame called in the Jefuits map Kirkir. But both maps fcea 
to have been made, in this part, from very uncertain reports. 

Soil and The vaft region ofTatary,. being fituated under the fioel 

froduce. dimate in the world, is every-where of an extraordinaif 
goodnefs and fertility. But though almoft all the great li- 
vers of Afia have their fprings in the mountains of this coun- 
try, yet the land being perhaps the higheft any-where oa 
earth, it is, in feveral parts, deftitute of water; fo that it b 
inhabitable only near the river3 and lakes. Verbieft, the Jfr 
fuit, in the country of the Mungls, about 80 leagues to the 
north of the great wall, towards the fpring of the river for* 
ga, found the ground to be 3000 geometrical paces, or three 
miles,- higher than the fea-coaft neareft Peking. Hence it it 

• Hilt. Turks, &c. p. 522, 524, 526. 

(£) In about lat. 46° 4! long. (F) Source in about ht. 49* 
21° 30' weft of Pe-king. 30' loi J. 1 8° y* f weft- • 

(+) Alio Korzana, by the Ruf- 
/sans. ... that 

C. 3* * . ' Since Jenghfe Khan." 393 

that Great Tatary appears fo much colder than other couur Eliith 
tries in the fame. latitude. Our author was even affured, by Munglt 
perfons of credit, who had travelled there, that in Midfummer ccuntry, 
the nofth-eaft wind is fo piercing, that one mull cover him- * ***" ** 
felf well in the night ; and often in Auguft one night produces 
ice the thicknefs of a crown-piece, and fometimes of two. 
Nay, dig where you will, in fummier, in the country of the 
Mungls, four or five feet deep, and you find clods of earth 
quite congealed, and even intire heaps of ice ; which Ver- 
bieji afcribes to the falt-petre with which the (oil is impreg- 

The fame extraordinary elevation of the earth is alfo theGreat fir* 
reafon why there are fo many defarts in Grand Tatary : buttititj* 
thefe defarts are not altogether fo frightful, as Europeans fan- 
cy them. For fetting afide the vaft Kobi, or Gobi, before- 
mentioned, and a few other fmall fandy defarts, all the reft 
afford excellent pafture ; producing grafs in abundance, as 
high as one's middle, which would grow to the height of 
a man, if it was not for want of water : but, through that 
defeft, moft of it decays prefently at the root ; and as withered 
grafs quite choaks up the young, the inhabitants; in fpring, 
fct fire to the old herbage, which fometimes {breads above 
100 leagues round. In lefs than fifteen days after, the new 
grafs'lhoots up every-where to the height of a fpah ; which 
proves the great fertility of the foil : and fo much of this 
vaft country, as is fupplied with water, is fufficient for the 
fupport of four times the number of its prefent inhabitants, 
if it was but well cultivated. But then none, befides the 
Mohammedan Tatars, till their lands (G) ; while the Eluths, 
and moft part of the Mungls, have not the ufe of agricul- 
ture, fubfifting intirely upon their cattle (H) : this is the rea- 
fon why they can have no fixed habitations, being obligecj 
to change their quarters, according ad the feafons change. 
Yet, for all the foil 1% fo luxuriant, Great Tatary does not No forrfl . 
produce a fingle wood of tall trees, of any kind whatever, trees ^ , A 
excepting in fome few places towards the frontiers : all the 

(G) The miflioncrs fay, that (H) There are no plants to 

the lands of Tatary, from the be found in their country. When 

country of the Mancbenvs, or the miffioners aflced them why 

eaftern Tatary, weft ward, as far they would not at leaft cultivate 

as the Cafpian fea, are, for the fome little herb-garden ; they 

generality, unfit for tillage ; and replied, herbs are for the beafts\ 

thofe of Kor chin, ban t and Nay* of the field, and the beafts for 

nun, In the. country of the men. Du Halde China, U 'c. vol. - 

Mungls, worft of all. Pu Halde ii. p. 254, 

Qbina, vol. ii. jp. 249. 

V 3 wood, 

294 Hijiory tf the Moguls and Tartars, B. It 

Eluth wood, that is found in the heart of the country, confifb m 
Mungls fhrubs, which never exceed the height of a pike; and tbefc 

county. are ver y rare b # 
^fTy^j The Khan of the Etutbs dwells continually under tents, 

re/Utnce althou g h he poflefles Little Bukharia, with its dependencies, 
rejuunce. herein ^^ ^ a g Q0( j maQ y towns . Qjjy yfagn fa ajgjjj 

call him thither, he refide3 at Tarkien % or Tarian, the capbl 
of that country. He has continued about the river Ha aad 
Tekls for fome years baft ; that he might be, near at hand to 
watch the motions of his coufin Ayuki Kk&n, as well as tk 
Mohammedan Tatars and Mungls y between whom the Ehrtk 
are fituated. His camp is a great curiofity : it is difhibutti 
into feveral quarters, fquares, and ftreets, jnft like a town; sa< 
good league in cotnpafs; and able, at a minute's warning, to 
fend into the field 15,000 horfe. The quarter where the Khan 
refides, is in the middle of the camp. His tent is made of 
Kitayka, a ftrong fort of callico ; which, being raifed ray 
high, and of all Torts of lively colours, exceedingly deligbs 
the eye at a diftance. In winter the tent is covered with foil, 
which -makes it unpenetrable by the weather. Hia wives at 
lodged in little wooden houfes, which may be taken dov% 
in an inftant, and fet on waggons, when they are going * 
decamp c . 
Plenty of Although, according to the accQuntof the miflkxttt 
rhubarb, who furveyed Chinefe Tatary, there are no plants to be met 
with in that region ; yet we are aflured, by a certain curio* 
author, that, in the parts about the rivers Orkbon and Sefat> 
gha> towards SelinghinJhoy y rhubarb grows in great abundance} 
and that all which Ruffia furnifties foreign countries with, 
comes from about this city ; the diftricl of which yfcH| 
fuch plenty, that the treafury of Siberia fells 25,000 lb. weight 
of it at a time d . 
9?* gjut- The animals in this diviflon of weftern Tatary are mack 
ten ani- the fame with thofe to be fourjd in the two former parti; 
***• ' unlefs we may except one, called, by Bentink, the gkittmy 
which abounds in the country of the Eluths. It is a carni- 
vorous beaft, not quite fo tall as a wolf, and peculiar to the 
mountains of northern Afia.: the hair, which is ftrong and 
long, is of a very fine dark brown all over its back. Thb 
beaft is exceedingly mifchievous : for it climbs the trees, and 
Watching the game, which partes underneath, leaps down OQ 
its back, where it fattens with its paws, and makes a great 

* Hift. Turks, p. 381, & feq. alfo colleft. tray, 4to. vol. iv. p, 
393. c Abu'lg, \\\%> Turks, &c. p. 543, & feq. 

4 Ibid. ^ 501 . 


C. p SfaeJcnghtzKlAiu ig^ 

hole : while the poor creature, quite fpent with angukh and ElOth 
ftruggling to get rid of its enemy, at length falls on the Mungh 
^ground, and becomes his' prey. It requires three ftpnt dogs country. 
to attack this beaft, fmaJl as it is ; and very often they come* imm ^»^ 
off ftrangdy mauled. The Ruffians make great account of 
its (kin, which they ufe for mens muffs, and borders of bon- 
nets e . We leave our readers to judge whether this be the 
tbulon, found in the country of the Mungls s as well as the 
feme with the arkhora, mentioned by Apv'ghazi Kh&n ; fince 
Ac glutton leaves fuch narrow paths in Che hills and fbreftc • 
$s are made by that animal f . 

2. The Eluths Kofhoti poflefs all the kingdom of Tangut,\L\vt\* 
and are fubjeft to th&Dalay Lama, or great pontiff of 7j£*/,Ko(hotu 
who governs them by two Khans ; of whom one has the go- 
vernment of Tibet, the other of Koko Nor *. Thefe latter are 
Called, by the AJanchews and Chinefes, Tatars of Koko Nor. 

The count™ of Koko Nor, or Kokonol, is £> called by thefeKokoNof 
Eluths from a Ike of the hs» name, termed by the Chinefes country. 
Si-hay, tjiat is, the wejlern feq. It is one of the largeft jn 
'MTatary, being above twenty great French leagues in length, 
and more than ten in breadth; fituated between the 36th 
and 37th degrees of latitude, and between the 16th and 1 7th 
of longitude, weft of Peking h . 

This country lies between Tibet on the weft, and Chinatxtent mud 
tm the eaft, bordering on the provinces of Shen-Ji and Se-fite* 
tbwen. It is pretty large, extending from north to fouth 
above feven degrees. It is feparated from China by moun- 
tains, fo high and fteep, that they ferve almoft every-where 
tnftead of the great wall. Thofe to the fouth, which fepa- 
fate it from the kingdoms of Pegu and Ava , are frightful and 
linacceflible, inhabited by a favage people. They alfo make fo 
ftrong a barrier to China, by their great length and breadth, 
that the entrances on that fide are left unfortified *. 

3. The Eluths Torgauti are the feaft confiderable of theEluth* 
three branches. They dwelt heretofore towards Turkcftan, Torga* 
tod were fubjefl: to Kontaijh : but about the beginning ofwti- 
the prefent century, Jyuka, or Ayiki, one of his coufins, 

flying from his court, under pretence that he was in fear of 
i his life, parted the river Jdik, with the tribe of the Torga- 

titi, and put himfelf under the protection of Fujfta: In win* 
' ter 'Ayuka Khan ufually encamped with his Ordas in the fandy 

ground about J/irakhdn, to the eaft of the river Wolga, be- % 

* Bent. ap. Abu'lg. hift. Turks, p. 528. f Ibid. p. 26. 

Ibid. p. 5^8. * Dv Halde's China, vol, ii. p. 265. 

Ibid, vol. 1. p. 29, & vol. ii. p. 258. 

U 4 / tweca 

ig6 Hijtety of the Moguls and Tart#rs t B. II* 

Mungls, tween it and the Jaik ; and in fummer he often (went to re- 
fide on the banks of this river, about Saraiof and Zaritta 
(I). Although the Kq/boti and Torgauti Eluths have their 
' own Khans, yet Kontaijb preferves a kind of fovereignty over, 
and draws confiderable aid from them, when he is at war 
with his neighbours the. Mungls, Cbinefe, or Mohammedan 
Tatars K 


• Of the Mungls, or Moguls, and their Jeveral 


, SECT. L . 

Weir Name, Perfons, Manners, Cujtoms, Way of \ 
living* Habitations* Language. 

Wane f ■ ^ H E Moguls, or rather Mungls , derive their name 
Mungls, I f rom Mungl Khan, one of their ancient emperors^ 
■*• and one oranch of them ftill retain it, called, by oar 
authors, Mungals or Mongols, of which the word Moguls^ 
commonly ufed by the Jfiatics, as wel} as Europeans, is Z' 
corruption. Thefe people are frequently confounded witfc" 
- T the Tatars, which may be owing to the following caufos] 
, JJjJ a " Firft, The people of the north of Afia having been known,- 
nubenct • f or man J r *%**> by ^ c name °f Tatars, to the inhabitants <& 
the foutbern countries, particularly the Cbinefe and Perfvauy 
thefe latter, feeing the Mungls come from the feme quar*" 
ters, and no way different as to features, language, and man^ 
ners, from the Tatars, considered both as the fame people^ 
under different names (A), Secondly, there were, in the- 
army of Jenghiz Kh&n, whet) he invaded thofe countries^ 
tribes of Tatars as well as Mungls ; which made thofe na- 
tions, who were acquainted with ihe, Tatars beforfe, givi' 
both names, indifferently, to the followers of that conqueror! 
Laftly, the Tatars having been very ferviceable to Jengiti \ 
Khan in the batde againir Vang Khan, or Ung Khin, whicfi 
put him in pofleflion of thf fovereignty, to reward them) 

k Bentinic ap. Abu'Jghazi's hid. Turks, Sec. p. 538, & feq* 

(I) Thefe Eluths (till have, (A) The Cbinefe) fay KmiU 

or had, Confiderable territories Tatars and Elutb Tatars, as well 

to the eail oija'ik, and border- as Kalka Mungls and Ebtti 

ing weftward on the Jongari Mungls* 



C f 4- W«# Jcnghfe Khln. v 297 

joined their name •with that of the Mungls, in the title Mungls f 
which he thereupon aflumed, Ailing himfelf grand Khbn of their at- 
fie Mungls and Tatars. ^ Jlo mu 

Whatever was the caufe of introducing this cuftom, itjr" 1 "^ - ^ 
Js certain that it obtained, and ftill continues in force. ^^faSlt 
is what gives a fan&ion to the liberty taken by moft authors/^ Jm 
who, by Mungls and Tatars ,mean the fame people (%). This 
we mention, to prevent our readers from falling into any mif- 
take on this head, in the courfe of their hiftory, It muft bp 
confeiTed, it would be much better to lay afide a practice 
which tends to breed great confufion, and at leaft to confine 
|he name 9f Tatars to thofe commonly called Mohammedan 
TatarSy to whom another cuftom has in effect appropriated 
it. After all, thofe names ftiould be applied only for dir 
ftinftion fake, neither of them being ftriftly due to the peo- 
ple who enjoy it. For 3s the name of Tatars is given to 
many tribes who. are not Tatars ; fo that of Moguls extends 
to many who are not Moguls ; the name of the conquering, 
or mpft powerful tribes, having palled to the conquered, or 
lefs powerful tribes. 

The Moguls or Mungls are, at prefent, divided into threcT&rt* 
great branches ; the Mungls, properly fo called, the Khalkas, Mogul 
and the Aluths, or Eluths. The firft branch retains the an- branch***.. 
dent name of the nation, which has been already accounted 
For. The Kalkas, which may alfo be written Kh&Ikha, and 
Hhlha, as the firft letter "1$ a deep guttural, derive their name 
from the river Kalka, already defcribed, which runs in their 
country. Whence the Eluths (B), Aluths, or Aluts, derive 
their name, it is not fo eafy to determine. Thefe are the 
people commonly known by the name of Kalm&k, or Kalmdk, 
whofe etymology is alfo unknown to us. All which we are 
certain of is, that it is a nick-name given to thqn by the Mon 
hammedan Tatars, in hatred of their idolatrous religion (C) ; 

a De i.a Croix, hift.Gengh. p. 63. 

(J) And, after all, they are, in , The Oirets feem to be xhtVirats 
effeft, the fame people : as being of Abulghazi Khan. 
the defceiidants of the Huns, or (C) Math, a Miccnv de Sar- 
Turks. See before,)). 43. mafia AJtana, cap. 3. and Her- 
eto) We are told by Strablen- brefiein* in rerum Mufcq<v. com • 
berg, that they call themfelves ment. in the article de Tartaris, 
Derbon Oiret, or Oiretb, that is, towards the end, fay, that they 
fbt four Oiration tribes : and, by are called Kalmuks, betaufe they 
the Englijh tranflator of him, are the only Tartar nations <wbo let 
that they are called E/oth, and their hair grow. But this feema 
Corruptly Lutb.. See Strahl defc. very trifling ; fince the hair they 
offertory, in trod, p. 83 & 89. wear is no more than a lock on. 
1 the crown of their heads. 

' oc 

2$$ Hiftory of. J&e Moguls and Tartars, B. 1^ 

Mungls, or for fome other caufe. The Ruffians took it from thoj 

their cu- Tatars t and from the Ruffians it came in ufe among Eunfa 

fioms. ans . while the name of Eluth was unknown to them. The 

t-'nr^take it as an $ffront to be called Kalmuks, and fay, they har 

a better title to the name of Murtgls than their nrighbomj 

who at prefent enjoy it ; as thefe latter are fprung from 

part of the Mungts and Tatars who were expelled China, b 

Jfong-vu, the founder of the Mhg family, in 1368 b , 

MungU in This fliews, that although the two laft branches ha* 

general. for diftinftion fake, or fome other reafon, aflumed diffoen 

names from the firft, yet they ftill retain the name o£Mw$ 

which they highly honour ; as the Jews did that of IfratUtA 

to denote their origin and defcent. Whether the numeral 

tribes, into which each of the three branches is divided, " 

derived from the fame ftock, is a queftion which we havei 

cuffed elfewhere 6 . But let that be as it may; as they " 

all the fame cuftoms, language, religion, and form of J 

vernment, with little or no variation, what may be fakl 

one branch, will ferve for the other two. For this reafon \ 

fhall conneft together", under the general name of Mun$ 

what materials the beft travellers, and other authors, affm 

us, concerning the aforefaid three branches ; only diftingmfl 

ing fuch things as may be peculiar to each of them. 

Their The Mungls, in general, are of a middle fize, but exceefii 

f>aft : robuft, and well-fet : they have big and broad heads, flat 6a 

and complexions of a dark olive colour, pretty near that of A 

rican copper ; very black and fparkling eyes, but too far aft 

der, and opening but a little, altho* they are very long : t 

bridge of their nofe is quite flat, and almoft level with the fee 

fo that there is nothing of a nofe to be feen but the end, whk 

is very flat alfo, with two great holes, which form the 

trils (D) : their ears are very large, though without the 

their beards very thin : hair black, and ftrong,. like h 

hair ; but they (have all off, excepting a lode on the crown 

their heads, which fells down their backs, and is let grow 

Us natural length. To make amends for all this homelme 

f they have very pretty mouths, with fmall teeth, as white 

ivory, and are perfectly well limbed. Their women hai 

* Abv'lc. hift. Turks, Sec. p. ^59, & feq. c See befcn 

p. 61. 

(D) Although this defcription- wkh regard to their eyes 
doubtlefs belongs equally to the nofes, fay 9 only, that their mot 
proper Mungls and Kalkas, as are flat, but their eyes black ai 
well as the p/utbs, yet our au- full. Bentink ap.Jbulgb. hil 
thor, fpeakitie Of the Moguh % Turks, fcff . .p» jot. 

• much 

C. 6 Since Jengbfz Khan; zgg 

much the fame features, only not fo large : but theh they are Mnnglt, 
commonly of a very clever fize, and wcllnlhaped d . tbeir cu- 

GERBII.LQN, the Jefuit, fays they arc quite rude and /«"»•. 
Dnpotiihed in their manners ; yet honeft and good-natured : \ T, ¥ "^ 
timBktt&s, in particular, do ill to nobody, if not firft r^"^^***" - 
toked.: and although extremely brave, yet they do apt live*" 7 * • 
by robbery, like their neighbours the Mohammedan Tatar*, 
irith whom they are continually at war. The proper Mungls 
lad Kalkas are nafty and flovenly in their tents and clothes, 
bring amidft the dung of their beads ; which ferves them fof 
feel, /or they have no wood (£). They excel in horfeman? 
lop and hunting ; and are dextrous archers, either cm foot or 
m horfeback. In general they lead a wretched life : and, be 
log averfe to labour, they prefer grazing to architecture e . 

REGIS, another of the miffioners, obferves, that the ut» '^ ^*? 
toft ambition of the Mungls is to preferve the rank of thcir* Mr » 
pulies. They value things only for their ufe ; having no 
fegard to their rarity or beauty : are naturally of an eafy 
(tearful temper, always difpofed to laugh, and never difturb? 
ftd with melancholy. Indeed, they find little occafion fof 
pie : having generally neither neighbours to' manage, enemies 
Id fear, nor lords to pleafe. Perplexed with no difficult affiurjj, 
nor*bufinefs of conftraint, they divert themfelves wholly wifjj 
knnting, fifliing, and other bodily exerciies. However, thek?* J Z*du*t 
poople are capable not only of the fciences, but the greatejj: 
Undertakings : witnefs their fubduing China, in 1264 ; whi^h 
ifaey governed, even in the opinion of the Cbinefe, \pith great 
pigment and addrefs f . 

- As to their drefs, according to Bentink, they wear ya% &drdrejs % 
luge Hurts, and callico drawers : their habits are commonly* 
pade of callico, called Kitayka, or fome other flight ftuflT, 
*hich they line with iheep-flrin : and fometimes they weaj 
J&rire garments of (heep-fkin (F). They fallen their gar* 
■meats/ which reach to the ancles, with leather flraps about . 
Aewaift.. Their boots are exceeding large, and ufually 
made o£Ru/fia leather : their bonpets fmall and round, with 
t far of four fingers breadth. The women's drefs is nearjy 
foe iime, excepting that their garments are longer, their 

* Bbnt. ap. Abu'lg. hi*. Turks, &c. p. 53 J, & fe^. • D<j 
HALDsibid. p. 356. f Ibid. p. 253. 

fE) Hence their tents have a (F) According to &g/V, the 

fu&Hh fmell, hardly tolerable, ufual clothing of the Mungl\ 

fyi Regis dii HaUe, ubifupr. p. and Kalkas is iheep and Iamb. 

?ty ' \ fcia»» the \\qoI next the body. 

' fcoOUl 

30b Hijlory of tie Moguls and *£ artars, B. H. 

Mungls, boots generally red, and their bonnets flat, with fome litde 
their bu- ornaments g . Regis fays, they know how to drefs and white* 
w ^ m ^ thofe ildns, as well as the (kins of flags, deer, wild-goats, 
^"W&r. which ferve the rich for under-garments in the fpriog: 
^ yet,' For all their care, you fmell them as foon as they cone 

near you ; whence the Chinefe have given them the name of 
Tfau-ta-tfe (G), that is, ftinking Tatars h . 
winter and - The Eluihs wear much the lame kind of clothes with the 
jkmmer. proper Mungls and Kalkas. In the fouthern provinces they 
life no flirts in fummpr, contenting themfelves with a kind 
/di fheep-flrin doublet, without fleeves; Which they put ot 
laext their (kin, with the woolly fide out, tucking their flat 
^within their breeches ; fo that all thfe arm is left bare up to 
the (houlder. ' In winter they wear a flieep-fldn over their 
doublet, which reaches to the calf of the leg, and turn the 
woollen fide inward, Thefe upper (kins have fleeves (b bn$ 
that they are obliged to jturn them up, when going about 
any yoxki Their bonnet is red, and commonly fet off witk 
a tuft of filk or hair,, of a bright red. Their women go fa* 
bited much aft^r the fame manner ; their callico fhift making 
all their clothing in fumraer, and a long fheep-fldn gown, 
with a bonnet, the fame with their hulbands, fufficing theai 
in winter'. 
(Colour r$d Red is die colour in greareft efteem with the Tatars % and 
eficemtd. how ill clothed foever their princes may be, in other r* 
. Tpefts, they never fail to have a fcarlet robe for ftate occa- 
sions. Their chiefs would rather be without a (hirt, man a 
fcarlet coat ; and the women of quality do not think them- 
felves well drefled, if the fcarlet gown he wanting. The «* 
*ry meaneft people affect to wear red cloaths, although the 
cloth be ever fo ordinary, This humour has fpread era 
among the inhabitants of Siberia. In Ihort, all over the nortfc. 
of djia, a man may do more with a pi^ce of red cloth, that j 
four times its value in filver k . 
Mungl The arms of the Mungls confift in the bow and arrow* i 

arms. the pike and fabre, which they wear after the Chinefe manner* 

And they always go to war on horfeback. 
Their cat* These people Hve intirely on their cattle ; which cooiHl 
tie. of horfes, dromedaries, oxen, cows, and (heep. Their horfes 

are very good and mettlefome : their oxen larger than thofe 

* Bent, ap. AbiTlg. bi(h Turks, &c. p. 505. h Du Haldi, 
bbi fupr. p. 254. * Abu'lch. hift. ubi fupr. p. 533, & feq. 
* Ibid, pi 40$. 

(G) The T/udatfes of We** of Tfau-ta-tfc. See Ogilb. (W- 
tyf ?rc doubtlefs a corruption na> p. 114. 

C. 4« Sinn Jenghiz Khan \ 301 

of the Ukrain, and the tailed in the world. Their dromeda- Mungls^ 
rles arc large and ftrong. Their fheep are very large alfo, but their 1 cu- 
have very fliort tails; which are buried in a cafe of fat, ftom. 
weighing feveral pounds, and hanging perpendicularly: the v-,, *^^* , ^• 
wool of them is very long and coarfe ; they have a bunch or 
rifing on the nofc, Tike the camels, and hanging ears, like 
Jhoands ] . This is to be underftood properly of the Eluths ; 
(or although the Mungls and Kalkas have the fame fort of 
cattle with them, yet they are far inferior, both for goodneft 
and appearance, except the (beep ; whofe' tails are about two 
ipaos long, and near as much in compafs, weighing com- 
monly between ten and eleven pounds : it is almoft one in- 
tire piece of very rank fat. They, above all things, abhor Their fieti 
fwine n ; and the Eluths never eat either them or poultry. 
They, in general, eat nothing but horfe-flefh and mutton ; not 
efteeming that of bullocks or cows^ fo good. They are alfo 
fonder of mare's than cow's milk, being much better and 
richer. Indeed, the cows, after their calves are taken from 
them, will fuffer none to draw their teats : they ^likewife 
qufckly lofe their milk ; fo that neceffity has introduced the 
tfe of mare's milk °. 

CERBILLON (ays, that, in fummer, the Mungls feed 
OD milk bieats j ufing indifferently that of cows, mares, ewes, 
goats, and camels. Their drink is water, boiled with the 
vorftfortof Chinefe tea, in which they put cream, butter, 
or milk. They make a fpirituous liquor from four milk,^™**^- 
which is diftilled after fermentation. The rich lay mutton **"** *"• 
to ferment with their four milk. This liquor is ftrong andf*""'* ' 
nrorifhing, and they delight to get drunk with it. They al- 
io finoke a great deal of tobacco °. Bentink informs us, that 
the Kahn&ks have a way of making the milk four in two 
nights time ; after which, pouring it into an earthen pot, they 
flop it very clofe, and putting a funnel to it, fet it on the 
fire. This fpirit is as clear and good as that which in Eu- 
rope is diftilled from grain : but to make it fo, it muft be fet 
twice over the fire. They call it arak, in imitation of the 
Indians their neighbours, who give all their ftrong liquors that 
name p . 

RUBRU§>U1S tells us, that, in the time of ManguKofmos,*- 
Khin, the Mungls, befides wines which came from foreign Ki mis. 
countries, made excellent drink of rice, millet, and honey ; be- 
ing well-flavoured, and high-coloured, like wine : but that 

1 Abu'lch. ubi fopr. p.. 536. m Ibid. p. 525. ■ Ibid. 

M°3> 536. ° Dv HALDE,ubi fupr. p. 256. * Ajbu'lc, 
ubifupr, p. 403, 536. 


$62 Hiftory if the Moguls and Yartars, . B. It 

Wungls, their chief liquors were the kofmos(H) and karakofmos ; which, 

tbeir cu- according to that author, are made in the following manners. 

Jloms. F or thekofmos, they fill a great fkin-bag With mareVmilk, and 

r-'V^ beat upon it with a club, which has a knob at the end, as 

big as a man's head, but hollow. As foon as they 'beat, the 

milk begins to boil (or ferment) like new wine, and turn 

four : they continue this labour till the butter comes : then 

» tailing the whey, if it be pretty fharp, it is fit to drink ; for 

it pricks the tongue like rape- wine, and leaves a flavour like 

that of almond-milk. It intoxicates weak heads ; is very 

pleafant, and diuretic. 

Karakosmos, or black kofmos, is the drink of great lords^ 
and made thus : they beat the milk, till the grofler part fub- , 
fiding, like white-wine lees, the purer remains at top, like 
new whey.* The fettlings are given to fervants, who fleep 
very found after it. This, fays our author, is a very plea- 
fant and wholefome liquor *>. 
Great T*f e inhabitants of Great Tatary, in general, are fond of 

drinkers; ftrong liquors ; for when they can get any, they never let it ■ 
reft, while they are able to Hand. When they have a mind , 
to make merry, each brings what liquor he can procure ; and 
then they fet themfelves to drink night and day, never (lining 
. till every drop is out. They are no lefs fond of fmoking; 
which cufloms prevail moll, in proportion as they live more 
northerly \ 
tttiriraf- These people, having no manufaftures, exchange their 
fak. . cattle with the Ruffians, Bukhdrs, and other neighbours, for 
what they vant : nor is it poffible commerce could flourifh 
therfc as it did in the time of Jxnghiz Kh&n, fo long as thd 
vaft regions they inhabit remain divided among feveral princes ; 
fome of whom will always oppofe the defigns of others. 
Befides, the rapines of the Mohammedan Tatars, who rob the 
karawans, keep off the merchants' of the weft. However, od 
the fide of Siberia, China, and the Indies, they may arrive in 
full fafety. Thofe from China refort in great numbers to the* 
Mungli, bringing them rice, bohea-tea, which they call kara- 
chay, tobacco, cotton, cloth, and other ordinary fluffs ; ]*• 
fides feveral forts of houfhold utenfds, and other necefla- 
ries *. 
Vojlarce As the heathen Tatars lead a very harmlefs life, they are 
trade. not f earneft to 'procure flaves for their fervice as the Mo* 

* SeePuRCH. pilgr. vol. Hi. p. 5, & fcq. r Abu'lck. 

Ubifupr. p. 403, 536. •"Ibid. p. 412, 505, & 536. 

(H) By other authors called Kumis, or Kimis. 

C. 4. Since Jenghlz Khan. ' ' 303 

h&mmedan Tatars. Befides, having no need of more than Mungli, 
their own families to guard their cattle, which are all their their c$t- 
rkhes, they do not care to burthen themfelves with ufelefs /«**• ' 
mouths. Hence it is, that none, except the Khans and the u * , V* , * J 
Tayk, is to have flaves. When they take any from their ene- 
mies, all; except thofe whom they keep, are diftributed 
ampng their fubjetts, in order to augment their number; 
which, at the fame time, increafcs their revenue. On the 
contrary^ the Mohammedan Tatars often make war with their 
neighbours, on no other fcore but to get flaves ; felling thofe 
they do not keep. Which humour prevails fo much with the 
Chircajian, Dagheftan, and Nogay Tatars, that, when they 
can't meet with grown up people, they fteal children to fell ; 
and, if they cannot get'other people's, do not fcruple to fell 
their own : efpecially their daughter*, if beautiful ; as they do 
their wives, on the flighted difguft. In ftiort, the trade of ^/ 
flaves being all their wealth, they fpare neither friends nor /* 
fees, when they meet with a fair opportunity of carrying 
them off 1 , 

The Eluths take as many wives as they will (I), befides Polygeny* 
concubines, whom they chufe out/ of their flaves : and 
whereas the Mohammedan Tatars mult not contrail within 
certain degrees, the Pagan may marry any of their kindred, 
except their natural mothers. In this our author fuppofes 
they are re/trained, rather by the age of their female parents, 
than by any law ; becau^ it is not unufual, among the Kluths 
KiAMungk, for the father to take his daughter to wife : and 
they give over lying with their wives when they draw near 
fcrty; confidering them thenceforth as no other than fervants, 
to whom they give vi&uals, for taking care of the houfe, and 
tending the young wives who fucceed in their places. , 

The children born of concubines are equally legitimate, Inherlu 
wd capable of inheriting : only if the father has been Khan,* 1 **- 
or chief of feme tribe, the iflue of the wives fucceed before 
thofe born of concubines. The offspring of common pro- 
ftitutes are looked on with a fort of contempt by every-body \ 
and very rarely fucceed their fathers, efpecially if people of 
diftinftion : becaufe there is no knowing if the perfon, fuch % 
creature lays the child to, be the real father. Polygamy is not 
h inconvenient to the inhabitants of Tatary t as it is to die 

* Abu'lg. ubi fupr. p. 412, 505, & 536. 

(I) Qerbillon feys, that akho* generally but one wife. Du 
polygamy is not forbidden a- llalde% China,' &c. vol. ii. p. 
Pong, the Mungh, yet they have zj 6. 


304 Hijiory of the Moguls and Tartars, B. It 

Mungls, reft of the Afiatics ; their wives being of great ufe, and lit- 

their en- tie expence, to them. For the old ones manage the hoofe- 

ftonu. w if r y y take care of the cattle, and, in (hort, provide intkdf 

L "w" 1 -' for the fubfiftence of the family ; fo that the hulband \m 

nothing to do but deep, and follow his diverftons. 

Great filial Nothing equals the refpeft paid by children, of all ags 

re/pa. and conditions, |o their fathers, who are confidered as loop 

of their families : but they make little account of their 

thers, unlefs under fome particular obligations to thea* 

1 They muft lament a father for many days, and 4eny th«K 

felves of all forts of pleafure during the whole time. Tte 

fons muft even abftain from the company of their wives ftf 

feveral months. Nothing muft be fpared to render his 6h 

neral honourable ; and at leaft once a year they muft pay that 

devotions at his tomb, calling to mind the infinite obligation, 

Which they owe to him : but the Mohammedan Tatars 

not fo exaft as to their duties paid the dead u . 

Burial* The Mungls burn their dead, and interr their aihes on km 

mnd eminence ; where, failing a heap of ftones, they place thercai 

paves, little banners \ The greater part of the Pagan Tatars In 

along with the deceafed his beft horfe and moveables, fuch 

wooden porringers, for his ufe in the other world. In ma 

parts, towards the borders of Siberia, there are to be fai 

litde hills, under which are found fkeletons of men, accotih 

panied with horfe-bones, and many forts of finall veffels, h* 

fides jewels of gold and filver. Likewife the flceletoos d 

women, with gold-rings on their fingers. As this does 

agree with the condition of the prefent inhabitants, they 

doubtlefs the graves of the old Mungls, who died after tMf 

return with the plunder of the fouthern countries of Afa 

into thefe defarts, where they buried veflels of gold and fl» 

ver, with other riches, fo long as they had any left. Thl 

Svjedifb prifoners in Siberia, as well as the Ruffians, ufcd « 

go in great troops to fearch thofe tombs, which lie far wthfr, 

the lands of the Eluths : but a good number of them hi* 

ing been flain by thofe people, all farther expeditions wot 

forbidden, under fevere penalties. This behaviour of tta 

Eluths, otherwife fo very peaceable, (hews, that they coofr 

dered them as the tombs of their anceftors ; for which tilth* 

Pagan Tatars have an extraordinary veneration *. 

Antient ' On this occafion it may be proper to mention what frfcf 

fepulcbres. Rubruquis, who, in 1255, was at the court of Ma ngu JCUu, 

* Abu'lc. ubi fupr. p. 406, & feq. * Du HaldbH Chi* 

na, &c. p. 256. y Abu'lg. ubi fupr. p. 556, & fe$. 

' mit$ 

C. 4.* • $i*c* Jcnghfz Khan; 305 

writes, concerning the fepufchres of the Kcmdnians, or peo- Mnngls, 
fk of Kipck&L . They build a large tomb over their dead, tkir cu- 
mid let his image upon it, with its face towards the eaft, and ft**** &c * 
folding a drinking-cup before his belly. On the monument* """^^ 
of rich men they ereft pyramids, or little conic houfes. In 
tome places the author met with vaft brick towers : mothers, 
Hone pyramids ; although there are no ftones found in the 
neighbourhood. Near the grave they generally leave one of 
the defunft's horfcs. At one he faw fixteen horfe-hides hung 
tip on high ports, four towards each cardinal point; with 
Itofoios (or kimis), fet for the deceafed to drink, and flefh 
ftD eat : but could never learn, that they buried treafures 
htrith the corps. He obferved other kinds of fepulchres tOr 
^lards the eift : namely, large ftone floors, or pavements, 
rfcme round, others fquare ; with four tall ftones crafted at 
fcfhe fides, facing the cardinal points z . 

, The* Mungls dwell either in tents, or little moveable huts./ja> 
ukgif, fpeaking of the Mungl tents, fiys, that they are/aft | 
found, and covered with a thick grey or white felt, up- 
held within by poles, with one end tied round a hoop. They 
TOins form the fuperflcies of a broken cone ; with a round 
(bale at top, to let out the fmoke, which afcends from the 
fkearth, placed in the middle underneath. While the fire 
r hSh they are warm enough, and then grow cold again ; and, 
In winter, would, without care, freeze in their beds. To 
ravoid this, as well as other inconveniencies, they have their 
flcnt door very narrow, and fo low that they cannot enter 
fWthout flooping. They have alfo the art to join thefe loofe 
•fieces fb nicely, as to keep out the piercing blaftg of th6 
Htorth wind*. 

The Eluths, according to BentinJt, have, in fummer, great movealU 
stents of ketayka, a fort of callico; and, in winter, QxtA&boufiii 
' made of boards, and covered with felt ; which they can fet 
■ up and take down in lefs than an hour's time. The huts, 
I ts houfes, ufed both by them and the Mungls, are made * 
j" tound, -with great poles of light wood, joined together with • 
I leather thongs (K), for the more eafily fitting up and jrev 
! moving them. They cover them on the outfide with a ' 
thick felt, for defence againft the cold and bad weather. In 

* Purch. pilg. Vol. iii. p. 6*7, 8. • Du Halde ubi , 

fapra, p.254. 

{XL) In the time of Ruhru- (or floor) of the fame ma* 
quit, they were interwoven with teriale. 
wickers; and the foundation 

Mod. Hist. Vol IV, X the 

go6 Hiftoryoftht Moguls and Tartars, B.H 

Mungls, the middle of the roof, which is conical, they leave an open- 
their ra- ing, which ferves both for a window and chimney : the fire- 
ftoms, Replace bang direttly underneath, and the deeping places round 
^ " m Y mmJ the hut againfl the wall. The chiefs, and perfons of dUtinc* 

tion, have huts larger and more convenient b . 
carried on These moveable habitations (in their removals] are car- 
waggons, ried on waggojis, with four wheels. Thefe carriages have two 
ihafts, made of a very pliable light wood, and fattened to tig 
axle-tree of the fore- wheels, by means of one of their ends, 
whkh is turned back. They pot them between the body of 
the waggon and the wheels, tying a cord a fpan diifauKE 
from the foremoft end of the {hafts. This cord goes into the 
end of the axle-tree, which partes through the nave of ths 
wheel : fo that the wheels, which are pretty fmall, play at 
both fides of the waggon, between the fhafts and the cori 
The horfe marches between the lhafts ; and over his bad 
there goes an exceeding pliable piece of wood, in form of * 
femtcircle, which is fattened on both fides to the harnefi> 
and the lhafts to its two ends. They pretend, that in this I 
manner the beafl is much eafed ; and indeed one horfe will 
draw a waggon, well loaded, above a hundred leagues : but; 
it mull be obferved, that thefe machines are not very large; 
When they put more horfes, they either place them before 
the firfl, or fallen them to the hindinoll axle-tree. The 
Ruffians and Kojfaks make ufe of much the fame fort of car- 
riages 5 . 
jUtUnt The houfes, in the time of Rubrttquis y were thirty feet in i 
bouja diameter, llretching on each fide five feet beyond the wheels; 
Over the felt they laid mortar, marie, or bone-afhes, to make 
it fhine white ; adorning the roof with beautiful pictures, 
and hanging before the door a felt painted with birds, trees, 
and beafts. That traveller counted twenty-two oxen draw- 
ing one cart, eleven on a fide. The axle-tree was as big as 
the mart of a fhip, and the driver flood at the door of the 
houfe. Their houfhold fluff and treafure were kept in fquare 
wicker cbefls, rounded at top, and covered with felt, grcafed 
over, to keep out rain. They were adorned with paintings, 
or feathers, and fixed on carts, carried by camels, for crcf 
fing rivers ; but never taken down like the houfes. 
Bow houfes, when let on the ground, are placed, as all 

f laced, their habitations are, with the door facing the fouth, to avoid 
the north winds, which are very piercing all over great 7i- 
tary. Then they range the chefl -carts at a little dilfance, on 
each fide, as it were two walls. One rich Mungl had one 

b Ajju'lch. hift. Turks, &c. p. 409. c Ibid. 

C. 4* Since Jcnghiz Khan. 307 

or two hundred fuch carts with chefts ; fo that iuch a great Mungls, 
jnan'$ court looked like a great village d . their r*- 

The. fixed habitations of, the Eluths, which are but few, ft**** &£• 
excepting the roof, which is in the form of a dome, trt^r^CT^ 
built in all refpe&s like the moveable huts ; without rither^*^J~" 
» chambers, windows, or garrets : the whole confifting of one 
\ ilngle room, about tvVelve feet High. But thefe houfes Ire not 
near fo large and convenient as thofe of the Manchavs, who 
\ build them fquare e . 

In the year 1721, fome perfons, fent by the emperor ofN ee Ji es%ot 
l Ruflidj Peter I. to difcover plants, near the river Tzulbn (or Jpires. 
k (3mlim), to the weft of the town cfKra/noyar; found etefted, 
about the middle of the great ftep or defart, a kind or . 
Lneedle, or fpire, cut out of one white ftone, about fixteen 
| feet high; furrotihded by fome hundred fmaU ones, four or 
five fleet high* There b an infcription on oiie fide of the 
' great needle, and feveral characters on the lefler ones $ which 
time has already defaced in many places, and feefti to have no 
refemblance of any ufed in the north parts of /ffia* As there 
ire no (tones within an hundred leagues of thefe monuments, 
aad fuch works do not agree with the genius of the prefent inha- 
bitants of Tatary, Bentink feems to think, that they could not 
, lave been executed either by them or their anceftors. But this 
cooclufion will not hold good, if we confider what has been 
already quoted from Ruhrnquis, who found tombs in that 
form (L) in his journey through the fame parts of Tatary* 
. In that part of the country between the Ja'ik and Sir, A deferred 
which is inhabited by the £luths, towards the borders of xhttonvn. 
kaffatcha Orda, who poflefs the other part, the Ruffians, 

(about 17 14, difcovered a town, quite deferted ; In the midft 
of vaft fandy grounds, eleven days journey to thd fouth-weft 
f (M) of Tamifba, and eight to the weft of Semfalat (N). It 

a Purch. ubi fupra, p. 3, & fe<j. * Aato'LCH. ubi. fu- 

,pra, p.410. 

(L) Paul Lucas, in his fecbnd have been built by the Tatars, 

voyage to the Levant* torn. i. in one of their expedition! on 1 

p. 126, faw a ferprizing num- that fide; 
aw of pyramids, no fewer than (M) It fhould be fouth-eafr, 

20,000^ within two days jour- according to Strablenbergs map, 

' ncy of Cafarea, in Jfia minor ; which places this town in the 

with doors, flairs, rooms, and neighbourhood of Sempalat, and 

Windows; and in the upper part Abluket, both on the Irtijb. 
of each a corpfc. Which, from (N) Sempalat, o: Sedempalai; 

their uniformity with thofe in that is, the /even palaces, is a 

Votary, may be prefunied to Ruffian fctdement on the Irtijh. 

X a 


30S Ktfiory of lie Moguls and Tartars,. B. E, 

Mungh, is about half a league in compafs, with walls five feet thkk, 
their cu~ and fixtoen high : the foundation frceftone, and fuperftrnc- 
^w,&c.t ure brick, flanked with towers in feveral places. The 
. *' "■"*"" '■'houfes were all built with fun-burnt bricks, and fide-poftsof 
wood, much after the common fafhion in Poland. The bet- 
ter fort had feveral chambers. There were likewife grcar 
$rick buildings, with each a tower ; which, in all likelihood* 
ferved for temples. Thefc buildings were in pretty good 
condition, without the leaft appearance of violence having 
been ufed to them> 
Writing* In moft of the boufes was found a great quantity of 
Jfrund writings done up in rolls. One fort was in China ink and 
tiw** {ilk paper, white and thick. The leaves were two feet long,, 
and nine inches broad, written on both iidts ; and the lino 
ran from the right to left acrofs the fame. The writing 
was bounded with two black lines, which left a two-incfc 
margin. The fecond fort was engrofled upon fine Woe filk 
paper, in gold and iilver, with a line round each, in one or 
the othef. * The lines were written length-ways, from right 
to left ; and varnifhed over, to preferve them. The firft tort- 
were found to be. in the Mungl language : the fecond in that 
relating to of Tang ut (of Tibet ) ; both treating, of religious matters 
dtvotio*. Since then* two* other towns were difcovered, deferred ia 
the fame manner by the Elut ks ; probably on account of 
their wars- with the Mungls. Much of the fame kind was* 
the difcovery made in 1721. Some ruftics, fent from 75- 
bclfioy, by the- governor of Siberia, privately to* look far 
ruins and ancient fepulchres, found certain images of gold, 
filver, and brafo, in all the tombs. And, having advance! 
f 20 German miles toward the Cafpian fea, met with the ruins- 
of fplendid buildings : among \tfhich were fome chamber* 
under-ground, whofe floors and fides confifted of moft fliine- 
hig (lone. . Th*y few here and there black ebony chefts ? 
^ which, inftead of treafure, contained writings or books. Of 
' thefe they carried away only five leaves : one whereof, beings 

tolerably well preferved, was made publick (O)- The learned 
of Europe, to whom the emperor Peter I. alfo communicated 
thefe writings, were much puzzfed about them ; but at once 
were known by meflieurs Freret and Fourmont, of the acade- 
my of Inscriptions at Paris (P) to be the language and char- 

' (O) lb the AQp Emditorum, (P) In tfie hiftory of that 
vok xlvi. p. J75, July 1722, academy, for the year 172?* 
and in the literary news of Leip- there is a full account of the** 

Juk, the 25th of June, the ferae writings 
year, p. 414. 


C. 4J -28w JengMz KhanJ 309 

xa&er of 7%*'. They/oimd it toie a funeral fennon, with Mungls, 
a moral on the other life", well handled f . their at* 

The language fpoken by the numerous tribes of Mungls ft**** &c 
is limply called the Mungl tongue. They Lave indeed 7e- y y~* m,mm * 
Tend diakfts ( QJ ; but understand each other very well s f s*** 1 "?**- 
The characters found or the antient monuments are the fame 
-with thofe in prefent ufe j, but different from the Manchews, 
-which are ho older than the family now reigning. They 
Aavc not' the leaft nefemblance of the CMmjft letters, and am 
no more dilScult than the Raman. They are written on ta- * 
I iks with aa iron pencil : for which jeafon a book is ft great 
rarity among die Mungk* The emperor JCang-bi, to pleafe 
them, had lome of their authors tranflatcd, and printed at 
i fe-ting. But the chief book among them is the Kalendar* 
; jubUfoed by the mathematical tribunal in «hat capital, and 
^jpaved in Mungl characters 1 !. 

" The Mungls, in the fleuriflting times *f their empire, f*arm*£. 
[cultivated arts and fciences; which they. learned from the 
; iwthera nations of Afia y whom they conquered. Among the 
I left, aftronomy, geography, and other parts of mathematics, 
: are much indebted to the labours of their countrymen. But, 
I with their dominion out of Tatary* they loft their low for 
^faming; and, at prefent, are involved in their antient agno* 
tance. However, as they are ftudious to preferve the know* 
Jcge of their genealogies, tribes, and otBaer matters appertain- 
ing to their own hiftory, foey IU11 retain a method peculiar 
to thcmfelves of computing time, and fettling the dates of 
events This is a cycle of twelve lunar years, whitih xveCyc/ef 
Joeet with in a work afcribed to one of their emperors, who tnve/vt 
reigned in Perfia and Grtat JBuAbarsa, with, each its name,J*"*» 
taken from feme animal, in the following order : 1. Kejku* 
orthemonfc. z. Out, the ok. 3. P&rs, the leopard. »4. 
> WJhh&n, the hare. 5. Lu'i, tfaje crocodile. 6. Tuldn, the 
; fcrpent. 7, Tunad, the horfe. 8. Kui, or JCoy f the flieep*. 
'$. PichAn, the ape. 10. Dahuk, the hen. 11. Eyt 9 the 
*)g. it* Tongfa, the hog 1 . The Mungls took this cycle 
from the Ig&n* OygArs, or Vigurs*> the only people in all 

r Abu'lg-h. hift: Turks, Sec. p. 556, &feq. f DvHalde 
tf>i fupra, p. 2,56, & feq. * Ibid, p. 253. * Ulwg, 

Beigh Epoch, celehr. p. 6. * Hype rel. vet. Perf. p. 225. 

(QJ According to Bentink, BuJgbazi hift. Turks, Sec. p. 399* 
Ac Elutbs are the only people Sc {eq. ' Among them Abnlgbaz* 
of Grand Tatary who preferve Khan learned the Turktjh Ian- 
the antient Mungl or Turkijb guage, in which he wrote his 
IttflMge in all its purity. A- hiftory, ibid* p. 31. 

X 3 T*tery 

3 io Hiftory of the Moguls and Tartars, B. II. 

Mongls, Tatary who had either learning or letters before the time of 
their cu- Jenghtz Khdn. And from the Mungh the Japanefe took 
ftomsy &c. their Jetta, or twelve figns ] . 

Religion of the Mungls. 

Manglr^^THE Mangls, before the time o£ Jenghiz Kh&n, were, ia 
Ugion; all probability, ftridt deifts ; fince that conquemr, at the 

head of his Yafla, or laws, ordained the belief of One God, 
the creator of heaven and earth. But, in the reigns of hi* 
fucceflbrs, the Lamas of Tibet found admiffion into Tatary ; 
and, by degrees, fp infe&ed the inhabitants, that, at prefect, 
all but the Mohammedan Tat an profefs the religion of Fo t 
called in their language Fo-Jhaki : which, befides the doc- 
trine of the tranfiriigration of fouls (A), teaches the belief 
of a future* ftate, purgatory, invocation of faints, worihip of 
images, confeflion, pardons, abfolution, and other do&rines, 
fo very conformable to thofe of the Romijh religion, that it feems 
the counter-part of it, as well in eflentials as ceremonies, evca 
to croffing, the beads, and holy water. They hare not, indeed, 
any thing fo abfnrd as tranfubftantiation ; but they have an ar- 
ticle of faith equivalent to it : for they believe, that the God 
Fo, whom they call God incarnate, not only afluraes a human 
fiat of form, andaftuafly refides in Tibet, where he is worshipped 
Tibet, as the true Deity, or Sovereign both of heaven and earth 3 
but that he communicates his divinity to his chofen fervants, 
who officiate, in the feveral parts of his fpiritual dominions, 
in his (lead. ^Thefe are the vicars, or deputies, of the 77* 
betian god, and are called, in the Mungl language, Khutaktu, 
There are feveral of them in Great Tatary. The Mung h 
have one, who refides among and prefides over them. The 
Khalkas another. The Khutuktu, or vfcar of the Mungls % 
has his abode at Khukbti Hot&n, mentioned before in the 
geography of their country ; where he lives in great ftate, 
and receives the adorations of the Mungls, who make p3^ 
grimages thither, to vifit him, with as much devotion as the 
\ Romanifts do to Rome. 

1 Kempf. hift. Japan, p. 156. 

(A) Jtegu fays, they do not but more of yrild than tzsap 
hold the tranfmigration of the animals. Du tiatiit China, 


oul, at leaft into brutes : for &c, vol. ii. p. 257. 
" at they eat the flefli of beafls ^ 


,C.4* Stee Jenghlfc Kh&n. 311 

GERBILLON the Jefuit, who was at Khukh&Hotun in Mungjs # 
1688, with the emperor Kang-bi, faw the Khutftktu, who their cu- 
was then about twenty-five years old. For although they fl om > *«• 
believe he never dies, yet they fay he from time to time dif- ^?TX??? 
appears ; in which interval, his foul, being feparated from his ^/ * u " 
body, immediately enters that of fome child, who is difco- . - 

vered by the Lamas, or priefts. Hence they are called F&» 
ficki, or the Living Fo (B) ; and worfhipped as God on earth. ; 

fle was flat faced, and very long vifaged ; fat in an alcove, at 
the end of the temple, on two large cufhioirs, one brocade, 
the other yellow fattin. There were feveral lamps on each 
hand ; but only one lighted. He was covered all over with 
a gown or mantle of yellow damafk, fo that nothing could 
befeen but his head, which was quite bare. His hair was 
curled, and his mantle edged with a parrf-coloured galoon, 
fonr or five inches broad, like a prieft's cope; which thstof the 
ivcftment nearly refembled. All the civility he fliewed theMungls; 
emperor's ambafladors was, to receive (landing their compli? 
meats, or rather adorations : for when they were advanced 
; within fix paces of him, they call their caps on the. ground, 
and proftrated themfelves thrice, knocking* the* earth with 
ifceir foreheads. After this, kneeling by turns at his feet, he 
put Ms hand on their heads, and made them touch his chapr 
let, or beads. The ambafladors then paid a fecond adora* 
tion, and, the pretended immortal being firft feated, took f 

their places in alcoves, one on each fide. Some of their re- 
tinue alfo, after paying their adorations, received the impofir . 
tion of hands and touch of the beads.'" Then an entertain- 
ment was fet ; and while the counterfeit god reached a cup 
rfTatdrian tea, ferved in plate, our author obferved, that his Be- 
ins arms were bare up to the ftioulders ? and that he had no h&viour. 
other clothes underneath but red and yellow fcarfs, wrapped 
about his body. The collation being over, and the tables 
removed, they converfed for fome time. During which the 
living idol kept his gravity very well : he fpoke no more than 
five or fix words, and thofe very fofdy, in anfwer to the 
wnbaffadors queftionsj but was continually rolling his eyes, 
looking earneftly, now at one, then at another; and fome* 
times vouchfafed to fmile. In this temple were no .images, 

(B) The Chi nefe is Ho-Fo. In vol. iv. p. 653. He is called 

Tihtt he is called Lama Koiiju ; alfo Lama Lamalu; that is, the 

and, by the Ckinefe. and Tatars % Lama of Lamas ; and Dalay La-. 

God the Father, according to ma, or the Great Lama; being * 

the Jefuit Grutber. See collect, the pope of thofe countries, 
voyages and travels in quarto, 

X4 «s 


3 1* tiiftory of the Mcgtils *** Tartars, B. If; ! 

Mungls, as in other temples ; but pictures of their deities, punted oo 

their cu- the walls. i In a chamber they faw a child, of (even or eigj* 

fonts, &c. years ld, with a lamp burning befide him, drefled and fea* 

%mmm v mmamJ ed like the Khutuktu, and feemed defigncd for his fuccefa, 

When the ambafladors took their leave of this mock deity, 

he neither ftirred from his feat, nor paid them the kaft <j»! 


Xhfituktft The Khutuktu of the Kalkas is not fubje& to the Dahj 

*f the Lama of Tibet, though originally a deputy from him to the* 

Kalkas; and the Eluths .* but, having tafted the fweets of fpirimal coa» 

mand, he made bold (towards the year 1 680) to fet up for hi* 

felf. This he performed with fo much addrefs, that there if 

fcarce any mention made at prefent of the Dalay Lama amon 

the Kalkas ; who believe their living Fo to be no lefs divine uf 

Immortal than him of Tibet. The court of China had a grot 

hand in this new apotheofis, in order to divide the Kafka 

from the Eluths ; which they faw could not well be done £ 

long as both nations continued attached to the fame head 4 

religion ; who would, at all times, in cafe of difference, e* 

deavour, for his own fake, to reconcile them \ With tfcfc 

view, the emperor Kang-hi, at the intreaty of the Khutukt^ 

affifted the Kalkas againft Kaldan Pojuktu % Khan of dj| 

Eluths, in 1688. But before the Chinefe forces arrived, KJi 

dan had made great ravages in the country of the Kalkas \ 

and, among the reft, deftroyed the magnificent teiripk, vhkk 

the Khutuktu had built near the river Tula, with ydtor, 

varnifhed bricks. 

his refi- This living Fo, who was the chief occafion of the vx t 

dina: by his cruelty and injuftice, was named Chemitzun Tawi^ 

Khtefoti ; and brother to the Khan of the Kalkas, aH 

Tujbetu Kh&n. After his temple was deftroyed, and JUj 

dan was repulfed by help of the imperial troops, he west; 

and dwelt in tents, on the banks of the Iben Pira f a littk 

river, which falls into the Selinga. As the veneration which 

the Kalkas had for him drew crouds of people thither, d* 

place, in a little time, might be called a large city of tents ; tht 

hurry being much greater there than any-where elfe in that 

part of Tatary : for it is reforted to by the Ruffianly *nd other 

nations, for the fake of trade, as well as by the priefts <£ 

all ranks, from Hindqfldn, Pegu, Tibet, and China c . GertiBm 

faw this Khutuktus, in 1691, at an audience of the emperor 

Kang-hi ; who obliged that pretended god to pay him horn- 

fetfon cwd age. He was a corpulent man, and the only fat Kalka oat 


• DuHalde, China, &c. vol. ii. p. 279. b Abu'ich. 

ihi&. Turks, &c. p. 508. « DuHalde ubifupra, p. 25*. 


£. * #*# J*Pghfe Khan, j t j 

author had ever fecn : of * middle ftatwc ; and» though Dp*- Muaglv 
wards cf fifty, had a very ruddy complexion. He was areflc4 *&**' c *~ 
$n a long gown cf ydlpw fattin, with a bgcder of rich fur, A w » &c - 
nd collar of the lame. t)ver his Jhoulder he wore a great v *"% p *r l 
juten fcarf, of a dark red. His bead and heard wereftuwed* 
.ffis bonnet was a kind of mitre, of yellow fattia (C), with 
jour red corners turned up, and faced with extreme fine 
r Hack fable. He had on red boots, peaked at the toes, a nar- 
,*ow galoon running along the feams. He was followed by 
.two fervants; and conduced by the prudent of the tribunal 
j,«f the Mungls. After this, being rent for by the emperor, 
fhe, for all his pride, put bo the habit pdfeeranony appointed 
Jiim by his Chinefe majefty, and received a prefent of about 
&30 pounds *. 

k* These Khutuktus are attended by Lamas, or priefts, who Lamas, #* 
u|dnre a great afcendant over the people, and are held in gmxprieftsi 
feneration by them r although the Jefuits tell us, if they may 
At credited, that they are commonly not only ignorant (D), 
[(being accounted learned, if they can but read their facred^«>^^ 
pfeooks in xheYihetian language); but alfo great libertines ; **&**• 
; Uebauching women, with impunity. They fing their pray* 
ybrs, which they fcarce understand, with a folemn yet harmo- 
^ flkxis air : and this makes almoft the whole of their religioui 
j- worftiip. They make no facrifice, or offering ; but they give 
L fcbfolution to the people, who demand it, bare-headed, on their 
[.Inees : and are fo bigotted to them, that the miffioners fty, 
\ there are very little hopes of converting them to the Rmnijh 
\ fiith. It is generally believed, that they Can call down hail 
J^nd rain. This was teftified to the Jefuits by feveral MaA* 
|darins, as eye-witnefles ; and they were told at Pe-king, that 
r jhe Lamas praftifed forcery (E). They pretend alfo to phy* 

d .J)u Halde obi fupra, p. 338, & feq. 

* (C) The colour of yellow de- fallibility, that he had w»t\ 

notes being in tbe iotcreft of ado to bring himfelf off wit^ 

;"1ho emperor of China, whofe honour. Abulgh. hift. Turfa , 

■ livery that is. &c. p. 489. Now, if they ar? 

.' (D) On the contrary, we are fo well acquainted with the rcli- 

told by Bent ink, that one of his gions of other nations, it is not 

^opifb friends, in his way thro* fikely they are ignorant of their 

the Mungh country, having re- own. 

preached fome Lamas for de- (£) The antient travellers, as 

caving the vulgar, in making Rubruguis ztidMarcpPelo, fpeak 

them believe the divinity of the much of their forcery and ma- 

Dalay Lama, and the Kbotkurftj gic : but no wonder, fince 

they fo fmartly retorted on him that fuperilition is ft ill believed, 

the Romrjk do&rines, relating-to by (he Romt/A^xrgy. 
tbe pope's fupremacy and ia- 

5 fcl 

314 Miftory of the Moguls snd Tartars, R. It 

Mungls, fie ; which they practice. Their drefs is like that in which 

their cu- the apoftles are painted ; and they wear a mitre and cap, 

Jfom 9 &c.i& e bifhops. They do not live in community in Tatary : 

^**V**^but, iii feme places, have a kind of prebends ; being the 

lands and flocks of thofe whom they fucceed ; of whom they 

are generally the cfifciples 6r companions. They go from 

tent to tent, and repeat certain prayers ; for which they have 


Government of the Muagis, 

Aymafcs T** ° r ^ cr rightly to underftand the nature of government ia 
mid Or- •*• tife among the Mungls, it muft be obferved, that each of 
das. the three great branches is divided into, Aymaks, or tribes; 

and although any one of them comes to fubdivide into feveral 
letter branches, yet they are always reckoned as belonging to 
fuch tribe. Every Aymak is compofed of a nnmber of fa- 
milies, who ufually encamp together; and never feparate, 
without acquainting their chief, that he may know, where to 
find them. When an Aymak, or tribe, is affembled, whe- 
jther to go fight their enemies, or for any other particular 
reafon, it is called Orda, or, as Europeans term it, an hord. 
Tayki •• Evert tribe, or branch feparated from it, has its particu- 
WKhan.Jar chief, who is called Tajtki (or Tayghi) : which dignity 
defcends regularly to the eldeft fon. Thefe are all their no- 
bility : and, riches being equally divided among them, there 
, is- no. other difference between one head of a tribe and an? 
other, but that of merit, or the number of families in his 
£>jrda\ Thefe chiefs of tribes are fubjeft to fome Khan, 
whofe vaflals they are, as well as by birth his generals and 
counfellors. ' Khan, or Han, is a title given to the fovereign of 
ihyftate, great or fmall (A) : thus, feveral petty Mungl princes 
ire Ailed Khans, though tributary to the Khan of the Kalka 
'Mungls ; who is himfelf under the protection of the emperor of 
China : and this laft monarch, originally coming from Tatary; 
is alfo called Khan ; being conlidered as the Great Khan of 
the Manchews, proper Mungls 9 and Kalkas, who are fubjeft to 

'* c DuHalde ubifupra, p. 252, &feq. & p. 263. * Ibid. 
t 397> * fe * 

" (A) In the time of Jenghiz were then called Khan, as being 
Khan every tribe feemed to have independent, till they were fab- 
its particular Khan ; or thofe dued by, or fubmitted to, that 
chiefs who are now called Tayki conqueror. 

I * him. 

C. 4. Since Jcnghiz Kh&ni 315 

him. It is not permitted to any of the family, excepting the Mungls, 
reigning prince alone, to aflume the title of Khan b : that their <•*- 
which belongs to the princes of the blood being Tayki c . ft*"** &£• 

When a Khan dies, all the princes of the reigning family, ^TV^ 
and heads of tribes, which are under the dominion of that^^?"* 
houfe, meet at the ufual refidence of the deceafed monarch ; ' edhv * m 
where they proceed to the eleftion of a new one. They only 
examine who may be the eldefl among thofe princes, without 
regard to the feniority of the feveral branches of the family, or 
to the children of the deceafed ; and they never foil to deft 
him who appears to be oldeft, unlefs feme extraordinary per-' 
fonal defeft be found in him. It is true, force and usurpa- 
tion may fet this order afide : but this cafe happens much 
feldomer among the Pagan than Mohammedan Tatars d . 

The Mungls, for feme confidcrable time after their divide-* The 
ing into three great branches, continued independent under Mungls 
their refpettive Khans : but, at prefent, only the Eluths rc-fid™** 
tain; an abfolute fovereignty ; the Mungls and Kalkas having 
become fubjeft to the Manchews r now reigning in China, on 
two different occafions. 

After the defendants of Jenghtz Kh&n, towards the/* the 
middle of the fourteenth century, were driven out of China, Man- 
the princes of his houfe feized on territories, and formed chews : 
different hords : however, the title of Khan remained to the 
chief of them, called Chahar Khdn, defended from Hu- , 
belay, or Kublay. To this prince the other Mungl tribes 
(who had continued in Tatary), and even the Eluths thefn- 
felves, were tributary, till about the beginning of the feven- 
teenth century ; when his fubjefts (B), unable to bear his , 
cruelties and riots, called in the founder of the Manchew 
monarchy in China : who obliged him to quit the title of 
Khan for that of Vang, aqd intirely fub4ued the Mungls 
about the great wall '. 

These new matters, after their conqueft of China, con- their go- 
ferred on the moft powerful of them the titles of Vang, wrnment* 
Pey-le, Pey-tfe, Kong, eSrr. anfwering to thofe of.regulo, 
prince, duke, earl, &c. ; divided them into forty-nine ftand- 
ards, and fettled a revenue on each chief; fixed the bounds 
of their lands, and ej(labliftied laws, by which they are go- 

h Dv HxLDBubi fupra, p. 391. c - Sovciet. obf. math, 

j. 160, note 3. * Ibid. p. 398. e Dv Halde, vol. ii. 

P-* 5 i. 

(B) By this, Chahar Khah could not have lived two whole > 

mull be only a tide ; fince he centuries and more, 


5 « 6 Hijiory tf iU Moguls *n4 Tartars, B. II 

Mungls, ^etaed to this day. There is a grand tribunal atP*-£u 

thtir m* (called* that c£ the Mungls), to which appeals are brought 

jfoww, &c. from the judgment of the princes themfeives; -who u$ 

% — m x mmmJ obliged to appear, when cited.* The faHus, face their fafe 

jeftion, are under the feme regulation f . 
Pri***/ The feveral countries or diftritts of the Mungls, cm 
immerous. thofe which are the worft, being dry, fiindy, and cold, fact 
as Korchin, Qhan, Nayman, and Turkeda, maintain a gnfl 
aaipber of princes. The houfe of Korchin only, at the tin 
*rhen the miffioaers parted through it (in 17 10), hadeigl 
©r nine diftinguiihed by their feveral titles above-mendoocA 
the number of which is not "fixed : becaufe they depend a 
die will of the emperor of China, who is, with refpeft I 
them, the Grand Khan' ; and who exalts or degrades the] 
according to their conduft. When they are without tW| 
or military command, they are called Tayghi (C) : nerenh 
Jefs, they are oonfidered as mafters of their territories li 
the Mungls, who are no better than flaves to the heads < 
* their refpe&ive families* 

These princes have a politenefs which diftinguiihes thel 
from their fubjefts : who, though they ftik themfeives flaia 
are not treated with feverity ; but have ready accefe pn ifc 
flighteft occafions : yet, formed by education, this familial) 
takes off nothing of their refpeft K % - 

T^Kalka It does not appear at what times that part of the Mnqfa 
Mungls called Kalhas aflumed the name. Thefe had at firft a Khali 
who, as well as the other Mungls and Eluths, was tributary M 
the Gbabar KASn above-mentioned : but the Kalkzs iirreafis 
, vaftly in time, and the defcendants of Kublay, who had oq 
the title of Tayki, growing numerous ; the more powerful anus 
them became by degrees independent on each other, and < 
the Khan himfelf, to whom they paid only a flight homage 
Before the year 1688 they are faid to have amounted ft 
fuhmit to 6°°> 000 families, divided into feven ftandards, nndcr lb 
Kang-hi. inan y chiefs ; on three of whom the Dalay Lama of TM 
conferred the title of Khan : although the Tayki *s allow! 
them no farther fupeiiority than the Jhrft place in aflemblie* 
But, in the year above-mentioned, Kalian Pojoktu, Khan of At 
Eluths, having invaded their territories, to revenge himfelf** 
the Khutuktu, both for his ufurpation, or revolt from the 
Dalay Lama, and the death of a Khan, which he had can* 

f Du Halde, vol. ii. p. 261, 264. * Ibid. p. 250. 

(C) The Cbhefe pronounce it Tayki, and the Rvjftex* T*t/h 
or Twfi*. 


C.4- Since JmgYAzKhin. 3*T 

certtd'; the Kalka Khans, after half their fubjetts had- been de- Mungfi, 
ftroved by the enemy, implored the aififtance of the emperor i ^ r **~ 
of China, Kang-hi ; to whom, after the war, two of them f'^'^l 
fubmirted immediately, with their fubjefts. Thefe he divided 
into Sfcaflaks, or ftandards, like the Mungls \ conferring new 
titles on their princes, and appointing them lands for their 

TVS HE TV, or Tujhektu, the moft powerful of the Khans At fnfi* 
(D), after his defeat by the Elutbs, fled ; but was not fol- pvwerfak 
lowed by many of his people : moft of whom retired into 
the woods, on the north fide of the river Tula ; and after- 
wards, fubmitting to the emperor, were divided into three 
ftandards, under fo many princes h . However, we are told 
by other authors, that this fubmifllon, obtained by the in* 
trignes of the Lamas, was very precarious, and merely no- 
minal : for that his fon Tvjhidtu Khan, who, in 1720, had 
his urga, or camp, on the river Orkhvn, twelve days journey , 
to the fouth-eaft of Selrnghinftoy, was very powerful; and 
had feveral petty Khans, who dwek about the fprings of 
the Jemfea, and the great Kobi or defart, tributary to him. 
Likewife, inftead of paying tribute himfelf, the emperor of 
China fends him every year magnificent prefents ; and the 
complaifance with which he is treated, mews, that he is 
feared more than any of the neighbouring princes: for, 
foould he ever come to an agreement with the Ehiths, the 
onion might endanger the prefent family reigning in China *. 

The Eluths, who at firft were tributary to thcChahar Khan', Elutfcd 
as well as the Kalkas, at lengdi became independent alfo;#«*r*- 
aad are, at prefent, the moft numerous of all the great «*»'» 
'branches into which the Mungls are at prefent divided, 
Thefe people grew very formidable in the laft century. After • 
fbbduing Little Bukharia, under the famous Kaldon Pqjolctrt, 
before-mentioned, they ruined the Kalkas ; and even threat- 
ened to attack China itfelf, with a handful of men : but he 
Was overthrown at laft, altho' with much difficulty. Since 
which time they kept themfelves within their proper bounds, 
and have not been fo troublefome to their" neighbours as 
before. ' 

The Khan (called Kontayki, or the great lord) is a potent p9wer aut 
prince, being able to bring into the field above an hundred/"' 17 ''- 

h Du Halde, vol. ii. p. 251, 2^9. * Bentink ap. 

Abiflg. hiil. Turks, &c. p. J05, & feq. 

(I>) His territories extended along the Stiiwa, OMon % and 
Tula, as &r as mount Kwtay. 


3 1 8 Hijlory of tbt Moguls and Tartars, B.E 

Mungls, thoufand men k . On this occafion it may be proper to ok 
their at- ferve, that the Taykis are of account to their Khans only i| 
fioms t &c. proportion to the number of families in their refpeftin 
%m00 y mmmJ Aymaks, or tribes ; and the Khans formidable to their neigh- 
bours, only in proportion to the number of tribes which an 
in fubje&ion to them ; and in which confifts all their rick* 
and grandeur, as well as power l . 
Arms of The arms of the Eluths are chiefly great bows, with fiz* 
XfrEluths, able arrows ; which they draw very true, and with great ibrcn 
it having been obferved, in the difference which the Rufm 
had with them in r 7 1 5, on account of feme fettlements d 
the river Irti/b, that they pierced men quite through tfc 
body with their (hafts. They have alfo great arquebuffii 
fix feet long, with barrels an inch thick ; and yet the ba 
they carry is hardly fo much. They fix them on reRs, an 
never mifs at fix hundred yards diftance ; firing them e 
how q*w» with a match. When they march they carry them aari 
hy them, their backs, fattened to a ftrap ; and the reft hangs on dx 
Tight fide. As they never go to Var but on horfe-badl 
(having no infantry), they all ufe lances, and moil of tha 
coats of mail, and iron caps. Their commanders, but fa 
clfe, wear fabres, like the Chinefes, the handle behind, am 
the point before, that they may draw backwards, which i 
the more convenient way. Thefe commanders are ufial 
the heads of Ordas: fo that a troop is ftrong, according* 
an Orda is more or lefs numerous. Moft of the inhabitant! 
of Tatary hang their bow at the left fide, in a fort of ak, 
when they take horfe : but they carr^ their quivers at thdc 
backs. The left hand is the place of honour with moft d 
the oriental people ; particularly the Mohammedan Tatars. 
Way of They (hoot their arrows with as much fkill flying as *k 
fighting ; yancing : for this reafon they chufe rather to provoke thefe 
enemies at a diftance, than come to clofc fight with them* 
unlefs they have much the advantage. ' They have not thfi 
method of fighting in lines and ranks : but, upon going to 
aftion, divide themfelves, without any order, into as many 
troops as there are Ordas, which compofe the army ; and in 1 
this manner each advances, led by its chief, to charge the 
enemy, lance in hand.. The Tatars have been ever very ex- 
pert in fighting flying, as Quintus Curtius, and other antient 
authors, relate. In this the fwiftnefs of their horfes ftandf 
them in great ftead : for often, when one concludes them 
intirely routed, they return, and fall upon their enemy with 
as much vigour as before ; and when their adverfkries are 

k Bent. ap. Abulgh. hift. Turks, &c. p. 543, 6c feq. 
1 Ibid. p. 39S. 


C,4- Sfoce Jcnghlr Kh&v 319 

eager to purfue them, without preferving order, they run Mungls, 
terrible rilks of being defeated. The ElutBs are brave be- their cu- 
yond what can be imagined, and want nothing but European ft om > &c « 
iifdpliae to make tbcm formidable. They have not yet* ******* 
kimcd the ufe of cannon ; and, indeed, as they confift only 

I of cavalry, it would not be of much fervice to them m . 

, Each Aymak has its particular eniign or banner; which Enfigm 
is ufually a piece of Kitayka, or fome other coloured ftuff,*r c*- 
aa ell fquare, fet upon the top of a lance, twelve feet long.^***/; 
The Ekths and Mungls exhibit the figure of a dromedary, 
cow, horfe, or other animal, putting tinder it the name of 
the tribe : and as all the branches of the fame tribe ftill re- 
tain the figure reprefented in the enfign thereof, adding 
thereto only the name of the branch for whofe ufe it is de- 
igned, thefe enfigns ferve them, in fome meafure, inftead of 
a genealogical table. When an Aymak is in march, the en- * 
fign proceeds at the head, immediately after the chief . 

The prefent inhabitants of Great Tafary in general, -who Hazard 
hive exaftly preferved # the manner of living of the antient*# «* 
Mungls, carry their whole fubftance along with them where- <MWr * 
ever they go. Hence it comes, that when they happen to 
lofe a battle, their wives and children commonly remain a 
prey to the vanquisher, with their cattle, and generally all 
they poflefs in the world. They are, in fome meafure, ne- 
ceflitated to incumber tbemfelves this way ; for otherwife they 
ftould leave their families and effects a prey to other Tatars 
their neighbours °. 

As there is -but little magnificence at prefent to be (oundTheKlaVs 
in the court of a Khan, and their fubje&s are obliged to fol- ««««*. 
W them to war, on the hopes of fpoil, which is their only 
pay, they have no occafion, or rather pretence, for large 
revenues ; which confift wholly in tythes. The Tatars of all 
denominations pay two tythes annually of all their effefts ; 
&ft to their Khans, and then to their heads of tribes. The 
Ruths and Mungls, not cultivating their lands, give the 
xenih of their cattle, and the booty which they take in 

With regard to the government of the x other twoEluths 
branches of the Eluths, the Torgauti and Kojhoti; the firft Torgauti 
who feparatcd from the Jongari, in the beginning of the pre- 
jbl century, put themfelves uiNfcr the protection of the 
Ruffians ; and ltill make ufe of it, although they poflefe a 
coniiderable extent of country, to the eaft of the kingdom 

j * Bent. ap. AbuMgh. hift. Turks, &c. p. 535. » Ibid". 

I F 401. ° Ibid. 537. P Ibid. p. 395, 398. 

I. of 


Jio HiJipry^/tki^6^Urhimg\ Empire. B.& 

Mungls, of Afirdkhibiy and river Jaik. In other refpefts live under the 

thtir cu- 'f ame form of government with the reft of the Elutbs, dhkWt 

Jloms 9 &cc. - mto Aymaks, or tribes, with their Taykis, and a Khan over afl. 

^dYLoL ^ HE births Kojboti have been fettled in the country of 

hod their ^°^° ^ or ever ^ mce ^ c Mungls were driven out of Chiru, 

gonxrn- They are fubjeft to eight Taykis, or princes, who have tier 

mintt refpeftive territories, but are leagued together for their inn* 

tual prefervation. They are all of the lame family, and dig 

tiified by the emperor of China with the titles of regulo, or 

jpetty king, prince, duke, and earl : they are all vaffals toty 

khan, who refides at Tibet, or rather to. the Great Lama; ct 

whom one of -the anceftors of that Khan bellowed 7ikt 

about the year i6yo 9 after he had conquered it from theta* 

ful prkiee. But after the defeat of Kaldan, Khan of tk 

Jongari Elutbs, by the troops of the emperor of China is 

1 69 1, the emperor Kang-hi lent to invite thefe eight Tajil 

to become his vaflals. The chief in rank among them, accept 

ing the invitation, was made Tfing Vang, or prime rcgubt 

Some of the others fiibmitted to pay him homage by proxy$ 

and the emperor cho(e to win the reft by prefents, and alio* 

ing them a trade cuftom-free^. 


Rifiory of the Mogul or Mungl Empire, 
founded by Jenghia Khan. 

TBe Reign of Temujin till e letted Grand Kik 

Mogul t ' W*\ H E empire of die Moguls, whofe hiftory we are oat 
empire, I entering, upon, is one of the moft furprizing phsflfr 

-*■ menu which has appeared on the theatre of th* 
world; and what deferves more than any other to attrafltili 
reader's admiration, whether he confiders its rife, its extenV 
or the rapidity of its progrefs. It was thought that the Ardt \ 
had carried conqueft to its utmoft ftretch ; and thatnohoflflft 
power could ever do more than a people, who in the comj»| 
of feventy years, fubdued more countries than the Remans m 

* Dv Halve, vqI. i. p. 29, & feqi and vol. 2. p. 265. 

C 1* &#g* */ Jenghiz Khiri* 

done in 500. But the Moguls have gone far beyond die 
^jrabs, and from as fmall a beginning acquired a much larger 
tfflpire in far lefs time 1 for Jenghiz Khdn, in a few years/ 
txtended his dominions, from a fmall territory* to more than 
1800 leagues from eait to weft, and above 1000 from north its <vaft 
to loath, over the moft powerful, as well as wealthy, king? '***»*•* 
duns of Ajia+ Hence he is with iuftice acknowleged to be 
the greateft prince who ever filled the eaftern throne ; and all 
Jriftorians have bellowed on him the higheft titles, as well as 
tteateft encomiums, that ever monarch was honoured with. ' 

Jrhey fiile him the conqueror of the world, the only king of 

egs, the matter of thrones and crowns : they likewife fay> 
t God never invented any fovereign on earth with fo great 

|j But for all Jfia fo long refounded with the fame of this/// hijhr} 
loo, his name has been fcarce known to Europeans, till of little 
lite, that his hiftory has been given from the oriental authors : known. 
for although fome early travellers, as Rubruquis and Marco 
\fob, wrote concerning the Moguls 9 and , their conquefts, yet 
jjhey have done it in fo imperfect and erroneous a manner, as 
to afford no juft idea of them ; whilft the fables, which their 
[relations are mixed with, rendered the whole fufpefted and 
ffltfphed by men of judgment. 

: The fhort but curious account, which Ab&'lfaraj (A) has Afiatic 
delivered of Jenghiz Khdn, and his immediate fucceflbrs, Erfkantbors 
gave the learned of thefe parts of Europe a defire to know 
acre of their hiftory. In this D'Herbeht in good meafure 
gratified them in his Bibliotheque Orientate (B). Afterwards 
M. Petit de la Croix, the father, wrote the hiftory of Jenghiz 
\Kbdn, compiled chiefly from the oriental authors, by order 
; tf Lewis XIV. king of France ; to Which his fon hath added 
an abridgment of the hiftory of* that monarch's fucceflbrs in 
jihe feveral parts of his empire (C). Since then a translation 
ras been published of the genealogical hiftory of the Turks 
jnd Tatars, written by Ab&lghazi Kh&n of Karazm : wherein 
gb given the hiftory of Jenghiz Kh&n, in fome detail from made u/c 
Ejtfneteen or twenty oriental authors, of whom Fadlallah is the^- 


* De la Croix hill. Gengh. p. 2. 

■ (A) In his Hifiwria compen- (B) Publifhed in 1 6^0, in 

,&fa Dynafticarum, publifhed folio. 

fa 1663, by the learned Dr. Po- (C) Publifhed in French, in 

■<*k 9 with a Latin v^rfion, and two volumes 8vo, 1722; and in 

* fupplement of his own. EngHjh, in one volume, 1 730. . 

Mod. Hist. Vol.IV. Y principal, 

Hiftory of the Mogul or Mtmgl Empire. B, III 

principal, with that of his fucceflbrs, chiefly in Great BukhirU t 
and Kapchak(D). Laftly, Anthony Gau&il, a Jcfuk atJV 
'king, obliged the world with a hiftory of Jenghiz Kb&n, and 
his fucceftbrs in China, till their expallion ; extracted from the ' 
Chinefe annals, and illuftrated with very nfefnl aotes of his 
own (E), Thcfe are the works of any note, taken inuncdi* 
ately from the Afiatic writers, which have as yet come to 
hand ; and from them principally have we drawn our mate- 
rials relating to the Mcgid affairs. 
Difigree- But here it muft be obferved, that Jb&lghazi Khan and 
ment *- De la Croix, or the authors they have made ufe of, proceed 
mongftau'on different plans, or according to different memoirs. Tbe 
ihors. firft confines himfelf to a plain narration of fafis, in the or- 
# der they happened, without enlarging on any thing: lie 

"* latter improves every thing to the advantage of his hero, ifl 
order to make his actions appear with greater luftre. The firft 
leaves him in a ftate of inactivity, from the death of his father 
till the fortieth year of his age, that he became in a condition 
to reduce his revolted fubje&s, and obtain the empire : the 
latter fills up that fpace of time with a grea.t many inrideDt^ 
and' even affigns them their dates, that his reign might not ap- ; 
pear with fo great a chafm in it. To inhance his future glory j 
the more, he makes him, during that interval, reduced to j 
' jmt himfelf under the protection pf Vang Khan, fovereign of j 
• many nations ; whereas Ab&lghazi Khlti reprefents him a \ 
quite independent all the while. Laftly, Dc U Croix plan? 
€ Temvj\m\ birth ten years earlier than the other, which makes 
a great difference in the chronology, from thence to the time 
he became Grand Khzin. 

(D) He brings down the hi- needed fo as to form a reguhr 

ftory to year 1603. It was firft account of countries, and their 

procure d by the Swedijb prifon- prefent inhabitants, 

ers from a Bulbar merchant, (E) This learned and jodi- \ 

who brought it to Fobnljkoy^ ca- cious Jefuie tranfnaitted two 

. •, .. . pital of y.'Uria. St'rablenbcrg * tracts to E. Souciet, of the fame 

gotittranflatedintothetf^fo*; fociety; who publifhed them 

and ?Jr. Fe::f:?ik 9 \vi:h his ap- firft in his Obfem>\ math, aft* 

probruion and directions, pub- geogr. &e. in 4*0, 1719. It is 

Ji'.hcd it in French, with curious intituled, A brief hiftory of the 

rotes, in 1726, in one volume firft five Mogul emperors. The 

12 mo; and, In 1730, it was fecond appeared by itfelf, in 

published in EvgUji\ with addi- 1739, Ul *der *h e title of the hi* 

t tonal notes, in two volumes ftory of Gcntchifcan, and all hif 

Svo. 1 he firft contains the hi- fucceflbrs, who reigned in Chits* 

dory ; the fecond the notes, coa- 


C. x. Refg* tf Jenghiz Khan. 323 

Whence this great disagreement arifes it is not eafy to A. D. 
fetenmne: fince Abflgh&zi Khan, though he made ufe of » 163. 
Wenty authors, never quotes, or even mentions* any, except- ^"V""^ 
jog Fadlailah ; and that only to give foine account of his work, ""'*** ** 
i|S being his principal authority : on the other hand, De baf roce€ ' 
Croix commonly cites his authors in the margin, but not di>- 
ifenftly enough to know what belongs to each. However, • 
from thence we are able to difcover, that he took not only the 
date of Temujin's birth, but alfo his hiftory, efpecially for the 
tcginn'mg of his reign, chiefly from Mlrkona*, Kondamfr, and 
it^er oriental authors, rather than Fadlailah, whom he fel- 
from quotes on the occafion. Now as this is the principal hi* 
ftorian made ufe of by Abfilghazi Khan, who alfo had re- 
Bcrarfe to feveral Mogul writers, it is probable he follows thena 
k thofe particulars : and hence may arife the difference between 
pim and De la Croix. 

Possiblt Fadlailah relates 00 more concerning the fc&Whicb of 
Jpars of Temujin's reign than what we -meet with in Abu' U them 
^lazi A3o*;.and that the latter historians have fwelled it 

;with incidents, and even inlarged the term of hi6 life, for the 
tafoa before-mentl6ned. However that be, it is certain . 
Jo&'lghazi Khdn took his memoirs, fo f ar at leaft, from other • 
JUlthors than thofe whom De la Croix has made ufe of; and 
jib authority, w£ think, ought to be preferred : not only be* 
tofe, as being a TWcgW himfelf, he was better able to judge 
;1fhat writers were moft to be depended on : but alfo becaufe 
;lhe account he gives is correfpbndent with the Chinefe hiftory, 
itohofe authority ought to take place, had all the Perfian hi- 
Ibrians, and even Fadlailah himfelf, contradicted it. For al- 
uxrogh the Wazir Fadlailah Wrote his curious work in the 
jffcar 1294, at the command of Gazan, or Kazan Khan (fixth 
peceflbr of Httlaku, Jenghiz Khans grandfon, in Perfia)> 
foathejaemars of Puldd, a* Mogul, fent by that monarch 
Into Tatary to collect them ; yet Kuhlay Khan, H&laku's bror . 
iher, who reigned m the eaftern part of Tatary and China, 
fcad ordered the hiftory of his predeceffors to be written feve- 
Wl years before b . So that, fuppofmg oral traditions, rather to beprtr 
than written memoirs, were the chief balls of both hiftoriesc ;ferrtd: 
jfet that fet on foot by. Kuhlay Khdn may be prefumed to be 
towe complete and accurate than the other compofed by 
lUxhn Khan's order : as not Otoe perfori only, but many, doubt* 
«fs, were employed to coileft materials ; and being written on 

b See De la Croix Kill, tiengh. P..424. * Sox/cijet 

°W«v, mathemat. &c. p, 202. 

X a • , th* 

Hi/lory of tie Mogul or Mungl Empire . B. HL 

the fpot, recourfe might be eafily had, from time to time, to 
proper perfons for information and folving difficulties. Not 
'to mention the advantages it muft have received from the 
Chinefe hiftorians, who have been always careful to record, 
by way of annals, the affairs of their neighbours, cfpeciailj 
fuch as they had any tranfaclions with ; fo that whatever de» 
feels occurred in the Mogul traditions, with refpecT: to datev 
andrea- or otherwife, might have been fnpplied from thence. It ir 
fins why. for thefe reafons that, in the following hiftory of Jenglh 
Khan, and the Moguls, we have preferred Abulghazi Khbti 
hiftory to that of De la Croix ; and that given us by GaMIhm 
the Chinefe hiftorians, to both the others : who yet, with regard 
to the affairs of the Moguls in the weftern parts, for the fang 
reafons, are preferable to him. 

We have already given an account of the Mogul tribe* 
their ancient hiftory, and Khans, to the time or Jcngfa 
Khan ; with remarks on the fame d : we fhall therefore, io tfcl 
place, only touch on fuch matters preceding the time of tluti 
conqueror, as more immediately relate to him, and may be: 
neceflary to complete his hiftory. 
Jenghiz According to the tradition of the Moguls, Jenghiz Khk 
KbanV wa s of divine defcent, fince his family can be traced no &rdwj 
defcent. fa^ tnan Alankv 9 or Alajikawa ; who, being got with child iff 
a fpirit, brought forth three fons, who from thence obtained the 
furname of Niron (F), which their pofterity enjoyed : thofeflf 
her former children being csiXtA-Dirlighin, to denote that Aef 
had no miraculous original. As Jenghiz Khan defcended ia 
a right line from Buzenjir (G), the third of Alanku's cekffid 
offspring, and his predeceflor in the ninth degree, fomc m 
thors call him the Son of the Sun(H). According to Fat 
lallah (I), who wrote his life, his defcent from Alanha is tt 
follows : I. Buzenjir Khan. 2. Buka Khan. 3. Tutumitm 
Khan. 4. Kay da Khan. 5. Bayfankar Khan. 6. Tumct* 

4 See before, p. 19, 8c 34, U feq, 

(F) This, the oriental authors Aus chamber, and afiumed the 
fay, is a corruption, or contrac- fhape of a man. - 

tion, of Nuraniyun, which figni- (I) This is the firft and awl 

fies children of light. eminent of all who have wnttta 

(G) Jbf/gbaxi Khan's tomC- of Jtngbi% Khan, and his foe- 
Jators call him BudenfirMogak. ceffoft. An account has beat 1 

(H) According to Abulghazi already given of him, vol. ir. 
KJM* hiftory, fomething as p. 20, 

bright as the ion fell into Alan* 


Ci. U*/g*<?/JenghlzKhan. 325 

Khan. 7. Kabal Khan. 8. Purtan Khin. 9. tofukay (K). A. D. 
Behadr. 10. Jenghlz Kh&n e (L). 1*63. 

Among thefe princes three or four were particularly fa-*- ^"' -^ 
mous; Buzenjir, furnamed the juft, was Khan of Kctan.™* **- 
Bayfankar (or BaJJikar, as AbPlghazi Kh&n calls him) was a f ^ pr " . 
prince of great condu&, and conquered many provinces. Ka- 
bah or Kabul Khan, made himfelf the admiration of all Afia 
by his courage (M) : he had fix fons, in whom the name of 
Kayat, which had been loft for 3000 years, was revived f (N), 
Bifukay (or Teffuki) Behadr, the father of Jenghtz Kbdn, was 
remarkable for having brought under his command the greater 
part of the chiefs of the Mogul nations* with the kings of Ka~ 
rakatay, or Karakitay (O), who troubled his quiet. He van- 
quished them, although they were frequently aflifted by the 
king of Katay, which comprifed the northern provinces of 

After this, having received an affront from the tribe of Their ew 
Su Moguls (P), or Tatars, he entered their country, which hequeftb, 
pillaged ; and, being met by Temujin Kh&n, lord of feveral 
tribes, who came to drive him thence, he put him to flight, 
after a bloody battle, and returned with honour to his country- 

* De la Croix hift. Gengh. p. 9, 8c feq. * Ibid, 

alfo Abv'lgh. hift. Turks, &c. p. 55, 8c 63, 8c feq. 


(K) De la Croix writes ?ifu- 
hi and feems to have followed 
Mrkond, and others, who call 
kim Bijfukay t or P if ukay. But 
Rendamir, Ab&'lghaxi Khan, and 
ti&Cbinefe annals, name hiih Ye- 
fiiay; which we have followed. 

(L) The names in this fuc- 
ccffion differ a little from thofe 
given by Alulghead Khan, pro- 
hably through fome miftake in 

(M) Page 5, it is faid, that 
the Moguls under him made a 
raft progrefs, and advanced as 
far as Karakatay, where they 
obliged fomeKhJns to pay them 
tribute : but that, in the twelfth 
century, in which Jengbix, Khan 
was born, they were tributary 
to the Kara-its. The Tumena 
Khan, in this lift of anceftort, 
W&i be a different nerfon from 

the hero of that name, mention, 
ed vol. iv. p. 45, 8c feq. 

(N). They were called Niron 
Kay at y of which tribe Jenghiz 
Khan was chief. It is called bis 
own tribe, p. 18. 

(O) The Chine/e annals do 
not feem to make him fo pow- 
erful: it is only faid, that he 
was chief of the principal hord 
of the Moguls. This hord was 
contiguous to that of the Nay- 
mans, near the city of /&/*», or 
Karakorom* to the north of the 
fandy deiart. Souciet obferv, 
mathemat. Isc. p. 185. and&w* 
£i7hiftoire de Gentchifc.p. %. 

(P) It may be queftioned, if 
this diftinftion, of Sm Mogo/s, or 
Tatar** is to be found in any 
oriental author ; for it feems to 
be taken from Caff in the frier,, 
who was fent into Tatary by the 
pope, in 1 24$. 
3 feat, 

Hifiory of the Mogul or MungfEmpire. B.- IIL 

feat, where he commonly refided; called Dilon Ildak\QJ), m 
Teka Mogulifidn. To commemorate this viftory, he gave the 
* name of the vanquifhed Khan to a fon, of whom Oton Ayka (R), 
**?" \& ^ e ^ r ^ °^ ^ s wives > was ^ oon a ^ ter delivered (S), calling him 
P' Temujin (T). As he was born with congealed blood in Us 
11 3- Hands, Sughujin, the Khan's relation. and firft minifter, fore- 
told, by his flcill in aflrology, that he fhould overcome hfc 
enemies in battle, and, at length, arrive to be Grand Khaa; 
of all Tatary. On the death of Stighujin, Pifuka chofe hit 
fon Karajbcr Nevian, a man of great parts and learning, to 
educate Temujin; who had fcarce attained his ninth year, 
when he would apply himfelf to no other excrcife than thr 
of arms*. 

TESUKAT at length was unfortunately taken prifoao 
by the Khan of Kit Ay (IT) ; but after a long imprifonmeat* 
making his efcape by bribing his guard, he refolved to re- 
venge himfelf: in order to which, he married Temujin, though 
A. D." ^ ot thirteen years old, to the Khan of the Nayjjians daughter; 
1 175. but died (X) before he could execute his defign h . 
State of Before we proceed, it will be proper to acquaint oar 
£fia. readers with the date of Tatdry, and the neighbouring 
countries, .at the time of this prince's death. The whole cc- 
gion between mount Altay and the eaflern Tatary, was <fi» 
vided among a great number of aymaks, or tribes ; who had 
each one or more Khans; according as it was more or left 

t Db la Croix hill. Gengh. p. 12, & feq. k Ibid. p. r$. 

• (QJ The fame, probably, (T) According to the CbhtfL 
called in AMtlgbaxi Khan* hi- - annals, he was firii named Kjew. 

ftory Shnjuldak. nuen: butafVerwards, in memo* 

(R) In Abftlghawi Khan* hi- ry of the viftory over Tenuis t 

ftory, p. 48, & 67. (he is cal- chief of a Tata* hard, whomiuf 

Jed Vlun Iga. The furnanie of father Ytfukay took prifoner, te 

Iga, in the Mogul language, fig- was called TsKtiji*. He was 

nifies great. She had alfo the born at a mountain near the 

furname of Kujin, which, in the river Own, or Amur, where Tt~ 

language of Kitay. is an old wo- fukay incampgd- after the battfe 

man. She was of the tribe of Gaubil hift. de Gcntchifc. tfr. 

Alaknurs, and had a vail deal of p. 2, 
wit. (U) De la Croix placet thit 

(S) This date is according to in 562 of the tbjrab, o(Chrif 

ABulgbazi Khan% and agrees u66. 

nearly with the Gbinefe hiilory, (X) According to thcCbitfJt, 

which puts *it in 1 162 : but De he died in the flower of his age; 

la Croix places his birth in 549, left five fons and a daughter; 

ten years higher, from Mirkond, and appointed Ttmtgis chief of 

and other hiftorians. the hord. 


C. i; Rtign of Jenghfz Khln. 

tftiffierous, and divided int6 branches. Among thefe, that of 
Kdrd-fts was moft powerful, whofe prince aflumed the title 
fitf Grand Kh£& : no him moft of the other tribes, and, among 
the reft tke Moguls, were" tributary ; but, according to the 
Gfiine/e hifterians, both one and the other paid tribute to the 
Wperor of Kitay, or Katay. 

CHINA was 1 at that time divided into two parts : the Empire of 
Ale fonthern provinces were in the hands of the Chinefe em- Kitay j 
fetors of the Song family, who kept their court at Hang- 
i&nv, the capitai of the province of Che-kyang / the five 
torthem provinces, except part of Shenfi, with the adjoining 
£rts of Tatary, Were poflefled by the Kin, 2l people of eaftera 
tafary, from whom the Martchew, at prefent mailers of 
Hiffii, are defeended. This vaft dominion was named Kitay, 
Mr Katay, and divided into two' parts : that which belonged 
fe China was properly called Kitay ; and the part which be- 
longed to Tatary was named Karakitay ; in which fome even 
Include the territories of the Moguls, Kara-its, and other 
feftions, mentioned in this hiftory. 

The weftern part of proper Kitay was poflefled by ay Hya $ 
frtace of Turhifh extf a&ion, who had lately formed an em- 
ffre there, called by the Chinefe Nyrfuyd Si Hya ; whofe ca-* ■ 
^tal cky was Hya-cbew, at prefent Ning-fya, in Shenft, from 
tfhetfce the kingdom took its name. ■ To the weft of Hya lay 
Vdtigttt; a 'country of great extent, and formerly very power- 
W : but at 1 that time reduced to a low ftate, and divided among 
feveral princes ; fome of whom were fubjeft to the emperor 
rf Hya, arid others to him of China. 

All Tatary to the weft of mount Altay, as far as the Cafr and Tup 
fton-fet, with the greater part of Little Bukhdria, which thenkeftin j 
£fed under the general name of Tvtrkeflan, was fubjeft to 
Curkhin % Kurkhdn, or Kavar Kb An ; to whom the Oygftrs, 
Tigurs, or Igthrs, and' even the Karazm Shah, who reigned 
over Great Bukharia, Karazm, and moft part of Iran, or 
frrfia, were tributary- This GurkhAn had been prince of 
the weftern Kit An, or Lyau ; • who, driven out of Kitay by 
tfie/Stf, fettled in Little Bukharia, and the country- to the 
fiorth, between Tvrf&n (about which the Oygurs inhabited) 
and Kdjhgar, . where they founded a powerful ftate in the 
year 1124. 

This was the* ftate of the north part of Afia at Pifukay'sat PiAv 
(Y) deceafe ; at what time between thirty and forty thoufandkay'j 

% (Y) In PelaCroix x 3 hiftory it fcript, in putting three points 
» written thui; perhaps by a under the firii letter p, inllead of 
Wiftake of the pricntal manu-.; two. . 

Y 4 families, 


Hiftory of the Mogul or Mungl Empire. B, IlL 

families, ajl from the fame flock, were under his obedience, 
But Temujin being fo young, the Tayjuts firft, and then twQ 
' thirds of the reft, deferting him, went over to one Burgam 
Kariltuk. All the Kataguns, the Jipjuts (Z), the Jaygbh 
rats (or Jajtrats\ ajid the Nirons, excepting a few families, 
joined him to a man. Hereupon the Markets, who never 
would fubmit to Tefughi (or Pif&ka) Bahadr, fubmitted to him. 
They who continued faithful to Temujin were the defendants 
of his great grandfather, half the tribe of the Markats, ani 
feveral families of the other tribes : there remaining oat of 
fome fifty families, one or two hundred out of others, aad 
po more than ten or five out of many. It is true, Ttrnxji* 
did all he could to remedy this evil in the beginning : for this 
end, while fcarce thirteen years old, he took the field agaisft 
' thofe revolters, and fought a bloody battle ; but, in regard k 
was not decifive, he was obliged to temporize till the fortieth 
year of his age. This is all which Abtflghazi Khan relate! 
concerning him till that period ; but many remarkable tranf-' 
actions happened during that interval, which are mentioned 
by other authors *, 
Temujin PISUKA's death threw things into confufion : forfooq 
Jucceeds : after the Khans of Tanjut (A), Merkit, apd feveral other 
Niron tribes, his relations, whom he had fubdued, with ha 
coufin Jemuka (B), revolting, came to attack Temujin : who^ 
encouraged by his mother, jet up his ftandard, which dif. 
played a horfe's tail, and marched along with her at the head 
of his forces ; which fought the enemy with good fuccefc*. 

This affair is related more particularly in the Cbmefe hh 
ftory : which takes notice, that Temujin being very youra 
his mother Ulun governed in his ftead, and brought back fe» 
Yeral of his vallate, who had gone over to Toy chat (C) aod' 

1 Abu'lchazi Khan hid. Turks, p. 6& & feq, * De la 
Croix ubi fupra, p. 15. 

(Z) In {he translation written China were formerly known to 

Zifzuts-j the 55 bc^ng commonly them. 

ufed inftead of the EngHjb j (B) Ahulgbaxi Khan, p. 70, 

confonant. calls him Jamuka Jijen ; whlck 

(A) The fame which in Abut- laft word fignifies eloquent. The 

gbazi Khan is written Tayjuts ; Cbinefe annals name him Cba* 

by fome miftake, perhaps, in muka. 

pointing the letter for a j inftead ( C ) This Taycbot feems to be 

of an 0, or the contrary. If the Burgani Kariltuk of Abul* 

Tanjut be the name, it may pof- gbazi Kban 9 mentioned a little 

£bly be the fame with Tan-yu, before; but he fays not what 

in thtCbinefe hiftories ; by which became of him. Perhaps alio 'til 

fhe Tatars to the north- weft of his Tayjuts, in note (A). 

£. i. R**g* of JengWz Khan. 

Qbamuka, two princes, enemies to his family. Thefe, having 
formed an army 30,000 ftrong, of foldiers chofen out of 
fcven hords, came to attack Temujin : tut being aflifted by his ^ 
mother, who led a body of troops herfelf, and by Porji, *&«?"** ^ 
pung lord of the hord of Orla, but thirteen years old ; after ' viSor f : 
a bloody battle, in which thofe three did wonders, Taychot 
Wis flain, and Cbamuka put to flight. This a&ion m^de 
* noife all over Tatary, greatly to the advantage of the 
young Mogul prince : who difcovered on this occafion much 
grandeur of foul, in the manner of rewarding his officers and 
fiddlers, making them ride his own horfes, giving them ha- 
bits, and the like. Almoft all Taychofs hord, which was 
very numerous, and poflefled a large country, fubmitted to 
the vi&on and Pot& (D), who was lord of the country about 
the river Ergona l (or Argun), became his faft ally, marrying 

- hisfifter Tumulun ; upon whofe death Jenghiz Khan gave hin\ 
^Us daughter to wife m . But after this we are told, that, for- 
: tone turning againft Temujin, he was beaten ; and fell feveral 
: times into the hands of his adverfaries : yet had always the 

luck to efcape. 
7 In his fourteenth year he efpoufed Purta Kujin, daughter U/es hit 

to the Khin of the Kongorats, and kinfwoman to Fang (or Ung ) wife. 
: 5haa of the Kara-its (E) ; by whom he had a daughter that 

feme year. But next year, while he was on fome expedition •*• ®* 
;6om home, the Merkits entered Niron Kay at, which be-. ll 7&* 

- longed to one of his tribes ; and, having defeated the few 
s forces who guarded it, carried off all that was valuable, with 

the princefs Purta Kujin, who was big of her fecond child. 

-Her they fent to VangKhdn, and her hufband's enemies prefled 

„kim to marry her: but, though fhe was very beautiful, he 
"declined it, faying, He could not marry his fon's wife. He 
fpokethus, becaufe, at the time when he made a league of 
amity with Tefukay, he called Temujin his fon. 
So foon as the Mogul prince heard of his wife's captivity, The Mo* 

^lie fent an ambaflador to Karakorom, to demand her of the8 u ^ Sr ^ 
Dian (F) ; who immediately granted his requeft. Happening™^* 
ip be delivered of a fon on the road, fhe wrapped him in 

t pafte ; and fo carried him in her lap, without hurting his 

1 See before, p. 285, & feq. m Gaubjl, ubi fupra, p. 2. 

(D) Afterwards faid to be been in the year 1176, or 
' Joid of 1-ki-lye-ife hord . 1177. 

(E) This, following the Chi- (F) Hejrah 567, A. D. 1 168. 
pjt and AbSlqbaxi Kbdn% com- De la Croix. 

faction of hi* birth, jnuft Jwv$ 


Hijiorytftbe Mogul crMung Empire, ft III. 

tender limbs, to the palace of her hufband, who called Mm 

Juji (G). Two years after this, his own tribe of Niron Kajit % 

1 (educed by Tukta Bey, Khan of the Mirkits, his moft ptftfflr- 

ful enemy, took up arms againft him ; and he was hifflfif 

r*#i>« /a made prHbner by tfce tribe of Tanjvt (or Tayjut). He hid^ 

Karako- however the addrefs to efcape again from the hands of IS 

mm. eneihies. After this, reflecting on the bad pofture of & 

affairs, he offered the Khans all they could defire to prcctrt 

an accommodation ; bnt their defign being entirely to ruin 46 

llottfe of Yefukay, they rejected all his propofals, and fared 4* 

greater part of his dominions. Hereupon, refolding to tafij 

fefttge under the Grand Khan, he fent a Nevian, or priitf ! 

of his court (H), to Karakorcm, to implore the protection tf 

Vang Khan, who readily granted ir; in confideration, as U 

fM, of the fignal obligations which he lay under to his fathdf; 

Pifuka. Upon* this Termijin married his mother Ulon 4'tj 

to Suzrak (I), an eminent man, whom he placed on his rigft 

Hand above all the princes; and leaving the regency of SI 

kingdom to his uncle Utejekbi, departed with Karajhar, m 

all his faithful fervants x efcorted by a guard of 6000 iflc£ 

for the court of the Grand Khan n ; of whom it may be pfoh 

per to give fome account. 

Vans " ^ HE predeceflbrs of this prince, whofe original name tftf 

Khan'i Togrul, had been powerful lords in Moguliftan, Jelayr> 7fo 

dtftent. keftatty and Karakkay. Some of his anceftors had etrti ah 

Aimed the title of emperor'; but their greatnefs in tunete* 

oayed. His family, one of the moft Illuftrious in KaraBsj K 

contained fix great tribes of Dcrlighin Moguls ; among whdo& 

were the Kara-its, who made war with their neighbours 

Mergis (K), the grandfather of Togrul, whofe tribe refuk$ 

' - « Mirkoud Marakasiii. ap. De la: Croix, obi fupr. p.ii| 

(G) That is, in the Mogul as prefiguring to him the «nf«* 

language, happily arrived* So of two parts of the world. Afrr 

fays Dela Croix: but Abu* I- rake/bi. 

gbaau Khan fays it figmfies a (I) In Z)f la Croix he is calW I 

gut J}. This prince was named Amir Jhucntk ; in Jiitljfa& i 
alfo TuJbL ' Kban.MenglikMa. Hebrougkt | 

(H) About this time he the whole tribe of Ifaabfi, 

dreamed, that his arms were of which he was, to fuboiit ft 

grown of an extraordinary Jepgkjnc Kbdn\ and inform^ 

length ; and that, holding a him of Vang Kbdns defiga * 

fword in each hand, that in the gaftift him, 

right pointed 10 the eaffc the (K) hUrgjtti 1*//, in JWVjAr 

other to the weft. Which the zi Kbdtis hiilory. 
queen, his mother, interpreted, 

. • t at 

Cir" Reign e/Jeu&hJG&to " \ 

at Karakorfim, Was one of the moft conliderabk and taRanfl 
Khans of the Kara-it j, but at the fame time unfortunate:* 
for federal Khans of Kar&ktiay having combined againft, and * 
twice vanquifhed hh& ; one of then*, named Nawr, his rela-» 
tion, drew him into an ambofcade, and fent him to the king 
oOCurgo (L) in China, who caufed him to be fewcd up, bound, 
ifl a fack, and left to expire on a wooden afs. 
• KUTUKly the widow of Mergd s, enraged at the treachery Femal* 
tfNawr, yet feigning to be angry with none but the king ofcouregti 
K4rga, fifteen months after fent to tell the former, that fhe 
paffionately defired to divert herfelf in his company ; and that, 
if he retained the affection which he profefled for her before 
her marriage with Mergiis, fhe would not fcruple to make him' 
her hufband. Naivr f falling into the fnare, the lady imme- 
diately fets out, attended by waggons laden with great veflete 
Aade of ox-hides, filled with Kammez (or Kimis), a hundred 
fteep, and ten mares, which were ordered to be dfefled* 
The Khan met the princefs wkh all the demonftratibtts- of 
joy; and having drank plentifully of the liquor which (he* 
presented him, fhe gave the flgnal to her attendants-: thefo 
opening the great barrels, there came forth armed men, 
and eut to pieces Naivr (whom fhe had already ftabbed),- witl* 
all his domeftics. After this*, ihe made her retreat, without 
the leaft fafpicion ; and for fo great an- action was highly 
cfteeraed by all the princes of that age. 

MERGUS Kkdn left two fons by Ms princefs, Kept Boy- Vang 
ruk and Gttrkhan. The firft at his death left feveral child- KhanV 
ren ; the eldeft of whom was named Togrul (M) : at ten/™** 1 ** 
years of age he accompanied his father in the wars, and was 
ia that expedition where his grandfather was taken by Naivr, 
and with- much difficulty efcaped himfelf. As he had more j 
merit than the reft of his brothers, he fncceeded his father, 
which made them hate him (N). After this, having frequent 
tjaarr-els with his brothers and coufins, he put fome of them- 
to death ; which rigorous treatment moved his uncle Gj&rkk&n 

(L) De la Croix fays, forae Numiff/iy^ *n&Juiambu, who is. 

pretend that ihij hu*ga wa& Ko- called Hahembu by other?. 
rta: but thaf country is too tar (N) It is added here, that this 

JWant. aversion was increafed by the. 

(M) Called, in Alulghaxi king of China* (or rather £7- 

£/tfYshiftory,7"tfyr£/,perhapbby toy) honouring him with the 

fomemiftake. Thefe translations title oiUngKhdn. But this, ac- 

a^mehim alfo Aunak^ which is cording to the Cbincfe hiftory, 

a corruption of Vang ; and fay happened not till afterwards, 

ills brothers were Juhak^ra in the time of Temvjin ; as vii\\ 

|by others, Erkdara), Bajtimur, be related prefently. 


Hijloryoftbe Mogul or Mungl Empire. EI 

to make war upon him. Vang Khan, being vanquifhed, and 
difpoflefled of his dominions, fled to Pifuka, Temujtis 
'father ; by whole affiftance he recovered his throne, and pw> 
fiied GOrkh&n even to the kingdom of Kq/bin °. 
TbePrefktr This Vang Khan (or, as it is commonly written, Ung Khan) 
John; was the prince who made fo great a noife in the Chriftiai 
world towards the end of the twelfth century, under the title 
of the Prefter John of Afia y which the Neftorians firft con- 
ferred on him : and there are four letters extant, faid to be 
fent by him to pope Alexander III. Lewis VII. of France, the 
emperor of Conjtantinople, and the king of Portugal. That 
tp the kirjg of France, of which there is a French copy, begps* 
" Prefier John, by the grace of God, the mod powerful mo* 
" narch, king of allChnftian kings, wifheth health, &c. n He 
boafts of his great wealth, and the vaftnefs of his dominions; 
fpeaking of feventy kings who ferve him, and vaunting of th% 
tribute which he extorts from an lfraelttifb king, who island" 
of many dukes and Jewijb princes. He invites the king of 
France to come and fee him, promifing to give him great d<K 
minions, and make him his fucceflbr. He proceeds to name. 
the different kinds of people and rarities that are in his king*' 
ooms. He calls himfelf a prieft, becaufe he performs the fa- 
crifice of the altar ; and a king, as he executes the office of * 
fovereign judge. He fpeaks of St. Thomas according the fr- 
bulous notions of the Indians ; and, at the conclusion, d*> 
fires the king to fend him feme valiant cavalier of French #k 
neratiqn p , 
«N*fto~ Pu T it is not difficult to difcover that this letter is fpurioos, 
rian fie- * a^d written, not by Vang Khan, but the Neftorian milConaries;'j 
ti*** who were very numerous, and had been eftablifhed thereto 
the year 7 3 7, by means of thofe of Mufol and Bafrab. Thefc 
by their emiflaries, had fpread a report all over Chriflendoin, ' 
that they had converted the greater part of the inhabitants of 
Tatary, and even the Great Khan himfelf; who, they faid, W 
actually become a prieft, and had affumed the name of Join, 
They invented thefe fables to make their zeal more confpicuoos, 
and render their feft more refpefted. There is alfo a fetterrf 
the pope's, which ftiles him, a mojl holy prieft 3 although, ia 
reality, there is not the l^aft appearance that he was a Chitf- 
tian : but only, that he permitted Chriftians to live in his do- 
minions, with their bifhops ; and that fome of his fubjefi* 
had embraced their religion^ 

Fadhlallah ap. De la Croix,, p. z\ f (c fca^ f Mati. 

Paris ap. eund. p. 24, & fe<j. 


C. I* \ . Ufi^A/JcngMzKhan.* 333 

All that can be allowed as true, is, that this prince Was A. D. 
the moft powerful Khan of the country north of Kit ay ; and 1 1 82. 
that a great many foverign princes paid him tribute. AbuU { > - v — ■< 
faraj obferves, that he was lord over all the eaftern Turks 5 Y?? g , 
for, in his time, the greater part of the inhabitants of, 7a- Knan * 
tary were called Turks. Vang Khan was a native of the tribe^* 14 ^* 
of Kara-its, whofe dependants were the inhabitants oijelayr 
and Tenduk, who poflefled the largeft parts of that region. 
The capital of this kingdom was Karakorom (O), fituate about 
tea days journey from the place where Temujin firft kept his 
court, and about twenty days from the borders of China* 
This city, after Vang Kbdn's reign, became the refidence of 
the Mogul emperors, and had the name of Ord&baleg given it 
by Oktay Khan, the fucceflbr of Jengbtz Khan *. 

This prince was in his twentieth year (P), when he ar-TemuJia 
rived at Karakorom, where he was received with great marks efteemd, 
of affection by the Grand Khan, whom he afTured of his obe- 
dience, profefling to devote himfelf intirely to his fervice. 
Vang Kh&n, on the other hand, promifed him his protection, 
and to force the Mogul Khans to return to their duty. He 
fent lords to menace them with war, if they continued hofii- 
lities againft Temujin ; and daily heaped honours on his royal ' 
gueft : called him his fori, and even placed him above the 
princes of his own blood : increafed the officers of his red* 
nue ; and committed the conduit of his armies to him, in 
the war he had with the Khdn of Tenduk. Temujin made his 
courage appear on this occafion, and humbled fome Mogul 
Khans, 'who refufed to pay Vang Khan the ufual tribute. But 
this fuccefs and favour of the fovereign created him many 
enemies among the courtiers ; who, at firft, following the ex* 
ample of their matter, {trove who fhould pleafe him moft r . 

This enmity was increafed by another accident. TheA/«m>/ 
princefs WifMjine, daughter to the Grand Khan, charmed his dough* 
with the valour and perfon of the young Mogul prince, fell /tfr * 
in love with him ; and rejected the offers of Jemuka, Khan 
of the tribe of Jajerat (Q^), who had, with much earneft- 

4 De la Croix, p. 26, & feq. * Abu'lfaraj, ap. eund. 

p. 28, & feq. 

(O) De la Croix fays, it fig- ghatd Kbdn, and the Chinefi 

ntfies black fond. In Abulghaxi computation, it will fall in 1 1 82 

Kbdn y karakum is faid to beTant- or 1 1 83. 

ijb for black /and. Perhaps both (QJ In Abulghaxi Kban% 

names may fignify the fame hiftory called Joygkerats. This 

thing. is placed by De la Croix in Hej. 

(P) Then, according to AbuU 571. A. D. 11 75. 


HiJ}cry.<f&tMogp\crM\m$ Empire. B.III< 

fi*fc, triced tier fo martiage. But F*«£ jflw* having gftq 
her to Yemujin, Jtm&ka was fo enraged, that he vowed ft 
'*enge ; and ftfcred up niany perfons, a* envious as himftlf, 
join witfc him : yet the credit which that young prince 
with the Grand Khfin, who had made him his prime 
fter, and the great number of his friends, for a long 
defeated ill their contrivances. However, Vang Khan, 
wanted nothing but finnnfefs of mind, at laft fuffered 
to be (educed with calumnies. 

This is the account given fey the Perfi&n hiftorians^ h 
the Chinefe do not fpeak of Temujin as feeking prote&oi 
the Kara-it Khan. On thfc contrary, they represent him » 
frtendftup with, but independent of, him, and in good i 
cumftances; ever fmce the defeat of J&muka and Taychti,\ 
his mother's affiftance : at which time he feems to have n 
duced the revolted tribes under his obedience *. 
Tatars After this,- probably about the time that he is fad 

reduced, have retired to Karakorom, the Chinefe hiftbrjr informs us, d 
the hord of the Tatars, who ufually encamped along theft* 
(R), having revolted againft the emperor of Kitay, thismonai 
ordered all his tributary princes (S) to aflemble near that 
*nd march againft them. To-ti (T), lord of the Kara-its (0 
and Yemujin, having diftinguifhed themfelves on this 
fion, the firft was made a Vang or Wang (X), which anta 
to' Khan; whence afterwards called by his (objects Vt 
Kh&n ; and Yemujin had a confiderable poft in the army 
ferred upon him. 

After this, Yo-K f s brother, in dHeontent, fled to theiKg 
m&ns, and prevailed on their Khan to attack him. This 
liged him to fly to the countries of the Whty-bu (T), to 

• Abu'lkayk, ap. Deia Croix, p. 30. 

(R) Or Wa-nani the fame diflinguifh it from the 

With the Saghalian Via, or part, which was cultivated,! 

Atrir. inhabited moflly by Chit*fis< 

(S) From hence it appears, (T) Called, by Abuighi 

that the Kara-its and Moguls Khan, Tayrel ; by others, 1 

were tributary to the emperor grul. 

of Kitay. And indeed, what is (U) In the Chinefe* Kelp- 
fo often .mentioned in De la (a) TaaUUah, and the 

Crcixs hiftory of Jcnghix Khan, authors made ufe of by Dt 

from the oriental hiitorians, of Croix, do not mention thcoc 

the LJoguli and other tribes in- Hon of this title being given. 
habiting Karakatay, mews this V Y) The princes of the Wht 

to be io j fince W'.th them&;;a- hu, at firft catied Whey-he* wc 

katay was part of the empire of pofleifcd of the territories to t! 

Kitay, ii^nif) lug black Kitay, to nofrth or north- wtSt, and we 

fc*«Y %4&<f JengMzKhto: ' 535 

Ifcftef faeWkang4fQ 9 or jeUow river, which rune through A.D. 
fifotf. In this diftrefs Temujin lent his troops to VangKMit ; J 184. 
who, marching to the river Tula, defeated the Merkits (or ^ uwm u mm ^ 
Harkats), who were neighbours and allies of the Naymans r 
'ita joining Temujin, both together fell upon the Naymans, 
latf routed them. But altho' Vang Khan got much plunder 
So thefe actions, he gave none to his benefa&or* who yet 
ioeccakd his refentment *. The Perfian hiftorians relate this 
affair more at large, in the following manner, T*ktabey 9 
^Qk»n of the Merkitj (or Markats), was at the head' of thofe 
$bo fought to ruin Temujin ; and finding that their plots 
1^1 not fucceed, broke friend/hip with Vang Khan, in order 
Ifccompafs his defign by force (Z). With this view he mzdzLeagui 
I league with the Khan of Tanjut (or the fizjwf s), who both*£<w«^ 
ligether aflembled a formidable army, into which they ad-'^«* 
lotted all who were enemies either to Temujin or his proteft- 
pr: and, to confirm their union, took a folemn oath, ufual 
the Moguls on fuch occafions. All the Khans and chiefs, 
their deputies, hewed in pieces with their fwords a horfe, v 

/wild ox, and a dog; after which they pronounced this 
uila: " Hear, O God! O heaven! O earth ! the oath 
th# we fwear againft Vang Khan and Temujin : if one of 
us fpares them, when occafion offers, or fails to. keep the 
promife which he has made to ruin them, and affift .their 
enemies againft them, may he become as thefe beafts. " . 
This oath was long kept fecret : but at length the Grand Vang * 
Ikan, and Mogul prince, having been informed of all by a Khan dim 
"" tgorat lord, prepared to prevent their enemies. Temujin 9 thronul* 
iag his Moguls to one half of the Kara-it army, which . ._ 

given to him, marched to the borders of the Tanjuts 
Tayuts) ; and, by his extraordinary diligence, furprized 
#em with his arrivkl. However, their general, to avoid 
lighting, till feme of the allies had joined him, atnufed Ter 
m*jin by various ftratagems. Mean time the Naymdns havr 
jjflg learned by their «fcouts that the Grand Khan had but 
3»rt of his army with him at Karakorom, Erkekara (A), * 

1 Gavbil, nbi fupr. p. 3, & feq; 

j.4f Turfan, in Little Bukbaria, Perhaps the fame with the 
fowl perhaps to the fouth of that Whey-ke 9 '$ 47. 
: «ty. They were defcended (Z) This is placed, by De la 
iftomihelVbiy-M, who, during Creix, in Hejrah 573, A, D. 
^*Ae Chine fe dy nafty of Tatrg, were 1x77. 

fc powerful, and afterwards (A) Called Jakakara, in 
I kecame Mohammedan^ Gaubil. Alulghaxi Khan ; and Ifankufa, 

in the Chinefi annals. 



tiijtorj df the Mogul or Mufcgl Smpire. B. -It 

younger brother of his, who many years before had retiitl 
to that tribe, perfuaded their Khan Tayyati to attack dttt 
1 prince, in Temujin's abfence. Accordingly,- they entered the 
dominions of Vang Kh&n, who thought of nothing Ids daa 
an irruption from that quarter ; having, the year before, nafe 
peace with Tayyan Kh&n, on terms very advantageous tod* 
Temujin The Grand Ithart, at this unexpected vifit, made a tan 
defeats defence ; but, after an obftinate fight, was obliged to fly, » 
them, zvcid falling into the hands of the enemy. The greater pat 
of his foldiers were either killed or wounded, and the capiat 
city pillaged ; where his brother Erkekara afcended the thnxty 
as Khan of the Kara-its. The remainder of his fcattered troops 
with prince Sankun his fon, retired to the mountains (B)j 
and Vang Khan himfelf hafted to feek his fon-in-law, what 
he found ready to give battle to the Tanjuts and their confide* 
rates. The Mogul prince was much amazed when he fit 
the king in his camp, and heard of his di&fter : but am 
forting him with the hopes of having now his full revengq 
he refigned to the Khan the command of the main bod} 
and put himfelf at the head of the left wing, a Kara-it ki 
being intruded with the right. The victory was a long tin} 
doubtful : bqt at length Temujin broke in with fuch finf 
upon the confederate forces, that he put their left wig 
into diforder ; which animating the reft of the troops, dtf 
enemy was intirely routed, and the Tanjut tribe almoft qoitt 
Reflates Next year (C) Temujin got together a formidable anDf 
tbeKhdn. of Kara-its, with intent to reftore the Grand Khan : nor mi 
that of the confederate Khans lefs considerable. Tuktabty 
for want of Tanj&ts, brought Merkits with him. Tayja 
Khan led the Naymdns in perfon, and the tribes which Erie* 
kara had engaged to his part, helped gready to augment ht 
army. After fkirmifliing a while, Temujin, at the head of 
his troops, began a general battle, the moft bloody, perhaps, 
that was ever fought. At laft the leaders of the enemy gs* 
way, and fled, followed by their troops ; of whom the par* 

V fuers made a terrible daughter. It was not known what be* 
came of Erkekara (D) : but the Grand Khan, his brothff f 

(B) The Clhefc hiftory fays, (D) AbZlghaidKhan fays,!* 
to the Whey-hit princes, to the was taken and put to death; bit 
welt of the Whang-bo, as before tolaces this event in the use of 

(C) Hcj. 575. A. D, n; 9 , » 
Dc la Croix. \ 

3 entered 


Cu kejgk of Jenghiz IChin. £37 

tntered viftorioufly into Karakorom, in 1179* *nd Was re* A. D. 
tftahfiflftl in his throne \ 1201. 

ABV % LGHAZI Khan docs not mention this reftorationJ^C* 1 
^ Vang Khan by ftmyfo, but fpeaks of his dethronement bjj*™i m 
Jakaiarai as an event which happened in the reign of Teffu-f 
ftp Behadr \ That author leaves Terrtujin in a ftate ot in- 
•ftkm for the fpace of twenty-feven years* He tells us, 
fthat, after the battle which he fought when but thirteen 
jjors old, finding himfelf not able to reduce the tribes which 
pad revolted from him, to Burgani Karilt&k, he was obliged to 
temporize till the year Bars, or the tiger; when entering in-^ej. $$f. 
to the fortieth year of his age, a man belonging to the re- A * **' 
toted tribes came to tell him, that the Tayjuts and Nirons I2CI * 
Ntere joined with the Bayjuis, the Markats K and the Tatars 9 
^Mending to furprize him. On this news Teniujin, -who had 
Steady confiderably augmented his forces, and acquired great 
Experience in war, gave a general review to the thirteen tribes, 
Hfhich were then unddr his obedience. After this he ordered 
Hike baggage and catde 'to be placed in the middle of the'^' >*W#* 
and putting himfelf at the head of his troops, pro-'' /n *"* 
in that pofture, to wait for the enemy : but, at their 
di, he ranged his 30,000 men in a line, to cover, by 
large a front, his baggage and beads. Having in this 
mer engaged his foes, he gained a complete viftory, with 
(laughter of 5 or 6000 (lain on the fpot, and a great 
iber taken prisoners. 
Immediately after the battle, he ordered feventy large Hi* fever* 
jttldrons of water to be put on the fire, and caufed the prin- rw/ V* 
Kpal of the revolters to be thrown in headlong, when the 
tfcter was boiling hot. After this he marched to the habi- 
tations of the revolted ; and having plundered them, carried 
Way the men, cattle, and all other efle&s. He condemned 
Jte flavery the children of the chief men of the tribes ; and 
tohibuted the reft among his troops, to ferve for recruits 7 . 

Prince Chamaka (or Jcmuka) envying the reputation o{Co*fed*> 
Tmujin, ftirred up feveral princes, the chief whereof were r «{« *-* 
ikofe of Hatakin, Sachihu, Kilupan, and Tatar, who refolved£* / V **% 
to feize on both him and Vang Khan. Te-in (E), lord of the 

1 Abu'lfaka j, ap. De la Crbi*, p. 11, & fcq. . * AbuV 
baAzt Kh'ak, p 72. f Ibid. p. 69, & fcq. 

(fe) The fame, perhaps, who by a lord of the Kongorats, men* 

b by AbSUhaxi Khan' called tioned before, but out of its 

Turk-Hi. This feems to be the place, 
fame confederacy and difcovery 

MoD.ihsT.VoL.IV, Z HmYirats 


338 Hiftory of the Mogul or Mungl Empire. B.IH. 

A. D. Honkirats ,(or Kongorats), who had been forced into the 

1 202. league, retired to his own lands, and feat notice to Temtyix, 

1 who had married his daughter. Hereupon Temujin and Vang 

Khan took, the field, when leaft expected, and defeated the 

confederates in feveral battles. The Moguls wereconfidoa- 

bly reinforced by the acceffion of the Ulutay, Manga, Cbakr (or 

Jalayr), Honkirats, and 1-ki-lye-tfe. Thefe five hords, whkfc 

furnifhed excellent officers, and fprung from the five ferns of 

Lacking Patur, iixth anceftor of Tc-in, dwelr along the Omm, 

Kerlon, Ergone, Kalka, and other neighbouring rivers. At 

' this time Temujin and Te-in made a treaty, famous in the hi- 

llory of the Moguls ; by virtue of which the chief of each 

family was to take his firft wife out of the other : which 

treaty was ftriftlyobferved, fo long, at leaft, as thedefcead* 

ants of Temujin reigned in China z . 

taifedby Iti 12Q2 Jamuka having aflembled the confederate prince* 

Jamuka. near the river Tula Pir (F), they elected him their chief, anl 

A- £>• took an oath to obey him. This league was exceediagiy 

I202# ftrengthened, by the acceffion of Boyrak (G), king of tk 

Naym&ns. Temujin, who was aififted by the princes of bil 

houfe, "and his allies, had in his army four generals, callei 

Palipankuli, or the four intrepids, named MuhuU (H), Pa* 

chi, Porokona'i and Chilakona (!)• Befides thefe, there was t 

ftranger called Say-i, who was expert in the art of war; and 

being a fife-worfhiper, was called Chapar (K). 

yf!?8 . Next year Temujin joined Vang Khan % near the monnttk 

Kh * n ' jJn 'Kau (L), where Jamuka and his allies had aflembled their 

tenjlancy. f orces> g ut j amu ka f fearing the fuccefs of a battle, chofc 

rather to render the Kara-it prince jealous of Temujin, by 

* Gaubil. ubi fupr. p. 5, &feq. 

(F) Probably the Toro, Pira, (K) TheTatar pronunciatioa 
which rifes in lat. 47 apd long, of the word Ghebr (or GUr}' 
3 eaft of Peking, the Cbinefe word is CbafA-vi i 

(G) In the Cbinefe, Polo-yu; Gaub. j 
he was the elde* brother of Taj- (L) ft is, according to the | 
yan Khan. Cbinefe geographers, 500 // (<* j 

(H) Thefe are the Mungl co leagues), weft of the moira- , 

names, in which language they tain Tu-kin ; which laft is abort 

were intitied Qtejye, which is the 45th or 46th degree of lati- , 

the Quejitan of M. Polo, Gaubil tude, and the 12th or 1 3th of i 

(I) The firft and laft were of longitude, weft of Pe-kin& where 

the hord ofCba/ar (or Jelayr) ; the kings of the Tu-que, or Turk* 

Ptfrcbi belonged to that of Or la ; ufed to encamp, in the fifth ccn- 

an d Porokona to t he hord of /$?«- tury • Gaub, 
hitjbin. Gaubil. 


C. ti Reign 9/Jmghk khan. . 

"■faggeffing to him that he was not to be trailed. Vang Khah 
hereupon fecredy decamped in the night, and retired firft to 
the river Hafwi (M), and thence to Salt, between the Tula* 
mvAOnon. They had fcarce feparated, When the Khan of the 
Naymins attacked feveral parties of the Kara-its, and plun- 
dered the habitations of that hord* Oh this Vang Khdn di£ 
patched couriers to Temujin, defiring the aid of his four fti- 
trepids; who, on their arrival* beat the Naymdns, and re- 
covered the booty. This feaforrable affiftance begat a firmer 
%nk>n than ever between the two j and each proihifed £ 
daughter in qjafriage to the other's fon. 

Mean time Ilaho (N), Vang Khan % % fon, who had longlbkoV 
ttvied Temujin's reputation, by the inftigation of Jamukawy* 
(0), perfuaded his father, ever wavering and diftruftful, that 
the prince of the Mungh had betrayed him. In this belief 
fat refolved to deftroy Temujin by artifice : with which view 
%e invited him to his camp, with his fon Chuchi (or Juji) 9 
tod the princefs his daughter ; under pretence of accomplifh- "" 
kag die double marriage before agreed on. Temnjin indeed 
;fe forward v but returning again, fent an officer to put on? 
H&e ceremony till another opportunity. Soon after, being in- 
formed of the whole plot, he fent to his* allies, and took pro- 
ber meafures to prevent a furprize *. 

■ The reafon of Temujin** fudden return is not mentioned PA* jr- ■ 
in the Chinefe hiftory ; nor does Gaubil inform us from thence^aia/? Te* 
fa what manner he came to know of the plot :' but both arertujin, 
related by Abfflghazi Khan (P). According to this author, 

■Gaubil. p. 6,8t feq. 

(M) Which rifes lat. 47 50' . daughter he had married in hii 

long. 1 c° 40' weft of Pc-king, minority. That young Sankun 

ftod falls into the Selingba, lat. hereupon, in 1 186, wrote bis 

49 zo 7 long. 1 3 2$/. Gaub. father an account; who, with 

(N) Or Ilaho ; called by De reluctance, at laft, in Hej. $88. '• 

la Croix, Ilaho; Sorbin and A. D. 1 192. fefolved to feiz'e 

Sungbim, by Jbfflgbasct Kfran. Temujin. De la Croix, hift* 

(0) According to De laCroix, Geng. p. 34, & feq. alfo AM? I* 

in 1 1 80, the year after Vang ghaxi Khan, p. 70,72. 
Kbdns reftoration by Temujin, (?) Who, p. 69, places this 

Jtmuka, by Sankun 's mediation, affair in or after the year 1 201, 

obtained leave to return to agreeable to the Cbinefe annals : 

court, where he perfuaded San- whereas De la Croix, in Hej rah 

tun that Temujin & deficn was to V90. A . D. 1 1 93 , eight years ear 

deprive him of the (ucceffion ; Tier; which mull be owing to the 

and, for that end, correfponded error in placing Temujin s birth 

vithfrp**, Khin of the Nay- fo many years too early* 
miu, Fang Khans enemy, whofe 

Z % Vang 

Hiftotp of tbeMogal *rhtun& Empire. B.HL 

Fang Kbhty at the fame time that he invited Tmkjh, under 

!>retence of making a more ftritt alliance by the jxuurityt 
ent to tell Menglik Izka, TemujirC% father-in-law : tlpt, • 
nothing ftood berween him and the crown but his wife's^ 
he would come and help him to pot that prince to detth,*i 
then divide his pofleffions between them* As Vang JOfc 
was an intimate friend of Pofuhi, and owed great ob%un* 
to him, Ttmujin, after receiving his ambaflador with hoiwg 
fet forward to go to his court : but meeting on the n$ 
i*w fyco-vrixh his father-in-law, who difcovened the Grand Hang 
wired. propoial to him, he returned back, and difmiflcd theaftf 
haffladox, .with an apology to his matter for putting offU| 
vifit for the prefent: » 

Five or fix days after the ambaflador's departure, Bm 
and Ki/blik, two brothers (Q_), who kept the hordes of oq 
of Vang Kh&ri* .chief domeftics, came and informed fianyai 
that the grand Khan, finding he had milled his point, *q 
' refolved to fet out inftandy, and furprize him next moruM 
before he could fufpeft any danger. They {aid they hoi 
their matter tell this to his wife, the day before, when tfcq 
went to carry milk to his houfe ; and, without delay, cn| 
to give him notice b » 
Temojin TEMUJtN was then, according to Be ia Croix, euanR 
foods ^j at f ome dittance from Karakarom, by Vang Khan's onkrj 
who had fent him from court, under pretence that has jq 
fence was neceflary in the army (R) ; but, in reality, to get 
him away from his own guards : for all the fbldiem adoni 
'him for his brave actions in the field, and liberality to then 
Although the Mogul prince could hardly believe what BaA 
and Kijhlik had told him, he thanked them for their affedx*! 
and having confulted Karafbar, with the reft of his frknd% 
it was refolved that they fliould lie in ambufcade. And as thp 
(laves had allured him that he was to be feized in his teat, lit 
m p 9H fa ordered all things of value to be removed out of it ; that aB 
guard. his domeftics and officers fliould quit theirs; and that fires 
fhould be left burning all night in the camp (S). After which 

* Abu'lchazi, uhi fup. p. 49, 7a, & feq. 

(QJ Ahilghaxi Khan, p. CO. (R) De la Croix places this it 

makes them of the tribe of Kal- Hej. 58Q. A. D. 1 193. . 
kit, which, he fays, fprung from (S) Abulgbazi Kb*/f$kp, kk 

the third fon of Menglik Izia, on this occafion, fenfitus wo- 

by a former wife ; but this does men, and children, and efeds, 

not feem probable. P. 60, he out of the way, to a place called 

fays, Temujin then entered his Bafym*4alak< 1 

fortieth year. 


Ci; &tfg*ofJenghtzKter\. 34* 

he marched, with all his troops, to poflefs himfelf of a nar- A. D-. 
row lane or pafs, called Jermegah, two or three leagues 1202- 
diftant w ^ -ta j 

Thet were fcarce departed from the place, when Vang 
JfMn's forces arrived! commanded by Sankdn and Jentfka (T). 
The prince rode foil fpeed up to the illuminated tents, and, 
with his follower?, (hot a prodigious number of arrows at 
Temujin'*; Hot dqubting but the cries of the wounded would 
foon drive out him they wanted : but hearing no noife, they 
entered the tents*; where, to their furprize, they found no* 
body. Hereupon, concluding that he had fled through fear 
and guilt, they followed him by the track of his troops, in 
great hurry and diforder. 

Ms an time Ttmujin had ported himfelf at the foot of zDtfeatt 
mountain, in the narrow pafs, which was covered by a wood, Vang 
vith a brook before him : but when he faw the enemy ad-Khla^ 
Tracing indiforder, although much inferior in force, having 
only 6000 men againft 10,000 (U), he crofled the Attain, 
and attacked them fo hotly, that, after a very flight refinance, 
they fled before him. In this fight they loft a great number 
of ibldiers and officers t prince Sanktin, who, with the reft, 
fled back to Karakorom, was wounded in the face with an 
arrow. This *flion happened when Tenagin was forty years 
of age (X), and had been eighteen years in Vang Kharis 
fa-vice c . 

According to the Chinefe Mftory, when Vang Kh&n per-&»6;#r*. 
dived that Ms plot was discovered, he openly attacked Te-froacb 
rmtjbi on all fides : but the Mogul prince got the advantage^ 1 ** 
hi four battles, in the laft of which he fought with Vang 
KbAn himfelf; and Ilako, being wounded with an arrow, re- 
tired out of the engagement. Temujin, after this, went and 
encamped at the lake Tbng-ko, from whence he fent an officer 
to reproach Toii in the following manner : " When your 

• Da la Caoix, p. 37, & foq. Abu'lch azi, p. 74* 

(T). Dt la Croix places this more than 2500 men ; but Vang 

aftion in Hej. $90, A. D. 1 1 93 j Khan had 1 2,000 with him. 

fast a* the year 589 of the IJej- (X) Dt la Croix, or his aa- 

rah is alfo referred to the fame thors, place this a&ion Hej. 

year of Chrift; it muft be ob. 590, A. J>. 1 193, when he was 

ierved, that 589 began the 6th forty years old : but if Ttmuji* 

of January, 590 the 26th of was born in it 62, that batde 

Dtctmbir, 1 193, will fall in 1202, near the time 

(U) According to Jbfflgbam to which it is referred by Abul- 

MbiM t he could get together no gbaxi Khan* and the Qbint/i au- 

2 3 " uncle 

349 Hijfary of the Mogul or Mungl Evrpire. B, HL 

A,D. " uncle Kior(Y) defeated you xtHala-wben (Z) you left 
1,202, " your pofleffions. My father defeated Kiar in /ft^J, and r*. 
fcaw»Y^^" ftored you. When your brother armed the Naymkm 
* againft you, an4 you were obliged to retire weftward, I 
(i fent my troops, who beat the Markets, and hindered the 
\* Naymans from defeating you. When you were reduced 
*' to fo great mifery, I gave you part of my flocks, and ctoj 
«' thing elfe that J had ; yet you fent me nothing of all die 
<< great plunder which you get from the Markats : although 
*' it was by the help of my officers that you became fo rick, 
" and my four generals brought you out of the plunge yon 
" were in. you know what I have done to prevent th* 
" ill defigns which the confederate princes fo often forme^ 
" againft you ; will you/ after fo many obligations, attempt 
u tq deftroy me in fo bafe a manner ? " 
'/flTttary The rupture between Temujin *nd Vang Khan potmofl 
inwti*n- of the princes of Tatary in motion t the firft was joined faf 
his brother-in-law Hafar-Whachin {h) t prince of the/fat^ 
kirats (or Kongtrats), and Putiiy prince of I-ki~lye«tfe\ £a^ 
Vang Khans brother ; Chafiar, and feveral other lords. Ahm 
many confutations with his four generals, the army fet for* 
ward-; and being arrived at the river Panchuni, or Long-h, 
ff a &** °f m whofe water was very muddy, Hajar caufed a horfe to i*| 
♦ * ocnum - killed. Th?n. Tpnujin y taking up fprn^of the water, drank it; 
and, invoking heaven, promifed to (hare with his officers,; 
during his life, both thefweet and the bitter ; wifhing, in ah 
% he ever fhould be fo unhappy as to violate his oath, that h 
might become as the mater which he drqnk. All his allies aid 
officers did the fame after him. This ceremony linked thai 
exceedingly firm to his intereft % and the families of tfaofe 
who drank the water on that pecafion, valued themfelves mock, 
on account of their fidelity s nor were they held in lefsefteefl 
fcy others, After this thfy marched to fight the* enemy d . 

These matters are; related with no fmall variation, and 
jnore tfrcumiiau<#s, by the w^ftern hiftori^ns, According 

* Gavbil, Mft. Genteh. K^n, p. 8. 

IfY) J&or, according to prince (Z) Straits of the moontiin 
Kantemir (Othm. hilt p. 505, ' fouth of the river Orgbu*} !*• 
note 48), figoifies one who is' 48? ao' long: 12° 15' weft tf 
blind, or has but one eye. This: Peking.' Gaubii^ 
feems to be Gurkhan of Deia (A) This was donbtW* &* 
Croix an4 Abu Igbaxi Khan. Per- fon of Te-in, Khan of the ft* 
haps he was blind. We will not kirats ; probably the femewiA 
fay. \ hat the weftern hiftorians Turkey yhp was dead, 
feavc jnaq>S*r qut qf&or. 

C i. Reign of Jenghiz Khan, 

to AbSlghcai Khan, Teniujin, after the above-mentioned bat- 
tle, contenting himfelf with the honour of having beaten the 
enemy with fuch a handful of men, judged it convenient to y 
retreat, before all their forces came down upon him ; and 
fttaping his courfe to Baljuna-balak, where he had fent his 
family and effects for fecurity the night before, found fo lit- 
tle water there, that he was conftrained to march towards the 
>river KaHafui (B). As the tribe of Kunkurats (or Kongorats), The Kun- 
at this time dwelt on that river, and had a chief named Turk- *oratsy^£. 
Mj who was a relation of Temujin, he fent an officer to ac-**'* 
quaint him; that he intended to vifit him, and fhould be glad 
: to know if he was difpofed to keep up the friencHhip which 
;had long fubfifted between them. Upon this method Turk* 
lit (who feems to be Hafar above-mentioned), thought pro- 
per to fubmit to'Temujin, and join him with all the Kunkurat 
.tribe. From thence they marched towards the river Kolla^ 
nuaer (C), on whofe banks they flopped for fome time. Af- 
ter this, he fent Arkayjum Bthadr to upbraid Vang Kh&n 
with his ingratitude ; who confefled the charge : yet as the 
war had been entered upon by the advice of his fon, he fent 
the envoy to him for an anfwer: but Sungun, ! refolving to Sanghin . 
he revenged for his late hurt, would hear of no accommo- inexorMu 
dation c . 

DE la Croix relates this affair with a greater number of 
.ckcumftances, and ftill farther variation from the Chincfe hi- 
itory, as follows : Temujin', after the battle, retired with his* 
troops to the lake Baljuta (D), of fait water, and in no great 
quantity; where his friends and the difcontented Kara-its 
referring to him, he went and encamped on the frontiers of 
■ China, at the river Kakul (E), near a high mountain. From 
that place, after fome ftay, he marched for Moguliftart * 
(F), where he was joyfully received by his fubjefts of Yeka* 
Mogul, and Niron Kay at. After this, in fevend kurilties, or t 

e Abu'lghzi Khan, ubi fupr. p. 75, 

(B) Now called Qrkbon, or mifUke the fame letter being • • •* - 
Ofiom, according to Bentink ; . marked for a / inftead of jr. 

whereas it ought to be the river (E) De la Omx fays, it was • 

which he name? Ar^un, and is alfa called Karamuren: there / 

the Ergotta, according tq the is fuch a -river, wtich runs from - 

Cbinefe hiflory. north to fouth, within a ltfde of 

(C) Now called Tola, or 7*- the Whang-h 9 . . '< 

&, according to Bentink. (F)'This is placed H^J. 591, 

(D) This muft be the Baljuna- A, J), 1 \ q± % 

hH of Alulghau K/Mibj^ ■• x • 

Z4 aflemblk*, 

Hifiory cftbtMoga\crMun£ Empire. RHL 

aflemblies, fummoned to found and animate the people (G), 
he propofed throwing off the yoke of the Kara-its: idling 
' them they had now a fair opportunity ; and, to induce the* 
the foooer, pretended he was fent from God for that parpofc, 
TkMo* This fpeech had the defired efleft : for applauding his enter* 
gals «*//#. prize, they promifed to obey him- Hereupon he railed on* 
ly 4500 foldiers mare than he had before ; and then fent. 
to propofe a league with the Khan of the Kongorats, loo to 
his father-in-law, who was dead ; alio with the Khan of d*, 
Kttrlas : but thofe of the S6 Moguls, or Tatars, refnfiog Us 
offers, he conftrained them by force of arms. The Chan 
of Merkat, feeing this, chofe to do freely what they wooU 
otherwife have been compelled to : and feveral other tribei 
followed their example, although foUicitcd to Hand out by 
fame Khans, particularly thofe of Merkit ; of whom Tiki* 
bey, Temujin's mortal enemy, was the moft powerfuL 
Mtfiftpay* Afterwards, all the allied Khans, by proclamation, for 
img tribute, bad paying any more tribute to Vang Kbdn ; who, on this, 
gentle means. But finding nothing would reclaim them, 
the Merkit s from all tribute, and made large promifes 
TAktabey (H) ; hoping that this party of Moguls would 
* lance the power of the other. Mean time Temujin, r — 

to be for peace, advifed fending to propofe an acc< 
tipn to VangKhfa, on condition that he fhould rcleafe 
from all taxes, as he bad done the Merkit $ f . 
Temujin As they left the management of this affair to himfelf, 
fropofts pitched on Arnuun to be the ambaflador ; who, after rcci 
P<*" ; the obligations he owed to his mailer, and Vang Kbfa y % 
generous returns, intreated him to grant peace to the .Mis 
and renew his friendship with his fon-in-law. Vang I 
having referred t the affair to his council, for a while. ($) 
off the envoy ; who, in the mean time, fufiered a thou] 
indignities from the friends of Sankun and Jem&ka, which 
loudly complained of : but meeting with no redrefs, fent aa 
account of all to Temujin, who ordered him forthwith to 
which is The Grand Khan would willingly have made peace ; ba«J 
P0«ft4 Sank&n, prejudiced by Jemuka\ fuggeftions, oppofed itwii 
all his might ; and carrying his Other's anfwer himfelf, 
the ambaflador, " that the Moguls were to expeft no j 
«« but by fybmittjng abfabtely to theKhan's will ; and 

< A^u'lkayk ap. De la Croix, p. 41, & foq. 

(G) This is referred toH$j, (J) La Cr*> fays for « wW* 
59X, A. D. 1194. yea*. 

(H) This is referred to #<j. 
594. AnV. U97* "* 

C't. tWgn of JcngthKl&n. 34$ 

« as for Tenrnfm, he would never fee him but with (WoroV A. D. 
" in hand (I)." The confederate Kh&ns, exafperated by 1202. 
fo haughty a meflage, prepared for war*. Hereuppn &»t-i—y— ^ 
ifet fent troops to ravage MoguUftin^ but they were al? 
ways repulfed with lofs. The Grand KhAn, enraged at this 
diigrace, levied troops all over his dominions, and drew above 
30,000 men out of the provinces of Turkeftdn (K), TendAk 9 
and other parts, depending on the kingdom of Jelayr. Then 
fending to fummon the Moguls to fubmit, he promiied them 
all the fatisfa&ion they required if they complied.; but if not, 
threatened to treat them with the utmoft rigour. 

Some Khans were at firft. of opinion to accept of VangPnparts 
Khans prepofals; but others, lefs timorous, nobly -oppofed/flr«w« 
them. At length, animated by Temujin's arguments, who 
produced letters from Karakorcm, aiTtuing them that the 
Grand Khan and his fon had fworn the ruin of the confede- 
rates; it was refolved by the whole aflembly, then met at- 
Mankerule, to raife all the forces their tribes could furnifh, 
and to carry on the war with the utmoft vigour. Then de- 
claring Temujin general, they prefented him the Topuz, or 
truncheon of command : but he would not accept'of it, but' 
on condition that every man (houlct punfhmUy obey his or- 
ders; and that he fhould have full 'power to puniih- thofe 
who did not do their duty. Having granted all his demands, 
they returned to their refpettive countries; in order to get - 
their troops ready to take the field, 

TEMUJIN, the better to fecure his friend* in his inte-JBi«»(jr«rf s 
reft; loaded with benefits thofe who had \dtVang ASW«, to*™tf'«^- 
follow him; and out of them chofoall his gener^ officers* 
Bat he in-a fingular manner rewarded the two (laves who 
gave, him notice of that prince's defigns againft him : for be- 
fides the considerable prcfents which he made them, he de- 
clared them TerkAnt (L), and affigoed>them a revenue for 

* Mi*xQ;fiiD< ap, De la Croix, p. 45, * fafc Abu'^puazi, p . 

(I) This is pjaped, by AhuU eaftem tribes, whp probably are 

!M»,inHej. 598. A.D. 1201. msaathere. 
wDr/f Croix, in Hej. 506. A. (L) According to Abulfaraj* 

p. 1199. and£**4**'s hoftilities t\itTerkan 9 otTarkbdnM exempt 

111290. font all taxes ; enjoys his whole 

(K) This cannot be under- booty, without giving any jto. the t 

ftoodofthe country of theTWi/, Khan* goes into his prefence 

U thfe weft of ra/tfry; but there without aflring leave; and is 

were fonje TurMJb tribes who pardoned nine times, let the 

terdcred weft ward on the terri- fault be what it will* 

\toto of the M*pl*> tqdotto. 


Hijlory of the Mogul or Mungl Empire. KVL 

their maintenance ; ordaining that thefc privileges (hould con- 
tinue to them and their defendants to the feventh, fame au- 
thors, fay to the ninth, generation. Thefe afts of gratitude 
and liberality were of great fervfce to him. When all tfe 
Reforms confederate troops were come together ; contrary to the cafloa 
difcipline. f tf& Moguls, who.ufed to attack their enemies in one mm 
body, he divided his, army into two wings, and in the center 
placed his own troops, as a body of referve. Then march- 
ing dire&ly towards the Grand Khan's dominions, he found 
that his army was already in motion ; but being incumbered , 
with carriages, was flow in his march to the plain of Tangat, 
, . in the country of the Kara-its, where Temujin waited his 
coming h . i 

To avoid the confufion which would arife from mixing 
difcording relations together, and to leave our readers to chufe 
for themfelves, we have laid before them feparately, asve 
have hitherto done in the like cafes, the accounts of thefc- 
veral authors in view ; and fhall make no remarks on then, 
farther than to . obferve, that neither thofe made ufe of by 
Abfflgbazi Khan, nor De la Croix, fpeak of the famous oath 
taken by Temujin and his confederates, at the river Paucbm, 
as mentioned by the Chvnefe hiftorians, to whom we (hall amr 
Mtets the TEMUJIN having marched from that river in queftrf 
Kara-its, ^ enemy, the two armies met'between the Tula and AVrJw, 
or Ker&lon : and though that of Vang Kh&n was by far the 
moil numerous, yex\ after a bloody fight, Temujin gained a 
complete viftory : after which the greater part of thero* 
quUhed troops joined his. Vang Khan had much ado to get 1 
off; and many of his own officers would have killed him* Hfc 
was purfued, however, and taken by one" of the parties fear 
after him ; but the fame day efcaped, and retired into the ter- 
ritories of the Naym&ns : where an officer of .that country 
knowing him, caufed the unfortunate prince to be (lain. Ha 
fon Ilaho (or llako Sangbin) retired flrft into the kingdom of. 
Hya ; from whence being driveri, and flying to the conntfl 
of Kiu-tjh (M), between Turf an arid' Kajbgaf, h$ was tfcw 
killed, by order of its prince 4 , • 

.' , With 

• * Jovini ap. De iaOoix, p. 47, & feq, * Gavbii, oB 

fopr. p. 10. 

(M) Tis hard to fay what Bukbaria, which belpuged to 
place this is : Abuhbaxi Khan Kalifobara, a lord of the ml* 
fays, that he retired to the city ofK*lla/K ; who, inftead of pro- 
of Kbatin (or Kotan)> in little toftifig, P« Us\ to death. Bit 


til* Reign of Jtnghit Khali. 

With this account the weftern hiflorians agree, biit re- 
late the feverai matters more at large • they tell us, that 
prince Kara/bar, who. commanded the van-guard of Temujin's y 
army, began the battle, by attacking that of the enemy, head- 
ed by Jemuka. The conflift was the more bloody, as the per- 
gonal hatred betwixt thofe two generals was very great ; bat 
Kara/bar was at length overthrown. Then Suida BehaBr, 
at the head of the veteran troops, joined with the Sti-moguls, 
Or Tatars, fo vigoroufly charged Fang Khfais main body, 
that they gave back ; and Jcmuka, who advanced to fuftain 
them, was obliged alfo to give ground. At the fame tin&aniiefeaH 
the two wings of Temujin's army, commanded by the prineesAfa*. 
Huhba and lrka, attacked the two wings of the enemy, and • ^ 
.for three hours both fides behaved with extraordinary bravery. 
The Kara-its fought with fo ipuch courage, that the victory 
Jeemed often ready to declare in their favour. But, in the 
$nd, the Moguls gained it (N) : for Temujin, when he faw it 
was time to advance with his cbrps-de-reierve, where he was 
yith the prince his fon,fell on with fuch fury, that the Kara-* 
its began to give back, and break their ranks on all fides ; nor 
could their Khan, and prince Sankun, rally them again ; fo 
that they were at laft obliged to follow their flying army, 
who fell in heaps before the purfuing enemy. This victory 
gready enriched the Moguls, who, ^efides the plunder of the 
ipggagp, took abundance of prifpnfrs, find a great number 

This day, which was fetal to Vang Kbin, proved the moft Vang 
profperous to Temujin, who was then forty years of age :Khan 
for it put him into pofieffion of the kingdom of the Ka^ te,i 
fa-its, and all Karakitay. The vanquifhed flot only, loft 

* De la Croi*, p. 55, & fcq, 

according to-D* la Croix, after duck them in the ground at 
removing in difguife from one fojne dtflance. After this they 
country to another, and think- began to read their conjura- 
ing himfelf unfafe at Kajhgar, tions, during which the flicks 
be returned to Tibet, • where he approached ; and having fought, 
was put to death the fame year Vpjcans remained undermoftj 
for a fpy. whith prefaged » the victory to 
(N) Marco Polo reports, that Ci'ngij. This piece of joggle is 
this prince ordered the aftrolo- ftill in ufe among the tfurksyjfri* 
gers and magicians to try his cans, and other Mohammedan na- 
me by wands : they fplit a tions, which they call do tb* 
piece of green cane in two ; then book ; whereof Tbmcnot gives an 
Writing the name of Qingis on account in bis travels to the!** 
pne, and pf Vmtan on the othpr, <uaui. 



Hiftory of the Mogul or Mungl Empire. RUT. 

40,000 men, killed in the battle ; but the beft troops which 
remained went over to his enemy. Afe he was wounded is 
'the fight, he was obliged to quit the command of Ins army, 
withdefign to retire to Karakorom*, but feeing himfdf jmr* 
fued by a troop of Moguls, he fled for refuge to his enemy 
Tayyan Kh&n. This retreat was much wondered at, as that 
Khan hated him ; and there were in his court feveral grot 
Nay man lords, whom he had ill treated : thefe lords did not 
fail to aggravate the injuries which he had done their coun- 
try ; and even to allege, that his flying thither was only v& 
> a malicious defign to ruin them, by drawing the viftor's an- 

ger upon the Naytnans. 
JkfutH TATTAN Khan, who was naturally ungenerous, readfy 
death, gave ear to their advice, to put the Grand Khan to death. A* 
foon as he was feized, they held a council, at which their 
prince took care not to be prefent ; imagining, by that 
means, to avoid the charge of having violated the law of na- 
tions and hofpitality. He even pretended to be difpkafei 
at his enemy's death ; but when Vang Kh&ris head was pre* 
fected him, he could not conceal his joy, nor contain from 
iafulting him with words full of fcorn and fpite '. 

Somb authors relate this matter very differently ; accord* 
ing tcfehem, VangKhin, being on the road to Tayyan Khtn, 
he was met by Karimaju and Tarmka, two Nayman chiefs; 
who' knowing there had always been animofity between hidt 
and their Khan, flew him, with all his attendants : but that* 
oa prefenting his head (0) to Tayyan Khan, he blamed mich 
the aftion, faying, that Vang Khan, having been a met- 
prince y and venerable for his age, they haJLmach better jetvd 
for his guard, than been his executioners. Farther to ho- 
nour the memory of fo great a prince, he had his head in- 
chafed in filver,. and placed upon his own feat, with his face 
turned to the door *-♦ 
m dim- 7 EMU J IN, when informed of Vang Khan's death, vitk 
momfiix- out lofs of time continued to feize his dominions, as his right 
•^ by conqueft ; and Sankun being no-where to be found, here* 

mained peaceable pofleflbr of all the Kara-it territories. About 

1 Jovimi *p, De !a Croix, p* 56, Aiu'igiiazi, p. 77. 
■Ubid. p. 77. 

(O) Both De la Crrix and prefages were drawn in faro* 

Miilghazi Khan mention the ofTemujin. The firft fays, ttti 

arcumftance of the tongue happened when the head wat 

thrufting itfelf feveral times out frefli 1 the litter, whan it was- 

ofthemouthi from whence (one d*y. 


C I. Rtign of Jcnghlz-Khan. 

the end of the year (P) he returned to his own country, where 
he was received with acclamations by all the Mogul Khans, who 
came to pay their ackQOwlegements to him, for having deli- ' 
vcrcd them from the tyranny oiVang Kban 9 whom they called 
the perfecutor of their nation. 

After this HakemM, a brother of Vang KhAn, came to Hakem- 
ofler his fervice to Termyin, and a daughter in marriage, buyfcf. 
The Grand KMn received him favourably, gave him the em-**'//, 
ptoyment he defired, and accepted of his daughter with joy: 
at the fame time telling him, " that he owed him a kind 
44 treatment, in return for that which his brother had given 
" to him in his misfortunes. That although both Vang Khan 
* and prince Sankun had, without caufe, confpired againft 
" his life, yet he never blamed them, but imputed all their 
" perfections to Jemuka ; nor had, on that {core, one jot 
M the lefs refpett for their memories, than if they had always 
" continued his friends." Temujin fully defigned to have 
married his daughter ; but perceiving that the captain of his 
guards, whom he much cfteemed, was fallen in love with 
tfaat'princefs, he gave her to him for a wife. 
, TATTAN, Khan of the NaymAns, one of the mofl confi- Jemfik* 
double princes of Karakitay, was alarm'd and uneafy at \nsjtirjuf 
Jbn-in-law's furprizing fortune, notwithstanding the harmony 
there had been of long time between them. While his 
thoughts were employed on this fubjeft, Jem&ka, who had 
efcaped out of the late battle, with the remains of Vang 
Kim's army, and moil of the officers, arrived at his court 5 

(P)In the text of L*Cr«*, p. fion it mod be obferved, that 

ll, it it, about tbe end of tbe year the authors followed by Del* 

120*, being forty-nine years of Croix, fpin out to ten yean 

«#. Bat, according xoAbulghaxi length the affairs, which thofe 

amr, p. 78. he was no more made ufe of by Aim Igbaxi Khan 

than forty y ears of age when he comprize within the corapafe of 

jpificd the victory ; and was ac- one year : for the former put* 

kocwleged by the Af<£*/rfor their Fang Khans plot to feize Temu- 

KMa, in the country of Nau- jin in Hej. 588, the latter in 598, 

nmkuraj where he then refided. . A. D. 1 201 . at which time the 

He places this event in the Mogul Khan fays he was forty; bat 

Tear of the Hog, and of the De la Groix, that he had en- 

Hejrah 590, which anfwers to tered into his forty -eighth year. 

Ac year otChrift 1 202 ; at the Whence this difference happen- 

end of which De la Croix alfo ed is not fo ea(y to determine ; 

pats it : fo that here the chro- but we conclude Abu' Igbaxi 

*ob*y of thefe two authors, Khan\ account to be mod ex- 

which difagreed before, coin- aft, as the Cbinefe hiflory gives 

<Mes, and thenceforward tal- but the fpace of a year to the 

lies pretty well Qatfcisocca* fame trania&ions. 


Hiftory of the Mogul or- Mungl Umpire. B. lit 

and bring known to be a man of great abiEties, was very well 
received. As he had a fubtil wit, and was fldlkd in all the 
'arts of courts, he endeavoured to ftir up his jealoufy againft 
Temttjin. He reprefented him as a man of unbounded ambition, 
the other wno quarrelled with princes, for a pretence to invade thdf 
***w. dominions; as well as the mod ungrateful and perfidious: 
alleging that he contrived to deprive both Vang Khan and 
Sangun of their empire and lives, at the fame time that they 
x loaded him with their favours. Tayyan Khan knew this to 
be all calumny ; yet, urged more by his own fears than fe 
tnMa's follicitations, he refolved to make war on Temujin. To 
this purpofe he propofed a league with fome other Khant 
whofe intereft it was to put a (top to "the new empenVl 
growing greatnefs : into which Tuktahey, and the other Met* 
kit (QJ Khans, the Khin of the Virats, and he of the Kent, 
who was a relation of Vang Khan, prefently entered ; aoj 
Jemuka engaged for the whole tribe of JajeraU (or Jqg 
herats) n . 
The plot Among the reft, Tayydn Kh&n had likewife invited AUbl 
difewertd. (or Alakus), to join with him and prince jem&ka, in order to 
curb the power of Temujin. This Alakus (K) was chief of 
the white Tata, who dwelt to the (buth-louth-eaft of the- 
mountain Altay. Thefe Tata are different from the Tatars: 
that name being fometimes given by the Chinefes to tie 
people in general inhabiting beyond the great wall; and 
at other times to certain particular hords, whereof fan* 
were called Tata of the waters (S), fituate almoft due nortfi 
4 of Korea ; others White Tata, of whom we are fpeaking. 
Their chief, Alakus, was a defcendant of the antieht Turtjp 
princes (T) ; and having had a very great efteem for Temujin, 
he detained the mefienger who came from Tayy&n Kb&n, anfl 
gave the Mogul prince notice of the propofal. Hereupoa bis 
brother Kanchekin, preffing him to take fpeedy and vigoroi*, 
meafures, he mounted his horfe ; and, followed by hischokdL 

n De la Croix, p. 6o,.& feq. 

(QJ In Abulghazi Khan, mentions S* Moguls, Q\ Mqfk 

Markats. of the water. 

(R) In Chincfe, A4a-u*tfe: _(T) Called, by the Cbim 

De la Croix fays, ne was Khan Tuque. They dwelt to tk 

of the Ankuts, or Unkuts, as north weft ofTurfan, and were 

Abulghazi Khan. In the text very formidable to the Cbhp 

of De la Croix the Karluh are themfelves in the fixth century, 

put in by fome miftake. as hath been related before, p* 

(S) Or Sui Tata. Ruhruquis 35. 


C.u Reign of JenghizKhaiu . 351 

fcldiers, marched to the mountain Hang-hay (U), where Toy- A. D. 
yen was incamped with his Naymans ; who, though much a I2 ° 4 
more numerous, were defeated, and their Khan (lain : on ^7*^"" 
which many hords declared for the viftor, who before were *£"? 
leftrained by fear. This happened in the year 1204 ; and r * 
next year Ttmujin began to make incurfioos on the territories 
ofthekiflgof Hya°. 

With regard to this new viftory, -the weftem^ Afiatie 
hiftorians tell us, that Jlakus, having fent Tayyan KharC% 
letter, containing all the particulars of the conspiracy, with 
the names of the before-mentioned Khans, to Tmujin ; this 
latter convened a council, in which he would have his eldeft 
fcn Jnji, otherwife called Tujbi, to aflift ; and, the defigns 
of the confederates being made known, war was refolvcd 
on (X). The army aflcmbled in the beginning of the year 
(Y) : foon after which Temujin began his march ; and, % 
taring pafied his own frontiers, came at length to the river 
Akay (Z). Where no troops appearing, to difpute the pat 
6ge, he was furprifced ; becaufe he muft have fuffered much,^ ^ •' 
1 had there been ever fo few to have oppofed him. Jemufta jQj^ M 
would have had Tayyan Khan go meet the enemy, and notj? a ;„ m 
wait their coming ; for that in fo doing he would prevent A. D. 
the Moguls from ravaging his country, and his own men 1204. 
from flying, by leading them far from home. But the Nay- 
man Kb&n, in/lead of hearkening to his advice, flattered him- 
self, that the farther the Moguls advanced, the lefs able they 
Would be to fight ; and, on the contrary, that his troops, 
heing in full ftrength, would eafily get the viftory. 

While he deluded himfelf with thefe vain imaginations, 
.die Moguls, who were well fupplied with provisions and 
jfcrage, approached his camp. But when his 1 officers brought 
wm word how formidable the enemy was, he began to re- 
pent that he had not followed the counfel of Jemuka ; who 
yet {hewed not the leaft difcontent, nor appeared lefs zealout 

• Gaubil, ubi fupra, p. 10, & feq. 

(U) A chain of mountains, fatigue of the former expedi- 
te moft eafterq part, in lat. tion : but that D art t lay Oljigan, 
S?° long, near 17* weft of Pe- or Bulay, Jenghiz. Kbdnt uncle 
ting. The chief mountain be- by the father's fide, offered to 
longing to it, is in lat. 46 50' furniih the whole army with 
W* x 4° 3^ weft. Gaubil. horfes of his own ; which obvi- 

(X) AbuTgbdzi fays, that the ated the objc&ion. 
«ads of tribes alleged, that (Y) De la Croix places this 

they were not in a condition to affair in IJej. 600, A. D. 1:03. 
undertake any thing, till their (Z) Now called Sibe, ac- 

tyrfes were recovered from the cording x^.BerMnk % 


for the fcaufe P. The two armies being in fight, and dravt 
up in order, prince Juji, and one of his uncles, Jiyiksr, 
-'began the fight, with great vigour: but Kq/bhik, Tayym 
KMn's fon, fuftained the (hock without giving grount 
Thefe two young princes, whom the love of glory equity 
inflamed, ftrove to fignaiize their {kill and valour. Tk 
brave refinance which the van-guards made on both fid% 
by degrees engaged the other corps, and brought on a ge- 
neral battle. The fight lafted from fun-rife to fun-fet, V" 
great obftinacy ; but at laft the Moguls, breaking the e 
mies ranks, put them to flight, and madd a terrible fiaogh* 
of them. Tayybn Khan, who performed all the parts of i 
good general, was, at- the beginning of the batfle, mortt^ 
Kufhluk wounded, and died foon after. Kujbluk, his' fon (A), n 
fi*'** T4toa Bey (B), fled, with all thofe who cfcaped the fori 
of the enemy. As for JemtAa, fpurred on by his hatred I 
the Grand Khan, he fignalized himfelf by a thoufand hook 
Jem&ka affions : but his rage made him venture too far, for hew 
executed. • taken prifoner ; and after the battle had his head firadt 

off (C), a$ the principal caufe of all the late diftraftkms. 

The Nay- The kingdom of the vanquished being thus fubdned tg 

mans re- Temujin, who brought under his obedience a vaft traft i 

dated* land, he returned to Karakorom ; where, during the wintt| 

his court was filled with ambafladors, who were fent by tUl 

mafters, either to .congratulate hhft, afk his prote&ion, 4 

Submit to his government. Almoft all the Kahn&k (D) tribi 

in the eaftern parts put themfclves under his protection: tat 

to the north, fome Khans, jealous of their liberty, and efll 

feme Mogul tribes, who were inoft out of his reach, reWb 

to afk his favour. Tukta Beg, who was once a very pora* 

* DelaCroix, p. 70, &feq. Abu'lghazi, p.8o>*fq> 

(A) According to the Cbinefe their prefent fovereign, *il 
hiftory, he was ion of Boyrak, caufed him to be drawn linfr 
Tayyans brother. from limb. 

(B) By JbuJgbazi Khan czll- (D) By thefe feem to be 
ed Toita Begin, who fled to meant the tribes who continoed 
Jbajrak, another Khan of the Pagans, or who were uotifr* 
Naymdns, and Tayyani eldeft bammedam, when our hiHorilH 
brother. wrote. De Lifle, in his map » 

(C) It appears not, from "the hiftory of Jngbi* Kbht 
Abu Igbazi Khan, p. 86, that he places them to the north of 4» 
was in this battle; but after lay river Sagbalian, or Jams « 
ynn Khans death he returned to Karakatay, where Karahtqfc 
his tribe : who, confidering him ver was. But that map is AD 
as -the caufe of the war, carri- of gtofs errors* 

cd him bound jo Jengbix KUm t - 

3 w 

t : .u Reign tfJcnghhKhto 

id prince, could not bear to fee the fudden grandeur of the 
pew emperor, ftrove all he could to foment their hatred 
jgainft him. On the other hand, Temtijtn, looking on him ( 
t$ his word enemy, refolded to turn his arms againft 'this 
Jhan, who had fo highly injured him. Accordingly, early 
Id the fpring (E), he fet out at the head of a powerful army 
jgainft the Merkits (or Markats). 

TXJKTA Bey was not infenfible of the provocations heW-Mer- 
td given Temujtn : yet his envy flattering him with hopes of kits de~ 
Kcefs one time or other, he alfo made great preparations oifeated. 
hur; and was joined by fome Tanjuts (or Tayjuts), with 
rince Kajbluk, But when he heard that Temujtn approach- 
d his capital city Kq/bin, with an army, the like of which 
pas never feen before in Moguli/i&n, his heart failed him; 
pd he, with his eldeft fon, fled to Boyruk, Tayyan Khan's 
rother, to whom Kajbluk, his nephew, had already retired 
or fhelter 9. 

[ The Grand Khan by this means found none in the field 
m oppofe him. However, the city of Ka/bin (F) feemed re- 
vived to Hand a long fiege : but although, at firft, the inha- , 
ts made a vigorous refiftance, yet they, were in a fhort 
obliged, to furrender; and Temujin, having put all to 
(word who had been in arms againft him, razed the 
After this he took an oath of fidelity from all the 
of Kajbin, as well as others of the Merkit tribe ; and 
the Khans whom he pardoned fwpre to obey him. 
The Grand Khan, having finiihed the conqueft of Mogul- Mi/it*} 
Mb, returned to his capital Karakorom ; where, refleftingrrgwAi- 
lathe vaft number of his acquifitions, he judged it proper ****** 
Id regulate his empire. With this view he called a general **ej. ^°H 
dyet, which he appointed to be held on the firft day of fpring *' ^* 
fte next year, when the fun entered Aries; to which were l2 °S* 
lummoned all the great lords, both Mogul and Tatar, In 
like interim, to eftablifti goodorder in the army, he divided his 
fridiers into feveral Tomans, Hezarehs, Sedehs, and Dehehs; 

1 Abu'lk. ap. De la Croix, p. 74, & feq. 

(£) De la Croix places this in weft borders of China, to which 

the fpring of the year \l 4. it feems to be near: fince, p. 

(F) It is not eafy to fix the 91, Ard:jk y in the borders of the 

fitc of this city, p. 92 *nd 371 . Naymans and Merkit, was near? 

The country of Tangut is faid Tangu/ ; and Kamfion (which is 

t to have borne that name. De known to be Kan-cht<w, in the 

Mjle, in his map prefixed, places province of Shen-Ji t in China J, 

*fe to the fouth of the Nayman was the capital QtTar.gut. 
Country ; but far from the north- 

Mod.Hist* Vol IV. A a that / 


Wfitry 0/^ Mogul or MungjT&^/Vf . B, Ify 

tfutos, bodies of ten thoufand, one thoufaod, one hundred, 

*nd of ten, men : with their refpeftive offices* ali fubordi- 

1 nate to the generals who commanded the Tomans \ and thefe 

wete to aft under one of his own fons. He next turned his 

thpught to making new laws ; whereof he ordered a memorial 

to be drawn up, which he communicated to his privy-coundl, 

before he efpofed it in the general dyet. 

Temijin A T kngfk tne day °f holding it being come, the princes of 

ntfaUidi the blood and great lords met at the place appointed, drefied 

in white. Then the Grand Khan, clothed like the reft, fitting 

down on his throne, with his crown on his head, was compB- 

xhented by the whole aflembly, who wtfhed the continuanceof 

his health and prosperity. After this they confirmed the Megd 

• empire to him and his fucceflors ; adding all thofe kingdom* 

and nations which he had fubdued, the defendants of whole 

vanquifhed Khans were deprived of all right or tide to any 

of them. When he had thanked them for thefe marks of 

love and refpecl, he declared his resolution to add to the 

antient laws fome new ones, which he commanded that they 

fliould obferve ; and which we have inferted at the cad a 

his reign r . 

A, T>; After this, in the tenth month of the year iao6, th$ 

1206. princes of the family of Temfijln, the cliiefs of hords, aai 

md*c- generals of the army, aflembled at the fource of "the river, 

*b**uleg*do nonm All the troops were divided into nine bodies, each of 

which having fet up a pavilion and difplayed a ftandard, 

, theyacknowleged Temijin for their fovereign, by this genoal 

cry, Cbinghiz Kohan(G). After which he nominated Mutd 

and Porcbi his two chief generals and prime minifters. Fn» 

this event the Chinefe hiftory commences the empire of the 

Mongol (or Mongl) conqueror \ ' 

AB W LGHAZ I Khan, conformable to the Chinefe hiflo- 
rians, gives Temujin the empire and name of Jenghlz Khk 
at the lame time : but De la Croix places thofe events three 
years afunder ; the firft in 1 202, juft after the defeat and 
death of Vang Khan (in which year Ahfflghazi places both), 
the latter in 1205. They likewife relate them with different 
circumftances. With regard to Temujin being acknowlegd 
fovereign, Abfflghazi Khdn only fays, that, in the year 599* 

r Miikond, Konda-Mir, Abu'l. ap. De la Croix, p. 76; 
& feq. • Gaubil, ubi fupra, p. 11, & feq. 

(G) In the French, Tching- afcribe extraordinary qoa/iri«> 

Ji JJe. Which is not a Mongol and make its appearance the 

Word \ but a found exprefling prefage of good. lock. 
the crv of a bird, to which they 

£ !• Reign of Jchghlz Khftn; 355 

tailed by the Moguls Tong&z, or the hog, Jengbtz Rh&n be- A. D. 
ing fall forty years old, all the tribes of Moguls who had 1206. 
fubmitted to Mm, acknowleged him for their Khan in the ^V^* 4 
country of Naumankura 1 ; where at that time he refided t'*****' - 
oa which occafion he gave has *fubje&s a great feaft. Dc la ral v et * 
Croix ehlarges much on the .fuhjeft ; and informs us, that > 
Temujin laid hold of the opportunity which his yiftory over 
Vang Khdn afforded, to ftrengthen his intereft with the 
people ; who, gained by his eloquence, and the encomiums 
if his . friends, refolved to chufe him their Grand Khan* 
The Khans who were already in his intereft importuned the 
other Khans to yielfl to the requeftof Tanujin, whofe pre- 
fents were ftill more prevalent. Notice having been given to 
the abfent Khans, of what was agreed on in this great aflem- 
Hy, tliey repaired to Dilon Udak, in the province of Teka 
Mogul (H), to perform the ceremony of his inauguration. 
There Tem&jtn, placing himfelf on a plain feat, fet for him fir Grand, 
upon an eminence, harangued the people with his ufual££«ff °f 
etoquenee. After which they fet him on a black felt carpet 
fpread on the ground y and then, the perfon who was ap- 
pointed to give the peoples fbffrage pronounced aloud their 
plcafure : firft he told him, " that the authority x>r power* ' 
M which was given him, came from God ; who would not 
~« f fair to profper him, in cafe he governed his fubjefts well : 
44 but that, if he abufed his power, hefhould render himfelf 
" miferable, as the black felt, on which he fat, intimated to 
v him." After this remonftrance, feven Khans lifted him up, • 
vkh an air of ceremopy, and bore him to a/ throne, which 
Was prepared for him in the miHft of the aflembly. Thea 
tljey proclaimed him emperor, with the title of Grand Khan, . 
or khaan, of all the Mogul tribes ; and bowed their knees 
i&ot times before him, in token of obedience : after which 
" the people performed the fame ceremony, accompanied with 
acclamations of joy. 

The new emperor promifed on his part to govern them Moguls 
trith as much juftice as mercy; and defend them again!* all and Ta» 
their enemies; always to procure their good and eafe : to t * r »» 
acquire glory for them, and make their names knowii to all 
the earth. As he had much reafon to commend the S&* 
Moguls, or Tatars, he declared* that, in reward of their 

* Apti'LGHAzi Khan, p. 78. 

, -(H) To make this agree with the foarce of the Onon ; and in- 
t flic foregoing Cbtnefe account, deed the country of the Moguls 
b\U* Udak and Teka Mogul feems to have been there- 
smft have been fituate about sbouta. • * 

A a % Cervices, 



Hijtory of the Mogul $ rMungt Ernpirf. K HE 
fervices, he would join their name in his title,' by ftilhig 
himfelf Grand Khan of the Moguls and Tatars. When the 
ceremony was over, he diftributed prefents, both to great and 
fmall. He likewife , made magnificent entertainments (I); 
which, according to the cuftom of thofe nations, continued 
for feveral days together. After this he difiniiTed the 
aflembly u . 
Named Concerninc the name of JengMz Kh&n, AbtHlghm 
"enghlz Kh&n relates, that, during the ceremony of the inauguration, 
'bib, one Kokza (or KokjaJ, fon of Menglijb Jzka (or IjkaJ, by the 
"firft venter, father-in-law of Temujin, came to him, and de- 
clared, " that he came from God to tell them, that from 
" thenceforth he fhould take the name of Jenghtz (K), and 
• c order his fubjefts to call him Jenghtz Khan" (L). He 
foretold at the fame time, that all his pofterity fhould be 
Khans, from generation to generation. This Kokza ufed to 
go bare-footed in winter, and very thin of cloaths : but as he 
fuifered no injury by it in his health, as others would have 
done, they furnamed him the image of God. He gave oat, 
that a white horfe came to him, from time to time, which 
carried him up to heaven, where he converfed with the Deity*. 
Many believed that Kokja was fet on by TemAjin to play this 
game. However that be, from this time forward he a/Turned 
the name of JengMz Khin; which we fhall ufe for thi 
Ij a reve* Towards the end- of the year 1205 a dyet was caflci 
btion. wherein the Mogul lords, who were in the fecret of the pre* 
tended revelation, fupported it fo ftrongly, that the Moguk 
every-where gave credit to it; and already looked upon all 
the reft of the world as belonging, by divide right, to thdr 

• D£ la Croix, p. 61, ic fcq. * Abu'lfaraj, M»« 

fcOND,'ap. eund. p. 04. Abu'lghazi, p. 78. 

(I) At this feaft, according he named him Jenghtz Kbn 

to Abulghazi Khan, he afliimed Tubt Tangri j but Mtrkond and 

the name of JengMzKbdn, at others fay, Tubi Tangri (oral 

the inftance of Kokza. D'Herbeiot, p. 379, write* it 

(K) Our royal author, ex- Tubi Tangri) was the name of 

?laining this name, fays, that the prophet. De la Croix fays, 

'in, in the 2%«/language, fig- thatiW/riW calls tiimBarTu- 

nifies great; and the termina- gri. This fignifies the fin tf 

lion gbiz. making the fuperla- QoJ, and feems defigned foraa 

tive; Jinghtz is as much as to explanation of Tube Tangri; 

fay the moft great. De la Croix which perhaps, after all, toi- 

fcys, it figures the Khan of fies the image of God, and was 

Khans. Kokja % % funume. 
(LJ Abulfaraj. p. 281, faya, 

Grand Khan. In this- perfuafion they breathed nothing but A. D, 
war; and even thought it a crime againft heaven in thofe. izo%. 
princes who refilled, in defence of their own dominions*. v -"V"*^ 

But to return to the Chine/e hiftorians. The.year i2o6Boynik 
vas farther memorable for the intire defeat of Pologu (or Khan 4%~ 
Bayrak), brother of Tayyau, Khsin of the Naymans. His (oa/eated. 
(M) Kujhluk, and Toto (or Tokta BeyJ t lord of the Markits, 
retired to the river Irtijb; where the former had ftill a 
powerful party: but, ia 1208, Chinghiz Khan, having at- A. D. 
tacked them both, flew Toto with his own hand, and Kvjb- I2 °*» 
hik fled into the kingdom of the Kitan (N). This vidtory 
put him in a condition to fubdue the reft of the hords, which 
flill ftood out \ . 

The Perjian hiftorians fay, that Boyrak $ being purfucd tt 
was taken, and put to death in the camp; After this, ac*. 
cording to Ab&lghazi Khan, Kujhluk and Tokta Beg retired 
to the river Irtijb. But De la Croix, who quotes Mfrk<md % 
Kdndamir, and AbMkayr* for his authorities, fays, they re- 
created to ArSfb, .a fortrefs on the frontiers of their refpec* 
tfve territories. in the tribe of DfUrkit ; where they defigned 
to recruit their fcattered forces, with fome others who were 
fcft behind: but that, two years after (O), Jenghtz Khdn r 
to prevdnt their having time to fortify tjiemfelves, marched 
againft thent In tbc midfl of winter., Thofe princes, amazed, 
at hi* fudden ^rjriyal,. and not being ftrong enough to oppofc 
him, retired under the fortrefs of Ardijb : but Jenghiz Khan, 
for ail tfie rigour of the feaion, and difficult roads, foon ap« 
peared before that place, and forcing them to come to an en- 
gagement, quickly put them to flight, Tukta Beg was killed 
& the aftlon : tut Kujhluk, with fome expert foldiers, efcapedKufliluk 
toTurkeJlan, where he was kindly received* by Gurkhdn {P),efcaf*s 9 
a very powerful monarch; who, touched with the misfqr- 
ifc&es'of this young prince, gave him his daughter in mar-, \ 

: y Da La Crojx, p. 90. • Gaubil, ubi fupra, p. 12. 
• Mirkond, Abu'lkayr. ap, De la Croix, p. 91, & fe<^ 
Abu'lohas&i, p. 84, & fe<J. 

" [U\ The weftern^farfr wrf- coming originally from Kara* 

tet* make him the fon of Tay* kit ay. 

ja* Khdn, as has been obferved (O) This is placed in the 

ia a former note. year 1 207 by De la Croix* 

(N) This muft be underftood (P) He vyas fovereign both of 

<* &e Kitan fettled in Littk the Wefiem Kitan, or Karaki* 

%M&rid\ of whom an account fay arts, and Turkefiin; andgt* 

^1 be given hereafter. They nerally refided at Kdftfar. 

*WC called tbrakitayansy as 

Aa 3 Of* 

35$ Hiftory of /J* Mogul arMungl Empire. B.IH* 

A. D. Our readers cannot but be furprifed at the great (filagree j 
1208. ment among the. authors befort us, concerning the place of 1 
L- — v"* J attion ; fome making it to be at a river beyond the regions of 
**'ftf** the Moguls ; others at a fortrefs at a great diftance from | 
r*6ifi$a. t h ence> not faj. f rom t h e borders of Tangut and Kitay. I 
Whether thofe who aflert the latter as faft (for we take the I 
concurrent teftimony of AbPlglyazi Khan, and' the Cbtntfe \ 
. hiftorians, to be a proof that* the Ittijb was the fcene of , 
aftion), had it from the memoirs of Puttd,- or finding only ^ 
bare name of a place, fupplied the want of a defcriptioa bjf 
conjeftures of their own, we will not venture abfolutdy to 
determine : but this latter looks to be the cafe, fince Artyi • 
and Irtifb arc written with the fame Mogul -or even Atakk 1 
characters: and De la Croix does not cite FadiaBak, who' s 
wrote his hiftory from the memoirs and affiftanc* of P*lil% 1 
which feems to fhew, that he fays aothing to fuppart tto < 
matter in qtteftion. - " 

Joyghe- JENGHIZ Kh&n> in his approach to the Irtifb> pallel 
rati and near the habitations of the Joygherats and Karliks : the firft ' 
, Karliks fobjeft to Konaka Beghi\ the latter, to Arjtitn Khan? who* 
ftbmit. not being in a condition to oppofe his forces, both fobmmrf 
to him, and conduced him to the camp of K'utfduk ao£ 
Tukta Beghu In his return from this expdditibrt he fouH ' 
moned Urus Indl, chief of the Kerghis t whtf likewife fui# 
©itted, and fent him a fhungar, or flio&kar, faraprdbn*: 

C H A P. 11 

JcnghiZ Khan invades the Kingdoms of Hy£ 
Kitay, and TurkefUn. \ . 

TengMz '" I ^HE Grand Khan, having fijii/hed the conqueft JL 
khan l «. I Moguliftdn, or that part of Tartary inhabited bj- 
*adtt ~.. the various tribes of people comprehended under the 

name of Moguls and Tatars, (extending from the borders of 
what is called Eaftern Tatary to mount May in the weft), 
began to think of inyading the countries out of Tartar} 
to the fouth. Which, unlike the defarts he had already fob- 
dued, where no works of ftone appeared to flop the progrek 
of an enemy, were full of fortified cities, and ftrong places, 
ms well as inhabitants. A confideration which at once pre- 
sents to the reader's mind the difficulty of the enterprize, to 
people as: yet, it prefumed, unexperienced in the »t 

* Abu'lchazi Khan, p-85, & fcf* 

of taking towns ; and fhews the genius of thfr prince ■who A. D. 
formed fe -grand a-deiign. 1209. 

''JEfr&H'te Khan, who, as hath already been obfervcd/ — i r * ' -*^ 
had, in the year 1205, began to make incurfion$ upon the'*f?J# ,f * 
ifrntdries if the Mug {br emperor) of f^^ ; in 1209, at-^ *v3f* ' 
ticked Ms «d#tfrihions, with deiign to reduce them tinder hir 
obedience x but, after forcing feveral pofts near die great 
tfaH, Li-g&h-tfven> to fave his capital, which JvngMz KhAtt 
tfa* preparing to attack, fubimtied to become his tributary, 
tt will be related hereafter*.* 

J Almost fttthe-firme time that* prince conqueredthe coun- 
tries of Kre\3t wiAKd/bin ; whithlaft nanie, we are told, for- 
merly the region of Tangut bore b i but wh^re thofe coun* \ ' ~'- 
tries fay is hard to determine. If any fudi there were, they 
sfmft, by the circumftances of the fyiftory, have been in the' 
neighbourhood of Kampiott, either belonging to the province 
rf Shett'Jl, or on itt borders. 

The fame year, Pnrcbuhorte TOfei (A), prince of Ig^ThelgCm 
ffiled'/<#/h£ (fe), flew the fStan (C) officers, who were* in rus«w#4 ** 
dty ; and', going in peribn, put himfelf under JengUx 
KhatCs protection : who gave him a daughter hi marriage*. 

The occafion of this proceeding' is related by the Perfiari 
ififtorians. They tell us, that I&Mt, Khan of the Oygkn^ 
or Igirs, though a very powerful prince, was yet tributary 
to GurkM, king of YufkeftAn\ who ufualry kept a deroga , 
atewig the Oyg&tf, to gather bis tribute. Shtrwakem, who 
at that time was his officer, crafting Aorethan his matter's 
due, the prince, on the people's complaints, fpoke to him. But 
the other, inflead of forbearing, threatened IdiMt : who, ' to 
revenge the mfulf, had Mm aflaffinated ; and, then to flcreen 
himfelf from Gurkbarts refentment, fent to aflc the Grand 
Khan's protection. The envoys overtook Jetightz Kh&n in 

1 In the hffkery of the ffya and Si/ax, h De iA Croix, fC 
9«» * Gavbil, p T 13. 

(A) Ab&lghaxi Khan- names. parting being fent, and k£t 9 tfo 

Km Banetjii IMkntKhm* p.. j#*W/* or fouL . Abfftfkrajy p. • .. , 

3& a8j, writes Mlkub j that is, the ' - * * * ' 

t(B) Abulkair and Abu If ar a} lord of the empire. 
fay, that Idikut fignifiei the (C) Thefe were the Wefitrn- 

rtigning prince* but Abu/gbazi Kitdn, or Lyan, fettled to the 

Xbdn explains it, a free man, eaft of Kdjhgar, then fubjelt to 
**t fubjeS to any- body, ' So he' Gnrbbdn, Jking of Tyrktfdx and 

feysiit figoifies m-the language* th&Kifem; whole country wa«* 

of the Uzbeks : but fent by the from them called Kmrmkitay* 
fait* in the Turkijb. Idi im- 


Hi/lory of tU Mogul qt Mungl Empire, B. UC 

the country of Tangut, where h<j was gone to reduce Ski* 
dq/iu; who, with fome other Khans, h^d revolted from him ^ 
■'among the reft: was the Khan of £rekir, whofe territories^ 
ifitirely ruined* , . ' ' ',.*"'*: 

n^jwV to The -flfogw/ emperor, glad of an opportunity tp igk* 
JengKiz Gurkbdn uneafy, who was never a friend to him, jpd k^ 
JUuui. now made an alliance with Kafblyk, received >tty Oygurfa 
tgur) envoys much better than otherwife he would \m^ 
done; and fent them back with two perfons, to aflhretbd^ 
Khan of his friend/hip" and prote&ion. Ifik&tj cbanac^ 
with thisgenerous behaviour, ftrait went himfelij wkhcoKj 
prefents, to offer his fervjee to fenghik &hm .: whowoem^ 
Bej. 6e>7.hkn with, affection ; and afterwards, td reward his fiddJqL 
' A. D. gave him one of his daughters in marriage. Gurkbh^ 
1210. die news of Sbuwakem's death, had threatened IdMt vkh 
fire and fword ~. but, hearing he was become the Grwfl 
Khan's fbn-in-law, he fmothered his rage, fof fey of drawj 
ing the Mogul .forces agftinft himfelf d . ""'/ " 
Tie* \IDI : kUTy&s of an anuent family '*^mong the cbie&« 
twntry *£ e te& r ta'dx? f° r ' above. 500 years ftanding. *They k 
Vtfcnbtd. pbfleffed the country where the:' §elinga rifes. In prbeds c 
" time they became matters of the country of Kau-chang x Igb) 
or Hyatt-chew^ being the faijie with that of Turf an, inLttt 
tiukharia. The Cbinefe geographers ^gree, that the coon* 
pi Igur (Vigur> or OygurJ, was fituatcd where Tuzf&n m 
ftands ; but feem unacquainted with its extent, 'The lam 
authors farther inform us, that; the fgurs. undejftood th 
Cbinefe characters, and had. the books ox Kong-fu-tfe, or Km 
fufeus :■ that they h6rioured, the fpirit of heaven, had vm 
Bonzas among them, and followed, the Cbinefe kiiend&r. Th 
chief city, where Mfiut refided, was calle3 ffo-i 
1 ruins of which ftill remain, feven or eight leaj 
eaft of Turf an c . ' To the north of this laft city 
iig> which &U ' the oriental writers make the capital of M 
Jgurs ; whofe territories, according to Ahu\lghazi JChto, Otf 
tended to the Irtifb : for they were divided into three 
branches ; fome living* in towns, others in the fields f . 
T^tfKitan JENGHIZ Kb4n, being, now a*, peace with all W 
entire, neighbours, and ftrehgthened by the accef&on of fo maflf 
-.'■' princes, who either ftibmitted to, or joined in league *Wi-. 
Mm, refolved to fliake off the yoke of the Kin \ to whonj 

' \"* y " \. •" • ' j 

* Mjfcjotf d, Abu'lkate* ap. Dc la Croix, p. 93, k ftq-.-j 
Abu'lch. p. 87, ' \ CAPBiii p. 13, 38, k 40. * A*v\c*'-\ 

p. 35- •" - •'■''..'■■■ ,v •" < 

0Lt, • - RAgn of JcnghlzKh&nl jg| 

at this time the Moguli were tributary (D), as they had been A. D* 
before to the Kitan. Sometime before. the Mungk- (E) and* mo. 
^ther hards of Tataty had adcnowkged that prince for* '*Y^*' 
jheir fovereign ; 7ay4o, emperor of the Tfta, fent Tong*tfi, a wf^ 1 * 
place of the Hood, to the city of Tfing-cbevJ (now called ^* 
fbikM-botu**), to receive from them the annual tribute. 
On thk occsJkm Tong-ifi made flight of Tem&jtn, and ad- 
mfed framing fome pretence to put him to death. - But ther: 
pnpcFor rejected the propofal ; which coming to Ttmtftoi'i- 
f*rs, he refolved to be revenged on the author of it* 

WANG-TEN-KING, emperor of the Kin, dying io- 
the tenth month, Tong~tfi, who facceeded him, lent, tjiefol*' 
ftewing year (ia jo), an officer to order Jenghtz Khlto to pay* 
rthe tribute. ; That prince demanded, whom he came fwm^ 
ijpd being told, from Tong-tfi, then emperor, he abfohtfely>//tf/h tj 
i lgfafed : faying, he was himfelf a fovereign, and jvould never ^ tri~ 
ttknowlege Tong-tfi for his matter. It is /aid, added the**/** 
Shan, by way of fneer, that the Chinefe ought to have- the *• 
) Jpn of heaven for their mdfier'; but, at prefent, they know not 
i krv> to chufe n man. Having fpoken thefe words, he mourned; . : v 
\ )js horfej and rode towards the north. Tong-tji wasitrangety ; 
\ fettled at th<fe cutting expreffions. Jenghtt Kh&n had other: 
hijafons to be difpleafel with the :Kin: .Among the reft,: 
fCting-fai-bay, a prince of his houfe, had been (lain by them/. 
J'm 1206 ; to revenge which injury (F) the Mungh waited for. 
I an opportunity : befides, their Khan was told, Tong^tfi in- 
f tended to have him feized, Thefe things determined him 
'to go and encamp -along Ae Kerulon; where he aHembled With m 

\ a formidable army, compofed of veteran troops. From thence^*'*' *r*9 

\ • . • . ; t t : . • • * . - r 

% See before, p. 282. 

(D) In tlie tenth month of the pukiliay among the predeceflbr* 

yearii47 > theemperorofthe^/>r, of Jenghix Khan, *s given by 

unable to fubdue the Mongols, Jbujgbazi Khan, and other ori- 

• was obliged to make peace with ental authors, 

them. Their chief was then (E) They are always called 

Mopukiliay, and called himfelf Mongu in the Ckimfe hiftery ; 

emperor. This fhews, that fince which fliew's, that the word' 

then the power of the Mongols Mogul had ohtained only in the . 

kad been weakened; for the welt of Afia. 

liftory' pf Jengbi* Khan fays (F) The vitfbmAfiatir writer ; 
pofitively, that, in his time, . mention injuries in general re* 

they paid tribute to the Kin, ceived from ' Altua Khan, but 

G**w- hift. Dt Gentcbis, p. 20. none ia particular* 

There it no fuch prince as Jok- '"' 

$6* H ijl cry of dx Mogul crMun&Esnpirt. B.Iit 

A;D;. hev<rfder<ki Cbepe. Noym (G), and r*& Kohay (ft); tcfrtiaftll 
Van* towards the borders: of Sban-fi and Pe-che<Ji: who; havmg 
Vy ^^ p bferved the coiratfcy, find made fome fpoils, returned to tto, 
main army *. 

The Kin h*d confidcrable forces in Ljfau-tong; which *j# 

the bulwark of their empire. In the feme province, arf- 

coirn tries Spending on it, there fBll- remained aifo a graft 

number of Ki-tin, and many princes .of the family of ttef 

£?4#, whom they had deprived of die T -empAre. But as Tag-* 

*/ST grew jealous of them: fince the rife of Jenghiz KhJbt, h* 

. tptnmanded double the number of 'Nyu-che (or Kin J femtfia 

to be >put in ail pktei where they were fettled, in order 10 

Myatch their motions. After this precaution, which gavetfi 

general dHbontent to the Kit An, die emperor caufed notice to* 

, •• be given every-where^ -that the Mungh intended to attach 

htm, raifed powerful armies, and ported troops in aU tte 7 

fortified places on both fides of the great wall, from d* 

Wbtngrbo to Lyau-tong* .: 

invades Jw'the fpring, and ftrft month of <the year ilf I, Arjih\ 

the Kin. ffcinoe of the Kartukr (I) in the-weft, came with a body oft 

" troops, to offer his fervice to Jemghtz : Khfax •-and Idtkit, 

prince bf Jgtar, to confult the prefervation of his country; 

,The army began its march fouthwards, the beginning of the* 

fipond month : on which Tong-tfi fent to make propofak of 

peatt (K) ; but they were rejefted. Chepe with the cboiceft 

r • * Gaubil, p. jj, &feq. 

(G) He was one of the Af*- of the Lyau, whofe name wat 
guls beft generals. The. tide of TWu. . Gaubil. 
Noyan (fo alfo it is written in (I) So we explain Jfiia* 
Abulghazi Khans hiftory, but prince of A4a-lu\ which -Jat 
Nentian, by \De U Croix), is v word Gaubil 'was at a Iofs aboot. 
gfren only to princes of the This Arjlan, Khih of the Ker* 
reigning family, fons* in-law of - Inks, or Karliks, is mentioned 
Khan*, or great lords, who are * by Ab&lgbazi Khan and De U 
jcftieife of hords. Gaubil. Croix, as. repairing to Jtnghh 
(H) TeluKshay (written alfo * Khan about the fame time with 
Tiiu Kolaj, perhaps* by miftake), ; Idikut.. » 
was a great mandarin, or officer, (K) AhiPlghazi Khan relates, 
of the Kin emperor ; who, be- ■ that Jenghl% Khan fent to fum- 
ing fent to fettle fome affairs mon Altun Khan to fubmitj 
with Jeng&z Khan, was fo and that this prince, falling id- 
chawned with him, that he en- to a paflion, faid'to the ambaf- 
tered into his fervice. He was' fador,' 4 ?©* believe, perhaps,?* 
a prince of the imperial family have to do With one ofjctrfetff 
. - Tvki4 

\ii » Rdgkdf JenghfeKBiru jfcfr 

I *the .troop* fortcd the pofts of the great mall (L), to A.JX 
ie wash-weft and northreaft of Tay~tong-f* (M^.vUia m,< 
jtas feiicd .tbe Jbctrafrea without the barrier. r M&h&& K '"•V ll »d 
ok the pofts aljont:.Pa!*-#zJt, and Ten-king, in Pe-cbe4u 
iapar furprifod the. garrifon of Ku-yang^quan (N), an im* , 
Htant place : and Jenghiz Kh&n defeated a coaftderahle 
)djr of the. Afa, near Swen-wharfA; which city he- toofc^ 
ithtbe fartreflesjahout Tay-tong-fA, thttrjcaHed Siding, oq 
v wfiern ctntrt, all in Shan-ft :. in fhort, the Mungl$ *ndo 
cnrfions as far as the capitaL . i 

.HA&AR Whard**, prince of the Honkirat* '{or ^KimJte^Wr Kit2& 
to), Jengblz JGMaVbrqther-inJaw, who. had bee* feht tof™***. 
le'&onders of Lym-tang (O), to found the pulfc* of tha 
rffe lords,, and attack the Jfr/i on that fide*: found thtf 
rinee 7>/« Lyew-ko at the head of an . hundred" tboilfatli 
Ite, ready to declare in favour of <his matter. Jn'tfefthfttmy > * ' ♦; * 
[Ids fincerity, that prince, amending the mountain ISft (P)y 
mfice^a. white hbrfdand fadack ox, broke an! arrow, and 4 

ade an oath* ta be faithfal to JenghH Kb&rt: Lytw^i ' \ 
to was o£ the royal famfyrof the Lyatt, a good officer^ ' s: 

f ■'..:''. . * . . , . . 

Math, tribes. Jbflgb* hift. ' (OV DtJa-Croi*, p.*oc*feyi>J 
p*fc, jfec. p. 8$* Or>s ft? ./* » JewghteJ&an font three, of hir 
kwur has it, T&fiMaJUt fretts ( fons tQ attack JE&7V, which fa* 
fmif hi thought me *,Tork, '- caH$i^W ; but itjoauft be>Lj4tu-. 
r s Mogul* Hid.. Gtngb, p.- /<wg, as well fronj the circum-* 
po, • ,' . * fiances of the lyftory, as th* 

'(L) %othj&ttIgbaziKhaz,[pi ddejiption,, of it, which* he, 
% and De ia Croix, p. 101, ' %w& hom faJ!allab'\ viz. that 
to, that Jlaktfs, Kh&h of the * it <ibar jlivate to\ the north of 
Igdtt, or Afikut, opened one ' China, and had' the fea m tie 
t the great gates of the wall, * eaft : that *kt country contained 
f which he had the enftody, to about 700.000 inhabitants ; and 
btghizKhau. •> ' ; • had been always governed by its 

(M) In the province of Shan- own lings* /who were Jomet4tn:s 
{ in China, lac. 4b 15 ' long, mafiers <?/*China (ratberlLrtZy)i 
L 1 5' weft Oyf Pe-bingV Nbte, which, in its turn, <wasmafter of 
% at the end of the name of a //. That Lyau-tong is J&W*, ap 7 1 
fece, denotes a city of* the firft pears further, from what is faid^' 
*ik in China*; chehv, one of. p. icS, : that Mukli Qcydnk (who^ 
Re ftcond ; . and hyen, one of 1 is MuhafiJ was. lent to- Kurje^ 
jiff third rank : quan, a fort- with k* b'Q'dy* of froofs, to hm- # 
jftf.W, a gate or ftrait of^^dcr the rbfees of that, country 
pc mountains. ' to )o\xijf It uv Khun. 

(N) A fortrefs nine leagues' ' (?) According to the Ckinefi 
jorth-north eaftofP^i/»»;and- geographers, 45 or 56 leagues 
p-ting is three or four north of north of Mugden, capital of 
wjojiig.yuun, GaubiL ' tyau-tong. Gaubil* 

Hijtory if lit Mogul or l/ktp^£mpire. RUE i 

and Had many vaf&ls; provoked at the indignities vhkh tho 
Kitdm daily recehed from the Km, took arms, as foon as htf 
heard that the Mmgls intended to. make -war upon that. 
The Khan, to prevent Lyew-io from bring drawn off agrf^j 
made him very advantageous offers, and' conferred on \o& 
the title of king ( Q_) ; fiarniflring Wha-then and Ckpi vn* 
good- troops, .to aifift him. Lym-ho ordered himfelf to M 
proclaimed king where*ever he came; anil, having 
many places; marched fcgainft the Kin army, over wbkh 
obtained a fignal vifiory. Hereupon many Kit An lords 
off thetr yoke, and feveral cities fohmkted to him. 
whkh he reduced Tvngrking (R), or Lyaw-yang, a city 
Ly*u»tong. . Thi* great fuccefs fwelled the reputation of 
»ev Kitm king ; and: made the Kin raite numerous forces, 
feve that province 1 . 
Jefightz Iw 12*2, JengbtztCh&n fnbdued Whan<hev> (S) ; and 
Khan h<&, the forixefle* without the gnea* wall, near the V 
mvoundid: \p mi When, the Mttngls had reduced ail the ftroog 
A. D. between that city and the river, they prepared to befiegp fi 
in*- tpng-f4. To prevent them, Ymg-tfi lent HAjaM, or Xi 
fy* f and Wan-yen, at the head of 300,000 men. The 
Iff advice of M&b&li, marched to ntoet this army, 
wafc encamped near the mountain Tti4{T), where they 
' attacked by the Mungh ; who, notwtthftanding the fn 
crity : of- their numbers, -defeated thfcrrr. to autiimn he 
vested Yay-ting-f4 ; where, although' the governor H% 
fled, he met with more refinance than he expected. At 
having in a vigorous attack loft many men,- and been 
gerouify wounded by ah arrow, he raifed the fiege, and 
ttf ed'into Tatary : after wfeicU the Kin retook Paztgan? $* 
%>ba-fu, and even K6-yang-quan, 

1 Gav]bii>, p. 14, & feq. 

' (Qj That is, Khan, orVaag, 
ive prefume, of Lsau-tonv. 

\{_R) That is," the eaftera 
court, lat. 4i°zo f long. 6°. 56' 
eaft tf'Pe-kfag. In the map of 
the Jefuits it is placed on the 
iforth fide of the river *Bakfa> 
which falls Into the tyau ; and 
i/- a diflinlt town from Ljau- 
yang, which ftes three miles to 
the fouth, and was then a great, 

(S) A city of Tatary, north- 
*ft of /W/*£, between the 

42d and 43d degree of lad 
now deftroyed. But, p. 
Qaubil . more jnftly places 1 
almoft north of Peking, 
north* north- weft. It feems 1 
have been PorQ-botun, 
ruins are feen about 
miles, fouth by weft, fromt 
of Shan-tu y one of the ; 
capitals of T#tary. See befort^ 
p. 281. 

(T) Seven or eight leag 
weir, or weft- north -weft, 
Swen-mba-fi. GaukiL 


L fEHGHlZ Kh&n, who, in this difgraoe, was comforted A. D. 
|fy the news he received from Lyau*torrg, being cured of Ms ' a * S- 
■pund, re-entered Gfriiia in 121 3 ; recovered £vjen-w&a-fA { ****?* 
jk! Pau-gan ; defeated an army of the Aj«, after a btoody^?^ ** 
fettk (U), near Wbay-lay (X); and one of his generals took ^ y £> # 
pLpe-kew (Yj* After this bottle, the Khan, not able to en- J211* 
pr Pe-che4i by Ku*yang-quan> forced the fortrefs of Tfe-kitv* 
1, and took /-r Artv and Chb-cbev) (Z). However, £**/<%, 
return from Lyau-tcng, patted on to Nan-Arm (a place 
importance), and took K&-yang-quan y which is not far 
. On the other fide, in the feventh month, a great 
was fought at the mountain U-v*bey4in y near $>uan+ 
\ghyen (A) ; wherein the iCi/i were overthrown, with a 
it (laughter. 

In the eighth month, H6jak& 9 generaliflimo of the KinThetm- 
ips, who had been cafhiered in 1212, for bad ferrices,/*™*"*^ 
reftored, feized on the perfon of Tong-tfi; and,- foon'"** 
, caufed him to be murdered. The true caufe of the 
les which attended the Mungls was, that general's 
d to thofe who were the occafioh of his difgrace (the 
before) ; which lafted two months. After being re- 
lied, he was ordered to encamp to the north of the court : 
\ inftead of endeavouring to fkop the enemies progrefs, 
ided nbthing but hunting, nor regarded the emperor's 
er. At length he marched with his army to the imperial 
\ under pretence of preventing a confpiracy which he had 
covered. Being arrived before it, he fent horfemen to the 
ice, to cry aloud, that the Mungls were at the city gates : he 
It put to death fuch as he fufpecled ; and, having difpofed 
troops in different quarters, the officers both civil and 
ftary afliiled him ; not imagining that he had a defign to 
' one their prince : but as foon as he had fecured the 
of the city, he feized the palace, and confined the em- 
; then depofed and put him. to death. After this, find- 
he could not get himfelf declared emperor, he inthroned^ Hur 
, a prince of the blood. Thefe diftra&ions determined jaku. * 
\gh\z Khhn to beiiege the imperial city. Cbepe, after 

UU) This was the battle, (Y) A famous fortrefs at one 

friiaps, in which the Per/tan of the gates in the great wall, 

litters fay, that Altun Kb**, See before, p. 280. 

laed by the forces of Kurje, (Z) A city in the weft bor- 

p 30,000 men. - • dcr* of Pt-cbeJi. Tfe-kin-fuaw 

(X) Four or &v* leagues weft is z$ miles weft of l-cbe<w. 

tKu-yang-quan* The field was (A) A city in the borders of 

Itwed with dead bodies for $bsn r fi and Pt-cb€4i. 

to* leagues together. 


Wftory if fix Mogul \rrWxt^iEmpsri. B.BJ 

'taking Ku-yang~quan f fet forward 1 with 50,000 chofea \sxi 
• to joitT the army* But the van-guard, coming to the rira 
*Tfau (B), and, endeavouring to pafs the bridge, was intird) 
defeated by Hdjdkd ; who was carried in a car, being hurt a 
the foot. Next day, being hindered from marching himfd( 
by his wound opening, he ordered Chu-hu-kau-ki to advance 
with 5,000 troops, to oppofe the enemy ; but that genail 
The affaf- coming £00 late, Hujakd would have put him to death ; whid 
fnjhdn* the emperor, knowing him to be a good officer, would 1* 
fuffer. Then HAjaku faid to him, if you beat the enemy, I 
•will /pare you ; if you are defeated, yon fball die. fouti 
marched again!* the enemy ; but. a north wind arifing, wM4 
Mew the fand into his foldiers eyes, he was obliged to # 
enter the city with lofs. As he took it for granted, thatft 
kati would put him to death, he ran with his troops to $A 
general's palace : who, being apprized of his defign, got 4 
his garden-wall ; but, falling, broke his leg. The foldie* 
having killed him on the fpot, Kau*ki carried his head i 
the gate of the imperial palace, and furrendered himfelf id 
the mandarins, in order to be condemned to death :butlU 
emperor publifhed an edilt, wherein he charged H6jaku vil 
feveral crimes> and commended Kau-hi\ whom he ml 
generaliffimo in his room K 
XThe Kin LI-GAN-TSVEN y ttngcfffya, finding himfelf prdS 
hard by the Mungls, demanded aid of the Kin ; who refufedit,! 
frtjfed. having occauonthemfelves for more troops than they had. Hdj 
upon the flya, after they had made a treaty with the ~~ 
before-mentioned, in 12 10, declared war againft the 
'With whom they had been at peace for fburfcore years, 
attacked Kyi-chew (C), in Shen-Ji. The fame year, 
tfven dying, Li-t/un-hyu, his relation, fucceeded him. 
prince, more fuccefsful than his predeceflbr, reduced 
chew (D), at the end of 121 3. 

Since the. time Jenghtz Khhn began to invade the 
empire, many Chinefe officers, who had been taken 
entered into his fervice. Thefe he (hewed a great efteem 
and gave them parties of their own nation to command. 
he now refolved to attack the enemy on every fide, he 
the Chinefe and Tatarian troops together, forming out 

k Gaubil, p. 18, & feq. 

(B) A canal, whof© waters, (C) Lat. 38 6> long. 6*4 

coming from Chang- pang-che<w 9 weft of Pe-king. 

pafled by the imperial city; (D) In Shcnft alfo. L&fy 

from which the bridge could 21' long. 9 5' weft. 

not be far. 

them foor armies. One he ordered to incamp to the north of 

ten-king, the imperial city :' another to ravage the country 

to the north and eaft, as far as Lyau-tong : the third, under ' 

three of his fons, was to deftroy all to the fouth'and fouth- 

veft, as far as the TVJmng-ho ; while he himfelf, with Tuley % 

his fourth fon, marched 'through Pe-che-li to Tfi-nan-fi, the ' 

Capital of Shan-tong. . 

The Kin, for their defence, fent their beft troops to Great it* 
guard the difficult paflages of rivers and mountains ; oblige- vaftatitm* 
Ing all people fit to bear arms to retire into the cities. The 
Khan, being informed of this, ordered his generals to take 
ill the old men, women, and children, out of the villages 
ind unfortified towns, and fet them in the front of the 
inny. The people from the walls, on hearing the voice, of 
fheir friends and relations, ref ufed to defend themfelves, tQ 
|iheir deftruftion. The t defolation was general throughout 
fihan-fi, that part of He-nan to the north of xht Whang-ho^ 
fe-che-U, and Shandong. The Mungh plundered and de- 
ftroyed ihore than ninety cities ; reduced to afhes an infinite 
(number of towns and villages ; took all the gold,, filvers and 
£lk, they met with ; and mailacred thoiifands of ufelefs peo- 
jUe : carrying into fiavery a vaft number of young women 
and children. The fpoU which they took in cattle was in- . 
iftimablc'; and in all thofe fpacious countries there were but 
ten cities which the Mungh could not fubdue : among which 
m Pe-che-li were Ten-king, the imperial city, Tong-chew 9 
Vnng-ting-fd, and Tay-ming-fA* AU this devaftation hap- 
pened in the year 1213. 

; In 1 2 14, JengMz Khin, being returned from Shan-tong^ht eafll 
iflembled all his troops jn one body, and invefted fen-king,talinvef* 
m the fourth month ; pitching his camp on the north fide. ed - 
fcs generals prefied him, without delay, to fcale the walls, ^. **• 
ind ruin the city : but the Khan, having had other views in ,ZI ** 
mind, inftead of following their counfel, Jfent an officer 
tell the Kin emperor, that his mafter was willing to re- 
n into Tatary : however, that, to appeafe the anger of 
Mimgl troops, it was neceffary to make them confiderable * \ 
Tents ; adding, that he ought to confider Ten-king was> 
10ft the only place which remained in his pofiefiion to the 
iorth of the Whang-ho. One of the Kin minifters, provoked at 
this meflage, propofed to march out and fight the army of 
Ta-che (£) : faying, that many of the Mungl foldiers were 

\ (E) One of the names given gion, at prefent poflefled by the 
by the Cbinefi to that large re- Mungh and Kalkas. GaubiL 


JGfek ; and that they were not in a condition to withftand a 
rigorous attack ** 

AKOTHER.minllter was again!! this advice t filing, tfctf 
they had every thing to fear, if they loft a battle; and b« 
little good to expeft from a victory* He added, " that die 
M troops in the city had nothing in view but to quit it, 8 
" moft of them had families of their own : that the bet 
** meafure therefore was to accept of peace; and when die 
u Mungls were retired, they fhould be better able to contt 
•'.what was proper to be ddne." Thfc emperor, approvhg 
this counfel, fent a lord to the Mungl afoap, to dcfiit i 
peace ; wherein it was ftipttlated, that a daughter (F) of tfc 
late emperor Yong-tfi fhould be $ven to Jenghiz Khan) widl 
500 young boys, and as many girls, 3,009 horfes, /ilk, ui 
. a great fum of money. As foon as the conditions were per- 
formed, the tChan raifed the fiege ; and, departing by drf 
way of Ku-yong-quan, commanded all the young children 
whom he had taken in the four provinces of S£an~tong t B* 
n&n, Pe-che-li, and Sban*J!, to be tnaflacred. 
tte m~ After the retreat of the Mungls, the efeperor San i* 
ftror re- dared to his council, that he refolved to remove Ms conrtlf 
move* the Pyen-fyang{G), mHonan. Tu-Jbi-ni, a We and faithful nat 
&**• fter, represented, that, in fuch cafe, the northern prownfld 
would be loft. He obferved, that Lyau-tong being very ftrow 
by fituation, it was eafy to maintain themfelves there : thatM 
more was to be done, than to make new levies, fortify dtf 
Court, fill the garrifon, and recruit the troops of that jwk 
yince. Moft of the grandees were of his opinion : but tfai 
emperor faid, that as the treafury was exhaufted, the troop 
weakened, and cities round the capital deftroyed, Ten-kingvu 
no place of fecurity for him. Accordingly he departed, vHA 
his family and fome troops ; leaving the prince, who was to h 
his fvcceflbr, to encourage the inhabitants. 
Its had The Kin monarch had foon occafion to repent this bad 
tonfe- ftep. Being arrived at Lyang-hyang (a City five leagafl 
Q***cc m fouth-weft of Peeking) he demanded back from his iroopl 
their horfes and cuirafles. The major part of them, refufmg to 
Qbey, flew their general, and chofe three others in his Aadi 

1 Gaubil, p. 20, & feq. 

(F) The Perfian* &c. hifto- (G) Called alfo A r 4w-to#* 

tians fay, peace was made on the court of the fouth, and II 

thofe conditions j but not that Pyen, It ftood nearly wkert 

Pe-kiKg t or Khan Balik, was in- Kayfong*fu, the capital of Zfc 

veiled. *an> at prefent Hands. Gawtit. 


6; *• Reign ofjengb/lz Khan. 

after which they returned, and feited the bridge of Li-keno 
{H). From thence Kanta, one of their generals, fent a cou- 
nter to Jenghtz Kh&n, who was then encamped it the city ' 
-Whan-cheiv, in Tatary, to offer himfeif and his troops at his 
fervice. As foon as that prince was Spprifed of the emperor's 
retreat, he was much incenfed ; complaining that he had been 
Accived by the Kin, and thereupon refolved to re-enter GM- 
r na. With this view, he feht his general Mingan, with a 
*great force, to join Kinta, and befiege Ten-king (I). 'Wh«tt 
5bu$ news reached the emperor, he ordered his fon to leave 
! T thatcity, and repair to Pyen-lyang. This alfo was againft 
'the advice of his ihinifters, fupported by the example of 
•Ming-whang, or Hivn-tfong, a Chinefe emperor of the Tang 
£tace (K). The departure of the prince difcouraged the gar* 
. Won, not only of Yen-king, but of other ftrong places «. 
n\ The rapid conqueft of the Mungls, and retreat of the Ktn State of 
v«mperor, gave great uneafinefs to the Chinefe monarchs of the China. 
- %ng race ; who were then matters of the fouthern provinces 
of Chin a, caHetf by fome authors Manji, viz. <%udn~t&ng, and 
.'the Hie of Haynan, Qiang-Ji, Yun-ndn, Se-chwen, Quey-chew, 
vfiu-quang, Kyang-Ji, Che-kyang, Fo-kyen, and almoft all Ky* 
^wtg-nan, \vhcre the Kin had a few cities. In Shen-Ji they 
fcijwttefled the country of Hang-chong-fd, befides feme places 
|jfl the diftrift of Kong-chang*fu 7 and on the borders of Se- 
Ijfihuen. The great wars which they had carried on agalnft 
i i 

,' n G aubil, obi fupr. p. 23, & feq. 

f. (H) Now called When-ho. great revolution is one of this 
l/The Ky an, or 'bridge, is two moft carious partt of the Chinefe 
^leagues wenVfoath-weft of Pe* annals ; and givas confiderabk 
!#»£. and a very fine one. light into the hiilory and g«Q- 
1 'GmtbiL graphy of the countries between 

(1) Called, by the oriental She* -ft and the Cafpian fea. It 
^tthors, Khdn4dtik f that is, appears that, in thofe times, a 
1 .the city of the Khan ; or Khan- great number of Arab and Per- 
^ pilu, the place, cr rcfidence, of fan veflcls frequented the port 
\ the Khan. Some write B&leg now called Kantw. Gauhil.-~ 
and Han, for Batik and Khdn. This laft remark confirms Re- m 

\K) Who retiring from $hcn-> naudoftAnriemes Relations, &c* 

Jttx>ke-eh<iken 9 left his fori be- "p. 8, *c feq. of the rebellion 

hind him, to defend the pro- ^above-mentioned. Some *€- 

' vince» .In 736, Gan-h-Jhanrt- count is given by T>u Ha/de, 

: tilling, 1 50,000 men fromT«r-_ -vol. i. p. 23,. & 199. 'See new 

y kcjldx, and the Mohammedan coDeffi.^voy.&trav. 410. vol. iv. 

countries, came w> aid the em- p. 438. note 4. 

file* The particulars of this 

Mod. Hist. Vol. IV. Bb the 

Hifivry of tbt Mogul vr Mungl Empire. B.IU. 

the fSn; had forced them to make a (hameful peace, where- 
by they were to pay a yearly tribute (L) "in filk and filver. It 
' was refolved therefore, at this juntturc* to refufc tendering 
the tribute any longer : but the propofals made by the king 
of Hya, to join forces againft the Kin, were rejected. 
Cenquefts ■ THEAT/>zpofleflidinL^a«-/(^anarmyof ibo,cKDomen,who 
in Lyau- .had retaken many places, fubdued the preceding years by kiig 
ton 8» Lyew-ko \ and, among the reft, Lyau-yang : but in the ninth 
month, Muh&li, followed by the general Wir> of the hordrf 
Sban-tfu, entered that province, ill order to fuccour die 
•prince, and cut off the communication with Pe : cbe4i $ which 
was efie&ed. The huge army of the Kin^ being filled with trai- 
tors, difperfed ; and the inferior officers killed their gttcral 
King Lyew-ko recovered Lyau-yang ; and Peeking, now caikd 
Mugden, furrendered to MubulL This general put to the fworf 
a great number of fubmitting foldiers, under pretence that tkj 
came in too late : but flopped the (laughter, on being told, 
that fuch a conduit would hinder many other places fron 
yielding. Towards the end of the year, the tity of Toy- 
chew (M), an important poll, *o the eaft. o( Ten-king, for- 
rendered to the Mungls. The emperor of the Kin having 
been obliged to lay taxes on the people, it furnifhed fevers! 
lords with a pretence, ibme to throw off their dependency 
and others to fubmit to the Mungls. 
lyew- In I z 1 5 many of the Kit An advifed Lyew-ko to be dcclaid 

^ s fi^ m emperor, independent of the Mungls : but that prince rejefied 
"&• the propofal, as contrary to the oath which he had taken, to 

be Jenghtz Khan's fubjeft. At the fame time he fent his fro 
JBye-t& to the Khan, with ninety waggons loaded with rich 
prefents (N) % and a lift of the families which had fubmitttrf 
to him, amounting in all to 600,000. Towards the end of 
the year he came in perfon, to do homage to the Mungl fo 
vereign. Mean time the emperor of the Kin, being informed 
of the diftrefs Ten-king was in, fent a great quantity of pn> 
*Vifiohs, With forces for its relief: but the firft convoy,- under 
the efcort of ah inexperienced general, arriving at Pacbev 
(O) his army was there defeated ; on the news whereof the 

(L) The emperor Kau-tfo*^ Pe-bo, about twelve miles eafi 

in the articles of peace made in of Pe>king 9 and its port 

. 1 1 44, with the emperor of the (N) They were expofed on 

Kin, fubfaribed himfelf a fub- felts for feven days, to give 

je£t, and tributary of his., See heaven notice of what w 

GpttpJet. tab. chron. link. p. 73. done. 

(M) In Pe<cbB 9 9n the river (O) Lat. jo/ 3' long. oV. 


Ca2* Reign of JenghiE'KhJih £jl 

other generals fled, and left all the provisions a prey to the A. I), 
enemy". 1215. 

Th* two generals, who commanded in Yen-king, were *"pv"*"* 
fowi-^7i Cbang-whey (P) and Mo-nyen Chin-cbong ; the for- Wa j** 
mer of whom, out of all hope of fuccours, or withftanding J*J* ? 
the enemy, propofed to the latter to die for their country. 
Mo-nyen, on whom the troops immediately depended, ri- 
rufing, Chang-whey retired in a rage, and told a Mandarin 
his resolution. The firft day of the fifth month he wrote a 
betition to the emperor, wherein he touched on matters of 
government 5 and mentioned the crimes of a bad minifies 
.whom his mailer made u(e of, meaning Kau-ki, who flew 
Hujaku. ,He finiftied, by confeffing himfelf guilty of death, 
for not being able to fave the imperial city (Q^J. T*his done, 
with a compofed air, he called together all his domeilics, dnd 
divided all his eflfe&s among them : then ordering a cup of 
pqifon to be filledj he wrote a few words. After which, 
commanding the Mandarin who was with him to leave the 
room, he drank it off; and died before his friend was gotten 
many paces from the houfe* 

The fame evening the emperor's wives, knowing that Mo~ Thebpttil 
hyen was preparing to leave the city, came to acquaint him, that totau 
they would go out along with him. He feemed pleafed with 
the propofal ; but faid he would go before, to fhew them the 
way. The ladies, confiding in his promtfe, returned fo the 
palace : but Mo-nyen, not caring to be troubled with theit 
company, marched off, and left them behind. On that ge- 
neral's departure, the Mungl army entering the city, a great 
number of the inhabitants and Mandarins perifhed in the dif- 
order which -enfued. A troop of foldiers fet fire to the pa* 
lace, which continued burning for a whole morith. Jenghtx 
Kh&n, who was then at JVhan-chrw, in Tat dry ^ fent to com* 
pliment the general Mvi-gan on the occafion ; ordering him 
to difpatch into Tatar.y the filks, gold, and filver, found ia 
the imperial treafury. Mo-nyen arriving at Pau-ting'fjl, in 
Pe-che-li, told thofe who accompanied him, that they fhould 
never have gotten thither, had he undertaken to conduct th4 
ladies of the palace. When he came to Pyon*lyang f the env 

n Gavbil, p. 25, & feq* 

(P) He was a prince of the to flay himfelf on this occafion; 

Mood ; the family name of the he ought to have done his at- 

Kin being Wan-yen. moft, and died in defence of the 

(Qj It was falfe patriotifm city, if he could dot fave it. 

Bb a 



Wfiory of the Mogul trMttogl Empire. B.HL 

peror (R), though extremely troubled at the lofs of his ca- 
pital city, did not {peak to Mm about it, and gave Trim a vc- 
'ry considerable, employment : but ftwrtly after he was put to 
death, for having been engaged, as it was {aid, in dangerous 
defigns. On the other hand, his majefty, having read Chang- 
•whey's petition, declared him Vang, or Wang, that is, king. 
Ho mm MIN-GAN, who was ordered tQ fearch for a Mandarm 
invaded, bf the royal race of the Lyau, or Kit an, called Ydu-cti- 
tfay (S), having found him, conducted him to JengM% Khkn\ 
trho, at the firft interview, conceived a high efteem for tha 
great man, and fet him at the head of his affairs. SanAt- 
pa being fetot with 10,000 horfe to befiege Tm-quan (T), a 
famous pafs in the mountains, between Shcn-ft and Ilenon, 
marched through the territories of the king of Hya ; who /till 
Continued the war againft the Kin, and this year wrefted from 
them the city bf Un-tau-fti (U). He took his rout by Si-gan-fl 
(the capital of Shen-fi) ; but failing in his attempt on Ton- 
man, marched to Tu-cbew, in Ho-nan, through crofs roads, 
lull of deep torrents, over which they made bridges *ith 
. their pikes and halberds. At laft arriving, after many diffi- 
culties, in fight of Pyen-lyang (X), capital of that province, 
the Kin troops fallied, and made him retire to Shen-chrw (Y), 
Cm the Whang-ho ; which being frozen, San-ke-f>a eroded it^ 
and efcaped. The emperor San, after this, tent to defire 
peace of Jenghiz Kh&n ; who propofed fuch hard condition^ 
that he could not accept of them. Mean time M4thuU and 
JPJr, in Lyau-tongy difperfed, with much addrefs and coir* 
rage, feveral parties which endeavoured to (hake off theTMiugf 
yoke 6 . 
rfany itt 121 6 the Mungh took their meafures fo right, that 

places %n*guan Mvas Forced in the tenth month : after which Aaf 
taken* pofted themfdves between the city Td-chnu and the mountain 
Song (Z). The court being greatly alarmed a* this, onerf 
the cenlbrt of the empire reprefented to his Kin majefty, that 

•'Gaubil, p. 27, & feq, 

t&) Thfc Oriental Hiftarians 4ame with Karfbtgju; tfcoogfc 

fay, upon the lofs oiKhumbdlxk in a former note he fays it wat 

he poifoned himfelf. near it. 

(S) Yclu was the family name (Y) A city of Ho,ium, fifteea 

ofthe£rfixr^mperorft» Gaul. leagues *aft-north-eaft of f**£- 

(T) Lat. 34 39' long. 6° quan. Gaub[L 
ij{ weft oiPe king, (Z) A famous mountain, to 

(U) In Sben-ft; la*. 35 ao' thfcnorth-eaftofr* cbnv. Gam- 

long. 1 2 zo' weft. bil. Rather, it fhoold feem, to 

(X) Here Gaubil fays it ts (he the north- weft of that city. 


C %. Reign of Jenghiz Khan. 

Pyen-fyang would be reduced in the fame manner as Ten-king 
was, unlefs he took the field with the garrifon, which was 
very numerous; feized the poft of Ton-quan, fortified the' 
frontiers of Shen-Ji % and paflages of the Whang-ho : unlefs al- 
fo he hindered the Mungls from gaining footing in Ho-nan 9 
and making inroads thither, by which they ruined the in* 
habitants. Oil the contrary, the minifter Chu-M Kau-ki pcr- 
fnaded the emperor to think only of fecuring the capital : 
which conduct, fays the hiftory, ruined the dominionJrf the 

MUffULI, after the parts of Lyau-tong towards Lyau- A nhelUm 
yang (A) had been conquered, ordered Chong-ping, one a£ 1«*Jh*J> 
the generals in that province, to march into China, and join . 
the other troops : but being informed that he was a traitor, 
fed him put to death, in the end of the year 1215,. Here- 
upon £%>n£-c£i, to revenge his brother's death, revolted, and 
look King-chew (B) ; with mod of the other cities of the pro* 
fince, included between the great wall of China, the river 
lyau (C), the wooden palifade (D), and the fea. After this 
he caufed himfelf to be proclaimed king ; and, in 1 2 1 6, de- 
clared for the Kin, who gave him the command of their 
troops in Lyau-tong. Muh&li, who had retaken Quang-ning- 
hyen (E) the preceding year, at the end of this befieged King- 
chew (F). Chang-chi had good troops ; and the place being. 
very ftrong, M&MIi ordered Wir to go and attack an import- 
ant poft on a neighbouring mountain, while another general 
fhould be ready to cut off the troops detached from the city 
to fuccour it. Wir having obeyed his orders, Chang-chi fai- 
led out with part of the garrifon : hereupon Monku-ptrwha 
placing himfelf between that poft and the city, gave notice 
Thereof to Muh&U, who lay towards ^uang-ning. This gene- 
ral, marching all night, by break of day came up and attacked tyMfthfdi. 
Chang-chi on one fide, while Monku did the fame on the other ; 
fo that he was entirely defeated. Yet efcaping back to the ci- 
ty, he defended it gallantly for more than a month ; when 
an officer of the garrifon feized and delivered him to the 
Mungls : who cut off his head, and took pofleflion of the 

(A) Lat. 41 17' long. 6* with a wooden palifade, or 
56* ealt; then a great city, fence. 

QaubiL (E) Lat. 41° 30/ long. c° 26' 

(B) Lat. 41 V long. 4 45/ caft. * 
ttflofPe-kixg. GaubiL (F) Lat 41° 6' long. 4 44' 

(C) Called atfo Sira M&ren. eaft. . T 

(D) Lyem-tong is fnrrounded 

B b 3 The 

Hiftory of the Mogul or Mungl Empire. B. HI 

The Mungls, after a great ftruggle to get footing in Ho* 
nan, at laft abandoned that province j and paffing thclfhang- 
' ho, under the conduft of Sa-nu-bo (G), furnamcd Paturu,(x 
A° n ^ n a courageous, marched towards Ping-yang-fu, in Shtn-fi: 
aban »«ft».j )ut Swiing^ who commanded the troops there, having ga- 
thered thoff from, the dependent places, met and defeated 
them * K 

This Is the account of Jenghtz Khjn'sRxR expedition in- 

to Kitay, tranfmitted to us from the Chinefe hiftorians. Wc 

. ihall now fubjoin a view of that given by the weftcrn A$&- 

tics, that our readers may the better compare them, and judge 

of their merit. 

t These authors tell us, that Jcnght* Khdn being ready to 

enter Kit ay, in 1210, divided his army into two bodies; and 

that, keeping the moft confiderable with himfelf, he gave the 1 

command of the other to three of his fons, Juji, Jagatay t 

ixi&Oktay : that thefe princes marched through the Kaim&h 

Kurje r or country (H), towards. Kurje ; wJiich being unprovided with 

Lyau- troops, who were gone to join Altun Khan, they made terri- 

^° n S- ble devaluations In the towns, and carried off all the cattle: 

that Jenghtz Khdn, marching by the 77/, a river of Karakitay, 

entered Kitay at the great gate In the wail of China, which 

AlaMs, Khan of Ankut, to whofe care it was committed^ 

opened to him : that he fpared all the cities which made no 

remittance ; but plundered thofe which oppofed him : that 

Altin Khdn, with his united forces, hafting to meet Jenghtz 

A bh^ty Khan, a battle was fought, in which the former loft 30,000 

}attle> men and the latter more : that Jenghtz Khan retired with 

all his fjpoWs into Pe-che-li : and Altun Khdn, fearing he might 

hefiege Peking, fent to propofe a peace, with his daughter 

KubM Khcg&n in marriage, which was accepted : that Jeng- 

hiz Khdn, being returned to his dominions, in 1 2 r 1 , fet out, 

i !*fo£ fr^^P*^ ^ th hi * *9 n 7 u Jh to conquer (I) Kafchdk (or 

? Gaubil, p. 30, &feq. 

- (G) Perhaps Samuka, men- feem to be an imaginary nation 

tioned by Abulghasd Khdn. of Kaimuks, which name caa* 

(H) De la Croix tells as, on in ufe long after. See before, 

tliis occafion, tfcat thefe J&1- p. 352, note (D). 

muks, who'had fubmitted to {V Aluhbaxi Khdn mentioss 

Jen^kix Khdn, were a nation nothing of this Kipjak expedi* 

fnuateon the borders of Kara r tipn : but, conformable to the 

kitay to the eaftward ^ and not Chinefe hiftorians, fays, that, a£ 

to'be Confounded with the Kajj ter the peace, he leu his (on ia 

piuks who dwell in the weft, to- fy-king, *p4 retired toNs*-fy* 

wards the Wolgq? But thefe 

H A \ 

£ 2. Reign of Jenghiz Khin. 

Kafjak), the moft weftern and confiderable part of Tatary ; 
judging he had a right, by conqueft, to feveral tribes, who 
inhabited the country, as having* been fubjett to VangKb&rL: 
that as foon as he appeared, thofe tribes, with others inha* 
biting the country of Jetah, or the Cetes (K), in Kapch&k, on 
the borders of Moguliftdn> fubmitted to him, which all toge- 
ther formed a vaft army t that, leaving one half of his forces 
with Juji, who defeated the Komdns, IValdks, Bulgarians, * 
aad Hungarians, he, with the other half, returned to Kara- 
korom : that there, being joined by Arjliin, Khan of the Kar- 
kks y and Idiktit, Khan of the Tug &rs (or Jgtirs), he r^folved 
to invade Kit ay, to revenge fome threats uttered by Alt4n 
Khan ; but more by the perfuaGon of a Khan of Karaldtay, 
(L), who, provoked at the ravages .made h)r Ahi* Khan in Karaki- 
that country, had, by means of fome rebels,' feiz^d a confi- 1*/* 1 ** **• 
derable fortrefs, which opened a way into China : that in *"^* 
ni2, Jenghiz KhAn, being indifpofed himfelf, fent Sam&ka 
Behadr, with a great army ; who feizqd on all the provinces 
of Ifarakitay remaining to Altun Khan, and wjth eafe entered 
Kitay, by means of the intelligence which the rebel Khan 
held in the country i that, at the fame time, Mttdi Gtyank 
(M), one of the moft able Mogul generals, marched to Kurje t 
to hinder the forces of that kingdom from going to affift Al- 
\ftn Kh&n, and reduced feveral cities (here : that, for. all this, 
• Altun Khdn advanced to attack Samika Behadr, expefting to 
obtain an eafy vi&ory : but although the van-guard of the 
Moguls gave way at hrft, they at length obliged the enemy Altin 
to fly, and (hut themfelves up in their cities : that the Mo- Khan<&- 
guls, inftigated by the rebels^ laid fiege to Pe-king, or Khan- fcated. 
Hlik, which was fo vigoroufly defended by Altin Kh&ris fon, 
that they ailaulted it in vain : th^t ifceing no hopes of taking 

(K) This country, placed left KhSji'-HUk, cat off the head* 

here ia Kifjak* \% frcauently of fon\$ farakitqy lords for 

mentioned by the oriental hifto- 'flight offends ^ wlj^h uiade f^ 

riyis^ and cited by D y Herhelot x veral of ^heni retire with" their 

and in SharWMnt hiftory of ef&cls into. Jenrhiz, Kbqns <jk>r 

TimrBek; but they place it to minions. One lord, among the* 

the t&oS Kifydk, between it and reft, having furprized and ru- 

t^liJlanS N&y t Ka/bgar{eems ined fome of Akin Khan's d- 

. to be included in it ; as Kam- ties, fent to offer his fervice to 

ifdiin, Khan of that country, Jengbte Kbm, and was fo well 

is called prince of the jfetab. It received, that many others foV. 

belonged now to oni^ jheji to lowed his example* 
toother country. (M) The fame with Mtiuli, 

(L) According to Abffl&baxi as he i% called before, frofn the 

$>**, Akin Kbdu, before he Chine/ehi&ozy. 

Bb 4 bj 

Hipry of /6* Mogul w.MtMgl Empire. &UL 

by force a city defended by fuch numerous troops, the fiege 

was turned into a blockade ; and when the famine became 

To great that the inhabitants ate one another Ac city was 

taken by a ftratagem, Hej. 610, A. D. 1213 : that, cathc 

news of this lofs, At An Khan poUbned himfelf (N) ; and Je* 

ghiz Khan gave the government of Peeking to Mukli Gtyank, 

Kitay who, in two years, fcnUhed the cpnqneft of Kitay, with that 

mpind. Q fKutje\ 

The authors made nfe of by AlnVlghazi Kh&n differ from 
thofe confuhed by De la Croix in feveral particulars, efpeciatty 
touching, the fecond expedition of die Moguls into Kitay. Ac- 
cording to him, five or fix months after Mtun Khans remort 
from Kban-balek (or Peeking), to Nan-king (or Pyen-fyaxjfc 
his fon, who had been left to govern in that city, went to 
Nan-king, to acquaint his father with the bad condition of their 
affairs on the frontiers.* That, in the mean time; Jengttz 
Khfa, underitanding that the empire of Kit ay was rent by 
factions, fent Jamuka Behddr, and Mafian Behadr, with a 
, numerous army, to invade the country, and befiege Khin* 
bUik : that on the frontiers they were joined by a great aiu* 
ber of deferters from Karakitay ; while Akin Kk&n, hearing 
of their march, fent provisions to that city, under the guanf 
* of a large body of troops, commanded by two of his belt 
« generals ; but that, being met by the army of Jenghi%Khh t 
Altftn they were defeated, and the two generals taken : that Ahh 
Khan's Khfai, overcome with this misfortune, poHbned himfelf; ta), 
death. at t h e approach of the Mflgul generals, Khtob&lik farrendered 
without linking a ftroke : that Jenghtz Khan afterwards ar- 
riving at Khanb'aHki took^ by degrees, moft of the cities be- 
longing to the empire of Kit ay ; and having employed fro 
years in this expedition, returned into his hereditary domiri* 
ons, in order to watqh the motions of his enemies r . Let ui 
now return to the Chinefe hiftorians, 
KucMul* * In the year 1216, Jenglnz Khan, after refting for forae 
routed. time in the palace which he had built near the river L0ku (0), 
in Tatary, went and encamped near the Tula ; from whence 
he fent Suputay againft the Markats 9 who had rahed nrw 

* Mirk. Abu'ljc. Fadlai.lah, ap. De}aCroix % hid. Gec&k 
p.101— >ixi. Abu^ch. ,p.$o» . 'Ibid. p. 92, 

(N) The death of the empe- (O) Our author (W//ukesit 

ror Tong't/t, during this expe- for the Kendo*, or Kerhn: if fo» 

dition, might- have been the perhaps this might be the place 

foundation of this error in the where Parab9tnn y or tbeatj »f 

more weflern hiftorians. tfo ti$tr % was afterwards built. 

4 troops 

troops, and always fupported jthe king of the Naym&ns. Thb 
prince (P), after his defeat, had endeavoured to Air up feve- 
ral tribes of the Kit in, NayniAw, and Markats f againft the ' 
Mungls. Chcpe therefore was detached, in the year 1217, 
towards the river Irtijh, where he vanquished Kucbfak y foa. 
of Boyruk, late king of the Naym&ns, -who had taken up. 
arms afrefh. After this victory, he directed his march weft- 
ward ; but the Chinefe hiftory mentions no particulars of this 
expedition. At the fame time Chuchi (or Juji\ the emperor's 
eldeft fon, took his journey towards a country very remote 
from China, to the north-weft. The hiftory.does not name 
this country : but mentions forfte people, or tribes, whom he 
fubdued 5 as the U-fe-ban* Ha~m-fa % KA-fyang-A-kt-Jbe, and 
Tay^nihoynirkhan. . 

JENGHIZ Kb&n, having now refolved to carry his arms Expedition 
weftward, declared AUMH, whofe great qualities he publicly we/favord. 
extolled, generaliffimo of the troops, and his lieutenant-ge- 
neral in China : he conferred on him likewife the title of king 
(QJ> an( * mac k iX hereditary in his family. On this occa- 
fion he caufed the Chinefe and Tatar troops to be drawn out, 
with their ftandards difplayed, and ordered them to obey. 
Mbili as himfelf; delivering to him, at the fame time, a 
royal fed of gold, to put to all his mandates. That gene- 
ral, the fame year, marched with his troops for China, where, 
to a fhort time, he fubdued many cities in Shen-Ji, Pe-che-li^ 
and Shan-tong. Li-chew (R) having held out to the laft ex- 
tremity, MuhuH would have put all the inhabitants to the 
fword : but,, at the intreaty of Cbdu-tfin, one of his beft of- 
ficers, who offered to die himfelf, to fave his mdther, bro- 
thers, and the reft of the citizens (being a native of that 
place), they were fpared ». 

At the end of the year 121 7, or beginning of the next, Kuchlul; 
Jenghfc Khan put himfelf at the head of a powerful army, fur/uea'- 
in order to march into the weft. Before he fet out, he de- 
clared the prince Tyc-muko (S), called alfo l¥a-che 9 his fourth 
brother, regent of the empire. Among the chofen generals 
who accompanied the Khan, there were feveral Chinefe ; and 
he formed companies of foldiers, who had the art of cafting 
huge ftones againft cities. His flrft enterprize was agaiaft , 

• Gaviil, ubi fupr. p. 32, & feq. 

(P) Kuchluk mud be the king (R) At prefent Li-byen, a ci- 
herc meant. ty of Ft-cbt-lL 

(QJ It is not mentioned by (S) . Called by Ahulgbaxi 
what title, as that Qf Khifl> Qr Khan Temuka ; in De la Croix, 
any other* named Utakiu. 


Hifiory of the Mogul ok MungI Empire. B. IlL 

Kuchluk, who had put in motion all the countries to the 

north-weft of Turfdn, as far as the rivers Sihun and JiUn 

] (T) on one fide, and on the other as far as the Obi and Irti/k x 

He was leagued with the Markats, and princes of Kicha (U) ( 

a vaft country, to the north and north-eaft of the Cafim 

fea ; betides thofe of the Kangli, who inhabited the country 

to the north-eaft of the territories of Samarkant. 

Bifhbalig An army of 300,600 men, faid to be the remains of the 

Ml«r. Kitin (X), of whom there were many tribes about Turfa 

having advanced with defign to oppofe the Khan's paflage,]* 

indrely defeated them. Ko-pau-yu 9 one of the Cbineft ge» 

nerals in the MungI army, having been defperately wounded 

in the battle, Jenghfzr Kh&n honoured him with a vifit in 

his tent. When recovered, he was fent to befiege Bijhbalcg 

, (Y), which was taken/ with the other cities in that country. 

At the fame time Gonchor, a lord of the tribe of Tong4u, is 

the weftern parts of Tatary, fubdued the dty and country of 

AJtmhleg (Z). KofineK, one of the great officers of the laft 

Khan of the weftern Lyau (or KitAn), understanding that the 

Jtyungls were come to make war on Kuchluk, perfuaded dfc 

chief of the city of A/an (A), and thofe of other tribes, to 

fubmit to Chepe (B). Jenghiz Khan being informed of thi?, 

fent for Kofmeli, and gave him the command of a body of 

Kuchluk the van-guard. Kuchluk, after this, being defeated, his heal 

fluu* wjas cut off by the^ Khan's order; and expofed to view in all 

die tasvns and villages of the Naymdns (C), and Kith^ 

(T) Theft, vyhich are the but, according to the Chi*tf, 

Arab names of th& fivers at pre- the capital was Ht-cbnv, fpflt 

fent called the Sir and Ami (of leagues to the eaft of Turpi*. 
. old the Jaxartes and Oxusj, we (Z) Or Almalig ; 'fo called bf. 

prefume, are not in the €%£/* Ahulftda, and other orienttt 

niftory. " writers. In the Cbimfe pro- 

(U) Elfewher