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Full text of "A pleasant peregrination through the prettiest parts of Pennsylvania"

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A 
PLEASANT PEREGRINATION 



, (A^ THROUGH THl 

PRETTIEST PARTS 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



nEroRMSDBT 



^ pfiRsaRzvi: PROZ.ZX. , \ 



PenifHniw.— Licetne pauca 1 
Ltetor.—Q,md dicei mibi? 
Pertf H»«i«.— Tunen legip. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
OBI66 AND ELLIOT, 9 NORTH FOURTH ST. 



Checked 1^36. 

May i9i3 "'^ 

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£nterod, acoordinir to Act of Conffress, in the year 
1836, 

BY GHI66 AND ELLIOT, 

In the dEce of the Clerk of the Dbtrict Conrtof 
the Eattern District of Pennsylvania. 




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9e1iCciitfoif« 

To JOHN GUILLEMARD. Esquhus, 

FKLLOWCVTBS lOTAL flOCIXTT, 

LONDON. 



I send my fHend a little token. 
Three thousand miles across the sea. 
Of klndDOss, forty years unbroken. 
And chenafaed Qtill for him by me. 

The s^ifl I know has little valae, 
Except remembrance kind to prove ; 
And if ennui should e*er assail you. 
To pleasant thoughts your mind to maw. 

The scenes described, my friend did greet. 
Before the steam-boatVs mighty powers, 
Had shortened English miles to feet. 
And months to days, and days to hours. 

His memory yet The Hut recalls. 
That stands on Schuylkill^s western shore, 
A mile or less below the falls. 
Above the town, three miles -or more. 



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IT bSDICATIOIf. 

Togrether tl^ere the stream we viewed. 
The forest roamed and climbed the bill. 
Threaded the alleys of the wood, 
And heard the gurgling of the riU. 

Thia little book will shew how changed. 
Those scenes are now, by human art; . 
How cunning engineers ha?e ranged. 
The land of Penn through every part ; 

Levelled the mountams, raised the valleys. 
Made straight the crooked, smoothed the roogh ; 
Cut tunnels through the hills, and alleys 
Through the forests dense and tough. 

Nor have they spared the Allegheny, 
But overcome his towering height. 
With engines, endless ropes and many 
Inclining planes and bridges light 

I wish my friend, that you could view 
The feats of yankee ingenuity. 
The contemplation would just suit 
Your philosophic temper to a T. 

But since I cannot have you her6, 
I wish you all joy fti Grower street. 
And many a pleasant day and year, 
And painless night of slumber sweet. 



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PREFACE. 



We desire, friendly reader, to say a few 
words to thee about Pennsylvania. What, 
sayst thou, can be saidj that is worth read- 
ing, about quiet, modest, unfashionable 
Pennsylvanm? We answer, nevertheless 
read and see. 

Our good state still reposes under Xhe 
shadow of the mantle of her illustrious 
founder, the virtuous and benevolent Penn. 
It is true, she is quiet, but industrious ; 
modest, but virtuous; unfashionable but 
yet most worthy of imitation : and we feel 
constrained to say of her, as Pamphilus of 
old said of his Glycerium ; " Ego me araare 
hanc fateor. Si id peccare est, fateor id 
quoque." 

1* 

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VI FRBFACE. 

The peaceful spirit which breathed in 
the legislation of Penn still lingers on the 
soil of Pennsylvania, survives the strife of 
party, and sheds its benign influence on all 
the public institutions of the state. Ainoog 
other effects of this beneficent spirit may 
be considered the sera of internal improve* 
ments, which has just commeneed. 

Since 1826, Pennsylvania has expended 
in the construction of six hundred and one 
miles of canal and slack-water navigation 
and one hundred and nineteen miles of rail 
road, the sum of twenty-twQ millions, four 
hundred thousand dollars; and it is sup- 
posed that the amount of tolls collected On 
these works during the current year, will 
exceed one million of dollars. 

The trade on these improvements is now 
so great, that we shall soon behold the gra- 
tifying spectacle of our Legislature en- 
gaged in the good work of abolishing the 
taxes that were laid for the purpose of in- 
suring to the public creditors, the punctual 
payment of the interest on the loans they 
had made to the state. We wish our 



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PBSFACB. Yll 

sometime relative, now our friend, honest 
John Bull, to make a great effort to un- 
derstand, (should this little book ever 
reach his respectable eye,) that these great 
improvemenls and this profitable expendi- 
ture have been made solely by the demo- 
cratic state of Pennsylvania, three-fourths 
of whose Legislature are annually elected 
by the people, by bnUot ; more than two 
hundred thousand voters exercising their 
franchise on one day. Friend John must 
also take care not to confound in his men- 
tal vision, the image of the General Go- 
vernment, (the United States,) with that 
of the state of Pennsylvania, which within 
her oWn borders is sovereign in these mat- 
ters, and would not suffer the Union in any- 
wise therewith to meddle. 

We have some hope that John will read 
our book, for times are much altered since 
the wicked reviewer exclaimed, "Who 
.4^ads an American book?" From that 
^ very hour, John, who under a rough and 
bulldogged surface, has at bottom a thick 
substratum of goodnatured honesty; from 



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Viii PREFACE. 

that very minute I say, John began toTead 
American books, aye, and to print them 
too; taking care to charge for his editions, 
four times as much as the price of the 
American ; so as to make up in cost what 
they may want in matter. 

There is not much chance now of a 
yankee book escaping the British press- 
gang; they print almost every thing, even 
some, 

Id quorum fcHus vix simia nuda c*^***t. 

Moreover, the editor of the London Litera- 
ry Gazette has deigned to read and recom- 
mend to his readers, a little series of Lelr 
ters some time since edited by us, touching 
the Virginia Springs ; for which courtesy, 
as in duty bound, we return our thanks 
and those of the author, and will now say 
to him ; opus hie est limatulo et politulo 
judicio tuo; we have again need of his 
favourable and discriminating judgment. 
The goodnatured reviewer in noticing 
our letfer-writer's Ne quid nigh Miss, says 
'' A pun worthy of the Miseries of Human 



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FSBFACS. IX 

Life; and a passage rather confirmatory 
of the Trollopean renmrks which, inter 
alia, have given so ranch offence to certain 
of the natives, though from their own 
countrymen the evil habit {spitting) is pro- 
ven to exist; and we may exclaim with 
Shakspeare, (see bis tragedy of PizarrOf 
passim /)** 

«• Tib trae, Hi" sphUfal 'iP Bpittiful 'tis trae.»» 

This is a bright scintilla to burst from the 
thick air of I^ndon, and said in quite a 
pleasant way. Touching this foni matter 
of spitting, we admit, plane, absque con* 
ditione jet pactione, that in some places 
south of Mason and Dixon's line, it exists 
almost as an epidemic, but in other parts 
of the United States |he cases are only 
sporadic, as in Britannia Magna herself. 
We could, if we would, teU such a tale 
about hawking, spitting, bbwing of noses, 
and other agreeable tricks played in our 
presence by a decent looking cockney, as 
we were travelling with two ladies in the 
inside of a Mail Coach between Stratford 



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X PRBFACB. 

on Avon and Oxford, as would cause our 
transatlantic friend to make a wry face ; 
but we will not, for fear he should think us 
spitefn]. 

It is a mistake to suppose that Ameri- 
cans generally, have been irritated by the 
remarks mfeide on their peculiarities by the 
Trollopes, Hamiltons, Halls, et id genus 
omne. The literary tribe whose bristles 
have become perpendicular at these harm- 
less and sometimes useful strictures, are 
an irritabile genus, and do Bot represent 
truly, the feelings of Jonathan, who resem- 
bles his cousin Bull in possessing a good 
fund of fundamental honesty ; and more- 
over a superstructure of shrewdness entire- 
ly his own, which teaches him sometimes 
to swallow sans famous a bitter pill to cure 
his own disease. 

Spitting and swearing are nearly out of 
fashion in Philadelphia, and at this nrio- 
ment we cannot recall to our recollection 
more than two or three gentlemen, and 
they are in the sear and yellow Tea)', who 



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PBBFACE. XI 

would think of such a thing as spitting on 
the carpet of a lady's drawing room — so 
that the race is almost extinct here, like 
that which formerly asked a second time 
for soup at a dinner party. 

If the illustrious Linnaeus had visited 
America, he woc^ perhaps have added 
another species to his genus homo, which 
he would have called homo sputans^ 
for he could not properly have made it a 
variety of his homo sapiens; who, though 
he is often a homo disputavs, is never a 
homo sputans ; for a sapient man never 
throws away what is necessary for hi» 
bodily health. 

The amiable and facetious reviewer also 
observes, that <' though the little book in 
question is good for amusement, that it will 
not probably be of much use; because 
Britons will not be likely to cross the 
Atlantic to disport themselves during a 
summer at the Virginia Springs." This un- 
happy conclusion may perhaps yet be ex- 
cluded by the establishment of the pro- 



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II 



posed line of steam-packets between Ya- 
lentia and New York. As soon as it 
appears that the passage can be comforta- 
bly made in twelve or fourteen days, all 
Kentucky and Tennessee will rush to 
Ireland and England in such numbers, as 
perhaps to break down the incredible chain 
bridge over the straits of Menai ; and the 
brilliant and eccentric genius of these in- 
teresting people will so amaze and delight 
John Bull and his worthy family, that 
there can be little doubt, that many of them 
will return the visit; and it may become 
the rage in London to make a trip to the 
Virginia Springs. Statesmen will come to 
find out the secret which enabled us to pay 
off a national debt, and to learn how thir- 
teen millions of sinners can live together 
in peace with a standing army of four 
thousand men ; Divines* to behold the spec- 
tacle of a flourishing orthodox Episcopal 
Church existing in primitive simplicity, 
unconnected with the state; Lawyers, to 
see how causes pan be tried and judgments 



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PREFACB, X111 

pronounced without wigs; and political 
Economists of all schools, to discover the 
cause of our rapid increase in population, 
prosperity and power. 

This last secret we will tell, en passant; 
we are entirely convinced that the rapid 
increase above mentioned, is the fruit of j 
the system of Free Trade established/ ^ 
among the states composing this Confede-I 



racy, by the Constitution of 1789. This 
system has been in operation for forty-six 
years, and it has covered the broad sur- 
face of our land with people, competence! 
and comfort. 

We intend to write (not edite) a few 
Letters descriptive of things in Pennsylva- 
nia. We say intend, because we have be- 
gun with our title page, and are now writ- 
ing our preface; having followed the 
advice the soubrette gave to her mistress, 
*'commencez par lecommencement." We 
shall not however be so commonplace as 
to finish with the end ; for we mean our 
table of contents to be the conclusion, for 



/ 



2 



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XIV PREFACE. 

several reasons of convenience to ourpria- 
ters and ourselves, quite unintelligible to 
the uninitiated. 

In said letters we shall describe the 
roads, rivers, canals, country, mode of 
travelling, and many other matters beheld 
with our eyes, just as they are in nature 
and in art ; we shall call a hill a hill, and not 
a mountain; ficum vocabimus ficum, asi- 
numque asinum : also the locale and the 
doings at the Bedford Springs, a very 
pleasant watering place not sufficiently 
known even to.Philadelphians: the Por- 
tage Rail Road across the Allegheny 
mountain, with its tunnel and ten inclined 
planes, will also claim a portion of our 
epistolary labours; and Pittsburgh, the Bir- 
mingham of the United States, will not be 
unmentioned. 

We had many more and pleasant pre- 
fatory things to say, both to our fellow- 
natives and to our contemporaneous ances- 
tor& across the water; but we fear oor 
preface is growing too long, and we Ten- 



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PBEFACA* XV 

ture to hope that our numerous readers 
are already anxious to pfunge in medias 
res ; therefore we here finish our preface 
by observing, that as soon as people have 
read the letters that follow, Pennsylvania 
five per cent, stocks will rise. 



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LETTERS 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



LETTER I. 



The City of Penn— <3ood Things — Efibrt to depart — 
Street! too clean — ^Rivers, Delaware and Schuylkill 
— ^Perpetual Newness— What the Houses are like — 
Smooth Trottoirs — ^Rough Carriage Ways — ^Water 
— Iron Pipes — Fire Companies— ^tate House Bell 
— Clock — Man in the Clock — Mode of Alarm — De- 
claration of Independence — Stumpy Steeple — Clever 
Invention — American Philosophical Society — Wistar 
Parties — Cultivation of Science and the Arts of Eat- 
ing' and Drinking — Markets — ^Butter — Cream Cheese 
— University — Hospital — Museum — Environs — 
Monstrous Almshouse — Inhabitants — ^Hotels— Annu- 
itants* Paradise — Climate— Winter, Spring, Sumtner, 
Fall and Indian Summer — Population, 

PhOaddp/Ua, July 30, 1835. 
What a comfortable place is the ctty of 
Penn ! How is Philadelphia adorned with 

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18 LETTERS ON 

neatness and with peace I How do her in- 
dwellers linger about lier good things, and 
strangers delight in her rectangles i Several 
months since we had determined to make a 
journey through Pennsylvania, to explore her 
beauties, and survey the works of internal 
improvement, which have been brought into 
successful operation, with the good intent of 
letting our fellow creatures know what has 
been doing, and what is done ; and where and 
how they may seek health and delight, within 
her borders. But until to-day the charms of 
this city have hung with such a weight about 
the neck of our natural inertia, as to nullify 
for a time the force of our truant disposition, 
and to retain us here two months longer than 
we intended. To day however, we made a 
mighty effort to shake off the paralysing ef- 
fects of said blandishments, and have actually 
taken passage for ourself and a companion, 
in the Pioneer line for Hollidaysburg ; and 
the omnibus is to call at 8 a. m. to-morrow to 
take us to the Rail Road. 

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PENNSYLVANIA. 19 

Philadelphia is a flat, rectangular, clean, 
(almost too clean sometimes, for on Saturdays 
" nunquam cessavit lavari, aut fricari, aut ter- 
geri, aut ornari, poliri, pingi, fingi,"*) uniform, 
well* built, brick and mortar, (except one stone 
house,) well-fed and watered, well-clad, moral, 
industrioQs, manufacturing, rich, sober, quiet, 
good-looking city. The Delaware washes its 
eastern and the Schuylkill its western front. 
The distance between the two rivers is one mile 1 1 
and three quarters, which space on several/ / 
streets is nearly filled with houses. Phila- / 
deliphia looks new, and is new, and like Juno 
always will be new ; for the inhabitants are 
constantly pulling down and new-vamping 
their houses. The furor delendi with regard 
to old houses, is as rife in the bosoms of her 
citizens, as it was in the breast of old Cato j 
with regard to Carthage. A respectable look- j 
ing old house is now a rare thing, and except . 
the venerable edifice of Christ Church in Sec- ' 
ond above Market Street, we should hardly 
know where to find one. 

« PlautcNs Pcnuli, Act i^ sc 2, 1. 10. 

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20 LETTERS on' 

The dwelling-houses in the principal streets 
are all very much alike, having much the air 
of brothers, sisters and cousins of the same 
family ,* like the supernumerary figures in one 
of West's historical paintings, or like all the 
faces in all of Stothard's designs. They are 
nearly all three stories high, foced with beauti- 
ful red unpainted Philadelphia brick, and have 
water tables and steps of white marble, kept so 
painfully clean as to make one fear to set his 
foot on them. The roofs are in general of 
cedar, cypress or pine shingles ; the continued 
use of which is probably kept up (for there is 
plenty of slate,) to afibrd the Fire-companies 
a little wholesome exercise. 

The streets are in general fifty feet wide, 
having on each side convenient trottoirs well 
paved with brick, and a carriage way badly 
paved with large round pebbles. , They are 
kept very clean, and the kennels are frequent- 
ly washed by floods of pure Schuylkill water, 
poured from the iron pipes with which all the 
streets are underlaid. This same Schuylkill 

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rXNirSTLTANlA. ' 21 

wator is the cause of many ctixnfbrts in the 
shape of drinking, bathing and clean linen, 
(iadusia toraliaque ;) and enters into the com- 
position of those delicious and persuasive 
liquids caRed Pepper's beer and Gray's ale 
and porter. 

This water is so pure, that our brothers of 
New York complain of its want of taste ; and 
it is as wholesome and Tefreshing as the 
stream of fother Nilus. It is also so copious, 
that our incendiaries are scarcely ever able to 
burn more than the roof or garret of one or 
two houses in a month. The fire companiesare 
numerous, voluntary, well-organized associa- 
tions, amply furnished with engines, hose, and 
all other implements and munitions necessary 
to make successful war upon the destroying 
element ; and (he members are intelligent, 
active and intrepid young men, so skilful from 
daily practice, that they will put you out three 
or four fires in a night, in less time than Hi^- 
ginbottom, Jthat \eteran fireman of London, 
would have allowed them to kindle. 



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2fi LETTBRjS ON 

The public confidence in these useful, 
prompt, energetic and faithful companies is so 
great, that nocitixen is alarmed by the cry 
of fire ; for he knows that the first tap on the 
State House bell, arouses hundreds of these 
vigilant guardians of the city's safety, who 
rush to the scene of danger with one accord ; 
and with engines, axes, ladders, torches, hooks 
and hose, dash tik'ough summer'a heat, or 
winter's hail and snows* 

The old State House, in whose eastern room 
the Declaration of Independence was signed, 
has on the top of it, a sort of stumpy steeple, 
which looks as if somewhat pushed in, like a 
spy glass, half shut. In this steeple is a large 
clock, which, twice as bad as Janus, presents 
four faces, which at dusk are lighted up like 
the full moon ; and as there is a man in the 
moon, so there is a nan in the clock, to see 
that it does not lag behind, nor run away from 
^ther time; whose whereabout, ever and 
anon, the people wish to know. This close 
observer of the time is also a distant observer 



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PENNSYLVANIA. 23 

of the fires, and possesses an ingenious method 
of communicating their existence and position ' 
to his fellow citizens below. One tap on the 
great bell means north ; two indicate south ; 
three represent east, and four point out west ; 
and by composition these simple elements are 
made to represent also the intermediate points. 1 
If the fire be in the north, the man strikes 
successive blows with solemn and equal inter- 
vals, thus; tap tap tap tap; if it 

be in the south, thus ; tap tap tap tap ; 

if it be in the north east, thus; tap- 
tap tap tap— —tap tap tap tap ; so that 

when the thrifly and well-fed citizen is roused 
by- the cry of fire at midnight, from a pleasant 
dream of heaps of gold and smoking terrapins 
and whisky punch, he uncovers one ear and 
listens calmly for the State House bell, and if 
its iron tongue tell of no scathe to him, he turns 
him on his side and sleeps again. What a 
convenient invention, which tells the firej^^ 
when and where to go, and the terrapin ^mi 
when to lie snug in their comfortable nests ! 
This clever plan is supposed to have been invent- 

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24 LETTERS Olf 

ed by an M . A. P. S. ; this, however, we think 
doubtful, for -the Magellanic Premium has 
never, to our knowledge, been claimed for the 
I discovery. This reminds us that the Ameri- 
/^ can Philosophical Society is located* in Phila- 
delphia, where it possesses a spacious hall, a 
good library, and an interesting collection of 
American antiquities, gigantic fossil bones, 
and other curiosities, all of which are open to 
the inspection of intelligent and inquisitive 
travellers. 

The Society was founded by the Philoso- 
phical Franklin, and its presidential chair is 
now occupied by the learned and venerable 
Du ponceau. 

There exists here a club of twenty-four 
philosophers, who give every Saturday even- 
ing very agreeable male parties ;t consisting 

^ * A new and somewhat barbarous, but exceedingly 
r convenient yankeeism, which will probat>Iy work its 
* ^^k into good society in England, as its predecessor 
^^gthy^'' has already done. 

f Called Wistar parties, in honour of (he late illus- 
trious Caflp«r Wistar, M. D^ Professor of Anatomy in 
the University ofPennsylvaHia. 

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If 



FXnifSTLVANIA. 25 

of the club, twenty invited citizens and any 
strangers who may happen to be in town. 
These parties are not confined to any particu- 
lar circle ; but all men who are distinguished 
in the arts, whether fine or mechanical ; or in 
the sciences, whether natural or artificial, are 
liable to be invited. The members of the club 
are all M. A. P. S., and the parties are sup- 
posed to look with a steady eye towards the 
cultivation of science ; the other eye however 
regards with equal complacency the useful 
and ornamental arts of eating and drinking. 
The only defect in the latter department that 
we have discovered, is the banishment of ice 
cream and roman punch. 

The markets are well supplied with good 
things. The principal one is held under 
long colonnades running along the middle of 
Market street, and extending from Front to 
Eighth street, a distance of more than one 
thousand yards. The columns are of brick and 
the roofs of shingles, arched and ceiled dh- 
demeath. If I were to say all they deserve 
3 



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26 LBTTEBS on 

of its beef, mutton aad veal, there would be 
00 end to the praises that^e^A is heir to ; but 
the butter and cream-cheese in the spring, and 
summer, are such dainties as are found in no 
other place ander the welkin. They are 
produced on dairy farms and by families near 
the city, whose energies have for several 
generations been directed to this one useful 
end, and who now work with an art made 
perfect by the experience of a century. 

Here is the seat of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, which comprehends a College of the 
Arts and several preparatory schools ; and a 
College of Medicine the most celebrated of 
the United States, in the list of whose profes- 
sors are many names advantageously known 
in all civilized nations. 

The Hospital for the insane, sick and 
wounded is a well conducted institution, and 
worth a stranger's visit. Go and see also the 
Museum, the Water Works, the Navy Yard, 
and the public squares, and lots of other 
things too tedious to write down. 



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PENNSTLVANIA. 27 

The scite of tbq city promises very little 
for the scenery of the environs ; but unlike 
the witches in Macbeth, what is promised is 
more than kept. Take an open carriage and ; 
cross the Schuylkill by the Market street ^ 
bridge, and ride up the west bank of the river 
for five or six miles, and your labour will be 
folly rewarded by a succession of lovely land>j ' 
scapes, comprehending water, hill and dale j 
wood, lawn and meadow ; villas, farm* 
houses and cottages, mingled in a charming 
variety. 

On the west bank of the Schuylkill opposite 
to the city, we regret to say, is an enormous 
palace, which cost many hundred thousand 
dollars, called an Almshouse, (unhappy mis- i 
nomer,) which is big enough to hold all the ^ 
paupers that would be in the world, if there 
were no poor laws to make them. But you 
had better go and see it, and take the length 
and breadth and height of our unreason, in 
this age of light, when we ought to know 
better. 



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38 tKTTSRi ON 

The people of Philadelphia are in general 

well-informed, well-bred, kind, hospitable and 

1 1 of good manners, very slightly tinged with 

11 quaker reserve ; and the tone of society is 
I good, except in a small circle of exclusive 
J f imagines mbittB^ who imitate very awkward- 
^ ly the exaggerations of European fashioa* 
The tone of the Satanip school, which has 
somewhat infected the highest circles of 
fashion in England, has not yet crossed the 
Atlantic. 

There are many good Hotels, and extensive 
boarding houses ; and the table of the Man- 
sion House is said to be faultless. 

Taking every thing into consideration, this 
is certainly the very spot for annuitants, who 
have reached the rationiatl age of fifly, to 
nestle in during the long remnant of their 
comfortable days. We say long remnant, 
because as a class, annuitants are the longest 
livers; and there is an excellent company 
here, that not only grants annuities, but also 
insures lives. 



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PENKSYLVAlflA. 29 

The climate of Philadelphia is variable, 
and exhibits (in the shade,) all the degrees of 
temperature that a^e contaiDed between the 
tenth below, and the ninetieth above zero, 
on the scale of Fahrenheit. In general, win- 
ter does not begin seriously until after Christ- 
mas, but be sometimes lingers too long in the 
lap of spring, and leaves a bridge of ice on the i 
noble river Delaware until the tenth of March. I 

There are generally three or four weeks 
of severe cold, during which the thermometer 
sometimes at night sinks below zero, and 
sometimes in the day does not rise to the 
point of thaw. This period is generally en- 
livened by two or three snow storms, which 
set in motion the rapid sleighs, the jingle of 
whose lively bells is heard through day and 
night. The Delaware is not frozen over 
every winter, but there is always made an 
ample supply of fine crystalline ice to last the 
citizens until the next winter. The annual 
average duration of interrupted navigation 
may be four or five weeks. In March there 
3* 

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so I.ETTSB8 ON 

is sometimes a little Scotch weather in which 
Sawney would rub his hands and tell you, here 
is a fine cauld blawey snawey rainy day. 
There is however not much such weather, 
though the March winds have been known to 
blow (as Paddy would say,) even in the first 
week of April ; after which spring begins 
with tears and smiles to coax the tardy 
vegetation into life. 

Spring is short and vegetation rapid. Sum* 
mer sprinkles a day here and there in May, 
and sets in seriously to toast people in June; 
during which month there are generally six or 
eight days whose average temperature reaches 
the altissimum of summer heat. In July the 
days are hot, but there is some relief at night; 
whilst in August the fiery day is but a pre- 
lude to a baking night ; and the whole city 
has the air of an enormous oven.^ The ex« 

•The season of the Dog Dagrs. A wittj PhiladeU 
phia kdy being once asked, how many Dog Days there 
are, answered that there mast be a great many, for 
every dog has his day. At that time the city 



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PBRIfBYLVANIA. 31 

tremely hot weather does not contimie more r 
than six weeks, and so for from being a mis- > 
fortune, it is a great advantage to the inhabi* { 
tants ; for it makes every body that can spare 
twenty dollars, take a pleasant journey every 
year, whereby their minds are expanded, 
their manners improved, and they return with 
a double zest to the enjoyments of PhiladeU 
phia, having learqed, quantum est in rebus 
inane, that is, in the rebuses of other places. 
The autumn, or as the Philadelphians call 
it, the Fall, is the most delightful part of the 
year, and is sometimes eked out by the Indian 
Summer as for as Christmas. The Fall 
begins in the first half of September and 
generally lasts until the middle of November, 
when it is succeeded by the Indian Summer ; 
a pleasant period of two er three weeks, in 
which the mornings, evenings and nights are 

tboonded in d<fgs but the Corporation has since made 
fierce war upon them, with a view perhaps of lessening 
the number of Dog Days, and improring the climate, 
bj eurtaiUng these innocent beasts. 



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32 LBTTER8 ON 

frosty, and the days comfortably warm and a 
little hazy. The Indians are supposed to 
have employed this period in hunting and 
laying in game for winter's use, before the 
long-knives made game of ^^m. 
, The population of Philadelphia and its sub- 
urbs exceeds 180,000 souls. 



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PENNSYLVANIA. 



38 



LETTER II. 

Break&st— Naiueous Mixtare-*-Captain Hamilton-— 
Omnibas— Too punctual — Cruise about the City— 
Dutch Baker B07 — Depot — Confusion — ^Passengers 
ttid Trunks— Unilocular Cair— Inclination of Noses 
-^Sezes and Sizes— Red Ctoek— Red Nose— Sparks 
..Danger of Combustion — Englishman — Drawn by 
Horses fbur miles — Switchmaster*s mistake— Schuyl- 
kill Viaduct-^Inelined Plane— Soenerj—River-^ 
Island — Endless Rope— Ascension of the Plane^* 
Cars like a String of Reads — Steam Tug — Departure 
— Country — Mills, Houses, Bams, Bridges, Roads, of 
Stone — Pestilent triangular cinders^-Conductof the 
Passeng^s — How the Infant demeaned himself^* 
Kingof Rome-^Materials, Cost and Faults of Rail 
Road-^Length of Road and Time— Viaductine Man* 
traps — ^Engineer's Ingenuity — Collision of Cars*- 
Low Roofk — Jointed Chimneys— Smoky Ordeal- 
Remedy — Lancaster — Old appearance — Central 
Square — Court House— Good Hotel — Sleep repelling 
power of Cinders— Population. 

Lanea9ter, Augu$t 1, 1836. 
Ws sat down to breakfast at half past seven> 

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i 



34 LETTEBS ON 

I and were jast in medias res, compoundiog ia 
I I a large wine glass that ^ nanseous mixture,' 
composed of a little chloride of sodium, or 
muriate of soda, or common salt, and a soil 
boiled fresh egg, (one of Captain Hamilton's 
American horrors,) when the anticipating 
Automedon of the Omnibus,*' drove to the 
door, a bad half hour earlier than the agent 
had promised, causing us to swallow our cof- 
fee furious hot with haste ; as there was no 
remedy, leaving a longing, lingering look be- 
hidd at the rescued half of our breakfast, we 
stowed ourselves and baggage as quick as 
possible. 



* Perhaps the term Omnibus may be a lAmdotiism 
for Hominibos, meaning that the moving convenience is 
intended for men; as thus, hominibus, cockneycally 
* ominibus,* and by English contraction om*nibus, like 
Brighton for Brighthelmstone, or Redriff*, for Rother. 
hithe. . If this conjecture be correct, it would be well to 
start a vehicle to be called a Mulieribus to be exdosively 
a feminine convenience ; for the &ir sex is invading the 
Omnibusses in such numbers, that a weary man can 
hardly get into one, without sitting in a lady's lap. 



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FB9N8TLVANL4.. 35 

We first drove to the comer of Eleventh / 
and George streets to pick up a man, then to 
Arch and Ninth to take in a hoy, then a good/ : 
mile up Ninth to find Wood street i hut our 
Jehu not heing cunning in the city topography, 
now thought of asking a dutch baker-hoy, who 
was walking under a huge basket of smoking 
bread, where is Wood street? * Dis izh Pqttoa- 
wood zdreed,' said he under the basket, and a 
little native who was near, told the driver he 
had left Wood street far behind ; so he retra- 
ced his erring steps, and took in a man and 
woman in Wood street, and then took a turn 
into Eleventh street, where he got a great haul 
consisting of two women and two children, one 
of whom was a young gentleman who had not 
yet cast off the nether garment of the nursery. 
This was a welcome addition to our party, for 
we are superstitious, and are always glad to 
have an infant mingled in our cup, whether 
the draught be by horses, steam, wind, or 
water ; like the pearl in Cleopatra's draught, 



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36 LKTTSKi aw 

it increases the value of the compound, and 
gives assurance of the general safety. 

Being now foil, we proceeded to the Depot in 
Broad street to be transferred to a Rail Road 
Car. After a quarter of an hour of confusion, 
the passengers and their trunks being at length 
{segregated, the former were packed inside 
and the latter outside. We had chosen a uni- 
locular car of oval shape with a seat running 
round the entire inside, so that the nose of 
each passenger inclined towards some point 
in a straight line drawn between the two foci 
of the ellipse. There were in the car about 
twenty good looking people of all sexes and 
sizes ; of whom one was an old woman in a 
red cloak, and one was an old gentleman in a 
red nose ; the former amused the company 
with dreadful accidents supposed to have hap- 
pened on this self-same road, and the latter 
was fully occupied in parrying from his igni- 
table proboscis the dangerous sparks emitted 
by the engine, which constantly flitted like 
fire-flies in every direction through the car. 



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PENNSYLVANIA^ ^ 37 

There was a tal], good-looking, gentleman- 
like Englishman, who seemed like one that 
had dissipated three-fourths of a large patri- 
mony in liveried servants and other necessa- 
ries &shionable in old England, and who 
might have crossed the Atlantic with a 
view to nurse the remaining fourth, and to 
see the New World and its odd inhabitants ; 
and by way of gathering information and 
shortening the ride to Lancaster, he took a 
long nap. 

Two cars filled with passengers and cover- 
ed with baggage are drawn by four fine horses 
for about four miles to the foot of the inclined 
plane, which is on the western bank of the 
Schuylkill, and is approached by a spacious 
viaduct extending across the river, built of 
strong timber and covered with a roof. The 
cars had scarcely begun to move when it was 
discovered that they were on the wrong track 
in consequence of the switch master having 
left the switches open, and every body wished 
them applied to his own back. This error 



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38 L8TTEB8 OH 

beiDg rectified by a retrograde moyemeot, at 
length the cars started on the right track at 
the rate of six miles an hour. 

The ride to the foot of the plane is very 
interesting) first passing through a deep cut 
made forty years ago for a canal that was 
never finished, and then by a number of 
beautiful country seats successively arranged 
on the eastern bank of the Schuylkill ; afibrd- 
ing occasional glimpses of the rotnantic river 
itself, and the lovely scenery on its western 
bank. The view from the viaduct towards 
the north is particularly fine, embracing a 
long reach of the river with a beautiful island 
in the foreground, and the banks on both sides 
occasionally rising into bold hills crowned 
with romantic villas. 

At the foot of the inclined plane the horses 
were loosed from the cars ; several of which 
(the number being in the inverse proportion 
of the weight,) were tied to an endless rope, 
moved by a steam engine placed on the top . 
of the plune, and presently began to mount 



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PENNSYLVANIA. 39 

the acclivity with the speed (^ five miles an 
hour. No accident occurred, notwithstanding 
old Mrs. Redridinghood had frightened one of 
our company out of the car by a direful tale 
of broken ropes and necks and legs and arms. 
When the cars had all arrived at the top of 
the plane, some twelve or fourteen were strung 
together like beads, and fastened to the latter 
end of a steam tug, which was already wheez- 
ing, puffing and smoking, as if anxious to be 
off. All these little ceremonies consumed 
much time, and the train did not leave the 
top of the inclined plane until ten o'clock. 

The inclined plane is more than nine hun- 
dred yards in length, and has a perpendicular 
rise of about one hundred and seventy feet ; it 
occasions much delay and should be dispensed 
with, if possible. The machinery will be de- 
scribed in our letter on the Allegheny Port- 
age Rail Road. 

The country between Philadelphia and Lan- 
caster, is excelled by none in the United 
States in cultivation, fertility and beauty. It 



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40 LETTEBS ON 

is all occupied by a thrifty and industrious 
population, whose comfortable farm houses, 
and substantial and capacious stone bams are 
scattered in every direction. In this part of 
Pennsylvania, until the construction of the 
rail road, all the houses, mills, barns, bridges 
and roads were made of stone. Solidity was 
the peculiar characteristic of the state* The 
fashion has changed, and there is now an iron 
road and ivooden bridges* 

After many stoppings to let out passengers 
and let in water, and after taking into our 
eyes many enchanting views, and millions of 
little pestilent triangular cinders, we arrived 
at Lancaster at 3 p. m. without accident or 
adventure; the passengers demeaned them- 
selves in the most approved fashion, each after 
his own idios3mcrasy ; some talking, some 
holding their peace ; others sleeping, others 
seeming to be awake ; all being extremely 
agreeable, particularly the little infantile gen- 
tleman, who was perfectly at his ease in doing 
his little occasions, smiling the while in the 



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PENNSYLVANIA. 41 

faces of the other passengers, and keeping his 
mother very busy in the- proper adjustment of 
his nether garment, and reminding us of the 
royal conduct of the little king of Rome, when 
a deputation of the French senate called to 
congratulate him on the first anniversary of his 
birth, thus described in a French paper : 

** Lorsqae le Senat s'adressa an Roi de Rome, dans sa 

ooQche, 
* Messieors* disak il, ' vos discoars me touche,* 
(Fftisant son caca) cela passe de bonche en btnche.** 

The Columbia Rail Road is made of the 
best materials, and has cost the state a great 
sum ; but it has some great faults. The curves / 
are too numerous, and their radii generally: 
too short, in consequence of which the jour-| 
ney to Columbia (eighty miles) consumes 
seven or eight hours, instead of four or five. 
The viaducts are built of wood instead of 
stone, and the engineer doubting their ability 
to bear the weight of two trains at once, has 
brought the two tracks on them so close to- 
gether, as to prevent two trains p^issing at the 
4* 



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42 LETTEB9 ON 

same time. Thus, in shunDing Scylla, has he 
rushed into the jaws of Chary bd is, for in seve- 
ral instances accidents have occurred from 
the collision of cars upon these ' insufficient 
viaducts. The roofs are so low as to prevent 
the locomotives from having chimneys of a 
sufficient height to keep the cinders out of the 
eyes of the passengers, and to prevent the 
sparks from setting fire to the cars and bag- 
gage. The chimneys of the steam-tugs are 
jointed, and in passing a viaduct the upper 
part is turned down, which allows the smoke 
to rush out at so small a height, as to en 
velope the whole train in a dense and noisome 
cloud of smoke and cinders. 

Notwithstanding these inconveniences, a 
fine day and a beautiful country made our 
day's ride very pleasant; as we soon found 
that the smoky ordeals could be passed with- 
out damage, by shutting our mouths and eyes, 
and holding our noses and tongues. 

Lancaster is an older looking city than 
Philad<;lphia, for the furor delendi does not 



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PBNNSYLVAKIA. 43 

seem to have yet taken possession of its citi- 
zens, and they are wise enough to be satisfied 
with old houses as long as they are comfort- 
able. Thehouseson the skirts are of one story, 
and increase in size and stories as they ap- 
proach the central square, in the middle of 
which stands the Court House, a middle-aged 
building of brick. The sides of the square are 
composed of respectable three-story brick 
houses, one df which is Mrs. Hubley's Hotel, 
where we took up our quarters for the night, 
and found the accommodations very comforta- 
ble. It was a long time, however, before 
nature's sweet restorer took complete posses- 
sion of our eyes, on account of the vigorous 
resistance made by the tormenting little cin- 
ders, which during our fiery ride had insinua- 
ted themselves into those luminaries. 

/ The population of Lancaster exceeds eight 
thousand souls. 



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I.BTTEE8 OK PBNRSniTANIA. 45 



LETTER III. 

The last of the cinders — ^Leave Lancaster — Columbia — 
New-Bridge — Former Bridge washed away — Views — 
End of Rail Road— Tolls—Profit to the State— Em- 
bark in a Canal Packet — Scenery near Marietta— 
What a Canal Packet is — Manner of getting on there- 
in — ^Night arrangement — Bar — Kitchen — Cook — ^Re- 
creations — Bridges — Possible abridgment — Speed — 
Three Tetrapods — One Dipod — Rope, how fastened 
and let loose — Harrisburgh — How the Sun set — La- 
mentation — What kind of Line there should be — 
'Duncan's Island — Scenery thereabout — Bridge- 
Mode of crossing the River — The River Juniata — 
Land on the Island — Capital House — ^Tbe Island — 
Beantifiil ride round it — ^The Rivers and their opposite 
banks. 

DuncarCs Island, Augwt 3, 1835. 
We awoke yesterday at the flight of night 
and in the process of ablution detected all the 
marauding little cinders in the corners of our 



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46 LETTEB9 ON 

eyes, endeavouring to sneak oflfwithout further 
notice, as if to escape punishment for the 
damage they had done. Throwing no impe- 
diment in the way of their welcome departure, 
we lefl Lancaster at 5 a. m. in a Rail Road 
Car drawn by two horses, tandem ; arrived at 
Columbia in an hour and a half, and stopped 
at Mr. Donley's Red Lion Hotel, where we 
breakfasted and dined, and found the house 
comfortable and well kept. 

Columbia is twelve miles from Lancaster, 
and is situated on the eastern bank of the noble 
river Susquehanna ; it is a thriving and pretty 
town, and is rapidly increasing in business, 
population and wealth* There is an immeose 
bridge here, over the Susquehanna, the super- 
structure of which, composed of massy timber, 
rests upon stone piers. This bridge is new, j 
having been built within three years* The 
waters of the Susquehanna resembling the 
citizens of Philadelphia in their dislike to old 
buildings, took the liberty three years ago, to 
destroy the old bridge by means of an ice 



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F^SKNSYLVANIA. 47 

freshet, though it was hut twenty years of age 
aod still in excelleot preservation. The views 
from the hridge up and down the river are 
very interesting. 

Here is the western termination of the Rail 
Road, and goods from the seahoard intended 
for the great West are here transhipped into 
canal boats. Columbia contains about twenty- 
five hundred souls* 

The State does not afford the public as good 
^ commodity of travelling, as the public ought 
to have for the money paid. For locomotive 
power each passenger car pays two cents per 
mile, and half a cent per mile for each pas- 
senger : for toll each passenger car pays two 
cents per mile, and one cent per mile for each 
passenger : burthen cars pay half the above 
rateis. The estimated cost of working a loco- 
motive, including interest and repairs, is six- 
teen dollars per diem ; and the daily sum 
earned is twenty-eight dollars ; affording a 
daily profit to the state of twelve dollars on 
each locomotive. Empty cars pay the same 



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46 LBITBBS ON 

toll and power-hire as full ones, which is un- 
reasonable, and unfavourable to the increase 
of business. 

At 4 p. M. we went on board the canal boat 
of the Pioneer Line, to ascend the canal, which 
follows the eastern bank of the Susquehanna. 
The pretty town of Marietta is two miles 
above Columbia, on the same side of the river. 
That part of the river lying between the two 
towns, in some points of view resembles closely 
the scenery of Harper's Ferry, and is quite 
equal to it in beauty and sublimity. 

A canal packet boat is a microcosm that 
contains almost as many specimens of natural 
history as the Ark of Noah. It is nearly 
eighty feet long and eleven wide ; and has a 
house built in it that extends to within six or 
seven feet of stem and stern. Thirty-six feet 
in length of said house are used as a cabin by 
day, and a dormitory by night ; the forward 
twelve feet being nocturnally partitioned off 
by an opaque curtain, when there are more 
than four ladies on board, for their accommo- 



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PSNNdYLTAIflA. 49 

dation. In front of said twelve feet, there is 
an apartment of six feet containing four per- 
manent berths and separated from the cabin 
by a wooden partition, with a door in it : this 
is called the ladies' dressing-room, and is 
sacred to their uses. 

At nine p. m. the steward and his satellites 
begin the work of arranging the sleeping ap- 
paratus. This consists of a wooden frame six 
feet long and twenty inches wide, with canvas 
nailed over it, a thin mattress and sheets, <&c. 
to match. The frame has two metallic points 
on one side which are inserted into corres- 
ponding holes in the side of the cabin, and its 
horizon tality is preserved by little ropes de- 
scending from the ceiling fastened to its other 
side. There are three tiers of these conve- 
niences oa each side, making twenty-four for 
gentlemen, and twelve for ladies, besides the 
four permanent berths in the ladies' dressing- 
room. Thenumberof berths, however, does not 
limit the number of passengers ; for a packet 
is like Milton's Pandemonium, and when it is 



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50 LETTEBS ON 

brim full of imps, the inhabitants seem to grow 
smaller so as to afibrd room for more poor 
devils to come in and be stewed ; and tables 
and settees are put into a sleeping fix in the 
twinkling of a bedpost. 

Abafl the cabin is a small apartment four 
feet square, in which the steward keeps for 
sale all sorts of potables, and some sorts of eat- 
ables. Abafl that is the kitcherii in which 
there is generally an emancipated or escaped 
slave from Maryland or Virginia, of some shade 
between white and black, who performs the 
important part of cook with great efiect. The 
breakfasts, dinners and suppers are good, of 
which the extremes cost twenty-five cents 
each, and the mean thirty-seven and a half. 

The passengers can recreate by walking 
about on the roof of the cabin, at the risque 
of being decapitated by the bridges which are 
passed under at short intervals of time. But 
this accident does not oflen happen, for the 
man at the helm is constantly on the watch 
to prevent such an unpleasant abridgment of 



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PENNSYLVANIA. 51 

f 

the passengers, and gives notice of the ap- j 
preaching danger by crying out * bridge.* 

This machine, with all that it inherits, is 
dragged through the water at the rate of three 
miles and a half per hour by three horses, 
driven tandem by a dipod with a long whip, 
who rides the hindmost horse. The rope, 
which is about one hundred yards in length, is 
fastened to the side of the roof, at the distance 
of twenty feet from the bow, in siwh fashion 
that it can be k>osed from the boat in a mo- 
ment by touching a spring. The horses are 
changed once in about three hours and seem 
very much jaded by their work. 

Harrisburg, the capital of Pennsylvania, is 
situated on the eastern bank of the Susque- 
hanna, twenty-eight miles above Columbia, 
and the canal runs by the eastern side of the 
town. The scenery for the whole distance is 
very interesting, but we had the misfortune 
to miss the last eighteen miles of it, in con- 
sequence of the sun setting in the midst of our 
^regrets. And here we cannot but give vent 



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52 LBTTEB8 ON 

f to our lamentation, that there is not a line of 
I i canal packets travelling only by day ; drawn 
] j by five horses at the rate of five miles per 
I ^ hour ; starting at 5 a. m. and stopping at 7 
' : p. M. at good hotels in pleasant places; fiir* 
nishing breakfast and dinner on board. Such 
a line would draw such a concourse of pleasure- 
seekers as would soon fill the pockets of the 
enterprising proprietors. 

At an hour past midnight we arrived at 
\ Harrisburg, where the boat stopped for half 
an hour to let out and take in passengers. It 
was pitch darki and nothing was visible but 
the lamps of an omnibus waiting on the quay 
to carry passengers to the, hotels. We .went 
on deck to see what we could see and to pre- 
vent our trunks from visiting the capital by 
mistake. Harrisburg contains more than forty- 
five hundred inhabitants. Tired of the night 
we retired and tried to sleep it into morning. 
At five A. M. we rose, and finding ourselvcGT 
unrefreshed and weary with unrest and heat, 
determined to land on Duncan's Island, which 



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PENNSYLVANIA. 63 

we were now approaching. The scene around 
us was a combination of the magnificence of 
nature in her grandest and wildest mood, and 
of the ingenuity of art in some of her greatest 
efforts. The canal runs along the south west- 
ern side of a mountain, in whose basement of 
rock its bed is partly cut ; and separated from 
the Susquehanna by an enormous wall of stone 
and earth, it debouches through a wide open- 
ing of solid masonry into the mighty river, 
here converted into a lake by an immense dam. 
As the boat entered the river, the horses as- 
cended to a gallery high in air, attached to the 
side of a great bridge of timber, which here 
extends its numerous and expanded arches 
across the river, and thus drew us across the 
wide expanse of water. 

Having passed the river, the boat entered 
the canal on the south-western side of Duncan's 
Island, through a superb lock of solid mason- 
ry ; the romantic river Juniata discharging 
its limpid waters into the Susquehanna close 
on the left. This meeting of the waters is an 
5* 

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54^ LBTTBRS OX 

interesting locality, and should be seen to be 
justly appreciated. 

AAer proceeding a furlong the boat stop- 
ped, and we landed and took up our quarters 
at Mrs. Duncan's, whose spacious mansion 
stands on the island, about one hundred yards 
from the northern bank of the canal. Tra- 
vellers find here all the good things contained 
in the category of comfort ; and may spend a 
day or two very pleasantly in rambling about 
the romantic scenery of the island and its 
vicinity ; and will be well fed by day and well 
lodged by night ; here 

ne turpe toral, ne sordida mappa 



Corrugfet nares; ne non et cantharas, et lanz 
Ostendat tibi te ; ^Hor. Epist V. Lib. L 

The house is large, and the chambers spa- 
cious, well aired and clean; and the windows 
shaded by the branches of gigantic trees* 
The island is partly ujuder culture as a farm, 
and partly covered with wood ; and the ride 
round its banks of about two miles and a half, 



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PENNSYLVANIA^ ' 65 

is very pleasant for equestrians. It is situated 
at the confluence of the Susquehanna and 
Juniata, and contains three hundred and sixty- 
acres of good land, and is said to be healthy. 
It is a plain elevated about twenty -five feet 
above the surface of the rivers, whose oppos- 
ing banks consist of high hills covered with 
forest, and aflbrd a delightful contrast with 
the flat and cultivated island. 



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LETTERS ON PENNSYLVAWIA. 57 



LETTER IV. 

Good Sleep— Leave the Island— Packet Ddaware, Cap- 
tain Williama— Aqueduct— Scenery of the Juniata— 
MUlerstown, Mexico, Mifflin, Lewistown— Beer— 
Captaips, like Doctors, differ— Good Arrangement— 
The Captam's savoir faire— Possible comfort, its dimen- 
sicms— Waynesbtirgr, Hamiltonville, Huntingdon, Pe- 
tersburg, Alexandria, WilKamsburg-Rain- Arrival at 
Hallidaysburg— Basin— End of Canal-Hallidaysburg 
after a week's rain— Wooden walk— Muddy intersec- 
tions—Moore's Hotel— Good table— Where a Hotel 
should be built— Youth of Town— Rapid growth- 
Site— Beginning of Rail Road— Little chamber- 
Great cleanliness — Double bed, 6lc. 

HdUidaysbwrg^ Auguti 5, 1835. 

At Duncan's Island we had a comfortable 

and refreshing night's rest ; and at 6, a. m. 

yesterday, we embarked in the Canal Packet, 

Delaware, Captaiti Williama, to continue our 



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58 LETTERS ON 

voyage to this place. The canal pursues the 
bank of the island in a north-western course 
for about « mile, and then crosses the Juniata 
over a substantial aqueduct built of timber 
and roofed in. We had now reached a most 
romantic region, having the Juniata and the 
ever-changing scenery of its bold and pic- 
turesque banks constantly in view; now 
swelling into gentle hills, partly in culture and 
partly in woods; now rising abruptly into 
mountains, whose primeval forests seemed un- 
trod by man ; now subsiding into little plains 
and vallies occupied by villages and towns. 
In the course of the day we passed Millers- 
town, Mexico, and Mifflin, and arrived at 
Lewistown before sunset, a distance of about 
forty miles. 

All these little towns have an interesting 
appearance, and possess various features of 
beauty, but the situation and aspect of Lewis- 
town are peculiarly charming. They are all 
rapidly increasing in wealth and population, 
in consequence of the great amount of busi- 



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PENNSYLVANIA. 



59 



ness done on the canal; and many new and 
handsome buildings are rapidly springing up 
in all of them. Lewistown contains about 
sixteen hundred inhabitants, some of whom 
make excellent beer. 

The discipline and arrangements on board 
of Captain Williams's Packet are excellent, 
and his code, a Maryland black, is a master 
of arts in culinary matters f tbe remark of the 
ancient poet, is by no means to be applied to 
him; 

Hie niger* est ; hunc tu Romane caveto. 

There is a difierence in Captains ; all are 
anxious to acquit themselves in the best man- 
ner ; but all do not possess the savoir /aire. 
Captain Williams possesses this knowledge, 
and makes his passengers as comfortable 
** die noctuque," as it is possible for forty 
people to be, who are included in a moving 

♦ Why did the poet spell nigger with one g ? Duke 
Hildebrod was more superfluous in his orthography of 
iNigel 



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60 LETTERS ON 

parallellopipedon, whose length, breadth and 
height, are represented by 42, 11, and 6 feet. 
Consequently we passed a tolerable night, 
though there were twenty-eight in the men*s 
cabin. 

• We passed Way nesburg and Han)iltonvi11e* 
during the night, and arrived at'Huntingdon 
at seven this morning* In the course of 
the day we passed Petersburg, Alexandria 
and Williamsburg, and at 3 p. h., arrived at 
a shower of rain which lasted us three hours. 
At half past six, p. m., the Packet glided into 
the basin at Hallidaysburg. In this artificial 
basin, which ie large and commodious, termi- 
nates that part of the Pennsylvania Canal 
which lies east of the Allegheny Mountains. 
The goods destined to the West, are taken 
from the boats and placed in Burthen Cars 
which are to carry them over the mountains, 
by means of the Allegheny Portage Rail 



* Barbarous word! ville is superfluous; ton, which 
means toun or town, is sufficient. 



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Road, which we shall describe, not now, but 
in a future letter. 

At Hallidaysburg, we were informed th^t 
the shower above-mentioned had been pour- 
ing down for a week ; whilst with us the 
weather had been delightful. So long a* 
continuance of an American rain had reduced 
the village to a most unamiable condition. 
The streets were almost rivers of mud, and 
the houses seemed as if founded upon tl^at 
yielding material. Moore's Hotel, to which 
we were bound, appeared on a slight elevation 
at the awful distance of three mortal muddy 
squares, and that catholic conveyance, vul- 
garly called an omnibus, was not in atten- 
dance ; so we had no alternative but to trust 
to the virtue of our own logs. We stepped 
upon the mud-covered quay, and picked our 
dirty way to the hither end of a walk five 
feet wide, made of boards, and intended to 
lead passengers dry shod to Moore's Hotel. 
This answered very well, until we came to 
the two cross streets, across which the walk 
6 

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62 LBmuu OK 

did not extend, to allow of the passage of 
vehicles with wheels. The only mode of 
passage here, is wading ankle deep. ; 

All these little agremen$ might be effec* 
tually abolished, by building a large Hotel on 
the quay close to the basin, so that the 
packets could come to the steps of the piazza. 

Hallidaysburg has the air of a new clear- 
ing, and looks so unfinished, that one might 
suppose it to have been built wtthin a year. 
Its site is good, rising gradually from the 
basin to a pleasant elevation. Many substan- 
tial buildings are going up, and it is evident 
that rapid increase is the destiny of the 
town. 

The Allegheny Portage Rail Road com- 
mences here, U9d leads by a gently rising 
grade, four miles from the foot of the moun- 
tain, whither the cars are drawn by horses. 

Moore's Hotel is a substantial and spacious 
brick building, and is as well kept as the cir- 
cumstances of the place will permit. The 
table is good, and the landlord and his people 



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PENNSYLVANIA. 63 

very obliging ; but the house, though large, is 
insufficient for the company. We were the 
first to reach it from our Packet, and yet we 
found but one room vacant ; if that can be 
called room^ in which there is no room : the 
little place is six feet wide and fourteen feet 
loogf, containing a double bed, two chairs and 
a wash stand ; but as Pat would say, its 
cleanliness is as great as its littleness, which 
is a great blessing in so little a place. The 
other chambers are larger, and there are two 
good parlours. 

The condition of the streets prevented ex- 
cursions to see the town. 



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L1TTBR8 ON PBNNSTLVAinA. 65 



LETTER V. 

Breakfast — ^Departure— -Distance— -Direction — Roads 
very bad, much worse, fourth de^ee of comparison— 
Weather — St. Clair, alias Backstown — Peregrin! 
Amicus — Company — Dinner Party — ^Aplcias, Quin 
—Dinner and its variety — Synchronism — Father-in- 
law — ^Landlord — Load of Logs — Sir Toby Belch and 
Sir Andrew Aguecheek — Road to Bedford — ^To 
Springs — -Approach to Springs — ^Lovely Valley, 
stream, forest, hills, lake, island, bridges, mill, 
delight, surprise — ^Federal Hill — Buildings — Draw- 
ing and Dining Room — People in them — Bubbles^ 
Chambers — ^Piazzas — Kitchen— Billiards — Garden— ^ 
Basin with Statue and Fountain — Constitution Hill — 
Baths — ^Walk — ^Pavilion — Idleness — ^Penknife ambi- 



Bedford Springs, Aug, 7, 1835. 
At half past eight yesterday morning, afler 
a good and abundant breakfast, we lefl Halli- 

daysburg in a small six-seat coach, and four 
6* 



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66 I.KTTSR8 oir 

horses, for this place. The distance is thirty- 
four l)ad miles, and the direction nearly due 
south. Nature made this road very bad, and 
the last week's rain has made very bad much 
worse, so that its badness is now in the fourth 
degree, being most superlative. 

The day was cloudy, rainy, and doubtful, 
by turns; now closing the window on one 
side, now on the other; and through this 
agreeable variety of weather, we jolted twen- 
ty-one miles in six hours, to St. Clair, com- 
monly called Buckstown; a little village 
consisting of two taverns, a blacksmith shop 
and three or four dwellings. Our Automedon 
pulled up at the tavern whose sign displayed 
the name of P. Amich, probably a xontrac- 
tion of Peregrini Amicus^, for^uch we found 
him in reality to be ; if one may be considered 
the traveller's friend, who furnishes him with 
many good things for a reasonable considera- 
tion, as Trapbois hath it. 

Two private carriages had fallen into our 
wake, their drivers being wide awake, and 



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PENNSYLVAiriA. ^7 

thinking that they might go through the 
ruts that we should pass in safety ; so making 
us their touchstone of the value of the road. 
Their contents swelled our dinner party to " 
about a dozen, and in half an hour we sat 
down to a table that would have satisfied 
Apicius or Quin, had either of those worthies 
travelled our road, 

[t was a very fine specimen of a country 
tavern dinner, and may thus bo described. 
Table cloth like snow; chickens and ham 
excellent ; eggs boiled to a bubble, and look- 
ing as if laid for the occasion ; cofibe, tea, 
cream, bread and butter to match ; and to 
crown all, young and tender virgin hooey in 
the comb, of a delicate straw colour ap- 
proaching white, and almost transparent; 
cheese, and several kinds of preserves. 

It should be observed, that all these dain- 
ties synchronised on the table, giving it n, 
richy abundant, and most inviting aspect. 
The company, however, were at liberty to 
swallow them in any order, and in any 



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quantity that was to them convenient; each 
I person paying for his quota, thirty -seyen 
\ cents. We had almost forgotten to mention 
a pleasant looking personage that opened the 
carriage door and welcomed us to the tavern, 
whose ventra] rotundity and facial ruhicun- 
dity were most competent and credible 
witnesses that good cheer awaited us within. 
We mistook this personage for the landlord, 
from the easy and agreeable, though unpre* 
tending manner in which he did the honors of 
the house. Upon addressing him in that 
style, however, he very modestly disclaimed 
the honour, informing us that his son-in-law 
held that distinction, and that he was expected 
soon to return from the wood, whither he had 
gone with the wagon to fetch a load of logs. 
When that dignitary made his appear- 
ance, he bore just such a resemblance to 
the stout gentleman, both in person and 
action, that Sir Andrew Aguecheek does to 
Sir Toby Belch, and it was evident from a 
certain *' ego-et-re;c-meus" air fluttering about 



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pbunsylvania. 69 

Sir Toby, that he was the ruler of the roast. 
But the roast was well ruled, and with such 
good nature and liberality as showed, that 
in Pennsylvania, as in Turkey, 

** 'Tb a very fine thing to be pet fon-in-Iaw, 
To a very rich rubicond Backatown bashaw.** 

Old Farce. 

This comfortable establishment, just such a 
haven as a weary traveller loves to nestle in, we 
left at 3 p. M., and found the remainder of the 
road to the town ofBedford, a distance of eleven 
miles, much better. The country improves 
in appearance as you approach that village, 
which is beautifully situated on a little plain 
surrounded by hills of various and picturesque 
shapes. It is two miles of excellent road from 
the town to the Springs, which we reached in 
safety at 6 p. m. 

As it approaches the Springs, the road sud- 
denly descends, and like Sadak in search of 
the waters of obKvion, you plunge at once 
into a shady and sequested valley, refreshed 



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by a clear cool stream, and bounded by tower- 
ing forest-co¥ered hills; whose lovely aspect 
cannot but fill you with delight and surprise* 
The stream passes under several romantic 
bridges, then expands into a little lake, 
having in its centre an enchanted island 
planted with various shrubs, then turns the 
wheel of a pretty little mill, and passing from 
the valley hastens to unite its waters with the 
greater stream of the Juniata. The ridge 
which bounds the valley on the west, is called 
Federal Hill ; at whose eastern foot stand 
the principal buildings destined, to receive 
the numerous and agreeable visiters, who 
seek for health and amusement in this plea- 
sant valley, in each revolving summer. 

The preceding description will be rendered 
more accurate, by adding to it the following 
lines employed by the refined and witty Flac- 
cus, to convey to a friendly mind, a true 
picture of his own delightful retreat. 

The poet's valley opened to the east and 
west, whereas that of our Bedford stretches 



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PENNSTLVAiriA. 71 

from north to south, which gives it the advan- 
tage of greater variety of light and shade, 
as the fleeting hours successively fulfil the 
day. 

" Continui montes ; ni dissocientur opaca 
Valle : sed ut veniens dextrum latus aspiciat Sol, 
Lev urn discedens curru fugiente vaporet 
Temperiem laudes. • 



Si quercus et ilex 



Malta fruge pecus, multa domiDum juvat umbra. 
FoDs etiam rivo dare nomen idoneus, at nee 
Frioridior Thracam nee purior ambiat Hebnis, 
Infirmo capiti fluit utilis, Qtiiis alvo^ 
Hs latebrsB dulces, et (jam si credis) ameenas, 

Incolumem tihi me prettant ^ 

Nor. Epist. 16 Lib. I. 

Like that of the poet's villa, the temperature 
is worthy of all praise, the shade is delightful, -^ 
the fountain might name a river cooler and 
clearer than Hebrus, and cure a headache or 
a cholic, far beyond the reach of Dr. Kiche- 
ner's persuaders. 

There are two large buildings communica«^«« 
ting by piazzas, one being of stone and the \- 
other of wood, and each being one hundred u 



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72 LKTT£R8 ON 

and tbirty feet loDg, and two stones and a half 
higlu In the southern building is a handsome 
drawing-room; and a large apartment, a 
dancing room by night, a dining room by day, 
I and capacious enough to accommodate two 
hundred dancers or diners. In this room may 
be seen congregated together thrice a day, 
doing honour to Mr. Brown's excellent yiands, 
industriously, quietly and decorously, an inter- 
esting party of ladies and gentlemen from 
Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania, con- 
sisting of governors, judges, senators and 
congressmen in esse or fuissey and even presi- 
dents and vice-presidents in posse ; for there 
is scarce a lad of twenty in the United States 
who does not aspire to the presidency. 

All these functionaries, (cum eorum uxori- 
bus filiabusque,) harmonise very pleasantly, 
and their modus vivendi much resembles that 
of the eaters and drinkers at Langenschwal- 
bach, SQ pleasantly and elegantly described by 
the author of Bubbles from the Brunnens of 
Nassau^ 



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PENNSYLVANIA. 73 

The story above the dining room consists 
of two rows of chambers separated by a long 
passage six feet wide. Each chamber is about 
sixteen feet long and thirteen wide, and has 
two windows 5 they are furnished with bed- . 
steads, bedding, tables, bureaus, chairs, &c« 
and are kept clean and comfortable. The 
northern building, which is of stone, is entirely 
divided into sleeping rooms ; in one of which 
we are now writing this interesting epistle. 
Both buildings on their eastern front are pro- 
tected from the morning sun, by piazzas ex- 
tending from end to end, from top to bottom, 
and storied like the houses. 

At a short distance to the south-east of 
these edifices, its length being at right angles 
with theirs, stands another wooden building 
one hundred and forty feet long ; in whose 
basement the culinary operations are carried 
on ; whose ground floor is devoted to billiards, 
and its upper story to sleeping rooms. In 
front of this building is a little garden, in which 
is a large basin of water, in whose centre, on a 



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7€ XETTBKS OBT 

pyramid of rock, stands a figure of Hygiea 
holding in her hand a bowl, in which she re^ 
ceives the water of a fountain perpetually 
playing above her head. 

A little beyond the garden to the east, a 
handsome bridge leads across the stream tc 
Constitution Hill, a towering ridge, the bouO' 
dary of the valley on the east. At the foot of 
this hill is another edifice filled with baths both 
hot and cold, which are under very good 
management. Cut in the western side of 
Constitution Hill, and leading by a zigzag 
course to its elevated summit, is a pleasant 
walk, shaded by the trees and bordered by the 
flowers of the forest. The hill is very bold in 
its ascent, but the walk is so skilfully laid 
out, as to enable strollers to attain the rural 
pavilion on the hill-top without fatigue. There 
you may sit, shut out from the world below by 
the thick foliage, and take your fill of idleness, 
musing, and looking lazily through a long 
vista at the distant hills. The walk is pleas- 
antest in the morning, before the eastern sun 



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PENNSYLVANIA. ~ 7& 

has climed the hill. The benches and wooden 
columns of the pavilion have sufiered much 
from the ruthless ambition of that numerous 
class of aspirants after immortality, who em- 
deavour to cut their way to the temple of 
Fame with their penknives, and inflict the 
ambitious initials of their illustrious names on 
every penetrable piece of stufl* they meet* 
As a goose delights in its gosling, so does one 
of these wits in his whittling. 



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LETTBR8 ON PBNHSrLYANIA* 77 



LETTER VI. 

Fbe weather — ^Too short days — Bell at 7 a. m. — Rising 
and Drinking — fireakfiist Bell — ^Fair, to eat — ^Fare, 
to be eaten-— Abundance, of Food, Time, Place and 
Circumstance — Virginia Letters — Doings afler break- 
&st — ^Read or Sew; Sleep or so — Masculine and 
Feminine Amusements — ^Fishers of Men — Dinner— 
Mutton, Wales — Venison, Blenheim Park — Cheap 
Deer, plentiful and paradoxical — Hominy — How to 
prepare it— How to eat it— Unhappy people— After- 
noon — Occupation and Idleness — Supper^The Hour 
after — ^Music and preparation for Dancing — ^Family 
of Musicians — Epaminondas ; his music and dancing 
— Sunday — Church sometimes in Dining Room. 

Bedford Spring*^ Augutt 10, 1635. 

The weather has been "very fine, and the 

days pass so pleasantly that they seem too 

short for the time of year. If Aurora has not 

previously raised your eyelids, a bell breaks 

7* 



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your slumbers at 7 a. m. ; you rise and drink 
three glasses of the mineral water ; (that is 
enough ;) you dress and descend to the lower 
piazza, where half an hour's walk will con- 
spire with the water to do you service. The 
bell for breakfast rings at' eight, previous to 
which event the drawing-room has been 
gradually filled with the early and hungry &ir, 
who are to eat, and the table has been filled 
with the boiled and haked and brmled fare, 
that is to be eaten. The etiquette of the table 
is similar to that observed at the Virginia 
Springs, and will be found described in our 
letters on those delightful watering-places in 
pages 19 and 20 ; to which we refer our curious 
and intelligent readers. There is abundance 
here, not only of edibles and potables, but also 
of room and time ; circumstances which are 
extremely favourable to a fiiU and fair discus- 
sion of the subjects that are laid before the 
company. 

After breakfast, all who are able to walk, 
may be seen satmlering over the bridge, and 



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PB27N8TLyANIA. 79 

wanderiDg along the further hank of the 
stream ; and some more ambitious than the 
rest actually carrying their breakfasts to the 
top of Constitution Hill ; there to sit awhile 
and chew the cud of sweet and bitter fancy. 

la an hour or two the ladies retire to read 
or sewy perchance to sleep or so ; and when 
tired of their rooms, they tyre for dinner 
There are some enterprising exceptions who 
take a drive in a barouche or a ride on horse- 
back. The masculine amusements are bil- 
liards, shooting, fishing and politics; the ladies 
also indulge a little in the two latter diver- 
sions ; but then they are fishers of men, and 
use their angles with success and grace. 

At two p. M. the bell again invites to the 
table well covered with flesh, fowl, fish and 
vegetables. A mong the most honoured viands 
are mountain mutton and wild venison ; the 
former as good as that of Wales, and the lat- 
ter better than that of Blenheim Park ; as it 
is very tender and has a fine v^d game 
flavour. It is plentifiil here, and paradoxical, 



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:/ 



i 



80 LETTERS ON 

for though it is deer^ yet it is cheap* Among 
the vegetable preparations, one of the most 
enticing and satisfactory is hominy ; and it 
sometimes disappears with such amazing 
velocity and voracity, tjiat on one occasion we 
were obliged to request our friend the Presi- 
dent Judge of the district, who sat vis. a vis, 
to issue a writ de homine replegiando. Hom- 
iny is made of maize or Indian corn, the grains 
of which are cracked into several pieces and 
the skin rubbed off. One-fourth of its bulk of 
a small dried bean is mixed with it, and it is 
boiled or simmered for seven or eight hours. 
It is enriched with butter and seasoned with 
salt, and served up smoking hot and white as 
snow. It is in truth a lovely and a whole- 
some compound, and vefy worthy to accom- 
pany a piece of roast or boiled corn-fed 
turkey and a slice of Maryland ham, down the 
hungry throat. This dainty is but little known 
to the unhappy people who dwell east of the 
river Hudson, and but few transatlantics have 
ever heard its name. It is for the benefit of 



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PENNSYLVANIA. 81 

such that we have noticed it, and shall de- 
scribe every thing we see in Pennsylvania, 

** Planius ac melioB Chrysippo et Crantore ;** 
in order that they may understand better 
**Qaid sit pulchnim, quid torpe, quid utile, quid non.*' 

The afternoon is divided between occupa- 
tion and idleness, much afler the manner of 
the morning. An hour before tea the purlieus 
are again enlivened by the appearance of 
numbers of both sexes ; many of whom visit 
the principal mineral spring to imbibe a little 
of its liquid treasure. At 7 p. m. the welcome 
summons of the bell recalls the wanderers to 
the festive board, now spread for supper. 
Afler this last meal of the day, the company 
collect in the drawing-room, which communi- 
cate9 with the dining-room by a folding door* 
Here they pass a chatty hour, whilst the 
familiars are arranging the latter for a dance, 
by withdrawing the tables to the further end. 
When the metamorphosis is complete the ball- 
room is not very grand ; 

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82 LETTEBS OX 

* The ceiling boaste no polym jx, 
No drapery the windows ; 
The folks think more of p(ditio6 
Than finery wHhiii doors.* 

Kentucky Ballad. 

The musicians have no orchestra, but sit 
in chairs upon the floor, and are all members 
of one German family, consisting of a father* 
and five or six sons, who pilay admirably upon 
different instruments, whose first harmony 
draws the dancers to the floor ; and the more 
sedate are lefl to the pleasures of talk, or 
whist, or chess, in the drawing-room. By 
11 p. M. another day is added to the past, and 
every sound is hushed in sleep. 

On Sunday the occupations are' diflferent, 
for all that can find a place of worship agree- 
able to their religious views, go to church* If 

* Unhappily the name of tMs musical patriarch has 
escaped us, or we would have made him as immortal 
as Dionysius and Olympiodorus the music-masters of 
that grave and philosophic soldier and accomplished old 
bachelor Epaminondas, or even atf the graceful Calli- 
phron the distinguished maitre de dansaof that same 
learned Theban. 



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PKKHSTLVANIA. 83 

it should happen that a clergyman of the Pro- 
testant Episcopal church be sojourning at 
the springs, Sunday converts the dining room 
into a place of worship^ and mo^t of the com- 
pany are satisfied to stay at home and attend 
the solemn and edifying service of the church. 



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LETTERS ON PENNSYLVANIA. 85 



LETTER VII. 

Weather — ^Temperature — ^Nights fit for snooring^* 
. Warm and Bright days — Height of the Valley's bot- 
tom — Rationale of Climate — Anderson's Spring- 
Position— Temperature — ^Taste^ — Smell — Rat— Clear 
— No Sediment — Doctor, Church's valuable Analysis 
— Contents of Water, solid and gaseous — Fletcher's 
Spring — Differences — Powers of the Water — Diseases 
to be cured — ^Travelling Water — Price— Allowance 
for a Toper— Brandy, Love a^nd Jealousy — Wine and 
Water Poets — Limestone Water — Its volume — 
Lower Level — Sulphur Spring — Its Contents — Sweet 
Springs — Coolness and Purity. 

Bedford Springs, August 13, 1835. 
The weather has been very fine since our 
arrivaU and the temperature delightful ; the 
nights are cool and apt for snoozing, the morn- 
ings and evenings mild, and the days comfort- 
able, warm and bright. 
8 

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66 LSTTTESS OK 

The bottom of this valley is about one 
thousand feet higher than the site of Phila- 
delphia, which sufficiently accounts for the 
superiority of its summer climate. 

There are several springs, the most impor- 
tant of which is Anderson's ; which gushes 
abundantly from a lime stone rock on the 
western side of Constitution Hill, at an eleva- 
tion of thirty feet above the rivulet, and at a 
distance of sixty feet from its eastern bank* 
The water is transparent and sparkling, and 
exhibits a temperature of fifty-eight degrees 
according to the scale of Fahrenheit, when 
the same thermometer would stand at seven- 
ty in the surrounding air. It has a slight 
saline taste, but no smell. When exposed in 
a vessel to the air, it becomes flat, but retains 
its clearness, and deposites no sediment. 

The stream from the spring deposites car- 
bonate of iron, on those substances it contin- 
ually flows over. 

Doctor William Church of Pittsburg, gives 



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PENKSTLVANIA. 



87 



the following analysis of a quart of the 
watef from Anderson's spring. 
'A quart of water, evaporated to dryness, 

* gave thirty-one grains of a residuum. The 

* same quantity of water, treated agreeably 

* to the rule laid down by Westrumb, con- 
'tained eighteen and a half inches of carbonic 

* acid gas. — ^The residuum, treated according 

* to the rules given by Dr. Henry, in his Sys- 
^ tern of Chemistry, ^ve the following result : 

* Sulphate of Magnesia or Epsom 

Salts, - - -20 grains. 

* Sulphate of Lime, - 3| « ' 

* Muriate of Soda, - - 2i « 

* Do. of Lime, . J « 
' Carbonate of Iron, - - . IJ " 

* Do. of Lime, - 2 « 
*Loss, - - . 4 " 

31 grains. 

* To which must be added 18^ cubic inches 

* of carbonic acid gas.' 



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88 LETTERS ON 

At the distance of one hundred and fifty 
yards to the south of Anderson's spring, 
another abundant spring called Fletcher's, 
flows from a limestone rock on the western 
side of Constitution Hill. 

Doctor Church's experiments on the water 
of this spring, produced nearly the same re- 
sults as above described, with respect to 
Andei^n's spring; except in detecting a 
little more iron and common salt ; and a little 
less magnesia. With the surrounding air at 
seventy, the water in this spring exhibits 
fifty-five degrees of Fahrenheit. 

These waters are antacid, mildly cathartic 
and tonic, and not being nauseous, may be 
taken with comfort by the most delicate 
stomach. Experience has proved that they 
are capable of putting to flight an army of 
diseases; and when the body personal is 
thoroughly soaked with them secundum ar- 
tem, like Pandora's patent box, it parts with 
an Ilias malorum, and hope remains biehind. 

Any persons possessing any of the under- 



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PENNSYLVANIA. 89 

mentioned diseases, may become the benefi- 
ciaries of these benignant waters : Diseases 
of the stomach and intestines; dyspepsia; 
hceraorrhoids ; worms ; calculus ; gravel ; ana- 
sarca ; suppression or excess of various secre- 
tions; diabetes; gout; debility remaining 
afler acute diseases ; and all those chronico- 
bilious affections originating in southern cli- 
mates. 

The waters have acquired so great a repu- 
tation, that immense quantities are sent away 
daily in barrels to perform long and expen- 
sive journeys by land, to go and cure those, 
who cannot come to them. The price of a 
barrel filled, and ready booted and spurred 
for its journey is three dollars ; and that is 
enough to last a regular and prudent toper 
four months. 

Visiters at the Springs grow so fond of the 
water, that BrandyiGin, Usquebaugh, Rum, 
Champagne, and the rest of their old and 
virtuous loves, are soon routed from their 

afiections, and whistled down the stream of 

8* 

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oblivion. It is feared that this may excite 
the jealousy of the temperance societies, as 
trenching somewhat upon their ground; and 
that it may prevent poets-from spending a 
few pleasant days at the Springs; because 
Horace says, — 

Nulla placere diu nee vivere carmina possunl, 
Qu8B scribunter aqueB potoribus. — Epi$t» 19. Lib. 1. 

It is however probable that he did not mean 
Bedford water ; therefore let the Poets come, 
and resist the watery seduction if they can. 

There is also a very copious spring of lime- 
stone water issuing from several crevices in a 
rock at the western foot of Constitution Hill, 
about two hundred yards north of Anderson's 
spring, and forty feet below its level. Its 
volume is sufficient to turn an overshot mill, 
and its temperature is My-one. 

On the western side of the rivulet, and at a 
distance of two hundred yards from Ander- 
son's spring, rises a spring whose water ex- 
hales a strong odour of sulphuretted hydro- 



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PENNSYLVANIA. 91 

gea gas, and is covered by a thio whitish 
pellicle* Doctor Church's experiments proved 
it to contain carbonic acid and salphu retted 
hydrogen gas ; and small quantities of lime, 
magnesia, and common salt. Its temperature 
is fifly-six. 

The place is also blessed with two pure 
springs, clear as light, and cool as the cave 
of Calypso. The element flowing from these 
sources is so pure that the chemical tests do 
not discolour it. The springs are situated on 
the eastern side of Federal Hill, and from 
their tasteless purity and delicious coolness, 
have obtained the name of Sweet* Their 
temperature is fifly-two. 



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I.ETTEBSOJT PINITSTLVANIA. 93 



LETTER VIII, 

Departure from the Springs — Mail Coach— Exercise — 
Views — ^Ascent of the Allegheny — Parting of the 
Waters — ^Atlantic, Mississippi — ^Look behind— Moan- 
tain Top — ^Level Country — Farms— Grass, Oats, 
Buckwheat-^Descent— Lanrel HilUElevatecl Valley 
— Its breadth— Somerset — ^Its Climate — ^McAdam — 
Blacksmiths and Wheelwrights — Golden Swan Ta- 
Tern — Customs — ^Table d' Hote — Boarders— Host 
and Hostess-— Peace and Plenty — Silver Forks- 
Hours of Meals — Early Breakfast welcome— Good 
Intention — ^Rain. 

Sonurset, August 14, 1835. 
At 10 a« m. yesterday, the weather being 
clealp and warm, we lefl the Springs in a hack 
lo join the Mail Coach at Bedford on its way 
to Somerset. In an hour we were snugly en- 
sconced in one of Mr. Reeside's well appoint- 
ed coaches, and rumbling over the stone turn- 



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94 LETTERS ON 



on our way to the great west. The 
road is safe but rough, and affords good exer- 
cise and sometimes interesting views. For 
eleven miles it is not very hilly, and at that 
distance stands a little tavern, where the 
coach gets fresh horses, and the passengers a 
dinner, as necessary preparations for sur- 
mounting the Allegheny Mountain. 

The country now rises gradually from 
plateau to plateau for a distance of four- 
teen miles, when you reach the top of the 
Allegheny ; the great f idge which is the part- 
ing of the waters. The streams behind you 
flow into the Atlantic, and those before you 
into the Mississippi* On the ascent are many 
fine views, which you lose, unless you throw 
backward an occasional glance, as you rise 
from hill to higher hill beyond. On the very 
summit is a large stone tavern wher* the 
coach takes fresh horses. Hence for seveA 
or eight miles, which may be considered as 
the mountain top, the country is nearly level, 
and consists of farms and forests inter- 



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PBITNtYLfANIA. 95 

mtngledr^ The fields of grass, oats and buck* 
wheat promise to repay the farmers' labours 
with abundant crops. 

For the next six miles the country gradu- 
ally descends, by alternate declivities and 
levels, into the broad valley which lies be- 
tween the summits of the Allegheny Moun- 
tain and Laurel Hill. The distance between 
the summits is about twenty miles, and the 
general surface of the valley is not much de- 
pressed below them. Somerset stands in this 
elevated valley, and its climate is proportiona- 
bly cool. 

We reached that village at half past seven, 
p. u. having been eight hours and a half in 
travelling thirty-eight miles fi*om Bedford. 
The road is an old&shioned stone turnpike, 
made before McAdam had taught the nations 
how small to break their stone ; it is therefore 
hard, and rough, and safe, and jolty, and slow 
to travel ; good for health, and profitable to 
blacksmiths and wheelwrights. 

The coach set us down at the Golden 



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06 LBTTERS ON 

Swan, a very good house, where we found the 
rooms large and clean, the beds comfortable, 
and the table abundantly supplied with good 
things. In tbes» far-away taverns, private 
tables and parlours, are neither thought of 
nor wanted. Tou eat at what would be 
called in Europe a Table d'Hote ; not served 
indeed with so HMich ceremony, but furnished 
^ with more substantial fare. Here you meet 
a few quiet permanent boarders, young law- 
yers or merchants of the place ; and the host 
and hostess, plain people, who bestir tliem- 
selves to make you as comfortable as possi- 
ble; and you can always get your meal in 
peace and plenty, miless some unhappy preju- 
dice sticks in your throat, and impedes your 
deglutition : such as, that vegetables can only 
be eaten with a silver fork ; or the horror of 
eating peas with a knife. Cockneys who are 
seized with the ambition of seeing the worlds 
should leave these little matters at home. 

There are generally, besides the dining 
room, one or two apartments furnished and 



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PENNSYLVANIA. 97 

used as parlours, but common to all the 
boarders, who use them as members of the 
same family. The hours of breakfast and 
dinner are six and twelve ; rather early for 
our eastern habits, but if you will go to bed 
at eight, you will find breakfast welcome at 
six next morning. 

Several coaches pass here every day, both 
east and west; but none of them stay all 
night; so that travellers who have stopped 
here cannot be sure of a departure; we shall 
therefore retire to-night with the intention, 
though not the certainty of getting into the 
coach for Pittsburg, which will pass at three 
A. M. to-morrow. It has been raining all day, 
which has prevented us from perambulating 
the village. 



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LETTBR8 ON PENlTOTLyANTA. 99 



LETTER IX. 

DepartDT6 before dayBfht— Summit of Laurel Hill- 
Jones's Mills— Its Beauties and Delights— Case's 
good Tavern— Sports — Western Descent of the 
Mountain — Splendid View— Mount Pleasant — Rich, 
cultivated, beautiful Country — Stewartsville — ^Tur- 
tle Creek — Its beautiful Scenery-^Approach to 
Pittsburgh — -Disappointment — -Pittsburghers- — Au. 
thor of Memoir of Cabot — ^Noise, Dust, Smoke — 
Ilzchange Hotel — Easy writing — "Enor — Point un* 
paralleled — ^Three Rivers — British and French am<» 
bition— Two great Bridges — Allegheny Village- 
Aqueduct — Canal and Tunnel — Braddock's Field of 
Defeat — Young Washington — -Steam Crackers- — 
What we shall do, whilst crossing the Portage Rail 
Road. 

PiUshurgh^ August 16, 1835. 
Sure enough, at 3i a. m. yesterday, the 
coach from the east houod to Pittsburgh came 
rattling up to the door of our Hotel in Somer- 



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100 LBTTESS ON 

set, and we were soon waked, washed, and 
willingly wending on oUr westward way. It 
continued dark for an hour and ap half, 
during which period we were traversing a 
part of the elevated valley between the sum- 
mits of the Allegheny and Laurel Hill, which 
may be considered as the eastern and western 
buttresses of an elevated table twenty miles 
ki breadth. We now began to ascend the 
summit of Laurel Hill, which we passed at 7 
A. M. and ia an hour more reached Jones's 
Mills, about one-third down the western de- 
clivity of the mountain. 

This is a most romantic and beautiful spot, 
' abounding with all sorts of natural delights ; 
fish, flesh, and fowl ; hunting, shooting, and 
fishing ; streams, woods, mountains and val- 
leys; and last not least, an excellent old 
tavern kept by Mr. Case in the good old 
fashioned way, in which cleanliness and the 
comforts of the guests are looked to with the 
discerning eye of an experienced host. 

This is a pleasant resort for sportsmen. 



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pbunstltania* 101 

who love to cheat the speckled trout with 
fbigiied fly, or hit the far off bounding deer 
with ball from rifle true* It is also a plea- 
sant place for those honest philosophers who 
do not disdain to partake of the savoury pro- 
ducts of such manly sports, when smoking on 
the genial board. 

We got an excellent breakfast at Jones's 
Mills, and a fresh set of horses, and resumed 
our journey refreshed and invigorated. For 
six or seven miles we continued to descend 
gradoally the western declivity of Laurel 
Hill ; when suddenly • emerging from the 
forest, the valley at the mountain's foot burst 
upon our sight. We were still high enough 
to command a splendid view of ten or twelve 
miles in extent, composed of alternate tracts 
of forest and cultivation, rising and sinking 
into hill and vale; about the middle of which, 
perched on a gentle eminence, sat Mount 
Pleasant, smiling in the summer sun. On the 
way hither, we had passed through Donegal 
and Madison, two mountain villages. 

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102 Lvnxtks ox 

We had eoBtempkted passing the night 
at Mount Pleasant, but as it was bat one r. 
X. when we ajrived, and the day was fine, the 
coach not full, the country beautifiil, and 
ourselves not tired enough, we <^nged our 
mind, and determined to proceed twenty mUeB 
further to Stewartsville. 

As we proceeded, we found the country to 
improfe in richness, cultivation and beauty ; 
which improvement continues to improve 
until you reach the smoky Birmingham of 
the United States. We did not find the ac- 
commodations tempting enough, nor ourselves 
tired enough to stdp us at Stewartsville, and 
when we arrived at Turtle Creek, whepe 
Chal&Bt's is a good house, our proximi^ to 
Pittsburgh, the distance being but thirteen 
miles, drew us irresistibly forward until we 
saw reposing dim and dirty, under a murky 
mantle of smouldering emoke, 

Pittsburgriam, longte finis chartsqae viseque. 

The traveller should bestow several long 



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PKNNSTLVANIA. 103 

looks on the scenery at Turtle Creek* After 
travelling lor some distance on a beautiful 
piaiu, the coach coines suddeoily on the brink ^ 
of an awful hill, down which you look upon 
a little plain far below, through which mean- 
ders the stream of Turtle Creek. On the 
opposite side, another abrupt and lofty hill 
rises to a level with its antagonist, from which 
you look. The Hotel in the valley, the 
creek, the meadows, the fields of grain, the 
bold and wooded hills, down which the road 
is seen to wind its wagon-worn way, form a 
scene worthy of a painter's pencil and a 
poet's pen* It ^uld be gazed on from the 
brow of either kill, and from the banks of the 
creek, to obtain three fine landscapes of va- 
rious beauty. 

The ascent from the valley of the creek is 
along a well graded stone turnpike, and is tn 
extent three quarters of a mile, tedious and 
safe. The road now begins to assume the 
appearance, of an avenue leading to a city pf 
some consequence, passing through several 



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104 LETTERS ON 

villages, and by a number of bandsome coun- 
try seats. Before reaching Pittsburgh, the 
road runs for several miles parallel with the 
river Allegheny along its left bank, and has 
on its left side a very high ridge, which seems 
to consist almost entirely of bituminous coal. 
The openings from which the coal is obtained 
are visible on the hill side here and there at 
every altitude. The price of this mineral 
very little exceeds the cost of digging. 

The sensation on entering Pittsburgh is one 
of disappointment ; the country through which 
you have come is so beautiful, and the town 
itself so ugly. The ^government of the town 
seems to have been more intent on filling the 
purses, than providing for the gratification of 
the taste, or for the comfort of its inhabitants. 
As for the Pittsburghers themselves, they are 
worthy of every good thing, being enlighten- 
ed, hospitable and urbane. 

Pittsburgh has produced many eminent men 
in law, politics and divinity, and is now tbe 
residence of the erudite, acute and witty author 



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PBl?Tf8TLVANfA. 105 

of the Memoir of Sebastiaa Cabot, which 
should be read by every native American. 
Its mana^turing powers and propensities 
have beea so often described and lauded 
that we shall say nothing about them, except 
that they fill the people's pockets with cash, 
and their toiling town with awse, and dust, 
and smoke. 

Our coach arrived at the Exchange Hotel 
at half ifMist seven p. m., where we took up our 
quarters and found the accommodations very 
good. We had been sixteen hours tra veiling 
sixty-seven miles over a hard and rough road> 
without stopping to dine, and being bruised, 
tired and hungry, were delighted to find our- 
selves in a snug parlour where we could sit 
still and eat. After sufficiently profiting by 
these facilities, our felicity was made complete 
by the enjoyment of one of the greatest bless- 
ings that can fall to the lot of tired humanity, 
a good night's rest in a comfortable bed. 
Pittsburgh is fiill of good things in the eating 
and drinking way, but it requires much inge- 
nuity to get them down your throat unsophls- 

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106 urarxRs ON 

ticated withsmdie and codldusU If a sheet 
of white paper he upon your desk for half an 
hour, you may write on it with your finger's 
end, through the thin stratum of coal-dust that 
has settled upon it during that interval* 

The Pittsburghers have committed an error 
in not rescuing from the service of Mammon, 
a triangle of thirty or forty acres at the junc- 
tion of the Allegheny and, Monongahela, and 
devoting it to the purposes of recreation* It 
is an unparalleled position for a park in which 
to ride or walk or sit. Bounded on the right 
by the clear and rapid Allegheny rushing from 
New York* and on the left by the deep and 
slow Monongalia flowing majestically from 
Virginia, having in front the beginning of the 
great Ohio, bearing on its broad bosom the 
traffic of an empire, it is a spot worthy of being 
rescued from the ceaseless din of the steam 
engine, and the lurid flames and dingy smoke 
of the coal furnace. But alas ! the sacra 
fames auri is rapidly covering this area with 
private edifices ; and in a few short years it 



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PINNSTLVAMIA. 107 

is probable, that t)ie antiquary will be unable 
to discover a vestige of those celebrated mill* 
tary works, with which French and Briti^ 
ambition, in by^gone ages, had crowned this 
important and interesting point. 

There is a large bridge of timber across 
the Allegheny and another over the Monon- 
gahela ; the former of which leads to the town 
of Allegheny, a rapidly increasing village, 
situated on a beautiful plain on the western 
side of the river. About half a mile above 
the bridge the Allegheny is crossed by an 
aqueduct bringing over the canal, which 
(strange to say) comes down from the conflu- 
ence of the Kiskeminetas with the Allegheny 
on the western side of the latter river. The 
aqueduct is an enormous wooden trough with 
a roof, hanging from seven arches of timber, 
supported by six stone piers and two abut- 
ments. The canal then passes through the 
town and under Grant's-hill through a tunnel, 
and communicates by a lock with the Monon* 
gahela. 



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108 LGTTEBS ON 

The field of battle on which the conceited 
Braddock paid with his life the penalty of o1>- 
BtiDate rashness, is not far from Pittsburgh, 
and is interesting to Americans as the scene 
on which the youthful Washingtoo displayed 
the germs of those exalted c;(ualitie8 which 
afterwards ripened into the hero, and made 
him the founder and father of a nation. 

Pittsburgh is destined to be the centre <^ 
an immense commerce, both in its own pro- 
ducts and those of distant countries* Its annual 
exports at present probably exceed 25,000 and 
its imports 20,000 tons. Its trade in timber 
amounts to more than six millions of feet. 
The inexhaustible supply of coal and the 
facility of obtaining iron, insure the perman- 
ent success of its manufactoriest Pittsburgh 
makes steam engines apd other machinery, 
and her extensive glass-works have long been 
in profitable operation. There are also ex- 
tensive paper mills moved by steam, and a 
manufactory of crackers (not explosive but 
edible,) wrought by the same power. These 



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crackerisare madeof good flourand pure water, 
and are fair and enticing to the eye of hunger, 
but we do not find the flaTourso agreeable to 
the palate as that of Wattson's water crackerjsi. 
Perhaps they are kneaded by the iron hands 
of a steam engine, whereas hands of flesh are 
needed to make good crackers. 

It was our intention to have taken steam- 
boat and gone down the Ohio river to Guyan- 
dotte, and by coach to the Virginia Springs, 
but unfortunately the rivers were so low, that 
tbe steamboats could not run ; so after a so- 
journ of three days, we intend to leave Pitts- 
burgh for Philadelphia by the canal, that we 
may see the beauties of the Kiskeminitas and 
the wonders of the Portage Rail-way, with its 
tunnels, viaducts and inclined planes. We 
incline to be very, plain in explaining the 
nature of these planes, and to prevent our 
readers from complaining of the little light 
we may shed on this subject, when we shall 
be passing over this miracle of art, we shall 
keep our eyes, ears and mouth wide open, 
10 

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no LBTTBltS Oir 

look at every thing, listen to every thing, and 
speer questions at every body, and shall treas- 
ure up our gleanings for the edifieatien of all 
inquiring friends* 

New Yorkers and people from down east, 
who wish to visit the Virginia Springs, can- 
not take an easier and more delightful route, 
than that through Pennsylvania to Pittsburgh, 
and thence down the Ohio to Guyandotte ; 
whence to the White Sulphur the distance is 
one hundred and sixty miles over a good road, 
through a romantic country, and by a Une of 
good stage coaches. 



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FINNaTIiVAHIA. Ill 



LETTER X. 

Night Departure — Packet Cincinnati — Lost Descriivtioii 
— Aqueduct — ^Freeport — Another Aqueduct — Kig- 
keminitaa — Conemaugh —Coal Strata— Boring for Salt 
— Prodigal Nature — Artful Man — Packet — Passen- 
gers-— Scotch Americans — ^Kentuckians — Reading-^ 
Yirgiwa Letters — Female Criticism — Hunter's Han- 
kerchief — Leechburgh — Saltsburgh — Magnificent 
Tunnel — View through it — Stone Aqueduct — Pool— 
What it is— Silent creeping through the woods-^ 
Johnstown, end of Weitern Canal-^Beginning of Foli- 
age Rail Road. 

Johtutown, Augutt 20, 1835. 
Wb left Pittsburgh, the evening before last 
at nine o'clock, in the Canal Packet Cincin- 
nati, Captain Fitzgerald. The hour of start- 
ing is nearly as inconvenient as possible, be- 
cause the boat passes thirty ntiles of the River 



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112 I.ETTSBS ON ' 

Allegheny, which every body wishes to see, 
ia the dark. This is a matter of heartfelt re- 
gret to us, because our amiable readers will 
lose the interesting description that we had 
resolved to write of that beautiful river. 

In a few minutes aller she began to move, 
the Packet entered the aqueduct which car- 
ries the canal over to the western bank of the 
Allegheny, along which it runs in a north- 
eastern direction for thirty miles. At five 
o'clock yesterday morning we passed the vil- 
lage of Freeport, which stands on the westera 
bank of the Allegheny, below the mouth of 
the Kiskeminitas which falls in on the east- 
ern side of the river. A few minutes aAer 
we crossed the Allegheny thrbugh an aque- 
duct which carries the canal over that river 
to the northern bank of the Kiskeminitas, the 
course of which the canal now pursues in a 
south eastern direction. 

The Kiskeminitas is a large and beautiful 
stream and the scenery on its banks is very 
romantic and interesting. Including that por- 



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PEimsYLyAiniL. 118 

tion of it which is called Conemaugh, its 
course extends more than a hun'dred miles. 
The sides of many of its high hills are seamed 
with bituminous coal, the thick strata of 
which are distinctly visible as you glide along ; 
and ever and anon the ear is roused by the 
pleasant tinkle of the salt-seeking auger, per- 
forating by perpetual and importunate though 
gentle blows, the rocky strata deep below the 
surface several hundred feet. 

In this region nature has been prodigal in 
supplying man with materials for the profit- 
able application of the effi)rts of art. Coal is 
taken from openings made in the sides of the 
hills, and slid down wooden troughs into the 
very boats that convey it to the furnace. The 
steam engines at the numerous salt works, 
keep in motion the augers that make vents 
for the salt springs, pump the water into the 
vats, and blow the fire which evaporates it, i% 
precipitate the salt. 

The discipline and arrangements in the Cin- 
cinati are good, and as we had but twenty 
10* 

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114 USTTERS ON 

male and six. female passengers on board, all 
quiet and some of them very agreeable, wet 
got through the night very well. We have 
farmers and merchants from Ohio and Ken^* 
tucky, all Americans and right good ones, 
though some of them were born in Scotland. 
' The Scots when transplanted soon take deep 
root, and make first rate Yankees. 

There is also an interesting young couple 
from Kentucky, six weeks married, who 
having crowns in their purse, have come 
abroad to see ihe world, which is just open- 
ing upon their young optics in its most de- 
lightful aspect* They are pleased by every 
thing that is pleasing, and every body is plecus- 
ed with their sprightly wit, good humour and 
interesting na.%x>ete. The lady is a reader, 
and yesterday she took up a litUle book that 
was lying on the table, called ' Letters de- 
scriptive of the Virginia Springs,' and read . 
it through to her husband almost in a breath, 
sitting the while conveniently close to him ; 
and thus she criticised, '^ this is not such a 



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■'/ 



FBNNSTLVANIA. 115 

wonderful author, I could write as well my- 
self;" we assented to the truth of both the 
members of her proposition, and considered 
the audior as much honoured by the sincerity 
of the fair critic. 

The gentleman obliged us by describing 
the real Kentucky tie of a silk handkerchief 
' for a Hunter's head on a frosty morning. 
This is a secret worth knowing, and we shall 
treasure it^^pi* use next wislvr, which we 
fear will be very cold and long. May it be 
a He of perpetual kindness ! 

Yesterday at 8 a. m. we passed Leech- 
burgh ; and at m. Saltsburgh ; and at 2 p. m« 
we passed over a beautiful stone aqueduct 
which leads the canal into the mouth of a 
large tunnel eight hundred feet long, which 
perforates the mountain and cuts oflfa circuit 
of four miles. The tunnel is cut through 
limestone rock for four hundred feet, and the 
rest is arched with solid masonry, as are also 
both the entrances. The canal and tow-path 
both pass through the tunnel, the approach to 

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11^6 XETTEB8 <3fS 

which is most interesting. You are gHding 
over the aqueduct admiring the scenery on 
the right and left, up and down the stream ; 
on a sudden you seem to be rushing against 
the steep side of the mountain, and then to 
your great astonishment you perceive an 
enormous archway which passes through the 
mountain's base, and discovers the brilliant 
landscape beyond, set in a dark frame, com- 
posed of the massy ribs of rock dimly seen 
within the tunnel, upon which the mountain 
securely rests. 

This magnificent tunnel is sixty miles from 
Pi-ttsburgh, and the surrounding scenery is in 
good keeping therewith. Directly after leav- 
ing the tunnel th6 boat enters « pool made by 
building a dam across the river, and raising 
the water so as to give it the appearance of a 
mountain lake. These pools, which abound 
in the inland navigation of Pei^nc^lvania, are 
exceedingly beautiful, being onCy'two, or three 
miles long, and three or four hundred yards 
wide, surrounded by hills or mountains, forest- 



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FBNKSYLVANIA. 117 

covered, sometimes subsiding into a lovely 
cultivated vale, embosoming a rural village* 
There is scarcely a perceptible current, and 
when the air is still, the surface, mirror-like, 
presents an exact inverted picture of the 
scenery around. When the boat debouches 
from the narrow canal, she glides with more 
easy and rapid movement into the still ex- 
panse, passing through the woods and air and 
watefr in sweetest silence, save the lulling 
sound of the tiny ripple at her bow. Here 
it is pleasant to sit near the bow ^ chewing the 
cud of sweet and bitter fancy ;' and it is de- 
lightful 

taciturn sylvas inter reptare salubres, 

Corantem quicquid dignum sapiente bonoqu' est 
Hor. Epist, 4, lib, I. 

To glide in silence througrh the wholesome wood, 
Conning things worthy of the wise and good. 

After ten more miles of changing scenery, 

t the shades of evening closed in upon us, and 

! sleep and darkness brought us at 3 a. m. to 

the basin at Johnstown ; the eastern end of 



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118 LETTERS ON 

the trans- AUeghenian canal, and*the western 
beginning of tho^Portage Rail Road; 

Here silent and motionless we remained 
wrapt in the arms of Morpheus until 5 a.^h., 
when the tramping of feet and the dragging 
of trunks over our heads, admonished us that 
we must leave the packet for the Mountain 
Rail Road. Our baggage was quickly placed 
upon the cars, and ourselves w«re led up to 
M'Connell's Hotel, a short distance from the 
basin, to break our morning fast. 



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LETTER XL 

Firit level — Agreeable apprehension — Eighth wonder 
— rRising in the world, by steam and by rope— Height 
from Johnstown— Descent to Hallidaysburg — Plane 
Nob 1. — Level No. 2. — ^Tunnel — Soperb Viaduct — 
Four other Planes and levels — Top of the Mountain 
— Thoughts on do. — Summit Level — Mountain Top 
Tavern — Climate like Spring — Ascending apprehen- 
sion succeeded by descending . fear — Descending 
Planes longer and steeper — Ropes thicker — ^Travel 
without steam or horses — Extracts from Mr. Welch's 
Report containing descripticms of the Machinery, Via- 
ducts, Culverts, and all the eleme^ of the Inclined 
Planes and Rail Road. 

Packet JuniatOrnear Lewistoum, Aug, 21, 1835. 

Testebdat at Johnstown we soon despatch" 
ed the ceremony of a good breakfast, and at 
6 A. M. were in motion on the first level, as it 
is called, of four miles in length, leading to 
the foot of the first inclined plane. The level 



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120 USTTEKS ON 

has an asceot of one hundred and one feet, 
and we passed oyer it in horse-drawn cars 
with the speed of six miles an hour. This is 
a very interesting part of the route, not only 
on cbccount of the wildness and beauty ^f the 
scenery, but also of ihe excitement mingled 
with vague apprehension, which takes pos- 
session of every body in approaching the great 
; wonder of the internal improvements of Penn- 
\ sylvania. In six hours the cars and passen- 
gers were to be raised eleven hundred and 
seventy-two feet of perpendicular height, and 
to be lowered fourteen hundred feet of perpen- 
dicular descent, by complicated, powerful and 
frangible machinery, and were to pass a 
mountain, to overcome which, with a similar 
weight, three years ago, would have required 
the space of three days. The idea of raising 
so rapidly in the world, particularly by steam 
or a rope^ is very agitating to the simple 
minds of those who have always walked in 
humble paths. 

As soon as we arrived at the foot of plane 



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FBNNSYLVANIA. 121 

No. 1, the horses were unhitched and the cars 
were fastened to the rope, which passes up 
the middle of one track and down the middle 
of the other. The stationary steam engine 
at the head of the plane was started and the 
cars moved majestically up the steep and long 
acclivity in the space of four minutes ; the 
length of the plane being sixteen hundred and 
eight feet, its perpendicular height, one hun- 
dred and fif\y, and its angle of inclination 
5° 42' 38 ". 

The cars were now attached to horses and 
drawn through a magnificent tunnel nine hun- 
dred feet long, having two tracks through it, 
and being cut ^through solid rock nearly the 
whole distance. Now the train of cars were 
attached to a steam tug to pass a level of four- 
teen miles in length. This lengthy level is 
one of the most interesting portions of the 
Portage Rail Road, from the beauty of its 
location and the ingenuity of its construction. 
It ascends almost imperceptibly through its 
whole course, overcoming a perpendicular 
11 

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122 hETTEEM OK 

height of ODe hundred and ninety feet, and 
passes through some of the wildest scenery ia 
the state ; the axe, the chisel and the spade 
having cut its way through forest, rock and 
mountain. The valley of the little Ck>neniaugh 
river is passed on a viaduct of the most beau- 
tiful construction. It is of one arch, a perfect 
semicircle with a diameter of eighty feety 
built of cut stone, and its entire height froai. 
the foundation is seventy -eight feet six inches. 
When viewed from the bottom of the valley, 
it seems to span the heavens, and you might 
suppose a rainbow had been turned to stone. 

The fourteen miles of this second level are 
passed in one hour, and the train arrives at 
the foot of the second plane, which has seven- 
teen hundred and sixty feet of length, and one 
hundred and thirty -two feet of perpendicular 
height. The third level has a length of a 
mile and five-eighths, a rise of fourteen feet 
six inches, and is passed by means of horses. 
The third plane has a length of fourteen hun- 
dred and eighty feet, and a perpendicular 



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PENNSYLVANIA. 123 

height of one hundred and thirty. The fourth 
level is two miles long, rises nineteen feet and 
is passed by means of horses. The fourth 
plane has a length of two thousand one hun- 
dred and ninety-six feet, and a perpendicular 
height of one hundred and eighty-eight. The 
fifth level is three miles long, rises twenty- 
six feet and is passed by means of horses. 
The fiflh plane has a length of two thousand 
six hundred and twenty-nine feet, and a per- 
pendicular height of two hundred and two, and 
brings you to the top of the mountain, two 
thousand three hundred and ninety seven feet 
above the level of the ocean, thirteen hundred 
and ninety-nine feet above HallidaySburg, 
and eleven hundred and seventy-two feet above 
Johnstown. At this elevation in the midst of 
summer, you breathe an air like that of spring, 
clear and cooU Three short hours have 
brought you from the torrid plain, to a re- 
freshing and invigorating climate. The as- 
cending apprehension has left you, but it is 
succeeded by the fear of the steep descent 



Digitized by Google, 



124 LETTBBS ON 

which lies before you ; and as the car rolls 
along on this giddy height, the thought trem- 
bles in your mind, that it may slip over the 
head of the first descending plane, rush down 
the frightful steep, and be dashed into a thous- 
and pieces at its foot. 

The length of the road on the summit of 
the mountain is one mile and five-eighths, and 
about the middle of it stands a spacious and 
handsome stone tavern. The eastern quarter 
of a mile, which is the highest part, is a dead 
level ; in the other part, there is an ascent of 
' nineteen feet. The descent on the eastern 
side of the mountain is much more fearful 
than the ascent on the western, for the planes 
are much longer and steeper, of which you 
are made aware by the increased thickness of 
the ropes ; and you look down instead of up. 

There are also five planes on the easteni 
side of the mountain, and five slightly descend- 
ing levels, the last of which is nearly four 
miles long and leads to the basin at Hallidays- 
burg; this is travelled by the cars without 



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PHNNSTLTANIA. 125 

Bteam or horse, merely by the force of gravity. 
In descending the mountain you meet several 
fine prospencts and arrive at Hallidaysburg 
between twelve and one o'clock. All the ele- 
ments of the Portage Rail Road and descrip- 
tions of the machinery, will be found in the 
extracts added to this letter, which we have 
taken from a very interesting and able report 
made by Sylvester Welch, Esq., Engineer 
of the Allegheny Portage Rail Road, to the 
Canal ConHnissioners of Pennsylvania, on the 
Ist of November, 1832. 

Extracts from Mr. WtlcWs Report. * 

" The viaduct over the little Conemaugh at 
the Horse Shoe Bend, has a semicircular arch 
of eighty feet. 

" The height of the abutment walls from the 
foundation to the springing line of the arch, 
IS twenty-nine feet ; do. from low water twenty 
feet. 

" The rise of the arch is forty feet. 

" The distance from the top of the arch to 

the top of the parapet is nine feet and a half. 
11* 

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126 LBTTBS8 ON 

''The whole height of the walls above the 
foundatioQ is seventy-eight aiid a half feet. 

" Ditto, above the surface of low water is 
sixty-nine and a half feet. 

" The masonry is of the most substantial 
kind. The stones that form the faces of the 
walls contain from 12 to 25 cubic fbet each; 
the beds are well cut and fitted together. 

" Width at top of parapet, 28 feet. 

'' Ditto, at foundation, 40 do. 

" Cost about $52,000. 

'' The viaduct over the Ebensburg Branch 
of the Conemaugh, one arch ,* span 40 feet ; rise 
of arch 10 feet ; height of walls from founda- 
tion to top of parapet 31 and a half feet ; ditto, 
from low water 27 feet ; width at top of par- 
apets 25 feet 10 inches. Cost about 88600. 

'' The viaduct over the mountain branch of 
the Conemaugh — one arch ; span 40 feet ; rise 
of arch 10 feet ; height from foundation to top 
of parapet 23 and a half feet; ditto, from sur- 
face of low water 17 feet ; width at top 25 
feet 10 inches. Cost about 96500 



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1»NNSYLVANIA. 1^7 

"The viaduct over the Beaver Dam Branch 
of the Jiiniata,— Two oblique arches each of 
40 feet 3 and a half inches, ^an measured on 
the skew face, and 33 feet measured at right 
angles to the axis of the vault ; rise of arches 
10 and a half feet ; height from foundation to 
top of parapet 20 feet. Cost about $10,000. 

" Culverts. — There are 68 CJulverts ; the 
spans vary from 5 to 20 feet ; they are built 
of stone laid in lime mortar ; the faces of the 
walls at the ends are built of hammered stone 
laid in courses ; the coping and steps, and the 
voussoirs that form the heads of the arches 
are smoothly cut* 

** Drains.. — ^TherQ are 80 drains of from 2 
to 3 feet span ; the walls are laid without mor* 
tar. 

*' The viaducts, culverts and drains make 
together one hundred and fifly-seven passages 
for water under the Rail Road. 



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128 



LBTTBES Oir 





si. 


CIOi-lO-<0-lOOOOO 


1 


IP 


955.40 

882.00 

819.00 

764.50 

716.80 ' 

674.70 

637.30 

600.30 

573.70 

546.40 

478.30 

441.70 


1 

-J 

3 


£21 

pi 


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,-1 1^ 1-^ i-H 


t 

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5i- ■ 

Its 


S, '*"^ ;?c« S'w « ^ ?«fl S* 



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PENNSYLVANIA. 



129 



No. 2. TABLE OF GRADES. 

•* This table exhibits the profile or grade of the Portage 
Rail Road. The |.8t column shows the ascent from 
Johnstown to the summit of the mountain, and descent 
from the same to Hallidajsburg, per mile in feet ; the 
2nd column .shows the length of each grade in miles ; 
the 3rd column shows the distance in miles from the 
lower end of the basin at Johnstown ; and the 4th 
column shows the total ascent from the basin at Johns- 
town to the summit of the mountain, and the total de- 
scent from the summit to the basin at Hallidaysburgh. 





Lenirth 


Distance Ascent I 




Aroent 


in Miles 


from 


from 




per 


of each 


Johns- 


Johns- 




Mile. 


grade. 


town. 


town. 







0.19 


0.19 







26.400 


2.44 


2.63 


64.50 




25344 


1.46 


4.09 


101.46 







0.04 


4.13 


101.46 Level. 




0.30 
0.02 


4.43 
445 


251 46 Inclined Plane No. 1. 
251.46 Leyel. 





10.560 


3.31 


7.76 


286.46 




21.120 


3.66 


11.42 


363.66 




7.920 


1.40 


12.82 


374.76 




14.784 


4.19 


17.01 


436.64 




10.560 


a.42 


17.43 


441.04 







0.06 


17.49 


441.04 


Level. 




0.33 


17.82 


573.44 


Inclined Plane No. 2. 





OM 


17.88 


573!44 


Level. 


10.560 


1.37 


19.25 


587.94 







0.06 


19.31 


587.94 


Level. 




0.28 
0.06 


19.59 
19.65 


718.44 
718.44 


Inclined Plane No. 3. 
Level. 





10.560 


1.78 


21.43 


737i24 





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ISO 



LBTTBBS ON 



Ascent 
per 
mile. 


Length 
in mileti 
of each 

Krade. 


Distance 
from 
Johns- 
town. 


Ascent 
from 
Johns- 
town. 







0.06 
0.42 
0.06 
2.44 
0.06 
0.49 
0.06 
1.29 
0i27 


21.49 
21.91 
21.97 
24.41 
24.47 
24.96 
25.02 
26.31 
26.58 


731J24 

925.10 

925.10 

950.90 

950.90 

1152.54 

1152.54 

1171.58 

1171.58 


Level 

Tndined Plane No. 4. 




10.560 



Level 

Level 

Inclined Plane, No. 5. 

Level 

Summit Level 




14.784 



Descent 

per 

mile. 






Descent 

from 

Summit 






0.51 
0.15 
0.51 
0.06 
0.51 
0.06 
0.58 
06 
1.13 
0.06 
051 
006 
1.64 
06 
0.43 
0.06 
1.80 
1.25 
0.09 
0.25 
0.29 


27.09 
27.24 
27.75 
27.81 
28.32 
28.38 
28.96 
29.02 
30.15 
3051 
30.72 
30.78 
3>.42 
32.48 
32.91 
32.97 
34 77 
36.02 
36.11 
36.36 
36.65 


266.50 

266.50 

527.00 

527.00 

532.4 

532.40 

840.40 

840.40 

852.40 

852.40 

1041.90 

1041.90 

1071.48 

1071.48 

1252.00 

1252.00 

1346.00 

1390.22 

1390.22 

1398.71 

1398.71 


Inclined Plane T(7o. 6. 





Level 

Inclined Plane No. 7. 

Level 

Level 

Inclined Plane No. 8. 




10.560 



ooo 


Level 

Level 

Inclined Plane No. 9. 

Level 

Level 

Inclined Plane No. 10. 




17.952 





52.800 
35.376 


35.376 




Level 

Level 
Level 



Whde ascent and descent 2570.30 ftet 



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PElflfSYLVANlA. 131 

No. 3. TABLE OF INCLINED PLANES. 





Horizontal 


Length 


Total 




Anjle 


No. 


length in 


measured 


rise 


Rise per 




leel. 


on plane. 


in feet. 


100 feet. 


inclination. 


1 


1600.50 


1607.74 


150.00 


10. 


5° 42' 38" 


2 


1755.32 


1760.43 


132.40 


8. 


4° 34' 26" 


3 


1473.70 


1480.25 


130.50 


9.50 


5° 25' 36" 


4 


2187.74 


2195.94 


187.86 


9. 


5° 8' 34" 


5 


2620.82 


2628.60 


201.64 


8. 


4° 34' 26" 


6 


2700.52 


2713.85 


266^0 


10.25 


5° 51' 9" 


7 


2641.98 


26.55.01 


260.50 


10.25 


5° 51' 9" 


8 


3101.49 


3116.92 


307.60 


10.25 


5° 51' 9" 


9 


2714.05 


2720.80 


189..50 


7.25 


40 8' 48" 


10 


2288.46 


2295.61 


180.52 


8.25 


40 42' 58" 



"The table of the inclined planes, shows the 
inclination, the length measured horizontally, 
the length measured on the planes, the ascent 
or descent per 100 feet base, and the height 
ordifierence of level between the head and foot 
of each inclined plane. 

" The inclined planes are regular in descent, 
from the top to a point 200 feet from the foot, 
and terminate in a circular arc, to which the 
plane and level are tangents. The descent in 
100 feet is shown in the table. The descent 
in the last 200 feet, is the same as in 100 feet 



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182 LETTBR8 ON 

above. The incliQed planes are all straight 
in plan. 

" The entire cost of the Portage 
Rail Road with single track, ma- 
chinery and single stationary en- 
gines at the inclined planes is 
about .... 1(1.155.000 

The cost of laying a second track 

is about .... 295.000 

The cost of another set of station- 
ary engines is about • . 25.000 

91.475.000 



^* Description of the Machinery. — First Set 
of Engines. — The system of machinery adopt- 
ed at the inclined planes of the Portage Rail- 
way, is difierent in many of its features from 
the plans heretofore adopted in Europe and 
this country. 

^<The trade on this road will preponderate in 
different directions at different seasons of the 
year; and in consequence it was deemed 



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PENNSTLVANIA. 133 

necessary to place steam eingines at all the 
planes, and also to arrange the machinery so 
that they may be self acting if necessary. 

" Two vertical sheaves^ of cast iron 8i feet 
in diameter, and turned in the grooves so as 
to be exactly similar to each other in form 
and dimensions, are placed, one in the centre 
of each Railway-track, about 100 feet from 
the head of the plane ; the tops of them ex- 
tending six inches above the rails. The shafts 
on which these sheaves are placed, are geered 
together by equal spur wheels 4 feet in diam- 
eter, so as to revolve in opposite directions* 
In the planef passing through the bottom of 
these sheaves, and in a pit between them 
and the head of the (inclined) plane, a hori- 
zontal sheave, (the diameter of which is equal 
to the distance between the centres of the 
tracks,) is placed, the groove of which is also 
turned smooth. This last is fitted into a strong 
frame, which may be moved for a distance of 

♦Wheels. tlmaginary. 

12 

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134 LBTTBBS OK 

15 feet towards the head of the plane, by 
means of a weight attached to a chain, and 
hanging in a well. There is another horizon- 
tal sheave 40 feet from the foot of the plane, 
on the level, which is also fitted into a strong 
frame moveable 60 feet, by means of a double 
pully block, rope and windlass. 

^^ The rope is endless, and is supported by 
{cast iron ?) sheaves 18 inches (in) diameter, 
with hardened steel axles, placed 24 feet apart. 
It passes around the horizontal sheave at the 
foot of the plane, up the centre of one track 
until it meets the vertical sheave above the 
head, {of the plane)^ passes half round it, and 
returning towards the head of the plane, Ineets 
the horizontal sheave,* passes half round it, re- 
turns to the second vertical sheave, passes 
half round it, and down the other track of the 
railway. 

" The moveable sheave of the head, has the 
effect of drawing the rope tightly into the 
grooves of the working sheaves, obviating the 
danger of slipping, and equalizing the strain ; 



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rtNNSYLVANIA. 135 

that at the foot will permit* the slackness of 
the rope to be taken up as it stretches by use, 
without the necessity of cutting and splicing 
it. 

" The steam engine which drives the above 
machinery is coupled to the shall of one of 
the vertical sheaves* It is a double cylinder, 
high pressure, slide valve, horizontal engine, 
without a fly wheel, and drives the working 
shaft directly without the intervention of geer- 
ing. At 6 of the planes, the engines are of 35 
librse power, and at the remaining 4, of 30 
horse power. When the number of strokes of 
the engine is 14 per minute, the velocity of the 
rope fs about 4 miles an hour. The form of 
the engine, although somewhat more expen- 
sive than the common one, is recommended 
by its greater safety. Being under more per- 
fect command than a single cylinder engine 
with a fly-wheel, it may be started, or in case 
of accident be stopped, with great facility. 
When the descending load exceeds the as- 
cending, the hydraulic regulator is thrown 



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136 LETTERS ON 

into geer. This is a horizontal cylinder filled 
with water, 14 inches (in) diameter, nnade of 
cast iron, and having a piston, piston rod, 
slides, pitman, &c. similar to a steam engine 
cylinder. It has a side pipe connecting the 
ends, in which is placed a valve, worked by an 
elevating screw similar to that of a common 
throttle valve. A spur wheel geering with one 
on the shad of one of the vertical sheaves, 
works a pitman, which drives the piston back- 
wards and forwards through the cylinder. At 
each half stroke of the piston, the whole of the 
water in the cylinder is forced through the 
orifice formed by the valve in the side pipe, 
and as this may be regulated by hand, any de- 
gree of retardation required, may be obtain* 
ed." 



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PENITSTLVANIA. 137 



LETTER XII. 

Absorption of the senses — Relief by writing — Charms of 
the Valley of the Juniata — Gregory Nazianzcn — 
Evening — ^Night — Huntingdon — Lewistown — Its en- 
virons — Leave the Juniata — Cross the Susquehanna— 
Harrisburg — Leave the Packet — Wilson's excellent 
Hotel — Antithesis — Glorious sleep — Breakfast — 
Capitol — John Hancock's Chair — Journey to Lancas- 
ter by Stage Coachr— Sweet Arrow — Conclusion — 
End — Contents. 

Lancaster, Augutt 23, 1835. 

The sense-absorbing power of the Mountain 
Rail Road entirely deprived us of eyes and 
ears for external objects for a time, and there- 
fore we wrote our last letter in the packet 
Juniata, describing the great things that were 
in our mind's eye. Being thus unburthened, 
our corporeal senses again resumed their 
power and informed us that we were in the 
12* 

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138 tBTTES8 ON 

lovely valley of the romantic Juniata ; now 
toiling (that is the horses,) along the narrow 
canal round the base of a noble mountain, now 
passing a busy village, and now shooting with 
increased velocity and noiseless motion along 
the mirrored surface of a lake-like pool, 
bounded on one side by gently undulating cul- 
tivated fields, and on the other by a beautiful 
and extensive wood, inviting as that which 
was pressed by the footsteps of the eloquent 
and pious Gregorius Nazianzemis, the day 
before he wrote the following lines : 

^ In nemos ambrifemm, oonfectns corda dolore, 

Solas ego hestema hice profectas eram : 
Namque meos luctus laevat bsE^ medicina, dolorqae, 

Cum tacitus mecam colloqaor ipse/Cfidit 
Aara sosurrabat tenuis, volucresque oanotiB 

Fundebant avido gutture mille sonos. 
Quinetiam canta circum nemus omne sonabat, 

Quern rauca Tiridi fironde cicada dabat" 

Oreg. Nax. Carmen XUL 

The shades of evening closed upon us be* 
fore we reached Huntingdon, which we pass- 



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ed ia tfafe dark. Yesterday we passed Waynes- 
burg, LewistowD, Mifflin and Mexico. The 
western approach to Lewistown is remarka- 
bly interesting; the landscape possessing 
every beautiful natural feature that can be 
furnished by the various combinations of 
mountain, valley, river, hill and wood, both 
wild and cultivated. 

At ten last night we passed Ikincan's Island 
and leaving the valley of the Juniata, we glided 
into the broad bosom of the noble Susquehan- 
na, and entering the canal on its eastern side, 
we arrived at Harrisburg at three o'clock this 
morning. Here we took leave of our agree- 
able Kentucky fellow travellers with much 
regret^ and were soon conveyed by an omni- 
bus to Wilson's excellent hotel. 

Xhe sudden transition from the hot and 
steamy cabin, to the airy, spacious, comfort- 
able and well furnished chamber of the hotel, 
was like a translation from the black hole of 
Calcutta to the gardens of Semiramis ; and 
inspired us with the unshakeable resolution to 

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140 tWTTMEB ON 

take our fill of quiet sleep in tte motionless 
and tempting bed that stood before us. The 
execution of this plan occupied us, mind and 
body, until eleven this morning, at which 
rational hour we rose and solaced our inward 
man with a capital breakfast* 

At X. we sallied forth to spy out the 
beauties of the town; and first we found our 
way to the brick-built capitol, which stands on 
a gentle eminence not far from Wilson's, and 
commands a fine view of the Susquehanna and 
the surrounding country. 

The Chambers of the Senate and House of 
Representatives are large> light, and well ar- 
ranged to accommodate the collected wisdom 
of the state. The Speaker of the lower house 
occupies the chair that John Hancock sat in, 
when the Declaration of Independence was 
signed in Philadelphia. 

At three p. m. we entered a stage coach 
bound to Lancaster. There were nine grown 
persons and one child inside, and three grown 
persons outside. Fortunately the road is good 

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PENNSYLVAWIA. 141 

tarnpike, and the country is beautiful and well 
cultivated. At nine miles distance from Har- 
risburg, near the mouth of the little river 
Su^ara, (called by the natives Sweet Arrow,) 
stands the village of Middletown, where the 
Union Canal comes to its western termina- 
tion. We arrived at Lancaster in safety at 
nine p. m • and stopped at Mrs. Hubley^s, our 
former comfortable quarters, for the night. 

Now we have described our entire jaunt, and 
in doing k we have had in our eye St. Gregory 
Nazianzen^s definition of a good painter, and 
have endeavoured, though without success, 
to fulfil its conditions : 

Optimas est pietor, veras vivamqne tuentes 
Qui flcite fiirmas exprimit in tabulis : 

Non qui multiplicefl frnstra variosque oolores 
Miscens, ante ocnlos florida prata locat' 

Qreg. Naz, Carm, X 

And now patient and discerning readers, 
we mean the faithful few who have kept ua 



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14Q LETTERS Oir PBNNSTLTANIA. 

company hitherto, we thank you for your good 
company, and convey to you our last wishes, 
in the last lind of Plautus's Stichus : 

* Vos* O Icctores, * pUadite, atqoe ite ad tos oomiMa- 
tam.' 



THE END* 



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CONTENTS. 
LETTER I. 

The City of Penn— Good Things— Effort to depart— 
Streets too clean — Rivers, Delaware and Schuylkill 
— Perpetual Newness — What the (louses are like — 
Smooth Troltoirs — Rough Carriage Ways — Water 
— Iron Pipes — Fire Companies — State House Bell — 
Clock — Man in the Clock — Mode of Alarm — Decla- 
ration of Independence — Stumpy Steeple — Clever In- 
vention—American Philosophical Society — Wistar 
Parties — Cultivation of Science and the Arts of Eat- 
ing and Drinking — Markets — Butter — Cream Cheese 
— University — Hospital — Museum — Environs — 
Monstrous Almshouse — Inhabitants —Hotels — Annu- 
itants* Paradise — Climate — Winter, Spring, Summer, 
Fall and Indian Summer — Population. 17 

LETTER IL 

Breakfast — ^Nauseous Mixture — Captain Hamilton- 
Omnibus — Too punctual— ^Cruise about the City— 
Dutch Baker Boy — Depot — Cbnfusion — Passengers 
and Trunks — ^Unilocular Car — Inclination of Noses 
— Sexes and Sizes — Red Cloak — Red Nose — Sparks 
-^Danger of Combustion — ^E^glishmfta^-Drawn by 



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144 CONTENTS. 

Horaes four miles — Switchmaster's mistake — Schuyl- 
kill Viaduct — Inclined Plane — Scenery — ^River — 
Island — Endless Rope — ^Ascension of the Plane — 
Cars like a String of Beads — Steam Tug — Departure 
— Country — Mills, Houses, Barns, Bridges, Roads, of 
Stone — Pestilent triangular cinders — Conduct of the 
Passengers — How the In&nt demeaned himself— 
King of Rome — Materials, Cost and Faults of Rail 
Road — Length of Road and Time — ^Viaductine Man- 
traps — Engineer's Ingenuity — Collision of Car — Low 
Roofs — Jointed Chimneys — Smoky Ordeal — Remedy 
— Lancaster — Old appearance— Central Square- 
Court House— Good Hotel — Sleep repelling power of 
Cinders — Populstioa* 33 

LETTER III. 

The last of the cinders — ^Leave Lancaster — Columbia — 
New Bridge — Former Bridge washed away — Views — 
End of Rail Road— Tolls— Profit to the State— Em- 
bark in a Canal Packet — Scenery near Marietta — 
What a Canal Packet is — Manner of getting on there- 
in — Night arrangement — Bar — Kitchen — Cook — Re- 
creations — Bridges — Possible abridgment — Speed — 
Three Tetrapods — One Dipod — ^Rope, how fastened 
and let loose — Harrisburgh — How the Sun set — La- 
mentation — What kind of Line there should be— 
Duncan's Island — Scenery thereabout — Bridge — 
Mode of crossing the River — The River Juniata — 
Land on the Island — Capital House — ^The Island — 
Beautiful ride roUnd it — ^The Rivers and their opposite 
banks. 45 

LETTER IV. 

(jrood Sleep — ^Leave the Island — Packet Delaware, Cap- 
tain Williams — ^Aqueduct — Scenery of the Juniata — 



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oonnmnu 146 

Millcratown, Mexico, Mifflin, Lewittown — ^Beer — 
Captains, like Doctors, differ---Good arrangement — 
The Captain's savoir fkire — ^Possible oomibrt, its di* 
mensions — Wajnesburg, Hamilton ville, Huntingdon, 
Petersburg, Alexandria, Williamsbarg — Rain — Arri- 
val at Hallidaj^sburg — Basin — End of Canal — HalU- 
dajsburg after a week's rain — ^Wooden walk — Muddy 
intersections — Moore's Hotel — Good Table— Where 
a Hotel should be built— Youth of Town— Rapid 
growth — Site^-Beffinningi of Rail Road— 'Little 
Chamber — Great deanlioess— Doable bed, dtc 57 

I4ETTER V, 

Break^st — ^Departure— -Distance^-^IMrection — -Roads 
very bad, much worse, fourth degree of comparison- 
Weather — St Clair, alias Buckstown — Peregrini 
Amicus — Company — Dinner Party — Apicios, Quin 
— Dinner and its variety— Synchronism — Fatiier-in- 
law — Landlord — Load of Logs — Sir Toby Belch and 
Sir Andrew Aguecheek — Road to Bedford — ^To 
Springs — Approach to Springs — ^Lovely Valley, 
stream, ibrest, hills, lake, isknd, bridges, mill, 
delight, surprise— Federal Hill — Buildings — Draw- 
ing and Dining Room — People in them — Bubbles-^ 
Chambers — Piazzas — Kitehen.~Billiards — Garden- 
Basin with Statue and Fountain — Constitution Hill- 
Baths — ^Walk— Pavilion — Idlenew— Penknife ambi- 
tion. 65 

LETTER VI. 

Fine weather — ^Too short days — Bell at 7 a. m* — ^Rising 
and Drinking — Breakfast Bell — Fair, to eat — Fare, 
to be eaten — Abundance, of Food, Time, Place and 
Circumstance — Virginia Letters — Doings after break- 
fast — Read or Sew; Sleep or so^—Masculine and 
Feminine Amusements — Fishers of Men^Dinner^— 
13 



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MnMois WilwH-.V«nl«, VMMXn Park-<?heap 
Deer, fientiful Mid pef«4oxi»l— Hominy— How to 
ptep^t^ k--How 10 est H— Vnhtppj people— After- 
iMoii-^OociipatkMi «iid Idleiiei^-Supper— TTie Hoar 
tAer»-Mu«ic Mid prepafntioii Ibr DwiciBf— family 
ofMtiBlciaiis^BpMntAoadte; fatsimuio and daiiGtn|r 
.^..Siiinky^^^Chttrch BoflMtiiiieB IB ]>iiiiaf Room. 77 

LETTER VII. 

Weather— .Tcmperatare—Nighto fit for Bnooang— 
Warm and Bright daya— Height of the Valley's bota 
torn— Rationale of CKmate— Anderson's Spring— 
PosiUon— Temperature— Taste— SmcU—Flal--Clear 
—No Sediment— JXictor Church's valuable Analysis 
^^^ontcnts of Water, solid and gaseous— Fletcher's 
Spring— Differences— Powers of the Water— Diseases 
to be oored— Travelling Water— Price— Allowance 
fer a Toper-^Brandy, Love and Jealousy— Wine and 
Water Poets— Limestone Water — Its volume — 
Lower Level— Sulphur Springs-Its Cofttents—SwM* 
Springs— Oxdoess and Purity. o5 

LETTER VIII. 

Departure frpm the Springs— Mail Coai*— ExcrcUie— 
Views— Ascent of the Allegheny- Parting of the 
Waters— Atlantic, Mississippi— Look behind— Mottn- 
tain Top— Level Country— Farm^-Grass, Cfeta, 
Buckwheat— Descent-Laurel Hill-Elevated VaUey 
—Its breadth -Somerset— Its Climate— McAdanj— 
Wacksmilhs and Wheelwrights— Golden Swan TV 
vern—l^ustotas— Table d' Hotc— Boarders— Host 
and Hostess— Peace and Plenty— Silver Forku— 
Hours of Meals— Early Breakfait weloom©— Go^ 
Intention— Bain. ^ 



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coifTBmnu 147 

LETTER IX. 

Depattore before daylight— Sammit of Laofd HiH— 
Jones's Mills— Its Beaoties mod DeUght»-^Ciise*8 
|Ood 1\ivera — Sports — Western Deseenft of Ihe 
Mountain — Splendid View — Motmt PleMsnl — Rieh, 
cultivated, bMntifoi Coontry — StewartsviUe— Tur- 
tle Creek — Its beautiful Scenery — Approadh to 
Pittsburgh — Dtsappointment — -Pitteburgiieiv- — Au- 
thor of Memoir of Cabot — ^Noise, Dust, Smoke- 
Exchange Hotel — EJasy writing — Error — Point un- 
paralleled — Three Rivers — British and French am- 

- bition— Two great Bridges — Allegheny Village- 
Aqueduct — Canal and Tunnel — Braddock*s Field of 
Defeat — Young Washington — -Steam Crackers- — 
What we shall do, whilst crossing the Portage Rail 
Road. 99 

LETTER X. 

Kigbt Departure — ^Packet Cincinnati — Lost Descrip- 
tion — Aqueduct — Frceport — Another Aqueduet — 
Kiskeminitas — Conemaugh — Coal Strata — Boring^for 
Salt— Prodigal Nature— Artful Man— Packet— Pas- 
sengers — Scotch Americans — Kentuckians — ^Reading 
—Virginia Letters — Female Criticism — Hunter*8 
Handkerehief— Leechburgh — Saltsburgh — Magnifi- 
cent Tunnel — ^View through it — Stone Aqueduct — 
Pool — What it is — Silent creeping throUj|h the woods 
—Johnstown, end of Western Canal — Beginning of 
Portage Rail Road. Ill 



LETTER XL 

int Level— Agreeable •pprebention — Eigbth won- 
dei^-Risiiig in the World* bj steam umI by ropo— 



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148 oohtshts* 

Height fhmi Johnstown— Decent firom Hallidayi- 
burg — Plane No. 1. — Level No. 2. Tunnel — Superb 
Viadoct — Four other Planes and Levels — ^Top of th« 
Mountain — ^Thoughts on do. — Summit Level—Moun- 
tain Top Tavern — Climate like Spring — Ascending 
apprehension succeeded by descending fear — Descend- 
ing planes longer and steeper — Ropes thicker-^Travel 
without Steam or Horses — Extracts from Mr. Welch's 
Report, containing descriptions of the Machinery, 
Viaducts, Culverts and all the elements of the Inclined 
Planes and Rail Road. 119 

LETTER XIL 

Absorption of the Senses — ^Relief by Writing--Charnui 
of the Valley of tlie Juniata — Gregory Nazianzen — 
Evening — Night — Huntingdon — Lewistown — Its 
Environs — Leave the Juniata — Cross the Susquehan- 
na — Harrisburg — Leave the Packet-*-Wilson's ex- 
cellent Hotel — Antithesis — Glorious sleep— Breakfast 
— Capitol — John Hancock's Chair — Journey to Lan- 
caster by Stage Coach— Sweet Arrow-^Conclusion — 
End--Oontent8. ' 137 



ERRATA. 

Page 41, in the last Ikie of the French quotation ibr 
honche, read bouehe, twice. 
** 63, in sixth line from the bottom, for from read to, 
^ 69, in the last line, for sequested^ read sequiolered* 

^ 90, in the Latm qiiotati<m, for oerUmnUr^ read 
«m6tifi<tfr. 



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