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NE, M. li A. S. 









23 <i 









(aI'THOE of the MIFTAH-t'L-TAWAKI¥H.) 












r-owJ OOa j i 

The author of this Dictionary was formerly a Clerk in the office of the Board of Rev^'nuc, 
N. W. P. at a time when the Secretary was Henry Myers Elliot, aftt^rwards well known us Sir 
H. M. Elliot, K. C. B. It is probs^ble that, in preparing his extracts from the Moluuuadaii 
Histories of India, Elliot availed himself of the aid of Mr. Boale, of whose scLolarsLip I'roi'. 
Dowson makes justly deserved mention in the eighth volume of his valuable edition of tlu» 
work,* Mr. Beale died at a very advanced age in the smnmer of 1875, having before his dcatli 
expressed a wish that I would see his MS. through the press, and ri.'duce the transliteration 
into conformity with the system then recently adopted by tlu* Government of India, ami 
founded (as I need hardly observe) upon the system of Sir W. Jones. 

Accordingly, on the 5th October of that year I laid the j\IS. before Sir John Straoliey, 
the then Lieut.-Govemor, in the name of the Archmological Society of Agra, of which he was a 
Vice-Patron, in a letter from which the following is an extract : — 

" This is no ordinary book. I have used it as a work of reference, for years : and have 
lately had an opportimity of showing it to the eminent scholar Mr. E. B. Eastwiek, C. B. who, 
I am authorised to say, concurs with me in thinking that the Dictionary will be of unique 
value to oriental students." 

Sir J. Strachey took up the subject with that enlightened en(»rgy wliich always actuated 
him in dealing with the past history of the country over whose adniinislratioii he then [n. 'sided. 
The MS. and copyright were acquired at the expense of Government; and it was ultimately 
resolved — in view of the importance of the work and my own ttUicial occupations — that the 
editing should be entrusted to the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

The Society confided the labour of seeing the Dieticnary th<tug}i the press to their 
Philological Secretary, Principal Bh»chmann, of whos(» qualitieations it would be presumptuous 
to say more than that they have an a.*ciunenical reputation. That distinguislu'd man (»tf whom 
it has been observed by Coimt v. Noer that he united the enthusiasm of an artist to the m<»t 
patient accuracy of researchf) luidertook the task with his eharacteri^stie eann'Stness and 
ability. But unhappily for oriental scholarship Mr. Bloehmaun's lamented death oeeurred 
before he had completed the preparation of more than a few sheets ; and the duty ultimately 
4 reverted to the local Archieological Society of Agra. 

Being 80<m after transferred from Agra, and being besides prevented l>y my public duties 
from giving to the Dictionary the full attention which its importanee required, I have availed 
to a great degree of the aid of my colleagues, Mr. Siiyad ^Mahmood, Prof. A. Thomson, and 
LalaBahalBai. I have also (in the latter sheets particularly) had valuable help from Dr. 
Hoemle, Philological Secretary of the Society. To these gentlemen, and to the Superintendent 
of the Baptist Mission Press the work is indebted for its luuidsome ajid practical appearance 
and character. 

The substance is almost entirely Mr. Beale's ; and I cannot close this notice more fitly 
than by giving the following extracts from the preface originally drafted by himself: — 

"In preparing a work of this miture, intended tt> be used as a wi>rk of referenci' on 
matters connected with Oriental History, it is proper to state that the greatest care has been 
taken to ensure accuracy in the narrative, as also in the <lates of births, deaths, and t»ther events 
recorded., . .Various MSS. have beeu collated whenever discrepancy was observed. . To 
remove all doubt, chronograms indicating the dates with a certainty not to be f(tuud by any 
other method and \vritten when the events were fresh in the minds of men, have been iusertetl, 
when available." 

• The Hiitory of India, htj it» oicn HUtoriant, Thibncr & Co, 1877. 
t Kaiur Akbar. Lcydcu, 1»80. 

( iv ) 

I may here add that it has been judged expedient to omit these chronograms, for the 
most part, in printing the book. In the chapter of Mr, Dowson's book already cited, will be 
found an account of this species of memoria technica. But it is chiefly interesting as machinery 
for producing a certain result ; and when the result has been produced is not of much more 
use than the scaffolding of a building when the building is complete. 

" The materials collected in this Biography are only from those works which were within 
the reach of the author, and therefore it is to be considered as a nucleus to which those who 
have access to other sources may add new materials. 

" It may also be proper to add, that the difficulties and embarrassment which a writer of 
such a work is liable to meet with is so great, (I quote here the words of a learned gentleman) 
' that .though of a minor order, comprehends in itself such a number of annoyances' that the 
writer of it, even if he had none other to make head against, might feel tempted to abandon 
his pen in despair when considering it.' 

" * In the East' says he, * there are but a few proper names of individuals. Abdullah, All, 
Hasan, Husain, Muhammad, for example, are common to thousands. To remedy the incon- 
venience that might be supposed to result from this tendency to homogenousness, iie Orientals 
annex to the family-name of the chronicled person, 1, a Kunia, or surname taken from the name 
of his eldest son, as Abu Muhammad (father of Muhammad) ; Abii'l Hasan (father of Hasan) ; 
2, the name of his father and often the name of his grandfather ; 3, a name taken from lus 
place of residence ; 4, a name taken from his birthplace ; 5, an honorary title, chiefly 
appended to the name of Kazis, Sheiks and Imams, Monks and Doctors, as Bahauddin (8plev.~ 
diMr of Religimi), Jalaluddin (Glory of Religion), T6.juddm (Ormcn of Religion) ; and in the order 
of this nomenclature, the last name is put first. Thus to designate aright the famous physi- 
cian Abdul Latif , we must call him Muwaf&knddin Abu Muhammad Abdul Latif bin Yusaf 
Mousali Baghdad!, viz,. The Protector of Eeligion, father of Muhammad, Abdul Latif, son of 
Joseph, living at Mousal, bom at Baghdad. Yet this is by no means an exaggerated specimen ; 
several other surnames of the same kind are frequently added. The perpetual recurrence of 
such a multij)licity of names and titles must tend in many ways to confuse a literary historian ; 
and the more naturally when he finds the same individual chronicled in one page imder his 
honorary title only, as Jalaluddin, in another under his family-name, as Abdur Rahman, in 
the third under his father's name as Ibn Arabshah, somewhere else under the name of his 
sons, as Abu'l Abbas, and perhaps again, and where one would least look for it, under the 
name of his native province, Shahristan, D'Herbelot has recorded no fewer than fourteen 
Persian writers, all of whom pass, under the common cognomen of Karamani, from their 
province Karaman. Here is perspicuity ! But this is not all. The transcribers of the MSS. 
have frequently confounded the title Abii and Ibn, or else for abbreviation sake, have omitted 
them altogether and ^vritten down Abdullah, or Abdur Rahman, him who was in fact the 
father or the son of Abdullah or Abdur Rahman. Then there are a great many authors whom 
public celebrity has been accustomed to distinguish so exclusively by one only of their adjunc- 
tive titles, that even the native biographers find it impossible to trace either their family- 
names or their surnames. Lastly, many hundreds of books bear the same name, and the 
names of most books are conceived after such a many-worded and no-meaninged fashion, that 
de Saey, Schlegel, Casiri and von Hammer, to mention but a few investigators out of many, 
have been foiled in the attempt to establish their signification.' 

'* To prevent such confusion and difficulties, the author has taken care to insert each 
indi\'idual under his different appellations, viz,, under his family-name, his surname, poetical 
name, under his title or under the name of the place of his birth, referring at the same time, 
if he is not to be found under one name, to look under the one referred to. 

" In conclusion the author begs to add that most part of the materials collected in this 
volume were procured by the assistance of his son the lat« lamented Mr. J. W. Beale, 2nd 
Master of the Bareily Collejje who was murdered by the insurgents on the 3rd June 1857 at 
that station, and since he is now no more, the author is obliged to drop his pen ; but earnestly 
hopes that this work which is nearly the first of its kind in India, and the Avant of which has 
already been much felt, may prove useful to the Student, the Scholar, the Historian, and the 
general render." 

This notice may well tonninate with a repetition of this hope : and with an appeal to 
scholars of larger leisure and opportunities for an indulgent treatment of a work produced by 

( V ) 

a man who had never been in Europe nor enjoyed the use of a complete Library. Mr. Beale 
had drawn up a list of more than thirty books in various lanj^uages which had furnished him 
with materiais. In addition the editors have from time to time referred to the translation of 
the Ain Akbari and its invaluable notes by Mr. Blochmann, of which the 1st Volume (never, 
alas, continued) was published in Calcutta some years ago. 

One word more as to the inexhaustible subject of transliteration. The English as is 
well known have three methods ; the Haphazard (which indeed is no method at all), the 
Gilchristian, and the popularised Jonesian introduced by the Government of India imder the 
inspiration of Mr, W. W. Hunter. None of these is quite satisfactory. The French adopt a 
system of their own, and so do the Germans. Mr. Beale had followed an orthography, 
compoimded of the two first-named elements, which has been to some extent modified in 
printing these pages. For the convenience of Continental European scholars the names have 
also been printed in the Persian character ; and it is hoped that no practical difficulty will 
be experienced by those who may have occasion to use the Dictionar}^ 


MEEEtrr, Sepiembery 1881. 



A'azz-uddin, ( i^^l^l ) Prince, 8«ond son of Shah 

'Aluui Buhadur Sliih. He was bom on the 17lh ^i-^|ta'iia 
1074 und uppcaro to hav*? died {*rly.] 

A'asa-uddmf ( ^rJt^^^t ) Aon of Mu'izx.uddfn JahindAr 

Shath, cmpCTor of Dilhi. lie was blindt-d and imprisoned 
by Farrukh-aiyar, in tha end of 1124 H.] 

Aba Bakr (MixrA or Sultfin), the son of ShAhrukh Minw thL' 
R'tn uf Amir Timiir. He waa murdered bv ord«'r of his 
hrotlu.T Sfireii I'high Hog, A. D. 1448 (Hf32 A, H.) 

Aba Kaan or Abka Khan or Abaka Khan, i^f '^ ^' or 

er^ ^'' a kin^ of PiTRia of the tribo of Mii^hiiU orTart/irs^ 
and d(-8c<.'iidiint of Chini^z Kbin, itiHit'(jd<d his futhor 
liulikii KhAn in F.'hnmry 12G5, A. D. (Itabr-iw-Sini 663 
A. H.\ and WM c^own<^d on Friday thw li>th Jiuil* following 
(.ird KarnrqAii.) Hh w«s a prince who adiJi^d to thy qualiRra- 
tion8«f fOumgR an<l wisdom thitao of moderation, t Ifmcncy, 
and justice. Uis amlxisBadorB wore introduee-d in 1274 
to th*' tM.tle8iji!rti«?al SjTiod at Lyona. IIu proved to b« s 
formiibihlc neighbour to thr Christiana who sottlod at Je- 
ruBnloni. The intrigiu'^ of luft court embittered tho ]att*>r 
year* of his rf-ign ; nnd hie ibiya wore believed hy many 
to hnve htwii nhorti'nM hy |>oij*on giv»^n to him by his 
minifltf^r Khwaja Shamn-uddfn Muhammad, whii-h ocoi- 
flioned his dt-Kth on W<rdnLi**iay thf latof ApriJ 1282 A. D,, 
(20th Zil-tiiiJA 680 A. H.) Hfttr a K-ign of 1 7 years and aomt- 
monthM. Hi" had married tho daught<'r of Mirha<d Pahro- 
logiw. pmp**ror of I'onstnntinoplf, who had been hotrothod 
to hifl father, but arrivc'd ut Maraffha in Talrii, the srat 
of hifl guvui-nniL'nt, aftf'r tho death of that prini.-v. Aba-kli- 
an wa« smrocdtd by hi« brother Nokoiiar, whnftmbraced 
Muluimmodiuiism, nxtd took the titW of Ahmad Khan. 

'Abbae, i-TT*, th*' son of 'Alwlul-Muttalib, and iincio of 
iht* pri-fphet RInhJimnmd. Ilv at first oppost^d Ih*.' anibitious 
vii^WB of his i5f']ih*'W. bill when d*-fwi;t»Hl in the bnltlt^ of 
Badr, h"' wiw ri'< ontilcrl to him, warmly embracwi his reli- 
ffiun, and thankt-d hi;*ven fiir the prosperity and the grace 
whi^'h he onjoy(:*d aa a MiisalinAn. Ho servttd th»> causf^ of 
>Iiiihiuitmad at tho battli? of Miinnin by riH'ulling hia dia- 
miiy.d troopa to thr rhancc, lind inciting theni boldiv to 
rally ronnd their prophet, who wa,s m^or expiriiLg under tho 
Bfiuiiiara of the Sufciifit^. Ho dw-d on ihf *Jlst KL'bruary, 
6.5;iA.I)., fl7lhitjijiib.32 A. H.) : and lUO liiniir years uttur, 
Abul-^Abbi*. stimamMl Aa-Saflfah, on<^ of his descondanta, 
laid the foundation of the ' Abbaai or Abbuj*idt' family uf thu 
< 'aliplis in Baghdad, whirh continued for 524 lunar years. 
'Vhn tuinb of 'Abbaa in in Mudma. 

'Abbasa, *-^' a ni.Hter of Harun-ur-Raahfd, the Khalffa 
■ if Baghiiid, who Itrnto wed her hand on Jji'fitr Baruiaki, 
hia miniater. on rondilicin that shu abst^Lini-d from tho 
m&rriage rights. The pn»mjM« was fgrgutten, and the 
hiisl>nnd*B life wafl satriflred by the tymnt, and 'Abbisa 
was reduced to poverty. Thia ein'Uin stance took pluoo in 
803 A. U. (1H7 A. 31.)- ThLTP an.- atill extant aomo Anbic 
vi'TSci which beautifully eelnbratc hor love and her misfor- 
tan«i. Sec Jn'fnr ut-B>innak{, 

'Abbas 'All, ^jls f^^U^t a physician, and one of thn Per- 

Hinn magi, who followed the doctrines of Zoroaster, He 
wrutu A. D. 9SU, H book (^al]l.■d ' Uuyal Work', at the request 
of the son of the ruigiiing Khfilifa of Bughdid, to whom 
it was df-'diratf'd. Tt was trtmsluted into Latin by Stephen 
of Antioi'h in 1127 A. 1). 

'Abbas 'Ali (StiraA), who.*e poetirnl name is BetAh. ia tho 
Boa of Nawftb Saradiit 'All KhAn, sun of Uhulam 3Iu- 
hamnrnd Khan, the son of Faix-ullah Kh&n, N'awab of 

'Abbas bin-' All Shirwani, u^^r^ u^ t?^ t^"^, author 

of a hitit^iry, c»>ntiiining the namitive of Shor Shah the Af- 
ghan, who drovt' Huinayun from HirdutitAn. A. D. l-53!>, 
and ranuntt'd the tbrono of Dilhi. 'ITiia wurk waa di-dieatod 
to the tmperor Aklxir, and is ralli-d Tijlifa-i-AkIi.-iirshiihi. 
Tlie firwt jNirt uf thiH work was Ininaluted into Urdu by 
UK;fhHr 'All Khan in the tinne of Lord Comwallis and 
ifl entitled ' Tarikh-i-Sher bhahi.' 

Vide Dowtwn, Elliot'fl History of India, IV, SOL] 

'Abbaa Miraa, a Peraian prinro, son of FuH* 'Ah* Shih, was 
born in 17tt3. He died in 1S33. His di-ath wits a great 
hma to his country, although he could not provent tho 
encro«rhm<^nts of Rushih. HJ.'4 eldnst aon, Muhammad 
Mirza, niounted the throne in 1H.34. on the death of Fat|i 
'All, undiT the united protraction of Kngland and Kuaaia. 

'Abbaa Miraa, (i/^ippH*. whose title was Nawiblktidir- 
udJuula, waa the author of a Ma^nawi in Urdu verse, 
oontuining a hist^jrj* uf Uhriat. He was living in Lakhiuiu 
in L84'J A. I)., and waa then about oighty yvara of agv. 

'Abbaa (Shah) I, ''^ U"'^. suroamed the Great, and 
fcevmth kiiij? uf Perajji of the Safawi family, was i>oni on 
Monday the29thof Jimuarx* lo7l A. 0. (Ist llanuifan, U7H 
A H.). He was proeluimed king of Persia, in hia sixteenth 
year, by the ehiefo of Khuriaan, and took potwrasion of the 
throne during the lifetime of his father, SuJfan Sikandar 
JShnh, Hunmmed Muhammad Khudabanda. A. D. l^Ktt, 
(99t} A. H.}. Hu waa the fint who mjidi> Isfahan the 
capital of Persia. He VAfl brave and active, and cnhirged 
the bfiundariea ".'f hia dominiona. Ho Itx^k conjointly with 
th<- Kn^rli^th fereea, in 1622 A. D., thi^ ialand of Orrnua, 
which had been in thft poaaoasion of the Portuguese for 
122 yoJini. He reigm.-d 44 luuHr years, waa coiitempoi-ary 
with Ak>iHr and Jalmngir, luid died on ITiursdjiy, the 8lh 
uf January. I(l2y A. !». {'UXh Jumada I, 103H A. II.). 
Hia graudaoa euccM-dod him and took thu title of t^hah 

He was a higotod ShTa. In later hiMoriDH ho is gene- 
rally calli^t jrfUwiaV' f**^ ^^^ Translation, I, 445, 453.] 

'Abbaa (Shah> II, J*^ »^ cr*^. great-grandaon of 8h(ih 
'Abbaa I, succoodul his father Shah Safi to the thrtme of 
IVraia in the month of May, I«42. A. D. (Safar ID.V2, A. H.), 
when hu waa «carcoly t4<n years old. ^^andahar, which 
woa liiat by his (iithcr, wu« recovarrd by thia prinoe bo- 


fore he wu nxt«en yetat of sge. 8hih Jfthin madi* many 
iforta to recorer this city, but with no success. Ue 
reiguod 25 lunar yea«, ana wae cut off by ihe Itut vcntrta 
in his 34th yooi-, on tlie 'iUlh Aoguat "I666 A. D. {oth 
Ilttbr<nI-uwwuL, IU77 A. }{.} I-[o wuii ann^^ff^dril by bis eon 
8a£i Mini, who took the title of Shah Sulumin. Ac- 
rording to Chardin, he tii«l on the 25th Sept"inber which 
corre&pondB with the 5th Rftbr-u?-Srinf. Vide Orme'a 
Historical Fnigmeota of th« l[o(,nU EuipirB, p. 196. 

Abdal, ( J'*^ ) Boa of *AU R^ mlcr of Little Tibet 

dosing the reign of Shah Jahiln. He was cafitun^d, and 
Adam Khaa was up^Miint'-d f^nvomnr of Little 'libvt. Vidt 
Tktwson, Elliot's«>r>- af Indiii, VII, G3.] 

Abdal Chak, ( w£a. JttXJl ) undo of Yuauf Khkn Chak 

(U»t king of Kanhmir, who imccnnitxid to the emperor 
Akbiir). I'idd Aiti intnaUULin I, 478.] 

Abdali, u''*^', • W' Alimiid Sliih AIkUU. 

Abdals, the forty, hence railed Chihii-tandn, After Muham- 
ni-ni'*- dLfitht tho pjirth Lompluinod to God that ehe would 
h«n<L'furth be no longiT honor*;d by prophcHa walking on 
hur nurfttco. (rod promiwd thiit tL(?ro should always Ik? 
en f*ar1h forty (or, accordinp; to some, seventy-two) holy 
m>'n, t-ullisl Affldl*. for whustj sake he would not destroy 
thi- rftrth. Thi.' chief of the Forty ia calliid ' Uhauj.'J 

Abdar Begam, /•^j'**^', one of the ooncabiaeB of the 
KmptTor AkUar. 

'Abdi, t5^^' hi* proper name is not known. He is the 
author of Ih** work call'^d " Turjama-i-Takmila," a traiu- 
liition of Yafi'ffe Logimdn of l^adiriya aaintfl into Putaiaa 
v«'r*c', cumpleted in 1641 A* !>., 105 1 A. IL^ uudvr Shah 

'Abdl of Tun, t^**^i • pO«t who had a predHection for 

Miifnttwt'fl, ujid ifl th*" author of the ** Ouuhar-i-Shah- 
wdr," which i^ in the style of Ni^ami'a Mukhum-ul-Asrar. 
Ill" cnrati' to celphrity in Khurifcan in 1545 A, D., 95it H. 
riW« Khwuju /nin-ul>'Abidin 'Ali 'Aluii, who apiwars to 
he the same person. 

*Abdi, ir^' witl Nawedi, l^^^iy* fid* Khwi^ju Zain- 


Abdi, C5^'. author of a hcToic poem callod Anwur-naitui 
in praise of Nuwib Anwur-uildin Khiui of the Kiunatik, 
in which th.: exploit* nf Major I^awn^nr*' and tho first 
conte«t» botw(^«m the Kn^Ush and French in India arc 
n"-onied with toU-rublc accuracy. Vutt Abjadi. 

'Abdul-' Ali (Maulana), (mtitL-a "lui^rui-ui^.m" (1. «. 

the 80a »f Knowlcdfct^j. th'.' son of MulU Ni^am-uddin 
Kilialt. Ho if* the author of tbo * ArkAu Aibu' Kikuh' 
Rnd Huvcral otli<-r workfi. Jl4Mli.Ml A.U 1811 (12*^6 A. U.). 

♦Abdul-' AM«,-r^ 4:?^ >'->*'' '*^. ««» of ITmar (Omar) 

th>; A4-y'oiid Khalifa aft^-r Muhunuuad. He did not nuiCPod 
Ui» r.ith'T in tlie khilatat lln.' Muiuunmadaus coaaidex 
Kim u gT«-nit biwyrr. 

'Abdul-'AaiBjJlW' **^, author of the Tirikh-i-Husaim. 
i4mtatniri^' thi> Lifeof the fiimou« Sadr-uddin Mohammad 
Hujwiitt ti'^^u-l^ixru!. wh(>**(* tomb i^ h«dd in thif hif^hett 
ven<*rat4oti at KuIImu-k* in tha Dukhtn. This work witri 
dt^i'dU-*! to Ahmad Shah Bahmaui in 1446 A. P. 

>Abdul-*Asii bin-Abmad Dairini (Shaikh), 

^.y.ii, nil Anbian author who ditxl 1294 A. D. 
' Abdul-' Asis Khan, v** 'Arf*. 
'Abdul-'AEie (Maulana Shah), son of shlih WiUf- 

uUah. a learnj.'d Muaalman of DihlL Uv ia Uiv aulhur of u 

Persian conimcntar>' on Uie Kur&n. ^nlitbd "Talair F*i 
ttl-'Azia", and several other W{.rkK. Hia dtuth took 
in Juno 1S24 A. D. (7th Shuwwil, l2aB, A. U.J 

'Abdul- 'AziB (Shaikh), Xf^^ »H* -t^i of Dibit tt 
biamed niuu who died in the tirao of th( mn|M'ror Akliar, 
A. D. 1567, 975 A. U. 'Abdul-Kadirof liadaon found 

the chronogram of hifi dt«th in the following wonis 

" Ku^b-i-l'ttriVat-niuna.'* 

'Abdul-'Azlz, omptTor of Turkey, son of Sultin Malimud, 
Butretxied bin brothnr Sullin 'AbduJ-Mujid OD Ou- '^oth 
Juiiu l«t3l, 1277 A. H. 

•Abdul-' A8ia (Sliaikh), >0«Jl ^ ^. His pot^Ucal 
name wiis 'lajtat. He held a mans«li itf 700 in the tvign of 
Anrangrafh, and died in thu vearleHUA. D*. 1001 A. U. 
He ifl the author of a poem calli-d tiaki-n&nm. 

For a deuaif>d biogniphy vui* the Majm*'-mfuNaf4i:'] 

'Abdul-fiaki, (y**^'**^, author of the AIa4?ir-i.liiUjimi, 
or McraoixB of 'Abdur-Uiibim Khan, Khiin-KhinAu, nnd 
of all the illustriouM nohl.js, uulhors, und jni-ita, who re- 
sided at Iho lourt of Akbur. Jlo eonipU-ted hia work in 1610 1 
A. D., I0:i5 A. H., nnddi«?dabouttheytMirlti42 A. U.. lOo^i 
A. H., in i\w n.i^ oi Shah Juhan. 

For furtlier notes r»d* liowson, Klliot's Hixtorv of \nAim 
VI, 237-] ' ^^ 

•Abdul Bald, Mautaui. He was a Smir in the beginning of 

Aklmr's reign.] 

'Abdul- Basil, (Maulana), -t-^f '>^ OJjyo^ ^^ ^„ ^^ 

Kustam *A1L He wi-oto a commentary on Iho Kuria 
which he left ineomplL'te. He alao wrt'.le a work cmXivti 
*Ajib-ul.Iiiiyiui fi 'olum-il-Kuhui. He diodinlSOS A ii. 
1223 A. H. 

•Abdul-Pattah. ^Ssl}\ o*a, author of tho IVniiau work callwl 

"Aurdii-i-Ghiiu^iya," on8ufi£m,iuidof oucuntitlod "Javi. 

'AbdlU-Qhaflaur, )^i^\^, whose full title xe. fihujkb Najm- 
uddin 'Abdul-UhaflFlir ;L-»h-Shttrri KuxwitU. is tlie author 
ot the *' Hawi." " Fi^pih,*' " Lubab," and " «luub LulAb *• 
He diod in the year 1205 A. 1)., 663 A. H. 

'AbdiU-QhafuP, of I.ihor, t^j^i'jy^' dot, ^^^ ,^ 

author and a pupil of Altdur-liidjman Jami. He diwi in 
the J ear 1500 A. D., 912 A. H. 

'Abdul-GhafUr (Shah), j>^' •>*? aU, oommonlv railed 
Jiaba Kapiir, a anint whose tomb is nt (JwiliAr. He w»a{ 
a nutivo of Kalpi, and a dificiph- of Shah MiuUr. Uu di 
in tho year 1671 A. 1)., 979 A. U. 

Vui^ \m TransLation, 1, p. 539.] 

•Abdtll-Ghafur, Shaikh, of A'cunpurtn SambhaL a xnioil 
of 'AWul-Kuddua. He diwl in 996 H.] ^*^^ 

'AbdlU-Ghani (MiraA). i^' *>^ lj>«, « natirc of 
Kashmir, wrote under the nanu. of Ktibfil, He dit^ in 
the year 1726 A. D.. 1139 A. H. ; mfr lv«b6L 

'Abdul-Hakk (Shaikh), i^j^^i i}»-^t o-J* i^, of DiWi, 
sunmmed ' Mul^ddi,', son of .Saif.uddin K.n of Su'd-nlbih 
Turk. He wua a dewMmdant of one of Amir Timur'a 
foUowens who had rrmainiMl at Pihli, a(\rr tho rr-tura of 
the conqueror fc> hi» native land. He is Uio autlior of Um 
"Tarikh-i-HuVk*.'* which ia monj froqu.>nlly styM 
"Tirilih-i-'AMul-Haklf," compiled in thi. 42nd y«u- of 
the »tiip.TOr ALb)Lr» reij:rn, 1596 A. D.. 1005 A. H. Ho 
went on a pilgrimage to Mecca and Slitdina, whi 1 ' * 
for loog timts and wrote works uih.n iimin 
CommcutMrica, Tnivola, Siifi doctrini^ »•.'; 
history, and his different trpatisM amr" 
morv than one buudnML The beat knoi^ l 



diiu SAkiniu" " Mat la' -ul -Anwar." " MnJirij-un-Nulmw- 
wut." " J;izb'«l-kulub", " Akhbir-ul-Akhyir" a Iwxik 
on the Buiiit*". Hi' was liom in the uiuiiUi nf .fariunrv 
1551 A. I>.. MulmrTHm 95H A. H. In tht> yt-or 1637 A. D". 
although lu' wjut then nimty yrare old, hi.' is naid to have 
hvtfa in i>i>«»t*ttioiJ of his fuculties. Ho ilicd in tht» yar 
1642 A. D.. lUo'i A. II. » u^itl ninety-four lunar Vfarn ; lii'i« 
hurioU on tho biinkof tho Haiu .SharoBi in Dihli. iind nnw 
holdit n hi^h mnk aniong^ tbt* (Uiintfn of IfinrluNlAu. Uio 
snn Shftikb Kur-ul-Hnl^lf is thfi author of the ^iil>(ln.t-ut> 

I' or turthur notes vidt Dowoon, ElUot'ii Historj* of India, 

VI, Kr'l, 4M3.] 

'Abdul-Hakim of SlyaIkot» j*i^)«wj:. ^iw x pupil 

ul Muulana Kanial-uJilin of Kn^ihinir. Hu wroto tho 
Hfthliiya, or iiiarf^inal nutcH, nn thf Tafsfr Baiziwf iind u 
f.liU)nyii on tlip iiiiiixinn' not'-s uf 'AlHlul-Gliuflfar. H« 
di(*d in thu ytiir 1656 ^V, L)., lOtiti A. H. 

'Abdul-Halim bin-Muhammad, f*4^l *H*' sur- 
n;iiii«'ii K'ljtti/izat/a, nn Aiabiiin author, who ilicJ in the 
yvy.1 l.SSii A. !>., U'Jr A. U. 

'Abdul-Hamid, rut' Ahumti IV, empomr of Turkey. 

'Abdul-Hamid of Labor, wai tho author of the 


K<-^r«iing Ihtti hLitor}*, ric^ Dowson, Elliot's History af 
India, VU. 3.] 

'Abdul- Hasan (Kazi), author of an Ambic work oa 

Jurirtprudi-n<e calU'd " /VhUam-us-SultAnf'. 

'Abdul- Hay (Mir) Sadr, ;**^,^' *H*J^.aU^amwi 

iiiua wlio wrotj-"' a I'hronOi^'ani on thi* ditath uf thi' i'mi>er4ir 
HiuiiAv'un, and uue on tho nccosbiuu uf Akbur Lc lobii 
A. D./9«3 A. H, 

Vtd* Ain Tmnfilation h 4fl0.] 

'Abdul-JaUl (Mir or Sayyid) t**l/^ J^-^^' »*- 

^,/i*. of Bil,^rdni in Audh. lb' v-iia a. j^nrat iH.'holar and an 
Rb'gnnt iwx't, and bia pcM-tJ* nl niinip was Wiwiti. In IGyW 
A. D., nil A, H., h<' vbitod the- t-arnp uf Auningzilj nt Ui- 
japiir ; and boiug jMv»i*iit*d to tlmt iiiuim.n-h by .Mirza 
'All Bt'g, th«^ royal intellipencer, obtainud a niunsub tind 
a jsgirt with thy joint offiw?a of ljjikh(>hi JPaymnstrT) 
and Nowtf-wnU'r of Guinit; fiora which plate hi- was 
rimovr-d io lUmkar in f^indh, with similar u^iputntinvnts. 
ThrouRh ftomu intrij^ufs at coorl, he wua ^t't^a^^•d fi-oui 
Bhakar iu the n-i|<n of Fiimikh-siyHr in 1714 A. !>-, 11 26 
A. H., but upuu tirLuronUincL'rt Ix-inj^ L-xi>luini-d, br was 
rostorod in thu most honorabb* inanuiT. and wA» at 
Ifiiglh jx'miitt*-d to ofliL-iatc by dipvity, whilst h*- hiniiiclf 
nmainijd lit Dihli until 1721 A. !>., 113^ A. H., when 
bo re^i^rncd in favur of his son MJr Sayyid Huhiuinimd. 
IJy wuM the son of Sjtyyid Ahmad of BJl^riini. wus Wm 
nn till? 2nd JunL- 1G61 A. I*.. I3th Shitww-iil 1071, and 
ditHl on Monday Ihu 28lh LVHtinb-_T 1724 A. J».. 23i-d 
Kabi' I, 1137, agfd (Ho luiinv ytitrs. and ih burii-d at 
Bilgr£ni tlosf to his failures tomb. He is thv aulh'ir of 
several works, out- of which (-(mtalning letters written in 
Purxian is callrni " Adiib-id-Murf-ilui. 

For a dotAilc'd biog:raphy. vuit A£ad*s Vanc-i-Azdti, and 
tbt' Tahqirat-uti-yasirin by 'Abtlu! J^aWs son.] 

'Abdul-Kadir (Sultan), was tbf df^srindant of a Mn^ 
nibiiiit family of tbi> race of Haiihim, who trarc ihfir ptnii- 
givc to the Kbalifos of thi? lineai^t* of Falitiiri. His 
fnthor died in )K34. His publir ranker bi-gan ut thi* limo 
of the contpu-wt of Algiers by the Kn'ni-h. In IH47. ho 
was defeuti'd and surrrndenKi liimn'-lf, but was ufti-r- 
wards permitted, to reside in CouBtautirio]ilo. He died in 

'AbduUKadir bin-Abil-Wafe al-Misri (Shaikh 
Muhiy-uddin) csr^ ^^)^^ i^j-i^^'^ ^H'^^ 
^^«*it^. uutliur of the " JawaUir-ul-Matiyu U Tubukit- 

il-Hanafiyft, a biographical dictionary giving an arcuunt 
of the Haimfi lawyers, aiTnnged in alphabetical order. Hp 
died in 1373 A. !>.. 775 A. H. 

'Abdul-Kadir Badaoni (Shaikh)i t^Vt^^j^^' ^^ 

iri^< wufi the flfm of MulCik Shah of Badion and pupil 

of ShaiVh MubArak of Xsgor. Ho is tho author of a 
work tidbxl " Muntukhub-ut-Tawaiikir'. He wjis a very 
leumed miin, and wai* frequently emplovMi by thr ejnpemr 
Akbar to make IntniiUtionN into IVntiim from the Arabic 
and Sanskrit, ns in thp ruse of " Alu'jam-ul-Buldin," 
** Jami'-ur-HaHhirli", and the " Hamsyaa". He alao oom- 

C>d ft moral and n-liffious work, entitled " Xajat-ur- 
hid," and Imnftlatitd two out of th« eighteen Se*" tious 
of tho '^Mrihabhiirat," and raado an abridgmi^nt of tho 
Hifttor>' of Kashmir in lobl A. D.. 1)95) A. H. The year 
of his death is not known, but he was Ii\-ing in !.V.)6 A. !>., 
1004 A. H., in which year \w eompluUvl the Muntokhub- 
ut-Tawiinkh. Ui*t p(X'tie:il name wan Kaditi. 

H* died at Badaon. in 1001. For n detailed biography 
riV/* Jfjunml, Asi;Uii- SiKriuty, Bengal, iHGiJ, l*t. I, y. U»; 
and I>«w»Mn^ V, -l??.] 

'Abdul-Kadir Siihrawardi, c^-^Jl^n^ J^^ ***. 
author of ih-* work tidltd "Adib-ul-Murid." 

'Abdul-Kodir Bedil (Mirza), J'i-0'>^' ^^* 'Jy* 

a reb-bnilcd puL-t. bt-ttin* known by bis poHiral n.rme of 
B<'iUl 4u: Mirza Bt'dil. He was a Tart;ir ot^the tribi- of 
BirlAs; in hitt youtli he was «?mploy<^-d by prince A' ram 
Shah, son of Aumns^lb, but being on** day ordered by the 
piince to writt* a pantgync in lti<i pmi.Hu, ht.' resigned tho 
srnnre and never afterwards serve*! any one. He is th«* 
author of sevf^rat works, sueh as " Muhit A'sam" ; "Chai 
Tii*ur"; '• lnatia.-i»Bedil", also called Kuk'at-i-Bedil, and 
of a Di'wdn or book of tides in Pi-rsiiin, conUiining 20.UO*i 
couplets. H*' died in the coininencemenl of the reign «<f 
Muhanmiiul .Shib, on the 24th Xoviiiiber 1720 U. S., -lib 
Safor, 1133 H. He is alm> the author uf a work ealltHl 
"Nukat-i-Bedil" euntmniiig the memoirs of Shaikh Junnid* 
third in descent from the eeb'brat*-'d Sluiikh Safi, and 
grandfather of Sh&h Isma'il Sjifawi. king of PerHia. 
J'itfr Spmiger, Cabilugue of Uudh MS8,f j>. 37i^.] 

'Abdul-Kadir G^ilaiu or Jilani or Jill (Shaikh), 

altMj i_all« d Pir-i-Dn-stgir and (ihaufl-nl-A'ziim .Muhiy-tid- 
din, a saint, who i»? said to have performed a numlw.T of 
mimeles during liis lifetime. He waa Iwrn iu Uilin or 
Jildn in Piirsia. in the year 107H A. I)., -l7l A. H., and waa 
grtaitly revered for his learning, his piety, and the sanctity 
of bis nuinners. He died on the 22nd Febmarj- 1166 
A. I)., 17th Uabi' IL, 561, aged 91 luiuir years, and is buried 
at Baghdad, where ht- held the jdaee of guardiiin uf Abu- 
Hanifa'tf tomb. 'ITie order of Dervishes, i-alled after him 
tite Kadiris. acknowledge him as founder. His tomb 
IS held in high venvmtion amongst the 3J.uhammadjinM. 
He is sjiid to have written uuiny Inwiks on Myslical 
Theology, amfmgst which aco the " Futub-ul-Uhaib", 
"MalfujtBt-i-KAdiri' iu Arabie.nnd a tntnslationof ihesame 
in Persian, nomed " Jlfllfu?At-i-.IflAni." Another work 
of his in Arabic on JurisprudemM; is eaUed trhunyat-ut- 
f alibin, and another work on Sufisin is entitliil Boltjat- 
ul-iVsror, and a book of Od"s f.'aUed Diwiln-i-(,»hau?-ul- 
A'zam. rWr Muhammad Kosim (S4tyyid) and AIhIiLIs. 

8«ime say that he was born at Jil, a village neor 
Baghdid ; henco ho should be called JlU.] 

»Abdul-Kadir (Maulana), a>^-> J^^^ •>** ^ V> of 

Dihli, tho son of Alauluwi Wali-uUah. He i^i the author 
uf an Urdu (tunmentary on tho IjLuran, entitled "Tafsir 


*Abdul-Kadir Nalnl (Maulana), ^^^^ j^^^ "H^. a 
pot t whu was ft native of Niiii ueta Isfahan, and contem- 
porary' with Shaikh ^'di. 



'AbduUEAdir, a rtaident of Dovi. a vilUgo in the diatrict 
ot Lakbnuu. From tho Jimi'-ut-Tawirikh of Kaahid- 
udJin he tmiuluted ihftt portion vhiLh id eoUod tho 
book of P^tnajnl, into easy Perrinn, nt tho rcqneet of 
Mnjur Heibert in Mny 1823. It \b n roUoction of nU the 
•riojiTPOt ftsid ono of the moet vnJuJible worka of tha Bagea 
of Hind. It containa an uocoiint of th«ir \-arions suctt, nnd 
the hiBtory of their nncient king».alfto thft Ufo of Saln'omuni. 

'AMul-Kahir Jtirjani (Shaikh), ^^j^j^^^ ^ 
■oil of 'Abdur-ItabmAn, was tho nuthor of tho book 
mUed " DaUil-ul-I'jai." and (k-viTol other works. He 
.lird in 1081 A. D., 474 A. H. 

'Abdtil-Earim, (*ij^' **+*' sumamcd Iniim-addin AbuU 

Kisiiru author of tho ** Sharij Kabir*' und *' Sharif Saghir**. 

'AbdtU-Karim bin-Muhammad al-Hamadani, 

liiithur of a Pfreiun Coiuni«-nt-iiy on thr Siriijiyu of Suju- 
w; intitlfd " FHTMj.ut-Tjiji Shiul> Furaif ib-Sirdji". 

»Abdia-Karim Sindhi (MuUa), u*'^^ r<^' '^f 
a native of Sindh who served under Khw^a Afohindd 
Gawan in the Dakhin, and was liWnjif about the year 
1431 A D.. MB6 A. H. Hi^ i& tlui author of thi< hiKtoiy 
of Sultan Miihinud Uahmnui, uiititli'd **Tankh-i-Mnhmud- 

'Abdul-Karinii a native of Dihli. who aecompunicd N&dir 
8hah to Pcma, and wrote a hi8tur\* of Ihflt conquerur 
about the yt«r 1754 A. D„ 1168 A- U^ entitled " Bavan- 
i-Wa^' ". 

Regarding thia work, viiU Dovson, Elliot's History of 
India, Alll. 124.] 

'Abditl-Karim* Mir. of Bnkhiri, who died at Comrtaatt- 

nople about 12IG H. (1S30 A. D.) Ho in tho author of a 
history of A%hiniflt&n and Turkistin (1740 to 181$ A. D.), 
trinslated into Frcnrh by C. Sihefer, I'am, 1876,] 

*Abdtll-Eftrim, Mnnshi, who died abont thirty years af<o. 
Ht^ is the author of the Tarikh'i Ahmnd^ a hifltory of 
Ahniad Shall Durrani and his succt^avon. Tho Ponrian 
t«-xt wua lilhogruphiHl in 1*260, und nn Urdii translation 
under tho title of Wdki* dt-i-l}urrdtti wiiji iHSiiod at Kinh- 
pur in 1292 H. C1876'a. D.) 'Abdul-Karini also wrote a 
IftrgtT work, cntitlnd Muhdrttha-i.Kdhui o K«nHak4r^ (1266 
II.) which contains th»> heroic dtieds of Aktui: Khin* son 
of Dftst Miihuinnuid Khtin, and ia rhiiHy Uined on the 
Akhar-ndiua wrilli-n in vi-nsii bv MuuHhi K&.<dm Jan ; and 
th- Ttiiikk-i'tdttjdb tuhfittan iii-akhdl>, (A. H. 1265) on the 
Sikh wir*,] 

'Abdul- Kuddus Gangohi (Shaikh) t^j*^» *** -^ 

^jxii, a native of Gangoh, near Dihli, wiu a dosc^mdant 
oi Ab4-Hnni&t of K6fa, and a famoiu suint of India. Ue 
di(d on thi* 27th KovfmNr, In37 A. D., 23rd Jumdda U, 
V44 A. H., the chronogram of the year of his dtath Inung 
" Shaikh-i-ajnll." Uia g^undson Siuiikh 'Abdun>Nab( held 
i hisrh post in tho n-igTi of Akbar, but was subsequently 
impn'toni.'d and murdcrwL 

'Abdullah, wJlWl *>>>£ ^rf ^1 a^, the father of Muhammad 

thf Prophet, waa a younger son of * Abdul-MattaUb the son 
of Hisium. Ue was remarkable for his beauty, and though 
ft driver of camela, he is aoid to have poseeesed Hurh mt<ntA, 
that his hand was solicited in marriaKO by the fnirtwt and 
the most virtuous of the wom^n of his tribe. Ho was so 
universally admind, that on the night of hia nuptiak one 
huu<[n<cl younjj} fi!niaJeit cxpir^Kl in despair. Uis wife Amiaa* 
th'Mi^ lonff tttim>n, at liuit became the mother of Muham- 
mad. 'Abdullah died during the lifetime of his father, eight 
days (dome say eight years) aft«r the birth of his aon, 
and bit his widow and infiint son in vecv mean ciroum- 
atauces, his whole substanco consisting ot only fire camola 
and one female Ethiopian slave. * Abdul -MuttaUb, hia 
Aith(*r. was th'^refore obliged to take cart; of his i^ndaon 
MuhM mnm d, wluch he did aud at his death exyoin«d hia 

cldert son Abfi-Talib to provide for him for tho fatmr. 
'AImIuIIhH dieii about the yciir 671 A. D. 

^Abdullah bin-' All al-Halabi, was one of the 
writers on Shi'a jurisprudence, lui he was amongst the 
liest compibTH of tlie triditions of that sect. It doea 
npp'ar that any of his legal compoaitionB are extant. 

'Abdullah, '^■^j i^ ^tiXkf. »on of Rawih^t vmaan Antnanf 

poet who signalleed himself in arms aa well a« poetr}*. 
De br-pivine nn assoeint© of Muhamrand and was sent with 
tlie army, of which Ziiid wiis the thief, aguinRt the lin^tk*. 
und wiw killed at Mutsi in Syria with 2aid and Ja'far thr 
brothiT of 'All. in 629 A. D., 8 H. 

'Abdullah 80U of Zubair,^j (^ &Uld^ was the fint 

Musalmdn ))om at Madina amongst those who were called 
'Muhdjirin', that is to say, fugitivta from Mecca. After thn 
battle of Kftrbula in 680 A. D., in whirh Husain tho 
son of 'All wflA fllain, the inhftbitnn(j4 of Mi^eca and Madinsiv 
pcrcoivuig tliat Vaxi'd did all that lay in his power t|j| 
BUppretiS the house of 'Ali, made un insum^'tion agoiosfc 
Tasid, the awond khalifa of the house of Umnyya, and 
prueUiraed 'Abdullali khalifa in tlie city of Mecia. Thn 
Alitsabndns of Syriti als«>. after the death of Yazul and 
Mu'fcwij-u the 2mL acknowledged him for tho spare of 
128 days, after which time Marw&n the son of (lokam. 
was proclaimed khalifa in the city of Dnmaacus. 'Ab 
nllah still reuiaiuing in the city of Mecra, was besie^ 
there in 691 A. D., 72 A. H., by H'UJiij. general of 
khalifa 'AbduUMalik. The siege laMti.'^l » months and' 
17 days, tifter which 'Abdullah made a sally uixm the 
enomy, destroy*-d a great number of them with his own 
hand, and wiis at length killed fighting valiantly in 69S|, 
A. D.. 73 A. n. His huad was cut off, and seat to thai 
khalifa 'Abdul-Malik. 

'Abdullah, j^»-* ^^ aJUi »>^, son of Mos^Od, companion 
(»f Aluhammad. Ue died in 662 A. D., 32 A. H. 

'Abdullah, u-^ tiH ^\m^ ^n of 'Abbia the tmck of 
Muliammad, was distinguiahnd as a teacher of the 
book. Before ho was ten yean* of age, he is said to hav» 
I'eoeivod inspiration from tho angel Gnhriul. Ho was bom 
in 619 A. D., three years before the Hijra (622), and was 
considered the ablest intcriweter of the Kuran then in 
exii4ti>nc4}. He waa appointed governor of Ua»ra by thu 
khalifa 'All, and remained there for some time. Ue 
then rotumod to l^ij^z. and ditnl at X^yi*^ * town lying 
60mile« eastward of M'MKa, in G87 A. D.. 6b A. IL. ag^ 
JO years, His mothi-r Umra-ul- FiLjl wna the &ist«r 
Moimuno, one of the wives of MiihimmuuL 

'AbduUah,^^ ,^^ aUf m, son of 'tTmar the Booond khA< 

li& after Muhammad, was one of tho most 
Azabiana amongst tho contemporaries of Mnhammad. 
died in 692 A. D., 73 A. H. Ue is famous tOr hu 

'Abdullah, Ajyj ^^ aUi i^, son of Yoifd, wu cvlebnl 

afl a lawyi-r in the 7th centiiry. He waa tlie disciple 
Abu-Huraim and Abu-'AbbaK companion*! of Mnhttmuind. 
and lived till the hundrt^dth year of tho H^ra, or 71» 
A. I).. 100 A. H. 

'AbduUah, ^ e/J aUi •5»^«» the ton of 'Ali, aon of 
'Abdullah, ^n of 'Abbas, the undo of Mnhammad, wui 
the uncle of the first two khalffas of the Abbasidea, Hs^ 
Abnl-'Abb&s alMSaiGUi and Al*Mun»ur. under whom he 
served as general against the khidifa Marwan, and hav- 
ing vanquished that prince, proclaimed his nephew Al- 
StdTali. He was guilty of horrible cruelties on the fninii v 
of the Ommaidf'S. When his eldest nephew died, hi* 
brother AUMftii*ur took upon him tho govenmumt, 
displeased 'ALKlullnh so much, that ho raised an ann^* 
againift him, but was defeated and aftorworda pcv6dioua}>- 
murdercd in 754 A. D„ 137 A. IL 



'Abdullah, ^j)j ^^fJ iJJ| ,^, Oio son of HSwanti, wm tho 

ffjiind'-r of an impious sect, who were calk-d afUr Iiiro tho 
Ku-trnndiU'S. diu-ing: tho Khilafut of AI-Mhiisut the Ahb&- 
siile, a>(r.i]t the ypur 776 A. D. 

'Abdullah, AiJ\AXPy tho son of Shams- iiddinj anthor of the 

oiarginfU notes en the ''Talwih/' entitled "yihhiya bar 
Tttlwjh,*' a work on jiirisprudrnco. 

'Abdullah, jAI^ ^^y$ JJJt *H*, tho son of Tihlr, tho general 

of Al-Maumn. Hi? succeeded his hrolhur Talha in tho 
govRnuncnt of Khiiros&n about tho year 828 A. U., 213 
A. H„ rt'ignod 17 yuara, and du>d in 84 4 A. D., 230 A. H. 

Ho was fiUfi<.f'Ji_-il by his son 'I'tthir I[. 

'Abdullah Abu-Muslim, JL-^^I ^\ t^, author of 

the Commrntiiry on thft Kuran, railed "■ Sahfli Ma'alim." 
Ho wtifl btjm iu 817 A. D., 'J02 11., und diod in Ihc yrnr 875 
A. I>., 26 L H. Hf iacallfd ly some wxitcrs AbuUUiitmin 
Mnslim Ijin-ril-Hiijjaj bin-3IiHlirii al-Kiishniri, and by 
others Mnslim bin-K:tjjjtj Xisliapuri, which sec. 

•Abdullah, ^y«.ay«Jf ^^y ^j aUi oxfi, the son of T^TJ^ib 

al.Sarakhsi, preceptor to the KhaUfu Jlu'tajid Billah, by 
whom hti WHS put to d*vilh A. 1). 8'J[>. 28a A. H. Uo is 
the unthor of iho " Bahr-ul-Manri^, " and faaghiAji (a 
commculary od the Isn^«(fe uf Torph^Tus). 

'Abdullah, 4^»>* (^ *J^t iW*, tho son of 'Adiy, author of 

tho Kitiib Kami]. He died in 975 A. D., 365 A. H. 

'Abdullah, author of a collection of X^ttors^ entitled Inshi- 

'Abdullah, AfuJ ^ JU^ g/ aJJi .iot, the son of Maslim, 

th« »on of Kulaiba, was tho author of the work called 
" Kitab-iil-ma'arif," and several other works. Ho diod in 
B89 A. D., 276 A. H. 

'Abdullah, aJUf«>A£. author of tho Persian work on jurispru- 
dence, riilled " Alikam us-Salit." 

•Abdullah, (Jh^^^'-H^' **^ Kulborga, author of a work 
rall-vd '■ FftrH-n^rna," writton in 1407, A. D. 

•Abdullah Auaari (Khwaja), (jyUiJl M .^, aur- 

namud Shaikh Abn Ismail^ the son of Abii-A[aTi»6r, 
th»^ son of Abu-Ayyuh. He waa bom ut llinit in May, 
1006 A. T).» Hha'buii, 30Q A. Il„ and is the fouudur of the 
sect chUihI AnsAris in Hii-it and KhiiriUan Ue ditd on 
the "ind .July. 10H8 A. I).. 9th lUbf I.. 481 A. H., a^od 
84 lunar yearn, and is burird at Hirat in a pbice chilled 
(raxurgab. 'AbduUuh waa Eftruck with stones by tho boya 
when he was doin^ penance, und uxpired. 

'Abdullah bin-'AU bin-Abu-Shu'ba al-Halabi^ 

^^•'l AAa^^-t iji ^ i^. ^'lAjJ. One of the ear- 
liest ^Titers bnth on tho Hindi's and Law of thn Imdjniya 
sect. Hia gnindfiither, Abu-Shu'ba, is n-lntfd to havt^ 
euUected. tradil ioiifl in the time of the Imams llnsan and 
Ilnaain. 'AbiiuUiih wrolL- duwn these tniditiuiiA. and pre- 
sented his work, when completi'd, lo tho Imam Ja'far 
Sedik, by whom it is (jaid to have been vorifled and cor- 
■"Abdullah bin-' All, author of tho work callnl " Sirak 
nl-IIindi," which he parapbra«f'd from the Persian into 
thn Antbic, for it liad bi'en urigiiiaUy translated from 
Sanskrit into Uk Persian. 

•Abdullah Ahrar,jL^i *^'*Hp author of tho " Molfu- 

t4t-i-Rhwaja 'Abdullah." containin*; the doctrinus of tho 
jJalfshbandis, and of the '* Ania-us-yalikin." 

•Abdullah, r^^ e^ *J^I«^, the eon of Salim, author of 
th« qncAtions which Muhammad was uked on the subject 


of his prophocy. TTe is also th<> author of a work, callod 
" 'Aimat-ul-Mjuikul." Another work, aiUc-d " Ilaiir Ala- 
sdyii", is ascrilW to him. 

'AbduUah, '^''^ iji aAJj oa^^ ,^„ „f Muhammad, snr. 
naiiitd Kalduisf. an Arabian author, llu diud in 1121 
A. D., 5lo A. U. 

•Abdullah bin-Fazl-ullah, of SMr4«, author of the 

*' Tirilih-i-Wii^^af."' 

The firat four vohnnPH of this work, which may be looked 
upon as a continuation of tho ' Jah6n-kuihd\ go oa far as 
Sha'b&n,, 690. (Manh, 130U). Sobb«iuentl\% the author 
added a Utth volume- which relates tho ev-#nts down to tho 
year 728 (1328 A. D.) ; vxde Dowsuu, Elliots Histon' of 
India, III, 24.] 

'A imv LLAH ia also tho name of tho author of tho Tdrikh- 
i-Bdiidi, an Afghan History, written during the reiirn of 
Jahingir; ride Dowson, IV, 434] 

'Abdullah. c^LA ^U^.f aU|^^ tho son of 'al- 

Yafi'i Shafi'f, anthor of the Arabic work rolled " Rau/jit- 
ur-Itayal.iin," conlaininiEr a detailtKl account of the iivw* 
of Muhammad, the twilvu Iradms, and of all the saints of 
Arabia, Persia, and Hindustan. 

'AbduUah Shattari (Shaikh], UfjLb^ *^t i^, a de- 

Bcundant of Shaikh Shihab-uddin Suhrawardi. He came 
from Persia to Jiidia, and died in Milwi, A. D. U06, 809 
H^ and is huri^nl thoro. 

Ref-arding- the Shutfiirifl tide Journal, Asiotio Societv, 
B^m^n»l. 1S74, Pt, I. p. 216.] 

'AbduUah Hatifl, vidt Hatifi. 

'Abdullah Khan TJzbak, t-^jf^U* aUi 4^ ^^ ^ 

n'uuwiu'd o(Iif»'r in thw time of Akbar Uf was made 
govi-njor of aiandii (Malwa) in lo62 A. D., and afterwards 
rebeUed againet tb.- king, but was defeated and compelltd 
to leave tho country. 

For furtht-r notws vidt Ain Translation I, p. 320.] 

'AbduUah Khan, *-^jf cj^ *^' •>**. chief of the Usbaks, 
waa thr- son of Wikindar Khiin, the son of Jfini Bog 
Khan, a descnndimt of Jiiji Khan, son uf <.'hint;iz Klian. 
AlXcr the d^^th of his father ^during whose hfe he had 
several battles wilh liini), he ascend-jd the throno of 
Sanmrl^And and Qukhaia in 16K2 A. O., UDO A. H., 
invaded Khuratdn and took Hlrdt after a siege of nine 
months in l.iHo A. D., 99H A. H. Its governor 'Ali Kulf 
Khan with .'ii^-veral (ithtr cliii'fs wore put lo death, and the 
city was i^hnid^Ted. IK- was oonletuporary with SJiah 
'Abb4a of Piixiii anil Akbar .Shah, and lUed aft^r a rt-ign 
of 15 years, iiged fiti. on the 12lh February 1097 A. D., 
6th Hajab 1U0<> A. II. The chronogram of the year of 
his death is " kiyamat kayim tthud." Ho waa succoedcd 
by his sou 'Abdul-Mumin IClian. 

'AbduHah Khan Piruz-Jang, ^^J^ cj**^ *^* •>+* 

a d*isccndant of Khwaja 'Abdullah Al.irar. Hi' fame to 
India in thn? litter end of the nngii of thv r-mpi r<>r .\kbar, 
was Ffu.scd to th« rank of 60(10 by the emperor JabaJigir, 
and difd in the time of Shah Jahin, A. h. 1G44, 17th 
IShuwwal I0o4, aged nearly 7tt yoara. 

'AbduUah Khan (Sayyid), ^^ AliiiW^ *>^. styled 
Kutbul-Mulk, waa governor of AllahabAd from the time of 
liiihadur Shah, eaiptrtjr of Dihlt. and his younger hn>th«' 
Sayyid Ifusain *A1» Khan, that of Bihar. ' Thi»e hrothera 
sprimg from a numerous and respected family of tho 
dc^tcmdant-i of the prophet, who were settled in tho town 
of b&rlia, and in consequence of this origin, they «r« beat 
known in India by the name of Sidat, or Hay^nds. of Birb*. 
Farrukh-Kiyar, who by tho aid of these two brothers hud 
aficondod the throne of r>ibli» on his acrosnion in Ja- 
nuar}' 1713 A. D., 112a A. U., mado the fbniior his primfl- 



minister, with tho titlo of lyutb-ul-MiilV. and nppointod 
the latter Aniir-ulUmahi. llujuin 'Ali Khan waa 
aaMMinat«td by Mir l;liii(lfir Kh£n at thn iiutig»tion of t1i<^ 
emperor Muhamuiud Slidh on the 18th September 1720 

0. H, 27th2U.kA'du 1132, and his brother 'AbdulhUi. Khan, 
who made some rL-Hiatanoe, who defeated and taken pri- 
soner on tho 4th November fullowing-, 1-lth Mubarraui 
1133, and died in confinement after thr«w yp-ara on the 
19th Soptcmber 173;* O. S., 30th 2il-l>ijja 1136. Tho 
rvmuiuit of Husain 'Ali Rhia wuru truiuifent:-)! to Ajuur 
for bnri&l. Ilia brother 'Abdullah wua buried at Dihli. 

Regparding thft Sayyids of B^ha, rii/tr A'ln Troxudation, 

1, p. 390; £id for 'Abdullah Ku^b-ul-Mulk, riJt Dovaoo, 
VU, 447ff.] 

'Abdullah Kutb-Sbah, s^v^ ^Jl«>^* the sixth Sul^ 

of tho J^u^b-Shahi dj-nasty of Crolkonda in HuidaT&bdd, 
Dakhin. Hg sucM-rdrd Aluhuuimud Kn^b Sb&ti, ami 
reigned many years luidor tho protection of the emperor 
Shah Jahan, to whom he acknowlfilgtd himwU tributan-, 
and paid an anniiiil sum ; but in the yr>ar lG6tf A. 1)., 1066 
A. IL, ho di^t'loaaud tluitinunurt'h, and brought upon him- 
self much troablo. Tho tmperor had commanded him to 
pQnuit hia prime-miniater Mir Muhammud Sii*id and 
Ilia i»on lluhunimud Amm to ri'iKiir with thi.'ir uOucta to 
rourt. Ku(b-Shah disobi'ycd tlje mandate, and rontiiiing 
Mohammad Amin, then at Ffaidurubad, seized part of 
hta wealth. 'Vhe princo Aurnnfjzib, tlien governor of the 
imprrial ttrritorios in the Diikhin, pnrugfd at tliia condof-t. 
mardicd to Hudanib&d, which ho took and plnndorod. 
*Al)diLllHh woB obliged to ptirchiiao pardon by a contribution 
of a crore of Kupees, and the gift of his daughter in mar- 
riog^o to the son uf hih tnomy, tho princo i^ultan Muham- 
mad. From tliia timo 'Abdullah, during the remainder of 
hialifo, wuflinfactaranalofthecmpirD. 'Abdullah Kutb- 
IShah dit-d in Juno 1674 A. D.. Rubi" I 1085 IL, and wua 
aucceedcd by hia BOn'in>Uw Abul-Hoaan. 

'Abdullah ]ffan8ur,,j^^AJL« aU| ^^ author of the Taxjuna- 

i-Tii^'^V"'-i-^^i^y'*t '^^ntaining llic lives of the moat cele- 
biat4.-d Suli^ iiud 'Shaikhs. 

'Abdullah Mirza, \^ eJJl 4>a«, wua tho son of Ibr&him 

Hirsi, tho son of ShAhrukh Mirza, and grcat-gmndson of 
Amir Timur. Upon hia luher'a death (alwut tho year 
1443 A. D.), he became posKiasod of the sovereignty of FiEJrs, 
or Ponia ; bat four yoan after, he was diapoaaosaed by 
oas of hia oouelns-gennon, namftd Mirxi Abu-Sa'id, and 
waa obligt^d to fly to hia undo Mini Ulugh iJeg, who thdn 
reigned in Tranifoxiana, and who gave him his daughter 
in marriage. Some time after, Ulogh Brg having U^f-n 
defeated in a bnttlo against his son Mirzil 'Abdut-Lfitif, 
and aftbrwanla put to dcnUi by him in October 1449 A. 1>., 
Ramozin bd3 A. H., and tbc liitttr not enjoying the suecc^ 
of bis ptirricidp above six months, 'Alxiiilluh, .ta son-in-law 
to LHugh iJeg, took poaswwioii of hia duminions : but 
Alirza AbO-Sa'id, his const n-german. dt*laped war ngainat 
him. and def»<at4-d him in u pitchi-d buttle, in which he 
perished. This event took place in the year 1401 A, D,, 
Soo A. H. 

'AbduUah (MaoUni). aU| ,^ Gy^. son of Tlahdid. He is 

the author of Sharh Mizanol-Montik and seveml other 
workd. IIq was a native of Dihli, flourished in thu 
n'igTL of Sultan Sikaudar, and died in 1616 A. D., 022 H. 

^Abdullahy Maulins of 8ultaiipur. a learned bigoted Sunni 
at Akbor's Court. He hnd thu title of *Makhd6m-ul-Mulk.' 
Bi3 pUyed a prominent part in tho religiuos diiouaftiuDfl 
which 1*m1 Akbor to renounc<< IsUm. Ho diufl, or wiis 
poisoned, in 090 H. Vtde Ain Tranalation, p. 644, and 
p. vii (of Abul-Foil's Biography).] 

'Abdullah Tamimi, ^j*t^ ^Ut «H«. author of the Aro- 

hit; work c^llud " iUu^;a-ul-Abrar," which contains tho 

history of Muhammad, and Memoirs of mdiny of hia cotn- 


'Abdullah Tirmlzi (Mir), ^J^^ aJJi ^jf, was an clegnnt 

pott nnd wrote an excellent Nasta'lfk hand, for which ho 
received from the emperor Juhdugir the poetical name of 
Wasfi, or praiseworthy, and the title of Muahkin-I^alani, 
that is to say, out of whose pen flowed musk. He ia the 
author of several poems. His death happtned in tho ye*r 
lti2GA. D., 1035 A. H. His tomb stands at a place in 
Agra, called NagU Jawiihir. 

For the inscription on hia tomb, and hia son Mohammad 
Salih Kashfi^ tide Proceedings, Asiatic Society Bencral, 
1874, p. 10'2.] 

'Abdul-Latif, t^AjJL^t '^^ ^ celohrat4xl ph^-sidoo, bonx at 

Baghdad A. D. 1261, CCO A. H. To the acquirement of 
mcdicul knowledge he applied himself with diligonco; and 
it vfnA fhierty with Uiis view that, in his 2Sth year, he left 
Baghdad in order to visit other countriea. Having spent 
a yc'iu in M:in»il, he removed to Damoscos in Sym and 
tht-nee to Egypt where thii people of the higheat nink 
continued to vie with each other in cultivating hia friend- 
ship. Ho afterwards travelled to Aleppo, and resided 
several yoara in Greece. Of 160 treatises which he com- 
posed on various sabjocts, only ono, entitled '^Hiatorw 
JRft;yt{ Compendium," has survived the ravagea of time. 
He died suddenly at Baghdad in his 6dth year. 

'Abdul-Latif, «Jula)J| ojx, a groat-gzundaon of Amir Ti. 

miir. In October 1449 A. I)., he defeated his father Mirca 
Ulugh Beg in an action near Samarkand, took him pri- 
soner and put him to dejtth. He did not long enjoy 
hia success, for he had snuroly reigned aii mrr ' ' ^ 
he was murdered by his own soldiers on tho I'l 

2Gth Itabf I, 854 A. H. His head wua sejui.! ,,..ul 

his body and sent to Hirst, wh^ro it was placed on thft 
gate uf tho college built by his father. 

'Abdul-Iiatif, K^JaiJl^, a native of Kazwin, and aathor 

of the wurk entitled " Lubb-ut-Tawarikh,'* a history of 
Persia, written in tho middle of the lOth c«ntury. 
'Abdul-IiAtif (MuUft), tJ^ j| oaf JU. of Sol^inpur. was 

the tutor of the princo Aurangzib. In tho last y«ara 
of his life he became blind, received from the cmpcrur 
Hhah Jahan a few villages free of rent for his support, 
and died in the year 1032 A. D., 1042 A. H. 

*Abdul-Iiatlf, author of n collection of Letters called 

*' Inshi-i-'Abdul-La^if." 
'Abdul-Latif, u^iaJL/i .>^, author of the work colled 

IjOldif-i-Ma'nawC, a commentary on the difficult pas- 
aogott of the KLi^nawi of MauUnfi Riim, writu-n in 1640 
A.D. Ho also is tho author of « Dittionuiy, called 
" Lutaif*ul*Lughit." 

Uegnrding tho author viJt Journal, Asiatic Sodety, for 

1868, p. 32.] 

'Abdul-Maal, J(juJr<^, author of a system of QeograpkyJ| 

written in tho Persian Language, and entitled ** HaarfJiat- 
ul-Ari," or the survey of the earth. 

'Abdul- Majid KhaOjOu^x^^l axc, the Turkish ompevvr of 

Conatontinop^ was bom on the 23nl April 1823, iu>d 
succeeded hia &thcT Klahmud IT, nn tlie 2ud July, I839 
A. I).. 1277 A. H. Ho died on the 23th June^ 1861. ug^d 
39 years, and was succeeded by his brother 'Abdul-' Aoia. 
'Abdul-Majid Khan, iyla.a^^V| jAf.cntitU-dMajd-ud. 
daula. a nobleman who was promoted by Ahmad SlUh 
of Dihli to the runk of 3rd Bakhfihiguri or pAymast«nihin 
in 1748 A. D., 1161 A. H. Hu died in tho vw 17/3 
AD.. 1165 A. E. "' * 



'Abdul-Mt^id (Shaikh), «H?*^i a^f >^, a learned 

nan who flourished in the time of Shiili Jtihan, rmd wrgto 
a history of thnt emperor outitled fclhah Jahiin-niimii. 

ThJJ ftoems to be a mistake for 'Abdul-Hnmid-] 
'Abdul-Mftlik, ^J^* (^ iSi^h >y^, the son of Marw4n I^ 
VBS tho 6th Khfilifft of tho house of Umayya (OmmftiJes). 
He Bucteeded liis fathtT at DaniaKcus. on the 13th, April, 
685 A. D., 3rd Iiama|ran, 66 A. H., RuqwisscJ hi* predo- 
ccaeon in military exploita, and txtcndi^d hh power us 
far &s Sp>ain in the west, and India in the east, lit' va& 
■o gencroiia aa not to take a church from the Chriatianfl. 
niiich they had refused tn arrant him when ho rfx^uested 
it. Ho was eulh?d Abul-JJnhiib or " fiithrr nf flif"*," because 
his breath was bo offpneivc. that it kilhd the very fl-ies 
that willed od hia lips. Hc' reiffm^i upwiirda of 21 Juiuu 
Tear* and difd in Oh; tohcr. lOSi A. D., Shai^-wil, 86 A. H. 
bo wa* BU«otMle<l by Walid I, the oMest of his sixteen 
»otm, who g^reaUy extt^iid'-d the !^luhk'in duminiona. 

'Abdul-Malik, ^l^^^y^iIXiJ^ ^xs:^ the son of Sali^, the 

son of 'AMulhih, tho son of 'Al'ld-s was relatecl in lilood 
to Iho prophi t filuhamm;id; waa invested by Hiininur- 
Ruhfd, the Khalifa of Baghdi'id, with the >?ovi'niiur'iit of 
Egyftt, in whlrh he rontinurd till aHoutth*' year 794 A. IX, 
178 A. U., when Ifariin, Buapwtini^ that he was Gng^ijrcd 
in some cab:ila, in urdiit to obUiin thr> trnpiru. threw him 
into prison, where he remiiinird till Harua's death. Hia 
■on released him, and invested him with tlie govcrmueut 
of Syria, A. D. 809, 193 A. H. 
'Abdul-Malik, ^^ ^H? tSUh ^, tho son of ?uhr, an 

eminent Arabian physician, commonly railed by Europnana 
Arenioar, a corruption of Ibn-?iihr. His full name i» Abi'i- 
Marwdn 'Abdul-Malik ibu-?uhr. Ifo flouriahetl about thfl 
end of the I Uh or the l)ej,Hnning of tho 12th eonturr. H+y 
waa of noble descent, and bom at Stvillrt, the capitil of 
Andalui-iiL, whdro ho exLTr-is<xl his profession with great 
rvputalitin. His gnindfiither and fulher were both pbysi- 
ciana. It is said that he livtd to the age of 135 ; thrvt ho 
began to pructieo at 40 or, as othem say, at 20 -, and had 
the adrantage of a longer experience than almost uny 
one ever had, for h« enjoyed perfect health to hifl bmt hour. 
He loft a Hon, al»o known by the name of Ibii-?iihr, who 
followed hia father's prof<*8Pion, was in gn-at favour with 
Al-Mjuosiir, emperor of Morocco, and wrote at^vnml treatises 
on phytic. Avcnroar wrote a book, entitled '"Toya-Hjur fi 1- 
mi»Uw£t wat-tulbir ', which ismm h t'sieemed. Thia work 
•mi translated into Hebrew in 1280 A. D., and thenco 
into IjOtin by Paraviciua, whoso version has hiid stjventi 
editions. The author added a siipph-ment to it^ under the 
title of Jfimi', or Collwtion. Ho also wrote a trofttiso 
•' Fil-odwiyat wal-ragbziyat", i. e., of medit^inps and fwod, 
whoTL-in ho treat** of th'.ir qualities. Ibn-?uhr w:is eon- 
teinpomry with Ibii-Kafthid (AvLrroea), who more than 
onco gives him a very high and deserved encomium, 
calling liini ailmimblr, gloriovis, tho treasure of all know- 
ledgti, and the moat supremo in medicine from the time of 
Galen tr> his own. 

'Abdul-Malik, ^-^t •W', king of Fez and Morocco, wa« 
dethroned by his nfph«^w Muhammad, but h« afk'rwitrds 
defeated Sebastian king of TortugHl. who had Inndt-ii in 
Africa to support the u»urp«;r. The two Afriran mnnarcha 
and SebaaLian fL-11 on the field. 1578 A. D. ([>86 A. H.) 

'Abdul- Malik (KhwiijaV a native of SamarVand who held 
the offir« of Shaikh-iii-Isllim in that city in tho roign of 
Amir Timur. 
•Abdul-Malik Samani I, ^UU^sUJf jjj>,akingoftho 

hooso of SiiiiiAii. uTifl f-on of Amir Niih I, whom ho mirccodod 
iii9&4 A. I). (a4a A. IL). lio roigned in KhunUan and 
Miwaiiu-nalir sovon and a half yuiirs, and wna killed by a 
fall from hia horn while playing at ball in 901 A. D. (330 
A. K.) Ho ma inoceodul by hia brother Amir Mauiur I. 

'Abdul-MaUk Samaul II, ^IcL* %*XU\ «xax, anAmir 

of the house of Saman, was eli-vuti'd to thp throne of 
Khurasan, after hi« brother Amir Man?ur 11, in »98 A. D. 
(388 A. H.J. He wiia the last Amir, or king, of the race of 
the Siimunidea, Ho reigned only a ff»w mnmhs. and was 
dtfeated in bittle agiiiiist Sultan Mihmud of Ghiisnf in 
399 A. D., who took poaae^mon of hia country. 'Abdul- 
Malik was shortly ufter murdered. 

'Abdul-Manaf, oU«Ji i>ac, or 'Abd-Manif, (i. <•. bUto of 
the idol ifanaf) the great-great- grand father of Muh>an- 
mad, was the son of liuaayy, who aggranditod thu trilm of 
tho Kuraish hy purchasing the keys of tho Ku'ba fmm 
Abii-lihuNsan, a weak and silly man, for a bottle of wine. 
Ku5.iyy was succeeded by his second BOn 'AbdiU-Manif^ 
to whom tho prophetic light, wbich is said to havu roani- 
fc-ited itdclf in hia face, gave tho right of primogf^nituro. 
Afler his death, hia son IT*»h;in, the EaUier of 'Abdul- 
Muttalih, sutrt'edcd. 

*Ai(u-Man-ap is also tho name of a ion of tho Prophet, 
who died in infancy.] 

*Abdui-Maiuian (Mir), ^U*it ^j^ jxa, son of Mir 

Nu'man Khan, son of Kbwaja ' Abdur- Itahtm Khin of 
Andijan. Ue ser^id under the celebrated Ni^am-ubMulk 
Asjif-Jah in the Dakhin for several years, waa an excellent 
pout, and is known under the poetical mime of 'Ibrat. 

'Abdul-Mumin, ^^^t «va£, a man of obacore origin and 
son ut' a poUer, who st'izf^d thu crown of Morocco after 
destrnyinj^ tin- mvul family. He extended hts doniiniona 
by the fonquent of Tunis. Fes, and Tromezen. He medi- 
t:ittHl Ihi^ ifivaj^iun of S[Mun, when death stopped hia 
earner in ll-'iii .\. U. Hid son Yusnf who succeeded 
hinu carried bis ambitious riews into effiMit. 

*Abdul-Mumin Khan, ^^U. ,^^| tXkc, tho wn of 

'Abdullah Khan, chit f of the Ujjbaks. was raised to the 
throne atttr tho death of hia father at tfamarkand in tho 
year 1597 A. I)., luO.i A. H. He took Ma,'.hhad and put 
thr- inhabitants to the sword, lie waa soon after assuisiuatvd 
by his own olticftra in 1598 A. D.. 1006 A. H. ; the chrono- 
gram of hia dwith being contain<--d in tho words " Uadhakht- 
i-iiar-buridi»." After his dtiath. Din ^Iiihammad Khan, the 
son of 'Abdullah Kh^'s viator, waa pbiccd on tho throne; 
but he foil shortly after, in a battle fought at llirat, a^punat 
Bhah 'Abbks, king of Persia. 

^Abdul-MuttaUb, wikJt lM^ the grandfather of Mu- 
hammad, the mn of Haahim of the tribe of l^umiah. 
Ho if< »aid to huvo been extremely affable and easy of 
access, ft.8 wi;ll [la just and generotifl. The well which fiod 
shtiwed HiigHr the mother of Ishmael in the wUdomeM, 
is said 1o havo Imth miraculously di»rovt'i-ed to 'Abdul- 
Mu^^b, about fivu hundred years aftor it had been Ailed 
up by 'Amr, prince of tho Jorhomitea. The w«U is callod 
Zanuam by thu Aral>s and is on the east side of tho Ka'ba, 
covuri'd with a small building and cupula. Its water is 
highly mren-nctd. Iw-ing not only received with piuiicu- 
lar devotion by the pilgrims, but also sent tn bottles as 
a groat riu-ity to aiost parts of the Muhanunadoa domi- 
niona. 'AIhUU Mt^tahb had ten sons, whosu namesore as 
follows : Abv'i-Talib, the father of 'All ; 'Abbis, tho ances- 
tor of thu Abba>ideB who reigned at Baghdad; l;Iamza; 
Ijl^f; Abu-Lahab; 'Abdullah tho father of Muluunmad ; 
ALMakawwiim ; Zuhair ; Ztr^r; Ku^am. His younger 
son 'Abdulliih, the father of Muhnitnmad. d\*ing right days 
after the birth of his son, 'Abdul-JIutttUih was obliged to 
take care of his gruntUoii Miihamumd, whkh he nut only 
did during hia life, but at bin drath enjoined hi.i eldest son 
Abu-Talib to provide for him fur Uao future. 'Abdul- 
Mu^talib died about the year 579 A. D., at which time 
Muhamnmd about tight yoars old. 

'Abdul-Nabi (Shaikh), ^^Jl -H* i*^ »onof Shaikh 
A*'"^"'^ and grundjion of Shuikh 'Abdul- ^uddus of Ofta* 




iutor of tho emperor Aklxir, and was 
'ttie difl^nity of Sudr-un-Sudur. No Siidr 
Attfiag any fbrmor rcifpi hud eo much favor. Tho king 
vsfl for some time so iiitiinalo and tinoctvmcmirtufl with 
tim, that he would rise to ndjust tho ShHiVh's elippora 
wh/n h6 took his Icnvc. At lii»t, thf-ugh tho enmity of 
MattUoji 'Abdullah Mnkhdiim-ul-MTilk (iirf* p. 6j and 
oUicn, he fell in the king's cstinmlion, nnd began to be 
trmicd vcrjr diQ'erently. Ut' wa» banished to Mecca, and 
after his rvtura wan murdorc^ in tho year 1683 A. I). 
(991 A. H.) 

VitU Kin Translation I. MO, />as, and p. xili (Abnl- 
Faxl's Biopniphy) ; also Proc. Asiatic Socdety, Ben^fal, 
January, 1876.] 
'AbdtJ-Nabi Khanj aerrrd under Aurangzfb, and bailt 
the large Mnrtquo at Mttthuri; vidt Froo. Aa. Socy. 
BontpJ, 1873. p. 12.] 

'Abdul-Bahlm bin- Ahmad Sur, jy **-*^' ii>? /H^l 

***, author of tho rtrsian DictionAry * Kaflhf-ul-Lughat. 
yitle Journal, Afl. Sociuty, Bengal, for 1868, p. 9.] 

'Abdul-Bahim Khan, cj'^^cj^ J^ff^J' ^^, Khdn- 

KhaniuL. r.nnmonly c.illod Kliin MiV/a, wa,i tbe son of 
Bftirwa IChin.thi- flr^l prinie-miiUHttrof the emporor Ak bar. 
Hu was burn on the 17th Pt'tinber lo5(J A- D. (I'ltli Safar 
964 H ) and vrnn only four yi-ars old whtn hi» futher 
wafl aMa«tnnt«-'d. Whnn of l^^^ h*» riToivcd tho appoint- 
ment of hin fi»th».>r with tho mtrno title of Kbankhiinan 
and tht* tfuvomraent of Gujral in loNi A. 1*. (WlKi H.) 
His dtiughtiT Jiini Begam waa murriifl to prince Daiival 
in the year 1599 A. T). (1D07 II.) He tmnnlatwl the 
•' Wiki'it-i-Bibwf ' (Mtjmoira of the omporor BAbar) 
from Turkj into PL'mnn. AfU'r Akbar'8 death. h« aerved 
under J<ihangtr for 21 y«»ra, and died u f*'W months before 
that c-m])cror. shortlv atU^ the suppreasion of Mahibnt 
Khin'a rebellion, in' th.^ ye^ir 1027 A. D. (1036 A. H.), 
aged 72 lunar yearB. and lio^ buried at Dihli near the 
T>argah of Shaikh Xisam-iiddin Auliya, where hin tomb is 
to bo seen to this day. His poetical nnmn was Ualji'm. 
For a detailed biography ridr Xin Translation I, 334.] 

'Abdul'Hahim, M^j^^ 'H^* °^^ **^ ^*' principal noblea 

who joinwl PrinM Khuarau in hie rebellion againrt hia 
father Jahingir in H06 A. D. He wh« taken prisoner 
with the prince and brought to tho ernperor nl Labor ; 
by whoftt» orrlor he was sewn up in tho raw hide of an aas, 
kept constantly muiiit with vi'at«:<r, in which miserable con- 
dition ho remained for twenly-fuur houra. Ho waa aflcr- 
warda paidaned ; vid* Xin Tranalation L, 455. 

»Abdul-Rahlm Khan, Khwija, cM^ |^'r A***^»^i, 

the KID of Abul-ISaKim. H<i waa a native of Andijin 
in Farghi&na, came to India in tho reign of the timpcroir 
Shah .):ih&n. and aerved under Aurantczib for wveral 
y.^am. Ho di<d in U^'i A. D. (1103 A. H.) 

'Abdul-Rahman, (»^ c*'' ki.'^j^^ ^^, the son of 

Muljim. the murti'^r'T of 'AIL son-in-law of Srohammad. 
De wiui kill'd )>v II ti'in, ion uf 'Ali, in January' 661 A. D. 
(Uamacio, 4ti A. H.) 

No ShTa would now-a^ys call hia aon 'Abd-nrra^min, 
jiut Bi no Alulmmmndan would call hii wn V&zid.] 

*Abdal-Bahman, j^*^ u,*^' tr-^^' »>*•, the aon of AbiS- 
Bakr, flr>^ «miiiad, and brother to 

^AyiiiuL, tb ropheL H« died in the 

mmiD year tiun ms r^.i ? -ii- a, •. c, in 07S A V., &8 A- H. 

'Abdol-Bahman, *-****• «^*-*l,'^ cr^y'«>^. •rm of 

l|aalf aon of 'Alt Uf nimA a fonnida- 

k^Bst tiAJjAj, thm ffm*m*JT of AraVna. de- 

wv«vi2 Uttlos Md aft hM. mtber tUs fiaU 

'Abdul-Rahman, a pttpular Afghan i»M of Pe* 
His vti>«s lu-.' wiitten with tiiTr}- energy, a'hich 
made them popular amongst a martial people, and 
with natural simplieity which is chjirming to thfe loi 
of poetry. Not far from tho city ia hia grave, nituuted 
tho road to Haa&rkhiua, the poct'a nativo village. 

'Abdul-Rahman, n;*^' '*^ , a Saracen gewmd of 

Khiilifji Uirtham, (call>^d by some of our authorf Abdes^' 
amw) who jienelnH."! into Aquitain and Poitoo, and wa* 
at last def'iited and idain bv Charlea Sftartel noar Poitiera, 
in 73a A. D., 114 A. H. 

•Abdul-Rahman Mustafa. ^^Aiwa-) j^^^a^i »a*^ 

who in Watkin'8 Biogntphicttl Dictionary i< called Bjtba- 
cauRchi, wa8 mufti of the city of Caffa, in Tauris. Ho 
wrote n b<iok calli"d * The Friend of Princoa *. Ho died ia 
A, D. 13bi, 783 A. H. 

'Abdul- Rahman, cr»^' "H*. alao called by old vriterv 

Abderamefl, a descendant of the Khalifas of tbe 
of Umayya. Ho waa inntcd to come to Spain, 
7o6 A. t>., 139 A. H., by the Saracen** who had r»*vyltcd; 
and after he had conquered tho whole kingdom, h« 
a^iiuiiied Uie title of king of Cordovn, Ho was tho founi: 
of tfi<' l_hiiiriuidi.>» of SiMiin, who migned aljove two bt 
drod and titty ytars, from the Atlnntii; to the P3 
Ho died ia 790 A. D., 174 A. H., after reigning 32 yi 

'Abdul-Rahman Ichi, 4/^' i:r«v'' "^t or fji, the 
father of 'Kazi 'Azd-uddin of ShirAs, a learned man and 
native of fch, a town situated 40 farsokha £rom Shirix. 

'Abdul-Rahman, e;«^^l *H^ . called by a* Abdei«m«a^ 

a jKitty jtrincu in the kingdom of Morocco, who murder^ 
'Iinid-uddin, hi* prt^ieceshor and nephew, and was bimaelf 
after a long r'^ign asaadi*inat«d by a chieftain wfaoae death 
be mediUltAd, 1505 A. D., 911 A. H. 

'Abdul-Rahman, the Sultan of Fea and Hoitiooo. bom 
1778, wna rightful heir to the throne when hia &tii«*r 
died ; but waa suppliintM by hi< unde, after whose death 
he ascended the throne in' 1823. Hia eldeafc soo Sidf 
Muhammad (bom 1S03J ia heir to the throne. 

'Abdul-Rahman Ehan,u 


Us povar 

fats hi* bamU lW*v binaill ftm a 
A. D^ ft:( A. U. 


jar, who on account of his rebellion daring tho mutiny cf 
the native troopd in 18.57 A. U. 1274 A H., wna found 
giiilty and executed at Dihli bcfon' the Ko^wib' oq ibo 
23ni Decfmbtr of the Bamo year. Hu waa a di.'«cendant of 
Najabat "Ali Khdn, to whom in 1806, when SirG. Bariov 
waa OoTomor General of India, were gmnt<d the 
territorial possesaiona held by the late Kawab, )*ieldinf; 
ytjurly revenue of 12J laca, and eoiudsting of Jhajj 
BadU, Kaniund with its fort, Xamaul, &c. In additi 
to these, expressly for the puriM*f uf keupiog up 400 ho 
men, tho torritorv of fiadw&n and Uadn' waa granted. Up 
to May 1357. Ik* had always Letn looked iv -" ■ - 
friend of the British Uovennneut ; but *■. 
burrt forth, he furgot all hia obligatiui. :._ _^_ 

and lided with the rebels. 

'Abdul-Rahman Khan, J^^^^^-^a^] ^uc, gadr-nft-Sod^ 

of Kanhpur, a r>?b^1 and a staunch snpportflr «f Nini 
Soliib, whim that ruiUun commenced hia career. Q« via 
hi*ng*d at Kanhpur, in Juno 1868, 1274 A H. 

'Abdul-Rahman Sulami (Shaikh), author of the ** Ta* 

bakat Siifiyu", a work on ^ufi8m. He died in I05j A- D., 
41:i A.'H. He ia also colled. Abu-'Abdor-ra^min. 

'Abdul-Rahman, son of 'Abdul-' Atix Na^liaad^ the 
fiiLlii-(-iii-l;iw of Sululman 8hikoh, who Man ieJ fais 
duughtu in A. H. IUG'2, tbe 25th year of Shah Jabia. 




'Abdul-Bahmau Chishti, 

^^^«A.jJf jAf, author of 

the Mir-at-i'Mai'udi, which contains thi.' U'g'^iuiarj' history 
of SaUr ]^[iu('ud Ghoxi, hui-ivd ut JliiUiuich in Audli. 
'Abur-ral.inidn Jiid duiing thi? reign of Aumngiib in lUyi 
U. Fur "-•xtnict tnmsUtiona vitU Duwaon, EUiol'a Ili^lo^J- 
of IndiiL, 11, 513. An Urdu tmn^lution of tho Mir-it-i- 
Mafl'udi W(i8 lillii>gniphed iit Kinhpur, 1287 U., imdor 
thv title of ttluiza-namu-i-iIuM'ud.'3 
'Abdul-Bashid, iX^^^^T iXxf, wan the son of Sdl^&n MaB*ud 

of Ghazn{. Ug liognn to reigTL, afUx duposing unci caii£ning 
his broth'jr 'AIi in i^^h'l A. D., 443 H. Iff; hod rcig^ned but 
ono year, whfii Tughril, onv uf liin nuhlt-a, usaMUiAtt'd 
him and mouiiti.'d the IhroJiL- iif GhMjcnii. Tughril reignt*d 
only forty days, and waa murderfd i>n th<! Pcruiui Xcw 
Year's day in Slimh 1053 A. D., i44 A. U., wlun l-'urrukh- 
za(L (I lirothtTof 'Abdiir-Uiisliid. Bucc+jt-ded him. 

'AbdlLl-Bashid (Mir), i^^l Aw^*, son of AbduUGhji- 

Air-uI-Ha»uni. He livod in tho time of the emperor 8hih 
Jaban, und wrrttf chronograms on hia ncwssion tu tht throne 
of nihil in \mh A. 1)„ 103" A U. lie is the author of the 
IVrvifln Dictiuiiary railed " Karhaug-i-ll;iah{di", aldo «f the 
•' Muntakhiib-ul-|jUghit", a verj- useful Arubic Dictionnri-, 
■with Persian fxpliiiuitions, dr-dicati^d to tho enn>ei-Qr Shdh 
Johin. Anutbtfr wurk of his ia called **■ Rkila-i- 

Tho Ffirhan^^-i-RftshiMi, which was written in I0r»4 
(A. D. 1653), in the fintt critirAl dictionary of the Pei-riiaii 
Inngnnge, and lian be*'U jirluled by the Asiiitie .Sociuly of 
Bengal ; riV/^ .Tituniiil, Asiatic Stwiety, Bengal, 1868, p. 20.] 

'Abdul-Rasfaid Ehan, lyli. txwjl ^ab. son of SultAn 

Ahu-Su'id Khun, kin:,' of Ka^llgbar. He was the con- 
lufnporiiry of Uumayan, tliv cmptror ui" Dihli. MuT.a 
l;laidar, uuthor of tho Tilrikh-i-fiiuihidi, dL-dicutcd hia work 
to him. 

ri4* Dowaon, Elliot'a IlUtory of India, V, 127; and 
Ata Tninsiftlion I, 460.] 

'Abdul-Razznk, ^Jlj Jl «>a«, a chiof of the SArbadills of 
tJabiwar. He wils nt tirst employed by Sul^ia Alui- 
8a'fd Khan as a Ya*awal. or mnce-bcarer, but after his 
death, when cnnfiuMon took plate, he possefflod himself of 
Sliuriaiu in 133G A. !>.. 737 A. K., and wax itlain, after 
one yc&r and two nmntlt!t, by hitt brother Witjih-uddjn 
Motf'dd in 8L-ptQmbbr 1337, iSufur 738 A. H. Mas'ud 
Toigned seven ycar«, and wua depwwd by hi» brother 
Shama-uddin, who after a reii^i uf four y*uin* und nine 
moathj was sUin at Sabzwar by I:Jiiidar lyiiKAab. After 
him Amir Yahya Kirati inad>* hiiusiflf niaster of Khiirilsiin, 
And gave the (ommnnd of his troopK to l.ltiidiir K(LH>iih. 
In the month ^d' Decenilxr i:i-53 A. 1)., 7'54 A. II., Yahya 
slew Tiighiii Timur. u di'*cend«nl of the Mnghul kinLT", 
in batllM, and wns hiin-nrlf sliiin hy his nubli-a, after hi; 
had reigniHl four ye-im and ei^ht mt'iilhs. After him 
tkey raiM.-d Khwaja Lulf-iilbth. tlie son of Khwiiju Jfa^'ud, 
to tho miismid. He wa« ttbiin afUr a short lime by Uafian 
I)anighani, who reigned finir yi-ars aiid four months, wh^'D 
Khwoja 'All Miuiyyad «lfw him, rind r^-ign* d oightcrn 
y<'mr8 in Khurasin. afli-r which he tmide ovf-r hia country 
to Amir Tiinur who p:i>t«"(| Khurjl^an in 13M0 A, !>., 782 
A. H. 'All MuniiTiid wjifl killed in h Imttle in t!in year 
1380. 788 A. U., uiid with him teniutiatod tho power uf tht.> 

'Abdul-BaZEak, Kam^l-ndilin, Hnn of JalAUnddtn Ts-hak, 
l)orn at Hir&t on tho \'Zi\\ Slm'ban, 815 (6th Xovombrr. 
t413). Hit is the authr^r of tht* historical work untitled 
• M^iW-HM-m'Hmu, Hoiii.-d in KH7 (A. U. I4b2) ; rtW* 
Mow tub Kamdl. and Dowson. IV, 00] 

'Abdui-Razzak, J'^^' *^- ^^ ^^ *'^ MinA TJugh Bfg. 
Ihu unip«n>r BaJiar'b uncle. He WiUi killed by the command 
of that momireh. before his invjjflii'n of Iiidin, fur raiding 
dislurlnuiiefi at Kabul, about 16U9 A. U., 616 A. U. 


I 'Abdul-Bazzak <MxU)a), jijjJt o^ JU, of Uhijin, 
author of tho " (Jaiihnr-i-Murad," a diHscrtntion on the 
creation of the wuild and the pre-cniincuctj then given 
by liud to man. dedieartd to Shah 'Abbis 11 of I'eniia. 
}!•• livL-d ulxnit the year 1G60 A. D., 1072 H. His poetical 
irnnie is KajTi-rijE. 

'Abdul-Salam, •^^►^^u'Y^ **^' *^^ *»f Muhammad, 
a cckbratc'd teamed man, nnd uuthor of tho *' Tufsir 
Kabir," a commentiinr- on the Kuriu. Ho died in the 
year 1005 A. D.. 488 A. H. 

'Abdul-Salam, ijs!^^.^^-^^ -H* t^-^, (Ki^i} of Badio^, 

Kon of 'Atji-ul-H;i|j[Jj. Ho is tho author of tho com- 
mentiuT (jilbd "TatMlr Zad-ul-Akhimt*' in Unlu. coa- 
bistiiig of 2UO.O00 verses, which he completed about the 
year 1»28 A. 1)., 1214 H., as tho name of tho work shews. 

'Abdul-Salam, •^'— '' 'H*, a famouii philoaophf^r and phy- 
aiiian, who ilied at Diuimscus in 1443 A. D., 847 H. 

'Abdul-Salam. r^^' ^>j*^, (Mulh.) of Lihur. a pupU 
of Amir FuUj'uUah Shirazi. Bu died in the year 1628 
A. 1).. 1037 A. H. 

Vidf Ain TrdJi.-'lation I, 646.] 

'Abdul-Salam. f^*-'' '^¥- ^. (MulU) of I>aa£. was the 

pupil of MulU 'Abdufi-Salam of I^hor. He wrote the 
Shjirli, or nmrginal uotvs, un Ihx,- cummentaries called 
" Tah/fl)*\ *' ^Linar" &e., Jind i* also the author of the work 
on Sufi^m in Axabio, called " Uall-ur-Humuz." 

'Abdul-Samad, *>-MflJfj^. undo of the two first Khalifas 
of ih*- hou*' of 'Abbi». di'.-il at ft great ago dm-irig tho 
khiltifat uf Hkrun-ur-lliwhid in tho year 801 A. 1).. 185 
A. 11. It :a said of him that ho never lost a tooth, for l)oth 
thii up]n,'r und lower jaws w>n- eiich of ono single piece. 

'Abdul Samad, Khwajn. «x»^.'i j^ ^!^, ^ m^hU of 

Akbiir's court, also well-known as ouUgrapher. Ho waa 
the filthier uf Sharif, Amir-nUUmara under iTahangir (riV/tf 
Aiu TranBlation, I, pp. 495, 617), (uid had tho title of 
Shirin-Kttlam, or sweet-pen.] 

•Abdul-Samad, <>*^' •>^. nephew of Shaikh Abul-Faih 
Secretir)' to the emperor Akl):ir. Ho is thn compiler 
of thf work called " InshA-i-Abul-Fiul," which he iM)I- 
Iwted und puMiKhod in the year 1606 A. D., 1016 U. 

■Abdul-Samad Khan» ^^l^ •^♦^t »>*£, styled Nawib 

tiiuf-midatibi BjUindur-Jang. was the son of Khwaja 'Abdul- 
Karim, a desevndnnt uf Khw^ja 'Ubaid-ullah Alirir, 
The native country of his father was SamiirVand, but ho 
was bom at Agra. In his childhood, he went with hia 
father to Snmarknnd, where he completed his studies. In 
the reign of Aurnngzib ho relumed to India, and was, at 
hi.-* first introduction to the omp<Tor, raised to the rank of 
600, and after a short time tn that of 1600, with the title 
of Kliiin. In the reign of Jult&ndar Shih. the rank of 7000 
and the title of 'Ali-Jang were conferred on hini- Ho 
wa-i made governor of L&hor in the time of Farrukh-aiynr, 
and w:is scut with a groat army atfaiust the Sikhs^ whom 
he defejiti.'d and made prisoners with B&nda their chiof. 
He WH!* miide govirnor of Multin by the emperor Muham- 
mad fSliah with the title oJ Saif-uddaula, imd his son 
Zjikariyil Klian, Subadir of Ldhor. He died in 1737 
A. D., U'SO A. H., a year before the invasion of Kidir 
fShah. I'itff Khan-DaurAii IV. 

'I*he Uifitorittt eotl hun IHlrr-janf, not 'JHH-jang ; vide also 
Dowjion, VII. 4o6. 4fll, All.] 

^AbduI-Samad Khan, ^J-^ ^^\ >yi^, Faujdir of Sar- 
hind, diritincuidhfd him»elf in the Mara(ha Wars, and was 
at last lieht-adod bv Bhio in 1174 A. H. (A. D. 1760); ri^ 

Dowsou, via, 278.] 

'Abdul-Shukur (Maulanai, jj^io^ bV,^ 1,^, 
poetical nnuie wa> B;ir.mi. He lived in the time of i^hah 
Jahan about thv year lt>34 A- U.> 10i4 A. H. ; rifle baxmt 




Abdul Wahhab (East), vV-^lT^- Uvedintho 
tirno of lh»^ pntpi^mr 'A'lum^ir, and diwl ou tho 20th No- 
vember 1675 A. D.. ISth Kaimijiiii lOfifi A- H. ul Dihli. 
Ill- b lh«» iiiilhur of a Uaetur-ul-'Amal, which hf dtxlicntwi 
to thit monitrth. 

'Abdul Wahhab (Mir), v*^^''' "^•^*-rt*, author of the 
"Tftzkim-i-Bf'-nJHir", which be wroto about the year 1768 
A. 1>.. 1172 A. U. 

'Abdul-Wahhab, •r'V' '^^ author of the Mani^ib-i 
MiKiliiwi Hum, r-oiitoiiufig the memoirs of the celeltmted 
JalAl-nddiTi luimi. 

'AbdiU-Wahhab bin- Ahmad, .x^t ^^wU^f aao, 
(iiith'-T *>f the Ainbic! work on theology, callod "Anwir 
AliiibiJivii." writCvu in la49 A- U. 

'Abdul-Wahhab, w Mnhammad bia-'AbJul-Wnhhib. 

foiuidcTof the st-ct of the Wuhhabis, was bum at Huniiiimla 
in tht* province of Najd m Arubiu about thu year 1 760 A. D. 

'AbdlU-Waliid, .V»->yi '>^, author of the SaVt SwiAbfl, 

wsayv on the dutieM of Inittractor and Stadont, writlon 
in the yeta lortl A. D^ «G9 A. H. 

'Abdul-Wahid (Mir), -^'jJ' *H*./*^ a native of Bil- 
^rim, in Audh. whodt> poetical niuiio wna Shdliidi. He di'jd 
m hit nutivc txKintry ou thr Uth uf DcccmbtT lOOB A. !>., 
•Ird liurniuttn 1U17 A. H. Uiauon'a njuuL: wii3 Mir 'Abdul- 
Julil, thu fathiT of Snyj'id Uvruid, whose aou'a name was 
Miiyyid Burkut-uUith. 

'Abdul-Wahid (Mir), '^^'yi *^**./**, of Uilffrim. 

Ko wrot.*.' under two jmsumwl mun".i*, viz. Wuhid and 
2ttuk]. wuA an r:xci<li>^nt put^ in Pt-r&ian iiud in Hindi, and 
it tint iiuth(ir of u work in prose uud vursi*, callud '* Shakiir- 
i*»lAn-i-KJuiyil," whercdii ho h)wnif«tionr>iitbenani«M<if all 
kinds of 5WL'0tmeAtd. Uo wum killed on the 13th Uctolwr 
1721 A.I)., Friday, 2nd Wid>nrnLm 1134 A. U.. in an 
itllrHy with th«t mmindars of Hahun in the Punjab, the 
KlUemmt of wluch pluce wiu untnuled to )m father 
Sa^-^'id MuhiUiuuad Aehraf. 

'Abdul- Wabidi, * Turkish poet, author of a Pfwin com- 
iri^iii^ UO Ktuidoa, 2U0 (ihaziilBi 29 Torikhu, uad oi 


•Abdul-Waai' of Honai, ^sr^^ C-'V' *H'. antJior of 
» Punnan gmmuuii, cuUlmI utter his nttrne ^'Itisdla-t. 
'Abdul- WiUi'." He flouiinhed in thu lii.-tt century, luid is 
tkUo tho ituthor of 0, Hiudiiiftiuii X)ictionary, cuititled 
*• (f hiuitb-uJ-Liighal". 

For farthr.T n{>tc« rij* IVoceedinga, Aaiatio Society 
Bengal, for l!i77. p. 121.] 

'Abdul-Waal* JabaU. i/^ C-'j-'t •***. a cclebmted 
pwl of Ft-r^ia, wbn ' '■ I iiut the yt^ar 1152 A. D., 
6\7 A. H-, in tb" ti). :i B(diiii.m Shall, son of 

8ul^An Man' lid, of (Jn Sultan tiujijur Suljul^i^ in 

whnjif pniiw he WTi>te novftiul beftulitiil puncgyrins. Ho 
divd in tbe y*-Ht 1 iOO A LK, HHH A. H. ' Jabul' means a 
uioimtxin, And tm \w was a luttivc* of (ibarii»t&n, a motin- 
lainous •ountiy, hu chose ''Jubttlf' fur hie poetical title ; 
rtti4 Jal>Ali. 

ViJt tiprenger, Catalogue of Oudh USa, p. 448.] 

AbODgnefUi \*^ < rirruplittn of an Arahiun name, spell so in 

I^inpnr re's Ili"i;i-.i!'hit^i! Uictiunary), was an Arabian 

I IV. and author of a book, thu 

i ' !>•> ^Hrtutibus mc-dicinorunj 

.1 . 11'. I .iru , Wits [amK a ..t V unioe in 15!il, folio. 

'Abhai Siagh, tCJu* ^^^^f JU.|^, Hiji of Jodhpur, who had 
acqtiirvd his ^)wvt by iho marder of iua father &ij& Ajil 

Sin^h ndthfluri in tho beginnings of tho rei^ of Uuham- 
nmd Shah, ftniptror of T»ihli, ubtiiit the yivir 1726 A. U., 
1139 A. H. He served under the frnperor, and having 
in a battle defuntcd ESarbuluud Khin, the asur]>er of 
Gujrdt, was appointed governor of that province in 1727 
A, I)., IHO A. U.; but his younger biother Bnkbt Sin^h 
snereedt^d his father to the Kuj of Jodhpur. Abhai ^^^h 
was poisoned in 1752 A. D., and after his death his hoo 
Bijui 8iugh sueeeeded him. 

'Abi Bakr, author of the '* Jawahir-ul-rJanj," and of a 
uuuth*--r wurk on ^uftsm, called " Mai>ad'ul-'lliid.** 

'Abi Bakr Muhammad, *>*^^ A'-is^K author of an 

AnibiL' work in pii>»o entitled " Adab-ul-Kitib," writtvn 
in 984 A. D., 371 A. U. 

*Abid-Khan, ^J^ t>iU, a nobleman on whom Aoxmn^ifi) 

conferred th»» S^badarship of Multiin. 

Abjadl, ^»>^f, the poetic^ name wf Mir Muhummad Lami'il 

Khan, tutor of tho Nawfib *Unidat-uI-ITmar« of the Ksnus- 
tik, who mude him a present of 6,700 Rs. on the eomple* 
tion of tht; liistory, cjilled " Anwar-uanm,'* u mu^miwi, or 
epic, containioia: an account of the exploits of Xitvab 
Anwar Khdn, the father of the patron of tho author. It 
was rompl^t*-d in 17(iO A. 1>. (1174 A. H), ond in 1774 
tho title of Malik-ush-shu'ora, or poet laureate, waa txin- 
ferrod ou the author. Viil* Abdf. 

•Abka Khan, u^ ^^^ vid^ AbA ICiUn. 

Abu-'Abbaa, ^r^^l, the firet khali& of Baghdad, of tbe 

zaco of 'Abb&s. Vide Abul-'Abbds. 

Abu-'AbduUab, AJJti>a£^|. Theru are three Muluunxnadan 

saints of this nnme, whose liveg are written by Abd-Ja' 

U'he lirst is stimamcd Kuraifthi. because he was of the fi 

of till- Kuraisbiteti und a native of Mtx^ca, The *? 

,^ bore tho niimt? of liikiindur, und the third that of Jaulum. 

Abu-' Abdullah Bukhori, ruff Muhammad Ismi'il Bu< 

Abu-* Abdullah, ^l m^j^I Mnhanunad FAsil, son of 

Baj'3'id Ahmad, the son of Sayyid Hasan of A'griL author 
of the pwm called *" 5lukhbir-ul-Wasilin", written in 
prairio of Mtihaminnd and liis di^scendonU. with the dAt«« 
of their respwtive deaths in verso. The title of tho h«i 
is a ehronograni for 1106 A. H., in which year it 
completed, correspunding with I6.S0 A. I>. He flo 
in thu time of 'Alamgir und dii>d in th<^< year 1694 A. D. 
He is also colled Ms^hor-ul-ljIaVJk, which see. 

Abu-' Abdullah, i^U^I ^t •H'^y'* commonly callM 

Itm-Molit author of the "Shar^ Safeib Bukhirt" He 
died at Damascus in 1273 A, D. t072 A. U.J 

Abu-*Abdullah, &i^l >^yU tbe surname of ShiTi'C which 


Abu-'AbduUah. u^j* cffj"^' '***^' k/i *^ "^^'.Uia 

son of .Uimud Ausori, un Antlftl't^itn author, who died 
A, D. 1272 (671 A. U.J. 



^1 ixi^^t^ Muhammad ul-H«- 

midi, son uf Abu. Nuxr, author of the work catitd "Jam' 
bniaa-l-Suhihoiu" nnd the history of AndHlubio, called 
"Tirikh Undulus". Tho former compithends tbe coUer- 
tions of al-Uiikhori and Muslim, and hiis a great rvputu- 
tion. He died in lotto A. D. (488 A. U.J. 

Abu-* Abdullah Maghribi, is'j^ *^'' -^y*. named 

Muhammad biD-Isnui'iil, tutor of Ibrahim Khawa^ rbtahim 




Shailiin of Kirmanshilh, rind of Alii'i-Bakr of Bikand, and 
pupil of Abu!-Hiisuin Z.irrin of ilirat. Abu-'AbiiuUah 
di«l in tha yisar ULl A. D. (2'J'J A. U.), and vnxa biiriodoa 
Mount Sinai. 

Abu- 'Abdullah Kuhamtnad, iW^:^ ^t ^^^l son 

of Siifyan, a nritive of Kuiniwin in Africa. He is the 
authijF u( th(' work ailUd " lladi." Ho died in 1024 A. D. 
(416 A. ILj 

Abu-»Abdullah Muhammad bin-'Ali ar-Hahibi, 

*\*«r^ AJ/Ixxj^S Ruthor of u short trwitieu-. t.-ntitU'ii ihi} 
•* Bighyat-ul-lJiiliij" nonsisting of memoriiil vi-rsts, whuh 
give au opitoine yf thu luw uf inhui-itancu according tu 
the doctrino of Zuid bin-J^iLbit. 

Abu-'AbduUah Muhammad Halcim Kahir, j^ 

^La. j^3r*aJJf *>A£ jjI, author of tho work called 
" Jttifltiidrik". lie died in 1011 A. D., -105 A. H. 

Abu-*Abdullah Muhammad btn-Muhammad al- 

Nu'mani, suniumttl Sluiikh Siufi'd :md Iiin-Mu'.;llim, 
w;i8 J i<'nown«-d Shi' It biwyi-r. Abu'Ju'fur ut-Tuai dc- 
flcrib*'-* him bi tho I-'ibrist an thf gifatf.-st onitor and 
luwyr of hi» tiinr. thi; most ancient MtijUihid^ thr most 
rabtlc rcaBontr, ami thu ihif^f of all ihuso who deliven-d 
Fatwufi. Ibu-Kujii-iish-Shriini rrlatiM Ihat, whnu ht» died, 
Tbn-Niikib, who wiia uiic nf Ih*.- tiiost Wanv.d of Iho Sunni 
dof'torn, adorned liis house, tuld his fulluwiTH to con- 
gratulato liini, aiui (bTlnrrd th;iti *»inof h"! luicl lived to sieo 
the death of Shjiikh Mufid. he slioiili! hirii8»'U* Icavo the 
world without n-ifivt. Sha^ikh MufiJ h Htatod to have 
written 2011 works, amimii'rtt which ono, uilb'd tho 
" Irshad", ia w^dl-knowu. Ho nUo wroto works on tho 
law of inhoritauco. IIiHd*rjth tni^k pl-irp. in A. D. 1023, 
413 A. ir, or as some say A. D. 1025, -IIB A. H. 

Abu-'Abdullah Muhammad bin-'Umar al-Wa- 

kidi, u*^"'j'''-r^ e^ '^*^^ *^' **^y'. an imthnr 
who wroU) in Arabic ilia wwrk, called '' Tubakat Wukidi", 
containing the histury of Iho conqm^st of Syria by 
the genontla of '(?mar during tho years 038-11 A. I>. 
Ho U said by Boni" to havo dinl in the year S24 A. D.^ 
219 A. H., bat iishf m:ikt-8 mention of Al-Mu'ta^iin UiUuJb, 
who»3 reign hr^itn in h;J3, he muat hiive dit-d alwut tlio 
year 834 and nut S24 A. D., 209 A. 11. I'ide Wakidi. 

Abu-' Abdullah Muhammad bin-IIuaaiii al-8hal- 
bani, t^^H^l e-t-^ <i;'. **=* ^' ^-i^ >', commoiUy | 
callfMi Imiim Miihjininmd, w;i8 bom at Wasi^ in 'Irik- 
'Arab in A. 1>. 74y, 132 A. H.. anddirdat Hai, thorapital of 
Kliurftttau in A. D. 802, 187 A. H. lie waj» a fdlow pupil | 
of Abu-Yui*uf, iindt-r Abu-I.Ianifa, and on tho death of 
the latter pursuod hiti stiulitjs under the former. His ' 
chief workH uru nix in iiuiii)x>r, of which livo aro consi- I 
dered of the highL-^t mithnrity. and are ciU^ under tho ' 
title of tho ■' ?«-hir-ur-Uiway)U ; they are '".laini'-uI-Kabir", 
'* Jimi'-us-Sji^hii-", the " Mi»b»ut fi fiiru'-il-H»nu6ya", 
tho *'Ziyidat fi funi'-il-Hannfiya". thn " yiyar-ul-Kabii- 
wal-$aghir" ; and thu " Nawiidir". thoMxth and bud of tho 
known compositionH of Ini^m Muhammad, whieh, though 
not »o highly esteemed aa tho others, i^ etiU groatly ro- 
Bpeclod as an tiulhortty. 

Abu-'Abdullah Balih, vide Abu-'Ali, Wazir of Maiwir I. 

Abu-'Abdul-Rahman Ahmad bin-*Ali bin-Shu'aib 

al-Naaal» t^^ J^^t cr*^y' -^^j^^ author of ihn 

worke eullod " Sunan Kubrq." and " Siman ^ughiu'.** 

The fint is a Urge work on the traditiona ; but as Naa&i 
hiniAclf acknowledgi^ that many of the tnidiliouii which 
he had inaerttHl, were of doubtful authorit>', he afterwards 
wruto an abridgement of hi« groat work, omitting all 
those of questionable niithenticity : and this abridgement 
which hn entitled Al-Mujtaba and la also called 8uuan 
Sughra, ttkeji it^i rank tta one of the six bikoks of tho 
ii^unna. Al-Nasai was bom at Nasa, a city in Khurasan, 
in 630 A P^ 303 A H., and died at Makka in Olfi A. D. 

Abu-'Abdul-Rahman Sulami, ii* 'Abdul-IU^^mAn 


Abu-'Abdul-Rahman Yunas, uH^ c^*^' '^^, tho 
flfin of llabfl>, an exfellent grammarian who diod in thu 
year 79b A. D,, 182 A. H. 

Abu-'Abdul- Wahid, '^l^-" •^^l, an elegant Tnrkish 

po<'t who flourirthcd in Constantinople, in the earlier part 
of the seventeenth conturi,-. 

Abu-Ahmad, f•'*^c^•^♦^'J:*^ the son of Kib»im. was 

l>orn ill thu eity of Ama^ia in Xat^dia A. I>. 1483, SHfl 
A. II. ; hi- pubiinly rxpliirti'il th*> lH)*ik wrill* n by hiw 
father Af.iumd bin-'Abdulluhul-Kinni on tho fundamental 
points vl M idiauunaidaniaai. 

Abu-'Ali, ti'^y'i tho wazir of iran;ur I, tho son of Ndh, 

prince of the Sanuininn d\-na8ty of Khunidin. In A. I>. 
963, 3.J2 A. U., b« tmnslatrd tho " Tarikh Tii^arf into 
the Pmnan language from the Arabic, It is a genera! 
bi.^tory from tlu' erealion of the world, down to the 30Dth 
y*.uir of the llijra. In lb' lOurMi? of eight ccntiiriea tho 
bififjuage of Aim -'All having become ubflob-te, Abti- 
"Abdull/ih Siililj bin'Muhamtmid was jHTHuaduNil by Nor- 
uUab KLan, princ«( of Turan, to jtut it into modem Per- 
sian ; rui« Abu Ja'fiu- at^JabaH, and Jabarf. 

Abu-'Ali Ismail, cJa**—' cT^^'i '^" Arabian author who 
died in 907 A. D,, 3a[> A. H. 

Abu-'Ali Ealandar, J'^* ^^y', (Shaikh) commonly 

called Bi'i-' All Kalnndjir Shaikh Sharaf-uddin Panipalf, 
a celebrated and hi^flily resjitH l.-d iluhammadan Aiiint. who 
is said to have ]ierfonn<'d numerous minudej* during his 
life. He was buni at 'Irait in rersia, but came to India 
and fixe<l his resldemo at I'tinipnt, where he died!, ag- d 
about luu years, on the 3Uth August, 1324 A. D., !>th 
lUiuiu&n 721 A. 11. Hi.4 timib lb held sacred and is visited 
by the llusjilmans to thin day. 

Vuit Pnx^eedings, Afl, iSocicty, Bengal, for 1870, p. 126, 
and fur 1873, p. 97.] 

Abu-'Ali Ahmad bin-Muhammad, tho fwn of Ya'kub 

biti-MaitkiLWaihi Khii/jn uf It.-ii, author of the Aniliian 
work, entitled " KitaN-ut-'j'ahanit", whieh was tran>lated 
in Pemian by NiUir-uddut Tutsi, and named Akhlal^-i- 
Nasirt. Ho tlourishcd about the 12th century. 

Abu-'Ali, u-*^**!-* Lr'^'.suniamedMuhandia.'thoOeomo- 
tric'iiur, who exeeliiHl in that jieieiiee. He flourished A. D. 
113(3, o30 A. 11.. iu the time uf Al-Hild/. li-diu-illah, Khultfa 
of KgypU and Al-liiahid liilhih, tho son o( Al-Mustarahid 
of iiaghdad. 

Abu-'Ali Sina, Ux** ^^^^t, f'^' Abii-Sina. 

Abu-*Ali ''Cmar, ^t"^ cH'^r^ u^'^^'i ^^ of Muhammad, 

was the author of tho commentary, called "Sharb Kabip" 
and 'SShari^ Sughir." Ue died in iho year 1247 AD., 
046 A. U. 




Abu-Ayyub <mtfi\ jj* • companion of Muluunnud who had 

bi*«n with liim in the battle* uf Bjtdr onrl Ut^ud, And lost 
hU life in the eiptdilion of Conjrtttntinople (A. D. 668, 48 
A. U.) in Ibf rt*ig:n of Mti'iiwijTi, tb« lii*t Ixhalifii of the 
houbd o£ L'mayvo. His tom)» i." hvM in such vencmtion by 
tlie Maharanuiaaiut. thnt the Sultuns uf tho Tfmdn, or 
Ottoman, djmivtv gird ih»:ir 6Wurd« on at it on thifir luxes* 
sion to tho thron'o. 
Abu-Bakr, or Aba-Bakr, y^^t op^IjI^ aon of JUrdn- 
^hih, was killed in hnttlc A. H. SIO, A. D. 1407. 

Abu-Bakr Ahmad biu-'Umar al-£hassaf, o^^^l 

r*^ cy ^^■*^' j^^'t *>itl^*^r of lOTurHl tnittiaeai Iniown 

by the numc of " Addh-ul-KiUr" Htji KhkUlh Bpeflks 
viTj* liig-hly of thia work. It oontainj* 120 chiiiilt-re, timi 
hrts VfTi rrTTun'ni'-d upon by many k-amed jaristd : tliu 
I MLDkL'nttiry is thiit uf 'Uuiar bin-'Abdnl- 

iQUionly L'uJlfd Hu.'<am-iuh-i*liahid, who 
i. Mi'i Hi ii-tl A. 1). Al-Kha»at died in 874 A. I)., 
J : A. H. 

Abu-Bakr Ahmad, '^^^^jf^.J^U aon of HiMain BHihakl, 

Abu-Bakr Bakalani, tj'^^^.j^ ^*, 1011 of Jayyib. 

Hi' wtiA uf tltr Mit;l uf iraaui Malik, uud unthor of thti vork 
calkfi '• Al-Taulnd," and othtT wutkft. lie dicU 
in lol'j A. Ii., 4u;j A. IL SSuf Du^inj. 

Abu-Bakr Blka&di, h pu]>)l of Abii-* Abdullah Mugh- 
ribi. lit' livvd ubout thu you OOU A. D. 

Abu-Bakr, ^^ ^J?^ erf j^.y\ »on of Abfi-Shaiba, on 
.VmMttn uuthor vbu died in tho year 849 A D.^ 23J A. H. 

Abu-Bakr Zangi, u^ j ere •>*- c*e ^ y^j bob of Sa'd, 

«m ■>! Zangi. oiui of th'j Atalmko of i'-jwia, who reigned at 
Miiraz for lliirly-flvo yoais, (uid dit'd in thi> year A. D. 
U«i»i, fi.'iJj A. II. ' ITie cclcbratx'd .Shaikh Sa'di of Shirua 
di.'tiii'alvd his UuU«t«ii to him in 136B A P. 

Abu-Bakr Kattani, Shaikh Mnhamznod bni-'Alf Ja'&z, ti 
CiuDoui saiot, who wa« bom at Baghdad, and died in A. 1). 
934, A. H. 322.] 

Abu-Bakr bin-Mas^id al-Kashani, ^y^^W' ^^a— 
cH^T^ ^'j author of the work on JurisprudencG, entitlcHi 

"BadiiV It i« also called » Badii'.ua-SunAiV Ho diod 
in A, P. UO|,d87 A. H, 

Abu-Bakr, c/^^'crij ^J^^ ^V'j (MaoUnA) sumamod 
Zaln-iiddiii, a Imnii'd Mu'^jilnian, who diL<d at Taibid on 
'lliurNhiy thn 28th of January 1389 A. X>-. 30th Hu^. 
ram 7WI U. 

Kor I'urthiT notes ridt Kin Tnnfllation L 36(>.] 

Abu-Bakr Muhammad al-Sarakhsi, ^>- V " '^ *^-*^*^ 

j*i y', who«v lillu WB« Shnnw-nl-Aunma ; he com- 

it.^'<I. whiUt in primm ut Tlvjiuid, a Uw ttouk of great 

.(I (it mid nuihitrity, ftntitt•^t th*' "MnliMut." He was 

.\ii*i> Ihc) author uf Uin tx'Wbratwl " Ai-Mul>it.*' He diod 
in A. D. IDUti, 490 A. H. 

Abu-Bakr Sbadan, o'V-^T^yjt^, (Shaikh) of 

lyMZwiu, a crl'^bniti^ pioa« Jlutoilnian w)io dittd lil ^aiwm 
iDtbr ywr lU? A. D.. 6U A. H. 

Abu-Bakr Sbaahbani, ^J^^^^j*^, a Tuliiuit com- 

mand<>r. Iiorn in a vilhiifi.' uallod Shunhbaii in tho province 
of >U»niUrin. He wan onv of tli« gnoloat oppooeata of 
Aaiir I'imur in his conquaM of ^ * 

Abu-Bakr Shibli, ^Jj^'j^y^ ft^, (Shaikh) a cclubm. 

ted doctor of divinity, t>om and bi-onght up at na^hdxd, 
but thv nutivp country of hia paruiita wiia Khtm; .:■ 
This Sufi followed the dix'triut-a uf th':" 6»xt of Imam M ..' ) 
and hud for hin nmat^ra Jundid and other holy niKu ol 
that epoch. He di«d nt Itiii^hdnd on Kridiiv. 3Ut Jiil}>, 
946 A. a. 27th Zd-lpjja 034 A. U., agud 87 yeaia. 

Abu-Bakr Siddik, i}i^^j^y^, tho father of *K: 
thi' wife of Miihuuuuiid the prophet, by whom he was 
mach rc-^poctcd that ht? roccivtfd from him the surname 
§iddiV. wlijch 8ignitio8 in Arabic **a gr^at gp«iker 
b^th," and nt wliuae death, in Juno 632 A. D., he 
iflrc'tcd BUCcesBor in opposition to *Ali, the son-in-law of 
the prophtt. Hu aupporttKi with energy the new fniih, 
and n'duiX'd w>veral of the tri1>es who wiahod !«•_ 
abiindou the m w doctrinrs and n-tum to the religion 
their futht-nt. Alttrwurda, he turned hiii arms 
foioigii natiunB, and by the valour uf hJA nctivo 
Khalid, ho defeated tin nrmy of 200,uO« men. whom 
On^ emperor Heraclius had eunt to ravage t'^Tia. Ho 
did not enjoy his rirtorios : u bIow fever wustt-d hia 
viguur, luid he died the verj- day that Danui* m wi 
tiikrn ; but before hu died he appuiiitt-d for hid succ? 
'Uniar (Omar) lh<> don of Khat^ab. He had r ; ' - 
luujir yeuTs thrue uiuntlis and nine dnyb, and v\' 
63rd yisir ou Friday tho 23rd AngUht, tj34 .\ i .. ....i 

Juiiiada II. 13 A. H. Ho was buried cIom to the tomb of 
IMiihanimad in Madiua. 

Abu-Bakr Tughluk, ij^^^j^y^, the «on of prince ZhUt 
Khan, and pninddon of Kirua Shih Tuirhluk, was Pii*..-J 
to the throDH of iJihll alter the a*aa^«iImtiou of hia cousin 
Ghiya^-uddiu Tughluk. in February 138V A. D.. S»fiw« 
7i>l A. U. Ho n-JKUi-d one year and ax months. ttfl4«j 
which hia umle PHuee .Muharamad Tik' ' :' ' /■ 

Yiruz Shah, who wae nt iVd^aikut, ^K/m [ 

himself king, and proceeded with un anir, i„ ., , ... 

After some repiilflOM he wa^ rietoriouM, entered I'lhli. aim 
ascended the throne in the month of August ]3»0 A. U„ 
Ibimuzan 7D2 A. U. Abu-BuJtr who hid fled tow* 
JlewAt, wae tnk*.n prisoner on Uu* 2irtb NovL-mber of uwk 
flame year, 20th gU-^iijya, and »ont to ihn fuit of BHnuh, 
whore ho died some years after. Vi<it Dowaon, IV, 20. 

Abu-Bakr Yahya, tl^^j^ji^, author of the " BaJ^joU 

ul-M4{ifll". or the Iieli^ht of AsBemhlit*. conUinin* 
vjirious anet<lolva i>H nrdi-d of Muliaaunad, the four Kh*- 
lifoa, and other illustrious persona, in Arabic. 

Abu-Darda, '■^J'S^'j a companion of Blnhammad, who wm 
t^ovemor of Wyriu in the time of tho Khaliia Tmar. 

Abu-Daud Sulaiman bin-Bl-Ash'as, ^=**^>l i^ 
KT*'*^ ^jlj^l, Bumamed Al-Sijiatanl, author of m. 
*' Kilali na-Suiuin", wliich contains 4,800 traditions, mJom 
tc-d from a eullection made by him of 600,000. Ittf 
conaidered the fourth book of the Sunna. He wm bora 
in 817 A. !>., 202 A H., and died at Uosm in 888 A. D. 
275 AH. ' 

Abu-Daud Sulaiman bin-'Ukba, tsj^^i ^aa* 

^ ^yUtU. ,5 j» ,>>*», ramamed Az-^hin*. Co it the 
truoblutor and commentator of Kuelid in Arabic. H« ' 
aloo the founder of a iSunni ew^t, but had Uw follow^^ 
and wan tallfxl Ai-^hiri, because he fouiuU-d hia av«lit 
of juris]>nidcnce on tliu r xt*-rior (fu'Air), or litciul mekoil 
oi the Kurin and the txiiditiona, rejecting the kiyj 
Ho waa bom at Kiifa A. 1>. 817, 202 A. U.. and died 
Baghdiid m 883 A. !>., A. H. 270. Home author* wv U 
he died lu 27o A. H. (888 A. B.J. Ue wai. a '«, 
IwiUaan of ahUfi'i. 




Abu-Hafs al-Bukhari, isj^^ u*^>', a ^^^^ of 
Bukhanl, ;imi n vi.'iy rigid Miuuilumu. llu wa» suniiBmt'd 
Al-Kft}jir, tho (.;rt;il. Vt di^tiiii^uish him from hi* t^on^ 
who was sumnmed AU.Siiphir, ilw J.ittk-, or the Younffcr, 
an<i was ulao a Icfuncd tcuclitr^ but uot so fumQiu as Ills 


Abu-Haf^ Haddadi *Amr, eon of Salama, of Nuihipur, 

u saint, who ili-il in 264 A. II.]' 

Abu-Hafs 'Umar, t^^s^\^JJ j^ sjcJi^yt^ sonof A^ad, 
author of '.I'M works, among which arc " Tar^hib tind 
Tafair" and '* fl[;ismid". Ilo dii*d in 993 A. D., 385 A. 11. 

Abu-Hafs 'X^n^a^al-GhazIlawi,^_5^3iJt j*e uci*.^j| 

jj^AJt^Jf** sinnamed Siriij-iitldin, a toUowtr of Abu-Hn- 
nifo, find ft\ithuir of tho Arabic work i-idh-d *' Zubdnt-iil- 
Ahkdui", wliirli expuunds tin; pnictk'uj t<tutuU>.i of thu 
different doctrines of the four Sunni eoi-U. Ue died ia 
1371 A. B.. 773 A. H. 
Abu-Ha'mid (Imam), ^^^ *i^sr^ ^^ .^la.^! -Ul, 
eon of MuhiiranuuL surnjinu-d (.Ihazmih'. He is the iiuthnr 
of the Arabic work un Uiinluj^y, caU-^d '" Ihyjiu-'ulum- 
iddin" and of manv oth'.T works, lit* died in till A. Ih, 
605 A. 11. Viiff (hhiziili 

Abu-Hamsa bin-Naar al-Ansari, ^;L.Aj/iF »^ ^ 

ty*^ji\^ sumarned Aus biu-Mdlik, wna ono of tho six 
authors most wpprovod for lliihammadiin traditions, lit; 
died at Basra, in the ytor "10 A. IK, 91 A. II., aged 103 
years, ftflvr having b('f,'ol lOU childicn. Uc was the bust 
that wan atyU'd Siihiibii, that in tu say, &icads, companions, 
tad (xmtt^iupomries of AfiihHmmad. 

Abu-Hamfa (Imam), i%ia.^« ^Ul^ Fiimamed Al-Xu'- 

min Kufi. thi* wm of Sabit, a celeb ratttl luwi-cr anionic the 
Miiaalmans,wuslKjm:tt Kufa in the year 6&9 A. D.,, 
and is said to havp Wen a dcftocmlant of tho FtTHian king 
Naushorwan the Just. Thouffh ho wuh iTnpri!«)ni'd at Baf^h- 
did by thp khalifu Al-JIansur for dnuyiiig tho doctrinea 
of predostination, and difd in liiti con lincm''nt, ytt hi.M 
Learning, hia virtues, and modr-mtion fonnd jutrtizanH in 
the Eaat, and 33o yeurs udvr hifi decease, Sultdn Mnlik- 
ahih Salju^i en-f Ud a mausoleum in tht> lity of Uaghdati, 
whero hia remains wero depo^itod. There were not 
w&ntinff enthusiasts who decUrwl that his name whs men- 
tioned in tho Old Testament, and that his birth had been 
£wfltold as wdl as that of tho prophi't. He died in tho 
year 767 A. D., 160 A. 11., aged 70 lunar years. Ho was 
the founder of the first of the four chief sects ofSunnis, 
and tho principal of tho Mujtuhid Imania, who looked to 
tho Viy^ "^ ^^** main authority upon which to base deci- 
cktna. At the period of his birth, four, or as some authors 
aay, six of tho eompaniona of the IVophet, were Btill livbg. 
I'iti* l^anifn (ImAm). 

AbU-Hatim, j*^'^^'* » celohmted Mutalmin lawyer. Vida 

HMim, sumarned Al-Asamm. 
Abu-Huraira, s^j*y\^ihai is "father of thfl kitten," 
to nicknamed by Muhammad. becauBe of his fondness for a 
cat which he always carritd about with him. Ho wod 
•o confitaiitly called by this uaino, that his true uaitio is 
not known, nor his pedtc;rt!e. Ho was such a constant 
attondant upon Muhammad, that a KT<-ut many tnidiliuna 
go under hiti luuno ; bo many, inibijd, tluit the multitude 
of them makft p^-oplf? suspect tin ni. Kcvortheless, othera 
rec«iTB them without hesitation as of undoubted authority. 
He was Kixi of Mecca in the time of 'Ufmin. lie died 
in the year 679 A. D., 50 A. H. 

j^bu Hu&ain Zarrin, j^'J^j ^;^A-^^yt,ofIIiriit, and master 
of Abii-' Abdullah Maghribi. Ho died at the ago of I'JO. 

Abu-Ibrahim Xamail, i/^^tj**:' tirf ti***-*' ^Ir^' ^^ 
son of Vahya al-MasuiDl, a distinguished disciplo of Imam 
&hirri, and author of tliu ''Jami' ^ghir" uud other 

works. Ho died in the 87H A. D., 264 A. 11. Ho 

wu tho mo6t celebrated amongst Shall i"!* foUi>wi-n4 fur 
hia acquainUince with the legal syHtem and juridical deci- 
sions of his pn<itptor, and for hio knowledge of the trmdi- 
tions. Amongst other works, he wnjte the " Mukhtnsir," 
thf" *' 3Iun*ilr", the "Uusail-ul-Mu'tabira" and tho "Kitab- 
ul-Wafaik." The Mukhtanlr in the bjuus of nil the treati«ud 
composed on the Ug^al dut-tiines of Shafri, who himself 
entitled Al-SIarant " the chanipiun" of his doctrine. 

Abu-lE-liak, son of Alptigin, indopend^.'nt governor of 
(jihuzni. Ahu-Is-biil^ luuidnij ovlt tho reigTU of the gov- 
ernment to Subuktigiii,, «-ho on tji-lja^'s duath in A. D. 
U77, A. H. 3117, usurped the thrrincj 

Abu-lB-^hak, .l.*^?* ^jJ (^***( _yjl, tho son of Muhammnd, 
an inhnbitant of iS\Tin, who wrote an excellent coauneotary 
to Mutinabbi. II'. di.d in 1U49 A. D., 441 A. H. 

Abu-Is-hok Ahmad, i*.**! ^3«*-i_^l, or AbuMs-hi^ 
Ibrahim bin-Isnia'O. author of tho " ^i^a-^-ul-Anbiya" 
which cyritains an accuuut of tlie creation of the world, 
and a history of all tlir pruphi^ta preceding Muhammad ; 
alflo thv history of Muhunimad till iIil- battlu of Uljud, 
A. D. Li^3. He died in lUJO A. V., 427 A. II. 

Abu-l8-hak al-Kazlrani, ^j:j^^^ (3*"^'y^ ^ ^^^' 

humiuudan SJiinl who, they Ray, litjhled a lump in tho 
mosipio of the college culV-l '• Taklit Siraj." which 
eontinu^Ml burning for four hundred years till tho limo 
of Bin-Kdwim. 

Abu-lB-hak HaUaj, *^^' ^^ t^'^'-H', goneraUy 
called "Uu8-balf At'ima". a pc^ut ^ind cottun-thnuiher, who 
never ^^^oto a vorse without nienlioning in it Ihe namo 
of a. difih ; consequently they gave him tho name of At'ima, 
i". e. m>-als. Ilia j>oetical niime i^ Uu^-ljak. He lived in 
thu time uf Sik:iiidar mm of 'I'mur Shuikli ; ciiic la-hak. 

Abu-Is-hak Isfaraini, uS'lr*-*' (i^=^'^'» eon of Mu. 

httmniad, author of the " Jftmi'-ul-JiIa," which refutes tho 
dot trincH of various fifcta. Uediwl in 1027 A. I)., ilH A. H. 
Abu-lB>hak Shamit of Syi-iu, u f<imouH csaint, who died 
on tho 14th Kaln' U, 3'J9,"and lit-s buiit--d at 'Akka.] 

Abu-Is-hak Shlraei, (_fJ.^;^i (3***^^-»', (^^thor of tho 
" Tubiikal nl-Knk!ihft," a collection of the lived of wlebratEd 
Liwyers. Ho dic-d A. D. 1083, 47a A. H. 

(Shah Shaikh). Hia 
a dttM'tinilaat of Khwaja 

Abu-Ifl-hak, t7— ' ^.' *ir 

filth', r Amir Kluhammad Shah, 

'Abdullah Aman*. was governor of Shiraz in thu reign 
of Sultan Abu-Su'i'd Khin, and was murdered during tho 
nign of Arpa Khan in 133o A. 1)., 736 A. H. Hi* aoa 
Amir Klaa'ud, who sueecoded him was also alain shortly 
after, when his brother Abu>ls-ha^ took pottaessign of 
Shtniz in 1336. He reigned tH yiiara; but when Amir 
Muhammad Mu^affiir besieged Bhiris in 13<j3 A. I)., 751 
A. H., Abu-Is-h4k fl«jd to Isfahan, where ho wa<i elain 
four years after, on Friday the lath May 1357 A. D., 21»t 
Jumada I, 75 Ef A. U. 

Abu-Ismail Muhammad, iW^K^J^a*^! ^I, author of 

tho liistory called " Tarlkh Futu^^-^^Sham" tho conquest of 
Syria by the gencruls of 'Umnr in forty-two buttlos, 
during the vearH GHH and 639 of tho CTirij4tian Era, txuas- 
lated and abridged firom tho " Taba^al Wakidi." 


Abu-Ja'far, y**^^', nrfcAl-Mansur 


Ahmad bin-Muhammad Tahawii 

^j i^^a^t fkjuf. jj] &Ti inhabitant of f^a^B, « 

nliage in Egypt. Ho was a follower of the IjlAnaBya 
sei't, and is the author of the commentarj' on tho Karan, 
call*d " Ahkam-ul-Kurau," and other workfl, called 
•Mkhtilftf-ui-'ulftma". " Ma'ani-I-A^ir", " Naaikh and 
Mansukh", all in Arabic. Hi* diwl in the year 933 A, D., 
S'21 A. H. He also wrote an ahndgement of the ^tumfi 
dvctnnea, ooUvd thu " Mukhtasir ut-^^^wi." 




Abu-Ja'Airal-Haddad,dl«k.K-ijijt^^j Two great 
Abu-Ja'far al-Saffar, jUi^'i^ju^ yi, j Bj,irituia life ; 

one wu ■ locksmith, nnj the oth»ir a bnuicr. 

The UtUr is rnll^d Al'Hafdr^ i. e., gra%'e-diggor, in 
Jinii's NafliAt-ul-t'iis.] 

Abu-Ja'far al-Tabari, jij^ \j^} (SJ^^^j^^'^t »on 
of Jorir, author of llio Tinkh Tal«H, a very authondc 
history in Arabic, which he wrol* in Iho j-oar 912 A. D. 
This work votf translated and conUnnt'd by Abij-Miihammud 
of Tobri* in PeraiuD. T"**"" '^'^^ ^^^ founder of the 
itTpntb Snnmscct, which did not lonp: Burviro the di^ilh 
of itti rtuthor. Ho wna Inim at A'miil in TabaristiUi in H^iS 
A. P., 224 A. n., and died at tiirghdad in 922 A. Ti., 310 
A. H. liti in ulw> the uulLor of a commentary to the 

Abu-Ja'far Muhammad bin-' All bln-Babwaihi al- 

enmamcd Aji-Sadu^t one of tlis earlj*«t of Ihomony wiiun* 
of commmitjirieson the Knriin among theShrap. Ho lived 
in (hi- fniiitb ci'ntury of the llijni, nnd wns a rontmiipo- 
FHry 'if Uiikn-ud-daulii Dailumf. Ho wiiB one of ihc grru!eflt 
of th*- coilc.jUirs of llu; Slil'a trudttiona, and the uiust Cfk'bra- 
tcd of iill lJn> Imiiniiya lawj-nranf KuniirilVmiA. 'ITiis wrilor 
cumjHjn*'d u largo and a small Tufsir. 'i^horo ia oontn'dcrablo 
uncertainty «» 1o the oxact time whtoi he lived, l^haikh T"**! 
Bays in the Fihrist that Abvi'Ja'far diixl nt Rai in 3^1 
A- H., A. D. 942, but this appeara to be CTToncotut. Shaikh 
Ki^uhi, who died in A. D. L014, etat^^ii that Abu-Ju'far 
Tiutod Baghdad, whilst yot in thr- prime of Ufo, in A. H. 
856, A. D. 965, whirh might Wfil havo )*een the ca«?, 
mnoo Ahn1-I;fa«:in 'Ah' btn-H4bwaihL the father of Abu- 
Ja'far, did not dio until A. U. 32U. A. !>. 040. In addi- 
tion to this, Kur-ullah r^-latoa, on th^ authority of tho 
Shaikh ad-D6r}iiati* that Abu-Ja'far lired in the timo of 
Kukn-ud-daola Dailamf, and hud ropoatvd iiiten-iews with 
that prince, who, a> is wc-ll-knowo, reigned from A. 11. 
Saa to A, H. 36fi, A. T). 949— U7t'. Kp is aluo tho author 
of the *'MaJi la yal.izarhu jJ-Fakih," which ib thf foitrth 
of the four nuthoutic books on bhi'a tradition, culled 
Kutnb Axba'. Ho U uid to hitvt* written in all 172 workff, 
and to have bc«n etpodally skilled in Ijtihad. 

Abu-Jafar Muhammad bin-Hasan al-Tusi, (Shaikb) 

who wiui onu of the rhiof Mujl^ihidsof tho Imaraiya or 
Shi'a peft, is the author of the work entitled " Fihrirtu- 
Rutub-iah-Shf a wa Asmi-ibMnsannifin." It ia a biblio* 
graphical dictionary of Shi'a works, together with the 
namoe of tho authors. Tho greater part of this author's 
works were pubtit^ly burnt in BaghdAd in the tumult that 
M?QM between the Sunntn and Shfaft in 1056 A. D., 448 — 
460 A. II. AbuJa'far died in 1007 A. U. Ue is also the 
author of a mry extenairo commentary on the Kur£n, in 
twenty TolumcA, which is gmerally cnlled the " Tafbfr 
nWXvAi" though it was entitled by ita author tho " llujma'- 
ul-bay4n li-'ulumil-)>unin." Among tho Four Bookfi 
un Shl'a Hadtf, calU-d Kutul> Arba*. tho two firnt in orxlur 
Wrxo composed by him entitled " 'labiib-ul-Ahkim," and 
I»tibf4r. His chitf works* ivn? the llabt^uf and the Khilai^ 
which ara held in gre^it cKtimntiun, u^ are also the Nihiya 
and tho Mubi( by the same author. Tho Itia£la>i- 
Ja'fihriya is likcwiae a bgal troatlMJ by ai-Ti^* which ia 
rteqiHiilly quoted. 

Abu-Jahl, ci^^l, the ondc of Ulnar ibn-uUKhattilh. Ho 
was OUti of the itiOftt jnveteiate enemic-s of Aluliammud 
and his religion. 'Iliough hi2 Bon 'Ikrima bocame a con- 
vert to tho tenets of Muhummad, yet hiffftitherwaafor over 
aliut out frrmv |niradi»o , and k> violent is the roscntTnent 
of tb" M iiM^niana againat this lirst enemy of their prophet, 
that they call the colucynth. in conl^inpi, tlie niulon of 
Ab6>Jiibl. AbuiJahl waa slain in tho liattla of Badr, 

• D6rya«t, a riUa^ near Bai, which ii now called 

which he fought aguinat Muhummad, together with Al-J[> 
hi^ brother, in the 70th year of his ugtt, in the* month of 
Miirt;h 624 A. P., Itomazan 2, A. U. 

Abu-Xiahab, vV-^^'^ ^^ *inclo of Muhammad, also called 
'Abdul-' llzza, WHS the son of 'Abdul-Mutt/ilib nnd one of 
the bitt<^'rc0t enemies of Muhammad and hut doctrinea. 
He died uf grief within u week after the defeat of Ab6*Sui'- 
yan in tho battle of hadr, which took plaeo about the be- 
ginning of tho year 624 A. D., 2 A. U. Ue wa« a man of 
wealth, of proud spirit and irritable temper. Hia son 
'Utba waa engaged, or according to some, married to, 
Muhammad's third daught^ir Kul^ayyu, but whan Mohain- 
mad appeared as a prophet, tiie contract waa disaolved, and 
Itu^ayya maniod bur lover 'U^min. Abd'Lohab wa« alao 
allied to the rival line of Kuriudh, having married Unun- 
JiuntT, iciatftr of Abu-Sufytm. 

AbuI-'Abbas, sunuunod Al-Safiab. which me. 

Abul-'Abbas bin-Muhammad, •>. 

\L^. Cf 


author of tho AruMc work " 31a'rifiit-ua-Sahaba," and 
other brxiks. IIo died in 1041 A. !► , -132 A. U. 

Abul-*Abba8 Ahmad bin-Muhammad, commonly 

culled Ibn-'l'kda, was on*:* of the greatest ma&tora ofi' 
srienf e of tni(liti<^n», and \<ra^ r' nowmd (or liis 
in collecting them, and the long and i*- r- ■• 
which ho undertook for thu purpone of < 
ation on tho flubjiict. Al-Darkutni. the >h !, 

i» reported to Imvo&aid tliat Ibn-'UV<la knew 30u,uo0 tr»- 
ditionfl of the Ahl-i-Dait and tho Bacu-Haehim. He died 
in A. 1). 944, aaa A. H. 

Abul-^Abbas Fazl, bin-Ahmad, of lafar&in, waa nuDut«r 

to Muhmud of lihazm.] 

Abul-'Aiua, ti^lyl^ a Musalmin lawyer celebrated for 
his wit. MTien Miisij, son of the khaU'fa 'Abdul-MaJik, 
put to death one of Abul-'Aina'a frienda, and uftArwarda 
apreud a report tliat ho h&d («capod, Abul-'Aina mid in 
the words of the lawgiver of the nebrews, "Moaea amoto 
him and ho died." The scnti'nco wafi reported to ths prinoe, 
and AbuI-'Aini waa summoned to ap]iear. Instoad of 
dreading the threats of tho tyrant, he boldly replied 
the words of tho following verso in Exodua, "Wiliih* 
kill me to<day us tliou killt'dat tho other man yeatt.'rday 
Tho ingonuity of tho cxprcmsion diaarmod Uie anger of 
Muao, who luadod him with presents. 

Abu-I*ais Nasir Samarkandii author of the work on 
jurispnidoncp in Anibic t.aU.,d " Fi^h Abu-l«ia," and 
th'-' "Uhunyul-id-MubUdi." 

Abul-' Ala, ^^y}y entitled Malik-osh-Shu'ara, or niyaJ 
poet, of Ganja, flourished in the time of Mnnueluhr, ruler 
of Shirwan. Tho poets Fabiki and Kha^ani were hii 
pupiia, and to the bitt*^ ho gave hia daughter in marriugi*. 

Abul-' Ala Ahmad bin-'Abdullah&l-Ma'arri,,^^;juJt 

AlJIi^i^ ^ A»^! ^laJl^l a celebrated Arabian philuvo- 
phor, froo-thinkcr and poet. l»om at Ma'arr -- ^ ia 
on Friday the 26th Dttimbn- !»73 A. ])., Ittt ■.^ 

A. H. ITiough ho lost his sight in the 3rd yi -, : J„.. .^^y 
by the Binall-pox, his poetry is animated and his dm:np- 
tions an) beautiful and striking. Ho died on Fridar 
the 0th of May 1657 A. D., Ui l{abi' I, 440 A. H. Ha ww 
the ponep^riat of AUkayim Bilhih, tJie khalifa of Bagfadid, 
and has left a Diwan in Arabic Vid* ZeitMihrift, D. M. O^ 
xxix, p. 304. 
Abul-' Ala, ^jtit^t XiJlyi ^rt«, (Mfr), of Akhar£Ud or 
Agra, Mir Abul-Wufu lloaani, was bom in the year 1683 
A D., 900 A. U. His grandfather Mir 'Abd-ufr-SaUm 
came to India from Samarlptud, and wont on a pilgruiiag« 
to Mecca, an<l died after some years. His fiUiur ^^ 
Abol-Wafd died at Fatl>pur Sikri, from which place hii 
remains w<-n' eonvoyed to DihU and buried cioee to the 
college ffituatod near the l^al r>firw<ixa. \\'hon It^a Man 
bingii waa appointed governor of fieof^ Mir Abut- 




titJ^dtte -FMvv PiMiiiiiijir ^hack ht oospoMd nd 

cf VKkffvOif^M) b O^i^ TUi inirt wn Utho- 
%iHi I m tke ongn»l Aimbic «t Calcvtts in A. B. IftO^ 

ftl-'.Ajas 'lBAd-aU£B, MMad ksag 4rf E|;t|* <rf the AjTiitnte 
^THMtj. H« Mtel M Tieoo; of E^rf* ^vin^ the ab. 
MM»«r hi* ftOlM. tWbU 8«U^MUa V«nf ibe-AyyuK in 
Sjrm. OBlhedoMMtrfhafather at DuMacM a IIM 
▲.D^heloakyMMHMiflf te«|M«M mw with the 
•aaanoM coaHaft of the gntA Mtfittvy otteera of tbo em- 
pen. He wae hea at uno en the 7th JaMuuy 1172 
A. Dw tth JniHj I, ff<7 A. IL. raigaad »bovt fire vein, 
•Bd4ie4aftaimoathe2fcdX««aiha^UWA. I>H 3iet 
M^BfMi* ftM A. H. 

Abul-FftzlBaihaki .At^ J-ft&il>i, Amhor of wv«nl 

voHra on kMteffj. rUr BaihAb'. 
Abol-Ful 'Abdol-lCalik bin-Ibrahim al-Hama- 

daai a^KnkadduL ^^^ ^ *^'^^j^, enthor of 

fte "Jki^Hii'MnMiMf". * txutiee on the Ut uf inberi- 
taDMeeecodiim lo the Sh^JTi Aactnoe. Il« died A^ D. 
t«M.a» A.B. 

Abul-Fftsl Ja*f)U'. ^^Au^ J-AA>^y «oa of the kheliift Al- 
Vnitaft. ««fl » gnvt aKroocaMx; n'dir At-Mot&vnkHL 

Abol-Vtel MnhmmiBKl a*m^iXam)*jJI^ author of ttu- 

ArsUf VktUmMTf caUrd -* Soil^-al-Laghit" 
AbuUVMl (dheik^ - --'V iA^, Akber'8 fiiToiUo fie- 
f Ntaiy iiid Weti k^i luuDC wiu'AllimC Hoviu 

the Meosd «■ of rL^ifcL Jil^Uicxk of Nigur, uid bmther i>f 
ahdhh firiii Be WW bom m the y'jer U^l A D., 9^8 
A. B^ end «!• hilnAmd lo the emperor in tho 19th, year 
of hiw reign ff h ■i ftr Br t lfiti^-him tn Tir thr mmT I urntrl 
4b4 el^fBiivrit^ffaeB n die Eut Uo is wlcbriUHi ott tho 
aMhsef the ** Akbeniaee'^ and tho " Aiu-Akbon", and fur 
hdi Nfi, adl*d *« Xaktdb&t-i.'AlUmi," which an consi. 
4iPBi £■ ta4ie moifela of public coi n^poudence. The history 
of the Xnghal empertm he carritnl on to the 47th yciir of 
Alber'* '*^S% in which )*ear ho was murdered. IIo vrns 
rfepfiled vilhptmceSal^ Gloria in 1697 A. D^ 1000 A. }I., 
M CwrnneiHlet-in-Chiff of tho amiy of the Dvkhin, and 
eaUehiiBg recalled five veer* after, ho vraa advnnring 
iQMrtfdt SVertrar with a email eecort, whun ho fell into 
•a nebuaulfi, laid for him by Birsingh Deo Dundtla. 
itftf of U^hl in Bnndelkh&ndf at the intftigatiun of Prinr'.' 
B e llei (puWvanU Jahengir) on sitspioiun of bcin^ the 
of a mieimdentandin^ between him and the 
hii Jhthca-; and although Ahul-F^ul d'?f<^ud'.-(] 
with gieat ^Ibntrr, ho vnu out off with mo«t of 
' hk heed waa acnt to tho phauo. who 
wmtktmUAJMMUd. Ttua event t<H)k i>Wv un Fnd»v 

tte iMk^JA^mi, leos A, D.. 4th \tihr u 1011 X li. 

Ahhar vm mtfAy afiktcd by th« inU>lli9rDc<> of thi^i 

he ahed ahmidanco of tcera. huU pshmhI two diiys 

I ag^ vtlhout f^Hxl or ftloep Abul-Fa|l in ilLbo 

of the •■ 'Ayir-Dini»h** which ia ■ tnnilation of 


Ftr a ilrtaihd biogn^fa^ vUi Ain TrazuUtion, I, pp. i 

AbuUFaxl Tahir bin-MnhftTnmad Zabir-uddm 

Tftryabt i»««r^ ci^jU'^t^ 4 i\-raian poet ; vuit ^^ahir. 

AinaL-TuU ImAiX Hanuwi. ijj^ J^*-! t-**^'^', 

wleM» HXi Mme b Malik Muav^Ad iMai'H AbuUFidi, son 
«f M » H fc-ai-AiW> a hmnied wid «-<le]imttil prine^if who 
~ hia broilMr Ahmad a» kin^ of Uumit in Srria 
la the yw 114a A. P '*' ^ U AXTirn o ^.ri%-«t« man, 

if the mt^tona beyood 


in Anbir 

the Q%m ceUad '-l.^ 

.daa," which 


edited by GrvviiM with a Uktin tnnalatiDn, Loadon IffAO, 
and by'llndjon. Oxfivd 1712. AbtU-Fidi die^ in t:t4^. 
a;pd 73, at ^amaL The pmicipal of Abul-Fida'a other 
worka ia hia abridf^ment of Univenal History down to 
hia time, called " Tirfth Mnkhtasir." Hu ia wry exact, 
and hie atyla li elegant, on which account hie works 
azv vtxT mnch esteemed. 

Abul-PalB. *-;^'^». Fwfo Faiii. 

Abul-Pals Muhammad bin-Husain bin-Ahmad, 

sunuuDiMl AI-K*itib. or tht- WriU^r, is bftt^r knuwn V»v iho 
name of hinoAhmad. Ho wae a waxir of &ul{an Rulc»-i>4- 
dauLi, of tha BoyideL He waa a gnat orator and a 
poet, and bmuKht Arabian caligtaphy to perfection. Ho 
died m 961 A. D.. 860 A. H. 

Abt2l-FutuhBaaiMakldu c*^ t5j!;c^!^» »<***»'^ ^^ 

theAr&hic work allied **RL<i£la*' or**KitabHaaaniTm'*,whi'h 
hoa a great repntatioa amongvt th« Sbf as, particularly in 
r«7mia. It conaiats of an imaginary diapatation bctvL-m 
a Shfa alave'girl and a learned Sunni lawyer, on thn 
meriCa of their rBspective doctrisea, in which, aa a matter of 
conne, the girl utterly dieoomfita her opponent. The ai* 
gument ia very ingcnnooaly managed and the trentiee, taken 
altogether. fumiahM a good and conciae espoaition of the 
tenets of tho Shfaa, and the tcita on which their botief ta 
founded. This woi^ waa translated from Arabic into Per- 
ai^n by Ibrahim Astarabadi in IfiSl A. D. 

Abul- ahasl Bahadur. J J^ tf;^' y*, Khan of the Tar- 
ton, waa deacended from the great Cbingij Khin. H^ 
came to the aorereignty of Khwarazm on the death of 
bruther ; and after 2b yeam^ during which he was : 
at homo and ahr\»ad. he reaign<-«l the ivivuteignty to (ue _ 
Anoflha Muhammad, and retired to devote himiiflf to liter- 
atttra. He wrote a valuable gi-nealogical history of tho 
Tartars, the only Tartar hKory known in Eupjj»p, but 
did not live to finiah it He diod A. D. 1663, 1G74 A. 
H., and on hij death-bed chargi^ hia aucceiawr to eom|date 
his hiator}*, which ho performed in two years «Aer Idl 
bther'a death. Thia valuable work was tnualated Snto 
Qennan by Connt Strahlpnberg, and a Fr ^n eh tnuulation 
appeared at Leyden in 1726. 

Abul-Ohazl Bahadur, ride Salvia Huaain Mini. 

Abul-Horas. *^ er^ ^V-^ ^,:yr^ ^J^^y*, 
Ham^ eommonly eallod ^ul-Bama, aon of 'tT^ba. He n 
an Arnbian poet, and waa contemporary with ~ 
He died in A. D. 7U, 117 A. H. 

Abul-Hasan, cr^'y, author of the "SiyarNilr Vi 
lud," A henm- poom on the wars of the prophet Mnhaouni 

Abul-Hasan. cr-* 1^', a poet who wrote a commentary 
on tho Diwin of .\nwttri, called 8hai^-i-Diwan-i-Anwan'. 

Abul-Haaan 'AbduUah, C^ t»; ^h^^ er-*^*y«, 

(ImAm), son of Hulpinna*. He tranaUted Pilpny'* Fables 
from tho Pahlawi language into Arabic by order of Ab^« 
Ja*2ar Mansfir. the aocond khoUfA of the house of 'Abbfti^ 
who reigned at Raghdid from 754 to 17S A. D. 'Dko book 
it called Kalila Danma. 

Abul-Haaan 'AU. a^ tr-^l^, author of Uie wttkm 
cnll.-d "Sunan'and "'IkL" He died A. D 990. 880 AH. 

Abul-Hasan 'All bin-al-Husain al-Kumi, *^^ 

^^Jfcr*—* erf tr**^'^'i commonly ralM Babwaihf, 

who ia said to have died in A. D. &40, 329 A. H.. waa the 
author of aeveral works of note, one of which ia e&Urd 
*' Kitab-oah-Sbarfa." Thii writer i<i looked vipim. as a 
conaidcmble authority, alUiough hia fhme haa be<ai almost 
eclip8e<i by his more celebrated son, Abd-Ja'ikr Unhasaad 
Ibu-Babwttihi (p. 14). Whon theeo two writere an qnoled 




together, they are caUedi the two §ad6k8. He is also tho 
author of tho Kiti1>-ul-Mawarif, a truatiso on the law of 

Abul-Hasan 'Ali, ^J^^ kiM^ <^ tJ^ c>**^'jJf, Ufe eon 
cil" SuJtiin jMiLs'i'td I, aflOL-niic-U the tliroiitj at (ihazni, on 
Fridayi 25Lh l>ci'om»»CT, 1049 A. D., Ut Sha'liaiu -ill 
A. Hm reiffiit'ii litlly more than two vc-are, und wne deposed 
by hwbroth.T •Ahihir-Iiashid in 1052 A. U., 443 A. H. 

Abul-Hasan Aah'ari.<-^*-t ^"^ cr/^' tir^!^', son 
of Ulna' il. Hf wu-* » ilu'Uizilitt;^ but afterwards became 
a Suiuii. lit' ib tbf uuthur of nearly 400 wurkd. Hu dltMl 
in Iho yi^ar OSti A. D., a*i4 A. II. 

Abul-Hasan Juijani, i^^j^ e.'-^l*^', a colobrated 

luwypr, a native of Jurjfin or Georgia. Vidf JurJAiii. 

Abul-Haaan Khan, cj^ ij^\ y' ^)y>, (Miraa) Pmian 

Kmba>J8ii(ior to the liritiflh Court in 18U!) and 1810. Ho 
is thi) author of a Work uallud '* Huimt-uamii." or book of 
wondrfN, whii:h title vna ffivon by it by Futli 'Ali Hhah, 
king of Pcrnia. It ccmtaina u long account of tho Khia's 
traveU in Indiu, Turkey, Kuaaia, England, &f. 

Abul-Haaan Kutb-Shab, ^^ s*^" lt-^Lh', whose 

original nRrnt- w;i.«* Tana Shall, was l-h«_' son-in-law 
of *Abdiilliih Kiitb-Shali. after whotto d('ini!*o. iibi-:iut the 
year 1672 A. D.. 1083 A. fl.. hu Bucce^'di'd to the Ihrori.' nf 
GuUonda in tlaidirdbad, Bakhin. This plaro w»a ton- 
quBred by 'AlanifjiV, after a siege of seven mouth-i, on the 
22nd of Hejitombur, 10»7 A. U., 24th ZTil-kH'd:!. 10^8 A. H., 
and Ahul-Uui^jui wuti tak4:n priHonf»r and confined for lifw 
in the eitudel of Diiulatab&d. Golkonda wati then nduced 
to a province of the einjiiro of HinJ'i»tiin. AbuI-H»Han 
died in confinement alwnt the year 1 700 A. I)., 1 1 12 A. H. 
Ho was the lost Sultan of the Kutb-shahi dpiasty. 

Abul-Hasan Razin bm-Mu'awiya a!-'Abdari, y^ 
^^O^Jf .SjjIjw ^^ ,^j ur-^t, author of n. collec- 
tion of traditions bearing the same tillo as tlie onu written by 
Baghawf, niunely "Jiimi' buina-l-Sa^ilitun." It comprinua 
the works of Al-Uukhan' and Muatim, the MuwHt<tduf Malik 
ihn-Aiifl, the .Iiinii"-ut-Tiniuzi, and the Sunans of Abu- 
DAud, and Al-Na.-4di. Jle died in 1126 A. D., o20 A. H, 

Abul-Hasan, cr-^!^' 8^, (ShiibJ son of tho fiiraoua 

Rhah Xihir of Ahmndimffrtx in thi) Dnkhin, and niiniHtcr 
of 'Ali 'Adil Shah I. about the year 1572 A. D., 980 A. H. 

Abul-Hasan, the son of I'tiinAdud-dauln, prime miniKter of 
the emperor Jfthnrigir, bad three dftughtei^, rri., Arjmand 
Banij, alt40 oiUid Munitaz-Ma^l, married ta tho em- 
peror Shah JiUian ; Sultjlii Zaindnia, (he seeend daughter, 
WM married to SaJtan I'lirwiz ; and the third Hndr-u/xu- 
mania to Shah 'Abdul-Lutif. the spiritual guide of the 
emperor 'Alaiiiy^Ir. J'idr .X-mf Khun. 

Abul-Hasan Turbatii i^.y cr-^'^ , entitled Rukn-ua- 

Sal^anaL an Awur who hold the rank of o.OCK* in the nngn 
of the emperor .Inbiiiigir. wnd ditid in the »ixth year of 
ShAh Jahiin. A. D. 1632, lt42 A. II., aged 70 years. 

Abul-Hunain Ahmad bin-'Ali al-Najaahi, author of 
a biographieal work entilled " Kitab-ur-l'ijar'. eodipriHing 
the lives of eminent JShi'aa. Naj^hi died in A. if- *Ud 
(1014 A. 1).). 

Abul-Husaln bin-Abu-YaUa al-Farra, (jW^'c?^ 

C^4***^'y f i^^^^ author of the T**^"^Mt-ul*yanhaliyii, 
which eomi>ri:5<'** the livew uf the most fiimouH lawyers of 
the wet of Ibn-l.l:iiibid ; it was cniiimeneed by our iiuthor, 
continued by SliKikh Zain-tiddi'n 'Abdiir-linhmfin liin- 
Ahmad. commonly caUed Ibn-ltajub, and concluded by 
Yusuf bin-Iiiisun ul-Mntadda^I : tbi se three writern died 
ret|>ectively in 1131^ 13U2, and Utilj A. 1)., 526, 7^0, and 
671 H. 


Abul-Husain Kharkani, i.r'^^ ^ A». ir fy[^ author of 

the *' Shnrh-i-Makhzan-ul-AfiTftr," and " Mir-it-ul-JIu- 
Ijakkil^in." conlninini? an explination of the een-monii-a 
u^fd on the indui'tion of a Siifi, and Uie nilLti of the order. 
He died A. D. 98G, 376 A. U. 

Abul-Husain 'Ali bin-*Umar al-Darkutnl, i^^^j'-a 

,j** e^ LT* iJ^^^yJf a Kunni* trnditioniht. whose lol- 
kH.'tiou ot trudili<'U»«, liko tho!*e uf Abii-Uukr Ahmad bin-al- 
Uusain al-Baiha^ are of thu bighoat authority, llu died 
in yUo A. 1)., aho A. H. 

Abul-Huaain Zarrin, •'"/« Abu-llusain Zam'n. 

Abul-Kaeim sl-Sahrawi, csjIt^**^' j^-tftJf^f called 
in L<'mpri^re*B KuffU^h Itiopraphieal Dictionary " Alsiihu- 
ravius", an Anibiitn phyiit'iun who lived about the yt-ar 
1085, 478 A. H.. anil i« ihi; author of tho '* Al-Ta4rit," 
a treatise ui 32 books on rntdieal pructire. 

Abul-£asim Namakin, ^^ ^IaJi ^t^ a Sayyid of ^ 

Hirat, Berved with diflinetion under Akhar and Jahangir, 
' and became a riih landowner in Hhakar in Sindh, Ho 

huilt the great tnosque in Sukhar. Him desfendants 
BL'n-ed under Shahjahan, 'A'lamgir, aud Farruk-tiiyar. Vide 
Ain Translation 1^ p. 470. J 

Abul-Kasim Nishapuri, iSJ^i^ ^^*^» author of 

a PerHiiin wnrk on Ethics, calb'd ■' (innj-i-Gauj," and 
of another work, entitled " Wulyat-ul-Mutta^.'* 

Abul-Kasim 'Abdullah, ^^^'^ ^lafiyl, gonofMu- 

hammad liaghawi, author of tho buok called Mu'jam, and 
several uthur works. Ho died in the year A. D. 921*, 
317 A. H. 

Abul-Kasim Isma'il bin-'Abbad, di^^^if^^^yi, 

w&tir of the Uojnde prince Fakhr-ud-daula. One of the 
most splendid libraries ever collected by a private indi- 
vidual in the Kist Wiia that of this nobleman. Ibu-Asir 
relate** that four huiidrod camels wero nyjuirod to remove 
the b^Mjks. 

Abul-Kaslna Mirza, son of Kamran 3Iirz£, hrother of 
the emperor Humayun. In tho year 1657 A. D.» 1164 
A. U^ he was confined in tho fort of Gwaliar by the 
emperor Akbar, who, when going to puni&h Khan- 
Zam&n, ordered him to be murdered. 

Abul-Kasim, i^tf ^^!j^l, K&hi, of IsfahAn, though it 

ib ustiuUy wiitl thai he was of Kabul. He died at Agra. 
Vidfi Kasim>i-Kahi. 

Abul-Kasim, ij^' ^lAJtyl^ ^f Hilla, rommonly calkil 

Shaikh Muayyad. author of thu " Khjirii'-ul-Islam", a 
treatise on luwE'ul and furbiddun things. This bot-k ii< 
of great authority timong^^l the Muhammadans profe^^^ing 
Hhi'a dni.'trinert, lie is alao CttUod shaikh Kajm-uddin 
Abul-i^iUtm *la'£ar bin-Muayyad. He diod A. 1). 1277, 
676 A. H. 

Abul-Kaalm 'TTlMiiduUah bin-* Abdullah bin-Khordidbih, 
died A. H., 300, A. l\ 912. He is Iwat known iis Ihn- 
Knt'ttuAnmH. Ht- wrote the " Kitali-ut-Miiuiik wal-. 
M»irjm.Iik," the * H<Jok of Itoads and Kingdoms.' Ttrfi 
Khurdadbih, and Dowsun I, p. 12.] 

Abul-Khair, ur*i;ly^ j^-^b^' ^i[>*, ManlinA, of Khwt 
r.i/in. a phvsieiiui and {Hxit whtnit? [Kjieiical nam<^ wtiit 
'Aslii^. From his native country he went to llirat in the 
bttttf-r part of the reign of SuUAn Hu*iin Mirxa, and was 
there till Muhammad Shail)^ni. commonly calU-d Shahi 
Beg Khan Uzbiik, conquen^l tluit province, and took him 
to JIawjtriin-nahr. or Tmiisniiann, where he died in I'iuO 
A. 1>., ©57 A. H. The chronogram of the year of lii* 
death is ** Faut-i-'Aahil^*' thu death of 'Ashi^. 




Abul-M&'alif whose proper name if MuhAnun&d Sadr-nddfo, 
U rUimed by tho Turks as the first of their poets, thoor h 
hk Uboun were not confined to thoir UngoAgo alone, for 
h* WTutc in Arahio also, and was in Persian ^ rival and 
c\>ym*ml of X^ir^uddin. Ho wu contcmpoFuy with 
JniiUwl'im Rumi and hifl son Walad. and died about the 
yt^T 1270 A. D. Ho is not, however, according to Ban>n 
von HamnM.T, BtricUy conaiderod to be & Turldsh poet 
I'v his cuuutr\iuen ; but thu mystic tone which ha adop- 
ti-d from pKreiiin literature, and which ho was undoubtedly 
thu (Int to impress upon tho nntional mind, (fives him 
an unijtuiittoniiblo right to tho place Aligned him. The 
ttamci of hill works, snch as the *' Soal of Perfection," 
and t>iM " Kt'.y at MynWrii-e,'' indicate the peculiarity of 
bii Uurt/t and ^cniiiN ; btit umidst all the eonfiiition of 
■trlr and thcti^ht, sotno jwsdiif^ of ^nmt beauty and 
«nrsi kimjdirity rire found in hi* works. He is lost, how- 
ftii/, in Uwi fumu nf Ium autxrHHor *Ashi^ 

A btil-Ma'ali. •>^»*''.>+« i:>> o^^'^' . the son of 'Abdul- 
MsJmI, tliK moNt «di>quont of the IVniiiini, who flourished 
in Um* limf nf biiliAii Hfihritni ShCih Ghoznitwi, by whose 
ctfder, in Uk- r«nr 1118 A. D., 512 A. H., he wrote in 
Irti/mi His ** Kuhln Damna" (or Pilpay'if Fables) fix»m a copy 
wtu4-h KOdaki, tho cclrbrut<Nl poet, had formerly used 
lor iKKjtry. I'hin version continued in vogue till the time 
of Hultin HuMiin Mirxa, fuuHh in descent from 'Umar 
Hhaikh, thft MV'ond Mm of Arair Timur, when his primo- 
ninist'T Ain(r Hhaikh Ahnmd SiitiuilL got Hiuniu Wa'if 
to mudtmux" it, in \. I). Ia06, 9IU A. H., under the 
wunm of ** Anwir Htihaili", ur the Riiys of Cnnopnii. Abul- 
Km|1« thn able prim)* nitnintiT of Akl>ar, uouipreosed this 
vc^, and gavu it tht< nauie of *"Av4r-Dinlsh," or the 
tuuith*stonfl of knowbilgit. 1I« is called by Daulat Sh£h. 
I^amid-uddin Nsfr-ulhih. Tidt Nair-ulliJi, tho son of 

Abul-Mtt'all, iy^'>^ «^i (Shfli) a chief in the service 
•yflh' rnip^mr Akbar, who hanng revolted was oom- 
(^Il'd \*} seek wifely in Kabul, wbiTt^ Mini Muhaniuuid 
I Ufc (in, thf brother of Akbnr, gave him hift uster, named 
Mthr>imN'is£ llrjjrnm. in marriagx\ and miscd him to tho 
flr«t oflicn iti thitt kiri|<iloiti. The ungrateful rvfugfo, 
|low«v\tr, hiid nut ber^n many months in office, brfon^ he 
Mptredtu thr kingdom of KiibQl,aiidinMnrch lJS6i A. D., 
Blia'biu, tf71 A. fl., basely asssssinatod Mini Muhjim- 
mad HakfnrH mothcT, hia own mother -in -law, who was a 
woman of unc<>mmon nbilitics, and might with tmth be 
■aid to hnvr nib'd thitt kingdom. He then pretended to 
ai t ss ri'Ki nt to the younir prince, who was still in his mi- 
nority, with n vit>w tu ui t rid of him as soon as be could 
(«>m JlEdti' tb« Uinnr^. In the meantime Uirxi Solaimin, 
yt\t\ir of Itkdakhshin. stUrkfMl him, and slow him in A 
{...111., on Ui" Uth Mav, una A. D., 1st Shawwil, 971 
\ n ind hxjk iMMMHWMion of that country, iriiiohheheld 
■' Abul-Mn'AU wasan oldguit poet) and his 
I , . nil wan Slinlibiuli. 

AbuJ-Mu'ttll, ,^,>ljtAlJl ^Ujf y I >A^, (Sliaikh) of 

h\M\\k\M, .iMUnir of tb« work inllM " Tubfsl.iU-Kildi- 
fi^.i. ' or IIm hfi' of Hhiukh 'Abdul^Kfidir (ttUiti. Ilv 
rvaidnl Ui liilior, snd died tlirre on the 0th April Itilfi, 
l<ilh lUbl' I, 1034. 

AbiiUMftftikhir Basi. iSjhj^^^ >'. » poel who ttour. 

ihhxl Ml tlif nlK" "f Sullen Jtluhummad SoljdlM. 
Ahul-Mahuln. i;7'*^^l^'i iiuthor of tliu work called 

" Maidiiil-t-MAn." 

AbdUMakarlm bin-*AbdulIah. Thern are Ihrwi com- 

tif Nil^AvN id I'biiidnlU bitt.Mdiirid, which 

I" h tiiijunu'd till) w« M- writt" n n«i"'<tiv"dy by 
A".i MiikAiiin Id \Mn S. h , mC A. II., Abu-'AU bin- 
MuliHmiiirtd Nllliijitidi III t^VH A !>.. t)HA A. 11, and 
Mibiiwudddt Muhamuiad al'KhunUini lu 1634 A^ X)., 941 
A. IL 

Abul-Ma'shar, ^ ■^ * *-^ly*) who is called byaom© older 
aathotfi Albumassar and Albumnzar, ww a leatncA, 
Arabian astronomer, who BouriahL'd in the ninth 
in the rvign of the khalifa AI-&Ismun of Baghdid, 
wrote a treatise on the revolutions of the years. Hts 
name ia Ja'Cax btn-Mohommad bin-*Umar Abol-Ha*duir«' 
He is cnlli>d the prince of the Arabian astrologrra. He 
was bom in BaJkh. In his fiimous work, called ■* Uluf" or 
** Kitib-ul-Uluf", which ho wrote from a Sanskrit work 
astronomy, ho asserts that, when the world 
the sevi'n planets were together in the first point of 
sign of Ariea, and that it will end when the saxne 
shall meet again in the last point of Pisces in tiifiirn 
exaltation or Dngon's head. Ue died in A. D. 885, S73 
A. H. His works were printed in Latin at Venice in 
lose, 8vo. 

Abul-Ifajib al-Bukhari, t5"j^*^' S*t*^»y', poeti- 
cally called also 'Am'ak. was a Pfirsian poet 
flourished in the fifth cejitury of the HiJTa at the oonxt 
the Sul^ Kadr Khan, king or kha^ of TorHsUui, w) 
made him president of the academy of poets whidi 
had established. His poem of the loves of Yiisuf 
Zolikhi, which can be rviA in two different metres, is mnc^^ 
admired. He was particularly £unons for his elegies. Ha 
lived nearly 100 yvars. Daulat Shah says, he lived in the 
time of SultKn S&zgar. who requested him to write aa 
elegji' on the death of bis danghtar Malik £hatda, ^'^Ik^ 
he did, although he was then blind on account of 
age. He appejirs to have died some ycua before or aAiC 
1145 A. D., 640 A. H. 

Abta-Sa'adat Mubarak Ibn-Asir, (xLr^' j*^* io^ 

i_(j4-s o.!l*-J!>J', al-Jaxari. author of an Arabic Diotioo- 

ary called " Al-Nihi\-a fi ghanVil-yadij." He died m 
1209 A. D., 606 A. H. ; vidn Ibn-A^ir. 

Abul-Wofa, (Shwaja). one of the great Mints of Ehw^ramai, 
and author of several works on Suilsm. He died l-ISt' 
A. l>.. 83d A. H. 

Abu-Blaas Muslim, JU»« jLfo« jA^ an Arabian gram- 

nuihan, who died in 803 A. D^ 187 A. H. 
Abu-Mansur, mmamedal-Hikim bi-smr-ilUi, i 

&thcr A1-' Akli to the throne of Egypt in A. D. 990, S81 
H., whenonly llyeaisof age. In the latter part of hia i 
he fiincied himself a god, and found no fewer than IA,M#j 
pcnKnifl who owned Mm as such. These were mostly thfl , 
baxmriana, a new sect spmng up about this timcv wl^. 
were so called from their chieC Hnhammad rbn-Ismi'^i 
sumamed Dariri. He is supposed to have inspired tWj 
mad khali& with this impioos notion ; and as Dax^ art ap( 
for a second Moeea, he did not s<-mplii to assest that Ab4- 
llanite was the great creator of the universe. He was 
UMsnnated in the year 1020 A. D. His boo Tihir 
succeeded him. 

Abu-MansUT^^r*^-^'* author of the *< KltfiMd-Tui^- 
and several other works. , , ^. 

Abu-Mansup »Abdul-Kahir al-Baghdadi, aiitlwr< 
H tnatiso on the hkw of iuheriteAce aocordmg to ShiCC 
He diiHl A. D. 1037, 42tt A. H. 

Abu-Maa'ud, sumamed Shaikh-ul-IsUm, a nabro of Oob> 
rtantinople, and author of the *»hjable o rnmrwmtw y on 
the Knrin, entitled '* Inhad-oUa^" Sonridhed ia the 
ntign of Snhin Salim Khin, emperor of O o n rti irtiTi op J e, 
■ad died in 1616 A. D., 922 H. 

Abu-Muhammad, J^ ^*^ y\ of Mecc». son of AbA- 

TaliK author of n rommentary on the Knria, and sewnl 
other works. He died in 1045 A. D., 437 A, H- 

Abu-Muhammad, son of 'Abbis. the son of « nrtv ^ 
Abtk-Ja'&u- bin-Muhammad bin-Jarir al-Tokeii It ia 




hf amnzed, vhen, on the papor boing cxAmined, thnr^ ma 
foiind in it a minute Bpcoification of the prccieu spot 
Uxruugfa whirii hu pvntitratt^d '. HuKupon the pnuc« with 
horror denouncfd this Ujuned man as a Bort'crcTt and 
eommtnded luni to be inatAxitly thro^m uat of tho window. 
The barbaroun srnlence was prwu'otly pxccuted : >mt raro 
had hc^n tnkcn tn prcpun^ beui'tith ii soft t'ushton, into 
which thu b(Kly uf thu Mige eank without sustaiain^ any 
injury. Abu-Koihin was thfii rnllwl bofore thf monnrth, 
and wna rcqairud to suy wbothtr by his boosted art 
hv had beto ablu to foresee thi?8«.- fvtnta, and tho trcat- 
nifiit throagh which ho hnd thnt day pomod. Thu 
lettmi-Hl mitn immeduittily di'&tn>d his tiiblcta to be sent 
for, in which wero found leguliirly pr»'dict<'d thu whole 
of th^M Biiignlar trrmtmctioiia. He trHvellini into dif- 
fuirnt cuuntrim, and to uid &oin India for tho space 
of -to vtvirB. iitt wrote inany works, and is said to haro 
expcuud ftpTcral tran^btioufi from the Urcek and epit»>nii«>d 
tho Alinujfitt of Ptolemy, llin works are said to havo 
rxrv*4\liil u i-amL 1 lojtd. The mo8t \'alunblo of all his works 
is tho " Tdrikh-nl'Hind." Another of his works \a tho 
Kinfiu Mru'udi, di-didted to Sultan Mob'ud of Ghaxni, 
for which he rt'<civ(d on olcpliwnt-load of sUvfT coin*. 
Ho livtd in the tinu! of Sultans Miihinud and Mua'lid 
Uhuzuuwi. Hud died in thL yf-ar 1039 A. 11., 430 A. 11. 

For farther notes vitU Bowson, Elliot's Histr. of India, 

II. 10 

Abu-S»'id» A^lo-f* iiH'**^^, tho son of 'Abdullah, an 

Arabian poet who flourished iu the court of SHlab-'id-din, 
Mntl w(i!« hiti prime uiiuistor. Ho died in the year 12U1 
A. n., o07 A. H. 

Abu-Sa*id, ^^^^^ut^ *^4*-yl, the son of Kohub 

S^hahhf, iinthor of thi> book colled » Momod Kabir." He 
died in <Mii A. D., 335 A. H. 

Abu-Sa'id »AbdiU-Malik bin-Kuraib, V<y 

^ t-^JUJlJ-U! daA««^ij (otmnunly cuUt-d Aaoia'i, culo- 

bmtt'd for his KTan»n"i*-i*'il knowltnl^ and oloqucnco. He 
wiiD b(rm in tb*' yiiir 740 A. I).. l'2'I A. II., and llourished 
in thctiui*; of Al-Mumlir, kbrUifa of Uaghdod (who n-i^f>d 
from To-* to 77& A. 1).), and died at Basni during the 
rvifrn of HJtrun ur-Kaiihid,or, as somo authors my, in A. H. 
21G iX.lX «3-Jj. 

Abu-Ba'id 'Abdur-Bahman bln-Mamun al-Muta- 

walli, iiuthur of tho "KHrui);. MuLawalli*. a tnatist- on 
the Uw of inheritance aifurdin^ to bhafi'i'a doctrine. 
lUdi.d A. D. lOb^, 4T8 A. H. 

Abu-Sa'id Bausawi. u^'^ ^>i^Ji\ or l^^f Ahd- 

Sa'id *AlMtall;(h Hni/»w{. author of the work called '* Xi- 
|im- ut-T'iwdrikh," an epitome uf Uricntid HiBtory from 
Aditnt Ui thi' overthrow of tht* Khilafiit by tho Tartan 
mid«r Htilakn Khan A. I>. 1258, 674 A. H^ written about 
the y<fir 12T5. TiVfc Baii^wl. 

Abu-Sa'id Paal-taiah, ^i-'lJ-a^ ****-yl, son of Abul. 

K hair, a ^rrjit Sijfi. of Mithna. Hi? spiritual ({^uide was 
Abul-Fai;! I.ukmnii of Sunikha. He devoted himself to 
MCfltto excrci-Hts and spent fourteen yuant in lite wilder- 
xn*m. ilu is Iht' author of the C^natruins, rallod Rti1>&'iy&t- 
i-Abil-9a'{d Abul-Rhair. He died at tho sgo of 44 in the 
year lOfiB A. D . 440 A. H. 

Abu-Sa'id Khan Bahadur, j^^^^i^. )A^ J-^'^^^y., 

a Sultan of th<i family uf Hutikd Khiin. was the son 
of Olj&itu. commnnly cnlb-d ^luhnmniflr] Khiidit-ltanrla. 
whom ho sucri>rtJed to the throno of Kt*!.! in D^rpinber 
1316 A. D,, ShawwiU 7JB A, H., wh<-n he win* otdy twelve 
ypiirt of agv. In his time Rn»liiil-nd-din. tho nnthiir of 
the .I4ini'-ot-TaW(inUu was put to death, lliia nionarrfa 
may ^Hi temiLd tht< htst of the dyiiAnty of lliit£k6 Khdn 
who rnjyyiM any powiT, The few prinoos of that sovtT- 
eign's fiimily who wt:r« miscd to the throne afl«r Abii- 

Sa'id wero mfTG pagMnta, whom tht^ nohlos of the ^oqrt 
eloTutod or cast down aa it suited tho purpo«« of their 
ambition. Abu-Sa'id ruigmxl 19 lunar yeiint, and died 
of fover on tho 30th November 1335 A. D., lath Rabf 
II. 730 A. H. The following is a lirt of tho prtnora 
of the family of Chingiz Khan, who wore raisod to nomiaal 
power after thu death of Abu-Sa'id Khdn. 

Arpa Kh&n (Ifa'ixz-uddin) wascrown^in 133^ reigned 
five months, and was kiUcd in battle in 1336 A. D. 

M6sa Khan was elevat) d in 1336, reigned two yoarSj and 
was murdered in 1338 A. li. 

Siki, sister of Abil-Sa'id Kh£n, was elevated to Ute 
throne in 1338. She was murritd to Jahin Timiir 
who got the kingdom as her dowty, but was deposed 
the eoroo year. After him 

Sulaim^ Khdn was declared king ; he left the fcingdom 
and went to Diyar-bokr in 1344. 

Nuusherwan was elevated in 1334. 

Abu-Sa'ld IfiTBa, 1^ i>>i«««yi ej^'-p (Soltin) the son 

of Sultan Muhammad Mined, son of Mirinahth. son of 
Amir Timor (Tamerlane). Ue was bom in 1427 A. D. 
Aft*'r the dtath of his father in U41. he contimu-d tu Ur« 
with Mirza Ulugh Ue^, son of Uirii Shthrukh at Samaf- 
kaiid. und 8*n*ed in bi^ army when he waa nt war with 
his sou Uir/.a 'Abdnl'Latif ; but when that pxincti vat 
murdered by his unnatural tion iu Octobex 1440 A- D., 
Kamaxan, 863 A. H., and he in his turn was slain after 
aijt or sevwi mouths by his own soldiers, and 8amar- 
Ifund was taken puswiftdon of by Mirxa 'AMullah, son of 
Wiraa Ibrahim and jftuiiduon of Min-i Nhahnikh, Abfi- 
Said with the aiisistanee of Abii-lOudr V/bnk having 
defeated and taken 'Abdullah pnwner in a battle, put him 
to deatli and ascended thu throne of Samarknnd in Uol 
A. D., HUo A. H. He alao U>ok powessian of Khuni^ 
after the death of fi&bar Sul^an^ son of Bavu»int?har 
Hirza in 1457, 861 A. H., and greatly extended his 
dominions, but was at last taken prisoner in on ambos- 
cade^ and put to death on tho 8th FebrufiTA', 1469 A, D., 
2oih Itajab, 873 A. li., after he had reigned 18 ycvn. 
After hi* death. Bul^an Husain Baikri, sumamed Abul- 
Gbizi, a descendant of Amir Timur, made himself ma«b«r 
of the empire. Abi'i-Sti'id at hia doath left eleven sons, 
fir.. Mirxd Sultan Ahrmid, IMirza Sulidu Slahnnid. Uirti 
Sultiln Muhammad, Mirea .Shahrukh. Mirzi Clngh B^^ 
Mirza 'ITmar Shiiikh, .Mirzi Abd-Bakr, Mir^a ^ol^^H 
Murad. Mirsa 8u]tan Khalil, Mir^d Saltan WaU'd, jB^I 
Mirzd Sidtan 'Vmar ; of whom four arrived to the dl^cnily 
cf Jiing*. ''«^- Mima Ulugh Beg to the thnme of K»'>>n» '. 
MirxA SuItAn Ahmad to the kingdom of Samarkait ' 
'L'mar Sluiikh to the unil*'ti thronea of An.l 
Farghdna ; and aiiriftA Sultan Midmmd to th' 
and BadakhahAn. Abu-Sa'id Uutn^ »ay» 

though brought up in the city, wus illiteraie u: ...i 

Tit/tf Ck-uealogityi] Table attached to Am TranaUtiun.J 

Abu-SiBa Muhammad, Hulhor of the Arabic work 
" Dalfdil^-ul-ijukiiV/' containing a coUectiou of 


AbU-Sina^'M-*^', or Abfi-'AU 8fn*, whom wo caU A 
conna, yns a fumou:* l^fuhammndan phvsician and phi! 
sopho". who early applii-d himsvlf to liU-rftlure, Uit*n 
and nmthematice. At the aye of eighteen, he ben ' 
praclis«i. and with such success that he iM^came phrfeia 
to the court of Baghdiid. He waj» bom in Iho city 
Bukhara in 983 A. D., 373 A. H , and at Ha ' 
in .hily, 1037. 427 A. U., aged 54 lunar ymi^ 
the character of a Itiimed man but too much i '" 
wine and efFeminating pleasures. His jHwks on mtmrn 
Ac. were in number ll>0, now nearlv all lost He b 
called Ibn-Sini, Iliu following are' the titles of his ««na 
Of tho Utility and Advantages uf Sciences;, 20 Inxika. O 
lanooonco and Criminality, 2 booU Of Health 




Abu-Turab, Mir, v{^^l j^^ « SaUmf Snyyid of Shiriz, 

who terrc'd, wiUi his Hon Mir Oadii. in Gajtit, and then 
unJi'T AklHir. Ul' died in 1004 H„ and lie* buritKi in 
Ahnudibftd ; ndf Aixi Tnuiitlstion 1, p. &06.] 

Abu-'tTbaida, S**^** >^ a friend »nd aasociato of Mnham- 
mud, who had the commiind of Ihp Mo«l«ni army in tho 
tiioo of Alju-Bftkr. the firirt khalifa, but hving dt.(eati*d in 
ft battle against Ihc troops of thfi Grw-k cniptTor, hi» was 
deprived of the command, wliich was given to Khdlid, 
*Dmar, on hia accewiion to tho khiUfat, reijluucd Abii- 
'Crtiaidn in tho command of tho anny in Sj-rio, being 
grrallydispU'Used with the cruel and blood-thiraty disposi- 
tion of Khilid. Abu-'Clmiilfl <Kt/nd»Hl hia conqm-atiJ ov.t 
Palestine and Syria, and drovu the Greek* out of Ihu wholo' 
oottntry extonJiniJ: fium the Mfditijrrancan to the Eu- 
I^inites. Tlii* conquiiat wufl eouipli.*ted in 639 A. D., IH 
A. n.. in which year Syrin whs \'iiiittd by adreadfiil plague, 
in which the Mt^lema lost 'io.OCtO m(in. among whom wt-ro 
Abii-'Ubftida himwilf, Yoaid ibn Abu-Sufyan, and many 
other mun of dUtinctiou. 

Abu-'Ubaida ibn-Mas'nd, cy^^ cr^l *»>**^ j^j 

a cencrnl in tho time of the Vhalifa 'Dmar. Ho was 
dc^mtid and killod in battly by Fnmikhxiid. who rom- 
mondfd thu umiy of Ttkrin-Dukht, (juwrti of Pewia, about 
the year 635 A. D. 
Abu-'Ubaida Earn bin-Salam, author of a work on 

" K jTiiat." 

Abu-*Ubaida Ha'mar bin-Al-miisanni, ,^ij^l 

4^_7*A* J[*>J+f ^tj ft Tiimoiis Arabian gnimmarirtti, bom 

in Ba'ira, wlio livt-d in thfl time of Hanin-ur-Riifthid, and 
difd A. D. 821, 20U A. H., ogid 99 lunar yuars. 

Abu-'Umar Minhaj al-Juijani, ^yLa^^t ^t^i* 

j^ yt^ author of tho "Tabukit-i-Nasin", a ci'lobrat<-d 

history, written in 12o2 A. D., 060 A. IT., and dedicated 
to Sui^iLn Naair-uddln Mahniud of Dihli. ri</« Miuliaj-i- 

Abu-Yahya bin-SaDjar,^y^=^ iif^ t^J^- y^ * author of 

a Diw&n in Ajubie. Uo dini in 1234 A. D.. 632 A. U. 
Abu-Yahya Ahmad bin-Daud al-Farazi al- 
Joijazii, "^j'^ y:ri •^♦*-> t*4*^^', who woa originally 
a Snnni, but IxruniM a oonvr-rt to tlie ImAmiya or Shfa 
liuth, ij the authnr of a biogra^'hicol work, entitled 
" Kitab fi uia'rifcit-ir-!<ijal,'* containing the lived of timi- 
otint £hj^|l). 

Abu-Ya'kub al-Warrak, oll^' ^.^Ji^, vidt Muham- 
mad bin-la-l;»4|^ an-Niidiui. 

Abu-Yaaid, jl»H*^»*ty^S Maktabdir, wwrotoiy of 
fitate in Egypt, who r«lH<IIed against K&im. the Kcond 
khalifa of th<^ nuM> of thi? KatimitrM. lie was not puiiiab- 
ed fur hia reb*:IUon till litma'Q ol-Hansur dofeatMl him, 
and eonflned him iu an iron cagtj where he endul hia 

Abu-Yuauf, »-^>iyi f*^, (Imim) hin-Qabib al-Edfi, a 
ct I- III ill <1 K ;L/i •,( Ttjighiii&d, and ode of the flmt pupils of 
A i'd with the title of Kdxt-I-Kuzit, or 

9ny: . iii.'rc'igns of iladi and Uaruii-ur-KuAhi'd, 

khaliLu ut lU^liJad. U^ i>npport«xl the tcnots of Abii- 
|^anl(l^ and niuintaincKl thi^i dignity of Mk officv by impnr- 
lialtty. Whi'U ime day I fnr bin ignoranru of 

ottr ofthe cnuM* br\i!ighr u, fur tho decision of 

which he rvcvivvd an auij-tv ,»,^iuv.i-uce, be joco«ely replied, 


that he received in proportion as he knpw ; but, mlA h«, 
if I wetv |mid fur uU X du not know, tliM richt.<« of the khi- 
lofat itself would not be ttiiQicii'ut to an^wfrr my drauuidft. 
Ho was bom 731 A. IV 113 A. H.^ and died on Umt 
13lh ^-ptt^mlKT 798, A. IK. 27th Rajab. 182 A. U-. at tb« 
age of W) years, at Baghdad. The only work known to twTv 
been written by him, IreatB of the duties of a Magistnilo. 
and i» entitled " Adib-ul-Kaji." I'he reputation of this 
work hiia be<*n colip«>d by thut of another, having a umi- 
lur title, by iil-Kha^5&f. 

Abu-YuBuf Ya*kub biu-Sulalman Iafaraim,^UAL. 

trJ*r^^^^^i>'',Kuthorot ih« " tiharait-ul-KhiiiiiiU" 
ile died in 10U6 A. I>.. 4BS A. U. 

Abn-Zakariya Yahya al-Nawawi, vitU Kawawi 

Abu-Zarr, ij^^j^ J^yU Ibo father of the Kartimatiazu in 
Arabia, who not only opiu*'d the religion of Muhammad, 
but plundorod and iiu«ulted the temple of Alecca and car- 
ried awuy the black stone whirh was bt-liuved to hare 
ffillen from heaven, lie died 963 A. D., 342 A. H. K 

Abu-Zarr Yakut ICausiU, ^J^J^ ^^j'kj^y^, * 

brated ciiligrupher. 
Abu-Zubaid, *H'jf^, *^ author who has written on tha 
lion and idl its namua in the Arabic laognago. 

Abrakh Khan, cj^ ^y\, (tho son of l^dlbUi ^ ^ ^ 

AWiar, govomor of the fort of Ahmodnagar, who died than 
in tho 22nd year uf Shah Jaliin) was a nobleman of high 
rank in the time of 'Abungir. A few yturs \K'fo»v hu 
death, he was appointed govomor of Borar, where be dit4 
on the 24th of July, 168d A, D., 3rd iiooui^ia, 1096 A. H. 

Abru, jyX vide Hafia Abrii. 

AbrUiJ^'j poetical name of Shih Najm*uddin nf nihlf a/M« 
8hdh Mubonilc who flourished in the reign of the ctaperor 
Afutuiiiuiutd Shah, Utidied in 1161 U. Ftdt Suntunr, 
OudhMsS^p, 196.] 

Abtin, tirt-^l, the fnther of Faridfin, seventh king of Pens 

of the first, or PeNluladian, d1|^m8ty- Abtin prtHunded that 
he derived his origin from Jumohod, king of Perui of Iha 
some d)'na»ty. 

Aohanak Begam, one of. the coocubinca of the cmpocw 
Aktkar. t*he had built a garden on the banks of the JamVf 
ai at Agru^ callud Achanok Uagh. 8om« trac^a of it an 
yet to bo sm^n. 

AchchhOa c*^') the poetical name of prinoo Balaad-Akhtuv 
u brother of the enijwror Muhammad Shah of Dihli. H^v 
was familiarly called Arhehhe Sal^ib, and themfort:* choa^^^ 
Achehhe for his * tukhullu5.' lie is the author of a b<-nutifu^fl! 
poem, e.Hlbd *' Nahid-o-Akhtjir," i. f. Venus and Ibr '^'-- - 
conttiuing 3<i6 vt-raea, which he completed in the yvar I'jj ^ 
A. D., 1139 A. H, 

Adam, the first man. Tho Muhammadans phkcc Adam's atfi 
l*aradisc in hoarea ; henee after the full Adam and Ua««t( 
(Kvo) were hurled down to earth. As thi» hvo&I happMUed 
about 7,000 yoan bofore the IT^m, Adam ia ofUa «*"»*J 


Adam Khan Gakkhar, .^ c*^ p^l^, chief of th« 
Oakkhars, who defied the [wwer of Ihu iinperor Akbar. la 
070. at the iiistigatiun nf Kanial Khan Itukkltar, Adam was 
■ttaoked. aud defeated aDdoaptorcd at HiUn, soQlb of Cki- 
lifinwnla, near DaogaU, AdJuD's atrocghold. r«db Am 
Translation, 1, 467.] 



i|. Shaikh 'Abd-umbinin, son of the 

AVal-Ful. minuter and swrctaiy to tho 
Akhn; w JahingiVd goremor of Bihar in 1610 
mA died at X^rx in 1613. 
Tidr £m Tiui&lxtiun, p. xxxv (Abul-Fiurfl Btogrftphy), 
■ai Doncm, VI, 206.] 

ITHitTij ^L^ (J^l. vhose orig^nl D«me was MiiUA 

Shakr-alUb, Uw son of 'AMol-IIakk, cam** frum Shiraz t^i 
Utf DuUdn, uul WB8 intio(iut'i4 by 'Al>(liir-r(Al.iiiu Khan, 
KStiakksaks, to the rmjicn>r Jahilngir, «')iu cunferrod on 
him the nnk of an Asnir. In the second year of Shah 
Jah^o, 16S8 A. D.. 1038 A. II., the ofBov ut* \V'uantt-i-kull 
iMvill^ Vy?c<jraf vBCAnt by Iho ih>iniMstil of Iroditt Ktitin, 
th« bnithftx u( JUai Khin Ju'ffir Btg. ho wil» honored with 
thaiappconlm'-'Dt. In thu fli-vtoith year of tho emperor, 
li>" niui*.!!! (if 7.000 und 4,000 (wiwira -waa t'onftrrftd on 
! lirr next year at L^or ou tliv 7th Jonu- 

,ii, 1048 A. H.. 1639 O. 8., agt-d 70 yuan*. 
Hu ]. : yroA 'Allann. Hifl tnmh, c-allod Chini 

HxuL^ . 'jxl tho left bonk of tho Jazuund. 

Aikfti*nd-daulB, (Xav&h), Nizam of Haidarab^ sac- 
ottidtfti Ut* father Nawah N&jtir-ud-duulu in May 1857, 
IMi ^il-Vi'd^ 1285 \. IT., and dopartod tliiB Hfo on tho 
24tli 'jf Frbruiry 1869, &g^ 44 years, U'aving an infiuit 
aon vbo, accf/nlin^ tu tlu* Nuccoesion guazBnteo gnntod by 
I^vd Cianifg. i* niiw hi^i fiuccoMor, 

Aftal-llddtn, <Mjr). NawabofSdnt. He died on the 7th 
Attgnit, IMO. at thv a^* of 69 yean, aflur enjoying his 
■MMMftl BAvAhihip About 31 jcua. His Mn-ia-Uw, Mir 
ift'frr 'M Mn^«td«d him. 

Aflft^ X3UU1. • finra/h of lh<! rmipcror Shah Jahant whodifd 
«« thtf Mh tUhf I, 1067 A. U. IJis tumb ia nmir tho 
HmntiuU»\^t\ in TijgaBJ. 

^ ^^ , Jif^ ttw yinHhn1 nnoo of Matilawj Mahamnuid B&]^. 

Hk pannltf wtn of DQip^A hut ho iru l>om at Ellora in 
1740 i. D.f n4M A. ]|.. and dinl on thr Srd of ftlarth 1806 
A. l*^ Jflh Kil-J^iija 122U A. H. Uo ia thu author of a 

U» vM ft JliiU (pL JfMtedit, Miid to bo u corruption of 
lk« f^mtUn luuf'dmmkt • 'lurw arrival'), n nnniu givun to 
•■Uli aahlJBH Antiit MtUed in WctfttTu ludia.] 

Ahmad 'All. itwilicolly ntyM Ahmad, aon of A^hk 
wi 'AU. -f Mh-^JtA, a rcncinn Krtunniarinu of not«, 
^t^^t I'^L in hit " Miinyyid-i-BurhAn," 

MHI (1^ M|i,i. I'Ztur," the author uf tbo Burb^n 

ttinr.* V*?.*!!! Hvix'tutrv. Bipnin«l Uk* tiunuud Dilill pool 
Simk If* aJ«r> piibliilu-4 the "Ki.-wllH-i-Ublils>ilc". thi< 
^IMk^TariiM", " Htkfi Annan," a HiMlury of tho 
fbi^M ICigiWVl and i«U1m1 loVKni) works for tho Artiulic 
AMiNr «f l^nnmi. IU> nt a I'timtaii tmu-.hcr iu the 
(l^iWiU Um4tmm, mUm h» dU^l (Junu 1873). j 

§U^0 j¥*^9 fttlliM ]|a'taniad*ud-daiila. nunistta- 

EtfjMi4.<«44t* f|M4a/. kfaHK '^ Andh. Iln wni dinmiiiiml 
^M A I'. IZfX A II., Ma fntind U> Kinb|iur, where 
A«4 A* Jf4«iA>y 7U Jl«;. \kZ% hiXi Z\\-hx^%, 1247. 

,U ^t** UT^ ,(^ A^ 

llavAdir', 'tbolnkveAoiU 

.a^y 4#<w m4 i«M«»«ir, Hit jwa kgiwl Ubio i« 
^« «» 4^Tiiiiiiilliiiil, MtO 

Aghar Khan, ^l^^t^ r£r MuhAxnmad, whoBOirod 

the rtij;i) of Aurjiij^zib iij^inst Princo Shnja', in Kskm^ 
and in Kabul. HodtciiiuA- !!• UU2. llu (*ou, A^utr 
Khan II. woa still alive during the reign of MuhAnunad 
Shah. Thf fumiJy truced their dei-et?ut from Aghar, % 
desrondant of Yafij (Japbt-t), aon of Nulj. Their vili«,j 
Aghatibid near Bihii is often mentioned in the hixtoiit 

Abi, t5*I» a poet who was a rhicf of one of the Chaght 
hoixlos, and htid iLSSomcd originally tho i-voftiral name 
*' Nargitii,'' but changed it into *^ Ahf, bei'AUse he (bi 
that anothor port of hiit time h:id adopted it. He it tl 
author of a Biwiln which ho dodic-atfd to prince Gl 
Mirjci, thu son of Sultan Uusain QlirEu BaiVri* He 
in the yrar 15*^0 A. I)., 927 A. 11. 

Ahl-i-Bait, t£^ cUt^ ' tho pooplo of tho house*, a gaunl 

name for the deAcondanta of Muhammad, the Sayyida.] 

Ahl-i-Kltab, w^ lUi^ * the people of thu book', a col 

tire namr for the .Icwh, (.liristians, nnd Muhai 

who rt-ceivtid a Ijook, i'. e., revcJilcd religion, from hearfln,] 

Ahll Khurasani, ty*-«!^ k^U * pwt who died 
TabrLB in the year 1627 A. D., 934 A. H. Ho mt 
not be confounded with Ahli-i-Tdrfmi, a Chaghtai noble*] 
man of prottigatt* chjiracter, who lived at the court ofi 
Sult^ Kusain Mirza, and died in 1407 A. D., &02 A. II. ., 

Ahli Shirazi, t^jLrt-^ 1^* (TiIaulilnaJofShiii«, an elt 
po*it in tho Borvieo of Shah Isina'il .Safawi I. IIi> is 
author of several poems, auiongbt wliich arct tho ** Sibr-i< 
I;lalal", "Sham" wa Ftirwana", *' Jii»ala-i-Nagha*\ 
nania", and *' Fawaid-ul-Fawfiid." H*- ditd in the 
153o A. D.. 942 A. H., and is biiriod at ShirUi, eloM to 
the tomb of I|iL&f. 

Ahlia Bai, the wife uf Jlndhu lUo Pcshw^ SindiOf 

u plute in tho time- of Shah 'Alam, called Bi«D^ Obi|«i 
or a bathing-place for all mun, on tho bankA of the 
river Jamuna. It oxttJided from the trunch i4 thp fort, 
to the hooM of D4r4 Shikoh, and wiuj iu good pretor' 
Vtttion in the year 1830 A. 1). On one ofUie cunwrri 
n largo gun of iron wua l>ing, uudur thti Uawdi of Baim 
Shikoh. called Dhaul Dahani. 

Ahl ifl. Bai, ij^i **^'j the wife of Khlnde lUo, tho aoa 

of aiaUiii- Kdo Ilolkar I. of Indor, aflemV^r,.., j.-^th, to 
1766 A. U.f idio Itad a jagir idltitUHl to i ^ ^i 

annual revenue of 1,600,000 Kupeoo. Uoi I < ' i.uida 

Kao waa kiilcnl in battle at Dig Agaiu^I -^ ,; .jiu,i.l Ji\ 
in 1754. Her son Mali Kao, who h^il -, !.J b:« 
grandfuthiTT Malhiir KAo in 1766. died nine \u\- 
Bhc WAS a woman of spirit and ability, and 
her own hands the right of nominating a suocc-teurj aiiii 
elected Tok.iji to the rij. 

Abmad al-Makkari, *>*^', author of tho Hijitory of the Djuastiea in Si)ain. This work wa* trazt*- 
hited by M. Fu^culll de Uayangf>s, an t-nulity Spaniaiti« 
I^ndon, 1810, in 4to., Vol. I. Ue wus bora in the lAtk 
C(intur>', and dini in Diimoscus in tho year 1631 A. D_ 
1041 A. II. After having comfiosed a rtjry detaiJM 
biogniphy of tho oiilcbrnlcd and lBJim*-<l wazfr of GnuuuU« 
Muhammad Ibn-ul-Khattb. he added to it, in the form 
of an iutioduction, a general hi.stoiy of the Ajubs PI 
Spain trum the coDquost to tht:ir final expulsion. 

Ahmad I, •^•^ cH '^^^\ emperor of Turkey, won and \ 
flucGoator of MuluLmmud ITT, whom he anece«-di^ in Jiuiu* 
ary, 1004 A. IJ., Shu'Uan, 1012 A. 11. Tliis prin *- wu« uf 
a good oonatituliou, «trvug and activu , hi? wuu^d ihcuw & 




Ixim. He wu in conaequence dut- 
^ for 13 ycara in one of tliO fortH 

S« wa rdesaed by ^alt&n Srns'ud, oon and 
•fllabmAd, and reinstaUid in the rctqwnsible 
vfaicii he held for some time. lie died 
m ihe ymr 1083 A. D^ 424 A* U. 

bdC-Idris, cry>>' t*^ *^-*^», a Uwyer of the 
of lUlik, «KS tfa« Author of muny worka, iind diM 
123i A. D^ 684 A. H. 

bia-Iarai], »-UV^ cr' *^*^i, » great iwtro 

«^ Ifvat nades- the khiliLit of Wifik Billiih of 

faUuKaair, .J^ ur^ iW^I, abo colled Mnh&m- 

■Md In-Ksffir umI Knfir aLPurghini, ui Uio Mmf piT^m 
vfaoB w ^1 AUuBganiua, a great BXtrooomer, who 
Imd 4sriii« the retgn of tiw EJbUifa ai-Uim^n. VitU 

bin-UohanuoAd al-Ohafifkri al-Eazwini, 

tsf*^ .k*«* ,^ a»aI, » ^i^ and a deeoendant of 

'lUd-GlHiiii; tba ai^^fir of tb« ^* H&wf. He is the 
«f lfa» wwk isHbA "* >'aakh.i.JaUD.i7i" wim-h he 
isthfrwr iUt A. D^ 071 A. H.. of which 
k* tifii &■■■ fihe nbronoffnoL It is oUo caUod 
«a abbd^^a history of Asia, from 
aiat^Btfipof Penia, A. D. lo2d. It 
«# 1^ Uvkamnadan kuifps uf 
09^ imm A. D. 7M to l»M. It wbj dedicated to 8hah 
TaAaCi^ Wccni«lMiaAl«44ad to him for the better known 
** It^nMl^-*. We lomi frtjzn the ** Tfcrikh 
hia esnploymr^t in Penia, 
of hit life on a piigrimago to 
in Pflml in Sindh, fur the pur- 
vt ysT^ a vittt to HindAetAn, he died at th&t port 
m IM7 X. O^ t:$ A. IL 

r«* V^mmm, n&^9 mdj, of Indm, It, £04.] 

al-KA8talani, J^^i>-^^ 
^^0^ ^ A*^^ M s«UMr who di»d in the year 1527 
Jl. D^ MS A- B. ; wifi$ 9a«uUm. 

bto-Mnhammad Kuduri, </,:>*>' •^^^^ cH 

«f a *«ti «« JviupnideDOOf called " ^ndfarf*, 
He died in 1046 A. D., 436 A. H. 

bi&^ICiibunAAd btn-^AIi Bakr al-Hanafi, 

r W tte ** yWriftrt III FbKtti " a t-oUoctiou of doci- 
tt* Mid of tba eighth century of the 
of f»rt! occorreoce. 

I^-^C^*^***! thcfbimdar of the 
dyvMrty la Kf7l^ ' n^« Ahmad lln-Tul^ 

Ma-Tftbr* UiirJablr al-BUaduri, ^^^^l 

4V aJjI^*^, iwwwl ahiU Abu-Ja*{iu luid Al»uJ- 

««e Cfas iwtl—inf lo ooa of the prin'Mi uf the 
^■tfr ^ li-ifl— fcfctt. ^ <lHd in A. U. 27if, A. D. 
MQ^ ab 'Fjrtfc rf hm\AUr fa om of ih^. tmrlit-ot Ambic 
«TCi» a feoi^aphitaJ wutk, cntitlt'd 
the B«ofc of CoiuLri£«.] 

MA^TflkjWf M^ v^ *^**'« author of tho mar- 
Wilija", a attfk im jariapmdBOoe. 

bto^T U»uf, ^^rH e^ *>v^, an hiatoriao and 

«tf Ow -* AhkU#-W-da«ml'\ vritltn in 1£V9 A. U., 

A- M^ vUb^ ■ mM to W va abeidgctbi-nt ijf Jani- 

aftOT, ^■•diUo •* BaU^tU'Zaihkhar". 

Ahmad Chap, Malik, wiui Xaib.B£rbiik nnd<rr Ftrfs Shih 
II fKhilji) of Dihli. whom hu warned in vtiin im>in< 
'Alii-U'jdin. lie wus bliuded by 'Ali-nddin after lu» 

Ahmad (Shaikh), 43ryji*X»*.| ^i^ of Ghaml, author of 

the work entitled ■* Mal^amAt-i-Shaikh Ahirmd," f>ontaininK 
the Life of Ahmad Jam, Bhiukh-idJslain of KuhAp^r ; 
with a minute arcount of the min»cleB performed by bim* 
Vidt Ahmad J4m. 

Ahmad (Shaikh), ^^^\ i><4a.| vx^, commonly (aJled 

Alalia Jiwan, of Amethf, was the tutor of the CTn| 
'Akingir. and nuthor of the '• TafM'r-i-Ahmadi." H© 
in 1718 A. D., 1130 A. H. TiVfo MuJla Jiwiin. 

Ahmad, Shaikh, second son of Shaikh Salim Chiahti of 
Fttthpur Sikri. He terved under Akbar, and died in 

983 H.j 

Ahmadi> ^j<^'^^\^ the poetical name of M£r Bayyid Lotf- 

ulLih, who died in 1633 A, D., 1043 A. H. 

Ahmadi, ^^^t^ a Torkiiai poet, whose proper oame «raa 

Khwija Ahmad Ja'fiui, and of whom we hare the follow. 
iriK Mn.xnioU*. Tho ^Teat Tartar conqueror Amir 'Tinxwr 
(Tamerlane) being on his mnreh through Anadoli halted 
fur a while at.Amaaia, where Ahmadj livod ; and the poet 
took the opporhuiity of presenting him with an ode. 
This led to further intimaciea, Tim'ur being a patnm of 
Utenuy men ; und on« day when both wern in the hath. 
tho monarch amused himself by putting crochetty queetioM 
to Ahmadi, and laughing at hia anawKra. " Auppoao now." 
said ho, pointing to the surrounding att^ndanta, " voa wm 
required to value these beautiful hoys, how much would yo« 
eay each wmi worth K' Ahmadi answered with becoi 
giarity, estimating one at a camel-load of Hilrtxr, aac. 
At dz buflhcls of pearU. a third at forty gold wodmek 
BO made the circuit of the ring. " Very fair," said Tin 
" and now t^dl me. What do you value Mc at ?" ,^ 

and twenty aspcrs," replied the poet, " no more and no 
loKS." "What!" cried Timur. laughing, "wbv the 
shirt I have on is worth that." '* 5o you really think 
so f" oakcd Ahmadi, with the greatest apparent eimplicttr 
— •* at that rat*! you must be worth nothing, for I incloded 
the shirt in the valuation !" Muth to hie credit Timur 
instead of being angry, applauded and rewarded the wit 
and boldness of the poet. Ahmadi was a contompotraiy of 
Shaikhi, and {» the author of the *'KiiIlivit.i-Kl>w«a 
Ahmad Ja'fari." He aUo romposed a hcrcic poea CB 
tho actions of Tamerlane, and a fiikandar-nama in the 
Turkish language. Ho died in A, D. 1412. 

Ahmad QhafiUri, vide Ahmad bin-Mohammad al-Qhaflari, 

Ahmad GhaazaJi, x-ide Ghuiuili (Ahmad). 

Ahmad Ibn-' Arab-Shah, 9%dt 'Arab-Shih. 

Ahmad Ibn-HanbaJ^ vitU ^jlanbal (Imam.) 

Ahmad Ibn-Tulim, ci?^ c;^ **^, ^^ foonder of liie 
Tulunide dynasty in K^ypt, a Turkish slavei, who bMu 
entrutftwlby al-Mu'tamid, the khaliia of Baghdid. wit% 
the government of that country and Syria in A. D. 879 
set up for him&ell and maintiined hia authority notvith* 
standing all altempU to depose him. He ndnned Damucoik 
^ms, ^mit, Kinniarin. and ar-Kakka, "tr tftfl ttpcn 
the eastern bank *ji the Euphrates. His moeque in C^tiro 
may bo seen to this day. Ho died in A. D. 884. ajO 
A. H.. and was 6aect.eded by his son Khumirwaih. £«7pt 
eonliauid to be governed by his sut-e^esors for arvfrai 
yeaid when it was again reduced in A. D. W)ft by Utiham- 
mad, gcnorul of the Lhaltia of PaghdM al-lftakUG - 

"=3 1 





t&e last khaliCft of Kfr\*pt tui^Hng ossaednatcd his predcc^ft- 
•or, and tbfruby ix'iul(-r*jd liimttolt' vtr}' udiowa. In the 
year 933, Muhamnmd the t^u cf Tftj, or Tajil. sumamed 
at-Ashhod. eeiicd uj-oii Hma and E^iyjit in the kbilafut 
of u-'Hixi Bilhih, and his family reUijiLni thw wholu of it, 
except a amall pjirt which 'Utiaid'nUa lU-Mahdi, the tiritt 
of the Fdtimile dynnatj (the snat of whosu bmpire was at 
l^airuwan near 'I'tmis) had conquered iii A, U. 910. Hia 
BUccC'Wjor Abu-Ttimim Ma'd, fluraumtd Mu'ijek li-din-iUuh^ 
coiiquored Uio refit uf EgT^^pt ubiiut thl' year 970, hy his 
general Ja'Tur, who Imilt the city of aUKahira, mmmonly 
called Grand Cniro, whithtT his musUT soon removed his 
court. The Fatimitu dyn:isty onili d in A. D. I17t!, whtn, 
upon the dtuith of thr: liwl prinre of this fdmily, the king- 
dom was tuorped by the famous Suld^-uddin (iSaludin). 

List of the Khalifas of Barhary. 

'XTbaid-nllah nl-HEwhdi, firat of the Fatimite mce. 

Al'ljkaini Iktuhdi, hi.i hon, 

Isma'il, Hunuuued al-^laii^iir, Bon of al-Kaim. 

Mu'i/i li-diTi-ilhih, son nf iiUMansiir, who concjiirrad 

E^j*pt and beLJime the first khulifa of th© Fa^imite 

diriLHsty in that tnjontry. 

Ahmad Ukani, ^^1 
fide Eudan Bnzurg. 

t oIao called Ahmad JaUyir ; 

Ahmad Jafari, »JLr^*^ *>-i-a-l, (Khwaja) vi<U Ahmadl. 

Ahmad Jalal Bukhari, (Sayyid) sou of Sayyid Uuhammad 


Ahmad Jalaylr, j^^U^ ^^*^\^ also calUd Ahmad Micint, 

a desnc^ndaut of Hasan Buztirg, which see. 

Ahmad Jam, -1^ ^Xft^l (Shaikh ul^lalam) entitled Abfi- 

Nosr and Zinda-PiX a cekhrated Sluhjmimwdan saijit of 
Ninhapur, boiu iu thu year 10-t9 A, I)., AW A. II. IIu 
pa«.-*»jd IH years of hia UL in devotiun in wilda and moun- 
taim). Ho subaequeully gut nuirri>-d, and waa blfitaed with 
89 sons and 3 duughtfn*. At Iht: time of his death, 
besides the 3 daughters, 14 of hi« sdna were living, nil of 
whom became men uf learning hnduuthors of Bt-verul wurka. 
Ahmad Jam hiuink-lf was an uulhor, and among the dif- 
(erenL works that he wrote, aru thu following ; " lUt^n 
&markandi", " Ani#i-ut-Talibm", " Sriftah-un-Nnjat", 
•* biilir-ul-lliikilcht", jwid ".SirHJ-na-Silyiriu". Hu died in 
the rt-igii of Sjultiin Sunjar in Februiiry, 1 142 A. L>., Xtajub 
636 A. U. 

Ahmad Jan (Sultan) oflTirat. He died abont the 6th of 
April IS'J3. i7th Sh.iwwal 12711 A. H., and waa uuccoeded 
by hilt mvi Shah Kuwdz Khan. 

Ahmad Kabir, J^ >*^^' *H-, (Sa>-jid) a MuaalmAn 
saintf whose tonili is at Tjchcha in Multan. He is tho son 
of Sayyid Jttlai, and the fath<'r of two other saint*) Sayyid 
Jaloluddin, sunuuned Makhdum .Tahaniyan Ja.hAn-ga»ht, 
and Rftju ^lattal. Numerous miracle* were wrought by 
thcae two brotheni. 

Ahmad Khan, (Sayyid) C. S. I., of 'Alignrh. a diriuufouhod 

Muhiumuadjui refurmer. He wrote a I>ook un the life and 
work of thti Prophet, and founded tho 'Aligarb College. 

Ahmad Khan, ly^ ***^'> Bumajned Nekodir (or Ni- 
cholas) \f:ir« niised to the throne of Persia after tho death 
of his brolhcT Abiikfi Khiin, thu eon of Uulaku Khan, in 
April, 1282 A. D., Xil-hijjfh 6H0 A. H., and wud the arat 
emperor of tho net of tbingiK Kbiii who embraced the 
Muhfiroroftdnn n.'ligiun. H« ia said to have U^w baptiiM-d 
i& bin youth by the name of Nicholas, but jhjUc^, or cun- 

Tiction, Ipd htm to abandon tho doetrine of Chrwt for 
that of MuhaTuuiad, when he ai»ume<l the iiamo of Ah- 
mad Khan. In the first year of his reign, Majd-ul-MuIk 
YaKdi. a nohleman of his court, being accused of sorcjcry, 
lost his lifit. He put hiw own brother to death, and 
waa Burres.'d'ul in obtaining poswasion of the person of 
hia nephew, Arghtin Kh4n : bat that printe waa not 
only rewiiwl from his viuh-neo by Ihii Jlnphul ntihlea, but 
hy their aid was enabled to deprive him of hia crown 
and life on the night of Ihursday, lltli Augiuit 1284 
A. D., 26th duin^da I, 6M3 A. U., and become hia mio- 

Ahmad Khan Bangaeh, tA^ c^ *>*^Jj Bocond sou 

fif btiihunimad Kh&n iJangiish, NawAb of FarrukhilbAd. 
"SV^iL-n the Wazir Safdiir-Jang. aftt-r the do&th of l^aim- 
Jnng, the brother of Ahmad Khan, L'onfi»cated hifl etdutee 
in December 1749, A. 1>., 11G3 A. H , he (Ahmad Kbin) 
collected an anny of Afghans, defeated rajA Nawal llai, 
the Wiizir'e deputy, wht> waa slain in tho action, and i-e- 
oovered the territories lately st-ined from his family. 
This drcumatGnee took place on the 2nd August 1750, 
Friday, 10th Rainiuin. 11«3 A. H. After thi^ Ahmad 
Khan pownied his countrj* about 22 lunar years, and 
died in November 1771» Sha'bin, 1385 A. H., when ho 
waa BUcwedt*d by his eon Diler Himmat Khfcn, who 
received the title of Mufuffar-Jang from the emperor 
Shah ' Alam, who waa then on hia way lu Dihli £rom Allah- 

Ahmad Khau Mewati, one of the petty rulera (muiuk't 
fau-di/J who had n.Hiirppd tho rhicf parts of the Dihlf 
empire, daring tho Sayyid dynaaty (b«'ginning of the 
lath century). Ahnmd Khan held Mewiit, hia frontier 
coming close np to Dihii He had to sabuiit to Buhlul 

Ahmad Khan Sur ; vide Sikandor Khan Suj*. 

Ahmad KhattU, -r*t^ ■^■^^^ f^t (Shaikh) surname of 

Wrijih-tiddin Ahmad Maghribi, who wna thp aon of 
Maiil: Ikhtiyar.uddm, a linl'l'Muan at tho conrt of Stiltan 
Fxriiz Shah Tughluk of Uihli, and related to him. After 
the death of hifl father, having squandered hib wealth in 
ple«8uro and diKsipatiun^ he bet«mo a diacipte uf t^baikh 
Itabft Is-ha^^ Maghribi, and tnmod vory piotia and 
journeyed to Gujrat, where ho acquired great funie. 
I)uriug his residence at that place, he obtaintid such 
celebrity, that Suli^jin Sliizaffar GujrAti bccnmo hia dijmHple. 
He died in that countrj- in tho reign of Sultfin Muham- 
mad of OHJrat, on Thursday, 6th of Januarj- H46, 8th 
Shawwal 849 A. H., aged 111 years, and wus buried 
at Saikieh. near AhTiuidabad. KhatVu is a place xa Nigor, 
where Shaikh Alimud was bom. bin-Khizrawaih, ^jj*^^ c/ »>*^i, a celebrated 

Mubiunmadan saint, wils tht.' disciple of Khwfija Hatim 
Aftamm. He diM in thu year S64 A. D., 240 A. H., and 
is buried at Biilkh. 

Ahmad Ufaghribi^ vide Ahmad Khattu (Shaikh). 

Ahmad Mirza, \}j^ i>i**.l o^^^, (f*"ltan). «»» f»f Abfi. 

Ha' id Mirzi, nfLc-r whnsu death, in 1469. hf* took poaeeflBion 
of Samarkand, and died about tho year 1496 A. D. 

Abmad (MuUa), '^^*'' ^, the son of a Vizi of Tatta. 
His ancestors who resided in Sindh. were F&rukui of the 
iinuifa sect, but he was a Shfa. Ho is the author of a 
work, rnlli'd " KhulBt*-it-uM,Itiyat". thu Kasence of Life, He 
came from iht; Dakhin to the ccurt of tlie tmporor Akbor, 
in tho y*L'iLr 1682 A. !>., 990 A. H., and when that monarth 
cirdcrcd thi; " 'Jarikh-i-Alfi" to K' compiled, several aiUthnrs 
were employed ia the oompilatson, but BubecquunUy Iho 




flUef labaor d^volvod npon Halli Ahmnd. The compiln- 
tktf) of the tint two volumes up to the dimt of Chiiicn^ 
IQiAii waa juiit finiv^hcil by him, when Muzi FuljlU 
Biddis duriog the niunth of Janiuu-y I088, Satar, 1»96 
A. U.. pureurtdwl tlie MiiUa, who was always opt^ily re- 
viling the firet khiilifas, to li^vu bin own house at nudxiight 
on iwnie pretence, and thfn murdrred hini in a streot 
of L&hor. For thia act Mirzi FuUd woa sentenced to 
death, vaa bound aiive tu thu Kg of un L'l<^phiint in tbu city 
of Labor, and drnggisd along till hn Aiad. Thu MulIA 
(ixt*tnrd three or four days after the Mir/a. AfU.>r thu dunth 
of MuUi Ahmad, tht- reiiuiiod'T of the work was written 
by A'?)if Khan Ja (Vir Beg. up to the year 997 A. U., or 
loHi) A. D. MuUa Ahmad wut» buriod at Labor, but 
being a Shfa. who openly tumi^ to rcvtlti the finit khntitiui, 
tbti people of L&bor exhamated hii nuaiiiiu and burnt 

Vide Ain TraiuUtion, I, 206.] 

Ahmad Nizam Shah Bahri, iii»^l3oJ .XtA.!, the founder 

of the Xii{kin-8hahi dynasty of the Dakhin, was tho son of 
Niyam-ul-Alulk Bjibri, prim^! miniatur to Sulf&n Mahmiid 
fihah Huhnmni. U»i had cunquored niAny places in tbo 
Ttcitiity of hia father's jagir, and wua beai^^g the fort of 
Itundrujpiir alwut tho yi^ar A. D. 1486, 891 A. H., when 
bu roruived iutuUiguucu ot* the aasaasioHlioa of hia Ikthur, 
and imnitrdiutoiy returned and aasoxned the titloa of the 
dooeaai.-d, uid -wuh generally known by thoie of Ahmad 
Kifim-ol-Mulk Balui, to which tho ptioplc of thtf Dakhin 
added the title of tShah. As ho had di^tingtiiebod himHelf 
re]>eatcdly as a general in the field, thoagh the Sultan 
wuhcd to remove him (rom power, none of lus nobility 
would accept the taak of reducing him. Hu, howL-ver, 
OD the Srd May 1490, 3rd Kajab 89d A. H., gaixKnl a 
victory over the army of the Sultan, and from that tlm'^ 
he sat -without opponent on the roasnad of royalty, and 
by tho advice of Y(buf 'A'dil Shdh, who had already 
become indofM^ndcint, having diiicontinDt'd to read the 
khu^ba in the name of the king, put in hij own and 
■pre«d a white um1>rella over his bead. Ue laid the 
foundation of tho Hty of Ahmadnagar in A. D. 1405, DUO 
A. U., which wiLS complctt'd in two ycora, and became tho 
fint of Ui«! Nifiiu-t^hilii kings of Ahmadnagar. Ho died 
in A. D. I608t 014 A. H., and was aacreAdfd by hia Mm 
Burhan Ni(am Shih L The following is a bat uf the 
>'i|im-i:fhahi kings of AhnuuLnagar : — 

Ahxoad Nif&m Shah L A. I). 1490. 
Barh&n Nif&m Shah. 16UB. 
Huaun ^i*im Shah 1, 1523. 
UurlaH ^iz^^ l^hah. I0G&. 
Mirin Lfuftain Nt^am Shah, 1687. 
IiimVn Ni/im Shilh. I5bd. 
Biirhin Si/dm Shah II. 
Ibruhiiti Nlxaiii •'-fhah, 1594. 
Ahuifid NiEiim bluUi 11, itou uf Shih Ta^i 1^04. 
Biihudui ^'uc4Iu^hah, 1696. 
Murtiij^ Ni<am Sihali 11. Ifi98. 

Tlie Ni|un Shahi duouuioua Call under the control of 
UaUk 'Aznbar, 1607. 

Ahmad Pasha, L^U tX«;^|| a general of Sulaimin I, emperor 

of Turkey, who whru Hppuintcd governor of Egypt, re- 
voltiid from hia wvL^ruign in lb'24 A. D. He waa ftoon 
aflor dufeotod by Ibrahim, tho favorito of bulaixoan, and 
hia bead waa atmt to Couatantinoplw. 

Ahmad Bxuni, </*jy *•»', amhor of the Fii^.al.T;a- 
t^ik. n work written in imitation of the Ma^nawi of 
JaUl uddiu Uund. 

Ahma d SaOUIDi, «V^^ ****-t_/4*'i (Amir) aecond king 
of thu ruuu of Saui&u (Uamaujdos), sucoeedod his father 

Amfr Inn&'fl in tho provinces of Khnrfiafiu, &c., 
A. D., 206 A. H. He wai a cruel prince, and contended 
with his ancle, his brothers, and othtrr relationa for the 
ext<'naiv'o poBSCfiaions of his father, moru by intrigues at 
the court of Baghdad, than by arms. Aftc-r a reign of 
seven years, he was murdered by eome of hia domoatica 
on Thuiaday, 30th January, 914 A. D., 23rd Jumida 
I, :)U1 A. U., and his son Amir Nasr, then only eight 
yoois of age, was placed upon tho throne of Khurisin 
and Bukhird.' Ahmad was buried in Bukhirk, and they 
gftTo him the title of Sultin Shahi'd, t. 0. tho maxtyred king. 

Ahmad Sarhindi, ij'^.j^ •^♦*'' ft^, (Bhaikh) entitled 

Mujnddid-i-Alf-i-Sdn£, a der^Tsh celebrated for his piety 
and h-jiming, whs the son of iShaikh 'AyHlul-W'iU>id Farti- 
^i, and wiwi bom at Sarhind in A. D. \iWS, 971 A. H. He 
wti* u disciple of Khw&ja Baki, a celebrated fiaint of Dihl^ 
and it> the author of several works. He died on Tuesday, 
29th November 1624, the last Tuesday in thu month of 
§afoT 1034 A. H., and is buried at Sarhind. Ho w«a 
called " Mujaddid-i-Alf-i-!?dni", or iho " Konewer of tha 
second Millennium", beeeuae ho adopted the general buliof 
that everj- thousand yeons a man wna bom, who baa a 
thorough knowledge of tho IsUm. and whoae vouatioa It 
is to revive and stn-ngthen it. He believed that he wia 
the man of tho second ffdn(j MiUennium (al/J, 

Ahmad, Sayyid, of Birho, brother of Sayyid Mahmtid 
Barbi, Berved under Akbjir in Gujrat. He was in chanfo 
of Akbar's hunting leoparda. His son, Sayyid JainiU* 
uddin, was killed by tho explosion of a mine bofur« 

Ahmad^ Sayyid, of Bukhara, father of the reno 
tihaikh Furid-i-Bukhiri ; vide below.] 

Ahmad Shah, %l^ *>«^|, entitled Muj£hid-ud-din Muham 

mnd Abun-Nasr Ahmad Shah Boh&dur, was the son 
Muliiuuinad Shah, emperor uf Dibli, whom he succeeded 
on thfr 15th April 1748, 27th Rabf It UBl A. H. Hii 
molb'.r's name wafi Udham Bat He was bom in tho fort 
of Uihli on Tuesday, 14th DecemVr 1725, 17th Itabi' 
II, li;i8 A. H. and crowned In Fampat on Monday 
19th April 1748, 2nd Jumad^ I, 1161 A. H. After 
a reigu of 6 years 3 mouths and 8 days, ho was do* 
posed and imprisoned, and afterwards blinded^ togctliar 
with his mother, by hia prime minister 'Imid-ol-UoUE 
C-ihIiffiiddin Khkn, on Sunday, 2nd June 1764, N. &. 
Afti^r this, he lived more than 'l\ years, and diod on the 
lit of January 1776, from bodily diaeHse. He was buried 
iu the front of the mosque of l^adam ■Sharif in Dihli, in 
the uuiu^kum of Maryam-Makani. After hi« impiifioa- 
mcut. ' Alamgir U, son of Jahiindir 8hih, wua raised to Iba 

Vid* Proceedings, As. Socy. Bengal, for 1874, p. 208.] 

Ahmad Shah I, yU o*^^ second king of Oojrit, wu tba 

son of Tatar Khin. and grandson of M'lfafiar &h£h, whom 
he succeeded as long of Uujrit. The author of tha 
Muutakhnb*ut-Tawarikh states, that his grandiather placed 
him on the throne during bis lifetime, in tho year 81* 
H. or 1410 A. D.. and that he sur\'ived that 
fiv« months and sixteen days. In the same yoar, 
laid the foundatifm of a new city on the banks of 
S&bormati, whi<h he callenl afUr hi« own name, Ahma4^ 
ibad, tuid whieh afterwards becamo the capital of the kin^ 
of tiujrit The date of the lux-iug of tho foundation of this 
city is contained in the words " B&-khair", 1. t, all well. 
He died after a reign of nearly 33 y^itn, on the 4th Joly 
1443 A. Dm 4th Itabf I, 847 H., ami was tacceedod by hit 
BOB M wham mad t>h^^> 

ham* ■ 
iOn of I 



in thu Doighbourhood of Shahjahanptir and Mnb&nmiadi 

during the mutiny of 1857- Uo is said to have been the 

)iwd Fa]^r who tmveUod through the upper provinwa, 

"% few yoara ago, un a xmraculuun minBion. He made a 
pretty long stay at Agni, astcniahing the nAtivcs and 
puzzling tho authoritieo. It eeenu probable that he 
Waa oven then busy in Mwing the seeds of rebellion. 

iBo hold gro&t power within the city of L&khnau, in 
-March, 186&» when the Commandcr-iaH'hief entcivd that 
city and commanded a stronghold in the very bt-art of the 

l^ty. Hti wiks slain at Pu^in, on the 15th June ISA8. 
nxtoon miles uorth-i>fUit uf Shahjiih&np6r, and tho r&ja of 
thai idaoa A>-iit Uui hood and trunk to Mr. Gilbert Mont>y^ 
th* Oonaiauoncr. 

Ahmad Shihab-uddin Talisli, ^JJo ^^tvV**^^^'j 

vtUf Shihih'Uddin Ahmad Tilish. 


Ahmad SuhaUi, ^jkt-* 

SuUin Uuseiin Miria 
p4Xls of hi« Uiui> d(.M 
dAdkated hi* "Anwir cs 

AbnadxiUah Shah, 

Mw Ahmad Shikh. 

I ^y^, (Amir), Mal-bearer to 

lo whvm ee^■^.■n^ of the 
.1 works. liosain Waif 
to him. il^ SuhaiU. 

CttUed "^llLe UanlawT' : 

Ahmad Tadcar. Jfji^, ^«a.i, uttihor of th« *<Tirik4* 

■ S«Uiln-i*Att^iiba»" a hMtorr of the Afghia king* uf 

ludia (him BfOAMLoai ccmMoAhr Older of Didd^ih. 
iMi kimc of DctkipO. rUt DtmmmSW 1] 

Ahmad Yar Khan, J^Jj tk^A.!, wbow poetical namv is 

K Yakti WT.' %^of thi- T>nkB<An«i birUs. His 

^1 Iklhrr AU .' hvld at diVBTBit Miodi tho f6ba* 

^^B •* •u», and M«tUa» um ««■ »5«r«Krds 

^H b*tm}diirfef Ohani Ahauid YAr Kbin 

^^H I \o«U«il poc4, and is tho 

^^V ., I OB th* tlsl Seplanlwr, 

V m« A. \K O. bk. ;tiMd JuauO* 1. IHT A. H. 


IJiti A, 11. 


V«wib). of lUnli lh« SOB of KawCb 
l)!imnmd 2u)»AW Khin Dahidnr 
..^U. Uo was aliw in A. D. tSlfi, 

t Aunianio of AbuI-*Abb4s Ah- 

Ahmiid Sivrruk. ,^\ij 

.1 I ' *ii 1 loi Mithnmmiidbin>'r«A Baiailuai^ author 

1.^1 "tshartf Assai'-U-t^amf." Ut 

1 , . . \ !■. .■■■' A. U. 

Ahaaii, t,t««^l, i^wtii^ nauwof'liUyatKhin.thesaaofNA- 
^UitK. Il^> wan giivvnuvr of K&btU in therdgn 
I ,^t\t\ U tb»* aulhur of a I>ivriii. Tufa Ashni. 

AliiaiMillnti Khan, *i'l^ir--*t ^, (Wnkto). «* 'ftU 
kM>i»it si IMIiU, iM<i| ill (kvplimiUr 1873 In that oUy. 

AlM'MfMhl («hnl»th),u.M»*Jl c^ i^Wn(i*p4r, author 

iif iln. " MHl»Miki^'''. "'"' UllAli-uUAnwAr, oimtnming a 

ItUltirv iif (ill *''*' I*'**!'"* "''»»' •«•'"*• <'^ \riiUn. Uv 

" ...uImI Im <'»<• t'<»" "' »*«IU«t *Ail-uadm UiuMW li.»h- 

. 1 ; i "!■ '. 'i. was «n 

.1. Iln 

,,tPi 111" |i"' " ^*- ^Vafi. 

,t.Hi (•! It iii|M'Mirf> rvltfii lu UM 

'Ain-ul-MuIk (Ehw^a), >SiJ\ ^^^xo &if-\j^^ a disti 

guished nobleman of the court of 8u]f4n Muhammad 
Tughluk and his iiuccosiior Sullan Finis Shih, 
of DihU. Ho ia the author of wveml worka, 
which is called " Turafl 'Ain-ul-Mulki." He olao 
to bo the author of tmother work callod ** F^th- 
containing un ptrnnnt of thu conqut^ate gf Sultin \ 
uddin who r..4gnwi from 1296 to 1316 A. D. 

'Aish, i^f^j the pootical nomo of Muhammad *Aakar{ 

lived in tho reign of the emperor Shah 'Alim. 
- ,^'^^j °' P*^^' ^^^ ^ ^ author of a 

calhid "Haft Akhtoi'*, or tho auven pLmcta» 
wn.te in 1675 A. D., 1086 A. H. 


which l^f 

Ajit Singh, Baja, dXi^ 

■I *%»' 

.,j^ aRi^ui{Bl^6t,and 

hereditary vamindarof M&rwar, or Jodhpdr, tms the aoci of 
BiS}i<'*>^^ant Singh lU^aun. He was restored in 17] 
A. D. to the throne of hia anooators, and gave his dan|^l 
in marriage to the empertjrFurmkhaiyar in the yanr 17 
A. D. He was murdt^red one night when fast aalevp, 
the institration of his son Abhai Singh, who si 
him. This took place in tho beginning of the i«ign 
the empeior Muhammad Shah. 

Ajit Singh. 

l>uigh of 

\\»m ^ 

a Sikh chief and murderer of Afah&r^i Sher 
Labor. Ho also sluw Dhai£n Singh, anothgr 
chief, and was himself seised by llira Singh, the svnof 
DhftUn Singh, and put to death tog*jthcr with Lena Singh* 
and others. Tlus took place in bept^'mber 1843. 

'-Ajiai J>t^, tho poetical name of *Arif-uddin Khan, who li 
about ]7fi4 A. D., UfiS A. H. 

'Ajia, the poetibal title of L£U Qangi Bishn, &thcr of Bimjw 

Munshif which see. 

Ajlkipal, the raja who founded Ajmir about 1188 A. D. 

Ajmal, t^', (Shih) or Shih Muhammad Ajmid, a 
sida of .\lhUi£b^ was a descendant of Shah ICli C,U 
lah, and younger brother of Shih GhnUm t. 
the son of 8h&h Muhammad Fakhir, the r«aj> 
whose family is well known at AiUhAbid. Uu djt:4 m 
tho year 1821 A. U., 1236 A. H. 

Ajxniri Khan, on inhabitant of Ajmir. Ho walked vith th« 
t-n>|HT\)r Akbar from Agra to Ajmir, on which accoont h« 
received the title of Ajmiri Khin from that emperor, th 
had built a garden on n spot of 28 bfghaa of gromid «t 
Agra. This place is now callod AJmirj Khia-k4 Tfla. 

Alca Uuhammad Khan KajaTi j^^ uM- *^^ 
UT, king of Pt-reia. of tho tribe of Kigar. and son flt 
Atuluuumad Uasau Khin l^njdr. niler of Manndctia. 
lie was made an eunuoh in liia childhood by *Adil °h^h _■- 
the nephew and immediate micceaBor of Kidir ffbJW " 
Al\cr tho d»tii of 'Adil 8h4h, he obtained his rei 

niul joined his father, who was afterwards slain br KuJt ^^j 
Kh&ii Zzind. king of Pereia. Agha or A^a Mnhamna^M 
y,»a obligt-d to surrender himself to him, and was a pij— i"**^ 
Bonor in the city of 8hiri£. He hsd. for some tlta^^i^ 
hcvn TUT}' strictly guarded, and was never allowdta^^ 
go beyond the walls of the town, but aft^Twnrds hs was ^ 
prnniUcd to go u-hunting. "When the laat illne* of "^ 
Knnui Kiian ttsaumed a diiingerous apj>earani*i\ he ctm- "^ 
thv.dto leave tliat rity on the nsual pnUxt of hunting. 
Mil- II inlelligoncc was brought to him that the founder of 1 
the ii)4ud d\iiii«ty was no mon', aeeompfmied bv a ft.w 
iitt«-nditnta, he commenced hia flight, rmd favored by the 
c^iitfusion of tlie ir.tnuent, ht- reached his province of 
MusMudiifin in safety, and jiroulaimed himself one of 
the ciuuputitors for the croirn of Fema. Souoi alUr the 



WJUL Thrnt km iterr of 
i<,t^i Ailhimto oviw'AU; and 

I— fc» ?w»» Urn; m m wit t ^ mMf wu 

Mm^^ Afr ttiA A* CMM WMW eiUwt *i»s»ijr W 'Ali t>7 to 

<H*4 4Md A. IJ. IA49. 1059 A. U« 

%ftn '^^ ' " " : ' • ' * ^y, th« t*t4n of Mir 'As- 

. KbnriMn. iind h(>ld thu 
^.f»-.- ..f v</A«»i in-r.n iiiTi'- "I t-(i. "■ ' '.Vbun^ir. Ho 

«fw «• #f^*nUiiC ^Mii and M he I ^ riMpect for 

■rt .*. I'^-'t ^'#4dl»,*«ltia«ft Bift-i ! .*etlie word 

Mil Hnl IHU B* i" r of Mveral 

' tf vMcfc an ft VafiiB^ ui. Ucdicd 

M<fftA. H. fuieUixi. 

Afsmt)- rf'j^fift JfTihawinart bin-Uahmad, fShailh) 

r«^^«v o^ « '/«MM«ilav]r Ml thi» lluUym, ottitted " 'IniTa" 
-^ «> {'>*.* 'ftn/tm an two c(rtnm«nUnts on the 
I ' k«(/W]| lf)r that nuncii bat the one much- 

r- MjtfUwm mtm\fti» and mtrrpictiitioa of 

u, -^t,. ,• 1/^ llt^«tfh«vs itvw inbliabid ia Calcottft 
#/. MW IVM MllM«4MiB UM A. XI., 780 A. H. 

'All/flWMI# *» «wy HH ff rtl y, Tkrtma, *'V^^ itmame of 

^Unlklh. vfcv WW ft fR«d iltn* of Ibn-'AbUs, 

««M ftAovwkrU* hi* djadple. lie wunne of th« 

if'^*^^^mtm%. \U 4iMt itt Uia y«ftr 725 A. B^ 107 

j^lt^0, *f' iw*9*» *>i/m*i^y. JkMir (Mirsa), ^JJi^}JX^\ 

' . f^ . "^ f*'ifi<", attOwr ijl n book of uk-gies. Hu 
^ /im-iil-Mulk Jl«af-Jafa&nd Safdar- 

/ y*! ill I740X. b^ UeQA^U. 

^,*Pf^hA M^rlilndlt wrm*>ni correctly. Ilahdad, poeti- 
> • I > '"itjvu of l^hind, and ftuthor of a 
'1 »Mad£ral.AiM". 
: Miwry and its aathor, vide Journal, 
I, IfttMl, fb 10.] 

Mhrlu of Vand, the second khaliih of tbu 

,11 th" >Riltlo of $iirjn hi) hod fou^^ht 

I aayiogB of Uiia ct^U'lmiltid 

-;<niphicBl IHctiouarx of Ibn 

-4r , /M ^anws'^i Jiii'ftwiyft. 


p^-^r- -y4 ^J^ *'', or moTP cqrr»rtJjr. 

•* MuUamati of Mm rvWn of thu 
• wm faiftod to Uw nnl of MOO 
•li^ m4 haU avvanU oBoai of 
»|NlnMs4 fwtatiwir •# Fatoft, and 
wIU* MMtf . Iif wOtfv «r Avnuwufb, 
' .M t^t tt» ^r.Mt «f Mhi^i', 

«tft |i)|(«tW 


▲lahwirdi TTKftTi^ ^U. 4^;^ aJ(^ ^^ tnore correrilr. 

natawirdi Khan* sale of Ja'far Kh&n. the soc of 
ILikwfrdf KlhiB the fint. He wu ruiMfU to thi^ runk U 
am. aafir by 'fkBtgir, with t^ title of Ilahwiinli Khi 
'^TUmgix-Shahi. H« ««• iLppociiltvl Sdluddr of AUaliabJ 
where he dinl A- D. 16*9, i*7» A. H. He ww 
e&oelleat po«t asd has left a diwan. 

» or 




m i».W Uu4 \a4nff 

Alahwirdi Khan '-^•^-^ c;l»- t?i,j ^IJ' 

LorTKtly, Allahwirdi Khan, styk-a Mahibat-Jan^, 
nimrpcr of the goTemxDcot of Bengal, was oriiriuiiUy oained 
Minui MnhftmiTiad 'All. Hu &ther MirsA Mtihanm 
Torkmin, a officer in the service uf th>:; prince A'^aial 
on the death of hi« patron in I707 A.D.. diJijig into dl 
moTwl from Dihli to Kacak, th-:- caipiLiI of OpftA, in 
of inendin^ hu fortune under 7>hnjii'-ud<Iia, the «0Q-in-Iai 
of Nawib Mnnhid Ij^oli Ja'iiu- Khin, Subttdir of BomI; ' 
who reccsTed him with kindnon and alter aomo Imw 
bestowed on hia aon the Faujdari of lUjnuit^an, and fn** 
CQTOd for him fi«& the emperor a mansab and the titl»* 
of Albibwardi Khin, and alterwanltt thJat of M&h&bat* 
Jong. After the d^th of Sboja'-uddin^ und the acc«noa 
of tuB aon Sarfiiraz Khin to tho government of 
Allahwirdi vontrired to murder tbo latter in 1740 A. 
1163 A. n^ and usurped the goverumt'nt. Ue 
fixtcen yean over the three provincoa of bengal, 
and Of^ "n<i <li'^ OQ Saturdiir, tho IDth April, 
N. &, ftth Rftjab, UBU A. H.. igvd 80 v.-ars. Hc 
buried in Murshidibad near the tomb of Wxa luuthrr 
the garden ofKhoah-Bagh, and wne by I 
gnuid-nophew and grand^n Uirta MiJuuud^ bett*>r knoi 
by hia oararaed name of Siraj-ud-diiula. It does t 
appear that Allahwirdi ever remitted any part of tJie m 
nue to Bihli. 

Alah Yar Khan, ^U.jO AJI^, or mo« correctly. Bah' 
Yar Khan, (Shaikh;, son of Sbflikh *Abduf*.Siibb£n, 
formerly vinjiloyed by \uwab Muborir-ul-iluJk (Mrtia 
Kbiln, t'ovi'mor of Gujrit, and in tht- ni*:n of the ec 
ror FnxrukliHij-ar vrw raised to the rank of fi,000, with 
title of RuMam Zaniin Khin. Tn the time of tbeemi 
Kuharamad t^twh, when Kaji Abhai Sini^'h, the son of 
Aj it Singh Mafvriri. wiis appoint«I govrmor nf *'- ■- 
tho room of Xawib Sarlialand Khiin, tho latter ; 
opposition to his aucceasor ; a bjiltlo ensued, ai. . -:,.., 
Hih Yar, who won then with tho nawib. was killed ik- 
tho action. This took place on the day of Daijahri. ?l>i 
October, 1730. 0. tf.. 8th Robr TI, 1U3 A. H. 

Alah Yar Khan, ^U. ^\^\ ^\ j^j^^ ^^ ^ ^^„^. 

corrocUy, Ilah Yar Khan, son of Inikhir Khan Tuik- 
man, a nobkouui ».f ihc court of Sliih JiOiia. He died 
in Bengal in A. IK l«50, 1060 A. IL 

Alah Yar Khnn Mir-Tuzuk, ,^y^^ ^yU jC4i| 

^ mon. com^^tly. Ilah Yar Khan, a Dobleninn in thi 
tunc of th.> "nr-mjr Alamgir, who hJd U»e lunk of 1.400^ 
and died A, I). Iti02, 1073 A. li. ' ' 

Al-Amin, ^^ill, the 6th kh«lf& of the hotuo of 'Al 

^.-cnedwi hi« fcth..r Hilrun-nr-RaaWd to the throna' 
Baghdad, ra iMmvli, 809 A. D. 103 A U HoUZi 
■oomr «c-awd on the throne than he formijd a d.«H» 
excluding his brother uI-MAmiin from the auc^^ 
Accordingly, he deprived bim of the funntnre of the imi 
nal pohKe o* Ivh«risan; and in op<i, Wolalioa of 
fathorn will, who hnd bestowed on al-iliiinun ih-y 
fcoiil govemmrmt of Khuiwan and of all the troon* 
province, he i.rderrd those forcta t« irt',r> >^ 
Baghdad. Upon tho arriraj of thia ..i 
ftipoatubitfd with thy general ul-Fa«l 1 bn J 

^°'=^ * ijwiddm 

^E a^KmouT-nmimd. The zomnorof Banlatibad 

an — -OT r-irma TTrr-iBea "ook Ttiwewion of the place, and 
-Lrr.^.^ -ril i n rrji . jitt riiMi -h* id*? of Zu^ K>iXr. and a 
•^^~ "^" -^»^; «> * htn- kinar. «>n Fridar, the 3rd 
'-Zf^ ""*' ■' — "--^"tt iiw" ^ ri-i A- H^ ihev crowned 
---. ^ ^ "^^l^ Jm a tb -^faxm^ widi the title of *Ali- 
■aii:! ■ ■ la a n .ukocca "iiicmam ur i-irnarja, which place 
-lae -.; -mi -^Hotn.- jid fapi:^: ot the first Ma- 
li-in -ifflc r ab J ih-n i -T . imi -m named Ahjcin- 

•iui. TTTirta ae -mi I -it. r-ian of Muhammad 

^ --:--* r _ rail. ^ -iitfimHi. -i^r- ourt of the Bakhia 

--=5-- -^^ ** - ■ "" -*^-' ^^''rc -5 -it -ar-^n- ,f r.,iij. The d.<ith 

- ~- ■' _ " '-- ^^^- --' .■ -i-.-iLAis. .laaMi jiDnfm.-! :o :ruars. xo m-mlhs and 

a^ ^ .: -i.. —*.■-._:.%.. _ - • .:=:r ^ .s.'.-««on o -it -hrjn^. ibont the 10th of 

■^ r-or- ... ^ ;... irtii^.,- - r.^j j^ ^ ^e wa* 
- ^j^a^i- — ■: --^ .^^- -. A*--'-'--* rr :a ->ii J.^iammaii Siah I Eahmani The 

•'••— ^r -.enpa4 ^ -.inra r -^iiiiiaabau. ^lui -Jit Tn^ars of their 'arce*- 

* -,-^'^-'-" ^;-'^> ■ -• ri-i H, 1347 A. D. 

y:-^::^:::... -^ ^ ■ • - . TJJ H., 13oS .\. D. 

■■^**^ --.-:- 'TiaiU •-. 774 H^ 1.17-5 A. D. 

..*-' *^-^-: r-it) H.. I37> A. D, 

..-■ .-...^ ..-::;-. -iafl. 7^0 H. 137^ A. D. 

..-.- .^.;* ' --a-^--^ 7.''5 H, I3tf7 A. D. 

. .. ... V -^;-.— : 7:-C* H.. 13ii7A. U. 

-..-:> -ii- .^^-^aun. 500 H.. l:iLi7 A. D. 

---'•"-^ I y^ ">2o H., 142:2 A. D. 

aJS U., uaj A.D. 

-T ■'."..„". u^ -,!?.;"*' 

M"'.i::ic::a:iu. '^Sfawi tL 
-— 3a»l SlaZi II. 

.-..d-iiiin "'t- 

^^ Ji.--i'-=*:iJjA TTth whom the Bahmanf dvaastT tenm. 

".7'.. rtiJ-N mii :s» sii.rsi^ed by Amir Band a: AimaJibil 

■ r L S ::::»ri _Vi=:i.i 5hih Wall Bahmani, ascend.:,! th-* thron" 

,^,x »: A:i=.tij*:ii Bi-iir in the Dakhin. in th^ month of 

y- -rur^- Hlo A. D., 838 A. H., and dit^ aft^-r a r-i-Ti 

:::n ■"- -J r-^^ ^ months and 20 d.iy« in th- v^dr IJOJ 

^ A- r- . fi: A- H, He was succteded by son Hiunavdn. 



'" - ■■ >-:!:*::> sty:«i Sikandar-i-.^ani. *thf second Alexander* 

, 1 ^ >^ .-.-sill wt* ii.:n'y.h(:'W and son-in-liiw of Sultan JaUl-uddin Firth 

Siii KhiZ-i. whom h>? murdon.-d at Kiir-i-Manikiiar in tho 

.- . -:-.- rr.— :=.ce of AUahabid on the 2£)thJiily, 1296 A. D., 17th 

EArraraa. 69o A. H^ and marching tht'nce with hi* army 

AA.«T:-it\i Uie Uirone of DihU in the month of October tho 

• s. - ■?. J»a-;^.L-r sir-r- yvar. Zil-M.!)^, 6^5 A. H^ after havinj? defcat<-d and 

, *. *..■•_ r.a&i-^d Kukn-uddin Ibrahim, the son of FinizShah. Ho 

■ > wu#:hTf drs: MiLSilman king who made an attempt to con- 

^■;^ri. IHkhin. Hetookthefortof Chi'torin Auffuat, 1303 

■ \ >'■ i A. P- Srd Mubamim. 703 H. It is said that the empiro 

.^ . V » ...-v ... .'•> r --■v.rdvtinih'M *o much as in hisrc-ign. Palaces, mosqms, 

=.-•*■ .rK:::«» Kiths. mau^olca. forts and all kinds of public 

, , - .. ^ ar.i Tr.v-iV br.ildinirs. seemed to rwe as if by magic. Among 

.^^ ^-A .A*. .-.«ws th;- 7.>.:# if hi* rei«n, we may record the names of Amir 

. V ".,;•» T. K>*.:. Kh^-ijit Hasan. Sadr-uddin 'Ali, Fakhr-uddin 

K:..«wTts HAinii-ndiiin B^ja. Maulana 'Arif, 'Abdnl-Hakim 

aa-.i Shihib-uJ'.iin Sadr-Xishin. In poetry Amir Khusmu 

ar,i Khwajj ILusin had the first rank. In 'phil(wf)phy and 

jhy«:. M.iaUnA Badr-uddin Damishki. Indi\-inity/Mau-. 

^i Shitabi. In astrologry. Shaikh Niiam-uddin Auliya 

*l^^llind mui:h fiune. 'Ala-uddin died, aecordin;? to Fi- 

hshra. on the 6th Shawwal, 71G A. H. (or J 9th DwwnW, 

ISltf A. D.) after having reigned more than 20 rears, 

U«,< was buried in the tomb which he had cozutruLtni in 

^ . -- ■ 

. « 

\. .' > 

. , • ■• »' 



> 4- ^ " 

■ -vi 



'»,^ '■ ' 

« >. 

•r »> -.^^ 

A «>^ ■<^' 

,-».., .-" 


... ■.. . ■* 



■HA N-v.-^ 

,« .1. 

.« >* 

V >»»««* 





A v\S«.-*4 w 





Al-Dawani, vAbBMrim'. 

*Ali, wJLt^f j^ 1^^ eon of Ahd-TAIih, waa the coueiii 

and Mm-in-1iiw of Miihmnmttd. Ho waa bom 23 ycnra 
before the llijii i'. *., in tho year 699 A. D., at the 
very l»*mplo itsolf. His mother'a mime waa Fitima, 
daughter of A^od tho 8on of Uit<him. Aftpr t3i« death 
of Uahammod, ho was opp06ud in hin flttcmptfl to iiuc* 
cefld the prctphft hy Tsmon aud Tdiot, and retired 
into Arabia wh'.'re his mild luid LiiUrf^ed iuttirprctation 
of tho Kuriii, iufri}a*.'d tho nnmlter of hij* proaclytc-fi. 
Aft«r Ihc d( ath of 't'Tiniin. the 3rd khalifa, ho waaacknow- 
ledgt-d khalifd by tho Kg)'ptirin» and AiabianJi in Jnly, 
«dfl A. v., but in less than 6 ycnrs after, he wasconipoUed 
to reaign that titlo. and Mu'Awijii wua procUimod khalifJi 
at Daniaacufl. 'Ah' was Bubst-'qut-ntly woiindMl by 'Abdur- 
Rahin£n ibn-MiilJim in a. inoNine at Kufa. \rhilHt engaged 
in hia e^eiunnf prayiTU. on Krid.iy, the 22nd January, 661, 
A. v.. 17th Ituna/an, ^0 A. 11., and dind four days aft^r. 
*Ali after the di-ceas** of hia brlovcd Frititna, the danghtor 
of the prophet, clRimetl the privilege of polygamy, and 
had 1 8 sons and 18 dnugbt^TS. Tlie mcAt renowned of them 
arc the two Konfl of Ftitiniii. rt'z.. Htittan and Husain, aa 
aUo Muhamiuiid Hanif, by another wifr. Amon{^ tho 
many sumnmcft, or honorable titlen beatowcd upon 'All, 
ore the following — Waal' which aignifioa "legateo and 
huir;** Murta/a, "beloTod byQod;" Aaad-uIlah-td-GhihTj, 
" tho victorious lion of God;" Haidar, a "lion;" Shah 
Blard&u. *' king of men ;'* Sher Khudd, " the lion of 
IHkI." llin memoiy- is utill hrld in the highest vonexa- 
tion by tho Muhammadaiu. who say that he was tho fint 
tliit i-mbruu'd th«'ir nligiun. They eay, moreover, that 
Muhammad, taIkin^ of hira, wiid, *' 'AU ia for mc and 1 am 
fur him ; ho atonda to mc in tho same rank as Aaron did 
to Uoaea ; 1 un the town in which all knowledge in ahnt 
op, and he ii the gate of it" However, theoe great eulo- 
gica did not hinder hia name, and that of all hia family, 
rrum being curswl, and their pensoufl from being exrom* 
municnt«d through all tho moaquea of tho ompiro of tho 
khiilifua of the boxiao of Umayya, from Mu'awiyu down 
U> the time of 'Uraar ibn-'Abihil-'A^fz, who aupprowod 
tho M)|ntun nialediotion. There were beajdea sereral kha- 
Ufiia of tho houae of 'A^bia, who ©xpreased a great 
avftraion to 'All and oil his p«Nrtt^rity ; mivh ha Mu'taxid 
and Slutawnkkil. On the other hand, the Fapmitc kha- 
Ufiia of Egypt cauaed liia name to be addc-d to that of 
Mithanunad in tho call to prayer, fazHnJ wliiuh ia 
chuutttvd from tho turrota of tho moaquea. Ue ia tho 
fin>t (tf thu twelve Imima, eleven of whom were hia dee- 
condanta. Their namea are aa follows : 

1. 'Ah', til© aon of Abti-Talib. 

2. Imam Uaaan, oldest md of 'Ali. 

3. „ HuBain, aix'ond son of 'Ali. 

4. „ Znin-ul-'.-Vbid^n. aon of IfiL'uun. 

6, „ Muhiunmiid Bakir, son of Zrtin*ul-'Abidia. 
0. „ J a' lor S4di]f^ son of Muhammad Balpr, 

7. „ Muu Kafim, aon of Ja'far Sadtk. 

5. „ Ali Mda» Ra«a. aon of Miiaa Ka^im. 
0. ,, Muhammad Tfiki. ffm of Muaa Ra{4. 

10. „ 'All' Nttl^i. son of Muhamnmd Talfi. 
U. ^ Haaan 'AakaH. aon of 'Ali X&l^'. 
12. „ Hahdf, aon of Haaan 'Aakari. 

As to tho pUc« of Alfa burial, authors differ ; bat tho 
noflt probable opinion ia, that he waa bnriod In that 
place which ia now called Najaf Aahraf in KiUa, and thia 
ia litittid by the MtihAmmadana aa hia tomb. 

The fr>Uowrr> of 'Alf are called Shfaa, which aignifiea 
•ootariea or adhorenta in gi'nend, a term fixat nacd about 
the fourth century of tho Hijra. 

'All ia reputed tho author of soveral worka in Ambic, 
particularly a collection of one hundred Motenooa (pws- 
nhr«iod in reraian by Raahid-uddin Wa^at), and a 
biwtbi of didactic poema, often read in Madmaaha. 

la niatioiung Ali'a name, the ShTa use the phroae 


" 'olaihi oa-anliim," which is uaod aflor tho namos ol pro- 
pheta ; tho Siinnis aay, " karrama allahu wighiiha,'' * may 
God honor hia face' 

'Ali, i^y ,/iy' cr^ •^^^f cH o^, aon of Ahmad hin-Abfi- 
Bakr K6fi, u reaidont of fch and author of the hiatoo? of 
Sindh in Arabic called •*Tnl.)fiit-ul-KirAm". Thia work 
waa tnuulated into Persian and Lallcd " Ch&ch Nauim". « 
tranalation of which waa mode in Knglihh by IJcat^mmt 
PoAtans and publiahed in tho Journal of iho Aaiatic So- 
ciety in lUSS. 

»Ali, t5'*^'yj^r^' A^a-'c^J 4^, aon of Ahmad, com- 
monly called Wa|>idi, waa on Arabian author who wrtit* 
three Communlariea, rir, ,- "Waai^" "Znkir", and " Ba- 
fiit", anil uldo " KiUib NuzOl". lie died in I07d A- U-, 
46» A. H. 

*Ali, ?>*• cH 1^, aon of J^&mxi, aothor of the •' Tirikh 


'Ali, -^'Lj trt-=^ ui t^, aon of Huaain W4i? Kaahifi, 

the famouB writer of the Anwdr-i'Sn^aifiy author of Iha 
work <»l]cd " Latitif-uz-?tir^f'\ containing the iijiccdotca 
of Muhammad, of tho twelve ImiiniH, of the ancient 
of Persia, and of varioiia other persons, lie ia al 
author of another work entitled " KuMhbat", con 
the Memoirs of tho SilG Shaikhn of the Nukvhbandi order 
'AU died in lo32 A". B., 939 A. tl. Uo ia dao called 
'All Whoz. Vitk Safi-uddin Muhammad. 

*Ali, iJ^r^y A*** (^ fjs^ »on of Muhammad li[<u«zyX 

on aj»tronomur, and author of the *' !Sharti-ul-Jadid**, thft 
new commentary. He died A* D. 1474, 879 A. H. 

'All, c>^*^C-*^ i^t 8on of 'U?min Gildni, author of tho 
'*Kftshf-ul-Mabjub", containing a minute description of 
the twelve orders of Sufia, &c,, written in 1499 A. D., 904 
A. II, He ia olao called Pir *AL' Hajwiri. 

•Ali, tir-*'^' *?^r*^ U^j aumamed Abul-Haaan, t*df 

Abul-IInatm 'Ali. 
'Ali, ij^j^^ ^ u*U^ ^, the poetical name of MulU 

Nasir 'All, which aeo. 
'AH, Li^^ tho pocticul name of a poet who converted 

Ghoxols of i^&fis into Mukhammaa. 

'AH 'AdU Shah I, iJ-J^^ »^ Ji^t5^, of Bijipdr. 
rtumamod Abul-Mu^paffor, aucceedcd to the tlirun*- of thai, 
kingdom after tho death of hia father rhrihini ' Adil H) 
1, in 1658 A. D., 966 A. H. He reigned aK.ut 22 li 
years, and, u be had no son. ho appointed in tho yv%x 
1679 A. D. hia nephew, Ibr&him, sou of his bnither Tiih< 
maip, hie aucccsaor; and the following yar on tb^ 
of Thuntday tho 10th of April, loftO, 2.^rd Safar. 988 A. 
ho waa aaaaasinated by a young eunuch. Ho waa bnrif 
in the city of B^&pur, whuru hia tomb or mausoleum 
ia called by tho people, '* Ranza 'Ali." 
Vidd Ain Tranalation, I, 466.] 

'AH 'Adil Shah II. lsj^^ i^^ »t^ Jot* ^^x^ of 

Bijopur, auoceodej hij, father Muhammad 'Adil Shih ia. 
hia childhood in November, 1656 A. D., M»h:imm, lofil" 
H., and was unable to remedy tho diiordeni which 
ocourrod in hi« kingdom, bv the rebellion of the celebii 
tod Marhatta chief Sewiji who had pooaemed himself 
all the etrongholda in tho Kokan country, and enrU 
aorenl new forts. Under pretence of making hia >al 
miSBioua to tho SultAn, he bogged an iuttirviow with 
BOapiir goneral, AteU Khan, whom ho txmciu 
stabbed in an embrace. Ruatam Khan waa aftei-wmnv 
sent against him, and defeated. 'Ali 'Adil Shiih died m 




f^^ii/*$ cnHtlfd Im&d-Tid- 
ofnovuid'rr&lF. The 
caEed Dnami or DUlima 
«f tbnr oatire Tflkgv. Diliim) and U^va or 
•f oee «f tLrir mooMton named Boya ). 
to the BBcdeat kingi of Pt.r>ia : tut 
UMovj iiotic«S| WU9 11 Buhcrmitn 
as B6Ta. His eldest son, *AU 
Bkf^ «■• •■fAf^^ bf • gOT tim or of liu imtivt- country 
■iMiA &■■*& ih1 va« tn the coomuuid of the chief 
mat «f Im ac^f. vfth which he encountered and defoaU'd 
Yaa lOm yimaa of I<f&hiu, and by the imtucziH*! 
I^^bAbv &A In ahtettte4 from tbnt Tictory, ho becaatt at 
iBH » httJM- fl^ iMinf tiiwi and of power. He pnnracd 
T&ft h^ FasK iWfwIif him again, and took powKAsion 
«C ^» wkil* «f tint pwrinoe oa wt-U oa thn»e uf Rlrm&ii. 
" Itik m DU A. D.. 321 A. U. Thii* chivf 
tinnitBd, by Uu» wukk and dtstractod «tnto 
«r Cblxpbalvt to a stiU higher entfrprize : 
hy hk tvo brothfro, Uoson and Ahmad, ho 
to Ba«UU. Tha Khalif al-Bazi BUUh <led. 
ioa» aid«cc4 lo ratora : and bi4 first act wtu to 
ca Onom vho hftd taken poaseesion of hii 
'All h6j^ om ««7ccuig to pajr annually 600.000 
cf geU. ■— Ijriwiliil TirvTOT of Far* and *InlV< 
■ik «f AiBtr-Bl-rmra, and the titlo uf 'Inuid- 
Jli* fo na i g tt btt/thfiT Ahmad, reotiv«d Uiu 
«f Miin mi iliah, aad ^u BonniaaU-d wiuir to the 
vho VH Uf orcood brutb<^r, jvi-vivcd the 
of Kak»-«4-4wdb« oad octoJ, during tbv Iif<) of Ali 
r thit chavl AU B6;b flxt4 his residence at 
dmd «tt flaaibij tlie 1 1th KcremUr. 941) A. D.. 
I, sn B^ mmek resetted by hia ^uldit^ni and 
B« tnN MMOided Iff hii brother Uukn-ud- 


ti tW nee of fipja who fdgaed 108 lunar years 


AB B4ya; ]la«s-tid-d«ahi Ahmad; 

JCo^Aal^doaU ; rUitfi4id.(KuUa AbiU 
«« of PaUtf-«d.ikBla. 

^j^y-fj>>» Jj ^^ t-Xr", (MooUni) 

haA. A pool who wm rotcnpoimnr with Katibi 
«h»4U4teA.D. 1«X6. 8iO A. U. H« in thu 
v«f ailviar Bo w Ihfsg Is A, D, Ud«, in whirh 
Ui wife riio^ «o which ■cooaB t hm wrote a boautifal 

«W' vn*'>d oftd^ thc^ kiO^ t>f Uokhin and wn« livinj^ 
m %k^ A. X>^ K2 A. IL. ia whwh reu lUmriJ the riji 
^ MiamW VM dgA<(twf and tliin in n batllu u^iiuit 
^0 W^^mmm4att ^ tii mm of Dmkhin, of which ovont hu 

4/^«* 1^, widt itenvl 'All UomainL 
Kr^%^$ Uilhorofthe**Jawihlr-iil.Aarir'\ 

•l«tnM» BUMUktlJC t>r tllf V<TV« of 

l|«rftftAc, httof M ohridnrnt of ihr "KiA^h-ul- 
ir^. writftw \m lUS A. U. 'Ali lUmAi'« po«tkal name 

ii 'AJivt «hkA «M. 

(£,<^ ^^ OOWkh Mahammad) thU Hajtfn. 
^ ^-*4' C^ * ^; flwnciml of ths khftUf al- 

fai baMlo offuaat Tihir Am Oiuaia, tha gcn- 
aniaf Ai»ih«liftl.KiM6n in tli^ r-iLr Hll A. D., 195 
A M., m4 fcM h«iA owl oa » pn«*tit lo thv khalU. 

'Att fta ai^BlJAl, iJ^-y* u^ i^j author of the Arabic 
cdM ** AibAn' ohkim N^um." 

'All Ibrahim Khan, c/^ ^-^LrfJ t5^> '^ natire jnd^ of 

IVmnms who is tlio iiuthor of 28manHniid several other 
works and a tnskiru or biography of Urdu pocta which 
he wrot« aWiit tho yt^ur 17»2 A. D., 1106 U. ilia pooticol 
name is IOulIlL 

'AU Jah, S^- o^, the oldest son of the Kiaim of Hoidoti- 

hnd. He relHiUtMl a4*^nst his father in June 1705 A. D. 
wus delVutcd uiid made prisoner, and died shortly aA4!T. 

> A1i Ktosanji, i^^^*/*» (MullA) vide MuUi 'AH l^uKuijf. 

'AU Kusanji, ij^^y ^^, (MuUa) author of the "Sba»h 
Tojrid". ond'Uiiabia Kashohaf. He died in UOS A. D.. 
808 A. H. 

•AU KuJi Beg of Khurasan, ^^. i/^ K^t author of a 

tazkifu or biuifritiiliy uf poota. 
*AUKuUKhan, sJ^k^^-, (N'awab) 9\d§ Gonna Bcfpam. 
'AU X*ala, (Shaikh lijizi-uddin) a nfttivu of G^Munb Hii 

(uthurSftvyid IdilA was the undo of Slitiikh Saiia( the* potA. 

Uo was u disciplt? of >'Kjni-uddin Kubra and his titlo 2>hiukb 

ul-Shaiukh. 11m died A. 1). 12-14, 642 A. H., aged 76 

lunar years. 

*AU Hahaemi, i/*iV* C5^> » nativ© of M a howm in the 
Pakhfn, was the son of Shaikh Ahmad, and is th** author 
of the gommrutary on the Kuran ontilled *' TuJiiir ]Uh- 
manf." He dit^ A. D., 1131, 835 A. H. 

'AU Mardan Khan, cj^ \J->j^ u^, Amfr-ul-Umm* was 
li iiutivt of Persia and governor of 5**"dahfir on th" pwrt 
of the king of PcXRia, but finding hiiti)*<lf(X) " i h 

danger from thp tyruiny of hia sovereign .■" hu 

gave up the place i(* the emperor Sbah Juhiu, m... mmaclf 
took tcfwgc' at Dihli in the >L-Jir ItiliT A. D., IUi7 A. H- 
He waa n.«eivfd with j^rtiat honour, wus creot«xl Anu'r-ul- 
Umro, and was at diflcrtnt times, made governor of Kaah- 
m£r and Kibul, and t-mploycd in various war* and other 
duticM. Uo excited universal adminition at the uourt bf 
the aidll and judgment of his public works, of whieh tu 
canal which bears his nfimo at DihU still offoidi a 
proof, and the t-isl* and cOeganco ho displayed oo all 
' oocaaiona of show and festi%ity. Ho "lied on hi»w»y to 
Kaahm£r, where he wa» going for change of air, on tha 
16th of April. lf.o7 A. II., 0. S^ 12th Itajab, 1067 A. U, 
and was buried at Labor in the mnusoloum of hi« mothtf- 
He left three sona. ri=., Ibrahim Khan, lania'il Bog and 
I«-(m*H li*X. "f whom the two Urt w.>r») akin in thv batfth 
which to«k place V'tween Dira fc;hik6h and 'Alamgir at 
l»hnulpur on the 2itth May, U)o8. O. S.. 7th Romaon, 
1068 U. He is Vlievi-d to have introduced th« bulbou 
TirUr dome into Iiidijiu arehittcture. 

'AU Musi Baaa, K) ^"J^ u^* *ii« fA%\Ah. imAm of th« 

inc.- of Ali. and the sou "f Muai KAzim tho srvonlh 
Uis mother's u»uio wsis Umm Sjiyyid ; he was Ktrn ii 
yt-ar 764 or 760 A. D., M7 A. H. and died on Friday 
12th of Augnat 818 A. D.. Otb Snfar. 2U3 II. lUa wifa'a 
name was Unun Uabil the daufthlor of the KhoUf ol- 
Mamun. His «!pulehre is at Tus in Khura«4n. That 
town is now commonly called Mash-had, that is, the plor* 
of mortj-nJom uf the Tmim. To the enclu«ure whenrin 
his tomb i« raised, the Perrians give the name of ^* UanBot 
Kizawi." or tlie gardt-n of Itajei and estftrm it th« moot 
■ucrrd spot in ull rvt*ia. 1*hu chief oniMitM nl nnd mpi^rt 
of Ma*h-hAd is tliis tomb. Xa wliieh 
pious pilgrims annually resort, and wl 
gn-atlv enriched by th.^ bmmty of ■ .. ,..^tr.«.i»a 

Mir»' U»o mn of Nadir Shil. . the goM* 

railing that surrounJM lh« tomb. . . . - .: Mirzi 
Shah-rukh Mijii and gmndson of NaiUr ^bah, took 
the great golden ball which omamonU-d lh« t«pof ' 






dome OTPr Ih^ Rravn, and which was said to woigh 60 
nuunds or 420 ]ioiinda. The nariH'tfl friu^ed with ffol.i. 
tbo golden lamps, nnd evurythinij vnUmblt> wore plundfrinl 
by these neci'Ssil'Jiw and mimciuu.-* priruM?8. All Md»i 
RazA vas poiMinod liy thu khalif al-Maiutlu, eoDftcqaeutly 
u calkd a inart>T. 

'All Muhammad Khan, o^ *>♦»* u^, founder of the 

Kohila govcnimuiit, It is mentiMUfHl in Far-ter^s TrftvpU. 
th&t in the year 17*iO A. U. ItHshonil Khin riTid I>ftud 
Khl n of tht* tribo of Ituhiln-s arcompHtiied by a sranll num- 
ber of tht'ir .vlventiiPMia coiintnTn^n rumn iritn Hmdu.slan 
in qncslof militnry w'rvi**<\ Thry wure first untfrlMim-d 
by Madan Sh4h. a Hindu rhicf f"»f SemuK, (a rttnall Uivrn 
in the north-west qimrti-r of Kohilkhand) who by robbery 
And predatory rxciirrtiotifl niaiiituinod a larfto pai-tv of 
■banditti. In'thtJ (iIuiid'T of an Hdjucent viUaijn, lUi'id 
Kliiin cfiptiin-d a yuiilh of thf* Jnt scL-t, whom he adojilcd 
and brnuy:ht up in tlu' Miihaniniiulm fiiith, by the naniu of 
'All Miib-immad. liiid difttinKuisWd Ihia boy by prft-rmi- 
nent marks of jiati-nml ulTL-itiun. 8omo years ftfU;r. tho 
Rohilufl qimm Uin^' with Mindan Shdh. retired frf)rn his 
country, and aKSiH-intiiiK; thfuiwlvi;* with Chiind Khan thn 
chief of iiart'li, thi\v jointly cnt4'r<>d into thu strvit*; uf 
Axmal Khan, th-i gtivmior of Monidabad. AfU-r thu 
death of Daud KUan. wbu wawsltiin by the raountaimvrs in 
one ofbis ex* ursiuntt, thi* Uohiln parly in a sburL itjmoo of 
timo»oiz<-dnn tlu'distrirtwof Sliidiiii Shah and 'AIi Miiham- 
madKhaii waaii-Hliirfdchittf of the party. I'rom th<'rii*)jH' 
gencu of gov* mnunt ami tho wvitk stnto of the ynipim uf 
IHhK in thiTt'ign of -MuImnimridlSUah. hf- ]'S!a^dhimsLlf 
of the di-ttriit uf Katir (now calli'd from Iho rfsidinrc uf 
tho Riihihiii, Uohilkh.irul) itnd ft.t-^unic>d indciMnd-'iiLeorthn 
royal authority. H.- wan bi-siigi^l in Mmh. 1745 A. U.. 
SiJkr U5H A. K.. in a f»»rtross callc-d Bankar and 'AoulA 
and taken prbnner, but waa rtdeused aflur sumo liino, iitnl 
a jisirconferrtrd on him. Thi' t*mponir Muhammad Shah 
died in April 174H. A. 1). IIGI A. 11. and *AH Muhammad 
Khin aome lirao after him in tho Kimi! ywir at ' Aoula. which 
ho had ornamented with nunicrniis public and private edi- 
fice*. Hu b-ft four films, ti:.. Su'd-ullih Khan, Abdullah 
Khin, Faiz-ullah Khiin and Diinde Kluin. Sa'd-ulUh 
Khin Buccet-ded to hi-i fatbi-r's jtossfMBion being thru 
twelve years old. Vide Sa'd-ullah Khin. 

j^2i (MuUa), itS^ » Sttihnddis or tho tmditionist whou 
poetical name waa " TaJi ', died in tho year 1573 A. D., 
981 A. H., and Mulli 'Alam wrotti thu chronoyTum uf liia 

>Ali Murad Khan, c^"^ ^!/* u^j a king of Per:(ia of 
the Zaud family. He sur (■(•»'<lod to tho tlirono after tho 
death of Sttdik Khan in Man:h, I'Hl A. D., and aMumed 
the title uf wukil- He rei^pied over IVruia fiv« yntun und 
was indep«'ndcnt of the government two yearn prior to thin 
period. IVrtia during tluM lime, enjoyed a ei'rtaiu di-pn-tJ 
of peace. He ("tputimiej. to confinu his rival 'Aki Mubiim- 
mad Khin to tho pruWncu of ilazindaran. Hu dii>d in 
1785 A. U. 

*Ali Murad, (Mir) pres*jnt chief of Khoirpur (ISCD). 

*AU Naki, ^ lS^ (*^'> (Tmilm) waa tho tenth Imam of 
the race oi "AIl, and the son of Imam Muhammad Triki 
who VTHA tb.* ninth Imam. He was bom in thu year 8'i8 
A, D.. 213 A. H., imd di-d on thi? 17th of June, 86ft A. D. 
8rd Rajah. 'I't^ A. \l. Htw lunib ia inSurmanrae (which in 
alio called Samim) in Bn^bdail, where hi» 8un Muhammad 
Aflksri waa abo buried ufterw,it\hi. 

»AU Naki Khan, J^ l*^ J^ v^y. (NawAb) the father- 
la-law and prime minihti r of WAjid 'Ali Shdh, the Inst 
king of Lakhntiu. Ho died at Lukhnnu of cholera about 
tte lit Dooembcr, 1871, 17tb Kam^ 127S A. U. 

'All Naki, L*^ (/^ Diwin of rrinre Mi:rad Bakhsh, aon 
uf Shalyahi, whom h" sk-w with his own hand. 

'Ali Nawedi, cf ^^^y i^i » poet and pupil of Sh6h Tihir 
.Andjrini. came to India, where he waa i)atronii;ed by Abul 
l-'iithii HiLsaia Nizam Sliuh 1. For wimu timu he waa in 
dbigraee with hie* piitnm iind chanp'd hit* TakhaUus* or 
pw'tical name fmm Nawcdi to Nd-umaidi (or hopeless). 
He di«.Kl in 1567 A. D^ 97d A, U., at Ahmadnagai in tho 

'All (ilUi Beg, vidf Shah Afi^'han Khan. 

'Ali Shahab Tarehizi, ij^t^y vV* ij^t » poot who 

wfw a ri:itiv(' of Tuishi-Nh. Ho flouri."ih*?d in tho ndf^ of 
Hhiih-rukh Mirzii, und found a puLx-on in bid Hon Muham- 
mad Jogf. in whuse pniiw' lie wtuI<! m'vithI pam^"rict. 
He was co-temporary yrith. tho pott Aruri, who died A. D, 
1462, B66 A. H. 

'Alisher, j i ^ l ' *' J^^t (Amfr) aurnamed Isizim-uddm, 

wiw tho prime minister of th<' Sultan HiiHfiin ^lirzi ruler 
of Khurasan. He epmng- fi-om an illu£trioiu> family of tho 
Juji^htiii or Chaghtai tribe. Uis fathfr Uajklna Uahidur, 
huid one of the priiuipnl offiri-a of fjovcmmi-nt during the 
reign of Sultan Abtil Kd^im lialwir Hahadur, a d(«e« ndant 
of Amir Taimur. His tfrandfathr-r. by his motber'it mde, 
waM one of the principal Anu'rtt of Sultan liaikam Mirxa, 
the grnndfather uf iSiUtau Uuwiin Mirza. Aliaher at- 
tached himst-If originally to Sullan Abul Kdj4im Daltar 
Mirza, who was greallv attached to him, and called him 
his son. Aft*.'r hij* d**alh he ntin-d to Maah-had and 
continui^ his stiidie«i there ; whiLh place he aubfUMjueaUy 
quitted for Banukrljcand, on nc<'uunt of tho disturbances 
which broke out in Khuraain, and applii'd hiauolf diU- 
jjcntly tu the arquircrafnt of fcnowledj^i^ in tho college of 
Khwaja rnzl-ulliih, When Sultan IIuMiin ^liraa bcoamo 
uncontrolled niler of Khur^n, he nquesttd Sultan Ah- 
mad Mirza, ftt that time ruler of the roiinlries b*»yond the 
OxuH, to ftond 'Alt'sher to him. On hU arrival* he waa 
n»e€'ivi'd with tho pruatoat distinction, and ruisi'd to tho 
hiphc'St poatit of honor. 'Aliahers palace wiut open ict all 
men of learning; : and notwithstandiii;; that the rL-ins of 
government wt-re plactrd in hia handn. in lb«' midst of tho 
w( iKhtie&t affaira, he ncgbi'led no opportunity f>f improving 
both hiratkilf and othe'rs in thu pursuit of ktiowb.-dgu. He 
was not only honored by his own 8ul^a,ii and his oOicers, 
but fori'ign jirineos oIbo esteemed and re»f>eeted him. 
After being employed in the rapucily of diVan and prime 
minister for some time, lovo of wtudy induced him to n*»ign, 
and bidding a final adieu to publie life, he poasetl the rc- 
nmindt-r of bin days in composing Tiirkifih and IVniian 
works, of whi*:h SAm Mir/^ nx'ountrf the names of no Utt» 
than twenty-one. I>uulat Shih the biographer. Mirkhiilid 
and hifl f*on Khundnmir, th*- hiittoriana, d<.%lieated their 
works to htni, and amongst other men of genius who wtre 
eherifhcd by his liberality may bu mcntiunud the cele- 
brated poL't .lami. Hia colWtiun of Od*!S in the Chughtai 
or purw Turkish diubet, which he wrote under tho poetical 
name of Nawai, antouuts to 10,(JU0 eouplita, nnd his 
parody of Nizamfs five poems, ronlainitig uivirly 3U.OilO 
coupb-ta, irt univortwiUy admired by the cultivators of 
Turkish jmetry, in whith he in LouHidered to bu without a 
rival. In the Ven^iiin languagt? aW* hv wrote a cullwlion 
of (►dea, under the poetical nanit* of Kanl or Kanai, ton- 
Bisting of 0,OU0 distiches. 'Ali'^her wus bom in the year 
1440 A. v., 844 A. H., and di»\l on Sunday tho 6th of 
DeeemNT, 1500 A. D., 16th Janutd I. 90*6 A. H.. tivo 
years before hia royal friend and nuister Sultan Husain 
ilir/a. Khiinilamir has recurd'tl tlie yt-^ar of his dnith in 
an aflectionaU» tlironognim : " HiMhighuues the Anvir. tho 
aevliim of dii"ino guidance, in whom all the marks of 
mercy were ( onspieuous, has quiliid the tlumy brake of 
tho world} and ^vd to the romj-gardcn of pitj', Sia«« th« 




§i Miwrj* Km datcraded on hifl flOuL thoflo words 
t^ Toar of \m dvpaxtors.** One of bia works is 

•All Tsbftr, }^ i^ '^lJr*> (Prinoo) waa tho son of 
■Esaee 'Jkxia 63b£h, snd g:isndMm of iho emperor 'A1amg{r. 
b£e4 ia Ike jmt 1734 A. D., 1 147 A. H. 

'All WamI« ^^j i^^' ^^ "^^ '^^ ^^ fiunous niuoin W^£ 
Kitfkifi of litrit, Ti^ *A1£ son of Hosatn 'Wiez. 

'Ala 'Wardi Kban> sJ^^S^)^ c^j &lso called Alah- 

wmrdi Kliis, vhicii. 9c«. 

■Ali Tesdi, cf -^^f t^", n'A Sliaraf-nddin 'Ali Yerdf. 

AiexAZlder the Great, riWr Sikundar ZuUkamyxt. 

AI-I^ArgtlAni« *^^r**^'> Bumumo of Ahmnd ibn Kath,ir or 
Kjuir, an Anbian astronomer of Iho ninth r*ntiiry, anther 
of sn introduction to a^trouomy. Vide Fargham. 

Al-Paryabi» tj*Si)^^, piW^ FiryAl>L 

AI-Ghn«Bali. %^^j*^, nrfc Ohnitxalf. 

'Alha anil Udal, Jojtj ^tJf, piTncoaof Mah6ba. There 

in a htm>\c. Itallutl nw\^ or rocitcd by tho Hindu enpoye 
in a ki«d of monotonouJ), hut not unmtisiial sort of 
hiuint, nccfimpntiitHl hy n w)tU» vkco Iwnt of thn dh61, 
( h rimi lo w ■(iiiHlrKfiito in Uit; pitu**^ hi-twi^-n the vor- 
Wh"**viT him ri'iii(l"d in ii militftty "nntoiunent must 
M fr/ .|ii.' ulmnvi'ii Ihn w'|»'yH. when diaongaged 
. <.r,ht:<>^ 'loty, roUiH'ti'd in fimiill knot«, listtiniog to 
rwitinjr «onH' puom or tnlo to a deeply 
iir (.. 'I'ho iiiil)iwt of this lay is tho prow- 
I'l Aiii^', Ihn rt^jfi of Muhnlia. a town in Bnnddkh.ind^ 
'hich oittrniiivr nunti rcuiairi. 



Tim horo is ilr-scribed 

Ml i\\n t^-nur of liin MuhainmadnMB; his triumphs ovor 
wh'/TH AfM nnril>ut<<il mil imly to hifi own viiKmr. hut tho 
fj»vor of Uli' KodiltMta \\&M, whom hn liml proitjtiulwl by tho 
'(ff'Hnic of hi* lifit. 'I'hiTii luiMUiiny son^r*, it ifl (UiiJ, of 
IhU prinr^i, aiid hiv hrotliiT LMiU, a wnriior of oqual esti- 
msllon ; ImjI Ihny nrc pirsorvod only traditionally by tho 
r^wAm, and Uuur nmHtour ntudunta. Tho vuni«s aro in 

Ai-IIA<11« i|/'V'i ^l>n f<^"*^^ khalff of t)to house of 'Abhis 

»%vt4,,AiH\ liiH fathi*r ttl-Mtthdi on th'? 4th of August, 7«5 

' ' ^ "I MuhaiTiim, I<1U H., to th«« throno of KnghdAd. 

t.ri'< ><')ir iirid "n>> month, and having formed a 

..■i\. Inn viiun^T lirolhiT Ildrun-ul-rUahid of 

> and iivt^n to luMuiutiiuitv him, was 

nitniiilcr iibout Uii^ m(>nth of Strp- 

M t.i I. 170 A. Jl. On his dwith his 

m1 Hirun-iiUltaslu'd ascended the 



'•llhil flm Al'ili^l Tlalin, an Arabian anthor 
*'t thii rhnm'dotfirnl nrmngfimont of tho 
' l.y UiiWHrd Vvpio and I>r. Spit*ngcr, in 
t,<| voliitiiii uf • '('h»« ryr'uni'l" of Oixch') 

.'> A li , iir nix hunilri'd yimrti txiifiT tUo 

lit. Mil" W< 

0^'i A. I', hu 

f !■ :li(lod, but by n ma- 

iiiin dl' thr UritJah 

! II, .km wiiri nearly ron- 

l)(HU'iiihfd bctwi'i'M 813 

!■ i! Iliit (*n*iil Pyramid 

iiivlun kin^ 8Aurid, 

■ |>Jn-irt( (ind fij^nrw 

iriH>R iwd in thftir 

ffHind thp body of 

' "Idrn writinif, 

II rb(»mlnrr of 

^hiir JiifHr I'in 

I Nfti) A. 1>. nor ibn 
1 utmut At-Alomun, 

or any opening of the pyramid. But when we d<WM*nd to 
Ha«audi, in 067 A. I>. hu. ufter an untoniirlLiiig^ amouut 
of romnnoing on what took pl/ire nt the building of the 
pyromids 300 years biffore the Flood.— mentions that, not 
ui'Mumun, but his father, khalifu UjLrun<al-ltashidt «t- 
tcnipted to bu'uk into tho Great Fyramid : and after pf- 
netrating 20 cubits, found a vessol eontainiitg 1000 coins 
of the finefit g*dd, each just onp ounco in weight, and 
makinp up a sum whieh exactly repaid the cost of his 
operations ; ut which, it ia added, he greatly woDd>at<d* 
About the year U70 A. D. or 340 yeam after al-Mamiln'» 
ago, that prince ia mentioned hy Abu Abd-ullah Muham- 
mad bin Ahdur Kahim AlkiuBi. who states that ho «iu 
informt'd that those who went into tho upper parta of the 
Great Pyramid in the time of nl-Mamtln, came to a imall 
passage, eontjiining the ima^e of a man in green atona, 
and within that a human body with goldtm armour Bit. &c- 

Al*Ha^an| t^*™^^', an Arabian who wrote on optics, about 
tho yrar HOC A.D. 

Alif bin ITur Kashanl, tJ^K'J^ t:r^ ^1, nutlior of 

another " Miilla'-ul-Anwar", hesidi'a the one of tho suae 
name wrillin by Mulls llusoin Waox. This is a conipli!44< 
hi.^tory of Muliammad, his dcsccudonta, with Memoirs of 

the kUalifs. 

Aljaitu, jk^U R Tartar king of Pcraia, who tMimiMl the 

title of Muhammad Khuda Bonda on his accearion to th« 
throne, which »eo. 

Al-Kadir BiUah, ^'^ J^^-'', the twcnty-fifth khaUf of 
the Abbaaide family, was tl»e son of Is-biV 'he son uf 
Itlu^tadir Billah. He ascended tlie tlmme of Ita^Udsd 
after tho duthrunement of al-T»ya' in ODl A. D.. 3»I 
A. H. He wnd « contemporary of SuUun Mahraud of 
Qhaxni ; reigned 41 lunar years and S months, snd dii d 
in 1031 A, 1).. 422 A. H. He wua sucooedod by aJ-Ki- 

Al-Kadiri or Kadiri, lS-!j*s^'> a sect of Mohammodaiu. 

Those are a brunrh of thn Muetdzillis, and diifer in their 
opinions from the orthodox Mumlmana, in thut ther 
deny God's decree, and assert frue will ; aflirming that 
the contrary opinion makes God the author of eviL 

Al-Kaim BiUah or Al-Kaim-bi-amr-illah, *^^ 

*jlfljt^ fiumamed Abii Ja'far AhdulUh, tho 26th khalif 

of the houw5 of *Abbas, Ho meceeded his father Kidir 
BiUah to the throne of Baghdad in 1031 A. D,, 422 A. H., 
reigned 44 lunar years and 8 mouths, and died in 1076 
A. 1)., 467 A- H., which was won afUr Sul^in Mablcahih 
the Suljuki had ascended the throne of IVrsii, and as thai 
monarch was the real mni^ter of tho empire, the noniin^ 
tion of a successor waa deferred till he wa» eonttull^. He 
deputed a aon of hia prime minisU^r Xizam-nl-Mulk to 
Baghdail with orders to raise al-Muktadi the gnuidsoo of 
al-K&im to the (nominal) rank of the commandor (d thm 

Al-Eaim, ^^^ accond khalif of tho Fitimito lace of 
Barbar>' ; ho succeeded his fathor Obeid'Hllah a]-Mafadi 
A. D. 924, 312 A. H. During his reign we ro»d of noth- 
ing remarkable, except the revolt of Yezi'd itm Kondmt, 
a man of mean extraction. Al-Km^m reigned n^rlv 12 
years and died in A. I). 945, 334 A. H. Hia son l^^^fl 
iil-31ansur succeeded him. 

AJ-Kahir BiUah, ^U j^^^, the ninctocnth khalif of 
tho nie« of the Abbasides. and the third son of al-Mo'taaid 
BillAh, succeeded bis brother al-MuVtudtr to tlu' crown of 
Baghdad in Uttuber, 032 A. D., Shnwwil, 320 A. H. H# 
had rr-ignnd only ouf year five months and twentT-oo* 
dayti, whon his wajiir ibn Makla d. pin .-d liim of hia «kht 
with H hot iron on Wodng»doy the 2ard April, 934 A. 1) 




Bth .Tamftd I, 322 A. H. imd raised aI-Ti5« TtiUah the Hon 
of lluVUdir U> th.; thron..-. It w Baid tliat uUKahir. afN-r 
this, H8 long ri« h*j ]i\i.-(L wjw ri1>lig..-d to Ua; (or charily 
in (the Tno.tqup of Ka^'hdid. aillini;: out tft Ihc p»--i>plo llm't 
asBOmblud thcro, *' Havi> pity and ipve charity to cod, who 
had once bw-n your khiUila." 

*A1-Kama, **^, »on of ^ya waa ono of the pnpila of Abd- 
ullah bin Masaud, and an eminent num. He died in 081 
A. D., 61 A. H. 

Al.Khassaf, o^-^^^ vide Abil-Bakr Ahmad bin-*Umar ftl- 

*Allama Dawani, vit/e D.iw^f, 

*Allaaia Hilli, ij-^ *^i' i*^, (Shaikh) the grcnt Shiu 

lawyer, w!i.jsi> iiili namo in Shaikh ul-*A]lama Juinal- 
nddiii Hosaji bin Yufcuf ul-Mutakhir Hilir, the autbur 
of the ** KhidiUat-ul-AkwiH" a biutrniphy of emintnt Sliius. 
Hia chief works on tht- :iiiljjc( t of truditiotis. urn the I.itiJisA 
al-Yu*tbar, the llasibih iil-Anwor and the Diirar-wn ;il- 
Marjan. He died in Ui'lG A. D., 726 A. H. I'uk Jamal- 
uddui Haaan bin Vt'ittaf. 

'Allami, vidr Afeal Khan. 

'AHami, i/^^, the poetical name of Shaikh Abul Fazl the 

ferorito wajrfr and secretary of the emperor Akbw. 

'AUami Shirazi, isjb^ ij^^, or the piaioaophor of 

Bbiriz, a vury iLurucd m;in, so g^em^mlly failed that his 
proper name ia almost fiirpottfn. ll^ is thf itiithor of a 
celebratM cuUwtion of tnifti+ en pure and miird muthu- 
nmtiLa, eutith'd DuiTat-ut-T^'. 

Al-Mahdi, t^^t^'j Uie 0.ird khal£f of the roco of Abbfifl, 
Hurc«edL-d hi.s fulhsT Abu Ja'far al->Mnni«ur to the thronij 
of Buf;hda<l. and w;is inaiigunitiHl on .Siindiiy the Slh of 
October, 77-5 A. 1)., r>th Xil-bijj:». 15H A. H.' From tli« 
nceeesiun of iil-SIuLdi to the year 7Ht A. D.. ltJ4 A. 11.. the 
moflt n-markuble evtiit waa the rebellion of al-SIakna foi- 
al-Makanna) whith see. ^Vll this time war had been ear- 
ried oil with the (Jrenks, bnt without any reirnukable 
fiuccefls on either Bide, But after the eupprossion of the 
rebellion of al-Muknu, the khiilif ordemd hia son Uanin- 
al-ll&sbid to piiHlnite into the iin^ck 1<;iTitorics with iiu 
anny of 05^000 ui-.ii. llunin. Ih^-n. having entenil t)io 
dominion!! of the eirjpp.'&H Iraiie. d-'fciitnl oni- of hej" fom- 
mand^rs that ndviirunJ Ji^ain-nit him ; nft» r whirh he luid 
waato sovf-nl of the imperial provinces with (in- itiid 
sword, and even threittene*! the city of i,Vn.stmitin(.«i)lu 
itaelf. By this the I'nipresa wiis so terrified, thnt she pur- 
chaaed a peaet* wiLli tlie khalif by paying- him an aiuiunl 
tribute of 7^,000 pieces of gold, which for the present ut 
lenflt. delivered her fn:>m the depredations of thebo barha- 
riane. After tlie siijrnin;; of the treaty, HaHln returned 
home biden with sjMdlM imd glorj'. Thin yetir (i. e. llie 
164th year of th'' Hijri or 7Sl A. D.) according tu soinn 
of the orienlJil hi?(toi-ianB, the nun one day a littlo after 
hia riainjf. totally lont his light in a moment without 
being eclipsed, when neither any fug nor any eloud 
of dust KppeiLted to obscure him. 'Hjiia frightful dark- 
new itmtinm-'d till noon, to tho g^eflt astoniahuient of 
the people aettb.Hi in the coimtrics where it hapjH-ncd. 
Al~MAlidi was poisoned, though unJi'signt'cily. by one of 
his cont'ubinrs, named Haama. .She tad dcsigTi(<d to 
destroy one of h'T riviilH wliom she imagined to have tuo 
griiit an ascendramy ovrr the khalif, by giving htr a 
poisoned pear. Thia the latter, not auapocting anvtliing, 
gave to the khalif ; who had no hooni»r i-aten it than ho 
fait himBelf in exquisit<i torture, and aoon after expired. 
Thia event took place on the eve of Thursday the 4th of 
August, 785 A. D., 23rd Sluhumuii, 109 U. in a village 
col^ Ar Rad in this dupendeneiea of Mifiabadin. Ho 
WEB sucoeedL'd by hia eldest son ai-Hidi. 


Al-Mtthdi, {S^\ a khalif of Borbai^-, vide Obeid-ulUih 
td-]^[ahdi and Muhammad al-Maluli. 

Al-Makna, or aJ-Makaniia, t^^K a famous impostor of 
Khura.Nln who lived in the n-ign of al-Mahdi tho khalifa 
of iJaglidad. IliB true imme waa llakam ibn llaftham, 
and had been an under secretary to Abu Slufllim governor 
of thul province. He aflerwimis turned soldier, and jMiaacd 
thenee into Miwftrunnidxr, where he gave himself out aa a 
prophet. The name of al Maljtnii. asalso thiit ofuMtiirkiu, 
that ia, the veikd, lie r«*c'.-ivt>d from his rmitom of covering 
his faeu with a veil or girdle mask, to conoial his deformity ; 
he having lost an oye in the wars, and being otherwise of 
a despicable appearance, and a »tutt»^rtT ; tliough his fol- 
lowers prwtcnded he did thirt for tho same rejuion that 
Moses did, viz., lesft the splendor of liis couutcnanco should 
dazzle the eyca of his behuldera. In some places hu made 
a great many proaelytes, di-luding the people with a num. 
her of juggling tricks whieh they swallowed as miracloa, 
j and piirtieubirly by causing the appeamnco of a muou to 

rise out of a well for ijiany nighta together ; whence he 
WII6 ulso called in the Pemian tongue, Sazinda Mih, or tho 
Jloon-malter. l*hifl wretch, notcotitent with being nxkom-d 
u proi)het, arrogat<?d to himself divine hunora ; prcU-nding 
that the Deity resided in hiw [irrhon. He hud tin*t, he saif 
assumed tho body of Adam, then that of Xoah and flulit©- 
quently of many other wiw and great men. The last 
human form he prelemh^d to have aduptt^l was that of 
Abii Muslim a priiiee of KJiurasau, from whom it proceeded 
to hinj. At butt this itujiostor mised an open rebellion 
against tho khiilif, and made him^Mdf mufiter of sovenl 
fortified plucrs in Kliunw&n, so thjit al-Mahdi was obliged 
to Bond one of his generals with an army against him about 
the yuar 'm A. l>.. 163 H. Upon tho appmach of the kha- 
b'fa'a troojiR, nl-Makua retired into ono of bis stiting 
fortre->'i'8 which ho had well provided for a si^e. But 
being rlusi-ly besiegi'd by tht- khalifa's forcoa, and ae«ing 
no possibility of esciiping. he gavo i>f»i*en in wine to bis 
whole family and all that were with hirn in the ca«tlo ; 
when they wero dead, ho burnt their bodies, together with 
all their funiiture, pro visions, and cattlo ; and lastly hu 
threw himself into tho llames. He had promised his 
followers, thht hia mouI should IrnnsntigriLt*' into the form 
of an old man riding on a grcyir^h lobfored broet, and thitt 
aiXer bo mjiny yuars he would return and give them tho 
earth for their jiosftoasion ; whieh tidieulous t xpi'ctation 
kept the sect in In-ing for noveral yours. Englisli nindeTH 
will rumunibLT the wm iaadt» of this story by the author of 

Al-Mamim, i:)>^U-'l, sumtuned 'Abdull&h, waa tho seventh 
khalif of the race of the Abbasides, and tho second son of 
Hari'm-al-Hafihid. Ho wua proclaimed khalif at BaghdCid 
on the 6th tJctober, 813 A, U., 6th .Safiir, 1U8 A. H., the lUy 
on whieh hi.s brother al-Amin was assaHHiniited. Hi- ct>n- 
fi-rred the- government of Khor&aan u]M)n Tiihir ibn UuMiin 
his general and his doacendants with ulmest absoluti^ jind 
unliniit<.-d pf»wer. This happened in the year 820 A. D., 
205 A. H., from which timu we may date the di.\menilM^r- 
ment of lliat province from the empiro of the khalifs. 
During the reign of this khalif nothing remarkable hap- 
pened ; only the African Moalema invade-d tho island of 
Sicily, when* they made lliemMdves miister of several 
plae*«. Al-Mamun conquered part of Cret(\ had the K«t 
Greek writers translated into Arabic, and mado a collec- 
tion of lilt* beat authoni. lie aluo cahtdated a set of 
aatnmomicul tahlw and founded an aeiidemy at Daghdad. 
In Khurasan he made Tu&, at that time tlie capital of tho 
kingdom, his plsice of residence. Under hia patronagv Khu- 
nisaii became tho resnrt of le«med men ; and tho citv of 
Tua. the great rival of Baghdad. He died of a auJ-feit on 
the 18th of August, 83a A. 1)., I7th lhyab218 A. H., ufU-r 
a reign of 20 years and some months in Aaia Minor, aged 
48 years, and was buried at Tarsus a city on the frontier! 




of Aaa Uinor. Hit wife nunied Bdtmn, tlAo^hter uf 
Haian ibn Sohl lus primr nuniaiUT, cmtUred him 60 ycorsL 
ana di»a on TuffldAV the 22nd September. 894 A. D-i 27tb 
Babi Im 271 a. H .'ag«d SO Tcnn. AJ-Mim^ wu «nc- 
c-(MHled ttjr hu bruther «]'Mo*tafflin Billah. 

AJ-UansaTf jr^^S 2nd khalif of Barbae- of ihoFntimito 
noo, nd^ Isn&Q, framamM al-Moiuiur. 

Al^MftDSUr, J L>^ * ^ j vhose formur mimo waa AbA Ja'fiu-, 
was cmllnd al-Bfansur, tho Tictorious. b>' his oviveomiug 
hu MkcsnicB. He was the second kluiHf of th*? noble bnuKi 
of Bald Abbia or Abbttaidcs, and Kurr-i^'dod to tbt: thruno 
of Bacbd4d after the death of hit* bn-tthrr Abtil AM*&b hot- 
namad al-6alKh, in Td-S A. D., 186 A. H. Ho wua op- 
pootd by bia uncle, *AbdulUh aon of Alu who raoM^d 
himself to b« proclaimtd khtiUf nl thimimcus, but was 
defintid by al-Mansur'a gen^T;*!, Abu TbliLslim. Ho biid 
the foantlation of Ihn CTt>- of Uajcbdad on the banks of th« 
Tigris in 7ti2 A, l>. and antshcd it four yoaw aitiT. lie 
was a princQ of coctnionlinary tilrnt and tiuUi, wnd an 
ardent loror of (W-'itnte and Utomturv. He got tht? Pah- 
lawf oopy of Pilpfjy*« Kabh» tmnslfitf-d into Ambic. In 
the year 776 A. D., InH A. H., the khidtf set out from 
Baghdad in order to perform tho pUtrrinww-' to Mw«'h ; 
bat bting tdktti ill on thti rtmd. he cxpin-d nt Bi'r Mniiniln, 
whcncu his WkIt ■wna carriod to Mtctii ; whc-r<.«. tiftcr 100 
gravea had lH:*n dug. that his wpulchrt' ini;(hi lio con- 
ooalcd, ho was interred, having Ured, ntrordinR t<» hoiuu 
83, according to othnw 68 ynata, and r^-'igned 2*1 lunar 
ytAia. He is said to havu bw;n i?xlrtnifly ovotoiut, and 
to have left in hi* troasnry 000.000,000 dirhmna, und 
24,000.000 dinars. Ho is r^rtt^d to have paid hia cook 
by assigning htm the heads >ind legM of the animals driiSaM 
in hia kitchen, and to have obli;;rd him U* proniro nt his 
own ezpence all the fuel nnd ve*uR>l9 he liud uct'usioii fur. 
He was aocceeded by his son al-lkluhdi. A Omstion pliy- 
aician, named Bactishna. waa vm* eminent at the L-nurt 
of al-Manalxr, who understanding that ho hiid nn old 
infirm woman for hia wife, sent him throe heftiitiful Greek 
girls and 8.000 dinars as a pre«»nl. UartialiiiH sont baek 
the girls and told the khiilif tluit liis rt'ligion prohibited 
hia iMving more than one wife at a time ; which pleased 
the khalff 90 much, that hn loadwl him «rilh presents, and 
pCTmitt^-d him. at hia e^imest n.'^uest, to n^turn Ut hia own 
connlr)' of Khnnt^in. 

Al-Mo'tamid Billah, «^V ****^t, the fift«enth khaUf 
of the house of Abbis, was the son of al-Mutwakkil Hillah. 
He waa raiaod to the throne of Baghdad by the Turks 
afturtbamuxder of al-MuhtJidi iu 870 A. C, '256 A, IL 
This year the prinee of thr Zfinjiana, AU or al-Habib, 
mode incursions to the very gat«a of Baghdfid, doing pro- 
digious mischief wherever ho passed. In the year 874 
A. U, Ya'kiib.bin-ri)-s having taken Khunl'^n from the 
dMcendiuita of Tiihir, attacked and defeat4«l Miihitinuuid 
Ibn Wiiol ^who hinl killed the khaUf a k'*^'-"*'^''' '^^ Vnrn^ 
and nlterwiirda nuirlc himaelf masl^r of that pro^nntre) 
MJidng on his paUee, whi^r^ ho fonnd a sum of niunwy 
amounlitig to 40,000.000 dirhums. In the j-«ir 879 A. P.. 
3A5 AH, Ahmail ibn Tuinn r>ib<>1](Hl agair^M the khalif 
and wt up for himjirlf in Eg\'pt. 'ITw'n' were now four 
indepwidi'Ht powtrs in the Moslem dominionii. Iteiiidoei the 
\^^,■^ . ■■ ^' V.I in H]niin ; ns. The African Uoflloma. or 
j^-] It hail fiir i\ long tinu* »H**d iiid»'|H.'ndontly ; 

Ahii> •'• ■ -■■ 1 lilfin in Syrin nnd Flgj'pt ; Ya'kub ibn nl- 
Lva in KhuraMM. and at-IIabLl; in Arabia and I'ri^. In 
the yt-M 883 A. D., 270 A. H . al-Ilahib waa dofoatdd and 
shun by uUMuwaflk ihn kbiiliTs hrutlier und roadjntor, 
who ordered hU head to bo cut off, and carriM through 
H great jmrt of that region which he had so lon^ disturbed. 
In thti yur 801 A. D., 278 A. H. the Kurmatians firet 
m»il« tluir - ■ --' 'o in the Moslem empire, und gavf 
^Jmuflt ' -tiirhsnre to the khaltfii and their sub- 

j«ct4> -V- -I. ... - i nngncd 22 lunar yeura 11 months 

and some days, and died in tho year 892 A. T)., 279 A. H. 
He wua suoceodiNi by his nephew al-Mo'toxid BilUh thr 
son of aU31uwufik. 

Al-Mo'tasim Billah, *^^ ^^^^i^Jl, was the fourth ann 

of Harun-al-Rab]ii>l« and tho eighth khuli'f of the hou»»< 
of Abbas. He succeeded to the throne by virtue nf hi* 
brother al-Momlin'a express nomination of him t<i tht* 
exclusion of hia own son aU^Abbais, and his other bnithnr 
al- K i.sim, who had been appointed by Harun-al'Baahid. 
In the beginning of his reign 8S3 A. D., 218 A, fl., he 
WHS obligod to employ tho whole forces of his ompin< 
ugainat one Babiik, who had brvn for a considerable time 
in rebeUiun in Persia and Persian Ir^k* uid had taken 
upon himself the title of » prophuL He waa, howuver. de- 
ftotod and shun. In the year 838 A. D., 223 A. H., the 
Greek emperor Tlif-'ophilas invaded tho khuliTs territ^riea, 
where he behaved with the greatest rruplty, and by d*** 
stroying Sozopctra the place of al-Mo'taiaim'a natzrity. 
notwithst.'iiuiing his eunietil eotreutiua to the oootnij* 
ocautionftil the terrible distinction of Amorinm. He it 
said to have been m robust, that ho once camVHl a burdpn 
of 1,000 pounds weight sevenil paces. As the people of 
Baghdad di>ttiirl»ed him with frcqurnt revoUa and eonxmo- 
tiona, he took the resolution to abandon that city, and bnild 
another fnr liia own n.^idi-nce. The new city he built was 
first called Samira, nnd afterwards Sannunri, (for that which 
gives plpasuro at lirvt fight) and stood in thi' Anbian 
'Irak. Ht' w;is nttnrhr'd U> tho opinion of the MutMJi<Uit«a 
who maiutdin thi- creation uf the lj[^uran ; and 1- ■'>■ v.- tr.d 
his predeee»»or cruelly porseeuted t hope who 1 :,> 

be otenuil. Al-Mo'ta'<im dii^i on Thurjklfly !:. n,j. 

arj-, 842 A. D.. 1 8th R«)>t I.. 227 H. He reigiiud 8 ymn 
8 months and 8 dayw. was bom in the 8th month (Shaban) 
of the yar, was the Slh khjtlif of the houac* tif Abh^ 
aseended tho throne in the 218lh year of the Uijri. ilij^^l oQ 
the IStli of Itahi I., lived 48 ye4ini. fou-ht 8 ' "' ' ;at 
8 palaces. b<.-i;at 8 suns and 8 daut^bt' r-, lui! ^ 

und had 8,0(X),000 dinars, and 80,000 diih. 

tnvwory at his d<.wth. whence the oriental hi^oria 
-him tho name of iI-Musamman, or tho Oi-t.mary. i i 
the 6nht klmlif Unit added to his name the titlt^ of iUnak^ 
eiiuivali-nt to the Utt Gratia uf Chri.itian SJivon^Jifna, H* 
wiu* Hutcewled by his son al-Watlii^c or "Wasijj Billah. 

Al-MoHazid BUlah. *^^ *-flA«Jf, the aon of al-MuT«a^, 
thi* mil «»f ftl-Mutwakkil BilhWi, wue the tixteenth kiiaKf 
oi Die race ol' Abliiis. He came t** the tlirjnn of Ba^h. 
dad alVT th*' dt^ath of his imclo al-Mo'tamid Hillah in Hii2 
A. li., 270 A. U. In tlie finit yoor of his nign, hi- ih>- 
imi.nditd in nrnrriago thf rlanghU'r of Khamarivria, Htiltis 
or khalif of Kgypt, the son of Ahmad ibn Tulan ; which 
was agreed to by him with th** utmoel joy. and thuir nup- 
tiala were acdenULizod with gn^at pomp in tlip v^ir itt>6 
A. D„ 282 A. H. He carried on a war wilb ' ' V .^ 
tians, but very ummrceasfolly, his fonsia l- -4 

with greot alaughtcr, and his general al-Abbd.* .«i^..,t prf- 
Bonur. The khalif some time after his marriagn gnuilad 
to H£nln. son of Khamanlwil^ the jK^rpoliuil prnlectim 
of Awisum and Kinnisrin, which he ozmcxiMl to that of 
Egj-pt and Syria, upon condition that he p;nd lum an 
annual tribute of 4'1,000 dinars. He reigninl 9 voan A 
montha and 2;* days, and <li«'d in P02 A. D., 28(» A. H. 
His son al-Mnktnfi Billah sucr**oded him. 

Al-Mughira,^ V^'j thoson of Sa\'yid and gOTvmor of 
K<ifa in the time of Mu'fiw'ui the firat khalif of the hOQM 
of Um>'yA, H»» was un active mua, and of vorv good 
parts; hf bad lofit one of his oyea at Uio Iwttl.- of V(«. 
nouk. though some say that it was with b".lring at an 
eelipae. By the followers of AU he v ' <t to be 

of the wrong party, und one of the n. ,, p^y 

UiuH thoy reckon, there ani Arc eMtir)!i ;,. • JH^. 

hammiid. Ali, Fatima, Hnaan and IT I'tlkae 

ure uppoard, Abii Bakr. 'L'taoTr 2Xuav^., -j...^ .; and al* 





Muphira. He du-d in the year G70 A. D., 50 A. IT., at 
Kdfa. A great pliigiw hml been mging in tho city, whith 
made him retire from it ; but returning upon ita violence 
iboting-, ho nt'verthoU-as cau^'ht it, and died of it. 

Al-Muhtadi, t5"^V^'> ^*^ foinifcuth khalii of th*> Ahbn- 
Btdvs^ WHS th'-' sou of un«.' of ul-\ViiLhik'(j ijoniubined ntimcd 
Kurb, who is supposed by Hoiiiie to have been ii CTiriirtitin. 
Al-Miihtadi waa ruisixl to the throni^ of Bnglidiuf rtftur th« 
dethron^^ment of al-Muttai'z HilUh in HiiW A. !>., 2'ih 
A. H. The Iii'ginniug of hia ruign is n'OiarknbU; for thti 
irruption of the ZwRJijuii*, a ]M'opk' uf Nubia, Kthiupiit iiiid 
tho country of Caflrea, into Arabia^ wheiv thoy [H'm Im- 
ttd into the ni?i^hb')iurhni>d uf lUsm :md Kufti. Thi* ( hirf 
of ttii» giinK of roljliciM, weiw 'Alii ibn Muhitminnd ibn Al»- 
diil Kahman, also talU^d ol-Hubib, who falrtt^ly gavtt liiiri- 
aelf out to bo of Ow family of All ibn Abii Taleb. 'Diis 
made aueh an impn-jwion upun Ihn Shyis in those parts, 
that they flocked to him in great numbi^rn ; which i-nubb'd 
him to iteizo ujion tliu cities of Basra and Kamhi. und evt-n 
to paas the TigTiM Jit Ihi' h<'ud of ii fumiidiiblt" iinny. tn 
the y«ir 870 A. D.. 2 JO A. H., al-MuhUidi wa.-? harbf»ruu»Iy 
munlt-Tt'd by tlie Turka who hud raised him tu tlif throru'. 
Ue reigrntil only eleven montlis and was sueeucdi^ by fil- 
M6' tumid. 

Al-Mukhtar, J^*"*^'j a celobmted Muhamtnadaxt chief 
who had bonbon all tho g<:neriil3 of thii khalifa Yl-zM, 
Marwin, and AlwUil Malik, and hud raadr? hiins<-lf yolL' 
master of Bttbyluuiiin I'rdl^, wh^roof Kufu wjh the capital. 
Ho pcraociiUHj ;il] thowtj hf cuidd lay hit* liandw on, whu 
wero not of Uus:iin't» party; he never pardon- d any ma 
of thoiM) wlio hiid declarod thcmkelvca fnomioa to tht.* 
j^mily of th'.' pruphct, nor thosi' wlio, as he boHoved, had 
dippwi their hand** in Flusain's blo(nl or thjit of hie n-la- 
tiona. lie went an anny n^minst L'beid-iillidi the turn of 
Zayad, who was sent by tho khalif Abdul Alcilik towards 
Kufa with leave to plunder it fur thnu d;iyd, and slew 
him in battle in Au^'ust, GHfi A I>., Sliiluirram, C7 A, U. 
Bl-Mukhtar WIS kilKd at Kufii in a battle fought with 
Miuaa'b the brother of AbiluUiih the bon of Zuber, gover- 
nor of Basra, in thn month of April, *I87 A. ]I., Itam^fun 07 
A. H., in til": fi"th year of Ms age. It ia said that he killed 
nearly 60,tH)0 men. 

Al-Muktadi Billah, *^^ ^tiXiAjf^ sumanuHLVtul Kasim 
Abd-idlah, the i^^on of Muhammad, and y^iimbion of al- 
K&em Billi*h, wa^ nusid t/j thi- Ihronu i>f liaghdiil fvfter 
tiie dealli of Irit* pnmdfalher iji 1075 A. l>., 467 A- H.. by 
orders of tSultdn Malikshih Saljuki who vrm then thy rual 
mulber of the empire, lie was tho 27th khalif of the nice 
of Abbatt, n-igiu-d 10 lunur yi'ars and 5 months and died 
in 1094 A. U.. -IST A. H, His death induri d llarkayarak 
tho Sidjuki, the n ifjnini^ Sidtiin of IVreia, whose brother 
Mahmud had ditnl about thi! sjime period, to go to Bagh- 
dad, whore he conJlnued al-Musta/bir the son of the late 
khalif a» his siicci.u*p*or. and Wiia him&L-lf hiiiled by tho new 
lord uf the faithful, us Saltan uf the empire. 

AX-Muktadir BiUub, ^^jO^^^, the eighteenth khalif of 

the house of Ablijia, wiw the son of a]-M6'tazid BiUuh. 
He flueeee^k-d hi« brother siI-MuktafT to the Ihrono of 
Boghda-J in UOS A- ]>.. 295 A. H. He n-igned 24 lunar 
vcani 2 months and 7 day», and wusmurden-d ])y a eunut-h 
on th«3 29th rJetfjber, 932 A. D., 2.Jth Shawwcil, 32U U. 
He wufl sncew^ied by hJB brother ul-K&hir iJilliih. 

^l-Jttottafl Billah, *^ ij*^*^'> *«» the »ov*ftnt*)i^nth 
\halif of the htuiHe of Ahbiw who n-igned in Baghdad. 
Ho Buccwded bin fc>t}i>T al-Mo'Uzid Billah in 0U2 A. I>., 
2»9 A- H., and pr^fved a wailike and eucc *,■&.■• f til prinee. 
He gained eevend adv;mtagiyt over tho ICarmfttiana, but 
was not able to reduce them. ITie Turks* howt-vor. hav- 
ing invaded the province of Mawanmimhr, were dofeatod 
«ith gnuit slaughter ; after which nl-Muktafi carried on a 

miccsMfiil war again.*(t tho Urt-eks, from whom he took 
Seleucia. After thin he invaded Syria and Egj'pt, whi( h 
provinces he recovered from the houMi of Ahmad ibn Tti- 
ian in 906 A. D., 292 A. H. ; he then rewwed the wht 
ViriXh HMvi't^Hn againiit the (rreeks and Karmatiana. AU 
3lHktafi dii-d in V08 A. D., 295 A. IL, after a rvign -f 
almut six years and a half. He wa« the laal of the kha- 
lifa who made any figure by tlujr warlike exploits. Hia 
successors al-Mu^tadir, al-Kahir and al-lUzi, were so dijt- 
trea&ed by the Karnuttiau£ and uunilK-rlesti uanrpefR who 
wure *.'very day starting up, that by the 3'25tb year ef 
the Uijri 9;i7 A. D., they had nothing left but the eity 
of Hiighdad. 

Al-Muktafl Bi-amr-iUah, *'''>'*lj J^^^^, thift.nuf 

al-Mustaxahr was the 3lBt khalif of the houBi- of Abbas. 

lie Hueeeeided his nephew al-Kashid in A. ll. 113G, (53lt 

' A. H., reigut;d about 24 lunar ytor^ and died in 1160 

A. 1>., aoo A. H., luaving his kingdom to hia eon al-Mua- 


Al-MuBtaa'li BiUah, ^^ ^j^^i-*^!, the sixth Faiimite 

khalif rtiieretfded hw father al-Sluhtinasjir Ilillili in the 
govi.'n^ment of Egypt and Syria. During his reign, the 
jwjwer of that dymtsly wiiji impaired, and ite authority 
weuki ned, their political inlluence having et-jtsted in must 
of the Syrian cities, and the provinces of that counlrj- 
having fallen into the possetutiouii of the Turknmns on on« 
hand, and thu Franks on the other. This peoplo (the 
CruaadersJ entered Svria and eneatnped before Antioch in 
the month of ( Jctober,"l097 A. !>., Zil-^ada 490 A. H. ; they 
obtained«.siijn of it on the SOth June, iOHS, U'.ih 
llajab, 491 A. H. ; the following year thoy took Alaaratun 
Noman, and in the month uf July, 1099, Sha'bau, 492 
A. H., they iKicume uiastors of Jerusalem, after a siege of 
more than 40 days. This city wua taken on a Friday 
morning; during the ensuing week, a groat multitude i-f 
Moslems perished, and up^rards of 70,000 wertj slaiu in 

the ilaKJid al-Aksa [or mowjue o( Umar) aUMustiL- 

a'li waa boni at Cairo un tho 24lh August, 1070, 2t>Ih 
Muharram, 40'.' A. H., pp>tlaim'*d khalif on Thuradav the 
2Hth of Ik-cemUr, 1094, Isth ^fil-ljiti'i 487 A, II,, and* died 
in hgyjA on the lOth December, llul A. D., liith Safur, 
493 A. H. His son Amar bi Ahkam-ulldh Abu Ail Man- 
ailr aui're«'ded him, 

Al-Mu8taa'9im Billah, ^^^ |»-^-***»^t, sumamud Aba 

Ahnuid Abdullah, wha 1h<- thirty-Roventh and last Ithfllif 
of the nue of Alibda. l|i_- niice<i ded his falher nl-Mn.H- 
taiiaaar to the throne taf Baghdad in 11 42 A. 1)., 640 A. H. 
In hit* time Ualukii Khan Tarttir. emperor of the Mnghals 
and gnindi-ion of the great conqueror Chungiz Khan, 
b*«ie.ged Itaghdiiil lor two month-*, aad liaving Ijiken that 
place, ik.'i7i.Hl al-ilu.-»taa'sim :ind hift four sons whom h** 
]>ut to a niL'st eni"! death with HOO.OOO of its inliabitants. 
IlaUikii Khftii wan very desii-oua of seizing U]K»n Itagh- 
ddd, »ud of additig the whole kingdom of Mefio])Otaniiu to 
his already viiHt and DumeruuH conquests ; bat. {uirtly on 
aceonnt of hi.H own seruples, and partly from fear of 
offending the prejudices of hia Suuni followers, who were 
all of the sinie faith with the khalif, hu re&ained for a 
time from entering tho sacred douiinion of one who was 
wtmndered as the head of their holy ndigion, and the true 
repreif*«'ntati ve of their bclorod prophet. Uut the glorinus 
days of the house of Uam Abbas liad nln^idy Wen nmn- 
bored, the t:ffeuun:ite ^kluxlaaVim had personal vji.ea enough 
to lead til and excui^e the finjil extinction of his mce ! 
Ibn al-Kama, liis prime minister (who hated him more 
than liny other of his nppn'ssed Bubjw^t!*) tn»m witliin, and 
^^lSLr•uddin Tiist, the preceptor of the Mughal prince 
(who owed him riti old grudge} from without, ui^"d the 
conqueror to tha gat4>!i of Haglidiid. Nnsir-uddin hjid a 
few ynir? before been at Ibighdad. M-eking shelter from 
jierweulion, whi-n Ko wa^ inti-odtieed to Must,ajrFim. the 
ktt«r aakod him to what country he belonged f" *' Tua, 





•0 iaperfoct 

wcQ, far. «t the 

n^ 9mk tt» kMff ifciti l» tt* iMt «xti««iitT, he 
&K«»MiW»te Ai«A«tttaifewK«fTu« WHS at 
!■» vjl^ Am Jkrmt, awl tefiini^ vtei it would 
hs WlfaMi 1» twi ^w him f XnrfporfHtn hud in 
t^ cily ifwmiT AIA oAvAVk wham ht wm «im*>iiB ft]so 
n» «M fll« S^jkk ak* oM ol thv khftlifa 
MAapaiiiuMatgwM i ly tilam far hm learn- 
^; »rttW^afcl»>faat^«i — <• vvr^r hj^wled unA 
iMv W Wl Wfaa«i4 «ril «iBC<r <«M^y IImm Iu» nuwter to 
Ite ^liito«s«i INniia ^'ka vkitt l» m«k^ piotvction at 
|1» imSh JnTifcr fcfli Mf I vilh di>|m««oa 
iMncvMmM kbu (huU th«> 
> W teko, ot'CAsion- 
4IK « tiMl» Tj^r "Wft hlfwrfl vhfn Xiisir-mUtn 
«wi «« eiicMa. <W 4|TrfiU H ; i-.' hinuiolf 

yttaue^M^jf ■MWrfci?^. »yJhft«iiy »co. taken 

n/m^iKir* iii'-rry, and 

lum on thr Tigrta. 

ippc'd the 


pn»»f*iit(.yi to t)ii> 

«^«i««w«l XMi^^iMiah WM » — ya ^ y uu on tb 

W«t. a»il wn4iaM4 ^ «n«cU whioiw uf Nimi 
k« wKh\ t^ iMwetfd rp^Ki^ Ium) 

mxiiUM'tipU and nut 

%r»ri $vi tK*» ftv^ifu^v ivf thoir nnxiouH ttii- 

kt\«r attoUk«ir, iuti> tho river, 

V the waiter w«» splnahMl 

:.. . v:... If ^,J^ ^.m-jj 

>l trUh n 

■I l.ubblofll" 

lilts In*. ti>i>, iCttvii tiiW 

I u mjib to \h> riist'd 

lii<)<\ tM'«i Uk^m off thoanimnl, 

M ^;Ui H>r. h<> Inid it for h fvw 

' I V, aud »«modwl 

yp to hiN hiilf 

t, I. h •" • > •••iii|th, nTul, iiH 111) 

i.-.i. " )l<tw woii'liTfuIIy it 

• it U»\ )>lii('4i on Sundny 

^ l». llh MAfitr, 0<16 A. H, 

. ttddfd U> (ho Mthnr cnn- 

thi« |.t I i'hi|toiitr. Al-MuitJu'AiM 

.i« mid * mtHilhft 

Al Muol****" IUHhU,*^^ u'**'-^'i th« ■«» of Mithwn. 

, , , V ,....-. ti„. twelfth Umhf 

hi ' 
ui < 





ii .>r htH conmn 
! to ahdi- 
' iiiit brnlhit 
I, who an»iw>ih4» iWHHwl liim (v Um privnt*'- 

11 MtlluU. "^^ ^y^'^'^'t WM lht> tftiid khaWf 

■■ tnd 

^ ;..,., i--UlO 

. . .lii, ^U-.ti ..... ^,rt oflMhir, 

■ dM mon. II 
I .. ith tho Aulatnnt'o 
. lUNlidikd a»d itu* 

prisoned a2-Ki«n Hillih about the yefir 1064 A. I>. 
for a year and half wtuj aLknowlfvdged the only l^j^itii 
i'hief of all the MtiKiilizianB. BaaaHiri woa defeated 
killwlbj Tuirhral Ue^ A- D. 105l», 487 A. H. r»A 
Baaisin. Al-MiutanaKur died in 1094, hnvin^ roienrd 60 
years ; and wad jnicceodtd by his eon ul-Mtutaa'U. BUUfa 
Abttl ^aaim. 


Al-Mu8tanBlr BiUah I, *^ ^ ^^" ■"»'l, tlie clercath 
khalif of the race of Abbas, ascended ihf throne of Batch- 
did after tho murder of hia father alMutwakliit in t>r- 
oembt^r 861 A. I).. Shuwwal. 2i7 A. 11., and had rt-igned 
only six month*;, whon ho was cut off by the- hand of death 
in 862 A. 1).. 248 A. U. Ho was succeeded by hia couan 
aI-Miidta'Ln Billah. 

AJ-Mustansir BiUah XI, aUU^-au-Vi^ sumamed Ab6 

Ja'far al-Mansur, asc^-ndod tho throne of Baghdad aftrr 
the* drtith of hiB fithur nUTahir. in 1226 A. !»., 623 A. U. 
He wae the 36th khalif of tho houa<? of Abbfis n-igned 
about 17 years, and ditd in 1242 A, D., 640 A. IL, leaving 
hift kingdom to his son al-Alaatoa'sim BiUah tho laoi of 
the khaiife. 

Al-Mustanjid Bill ah, ^^^. "^ ** ', the thirly-eeccod 
khalif of tho rioo of Abbas, sncroftdi'd to tht'1hron#of 
Baprhddd ufttr the d"alh i>f hiH father al-Muktafl. in llSO 
A. M , hhCi A. H^ rciKnt*d U lunar years and died in U7I 
A. D.f 56ti A. H., when his sou al-Mustazi Hu<.>cc«dod hisL. 

Al-Mustarahid BHlah, *^lj ^jL^i^ the tweaty- 
Minlh khitlif of (Jiu Ablmsido family, auL-et'cdixl hi* f»th»«r 
a]>Mnt(t4izahr to the throne of ij»^hdiid in 1118 A- 1)., 
fil2 A. H. It ia related by ibn KhalHkan that when Sv\- 
\aM Mjijuud tho wn of Muhammad the son of Malikih&h 
Saljiiki woB fncamp<>d outside of tho town of Marsha in 
AxurlKJdu. al-Miwtamidud wua then with him, and oa 
ThursiLiy the 28lh or according to ibn Mofitaufu the I4lfc 
or 28tb XtVl^ada 629 A. H. (''orrettponding with ihfl i4tb 
Au^ifit or 7th September, 1136 A. D.) a band of aMaanu 
broke into the khalif'fl tunt and niurdored him. Ai-Una- 
tjinuihid rt'i^ed 17 lunar years and »omo montha^ and 
was succeeded by his i»un ol-Raahid BilUh. 

Al-Muatazhip BiUah, ^^ ^rt^i-Jl, the aon of al- 

Muktadi. wua tho twonty-eighth khalif of the dynaaky of 
AbliiU. He was placed on tbothronoof Baghdil after 
Itw dmlh of hi« father in 1004 A. D,, 487 A. H., by Btl^ 
kyanik Saljiikt, the .Sultan of Poraia. He reijfned 25 lanir 
year* and aome months, and at his death which happuawl 
in tho year 1 1 18 A. D^ 612 A. IL, ho was sncoeedad by 
hifl son al-MuataniBhid. 

AUMuataEi Bi-amr-illah, «^I^Ij ^y^*-^!, the thirtr- 
tliinl khalif tiftht* Ablwiyide family, succwdod hie ^Imt 
uI-MusUnjad to thi^ thi-onc of Buglidid in M7| A, P 
firt6 A. H. He reigned about sevfn yi^rsand died in 1 17? 
A. D.» 676 A. H., when hiii son al-Niair BiUili iracc««drd 

Al-MuUa'u Billah, *^^J*iJl, the ■onofal-Mahrafc- 
kil, woe the thirteenth khalif of the race of Abbia. U^ 
dp|M»i»d his brother al-Must«in in 86G A. D., 253 A. K-^ 
and having caused him to l>e murdered privately 
thii Ihrontj of Baghdad. lie did not, however, Ingr 
the dignity of which ho had an iniquitonsly po«^ 
binwelf, Iwing dei»o«'*l by the Turkish Militia (wbo 
hc^n to set up and depose khalifa as they pb^i;K«3' m 
ynu- 861) A. D., 26.5 A. H. AfUr his depos - 
•ent undi'r an i«cort from Sarr Manrao to Bji^ 
h*' diM of thirst and hunger, aftor a reign of lh.i\< jj 
nnd .ibuut aevxn montha. The fate of this khalif 
preuliarly hanl : the Turkish town* had matianl 
Iheir pay; and al-Mutaau not having^ money to 
their deraanda, apph'ed to his mother named g«>*Otf t 
60,000 dinars. This she refused, telling hiiu that ahe 




Tokcd faim tA mftke wht upon th^m, and whom ho alwiiya 
oreraae. In the yvax B03 A. D.. 187 A. H., tbu khttlif 
reooiTed a K-tt^^r from Urn On>ek empt-ror Nicf-phorua, 
him to return all tho monoy ho had extorted 
the Emprcaa Imno, or expect soon to «e« an impe- 
rW annv in the heart of hin tprritfiri^. ThU insolent 
letter »o exaapented Harun, that ho immcdial<-ly asfltin- 
Ued hit tjnm and advanced to UcnicU^, luyi^ff ^^^ 
eoantty, Ihrtmgh which hr pawt^Ml, wa^te with fire and 
flvofd. V<tr mmfi time also hu k^pt tliut city stniitly 
IwmepHl ; which so tirririi.'d the Greek emperor that hft 
nlmitted to pay an annual trilmte. 

In lh<i ytAz 804 A. D.. 188 A. H., war wrw renowed with 
Ifca Onwka, and Niccphunu with a p^Jit army atUtclfcd 
the khalira fonoH with thn ut.moHt fury. He vras, how- 
rror, dcfoatod with the Iohb of 40,00U men, and received 
IhfM woutidn in the action ; afl4*r u-liirh thi* llusUrma 
eommitt'Ml t<rriljle ravriiiji'M in hit* t<TritorieB. und ntiirned 
homa Ud(?n with opoila. The next year llan'in invadrnl 
Vhrfp* ; def'-ati-d an impAial army wmt to opiMtse him, 
and navinf^ mvii^«*d tlw fomitrv, returned wilhout any 
rnfi»ti,l.:nihli) loM. In the year 800. 100 A. U., the klialif 
marihrd into tbn iinpi-rial t4?rritoriej* with an army of 
t3A,OnO mvn, hoiddea a ^tfnl immlier of voluntt^'t« iind 
uthom wtifi were not enrolled inrnmir hi« troopjt. He tirst 
took tho city of llmnlnti, fmm which hn w said to have 
rarried 10,000 prii«mi'i-M; ntU^r whieii he rnnde hinis' li' 
mwrl/rr of wvural other pliiecH. aud, in tlie concluaion of 
tho '^xjM^lition, h« niH'h' ii de»«'ent on tho iHhind of (Jyprua. 
whirh h»- plundered in a trrrihle manner. Thi« smrLiw «o 
Jntimidnl^'d Niettpliorua, thrit h" iinniediat^Iy Kent the 
tr.\rnit' fhtn li} HaHin, the wiUihoMinjr of whioh had been 
,,f iho war; rind nmcliiili'd a jwhco ii{m)u tho 
t. tirnim. Chnrh«mii;nu' t'*]H^-U-4 hia character, 
, in token of lii« frii'iiiWiip pnmented to the 
l-rinni it clorli. t)v n»"' Imnisin and romitrrietion 

r.i.i.ideU lunonK th" iirodijo«'« «' lt»« »&*-'• 

i rd nn<l dii'd in KhurtUAn on the eve 

I Miir^'h, H0» A. I)., 3rd .liimnd II. 
nod W.UI Inini'd til Tun whirh in now called 
llu wiiM Nmeet'dwl hy hiit eldoiit Kon al-Amiii. 

AUUmmhid DlUah. *^^ »>^!^^», tho thirtieth khaUf of 

' J<4 hin father al-MuNtamflhad in 

I VA.'i A. !>.. >5irkiul /iSO A. U., oud 

1 1 I'j A. IK '>30 A. II, U« wa» nuccoedfid 

uo tdn of al'MiuluKahlr. 

|'.i;t A. H. 

»Mitl/lfi VhflWf "f th»- hou 

to A^ U'4i A 1' 

f al-Muktadir and 

nf Ahhi«, WMK thi< la«t 

f the Knilhfiil. 

unt'i the de- 

Ui> vaxir ilin 

S. H. In tho 

•i on ail Kitlet 

harifi4( a wa/lr o* no cnpiuity. inrtituied 

. M^ Mjm^j, wm^UfT Vt ifiat >i1 wiuir, whirh hn <Tititl.»d 

' > ffrvU offlctf. Iin&d-ud-danla All 

ti ttw niAfiafftanent df the flaanevn 

t4t » lit^^ nt^Hfym/imt^ mad imliffiit'-*] mani" z ''-■ - - nf 

H^ ►My* iBriw^f ItoJ bwBL N&> h.-nf 

diiuti U/ 111* ''wn 
Iti Uii' yiiir 

puvvrfal, waa 

MfA f /■ tti* M«4*iN «4W94»^»imt and 

'^ r«r mTmip^MmI «M AUItofldi who otmid 

Tho country of Fars, Faristan, or Persia properly ma 
called, was poflsesecd by Iraad-ud-danla Ali Ibn IWtytL, who 
resided in the city of Shir^x. 

Part of tho tract denominated al-Jabal, tot^ether with 
Pentian Iral^, wbich is the mount^iinuufl part of Pn^raia, 
and tho coHutr>' of the ancient Parthiana, oUiyed Bttkzi- 
ud-daula, the brother nf fmad^nd-daula, who reaJded »t 
Infuhfin. The other part of the country waa poeaeaaMi by 
Jf'atihmaktn the Dfljuiiite. 

Payar Itabia, Dayur liikr, Dayir Mmiar, and the dty 
of iloiiwil, aeknowledi^xl for their novereLgn a wmvi rk 
prinies tailed Hamdiiuitea. 

Egypt and Sj-ria no lontrer obf'y»»d tho khalife, but ilu- 
hunuuad ibn T^j who had formerly been appotntod jn>vf*r- 
nor of those prov-incrm. 

Africa and Spain had long been independent. 

Cieily and Crete were ^'ovt■^ned by princea of their own. 

The proWnena of Khiiri-tan and MiJvanuuiidir wi*r» 
under the dominions of al-Nusr ibn Ahmad, of the drnaaty 
of the Samanianit. 

The prorinoes of Tahristim, Jutjan or Georgia, and 
M&zindaran^ had kings of the flrat dynaaty of the Dila- 

Thn province of Kirm£n waft occupied by Ab6 AU Mn- 
hamraad fbn Eylia al-Sam&ni, who had made faitnu^If 
master of it a iihort time before. And 

I^astly. the provinces of Ytrmama and Buhryn. inelodinjtr 
the district of Hajr, wtire in the possession of Abii Tahir 
the Karmatitin. 

Thus the kbnlffs were depriTcd of all their douuniona, 
and reduced to tho rank of sovereitrn pontiff* ; in which 
li^ht, though they continued for nome time to tw zv^ardcd 
by tho neijjhlwurinp prini:es, yet their ]>ower never azTiv<«l 
to any heiijht. In thia low 'state the khalifji c-ontinitrd 
till the extinction of the Kbiliifat bv Halaku Khin th« 
Tartar in the year 1258 A. D., G*>6 \. H. 

Al-Razi Billah n-iffned 7 yeans 2 months and 1 ! d«i-» 
and died in 941 A. D., 329 A. H. Ha was mucoedod by 
his brothi.'r al-Mnttalcf. 

Al-Sikharawl, t/^!/*"*"^', vide Abul Kisim. 

A]-Saa*ah, ^lA-Jl^ surname of Abul Abbas, th-j son of Hn- 
Iitimmnd, the Hon nf AU', the son of 'AbdulUh. the son of 
AhbiU the Tincle nf the prophet- Ho wae proi'lNinned lc>M»lf/^ 
by tho inliabitanta of Kufa on Friday the 2»th of NovfroVr 
7*i»A.lJ., lathiOibill. 132A. H,/uponwhieh.. " k 

place betwet^n him and S[urwin II the Ia«t k!. 
hoa»6 of Umyya or Ommaidcd, in whii h tip r « lU 
slain. 6lh of Auiarii«t. 750 A D., 'ifitb ^fil-hilja. 132 A. U. 
Al-Safiah after this victory inventing himself with auvvr- 
eipn powt5r. laid the foundation of tho dynastv of tho 
Abbaaidm, which continued to be transmitted to hiv Eunilj 
from father to son for 52< lunar years, durinit a •torc^ss' 
of J7 khHli(i^ till thev were dispoaaoaaod bv Halakti Kl 
thcTartarVinffof Persia in 1258 A. D.. G/iG A. H. 
the elevation of the hnnso of Abbiw to the dic^nity of 
lafiit, bi'^HH that glorious period during which Arabic 
Persian litemturo reached its hiijhest i>erfretion. Wit 
aornc fow excepti'ins those khalifas were the nM*nl. tt r^t 
of kin^rs that ever adorned the throne of ^ 
Abul Abbas died, after a reign of more Ihjui !■ -i : 
tlie small.pox. on Sundjiy tho 0th of Juno. 754 A. h . 
Zil-hijjii IDfi A. H., uud wus succeeded by his brothtr A 
Ja'far Almanaur. 

Ktat of thf hh*iHJa* of the raft of Abha* «»A# 
rtitffted ul Baghdad. 

\. Al-SaffiUi or Abul 'Abb^ al-Saffah. 

2. Al-Miin»*ur. 

3. AJ-Mahdi son of al-Manaiir. 

4. Al-Hidi,8onofMididi. 
6. Al-Itaahid or Harun al-Rashid son of Uahdi. 

6, Al-Arain, son uf Hanin. 

7. Al-Mnmiin. son of Ilurun. 

Ibrahim bon of Mahdi, i.onipetitor. 


Amar Singh, ****tr**j o^ Beniuri whoro pooUcal name 
WAS KUutfhi^, hold a goTemmont nppomtnieat in the 
Kool district. He compilod u short hintorv of Akbcir't* 
pftlace «nd of thu Taj of Agra »nd jml Lhi? Uiih&t- I>&ni>K 
into rvrso Mid called il Tarjuma Bahur Danish. Tliis 
book w to be dintint^iii^hi-d from tho Inhdr lUnifh, in 
Urdu TronsUtinn of BiUiir Doniiih hy MuUuzjidii at 

Amar Singh, (Riuia} son of Ruu Purtnh Singh vid^ litaxn 

Ambaji IngUa. « r^'a uf Gwalur who whs living in 1S08. 

Amin, c^^^'i th«i fllxtU Ui&lif of the hoate of Abb&A. ViiU 

1*1 -Am in. 

Amin, c^i^f piieticiil noniti ofShih Amfn-nddin of Asim- 
i\*iA who Hoiirinhi^U about tho year 1715 A. I)., 1127 H.^ 
iMid It-ft u diwiin uf <JhttzulB kc. 

Amina Begum, (*^ *^^'j viilr Ghiveiti D*'enm. 
Amin Ahmad *r Amin Muhammad Basi, i:^1 
^ .1 , ■^t-| the author of the Uiographical Dictionary- called 

- llaft Aklini." (Tho sevm climatea.) Tliia book, which 
hu fiuuilicd in tho lime of the ein]>uror Akbir in 1504 
A. 1).. 1002 A. n., contains a ahurt deftcriptiun of the wvcn 
f^UmaU^s uf the Tiimpi'mtu Zone, and tho Tupugraphy of 
ThciT primnpal dlii^ ; with mcmoira of the illortrioiu 
porvn?' luid L-minent poot^ wliiih each haa produced. 
Amin-uddlD Kh&Di Xuwab of Lohari, ono of the eldcct 
*nd ni'j^t woilhy of thu chiefs of Dfhli. He died on 
ihc aidtof Dfcwmbur. 186U A. I)., ng»d 70 ycara. Hin 
•fldnflt A»n MircB 'Aln-uddin Khdn euccveded to' his esUte* 
.itSuharii, ou the lUh uf January 1B7U. 

Amini, ijH*'» poetical nnnw* of Amir Sul(an Ibrahim, « 
tuntrmporary of Ivhu-aja 'Afiafi who diod in 1620 A. 1>. 
920 A. U. Aniinf uToto a chronognzn on that occubiuu. 

Amin-nddin, t*^' <ir4^'-rt*j (Mir) a poft and a gnat 
jf-<ter, WHi conttimporary with thu pouts Moolaua AU KAlii 
»nd Khvrdjtt Ali Shahib. 

Amin-uddini c-'i**^' crt^J^'* (Amfr) vitU TemiD-uddtn 
(Amir) and Tughr&i. 

Amin-ud^aula Abul Jin, u^'y ^W ii»^', 

lunLowtMl llx' Samaritan, was a phyftician and had ht»nn 
wazir to Malik SkLtb Isna'il. He wad stronglodat Oiiro 
in 1260 A. D., 048 A. U., and thot« were found in hia 
honae, anioneid. othor pn^^ious arlidea, abuut iO.OUO 
volnmra of valoat.lo worlu, copipd by the most cclobrat«d 

Amin-nd-datila Khan, c;'*^ ^Mj**^' crt^i arpbel, wa» 
Mown Crum tho month of a gun on the 3rd Augnit, 1867, 
at Agm. 

Amir bi Ahkom AUah, *^' c^ ^^', sumomcd Ab6 

AU Maniur iMvrnlli khultf i»f tht* F.ilimit« dynasty of 
K^frt, meoocdiHl his <nl>i.<r Hl->rM-(thu'l( Ilillah in Dt^rem- 
>»fr IIOI. Fnim tjtii limi-' to th*- ui(j;n of'Arid li-d(n 
AUah. durinfc whit h pcrtud fi\e kbulifji a»c»'nd«i tho 
throne of Kgypl. Xlw hi>*tory of Ihnt t-ountr^' affordfl littlo 

\ne than Hii lu-tuunl nf ilic inlpstino broiU and contorts 
*«twwn tho w;ixin» or prim** miuixten, who were now 
t»ix*i»o so pow'U-fiil, that they had in a great monaura 
«tHp|>*Hl thii khujifa of thi-ii rivil power, and left them 
nothinK but a dhadow of Hjiirituat dignity. Theao con- 
tcflti At laat (cuTo occanion to h roTolution, by which thu 
raco of Kntimitr khalifa werr totally oxtinguiklKH]. f'uU 

Axid li-din Allah. 

AmiTf J^\ poetical name 

of Amir-od-danU NaiJr Jang 
id, ton of Nai 
danU and farothor to Nawal AMif-ud-dau2i. 

oomnonlT ckUmI Uina Monrlhd, ton of Nawab 8hf^a-ad- 
■ " »d T ' 

Arairan Shah, »^ Jj^^, fi'f^ Miran Shih. 

Amira Singh Tappa, ^t* *^ ?^**'* i chief of Kip4L 
III' vfim tho highest in rank and chaiiiot«r of till thv mi- 
litary rhiefbof NaipiL In 1814 during hi« cam]mign n^n4 
Sir Parid Ocht^lmiy in the Kamion hil^ he erince^ 
equal ^'alour and patriotism. 

Amir Barid^ I, '^J^ .^'j the aon of ^&aim Ban'd whom 

ho fiuotoedi-d in the government of Ahmadibdd Bfdnr in 
1504 A. v., 010 A. 11. During his rule til.' king SuUin 
MiihrnudShahUahnianidiodin 1617. A. D. 9i3 A. H- whiti 
Amir Durid pLiced Sultan 'Ala add in U], ou the thronn, 
and aftvr hia d<uilh Sultan Kaliin UUah, who being tzvatM 
with grtiot rigour by tho Amir, fled from Bidar to AL- 
Diiidu:igur, wh«rc ho diod shortly aftfT. With ICalira 
UUah ended the dynatrty of thu Hnhmani kinge of l>ak< 
hau. Amir Hand rtigned ovf.t tho ttrritorice of Ahma- 
dab&il Bidiir wilh full power niorc than 26 yeara, and 
di.d lit Duultitibiid in ia4iJ A. D., 949 A. U." Bv was 
bunod at .^Vhmadabud UidaTf and HucceodMl by hia fton Mi 

Amir Baxid, n, ly^ '^J^^^^i Buoooedod to the gorern. 

nu»nt of AhmaJiibad Biwtir ufter dopofint^ hia ri'latiro Ali 
Band Shah II in 1609 A. D^ and waa the loBt of thr 
B&rid Shahi dynaety. 

Amirif <S/^K tho poetical name of Manlana Sul^ Mu- 
hamiiuid. u diHtinguiahtid man who livt-d in tli-- tin;t_- "if 
Shjih Tiihmasp Snfwi I. lie pTuisi-i] thi« fiov <« 

pocmn, imd ift ihi! tnuuUlor of Amir Ah til ;*, 

CAlh^ " Miijfdis-ul.Nafaf»", from Turki iuto i'cikiaa. 
Hu is also the author of the " Boston ul-KhayiL*' 

Amir Khan, o^^, title of Mii Abr'il Watt, the cUc^ 

SOD of Mir Kayim Khan Xamkiu. wan a noblemaa in t^ 
time of the tm:]HTon Jahiingir and Shah Jah^. Al tbe 
time of hi« dcjitli ho was governor of Thfitta, where lb* 
died A D. 1647. lo67 A. H., tii-ed mon- than 100 y«mn. 
His fonnor luinii- waA '^lix Khan, but lulling made a prt»> 
sent of one lac of rupera to Shih Jahin, he was honond 
witli tho title of Amu Khan. 

Amir Khan, c;lr**r4* ly^^^'j sum-iimHl Mir Mir4n. the 
son of Khalfl-all&h Khan Yexdi, was a noblitman of high 
rank in the time of tho i'm]>orur» Shah Jnluln and *Abuu- 
grir, and a gre«it favoritr of tho lattffr. He died at Kibal 
on ihii 2Sth April 169H A D.« 27th Shaww^ 11U9 B^ 
and the emperor conftxtvd tho title of Anur Kliin on bl* 

Amir Khan, cJ^^.-*' v'y» (Naw£b) entiUed TTrndaMU- 
Mulk, wjLfl tht> »on of the principal favoritj> of th« w np woc 
'AUnigir. of the sitme mime, and • dt4C> ndant of tfae ed** 
bml^l Sh^h Nn'mnt-ulUh Wali. Uc waa hin^^lf * 
ftivorit*' of thi! fm]>eror Sliihammad Shah ; was appotntad 
govumor uf Allahakid in 1739 A. D» 116:! A U., andr^ 
calli^ to court in 1743 A.D., U60 A. H. lit? waa natwaUj^ 
free of 3])(<ch. imd tht> '-mporor, fond of his ropartOAk hai 
allowed him nioiv licemfo in conv^Tbation Uutn wma cva* 
ai^trnt with rr-^pttt to hi* own div;nity, when he 
busineas with the ompcror, whit-h by degrooa 
Mtdiommad Shah and made him wiah hia removal 
ot£cu. He was conwqdfntly, with tho roniwnt of the 
pOHT. stabbed with a dagger by a person who had 
diarhurged frf>m hia serviic, and fell down il«»»d rm 
sjtot. This cinum-'tance took place on Fni 
Ik-cfTolMT. I74(;, 23r.l ;5il-liijja, IISO H. H 
lifter four days in the HL-puIthre of Kha]i1-uli:iii t\i:>tn 
giniidfiitht-r, which is rkj«w lo the Sarac of Ruh-i 
Kh&n rii DchH. His poetical nario wot Anjdm. Ho 
mMid chifily lugographa, and has left I'enian and BcUda 

WW on 


bh ptfdfiitliar. AIUt hi« doath, SMhrnkh Mirs£ the 
of tho two aiirviving wns of TfiDivrlwie, buc- 
to the inherituncfl Mi ffgwM't fur Vix 31uh»nunad. 

tut •/ tXf Uh^i of 8»markmtd of the r«e of Amir Taimiir. 

Khain Soltin, the son of Mirin Sh&h. 
hhfthnikh Slirzi, son of Amir Toimilr. 
Ala-ud-diLulu Mini, 
riugh B<g ^lirza, son of Shahmkh. 

Mirri BiiK'ir who sniiftftqufintly conquprod DohU and be- 
came thf first rmperor of the llughul* in India, 
Mini Abdul-I^tif. 
Mini 8hih Mtihammod. 
Hirai Ibinhfm. 
Hulfin Aim Sayyid. 
'hlittA Vadgir Mubaounad. 

Amir Yomin-uddin, ct:!'*^' L/^i^ijt^, entitltjd Milik- 

nl'FuzlA, i'. /., tho prince of thr- Itvirni-d, was a Turk anil 
Bn rxtellfnt ]»m-1. lie llouri'ihfd in the tluw of Sultan 
Muhitmmad Khiidfi Ban^hi, and diL>d in 1324 A. D., 7'H 
A. U., vitU Tughardi. 

Amili, i^U '> pwt who U Iho author of « Dfw&o. Thii 
pcnton appeaxB to bo the mnu with ShaiUi Bahm-addia 

AmlaOt *^*T, tho wife of 'Abdollah, and mother of Ma- 
hunmtMl Oie pmphct of thr ?llu»ialmani. Sho was the 
ilnnu'htpr of Wnhuh thr sou of 'Abihil l^Ionif. Shu is 
ivprcsiiitM af thn m*^t lioauliful, firudtut and virtuous 
Imiy of her tritw, and coiUKHjucntlv th^ most worthy of 
Huoh an rxtraordinnry pfiraon as 'AlxiuIUh. bhe diiKl $ix 
yr4in aflf-r thu birth of h«r son Muhiuniuad, about the 
>'ur fi77 A. 1>. 

Amjad* All Shah, 9i^ ^J^ *^^', ^'^ ^ ^^ of Muham- 

mnd Ali Shah whom he mrnxdcd on the throne of Lakh- 
nau MM king of < hiJh with the titlo of SnriA Jah, on thu 
17lh of SUv, 1842. 5lh UaW II. 12o8 A. H., and died on 
Iho IGth March, 1847 A. V, 26th Safar, 12C5 A. H. 
lie wns «ucrceded by hi* mn Wajid Ali Shah, in wboocr 
linu< Oudb wiLH annexed to the hritiah Govormeot on the 
7th of tVlmiar)-, 1»&0 A. D. 

' Ammar ibn Hiasan, ^^-a. ^i jC«, wm Ah^s genenJ of 

Iho hunm, and wii» kilUd in buttU- fought by AU agaimtt 

Mu'ilwtu tlic flmt khflllf I'f thi.' house of I'moiu, in tho 

lU'tiiih nf Jnlv. 0yJ7 A. D., HaCir, 37 A. U. IIu was then 

' * -' , ami had Ix-fu lu thrtic aereral en> 

:. unniiid him.toir. lie was one of the 

' t)it< Jid khiiUf aAcr MuhommAd. 

Amra-Ol Rals, f^^^aJl st^t, thr sun of H^jar, one of the 

iiimrl lUiisCriiiuii jxHla th4* Arabians had bi>fore Unhamma- 
dujii'-nt II. ■ ih ..II,- of the Hcveu pwts whose poems have, 
f<" ' '-vn hung in tho temple of Mt^-cn. 

Tl<- iHfil " Mtin!!:!kiit," (unHiMtided), and 

a* t' th(n' wt.-n.* also called 

•• H \<n CL'l<>linit<?d poets. 

af« A.lllltMn-I^..;■, i.if'iiu /,ii/iii, Latiid, Autar, Amni 
and Hinth. 

^' 'I'l ifi coniniunly calleil 

ililJ wim his fri'/nd 

-■ - - i-- i uiiijiiiiQ Aud LAila timns- 

lAtAU Into Kngtlah. 

Amrtt Bao, |(; *fl#r«', • ^<»*>r«"^ -^il-f who had born pUcud 
cm thr tuamad of Piini by llollinr in 1803 A. I)., but 
di*p<i»«l li> th*' ltriti»h and a ptu^ion tf 700,000 mpooa 
WB« ■»^(r!i»(l for Ma hupimrt annually. U» was tho son 
lit \ l^io tX'ininonly cidlirfl Knffbubu. IW wmin 

lin> I at Uiinanw uml then iu Uuiidclkhand , 

aud <>i I uk Um funuor sUUon ui IfcC^f. A. U. 

Amru bin Mua'wia, *jjU« uJ j^, m andent Ami 
jtOft wh(«o L'(iUL*etiim uf pot-nis are to be found in 
Rflyal Librorj' «t Paris, Ko. 1120. 

'Amru ibn Al-*Aa, ,j<W ii?*t jj^, » celebrated Muham- 

madan. at first the enemy and aftcrwRrds tKw friend uf 
Muhammad, of whom, it is reported by tiaditiun. that 
Mnbtunmad said, *' Then' is no truer Mu.<4ilman, nor on« 
more st«ad&st in tho faith than 'Amtu" Re served in tho 
wan of Sj-ria, whore ho behaved with tinguluj couxa^ 
and msolntion. Afterwards l/mar the khslif sunt hun 
into E^ypt, which he reduced in 641 A. D., 20 A. U., and 
became ueut*'nunt of tho conquered country. TTsmin 
continued him in that post four yearn, and then rouui 
him ; whenupon he retired to PaU-etine, where he til 
privately till U«mAn'ii death. Upon this event, ho 
over to Mu'iwia upon his invitation ; and took a gn»t pait 
in the dispute bi'twLf.'n 'All and Mu'^wia. The lattvt i*^ 
stored liim to the lieutenancy of Kgyjit, and eontinotid 
him in it till his death, which hapi>ciied in 663 A. lU 48 
A. H. Before he turned Muhammadan. fae was one of tlm 
three poet« who wer^' famous for writing lampoons upon 
Hnhamnmd, in which style of composition *Amrd paxti- 
Golarly esu^dUod. There are some fine proverbs uf hil 
remaining, and also some good tgubm. Ho waj the sun of 
a courtesan of Slecca, who ^wems to have numbend soov of 
the noblcvt of the land among her lovers. Whsn ah** gavs 
birth to this chibl, the infant was d^^lared to have meat 
resemblance to 'As, the uldt«t of her admintrs, whence, tn 
addition to his munu uf Amni, he received the deeigtiatioa 
of Ibn-oI.'Aft. 

trilMitar\- to Sol^ Mahmfid of Ghaxni. Ha died 

the year 1013. and was snocooded in the gOTUnnudki by* 

his son JaipiU 11. 

Anarkaii. i^J^l » fiuwus lady, who lived in t&a 
of th«' rraiK-ror Jahan^ir. Her mausoleom is at a 
i^all.-d Anirkali in Labor, which is now mwd aa a chi 
Different stories are told concerning tho name Anirkali' 
which the mausoleum as woll as lh»' liaiAr in iU vklsiKy 
is known. According to some, it was tiw ass* «f a 

'Amni, ***** nr^ ir*** the wn of Sa'id was a ooasin of tbs 
khttltf ' Abdul.Mnlik. In the year 6SS A. D,, 60 A. H^ ths 
khalif left Darmutcos to go against Misaa'b the non of /nbir, 
and appointed Amru to tJike care of Pamiiscun, who wwd 
upon it for himself^ which obliged 'Abdid-Mslik tu i^tun. 
Aiter thn*e or fuur days the khalif sent for him and kiUad 
him with his own h-inil. 

'Amru bin Lais, '^*4' t'iJLr**^ brother of Ya'fciib ibo Lui. 
whom he succeeded in the govemmpnt of KhQt4a£iu Acl, 
in 878 A. U., 265 A. H., and ruli<d ov«r those eoontris* 
fiir 23 >eara. lie was at last seised by Amir l«ma*il Si- 
mini in &00 A. Dm 28S A. U., and sent to Baghdad whoco 
be wu confined fer sume time ; his execution was the ladC 
act of the KhiiHf Al-Mu'tHxi<L who gave onlen* 6>r it a frw 
months bef(>re his own death in DOi A. D.. i'i'} A. H. He 
was blind of one eye. With Amrii fell thu tortum-* «if hk 
bnuly. His grandson Tahir, Btruggl'Hi for jK.wfr in his 
native province : but after a reign of elx yearat dwing 
which he i-onqueriMl Kara, his authority was snbT«rtcd by 
one of his own otlicera, by whom he wm atdsed and tnX 
prisoner to Baghdad. The only other prtDce nf the family 
of Bani Luis that nlLaint'd any eminence, was a chief of 
the nanin of KliHlaf. who est^iiiliaht-d himself in Slatin and 
Biaintained his puwer over that pmvinio till lh>* lime*^ 
Sultan Malunud of Gtuunl by whom he sras dc(f«ted and 
mtid*t larisoncr. 

Amurath. names of sereral cmpenn of Turkey writtrb »> 
by English writi*rs, being a cotruptioo uf Murid, whiifa 

Anandpal. JJ^t>"', ««> of Jaipil I, r^i of Lihor whoa 
he !«ucc*^rd about 1\m year 100 1 A. D.. and 




princcsfl in Jah^nffiVs tirrn», whilo othwfl say, that Anir- 
kuli wu« a Ijoautiful himdmaid with whom JohAngi'r U\\ 
in love, aiid who, on .Sliih Jiiliin, l>tH-omintf awun^ of il, 
was buried aUv<i. Thosn otoriea may or may not he tnu', 
bnt thia muffa in at I*-nat ccrinui, thnt the wutium, (iftcr 
vhose name the biiiltlinif ia cHlled, lived in thf timn of tho 
emporor Jahiu^ir or Shah Jahin. that Jjihan^lr or wjrno 
other prince was madly iii luv<_' ivith 1i"T, and that htr (hath 
took plate und^r Biich nummful f-irttiimst/inroR, n« hrokt- tht> 
heart of tho fond lover, and led him in the height of his 
paaaion and love for the priin'CKs who wuh no imiiv. totom- 
poflp the following couidpt, and havo it pngmvcd on hor 
t^mibtftono : " Oh could 1 see tifi^vm tho 6n*e of my angnl, 
for ever wouM I n-pwit lluinks lo tl»i! Alnii^jhty." 

Anand Bao, Gaikwar, Jj^ j'j ^}j " Jlarhattl chief 

of liar-Mli, with whom the English Govornment, hmi in 
1812 cuDi liid'-d a fiiihsidinn,' alliancfi. Hoforw tho treaty 
hv was a uuuiiiud dcji^ndant of tho Feahwa. 

Anas, (J***l t a poot of Arabia. 

'Andalib, "W*^, ri\A- Khw^ja Nfisir. 

Anis, u^'j pootical uumo of Mohan LAI, which see. 

Anisi Shamlu, jUl^ u^JK ^ P^"* 0*"°*'^ ^'"^^ ^^ ^'^s- 

ilo was an tiitiniat't friind and constant oompaiiion of 
prince Ihrahi'm Mirsa, a cnindson of Shah Tsma'il Sufwi. 
const*(|inTitly Vnik the lakhalhi*! of Anisi, WTieu "AbJuU 
lah Khan Uzbuk took Hiriit h*) mudt^ a pruiliunaLioii in 
bii army, that thv life of Ani«i be spiur-d, and treated hira 
with great respoct. Ho camo to India and rwoivi^d a 
Bahu-y of 50,000 rujircn, and a jat^ir. Ho dic-d at Barhiin- 
piir in 1605 A. D.. 101 I A. I!., and haa Mt a iJiwan tmd 
H MuAnuw'i c'liUud Muhmud Ai^. 

Ang or TJngh Khan, a kinf? of tho Trit Tartars who 
rp*i<it.'d at Karakoram, find to whom the rtdehnit«'d Jangcz 
Khan was at one tiniu a tributary. He is also callc<l 
Prester John by th<.> Syriim MiHt<iunarie8. Jongt'/. Khau 
ha\-insr thrown off lii.H all^^Eriinco, a war cnBUod, whirh 
rnded in Xha d>-ath uf Aug Khan in 1202 A. D. 

Anjam. ^^^t the poetical oatnc of Xuw4b Umdat-al-Mtilk 
Amir Khila, vide Amir Khin. 

Anup Bai, ^U i-jyt, tho wife of tho emperor Jahilndir 
Shih. and mother of Aljimgir 11, king of Dehll. 

Anushtakiiir i^^^^y^, tlio cup-boarer of Sulf^ Banjar, 
and fitthcr of Sulliln Kuth-nddin Jttihammad of Khwirixm. 

Ana bin Malik, <JJU ^^^jj^f, f**'* ^^" JIamza binKuar- 

'AnfiUrit ^i- -aU a poet of the eourt of Sultin Mahnmd 

yi</< UnHari. 
Antar, J^' ono of the seven Aiabian poeta, whose poema 
went hun^ up in tho teraplo of Mect-a in pnldcn letters 
and from that tireuuistaiicf witi^ nilh^l Jliia'llukut (aiis- 
pended), or Mnz^lihibat (gt.ldnii). The first vulmiw of thi- 
hinUir}- of Antar. «jUlrd " ih>: I-ir- and Advent an^a of 
Antir?* waa tran»hit..'d into Kiislif*h luid publi^-hed in De- 
cember 1818, in England. }'uie Auira-al-Kain. 

Anwarii iS)^'^ * famoua Persian poet Humomed Ashad- 
uddin. llo formerly took f jr his poetieal name, " KhAU 
wari," but ho ehnngod it aflvrwanltf to " Auwari." From 
tho superiority of Im9 poetical tahnU, he wan ealled thfi 
king of th'j \HufR of KhuroKiiiL He was a nativ>» of 
Abiward in Khiinuan, waa th<: favorite uf Sultan Simjar 
Baljuki, and th«' rival of Iho pc»'t Kashi'di sumiimed 
Watwit, who r-Hpjnaed the tau.He of At-^iz tlio Sultan of 
KhwArizm, Whilst tht* two princea wore LUgagwi in 
war, the two poeta uaaailcd ono another by i^yme« licnt 

OB tho point of arrowa. Ho is also said to bare bwn the 
grealost astronomer of his age. It so happened in the 
year 681 or 582 A. U., 8eptember, US6 A. D., that there 
w'18 a conjunction of all the planeU ifi the hign of 
Libra ; Anwari [inHlIeted h storm which would eradieatc 
trr-efl ami d-slroy even- building. Wht*n tho fatal dav 
arrivt'd, it wtta perfeelly ealm, and thi^ru was tho whole 
y»>nr so httU' wind, that the peoplti wvrv unable to winnow 
their com. He wjis tlwrefori? aeruswl for liia predit-tiona 
aw an astrologer, and was obliged to Hy Ut lialkh wheru he 
dir-d in the reign of Sultan Alauddin Tukafch in 1 200 A, D.» 
fiOB A. U. His death is mentidnii] in thr' Khulattat-ul- 
A»ha"ir to have taken pbee in t'SS" A. H. tuid othtra have 
written 69*2 A. II. Anwari, when vpry yLMitig, wad sitting 
Rt the gate of his college called Man^uria in Tiis, when 
a man richly dr*'K«ed rod*' by him on a fine hu-su, with a 
nmnerou.'i train of atti^mlanta ; uikjd hi* ii-sking who it 
wjia, he Wiis told, that it was a poet Ix-lunging to the 
court. Wli*'n Anwari n-fle-cti'd on tho honor conferred en 
jKietr^', for whiih art hv hud 11 vi-ry t/ariy b<-nt, ho HppII^.'d 
himself to it mure ardently than i-ver, and living fioijihi^ 
a poem, presented it to the Sultan« who Ki>provt'd the 
work and inviU-d him to hia judare, and nii*_-d him evtii 
to llie first honura of the State. He found many otlier 
poeta at court, among whom w«^re Sahnau, Zohir and 
Katthidi. all men of wit and goniua. Anwan hjia left us 
a eolleetion of highly eatenned porms, on various BubJK'ts 
calW Diwan Anwari. Voraea from hia poems are quoted 
by Sa'di in hia Gulistan. 

Anwari Khan, cM^ *^y^' °- corruptioB of Abii Raihis, 
whiih see. 

Anwar-uddin Khan, CJ^ u^-*^hy^i naw£b of tho Kxr- 
natir, a Hobiier of fortuno, who hail attained power by 
treaeherouB eonnivance to the niurfler of the legitimato heir, 
a child whon*t ga-irdimi he had binn apiwiutod by Nixam- 
nl-Sltilk. Ho at first H*irved nndrr one of tho omperora 
of Dchli. and vrna appoiatod governor of Knf& .Tahauib^d. 
Ill auecess. or porhapft ill conduct, pr«'*venting him frtim 
Iw^ini^ abb- to ^Miy the nmial rrvenuca of his government 
to the tlirone, he quittnd it privately, and went U> Ah- 
madibad, where Uhizi-uddtn Khdn the father of Nirini- 
ul-MuIk, gave him a post of '•onaidenkbh' tnwt aiLd profit 
in the city of .S^rat. After the diath uf Ohaii-uddin, his 
Bon who had auccefded in th*- Subudari of the aouthem 
province.^, a])pointed him Xawab of YiUore or Vellore and 
RnjinanilruuK countries whieh he governed from 1725 to 
1741 A. 1)., and in 174* he waa appointed governor of tho 
Kumatie, He was killr-d in battle fought agunat Mu- 
zufTiir .I;uig the grandson of Nixam-ul-Miilk, on the 23rd 
of July 17V.» <►. S., 1162 A. II., who took poaacaaion of 
thi' Kiimatic. Anwar-uddin wa** then 107 yeura old. Hik 
eldf-«t t^'>n waa made pri*»ri«T and his second aon Muluim- 
inad Mi fl'-d to Triehinopoly. A heroic poem called 
** Anwar Ximn," in praise of this NawAb waa written by 
Abdi. in which the ex|>bjit-'' of Major I^wrence, and thr 
first I nnt*strt iMtw-en tlit- Kagliah and B'rench in India, 
nri" nM'orded with toh ruble awuraey. (rnfirSji'iiirtt-ijliah 
Khin ) His won Muhammad A\i waa contirmed by 
Nawih Nasir ,?ang in tho government of tho Kanuitic in 
1750, A- D. 

Aohad Sabawari, iSjhj^ '^j^ A^i^,(KhwAja) frf)cti- 

cal name of Kliwiija Fakhr-uddin, a phyaieian, astronomer 
aud poet of Sdbiwir. H»' died A. D. 1403. SfiS A. H., 
agi-d HI lunar yi an*, and left a Diwan in i'tndan contain- 
ing (jhiuals. Kuaidaa, ic, 
Aohadi, lJ'^^j'i tho poetii^l name of Shaikh Aohad-uddin 
of Ihfiihan or Jlaragha, a celebrated P.rhian l«tet who put 
into vera- thi- " Jam-i-dftm." a lH)ok full of Sluhammndan 
apirituality, whieh he wrot- in imiution of the Hadilca 
of Sanai ; he also wmte a Diwdn containing venwa. He 
waa liberally rtjwarded by Arghdn Khin, the king of the 

Aohad-uddin g 

*»tM». I U wu a jrupil of Aohad-uddin Kirmini ; died 
■MW7 A. ll., 73Ht A. iL, sad wm buriHi at Moraghii in 

A«b*d-uddln Itftthani, tyV^le;^*^**^^, (shaikh) 
» i'w«Un poet, rW* Aobftdi 

■AollAd'tiddixi Kirmam, i^W/ l^I^^'^^^j', (Shivikh) 

Mtfbor of ih* "SlieWh-tO-Ari-ih." He flmiri-shi-d in tho 

■ T?.*' Al-Mnrt«L*«u BilUh, khoUf of BughdAd, and 

■ ^dk* ia tb* ym* 1298 A. D., 697 A. U. llii* poctic«I 
^^■^*"** Hi»id, H« wafi a coUmiponiry of Shaikh Sa'df 

^T«»d-liddixi, tJ^'^^jl, th« ronumo of the oddoBtod 
Aawwi, which »•*:. 

Aoji, %^y, a pod who died in 1640 A. D., 105O A. H. 

Anr&ng, ^^jj^t name of a lover vhoae 

•.ABT^ag, ^^jy, name of a lover vboK mxitiai vsa Osl* 

Aurangabadi Begam, ^is^^^jy^ one. of the wtrea 

of thf t nijH-njr Aimwgicb 'Alani^. 

AurangSGb, '^Sr^jJt the aon of Sh£k Johin cmp«sror of 

Dt'hli. On his awtinoo to the timme, he took the titk 

4i( ' A Lamgir, a^irefiably to iba oastom of the Eaatem prinon^ 

rho alvays aMume a nev one on that occanoo. KiA 

" imgir. 

Apa Sahib, V^^ ^f, a nephew of SigbAjl Bhoaah n, 
and ooiuin t i' •^ -•^•n Bbonsla, cosnmoiUy catkd B£la 
8AnK njs ' r Bcfar* "^I^ Utter flucct<4c«3 hia 

iUho-inM.r tut behig an idiot and unfit to mle, 

pi 6afaib BOTuxoed the duef aulhoritf under the title 
Regent, and had the ade conduct of tho public affitire. 

itfaoDgh he vaa in a great degree indebted for hi6 f Ir^ 
to the EsigUi Govmuneat, he early eviuced a di&- 
neitfinl with the gmtitiide which ho owed 
m with the obli ga tioiaa of good fiuth. It 
vae dea diaeovered that h« had Mcretlr moxderad hie 
frcdecenor BilA Sahib (Faxaarinx} tn order to obtain that 
efewtauB vhkh he had to diegmc^. lie wu conee- 
qmattUy accaed ia the beginning of the ycttt l$18. nnd 
famight to the BcBdL-nc}-, where ho continued in con&itr< 
■ eiit tffl 4Lw* B d to be lent undtr a strung t^c-urt to the 
QsBpaBji'a lenxftonea. When airivMl at lUichora, a 
vQhM vitUa «■• Bordi from J abalpur. he contrived hy 
Ming aane «f bia goatda, to auUe hia eevap^. It ia 
"fclliii ■■! that, after hariog for a short period found a 
rrliigv ia Ajfrgorh, he fled to the ^uajiu vhvtv hr rc- 
■amed a miwealde dependant en the charity of Kija 
ftk^jit fi^iagh. Altn- tlw dcfthnmeouEnt of 'ApA Sahib, 
thegWDdeop of BairfiDJi Bhonala waa rvaHlto the '"-'"■'^ 
uf Nigpi^r. . Vttte PitrtAp fiingh Naiiyan. 

I Sahibt V^'^ ^Tj &3m> <-»Ut«l Shalri, third brother 

M FkftAp Singh Xararon. hga of Satftxm. After the dfr- 
thtoDnMOt of hit brother in tS79. b** was placed on the 
laamnd of SuUn by the 1'^ nmcnt, and died 

ea the 6th Aiiril, 1M8. B« . ih U^ ixprbsaed 

a wiflh tli&t bf miirbt adopt u» >i ;«, u, u boy by noiae Bal- 
want lUo llhonjii^ it wiui, howrvtT, determined t«j annex 

'Arabahab, '^•ttr*; author of a histor}- of AmirTabaiiT 

(IWnarUmO rftllcd ** Aj&«-VuI>>IiLkddr." and of a txtatise 
oa the unity <>f Gt^d. He mu a natirr of Ilanuiactu, 

(where hn died in Ur>0 A. li^ ^4 A. II. Ue u also called 
tho 'Anlifihih, and Ahiniul Un AntWiah. 

Aram Bano Begam. ^^J^ (•!;'> » daughter of the 
■4np«e^j« Akbar, whu ili'^d iii the Ktb r*ttr uf hiv age in 
1044 A. U^ lOU A- U.. diiriiuf the ni^ of Jabangir h'r'r 
brother, aad is Varied in tU uuukJcou of Akbar at 





Slkandm in Agra. H<?r tomb is of wKito marblou Hi 
mother'H name was lifbi Daulat Shod, and hw 
name .Shakr^un-niaa Begam* 

Aram Shah, »^ p 'A (Suliin) king of DohU, m 

hia father Sultin Katl».iiddin AiUk in 1210 A. D., GO 
A. II.. and had scarcn^lT reignril one y€«/ whcm 
depr«^ by AJtimah, (the ndo(itcd son and son-in-Uw trfl 
Kutb-uddinj who assumed the title of Shams-oddia ' 

Araru« Jj'jS & mniDdkr of Kofi in the piovinoo of Alia* 
hil«d. wua of the tribe of Khichar> who taking ad^ 
of Ihf weakness of the empin-, slew Nawib Jan Xisiar 
(bnithtrto tho wutir'a wife), chakladir of that 
in 1731 A. D., IIH A. H., uj^on which 'Arim-ulUh 
the soa of the det^twd vrnx sent with nn army to chaciii 
him, but the ramiDilor took rvhtge in his woods, and 
a lon^ while eludod hia poraucr, who, tired out» retoraf 
to Pchli. leading- his amiy undt^r the couimaud of Khi 
riun Bcii Khau. Ar&ru< (mboldcned by the NawfikV 
retreat, nttarktd and sli-w the deputy ; nfioa wfakdi tho 
wnzir KamuT'iiddin Khan ap]-1i>fl for aasirtance to Bar- 
hin-ul.Mulk Sa'ddnt Khan :^ubadar of Ondh, for tfe 
rcductiun of the rebel. v?a'adal Khan nuutibsd aRUHA 
Ariru in 1735 A. D.. IMS A. H^ killed him in a battle 
and aent hia head to the emperor ^fuhammad Shah. Thn 
akin of hi^ IkkIv was flared ofl^ and sont atnfled with rtiaw 
to ihc wuefr. 

Ardai Viraf, ^bjiJ^Ji a pri^tbftheMagian reHgii 
wlio lived in the time of Ardither BAbftgia king of Pezsii^ 
and is the author of the *• Aniai Virif Kama" which 
wrutv in the 2cnd, or the original Pczaian lan^oagtv 
Kousherwin Kinuinf. 

Ardiaher Babalcan, ^J^j^:>j\, orBibog^ the mm 

B^bnlc, wa.s wr are told a dtiscendant uf Sasan tho Ma 
Bahman and grundpon of Isfundivr. He was the fijitl 
king of the Basanian dynii.^ty. lUs Uiher BAiak, who 
was an infi^rior officer in thy public aervice, after poStiv 
to death the govomor appointed by Aidawin (Artalaaa^ 
mado himself master of the proTinec Fan. The old ■*** 
Burvivtd but a Hfaort time. Ilia ton Aidasher» after set- 
tling ihu afl'airs of Fara, not onlv in<td*^ htnuielf master of 
lafiiliiu, but of almost all Ini\ '. twfc. vho w» 

the nigTLing prince, took th<; ) -lim, ahoat the 

year 22Z A- 1>. The ormice in< x ui lul jiiains of Uaian^ 
where a dcsperato bnttlv euau*:^ in which Ardawin last 
hia crown and hia life- ; and the son of Bahak was »— a-J 
in the fU:ld with the proud title of Sh^han dUh, or Ki^ 
of kings. He was routinnporary witii Aleacaador Oniwia 
the Boman emperor. Ardii*h«T (whom the '" 
lAirians call Aitaxerxva) ha\-ing rvignad 14 y< 
solute soTtreign of IVreia, n-si^jim.^ the _ 
the hands uf his aon, Shahpfir, called by the 
Sapor or Saporea, in the yc«r 238 A. D. 

SatOMim* rorr. 

]. Ardiaher. 16. Hormox or Hanmiid m. 

a. Shihp(irl. 17. FvrxM. 

X. llunnnzd I. 1$, BtiUa nr I^la^ 

4. Bahniml. 19. Kubid. 

6. Bahrim II. 20. J4masp. 
ft. B«hn£m III. 21. Nauahoiria (KMKalJ 

7. Xars^ 22. Uunnuad. 

5. Uurmaid 11. 23. Khusio Vaiwf 
». 8hAhpfirII. 24. She^<.^-B. 

10. Anlishcrll. 25. Aniiajiir HI. 

11. Shahpurin. 26. t^habriir. 

12. Bikhnim IV. 27. Turin or Pftifa Dukht. 

13. Yeadijard L 23. Asarsf DoUrt. 

14. BahramG^r. 29. FWrakhaU Bakhtiar 
IB, Vudyard U. 30. Yca^^ UL 




Ardisher, J^^jh ('^r ArtuxorxM) IT succeeded hid father 
Shithptir II in the ypnr 380 A. D., and mt on thii thronft 
of l\isin only four yenrs, during which period no t'V(>nt 
uf contn;<jii('nL'«' tR-Mimd- Uo wob Jt?j)om>d in 3114 A. !>., 
by his brothiiT Shihpur III, who au(;<'Cedcd him. 

Ardisher, ..r^»>J^ (or Artuxerxcs) m, a kJog of Pvraiti, 
of tha KiU/ mr«, who rc-igncd about -tho year 621) 
A. D., at Shrruya. 

Ardisher Darazdast, '^^^^^Jb'^ j^-^J > an ancii-ntking 

of lV-r>iH, tho Artaxt-rsts Lr>n);;iBuinufl of the (tnx-bs, 
ftumnitif^ Bahmnn, was the son of Isfnndiar. He hiic- 
t.-«M?dt'd Iii.t grandfuthiiT. Giuihtasp, iis king of P^-rsiii iix 
464 B. C He is ct'li'bnited for tho wisdom he dispInTt-d 
in thit intornul it'g:ulatiun of his empire. In thr cmi- 
ini-ncunicnt of tho n.ifijTi of this monitnh, Ihi- fflubnitcd 
Hustiim wni8 dlniu by thf trL-achory of hia brothor. This 
prince is nuinr-d Ahftsiieru.s in Scripture, and id tho some 
who nuirrii'd I-Iatlior, :uid diiriiig thw whobi of hiH rt'lffn 
shbwod lh)« g^n.iicst kindnris.H to Ihr Jewish nation. The 
long rfign of thi^ moniirch includes that ut" two or more 
of bin iinincdiato siictcssora, who aru not notici^ by 
Persian writiira. According to thf m, he ruled Pernia 112 
yean*, and vraa BucfiM-dt'd by his diiughVer Quuun ILuuai. 

Arghun Khan, iJ-^ iUJ^jK the son of Ahibi Khan and 

grandson of Ihtbikii Khan, was ruisetll to the throne of 
PtiFsiii after thi; TniinbT of hiM uncle Ahmftd Khiln, 8nr- 
namM N'-k'nlar. in Auguht, 1284 A. D., Jaimid I, 0S3 
A. II. IIi*4 ru-ign was niiirki-d by fow events nf i:ons^i> 
quoncc. lln recalb-ii the ccltibratcd ShnmH-ud-din M«- 
hmmiuud Sahib Diwi'in his fiithf-r's wjizir, whu, diNKii^l'd 
vith courts had irtin-d to Isfahan : but this able miiuMUT 
was hardly rc-nstablishtd in his office, before his encniica 
porsuadud the prince that hu had iictiaally poisom^d his 
father; and thi- agi'd waxir wii» in tho wirne yonr mndu 
over to the jmblie ciLriitioner. Amir Huka, the rivij 
of 6hani8-ud-dui, rose, upon hln (aH, to suih powi-r thstt 
ho waa tempted to niako a gniMp at the crown : but hi» 
•was unsuect.'8.sfub and loHt hit lifein the:ittompt. Aj-ghiin 
Khan dii-il on Sutiirdav tho 10th of Marth, 1291 A. I),'. 
6th I^ 6D0 A. U., uftf r a reign of 6 yeara and 9 
months, and wmi suLcvwied by his brother KoJjaptu or 

Arghun Shah Jani Kurbani, i^^j^ i^^- ^^ iy>^jl 
^^*^, (Anii'r) who reigned in Naiflhapur and Tub abont 

the year U37 A. D,, and was defeated by the Sarbadala 
of Sah/war. 

'Ari/, ^ J thf {Kictical iiamt? of the aun of tilmlam Iliuuiin 
Khun. He wiis im o\c« Ibril Urdu pout of Dyhli, and 
died in 1852 A. 1)., 12tiM A. 11. 

'Arifl, ij'y^ (JIauIina) a Porsion poet who Rouri.-ihod in 
tho time of the wazir khwaja Ttfuhammad bin ladmk, 
and wrote a work in hia name c.all**d " Dah Noma." lie 
lived in the 9th r<ntnry of tho Tlijri era. 

'Arifl, t5*J > {3IauHn&) son of Mubirik Maakhara, was a 
loomed Miisalmiin, and was living in 1580 A. D., 98ft 
A. II., when h*' wrote a chronogram on thi; tluiih of 
Kuim Rdhi wlio died in that your, during the reign of 
the em])oror Akbar. 

Axjumand Bano Begam, ^^ y^J ^^♦^j', entitled 

ilumtix llnhil (now comipti^l into Tiij .Miihal. and Tuj 
Bibi) waa tho fuvorilo wife of the cniiKior Sliih Jjihat^ 
«nd daughter of 'Aaaf Khin, wiuir. th" f-ruthcr of the 
oelebmtcd Nur Jah£n B«gam. Sho waa bom in th<! yoar 
1592 A. !>., 1000 A. II.. and marriyd to th" prince Mirzi 
Khurram (aft<irwar.I.'( Shih .laliiin) in Mill A. D., 1021 
A. U., by whom aht] hud bovi:ral children. Sho died in 


child-bed s few houm aftor the birth nf her last daughter, 
named Ituhar Ari, on the 7th of July, ItiiU (i. S. !7th 
;5il.|iitju 1040 A. H., at Iiurhap]tui in the Dakhnn. ttnd 
was at finit buried thore in a garden called ZaiiiibaU, jind 
afltrwiirds h-r rLmninii woru r«^moved to Agra, whtro a 
mofit splendid mtiUMiluum wju* built over hor tomb, all 
of white marble dwomli^d with mo«ai^^8, which for tho 
riolmejwi of tho ninttri;tl, the ohaatenetw of tho dcMigii, jind 
tho offoct at once brilliant and aoloniu, is not tiurpufwvd by 
any oUier edifice cither in Knropti or Asia. It waa 
euni]iloted in 1645 A. l>„ 1035 A. H , and ia now i-ulltHl 
Iho "Taj," or"Taj Mahal," which ia aaid to have coat 
tho onomioua sum of £700,000. Tho chntnograin uf her 
dc^ath ofiiitains in the word " Uhaoi," or Uriuf. She ma 
also callixl Kudsia Begum. 

Arjun SiDgh, ^^^e^^jt, wu one of tho three sona of 
Ktija Mansingh. Vide Ain Tranalation, 1, 4Ho. 

Arpa Khan, ci^ *;^J*j one of the princea of tho Tartar 

family, was* crowned king of Persia after the death of 
Abfi 'aaid Khan Bahadur, in Novomber, 13^5 A. V., 736 
A. 11. lie reip^rd tivo months and wa.H killetl in bnttio 
Hgninut Mu^{ Khiin in 133G A. D., who hUoccLdt-d him. 
Vi/ie Al)u Said Khan Iliihiidur. 

Arsalan Khan, cj**- iy^j'» title of ArwiUn Kuli. th© son 

of Alrihwardi Khan I. was a nobleman in the service of 
the cmpenir Alauigir, and woB living about Ui'j yi-ar 1696 
A. P., 1101* A. !I. 

Arsalan Shah, &^ ii>^J» tho son of Sul^in Maaa'ud HI 
of lihaznf. He murdert'd hia brother Shirxad in 1116 
A. 1)., ^00 A. H., and haWng ascended tho ttirono, ho 
tnt[>ri'<(in«'d n\\ hia other brothera excepting Dahniiu Shih, 
who tl<-d to Khuraaan and nought a«siatancc of Snl;^ 
t*iuijar his uncle. Wanjar in the year 1118 A. I)., 612 
A. II., nmnhfd to (ihazni and in n bnttio dufeat<«d 
ArsaUn Shah, who mndo his escape to I^hor bvit waa 
soon aftor tuktn [>ritKm«T and put to death, when Buhrim 
Shah asnniii d tho throne. 

Arsalan Shah, J^c^-'^j', a king of Khwarixm and son of 
At-siz. rif/f Alp Arsaliin. 

Arsalan Shah Saljuki, i^J^^ J*^ c^j', the «on of 
Tiighml II. and grandson of Sultan Muhammftd, brfJih<T 
to Sultiin Saiijiir. Araalau Shiih died in .lanuAri', 1175 
A. I).. 571 .\. II. Ilin son Tughriil III whi> «nci ».i'<it'd 
him, was tho laflt Sultan of the family of the SiUjukidoa 
who nigiunl in Poraia. 

'Arsh-Ashaiani, t^^T ^^j» the title given to the empe- 
ror I. after hia dtnth. 

^Arshi, i^*V*j whow proper namo waa Mfr Muhammad 
Moniin, wn» a brother of Mir S&loh KaAhifif tho son of 
Mir AlniuUah Mu^hkm Kulam Huaaini, who was a cele- 
bntod calligraphor undir Juhingtr. Arahi ia the auUior 
of a poem i all.d " Shahid-Andii," com|»oie«l in tho yt^ar 
16SP A. D.. 1070 A. II., alAo of another work cnti'tlod 
** Mohr wa Wafii," and of a Dlwin. 

Artaxerxes, ruU Anliither. 

Arzami Dukht, "^^J *X*i'j a queon of the Pernoni, 

whoA- general named ^lehrdn boinf,^ killed in a Wttle 
agfiiniit tho Saracona. she was dopoeed by the p<-ople, who 
placed Yozilijard III upon the throne in her stwid, a 
young man of the royal fcimily. But thia did not much 
mend the matter, the (fovomment of tho nrw king of 
theim, bring even more inauspieiotia than that of the 
queen: for in her reign the confinoa of the empire wero 
only invaded, but in bis, all waa ontirely lostt, and tho 
whole kingdom and oountry of tho PcrMian.<i foil into the 
handa of tho Muiuilmoos. Tho accwsion of Yexd^ard is 




iLai- •-: --^cr^iit iUkolmin 632 A. D^ 11 A. 11., but 
Iti, r ?^a:« ix^ h in 635 A. D^ 14 A. H. Vide Tiiran. 

4'TB>r^ BegBQL, f*^' ts^jj^y wu the daughter of Shahriar 

'*^: J*"*^ rujT^-ri in tit- 16th year of Jahangir's reign, 
"'■ V I T r --=z.-r.iAi ;£t -iiu^hter of 2fur Jahan. Fkilc Ain 

A^TT^ JJ^ T T^ ;oit5<al name of Sirij-ud-din AM Kh^ 

&^2?, ^"^ ^T, a shepherd chief^ who built the 

i.-^'-^T .f A-irsTu-h in the Dakhan in the Hth century; 
it' i.t.1 - - T iOOO retainers. The hill had long before 
> - --^iz'.'.-.-i by a wall to protect the cattle, and it waa 
V. -T.%.T th': poor that Asa constructed instead of lito 
i T..-.. A.':.::-^ whi'.-h btill rcDiuin beyond all comparison, 
-1.- •-jT-r-i- -it n:itivr.- built fortKfSs in India. Asa was put 
*.■, i-ii,-.>. v.- Malik Na«ir, the Muhammadan chief of 
ST.*.--- iii*. who pr/sv,-JM.d hirnw;lf of the stronghold by 
v-rfL-.r-.r^-. »r.'l iOUi\r\*:t*:d thi- fortifications. Two ccn- 
r-.-r. ■* LiVt .\js£r^irh niA all Nimar were conquered by 
Aiv^.- i/*.'i i/..'or:'./-.i^l with the Mughal empires. It 
T»t* Ua I. '/V tlvr l;:->.i-:ii in 1817. 

j^ff-**^ ^^'^'f U^ ;«o.l;'.^ nanu; of Mirza Asad-ullah Khan 
v-*rjr 'all-.'i ilirxi Nooahih. His anci^tors were of 
ff-ii'-wtij:**- *.'ii "v^ vik^* bom at Agra; but was brought 
I.;, ijij'. ..'••.^i *' l^:-'-i 'r:.:T-: h': rose to great fame as a 
}fj': t.i.1 -wT/^-.? '-^ t'v }'^r-ii3 language, whilst his com- 
j#«rL.."..» '!> •'."■i-. ■»-:■ w'A If^* admired^ Ue won the 
U .'.-' v; iiti-u-.-j rtSi- tit Li-t king of Dehli, who con- 
i- .•■.'•.''. i:-'.!!. •—■.'. *. ■--: ti:l-,- o: Xawab and appointed him 
S'.r *- l'^*"- •'*-■- — '-^ ■ *^ '-'' ?<»--ir?'* lie is the author of a 
/'•.''.ii.'. Jjii'-iit. t ilu-r^T; in praint of 'AU, and a Diwan 
ii >--nit-- i-'-.. tziJl'jTT ix. r.'-iu. Both have been printed. 
i^: -w-^ iL , :-'*. -V. 'x>~ •ii:y y^.-ars of age, living at Delili, 
fciit v uK '-iny-- i^ "-n; iiinjj a hist/^ry of the Mughal 
*-:.;»■• ..••r .' ,.-.:.u ii-* ^^^'.l.^ [tame is Ghalib, which 
*..-. ,•:' ■ '-*•-•. — •-ii-. :-Ai li'/j. 12ij5 A. H. 

', «&atiTe ofTusin the province of 

jLkmL ^'.iS^ 4^9^ 

f • •■.•i:L:, uu'. 'ju\ '.i *Xk m<>Ht celebrated Penian poets 
«: •...•^ -.'; "•■—-*;: M-iLir, M of Ghazni, whom llie 

♦■1.: u.- '^ ■• I'-.r-ri-v * *-v ci,i-.rtiJi'r the 8bih Nama, but 
i. - ■ :;.>••■. 1 -v ^ ' '.c fcV''--ii* of his age. His best work 
A ri..'.'.^i *-. '-*■- -■-'•5- H*: 'van th«: mafft^r of FirdausL, 
*-.t. V. --■rwt.tite '-.c:;/.*^ ti^; J'Lib Xama. Itis said that 
> ■-•^.: -^ i..» -•;Ansr»r irva* GLazni requested him 
Vj- fw- .''fc.vj& wr.i'ii wa« y(:ft incomplete, and 
1 : -.11.:. •--,•■' ;»-.«»^ '.*,it jArt of the p'-n'm between the 
4 - ■■; . .-..•. -..-^^t 'J «j*.-Vm P'-rsia under the khalif 
- ;. 'f.ry^:*.'.:.^ fji KWiO eoupk-ts. The year 
'- ... • '„;»-. *t ••.M-'.-wn. but it aj'fX'ars from the 
-. ' ■ '.'.."^^v. tf^iit h*r wH.h living in 1010 A. D., 
.*' -■! .'. »-.-.'. ;.-^r Pi j'i.'1'wi d<-'parted from GhaznL 

V .- -' " - v.'<^?; './ X':.fz oth'-T works of Asadi now 
...-.■ . 1..,. '...f.-.-v. v-.w*-!! I>siy and Night, a traus- 
*. J •. ■'■ V ■. , ; ,*. /„• /.ifji n r*; if to Ihj found in the 
liy l^juhux Stuart Costello, pub- 

iV.'I. . 


i^ctiiC KIjuH, c^'*^ '-^ vV, fS'awab) entitled Asaf-ud- 

n f-.ii-- VU-— «iV.,- JJ'Jk, wu d'-v':nded from an 

I'.'-.-. .- ii." _. •„• 'I ■ rt.tJjAi.*'. M'v. fith'-r who fled 

■ . ■.• ■/••■tvyy,,k 'A -.'X'* A'-'/w of iVfwa into Hin- 

»' - u .fjffi "jj f ■••i i%',\ oy th': *rr.'ip'ior Jahangir 

..'. 'A Z.u.ti(JiT K'iisu uA ra-'irri'-d to the 

, ' • * ft J.' w i<it*.iv/j V/ )ii* '.-Hiproi Nur Jahan. 

.'.i Kj-ii miiv**. fonj-'rf n-ifiif* was Ibrahim) 

■ '.' ■ ■ .■ \ i,'A.' 'd by ^}iih J^/iXJi. who marri*-d him 

'-...,/ .t V* Wi/'.r 'Awif Kiiau. ar^'l prfmioted 

>. '.i,. v.. . «,.* wy^Ad B*klt-ht, whi'.h-fce held till 

M»< ^^«f vtf Alub^fir (X«7i A. J>.; vfaen he wa« 

raised to the rank of 4,000, and a few years afterwardi 
to the office of wazir and highest order of nobility, eeren 
thousand. In the reign of Bahidur Shah he waa ap- 
pointed Wakil Mutlak (an office superior to wasfr), and 
his son Isma'il made Mir Bakhshi or chief paymaster 
with the title of Amir-ul-'Umra Zulfikir Khan ; bnt on 
the accession of Farrukhsiar, he was disgraced, hia estates 
seized, and his son put to death. Since that period, he 
lived upon a scanty pension in a sort of confinement, 
but much respected by all ranks. He died in the vear 
1717 A. D., 1129 A. H., aged 90 lunar years. and'wa» 
buried with great funeral pomp at the expense of the 
emperor, in a mausoleum, erected by his fother for tho 

Asad-uUah al-ahalib, V^^' ^1 o»^ the conquer- 
ing lion of God, an epithet of Ali the son-in-Uw of 

Aaad-ullah Asad Yar Khan, ij^j^^-^i A^r^^i^ 
(Nawab), ho lived in tho time of the emperor Muhammad 
Shah, and died in 1745 A. D., 1158 A. H. His poetical 
name was Insan, which see. 

Asad-TiUah Khan, i:)^ A^il a-,| ij^^ ^^^^j ^.^ 

Asad, and Ghalib. 
Asaf, *-*-*', a native of Kumm in Persia, who came to 

India in the reign of the emperor Shah Jahin, and is the 
author of a Diwan. 

Asafi, c5^T *^!>^, (Khwdja) son of Khw&ja Na'mat-ul- 
Uh, was an elegant poet. Asafi is his poetical name 
which he took on accoimt of his father having served in 
tho capacity of wazir to Sultan Abu Sa'id Mirza • for 
they say, that Asaf or Asaph of the Scriptures, was www 
to king Solomon. He was one of the contempoiaries and 
companions of Jami, and took instructions from him in 
the art of poetry. Ho died about the month of Amnist 
1520, A.D., 16th Shaban926 A.H., aged more than 70 lid 
was buried at HirAt ; bnt according to tho work called 
Khulasat-ul-Asha'ir, ho died in 920 A. H. Ho is the 
author of a Diwan or book of Odes called D{win Asafi. 
and a Masnawi in the meaauie of " Makhzan-ul-Aatir/^ 

Asaf Jah, i^^^l, the tiUe of the celebrated Niaim-nl- 
Mulk of Haidardbid. 

AJSaf Khan I, ^J^ ^-^1, aumamed Abdul Majld, wu 
a nobleman in tho time of the emperor Akbar, who in 
1665 A. D., 973 A. H., distinguished himself by th* 
conquest of Garrak6ta, a principalitj' on the Narhsds, 
bordering on Bundclkhand. It was governed by a qaeea 
or Rani named Durgawati, who opposed the Muhammadin 
general in an unsuccessful action, and when seeing her 
army routed and huraelf severely wounded, she Hvoided 
falling into tho hands of the enemy by stabbing herself 
with a dagger. Uer treasures, which were of great value, 
fell into tho hands of Asaf Kh£n ; he secrtjted a gremt 
part, and the detection of this embezzlement was the 
immediate cause of his revolt Ho was, however, snbse— 
quently pardoned, and after the conquest of Quttonr, 
that country was given to 'Asaf Khan in jigii. 

Asaf Khan II, ij^ »-**"T tiUe of Khraj-Ghayas-tid-diwt 
Ali Qaiwani', the son of AqA MuUted uncle to Km'T^ 
Khan Jafar Beg. He held the Bakhshi'gari in the time 
of the emperor Akbar, and after tho conquest of Gnjrat 
in 1573 A. D.. 981 A. H. in which he distinguished M">fetf. 
the title of Abbas Khan was conferred on lum. He died at 
Gajrat in 1581 A. D., 989 A. H., and alter fais death his 
nephew Mirza Jafar Beg was buried with the title of 
Aflaf Khin. 




*Allhik« <>*^, pooticttl name of BlanHni Abul Khair of 

Khiririxm, which m.*o. 
Ashk >-^<*f, poatical name of Kohammad KhalH-oU&h 

Khan, which tee. 

Aslma, ^'^*^1, poetical name of Mirz& Muhammad Tohir 

who bad the title of luAit Khin. Uc was a &on of 
KavabZafiu- Khan Ihmn, and dii^I in lfK>fl A. D., 1077 
A. II. liu) cumpl«ie work in uillid " Kullitit 'Ashna," 
is whii^h Kabsidu oro to be found in jiraijtc of tahih Juhin 
and I»iri Shik6h. 

Afilmaf ^^T, the poetical name of Ghai^-ad*d£n who diod 

ill A. D. 1662, 1073 A. H. 

Aaliob, 'r^T^',iho poeljcal name of Muhnmmud Bakhsh, 

a poet who BourishMl in Audli dtirini;; thu ruign uf A!saf< 
Qd*daula and his fathex f>hujaa'-ud-daula. Ho ia tho 
aotbor ot a Diwan. 

Ashraf^ ^4/^'j or Darwoih Ashmf Ho floorished nnder 
Ua-iwDghor's non, and bjis left u DiwilLn. 

Aflhritf AU Khan Koka, ^^ o^ c^ o/*^', 
rid* Fitfhan. 

Ashraf, *^J^^j poetical nnmo of Alirzd Muhummad Su'i'd of 
MAJUitidar&nf son of Miilhi Muhtuanuitl Kunu'. Ho camu 
ti> India aiid wu aiipuintod to iniitrucL Zehun Nifift 
Bogara, tho daogbter uf thu uin^uror 'Aliim^. Ho died 
at MungHir. He id the author of a Diwan and Koveial 

Ashraf, ^^/^'] tbe poetical name of Muhammad Huaan, son 

of Shah Muhummad Zamfcn of AUahiihad. He vaa pro- 
bably ulir<.> ia l8'Vi A. U., and ia the author of a Haanawi 
QLUt.-d " Ma'dou Fiuz." 

Ashraf Khan, cM- *^J^^s title of Mina Muhammad 

Akhraf thriMin of lal^ra Khin Moahhndi. Id the reign 
of Shjb J»liin, hv laid i\w rank of 1500, and tho titlti uf 
Ya'tnuid Khan. In tht' time of 'Aluntgir ht* was mi«i-d 
to thu rank of 3000 with the title of A^hnif Kh&n, and 
dirui tiv« davr afUj tho conquest of Bijilpur on tho 17th 
S plirmber, use A. !>.. Uth gil-Kudo, 1097 A. U. 

Ashrftf Khan* u^^ ^"^^ who»o proper name was Mu- 
hamjiiiLd A?i;l)uj. wiu a Siiyyad uf Maalihud, and held the 
olUce of Ihlir IhtunRht in tho time of the cmpiil-or AkiMr. 
He wrot'.* a beauLiftU baud* and was an excellent jKytl. 
Ho compost a chrono^iuin on the death of Muhiimmiid 
Ydaal in labj A. D., '.t70 A. II., another on the complntiou 
of tt- • uf Hbaikh Siilim Chi^hti nt Futluipi'ir 

Siki \. i>., 979 A, H., and one un the ronquf^t 

of bL, : ^;irunlhL■ lat of Januanr', 157-i, A. !»., iiolh 

blui'baii, U»U A. H. He H(X-onipanitrd Munaim Kbau 
Khfenkhiniin to Ben^l find dieil at LakhuAUti in th^ 
yi:ar 1676 A. D.. 0h3 A. U. At the lime of kiti death he 
biild the mnk of 2,000. 

Ashraf, •-ir^'j a chief of the Afghan* of tho tribe of Ohil- 
tAU who wiw electrd on the 22nd of April 1725 ( •. S., by 
thu AfgltinA as tiU<-€t.-&*or of hie coa^in or uncle Muhtniid, 
luiotlmr ehicf of the «hqiu triU-, who hod luiirpcMl tlic 
throne of IVnia in the tunh of atSultan Hiuuiin 8alwj 
whom hi> kept in condnement. A hiuf on hi* aecoMJim 
munl'.'n>d tho latU-r, luid sent his eorpw to be i«t<tiTed, in 
Kuuiui. He wa» defeated by Nadir lyuli (oflerwardH 
NAdir 8hih1 in 172» A. D.. U42 A. H., who placf-d 
Hhiih TuJimafp II, son uf iSultan HuKain on the thruue. 
ABhruf wiM nfterwanU seised and murdered by a BillrH h 
chiof botwoon Kinnan and tyandahar in Junuur>-, 1730 
A. i>^ 1U3 A. H., and hi» hood wnt to Shah Tohmafip. 

'A8h:rat, Ci^, videlOmt 

'Ashrati, J^j^^^ name of n poet, vide lahratf. 

'Asif Khan, vide Aaaf Ehiin. 

'Asiml, u*"**! an Aiabian poet who lived in the time of 

Khwija Nizim-ul-Mulk, and wrote bottiitiful pane^-riu 
in hiit pnuM. 

'Aqjudi, ij^^^, ft powerfnl poet at tho court of SultAa 
Mahmud of (ihnzni, was a native of Murr, and one cf the 
scholars of TmtarL He evinced in his wurks mw^ 
genius; but they ore scarce, and tho greatest |»art of 
them arc lofit. 

Aflkaran, ci/-*' *^1;> (I{*j&) brother of R»j4 Bihiri Mai 
Kaehhw4ha. He served under the emiM>Tf»r Akbor for 
several years, and died huuu* lime after the vuar 1568 
A. D., 996 A. H. After hin death, his aon £ttj Singh wu 
raised to high rank and honors. 

'Askari, (JLT^^^ (•'*', (Imam) vidi Hann Aakarf. 

'Askari, ^sj"^ !ir*, (Mirzi) tiurd son of t^o empextir 

Biihar Sh^. On the acc^sion of hifl eldftrt, 
Uum&yuu to the throne of Pihli, the district of 
Sambhal was conferred on him as jftgir. He wtt# 
sequwitly kept in confinenx-nt for some timo on acooast 
of hia rebolliuus conduct by lluiiiayuu on bitt return from 
Persiu. He altcrwardfl o'htjiined pennis^on to go un s 
pilgrimage to Mecca, but y\i\A on his wuy acr\>M tbo 
dcserla of Arabia in the ytivr lou4 A. D.. [»dl A. H. IJ« 
letl one daughter who wua married to Yiifiaf Khin, an 
inhubiUuit of MatttiTim) 


Asmai, i25**"> eumame of Abll Said AbduJ Malik bin 
Ijlurebj which see. 

'Asmat, *^'*' ^^ > or Ismat. poetical name of Khwiljii A^mat- 
ulhih of Bukhara. He wa-i d>:-fleendL>d from a noble fam£I« 
of Biikham, trHcing hia anrestry to Ju'fiir. the »on of Abu 
Talib the fiithcr of AJi. He was euccesi-ful in all kindi ^i 
p<>* til ill cf.>nip<»ition ; and ilourishi-d in iho Lime of pnnc» 
Mii-jLtt KImhl, the grandiion of Amir Tuimur, whf.<in Iw 
insl-iuoted in the art of poetr>'. He died in the rt*r 
1420A. !>., 829 A. H., and has left a I>iwan coneititing 
of 20.0UU vcrsea. 

♦ABmat-nUah, *t^' '^■■■ ^ '^ vide Aamat. 

'Asmat-nHah, V* '■^^^*-** ^> (5l»lbi) of Sahtenfftr, 
w:iH the author of the work c^lkd ** ii^hurah KhuUal 
ul-Uiub." He died in 1620 A. !>., 1035 A. H. 

Asoka, *f^**', the son of Binduwini, and grandijon of 

gupla rija of Pataliputni in Mngitdlui. He reigiiflA 
iibout 40 y.■l^r^ ontd the year 223 B. C. H 
muflt impurtunt. Niuueroue inscriittions mude bjr hia ordtf 
hiivo been discovered in various piirtei uf India. 

' Assar, J''''^^ (oil-presKcr) the poetical njimu of Shama-itd-diia 
Miihammud. He was a n»tire of Tttbr^x, and AttthcC 
of a romantic ])oem callod " Mehr wa Muahtarl," lh» 6a^ 
and Jujiiter, wbieh he completi-d on tlie Xdth Fcbraarv» 
1377 A. 1)., 1 0th ShnwTi&l, 778 A. U., and diod n ' 
y»arl302 A. D., 783 A. H. 

Aswad, 0>^', or Al-Ajwad, vide Musailima. 

'Ata., ^j the poetical name of Shaikh Ata-uUah a pupil 

Mink Bodih Ho dic^l at Hihii in 1723 A. D^ U3«^ 

A. H. 

Atabak, »-^*j', or Atjibig. TTiis i« 14 Turkish title, fonncd 
from the word At^ father or tutor^ and beg, lord ; asd 





Hfl WM nmiam^ Milik YuJmnniS or kinp John, From 
tbo nazoo of tliw prinr^ we have nittdc John thr Priest, 
who WM atrip^iod <jf hia ilominionB by Chiingcz Khin m 
1203 A. D.. 599 A. it. They h/ivo sincu applied tho 
iwino of John tho Frieit or Prtntr« John, to tho kiniy of 
KthiopiA, bfcfiJiuiHj hv waa a Chriiti/m. Avunk Kbin ia 
by Kimo autlion* chUwI Avant Khtii. U« was a very 
poworful ftovcmffn, and tho gn'eloal part of Tartaiy 
wiw trilmUry to him ; but ho wan deleatcd and put to death 
by Ctuini^tix Kh&n. 

A^ea Bosch, ride Ibn RAshEd. 

ATOOBur, fuie Abdul MoUk bin-Zohr. 

Averroes, ndf Ibn Ktuihfd. 

Avicenna, tide Abfi Hmu. 

Awels Karani, */y tr^^'» (Khwijti) an upright Mu- 

(wilmin of thn Siifi met, who hiid given up tbi» world, 
uftiHl to ftay to thoso thnt »ouff)it Iiim, '* Do you wtk God V 
If yoii do, why do you t omc to tnr V And if you do not 
•wk GckL wh»t busini'M ciin I hiivo with you !*" Ue was 
an inhiibitant of W-man and of the tribe of l|L&nin. He 
wti!» #liiiii in a Iwltlt' fought by All against Mu'iwiii I. 
in «57 A.I),, Kill Shjiwwul, 37 A- U. This nmn hud 
w^'vT 90cn Jluhnrnmiiil. :iitd yet tho JIuAfibnans «*y, that 
wh'ii h4< ht^oni that Muhammad had lost n tooth in battle, 
and nut knowing' which, ho broke all hitt tooth. 

Aweia Jalayor, ji^ kJ^-^ cj^^"-*^ (Sultin) mcceoded 
hi« Cothcr Amir IlRfian Buxurg as kin;? of Baghdid in July 
list, A. D^ Rajab 7'^7 A. 11.. and atiur a rtn^rn of nearly 
ailljetnai lunar vu&r« dif>d on Ttiosday the lOth Ot'tubto*, 
1374 A. D., Snd Jomod I. 776 A. H. Ho waa succeeded 
hf Ut aoa Sul^ Uanin Joliyur. 

Aweia Mirsa, iLr' %J^jK b prince noarhr rolated to Bai- 

^va Bahidwr, vaj xu^phew to Abtll Ghazi Sul(in Hnsain 
Ht waa murderod by Saltan Abu Sdfd Mirzi 
t^ xma Uol and 1157 A. X), 

'Ajaxti, t^^t vbMD proper aune wis AM Is-hi^ Ibtfli&n, 
heA. ptcriou to the Bth resitiuy of the 
B« H «b0 sntber %d » Uanavi c«U«U ** Anbia 
)££■■»** m hiiiiiMj off the fccphcto who preceded Uuhiun- 

Ajas,jVt ■ dave ol Sal|iB Mafcm&d of Ghanl. wbo being 

& CMt bwiBrite of loe BMtai; wm cnried by the coorti- 
mb; I^ IbnfcR mfianBed tho S«lt£tt ffaot tbijy £r9- 
^■1^1^ okHmd Ajfa go ptnmtidjr into ihia Jcnrd office ; 
^At^m ^mj iniinrf £o knd pnrloincd man jr vohinble 
iflMk TW BESt tzsM vbon the aUre hod entered the 
tbe 6d|ta tfoOavvd br a prirate iloor, and 
■tv Ajii 4i«v from » Uiye cbevt a mit ol 
«U firty Miiwnii villi wUch haviiw dotfacd hinioalt 
WfnHtaaladfciaMlf en Aegyonndand Mtemed thnnks 
to tiM llilalrtj br on IIm! bctMAts nmfrvnd on Inm. 
f Mtaoaikad, vent to bim , and desiandcd 
«f Ua ee^ML Bt fvplkd, **Motf 
I firrt became jovr Majeaty^e ■errant, 
•wm mx dCM. and t2I lb*t penod, bumble bad bn« 
^ loC ><rv tbat, by tbe paeo of Ued and ronr ma- 
Ivtr'a fcTua. 1 am elnstcd above all the noUea of tiu) 
Wi. nnd an tended vtA tbe >ww of tbe rnvtid, 
I ^ iavM Ibnt ary hmgi Aadi U patfed ap vith 
tawfty; I lbiiid*t dailj pnwlwv Una hamiKatiew to 
of my fatmar la ai yiidtai Ka.'' IVi SolUa 

■ided tob 
hoi alondcTcaa. 

•ATM (XmU, U^ ^r^> «i>n«f Vdaa, aadaatbercTtb* 

**(:;^anih Sbbdi Mat&m," Haabiri^-ol-Anwir, and eeroal 
attar vvriD. He dxd m U4a A. P^ ^i A. U. 

•Ayeaha, *^^, daughter of Abfi Bakr. and one of the 

most bolovod wives of ^luhammad, though she bore him 
no ohild. Shu wiw hia third wifr, and the only one th^t 
was A maid, Ning then only of aevon youm of age. Oa 
which acH'iAiot (some Bay) her lather, whose orifi:inal 
wu Abd-ulUUi, waa named Abii Bokr, that is to my/ 
the father of tho wgin. An Anibian author, cited by 
Maraori. eays, that Abii Biikr waa very avi-rse to tho 
giving him hia «lnught»-r ao yoimg, bnt that Muhammad 
prt'ttndt'd a divine lommand for it; whf.renpun he fctnt 
hor to him with u buakut of dates, and when tho girl waa 
ttlonu with him, \w Htrutfhed out liirt hfind, (ind rudi-lj 
took hold of hor clothes; upon which nbo lookfjil fiorcely 
nt him, and said, "People i.ull you the failliful man, but 
your bohit%iour to mc shows you iiro a pLrfidious ono." 
Hut thia story ia mo«t prubably onu of those cAlomnie 
against Muh-iromud, which wiire inV'-nted and found favot 
during the lliddlo Aged. Aftortho death of her husband 
sho ojiiHJW.'d th'.' •ucecsaion of AU, and had *>Teml blood] 
batilca with him ; although violent, her chaxnct^r 
resi^'ctt'd. and whL-n tikiii iirinoner by Ali, she wa« dia-j 
miHetd without iiijurj'. She w.ia ralli-d prophtjti.*sa 
nujthLT of tho faithlul. 8hp diod aged 67 in tho yc 
678 A. D., 6S A. H. Hor bi-otljw Abdur liahmi 
of the four who fit*)od out aguimit Yeiid'a inaugumtif 
died the samo year. Thiro ia u trudilioa that '.\yt 
waa murdLTL'd by thii direction of ilu'Uwia I, and 
following partiriiLirs are recorded. Axi^aha havixig i 
lutoly and insultingly rt-fuecd to engage her ollc^ ' 
to Yi-'rid, Mu'awiu lu^iU'd hur to an entertainment, 
ho had prtparf;d a very deep well or pit in that port 
the ehambor roaorvfjd for her ruception, and had the mouth 
of it dueoptively covered over with leaves and atrnw. 
A chair was then plucwl upon tho fatil spot, and 'Ayusha, 
on being conduct^nl to her scot, iuetaiitly sank into eternal 
night, and the mouth of the pit was immtxlintely covurod 
with stuni-ft and mortar. Thero in, however, no trust- 
worthy authority in sujjjKjrt of thi& story. 

'Ayn-uddin (Shaikh), c^*^' uri* ^, of Bijipiir, 

author of the ^^ Mulhilpit." and Kitab-ul-AnwCix contjun- 
ing a history' of uU tlie Uuhammudan Nuiuta of JLndia, 
lie tluui^sdied in tho lime of Bultan Ala-uddin 

'Ayn-iU-Mulk (Hakim), '-^^i c/i* (^, a native of 

Shiriz, and a well rdueated and learned ]htusalm&n, vu 
an ofheer of rank in the time of the emperor Akbar. 
Hu waa an elegunt |>o*\t» and hi» poetical mune was WafJL 
Uo died in the 40th voar of the emporor iu 1694 A. D., 
1003 A. H. 

•Ayn-ia-Mulk (Khwaja), »-^l cri^ *^Ly^, a di»- 

tingiiiah.-d nobbman iu the court of Sultan Muhammad 
Sh^ TughUk und his tmeeesAjr 8ull.«n Firoz 8hah 
Barbnk, kiugs of Dehli. He is the BUth*ir of sevM 
works, one of whiih is called "Taisil 'Ayii-ul-Mulkt* 
H)' also nppeurs t<< ' ■' 'hor of another work oill 

** I'atlm Nimii," nn ui.-(X>uut of the conui 

of Sullin 'AIa-Uu . lit SiuL who tviguud i 

ISOato 1310 A. l), 

'Ayah, cA^i poetical name of Mnhammad 'AdoBf 
lived in the reign of tbe emperor Sbih 'Alan. 

'Ayahi, i/"^, a poet wbo is the author of a 

called ^'Uail Akhtor/* or tbe aoveo p'^nft^ wlrirh 
VTOle in lC7d A. IX, 1080 A. U. 

Axad, ^[3^^ the poetiral name <tf Uir GbuUm AU of 

garam. Ilia fstfaer Sayyad Xuk who died in 17£9 A. 
116.5 A. H.. waa tbe scm of tba ct2abtated Mir At^li 
Jald Bilgaroml He vas an cxMllaat poet and u Ih^ 
aatborof terecal v«tts a INi liaa, aaioqg wbicb arv 




)t, Daigam had beon orarpowored luid eUin 
, Shirukoh, who r^ilaoed Sliimr i& hit former puwer. 
But .shawnr. fiiithltfis Aliko to friond and foe, now entored 
iiit<t itminffrmcnts with tho Franks in ordc-r U> i-lude the 
foltiliiM-nt of his ungagimii-ntA ^Ih* Nur-nddm ; aud 
Bhirukoh. after maintjiminK hiniwlf for some time in 
R'lbtw Hgtiiiuft the juint forces of Jenii»alem and KgN^pt, 
Vas compelled to enter into n convf>ntion with Amauri 
and Bvacualc the country. But hu was soon recalled by 
8h«war to d»'livor hira from the vuni^'ianco of his new 
allies to whom he bad pnjved an prrfidiuus as to thoso of 
hi« own faith ; Oiiro was ilow^ly brttit ptMl hy the Franks. 
and tbn Futimite khallf '.Vzid It'dtn-iLlluh Bont thir hiiir of 
hi» wom*m. tho eitn-tne mnhol of Urit-nta! distrfss, to im- 
plore tlte succour of Kur-uddm (1168 A. D.). ShinHkoh 
agnin tnli.T«d Kg^\'pt wiUi an iirmy, foirod Anuiuri to 
rctrr'al, and after behfadinf^ thi-' double truitor Shawar, 
iiuiiiUcd himself in tlie twofold ofiicti of wiizir to the 
FiliuiiU* Lhalif, and lii;uteuHnt of Egypt in the nnmc of 
Niir-titldin: but dyin^' thii name year, w>i3 Bnccecded in 
' ' -•-■■■< by hl-s fiunoufi nf'phcw Silfih-uddin, who 
.th of Nur-uddin in Muy. 1173 A. D.. Sfaaw- 
^ \ U., btMi'amL- tho sole niatoor of Egypt and 

isma. Xii'j khilif 'Azid died in 1171 A. !>., 567 A. H., 
and the name of the Abbaside khnlif Mustazf was Rub- 
lftilu^■<l in the public prayers till the death of Xur-add£n. 

'Asim, (•*^'» poetical name of Su-dj-ud-daula Muhammad 

Ithuiut Kh&n, Nuwib of thr Kamatie. 
'Aziin, /•^'i poetical nnmeof Kayyad 'Aaim 'Aliof AlUhA- 

bdd. uulhor of a Diwan in Ttrdi:^. composed in 1655 A. D. 
'Azim Aii (Mir), ^ ^^^ J^> of Agra, author of a 

riikandor N&nui in TTrdd verso, tnuulatod from tho one in 

Fenian, in 1844 A. D. 

'Azim Humayim, ci^^ f***! tide Adil Khin raruVi 
'Aziin Humayun Shirwani. \j^hj^ cy^ |^*'> n 

nobleman of Uie court of Sultan Sikaudar Shiih L6Ui. Ilu 
was inipri.vini'd by 6uli^ Ibrahim and died in prison. 

'Azim £baa, cj'* f^^t or Khan ^\rim, an oflSeerof 
state) in ihi' time of Humdj-un and Akbor, emperor of 
BahU. He wu4 coinmouly Lulled Anka Khan, sumamed 
8hams-uddm Muhuuuuad, wus the fiither of llirza Azis 
K6k& who also aOerwurdfi held the title of *Aeim Khan. 
He was a native of Ghnzm'. aud formerly served under 
PrinrQ Kamrau Mirxa. It is said that ho saved the life 
of Humayun, or had been of somo aefp-icw to liim after his 
d' fi-at by Sher Shth at Kjumuj ; for which sor^ir^ he 
u«* biuids'jmr'iy rewurded by that emperor uftt.T liis 
having recovcTcd the kingdom. Vi^i nccompanied the 
enii>eii>r to l'cn»ia, and as his wife Jiji Oegam Ijecamo the 
w<'t-nurH.i of Akbur, the emperor's son, ho was cansc- 
qucntly called Anka Khan. Ue was the ilrst peraon that 
was honor<.>d with the mnk of ** Haft Hazirf," or Sovtn 
ThooAond. by Aklsir. Th*! uQi'v of Wukil Mutlal^ which 
wa« takim a«ity from Mahani Anka, was also confbrrod 
on liim ; on which account, Adham Khin Kokaltish, the 
•on of Miham Anka, totik oflunc«, and aasiuBinated Khin 
'Azirn on Monday th« 18th of May, 1502 A. D., 12th 
lUmxan, 969 A. U., in a room adjoining to that occupied 
by the cmpeitir. Adham Khan wu immediately bound 
hand and ft^ot, by oider of the emperor, and thrown 
down headlong from a window of tho court at Agru^ where 
this i-ircumotaucc bad tukvn place, and cnishi4 i>t death. 
Ill" tv>nmin« of Kli&ii 'A<im wcro tent to Dehli, and 
buried in the ricinitv of the Porg&h of Niz&m-uddm 
Aulia, whcro a maasoloum was created over lus ^ruw by 
his wm Mini Ans K6ka which ia still to be seen at Uehti. 
Maham Anka dit^ with grief one month after the death 
frf his fton Adham Kh^. The tomb uf Adham Khin, 
who is also buritd at Uchli, ia called Bhul Bhulian. 

*ABim Khan, J-^ /^f, the inhabitants of tho town of 
Azim/^nrh. which in ntur Jaunpur, say that the forties* 
and toKii of Azimpriifh wa-t founded by a pflmon who 
belonged to the fiuiuly of the Iti^as of that pluoi, aoii 
who was forced by the emperor Johanfrir t« become a 
iluhammndan and received Uio title of Azim Kh^. 

'Asiin Khan, \J^ (^*'> commonly called Mirza Asia 
Koku or Kokaltilfih, wod the son of 'Azim Khan or Khan 
'Azim. Hi? waa call<:d Kukd or Kokaltash on account of 
his being foster-brother and playmalo of Akhar ; for hi* 
mother whose name wad Jiji Begom, was .Ucbar's wtt- 
nurrto. He was one of the bf'st generals of the eraperor, 
who, in the 16th year of his n.'ign conferred on him the 
title of 'Asim KhAn, He held tho govi.-mmunt of Gujrit 
for several years toRether, and bein^ abtient from th» 
presencQ from a long pcrimi. was summoned to court bv 
Akbor in 1692 A. D., 1001 A. H., but as that chief had 
always entortaini**! th*i wwh to pro<'f»«Mi on a jiilj^rimasjip to 
Mecca, and his friinda reprt>S4:'ntiu!< to him that the king 
was displeased with him, and merely sought an oppor- 
tunity to imprison him, he plact^ liis family and troasuro 
on board a vcfleeU and on the 13th of March, 1594 O. S^ 
1st Rajab, 1002 A. H., set sail for Uejox witliout U«t« 
or notice. In a short time, however, ho fuund his aitua* 
tion irksome in that country, and rstnmed to India, whciv 
be made his nubmisnion. and wus restored at once to hia 
former place in the ompi-'ior's fnvur and confidenoo. He 
died at .Mimulabad Uujrut iu the lOth year of the reign 
of Jah&ngir 1624 A. I)., 1033 A. U- His remains were 
transported to Dohli and boricd dosu to hi« father's mau- 
soleuuL, where a splendid m<juuiaent was erected over his 
tomb all of marble. It con^isls of 64 pillan, imd ia called 
by tho people " Chaun-yi'th Khambh." 

'Asim Khan, c**-*' (J^U title of Mir Muhammad Bi^. 

tho brother of 'Atuif Khan Jafar Beg. In the second year 
of tho reign of Ihu emperur Jahangir 1606 A. I>. lOIJ^ 
A. H., ho was honored with tho mannub of 1000 and titU 
of [rftdat Khan. In the first year of Shah Jahin. 162S-4 
A. T»., 10S7 A. H , the mnk of'SCOO was coufeixtsd onhiaj 
with the oiBc' of M'izarjit Kull ; in tho third year of I 
reign he receivud the title uf 'Asim Kh&u. He wai aa-! 

Eoint^ at different timi'S pivcmor of Bcmgal, altafci- 
ad, Gujrat and latterly of Juutipur. when? he died m 
1040 A. D., lO&d A. H., agod 76 lunar years, and was 
buried there. After his dimth tho title of 'Axim Khiu 
was conferred on his eldest son, who was slain in the batlls 
which took place between I>ara Shikoh and his bzothat 
Alamgirin iBoS A. L>., 106HA. H., at Agn. His 
son Mir KhaUl was honDn?d with the title of Khin 
During the government of tliis viceroy in Bonga 
A. D., the English obtained permission to trade with 
■hips in Bengal by tho emperor 8hah Jahin, but 
restricted to the port of Pipley whero they 
their factory. 

»Azim Khan Koka, *0^c>t^^', tho tiU© of Maiaffsr 
Hufiain commonly known by the uppeUation of Fidif 
Khan, a titU- conferred on him by the pmin.Tor Shalk' 
Jahan. IHa tddur lirother held the titlo of Khiui Jahin 
Bithadur KokattaHh, and wore both foeter- brothers to tha 
enip<'ror AUmgir. Fidoi Klian was honored with th» 
title of 'Asim Khan by Alnmgir al»out the year 167C>J 
A D., ](I8C A H . and upi)ointtHl governor of Bi*ngal In 
1670 A. Dm 1097 A. 11.. which situation he held fur a 
whole year and died on his way to Beharon tho 3 1st 
April, 1678 0. H.. lHh Rabi I, 1089 A. H. 

'Azim Khan, ci^ (^^i ex-am£r and a brother of 8h<ff AU 
Khin, Amir of Kabul, died at tihih Hud on tho €th of 
October, 1B69. 

'Azim Naiflhapiiri, KSJji^ (^^t author of a IHi 
found in tho Libnry of Tijid Sultin« 




tor of Ydna0 Khin, king of Mngh^isUn and sut«T to Mnh- 
fnud Khfin, li dc^cendnnt of the ftLmotifi CKiingnE nr Jong-hiK 
Khiln. Ho wtia bom on the 15th Februar>' 1483. 6th 
Mubftrram. 888 A. U., imd saccrt'dt'd his foihor in the 
(EOvemnunt of Furgh&nti, Iht* capitiil of which is Andjui, 
in June U94, Rnnu^nn, 899 A. H. During eleven vcan* 
ho fought BCTcral bnttica with tho Tnrtnr and V/.htiifc 
priiiocH, but WHS At Ufit obligtnl to leure hia country and 
fly tow4TiU Kabul, which place he conquerod, without 
opposition, toguthur with KAndnh&r and Badftkhfthftn. 
He rvif^ni'd for 22 yean over thow couiiiriefi before hia 
conquest of India. He thrn procotdM to Hindust^, 
8low Ibmlum Hujutin Lodf. the Pu^hiln king of Dohli. 
in n UiH\q at Ponljiat ou Fridny the 20tli of Apiil 1526. 
A. D.. 7th AnjAb, !fiI2 A. H , and btiAinti Iht^ founder of 
the MuL'bal dynarty of India whith ocded in 1857. 
Hidmr wrritii bi» own lifo in the Tiu"ki»h Innpungfi. cnll'il 
"' Ti'iznk BAlmri" with finch elcgnnco and IrtiUi, thut thti 
Iierfurirmnct- is muvt'r»ally adiairud.. It wiia tronidatt'd in 
(h-. n-i<rn ».f hi» ^rtund^on Akbar. by Abdul li^Llu'm Khdn, 
1 , into Persian, and recently into Eln^li&h from 

' . Turki. by J. Loydcn. Esq., and Wm. Erulrinu, 

Iv'l 1 I n monarch asccndtsl thp throno in hi« 12th 
ye»r niid ruiinied 38 ycuTB, n's : at Andjin 11 years, at 
Kabul 22. luid nearly fi yi*ara in India, and diml in 
A'inw on Monday the iflth of Dccrmbcr. InSO A. D., fith 
tTaiuid I. OS" A. H. Ho wm at Bret buried in a garden 
tm thi! It fl bank of the Jamnn, thrni called, thu Xiir Af- 
shAxi. iiud now I{Anib.-i^h. from which place his remains 
weiv ti;uwiHjrt«>d aftiir gdx months to £&bul. where & 
rtpb-ndiii mtiu^oleiuQ wa« built on his tomb by hja great- 
j:riua-jcrfludik>n. the emperor Shdh Jahan in 1646 A. D, 
lli» tomb on u hill near the city, surrounded by largo Wdi* 
of flowcra, wimniandfl a noble prospoct- Tho chronognim 
of tho yoar of his death was found to oonaist in tho worda 
"Bahiflht-ioKihad," or •* May bcsiven be his lot." After 
hiii death, ho rfK^-ivfid tho title of " Firdans-Makani. Ho 
was sUL-eeeded on the throne of DehU by hia eldest son. 
Ihe cmp<_-ri>r Humayun. His other three sons were 3Iirza 
Iv&mran, Mirzn 'Aakart, and Mirza Handal. Firisbta 
anjt's, tlint Babiir, who was niueh addlett'd to women and 
wine, on oreaAion-* whm he w*is inclined to make merry, 
iwed to fill u Tieer^'oij in a garden in tho neighbour- 
hood of Kabul, with 8omu wine, ovor which wu i&Hjribed 
« Viino to this purpose — 

Give me but wine and blooming maida, 

All other joj'S I frw-*ly spurn : 
En.ioy them. Babar. while you may — 

For youth onc« past, will ne'er return. 

Babar (Sultan), ^^ o'*^, stmuunod Abiil ^isim, W1W 

the Kon of Mina Baisanghar and (rnwdson of ShUirakh 
MiriA. Aft»T the death of 3Iini Ulagh Beg and hi*; son 
'AUttl L'ttif. he suci'ofxled in .Taniiary 1462, A. !>., ij!il-hija 

K65 A T' • ! " "- hia own brf»ther Saltan Muham- 

liind ai! 1 -i''elfin the govemnieiit of Khiiri- 

i4n a^ '. ling eountrit«. A fuw muntha 

before his dvaih. tho comet of Itd6 A. X).. 8C0 A. U., 
made its n]>p''itn\nc4) and alarmed the inhabitants of 
Khorisio. H-j die<l at Mashliad on Toosday iho 22nd of 
Mon^h UoT. S.'^th lUhi II, 861 A. U. After hisdeath 
Khuziain wait tak<^n pon&esmon of by Mir/.a Abu Sa'td, 
the gnuidfathcT of the emperor Bdbor Shdh of Dehlb 

Ptiba Soudai, tuif Sou.ui (BAU). i^b^Ol^ 
t abawia, ^y^, or Bin Bibawia, &thcr of Ibn Bihawia, 
itd« Ab6*l Hasan Ali usian at KumarL 

BAdttkhshi, s^^'^* « PntMAn poet who was a native of 
the province of Biubikhshitn. Ho flouriahed in tho reign 
of the kbahfAI-^Iuktafi, about tho yoox 006 A. D., 2fi4 
A. U. His Diwan or colleetion of poems is written upon 
the furtimus of the grcftt men of tho court ; and he says 

that the varied, scene in human aflairv ought not to crrate 
surprifiQ as wo see that lifo is measured by an bonr-glawi, 
and that an hour is always above and the other below in 
alternate sacceseion. 

Badakhshl (Maulana), is^^r^ »^^^»iJ liy>», 

Samarlfand. tlourifihed in the reign of Uljigh Beg 'bUnff 
the son of Sh&hrukh ^Uni, and is the author of a Dfwin. 

Badan Singh Jat, *5>^^ *^^ cj**^, the son of Chiirimiui 
Jat, a r£ja of Bbiirtpur and the founder of the fort at pig- 
He waa living at the time of Nadir Shah's invaaum of 
India in 1739 A. D., 1162 A. H. Aft<-r hia death his wa 
Sdrajiual Ji\ suceeeded him, vuU Churoman J&L 

Badaonl, J*J^'^ Abdul Kadfr of Badiion. 

Badi-uddili, <^i^J'^ vidt Shih Madir. 

Badi-uddin (Shaikh), i:H^^^. ^, of SahAranp! 

was a disciple of Shaikh Ahmad Sorhindi. He died ia' 
the yaar 1632 A. P., 1042 A, H., an.! litm buriwl in Ihi' 
yard of the mabjid ereeted by him at Saliiranpi^. 

Badi*-tizEamaa Mirza, u'^' ^^ \}j^, va« Um 
eldest son of SultAn Husain Mirza, after whose death w 
1606 A. D., B12 A. H., he reii^ned conjointly with fau 
younger brother, Muaaffar Hnsiiin iUrai, over 'Khnrauin. 
Ho was Bubaoquontly compelled by tlio victorioua Uibaks, 
and tho usurjmtion of hia brother,' Vj take rofu^ in 'Ira^ , 
and in the year 1614 A. D., 920 A. H., went to tho court 
of tho Sultin, Salim I, whore. aft«r a 

months' residence, he died of the pligue. He was the 

of the race of Taimfir who roigued in Penda. In a wurl 
called " Ship of the Time," a Peruian Anthologj', thOT« 
to be found some verses of the royal poet's comi 
The following is a translation of a few lines ; 

Since not for mo thy cheek of roses shine^ 
My bnsom like tho fading tulip pines ; 
Who in hia burning heart conceals itn Ihunop 
And mine, in absence, pKrishes tho same. 
Pour wint — and let mo as I drink suppose. 
I see tho colours of that 1iln»hing rose ; 
Pour wint.'— imd let it borrow every hoe 
Bom in the tulip's petals wet with dew ; 
Till I believe thou may's! e'en yet bo min^— 
And let me never wake, nor that sweet dream 

Badr, J*^, poetical title of (Jftngi Paiahid, a Hindi. 

Badr Chachi, ^/t^ J^, sumamod Fakhr-uz-Mioin, i 
cele>irated |wet of (Jhich (tho ancient namn of Xiahkajid] 
who rionriflh d in the reign of Sultan M uhouiimid Tu^Wk 
Shah, king of Hehli, and died somo time after Um * *■■ 
1344 A. D., 746 A. H- ' 

Badr Muhammad, ^5^^^ «x»*-OjAi of D«hU. auUiar 
of the Permiin I >ietiomiry called '* Adib-ul-Pusali," dedi- 
cated to Kadr Khan bin DiUwax Khin, written in 141* 
A.D-.822A. H. ^^ *" 

Badr Shirwaoi (Maulana), i^^v^ J*^ ^^j^i 

a MtUHlnidn P.holar and poet who wm contompo»rr 
Katibi who died in 1436 A. D. ' 

Badr (Pir), vide Pir n.«lar. 

Badr-uddin Aintabi, j^^' c-^'j*^, an MstotfaHi 
who relates that the ^Aaf Ibn-al-itaghuli who diud in 
1281 A. D., 628 A. H, bequeathed a ^ of his ^Ti^ 
leotion of books to tho libmry of the coOon £6and«l 4. 
Cairo by JkUUsk 'Aahraf Borsabai. «»anaefl to 

Badr-uddin (Balbaki), x/^i^.'^b^, mOyriBcphy 

Hieian, who wmUt n book called ** Mosanah-al-Xfcfe* 
He Uvod ID the 7th century of the Hijrah. 




Badr-uddin, Isma'il-a,l-Tabrizi, LSJi/^^ ^¥ 

^^iWfjiWj an Arabian author, snmamcd B&zil. 

Badr-uddin Jajurmi, t/*/^^* t;;^'^!;'^, an Buthnr 
who dii^l in 1287 A. D., 6H6 A. U , in which year a}no 
died Majii'iiddm Hnmkiir. Ho vus a cotompoiary of 
Shanuj-udiUn Mnhiimtiiad Soliib Diwan, and of Sa'di, 

Badr-uddin Lulu, ^Vi^^^'j^j rulnr of Mausul who 
was living in tht^ rci^j^ ut' Uulakti Rhan the Tartar in 
1268 A- I)., and wiu» in his DOth vliit. 

Badr-uddin Mahmud, ^j*** tiri*^' J"^* known by the 
name of Ibn-al-Kiizi Simawana, ia the author of tl'O 
Jima'-al-Fiuulnin/' il collL-ction uf decij^ious on umroaiiliiu 
matters, lie di^d H20 A. D.. H'2a A. 11. 

Badr-uddin Mahmud Bin Ahmad-al-'Ainir 
vjH*'l *^*'* Lri *>*** eft!*'';'^, author of a common- 

tary on the " Konr-ul-DolfAolf,'* called "RamB-nl-Hukaelf." 
Ho died in I4dl A. 1)., Kod A. H. Ho ia also thu author 
of a collection of dfciaiona entitled the " Maa&eUal* 

Badr-uddin MulLammad Bin Abdtir BAhman-al- 
Dairi. </^^' ei"^^('H^ .j^ '^^'^ C^'^'b^, author 
of a commontJirT on tho *' Kanz^ul-Dakark," fntitlod 
"Matlflb-ul-Faek," whiLb is much tsateumed iu India. 

Badr-uddin Shashi Shirwani, i^'^'^^'-^cH'^tj'*^, 

died in 754 or fcio-l A- H. 
Badr-uddin Sufi, l**^ iji'^b'^.i author of the " BaUr- 
nl-H*yat," '* the sea of lifo," containinf^ many good rulta 
for moral conduct. 

Badr-uddin, uH*^' J^j of Sarhind, author of a Persian 
work called Hazrat-ixl-Kudi* conlaiuio^ the mirados por- 
formed by Ahmad Siirhindi. 

Bodflhah Baao Begam, f^^y^ a^J^, one of tho 
wived uf the enipei-or Jahan^^ir. Sho died iu 162U A. D., 
1029 A. H. 

Baghdad Khatun, tuy^ o1*^, a daughter of Amir 

Choban or Jovian who governud the empire of thti Tartura 
m tho ndf^ of iSuItau Abu Sii'id, tbi- sun uf Aljiitu. Her 
father rtfuJiing to ^nve h(_T in imimiijrL- to that i}rin(o, 
beoanse ithn had hem bolruthod to Shaika Ha&tin Jalai^r, 
ma the occasion of the Amir'a disgrace Kiidd)-ath. H'tmui 
who had married hir. nft+ j wjirds rejiudiatfd her, and ^^tivo 
her into thf; hjinde of Abu Sa'id. Thu prince publicly 
married hur, and for soin«' time waa entirfly govtrned by 
her i but being at lant disturbed, and djinjf a shurt tiruu 
afUir in 1335 A. 1>., 736 A. 11,, she was suapected to have 
poisoned him, and BiLidil Ivhan^ the Buccetteor of Abu 
Sa' id, put her to death. 

Bactr-un-nisa Begam, f^ *-^U*V, tho dauKhu-r of 
■AlAmtTr diod in March Un A. D., J5i-Ka*dft 1080 A. H. 

Ba<;jglxatX Begam, /*^ B"**j4> wife of the ompurur Jtiliin- 
gir, diod in tho year l02tJ A. H. 

^^•^hUPl, <^J^'f y Bagbahdri, aumame of Muhammad 
"bin l8-hilk. an Arubinu author who wrote on morul 
wobjectA, diad in the year I'JHU A. D., 670 A. U. 

^^Siivii tiSj^f oideAh^ Muhammad FanU-ibn-Mosa'ud 
"Bahadur Ali Huaaini (Mir), ,/*-^ i^ J^^j^r 

chief Munshi of the coUe;;e uf Fort William, author of 
the A IchUlf ULudi, or Indiau lIUuui, traiisduted Crum a 

Poraian Tenion, also of the " Nasir Benanr," a prose 
tranijlation of the onchanling Fnin* Tale entitled " Behr- 
ul'Bayan" commonly called " Mir Hasim'a Masnawf." 
This lattor wurk waa written by the req uest of Dr. Gil- 
christ in 1802 A. D., l',!17 A. H., and piibliahed at Cal- 
cutta in 1603. 

Bahadur Khan Faruki, i^v^ vjf^ j^^^, succeeded 

his father liaja Ali Khan iii tliu govi'mment of Khan- 
de8h in 1596 A. D.. 1005 A. U. Wlien the emperor 
Akbar a few years ufterw.irds arrivi.d :it Mfintjo, with the 
avowed inti-'nlinn of invaduig^ thu DnkliHU, Bahadur Khaii 
inwt^'ad of u4)<»iitiug the i)olii;y nf hin father in ridj'ing' on 
the honor of Akbur, and going with nn army to co-opetulo 
with him, nhut himself up in the foi-t of Aiiir, and coin- 
menced prcparatinmi to withstand A siego. When Akb:u- 
h'^ird of theBO pnjceediiiiBra, he sent ordora to tho Khiln- 
khinan 'Abdur Itiihiin Khan, un<l the prince Danial Ih(inE& 
to continue the bii-ge nf Ahmadixagar. whilu ho him^ulf 
iiuirrhed Ut the aoiith und 4M:eupied Burhaii[jur, loJiviiig 
one of hi« generuls U) best-ige Asir. Thi-i blijcfcide of tliit 
fortress continued for a leny^h of time, till it eurrender' >\ 
ai^d Bahadur Khin, the luj.t of the Fiiruki dynasty hum- 
bled himnelf before the throne of Akbur in tho year 16DU 
A. D-, 1008 A. H., while tho impregnablo fartretw of 
Artir with ten years' provisions und oountleaa treajmros ftdl 
into the handfi of tho conqueror. 

Bahadur Khan Bohila, *^jj c^;'*V'. son of Darii 
Khan, waa an amir of high nuU in tho reign of the em- 
pi'risr Sh4lL Juhiiii. llu aecompauiud prince Auruugcib to 
K,iiuiahar, and diod there durin;^ tho sitjge, on the 19th 
of July 1619 A. IK, lyth Hny.ih, 1059 A. H. 

Bahadur Nizam Shah, »^ f^J-^V* ^t" 1^ of tho 

Ni/.am Shiihi* kings of Ahmtidujigiir in tho D-ikhan. On 
thu duath of hiit frither Ibrahim Kizim Shah, which took 
place in August 1595 A, D., J^il-bilja 11^03 A. H., si^venj 
fuL'tiuns arose in Ahmndiiii^'^r, t'ach »(!ttiiii; up u nomiua] 
Bovcn'ijrn. Mian Manju, who poss>-uied tho city, and 
ao know led ^^ed thu title uf Bahadur Nizttm Shah, then an 
infiint, being bcFieged by Ids oompetltuni, invited Sul^&n 
Murad, son of the omporor Akbar, thun govL-mor of 
Gtijral, te hiw assiHtanco, for which he offered to become 
tributary tu the Mughal powi^r. ^^llltan Slurad umbraceti 
tho proposal, and arrived before /Uimadnagar with a cou^- 
dt^rable army. Mian Manju by this lim«, having over- 
come his rivals, rept-'nted of his offurs and prcpMt)d to 
oppose the prince. Ha^-ing commitli'd the city to the 
charge of Xaoir KhAn liis deputy, and tho care of Chdnd 
BHji, great aunt to Sultan HiLhadur. he dnpartcd to r.tiae 
levies, and inipluro iha ^isRistance of Kutb ShAh of Ci6l- 
kuuda and "Atlil Shiih of Btjapiir. SuHin JIurad besei-^od 
Alunadnagfir, on the Itjth of Docombor 1595 U. S.. 23rd 
Kabi II. 1004 A. 11., wliirh was gallantly defendtni. 
Brwu'htw wore maji-, but wire immodi:ttely ropiiirwl bv 
the heroic conduct of C'haiid Bilti, who covering hor-teif 
with :i veil, hc'uded the tnjopa. At luugth in the mo;ilh 
of March 1590. liajub. 1004 A. H., supplies growing 
ftcarce in the camp. n.n<i tho ullios of Bijapurand Golkwi^a 
ayiproarhing. Sultan Murad thnui<-ht proper to RccHj)t nf 
R4>ino offers of tribute from Chdnd Bi'bi. and raise Lho 
Buige. Some monuy was paid, and the ihstriots in B> nir 
iH'longing to th<! Xi*amShahi govon^nHnt wiinj i ededto th« 
Muk'htUs. In tho year 1600 A. D., bi-ginning of I0(i9 A. H., 
Ahmadnngar wa« taken by the Mughals. and Hahaliir 
^h&h with all tho childron of both m'JCis of the royal 
family wore taken pridononi and sent tu perpetual con* 
flncment in the f»rtruBj of Gwaliar. 

Bahadur Singh Kuohwaha, ^!^*^j»>V?, brother 

to Sakat Suigh. died of hard-drinking in tho year 1021 
A. D., 103U A. H. 

Bahadur Shah, ty^'s^jV^, an Afghia, ouccocd-d 
]n» futher Mahmdd Khan as govuruur of Bengal iu thd 



time of SoIAd Shib, and became independent and reign«d 
Avf yrnrn. Bo wna dr^waod in 1649 A. D^ 966 A. H. 
awl RU<rv(^lod by itnoiher of tlie noUM of BaUm 6b£t 
nuinixl Sulnimdn ];CiruiiL 

Bahadur Shah 

, ^b^ *^ J^^ eH f^ >»M, 


iii(c<md son of Muxaflar Shah 11, of CrujriL At Uw tune 
of bis father'H di^th, ho mu absent at Jaonpur, but when 
Mithumd I^iih hts yomie\r hri>th(T afe>:-Qdcd thci throoe 
of Uujrdt, afttr th»? niurd* r of his •■West bruthtT Sikandar 
f^hith, Ituhtiilur returned rix.m thfnr*', and having dufnTed 
Mbhnuid of his kingdom. oAc^iid'.^l the throne on the 30th 
of AuKiut 1526, A "' • i ''*' /i-^a'da 938 A. H. H« eon- 
qiipn'd ^l&lwA on ' -niarv IS31, 9th ShAhin, 937 

A. R.. find tbu li: : . I pUc«^ Snlt&n Uahmdd II, 
who wiia Uken priwuiit »nd aentto Chiimpanir, iraa put 
to dr«nth on the road. In the TG*r 1934 A. D^ 942 A. H. 
Miilwa ^as taken by the emperor HumijUn, and Bahldnr 
being d'rfcAtt-d vA.t r<Mic^ to fly towards Camha^, wherein 

nn bi!! 

tWtX'U •- 

Tliu. II 
of trcx, I 
Went t' 

but pttTCi-'i^ 
attAr):!^ on 

of Uu' Luid lA-camc j. ul i 
!iO Vi's*™ of li^v when ''■ 
lunar yv«rs, tuid vru» mh 

'. ftect, in vhidkthero weiebfr- 

i>l uriTc^ off th« isbad of 

. '.hithir with a n^nfisncneiit 

-t tniT^ij (here; he orde!re>d hiflbuigeafid 

Tifml. with tfa« intention of killing him p 

«■• betnjred, ha nnae, sad wu 

V the Pogtagnaao, wh«n a aoldiar 

':h a swotrd and threw him 

J drvwnifd. This event took 

' ''IT. ard lUmu&n, 943 

1 in two Fersian chro- 

vfhich ibnn the date of 

■■ .ining i» thia : ** Th*- 

.lur." and "The king 

.." BahiUoi t:Qiah waa 

th« throne, reii^nod 11 

.u LiiL- age of 31. After hia 

dmtb his nv^ihrw Mirin Uuhamnuul Shih was niaed to 
ihi* tbnmc of Ciuji-it. 

Bahadur Shah I, »^ j^^ (J^ l^ u^f^'v^, 

sumamcd Kntlv-ndJin ShiUi 'Ahun, formerly Cftllt^d prince 
Mua'iuiiii, »i* th.> M^-<^fid son of the emperor 'Alamgtr I. 
bom at Ilin'i xhf Dakkin on the 4th October 

tM4 O. S.. 1U53 A. H. At tho tima r.f his 

fcther*sdoaU^ «: - u took r! A^niadftbid, on the 

ll<t Fttffvarr UoT o. i^., . , nib A. H.. he 

being tiien at Kibul, hia y.. . ., . . i.r, prince- 'A rim, 
waa pirocbumni sorcrri^ of aU India in pi^rfoct disivgard 
td lhj» lati* f!nprrrr> wiU. IVintc Mua'czim, with bettor 
tvuon. -' tm at Kibol ifrith the tiUe of 

BahitI '1 brc>thcn prepared to asaort tfat-ir 

•nw i'V KfKx- oi anns. Thi;y aMembliMl v^^ry laix« 
and met at K*narth at Pbaulpur not fiir to the 
M<nth ..f t.r*^ A bloody bnttio cn*u«-d on Sund^tv thu 
' S., ISih KabC 1. 1U9 A. U., in whi.h 

lii» !\»it ;.'n.mi-ii' -jns n.^iir n .l:ht 

. i;ji A. U.. iii 
irird in tbi* en< 


anil>]i .. 
»f the wme «eoi. 
ttasxa,** i. c. ** M 

kviklth. BelH' Johatm^ 

^ftO, Ad»-«ilb-i^ Shah. 

€■■■( vttam » b«stk* cKT^cxL whLinoii the three Ultvr 
iMliMn wm9 kOkd, inl JeUndir Shin aMendad the 

tte wiaiiit and I 
« AMI U^JUx ^ 


' t I><ihli whuiRt ' 
Vtohaninuwl huh ■ 
\mir IWrndr; u itxr hu t 
in on thi* 

28th September 1&37. 2&th Jomodf 11, 1253 A. H. 
waa bom on Toeaday the 24th of October 1776, 2«lh 
Shabin, 1189 A. H. ; and Abfi*1 Musaffiir 19 the chruno- 
gram of hit birth. Hia mother's name "vaa L£] Bai. A 
stipend or pensioa of om lakh of mpoee monthly 
allowed him by the Britiah OoTcmm^t He ia an 
cellent Penian scholar and an elegant Urdfi poet luuil 
Za&r ia his poetiaal name. His Diwan or Book of (Htm\ 
was printed mne yvtn ago at Dt^hli. Htt is tiuptNi«cd 
be the principal inatigator ef the mutiny of thv natii 
troopa thronghont India in IB67, and iit now depo< 
tried, but bia life haa been goaiantecd. In Ortot 
he was eent down to Odcatta, from which pLtc* 
borfcod on board H. M. Ship ** Bfcgara" on Satordny lh« 
December 1858. for Bangoon, aooomponied by two of 
wirea, a aon and a grandson, and thiu ended 
raoe of Tkim^ in India. His sons Mtrsi M 
Mirai Khwaja Sultan, and a grandson nauiod M 
Bakr. who wen known to hare taken a ]>rnnunDi 
in the ationtiea attending the inmrroctioa, wt:r« 
on the 22nd September 18.57 at the tumb nf U; 
and ahiA on the spot Duriog the mutiny in 1»67. 
Shah had struck a new coin with the following ixnerip^ 
tion :— 


BahadtlT Singh CBao). n'.fr ]<ao Bahadur Singh. 
Bahaij i^^> ride Baha-nddm 'Amili'. 
Baiiar, J^i poetical name of T<^k Chand, which ^e. 
Baha-nddin, e;^^ 't^^ a learned Arabian, known »■ 

&TX)rite of Sultan SU&b-uddin (Saladdin) and th*? hiatarihn 

of that princ<;'i lifii. He flourished about the ynu \W 

A. U.. 5S6 A. IL An edition of hiit work appciantl %t 

Leydm in t75o. 
Bahar Bano, J^j\^i Daulat-un-Niaa, and Bcgoro Sultift. 

daughters of thr? emperor Jahangir. AM of tlyan died ta 

thiir rhiMhLK>d. 
Bahar BanOy J^^ J^> daughter of the empei^ Jah£n|fr; 

married to Priac« Tahmuras, the aon of Prince Dft&iil is 

thuir childhcHxL 

Bahar Bano Begam. f^^y^-Jt'-r another daaghtaitf 
JahiDgir, wa? uiiirri^ to Tohmur a ma of prince DiatsL 

Baha-uddin, cH'^'t.r*^ erf ii/i'^l*^^, thoaonof Shn^ 
uddin, the son of F;ikkhr-uddui. His hthor wu tfa* tot 
kin^ of the second brtncb of the 8ul^aus of UhAr. Bkia* 
uddin waA thd second king, and is aiid to haTO niffid 
14 yuara. Imam Fnkhruddin lUxi who AmiritkM o 

• his time and died in 121u A. I> . GOG A. It ' : ' tk 
work called ** RisUa Uaivnt," or Utok of c> I'l- 

After the death of BaKi -" • ' - x- 

oeedod him. Uo waa slain -V 

nam, and appeaia In havi 

Bahadur Singh, ***• J>^> the only ■orviTiog m "^ 
Vit^i M&n C^iuj^b Kachwaha. 

Baha-uddin, «/t*^* j^*^ icH^^ '^^> governor of lA' 

hiik and author of the " Muntakhab-nl-AkhbirT^*'* 
abridged hhiton* of the patiiarchs and prophets. mpJ]^ 
iluhammad and his dcecvndanta, with n gt^ d 
of thi* nti*!» of Mecea azkd Bladina. Ho flifuriabed 
the vcar 1271 A, O.. 670 A. U. 
Baha-uddin 'AmUi (Shaikh), *>«** t^o^iltf f*^' 
a tuitive «>f 'Ainul in IVrsia, and son of .*<' 
Uiii p«H*tii*^! niiniw ia Kihai. He in the .-i 
wi'F ^^hich is A Uanawi or pocni 

wu rv-«d and Ptidding. He tl< 

tiroo "I .-»rAii Abboa iho Great, king of i ctmi ; an" " 
IsfidUn on Tneaday the 21at of Aug^ 1621, 0. 8w 1^1^ 




ShawwAI, 1030 A. H,. nml wnR T^nrifd. nin^naWy to lua 
roqmsl, ut Mii^hhad. Imid-UFM:itilM Mn't TnliK thi; j.i-ime 
miriif-t^r u( iShiih 'AM»ii(*. lomni thi- ihTcmusrnini of the 
yuar of his .loath in ih..- wonU " Shnikb liahA-uddiii Woi-." 
llrnidrH tht' «)H»v('.montiont*d Mitsnuwi hhiI many Araliic 
works, he hu» lift a Diwiu and a Kiiahk^l, or Advereiiria. 

Baha-uddin Muhammad, "-M^ *^*J^cH'^l ^ ^j 

Jal;tl or JalH (ShuikJO r.r 'Amil. Thin pt?r»nn 18 inon- 
tiunid by I!. M. Elliot, H-q., in his '• Uistoriana of 
India," and fijifn-are to Im- tht; ^aInt,' with thf jirrrerlirif?. 
He wns b P*rsirtTi ntnthprnatirifin. naya he, and livrd in 
thu Tfitrn of Shah "Abbftt the Un'at. He wuh cylebniti-d 
unnn^ hi* countiymen for a supposed ]H-cn]iflr ptiwi^r 
whirh ho possr'tucd tjvf^r Ihi'TnaiH and writfrs of talismiiiiH, 
and Win om* of the most pious devoUtce of his tinio. Win 
works on various n«Hj<^ts are min-h read in Pi-ivta. par- 
ticalarly one eiititUd " Kiishk61." or the Begp-ar's Walh't, 
bvifiK' an uuiwrsal luiset-lhiny of litvruturo. Tho " Ja'um' 
ul-Ahhii«i." n cfinrisr and <^^oiupr**hi_'nsiv(: treatise on Shin 
i«w iu Iwciily hnuks. is gmcTQlly mnwderi'd its thu wurk 
of Baha-uddin MuhiimniMil 'Annli, but that Iiiw>M>r only 
lived to roniplctp tht! Ki-st tire liooks. Ji dicfttitiK- hiw vovk 
to Shah 'Abbti*i. Tht* r'lnninini: (iJ'li-cii books were 8ub»e- 
q«<-[itly addid by Ni^im Ibn-lln^ain-ubSawai. 

Baha-uddin Nukshband <Khwaja>, *^^+^^ cH**-" 

l^ A^t^^ a famous learned Mu.^ilman who died on Mon- 
day th.j Ut of llim-h ISfiU A. U., Uud liabf 1, TWl A. H., 
and wail burit-d ut Bukhara. 

Baha-uddin Nakshband (Shaikh,) *>V^> tiH^" 't^ 

jr^^j a ceh'brat'-d saint and the founder of an Order of 

SufiB. diatinf^uinhrd by thi» titlr of Xalcnhhandu He is tho 
author of tho "lluidt NVmia," an ostcemtd moral poom. 
Hb died at llantta in IVrsia 1453 A. D., 85" A. H. Ho 
■ppparrt idsn to bi- thp' author of a work on Sufiifim called 
*• Daia-til-'Ashikin." 

Baha-uddin Sam, (^^ C/-*^' t*? Bon of Ghay&s-nddin 
ilahfiiud. kiiifl; of fih6r and Ghazni. He succowlfd hia 
father in 1210 A. I>„ 61)7 A. U, at thu age of fourt^n n 
yoftTSj but was after tlireo miknths defeated by Ala-nddm 
Atnz. don of .labin 86i, who n-i-^Ti+d four years in (Jh6r 
nnd Ghuriii, and fell in b»ttle against Taj-udilin Klduz in 
1214 A. IJ. liaha-uddin Siim wiit*. aftiT hir* defat. tuk'-n 
captive by the ijovenior nl' Ilinit. and t*erit to Khwarizm 
Shih, who at the tirnc of Iht; inva.sion uf Chintz Kh6n, 
tiircw him along with liia brother into a rivor where both 
wtjru drowiiL-d. 

Baha-uddin Shirazi, LfjLrt^ eri'^J ^t?, a celebrated 
^iif of ahinz, who di>~d in the year 1380 A. D.^ 7iJ2 

Baha-uddin Wald (Maulana>, -^Jj 4:r!-^^ ^ "^ V, 

a native uf Ibilkli :nnl |]n' Tatbir uf the eeh.'bratrd Jutfd* 
uddi'n Maidawi Unniii. Ha flmin'ihf d ami <mji>yed dinlin- 
gxdbhod honon* in tho timo of iSultan Muhammad, snmam'^'d 
Kutb-uddin of Khwarizm. He wu»< an eiithusiaHlic fol- 
lower of tho doetrine of the Suiia. aiul bi-cuine Bo cele- 
brated a» a preacher and ttifwuiider, that people floebed 
from all parU of I'ersia to hear him diseoui-«e. In tho 
latter part of hiji life, he bft his native eountry and went 
and dw«H at Konia (Uunium) in Aniatie Turkey, where 
he died Mwut tho year V2M or 12:13 A. D.. fi'JS or tiSl 
A. H., and hiw win .sure<'tdi-d him as the head of the Beet. 

Baha-uddin Zikaria (Shaikh), kj) t^'^'^J' ^ ^, 

a MDhammndMa Bointof Mnltdn, waatheHon of ICutb-uddm 
Uuhnmniadt the son of Kamal-uddin Kureehi. Ho waa 
bom at K6tkaror in Multun in 1170 A. !>., 5G6 A. U. 
After hia studies hi- joumeyeil t^» Riighdad and became a 
diaciplo of Shaikh Shohab-uddin Suhiirwardi. He aflcr- 


wnrdfl rotnraed to l!t{n1tiin where he became intimaii? with 
Farid-uddin Shakorgunj. He died at Multin on the 1th 
Koveinbir» 1 2(1(1 A. D., 7lh Safar, 606 A. H., aged 100 
lunar ytam, nnd ii atill cun«id«n><l one of the most nnered 
Baint« of India. Hu lid't etmnnoug wealth to his heirs. 
Hia son Shaikh Sadr-uddin died at JHuItan in 130& A, D.. 
700 A. U. 

Baha-uddin, u^*^' ^, (Badr-uddin or Boso-nwidin) a 
Muhamnmdftn saint whoeo tomb is in the neiphbourhood of 
BukliATO, calb-d Mazari Boi^o-m-ddin. liurin^ the inva- 
*dun of the Kuwiana at that pkeo. it is said, that a book, 
written in verse in tho I'ei-sian lauffuage. wafs found in 
the tomb of this saint. It is said in this book that in the 
82nd year of the Hijnih (1H65 A. D..) the Cniriatiana 
will nwh upon 'I'liKhkimd like a riv*r. in the 84th year 
(1S67 A. 1>.,) they will necupv 8amurknnd. and ail-eep 
it away like a prickly thorn.' In the 88th year (1871 
A. D.,) the Christiana will take Itokhani, and ronvert it 
into a level like the «teppo. In the year frOth but one 
(1872) the Khwarizmiftiw »'ill run out of their own accord 
to meet them like children. 

Bahiahti, l^^, pootifal name of Sheikh KnmzAn, the son of 
'Abdul aiuhain, an author who died 1571 A. P., 97& A. H. 

Bahjat, **'^^, or Behjat, author of a Diwin whieh contains 
chiefly Ghazalfi, and at the end a very silly ^awada in 
pniise of the Europt-ans. He was living in [<akhnau in 
17H7 A. n.. 1212 A. H. 

Bahlol, ^J^t ^*ho lived during the reign of the kbnlif 

Han*in-al-Kii5hid. waa one of those ptH)ple who paw 
amonirst the llusalmans either for saints or madmen. 
Although Burnimid Al-Majnun, or the Fool, he was poa- 
K-saed of a great deal of wit. 

BahloU, lttVj ft pot't whose Diwau web foiind in tho 

Ijbmrj- of Tipu Snlrdn. 
Bahlol Lodi (Sultan), iS^^ Jj^ ^LKl-*^ , tj^^ ^f 
Pehli of the tribe of Afghiinfl itit]* d L-Vli. His father 
Malik Kftla wafi the .'*on of Ibnihim Khiin or Malik Fhih- 
ram governor of Muilan. In the year HoO A. D., 854 
A. H., Uihlol, during the ahrtente at Hadjion of Sultan 
AU-nddin. son of Muhuramad Shah. t'H>k poas^^-ssion of 
Dehli. He. howt^ver. gave plaer to the name of the Sul- 
tin for some time in thu khutba ; but when that prince 
prtimis^d to ctde to him the einiiin% iipcn condition that 
he would permit him to live qiii*-tly in the |>ossesiiion of 
Hudaon, Sultan Uahlf""! immediately thr«w the name of 
'Ala-uddin out of lln- khutba wiid e:tus<-d hinistdf to bo 
crowned on the Iftthof Januiri-. 1452 A. D., 2oth ^il-^uij*, 
8S6 A. H. Bahl6l reigm-d 38 lunar yearn, seveQ montha 
and uevcu days, luid died on thv 1st of July. 1489 A. D., 
2Dd Sha'bAn, 8fl4 A. H. He ia buried at Debli near the 
tomb of Nftuir-uddin Mabmud. suniamod rhirigh l^rhli, 
ft Muaaliuan Mint, and wm aunxKHled by hi« son Nijtim 
Khan, wbu aasuined the title of ^ikandar 8h&h. 

The fottovittff it a iitt of tht kingi of XhhU of the tribt 

^f L64( AfghdHM, 

Bahlfil LAdf. 

Sikandar Shfih, ion of Bahl6l, 

Ibruhini Huauin, son of Sikandar who waa tho last of Ihia 
race, and was defeated by iJibar kShah. 

Bahman^ C^j i" ancient king of Peraio, better known in 

history by his title of Ardiaher Bar&xdaat, whicli mc. 
Bahman Tar Khan, ^J^M em^, »on of Shiista KhAn 

an<l grandson of Aitaf Kh&n, a nobleman of the court of 
tho emperor 'ALimgir. 

Bahu Begam, (^- yt^> ^^ mother of Naw4b A'af-nddaul* 
of Lakhiiau. Bbo died on tho 28th Doccmbcr 1316. 




Bahra m I, ^1^, ( Vanme« of tho Groekii). the fourth long 

ol' th»' >Nisnnijin rnco. was the son of llurmnjt (IIormiBdiw) 
vhr-in hi* fnirf (-('dwl to Iho Pi.Tsijin Ihruue in the yt^ftr 273 
A. V. Hv WHS u mild nnd munifiront prince, and much 
b<^hlVlKl by hi» subjecU. Tho most roniarkaMi; a«.t of 
hifl TMgTi wa*. lh« fxeoution of thu cflebmUKl Blani 
(Mani) tho fwundor of the wot of tho Mtiiut^ihiL-ana. }'iJf 
Manf. bHhrani mjirTml only thiTf* yearn nni[ Ihre*) muntlut, 
afu.r whirl] he left tho crown to hia soa Uohram It, ubout 
thu year Jrti A. D. 

Bahrain II, ^[jf^., (somo authors term him Uio fuuHh of 
that mime*, wa* the son of ftiihram I, -whom he 8ncc»'<'d«Hl 
to thy (rown of iVrsin in 27l» A. l). He r itpicd 17 Vi-Jirs, 
and ufler hia dpmitit*, Wiu itucuctded by hid bun Bu,hnUa 
lU, uU.tit tht- year 203 A. I). 

B&hram XII, f*!/t^; suocccdcd hin iVtthcr Dokrtim II to the 
PfTairtn throne about the yt-ar 293 A. I)., mgnt*! only 
fuur lU'inUia, and waa saccuudod by his brotbtT, Karn^ 
ur NanMi, 

Bahram IV, (•l^i the tweinh kinif of Pewiji of tho Suaa- 
iiiiiit ra«;i', siKxcedi'd hia l>rother Shnhpur (Sajiof's) ab.>iil 
th*i year 3'JO A. !>., and i^ di^tin/^iuHhi^d fiuin other 
princfia of i\w ftunii! iiatut*, by bifl titlo of Kinnaitsliuh, 
which ho retiivL-d fr>im hanng, durinf^ thf roign of hia 
brother, lllU-d Iho ntntion uf rukr of the praviiice of Kir- 
mozi : tiiid lu* haa por]><'tiiiitcd it by fuiindiim; tliu city of 
KiruiHiiAhdli. He rviynt-d, DCiNirdin^ to Komti itoruuntA, 
olpvni yt'«i-a : and to uthtirn Kfl*?en. Hu was lcill(-d hy 
an arrow whiAU cndrvivgiuiiig to quoU a tumult in hid 
army, and wob fiucccetk'd bv VGidiJord I, who id called 
Ipdi^urdu by the Greok uuliiora. 

Bahrain V, (*!/1^> (or Vanuioi v.) tho foartccnfh king of 

Portia of the Stiaanian dynaiHy, who i* known, in P<jr»ian 
hi£tor>', by the namo of liahram (i6r. Ht-> waa tho non of 
Yezdijard I» whom hi* aucci rdid to tbo Ihrnnt- uf IVrBia 
in i'2ii A. I). Tho wnni (rnr hignifioH ti wild aas : on 
aninuil to the chase of which this moniLi-ch wiw ilcvoted. ; 
and it wae iu pm-nuit of uuu uf iUt--«v Hint Iiu lo«t Ida lifu; 
having; auddiiiily rnmf upon a dei-p pool, into which his 
hone plungc*d. and nt-jther tho iknimul ubr hid royal ridcir 
vvtv CMrr **-vu iig^iiin. 'Aim !lr«t rhytlimicul conijioiritioii 
in Ihf PirsiMii linif^uiiij*' i> ncnrdrd to hnvn Iieoji the pro- 
duction of Bdlirsm and his mibtrosti Diblr&m. Itnbram 
riaitul ludii^ was ouuteDiporary with 'i*hocidojiun tho 
emp<*J»'r of Conftantinoplo, and ruli-d Ponju liphteun ytiars. 
Uv di« d iu -iSft A. D^ and vu coooeedtid hy hia 00a Yox* 
dijard II* 
Bahranii flri^f wi author who wrote tho History of thu 
Tarsis of 13om1>ay b IuU9 A. B., untitled fyis«&i Sonj^. 

Bahram Ghobin, trt^>^ (•Lt^j ot Joviia, a general of 

Hurmni IU, king of Porein, whom he deposod ; he roi^iod 
sight months about the year u90 A. D. Vidt Ilurmtiz III. 

B&hram Mirsa, Uj* (-I/t^, son of Shah Sama'fl Sufiiwi. 

llu was a goo<l povt and died ia. the prime of youth in 
1660A.D., U67A.U. 

Bahram 8aqqa, *^^ (^^j^, a poet wuof Tnrkiiih extrac- 
tion und bt'longod to tbo Itayat triho. It in said that tlte 
prtjpbt't KJiizr ui^jMian^d to him. aud a dirinu light tlll<><l 
him. He rtnonncM the wurld and booamc a wutvr-carriur. 
VitU Aiu TmuidatioD, Vol. I, p. 581. 

Bahram Sarkhasi, ^r^./^ cljt^, a Proeodiaa of SonUu, 
a town between Naiahipur and Marv. 

Bahram Shah, >^ f'^j son of Sultin Maaa'^d III, oa- 

crndni thf) thpono of Ghaisnf hy tho mwistanw) of i>ul(&a 
banjar Uia uudcv alter hia btuthcr Aiaaliu ishih, who wm 

put to death in 1118 A. TJ, 612 A. H. BahrAm SbiOi afl«r 
a piYwperou^' reign of A6 lunar vwvn was d«fuatod in 1X5% 
A. 1).. 647 A. H.. by 'Ahi-uddin Hasan Oh6il aod Brd to 
Labor whore hi* died th(5 nuup ywir, and hi« sua Kht)«ro 
Sliah eucTtJwlfd hira in the govt-mmcnt of I>iihor. Ihe 
pouts Shaikh f>ji'uai aud Abu'l Majd-hin-'Adam-al-Ghftx- 
nawi flouridhod iu tho tim« of Bahi&ui ^bab. 

Bahram Shah, ^^ (*}jt*, mnuaacd Ma'iz-uddin, wa» 

the son of Sul^iin hiikn-uddm Fir6£. Ue vrna ruiaoi to 
thu tiirono uf D»jhh uHit llic muidtr of iSullana. Raxia 
thi! quiK.n, on Momliiy the 2lst of April. 1210 A. D. Ue 
roiled little more than two yeuni, und woa slain hr tha 
iii»tigatiou of Malizab-uddin wuzjr, about tho l^th of 
Huy, 1242 A. !>., when Sultan 'AlA-uddin Maa'wL 
nnuthur dcu of tSul^au iVJtimali, waa raimd tu thtt thrunr. 
Firinhtn trnyH thjil Uubriuu waa thu tiua uf Altinub and 
brolhor ol Suitijui Ifu/.ia. 

Baihramand Khan, c;^ **^8;t^ , Non uf MinA Bahiim, 
and one of tho cuipci-or 'Alanigir'fl old<^t nobility and hi* 
iHtoid. After thu dealli of iCuh-uliih Kitan, ho waa nuaid 
to thn ]KWit of Mir Uukluhi or chief iiaymaster by ths 
umpiTor in IGl';! A. I)., llii'd A. H., and died in lh« 
Dakhan on tho 17th OcIuUt, 1702 O, S., dth Jumad^ II, 
11 11 A. H. Ho burinl (it hi.s own r^'iiutfit ui a anuO 
tomb Hi lljJuidiirgiirh. Ho vena succeedtnl in hia offlfw 
hy Ziiltikiif Khiin Na^irat Jang, who iiotwitbHtondiitg thu 
appoinlnitrnt cf>ntinuod in thi^ command of thu anuy 
agiiiotft thu MiubiitLaa iu the Dakhiin. 

Bahr-ul Hiffe, -ti*^!^^ ^^^^ ^^^ f^^ ^f Memory,) is Iha 

titlu of Abii rdmaii-bin-'Amru who wrote a iKxik rm ifa© 
mauni^n and qualitit-s of princui. Hu died 66d A. D^ 
)i3& A. H. 

Baidu Khaiij e^'^ j'M^j Ihoson of Tumghit and ^rand- 
aon of Ualtlki'i Khan, uuoowtk'*! Kaikbutu or Kaijuptj 
Khan in Jjuiuiiry, 1295 A, D.. .Safar, CO! A. 11., and ca- 
joyrd Ihi* cpjwn of i*crwa only s«ivi'n monlha : ho wu 
d-'throncd and idain hy hi»* nnphew, Ohilzan KliAn, tlui 
son of Arghiiu Rbau ; who wuo compuiled to attark hii 
undo unil sovfrtii;j;u to pri;»t;rvti hiiiuolf frum tleatructidiL 
This ovvnt took place in ()ctohnr Ihn *imi.' vear. ^-^^ 
61)4 A. H. In EnglUh Hi»torif8 h- - " ' rAn. In 

1236. at thi* hi-ad of h.df a niilliou ol I\- 
conqucrml tho east of UiLwin, dealroyii^ 
Alaudimir aud othur towns. 

fTolf, he 

Baikara Mirza (Sultan), [;>• [^^. ej"^^, tho son of 

Umiir Shrtikh llirsa, tht- second w>n of AmirTuiMnir Bij- 
l^un sut-OfH'dfd hw brothtjr aj* governor of 1 iJi 

A. P., 790 A. H. Hiafadi-itbrolhor. PirMuh ,. 

gir was slain in 1405 A. 1)., 808 A. U. Itaikunt Jir . r. ,. 
filiiin by hid uncle SluUirukh Mintii in 141^ A. 1' ^; ' 
A. II., he lelt a svn a*un»'d ilansilr, who tx^camc th. :,.Ut.4 
of Wiil^an Hiifiain Mirza, sumumed Abu'l GblUi Bahadur. 

Baihaki, »/^t^j sumamrtl AhtVl Fa^l, and whow fin.p«t 
naiiu- i» .Vhil Hakr Ahmad, was the son of lla^ijn B.»ib*kf 
He ifl tho author of the wurka in AmbiV- (*jm.:<i "Sunjui 
Kubra and Sughni,*' ajid of ono witithd "HhaVol- 
ImUn," Ho di'tl in the y«jar 1066 A. !>., 158 A. H, 
HiA collection of Traditions is alao of tht? highwt aa> 

BaiJU, J^i one of tht? rao«rt colvbmtod tongitciv of Iiulis, 
be«ide4 Xack^ Ooiial, and Fannin. 

Bairam Khan, ci'^ firi^ styhxl Khan Khinla. or t«4 

of lorda, waa onn of the nin^t iliMlingitiiihcd officaa<|ttt 
Mughal court Ho was u Turkman and dtw^nded fitw ■ 
lino of uncrators who served fi:if nuiuy gi' ia the 
fnntily of TaJmur. Ilairiim accompanied tho emtxiv*!! 
HumiyJLU from Fenia to India, and on the aecMaao of 




his ion Akliar, h*; waa honored with the title of Khin 
Khbzuin nnd thf ttfii< >• of ]jriuif niinislor ; and hud thu 
nrhok civil unii military jiowirr! vesUd in hishunds. Wlun 
Akhur in Xo'tH A. U., DOo A. ]t.» thmi^rht he v/ixs ciipuMo 
of ;u-ting for htmjtrlf. he disniisufd Kfiiiiiin Khan from llic 
vixiraL Bairam iit first hud ri'fuursi* to rfbi-llion. hut 
V'inji5 unsiu'oi .-wdil, w:i*i coiujH'llud lo throw him!»<df on Iho 
clemency of his sGvtTtign, who not only jiardonud blrn, 
hut njifiigned to him a pon^ion of flO.OOO rupeoa luinually 
for hi« Kiijipfirt. Unit-am soon uft<T took li-ave of the cin- 
peror with th«^ dfsifjrn nf mjiking a pilgrinuipe to Sli-cra, 
and hud pruitedi.'d tu Gujrilt in onl<r to <*niliark fur ii<'ci-;i. 
hut was sliiin by onn Miihurik Khati Lohttni, whose futlirr 
Bnirini Khan hjid sliiin in Imttlc with his oisTk hand 
during" the rt.Jirn of thn cnipt'nir Huiiiuyun. This cvt-ut 
took plttT*' on Friduy thi' Slstof Jjinu'in-, I/i61 A. IJ , Mth 
Jumada I, 9^8 A. II. Ho Wiis ut first Luriod m:ir thu 
toznh of ti^hiiikh JiiHam ut Ctujr&t, but aft4:'rw.irds his r^« 
mains were inknspoi-t^-d tu Aluahhud and buried thbrt-. llu 
is the author of a Diwdxi. 

Sairam^ (•Iri^j suiuotimes crronooualy wrltttii by us for 

Bairam Beg, ^-^ fir^"*! *'^ father of Atuntm Khan. TIuj 
lattcT vtun a gniiidi-*.- in liumayun's Cotirt, Vide Ain 
TniiwbUifm, Vol. ], p. 317. 

Baizawi, lSj*^. l^^j (Kuzi) tho surname of Naair-uddui 

Abu'l Khiiir Al'd-nlldh-ihn-Umnr al-Buirawi. Ho was a 
native of BaiKtl, a villiijr<^ of Sbfr^A on whiih uct-ount ho is 
styh-d Baiziiv.-!. lliibrldlh*. uffiLi; of Kazi or Jiid^f- of the 
city of ."^hiraz for a roiiHidtniblr timi-. and died at Tabriz or 
Taurisin tb-.- y«:ir 12S(> A. l-».. liS-J A. 11., or us otbt-ns b^iy in 
1292 A. 1>., 001 A. H. I!*' is thi- author f.f thf wrH-kiH.i\-n 
Commt-ntan' on th<" Kuran culkd ••Tiif&ir Buizawu" whiih ia 
also calKd " Auwiir-ul-Taiizil," and '• A»iui-ul-Tawil*'. 
Some say thfit ho in al«o t\u- author of a hlstorj- ttutitlrd 
" Nixdmut Tawfirikh," luit tho author of thia work ifl ettid 
by others to be Abii Su'id Baizawi, which st*o. 

3aiflanghar (Mirza), y*^'^ ^jj^j wn of Mirza SUah- 

rukh, tlifi .'.on of Amir Taiuiur. Ho was a loaniud and 
noble priiicf, a j,'reat prolctor of IctU-ni and h'^nud 
men. Hi> himself WTott- aix dlfl'i rent hands, conipoftid 
Tcnes in (he- r«.T*ijiii and Turkish lanirujgos, luid constantly 
had in his empliivnient forty n.jpvi«tji for Ininscril-ing 
1188. Hi; was bum in the y^nr i;il»0 A. D.. 802 A. H.. 
and died Iwfure luH father in 1434 A. D., 8^7 A, H., at 
Birat, tif,'i-d 'do liiii;ir viars. 

Baisangbar (Mirza), ./*^4 U^j sonof SultinHusain 
Jiini of Uir4t. He was killed by Khusra Shah, king of 

Bajazot, name of several Turkish empcroni spult so in £ng- 
lisli, being a coixuption of Baytzld, which seu. 

Bail Baij l^^- t^-j ^*^ called Bija Bal, which iwo. 

Baji Bao I, lr*i^ 5^ */^^j (Poshwa,) thoBonofBAUjfRao 

Bishwaniilh Peahwd, whom ho Biicccodcd in Octobr-r 1720, 
A. D. He was tho ubk"*t of all the Bnihmnn dynasty, 
and of all th*'^ Mmbntta nation, exeept Scwaji. Ho di'd 
on thf! 281h April 1740, O. 8., 12th Safar"ll53, A. IL, 
and loft three sont* : r»:. : Bill iji Bio who su'^c-x-dod him 
as Ptmhwa: Kiighunath Kao L-ommonly called ItaghobOt 
who wim at Lne timo much ronntftt d with thn Knglish, 
and wii9 tho father of tho Inst IVishwa Bajf Ban 11 ; and 
Bbamaher Kahudur to whom (though an i)lo^itimnt(> eon 
by a Muhamnuidan woman, and brought up in his muther'B 
TUigion) , ho left oil his possesaions and pretensions in Btin- 

Baji Bao II, Lj^v-^'j*^^? t^*^ ^»fit Pf-shwa, waa tho 
ehiuit son of lUghgba or Raghumlh H&o of tniamotu 

momory. He succeedwl M&dho lUo, tho infant Poahwi, 
who dii d suddonly in October 171*5, A. D. During the 
n'ign of fiUdho Kao. tic and liis brother (.liirnnaji were 
coutined in tho fort of Junoir, noar Puna, nnd ulter his 
death ( himnajk wji.i fnrtivtty inve-ftcd. hut h«-' was soon 
after dt»i>U(*id and Btijt Kao was publicly prucLiimcd 
I'l j»hwa by D;iiiljit lUo Sciudhiu on the 4th Ik-ceiuber, 
1790 A. I). In May, IhlH a prochimation wiis insuod 
by (Jovonrnient dojjosing liini ; and the Kiji of £>itaTa, 
ViU-tfip Singh Niirayan r^douaed from routineinent, hud 
a part of tho I'una tem'torioa afwitrnt-d for his support, 
and was vo«Led with thu nudity of that power of which 
hi.H ancestoi-rt, in hill* r timort, JiJid i njuyed only the name. 
Biji Kuo was ooinpoUed to punemlrr hini»i-B to iho Jinjjf- 
li.-'h, nnd WIS pensioned on tlm 3id Jiuie. Ifil8. Tho 
peuftion kllnwid him by fJovoninmit was ,HOU,UOO r«pot>8 
per hnnum. Ht> dii-d at Bi^hiir noar Cawnpur in Do- 
eoiiibKr, lflo2 A. D., and wjis sueceodod Ity hb* adu])ted 
aon Dhondu Punt, c<jmmcinly callid Niini Sahib, who 
bci'amc a robel iji the di*tm-Lancea of ltiJ7. 

Bakai (MuUa), tj^^. ^, a l^oct who lived in the lime of 
the emfjcror Babar Shah. He is tho author of a poem 
or Mastuiwi which ho dedicated to the ompcror. 

Bakai, uf^j surname of Ibrahim-bin-'UmAr, a learned 

Jiusalnmn who is the author of ticvorj] treatises on ancient 
phihjsophors, un divinulioii by iiumbotH, a comnu'ntary 
on Uie Kuran, ice. ll*> died in thu year 1480 A. C, b&S 
A. II. 

Bakalani, l^^^, tho uuthor of a work caUed •* Ai'jiz- ni- 
ls urtin." or of the difficult things in the Imuran. See 
Abu Bakx Bakalani. 

Baki Muhammad Khan Koka, *y c»^ '^^►** 

ij^^Jj cldLst brother of Atlhani Khan, the hou of Maham 

Ard;a, was an oflitcr *<f 3000 in the time of the em|H-ror 
Akhar. Uo difnl ut (rarh Kutka, whuro he had a jagir, 
in 1585 A. D.,9S}i A- 11. 

Baki Ehan, iy^ */* -j a nobleman of tho court of the 
emperor Shah .Tahan, by wl»im ho was appointed governor 
of tho fort of Agra. In tlie 241h year of the n-ign of tho 
emperor ho was raised to thn rank of 1500. In the -(Oth 
year of the emperor's reign, he still held tho govt'ruur^hip 
of tln' fort of A'gni. and was rniwd to the mnk uf 200tt (he 
following year. He had huilt m tho fixiut of iho gat»> i.-ulU-d 
HiitiuttiMd, which is situated towards the tlhaiik and the 
JamiL ^^li-ijid. u fine bungalow wluch was still stAndin); 
uluut thu year 1^30 A. D. 

Bakhat Singh, *-^ ''^'^i or Bnkht Singh Ri^hor, son 
of Ajil Singh and brother of Abhai Singh, xija of Jodh- 
pur. JIo was ptiisoued in 1732 A. D. 

Bakhshi 'Ali Khan, cj'^ »j^ i/^^^j whoso poetical 
numtT wris nji7<hin:U> flourish id in tho time of Na«ab 
(Subihat .Inng of Liaidorabad about the year 1751 A. D,, 

not A. n. 
Bakhshi Bano Begam, ^^ }^k i/^*^, a sistiT of the 

CLiijHTor Akbar thi' (.irt^at. 
Baksbu, J"*^, a singnr, lived at the Court of Bija Bik- 
ramujbt Man!*ur; but wh^n his patron lost hi.t throne, 
he went lo liiijah Kirat of Kalinjar. Not lung afterwards 
he aeropt«il u r:ill t^i liii|i[it. wh» n? he rtmiaiiied at the 
C«urt of Sijlrin Bttliftdur 1526 to 1546 A. D. FitU Ain 
Translition, Vol, 1, [i. till. 

Bakhtari, iSy^$ on« *>' *^« '^**^ celebrated Ambian 
poi'ts, who dit-d in the y«ir 823 A. D. According to some 
writHrs, hii wjts bom in 821 A. U., 208 A. IL, tlounsh<>d 
in tho time of the khalif Al-Musta'in Billih. and ili*«J in 
liih UJi-d year at Baghdad. Lie iialsQ called Bia-DnkhUirt 





an amCr vho flerved 


■wirr tlw nDj*-Kir Alamtiir. • Tho SanU* of DiihhUwar- 
■ptf BCtt Dfhlj was comttructod Tiy him in 1671 A. I>., 
H91 A. H. H*' in tho unlhor of thtj work cftHid " Mirat- 
vl-'AUn,'' A history- of the first ^tart of the poign of 
'JduRf^, He dii^i io 1684 A. D., 109j A. Q., vitJe 
"Sini Balhtaiir Kh&n. 

Bakhtaiar Beg Gurdi Shah Mansnr, »^ ir 

t^j jUiar?^ TiiiViiian. wus iin Amir and govt-nud [1001) 
BiTistazi. Fitte Ain TntnAlution, Vol. I, p. 474. 

Bakhtaiar Ebiijij u^^j^^^ pm/c MahammiMl Bttlvhtai£r 

Bakili, ts^t gumuno of Ab<i*I Faxl Mah&mzD«d-ljm-^£flim 

•l-Kliwinitmi, who from his Iwrning ha§ tho title of 
Zain-iKMin mid Ziiin-ul-MuAlmnkK. or Lhu oniameni of 
thtj durlora. He yrrvie> a bottk on the pmycrs of the 
MoA'tlniftnA. on tho plory and pxctjllenoe of the Arabs, 
calkd ".Silit-ul-IIiikUi." He d ltd io 1167 A. D^ 662 
A. IT., bill ucrordinf^ to Hftji KhkUii in 1170 A. D., &60 
A. H. Tborc wtu» unotbor IhUpli, alao a Muhummudiui 
doctor, who died in 9S2 A. H. 

BakiTf J^-t tbe poc'ticjil name of Muhammad Bildr Ali 

Kli&n -who flouwhtd in tho time of Ihu emi>opor Moham- 
mad Shah and wioto a ilfmnuwf or intcm callwi " fCaniuz* 
al-TAhin'n", conipoftLd in 1720 A. D^ 1139 A. H., also 
another work entitKd " Gulsbani Asrir," wliiib hu wrote 
in 1732 A. v., IU6 A. II. Ho \b also tho author of a 
Dl'wdn, and anolhur po(.m callod '* Mtrat-ul-JamaL 

Bakir Ali Khan, ^^ J^ J^i tide Bfiku. 

Bakir (Imam), ^'^f^'j «rf<f Muhammad Bi^drCImim). 

Bakir Kashi, i^^y.> wboao poetical xumo is ELlnd, 

wai a c(int<in]M'nir)* of Zahuri who flourabed about the 
vi'ttr KiOO A. D., and is tht- author of a Di'wan. 

Bakix Khan, tu^^^j • nobleman in the sorrico of tho 
iTOprp.r Shilh Juhan. In tho latb-r part of his life, he 
wa« nT.|>4>iTit<d Knvpnior of Albihibad, where hu died in 
1087 .\. I*-. 1047 A. n.. in whicli year diod ol*) Khan 
Zamin Biihidur in Uaulut4h&d. 

Bakir Khan, i/'"^ (^ ^J^j^., Bumamed Najm Bint 
ntt nmir *.! thu t.iim of Shah JahAn. He w»« a very 
libvml man; fond of liloraluro ; and wa* himstdf a poet. 
lU- di«sl in lOtO A. l>.. lOoO A. II., but, iiLtMiding: to the 
work " M4»ir-iiUrmrA." in 1637 A. I)., 1047 A. H. lie 
ia til" author of a Diwjtn or Book of Ude«. 

Baktash KlUl, »/'^ cr'^* « Mu»«ln»an writor of the 

I'. i-.irm NTt. who wiH.1,1 H b«rf»k. railed " BoetMwil-Kha- 

k\" or Uui (iardfln of *ni.>«i:hu. Waikin's Biopiaphieal 

:>lrtion»iry. fck-o al*o Amiri, who ab»o wtvtc a book of 

that twine. 

Bakhtiabu, ^y^^'j ">»""' of * Christian physician in tho 

•«irTic« of Hardn-al-K»aliid. 
Balaji RaoBiflhwa Iffath Poahwa, !A;fV^^>!; 
^>U, the fuuudir of thr Brahman d}TU«ty ^f Poihwi, 

was the bewdiTitfr aocoonlMt of a TOlago in the Kokaa. 
U« aftcrwnnU .nUnd into the •ervice of a chiaf of the 
Jido fcmilv. wli. nco ht) wma Inmafcnwi to that of the 
rija SihA. Mi of S^mbh^i, chiaf of the Marhactaa. Hii 
mbtita wtw at Xtixyfih tewanled «ith the office of Peabwi. 
ai thai lane Kcond ia tho 8tat*. H* died sn October 
1720. aal «n «Mcc«dcd bj bia aon B4ji Bio Peahwi L 


Zi»t of Hfreditary TVjAwtf* of PSiHa. 
Bil&ji Ilio Bi»hwanath PcBhwA. 
Bdji Bao Poehwa t, mn of B^UjL 
Balaji Ufto. son of Baji Itao. 
Madho Biio Bih'il. son of BaUji, imcoeedod under the f^ 

p::n(*y of hia unclu Kaghimath Bao. 
Narayan ]£d<> Peshwu, broth'T of Madho Bao, 
RAu'huTiath ltiu\ atm of lUji Rjio Pa*hwji I. 
Madho Rao II. posthumouH hon of Ndrayan Rao. 
Bilji Bao II. son of BagUtmdth Rao, pnx-loiiued b^"****^^t 

and vma tukcn by Seindhiu. 
dumn^'i. furtivi'ly invci)t*.d at P&no, 26th May, 1706. 
Baji RAo II, publicly procUimfd, 4th BeccmlMT, 179*. 
Surrendered to. and pensiomd by tlie EngliKh, 3rd Jun^ 

18IB, and Partap t^Iugh Naray&u the roja of Sitan 

n-It^oaed from confinement. 

', also caBod B£U Mo Pnn^t Pa* 

Balaji Bao, j'j ^j 

dhan. wiu the jjod of B^jj Rio Pesbwa I, and BOMMiiid 
hi« CiLlhi'r in April, 1740 A. D. He wiu at Puna wh<n 
the l<jitUe betwef-n the ^fnrhnttaii and Ahm^d Shalt 
Abd&li took place in January, 1761 A. D., but died aomo 
tiino aflcr in the same y^'ju-, leaving three aons, ni., 
Bisw&s Rao who wn^ kiUt>d in the battle of Pinipat 
Mddbo Rao, and X&riyan Kio. 

.1 .>jJLf 

:, a brother of tho 
ritU Aehelihv. 


crVli, ride PiUah or Pdlis. 

n Bd^^H 


B aland Akhtar, . 

Mohammad SHiiT^ , 


Balban, C^j a king <rf Pohli, riV> Ghnyis-uddin 
Balbhaddar Singh, ^-^ j**r^, a rija Hni«lly 

from the AnciiTit Hindu nionutvha of Audb. who haTisr 
100.000 RdjpuUt at his roinmand, eonsidered himiielf ai 
equfd to the Nawab Waztr of Lakhnau. whose authority 
he di^claimtd. To riducv tliia rijil, an armv ^t-as aent 
about the year 1780 A. D., comiMiw-d piirtly of the Nawili'n 
lrut»i»i(, and partly of the Company'^ wjpoys; but owin^ 
to thc" intrigue* of Haidar Beg Khan, tiie tniuiirteT cf tb« 
Xawab Wa*ir Asaf-uddaula, and tho native coUoctora wb* 
oxtorti'd hirge cunis from thc zaminddrs. this mcwm 
£uled of (iucceas. DurinR two ymrs h« was fivquaaUy 
defeated and puniued : and at length being HurpriaM ffl 
hia camp, he was kiUod in endoarouring to m*lp» hii 

Baldeo Singh. *^>i^, the J4t lijfc of Bhartpfir. wm 
thti c^iiond son of Ranjit Singh. He niei;««drd to &• 
r^ after thc dcuth of his tddt^ brvtbcr Raudhfr Singk 

Baligh, i^t author of the "Dolael Zahin,' 

Kudmt," and MaValima. He was a native of lodta 
was living iu 1772 A D., 1186 A. U. 

Balin, erroneously written by some for Ballwn, which 
Balkini, t^*^, ri^ BiBuiini. 

Balwan Singh, *^ cf'r-> (who wa« always ooHed by lh» 
nalivt.4 of Airm a* the K.-i.thf-wala rija) wn." '^ •" thi 

eelflbratad Ohuit Singh, rdjd of Banaraa. ifk 

waa bom at Owaliur, and udvt his Catlier'b . . ... 
hi# faoiily livod in tlie eity of Agra for many y» 
monthly powion of 2000 rupe«(. He lo«l his nnlv 
Kuwar Chakarbati 8iugh on tU« 1 7tb of D- in» 

and aftrr n ftw diiy«. on the 26th of the ^ -.^^ 

redgii'"*! hie unoMuiUy prolonged life. Ihv only sorri- 
Ting mcmbtTs of thiA family are the widow of CbAkmrfaat£ 
Singh atMl hia childffn, a boy aged and a girl and 11 
yean. Balwaa fiingb ia thc author of a Diwan in VriL 

Balwant Singh. *^*-" ^^-^A « riij« or Eatxdadh dt 
Baimraa. Hi> was l\io father or brother of the 
Choit ffisgh who rvbtdled agimut the Btitiah, sad 




arrcflt.-d and depoaed by Mr. Hustings in 17S1. Balwnnt 
Singh safci^edcii his fathsr Man»a nam in 1740, A. D., 
nd^Dd 30 yoaiB, died in 1770, and was Bucoocdfd by 
Raji Chait Singh. 

Baltif i^^^t {p*fi« Jodt Bai), the daughter of rfji Udiiia 

Singh Ili^hor, commonly caUud Motha riji, she wna 
married to tlif euijjL-ror Jrihangir and bucacio thu mothur 
of bhoh Juhiin. ^bo died in 1019 A. I)., 1026 A. H. 

Salwant Singh, ^-^ '^•y^ rnja of Bhurtpur, suc- 
c<.-idt '1 hi-* rjitlK'i- Uiil'b'U Singh in AujipiKt 1H24 ; wan dis- 
pluct-d l>y "-ni; *if Ilia cQUitins, nauif-d Duijun .Sal, in Mun^h 
182j, IjuI i-u-iDstuU-U hy the British (.Ttivommcnt on tho 
I9th of .laimiiry IKSn. Uhiirlpiir waa sturua'd and taken 
• by thn Bingul trin(^.if und'-r Lord CombunntTt', on tho 
38th Junuiiry. The liriti.ih lo-^t ilnnng the siege 45 
ofliceni iiillod and wiiundwl, and Iff^H) men; tho taipmy 
lobt euniK tbuuditndti, and tho u.'«ur}K.-r Durjmi Sal wua aeized 
and sent to Allahabad. Hia father BiilJt^j Sinj^h wws thtt 
second hri'thtT of llandhir Singh. Iht! vlde>t uf th«/ four 
sons of lUuijit Siujih. th'j son of Ki'liri SinKh. lln' bntther 
of Raton tSingh, Ihi- brother of Juwiihir Sin^h, thr- ■win 
of Sunijmul, th'- w>n of Churtuimn Jat, thi ftiuiidijr of the 
prineipnlity. Ualwiint Siiii^h din! a^vd 31 yea r& on tho 
Uilh *if JIarth 1H6;{, and was ifinceudcd by hid infiuit son 
Juftvaut .Singh, 

Banana, ^'"Jj an Arabian poet whoso full name ia Abu 
Uakr-biu-BIuhunmmd bin-BiiuAna. Thiio has been an- 
other Din- liivn&nn, viz., Abu NjL*r-ibn-u]-'Aziz-li;n Baniiaa, 
who vnA a poot abo, and died at Ba^^hdad in I{JU9 A. D.f 
400 A. U. 

Bands, ''^j viJf Hazii^'iixiiRi). 

Banda, ***^> a guni or chief of the Sikhs^ and Buoc^saor of 
Guru Ciobind. I^ivi man ohLaimd grout power, and 
committed ^TL-Jit dcpr'-latiunH in tlw.- province uf Ijihor, 
in the n-i(cn "'f BiibiiJur Shah 1, and while the emperor 
was in Dnkhan u^'itinst his brother Kam Itaklish, Banda 
colleeted hi« fMlliiwers, to nivt-ngo tin? dewth ofhiapre- 
deccj*aor*s sons whu wt-ro taken prisoners, and had been 
put to death wjme time ago. lie eoniniitted the greatej^t 
cruelties on the Musialnifins. in even- advantage shewing 
. no quarter to age or wex, andeven ripping up womt-n with 
child. The eniijertir found it neeeastiry to mttrch in per^ 
HOn n^:ain»t him, find he waa biwiegfd in tin- fortresa of 
Lohgiirh, whieh wiw taken, hut Banda funnd meaiut to 
escape, and niiso new iii:*urre<-tion8. In thn reign of the 
empeivr Kumikhsir. "AIhIus Siiniad Khiin governor of 
Kflahmir Wftfl sent agjiinst th«' rt-hrU with a great army. 
After many Revere engageinenla, he fon'i'd Bauda to toke 
refugo in a fortnws, whieh wiia hlfM:kaded so effeetuiilly, 
aa to cut off every supply. Th' ganiton was reduced to 
the ncci*8riti,' of eating towi^, hui-sfs. Hii^efi, and other ani- 
mal>t furbiddt-n by their law« ; when at length, having no 
provision of any ^Jrt lell, and being re^luei-d to the ex- 
treuiity of faminV and disease, thi-y U>gged for quarter, 
'AbduH Samad Khaii, liaviiig plant'-d a »tindurd on tho 
pUin, i-^jinroanded them to eome out and lay their nrms 
under it, whieh tliey did. lie then divided the niertner 
aort among bis cliiefH, who cut ott' their heads ; and threw 
their lx«diea into a river m-ar t!i<' foitrfs^. lianda and 
other captives were sent to Dehli, thiuugh whirh Im? waa 
carried in lui iroit cagi.' upon an tlrphant, dressed in a 
rolM) of gold brocade. The Sikhs laire Oie insults of the 
populace with the grfJili'st Jitmn-'ss. and «t«-itdily it-fiiSL'd 
the emperor's ofTent of life if they would t.-nibniee the 
MuJiammadan faith. They were jmt lo death, a Imndred 
each day, on the eiu-uing sevi-n days. On the t-ighth djiy 
Banda aud hia son, wmi put to dtiiith witlloul tho eity. 
A dagger wa.4 put into hin hnuds, and hf waa eommanded 
to kill hifl infant Hou; but i-efueing, the child wiwdluin by 
ths exoculiuner, hia heart toiTi out, and furcod into the 


father's mouth. Banda was then put to death by tho 
tearing of hiH flenh with rtd hot pincers luul other tor- 
turer, whit h he liore with tliu gre«tt«t eonstaney. Thia 
event Uok plaee in the year 1715 A. U., 1127 A. IT. 

Bano Bogam, (^^^, thedaughUrof Shikhnawi* Khin, 
the son of the W'azir Asaf Khan, wifo of tho emperor 
Alamgir, and niothir of 'Aaim Shah. 

Barahman, c^*^/^i poi'tical title of a Brihmon whoso namo 

WHS t han^lar Bhun, which see. 
Barbak, '^j^, thesonof BahlolLodi, kiugofDohli. Vide 

Iluiiain Shah »Sliarki. 

Barbak Shah, »^ ^J^, Purlii, the wn of Nisir Shih, 
whom hf feUureedL^d to tho throne of B«tngal in 1458 A. D, 
He ri'igned for a period of 17 jeuni and ditd in If 7-1 
A. IJ., W70 A. H. 

Barbarasea (Aruch)^ *-«;^j'-?, « ftinious pirato. Being 
cJilled in tu art-tint .Saliin, priuee of Algiers. iigiaEi»t the Spa- 
niards, he luurdere'd that iH<mjireh, aud took*!<-iun 
of hjj* tlirone. Ho aftem-ards laid Megf to Tuiii.'*. whieh 
ho took, nnd cause<i himself to be jirorhumed ftovfivign. 
Ho was besieged by the Alapquia of Oomarea and reduwd 
to tho gieateat ditjtnw*. He escaped by a Hubterranetiua 
paf>aage. but wu« overtaken with a small number of Turks, 
th'' whnlo of whom died sword in hand in 1518, A. D. 

Barbarasea, L-^jit jl* the famous Corsair. Sulaiman, em- 
peror f>f tho Turks, guve him tho title of Kbair-uildm, 
and mndi- him afterward?* Pasha of the Hoa. He suool-lxI- 
ed Ills brother Aruch, who cunqiiorod the kingdom of 
Alt^itTs. after having killed Salim th« Ar.ibian king, lltj 
took Tuni.s, Ib^ii A. U., 'HO A. H.» afbT having driv'^n 
out the Viai'tiaiitf, but Andn' I)uria rUt^uk it agiiin, 1636 
A. D., 943 A. il. After this, hu ravaged (M-vrral parts 
of Italy, and reduced Veiniu, in Arahiu t'tUx. to the 
T'lrkitdi govemnieut. Khair-uddin dii-d at Cuaataiiti- 
noplc in 1646 A. D., 953 A. H., aged 80. 

Barbud, ^i).} a famona Persian musician, maatorof music 
tu Khuaro Parwez king of iN^isia. He Lompoac4 an air 
called Aormgi, and invented a um^ieal inHtrument (a sort 
of lym) whieh bears his mime : eu., Baibud or Barbut. 

Barizir iSJjr'-i the sttn of "Abdul XtahiDL, an Arabian author 
whfi wrifte H rommentarj- on the work called "Asrar-ul- 
Tauzih" He died in 1337 A. D., 738 A. H. Thia author 
uppL-ars to be the wime with Bazirt, which two. 

Barkj cLHj poetical namo of Muhammad Razi. 

BaiTkali, tr'O^j ^*^ namo of two Muhammadan docton; 
the une died in 1563 A. D., 900 A. II.. and the other in 
1.573 A IJ.. UHJ, A. U. They are nomeliuiw called Bin- 
gili, which sue, 

Barkat-iUlah (Sayyad), *^^ '^O^ •^^^^ styk-d '^Sahih. 

ul-Barktit," was the oon of Sa>->ad Awcifl. the sun of ^Ii'r 
'Alrtlul .lalfl, tho Bon of Mir 'AImJuI Wiliid Sihahidl of 
Bilu'Uam. His poetical name Wi** 'Ishl;^!. and as his 
grandfather's tomb waa in Mihapi in the district of Agni, 
he wunt Hud lived in that villag..' till the day of his death 
whieh hnppem' I on tho ^^6th of July. 1720 A. D., loth 
iJuljarnim, 1142 A. H. 

Barkayarak (Sultan), A^ji J"^^! the eldest son of 

Silvan MiJikuhah tSitljuki. whom he 8uecced*«l in 1092 
A. l>: 4W5 A. 11. Hi-* usual residence was Baghdad. 
Ilia brother, Muhammad rubU over Asur-bejin ; while 
8iinjar, his third brother, established a kingflom in Khura- 
san and TranM>iiana» fnmi whence be extended his con- 
qucftts ovtr tho fallen printed of tiha«u. Barkuyimlf 
reigned twelve yoars and died in Bocomber, 1104 A. 1>. 




408 A. H. His brother Sul(ia MuhunmBd succeeded 

him I 

Barmak, ****^J*, U»« name of n noble family, originally 
from Rnlkh in Khur4»ari» and highly ccIcbraU-d all oyr 
the Kast (or thrir penpmsity, niajmifircneu, und diatin- 
guiffhfd pHtronage of men of genius. Oqh of Lhw must 
iItu»tnou8 wa* yuvf-rnor to the khuh'f Huriin-ftl-Raahid^ 
and hiH *on Ja'far, uft^rw/irda niini*tt r to th*t prince ; hut 
hiiving inouiTiHl hv displftasun?, hv with •i-vi-rul of the 
hviuia of thu family warn put to death. Vtiit Ja'fitr-al- 

Baroda, l^jjJ, ^J^ c^ ^■''' VtUjL 

Basaeiri, k£J^^t f» glutton) wai the nickname, find 
an^-rwdrdfl the surname of Armnl&n. who from a riave 
ht-Cfimo rnminandcrin-Chiof of the armlet* of BahA-ad- 
tbitiln, thr wiizir uf thu klmlif of Uughditl Having 
qunrreUod with him he fie«i to Kg>-]>t nnil put him*'lf under 
the prf)t<K-tiun of Al-MuManntfir BiU&h. the fittli khalif of 
Kg>TJt of thoFfttimitod\*naiitv. A fV^r wime time he camo 
to Baghdad. Ht- took'Ka/^m. Iht^ 'ifith khalif of tho Ah- 
haaidee, prisoner in Baj^lidad, dopo*"*-*! him, and raustJ 
Jkluotnna^ir, to Iw acknowledged the only and I'fjititiiittt' 
rhiff of nil xhf. >!tisalnianR. Ho imiinUiincd MuKtiinaair 
in the hhila6tt for one y.'ar and a luilf. uftt-r which Tu- 
ghnU B<^g, >ultin of the SaljVikid**, put K,a»-'m on the 
throne of Bughdid a^ain. defrut*d and killed Hasasiri 
10^9 A. D., 4ol A. H , and ttunt his hi^ud to Kaem, who 
CBU»ed it to be carhod oa a piku through the streets uf 

Baslur-ibn-ul-I,ai8, *^' ty^'^;*^, or Lwth, the hro- 

ther of the anzh-rtlK-l lUfa-ibn-uM^is, who had revolted 
against Hiirun-al-ICaiihid the kluiltf nf Ha^hdad in the 
year 806 A. D.. 190 A. U , at Snmiu-^nd. and aaticmhled 
a coniiidenihlu fun'e to mrpport him in his defection ; 
notwilhslAnding nil Harun's cAre, the roheU made in 807 
A. Dm 191 A. H.. greut progr^sH in the conqueet of 
Khuruiin. According to Abul Faraj, in the year 809 
A. D., 193 A. H., Bashi'r was brought in chains to Harun, 
who was then at the point of death. At the sight of him 
the khah'f dtn^lored, that if he could speak ouly two worda 
he would say kill him ; and immediately ordered him to 
bo cut to piec(2« in hid presence. 

Basitii k^'^^ .i poetical neune of a penon who is the author 
of the biography of poeta called " Tazkira Bitiiti. 

Ba:iU8, cr>** -f an Arabian woman, &om whom originated a 

war, called Harb-i-Baafis, which hiu nnee become a proverb 
to expTMfi, "Qmat orenta from littlo canaea." Two 
Arubiun trihea fought about 40 years, bec-auat' a camel 
b«ilonging to Ihit woman broke a hen's egg ; the owner 
ol the egg wotmdi.-<l the camel with an arrow, and the two 
tnliM were icatautiy in armi. 

Batalmiyuai, t,r" J t '^ ^l t an Arabian author, who died 

iu 1030 A D.. 421 A. U. He wrut« a tmatiBc on the qua- 
lities reqairite in a secretary and good writer, and anulhei 
OD groealogios. 

Batu Khan, tJ^j^, tha aoa of Ji\jt Khin, and grsnd- 
Btm at Clutngns Khan. He ruled at Kipchak and was 
rMttnupunuy with I'ope lunorunt IV. 

B uwab> v(^; (or Doawib) mnumie of Ab£1 Haaoo 'AU 

Kala^ who ifl I)elter known under the nameof ibn-Bouw&b. 
U IB h" who improved the form of the Arabic Alphnbi-t 
aaer Ibu&liikla. Ul> died in 1023 A. 1).. 413 A. H., or 
Mtocneaay in 1032 A. £>., 423 A. H. Aflor him Y&'kdb. 
•unuuaedMuitaa'cimi, reduced it to ita present form. 

£aian, c/^» the portic*l name of Khwija Ahsaa-oddin ur 
Ahaan-uUah Eh&n uf Agra, vho wai living at Dehli in 
1760 A.!), 1174 A. U. 

Baiazid I (Sultan), 'V^*^ c*"^-, whom we call 

Bajaiet, f<nmamed Ilderim, or Lightning, aucreeded hi> 
futht-r Murad I (Amurftth) in 1389 A. D., 791 A, H^ a» 
Kultan of the Turks. He caused hi« elder brother Ya*kn) 
hia rival for thti throne, to be strai)gl<.*d, an art of bark 
which since his time hm^ bocomr- a cuNt4)m ut the Turl 
court. He conquered Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Thea-" 
Baly ; and uft^r he hnd made the emperor of Conatan* 
tinople tributjir)' to hi£ power, ho marched to attack 
Tumorlaue in (he eaiit. Ue waa, howcvtr. totally defeated 
near Angorin on Friday tb*- 'ilst July, 140*^; A. D., \9th 
^1-hij^ja, S04 A. H., and tak»'n prisoner ; and when the 
proud conqueror ajtked him what he would have done 
with him if he had obtained the victory. Baiaaid answered 
that he would have confined him in an iron cage. ** Such 
then shall be thy fate," rejoifti-d Tnmerlane, and ordered 
him to be carried nbout with hia i-amp in an iron cage. 
Bainzid diofl on the 8th of Man-h. I40a A. D,, 13th Sha*. 
ban. hOu A. H., at Antiorh in Hfidiu during faia conAoe- 
ment in Taimi'ir'^ cjimp. llii^ bun ^fusa. who was with hit 
father at tht* time of his death, brought hia reui&iufl to 
Bruwi and buried there. During hia (%[uita'tt) abaenor in 
the camp, bitf brother Sulniman had aaecndcd the throne. 

Baiacid II, '*V>?^ cj^^^, (Sul^) emperor of Tiufc*y 

Buccpivlcd hifi father Unhammad II. to the throne uf 
C^inhlrtntinoplo u\ Mny. 1481 A. T) . Kabf T. 886 A. H. 
He ixlundt-tl the boundariffl of hia kingdum ; and obliged 
thu VfiieiJiins to mul* for peuce. His reign wua diatraclad 
by inti>Atint' discord, and he fell by the (K-rfidy of hia son 
Salmi I. who cauflod him to be poisoned in 1512 A. D.. 
918 A. H.. in the tfOth year of hi* age and Slst of bi» 
reign. He was a man of uncommon talenta, and did 
much for the improvement of hia empire, and the prano- 
tiou of the «cience9. 

Baiazid Ansari, t/;^' '^^^'^j the Afghan Apo«U«^ 

called I'ir Koiihun, founder of the Sufi »oct called " E6- 
Bhania," or "the enlighlen<d." He hnd edLibli.shi>d amid 
the mountaina uf Afghanistan a temponil power upon Uw 
authority of hia spiritual ch'imcter, which eiuibled hin 
and hia succe^oru to disturb the tranquillity of tha Kn- 
pire uf Dfhli. when, under the celebrated Akbar, it had 
reached the verj' senith of ita power, 

Baiaaid Bustami (Khwaja), i/'^^ ^.^i^ **■*> 

the famoua aeeetic of Buatdm, whoae origin ' -r^ wii 
Tftifuri , he in thert^fore Aometimes cnUnd H,i ii. 

al-Bustami. His father's nAUie wm 'l-m-il.:. .l.: .Im- 

'Isa-ibn-'Ali. Hia grandfather was a Uabr or nagian. 
but bectime a convert to Jalamisiii. Tb>isri two brotben 
Adam and 'Ali. were like himself, devout aM-etii^. but in 
an inferior degree. He was bom in the ytjur 777 A. D, 
160 A. H., lived to a great nge, ;itid died tnitweon thv 
ytuira 845 or 848 A. D., 231 or 2SI A. H . but ftocording 
t«j llm-Khalikan bin death took place in 876 or £78 A. D,, 
2til or ::ti4 A H. Ho in ttaid tn have Wtm a cvtumpodcy 
of Ahmud Rhiaroya who died 240 A. U. 

Baiasid Khan, iJ^ **iJriW fiinjdar of Sarhind, who w*» 

t'ommandfid by the emperor Farrukh-aiyar to ptuit«b tfa* 
8ikhs. who hud vinm in rebellion ; he took the fiebl, but v«l 
luMPitsinatcd in hi»> t4.'Ut when alone at evening itrayen, by 
a 8ikh commiAMoned for that purpose by Bandathi*irc^iii^ 
and the murderer cBcapod unhurt. This einnimflteaoetook 
* place about the your 1714 A. D., 1128 A. H. 

Baiazid (Siiltan), >^yj^* tj^^^. There ia * oaMfai))k 

at Chnti^'tton, called the Ranaa of SuUin Biiuid. tl 
ia related that he was bom at Bostam in Khurinla, of vhkh 
coimtr}* hi! wtia king ; but abumluning ivgal ponit^ and 
carea for the tntnquillity of the awttic life, he cam** with 
twelve attending disriplpa to Th.-itigaim. Thrir ii/riTal 
wmi promptly uppoited by the king of the hwriw aad tfc* 




altend&Eil genii, who dt^rod them forthwith to depart. 
Silica liaiuzid with f( ig^nod humility, entreated to be 
allowed to rt'Tnain that iukIU uiiJ to u*'cupY only aa much 
ground as could be illumed br a singlr lamp, called in 
Bengali. i:liii^i' or rhut ; on obtjiluiiig^ th»!ir coniicnt, he 
kindli*^! from his unne a lump of such rudinnce, that its 
light extended to Tik Nnof. n distnncp of I'JO miles, and 
scorched the torrifti^d gctili, who iled from it« flame in dis- 
may . In (Ommcmonitiun of Ihio event, the place waa 
named Chjitiffnira. in common pjirlAnc*'. Chatjtiion, signi- 
fying the villiniift? uf the bimp. This insult and breach of 
eonfidfnce, led to implacBbli* war on the purt of the ^nii, 
whom Sul^iin Uainzid, in variouB conflicts, drovf from th*^ 
field; and in hid ^trr-imoua exL-rtiona drop|W a rin;jf wher*-' 
tho cenotaph niiw stands— his Kaninphul, orear-rinp. fell 
in the river, which thf^irp wm named the " Karanphiili ;" 
and B saukh, or «hi'll, droppi.-d from his hand, into the 
other wtrtam. from whii-h it derived the Tmme of San- 
khauli. Sultan Bju';i2ul then become a Gorcheht (i. *., did 
penunce in the tomb) for 12 years: after endowing- it with 
lands to keep it in repair und Jt;fray the eipennes of pli- 
grima and the twehe diwiplBit. — he proce'"ded to Malciin- 
pur, and wan BUCTtx'ded liy his dinL-iple tfhah^who in tlie 
hope of im eternal reward, performed the ptmince of 
standing fur 12 yean* on oce leg, after which ho also pro- 
ceeded to M;ikun]mr ; h-uving thn et:niitJiph under the 
charge of Shah Pir, an attending dist^iple of Baia/.t'd. 
Thiii place wa* thi^refuro in iitleriigL's held in great repute, 
and riaited by niimeroua pilgrims* from distant part^. It 
ifl aittmtod on u hill, .-weendud by a flighi of stepa, im-bmed 
by a wall about 31} fei.4 scjiijitl' und 15 hijafh, with mitred 
battlemuntfl. and a pilhir rising two Unit above thenk at 
i>mrh angle, similar to the buildings of the time of Akbar. 
Tho tomb, flhimt 12 fret by 9, in in the centre of the area, 
with some shells and comla depoaited at ite boad. 

Baiazid Taifuri-aJ-Bufltami, j^ii^-Vr ^j^i^ *^>!^, 
tide Baiazid Bustdnii. 

Baa Bahadur, J«>tJ ■> whow original name waa MiUik 

B&iazid, Bnet»edL'd his father Shujaa' Khan to the govern- 
ment of MAlwa in 1554 A. D., 962 A. H., and hnving 
taken {>oss<;(s.ion of many towns in Malwa which were 
preTiouftly almost independent, he aittended the throne 
under the title of Sultan Daz Bahadur. Ilia attachment 
to itdpmjini, a celebrated euurteain of that ago, bw^HMie 
ao notorious, that th»t Iovps of Bag Bahadur and Kupmani 
have been handed down te ])0Mt''rity in ^ong. He reignwl 
alviut 17 yeare, after whirh the kin«dom of Malwa wan 
tftken, and includid amung tho pntvinees of th«' empire of 
X)t}hli, by tho einpi'H-r Akbar in the yi'ar 1570 A. 1> , 97B 
A. H. Bar Bahadur aft'jrwai-da joined Akbar at Oehlt and 
iieoeived ft eommisMnn US an officer of 2000 cavalry. Biii 
Bahadur and Ikupmani both an buriod in tht) uentn uf 
tho tank at Ujjtiin. 

Bazil, J^^^ rids Rafi Khin Bazil 

Baztl, J^-t the poetical name of Badr-uddin lamafl-ftl-Tab- 

ris:i, an Arabian author. 

Bazlri, <SjJ-i author of a poem entitled " Koukab-al-T>ar- 
riat" or thn Brilliant SUir. in prnian of MnhAmmad. who 
enndhim, aa ho aaid. of the palay in a dream. Kvcry 
lino of iJie poem ends with an M, the initial of the [»r*»- 
phet'fl name, and it is so highly valu'jd. that many of the 
MuluLRimadans learn it by-heart, on aecouitt of ita mux- 
ims Lcmpriere'a Univmnal Dictionary under Uauairri. 
Hirisf and Ba^iri appears to be the same person. 

Baz Khan, \J^ Jt» an amir in tho aeirice of the em- 

peror Baha^lur ShAh. He was kilbfd in tli*- battle against 
Azim 8h4h on the Htb June, 17U7 O. S., IStb KaU' 1, 1118 
A. H.^ at Dhaulpur. 

Bazmi, <^^, author of the PadmAwat in Persian venie. 

He wa«a native of £arkh and renided for some time at 
Shirii. He came to Gujrat during the n<igii of tha 
om peror Jahangir, and compost the a hove mentioned poem 
in 1619 A. D., I02« A. li. He wan li\-ing at Dehli in 
the time of Shah .Tahin. ftboat the year 1634. His proiier 
name in 'AbduJ Shakur. 

Bazzaz, jlj^, the author of tho " Adib-aUMufridit" or a 
treatise on the particular conditions and propertien of 
traditiona, und some other worka on the Muhamniaditn 

Bebadal Khan, ^:r^ <-''^*^) n poet of Pensria who wimo 

to [ndia in th^- n'ign of the emperor Jah&ngir* and flou- 
rished in the tiim- of Shfih Jaban, who conferrt-d on him 
tho title of Brbjidril Khan. Undnr his superinl-nnden**) 
the Peacock throne waa couatriK-tcd. Hrliailat iChari 
appears to bo the former title of Abu Talib Kalim. 

Bedar, ^'"^t^* the poeticjil name of Sttnith Singli, a Hindu, 
who was living in 1753 A. D., llflfl A. II. 

Bedar, j'*^^j an author whoao proper name waa Imiliti 
Bakhah, a native of Ambila. He ia tho author of tho 
work called " Tirikh Sa'adat," being nn aeeount of the 
pnigrPBS of the dynasty whirh nilfd ovir Audh fnirn 
Shiijiia'-uddttula to tta'adat 'All Khan, to whose name the 
title is an illu^^ian. It wiut eompoiwd in 1812 A. D., 12'27 
A. H. He ia also the author of aeveml Masnawia. one of 
which contains the praisoa of Nawab Sa'adat 'All KhAn, 
called " Oulahin-i-Sa'adut." He was living in the tuao 
of Nuair-uddin Haidar, king of Audh. 

Bedar Bakht, ^^^^jl'H^j (Prince), son of "Arim ShAh. 
He wart killed in th« battle fought by hia father againat 
the eniperur BahAdur Shth on the »th June, 1707 O. S., 
1119 A. H. 

Bedar Bnkht, ^^^jt'H', son of Ahmad Shih. king of 
iJehli He waa eb-vated to the Ihnme of L>i'tilt on tho 
Ut September, 1788 A. D., •J7lh i!i-Kft'd,i r202 A. H., 
whi.n <fliulam Kiidif impriaetved i>\ia.h. Alam. Bedar 
Hjikht continued to reign until tht* approach of the Mar- 
haltaw toward* DeKli. when ht^ fli-d upon the I2th (JctoWr, 
1788. but wiwaulisequently apprehend^.Hl aud murdonjd by 
the ordirs of Shah Alam. 

Bodil (Mirza), J*^ ^jj^i the poetical name of SafdaJ 
Uilani, wliich see. 

Begam Sultan, cJ^^»L- ^, » udy of rank, whose tomb 
IB to he eeen to this day, outaide of the gatt- of Ya'tmad- 
uddanla's maiisol. urn in Agra. From the inacription that 
ia on her tomb, it iippeara that she diini in the time of the 
emperor Hiiirm> un in loSS A. D- 946 A. H., and that aho 
W1U1 the diLU>jht*!r of Shaikh Kamil. 

Begana, ^^'i thi* poetical name of Abd'l Hann. 
Bekaai (Maulana), y-^ ^ V'j » pwt who lived in 

the time of tbr emperor .\kbar. 
Bekasi (Maulana), tr-^,-! ^^9^t » P«»t of ShSr4x who 

wan cotimiiwrary with Ghirali, who died in the year 1111 

A. D., JUo A. H. 
Bekhabar, J^^*^* th" poetical name of M(r 'Axmat-nlhUi, 

scm of Lutf.uUah of Bilgarim. He dii.Mi in 1729 A. D., 

1142 A. H.. at Dehli. He i* the auLhur of the work 

calbnl " Safinao Bekhabiir." 
Bekhud, ^^^^t pooiicAl name of Mulk J4mi Uhauri 

Namdor Khani, which see. 




Bekhud, ^J^'^i poetical nnm« of SajT-Ad ITftdi 'AU, »on of 
Sayyrii! Nwtir 'AU Sehr, unci Hntfanr of R Dtwin. 

Betaby V^i whose proper name U Ahhas 'Alt' K1i4n, which 

CdDg&lt Stiltins ami Govpmora of, tui* 3Iuhiimmud Bukb- 

ta'iu- Khiiji, and Khaii Jah&n. 
Berar, jb'. ^b, riji oi; nA Righ^.ji BhAdltt. 

Bhagwan Das (raja), cr''^!>^ *^t;, r«!l,Hl by Abfi'l 

Vur.\ JJhnij'Wunt I^jU. wum the son of Rajii Hihoro StiJ 
Kiirhhwiih/4 of Aruhhar or Amtr, now Jaipur. Ilis 
dftu^ht* r was nmrriwt to the prinrc Mirzu SaJim fnftcr- 
w»ril« Jnhdngir) in Uic year loSo A. T)., 993 A. Jl.. by 
whom ht? h*t(l u dauphtor luiracd .Su]tiji*un-nisa Ik'jfum, 
lind thim a son who now wiis .Siiltun Khiwro. Bhugwin 
his dit?d IWo days ofttT thu dt^th of riiijii Todur Mnl, *. c, 
ou thp loth Novembijr, 15H9 A. I)., Kith Siul^iirram 998 
A. H., at I^ihor. Aft*'r hia dtJiUi. tho empfrur Akbur, 
who w(i8 thnn ut Kibul, tonfenwl Ihcj title of lUja on hitf 
fri.n Miin Singh with th. rank of &000, 

Bhagwant Singh, *^ ^J^, linl of Bhaolpfir 

(1867). llo died on the Uth Febnuiry, 1873. 
Bhanbu Khan, ij^j^, Ih© sod of Zabiti Khin, which 


Bhau, ^^^^ n Mnrlmtta vhic^t Vids Sadivhoo Bh£6. 

Bhau Singh, *^ J^, alao calltd Minta lUji, wn« the 
SDcond uiTi of Haj& Man Singh, \\\c son nf Kija BhiijBpv'^ 
Dfia Kat'hliwiUiJi. Htj auccc-wli'd to iho rij aftt-r his 
ffttfaor'ii dtvLt)! ill L6H A. D.. 1023 A. H . was riii»ed to 
the rank of 5000 by thi> rmpfiror, and died of 
drinking 1631 A. D.,'lOao A. H. Two of biA wiven and 
fi^ht courn)>inp« burnt thomtk-dvcs on his fiint'nU pyn.'. 
Aiuc>ng Jahui^j'tr's courtiers iho rajas of Anibur w«r.* the 
unM uddit'tod tt> drinking. Ilis oldos-t brother J ftf<jtt 'Sinph, 
and Mtiku .Sini^h hin nephew, had likcwiiifi paid wiUi tlit-lr 
livos for tht-ir drunken habits, but their fiite wao no 
IcDBon for lUja l3hAu. 

Bhara Mai (Kaja), '^ b^„ tide BibAn Mai. 
Bhartpur, ^ *=*,t^ ^^h ruj4 ol, n'rfr Chui^uuiu Jit. 

Bhaskar Acbarya, "^Jj^'j^-^i a most colebiHted hb- 

Ironoiuf^r of Ibu iiindua, who was bom «t BbUe, a city in 
the iXtkhun. in the year of SalivAhaoa, 1036, corrMpond- 
ing with thL' year 1114 A. D.. fi08 A. H. Ho wns the 
uuthor of scveml troutiH-s, of n-hich the Lilawriti and the 
BtJ» Ciunita, rulntin^ to urithnietir, gt'ometrj' and al* 
(l^vbro, (lud Ihu Sij'omoni', :ui tiatniiioinicul truutiM), are 
accounted the most valuable atithoritirvi in thust> aciimuBS 
whirh India jM3S8f«Ka. The Siromuni in dclivcied in two 
SfH'tJonK, i\\v (.iobi-Adhyayo, or the Lecture on th" Olobe, 
and the (.jaiiita Adh\iiya. or lb'- X«f<'fure on Nuuib*'ni, ua 
apldiiHl to itstiviioiiiy. The I.iUw.iti' wna tnuulatcd into 
lY'iTjian by KniT.i iu Ihu n.'ii^u of Akbar, and an Euglish 
UonDbition hjwi tilso been lat*^'iy nuidr by Dr. Taylor und 
publiahcd at Uunibay. Uhaskar died :it an udvHUcod ap'^ 
lK.<inK upwards of TO yearn. Liliiwuti was the nume of 
his only dau>^hter who died unmarried. 

Shim Singh, *^ (»V> rfn* <>' TJdoipfir, was living in 
17.50 A. D. 

Bhim Singh Bathour, )j^b *^ f^> Ho nmirped 

the throne of Jodlipur in 1793 A. D., on his ^aiidfalher's 
death by debat of Zolim tSingh, and dic-d in 1803. Hv 
was succeeded by Man Singh. 

Bhim, /Ht^ *^bi raja of GujriL in whoac time 8iil(in 

Mahmvid Ghanutwi took the famous temple of Somnith 
in 1027 A. 1). 

Bhoj (Baja). ^yt* **L), vitit liiji BhAj. 

Bhori Rani, y-*'; cf^, the Ust of the wives of Mnhahyi 
lianiil Singh, she died rhildleas at Lalior on the 6»h of 
April, 1872. Utr aJopt'-d son Kiiwar Bhiip 8i»j|;h 
distributed lai-g-u sumfl of money before and aflor hi-r 
death ait alms to the jioor. UTk? funeml was very ^nuA. 
Her remains weru bnnit near the tntmidh of the late Ma- 
hariijiL, and ihr obhes w<-rc sent to l»e thrown into thr 
Gangna tit Haiilwir. She drew u pi:nsion of 800 rup*us 
por mensem from oar Govoninient and held jigin of 
upwardit of OO.OuO rupees per annum. 

Bhuohchu, J^-j vifff Zurra. 

Bhuya, ^. ^t^ cj^i^, a nobloman of tho court of Sukin 
Sikandar Ix)di, who built the maBJid Math in D<»hU, hut 
wa* fiftorwardii HHsasainnled by that prinee without any 
crime, only Un'ttuse peopb; uiwd to oAsomble at hie plsco. 

Bibi Bai, t^^ *^»^* ^'- *"^»^ of Muhammad ShAh 'A4il 
kinp of Dehli, nuirri**d to Salmi Shah Stir by whom du 
had a son named Fir6z. After the death of Suli'fn Shah, 
when Fir6K, then an infiint, was bflinp munletvil bv hi* 
ancle Mulianunad ShAh. she defend.*! her son for tuma 
time in hei anna, prewnting^ h.-'r boily to the dagger, Imt 
her enitl br<ithnr tore the yoiinjr prineo from her emVrect* 
and in her jircwnce severr d his hwid from his body. Thii 
event took place iu Slay, 1j54 A D. 

BibiDaulat Shad Begam, r^ o^ ^^jd t^^, oneef 
the wivus of the emperor Akbar and the mother of Shakr* 
unnisa Bo(fum. who Bun-ivt-d her father, and dic-d in th<^ 
time of Jaliangir. 

Bibi Marwarid, '^i)bj^ u'tj^i ^-ifo of the late Amij 
Afzal Khiin, ilii-d in St-ptembur, 1874 A. D. 

Bibi Zinda Abadi, ^5*^' ^j is*^/-i eommonly nJW 
Bibi Jind M'udi by tho peoplo of L\iicha, was one of tbf 
drHcendonts of Sayyad Jalal. .She im buritil m* '" ' * ^j, 
Sliiltan. T'hu donu; in which she rfjitw i« er* ■ -. .'. 

lirii-kft and cemented by mortar. The wholo ■_. ... ^.j, - 
is oniamenU'<I by various hues, and lupit fuzutt at th» 
celebrated utines of Badakhfthin. The idxo of this gtaiul 
building may bo ostimatod ut 50 fout high» and Che ar- 
cumierunce 25. 

Bihari Lai, *^ </;V, ft eelebrnted Hindi poet, cftUed by 
Uikhrist tho 'ITiomson of tliu UinduH, und much admired 
among them ; he Rpi/oans to hitv^. UoujimIhiI about tin* 
U^ginninjif of the Uth centurj-. B<'ing inf-dti ■<! tli 
prjucf Juuioh of Jaipur was ao infattuttcd witf. 
of a ver>" young girl he liad marrii-d. as to n. - 
thii affair! of his country J for he never > nn. i ^, ..;, ;.,\, 
ing »hut himself up to contemplate Uu- I > ^t■ ,ti,,_- , - rnt« 
of his bcauU'ous, though inmiatunj brid" ; |, ] ^ 

ventured to aduioninh him by bribing a slavi ,'. 

vey a couplet, which he Imd ccm)>ot^t^ und i 
tho translulion of which ia thua given 1- t] 

"When the flower blooms, wliat will bo tb< ,{ 

the trff, that ia now caplivatiMl with a Iwd, in which ii»«r» 
is neither fnigmnce, sweeta. or colour." 'lliij i^j npi 
only the dwtirt-d olfect of rouaiiiu iho prinee from ha* 
letharg}', but exiilixl in his breast a gmturous n^aH 
for the man, whoso ad\ico came so scawunably an«l i3l»* 
gsnlly dijiguist'Kl. Bihari received, «vpr uftvr, a pcnik« 
from court, with a pn?*ont of more tb n, .-m.. thouMad 
pounds, fur a work he published under tj ; *«^j^, 

Kii," fnjin its eonaiHtiiig of seven huudr- : 

Bihari MaU l)'^ iS)^, nlso coU^^ Bbammal and P^tw 
nukl, a rkja of Amlihgr or Ameir, now Jaipdj^ was a rtjput 





«f the tribe of KftchhwAha. He paid homage to BAhar 
•bout the year 1627 A. D.. and wa* on friendly terms 
with tiiu wnperor Alttmr. and had at an early period given 
hiM daughtor in ni»rriiig*? lu him. of whom waa born thu 
emper'jr .lahanKir. holh he ami his son Kiji Jihagw&ii 
Di* wen; admitted at the wimd time to a hig^h rank in tht- 
iniiwrial army by the emptror. Bhjitfwaa Das Rave his 
dauifhtor in utarriagt- to Jahongir in 16H6 A. D., who wimi 
mjirritNl next year (1686) to iho daughter of R^4 Udai 
Siiu^h, eOQ uf Hao Maldeo Kathur. 

Bija Bai, ^. ^, or Bijf Bii, the wife of Maharaja 

Dnulrtt Ituo Srindhia of Owallir. After the dt-ath of hiT 
hu.ittnnd who dii<d without iMue. sho dotted Jhnnko lliio 
Sciudhia aft his Hurri'aeor on the Iftth June, 1827. Sim 
wu expfl3»-d by him in 1833, and went over to Jbaimi 
where «he had a Urjre estate. 8ho diud at Gwaliar about 
the middltj uf tti« year 1863. 

Bljaipal, JV t*^i * fiimoua or fabuloiia r&j* of Bay&na, 
regarding whose power, richea, and eitfnt of dominion, 
many ruriflua talps arc atill current among' the Bhartpur 
Jat^ who awert thuir fnpurioua) diia&ent £roiQ him. In 
the *' liijuipil Kaaa," a metricitl romant'ti! or bulUd (written 
in the Birj hliikha) the Hindu aoholar wili find a full and 
parti>'ulur ar-cuunt of this great Hindu CDonarch, who is 
fablKl to hiiTii conquortMl raja .Jtimi'pwsir, tho father of 
Pirthi liaj, the eeUhrated chauhan king of Dehli. and to 
havu ruU'd dospotii'ttlly ovor the whole of India. The 
Karuiili rajA too baatta his doarunt from BijaipAl, and if 
any faith can hvt placed in a " Bana&oli or genealogical 
treff.'* he ha^i a fair rl&im to the benc'fita, real or imagiruiT)', 
reaulting thLTcfrom, 

Bijai Singh, *"** *^^' ^" °^ '*j* Abhai Singh, tho son 

of ilaharija A]it 8ingh. Kathor of Judhpur, lacceeded 
to tho raj in 17-'>2 A. 1>., 1167 A. U. Ho became infa- 
tuated with fondnuaa fur a young courubine ; his cfaiefd 
mbellttd, hid family were lu hostility with each other. 
aad he left at hia death the throne itsvlf in diapute. 
Raji Man ^ingh at len<;th Ni]r>reedud, in 1804, tu the 
honon and the feuds of BiJai Singh. 

AXi- .X*. 

Bou of Hi^i Bhagwin Daa. 

Bijui Singh, 
rub Uimji. 

Bikrami, ns^lr^f the poetical name of Mir 'Abdtir Rahm^ 

Wizarat Kh^in, brother of Kiaim Khan, the grandfather 
of SamBam-uddaula Khiihnawax Khan. Ilu wna promo1^-d 
in tho reign of tho emperor 'Alamgir to the IXwani of 
Uilva and Bijapur. He waa an exrellunt poet, and has 
left a Diwan cumpuHcd in a most beautiful 8t>'le. 

Bikranmjit, ''^^'^^^jr*^> urmore properly VikramAditya. 
a celubmtod nororeign of Milwa and (jujrit, whose capital 
wai Vjain. tii^ era called the Sambat ia still uaed in 
the north of Inilia. Bibramajit diod or oHrendod thn 
throne in the K&li Jug, year 3044, according to Wilford, 
whom uaeaya in the 9th and lUih volumea of the Asiutic 
Reaearuhi^ contain the fulleet infunnution on tho hijitorj- 
of the three suppoaed princes of thiii name, and of their 
common nTul Balivahana. The first Sambat year, there- 
fore, concors with the year 3046 of thta KmIi Jug yuar, 
or 67 years befure thu birth of Christ. This prince waa 
a great patron of learned mi-ti ; nine of whom at his coitrt 
are callod the nine gema, and are aald tu huvu bei-u Dhun- 
wantari, KsluLffanaka, Amera Sifiha, Saiiku, Vetalubhatta, 
Ghatakarpara, Kilidaja, Virahamihira, and Vararuchi. 

Bikram^it (Hajah), -^-*^^*^'ji V*^ KaeratrDAa. 
A Ehatre. 

£ilal, J^j the name of the crier, who a»od to announce to 
the people whttn Muhammad prayed^ Hewasan Afnoan, 
and a friiod tJave uf MuhiLiiuuad. Uu died in thu lime 


of Dioar the second KhaUf after Muhammad, in the year 
641 A. D., 20 A. H. 

BUai Kunwar, jyi-Jilj^ the wif« of the emperor 'Alamgir 
11. and mother of Shih 'AJam, king of Dehli. Her title 
WHS Zinat Mahal. 

Bilkaiitl, ^*^j whose propOT name was Abii Ha&, is 

the author of the worka called " Mahaain.uJ-Iatilah," 
"Sharah Bukhari," and " Tarundi." He died in 1402 
A. I).. 805 A H. See Siraj-uddm son of Nur-uddm» and 
Abu Hafs'iU-Bukhari. 

Binai, vjT*^* (Maulina), his father wan a reapoctable 

an'liitect at Hirat, the birthplace of thfl poet, and hia 
takhallus or poetical natue, isderirc^d from Bina or Bannu, 
a huibltT. He ia the author of a work uallod " BahrAm- 
wa-Bahr6i." a tsUjry which he dediuitwi to Snliin Ya'^ub 
thu *ion of L'Rzan Hasan. His conreit had njuaed tho 
jf'abnisy of Amir Alifiher. BinAt tri*-d to conciliate hia 
&vowr by writing a Kaaida in his praiao, but received no 
reward, hi? thvreforo subatitutcd tht- name of Sultan Ali- 
inad MirtA for that of Alishrr, saying that he would nut 
give away his daughters without dowry. Aliaher waa 
Hu enruged at thi^, that be obUtimxl a death- warrant 
against him. BinAi Hud to Mawurunnahr. He waa 
kiUt*d in the masAucrv uf Shah Isnia'il in 1512 A. D., 918 
A. U. He has aUo left a Uiwan conaiaiiug of 6,000 

Bin Ahmad, **^' kj^, ride Abu'l Faia Muhammad. 

Blnaklti, ij^.j vide Abu SulaimAn DAiid. 

Blcayek Bao (raja), j'j -^^ *^'jj the sou of Amrit 
Kao, a Marhatta chief. He died in July 1863, agod 60 

Bin Banana, *^ ■ c^j surname of Abfi Kaar-iba-ul-'Azu 
bin<'Amru. an Ariibian poet who died at Baghdad in 1009 
A. D., 400 A. H. 

Bindraban, iif^h"^* a Hindu authnr who flourished in 

tho roign of tho emperor 'Alamgir, and wrote a work 
called "Lubb-Qt-TawArikh," a summary hiator}' uf Hiu- 

Birbalj ^^t or Birbar, was a BrAhmap of the tribe of 
Bhaf. His proper nanu' wtia Mahf*a Das. He wm a man 
of very lively conversation, on which nrcoiint he boLaniu 
one of the grcateat peraoniil faroritea of the emperor 
Akbar. who conferp«i on hini the title of rAjA and tha 
nnkof&OUO. He was also an excellent Hindi poet, and 
was honored with tho title of Kabrae or tht3 royal povt. 
He was slain together with Mulht ^^heri and other oflicora 
of note, in a buttle fouf^ht against the Yu.iafsai Afghius 
of KawAd and Bijor (places between KAbu] and Hindii- 
Htfcn) in February 1586 A. D., lUbi" I, 994 A. H. Akbar 
was for a luni; time inconsolable for the dtuth of Birbal, 
and as the raja'n body was never found, a report gained 
currency that hu was still alive among the prisuoen, and 
it was fto much i-nconraged by Akbar, that a long time 
afterwords an impostor appeared iu his name ; and as tliis 
eecund BirViul died before he renrhed tho court. Aklor 
again wore mourning aa for his friend. Many of Birbal'e 
witty sayings am still current in ludla. 

Bir Singh, *^^ *^br » i*j» "' ***** BundelA tribe of 
EAjputa. He was the founder of this family, and from 
him the family of the Un'ha chief is di-*cnded. Tho 
greater jmrt of hifl dominions waa wrosted from him by 
KAjA Cbatar SAL, who was th* lai«l sole powesaor of the 
Boiidi'lkhand prorincB. At that period its capital waa 
KalaoK^^r. but tlie residence of thu ri^A was TaiinA, cele- 
brated ti>t its diamond mines. 




Bir^Ui, %f*j^, anraaiDe rA MuUi Muhnfflroad-htn-PLr 'Ali, 

a oekVftt«d Anbian author, vho wrote the "Sharah 
Arba'fai," and died 1673 A. D.. 981 A. H. H« ia hy some 
called Bark&li. 

Bixjis Kadar, ^•*^ U^^yi whow original name was Ram- 
xan 'All, is the son of Wajid 'AM, tho t>x-king of Lakhnan. 
Hill motha'a name ia Ma'dmk Begun. At the outbreak, 
te was cnated king with the aDanimotu conaent of the 
rabal aoldiery in 1857 at the instancd of Barkat Ahmad, 
Biaaladir, late Ifith Begiment Irregulax CaTalry, who 
aobaeqnently fell in battle. Birjis ^adar waa then 10 
Tears of ago. Before hifl acoeasion, hia uncle Snlaimin 
bt^koh waa much persoaded by the rebela to accept the 
crown, bat refuited. Blijifl Kadar waa driven ont of India 
and ia now with hia mother at Katmandu in Nepal. 

BUati Samarkandl, ij^j^^ x^^^^.t a poet of Sa- 
marll^and who flouriahtvi in the time of Sult&n KhAlH-ul- 
lah, grandson of Amir Taimdr. Uo waa formerly a 
weaver of carpeta, and had aasumed for hin poetical title 
**Hatir{," but ho changed it afterwardii to Bis&ti. Ho 
waa cotemporary with 'Asmat-oUah Bukhazi. 

Biflhr Hafi, kJ^j^, (i. »^ Biahr the barofoot) a Mu- 
hammad&n doctor who waa bom at Horr, and brought 
up at Baghdid, where he died on Wednesday the 10th 
of NoTcanhor 840 A. D., 10th Mn^arram, 226 A. H. 
Different dates are given of hia death ; but It ia ocrtats 
that he diod aeveral years before Ahmad Hanbal, and the 
ouQ given here appeata to bo Tcry correoC 

Biahun Singh (Kaohwaha), '-^ iiA*, rmj£ of 

Ambliar or Amnir, wu« thi* son of Ram Singh and the 
Cathor of Mirsa K^ii Jaii«ingh Suwai. lie died about the 
year 1693 A. D., 1105 A. H. 

Biamil, iJ*-**, the poetical name of Mirzi Muhammad 
Hha'0 of Naiahiptir, uncle of Xawab Safdar Jang. 

fiismil, <J"*^, the poetical name of Amir Hasan Khin of 
Calcutta, who was living in 1846 A. D., 1261 A. H. 

Biswaa Bao, j!; cr*y-^j the oldest eon of B&Ii lUo 
Pi'jthwii, the MarbJittM chit»f. He wad Villwl in the battlo 
iHraiust Ahmad .Shah Abilali on tho 14th January, 1701 
N. 8., togethar with Sadaaheo Bhiii and other Marhatta 

Bithal Daa Oaur, j^ ^r*^ »Jh^, son of Gopal Das, 
rija of ahcopiir. On a spot of 10 bhigaa towards Tijgani 
un the b&nkii of the rivt r Jamna he bad built hia houae and 
a garden. In the towu of Shaligahau ho waa raised to 
300U, and appointed Kiladar of the fort of Agra. He was 
afti-rwnrds niii»)d to tbu rank of 6000, and in the year 
1062 A. H. wi'tit home and died there. 

Bo »AU Kalandar, j*^^^ ^^*y, rirf*Abii 'AH Htalandar. 
Boya, *<r'i riAi 'All Boya. 

Bughra Khan, «*^ [/V, sumame of Ni^ir-uddin Mah- 
mud, thii swond Jon of Sul^ Ohayis-uddin Balban» king 
of Debit Ho waa made gorenior of Lakhnauti in Bengal 
tnr hia fiUhur, at whose death in 1286 A. D. he being 
then in that province hia son Eai^ubad waa raised to the 
throne of Dohli. VUk Niair-uddui Mahm6d. 

BtOLhari, </j^, riA AlBukhirf. 

Buibul, *J^, vUU Mirii Muhammad sumamod BulbuJ. 

Burandak, O^J*., the poetical name of ManKiw Bahi- 

nddin. Be waa a native of Samar^puid, and a aprig-htiy 
aatirica] poet ; much dreaded by hia contemporariee^ on 
account of his wit and caustic humour. He waa the 
especial panegynst of Saltan Bailpun Minta, the son uf 
UffiAT Shaikh and graodaon of Amir Tuimur. Wh«9 
Prince Baikoza aeewided the tlin.»ne in 1394A.D., hr 
ordered that the sum of Btc hundred dncata (in Turki 
bash ydz altun) should be paid to Burando^. By a mis- 
take of the SecTL'tar^', he received unly two hundred ; ami 
tharofure addreHsed the following linca to the 6nl(an : — 

" The Shih, the terror of hia foes, _ 

Who well the sound of flatt'ry knows, 
The couqucTor of the world, Uie lord 
Of nations vanquiah'd by his rword. 
Gave, while ho pmis'd my Teree, to mo 
y'vre hundred ducats as a fee. 
Great waa the Sultan's gcn'roua mood. 
Great ia his acrvant's gratitude, 
And great the sum ; but stzange to aay, 
Three hundred melted by the way ! 
Perhaps the words in Turkii^ tongue 

Oonvenient meaning may contrire ; 
Or olao my greedy oar was wrong, 

That tnrn'd two hundred into fire.'* 

The Sul^in waa extremely entertained at the r«a<-. 
of the poet ; and aending for him, aasured him that 
words ** bith yitz a//an aixj^aificd in Turkiah - ,„ 
ducats, which he ordered to be immtjdiately 
Diibb'n University Mugasinti for 1840. The y«»r 
Burandak's death is unknuwn. He was cotemponrr 
with Kiiwaja 'Aamat-ulkh Bukhiri who dii"d in 1426 
A. D., 829 A. H 

Burhan, tJ^» a poet of Mandarin, came to Dehb' and 

died there shortly ufler Nidir Sfaih hiul pillaged thtf 
city. Ho is the author of a Diw&n. 

Burhan, c^^V^j the poetical name of Muhammad 

the author of the Peninn Dictionary calJud Burhaa 
vid* Muhammad Huaaa. 

Burhan 'Imad Shah, ^^ ^^ ^^j^., one of the pi 

of the 'Imad Sbahi dynasty. He succeednl his ttAhtf 
Dana 'Imsd Khih in the govpmmunt of Berar. whsn but 
a child. Uis minister Tau6U Khin, became ragaQl ; aad 
before the prince was of an ago to assume the retina of hia 
empire, TaufU Khin, aaaiMed by the ruler of KhADdnk 
and by the Nisim ShAhf court, usurped the gorenunint. 
He erentually confined his eoverelgn m irons in the fofi 
of Pamila, and assumed the title of king. In the rmr 
1668 A. IK l»«0 A. H., Nizam ShAh mnrchod affwui 
Tau&il Khan, under the prut4ince of releasing the impri- 
soned prince from his conhnenient. Hi' took the fori of 
Oiwal by capituhition, defeat.Hl Taufal Kh4n and madr 
him prisoner with his Ron . but instead of phu-ing th** 
captivL- monarch on the thr(}nc of Befaf, eenl him with 
the usurper and his son to be confined in one of the Kiaam 
Shihf foru, where they were all subsequently itivnglnl 
by the king's order. Thus the family of 'Imid fihfliaad 
that of the usurper Taufial Khan become extinct. 

Burhan Nakid, •"'J iit^y., a poet who ia the author oi 

the poem ontitlM " Dil Ashftb," dedicatod to th» 
Sliah Jahan. 

Burhan Niaam Shah I, 3^ r^ c>*V, aaceodftl the 

throne of Ahnmdnagar in thr Dalthan aft*T the dmih of 
his tather Ahmiid Nizam Shiih in UoH A. D.. 914 A* IL, 
in the seventh year of his age. He r-eigned 47 luaar 
yean and died at the age of 54 in 1664 A. 1)., 961 A. H^ 
and waa buried in the same tomb with his iather. 




Burhan Nizam Shahi II, a^ f ^ c^^j brother of 
I^liutiixA Xizaiii I, aaci'iidcd tho throne of Ahraadiiagar 
in the Dakhiui on the loth May. 1591 O. 8.. let Sha'bdn^ 
999 A. H., a.(tvT deposing and confiniug^ hit^ own son 
lana'il Niuun Sfaoh, who had beon plae^ed on the throne 
during; hia absenco at the court of the emperor Akbor, 
ne was advanuod in ycare ; but natwithstauding his age, 
gAm h\ms^•U up Ut pleaaurea unbeL-oming hia dignity. 
Hifl rc'igTi was marked by an unBuccessfiil w&r with tho 
king of BijSpur, and a diHgravcful defeat from the Portu- 
guese, who hnd H<:i7od the aeft consta of hifl duminians. 
He died aft^r a reign of 4 years and 16 days, on tho ISth 
of April, 1695 A. v., 18th Sha'bAn, lOOS A. H., in the 
40th ywir of tho roign of Akbar. and Tfas snccooded by hia 
Bon Ibrahim Nizam ^hah. Manlana Zahuri d(*dicnttid his 
^^I'nanm to Burhan Xizani Shah, containing nearly 4,000 

Burhan-uddin Abu le-hak-al-Fazari, (i***f J*'cr-*^' 

ij^j commonly called Ibn-Firkih, aulhorof tho " Faraei* 
al-Fax&ri" a trtnti:*!' on the law of Inheritance according 
to ShAfa'i's doctriuo. lit* diwd in 1328 A. D., 729 A. H, 

Burhan-uddin BinMazah-al-Bukhariw^'^l cj'^ 

author of tht: ■* Zukliirat-ul-I'':itawa," sometimes calk-d 
Zakhirtit ul-Kurh:uu;i"', and nf Uil' ** Muhtjt't-al-Burb&ni." 

Burhan-uddin Ali Bin Abu Bakr-al-Marghinani 

(Shaikh), i^ <:H*^^ ujV ^; author of the "Hi- 

diya Sharah l^adayn, or the Lawyer's Guide," a very 
celebrated bo*ik of Muhammadaa Jurisprudence^ wliich 
during tho period that Mr. Hiuttinga governed the British 
domimonn in Indiii, wa^t by hw orders most ubly translated 
by Charles IFamiUon. Esq,, and published in Loudon, in 
the year 1791 A. I>. Burlmu-udilin wa.s lorn at MiUghiuin, 
in Transoxaniu in llJo A. D-. &29 A. U.. and died in lift? 
A.D., 593 A. H. Tho HiJiya whicli ie a commentary 
on the Badava-al-MubUda, is the must celebrated hiw 
tnatise according to th*- doctrines of Abii lI[lniC^ and 
bJB disciples Abii Yii&if und thu Imam Muhummad. A 
Persian version of tli'- Uidiya was made by Maulwi 
Ghulam Yehiii Khin and others and pubhshod ut Calcutta 
in 1807. Ht' ulao wrote a work on Inheritance entitled 
the " Faracx-ul-Usra£ni,'* which baa been iUustnted by 
eeveml oomnit-iits. 

Burhan-uddin Gharib (Shah or Shaikh), V^J* 
^ jtxft ^J^/* »'--, ii ctltbraU'd Musalman aaint much 

Ten«rat<-d in the Uiikhan. He died in 1331 A. D., 731 
A. H. and histomb is lit Durhaupiir in Daulatabad, iiud 
ift TWortetl to in u pilwrimaije by the Miihaminadans. lie 
was a diuciplo t>f l^haikh Niiam-uddin Aulia who died in 
U26A.1>.. 7'2& A. H. 
Burhan-uddin Haidar Bin Muhammad-al-Hirwi, 

,>,;— ^ e/^ C^*" ' o'*-r? author of a comincntarj' on tho 

Sirijift ofSaj&wftndi. He died in H'26 A. D.. 830 A. II. 
Burhan-uddin Ibrahim Bin Ali Bin Farhun, 

CiT*^ cr? ij^ cH ^Lr?' IJ^"^' «J^» L'hiof biographer 
of the Mafiki lawverd. and author of the " Dlbaj-ul- 
Muiahhib." He di'cd in 1396 A. D., 799 A. 11. 

Burhan-uddin (Kazi), c'i*^' ii^^^ o^^. Lord of the 

city of Sivita in Cuppadociu or Carameniik who died in 1395 
A. v., 7y8 A. H. After his death Biyesid 1, Sultan of 
the Turks, took po.-^rteHwion of hid Statca. 

Burhan-uddin Mahmud Bin Ahmad, ****** c^ 
^jJl e>^^, author of a " Muhit," which, though 

I Burhan-uddin Muhammad Bakir (Mir), ^U 

***** t^^l o^ j*^ cT^", Kiii of Kishin. He 
wrote a Diwan contjiinlng about 6000 versed. He whi 
liWng about the yoar 1686 A. D., 993 A. H. 

Burhan-uddin (Shaikh), u^**^' cJ^j^ ^, or Sayyad 
vid* Kutb 'Alam. 

Burhan-uddin (Sayyad), c^^^ cJ^^ •H'^, sumamed 

Muhal^kiV. Ho died in the year 1247 A. D., 646 A. H., 
and wa» buried at Ocsarea. 

Burhan-ul-Mulk Sa'adat Khan, nM' is*^^**, %£XLJi 

•tir^.} vide tia'adttt Khan, and Mirza Nasir. 

Burzui, KfSJJjit a Persian physician who lived under 

Nauahirwan the Juat- He was sent by that jirince to 
India to ])rocure a copy of tho book called tho Wisdom of 
all Age* ; which he afterwards truusUted into I'erniiui, 
That which now exitfta is greatly olterod &um the origimil 

Bus-hak, O **T>^ tho abbreviatod poetical name of Abu 
l8-huk Atma', which see. 

Buzarjimehr,^rt*^A)^) the celebrated ministAjr of Kau- 
shirwin the Jmit, king of Persia. He is said to have 
imported from Indiii the game of Cheaa and tho Fablt^ 
of I'ilpay. Such baa been the fame of his wisdom and 
virtues, that tho Christians claim him ns a belicyer iti the 
gottpel ; and the Muhammadana revere him as a prema* 
ture AltifiaJmdii. He lived to a great age, and died in 
the time of Hurmuz lU. son and Bucceaaor of Nauahirwin 
the Jiibt, b'twecn the years 680 and 690 A. D. 

Buzarjmohr Kummi« i^JV^jy.j a celebrated Per- 

fdan Pronodinn of Kumo. who lived before the time of 
Suifi, tho author of the Uruz 8aifi. 

Buzurg Khanam, (^^ '^j jHt the daughter of Saif 

Khan, by MaLika Bano Bogam. the daughter of Aeaf 
Kh^i Wrisir, und wife of /afar Khan, a uuljh-man of the 
rtLiign of thn emperor 'Alamgir. Sho died before her 
husbfmd in the mouth of Mav, 1659 A. D., Shawwil 106a 
A. H. 

Buzurg Umaid Shan, ^J^ '^^ *-?i>?j son of ShAista 
Khan, an officer of nink in the time of tho emperor AUun- 
gir. At the time of his death, which took plaoo in lfl9'l 
A. D., 1105 A. H., he viis governor of Behir. 

Bti^tirg XTmaid, 'H*' ^j>J or Kaia Biuurg Umaid, ono 
of the Ismailis, who succeedfsi 1 laatui Sabbali, tho OKI flian 
of the MoiinUiiis, in Juno, 1124 A. D., Uahi' II, fil8 A. H., 
and ruigiied 24 year*. After hia death hi.-* son Kziia Mu- 
liaimutid vuticijedbd him and rtfi^ad 25 years. 


known in India, i« not so greatly e«t*emcd as the Muhft 
aa-Sorakhsi. The work of Burhan-uddin ifl commonly 
known ua the Muhit-aJ-BurhiiiL 

Caragosaa, vide ^ara Qhux. 

Chaghtai Khan, O^ '^^^t** or ^din, the most pious 
and accticniilisht'd of all th& sons of Changez KliAnj and 
although he suceci'd^id. by the will of his fathor, to Ih*! 
kiugdumn of Transoxunia, Baikh, Badakhaha n , and K^h- 
ghar in 1227 A. 1)., HH A. U., ho governed thcs« coun- 
tries by duputios, and remained himw-lf with hit eldc«t 
brother, Ukta l^aan, by whom ho waa regarded with thu 
ruvcrcncu which a pupil gives to his master. Ho died 



nMrnthi Wbre hin brother in the month of Jane, 
1341 A. D^ Zi-Kjt'dA, 63H A. II. t^tirmohir NAwijm, vho 
««• the fifth aDceetor of Amir Taimiir, wm odd of hU 
Amtra, end. at Ivngtb. cnpt&in ^nvral of nU hu forc«a. 
Th» dyoMty that fbiuulMl the ao-c«llod ** Moghut Em- 
fin" of Indu was namiHl aSUtr Cha^hUii. 

Chaghta Sultan, ^*}\hlm lii^.^ ^ hiuidsomo young man 
01" the tribe of the Mugholi and favuiitc of the emperor 
BAftr Bh&b. Ha died at KAbul in l&iB A. D., 96S 

Chait Singh, *^ '^^t «>n of Balwwnt Sinsh, a raji 
or Bunmdir of ititnaxwi. He succeeded his father in 
1770 A. D. In Auf^uet 1781 dciuiuidti were nittde npon 
him, bj the Goveraor-GeneraU for additional tribute to 
be paid to the Company, aa the Aovcm^ powtir now 
roqamn^ assistAnce in ita exigency. The nji dtni^lined, 
pleading wiTlin^ieea, Lut injibllity. Me was seized by 
Ml. HiMinga* order, at Ban&raa ; a revolt took place in 
his behalf on the 20th Augiiat ; nearly two rompaniee of 
•epo}*s and their officers wer« dnstroyod,— and the riji 
•■Gi^ed in the confusion. The Govonior-GcncTHl imme- 
4kstely assumed contrul of the provini-c ; and truopa were 
called in to opi>cae tbu rajs, who nuw hfailcd the numbers 
flocking to hift support, lie was defoaied at Lati'fpur— 
and Ustly, his stronghold of Bijikiguth wait oeized. and 
his famUy plundered by a force under Major Pophanu 
The riji had fled, on his reverses at Latifpur, tu Bundcl- 
khand. His govenunent was declared vacant, and the 
»infndarj be^wed an the Xtoxt heir, a nephew of the 
lija, a minor. After these transactions at Banaras, the 
GoTomor-Genttral proceeded to Audh, to obtain an ad- 
justment of thq heavy debts due to the Company by the 
Waiir *Aiaf*ud-d«ula. lliu turritories of the Beg-ams, 
(one. the mother of Shuja'-ud-dauJa, the late Xawab— the 
Otter, the mother oi the Waxir) wer« seixed, on a charge 
of aiding the insurrection of Chait Singh. The riji 
fbund an asylom in Owilisr for 29 rean. and died there 
onthe39th March, 1810 A. D. Tho lands were tnnsfcrrod 
toa collateral branch of tht> family, the present representa- 
tive of wlu'ch is named Kdja IMul Namin. See Balwaut 
Bingh. His estates, with title of It^'s, were presented 
t6 nxs nephew Bab6 MuKfp Kandnr grandson of R^i 
Balwant Singh. 

Chand, *^'^) or Chind, called also Trikala, from his sup- 
poaed prupht-tic spirit, was a celebrated Hindu poet or 
bard. H- fluuriahod towards the close of thu twelfth oea* 
toy of the Christixoi era. Ue may be call>.'d the poet 
laureate of rrithiraj, the Chaiihan emperor of Duhlt who, 
in his last buttle with Shah&b-uddin Gh6ri, was taken 
prisoner, and conveyed to Uhazni, whero hj» bard, Chand* 
JoUowed him. Both pcrinhed by tlieir own hands, ufler 
oaasing the deoth of their implacable foe. Khohab-addin. 
like the Greek liani. Homer, countries and eitius have 
pqBt«ft^*f][ fipT the honor of haWng been the place of birth 
of this tha most popular poet of the Hindds, Dehli* 
l^ana^ Mah6bai and tlio I'anjab, uAt<4^rt their respective 
rlainu, bnt his own testimony is dei-jsive, whence it np- 
pnan tlkat he was a native of Lihur. In his ' Prithiiij 
Chauhan lUas." when onumerating some of the heroes, 
fri<:h(U and partifaris of his horo, he saya, " Xiddar wa:^ 
Uini iQ Kanauj, Siluk and Jait, the fiither and Kon, nt 
Ab6 ; in .\liiiid<iva tho Parihir, and in Kurrik Kangfu 
th" llaoU lUo. in Nagor, Balbhaddar, and t'bind, the 
bard« at Uhor" 

Saudagar, J^^^y^ ^^> » Baogalj merchant 
ClkaiLda Kunwap, j^' t**^, tte w»fo of Mahiriji 

Mifigh of L4hor. 
^^ UliUlo^, al*) railed M4h.HH a dancing girU 
of Qaidurabidf was a poetcas of much taste and 

merit. She in the author of a Biwan whirh wi 
by Sher Muhammad Khan Iman. In the year 17! 
A. D., in the midst of a diuico, in which nhe bvre tb* 
chief part, ahe presentf-d a hritixh offii-er with a copy of 
her poems, accompanied with the fnlluwing complimentafT 
observations, in the form of the usual gaiol ; — 

Sinoe zny heart drank from the cup of % fuacinating 

I wonder beside myselt like one whom wine bewilders. 
Thy searching gbincee It^ve nothing unseated i 
Thy foce, bright as flame, consumes my hearL 
Thou soughiest a Jiazar : I oiler thee my head; 
Albeit thy heart is not unT^ih^d to me. 
My eyes fixed on thy lineaments — emotion agitata 

my soul. 
Fresh excitement b^ts impatient in my heart. 
All that Chandi oflks is, that, in either world. 


Thou wouldst preserve the ashes of her heart by thy 


Chkrcin de Tasfly informs us that there is a copy of her 
Diwin in the East India House Library^ which she ho* 
self presented to Captain Malcolm on the Ist of Octo- 
ber. 1799 A. D. 

Chanda Sahib, iy^A.Utji^^ nmuuno of Hoain Dost 

Khan, a relation of D6st 'All Khin, Nnwab of ArcoV whoss 
daughter he hu-d married. He had made his vmy te Ihfi 
highest offices of thi^ giivi'rnment by tlie aervicee 
sword, and was esteemed tht:< ablcvt soldier that! 
late years appeared in the Camatic. He invei(^ 
queen of Trichinopoly, and got possession of the city 
1736 A. D. He was taken prisoner by the Uarhattasoa 
the 26th March, 1741 A. D., and imprisnnfd in tli« lort of 
Sitara. but was released by the aid of Mona. Dnpleix in 
1748, and apix>inted Nawib of the Camatio by Unaaflkr 
Jang. He was put to death in 1762 A. D.. 1st Sha'Isa, 
1166 A, U. by the Marhattas^ and his head aont to Us* 
hommod 'All Khan who was made Nawib of Jircoi by tka 
Bnglish, whii Iruatod it with ignominy. 

Chandar Bhan, tj**r^ iJi^j^» a Brihrna^ of lyi. 
ila, weU*vers«d in the Persian language, was employed ai 
a Mun^ in tho sen'ice of the prince Ttkn 8hik6h, the 
eldest son of the omi>emr Shih JahAn. Ue is thr> anthor 
of several Persian works, rts. ; '* Ouldasta," "Tuh&t-ul- 
Anwir," " Tuhfut-ul-Kus-hA," "Mftjmii'-ul-Fukri," ou 
I'liittk'd " Char Chaniau," uuothe-r callud " Alanfhit BriL* 
man" being a coUectiun of his ou-n kttt^rs written to dif> 
ferent persons, and also of a Diwan In which ha nasi ths 
title of Brahmai;! for his ^^oetical name. After the tngictl 
death of his employer, he retired to BunAras when b* 
died iu the year 16()2 A. D.. 1073 AH. Ue bad alio 
built a hou&e at Agra, of which no traces now rumain. 

Chand Blbl (Sultana), c^«y "^^j was the dangUv 

of Huaain Nizam Shih I of Ahmadnagar in the T WkWw 
sistur to Murtaxa NisAm Shih, and wife of *Ali 'Adil 6t»h 
1, of Bijapur. Aft«r the death of bur husband In IMO 
A. D., 988 A- H., she h&d been queen and duwager-r^fHit 
of the neighbouring kingdom of Bijapiir during the mi- 
nority of bur nephew Ibniiuia 'Adil 8hih II. and vu tm 
of the most able jtoliticians of her day. The M«gfc«U 
under prince Murid, the son of Akbar, prpcaadtd ia 
November, 1696 A. D., Rabf II. 1004 A. H.. and 
Ahmadnagar for somo months, wlulf Ch&nd S^^altina 
fended the place with masculine resolution. At the 
time there being a scarcity of provisions iu the Hai^ttt 
camp, thu prinev and Khin-KhAn£a tibonght it sdvisohk 
to enter into a tri>;ity with the tmieged. It was itipnlatM 
by Chand Bibi that thu prinr« should keep poaaMihm 
of Berar- 'U)(l tbnt Ahmadnagar and ftl dependfadea* 
should remain with hnr iu the name of l^*nadur. tba 
gimndson of Burhan Sluih. Sho was put to duatil tiy Hn 
Dakhanis in the year 1699 A. D., 1U08 A. U. 




Chandu Lalt JX>*i^ ^»j, a Hindu, who waa appointed 
Di'wan t/i the Nizuin of HiiidiinU^iiil in IROH A. D. Hia 
poQtical numo is Shiulan. He died ia tlio year 1663 A. D. 

Ghandra^pta, '■^*tv"^^j (calU^ by the Greeks Sandra- 
cottus). l[o w iz.-d Ihr kinploin of l^Ingiidha. nflor the 
maasacru of the aiurivonj of the Kuid.i dyimaty, whoso 
capitikl w:iH the celehraU*d city Patalij>utxu, colled by tho 
Gn-uka I'idiLothni. 

Changez Khan, nJ^J-^r^, also called by us 0«ngu, 
.l'ni,Ms. and Z'm^B, 8umnnn-d Tanmjiii, was the boh of 
Y..fiulii. li Khan ur chief <.f tho tribe of MnghaK lit! wai* ' 
boro m li:>l A. D.. 641) A. H., and at the nge of 13 ho 
bcf^un 1^1 rt.ijTTi, but the conhpinuiea of his «iil»j<.-clf» obli^id 
him to fly fur wifily to Avuiil Kliin. a Tartar prince, whom 
he supporti-d on hii* throne, aiii] whow* duught'-r he mar- 
ried. These lies wen; not bimliaK- Avanl Klian jcjith il 
o^nttt Chiingez. who tucik nl^nal vongoriiice on his 
enemit^A, and after iihuost unexampled viei^^itude«, hf ub- 
tiiinL-d, at the ape of -i'J. a ctuiipleto viet*.'ry ov- r all tho^e 
who hiid enileiivoun d to etit: t his niiii. and received from 
the Khans of Tiirtary the title of Khakau ill 12U0 A. I>., 
602 A. U.. and w;i.H'deelar*.d eiuperor ofTartary. Hit ca- 
pital wa-* Karakurm. In the spate of 22 yeare ho conquer- 
ed Cortu, Cathay, port of China, and the noblent provinet-a 
of Asia, and bveanip att renowned a eonqutror a» Alex- 
undcx the Great. He died ou Sunday the 2Dth August, 
1227 A. 1>.. liumn^n 62-1 A. H , age<l 75 lunar ytuirs, 
leaving bia dominiuns (whii h rxt^iuhd 1800 leagues from 
cut to west, and luUO from iionh to wmth) jiruperly 
ditidcd to his four tiuca, Jiijt, Oktai, Chaghtat and Tuli 

Liat of the ilnghal tmperort of Tartary. 

Chanjtrei! Khan 1206 

TuU Khiiu hi^son 1227 

Okt&i, bn.ih.r of TuU* 1241 

Tiirkina Khiilun, hin wife, regent for 4 yeara. 

Kayuk Khan, eon i.f Oktaf, 124fl 

Optihfan-niifth, bis w-ilr, re£r**nt on his death, . . 1 248 

Mangii Khin, ?eu of TiiU KliAn, 12C1. died 1259 

After the dt^nth of Jlangu, the empire of Ibo Mughala was 

div'idi-d intu diiri;i-ent branched} in China, Persia, in 

lyaiiehak, ice. 

IJablii Klian, tho hrtithn^T of Jlnnpu Khlin, 
gucceotled in China, and t"iiuiidt,Hl the Vuen 
d^^la^ly ; 1260 

Cha^btai Khan, son of Changez Khan, founded 

tho Chaphtai bnineh in Transrixianft, 1240 

Jiiji, »on of Cbangtu! Khan. IbundfHl tho ^tap- 

ch4k dynasty, 1226 

i'ui^, Ualaku Khin. 

ChatTBpati Appa 8aheb, s^^ ^^ t/^Lr^j rajd 

of Sitae, who died in. or a year bi;fon>, 1874 A. !>., whoBO 
adopteil son was Ivaja Uain. 

Ctiar Bagb. p ■ J • j "-""ti of a garden eon ftt nut I'd by the 
t'Opercjr Uabur on the bank of the J.inina, wJiieh it is 
said was also called ilasht [lahisht ; it 1 tore all sorts of 
fruits ; no trarrs uf this famuas garden an) left now. 

CbatUT Sal, J^ J^» ChhaitJir Sftl, or, according to the 
author of the *' Masir-iJ-Umra." SaUr Siil. was the son of 
Chait Singh, ehief of the liuiidelaa or inhabitants of Mun. 
df:ilkhand. of whieh i>ravim-; ho was niji. To serure the 
indiTpen'ionre of his poattrrity against the uneroaehing 
powerof theTMarhait'iJt. he entpretl into a chK*e iillianeo with 
the Pwhwa Uftji Itao I abuut the year 173^ A. !>.. 114G 
A. H., and at hia demiso. he lii.*queuthed him a third of 
hifl dominions, umier an expreis stipnlitirm. that his 
pgstority shuuJd b*- protected by the Peehwa and hia heirs. 

Chatur Sil died 1735 A. D., lyavin;? two sons, Hirde 
Fah and Ja(»at Roj. I'ho division of the dominions of 
iSiuiJiIkhand, bequ'^athud to the Peilhwa. eompri-wd the 
Malial^ of Kulpi, Sirounj, Kuneh. Garra Ko^n and Hir- 
dainairar. Gangadhar Ihila waa nominated by Uio Pfsh- 
wa aa his niiib to superintend the eolli-etions. Aflor- 
wuriLs the principal lead' rs in liiindulkhund having fuUtin 
in Imttles, and the ruin of thi' rountry having ]>ten com- 
plfted >iy the anbse.]ucnt ci^nqui'st of th-? raj of I'anna bv 
Nfini Arjun, the f^'mrid-Hon of Itakhat Sinch. a dt-sfundan't 
of Chatur ^iil, it heneo la'Came tho olijwt of XAnA Far- 
nawM, the Piina mininter. notwith»tan<iing the stipuJations 
by which the former iVfihwA obtiint-d fr<im CImtur Sil 
one-third of Jus duniiniuns, to annex the wh<de of 
Buj]didkFbinii lo the Slarhutti) Stat**!*. For this purpose 
he gave th<; invostituro of it to *Ali Il:ihidiir, son of 
Phanishir Itithilur, an iUegitiinat4' Mm of tne PitihwA jinii 
lUu, whoHf: de.qcpmhmtc» now ai-e rnlii-d llie Naw&bs of 
Uandu. yitle Muhammad KhAn Bang:iah. 

Chatur Mahal, *-*^^j^i one of the Bcgams of the ox- 
king of Audh. One Kiirbdn 'All, w^ho had held a wi>>or- 
diriate (Hwitiou. and was latterly a Sharihtadar iindor th<- 
Briti'^h Govtimment suddenly iM-came a riih man bv 
marrying h'T. He fonutd thi' aeqUiiinUiniH) of this ynung 
ami beautiful wonuin, and they rescilvt'd to \»v married. 
But tho Begnm did nut wish the union with a man so 
inferior to horsi'lf to take plai-e where she whs known, 
and ao obtain*^! t)ie ]H'nniAaion of the Chief Cummisaiuner 
to leave Audh ou flie pretf-neo of making a pilgrimage to 
iksrea. Once elnar of Lakhnau. slie was juined by Kur- 
ban 'All, and made for hid home at nijnatir in llundeU 

Chin Kalich Khan, *i>^ *^ c**^, ri<tr Kulich Khin. 

Chin Kalich Khan, c*^ r^ cri^j fumier name of 

Nizim-ul-MiiIk Asif .Tah. 
Chimnaji *Apa, ^T ^^^U^^ the younger Bon of the 

Marhntta chief liaghunfith Kao, (Itagh^ba) waa furtively 
raised 10 the inasnad at Pimri. m. me lime after tho deatli 
of Madbo Kao 11, the son of Nurayan Itao, on the 26th 
May. 1706 A. P.; hnt wjw d'-powd nftfrward-*, and suc- 
ceeded by hiw elder brother Paji !Uo II. who was pubUely 
proelttimed on the 4th Uwi-mbur following. 

Churamar, l;'*[>>^i tin enterjirieing Jat who having 
fnricheil himself by pliindrrinn the baggaae of the emp-Tor 
'Alani;;ir"s army on his last maix:h to tho I)akhan, built 
the fortrcBs of Phartpiir, fourteen kos from Agra, with 
puj-t of the 6])oil, and beeame the ehief of that triiw. The 
prohrnt rajiia of lUiiuipur are his dpsecndanta. He waa 
kilb-d by tho roynl army in Ih*? battle whi< h took plaeo 
between the cmjieror Muhammad 8hah nntl Kutb^nl- 
Mu!k Sayyad 'AlKl-uUah Khan in Novrmbt-r, 1720 A. 11., 
Muljamun, U33 A. H. His son Budau Singh suL-eutHled 

Thf JuUowing it a lUt of the Rajda of Jihartpiir, 

ChurAman J at. 

Biidan Singh, ih'- son of Ch6rAman. 

Surajmal Jdt, the ^on of Ei'ubm Singh. 

Jawahir Singh, the son of Surajmal. 

RAo Katun !Sint:h, brother of dawahir Singh, 

Kehri Singh. th»* son of Kjilan Sinch. 

Nawal Singh, the broth- r of h'jit m Singh. 

Itaiijit Sinph, the nephew of Nawal Singh and son of 

Kehri Singh. 
Randhir Sinuh. the son of Rnnjft Singh. 
Baliioo Singii, the brother of Ibindhir Singh. 
Balwant Singh, the w^ai of Baldoo Singh. 
Jatfwant Sini;h, the son of Balwant Singh and present rajA 

of Bhartpur. 




Chosroes I| of Poreiaf p^dt Nftusliirw&n tho Juat. 
Chosroes II, 9idt Ehusro Pau^is. 


Dabir-ud-daiUa Amin-ul-Mulk (Nawab), vV 

utUi ^^] aJj J( ^jj title ^,f Kliwija Farid-uddin 

Ahmad Khaii Cahxidur Alusluh Jau^, thr- mntomal grand- 
fethiir r.f Sayyid Ahmrul KhAn. Munsif of Dchli. Whilst 
the DntiMi wt^rt* in BcngiLl. and thu Wakil of the king 
of IVr»i» wa» killed in Bombay in an affjyy, it hecauiu 
UTgotit for the Dntinh Oovemnuoit to send a Wakil on 
deputation to Penia. Dabir-ud-dnTila vrtia eclccted for this 
high office. On his return, after fully coiDplutinjt; the 
tnut> he was apj)oint«d a fidl Political A^r^nt at Ava. 
Aiter this, in latter tiuips, he held the offico of FrimQ 
Miniflkr to Akbar ^$hah II. 

0ai, \^^^i whoM full name la Kiz&m-nddiE, Muhammad 
Vid\ vna a di-w^iple of Sh&h Ku'mut-ullAb Wali. and is 
tho author of u Diw&n which ho completod in tho year 
1160 A. D.. 8G6 A. II. 

Daghlatani, (y'^*^'>>f a poet of Dighialin in Persia, who 

is thi> author of a Persian work called *'liay£z-iuh-Shu'ari," 
vidf Wilih. 

Dahan, c;^'*)^ whoao proper name ia Ahti Muhammad 

Sa'i'd, son of Mabarik, better known us Ibn Dahan-al- 
B:ighd4d{. was an eminent Arabic KTammarian. and an 
exc«'llunt [lOot. He dii.^ in 1173 A. D., 669 A. H. 

Dailamites, the, a dynaaty. 

Dakiki, \^^t^^> (^ fnmoua poet at the oooii of Amfr N{Ui 

llf son of Amir Alaiisur Sunini. by whose request he had 
eoramfnced to write the Shah Nama, but before he could 
finish a thousand Teraes of the story of Gaahtaap, ho vaa 
■Iain by one of hia alaTea. The year of his death is not 
known, but this rvent appears to have taken place during 
tho reign of his roval master, who reigned in Khurisan 
twenty years, and diod in 99? A. D., 387 A. U. Uis 
proper name, according to thn Aitaahkada, vaa Manaar 

Dalpat Sah, ^ "^^t Uie husband of Koaf Burgaw&ti, 

which see. 

Dalpat, *^^^t rij4 of Bhojpur near Buxar, was defeated 

and imprisoned, and when he was at length set at liberty 
by AktNif, on payment of an enormous sum. hn af^iiin 
rebelled under Jaiiangir. till Bhojpur was sacked, and his 
successor lUjii Pnrti,b was exerutfd by .Shah Jah&n, whilst 
the Itoni was furcfd to mjirry a Muhammadon courtier. 

Dalip Singh (Maharaja), *^^ ^^ ^^^j^, the 

yonng)'st son of ^lahAniJi Bai^ft Singh, ruler of the Pan- 
jiSb. He was only ttn years of age wben ho was raised to 
tlie maenad at T.alior ufl*;r the denth of hi^ nephew, Rija 
8hor>Sineh, in Septemlmr, 1843. In his time tho Punjab was 
annexnl to th« British Uuvernment, 1846 A, D. "On tho 
I9th ol March," (1840) says Mamhnian, " Iho young Ma- 
hiiaia t(»>k his seat for the List time on the throne of 
ICanJit Sin;?[i. and in the jtn-wuee of Sir Henrj' IdwrencCi 
lli« Iti«itlent, and Mr. Ellint. tho Fon-ign Secretary, and 
the noMes of his court, h^urd Lord Dalhou^ie's prodAnta- 
tion riMid in Kn^lish, Persian, and Hindi, and then afllxL>d 
the initials of his name in English charaotcn to the do- 
ruraenta which tnuisrerred the kingdom of tho fivo rivers 
to the l?om]mny, and aecurod him an annuity of Ave hikhs 
of rupees a year Palip i»ingh woa baptized un the 8th 
Man:K. 1 835 A. D., and went to Fliigland where he is 
•tijl Uviog. 

Damad, o^to, poetical name of Muhammad BaVir, which ««. 

Damaji, is^J^^j the first Oae|fwar of Baroda. Hia aticcai- 
aor was Peliji. 

Damiahki, t^-^^, nn illustrious Persian poet, named 
Muhammad Domishki. who floiuished in the lime of Faal» 
the son of Aim or Yahia, the Barmecide or Bonoaki. 

Danial Mirsa (Sultan), bj^ <J^'-> tJ^^, the thirf 
son of tho emperor Akbar. Ue was bom at AjmXr on 
AVednesduy the lOth Septrmber, lfi72 A. D., and received 
tho name of Danial on aeeuunt of hiH havizig 1»evn bom io 
till' huuse of a celebrated Darwe§h niune<l Shaikh OiniiL 
Ilia mother was a daught(>r of Haja Bihari Mai Kaohh- 
wiha. Aftor the death of his brother, prince Sult^ Uv- 
id, he was sent to tho Dakhan by his father, accompanied 
by a well tippoiuted army, with orders to occupy all the 
>ii£am Sliahi tcmluries. Ahmadnagar was taken in tho 
beginning of the year 1009 A. II. or 1600 A. li.. 
Sultan Denial died on tho 8th April, 1605 A. D.. 
Ist Zil-l^ijjt. 1013 A. U., in the city of Burhinpi^ 
aged 33 yeara and some monthti, owing to axMsa ia 
drinking. His death and the circumstaucua cannedad 
with it, so much aflected the king his father who waa to 
a diicUning state of health, that he became every day 
worse, and died six months after. From the chrouitgrun 
it appears llutt the princR Danial died in tho year lOtS 
A. H., or IG04 A. t>^ a year and six months bef on his 

Danishi cH'<^i poetical name of Mir Bin who died ia 
1665 A. D., 107(1 A. li. 

Danishmand Shan, cJ^ iXi^-^jIj, whoao proper nans 
was Muhammad Shaff or MuUa Bhafi\ waa a Persoa 
merchant who camo to Si'irat about the year 1646 A. B., 
1050 A 11.. from which place he waa sent for by fh* 
emperor Bhdh J:ihau. He wua soon after raiaed to Ih* 
monsab of 3000 and paymnatership of the army, with fht 
title of Danislimand Kban. In the reign uf 'Alamglrha 
was honored with the mansab of 40O0, and after some tiiM 
to that of 50U0. and appointed governor of Shah Jahia^ 
bad, whetu he died in the month of July, 1670 A. !>.. l#lh 
Rabi' I, lOSl A. H. He used to speak much about tbs 
Christian religion. Bemier, the French TraveUac^ 
becoin]ianird 'Alamgir to Kashmir in 1664, haa 
him in his Travels. 

Danishmand Khan, ly^ «>i»-Jlj^ whoae orig;inaI 

was Mirei Muhammad, and poetical, Ali. waa a nstivs 
of Sluraz. In the year 1603 A. D., ho was honor><d with 
tho title of Xa'mat Khan, and thn aupcrintendence of tha 
royal kiU^'hen by the emperor 'Alamgir. After the daalh 
of that monarch, the title of Nawiib Danishmand KUa 
Ali waa confi>rred on bim by Bahadur Shah, by whoat 
order he had commenced writing a Sliahnama or hialoty 
of the reign of that emperor, but died aoon afW ia Iha 
year 1708 A. D., 1120 A. H. Fide Na'mat Khaa JOL 

DaraorDarab I, y!;'«) tl'^r the eighth king of the 

or Kaidnion dynasty of the kings of Peraia. waa tha 
of Queen Humai, whom he succeeded on the Pei 
throne. Hia reign was distinguiahod by several 
particularly one u-;ainst I'biiip of Micedon. He rcj^nni 
twelve yearSf and was succeeded by his son Data or i>irab 

Dara or Darab II, wijb tjr,s, jg the celebreted Daiina 
C!odomanus of the Greeka. Ho succeeded his father Dati 
I, OS king of Persia, and was alain in tiattlo against Ala- 
ander tho Grcul ia the year 331 B. C. He waa liia ImC 
and ninth king of the 2nd or Kti ianian dyooatr o£ Ik* 
kings of Peniu. 





DaraBakht CMirza), ^^'^h^S^jj^, son of Bahadur 

Shah, thf *x kin^ of Dchli. Ilia pootical titlo ui Diril, 
and ho is th^* iiathor of a l)iwan. 

DarabBeg (aiirza). ^^^/^ !)>», vid« J 6yL 

Barab Khan, ly^ v!;''>> commonly called MinS D£rab, 

w«8 the second son of Abdul itnhim Khin. Khan Kliaimn. 
Afl«r the dtath of hin cldint brotbir Shahnuwaz Khan 
in 1618 A. It . 1027 A. H.. ho was honored with the rank 
of 5000 hy thn rmprror JnhiinRir and nppoiiiU'd governor 
of Berariiiid Ahmndani^^ar in the Dakhiin. Ho wua also 
Iforemor of Ut-ngiil fur acune liino, and on ins return to 
tho Dukhnn, tho cinptror, >jrinj>; dinpUoAed with him on 
tomu atx'uant, ordcnd Ma.h&iiAt Khan to strike off hia 
head, which hi^ did, and sent it to the- king. Thiacirtuin- 
fltanco took place 1625 A. D., 1034 A. H. 

I>arab Khan, u'*' v'j''^* »on of MtiVht&r Kh&n Sabzwari, 
a noblfjmnn in tho strvito of the emporor 'Aliimg^i'r. Uf- 
died on the 24th June, 1679 A. D., 2olh Juuiada I, 1090 

Dara Shikoh, f^^ b^^t tho oldeat and favorite son of Ih.) 
empfror Sluih J:ihjin, was bom on the 20th Mitreh, 16i-> 
O. S., 29th Sdfir. 1024 A. H. Uis niothfr, Mumliiz 
Mahal, waathe dtiu^'ht<:r of 'A-'uf Khan» wnzfr. thii brtither 
of Nut Jahiii Bignm. In thu 20th year of his ugc, i. #., 
in tho ywir l*>:f3 A. D., lO-lll A. H., ho was rnarntd to 
thfi prinrc'sa Nadini, tho duUKhlrr of hi* nnrlK- Wu]tiln 
Parwoz, I.'V whom h*? had two sons, rii., iSuUiinian 
8hik6h untl Siprhr Shikuh. In IQoA A. D. durinjur th'^ 
Ulnew of hiM fHth*T. several hattlca took pbiro hi'twom 
him and his brotlu-r Annin^jjtib 'AliinKir for tho throne, 
in which Uira ht-in^ dL'feuted, w;is at last oblif^'d to fly 
towurda Sindh, wh^rc ho wiis cuptund by the chief of 
that country and brought to tht^ im'seno of Aumngzib, 
loaded with thains, on a norry *?h*phiuit without housings ; 
WM pxpoaotl through all the priri'^ipal plncffl and then 
led off to a prison in old l>t:hU, whcro iift(.T a ft.'W days, in 
tho night of thii 2Ulh ui Vugn^t, IGo'J tJ S., 2l8t gil-hijja 
1069 A. U., he wad murdered by the order of Aurongzib ; 
his body exhibited ntxt morning to tho populace on an 
elephant, and hiw head rut off and carried to tho cmjicror, 
who ordered it to be placed ou ji jilatter, and to Ims wiped 
and wiuihfd in his prest-nre. When ho had satisGed him- 
•elf that it was the real head uf Diira, ho b<'gan to weep. 
and with many expretwinnji of »orruw, dirm;ted it with itd 
corpao to be internal in thi; toinli of tho erapen>r Huma- 
jTun. Sipehr Shik'>h, hiw s^in, who was also tiken captive 
and brought with his futher, was s^-nt away in confine- 
ment to (twxiliiir. Siihiinian Shikoh. hid cideat son. who, 
after tho defcal <i( Wia father hiid taken refuge in Srinagar 
for sotno lime, was dulisecjuently. in 1670 A. D,, 11J71 
A. H.. givrm np by the rajii of that pliteu to thi.' olBix^rs of 
Aurangzib and conveyed to I>*'hli. iJe was thi-n sent to 
Gwiliar, where ho and h'm hri>tlHT Sipehr Shikoh both 
died within a abort space. Dara Whik6h Ia tho author of 
thf) work called "Safiiiat-ul-Aulia." an almdgniuMit of the 
Life of Mubiinimad, with a cin iimslantial d>.'Uiil of his 
viroa, children, rtnd eoinpanions. ic, aljo of a work en- 
titled •' MajmH*.ul-Buliniin." (i. f.^ the uniting of both 
Mas,) in which he eudeavoura to reconeilo tho Brshrimri 
roligion with the Muhammiidan ; citing passages from the 
Kurdn to prove llie pninU In lOoG he likewi«H. 
with thft Bnme intont, t'uu-ed a l*crsian tmnslatinn to bo 
mode by the HrAhnuina of Bunaris^ of tho Apnikhat. a 
work in tlw Sunsknt. ijingnage. of which tho titlo sig^niRcs 
"the word that is not to boftiid;"* meming the ftocret 
that is not to bo nvcaleil. Thi* l)W)k hi* namwi "Sarr-i- 
Aarir," or Secret of Srcret--* ; but bis onctnioa touk advan- 
tage of it, to traduee him in tho e^t'.:enl of hid fnlher'a 
Miihanuniidan s<jldiers. and to stigtnutiice hira with th« 
«pith<.-t8 of Kafir and Kuti/.i (unlH'liev^r and blaaphimpr), 
and finally effected his ruin ; for Aujuugicib biti bruthur 

made a pret^nre of that, and consequrntly had all hil 
bigoted Muhammiidanft to Join hiai- Monsieur Anqiiptil 
du Perron has given a tninslalinn of this work, in two 
larpe volumes in quarto, on whieh a very fjood critique 
may be found in the Second Niirnher of the " Edinburgh 
Review." Then, is also a copy of tho Persian version of 
thta work in thu Britibh aiuseum, with a MS. trnnMlition. 
made by N. B. Halhed, Esq. Ke is also the author of 
the three following works, " Hasnat-ul-'.Arifia," *' l^sila 
Ilak Xwma" and " Sakinat-uI-Aulia." His poeticaJ luimo 
waa Kiidin. Catrou yays that Dira died a Christian. 

Bard (Mir), ■^J'!^ji^i is the poetical name of KhwAjn Mu- 
hummad Mir of ilehli, a son of Khuaja Nasir who was 
one of tho greatest .Shaikhs of tho age. Dard was the 
greatest poet uf hip time. Ho was formerly in the army, 
but hi? pave up that profession on tliu adviee of his father 
and led th« hfe of a devotee. Wht n duiirg the fall of 
Dehli every budy fled from the eitv. Dard n itmined in 
poverty contented with hin Int. II*- w;ia a Sufi and a 
good pingHT. A fTOwd of mnsit-ians nmni to assomblo 
at hia house on the 22iid of evcr>- month. Some biogra. 
phtrs say that he was a disv-ipbr of Shah Gulshan, meaning 
•Shaikh Sa'd-ullah. Befcidea a Diwan in IVmiun and on« 
in Kekhta. he has written a treatiso on Siifiiam calh'd 
'* Risila Wiiridat." He died on Thiirsduy the 3rd of Ja- 
nuary. ITtto A. D., 24th Safar, 1199 A. U. 

Alf Nsla-wa-Dard. 
All Sani. 
Dard Uil. 

tiit of Aim Works. 

Diwan in Peniian. 
Diwan in L'rdu. 

Dardmand, •^^^jA, poetiral name of Muhammad Takih 
of Dehli, whu was a pupil of Mirxa Jdn Jannn Mazhar, 
anti tho author of a Siikinama and of a Diwan. He died 
at Murahidfibd^l in tho year 1762 A. D., 1176 A. U. 

Daria Imad Shah, ^^ ^^ kj^, the son of *AU-udrtia 
Tmad Shah wluun h" succeeded on tho throne of Bpfaf in 
the Dakhan about the year 1532 A. D.. 93H A. H. la 
154.1 A. [>., 950 A, H.. he gave hi.^ si^iter lUbia' Sultina 
in marriage to Ibnihim 'Adil Shah, lind tho nujitiaU wew 
ceh'bratetl with royal magnificence In 15.jB A. D. 986 
A. }{., he gavo his daughter in mnrriag*- to Hiuain NiwLni 
Sh.-ih and reigne<l in grvat tranquillity with all tho other 
kings of the Dakhan until hi< death, when h« waa suc- 
ceeded by his son Burhaii 'Imid Shah. 

Daria Khan HohUa, ^jj cjl^ ^j^, a nobleman in the 
ser>-iee of prince Shah .rnh/in, who nn bis arci-won to tho 
throne, raised him to the rank of 5OO0. He afterwanis 
join**d the rebel Khan Jahiiri Lodi. In a bnlth* which 
took ptftce between him .nnd KVija nikammiit Bundela, son 
of Kaja Chhajiar Sinirh. hi' wim kilkxl. tJifirothisr with one 
of his Roiia and 40ft Afgh.ins IG3(J A. D., 10-10 A. H. Ui« 
head was sent to I ho emperor. 

Dorikutnl, ls^/^, vidt Abii*! Husain 'Ali-bin-Tmr. 

Darlmi, (^j'^, the son of 'Abdul IJahmin of Samarkand, 
is tho author of the work called " Mu.tnad Diriini." Ho 
died in the year 869 A. D.. 25.5 A. H. He it* nUn called 
by some authors Abu Muhammad 'Abd-ulUh-al-Darimi. 

Darki, (^**t^'J"*j of Knmm in Persia, wasa cont4<m|>orary 

of Shah 'Abbas. Ho died in the Dakhan and Icfl a Poraian 

Basht Baiazi, i^-^-W ***-'^, vidt Wali of Dasht Bayai. 
Bastam Khan, uJ^ (^^> eon of Riutam Khan Turki- 

stani, was an Amir of 3000 in tho service of iho emperor 
Akbar. He died in 1580 A !> , 98S A. H. of hia wounds 

which ho hn<l n^eived in bntth' aciiinst tho Ihreo neph 
of Ittijji Bihari Mnl, who had rcbtUcd ug^inst tho euiw 
and Were also killed 




j<ij ^ljC\^^ a poet who wrote 

Data Bam Brahman, 

Dattaji Sindhia, *^«i^ i^^A, son of RibiijC and 
brothpT of JaiApiS Sindliia. n MaxJuittft chinf who hud a 
oivnlry of 80.0D0 horso under hiiu, und wus slain in bottle 
«pim«t Ahmiul Shiih A^-doli in the month of January, 
ITiiO A. D.. .Inniftiin TI, 1173 A. H.. a yenr befor- the 
death of Bhiid. tbo fiimous Mivrhii(^ chiof. Vtd« EAiuji 

Baud Bidari (MuUa), iSJ'^ '^^^^t a native of Bidar 
in thii I'iih.nn. Wh»n twelve yean* of ope, he huld the 
nlBco of pa^rt' and ftefJ-ho-artT to Sultiin Sluhainnuid Shah 
Iiuliiimnt I, kliif; uf Dakhaii ahoul ttie yuar 13tth A. I)., 
77t) A. H. He la tbo luithor uf tho "Tah&t-iu-tiaUtin 

Daud Khan Faruki, u^jy^ c^ ^^^-^t succeeded his 
brother Xrirdn Ghimi l--* (ho throne of Khumh*(h in 8ep- 
tiiiilM-r, ^nU'A A. I).. l*it .Tumadal. PIC A. H.. nif;nrd <«>von 
j-i'uni and dird on W<.tlnt»«liiy thi; Glh of Atiu'iut, 1610 
A. D. ilo vrwf iim''t}t*dn>iX by 'Adil Khin Faruki U- 

Daud Khan Kureshi, */^^c>^ ^V-** son of Bhtkan 

Klittii. WHS im ofHrcr of atioo in thu reiijn of tho einpcror 
"Alunif^tr. In ih- yitor ItiTO A. D., 1081 A. H., ho wwi 
Dppointed govemur of AUahdiod. 

Baud Khan Panni, L5*ic*^ -^V^, eon of Khizir Khin 
Panni. a Putliiiii officer, rimownud tliruughout India for 
hiH rccklcw wum^. und hi^t nLoniory still durvivoa in tho 
tnle« and prtT>verb« of the Dakhan. He served Bovt-ral 
years nndpr 'ALimgir, and when I^iihadur .Sluih, ou hiti 
d'?p«rtnr" fruin tli- l>ukhan, gave ihv victn>yalty of that 
ktntpluni tn th*' Auiir-al-Uiiiri, ZulBkar Khdn, as thai 
chit'f L-oald not bt' spari^Hl from L'uiirt, hv h*ft t\w adniin- 
uirntion of the povtmnn ut to I'liud Khan, who wae to 
act OS his lioatonaot. In tho i\uj^ of Farrukh-Biyar when 
Iht' Aralr-nl-Umra Husain 'All Klian inarrhfd towards 
Dnkhan^ Diiid Kh&n recrivod sciti t orders from the um- 
pcT(<r to opimrte and cut him off. Attordinirly when the 
Amir-ul-Umri arrived ot Burhanpur. I)dud Kluln, who 
n-j^anlMl hioiMilf as the hero of hih nt^a, prv pared to re- 
ceive him. The eii^HjjMnonl w;i8 v^nry blooily on both 
ndbs; & mntehlotk bull Btnick Daiid Khan, and he fjll 
down di.'ad on the seat of liis ^h phiUit. This event look 
pUce in tho ye^r I71fi A. D., 1 127 A. }1. 

Baud Kaiaari (Shailth), isj^ ^i'^if^, nnthorof 

anuthiT commentary called '*Sharah Undw-ul-Arlin'in," 
1nNnd»:& the ono written by Birgili. Hu diwl ISoO A. D., 
751 A. U. 

Baud Shuh Bshmanl (Sultan), cf*n- *^ •^i'** 
^IhXm^ Uie *:.n of Sultan 'Ald-uddin Uapan. asc*?ndi'd the 
thnmo of l)Hkhiin, nh-vt aawi?>iiiatiiig hiei nt-pht w Mujihid 
Stiih on thi? I Uh of April, 1378 A. 1).. 21rt Mul.mrram, 
780 A. U- He rei«ned one month and Uvo days, and was 
inttrdon.»d on the lUlh ilay the samo yiar in tho mosiine 
Mi Kttlbttrg* whtnj he w.-nt ti hay his pniycr*. He was 
(Hire<-'<'ded by hi* brolhor SHluoiid Shah I. 

Baud Shah, i^i^ »^ J^'^, a long of QajrAt who 

WM plac»'d on th« throne afleT the deAth of his nqih^w 
Kutb SltAh in 1 131* A !>., and was deposed after seven 
daym. wh^n Muhm6d Shah, another nephew of hia, ft youth 
i»f only H y«*tTt <>( aj^e, ww» raised to tho thruuo. 

Baud Shah, ^^ *)V«>i the youngest son of Soloinifcn 
l^iriLiii ■udi.'etlitl to tho UiiLrdnm of Ben^I after the 
dunth of hit ibJrul bnjth. r llaiarid in the j'lnir Id73 
A. D.t 081 A. 11. This priueo was mueh addicted to 


■ensnal ezceeaes; and tho propensity was n-ud-red mot*- 
degrading by his intlinution to aMociato with persons 'jf 
low oriffin and mean connwtiomi, by whom hf wai* in- 
duced to attack the frontiers of the kini^dom of l»^hli. 
lie had sevenil bkinuish»=a with Munnim KJ:iM\. Kliiu 
Kbanan, governor of .taunpur. who wae mi 
joined by hid niasUir, the emptoor Akbar, wl^ 
nate battle tA>ok place on tbt- auth of .Inly, 107^ -\- iJ-. 
21st Riibi' It, 983 A. H.. in which Ddiid Shih was .b.Ka- 
tod and obliged to n?tirc to a fort on the borden* of K ' 
After this a i)eaoe was concluded, by whirh Dau '- 
was inveated with tho g^>vcmment of OHaji aod ' 
and tho other provinces of Bengal occn] ; 
Mimaim Khan in thu name of the emper*)r. Tl^ 
of lliis eivoni is commemoratt.'d in a Pt-rsian HenuBU 
AfU'f the death of Mnnuioi Khin which took p' 
the same year at Laklmumi, Dtidd Khin r«-took 
provinces of Ben^'al, but was soon attacked by 
Jahdn Turkiuiin, who was appuintcd Kovomor. 
afl/^r a sivero enfrnynmcnt Dliud Kliau waa t* 
prisoner, and euflerod dejith as a reM. From 
period, the kingtloni of I^Ti)rnl wii* Mubdned, and ffU 
undur the subjection of the emperor Akbar. Thns^ ended 
the rule of the F6rbi or indep«ndeut eaitom Ho^ <^ 

Baud Tai, t^^ O^M, a Muaalmin doctor who wa* nat- 
tier of i«:vi'ral sriencoj?. He hftd sci-ved Abii Honlh ftjr 
20 yeiLTs, and wa* ono of tlie diyeiples of Habib llM- Hs 
wua eontempornry with Fazail Aias, Ibrahim Adham 
and 31;j'ruf Karkhi, and diod in the roign of the Vh»W 
Al-Mahdi, tlir son of Al-Manfliir, about the year 7»t of 
782 A. D., 164 or 1G6 A. H. 

Baud Khan, ty'^.Sj'.S, agenerul of Aurangxfb. 

Dawal Devi, ijji^ Jj^'>> or DewalDovC r»rf- KauU 

Bawani, tj^^J^, tho philosopbcr, whoBo propeff name 

.rnlil-uddln MuhamTnad Asa'd Aldawini, tbo son • ! - 
uddin A)«a'd Bawani. He flouriHhed in the rriigr, 
tin Aln\ Sa*id and died, m cording to Hijl Khaltu, m M\> 
year 9U8 A- H., (correspumliiitr with lo02 A. It ), He ^ 
the niiUioT of the '* Shorah HHiakaV' "Akblfik J«lah," 
'* labtit Wttjib.'* (nn the existence of God) *' ivi*iUa Zanra ,*' 
(ou Sifasm), "Hashiu Shamjtia," and "Anwar I:?h*fiv" 
He nUit wTc*te tho "Sharah 'AkAcd.'* and lunrgiiuil notcS 
ou *' Sharah Tajrid." llin Akhlak; Jalnli is a tTHu-'l.nti * 
from t)io Artbie, the onKinal of whirh app 
the 10th century under tho name of ** Kitib-ut-T 
by an Arabian author. inini*tt'r of tl ' hiii^ r-i 

Bnya- Two centuries atti-r. it wiis tr- Pmaisa 

by Abn Naar, and named " Akhlak Nii ;. ,. i ;;.v tnorali 
of NdAir. being enriched with some imj^ortant R<diliC>iias 
taken fntm Abfi Si'na. In the 16th century, it 
a still forth'T improvi-d form, nnder the |>re6ent 
tion, the AUhlak Jnlali or morals of Jalal. Thia 
which is thi.* most e«t£emeil othicAl work of middle 
was trnnalated into English by W. F. Thompttou, Kaq. ut 
the Bengal Civil Sernee, I^ondon, 1S39. 

Bawar Bokhsh (Sultan), cr^ju'^ c^^^^, mnuuDDd 

Mirai Bul&ki, was the son of Sultan KhuArrt. Whfoi bit 
gmndfather, the emperor Jahingir. dii^ on hijf way Ann 
Kashmir to Lnlior in OctoWr. ltJ-27 O. a. Safar 1057 
A H.. 'Aaaf Khan, waatir. who wiw all along d*i^«rmiTi<-d to 
(mpy*nrt 8hah Jaban, the son of the UU" » i. nn- 

dintely sent off a meMAengtT to ftuinniori ibc 

Dukhan. In the menntimc, to sancli-r '•■ <;rM 

by the appearinee of legal authoiity. i\c9 

T)nwar (t:ikltab from primtn, and pn ,,<_' 

Knr Jithin Bogam, pndfnvouring to piipiH)rt tli' 
8hahriilr, her son-in-lnw, wos plactd uniirr t 
rt«linint by her brother, the waxtr, who I'l 
his nisr'h to Labor, ^haliriir who wng . 
citVt forming a coalition with two, tbo vtnu 




the late prinrp PAniiil. marrhed out to oppoBO 'Asaf Khin. 
Tho l)attlc endoii in hLs Utt'tal ; he wusgivuu up liy hift ad- 
herents, and aftvrwtiidH put to death t>gethi'r with Dawrir 
Bakhah iind ttw twi* sons of Diuiil, hy ordtra from t^hjih 
Jah&o who aaciindtid tli*.* throne. Elphiii»t«nc in his His- 
tory of India, suyn thut Dawtir BukhiJi found meaiiB to 
MCApe to IVrcia, wliuo ho waa aiterwarda secii by tho 
Holstcin uiuliutt^adurs. 

Daya Mai, ^ ^^j vuf^Jmtijit. 
DayaNath, *^3tj U^ r.v.- \Vafi. 

Dayanat Klian, c,-^ *^^^^.J^} title of Sluhamnwid Hnsain, 
an amir vi 2-500, who aLi*vud tmdrr lh«t i^mporor Bhdh Ju- 
ban, and died ut AlLnituluug-ar iii thu Dukhun iCiii A. D., 
1040 A. IL 

Daya Ham, ("L) ^^t Vii\\ha, a hrro, renowned in tho west 

of Hindustiin for L^slniordinary strength of body, extra- 
ordinary couTftgt-'. imid (!xtra*jrdiimry urhit-vt'iutDU. Hu 
wan a Uwala hy ctwU; and flourished in the rt'ign of the 
Emperor FiLmikh-Hiyar. The wonderful ft-ats of tliia uiim 
artj eun;; or ri'tit'-d uccompHiiied by the hint of a dfnU 
throu(jhout Hindustan. A full and aflV-ctiiii? ar-ooiint uf 
this hero is Riven in tho ** Bcn^ Annual" jjublifiUtd at 
Calcutta iu 1833, p. IGO. 

Daya Ram, ^b -^t * chief of Hatras, tributary to the 
HonoiTili]ii Company, whu, about the yt-ar 16M A. 11., 
confiding ID thi- extrunrdinar)- etrength of his fort, showed 
a si)irit of coutunmcy and difcoWdi-aicu. A tniin uf 
Artillfrj- waa brciught ugaiiiBt thin pliice from Cawnpfir, 
and a fi-w hourw of its tremiiudoua ilro bteaehed tho 
boustt-d fortiHi-utioa. 

Dilaml t^^J and tidmini wcro two d>'nastie8 which divided 
between Uwni thu kingdom of Pnnria towarda tho bo- 
ginning of tho 1 0th century. They both rogo to power 
through Iho favor of tho Khalifs of Bnghdid, but they 
Bpeoduy thixw off the yoki-. Tho DiUmi divided into 
two biimrhrs, ext-rrised eovoix-isn authority in KirniAn, 
Trak. Faris. Khuzislku, and Ltiristiii. always acknowK-df;. 
ing' their noniina.! dcponiiem-e on the Khalifi, and during 
the whole pi-riod of thi'ir rule, one of thi- suuthem branch 
of Ihifl fiiuiily was vusted wilh tho dignity of Aniir-ul- 
Unuu, or vizir, and manHm'd the affairs oi tho khulifate. 
Several of th.j Bdunu wcru nhlu and wist- rult-rM. but 
Uahmud of lihnzni put un i.nd (u thf* nib^ of the nurtbrm 
bruneh in 10'J9 A- 1)., and the iSaljdVe subju^ted the twuth- 
em one in 10.56 A. D., by the caplurt- of Uii^'hdad. tbvir ]u^t 
Btronghold. Thoir nior" powerful rivala, th«> Samani. hud 
obtained from tho KhiJif the govinina-nt of Trun»oiiana 
in 874 A. U. ; tind to thi.s l'»uia'il. tb<' most eelebmtwi 
prince of tht; family, sjifi dily addL-d Khwdrizm. Balkli, 
Khurisan. Sistan, and many porlioua of northern Turki- 
Btaa. ItcbelliuuH of prorincini governors distrarU d tho 
S«manidn monarchy towards the end of tho lOth century ; 
and in Bt>9 A. D. th< ir dominions north of IV-rsia were 
takun poswwsion of by the K-han of K(Uhj?har, the TiT^iim 
provinces Ving addi-d by Mahmud of Gbazni to hid dumi- 
nions. See K^i^. 

Din Muhammad Khan, ij^ •Xfc«**c»^.^, the son of 
iani Cej^ Sultan, and *Al>d-ulldh KJuln Uzbuk's sister, wae 
raised to tlu^ Ihiunt* of Samarkand afti^r the de^th of 
•Abdul Momin Khan, tho son of 'Abd^ulhlh Kbiln, in ioi*8 
A. D., 10U6 A. U. He wua wounded in a battlo fought 
against Shah 'AbbSa tho Grout, king of renia^ and dUd 
shortly after. 

Diwana, *^^J^^> poctieal name of Muhanunad Jan, who 
dJL-d in the year 1737 A. D., lIoO A. 11. 

Diwana, ^^ji^t poetical name of lUe Sarabsukh, a rela- 
tion of rdji Maha NarAyan. He wrote two Pt-raian 


T){wins of more than 10,000 vcrfiea ; most poctn of Likh- 
nau were hit* pupils. He died in 1791 A. D., 1206 A. H. 

Diwana, ^LH-J, poetical name of Mirzi Muhammad *Ah' 
Khan of liiinirwn, who waa employed iu tho oflice of Mr. 
Cokbroiike at .lahanabad. 

Diwanji Begam, ^*^. u^J^-^t she was the mother of 
Arjumand Bano Begam Mumtax Mahal, and the wife of 
'Asaf Khan, Wazir. On a spot of fifty bighaa of land 
on the bank td' tho nvtr Jlitmnn, close to the Kauza of 
TujganJ, i.i Ui bo seen her UaiiEtt bust of white marble. 

Deo Karain Singh, *^ lH'j'J^A, (K. C. S. I., Sir, ^i) 
of Banarus, di<?d suddenly on tho 28th Augmt, 1870. 

Dowal Devi, LSy.^ dy.^j tide Kaula Dtivi. 

Dhara, b •*) the eon of Rijd Todarmal. Up was killed 
in a batt!o fought u^inut Minii Jam' n<'g, rulor of Thalta> 
iu Nuvi'iuImt, loPl A. U., Mul>arram 1000 A. 11. 

Dhola Rao^ jL' r^*'* the ancestor of the Kachhwaha lUjaa 
of Ambir cr Jaipur, ho lived about tho year 9G7 A. D. 

Dhundia Wagh, ^h^.'^O^^, the frin'-bootcr. who h/id 

for several yean* with a fonnldiibh' baud, pilljiged and laid 
wtisto the fronti'-rs of Myaoro. This roltbcr n'wumi'd thb 
lofty title of king of tho two worlds, and aimed, doubtleaa^ 
at L'ar\"ing out for hinisolf iumo iodein-udciit prini ipality, 
ftftor thf t xamjtlo of Uydar 'All, in whoi^e service h<t ori- 
ginally conimeneed hjs advcntarouBcart'iT. fc^ubsiqucntiy 
ho incum,'d thy displuasurtJ of Tipia Sidlau, who chained 
hira liku ft wild to the wqHb of his dungi-onii in 
Scran gapatiuii, from which " dnraneo vilo" he had been 
lib<Tuted by the Kni;li.'*h soMiin* afu-r the taking of 
Seranpaputam. Ee now threatened Mysoru "ft-ilh fi.OOO 
cavahn,". 'J*ho Oovenimeiit of Madias in*itructt>d Colontd 
Welltwley tu pursno him whi*r«ver he fculd Vj*' found and 
to hang him on the first tree. Ills eubjugittion and sub- 
Requcnt di-ath (iu 18**0) with thu extirjiutJon ol his forrai- 
dabh' band of t'Trtr-boutcrft, nlirvi d Iht: Mnglish Uovem- 
meut from en enemy, who, thougJi by no nirana equal to 
Hydar and 'i'l'pu, might uventimlly have aHonlDd coniii- 
df^niblt! annoyance. 

Dil, ^^1 poetical name of Zorawar Kh£n of Sirkar Kol. 
II<.' is tho author of tt BiwAn and a few ^laimawia. 

Dilawar Khan, c»^JJ^'>> foundor of thi^ dynasty of the 
Muhanimndan kings of Mdlwa. Tho Ilindd histori*'** of 
the kinr;dom of Malwa go back as liir as the reign of 
Itiija BikarT»j.jit, whose atcession to that kingdom haa 
given riiio to an era which commences 67 yiiars biforo 
Christ. After him reigned lUja Bh6j and many others 
who arc all mentioned among the rajas of titndustan. 
Puring the rrign of Ghayds-udd/n Balhan king of Dt-hli 
in thi- year 1310 A. 1>., 7io A. H., the Muhammadans first 
invaded ami conquered tho provinros nf Slilwa ; after 
which it acknowledged allegianc*^ to that orown until tho 
reign of Muhammad Shah Tughlak II, 1387 A. IT., 780 
A. 11. At this jioriod DilAwar Khan, a descendant on hia 
inothfT^b side from Sult&n Sbahab-uddiu Gh6n', was ap- 
poinl*d t^nvcmor of Mahva, previously to the sccosaion of 
Muhamiiuid Tughbi^. and ha Bubecqucntly edtabliehed his 
indepindcnre. In the year 1398 A. D., 801 A. U,, Mah- 
u\<id Shflh, king of D*hli, bt ing driven fttwi hia throne 
by Amir TaimuT (Tamcrbmt,) made hia escape to Gi^jnlt, 
and then to Malwa, wht-ro ho nniaimd three years, aftor 
which, in UOl A. 1)., 804 A. II.. ho, at tho instance of 
the Dehli nobles, quitletl MAIwn. iu order to n'smne the 
rtnns of bis own gov»mment. Dilawar Khrin shortly af- 
ti^rwarda aasumed royalty and divided his kingdom into 
estatoB among bis oSlcors whom hv ennobled. Dilawar 
Khin on asanming independence, took up his residence 
in Dhar, which place ho coiuddcrtid as tho seat of 




Vid W frvqwctiy vwiUd the citjr of MAndo^ 
lor month* together. Ho only 
oftbe rc^id titli's n. fi^w vuara j 
*r a» tt» 5<iV liM JL DU *t>8 A. 11 , he- d'u^ ena'denlv, 
^ai im «■ A2y EIiAb wttotBded the throne ondcr tho title 
<tf fi«kte HMmv fTMTi Including Dilawar Khan 
KMten* ten«d m Milva till thi? time of the om- 
mBM^isi, 'vaoae ton Akli«r eveotiinlly Hul>duv(l uiid 
it to the pithAS government. Th«ir xuuoes aru lu 


mm of PiUwar. 
I, KhUji, itykdthe Great, 





K«1ii1nr muh, king of Gvlrit 

.iiiOf and 
ii«£ lioluUliu-, Acm of bTiujiti' Khin. 

DilAVmr Khaa* cM-^^^^i • nobleman of the svign of tho 

amumat ttih iahin. wu tli«> nn of UnhdUur Khdn 
lUiiik. lie died el IUIhiI i& the )-imr 16ot) A. D^ lUtiS 

Pild&r Agft, ^*y*^J, one of the viree of the uznperor 
mbu, ftvd motbt'r of Itirzi Hfimial. 

Pilor Himm&t Khan, o'**- *=•** -^V^i originid xuune 
of Navitj Jdoxaffar Jang of Farrokhihid, vhich h«. 

Pilar Khan, ^ J^^t a DAddcai Alghin, whoso proper 
name vw JaUJ Khiiu U« «nu the younger hrothor of 
JUhidw Khin Acdiila. and one of thi< IithI and brftrust 
9ni«nk of th« oniMn* 'AUm^ir. }!•' hi^ld the rank of 
600U, and died in tbt^ yonr \WA A. D., lOUi A. U., in thu 


Diier Ehan« irA^'o, titU of 'AMvl Radf, the eon of 
'Alxiul KdTiia« formorly in the 8iirvii'^> of tho king of 
Bijii'iir. Al('-r tli>- <'unr)U)^ht oC that countri*. he juinid 
'Aknigiir ond irx-inid th** tille of IHIcr Khiln jind tho 
uutUMli of ;UU0. Uo diud in the r^iign of Buliadur bh^ 
in th« Itakhan, when: he tu.'ld a jagir, 

Dllraa Bano Begam, (^^ y^-t^j^^, daughter of 

KluihrittWM Khio fciufwi, the sun of Itinsa ItutUra Kan- 
dhuri, iind wifr ol" ihi- tinpuror *Alumgu-. fcjhf liwd an- 
othti iM»lc4- w)iu woe luurricd to Murid liakhhli^ brother of 

DiUhad Khatun, eit^^.>^J, daoghUr of Amir Da- 
miAli^f. th.t tiun of Auwr .lubau or Juviuu, ttnd wify of Sal- 
tan Abij Ha'id KhAn. Amir HittuiQ HuKurg. who oftrr 
Ibri dw.lh uf the fcJulUn in ia3o A. D., took iKjasossion uf 
B*i|fhdid, nixiiTiod her, but the reins of govcnuuunt wuro 
in ncr hiuut«. 

Diliio^, JT^^$ poetical title of Kludtiti Khin, a pool who 
Uv«d About the yoM- ISOO. 

Dost'Alij U** "^^^J^, Xhwih of Aikal kXid anlaUvo of 
MuruiM Khin. Under him tho »tnx.i«itf to-iaure of Tri- 
ivUinc.j^Iy vuj porpotratod by Chanda feahjb. IJt wiu suc- 
Art-dt^l by hia kui Safdar 'All, whn. nft-r ovticoming tho 
rifuia of |k^jmuU prrtprtn'd for ii '. rU/a Khan, fell 
I7 thn |ioiiiird of a I^a^him ib-> \ fur Iho work 
by tit' .--.r... "crwjn. A ntonu w,.- , .,-ii ■.■.;,■ ' • ' 3 not 
Al*' ' inrounUT ; mdJ iji.*guiiiii)^ fe- 

»;*** '"■ ts'ujKiU fruHi Arkat to . i„...rlof 

Dost Muhammad Kh>iD, J^ ***^=* '^^j*, ruler of 

Kibul and Kandith&r, wiw one of the bntthtrs uf Falba 
Khin, tbocclebmtf'd waji'r of Mahmiitl, ruler of Himt aj&4 
chief of tho Barakzai clan. He whs tho most powtsrful rhi^ 
in Afghanifitun, and bad for »om(> yean pn.'riouf> to the 
roetoration of Shah fihujia'.uI-Mulk by the Bnl 
J 838, niled thnt country. On tho \\m\h of this pj 
Dost Muhammnd ngain nrwuinod tho ixjins of ^vomiai 

On the buNo and cruel niurdur of Fatha Khin by Mah> 
mud at the instigation of Prinuo Kamr&n, hia bn}thcn 
revolted from their allogiAncc nndt^r the ^uidttticB o| 
'.Agi'm Khan, the governor of Kaahmir, and oto^q &Uh- 
miid and hia sou Kamr^ from Kabul, ^im Khan ia 
thu tirat inBtoncj? nffurod tho vacnnt tbrono to Shah 8hu- 
jaa', but oflV.-udi-d by some iHTSonal elight» wilhdn^w his 
BUpjiorl, iind plftct^d in his room^ jViyub, a bivtbei of 
Sh^ ShujiUi', who wuii content to tnkt^ the tnippingM wiUi 
the [wwcr of royalty. On Axlni KIiuii's dwUi. his bro- 
thent di.'iAAtinfiisd with th»^ir positi(;n conipinsl nj^ainit hM 
son, llabibulUh Khan, and seizing hia |>tir>fon, by thrMsU 
of blowing him from a gun, indiicud hia muthtir to delivtr 
up the rcaidun of Azim Khan'a immcuM wealth. Ai- 
yub'a Don whs killed in these disputes, iind he lumiolt 
nltrmed by th*>se scenes of violencx, fled tti ! "' T>.%t 

Muhnmmiid Khan, the most Uibaitr>d of Ihr i ; ii-n 

t'X>k powv^on of thy Ibrnn' :.Ti.i l.««'jtnic U, . .... .....;.- of 

Kibul. Hher Dil Khdn. 1 by four brt)th*«, 

carriod off ubout half a itn uig' of Axim KKts'* 

money, and aeatod hiuiwlf in KauduUdr. as on indopen- 
dcnt chieftain. Ht nnd one of hiit brothers d»<il ainiHl 
years Qgo ; and Knndjihir wn-s until lat^^Iy ruK^ by 
Kohiin Dil Kbdn. aaiistfJ by hitt two nurviving brothiia 
Rohira Dil and Mir I>il. In the yciir isny thi^ lititith 
army entt'rmi Kabul and pliited ShAh Shujaa'-uNiXuikon 
the throno on the Htb May, and Dost Muii.iiriiiiul Khin 
fiurronderod to the Driliab Envoy and Mi; )T.^J 

on tho 4tU Novembur, after having defeiit^-d '■ i.,-n- 

gal Cavalry by a dos]M;nito charge, llu w.i- .Ut 

Bent down to CiUcutta, where ho arriviKl, m 1*^ 

one of Ids soui*, on the 23rd M;iy, 1841. 11 
in November 1842 and rotunu-d to Kabul, \* 
edasbeiorv till hisdoath. which took placoi-u ;... .-.., ,. mi. 

1803 A. D., aut ;{a-inya 1279 a. U.. mwJ hi* youugw; 

Bon Amir Shor Ali auecteded him. 

Doulat Klian Lodi, c5^y ij^ ^ J# who, Acoofdisi 

to Firishtft, woa an Afghan by birth, orig^i t.% 

8om>tary. who after pu'saing through vurji. >.tf 

riliwed by .Sultan JLahmud Tu«blul^. an.i df 

title of 'Ajeiz Muniiilik. After the il- atli ».f :ji» 

nobU-fl ntised him to the thnmu of Dflili j., .»i.i.», .«ll 
A. D., Mul>arram, 81G A. II. In .M.arh UU. 1^ 
RabI I, 817 A. II., Khiiir Khin, governor i.f Multia in- 
TRdt4 DehU, and after a eiuge of four mtmtlu obligwl liodct 
Khan on the \K\x Juno UH, Jamid* I, SI" A. KJ.. to 
siuT.>ndcT. He was instantly conaned in the fort of FitAoi- 
bud, whciv he died after two montlu. 

Doulat Khan Lodi, u^y c^'i- ^i-la^/jwho inW'W 

Bfibar Shah to India, wna u draotindant of the me* of tlal 
name who heretofore reigntHl nt DtdiU. Jit- wm - poH 
nnd a man of lenming. IJo dii-d a abort lim.) ' dhn 
Babar conquored Dehlf, ». i-., in the ywir \h%^ A. D. %\\ 
A. ix. 

Doulat Khan Lodi Shahu KhaiU cJ^y e/^ *^>* 

^^ -y*^ waa the fiither of Iho rebel Khin Jahin U4i. 
Ho served under Mirai ' Ktiz Koko. "Al-.tul Ibthim Kl^ 
Kiiin Khandn, and princf Danial for sovonil ycArsandw 
raiaod to tii» rank of 2000. Uu diod in the'DakLia IMO 
A. D.. 1009 A. U. M«« w 

Doulat Hao Sindhia (Maharaja), **««u^yj *s^ 

*^!;T*i of Ow^lior, a MarhalU ohiof, ffae the gai^i- 




nophow find ndoptod eon of Modhoji Sindhia, whom ho 
flucoecdcj to thn raj of Gwtdiiir in Manh* 1794 A. T)., 
1208 A. H. Ills violtfnco. rn|mcity and Inwloss nmbitkm, 
were the main L.-msffi of tho wnr in 1802 with the can- 
federate Sfiirhatta cluoftaius. Hustililit^s liaving Lruktn 
out with liiL- llritish, Sir Arthur WL-ll^'xli-y (nflcrwai-Ja 
Dake (^ Wt'UiiigU.n) di-rrat^-il Iifuljit JUn nt A(*fiiiyo in 
1803. while Lord J^iko drove the Murhiitlas fpt»m Uic whole 
of the Doftb. He injiirii'd Huji Bai, n.-i^i-d 33 yi-an*, 
ftiid died on tho *2Ui Miinh, 18:i7. '-M^t Sh'sbtin 1242 
A. H. He was Huwccdcd by Jhanko llao Sindhia, 

Doulat 8hah, »^ ^•'jJ, mn of Bakht Sbjih of SamfirVand, 

and nuthor ftf tin- Biogiuphy of Poi-ta f'alK'd "Tazkira 
Duiilul Shahi." Jk- Jlouridifd in thf n^igti of Sultiin 
Hu&tin Alirzfi of llirul^ svirnrtnutJ Aln'il (iluixi BKliudur, 
and dt'dirjitt-d tht; \\*iTk lo KIm priiiio iniui-stiT, iho CL-lfbrfl- 
ted Amir Nizaiii-uJ(li:i 'Alislnr. Tliim wurk wufi wnttun 
in l4Hti A. 1)., Kill A, H . and oonl^iinH thi*^ LivtH or Mc- 
jnoin of tt-n Arsbian, und ono Imndrt'd imd tliirty-four 
Pexaiau pouta, with viuiuus quotiLliunN irvm Ihuir wurkfi, 
and onet-dutea of Iht; piimu n nt who jm- court thi-y riisidi-d. 
It bIm) givt'8 nil account of pis i>cK'ts ihun n^idinj; in 
Tlirdt ; twu of whi.nri wtrc pn"iif ipal iiuiii?stfTR nf tla- 
Kul^dn ; viz., 'A]i.-,hir, and Amir Shaikh Abniad 8uhrli. 
Vide Kili'zi Kimuini. Hu diL-d iu UWo A. D. 

Dundey Elian, *Vju cj^^ *— ^'j'^j u Koluln chief, and 
Bon of 'AH Iiluhrimmiid Klian, tin,' founder tti (ho Uoluhi 
OovemnHTit. In t\w jmrtition of liimU isluch were 
ungned to thr< chii-fi«. in the limi' uf lliltiK KrihTn.<it, 
Dlindey Kh&u oM^tinod the dirtri>'ti» nf l^i^iiuili, Muifida- 
Wd, Chundpi'ir imd tSambhal in Unhilkhnnil. \h- dird 
|>rovioufl to lh<! Kuhila war whk-h touk pWf? in 1774 
A. D., lai%-injr thivu aans, thu eldtvi uf wliuin Muliib-ullaU 
KMn, flucccoiied to the largest portion of hiti ttTritoiius. 

Dunyapat Singh (raja), *^^ ^^k'^^ ^b- His father 

died in 17'Hii A, !>., at whirh time hv: wtis only flcven years 
of ape. Jlv iiibLTiti'il from his giiindlbthcr 3lup lUe thu 
C'hakbui of Korii, Futhuj^ur and Kuj-ii, but was diBi)f>ss«'Sfl- 
od by Ibo Xttwab Wazir, and a Kanliitr allttwance nf 
24,000 rupws g^raiili-d tu thi? raja on bis exclusion. Thia 
mu subsequently reduced lo 7,oOlJ nijKis. The ori^nal 
grant amounted to 52,000 per annunt. payable frum H 
inah^ but in 1770 A. U., thu Nuwdb Najaf Khi'in 
Acquirinp; unlimited dnuiinion over Uicae provinces, dts- 
noa60flK'dhi6 father ol' eb'ven of the villagi.-K, by wbiih bin 
income was reiluced lu 20,tiOn inpicw. In 17f<7biN futtn^r 
wo* dispoflpfssed of the remaining lliree villug^es by Zain- 
ill-*Abiiiin Khan, the 'Ainil,but uh ijic rajfi was about tu 
proceed to hoHtilitii*, the *Amil agreed to allow him 
10.000 Rs. fur the firnt and 2O.OU0 thereafter, but 
failed in thi* iulfilment of hia prumiHe. In I'i'S A. J)., 
Zain-ul-'Abidin died, and wuj* surceeHbd by hla snn BaViLT 
'A\i KbAn, and from tlint perirul up to IhC'i. the nija I*u- 
ni&put Sin^h wua allowed 8,000 iujnes per unnuni, wUicli 
WMD eoufinned by Govfrumont in 18t)ii iu perjxituity. 

DupleiXi ft French oflicer, governor of Pondiclurry. In 
1750 A. V ■, be was eb-vatcd to the rank of n Haft HazAri, 
or Commander of Mven ihounand horre, and jH^nnillid 
to bciar an eneij^, acisipiied to penions of the kii,'he(«t 
notu in the emjtire, by Muzaffar ^iing, viceroy *>i Ihc 
iJrtkhan, after his victon' uver Lis bi-other Kiair Jang 
wlio fell in battle. 

Ourdusd, ^3*^^^^ ''''''" '^^' Durduad of Antrabad. 
Durgawati (Bani), i^J^^J^ i/br tUuphtcr of Kana 

Sariku. JVf/e SiUmddi. 
Ourgawati (Rant), t^J^J'^ i^^ ' r the dnught«»r of the 

riji of Mah6ba, who van much celebrated tw her uu^u- 

lar beauty. Ovoriores had been made for an union 
■with Datput Sah. raji of Singalgurh (which is situated 
on the brow of a hill ihut comnianda a paiid on the road 
about halfway between Garha and Smigar;) bat the pro- 
posal was rejected on tho ground ofapreviona engajfo* 
nient, and Btnue inferiuiity of caste on the part of tho 
rturha family, whu was of thci racL- of Oie CliaJuUil raj- 
puts. L>alpat Sah w;ivi a nnin of niKommonly tin« ap- 
|itiiran<'e. and this added lo the ceb'brily of hi» father's 
nnnii' and extf^nt of hi:< dominions, made I*urgaw:iti a« 
desirous as liimself fi>r the uiiii'iu but he was by her 
priv(,>n to understand, that «btf intuit be ivlincjuisdicd or 
fctken by fiirce, w'ncc the liiffi-nniL- uf rasl)' Wt>uld id* itself 
ho otherwise an innurmounlable f1.?ijieb'. He marched 
with ail his tixiop:) hu could iiakcuible, met Ibuse of her 
fiilh(r and his rival,— pained a Wet/tPi- ruid brnuglil off 
L)urw:aw:;lf an thi' prize to the furt of Singiil^iurh. Dal- 
pal Sjili died four yeaiw after their marriage, leaving u con 
niitned Bir Narayan about ihri.u years of age, and liia 
widuw uH r<^gent durinj^ hU niin<.>nty. Asaf Khan, the 
in>])erial ric i-my at Kara iil«nik]»iir rtn the liangej) in thp 
imjvinee of Allahiibiid, invitetl \iy the pros^pf t of up]>ro- 
pniiting so fine a countiT juid so much wrallh as nh'-- whs 
reputed to p(isse>w, irivadid her ilnmimons in the year 
IJfiJ A v., at the head uf 6.000 cavalry nnd 12,000 w, li'dis- 
ei[ilined itifantr>", with a tniin of aitiUcry. He was mt-t 
by tlu* quten iit the bead of Imr tniojis, nnd an action 
took idiue in which (die was deflated. She receive*! a 
Wound from an arrow in tho eye ; and h*^ only hon, then 
alxjut 18 yeni-8 of age, was sevcnly wounded and taken 
to ihf rear. At tliis moment »hc reci-ived iinotbtr arrnw 
in th(* niik ; and seeing htr troo|Mi give way nnd the 
enemy closing uruund her, slie snatched a d(igg<*r from 
lh» driver of her eb-phant, and plunged it in her uwn 
bosom. Ker son WHS taken off llie tield, and was, un- 
perteived by the enemy, ecnveyed buck lo tho palace at 
(Tiuriignrh, to which Awif KhiLn retnrmd immediately 
after his victory and bud siege. The young prince was 
kilNJ in tlw ^i"'J;^• ; und tlie wuuien wt fire lu the pi ice 
under the a]>prehension of sutTcring difhonor if liny fell 
alivo into thi- hands of the enemy. Two fenuib's ares'iid 
to havo esrapid, 1h** sister of the ijunt-n, and a young 
prince!)."! who had Won betrothixl to tho young prineu 
Bir Niuiiyan ; and ibeae lw<) fire siiid to have been wnt 
to the cniiM ror Akluir. In tljis* di>tric( uf .Tttbliuljiur. the 
marble rocks find the palace cuibd Jladiiu Ttbihal is worth 
seeing, Thtre is some duggrel ihynie aliout this pabtce 
whit h ifl not genirally known, though of bome interest. 
ThiK building sbinds on a t^ingb' trrunile boulder, and was 
cotiKtrueted by the Uond jiviniesw Kani Hurgawati, at thft 
time of thu Muhanunadun invaMon of Ccntml India. 
Years after the ce*^iun of the country to the British, a 
wag id n Parj^it wroto on the enlninc« door of the paUco 
Qw following lines : ' 

Madan ^fnhal k^ cbhain 1r6, 
Do tangori ke bich, 
• Gar* "-'" hikh ]ii]ii, 
Aui-son£ kd do j\kt. 


In 1h<- bhade of Madan Mahal 

Betweeu two bouideiTi 

Thtre are burie<l nino lakhs of rnpcoa 
And twu bricks of gold. 

It did not lakf* Icng for the news of tho appearance of 
thiii writing on thy door to siiread abroad, luid Ihu very 
|K-rvon to fiUl a dupe lo the I'andit's trick wa.i (.'aptain 
Whoatloy, at that linm a Boliljial Afi!»islunt at Jalmlpur. 
Ho mublored some peona and latwrera. and having jiro* 
ceeded to the spot. conimenc^Hl digging for the trtjasure 
on the part of Otivcninu-nt. The iialivu hidy, in whoftu 
posstssion was tho villuife land^ou wbiidi the pjilaco stood, 
came rushing down tu the Agent to the lJovernor<Uenenil 
and reprewntcd that she was buing pluadunil of her 




trvunre by Captoui Whoatley. " Pagll," replied Sir Wm, 
Slocmfiii, " ho u as mad as yi>u arc ; thn Pandit would not 
have divulged the secret were it of much vuhic." Many 
yeara have sinco plapsed, and many otliera cot poas^jtHed 
of Sir Willianr« wisdom have fallt-n dupoe to the Pandit's 
pot'tieal triek ; and, hut for the very durable natun* of 
the niartaa, thrre have bwn enough of excavations made 
in and about thi> htuldiog to raze it to the ground. 


£gypt, king* of, vidt Moizs-li^din-oUah Abi Tomim Ma'd. 
Ekkoji, (jr^jA?, the founder of the Tanjore family waa tho 

«on of Sbohjt Hhosla. and brother of Sciwiji but from 
another ronaort. The principality of Tanjore waa ouo 
of the oldest in tht> Marhattu confedemry, of which pro- 
vino: Eikuji obtuioed poasessian in 1678 A. D. 


F&ek, ii^'i 0^ Viytii^ poetical namo of Monlwf Muham- 
mad F£e|f, author of the work called " MaUizan*ul- 

Fttez, i^J^ ^ Fiyest poetical name of Shaikh Muham- 
mad F4*'i, a pupil of Mnhammad Sa'id Ayaz. He is the 
author of a short Diwan, and was probably living in 17'24 
A.D., 1130 A. U. 

Paezi Kirmani, 4/^^;^ c*^ j a poet who rendered tho 

Tuzkini of l>oulat Slidh in PcraiiLn versos in the time of 
tho empiTor Akbiu", luid altired th'j division uf the ori- 
ginal, making tini pt^riods instead of seven. Vidff Lulf- 
nllah ]^lubitmmttd Muhaddis* 

PaghfUT, JJ^^9 the gonenl luune of the kiiigs of China. 

FaghfUr Yoadi, iS^^-jy^ (*^, (Hakim) a phy- 
sician and poet of Perftia, bom at Yowl. He is the author 
of a Diw^ or Book of Odia, and has wrilU-n suvrrul 
panegn,rt4's in praiao of the kingt) of Porsia. He cumo 
to India in 1003 A. !>., 1012 A. H., and wus employed 
by priztco Parw<f!7^ and died at Allahabad about the yetir 
1619A. D., 1028A. U, 

Tahmi Kirmani, *m/u*t* •>-** i:;i'^\;^ t^Vj*, 

(Muulana Sudr-uddin Atuhammad), a poet who is tho 
nuthor of a Kfosnawf called "Surat-wa-Ma'ani," and 
9\mt of some Ka^idas* Ghazols, Satires, &e. He died in 
the year 1 68i A. D., 993 A. H., in the fort uf Tubrcz, 
during tho time it va« bodeged by the Turka. 

FaiSf k/H^j the distinguished mystical p^osophcr tnd 
thcolo^pst, Mtdli Muhfiin of KAahAn, commonly called 
Akh&nd Faiz. He floariMhi.d tmder ShjUi 'Abbas II of 
Fenia, who treated him with great respect. He htts 
writU'n n gii?at numb«r of Itookn, of which " Kitib 'Asufi"' 
and •'Kitttii Safi are two Comnu-ntaries on the* Kunin. 
He died at KaahAn audcr. or afUr Shih Sulalmiu of 
Persia, and his tomb is a placo of pilgrimage. 

FaiB, U*i*, poetical title of Mir Fain 'All, an TJrdd poot 
of Pt hU- Hia father Mir 3hlnhammad Taki was also m 
elf^nt poet, and bad usmmed the title of Mir for his 
poetical name. Both Fnta 'AH and hia father weiv living 
lit Drhli in the J-ear 1785 A. 1)., 1196 A. H. 

FaiS> i*»^*, a pupil of Mirzi l^atfl, and author of a poe- 
tiral work contAinlng amorous sonn in Persian, called 
** D(win Pais." He was living in tbe time of Mubam- 
Diftd *Ali Khih, Idng of LAkhoau, about the yev 1840 
A. Dm 1256 A. H. 

Fais, U^^3 poetical title of Fai2-nl-Han& of Sabten^ 
pfir, author of the '* TUuzat-ul-Faiz," a poem compoaod m 
1847 A. D., 1263 A. H. 

Faild (Shaikh), j/*^ f^' who«o proper name wa* 
Abu'l Fail!, was the fun uf Shaikh Mubinl^of Kigor, 
and eldest brother of Shaikh Abu'l Fail, primp-miuii«t«r 
and secretiir)- to tho emperor Akbar Shah. He wiuj bom 
on the 10th tjeptember 1547. A. D., 1st Shiban, W4 
A. U., and wiis fiir^t preflenti^d to Akbar in the 12th you 
of his reign, and introduced his brother Abu'l Faal six 
yean later. After the death of the por^t laureate Ghixali 
of Muahhad. fl>>ottt tho ye-ar 1572 A. D., or some vnat 
after, or, according to the " Masir-ul-Uniro," in the Slid 
your of tho omperor, FalRi waa honored with the title of 
** Miilik-ush-Shua'r&" or king of p»wt«. In hirtory, phi-; 
losophy, in medicine, in letter writing, and in compou- 
tion, he was -ii4thout a rival. His earlier compofiiti^ins 
in verse, bear hia titular name of Foizi. which he unbae- 
quently dignified into Faiy&il, but he Bur\ived to enjuy 
his laat title only one or two months, and then m<it his 
death. Being deairoujs of rivalling the Khaniaa or tLt 
five i»ocm8 of Ni7.ttmf, he wrote in imitiitinQ of tht^m hi* 
" Markii!: Adwar," "yulaiman and Itilkais." ** Nal Da- 
nuin,'* " HafL KiskwAr," and ** Akbar Naiim." Thu story 
of Niil Daman i^i an epijtudo of the Mahatiharat, which he 
tranAlatcd into Pertiiim verse at the command of tho on- 
peror Akbur. He was the first Muaalm&n that applM 
himself to a diligent study of Hindu lit^'ratun- and aciene*. 
Besides SansLrit works in poetry and philo^uphy, be 
made a veiiiiou of thu " Bija Uiiniti,'* and "X«ilfl.wntt" 
of Bhaskar Achirj-d, the bedt Hibrtw works on Algebnt 
and Arithmetic. Ho was lik^^wifu,' author of a great dfls] 
of original poetry, and of otluT works in iVrsian. H* 
composed an elultorato Commc-ntary upon tho Kurio, 
making use of only thiMte 13 out of the 28 I(.'tl4;i3 uf lb« 
Alphahet which have no dota, and which he namtd 
" Sawata'-ul-Ilhdm" ; a copy of this extraordimiry mtmu- 
ment of wattled 1ab(.<ur (says Mr. Klliut] i.<< to be suonib 
the Library of the iMni India House. Hit-ro is also 
another book of tlu* same di^cription w hirh he wruta a&d 
called "Mawarid-ul-Kabim." Fitixi siiffured from wUnoa 
and died at Agnih on Saturday the 4th of October, t69C 
O. S., loth Safiir. 10J4 A. H., aged 49 lunar yeuv ad 
some months ; and, as many supjmfled him to have Y>vm a 
dt'ist, several abusivo ehponogruma were written no Ui« 
oocasiun, of wliich the following ia one — *'Tho Shaikh 
was an infidel." There is also an Iniiha cr coUoctiott of 
Lt-'ttore which goes uftcr hia name- *' - i. ..•>...(. dii^ja 
Januiiry, 1590 A. I)., 998 A. U., and ) An^wd, 

1S93 A. I>.. 55fka'd, 1091 A. H. Ho wi , ( sohohtf, 

well versed in iVrabic literature, tho art of poeiiy ainl me- 
dicine. IJe was also one of the most voluniinous writers 
that India has produced and ii said to have eompo^ied iOl 
books. Fuiii had been likewittu euipluye'l a« teacher to 
the princes; he alao acted as ambassador. Thus tu 1900 
A. H., he was in tho Dakbio, from whenec ho wroto ths 
letter to the historian Buddoni, who had h^n in tcsnp^ 
rary disgrace at Court. Vide Jii JVaMUtiom I, 490. 

Faizi, 4,^^*, of Parhind, riV/# Abihdad. 

Faiz-txHah Anju (Mir), ^' a^' u^-rt*, • ^irf 

who preatded on tho sent of justiee in the reign of 8ttl|ia 
Mahmitd Bahmani, king of Dakhan, who reignt^ tmt 
1378 to 1397 A. D., 780 to 799 A. H. He wu ftgo«d 
poet, and a contemporary of the relebruted Khwija Hi&> 
Onw» prefu»nting the iSnltin with an ode of hia own cca* 
position, he was rewarded with a thousand pieoes of gold. 
and {lermitled to retire, covered with honor*, to lilt wa 

Fais-uHah Khan, l:>^ ^i U^, ohirf of the RohaUa 
and Jagirdar of Kantpur, was the son of 'All 3IahMBnu4 
Kh&n Kohela. Afl^-r the battle of Kutni in 177-1 JL D., 
he n-tired to the Kamaon hills. By the treaty odsr 
Colonel Champion, he bad a torritory allotted to hia W 





Iht? annual value of H lakhs of ru]>w8. Ho chose the city 
of liimpur lis thi' iilnrc af hi« rt'siilomo, and aftor an 
uniaternipled and priiHpi roiu udmini.itration of 20 yi>^itr!». 
he died in yiiptembtT, 1794 A. !>., Siifjir 1209 A. H., iind 
was sur'ceedL-d by his eldi-st son MuhttminHd 'All Khnn. 
This princt', in thr course of a ft-w dttva, in 17W4 was iin- 
priitouc'd and lutNinMuutdd by hia younger brijlUer Ghuluut 
Hnbamniad, wh-. fuRilily t«x<k pc.Ksi'-triiniJi of Iho ^vern- 
mcnt. Th** En jliah. having i-siwmscd thu eauso of Ahmad 
Ali, the iiilant sun uf thn murd'-rL-d prijico, defuatod and 
took Ghiiliitn Mtihimiin:i[] priiioTiiT at Bithoitra. He waa 
conveyed to ( 'akuttu, whore, under prctr-ncc of pomp on 
a pU^rimupc to ili-cca, he cmbttrki-d on tioard u ship, 
probably huiflid at oni- of thr porta in Tipii Sultan's 
dominionn. and thine inadu hi.-i wiiv to the court of 
Kabul in 17i*7 A. !>., 1212 A. U , whiro. unit.d with the 
Kgentfl of Tipu in olamcurH apiiini^t the F-nglirth, hti ur^ed 
Ziaain Sh&h, tbuson of Triimur .Shkh. to invadi' Hittdutstin, 
promising that, on liis apiiroath to Dehli, ho (ihuuld bo 
joined by thfj wht-Ic tribo of Kohelns. 'l"he Niiwab Ahiniid 
Ali Khan died about iho yeur IH59 A. !>.» 12J5 A. H. 
Aft^T tht' flfiUh ot Ahnind AH Khan, Muhiimmncl Sjiid 
KhiLn uer^-nded tht Maanad in 1840; afli^r him Miihani- 
mad Vuauf Ali Kluiii nuccLedud in 1855, who was lirin^ 
in 187'2. 

"Pa khr i, OT/^j son of Moulana Sult&n Muh/unmad Amiri 

of Hirat. He \» the author of tho " Jawihir-ul-'AjAeb," 
Oems of Curio»itifS, being a biupniphy ut" puL-tesses. H'^ 
infomriB us that with thiy intrntion to pert'nnu thr pilprim- 
%ge to 3Iecca, he camo during; the reign of 8ba.h 'rahina.>4p 
Huaaini to iSindlt, tli>t: ruler of tiiat couiitr)' was tbi'n Tsa 
Turkhan (who died about tho year 15ti6 A. D., 974 
A- H.). IlAhi tho poet calls the ubrivo-muntiunyd work 
"Tazkinit-ul-NJHa." Hei-sulso ihtjaiithm- ft( the '* Tfihlal- 
ul-Uabib," a eulk'ction of GhuieulH ftuin tbo beat authuru. 

Fstkhri, iSj^t a poot who i*Toto n Diwan of 10, 000 

\-orr**3.'i in which bo imitat^il moHt of the anrii:nt mufltiiTfl, 
but aa he had nut much udueatiun, hf* won not acknow- 
ledgi^ by otht^r poet^i. Uu iXw^ a Riavu fur liintself 
outoide the I.sfahan Unto and made himself a tomb-fitone^ 
and visited his grave every Friday. He waa living in 
1585 A. D., 9U3 A. II. 

7akir (Mir Shams-uddin), jaAJ ^,*^\ j^^-^-i^^**, 

of Dehir, who had alsu lh<' poetical namo of Haftiiii. 
From Dehli he went to Imkhiiiiu in 17tia A. I)., l)7i* 
A. II., nnd is said to have Ixien drowned about the year 
1767. Hf is lite nulliur uf a I>iwiin aiid ab.u of a Maif- 
nawi called " Tasiwir Muhablmt," conljuning the utory uf 
Kim Chfcnd, the son of a bvUl-vender, c-uinpot*ed in 174;J 
A. D., 1 156 A. 11., and of aevural other poema. 

yakip, J^) poetieal name of Mir Xawazi.nh 'Ali of IJil- 
garam. lie died in the year 17^4 A. D., 1167 A. li. 

Pakhr-uddin, tir:!'^!/* t ""t' '^^ ^^i^ princea of tho Dnuea, 
who, early in tho 17lh rentun,', coneeived the idea of 
rendering hin-iseir inilepeiiLl4_iit of th* Portt. Uu was 
hetrayod, ciirried a prinonur to Constantinople, where he 
was "strangled by order of Sul^ Murid IV. in 16^*1 
A. B., 10-U A. 11. 

FakhJ-uddin Abu Muhammad-bin-AU az-Zailai, 

Cj*43 \J^ ti*^ o^^*^^J| t^jJ^Jr j^y author of a Com- 
mentary on the KanK-ul-Dakaek, ontilled "Ta*ba'in-ul- 
HaJ^e^" which 'm in irreut repute in India, on account of 
ita upholdinp the diKtrines itf the Hanafi Heel a^ainat 
lho»o of the foliuwem ai Shala'i. He died in 1342 A. D., 
743 A. H. 


Fakhr-uddin Bahman, (Malik), u^^ i:H'^' j^ 
^iX^^ third Sultiu of tlic dynasty of Karl or Kard, waa 

the son of Malik Shams-uddin Kart II, whom he Kue- 
ceedcd to the throne of Hiirit. lluikh mid in Sep- 
U-mher, I30o A. D., 705 A. H. lie w/o* rnntempf.rarv 
with Siiltiin Aljaitii. suruanu-d Muhammad Kliudii Handii, 
king of Pen^ia, who t-ent an aniiy a(;ain»t him whirh bf 
deft-JitL-d. Hi' died about the Ihjginnin^ uf tho yenr i:^(l7 
A. I)., 7lHi A. H.. and 8ueceedt>d by his brother 
Miilili tihuyatt-uddin Kart I, who dii-d in I32y A. D. 

Pakhr-uddin Iraki (Shaikh), ij'Lr* \ji^\j^ i^-i, 

WH,-* the sr-n of Shaikh Shnhah-uddin'a dau^'hter, and 
difleiplc of Shaikh Huba-uddiii /ikaria of Multan, who») 
dflut'hter ho married. He diid on the 'J^rd November, 
1289 A. D., Btb XiJka'da 6«S A. H., and lies buried at 
Doinaxcuc He wim a native of Irak, and aa!>umed the 
poetical name of Iraki in his poetry, lloulat Shih nays 
that 'Iraki died durinjf the nijfn of Muhammad Khudu 
Banda in tho year 13U7 A. D., "00 A. H. Vtde Iriki. 

Pakhr-uddin lamat-uUah Bukhari, iSJ^ '^' 
ui^-fiP^^^^J^. 11^ ji^j -^ 1^26 A. D., 829 A. 11., 

vtiic Asmat. 

Fakhr-uddin Junan (Molik), cj^^^ c^-^L;** *-^, 

eldest son of Sultan (fhayJia-uddin TiJi;hbtk Shah I. On 
the ureeiwion of his fathur to the thiomt of Ibhli. he was 
declared heir-ajjpnvut, tvith the litb- of ULijih Khiin, and 
all the royal enaigns i-onferred upon him. The names of 
hia oth'.r brother's were liahriim Klian. Z:ifar Khdri. Mah- 
mud Khiin and Naamt Khiin. After the deatli of hin 
father in 1325 \. D., "'^5 A. H., he suecucdcd him with 
Iho title of Muhammnd Shah 1'ugMu.k I. 

Fakhr-uddin Kha'lidi (Maulana), i/*^^i:.»i'^Lr*' 

^J[r*, who was commonly eallei] " bihi6hti." is the au- 
thor of ft work called " .Shiirah-Faraer.'* Ho was the 
Dui^ter of Moulana Mo'in-uddin Juwiiii. 

Fakhr-uddin Mahmud Amir, t^^♦^'^c•:!'*-'Lr*' 

jf^^t tton of Amfr Yemin-uildi'ri Muhammad Muatufi. 
He is genemUy known by \\\a Tiikhallus or poetical name 
Ibu Y'l min, i. ir.. the son of Veimii-uddiu. According to 
Dr. Sprengir'tt <"aUi]ogue, ho died in 13-14 A. 1)., 745 
A. H., and left puncgyriiw on thi- SarabdiU prine**a and 
Bonie ghuwiU, but it ia jtarlir ulariy hia Kita'rt which are 
celebrated. I'uit Amir Malimud. 

Fakhr-uddin Malik, cri'^^l J^^ '•^^, vxde Malik 
Fakhr-uddin, king «f Bengal. 

Fakhr-uddin Miraa, c^!^' j^ ^jj^, the eldeat eon 

of Bahadur Shah If. ex -king of Dehli. He died befere 
the nlKllinn, on lUth July, ittfltt. 

Fakhr-uddin (Moulana), (^*i'^*lr^ ^V^, eon of 

Nix&m-ul-HaV, wjui styled Saiyud-uah-Sbua'ri, or chief 
uf the poets. He is the author of Mverul worlEs, amon^ 
which are tbi: following "NiMra-ul-*Akacd." ** Riiiila Mar- 
jia" luid ■* Ktikhr-ul-Hujin." He died ui the year 1785 A. 
D., i lt*9 A. H., aged 73 years, and liea buried dose to the 
gate of the Uargah of Kutb-uddiri BakhLyar Kaki in old 
Dehli. Hia tomb ia of white marble and has an inwjrip- 
tiou mentioning hid name and the year of hiif demiae. 
His grandfttin tihuliim Nu*^ir-uddin, Riirmimed Kali Sahib, 
was a very pious and learned Muaalm-in ; ho too was a 
good poet and died in the year I8t)2 A. D., 1268 A. H. 




Basi (Imam), ^(; 

aoctor of the 8hifii*i ted. 

in Kholartio theology, 

J. He it the rathor of sever&I 

vlpch U on« called " Ujulivek- 

vubjocta which ho deiiica- 

AU^9i4im Ttkmah, ruler of Khv^zm ; and 

**BiaQa Huyat," or Geomftxy, dedicat^'d 

Ohoru Ho WM bom at Hi'l on the 

Jmrnry^ 11^ A. D.. 26ih Banmiii, d-H A H., and 

St Hint OB Mr^ar ^h^ ^^^ ^f March, 1210 A. D., 

604 Jk n : lunar years. Bis father's 

VM Ziri-ud : kr. The title of R&zi at- 

to his nszDv 1? !>«-• :itiw; h)-* wa« bom at Rui in 

He&i tha ihlher of KbwAjii Nasir-uddin Tuhl 

Fftkhr-oddin SulUn, i^*^'>^ c;**^, alao called 

FaUui. wts th« kiof? of S'm&rj^Aon in Bengal, which ad- 
JaiM tka diatn'ct of Pamjuii. Ho wiis put to death by 
fltait'vddm kiiig uf Ltikhnatiti about the year 136ti 
JL D^ 7^7 A. H., who took poflwoaion of his country. 

F^Jthr-ad^aula, ^j'^[^, litU. of Abli'l Haaan 'Ali, 

ft 8nltin ni thn mc*' uf Boyo, wii« the Hon of Sul^dn Rukn- 
mi .ImU Hf WM »K/ni'in 952 A. D.. 341 A. H., ;ind 
jtsv >:«d>jd his brother Mowaiynd-tid^dtiula to the thront* of 
y^-nm in J*nwtr\, Ohi A. Ij , Sha'bitn, 373 A. H. He 
««* « crivl prip' »-. r»*iprrit-<l 14 yivir», iind <licd in Aujpirt, 
fi«7 A. D^ 8ha*tj^ 3»7 A. It. lie waa nuccucded by his 
•0ft }UJd*«d-daal*, 

^^kJir-n^KlsiljlSy y^^lj^t • nnblnman who wbb gover- 
e*/* faf PftttiA tn tlM- n-lftn of Mithummud Shah empuror of 
lt»hU; h» b<'ld thttt MittuitKHi till tliM yvnr 17:td A. I>., 
IIIH A. n.. whrn It wit* taki n uwnv fn>m him and ouu- 
IWtmI ofHva fffaujiiu'-tid'Ifn Nawab of Hrnifiil, in tiddltion 
Ur (ImI gOT«niin*'iitf and uf the iiroi-iricu of Un»na* 

Fftkhr*al'IalUDp 4/*U/ f^^!/^> "f Bar6il, the aon of 

*AU. W r of thn wfrrku caMnd " TTBdl-ud-din" 

mm4 **V» and ii'*v*'^ oth«r works. Ho ditd 

in IOWA. V,, itslA. U. 


Fftkhr-ulUh And Jiiijanl. t/^^ •**-' ' 

ll^f fbruritihr**] uiidfT Ui«' Sdljul^ prinrca. and la iho author 
i4 !)*/• b*vit iii]vr>riturr« uf W'ni* «nd king rUmiii. ong^iu- 
ally In Dm* I'ahbwf kn^ua^i', ruDixl " WuiN-wu^llttmui." 

Fftklir-Qii-nlMa BaRim, /*^'-*^!;*', the wifo of 

' ' "" ' ■' "f ' urnhT of th/> mo«|uft 
I III th<- Ktinhiiij'ri 
i™*^ _, .;.,,, w,,.. J. ..;..,...;.■. ;ii im-mory uf hor lato 
kMftoM Ml lh« yiiar 1730 A. !>.. 1141 A. U. 

Plllilfl, l/^« lakbaJbifl of a Poninn poot whoao proper 

iniid .)iihi].ii(l<irn ShirwAnf. 
.iii«-u»<bSbii^'rii, tho Hiin 
I . ^fi- m( thr l.-arnnd. 
' 'I I. (ind Z'>ktr. 
1 ■■ 1 of KlittUni, 

tml < 1 III bi« .liiwiUtir>iiI>AMrar 

!!■«< ► rit Ihn piipila of AbiVI 

'AU *' i'-**' '*'■"" '•'•o nnotbrr Kaliiki 

ffwm who WH* ftn author. Kaltikf died 

ta lt*i ^. I', i>it 'i. fl- Ilia patron wm Mooocbebr 

fftnil. tf0^t p4«lf««l vamo of S1iama.udi!jn Muhammad- 

Um'tiMmn. If a waa aa •othor ud died in the yeur 
l«M A. f>,i»4 A, fl. 

|f« t« «1»^ i<'/tn(< 
e4 CKa |a'w4a. •!.., 

Pam, (y'*, (perifthabic) the poetical name of MuJuin Fi 
which aee. 

Pani, t5*^, the TakhuHuB of Khwiju Ifuhammad Mo'in-i 
uddin-bin-Miihummad-bin-Mahmfid I>ihdir Finf. B« 
camp to India and f-tyoil in hieh favor with Abdul Rahin 
Khun the Khan Kh«nan. He died in 1607 A. 1), |oi$ 
A. H., and left nt-vi^nil works on Sij(\Hffln. u "^banb 
Khutt)a." " UAshm Knshohat," " Hishia N^fhit " •• 
bar-Gul(*h;in Mr.:' and "Albflvin." Ho ia ali 

author of a Diwwi in pQraian,'and a Maanawf 

cttllfd " Haft Dilbfir." i. #., the aeren aWeetheavtiL 3e^ 
cated to thu t*niperor Akbar. 

Parabi. i^b^j^ ^, commonly caUad to. bocAWe ^ » 

a nativ* of KArdb, a town in Tnrkpv. Hi* proper 
18 Abd Xrtsr. Ho was one of the yn^toat U\ 
philoBOphora, r^'markable for his Renerosity and 
of tAlenta, whom wo call Alfnmbiui.. He „^ Z„ 
by robh<.ra in Syria in 954 A. D.. 3*3 A U.. thirty n 
b*|foruai« birth o( Ab6 Sma. Imid-uddin Mah^qd a«f 
^"cdFiiibt "^''''*'^ ""^ *""" *"'*^'' who wer, 2o 

FarabUTB, i/y, the ma of Kaikiiia. fDarius the 11^ 

king of Persia. 

Paraghi (Mip), ^^V-H-, tho brother of H«k&n Faft- 
ullfli Shlrari. Hi- woa living in I5fi3 A D 9M a n 
in which r^Yth^foHo{n^nthnnhurwan\-ouqn^^ 
tbfi emperor AkbLvr. on which occasion ho wrote a chronol 

Parai, *y, whose proper name wna Abti ;?ilraria Ti 
was an excollunt Arabic grammarian who died in il.. 
822 A. D, 207 A. U * "* *" 

Paraznurz, j^jj*: 

sians. He was iiasjuwinatod bv the ordur of fiahmuL 
called Ardiaher Danizdjwt. kin^ of Pewia, Thm ^ 
also been ono Atnhammad bin-FarimunL atrlad^LJa 
who waa an author. ^ oaaata, 

Paraskuri, iSJJ^A surname of Muhammad bw-Ma. 
hammad-nl-Hanifii. In.«m of the mosque named Oomd. 
at OrHnd Cairo, who flouriiihi'd about the year IfififiTn 
964 A. n., and waa an author. ^- i^ 

Pard, '^J, poeticul name of Abfil Ha«n, the aon of Sh*h 

Na'miit-ullAh. Ho died in the year 1«4J| a t^ ...^t 
A. a, and left a DiwAn. ' ^^ **• " ' '-*" 

Parghani, t^'*^, commonly caUod ao becau»« h« »u« 

naUre of FarKhnna, h.,i hi. full name ia Ahnnid nr Ma- 
hammad-ibn-Kaair-al-FiirghAni . fitmoua Arnbian JLl 
nomer who«» wc knuw under tho nam.- vf AIfra«« .^ 
Alfrn^niua. Ho tlonnshod m the timu of f - - w 
MAmun, about the yeiir 833 A D., 218 A. H 
author of an introduction to A^tixinowj-. whi 
t4;d by Golius, at Anwt^rdam, in I66tt, »ith note*. 

Parhad, i^'^J, tho lover of the celebrated Shi-rin, «.. ,ifc 
of Khuaro Parwr/. king of Prndn. The whole of itM 
Kulpturo at Bwlun in Ptnia » o^criKd to th« chiftl J 
Farhad. Ho wfw promiiri'd, wp aro UAd {q P«nin 
Romance, that if he rot throush thn r^.-ir ,.,. . i ^^-jj,, 
atream that flowed on the ot)>pr fldr ■^tfc* 

THlIt-y. tho lovely .Shirin (with whom h. .n Oj*- 

tractwlly in love) nhonld be hia rmrorU he wm oath* 
point of compIeUng hiif labour, when {QkOMro Ptowit 

•on of Rostam* the Hercnloa of ih» 




fcarinfir to tone hiH niiatn-M, Kot an *Ad wonun to inform 
Farhaii that the f»ir ohjprt of hia d^-»i^c wtw dead- He 
WHd at work un unc ol the hiphi'st parto of tlie ruck wlit-n 
h*» hi'Anl tliL' iiirniintiU iiilillii;"'iu»'. He immediatt'ly 
Cdftt hiniiulf hcaiUutig, anil wae (lobhc'd iu plocoa. VitU 

Parhat, "^^J^t portunlnamo of Shiiikh Faihat.u]lah, ion 

of Shaikh Awid-ulUh. He wrote a Diwiu in Urdfi and 
died ID the ytar 1777 A. D., 1191 A. H., at MurshidibAd. 

Farhat Kashmiri, tsy i -*- " ' ^ ^^'^j't a piwl who was 

liviny: in 17:i4 A. D., 1130 A. H. 

Parid Bukhari (Shaikh). iSJ^-H^^ ^» Mmmnndcr 
of the A'^ra city gii'irdti whin Akbar dica. Great hnnoru 
were coiifcrrbd on him hy thti i.miprr«>r Jrthaiijfir. on uf' 
count of hin H«rvi(Vi«. He n-"< civod the titk- nf Murtasa 
Kliin. anil manaprod the affuirs of the enipiiv till he wiib 
renden-d unlit fur I'uaiin'fts. bv a tslndiu' of thf ppi]«y, 
which oiH'iK'd thf w;ty for thi' jsromnlion of Ya'timud 
uildauhii the father uftho cmprvaa Xur Jiiban. Ho died 
Ifilfi A. D, 1025 A. H. 

Farid Katib, *r*j"'^'Hr^, nV^ Farid-udJin Katib, 

Farid e-r Farid-uddin Ahwal, J^"^' c^'>'' *t/, (tUe 

sijuitUiriK) a poet of ri-rwiii who was a nativw of Asfriri^'ii 
in Khurasan anjl ro-tj-iiijKirury with Imiinii llirwi. 
Khwajji Ni/ani-iid>hn Abi'i liakr th<? Wazir of Aisd-uiidin 
Sa'd was hi^ put ron. He dit-d at l&fiLlian. aud left a l>iwau 
containing 5,000 versio. 

Farid or Farid-uddin (Shaikh), ^jSA^^^,J 

i^ "^^j a celebrated MuhammiiJan saint^ who is 

utiplfd "Shakar {!anj," on iKTc^iint of hii* h.iving^. it is 
said, miraculously tran(iniut4.d dticit or salt into (»ugar. 
Hia fathorV nuni'> whh Shttlkh Jiilal-uddin Suhtiniiiti, a 
d*nr*'ndant of Famikh Shah of KdKiil Ho wan a diwiplo 
of Khwaja Ivutb iiddin Ltakhtyir K£iki, and was rontem- 
ponirj' with tShiiilih i^a'd-iiddin !hiniwi;i, .'^aif-uddin 
ilaklifirzi, and Bitha-iiddin Zikuriii. uU ofwhuni di"'d hih'- 
coaaivi'ly a fhort time rtfler on*- nnotliiT. He w»« bom 
in U73 A. D.. .ifi9 A, II.. died on Satuiilay Ihu I :ih 
O<!tobt'r. 1265 A. U.. ath Muliiirmm. Htil A. Il', aged i\a 
lonar yc-ars, and is burii-d at, u plnce commonly 
called Patan or Psk Pitt^in in Afultan. Th<' Kunivt'rsiiry 
of his death ia oolebralfd ivery VLar on Ihi' 6lh of Mu- 
^amm, when u ^reat crowd of Muhauimadaiis aiutiiiiblc 
together to pniy i»t his tj«mli. 

farid-uddin, V*^'^ ur***^'*^/*, commonly called Farid 
Katib, was a pupil of Anwnri. a rocJI pijet and sei'rctary 
U' Sultan SunJHr ^^^u•rv th.-it pnn<-i; w:ifl d**ft'Ated by the 
monanh of Kum Khnttii in U 10 A. D., 6^5 A. H., and 
fled with a ffw fnUowi-rs to Khiirawiii, Fund conwjb.'d 
him by romposing nn ctde upon the f»ccasian, in whifh ho 
saya, ** thtit cvi-ry thing' mn^t I'hantr'', but that thu condi- 
tion uf Cfod alone was nut ii(i]i!<* tu thun^c.'' 

Farid-uddin Attar (Shailth), j^ ly^*^'^^ ^, 

eamamfuj Miihammnd Ibrahim, wati a dt'Klcr in pcrftmiea, 
from wbi( b lu' took his pnetiitiil immo "'Attar." He 
aft^^rwardri retin d fnini the wttrld. be<^amo a disciple of 
t?ihaikb M»id-i]ddin Lta^hdltdi. and livc<l to a gruat a^, 
namely, thiit of IH lunnr yrtin. ilf was bom at Sha<l- 
yakh, a vilLi;;..' in Nni-ihapur in the reijfn of Sultan 
Sanjar in Novcmbtir. 1119 A. D„ Sha'bnn. 013 A. H., and, 
when at Iho siege of Niiinhapur, the Mon-in-law of Chanjfes 
Kh&n, the TKrtar. wax kilh<d. a ^'cneral niaHiuicr« of the 
akhabitanta of that place wa^ miidc by the Mu^halu, 
unoug tbv Doniber that were idain, Karid-uddm was one. 

Thift etrcumstanco took yhn:v on the 26th April 125# 
A. D., lOth Jamad H. ft27 A. II. Ue ijt the author of 
id po<-ni9 and several prose worku^ amoagst the latter 
** Tuzkirat-ul.Aulia." 

The foltowittg are h%M poemM. 

ARrir Kania. 
A^htur Namn. 
AuHJtl Nama. 
Besar Nauia. 
' Bullui] Xania. 
Gu]-WLi-Khiiaro or IIumiuR. 
Haidnr Nama, 
Haft Widi. 
Hallaj Nania. 
Khuriro Nama. 
Kaiizun Maklifia. 
Knnl Kaii£ Makhafia. 

Ile^ideH the above, ho is also 
taiaing 4U,U0U rentis. 

Ilahi Xama. 

Kliayat Nama, 
ManHiir Nfttna. 
I'and Xama. 
Munilitit NaiQA. 
Wald Nama. 
Wafliat Nama. 
Mukhtfir Nama. 
Sipdb Nfuna. 

thc! author of a Diwin con- 

Faridlin, tl>'^^> an ancient king of Persia, the son of 
Abtin, an inimi-diato Jc'srcndant of Tahniurs, king of 
Persia. Ho had esctiped, it in said in a niirac\iloua mamiL-r, 
from Zobak, when tliat printjo bud wiic-d tind murdered 
his father. At the uge of Ifi h<!Joinrd Kaw.i or Giwa, 
a blai'kiiroith, who had rolb-ctcd a large body of hid coun- 
tryini-n : tb*-*»e feii^ht with <--nthu!iiu«in uiider the Ntandard 
of the blacksmith's (ipron, which wrw iift«rw«ni!i ronvert- 
ed into the royul (standard of Persia. falbMi the Durafsh 
K&wiini. Znhftk. aft**r numr-niup di-fealn, wiu* mride pri- 
soner, and put to a t»!ow and painful drAth, V'aridun, 
who was a very juftt and virtuouH king, hud thret' soua, 
«is ; Salm, Tur, and Krij. among whum ho dividi'd hit 
kingdom ; but the two elder, displearicd that Persia, 
tin; fnireat of lanils pnd the seat of royalty, should havb 
been given to Krij their jrinior. comt>ine"d to effect hia 
ruin, and at last sUw him. and sent his h<^ad to Faridun. 
The old man faint^^'d at the sight, and when he rtMOvered, 
ho lulled upon H(^v(m to piini.-ih thf bas<j pt-rpetrators of 
BO unnatnml and cru*-! a de^-d The daughter of Ery 
wria married to the ncpbrw of Faiidiln, and iheir young 
5071 Sl.-mviehihr provitl thi' imriigi* of his grandfathor. 
"When he att)iiiii>d iiiaiihood. the old king made every 
prepanttion Ui enHble him to n-vrnge the blood of Erij. 
A war commenced ; and in thc fir;*! battle Salm and Tiir 
were both slain. Farr-idiin eoon afli-rwanlw di*^!, and Wft* 
Buccewled by Manurht-hr. IV-rsian authoni aMQTf ua 
that Fareidun reignwl ftOO years. 

Faridun, ^^j^y^ » Turk who wrot© a Commentary in the 
Turkish language on the GhazaU of ilafiji. 

Farigh, fj^, author of the poom calltnl '* Masnawi Farigh," 

which he composed in lon2 A. D., lOOtt A. \\.. in which 
y(m.r. h(i savH. Shah 'Abbis conquenxl Gilan, and to whom 
it was dedii'ated. 

Faris Eochidiak, t/*jl*, {irzim Chambora' Ency- 
clopedia) an Arab pot-t and litterateur, bom about th<' 
year l7'Jti A. I). In religion he w:u* s\ Syriun ('hiislinii, 
Ho ifi ihu author of HCTcral works, Whm in London, he • 
publiiihed Ilia reviac-d t«xt of the New Tcatjiuu-ut in 
Ambic. His Diwan in Arabic '\» higtUy spoken of by 
those who have seen it. llo was living in 18011, 

FariSf ifi)^j ^^ ^^^ Ffiris^ Aumamo of Abu Hafd Sharaf- 

nddin Umor bin-al-Asa'dt binabMurshid, biO'Ahmad 
al-Asa'di, a very illnatrioua AraLiian po.-t. He was "bom 
at Cairo 1181 A. D.. 677 A. U., and died tbero in thc 
voar 1234 A. I)., 632 A. H. 




%^r^J^i » poet who wu ia th« Mrrice of Amir 
■^ if ft» aatluar of the itorr of ** Wfcmi^-wft. 

All Khan (Mir), J^ tj^ t^^y j**, 
frfPiitfcMn HenMcaedeii hu father Sikfindar Jah 
fa Ai fiiiiiiBaiBl of HftadanUd in IB'^9 A. D. VifU 
Jifwl iJb»W. 

Vteracld KMftmiri, C5 :>! >" ^ f^J^t > P<»t who died in 
1«M A. D^ 1«77 A. U. 

IteoChi Of»n1an>)> i^j^y ^V/^, ^^ Kaxwin in I«&- 

kaa ; he vm a duJer in perfum««. but au excellent poet, 
aftd Ixred in tbe tine of 'Abbma the Great. 

^WlUkhi, %J^J^t AT FftrkM, a poet who Boniuhcd in the 

liatf of SoUan Ifahmild of Ghazni, was a pupil of TTniwrf 
tike poH^ tnd a doaoendant of the royal race of the kings 
«f BMiB. He it the antbar of a work called "Turjumdu 
rf-flataghat" and of a Diwan in Pp^rman. H** wnit« no* 
wal panegrhci in praiK of Abu'l MiizaQur, tb<? Hon of 
AjBtf ikav and grandson of Nasir-uddm, ruler uf Dolkb. 

^UmUl Vft% %}•* C"^' ' ^'^^ *^^ '^^^ emperor Hum&yun 
bf Mah Chachak Begun, bora at K^ul in IfiAfi A. D., 
M2A. H. 

FuTukh-siyar (Hu}iammad),^ri^^y ^^, emperor 
«C[>«Ui,l>ora on the 18th July, iaS7. O. &., iKtb Kamaiujn. 
IMft A. H^ was thft son of Acim-ush'Shan, tKf^ second son 

Shih I, and grcat-grundAon of tht; emperor 
His fsther waa killed in the battlu fuu^'ht 
. Jkhindar 8hih hu ancle and predeiHjasor. Ono 
ShAh'i first acts on his accession to the throne 
to pot all th'-> princes of the blmid within his 
nach« to death ; among thrr«e whom he could uot ^et into 
Ui powoc; wa» Fajrrukb-«j>'ar, who woa in Bcn&pal at the 
of his grandfather bahsdur Shah's duath. But 
th« inCnrtnalion of hia father's death n-)K')i<'d him, 
f un the compassion and fidelity of ?^aiyud 
All £h4a, the governor of Bebdr, who warmly 
mooaftd his oaase, and prevailed on his broLher. Sniynd 
AMnri'h Khin, goTemor of AUah£b&d, to adopt tho aome 
Dy the aid of thp«u noblemen. Fiumlh-siyar as- 
an army at Allahabad, marched towards Agra, 
Jahiadar Sh£b, took him priiwner, and having 
■wnUnd him, he aiwonded the throne in the fort of 
Dildi M Friday tbo 9th of January. 1713, 0. S.. 23rd 
2a4rii)«. U24 A. H. The former Amir-ul-Umra Zidtikar 
' many other nobles and dependants of the Iftte 
pat to death by the bow-string and other 
\U. lUja Subhrhand, Ciwin to the late Amfr- 
■I Olll. had hia tongno cut out: AKUi-uddin. son of Ja. 
(Siih, 'All Tub4r, the son of 'Aaim 6hdh, and 
Bakht, younger brother to Farrukh-aiyar were 
Alfof Mi of their flight by a red hot iron drawn over th^eir 
•na On Knrrukh-hiyar'a accession, AbdulJih Kh&.n, th'i 
•Idflit brotiicr. was madu Wazt'r with the title of Kutb-ul- 
Molk, and lluaaio Alt' KhAn raiaed to the rank of Amir- 
id-Omri (CoinmandAr-in-Chief/ which was the B«<cond in 
nis nuptiula with the daufrhter of Raja Aji't 
of MArwif, WHfo celebrated with unprecedented 
nl^bdottr tn tv -:0 a. U. II'JS A. H. Farrukh- 

mfai had &ot ' d the throne, when a jealousy 

mom hfivam i» .>.•: Wazir Kutb-al-Mulk. And on 

Ik* •npanyr'* trpn^ lu form sehemf^ for Uie recovery of 
Us indspeoAenoa, ha wbd deposed. blinJi^d and imprisoned 
hir the two brothers. This event took place on tbo 18th 
Mrtiary. 1710, O 8.. 8th Rabf 11. lUI A. U, and not 
long afUv ho was mardcrrd on the 16th May, A. D.. 
Mfa B^^ab, 1131 A. II., following, and buried in the court 
•f UM aaMolsvai of the empentr TlamAyun at Dehlf. 
Bv ndgiisd tt j«an 3 mouths and 15 days. AiUr hii 

dopooal tho Saiyads set up a prince of the blood to 
they gave tho title nf liafi-ud-Dnrjat. It wa* front 
Farnikh-siyarthat the East Indin Company obtained their 
Farm&n of free tnulu. with leave to purtihase thirly- 
8**vi>n districts in Bt>ngal. becideei various privileges, bat 
little attention wiia however paid to it by the Subot, liU thi 
Engliah acquired forcu to give it weight. 


Farrukhzad, ^^j^, a prince of Penia of tho Sasimait 

racf. Vide Tiinui Dukht. 

FazTXikhzad, •^'j^j son of Sult&n Moaa'iid I, of Ghaoir 

began to reign after the death of hta brother Snl^aS 
Abdul Roahid in March 1053, A. D., -Ul A. H. Us 
r*iignt*il 6 youra und diwl in tbe latt>'r pjirt of the 
li>o8 A. i)., when hia brother Sul^in IbraJum 

Farsi, kj^J^ ^ lT^' or Forsaf, surname of Abii*! Fai 

Ibrahim, a Pcrhian author. 

Farsi, lT^j poelicid name of Sha^f Khin Aour-vl.Ui 

which see, 
Paryabi, ride Zalur-uddin Faryabt 

Faryad, ^^-^'t the poctir^I name of IMA ^^\.;\. t»i 
Kiiyoth of Lakhnau. Ho orif^nnally hnd a> 
for hia poetical name, but bitterly changti 
He waa Bring in 1782 Ji. D., 1196 A- H. 

Farsada Kuli, ,^'j;j>, author of a Cotalogua' 

in the Aribic, Persian, and Hindi langaagca, amoi 
on a roui^h istim.ite, to upwards of 2.000 volumoa. Ft«n 
ita mentioning the fJiwan of Sauda, it appnuit that 
was wrilU.'u within the la.ft fifty or sixty vc-ats. U aW 
mcnliona tlu- " Alustafw N'llma." iu th« metre of the Shih 
Kamti. cmbrwcinp ihe luKtuiy of IVraiu from ^rulttuoaud 
to Tahniaap Shiih .Sftfwi, amounting to U'4.000 couulcta, 
abo of a Persian tronslrition c»f the Mukiimit of ««<■* 
Journal of tlio Uoyol Aaiatic Society, No. U. 

Farsadak, O^jj*, the son of Ghfalib, called the zufter of 
Arabian poets, waa on author, and had the whole ^atia 
by heaH. He died in 728 A. I)., 110 A. H., tigi^i upvnidf 
of 70 years, lie flourished in tbe reijm of Alwliil Mahk. 
tho son of Marwan 1, who iinpri^^om-d him because hi 
wrote a panctryrie in pnii:JO of IniAtn 'Ali Zuin-ul-'AbidJa, 
son of Imam Husain, but wjia rt'leaMeil. iflor the doith «/ J 
the khalif, by his son Walid. His D(w&u inAimbiett ■ 
much e»t4^*m(.Hi iu Uujax aiul Ird^. 1 

Fasihi Anaari, <SSJ^ c^j^' </*^"" *^ Hiimt, « IV- 

aian poet, who flouri.shed about the year U96 A. D.. 1064 

A. U. He uevtj came to India. He died in 163i^ ^ I' I 

1046 A. H. 

Fasih-uddin Muhammad Ni£ami Mauiana, 
^L£j o^^iT* j^jJl -pi>fl-> ^V>-«, author ol'lhe ''Shank 

Fassi, (_^-^ surname of Fa|cih-Qddia Ifuhammad-ibo-Ah- 

mad 'Ali-al-Hmtaini; he waa a nittive of Foas (Fu) on 
which account he* was called Foshi. IIh was an authct 
and l^ixi of tho city of Uocco, and died 1429 A, P_ 
A. H. 

Fatha AH Huaaini, i/^r^ (/** ^, author af 

biography called "Taskirat-uah-Shua'r^ Hindi." 
contaiuB Uie Memoirs of 108 Himli and Dakhaaf 
with nomerous extracts from their works. 




Fatha 'Ali Shah, »^ ^J* J^, king of Potme, wm an 

AfRhiin of th<» trilx* nf Krirhiir. He iuccowiwi hii» tincle 
'AkA Mulinmm!i»i Khiin 1o thr throne- of iVma in 1797 

A. IK. rilJ A. H. Hi Iiii'i rtrcivc*! nil . xrHI<llt PflinA- 
tifiTi, and |m*»hi-w*i-<1 rtrtmi' lilf-mry fifr*.m|ilishfii«-iit« ; wm a 
tolcrnblr )»oot. ntid roiid c>f th(> ("« itly of tli** k-ftmej, 
whom hf m'ncn«U!*]y jjatruniz*;il. Hf iT'itrriiHl m-iirly 40 
yoars and di.Hl in thA yorir 1S34 A. D,. VIM) S. H. After 
iiim Mubunmad Shfih. the son of AtiTnis Mirzi. kikI irrt^Tid- 
■on of Kiitlni 'Ali Shiih, niwuntt*rl thi' tlinun- and ilit'd in 
1847 A. D.. when hia son Kiuiir-uil'iin Ahmitil Sh/ih. the 
prcA-nt kinff, nmT<:-*'4]--J liim. It whm lu tlif nmrt of Katlwi 
'All Sliih thut Sir .I-phn SIrtlcoliii in IHIIU 1(h1 On- miiuni(5- 
conl cnilmiwy whirh I^ird WcUi'tily hu-i df simtrhid frnm 
C'alriilla. with tJie vi.w of trumpinjj bnnHpiirt*'i» vixrt\s in 
thy l-liuil, and of jdnyini? nR" » Pi*r»ijin iilly im our Imlian 
fnmlitrs ntiiinst itn Afghan ill-wiaher, tho anibitiuui 
Zaman Shih. 
Fatha Haidar, jtV^^. ^^ thcoKkirt son of Tippu Sultan. 

Fatha-puri Mahul, ^^ iS)^ f^t or Bopam. «>in' of Ilia 
wire* of th.' .m|.tn.r Sliiih .Idhiin. Sbo wa*t Iho founder 
of Iho Fiihupuri Mu^jid in Drhli. 

Fathi *^^^» a pOL't of ArJjif'Uu, who di':d in !63& A. D., 

1045 A. H. 
Fatha Khan, U^ f^> th*- !»on of Ridtan Firor Shih Bir- 

bik, Vini.' of !»■ hli. and hiothtr of Zafitr Khan. Vidt 

Virui r^lmh H(iitink. _^ 
Fatha Khan, o^ ^> Kawibof BhAwalpur. 

Fatha Khan, cj^ **'*, hrother of I»ost Muhammad KhAn, 

nil<!r of Kabul. Thp tclehratwi Wazir of Mahmud. niltT 
of Uirat. and chii'f of ihc BoDiksai tlan, whosf family 
drove away the desccndonte of Ahmad tihob AbdaH Crooi 
Fatha Khan, cj^ f^t the aon of Malik 'Anil»ar, the 
AbyBfeinian rhi<f id Ahmitdnii^ur in tho Dakhun. who 
thq Xizani Shahi d<'iiiiui«-'tifi uiidrx hir* control for Bonn; 
yeora. Afht hi-* ftth-rf d.iilh in lOiti A. D.. I03o A. H.. 
he Bocceedc'd lo \\v* authority ; Inil Murtizu Nlxam Sliih 
II, being w^-un,* of hi" eontinl, t<iok him prii»OTHT by trr-ii- 
cherf^ and mnlin^il hitii in ihr furt of Khybar. Having- 
modd hia t:si;a|n:. h'- r^'l-il^d, >ful wa» ai^ain takfii, and 
oonflnod LU I>aiili4tal»ad. U<' wan rt'lfUMrd in tiiiic, imd 
appointed g-'nt mUsHiiio by lh«" influonn* of his f*i(ittr, 
mother to Niz;im Shuh. Ilr (tlioitly* to pnvcnt nnothi-r 
removal from ofli'-c, iimtim-d the Sidtan imdi-r pndL^rn-f? uf 
inmnity, and put t.o d<'ith Iw.'tity-Hvi- *.f tho principal nnld- 
litv in one day. writing to the t.-mp'. lur Shnh iliihan. tK:it 
lie had thus art. th'-m frnm ndMlling iiffain-it 
him. The •nil" ror in rt-ply roinincndf-d hi.-* a1tnchm<'Ut, 
and ordcri'd him t<.i put thi- tajiliv*' prince to dt^ath. whi< h 
hodidabont thi^ y.-ar l«*i» A- 1>., K'3H A. U., and pbuud 
Itiff Bon HuAttin. an infant uf U^u y<*arit. on th** (hroI)(^ 
Fatha Khin, by uffi-ring a pn-**.nt of li^ht bus of rup*-**, 
^i^ j agreeing to piiv tnlmtc, wna uilowt'd to krup what 
territory y^'t remainf-J to thu Nizam Shaht wivi-reiffnty. 
In tho year i'J34 A. 0.. 1044 A H,. Katha Khdn waif 
forc(*d to mirrtind'T, and the f.iU of thiw plarf put a tJnul 
puriod to tho Nisiim Shahi dyua*ty. wbirlt had itw»yed 
the oceptro for loO yi'ant. Hu»aiii Nixani t-hdli wa# ron- 
ftned for life in thi' fortrt-sH of Uwalinr. lait h'atha Khan 
WOI roceivi*d into favour, and was uIIuwlhI tu n-tin* to 
Llhor on « pr«iirtion of two lacs of rupoea, whiih ho en- 
joyed till hia death. 

Fatha Naek, "^^ ^i t^** futhor of ITaidar 'All Khiu, tho 
UJHirptT of Mvsorf- and St rinttupalam. He diod in 17S8 
A. D., and was Vurinl at Kolar. a rapital of wven parga. 
luu, about Z6 miUii coat of Jtatigaloro. 


Fatha Shah, i^Jyi «^ ^ Tiirbi, euccoeded Yuoaf Shih 

to th,> thrrme of Beofjil in 1482 A. D.. 887 A. H.. and 
aft+T a rfigii <if nliout rij^ht y«ir» wiw murdered in 1491 
A. D.. fine A. n., by the eunuch Sultan Khihzida, who 

Biicr*'('dt'd him. 

Fatha-uUah Imad Shah, >^ *>'♦* ^* *^, originally 

in tho sprWce of Sultan Mnhm6d Shiih H, Balimani, king 
of Dakhan. wa« niado ^(ovfrnor of Berar. \\i} became 
ind*piindtnt about th*- year l4Hl A. 1).. and di'-d about 
thf> ymr 1613. His son 'Ala>uddin 'Irnid Shih succcvdcfd 
him. yide 'Imad-ul-Mulk. 

Patha-ullah, Muataufl, uV^— • *^' ^'^, Humamed 

Fukhr-uddin. wa** a ^i^mX po.t and si rv.d undvr Khwija 
Ifji»ihid-uddia, Fa^-ulliih and hi:* son (thayaa-uddin Mu- 
hammad, aft WHTL'tjin,'. llf lit th<? brothi'r of Khwtya 
Hamd-ullah Mu^taufi, who died in 134'J A. IJ. 

Fatha-ullah ShirEUSi Amir, t5Jlri- ^' ^ j^U 
on<^ of thi' most lo-irn'-l m*n of his time. He eame from 
Shirix to r>iikhan and iJitti.i<-d a ft-w years in tho service 
iif Sultan All Adil Shah of lUjapur. ATtir tho death of 
that kinc. ht^ luft I>akhan iintl eame to iVhli in tho year 
1582 A. r*, 990 A H . and hud an honorable olfiey aKrtiifnM 
to htm by the empiTor Akluir. near hi» prrHnn. with the 
title of Azdud-duuln, Hi- diid on W!'<lmvi iv. tho 3nl 
Shawwtil ya7 Uijri. the 24th Amardad Mah Ilahi. in th*" 
34th year of Akbar'f) n iim. mrnjipdniUujf with ihu 6lh of 
Aujpmt* l'^8t* (_>. S.. ftl Sirinripir the eafntal of Kashmir, 
whrri' b»' had prrnrod'^d witli hi^ royid mast-'r. The king 
was min'h (jrieved iil hia loM ; and Sheikh Fsiai wrote an 
Mppropri'itij epitaph on tho orrasirm. t'ifti'en days after 
hiM df'alh du'd alfjo iho llakim Abu'l P'atlia CJiJani. tha 
brother of lliikim Ilantam, who waa thm vnlh the king 
pn^ctrdin^ tn Kabul. Siirfi Siwuji wrot« the chrouogrum 
of thfir death. 

Fatima, ^^^^ thi; tUughter of Muhammad and hia vife 
Khudija. She was l>om at Moti-a (ive years before her 
futljtr ^'nvc him^fdf out for a pmph -t. t. <■,, nU»ut the year 
6(>6 A. I>.. and di'^l about six monthb aft<r him in the city 
of Miniina on th** nii;ht of SlMiiday. the 23nl nf NovmK'r, 
fi3U A. D.. 3rd Kuma^AH. 1 1 A. U. She waa mnrrinl to 
Ali. Muh.inimad's roiinin-vmian. and beaime the mother 
of th'' Imiim:4 Haftin iind IIiiA:iin She paasea for a vory 
1io)y woman amongst the MuAalmdnfi. and u oLhj colled by 
th'-m Butul, TaliiriL, Mutharu, and Zahra. 

Fiitima bint Asad, »**' **^ *^l», tho daoghtcr of 

Asad. Lli^ Hon of Hai^him. She woa tho wife of Abii Talib 

and iiiolhor uf 'Alt. 

Fatima Sultan, ly'^*^ A*it*, one of the wives of Umor 

Sh' ikh ^Iirzi, and mother of the prince Pir Muhammad 


Fatimites, or kirips of Barbary nnd Egypt of tho Fatimito 
dyiuutty, I'id* Muixs-li-dinallah. andObrid-ulloh Almahdi. 

Pattahi Kaishapuri Moulana, iSiH^^^^^'^y^y 

an author, who di. d l-t4S A. !>., tfo2 A. II.. nV/r Yuhia 


Fawad Muhammad Pasha, ^-^ «w^ .i'y, aXurkiah 

Bt-att-.tman and littfrat«'ur of Constantinople, son of Ijtzat 
MuUa. and iie)th>'W of I^ula Khaliin. n Turkiiih p4»ctiHf). 
He is the author of scvenil works. He wiui linng in 
1870 A. II.. and baa been loaded witii di&tiuctiona by 
Euri>pean aovereigns. 

Fayyaz, ^^•>, ^*dt 'Abdol-Itaxxak of Lihijin. 
Fayyazi, -y^, ''"''' *■*" (Shaikh). 




Faaal Khan, iw^ ^^, govcnior or kUfuUr of the fort of 
^m, vrae lumi>d out by S6nijmal JAt. who took }Mustic«8ion 
of tho fort ftQcl plunderod every thing ho eo old lay hia 
h&iiflii ii]iun. 

FasO, ti^lj, « poet who flouriehrd ftboat tho year 489 A. D- 

FasI All KhOD, c^^ iJ^ t-^. a P-t^ who flourishod in 

the tiinu dl' Uk.' I'lnpornr Muliumuutd ShiLh of Uehli, and 

WW Uviug in Uas A. D., 1162 A. U. 

Paal All Khan, c/*^ u^ J^, wh.jnc entire title WM 
" Nawiili Vji'tiinnd ud-Uoulu ZuyA-ul-Mulk Saivtid Fft«I 
'All Kliiii Itidiotiur rtohrul) Jang." wum the priint' ministt-T 
of thr kini; o| Auilh Cihdxi-ud-diu Hiudnr, aud wus living 
in lH2l) A. I>. 

Paal Barmaki, iS^C^ ii^t ■hroUiw of '.Tafiir-ol-Btinnftki, 
thi* riiiniMtor nf H^un-al-Hiudiid Khalifa of Bughdid. 
TiVf Jnf&r-al-lianniLkf. 

FaJlU, if^^% » poH and author of the Lovee of '* Shilh-wfl- 

MiUi" a fHirm t*oatiutiing I'i.'JGU PcrBtan wneH which ho 
cumplfU'd in th»t your 16U A. D. 

Faal Hak, t^ *-^» tho eon of FmI hnim. He also 
wruU* |iru0c> and, pnctry iia well aa hiA futher. Hia ^aaidaa 
an? much csU'tnu-d. At thu tuithn-uk of 1857, ho joined 
Iho tr'Ui NawaL of l^iindu nnd olhi-r*. and wiw at hurt 
kilbnl aL Nnrtid in an iitlnck mride l>v Ocneral NufiiT <iu 
the 17th l> IH/iS A. !>.. 1274 A. H. The "I>e!i]l 
Ow'ttt-" of ilfiy 17lh. l»5it nteiitions, thfit *int4.'nce uf 
tnuupurlntion was jidsw'.d on the pdn-U I^ni Sjiiigh, Kx- 
H^i of Miiauli, and Ihi! Maulwi Fatl Ua^ 

FqzI Imanif (• iJ***, an inhahilant of Khairdh^d, who 
wp»t*' prosg and p<>etry, and died in tho year 182*1 A. D., 
\2\i A. li. 

Pa«l BasuJ MouJvi, (/j'*^ Jj-J <-^ i^^r», of Ba- 

d&on, snn nf Sluulvi Alitlul trnjid. iind author nf t)in works 
eallod " Bawaril^" and " Toaluh-ul-Mauat-L*' Ue was liv- 
ing in 1864 A. D., 1271 A. U. 

Fazl-ullah, *"^' (J*«*j trumamed Khwdja Roshid-nddin, 
u nativ.. of Kazwtn or liaindim and a IVman hiHtoriiui 
who wrotv at Ihi- ilwim of hia luoattjr the SuItAn of Persia 
a history of the Mu^huK finit<hud in 12U4 A. D., to which 
ho uflorwafU added ii suiJidemnnt. He was bi-headed in 
July 13Hi, A. ll. Hill nauic in ^\c\t in Homo of oui- Bio- 
graphieal Dictiunivrirs, FwLl-itlUh. Ktvra thu work of 
liasht'Umldln. mlbd Jiiiim'-ul-TawiSrikh. nnd from olhtr 
„i„». .-.i. VI. ,',1 tihiUi, king of Khwdrizm. composed in 
th' i);*uige, hia Uenmlogienl lliatury. Fitif 

Faal-uJlah Moulana, *^l *^ ^Vi PhyaiMan to 
Amir Tjimur, and the moat e^dobnitcd and Akilfal pmcti- 
tioDi^r vl UiL- ugc ux which he lived. 

Fail-uHah Khan Nawab, c^'^ *^' t-^, onAmirbf 

thii I uurt of th'' emiHTur Babai', who built a mnsquu in 
DehK in the yoar 1629 A. 1)., n^ A. U., which ia stiU 

FuStili Baghdad!, t^*»^ i^J^f an author who waa 
o naliv« of Hu^hdid. and ditd in th>' ywir lfi«2 A. P., 
970 A. H.. and b-ft us u Diwan in the rt-rsUm and Tur- 
kish Unguagr. 

Fidai Khan, C^ t^^'^j former titio of 'Aiim Khin 
K6ka, which aou. 

Fidai Mir«a, i^'**^ !i/*, name of a poet. 

Fidwl, (^J*^, of Labor, the poeticul name of a penoa^ «Im 
wfw coU'inporury with Mirza Ri»fi ua-Sandi- He is tb« 
author of a p.>om in Urdii tulitlfd " Y^Ji(Lf.wtt-Zal«khi•* 
(th(? LoKca of Joaoph and Potiphur's wif«). Mir Fatha 
Ali 8h;ti[U haa oatirizttd him in hia atory of thu " Bon 
and BaVlfiL" 

Fidwl, {Sy^t author of a Pemum Diw^. Uo flouriidiMi, 
or wu lining in Ihv year 1649 A. D., 1069 A. II, 

Fighan, o'*', th.) political title of Aahraf 'AJi Kh&n. the ion 
iti Mirzii 'Ali Kluui, nnd the Kukn or fo-'t'-r-limth.T of 
the cmiMiror Alinmd Shall of Ilrhll. He : r of 

a Di'wau in the Urdu l.'tnguji^c., eonUintn j.tion 

venwi*. Uu di«.-d ut Putmi in 1772 A. D., ll,v<. a, i^i., and 
wua buried thtre. 

Fighani, u^'-^i ^'W* Bdb< Fi«han{. 

Fikrat, *=i/-'j iwfjtical title of Mint* Ghaiiw-uddin. 

Fikri, t^J^> p<»oticj»l title of So'id Multfuiuiiitd of HiciL 

]1l< wua n weaver and is therefore ooHod JdmabdC VU 
wmij to Indin in lofil A. 1>.. !Ki9 A. H ■ ' ,iiwd 
thn>ugh \\U prmt tiiUut* fur tiiitkin^ "pit:; r^r 

of the ("mjMnjr Akbar Uc eomjKrtwl onij . . and 

diud in 16(i6 A. D., 973 A. H. 

Firaki, ^b*t p<^tieal title of on tiathor named AbdT Aliw 
kdt, whu di>-d in tho yota 16u7 A. t).. 913 A. U. 

Firdausi or Firdausi Tusii ij^J^ij^j'^j* ^ t/fy-ty'j *** 

poetieal litbM-)f Abu'l Ka.-<im IiiiNin-biu-E>b:i^ r ^i i . ^. 
uiuua IVrMi:ui pi-'ft, ^ttyb-d by us tliu llurner"'' <« 

epin jtoi^m, talkd ^habnama, written by('i> " iiwa 

Midiniud of (Ihaziii, is much celebrateo. It runtohu tl» 
HuntiU uf Iho uiii'ii'nt k'ui^ of iVtaiii. frimi th^ rri^n U 
thn lirvt king, Kuiiuiiurs, to the tteath ut ) UI, 

the liut nionarch uf the >Saaaniun mee, wh' td 

of bi?i kiii^iloni 641 A. D., by thi' int:i<ii'iti <>r trii- .vjiiia 
duriu;^- tho Khildfiit of 'Umur, ihti dt-^vind Khnllf afUr 
Muhunmtnd. It i« Iht* bibuur of 30 yoac*. ?i"-i '■■"-'-»< o(f 
60.000 vci-si'-ji, wieb of which in u diatirh, aj 

oiruumMtimci-a r4.-*tp(.'ciiiig the origin id' th> i i .b« 

lifn nf the poet, arn rbielly fl<'nv(<d from Ibt* preftat 
to the ropy of tho Shilhiiiiuui, which waM CilbitoJ MM 
A. \}„ 821) A. II.. by order of BaiHtitiLrbiir Mirai lhi> 
gmnilAoii of Amir Tniuiur. It api^ejim fn'm th*t pmbre, 
that Yiulijfird. th*? i/i«t kin^ of the *-■ ! iiv^ tuafc 

ritn»di-ni)'lf iminti in oolbeiini; idl :' h, hiito* 

ri».«, Jtnd trndilionw ct'on'ttrd with l'- ■ >*•• ->»»-. 

riignii of lliitt fouiitr)-, from tho lime ol K ha 

ae<HiMiun nf thu Kbueroif, whieh by hia ^i: t je 

di>n-ited and brought inti ono viuw, and funu-->l iiw Iwok 
knon-n by th^' name of *'8iar-uI-Muluk.'* ur Uti< B^iUn 
Naitm. A\^ii-'n tht- foUowont of MuhiLitimnd ovrrtum'il 
tht- I'l-r^iitn monArt hy, thi« work wu;< r>>tuid in tho )duD* 
df'ird libriry of Yiixdijtird. In the 1' ■ ' ■ ■ - , „j 

thf kings of fhe SMiiniiui dyniisty. itu; 

poet to Vfrify that exti-iwivo work, but .. !,xr4 

to ttninh a tboutcLnd di^licb", having i*<«l by 

\m own ftlnvf. Nothing furth*«r wn« fi r^ii^n of 

Saltan Muhmud. when a romantic a< < •>br^ the 

Sul(ftn with a ropy of thn Bi^tdu Miu u-utvt tif 

whith wn« till tht-n unknown to him. ti .rk. 

he selected wven t*torirH which hu delivcn.^ ■ . tj 

to be composed in verse, that he might l^' ...*• i., ^v.^t- 
tjiin the nicrita of tuu-b romp*'tit''r. Tho poet t*BMn 
gainful the palm, and he was accordingly fniri^'^I to Ar- 
range the whole in vt^nte. Finb«UM wuh i: «( 
Tiw, his natiro city, where he cuIliT;it'-H I i%- 
hrnta with aMsidtiity and suceeeis. H' \h€ 
attempt of l>fikiki< *"■! *>f the detemui< ^a. 
ing king Mahmud, to patroniac an unaeruuun^ wi 




pnnniaod to add luBtre to tho age in which he lived. 
Hairing fojiiuiHt* ly iiucfct'Uud in proc uriut^ a fO}ty *^f the 
B&st&n KnTim, h" piirsiiHtl hin Fitiiilit-<4 with iinn'initting 
luuJ, and soon producfd thrtl part uf tho p(«>m in whith 
the bttltlfH uf Ziihi'tk wild Faroidiin aix- desL-rilNHl, The 
perfonnaui-e wiis univiTsiilly n-jui find udmiri'd, and it wua 
not long bt'fun* liif fumf nMchrd tht» ears of the tjnltan, 
who iminediiit«ly invited him to his rourt. It is rf'Iat*-ii 
that whf-n Firflunfti. on thi' invitation of tho Suhdn, 
njachod tht- ritpitid of GlinAiii. In- hupp'^nt'd to psws a puh- 
lie g;*nl.'n wht-n* the three royal pin-tM, Unwiri, Asjnfli und 
Fttrrukhi w»-ro enjoying themsolvt-s. The \m}v\.h oVisf-rvrd 
him appfo.'ifh and at onrc titrrpt-d t)mt if tlic istrune<r 
chanced to have any tasto for jvwtry, which tliry intiinlnl 
to put to t'.'ttt. lio Bhfuld hf- adinitttfd to th«_'ir friiiulship. 
■nd in ordt.T t;) liiTidu tm to his iiu'titjt thi-y wIIImI anumg 
tht<msi.>lvc«i to n'pi'Bt each in hi.s turn a hi-iiiiatit-h. and 
leuvo to Finl;iU«i io roniplf tu tho fnurlK. Iml at tho satnu 
timo sati^tii'd in their own niiniU, thjit thcro wai* no other 
word in tlw* I'crhiiUi Inni^uaK-f that would rhyniu with tho 
thnr*.'. which tht-y liati lakt'U care to pn'-*M*'ujiy. firdaiisi 

i'oininff thrm and hi-arini; Ihc propOfuU, pnnniKcd Ui t^Kvrt 
M powt'nt^ Thty thun Lummenced oach with an extom- 
ptiruueouii ht'nii^lii'h : 

L'nsari Tile U^rht of the moon to thy spluudour is 


Asjadi Thf rose is eclipsed by the bloom of thy 

t'hi-ttk ; 

Famikhi.... Thy ovf-laahfa dart tlirough tho folda of 
the .loshan, 

FtrdauHi Like tho javtUn of Goo in th'- Nuttli; with 


The poete were aatoninhod at tho readineiw of the stmn- 
ger, and ashanuil at Tt-in;;; \,>U\\y ignonint of the oluiy of 
Geo «nd Pushan, whi. li FinLiJsi ndated as df-wri^x-il in 
the ItttKtiln Naaia. 'ITifv imnit-'duiU.-Iy trmtrd liiin with 
the gn'Htost kindni-jiB and rc■8pl.^H. arid afti-rwjini*i inJiM- 
duce«l him to Mrihiin'id. ns a jit-' t <apaV.I( i.f uinJirtakini? 
the ShiLhnania. Alahniud ronrtidrred hiniwlf never no nimh 
honured Jis when l-iniausi n^-i hit* tuot at lihiieni; he wan 
nevtr more prrmd, thjin tluit Firdauni was hy his com- 
mand, eonipusinif, in hirt faulthjia verst', a hisl^^rj- of the 
moniinhw of IVfia. hif* prederef>sr.rH Xo nward then 
appciir.-d to him t<x> trreat to r.ffer. to induce the poet to 
nndtirtako the tu.-.k. no promiMS ton splemlid tu cxrite 
him. "Whlc, uiu>f|uallfi! one," cried he. " and for r-vi n- 
thouBund Coii[d.'t^ n th.nis;.ud pierts of gold shall bu 
thine." Firdmo*! uheyrd. hut remilvid to ateept no re- 
ward till he had euiiiph inl the work he h/id untUrtaken, 
and for thirty years \u- AUii\u-d and laboured ihat his jMiem 
might ho worthy of eleniiil fami*. In this he s»rf.'Ml«il, 
and ijn'*fnled itneleguiit eDjiy of his honk to Mahim'id. hut 
tho I'atience of the Suhan wns .xhiu-Ud, his 'nthusiHsm 
was gone, his liheraliiy had i'uiM uway, and when th*' 
60,0(K> {-(rtijih t« of the 'yhilimainri wn« efid-Ml. tliere was ri 
paose, which brought Ui the po.-t diKappoinlmfnt and to 
tho mouanh curli iverliwling di^gntec a.s 1ms ohlitorated 
all hi.s tniim]ihH. ilahinud neeivtd the book, eoldly ap- 
plauded his diligence and dlMni^jieJ him. 31any months 
dttpaed, and Finliusi heard no more of hi.t work : he then 
took oceaaion tfi remind the king of it hy tho following 

'TiH said onr mtinnreh'a lihr ntl mind. 

Is like Ihe oeeim nneonHned, 

Happy an they wbi- ]jrnve it s*j. 

*TiM nol I'nr ni. ih;it truth to know. 

I've plunged within its waves, 'tis true, 

But not n siiigK- j^nrl eonJd \-iew. 
Shamed, pieqiud. and offende<l ni this freedom, tho Sal- 
tan ordered 6il,00l> pieeeH of silver dirhamf* to be lient to 
the author, in.itertd thf the gold wliieh he luid promised. 
FirdauMi* was in the bath at the lime the money arrived. 
and hiii nige tuid umuztmunt exceodid oU bounds whon ho 

found himself thus inBultod. He immediately diatribut«d 
the pdtry Hum amungiit tho uLlendantH of tho Jiath and 
the ahive who bronght it. The excited |MM:t thim re- 
lieved hijt mind by a satire full of atinging inveetivM, and 
ran&cfl it to lie transmitted to the favorite VV'azir who had 
instigated tlie >Sultiiu him ; it wiiji rarefuUy .s^->alt>ii 
up. with direetiontt thiit it i^hoiild be n-a<l to Muhniud on 
some oeeitsion when his niind wils psrturlH-d with aOaJm 
of State, ftK it wru* a |K>em likely to aflord him entertain- 
ment. FirduuHi' having thu* prepared his vengeance, 
quitted the i^ourt jirid wjo* siifelv ariived in T^lnzandaran 
where tir-w» rejiched him thai hi.H line*. h:id fully answered 
the pnr]K«se he hiid intentlid they should do. JLihmud had 
hf'Jird and tn-mhlcd. htuI Too late diseovered thai h'? had 
ruined hia own r»-*pulntiun for evt-r. Alti'r bin .-^jiUru had 
hetm read by Muhuiud. thi- poet feared to remain Unt lung 
in one plnee: he Muiirht shelter in the court of ihu Khalif 
of Ha^hda*!, in wIukm- honor he adii^d a HMH) couplets to 
the Shihriaina, and who reward' <! Iijiu with bO,lMJO gold 
dinars which hrul been withheld he Mahmud. Mahmiid 
pretf^nded to have discovered that hi.-* Wa/irlnid deceivetl 
him in attributing impiety to Firdauhi. ait<i he at unco 
saeriticed that favorito, dii«nuHKing htm with dii^gm^'e. 
Thinking, by a tflrdy act of hlKnility. In rep.'dr his fonner 
mtfinnesrt, Muhrnud dispatched to FinJauMii' the (JO.IKW 
pi<'<'e.'* he luid promis«.id. a rob«' of SUitc. and luanv apolo- 
gies and expre.wions of friendship; hut the \yn-t wii-S deail, 
having expind in hi** native town full otyearsuml honuura, 
burnjuntled hv hi.H frienrlH and kindn/d. Fird^iUHi died at 
Tii.s (now called Miishhail; hi** imtive lountry in IK^P A. I).. 
411 A H., agtnl 89 years; but ilaji IChalfa Ray.i, ho died 
in lO'id A. I)., 41 U A H. Ititstdcii the Shahnama, he ih 
the author of other poems called " Abiat Firduusi." 

PirdaUBi-al-Thauil, (Jr^^^^iX^Jir't ** Turkish historian, 

and author of the Turki-^h work cnlled *' Shahnama** 
whieb cnipiisi ■« the liirttory of till ihe ancient kings of 
the Kiwt. liayaxid or IJiijazet II. t^t whimi the Injok was 
dedientmi. ordered th«' anthur to n-^lucc it from its original 
bulk of 300 vghimes to SO. Firdiiusi, however, felt yo 
mortitied at thiw pr(»po*Jil. that he prefi-rrM K-aWng tho 
country altogether, and emigrated to Khurikiiau, in Per- 
sia. Finhiuai douritthcd in louO A. Eh 

Pirifihta, ^^^"^j who(»e proper namo is Muluimmad Kasim, 
and who h the author of the hist«ir>' culled " Ttirikh Firish- 
tii," WJ18 bom at Astrab&d on tho borders of the Ciwptan Siia, 
about the year 1570 or lo50 A. l>.. 1)78 or I>."*H A. II. His 
father, a lejimed man, by name (rhuliim *Ali Hindu Shah, 
left his native country wh<n our author was verj' young 
and tnivelb'd intn hiilia. He eventually n-aehed Ahmad- 
sugar in the Dal; ban during the nign of Murtaui Nixam 
Shah I, arul wnn apiwiintrd by tlie Sultan to iurftrurt hia 
son ^h'ran llusain, in tho l'er«i:in language, hut he soon 
died after hi.n t*el''(tion. and Firi^hti^ was b-ft an orphan 
in early youth. Alter the deiith cd'MurtJizft Nizam Shah 
in U»H9 A- I)., H!JG .\. H., ho proceodnl to BiiApur, and 
was preffented by Dilawor Khan, minij»t4>r to Ibrahim 
'Adil Shah 11, by whorM> ruquest ho wrote the history 
whit h goes by hiM name, in the year 1023 Hijri (1614 A. D.') 
The year of his de^ith w altogether unknown. Uriggs 
snpp«>Hes that it occurrwi in 1512 A. D.. 1021 A. H., 
making him only 41 yean* of age. M. J. Mohl 6>up|M>M«» 
him to have n-vi-sed his work up to at Icjist 1623 A. D., 1033 
A. IL, nijiking his ago not less than 73, as he supjioses hijn 
to have b'-en born in Ifi.iO A. 11. F^riMhta styha his work, 
"CiuUhan-i-lbr*hiini," and " Nauras Nama." It« for- 
mi r narne is derived fr-im the king to whom it waa dedi- 
cated; and hence it is frctpiently quob-d untier the name 
of " Taiikh Ibrahi'nii." The hitt*T n»ni« wa* given to it 
iti comnu inoratien o( the n-w capilaL Xaunis, which his 
pilnm Ihrahim 'Adil Shfdi, cotmnenced building in tho 
year 1599 A. lb 'Ilie tirst and second hooks, giving an 
account of tho Deldi unipijrors down to Akhnr, worv 
tramtlati-d into KiigliHli by Colunol Dow in 1768. The 
histor>' of the Dakhau by Captain Junathau Scutt. But 




of the entire work by Otmoxal Briffps in 

«vo., 1 829. ha« (according to Elliot) 

into the »hiida and is by f«r the most 

«l0fo-hotuse of fiLcta couii6t;U>d with Mubninma- 

of IndiA.— [p. DowBOD'a Elliot, VI, 207.] 

YiTQ%w X>J^9 * oelflhratcd SIR of Agra. Bather of » PereUn 
work oa IVolo^ oUled '' 'A^icd &iifi%" writicn in 1626 
A. I>^ 1096 A. H. 

PirO« I, Jv**' (^ Peroaes of Ihe Groekii), a king of Peraia 
mt dK BA><ni«» nee, ww tbf* cldmt aon uf Vi-sUijn^rd 11. 
D» noBOT^ad hi* jroonger hrothfr Hummi:. whum be 
4Ml««Md ami pot to death in 458 A. D. He loHt hii« Ufo 
■ • kaltlt aninBt th« kinir of TnuuMJxiAna, afler a rcif?n 
«f M T^tfm. ui 484 A. D Balon or Palas or Baluus. bid 
«■, gpf omJimI htm : ftod after hiadoUh his brothtn: Kobid 
■■Mliillfcii Ihinaii 

ff 1 1— iTdf. c^<^^ JJj^^ miroaniQ of MAJd*addm Moham- 
^»d-UB-'Ta]|Eu)» bin-Muhiiminad. a learaed Peraiao. no 
f»iM InND kia birth- pUrr FiroRah^ a rilla^ in 8hir&2. 
Tbr atvpnwlau work oaUi'd l^uniiu or " ]Kam<is-ul- 
Laiclu.t." nciovn*<d an tbt^ imiit perfert Arabic IHcticmnry, 
m^M writttn hjr htm. Tht>i»F< who arc arquainted with the 
frtaftiaritiM tk the Aiafaic lan^^iia^ cannot open this work 
«ilbo«l facKag anuutcd at the liu^mrv wonders wrrtu^ht 
\y Ut^lMfntd nan. Hn di<Hl 14 u' A. B^ 817 A. U. 
Tidi SCajd-oddin Uahammadbin-'VifcVlib. 

yirosabftdif C5^ • JJ-yi*i ■ loaraed Mnsalmin. author of 
•' Al TaJiVadh," or Tanbix, or (pmenil information on the 
Hu^miMuian law in the lUhcentiir>'. Lt^mprirrx's Uni- 
tmirI DictMnuiry. Majd-addin Muhamnrnd-biu^'Ya'^dh, 
atfhur of the IjC^miia, is aUo called riroEabadi. 

Pircn lLuIla« trV^ ty^ ij^ ***» ***<» of Kiue, chief 
priMt of th« Parai KBdimis of Bombar, author of the 
••Owivi' Niima,*' a hiAt<jry of India from ita diecovury by 
the Portiipu«M to tlie coiiqnwl of Pdoa by the KngHih in 
1617 A. !>.. 1233 A. II. 

TlroE Jung Khan, ly*^ ^^^^ j^J^t *^ inacription on 
thL> gfiLu of the old fort of Putna, dated in the Kijra year 
1042, uttributt^a iu erui:tiiin to Firoz Jang Khan. 

PiroiKbun Khw^a Sara ■!/« ^'y^ cf^Jjt/^y ^^^ 
h> M tbf tunk uf 300 in ibu tim« of t^hahjahan. 

Firos Shah. >^ JJj^y tho eon of Salun Shih. wna raiaed 
til tht< throne of X)«hli at Owaliar after the death of hta 
(nth' > " 1. •■ li,. «^i5 only alniut 12 yt?ani old. He bad 
•I'u: ■ <\ ihjX'i.^ mouthx (or only 3 diiys) whtn hia 

in<.<: ' ' iiLT Mubarik Khan niuniurvd him on the 

2nd May. 1654., A. D.. 29th .liimada I. 961 A. H., and 
aMvndvd the throne with the titl& of Muhammad Sbah 
•Adil Soc Bibi Bai. 

Piroi Shah Bahmani SiUtan, */^ n^ jir** J^^j 

king of the Dakhau. w&a the aon of Snl^ T>iM Shik. 
AftLThavinir df!pa««d and confined Sultan Shantft-uddiiL, he 
aar^ndtnl th«? throno on the 15lh Kovt-nibiT. 1397 A. D., 
MUt A, H., with the title of f?uHan FirOa 8bah Ru« AfzOn. 
lie cxtrWffi hifl predeceaaora in power and mrtgnilicfnce, 
and in his rti^ (hf* hooso of Bahmani attain* d itci [p>«at- 
c«t fpli-ndoiir. On aacending lb** throne, he apixiinU'd hia 
hrothiT Ahiniid Kh&n, Amir-ul-lTmnL with the title of 
KhankhAtian. and niiaed Mir Fiixullnh Anjd. hifl preoop- 
tor, to thi- office of Waxir-un-Siiltunat, with the title of 
Malik Na«'b. He retgned 2a yearn, 7 munthe and 13 daya, 
and di<-d on tho 26th of He'pUmKr, 1422 A. D., 15th 
Bfaawwal, H2d A. H., ten days aft/r hia reaignicg his 
rrnwii in f«T»mr of hia hmlher Ahmad Eh&n. who aacendod 
tho throito with tho title of Sultan Ahmad Shtt Wali 


Firoz Shah Khilji Sultan, 4*=^ K^j^^ ly^^^, 

sumatnt?d ,Ta1nUuddin, Min r>f Kdt^m Kbfln, a»ru.*nded the 
throne of Dehli aftor tht< oiunlL'r of Sultan Jbluijc-uddUi 
Kaikub&d in 1282 A. D., 68S A- U. Ut> nni^nod aUat 
8 yc'urs, iifttr which ho was obliged to go down to Kari 
ManikpiSr in the province of Albkluilad tu puitich his 
n>*plu'w iind 9on-in*luw 'Ala-nddm, thf jjovt-rnor of thai 
place, whu had rebelled agnin^st him. 'AltlinMin hcnri^ 
uf th'.' king's dt'pui'turi! frum Delili, cnfhS4^ the GuLngw 
and enrumped near Minikptir npfjn th(- oppoait^ bank. 
^^^len the' king n'ucht-d the landing place. 'Ala-tuidin 
apiR-iired U|Kpn tbu Imnk with hia attendanta, whom be 
ordiTcd to halt. He rtdvannxl nlone, im-t hia unrlfl and 
fell prostrati' at faia ft>et. The king taking him hy iha 
hand, was leading him to the foyal baxge. when *Ali> 
uddin made a flignal to hin p^n:tr<lit, and nno uf liia o\ 
struck hif head off. 'Ald-uddiu rau^d it to be 
on the point of a spear and i-arried thivug-h the 
and city. Thi^ cimim.itanre took place on tlie 19th <if 
July 1296. A. D., 17th Kama^^n. t95 A. II., and 'Ali-od- 
din ascended the throne of Dehli with the title uf Sikan- 
dar Sam*. Fii'ba Shiih wae the flrNl 8ti1t:ir of th<j aucund 
bmnch uf the Turk oT Afghan d>'n;iflty, caQed Khijjt 
ZiVf of King a of tkt Khi^i lij/naitj/. 

1. Fir6x Shah Khilji. 4. Maliarik SMh Khiljf. tha 

2. 'Al».iiddin KhiUi. la«t of tluvt dynanty. «« 

3. Shohub-uddm Timar. miirtliir<-d in 1321 A. t\ 

by 51alik Khtiaro, a fi^ 
vorite filavu, wboajcflodid 
the thnmo-. but waa goal 
aft^ fdain by Gbaiaa-«d» 
din TughU^ 8h£h, A* 
first of thu 3rd bnuicb df 

Piroz Shah Purbi, i^.)Ji ''^iirS** a king of Besfal, 

wha*^ former nnmo was )Ialik Andil, an AbyMrinian rhi*^ 
who after killing the eannrh Sulfin Shahxida. waa«2«* 
vat^-d to tin. thivne of Bengal in 1491 A. 1)., 896 A. H, 
with the title of Fir6x Shah. Ho repaired the city bf 
Gotir. commonly called lAkhnauti. whcro be gsTr mii* 
Ter»a1 sjitis&ii-tiun to all claaaes of hia mibjocta. He died 
in 141)4 A. !>.. H99 A. H. 

riroB Shah Tughlak Sultan, iJ^ ^^ j^j^ sj^^, 
called FfrtSi ^bah Biirbak, waa the son of Sip«h«aUr R^ahi 



the brother of Sultan Ohniaa-iuKltn Tughlak 
to Sultan Mnbamntod Tuirhlak, whom he tw 
throne of DeJdi on the 20th March. ISVil, A i 
hiuram, 762 A U., at Thfttta. He was a ju 1 
jtrince. His floldiors and his subjt-'cta were ■ 
under hi"? admiiii»lration, nor did any one ri-in 
opprrasion in his time. He was himself the author of tha 
work niUi'd "Fatuhat ViHyz .Sbdhi,*' 1'. c. the eouqueefterf 
Firoj: yhilh. In August, 13.H7 A. D., ho al-dJcaU^ ^ 
throne and n*igu*Ml the rcina of govomment to hia Kn 
Na»>ir-uddin Muhammad, but tlie prince giving h im a utf na 
enlindy to plwiwure, was aoon afir expcllwl and ohHgca 
to fly with a smul] ntinne to the mountaina of Sirtnoor. 
and FirAi Shah uguin resumed hia full authiuity. H" r«n- 
alracltd numerous Imilding* and canals, u* .il . : of 

Fir6aabad at old Drhli. and aft«r a reign of .ra 

and eight montJu, difd on tho 21tt of S i : ss, 

A. IK. iMh Kjim;ij;iiii. 7!*0 A. II.. ntr-^ upwiu : . r». 

The wunls " Wafat Fir6E.** (thu death of Fp ;uae 

the numerical letters of tlic year of his demuw. ii« vm 
buried on the banks of the Huuz Khas. built by him in 
obi Dehli. and was fiucc«H'df<l by hii gnuMbon Ghaiaa- 
uddin (the son of Fathu Khan) who was aUin aftrr five 
months. Aftir him nnoOiur grandson of the late kins, 
named Suluin Abti Hakr, thu son of Zafiu* Kbin« waa raiat4 
to the throne. Ho had reigned one year and six xnonCfca, 
when his uncle X^sir-uddiu Muhammad Shah, the* mm af 
Firbc 8hlih d^'posod him and aaccndod tho throua of D«Ui 
in August 1390. 





FirOB Shah, ^^ jj_^, one of the sons of the ex-king Ba- 

hitdur Shih II, ting- of Dt-hli, and one of the thiff rt'lH-ls 
in the niithrnak nf 1857. Ilf took a pramiiit-nt pnrt in 
thi' rolM-llion of 1H57. and Uio British Govcrnmciit offered 
a rowurd of lOjyuO mpi*f8 for his apprcheniiiiiD. It was 
n»p<"jrtrd in 18^54 that hi itmdp his HiJiMramncp in tho 8f'- 
rony Juiig-leti. Sonio Ambs, who htivo recently arrived 
at Hfiiiliinihad. f^iaU- thut hf [a now (1866) in Arabia, and 
eupporta himself by bejyging among iho rich meri'IuintB. 

Fitrat, *^r^j tho pwlioal naim^ of Mir M6ir-uddin Ifn- 
hunimttd Muswi Khiin. a niJintialnlar in tht> timt* of 
'Aliwngir emplovf'd uh iJiwan of Siiba Bi-har. Ul- was u, 
Siiyynd and lineal do^e(^ndRnt of 'All Musi Kaza. He 
Kabwqut'ntly chose for his pouticul name, Muswi. Ht; 
was Imm in Persia in 16-JO A. P.. lO.iO A. IL, und came 
to Indtju whero ho vrns mtich esteemed for his talents aa a 
poft and a rritic. I[i> is thi- author of a Tajtkira *jr hio- 
(fTBphy ealliHi *' fiiilshan-i-Fitrat," al^o etf a Diwin. He 
diud in 1690 A. D^ 1100 A. U. Vi(fe MiaBvi. 

Foujij lS^J^> pootical iianiu of Mirza Muhammad Mu- 

kim ; he was bom at Shirat, hut carao tfi India in the 
lime of Shah .I;iiidn. and waa attached to thu Beirico of 
hifl eon Sh&h Shuja'a in Bengal. Aftf-r a long rofiidence 
in India ho rttiirui.d tf» hif« Cithcr-land, but died in a 
phort time nfler hi.^ arriv;il tht re. II** whs living^ in 1649 
A. !>., 1059 A- H.,and has b tt a Diwan in Persian vurse. 
Ab ho wus (.•mpluyed id tho army he derirud hid poetical 
titlu from " Fouj," i'. «., army. 

Foulad Khan (Shidl), iS*^ fJ^ ^h*f an Ahyaainian 

who wu.^ I* Kutwiil in thi- tim.- of tlie empflror Muhammad 
Shih, ahoui th- yur 173" A. D., HoO A. H., and on 
whom a (tatirt! wuH writt*'!! by the poet Stiuda. Ug h.-ul 
built a fine garden in Agrah, of whieh nu tnicea ore to bo 
Boen now. 

Fourakr OJ^j surname of Ahil li;ikr Muhammad, bin- 
Hasan. biu-Fountk, commonly callod ibn-Founik, waa a 
great Mi-t:i|ihyf*i<ian and Srhuolman, for wliieh runsrjii hti 
ig, styled Mulkallini. He wns tiorn at Tst'iihuit uud dii-d 
in thti city of Naishapur, in KJiuiaaan, lUl'j A. I}., 4U6 

A. n. 

Furati, ^y'^J ""^^ Miilla Furiitf. 

Furkati, l>^'j whu^e pn^inr name was Ahfi Tiirab, waa 

a \x>*^. ib^dj.'d in the year 1617 A. D., 102ti A. 11. 
Fursat, *^*^» poctin.ii title of Mahuniiiiiid Fiug, a poet, 

who was in the arrviee of Shah 'Abbaw II, and died under 

Shah Sulaimonj kings of Penua. Ue boa left a Diwia of 

Furair kS^j't poetical titlw of Kusain AU' Shah, anthor of 

Ihi' " Nisbat Nani;i Pliahraiari,'' a hiKtorj- of the Kiitb- 
■hihi dyniisty of Uolkiindii in 18,*>0() verses, fnmi its 
commoQcement to M uhauunad. Kuli Kutb^hah, who died 
in 1612 A. D., 10^1 A. II. 

Fusail AyaZi cJ^^^ ^'^^j a pious iluji-'ilmin whoso 
native ruuntnf- wa^ cith'-r Kufa. Khurasan nr Samarkand. 
He received inatruclioiw from Imam Ja'far Sadilf, and waa 
the master of Bi^hr Hafi' and Sari Saktt. He suddenly 
fell down and di-J at IIiil' timi? of pmycrs at Mecca in, 
Januarv. 803 A. I>. Muliarrani 137 A. H. 


Gau Singh Hathor, 


&M\^x^ ,.lJk aXi^ 

f^i a raja of 

Mar war or Jodpiir of the tribe of Rathot rajpiitii, was tho 
itgn of Suruj Singh iind the father of jaawuiil ^ingh. Ho 


rtigned about 18 years and dii"! in tho year 1630 A. D, in 
Gujrit. The building ealled Kdla Muiiil nt Pipal Manili 
in A'grah, was ronstnioted by him. Hia iion Amar Singh 
killf'd Salabut Kh&n. Sul^n Parwei married Gnj Singh's 
Birttt-r in 1624 A. D., and Sulaiman Shikoh, thu son of 
8ull&n Parwiz. married the daughter of Uaj tiingh in the 
j-ear 1065 A. H. 

Gakkhar, Jt^j a tribe whose residenee in atnongmt the 
miiuntiiiin that lie between Bhat and Sindh. Vidf 
Kamal Kbin (iikhar. 

Ganga Bai, ij^^. ^, RAni of JhAnai and widow of HAji 

(Tangadh;ir Itao. At the outbreak of IH'57. she jtiinM the 
robtlri, and wastht? eauwe of tlju ma«haeri'at Jliarihi. She wan 
killed in thi- liatlle of (.iwaliar on thn I7th of June, IKftS. 
Sho full with her hortjL, and was cut down by a HuHhar ; 
shfl etill etideavunn-d to get over, when a buUt-t struck her 
in tho briaflt ; and «he fell to ri.te no more. The natives 
hastily burnt her dead body to sai'e it (rem appnhendwi 
desecratiou by the Firiiigiti on the night of the 17tli and 

G-atina Begam, ^^ ^, frf** Gunna Begam. 

Q-^pati, uh jT J * "^j* <*f Jagdespur in south Bihir, who, 
Qud his brother Bairi Sai, during the reign of tho emperor 
Akhar, defied the Mughal armit'* for several years, though 
th'.' unt-qual combat Ivd to their destruetiun. 

Garshaapr Y^^^> nn aneient king of Popsia, vuk Kar- 

Gashtasp, y-^ U.-**', waB, aecording to Pciaion history, tho 
son of LohraHp. and tin' Hfth king of the Kaiuninn dynasty 
ftf Persia. In his linie flimriehed Zardawht or Zomutiter, 
who converted thn Persians to the worsfiip of fin'. Gnsh- 
ta-H]), they niiy, rtigned 60 yean*, and was Huceeedwi by 
Baiunan hia grandson, whuse father Isfandaiar waa a 
great warrior and was killed by Uudtom fiomu time before. 

Gilan Shah, vid* Kabua. 

Gesu Daraz j'j •>r"^i r'Vf Muhammftd Geisu Darar. 

Goorgd Thomas, U"*^ jrJ^^* I'^^f district of Uurriana 

waa once the Geld of the exploits of this famouB adven- 
turer. The ,UU are a stalwart and brave race, and showed 
what thev could do under hia leadership, but when left 
to IheniaulvL-M they are so divided l>y factioua, that 
Uurriana hiiw always fallen an eH.KV prey to every ad- 
venturer who haa taken it into hii to 8ubJw6 it. 
Thus it was ovemin by the Marhalluit, under Mesars. 
Louis and Perron, by the Rohillaa under Amir Khan, and 
anuther leader, and finally by the British. George Thomaa 
come out to India as a common sewmau, and haWng deser- 
ted his ship, first look service with Madho Hao Seindhia 
about the year 1770 A. B. The famous Begain of Sir- 
dhana was then in the zenith of her power, and he left 
Scindhia to aervc her, and shortly after, having culletted a 
body of men, lio left her, and marehed down to Hurriana, 
and' in no time carved out a kingdom fnr himself. Ho 
made tho eitv of Hansi hia capiUl and built a atn>ng fort 
in it. Ho biiiltannthfr fort about 20 miles to the south 
of tho town of Ruhtak, and called it after his own <.'hri«- 
tJannamo Georgogarh, or as the natives call Jahijgnrh. 
After a few years the Marhattas under Mons. L<.ui8 
invndcd hie "territories. He hastened t« give them 
battle, and throwing himself into the small fort of Jahaj- 
garh, he fought thf-m for three days, thmgh his force 
waa inflnitelv smaller than theirs. His cavaby. which 
waa composed principally of that rascftlly tnbo tho Uru- 
ghars, having gone over to tlie enemy, and hia I^ieuti^niint, 
an Engliflhman, of the name of Hopkinson, being killed, 
his troops at length gave way, and bo tied on a lavourito 
Arab horse, to Hansi, a distance of about 60 miles. We 
are not aware how long he lingered in tho neighbour- 




hood afler hifl dofBat, l}ut he died at Baoinia on his way 
t« hia natire countrj*, In^Und. Uu great-gmnddiiugh- 
t«r is tho vifo of a writer on a humble salary tit preacut 
(1867) in t»ne of the Uovomiiiunt OfhLC* in Agmh. Thf-n^ 
is a '• Lifij of Goorgo Thomas" writton by a friund of his 
in tho l>vhli Institute library. 

Ghaeb, Vi^, a poot who died in 1750 A. D., Ilia A. H. 

Ghafll, iS-^^-^y^^ '-^^i a poet of Agrah. 

Ghairat Khan, c^^ *^^} title of Khwija Klngir, tho 

Dopht'w of 'Abdullah Khan, FiroB Jang and son oFSar- 
dar Khan. In th« y^ar I(>;U A. 1)., hv Itrougrht tho head 
of KhAn Jahan JrHJi U> Khah Jiihan, and was xxifiod to tho 
rank of 20(10 with thd title of Ghairat Khin. He died in 
1640 A. li., lOdO A, U., at Thrttta of which placn ho wtw 
governor. Ho ia the author of tlio " Jahangir N4iaa," 

Ghalib, V^^? the poetical title assumed by Muhammad 

Sa'd, NQthor of a Diwan which ho completed in the year 
ICUOA. D., 1101 A. n. 

Ghahb, V- ^> the poetical name of Mir Fakhr-uddfn, author 
of a 1>ook of KadidaA whirJi hti finished in the 6th year of 
Mohamnuul iJhih tho emperor of Duhli, 1734 A. D., 1136 

Ghalib, V^^» po»jtica] title of Sheikh Aaad-ullah, son of tho 
sister of iShoikh Muhauuund A&al of Allahih^. He died 
in 17oU A. D., UG3 A. U. 

Ghalib, *r*^^j putical namo of Uini An^d-ullah Khin, 
author of a Diwan, and a history of tho Mughal emperopt 
of India. Ho was tlie son of 'Ali Bakh.-h KJian. tht brolhtr 
of Nawab Ahmitd Uakhah Khan of FiroKiiur oiid Ixihari. 
Hi! died at Behli in the month of February or March, 
1869 A. D, l28dA. H. 

Ghaniy s^* the pootical name of MirzJi Muhammad Tahir. 
He is commonly callt*d Uhani Kashmiri on account of his 
hf'inff a native of Kaahmir. lie was a pupil of Rhrikh 
Muhdtn-rtini, wbom he excelled in his learning and 
bcC4ni<' »n vU-^nt poet. Ho wrote a book of Odc-n calltKi 
"LKwin Ghnni," and died at Kaahimr two years hel'opo 
hia nuiatur 166S A. D., 1070 A. K. U is said tluit the 
cmptTor 'AUuuglr wrote to Baif Khan tlio governor of 
Kashmir to Mt'ud Ghaui to hifl proaence. Ghani refused 
to gii, lolling him at the varne time to inform thu ompcror 
thiit, Ghani had heoome inaano and wus not worthy to be 
sent to his presence. Saif Ehin said, that ho could 
nul call a wise man like him mad ; upon which Ghani 
ixiuimliutely gfit mad, tore hifl clothea, and dird nfU'T 
three tliiyi. He was a young man at tbo tinie of his 
death, having enjoytHl a brilliant reputation fur pueticiil 
t^cc-llunee for about eighteen years- Ho sometimes uaes 
Tahir for his poetical name. 

Ghani Bahadur, j^^ i^t son of Bhaouher Babidur I. 

and younger brinhcr of 'Ali Bahadur, tho Nawib of Bandju 
Viti* 'Ali Bahadur. 

Qh&IlilZiatt *^*^i poetical name of Muhammad Akram, 
author of a short Diwdn and a Majtnawi containing an 
uriiunl uf the Loves of Axis and Shahid, eallod "Naurang 
Ishl^" conipoited in the rdgn of Alamgir. 

GhaHb, *r^j^t poetical name of Sheikh Nustr-uddin of 
I>ehli. Uo ia the author of a Diwiu in rcrsiau. 

Gharib, V^^s poetical name of Sayyad Karim-uUah of 

Ghaaitl Begam, f^ *"1'j (^ */^^. tho wife of 
Shahamat Jsng, and Amina Bc},ram tb'> mother of Nawib 
Sir^-nddaula, were daughters of Nawab Mahubut Jang of 

Bfmgal ; they were drowned in the river, close U> John? 
gimagar. by ordtT cf Miran tho iion of Nawab Ja'iar 'AU 
Khin, in June, 1760 A. D. 

Ghayas Halwai, iS^j^ ^^) of Bhiri*, wb» 

and died by a fall from tho terrace of a house in the tine 
of Shih Sofi. He is thu author of a Diw&n. 

Ghayas-uddin, t^»^l ^^^ author of ■« Vcrmux Die- 

tionary r^Icd ** Qhaya»>uULnghat," n^ Muhammad 

Ghayae.uddin Bahmani, L**n^ c;^* ^^ ii/^^^ 

(Saltdn) the oldest son of Sultin MahmQd Sliah I. He 
ascended the throne of the Dakhaniii his»evonte«nJh year, 
after the death of his futher in April. I3'.i7 A. D. H« 
hud ri-'igned only one month and twenty days, wbon 
Lalchin. one of th«j Tiu-kinh idavt>s, not being appointed 
prime minister to which otfice ho had ojpin.d. put uul 
hill eyes with the point of his dagger, and having eeut him 
in confinement to thu fortrosa of Sagnr, pIac^d Khatnt-od* 
din, tho late king'b bn>ther on the throne. This circum> 
stimce took pkce on the 14th of Juno, 1397 A. D^ Uth 
lijLuuixan, 709 A. H. 

Ghayas-uddin Balban, l^ cj^'^^I •i*^ c;*^, 
(Sultan) kin^ of Dehli. In his youth he was Bold ss a 
slave to Sultan Altimah, who raised him by degrees to th» 
mnk of a noble, and gave him hia daughter in inarTiagt 
On the accession of hw son Niair-nddin Mahmiid V* thu 
throne of Dyhli, Ohayaa-uddfn was app^nnt*^ his waxir. 
Atlt-r the king's deposal or death in February, 1266 A. Dw 
664 A. H., he aictmded the throne and n-igiiod 30 y« 
Ho dii-d in 1236 A. 1).. 6H6 A- H., ag*^ 80 yeom, and 
jjuccecdt»d by his grandeon M6ix-uddin Kaikubid, the 
of Naeir-uddin Baghra Khin, governor of fieng»l, i 
was then absent in thai province. 

Beugnl, who 

Ghayas-uddin Kart I (Malik), oy^^^^Uff^XU, 
fuorlh king of lb« raci' of Kart or Kard. He aurcwded 
hia bnjther Malik Kiikhr-uJdiu Kart in 1307 A. l>, 
706 A. H., reigned wore 21 yeara over Ulnl, 
Baikh, imd Ghaxui, and di«?4 in the year 1329 A. D 
729 A. n. He waa succeeded by hia sun MAUfc Sham»! 
uJJiu Kart. 

Ghayas-uddin Kart II (Malik), *-^^ c»JS^^^^^JUe^ 
the eighth and Uat king of the dynasty of Kart or Kaal 
He Burceoded his father or gmndlathcr Moi«.ialdin Ua-' 
aain Kurt in 1370 A. U.. 771 A. U.. and rtjigowl li yim% 
over Uirat, Ghor. Sorakhah and Nitiahiipur, and conitnmmH 
Tus and Jam. He wa« a groat tyrant, and had 
battles with the Sarbadals of Sabzwir and tho c. 
Jani Kurbiiui. In tho year 1381 A. D., 7»3 A. H J Au£r 
Taimur (Tamerlane) conquered Uirat, when G^ayi*- 
uddin together with hia son and brother were tokon pn. 
soner* and put to Uetith. This d>'naHty lasted ono humbtd 
and nineteen lunar years and two months. 

Ghayas-uddin B3ulji (Sultan), i^^^ i^'>^ ^\^ 
c»ltUj succeeded hia father 8ul^ Mahxaud KkOU 
on tho throne of Qujr&t in 3kUy, 1169 A. 1)., ZJ-Ka'tLt 
A. U. When he hnd reignod 33 years and Hrrivwlil 
advanced ago, his two soua unirioiuly looked for hi« 
as an event which would awuro to onn of them the l^ 
of ilalwa ; a jealousy arose K-tween the two bwihar* 
oonapired BguinBl each otht-r, till XiUir-udduu the tIJA 
having put hia brother, Shuji'at Khun to death aa thl 
22nd of Uoti>ber. loOO A. U , 24th Ifc^bf II. «06 A uT 
assumed the reins of government. A few dava alter ^ 
father was fumid dwid in the aoraglio; and'it waa ■«&. 
posed that poison had been aduiniitered to him bv tE 
son. ' 




Ghayas-uddin Mahmud, ij*^^ e^**^! -^k^, the bqq 
of Gfyiyjia-iiddm Muhiiramiid Ghori. succeeded his uncle 
Shahib-udiim in tho kinicJom of Gh6r and GhamS in 
1205 A, 1>., 602 A. H. He mffiJ«l about fonr yeare, and 
WIS Kaftasniuitfd bv the iH?oplo of Jlahmu-i All Shall on 
BfttimUy night, the Slat of July, 1210 A. I)., 7th Safar, 
S07 A. H. lit; was at firet buried at Fir68 K6h, but wua 
ftfterwardii trariflporied to Hirfit and buried thero. He was 
Buoccedcil by hia sou ItohA-uddin Sam. who waji nftt'.r lhr*o 
months defuat«d by *Ala-uddin Atsis {fum of Ali-udJtn 
Ila«an sumamed .lahin Soi) who nipncd in Gh6r and 
Obizni for four yt-ara. ami fell in \mU\o ai^ainjit MiUik 
Xaair^uddiu Hus,*iin Amir J^hik&r in iht- yo;kr 1214 A. D.. 
611 A. H. Aft«r hitf death Alii-udditi Mtihmiiinad sou of 
Abu All. cousin of Miilik Ohnyaa-uildin Muhammad wqa 
raised to thu ihrono by Taj-uddin Elduz. 

Ghayas-uddin Muhammad, (Sultan), ^♦a?* ^^ja^I 

,lUi ^ItL-^ ^^^, ^Qjj ^^f j[^jj. j^jjjjj^ ^^f^-^^ Ssxliuk d>Tia8ty. 
In thf" time of hi-t eldest brother JUrkayarak the empire 
was diTided. Uarkayaruk retaining Persia ; ( Jhayaa-u»ldm 
Muhaiinujid, Syria and Axurbijao ; and SuJtin Sanjar, 
Khurasan and il;iw!i.runnahr. 11'? reigned about the y^ar 
1095 A. D. Viiie Muhammad (Sultan). 

Ohayaa-uddln Muhammad Ghori, (X'^* »^*^* 

iiri'^' »t'''i*, king of Ghor and GhaKni, whs the son of 
Baha-uddiu Sam, the yuiuipcst lirul.hiT of Ald-uddin Ila- 
(cm Gh6ri. Hti (fucffidfd to t)iL> thrijne uf Gh6r and 
Ghoziii afttT ihi> d'jatb of his cousin Malik Siuf-uddin tho 
son of thi^ iattiT, hIiouI the ytur 1167 A. 1*.. nnd conffrr<*d 
the govfmment of Ghcieni on hi-* hrolhpr Shahab-uddin 
soraamcd Mo'iz-uddiu l^luhammad; this illuiitrioas f^e^ 
nerol subdued Kbursjiaii and a if^rcat prirt of India in tho 
name of his brother Ghnya>4-uddin, who anncxt.'d tliuM* 
countties to Mis owu doiiutuuTia. GluiytU-uddm died on 
Wi-dnesdtiy, th,' li!Ih cf UhtvU. 124)3 A.'D., 27th Jumada 
I, 599 A. II., luid vfiis succeeded by hia brother Shahab- 

Ghayas uddin Mahmud Ghori, iS}^ ^t*^^ tH»^t 

'iJ^^, the Sim of Gh.-iyfU-uddin Muhomnmd Ghori, and 
nupKew of Shahab-uddin Miiluininmd Ghori, whom ho 
HUCcoL-dt'd to the thr-Hio of (Jhor and Ghuzni in 1206 A. I). 
Mahmud bein^ niitunilly induli.-ul, rernjuni'd Kititiflrd with 
the throne of Ghur. n:nl ]irrirlaim'^d Taj-uddin Eldii/^ king 
of Ghazm. He died in 1210 A. \). 

Ghayas-uddin Purbi, i^jji ^^^ *t--^, aucoooded 

his father Siktmdar Turbi on the throne of Bengal in 1367 
A- I>., 77o A. H., rvigiiid for a p«'riod of seven years, 
and di(.*d iu 1373. Jit^ yam succtt.'dud by iiia son Sultan- 
as- Salitio. 

Ghayas-uddin Tughlak Shah I (Sultan), i3^ 

j^jJl ^U ^^^^, king of Debli. iiia fiithtr Tughla^ 

was a slave of Saltan Ghnyas-udJin BiUbiin. Ui.' ascondod 
tho throne of Dt-hli uftL-r murdering' Kliujtro Shiih on tho 
aeth August, 1321 A. T).. iBt-ShiilMin, 721 A. H,, r. igned 
throe years and some nicntU-H, uiiil was crutthini to di-iith by 
tho fidlof a tompomry woodrn building whi< h his mon bud 
raised for his rnterUmimcnt im his rtturu froni Lakbnruiii in 
Febrimr>'. 1325 A. 1)., Itabf I, 725 A. H. lU>^aon Muham- 
mad Tughhik HUcceL-ded hini. The tflfhruted poet Aim'r 
Khiuro of Debli. who lived to the lud of tbi^ king's reign 
Bad receivi-d a iMn-iiuii uf luun tiinijiw monthly, wrote the 
history of this prince under th.. titb- t^f "TughLik Nikma." 
GhftyiB-oddm waa the lint king of the ;trd branch of tho 
Afgh£n dynasty wliicb is called Tu^hlalk^ Shahi. The 
following is a list of the Sultana of thia broneb : — 

Ghayis-uddin Tnghlak L Mahmud Shah Tughlak last 

Uuhaimnud Shah Tugblak I. of this^ fumily cxpcllud by 

Firoi Shah Tughla^. Amir Taimur. 

Ohayift-uddin 'I\ighlal( II. (Naamt Khan). 

Abii Bakr Shah. (IklHil KhsnV 

Mulmmmad Shah Tughlak II. Mahmiid Shah restored. 
Ala-uddin Sikundar Shah. 

Ghayas-uddin Tughlak II, (Sultan), t3^ t:.*^'*^' 

i-Lc ^JhLM^ ^J^^ the »t>n of prince Fatha Khin and 
grandson of Firoj Shah Tughlak. lie aKfendo*! the throne 
in place of Firox Shah in Dehli on the death of his 
grandfather in 13S8 A. !»., 7'JO A. H,, but giving loose to 
hia youthful imsslons, and negbrnting the ritfaira of the 
State, the chiefs together willi thu household troops re- 
voltt'd, and put him to di-atb mi the lyih Februarj-, 1389 
A. D., 21fit Safar. 791 A. U., after he had reigned 
six months. Ho was succeedt-d by IiIn luiisin Abu BuJo' 
Tn^htnk tho son of prince Zafar Khan, the third son of 
Firoa Shih. 

Ghaaah, crL/^j ^if* Ghaxzali. 

Ghasanfar Khan, c)'*'^/*^**! boo of Alawordi Kliin I and 
brother of Alawardi Khan II. u nobleman of the rvign of 
Bhiih Jahan and 'AUmgir. He was three times at difl'"rent 
periods appointtnl governor of Sahanuipur and tLftt-rwurds 
of Thut;a in Siudh. where he ditjil on the lat May, IGGG 
A. 1>., 17th Zi-Kj'da, 1077 A, II. His remains wcrv 
brought lo Dclili und buried there. 

Ghasan Khan, O*^ tyfj » seventh king of Persia of the 
Tartar tribe ;md fourth in descent from Halaku KhAn. 
wa-s the son of Arghuti Khan. He succeeded to tho crown 
of Perriia after thu dethronement of Bdidu Khrin his uiiele 
in October. ITJo A. U., '<5il-hijja, G94 A. IL He was the 
first emperor of the mce uf Changez Kbin who embraced 
tho n'lsgion of Muhammad, and with him noor one 
hundred thousand of hi» followers followed their leader 
into the piiJe of InUm. He w.i8 the first of this ruee of 
kings who threw ofl* all allegiance to the Kluikan of Tar* 
tary, by direrting that Ihfi nnine of that monan'h (whom 
he nnw deemed to be an infldelj should not, in futurw be 
gtrnck on the coins of I'ersia. Alli-T enibruring Muhamma- 
dimi^tm, he ti^ok the title <>( Sultan Mnhmud. He ndgnod 
nearly nine years and died on Sunday, the 1 7th of May, 
130* A. 1)„ UthShawwhl, 703 A. H.'at Katwin; he wa* 
int^-rrcd in a superb mosque which he had constructed near 
Tauria or Ta)>na. Ho was »uceiH,-*Ied by his brother 
Aljaitu, who took tho title of Muhammiui Khudi Rondo. 

Ghasl, oV f Ihe pi/f:tical title of a penwn who served aa 

Kurbegi under the prince Sul^ Muh&mnud Muizzim 
the son of the emperor 'Ahungir. 

Ghazi, 4/3^> or Al-Gliiii, tho son of Ortak. tho first of 
the Turkman Ortokite princes who seized Jerusalem and 

reigned in Murdin and Muifarkin in Syria. Tho follow- 
ing princes are hia di sceudants ; 

A.J). A. II. 
Husam-uddiii Taimilrtuh son of AlghjUf, 

began Ut reign 1 122 5 1 G 

Kajm-uddiu Alui'l Muxaffar Albi or Alpi, 

sun of Titimurtitth, 11^2 o47 

Kutb-uddin Alghizi. son of Albi. II/G 5*2 

lIu-Mim-uditin Vulak Araalan, tho son of 

Kutb-uddin. 1184 580 

Malik Alman«ur Nasir-uddin Ortak Ana*- 

bui, son of Kutb-uddin 1201 597 

Maiik-us-Suid Najm-uddin Ghkzi, sou of 

Nisir-uddin UrUik, 1239, 637 

Malik. ul-3I:i£aSfar Kara Arsolin, son uf 

Najm-uddm, 1255 fi53 

Shams-uddin Daud, 1291 691 

Malik-Hl-Manf>ur Nnjro-uddi'n Ghixi, .... 1293 693 

Albi Malik-ul-Adil 'Imiid-uddin Ali, .... 1312 712 
Malik' us-isibih ShamS'Uddin Sakh, the last 

prince of thia race, • *. 1312 712 


Ghaei-uddln Haidar, j'H^^ tiH*^' iSi^, the oMmI of 

the ttn dona of Nnwab Sa'idat 'Ah' Khin of Audh. On 
his father** deoth. which took place on the Uth July, 
1814 A. D., 'J'ind Rajah, I22ft A. H., he Buct-eedwl to his 
domiu)on.i as Nawab Wazir. and livu yosra nfter, jussumed, 
with th»i coiicunvnoe of Ihu Britiiih oLvtiiinient, thfl regid 
dignitv. JliflCortmatioTi tfiok [.lure on Sutiirddy, the 0th 
OctoN'r. 1819 A. D.. 18th ZU-bijju, 1234 A U., at 
LnVhnrtU, whrn lio look thi- titk* uf Abu*l Mniiiflfar MaU- 
uddiii Shah '/.nmsin Uhaxi-uddin Haidar Podshdh. On 
&84:vnding ihc tirttt ntt?p of tJu.' thronu, thy minisU^r deli- 
Tercd to him a radical crowT, Ktuddtd with diajnonda and 
jmn-L-lfl of groat Mtlae. He then put it on hin hfud and 
wiifl odtigrtttulaled on the occafeion by the RctidfTit who 
•alutod him as king of Andh. Jeweht and poarla to the 
vnlnn of 30.000 nipofrS were tht-n ai-attored over thv \ifa.d£ 
of thu «p(;i-tjitor>, many w^r*' pickvd up by our fair bidiiis. 
Ghaxi'iiddin Haitlar di<xl lil'U-r a rtign of more- than 13 
year*, on th*? Utth of Oitobtr, 1827 A. 1>.. 37th Itnbi' I. 
1243 A. II., aged 58 lunar j-cars, nnd waa succtv^hid by 
hid wm Sulaiuian .TiUk Naslr-uddin Haidar. 

Oh»Bi-uddin Khan I, ^^ jj^' m)^ L/i^' LSJ^, 

»tyl' d Fin'iT Jnng. whoat' original name was 5Iir Rhahab- 
uddin, wiui the aon of Kulteh Khan Sudr-u5-?^udur, and 
wiw ni»«'d to tho tank of nn Amir with the titlo of Firti 
Jan>;. aflor hia fiithcr'd dc^th, hy thf «tnp<Tor 'AlamglV 
in 1GH7 A. D., 109S A. H. Hta .«on wus tho famona 
>;;.M,M,,Ti.\i,ilk 'AftTif Jah whoat* ilfst-tndunta are known. 
I I - as Nizamif of the Dukhiin. In the reign of 

llii' iU hu wai* appointed g'>vcmor of Giijral, and 

dnd ILL Ahniiulibad in UIO A. I).. 1122 A. H. H« r.> 
iitaifij were tninsported to Dohli, and interred in tho 
yard uf th'.^ coUtgo built by hiui oulaido thu Ajniin* Gate. 

OhttBi-uddin Khan II, l^^^j^i cjt^ crfoJI jj-jU^ 

Aniir-ia-Uniri, also s^Icd Firfia Jftng, waa the oldest son 
of tho crlobrated Ninain-ul-Mulk 'Asaf JiH, Ho was 
elovat^ to tho mnk of Amir-ul-l'mrd aft*;r the dvath of 
Khan Dauran, and dejMirture of \adir ShAh to Prrsia, 
in 173'J A. D.. 1152 A. H., by tho t'uiporor Muhammad 
Shih. Somi' years after the dftath of hia futhtr, when 
hi* brother Nfi^ir Jang, who hod fiucccwiud him* died in 
the Dukhan, ho procoedM from Holili to rvgain fai^ pos. 
Kt>wion« in that c*juntr>% but died on hi« way at Aoranf^ 
ba.i on the ICth of bctolnT. 1763 A. I»„ 7th JJil-liiija, 
IIG.» A. H- New StyU'. tliA rtniaina wore broui^ht to 
r»(*hli nnd buripd then?. Aftor hia death Iho oUico of 
Amii'ul-Unira waa confi-rri'd on hia aon Shahab-uddin 
with the title of 'Iniad-ul-Mulk Ghaxi-uddin Khan. 

Ghazi-uddin Khan in, J^ iiH'^^ is)^ b^^^j^, 
Aniir.ui-Umra. ^tyU4 'Iniid-ul-Mulk, waa Ib.^ *on of 
<Jhax(-uddin Khin Firii* Janip, tho son of Xiziim-ul- 
Mulk *A«af Jah. Hia oriirinal namo wat* Shuhab-uddin, 
but oftrr th« death of his father in 1752 A. D.. llCo 
A. II.. ho waa, by thi- rocommt-ndation of NawAb SaWar 
•^ I Anu'r-ul-Umril, hy the cmptror 

^ wiih the titlo of 'Imad-ul-Mulk 

'' i..,.M 1 )iix i» that Obaxi-udilin Kh/ui, who 

aft^Twardu U»nmn wnzir. impri«mpd and !i!ijidt;-d hin 
nui'it'.-r the i-mpcroi Ahmad ShAh, and aaaasRinatod 
'Alampr II. Hi* wifti wait the colebrat?d Gunoa Begun, 
who cfi.-<1 in (h.- y<vir 1775 A. D., nS9 A. H. Tho year 
ofGbi ^ ban's di*jith is unknown, but according 

to til. of thf jiof^ c«ll«l Gulwr r»rihiin. be 

« >. !: : . ,. !,-..> A. I».. Uy4 A. H., iu strailoncd cir- 
" '1' ■'!> - liii) jHH'tinil name waa NixAin. According 
t • , V. il^ rtill.Ki Miair-iil-L'rar*, he went to the Da- 
Id-.. n 177'. .\ 11., IIH" A. H., and rt-ccivcd u iigfr in 
M i',w-:i ; «iihs.**]ii. ritU h'- [Tocf^cd to Sunt and poMed 
a low y(.«an with * and th'^nre on a piloriniue 

til Mecca. He ixii i^ian and I'eikhta p««try and 

left Arabic and Turkiah GhazaU and a tKick Pctnan 
Diwin and a MaMnawi in whith the niiru<:I(?8 uf Mrtivl«nA 
Fakhr-uditin aro related. Some aay he died at Kulpi. 

Ohasnawi, tS^^^t vide Muhammad Khan (Mir). 

QhazzaL J}y^ (a seller of thread) title of W£nl.hin**Aii. 

a C4'lcbruted M us&lm&n doctor who waa thos saxnAmed. 

Ghasnif i^J^y kings of, vide Sabaktagm. 

Ghazaali, k^ij^ »***' (•**'» or Ohaxali (Imam Ahmul), 

younin^er hrothor of Imim Muhammad GhoxEfll. He «m* 
adoctor of tho seet of Shifa'f, and diexl III Kaxwui in thf 
venr 1123 A, D.. G17 A. U., but uncording to Ibn Khol- 
likan in 620 A. H., Lom*ponding with 1 126 A. D. 

Ghazzali, »^!>^ ^*^^ c^', or Gha«ili (Imam Muham- 

mad; who is also entitled Hujjat-nl-IiiUm. is the sumamr 
of Abu Hamid Muhammad Zuin-uddin-ul-TuM, oni* rrf 
tho greHtirtit JUid muitt colebrut^'d ^Imuilman docton* bdA 
author of a tn-atisc on the difft-rcnt tlua»os of acienc* 
which concern rGligion. called, "Kimiae Sa'adat," »aA 
many othi-r workfl such a» tho Yakut-iitTawpj, al»» 
called "Tafair JawAhir-ul-Kuran," " Akacd Ghaaifli** 
** AhJa-ul-Tlum," and " IWat-ul-Filasaik" He was ban 
in tho yooi 1058 A. U.. 460 A. II.. in a WUa^^- csIM 
tihazzAlu or Ghaeala in Tus, whence ho and hia bntfMT 
Ahmad, dc'riv<>d ihnir nameu of GhaKzati. Ho died on tils 
18th December. 1111 A. D., 4t>i Jumada U, ftOn A. H, 
aged 55 lunar years. Some authors say that his eam^ 
shoidd b« spelt Ghasali and not I thozitAli, but th* fal- 
lowing verses from the Mukhbir'Ul-WiSailin, confirms (h» 

O^l ^iP i^;Ai ^U JOjA 


He is said (o hnvo writlon ninet}*-zuno worka» nucllly io 

Arabic, a i'w iu Fcraian. 

Ghizali (Moulana), ij^]j^ ^Xy**, of x^^ ^^^ 

tho royal poet. Ho mentions in one of his l^aaidM 
named Knucat-un-Safii, that he was bom in th*:* yrau> IA2< 
A. D., 030 A. H. He Brst came from Maslihad Jiia nativ 
country to th« Dakhan. whore btung disappointed in hi* 
prospects, he wr^nt over to Jaunpur, and waa «D{doy«d 
for Aomc years by Khan Zanuln 'Ati Kuli Khan. gi>vvtwn 
of that ppninutj, during which time he v~ 
called "NaliiRh Radfu.*' for wlijch he n 
patron a piocti of gold for each couplet. Ai ( __ .li 
of Khau Zam&n, who was slain in battle against 
emperor A khar in 1568 A. D., 975 A. H., h»* ft-f! intr. 
the hands of that monarch, who took him into h 
and confiuroi on him the titlu of Malik-ush'Sbu.t 
King of poets. He waa tho first poet that wu> 
with this title in India. Ho accompanif^ , 
master to the conquisit of Gujrat, and di-^l 
venereal diaea^e, on Friday the 5th of I>-mi' 
A. D.. a7th Rajab, 980 A. H. He is buri. i ,t 
abjd, (lujrat, at a place colled SorkiJ. lie is 
author of a Dfwon, and three Masnawtit or po<nn% 
taining from 40 to 60,000 veriiea ; their title* njv 
Asrar," " Uishahit-ul-Haiit," and " Mirat-ul-KiaoiL 

GhouB Muhammad Khanj u^*^^^£jji, 
title is ^lohtaishim-uddaiila, is the prvaemt NaviHi 

Ghous-ul-^Alam, ^^^ ^y, a hunoas Sdfi. wiA Va. 
hammod Ghoits of w&liar. 

QhouB-uI-'Azim, /^V»^^, ^ tiUc of the Mi 
^aint 'Abdul KadirGilani. 





Ghouwasi, t5*>>i l5^[>*j of Yczd, a poet, whoee proper 

niuno in IzRiutdin. Tie is said to havo composed 100,001} 
versea. Thia fertile pKJt, in a work whit-h h« wrot« in 
U4a A. 11., 950 A. H., says: "The pofttn- which I have 
written amounts t^ l.'JnO h(rf>ks." Ho mftdo 500 Tereea 
a day, and it would appear thut he put the ^' liauzat-ush- 
Shohmin," the history of Tftbnn. the legencle of the pro- 
phets, KnU'iln-wa-Damna. nnd the Medical work called 
"Zttkhira Khwarizui Shahi," and manv other works into 
vftrse. lU' dii'd in 1653 A. D., 960 A. H., at an ago of 
more than ono hnndnd years. 

Ohulam *Ali, Mir, ^LjT ^ f^.ri*> a poot whose 

pof'tical titlr i.-i 'Azad, which spo. 

Ohulam 'Ali Khan, o^ %J^ c^, author of the 

*' Lama'al-ui-Tdhirtn," a panpp>Tic on the actions of llu' 
humniad, and n nuuLbur of myBlical poeniB, dedicatud to 
thtj empLTur 'Aljiiu^ir. 

Ghulam 'All, k^ f^, author of tho work (Milled " Shih 

*Alum Nama." a history of the reiprn of Ihf lEmporor Shih 
'Akm. who died in ISO's A. D., \'11\ A. K. 

Ghulam Husain Khan, ITawab Sayyad, t^^^^ 

e,U. ^^-^ ^lU Jo— ^y, Gumamod Tiha Tibii, son of 

Uidfiet 'All Khdn. Ikliadur AsiidJiUiR. authorof aPwraiiin 
worfccalhd '^Si;l^-uI-ilutakhi^ia," writt.^n in tho ymrlTHO 
A. D.. 11 iU A. II., and tranatattd stmn afler into English 
by a French Kenepide, calU^d Mustafa. It waa again 
tran«lat*d into Eii^lish by F. C. Hulfour, Esq., LL. D. 
He is also author uf a Puum entitlc-d *' Baahirat-ul' 
1 ma mat." 

Ghulam Huaain Khan, c;*** c,^^*^ r^j author of the 

Persian iliBtory of Ben^^iilcjilk-d " Uayai-usaalatin" which 
he wttAo ahuut the yi-ar i7«0 A. D. at tho requeet of Mr. 
George Udncy of Malwn. He wiw ti learned and respeet- 
able character, once of greater consequence, and afterwnrds 
a member of Ihe n:itive court of judieutiire under the moat 
worthy NawiLh 'Ali Ibruhiin Khan. 

Ghulam Imam Shahid, Maulana, *^* (*^l j*^ 

"V^, a poet who is tlie author of a Persian Biwan, and 
of a coleiirrtt»d Ka.Hida r-umprising thr^ disputo between 
Love and Ut-auty. Ilirf poelical title is Shahed and ho is 
living glill, 1S;9 A. D. 

Ghulam Kadlr Khan, u*^^'j^ f*^, son of Zibita 

Kham and gnimlaon of Najilj-uddaula, the Kohila chief. 
This is thiit tniit<jr who aft<T extorting as much money as 
he could from hi« royiU muster, thf« emjieror Shah 'Alam 
of Dehli, orden-d his KohLliis to plnck out his eyes from 
their «onk«tfi and planyl H» idar IJakht. son of Ahmad 
Shah, and grandwon of Muhammad Shah on the throne. 
This mournful evt-nt happened on the 1 0th nf August, 
I78» A. D, 7th Xi-Ku'dii, 1-202 A. H. After this, the 
traitor endeavoured \\i make his to his own terri- 
tor>' Ohou8K"rbi but wiia pursned by the Marhn^taA who 
t4>o'k him prijftpner, rut off his ears, now). amis» and legs, 
and in this mutilated state he wan sent to Dehli ; but 
died on the roiul in the month of IlecembiT tho samo 
year, Kabi I, 120:i A. H. His tomb i» in Aul, Porganna 
Jr'urmh, Zila Agruh, 

Ghulam Kutb-uddin Shah, i/>iM AUr li.»ja;/ v^J 

^JLp jLi tjf AUahibttd, whose poetical name is Musibat, 

was the son of Shah Muhammad Fakhir. Ug was an 
elejfiint poet eminently leiinitd and accomplished, and is 
the author of a work ailltxl " Ndn Kalia," (Cake« and 
tsteuks) which he wrote in answer to a work entitled 
''Nan Halwa" [Cakes and Pudding). He was born on 


the 29th August, 172£ 0. S., Ist MaVarram, 1138 A. lU 
went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, and died there in tho 
year 1773-4 A. D.. 1187-8 A. H. 

Ghulam Muhammad, o.*«* ^iU^ (Prince.) son or 

prandwm of Tippu Sulian, was installed as a Knight 
Commander of the Star of India on th*? arth February, 
1871 A. D. Seventy-two years ago he was a prisntier 
in the hands of tho English, and since then a recipient 
of the highest honors. He died in Calcutta on tlie 
night of the 1 1th Aug^'^t, 1872, aged 78 years. 

Ghulam Huhammad Khan, ^^ *v^ f^, pre, 
sent nawfib of tho Knmatir, whose titlr is Amir-ul-Hind 
"WAli Jtth Umdut-ul-Umrfi Mumt4z-ul-MumMik. 

Ghulam Muhammad Khan, Kawab> cj^ iX*** 

^3U wty, vuu Faiz-ullah Khin. 
Ghulam Ahia, li^ ^^, author of an Arabic wort on 
Lotrie. which goes after his name. Its marginal Notes 
written by another author are called *' Shama-ut-Zuhi." 

Ghunchachae Ummaid, **^' **t^j (i. ?., a small 
bud of hope), was ono of the wives of Umar Shaikh Jlirza, 
the son of Sultan Abu 8a" id Slirxa, and mother nf Nisir 
Iklirzo, and Mahd Bino Uegam. She was a nutivo of 

Girami, i/^Lr ^ the poetical namo of a poet vhoae Biw&n 
woa found in the Library of Ti'pu Bult^ 

Girdhar Das, u^f'S J^^^i of Dehli, muhorof the hirioy 
fjf Ram, entitli'd " Ibiiiiayuii," t-n*np<lHt<>tI frum the SaiLi* 
krit in 1722 A. D. Thi.t is a ver>' telebmted Hindi poem. 
cfrntjiining the exploits of the famuus demig<>d Itain, whu 
reifrned over India for many years. His capital was at 
Audh, and his conquests extended to Ceylon, where the 
chain of rocks which nearly unite that island to the 
continent; i« still cjdhd Ham'n Bridge. Boaides this, then^ 
arc two otbi^'r lUmayans, one translated by Tulshi Das 
in tho Bhakha dialect, and another by Khuahtor in Urdu. 

Girdhar Singh, ^^_jA^, or Girdhar Bahadur, a 

Kajput cliief who was governor of Miilwa in the reign of 
the emperor Muhammad Shah, and fell in battle against 
the Peshwi Baji ItuiVs officers in 172& A. Ii. His ne- 
phew, l>ayi Kim, who sucetK'ded him, and had opposed 
a gallant resistance for some time, was defeat<*d by Chim- 
nijf tho Poehwa 1^ brother, and lost hie: life in battle about 
tho year 1732 A. D. 

Gobind Guru, ^H^ ^» a chief of the Sikhs, vidt 

Guru Gobind. 

Qopftl or Kayek Gtopai, J^y ^^, a celebrated 
singer of India, who waa a native of tho Dakhan. and 
ttouriithed during the reign of Sultan 'Ali-uddin .Sikandar 
Binf. He was a contemporary of Amfr Khuaro who died 
in 1325 A. 1). It ia related that when Gupal visited tho 
court of Dehli, he *img that species of eumpiwilinn called 
"Git." tho bermty of which style, euiinnnled by the 
powerful and liammnious voico of so able a performer, 
could not meet with competition: — At this the (iiunmrch. 
causcil AmCr Khusro to remain hid under his throne, 
whence he could hear the mu^iieian unknown to him. Tho 
latter endoavoured to remember the style, and on a sub- 
Bequent day, sung " Qoul" and "Tarana" in imitation 
of it, which surpnHed Gopil, and, fniudulently deprived 
him of a portion of his due honor. 

Gcshyar, J^^Jr, an astronomer whose proper name ia 
Abu'l Hasan. 




Gouhar Shad Begam, ^ ^^ j^jrt the wifo of 

Minra Shiihnikh, the son of Aimr Taimur. She was sUm 
by Suhttii Abii Sa'id Mirxa for creating disturbancea, in 
H57 A. D., S6l A. H., nt Hirit, whyrv she lic-s buried 
on thrt left bunk of ii stream cnUed Anjir. The grave ia 
ehftded hy a very high gilt dome. She is said to have 
been the most inoomparable htdy in the world. Somo erro- 
oeonsly my that ahe was the dnti«thter of Amir Taimfir, 
and the aiater of Shihrukh Mirza, and that she nyver 
mMiried. but devoted hereelf to the perusal of the Kurin, 
li/ie Mohan I-aI'm Journal. 

Goya, kr > prwitical niime of Hisam-uddftula NawAh Fa^ 

Muhammad Khan of Lalchnan. He is the author of a 

Goya, ^.^1 the poetical name of Mini Kimrin, a brother 

of J6y&, which bi-e. 
Goya, hy* poetical name of Shaikh Uai&t-uUah of Fur* 

Gujar, j^rt prandaonorsonof the daughter of the Pcahwi 

lUgh/)]! Rhr^ln's daught/r. He vns raised to the masnad 

uf Nagpar after the dethronement of 'Ap& 8&hib in 1818 

A. D. 

Glllab Singh, *^*** V^i of Jammu (ilahiriji) the in- 
dependent ruler of Kfwhmi'r and the hilla, which were 
nuult^ ovdr Uj him by tho Ilritiah *' for a confiidcration,** 
afVt the buttle with tht> Sikha in 1846. Ho died 2nd 
AugUiit, 1857 A. D , about three months after the outbreak 
uf the native truupti. He waa Buewedod by hid non Hanbir 

Gulbadan Beganif (^ ty»H^, a daughter of the 

emprror Baltar Shah, sifter io Humayun and sunt to 
AkbiLT Sliih. »ShL» wha niurried to Khizir Kh&u, a descen- 
dant of thi-' kin^i^a of Kashghjir. Khizir Khan was made 
gtivcmor of Labor in 1635 A. D., 9G3 A. H., and after- 
wardi of Bvh&r, where he died about the year 1669 A. D., 
966 A. H. 

Gtllbarg Begam, /^ ^J^9 daughter of the emperor 

Bubur Shih, she ia also called Qulrang Begam, and Uul- 
rukh liogniii, which aee. 

GlllchOhra Begam, ^^ IrtT^, a daughter of the 
vmiKHir Daliar Shih and youngest sifter of UumayuUf 
by whom ahe w;u triven in mitrriage to Abbia Sultan, an 
Vzbiik prince, at Kabul in 1548 A. D. 

Gul Muhammad Khan, t>^^ J*- <**** *^» a poet 
of Dehli who died in the year of the Chruitian em 1848 
A. B., l'iG4 A. H. Uia poetical name waa N4tik, which 

GulruU. Begam, ^^ t^> •* daughter of the tanperur 

Babiir, who was married to 'Mini Xur-uddi'n Bfuham- 
mad, a person uf reapectable family, by whom ahe had a 
daughter named tSalima Sultana BeKDio, who wan mar- 
ried in the beginning of the reign of the i-mpcror Akbiir, 
to Berim Khan, Khankhilnan, aflcr who«e death in 1561 
A. D., 908 A. H.. the emperor married her himaelf. (iul- 
rukh Begam ia oalled in the Maair-ul-Umrft, Gulbarg 
Begam, and by eome Uuinuig Begam. 

Gulrtikh Begam, j*^ ^r^* ^ daughter of Kimran 

Mirza, the brother of the emperor Hnm&yiin, and first 
ruuiiia to Akbar. She was married to Ibrahim Humuu 
Mircit the «on of Muhammad Sultan Mirxa a di-aeendant 
of Ainir TaimAr. Ibrahim Huaain, who together with 
bin other brothers had created great diiturbancvs iu the 

country, was taken prisoner in 1573 A. D., 981 A H, 
and Bhortly after put to death end his head sent to Akbar, 
who ordered it to be phiced ovt>r one of the gates of Agnh. 
Qulrukh Begam survived him for ftoveral years and wu 
liring at Agrah in 1614 A. D., 1D23 A. H. 

Gulshan, l^A*^, the poetical name of Shaikh Sa'd-nllih, 

a mystical poet, who resided for some years at Dfhli. and 
l«ft nearly 100,000 vowt(?8 of Ghazala. He vruB a diadpit 
of Shah 'Abdul Ahad Sarhindi, and made with him a pil- 
grimage to Mecca. He died in 1728 A. D., or 1141 A. H. 

Gulshani, ^^, the poetical title of Shaikh Sa'd-ulUh, 
which see. 

Gunna or Ganna Segam, (*^. ^t a princeca, oeMrrtr 

ted for ht'r personal aeeomplishmeata, as well as for the 
Tivacity of her wit, and the fire of her poetical gviiiiiu 
Several of her l>*ric compoaitiona, in the Hindustani 
language ore still sung and adminKi, one of wfajch is to 
be seen in the first volume of the Asiatic Rosearc^M^ 
p. 55. She was the daughter of Kawab 'Alt KnU Kh^ 
commonly called Chhanga or Shash Angushti (from 1ut> 
ing nix fingers on each hand), a mansabdar of 5U00 hone. 
Ganna Bi'gam was betrothed to Shuj&'-uddaula, tht< httn rJ 
Kawab Safdar Jang, but afterwards married to Unuid-u]* 
Mulk Ohasi-uddln Kban, wazir, and this rivalship is said 
to have in part laid the foiuidiiliou of the mortal HOmi^ 
which afterwards Bubsist^^d between that wasir and Sofdir 
Jang. Adjoining to the village of Nuiabad near Dhofll- 
pdr, two miles from UboU Saiie, is a pretty largo _ 
the work of the eraporor Alamgir, bniU in tho year 
A. O., 1160 A. H., over the gate of which is an ii 
tion bearing the chronogram of the yearof itt< cr 
rir., " Dida Bagh JsmM." Withm this garden i» 
monument of Ganu& Begam. Her shrine bears iha fol- 
lowing inscription, "Ah gham Gunnii Begam," which 
tho chronogram of tho yoar of her dftnth, rir„ U;* 
A. B., 1189 A. H. The poets, B6i, Souda, and UinBSt 
corrected her verses. 

Guru Goblnd, '^J^ jj^s tho son of Tegh Bahidur, » 
iiuiious chief of tho Sikhs. After the death of his CsUur 
who was executed by order of tho omperor 'AUmgirii 
the year 1673 A. D., having colleclod his followera. be pm 
them anna and hontcft. which till hia time thoy had tuttt 
nm^d, and began to coiuitiit deprcHbitions, but ho was 
obliged to fly. and two of his son« bting taken pi 
were put to death. Being desirous of returning 
home, he prevailed on 8omo Afghans to eondoct 
di::guis6d as one of their deroteoa, through the armv eta- 
tioned at Sarbind ; and for tho remainder of hi« Ufti kt-pt 
hiinsolf retired, having lout his faoultiee in griof fcr hii 
sena. He ordered his disciples to wear blue, and hart 
tht'ir btardit uud the hair of their heads onshawd, whiili 
they du to thia day. Ho was succeeded by Banda, ooe tf 
his followera. 


Habib Ajmi, Khwaja, t5*^ 


calltd 'Ajmi or the rersiaii, on account of his not be 
able to read the Kuriu, orthathecould not proaoimoo th» 
words of it distijietly. He was a pioiu* JfiLtftdnin an 
ciple of Khwaja If asan Baari. He dit-d on the 28th Ai 
738 A. D- 7th Ramazan, 120 A. H. 

Habib-uUah, *^' Vi? =*-| author of on Arabic 

philosophy called '* Bohr-ul-ilantHL," or (ho 8e« of iione. 




Habib-uUah, Shaikh, *^^ V*^ ^i » celebrated 
poet of Agrah. 

Habib-uUah, Shall or Mir. *^' V*^-!^ »^, adc^con- 

dnnt of Shih Ni'iiijjt-iillfih Waif, unJ an ainir in tho 
Rf-rvico of Ih-' Bahmani Vinps of Uiv Dakhaii. Ho whs 
imprisoned, iund riflerward« put to drath in Juny, HOtI 
A. v., Sha'l.iii fiG4 A If., i.y Sultan Humuvijn Sliih H, 
Biihoiani, n tiTimt. whn at tlu- wimi' time ciist hi» LrutluT 
liRMtin Khan, who had rebelled againBt hini, bifore ii 
vpnciouB tiger, that soon tore the wret^hud princo to 

Habshl or Habashi, 

', II poL'l who having lost an 

oyo in a wufflp, wbs askod by Ibrahim ^i^ha, "Wh^rp 
ifl thino oth^T lyo f" iiiid miiking iins\r»r, *' It grow tjr<?d 
of Btoj>ping at hump in thu eockot. and flow out to see tho 
world ;" wna inijiri»*onod ten yenrs for hia wit in the tow^r 
of Hero and Lt-aJidtr, whoro hu daily gave vent to his 
fcolinga in such vtrsuti as the following : — 

I will groan, till every etono in tlua cold prison-tower 

flhall weep, 
I will cry. till earth and sky, and oath dark rolling hour 

fihall wec-p, 
I will make, that hearts shiiU break, and even the dewlrss 

flow<ir bhiiU w(-('jj, 
Yea, for me. the wronged JIabshi, both Musalmin and 

Gabr shall wuep ! 

Hadi, iS-i^, a khalif of BaghdAd, turff Al-llddi. 

Hadi, i^i^^, po<-tiuil namo of Stir Stuhiiinmnd Jaw&d 'Ali 

Khin, who di^d in the yt-ar ISOO A. D., 1215 A. II., and 
Itft a Diwuii in Urdu. 

Haflf Lf'^t whjt'h moans barefoot, is Iho somanie of Zain- 
uddin Miihuiiimad. an author, who led an auKlt're life, 
and who alwaye walking bHj-oluot, was thiia flumnmed. 

Hafiz-uddin Ahmad, Moulwi, '^*^' cJ^-^' ^^^ 
iSyy^i author of the *' Khii-nd Afn'-z," an Urdu tranfl- 

lation of th<^ '* Ayar Danish." or Tilpay's Fables, which 
he translatrd for the uwj of tho Collegf of Kort WiUiam 
in 1803 A. D., 1218 A. E. 

Hafiz-uddin Naaafi-bin-Ahmad, *^*^' w* l*"*^*^ 

^^^( Pr ifl. -k ^ author of lliL' Commcntarii'S called '* Ma- 
darik-ut-Xanztl" nnd *' Hitkatk-ut-Tiinawil." in Ambir. 
lit. di<^l in Ihti year 1^10 A. 1)., 710 A. U., rw/e Naaafi 
or Al-Nas)ifa. 

Haflz-tillah, Shaikh, * ■'» -^^ i^, a rt-hition of 

Siraj-uddin 'All Khan Arzii. Hiw poetiaO nam*' waa 
Ahhhi. He dttd in the 21«t vear of the einpi.-ror Jluhajii- 
mad Shih nf Dt-hli, 17G7 A. U^ 1181 A. 11. 

Safiz Abm, J-H* ■^'^, »umamcd Nur-iiddin-bin-Lutf- 
ullah, author of tho history call* d " Tinkh Ilafiz Abni." 
H(> wa8 bom in the city u"f Ilii-at. but j'at's^-d hie infancy 
in Ilamdun. wh^'P- he nipivtd his eduiatiun. He waft 
fortunate enifugh li» «eeure tho esteem of Amir Taiinur. 
who sought tvery oeeasion to do him Kt-rviee. After th'» 
death of lhnt tyrant, he atti-ndnl the (<iurt. of hi« wm 
Khahrukh Mir^i, and received from the young princo 
MirTa Baiwinphar iv<ry deniuiihtmtion of kindniHU luid 
regnxd. To him he iltilieated his worV« unrler the nume 
of "Zubdat-ut-Tawilrikh Baiwingliam," which eontaina a 
complete history of thu world, and an aeeount uf the 
inotitutionti and i-ili^Hons of different people down to 142& 
A. D., 8'iW A. il. He died live yeans ufturwards in tho 
city of Zanjdn, about the j'oar U30 A. D., By4 A. H. 

Haflz Adam, (•>*' ^^, a Muaalmin dovotoc and diseiple 
fjf Shaikh Ahmad Sarhindi, who iil>out the year 1673 
A. D.. in ( nninnction with the Sikh Gun'i T^'ch Bahidur, 
hanng collected his followers, levi^nl contributions with 
the greatest oppression fiom the inhabttJintA of his m-igh- 
bourhorid and pretended to mynlty. Ho was baniohed 
from the kingdom across thu Indus by order of the em- 
peror 'Alaragir. 

Haflz Halwai, ti'lT^-^^^jaconfectionerandpoetof nimt 

who flourished in tho reign of Shahrukh Mirzi, the son of 
Amir Taimi'ir jibout the year HaO A. D., 834 A. H. 

Ha&z, Khwaja, ^^ A^l^^ whoso proper name is 
ShamH'Uddiji Muhammad, Wfis the most eleiront lyric 
poc't of IV-rsia. He was bom at Shirax in the ri-ign of 
the Muzaffarians, and wa.** living at the time when Amir 
Taimur {Tamerlane) deffatcd Sliah Miuii»ur thu last 
Sultdn of that dynasty. The language of KnH* haa been 
styled among the MuKiUrajlns. " Liban-ul-iihaib," the lan- 
gua^f of mysterj'. From his fr*Kiuent celebration of love 
and winn in his odes he htu» not impropiTly b*en deno- 
minated, by wime Oricnljilistfl, the Anaereon of Persia. 
He died in 13S9 A. D., 971 A. II. at Shtrd/, where his 
tomb is yet to ho seen at a place called Muitalla, and 
is viftitod AS a 6acre<l spot by pilgrims of all agt-s. After 
liis death a rolbi-tion of 56'J of his odes made by 
Sayyad K&.tini Anwar, imtitli'd " Diwan IJafiz." A few 
of his puems may be understood in a literal sense; but 
in gemral they are Cgurutive, and alludi- to the Sufi 
do< trinew ; must of them Imve htnin at different times 
tninsLitt'd into fiomo of tho European languages. At the 
head of the Knglinh translators, sUind Sir W. June*. 
JJeFfirs. Kiehanlsan and Carlyle. Thuro nave bet>n two 
other r<THian poets of the namu of Haliz. one uf them 
Bumiitnt_-d H.ilwii, that is to say. the confectioner, who 
lived in the reign of Sultdn Shahnikh. the son of Tamer- 
lane, and the other was named Ajan Kiimi. Many zt-nl- 
ouB ftdmirera of Iljiliz insist, that by wine he invariably 
means dewticn : and they have gone so far as lo eonipose 
ft dictionary of words in the laHgHnyf. as they mil it, of 
the Sufis: in that vocabulary, sUrp ih cxplaimsi by mr- 
dittUion on the divine laTfeetions, and jH'fitme. by fiopr 
of the divine favor ; gala are illtipafii of grace ; kifWM and 
fMibraffa^ the raptures of piety ; idotatora^ inJiftrU, and 
fil/rrtinea^ are men of the purest religion, and their I'tM 
is the CrBattir himself; the iaverti is a retired oratory, 
find it8 jtrcjB/r, a 8!ige instnnlor; 6f««^y denotes tlie per- 
fect iou of tile Supreuie Ib^iHj; ; tre»Br$ are the expansion 
of his glory ; lips tho hidden mysteries of his ewencc ; 
HoWH on the cheek, the world of spirit*, who eneinle his 
thronv ; and a hhuk mofr, the |Kiint of indivisible unity ; 
laittly, ictnit(tnMia». mirth, and inrhririt/, mean religious 
ardour and abstraction from all terrestrial thoughts. 

Hafla Muhammad, author of the "Uawiaighir." 

Haflz Rahmat Khan, J^ "-^^-^^J ^^» a celebrated 

Rohilft chief. He joined his countrymen duriruf th*' 
administration of "Ali Sluhamnmd Khan, who ndvun<ed 
him to an important stzition, and I'llil^hi't and Itart'ily 
were i^iveii tu him and Muradiibid tu another thief named 
Piindi- Khiin. Having nttainod his ijflliri-, by militjiry 
ability and geniuR. he at length wholly §nperpi'ded the 
authority r>f Sit'd-nllnh Khan, the son of 'Ali Muhunmiiid 
Khan, and waa advanced to the fuitrenn adminij^tration of 
aflfairs. He faibd in his engapemenl to pay forty lacs of 
rupc** to Nawab Shuja-uddaula of Audh fur the prott.<-- 
tion of his country from the ravages of the Slarhattas, 
waa killed in a battle fou^cht by On? nawah by thr* ai^is- 
tanco of the English nil the 2ard April, 1774 A. ]».. iDth 
Biifar, lifts A. II. Hih Life is tntnalated by Mr. Elliott. 

Haflz Bakhna, *^J -^U.^ la tiu name of the person 
who planted a large garden at Sarhind in the reign 




of tho Emperor Akbar and culled it " BAgh Noulakh." 
Ho (liwi iu 1592 A. D.. 1000 A. II., and a. UauUfiil chro- 
Dogram waa wntUin on the occasioa. 

Hafk, U***-, rirf« Ab(S Haf8-al-BukhAri. 

Hafsa, *-fl^l^, a daughter of the Khalif Umar, and wife of 
Muhjunmnd, in whow handa Abu Hakr, the sncceeaor of 
Ihft iiKtphet, dopoaitod thi; oritrinal Ijlunn. She outlived 
her huabtind 33 yoan and died iu 666 A. D., iH A. H. 

Saibat Jang, *-^ ^^, title of Zaln-uddm Ahmad, 
tbi* yoanrmt »on uf li&,}i Ahnind. and nophcv and san- 
tn-Iaw of Alahwordf KUhn Midialmt Jung^, g'ovomor of 
B'^n^al- IU> wua thr fiithiT t>r Navib Sir&j-nddanln, 
who fiirrf«odcd Mahilbiit Jnn^ in tho govomzncnt of Ben- 
(ful in J7'/0 A. I). 

ITo is the author of the 
Mjilthiean-i-AfghAnt" con- 

ilAibat Khnn, o 


tAinitiK tlii> hiilury of Kbdn Juban Lodi and of tho Af- 
ffliiiiia. Khtiii Jiibiln wan n K^nitrul of grrat reputation 
iliiriiiH' tb(< migii nf tbn ipmiMTor Jahingir, but rebelling 
atfdliiNt Hhith Juh&fi, wtut kilM in an cngngi'incnt with 
l-U royni Ir^Mipa 1031 A. P,, 1087 A. H. Thci al»ovo 
work WM wrllt«fi in 167^ A. D. Theroia alao an ahridj^o- 
niirtit of (hU work, by thu aruitrt author, called "Majmoa* 

H«l(lttr» /H^« R title of 'All. the noa-in-law of Mohamxnad. 

ItsKUr, ^jii jd^ ^ i^jAi*., alao called Haidar 

K«Ui 'It IUI<Uf XtilklM, bacsuvr ho waa by profeasion 
« M«>r. Il'* »M •» mAhrn of llirit, and ia tho author of 
• inwiti in fATviMi aaul ocM In Crdd. 


iltidf J .'*^' "^ ^^ tUdtf (Hiah of the Dakhan, a 
gulUi.t •/.Mi'-f In th» ••frfco «f NawAb Sarfarii Kh4n 
> 'Mai, Urn put the Diwan of Wall of tho 
'..flMiuVM ud inUnparwHl that of Hifix 
til« vmt* IU ilird at IIAgli in the reign 
AKmal IWUfc, • year or two before or after 
'< » n. agnd 100 ywiTii. Gracin-de- 
:bfl aaltior of a Masnawf en- 
vion aad Mihyir." 

All ||«wlwl, ifJi^K^i^ J*^-^ ti^P^, 

f^ riKO^i M«l^ <^ 0>* -Vuntahf-uLKalim," and 
.;w ffi^W M* wM MviAg in Uehli 1864 A. D., 

k.^ MU> lUidar Uf rO. 

*^bf wIm ia alao called llix HaitUr 

^Ui, WW tht^ mu of Mithninm(ul 

,. v««UHia«ni<<rf B«bitrHhuh. ]Ii*wa« 

^^A^-.r,/ ^ />«r «^r>>>. '^ UJmfJti Mini brother of the 

. . a ,.-. J ,■*«. >M t^iftir 'tUiJfndtnl wiUi hi* rouduct 

4«/r4*«4 • Hf Uao A. D., 1)46 

* <#.^ -•^*.- n, hn wju uftorwarda 

A ]|,, b'l wtu dopu. 

.(, wbirh hn Uxilt in 

■ 'ih dftitf t>>lil)lli)d 

■ ' rii" (bo kui^ of 

■ i' ■•■■'^v \. II., h... 
: I in cun- 
11 I Or<«t 

■ .. . . > ,1. I. hi^bt* 

r^^bA ^PM '^MRI. l» i^£l A. I)., UHA, II. 

/ r 



/i. -*. 


-n r,f 

•I Hu* 
•r Ibn 

emperor Muhnmmad Shah, on the 18th Soptembcr, 
O- S., 27th Jpi-Ka'ila 1 132 A. B., and waa himaelf 


Haidar Malik, «-*^ j^^, entitled niife-ul-Mulk 

ChughtiC author of tho moift uuthunti.' history of Kaah- 
mir, doMm to his own limt'. Ilo *•«« a nobleman in 
the serrico of the empcrnr Jiihangir, and was living about 
the yoar 1B1« A. D.. 1028 A. tl., in which year he ac- 
companied that emperor to Kiwhniir. 

Haidar Muammai, Mir, i^'***>H^^**, nznuuiMd 

Hafi««-i Kaahi. a punster who flourished in tho time of Shfli 
Ismafl II, king of Pt-rsia, and wrott- a ( hronoKTam at hit 
death, which took place in 1577 A. D., 985 A. H. Il,» 
WM diatinguiahwl by hta akfll in making clittraoirrajBu 
and etugmaa. He «imo to India in the time of Atbar, 
and was drowned when returning by aea to Fenia. He 
was in charge of copiee of Faizi'a worka for diatribution 
m FcrsiA, and they wen* tOao lost. VitU Mfr Haidar. 

Haidar Hazi, ijj^j ^j^^ a Peman historian who 

in the 1 7th century of the Chriatian Era. 

Haidar, Sheikh or Sultan, j-^^ o^ &ther 

sidTr 1.H?-. M*-'*.;^^' t*'^ «'"ofthecoIebnUed Rhaikh 
Bodar-uddm IHusa. the eon of Slmikh Safi or Safi-addio 
Anhbeli. who waa the 2m in a diroc-t lin« from Ma« 
■"1 v^'.JfJ*?^ ^"'^- H*^ *«> killed in a battl. 
agamat Ya kub Beg the «on of Uxaan Hnaan. «t Shinria 
in the month of July, U88 A. D., Sha'ban, 893 A. H, 
Hairan« lyLrl*-, poetical name of Mir Haidar 'AU. HewM 

kiUod in aiUah Bihar, but had tho aaaaasin out to 
hefottj ho expired. r - •« 

Hairani, Moulana, 4^'*^* ^y^ U|j^^ ^ ^amdia. 

Ho ia the author of sevornl Maanawie or poema. ri£ " Bah. 
^:7T^}^'^"- ^"l*"^ b,=twcen Heaven and Earth, 
entitled " Manazira Ara-wa-Sami ;" Diapute betwr^S 
Candle and the Motb, called " Maniara Shamn'-^fS 
wana ; and DiapuU^ between the Koa-ting Spit and tha 
ll^hT^., 90l a'h" «^— «-«»^-" Ho di<a in 

Hairat, ^j^'- cri^l ^y, poeUcal name of Kayim-nddi^ 
the author of the biograj.hy caUod "Tii^kira ilakiUt. 
uah-Shuara, which he completed in 1760 A. D uu 

A. II. •» *'•• 

Hairat, c^i*-, poetical tiUe of Pandit AjuddhU Parthad, 
a niitivo uf KaMhmir. who resided at Lakhnau He ia Ow 
author uf a BniiOl Diwnn and n few Masnawu n« iiUa 
1234 A. H., in tho 36th year of hia age. ^ 

Hairati, »^lr^, a poet of Marv. In Kwanl of a (a^da 
whirh he composed in praise of Shah Tfthmiap I Smtwi 
he obtainiil the title of Mulik-uah-ShuH-ri or *lria^ 
poeU Be«dea Uie work cuJl«I *' Hahjat-ul-Mu^i " 
b(MH the author of a Maanaw,' to which he gnv,. thu latli. 
of Gulzir. All hia veraea amount to alwut 40 OOOl U 
waa murdered at Kaahin 1654 A. D., 962 A. H.*^^ 

Hairati, ^^dr**-, waa the great«t poet of hia tinia. He 

had studied at Isfahin, and waa olive when T«K ^ex^J - 
WToU^ hia Taikim, 158A A. D. ThouiT he r««^S" 
liberal allowance from tho Persian govcmmnot. owinTt^ 
hm <>xln*v«gHnce. it wa* quiU* inaufficienl for hia mu*SJl 
and in 1581 A. I).. 981) A H., be came to ladiTlSi 
utlj-nctrtl by the prodigaUty of the Kntb-Shihi ku^TS 
Ijutkunda. »*«§■ n 




Hajar, J^^} * 'or^' gr^^t man nraong the followers of 'Ali, 
and remflrkabln for his singular abstinoace, piety and 
Btrictneas of life, Ub eonntant purificnUonu according to 
Muiuunmadaii law, and i^xaclness in ubscrving the hours 
of devotion. Ho wna put to duath in 606 A. D., by order 
of Mu'&wirt I for BpiMiking reproachfully of him^ affront- 
ing hi* brother ^ayad guvtmor of Kufa, and nffirming 
that the govermnt'nt did not, of right, belong to any but 
the family of "A-U. 

Hajari, nv/^Hijri. 

Haji Begam, (^^ tJ^^j ^ifo of the emporor Humi^'un. 
n<U llaini'da lidno Begam. 

Haji Khalfa, *^^ Wf^^t a p»-*lebrat«d author com- 
monly callod MuBtaufi Haji Khalfa. He is the atithor 
of tho work called "Fazlakn." hlao of the Biographiral 
Dictionary* rallr-d " Kaahf-uz-Zunun," and the work called 
*'Takwim-ut-Tawttn'kh Kuml." Thp kttor ia a Chro- 
nological Table of rcmarkablo events from th'i Creation 
of tho world to 1648 A. D.. 1058 A. H., tmimLitcd from 
the Turbirih, during the reiprn of Sultan Miihnmniad IV 
of Consttintinoplo. Thw " Kuflhf-uz-Ziinun" waa print+rd 
for the Oriental Tranalsition Fund in 183u-60, tof^aln-r 
with a Latin translation by Professor Flucgcl. U A]y~ 
pears that Haji Kholfu formerly bore the title of " Kfitib 
Chilpi," (which flte,) and if Uiia is correct, hrt died in lti57 
A. Dm 10U7 A. O. 

In Chamber's Encyclopa'diu tho month and year of his 
death ia Scptoral>or, 1658 A. U-. and thiit he it also aaid to 
be the author of the Tarikh Kabir "the Great History," 
which ia & history of the world from tho creation of Adam 
to 1655 A. D-t containing? notircflof lAU dynasties, princi- 
pally Asiatic ; alwo a historj- of the Ottoman tjinpiro from 
16&1 to 1658 A. D., and a hiatorj* <jf the niiiritime whtb of 
thti Turka^ which hns bctn Innslated into English. 

Haji Muliammad Beg Khan, u^ ^^ '^♦^^ ts^K 

tho father of the celebmtivl Mirzft Abu Tilib Khan, 
' author of the " Ma^ir Talibi." He was by dcHcent a 
Turk, but born at 'Abbaaabad in Isfahan. Whilst a 
young man, dreading tho l>TumiTr of Nadir vShiih, he fltd 
from Persia, and on hi.^ arrival m India, -was ;idinittt.'d 
into the friendship of the Nawab AbtVI Manwur Khun 
bafdar Jang. Upon the dt'ath of Raja Xawul liic, Ik'puty 
Governor cf Audh in 1750 A. D., 1163 A. U., Muham- 
mad Kuli Khin, the nrphow of tho Nawab. wa^ appoiuted 
to that important uflieu, and ho ((I'lji) waa nominat^,d 
ono of his aaait^Umta. On the death u( Safdar Jang in 
1753 A, D., 11G7 A. II., his «on Shuja-uddaula bocama 
j^oufl of hia cousin Ktuhaiuinad Kuli Klian, arreRted 
him and put him to diulh. Haji tlfd with a few of his 
faithful 8er\-ants to Bengal, where hu passed a number 
nf yeara^ and difd at Murshidabad in April, 1769 A. D., 
Xa^biija, 1182 A. H. . , ^ , 

Haji Muliammad Jan, yr'V** cj^ »^**^ t^^, 
of Alashhad. liis poetical name is Kudfii. He tlourishtd 
In tho reign of th« finporor 8hah Jahin, who couferri-Hj 
uo hira Ihu title of " M;ilik-uHh-Shua*rm" or the Royal 
poet- Ht! iH the author of a poem containing the con- 
queffta of tlio euipe-ror, which ho named "Zafarnima," 
He died in the year 16-15 A. D^ 1055 A. H.» and after 
him the title of tho royal p-jot waa cunferrL-d on Abu 
TAlib Kalim. He is abto the author of a DiwSji, and an 

Haji Biuhammad Kandahari, isj^'^ '^^^ ^^• 
He 18 tho author of a history wKieh gooa by hia nanjo, 
CIS., "Tartkh Uajf Muhammad KandahAri/* 

Haji Muhammad KasLmiri MouJana, ufi^t:*^ 

j.^-^^ Lf^'*' ^Xf^' ^^^^ ^^ ^** forcfathura who waa a 

native of Hamdan, came to Kaflhrnir with Mfr Said 'Ali 
UamdAni. Haji waa bum in that province, but came to 


DeWi in hia youth where he received his education. He 
was an excellent ])oet, tiouriBhwi in tho lime of Akb&r, and 
di,xl on Thursday the 22nd of September, 1597 A. D., 
19tliSafar. 1006 A. H., O. S. He wa« a religious man, 
and had many diwiiples, one of whum. namod Jloolani 
Hasan, wrote the ehronogmm of hia death. 

Haji Muhammad Khan Sietani, i/^^^-i^ J^ 
'^*^^ i^^. Ho waa at first in the service of Bairan^ 
Khan, KhAiikhinan, after whoso di«miHsid he waa ho- 
nored with the rank of SUOO by tho emperor AkW. He 
accompanied Munaim Khan, Khinkhinan to Bengal and 
died at Oour in 1575 A. D., 983 A. H. 

HQJjaj-bin-Yusaf-aUSakafi or Thakafl, y^a^l 

'-*^-^ C^ S^^' ^^'^ "'^ *^° ^^^^ valijint Arabian cap- 
tains, who was niadn governor of Arabia and Arabian 
Iriik by Abdulmalik the fifth Khali'f of the Ommaidos, after 
he hjid defejit*^'d and killed Abdullili.bin*Zubeir, who had 
Uiken the title of Khalifa at Mecc/i. lu the vear (jya 
A. p., 74 A. H.. ho pulled down tho temple of Meecu, 
which Abdullah had rt^paired, placing the bUek st^me 
on tho outaido of it again and restoring it to tho very 
form it had before MiUminmad'a time. Ho wa« a great 
tj-rant ; it ia said of him, that in hie lifetime, he had put 
to death a hundred and twonty thouHJUid persojia, and 
when he died had 50,000 in hih prisons. He die«i in tho 
reign of the Khnlif Walid I, in the year 7M A. D., 95 
A. H,, aged 54 years. 

Hakikat, *^**i*^, poetical title of Saiyod Huaain Shih, 
8on of Saiyad Arab Shah. He oocompanicd Col. Kvdd 
to ChinApatan in I^Iadras as head Munahi and died thi-p;. 
He ia the author of an Urdu Diwari and Heven other 
works, some of which are named "Tahfiit-ul-'Ajani." " Kha/.i- 
nat-ul-Amsal,'*" Sanamkadik Chin" and''Uatfht Gulguaht," 
i'lilg Hu&ain Shah. 

Hakim I, f* V* i the poetical titlo of a person who was a 

native of Ma.*ihhad, and wiu living about the year 168S 
A. U., IIOO A. H. He waa an Arabia; and I'ers'ian Boho- 
lar, imd is the author of u Diwou and a AEnMnawi. 

Hakim II, (•i^, the pocticAl namoof Shah Abdul Hakirn 
of Lahor. He is tho author of n work railed " Marduni 
Didtt,** comiiiled at Aunuigabad in 1761 A. D., 1175 
A. U. It contains an account of thove poijta with whom 
tho author was acquainted. 

Hakim-Ain-ul-Mulk, *-^^^ eJ^ j**^, of Shiri/. 
Ho waa a learned man and a clever writer. He traced 
hi« origin, on hiu nvother's side, to the ri--nowued logician 
Muhakkik-i-Dawani Tho lliiituriuu Badauni was a 
friend of his. Akbar also liked him very much. Hakim 
was a poet and wrote nnder the Lakhalus of Dawuni. 
He died at Handiah on the 27th 5Jil-tiijja 1003 A. H. 
riV& Aia, I. 481. 

Hakim AU, i^ V t^^ ^»i^, of Oilin, oamo to India in 
indigent circumatanofs, but was forttuuto onotigh to be- 
come in course of ttnii- a personal attendant and fnend 
of Aklmr, In the Z'Jth year of Akbor's reign, lie construe- 
tod the wonderful reservoir which is so ot"U.'u mentioni.-d 
by Mughal Historians. In tho 40th ^eitr Ali waa a com* 
mandor of 700 and Imd tho title of Julinus V/xaniuni the 
*Oaliniis of the Ago.' Bv JahiLngir he was madu a com- 
mander of 2000. He died on the 5th Mubamuo, 1018 
A- H. Vide Ain, I. 466. 

Hakim Muhammad, (n^ *>^^*. h. was half-bro- 
ther to the emptiror Akbar, Ijeing bom of a diflcnmt 
mother. Vide Muhammad Haki'm. 

Hakim Nur-uddin Shirazi, ksjIt^ lH*^^ jy ^^, 
who appears to have bt."«n either graadaoa or stHtcr'a son of 



Atn FmI, WMria in hij prefncc Iq the " Eaj^t Dara Shi- 
fctidL"* thjti kd oommr-Dci^l hU work in the 14th y^^nr 
cT tk* nigo of Shib .Tnhin l«i2 A. D^ 10j;2 A. H^ tho 
aifaw* OBBW «f the book givt<s the }H«r of Ihv Hijra, and 
^■tF1g^t it to a c-onclmdfm in 1056 A. U. 

Ty* y w>H»1-^ tT"^«^''V , *^^' (*i^, title of Mir Mu- 
**"*^ MaUi. a physician who held the rank of 4000 
in tht rcigB 9t the anpcror ' Ahungir. 

HaJdriy 4J£r^> poetical name of Mouluni Shahib-uddin 

if^l^lri ^^^^ uf^j of Ilamdan, a Feniun poet, though 

flKiHite* vTote a panog^tio on Iho occesaion of Shah Tf!- 
tm'B Bafvi 11. t^* the throne of P«nnti, iu the year 1676 
X D^ tM A. II., for whidh h*- roctiviid a handsom© pro- 
•^ §nm A* fcisff, whil" oth^r poota who wrote on the 
mmt ai^Mj C rtii* , ptMiml nolhinfr* 

tUiUkQ KMmn « Sban, b*^^ J^^i also tiOlod El- 

«^ 1^ MB erf T4U Khin, and tho fourth succcssbr 

M^aB «f ObMBcs Khin tht* Tartar. In tho reign 

<if iJ> 1a«A« Mtittipi Khiat, king of IVrtAir. be wiu dtv 

mML fa V^t 1S0 A. D^ BjibT t 651 A. U., attended 

W «M» iMlrfn* Hid flA^ Ibovmnd horM to sabdue Pf*r- 

4& #MA ht i»M eeanHsvd, titer which he extirpated 

nf tte bBM'ili^ the deacendantt of Ha^an 

rlMMiv of the aict, and de«tnA-<^ their atrong- 

f» Ti ibTii UM A. D. Zn.)p^da, 654 A. H. 

fg/f aaiA I^BdaA w wch din-ct to Constantinople, hut 

^mpmmSfd^ Vailr-«JJfo T^ (whom be had made 

Irfp frilBi ^riAv) to ten hii arms againrt Baghdid. 

1^ wAatf ^gf*"*** Am! capital, and aftn- a ariege of some 

«Ma*^ took it ia Fehraar^, 1268 A. D^ 4th Saftr, 656 

jiu ft. IW KbdUft Hnata&'nm BilUh and his 9on were 

•ftd with 600,000 of its inhabitants wi^re pnt to 

Aftir tlMMt moofi«ea Halik6 was desirooa of 

_ to Tartaar to take possession of the government 

W hb aalive ooontrT*, which had become Tacsnt hj the 

4flA of fait bffotber. Uan|rfi Ki&n : but tho groat defeat 

which the gonenl whom he bad left in Syria suffered 

|»o«l Saif-oddin Fir6x, th« prince of the ftlAmluka of 

JBnpC, compel M him to abandon his design : and after 

haaad restore<I ^ n E^yria, ha fixed his rcsidoucc 

at Hartgha, in where he died oo Sunday the 

•ft Fahnar^' 12t>0 .v i*.. l^nh Rabf II. 663 A. U.. after 

a nipi of tw(<1rr yrJin from his flnt coming to Pf^rsiit, 

iaiitdht rears from the death of his brother. During 

Mi flMffaaont rvSgilf the lit«ratare of Persia resumed its 

#MBW ftnirMliry stal**. The vimerable Persian Bard 

^^M «f AMs wms li\-ing in hiti time Hnlaku was tUG- 

hf hit aon Abakaan in tho kingdom of Pbtsia. 

iJ^ tf MmfUl. Tartar or fiJelnSpi dyntuly of 

m torn of Tdlf Khia, succeeded his brother 
HiM* KA4» to «W UmIuu of Penia. 
V*ottr w Ahna4 KkCA. bR^har of AbOi. 
i^lto £^ aw «f AMkl. 
KdEk ia2i. an «r AUU. 
XtafA^ fM«a» «f HallM. 

AIMIA. 0w «■ of jm£K^ 
AM flatf JBahadw KMt. tta am of Aljaptd. after whoae 
Um 4y«M«ty^ tsMw 4*p«ttdi!Ut. 

4/LKfc, puHaul Ittia «tf KtofaB S^ who waa born 

<ai Ignigkl w* to TahaiA^ and apeia tha freater nart of 

u«sitfral«j»wto. U-ievrfsMdfn (he nim of 8bfch 

''ii^Wwi a»4 »' - '--m o» the aceaa- 

'/CMhlMiiil^ *iMA.H. Bait 

Halima, **r^, tho name of Muhammad's nnine, who, it 
is sHid. hud formerly no milk in her breasts, but immedi- 
ately obtiiitied ttome when she presented them to the rum 
bom prophet to suck. 

Hallaj, 2 • "^^ word, which properly eignlBw ths 
person that prcpiires rotton brforo it is raunnfnetured, wi» 
the sumiiiue of Abu UughCs HuMain-bin-Monslir. Pt^ 
Mansur Unllnj, 

Hamd-ullah Hiistotiii-bin-Abu Sakr-aJ-Kaswi- 

ni, Khwaja, t/ij^'^ >l c^i^j*— « ^^ *•*- 
*^!^, also called Hiunid-uddin Mn8t<iiifi, u natirr of 
Kazwfn. and anthor of tho " Tarflch Ouzida." or " Sulw-* 
ted History," which he composed in 1329 A. D., THO 
A. H., and dodicatod to the minister Ghayas-uddin. the 
son of Roshid-uddin. author of the " Jima'-'ut-Tu virlkh,** 
to both of whtmi Hiuud-uUoh had been SccrcLorj*. 'flu. 
*' T&rikh Ounda" ranks among the host genonj hiatotiM ci 
the East. Eleven years after the compbtion of thia lu»> 
tor>', the author composed his celebrated work on Ow- 
gmphy and Katunil History, entitlod " Nuidmt-ul-l^ulub,'' 
*' The delight of henrts," which is in high repute with 
Oriontal Scholars, and which has obtained ibr him bom 
D'Herbelot, the title of *' le Oeogmphe Penan.*' Bamd- 
ullah died 1349 A. D^ 7oO A. H. He was the brother of 
Fiikhr-uddiu Fath-ulliili Mualuuii. Seo alao Ahmad-fcsa- 
Abii Dftkr. 

Hamid, ' > S'* , a poet, who is the author of a p6em ^U 
** IraoAt Kima," containing the loves of Satin and Miza. 
composed in the year 1607 A. D., 1016 A. H., domg 
the reign of Jahingir. 

Hamida £ano, y^ ^-H*^, the daughter of JVUlika 
tho siMer of Mumttiz Mahnl, was married to 
uHAh Khiin, who dic^ in 1662 A. 1>. 

Hamida Bano Bogam, (^y^^S'H**-, «lyb?a (aft*r 
her di:>ath) Uariam Mokini and commonly called tUfi 
}t>-pum, was a great-granddaughtur of !Jhei)ch A^iT-iiy 
Jim. She was niarried in 1541 A. I)., 948 A. II., to 
the emperor Homaytinf and became the mother of ihf 
umpcror ALbar. 8hu is the founder of tho Sunie caUol 
Arab Sard, situated niiir the nuiusnh iim of her hnslwid 
at old I>ehli. She had gone on a pilgrimage to M«<tn, 
and on her return, brought with her SCO Aiala^ for vhso 
she built this place in 1560 A. D.« 968 A. H. Rhe dM 
at AgTuh on Monday, tho 29th of August, 1603 A. I>« 
17th Shahrfwar, 1U12 A. U., aged sbuut 78 ye«r^ oal 
was buried in the mausoleum of Humayiin nt Dehli. 

Hamid-uddin Ka«i, lsj^^ ^^joJij**^ ^^^^ ,j 

D.-hli, was the author of the ''Sharah HidMt-ul-Fikai.** 
• and scTcrul other works. Uo died in 1363 A. li.. 764 
A. H. 

Hamid-uddin Mustotifl. Khwaja, i/j*-^ t^ 

^y^^a. ^1*:^, ''!>/<■ Hrimd*uljiih Murtonfi. 

Hamid-uddin Nagori, Kasi, c^i^^L.^^ ^H**'^^^, 

a nntive of Nigor who held the appointment of 
and died on the 11th July, I2tl6 A. D., 11th Ramaaibu^ 
A. H., and if> huiied at DehU close to the tomb of Khw^ 
Kutb-nddin Itakhtidr, commonly r/dli-d Kutb SbAh. 
is the iiuthur of tho book cftlled " Tawila-oah-l 
containing religions contomplntioos and 
opinions on the essence and nature of ths diviniW 
&c. The year of hie death is taken from an inacti" 
uver his tomb. 

Hamid-uddin TTmar, Kezi, ^* c*^' 

tluurialu'd in the time of Sultan tionjiur, tho Saljiiki kjiy 




nf P( rsiJi, waa a crmli-mporan* of the pwt AnwaH, and ia 
tho Author of a Commentarj' on the Kar&n called "Mu- 

Hamid Ali, Mirza, <^^ '^^ ^jj^, w mi>ro properly 
Princo Mir£a Hamid "Ali, snn of Wfijid 'Alf ShAh, the last 
k'ln^ of Lakhiiim. Ho iiorompanicd Iuh (j^randmothcr tho 
T)owngfr Qiifton of Litlthoau to Euglimd to cLiim his 
right, in 1856. I'itie Juwiid Ali. 

Hamid, t**^^, or Abdul Hamid Yahia, a celebrated calli- 
gmpher, who rfrorm<Kl tho Arabian churaetcrs In tho 
rtijfn of thu Kfaalif Miiiwia II, cf the hoiise of Umaiynu 
Ho died in 7 W A. D., 132 A. H. 

Hhmid-uddin AU-al-Bukhari, isM-^ lj^ <i'i*^' 

', uuthor of a uliort Commt'ntarj' on the Hidivftf on- 
titlod tho " FawAod." Ho died in 1368 A. D., 607 A. H. 

Hamid Kirmani, ij^^J^ '^^^t poetical name of Sheikh 
Auhful'uddm Kurmini. 

Hamid-uilah K^an, tw'*- *^l «>^*a, author of tho 
Ahi.du-ul-K.hnwaiun, also eallt-d " Tirikh-i-IIaniid." which 
containa a lustor>' of Ch&t.gawn (Chittagung). Printod at 

Calcutta in 1871. 

Hammad, *5^**, tht- Ron of Abii Hanifii, who wa» a Uam- 
cd man, and died m thu yuur 792 A. D., 170 A. H. 

Hamza, Amir, '>«^^r**') the son of Abiiul Jtuttalib, and 
unclf of lluhummnd, irho [^ave him thu title of ABad-uliah, 
or the liou of Uod, becaiir«^ of his coiimgf and viilour, 
lUid pot into hia hands the t^rst stamlanl ha onk'red to bu 
made, which wag calli"! *' liaet-ui-Ihlam,*' th« Ht;uidHTd 
uf the faith. Humin. who wiu* also talbd Abu 'Unrnr, 
was killed in ihc bnttlt^ of Ohad which JIuhammad fought 
with the K urcfthilesi. uf \*biim Abii Siilian waa the chief! 
Aiter the bnttlr, Himlti, Ihn wift> of Abvi Sufinn, pulled out 
Hamra'a liver out of his body and chewt-d and swallowwl 
aOmu of it. Thitt battl<f t^jok place in the month of March, 
G25 A. D., Shawab li A. H. 

Hamsa Bano Bcgam, ^.^y^ *>^, daughter of Shih 
.lithfin by Kandahnri Btgam. daughter of Muxaffar Husain 
Mirza uf the rtjyul rare of t?hih laina'il tsufwi. She wae 
bom in the year UH*j A. H. 

Hamsa Mirsa, (;>* *y*^} the eldest son of SultAn Mu- 
h;uiimrni Khudu Hanriii, imd tho grandson of Shah 
rahmisp 1 of tho Safwi family of PtrHia. His fathur^ 
on aecount of a natural weakness in hi« eyes, which reu- 
Aiired him almost blind, had at first cntniflle<l tlio charge 
of the foipin) to his wasir, Mirza SuliiimAn ; when that 
nobleraftn waa Blain, he created his own son » Hnmui 
MirzA, regent of the empire. This prince, by his valour, 
f'xtrieated his wiaik fathiT from oil the diflicultie.i with 
which ho wfta aurround»Hi. But ihia gleam of good for- 
tune Boon vuniflhed. This gallant prince was stabbod by 
a borbari, in his own private nparlnienta on tho ^4th uf 
November, 158G A. D., 22nd ^il-hijja 901 A. H. 

Hanbal, Imam, *^^ ^^^ or Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, tho 
mn of 3hiIiamjnad-ibn-Hnnb:il, wag the fourth Im&m or 
founder of one of thu four orthodox secta of the Sunnia 
cftlled Hanl>a]ite8. This ftoct made a grejit noiaf^ in Bagh- 
dad in the reign of the Khjilif Al-Muktadir in 929 A. D., 
317 A. H., MerouzL chief of the wtt, had naaerted that 
llod had placed MtibftTrimad on hid throne, which aawr- 
tion ho founded iii>on the paesage of tho Kurin: "Thv 
Lord shall soon give thee a considemble place or station. 
All the other eecta of the Miwalniana regard tho explica- 
tion, nf the Hanbalites aa » shocking inipi*?ly» Thoy 
mjiintain that thin * ton$iderahU pUte4 or $ia(ion,* was 
the po<)t or quality of a mediator, which they afiiim to 

belong to their prophet. TTiia dispute paisod from tho 
schoolfl to the public aaaemblios. At length they came 
from worda to blows which cort tho lives of 'fiev.ral 
thoiiKands. In the jrear 935 A, U., S23 A. H., the 
Hanl«ilitc8 W-eamo so insolent, that they marched in amw 
on tho city of Baghdtd. and pliuadered the shops on 
pretenee that wino was drunk in them. Ahmad wae a 
tmditioni)ft of the first clasB. and composed a collation 
of authetiticated traditions called '* Slasnad" more oopiooa 
than those any other person had till thi-n been able to 
form: it is said that he knr-w by-heart ono million of 
those tradition*. He was born in the year 780 A. D. 
16-1 A. H., and dit-d on the Slst July, fi&5 A- D., 12th 
lirtbf T, 241 A. H., in the leigii of tho Khalif Al-Mutwak- 
kil, and was buried at Bnghdid. It was ertlmati'd that 
the mimber of men preeeiil at his funeral was 8*K1,000, 
and wnmrn G0,<KH1; and it in said that 20.000 Chriatian^ 
Jews and Magiana become Moaleina on the dar of his death. 
In the year 835 A, D,, XtHma?ain, 220 A. H., some time 
in the month of ScptemlM-r, he wiw required by the Khalif 
Al-BIotasim Billyh to lieclnjc that tho Kurin was created, 
but would not, and althrjuRh beaten and imprisoned, jjcriia- 
ted in hi-H refusal. The eternity of the Kurdn, cunsiderod 
as the word of God, is the orthodox SlosJem doctrine. 

Handal Miraa, Q^ Jt^iA^ ^^^ ^^f ^^ omperor BAhar 
Phith, and brother uf Humfijiln. was bom in the year 
1528 A. D.. U3-J A H. He lost hin life in a night attack 
made by his brothiT Kamran filina on the emperor 
Humiyun near Khaihar in the provmco of Kabul, on tha 
19th of November, lool A. n., 2lflt JJi-Ka'da, 958 A. H. 
H<» in buried at Kabul close to the tomb of the emperor 
Babar Shah, numayun^ out of aflection to the memor\- 
of Handal ]k[irza, in tho aamo year, gave the danghler of 
that prince, Itazia Sul^ina, to his son AktNir in marriage. 

Hani, ^y^T siimame of Muhammad -bin -'Ali, a poet who 
died in the year 1333 A. D., 733 A. H. 

Hanifa Xmam, **i"»' ^^\ also colled Abu Hanffa and 
Imam 'Azim, was one of the four Jurisconsults of M»tea ; 
f-Fr., Imilm Hanifa. Iniim HanbiiL lm£m Shifa'i luid 
Imiim Jlalik, from whuTii ar4di'rived tho various Codes of 
Muhnmmadan JuriHj'nid*-ne«\ He was one of the most 
celtilrHtA>d doctors of the MufUilmtlns, and chief of thu 
Beet of Hanifitis ; and though his sect i.* the principal of 
the four which they now tndifferrntly follow, ho waa ill- 
umed during bis lifetime, rirnl di^d in tho prison (it Bagh- 
difl 7H7 A. I)., 150 A. H. Uis principftl works apf», the 
** Musnad," t. r., tho foundation or support, wherein ho 
cfitnbli&hed all Iho |>oints of tho MuaohnAn faith : a 
Trtatiao entitled *' Filkalam," or Stholaatic Divinitv ; 
and a Catechism called '* Mua'llim-ul-Ialam" i". r, the 

Hie principal work ia entitled the " Fi^th-ul-Akbar." 
it trutitB uf tho Ilm-ul-Kalim, and has bwn commented 
upon by various writers, many of whom are mentioned by 
Hftji Khulfo. Vi^ Abii Uonifn. Some say that tha 
Musnad was written by Imim Hanbal. By the Shias 
he is as much deteated and censured, as by their antago* 
niattt he is udinirL-d and exalted. For allowing: his diact- 
pli'ft to drink wdWr, which is a wine made of datea, he in 
accused by tho Persians of departing from the tluar 
injunction uf thu Prophet against all intoxicating bcver- 

Hariadar ITarain Bhup, Maharaja, y>t^ kH^^ 
J*ir* *^b^^, tho raja of Kuch Debar, who diM at Bo- 
D^Lres on the 30th May, 1839, aged 70 yvHm. He was of 
tht; Bajltansi easto, and a folluwrer of Kiva, but his stylo 
of living «*as very unlike that of a Hindu. He used to 
marry without any regard to casto, and entered into tho 
connubial ndntinn with any woman he took a fancy to. 
Ho did not even spare married women. Tho number of 
hi« wives or rania was no leas than 1200 1 




H&ri Rao Holk&r, j^^ ^^) ijj^i liji of Indor, ma 
Uw cDwn and soocaMor of Uklhir B&o HI, the adopted 
am. ud iBLCiMui of Jwwuit R&o Holkar. He died on 
tlie Mth of October, 1843 A. D. 

Hariria iSJ^J^* vhoce full name u Al)fi Muhammad 

•*AU-biD-'U«inan-al-HaHri-aUDasrf, was a na- 
ttT« of Bana. He was one of Uio abloat Triton of hiii 
tne, sad u the author of the ** Muk&init Hariri," a work 
_ of 50 Oratorioftl, Poetical, Moral, Ecomiaatic, 
Hrtmral disooDnea, nippoaed to have been spoken or 
- -- _ pabtic Maemblioa ; but which were oomposed bv 
tbe'aaidior at ^w d«axre of An6flherwan-ibn-Khalid, waztr 
to Saltan Muhammad SaljAJ^. Ue died at Basra in tho 
year 1122 A. U., olO A. H. i'oets, historiuna, gitunmari- 
ana and loxicograpbois look upon tho Mulp&mat as tho 
hlghMt aathority, and next to tho l^ar^. aa far at least ok 
laaguage ii concemod. Hiit book hoa been translated 
fthher imtirt'ly or partially into nearly every Eastum and 
European tunjifuo. 

Harkaran, \:i/j^j the son of Matbura BiB, a Kainb6h of 

Multkn, was a Munshi in the ser^ioo of Nawib Ya'tbfir 
Khin. and is the author of a collection of letters called 
*' Iniduiu Unrkaran," or the Forms of Harknran, truns- 
InU'd into English by Dr. Fruiiciit Dalfuur, M. D. 'llio 
•tM.'ood editioD of tliis work was printed in England in 

Harun-al-Raahid, "^^^f tyjj^. J'lW*' Al-Rashid. 

Hasaa, ^*^r** c;^ cr*^j ion of Suludl or S«hl, was gover- 
nur of CtuUdcn about the year 830 A- t)., nndf-r tho Khnlif 
Al-Miuidn, who mHrried Turan Dtikht hi.i daughtAjr. 
Some attribute to this Uasan the tmuHlation of the Por- 
sian book entitled '* Jawodin Khirad" into Arabic. 

Hasan* *si^^t poetical name of Mohammad Hasan who 
flouriBbvd iu the reign of the emperor Shah 'Alam of 

Haaan Abdal, J'**^ e;-**-! or Baba Uasan Abdil, 
a fAm>}Ui> saint who was i^ Sayyad at Babzwar in Khurisin. 
He cuniu to India with Mirai SholiruVh, son of Ansor 
Taimiir, and died at ^andahir whore his tomb is nworted 
to by pilgriraa. Jah&ngir says in the Tuzak that the 
place IIur»tAdak ts 7fi kM from Kaahmtr. 

HtMD 'All, 1/*^ C**-^! the poet laureate in tho •orvice 
of Tfpu Suit in of Mysore. He is the author of a book 
oall'd " Bhogbal," or the " Kok BhAstar.*' It is a curi- 
ons but obscene satire on women^ said to ho a tninslation 
«t paraphnu« fntm tho Sanskrit in Hindi verse. There 
la anothnr transbitiuu of tbo same book in Persian prose 
CttUsd " liuuat an-Niso," by Ziyii-uddm Nukhshabi. 

HuttD Aakarl, Imam, iSJ^ t^"^* ^^ ^^^'^ II»>" 

'AU'ftU'Aiikiiri, wru thn fl"Vimth ImAm of the race of 'AU, 
Hti'l ttiH nldaiit son of Imdm 'Alt NaVi who vrtis the tenth. 
lit. wits \mn at MmKtm in tho year K-tG A. 1>.. 232 A. 11., 
find dltid on Iha nth NovtuNtr ^7^ A. I).. 22ud Muhor- 
nim, 'ill A. II.. ng(.>d 38 yeurs. Lie is liurifd at Sar- 
itinurAf' In haglidid rjuwi to the tomb of his fathvr. 

Uaaan Baaii, Kbwija, 4/,/^ ur^ *^'^f a native 

of Hasr ) ' ' " - - ux Muialmin, who is said to hai*c 
|N>aiM<M> ' I •,{ Hc i< iiKi, aitd was nct^Hl far 

M'Um<jtl . >'| <iud and dovitlimi. II<ms thr- 

aulliiir i>\ II iMwdn or t»nok uf Odi* in Anibic. He was 
buiu iiiiirj A U., 31 A. H^ and du-d itu thi* Uth (Jctober. 
TiHk. D., lit lujub, 110 A. 11., agudftU lunar yoars, and 
was b»iri.Ml 4t hasru. 

Hatan Bog. (Kbaul, Badakhahl). y^*# i^^ ^^ 
I HhAikh Oitiari WM % good •utdttir. Uo was 

made a commander of 2500 for his Mrrioee m „ . 
and was pot towanht th(> end of Akbar's rvign, in cbui^t 
of Kabul, receiving Fort Rohtas in the Punjab as iaac 
Hasan Bog, after mokiug a useletw attempt to in 
others, was pot into a cow-hide and in this statA 
tied to donkeys and carried through the bajcar. H 
after a few hoars from Huflfooation. Vidt Ain, I. 454. 

Hasan-bin-Mulxainmad Khaki- al-Shlr&si 


t;^^! i^^ JmJ:^ 4^ t;-^, **^*^ *^*™® ^ India in lli«- 

time of the emperor Axbor and obtained different offices 
under the goverumont. Ho is tho author of a history 
also called *' Muntakhih-ut-Tawarikh," beadn the ibs 
written by AMul Kadir Hai.Uoni. He commencod tae 
work before the close of Akbar's reign, and completed it 
in tho fifth year of the empe-ror Johangir, i. »^ 1610 A. D^ 
1019 A. H., in which year, ho tells as, he vaa appointed 
Dfwan of Patna. 

Hasan-bin-Muliazxiinad Sharif, "-Ai ^ o*** y^ 

cr*^i author of the " Anis-ul-'Usluhak." the lovur's 

companion, containing an explanation of all the mela- 
phore4 and phrases used by the poets ; with 
quotfitions from those held in tlie greatest 
Vide Khadim. 

Haaan-bin-Sabah, ^^ l^ \a^^, vide UaBan SahUk. 
Hasan Busnirg, ^jJ^ cr*^, also called Sheikh Hasu. 

Amir Hasan TlVinf, and Amir Hoaon NaTiao, Kayi&kii. 
the son of Amir HVan Jolayur. He was an inuaedatt 
descendant of Sultan Arghiin KliAn, king of P«n*«i 
(whoso sister was his mother.) and one of the piindpl 
chiofii of the Mughols in the reign of Sul^au Abtl St'iil. 
He married Baghdkd Khatun, daughter of Amir Chobin 
or Jovian, bat the prince being deeply enamoured of b«T 
charms. Amir Hus&n, after the di-.tth uf her father, vt$ 
forced to resign his consort to him in 1327 A. D., 
A. H. A few years after the death of Abu Sa'id. 
Hasan married his widow Dilshad Khatun, wuat to 
dad, seised that dty, and became tho founder of a p^ty 
dynasty of princess. His life was passed in oontosta to • 
blish his authority over the tomtories of Baghdid, and be 
died before this object of his ambition was accomplUvd, 

in July 13o6 A. D., Rajab, 757 A. H. Hia son 

Uwca Jaliyor was more fortunate : he not only 
in oomploting the conquest his &ther had oomi 
but carried his arms into Axurbej&n and KhuraMC 
Sul^ Owes died in October 1374 A. D., 776 A. U^ and 
left his government to his socond son Su]t&n 
JalaybT. This excellent prince, who is also alike 
hrated for his benevolence and love of juirtir*', Icet his 
in on action in 1362 A. D., 784 A. H., with hia 
Ahmad, sumamod fl^ani, a cruel and tmjnat 
whoso onormitiea compelled his Hubj(>cts to invite Amir 
TaimOr (Tameriane) to their reliff in 1303 A. D^ 
almost the whole of the future lift: of Ahmad 

in an int'ffeetual struggle with that conqueror. U» 

to Eg)'pt for suiety, and when, after the death of TNdmtfr. 
ho rvtunw.-d to recover his dominions, bo w«a talt«D 
put to death by ^ara Yoaaf^ a Turkman chief isi UIO 
A. D., 813A. H. 

Hasan Imam, tr*^ f^'i the olde«t son of 'AH, tka na 

of Abu Tolili, and Fatima, Uie daughter of Mohaaiiaad; 
w«B bom on the lit March 6i6 A. D., loth Ranogfa. a 
A. H. After the death of his &ther in Janoaijr 
A. I)., Ramajiin, 40 A. H.. he succeeded him ma< 
Imim, and was proclaimed Khxlif by the Arabiaai^ 
pvTceiTing the people divided and himself iU-uaed,'' 
after six months resigned the Khilifat to Mu'awi^ 
UHigned to him about 1^0,000 pounds a fear. 




Urge presents. After tKis Hftsati and HIa brotbor Iludam 
rctirod and lived privutfly at Madina, where after a few 
vean ho diod of poison, adminiaU-rcd to him by ouo of 
UB wives, whom Yiizid, the son of Mu'ttvria Kubomed io 
ooaunit that wit- kfdne»w, on tho promise of marrTring her 
altenrardtt. But instead of a now hualmiid, ehe wua 
forced to be contenttxl with a ^ood sura of money which 
Mn'iwia gnve her for hi-r pains ; for Yazid wn8 not so 
mad 03 to trust himeelf to her ombrairvs. Tliis nioumlul 
event took phico on the night of the 17th MiiTch, G()9 
or 670 A. 1*., 7th, -49 A. H. Uo was biiriLd in 
Madina at a place called Bakia. Ukkid in sjiid to bavu 
betn in pvraon very like hisgmDdfcithiTMuliamnmd, who, 
whnn he wan bonit Hpit in hi8 mouth and num>-4 him 
Huan. Do had twtnty ehildrtn, lift«*u sous imd live 
daughters. Though his wivea wore n-mnrkahly fnnd of 
him, yt't ho was iipt very frt-queutly to divorce them and 
m»rr>* new ones. 

Hasan Kashif Moulana, (^^ u-^ ^X>*> a |Mxt who 

WHS a native of Kashan. Uo is tho author of many Ka- 
sidaa and CihazaU. 'llie year of his duuth is not knuwn, 
bat ho appears to have tiuuri^hed ul-uut the bth century 
of the Hijn' ora. 

Hasan Khwaja, u"^ *^!^, vi4t Hasan Sanjari. 
Hasan Khwaja* u**^ *^Lr^, a darwcsh, tho son of 

Khwaja JhriLhitn. He is tho author of a Diwan of Gha- 
xiils, m th<f luHt versus uf oauh ho haii ua-ntioued the 
imu)'' uf liijf W'loved. 

Hasan Kochak, Sheikh, «-^^ tr** ft-^, a grand- 
son of Amir Chouhun or Jovian. lIi:- wna one of the 
chiefn, who, dtiring th-:> jwriod oi" tmuhle itiid rr.nfusion 
which took place ufter the death of Sulian Abu Sti'id, king 
uf Penia, in \2'i5 A. D., rus*; to eriiintneu. lie fought 
several battles with Anu'r Huwtn Buinrg. und met his 
dcftth accidentally by the hands of his quiirreb^ome wife, 
m Dewmber 1343 A. D., UujaK 7*4 A. II. 

Hasan Maimandl, tj'*'*^'* cr^^. It is rocord^-d by 

twme that he whm one of the ministers of Sulti&n Unbmud 
?f Uhjizni. This Btiil».mrnt is allogether int-umH^t anil 
unfounded, says Mr, Elliot, as it is nut mentioned by any 
great hiKt«jnan. But bis son who is eoiimionly called 
j&hmad-bin-Uasan Maimandi v.-na a minister of ihiit niun- 
areh. Husnn Maimiuidi vrns, during the lifolimo of i^ul- 
tan Kaeir-uddiu Subaktagin, eniployi'd as Dtwan or Col* 
lector of Kiv.-nu<'s at Kimlm Bust ; but Nasir-uddin was 
led by thn scrrrt macljinutions of his enemies to enterUiin 
au oufavourable opinion uf him, till ho was at laftt, in 
cmiaequfnee of his Imniig been convicted of extortion and 
&aud to a large iLmounl, h:ingoil by order of that Sultan \ 
so that the gpnenil nntion whi'-h iirevails that ho wt^ the 
di of tiultan Mahmiid, is eironeons. 

Hasan, Mir, cr"*^.,ri^j a Hindustani poet of Lnkhnau, 
lind author of the novel calbd *' Masriuwi Mir HuAan," 
containing thi- Iiavh of Badr-i-Munir and Benazir iu 
Crdu viirsi.% which he C4^miileled mid de^licat^d to Nawab 
'Asaf-nddaula in the vtur 17Sa A. D., llDi) A. U. It is 
also call'Kl " t?ahr-»il-Bayan." 11 is unccstore were of 
Hirit, but ho Will born at Ittbli and went early in lifo 
to I^akbnau, wh'-n^! he was supported by Kawiib Safdar 
Jang and his son Mirza NawaziMh Ali Khiin. lie is also 
tb« author of a Uiwan of aUtut HiHHt versf^s, and of a 
Toxkimof Urdu poeU. He died in 17^0 A. 1>., 1204 
A. H. His father's mime watt Mir LihuhUu UuMiiu 

Hasan Uirza^ i*y^ ^}j^t f^^ of Mulla Abdur Kazzj^ 
ofLahijiiu. lie lias Itft soino noble compositions, such 
M, •* The True Light on llio articles of Faith.*' •' Tho 


Beanty of good Men in their Works." A pious treatise, 
and 8omo others. He died in the beginning of the 18th 

Hasan, Motilana, tir*^ '^•y*! a learned Musalmin who 

lived in the time of the emperor Jahangir and wrote u 
chronogmm nii the sudden death of Sheikh 'Ali Ahmad, 
son of Sheikh llusuin Nakshi, in the veor 1G09 A. V., 
Iul8 A. H. 

Hasan Mutkallim, Moulana, /♦^^^ 


a pocL nud pupil of Moulinit MutJiffiir of llirAt. Ho 
flourished in tho reign of Midik tUKiyas-uddin Kart 11, 
in whose name he eomposcd a book on the art of poetr>'. 

Haean Baft, C^J li^"**"? a Persian poet. 

Hasan Sabba ^^ LT**) the founder of the dj-nasty 

of the Ismn'ilis in Persia. lie wju etyk-d ^heikh-ul-Jabal, 
an Arabic titlii, which signifies *' tho chief of tho raoun- 
tttina," The name by which this rulur and his descen- 
dants are indiscriminately known in Kuropean history, is, 
**The Old Man of the itountain." His followoni or 
descendants were also called Hasani, and the English word 
** assassin," is supposed to have been formed &om a cor- 
mption of this term. Hasan Sabb&h was at first a mace* 
bearer Co Sultan Alp Amnl^ ; but in consequence of a 
((uarrel with Nizam-ul-Mulk, the minister of that prince, 
he retired to Uai. his native country: and from thence, 
to S;|Tia, where ho enten^d into tho service ef a chief of 
the family of Isrnw'fl thu »i>n of Ja'far SAdik, and adopted 
the tenets of that sect. The first object of Hasan was to 
pus^eHs himself uf a stronghold ; and he succeeded in 
giiining by Htrntigem the moiintiin fort of Alohmfit, 
aituuted betwi-eii IjEazwin and Gi!lan. Tlio fort was bailt 
by ILwan-bin-Ziiid in the year StiO A. D., 246 A. II., 
an<l Hasan Sii)d)ilh took it in 1080 A. D.. 482 A. H, 
From this fortress ho commenced depredations on tho 
Hurruunding toualrj', and added several other hill forts 
to the one he had already seized. That of Hodbar, which 
is also fCutwio, wiis next to ALahmut in consequence. 
Malik Shah Saljukf, the reigning Sultan, had siint ■ force 
to njuce him, but without any rucc(«s. In the month 
of OctoU-r, 1092 A. I)., liamazan. 485 A. H., Nizom-iil- 
Miilk, who was then folljwing the royal camp from Is- 
fahan to Baghdad, was f^tabM by one of the foUownrs of 
HitMin Sabbah who was his personal cnomy. Hasun 
8abbah died in U24 A. D.. 26th lUbf II, 518 AH. 
Uukn-uddin, who was the lost of this family, and who is 
better known under the nanie of K^hir Sli&h or Khur 
Shah, afl*r a weak and tDefl'txtnal struggle feU before 
Hiilaku. That conqueror not only mndo him prisoner, 
but took and dismantled all hirt strongholds. This event 
took in the inmilh of N»vember, I25fi A. H.. Xi- 
JCada' G.i4 A. II. It wits hiw father Ala-uddin Muhammad 
who forc<^d Niiwir-uddin Tvisi to n'miiin with him iVif 
pomo years, till he wua released by Halaku, KhAn. I't'lf 
Ismaa and lamaiUa. IV' successor of Hasan was Buxurg 

Hasan SaLlmli %^^r^ tir*^, ride Salimt 

Hasan Sanjari, Khwaja, <jj^^ t^r*^ *^t^j also 

rail""*! Khwaja Hn^m Dehlawi. a rrbbnited Pcr«an jmet 
of iHhli, who wa.1 a cont^-niporar)- uf the fmnoiia Amir 
Khunni, and had berumc at the ai;e of 5U ycjirs a di^-ipl^ 
of 'Mieikh Xizaui-uddJn Aulin. He died, according to the 
author of the " Mirut-ul-Khayil," in the Dakhan in the 
year 1307 A. D„ 707 A. H., and is buried at Uaulatabid. 
He is the author of aovenU works, amongst which is a 
Diwan, and one called '^ Fftwicd-ul-Fawid," a collwrtion 
of letters writt4'n by Nixim-uddin Aulia to his disriplew. 
TAlib says be died in 1337 A. D., 73b A. H. Uia father'* 
name was Al&i 8anjuri. 




Hasan, Shaikh, \:r^ f^t the son of ShalUi Nozor- 

ulloh. He is tho author of a work called " Sonit Utiikam.'* 
Hu diod in Mirat iu the year 1078 A. H. 

Hasan Khan Shamlu, J^^ c*^ u.»-^> governor of 

llirit undcT Sh^h Abboa IT, and bu son Bliih Solaiman. 
Uo died in 16U7 A. D^ 1100 A. H., and u the autbor of 
» Piwin. 

Hasan, Sayyad, iJJ^j^ i:'*^ 'H^j of GhaxnS, a poet who 
floariabed in tho Tt<i^ of SulUn DHhram Sliab the Ghaz- 
narida, and is th<* uiithor of ri Diw&n. lie ifl aUo called 
Sayyad Hasan-al-Husiiini. He died in tho wny wbilo 
retommg from Mecca, in the year U70 A. D., 565 A. 11. 

Hasham, ^2^' ^ i:^ C^^, the son of AMiil MtJik, 

and tho t*.'Dth tvlinlif uf tho hoose of Um&iya or Ummaidei, 
BUoctiMlfHl his brother Vazid II in |24 A. D., 105 A. H. 
He conquered the Khakdn of Turkiston, and made war 
against Leo III, tho IsMuriun. Hu was aJwaya attimded 
by 600 camcla to carrj' his splendid wanlrube. Hu 
died after a reign of 19 years 7 znonlha and 11 days ir 
tho year 743 A. D., 125 A. H., and wtu succeeded bv 
Walid TI. son of Yezid II. In hia time lived tho colobra- 
ted MaJQun, tho lover of LailC 

S&Shimi (*^^) a poet who flouxishttl at BnrhJnp&r in the 

Dakh.ia in tht' reijrn of tho empi-ror Jabaiig-ir and waa a 
disciple of Shaikh Abinad Firuki, commonly called Shaikh 
Ahmnd ^tirhindi. He is tho author of a Diwbn and ac- 
vorul other books, and was alivo in IG-IG A, D., lO&G A. U. 

Hashim, ^•'"^j tho son of Abd6l Manif, waa the father of 

Abdul MiittrtliK who waa tho fathrr of Abdull&h and 

SandfalhtT of Mohammad thu prophet of thu Alusalrotuia. 
u HUCTOt-ded hia father as president of tlie Ka'ba, and 
raised the glorj* of biH propto to the hi^hf^At pitch; inao- 
much that the nc i^hbouring grrent men uiid he»df>of tribes 
made their coiirt to him. Nay, bo jcn-al veneration in the 
memory of Hfishim held in by tho Anilxs, that from him 
the &mily of MtihiLmmad among thom are calkd H^shi- 
niit«s. He died at Gh»za in i^yria, lujd was succ^'cdcd by 
his son AbdfU Huttalib, who became president of the 

Hashimi Kirmaui, t/^ tj^^, nuthor of n poem or 

Masoawi called " 3IaEhAr-ul-Aaar.** He died in 1641 
A- D., 948 A. H. 

Hashmat, *^' — ^^, tho poetical name of Mir Muhtaahim 

AH Khin, whose aucetttors n-urc of Badakhahio, but he 
waa bom in I>thh'. He dii.d al>out the year 1748 A. D., 
liei A. H., and left a Diwan of 7000 versoa. 

Hashmat, »i-*^, the poetical name of Bakhahf Ali Khin, 
which see. 

Hasratj *^-^r'^> the poetical name of Sayyad Muhammad, 
who died in the reign of tho emperor Muhammad Sh^ 

Hasrat, *^J^~^t poetical name of Mir Muhammad Hayit 
ui Patna who had th« title of Haibat ICuli Khin. Ho 
was for some time attached to the aervice of Naw&b 
Shaukat Jong at rumnia, and for «ome time to that of 
8irio*udiUiila of Mun^hidibad. Hu died in IMOO A. £>., 
1U16 A. H., and left a Diw&n of 2UUU \enen. 

Hairat, ^r^^i poetical appellation of Min& Ja'fiir 'AH, 
ui t'nlii poll who flouriahed in the latter part of the 1 8th 
oontury. and gave instructions in the art of poetr>' to 
Kawib Alububbat Khaa at Lakhnau. 

Haarati, *^ir^> tide SheftA. 

Hatifl, Houlana, t^^ ^^J^j the poetical name of 

ulUh, tho son of MouUni Abdur Rahm£n J&mi*a ^ 
He was bom in Jam a city of Hir&t, and died Ihroie in 
year 15'2\ A. I)., i('27 A. H., and waa buried in the 
of Kharjard. He was a good poet, and author of aerenl 
works. Ua^'ing tinisbed his studies, under tho potroiu^ 
and instruction of his nnclei, Uatifi, with his permiaaaa, 
secluded liimwlf from the world. When BhAh Xsua'fl 
Safwi fought the Uzbak TartJirs in Ehuraa&n, and ilew 
Shahibeg Khan their chief in 1608 A. D^ 9U A. H.. ha 
prevailed on our poet to quit his cell, and come to 
Solely ambitious of rivalling the Khamsa or fiini 
of Kix^f, he wrote in imitation of them hia '* 
Uajn&n," "Khuaro and Shirin," "Haft Maniar/ 
" Tftimur yami," which is also called *' Za&mimo." azsd 
in imitation of thn Sikondor N&ma, he undertook a 
heroic poem in praise of his patron, called " Fatuhit 
Bhahi," which ho did not live to finish. Among the no* 
merouB Persian poems on thu stor)* of Laili and Mnjnfin, 
that of Hatifl seems universally eateemed the Bimphm and 
most pathetic. 

Hatim, t/^ '■'' (^^, commonly called HAtim Tii, a 
Arabian Chief of tho tribe of T6i, celebrated for his 
nlity, wisdom and valour. He flouriahed before the 
of Muhammad, and his M^pnlchro may etill he eeen at a 
little village, called Anwarz in Arabia, There is an ac- 
count of his adventures in the Bomanee entitled "Hatim 
Taf in IVrman, which haa also been transited into IJpdfi. 
An English translation of this Komanoo waa made by 
Duncan Forbea, A. M., from the Peraiiin. 

Hatim^ f*^' r*^* Bumamcd Al-Asamm, that is to mj, fiu 

dcafi was a great Musalm&n doctor, much-estcemad tot 
his piety and doctrine. Ho was a diMiipIe of Sha^ik 
Balkbi and mastur of Ahmnd Khi«roy>*. He died &jl 
A. I)., TM A. H., in the reign of Slutwukkil tho Khaltf 
of Baghdid, and wua buried at Balkh in Khorisin 
native country. 

Hatim Kashi, Maulana, i^^(>^^ ^V^ » po«i 

Ka^hAn in PersiOf who flouri&hed in the reign of Shih 
Abba^ tho Great. 


Hatim, (^^j 


Hatim, poetical name of BhoiLb 

Zahir-uddin, a poet who wna a contemiKirnry of Wait 
He woit bom at Dchli in 1690 A. D.. lUl A. U.. and waa 
a soldier by proft-^siou. Ho gave the first impulae lo 
Urdu poetry in HehH. In 1720 A. D., 1132 A. H-, lh» 
BiwAn of Wall was brought to Dehli and veTaBB of it 
were on every body's lips ; this induced him and thnt 
frionds of his, NUji, Maamun, and 'Abru to appdy Ihiso- 
aelves to Rekhta poetry. Up to the lime of Hithn. it 
would appear, that Indian poet« wrote in Peraian. H« 
is the author of two Diwdus in Uiduf one in imitation uf 
Woli, and thu other in imitation of Sauda and Blir Ta^L 

Hatim Aii Beg, Mirza, ^ t^ f^^ *>•, «* 

HawaSy cr^i poetical title of Nawfb Uinfc To^ 

Nawab Mirci Ali Kh£n. Ho is the author of tfa 
of Laili and MajnUn in Urdu, and of a Diwin in 
every Ghazal contains tho name of lAili and Mjtjnun, 

Haya, ^j poetical title of Ghio Rimdia, a HindA, and 

brother of RajA D&y£ Mai ImtivAa. He was a pupi] of 
MirK& Abdul Kadir Bcdil, and id tho author of a Diwia 
of about 5000 verses. 

HayaUoUah Ahrari, isjj *^* c»U^, anthtf of Ite 
work called " Hahata Alarfin," which contains the Mto of 
Abrsolo. He died iu 1061 A. IL, and his tomb iai 




Hayati Mulla, tJk^^, of GOin, a poet. 


i-^y^ (^ .*♦** ^-i t^V 

, the poetical name 

of Moulina Shaikh Muhammad 'All, a Persian of dia- 
tinction, eminently k-amt-d, and accomplished. He fled 
into Hindiistan frf>m his uuttvo country to avoid tho pt-r- 
secutioTi of Nadir ShAh in 1733 A. D.,'ll4fi A. H. Hw 
■was a voluminous author holh in proge and verse. He 
wrote his Mcmoira in 1741, eight ycara after his settlo- 
mynt for life in India, and it cunlains n variety of pornoiirtl 
and historical anc*cdot*?«, (xcelUnt olisi-nationa on mtn 
and manntTS, besiJi^s un interrj^ting account of his travels, 
and remarks on many modem lilerurj- producliona. 
A txansLition of this work, entitled, "The'Lifo of Shaikh 
Muhammad Ali Ilazin." wilh made hy T. C. Balfour. 
Inquire, and pubUj^hed in 1830. Uis fathtr'n name waa 
iShiiikh Abu Tilib of Gilon, a descendant uf Shaikh Tiij- 
uddin Ibrahim, commculy called Shaikh Zaliid Gilani, 
who waa the .tpiritual ^uide of Sluiikh Syi'i-uddin Ardibvli. 
He was l»um at Isfahan un tho 7th Jaiiimry, 16'J2 U. ti., 
ajthRaW ir, 1103 A. H., was in Dehli at the time of 
Jfidir Shah's invasion, and djt?d in 170G A. D., 1180 
A. n., aged 77 lunar y.iars, at Beuaraa (wh^re he h;id 
built hia own tomb somo timt? before his de^th) equally 
admirf'd and e»te'jm'-d by the Mu^almau, Hindu and 
English iuhabitjtnta of that place. He ia the 'author of 
aeVLml wwrka in Persian and Arubic, 

Haaik, Hakim, OJJ^ (**^* ^^^ °^ Hakim Htiraim, tho 
brother of Abii'l Fatha tlilanf. He waa a noblo of the 
reij^ uf the emperor Shah Jahan, a physician and b poet, 
and in thu author of a Diwia in Persian. He died 1658 
A. l>., 1068 A. II. 

Heselng, Colonel John William, of Holland. Hu 

rame to India and was at tint rmjiloypd by thu Nawdb 
Nizam Ali Khan of the Ilnkhun in the year 1703 A. IJ., 
1177 A. H., and afterwarda by Madho Kau Scindhia 
in 1784, after whunu death in 17'J4. he continued 
in the sen-it-e of his nephew iJaulat itao Scindhia, by 
whom he was apiioint^d a Colonel in 1705, with tho com- 
mand of the fuilr* ss and city of Ag^rah. He died on tho 
21st of July ISOy, Hiid was burird in the Koman Catholic 
Burial-ground at Aj^mh, where a splendid mausoleum of 
rrd sltino waj^ built by hia tbildrf'n, with an lingUsh in- 
Bcription on his tomb which is of white marble. 

Hidaety ^^''H*! poetica] name of Hidut^t Khin, the nnclc 

of Nisir-ullah Khan Fuak. He died in tho year llil5 

A. H., and kit a Diwin. 

Hidaet-uUah, *^t ^^''^i-*, author of a work on arts and 
■ciences called '* Ilidact.ul-Ramal," written in 1601 A. D. 

Hidaet-uUah Khan, n)^ ^' ^^''H*, groat-grandaon 
of Khun 'Aaim Mirza Kokn. He is the author of a His- 
tory called "Tarikb Uidaut-ullah Khan" written ia tho 
year lGo9 A. U. 

Himu, J*^i a banian or Indian Bhopkeeper of the caste of 
Dhusor, whom Salim bhfJi, king of Dehlt, had made hu- 
perintendf-nt of thu markKs. In the reig^i of Muham- 
mad fihah 'Adii ho was ajipoiuted hib wazir, and intruati'd 
with thf whole adunnistratiun of affairs. This pereon in 
the beginning of the rcii^n of the emperor Akbur laid 
aiege to Agmh, and having reduced it jtrec-eded to 1)+ lili 
which abo sunendered, and Tardi iSig. govemur of that 
place, who fled to t^arhind, was wized hy BaJriiim Kh&o, 
the minister of Akbur, and beheaded fur abandoning 
Difhli, when' hu miiihl have d» fended himdclf. Himu 
was aft4frwiarda dofeattd and made prisoner in a battle 
fought at Fauipat on rhurwday the 5th uf NovemlKir, hioG 
A. D., 2nd Mubamim, HtU A. H., and bruu^ht into tho 
piettoncQ of thu king by Bairam Khiin, who bvgt^ed hiia to 

kill the infidel with hia own hand. Akbar (who wm then 
in his flft</enth year) in order to fulfil the wit^h of his 
ininister, drew his nword and t'juchcd the head of the cap- 
tive, while IJairain Kh^i, drawing his own nabrc, at a 
single blow severed tho htad of Himu £h>m his body. 

Hijrir iSj^j the poetical title of a poet who wwj a native 
of Konban but lived in Bengal. He ia the author of h 
l»iwan in which there u a liCaaida of a most wonderful 
comjjosition. If you read the iinrt letter of everj- Misra', 
you have a l^ita' in praise of Xawab tiayyad Muhonuiuid 
Itiza Kluiii Muzufl'ar Jang. Some letters in the lyaaidji 
ore writlen in nd. if you read them by Uieniselves, you 
have a Ghaxal, and certain letters in the GhajuJ form a 
Riil-a'i, and certain letters ia the Uubw'i fonn a Mijam*. 
He wafi living in 176fi A. I*., 1 180 A, 11. 

Hilal Eazwini, t^J^y^^t on author who died in 1627 
A. D., 934 A. H. " 

Hilftli, 4J-J^l7"^-t t^J^, of A^tarihid.wnaaTartarof the 
tribe of Jughtai or Chughtai, and author of a Diw&n con- 
wiling of amorous udes. In hia youth he travelleil to 
lvhura.san, and resided in lliriit, where tho illuHtrioua 
Amir 'Alishcir conferred on him many favours. He was 
a Snnni by religion, and wuv, by tho contrivance of his 
cnemi'-s, who wt-ie Shiait, put to i^ath by order of one of 
the Uzbak chief:; in the year 1530 A. 1)., 93t> A. H., but 
aeroi-diug tu a bunk eidled Tuhfa 8bihi, in 1533 A. D., 
939 A. U, He la the rmthur of the following works, 
r/j. *• Shah-wn-Darwe«h/* " Laili-wa-Majnun," "Sifit-ul- 
'Aahikim," and a Diwiu. 

Hilm, jl*"^j poetical name of Prince Mirzi Safd-uddin, com- 
uionly Ciilkd Mirza Fuiyaz-uddin, eun of Mirza Eav^- 
inldin tt/iaj Mlrzd MuhiiLiunad Jiin, son of Mirta KhujTani 
Bakht, son of 2klirza JaUuudar iShih, son of tShah Aiam, 
king of iHhlf. He is the author of a Diwin. 

Himmat Bahadur Qushain, c/i^j.>^ c*^, Diwac 

of Ghani Bahadur, Nawab of Banda, and one of the Pesh- 
wa'fl (Finji Kfio tl) prinripal oftirers in Biind'-lkhand. He 
joiuL^ the Jlritish troops under tlio eommund of IJent.- 
Col. Fowell in t-epteinber, 1 803, and gave Iwittle to Hhiim- 
sher Xtiiliadur, Nuwab of Itundji, who was defeated and 
compell>.>d to r.'treiit with lohs. Himmat Bahadur was a 
powt-rful commander of a largo body of bono, and of a 
niimeruufl pariy of UuAh&tna or Nagaa, a peculiar claas 
of armed beggarti and religious devoteus of whom he waa 
not only the military leader, but also the spiritual guide. 
He died in 1 8 1 4 and his family is provided for by the Bri» 
tiah Ctovenmicul. 

Himmat Zhan, cj^*- c**a, ^as the 00a of Khfa Jalian 
Sh.'i<.'^t-t Khan, the son of the wazir Asaf Klian. Ho 
built hia buuse on the banks of the river Jiuiina in 
a yi'jir with many other buildings auch aa gardcni, 
n'servnirH, liaths, &c., &c., of which aolhing remain now. 
But a bath, a reservoir, a BaoU, Ac.&c.,aro still to be seen. 
HiH ppjpiT name was Suyyud Muxaflar. 8hah Jahan con- 
fem'd (in him the name of Himmat Khan. In the 19th 
year of Alanigir he woa appointed govrmor of Allahiibad. 
In the 24th year of Alamgir, the api>ointment of Bakhi- 
gani «-as conforred on him : and in thu 3tHh year of 
Alanigir, ho waa again appointed governor of Allahabad. 

Hinda, S**^, tho daughter of Utba and wife of Ab6 Sufiin. 
i'tilt llamza (Amir). 

Hindal Mirza, 'i/* J'*>^, nVfr Handal JGrxi. 

Hindu RaOr j'j J*^i thn brother of Bija Baf, the wife of 
Midiaraja Daubit K£o Sindhia. His Kofhi nr Ilekka 
HouAe on a hillock ia woU-kuown at Dehli. He died in 
ISoS A. L). 


Hira Singh* <-^i* [/*> a Sikh Chief and miiuster of Ma- 

haraJA Dolip Singh of L&hor. He vu murdered vith 
suny othen about the begiimiiig of Januaty, 164fi. 

HirpaldeOr ^^^^j^j lh« son-in-law of Rimdeo, Baji 

of Dtogir, who by the as«xstanc« of tho other riyia of tho 
Dakhant had rtK^overed hia coiintrr from the Muaalmine, 
hat Mahirik Shih, Mm son of AU-udd^n Khilji, in tho 
Moond year of hii reign, 1318 A. D.. 718 A. H., mArched 
tovKrds tho Dokban. took Hirpildco priaonifr, fluyti'd Kim 
alive, and hang hia body at the gate of Deogir which ia 
now ca]]«d Daoktah^. 

Bi8Ua*bin-Jun0t *-^i*^ cH r^**^^ ramame of AhA 
8ah]-a]-Ba^hd£dI, who paasf^d for ono of tho best tmdi- 
tiooiBta of MwalminiiZD* Uo died in 722 A. D., 104 

Hiawn. *^*^ c^^ u'^'^j tho wn of Sibit was a poot and 

ooo^ianioa of Muhammad. He ia the author of a Dfwan 
iaAxtthic When Uuhommud OTcrcMnc hie ont'imoa at 
the bstUe of Khandak, UiMin wrotv a few xviwtt ou that 
occasion ; the propbei wu so much delig^htf^. that ho gavo 
him Shirxn tho oater of Miria (^abtf, for wife. 

Hissan-al-Hind, **\^ c*^-^, that is, the Hissan of 

India, a tiUo which Mir GuJim *AJi Aiid auomed. 

Holkar, »^ Mulhir Rio I. 
HonaUdas, ru/< Hurmuz. 

Hoshang, ^^*-v*, Mcond king of the firrt or Piahdidion 

drnoHty of Persia, waa the aon of Sayamak, and grandson 
of Ky6mtin whom ho succeeded. He reigned 40 yoon 
and waa succeeded by hi* son Tahmani, commonly cAlled 
Deoband, or the Magician binder, a title he derived from 
the racoMB with which ho warred against tho cnemlca of 

Hoohang Shah, S^ ^S^j^, (formerly ciUIod Alp KMn) 

waa the Hmt MuhanmuuLui king of Malwa, and the son of 
DiUwar Khan Ghon' who wus govomor of thiit place 
from the time of Mohammad Shih, son of Firox Shih 
Tnghlakf king of Dehlj. Aiter his father's death, which 
happened oboat the year 1405 A. D.. 808 A. H., taking 
advantage of the tmea, he became entirely independent 
mod aasnmed the title of Sol^ Hoohang Hhih. He 
icigned 30 lunar years, and died on thu 17tb July, 1434 
A. D., 9th 2il-bijja, 837 A. H. He wiui buried in a stono 
vinlt, and a apteii^d maosolenm of white marble was 
kvilt over it which is still to be seen at Man^o. Thedato 
of has death is to be found in the three last vonls of a dis- 
tich ttualoted thoa by General Brigga. 

Wha 4eaih had aealed the gloriona Hoshang'a £itc, 
And he preparod to tread on Lotho'a shoru, 

I aaked a poet to record tho date, 
Who briefly said, *' Shah Hoahang u no more.*' 

He waa mcoeeded bv his aon Sul(in Mnhnmrnad Shih, 
«ho waa poisQFned aflei a reign of one year and nine 
ttoDlha by Mahmfid Khin (the aon of his Wonr), who 
took tho titifl of Mahmdd Shih and aaoended tho throno 
of Milwn on ToMday the 15lh uf May, H36 A. D., 29th 
fihawwO, U9 A. H. 

Zut fftkf kimft of M&t^ wiott empUsk were l>A<Jr, 
JfsfUo or SAddidUA 

Pilawvr Ehia Ghori. governor. 

Hodinng 8hah Ghori. 

JCohamnad 8hih Ghori (aUo called Ghocoi Ehi&}« 

lUkaM Sh£h Khilji. 

M(4n Obiyis-udJin Khilji. 

BnHin Hinr-oddin Khilji. 

Sultin Mahm^d U, the liut of the Khiljis. 

In hia time Milwa was incorpoinU4 with the kingdom 
•< Gqjnt by Bahidor 8hih. 

Hoshdar Khan, uf^j'-^y^j a titlo of mdfei-alUk 
KImti. the son of Iradnt Khiin Wizah. He waa honottml 
with this titlo by the tmjHTor Fiirrukh-flyir, and oAor his 
father's death with that of Irudnt Kliin and the Faajilart 
of Duhipereya in the province uf Malwa. In th.- tilth 
year of Muhftminad Shiih. 1724 A. 11.. 1136 A. U.,he acti-n. 
ded Niikm-ul-Mulk 'Asaf Jih to tho Dukhan, and oftw 
the victory over MuMris Khiu, was appuiutod Diwan of 
the Dakhan with the rank of 4000. He was afterwanls ap- 
pointed governor of Kulbur^ in the Dakhan and died in 
thG year 1744 A. D., llo7 A. U. Ho bad many sook 
most of whom died in his lifetime. His eldeet sorviring 
son, Hife£ Khan, eucceeUed him in tho govemmBDi oi 
Kulbarffa which he hold At the time. Shahuawox ghfa 
wrote the ** Sliair-ul-lTinra," or Biography tif Nobility. 

Hoshmand Bogam, (^ .^i^^^ duughtia- of SulUn 

KhuHTo, married to Prince Hushang, tho son c>C pnnm 
D&nial in the year 1035 A. H, 

Htljjat, *^^^, poetical name of Niair Khuaro, which aasw 

Huijat^ul-Ialam, r^^' ^^-^^t a Utlo of Muhammad 


celfbrated doctor of tho Musolmon law. 

Huma, ' ^, poetical name of Sayyad Imtiyis Khin, ■ sob 
of Mo'tmid Khin, and a brother of SAy^-ad Ahji^ ft^ whan 
takhollus was Zomfr. Ho ia the author of a Diwio. 

Humal, Queen, iS^t ^na the daughter of Bahman. who 
is also called Ardishor Doriidaat (Artucerxoa liongima- 
noa of the Greeks). She snoceeded her &ther u qmetm of 
Persia, in tho fourth century before Christ. She built 
the city called Simrah, which the author of the " L^hh 
Tuwarikh" Buy.**, bore also tho name of Simir^m, and is 
the same which is ut this day called Jarbodakan. The 
Persian authori itato, that when she aaoended the throos^ 
oho was pregnant by her own father. 8hame led her t* 
conceal this ctrcumatanco : and the child, of which iha 
wiw delivered, was given over to a nunte to be 
death. Tho lift* of the child, however, was mirac__, 
presuTTcd ; and the unnaturul mother first recognised bt? 
son, when his fortune and valour had advanced him to 
the nink uf a victoriou3 general in her army. Hanii 
imini>diat*:Jy resigned the crown to him, and r«tiied to a 
private life oft^jr she had roignc«i 32 years. Her «iin 
rciBTied about 12 years, and is called by thoPendaiu Darn 
or Darah T. 

Uumam, HaJtim, f^^if^, brother of Hakun AbA'l 
Fatha Gilam, a well wlucated and loitr- ' 
eerWco of the emperor Akbar. He was 
arch on an emboMy, in company with .*■ i 
hrin. to Abdullah KhAn Ucbuk, ruler of Khu! r 

the yo»r 1589 A. D.. 997 A. H. He diisi in I .^ 

1004 A.^ H.. and left two sons, Hakim SadiV and lia^* 

Huxnam, (*^f poetica.1 name of Kamal-uddin Muhammad. 
bin-Abdul-Wfthhib, styled by Arabahah, *' * ^ ' :■ 
most ilhutriuns do<:tor9 of the member of the n : 

is to say, of tho race of AH. He lived in tho ti,! . j„.,r 
Taimdr (Tamerlane) and died in 1467 A. f)., stil a. H. 
Hu in author of a Commentary on Iha Hidaya. Hia tm). 
per name ia Kamil-add£n Muh&mmad-ol-Siwisi, ^ich 

vkich I 

Humam Tabrezi, Khwaja, otK/fr* f^, 

Uii Pt'nian piiet of Tauris or Tabrec, and author 
colbx-tion of Kubafs or quatrain versoa caXhed ** KattfWt 
Mir Hum Am" He was a coteropomry and nvol wit «f 
8hatkh Sa*dt. Meeting one day in a bath, Uam&m, o\t- 
serving Sa'di to be very bold. pn»<int<'d tu hira a ^msan 
with the bottom upwards ; aaked him. *' Why do. th* 





of the people of Stfrazroactnble this f* SVdf, liftv- 
ing tumc-d the bason with the empty iddo upwards, rc- 
plicdf " First tA\ mo, why do the heads of the people of 
Tabrci reaemlile this ?" Many othor anocdolca are rela- 
ted of thom. Humim died in tho reign of Aljaitu, emper- 
or of the Mughals, in theyoar 1313 A.D., 713 A. H., and 
was buried lit Tiibrez. Ho ia also called Khw^a Hu- 
mAm-uddin Titbrezi. 

Humam-uddin Tabrezi, (/>^ w:!*^* ^^, vitU 

HunL&m Tabrezi. 
Humayun, ey^^ «****t^J'*-^'^r4-^j emperor of Hin- 
dustan, sumouied NafiLT-uddin Muhammad, was tho 
eldest Bon of tho (rmpfror Bkbar ShilL, wa» bom at ICibul 
on the night of Tuesday the 7lh of March, 1508 A. D., 
iih, ^i-Ku'da, 913 A. U., and his mother's came was 
Ttf ahnm Begum. He succot^ed his Cuthor on the throne 
at Agrah on the 2&tb December, isao A. B., Gth Jumida 
I, 937 A. H., and conferred tho govemmtuitofKabul, Kan- 
dahilLr, GfanznC and the Panj4b on his brother Mirzi E£- 
miriui, to Mirza Askan he gave the giDvertiniont of Sarkir 
Sambhal^ to Mlrza Ilandjll, Siirkar Alwar, and the govern- 
mont of Badakhnhan to Mirza Sulaiman, tho son of K^h&n 
Mirzfi, tho mtk of bultan Muyiammiid, tho son of Bultan 
Abu Said. Humiyiin wiis defeated tho first time by tjher 
Khin {afterwards iSher iihih.) in a battle fought on the 
banks of the ChauntilL in B^^&r ou the 26th Juno, 1539 
A. D., 0th Safafj 9-16 A. H., and the W'cond time at Kiin- 
noj on the 17th of May, 1540 A. D., lOth Mu^airam, 
967 A. H. Tho capital no longer affordud him a place 
of refuge ; even his brothers became his enemies, and 
would not grant him ehilter in their provinccfi. He (11^ 
from one phire to another, Bubject at tunes to the gTUHti>st 
hardships ; and was at last obliged to quit the king-- 
dom and seek an asylum in Persij^ where he arrived in 
July, 1544 A. D., D61 A. H., and was hospitably and 
honorably entertained for some time by Sbih Tahm&sp 
of Persia, who assisted him with troops. During tho 
ab«eQCO of Humnj-un, which extended to a period of 
fifteen years, five kinpfl ascended the throne of DehK, ri'i. 
Bher Shih. bis son Sidiin t^hih, Muhamtnud Shah Adili, 
Ibr£him Khan^ and Sikandftr Shdh. Humayiin having 
ovexoome his brothers at K&bul and KandahAr, com- 
menoed his march from thu ionocr city in the month of 
January, 1555 A. D., 8ufiir, !>62 A. U., Uiwarda India. Ho 
took tho Panjab, and advancing towards Dehli, defeated 
Sikandar ^hoh on tho '22nd of June, 1565 A. D-t 2nd Sha- 
hin, 9H2 A. H., in a battle fought at Sarhind. Sikandar, 
after his dffeiit, tied to the mountiuus of S*?walik, and 
Humiyun having reached l>ehli in triumph, became a 
second time cni])cror ef Uindustiui. Hairani Khan, to 
whoso valour and tilcnt the king was principully indebt- 
ed for his restoration, was rewimli-d with the first otBces 
in tho state with the title of Khan Khan&n. The year of 
this victory was found by Bairum Khan to be contained in 
the words, " The sword of Humayun." Seven months aftt-T 
this victory, on the 2l8t Jnnuar>*, 1666 A. D., as Homa^nin 
was coming down at the time of evening prayers from the 
terrnco of thn Tiibmry at Dehli. he full headlong over the 
stops, and died ou thi-- 2-Hh January, 1656 A. D.» llth 
Rabf I, 903 A. 11. The words " Alas! my sovereign fell 
from the terrace," contain tho year of his dumieo. Hu wtis 
barlod at GQokhari, a distance of four kos from the city 
of Sh&hjihAniib^d on the hanks of the river Jnmna ; and 
a splendid monimient was erected over his remains some 
years after, by hia son Akbar, who succeeded him. Hu- 
miyiin died at the ag« of 49, aft«r a reign of 20 years, 
including the fifteen years of hia banishment from his ca- 
pital. The foundiition of his mausoleiun wtis laid in 1665 
A. D-T y73 A. H., was HUpf^rintended by Ili^i Bcgam 
mother of Akbar, and was finished in 10 yuara at a coat 
of 16 lakhs of rupees. Farrukh-siyar, 'Alamgir II, Dira 
8hik6h and other princes are also buried in thia mauao- 
lonm. Uamayun. ufbor his death, recoivod tho ULle of Jan- 
oat 'Ashiini. 


Humayun, Amir, c)^^*^*t, of rsfarien, a poet who 
went early in life to Talirez, and was supported by KAzf 
Ts'a and Sultin YA*kub, who called him Khusro SAnf, that 
is, the second KhusTO and KhuBro K6chak. After th« 
death of hifl patron, he went to Keshan and died there 
in 1406 A. D., 902 A. H. He is the author of a Diwin. 

Htimayun Shah, Bahmani, Sultan, i^^ 'LA 

iif^f^^ CJ^^^, BumaniPd Zilim, or the Cruel, was the 
eleventh king of tho Bahmani dynasty. Ho aucceeded 
his father Suitin 'Ali-uddm II Bahnumf in tho year 1458 
A. D., B62 A. U., and causing his brother Hasan Khin's 
eyes to be put out» ascended the throne of the Dakhan. Ac- 
cording to the will of hia father* ho conferred tho office of 
WakiLuB-Saltanat on Khwija Mahrafid Gawin, with the 
title of Malik-ut'Tajjar and the government of Bijdpur. 
He was an unjoot prince and a great tyrant, on which 
aceount he was aiimamed *' tho C^ruel." He reigned J 
years 6 months and G djiya, and was mTirdercd with one 
stroke of a heavy club on tho 1st of September, 1461 A D., 
2Sth /!i-i:ta'da, 865 A. H., during a fit of intoxication by 
his own sorvants who were wearitnl out with his inhumaii 
cruelties. Ho was succeeded by his sou Sultan Nizim 
Shah, then only eight years of age. 

Hunaill, ty^j surname of Abii Zaid 'AMur Rahmfin 
Hnnain, son of Is-hik, son of Hunain, was a celebrated 
Christian physician who translated many books out of the 
Oreek into Syriac and Arabic. 

HurmtlZ or Hurmuzd I, ^yt/^ ^>V*» the third king of 
Poraia, of the iSaaaiiian race, was the son of Shihpiir I, 
whom he 8Ucc4»edLd in 27^ A. D. He is tho Honnisdas 
of the Greek authors, and is said to havo resL-mbled, both 
in peTson and character, his grandfather Ardish^r. The 
mother of this inoniirch was the daughter of Mihnikh a 
pott}* prince, whom Ardisher had put to death, and whose 
family he had p<r9e<;uted, because an astrologer had prr- 
dicted that a descendant of Mahnikh shuuld attain the 
throne of Persia. This lady had flni to tho tents of a 
shepherd wht>ro she was seen by Shabpiir when hunting. 
This prince l>ecame enamoiirod, and married her privately. 
His father Ardisher, going; ono day unrxpert*'dly to his 
son's house saw young Hurmua- He was greatly pleased 
with the appearance of the child and matle enquiriea, 
which compelled ShfihpiJr to confess all that had happen- 
ed. The joy of the old king was exceiwive. '*Tho pro- 
diction of the astrologers," ho exclaimed, " which gave 
me such alarm, is, thank God, confirmed, and a descen- 
dant of M^hrukh shall succoed to my crown." Hurmua 
was a virtuous prince, but reigned only one year and ten 
days. Ho died about the year 273 A. D., and waa suc- 
ceeded by hia son Bahram I. ^ 

Hiirmus or HurmuBd II, i^^ ^"J^J^t tbe eighth king of 
Porsia of tho StsAnian race. He succeedod his father 
Narsi about the ye»Lr 30a A. D., ruled Persia Boven years 
and five months and died 310 A. D. No events of any 
consequence occurred during the reign of this prince. At 
his death ho left no sou : and tho kingdom was on tho 
point of being thrown into confusion, when it was de- 
clared tliat one of the ladies in tho harem was pregnant, 
and that there were certain indications of the ombrj-o be- 
ing a male. When the child was brovight forth, it waa 
named Shahpur : and every care was taken to give tho 
yonng sovereign an education suited to hiu high duties. 

Hurmus or Hurmuzd III, *^^ ^J^^J^j the second son 
of Yezdigard II, succeeded his father, of whom he was al- 
ways thfj favourite, 466 A. D. His elder brother Firos, 
though at first compelled to fly atrosa tho Oxus, soon 
rBtixmed to assert his right at the head of a large army, 
which aided by a general defection of the Porsiana, who 
doBcrtod his weak brother, obtained an easy victory, and 
the unfortunate Hurmuz was, after a Hhiirt reign of little 
more thaa one year, dethroned and put to death 467 




HarmiU or Hurmuzd IV, t^'j ^y^r^j (theHormisdM III 
of the Orecks) wu declared successor to his fethor the 
groat Chovroei, Bomamod Kaoaherwia the Jaiit, and 
Eflcended the throne of Persia 679 A. D. His subjects 
revolted a| him ut the instigation of Bahrdm Cbobiu 
or Varauea his gcntral, whom he had offended by sondinj^ 
him a female dress becaiue he bad htma defeated by the Ro> 
mans. They oonflacd Hurmox and put out his eyes to 
diifqualiiy him from ascending the throne, and soon after 
put him to death fiOO A. D. Hia son Khusro Purvox 
having collected a force to oppose Bahr&m, who with the 
intention of taking the gOTomment into his own hands 
was advancing towarda MadAin, was defeated ; and with 
great difBeolty effected his escape to the tcTritories of the 
nomana, from whose ompcror, Mnuric«, ho met with the 
most friendly and hospitable reception. Bahrdm Chobin 
took possession of tho vacant government : but hifl nilo 
wM short : for within eight months from the period of 
his taking possession of Madain, he wils defeated by nn 
army of Ilomani and Peniana commaadod by Khusro, 
and fled to Turtary. 

Husain, e ^i — ^ j poetical name of MuzaSar HuMiin, an 

author who is also called Bhahfd or Msrtyr. He is the 
author of the work called " llayaz-na-Salikim.*' 

Husain Ali Khan Bahadtir, >>^ o^^ (^ ii^^-^i 

aecond son of Alahwardi Khin, a nobleman of high rank 
who ser^'ed under the emperor 'AUtrngfr, and died on the 
3rd of October. 1686 A. I)., 25th ?5i-Ktt'da 1007 A. H., a 
day after the fort of Bij&p{ir was lukeo. 

Husain Ali Khan, Sayyad, v)^ t^ ert-^ "H-j 
Amir-ul-Umni. Vide Abdullih Khin (Say^'fid}. 

Husain-bin-Alizn, ^^ u^ ert**, author of the *• Nui- 

hal-ul-Arwdh," containing interoeting anecdotes of the 
most celebrated Sufla, vide Husain-bia-Haaan-al-IIJuanf. 

Husain-bin-Muhammadi a8*Sama'ani, t^^^*^' 
*>*^^ c/ c*^*^j author of tho " Ivhaxsnat-al-Maaiin" 
which contains a large quantity of dcciidoiis, and is a book 
of some Authority in India. It was completod in 13.19. 
A. a. 740 A. H. . 

Husaln-bin-Ha&an-al-Husaini, t^ ^i " -^ ' u^-*- t^ 

-J a native of Oh6r and author of several works, viz. 
"Kanz-ul-RamfiK," "Si Kama," " Nuahat-nl-Arwah," 
"Zad-ul-MusAfarin." "Tarab-ul.Majilia," " Kuh-ul-.\r- 
wah." "Sirit-ul-Miwtttl^im/' and of a Diwan in Arabic 
and Persian. Ue died, says Jimk. in the year 1317 A. D., 
717 A. U., and is buried at litrat. Firiahta calla him 
Amfr Hnsatni Sidat, and says, that ho with his fother 
Sayyad Najm-uddin came to India as merchants and be- 
came the disciples of Shaikh Bahi-uddin Zikuria at Mul- 
tan, and diod at Hfrat on 1st December, 1S18 A. D., 6lh 
Shawwil, 718 A. H. 

Husain Dost Sambbali, Mir, (^^4**« *i-t>.i ert-**- 

-*« eon of Ah(x Talib of S&mbhal. Ho is the author of a 
biography of pocta called " Taikira UuRainf/* which ap- 
pears to have been etimptled a few yearn after the death 
of Muhammad Shih the emperor of DehU who diod in 
nwA. D., UGl A. U. 

Husaini, « ^M -*, author of the "Asmie Husoinf' and 

•' Miiktubit Huaaini." 
Husain Ghasnawii uiH/* ert"**j author of the story 

of Padmawat^in Persian poctxj called " ^^Mae Padmi- 



Husain Hallaj, Shaikh, ^^ ij^"^ jp^, the son of 

Uansur UaUsj, Slany fables have been invented to ac- 
count for the imprudence of this wise teacher. One of 
these states, that he obeorrcd hia sister go oat evoiy eren- 

ing : he folio wod her ; having soen her commtmicatd wXh 
the Iluries. and receive from these celestial nymphs a cap 
of nectar, ho insisted on drinking one or two drops thst 
remain&i of tbis celcdtijil liquor. His sister told him he 
could not contain it, and that it would caufle hia death. 
Ho persisted ; from the moment that he swallowed it, he 
kept exclaiming An-ul<Uak ! that is, ^ I am the trvtfa !" 
tUl he was put to death. Vidt Alansur Hall^. 

Husain, Imam, u i * *^ r^'> the second son of •Ali, the 
son-in-law of Muhammad. He was bom at Medina in 
Junuary, 630 A. I)., Shnban, 4 A. U., and was the third 
Imim of the race of *Alf. Having refused to auknuwledgv 
Yaxid the son of Mu'&wia, for the lawful Khwlif , b« 
obliged to leave Medina, and to 6y to Mecca, but waa O] 
taken on his way and killed b^' order of UbuiduUib-' 
Zayid, one ofYiun'd's captams, on the 10th Octol 
660 A. t>., lOth Mu^arram, 61 A. H. When hb 
was brouj^ht to Ubaidull&h at Kufa, he struck it ov« 
mouth with a stick, and treated it witb groat cont 
He then sent it along with his family who were 
captives, to Damascus where Yazid then reigned. 
day on which he was killed, is stiU a great day 
the Mu-ialmanA. Hn is buried at a place called 
in BubylimiHU Irak or Chaldoa near Kufs. Soma 
to show that Uusain's head was buried near the river 
Kiirbalu ; others My, that there are no traces of it le- 
mnining. However, the find ijultouof the race of Boi>iudfis 
built nn that spot a sumptuoufl monument, which is visited 
to this verj' day with great devotion by the Mi 
It is called *' Uanbaz Faiz," or the dome of grace. 

Husain-ibn-Muin-uddin Maibadi, ij^ lt* i^^ 
^lAJue i^t ^^*«>Aj author of a work on roligioa« GOtitlcd 
** Fawutah." 

Husain Jalayer, Sultan, ji^ tri-^ <y^^=^^, gtand* 

son of Amir Hasan Buzurg, succeeded his father Sultin 
Awes JiilAyer, to the throne of liaghd^d in October, 1374 
A. D., 770 A. H., and lost his life in an action with his 
brother Sul^n Ahmad in 1382 A. D., 784 A. H. ViA 
Hunan Du2urg. 

Husain Kashi, »/*^ tri*^! an author, who diod in IM4 
A. D., 951 A. H. 

Husain, Kashmiri, is ji *- " ^ iiA"^, author of thol^r- 
sian work, entitled, "Hiddyat-ul-'Ami," the Qoida totfca 
Blind, containing essays on various religioua snUectL 
Sufi doctrin(is, &c. 

Husain Khonsari, ^^UJi^ uri!-^) ^"^ on^ of th* 
celebrated philoHophers of Por«i*, sumamed &vm kts 
birtfa-placi;) Khonsitbr, a town between Teheran and Ka- 
shiin. Ue flourished in the latter part of the 17th oe&tury. 

Htisain Langa I, ^ c^t-^i third king of Molttn, 
cacoooded hia fattier )j[utb>uddin Mahmud Langa in 
1460 A. D., 874 A. H. He ent<*red into a trYiaty of atU. 
ancc with SSikandar Lodi, kinR of Dehli, and died about 
the year 1498 A. P., 9U4 A, U., or occording to aoaw 
Sunday the 28th August, 1502 A. D., 26th gaCu, 
A. H., after a reign of 30 or 34 years. He was 
by his grandson Alahmud Khin Langa. Firiahta 
thut the " Taw&nkh Bohidur Shihi," which contain* i 
history of this prim-e, is full of erroia, and the 
of the '^itirat-Sikandarf declares it to be 

Husain Langa II, ^ uri-^, fifth and last king otf 

Multan, was, after the 4calh of his father Mahmiid&ia 
Langa in 1634, raised to the throne, although a minor. 
He was only a pageant in the hands of his sistev's 
band, fcshujaa'-ul-Mulk, who assumed the office of 
tor. 8h&h Humin Argh6n, king of X^^^ 
orders of the emperor Babar Shih, soon after 
the place which waa ut length, in tho year 1636 A* D. 
(^32 A. H., carried bv escalade, after a siege of 
months. Husain Argntln having nominated oo« 




KhAn hie deputy, roturapd to That^a. When Bibar 
6h&h, dumi^ his illnofw, alidisated the throne in favor of 
his son Huini}^!!, thi' Uttor princo grivo tho Panj&b 
in j%{r to Mirza. Kamrin his troth<>r, who on his 
arrival at I^hor, m'nt for IjaJihkar Khiti and maile 
over the dialrict of Kibul to hira, in lieu of that of MuJ- 
X^n_ Eincu which tlni<? tho kingdom of Multaa has conti- 
nued a provinco of the ompiro of Dehli. 

Huaain Marwi, <S-V^ eH**^? vide Khw^'a Huaaiii 

HuaaiD Mtrza, !ir* Crf"^^* t^'^« Sultan Husain ftliirA. 
Husain Ha&hhadi, c f ^t ^ U^-"**) a Persian poot. 
Husain Moin-uddin, t^"^'ttr^** t/i~^j author of the 

" F&wata.h SuLa" on Thcolog^y. 

Husain Maihaai, Muin-uddin, u^'H^ l^*"^ c;:!'^' 
ti/i**, author of thp "Hujanjal-ul-Axwih," or Mirror of 
Spirits, a Bt'kkcLion from the Persian and Turki poot«. 
Ho tioorished in the t-uth century of tho Uijm, 

Husain Huammai, MItj t^^+** e.*^-*^^*, a cclobra- 

t.-d punstor who diod in the yr.iir UU8 A. D., 904 A. H. 

Husain Nakshi, MuUa, i/*^ »irt— ^ ^j a learned 
Ma.*uLlmftn of IJehb' who wus a good ]xj(<t and an pxcfillpnt 
engraver in tho time of tho unipL-rur Akbjir. Uo dii-d un 
the IGth of July, 1081 A. U., Ulh Junxd-la II, 9»1> A. U. 

Husain Nizam Shah I, »^ /»^'' t:/i~^; ascended the 
throne of Ahmadnajjiir in the Dukhan in tho 30th year 
of his age, aftor the diuth of hia futhur Burh&n Kiznm 
8hih I in tho year 15^4 A. D., 9(J1 A. il. in ioC5 
A. D., 972 A. H., on alliance wiia fonnod between him 
and tho threo Sultans, vis., 'Alt' 'Adil Shall uf liijipur, 
Ibrihim Kutb Sbih of Q6lkuuda and Amir JBarid of Ah- 
madahfid Bidar, against Ramr&j, raja of Bijaiuijjar, who 
waA defeated and slain. Husain Nizam Shah died tduvun 
days after his return from this t;xpt;dition, on Wednoaday 
the 6th of Juno, I66ii A. D., 7th jji-Ka'da, 972 A. II., and 
his son Murtazi Nizam Shah Hueccodod htm. Tho death 
of Nizam Shah has beon comra(;momtt:d in the following 
chronogram : " The sun of tho Dakhan has becomo ob- 
Bfurod," , ^ 

Husain Nizam Shah II, v^^ *^ C^ erf-*, a nonuoal 
princ« of thr' Nizam Shah£ dynasty. Vid< Fatha KhAn, 
the aoiQ of MliUk ' Ambar. 

Husain Sabawari, iSj^xr^ i^^^^^y a native of Sabzwar, 
and author of tbu workfi entitled " Lat4ef Wazief," and 
" Rahat-ul-Arwafa," books on Siifyiam, containing tho 
bent means of obtaining salvation , and rules for moral 

Husain Sadat, Slir, oti>'^ tri'*^-^** ri<f# Husain 

bin - Haaan -al - H usjiini. 

Husain Shah Lohani, Pir, j^i i/^r' »^ t^i-* 
a Muhammadim stiint whost* t«mb is Jn Munghir, whore 
both Uindusand Muhnmmadans make offerings especially 
on their macriagi'S and other special occasions. 

Husain Shah Sharki, Sultan, tj^ «*^ tji-** 

ejUw—, aficended the Ihrimn of Jaunpur after his brother 

Mahamnuid-ShiLb^ who was gla^ iu battlu about the year 
I4fi2 A. D„ 856 A. U. He fought Boveral battles with 
S^hl6l hodiy tho king of Dehli, and was at last defeated, 
and ftu doaety pursued that he left his horao and escaped 
on foot. The army of Dehli advanced without any other 
chock to Jaunpur which fell to thf arms of Bahl61, whDe 
llusain Shah, abandoning his capital^ was obliged to con- 
icat hiinwU with a BxnoU tnu^t of country yioldJUi^ uuly 

a revenue of five lakhs of nipoea, Bahl6l having delivered 
over Jaunpdr and its kingdom to his own son Barbak, 
enjoined him not to deprive Husain 8hah of the small 
tnict to which he was i-uufined, lerminf^ it hu» family 
estate. This evont took place abr>ut tho year 147G A. D., 
881 A. H., and tho bubvorsion of the Sharki d^Tiaety mar 
be dated from that year. The reigo of llusain Shih 
lasted for a period of 1 9 lunar yearn. Some yejira after 
the death of Bnhl6l Lodi (which happened in 1489 A. V^ 
8tfi A. 11.) liuaain iShah inoiti^ the princo Birbalc to rise 
up against his brother Sikiuidar I^odt, king of Dehlf, and 
wrest the guverDm).<ut out of his hands; but Birlmk was 
defeated in the first action and retired to Jnunpiir, to 
whii. h place he was pursued by tho king. Jaunpur fell 
shortl}- after» and was added to the kingdom of Dehli. 
Huusnin Shah was now induced to BtA-k ri'fugo with 'Ali- 
uddin Piirbi, king of Bengal, by whom he was treated 
with the respect duo to his stiition till his death which 
took plaee iu U99 A. D., 905 A. H. With him tho royal 
line of Jaunpur was extinguiAhod. 

Husain Shah, *^ »i^"""* of Bengal ; vide 'Ala-uddin 
Husain Shah. 

Husain Shah, Sayyad, »^*;rf-**H*», author of tho 

story of Bahnun G6r, entitled " Hasht tiulgnsht," which 
he made into proso from the ** Ha^ht Bahisht" of Amir 
Kbusro iu tht^ year ISOO A. 1)., 1215 A. 11., on tho re- 
quisition of M. (.Tiarles Perron, who served under Daulat 
Itio Scindliia, vidi lliik-ik'at. 

Husain Weibz, Maulaaa* "^'j c ^ ** uj(y« Bunuuned 

KAshifi, was a man of consequence in the time of Sullan 
liusaiu Mirea, sumamed Abu'l Uliazi BaliAdurof Khura- 
san, and held tho office of sacred horuld in the city of 
Uirat till the Hijri year 91i), on the last day uf which he 
expired, i. e., on the ard Junt^, loUe A. 1*., 30th ijil-buja, 
910 A. n. He is the author of a corami-Tntttry on the 
Kuran, aimmonly called " Tiifsir Ilusaini," which ho 
entTtkJ *' Miiwibih 'Uliat," also of one entitled "Jttwi- 
hir-ut-rafaair.'* Besides these, he wrote sevoral other 
works, iimong^ which ore tht.- " Rouiat-ush-Shuhadi," 
an excellent history of Muhammad with a minute detail 
of the battle of Karbala, dedicated to Sultan Husain Mir- 
SA in 1601 A. D., an abrid^rtnenl of which is t^led " Doh 
Btajlis." The " Akhlak Muhsini." a very valuable sj'stem 
of Ethics, treating upcm worship, prayer, patience, hope, 
chastity, &c., dedicated to the same Sultin 1494 A. D., 
000 A. n., the title of which gives tho year of its comple- 
tiou, Tho ** Anwar Subeli," (Kiuanations of tho star 
Canopus) being a translation of Piljwiy'a Fables in Per- 
sian^ dedjcated to Amfr Shaikh Ahmad Suhali, seal-bearer 
to the Sultin. Ho c^ls himself in this lK>ok Maulilna 
Husain-bin-'Ali-al-Waos sumamed Kishifi. Ho also 
tnodu an abridgment of Moulwi Uumrs MasoAwi which 
ho called " Lubb-i-Utbab." He is also the ftiithoT of the 
workacaUed " Mukhxan-ul-Inshi'* *' Sab«'* Kishifia (on 
astrology) '*A»rir Kisimi," "Matla-'ul-Anwir," and of a 
collection of Anecdotes Ciilled " Ijataef-ut-Tawief." This 
author is by ^mc wnti-rs called Kamil-uddin Husain-al- 
Waez-al- KaahiC- us-Subx wan. 

Husain-uddin Husain-bln-Alij ^*^ l^ trt-*' 

^pJl ,^j4-»4.^ who is said to have been a pupil of Burhin- 

uddin 'All, was the first who wrote a commentary on the 
Hidaya, entitled the Nihiya. 

Huzuri, Mir, ij:y^^J^> wn of Amir Si^^id *Ali Muh- 
tasib. He hved iolhotiracof Shih Isma'il Safwi, and 
wrote a chronognun on hia acceasion to the throne of Persia 
in tho year 1576 A. D., dt)4 A. H, Ho is tho author of a 




M Tai, 4^ 4^1 tH*j autlior o' the work called 
Ibii-Abu Uaaibia, Muwafflk-uddin AbuHAbbas 

Abmitd. '+i-*^' er^' '^^I cr^W u^**^' JV*, au- 
th/fT of tbo Arabic work called " 'A>iin-al- Azil>i-fl-Tabk&t- 
ul-Atibbi," i. f.| Fountuns of Information rMpecting the 
[iliWM of FhyBiciaxu. Thu book waa traiuUted by the 
aathor into Aiubiu from the SazLskxit nt the commenoement 
of the 13th century of oor era. In the 12th chapter of 
thia work, he giTes an accoant of all the FhyaicianB who 
were from India. Of one, whom ho calls £jmka-al-Uind£, 
he says. Ho wan akilful as a philosophnr amongst the 
ancient phUoaophen of India^ and one of the groatest of 
men. Ho mveeti^tod the art of physic, the power of 
medicinoa, tho natoro of compound aubs^oos, and tho 
properties of nmplo iiubtttancos. Ho was the mostU'amed 
of all men in the form of tho univerM*, tho composition of 
the heavenly bodiea, and the motiona of the planets. An 
extract from the above work ia given in tho '* JoumDl of 
the Royal Asiatic Society^ No. U/' by tho Rev. W. Cure- 
ton; with rt^marka bv Professor H< H. Wilson. Ibn- 
Abu Usoibia died in 1269 A. D., 668 A. H. 

Ibn-Arabif (^ir'u^'j surname of Shaikh Muhl-uddin 
oi-Andalusi, a celebrated doctor of Damaecua to whom, 
the Muhammadans pn«tcnd^ was dictuted or insplri-d, or 
■ent from heaven, by their pi-ophot in thi^ year 1220 A. D., 
a book of mystical divinit}', callod " Faada-ul-Hakom." 
It contains 27 Hukanu or Instructions ; each of which ia 
attributed to one of tho ancient patriarchs or propheta, 
excepting the laat* which bc-longs to Muhammad, and is 
entitled ** Hakam Fardiyit MohammaduLt*' The Musal- 
min do<rton are very much divided as to tho morit of 
this work ; for some praiso it. and othora absolutely reject 
it, as being full of superstititjn and falsehood. He is also 
the author of seveial other works, one of which is called 
» Fat&hit Hakkia." He died in 1240 A. D., 638 A. H. 
There appears to bo another Ibn-'Arabi who died in 
Sotmanrae in BaghdM in the year 104O A. D., or 431 
A. U., and who was also an author of aevurul works. 

Ibn-Arabshah, '^/* er^'i surname of Ahmad-bin-Mu- 
hammad, a native of Damascus, who besides a collection 
of Taloe, wrote sevoml other works in a very poliahud 
ft^le, the meet celebrated of which if a history of tho 
Life of Amir Taimiir (Tamerlane) entitled ** 'Ajfaeb-ul- 
MalfdAr." Ho died at Damaacos in the year 1460 A D., 
864 A. H. Tidt Arab 8h^ 

Ibn-Amin, C^' cH*f ritU Ibn-Yamin or Amfr Mohmiid. 

Ibn-AfllTy ^1 cH'f a].8haib&ni Majd-nddin, also called 
«I :uari, a moat celebrated Arabian author of whom we 
have several works. He ia tho author of tho Arabian 
work on Junsprudence entitled ** J&ma'-ul-U«ul," a work 
having great authority. Another of his worla is called 
** Kamil-ut-TawBrCkh." He is by some autbon oalled 
Ab&'l Sa'adat. Mnbirik>bin-Afi£r-al-Jazari, commonly 
called Iho.Asfr. He died 1209 A. D., 606 A. H. Vnit 

Ibn-Askar* y^"* cH'i an author who wrote tho history of 

Ibn-Babawi&, ^y^. cH'i ri<i« AbA Ja'far Muhammad 

bin-' Aii-bin-B4ba wia. 
Ibn-Batutay *b*i cH'j the Arab traveller whom Muham- 

mad Tughla% made Judge of Dchli, was the author of 

th« w^i^Ued "Trarels of Ibn-Botdta,'* which has 

been tranalalGd from Arabio b^ tho Hev. S. Lee* B. D. 
London, 1829. Ibn- Batata performed his pilgrimage lo 
Mecca in 1332 A. D., 732 A. U. His work contains few 
&cts concerning Arabia. His wholo account of Ueoca is 
" May God ennoble it." 

Ibn-Bauwabj v!>^ crftj vid* Bauwib. 
Xbn-Dahan, ^^^ l^, vidtVUiixu 
Ibn-Darastuya, ^j^j'^ c^, commonly called w>, bathts 

proper name is Abli Muhammad 'AlKluUah, the no of 
Ja'6\r, a very learned Alosalman who died 068 A. D., S47 
A. H., at Baghdad. 

Ibn-Duredf '^i^ cH', author of a dictionary and of a work 
entitled ** Ghtuib-ul-^uran" which is also callod "Jam- 
hint." H» diud at Baghdad in 933 A. D., 321 A. H. 

Ibn-Fakhr-uddin Anju, j^^^ t^^ l^', author 

of tho " Forhang Jahaugiri," tide Jamal-uddin Hoaua 

Ibn-Farat, ^ir^ iji^j author of the Geographical Menoiis 

of Egj*pt, 

Ibn.Parghani, i^^J et^'. Shaikh AWi Bakr WaAi, 

a saint, who died about 320 A. H. 

Ibn-rourak, OJJ* crf'j f'<^* Foural^ 
rbn-Q-haySB, '^^ u^j vide Kamal-uddln MohaoUDod 

Ibn-Hajar, Shahab-uddin, j^ er^ izfi'^^ VY*» 

son of 'All 'Udkalani, an Arabian author who wrote mon 
than a hundred books, among which are " Liaas-ul- 
MiMU," and As&ba. He died tn 1449 A. D., 863 A H^ 
vide 8hahab-uddin Abu'l Fazl-al-'Uekaliui. 

Ibn-HaJar Yehsami or Yehthamii i^*-ti j^ 

i^t, Bon of Badr-uddin. author of the work callad ** !«> 
waik Muhri^a," and several other books. He died ta 
1566 A. 1>., 974 A. H. 

Ibn-Hajib, V^^ Lr?lj an Arabian author of tntnl 
works. Uo died at Alexandria in the year IS48AD<« 
646 A. H. He is the author of the two conunaiteritf 

caUcd " Kifia and Shafla." 

Ibn-Hanbal, J^ t^', whoeo proper name is AH 'in. 
dullah Ahmod-ash-Shaib&ni-al-Marwaci, but genrraOY 
known by the name of Ibn-Hanb«l« was the fbundtf of 
the fourth Sunnt sect. This learned doctor, ^Hio «■ a 
pupil of Smfa'i, strenuously uphold the opinion «>^* ths 
Kuran was uncreated, and that it had existed fren all 
etemit}'. Since, however, it happened unfortunately <bt 
the Khulifa Al-Mu8tansir maintained tho contiaiy 4m* 
trine, Ibn -IT an bal was greatly peraecuted for his prisMturt 
opposition to that monarch's favorite bolieC FiA HanU. 

Ibn-Hanbalii (^^ t^l^ surname of MohanuBad-bis- 
Ibrihlm Hanbali, author of the " Tlddat-al-Hisib-wa- 
Unidat-ul-Maaihib," a hook of Arithmetic. He di«d \9Vt 
A. D., 971 A. H., and is the author of SffTond olW 


Xbn-Hasham, f^ i^'i the author of the Ginl>«U 
IlasiU or Biography of the Prophet His native place «m 
Old Cairo, where ho died in 828 A D.. 213 A H. An 
abridgment of his work was made at Damascus m 1107 
A. D^ 707 A. H., by one Ahmad Ihn-Ibtahim. 

Ibn-Hasham, *-*r^ tr^ p^^ e^», eon of YumI; after 
of several Arabic works, among which arc **ToB«ah,'* 
" Sharah Alfla," 4c 4c. He died 1861 A- D, 762 A IL 




rbD-Hilsbailt t^™" iirfl, whose proper name wbs Asir- 
nddin Miiliaiimiad, the son of YtiBaf. Wrifl the author 
of sovt'ntl workn. Hb dJod at Damascus in tho year 134-i 
A,;D., 745 a. II. 

Ibn-HilaL, J** i^'j also calUd 'Alki, ia theanthorofa 
work, rntitlod '* llinhij-iil-Taliliin," which ia also culled 
" Tarikh *Alfif,'* and is dedicated to Shih Shuj4a* Kir- 

Ibn-Houbalj O^J^ ty^'j a celoljrated phywdan and au- 
thor> who died in the year 1213 A. D, 

Ibn-HoULkal, tii]^ ti^t, an Arabian, and author of thu 

work, pntitled •' Ashkal-iil-BiUd," containing maps and 
gBographical dtw-rifition uf Bovoml coimtriea, which hu 
wrote in the ywir 977 A. 1)., 367 A. H. 

Ibn-Humam, (■'** t.»-^lj author of a Commentary on the 
Hidayit, inlitlrd " iMith-uI-Kmlir/" which ia alan ralK4 
"Sharah Hidiyu." He di.d in the yuar 1457 A. D., 861 
A. n, lli> ia also ralh-d Humom, which soo. 

Ibn-Husam, i;*^"^ cH'j of Khaw&C samamo of Shams- 

liddin MuhanmiJid, author cf an hcnnr pot?m in praise of 
'All, containing th<- jjrinripal events of his lifo ; hifl diB- 
puti-!<, wiim, Accm entitled ** Khawar N&ma." He died I'iTO 
A. D.» 876 A. U. 

rbn-Ibad, ^^ cH', suruamo of Abd'l Kasim Istnifl, 
Klifi. whn WHP wazir and first mim8t4'r of stato to the 
8ult4nA Miiwaiyjid-nddauhiand Kakhr-udduula of tht) race 
of B6ya. lie di* d 095 A. I>., 385 A. H., mvi is said to 
liavo left a liliniry con^istfntr nf 112,000 Toliinns, and to 
have poiwfd fnr tht; most prniTona and most HhcnJ man 
of hia time. Uo was also stylod Kaii'ul-luifat. 

Hjn-Imad, <^^ ti'-'j a K*'t <^^ Khurdsin who flourishfi 
in the lattrr end fif th« I4th renliuy of thu Cliristinn Era, 
He reaidt-d in Shiraz. and la author of a Diwin or a lovc- 
storj', ciiUi-d "■ l>iih NAma", in Pi^rsian. 

I'bn-JiQBi, Lf^ <i^'> whoso proper name was Ahu'l Fatha 
TBinAn, a kann d Musalman. hut blind of one oj'o. Hu 
dk-d at Bdghdad 10U2 A. D., 3^2 A. H. 

Ibn-Jouzif Lfj^ L^'j i»* ^^'1 Farah-ihnJ^ouzl. 

rbn-Kamal Pasha, ^^ J'^ cj^'j surname of Mufti 
ShamB-uddin Ahiu:Ld-bin-SuIiiimiin. nathor of the "Sha- 
mh Hiidis-al-'Ar»)a{n." Ho died 1633 A. D., 940 A- H. 

Itn-Kattaa. t!^ t^^ ^j^r^^ J^ j^ erf <>=, 

aumamf of 'Ali-l'in-Ju'fjir Siltilli, ;in Arabian author, who 
di*xl ll'2l A. U., ftlo A. H. 

rbn-Khaldun, ctf*^l:>?'j the African philosophiT, His 
namt* and titb-H arc in Ambit*: " Wali-uddin Abu Zaid 
h" i* bettor knouTi by the sinplu ptitronymic namu of Ibn- 
Ehaldun. Ilia inthur uuniamcd KluLldun wus a native 
of Amiiiirg or Borbur (in Africa), but hiH wife, dr-eccniting 
frimi a tiimily of th«^ Ambian prnvincu Uaznimat» made 
h.-r Hon adopt thr- sumami' of AUUainmii. Uv waa bom 
in TuniB in tliu ytur 1332 A. U., niid piksawl hia yuiith in 
Egypt. Uc thin flen'L'd a short time under Taimur. aa 
chief justice at Ihunast us. Ui' T<tumf'd to Eg>l»t where 
he Iwciunf? Suiinmc Jud^c, and di<d in tht) year UOfi 
A. D. Uif* printipal and moat rLmarfcubli- work ia tho 
Historj* of thi' Arabs, the femiima, nnd tho Barber*. 
Tbi' whcdi* cumpoaition ia I'ommunly called Tarikh-ibn* 


Ibn-Ehallikan, iu*^i^ trffj whoae fa!l namp is Shams- 
uddiQ AbCi'l Abbaa Ahmad>ibn -Muhammad- ibn- Abu Bakr- 
ibii'KhalUk^, drew hia deficient from u family of Balkh. 
Thia very »mincnt ecfaolar and foUowix of Sh4ftt*i doc- 
tiini^a, woa bcm at jVrbela, hut rocidod at Oiunascua, 
where ho hud fillwl tho place of chiof Ki«f till tho yejir 
12M1 A. D., 680 A. H., whun ho was diainiiiwxl, and from 
that time till tho day of hia death hu msver went out of 
doora, lie waa a man of the groati^t repub^tioo for 
learning, vfirscd in rarioua et-ionces, and highly accum- 
pliflhed ; he was a scholar, a poet, a compiler, and an his- 
torian. By his talents and writingii, htf mmtod the hon- 
orable title of " the most bame<l man," and the ablfnt 
hiatorian. Hia celebrated Biographical work, called thu 
AVafiat-ul-Aiydn or dLniths of euiinent men, is the acmo 
of p*'rf*'ction. This work waa translat^^d from tho Arabic 
by Baron MueCJucklin I>o Slane, Member of the Council 
of the AHiatic iSocioty of Paria, &c^ and published in 1843 
A. D. This translation is a most valuable work to thi>»« 
who wish to piin a knowledge of the legal liten*turo of 
thfi Muhiimmadans, as he has added to the text nmnerous 
learned notes, replete with curious and int*jc«ting^ infor- 
mation relating to tho Muhauimaduu law and lawyers, 
Ibn-Khalliliftn wnslHim on Thursday the a2nd of Sep* 
timber, 1211 A. D., lUh Kabf II, GOH A. H.. and died on 
XTiurwday the 31st af Octobi-r, ISSS A. D., 26th Rajab, 
ftSl A. II., agfd 73 lunar yejirs, in the Nnjil.iu Colbgp 
at Daiuaseu.'t and was interred at Mount Kasiyun« 

Ibn-Khxirdadbih, ^^foj^ i^^j an historian, who died 
about the year i)12 A. D. Vide Khurdaaiha, 

Ibn-Eutaiba, *-^^^:J^'J surname of Shaikh al-Tm£m 
Aliu Mtihammiid Abdulluh-bin-Muslim Prnwan, author 
of the " Avun-ui-Akhbar," und many other works. He 
died 8m9 A." D., 267 A. H, 

IbtL'^Majai ^^^ t^H'j whose proper name is Abu Abdul- 
lah MuhaTumad-bin-Ve/id-bin-Majn-al-Kaxwfni, was the 
author of a collection of traditions, and of a commentury 
on the Kuran. I'bn first, which ia entitbd " Kitub-us- 
Sunan," is the t^isth biwk of the Sunna, and ia commoulv 
called " Sunan Ibn-Maja," lltn-Maja was Irom in the year 
b-2i A. P., 20y A. C, and died in 8S6 A. I)., 273 A- H. 

Ibn-Makla, ^^** C^'i wazirof the khalif jil-Kdhir Billah 
uf Baghdad, whom, with the connent of other Umras. ho 
deposed and havinj? deprived him of ^i^ht, nu»ed AI- 
Ra/.i Billah to ihu throne. Not long: afl*;r. his luuidn and 
tongue wore cut off by the oider of Riizi, because he had 
writtoft a letter to the Khalifs enejiiy without his know- 
ledge, from whieh he died in the year U3'J A. 1)., 327 
A. H. Ibn-SIakla is the inventor of the present Arabic 
character whieh was aft<^'rwardsimpruvt-d by Ibn-Bauwab. 

rbn-Marduya, *y-y* trf'j commonly called so, but his 
pn-p'T nami' is Abu Uakr. He is the author "f the work 
" MuHtnkharij Bikhiri" and of a cemment.'iry and history. 
He died 410 A. H. 

rbn-Mahk, ^^ erf', ride Ahfi AhdulUh-ihn.Mihk. 

Ibn-MuaUlm, f*^ trf', tuU J?haikh Mufid. 

Ibn'^Rajabf ^i'fr Zain-uddin-bin-Ahnuid. 

XbU'-RasMd, *^^J tJ^'i surname of Abu'l Walid Muham- 
mad-bin- Ahmad, whom the Europeans call ATerroes tad 
Avon KotKh, was one of the most subtile philosophfln that 
evtT apprared among the Arabiana. H^^ was bom at 
Cordulia in Spain, wh^re his lathir held the offico of high 
priest and ehicf judge, under tho emperor of 5Ioroeco. 
Hia knowledge of law, divinity, malhuniatic]i, aud astro- 
logj* was vvTv exti-naivc, und to this waa added the theory 
rather than the practice of medicine. Un the death of 
his tathcTj he was appointed to succeed him. Fulling 




under tho raopicion of heroey, he was doprivod of hu 
post*, aD<l thrown into prinon, from whence ho was at 
lust deliwrfd and niinatAtod in hia office of judge. Ho 
wrote a troatiae on tho art of phyeio, an EpHomo of 
Ptolemy's Almagest, a troatiae on astrology, and many 
amorous rersca ; but when ho grew old, ho threw tho throo 
hit into tho flro. As to n»ligion, hiH opinioM were, that 
Chrirtianity is tihsuri ; Judaism, tho TC?ligion of children -, 
and MuhAmmadanism, tho religion of awine. Tho Iwat 
nditJou of hiN works is that of Vctuco, publiahcd in 1608. 
Ho is mid to hav«i difvi in 596 A. H.. correu ponding with 
119ft A. D., but I^mpri^re in his Universal Biography 
anvR, Ihnl he ditd ul Mfiropco in 1206 A. D. 

Ibn-Sabbagh-al-Shafai, j^^l ^^ t^', iraniimw 
of Ab(i NaST 'Abdul Said-hin-ainhammad. author of 
the " Uddttt-ul-'AUm Wit Tarfl^-ul-Sdliiu." Ue died 
1084 A. D., 477 A. II. 

Ibn-Sad, •***• Ui'i author of tho Tabakit. 
Ibn-Sina, ^*t*" nf'^t ndg Abu Sma. 
Ibn-Shahab-UZ-Zohri, iSj^^ h^ <;?*', on Arabian 

nuthor who flourished during tho Khil&fat of 'Umar-iba- 

* Abdul 'Aziz. 

tfan-Sirajy ^1^ ^'j whoso proper namo U Abli Bakr 
Mohanmutd, was an Arabian author, and died in 928 A. D. 
316 A. H. 

Ibn-ITkba, *^ c;^'> eumamo of Jamnl-uddin Ahmad, 
author of the " Cmdat-ut-TAlib." Ho diod 1424 A. D., 
8*^8 A. U. 

Ibn-Ukda, >*^ c^'i ri'<fe Abii'] *Abb^ Ahmad-bia-Mu- 

rbn-ul-Arabi, iJj*^^ ^^> *'* Ihn-Ambl. 

Ibn-ul-Hajar, ^r*^' cH*j nVr Ibn-Hnjiir. 

Ibn-ul-Jaaari-bm-Muhammad, L5lijV' t:^', an Ara- 
bian author who diod in the your 1430 A. D., 633 A. 11. 

rbn-Ul-Khasbabf v'"^' C^'* whoso proper name ia Abu 
Muhammud 'Abdullah, waa on oxct-llont penman. Ho 
ditd at Baghdad in 1172 A. D., 667 A. H. 

Ibn-ul-Bumi, tJ*Xr' cH'> a famous Arabian poot who was 
ro-tomporary with Avioenna. Ho is thu aathor of u 
Diwau in Arabic. 

Ibn-ul-Warda, 'AJ-t' c^*» anther of an Arabic histor>- 
callcd " MukhtAair Janui-ut-Tawirikh," a valuable gon- 
ctal histor>- from 1007 to 1643 A. D. 

Ibn-US-Baloh, ^^^1 i^^'i whose proper namo ia Abd 

'Amr4 'UsminOiin-'AUlur Bahmin-aah-Shahixtiri, author 
of a collection of dn-iaiozu according to tho doctrino of 
6hi(a'i, entitled '* Fatawi Ibn-UM-Hakth." Ue diod in 
1214 A. D^ 642 A. H. 

rbn-Tomin, ly*^ tr^', a odebruted poet, whoM proper 
name was Amir Mahmud, which see. 

Ibn-Yunas, ^f^Jii:^^^ airtronomertotheKhaltfof Egypt, 
who ob8cr\'od three cclips'js with such caro, that by mouns 
of thoiii, wo art* i>i)iibl>.>d to dotcrniinu tht* quantity uf tho 
mounV ai;ci>lcratic>n einco that time. Hu livud about a 
rcntury or more after Al-Batonf. 

tbn-Zohr, jJo ^t, Hdt Abdul Malik Ibn-Zohr. 
Ibn-Zuryk, •-^^ c»^S Tandkl, an author. 
Ibrahinii (*t*V tho patriamh Abraham. 

Ibrahim, (^!^t an emperor of tho Moors of Africa in lh» 
I2tb ccnturjs who wu» dolhronod by hia aubjocts, and his 
crown usurped by 'Abdul Mumin. 

Ibrahim, Sultan, (^j^^ lyUJ-, omporor of the* Turk*, 

wnfl thrt son of Ahmad (Achmat). Ho succeeded hii.laiv 
thcr Murod IV (Amaralh) in Fibruar>-, 1G40 A. U., IW9 
A. H.. and spout a (jjreat pari of hia r^ign in the war itl 
Crete against the Venetians, but without any gT«at «e- 
CC33. He was aasajaiiiiiitod for his dobauchorioa and rw 
potttcd cruelties in 1G49 A. I)^ 1069 A. H. Hia aon*)tiu 
hammad IV, succeeded him. 

Ibrahim, |^*'^*» the son of AloahUr, killed in 690 A. V^ 
71 A. H., in M battle fought bctwocn the khalff 'Abda! 
Malik and Misaa'b the brother of 'Abdullah, the Mm id 
Zubair whoso faithful friend he waa. 

Ibrahim, (^i/iU the son of Ibrffliim Wabrin, ft w»y 
&mous doctor of the sect of Sh&la% and author of nwi) 


Ibrahim Adham, r^-i' i^Ih'j * ^^ ^ Balkh, who 

rotirod from tho world, became a DtTvish and di^ br. 
tween the years 876 and 880, aged 110 yeara. It is said 
that be saw in a dream, a man on the top of a hooio 
looking for something. Ho naked him, what he was look* 
ini; for ? Tho man replied, that he had lost hia 
What a fool you must be. said the king, to bo I 
for your camel on the roof of a house. The man rwjo 
And what a fool you must bo to lrK>k for God in the 
and troublea of a crown ! Tbrahim Erom that day abdi* 
cuti-'l hid throne, and beeamo a wandering Dorviah. 

Ibrahim 'Adil Shah I, *^Jjf^ ^l^U SulUn of Bi. 
japAr, suninmed Abii'l Nosr, son of Ismafl 'Adil Shalu 
sueeocdod his brother Mallu Adil Shih, on the throne of 
Bijipur in tho Dakhan in 1536 A. P., 941 A. H. 
married tho daughter of 'Ala-uddfn 'Imid Shah, 
Rubia Sultimi in 1543 A. D., OdO A. IL, rdgiuid 24 
years and some months, and died in 1558 A. D._ 
A. H, He was buried at K6ki near the tombs of 
father and grandfather, and was sncoeodod by hia son 'Alt 
^Adil Shfih. 

Ibrahim 'Adil Shah II, »^lj^ (H*y , ofBiiipOr, 

sumamcd Abu'l Mnxaffax, was tho son of ' 'i» 

brother of \\li 'Adil Shah, whom he suei . nl, 

1580 A. D., Sttfar, 988 A. U., being thou oni;, !. n- 
ninth year. Tho management of puUic affain w i - ^ > : 
to Kamil Kh&n Bakhuoi, and Chind 6fl>t 6ui^juM, 
widow of the late king, was untrustod with the can of ttv 
education of tho minor monarch. For some time £aaal 
Khan behaved with due modemtion in his office ; but U 
length was guilty of some riulencc towards Chand Sul- 
t&na, who turned her tboughta to cffoft hia dcetractioa. 
She eocretly sent a message to Uaji Kiahwsr Khiu, an 
officer of high rank, who caused him to be nmnhatad. 
After this event Kishwar Kh^ by tho support mod |tt* 
tronoge of C'b£nd Bibi, gr^^P^ ^he authority of tho Sb^ 
and ruled with uncontrolled sway, till he was »awsainat«d. 
AkhUs Khin next assumed the regency ; but afliar soum 
timo he was seiaod hy DiUwar Khin, who pat oat has 
eyoa, and bocame ^^g(^nt of the empiro. He was «x]MdUd 
by the king in 1690 A. D., and his uyos put out and htmsftlf 
cjnfinod in 1693 A. D. lbr£him 'Adil Khih di«d afisr ft 
reign of more than 38 lunar years in 162C A. Dh 
A. U., and wns sueccedod by his son Muhammad 
8h£h. Tho iinrt building of any importance we 
Bfj&p<!ir. is the Ibrahim Rausa, ^xo tomb of 
*Adil Shih U. On a high-raised platfonn of 
s<?panttfKl by a square, in the midst of which t« a hooa 
or fountain, stand the roosa and moaqae opposita muh 
other, and corresponding in aise and contour. TImi Umk 
is most elaborately ornamented, the walla being 

namri J 




with Inflcriptions from the Kurdn in raised stone Arabic 
letters, -which formerly were gilt, on a blue ground, 
though now th** rolt.uring bis worn away. The mosquM 
alflo is a btMinUt'ul huilJing. 

Tbrahim All Khan, iit^ij^ ^**'--^^ thf new chit-f of 
Mftltir Kotln 'im a minor of about 15 yofire of ago (1872), 
And in receiving hiii education in the Wards' {School at 

Tbrahim Ali Khan, e^^i/* (*i*LH', nawab of Tonfc, 

g^ran-if-oii <>{ thr fuuioua IHnduru ohivf Amir Khiln. His 
bithcT Sluhitmrniid 'Ali Khan was d< pohtd by lh«- British 
GnveniinrTit on account at thu I/nwa ma-ssii'T^! in tH(>7. 
He waa insbillLd as nawib of Tonk on tho I'Jth Jaunurj-, 
1871 by th<! British Govemmt'nt. 

Ibraium Astarabatii,t5'>SLr***t (♦i*!;^*, an author who 

traufllttte«l tlit* liiHala or '* Kitub Hu«ani:i" of Abu'l Futuh 
li£zi Mukki fium thu Arabic into I'lj-tiian in 1551 A. D., 
968 A. U. 

Ibrahim Barid Shah, »^**^y |*i^!/'> auccceded hia 
fiithL-r 'All BariJ in tJio government of Ahinadiibad BiJur 
about thu yeiir 15(i2 A. JJ., 1)70 A. II. Hv n-ig-nt'd wjvfii 
yv&rs and died about thf^ loG9 A. 1)., 977 A. U. 
His brother Ku»im Barid II, ttueceodt'd him. 

Ibrahim Bayu, Malik, >t*. r^Lr^' ^''- In tho 
province of Ji< hur thi.n' is ti hillock called l*ir Pahfiri, on 
the top of whii'h llicri' in ii luinb with Fei-biau inscriiitions 
in verm, mlimatinif that Malik Ibrahim Bayu dii-d in 
the roi^m of Sultan Firoz Shah on a Sunday in tho nionth 
of Zil-bijja 753 A- 11., which currespoods with Jtoiuaryj 
13dli A. 1)., but who he waa wu art; not mforiued. 

Ibrahim-bin-Aghlab, V^'cj^ (^*1/' » «ii Arabian cap- 

liiin will' wu:i ap])ointod »;ov(>mor of Kjj^ypt iind Africa 
by the Khaltf Uiirun-al-Ki»»hid in 800 A. U., I8-I A. II. 
Tho descendanta of Uiia governor who settled in Ai'rica, 
boro the name of Aijhlubia or AH:bhibites, and fonntd a 
dynaaty of princes wliu n igneil then' till the year 908 
A. D., 29G A. II,, when they wuro driven out by the i'a,- 

Ibrahim- bin-Ali, u^C^ /•'fe*LrJ'* author of tho work 
eulb^ '■ M;ijmu'-ul-Aii*ab," or the Genealogy of the dU'- 
fercut dyiuijjties of Toreia, till 123^ A. D., 030 A. 11. 

Ibrahim-bin-Hariri, lSjU^ij^ f^Lrf'j author of tho 

"TArfkh Ibr&Mrm/' an abridi^-d history of India, from 
the curliest limes*, to Iht- cnuqural uf thai country by the 
emperor Babar .Shdli, who def-at'd Sulrdn nirahim IIiw- 
aain Lodi, king of Dehli, and becmno tho fuimder of thtJ 
Mughal dynaxtr. It was dedicated to Babur Sh&h in 
1&28 A. !>., Oai'A. U. 
Ibrahim-bta-Muhammad-al-Halabi, Shaikh, 

^^xU^l»>^^-^j^^! ^^ 

uutlior of a Pernian work 

on Thiolf.j^y railed " Aka -d Sunnia,*' and nf tho " Mul- 
taJja-abAbhar." 'Vhh work, which ia an univeraal c.jdo 
of Muhamintidan law, coulaiuw Ibe opinions of tho four 
chief Mujtahid Lmims, and illustrateB ihcm by thuin' of 
the principal juriscoiiaultw of tliw wbool of Abii llanifa. 
Ho died 16-19 A. !>., Ooti A. H , vide ImAm 'Alain-bin- 

Itrahim-bin-Nayal, J'*^ LLr^^Iyl , brother of Tughral 
Bog's mother, ii chief who defeated Tughan Shih I, a 
princo of the Saljukian family, in tattle, took hitn pri- 
soner and blinded him. Ibraliim waa murdered aftvr 
soroo timo in 952 A. D., 151 A. II., by Tughral Beg, the 
aucle of XughAU 5h4h« 

Ibrahim-bin-Saleh, ^^crf (^}j*U cousin of UArun-al- 

Uashi'd. A ciitriouM wtory ia given of him in tho .lournal 
of tho Royal ANiatic Sf»cioty, No. U, that when he died, 
Mauka-al-IIindi the phili>iM>pher restored him to life, 
and thdt IbrAhim lived long aftr-r this circnmstaneo, and 
married the priueesa 'All 'Abbaea, daughter of Al-5Iabdi, 
and obtained (he govenunont of Kgypt und Palestine, 
and died in Egypt. 

Ibrahim-bin- Walid II, i/^ •^^Jtu/^i^'yf, a Kbalii oi 

thi' race (.f I'maiya. wueeeeded his brother Yazid III, in 744 
A. D., 126 A. H., and had reigned but seventy days, when 
he was deposed, and wlain by Slu'awia II, who ascended 
the throne in Svria. 

Ibrahim Husain, Ehwoja, 



a celebrated faligrapher in tho service of the emperor 
'Akbar, who wrote a ti'autiful Kastolik hand. He* died 
in the year 1593 A. I).. 1001 A. Il.,'and 'Abdul Kadii 
Badfioni fotmd tho chronogram of hi» denlh to be contained 
in his very name with the exception of the first letter in 
IbrihSmi vis., Alif. 

Ibrahim Husain Iiodi, Sultan, iS-^j^ crt-^ (•i^l/'' 

u;^**j ufeicended tho throne of Agra, after the death of 

hin filth' r Sikiindar Shah Lodi in Februarj', 1510 A. D., 
^i-ka'da 015 A. II. lie reii^iiL-d IG years, and was defea- 
ted and slain in a battb' fnught at Taiiipat with tho va\. 
peror Bulmr Shuh on Fridny t-he 201h April, lo2t> A. II., 
7th R-ijub, 932 A. 11., an evi-nt which traiutffrrvd the 
emiiire of Uchli and .Vgrah t'l the family of Amir Taimur. 
From this battle wo may dattt tho fall of the Pathan 
empire, though that nuu- aftcrwanls made many efforts, 
and riHovered it for u few yours in the time of the em- 
peror Htmiayiln. 

Ibrahim Husain Miraa, l>^ c^-t—*^ (*i^Lr?', a son- 
in-law of thu emp'-ror Ihiniayun, and the second Hon of 
Muhammad Sultan Mirzti, who had fuur oth<»r wius l)t- 
flidea hiui, ri;., Ut, Muhantmitd Hns,nn Mirza, 'Jud, 
Ibrfihiio UiiBain Mir»a, 3rd, Mii-ut'iid Husjiin ilirza, lib, 
Ulagh Jlirza, who diej in lo(i7 A. D^ 97o A. U.. and 
5lh, Shah Slirzi. lliey wer<j styled, *' The Mirzas," 
and wen', on a«'count of their ill-cunduet, confined in tho. 
Fort of Sambhdi by order of tho nmperor Akbar. AVTtien 
that inunanh rajirehed in the year 1567 A. D., 975 A. H. 
fur the pmrjioM* nf subduing Malivu, they made their 
eseupe and waight an asylum with CTiingia Khan, a 
iiubb'tnan at Ilaniath. ITiey touk Clunnpftneir and Sunit 
and «3m> Bamach in 1569 A. D.. 'J77 A. il., and ereated 
a grrat disturbance in the surrounding eonntries. Ibra- 
him liumin was taken pri-ioner in 1573 A. D., 981 A. H., 
and tthmlly afUr put to death by Maktuus Klian, gover- 
nor of ilultin, and his hcwd sent to the emperor ; who 
order*.-*! it to be pUetHi over one of tho gates of Agmh, 
{vide tJulmkh Begam) and cansod his brother Miuui'dd 
llusjiiii Mirza to bo confined in tho fort of Gwalior where 
ho »i_K>n iiltt-r died. 

Ibrahim-Jbn-A ghlab, Sr*^'«^^^yi, a kingof Barbjirj-. 
This tuuutry was reduced by the Saracona in the Khila- 
lat of *Umar, tuid eontinued subject to the Khidif of 
Arabia and Baglidad till the reign of lian'ni-al-K'aahid, 
who having appointed Ibralum-ibn-.Aghlab governor of 
tho westom parts of his emi>ire, that pr. fi^cl lock (he 
opportunity, first of assuiDing greater powers to himsrlf 
than had been gmntod by the Khidif, and then erecting a 
principality altogether independent (-f the Khalifa. The 
race of Aghlab continued to enjoy thoir now priacipalily 
peaceably tiU tho ywir UlL) A. iJ., 808 A, U., during 
whieh time they made several deicozita on tha island of 
Bicily, and conquered a part of it. Al>out this time, how- 
over, one Obcidulldh aunuunud 'Ai^Alahdi, AilMLud affaiost 




tbo bouso ot Aghlab, Anfl attorned the title of Khalif of 

Ibrahim, Imanij (^b^^ f^'- This IbrAUm who boara 
the title of Imiini, ur chiof of the religion of Huhnmmad, 
in uot of l^e nomber of the twelve Iin^fi of the postcritr 
of 'All. He was b son of Miihammiid, the son of 'AH, 
theflon of *AbdtillnK the son of 'AbbiU the ancle of the 
prophtt, tmd eldest brother of the two first Khalifa of tho 
houM^i iif 'AbbtkA ; but wiis hitnsdf novcr acknowledged 
for a Khftlif. lie was put to death by on3«r of MurwfiQ 
n, eiuiiamt'd Himar, Inat Khalif of the houBO of TTmayya, 
in tho month of October, 74D A. D., Safar, 132 A. H. 

Ibrahim Khan, C^'^/^LH*, the son of the colebruted 
Aniir-ul-Umr& *Ali Mordiin Khan. Ho was honoured with 
tht mnk of 5000 in tho BC-cond yt-'or of the nmperor 'Alam- 
Iffr I6o0, A. D., and appointed governor, at different 
periods, of Kjialunir, Labor, Bihar, Bengal and other 
plactis, and died in the reign of IfahAdur Sholu 

Ibrahim Khan Fatha Jang, »-^ ^ J^ (^bi^, 

wiu* It n-buioD of ihu ci.'U'bnitcd Niir Jahdn Bcgam, whoso 
Tn'Hher'a vivter lu; had married. When Kftflim Khan the 
nundson of Shiikb Sali'm Chifihti was roctdlod to court 
from th(.' government of Bihdr in tho twelfth year of tho 
cmfM'rur Jahingir 1610 A D., 1025 A. H., Il>rAhim KMn 
wa(» npfminttNl governor of that province with tho rank of 
4000. He w.itt killtd itt Dii'jca lfV>3A.D., 1032 A. 11.. in bat- 
ill- again!)t prince Ivhumvm (rift(:rwnnlB Rhiih Jah&n} who 
httd rebelled against hifl father Johangfr. Hih wiff.' li(jh 
Porwar KhAnam lived to a great lige, and died in tho 
n-ign of the emperor 'Ahungir. 

Ibrahim Khan Sur, jy^ cj** (•4*LH*, aon of Gh&zf 

Khi&n, governor of Bayana, was tho brother-in-law of Mu- 
hammad Shah 'Adili, who8e biijter he had miuricd. Ho 
ntisAd ft ronMidenbUt army and took possosMiou of Dehli 
and Agmh on tho JSth February, lood A. D., 6thJumad:i' 
1, 903 A. U. He hud no Booner ajieonded tho throne, than 
another competitor arose in the pro^-ince of the Piinjab, 
in the p«-xaon of Ahmad Kh^n, a nephew of the late Shcir 
ShAli. He defealijd Ibrahim Khun in a battle, and the Lit- 
Ut htreat«d to Sombhal, while Ahmad Khan t.ook pOMM- 
»iiuu of .A'grahand Dehli, and aMumed the title of Sikandar 
J5hah in 5Ii»y the some year. Ibr&btm IvhAn wna killed 
by ii^iiliiiintttu King of Bengal, in Oriaaa in a battle fought 
in 1A07 A. D., U7& A. U., and is buried there. Amongst 
the incidcnta of the year 16a5 A. D,, 902 A. H., waa tho 
exploiuon in tbo fort of Agrah, when enonnona atones and 
colunmn were aent flying Aevcml ton to the other side 
of the ilanma, and many people were destroyed- As tho 
whole Fort was callecl ilAdjdgarh, the date waa foimd in 
the words, " 'Vhe firo of Dadalgafh." 

Ibrahim Khawaa, u*!**" (^Lr^N a p\ipil of Abii 

'.Vbdullah Mn:;hinb( who died 911 A. D. He waa called 
Khaw&ft, which m««ina a baaket-maker. 

Ibrahim Kntb Shah, ^^ V** /*i^!y', waa the son of 
lyuU Kuth hhiih I, soven-igii of CroIkun(la. On the death 
of his huithor Januheid Ivutb Shah, the nobles of tbe 
court eb'vati4 his son Subh&n ^uli, a child of seven 
ytfAX* of age, to the ; Imt as he was unable to 
wield the aeeptre, Hiraliim was stmt for from Bijanagar, 
wliurv be theti resided, tuid wa« crowned on Monday the 
28lh uf July, looO A. I)., 12th liajiib, 967 A. fl. In tho 
year l6Vo A. D., 978 A U . he. in conjunction with the 
other Mnhammsdan monarvhs of the Dakhan, marched 
iigauuit Kamraj, tho riji of Bij&nagar, who was defeated 
Mid slain, and hiu territorica occupied by the conqucron. 
in 1671 A. D.. 97» A. U., tho fort of lUjmandri waa 
tokon from tlie Hindus by Hjiffi't Khan, the general of 
fbrihim ; the foUuwing chrosognini commcmomtos the 

date of its occurrence : " The temple of th« inflAftla baa 
Callon into our hands." Ibr&hlm Kotb Shih, afUr a 
prosjwrous reign of 82 years, diwl suddenly on 'ITiaiaday 
tho 6th of June, 1681 A. D., 2l8t Rabf II, 989 A. H., in 
the 3l8t year of hia age, and was succeeded by hu «■ 
Muhamniiid Kutb Shah. 

Ibrallim Hirza, lir* f^!/^^ thosonof BahnmBlin&ind 
grandson of Shih IsmiLfl 8afwC His poetical namei waa 
Jtthi. He was murdered by order of hia grund&thar. 

Ibrahim Mirza» Snltan, Or* (***!/^' cj'^^i wo the 
son of Shahmkh Mir/i and grnnd&on of Amir Tnimur. He 
was governor * >f Far-t during the life of hiti fntber, and died 
a few ywirn before him in 14^5 A. D., H3H A. H. After 
hin death, hin &on 'Abdulluh Slirza bUccei>dod him, and wa« 
killed in battle against ilirxa Abu Sa'id hia cousin-gvt* 
man In Hoi A. D., 8d5 A. H. 

Ibrahim Mirza, 'jr* f*^lr^'> his poetical name wo 

Adam, which see, 

Ibrahim Mirsa, (^LH' Lir^, the son of lUnm Sulaimaa 

of Budiikhshan, was bom in the year 1534 A. D., 941 
A. H. MTiLii his fathiT with the inteiitiun of conqtMEnag 
Balkh went to that cuuntr>', prince Ibrdliim ac<:ompattiUd 
him, and was taken pri^Hiner in battle and put to dwlh 
by order of Pir lluhnuimad Khan, rulor of Balkh in the 
month of Srptcmber. 1660 A. D., jfil-bijja, 967 A. H. 

Ibrahim Nayal, J^(***ly', wWa IbrAhim-bin-Nayfl. 

Ibrahim Nizam Shah, *"-- r^ f*4*Lr?'» aucceedod hit 
father Burhin Kizam 8hih IL in tho kingdom of Ah- 
nitidnagar iMkban in the munth of April, loO& A. D., 
Bha'ban, iOO.'l A, H.. and was itlain in liction against tk« 
IroopH of Ibrahim 'Adil Shah II. of Bijapur, ailer a 
of only four muntha iu the month of August, 1605 A. 
Xil-lijjjii, 1003 A. H. Mi'An Jlimju, hin Waxir, 
to tlu* throne one Ahmad a boy, said to bo of the K 
Shihi family. 

Ibrahim Pasha, *^k (^b^U an adopted son of M»- 
hrmim.'Hl 'Ali Pasha of Egypt, waa bom in 17S9 A. D., 
aurl gfive the first pDnifa (if hin gallantry and genenJahip 
iu 1 81 9 A. D., in qm-lling the insun-i^elion of tho WahabiiL 
He afterwards made sevfifil conqnr*it*. In 1848 A.D.w)Mn 
Muhumiuid 'Ali hud hitnk into abt^ohite dotage, Ihrihte 
wunt tu CuUHtautinoplc, and waa installed by the FortB 
aa Viceroy of Egypt ; but on the »th KoTombor, 1848, 
be died at Cairo. 

Ibrahim Shah Sharki, Sultan, *^^ »^^lr^t cj^ 

Bdcended the throne of Jaunpur, afb.T tho death of hii 
btuthc-r Mub&rik Shah in 1-102 A. D., 804 A. H. He «M 
fanuius during his reign for the L-ucourugi.'meat ha 
ded to literature ; and we find that in thoac 
anarchy and coiifuuon which prevailed in 
Juunpiir became the seat of learning; aa appean {my* 
Firiahtu) from several works now extant^ d^dicatrd to 
Ibrahim Shah. He died in 1440 A. D., 844 A. It, aftis 
a long reign of upwurdt* of 40 years. He was bblond 
in life, and he was rrgretted by all hia sabjeota* Wb 
eldest son !Mahmud bhoh tihjtrl^i euectxHied him. 

Ibrahim Shah Pir,^»^ r^^LH'i a UuhunxnadDx mtat 
whodc tomb is in the district of Kach thirty milea abow 
Liikpat. Vulc Tninsuctions Hoyal Asiatic Society, Vol. f^U 

p. o68. 

Ibrahim Shaikh, /*^>iri' ^^, the son of Shaikh 

the brother of Shaikh Salim Chishtf. He served AUar 
for several y* tim in tht- military line, and wfaaa tiaft 
t^m]k.ror was prooeiding to KAbnl uft^r the dealh vS kb 
brother, Miihamnmd Hakuu. fihttikh Ibcihim 






him u for u Thibiesar, whfTfi fan fell nek Ihrongh (?x- 
earn of drinkinit^ and died on the Ifith Mchr. in the SQth 
Tew of Akbar's reign, corresponding with September, 
1586 A. D., ShawwAl, 993 A. H. According to th« work 
**MArir-ul-TTmrA," he wm kft behind by tho cmpfrror and 
ordered lo t^ikfi ohnrgc of Iho fortreBa of Agrah, whcro ho 
died 16D1 A. D., 0S9 A. H. 

Ibrahim, Shaikh, ibn-MufVij-us-Souri, cSiT*-'' 

g^r^ cV' (H^Lrt ^j author of the hiatorj- of Alex- 
ander the Grf-nt and of Khistir in Ambict callod ^'Kitnb 
Tarikh a]-I»kandar Zulkiirnain-al-Uunu-wa-AVaxirat-al. 
Khijcr." Tliis is oni? of thi**- Hiibhtruflurpa of tnith upon 
which Ktstcrn nations hitve inxcted a hirgc and roraimtiti 
edifice of fiible, mm h in the «ame munner as thif tiilcs of 
chivalry of thr Middlr Agin, whirh thnugh f^ctitioim, wtrc 
jmrtly attributed ix> n-al ibunKU-ra, aa in tho romiuicea of 
the Knights of tho liound Tubk' and tho Peers of Chjirlu- 

Ibrahim Shirwani, Shaikh, i^bj^ fi*LH' f^9 

ruli-r of Shirwan, who rr Tf^'ntd nltout the bt-pinninar of tho 
ninth century of tho Hijra. Mnnliua Katibi flourished 
in his time and died in 1435 A. I>. 

Ibrahim ShaibaDi, j^^V- f***!/^', of Kirman Shah, n 

pupil of Abu 'Abdullah Alaghrsbi. Uu lived about the 
yoar OOO A. D. 

Ibrahim, Sultan, ^***LH' cj^—, the son of SulTfin Mn- 
ttti'ud lofCJbiiznl, Huixet^dtd his brother Fumikh/.aJ in 
1059 A. D., 450 A. H. Ho was a piuiuj, liberal and juht 
princo. In the first year uf his rcij^n he t fineluded a 
treaty of peace with Sult&n Sonjur tho Saljukide, at tho 
same time his son MHsa'ud esjiuiised Ihi,' da(if|jht<T fi 
Malik-sh^h, BiKt^r to Sul|!in Sunjiir,, and n chiinn^.! of 
frii-tidahip and intereouifte wjis oin-neJ between tho two 
natiena. He afterwards came to India and took 8*fVt?ral 
forta and obtained thf tith? of ronqutmr by the extent 
of his Tictnries. Sultan Ibrahim hud 36 sum* and 4D 
daughtcxa by a variity of wom^'n, the Intt^T of whom he 
gavu in marriw^fe to leiimod imd reli;i:ioiifl men. Ho died 
afttr a rci^n of mon« than forty ytun* in 1098 A. D., 492 
A. H., fl(fed 7ti lunar yi-iirfi, and wh« smeoeiied by hi« son 
Saltin MBMi'ud 11 or III. Actordinfr lo the work called 
"Tarilt (.iuziiln" hu reifmed 30 years and diud in tho 
year 108S A. D., 481 A. li. 

'Ibrat, •■=*/+*, tho poetical name of Ahmad 'AK Khin, 
cousin of Nawiib i>a*adat Khan Zultikor Jung. 

'Ibratf *^j¥^i the poetieal lille nf ilir Zayu-uddia» a poet. 

who wrote tho tirKtpart of the atury of IVlmawat in Unlu 
veree, and died ; eonsi-qiiiiitly the «<K-ond part was vrritten 
by Ohulam 'All 'Ishnit, tind finished in the year I7y6 
A. D., 1211 A. H., tho ckiMnogram of which hu found 
to contain the words "Taanif UoHha'ir." 

'Ibrat, **Lri^i the poetical name uf 'Abdul Mannin, which 


'Ibrat, *Slr^*j the poetical nnmo of Ahmad, a muidcian of 
Dnhli, who, from tho instructions that he rtccived from 
Mirzi "Abdul Kadir Bidil, beeame an oxcelkul poet. 
Oe at first had a«numed " Muftun" for his poetical name, 
but afterwardii changed it for " Ibnit." Ho *hb a co- 
t«mponuy of NAsir *Ali the poet, and was living about 
the year U>»8 A. D., 1 100 A. U. 

'Ibrat, *s»^, the poeticQl title of Mfr Ziaefi-uddin, author 
of the first portion of tho story of Padmiwat in Urdu 
verae. He died about the year 1795. A. D. I'lWr Piidmawiit. 

Idrls or Adrifi-blu-Hisam-uddiD, UuUa, iji'^\ 


i^Um^ C^ lT^J^* ^ author of the hiatory callod " Ta- 
rikh Hoflht Bahisht," or tho Eighth Paradiao, containing 
tlie Memoirs of the most illufitrioufl chomcters of the 
Mnhammadan religion, who floux-iahed from 1451 to 1606 
A. I>. 

'Idriai, t5^j*S', (Ahu 'Abdullah Muhnmmad-ihn-* Abdullah 

IdriB). aleo called Shurif-al-Idrjirj-al-SikilC author of a 
Bj'Btem of Arubiuu geography, eompohed in 1163 A. D. 
He in tinid to be one (if th«> mcMt eminent Arabic googra- 
phors and deaccndant of the royal fumily of tho IdriaitoH. 
He wa« Ijom tit C^euta or Sibta (Civitas) in the year 1090 
A. D. The titlfl of tho aborir work in ** Nuzhat-al-Mush- 
taV." and it haa been traniUated into Latin by w,'vunU 

Iftikhar Khan, cJ^^^^*^', title of Sultan Ilusain, tho 
cUi'^^t son ui Mir 'Abdul Hadi. entilliMl ABalat Kliin Mir 
Bakhiihi, who died at Balkh in tho 20th vear of tht* em- 
peror Shdh Jahau 1647 A. !>., 106J A. II. In the first 
year of 'Aliimgfr, Sultan HuAfiin was honored with the 
title of ntikhur Khin. S»mo time before his death bo 
waa appointi'il Fniydir of iJouiipur, where he died in IGttl 
A. D., 1002 A. H. 

Iffht Sano, y^- ^^-^^j daughter of the emperor Jabangir. 
Her mother was thi- daughter of Sold KhAn of Kaahghar. 
t'bo died at the age <j)' 3 years. 

Ihaan, CJ^— ^', the poetical name of Mirzt Iha4nullah. com- 
monly known by the title of Xawib Zafar Kh^n, who at 
one time wun guVi*mor of Kabul when the poet Muham- 
mad 'Ali tSiieb nf Persia came to 81* him there. He diinl 
in I6(i2 A. V., 1073 A. 11., and in the author of a Diwin 
in I'crsiim. 

IhsaOt cJ^"*^'» tho poetical name of 'Abdtir Itahmin Khin 

of Dchli, who wTott- cxedlent poetry in Urdu, and died 
80UIU time afU-r the year 1844 A. D., 1200 A. U. 

Ihsan, ly^-^S the poetical title of a Hindu namrd Chunnf 
Ldl, who waa living at Agrah in 1700 A. D., 1174 A. H, 

Ihtisham Khan, C*^ cLlia.), title of Shaikh Farfd of 
Fatbiipur Sikri, the fi'ju nf Kulb-uddin Shnikh Khulian. 
He aervrd luidi-r the emperorsi. Lbihangir, Shah Jahan and 
'AhongCr ; and was rai^d to thu rank of 3000. Hu died 
in ICGl A. v., 107o A, H. 

Ijad, •S^^ the poetical name of Mfr Muhammad Hufcn, 
who ditKl in tho year 1721 A. D., 1133 A. H. 

Ika Pandit, c»*^ ^1, aMarhattawho, intheb'moofShiih 
Alom iinii Mndbu iJio Srindhia, h«ld the ap[)ointmeAt of 
tho tiubadarship of the fort of Agrah. 

Ikbal Khan, cJ^ J^N waji the son of Zofar Khin, tho 
rton of Firoz Shah Tiighla^. He defeated Knsmt Khan 
nnd uaceniKd the throne of Dehll about the beg^inning of 
thu year UOO A. D., 802 A. H , mid wan slain in a battle 
against Khizi Khan^ the governor of Multan. in Novum* 
ber, 1405 A. H., 19th .Jiiiiiad* I. SOS A. H. AfU r hia 
death Wul^an Mahmud 8hiih, who wn« deffal«-d by Amir 
Taimur and had lied to liiijrat and then t« tLiinauj, re- 
turni'd on the inviUUion of Dauint Klmvt \a"U who com* 
mAiideil at Dehli, and took pos^iTwinn uf the emitirc. 

Ikbol-uddaula Muhain Ali Khan, u»^ t^ er-** 

aJj^WI JM^'j tlio son of Shams-uddiiula Ahmad 'AH 

Khan, the son of Nawab Hn'a^lat 'Ali Khan of I^khnau. 
Ho nailed for Englantl to elaim the Ibrttne of Audh in 
January, 1838, A. D-. and after tning in vain lo nbtain tho 
rc-a>gmtion uf hid claim in iilngUnd, dutermined upon 




UMif of hb dap in * life of MUictity in 
iln li tho Author of tho work called 

1^.,... i .. 

IUMmm K«wim HuMin Bog. ^c;*-^i:>^u»^l> 
« ^ r Um rvl^ <4 the emperor Shih Jabin wk) 

4». , «« Ua* A. J}^ 1049 A. U. 

ikUimm KAM IlKfelM Kei^h, cri^u^^f ^j^^^^iUi, 
«••• MMA«rihe triU. of Klmttrf of T.&hor. llu wiu 
Wii< >«i— I t» P«uiD, and rKTVwl undur ihu emperor 
'itIiWBrIf Vko eooiiaTMl on liiio tbu nbovu titlo. In the 

famkk-tikytx ho wu nu«od tu tho rank of 7,000. 
H« wrvU tb» hiilorv of thnt emperor and called it *' Bad- 
Beo Kiahun Chund. 

Ikr^m KiMllf C^ c!r^'> the son of lal&m Kh&n and L&dli 
BqpUB, tho iifter of Abil'l Foci, the prime roiniflt«r of the 
•«i|Mror Akbar. Vidt lalim Khin. 

Xkram Khan, u)^ fir ^ title of Sayyad Haaan, an amir, 
who turvixl iindt r tho emperor 'Alamgtr, and died in 1661 
A. I)., 1072 A. H. 

Ikram Ali, %j^rl>^> author of the TTrdd »' Akhwin-u*- 
Hikfa," which ho tr)LniilutL<d from tho Persian in tho year 
ItflOA. D., 1226 A. a. 

Ikrom-uddatUa, ^J'^^ f}/\, tho brother of 'Ali Kaki 
Kliuii, Ux) i>riine uiiuiatvir uf Wnjid *Aii Shah, king of 
lAkluititi, ditd Augufft lti6^, A. D. 

'Ikrlma, *^, son of Abd Jahl. 

^IkximOi *^T^» ^^* Akrima. 

Ikfllr, Mima, U^^^', rirf* Akafr. 

Bah Wirdi Khan, cj^ t/^jj *^', | n* 
Ilah Yar Khan, J<^ jO ^\^ j 

HAhii ^r'l an author who, according to the work called 

" KhuUMt-ul-Aaha'ir." died in 1538 A. D^ »46 A. H. 

Hahi. MlTf ur'.J^> name and poetical title of a penon 
who waa a d<.-»c\ndNat uf the Sayyad* of w^.i^^^^t^^ ^ 
Uoffldia. Uo camct to India in tho latter part of the 
nd^ of Jahingir, and scn-ed tmder his son fihih Jahin. 
Be Sa the author of a hiography called ** y>i-»fa>» Gazg 
lUhi," and of » Diwin o<intaining amorous conga. The 
•alhor of tha **Uii»t Jahin" aaya, ha died in 1646 
A. D^ 1067 A. IL, but ftom the chronugiam which 
Qkanj Caahmirf wrola at hia death, it appcan that he 
4h4 in 1454 A. D., corroapouding with 1064 A. U. 

nahi, BhAAkh, ut'l ^> a phikwophcr of Baylaa, who 

ca tha tiaK of Salim Shih, king of Pehli, made a gTMt 
«Ut. br introdiinng a B(*w eystcm of religkn. Ho called 
Mb ■iff fanim Uah«U wh<s according to the Shia'a, is ctill 
Imi^aad ia to oonnttet the warU. UaTing raised a 

raft AirtailKiiia ia tke empire, he wae in the year U47 
1X| ftM A. H^ Kovged to death by order of that tm- 

rid* Alah Wirdi 

HdtSU. At^tek, v^ «-^> waa a TnkUi lUre, 
•oU to8«Ma lla«Ai «oaoflh«8ay&kiprine«a. He 
b adA to k*v« ao i cw j ii l i lDty witobKAed hWaelf in the 
fcvererUa royal ■irtnr. that ha aaraaoed him to the 

ia tiba 
te wWch mini ifanilii evarr dair Ikai m Manned 

Ugtat AilMM ia tiba kh«do«: «b4 the aUe m 
te wWch IMigB anoDtoA evavr daly Ikat «m mim 
t» W^ M oImW Ml «^ to hia b«^ fta^ wS 
•iHMM of CM el flw ye«M fa^Maa, which nv* 1 
•HMaeCAlAakar AtfhMTW to hh MOnags i 
«towi4ew ef IWItfal U <tha kRa«h« of Haaa^^d. i 

eg ^tftak or A 

ef T^ltfal U (^ 1 


ef Uaaa^M. and 

a MWi peood 

be became the moet powt»rfuI noble of the Peinan empire. 
He died at Hjundan in 1172 A. D., 668 A. H., m the 
rei^ of AreaULn Shih, und loft hia power and 
to Ilia eldest bou Atabnk Muhammad. 

Liti of the Atdiakt ofifu race qf Hdigw. 

J J ^ ^^ A. D. 

AUbak nditruK, died im 

„ Muhammad, son of lldiuroz, ,. 1 188 

„ Kixal Arsalan, son of lldiguz, slain lUl 

„ Abti Bakr. son of Uuhammad, .... died 1210 
,, Muzaffar, Bonof Muluunmad,he waa defeated USA 
by Sul^An Jolal-nddm of Kbwa- 
rizm, tind died some time after. 
He wiu the hist of the At&baka 
of the nu!0 of Hdiguz who reigned 
in 'Atorbcjan. 

nham, (•V^ pt'^ Malul. 

Umaa 'Ali Khan, xj^ tj^ w^K the celobzated rich 

and powerful eunuch of the Court of Kawab Aaif-addaula. 
Uu died in 1808 A. D. 

Iltitxnish, lT^^^j vide Altamish. 

'Imad-al-Katib or Imad-uddin-al-Katib, ^^ 
wJ^I ^.sjoJl ,>U£ i^^l, niat is, 'ImAd th« SeeietaiT, 
was the snniftmo of Muhammad, the eon of ' AbdoUfii, the 
sou uf Sunuul, also called le&hini. He waa a celabratel 
author, and has written in Arabic the history of SaUh- 
uddin (Soladin) the Sul^in of Egypt ^nd Sj-ria. in sevcs 
volumes, entitled " Barl^-uah-Sliimi," the laghtning of 
Sj-ria. He died 1201 A. D., 697 A. H. 

'Imadir iS^^i surname of Jamil -uddin -bin- Imad-addm 
Hunafi, author of the Arabic work colled ^^Fasdl-d- 

'Imad Pakih Kirmani, Khwaja, ^^-^ **** ^^ 

A^l^j a Muhammadan doctor who lived in the time of 

Shih Shujia' of Shiris. His death ia menticmed in the 
"Jawahir-ul-Aaha'ir" to have happened In 1391 A.I)^7M 
A. H^ but acc<Hding to the poeto Ilahi and Daulat t^tik 
be died in the year 1371 A. D., 773 A. II., which appeui 
to be correct. Hahf also mentions to have seoa 11,004 
venoB of his oompoaition, and that he is the anther of 
the works called **Muhabbat Nama," and ^Mehatf 
Kama," adding that he wrote fai all a ** Fanj Ganj,** ftst 
ii to say, fire Maenawu or Poema. It is mentiooed io 
the ^ Habib-ua-Siar," that Khwija 'Imid had a ca» khtt 
would stand up to prayers with him, and do what he dftd. 
This was beUevcMl by Shah Shnju' to be a miracle of thi 
Khw^a ; but Khwaja Ilifia who was his cotenpcnry. 
and would not take it for a minde, bot a dacast of £hs 
doctor, wrote a ghaial on that occasion ; the CoHowiac ii 
the translation of a couplet from the same: **0 tasa 
diaiming biid* where art thou going, aland etiil, aai W 
not proud (or thhik thyself to be safe) because the eat af 
the aaint etys prayers." Imid Khw^ waa boilid il 
Kirman, tho place of hx6 natirit)'. 

*Imad Khwiga, ^^ ^j^, nA Imid Fa^fli. 

'Imad Shah, >^ ^^, vidt Imidul Mulk, commoiilT' odM 


•Inaad-uddin Katib, v^li" cr^'^'j**^* w* Imid.*!* 


'Imad-OddiA, c*^'^'^'«'t surname of l(ara ArtoJiA<tia* 

DiAd-hin-Sukmin-bin-Artak. Kur-uddin Ma^mad waa 
hia aon, to whom Salah-uddin paladin) the 8ul^a of 
Kgrpt gars the city of 'Anid or Kan Amid, 11S3 A {^ 




•Imad-uddin, uH>»Jf jU*, author of h poem called the 

"Gnldiwta" or tho Noaegay, vhicli he composed in 1664 
A. D., 107a A. II. liu wub a nativu of India. 

*Imad-uddin, ui*^^^^t author of the hietory of tho 

'Imad-uddin Zangi, ^) iiy.'^^ oUt, the son of A&a- 

IfJLr, wna one of tho Atabnkit or ruling miniBt«^rfl under 
tho latter princes of tho SiUjiikian race. He was the 
first of that bnuiL'h that had tho government of JIouwU. 
Ho receivt?d the governorship of that prorinco in U27 
A. D^ 521 A. H., from Sultan Muhaniinad, tho »on of 
8al{An Slalikshih Saljuku reignrd 19 yifEint, euiJ was 
munlered hy ono of his slavea in 1145 A. D., &40 A. U. 

Tht foUowiug it a Hat of the princes of this raee. 

A. D. 

'Imid-uiidin Zangi^ began 1127 

Saif-uddin Ghazi-bin-Zangi who defeated the 

Fmrwh at Damascus, hogan 1 145 

Kutb-uiidin Maiidud, souof Zaugi, .... 509 A. II. 1U9 
S^ur-uddin Mahmud, son of Zungi^ be ri'i^DL'd at 
Aluppg &ad formed another branch, lUt-d 669 


Mulik Sdlah, Bon of Nur-uddi'n, aiicocedcd his fa- 
ther and rei^fd at Alfjipc) on J died 1 1 74, .... 
Al-Muizz Saif-uddin lihiizi-biri-Maudud, .. began 1170 

AzZ'Uddin Maiia'ud-lin-Mfiudud, 1180 

Niir-uddin Arsalan Shab-bin-Masaud, 1 1U3 

Malik- ul- Kihir Azz-udd in M ji.ia' ud-bin-Kiir-uddin, 1 2 L 

Ndr-uddiu Arwalin Shah-bin-Kiiiiir, 1218 

Kisir-uddin RLahmud-liin-Kahir, 1219 

Al-Mftlik-al-lifibim Badr-uddin Li'tlu, 122:2 

^.Malik'iu-S&lah lamti'Ll-biD-LuJii, 1259 

Salab or Alq>po hranch. 

'Imad-uddin Zaug^i, 1127 

Niir-uddin Mahiniid-bin-Zangi, U 45 

Al-Malik-UH-Salah lema'i1-bin-Xur-uddin 1174 

'Imid-uddin Zangi-bin-Kiitb-uddin-bin-r^taudiid, 

delivered Alr?ppo to Siluh-uddm (died 1107 A. D. 1181 
Hij BOD Muhuuuuiid reigned at ±?iiiganu 

»Imad-uddaula, ^^. t^ ^j^^ ^^y sumamed 'Ali 

B^ya, was tho aon of B6ya, a fishrrman who rose to th*? 
command of tho armii^a of thu Julian of Dilam and ob- 
tained poesossion of IV-rsia. ic^ which ht* divided with 
hia two brothers, lie tixi^ hia rtaidf-nrc at Shiraz ya3 
A. Dt 321 A. H.. and ditd iu the ye^ir D19 A. D., ^38 
A. H. yid« 'All lliSya. 

'Imadul Mulk, ^^^ J*^, commonly calU-d FnthuHah 
'Imid Shiih, fctundfrr of Iht; 'Imad Shuiii dynasty in thf,' 
Dukh&n, was di-8i;eDdi:d fruni tho Kiinarcso infidels uf 
Bijauagar. Having Wen taken prisoner in tho wars with 
that country when a boy, he waa admitted amunjf thu 
bodyguards of Khan Jtihan, commander-iU'chicf and 
ffOTurnor of IJ+jfar* tn the roigp of Muhainuiud Shah 
Bahmani, throuf^ti the inllueuce of KhwAjn Mahuiiid 
Gdwin, he reoiivtd the title of'Imiid-ul-Miilk, and waa 
■ub«:'quently raised to tho ofiiee of i^yuim.iiider of tho 
loroefl in Beraf. Aft*T tho murder of hii patrmi KhwaJH 
Muhinud Gawan in UKl A. 1)., B8G A. li., ho rttinxi 
to hia government of Berir. On the accessiun uf Hultan 
U&hmild BBhmani, hu was honored with th** uffico of 
wizimtf which ho h*jld for tRimu tirni", but being soon 
after diaguAted with the court, ho b-ft it and declared hia 
independence in the year 14H5 A. D., 800 A. il. Elich- 
pur was hig capital. He died about tho year 1513 A. D., 
919 A. IL, and waa sutceeded by hia oldest son 'Ali-uddin 
'Imid ShU). 

Lkt •/ tk$ kingt of the 'Jmad Skdh{ tiynasty of S^fSr, 
Fith-ulUh Tmad Shah. 
'Ali-addin 'Imfid Shah, eon of Fath-ullah. 
Daria 'Iraad Shah, son of ^Ald-uddin. 
Burhin 'ImM ShAh, 
Tufal Khan, priuio minister of Burhan 'Imfid Rhiih, who 

usurped the throne, but was opposed from Ahmjidiutgnr. 

and tho family of 'Imid Khih and TulUl extiiiiruished in 

1568 A. D. 

'Imad-Til-Mulk, <2UJfjU*^ y^^ ^f ^j^^^ Ghia-uddin 

Khan who murdered hia master 'Alamgir II, emperor of 
Deldi. fide Ghazi-uddiu Khan III. 

'Imad Zazigi, u^j jUp, vide 'Imild-nddm Zangf. 

Imam, (•^*, a high priest or head or chief in roWgiouA mat- 
ters, whether he be tho head of all Muhammadans, as tho 
Khiilita or the priest uf a muaii)U'', *ir thu lender in the 
prayers of a congregation ; but tbJH JiHtred title is given 
by tho Shfaa only to tho immediali' dcjsccndanta of 'Ali, 
the son^in-Iflw of the prophet, wbich nro twelve, 'Ali be- 
ing the first. The hmt uf these., Imam Mahdi, is suppotted 
by ihem to be concealed {not dead), and the title which 
belongs to him, cannot, they conceive, bo given to an- 
other ; but among tho Snnnia it is u dogma, that there 
must bo always a viiriblu Iinaui or " father of the church.'* 
Tlio title 18 given by them to the fnur Itiamod doctors 
who are the founders of their faith, viz. : Iniama Hanifji, 
ftlftlik, Hhifu'i, and llanbal. Of thi^se four Bect«, thu 
Hanbulite and M&!ikite may be conaidtTtxl an tho most 
rigid, the ShiUa'itoitg tho most conformable to tho spirit of 
Islimism, and tho llunitite a« tho wildest and mcwt philo- 
sophical of them all. Two other Imama, Abu Baud-ux* 
Zahiri, and Suiian-ua-Sauri were also chiefs of the ortho- 
dox sects, but their opinionN had not many followers, and 
after some tiinu wcro totally abandoned. Ibn-Jarir-ut- 
1'abari, whose reputation as an histurum is so familiar to 
EuropeaDR, founded also a particular sect, w^hich disap* 
peared soon after hia doatli. The following axu tho niunos 
of the twelve Imams of thu race of 'Ali. 

Im&m 'Ali, tho son-in-law of the prophei. 

„ Hoaan. 

„ Husain. 

„ Zain-iil 'AbiiUn. 

„ Bn^lr or M uinimmad B^ir. 

„ Jftfar Sa^liiy. 

y, MuMi Kazim. 

yt *AU Musi liaza. 

„ Taki or Muhamrnfld Taki'» 

„ 'All Naki. 

„ Hasan AskarL 

., Uahdi. 

Imam 'Alam-bin-^Ala-al-Haaafl, ^^l^ i:,*- fJ^ 
j]»^t, author of a hirge collection of Fatwaa in several 
volnmea, entitled " FatAwa TitirkhAnia," token fh)m tho 
" Muhit-al-burhdni," tho " Zakhirat," the " KJiAnia" and 
"Zahiria." Afterward.'*, however, a selection was nuuio 
from these decibiona by tho Imam Ibnkhun*bin'Muham- 
mnd-al^IIalab), and on epittime was thus formed. w)ii(h 
LB in one volume, and still retains thu titlu of " Tatar- 

Imam Bakhsh, Shaikh, cr*^ (•'^l iri-i cid* Sahibi. 

Imam Bakhsh, Shaikh, i,r^ f^l i-i-, vide Xirikh. 
Imam Bakhsh, Moulvi, cA*^ f^* */r!^i viiU Sahbij,. 

Imam 'Aeim, titlti of Abu Uanifa. 

Imami Hirwi, Moolana, LSX^ j^'-*' ^V^j ho is 
called Uirwi, because ho was a native of IlirSt, He was 
an exoollent poet and co-tempytury with tho oelobratci 

YTna.Tn 120 



fU'di of Hhlris, whom, in the opinion of aomo 
wtitf^n, h*i uuT]tM»tA in the KiuiiiU. Ho dird about tho 
yimr I'iHl A. U-, 080 A. H.. "nd hoa loR a Dt'wto. 

Imam Malik, lT^^ c;^' ^'^ (•^•i wn of Anna, one of 
lh*i f'Hit Iniiinii ur Juriwonmillii of Mi'cca, Ilo diod on 
t*i« 'i«lli of .lull. . 7itft A. U.. 7th lUbi' II. 17» A. U.. in 
lh<i tliim t>f Um KUlLf lIArun*»I-)<MlUa. Ku/* UiUk-ibn- 


fDMm Muhummwl, ***^ c*^' i^, « MuM in the 

rr.i*n */f IUhin'«i'Kn«h(d thu Khnlffti. Ho died at Ragh- 
ili^Tln «^2 A I'., IMM A, II.. iind U wiid to htivti wriU4!n 
*,^r.i w ,fi« flti w«ii H imiiil of Imim Abu Yu«a£, who 
<y,n . iMiii>« to liim. imd hii (Muhnmmad) made 

)i' Ml In lht\ roiiitKMitjcin of hie works. Vi(i* 

Auii>ll.ili Mubruiiiiiad-liin-IIiiwiin. 

ddtii Amir Kttlib-bin-A mir Umar, 

J^^^ ^ *r*^'<^^' kH^^ f^'^ fcttUior of a Commen- 

4«#X p/ti lliH lh»Wj*i onlUltNl " Kifjiyn*' which ho flniehf-d 

In llM/1 A l». 7'<T A. H. n.' hiid pivviuusly written 

ffMHl^ •'*|'lnHul"rr f(l"** "' ^^ "*"^ w<jrlc« (Uid entitled 

j|ti ^U jl*^l, the* n«Ud Deputy CoUoctor, who 
0W KmnVmI iU ltttA4« lDfcMh*tr with thir rf b«>l TiUuildar 
i4 rSSSTniOmutimA Uoludii oa i2i« 24th of April, 1S58. 

ffMliteAL ^^^^^^t frtrrt^'*^ aftSM of laun-nddm 6^. 

imHfmf H^» ^ r****^ ""^ "^ '^^ ^^' ^^ 

mm Dfvte a' ^m^ Ebin the Wasfr of 
-^■" -* — ■* ^ «^ ffhii^ wl^lfn Kbin, «tylod 'Iiu»d*ul'- 

oJl^ ^J,U 

0i^m> yn^t^ml ^mm m Kh^i^ waa t nmtiva of Tafahin or 

tiiJi/tm4* M* 1—1 to India bi tb« timo of tho eujk^ror 

^Mmm^tmmmwtiat^mowturrofOuJTit for flomtj tiiDf<, 

•S^^^T Xk^ Yir Khin in 1710 A. D., 1123 

hi mmtk. It b Mid that l^Mm Ali Khin, the 

1 0t Ift^falC *■* ^ gtandKin. He is tho vuthor of 

# -- 

ijmP^ Mhmm, ^T c/^ «s.^^ ^hoMi poelioal title is 

'AAftii cv Ahaaa, and proper name Hohammad Tahir, 
mm tl* aon of Zahtt KhiLn. Ha wa« an lacuUent pu«.t, 
«b4 k the author of tiiu work called ** Shih Jah&n Nama," 
a IManr of liw cBpoTor Shih Jahin. Ikaidcs the abovo- 
~ work, K» ia tho aotbor of a li^win and a Maf- 
ll« dU^ in 16G0 A. U.. 1077 A. U. 

of Iba wotlE eallod ** JSahix Duiish," a col- 

U ■ D B O a in g taloi^ primdpally •titin.-a un women. 

Mayjvml a( theae taUa ware publtfb»d by Culonul Duw, 

tta tith» <of ** Tho Talea of 'tniyot*ulUti." and tbo 

w»» XnMlnU^ in tho year 17D9 A. D., by 

H«4tr y^r i** tluim volunKw, Oi'tavo* 

'|0*f«t-iaiab KhAn^ cA*' aM ojIU^ tj,(, ,on ofShuk - 

" •<! Jnm&l of Naifthapdr. 

J I r of tint princ«iia2S<iiban 

liiB* BM-KUHi, ii*</ •^wpciiur oi tiMi toaptfror 'Aiamgir ; by 
hmla£mmM^M»m^inSf9UdUh KAin waa miwd by 
d'Hiai" to tl**' """^f '^'^ '^'^" *" *h« ivjni o/ Famkh- 
aftvaf tfco n- .-l on Yanu and in that 

of MnhiuRtti J0 tlifl author of tbo 

• '•«• AUmicui ' and ronip»I<fr of tbo 

'i ' ll«diodiW A. U, lUyA. IL 

TatfTf nlhh Shaikb, t/^*) 


IndarniAn Bundela, Haja, ^^. tr*j*J* *^J. fiw 

brother of lUja 8ujdn Singh. He flied in the DaUun 
about tho year 1675 A. I)., nnd his oxnindari of ITrcha 
and tho title of ruja were conf^^rred nptm hii aOB Janraofi 
Singh by tho emperor 'Alani^. 

IZLSaf, ij^'^f j the poetical name of Mnhammad Ibrihim. 
H'la father was a native of Khnrisan, bnt he was bocs in 
India. Uo was a cot^^mporary of Sarihuah lh» poet, 
was living about thu yvar 1688 A. D^ UOO A. H-, aad 
died young. 

Insan, u^^t^ tho poetical tiUe of Kaw(b Amd-nllah And 
Vir Kh&n. Ho held tho monaab of Htifl Hiu&ri in ths 
rvi^ of Uahmnmad bhdh, and diod in April, 1745 A. D^ 
Kabr I, 1 158 A. H. His remainH were brom^bt to Agtah 
and buried there in the cemetery of his ancestors. 

Inciha or Insha AUah Khan, cj^ ^^ k ^1, m poat 

and son of M&shi AU&h Kh&n. Ho is tho nathor of foor 
Biwina of different kinds. 

Intikhabi. t5?^^', a poet who was a natiro of Khnii^n. 

but was brought up in India. He ii the autJior of a 


Intizam*uddaula Khan Khankhanan, 

ajj^i (.tkiJl^ ^(j BLtond son of Nawab ^unac-wldte 
Kh&n WazLT. He was appointed to the rank of 
Bakhshi on the accession of Ahmad Shih to the 
of Dehli in 174S A. D.. 1161 A. H., and was h 
with the appointment of Woiir in 1763 A. D., 1 165 A* 
after the dismissal of Nawah Safdur Jaufr (xxxa the 
Ho was murdered by 'Imid-ul-Mulk Ghaei-uddin 
on the 2tith Novomber, 1769 A, D., Bth Itftbi* II, 
A. U., three daj's boforo tho aasaasinatioo of the cm 
'Al&nigir II. 

Iradat Khan, t^^ ^•^'j') the title of Mfr lahi^ or T^^ y 
Khoa, the son of Nawsb 'Azim Khin who hald n hv)^ 
rank in the reign of the emperor Johinglr. Iridst Khin 
held various offioea under Shih Jah&n. and iu ihi< tm 
year of 'Alamgir's reign he was appointed govonior <d 
Audh. bnt died after two months in Ucluber, 1658 A. D- 
Zil-bijja 1068 A. H. 

Iradat Khan, ^j u>^ ojl^l, the title of Mirxi Mo* 

barik-ulUh, whose poetical name was Wisah. His fsthfr 
Is-hik Khin (who afterwiu-dii held tho title of EifiivK 
Khin) was the son of Kawib 'Azim Khin. Both his 
grand father and father were noblemen of Ugh rank. Th» 
furmor was Mir Bakhshi to the emi^ror Jahingir, lai 
was afterwards appointed Fai^dir of Juunpur, when ho 
died in 1640 A. D., 1069 A. U., thu Utter held ncieai 
otfices of iniport;inoc under Shah Johin and *Aiaa^. 
and died soon after his nppuiutment V) the goromniBnl of 
Audh in 16<>8 A. D., 1068 A. H. His title was abo U* 
dat Khiu which was conferred on his son aft«r hit ^stk. 
In tho 33rd year of 'Alamgir our present poet «h b^ 
pointed Faiydar of Jagna. and at other pmo^ of 
Aumgibad and Mindo in Malwa. In th« ' : -li^ 
'Alnm liahidiir Bhah, he was governor of 1 1 <i>4 

the intimate friend of Mua'srim Khin, \^ i^. 
latter part of his days, he led a rotin.'d life, brcano a 
Undir, and died in 1716 A. D.. 1 128 A. H. Hia 
as a poet wore great, and he left a volume of poems b^ 
hind him. Ho is the author of the " Kalmit '41.^^ 
(Sublime discounos,} " Minn Disar" and of a history of 
Aurongsob'a Snocessors, which latter wns tninsUtcd 
Enfflifih by Jonathan Scott, Kkj., in 1786 A. D. 
his death, which happwied in thr> time of Korrukh-rfi 

son ilii Hidiet-uUah recfired the titk- of Hoshdir 

held the rank oflOOO, and died at Auraogibid 1741 A. D 
1157 A. H. ' 


( 121 ) 


'Iraki, ^^L^j whoeo proper name is Fakhr-uddin Pirdhim- 
bin-Sluihnar, wiia a native of Hamdan in 'Ir&k, and a 
pupil imd ifniiidsorii by i!iu muthc*r'fl aid« of the jfn^nt 
Shaikh Shuhab-uddin Suhjirwardi, atitlior of a hont of 
myfltiritl works hi^'hly c**tiiPniod hy tho Sufw. 'Imki 
offi'ndijd his panTit and maaU'r, in conai.queiice of some 
lovf nltachmtiit. and vrcnt to India, wh'n- he rt'tiiaim'd 
Bomo timr, rvgn-ltin^hm native country, and uttoring; hiu 
complainti* in mnvin^ij vr'MO. Ho livt'd in company with 
the Shaikh Lliiha-uddin Zikaria of 31ult£n. whom ho at- 
companit^d on Uim jrjumi'y and bwame hii« disciple. 'Iraku 
after a long sojonrn in India, propositi r*"tumin^ to his 
own maftUr, ShahSli-uddin ; but th(^ latter had dii^, and 
our poet continui'd his wandtTinj^ to Syria, whoro ho 
expired afU;r a loti^' lif»> iif*ichtv-two years on tho 'iSnl 
NovembtT, ViHfl A. D.. 8th Zi-Ku'da. 68S A. H„ and was 
burifMl lit Salahi in Llamasms (lose to th^ tumli of Shaikh 
Muhi-uddin Ibn-uI-'Arubi. His bou Shaikh Kahir-uddin 
ia lilmt buri*-d lhLrt>. 'Inlkf is the authur uf a work cullt^d 
*^ Lanm'at/' vide Fakhr*uddin 'Iraki. 

'IrfaUt CJT/"^! poetical name Midiaminad Uiia, the son of 
Muhammtid Jan Irfan, author t>f th*; " Fvar Nama," con- 
taining; thf.i nxpluits of 'v\h' M:irdan Khan, the Amir-ul- 
TTmrA of tho empt-ror Shah Juhdn. 

Irtiza 'Ali Khan Bahadur, J*>^J cj"^ t^ ^^ 

anthoT of th'? "* Farat-z Irtiziit," a concijHr tnatiae in P(T- 
■jan on Iho law of Inht-ritante, which appnars to ho tho 
primipal anthnrity "f Ibiit law in tho Dakhin. It wud 
printed ui Madrap, but withiiut a dato. 

•laam-nddin Ibrahini^biii- Muhammad Isfaraenii 

^jA^} '^♦^^c/J ,***Lri' ipi^^^ f'-^, an .Vrabiananlhor, 
who died 1530 A. D., 943 A. H.. and in tho .-uithnr of tho 
marginal notes in Arabic called " Udjibia IsAm-uddiu." 

'Isa-ibn-Musa, d**^* ^•* J**^i ^^o couain-gennan of 
thu Khalif Abu Ja'far Mnnsur, after whose death in 776 
A. I)-, 158 A. IT., ho ontcrtauied thoufjhla of setting up 
for himself at Kufa whiro he then resided; and in order 
to facilitate the execution of his sehenio, fortified hinis<:lf 
in that city. Kiit al-Mahd£, Ihu sun of Muntnir, being 
apprised of his def^ ction. sent a dotachment of 1000 horso 
to bring him to Hajs^hdild : which being done, al-Mahdi 
not only pruviLiled upon him to own allejfianco to hiin, 
but al»o to give up his right to tho Huere.ssinn (he bring 
the next ftpparenl heir to the crown) for 10.000 recording 
to some, and according to othcns 10,000,000 diuunt. 

'Isa Sawaji, t^J*** tlf^-'^i a poet of Sawa who waa a Kizi, 
Ue died in m* A. D., 2111 A. H. 

'Isi Turkhan, Mirza, cJ^^j-* dr*4* !i/*j **» a Turk- 
man and comniandtT-in-uhief of Shah Ueg Ar^hun, king 
of Sindh'o amiy. aft*r whoMe deutli he touk poaaesiiioD of 
IliAt^ of whicli he was ihei^ governor, and assuinwl the 
title of king. He rt'igiK-d 13 years and dJL'd in l*)(i7 
A. D., 976 A. H.. when hn was succeeded by his eldest 
son Mirza Miihamnntd Uaki Turkhan, who» during hia 
rule always maintained u trit-ndly iiitercour.*c with tho 
vmperur Akbar of iJehli, fntjutntly sending preacnta, 
Mid acknowledging feiilty to Uiiii.t inonanli. He died 
after a reign oi IH years in 1.5S5 A. D., lH»y A. U., and 
was succeeili'tl by hia grandnon Mirza Jani Bvg. 

Isdigertes, ^^^t^ viiU Yezdijard. 

lafahani, t^'t*^'; author of the " Diniah Nimo," e sye- 

tem of natund jihilosophy. 
lafan or Stephen, ^^U ia tho name and takhallua of 

a Chriatiau, bom at Dehli. Ilia fiilher waa a European. 

He waa alive ia ISOO A. 1>., I'ito A. U. 

I. :u 

lafandiyar, j^J-^i^l, the non of Kishlasp or Oaahtiip 

(Hyataapus) the fifth king of tho Kayinian dyna-sty of 
Pei-sia» was a great warrior, and appears to ]>• tlie Xerxes 
t>f tho Gretks. Ho was killed by Rustiim before hw 
father's death. 

Is-hak, 0^**l| the poetical title of Jamil-uddin, a cotton- 
tlirasher of »Shiraz. 11" was an olegant iMit^t, and haa left 
ua a Di'wan called " Aksir-ul-I^htiha," the Klixir of Hun- 
ger, full of luuorous Bongs and parodies on thi- odes of 
Khw&ja Hdfiz, 'nch verse of whir h enntaiuii either the 
name of a swr't'tmuat or a diah. He lived in the time of 
princo Sultan Sikandjir, tho son of Uinar Shaikh, who 
much eutoem^'d him. His pmpor name ia Abii In-halji, 
which he nses in poetry by abbreviating it into Bus-hi^ 
vidfi Abu Is-hak. 

la-hak-bin-'Ali, ,^-** lir" O**^'* author of a Diwan in 
Arabic, and of a work called "■ Zuhr-ul-'Adab." He died 
in 1022 A. r>., 413 A. U. 

Ia-hak-bm-Hu3ain or Hunain, t.'^--^*- cr! tj^^^', 
^»^i^& U an Arabian author who translated tho Alniagasti 
of I'tolemy i'mm the tJreok into Arabic under the title of 
"Tahrir-al-Majasti." This btHjk ia to be found in tho 
French King's Libmrj-, Xo. 887. Shirazi' him written a 
comin«*ntary on tliia work, and ontitlcd it " Hall Mushki- 

la-hak Khan, u^ i3'***^ styled M6"tamin-uddaubi, 

wboHc original name wad Mirza Ghulam 'Ali, wojt a no- 
bb-nian of high riiiik, and a great favourite of tho em(M.'rur 
MuhuTiimad iShah of Dehli. Hf^ wa>. .i gco"! poet, and 
used for his poetical name Is-hak. He died in tho 2Jnd 
ycir of the emjieror 17^0 A. U., 116^ A. H., and after 
hia death, liis daughter was married to !:?huia-udd:iubi, thw 
tton of Xawiib Safdai' Jang, and the nuptials were eele- 
brattd with imconimpn sjdfndour, 1746 A. D., 1169 A. H. 

I&-hak, Maulana, (3^^"^' ^^^j a learned MiL-uilman 
who was Iwrn at Tchcha in Slultan. In his youth ho 
dedicated hinuK'lf under the guidance of hid uncle i:say_\-ad 
Siidr-uddin Kajii KatLal, whi>a« hiatur wua his mother. 
He die<l in H60 A. 1)., HtiO A. 11^ and was buhud in tho 
compound of his own houao at Sahkronpur. 

lB*hak MouflaH, lt^J^ t5^***'j a cekbrutod Arabian 

author, bom at ^iuu.-^il. It \a related in the Kitab Ala- 
ghiui, that wheu he waa un a journey, he carried with 
him tighteen coffers full of books, though ho declarod, 
that if ht.' had not been anxiou.s to make hia luggagv aa 
light a.i possible, ht' would have brought double the 

'Ishk, i}^^} poetical title of Shah Rukn-uddin who 

tlourifched in the reign of the emperor ShAh 'Alarn. 

'lahki, cff*^, the title of a poet who flourished in the reign 

of the emperor MuhaTiimad Sh^li, and ia thu author of a 
Diwin. Hu di^-d in 17-20 A. D., 1142 A. U. 

Ishki, u^^i pottical titlo of Shaikh aiuhammftd Wajih, 

son of Ghulaui Ilusain Mujrim of Patna. Ho waa for 
t*'n vuars umler the English govtrnmcnt Tahavldar of 
Kluirwar; waa living in 1800 A. D., 1'224 A. 11., and is 
tlie author of a Diwin. 

'lahrat, Cy^, poetical name of Mirra 'AU Uiia, who col- 
lected his poems into it DiwAn under Muhammad Shah in 
1747 A. D., IIGO A. H., and died shortly after. 

'lihrat, «»r**» author of tho last part of the itory of Pad- 
mawat in Urdii verse, which was completed by him 1795 
A- h, Tn^ I'admiwat and Ibrat. 


( 122 ) 


of » IKwt irho ia the author 

w Ak» *AU of lafahln, ho 

■ABomed \ry ShSh. Wali 

the grmndson of Shaikh Ah- 
H* ««• a diahngnahed Theologian &nd 
1 im tTM A. D^ 1161 A. H., and lell several 
*AUal 'Astt of DeUi, the must celubrtLted 
ia modern time, waa ono of hi« eons. 

K|a J^ Smt^ Sawai, whom he succoeded to the r&j of 
i^MrairUA.D. Be died i a 1760 A. O., and was 
m^BumigA ty kit mm Uadho Singh. 

■ri Furmhad Karain ^ingh Bahadur ijr*^^ 
>»«r» ^^*- c^y C*^^; rijAofBeiiarM(1869). 

, j^*^, A Wander the Great. Vide Sikandar 

KaniBhi, t^*^^ J**^' , vLom Stewart in hia 

' iltan'A Ln»rary/' calht Sikandar 

r of the "Tiinkh 'Alani 'Aria 

'JlMMt" a bi«^'>7 ■■■ ii''' rr>riiiim kiti^ of the Safwi 

ijM^tj. fron 6hAh I*riin'a I tu ShiUi 'Abhaa the Grout, 

I* wham H waa dcdicaUd in 1610 A. D., 1026 A. U. 

KbAOp Cf^ C^^t ^^^ ^^ ^^^ Zayi-uddin Husain 
whoaa podicjil namo waa W&U. He »c<r\'i>d 
MMkOTor 'Alaiugir, and was raiwd Lo the r&nk 
nfMMvitbthii titto of liUm Khau. Uo dii.Ml lu the 
fmr t^f^ A. n.. lOT-l A. H., nl X^nh, luid the chrono- 
gT' ^im writt<*n by Uhiinl K»»huiiri. Ho 

fr> > twibhn llimtimt Khftn, Saif Klias and 

Atfi .t rLui.iiii i\ null. 

lalam Khan, C^ ^^'^* the aon of Safi Kh&n and grand- 
^jfi ;f IiiUni Khto Mubhudi, waa Ht'jbadiiT of Lah6r in 
UbA ttmn of Dm •rtiip«4«r KAmikh-Biyiu-, ami wna raised to 
tlk* rank r^ 7000 in th<i nHgn of Muhammad Hh&h. 

raUm Khan Kaahhadi, Nawab, cf *t^ o^ r^* 

•yt'^y (tu» ii by ».fmA called UUin Khdn IlOmi. but that is 

• ntatakJi). Il<' *<» '^ nativo of Muabtuid, and hift 

I aama wiu Mir 'AImIiu Halim. In thi* tinio of Ja> 

|M hi)M tlwt inanxult of iVXKi, iinJ th« ^utmiisri 

i/i It, lb> lifitii ut l^biih Juhikn wnit mi»(*d to 

iitlii <>) Mdbim-titlibiula iind held 

IIm aM"' ''"' DukhnhiK^urJ uud gnvfrnor- 

Aif of IUj i»"kliiii. )!• ttfl'i-wnnU wu* UKriin iippoinlwi 

^ten«'if of lt'inK«b in IhM Mth yciir of HhiUi .luhan hv 

VM raWd t^i Umi rank uf Wizftnit with Uit' title of 

Jgaiilgf Til "--'^ Hliirrtlv Hftirrhn wii« nuM'd to tho rank 

mt 7MM; and thr 8liU«liri of tt- M < > f. ](,• wju) waxir 

l^lMb iahaii and h>Jd i\m »< • r>, with the title 

0t $Mm Kbiii ilo wjui tuui.' i« hia df.'uth up- 

Mfatod KftVMriuir of th» l^akhin wh"nr br dii-d in tho 2Lvt 

nar of t^ eoil^rrur, mj Unt 2nd of Novfrnbrr, 1H47 A. D.* 

|«lfc UtewwAl, JVfr7 A* li-i ami waa buried at Atuungi- 

Khan Bumi, »/*i; cM (^'» titlo of Huaain 
^1^1^ ^1^ «f ' ' ' '""' of Baara, but 

l^00g dMvff*") ' '" Muhammad, 

IW Ml UMI tft^*ftt9J «"" 'arn*' »" iioiu* M 1699 A. U.* 



.<. »f W|^4|^ t* III'- 

Ulh of Jane, 

1676 A. n., nth Rabr TI. 1087 A. H. He b".i i-niu h\M 
faouso at Agmh on a piec« of ground con>i .ir 

bkgu and seven cottaa, and u garij»;a oo a ^i ir^ 

bigas and nine cottos, on the banks of tho rircr Junna 
near the Ghat culled Taj&ra cloee to the fort of Agnh. 

Islam Khan, Shaikh, cj^ r^' ^> atyled Nawib 

Ya'tzfiJ-uddaida, waa a gtundsou of Shaikh &alim Ohishtt. 
and t)on>in-t.iw of Shaikh Mubarik, the tithur of thu cele- 
brutt-d 'Abii'l Fuzl, wbu^c #i.«tiT, nHinifd 1-ji.dli iie^un, b« 
httd uiarricd. Ho wua appuinU'd governor of Beagid b? 
tlio nmperor Jahangir in lt>OS A. I»., 1017 A- 11. Nawa^ 
Ikrdm Khan wus his son, and Ka^im Kh&n hia bn7ther. 
The latter aucc^tded bini in the gov.-mmt'nt of Bengal ia 
1613 A. D., 1022 A. H., in which year I&lain Rh&u hwl 
died. Ui« renuiina wcrv transported to Puthupur tiikii 
where he wmt buried. 

iBlam Shah, «*-^ p^', ridt Salim 8h4h. 

Isma'ilj iM^*^^, or Ishmael, the aon of the patrianh 


Isma'U, OJ^^r**** (•**' i^. i^i**-*, the eldest wm of 
Imam Ja'fdr Sadik. from whom tho sect of I^ma'ihi ot 
Xsma'flias tuke tbuir uiune- lliey luiuntAin, that Imu'd, 
who waa thi: r-KU«t son, but died daring hU fathers Ufc, 
should hare 6ueci>cded to the dignity of Imam, and ntH 
ilwfi K^m, who was his younger brother, and boraoM 
the seventh Imim. Uaaan Sabbah wiis of this swU PiUi 

lama'il I, Safwi, Shah, tj^^ Ji*^l u^, ihe mm 

of Sid^iin Httidar. wa» the first monarch of the Sai 
dynaiity of kings who reigned in Persia. Ht tracMl 
deacent from Musi Karim the seventh Imnm. who 
descended in a direct lino from Ali, Lh*i aon-in-Uw^ 
Muhammad. Almost all his anccators were i»g-Anl< 
holy men, and some of them ns saints. Tht' first of this 
family who nrqaired any ronsidiTable repiitstjon was 
Sliaikh Safi-uddin, who had settled at Ardibel, and b«ai 
whom this d\*nastT takes its name of Safwia or ^fwi 
His aon Sadr>uddin Muso. as well as his iin 
sooDdanta, Khwsja Ali, Shaikh Ibruhim, t^ ^ d, 

and Haidar. acquired the gn-atest n-piit-ition imi 
Cotemporary monarehs, we are inforuR-d, viaittJ 

of Sadr-uddin. ITie great Toiinur (THmerliuic), n.. 

went to see this holy man, demandod to know whattavour 
he should confer upon him. " Eoloaae those priMBlov 
you h&ve brought &om Turkey," wiis tho uoblo and 
pions request of the saint. Tho conqueror rompU«d; 
and the grateful tribca, when tiiey gained their lilirr^, 
declared themselvaa the deToted dinciples of him to «boa 
they owed it. Tbeir children prosorvod fla4:r«<d tb«: obU* 
gation of their fathocs ; and the deioendants of the vu^ 
tives of Taimur became the supporters of the fiunilr af 
Safi and enabled the Eon of a devotee to nwc-nd one of the 
most spU'ndid thrones in the world. Ehwaja *AJt, after 
riititlng Mc-i^ea, went on a pilgrimage to .If^rujutl^u). cad 
died at that city. His grandson Junaid, sat on th«< nus* 
nod OS a sj>iritual guide after the dmth < ! ' ' \-i 
Shaikh Ibrahim ; and so great a crowd of il . t- 

ded this holy nmn, that Jahan Shah, Uir chi : , >f 

of the Bifwk Sheep, who at that time riil..l a.l.p .^ji. 
hecame alanned at their numbers, and bani^-li 1 hu-., '.nan 
ArdibeL Junaid went to Itey&rbikar, wh<i«H ruivr, tk» 
celebrated Uuan Hasan, rcNxived him kindly. «iTid n** 
his sifitcr in marriage to Junaid. He ufi : nt 

with his disciples to Shirwin, where ho u a 

conflirt with the troops of the king of j^.i. . n 

1456 A. D., S60 A. U. Hia aon SiUtan llaidar sn i : 
him. and his undo, Vexan Hasjin who had nun i i uu 
overthrow of Jahin Sh&h and Sulf^ Abii Said, bccocM 
sovereign of all Persia, gare -him his daughter in mar- 
riage. Thn name of Ihifl prinrc«fs according to Muhaxa- 
maoan auihons «v 'Aliun Bhoa', but wo are infomed b; 


( 123 ) 


& cotcmpcmry European writer, that ih© wiu called 
Martka, and was the daughter of U« HaAan by the 
Christian lady D«tpina. who wm a dau^htor of Calo 
Jo&nncfl, king of Trcbizjnd. SuUdii Haidur ako lost his 
lifu from tho wuiind of an arrow which ho rocoived in a 
baltlf with tho troopa of Hhirwan Shah and Ya'kub Beg 
in July. 1488 A. D.. Shnban, 893 A. H. 8uUi\n Hnidar 
had three sons by this ]irinrfsa ; Sultan %Vli. Ibrahim 
Mirxa and Shah Isma'il. Whi-n Isma'il ttttaini?d the uffo 
of fourtwn {liis cldor brolhurs having died Bome years 
b©for«'), he put himstlf at the head of his adhcrcnti), and 
inarchtd ngainpt the iKreat fni'iny of his fauiily thf nilrr 
of Shirwan. cidb?d Shirwin Shah, whnm ho defuatid 
1600 A. D., 90U A. H., and soon uhrr : by another Tictory 
gained over Alwaud Ib-^, tlm ton of Ya'kiib Heg, a prinre 
of the dynrt!*t:v of thn White Sht-i-'p, ho hecame tho master 
of tho province of Azurbojitn, and establibht'd hi» ri'ui- 
dcncc at the city of Talmrz ; and in less than fouryara 
became thf acknowledged sovereign of tlie kingdom of 
Pcntia. He was bom on the 17lh July. 1-187 A. P., '2'1th 
Rajab, 892 A. II . iLiL-d ufti-r a rtign of 24 lunar yoartt on 
Monday the S.lrd of Jlay, 1524 A. !>.. 19th Rajub, 930 
A. 11.. aged 38 yc^are. and was burietl at Anlibcl. Mu- 
hammadaa historians fix thi? rommt-nrtMnent of his reign 
from Ihoycar loOti A. D. Uo left four fiors ; Tabmasp, 
who succeeded bia father. Sam ilirza, Bahrani, nnd Ikh- 
laa Mirza, and five daughtrrs. Ht' torn |i'ja*'d a Turkish 
Diwan in which he usl-9 tho Tuklialluii of Khitabi. 

Tkf foUinein^ in a Hal nj the Sa/wi kings of Prrsia. 

\. Shah Isma"il S;dw], Ist 8on of Sultan Unidar. 

2. Bhah T ihninsp Safwi I, son of Isma'il Sofwf. 

3. Hhah It^uia'il II. 

4. Miib:iniTnad Khuda IJanda. 
6. Ilam//!^ S'"'n "f Khuda Hiinda. 

6. Shah Ifima'il 111, son of Khuda Banda. 

7. Bhfih 'Abbas 1, mn uf Khuda Biinda. 

8. Shah Kafi. the son of Safi Xir^a, tho son of 'Abbia, 

9. Shall 'Abbas II. son of Shah SaFi. 

10. Shsh finlaiman, son of "Abbds II. 

11. Phah Hiisain. fron of Sulaimiin, 

12. 6hah Tahmasp IT, last of the Safwi dynasty. 

Miihmi'id, an Afghan. 
AHhraf, jin Afghan. 

13. Shah 'AbbfU III. vidr Nadir Shah. 

Nadir Shah. 

Iflma^il II, Safwi, Shah, ^ybj^^ Jaa^^l jLi^ ^^^^^ 

(«on of Shiih T.ihnijsp I. Safwi. whom he sueeetded on tho 
throne of TiTsin in Jlay, 1 J7G A. B., Safar. 084 A. H., 
by tho aid of his bt^k-r I'jiri Khariam, whn B^-nt for him 
from thn fort of Kahkah where he was confined by hi» 
father for tho last 18 y-'ant. The short reign of this 
unworthy prince was marked by di-bauehcry and <;riine. 
Tmmedi:jti'ly on his ant-i'ssion, he dir^'ctcd the masflaiTu 
of all the jirin'-i'S of thi- bUfud-royal that were at Kazwin, 
except 'All Mirra whu-^rt lib? wiLt spand : but even he 
waa deprived of ^ight. His I'ldest brother Muhammad 
Mir/J, who had a iiulvirnl wcaknesH in hij» i^yes, whii'h 
renderfd him alnmst blind, and W!i.s during bia father's 
life, employed as governor of Khurasdn, thi-n at 
ShCraz. (-Jrdero were stnt lo muribT him and his son 
'Abbas, but b*'fnri; they rould ho cxwut^d, Isma'il was 
found dead one inorning in a ronft^tioner's house, unp- 
p«w.'d to hnv*! Ill ■n poii^onid by hi'* sistf'r. Hia death 
faappenod iit Kazwin on Sunday the iilth November, 1577 
A. D-, 13ih Itani;i?an. 9R-1 A. H.. after a short reign of 
one year and *i\ montha. Hr was PlJrrel^ded by hiseldeat 
brother, lluhamniad Mirza who, on hia aeeeasion to tho 
throne, took the title of Muhammad K-hnda Banda. 

hw Either, caused hi« body to bo flayed, and his i«kin 
itufTed and oxpoMd to publir view. Al-Mannur died afti<r 
a reign of seven yean and Mxt'C«n days in ^h1 A. I>., 
30th Shawwal 341 A. U., and was 8uceoL>diLd by hin won 
Abij Tumi'm Ma'd aumamed Mo'iz2-uddin-id]ah. 

lama'U »Adil Shah. Sultan, »^ J*>^ Ji**-*!, of 

Bijapur, Bumnmed Abil'l Katha, suecredrd his father 
Yusaf 'Adil Shah on tho thrtim; of Bfjapur in the l^akhin 
in 1610 A. D., 916 A. H., and ditd aft+T a glorious reiKii 
of 26 lunar veur» on Wednehdav tho 27th of Augnat, 
163i A. D..'lOth Sufar, 9-il A." U., and waa buried at 
Kuki near the tomb of hia father. Ue was fiuc^eoded by 
his son MoHu ^Adil Shah. 

iBEna'il-bin- Hasan, er-^ e^ <-^4**-«' , author of the 

work c[dlrd " Zakliira Kliwari^m Shah." H" fbiurished 
in the nngTi of AlA-uddin Takai^h. Sultan of Khwdrixm 
who died in 1200 A. D.,J596 A. II., and wasacoLimporury 
of KluLkani the poet. 

Xflina*il t>i*««"tj punianu-d al-Manaiir, third or fourth Khnlif 
of Barbarv nf the nice of the Fitimitea, sueeeeded his 
father al-Kaem « ) 'j A. D.. AA^ A. U.. and having defea- 
twi and alaiu Ycxi'd-ibn-Koudat whu had rubyUed against 

Isma'il, Sayyad-bin-Husain Jui^ani, l4**-«I 
iy^J^ \j^f^ liH "H-**, author of two medieal works 

in Feraian. called " Aghr&z-ut-Tibb." and " Khiff-i-'Alai." 
whit-h he di dieated to Alj> Arsalan, Sultan of Khwarizni. 

lema'ili, ^f^**-*! or Isma'ilia, *i^***-*', a family of 

rhicfs. whohnd thpfmgh the means of !<ui>erEtition. esta- 
blished un influence over the mintb of their followers, that 
enabled them to strike awe into the bosoms of the most 
powerful sovereigns, and to till a kingdom with horror 
niid dismay for a [K-riod fif n'Mirly two < inturies. Their 
ruler, who may be jnstly termed the rhiif nf the aasas- 
Bins resided on a lofty mouutniu, ealled Alahmut, and 
fate WH8 in his hand?* ; for then* was uo shape whieh hia 
foUnwers i:(>uld not assume, no danger that they euuld not 
brave, to fulfil his mandates. Themo were the I^ma'iliM 
or assa.<tsm!4, well-known by tho Cnisoders, as 8ubje*;ts of 
the Old Man of tho mountain. Thoy were rompktcly 
extirpated by Halaku. the Tartar king of J^ensiji, ia the 
I year ISofi A. D. Vid£ Isnm'il and Ha.<un Sabbah. 

Isma'U Hakki, Shaikh, J^ Ji»^i ^, author of 

a commentary cii the Kuran called '' Kuh-ul-Bayin," and 
of tho "Hadis-ul-Arba'in.*' 

IsmaHl BClrza, K^j^ ti^**-*', of Isfahan, an author. 

Isma'il Nizam Shah, »^ f^ J**<^l. His fothor, 
prince Burhan Shah, having boen dofeattMl in an attempt 
to dethrone hia brother Slurta'xii Nizam Shsh, had fled 
for proit* ition to the court of the emperor Akbar. Un 
hia departxin^ bo left Whind him two sons, named Ibra- 
him und Isma'il, whfi were kfpt etiufiued in the fortress 
of LfthAgurh. *>n \\\i^ d'jith of Miran Husain Shah, tho 
younger being nined to the throne of Ahmadnagar by 
Jamai Khan in the month of March, 1589 A. It., Jumada 
T. 0!i7 A. H„ tm.k the tillo nf Isma'fl Nizim Shah. His 
fath<T Burhan Shah having reoeived assistance from the 
en^peror .A.kb!ir. imirthed u^inst his son, but was defea- 
ted. >Iiiiw* v<T iJi u short time after this, ho renewed hifl 
altemptA. and living joined by a great majority of tho 
chiefs and people, attacked iTamAl Khfm tho king's min- 
ister, who was killed in the action un tho 271h April, 
lADl O. S.. I3th Ibiinb, 91iD A. H. Isma'il, who had 
reigned littlf! more than twu years, was tjiken jirisonor 
and confined by his (ather. who asrended thn throne of 
Ahmadiiagar with the title uf Burhan NizAm Shah II. 

Isma'il Pasha, ^^ J***^', the prL«nnt Khaddev or 
king uf Kgypt, son and )«ue<:f>ft»i>r of Muhammad 'Ali 
r;isha, who died in August, 194y A. D. 

Isma^il Samani, Amir, ij^^ Ja**-.I ja/o|^ q,^ g„t 

King or Amir of tho raco of Siman, called 8am&nf, truoed 


( 124 ) 


hU dewent from Bahrdm Cliobin, tho warrior who con- 
t^ndfil for Iho crown of Persia with Khiisro I'rirveB. 
fiimin. the groat-gnind father of Ism/i'il, ia termwl, by 
Europoan writCTa, a koe|ier of herds, iind n rubber : but 
this merely dAmgnatca the ocenpation of a Tartar cbiuf. 
His futKur Xiiar Ahmad, the son of Atsad, the Bon of Sd- 
znau, was appointed govt'ruor of Mawttrun Nuhr by the 
Khalif Mo'tamid in the vflftr 875 A. l)., 261 A, H. On 
his diNith his Bon Isma'il sucreoded him. Itnnafl, aff>r 
hi:* conquest over Ainru-bin-Liiia, whom ho •icizt.'d nod 
W'nt to Baghdad, in 900 A. D., bf^camo indeprnthmt. 
Th<» powur of the dymuity of the S&mania t'xtendt*d over 
KhuriUan, Sristin, Baikh and tho countries of Trins- 
< )xmiitt, inelndiii^ iho citios of Bukhara and Samiirkund. 
Thiti justly celubratwd prince died after a reign of twtmty 
ycnrn in 907 A. D., Safar 295 A. U.. aifcd liO years, and 
■vhjs succeeded by his son Amir Ahmud ^»mani. 

The names of the kin^s of thi;* fiunily who wor« cullt'd 
Amfra, and who continued to reign for a period of 128 
lunar yvmn, uro as follow : — 

1. Amir iHma'il S&mani. 6. 

2. ,. Ahmud Simam*. 7. 

3. „ Nasr-bin-Ahmad. 8. 

4. n Nub I, son uf Nur. 9. 
6. ., Abdul Malik. 

Amfr Mansiir I. 

„ Nuh II. 

,, Mniut&r IT. 

„ 'Abdul MAUk n, 
the last of this 

•Ismat, *^'****j wc&Aamat, 

iBtarushlf tj^ J *""*^/ v*^* Muhammad-bin.Mahmiid. 

IstBghana, ****«-', poetical title of 'Abdul lUadl. 

Itabi, tji^j a poet, who died in the year 1614 A. D., 1023 

A. H. 

Itkad Khan, J^ 6^^i, the brother of 'Asaf KhAn, 

Wuiir, and son of Yu'tmid-uddanla. Hu was appointed 
governor of Kaflhrnir by the emperor Sh&h Jah&n* which 
situation ho held for ativerul years. Ho died at Agrah in 
1650 A. B.. 1U60 A. H. 

Itkad Khan, cJ^ o^^I, the title of Mini Bahman 
Yir, Iho 50U of 'Aaaf Khan and jp^ndson of Ya'tmad- 
uddnulu. Ho was raiaod to the rank of 4000 in the 25th 
year of Shah ^ahin. 1661 A. D.. 1061 A. U.. with the 
title of Va't^ad Kh&n, which his father held for some time 
as woU an his uncle the brother of 'Asuf Khan. In the 
6th year of 'ALunffir 1662 A. D., 1072 A. U., the rank 
of 5000 was conifcrred on him. In 1667 A. D.. 1077 
A. H.. ho proceeded to Dacca in Bongol, to visit his bro- 
ther Slmistu Kbiiu who was then governor of that pro- 
vince, and dicJ there in the year 1671 A. D^ 1082 A. H. 

Itkad Khan, *y^ jl^', fonner tiUe of ZolflVir Khin 
Xosrat Jang. 

Itmad Khan Khwaja Sara» Lr« '^''^ J*- o'*^*, 

ttU fuijuch and (itfic-T in tho service of thf emporor Akbar. 
Hu wat9 »tabb«nl by his servant Mul^sild 'Ali in 1678 
A. 1).. 9StJ A. l\., and wafl burit-d at a placu called Itmad- 
piir, twolvu miloa from Agrah, which he had founded in 
iuB lifeliiue. 

Itmad Khan, u^ oUicJ^ tHl« of Shaikh 'Abddl Kttwi, 
un Amir of the mim\ uf the emperor 'Alumgi'r. Uo wua 
murdered by a Kalan(bir in 1666 A. D., 1077 A. H. 

Itmad-Uddaula, *^^' j'****, title of Khwiya AyiU or 

GhftvM tho fJithiT of the celcbrotiKl Xur Juhan Begoin, 
the f»Tourilc wife of th».< empt-ror Jahangir. Ho wna a 
Turtur md camo from Persia to India in the reign of the 
cmp^.ror Akbor. In the time of Jahdu^^ir, he was raised 
to the high runk of Waxir, with the title of ItmAd-ud- 
daolii, ud his two sons tu the first rank of 'Umi« with 

tho titles of 'AwifKhAn and Itkid Khan. He 
K^it Kangr^ where ho hn'l nrromptinied Jahdatrii^ on bit 
way to Kiushmir in Februriry, 1621 O. 8., KabV I, 1030 
A. H. His n^mains were tninspurtt-d to Agrah. nnd 
burit'd on the left bank of the Jamna, whiTe a splendid 
matwoleum was built over his relics by his daue-hter Xiir 
Juhan. It was completed in 1628 A. D., and Ib still in « 
high .itato of prosi<rviition. It is tmid, but it (v.-t'ras not 
t^> be true, thiit she intended to ruise a rnoamm-ut ot' m1v(« 
to his mt'mory, but wnM nniinded by bur nr- i ■• ■ • t] 
onp of less roretiblf material stuo«] ii fiiit- 
duration. After his d(>Rth. hia son 'Abii'l U 
pointed Wazlr with the title of 'Asnf Khan. No privat«t 
family evi-r made Huch alliances witli royal bloiwl. aa this 
T[)rtar ; for, his own daughter, lus son's daughter and tlu 
diiughtf>r of luH grcuidaon, wpre married tothrc« aucceHiTv 
empTorfi of JTindustan ; and another diiasrht*T of hji 
gmnd«nn, to prince Mtirad Bakhsh, who ditiputf^'d the thrcno 
with '^Uamgir. and for some diiys thotight hiinsuU ia 
posiiosidon of" it. The place where he ia burii.-d. was a 
giirdt:n built by Itmad-uddaula during hiit lifetime. 
Inhere are two tombs of yoUow stone undi«r Ihp fEauaa, 
one of which is of Itmad-uddaola and the othr\r ia 
said to bo his wile's. It has a very large gate* tuwords 
the east, built of rod stone. It has two minora on both 
atdcH in the same inimbur as there are two on the eide of 
the Jamna towards tht? went. Th<?rp in on the ehabutn 
towards the Jamna a fish made of atone ; if the mUg 
runs in and rises as Car as its niniith, the wholn i4 
Allah&bad will he inundated. 

atmad-uddaiUa, ^-tl*^' J^^, title of Muhammad Amir 

Khan, the prime minister of thf. emperor MuhAntmaJ 
Shah, f'idf Muhammad Amfr Kh£n. 


Itmad-uddaula, *^j***" oUi*l, son of Muhammad Aaia 

KhiUj Wazir. Vi'i^ Kamar-uddin Khdn. 
Itsam-uddin. Shaikh, lH^ j.Uu*I vxA, aathor of 

the "Shjigarf Xiima-i-Wiliet," being the txavrlM nf \b» 
author in Oreiit Britain and France, some timo btjf'iiv ur 
after the year 1 7G6 A. D., 1180 A. H. This work Imi 
been translated into Kugliah. 

Ihia-bin-'AbdiJ Latif-al-Husaini of Kazwin. 

Amir, C5H-^' ^^Ji^l ooff ^^ ^^^W, a„a,ori.l 

the "Lubbut Tawirfkb," which he composed in Ia4t 
A. D., 9<f 8 A. II. Iluji Klmlfu gives his name as Iima'd- 
bin-' Abdul LutiC and in thf- Mdsir.iil-Umra, hv ia caUi«l 
Mir Ihia Uusaini Saiil. He wan patronized by Shih 
Tiihmisp Bafwi, but his enemiea, envinuM of hu good 
fortune, endeavoured to poison bin p^itron'a mind agunit 
him, and at hut prevailed so far as t4] induce th^ liing 
to order him together with hia son Mir Abdul ZaXU, to )m 
impriMincd, the latter, however, mado his eacsapn, h«t 
Mir lahla died in prison after one year and Bin* 
months* imprwonrntrnt in 1556 A. D., 9G2 A. H-, ogod 77 
yciirs. His second sun Ala-uddaula Imown by the poeti- 
cal nami* of Kami, is the author ot the work colM 
" XaftilH-ul-Maidr." Hia eldest brother Mir 'Abdul 
who hud fled to Gtlau, came aft<Twarda to Uii 
with his family some time after Akbar had ascended 
throne. By him ho waa received with great kiodnn*! 
couHiderution, and was appointed his preceptor. Hoi 
said by some authom to havt* di«d at Sikri in 1563 A- D, 
071 A. H.. but the author of the " Uasir-uI-*I7nu«*' writiW 
that his denlh look place in 1673 A. !>., 981 A H« 
and thut K&sim Ar»ilan found the chronogram of his 
dtvith to be " fakhunUvaa." His eldest son Ghayi^ 
uddin *Ali was also endowed with an excellent difpo4i> 
tion, and served Akbar for a long period, la the 24th 
year of Aktnr's reign, 1.38I A. D.. he was honored %»ttll 
the title of Xakfb Khan, by which ho is now b«it 
known. In the time of Jahangtr he attained still tvt* 
ther huuora, and died at Ajmir in 1614 A. D,, lOSS 


( 125 ) 


A. Hs Ho WM buried thnrc iu a niarlilo tomV* within tlio 
•I** of ICo'fn-uddin Chijihti's mftnHoIi-imi. wh^n? his will.- 
•lao Hob buriod by hw side. Xakili Khan wns one of tho 
vompilera of tho firat jiortion of Um ''Tftiikh Alfi," and 
the trnnshitor of the " Miiliabhiirut," though tlii.-* hunour 
u usMalTy namJird to Ytnzi. Iff h'ft a son nami^'d Mi'r 
'Abdul lyTitiC whd vtvi n |>«rson of (frtwt wotth and ability 
and MtLaincMl high houourti, but difd insane. 

Tyar Muhammad Khan, Mir, o^ «^*^'j^*, fho 

son oi* ilir ^turiid 'Ali. foinur juliTof th» Uiiidiiral'id 
portion of Sinilh. Hi* ia a bnjth<T of Mtih:iiiktiiii<l Khan, 
who buiofc di£ix>swMM.>d and kept for Hoinrlimo a piisonrron 
tho hniit^xiiliun nf Nindh under .Sir Charh-Ji Xiijiiur, was 
nlbjwed to rr-tiim. and now rtsidea nt tlaidjirihad as a 
pnvatc gentleman ujhju a peuHion from Uovcnunent. 

laid Bakhsh, Mirza, tA*^ <>>?* 0^*. His po* tical 

niiinf wiirt Kasa ; hrwus Ih'- irritndt'on of 'Awaf Khan Jii'far 
h*f^ who wuN Wazir to Juhiinijir. Izid Ihikhijh Wkw at 
first t-nipluyi-d by thf prini'i) 'Axim Shah, ami lh«'n by hi'* 
fath^T Llif i'ni]»iTur "Alam^ir in the rupju-ity nf MuuHhi. 
On thfl fti-riMwion of KaiTukh-sJyar, }»f was dif «ntoini by that 
CTiipi'ror on account of his L-aMtin/;; nomr rfrtit-tion** on liia 
father AziIn-^^h-Sha^ at th" tinif of th*j battle which 
took plare betwit-n 'Azini .Shall and hi-t brothur Hahiidiir 
Shnh. iiy Iht^ <*rdtr of tbu fm[>t-ror. the hairs* ol hia miia- 
tuch(.-8 wrrc [>luL-ki'd out one by ono, and afterwards he 
wan eruclly In^^i1■rlld. This eviut t*iok jdaco aUoiiL Iho 
bftfinninp of the year 17U A. D., 112.'"* A. U. liis tumh 
is hlill to be seen in thw i-ompoimd of the Agrah ColIc-go. 

'Issat, *^, poutical namo of (Shaikh) 'Abdul Aziz, which 

'Issat, *^y*> poetical name of Sangham Lai, which see. 
'Izzat, '^•iJ^t poptical tillo of Jaikiahun, whioh »uo. 
Tzzat, "^y^i poeticil nppolhtioti of Shaikh Wajih-uddm. 
'Izzat-uddaula Mirza Muhsin, 'j^ ^j"*^! oj-c 
icr"^, brother of Nawab 8afdar Jang. He was »f nt to 

IVT'ia on an fmbaway t<i Xadir Shah aflcr hiH invasion of 
Hindufctin. by the e«»iM>ror Miihanmitid Stiati. ViUt 
N(ij;if KhiLii and Miihummud Kuli Kliiiii. 

'iBZ-uddin Abdul Aziz-bin-Abdus-Salam Da- 
misbki. Shaikh, j-^Uu^ iL^.y.j^^-^ ^A^\y 
^j^ ,.^^-^J, author of the ** ShaJnit-ul-Mii'alif." Uu 
.fi.d in til.- year 12<il A. U, 660 A. II. 

'Izz-uddin Husain, ert-*^ e>^'*'l>^. He was cmitod 

by Bul^&n Ibniliini of tlhairni, Amir Hajib. in which Mta- 
Uon he condo'ted hiniijelf t>o wtll. that the king gjive him 
» princt'Sii of the houM* of Cihami in nmiTluf:!'. He row; 
d&ily in favom- and .■.-liniutiun. till Sultan Jla.-*Ji'ud the son 
of Ibraldni, put him in possession uf the prin'ipality of 
Ghor. By the priucesa of Ghazni, ho had seven w>n9 
entitled tho sev.n atani. (Jne of them, Kukhruddin 
Musa'iid, b((iime king of IJamyan. The nceondwaji Kutl»- 
uddin Mnhanunftd, who mamed his rt.usin, a primcw of 
ithazni, thi- dany;htcr of Sul^au Balirim Sliih. Tho third 
wns 'Ald-uddin HaRnn, prineo of <;h^T, who destroyed 
Oharni. Irz-udJiii during hia lifrLime paid Iributw to 
tho Saljukft its well as to the Uhaznuvides. 

>Izz-uddin KhaUd Khani, cP^ **-"^ c'i'>^!>^, 

:uithor of the work calbd " T'alael Vir^n Shiihi," which 
he translated into P**n»iari by order of Fir6j Shall, frutn a 
Hindi l>ook which Iroatcd on philosophy, ajitrology luid 


'Izz-uddaula Bakhtyar, j^^^- ^j^ty, the mm of 

Mu'iz«-udduuIa-iIjn-B6ya. He .succeeded to the fcingdoui 
of 'Irak the same day on which his fulhcr dii^l, rtr., 
Alontlay the iBt of April. 1167 A. !>., I7th Uabf 11, 3'H» 
A. U. Thu Khulif al-Taya IlilUh in the year U74 A. D. 
g;ive him hiii dau^lilt-r in marriage, on whom a dowry* nf 
one hundred thoiiwind dinars was settk^ by her huhbaml. 
He Wiia a noble prince, and poshCHw^i j*uch IkkIUv ctrvngth 
that he would seize un enormous bidl by the horns and 
tlirow him to the grourid. A rontest whirh arosi- b*- 
tw»-(n him and hit« cousin 'Azd-udd-iula relative to their 
rcrtpeetivfj poiwitwions, cau.-M4 a bnacli between them 
whiih led b} a war. juid on WVdneMiuy tho 29th May, 
978 A. r>., th*y met and fought a battle, in which Uz- 
uddaula was slain, aged GC yram. IIif< head was placed 
on a tray and presented to 'Azd-udihuln, who on secins 
it, covorud his eyes with his handkerchief and wept 

Jabali, jxt^> the stm of Ayham, last king of the tribe of 
Ohajwuin, wha wcr*i CTiriptian Arabs. Ho beramo a 5lu- 
hammadan, and nfbrwiriM ntleinptol to assn«inntfi 
Unmr, the aocund Khulif aft<:r l^dihummad. Uo diwl 673 
A. B., 63 A. U. 

Jabalj, kS^^j f'urnamp of Abfl 'All Muhnrnmiid-bin-'Abdul 
' \Vah:iI>. who was the master of the celobnited Ahit'l H.-n*afi 
al-Af-Irn'ri, rhii'f of the sect of tho Aifhariaua, and one of 
the four Imams of Musalnumism. 

Jabali, %j^^i prwtical namn of *Abdul Waaa, who was born 
in the mountjnns of (ihurji^lan, hcn<'»* his tdkhallu^ 
vhi( h means niDiintainr-ir. He found a patron in Buhr^m 
I^hoh id Cihaziii. and ttervt'd fciultau Sanjar Salji'iki four- 
teen y.ars. H«' died in 1 1'id A. (K. it.'to A. U., and left a 
Diwan of Kasidafi. i'idr 'Abdul Wa-ta, 

Jabar, ./^t I>oetica1 name of Abu Musa Ja'&r-al-Nafi, which 


Jablla Ham Nagar.y^ /•*; *^4^» « Hindii chief who 

wa:* g'^vemor of Alljiliiilidd. and died then.' in tbo com- 
uienccment of the nign of ]Sluhanimi\d Shah in 17tfl) 
A. !>., 1132 A- U. His nephew liiixUiar was apiwinttnl 
govenmr of Audh after hii* death, and in 172i A. D., 113rt 
A. H., tho government of Malwa was conferred on him. 
and the SuUndari nf Amlh wm jjivon to Burfain-ul-Mulk 
Sa'adat Khan, linja Uirdhar died at MjUwA during 1h- 
invusion of Baji iliiu Jlarhittta, the general of Ilaja Siiliu, 
ab<mt the yc'ar 1729 A. D , 1 14^ A. II , and was .sueoMnied 
by Dayi Bahadur his r>'1ntion, who continmil galbmtly to 
resist the enemy, ami fell in Imttlu about the year 1730 
A. I)., ll-l>t A. H., wh«<n Muhammad Kh&n B&ngnsh was 
ap]>ointed governor of that province. 

JabiTi AiJl"*** t^ ^^, th« son of 'Abdullah, ma t com- 
panion of Muhnmmnd and a truditioni^t. He was present 
in nin«t(?en tuitth's which !kluhjiuittuid fua^-ht, and died in 
the year 0^2 A. D., 73 A. H., iig-nl 94 yesju. 

Ja^far, j^^y^ poetical title of *Asaf Khin, commonly callod 
ilini Ja'far Bog* 

JaTar, ^*^> « soldier by profession. He is the author of 
a Alasiuiwi, which be dedicated to the emperor Shih 


( 126 ) 


m Tihk ■irfg.iiiiiiiii rf IRiiHil ttin >rm nf Pfm"*- 

r Jialv M wfr to tba EL^H&; 
bntt^ Won wmxir to Ah^'\ 'AbluU 
lb* fint of ftll tlM Khftliis who h^J « 
Tki* ««ifr Jft'br. TO a grnU Cuvouritc uf Ui- 
vte g**« hen 'AUiAn, hln fti^tcr. in 
r (W twiitltlnn to biTc no cnrujil con- 
vtt laii^ Smi far bviiaBT****d ih& comnuitid. fur 
H i fc Ifcr TTfciWT ■ Jatil \k fcf J to be atruck off. H« 
rfte ttaaar lii InAer iK^FW sad h» htber Ahia into 
fhmm. mU fl«« left than to die. Ja'&r wu only 28 
j^HB ill vkn iM wu executod, hATinif Iteea in the fiivDor 
^ flfcil ■! ffiriiiit lor tlie ^Mce of nevtmtecn voan. 
J^^ «w W^omM on SttiuUy th« 29t}i of Jsnuao*. 803 
X D^ lA la&r l«7 A. H^ bu bodjr ww gibUUcd on 
«B ak «f tte hri48« ^ ^^*C*^", ud the bead stuck up 

/ft*fkr Ail Khaa, «t^ i/^ .;^*^j ooounoBly oiled Mir 

J»'$kr, mjtnm the P-^gtsA placed on th£ nuunad u 
^■■a «f '*-«!, Brhar ami OriMa, after the defeat and 
AlA «r JU«<k aii^l ■litanlii. in Juno, 1757 A. D^ 
AmtwH ItTO A. B. Ee -»««, bow«v«r. disposed in 1760 
▲. D^ ItTl A. n., oa iMOoont of hi> mgliTt iu tbo alUirA 
«f !■• fVWBBOPC uid vu obliged to rt5tin.> ou hu aniplM 
pMSon, alim kw •oii*m4iiw, Mir Ka»im 'Ali Khan wim 
oImA to ttw MMBad. Thii nun afl'T his ttlevtolion. in- 
tnAfaiy to ^eH* o^ ftk» EnifUfth frum Cai<'uttA. was 
liibAfld to a baUla fiM(te at C'dwn Nalu on tht^ 2n^ of 
A^gmtt I7e> A. D, Sfiid Hn^iutMB. 1177 A. U.. and 
4^4ML aaA Xfr JaTfcr via acam plaoad on th^ mosntul 
hr tfto KulMk. Ba Acd on Tluadaf tha 6th Ktainmnr, 
17CS A. 5^ Mdt Hltoh^ I17« A. H.. and his eon Mir 
limw faC who a«awH! tlie tttl« of Najm-uddutila, wu 
■lint>d to tW Turwai Ja'&r Ali^a ccmeto* in nt Mur- 
■Mift lj^fc— 1^ BiCM and hk Mm Hinn aru olao 

ii^'fa^'AUKMB, diod 6th Febnury, 176fi. 

yiiw ■<<■■!■_ aoD of Ja'&r 

AUKkK diodardHay. 1764. 

fWadiaiUa, 2ad wa of Ja'&r 

'AUIOiAii, diod loth March, 1770. 

llflbaKluaddjuda, Sfd aon of 

ia'lw 'AU KbAn, died September, 1793. 


died April, 1810. 


'Ah Kh&n, .. died 30th October, 1824. 
%mmfu 'AU Khin Niurat Jang, pr««ont ^aw&b (1868). 

Jft'br Btfmakl, ^yj^, wo Ja'&r-al-Bamuld. 

J»»f*r-bin-Aba Ja'far-al Mansur, >*^y cr^>*^ 

iy^^^r thi' KhfiKf of Ktti^hdA/l. HiA daughter Zubeila 

Wat nuirriMl tu >lanin-id-ll.'u4hi[d Uu diud in the >-(«r 
»02 A.I)., 180 A. U. 

JTft'ftar-bln-Abu Talib, v^^j^'cH ^a*^, wa» the 

WoUtiT of 'Ah' the 8on-in*law of the pn')ph':t. He wno 
kiUed in a bHltlu fuught at Mutu in Syria againit the 
lUnan orrny in 029 A. D.. H A. U. 

i«/Ckr-bln-Muhairunad Husaini, ***^ cH^r^ 

/J ■ , author of tho *' Muntukhih-at-Tawarikh/* a yary 
|«a4»'*«w ahridffinf-nt of OriontaJ hutor\' iron. Adatn down 
^ tMllflfch SiiraA, wn uf Amir Taimfir. Thia work 

•i h\ 

wafl dedicate to B&isanghar BalUdnr. third son of ShO- 
rakh, in 141 7 A. D., 820 A. H. Many authors have cam* 
pOtMi workM umlrr thi* title, one of which was writton Vy 
Shaikh 'AMul Kidir Btulooni. 

Ja'far-bin-Tufail, Jiiir ^ y^*^, *" Aiubiim pfaUo- 

eopber in tho 12th rt-ntory, author of a nwuincc, coUoil 
the "hii«ti.>ry of Hoi Pin-Ynkdhan," in whirh ho aawjt* 
that by the light of natarn, n man triay iu'4)uini a know- 
ledge of thinj^ and of God- Vidt Lrrnpnerr's Tni- 
versaJ Dictionary, under Jaaphor. 

Ja'fitr Khan, ^i^yixA.^ entitled "Uradat-ul-Mulk, " im* 

tho son of Sttdilf Khan Mir Bukhshi. and siat«»T .* son \M 
(hju-in-kw of Y<min.addjmU 'Awf Khau, wiKxir. Ue 
hrlil thf; rank of 5000 under the fmporor Shah Jsihon, ww 
apiKiiated priun* minister by 'Alsmgir about tho yew 
lfi62 A. D.. 1073 A. U., and ditnl in Iho 13lh y«ur uflhal 
eropffTor, 1670 A. D.. 1081 A. H., at IXhlu After bit 
death tho office of wixarat whs cuiifwnxi apon Aald 
Khan with tbo title of Amd-uddaul*. It aoema thaf 
after tho dt-ath of Ju'fiir KhAn \m rnmams w«retimnt> 
ferrod to Apinh, wb«»ro his tomb is to be seen ^^ itanl. 
ing cm tbo right bank of tho Jamna. 

Jafir Khan, J^j^, whow original name wits Mar- 
*hid Kuli Khin, wud ajiiMJtnted governor of Bvnnl hr 
the emjicTor Aliungir in 1704 A. D.. 1116 A. H. H'*' 
fonndi'd the tupiul of Murahi<l£b»d and nam^d it altfv 
hia original title, He was the »on of a HrAhinnn .-onrrn- 
od to Muhummndflnium by Hiji J^hurm* Isfahint. U., 
died in the rrign of th^ cmpeivr Mukuii- "i 
thf year 1720 A. D., 1188 A. H., and iv 
hii Bon-in.Iitw Shuja-uddm (also collrai 
l*ho following ia a list of his BocceMora : 

Murahid Knli Ja'far Khiin, ..., \m 

bhiija-uddin, mn of Ja'fjtr KMn, ! ! ! ! V.'.l 1T3 

*AU-uddauLi SaHkraz Khibi, 

Aloh wardi Khin Mah&bat Jang, «". ". 1^ , 

Bir^j-uddaulo, grandson of ditto. ,,, 

Jo'fiir 'Ah Khiii (dethroned in 1760), ^ 

Kiaim 'Alf Khiin, 80Q>in-law of ditto, l\W K 

JuTiu- 'Ali Khdn, rcaton-d in , ,* y ^ 

KHJm-uddanIa, son uf ditto, ***', j-i 

Sai/.uddiinla, brother of Najm-uddaulii, \\\ 


Kaaim-ul-Miilk Waair-uddayla, (died Anril 'anK. 

1810 ..77. 7: 

Suyyad Zain-nddin 'Ali Khan, aon uf ditto, xgj 

Sayyad Ahmad 'Ali Khan. 

Humayun Jdh. 

Munsur 'Ali Khin, Nnomt Jang. 

Ja*far Khan, o^ iJ.)*- cH J^ji^, »,„ of 

Khin, king of Persia. He wa^ roougnitod by thi- xmaj 
cjiNil iioblfiiieii in Fani, nftor th.i d.-rtlh of "Ali MuriJ 
Khiin in 1785. and thi* people w.-xv furwiinl in atksMiv. 
liHlgidg his authority, but nnabb- to rt«,i>( hi^ cnrmr 'Aki 
Muhiiuimod KJiin, who now ventun^ii to t-inliniw * ni«« 
extenaivo field for the excrUou uf hia 1^1. nta, and ctm- 
menrwi his march against FsfAhan. Ja'fux khin «h 
tn^icht-roualy mardervd in 1788; his head was antind 
fnan his body, and raat bcfort* the dtndcl, the apott of 
cltildren, and the outcasts of the city. ■?«» 

Ja'far Khan, c/*- j^^, a nobleman who in Um fint ymt 

of the erajHiror Bahadur Shah wuh appoinlod goreru^ar ol 
Kaahniir in tbo room of Nnwansh Khiin 1707 A. IJ 1]I9 
A. H. Ho proved to be u Iwd gorornor and a nvDb wt 
flro to hia reaidcnL-i-. JI« died in Kaahmir of drini «nd 
•xoesB 170if A. D.. 1121 A. El., and acconling to tho re- 
cord of hia doath, muat be faring badly at pnacnt. 



( 127 ) 


Ja'far Nasiri, iSJ^^ J^^^t an author who comploted 
the work vsXhd " Ijitaof Kiiayiil," in 1742 A. D., UBS 
A. H., which wiis cummenceJ by Alirz^ Mubanimfid 


Ja'far Sadik, 0'^^'*-.r^*^> ot Ja'far the Just. He was 
the cldc-st «on of Biikir, tht' ij^rnndson of 
Itnini Huftoin. He w rr<koned the gjjtlh Imam ; waa 
born at Mudinu lihmit the year "02 A. D., 83 A. H., and 
dinl in thr mmt' city under the khiUfat of Aliu Ja'fttr 
Al-Mflnsur. in Tfi'j A. 11., UH A. if. lit* wm vury fa- 
moiin for hid dtx'trintj aiti«inLC"t tho SIuBiUmins, wm in- 
cited to court by Ai-Manijur, th:it he mi^ht profit >iy his 
counBel : Jri'far rotunied fiir answer, " Whoever Hun a 
view duly to this world, will not tfive yoti eiucen' adviro^ 
nnd ho who rotp^irds thf next, will not keep your com- 
pany." Hi' wjiH biirii'd in thn rfinutry of Al-Biikiu at 
Molina. 'J'ho stiiiie tuuib ountainM the bodits of his fnther, 
Iu«ni Bilkir. hi.s prrmdfntbcr 'All Ziiin-ul 'AbiJin, und hia 
ffnindfathi.'r'B unrK', Ilatian, son of 'Ah'. Hi« mulhiT*8 
naniti wiut Uinni Fui wih, dnughtrr of Ki«ini, thn son of 
Uohamnind, tht' Hon of Abu Uakr Sadik, thi? first Kiiallf 
after Muhiuiinmd. He is said tu hv tho author of u book 
of &,tA lAlbKl " Fttl X«m;i." 

Ja'far ZataUi, Mir, ^/^jj^*^^-*, a Sa>Tad of Nar. 
notd, cut'inponiry with Mini R*'dil. U<> !*t'rved undi<r 
prinri' 'Aziiii Shall, th-' won ui tbf cmpr-ror 'Alain^ir, who 
wiiahbiiniu bfttllc in 1707 A, \).. lOltf A. H. Ja'far wiis 
the uiost c**l'*lir!iti d buuiorislir: ptw't uf ilindiistan ; his 
compt'sitionH art' a iiiixtiin (jf iV.rsian nnd T^rdu. He i« 
tho author of a Shahnnnm in KL.-khLi.. He woa put to 
death in 1713 A. D., 1225 A. H.. by onbr of Uio 
rmp^-ror Farrukh-aiyur, on [lecnunl of u sutiritjil vfrso ho 
had written on tho occesBJoa of that emperor to thu throno 
of Dthli. 

Jagat Goahaini, i^k ^j^ »^^ vidt Jodh Bai. 
Jagat Narayan, iiHb^ ^■^'^, h Hindu po^i who wrote 

some kusiduH in pmist* uf Nawjib 'Asjif-udduula of Lakh- 
nau, who diod in 1797 A. D., 1212 A, H. 

Jagannath, B^Ua, V"^ *^l) th».' Bonof BhnmMnl. Ill* 

htld the rank of 5000 In tht* tim*; of Ihu umperor Juliiiiig^tr, 
Hbout the yt'ar JfiO/j A. 1>,. lUI-t A. H. 

Jagat Singht *^*« ^^'^j tho son of Jbikund Kiiigh 
UflfUr lived in the tiiinj of the pnipcror 'Alamgir 1659 A. I). 

Jagat Bingh^ Aaa— uZ-x^^ raja of Jaipur or Jainugar, was 

the 9on of ruja I'arlap Siii;;h, tbi* mm of Madho Sin^fh, 
tlie son of I»<huii Sini;h, tin* rton of tin- rrlfbnitfd riija Jjii 
Singh tiawiii, who lived in Urn time of tho <.^mporor llii- 
hommud Mliah. Jii^at v^ingh Mii!.'c.'t!oJi.'d hih fuLbiT in Ihti3 
A. D.. Jind i.H snid to havi- bii-n iin ('lf('niiiiut<; prince. 
Though he dii d without issui-. ho wa.s sut-rt-fjtjd by raja 
Jai Singh, a postbuinuu» ^on, believed liuppoitititious. 

Jagnath Kalanwat, &y^ ^r*"^^. a muiician who 

was omploy^d by shilh Jahan, who conferred on hum the 
title of Maha KMbruj. 


vidr Chaghtaf Kh&XL 

Jaghtai, us 

Jagnath, *t^^^^> brother of Ilaja Bhagwan Bis. Ho din- 

tingniahcd bimwlf in thy war with Urija TnrtAp Singh, 
He fllew tliu rL-nowni?d champion iCam D&ti, son of 

Jahan Ara Begam, |^ !;• ^^^j daughter of the em- 
iHTur Shah Jiduin, by Mumti* Mulul, diiugbter of 'Awif 

Khtn, wan'r ; wm bom on Wedneiwlftv the 23rd of 
Murcli, 16U A. D.. 2Ut Sifiir, 1023 A. 'U. Oneofthe 
most beautiful rxaiupb^ of female modvsty to be found 
in the nnnala of wonirtri i-* T'trorded of thin princess, t»lcv 
brutwl in wong and history ,h« the heroic, the witty, the 
gcneroua, the oltgant. Ihi- accompli hhud, and the b<-anli- 
ful Jah&n Ani Begam. One night, (2Gth March, 1644 
A. D.. 27th MuUarnun. 10<;4 A. li.) ob s]\v wafe rt^tumitig 
from her fathfir'n apartmentN to tln^ harem, in one of thh 
paessges which connect ihr latter building with the body 
of the paluco, htr (lowing dru|Kir>- wan imh»ppily ignited 
by the flump of a lamp. Her whole dri-**. whii h was of 
tho iQneat mu.sUn. was in:<tantly in flhm<>9. and of ooune 
hor life was in imminent peril ; but, knowing Umt tthe 
was then within hearing of many yming nobU* of thf* 
court, aho would not i-aise an aliirm. lt.>«t they nbould nin 
to her osidstance, and behold h»T unviilt-d, or lay their 
hand^ uiMin her in order to extinguish the flaim*. Heroi- 
cilly enduring all the Hgo!ii**» whiih firn euuld inflict, nhe 
withheld her cries, and nuihed forwanl until shy reached 
the wnnn.'n's apartments, and there sunk upon the floor, 
almost Ufele«fl. For a long jK'riod. no hoiM'S were enter- 
tained of hor reeovt-ry, but she was lUtimutely ri*Htorf<l to 
henlth by tin English phy.sician named Dr. Boughton who 
was then nt Sv'irat, and had beou tieiit for by the emperor 
hiT fatht^r tlien in th'* Oakhin, although her beauty waa 
cruelly iinpuire^J. The emperor, in reward for I*r. Bougli- 
ton's diTviL-efi, besides other favoura, granted him, at his 
disinter*: wtcd request, a patent for his countrymen to 
trade fre** of cuHtnms throughout his ilomininna. The 
large Mnfijid of red stone adjoining the fort of Agnih 
near the Tripolia (now demolished) waM built by her in the 
year 1048 A. I)., 1058 A. H., at a cost of five lacs of 
nipppH. Sh*' liied in Ihe reign of her brother the rmperor 
'Abjmgir on th". fith Septembtr, IfiHO A. D.. 3rd Hamazan, 
1(102 A. H., nnd lies burietl in the vfinl of tlie miiusulenni 
of NiyJ-m-udJin Aulia at Dehli. The name of Jnh^ ArA 
will ever adorn the pages of history at a bright example of 
filial uttiehnient nnd heroic self-devotion to the dietat^-s 
of duty, more ((speejjUly when wo view it in contrast with 
the behnviour of her sister Uofihan AnU who. by aiding 
the anibitious do«gna of Aurangztb, enabled him to d'- 
tbrniii- Shih Jahin. Tho amiable and accomplished 
Jahan Xra not only supporti'd her iiged father in liis ad- 
verpitv, but vuluntarily re-'^igiied her liK-rt)- an.l rt-ftided 
with him during bis imprisonment in the fort of Agriih. 
Her tomb is of whilo uinrblo, open at the top, and at thft 
hend is » tablet with n Pernian inscription inlaid in bltick 
murblt! Ictlurs, to the following eflV«ot : " Let no one 
scatter over my gravo anything but vcrdar», for such 
be.-it lnHomL'S tho sepulchre of one who had s humble 
mind." On tlio margin is wrilU-n, ** Thf perishable 
falci'r Jah^ Ara Begum, diiughtcr uf 8h£h Jahin, and the 
disciple of tho aaiats of ChishlL, died in tho yoftr of the 
Hijra, 1092 A. H." 

Jahan Banc Begam, (t^y^ w^^, the daoghter of 

Prince Murad, thi- mn W the emperor Akl»ar. She waa 
marrii.*d to Prince Parwez, the son of Jahangir. by whom 
she had Nadim Be^ain. who was married to Uara Shcko, 
the eldest son of 8hah Jahan. 

Jahandar Shah^ ^^ J'^'^i sumamed Muhammad 
Mui'zz-iiddin, was the eldest son of tho cmjii'ror Bahadur 
Bh&h^ and gmndson of 'Alamgir. He was Item in tho 
Bakbin on Wednusday the 8lh April* XGiili A. D., lOth 
HamazaD, 1073 A. IT. Tho dnath of his father, whirh 
took place lu F«bniari', 1712 A. P., SIuluuTuin, 1124 
A. H.t wiw followed by the usual stru|i{gb» among hiji sons 
for tho criiWTi. The ineapaeity of Jahandar Shah tho 
eldest, had givi*n a gre:»t ascendancy to iho Be<^ond whoso 
name waa Azim-UBli-ShAn. He was supported by moat 
of tho nobility ami of the army, but his other brotleirs 
joinM their interests, and were kept tuireiher liy the |w>r- 
ttuasiona and false promises of Zultikdr iLhuu the Aiuir* 


C 128 ) 


Their concord wna of short duration, and 
ocUv aatil the defeat and death of Azini-UMh-Sh&ii ; 
after wiiidi a bloo<iy batilu tinaued hotwfMm thn thron 
irriring hrothcov^ twoofwhonif fi':-. Jnhan Sh&h with 
b» Mn Pajihunda AkhUr, aud Rafi-usb-Shitn. bring 
kiUad, Uoi'zs-addin by the intrigiioA nnd suppftrt of tho 
AnCr-iU-'Unu^ ranaincd antlispuU.'d nrnst'T o( the Uironu, 
•ad waa etwned at lAhor on Thmsdjiv tht: lOlh of 
Ama, 1712 A- D., I4tii Rabf I, 111^4 A. H.," with tho title 
m Jahixidir hhjh. Ho was in himiidf :i wvuk nuin, 
rfwninately rarpful of hia person, fond of efi&e, indolent, 
md totallT isnDFant of tho art of goTonun<mi. He nrndo 
ttw ▼*»t r Hindustan an off».rinK to the fooUsb 

wfeMM'' ••iirt4;zjtn. nanint] }A\ Ku^iwiir, which 

toftnvd .L, i..ii.-^ <A wdrthy siibJL'ctiJ loyal to his family. 
Br reignt.^ only nint; 'mt^ntbs, wu» dofL-atcd in ii bnttlf; 
Ibo^fat nnar Aicrah, anil »fU'rwardfl tiiktm ptiBoner and 
■lonlf'rrd in the month of January, 1713 A. D,, J!il-\?ijj'it 
1124 A. H., by onler of hii( ntfphnw FaiTukh-«iytir (theson 
ofthnlat<! Azim-iuh-Shiin), vrhu )»i-'CiunL> om])tiror. Hia 
rorpw WM (•xpoik'*i to public viow. und thua intorred in 
tfa(? pUlform lx.'fom tho mauMoli'um of the emperor Hu- 
mly^Q at I>ohli, Kia mother's uiiinc waa Niuun Udi. 

Jahandar Shah, Prinoe, »^ J^^ '<i!>(-^, the 
uMi^itsortof tbu tiut|M^rur Shah 'Abtm. In April, 17S4 
A. t>-, on ai^r:ount of tlie nnnettlu'd afiaira of his father, he 
matlA hia ucapo fruui Pclili and rc-puirod to Lilkhunu, 
whore Mr. Hiuting^ hud arrived to rvjfulate the concerns 
iMtwecn the waxi'r. Afinf-uddaulu, and the 0-ornpany. He 
•uuHuiwnlcd Mr. Hastings to Hunaras, which place ho 
choat* for his residfiuco. He had an allowance of five 
laoi of rupeei por annum frrfm thit Naw&b wuzir nt tho 
Miiuat TMOMt of Mr. Halting)}. Ho died in BeDiiras on 
Iho lal of April, 17»S A. U^ 25th Shabin 1202 A. H., 
alter an illneaa of littlo more than twonty-fuur hours; 
ai^ud iibout 'Aft yofini, iind was buriod with evory honour 
duu li» hb" mnk nwir tho t^jiiib of u Vfiiurati^d Muhani- 
nudan in Bermnia. Tfaf* En<*lii'h Ili^idcnt and principal 
nooplr of tho city attended hia funeral. He K>fl behind 
him thn^*i iona, whom, with tho rest of hi» family, he re- 
oomnitDd*>d to tho care of the Kngliah, under whom they 
atill enjoy a oonifortable ajtylimi and ullowancii at Beua- 
ra*. (iftr^,'in-d»'-Tartsy infoniiH us, that there is a work of 
hiH in th".' India House, whioh haa tho titl-' of ** Bayax 
In&yot Miirshidzadu.'' He is ulso calli.<d Mirza Jawaii 
Uakht, and his poc>tiofll title is JuhantUr. Tht- narrativi? 
wrilt'm by tliia princo, wuj* tmnslated by Mr. Scott, and 
irahlialiod in the appendix to Mr. Haatioga' Keview of tbu 
•into of Bengal. 

Jahangir, j^^ -^^"^ ty^*^l»y, (emperor) sanuoned 
Xur-uddin Miih/inmuul, waa tho cld<j«t son of the emperor 
Akbnr tbtf tW. tt . Witsboni in the Tilbigo of Rikri on 
Wrdnt^irtV iL, :;in ..f .\ii«ii.< l5Cn A. D., 17th Kali* I, 
077 A. II.. uiiil w.ts r.-im' i MirrA Salim ou nc<y)unt of bis 
ixmiin^' iiLb> tbv wuild, im ^uppowd. *• '*: iTnyi'ra of 
6haikh Salim Chiabti, a vmtimbh : 1 drn-ish 

who ro»id«l in th<» vUljigo of 8Ckii n i I'athupur 

Sikri in th- pnninct. „f Atrruh- Ilia moihi^r, who n;- 
criT-N) iJiM till-- of Afhriwni '/,7%ivr^n^_ *\» i*;. 'UtiKhtor of 

*^ ' ^ 'h'of his 

''*, IG05 

A- I'., ii'- '■!" ' * -i' -t niiji .Idin Mu- 

hammad JahAuiflr. Hi ■■ . h mouths 

and 1 *. .! .1 . (r. in f}.. ,\.. and dir-d 

"' A. D., 28th 

^'" ' r, Kashmir, 

agi'd i>t* luimi yui*, 11 uiuutiu urn! i'^d.iys; and wba 
inttfi^^l in thi- tuburbs of lA>iAr in tho ptrden of bi.i 
Uronrit*' wife Nur .fuhin Bcgnm. He wua suctw-dod 
hill tion ilir/i Khumm. who took the title of 
ih Jahin. Ht» UvunriU- .Sultana Nur •lahiu. who 
bho 18 yc^off, is also buried in the same iQaa> 


Boleum. Jahanglr, nftor hia death, recoiTod the thla al_ 
" Jannat Alakini." It was to this prince that Sir '11k 
Roe wttrt flont as ambaMador by Kinj;r James I. Sir The 
has given a good description of tht* ^.indear of tho 
of Uindustan ; but vi-ry little notice U taken of this i 
basHy in the chronicles of the East. In 1612, Jah^ 
peniiittcd the Company to eatnMi.-ih £ietones at St 
Ahmadabiid, and Cambay. Jahaagir wrot* his 
Memoir in Persian, railed, '^Tdzak Jahangin" which had 
been translated by Major Dand Price, London, 1820, 1*4 
pngeA 4to. It is also colled Jahinglr Kama. 

Jahangir Kuli Klian, Kabuli, ^j^^ o'^t*^. 

an amtr of the rank of 5000, who was nppittntiHl goi 

of Bfn^ul by tho umpi^ror Jahingir in lti07 A. D^ 1016 

A. H., und died there in 160a A. D., H)17 A. U. 

Jabangir^ ^ T^j ^ cousin and husband of Sibuidar 
Bej^am of Bhoptil. His nncle was one of i' .q- 

Afghan fiiildierw of fortune, who under Aur. .J 

out prinoipalities, and on that empuror's il i a] 

himit<df independent at Bhojml ; and on : ),« 

wife was deelared U<^gcnt by iho army, and 1.,^ .....«;.;»tct 
Sikandar Hegam, hutr. 8be married J;th&ngir who didd 
in the year 1845 A. D. 

Jahangir Kuli Khan, ly^ ij^ji^^f eon of 

'Ar-im Miraa 'Astx KdkSi, sorrod undur thti nrnpcmn 
Akbar und Juhingir, oud died in tho fUlh year of Shah 
.lahin 1631 A. D., 1041 A. H. 

Jahangir ' Mlrsa, 'Ir* j^^^, the eldorf eon of Amir 

Toimur. Uo died before his father 1574 A. D,, 77* A II 
Hia son's name was Fir Muhammad, which ae«. 

Jahangir, Kirza, ^^ *jy, the oldest aon of AkW 

Shall II. king of Dt-hli. He was. in oonaeqnenw of haT- 
ing fired a piiitol at Mr. Scton tlie Kefndent at Deblf, acal 
OS a btate prisonr>r to Alluhabad, where ho residi^ in th* 
garden of Sultin Kbusro for sevetMl vt-ars, and died then 
in 1821 A. !>.'. l'J3»J A. H., agc»<i 31 years ; a wiluti? of SI 
guns was fired from Ihf ramparts of the fort of .Mlohih^ 
at the time of bii^ burial, Hr- wuh at tlr>t int^^m^d in tb* 
same garden, aud tmbttt-qnently hia r(<rnains were 
ffOTcd to IVhli. and buried in the court-yard of the 
soleum of Nizaiii-uddin AuUji. 

Jahanian Jahan Gasbt, Makhdum, ci^\^ 
j.j,>ji^ fcS^UUl^^, pVrf, Shaikh JaUk 

Jahan Khatun, i^^ ^y^? i famous Udr, who aSic 
Uiu death of her first huslmnd, got married to Khwfia 
Amfn-uddin, minister of Sh&h Alui iB-hik. ruler of Shiril. 
She is sfiid to have been a vpry beautiful woman. «n4 a 
good poet. 

Jahan Shah Turkman, lyUfy 1^ ly^, son oi h*f» 
Vusaf Turkman, was the brother of Sikandar TnHnnin. 
afU-r whcrte death in 1437 A. D., 841 A. H , ' in- 

ment of AKurbt'jan waa confurred on hini ^h 

Mind, the son of Amir Taimur. Ho h- 
dejitb of that prince in IH7 A. D., 850 A. H 
he conqufired most part of IVniia, and earn- 
far tts Ihiyirbikar, and t'-ll in a battle wh M 

against Humui Beg, commonly called Uaian ue 

rulor of that province, on the 10th of NovnuUmr, iifij 
A. D., 12th Kabf II. 872 A. H., aged 70 years. Ot 
reigiud more than 30 lunar years, and an he waa slatit ia 
battle against Hasan Beg. the rhrunognun of the y**r of 
his death was found to contain the words *' SUiA by 
Hasan Beg.** 





JahBn Shah, »^ c)V^ *^^jr^f (prince^ the tWrf son of 
th(! cmpt^rnr Bjihitliir Sliih. Hi' wua t^hiiu in lh»: Lottlo 
wkich took place at Lahtir rtfta- tho doath of hia fatfaer 
bctwiAen his brothcra in Manh, 1712 A. D. Hia man- 
gled body wi(h thnt of his brothrr Kiiri-ui*b-t?han and hia 
SOD, waa conveyed to Dphlf nnd intfi-nd without oere- 
mony and pomp in Iho mftusolcum of the tniperor Hu- 
inayua, tho p-cncral receptacle of tho murdered princea of 
the imperiid fnmily. 

Jahan Soz, j^ cJ^i a tiUo of Sultin 'AU-uddla Hasan 

Jahi, i^^> the poetical name of Ibrahim l£in£ [Siilt^) 
which see. 

Jahi* or Arabia, t^Ur'r L AiU^ ^^ surname of Abu 
UsmaD 'L'mar biii'Mfthbub Kaun'ttna, a man of great 
learning, but of a very «rc:nntric lendunry of mind. He 
wroto R book on tho Commcrco of tho Anibiann e;trly in 
the third century of tho Ilijra, fntitlud " Kitib-al-Nazrat 
fil Tajdrat,"' which in frL-< quotfd by Nuweri. 
Jihi2 died 868 A. D., 2oJ A. H., at tho ftge of 56 yeurs. 

Jaiapa, Laj^x- IjU:*.^ Sindhia, succeeded hia father Rinoji 

Bindliia, the fouiidLvr of tho Sindhia fiintily, in 1750 A. L)., 
1163 A. II. iuiJ wiiK. TTHiidt_'nd lu hif* U-nt in iToft A. 1>., 
1172 A. E. Ho waji succ^-^-dud by hia brother Madhoji 

Jaichand, J^b '^^^t thr last Kithftr monart^h of 

Kanuuj. Hu rulfd tho countrj- froai Buxar lo Kannuj 
and riiipnwl about the Samljut year U(;0 A. 1)., U43 
A. H. ilif fiivouritf roaid<'D'i.'t' was nijar tho city of Joun- 
pur which h.- had built in 13.>H A. 1)., UIG SiimbiiL 
Thn priiwnt i ity of Jouupur wjs built by Fir6z 8hiih in 
tho your 1370 A- D., 772 A. H . in the name of his undo 
Fakhr-uddin Muhammad Juniln, thft date of which is 
found in the words " tshthr .Totinpur." According to 
Colonel Tod, Jai<.hiind r«'igmd uU)Ut the 12th century 
of thu Chriatian i-ra, and one of his gnindaoni named 
Seoji. with a fi-w n.'tainer». planted the XUthdr stiindaid 
in Mifwir in the year 1212 A. D. 

Jai Chand, '•^^ tj^, a rdji of Nagurkot or £angra, who 
lived in the time of tho emperor Akbar. 

Jaikiflhun, W lT^j * Kashmfn' BrAhman whoAo poeti- 
cal aamc waa 'Itzat, waa iho agent of Nawab ]s-hak Khan. 

J&imaly U ^* , a raja, famous in history as " the bravest 
of tho brave." In liififi A. D. Udai Singh, the son of l^ina 
Sanka or Hanga, and thr foiindf-r of tho capital Udaipiir 
in Chitlor. came under the diepleaflure of tho emjicrnr 
Akbar. The rt'crtant ibiuf fl'd nnd h'ft the defence oi' hin 
capital (ChiLt^r) t*> Ka)ft .Liimtil, who waa killed by 
Akbu- himself in 16G» A.' D. 

Jaipall, Jy J^^j sonof Hitpttl, raja of Labor ufthe Brah- 
mnn tribe, who r*'igncd ovt-r the country t3Jct*.'iidinjf in 
lunirth from aurhind to I^inishitii, nnd in breadth from 
thtj kingdom of Kashmir to Mullan. Ho was once defea- 
ted by 8ubaktagin, the Sultan of (ilmi/.ni, with gn'ut 
■laughter, and again on Monday the 27th November, HUU 
A. L). bv his son Sultan Miihmud. whtu Jaipal wilh 
fift(M<n o/his jiriucipal thiufa. bt-iuK his soub and brfthrea, 
were taken prison*^r», and AOOO uf bin troops wi;re aluin 
on thu fit'ld of ttattle. He waa oft/rwards released by 
Mahmiid, but incompliance with a custom whinh prevnilod 
among the Hindus, thitt whatever raja waa twice over- 
poworod by straugera, becamg diatiualilied to reign, hu 

ordered * ftineral pile to be proparnd, and liariog set fire 
to it with his own handn, pomhed therein. Ho waa 
sueccedud by hia son Anandpal. 

Jaipal II, i/^ Jl^ **^J, rAji of Uhor, son of Aoandpal 
whom he Bucceodt-il in 1013 A. D. He was routed in a great 
batlln by Sultiu Mahmud in 10J2 A. D. on tho banka 
of tho river Ravi, the r»'«<ult was the pennanent oc- 
cujwtion of Lihor by a Miihammndan governor, and the 
appointment of a VieiToy of Labor by Mahmud. This 
was the foundation of tlie Muhanimadun empire in India. 

Jai Singh I, Jj' *^^ t/?^ *^'j, (rfiji) of the tribe of 

Knfhhwahi, commnnly called ?k[irza RSji, was the son of 
raja Mahti Sineh, this flon of Partip Singh, tho snn of rAji 
Man Singh. He served imder thi; empt-ror 8hah Jaliau. 
and was made governor over tho ennquerod provino4_-s of 
tho Dakhiu about the year 1664 A. D. by the emperor 
'Alamgir. Ho was rucalled to court in IGGti A. I)., but 
died on the rojid, soon Rftpr his arrival nt Biirbaiipur, 28th 
Muharram 107B A. H. According to Orme's HitUirical 
Fragmf-nts of the Atiiphul Kmpiro, Jai Singh died nt 
Burhiinjnir soon after thf^ preUindod revolt of SuUa.n 
Mtuizzim the son of thy em|M'rx»r, and soems to havu been 
poisoned by tho prt»cur<_'mt.nt of 'Alamgfr. Thero ni'vor 
wafi » prince artumg the rajputs equal to him in accom- 
pli)*hm(.'iits. He waa romplrti'Iy learned in Hindi, suid 
understood the Turkish, Persian, and Arabic languages. 
He left two sons. Rim Singh his eldetit^ and Kiiat Singh. 
The fonner waa honoured aft<:r his father's death with tho 
title of rajA. and put in po99es«iion of hia father's terri- 
tories. Jai Singh had built several fino edificeH at Agrah 
of which 110 siKii rt-niains now, but the name nnd plai-*: oa 
which tbu buildings stood ici still called Jui^iinghpuru. 

Jai Singh II, Sawai, t^'^i^lr" *^ ^j^, a raji of tho 

trib*? of Kaehhwiihi rujputs. wns the son uf Bi^hun Singh, 
the son of Kiphun Singh, the sun of Ham Singh, the son 
of Mirta Raja Jai Singh. Ue ia commonly called Minsa 
lUji J>^i Singh Sawiii. He was the zamindar or raja of 
a considerable territory in the provineo of Ajmir named 
Amor, but since thu princtt'a founding a now city called 
Jaipur, tho rajaship has ah»o taken that name. Bishun. 
Bingh, tho father of Jat SitiL,'h and iiijai Singh, died 
about th« year lt»93 A. TK, Samhat il7iJ0, and afU'r hia 
death the title of raja waa bestowed on Jai Singh by tho 
cmpoTor "Alamgir with thu mnk of laOO, aod subsequent- 
ly wilh that of 2U0l>. After the death of that t^mpifror, 
he i?K|>oused the causu of ' Airim Shah, the win of 'Aloniglr, 
whilst Ilia brother llijai Singh uid^-d Bahadur Shall, wb<h 
on hia accwwiou to th<.* thrrjue conferred the rank of *! (1^00 
on tlie latt^T. Bijai Siiij,^h iiuarrcllcd with his brother 
for th** raj , and the eiiipt:ror, not willing to di^pIfuiH! 
either, confiseated their estate', and appointed Suyyad 
Uusain Ali Khan of Barha, ns Faiijdar of that place. 
When the eniporor marchwi to tho Dakhin to pimi^th his 
brother Kambakhsh, I7O8 A. D., U20 A. H.. Jai Singh. 
wilh thf- aid of raja Ajit Singh Hath6r, engugixl tho 
Faujdir in buttle and having killed him took possession 
of tbt,' province. In the reign of Farrukh-siyar ho was 
honoured wilh the titlu of Dhir^j l^ja Jai Singh, uid in 
tho time of Muhammad Shah, with that of Saw^ In the 
year 1732 A. U., U4.'j A. U., he was appointed governor 
of MUwa. His love of science maki!» him onu of the 
most remarkablo jH^ruous uf hia natiuu. lie built five 
observatories for astronomical studies, namely, at Uehli, 
Banaras, Muthri, Ujain and Jaipur, and published a 
work on a&lruuomy culled * ' Zij M uhjunnuid Shahi. ' ' 
He also erected a Karavansame and market in (-very 
province of Hindustiii for tho convenience uf trnvellera nt 
his own uipt'uco. After his death, which took placy in 
Sppteml»er. 1743 A. U., Oth Shabin, 1156 A. 11., thre« of 
his wives with miuiy conculiiiL-a bumc-d themsolvcs on 
his funeral pile. Ho was nuccubdud by lua »<m Itthuri 




Singh, after whoso death in 1760 A. D., Madho Singh hia 
■on succcodod him. 

Litt of EacKh%cdh6 Mdijdt of Aintr or Jaipur, 

Bhan Mai. Jui Singh Saw&i. 

Bho^w^ D£b. Ishiiri Sinjj:h. 

Uin Singh. Wndho Singh. 

Bhio Singh. Pirlhi Singh. 

Mahi Singh, Partttb Singh. 

Jai Singh Mirtn. EAji. Jugat Singh. 

Kim Sini^h. Jai Singh. 
Biflhnu Singh. 

Jai Singh HI, *^lj*^ u», (rijA) ofthotrihoofKachh- 

wihi lijputs anf] rdjd of Juipur, wna & posthumous sun of 
RijA Jagnt Sin^'h who died in 1818 A. D. Jai Singh wna 
murdered by hi* kamditr. whose name was Jhotu Rim. 
in the SftmUt yt-ar IfttM. or in January, 1831 A. D., and 
his iuffint don FUui Singh succevdfd him. 

Jai Singh, **** ^/i', or RinA Jai Singh of Udnipiir, a de- 
scendant of Kaua Sanka who lived in tho time of tho em- 
pvror AkViar, Hiiccecdcd his &thur Kaui K&j Singh, 16bO 
A. D., 1U91 A. H. 

Jai Singh, *^*** ^, (rSja) who held the sfihahdirehip of 

Agruh in tho timo of the emporor Sluhnmnwd Shah. Hv 
built the Shahurpanah round tht< city of Agroh. It had 
sevcrU gutt'B, but only thrijo recently were remaining, ri'a., 
(1) Ajmiri Darwiui, (2) Kara at Chh&ngaMudi's briUgu, 
(3) Kan« Darwrua at Gokulpura. Ailcr tho mutiny of 
\hbT. tlip BriliMh for Home reosoD or other, pxUlcddown the 
Ajmiri Dnrwaza. 

Jalal Asir, j^\ J%, rWrAsfr. 

Jalal 'Uzd, Sayyad, '^^ <J^ -H-, a poot who 
llouri.thod in the reign of Muluimmiid Muzuffar, rulnr of 
F.ire and hia dtiscundunU. lie is thu author uf a Diwan. 

Jalal Bukhari, UJ^ J^ "H*, or Sayyad JnhU Bu- 
kh£ri. Ho cJime to Indin from Bukh&r& und became a 
disoipio of Shaikh liahi-uddiji Zikariii of MuUan. Tie 
raided at tTchf-hti in Mult^n und diod there*. Ho hnd 
thrw) son*. Sayyad Ahmad Kahir. Sa^-jad Bnha*ud»liu 
and Siivynd Muhammad. Sa}->-ad Ahmad Kahir, who 
Ruccecded his fathor ns spiritual guide, had two sons, 
Mnkhdiim Johanian. also called Shaikh Jiilil^ and Shaikh 
Sadnr-uddi'n, commonly callod IMju Kattal. 
JV. B. — 'l*hero is some confusion between this man and 
Shaikh Jalal. Vtdt Shaikh JuUl. 

Jalal Bukhari. Sayyad, cfj'^ J^ **^, * dawen- 

dant of Sii>'>'Hd Ahmad Kabir. und Aon of Sayyad Muham- 
mad Bukhari. Ho was bom in the your 1D94 A. D., 5th 
Jum&da II. 1003 A. U., and was highly rua|)M:tf.d by the 
emperor Shah Jahan, who oonffi-rcd on him thi^ offiee of 
^darat of ail India with the manfub of 6000. He some- 
time* amused himself in writing poetr^'. and had adopted 
the word Mazk for his poetical title. He died on tho 25th 
of May, 1017 O. S.. Ist Jumads 1. 1057 A. H., und is 
buried at Tajitranj in Agruh. His gmndfathfr Sa\-yad 
Alunad Knltr lies buriii'd at a plart* in Dthli called Bijai 
Mnndil. Jalal Bukhari lufl thne smut, ru.^ Sayyad 
Jn'Lir, Sayyad Alt styliMl Bazwi Khan, ami Sayyad MAsa, 
on whom high tiUfs WL>re eonfurrt'd by Sh&bjahan, but 
his eldest son Ja'far obtained the place of hia lathvr. 

Jalal, (Hakim). \^ij^ J^ ^i^t a physician and 

{loet, who was a native of Shirw&n. He flourished in tho 
rtMgn of M ' 1 MiizaflTar and his son Shah Shtijaa', 

rulers of ^ "f vrhom reigned from lIl-'iS to l.'ltJi 

A. D. iU .c \.... .-..^liur of a poem entitled '*(iul-Wtt-2iau- 

roi," which he wrote in 1334 A. D., 734 A. H. 

also called Jalal-uddin Tabib. 


Jalali or Jalal, J^ ^t i^^, commonly called Sayyad-i- 
'Al&m Jalal or Jaliili, wa8 a native of Ahmadabad. and 
his father and spiritual guide was Mir Sa}'yad Jalal bixi- 
Ho&an. Ho is the author of a Diwan. 

Jalal, Shaikh, J^-^ ^r^, riV« Shaikh Jalil, conomonly 

called Miikhdtim Jah&niitn. Ho was the son of Sayyad 
Ahmad Kabir, and grandson of Sayyad JaUl Bukhitf tho 

Jalal, Shaikh, isj^}-^ J^ ^t of Thancaar, wiit 

Shaikh Jaliil of Thaneaar. 
Jalalij tr^» poetical name of Bndr-uddin. 
Jalal-uddin Ahmad Afzal-bin-Muwaiyad., jj^ 

jj^ J**l o^M^i ^^<^\ jiU, an oulhor. 

Jalaa-uddin Aldawanl, t/'J^' i:.^*^' J^> author of 

sevtaul works. Vidf Dawani. 

Jalal-uddin Parahani, J^^J i:yi^ J^, a poeL 
Jalal-uddin Piroz Khilji, \^F^ jsj^ cri*'* J^, 

ttde Firo/ Shah Kliilji. 

Jalal-uddin MahalU, »/*** erf**^' (J^, we Jalal- 
uddin SayutL Ue is somutimoa caUed Jahil'Uddin Ma- 
hummad bin-Ahiiiad-al*Muhli. 

Jalal-uddin Malikahah, 


8^.00 ^j^\ jiu^ ^ 

Jalal-uddin Khan, ^J^ eri"^' J^, the brother of 

Mahmud Khan, nawab of Bijnflr, a rebel of I8fi7. Vtit 
Sa'd-ulUh Khan. 

Jalal-uddin Huhammad-bin-Asa'd Aldawani, 

^\jJ\ Aa-I ^ J^ar- ^oJ| j3U^ ,,^ Ji^y^ini, 


Jalal-uddin Muhammad Akbar, ^1 
J^, tnAf Akbor. 

Jalal-uddin Purbi, ijij^ c^**^' J^, king of Boa- 

gil, whose original name wa.^ Jitmal, usccndi '7 ' 
of Bengal on the d»--utli ofluM lather l^ja !■. 
A. D., 7K4 A. U. He bceann? u convert to i.. .'mnuia* 
mndan faith and recei ved the name of Jilal-udiiu. Ha 
ruled with such justice, that he became entitlt-d to tha 
appellation of th<t Kaui^hnrwan of the age. H? r^ignt^ 
17 years and di<-d in UIO A. D., 812 A. H., when his km 
Ahmad succeeded him. 

Jalal-uddin Bumi, Maulana, ij^jj ly^'^' J^ ^^fy*, 

ooDimonly called Maulana or iVLtulwi Riimi, was |h«> ■«« 
of Baha-uddin Wold Halkhi. He .is not Il<-hi .4 

a poot than as a metaph\-fiiciaa. and in (he .1 . 

astonishing work entitled tho "M.'i^iuiwi Maui-.*! i^uuii. ' 
He founded an order of DiTwishrs or Sufw in t^p ^y 
of Coniu (Iconiiun) in Asiatic Turkey. He waa horn oi 
Balkh on the 30th of September. ISO? A,D., 0th Robf I 
604 A. lit and died in the time of Abka Khan on tb* 
17th of December. 1273 A. D., fith Jumada 11, 673 A H. 
He was buried in a monastery at Conio, and his tomb waa 
visited for many ccnturiett by his devout countrjmtn wbo 
considered his works as the uffeet of inspiritioD, and only 
inferior (0 the ^ur^. lln> Di'win contains 30,000 vumk, 




and hi« Ma^HAwi moro than 47,000. In hiH DfwAn. in- 
stead of hU o-n-n title, he haa iiUKtrtcd the name of Sh&xns 
Tabrezii his master. 

Jalal-uddin Sayuti, ^Jht^ t?^*^' J^i "n of 'Abdup 

Hahm^D bin-Alti Bnkr, an EjfA-ptiiin author of some morit^ 
•who di'/d in 1506 A. I)., 91 lA. IT. H<- ia said to Iv Ihf 
author of 4tJ0 works, amonc^t which are tho commcntfiry 
on thn "l)iirr-aI-Mutifhur." und th*> last half of the 
" T&fsir Jttliil'un," thi' author of Ih" uthiT half was JiiUl- 
uddin MahuU who clirtl in U.JO A. D., a.H A. H. Ano- 
thCT work of Srivuli i.s mll^d " Luhh-tiULnhaK" It is a 
dictiunary of iiidiouvuiic names, ond "jf olhfra iimler 
which tho Arabic aulhors aro Diui-h mure frtiqin-ntly 
quoted thiin under their proper uauii-a. Tho confufiion 
under which the Aral>B hibour to identify men kntiwn 
ander diflen'nt names, has induced them to prt-pnrp 
dietionarieit for obviating this diHieulty. Saiiiani for 
tSaninani) in the sixth <M-uliiry of tlie Hijm publishi'd 
on«, onlitb d, *' Fil Ansilb,'' in which bo dues not only 
expbiin tbf benso und origin of thetw nainea, but also 
mentinriJt with n-pard to every wurd the true names of 
the iiulhora who ha%c had tliem. This work waa abltro- 
viattrd in tho Bueeeediiig ceiilury hy Ibnul-Asir, and this 
extnu't ahortenwl by Sayuli. There is aiiothur work of 
Sayuti called " KashfuflS<il!«iIa-uu-\V!iifuj: Zalxala," 
contftiiiing au uccimnt of all the earthquakes which took 
place frnm the yiir 713 A. D.. 94 A. 11.^ to his time. 
lie wrote this wurk on the ooea-^iun of an earthquake in 
Egyi'tr with a vii w uf HhewiTi^ to liln eountrymen, that 
ca.rthquak^'a are ordiuiii-d by irml to puniih men fur their 
rins. This wcrk was tranfilat*'d iVuui tho Anibie by 
A. Sprenger, F.^q., M. D. TiV/e Juumal, Asiatic Society, 
Vol. XVil, I'art H. p. 741. tNiyuli is al»(« the milhor 
of the " Jaiuii'-ul-Jawama, ** contiiining a colli-itiuu of 
Traditions of which he HlltTwarda madu an ubrid^euiunt 
and eaUed il .Jania'-us-Saghu-." 

Jalal-uddin, SiUtan, l.^^'' J^ ^ytkl^^ t],o ^^^ nf 

. Sultan Mulmnim:ii1. sumarued Kutb-uddin, Sultan of 
Khwirizm. /'«/«• JIuhamniud (Sultan). 

Jalayer^ -r? • > the name given to a race of kings of Bagh- 

dfid. the first of whom was Hasan Buzurg, commonly called 
Hu£an JalayjT. 

JalinuB, iJ^y^'f prince of the Greek phyuciaiu after 
Hippocrates, whom wo rail GiJen. 

Jam Afra, U"" [* • » *"^'' Nahir-uddin Kabbdrhn. 

Jama Baf, ^k ^^, vitf^ Itfr Sayynd Jama Baf. 

Jamal, J'*^* tho name a-HHiimed by Abu'l Fazl Muham- 
mad, the Bon of 'Umrir. the Hon of Khalid. Lie is the 
author of the " Sjiiiih." a dietionarj* of Arabic words 
explained in IVrsiitn by hini, b.-iri^' a tnin»lalii.n of a Vurj- 
cclebmted Arubie didiuruiry, entitled tbt^ " .*?abah," 

Jamali Klialifa, **^ ^^j Bumamc of Is-hak Ka- 

rainani*. another author of the cnmmt.ntin- called *' Sharoh 
}fadiri-u!-Arba'in. " He died 152<i A. D.," fi3;j A. II. 

Jamali, Shaikh, iJ^ f^t ^'*^ Shaikh Jamilf. 

Jamal Pakih, Khwaja, ^ J^ ^\^i a poet. 

Jamal KUi, Shaikh, ij^^ J^ <?^, an ir^abitant 

of KuEwin in It^fiibdn. lb* lived in the time of Sultan 
*Ala-iiddin the Jt<iiiii'ili. ruhT of the furt of Ahihmut, who 
highly respected him. It is wiid that he wiTftly followed 
the tuneta of the iamaiiuij but tite peoplu thou|;ht other- 

wise. He died on Monday tho 29th Soptombor, 1253 
A. D^ 4th Shawwttl, 6dl A. U. 

Jamal Khan, c>^ "J^, n commander of 5000 horeo in 
the rrigTi of Shah .Tahun. It iw rtliited that the emperor 
had ordered thiit all the ladiea at court ithoiUd provide 
precious gtonea, and bring thnm to a market-place that ho 
bad erected, and thf re show their wares publicly to all the 
noblemen at court, who were ordered to buy them at 
whatever pricea the ladies put u]»on Ihcm ; und that Ihfl 
kinff himself wae to V»e a buyer, to put tho gn'atcr houour 
on the new erected market. Tlu* Indies olnyed, and took 
their boollis. aa they thought fit. On tho market day, 
the king and tlie noblemen came to mitrket, and bought 
the jcwehi and other trifles the ladies had to di^oac of. 
Tlie king coming to the booth of a very pretty ladj*, 
asked her what ohe hitd to sell. She told him ahe had 
one hirgc tine rough diamond atili to dispuso of. He 
de-aired to see it, aiul he found it to bo a piece of fine 
transparent sugar-i-iindy of a tolerable diamond figure. 
Ho d'-mandrd iu knew what price she set on it, and aho 
Inld hioi wilh a ple-'i-'wint air, that it wan worth a lakh of 
rupe«*a, or ITJ.oOlt itUrling. He ordered tho money to be 
paid, and, fulling into diHcourso with her. found her wit 
was ns exquiiiitu as her beauty, and orxien'd her to nup 
wilh him that night in hia ptilaco. She accordingly 
went and stayed with him three nightu and day*, and 
th'-n wi-nt Iwiek to her Ku"*bnnd. whose name was Jamil 
Khan. The husband receivi-d her Very coldly, and told 
her that he would continue civil to her, but would never 
live with her again but in the name manner as if ahe waa 
his lister. Upon which ehe went to tho palace, fell at 
thn empiTOr'n feet, aiid told him what her husband had 
aaid. Tho king in a rage gave orders to carry her hus- 
band t*> tho irtrdtm, and there put him to death by 
an eb'[jhant. The pOL<r mau whs ttooa ftppn.'heml< d, and 
as they dragged him from his house, he bt-gg<-d to have 
leave to speak to the king. A friend of his onlered tho 
mojyit^ngcrd of dcjith to »l«'p awhil*', till he had acquainted 
the king with the rcquivt, which was accordingly done, 
and he ordered to be earriisl into the coml of tho 
puUc-i^ that the king might htiir whut he had to ftay ; 
and being carried thither, the king demanded what he 
would h.ive. He answered, that what he had *ud to hia 
wife was the greattat honour which ho was capable of d'diig 
hia king, bi-eause, after he bid honoured hia wife w^ith hie 
emliraeirt, he thought himself unworthy ever after to ccvhftbit 
with her. The king, after pausing a little, ordered him 
to bo unbotuid, and brought to hi* own room, where, aa 
Boon an he eamu, the king embraced him, and ordered a 
royal suit to b-- put ujKin him, and gave him euromand 
of tivo thouKuui hurse rnure, but look his wife into hia 
own harvm.—, lata tic Jounutl, Vol. XXX, p. 215. 

Jamal-uddin Ahmad, Shaikh, '^^«^' cri^' J'*^ 
f^"^} tt cclebi-atcd Muhammiuhm oaint of Hansi, and 
grandfather of Shaikh Kuth-uddin Mimawwar. 

Jamal-uddin AtauUah, Amir, *^^' ^ ^H^^ J^ 
j^^j nephew of Sayyad Asil-uddin 'Abdullah. Ho ia 

the author nf the work called " IJauzat ul-Ahbib," vide 
Ataullah hin-^Iuhammud td-Uusaini Niahapiin'. 

Jamal-uddin-bin-'Abdul Bazzak, l.*^**^' J*^^ 

^'jjiJl Jjk£ ^^j t, cL'Iclirated poet of l-if:ihin. and author of 
a Utwiin. He Im thu father of Kanial-uddin Isnm'il and 
Alu'in.U'lli'n 'Ahdul Karim, Jt'Olh of whom w.«ro ilIbo 
p4iet.s. JLimal-udiiin died in 11P2 A. 1)., oS.S A. H. 

Jamal-uddin Hasan bin^Yusaf bin-al-Matahhir 
al-Hilli, "-^Ji c»^ ur^ uh^^t J^, ontitlod 

Shaikh al-'Allimii, is called tho chief of the lawverfl of 
liilla. llo id tho author of the *' Khuhwat-ld-A'^wU," 




nomCTOu*, and fcr^qntntlT 
of tni(li«pnt«d merit. The most 
IMMH of flvar sni, t}u> ** Tslkhia-ul-Marim." the '* Ghiet- 
ri^&hUK** kW tbe ^ TMlmr-ul-AUciin," vhirh Lut to a 
JmIIj iiiihrtLJ work. Th« *' Uiikhtalif-iuh-Shi%" is also 
A vaB-kaovB coapos^ion of this great lawyer ; and hia 
"fiAAi ■! ftahiii" ii iniiiliTitlT grntri in an authority, 
wteOM MB* atf Um ** Inhid-i-'AlUma." Vide AUfumi 

^■■Ml-culdinHuB&m Anjui >»*' erb-^ e;J»iJ| J'*^, 

MB of MJkr-addin Kfwhmfri. author of Iho Pcrsuiu 
S&efiiaKfy caDad ** Fariian^ JahaBgiri," which he dcdi- 
oAad Id Ik* iHpCBOr Jahingir in LtiUo A. D., 1014 A. U. 
TWiHlfairvf llw*^]i6Bir-ul-'Umin" callif him Mir Jamil- 
■Aifa Aaj4i and laya that ho in a deacendant of tho Suy* 
)n4s «f fihinU, and camo to tho Dakhin ami thence to A jp-ah 
14M A. D^ MS A. H. in the time of Akbur who raiauU 
'kmt'hy de g TW to the rank of 3000. In tho mf^ni of 
JttbiMJi; th« rank of iOOO was oonfczred on him with the 

Jamml-addin-ibn-Malik, ^^ <iH» iiri*^^! JU^., an- 

Ih .r of an Ahibic work on philosophy, called " AlBo." 

JamAl-addin Kaslii, i^l^ <:^<>^' J^, author of tho 

birtisty called *• Zubdat-ut-Tawirikh." A work of tho 
MBw titla m ska&tionod under Bihalkh N'llr-al-HHk of 

JaxnAl-uddin Huhammad Abdul Bazzak* JW 

i^jj^*^ •^•^^crf*^ i n* Jamal-oddin bin-' Abdul Razz&k. 

/ami, ^^ e7UA;Ji*>** t^' jy» the poetical name of 
yfa adiliTi 'AMiit Rahman, a Klebrated Persian poet, tho 
m^ id Minlanj Uohammad or Ahmad Isfahant ; was 
kMS «« Ike 7tb Novi-mbcr. UU A. D., 23id ^haban, 
in Hirat caIIc-iI J&m, from which 

U7 A. H^ U a TiUagc ii 
b» tetfvd kia poc&ai 

dWr foliUv ^* ^^^T gentle difpocition, and endued with 
mtA csttaMm learning, that it waa suppoeod there vtns 
Mi tkmvi^KKit the empir« of Persia, so complete a master 
•f Ike Itc^na^ aa htmaelf. Even princeis who were 
m mw of audition and exulted talents, hare 
■pan kixD the moat antH/UDdtMl pnuvet) and the 
kklMlt kcaonn. He wai veiy intimate with Sultan Abu 
tfid JGnti of Hirit, who continued the &icnd uf Jami 
■o laog aa ke lived. After ksa death, our poet enjoyed 
tk« mmt IftToun fron hb Km and sncoewor So^in UuHain 
B« w»# a ' ■ r-. of the esteemed Biogrw- 

llwlat fSiak. -' 1 his fame in the Liveti of 

oUieu ' irizsira Daulat Shihi." Jimi 
vimon than 44 worka. Hia poem on tho 
Zaiifcha ia ono of tho tineet compo- 
it coBtaiM abont 40(I0 cniip]ot«. 
of tke book called " Kafuhat-ol- 
•bridgfmcct of the Livl's of the 
AtMi tho Arabic "Tahkat-ns- 
t« tke eolchratcd wuxtr 'Aluhcr in 
It aMT h^ hrtv obwrved, that the 
Hidi, J4ml, kc. &c^ were 
_ are tb« works, conunonly 



Fat4b*«l- Uaramain. 

Jim{ died at the advanced ago of Bl InAaf Tcan, 
on Friday tho 0th of November, 1493 A. D., 18th Mn- 
Marram, 898 A. H., mourned by tho whole city of Hirit: 
hij« funeral cJcpenHCfl were defrayini by Sult^ Huaain, 
and a miignificent train of the moot illustrioui notte 
accompanied his body to the tomb. 'Altahur, hia fricod 
laid the first stune of a monuinent which he canaed to ha 
nusfd to hia memory, and his fame became imrnorta] la 
the uiindfl of hia couutryinen. He ia also the author of a 
Tafeu* or commentary of some note. 

Jami Lahouri, Molla, ij^^ ^> viiis Uulla Jimi 

Jamilaf ^ 'Jl *^; the poetical name of a Porciian po«t. 

Jamil-ibn-Ml'mar, J^**^ <^^I <-l**^, a celebrated Aa. 

bian poet who lived in the time of th« kbaU'f 'AbdulmiHk, 
and died in tho year 701 A. D., 83 A. H He waa co- 
tenijM)rary with two other famous poets n/imcid 'Omar the 
Bon of 'Abdullah, and Kuthir Azxa. Jamil was tha Vovnt 
of Shnnba, one of thfjae pairs of loren, whoH? conatancy 
and fidelity tho oriontola prniae in their historioa aad 

at^poUik V 
Lnifihcd. I 

Jamahed, »i"**«^, (uIho colled Jam) waa one of tho 

kin^a of PorsLi. and tlic fourth of the First or Piiihd 
dyiiiLBty. Ue is coJubrut^'d aa the founder of Penu^ 
whii'h in to this day called Istakhr and Takht Jani^hcd. 
Ho introducL'd tho solar year and ordered the limt day ii( 
it, wlii-n tln) sun entert'd Arios, to be colubrateJ by » 
splendid fu-stival. His country waa invudeil by Znhik. 
a Syrian king, and the unfortunate JuoLshed waa ohligvd 
to fly before the conqueror. He wiw pursunl Xty th* 
agentit of Zubak, through Si'iitan, Tndio, and China, and 
was at latft seized and carried before his cruel 
like u common malefactor, who orUertxl him to be pi: 
between two biMirds and sawn a.<;nnder with the bone 
fish. Wo aro told by Kirduuai that his reijgn Uut«d 
yeaxB. He in supposed to ha^'o flouriahed 800 yean 
fore the Christian era. Hia goblet, called Jim J 
and Jfim Jam, waa wondrooa. A hundred marrvUoai 
tales are told of hia cclebnit«4 cup, which uaed to doaalo 
all who looked on it, and haa ofton been employed I17 
the poets tu furnish a simile fur a bright tya. 

Jamshed, ' ^l **** ? ; this title ia aometimca given by tka 
Mnaalmans to king Solomon tho son of Darid, and tk«7 
Bay that hia magic ring and throne poasesscd extraortU- 
nary powers, and hia control waa absolute oret geoii afid 

Jaxnshed Kutb Shah, Xti 4*fcJ j*^*^, kd of (oU 

Kutb Shiih I, u8<->'ndi-d the throne of OOlkon^ ia Ik* 
X)akhin after the death of his father in SeptemlMir. IMS 
A. D.. Jumada lU 9.7O A. H. Ho reigned eoTtia nan 
and some Tnonth.H, and was aucoccdcd bv lua brother Ihsi- 
him ^utb iiUh in 1550 A. D.. &A7 A. H. 

Janabi, 4^ • j the surname of Abfi Muhammad Ifnaiali 
bin-Sayy&d HoAan-al-Huaainf. a celebrated hiatorian aod 
author of a wurk called *' T&rikh-al-Janibi," of vkiek 
the correct name ia auppoeed to bo '' Bahr-oK-Zakhkkir,** 
tho Swelling of the Sea ; it comprises a genonJ history 
from tho beginning of the world to 16$9 A. D.. 9ft7 
A. U- It was nrif^iiiiilly written in Arubie. and Iraa*- 
latod by tho author into Turkiah. Jonahi diad ia IM 
A. D.> 090 A. H. 

Janif ty'^* There hare been three aolhon of this aaaft 
The 'first Ab6 'Abdullah Muhammad ibn.Milik AUL a 
native of Damasi-ufl. The BfH*otid Buwr J4tii ; and tka 
third Manser bin-'Umar-al-Adib^ a native of lafikhiDi vb* 
died 1020 A. H. 




JTani^ ^ * J ^^ pDoUcal name of Mini Sin, th& father of 
Mirti Jau Jan^ 

Jani Begam, f*^ i^^, daught<^r of 'Abtlul Ralifm 

Khan, Kluiii-Khanan, who wiia mjirrii^to phrKc Danial, 
thi.' Hon of thu tujiKTor Akbttr in 15D9 A. D., 1007 A. H, 

Jani Beg Sultan, pLtJL. U^j ^yt:^, pnn of 'Abdullah 

Khdn Uzbnk'-s sistt^r. His son. l)in Muhammnd Khan. 
WHa niis«'d to thf thronn of .Samarkand JifttT the death of 
'Abdul Ikluiiim Klkjin, tho *jn, of 'Abdullaii Khan Uzbak. 

Jani Beg Turkhan, Mirza, ^^y *-^ <y^ 0^, 

rul'-T uf Tbutt;i. MiL''_> i.'d'.-d his gnuidf^ilhi-c ilirzii Sluham- 
mud Uaki, in thrr fruvtnimi'-nL uf Tlijitra, llic rt'mdinin^ 
proviatuof Siudh. in loSl A. 1).. if'.ii A. H. Akbw 
Shah who Vfurc- the deuth of J.iuki had gune 
to Labor, and rt'tnaimd Iht're for sum»^ ycani, ex- 
pected a pcrannal visit frum .rdiii Bi^i^ ; but beinfr dL'^np'- 
pointed he prorK-diii to takfi rm-usiirHS for thy wuli.ju^alioa 
of thiit fuuntry. Hv th<?rt'foro in the year lo'Jl A. D., 
99& A. II. din'cttsl hiit fommandfr-in-chitf 'Abdul liahini 

Khan, thi" pon »»f llair.'im Khan to prorrcd and r u\iy 

the place in hia uanio. Tho iir^t action took placi' on tho 
3rd November. 1.501 A- U.. 'Jtith Mufiamiiu 1000 A. H. 
when thn Sindhi's wfrf> tolnlly drfi'alrd. Notwith-it-ind- 
ing. daily t<.Kjk place botweyii thi> two anniea; 
at last Mir/.ft Jani Bc^ ofTiTi-d to ucknowK-dgo fually 
to the (■mpiTor and t<i jir<K''Msl to thi' prt^tw-nri!. Shortly 
afU-T. "Abdul Iliihim Khan ctdpbrati^ th<; nuptials nf hia 
son Mirza rriih with tho diuffhtt-r uf Jiini Ucg. and aftor 
the rainy H.-ason uf the year 1.592 A. L)., lOlU A. H. 
accompanied Mirza Jiini Be^' to ib'j prest-uco of Akbar 
who created th'- latter u noble of tho realm ; and frum 
that dftt<- the whole kingdom of Sindh revert* d to tho 
Boven'igotv uf the empire of D<'hU', Mirza Jam' Hcg 
died at Uiirhinpur in Io99 A. D., lOOa A. H.. and the 
government of Thalia wua conferred on hia son Mirza 

Jan Pishan Khaii BahadtiTi j^l^ ^Li. ^^Uj ^U. 
^_.|^ luLwub, of Sardhana. He, for hLs eunitpicuous 

loyalty during thf mutiny of 1857, was ordered by Gov- 
ernment to be rewarded wilh a pension of lOOOrupies 
a month in per})tvtnity to his inalo heirs, and a pf-r- 
petuity in eonfiacated viilaj^ea of 1 11,000 rupei-s pi-r /inruim 
to bo conferred n\Hju him with remirtsi'm of oik- half of 
revunuti for his life, and a tjuartor for two genf-nitiona. 

Jangez Khan, iH^>i^» vide Changcz Khan. 

JaD Janan, Mirza, c>^^ \J'^ ^)j^9 son of Mlrza JAn, 
a learned Miisabtian and a pond poet, disting^uished no 
lesfi for the ^race tuid spirit of hi* eonipositiuna than for 
the independent spirituality imd anti-idolatrou* nalun- of 
hifl s^-ntimenta. IIU iKPL-licul nnmo wua Muzhnr; vtm 
bom at Agrih about th-* year IfiyS A. D.. 1110 A. H., 
bat residi d at Dchh'. In the TmmLh of Miiharram or 
3rtl Janmiry-, 17K1 A. P., 7th Muharnim. liyj A. II. 
having txpressid bin eunlt'nii>t for a (tuperatitioiis ten?- 
mony — tlio coninieuiffrafcion of the d*^ath of Unmin — 
he was whot uu tho terrat o of his own houMe, by a vindic- 
tive partisan of that rntirtyr. and died nn the 6th of that 
month, lOlh Mul.iiu-nLiiJ, llUo A. II. Ho in tho author of 
a Diw&n. 

Jan Muhammad r Munslii, '^^^^c^^.y*^, author of 
an Inahn or eolkction of letters which goea by hie name. 

Jannat AHhyaui, c^^ ' ^^^i tho title given to the 
Emperor Ilumiyiiu after his death. 

Jannati, c5^, a poetical name. 

Jan Nisar Khan, ij^j^ij^, title of Kamil-uddia 

Hujiain, an Amir of 3G00 tindor the emperor Shih Jiihan. 
At the time of hia d^atli ho waa governor ofSiston, and 
died there ISafl A. U., 1019 A. II. 

Jan ITiBap Khan, Nawab, w^j^cJ^wty, wa« 

the bmther-in-law to thu w uir Kamar-uddin Khin who 
had married his sister. lie was appointi>d Chakladar 
of the districta of Kofi Jahaniibad in tho proviiue of 
Allahabad, and wjia aiisju-wiiiated by Arafi'l named Bhag- 
want Singh, a tamindar of thiit place in 1 731 A. 1)., 1 Ut 
A. IX. 

Jan Wisar Khan, Sayyad, c)^ jli* e>^ o-t^, son-in- 
law of the wazir Karn;ir-uddin Khin, was put to d«ith, 
together with sevural uthtrs by Nadir 8hiih. on aecount 
of tht» resistiifico shewn by them in i-udtuvouring to prxi- 
t<Mrt their family in tho geturil maKAum, This uvent 
took place in March, 1739 A. I»., Xil-bijja U51 A. U. 

Janoji BhOBia, *^n^ i/^y^, the second rijd of Berar. 
Buweeded his father Haghoji Bh6sla in 1749 A. D.. and 
died in 1772 A. 1>. Uu was succeeded by hia younger 
brother Madh6jl Bh6sli. y,de Raghojt Bh6ala the lir»t 
raja of Btror. 

Janubi, ^yLii.»>j tg-*^^ of Badakhahan, a poet and 

punstOT who flouriahed about the year 1621 A. D.. 927 
A, H. 

Jaaiini, ij-y^, nVtrJimuuf. 

Jan, v^"^ f^-t or Jan Sahib, poetical euuho of Mir Yar 
'All, who is the author of a Diwan. 

Janaipar Khan Turkman, tj^y ly'-*- Jxm^J^^ 

un Amir cjI IOOO in tho rvii^n of tho emprror JahAngir. 
IIo wa.s appoiuti'd governor uf Allahabad in the first vear 
of Shall Jahan 1G28 A. D, 1037 A, 11., and died there 

tho same yi-ar. 

Jansipar Khan, c^j^cj^, nccond son of Mukhtfir 
Khan Sabzwori, an amir of tho wign of the emperor 
'Alamgir. At tho time of hia death he held tho «ubn- 
dan" of Uaidurabad, and died there in 1701 A- D-. 1U3 
A. U. 

Jarbardi, tS^y.J^, sumamo of Fakhr-uddin Ahmad 
bin-IInsan, an author who wrot* thr " Shandi SHifia," 
and tho marginal notes un thu ** Kaahahaf." He diod 
la-lo A. D., 746 A, U. 

Jarir, yj^> r''<^ Jurir which ia tho correct pronunciation. 

Jaijis, KJT^^^t tteorgo, and in particnlar St Ot'orga tho 
martyr, very well-known in tho V^mt. nnd even by tho 
Muhanimadana, who put him amoni^t the number of the 
prophet.4, and confound him with [*^lias. 

Jaij Tamas, ,^^'*U5 ^j^j tuU Oeorgu Thomas. 

JarraE^ \\t^. the Humame of Ahmad bin-Ibrihim-al-Tahfh- 

ol-Afriki, who ia often citoil under tho name of Ibn-JamU, 
He was a phyaieian and un author, and a native of Africa. 
Ue died 1009 A. B., 409 A. H. 

Jarullah Zamakhshari, cV^^J *^I;^» snmamoof 
Mahiaud bin-'Umur-al-Zamakhshari, thu Afa'tialitu of 




Zamakhshftr. a vfllage in Khwarizni. Ho is the author 
of an eici'llnnt coniTncnlnr)- on the Knrin callod " Kiirfi. 
ahAf;" whKih he -wrote iu tho oamu of one of the princce 
of Mecca. He obtained the Hurnamc of JarullAh (or 
Tieighhonr of God) on account of hi* residing for a long 
period at Mwca. Ho vma b*>rn in U)7* A. R., 467 A. li.. 
and di(rd in tho phiro of his nativity in tho year IXri 
or I! 44 A. 0., 637 or 630 A. H. Ho ia also the author 
of many other works, such aa — 

KitAb Faal-d-ir-Nahr. 

Aflds-ul- BuUgbat-daT'Loghat. 




Bharah Abiat 8ubuya. 

lluflta|iu:i-dur-Anudl 'Arab. 


^a w Bor-iil • I a] a m . 

RImIt ick-ul-N II ' m&n • val-Klat^'dar-urdz. 






I) i Wan- iish-Shua'ri. 

trassOfl, U'^'^i fiuxnamo of Shaikh Ahmad bin-'AIi Itaxi, 
which sec. 

, n Hindii who was a poci 
His Diw&n was found in the 

Jaswant Bae, l5L) ^-^j^ 

and the author of a. Diwan. 
Librarj- of Tipii SilHuh. 

Jaswant Rao Holkar, j^jb '^-*.r'^i tho son of 

Takoji Holkflf, and brother of Kftshi Rno, whom ho ctic- 
i.*uodt.xl on thti uiiiMiud of luJor uliuut tho vi'ar 1H02. 
Ho mjulu a rapid incurflion into the Doub and cuDuuittcd 
aome ravngca* hat waa defeated and pursued by Lord 
X»ako to the Sikh country us far oa tho Biaa in 1803. and 
all his t/TTitories ootupicd by a British force. Tho whole 
was ro9tnn:-d to him at tho peaco. He became imsanc 
in ISUti, and TuUhi Biii, hia wifo waa acknowledgod re- 

EL ilr difd on ■/Uth Octoltfir, 1811, and waa suOL-e«ded 
Molhar liao III, his son, by a woman of low birth. 
ahf Bii, however, continued to act us rt'gciit. On the 
SQtk D«C(rmbf*r, 1816, a cumiiany of annod men loised 
Tulahi Bai, conveyed her forcibly to tho neighbouring 
river of .Sipra, and cutting off her head on tho bank, 
lhi*ew the lifflf*!!* trunk into the wuler. 

Jaswant Singh Biindela, ^'^ *^*** "^J^^t son of 

lUja IniLknnan. Ho. h»'ld a sniitable rank in the army 
in till* rvign of tho empcnjr 'Alampir, and dit'd about the 
y*M Ifl»7 A. D., 1099 A. H. Aftt-r hiit dcatti the xamin- 
diri of Urcha woa conferred on Bhagwnut Sin^h hu boo, 
an infuiit of four years, with tho titlo of XUja, but he 
dying ulmtit the year 1693 A. D., 1105 A. II., there 
remaintMl no one of the family of IWjaa ShnjAn Singh or 
of hiB brotht-r ludnnnnn, to sucLH^-d him ; upon which 
tho IvAnl Amur KlJitwitr, (fraud motht-r to th*.- JocuiiAed 
prini")', pliirtd on th.' riii Kdjiut tiiugh, who wu« dcwct-nd' 
fd from Mjidhiikur Sit futher to R^ja Bir Singh Deo, 
which wat^ approved by the ftnpcror, who co&forrod on 
him till' lilbi of r^ji, und u siiitaUii mun^ab. 

Jaswant Slngb, Hahariija» 



the iilibnit'd rAji of Jodhpfir or Mifw^. of the tribe of 
Kithor liujputs, who iw^U-d ho capital a piirt in Ibo 
coropctilions of 'Alnmirir and hia bmlhiT UAra Shikoh 
whri«(* faiine hn »*«iK)Ufed, and wiia guilty nf tpvixt impro- 
priely. llf vtM> thr *r>n uf Kuja Unj !SinRh and a d'.'aeen. 
dant of rUo )Iildi-o. Jiiswunt Singh, iiiibM«iucntly, 
became on" of tho bi-^t ^encrulu uf 'Alamfcir. and held Lho 
nuk of 7000 for several yotn. Ho died near Kabul 

about the llthDeoemher, IQ7S A. D., 6th Zil-W^ U 
A. H. Ho had built a fine houtto at Agrah on the banks* 
the Jamna, the surrounding walls of which are atill atand^ 
ing, and his followers brought his infant children and 
womL^n who did not burn with him, towrtrd.s their natii 
oountr>'. Orders were eent by the emperor 'Alamgiri 
conduct them to conrt, where on their arriTal, he 
on tho children bt-ing made Muiwlmina. Upon this 
rajput attt-ndants, determinud to ^o rather than sqI 
to this order, fled with their charge towards the h^i'^ 
territories, and being pursued by thocmpcrot'd trooj 
fought valiantly, and were mostly cut to pieces, but 
womc-n and infaiiti arrived safe at Jodhpiir; they were, 
however, compc-Ued to take refuge in the hills and tits 
woods, and on the dtath of 'Aiamgir in 1707 A. D., rt- 
gHini^d their foimer poaseasioni Ajit Singh, his K'n. wm 
i*c&tort'd to tho throne of his onrestors in tho year ITU 
A. D.. by tho emperor Forrukh-Hiyar who mnrried his 
dunghler. Ajit Singh was murdered by his son Abhai 
Singh in 1724 A- D. 

Jaswant Singh, ^^"^ *^.r-^, rajd of Jodhpiir 'Hi 
succeeded to the gaddf after the death of his 
Takhiit Singh in Ftbruury, 1873 A. D., 1289 A. H 


Jaswant Singh, ***^^ *^r^-^, son of Balwant 8mgh 

l^Inharaji of Bhartpur. He wiis Ituni on the 28th Keb- 
niary, 1851, and eucc«eded his father on the 16th, uf 
IU:kreh, 1863 when he was but two years old. 

Jaswant Singh, Knnwar, *^ '--I r ^ j>^, wU$ 


Jaty *^^) a tribe of Qind£i laboorers who made no flg^nre ta 
the Mughul empire^ as a nation, till the reign of *Ahuiig£r. 
in whose expedition to the Dakhin, thry were first hoita 
of aiJ a gang of banditti, under an intrepid follow called 
Chiiramuu. Tbt-y were then so during as to harraas the 
rear of the im]>erial ;irmy. After the di-'uth of that mon- 
arch Ihoy took advantage of the growing imbf<ili;y of ihn 
empire, and fortifying themaelvcsS, eprelid th«ir depreda* 
tions to tho gates of A;,Tah. !ltukham Singh, who nftrr 
Di- dtath of ChdnSmim cammandt'd the Jits, took tiiwin 
liiins'.lf thu title of raja, but lbi_ir power increas"d under 
Biidiin Singh und Sui-ajmal, which last wntt dignifiod with 
titltifl from the emperur. ^idt Churamon Ja^ 

Jawad 'AH, Mirsa, ^jj^ t^ ^1^, or more properly 

Prince iStirzd ^luhammad Jawad 'All SikaudiLr Ma«h- 
mat BuhaiJur, M>n of Amj&d 'AH t>hah, and bmthcr 
of W^jid 'All Shah tho cx-king of Lakhxtao. He rnxom^ 
panifHl hid mother, the dowjiger Quoen of lAkhnau, after 
the annexation of that eouutr\' to the British pnwumiian 
in 1H*>6, to KngbuiA, and died there iin-r ''■■ i- -'K of bis 
mother, on the 2oth Febniary, 1866, o^' wara. 

The body of tho princ* wna trunsfert' l-.n to 

Paris, to be buried on French suil h«tMidt> ^ 
Uuecn his mother. An iuuimmuj crowd had .i . !■> 

witness tho procession, attended by Pnnoe Mu'x» ii^"-*-* 
'AU, tho nephew of the deoeoAed. 

Jawahir Singh. *^^l>^, viJ^ Jouhar. 
Jawahir Singh, *^^^*>^, the Jit r^A of p^ 

Bhartpur, was the son of Surajnuvl Jaf. Ho 
to tho raj after his father's death in Oecomber, ITHS 
A. D., 1177 A. H., was seon^tly murdered in 1708, amd 
WM succeeded by his brother Riio Itatan Singh, wlw 
did not escape susjiiciun of hnvine been accessory t«> liis 
brother's murder. Itjitan Siru ^ ^ : ,.. > . _ ^ - 'ha attd 
thirteen days and was stu) ■ Uu;»k> 

nund, who pretended to tmuflu.^,. ^^,,4.^; i-:^^,..^. ViJ* 
Butau 6ingh. 




Jawahir Singh, *^**-*^[^, a Sikh chief who bMamo 

tliy mini.wter of Muharaja Pnlip Singh nfU-r thf? drath of 
llir£ Sinph, and wiut mtirJort'd by the trf>op« Rt l<ahor on 
the 21st .SeptcmUfT, 184.5. lidja L'al Singh, succeeded him. 

Jawahip Singh. Maharaja, *^^ j^V?' '-^bV*! 

son of Dhyaui 8iiigh and nopht;w of MiLh&rajdGuldb Sicgh, 
ruler of Kabhrnir. 

Jawan. cl^i tho poetical appellation of Mirzfi l^ilziin 

'All, a llindustini lyric poet, uttachwl to Ihf ctiUcgo of 
Fort William. He ia tlie author of an Urdu Diwiin and 
also of a biinih Masa which ho romposwi in 1802 A. U-, 
inr A. H. H« »^lfl alive iu 1812. 

Jawan Bakht, Mirza, 'j^ ^■^^ cl>^, iho youngest 

eon of Hiihadur J^hih, tho es-king of Dehli, who aceoui- 
panied hia father to Kangoon in 1H58, and now renidi^a 
undtr Burvfilknee at thai place. Government hiw sano 
tioned Ihe grant of n si/parate pension and an ullowanco 
of 250 rupceji to hin wifu Zamani Begam in lfi73 A. D. 

Jawed Khan, ty"^ *^^J^*) an ennmh and a great favou- 
rit4> of the cmpen-r Ahmad Shiih and his mother, who 
misetl him to the runk of an amir with the titl'» of Nawab 
Bahadur. KawAh Safdiir Jang, who wiw mmh diisjtfufityd 
at the inlluence ht^ hiul over tlu; f^niprmr, invited liini to 
on eutertaiumeut, and uii;rdured hiin during' thu baufjuet. 
This event took ptftee on tho 28th of Auguii, 1752 O. S., 
28thShawwal 1166 A. H. 

Jawoni, iJ'^J^f whoso proper niuno waa Ahu'l Ma'ali 
'Abdulmalik bin-' Abdullah, was a du+tor and a very cele- 
brated nietaphysRiiin, who bore the title of " Inium-ul- 
Karamain." Ue tl«inrished iu the reijfn of MUik Shilh 
the Siiljiiliide, and prtdViSed the d>tiLrino of Shufa'i ut 
Nuiahapur, where Lh*' funioun IthazriiU waa his discipb\ 
He i« the author of wveral workjt, amongst which are tho 
two frjllowni;: "Tarikh Jahan Kn.«hao." and"Akidat- 
ul-Nixamial." Ho died in lOS-j A. D., 478 A. H. 

Jaweria, ?/i>^» one of tho wivoa of Muhammad whom ho 
married in tlu- sixth year of the Ilijra 62' A. D. .She Ia 
said Ui bu u woiujiu uf great beauty, and was brought 
among the captivta. She died about the year G70 A. 1)., 
oG A. II. 

Jawinif lJ^-^j pi'i/p Mom-uddln JawinL 

Jayesi, ij^^f ^*<^^ SUUk Muhammad Jayeei. 

jazari, iS)J^y aumamo of those who wore bom at « city 
called .laztkrat-ul-'l'mar, Hituutcd on tho Tigris, to tho 
noithwiu-d of Nineveh and .M^iuhuI. Uno of the most 
fllufllrioofl amoiifji't tho men nf bltrni Ihi.-* eity hjw jini- 
duced, was Ibn-Asir ul-.shuilani >l;ijd-uddiu. who di-d 
1209 A. D.. 606 A. 11., and of whom wo have soTcrni 
works. Vide Ibn-Asir. 

Jenghifl Khan, CJ^ J^^j vidr Chanpea Khan. 

Jent Parkas, Lala, u*^-^ ^^^^H*-, author of a poem 

ralbd " l)a>t.ur Inhk," contiining tho stnrj- of Sa*i: and 
Pauiin in P'TKiiiU verso. It apptiirs that his correct namo 
U J6t Farkudh. 

Jliankoji Sendhia, Ai*^- ^y^-jii^^ s^^n ^f Jiipa 

or Jyapa .S iidliia, woh kilb^d in the l.H.-'t b.ittle which took 
plaoo bt'tweeu Alimud Shuh Abdah" iin.i the Uurhut^ an 
the I'tth ot Jiinuury, ITtil N. S., at I'aiu'piit. 

Jhanko Rao Sendhia, ^*'***** j';.A^, ahw called 
Mukki Kuu, oa the dcLith of Duulat Rao Sendhia was 

elected by his widow Bftji Bii as riji of Gwaliar, and was 
put on the maanad on tho lath June, 1827; but Uing 
then only nine years of ago, Baji Bui actt-d as rtg<?nt. 
rio n»iuraed the reins of govemmttnt in ISaS. rvigii»i 16 
years and some months, and died on Lho ith of February, 
I84y. agfd 24 years. He was succe'-ded by his adopted 
fion Jiaji Sendhia tho present nijii uf Gwiliar, with whom 
Itijd Bai appears to have resided until tho timo of lho 

Jityi Rao Sendhia, *i*'i^j^; i^^^, the present 

raja of Gwaliar. whose name in full is, Mah&raja 'Ali 
Jilh Jiftji liiu Sendhia, was the adopted sonof Jhanko 
Kilo ^^i•ndhia, on whose death he ^^eee^■ded to tho govern- 
ment on thu 4th Febnion*. 1S43. His iuhtallatiun took 
place on the 20lh of Januarj-, 1841 when Lord Ellen- 
borough visited tho fort. 

Jiapa Sendhia, ^i^'^^^ LjU^^ ,,,v<. Jyapa Sendhia. 

Jiji Begam^ ^*^. iJ^^^t the wct-nursc of the emperor 
Akhiir, nnd Ihi; mother of Minta 'Azi:^ K6ka, who was 
rui."uil to a high rank by the emperor with tho title of 
Khan 'Adm. She died "in the year 1699 A. D., lOOH 
A. 11. Thi- king carried her coflin on his shoaldcn and 
fihuved his bc^ard and mustachoetf. 

Jiwan, MuUa, ^ ci?*^, vid* MuUa Jiwan. 

Jodha Rao, j'j ^•>^, rij4 of Miprdr, and a descendant 
ut iN-rijf, tlio gntndMjn of the ctlebrated JaichiiDd. the hud 
KiLrh'ii- mi<nnr'h of Kaiiauj. He in tho year 1 1^2 A. D. 
fuiuidi d the modem capital of J6dhpur. t« which he trans* 
ferrod the seat of government from Mand6r. 

7odh Bai, ^jf^ ^^y^y (whoso maiden name appt'ars to 

bo .lagiu (bishiiini and alsu BalmnlO, was the daughter of 
liaja Uthti Singh nf Jmlhpur or Miirwar. the son of H^& 
Maldoo. She was called Judh Bai. beeanse she was & 
princess of Jodhpiir, She was married to Mirza Salim. 
((ifierwurd-H Jithangir) in 1585 A. I).. 0D4 A. H., and 
beeume the mother of the emv>oror Shfih Jahlin who was 
li.m in ljil2 A. 1)., 1000 A. U. at Lj'ihur. Shr died at 
Aprah in 1619 A. T)., 102H A. H^ 'md was buried in 
i>oliagp(ira built by her where her palace and tomb aru 
still tu be Seen in a ruinous state. 

Jo^, Sultan, O^^^t^J^, nrff Muhammad JogL 

Joah, t«r^^, poetical titlo of Ahmad Ilasan Khin, who is 
familiarly called Aehchho Sahib. Uo was living in 
I/ikhntm in 1853 A. D.. 1269 A. H., and is the author of 
an Urdu Diwan. He i« the son of Nawah Muktm Khan, 
the t^on of Nawdb Aluhabbat Khan, thti son of llafif 
Kuhmut Khsn. 

Joshi&hj cr**V^i poetical title of Muhammad Hasan or 

Muhammad Rosluin of Tatna, who flourished in tho time 
of the ompi ror Sluih "Ahira. 

Jot Parkash, X«ala, ^^ iJ^Kr^ '^J^ * Hindu Kiyeth and 
an autlior. Tliis appvora to be the corrvct for Juiut Par- 
kiUh, which see. 

Joubar. J^J^$ the poetical appellation of JswAhir Singh, 
a Hindu, who was tho pui)il of the ih>i-1 Miilbi Nsti^ of 
Nitiabapur. Ho is the author r.f a Diwan in rer&iaa and 
Urdu, and was li\ing in Itt&l A. D., 1267 A. U. 

Jouhar, J^^t the poetical namn of Munahl Scwa lUra of 
Shihjiihanpur, who flourished in the time of Akbar Bhih 
JI, and is tht) author uf lovutid works in Feraiazi, such 


136 Jurjanl 

M " /ortw^rf-Tilin,- •• Joah»r-ttI-T»rlfl>.'* Ac. the hut- 
^*«i«i voak he vroto ia ISIO A. D^ 1M6 A. H. 

Jouh&ri IPtUVbi, i^J» iSjh^f mmju^ nit Abd Koar 

'abo-HmaU. AKlioQgli he wMkTttrk, yet he 

IB the Af«bie Ujoj^na^f^ which bo 

uul Egypt, th«t he wjw ityled 

^^ OMiler o€ tha kagufe, H« Ib 

„^ . *■ • '■'y *»'8« Arabic BicliofiUT entitled 

^GASh^vA^hm^^^ tha |«rily «r tha longQe. He » 
ote» c»IIed Biter thk varfc, "afluh^^-SiJia" or the 
Mdbflrorthe SaUk. Hea cammaafy called F^U or 
FfaiU-aJ-Tarki. hraaMe he vu a natxTv of Fxrih in 
Ttirtirtia. H« dkd lOM A. D^ 393 A. H. Somo an. 
thocs «y th«ft kii death took phot ia 9»3 A. B., 382 

JonlUUi SugUV .^^:; iSj^J^t a pc>rft who flooruhed in 
tha tiM «f adunfa SItaih axul AmUn Shih of the bonse 
of Sa^pL^ He is th« author of a ■own containing tha 
ittavy of » Asm- Akoud and lEahasti.*^ 

Jounpor. .r^^^j kin^ of; n^ Khwaja Johizu 

JoXLSi, iSh^t r»A Abu'l F&niJ tbn-Jaiui. 

Joya, k^^i poetical appollutioQ of 21ini Dardb Beg, ft 
po«i whose native countiy wntf Kikahmu*. IIo diod in 
iro6 A. n., ins a. H., and is thd author of A Diwdn. 
Th«i puetical iiaiiiu of his btvthar Mini Kiinninj was 

Juban Choban nr Jovian, Amir, ijkr^ ^ri*'> tho 
tutor niul K^'Homl of th«* nrmiuH of SiihiUi Ahii Stx'id Ehnn, 
Mtiii nf Aljiitii, kintf ff IVrniu. Ho wus put iv duuth by 
Mnlik IJImvHM-iiiltiiu Knrt in Novr<nib(r. i;i'27 A. D.. 
Mu^t-nim, 7«H A. I[., by ordor of thu Siiltau. Iiocau^o 
hu> I'lit'iiNiMi til givu him IiJn dnuf^htiT, U:4fhil)i<i Kbittun, 
in iiiiiJiiiigo. ri*i* B^t^bdaU KbiUtin. 

•TubOPi ^f^i a rntnjifiniuii of Mubmtimud. 

Judfttt *^^J^t '^ puutical appi'lluliuu* 

JiiKhiai, </^***» i-iW* riiiMibui. 

Jugttl Xlnhori J^^ *^^t iin inhiibitant of DobU whoso 
IHMillml immii wm Miirwiit. Ho was wtiktl to tho Kaxim 
oC l\vt\ini\ fur nitvitrul ytmtn, 

JUjl Klian, Ui^ l/^J^> «^»" t^^o i<Mn«t non of Chingix 
Klii\li lb(» THitHr, IVoiii wbuni hn bad rrcoi\-wi for his 
sliniit lhi> wlibt ri'Kl*'"" »'' l:Citpi-b4)t ; but tbix prinuo dwi 
n r».w ftinhOi'« lulVini hU fiithnr in IS'iti A. It., and Irft 

I hU omu Ituih Kbilii, ^^'| r.-d Kus- 

., iitiil iiiViiKfd Ok' ■ i I'obttid, 

ttiMitlbk, iind bml mai-J--. ■".■■ Utin^fAr;^ 

Mtlittli (VimlHUtiriopb^, whiui dt>ath cudu<t but 

n t. - . .iM>|i|, 

Jtlliu ntiMli, »'^ ^>*i a lindhw of Muhammad Tughla* 
■r hibli, wbu built tho Uty of Jottnpdr which 
,, l*'«* niiiHM. 

II t t'l'biiit.d i|*('f>(b> wlMmn folhi^r wns m ^liiM-lilowitr of 
Nihr. < ,M'I H«- Willi litiiM itiitl l<niiivhl u|» nl Hoi^hduij. 
iif (bn bcNl tllM'Iplf* f>f HhUu'i. but 
f ' iM tif MiUUn HiiiiiJ. ilti nindii thirty 

f itlidiK mill iMi biMt, llti difd nt 

t iiM A I)., 'iUM A. H., nml wiui 

fiMii I ' M- ii.K.n ..I hi* iiiiiNtt^r Mnd iiiitttimal iiniie, 

4mM«i1'I< HIiwIWIi t.i iuUttfl, 'H^ J^, Uitrd in 
,j..*mmI h"io (I v|vtiraU<d Hhalbb Hafi-uddui Aidibuli, ' 

and grandfathor of Sbih Ismi'Il I of Persia, fonndftr Ok hm 
Safwj d)-naaty which was pxtirjiatoii by Nadir Shah. Ha 
was a Sufi or mystic phUosopher, but b.nng ex " * 
from Azurbejin bv the Tiirkraiu ruler Jahan ST 
tflblisht-d hjmudf m Dftyiirbikar. In tho Jutt«r pmmm 
of his life, ho wt-nt lo Shirwin with his diatipb*. and mg 
killed in 1450 A. V., HfiO A. U.. in a condirt with tb« 
troops of Amir KhHUl-nlltih. ruler of that province. rUt 
lami'Q I 8nfwi. The bu,.k called NukUt BcUiL written 
by Mini Bedil, contains hia Memoira, 

JaBani, i^^^, author of a poem called " LatAef Shoa|;" 
a coUoction of cntcrtftinin^ and witty tale* whirh he 
composed in the year 1680 A. I)., 1100 A. H., uad dedi- 
cated to tho emperor 'Ahungir, but many wort* nOm 


Jununi, Maulana, j^y^ ^V» u sprighUy ntmad 

pwl of Hiriit who flourisht-d in tho time of Amir Ghark- 
ud.lin Wultin Husain, son of Firoz Shah abuut the'tfth 
ti'Utury of tlio Hyri era. 

Jurat, ot^, poetical title of Kolandar Bakhdl, 

Yt-hitt Aniin and pupil of Hasrat. He waa fint - __ 
by Nawdh Muhabbat Khan, but in IHOO A. d!. IJU 
A. H., hp was in the service of prince Sulaiaian ShikAt 
at Lakhnau. Though in the prime of life, he bettm* 
blind, hut Iwcumo a good musii-ian and an exevJlest 
player on the guitar. It appr ara tlwt Jumt and his fuah 
hud thij family name of Ythia Man, U-causo ihmw mi 
that they wore descended from Ycbia RieManwhoi^ 
aided in u street at Dehli which is close to th* Chindal 
Chonk, and ia still colled the lUe Min stiwt. It is sbo 
Btntwl that tliia lUo JIan was executed bv Vidir Shtt. 
Jurat Jifd in the year 1810 A. D., 1223 A. H. He ■ 
tho author of uu Urdu Biwda and two Majnawia.* 

Jurir, jij^j or Abu Hazra Jarir ibn-Atiya, was one of tbe 

greatest and most celebrated poets. He flourihhed ta lbs 
reign of the Khnli'f 'Abdulmalik of the houise of L'mani. 
and received fruni him a handsome salary. Ho waa um 
rew;aded by the prince for a single panegyrical ode, with 
100 cjunt'l/i, 18 slaves and a silver jug, Abu'l Faraj ilm- 
ul-Jau7.i places the death of .lurir in the year 111 Him 
or 729 A. D., Ill A. U^ aged 80 yeora. '' 

Jurir-ibn-'AbduUah, *W'*^b t>^> y.^^, a gounl ai 

(b.T anny in the time of 'Umar, the second KhmlA tfla 

Jurir-ibn-ul-Tabari, iSj^* ti»^'^>^J or Jurir-ut-T^, 
bari. a celebrateti Arabian historian, author of the " Tinih 
Tiibari." He died in the year 922 A. D., 310 A. H. Ha 
son Muhammad, who was also an anlhor, died in W 
A. D., 330 A. n. Firf* Abfi Ja'fiir-at-T»Uiri. 

Juijani, ij^hj^i which seo. 

Juijani, ij^^j^j a nativo of Joijfin or Geoifta. AI* 

Sayyad-usb-Sbarif Abii'l Hasan (or Uoain) 'Ali, «w 
thus auiTiiiraod because he was bom in that roontn'. H# 
wab one ol the most oolebrated MnjiaJiiiAn doctorv; wv 
lM)m in 1339 A. D., 740 A. U., aijd died at ShirAj'uu 
A. D.. 816 A. H. There have hi^^n seveml other nnlhai 
of this surname, as Al-Sharif-ol-Husuint, » M>n of the tbit. 
who wiis a famous phyxician and lived in th#> tinw of 
Atsis, Sultiln of tho Khwirismiins. Also Abu'l Wa&, 
a mathematician, Abii Bakr bin-'Abdul Kahir, a grma- 
marian, and Muhammad Jirjanf, a vwliant cjipUin of th« 
Sidtan of Khwarism, and governor of the rity of Hiril 
who was killed in defending that place against T41i 
eon of Clmiges Kh 4 "i 





K&ftn, ridf KhAn. 

Ka'b, j^3 ly^' *r**^i or Kau'b ibn-Zahfr of Mofca, was nn 

ATahinn poet, and author of thu '^ Kaeiai'd B&nut Su'£d," 
a poem in Arabic ht'ld in thu hijjfhcst t-stiniation, contiun- 
ing u pancfryric on Muhnmmud. A translation of piirt 
vt it may ha fuimd iii Sir Williiirn Joai's's Swontl Voliiiuo 
of the Asiatic licfloarohcs. Tho author wfia a Jewish 
Rabbi, contompomry and opponent of Muhammad, and 
had ¥rritt«i dumn satirifal vorsH-i upon him ; but iifltT- 
wardfl hoJTiff dr_sirous of a n-ronriliation with thp prtiphet,, 
he wrote the altovo poem, which had tho di-sin^l ffl'oct. 
Home authura say thiit hu died in th** fLn>t yciir uf tho 
Hijni, that is. 022 A. D., 1 A. H. lUit, ai^ioniinfr to 
Ookley^B llistory of the SaracetiH, '^ Kiia'b caiiid in the 
ninth y'?«r of th" Hijra, oud made his ])«'ncf' with iluhiini* 
mad, with a poem in his prtiiac/' By thin it appt-am thnt 
hi? waij living iu C3l A. IK Ho ih said to bavo aKbistcd 
Muhammad greatly in thi* coinpilfiliou of the KunLu. 
initift's L'i'iffrajihicat Itietionarif under Coa&. 

Ka'b-al-' AIlbar,j*t*^' V*^j a famous tmditionist of tho 
tribf ol IIiTnyar, who (.mhracod Tslimism in the rei^^ 
of 'Umfir. and ditd in 652 A. 1)., 3*2 A. H., during the 
n-ign of Twnin. 

KablFy j^i a celebrattxl Hindi pool, by trade a Muaalmin 
weaver, who, acrordimj to tht AkbHr-nama. whs cot**m- 
ptirary with t^ilcnndar Bhah Lodi, king- of ])ihli*. Kftbir 
was a S6ff or Deist of the most eJtaltiMi sentiments and 
of benoTolence uul^uudcd. Jlis poems whirh are still 
onivurBally estocmed. incuhfite tht- punat morality, good 
will and hospiiJility towards :iU min ; and breatho no 
fine a spirit uf InKntinn, that l>rith IlindCiM and Musul- 
macs contond f*yr Ihi honour of his having bc«-n bom of 
their religion. From thu disinterested, yL't alluring, do^- 
trinus bis p<K-'m» coutjiln,^ a sect has sprunj^ up iu Hindu. 
Stan, tmdf^r the name of Kabtr Panlhi^ who are bo uni- 
TcnaUy eatoempd for veracity, and other virtues, among 
both Hindus and Musalmiins, lliat thi-y may be "B-ith 
propriety ronsideriHl the tiimkers of thia L'ountr)'. 'Vha 
time t)f Kabir's death »it«ms involvi-d in equal obacimty 
with the mvinuer of his decejtsc and huriut. Thf>y rebitu 
thnt he lived a long time at Kiai (Denfiras) and Onyi, 
and sojounii-d aUii nt .Jagamath, whirt; he Rave great 
offnncu tfi tho Itrahraans, by hia coriiluot and tolerant doc- 
trino. AVTien strii^ken in yeard, h*.* depurti-Hl this life amfmg 
a conoooTso of his diitciples both Mtistdman« iind ilindun. 
He is buried at Ilutaiipur, whercj his tomb is tiaid to be 
BOCTi to Uiia day. 

Kabir, Shaikh, j^ i**> sumamed Bala Pir, was the 

son of Shaikh Kasim Kiidiri. whoso tomb is at tThunar. 
Shaikh Kabir died at Ktinauj on Monday, thn 4th of 
No%'ember, 1()44 A. P., l'2th Rama/jin, 1054 A. 11., where 
a splendid Mausobum bnill on In* tomb by one- of 
hia sons named Shaikh Mulidi who di xl in lfi77 A. D., 
1088 A. n., and is also liurird there. 

Kabir-uddin, t^V e.-^*^' C^ ^^ c'^'*^' j^y son of 
Taj-uddin 'Imki, liviid in the time of Sultan Ali-uddin 
king <}( Dehli, and wrote a book on his conquests. 

Kablai Kaau^ ly^^ *^*, or Khan, or moru properly 
Kawuila Kadn, Cmnd Khin of the Mangolit and Emperor 
of Chinn, was the r<<.in er bn^lher »f Mfini^ii Khsn 
<«ipf;ror of TartAr>\ and gn iit-grandson of Chingi/ Khin. 
He Hucceeded his bmthfjr ubout the year I'ioQ A. D., G.5.5 
A. H., and founded the Yuien dynasty in China. Being 
ordered by hia brother Mungu, thun EhukiUi of thn 

Mongol*, to subjugate Corca and China, he ent**red China 
w'th an immense army in 1 260 A. D., drove out the Tartara 
of the J\in dj-nasty and look possession of North Chiii-t. 
In I27y he cuiii]iletfd the ruin of tho 8ong dvmwtv by 
invading and subdninR Southern China so thathia'dominioB 
now extended from tho Frozen (leean to the straits of 
aifllacta and frum Curva. to A.sia ilinor— an extent 
of territor>% the like of which hiui never buforo^ and has 
never sime, been governed by any one monarch. Tho 
rule of the Mughula* hitherto severe and barbarous, 
ehunged its tharacter in the rei^n of tliis prince, whcj 
adopted cnlij-ely the manntira of the Chinese, and who m 
regarded, evim by thnt ixopU-, as one of the beat and 
most illufitrious of their emiurum. He died in 121/4 
A. It., G93 A. H. 

STabul, Jj^, the poetical appellation of Mirz4 'Abdul 
Ghini Bug of Kashmir, who wasaSfifi and a pupil of 
Joyi, tho brother of (i6y4. Uu died in 172Q A. D- lUU 
A, H. 

ETabUB, U^y^j a prince of the huuso of Shamgir, or Dash- 

mairir, whose capital was Itei^ and afterwards JurjAn in 
KhurusRU. 8hamgir was suecoed'-d by his M)n liistun, 
of whom nothing particular is reUited. Hut tho next of 
this family, Kiibds, whose title was " Sbama'-ul-Mulk," 
or the randio of tho kingdom, is celpbrit<>d for his exlm- 
ordinjiry winlom and leiiminff. Hd was, by tho instigu- 
tionofhis wm ^[, slain by his own mutinous 
otBcera 1012 A. D., 403 A. H., whose rxriwsca he had 
probably deaired to restmin. Ho was sueeeeded by his 
Hon Maui'ichchr, who submittc>d to the power of HuJtan 
MahnnVl of Ghazni: but that monarch not only conti- 
nnrd him in hia family posAetisions. but gavrs him hia 
daught. T in marriagi'. He died lO'O A. D., 403 A. H., 
and wjiM (■ucceided in tho government of Jurjan by his 
son Gilan Khih. KabuH ia the author of scvonJ works, 
onu of which ia called " KuinAl-ul-Balighat." 

Kabuli Mahal^ J*^j^(f, a wife of ShahzfJian. 

Kaohhwaha, thi- title of thu Itajaa of Amber or .raipur. 
fVf/er Bhara Mai. 

ECadard, -^J^^i the son of Ja'far Beg Daiid, and brother 

of Alp Ar^itUn of the race of Saljuk. He wu* instilled 
by Tughral Beg his uncle in lOU A. 1).. 433 A. H., nnd 
b^-came the first Sultdn of the Saljuk dynasty uf Kirman 
where hr reiffned 32 years and died of poiaon in 107'^ 
A. D,, 465 A- H., by oi^er of Muhk Shdh. 

The foiio\cing t» a U»t of tkt Stilfdn* of Kirmdn 
of the race of Sa(/ui, 

A. a A. H. 

KiSdArd, thn son of Ja'&r Bog Daud, began 1041 433 

Rnltan 8hih, the son of iCadanl, 1072 445 

Turin Shah, brother of Sullan Shah, 1074 467 

fran Shah, Hon of Turin Shiih, a tyrant 

who was^Lun in 1100 109(1 480 

Arvalln 8bah^ son of Rirmin Sh&h, reigned 

42 years 1100 41*4 

Mugbifi-uddin Muhaiuraad, son of Armdin, 1141 d3fi 

Tughml Shah, S4m of M uhitmmad 1 1 .56 A5 1 

BahnimL, Ar«aUn, and Turan Shih, aiyna of 

Tughral, diHptite sueee*i«i>in 1 109 566 

Muhammad Shah, son of Bahr^m ShAh who 
after the death of his fath^-r and two 
UQclt.'e ascended the tbroni' of Ktrman. was 
dispoweased by Malik l>itiar, a 'IHirk of 
tho ttibo of Ohms iu 1187 A. I).. 583 
A. H, Thus ended the Kdjuk dynasty 
of Kirman of the race of KadanL 

^adar Khan, c^^j^^^' Tit^ Kodr Khin. 




IJQftdlr, JA^, tbo pcK^ical title of Sh&ilh 'AMul K&dfar Ba- 
MemL ViA 'Abdul Kidir. 

^adir* J^^i the poeticAl AppelUtion of Wasir KMn, an 

alMliJtattt of iCfrmh* who «'as in gn^at fnvoar with 'Alam- 

rmd his two laccetieorB. Ho died in 172-11 A. D., 1136 
H., utd is the author of a Diw&n. 

Kftdir* J<i^, the poetical name of Shaikh 'AIhIiiI Kddir, whu 

w%t tsDployed as Munahi by I'rince Muhnmmad AJtbur, 
sla of 'Al^ngir. Ho ia the author of a Diwan. 

fftdir BiUab, VVj^^. Vidw Ai-Kddir BiUoh. 

Kttdir or ^&diri, \SJ^^ ^J^» tho poetical nnme of 
AInIu] Katiir of Badion. 

lj[adiri, i/J^^t the poetical b'tle of Prince V&ti Bhik6h, the 
• Mestaon uf the em|K:n:ir Shah Johdn. 

^Adir Shah, S^J<>^, of Malwa. After thv ocvupution 
'.4 yittlvri by the umpfror UumayCin, that monarch had 
h^ft hitt own otfirtra in th" jj^vcmniL-nt of thut kinj^oni, 
but ahdrtly after hia rutiim to A'g^ruh, Jliillii Khan, ono 
oi the officer* of the lute KhUJi govornnuut. retook all 
the )-ountrY lying' between the Niirbada and thi: town of 
Bhilfoi, lifter a Htni^glu of Lwelve muuttu ugniubt thu 
iHhit offiu'ta; whuuj having uvontually Hubdued, he 
caused hinuclf to bo crowned in Man^o, ondor tho titlo 
of Kadir Shall of Malwa. Hu ri't^Lnl till the year 1542 
A. D^ tii9 A. U., when Sher Shall louk Ttliilwa, ttnd t'-on- 
icnvd tlio govummout to Sh\;yaa' Khin his ™in*itt^r and 

Kadr Khan, u^^*^, king of Khutan, who waa acon- 

U-niiMtrary of Sultan Mdhmud of Uhuzni. Hl* waa lining 
lK'twi..t!n the Yi^ l<i)06 and 1024 A. D, It ia related of 
him that h'l wns vi-rj' fond of music, and that four bugs 
wem C4itiatantly pLievd round his sofa, and oa he listened 
to the atiQg, lie cust himdfuhi of gold and liilvcr to the 


^ael, <-A^^i poetical name of 'AbdoIbUit a Persian poot 

yanTi or Kithilij i^^, of SabxwAr, ia the author of a 

biography or Toildra of poeU. He died in 1548 A. D^ 
J».V, A. H. 

Kaem-bi-amr-ullah, aUi^u ^A3^ ^^^ jj,^ ^^^ ^f 

Uiihdi, thu lirgt Kbiilif of thu Fatimii<4 in Africa. He 
rebuilt thi* city uf Mutiftibih in Africa in tho yMO" 927 
A. !>., 3ld A. H., and called it Muluimmadia. 

?a«m BUlab, V^ (^» Khalifei of Baghdad, vide Al- 
Kiom liaUh. 

^^m Jang or Sayum Jang, *-^^ (^^t the son of 

Mohammad Khan l!, mtwab *ii F.-irrukhabad, whom 
be iDOooedod in June. 1743 O. t>.. Jumiida 1, 1156 A. U. 
Hd mode war by tlw inatigulioa of the wazir, ntiwab 
Safdar Jang, with the Bfdielaa of Kutr.r now called Ko- 
hflkhan^i after the death of thoir chief, 'Ali Muiiammud 
Khin« but waa dcf'.'atted and ahuu on tho 10th November, 
1749 0. B^ 10th ;ril-l>ijja, 1162 A. H., and hIa uatatcs 
oonflicftted by the wazir. Tb*} phuciptU scrvuuta of the 
iltcmtd Wfrt acnt prinoniTt to Alliihabiid; but hie 
Vioihar wm allowed to keep the city uf Furrukh£l»id and 
IxrelTS Bmall diatrictA for tht^ suppurt of tho family, oa 
thi^ had buvn confctred on it in perpetuity by the cm- 
psnir Fftimkh-uyar. The conquurod country wu com- 

mitted to the car© of the wazir's doputy. IUj4 Kawib 
who waa soon after elain in battle agiunst Ahmajl Kian 
thp brother of Kacm Jaug, who to«k pobfc-»ion uf tko 

l^aem, ^^9 poftticai appellation of KAcm Khin vhu 
the post of Captain in tbo sen-it^ of Wiizi'r Mnl 
Khin, XawAb of Tonk, the son of Amir Kh£n. Ue » 
author of an Urdu Diwin, which ho completed and poh- 
li&hod in 1853 A. D., 1270 A. H. 

Kafl, t^^t aumame of Ta^f-uddia 'All bin-*AJi. an Aiv 
bitin author who died in thu yitar 13^ A. B., 7&6 A. IL 
Hia name is spelt in some of our Jliogmphicol I>ictic«iahML 

Kafl or Kamii u*^* poeticiU name of Mira& 'AU-ud^ula 

who flourished in tho reigu of the emperor Alrhnr. Tt* 
AU-uddanlu (Mirza), and Kami. 

Kafl, ty^t wliose proper name was KiCayot *Ali. wna a 
IMH't of Munidiibad, and uuthur of tho " Buhdr Khnld," 
which is a tranalation of the "BhxmieL** 

Kafl-ul-Kafat, ^^^ i/^^, tuk Ibn-'mi 

Kafur, Malik, JJ*^^ *"^j a favourite umiuch of Sultan 
'Al^nddi'n Klulji, king of Dehli, who was misod Id the 
high rfmk of wizarat. After tho kinir's doath. tlu 
step which tho traitor took, wa& to «ond a poraon to 
liar, to put out the cyoa of Khizir Klian und Sluadf 
the two aons of tho dc-ouAacd Sultan. His ordiirv 
inhumanly executed. Ue then plneed iJhHhab<uddin tho 
king'fl young<*ist son (a boy of acvcn years of ogti) on tha 
thrunt}, and bogan hia administration ; but was aj«asaiji». 
ted thirty-Eve days after the king'^dcalli, in Juuwm', laif 
A. D., 716 A. li.. and Mubarik tho third aun of the kini; 
wuh raitsfd U* the throne. 

Kahaj Tabrezi, Shaikh, {jy.j^ ^ i^, a lauswi 

Musalman who held tho oflico of Bbjiikh-ul-l 
Tftbrez during tho reign of WulUn Awc^ia aud 
Uusain of Baghdad. Ue is tho author of a Dfw^ 

Kahi, \j^^y f^f Kiam KiU. 

^ahir BiUah, V"^-^^* tiAAl-KAhir BilLih, Khalifa ef 


•• • 
^ahkari, iSjri^i ^i'^ Xajm-ofldln Abii'l Hris:iri In 

»omei of our Biographical Dictioojuiea his nauv i- f^i\ 

Kaikaua, uFX^, second king of the Kjiyanian .lrn»*t> 

of Pt^iuiji, was the son of Kaikul>ad. He wns tain «a3 
proud: and appears to hart: bi-Mn in continual ili^lr^a 
from tho unfortunate result of ».-hemoe that hi* ainbidua 
led him to form, but which he wonted ability to cxt 
Hirt life is connectt'd with a thousand fa Mi-*, whiiji Uvi 
improper in lliis place, farm excellent niateriolft for 
daiisi. who bus given, in his history of this pviod. dM 
extraordinary and nffmling tale of thA comb«t botwias 
Butitum and hie miknnwn son, Suhrib, who is kiU«d In 
his father. This part of the Shih-n^n hrt> K-t-n br«iiti> 
fully tranalatM in English verse by J. At ,,, 

Aasifitant Surgt*on on tho Bengal Estall ^4 

member of tho Asiatic Society in 181-4. Kiuanua 
grown old, K>tngnod his crown in fiivonr of hia 
Kaikhosro, the eon of Siawakhsh. 

Kaikatis, Amir, k^j^j^^, grandson of ^ibUis 
of Juijan, and one of the noblomcn who livisd «t the 




of Sul(&ii Maudnd, tho grandson of SuI^Ad Mahm&d of 
Ghaziii. Hu u the autht^r of tht^' work called " KdlitU- 

Kaikhusro, -ir-*^) the third kmg of the Kaynnian 

d}iifuty of Persia and the? grandsun uf Krukuus. llu 
attended tho throuu in tht- lilVtime of hie futlur who 
resigned the crown in hJa iiivoiir. lie had aevcral battlca 
with Afriaiib the king uf Turan^ who vrtia at hist dofea- 
ted, takon prisoner, and slftin. Soitn ufttr thirst-' ovint» 
Kiiikhusro 7*'eolvt*d to duvotc the remainder of hia life tu 
religiooa rrliroinf*at : he delivered ovtr Kabul, Zabulietan 
and Nirarftz to Uustam, aa hLTtditarj' possessions ; and 
n.-aigiifil his tlirun^' Ui Luhraap the sun-in-law of Kuikaus 
and hiji own son by liJoiition and iiffeftion. Aftt-T theao 
unngementH, h*.i wont iiceuniimuied by eomo nublca 
to a spring whu-h he hiid tUed ujjon as the jilaci-! of hia 
repow'. Hcrt) hf diAappfiirfd, and ail tho^u that WLnt 
with hira wen- dcntroyed on their rttum by a viuk'ut 
tunipcet. Hi; 1iv«_-d 9U years and reigned 60. 

KaikhUBrO, JJ""^^ t tho son ofSultin Muhaminnd KhAn, 

miv«_nu)r oi lIiLltan, who was tlio tltlost son ol Sul^jin 
Gbiyas-udJia liulban, kin;; ulDvhh'- AfUr his futhir'rt 
dcfith in l2So A. D.. ho wii8 nuido govemur uf iliiiUu by 
hie gmndfjithi r, nnd utt^r hi* ilrt<.iisc in 1281) A. 1).^ 
was iniinb r.d nt liohtak l-y ilalik Nizam-uddin. wuiir of 
Knikabad who aacendLd tht- throuu im king of Dehli. 

Kaikubad, ^^^^^j the founder of tho second or Kayanian 
dynasty of thrt kiiiffs of IVrsia, was a linL-al descendant 
of Munuehehr, acrurding to suinu accotmta he wua hia 
grvat-gmndsou. Tbiii jirinee hud itthed to Ihi! mountjim 
of Albar?, from which plneu ho was bruiight by ilu«U»m 
the son of Zal and iinxJfamrd king ui' I't ma. Ih: eoin- 
niitt<'d th" adininislnition of guVLrnmrjiit into the handa 
of Zal, whf»rte lion Uu.-lJini, waa iippouitt--d tu lead the 
Persians itgiijiist thu drradul Afrd-Hiilb who liad n^jiu 
paiwed the U\ns and invaded I'en^ia. In thie battle, liua- 
l*im ovtTCAme Afrosiali. and aflerwtirds a peace was 
roncladid, by whii h it was agreed that the Oxua should 
n.inain aa it h»d been hentufuri*, tht] boundary botwein 
the two kirigdoma. Kiiiljubad livfd Home tinie aftor thir* 
in peace : he in i«ud to hiivt' r^r-igiu'd 120 years. Ho left 
four 6on«: KaikdiiH, Arinh, Hum and Anneii. To the 
former h*; bequcatht'd hia throne, and enjoined all tho 
othun to obey him. 

List of K-in^f of thf ttcond or Ka^atiian dynaUty, 

1. Kiiilfubad. 

2. KiiikiiuB. 

3. Kiiikhusro (Cyrua the Oreat), 

4. Lubrdisp. 

6. (Jn^htJwp (Hystnapo^ of Grecian History), 
fi. iBtandiar (Aspmdii ur Aatyages of ditto). 

7. Bahiiiau or ^Vrdiidii-T Darazdast (Artaxcrxua 


5. Humni, daujjhter and wifo of Bahman. 
9. Diriib or Diini, son of llahmun. 

10. Dara, sun of Dorab (Dujius overcomo by Alex- 
ander thi- Great). 

Kalkubad, A^-J^t HumumedMu'izz-uddin, tho grandson of 
Sultan GhuvaH-uddiii Ualbnn. whnm he niicn-i-ded in 1286 
A. Dm €85" A. II.. on th.-- thruUf uf i>ihU in tho ab«enee 
of his' dither NiUir-uddiii Idighri Khan whu wa.H then 
in Bengal. In the yeiir 12H7 A. D., 686 A. H., his Cith.r 
having heard the sUvto of affaira at Dehli, marehixi from 
Bengal to vi^it and advisw his son. They met on the 
banks of tho (IhuRn. at Behar, and tho wholo aoeno wan 
BO aflfccting, tlmt almost all the eourt shed tears. On 
this occaeion thi.' ccl'-brnted poet Amir Khasro wrote the 
poem ciiUed the " Kiran-us-Sailain," or the eonjuncUori 
of the twu pknetd. Kailcubid wwj aaaawinatcd through 

tho instigation of Fir6x Malik Khilji in 12fi8 A. D., who 
ucundod the throne* by tho title of Jalal-uddin Firoz 
6hAh Khilji, and became the Hrst Sultan of the 2nd 
branch of tho Turk dynairty eallcd Khilji. 

Kaiomura, K.K^J^> the lintt monaix^h of Persia a<*c:ording 
to sH Mnhammndan writers. ITiis king is stfitM to havu 
reclaimed hia subj. ct.t fnjm a Btate of tho nn*ftt savage 
barbarity. They »■•*■}' h'j was the grandson uf Noah, und 
tho foTintier of the iirnt d\-n:isty of Persian kings eAllinl 
l^shdidian. Ilia son Sirimak was killed in ono of the 
battltis with the barburinris or Devs ; and whnn that 
monarch carried Hoshang, the infant son of .Stinuik. to 
ehare in Ih"-' revcngo he meant to Uike u[>un his eneinifa, 
his army was joined by all tlie liuna, tip.-rs and panlhum 
in his dominions, and tho Bevs were routed fuid torn to 
pieces by the aiixiliuries, who had IvW their native fonwt 
to aid the jnst king. After thiii vietorj*, Kiiioiniirs n-- 
tired to his capital Balkh. Qo reigned SOycan^ and waa 
fluccooded by hia grandjiun Hoshaug. 

Th« foliowiit^ ia a fiat af Kh^j of the Jint or 
riiMuiiittH dyuaalf/. 

1. KaiomuTB. 

£. HoHh.'Lng. 

3. Ttihmura, suniamcd Deoband. 

4. JiiinHhi>d reignrd at I'ersipolts, 
6. i^uh^k, suninniL'd Alwimi. 

6. Faridiin, restored by Kawa. 

7- Blanuf-hchr. 

8. Ji^autliir or Xauzar. 

D. Afriiwiab, king of TurkistAn. 

10, Znb, bnither of Naudar. 

11. (^Tiiruhdep. 

Kaisar, J^^^t ^ V^^ of tho tribe of ShamKi, who ia com- 
monly ealied IJLaisar Shamlu. 

Saisar, j^t', poetical namo of IVinro Khttrshaid l>adr 
ibe tion uf llirza Asniaii Kadr, the Bon of Minta Khurram 
Bakbt, the won uf Prince- Jlirza JahaudAr 8hah, thu «ott 
of Shah 'Allam» king of Dehli. 

Kaiaari Kirmaili, i^H/^ <Sy^) a poet of Kirmania. 

Kaiuk Khan, c^ ^y^, vide Ka}*uk. 

Kakad, i^^^j tuU Ahm^id bin-Iilrfs. Uo is montlonod in 
Dome of our BiogniphiiJuJ UiclionaritM uoder the dbdm 
of Cakuft. 

Kakafl, i^'^j «'*<^* Ahmad bin-IdriiB, 

Kalandar, J**^* author of tho work called ** 8irAt-ul- 
MufUikim," wbii^h ho composed in 1405 A. D., 808 
A. U.. and d'dieutcd to Abu'l MujEaffar IluMun Shah 
bin.Mahmud •Sliah bin-Ibrahim bhih of Jauupur. 

Kalanifiif ^X~^^j sumamo of 'Abdullah bin - M uh a mm ad, 
an Arabian author, who died in 1121 A. D.. 515 A. H. 

Kalb Ali Ehao, \J^ ls^ ^-^t Knwib of lUmpur in 


KaJb Huaain Klian, Mirza, J^ ^^-^ v^ '3^j 

Deputy C'uUeetor of Etawah. the ^on .rVhtaram-oddaula 
Dabir-ul-Mulk K;ilb 'Ali Khiin Bahadur. Uo is iho 
author of fuur Diwana and a bjugrd.phy t»Bed " Shaukat 
Nidiri." il'i was living in 1864 A, D., 1281 A. H. 

Kalhanay ^^j ^ Br&hm&n and author of a history of Kash- 




mfr called " lUjfitATMigmi." There ate four chronicliM 
of the history of Kashmir written in Stmakrit rerse ; the 
first by K&lhani, hringiug the history of Kuahmk to 
ftbout 1148 niter Christ; tho second, a continiution of 
the former, hy JaGariji, to 1'112 A. D. ; the third, a conti- 
nuation of tho second by Srivara, a ptspil of Ja<Uriji, to 
1477 A. D. ; and tho fonrth, by Prajyabhafta, from that 
date to tho conquest of tho valley by the emperor Akbar. 
The author of tho work, tho FuntlJt Kalhanfa, of whom wo 
merely know that ho was tho son of Chkmpakti, tmd 
lived about lldO A. D., under the reigu of Siuha Uo^'q of 
Kashmir — reports that before entering on his task, ho had 
studied eleven historic^al works written proriooaly to his 
time, and also a history of Kaiihmir oy the sage Nfla, 
whidi scoms to be the oldest of all. Kalhtma bcg:ia8 his 
work, with the mytbolngical hicitory of the country, tho 
first king named by hirn is Gotuirda, who. according to 
his chronology, would have ruigncd in the year 2448 
B. C, and the last mentioned by cum ia Sinha Beva, about 
11£0 after ChrisL 

Kali Das, c^'<3 i^^^t a celobmted Hindd poet who lived 
towiinls tlic uummencement of the Christian era. Ho 
was one of the iiino splouilid (jji'ms that udomed tho court 
of E^a Bikunnajit (VikriimudityH). Bomfi say that he 
iluurishod in the time of Raja lihoj . Uo wrote tho ** Ka- 
loiliii" for tlte purpose of exhibiting his unlKiunded skill 
in ullitoration. In four books, conUiintng on the averngti 
lifly-four attijuas each, he hiis given tiueh illustratiuns 
of their flubjwTt as can n<!vcr be surpassed. This wurk 
has been published in Europe, with a Latin translation 
by a continental scholar, Kcnlinauduii Benury, No reiison 
con be imagined, why Kill DAs should again write the 
history of Nalu and Damayanti, after it had t>oon so 
elegantly written iu flowing verse by Vyasa Deva, t'xoejtt 
that he intendcHl in this simple story to shew forth his 
ingenuity in alliteration, lie is also the author of the 
pof-m culled " Eum&ia Sambhava,'* and of another called 
" Slaha Xa^k." 

Kali Sahiby V*'^ ^J^^, eumamo of Ghublm Naefr- 

udJin, the Bon of l^Iuulina Kutb-uddin. thi> Hon of I^taolana 
Fakhr-uddin. Although ho was the Miirshid or splritujd 
guide of tho king of llohli, ho preffrred the habit of a 
Derwish. Ue died in 1852 A. D., 1208 A. H. 

Kalim, ^r^t the poetical name of Ab<l Tdlib Kalim, which 

Kalim-uUah, ^^^^r^, a title of Moses the prophet. 

Kalim-ullah, ^1/^^ the lust king of the Bohmani 
d^'nasty of Kulbarga or AhmadAbid Bi'dar in tho Dakhin. 
He was expelled in 1527 A. D., by Amir Band his waiir, 
who mounted tho throne and took poasoaaion of that 

Kalim-tlUah, *^'(*4^, author of a work caUed "Kash- 
kiJ TufULuwaf/' an exposition of the mystical phrases of 
tho S6fiK. 

Kamalt U^, a poet of IsJahin. 

Kama), J^j poetical litl« of Mir KamAl 'AU of Gaya 
MAnpijr. He wrote Persian and Rckhta rersefl, and is the 
author of a Urge work called "Kaniil-ul-Hikmat," on 
philoiK'phy, and one rolled "Chahirdiih DanJd," ». *., 
thi^ fourtcHn blossingii containing an account of tb« 
Im&ms. He died in 1800 A. !>., 1215 A. H^ and tho chro- 
nogram i>f lb'* Uijri yoor of his death is contained in the 
word l>HPogh&. 

Kamal Ohayaa, Manlana, lsjI^ ^k^ J^ LiV, 

of &hintx, a poot and physician who fluuriahud ia the 
time of lbi«bim Sul^oo. 

Kamal Kazi, J^ i/^, vide Abfil-Foth BOgribnt 

Kamal Khan, Gikhar, jr^ c;^ J^> prince of tu 
Uikhora. wiu the son of Sulfan Sinmg, the son of Kallk 
Kal&n II, tho son of ^falik Kolan I, the son of Malik 
Khar, who was the founder of the principality of the 
Gikhars. Their cnuntrj' lies among the mountainB be«. 
tween Bhat and Kindh, whiih formerly belon^sl to th* 
guvemment of Kashmir. Malik Kalan II had »cf(<r»l 
bftttlofl with Sher Sboh, but wnj at last taken prisf^orT 
and put to death by that monarch, and his son or grantj* 
son Kamil Khan im priMJued iu tlie fortn*td of OwiJiir. 
Ho waR, howoviT, after some yeiirs relcasc-d. bySoliniShah 
the son of Sher Shdh, but during his confinemtnt. his 
uncle Salmon Adam had taken fiosaeseiou of tho country. 
In the first year of the reign of Akbar he was intrt>lucf4 
to Uint muiioTch and waa employed in his ac-rvico. Ho 
by d('gn.>i>ti rose to tho rank of 5000, and wui afterwards 
put in po«sossion of liis douiiniona by that emperor, and 
Suitdn Adam hi« uncbi taken prisouer and made ovrr t» 
Kamal Khan who put him in confinement when? h^ died. 
KamAl Khdn who became tributary to Akbar, dif^ in 
1662 A. D.. 970 A. H. 

Kamal Kliujaiidi» 


C^*^*^ JUX, ^i^ KamiU. 


Kamal-uddin 'Abdul Razzak, Shaikh, J^ ^ 

Jlj^ljjx ^^aJ\j is the nuthor of several works, 9maa^ 
which are tho following *' Tafeir Tiwflit," " Kitab I^ 
What SiifiV* "Shanih Fusus-ul-^ikam/' ''Sharh 3ta- 
nAzih-ul-.Sabirin." &c. He was a contemporary of )$haik{| 
Ruku-uddin *Ald-uddatila. [Ho died io 1482 A. D 1 ftiy 
A. H. nVfr Abdul lUzzak. 

Kamal-uddin Isma'il, cU**-»f i:ri»>J» JUf, ^/^ q( 

Jiimal-uddm Muhanunad 'Abdul KngjaV of Isikhan. i 
ceh.'brated iH>et of Persia, ntylod. Mulik-iUih-Sha*4ri dluiX 
is to nay, king of the poets, and ia th« author of a Utwic. 
In tho year 1237 A. D., 2nd .lumatla I, 63o A. H^ lUi 
tho 2Iat of DecemlKT. when 0\fUi Khan, Uu? son of Clun- 
ges Khiii, invnded Mahan. and moasacrod the inhale- 
lonts of that city, ho also foil a martyr. It is nud Uu^ 
ho was tortured to death by the Mughuls who exiMeled 
to find hidden property in his houso. 

Kamal-uddin Khujandi, Shaikh, e;;*iJiJ^ ^ 

iS'^^^t was a great Shaikh and lyric poH, and « ccOtm- 
perary of UIxBl, who, though tliey never nw tm-h 
oth< r. much cstwmeii him, Cdnsidcring him and ^ ]ii<i 
Sawiiji as omongat tho first po«ts of their tiraa. Ha li 
cwmiuonly called Kamal Kh^jondC bom at Khajaad. » 
town situated m one of the most beautiful and fcrtik 
districte of Fersia. After having made the pUgrima** 
to Mecca, ho settled at Tabrez, a pluii which ho toSl 
extremely ogreeable during the reign of tho princea of 
thw family of Jaliyer. Tho principal jtenonajnm of 
Tabrtjz became his pupils, and he lod a lift? ofut&arr 
ouse and enjo\Tnent: but when Tuktamish Kh^T*^ 
prived Tabrer^ Shaikh KamAl was mado prisoner, and vm 
oamod to Simd in Kapjak by order of Mangu Khia th* 
grandson of Change* Khin, where h^ rxmained Um 
years, uft^-r which he was pennitt^jd to n-tunj to Tahn^ 
near whi.:h city tho SultEm Awes JaUvor built hiV ^ 
houae. Kamal did not sing the ptumc of prino«« n 
l^aafdo. nur did be write Ma^awiaJuit only OfaaalsLaail 
fragments. He ditnl in tho year I3J>0 A. D^ 792 A, IL 
and waa haried at Tabros. A MS. of the Diwan of Ka^a 
which had boon the property of a Sultan, is poaMa^lVf 
the ImpiTial liibrarj- at Vienna, and is a gKtiX tnuM 
88 a spociumn of splendid writing, and, aXao, fof |L- 
superbly executed miniaturee which odom it» iQiiitrMw 




the pocmi. Theao pictnros are not more than a square 
inch in iiae : then; aro two on oach eido of the concluJ- 
irg veree ; and though so small, reprMont, with the 
greatest correctness, rithnr alh-pori tally ot inrnph*, the 
meaning of tho poet. — Ihtblin I'nivmitjf Magazine for 1840. 

Kamal-uddin Masa'ud, Maulana, t^'*-'' J^ ^'^J'^, 

^^3j^ -^J*-""^ vt Shirwau, a cflebrutt'd logician and 

author of the marginal not«ii on the **tihuruh Hikmat 

Kamal-uddin Muhammad bin-' Abdul Mtina'im 

Jujari, Shaikh, f***-'' *H* <:*'. '^*«*e^AJ| jU ^^ 

ijj^-^^ au uuthur who diwl in U84 A. D., 889 A. H. 

Kamal-uddin Muhammad-al-SiwaHi, e,'^^'^' JUi*, 

^-.«f»J| ij+ir* rommrmly <al]< rl Tlnm&m and Ibn- 
Humaiiu iiuth^jr of a lOinmontary un llit- Hiddyn entitled 
"Fath-ul-Kidir HI 'Ajiz-Jil-FiLku-." Jl i.n the most com - 
preh'^-nsivf i»f nil tin.- cinniTK-iitH t>n thf Hiduyii, and includea 
a coUettion of drci.sion.s wlu«_h nndtr it L-xtrenirly lu^i-fiiU 
Iff di'-d in UiiJ A. 1)., 801 A. Ji. t'ult liuuiiiiu and Ibu- 

Kamal-uddin Muhammad, Khwaja, •Wi^^.jjJt JUJ" 

^tj^j il.n-i;hriy»i-s-uddm Sliirizi. wna a physician and a 
poet, and H^.iiriHli. ■! in th" timi' of SiiltAn Ihrihim Miiv,u.. 
Fnr hi.s p*j. 'til-id till-' 1h' ^^»-■d ltm-(thiiya4. 

Kamal-uddin Musa- bin-Yunas bin-Malik> 

*"-^^ e,^ lT^-^ t^*^ i!r*!^ C.'^**^' ij^,n;nm' of an Inidm, 
who woa out* nf th'- niust ei.'lubrated Miuuliimn duutnrs. 

Kamal-uddin, Shah, n^ e^-**^' J^> *'*'^ Lutf-iilUh, 
Kamar-uddin, Mir, j^ u^l^^, whoso poetical Utle 
LO Minriiil, wliiih ^■.■u. 

IKamar-uddin Khan, wazir, ^jj ci'^ c^*''.^, 

whoHL' uriu'iiial luiiui- wjin ilij- MEibaiikiniid I'HiM, waa tbo 
9on of Yii'tmitd-uddiiul'i Muhiutiumd Amid Khan, wazir. 
and wtw hiiti»oll'iip|>uint<;d tu tli;tt (illii-'.; with thi; titlt- of 
Ya'tmad-iiddaulii N:t\val» K^i(ii'n--tid4]gn Khiin Uahadur 
Naarat Jang, l)y lij- omptrur .\Liiluiiumiijl fijhah. Jil"U:r thtj 
reaignati<in of Nixam-ul-AUd^ Ar^ni Jtih, in 17'J-l A. D., 
1137 A. n. Ho wjuM Hcnt umiKt ]*rinci? Ahiiicul on thw 
ftwt invasion of Ahumd Shah Aldih' to op|ju*o him, Imt 
was killed by a i-umi'^n ItHll, whilu at prny^-n* in his tent 
during th^ butlU; fd" Sarbind on Lho 11th Man.h, 1748 
0. S., lltb Uabf I, lliJl A. II. 

Kam Bakhsh, cr*"^!^ '^'^Dr** (prince) youngeat eon 
of tho L>mpcri*r AlatiiL'ir. a vain and violmt yountj man, 
who had rt.'e''ivt'd rn>m h'ts fnthiT tlip kiii^dum of the Ihik- 
hin, but as he i>-1'iiaci1 t»i uckntiwlwlgti Ihf sovereignty uf 
tho emptrur liihadur .Shiih, his eldest brother, and atrm k 
coin in his own niiiiiu, that uiuiiarch iiftft attempting in 
vain to win him ovi-r by concf'snions. man htd against 
him with a powerful army to tho l>akhin, find dcfeate^l 
him in a butllo ncfir liaidorabad, where Kain liakhwh 
ditfd of hifl wounds im the saniL* day in the mnnth of 
February or Mrtrr-h. 1708 A. D.. Kil-hijjii. ] 11"> A. H. 
His motht'r'!* nami' was I'diiipuri Mtihril, iind hf wiia bom 
on the 26tb Ftbruarj', 16G7 A. D., lOth Ituniagan 1077 

]5:ambari, iSJJi^ LS^t ox Kanbari, a poot of Nai- 
sbipiir, flourished in tlia time of Sultan Babar who died 
Ud7 A. Dm 801 A. JI. 

^ami. iJ^^i whom proper nnrae ifl lliriii AJi-uddaula 
Kaxwuii, waa tho Hon of Jhr Yiili>-a bin-'Abdid Liitif, and 
i*8 the author of tho work called "Nafiia-ul-Maflir/' a 

fiiognphical Dictionary of Persian poet«. It contains 
notices of about 350 poetn iu liljihabelical onlcr. Most 
of them fiouriflbcd in India during th»f jvijru of Aktwir 
to whom thu book U dedicated. It was finiahid in 1671 
A. IK, D70 A. ir* but theru ot-rnr mnrh IftlT dates in it. 
lie b supposed by aome to hiive died in l.Jd.l A. I)., 971 
A. II., find by oth-rs in 1.^73 A. P.. 981 A. H.. bat the 
Inlter date appears tu U* lorrttt. The di*cT< pnncy ariaea 
from the chronogram of hia death, in whuh tho numbvr 
of tho ]jwt won! in considered by aomo to be fiO and by 
others 70, a difference of ten yean. Kide Vabyn bin-'Abdul 

Kamil, t-^^tf, author of a poetical work, untitlod « Chinigh- 
naini." It consists of Ohnzals all of which rhyme in 
t'hiragh (lump) and the first letter of every vcreo of tha 
fij-al Uha^al is \ or A, of the second wj or li» and so on. 

Kamran MirEai 'jj^ c'Lr*S, second son of tho emperor 
HiU'.iT Shiih, und brolbtT to the *Tnj>fn»r Ilurattyim who» 
att»T hif* «(■<■. -i-iion to th-r thn^ne in 15^0 A. l>.. ii.17 A. Ii., 
confem-d uu him tin; (^uverMmiMit of Kabul. KaudjJiAr» 
fihiizni imd the I'un jiib. \\v v.ii» dephved of hij* fciffht by 
Ilumayun when nt Kabul in lhi> year 1553 A. U., 960 
A. H., on account of his repealed oflonces, and continu- 
ally Diising disturhfinreM in tho govi-mment. The opera- 
tion wiw pc'rtunned by pifrcing his eyej* npcatcdly with 
II Linnet. Kamran bore the lurlur*' without a gruau until 
li-mun-juicp and H.-ilt were *(|iitH'zed into his eyos, whi-n 
h** eiilbd out *' O Lord my Ood! wh.itvnr Bins I have 
i>iinmitltHl I hflvo bi-m itmi'ly punwhe<l in thi« w*irtd, 
hi;vei roiiipjiMion on ine in tho next," Kamran pventu dly 
obl.'iinir'd |>enniiiBion to proft'od to Mecca, where he resided. 
thri?o years (uid diwL a nutund dL';*tli in I'loH A. 1)., ltt>4 
A. H. iff b*ft thrt.- daUL^hlern jind oiu; ^im uaniiil Abi'i'l 
Kiu'im Mirsii, who wju-j imprisoiieil in the f'lrt of Owiliir* 
and put t<» lii.ith by ord'*r of the euija-rur Akt^ir hii 
coutiin in thi- year Iq6o A. D., 07cl A, H. 

Kamran Shah, cjI/** * > tho present ruler of Uirit, 
1:4 thr Hon of Mribmud Shah, th*' non of Tim ur Shah, tho 
BT.n cjf Ahniitd Shilh Abdali. On the death of his liither 
Malimud Shalt, in (182U A. D.) ho suceeedt.^ him on the 
throne of liirdt. 

Kandahari Begam, ^*^^ ^sj^^-^^i the first wife of 

tlitj triipenir Sh;ih .f:ihiiu. She was the daught^-r of 
Muzaffar Iluhain Alirza S;ifwi, of the royal house of 
PjTjtia, who was the son of Sulv'ui IJusain Mini, tho non 
of I'.iliniin Mirza. the huh ut Shih Inum'il I of Persia. 
^Vh^■ll Akbar Hhah, in the third ye/ir of hii* reign, made 
over Kiindidiiir to Shah 'Abbdfi, king of Penia, the latter 
eouf'-rn^l th" govtrnuu'tit of that province on hit n' ph'W 
Sultan lIiLs;un Slirzi, iifter whose death hhf son MuzalViir 
Hu8:Lin Hucceeded him. Hi.s three brothen came to Indi.i 
in th.' anth year of Akbur (16il2 A. I).), and Muzaflir 
Uu.siiin fullijwcd them afterwards, was received by lho 
onip<Tor with the gn-:itctt kindneiM, nud honoured with 
the ruuk of <'>i.U)U, and tho jiigir of Sambhal. Hi.-< sislt-r 
Kundahiiri Begarn, wh.h mjirried in September. Hi 10 
A. I).. Kajib. 1019 A. 11. to Prince Khumun i^utbrw irdu 
Shtlh Jahan) the son of the ♦-niporor Jahangir, and ro- 
ceivtxl tlie titlt.' of KiLndahari Bi.'gam, bwcauw' shi.' wna 
born lit Kjuidjihar. Tho year of her death w unknown. 
8hM ii.'S liuri'-d at .<gnih, in tho eentre of a gard'U calbni 
Kimduliari Bogh. Tht^ building un her tomb, which ij 
in thf vault, IS converted into a dwtdhng place ; it in a 
beautiful t-ditiec, and now belongs to the Kaja of Bhortpur. 

KaUB, Wrfe Kaikiufi. 

Kaplan Beg, ^^ ^tf °^ ^<* ?i«hoht fiunily, w&» 

born in Tndiji and hervcd under Khan-Khauan in the 
iltddiiu with gtvat distinction, and waa in high ^vuur 




with Juh(inK(r. He U thr auth'ff of ft T>i«in BE<3 » 
M.i^nuwi. til. UtU-r U c.ill.*l " hliix l>«t," which c«lo- 
hpiUH th( luvi ol Uiutiim (Lud KutUbb. 

KapurthaJa Bajah. r.^ Nih*l Binsh. 

5ani Arsalan, cj^J Lr», (w^^h «gmft« m TinfciA, 
H black lion.) wM «unmm*d 'Imid-widM, Uf^*^ ^ 
JHud, th.> -.on of Sukminbin-Aitak. ,2J4r-«ddto JUn- 
mud w(w his Mon. to whom ci)ah'VMin (SafcMtm) g»ir« 
tlio city of 'Amirlor K«m 'Amiil m ll«yci*«iu» U8» 
A. I>M 5V'7 A. U. Hi* n»iiie » to be fc«>d m Miiw of 
oiir BiogruphicAl DiL-tiQaaxirt voder Cw* AnUn. 

Karachar Nawian, Ji^ ^J> ««»* o' ^ *»«^ 

aud ^on-in-U'C orf Ckugcs KhAft- 
?ftra Ghu«, ->*!^* • Bq^U$ d X»lolU whom our 

Hwir bv hbih I^qU in the nag^ of htxnud U, emperor 
of Uit; Turk», 
9ftr» Khan, c^ f^, r»* Sodi-ttddfe bin-Tft^Wib. 

?arak Sh^h, >^ -^>» "* ^Uh l^i»r«k. 

Karam, r-^^' «^«^"' *^' ^'^ ""''^ "•^*^*-^^ 

of All and hi8 wn Hti«un in irowo, coii»po«d in h23 

A. !».. nsd A. n. 
Kara Muhammaa Turkman. c;^0^ **** V- 'The 

Turlnnai.f. of Aniii M.nur w,-.v dlvid.d into two gmil 

oV'M'huk und %vhlt.- -b.'oi.." from Ui.-ir c«rrjruip Uk' 
tlUr- of th...^ uniinuU in n>n-;'vn .Undiadj^ 

hi. mnall t.rtitori.-. of wbub Ihr >*-u- \ .n, in 

r " P"W^V. *»"- '■'"■d to lly briuiv Qiu 

"' ' , Whi-n i..rdit*d, ho nlurn- 

"T'l I MM.l wuf "I »n action with 

'J','r;"\| .r rik«ni, iiw lukr of Bagbdiid, 

^7* . ' ,;. , ,,n. r ufMl put lo .IrntU ill lilO A. I).. 

IIU A. II AIU< »' 

llHMtOO ni'-n. «'"' * ' 

lukli lb' 



III" cullwtrd un Brmy of 
lii uttAok .Sultan Shah* 

wlii'U be Wttfl saddenly 

, IIU A. 1)., 8U A. H. 
Sikundrtf TurkmAu, who 
1121 A, v., »2i A. H. 

I t„.tlliai with ShAhmkh, 
1 U37 A. V^ bii 
Idii "wn poswBBions, 

(I,.. bruth-T of Sikandar. 
of ;iO limiir yt-ai-N, i»dl in 
with Ukkwii Urtwtn, cbit:f 

-bwp, in Nov4jmbcr, HC7 

11 n* i( A . i 1 

^// p r^l'-f w«.«"f Mir MtUmminiuI Kdrim Iho 
**" " i.Mi, ihn (liniMif Kutbahihof 

>lt<ir of H IMwAn. 

-.,.„. n • JA ,»•/. '*•" ""'"'""* "' "'■ '^''- *■'•'"• 

, „^^u^m» <.i •••Ml '^ W.M.M-'J'll" Kl>«n (nuwib). 

'- . ' , ' tihf, wb"«tin-»'nd«-T('d 

H^' II... IMh I'*, binary, 

■ . Ulf'ik't "f l>»ihiit- 
I, ii,i« Utd t>> bis 

Karim E!han ZandU "^j c;^ (^^- The hiaiorj •$ 

Persia, from the dctith of Nadir ShAh till the oloratiut ol 
'A%i Muhonuufld, thouj^h it o^'cupice noarly h&lf a ecm- 
tuiy, prc«ent4 no uni' strildnf:; foature, exc4.'i>t thelifis^f 
K&rim Khan, u chief of tho Iribo uf Znnd. He coUtJctel 
an army chiefly crimpottud of tho iiiff<-"n^iit tribca of Zaad 
and Mafi, dt^feated thi- Afgh^a in ik^veral cngagvmnit*, 
ftnally drova them out of thi? country, and secured to 
hnn«»U the kingdom of Vkn, or thi? southum diTuioo of 
Petna, whib' Khunv^ln pvti-tially remnined in poweaHOO 
of tho il:^andan1> uf Xtldir !f hfth : iind tho cottiUris 
boMerin^ on the LVisffiiin Siii wcrtj retained by Muham> 
mad Hasan Khan Kdchur, nder of ^Idzindar^ the f^raU 
|pnad&th*/r uf 'Akd MulLHimnnd Sh^h Kdchiir. ICvtini 
Khan, after «iubduin(( his enomi*;^, enjoyc-d indcp«i. 
power for twenty-sir years; and daring tho last l\\ . .. 
mr.. from 1759 to 1770, hi- hadljoirn, irithont aeom^Ktit-.T, 
the ncknowlt'dged ruler of Persia. Ilij* t^pitol wa* >hj' 
r&c. He died at an advaneed period of lifo on 1hi- 'laA 
Murth, 1779 A. D.. I3th Safir, 1193 A. U.. UMiiif n.^ri? 
80 years of a^. Attor his dituth Zaki Khan dAAurite*! lb** 
reins of government, and was nsaaseuii.'itid two monthi 
ftHer. SAdi^ Khin, brother of Kiirini Kban l*x>k pvn»- 
(Kwdon of Shiraz afler tbu d<*nth of Zaki Klian, ;ind v«i 
putlodeatli ou the 141h of March, 1781 A. D., I»rth 
liabi' I, 1195 A. n., by 'All Miirid Khan, who n-« .•• 
came the BOVtTtiigii of Persia, and dieti on tho ilth J 
ary. 1735 A. 1).. 28th Sa&r, 1 199 A. H. After hia d-juA 
Lutf 'All Khan relgnfHl for fiome years at Shiria. IW 
was defeut' d in 17i)4 and akin aftcrwarda by *A^ 11^ 
hommiid Khdn ijlichir, who took pouoiBioa of PezsU. 

Karmat, ^j*t or KonnDtft, a famouA impootor, 

Abu Zar. who in the year 891 A. D. became the 

a sect caUwl Karma^j or Karamatians, which o\ 

all the prineiplct) of Muhammiidanifim. H» 

KhOzi^t^n to the villap>s uoar Kuiji» and thore 

giviit sanctity and strirtneM of life, and that 

rnj<)innl him to pray fifty times a day : -^ * ■ nj 

to invite people to the obedience of :» ■ 

the family of Muhammad; and Uiin wi ,, :.. hi 

tinued till he had made a verj* grvnt party, oat of 

hr' chose twelve apostles to govorn the roat, and to ut9^ 

pagnte bin doctrines. Aflorwarda hui coojdj^ CuUfl^ 

him, he retired to Syria, and waa never heard of anv murr. 

This seet Ixgan in the Khilafat of Al-Mo'Umid : thwy 

mnltipUeil greatly in Awbian Irak or Chald^vi, and 

maintJiined porpetaol wars tigainvt the Khalif. In Cba 

year 931 A. B., they bcset^^n^ and t<H>k llie city of M«x«. 

liUed the well Zam?»m with dead 1>odirtt, defiled ami 

plundered tho t^mplo and earned away the bbek aUm^ ; 

but they brought it again in 950 A. D., atid fu^tmai is 

to the sevrnth piUar of the portico, giving out, that Ihty 

had iHith taken it away, and bmught it back ft^uv ^ 

express ordt'r from heaven. This sect wua di«D|«teil l^ 

degre'^, and at la^it beuuno quite extinrt. FtJt Ab6-<Zwr 


Karmati, iJ^^r ^^ KoramaHan, a futlower <^ ^ahdUi 

which ac-e, 

Karahaspf V*^/^) or Oarahisp, the ton of Z4, and tha 
lant king of the fint or Pishdiilian dyiwrty «if Pwaik 
ride Zii. 

Karti *^-^> ^*°K" ^^ ^^ dynoaty ot— riufc BhAfn»-uddm 
Kurt 1. 

Kashi, Mulla, ts^^ ^i mrtittmo of Koinil-miam Ab61 
(i)uinam 'AMul Raxeal^ bin-Jam&l-uddin. n odebnlvA 
doctor, placed amongst Iho MusaUndn sohits. 

of sevenil works. 
A. D., 720 A. H. 

Ho died young about tho ynu^ 




Kashi Rao Holkar, y^jbtj^^t lli*? f"!*!*** of the 
foar RODfl of 'Viikdji Holkar, afUr whf>so d- ath in 1797 
A. I>. di.'iputui' arose bctw-.-un Kd^hi I>ao nud hU Lruthijr 
Mulhir Kao, iimi both rviminnl to tin- cuurt <*f Ihw Pvuh- 
wi ut Puiui ; wUltc, un th.-ir urrival, ]):iul;it Kio Sindhia, 
with a view of usurpiniLr tho poBst'-vsions of the fumily, 
oupoUBt.'d the cons.', of Kuahi Uao. imd inii*le li «udd<.'n arid 
um?xjH.-<t<;d nttiak ill Ihi; month of Si-ptt mh^ir on Mulhir 
Rio, whom ht- »Ii w with most of hi)* udhcnnls. Afhr 
this Siudhia i>rt'ti-ndi d to pivtrn th«- pot^M-Ns-ioiiB nf \hv 
Holkar fainily in the nanie ol Ivn.-hi Uiio, whom ho kept 
in a .statu of depfiidt.'u«--c! and fipi>n'i'ri:itL'd the reviiiiu* to 
hifl own use. A haiy lotitj-nt iii>*m d hotwem Dmilut Kio 
and Jahwunt Itio Holkar. tliu brothur of Kishi Hao, and 
continutd till the yt-iir 18U2, whim Jntswant lUo ai»iM«,in( 
to havo tttkcn pusMSHion of Indor tlu' ttrritory of his 

Kashfl, ts^^^j tho puoticul numo of Shah Jfuhammad SaU- 

luat-ulluh. Uo in the author of a Biwan in pL-rsian 
which wa» print«xi and nublishtd before hib death iu 1279 
A. H. 

Kashfi, i^^^t takhuUiis of Mir aiuhunimad SAlah, who 
flourisb'd in lb-: niirn of (lie efiip«.'nii- .Inhiu^ir. and is tho 
author of a Tiirjiblmnd calbd " Jliijmiia' Riz,'* which 
ht' cump<.f.wl in lii'li A. V., 103U A. H., (ontiininjji; 
270 vtTfii s. H4' ilii (1 in Ih*^ year IGoO A. H , lOOU A. H., 
at Agnih and liea buried there. 

Kashifly 0^^5, tht' prw^Liefll nflmo of Maulini Huaain bin- 
Ah', ttliio knoVfTi by that of "Wfiiz or the prrtirhrr. Ho 
wrot« u full Loinun.ntar}' nn the Knriin in lh(* I'tTKian 
Ia[i)cii:>K<^- 11*^' ^'•^'* "^ preai her at the royal town of Hirit 
in Khuniflaii. Ut- died in 150o A. D., iilO A. H. Vttte 
Hastiin Wdcz. 

KAShmir* kin^!) of.— nV/e Shah Mir. 

Jfiuiim j cJj'-'l ^f^l|«-«^, of A'gruh, author rf thr " Ztifnr- 

nima Akbiiri,'* lu- book of the vietun.' of Aklwir Klian, 
tho eon (if Dort Sluhainmail Khan, whith h^ lomplctod 
ID lBi4 A. l).^ i'ZC\) A. U. It is a i>oi ni and eont^und an 
ftccount of the lat*- wars in Kabul by thu iJriUsh. 

Sasinii /•** j thf pwtieal njuiio of Hakim Mir Kudn\l. 
ullah who ii the author of ii Ta/kirii or Biojjrajdiy of 


^asim All Khan, Mir, e;"*^ c**^,^, Lumnioaly 

calbd .Mir Kat-im, w:ih the son-in-law of Mir .fa'fur 'All 
. Khan tho Nawab of Ul n^al. llie Kn^liith, tb f'.ivf'd by 
his elegance 4if niannerN, and eunviiited uf hi.t ^kill in !ho 
fixumceti of IVntial, ni bed him to the iniit«nad in the room 
of his fathi-r-iu-law iu 17*50 A. H., 1174 A. II. He, in 
tho latl*r years of his govi-mment, retind to Munger, 
and actuated by a kern resentment ajjuinst lb-.' English, 
for their ext^^-nbive enL'roachnientu on hh* uathurity, uud 
the commcrco of his country, fonacd thL- pbat of throwing 
ofT th'.'ir >oke, and rinnihibain^; th' ir iiilliieneH in Kengal ; 
but wa;< depOHfd ;ind deb ulitl, in a batth- tfHi^lU vn tho 
Ddwa Niilu on thi- 2ud Au|,juHt, 17*5-1 A. IK. 22mi Muljurmin, 
1177 A. 11., and the dcpot-ed Niiwab Ja'bu- 'All Kbau 
was afjiiin plated on the inri^nad. KiiMiin 'Ali, irn eu»ed 
to madni-ss at these reversed, lied ti> I'atna frum Munger, 
Kud there cruelly ordered thu uiassjkire of the Knglinh in 
his power: Lhero were- 6(J gentlcmtu, Meesre. Ellis, liay, 
LiLihui^ton, and otherw, and lOO of lower rank. On tho 
filli Uett'ber, Ibry wrie br<.>uj;bl. nut in parties, and bar- 
harously eut t^ pit'cts, ur &hot under Ihu direction of a 
OemiRU. named Samni or Sombre. Miujger fell to tho 
EiigU>h early in (Jcluber. Vatna wart utonued on th(* 
6th Kovember, and the Ex-Knwab Kesim 'All fled to tho 
wazu of Audh, with Lis truuaurvti, uud thu cvuiuaiit of 

his army. On the 2ard of October. 17C4 A. P., Major 
Camac fought tho celebrated battle of Buxar, eoinrlrlely 
routing thr> wazir Shuja-uddauJa'a army. The following 
dny the Mughal emperor Shih 'Alam thnw hirasudf on 
the pmtectiuu of the British, Rnd joined their eamp with 
tlif inipirirtl fttjindard of Hindustan. 'ITie Jlriti.'*h army 
advanffd to oveiTUU Audh. The waKir rofiiswl to deliver 
up Kufiim 'All, though lie had Hoized and plimdered him. 
Ivib'im 'All nuide his .-^ciipe at fimt into the Uohela cnin- 
Irj-, with a few friendp and butiw jewila, which he had 
Bftvtd from the fangu of hi« btte ally, tho waiir, and found a 
comforLablu asylum in that rountry ; but his intrigiui* 
renderi-fl him disagn-eublc to the chief under whoae pro- 
tcrjtjun he Wfiided, he was obligtHl to leave it, and took 
ahelter with the iJiina of Gohiid. After some years' resi- 
dence in his country, he proeeedixl to .16dhpiir, and from 
thi-nce (-am<> Ut try bis fortune in tliu wrvi> o of the em- 
peror Shiili 'Alam about tho year 1774 A. J}„ 1 IHfl A. II., 
but was* diwippfdnted, and di^jd hhortly after in 1777 
A. lb. lU'l A. H., at Kutwal an obscure vilbigo near 
Il'ldi, unpitied even by his own family. \Vith tyaiiini 
'All endod, virtuail}', the powent of tho tiubadirs of 

^aeim Ali Khan, Kawab, ij^^ ^^ v'y* "ndo t« 

the n:nvab uf Iiiini[)ur. He wan living in Bareli in ISC'J, 
and hiN ilaughttT was murdered on the 22ad Deocmhcr 
of that yfar. 

^aeim Anwar, Sayyad, Jj^ ^••'^ *>i*j sumamed 

ila'm-uddiu Ali, ii i^Teat my(*lieal (.nxt, called from his 
knowledi,'e and wrilingfs the •• diver into the s. .i oflruth," 
tho "falionof the tianw-endant plains," the "profi>imd 
knowcr of tho world of spitits," the "key of the trwi5ur>- 
of secrecy," A:c. Ho was bom at Tubrez ; and was a 
memlMT of a i onsideniblo family of tho tribt' of Sayyud, 
dewrended from the same («toek us tlie Prophet, lii his 
youth hi- di'dieated himself, under the guidan<N) of JShuikh 
Sadr-uddin 5IiWi Ardibeli, tti tho contemplative life and 
deep Htudy of tho SiUis. He then journeyed to liililn, 
wbire h' soon acquired great fame; and subsequently 
Went into Kliuj-asaii. During hi.«* residenco ut Hinit, ho 
obtained huch <vlebrity, and was turroiuided l>y so many 
prinieH and leamfd m'u. his fullowers, that Mtiza Shah- 
nikh (tlie uon of Amir Tiniur), movf^ by jealousy of 
the S.iyyjtd, and utteiilivu t*) tho danger of the incrcaao 
of the .Snii ep'cd, tonnuaiidid him to nHiro from tho 
raiiibd. In »«i-(bT to mitig:it' the harshness of this com. 
mand, Uaisanghar, the s<in of Shihrukli. a leumeti and 
noble prinre, tiKik uiMin himself to make it known to tho 
Sayyail, which he did in the most humane manner, in- 
quiring of him. in th*- course of conversation, why hi? did 
not follow the rouiuicl i onlaincd in his own verstt. Tho 
Hayyad inquin d in which voiw, and Biisanghur immtw 
diiitely quilted tln> ftdlowing : — 

*' Knsim cease at onco thy lay ; 
Kise and take thy onward way ; 
Other binds have waited long, 
AS'orthy thy imm^rtiil song : 
Give tlie bini of [toradisu 
What the vulture cannot prise ; 
H'Jiiey let thy friendi* receive. 
Ti) thy fiMH the carrion leave." 

Tho Sayyad thanked hiui, ami iuuni>dii)tely set out for 
Halkh and Sumarkaud, where he remained for a timu. 
He afterwards, however, returned to Hinit. wbero as 
boforo, ho was constantly followed by great snd powerful 
men. His death occum^ in the viUuge of KJmrjard in 
Jam near HiriiU where a ganbn luid In-en bought for 
liim by his diH_ijiIea, Ju which hepreatly delighted. This 
event look plato in the year 1431 A. L)., 8ao A. H.. and 
his tomb was erected in the vcrj' garden which he so 
much enjoyed. Aniir AlishiT nfU'rwanls piously endowed 
it. A book of Odett is tho only work he has left behind, 
iu whith hu uses *' Ijkasim" fur his pu4ilical luuxia. 




j^asim ArsBlan, t5*t^ J^j^ ^^, of MaAhid, a 

l>iR<t who WI18 a (loticijail<uit of AnaUQ JiUib, a gvueral of 
Siil(6ii MiJun&d of Ghusni. Uo flouiiohfsd m the timo of 
tlio empOTor Akbar. and waa in great &Toar with that 
monarch. Ho died in idS7 A. D., 993 A. U^ and haa 
left a Diwin. 

^asim Barid Shah I, 8^ ^.y. i**^, was tK- fonnder 

(jf the Barid Shahl djnacty i* tlw Diakhin. He waa a 
Tarkiah or Oeergma akv^ beeama by A^i t— the waz<r 
of ftUhmftd Shih II, \mg ot the Dakhin. and aaramed 
anch powr a« to take npoa hwwlf the entiro govecn- 
ment of the kingdeoL He treated the king aa a mure 
pageant, and about the rear U02 A, D.. 898 A. H., by 
the adTioe of *Adi) Shah, Niiam Shih and 'Imid Sh&h. 
bocamo mtarfy i a de p emknt, and learing to the king 
oiUr the Ufwn. aai fwi a# ^biiM«Uhid Bidar, resd th» 
public iwa^waa amd eiiiiei moutj in his own name. 
After haviw nM boa aiMi fcr a period of iwt:Ive yt^atSt 
dvaing tbe liMiMa «f Ua •(rreRign, he died Ln tb'? yuar 
liM A. Ok 9lt A. H^ aoid bis «on Amir Barid sitcruodod 
bua in oAoe, aaut aMiiiiiiiig atill greater jwirtrr, duprirud 
MabnuM :ShAt of vkai Sttk power had l>«ea lea him by 
bia fluber. Sevan penona of this fiimily hiivc reined 
BiM» llMfr aatablidhMflrt m the capital of Ahnmdabad 
tkiv ■•■■ B* M follow : 


Basttt^ Began U9-2 

Amir Band. „ 1^04 

AU lUril , first who assumed royaltv, .... », 1542 

IbiihiM Barid Shih. 1&G2 

IM«nBu«i8MihII, ,, IdOH 

AUIbtUSbdhU. „ im 

Amir Band ^bih U ,. lt»09 

^ruiin Barid Shah II, ^ *H^ ^^i sriccoedad his 

tf\>th.T lUrihim lUrid Shih to thn govonunu'iit of Ah- 
nuvUMJ Wulii in ld6l> A. D., 977 A. H.. and died after 
a n-mti of Thnx' yi'ars in 1672 A. D. Uo waa succeeded by 
bis Pon MirtA 'Ali Biuid 11, who waa deposed nftrr a 
l«tgB of SJ y»-«rs hy hia mlutive Ainir Barid II whu 
ii«<«odad the thivuu m 1609 A. D^ and woa the hut of thlA 

^^nalm Bog Halatl. i/'^ ^ r-^"' ''^^ HiUtt 

jfj^Mim DiwaBa, ***Jf^ (^^i a !>«** ^**o '^«« probably 
al^tt m ii« A. U., IU« A. U., and UUio authorof a 

Jj:ami« <>:adlrl. Shaikh. «^j*^' r*^" f*^; ahw «aicd 

HUM\ b*«im t*tiluu.«ni, i» MiiHitlmAu wiint wh<*flo totnh is 
al CliMiiAi. II'- "'M Nlinikh ^irtUr rominonly vii]k'd 
IMU V(l U lnM*«%l Hi Ki.imty whonOii. ili.-din Uiuywr 
i(U4 A l> tWA* A. M Hi-' hhruw uf Shih l^iaim 

H»»|»hM4Mi..M'V V ■ .' ' "l-l< Muhaimnadan 

.milHMMMMl ^^^ .<.rtiHl from the 

Uuxm .viH 1 ' ^ map*.n«iun. 

failm WMht. Mawlan.. y*K r*" ^^ V, *8w»<l. 

wl»,w w»'|'^Mi-MHM wiwNivlm-ii.Min and muimmo Alm'I 

. M ,^.. . I". .11 of '\U[n\ \\t\\\nUn Jiini ; h" 

i.m, llu" Itp'lh'T .if tliiTuiiHTor 

, 1„ M ^1 rt«iii Hirit, and 

Ilk I.UJ A P.. Ufl4 A. H., 

,, i.f Ihu itiMpcrMr Akbar. 

i .'.tut Khitn Uiu 

Mil lift. I hi« ih»- 

I till' r< iiiiiindtr 

( A|«ill, V>f*0 

, ., ^ *t .„. - ;. !iM*r3';«i» "'' 

At a !»»*»•* i^lH-^i M*JA» llarwiaa. 

ManUni l^asim AruUn another poet and Shaikh Fan 
wrote the chronogimna of hia doalh. 'AV»dul Kidir 
BadionicaUa him an atheiat and a diaguntiiig c>i)ic-. 

Sasim Khan, C^'** f^^, Siibadar of Kibal in the rei<a 
of tho (^rapyror Akbar Shih. He waa innnierpd by <»• 
Muhammad Zamin, who gave out that he waa thr wa 
of Shahnikh ]^Ur»i. Ho had held poflseaMon of Badai- 
Hhan for (tome ytura, but aflor his dpf(?at by 'AbditllAh 
Khan Uzbak, he come to Kibul and waa confined by 
Kasim Khin whom ho murdoroil atwjut the yoor 1800 
A. D.. tind was consequently put to df^ath by Muhommki 
K^jihim the son of Ka.-dm Khun. 

^asim Khan Jawlni, Nawab, i^iy^ c^ ^'^ 

vl^* waa H iioblt'TUJin of the cuurt of the «mp*Ton 
Juhangir. and Shah Jiihan, und held the rank of j.UOC. 
He vroB a native ot' Sabzwir and wiis married to Mxnijt 
Begiiui, thd diiiti-r uf Nur JaUin, cunitt^iwutly he fem 
sometimt^s in je^it called by the (iffii'crj* of ih^ court 
" lyasiui KUin Jltinijn." He is the author"*" • r>t*in. 
and his poetical name is Kuim. He ifti(-< 'li 

Kiian in the guvommtrnt of Itf-ngal in tli. f 

Shah Jaban ltJ28 A. D.. 1037 A. H. Ho tUtrv, 
10,000 rorlugupse (men and womon) and drovw i^ 
from Hugli, of which plooe ho took poaw->i 
throe daysaft^, IG31 A. U.. 1041 A. H. II 
Tory grand hou«te at Agmh on 20 bighaa ui uui-i ut i "i 
10 bigbaa of land thu garden waa hailt, of which oa 
traooa now rc-imuu. 


^aaim Khan. Shaikh, ^^Jy^^ 



of Fftthapiir Stkri, entitl(.»d MuhtoAliim Khin. br- ■ 
Islam Khaa. He wan a ntihlu of thr nuik >>( > 
tlie reigu of th« i!mp»?»vr Jfthingir wKu «]> 
governor of Benjral aiW the d.:-ftlh of hi>* bm 
A. p., 1022 A. U. He invaddd Asim, and hirt tro- 
moeMy kilb?d in a night-attack by the Asimi*. on 
arcount ho waa rocalU'd to court and dies! some time jiil'Z 

Kasim Shah, 


i/^*t^ r*^, vide Ikiaim ^iaici 

J^asim Shiraai, uTjLrt** i*-*^, a native of Shicia, aad 

author of tho " Timur-nima," a Tery beaatifol poenaa 
thi; couquwt of Amir Tiuiur. 

^asim SiUaimani, 
Kasim Tibbi, sj^ /^^, author of an InahA 
ja^imi, u*^^i his proper name ia Mnntitn,; ifiyd-addi;, 
a |H>et of Khwif in KhnriAou. Hq ia the anthor of tW 
wnrk *' Riumil-ul-Khald" which he wrote in iniitatMa of 
thu Oulitjtan of Sa'di. 

Kasimi, i/^ i^*^^t (Dervish) of Tdn in IVnia, «ba 
went about like a derwiah and wrote poetry, lie Urvd 
in tho !Hh cenlur>' of the Uijnk 

Kaair, \j^j^» or Katbir Aaai, one of the ce Mnato d 

Arnbinn poetd of the courl of the Khalif 'Abdul XaHk. 
Virif Jamil. 

Kassab, ^^^t the pootical name of an anthor 
^astalani, t/^^^J the aurname of Ahmad bin-AUal. 


tib. Ho ia 50 caBrnl b<.x-aii9c he vraa bom at Kaatala. He 
IB the author of Bcveral works among which ia the hmtmrv 
called " Mawihib Ladinu," or '* Ma wihib-nd.> Tt mnmi ^ 
an iiconrate hiittor>' of the &rat forty yeani of Uubaa^aA 
being the period proriooa to hid assuming the pn^ibatit 
chanctor. Hu died in the year 1417 A. D.. »23 x fl. 
Boatdoa him tJioro were other authors of thit ruhmml 
vie , Ahmad bin>Muhammad al-Ka^tulini, who di«i{ 2>27 
A. D., 933 A. U., Ahmad bin. rtiiihfm bin- Yahra^. 
Yatdi-al*|^aatulinf, and Mnlla Maalah-nddin btMafi 




^Eastalinf who diwd 1495 A. P.. BOl A. H. Thoy wore 
&U bom at Ku^taU, & c-ity in Feruia. 

Kathir, ^^t ride Kasix. 

Katib Chilpir ut* V*^^» of Constantinople, author of 
w'Vfriil works, aniontr whinh i« ont^ ciill"*!! '*KM«hf-a,z- 
Zanun," nnd ani>th<*r " Tnhfiit-iiUKalmr," this Iflttor 
work was Iranslatcd (>y Jamca Mitfhc'll* Ksq. It conUins 
a dt'tttih'd :n'c mint of iht/ murilinio wars tif ihf> Tark« in 
the Mi-ciitfrTfinnan and Itlark Scii.i, imd nn Ihi- DnniiV;. 
Hr' di'^d in th*' yt'iir of the Christiim m H>o7 A. I).. 
1067 A. H. Kalih (.'hilpi nppL-itrtf Ui be u Turkiidi titlu of 
Haji Khalfji, whii h svc, 

Katibi, iSy^^y c/^^i poeticul nnmt' of Maiiljina BhaniH- 
udilin Mulianiriind Iiin.'AbilulInh-al.Xjiishapuri and Tjit- 
tihizL III' wTcitf a V( ry li> nutirul hand, vn whj'h account 
ho aasuuK'd tli" titlr* of '* KiUilii." lie fiuni^ t-i Iliriitiii tlio 
reij^n of Iliiiiunghur Slirzii, and aftcmranls Ijci anie *jIip of 
tho best pOL-U of tho court of the princt* Sul^n Mirza 
Ibribim uf Sliirwin, in whoite praise he odci* wrote u pa- 
nogyric, nnd rcci-ivt-d from th;it prinr«i a prf'ftt-nt of lO.dOO 
dfnan. M'o havi« Htv^TuI of hin works in the Persian 
lftT'g"«f^*' In till' I:itJ«T piiirnl of hif* lifij he KxL'd his 
rc«idfine<> at Astmhud. iiutl died thrro in 1435 A. D.. SaS 
A. H. His works wliich contain tiv*; popms are culled 
**MHJnia'-uI-lSiihryTi," tho htorj- of Ndi*ir and ^lan^ur, 
which can be nad in twu diilcrunt metrua ; " Doh Uib," 
** Hu^nwa I»hV" and " Bahrain aud (iulaudAiu." 

Katil, Mirea, ^-^^ 'j^» tho pofttiml nomo of SlirzA 

3[tihainniad Hainan. }Ie was a njitivu of D^hli, ami a 
tlindu uf the tiibt- of Kliattri, but bwanic a convert to 
Muhunimadimisni. He wuh un rxcrllcnt I'nli'i and Pcr- 
sian |H>i>t. and dk-d at Lnkhnaii in tho tinit* of UhazL- 
nddin Huidar, tht n riiwal' <i( that ctumtrj* ISl" A. 1)., 
12:12 A. H, He ia thu auLhiir i)f ^evcrul workii, amung:st 
whi' h ar<' : 

Kunkha Shiijnit-iil-Ani(ini, dcdif-fttwl to Mir Amin 'Ali. 

Kahr-al-t'a.'«ihat, a Persian crriinuuax. 

Chuhir Sharbutf and u Dtwtia. 

Katran, hJj^j rrrfr Kiirun, 

Kawami Matarzi, iSJj^ Lf*!y> a great poet who 
waa a nativ*.- of Mut-'iiilz, a cily in PiTtiia, nnd is an author. 
He waa a biutbcr of .Sh.iikb Nizami (jiinjwi. 

^awami MauJana Muzaffar, tj^'y^r^^ ^5!^, 

a culcbratcd [wM-t. 

B^awam-uddin Hasan, Hoji, c."-^ i^*i'^^^ r'-?^ i/^^j 

wazir to Shiih Shaikh Aim I*i-hiik, ruli-r of Shirax. Ho 
waa a man of yrcat libi'nility. find oni.' of th*_' jiatmns of 
the rtdflirtit' d Pcntian ]KK't Kliwnja llatiz, who has 
praised him in many nf iiis udea. He dii-d during tho 
Beif^e of ShiraK bv -Mnl'iiriz-udtlin Muhammad Ziifar, on 
Friday thii 1 2lhuf April, l;i.J3 A. D., 6th Kabi' I, 7&-i 
A. H. 

^wam-uddin, Khwaja, ti*:!**-'' c'j^ ^^b^j sumnmcd 

Sahib Ayor, wa« the wazir and favonrit^^ companion of 
Shah Shujiia', thf sntiof Miil>ariz-iiddiii Muhammad Zafar, 
commonly callod Muzaflar ^hnh. who took Shinir in 1^53^ 
A. D. He was put to the rack and beheaded by Shah 
Shujda' in Augtut, i;J63 A. P., Zi-Ka'da, 704 A. II. 

Kawela Kaan, ^il'^^ ^y vidt Kiblai $ua. 

KayonmrBf ^j^^ i ^i^ KaiomurB. 

Kayuk Kaan, c^T^ '^J^y or Kuyuk Khan, was tho son 

of Oktai ?ain, the son of Change* KhAn. Ho siicccedeU 
his Cither in January, 1242 A. D., 63ft A. H.. to tho 
kinvrdom of Tartary. and his uncle Jughtii or i'hughtai 
JJiitin lo tho kingdom of TnuiHoxania, Ilndakhshin and 
Kii^hcrhar. Ho reiimed ono year, and died nbont the 
beginning' of 1243 A. IK. «4l> .\. U., when Maajpi KAiSn, 
the <-ldest son of Tuli Khan, the son of Chungez khan, 
suocccded him and rtigned uino yuan. 

Kaza, ^"^j pootical namo of Muhanunad Hafie-ullah Khan. 

]^azi Khan, ^y^ {J'^j he is commonly called by this 
namr. t ut hi* full name i» Iniam Fathr-uddin Ifajvui bin- 
Manrtur-al-'T'zjandi-iU-Farffliani. \h. dit-d in 1195 A. !>. 
592 A. H. He is the author uf a work entitb'd ** Fatawa 
Kfixi Khun/' n culb'ction of deci»ion*i which i(- held in the 
highest esliruatiijn in India. YuMuf bin-Jiinaid, genemllv 
known by thu name id' Akbi ChaUbi-at-Tukati, < pitoniiaed 
this work and camprnuted it into one volume. 

5azib-Ul-Ban, ly"^' ^T*t*^, surname of Shaikh Muhin- 

iidilm 'Abdid Kadir bin-Sa>yad Muhammad, an Arabian 
author who died in ItiSO A. I)., lU40 A. H. 

Kazim, Hnkim, ^^ f*^^i a physician who hnd the 

titU' of Hii/ik-ii!-Mulk and wnn the unn of th-' Mujtnhid 
Uuidar Ali 'I'u^htari Najafi. Hi- is thi* sutbor of the 
work calb-d " Kanh-iuima Fiitima," which he composed 
in 17U7 A. 1)., ll.'iO A. II. 

Kazlm^ Hakim, (*^'^ r^» '^'''^' Sihib. 

Kazim Ali Khan, J^ tjh (^^i (^^. He had bailt 
a ^nhn nt Agrah on the banks of thfi Jamna opposite 
lu liani iJiiiih. 5ome tracLS of this irarden tttill nmiain 
cnllid Hakim ka BAgh. It wad built in thu ve;u- 1551 
A. D. 

Kazim Zarbaya, ^^.j} ^!^, a Persian pocjt who died 
at liiiuliau in tho year 15U A. D., 948 A. H. 

Kazwini, yj-i^y, author of the " 'Ajacb-td-Mukhliikat," 
vitif Zikaria bin-S[uIiamiiiad bin-Mahmud. 

Kerat Singh, *^*- cy^', g^^nd son of Mirrf RAja Jai- 

fiingh. Ho burved under the emperor 'Alamgtr, and aftt-r 
hiri father's death wa.H honoured with the runk of 3000. 
Ho was living iu tho Dakhin IG73 A. D., 10»4 A. 11. 

Keaari Singh, *^^ iSjT^j rijaof .loiptir who Uvi-d in 
tho tiniL' of iluhammad Sliah^ emperor of Dehli. 

Kesho Das Rathor, Raja, j^j u-'^.r^^ **'j, who 
gave his daughter iu marria(fe to tho emperor Jahiiiffir, 
by whom he had llahnr Banu Begum. 

Khadija, A^>>^, Muhammad'i wife. Although this i« 

the correct pTonunciatioQ of tho xuunOf yet, aeo under 

Khadim, (•*"*■, the poetical name of Xazar Beg, a poet 
He was a pupil of Muhammad Azfal Ssbit. and died some 
time before the year 17tiO A. O., 117 1 A. U. 

Khadim, f^^* the takhallus or poetical appellation of 
Shaikh Ahmad 'Ali of Sundila and son of Muhammad 
Ildji. Hi> is thfl author of frvtral workii, among which 
is one calkd "■ Anis-uJ-'llRhshhk." an Anthology. LIo 
llounhhi'd abuut thu ycu- 1752 A. D., 1165 A. U. Sue 
Uoaau hin-Muhunmiud Sharif. 



Tifi III' 

'V* wCi**^ '-•i^. 

i >i^. 

yv»-T _^ 

ti:";!t r iT * >ir,3i 

; T2£.i :/ 3C7 Abel 


liii Xiaj- --^ ^■*-- ^^ 

t tscitixLiX ume iiUiiliain- 

^n. -Ti^'^'. Kz^±^c :f tl-e v:rk oUed -Tinkh 
LI. -ri: :i ,s *!*< :,iZ^i - M::n:akhib-al-Labib," 
la -i-I.-:!: 2.jtz:r^ .: Hi^*i'i.5^*ii. •x-zimrneing' with the 
= -isi.ii :: ^-r -=i;-r;r Eiror S'fith I5I9 A. D., 925 
A =_ ii.i ;T:crr=.iTti ;.> li-e »i-x>r«rton of Mnhammiid 
Siiii . • t=.-rThrct'.'-. e za- wa^ie <yi the reign of the em- 
-ZfTC ^' >■-"■' ' jJiso tfc:«i*? *>f Ba'iidiir Shih. Jabindir 
■■^^.i.'>. c fcTr-ii-rfiyAr. ah-J R.-ifk*ad-J:ir}at ; all of which, 
dx.T'.c "i-c zrrt ;m year? uf 'Alunurir'^ rc'ign. Colonel 
I^.w "vk* ---iZicvd to p*s» over, for wunt of docomenta. 
■j;v ^ ijv: t--w «x>rfc* in tho Pemiin liingua^ (says 
^^-fc-jj^ jc w.rthy of tvin^ tmn^:ktcsi The author was 
» -rrsca :i s^^'^i family, who n'sidtni at Dt'lili during the 
liiitc v*trs ce tht» n^iirn of 'Alanigir. wht-re he compiled 
v.^ w-^rv ; but in ivnskHiuontv of the woll known pro- 
^- ;::.:: •■•t" th^t moiwri'h. ho wiiai oMiured to conceal hia 
k- ;*. r.Siv 1*^ *"'^ ^^^"^ **»mo other causes did not publish it 
r"' ;""'■" l*'^ vtrtr of tho emjHTor Muhammitd Shah, 1732 
v"lV. lU^ A. H. The work wua well nveived, and the 
iuxhor w»* honoun^ with tho titlo of Jthiii Khan, or 
the v'Undetftiuo Ia»ix1. 

Khaiyaw- C^^* W./# 'Umar Khuiyim. 

KhakMUt c»^^*"» **"' **^**' ^^ t'hanKox Khan and hisde- 
^^.ijj^„t„. It meaim an e!ii|Hi«)r in tho Turkiah dialect. 

Khttkani ^^^^^» " ri'IebriittMl PnrHian poet sumamcd 
\Vi\\ uddm Uniihim l>in-'Al( ^ht^wuni. He was a native 
\i vMuitt*>>» '*'"* *'"' l'*'I'" "* I'ahiki the poet, llu flou- 
|»»h.Hl w th*' »'«'»Hi> "f K!»iil^iiii Miuiuchehr. prineu of 
Khuwrt" ^^*"' eniil'cin'i fit him the title of Khaljani. 
Ue M tlt<' tiuOiur id' Ihn liook nilb'd " Tuhfut-nl-IrtH^m/' 
n Lm\wi\\ aei«'iipll"H iil'llie two proviiirei* of 'Irak 'Ajam 
nd Ih^V '•^•"''t •'»""1"""'<' ''y '•'"> while tmvelling 
lh»»'Hrth <'"'"' "" '* l''lH>'i">'tK" to Meeen. Ho iM conai- 
I ivtl IIm< ■nM>*( lent lied fd' ihti lyrie poclM iif rerHia, and 
* ' J e.iHed "MitMiiii iiwli-f^hii'nrii" or kinjf of poeta. Ho 
io'nl-e llie hkIIk'i (it a lnwiin, iiceiinlinK to Daulat Shah, 

ji,„j ,(„. t h ntllnl " Hiifl AVIi"»," lie died at Tabn'z in 

II,. > M"ti ' '"*' ^ '* ' ''^" ^ **" '""* '" *""''''^ "*■ '^"rkliah, 
^Imik, <"1"*** '" *''" loiiili, /abir luldiii Karviibi and Shah 
OIi'iImi NmInIihpniI Miti hImi iiitt'tred. Tht* ebroiiof^nim 
I Mm' «•*<> "' '''" df'Mlli ^iveii ill the work " Mukhliir-ul- 
W.iNihM." kIm-w* Ibat bi> ilied In lltiU A. 1)., £Vd A. II. 

NIimIiI i/*'^» Htitb"! (if Ibe " MtindVil.-iil-'Arifin/* This 

I I, ,,'MIiiImh (Ii(. iiiMiioliii (if tliii'e very eelibmted Huff 

li|mi(I>Ii'| "* * Hliwdja Itiibii iiddiii. Hurlitfii-iiddin, and 
liildl ii'l'llti '( b*' bttiiK'i id' lliiw WHH ri'piiti'd a fcreat 
nkImI '••"' I*"" 'I"' '""■*''"> "f III! Oiibu- of SufiN, difitiii- 
ii4il>h<d hv (Im< 1Mb' (d NiilinbtiMiHli. Ili« di<-d at Harafa 
1,1 Ti (rl'i. I I'lit A \» , »'"/ A, II. Tbo Iwo olbein were 
HHlle''" ''' "'O'"!' "bxb'N III! Hid Kt>>''i>i, Mill! v/**fv held in 
IMIH b rMHf'iM'fii 'lbi< (ili'Vti itM'iitloiH'd bui>k waadiHli- 
i.hIhI I'i MmIiM iKbllti 

UllUllJ HlilrMHli i^jt)'**^ y^'*^i aidhnrtifti iVraliin In'win. 

||t|Nil'*Mfi f'**'*'^! pitilli'itiiaiiHMif HIiiihr-iillAb Khaii, who 
iff(.d ill I'lC'i A. M , I ion A II , and him loll a Plwan. 

NhHi'lintiff*^^! '"''- MtAUdAit. 

Khalif or Khaliftts, **i^, of the hoose of Hnliaiiiiuad, 
see Abu Bakr Siddi^:. 

Khalif or Khalifas, *H*' "4^, of the race of Umayyt 

who reigned at Damascus, vide Mn'&wia I. 

Khalif or Khalifiw, tssk^ **i^, of the house of 'Abbii 

called 'Abbdsi or 'Abbasidefl, who reigned at Baghdad, ridk 

Khalif or Khalifa, *^»-, this Arabic word, which rigni- 
fies vicar or Buccessor, of which we have formed that of 
Khalif or Caliph, is the name of a sovereign dignitr 
amongst the filusalmana, which comprehends an abaolate 
power, and an independent authority over all that re- 
gards religion and political government. Not only the 
first four immediate successors of Muhammad, but the 
rulers of the bouse of Umayya, written by us Omxnaid«& 
who reigned in Damascus, and the 'Abbaaidea who t^dgned 
m Baghdad, were also called Khalifas. There werem all 
66 Khalifas. 4 of whom were of the house of the prophet 
16 of the house of Umayya, and 37 of the house of 'Abbifc 

KhaJid ibn-Barmak, «-^ i^ri'^^^, was the iSirt of 

the Bannakides, who acted as waixr to Abu*l *Abb<a 
Saffah. He was the grandfather of Ja'fer, waiir to Birun- 
al-Rashid. He died in the year 780 or 782 A. D., 163 or 
166 A. H, 

Khalid ibn-Walid, «H!> c^J* ^^, who became a pioM- 
lyte to Wuhammadanism in 630 A. D., and afterwnrds lo 
^mble to the Greeks ; was called from hia conrage, tla 
Sword of God. In spreading the doctrines of the KnrwL 
and tho dominion of the prophet he committed ati^ou 
cruisltiea, and was at last cut oflf by the ])higue in 639 
A p.. but according to Ockley*s Historv of the Saracena 
Abu Ubeda died that year, and Khilid survived him 
about three years, and then died. 

Khalid ibn-Tezid ibn-Mua'wia, *^ iy?f oJli. ^ 

is reported ^to have been tho most learned of the tribe of 
¥ure«h m all the different branches of knowledge, and 
skil ed in tho art of alchj-my. He died in 704 A D Si 
A. H. "^ 

KhaUdi, ij^^, surname of Abul Faiaj, one of the fint 

po4^ta of tho court of the Sultin Saif-uddanla HamdaoL 
HewasanativoofKhaldia or Chaldea, coasequenUy he 
IS called Khahdi. ^ ^ 

Khalidun, lyj^^^^, or 'Abdul Rahman bin-Muhammad 
bin-Khalid6n, sumamed Alhairami, was an author and 
Hk&xi of the city of Aleppo when Amir Timur took it, 
who carried hun away to Samarkand as a aUve. wham bl 
died 1406 A. D., 808 A. H. ^ 

Khalil bin-Ahmad, iSj^ '^*^^ i^ «J^, of Ban% 

a very learned man who is said to be the firet that wnte 
on the art of writing poetry. He wrote several woifa 
and died about the year 1 76 A. H. 

KheUl ibn-l8-hak, O^**^ i:^^' d*^^, anthor of a Mnkh- 
tasir which goes after hia name. This is a work profe«- 
edly tn'ating of the law according to the Mahki doctrines 
and has been transkted into IVench by M. Penoa and 

published in the year 1849. 

Khalili <h^, the poetical title of AM Ibrahua g^*«, 
which see. 




Khalil, lA*^, ihc poetical up pollution of Mini Mnham- 
ijin'i DfrRhiiii. M-ho(*f,' titlo was AnUhI KIiiLti. Hr strvrd 
uzider thr i-min-ror 'Alunicir, tiin] wiij* livinj? in Pntnu in 
1690 A. 1).. i;fi2 A. H. Utt wa«& native of Khurtuui, 
but brought up in Iniiift. 

Khalil Khan, c^ <J^^, a niMj^abdir of .5000 of the 

court of Shiih Jahan }nit of a vr n,* Kid tt-rajHr. It w;i(* ho 
who iii'-titriit'sl 'Aljtiii|tir to cotifiiiu bis father Shih .Iiihan. 
lie hud imilt n finr iiuU5t' iit At^nih i»n thr hanks of tiiu 
Jainna, of which i^omf? tnups are etiU to Ik.- stcn. 

Khalil, Maulana, "-M^ ^V°, a poet of Venhi, who 

fluurisht-d in the time of Sliih Tahmasii Hafwa, and wua 
lidDg about thu yt^iLr 1639 A. D., Ui6 A. II. 

Khalil Sultan, ^^ kJ^^, mn of Shaikh Ihrilhim 

Shirwfini. ruhT uf Sliirwan. Ho rtipn' 'J about the btigin- 
uiiijf of tht!! 10th < fiilury of thu (.'hribtiiin c-ra. 

Khalil, Sultan, i-M^ cj^^^^i also caU«d Mirai Khalil 

and KhcLlil-iilhih. wiis th<> Mm of MiniiiKhah, and e-ntnd- 
■OD of Atiiir 'riiiHir at wlii.-w dealh. he ln-iii^ i)rfi*i'nt 
with the army at Samarkand, took j>()Bftf«rtit)n of thiit 
country. Thin priiinj, who wn?t a jM-rwon of fxct'lli-nt 
temper, and hwd mmiy njuud quiilities. uuKht havf jin-- 
•crvtd ih'.' jMiwrr hr hud jirtjuin-d, had not his violmt 
love for Shiid-ul-Jlulk, II r<lrl.>rati'd (.ourtt-ziin, whom hi* 
had mcrrtly uiJiri«il, tliviili-d liiiii livjrii th** tans ut" 
gov€-mnii.nt. Il-- had rtii;ni-d four ycirs, whr-n 
he wuB wJEcd by thi' thicla who had raisid him to Ihfl 
thrua«. mid wnt a pri»jniT to the ruiintry of Kjt-^hyhar 
in H08 A 1> . HH A. H.. whcr^ iiuttcad offiidoiivniiriTiji^to 
effprt hih r»d«'twt- and nritV(?rhis ]yowt*r. hr sjK'nt tht? wholo 
of hifi time in wriliii;^ verni-s Uy hi« lM*lnvi'd nii-rtrf'M. whn 
Iwd bp*-n i'\i'osi-*L hy the rfversc of hid fortune, to Ihi' 
mofit iTU»'! indiKiiitii'M. He at last n!l'?iLS»!ii by iklir/ii 
t^hihnikh his UTicIrt, who had tak>ii pOH.>M'«i4iiin of his 
kingd-mi. and wh** not only (favi' him th*' povemnn'nt of 
Kei, Kum and Ibntidiin. liut renron-'l hin li»n»utihil iiiintrrs!* 
to hiH unnA. Aftt T thi.s h<- liv* d two yt-nm and a hall and 
diwi 6th Novf-ml.-T. 1411 A. !>.. isth Kajnh, HH A. H., 
■■i^i'd 2H yt-an*. and Shad-ol-Mulk. mH th.' ocoirri-ni-G of 
this i-V( nl. «rt«'d a pjiit whit h haw irivm fiinii- to h»r 
Biuniory — t-ht' ^tnn It a ]wifuiinl to her breftrti : iind thu 
lovrrB wrre bnrii"! in nri'- tumU in the city of Jlei. 

Khalil-uUah, ^' *^^j the FHeod of God, a title of 
Abmham the patriun h. 

Khalil-uUah Hirwi, Mir, t/J^ *J^' li*^^*, a de- 
!iirt^n<i:int (>f Shiiikh >".i"iiuil-ulliih Wall. 

KbaUl-uUah Khan, c/*- *^-*' i-^, '^ntitlwl UmdAt-nl. 
Mulk. brulhi r ef Aniilat Khiin ?llir Itukhrthi. j^rved under 
the LTnperor Shah .Tahaii^ wiw* appointed ituvenior of Drhli 
about th*' year Kioy A. IK, lOtiJi A. K., and vriu rai-it'd to 
tho rank of 601)0 in th*- Hr»t of 'Alairimr ltio8 A. D., 
1068 A. H. He died uu the Uth Februitry, 1662 A. D , 
2nd lUjah, 107'^ A. U. 

Kbalil-Ullah Mirza, 'ir* *^^ Ji^, r»(f-' Khalil Siiltdn. 
Khalis, O*^"*"* tfa« povticttl niuuu of luitiyu Khan uf 

lai'idiaa, whi^h mv. 
Khallikan, u^^^i^, rivfc nm-Khallikin. 
KhamOBh, L/!^^j poetical namo uf Rae Sihib B&m of 

Pelili. lie waa fur some time Tahsildar under Blr. J. 

Duiuan in Benunu. lie hiia left a larife Diwin. 

Khan, ij^. This word which appears to be a corruption 

of Kiin, » a Tnrklah title and meoM powerful lord. The 
most powi rful kin^^ of 'furkiwtriii. of tireat TarUiry imd 
of the Khalayans have borne this title ChaiiRei. tlie 
prcat rniifiiuror. hfid no olh-T. mid it makes even part of 
his nauH-. Cur he ia calletJ \,y th.- tJrii-iiula, Changoi 
£h&n. It iDMaua the same ud Khikiin or Kiin. 

Kban, u^^, the poetical name of Mirzi Sharif. 
Khanam Sultan, l^*-^ i**"^, a daughter ..f the empeior 

Ak'ar. niarri'd to Muzaffar IJiwain Mtrzi, the ion of 

Jlirahint lliLiain !Mirza in lo'i.i A. iJ. 

Khanam Sultan, Ly*^^ ^'l^, a daughter of the em. 

peror Akhar. nuirri. d to Muxaflkr Hu(«iin Jlirri, the son 
of Ibrahim liuHuin Mirwk by Uulrukh lirgmu. 

Khan 'Alam, f^^ cJ**-, titlo of MinA Barkhurdar, son 
of 5lir/ji 'Abdul Idihman Danldi. a iioMi-man who served 
iinji-r (he r-inperor Nliiih duhan und wat niised to the 
rank of .50U11 ; and in the ni^n nf ■Aljinij^ir ho was 
hoiiourMd with ihi* dignity of tiooo. In the latter part 
of hi?* lit'-, hi- wjt» jn-UMiuUfd by tho emperor and rei-eivud 
one lac of ruiKLfl anniiully. He hud a huuik: and gardm 
in Agrah on the lumks of tho river .lauuia built of r<rd 
sUme tuiirhing the northern Burj of the liauza of Taj- 
panj in a spot eonBL-itinff of ol> hi),;has. In tin- latter jiart 
ol hiip lite he wtu» rai.<>ed to GOuO by SluUi Juhau uud ap- 
puiuted governor of Bihar. 

Khan 'Al^m, j*'^ cJ^, title of Ikhlw KhAn. thr son of 
Khan /ami'm Shaikh Nizam. He served under the em- 
peror 'Alainyir :uid was nuM-d to th*' nuk uf 5O00 in 
ItiSlt A. II,. I lUU A. II., with the till.- of Khiu 'Alam. In 
I6i»i A IJ. the riink of 6UUU was confenrd on him. After 
the death ol that empeiur he espouwd the cauho of 'Acini 
Shall against hi:i Isrothi r lUhiiiiur Shiih. and fell in buttle 
1707 A. It.. Ul'J A. 11. After hid d*.rtth his son waa 
honoured with the sume title. 

Khan 'Azira, r^ c;^, vide'Atim Khia. 

Khan Bahadur, J^^ \J^t »(»« of Kaja Miltra Jit of 
I'atnii. He is the eonipiler of the work eulled " Jiima' 
Itahmlnr hhnni," lui ..pit-jme of Europ^^iu S« it'iui»tf in thu 
I'i-i-Bian KnguHife, ineluding Irouli-seH on iwtnfnuuiy. uplieit. 
and matheinatictf, and copious tablei* of Ki^^uiithms for 
natiinii iiumlH*n», mim-s. tangent*, A:r., n\mt of a umall 
iK-tjiv.. volume tit T'-rspei'tive eiilled "' 'Hm-ul-Sriuaxantt," 
in the I'l-rbian Uiij^uayf, whii h he pi ueentt-Hl to the Aaialio 
Boviety in Ua6 A. D., Viol A. U. 

Khanasad Begam, ^^- •ib^ j **»« Bister of thcvm- 

p« ror BAbar wat* live vears oldi-r than him. Another 
duuKht'T of t'nmr Shaikh was ilehr llano, eiirht years 
youriiftT Ihiin llahar. Auotlier dani^ht^'r wan A'ailgar 
Sultan B'KHUI. whosi'moth'-r's iianu- i<^ A^ha Sultan (ihuri* 
chichi; the fourth dau;;hter waj* named liuiiia Sulmn 
Br;>ain, who^- mothiT'^ niuuu wji» Alnkhdiiniu Sull<tn 
lb ifuni who W)utal.toej*llfd tjura LJur Uepim — tin- last two 
il.iiiv;htiTM were ^K>ni aftor the duuth of their father. 

Khanazad Khan, lu^ o'j**^, vide Khan Ziuuin Bahi- 

ilurainl Bnh-ullitli Khan. 
Khanasad Khan, cJ^ •^'j*^'*'! «-n of SarbuUnd Khan. 
wa» governor of iVshilwar in 17-'l A. 1*.. Il3.i A. H. 
W hen the i?f»vfniuient oi Allahalxid WHS conft-rnd on hia 
father by thr- .Mnprror Muhammad .shiih in llu2 X, D., 
II la A. II , he waa deputed to act for him as governor of 
that prtiviiicG. 

Khan Bahador Khan, c***- ;^V^ cj^. th« son of 
,1a]al'uddui Khan, the oon of Hatiz Rahmat Khan. Vid* 





Khande Eao Gaokwar, j'y^ j'j iS'^^y ti^i of 

Baxwlu. He diod in 1870 A. D., and was aucoseded by 
his brothtr Malhir B£o tbo preacrnt (1676) lUja of Biiroda. 

Khande Rao Holkar, ^* J^J t/'^W^ the only son 
of Molbiir lUo liolkur I. II« whs Villod in it battln at 
Dig iigftinjil Sumj AM Jdt in 1764 A. D. many years 
previous to his fnlht'r's dcHth. luid lofl an only son Mali 
lUo, who 8ucJ:t>eded bin gnimlJathrr iind died nine months 
after. Vidt ALalh&r Koo I, and Ahliu Bai. 

Khan Douran I, Jj' u^>>J^ ej'^> whose proper nune is 
8hah Bt'g Kban Kiibuli. was an Amir in th<i timo of tho 
emperor Akbnr. Uo reeciTed the iitUi of Klmii Dourin 
fojm J«li/u»>;ir in thf y«ir 1007 A. D., 1010 A. H., find 
waa apixiiuU'd grovfimor of KabuL Ho died in L&hur in 
the year l(i20 A. U., 1029 A. H., aged 90 ywire. 

Khan Douran Khan H, ^^ ^j^ •y'*^ iy'ij'> ly^ 

ij^^t NflMTit Jang, titlu of Kbwaja Sabir, son of Khwija 
Hiaih N.ikshbandi. Ho wan iin officer of stato in the 
service of the emiHTur Shah Jubitu and held the rank of 
7000. He wus stabbed one ni^'ht whilst ualccp by a 
young Kiuthniirian Brahmiin whom ht» had converted to 
Muhunmiadjinidm, and dic'd rtft4?r a ffw days on Ihi* I'ith 
of July, 1646 A, D., 27th JuniaJa I, 1055 A. U., at I>nhor. 
Hifi n-nutiiin w<.t<-- tniiispurii'd to Uwaliiir and bunt.-d there 
in the ctmoUn' of his ancestors. 

Khan Douran HI, z*^- *y^ *^j^ u>b^ o^, Nasrat 
Khun, son nf Khau Hotuan NiiHnit Jung. Ho held the 
rank of 5000 in the reign of the empt-ror 'Aliuiigir. In tho 
hitt«*r port of hia lift! ho wns apjKiintj-d govi'mor of Oiiawi, 
which post hi' held for Nevcial years tuid dit.-d there 1007 
A. D., 1077 A. 11. 

Khan Douran IV, p^ lyljj^ \J^, an amir of tho reign 
of tb«i omp'^ror Farrukh-i^iyar, who soon afltT the accwiKion 
of ?hliihanuund Khiih and the assasidnation of Sa)')'id Hiisain 
AU Khan, and ijupriM>tuneut of his brother Ku^b ul- 
Alnlk, wa«i appointed Amii-ul'Tnirii with the title of 
BamiMim-uddaula in 1721 A. D., 1133 A. H. Ue was 
dang(Tou^Iy wotinde*! in battle ftgaiiist Niidir Shah and 
died thd third di>y following, t!io 10th of Fcbruarj-, 1739 
A. D., I7lh 2'-Ka'da, lliil A. H. His originiU name 
wufi Khwajii Aliibamniad 'Aium. Uo is also called Abdns 
Saniud Khan Bidiadur Jang. 

Khan Jahan, c>V^ cr^^ title of Huaain ?ult Beg, an 
amir u( 5000 in tho reign of the emperor Akbar. Uo was 
appoiuti d govonior of bengal after the death of Munai'm 
Khan, nbuut tho yir-ar 1570 A. IK. HH4 A. H. Uc defoa- 
ted, ttMjk prittonor, and slew Piii'td Khan, tho ex-king of 
B'-njjnd who had agidn rebi-llL-d aguijii>t the 4^niiMU'or, and 
(Mtit his htad to A^T^ih, th*^ sanio y*'ar. Khiin Jnhiin 
died at Tan^u in 1578 A. I)., 986 A. U., and was euc- 
ceodffd by Kuiafiar Khin. 

Gowmor§ 9f Senfoi* 

A. D. 

KhinJahin, 1576 

Muxaffar Khan, .... 1579 

K&Ji Todar Mol, .. 1£»0 

Khan'Azim, 15»2 

Kh&hb&s Khin. .... 1584 

ItajdMin Singh, .. 1689 

l^uth-uddin, ...... 1006 

JaliAngir KiOf, .... 1607 

IflUm Khan, 1608 

Kufeini Khin. 1613 

ibrahna Khan, .... IdlS 

bbali Juhun, 1622 

Khanasid&hio, .. 1025 


)f nkarram Eh&n, . . 1 626 

Ftdai Khan, 1621 

Ktwiin Khau Jubon, 1628 

'Aziin Khan 16:12 

Bulun t^huju', .... 1639 

BIlt Jnndl^ 1G60 

8hait4ta Khan. .... lOO-l 

Fidni Khiiu. 1677 

tiuluin Muhanmiad 

'Azim, 1678 

Shai.^taKhin 1G80 

Ibr&him Khan, Iti»9 

'Aom-us-tihan, .... 1097 

Khan Jahan Barha, ^j^ iw't^ c;^, title of San** 

Miuafliir Kh»u of Barhti, an officer of tho r»nV of *OOd 
who died in the tinio of the emperor Shah Jahin i£ 
Labor, 1615 A. 1)., 1055 A. H. 

Khan Jahan Kokaltaah, w^j^ Jt^ *^> ''^»«' 

prop*'r name wiw Mir Malik Husain. th« Bon of Mfr Abil 
Ma'&li Khwaff. Hi* was a uobb-man uf true dignity, 
and bi>ing the foster- brother of the emyror 'Alamgn; 
thouj^ht himself euporiur to all the olher Tmra. Hb wm 
appointed governor of thi* Dakhin in 1670 A. "D^ 1081 
A. U., and promoU.-d by that monareh about the yvtt 
1674 A. D. &om thu rank of 700 to that vf 7000 hona, 
and the title of Khan Jahan B.-th.-idtir Kokiilt&bh ZaiWr 
Jang. His former title wus Baliadnr Khau. Hf di<4 
on the 24th November, IG97 A. D.. 19th JmuiiU I. llOt* 
A. H. Ho seems to bo the author of tho " Tarikh A**iiu" 
or thu iuveudon of A^in. 

Khan Jahan Kokaltash Khan Zafar Jang. 

^J^^jkiii ^U. j^Uliy ^yl^ ^^lL^ a tiUoof AU ilaiil 

a fosttr-brother of JithauUar Shah. In tho timo of Bahi* 
dur Shall, ho was hijiioured with the title of Kokalti*h 
Khan, and when Jahimdar ^hiih use*.-nd».d thi* tlutino, thn 
rank of 9000 was conferred on him with thv tith' nf Khia 
Jahan Zular Jang, and the olhro of Mir BakhihtgMw 
But \w did not long enjoy this high station, fur ho Mon 
after fell in the buttle whieb look idaco botwotS his 
master and Farrukh-idyar 1713 A. D., 1125 A. QL 

Khan Jahan Ijodi, iS'^j^ cJ^ oJ*^, an AfghAn pro- 
bably of low birth, but with all tliu pride and iuinUiii>^ 
of his nation in India. Hi. iu by BomM t^iii ! ' ' ^ 'ic^ 
BL'ond^Lnt of Stiltan Bahlul Lodi, and by < '^tlst 

Khin Lodi ijhahu Kluiil. He had held -^ 

charges, was raised to the rank of 5000 m\ : ihn 

emperor Jahangir, and commanded in thi > ^ndiV 

prince Farwez at the time of that prince ^ djt^th. Oa 
the acc««non of Shah Jahan, he entto'ed into a close 
intimacy with his lato enemies, and soomcd to be aiming 
at iudupeudencti. He wui* at lattt killed togctlic-r with hii 
eon in an engagement with tho roval troops on tho S9th 
January, 1631 A. D., Ist lOijab, 1040 A. H., and Ouv 
heads sent as a mo«t aceeptable proaeut tu i^hah JahaA. 
An affecting arconnt of hiri death may be found in th? 
3rd Volume of Dow'a History. Tho "Tarikh KUa 
Jahan li6dr' which is also called " Makhzan Aiighini,'* 
contains tho memoirs of this chie^ written by Haihil 
Khin in 1676 A. 1). 

Khan Jahan Makbul, Malik, Jj^ ch^ J^ 

^•^^^ untitled Kawam-ul-Mulk, was the primA-— 'n't^kt 

of Snltin Fir62 Shah Birbak who aaoimded the thnnB 
of Dehli in 1351 A. ]>. He was originally a Hiiubi tf 
name Katlu. On his converaou to MuKi; < ' i ia 

hits youth, Sultan Muhammad, the pred< ir^ 

Shah, changed his name to Mnlfbul, luid .i, j... ,..«.* hna 
to the guvemmunt of Multib. Hn afUrwaiili baumo 
N&ib Wazir under the waxfiahip of Khwija Jahan, nkua 
be ut first supported in his att<;mpt to plac« a gun of 
Sultin Muhammad on the thn>ne, but wt^t <yTvr to i 
Sulian FirAi^ on his appronch to Dehli, and mt a^ M 
pointed by him wazir of tho kingdom. Accordia^ to tiL I 
LisloriiLu tihnms Sirij Afif, ho died in the ytMt 1S74 A. D^ ^ 
776 A. U., but by othont in 772 A. H. After his J^Ck 
his son Jahdn 8hih was honoured with his nlac« ■»»j 
title of Khan Jahan by tho king, who placed m wniih 
confidence in him as he had done in his &ther. Ha 
the office of prime- minister for twenty jmn, 

KhanKhanan, tiM^iiJ^, this word is a titJn of 

and meuns liord of Lords. Bairdm Khan and hit mm 
'Abdui liuhim Kh&n, both miuisUirstu Iheompev^jr. 
and aevoral othcn vcre honoured with this UtlA» 





ICban Mirza , Ur* *^ > ruler of Bndakliah^n^ wns the son 
ofSullrtM Mahniu'i Mima, the pnn of Sultan Abu Siiid 
Mini, a dr-i^inJant of Amir Tiiimiir. Ho ditil in 1J21 
A. D., 027 A. H., loJivinK Itfhind a non of seven ytrtr* of 
ttf^ natui^d Mir7.a Snliiinkkn. K}inn Mirjui wils u c'Ju.Hin 
of tb»* t:mpt'r»'r Hiilmr, wIkp uti Mirai'M dr'utU lippointed 
hia own bCiii lluumyun to that govoxnnitnt. 

IChail Mirza., ^Jj"^ <^ t sumnmo of 'Abdur TUhun Kli^ 

KhinKbanan in tho time of the emporor Akbar. 
Khan Zaman, cJ^*j cj^*-» t'tl^? ^f *Ali Kuli Khiin, who 

and bi^ hrothor Jliiluidiir Khan wrre the sons of Huidnr 
Sultiii I'xbiik wbu wjis an cilii'cr of stitte in tbu strvi. « 
of tho cmpfror Uumayun. In tin' ninn uf Akbnr Sluih, 
these two brothers for 1h"-ir fT<"«l jM.Tvict.'»_ wire misod 
to hiphpr nirik^ iiml hunon:«'d with the jagi'r ufJnunpur 
and Ihf; lowii province.* ; th-'V ttt I«st bcr.imi' robcUions, 
whith iudiKt'd tlic rmp+ror to mrtnh against th">m with a 
larffo fortf ; a l.iittU- en^u^Ml whore in both brothors wuto 
aloin. This ovcnt took plat*- on Monday thi> 9th of Juno, 
1667 A. D.. Ut ;Cd-bui'i< 974 A. H., at a pltioe six k«»s 
west of Alluhubild, which "n :tCL-ount of this victory, wiis | 
named Fnthiipur. 'ITn' dat.' of this lniiis:iction ih rom- 
mnuiornted in the worda " Fathi AkbaJ' Mubarik," i. <•., 
Bf«y this great victorj* btj proopiroiw. 

Khan Zaman, CJ^j c>^, titk- of ilir Khnia, second fion 
of 'Aziiu Kluiii the brothrr of 'Asaf Kbin Ja'fiir IV?, and 
■on-induw of Yrmin-uddaubi 'A:«iif Klion. He tuivt-d 
under tho oinp^ror Sbiih Juhau for m-'Vorul yeiirs, and iu 
tho reiffii of 'Alnirii,'ir w;ot r;ii!*Ld to tho rank of oOOO. At 
tho tiim- of his dL-ath lu- was governor of MalwA, whurc he 

died 1094 A. !>,, Kll».J A. U. 

Khan Zaman Bahadur, j^^ 0**3 o^» whoso former 
title was Khanarad Khan and prop<'r nann- Slirza Amun- 
ullah. VHA tho obiMst (H.a of IMahribut Khan snniamid 
Zauiiria U> h'. Tli- w w aa ollUer of fitut* in thfj time of 
tho tmpernr .lahauk'ir. and was a|i|ioiiiti-d k''^''""!'"" *''■ 
Benipil U'tZo A. D.. Ui;J3 A, U. In thi> lir.-t year of Siuih 
Jahan, the ntnk of 'jimi" waa eonferrd on him witli tli" 
title of Khan 'Anuiaii ll.ihadar. Uu was a ijocni poi t,^ and 
in the anth<>r nf a woik nilUd "3I.ijniua** contuininiiC 
tho history of all the Muh;inimndrin kiiiRS who n'iiJrTied iu 
different parts of tho world bilurc his tinio. and nf a 
Biwdn. Ho ditd in Uanliaabiid in UJ37 A. D., 1047 
A. H., in whit b yi^ar Khan died also, ilia ponliud 
name woa Auiaiit. 

Khan Zaman Fatha Jang, '-^^ ^* ^^j cj^, was 

tho title of Shnikh Xizam Uiiidanibiidi. Ho at first 
servod under AbiVl Hii!*tin inb-r of lluidarabid lor several 
yean, and th< n bit liiin imd was employ* d by the em- 
poror 'Alunigir. In th.» year IGH^J A. H . lU'U A. H., 
he took priwmer S.mibba the MarlMlta i-hief together with 
hia wife aiul eliildn-n ; <'n whi.-h aeeouut he was nu«i-'d 
to the rank of 7oOU with tin; ubuve title. Uo died l(i!>G 
A. D.. IIOS A. 11. 

Kh&ir-uddin Muhammad, Maulvl, ^^ iArr* 
*W** c^**^', author of th« histoiy of Jaunpiir. 

Khairun Nisa Khatun, cu^ '-**^' ^^^, a poot^-sa, 
who viA* the ibuighter of the Kazi of Samarkand, and 
tiTod at Kharasaiu 

Kharag Singh, Maharaja, *^^ «-W *^L)V*, the 

rubT of Labor :ind lU^- I'lirijiib, wna the flde^t son of Maha- 
raja lianjil Siiif;h wh^m be Huceerded on the 27th of 
June, isii'.l A. !>., 12-)5 A. H. Ho reifj'ncd unn year and 
four montb.f, and di»'d on the 6tb of Novumbcr, 1840 
A. D-. 12'j'i A. H.. (iJJ'^'i 4*1 yoaPH. He wa.t surreeded 

by ht0 son lidjii Hau filial ^'ingh, who, after having pijr- 


inirhoniM, andafthe puied the L&hor gate, a part of tho 
building gave way and fell over him from whieh ho died. 
This event ti>ok place on the 117th of Novembf-r tho sjune 
year. After his death hiH mother iiixni Chand Kunwar 
mnniiged th«' affuini of her country for two months wh'-n 
her w-eond son HajA Shor Singh deprived her of that 
power, and ln^crtHJo the sole nianaf^er of tlio g'overnniout. 
Ho reipiied iibout two years and eij(ht numths, and was 
murdered together with his son Ilaja Partib Singh by 
Sardar A jit hiugh on the 13th of September. 1843 A. 1>. 
Raja Dalip 8ingh, tho youngest son of Sluharaji Itanjit 
Singh, who woe only ten years of age, waa then mised to 
the ma^niid. 


Khasha, C***^» the poetical title ofapenon who i» th*r 

nuthorofa Uiwan which he completed in 1(381 A. U., 
1092 A. H. 

Khassaf or Al-Khassaf, O*-*^, vU« Abu Bakr Abmiid 


Khatib, V^***** surname of Shnnit-uddui Muhammad bin- 
Il<rahiin-:il-Maliki. eoramonly ealbnl Khatilj-al-Wasiri, 
an author who dieil in tho year H»6 A. D., f>Di A. H. 

Khatlin Jannat, ^^^ ci?^^) »'. ^.. the kdy of paradiso, 

u title of I'atimo, the dau'^htcr of Muhumuuid, and wife of 

KhatUQ Turkau, cj'^ cy^, this name or title mcani 

tin- "'rtirki-ih huly," and was iilw:iys given to prince«»eii 
wf Turkish diftcent. The wife of Sultan Malikshiih 
Saljiiki tx^ru the HiLmu title. She watt thit mother of 
]SI:diniii'd. a bciy of f'tur yoan? of agt*. wliom slie nised to 
the throne nftor thr d.-ath of b. r husbitnd in 1002 A. D., 
485 A. H., but he di<»d coon after, and Barkayamk his 
eblrht brother nomntetl l\w throuf. The wifo nf ^ultan 
San jar vrim uho ealled Khfitiin Turkau. She ditnl in 1150 

A. i). 

Khattabif C/^*^* surname of Abii SuUimin Hanu'd bin- 
Muhiunmud, :ui author who died in 99S A. I)., 388 A. U. 
Khawari, oVJ^» po^timl title of 3Iir 'Abii'l Fatha. 

Khawas Khan* c"*^ u*lj^» »i" »'ni'' '" *^^*' serrico of 

Siiliin Shah jaally renowned for pentoniJ eourngt,', strict 
honour, ^'nat abilities* in war. and extens-ive geni.n>5ity, 
wa»* lonL' driven iibnut from plaee to pitiro, on oi-eount 
of birt tijilitiiii,' againiit the kinir in favour of his brother 
'Adil Sbah. H. at last t<K»k protoelion with Taj Khin, 
governor of Sanibhi*!. who to ingratiate himself with 
Salim Stmh ba5<-ly luwji'i.-iinatt'd him about the year 15ol 
A. I)., 0a8 A. H. His body wad carried to Uehli and 
there intern-d. Ilij* tomb is fn-qm^ntcd by the devout to 
this day, they numbering him among their saints. 

Khawaa Khan, cJ^ U^^J^t »n '"nir in the service of 
ihi/ erfipLior Jabiingir. Ho hid a Jaijir in Kanauj, and 
diL-d there in the yiar 1521 A. V., 1024 A. U. 

Khawind Shah or Khawand Shah, «^ <^^^j^\, 

aUf> e.iil. d Mir Khawand, and Amir Khan, and Shall, a 
eebbrated I'rT^iiui liintorian, known anion^^^t uh by tho 
name of Mirkhond as h<- ealltt hinif^elf in the pn'face of 
the life of Muhaiuuuol, but hia true name at length is 
KI iilKinimad bin-Khdwiind Shah bin-Mahmtid. lie is the 
aullior ef the work eulled " liauiiit-u* Sufi," the Garden 
of I'm ity . lb> wa.H t»uru Inwards the eb»si> of the year 1 433 
A. D.orthobeginningof 1431 A D.,838orR37 A. U. Hia 
fatlier's name wai S.iyynd Hurban-uddin Khiiwand Shah, a 
native of Mavanitmahr. after whose death he found means 
to beiulroduced to the oxeelU-nt Amir 'Alisher, prime-min- 
ister to Sultan Hu!!ain Mirzaof Hirat. from whom he experi- 
enced tivtiry tuurk uf Idnduesd aiid uucouiugemeuL, and 


to viMmWdidSaiiadtb* above work. H« died at Balkh 
dfe«r • UoMri&g Ulii4w on tho 33ni of June, 1498 A. D.. 
tel2^V*'aa« 003 X. H^ a^^ C6 yean. HienT is no 
«ilfaw Orintel vutk (My* Hir H. H. KUiot} thut t^nda 
Ughtr ia boktic ««tim»liun Ihiin the lUurjit-iui-SAfA. 
nit work M wriMco In acvon IxiokB, the aulhor had ji»t 
a— lililiii lk» Mli boQk wbvD h« diml, and hi* iwu Khoa- 
4a Mir wfM* tU Tth bo(^ and fiaialiod it in 16S8 A. 1)., 


Kbajrftl, jHf^y tb* pootioal title of Mir Muhammad Tal^i, 
•ulWif *4 a work calUd " B&iUin Khuyal," llio Gardi:*n 
bi InbkipiMlioo. U« ttoumhixl uhnut the year 1756 A. D„ 
1I7« A. tL 

KhmynlU iJ^^ t^^t «' BukhArit, a pnpil of Khwfijii 
'iMMt-nlWh. .. - ' 
Itfi la kb /i: • 
Um ttrvicK of ;vi . > , . ; 
dl«d tad Uit a Diw&D. 

1 Jif »iH'iit the grt^flUir prtrt of hxa 

•:, ho wu« two y*.'Hn» iit Uiiilt in 

t^li Beg, tliiriiig whoso rt'igii he 

KbaxtnU u!)''^i >ui aatronomcr whoao proper name is 
'AbdoJ Ualnuio. 

pprtaifc BftWSTt j(^ ^^^1 vtV« Sayyad IloBain Khink 

nttfWd, </^ff tb« poHieal naino of BaV"' Kaahl, which aeo. 
KhitaM* i/^^^f tlw poetical title of Shah lemi'il tJAfiiwi I. 

Ctea, V^./^^» ^^S °' ^^^^ Firiflhta aaya 
Aal WiCh lb* aotkon of the ''Talkat AUhnitid Sh&hi/' 
4^ «f IIm ''TavAHkb Hubarik," styln him a Sity- 
m| Mf a 4M0«skdant of th<! prophet. Ilia fjithur 3klitJik 
Italito^A «aa jar at nor of Multaii, und he Hucuiiedt^d him 
ii ^iift'lAM. 1^ dif<^t<-d Uuiiliit KhiLii Lodi in a biiltlv. 
inj %mfki§, lak«n hitn prif«ont.T. Ufiroodi-d the throuo of 
MMtmitit 4th tA Juno. 1414 A. D.. Idth iiuhV 1, H17 
j|. H' H« diwl after a reif*n offli^vcu lunux ypiLTft two 
«Mif«cWafia two days on thr 4th June, 1421 A. 'D., 17tl) 
Jmm^if It 1*24 A. II., and veoB oiiccoedcd liy his son 
Ml^iw t!Uh* Khinr Khiui did not lutniimi* ihi* title of 
iMpanK, but fmtoidad to hold the otupiro for tShdhnikh 
lllfiip tlw ton of Am(r TtLimiir, in whoac uttme he struck 

1%t/oUMeim$ is a lUt nfiht kinft of the \th or Sdddt 
JJynoMty «/ JhhiC 

A. D A. H. 

SMor Khan, u Sayynd. hagtm 1414 817 

M^Urik M>ih, ».t> nf Khijdr Khin. . . „ 1421 B24 
titAamtmati hhah, thu aon of Kand, the 

mm^iKhiaiT, „ 1434 837 

'jlU ^rf fft, •rm uf &[uhuniiiutd Shah. 

lL«' ia*l of ihu Hftj'^'udH who ubdica- 

tMl ui Uruur uf IJahlol L6di, „ 1446 849 

nmlf iOian, i^J^j"^, tbo aon of Bul^ 'AU-addfn 
KbiliL Thia mineo foil in 1ot» witJi Dcval Devi, the 
4aui!fuer of itao KAna, laja of (iuitiit, and murried her. 
Ttu' bi»t<iry of Ihuir luvw i» written in a jHtum, entitled, 
** lah^iAi" by Amtr Khuau. fW« KnuU D**\i. 

Khan, Khwflja, c/^j"^ *^!^, a descon- 
4mnt of th« king* of Kiah^hor. Ho aored under the 
■RiMwur Uumiyun who goTo him hii rater, nafli«d Gul- 
liadaD. in marria^ and t^tpninifl him s^ovt-nujr of I^hnr 
aad all<jMirafd* uf Buhir, wJwro bo dW about tbo vetir 
l«M A. X;., »&6 A. H. ^ 

Kbizir, Ehwaja, 

*^l>^, name of a prophet who^ 

the OriontnlH Miy, ia still living, and wtmctizncia appom 
to travollitra who havo ItMit th^ir wiiy. li<' is snid to bav» 
aooompanifd Alexindtr thi- Urcut to the dark rcgimw of 
Zuliiiat, where he wuu told he would find the Wat«r of 

Khojam, (^J^, tho podicol name of Khwija Soltia, lie 
author of n pwm in ITrdu rontoining th*- ortory of ShascK 
thitl ShiUi, dedicated to Sa'adtit 'All Khan, llui Nawab vi 


Khondamir, jt^^'^j^, the son of the colebratod Astir 
Khiiwtuid Sh&h (Mirkhoiid), Hi.* full nnm** ta Gh»ri«> 
uddin Midmmin.'id hiu-liamid-iiddin Khond Aniif. He 
ie the author of tho hi.*^lon,' cnlltd " Khulli.sAt-ul-AkblMr,*' 
wlurh irt cDDHidertid to Ix- an nbrid^iii'.'iit ol the *' HauAt* 
U8-Rafi ;*• this book he wnilr in 14^8 A. 1>., 004 A. iL 
and dedicated it to Amir 'Alfsher hia patron. U» mi 
bom, says Sir H. M. KUiot, at liir&t itlumt the year 14*5 
A. n^ HSO A. H.. fnr hi« Atati-x in th^ ftrcfnrM to the 
**Habfb-u*-Sittr," tJifil when ht- > , iir 

1621 A. !>., 027 A. 11., he had .e 

or eight etaf^tji beyond tho fori. ... U 

wiis aftt^r thfl uiime of hit* patnm K iK 

ullti}i. A native of AtrlilM.'!, thut h- .]|[ 

"Uabili-UD-Siar." B<'«id('» the abovi-moutioai-'d wutkVi 
hu comjKjaed tho *' Mahir-ul-Miduk," Hw "Akhb&r-id^ 
Akhiar," tho " I»tistdr-ul-Wn«Ti." the " Mukarun-ul-Akh. 
Ulf." and the '■ MmiUUiib TinTth W.L**af." Tlirr? an 
two othur wurVd uMribt-d tu liim, rallied *' Gbarl«!b-iil* 
Aarar," and ** Jawahir'til-Akhbir". llv waa compuUed to 
leave Hiritt on account of the dihturbcil aiat*} of ibe ooos- 
try in 10^7 A. D.. 933 A. U., and ..ttrwartU tccks 
journey to HinduHtan in conipimy with Miitilan^ Shahab* 
uddin the- punster, and !Mirza Ibrahim Kinunz, Mfwrntd 
the muFt literary men of the fl«;o, (In ShIumIkv 11)«? IWh 
of SepU-mbfi", l'62S A. D.. 4th Muhwram, 9^ A. It, 
they reuohed the metropolis of Airnjh. and wan* inirfr* 
dueed to tho empt:tx)r Ilihar Nhiih. Thry w*ir*» loaded 
witli pn>iH«tit« and direct^^ In remain in fiiliire aboat hi* 
pemon. Khondamir aecompaniwl lb., .mi., t,,i ..., y^vt 
cxpodition to tlcn^l, and ui>on hi<! ''. q. 

eelftoluH eon Hiimayun. in whoso i na 

" ICanun Humdyiinf," whirh is quft la 

th(i Akbar<nama. He afterwards ncv ,,,0, 

arch to Oujrdt, and died in cainp duiiii^ Uu' t iu)k;rur'« 
mnreh fruin Khandesh to Mundii in piin>iijt of ilahtdttf 
8huh (Jujrdti. Thin event tt.<.k plfip*« in I r^''' ' '' -^(2 
A. H., some lime Httfir the d"Hth uf hi« li oi 

tShuhab-iiddin, who died the sjihk' year. rv» 

quiiHi hiH bfidy conveyed to Debit, and n i,j 

the aido of Xisdm-uddiQ Aidiu and Amu 1 . ihc 

hut und 7th book of the " KaujEAt-us-Safi" wiu wiitUn Uj 

Ehub, ^7^, tho poetical appellation of Kami!. uddin £%i. 
atdni, Ibe (luthor of a myntiiad ma^awi in ihp Onfrili 
dielevl. composed in 1578 A. D.. 9Hfl A. U. Ua alw 
wrot« a Tersian tnuudation and conuaantonr on it in I MB 

A. U^ aaO A> 0> 

Khub-uHah, Shaikh, A^'v:>i ^^ of Aiu»^ tirtt,t^ „^ 

named Sliaikh Muhammad Yahin, was the nepbfnr aad 
eon-in-htw of Shaikh AfziiJ of that pla^-*.. whnm hr •ae- 
ceodcd on the mu*in«d of Ir-*had. llml is to »■ 1 'TTi. 

tual ^ido. He died at AUfthaUd on Mm, 14 

of NovemUr. IJUI A. IK 1141 A. H.. and ia. ^.u ^1.. lK 
Muliammud NiUir. wht*se p>^'titiil name wan h'ajli . - 
coeded bnn. Khul>-ullah ia tho author of wTfliral ^^^^ 

Khuda Banda, '"^ **^, ruU Muhammad Kbodi 

Khuda Banda Khan, cj^ ^'^ ^'^, aon cf 




•Umri Shfiisti KhAn. In the lifotime of hia fathrr he 
held the FnujJiiri of lljibiiir-li with llic niik of 101)0. und 
afl<'r hu fathcr'B dmth. in 16S4 A. V.. ho wua rwulkd U 
the pnwenr*', and was inurriitl to tht? tJuuf(htvr uf Jiimlat-ul- 
Hulk Aaad Khiin. In thh yi-ar 1700 A. 1)., 1112 A. II. 
he vti» iip|K'intL-d govornor of Bidiir in tUu Iiakltin hy 
thv pnipiTor 'AlntniTir, riiid nulwi^ufntlv of Kiirii:ilii.' 
Bijipiir. AfUT Ihu dtutli nf lii'ili-nllah Khan H. hi 1703 
A. !) , h« wii.H hunMEin^ii with Un,^ \njht of!irid st''wwird 
of Ihc hon:<i httlil with Ihi- niiik ot 2.5UO \wi»l'. At tlir 
timi of 'Alamtrir's dialli, h«' hthl the rank of iiOOO. Tin 
o»[K<utM>d the iiiu-sv of 'Azjm Sliah ujfainut his broUi'-r 
BtthiAiiur Shiih. ami «ii<'d of hit* wounds a f<;w d»yB afU-r 
thobaltU' in Jiuic, 17U7 A. D., lilB A. U. 

Kbudyja, ^••^t <>r Khadija, the Brat wifp of Jtubara- 
mad. Sh"' wa« a wiiluw fuij di-alt in mcnhiUHiist'. She 
hftd itmployi^l MuhiiTnmaii for sonm limi- to drivt« lur 
caiiipla, and afl'-rwanU married hirn. Muhimmiad hud 
scTfral childn n by hi-r. but all of thi'm di« d voiihk^, ex- 
cepting throo daiiehtfrs, ono of whom was Kalinia, who 
was murrii'd to 'All. Aflor hi-r marrinen with Miihnra- 
mnd she livud 2'J yt-ars. aoii xji-')! nt Mijcca tlin-o yrurn 
boforo th<^' ixmim^-nri'mfiiit of Ih-- Hijri rro. ond thn-t- days 
aft*!r thu death of Aim Tiltb lli<' fathL-r of 'Ah', and unch' 
of Muhjimniad, in Aiij^nHt. Jiltl A. 1> , api*d G'l lunar 
yean*. Mr. Barckhnnlt iiifurnis u^ thru ih'' tomb of 
Khiidyjii in Mill rcnmininK. and is n>fruliirly riNitcd by 
pi)(;riini*. it iti piiclowd by « w|iiar(^ wall, and pre«nt« 
no objpclA of eurioiity oxcppt thi' tombstone, which bus 
a Uao iiiHiripti'iu in Kufir Lhiirart<-ni, rontainiu/j;: ^ p""- 
sufc^ from thf Kui-jin, from tUi^ rhiiplor cnlJtk-J, " Siirut- 

Khurdadbih, ^j'v^^, or nm-Khwrdaziba, pumamf' 
of AbiVl K:i^im 'L'bjiid-uUah bin-Al.uimd (or 'Abdiilluh) 
Ibn-Khuni:iziha. This autlmr hat IjL-rn tho ulijnt of 
conaidf-rnVili- i'mtrov<T«ic9 nmonR- Iho nricntjilirtts nf Ku- 
TOp*\ Khurdiizibtt (the KrandfathtT of our author) was 
A ma(fi;ui, and wati L-onvt-rtt-d to If-lani by IIk- War- 
roakidt^M. Abu'l Ka>im {uiir aiilliof; was c-oriw'qut-ntly 
mppointi^'d ovrr llm jMttit and iiil<dli|ijri<rici.< di-partiiicnt in 
thi' provinces bcdont^uf^ to thr .lobiil. (mountain"; ^ub- 
«(i<qut ntlv ho camr to the i*ourl of the Khulitik Mu'latnid, 
and btfumv oni- of hi» privy <»<Uor9. He U thu 
author of wvrral wuikn, amonif wliich nrc — I, " Kilab 
Adab-ua*Sama," (from whirh Mafla'udi pivts a very in- 
Icrcsling r-xtnud in bis life of Mu'ttimid] ; 2» " Kilab 
Jambur Ansab-uI-Farrt" ct»ntuiniu^ the most (ob'bratcd 
Gcncalo);ri<'S of the rcntianii ; 3, " Kitab-a1-Mu.sAlik- 
wal*l[untnlik," a {ji-o^rapliii'al Work on tlic ntjid.n and 
kiiij^IomK ; 4, ** Kilab-al-Sburnb,*' on diink ; 5. " Kitab- 
ul-ljihwwii-MaliiJii," on playin;; and amuiM<ni'-nt» ; '.J, 
** Kilab-al-Anwn." on thi- nlun, and 7, *' Kilili-iil- 
Nudnnia-wal-.Iiil:it>a'" on iourlinrs and I'ompaniontj, Tb'? 
Ofwgraphy of lbn-Kliurda/.il>a, miys Sir 11. M. Klliut, 
it) tho oniv work whii'h wi' jMwsms of lliia author, and fif 
thin thorn it* only ohp copy in Kurop*-. Tb" -MS. in 
question is amii-nt. brurin;; tin- datti- of 1232 A. !>,. ti30 
A. H., but it wants in iiii">t in^lnnrt-s tbi' diat-ritiral 
points. It U pp'.'iiTvod in the liodluiau Library at Ox- 
ford, No. 9'J3 Ibn-Khunia/iba diud about thu year 912 
A. D., 300 A. 11. 

Khurrain Bakht, Mirza, ^^ cj^ 'i^, tho son of 
Mirzi Jahilndar Shah, tho son of Shah ' Abim, king- of Pehli. 

Khurram Bpgnm, {^.' |V^> tho wife of Mirx4 Sulai- 
man BaiLikluHbi. 

Khurrain» Mirza, Cj'^ 'i/*i original name of tfap <>m- 
p.?ror Sbiih Jalmii !» forn he rame to the throno. Khur* 
ram wiu built by him Ujfuro hu iMam to ihu thione. 

Khurshed Mirsa, JTawab, 'jj^ '^jy^ w^. nondndnw 

to the late X.iwib Said-'uddauU, fbUtft ton of Nttwab 
Mumtii-uddaula. Bahadur, of Lakhuau. He diisl on llu- 
igthofJaniUiTv. 1876 A. D. He bad a Wu-tika of 1200 li«. 
]i«T annum, wliirh it irt stated, will bo coutinued to his 
widow, a young woman of iO. 

Khurfiindi, o^**^^^, a port of BukharA. and author of 

th.- " KaMK-ul-Cibariieb/' a rouum nt.'*ry in vorae on the 
" Mukliliwir" of A^miad llaiiBun, which can be read in 

difl<Tunl UKlnd. 

Khushdil, CJ*^^, poetical name of Maulri Mustafa Ah 

KhuahgO, J*^J^t poetical title of 'Amar Singh of Bena- 
ras. whi<h see. 

KhushgOj y T^ ^ i poetical name of Bindraban. a Bania. 
who waa a native of H* nanta. He is the author of u 
Tazkira calb-d " SafiruK* Khuahgo ;" the title i» a chro- 
n«'j»rini, and rouw<|iientIy contains tbr datt* wbiti hr 
toniideti'd it. I.e.. in I'Ai A. !>.. 1U7 A. U. He wac a 
jnijiil of 'Arzu, who by Khuahgo's nt^utst in IT-i'i A. D-, 
llhli A. U , made aoiw k'io»»f^ and uddt^ a prvfac« tt> it. 
Vidr also AmxLT t^ijtgh of Benanui. 

Khushi, i^^J^f poetical titlo of a poet. 

KllU9htar» J^^^r tho poetical namo of a poet who was 
the- aon of Mirza Muhammad Afza] Sarkhtub. 

Khuahtar, J^y^t po^ticnl tmmn of Mnnshi Jagannath. a 
Ktiyeth of Lulhnau, and iintlinr of the KumAyan in Urdd 
viTst? tniDhlalcd from the* HhiLkha of 'I'nKbi' I>,is, in the 
yeiir 1852 A. D., 126S A. H. VuU Tul^Jii Das and Uir- 
dhiii ItaJ. 

Khushwakt Bae, ish *^r^^t ho wa.«i for many yoare 
the agint and inti lligf-nrer of the Ilriti?<b G<trtrmnent at 
Amrithar after the treaty with ^laliirtija l£aiijit !>iugh, 
whitdi waa c-uucludcd iu the year IbOtt A. D. 

Khusro, Amir, ^J^^J^U one of tho most celebrated 
pi.n'ts uf Hinduflttin who sf n"ed und*'r (toveral emperors of 
Dehti, and wrote 01) pmtical woikM. ills fathf>r Amir 
Jlahim'ol Saif-uddtn, a Turk of tlie tribe of I^aohin, catue 
from halkh to India and tixid his residence at Patiala 
where Khusru was boru in the year 1253 A. I).. Cil A- H. 
KbiHrodied itix months after the death of Nifani-uddiU 
Aulia. who was hid spiritual guide, and was buried rioae 
lo bi^ tomb at tiliayiiitpur in old Dthli. His ileath hap- 
pcntd in September, 1325 A. D.. lianuuiin, 725 A. IJ. 
Khudiro unfortunately livc-d at a jMriod, taya Sir 11. M. 
Elliot, win n vice was triumphant tbroughout IIiiidui»tan. 
He, however, had the ha[>pin<-ss, during th' last fiw vc/ir* 
of his life, to eke princ, Uh.iyuj**uddiri Tughlak, on 
the tbroiu', whnae virtues he haii commemorated in )ui> 
hiutor.", lalled " Tnghlak-nama," and whom he «urvivod 
but a few mouths. 'I*he following bc-uuliful po<>nis are 
pailieularly adniir d by hii« countrymen ; and in fact ihoy 
rival those of the wo»t vtttuumed pucta of Pcritiiu 

1. Tuhfat-nl-Saghfr. 

2. Shiitt-ul llayat. 

3. Ghurral-nl-KamiL 

4. Ba^ia Nalpa. 

5. Hasht liiihi.sht 

6. Sikundar-uamji. 

7. Jtiiala Noar. 

Besides theftti there are (teveral other paema, oir., " Nuh 
8ipchr," or the nine p^phcroa. a beautiful mvfitical jwM-m . 
the " Kirdn-u»-Si'd\ri" or the auftpicious eonjiiin tton. 
a po«-m in praise of Sultan Mu'izz-uddin Kaikubud, kiTiguf 
Duhli, and hife fuUiur NiUir-uddiu Baglira Khan, king of 




who came to visit him. Tho *' Mzikala" contain- 
ing nu-moirs of the Brat four KUiiUfas, viz., Abu Daltr, 
'Umar, TJflman and 'Ali, with a tnii*t,if»ti on Ihr Siifi tonetA, 
wrilten in 1324 A. D., tlio "Ishkia," a foUittiua of 
poems on lovt- subjectfl; the "Mallu'-uI-AnwHr," ou the 
Sdfi doctrinui*. uiid Uia Diwan which is held in gn-at 
estimation in Iiidiii, CQutciinin^ ptit'uia rhielly uu niyhlii-'iil 
theulogy and divine love: mjuiy of thcin harfc h*}^! sot 
to mutiic. and oro chantod by thn dovotcea or Sufia ; 
frequently produciii^j; L'xtr!iv;ijr;iQt L'<.'<!iUi»ii*8, ttirnufd by 
ihtm vrtJJ, or ttjiirituul dfJirium. The Khuinsu or the 
five ce1ebrnt«d booki! of Amir Khusro, which coutainii 
•boat 18.000 venea, are the iuUuwuig: 

1. llasht Uiihtsht. 4. Luilf-n-a-MaJDtin. 

2. ^iktmdiir-ii&mu. 6. hhiiin-wji-Khudro. 

3. raiij GiUij. 

Khusro is said to havo writtCTi 99 hooks, Bome of which, 
bonidtis thti ahuveuicntionod, arc the following : 

1. Aijix Khusrowi. 4. Innhfio Amir Ehuaro. 

3. Aina Siknndari. 6. Jav&hir-ul-Bahr. 

3. Khiicir Kiiaui. 

Khusro Halik, ^^^ Xr-^, son of Khusro Shih, was tho 
liu^t SuJl^n of thi- riue or Ghuznavidcii. Uo aitconded the 
thront) at l^or ufliir Uio di^uih of his fiit)it<r in lltiO 
A. D.. 000 A. 11., WHS dufoatwi in 1184 A. 1)., 680 A. lU 
by Sbahab'uddiu Gbwri. thun guvt'mor of Ohuzni^ who 
took him prihonr-r und st-nt him to hia bmUicr Ghaydft- 
uddiu tu l'Lr6z Koh, whtro ho died after eomo yoara. 

Khusro Malik, "^^ 4r*^j tho hMther-in-hiw of Sultan 

Muhammnd Shah I, Tughlak, whose Aiitcr nnmod Khudi- 
wuidxada he hnd marrii>d- Ho hnd one* fumi^d tho pro- 
j»w.'t of tiikin^ ihp lifo of Sultin Firfiz Nhiih Iho aurceiwor 
of Muhammad Shah, by conetaliiig a uuiubci' of pei^H^DS 
in tbo it*unis adjacent tu wbtTu tbe kiug uat, but wiix 
saved by Ifawar Mulik, tho son of Khusro MuUk, wbo 
mado li eijipi to him that danger wa£ to bo niiprehcndcd, 
upon which the king left the room and took refuge un 
the lop of tht) houitii. 

Khusro Parwez, ^jri Xr^, the son of Hurmuz III (or 

IVJ, king of Persia of tlio Sosaaniun raco. He, by tho 
aasirttimce of the Komjin emperor Aluurico, after defeat- 
ing Biihrani (-.'bi.>l>]n, his father's ptnenil, who luid tnkon 
poe**.'8*ion of the kingdom, awended tho throne of Persia 
691 A. D. 'Vhv moment ho wiw timily caliibliahed on the 
throne, he fultillod in Iho miMt fuithful manner the engago- 
mtmts ho had entered into wltli his aDy ; and publicly 
adopted tho emperor Maurice as hia fiither; but when 
that cm{>C'ror wiia itlAtn in GU3 A. 1).. hr- instantly declared 
wax, on the grcundM of avenging hi* ftilbur and b4M)9- 
fftctur. His g'memls invaded tbe Itomaii tt^ni tones ; 
Dura* Edeu^A. and other strung pUecs on tho frontier. 
were soon subdued ; Syria wiiBeompb:-tu]y pillngcd, J'^les- 
linc overrun, Jerusub'm tukon, and the true cross, which 
had Imstq eoelused in a golden cose, and buried deep in 
the ccLfth, -wiia dineovL-ix-d, and borne in triunipli to I'ertia. 
His ivign of more thou ^O yftirs, was marked by a aurress 
never snrpatiBed by tho most rtnownied of his ancca- 
lon. Persid was, huwevta-, invaded by llrrrtclius Ibo 
Bomon emperor, who defeated the troops of Khusro 
wherever he encountered them, and mnrehcd, in one 
direction, as far att the Ciupian, in another to Isfulian ; 
dofftroying in hix progress oil hia splendid palaces, plun* 
dering his bi:)ardrd trequurM, and disptnung, in every 
lUroctioii. the countb-M Hlavr«t of his pleiuiure. The sub- 
jects of Khntiro had lost all regard for a monanih whom 
Ihey de«»upd the sole cause of tho desolation of his coun- 
try : a consjiirary was formed against him : he was s^iipd 
by his eldest son yiieroyn or Siroes; his 18 son* were 
tiiasKarnxl U-fore hi* face, and he wail east into a dungeon, 
•ad MM»a anvrwards died or was pat to death in tf2tf A. I>^ 

7 A. H., after he had reigned 38 ycara. The 
the houao of Cbonroes (Naushn^an) ended with the- bfc 
of Khusro ; hi-i unnatural son enjoyed only eight moxtlhs 
tlie fruit of luM cruno. 

The Muhummtulan authors say, that Khusro hxd nw 
ccived an epistle from Muhammad, inviting hin t» 
acknowledge Mubanunad as the aposllo of God. He 
rc^joctixi the invitation, and tore the epistle. ** It ia thus;'* 
exclaimed tho Arubiiin pr<.>phet, " that God will tiJtf ths 
kingdom, and r<-j*M.'t tho supplieutii'ns of KhuAro." Ths 
hlstori.'ins of Muhaninmd, »h\» (jibVm, dfite thia em- 
bassy in the w-vfulh ywir of the Hijri which cuountnicvd 
11th May, 028 A. D. Their (hronology is erronruiia 
sincQ Khusro died in the month of February of the 
year. Gibbon, Voh VIH, p. 205. 

Khusro Shah, *^ Jty^t ft descendant of tho 
kings of BadukhHhun, whom Babar Sh^h dereat«4 
the yeoi- 1605, and tttok possession of his country Ukd Hud* 
it over to his cousin Khan MirzA. 

Khusro Shah, *^ -V*^* sumamed Ktum-nddfn, w» 

" : Hii 

the son of Bahrum 8h£h of Ghiizni. He 
father at Liihor in 1162 A. D.. 547 A. U., -.r 
after a reign of sevfu years in IIGO A. i'.. 
He wiui succeeded by his son Khusro Malik. 


Khusro Shah, *^^-^, called also Malik Khusro. i 
friv(>urite i^biTc and wiiei'r of Sultan Mubarik Shah KhiljC 
king of Dc'hl). whom he murdored on the 4th April, 1321 
A. v., 6th Ibibi' I, 721 A. U.. and sxo-ndtNd the ihiuw 
by tfaf? title of Xiisii'-uddin Khusro Shah. Uo wna <p>i« 
aiteriusuNjinated on the 26th August, 1321 A. D.. JOth 
Itiij.ih. 7l'l A. U.. by Ghiu-.i 13i'g tughUk. who. tiir nvst 
duv, mounted thn throne and aseumud the titlu of Qtuiyi*> 
uddin Tughluk Shah I. 

Khusro, Sultan, 4r~*- iy*^> Iho eldest eon o 

ompcror Jabangfr; was bom in tht* month of Jl% 
1687 A. IJ., Uunuqtan, y«5 A. H., at Ivdhor. Hi- n 
wiu} the sister of iC&jii M^n Singh, the son ' i<* 

wdn Dae, and alter (he birth of Khu*ro she v of 

Hhih Begam. Ho died in the bukhin on the I6th of 
January. 1622 A. D.. 13th Rubf I, 1031 A. H.. ngvU 3C 
lunar yiars, und hia remains npprar to haro boua tna^ 
piirted to Allahlibiid, where lie lies biiri«'<l in a nerdn 
Burroundt-d by pukka wiUK called th- '—' - - •^'ziu 
KliUHru, luid when- IlJb mother Shah )<- 4. 

The dome over his tomb has an in^ : , : tiJ 

Persian vc-rwu, and contains the chronognun nf tbe Twr 
of his dtnth in the words "Faiz L&rV" It is rcUted iu 
tho work called "Mo&<ir Kutb Shohl" tbnt Khiwro «»• 
fcimngb'd by a man named H:u& by the opUt uf fikA. 
Jahan his younger brother. 

Khuzaii Cs* **^* a celebrated author, df?se4!niU4tt 

triU^ nf Anbs called KhuzJa. J'l'i^ Ab6 'AbdoIUh Mo- 
hnnunad biu-Husain-al-KhuzJu. 

Khueainaa, **^/^3 a companion of Muhammad. 

Khwaja Baki BiUah. ^^ij^^b^, a Mul 
saint. Vide Muhammad Baki (Khwija). 

Khw^a Hasan, cr-** '-^l^^j tiJ* UadAu SiuvjaH. 

Khwaja Hasan Basri, cv^ ^"^ *^L>^j «m^ U»mm 
Khwsja Hasan Sadr Nizami, ij^^ ;*^ i^r'^ ^[f^, 

author of tho work entitled " Tuj-nl-MnAfir*' which Ito 
dedicated to Snltdn Kutb-uddiii Eyb&k, kin^^ of 
about the year UOtt a! D., 006 A. U. 




£hwaja Hashim Kashmin, t/i*^ ^^^ *^[^, 

author ofaP'/rsiin wuifc, entitltMi, " ZubiUt-ul-Mukftinat," 
coQtuiniu^ ihu [piLUiidcd) mizuclofi ol AJ^mod iSaxhindi, a 
Muhiiumiudim Buint, uud olhen. 

Khwaja Huflain Marwi, ci"^ trt-* ^^j^, a na- 
tive of Murv iu iVrsiii, was an excellent jwet, Ilti flourisU- 
ed in. the timo of ihc em|KTor Akbur, iind v-Toto chrono- 
grams tit the birth of Sulhin ShiUi Murad, second bou of 
the c-raporor, who waa bom iu Ui« yeur 1570 A. D., 97S 
A. H. lie* put ILo '"biiighrtsan Ilatlisi" into rersiaa 
ver^o, but did not complete it. He ia the author of n 

Khwaja Husain Sanai, Li'^t^ ^^^ L*t-^ *^b^j 

erf Miibbbud. Ho Hnd bin iahpr w*'rt> proteges of SuUan 
Ibrahim ^lirza. lla llouiibhtxl about tho begiiiuing of 
the lltb eeiituiT of the liijra, kit Ku-^idiiJ and u ila^- 
nnvi culled "Suddo fciikandur." 

KhwBJa Husaia Sanai, tS^ c»^"^ *^L>*-j a Per- 

Biiin poet, find son of Ghnyds-uddin JIuliammaJ. lie 
came tu ludin in tlte tiniu of Akb^ir, died iu loHH A. D.^ 
99G A- 11., and kit a thick Diwin. 

Khwaja Ibrahim Htisam, 

Ibrahim Uiujaia (Khwaja), 

^r^iAs^t^^ t,ivf^ 

KhWftja 'Imad, ^^ *^l^j vide 'ImAd FaVib, 

Khwaja Imami, */* **L^, author of a story in 
Persian, entitl'-nl, " JkUli Dohaita." ilo was a cgtempora- 
ry of Mirza Kutil. 

KTi wi^a Jahan, Cl^^ ^^J^j original namo of Malik 
garwar, founder of tho race of the kings of tlie Etist, or 
Shark! rlyTULsty of JaunpOr. Tho different rulers wht> 
have governed in tho provinces of Jauaijur and Autarbt-d 
(teiritories south of Ikhli lying hrtwoen tho rivers Jamna 
and Ganges) aro Btvled by hiatoriunn the Sh.irki kingii. 
It appears from tho Tuwilriidi Mubirik Sliahi. thiit iSultiin 
Muhammad Shah, son of Fir^js Shili Tughlak, king of 
Behli, created ono of his ounuuha, niuned Malik Sarwar, 
hia prime-minister, and honoured him with tbo liLli. of 
Khwiijii Jahaa ; that upon th(j tlaith of MuhaTiiinad Sbi'ih, 
and on the neccsHiun of his son Sultan iluhuitel Shiih 
Tughlak, a boy of ton yL-ars of ago, in KiU-l A. D., 7U(j 
A. il-1 he was appointed governor of the Eiislern provia- 
cefl of the em^pii'e, viz., Kanauj, Audh, Kupi. and Jauu- 
plir, tho hittur of whith ho niadu tho Boat of hin govern- 
ment The T^.jgn of Mahmiid Hbali wan interrupted by 
serious internal eouiiuotiuuja ; and Jihwfija Jahiu taking 
ad^'&uUigo of theuo eircumntanee^ and perceiving the 
weaknw* of Iho government oriHing out of the king's 
minority, assumed the title of M»lik-uHh-Shark ^Kin^ of 
the East), fuunded an indcptnd«*nt kingdom at Jaunpur, 
and dii-^i in tho year HUU A. 1).. HOli A. H., after a fhurt 
reign of six yi;ars. ilu BULct,'L'ded by his adapted son 
Malik Wasil or Kiirmfil, whu ufftumed the title of Mu- 
baiikiShflhfciharlfi; und di-d in HU-i A. H.. 804 A. U. 
After hia death hJN brother Ibrahim Shnh Hharki suc- 
coedcd him, and diid about ih' year U4l A. l>., 845 
A. U.» after a ri'ign of mure than forty years. Ue was 
succeeded by tiuititn Malmiud Shiih Shiirki, who ilied in 
1452 A. Lb, H5»i A. IL. trnd btft tho kingdom to his son 
Muhammiid i?hih, who wits kiHed iu battle about the year 
146» A. !>., yCl or BG'2 A. H., when Husain Shah^ hia 
hrothcr, sucn rdcd him. He had several buttles with 
Bahl6l Lodi, kiug of Uthli, and was at lout obliged to seek 
rofugQ bi the court (if Sultiin 'Alii-uddin, Icing of Bengal, 
where he died in li^ii A. I)., 90'j A. H. 

Khw^a Jahaili uj^ *^[^, an Amfr of 6000, who died 

in tho timo of Jahangir, in the yoor 1619 A. £)., 1029 
A. 11., at Labor. 

Khwaja Jahan, tyW ^^J^t t'*^ Mahmid Qiwon. 

Khwaja Kamgar, j^^ *^!7^> *«fc Ghairat Kh4n. 

Khwaja Kirmani, ij^'^j^ *^!>^j an excellent Persian 
ptK't uf Kirminia, sunianiod Midik-ul-Fuzli, or king of 
the leiimed. Ho aA-utnod fur his poi^ticul title Khwaja 
and Khwajvi ; was eotflraporary with Sa'di of Shiru 
and a dis< ijilu of ShiiLh 'Alii-uddin Samnani whom ho 
uutlivi-d, and died some years after 1315 A. D., 7*fi A. H., 
for ho ooiupU'tf-d his "Gauhar-nima"' in that year. He 
has writt<;n about 20,000 ver««, and ono of hia poetical 
compositions i^i called " UnmaoHuraAyun." Mir or Amir 
Kirmani, and .^Imiad Kirmani, were also two I'eriiian 
p'X'ta. ride Kirmani. 

Khwaja Mansur Karabuka, Ajy\Jjj.&x^ «^f^ 

^r^t a poet of Tua who flourished in the reign of 
Sbahntkh Mirai, and wua employed by the Prince 'Ala- 
ud-diiuk. Ho diod 1450 A. D., 854 A. H. 

Khwaja Mansur Shirasij u'Jj^^ JJ"^*^ *^>^, also 
ctilb d Sliiih Slniisur, an cxwUeut accounbint who served 
under the cnip^Tor Akbar in the capacity of Diwan, and 
afti-'rwards as his for four years. He was falsely 
neeused of emboiszlement by Raja Todamml, Birbal and 
others on account of bin being loo rtriit with them, and 
was imprisoned and ftftorwaitla impaled on tho l!Hh Feb- 
ruar>', 1581 A. 1>., 23ixl Muharmm, 089 A. H., on a sup- 
pof*ition thiit hi! had bet-n Lorryinff on a correspondt.-nco 
with M'lr/.a. STuhiimmad Hakim (halif brother of Akbar), 
who had at that tiait! inve^t4.'d Lahor. 

Khwaja Maaa'ud, J>«-* A*t^, of Bat, vidg Maaaud 


Khwaja Masa'ud, i.^*--* *^!>^, a poet who died in 

the year 1131 A. !>., 625 A. H., and left three thiek 
rJiwjin.s, onn in the Pcrmnn. one in tho Anibi-', and onu in 
the HinduHtimi lantruage of that day. Hois Uie earliest 
Musalmin poet who wrote in llindufltani uf whoui wu 
have any account. 

Khwaja Masa^ud, J.>*--* *^!>^j a poet of an illustrious 
family of Kun, and finn of thr most celebrated writers of 
Mii^nawis In tho liurt cycle of the IVrsion poets. Ue 
cho9e the admir^Hl subject of Viiauf and Z&lekha for ono 
of his poiiuia. ] [o was colb^d to Hirat, in the timo of tho 
Mukin Husain Mlrzi, to celebrate thu «'VL-nts of his reign 
in VH,rs*.', and appears to have dovot^Hl himstdf to the ti^k 
in rather a lalkoriout^ manner, for ho wrot*.' 12,ltOU lin.s 
of a poem vn ihi* (!ubje<;t dictated; and would, no doubt, 
have add<xl as many more, had not death put an end to 
hii^ enlhu^iasui. Ho was the author of many admired 
pocnm ; anigng others, " A I)ispuCo between the Sun and 
the Moon," and " Between the Fen and tho Sword." He 
auurished about the year 14S0 A. D., dba A. H. 

KhwQJa Mua'zzam, j-"** ^^j^t a man of a T<«ry 
mis<.hievouB eharactor, was tho brother of Uann'd;! Bino 
Begam, and husband of Bibi Fatiuia, tho cmiH-rur Akbar 
Shoh'H aunt. Ho was banished tho kingdom nevural times 
for imjjruper bt-'haviour, but ho sown ruturued ; and 
when in tho year 15Gi A. D., 973 A. H.. ho killed 
his wife, ho was thmwn into prison, where, by thw com- 
mand of the em{»en>r, he was murdered iu 1505 A. D. 

Khwaja Muhammad Asim, /**• a*** ^^j^, hi^ 

Khan Daufaii« 




Khvaja Muhammad MuJtim, ^ *♦** *^l^j 

IDiw^a ZTaair, ^/i**^ *^!^j author of the works called 
*~ H^Afctt-nl-Kirim," aod ** Aodaf-ul-ABbri£." 

Khwajft TlBMir, j^ *^*^» a po«t wl^o "*»» a cotem- 
(omy of &dm^ Siwaji. 

Kfaw^ja Kosir, j^^ *^L^* whoso poetical namo ib 
*And&lil»p wiu tho fathur of Uir Duil the poet. 

l^T I'f Siilliiii Alp AnaUn. Vidf Nifom-ul-Mulk. 

KhWlOO- Pax*Btt, ^ y *^->^i Rurnamo of MuhHimnad 
lijn-Mahiiniinud UAUz Uukh4r{, author of tho buok callt'd 
•• Kiixl ul-Kitab i\\ Muhluirat," conluining tho nic'n»>irs of 
uU tli« ci'li'liiutHl 8uti Sliuik]i8 of thu Nul^ahbuiidi Order ; 
find iif (•Mvrnil othtT IkxiKa. Ko doarishiHi in the rei{^ 
of HhAhritkb Mirsi, iiiid diod U19 A. X)., ^T2 A. H. 

Khwujii HuBtnm Klioayani, ^^^ (^j *^l^j rirf<j 

llnntaiii (KliniijuJ. 

Khwujd Sodr NUami, y-^^j*^ ^^'^^-j author of 

Mil* Utnk inIM **T<j-u]'Mi>ir." Ho U also CAlloa Ehw^a 

lliiiinit H<idr Nlfltmi. 

Khwuju Sbukir NttHir-uddin ^Abdullah, ^j^ 
AiJiiH* tir^!/-*^^^, ono of tho groatort aaiata of 

KhWNjli Wttfh. ''^ '^'J^, IChwiJaBapaofShAh JahiSn. 
Khwujtt aSuln-ui 'AbiUm 'AU'Abdl BeglTawedi, 
^<H^^ ij>>^i/» MH'^^^ijO **!^, of Shirii, WM 

fut r ,,,,,, , I, , Ilo WHBimrticuIarly 

^|.< ' KiiuuiatHl two JChum* 

' rMOMDi III- tM iiliio Uiu author of 

'•no iiT wlili'h IM ruIU'd "Jiim Jam> 

II Diii'n PiwiiuH, thu ilmt in culled 

' (fi HiIn hi* IIHI1I IiIh iKifticiU nnipo of 

<• II ful iif 'A)»U. Ho ilind nt Ardibel in 

In, URN A. II. HfH^ 'AUU of TOn and 'AU 

•i AMMf ■ fw(Mi«fii«it Iff tliN tinif* uf tiio oiupvrur JahAn- 

|fr#ir«H iitl^MAf)!, ^^/>^'J^« tr^ff* Khwija Kinniol. 

|^^W»M##fl '^ UUfittmurlt <^y*^!>^f poetical oomo of 
14^ A(rM r*«lM. 

^; : ' '^ fcliv^* Iff r^aw NN(li<iidd(ii Muhammad, 

MMN#MI/ ^^y# * <^'** **' KlNifithla. TbU U th* lur- 

bin-Tdr^a, who <licd in the yoar 1430 A. D., 833 A H^ 

vid* Khw^ja Kirmini. 

Kisai, Hakim, i^^ (*^» * cdohratwl poet and phy- 
sician of Miirv in PiT!«ift, who won hnm on Wednoaday 
the 23rd of Manih, 053 A. D., 27th Shaww&l, 341 A B. 
The vfui- of his di-ath \a not known. Xhero wa« 
KisAi whoso proper name wan Ahul Hnaan, who wigj 
of tho seven eloqncut readers of the l^orao, fuid 
706 A. D^ 180 A. H. 

Kishna Kaja, *^'j ^J^j of Mysore, was placed co 
mahuud on tho 30th Juno, 1799 A. J)^ tidt Kjishni ^ii^ 

Kiahtaap, y«*lJ^^ also called Gaaht&ip, the aon of L^ 

riiflp, fifth kin^ of Penrio, of tho Kayanian dynajty. 
woB tho first who embraced thu relij^on of the Magi, 
built eoveral templea for the worship of fire, ^'ufc GaA- 


Kishun Chand, '^^\a^i whose poeticaJ a] 

wtts Ikhla^ WM the son of Achol Dis IChaltri of Dd^ 
whose hoiisi- was the resort of the learned. Kkh&ii 
ChHud, afliT his father's dt-ath, applied himself to 
and bwame the author of u Tjukira or biography, 
*• HameElia Bahdr," t. r., Kternal t^pring, which hr 
piled in thu yeio- 1728 A. D., 1130 A. H. It contazni in 
alphubttical ordi'r, an account of about 'iOO jKwtj w)» 
flourished in India from the timo of Jah^gir to tiu 
accession of Muhammad Shah. See Ikhlaa K^an IkUfa 

Kisliun Singh, Kachwaha, *^**»tr^,R<JdofKIahia. 

g-ayh, and eldest brother of Rija Suraj Singh Rithor, 
who wrvt-d under thi; emperor Jah&ngir to whom hil 
sititor waii marned. Kiidiun Singh was slain by his bR>- 
thur Sfliraj Singh 1615 A D., 1024 A H., in the lOA 
year of tho emperor Johaugir, who was znarried to Ml 
sister by whom he had 8hih Jahin, 

Kitran, i^' jy'^ t^ lyjA** or Kutrin bin-Mansir 
Ajh', a ctlcbmted poet of Tabrei, was contemporarY with 
tho poet liashid Watw&t. He is tho author ofapMtn 
called " Kaus-uimo," which hu dedleatud to Amir At 
or Muhammad bin-Amir KammaJ, ralor of B&lkh, 
was cotompoiury with Soltdn Sanjar. 

^zal Arsalan, mT^J^ Jj^t (whieh means the red Iubi% 
was tb«: second aon of Atabak Eldigns. He vuceeedid 
his brother AtAbak Muhammnd in the offiee ol phaie- 
minister to his uephuw Sultan TughnJ III, lld6 A,~ 
662 A. U., and in combination with Niair, th« 
khalif of Bnghddd, seized and imprisaned Tughi^ 
resolved to usurp the name as well as the power 
monanb. liut the day bf-fom that fixed for has 
tiun, he fell by thu blow of an «««««« 1191 A. D^ 
A. H., and was succeeded by hia nephew Atihftk Ab4 
Cakr, thu son of At&bok Muhammad. 

Kizal Baahi, ij^k ij^- Ihis is a ToHdah vovi i^ 
means, red*hemded. 

Sizal Bash Khan, cJ^ C^^ Jj*, an amir of lOOO, who 

Bcr^ed under thu emperor Shah Jabio, and died in tbs 
year 1646 A. D.. 1068 A. H. 

?izal Baah Khan, ^'•^^ iv^ cr^ Jji, of HnndK 
whubu pruiKT name was Muhammad Raxa, came to India 
in tjie reign of the t.-iii]>erur liohttdur JShih, and 
ourcd with the title ot KuaibiahKhio. Utti 




Berrod under Mubariz Khan, governor of HaidaribAd, 
and uflor hi.s Aenlh under Ni^am-ul-Mulk 'Aaaf Jah, and 
died £il DoMi in tho yv&r 17-16 A. D., Ufi9 A. H. He 
wan a good mtihiciiin und kuttw tho Indian and Pcrsiiin 
srstcniij of musiial compositions. His poetical name ie 

Kochakf »^^j^j poetical name of Prince MirsfitWajfli-nddlii 

who died in the Kast, though his rfimaina were Lrought 
to Dehli aod buriLHi clusu to the Durguh of 8ulfan-ul- 
Ma&hickh which is about or 8 miles distant from Dehli. 

Koiikab, '^jr, poeticnl name of Munshi ]yinhdi in tho 

f?rvici' ot" Xiidir Shah, iiuthor of *' Durr-i-Xadini," " Ta- 
rikh Kadiri" and a poem untitled *' Nadir-nama." 

Eoukabr 'Tr*0^j poetical narao of a poet who died in the 
yeiirlSiO A. Dm 12-5G A. M. 

Koula Bovi or Kawaldah, kjy-^ *>*^) tho heautiinl 
wife of Kac Kiinm, raja cjf Oujriit, wltiih placi; was tak*>n 
hy SiUua 'Alu-uddin Khilji'in thi- viiir 12D7 A. D., 6^7 
A. U., and amuug tlio i:ipuvift waa Koula Devi whom 
the king niarrird. llrr daiij;hli.T Dewul l>fvi aUo Wiiu 
taken t;ii)tive in the year UlXi A. I)., TOli A. U. A ft'W 
davs afttT hi.T iirrivul, li'-r V<auty inlluiiu'd tliu heart of 
the king's fiun, Ivluz-ir Khau, tu whom shu waa eventually 
given in marriage. The historj* of tho loves of this 
illustrious pair is written iu an elegant paem callfd 
"lehkin," composfd by Amir Khusro of H^hli. Mulia- 
rik Shiih. in th*- seeond year of hi.H rvifjn, jmt to death his 
brolLt-r Khizir Khiiii who was inipii&onL-d at liwalLur, 
and took ItLwal ln^vi to ha hia wife. 

Koura Mal» Choudhari, d^l^j^ ^j^^J^, author of 

the Htorj' of Knmrup, a poem in Peraiau verse. Ho died 
on tho l«th of May, 1818 A. D. 

Kousarl Bukhari, ti'J^ LSj^J^i an author who died 
in the yoar 1475 A. l)., 880 A. 11. 

Kousif t/*Vj poetieal namo of Majd-uddin 'All, an author. 

Kjifihn, U""V^» ^ god of tho Hindus, was in the world in 
tho timr of the Kaiirafl and rfindii.H. or tho 7th cmtury 
after the eommenc'raeiit ot" tht." KiiUjug, nccording to thia 
■bitk, " WhL*n soJTK-thing nioni thrui 050 years of the 
Kalijug wiTc fxpired. lliiii wtTu tho Kuuras und Pandua, 
in vhoflo time tho (ireat War took plaee," 

KriBlma Raj Odawar, jj'oj' jl) ^j^, tho lineal do- 

noendanl nl th(! nni ji^nt family of Mysore, whose powor 
Mftidar "All Khiii had u.-^uq^ed in the year I'fil A. 1*. 
But (d1<!r ihf dt-lVut and di'uth of Tipii t^ultiln, and tho 
dt^parture of hia suns front ?fi-ringapatam to Vl-Huxo, 
Mysore wa* dividrd belwc»*n tho Ni?am aiid tho Enghah. 
The KngH-^h totik the houthern portiuji, and tli« city of 
Sarin^putam, by whii Ti an. ^^iun their territory- reached 
from iwa to eoa. Thf Nizain took an equal portion on 
the norlh-east. Some distrirtM on the uorth-wt\st, equal in 
value to more than halt" of eaeh of their own portions, were 
offered by thf allies to th(^ I^Ijirhattas, whieh they rufua*-'d 
to toko, and thry wer^^ divided brtween tho Ni/.um and the 
English. The remainder wan givt-n to KriAhna liajii, then 
a ehild of three ytars of ago, who wiw raisi-d to thf Lhrono 
of hisaiHt'storfi, on the 3Uth.Iimf, 17i*UA. U.. and Pumnui, 
a Bi-ahman <'f gn-at aldlity and repulntion. who hud been 
tho chief tinaneial minifttt^-r of Tipu, wan npifointed Diwan 
to tho young prinoo by the liritiah C;overnmi.'ut. lie was 
afterwards er**at<.'d Knight Grand Commander of tho Most 
Exalted Order of the btar of India, He died on Friday thu 

27th of Mareli, IfiSS A. D., aged 72 years. His adopted son 
Chamrajuindra L}diwar,haabL><ia recognired and pmidaimed 
B8 iSIab&niya of Alysore. ITie yoong Aliiharaja now being a 
miiiur, tho guvemment and administnition of thi' tt-rrito- 
ri*'3 of Myson? will, d tiring liia minority, bo conducted under 
the direction of the Cumniissioncr. 

Kuar Singh, •S^*— j^^ or Kunwar Singh of .Tflgdisp<ir» 
a rebel of ISoT, waa killod in battle in May or June, IRAB. 

Kubad, tJr^, (Cavadc3 of tho Greeks), waw tho son of F{r6x 

T. king of Persia of the Saeannian race, and tho micccssor of 
his brother Ptdoab. Wc are told when his brother 
J'liljUh eumc to the thrum?, Kubfid, whu had aiipired to it, 
fled towards tho territories of tho KhaljE^u, or king of 
Trinsoxania ; and aa he patutnd Knishapur, he spent ono 
night with a beautiful young lady of tliat city, who, when 
h(j n turned four years aft*'rwarda accompanied by a largo 
amiy, prtsjinted him with a fine boy, the fruit of their 
ciwual timour. II«t wjut iii*liglitfd with the appv'arjinro of 
the child ; anii us he wiia conlemplatinghim, hv reirived 
Hccouiitu tlmt hi« brother Palash was no niorv, and that 
the crown of Persia awaited his aeecptance. Thia intf^Ui- 
p^ncc reaching him at such a moment, made him con- 
clude, that lortunt'! already suuli-d on hia son, whom hu, 
from that djiy^ treated with the greatest favour, and gava 
tho infant prinro tho name of NauiOierwan. Kub&d 
succeeded hia brother in 488 A. IJ., and carrieit on a 
Bueeessful war against the Komiui emperor Anasta^ius : 
and died, afUT a long reign of 43 yuani, Ci3I A. i>. His 
son Naushcrwan succeeded him. 

Eubadi, tJ^T^i surname of Shis bin*Tbr£hfen, an Arabian 
author, who died in the year li;02 A. D., 69i> A. II. 

Kublai Klian, ^y^ ljM^i C*"''' Yule*s Marco Polo) moro 
properly Khubbii, overthrew the Kin dynasty in 1260 A.D., 
aud Loniiuen.d thu wholo of Chirm I'J vcars later; died at 
IV-kiu 129(i A. D. 

Klldratr *^J'^j the poetical namo of Shilh Kudmt-uUah of 
Uehli, a iVrsian and Unlu l>Tie poet, and author of the 
work called "Kataej ul-Afkar" and a Dlwan. lie waa 
living at Murphidalmd ill 17^2 A. IK, Hill A. H IKt 
w:tM rmi- of the moat fertile Persian pouts ; his Diwan 
consists of 20,LM0 versos, lie died in UiH A. !>., 1205 
A. H., at Murshidab&d. 

Eudrat, '^J'*^, the poetical name of Shaikh Kudrat- 
ullah of Bhopal. 

9udrat-uUah, Shaikh, *^^ '^J'^ ^, Suporinton. 

dent of .St;mi])S at IthojiaU and author of foreral works in 
Peraian and I'rdu wlii«-h wem published by him iu tho 
year l»6a A. U , 1280 A. H., at Bhopal. 

Litt of SooIcB eomptwd btf him. 


Of CEhazala called, Diwan Kudrat. 

Of Pa-negyrica or Kasidaa, .. Agwdn lyudrat. 

Poems ■ GuLtar Kudrat. 

Uitto iKhar Kudrat. 

Mideom'fl Hi!«tor)-, Majri Kudrat. 

M uti u y of 1 So7, Taiuashae K udrat. 

I'rouiiaeuous pieces, ........ Kimiyio ^ udrat. 


On Miracles, Ajaobit Kudrat. 

On Jlbjdicine, M ujarribat K udrat. 

I^ctters, Itukkftt Kudrut. 

bturivs, Uiiayil Kudrat. 




^udsi. ij***^i «& Hiy I Muhammad Jin Kadau 

Kodsi A&sarit C5j'^^'4/*^, of I*£iJLh&n, whow proper 

IB Sliiiikli 'Alwliil Kftrim, wa« a celotrated teamed 
aad pious Musalmda of Igfoh&n. Uo died on tho 3rd of 
Fcbruarj*, 1616 A. D-, Hth Mul.uimim, 1024 A. U. 

Kudsia Begam, f^. **-««>^, daughter of 'Aeaf KhAn 

wazir. the auu of Ihu celobrntcd Tatmad-uddftulit, vife of 
the emperor Shib Jahan, nicco to the cmpreM Ndr J&han 
Begun, and mother of the emperor 'AUmgir, vt'ti* Aiju- 
mand Banc Begun and MomUU Mthal. 

Saduri, iS.^J'^t surname of Abul Husain Ahmad bin- 

Mohamuwd, a oclobrated MuNdman doctor of Baghdad, 
of th« flanifa s^ct, who died lOaS A. D^ 428 A. U. Uo 
is the author of the " MuUhtaair-nl-Kuduri," which is one 
of Iho most Mteemed of tho works whif h follow the diwi- 
trin&« of Abu Uiinifu. and in of high authority in India. 
It id n gnneral trx'ntise ou law, and coutiuos upwardfl of 
12,000 ctud's. A well-known commentjiry on tho Xlukhta- 
iiir ul-Kti(li'ir( ia entitled *' Al-Joharat ul-yaiyarat" and 
in fluMiftimcit callt'd *' Al-Joharat ul-Munirut.'* 

^ulich Khaxij ij^ If^' ^^^ **' 'Abid Khin. who came 

to frdiu in the reign of 8hih Johan, was raised to tho 
T»nk of 1000. He died by a rannon Imll (it tho siege of on tho 8th of Februar>\ lOSG A. D., 2Jth liubf 
I, I01»7 A. H. He is tho father of (ihAzi-udrlin Khan Firoz 
Jang X, and graniUuLb'tr of Ihu celebrated Nijam ul-Mulk 

J^ltliOb Kban, U*'^ g^t of An^j'^n, of tho tribo of Janf 

I via An amfr of -JOOO, who wsrvod under tho em- 

|, .r and JnlianKii* fn.m th« vear 1672 to 1611 

A. U.« 1>^U to WiO A. U. ilifl poetical name was Ulihth 

t^alioh KlittB Turanl, i^'^ty^ ^^ an amir who 

wrrvwJ nnikr tha •wpCTOm Jahingir and Hhih JuhAn ; 
mm* f»iM*t bj tb# laM«r to th» nrnk uf Aouu, and tip- 
vMUid u'trvmvr of Sibd and Koftdahir. Uo died lGo4 

IfuM Jjfotb nMh t, Saltan, ct>» «Li u^U ^- ^litU. 

'fhU |irin« VM tha fi/uzuliT of Ui*> itrivim''iK^tv of Uol- 
hsll4^ HA* Mtar ][^a|b ul'MiiIk wns oHKinuliv a Tur- 
%^ UJtittivunf Ti^t' •iiur- t-- trj- M'- fortune in tho Dak* 
yg jul i^fcrw^r' I '' of 3Iiiliiininiijd Bhah iJah- 

gmfif f^y '^'V'' {rr«>ffi'ft*'*l I" Iiitrti rriiik ; nnd 

, : i '■■' ..f Kulb 

I I ■ oriKjF' i.i iH'nifgf 

i, wa* nconnnitiing, 

^ . . - .., ,M '^'''r III* il.Jith, 

Lf^ /^rr , ../. I t, kiii]^ on his 

„ . 1. .. K I '. iiiit.i. |iait of 

»rn th" il ' ' "li 

■hAh If") i^y, 

I' M'l A. 11 . 'it>I' '1 ImiiM'll' 

I In of Ktili Kutfj ehah. 

■ I rul"d the t'ountry 

^(nvi'rrii'd 'IVliii- 

I ). liriK.I tin i.-i?lK 

• a 

, ' ,1 . _ '. ..II 

h. Hut d'"illi bii|ipr)ted 

I A. If.. UndJumid^lJt 

I ihHliAui lijrnafty who 



* ■ 
»., - 

1. Kuh Katb Sh£h. 5. Mohammad l^utb Shfll. 

2. Janwhed Kutb Shdh. 6. 'Abdullah ]^u(b'Shlh. 
8. IbrAhim Kutb Shah. 7. Abu'I Haaan. 

4. Mohammad l;Culi Kutb Shah. 

Kuli Kutb Shah II, Sultan, n^ v^ »^ io^^, 
who is also caUcdJIulmmmad Kuli ^utb .'^hih. wm ihptan 
oflbrdhim Kutb Shah, upon whust! deiith in June, lijjl 
A. a» Kabi" 11, 989 A. H., ho tiscDnded tho thr - ' 
Golkan^Ia in his twelfth year. In tlic Kf^rinnli 
rc'igrn he was ongnged in war with 'Adil Shah of J 
with whom he eunduded pr-Aco in theyearl5s: 
griving him his mrter in marriage. The air of G. 
not agreuing with his eonstittition, he founded :^ 
about cicht iniUu distance, whieh ho called Bb9 
after hia mistrtaia IJbfigmati a celebrated courtez 
bemg afterwards ashamed of his amour, ho ehani^ 
HaidarAbad. &h£h 'Abb^ emperor of Pcrsin, ccm 
allumce. by asking hie daughter in marrifure for 
his 8on9 ; and Klutb Shih, esteeming conn*xlion 
august a monarch as an honour, complied •■■ 
quest He was murh eslocmed for his abi:, 
encoTirager of literature, and is the author ol the wwk 
called " Kulliat Kiub Shall," a ven- copiona volnmr, mo- 
tainmg Emdi, Dakhimf, nnd PcTsiaA Poems, on a iTinVly 
01 HubjccU. lie was the fourth Sultan of the Kutb ShfcU 
dynahty nnd reigned 31 yuare. He died on SatnrdaT Om 
llUiol, January. 1612 A. D.. I7th Zi-KaUi, 1020 A. a, 
and having^ no Bon, was Buccccdod by his brother UuhuD- 
mad ICu(b Shah. 

Kulini, \j^^j vidt Muhammad bin-Ya'^^K 

Kummi, l5**j ^i<i* Malik Kummi, 

Kuznri, iSJ^i poetical name of Siriy.uddin. 

Kutb 'A lam, (^^ ^r^, a ccltibratcd Muhammadan tiist, 
whose origiujil name is Shaikh or Sayyid Durhan-udJin, 
but he in commonly knov^ii by the former ; ho was the tfnniU 
e»,in of M.tkhdum Jahini^ Sayjid Jaldl Bn'-^-'" U-t 
chose QujnLt for his place of n«idonc«, anil 
on the 0th of December, 1453 A. D., 8th / ' 

A. H. His tomb is at Batiih, six milts from ihv city „f 
Ahmndabjiil in Gujrat. There is a slab kept nt tb.- i! . - 
of his mauiiok'um, which some aay is stouo, m 
it to bo wood or iron. His ^n namrd Sh/i; 
also a pious Maaahnan and ia likewise buhud m v..ujiat. 

?Utb 'Alam, ^^ V^, another Mttsalm£n saint whom 
proper name is Shaikh Nilr-uddin Ahmad. He was bc«« 
at J^ior, and died iu tho year 1444 A. X)., at Pin^Aa {■ 
Buh;ir, whoro ho is buried. iSliaikh Hiaam-nddin, w2»a« 
tomb is at Kara MAniknilr, and who is alM> CimaidcMd « 
saint, was one of his disciples. 

^ulb Shah, «^* V^, a title;of the kings of Golkau^ 
Vide Muhammad Kutb Shah and ^uU ^n(b Shah. 

^utb Shah, «^ sA», a king of Qiyiit, wiJt Ka|b-«4ifa 


Kutb Shah^ '^ ^r^, a celebrated MnhamnuidaQ — {«t 
of Dchlif viiie Ku(b-uddin Balchtiar. 

Kutb-uddin 'Abdid Karim iba**Abdul Nur, 
^yJl*^ C*^ (-r-yJl**^ c^aJ' V^'i is the author of Ch» 
work callud *'Sharah Sul^ Bukhari," and of a hitiiaj 




of Egypt CTititlM ''Tirikh Mi«." He died in the year 
1333 A. I).. 733 A. U. 

?utb-uddin 'Allama» Maulan», ^^ iir^^'' v-^" 
^^J^, )i I'juni''<l Muhanimudnn pr>ct wlio was cotompomry 
with ihi' ( t!"! Shuikh Sii'di of Shirai, ami in tho 
nutlinrot' sfvinil wurks. iiinong: which un^ the " 'I'nhfu 
Shihi," '• Shunih Kulliil l^am'in," ami " -Sharuh Miftaii 
ul-'L'Iiim." lU" (lied at Tal>n?« on SimJny the 7lh Fub- 
rnary, 18L1 A. D., 17th Kumu;^ 710 A. U. 

^utb-uddin Bakhtiar Kaki, Khwaja, Vr^ **'^ 

^1^ jixs-f ^jjjJIj a a-lrbmUtl MithAmnindan Baint of 

Dfhli. rommonly cullwl ^nth-Sliah. anti snmctimoa ciilUvi 
Vihi from his niiUvt- r«motrv Vth nmr Aiidjdn in l*C'j>iu. 
H«' di'-d lit nM IVhli on lln 27th of N.jvrmh.r, VIU A I> , 
Hth lUlif 1, li;i3 A. II. ilis tomb is still lonspinjoiis in 
that liislrid. and is visiliod by dt^voti-^'S. lU' i« Iht' author 
cjf II IWwi'ui. t^buikh Farid*uddm 8liakar liajij won oue 
uf his disciplta. 

5utb-uddin Eybak, ^J c^*^' v^', Ving of Dfhlj. 
uriiriiiiilly a sUvi- of Shibab-iid-iin Mnbiimniud Gbori, 
prim-f of (ihi'tr and (ihuziii, who riii<MHl iiini to the runk 
of u chiof in hiw i»nny, rind in Iht- yeur 11 !>2 A. D.. AK8 
A. n.. lifter hin victory nwr rithuurn thi' IMja of AjnitT. 
h(5 Ipft him i»» his d'*|>iily in Indiii. Thr- same yi-ar l^ufb- 
uddii) rnnqm-rrd Minith mid I)t.'hli mid ext*'ndf<l his 
^'onqufst us far afl llt-uenl. Afti.T \hii dcjilh of Shihib- 
uddin ill 120(J A. P.. f^H'I A. H , hi(» ppjiIhw lih^y/w 
uibiin 3r:ililiiud who rilH I'wdtd lllMi. tH.'nl IJlltb-uddill 
ull the iiiMirni'i of royidty, a cuiiupy, n crown nud » 
throiio, itiid 'oiifi'rrcd on him the lilb- i«f SuUun, On the* 
'27lh .lum- the wimo ywir. ISth Xi-lJ'i'da» 602 A. H.. 
IJutb-uddiii htivintf iiivost^id himstdf with sovereijfn powir 
«a4.i'ndt--d th'- throin-. iind inmb! his n-sidrnt'e thi.t cripitul 
of Dchli. His ri'iifu properly Bjif^nkiug. luBt">d only four 
years. Ihouyh hi* ijijuvi-d ull tho ct-ito 'ind diidtnitiitt uf ii 
kintr fur upwiinls of Iwpiily yt'(in». l!o died at Lihor Ity 
!t full from his hurwc' in I'JIO A. 1)., HOT A, H., and wus 
Burcft-dL-d b\ bts luloptnl son Sulhiii 'AiAn ShiSh. The 
.lama' Musjid in old ]H;hli. whi< )i i.i famoii.i under the 
lUkmo of *' ^iiwiil lU-ltlaiii." find at^uida rl«i-*o tu iho 
l^uib Minar, fLrnrnrly a Hindu ti-niplo, l|kiit)>-uddin 
finst fonv('rt*:d it iiitu a nuiftjid. and lifterwm-ds Shams- 
uddiu AltiiMMh luul 'AlLi<iiddi'n Khtlit UKule sonii' itUdiliutia 
to it. Thr? foUowiuf^ iit u lint of tbi^ StiUunti cf the iShive 
(or Turk) dvnjistv of Ghor who rt-i.^'nod ul D^hli. 

A. D. A. U. 
1. J^iitb-nd.lm Kvbuk of thr flrat 

turli ^3vIlJi^l"v begun 1206 602 

3. 'ArAni Shiili, son of ^ulb-inhhii I'lHi G«7 

3. Shunw-nddm Allim^^h I'ilO 6tl7 

4. Uukn-uddin I'lr^i. »'>n uf Altinmh, „ 1230 €33 

5. Sultana iJ.izia. diiuj^hter of Al- 

tinirth 1236 (J34 

6. Bdhrdm Shiih. ftm of AltimHh , 1240 037 

7. 'Abf-nddin ^liirta'ud, Hun of Kir6z. „ 1242 639 

8. N&-?ir uddin AluhniudT son of 

AUiriinh „ 1246 644 

9. Obavan-iiildin Hulban (a slnvts of 

AUimah) , 12C6 664 

10. Kaikubiid. u-mndson uf Altimtth 

(ift>.t. .4 thi- Ul )'nin.h), „ 1286 085 

11. JaUl-uddin Fiioz Shiili Kliilji. first 

Sultan of thi* 2nil bniin h of Iho 
'Vmk dvimsl V LulUd K Iii Ij i, 
which seti ,. 1288 686 

^utb-uddin Khan, ly^ c'^^-'' ^^j hrolhL-r of Sham^ 
ndiiin Aukii, entitled 'Azi'in Kluin. }{*• was an amir of 
6000 in ibt; rojjfii of thu oni]K:n:.r Akbar ; whb mudo 
pjvcnioi of Hahroch, and wan tr''ii<htT"imly Hbun by oul* 
tau MuxHfl'iT king of Oujrdt iii 1^^3 A. I>. 


?utb-uddin, i:rf*^l 

a gmndsoQ of Shaikh Salim 


^utb-uddin Khan Kokaltaah. cj^ cr:?'^' v-^' 

KJ'^^J^f whww original name wa.s Shaikh Khulan, was 
the Bon of Shaikh Sah'm Chifthtrw sister, and f<wt^T-hro- 
th«r of iho fmiK-ror Jahangir who nitm'd liim to the rank 
of 60UU. Hf Wiis mado governor of Bt-m^ul in 10U6 
A. v.. 101 j A. II.. and wits killed at Bardwan by t^hor 
Af^i^an Khiln, tlu; funuor hiislniud of Ntlr .labaa Biguni in 
]tj07 A- IK, ICJIG A. H. lIiH remains wcru tramtjurted 
to l<'ulhapur iStkri and burii-d thrrc. 

^titb-uddin Mahmud bin-Miibammad Shirasi. 
t^^l/i-* ^♦^^cr* J>*^^i:>^^l *r*^, Mithor of the "Uhurmt- 

nt-T;ij." (."ptendotir of tin- rrowu) and »t verul otht-r works. 

lie died 1310 A. U., 710 A. U. 

Kutb-uddin Mahmud Langa, *<^jj*** iji-^^ ^^, 

EM'Coud kin^ <t( Multiiii of tin- IriUe nf Tjitigfa, who hrwins; 
■ocurtMl the person of Shnikb Vu»-iit hi*t pr**deeisflor and 
■on>tn-lnw, Kent him to I>ehl] ancl aM-fmk'd the throni- nf 
MulUn in the reign of !»ultdu linhlol Lotti. llotrifrnid 
for a jK-iiud uf sixtuoD yearv and died miieh lauientetl in 
l-l()'i A. U.y 874 A. IL Ide was Buctceded by hi* w/ii 
Hufiiiiu Langn, 

5utb-uddin Muhammad, «w*^ ^vj*>Ji ».^», the eon 

of AniifhUtkiiu tbt iup.Wan r of Nulun Sanjur Saljuki. 
H." wtij* instalbd by the Sultan alnnit the year 1 140 A. V.. 
mid In .ame the lirst kinp; of Kbwarizm of the rue*- railed 
IChwaiizm Shahi. The following u a liat of the kings of 
this mco. 

1. Kutb-nddiu Muhnramnd. 

2. Alhix. the *on of ^utb-ndilin Muluuiunad. 

3. Alp Arsaliln, the son of At^iz. 

4. Sultiin Shah, the Mm of Alp Arealan. 

5. 'Ala-udiiin Tuka^h KhAn. his hrt»thi-r. 

0. tSuhjin Muliamnuid. twm of Ttikuwh. He vaa dofcatod 

by CliHii^'ei khan in 121H A, I). 
7. Jalal-uddin. tbi- .son of Sultdri ^luhuronmd, and last 

kin:; uf thin mee. slain t23U A. 1). 

?utb-uddin Muhammad Ghori, <^^^*^ mH"^^ v'^ 
<SJiy^\ WM the Bou of 'Izz'Uddi'n Oh6ri. He marhrd 
the daui^hter of Sultan Bahram Shall. V\x\<^ of Ghaznt. and 
having founded tlie ejty of Fir6zkoh in Uhbr. luadu it hi« 
capital, and atinimrd all the dig-iiitifs of u wjvenign. Al 
length he was induced to nttaek lituiznf. SttltAn Itnhrnm 
obtiiiiitig intinuition of hi» intentii^ns contrive<l to iret 
him into liis [K'Wi r. jnd eventually jtut him to deiith. 'ihin 
is tho origin of the feuds between the honncs of OliAr and 
(tbazni. Saif-nddin Son, prince of CJh6r. brother of the 
di'ceawed, ruiHtd tin nnuy to n^vengp his death; with 
whirh he marelwd direct to tthnmi, whieh was evaruati-d 
by Hahrnm, who fled to India. After »*(im" lini" Sail- 
inldin waA bttraycd into the hundit of .stiltnn lluhrnni by 
thi- inbubitjints "f Uhnzni. The unhapj'y prini'e hitit hiA 
fiiK hiid hlarkenrtl. and wa» seated H^t^ide on i bulK-ek 
with \\\^ fare towiinls the tail. In this mjimi'T he was 
led rouii«l Uie whole eity ; after whieh. bi-iiij; put to tur- 
tnre, hia h« ail wtt-* • nt uff and wni Ic hi* uiiele Sultiin 
Surkjnr StiljuVit while hia wazir Suyyud Majd-uddin was 

^utb-uddin Munouwar, Shaikh, i*^ c^**^' v^ 

j^*^, a MiilLiiiimadaii wiiiit <>t Iluici. who was u grniil. 
soil uf Shaikh .):tmal-iiiblin Ahmad, lie lived iu the tuna 
of Sultan Fir<>i bhah UarlNik, king of Dthli. H« wua- u 
eoiitLUiputary uf Lhu Lilebi-utid Niiut Shaikh XH">ir>uiJuiri 




Chiragh Dehli ; both of whom wero dlsciplo* of Shaikh 
Kijfim-uiltlin Anlia ; and both of whom diotl the namo 
year. Nosir-uddin diod on tho 16th Kopt*rmber, 1366 
A. v., 18th ituuiafan, 161 A. U., and Ku^b-uddin on the 
22iid November, 1366 A. D., 26th Zi-Kii'da, 7o7 A. H. 
Tho formiT Uva borii^ at Dohli and tho latter at Uftcsi. 

Kutb-uddin, SiUtan, u;^^^' ^^ J^^, alw called 

Kutb Shah, was thii am of Miihiuniniid Shjih« Icing of 
GujriiL After the dciith of bi» I'athor in PVbrunry. 1461 
A. p.. Mut.Hirram. 86o A. U.. ho adocnded the thronu of 
Gojrdt, roif^cd moix* tbaii eight vean, nnd diod on the 
2£th of May, H6a A. D.. 23rd I^tj»b. 803 A. H. He 
was buried in tliu Tualt of his fttlher Muhummnd fHiah, 
Hud WM8 tnccwdfii by bis lun le l>aiid Shah whu reigned 
only a few diiys aiid "was d<'}io»od. 

tho lather of i^uli (u^b 

Kutbul-MuJk, '^^''' v^: 
8h&li T, which Bee. 

^ntbtll-Mulk, t-^-^l V^, thotitloof 'Abdullah Khim 
(Suyyidj whith uoo. 

^utlamiaht Lp^'^f a descendant of Saljfil^ was taken 

prisonrr by Malikahah Saljuki. Vide Solaiuian biu- 

^utlagh Nigar Khanam, /^^j*^' C^> daughter of 

Yiiniui Khdu kinik^ of Mu^hidtHtaii, uud aiiittT to Mubuiud 
Khiin, 14 df^cf-ndiint of the fumoiiii C'hangi'i Khin. Sho 
waa married to Tmar Shaikh Mirza, and hccamo the 
mothrr of Baber 8hib, king of Uehli. 8he died at Kabul 
on the 4th of Junt:, loOo A. D., let Muljarram, 911 A. H, 

^Utlak Khan, cj'^ t^^, the tiUe of Atabak 'Abu Bakr 
biii-Su'd bin-Zanffi. 

KutraD, u!r"» viflr Kitrin, 

Kutrib, ^i;**** an author who was a cotcmporon' of Seboya 

the poot, nnd reeeivi>d this titlo from him, but hia origiaal 
namo in I^Iuluimmad. Up is the uuthor of Boveral works. 
Uu died 821 A. D., 206 A. H. 

^ut^ba* ^"^t^i theaonof Mtuhni ibn-Amar, woa gover- 
nor of KhunLiaii in the roig^) of khalif 'Abdidmnlik. He 
«ai) alain in the timo of Sulaiznan, tfon of 'Abdulm&lik in 
September, 715 A. C Zil-I^ijja, 96 A. H. 

Kya Muhammad, 

4* , vitU Basurg T7maid. 

KjjaptU, ^** T - f soeond son of Sultan Ah\ii Kh^ tho son 
of HnlilCi Khin, the Tartar king of Persia. Ho wbb 
raised to tho throne by tho voice of the majority of tho 
Amira on the death of hia brother Arghun Khdn in ftlureh, 
12S1 A. D., Kabf I. 690 A. H. Tlie rottentnient of a 
parKnuJ injury led 13&idu Khan, a grandson of Haliku 
Khin, to rebol againnt him, and tho unfortanato monarch 
WHS, after a short struggle, made prisoner, and put to 
dotttli in January, 129o A. D., Safar, 694 A. H. Biidu 
Kh&n succeeded him. 


Iiabid» 'Hi^i whoso full name is Abfi A'V'l Labid bin- 

Kftbial, waa one of tho most distingnished Arabiun poets, 
and one of the seven whose TPiftos conjstitutod tho Uim'l- 
Ukat, a terii"* of prixcfl nuponded in tho Ka'ba. He van 
•ilill an idulator when Muhamnuid commenced publishing 

his laws. Ono of hia poems coramonccd with this vona: 
"All praise is vain which does nut rvfer to (mj^I : and sD 
good which prooeedij not from Him is but u shadow;'' 
no othtT poet could be found to comp«.'t« with it. At 
length tho chapter of the Kunin. entitlfd Jierdl, wsa 
Rltiiched to a gate in the aiime temple, and Labi'd wai » 
ovfrcomo by the verpes at thu coninieneenxvnU at to d»> 
dure that they could only be pnidured by the inspiration 
of God, and he immediutcly embruccii Jj^Iamisni. 'SVbai 
Muhammad was apprised of the conversion of Lahid, lh« 
finest genius of his time, he was exreedingly dolightnL 
and requested him to answer the invectives mod antixM oC 
Amra>alkyfi and nlhcr infidel poetH who wTot« against tfas 
new rehyion nnd its followers. Tlii^ following fMAtenrs ii 
also attributed to hini, wliich is the Gnest which erer feU 
from tho lips uf on Anib : — " All is vain which is iioi|^ 
God." Labid is said to have lived to the ligo of 140 yi^^^| 
and died at tlip city of Kufa in 141 oftheHijnjnP 
A. D.) (There ifisouio mistake in the year of bis death.)— 
Ociiey'tt Iliaior;/ of the Siirvcfnt. Labid ia suppoMtl tA be 
the frif'nd and tutor of Amra-alkya, commonly oallMl 
Kui^ud Slajntin, tho lover of Lylu. 

Lachhmi Narayan, c^'j^ i/nr * of BcmnKe. Hr u 

tbe author of a biography or Tazkim called " Gal-d. 

Lachhmi Ram, /•'; t^rr , a Hindu who wa» • yod 

and hiul a<Iopt*>d the word "Sorilr" (happillMi) for fail 

poetical appellation. 

Lachhmi Boi, ij^k cr»t^ , the wife of Malhfcr K«o, d^i erf 

liurtdlii, who married bf-r under saspii-ious circumstanoss; 
u cbild was boni in 1874 and it has been ru-ut;niac4 m 

La^dardeo, M^J^t a rija of Ttlunpina who 

tributary to tsiUtiin 'Ala-uddin Sikandjtr Sini in tha 
I3I0 A. D., 710 A. H. 

Ladli Begam, /»^ i/'j^i wna the daughter of ShAikk 

Mul)arik of Ndg6r, nnd aiator to Abn'l FaxI th* minister 
of thii f-miwror Akbnr. She was married to XkwAb 
Khan who had bein governor of Jti-nj^al about the 
1«UH A. U., 1017 A. H. Shedi.d at Agmh. imd u 
posL-d to have been buried then^ in the cemil^ay of hrt" 
father, which is now callinl (lti44} Kauui La41i 

Laila, or Laili, dr^« the name of the miatnca of lh« 
celebrattxl Majnun, whoso original name was Kais. Thiav 
two lovera are verj^ famoua throughout the iS^Bt, t^ih 
was the duught^T of a neighbouring C'hict Sh« «w 
cqimlly Hccomplibhed with hfr lover : and nothing aiyimTJ 
likely to disturb tho hitppincjw which their peraiitU^ 
attachment promised, till tho avarice of her Cither de- 
stroyed lit onco ttll their hopes, LaiU wa« commanidod b» 
think of Kais no more, iln dbe was destinml to be the Md* 
of one mort; rich and powerful ; and in spito of the pprirf 
and n'mimstnmces of the unfortunate pair, they iran> 
separattd. Kais imuinn frum disappointmeoL 
hia nuniu wjw therefore changod to Alajnun^ ftho 
tniotcd). I)e:ith at length put a period to his cnhMs. 
snd his faithful mi&tn^sa soon followed him, lettrtiw< 
cruel parent to his lat4t and vain remorse, and the 
of those victims of avarice to eternal honour oiu 
Vide ilajnun. 

LaiBi or Laith, *^K is the proper name of a baikc, 

wbn by his valour raised himnelf to tho highc«i poaUia 
the dominions of Darhi<m. who then leii^im) in ri^|U|^^ 
He left three sons, Va'l^ub, A'uiiu, and 'AU, of whom tin 




ftrnt, railed Yh'Ijub bin-Lain, was founder of the dynoflty 
uf tho Siifiiridfa. 

LaJ Chand, *^ J^, whoK poetical name was Una^ is the 

author of a Pfrwian Diwia. He diini in the year 1S52 
A. D., I2fi8 A. H. 

Iial IQiaD, u u', h colotimtod son^fitC'r of India who 

diid in the funrth v<"ar of the omperur Jaliingir's n-ign. 
1609 A. D.. 1U18A.H. 

I-al Kunwar, J^^ J'» tho favourite miatri'ss of JahAn- 

dir .Shah, cmp'^ror of I>rhU. ThiB woman had iK-t-n ii 
public dancer, imd her fnniily were of the tuiim; discrcdi- 
tAb!i> rlusa : y*'t tht*y witl- i-xaltuj to hij^h stiitiotm hy Iht; 
•ni|»'ror. to the; pxrlucinn «f Ihf noHi-n, whfim thoy wrrc 
■lio allowed on Hoveral ucvai>iona to innult with impiuiity. 

Laludin, t^^JLr^j the younger KawAb of Najfhftbad who 
turiiwl a rvbol in 1857, and was hanged in April 1858. 

Lai Singh (Baja), ^b *^ J^, a Sikh Chiof and j»nm- 
mour of lianj Chund Kunwar. Aftor the d-uth of liaja 
JawiUiIr Singh, Llu' (.itliLx- of primi'-uiiniiiti^'r ri^tnaiiit-d 
vnrnnt fnr wimi* time und wja dispotwd of by lut to 1^1 
Singh in Novombir 1H15. 1.^1 Singh livt'd at AVrah aa a 
state prisont-r for soveml yt-nn bt-foro thi' outbreak. 

Latna'it ^^**^. (also eallfd Liinti'i BtikhaH because he 
wruj n native- nf Hukbiim). hi'< proper nrimi' is Mahmudbin- 
Tsoian. and h»' i^ th*- iiulhiirnr !h*' works rallt-^l " Sharaf- 
ol-In'ian, ' " Ibrat-ndma," and " Shaina'wa-rar^ana." in 
the Turkish buiKua<,a-. \iv dii-d 15:(3 A. D., 940 A. II. 
He wus a pupil of Soini. 

Laek, or Layek, (3^'» the poetical name of the author 
of the poem called ** Dnstur llimmat." i-onUiiiing the utory 
of Kamnip in Persian verb's which he dedirntod to Him- 
mat Khiin Bahiidiir his palnm. He completed this wt-rk 
in 168o A. !>■. UJIIIi A. II . und fmind the rhronogram of 
that y-iir to he eontained in Hiinniat Khan. 

Largelran Gun, ^^^ tsi/^j^, ^'^'^^ A^^* I*^- 

Laahkar Khan, vy^^/^^j a nobleman of tho court of the 
emperor Jahingir. 

..jU. ,CJ. 

nnblfman of the court of 

Lashkar Kban, cj^^- 

Jithtiii^'ir iitid 8hiih Jjihan who held this man^ab of nOOO. 
lie had built his house near Nai'ki Miindi on a spot of 
grotuid of 'IQ bigaa which had u large j^at*?. 

Latif-unnisa Begam, ^J t-J-'t "^-fti***, a widow of the 

{ate Nawtilj ;>h!im,sul-'Umni and WikiruI-'Umni's mother, 
died at Hyikmibud Diikliiu on the 'J4th Auf^ust, I8tj4 at 
the good old a*;e of 74 lunar years. She f*urvivtxl her huu- 
iHLDd only sixteen moutliN, and thirteen days. She waa 
buried wiib fj;reiLb pouip In the m-publire of her huAbaod. 

Lilawati, u^-i*i^ cirf/ Bhaskar Acharj'i. 

IiUani (Maulana), us'^ ^^T^j poetical name of Wajfli- 
uddin Abdulhih Shirdii. a (*on of Mir Muhammad 
far^tdl. He tlit^I at Tabre» arenrding tn Khushgo in 
1583 A. ir., U^l A. Il.» and left a Diwan containing 
4000 vcrBcB. 

IiOdi, iS^^f '* t"bo of Pathana or Afghini in India. Fide 
Khau Jahan Ii</di. 

lK)nkaran, cy^. "■^- ''■:• i...,l..ui. 

XiUhrasp, •Tp'^I/t^i the aon-in-law of Kaikius, and snrcc»- 

sor of Ktt)khuKro> king of Ptrsia. lie wiut the fourth king 
uf the KuyanJun dynjisty ; and obli^txl both tbo rulerti of 
TartJtry and of China tu du liiiu homage. In bi» time 
Bukht un-Na«ar (Xubiiehiuinezzar) th*- tfovemor of 'Iralc, 
tuok Jerujialeni, and carried away into Iwndagu aueh of it« 
inhabitants aa wure not put to tbe nword. Lulirisp i« 
stated to have reigned 120 years, and wiu* tjUtn.'eL'ded by 
hia son Kiahtaap or Gvahlaap, who is bcliered to bu Djiriua 
Hystaapea of the tireeks, 

XiUhrasp, V^inr* original name of MahAbat Khiui, th« 
heeiind wn of the celebrKt*'^! Mnhiibat Khan .liihkugiri. 
lie h^id been g-ovenmr of Kabul for HPveral y*'arh in tho 
liin*' of thi- em]ieror 'Alarcgir, but was n-ralb'd to the 
pritu.<n«'u about tiie year HJ7U A. 1).. and sliurtly after 
cnieit'd to romiJKind the army of the iJakhin in the mom 
of Maharajfi Junwaiit Singh who wan ruculiod to court. 
liJe Muhabat Kbiiri Luhrasp. 

litikman Hakim, i^ mt^, lie flooriahed about a 

thousand years bt-fon' the Christian era, and ia aaid to 
have W'tm mUmjMirary with Da^nd the king of laraeL 
Ho h the greatest of the Oriental morulittt», and held in 
the highest esteem by thf ' *rii'ntal» for hi.-* wisdom and 
rirtui'fl ; even Muhaniniad c|H'akH of him in the Slat 
chapter of the Kuriin wliieh is called. " Siira LukmAn,'* 
with profound revi-n-me. I.ulfman'a wisdom, like Solo- 
mon's, is fluppost.-d to have been of divine origin. One 
day UM he wus in hirt room, working at hia trade ^he waa a 
tar[tuntor) aeviTul angola invi.iibly entered and diluted 
him. Lnkman, hearing voirea, looked ar<iund him. but 
not Keeing anv one, made no n.'ply . Tlie anijoU Ihm wiid ; 
\\*e fifi' mf(*.-*inger» fn^m (iod. thy Creator anil ours, who 
hath Hent \i6 to thee to inform thee, titat lie deaigna t^ 
make tliee a luonun-h and ili» vicegerent on earth. L\i\- 
man nnHW^'reil : If it be the absolute will of God that I 
shall become a momireh, that will must Imi accompliidied ; 
and 1 tnist that He will grant me grace to exoente Uia 
coramanda faithfully ; but if the litK^rty of choioii be 
given ine, I should prefer abiding in my present condition ; 
the only favour that I nnk from lind being, that Ho would 
preserve me fnjm offending Him, for wer« I to ufT'tid 
ilim, all the dignities of thf varib wmild hv but a bunlen 
to mo. This reply wh-h mo agreeable to tJod that He at 
once bestowed on l.tikumn lln-* gifts nf Knowledge and 
Wisdom to a degree hitherti^ unpftraU«*!od. 'I'lie .Maxima 
of Lukni&n are U'n thousand in number ; and " any one 
uf theBe," Baya an Arabian commentator, '* i« of much 
f^reater valne than the whole world." Hia wi^ulom and 
the tilrikiDg momlity of hia fablea, are ao like those of 
/B:Hjp that ho ia conaidered by aome aa tho aamo pemou- 

XiUtfi ^-^^j tho poetical name of Mir Amman, a Ilinduatani 
lyric poet, and one of tho learned natives formerly at- 
tat^lied Uy Ibu C<jllege of Fort William. He is the author 
of tho " UAglio-Bjihar," a simple vention of thi! " Nuutar/ 
Muraaaa" in Urdu, compleWd in UOli A. D., 1217 A. H. 

Lutf Ali Khan, J^ */^ *-*^ the cldeat aon of Ja'iar 
Khan, king of Persia, whom he aucct^'de*! in the year 
178IS A. I). ; had seveml battltTJ with the troops of A^t 
Muhriminad Khin Kaehar, by whom he waa def(.<ate<l, 
t^iken pri«on--r, and ufterwardM murdend in IT'Jo A. I). 
He was the laat prince of the Zand family. 

Lutfuliabf *^' '-*^, a Muhammadwi gentleman, who waa 

bom in tho ancient city ol Dhiirinagar, in ^latwi, on 
•ITiuniday the 4lh uf XovtmU-r. ISO'i A. D.. 7th Kajab, 
l,il7 A. II. Hi-i father Mtiulvi Muluimmad Akrum. waa 
a M ■' h nm m^ ^d tt ^ of the aucrud utdur, a duacuodaut of £>hah 




ft great Aaizit of his timo in tha 

«f HCflwi, beia^ tlu vpiritUAl guide as well as 

pneepCor of 9iil(£ii Uahroud Khilji, during a 

ot 30 jream AAcr l&ti death, the SuU&n built a 

Bt the iresiern g&te of the city, 

ft ihrine to the m«mory of the holy 

to H hs Cftoaed to be rnisml another edifice, 

\ff ft npovb domo, which wus intended ft* a 

for lua own ZDortal remains, and there they 

renaae^ La^fallali proceeded to England as aeoretary 

to MvJft*fcr'AlJtlu>90ii-in-]ftWof Mir AiziU-uddLn. Naw&b 

of Qi6nX in March 1844, and after hin n-tum from Eng< 

kadhe wotc faia adTrnturcs in Iftdi, entitled tho ** Auto- 

Waompky of LutfnlUli" in Engltiih, and dt-diuutcd it to 

Omm^I W. 8. Sykca, F. li. S., liundon, aiid jmbliahed in 

Khazii cj'^ ^' "-^j MnofSa'doHahKhAn, 

of tbt emperor Sh^ JahAn. Alter his father's 
in 1066 A. D.. 1066 A. U., though he waa thou 
oaly ^WftD yean vf n^s the nmu^ab of 700 uud 100 
mtwin wtffv oonferrod on him. In the reign of the em- 
poor 'AUmf^, hu ■wm raided to a hi^hnr rank, and died 
at the Umo when that cmpi'rur wiu cii^ugi'd in cuuquuriug 
tkft iort of GandiUu in tho Dakhin. This event took 
fiftoft on the 38th Deoombor, 1702 A. D., 18th Kthabaa, 
nu A- H. 

LuUiUUh Jtfaulana, ^^^ ^^ ^V^, a native of Noi- 

Aift^l fia Panu. Un wum an dfoUent pout and flourish- 
ed U Cfcolteoof AmirTimur. Thi? po«t Shaikh Astin 
kftftftMftilkoftdhiai in hi* work call^ " Jawahir ul-Asrar." 
He fii tfaff ftfttlur of thu '* Tirikh Hhitimkh." which ja an 
mhti4gm0nl tA tho huUjry of Ami'r Tiraur, with moinuini 
of Ihn ifiA RRBe T«n of the reign of hin non And 8uocut«or 
■kttv^lk Mink to whom he d(«licaU>d the work 1413 
A* Pf $ld A- H^ axid diud th« aamo year. 

iMJMmh Xuhammad Muhaddia bin-Ahmad, 

Ao*/ t^ ^,a-^*#«r* li^» ukU, aathor of tho work called 

" 'kmtikm MftlilMuu." • rhyruud abridgment of th» "Th«- 
Mn iMaUs AtUhi" Wo are informod iu the preface that 
rA«< Kk^mi fmAiwA the T<akim 'if Uaukt Sh&h in 
to iJh* rt%a of A.kbur and altered the 
«f tfM orictanl* BAking ten periods ioBtf^d of 
^ no waa a contemporarj' of Aniangiib 
M lonylf . fiiiftfiJaflaf iMa vonoon and addi^d two perioda 
m^^' iy* iftftfco IIm ■■wtwr oorTGBpond with the eigtu of 
" /yHi^i fl«lis«U««ioD to H, ifcu gave it the above 
1 1 iMftitiU of MO rtfMft-, *irery vano containa the 

,.i.-, rf^frftm, (^ *-*^' '"^^* the wife of Sirfj. 
-7 |i<'r>g«l. Hh0 wan mitrdeivd in the 
Ikaw -.I < .w«'. ^a Ur 'All Khin with Bovt.nd othur women 
«tf tk» kfmm viH^lHU >'awib in Juuu 17tiO. 



ki»Uin*n whu wat k ualtve 

H^^M ^'•i, mmkMfBJ^. *VA* J*****! 0. C. 8. 1., of 
4kh4 ^ rVA^ra /yn ', 1M<(0. Thin 

• <« Ifwt nntivr 
iwjf <»i<«J w»tHi/ii( a •Oil, tlio 


Goremment of India hoe rcfog^nisM Lachhrnftn PC tTi« 
Boii of his youngur br*>thur Bishuti Pala« euccemor to lb" 
Uaj of Kfiniuli. Tliia young man had not long been 
at Kamuli, whon he btvamo the siibjc4.*t of an ftilmant 
from which ho diitd in n few days. His death ovtaiftiy 
wears a somewhat auspicious apptmrance. 

Madari Mai, ^ iS^*^^, a Hindis and author of the work 

'* Badaya iil-Fandn," containing furma of Ictttm on 
fercnt subjects, in Persian, 


Uadar Shah, sL^j'**^, a celubratod Muhammudin <*inl 

whoso tumb ia at Mukanpur in ^aniiuj. Tii^ Shih 

Madhogarh, ^J*^^, a fort built by AUdhoJi Sindhia in 
Agr-'ili with htuiR'S, brick tuid «and. 

Jladhoji Bhosla, *^>4J tr?-^*^^ the third raji ..i 

Berar of the Bhoala family, was th« aon of Rai:Ii ji 

Pihosla I. lie succeeded hus (dde^t brnthHr Riin' i -t 

Jinoji Bhosla in 1772 A. D., and died at an t ' 

on Uie 29th May. 17S8 A. D. He woa suet;... . 

Son Kaghoji BhoaU II, the fourth rija of Bepu- or X**;- 


Madho Ram, C^J J^<i^, a learned Uindu who ia tho author 
of u book tii I>Mttnr<i whiuh goua after hie na-ine, rallnd 
^'In^hot:* Mtidho iiam." coaCoining forms of Icttataoci 
ditr»*ii.-nt subjects in IVrsinu. 

Madho Bao I, Bilal Poshwa, !>^ J^ jy jI»*jK 
second son of Bilfij( Kao Peshwa whom h« tuoce^dnl 
OS nominal P^hwa in 1761 A. J)., undfr th.- r. ...i- 
of his umlo liaghunath lUo. Hn died in N< ^ 
A- D., luid WAS succeeded by his brother Ndrn . 

Madho Rao II, Poshwa, !rH!^^^^J'J^o^ of the 
haikirt. :iUo call*.»d Sewiiji Madu6 Rao, waa th»? po«lh 
m.nijii Hoii i-.f XarajTin liio Peshwa, who waa mtndc^red 
August, 1772 A. D.. by hi* ptitenua uncli* Itaghunath 
ttbw cjillwl IUgh6ba. wliu ii^urppd the mit-uad. A fi 
months Hftor this ove nt, Naraytin lUo's widow wn« deli 
of u son, who WU3 mimed .S-waji Mi(lh6 Rio. and waa 
to the miufOttd, on which ho .MntinuiMi until hia 
which took place on the 27th October 17u J A. D., by a (til 
from the temice of his pi.Iaoe. He wna ^uooecji^d It 
Cliininaji 'Ajia, tho youcgur sun of tho Marhatta cfakf 
Kaghunath Kao. 

Madho Rao, j!;j*J^, or lUdh6ji Sindhia, riji o( 
riwftlinr, wim the son of Uan6ji Sindhia. Ho «iicc«vd«d 
hia bruLh.T .Tuipft Siiidhiii in l7od A. D. to the manue* 
xiieutof his paLrimoniiil inheritance, of which I'ijain was 
tho capital; imd by ii tmin of succeaaful opomtion* vai 
enabled to appropriule to hiniwdf a no-- ' ■ 
the province of Malwii, iKdnu^'inir to 1), 
Puna, as well aa to extend bis donmiii- 
of Htud&stdn ; and to obtain pieitow-^ion oi thf 
nomiiuil authority of the em[>cror SJiah Al.nm. 
was osteiLsiblfi mijiiM^-T. He <ltL'd tin ll 
17i>4 A. D., without nuile iwun. aud viri>- 
grand-ne|du;w and ndopted Mn I>aulut ! 
hud built a smjiU fort clow to u plui^i- mil 

Agrah, und named it i!kUdh6gii|-h, than. i . 

stUl to he Been about tho yuar IhSU A. I). 

Madho Singh Kaohhwaha, *^'yr^ *^^jU^ 

son of Rija Bhugwdn Did and bruther-iu-biw of Ji 

Madho Singh Kachhwaha, **in^ *^^ ^^^ 

'f ^honi 




succeed bcI laboH Sing